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Full text of "Confederate military history; a library of Confederate States history"

GIFT OF 
EVGENE MEYER.JR 




CONFEDERATE 
MILITARY HISTORY 



A LIBRARY OF CONFEDERATE 
STATES HISTORY, IN TWELVE 
VOLUMES, WRITTEN BY DISTIN 
GUISHED MEN OF THE SOUTH, 
AND EDITED BY GEN. CLEMENT 
A. EVANS OF GEORGIA. 



VOL. IV. 



Atlanta, Ga. 
Confederate Publishing Company 

J899 



r 



COPYRIGHT, 1899, 
BY CONFEDERATE PUBLISHING COMPANY 





TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

CHAPTER I. First and Last Situation in the Beginning- 
Preparing for War The Dual Organizations of North Caro 
lina Troops, State and Confederate 5 

CHAPTER II. From Bethel to First Manassas Fighting 
Along the Coast Supplies of Clothing and Arms a Serious 
Difficulty 21 

CHAPTER III. The Second Year Burnside s Expedition 
Roanoke Island Lost Battle at New Bern South Mills and 
Fort Macon Renewed Efforts to Raise More Troops 32 

CHAPTER IV. The Federal Movements Against Richmond- 
Peninsular Campaign Dam No. i, or Lee s Mill Retreat 
up the Peninsula Williamsburg Hanover Court House 
Seven Pines Jackson s Wonderful Valley Campaign 46 

CHAPTER V. The Great Struggle of 1862 for Richmond- 
Battles of Mechanicsville Cold Harbor, Frayser s Farm, Mal- 
vern Hill North Carolina Troops Conspicuous in all En 
gagements McClellan s Utter Defeat by Lee 76 

CHAPTER VI. The Campaign Against Pope Cedar Mount 
ain Gordonsville Warrenton Bristoe Station Groveton 
Second Manassas Chantilly, or Ox Hill Pope Defeated 
at all Points 92 

CHAPTER VII. Lee s Maryland Campaign The March to 
Frederick City The "Lost Order" Mountain Battles 
Crampton s Gap Boonsboro Vigorous Skirmishing The 
Surrender of Harper s Ferry by the Federals Battle of 
Sharpsburg or Antietam First North Carolina Cavalry with 
J. E. B. Stuart in Pennsylvania 106 

CHAPTER VIII. The Fredericksburg Campaign Affairs in 
North Carolina Supplies for Troops Brought by the Ad 
vance Engagements in North Carolina Battle near Golds- 
boro North Carolina Troops in the Western Army Battles 
of Murfreesboro and Stone s River 133 

CHAPTER IX. North Carolina in the Beginning of 1863 
Gathering Fresh Supplies Demonstrations by D. H. Hill 
Against New Bern Fights at Deep Gully and Sandy Ridge 
Siege of Washington, N. C. Blunt s Mills and Gum 
Swamp 150 

CHAPTER X. Chancellorsville Brandy Station Winchester 
Berryville Jordan Springs Middleburg Upperville 
Fairfax 156 

CHAPTER XL The Confederate Invasion of , Pennsylvania- 
Battle of Gettysburg North Carolinians in the Three Days 
Fighting on the Retreat The Potomac Recrossed by Lee s 
Army Cavalry Fighting in Virginia during the Invasion of 
Pennsylvania 171 

HI 



IV CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

CHAPTER XII. Defense of Charleston North Carolinians in 
Mississippi The Battle of Chickamauga East Tennessee 
Campaigning North Carolina Cavalry in Virginia In- 
fair ry Engagements around Rappahannoek Station Fights 
at Kelly s Ford, Bristoe and Payne s Farm 200 

CHAPTER XIII. North Carolina Events, 1803-64 Federal 
Treatment of the Eastern Part of the State Military Oper 
ations in the State Ransom Recovers Suffolk Victory of 
Hoke and Cooke at Plymouth Gallant Fighting of the 
Albemarlc Spring Campaign, 1864, in Virginia 218 

CHAPTER XIV. The Wilderness, 1864 Grant Moves on Rich 
mondThe Opening Battles of May The "Bloody Angle" 
Battle of Drewry s Bluff Service of North Carolina Com 
mands Hoke s Division 229 

CHAPTER XV. Services of the North Carolina Cavalry along 
the Rapidan Battle of Yellow Tavern The Second Cold 
Harbor Battle Early s Lynchburg and Maryland Cam 
paigns Battles in the Valley of Virginia Activity of the 
Confederate Cavalry , 249 

CHAPTER XVI. Around Petersburg Beauregard s Masterly 
Defense Lee s Army in Place and Grant is Foiled The 
Attempt of Grant to Blow up the Fortifications Battle of 
the "Crater" The Dreary Trenches Reams Station 
The Fort Harrison Assault The Cavalry 262 

CHAPTER XVII. The North Carolina Regiments in Ten 
nessee and Georgia Campaigns, 1864 Events in North Caro 
linaFort Fisher The Close of the Fourth Year-North 
Carolina Troops in Army Northern Virginia. 1865 Battles 
near Petersburg Hatcher s Run Fort Stedman Appo- 
mattox 273 

CHAPTER XVIII. The Last Battles in North Carolina Gen. 
T. G. Martin s Command Battles with Kirk and the Federal 
Marauders The Army under Gen. Joe Johnston Evacua 
tion of Forts Fight at Town Creek Engagement at Kins- 
ton Battle at Averasboro Johnston Repulses Sherman at 
Bentonville Johnston Falls Back to Durham Surrender . 280 

BIOGRAPHICAL 287 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

FACING PAGE. 

ANDERSON, GEORGE B 296 

AVERASBORO, MAP OF BATTLEFIELD. . 280 

BAKER, LAWRENCE S 296 

BARRINGER, RUFUS 296 

BENTONVILLE, MAP OF BATTLEFIELD 280 

BRANCH, LAWRENCE O B 3*7 

BURNSIDE EXPEDITION (Map) 32 

CLINGMAN, THOMAS L 296 

COOKE, JOHN R 296 

Cox WILLIAM R 34 

DANIEL, JUNIUS 296 

GATLIN, RICHARD C 340 

GILMER, JEREMY F 34 

GODWIN, ArcniBALD C 3 1 ? 

GORDON, JAMES B 34 

GRIMES, BRYAN 296 

HILL, D. H., JR i 

HOKE, ROBERT F 31 7 

JOHNSTON, ROBERT D 296 

KlRKLAND, W. W 296 

LANE, J AMES H 34 

LEVENTHORPE, CALI.ETT 34 

LEWIS, WILLIAM G 296 

McRAE, WILLIAM 3^7 

MARTIN, JAMES G 296 

NEW BERN, BATTLEFIELD OF (Map) 40 

NEW BERN TO GOLDSBORO (Map) 144 

NORTH CAROLINA, MAP OF Between pages 286 and 287 

FENDER, WILLIAM D 3 r 7 

PETTIGREW, JAMES J 34 

RAINS, GABRIEL J 296 

RAMSEUR, STEPHEN D 34 

RANSOM, MATTHEW W 3*7 

RANSOM, ROBERT, JR 34 

ROBERTS, WILLIAM P 3*7 

SCALES, ALFRED M 34 

TOON, THOMAS F 3*7 

VANCE, ROBERT B 3 J 7 

WILMINGTON, N. C. , FRONT OF (Map) 276 

WHITING, WILLIAM H. C 317 




D. H. HILL, JR. 



NORTH CAROLINA 

BY 

D. H. HILL, JR. 



PREFACE. 

IN presenting this sketch of the North Carolina troops 
in the Civil war, the author feels that, in justice to 
himself and to the heroic soldiers whose deeds it 
attempts to commemorate, some facts in connection with 
its preparation should be stated. 

The authorship of this chapter was originally assigned 
to a distinguished participant in the deeds recorded. 
He, however, after vainly striving for about a year to 
find time in which to write the sketch, was reluctantly 
forced by his engagements to relinquish the undertak 
ing. Thereupon the author was invited to prepare the 
chapter. The time which the publishers could then allow 
for the collection of material and the completion of the 
manuscript necessitated more rapid work than such a 
subject merits. 

This necessity for haste especially prevented the col 
lection of much-needed data about the last twelve months 
of the war. During those months the Confederate officers 
wrote very few official reports. The only way, there 
fore, to get reasonably full information concerning the 
events of that period is by correspondence with the sur 
vivors. This was attempted, but the time was too short 
for satisfactory results. 

The author regrets exceedingly that many gallant 
deeds and minor actions are shut out by space limitation. 
He can only hope that the publication of this imperfect 
sketch may incite other pens to more elaborate works. 
As a subsequent edition of this work may be published, 
the author asks for the correction of any errors unwit 
tingly made. 

3 



4 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

He renders hearty thanks to Judge A. C. Avery for the 
use of some material that he had collected; to Judge 
Walter Clark for books, and to Col. T. S. Kenan and 
Judge Walter Montgomery and others for valuable 
counsel and sympathy. 



CHAPTER I. 

FIRST AND LAST SITUATION IN THE BEGINNING- 
PREPARING FOR WAR THE DUAL ORGANIZA 
TIONS OF NORTH CAROLINA TROOPS, STATE AND 
CONFEDERATE. 

WHEN the women of North Carolina, after years of 
unwearying effort to erect a State monument to 
the Confederate dead, saw their hopes realized in 
the beautiful monument now standing in Capitol Square, 
Raleigh, they caused to be chiseled on one of its faces 
this inscription : 

FIRST AT BETHEL: 

LAST AT APPOMATTOX. 

This terse sentence epitomizes North Carolina s devotion 
to the Confederacy. From the hopeful loth day of June, 
1 86 1, when her First regiment, under Col. D. H. Hill, 
defeated, in the first serious action of the Civil war, 
General Pierce s attack at Bethel, to the despairing gth 
day of April, 1865, when Gen. W. R. Cox s North Caro 
lina brigade of Gen. Bryan Grimes division fired into 
an overwhelming foe the last volley of the army of 
Northern Virginia, North Carolina s time, her resources, 
her energies, her young men, her old men, were cheer 
fully and proudly given to the cause that she so deliber 
ately espoused. 

How ungrudgingly the State gave of its resources may 
be illustrated by a few facts. Gen. J. E. Johnston is 
authority for the statement that for many months pre 
vious to its surrender, General Lee s army had been fed 
almost entirely from North Carolina, and that at the 
time of his own surrender he had collected provisions 



6 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

enough from the same State to last for some months.* 
The blockade steamer Advance, bought by the State, 
operated in the interest of the State, brought into the 
port of Wilmington not counting thousands of dollars 
worth of industrial and agricultural supplies "leather 
and shoes for 250,000 pairs, 50,000 blankets, cloth for 
250,000 uniforms, 2,000 Enfield rifles, with 100 rounds 
of fixed ammunition for each rifle, 500 sacks of coffee 
for the hospitals, $50,000 worth of medicines," etc.f 
These articles were bought either from the sale of cotton 
or on the credit of the State, and were used not only by 
the State troops already mustered into the Confederate 
service, and hence having no further legal claim on the 
care of their own State, but were also distributed to 
troops from other States. In the winter succeeding 
Chickamauga, Governor Vance sent to Longstreet s 
corps 14,000 suits of uniform complete. Maj. A. Gor 
don of the adjutant-general s office says: "The State of 
North Carolina was the only one that furnished clothing 
for its troops during the entire war, and these troops were 
better clothed than those of any other State. {" "The 
State arsenal at Fayetteville, " reports Maj. M. P. Taylor, 
"turned out about 500 splendid rifles each month" this 
being after the second year of the war. Wayside hos 
pitals were established in all the chief towns for the sick 
and wounded. These things and hundreds of others 
were done, not simply in the first enthusiasm of the con 
test, but during the whole desperate struggle. 

How unsparingly the State gave of her sons may be 
shown by a single instance cited by Governor Vance : 

Old Thomas Carlton, of Burke county, was a good 
sample of the grand but unglorified class of men among 
us who preserve the savor of good citizenship and enno- 



* Gordon s Organization of the Troops, 
f Vance s address at White Sulphur Springs. 
\ " Organization of the Troops." 
Article in Regimental Histories. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 7 

ble humanity. He gave not only his goods to sustain 
women and children, but gave all his sons, five in num 
ber, to the cause. One by one they fell, until at length a 
letter arrived, telling that the youngest and last, the 
blue-eyed, fair-haired Benjamin of the hearth, had fallen 
also. When made aware of his desolation, he made 
no complaint, uttered no exclamation of heart-broken 
despair, but called his son-in-law, a delicate, feeble man, 
who had been discharged by the surgeons, and said, 
whilst his frail body trembled with emotion and tears 
rolled down his aged cheeks, "Get your knapsack, Wil 
liam, the ranks must be filled!"* 

Every day some heart-broken mother showed the same 
spirit. 

In the agitation that pervaded the South previous to 
secession, North Carolina preserved its usual conserva 
tive calmness of action. Her people, although pro 
foundly stirred and keenly alive to the gravity of the 
"impending crisis," were loath to leave the Union 
cemented by the blood of their fathers. That retrospect- 
iveness which has always been one of their marked char 
acteristics, did not desert them then. Recollections of 
Mecklenburg, of Moore s Creek, of Guilford Court House 
pleaded against precipitancy in dissolving what so much 
sacrifice had built up. Even after seven of her sister 
States had adopted ordinances of secession, "her people 
solemnly declared" by the election of the 28th of Feb 
ruary, 1 86 1 "that they desired no convention even to 
consider the propriety of secession. 

But after the newly-elected President s Springfield 
speech, after the widespread belief that the Federal 
government had attempted to reinforce Sumter in the 
face of a promise to evacuate it, and especially after 
President Lincoln s requisition on the governor to 
furnish troops for what Governor Magofrin, of Kentucky, 
called "the wicked purpose of subduing sister Southern 
States," a requisition that Governor Jackson, of Mis- 

* Address at White Sulphur Springs. 



8 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

souri, in a superflux of unlethargic adjectives, denounced 
as "illegal, unconstitutional, revolutionary, inhuman, 
diabolical," there was a rapid change in the feelings of 
the people. Strong union sentiment was changed to a 
fixed determination to resist coercion by arms if neces 
sary. So rapid was the movement of public events, and 
so rapid was the revolution in public sentiment, that just 
three months after the State had refused even to consider 
the question of secession, a convention composed almost 
entirely of men who thought it was the imperative duty 
of their State to withdraw from the Union was in session 
in Raleigh. 

On May 2oth, a day sacred to her citizens in that 
it marked the eighty- sixth anniversary of the colonial 
Declaration of Independence of England, the fateful 
ordinance that severed relations with the Union was 
adopted. Capt. Hamilton C. Graham gives the follow 
ing account of the attendant circumstances : * 

u As a youthful soldier and eye-witness of the scene, it 
made an impression on me that time has never effaced. 
The convention then in session in Raleigh was composed 
of men famous in the history of the commonwealth. 
The city was rilled with distinguished visitors from every 
part of the State and South. The first camp of instruc 
tion, located near by, under command of that noble old 
hero, D. H. Hill, was crowded with the flower of the old 
military organizations of the State, and sounds of martial 
music at all hours of the day were wafted into the city. 
When the day for the final passage of the ordinance of 
secession arrived, the gallant and lamented Ramseur, 
then a major of artillery, was ordered to the Capitol 
grounds with his superb battery to fire a salute in honor 
of the event. The battery was drawn up to the left of 
the Capitol, surrounded by an immense throng of citi 
zens. The convention in the hall of the house of repre 
sentatives was going through the last formalities of sign 
ing the ordinance. The moment the last signature was 
fixed to the important document, the artillery thundered 

* New Bern Memorial Address. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 9 

forth, every bell in the city rang a peal, the military 
band rendered a patriotic air, and with one mighty shout 
from her patriotic citizens, North Carolina proclaimed to 
the world that she had resumed her sovereignty. " 

This step meant war, and no people were ever less pre 
pared for an appeal to arms. Agriculture and allied pur 
suits were the almost exclusive employments. Hence, 
for manufactured articles, from linchpins to locomotives, 
from joint-stools to cotton-gins, the State was dependent 
on Northern and English markets. According to the 
census of 1860, there were only 3,689 manufacturing 
establishments of all kinds in its borders, and most of 
these employed few laborers. Out of a total population 
of 992,622, only 14,217 were engaged in any sort of fac 
tories. The whole industrial story is told by a few of the 
reports to the census officers. For instance, there were in 
the State, as reported by these officers, the following insig 
nificant number of workers in these most important oc 
cupations: In wrought iron, 129; in cast iron, 59; in 
making clothes, 12; in making boots and shoes, 176; in 
tanning leather, 93; in compounding medicines, i. This 
was the foundation on which North Carolina, when cut 
off by the war from Northern markets and by the 
blockade from English or other foreign ports, made a 
most marvelous record of industrial progress, and devel 
oped a capacity for self-support as unexpected as it was 
wonderful. 

But the State s power to manufacture the ordinary 
articles of commerce was truly boundless when compared 
with its capacity to produce arms, equipments and the 
general munitions of war. To make uniforms for over 
100,000 soldiers, and at the same time to supply regular 
customers, there were seven small woolen mills! To 
furnish shoes, saddles, harness for the army, and also 
to keep the citizens supplied, there were ninety-three 
diminutive tanneries. The four recorded makers of 
fire arms were so reckless of consequences as combinedly 

Nc 2 



10 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

to employ eleven workmen and to use up annually the 
stupendous sum of $1,000 worth of raw material. The 
commonwealth was without a powder-mill, without any 
known deposits of niter, and without any supply of sul 
phur. Not an ounce of lead was mined, and hardly 
enough iron smelted to shoe the horses. One of the pre 
liminaries to war was to buy a machine for making per 
cussion caps. Revolvers and sabers, as Col. Wharton 
Green says, "were above all price, for they could not be 
bought. Cartridge belts were made out of several 
thicknesses of cloth stitched together and covered with 
varnish. For the troops so freely offering themselves 
there were no arms except a few hundreds in the hands 
of local companies and those that the State had seized in 
the Fayetteville arsenal. These, according to President 
Davis,* consisted of 2,000 Enfield rifles and 25,000 old 
style, smooth-bore guns that had been changed from 
flint and steel to percussion. After these had been 
issued, the organizing regiments found it impossible for 
some time to get proper arms. Some, as the Thirty- 
first, went to the front with sporting rifles and fowling- 
pieces; some, as the Second battalion, supplemented 
their arms by borrowing from the governor of Virginia 
350 veritable flint-and-steel guns that nobody else would 
have; some organized and drilled until Manassas and 
Seven Pines turned ordnance officer and supplied them 
with the excellent captured rifles of the enemy. How 
ever, after the fall of 1862 there was no difficulty in 
getting fairly effective small-arms. 

But these difficulties never daunted so heroic a people 
nor led them to withhold their volunteers. "None," 
says Governor Vance,f "stood by that desperate venture 
with better faith or greater efficiency. It is a proud 
assertion which I make to-day that, so far as I have been 
able to learn, North Carolina furnished more soldiers in 

* Rise and Fall of Confederate Government. 
f Address at White Sulphur Springs. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 11 

proportion to white population, and more supplies and 
materials in proportion to her means for the support of 
the war, than any other State in the Confederacy. I 
beg you to believe that this is said, not with any spirit of 
offense to other Southern States, or of defiance toward 
the government of the United States, but simply as a 
just eulogy upon the devotion of a people to what they 
considered a duty, in sustaining a cause, right or wrong, 
to which their faith was pledged." 

Such a military record, if the figures bear it out, is a 
proud heritage. Do figures sustain it? Adjutant and 
Inspector-General Cooper reports (probably a close esti 
mate) that 600,000 men, first and last, enrolled them 
selves under the Confederate flag. What proportion of 
these ought North Carolina to have furnished? The 
total white population of the eleven seceding States was 
5,441,320 North Carolina s was 629,942, and it was third 
in white population. Hence North Carolina would have 
discharged to the letter every legal obligation resting 
upon it if it furnished 62,942 troops. What number did 
it actually supply? 

On November 19, 1864, Adjt.-Gen. R. C. Gatlin, a 
most careful and systematic officer, made an official 
report to the governor on this subject. The following 
figures, compiled from that report by Mr. John Neathery, 
give the specific information : 

Number of troops transferred to the Confederate service, 

according to original rolls on file in this office 64,636 

Number of conscripts between ages of 18 and 45, as per 
report of Commandant of Conscripts, dated September 
30, 1864 18,585 

Number of recruits that have volunteered in the different 

companies since date of original rolls (compiled) 21,608 

Number of troops in unattached companies and serving in 

regiments from other States 3,103 

Number of regular troops in State service 3,203 

Total offensive troops m,i35 

To these must be added: Junior reserves 4,217 

Senior reserves 5,686 

Total troops in active service 121,038 



12 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Then, organized and subject to emergency service in the 

State, Home Guard and Militia 3,962 

Total troops, armed, equipped and mustered into 
State or Confederate service 125,000 

From these official figures it will be seen that, estimat 
ing the offensive troops alone, North Carolina exceeded 
her quota 41,715 men. Including the Junior and Senior 
reserves, who did active duty in garrison, guarding pris 
oners, and on occasion good fighting, the State exceeded 
its quota by 51,618. Taking all, it went over its quota 
by the large sum of 55,580! This number of troops far 
exceeded the State s voting population. The highest 
vote ever cast was in the Ellis- Pool campaign. The 
total vote in that election was 112,586. Hence, even 
leaving out the Home Guards, North Carolina sent to 
the Confederate armies 8,452 more men than ever voted 
at one of its elections. 

Another remarkable proof of the State s brave devo 
tion to the Confederacy is noteworthy in this connection. 
As shown by the census of 1860, the total number of 
men in North Carolina between the ages of 20 and 60, 
the extreme limits of military service, was 128,889. Sub 
tract from this number the number of troops furnished, 
and it reveals the extraordinary fact that in the whole of 
North Carolina there were only 3,889 men subject to 
military duty who were not in some form of martial 
service. Most of these 3,889 were exempted because 
they were serving the State, in civil capacity, as magis 
trates, county officers, dispensers of public food, etc. 
So, practically, every man in the State was serving the 
State or the Confederacy. It may well be doubted 
whether a more striking evidence of public devotion 
was every recorded. 

In April, 1861, it became apparent that a peaceful 
arbitrament of existing difficulties was hardly possible, 
so the authorities began to organize the troops. The 
regiments, offering themselves in hot haste, were organ- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY, 13 

i zed under two separate laws: First, those that organized 
under the old law of the State, through Adjt.-Gen. John 
F. Hoke s office, were called "Volunteers;" second, 
those that organized for the war under the act of the 
May convention were called "State Troops." 

The "Volunteers" were the first to begin mobilization; 
for on the zyth of April, a month before the secession 
convention, Governor Ellis, seeing that some sort of 
struggle was inevitable, had called for volunteers. The 
companies responding to this call were, in accordance 
with the usual routine, placed in camps of instruction to 
be armed, equipped and drilled. The first camp was 
pitched in Raleigh, and Governor Ellis invited Maj. 
D. H. Hill, of Charlotte, to take command of it. Major 
Hill was a West Pointer and a veteran of the Mexican 
war. To the raw volunteers, unused to any restrictions, 
as well as to the men accustomed to the laxity of militia 
methods, he seemed, as Judge McRae expressed it, "a 
tremendous disciplinarian." But, adds the Judge, in 
speaking of the effect of his discipline on the first body 
organized there, "As a proof of the value of the training, 
the old First (on its disbandment at the expiration of its 
term of enlistment) sent scores, I might almost say hun 
dreds, of officers into other commands. " From the mate 
rial assembled at Raleigh, the First regiment was soon 
formed and hurried away to Virginia under Major Hill, 
whom it elected colonel. Then, says Major Gordon, 
whose excellent article on the "Organization of the 
Troops" furnishes many of these facts, "the Second, 
Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth and Seventh soon followed. 
The first six were sent to Virginia, the Seventh to 
Hatteras. " These regiments were under the following 
colonels: Solomon Williams, W. D. Fender, Junius 
Daniel, R. M. McKinney, Stephen Lee and W. F. Martin. 
However, many of them were soon reorganized. Be 
tween the 1 5th of June and the i8th of July, the Eighth, 
Colonel Radcliffe; the Tenth, Colonel Iverson; the 



14 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Eleventh, Colonel Kirkland; the Twelfth, Colonel Pet- 
tigrew; the Thirteenth, Colonel Hoke; the Fourteenth, 
Colonel Clarke, were organized. It will be noticed that 
no Ninth regiment is included in these fourteen. There 
was some controversy about the officers of this regi 
ment, and this number was subsequently given to Spru- 
ill s cavalry legion. These were the regiments that after 
ward had their numbers changed by ten: i. e. , instead 
of retaining their numbers from one to fourteen, as organ 
ized, they were changed to number from eleven to twen 
ty-four. The First volunteer regiment, hence, became 
the Eleventh, and so through the series of fourteen. 

Coincident with the formation of many of these volun 
teer regiments, ten other regiments were organizing. 
The convention had directed Governor Ellis to raise ten 
regiments for the war. These were to be designated as 
"State troops," and were to be numbered from one to 
ten. The Ninth regiment was to be cavalry, and the 
Tenth, artillery. Major Gordon says, an adjutant-gen 
eral and other staff officers were authorized for these 
troops. Maj. J. G. Martin, on his arrival at Raleigh, 
after his resignation from the United States army, was 
appointed by the governor adjutant- general of this corps. 
This office soon became one of the utmost importance. 
Col. John F. Hoke, the regular adjutant-general, having 
resigned to accept the colonelcy of the Thirteenth vol 
unteers, the duties of both these offices were consoli 
dated under Major Martin. More important still, "the 
legislature conferred upon him all the military powers 
of the State, subject to the orders of the governor. It 
consolidated under him the adjutant-general, quarter 
master-general, ordnance and pay departments."* The 
man thus trusted was a one-armed veteran of the Mex 
ican war, a rigid disciplinarian, thoroughly trained in 
office work, and not only systematic but original in 
his plans. The State has never fully appreciated, 

* Organization of the Troops. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 15 

perhaps never known, the importance of the work done 
for it by this undemonstrative, thoroughly efficient 
officer. 

Under Martin s supervision the ten regiments of "State 
troops" and all subsequent regiments were organized. 
The first six regiments, commanded respectively by Cols. 
M. S. Stokes, C. C. Tew, Gaston Meares, George B. 
Anderson, D. K. McRae, and Charles F. Fisher, were in a 
short while transferred to the Confederacy and ordered 
to Virginia, three of them arriving there in time to be 
present at the first battle of Manassas. The Seventh, 
Col. R. P. Campbell, was, after some delay, sent to New 
Bern ; and the Eighth, on its completion, went to garri 
son Roanoke island. The Ninth was a cavalry regiment 
formed by Col. Robert Ransom. There were many 
exasperating delays in getting this regiment equipped. 
Horses were scarce, and Major Gordon says that neither 
the State nor the Confederate States could furnish sad 
dles or sabers. Saddles were at last found in New 
Orleans, and Spruill s legion, on the promise of being 
furnished later, generously gave up its sabers. While still 
ill-fitted for active service, this regiment joined General 
Johnston near Manassas. The Tenth regiment was 
composed of five batteries of light artillery and five of 
heavy. J. J. Bradford was its first colonel, but the reg 
iment was, in the nature of things, always scattered. 
The equipping of this regiment was slow and trying. 
The first battery ready was a magnificent body of men, 
and was armed with the light guns seized in the Fayette- 
ville arsenal the only complete battery in the State. It 
elected Lieut. S. D. Ramseur first captain ; on his pro 
motion it was commanded by Basil C. Manly, and then 
by B. B. Guion. The next was Reilly s hard-fighting 
Rowan light battery This battery was equipped with 
guns captured at Manassas. After Reilly s promo 
tion to major, Capt. John A. Ramsey commanded it 
to the end of the war. Capt. T. H. Brem, of Char- 



16 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

lotte, organized another of the light batteries, and with 
rare patriotism advanced out of his private means the 
money to buy uniforms, equipment and horses. Capts. 
Joseph Graham, and A. B. Williams succeeded to the 
command. When this battery lost its guns at New Bern, 
the town of Charlotte had its church bells moulded into 
new guns for it. The other two light batteries were 
commanded by Capts. A. D. Moore and T. J. Souther- 
land. The five heavy batteries, commanded respectively 
by Capts. H. T. Guion, W. S. G. Andrews, J. L. Man- 
ney, S. D. Pool and T. K. Sparrow, were all assigned to 
coast defense, and while they did not have as much field 
service as the light batteries, they were called upon to do 
much arduous and thankless service, and did it well. 

By this dual system of organization there were two 
sets of regiments with the same numbers: First and 
Second regiments of volunteers and First and Second 
State troops, and so on. This led to confusion. So to 
the "State troops," as being enlisted for the longer 
term, the numbers one to ten were assigned, and the 
"Volunteers" were required to add ten to their original 
numbers. Hence, of course, the First volunteers be 
came the Eleventh ; the Second, the Twelfth ; and the 
last of these under the first organization, the Fourteenth, 
became the Twenty-fourth. 

Following these, the regiments went up in numerical 
order, and by the close of 1861, or early in 1862, the fol 
lowing had organized: The Twenty-fifth, Col. T. L. 
Clingman; Twenty-sixth, Col. Z. B. Vance; Twenty- 
seventh, Col. G. B. Singletary; Twenty-eighth, Col. 
J. H. Lane; Twenty-ninth, Col. R. B. Vance; Thirtieth, 
Col. F. M. Parker; Thirty-first, Col. J. V. Jordan; 
Thirty-second, Col. E. C. Brabble; Thirty-third, Col. 
L. O B. Branch; Thirty-fourth, Col. C. Leventhorpe; 
Thirty-fifth, Col. James Sinclair; Thirty-sixth (artil 
lery), Col. William Lamb; Thirty-seventh, Col. C. C. 
Lee; Thirty-eighth, Col. W. J. Hoke; Thirty-ninth, 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 17 

Col. D. Coleman; Fortieth (heavy artillery), Col. J. J. 
Hedrick; Forty-first (cavalry), Col. J. A. Baker. 

"Thus," comments Gordon, "the State had, in January, 
1862, forty-one regiments armed and equipped and trans 
ferred to the Confederate States government." 

Long before these latter regiments were all mustered 
in, the earlier ones had received their "bloody chris 
tenings. Some one has said that in the drama of seces 
sion North Carolina s accession was the epilogue, but it 
is equally true that in the tragedy of battle that fol 
lowed she furnished the prologue ; for within two months 
after its officers were commissioned, the First regiment 
was engaged in the first battle of the war, and one of its 
members was summoned to form the advance guard of 
the new Confederate army that then began to enlist 
under the black flag of Death. 

The long struggle that was to cost North Carolina all 
its wealth, except its land ; that was to overthrow its 
social system ; that was to crush to mute despair its 
home-keepers; that was to cause the almost reckless 
pouring out of the blood of as proudly submissive, as 
grimly persistent, as coolly dauntless a body of soldiers 
as ever formed line of battle opened at Bethel Church, 
Va. Bethel is only a short distance from Yorktown. It 
is not a little singular that the great contest with our 
brethren began only ten miles from the spot where the 
weary struggle of our fathers culminated. 

This battle if with the memory of Gettysburg and 
Chickamauga still fresh, we can call it a battle was 
fought on the loth of June, 1861. Being the first seri 
ous fight of the war, it of course attracted attention out 
of proportion to its importance. Anticipating attack, 
Col. D. H. Hill had, with the First North Carolina regi 
ment, thrown up an enclosed earthwork on the bank of 
Marsh creek. The Confederate position was held by the 
following forces : Three companies of the Third Virginia, 
under Lieut -Col. W. D. Stuart, occupied a slight earth- 

Nc 8 



18 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY 

work to the right and front of the enclosed work ; three 
companies of the Virginia battalion, under Maj. E. B. 
Montague; five pieces of artillery, under Maj. (after 
ward secretary of war) G. W. Randolph, of the Rich 
mond howitzers; and the First North Carolina, under 
Colonel Hill, occupied the inside of the works. The 
companies composing the North Carolina regiment, 
which had the envied distinction of being the initial 
troops to enter organized battle, were: Edgecombe 
Guards, Capt. J. L. Bridgers; Hornet s Nest Riflemen 
(Mecklenburg), Capt. L. S. Williams; Charlotte Grays, 
Capt. Hi. A. Ross; Orange light infantry, Capt. R. J. 
Ashe; Buncombe Rifles, Capt. William McDowell; 
Lafayette light infantry (Cumberland), Capt. J. B. Starr; 
Burke Rifles, Capt. C. M. Avery; Fayetteville light 
infantry, Capt. Wright Huske; Enfield Blues, Capt. 
D. B. Bell; Southern Stars (Lincoln), Capt. W. J. Hoke. 
The whole force was nominally under the command of 
Col. J. B. Magruder, and numbered between 1,200 and 
1,400 men. 

To surprise and capture this force, Gen. B. F. Butler, 
commanding on the Virginia coast, sent Gen. E. W. 
Pierce with five New York regiments, five companies of 
the First Vermont, five companies of the Fourth Mas 
sachusetts, two of Carr s mountain howitzers, and two 
pieces of regular artillery under Lieut. J. T. Greble, 
the whole force amounting, according to General Carr* 
of the Federal army, to 3,500 men. On the night of the 
9th this force was advanced toward the Confederate 
position on two roads. At the convergence of these 
roads Colonel Bendix s Seventh New York regiment 
mistook Colonel Townsend s Third New York for Con 
federates and fired upon it. The fire was returned and 
twenty-one were killed and wounded before the mistake 
could be correctedf Thinking it impossible after the 

* r Carr s Articles, Battles and Leaders, II, 149. 
fPierce s Report 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 19 

firing to surprise the Confederates, General Pierce sent 
back for reinforcements and then moved on toward 
Bethel. About 9 o clock on the morning of the roth 
the Federals appeared on the field in front of the South 
ern works, and Greble s battery took position. A shot 
from a Parrott gun in the Confederate works ushered in 
the great Civil war on land. The first Federal attack 
was on the front. As a result of this attack Colonel 
Carr says: "Our troops were soon seeking the shelter of 
the woods after a vain attempt to drive the enemy from 
the works. This attack was repelled mainly by Ran 
dolph s accurate fire, aided by the gallant conduct of the 
Burke Rifles under Captain Avery and by the Hornet s 
Nest Rifles. A little later in the action the Edgecombe 
Guards, Captain Bridgers, gallantly retook a redoubt 
that had, on the accidental disabling of a gun, been 
abandoned by the Confederates. In front of this redoubt 
the Federals had found shelter behind and in a house. 
Colonel Hill called for volunteers from the Edgecombe 
Guards to burn this house. Sergt. George H. Williams, 
Thomas Fallon, John H. Thorpe, H. L. Wyatt and 
R. H. Bradley promptly offered their services and 
made a brave rush for the house. On the way a shot 
from the enemy s rear guard struck Wyatt down. The 
determined spirit of this heroic young soldier led to a 
premature death, but by dying he won the undying 
fame of being the first Confederate soldier killed in 
action. 

An attempt to turn the Confederate left having failed, 
a force headed by General Butler s aide, the gifted 
young Connecticut novelist, Maj. Theodore Winthrop, 
made an atempt on the left, but the Carolinians posted 
there killed Winthrop at the first fire, and his followers 
soon rejoined Pierce and the whole force retreated 
toward Fortress Monroe. Just at the close of the 
action, Lieutenant Greble, who had served his guns untir 
ingly against the Confederates, was killed. The gun 



20 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

that he was firing was abandoned, says General Carr, 
and his body left beside it, but subsequently recovered 
by a company that volunteered for that purpose. 

Swinton in his "Army of the Potomac" says that 
while Colonel Warren yet remained on the ground the 
Confederates abandoned the position. This is far from 
correct. General Magruder in his report says that the 
Confederate cavalry pursued the Federals for five miles. 
Colonel Carr, who commanded the Federal rear guard, 
says, "The pursuit of the Confederates was easily 
checked."* These two reports establish the fact that 
there was pursuit and not abandonment. Colonel Ma 
gruder further says,f "It was not thought prudent to 
leave Yorktown exposed any longer. I therefore 
occupied the ground with cavalry, and marched the 
remainder of my force to Yorktown. So evidently the 
position was not abandoned while "Warren was yet on 
the ground. The Confederate loss in this precursor of 
many bloody fields was i killed and u wounded; the 
Federal loss was 18 killed and 53 wounded. 

In the South this little victory over a vastly superior 
force awakened the wildest enthusiasm, for it was 
thought to indicate the future and final success of the 
cause for which its people were battling. 

* Battles and Leaders, II, 150. 
f Official Report. 



CHAPTER II. 

FROM BETHEL TO FIRST MANASSAS FIGHTING ALONG 
THE COAST SUPPLIES OF CLOTHING AND ARMS A 
SERIOUS DIFFICULTY. 

THE six weeks that intervened between Bethel and 
First Manassas were weeks of ceaseless activity. 
Regiments marched and countermarched; the 
voice of the drill-master was heard from hundreds of 
camps; quartermasters and commissary officers hurried 
from place to place in search of munitions and stores ; 
North Carolina was hardly more than one big camp, 
quivering with excitement, bustling with energy, over 
flowing with patriotic ardor. 

Toward the middle of July expectant eyes were 
turned to Virginia. The Confederate army under 
Generals Johnston and Beauregard was throwing itself 
into position to stop the "On to Richmond" march of 
the Federal army under Gen. Irvin McDowell. Two 
* armies vastly greater than had ever before fought on 
this continent, and the largest volunteer armies ever 
assembled since the era of standing armies"* were 
approaching each other. Battle is always horrible, but 
this was most horrible in that these two armies were 
sprung from the same stock, spoke the same tongue, re 
joiced in the same traditions, gloried in the same history, 
and differed only in the construction of the Constitution. 
In this great battle, so signally victorious for the Con 
federate arms, North Carolina had fewer troops engaged 
than it had in any other important battle of the armies 
in Virginia. Col. W. W. Kirkland s Eleventh (after 
ward Twenty-first) regiment, with two companies 

* Beauregard in Battles and Leaders. 

21 



22 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Captain Conolly s and Captain Wharton s attached, and 
the Fifth, Lieut. -Col. J. P. Jones in command during 
the sickness of Colonel McRae, were present, but so situ 
ated that they took no decided part in the engagement. 
The Sixth regiment was hotly engaged, however, and lost 
its gallant colonel, Charles F. Fisher. 

This regiment had, by a dangerous ride on the Manas- 
sas railroad, been hurried forward to take part in the 
expected engagement. When it arrived at Manassas 
Junction, the battle was already raging. Colonel Fisher 
moved his regiment forward entirely under cover until he 
reached an open field leading up to the famous Henry 
house plateau, on which were posted Ricketts magnifi 
cent battery of Federal regulars with six Parrott guns, 
and not far away Griffin s superbly-equipped battery of 
Fifth United States regulars. These batteries, the com 
manders of which both rose to be major-generals, had done 
excellent service during the day, and not until they were 
captured was McDowell s army routed. At the time of 
Fisher s arrival these guns, which had only recently 
been moved to this plateau, were supported by the 
Eleventh New York (Fire Zouaves) and the Fourteenth 
(Brooklyn) New York. Fisher s presence was not even 
suspected by the enemy until he broke cover about, says 
Captain White,* 125 yards in front of Ricketts battery, 
and with commendable gallantry, but with lamentable 
inexperience, cried out to his regiment, which was then 
moving by flank and not in line of battle, "Follow me," 
and moved directly toward the guns. In the confusion 
of trying to get in line, three of the left companies, 
with Lieutenant-Colonel Lightfoot, became separated 
from the right companies and took no part in the gallant 
rush forward, of which General Beauregard says, "Fish 
er s North Carolina regiment came in happy time to join 
in the charge on our left."f The Sixth was so close to 

*Ms. Regimental History, 
f Official Report. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 23 

Ricketts that the elevation of his guns lessened their 
deadly effect, and its close-range volleys soon drove back 
the supporting zouaves and terribly cut down his brave 
gunners. At this juncture Capt. I. E. Avery said to 
his courageous colonel, who was also his close friend, 
"Now we ought to charge." "That is right, captain," 
answered Fisher, and his loud command, "Charge!" was 
the last word his loved regiment heard from his lips. In 
prompt obedience the seven companies rushed up to 
the guns, whose officers fought them until their men 
were nearly all cut down and their commander seriously 
wounded. But the charge was a costly one. Colonel 
Fisher, in the words of General Beauregard, "fell after 
soldierly behavior at the head of his regiment with 
ranks greatly thinned." With him went down many 
North Carolinians "whose names were not so prominent, 
but whose conduct was as heroic. * 

Just as the Sixth reached the guns there was a lull 
in the fierce contest, and officers and men sought a 
moment s rest. Young Wiley P. Mangum, exclaiming, 
"I am so tired!" threw himself under the quiet shadow 
of one of the guns, so recently charged with death, and 
Captain Avery, Lieuts. John A. McPherson, B. F. White, 
A. C. Avery and others gathered around the battery. 
Just then, from a wood in their left front, the Second 
Wisconsin regiment fired into the Carolinians. This 
regiment was dressed in gray uniform, f and from this 
fact, as well as from its position, the officers of the Sixth 
thought it was a Confederate regiment and called out 
to their men who were beginning to return the fire not 
to shoot, and made signals to the supposed friends. 
Young Mangum, who had sprung to his feet at the sound 
of the firing, fell mortally wounded, and several others 
were killed or disabled. Not knowing what to do, the 
regiment fell back in some confusion to the point where 

* Roy s Regimental History, 
f Sherman s Memoirs. 



24 CONFEDERA TE MI LIT A R Y HIS TOR Y. 

it had entered the field, and the enemy advanced to 
recover the battery. On Kershaw s advance, however, 
the Sixth again went to the front, and some of them had 
the pleasure of seeing General Hagood and Captain 
Kemper of Kershaw s force turn the recaptured guns 
on their enemies. Shortly after this the arrival of Gen. 
Kirby Smith s forces on the enemy s right flank ended 
the battle. The Sixth lost 73 men in killed and wounded. 

Gen. William Smith (Southern Historical Society s 
Papers, Vol. X, p. 439) falls into a grievous mistake 
about this regiment. He says, "When driven back from 
the guns, neither the North Carolinians nor the Missis- 
sippians remained to renew the charge, but incontinently 
left the field." The North Carolinians never fell back 
except when, as explained above, they were fired upon by 
a regiment thought to be on their own side, and they 
yielded ground then only after repeated injunctions from 
their own officers not to fire. They returned with Ker- 
shaw, followed the enemy in the direction of Centreville 
until ordered to return, and at night camped on the battle 
field. Maj.R. F.Webb and Lieut. B. F. White, detailed to 
bury the dead, collected twenty-three bodies near the bat 
tery, and those of Colonel Fisher and Private Hanna were 
lying far beyond it. These assertions are substantiated 
by five officers present on the field, and by the written 
statements of many others, published years ago. 

This battle ended the fighting in Virginia for that year. 
North Carolina, however, was not so fortunate, for the 
next month saw Butler s descent upon its coast. 

The coast of North Carolina, as will be seen by the 
accompanying map, is indented by three large sounds: 
Currituck, Albemarle and Pamlico. Into these the 
rivers of that section, most of them navigable, empty. 
These were the great highways of trade, and by them, 
by the canal from Elizabeth City, and by the railroads 
from New Bern and Suffolk, the Confederacy was largely 
supplied with necessary stores. "The command of the 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 25 

broad waters of these sounds, with their navigable rivers 
extending far into the interior, would control more than 
one -third of the State and threaten the main line of 
railroad between Richmond and the seacoast portion of 
the Confederacy. . . . These sounds of North Carolina 
were no less important to that State than Hampton 
Roads was to Virginia. * 

The long sandbank outside of these sounds and sepa 
rating them from the ocean, reached from near Cape 
Henry to Bogue inlet, two-thirds of the entire coast line. 
Here and there this bulwark of sand is broken by inlets, 
a few of which allow safe passage from the Atlantic, 
always dangerous off this coast, to the smooth waters of 
the sound. The necessity of seizing and holding these 
inlets, controlling as they did such extensive and impor 
tant territory, was at once seen by the State authorities. 
So, immediately after the ordinance of secession was 
passed, Governor Ellis ordered the seizure of Fort C as- 
well, near Smithville, and of Fort Macon, near Morehead 
City. These were strengthened as far as the condition of 
the State s embryonic armories allowed. Defenses were 
begun at Ocracoke inlet, at Hatteras inlet, and on Roan- 
oke island. Though these works were dignified by the 
name of forts, they were pitifully inadequate to the tasks 
assigned them. The one at Ocracoke was called Fort Mor 
gan, and the two at Hatteras respectively Fort Hatteras 
and Fort Clark. When the State became a member of the 
Confederacy, these works, along with the "mosquito 
fleet, consisting of the Winslow, the Ellis, the Raleigh 
and the Beaufort, each carrying one gun,f were turned 
over to the new government. Even a cursory reading 
of the official correspondence of the successive officers 
detailed, as they could be spared from the Virginia field, 
to take charge of these coast defenses, awakens sympathy 
for them in their fruitless appeals to the government for 

* Scharf s History of the Confederate States Navy, 
f Scharf s History of Confederate Navy. 
No 4 



26 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

proper munitions of war, and admiration for their untir 
ing energies and plucky utilization of sand-bars, turf, 
and smooth-bore guns. 

As the Federal government tightened the blockade, 
rapidly raising the number of its ships from 42 in 1861 to 
671* in 1864, it saw the necessity of possessing these 
sounds for safe anchorage, and it realized, as Scharf puts 
it, "that they were depots from which the very central 
line of inland communication of the Confederates might 
be broken, and that they were the back-door to Norfolk, 
by which the navy yard might be regained. More 
over, the daring excursions of little Confederate vessels, 
mounting one or two guns, like the Winslow, under the 
restlessly energetic Thomas M. Crossan, which dashed 
out from these inlets to reap a rich harvest in captured 
vessels, raised such an outcry in Northern business cir 
cles that there was added incentive to seize the home 
waters of these vessels. An illustration of the activity of 
these diminutive ships of war is found in the fact that in 
the month and a half preceding the capture of Hatteras 
they had seized as prizes eight schooners, seven barks 
and one brig.f 

Accordingly, in August, 1861, the Federal govern 
ment fitted out at Fortress Monroe a combined army 
and navy expedition for an attack on the two forts 
at Hatteras. The land forces, J consisting of 800 infantry 
and 60 artillerymen, were commanded by Gen. B. F. 
Butler; the naval force, comprising the war vessels 
Wabash, Susquehanna, Pawnee, Monticello, Cumberland, 
Harriet Lane and transport ships, carrying in all 143 
guns, was commanded by Flag-Officer S. H. Stringham. 
these forces sailed for Hatteras inlet on the 26th of 
August and arrived off the inlet that afternoon. 

To resist this formidable expedition, the Confederates 

* Lossing s Civil War. 

f Schedule in Rebellion Records, IV, 588. 

i Rebellion Records, IV, 580. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 27 

in the forts had eight companies of the Seventeenth 
North Carolina regiment, Col. W. F. Martin, and some 
detachments of the Tenth North Carolina artillery. The 
whole force on the first day of the engagement amounted 
to 580 * men. On the second day the Ellis f landed some 
reinforcements, raising the number to 718. The post was 
commanded by Maj. W. S. G. Andrews. These forces 
were divided between Fort Hatteras and Fort Clark, 
which were about three-quarters of a mile apart. Fort 
Hatteras the position of which was so good that the 
enemy s engineer officer said after its capture, "With guns 
of long range it can successfully defend itself from any 
fleet" was a square redoubt with pan coupes at all the 
salients, and was constructed of sand, revetted with turf 
from adjoining marshes. Instead of being defended by 
guns "with long range, it mounted twelve J smooth-bore 
3 2 -pounders. The other, Fort Clark, was a redoubt of 
Irregular figure, and mounted five 3 2 -pounders and two 
small guns. Its supply of ammunition was expended 
early in the engagement. 

On the morning after the fleet s arrival, 318 men and 
two pieces of artillery, under cover of the ships guns, 
were landed "without opposition from the Confederates, 
whose garrison was unequal to defense and only large 
enough to give importance to its capture. During 
the landing of these troops and until late in the day, 
when a rising gale drove the ships out to sea, the fleet 
fiercely bombarded the forts. In this engagement Boyn- 
ton, as quoted by Hawkins, || asserts that Commodore 
Stringham introduced the system of ships firing while in 
motion instead of waiting to fire from anchorage, a sys 
tem adopted by Farragut and which has, in the Spanish- 



* Rebellion Records, IV, 574. 
f Scharf s History Confederate Navy. 

\ Both Hawkins in Battles and Leaders and Scharf fall into mis 
take of saying 25 guns. 
Scharf. 
\ Battles and Leaders. 



28 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

American war, given such world-wide celebrity to the 
fleets of Admirals Dewey and Sampson. 

The next morning the Federal fleet, using improved 
Paixhan, Dahlgren and columbiad guns, stood well out 
from shore and battered to pieces the forts and their 
guns. This they did in perfect safety, for, says Flag- 
Officer Barron, * of the Confederate navy, who arrived at 
Hatteras on the evening of the 28th and succeeded to 
the command, "not a shot from our battery reached 
them with the greatest elevation that we could get. So, 
adds Barron, "without the ability to damage our adver 
sary, and just at this time the magazine being reported 
on fire ... I ordered a white flag to be shown. 

"The immediate results of this expedition," says Gen 
eral Hawkins, f "were the capture of 670 men, 1,000 stand 
of arms, 35 cannon and two strong forts; the possession of 
the best sea entrance to the inland waters of North Caro 
lina, and the stoppage of a favorite channel through which 
many supplies had been carried for the use of the Confed 
erate forces. Porter, in his Naval History, comments : 
* This was our first naval victory indeed, our first victory 
of any kind, and great was the rejoicing thereat through 
out the United States. The Federals at once occupied 
this commanding position and made it the basis of 
future operations against this coast. 

With the exception of a skirmish at Chicamacomico 
this battle ended the offensive operations in 1861. After 
the capture of Hatteras the Twentieth Indiana regiment 
was moved up the beach to hold Chicamacomico, or 
Loggerhead inlet. On the ist of October the Federal 
steamer Fanny "with a large supply of ammunition and 
stores" left Hatteras for the Indiana camp, but Col. 
A. R. Wright, of the Third Georgia regiment, stationed 
on Roanoke island, in conjunction with Commander 
Lynch, of the "mosquito fleet," captured this vessel 

* Official Report 

t Battles and Leaders. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 29 

the first capture of an armed vessel during the war. En 
couraged by this success, Colonel Wright and Colonel 
Shaw, of the Eighth North Carolina, loading their troops 
on Commodore Lynch s vessels, moved down to attack 
Chicamacomico. The Georgia troops effected a landing 
and drove the Indiana regiment some miles down the 
beach, taking about 30 prisoners. Colonel Shaw, who 
had moved further down the coast with the intention of 
landing and cutting off the enemy s retreat, put his men 
off into the water, his vessels having grounded, but they 
found it impossible on account of intervening sluices to 
wade ashore. The failure of Shaw s arduous efforts to 
land led to an abandonment of further pursuit. 

The fall of Hatteras and the report of the preparation 
of another great expedition to fall on Southern coasts 
produced the utmost anxiety. This disquietude was not 
unmixed with indignation at the condition of affairs. 
The State s troops, especially her best-armed and 
best-trained regiments, were nearly all in Virginia, and 
all her coast defenses were, like Hatteras, poorly armed 
and insufficiently manned. Governor Clark, in a letter 
to the secretary of war, thus pictures affairs in his State : 

We feel very defenseless here without arms . . . We 
see just over our lines in Virginia, near Suffolk, two or 
three North Carolina regiments, well armed and well 
drilled, who are not allowed to come to the defense of 
their homes. . . . We are threatened with an expedition 
of 15,000 men. That is the amount of our seaboard 
army, extending along four hundred miles of territory, 
and at no point can we spare a man, and without arms we 
cannot increase it. ... We have now collected in camps 
about three regiments without arms, and our only reli 
ance is the slow collection of shotguns and hunting rifles, 
and it is difficult to buy, for the people are now hugging 
their arms for their own defense. 

Despairing at last of getting even his own regiments, 
he writes : 



30 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

The President has informed me that no troops for this 
defense can be withdrawn from Virginia, but I earnestly 
trust that if soldiers cannot be spared, I may at least 
hope that requisitions for arms and powder may be 
speedily and favorably attended to. 

But this was 1861, and military stores were not obtain 
able. Governor Clark and his people, however, were 
not of a race to succumb to difficulties without a desperate 
struggle, and they went to work with vigor to do all 
that their circumstances would allow. At the request of 
the governor, Gen. D. H. Hill was sent from the army 
of Virginia that his experience as an artillery officer 
might be utilized in strengthening the existing fortifica 
tions and in the construction of new defenses. J. R. 
Anderson, a retired soldier of Virginia, was commis 
sioned by President Davis a brigadier-general and sent 
to the Cape Fear district. With the paucity of material 
at their command, these officers exerted every energy to 
aid General Gatlin, who was in charge of the whole 
department. General Hill, however, could be spared from 
his command for only a few months, and in November 
he was ordered back to command a division in General 
Johnston s army. Gen. L. O B. Branch succeeded him 
and was put in command of the forces around New 
Bern, and Gen. Henry A. Wise was assigned to the 
command of Roanoke island. Mirth-provoking would 
have been some of the shifts for offensive and defensive 
weapons had not the issues at stake been human life. 
Antiquated smooth-bore cannon, mounted on the front 
wheels of ordinary farm wagons, drawn by mules with 
plow harness on, moved to oppose the latest rifled 
columbiads and Parrott guns of Goldsborough s fleet. A 
regiment armed with squirrel rifles and fowling-pieces, 
and carving knives in place of bayonets, was transported to 
Roanoke island to engage the admirably equipped sol 
diers of Burnside. The catalogue of the names of 
Lynch s fleet in Albemarle sound the Seabird, Ellis, 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 31 

Beaufort, Curlew, Raleigh, Fanny and Forrest sounds 
imposing enough even now when we remember that 
with fewer vessels Dewey fought at Manila; but when 
we recall that the flagship was a wooden side-wheeler, 
carrying only two guns and one of them a smooth-bore ; 
that the other members of the squadron were canal tug 
boats, carrying one gun each ; that the gunners were raw 
details from raw infantry; that the fleet had frequently 
to anchor while the crew cut green wood to fire the boil 
ers when we recall all this, we hardly know whether 
most to admire their hardihood, or to grieve that so 
brave a people had to go to war with such a travesty on 
preparation. 

As the first winter of the war drew on, a serious ques 
tion that confronted the State authorities was how to 
clothe and shoe the forty regiments in the field ; for it was 
evident the Confederacy could not do it. Major Gordon 
gives this account of how it was done : 

The legislature directed General Martin, late in Sep 
tember, to provide winter clothing, shoes, etc., for the 
troops. The time was short and it was no small task, 
but he went about it with his usual energy. He organ 
ized a clothing factory in Raleigh, under Captain Garrett ; 
every mill in the State was made to furnish every yard 
of cloth that was possible; Capt. A. Myers was sent 
through North Carolina, South Carolina and as far south 
as Savannah, purchasing everything that was available 
for clothing the troops. The ladies came nobly to 
their assistance and furnished blankets, quilts and what 
ever they could. Many carpets were torn up, and by 
the combined efforts of the ladies and the officers, these 
were lined with cotton and made into quilts. The troops 
of North Carolina were clothed the first winter of the 
war, if not exactly according to military regulations, at 
least in such a manner as to prevent much suffering. 
After this winter the State was in better condition to 
supply the wants of the troops. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE SECOND YEAR BUTLER S EXPEDITION ROAN 
OKE ISLAND LOST BATTLE AT NEW BERN - 
SOUTH MILLS AND FORT MACON RENEWED 
EFFORTS TO RAISE MORE TROOPS. 

EARLY in 1862 the Federal government decided to 
follow up its successes at Hatteras by descending 
upon the North Carolina coast with the famous 
"Burnside expedition." This expedition was supplied 
with almost every conceivable necessity for the prosecu 
tion of its mission. Even railroad hand-cars were 
brought along to be used, when needed, in the trans 
portation of troops. Its infantry and artillery were 
equipped with the latest arms. Its highest officers were 
all members of the regular army, and three of them 
were veterans of the Mexican war. 

North Carolina, as shown above, was at that time not 
prepared, either in the available number of its soldiers or in 
the arms of its soldiers, to resist successfully such a large 
and well- organized force. Its regiments that had seen 
most service and that were best armed were in Virginia. 
Although earnestly requested to do so, the Confederate 
government felt unable to spare any of these regiments 
to reinforce the small garrisons on the coast. So the 
heroic Shaw was left on Roanoke island with two regi 
ments, to oppose, as best he might, Burnside with nearly 
15,000 men. At New Bern the gifted Branch, having 
only seven regiments and most of them but newly 
organized, was called upon to make an effort to hold a 
long line of intrenchments against this same force, aided 
by numerous gunboats. As a result of this disparity in 
numbers, Roanoke island, New Bern, and Fort Macon 

32 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 33 

soon fell into Federal hands, and all eastern North Caro 
lina above Bogue inlet went with these fortified points. 

Nothing more strongly marks North Carolina s subor 
dination of her own interests to the welfare of her coun 
try than that her authorities consented at this crisis in 
her history, when her sons were being captured by regi 
ments and her territory subjugated by the square mile, 
to the retention in Virginia of so large a number of her 
troops. 

The disasters to the State began in February of 1862; 
for, commencing in October, 1861, another combined 
army and naval expedition, similar to the one com 
manded by General Butler but on a much larger scale, 
had been prepared in New York and other seaports. 
The object of this expedition was to seize the coasts of 
North Carolina above Hatteras, "and penetrate into the 
interior, thereby threatening the lines of transportation 
in the rear of the main army, then concentrating in Vir 
ginia, and holding possession of the inland waters on the 
Atlantic coast. "* The vessels of this expedition were of 
light draught, to ascend the sounds and rivers, were 
well armed, mounting in all 61 guns, and were attended 
by naval convoys. Including the transports, on which 
were loaded about 15,000 selected troops, the fleet num 
bered over 80 vessels, perhaps the largest aggregation 
of warlike vessels seen up to that time on the western 
continent. The number was so large that when the 
ships reached their destination and crowded the harbor, 
General Burnside says, We were ready to wish that the 
fleet were not so large." In command of the land 
forces, General Burnside was assisted by Generals Reno, 
Foster and Parke. Admiral Goldsborough, with Com 
modore Rowan as second, commanded the naval forces. 
This fleet sailed from Fortress Monroe on the nth of 
January, 1862, but, owing to having to widen the chan- 



* Battles and Leaders, i, 661. 
Nc 5 



34 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

nels near Hatteras, did not arrive before Roanoke island 
until the yth of February. 

In spite of the fact that this formidable invading force 
was known to be designing an attack somewhere on this 
coast, and in spite of the further fact that Roanoke was 
the key to the whole sound region, it seemed out of the 
power of the Confederacy to provide it with defenses 
commensurate with its impor f ance, or to spare it enough 
troops to hold its insignifLcaiv* fortifications. General 
Gatlin had said in answer to a request for more troops, 
The place is of so much importance that could I have done 
so I should long since have reinforced it, but I am unable to 
send a soldier without drawing them from parts already 
insufficiently defended. General Hill had reported to the 
secretary of war, "Four additional regiments are abso 
lutely indispensable to the protection of the island." 
General Wise had written the authorities, "With present 
means I cannot guarantee successful defense for a day. 
The place should have been reinforced or abandoned. 

The defenses on the island consisted of four batteries, 
mounting in the aggregate 30 guns, all 32-pounders, as 
follows (see map) : Fort Huger, 10 smooth-bore and 2 
rifled guns ( this battery, being out of range, was not 
engaged in the battle) ; Fort Blanch ard, 4 smooth-bore 
guns (this battery fired only an occasional shot) ; Fort 
Bartow, 8 smooth-bore and i rifled gun. This last battery 
is the one that fought the Federal fleet all day on the 
7th. Across on the mainland was another battery that 
was not fired at all, being out of range also. In addition 
to these coast batteries, there was a three-gun battery in 
the middle of the island, a short distance northeast of 
where the Federals landed. This battery contained one 
howitzer, one 6-pounder brass field piece, model of 1842, 
and one i8-pounder, a Mexican war trophy, and described 
as of "venerable aspect." It was around this land bat 
tery, that was flanked by earthworks for a quarter mile 
on each side, that the land fighting all occurred. One 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 85 

flank of this earthwork rested on a morass, and the other 
on a swamp. Both of these were thought to be impene 
trable, but they proved otherwise. Scattered about in 
these different redoubts, the little Confederate force 
awaited the coming of Burnside s flotilla. As General 
Wise was away at Nags Head sick, Colonel Shaw, of the 
Eighth North Carolina, was in command. He says that 
his force, exclusive of the infantry detached for the bat 
teries, amounted to 1,434 effectives. This was made 
up as follows: Eighth North Carolina (568); Thirty- 
first North Carolina, Col. J. V. Jordan (in part, 456); 
part of the Forty-sixth and part of the Fifty-ninth 
Virginia, under Lieut. -Col. F. P. Anderson and two 
companies of the Seventeenth North Carolina, under 
Maj. G. H. Hill. Colonel Shaw was entirely without 
trained artillerymen, and for his i8-pounders he had 
only i2-pounder ammunition. The Confederate "paste 
board fleet, seven vessels and eight guns, took position 
above Fort Bartow and behind some piles that partly 
obstructed the channel. 

On the morning of the 7th, the Federal squadron in 
imposing array neared the island. "By 1 1 o clock, says 
General Hawkins, "the first division of army gunboats, 
under Commodore Hazard, arrived opposite the forts on 
the west side of Roanoke island and commenced the 
bombardment in earnest, and at the same time engaged 
the enemy s fleet. As the navy vessels arrived they 
went into action, and by half past 1 1 the whole fleet of 
gunboats was engaged. The engagement between the 
heavy guns lasted all day without much damage having 
been done to either side. At the close the gunners 
answered each other with about the same spirit dis 
played at the commencement. The Confederate forts had, 
however, fared better than their fleet. The latter was 
protected from an assault on the part of our vessels by a 
row of piles driven across the navigable part of the chan 
nel and by sunken vessels ; but, notwithstanding this pro- 



36 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

tection, the accurate fire of the Union fleet soon com 
pelled it to retire out of range, with the loss of one of its 
vessels. * The Confederate vessels did not retire, how 
ever, until they had expended their ammunition. Fort 
Bartow, which had, owing to the position of the Federal 
fleet, been able to use only three guns, was little injured, 
although sustaining the fire of the fleet for six hours. 
This fort, the single one in action, made a gallant resist 
ance to the numerous guns of the fleet. 

While this battle of heavy guns was in progress, Gen 
eral Burnside landed his infantry at Ashby s Point, about 
a mile and a half below the three-gun redoubt. His 
troops spent the night on the island, and early on the 
morning of the 8th began the attack on the redoubt 
with its flanking earthworks. The three guns of this 
redoubt were commanded by Captain Schermerhorn, 
Lieutenant Kinney and Lieutenant Selden, each having 
charge of one gun. These were supported by six com 
panies of infantry, occupying the earthworks, and two 
companies on its left. The other Confederate forces 
were distributed at the other batteries or in reserve. 
General Wise reported that some companies of the 
Thirty-first evaded the combat. The whole land fight 
ing was over the possession of this redoubt. If it fell, all 
the other batteries would be left exposed in the rear. 

General Foster began the attack about 8 o clock on the 
8th. He moved up six Dahlgren howitzers on the only 
road that led to the redoubt. These he supported with 
the five regiments of his brigade. Reno followed with 
his brigade, moving into the swamp on the Confederate 
right to flank the position. Parke followed with his 
brigade. Each of Foster s attacks in front was held at 
bay until General Reno s brigade succeeded in making 
its way through the dense morass. Two Massachusetts 
regiments had penetrated the swamp on the right also, 
and had fallen on Wise s three companies and driven 

* Battles and Leaders, 1,640, 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 37 

them toward the redoubt. Attacked thus on all three 
sides, the little force fell back to the north side, and there 
surrendered. Colonel Shaw says, "With the very great 
disparity in numbers, the moment the redoubt was 
flanked, I considered the island lost. The struggle could 
have been protracted and the small body of brave men, 
which had been held in reserve, might have been brought 
up into the open space to receive the fire of the over 
whelming force on our flank, which was under cover of 
trees; but they would have been sacrificed without the 
smallest hope of a successful result. 

The loss of the Confederates was 23 killed and 62 
wounded; among the killed were Capt. O. Jennings 
Wise, and Lieutenants Selden and Munroe. The Federal 
loss was, killed, 37, wounded, 214. Colonel Shaw surren 
dered about 2,000 men, including his sick. The differ 
ence between this force and his reported effectives comes 
from the fact, that, after the main battle, the Second 
North Carolina battalion (eight companies) and Major 
Fry with four companies of the Forty-sixth Virginia 
arrived on the island and were included in the surrender. 

When the Confederate vessels retreated from Roanoke 
they might have escaped to Norfolk, but they felt 
impelled to obey general orders "to defend home 
waters," and went to Elizabeth City. There, with 200 
pounds of regular and 100 pounds of blasting powder, 
Lynch made what defense he could against the gunboats 
that followed him, but his ships were destroyed by the 
enemy or beached and left. So, in addition to Roanoke, 
Elizabeth City was in the hands of Burnside. t 

Shortly afterward an expedition, commanded by Col. 
Rush Hawkins, Ninth New York, made its way up to 
Win ton and burned a good part of the town. The five 
companies, all raw militia, sent to defend it, "fled, " Moore 
says, "ingloriously in the direction of Murf reesboro. " 

With the fall of Roanoke the way was clear for Gen 
eral Burnside to direct his army against New Bern, the 



38 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

second largest town on the North Carolina coast. 
Events soon showed this to be his intention. Hence the 
State sent its available forces there under Brig. -Gen. 
L. O B. Branch. Six regiments of regularly organized 
troops, one battalion and several unattached companies 
of militia, hastily gathered from the adjoining counties, 
half-armed, undrilled, undisciplined, were thrown into 
the fortifications a few miles below the city. To these 
were joined one or two companies of heavy artillery and 
Brem s and Latham s light batteries, and some com 
panies of the Second cavalry. Much time had been 
expended constructing, on the Neuse river, works to repel 
gunboats, but comparatively little preparation had been 
made to repel land attacks. There were two main lines 
of defense designed, however, to be held by more men 
than General Branch had under his command, so on 
the approach of General Burnside with his land and 
naval forces, all fortifications below Fort Thompson were 
abandoned. The works behind which the Confederates 
fought extended from Fort Thompson (13 guns) on the 
Neuse to a swamp on the Weathersby road, a distance of 
two and a half miles. From the fort to the railroad, a 
distance of one mile, were posted, beginning at the fort, 
the Twenty-seventh North Carolina, Major Gilmer; the 
Thirty-seventh, Colonel Lee; the Seventh, Colonel 
Campbell ; the Thirty-fifth, Colonel Sinclair, and a bat 
talion of militia under Colonel Clark. Across the rail 
road, for a mile and a half, the only forces were the 
Twenty-sixth North Carolina, Colonel Vance; two dis 
mounted companies of the Second cavalry, and one unat 
tached company of infantry, and to the right of these two 
pieces of Brem s* battery under Lieutenant Williams. 
Between the railroad and Vance s left there was, at a 
brickyard, a break in the Confederate lines. This break, 
the finding and occupation of which won the victory for 
the Federals, was being protected by a redoubt when 
* Not Harding s, as Battles and Leaders has it. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 39 

the opening- of the battle stopped the work on the 
redoubt and left this vital point guarded only by some 
artillery acting as infantry. Back of the line, on the 
railroad, Col. C. M. Avery s regiment, the Thirty-third, 
was held in reserve. Latham s battery was posted near 
the Thirty-seventh, and Brem s on the railroad.* A 
careful search of official records convinces one that it 
is impossible to ascertain Branch s force with positive 
accuracy. General Hawkins (Battles and Leaders, I, 
648) makes it between 7,000 and 8,000 men. This is far 
too large. Branch says in his official report: "I have at 
no time been able to place 4,000 men in the field at New 
Bern, and at the time of the battle had been seriously 
weakened by the re-enlistment furloughs. " Many of his 
regiments were being reorganized from six and twelve 
months enlistments to enlistments for the war. On such 
occasions the authorities granted, freely, short furloughs 
for the men to put their business in order. Hence the 
regiments were very small. Colonel Hoke reports that 
he had only 614 men present. It is fair to assume that 
the other regiments, affected by the same cause, had 
about an equal number. The six regiments present, 
then, would number about 3,684. The militia battalion 
reports 264 men. The artillery and cavalry present did 
not, from best accounts, number over 400. This would 
make Branch s force aggregate about 4,348, which is 
nearly the figure at which he placed it, and is very nearly 
right. 

It is also difficult to get accurately the Federal num 
bers. Burnside had thirteen regiments engaged. These 
were not reorganizing. But if we give them the same 
number present as the Confederate regiments, they would 
aggregate 7,982, and with the artillery would make a 
total of at least 8,300, or about double the Confederates. 

* General Hawkins errs greatly in saying: "These works were 
armed with 41 heavy guns and 19 field pieces." (Battles and Lead 
ers.) The only guns on this line were as follows: Fort Thompson, 
13; Brem s battery, 6; Latham s, 6; total, 25. 



40 CONFEDERA TE MI LI TAR Y HIS TOR 3 . 

But there is no reason to put the Federal regiments as 
low as 614. On the 3ist of January, Burnside reported 
present for duty, 12,829. It is hardly probable that a 
month later, with no serious battle intervening, and, so 
far as reported, no detachments, that it would number 
less than 10,000 men. 

On the 1 3th of March, General Burnside landed his 
forces at Slocomb s creek, and on that same day marched 
to within striking distance of the Confederate lines. On 
the 1 4th the attack opened by Foster moving on the 
Confederate left, between Fort Thompson and the rail 
road. At the same time Reno moved against Vance s 
position, on the right, and Parke followed up the railroad 
in the center to support either Foster or Reno at need. 
The Federal gunboats all the morning vigorously shelled 
the earthworks. Foster s front attack on the left was 
easily repelled for some hours. But on the right, Gen 
eral Reno with Lieutenant-Colonel Clark, of the Twenty- 
first Massachusetts, found the break at the brickyard and 
gallantly charged in, and then turned to the right on the 
Confederate militia posted there under another Colonel 
Clark. The militia, raising the cry that they were flanked, 
retreated in confusion, and unfortunately the Thirty- 
fifth, under Colonel Sinclair, "very quickly," says Gen 
eral Branch, "followed their example, retreating in the 
utmost disorder." Avery s regiment of reserves was 
ordered to the brickyard, and with Vance s regiment 
made a determined stand. In speaking of the bravery of 
these two regiments, Colonel Clark, of the Massachusetts 
regiment, says in his official report: "They were the 
best armed and fought the most gallantly of any of the 
enemy s forces. . . . They kept up an incessant fire for 
three hours, until their ammunition was exhausted and 
the remainder of the rebel forces had retreated." 

Into the gap in the Confederate line, left by the retreat 
of the militia and the Thirty-fifth, Reno poured his 
forces, and they thus turned the whole right of the 




Federal 



{&...77l<l-BaX*~y iff** tflii 

aJsisgissasr 

&...JB/wfU JPai&eiy. 
r aontt n 6*2toa&y 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 41 

intrenchments from Fort Thompson. Colonel Campbell, 
commanding that wing, ordered Lieutenant-Colonel Hay- 
wood to charge the front of Reno. This the Seventh did 
in fine form and retook Brem s battery,* but was in 
turn driven back by the advance of the Fifth Rhode 
Island and Eighth Connecticut. After their center was 
thus cut, the Confederates saw that with their inferiority 
of numbers they could no longer make effective resist 
ance, and they retired on New Bern. Their losses had 
been, killed, 64; wounded, 101; prisoners, 413. The Fed 
eral losses were, killed, 90; wounded, 380. \ 

The fall of New Bern opened much territory to the 
Federals. Shortly thereafter their troops occupied Car 
olina City, Morehead City, Beaufort and Newport, and 
detachments were sent out in all directions. On April 
1 3th a skirmish between one of these detached parties 
and a portion of the Second North Carolina cavalry 
occurred at Gillett s farm, in which Lieutenant-Colonel 
Robinson, the Confederate commander, was captured. 

On the i Qth of April a spirited action took place at 
South Mills, near the Dismal Swamp canal. Rumors of 
ironclads building for a descent on the Albemarle fleet 
led the Federals to send a considerable force, under 
General Reno, to destroy the locks that connected both 
the Dismal Swamp canal and the Currituck canal with 
the rivers. | General Reno took with him from New 
Bern the Twenty-first Massachusetts, "500 picked 
men, and the Fifty-first Pennsylvania. On his way he 

* General Hawkins again makes an error when he says: "Lieu 
tenant-Colonel Clark . . . came upon a light battery of sixteen 
pieces." Colonel Clark in his report says five pieces. There were, 
.however, only four; the two others of Brem s 6-gun battery were 
on the right, as already mentioned. 

f Official Reports. 

j " I have organized in conjunction with Commodore Rowan 
against that place (Elizabeth City), and if we succeed in capturing 
or driving the enemy back, we shall move up to South Mills and 
blow up the lock of the canal, and then proceed up to the head of 
Currituck canal and blow in its banks, thus rendering it impossible 
for the gunboats, which are said to be building at Norfolk, to come 
into these waters. "Official Records, page 271, Series I, Vol. IX. 
No e 



42 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

was joined by Col. Rush Hawkins with his brigade, then 
stationed on Roanoke island. Hawkins says that his 
forces numbered 2,000 men. General Reno s whole 
command, including four pieces of artillery, numbered 
fully 3,000 men. This force was landed from transports 
at Elizabeth City, and at once marched toward the locks. 
Near South Mills it encountered Col. A. R. Wright, 
commanding the Third Georgia regiment (585 strong), 
some drafted North Carolina militia, Gillett s company 
of Southampton cavalry, and McComas battery of four 
pieces. Wright s total force seems to have numbered 
about 750 men. Of these, he sent three companies and the 
militia a mile to the rear to hold an important crossing. 
Stationing his artillery in the road and supporting it with 
his little force, which General Huger says was not over 400 
men, Wright pluckily waited for the attack of the enemy. 
In spite of a long march, Reno, who had no idea of the 
small number of his foe, attacked promptly, but for three 
hours made no impression on Wright s force, sheltered 
cleverly by the artillery and a strip of woods. At last 
McComas, who had fought his guns manfully, was killed, 
and Colonel Wright fell back a mile to his supports. 
General Reno did not attempt to follow, and that night 
at 10 o clock left his dead and wounded behind and made 
a forced march to his boats. The losses on both sides 
were as follows: Confederate, killed, 6; wounded, 19. 
Federal, killed, 13; wounded, 92.* 

*An interesting difference between official and private reports 
comes out in the Federal accounts of this battle. General Reno and 
his second in command, Colonel Hawkins, made such glowing 
reports of what they had done that their commander, General Burn- 
side, issued a congratulatory order to their troops. In it he felici 
tates them "upon the indomitable courage with which they attacked 
a large body of the enemy s best artillery, infantry and cavalry in 
their own chosen position, achieving a complete victory. " Rebellion 
Records, IX., 307. 

In a private letter to the same commander, the same General 
Hawkins says in reference to the same affair: "Doubtless the unfor 
tunate occurrence of the igth has been brought to your notice. No 
one can regret the result more than myself. First, because of the 
loss of life ; second, the object of the expedition not being accom- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 43 

The culmination of the serious losses that had befallen 
the coast by the operations of General Burnside was the 
surrender of Fort Macon, on the sand-bar opposite Beau 
fort. This fort was an "old style, strong, casemated 
work," mounting about fifty guns.f Col. M. J. White 
occupied the fort with four companies of the Tenth 
North Carolina artillery and one company of the Forti 
eth. General Burnside sent General Parke with his divi 
sion to lay siege to the work. After some weeks spent in 
preparing mortar and Parrott batteries, under protection 
of the sand hills, General Parke opened fire on the fort 
with four batteries on the 25th of April. The Federal 
fleet joined in the fire for an hour or two. By 4 o clock 
the combined batteries threw 1,150 shells and shot at the 
fort, 500 of which took effect, \ dismounting over half 
the guns. Colonel White says in his official report: "The 
attack from the land was kept up with great vigor, the 
enemy having immense advantage from superior num 
bers, being able to relieve their men at the guns, while 
our morning reports showed only 263 men for duty. Our 
guns were well managed but able to do little damage to 
water batteries and siege guns, firing through narrow 
embrasures. At 6:30, finding that our loss had been 
heavy, and, from the fatigue of our men, being unable to 
keep up the fire with but two guns, a proposition was 
made to General Parke for the surrender of the fort. 
The regimental history of the Tenth regiment declares: 
"Of the forty-four guns, half were entirely disabled. 
None on the parapet facing the entrance to the harbor 
could be brought to bear on the land batteries, nor could 

plished after all the obstacles in our way had been removed. It 
seems that both parties were badly frightened. The enemy ran like 
quarter-horses toward Norfolk, and we as fast as our weary legs 
would carry us toward Roanoke, leaving quite a number of our 
wounded, and destroyed the bridges behind us." Ibid., 316. 

f It is difficult to tell how many guns Macon had ; Hawkins says, 
64 ; Burnside, 54 ; and the Tenth Regiment History, 44. 

\ Flagler s Report. 



44 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

those facing Beaufort." The Confederate loss was 7 
killed and 18 wounded. 

These successive defeats aroused the people instead of 
dispiriting them. They saw plainly that the Richmond 
authorities had been far too slow in realizing the State s 
condition and the importance of the territory being lost. 
They saw, not without some bitterness, enough North 
Carolina troops sent into the State, after the fall of New 
Bern, to have prevented its loss. Still the almost 
defenseless condition of the other part of the State called 
for new exertions, and without taking time for much 
repining, the State government sent out an order that 
was fruitful in results. This was, that the captains of all 
militia companies were to detail one-third of their men 
for immediate service, and these men were accorded 
permission to volunteer for the war. Major Gordon 
says: 4< This order struck a wave of patriotism that was 
floating over the State from east to west, which had 
been almost dormant for some months on account of the 
government s refusing to furnish arms to twelve months 
volunteers. Prominent men in every county of the 
State vied with one another in raising troops, and many 
of those not actually going to the field were as busy 
helping as those going. Instead of getting one-third, 
the writer believes that fully two-thirds of those liable to 
service volunteered under this call. In all, twenty-eight 
regiments and several battalions promptly volunteered. 
The adjutant-general s office was daily crowded by men 
offering companies for service. The Eleventh regiment 
(Bethel) was reorganized at High Point ; the Forty-sec 
ond (Col. G. C. Gibbs), at Salisbury, April 22d; and at 
Camp Mangum, near Raleigh, were organized the Forty- 
third (Col. T. S. Kenan), the Forty-fourth (Col. G. B. 
Singeltary), the Forty-fifth (Col. Junius Daniel), the 
Forty-sixth (Col. E. D. Hall), the Forty-seventh (Col. 
S. H. Rogers), the Forty-eighth (Col. R. C. Hill), the 
Forty-ninth (Col. S. D. Ramseur), the Fiftieth (Col. M. D. 



CONFEDERA TE MILITARY HISTORY. 45 

Crator), the Fifty-second (Col. J. K. Marshall), the 
Fifty-third (Col. W. A. Owens), the Fifty-fourth (Col. 
John Wimbish), and the Fifty-fifth (Col. J. K. Conolly) 
all between the 2ist of April and the igih of May. 
The Fifty-first (Col. J. L. Cantwell) was recruited in the 
Cape Fear district and organized at Wilmington. 

"The State had now in a very short while fifteen splen 
did regiments organized and ready for service, except 
arms, which will be mentioned later. All the military 
departments of the State were tried to their uttermost to 
clothe, feed and equip this large number of troops, who so 
promptly came to the defense of the State. In addition 
to those mentioned above, twelve or thirteen more regi 
ments were in sight at the adjutant-general s office, to be 
taken care of when fully recruited. * 

* Organization of the Troops. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE FEDERAL MOVEMENTS AGAINST RICHMOND- 
PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN DAM No. i.OR LEE S MILL 
RETREAT UP THE PENINSULA WILLIAMSBURG 
HANOVER COURT HOUSE SEVEN PINES JACK 
SON S WONDERFUL VALLEY CAMPAIGN. 

WHILE these new regiments were forming, the 
North Carolina regiments already transferred to 
the army of Virginia were engaged in the famous 
Peninsular campaign and the battles around Richmond. 
Just a few weeks after the battle at New Bern, McClellan s 
army began to land at Fort Monroe preparatory to its 
ascent of the peninsula. On the 4th of April, 1862, his 
troops began to move against the Confederate works, 
held at that time by Gen. J. B. Magruder with about 
1 1 , ooo men. General Magruder had spent much time 
and work upon the construction of parallel lines of fortifi 
cations across the peninsula. However, the Confederate 
commander-in-chief, General Johnston, after an exami 
nation of the works and of the whole ground, decided 
that it was not feasible to attempt to hold the peninsula, 
flanked as it was by water; and the forces there, and 
those sent to their aid after McClellan began to move, 
were placed under orders to withdraw gradually upon 
the approach of the Union army, but to strike, if need be, 
and to protract the giving up of the lines as long as 
possible. 

Accordingly, on the nearer approach of McClellan the 
Confederates fell back upon the Warwick line of defenses. 
On the 1 6th of April, at Lee s Mill, or Dam No. i, the 
first sharp trial of strength between the opposing forces 
took place. Gen. W. F. Smith s division was ordered to 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 47 

attack the Confederate works there, the object being, 
according to General McClellan, "to force the enemy to 
discontinue his work in strengthening his batteries, to 
silence his fire, and to gain control of the dam existing 
at this point. * Smith brought up his three brigades, 
Brooks , Hancock s and Davidson s, and during the 
morning kept up a vigorous artillery fire. Then, at 3 
o clock, under cover of a sharp artillery and musketry 
fire, two attacking and two supporting companies of the 
Third Vermont regiment crossed the stream and rushed 
gallantly for the Confederate works. The part of the 
works immediately in their front was occupied by the 
Fifteenth North Carolina regiment, Col. R. M. McKin- 
ney. The regiment at the time of the Federal attack 
was not on its lines, but was about 200 yards in the 
rear, engaged on some heavy intrenchments that it had 
been ordered to make. When the pickets gave the 
alarm, the Fifteenth rushed to its arms and advanced to 
meet its assailants, who on reaching the unoccupied line 
had partly taken refuge behind the earth thrown from 
the Confederate rifle-pits, f and opened upon the North 
Carolinians, as they advanced, an accurate and deadly fire. 
The fire was promptly returned and several volleys 
exchanged. Colonel McKinney of the Fifteenth was killed 
in the advance. The Seventh Georgia and other adjoin 
ing regiments, none knowing the strength of the attack 
ing party, rushed to the aid of the North Carolinians, and 
in a few moments the little band of Vermont men was 
driven back with a loss of 83 men. 

At 5 o clock a more formidable attack was made by 
the Sixth Vermont, in conjunction with the Fourth Ver 
mont. Colonel Lord, of the Sixth Vermont, says: "The 
companies . . . advanced fearlessly and in perfect order 
. . . with a view of taking the rifle-pits of the enemy at 
the point of the bayonet. Before this could be accom- 

* Letter to Adjutant-General Thomas, April igth. 
f Ihrie s official report. 



48 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

plished, and at a distance not exceeding 30 yards, a 
most rapid, galling and destructive fire was opened, 
telling with fearful effect upon our men who were ad 
vancing to make the assault. " As a result of this heavy 
fire, all the Federal regiments participating were soon 
withdrawn. The total Federal loss in this engagement 
was 165. The Fifteenth North Carolina lost its colonel, 
of whom General McLaws said, "He was pure in all his 
thoughts and just in all his acts. In addition, 1 2 men 
were killed and 31 wounded. 

In this retreat up the Peninsula, retiring from one 
intrenchment to another, the North Carolina soldiers, in 
common with all their comrades from other States, 
suffered unusual hardships. General Magruder gives 
this account of the situation in the trenches: "From the 
4th of April till the 3d of May this army served almost 
without relief in the trenches. Many companies of artil 
lery were never relieved during this whole period. It 
rained almost incessantly. The trenches were filled with 
water. No fires could be allowed. The artillery and 
infantry of the enemy played upon our men almost con 
tinuously, day and night. The army had neither coffee, 
sugar nor hard bread, but subsisted on flour and salt 
meats, and these in reduced quantities, and yet no mur 
murs were heard. ... I speak this in honor of those 
brave men whose patriotism made them indifferent to 
suffering, disease, danger, and death." Gen. E. P. 
Alexander, in commenting on this report, declares: 
"These statements are not exaggerated in a single word. 
The trenches filled with water as fast as they could be 
opened and could not be drained. Yet the continual 
firing compelled the men to remain in them. ... A 
hand or head could not be exposed for a moment with 
out receiving a ball from the telescopic target rifles of 
the sharpshooters. The trenches were so hastily con 
structed that they barely afforded room for the line of 
battle to crouch in. ... In many places they became 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 49 

offensive beyond description. Fires were strictly for 
bidden by day and night. The sick lists increased by 
thousands, and cases occurred where men actually died 
in the mud and water of the trenches before they could 
be taken out to the hospitals. Then General Alexander 
adds a fact that shows the intense earnestness with which 
these men were imbued : 4 Not only were there no mur 
murs or complaints, but in the midst of all this, the terms 
of enlistments of a large part of the army expired, and 
they at once re-enlisted for three years or the war. "* 

By May 4th the retreating Confederates had reached 
the line of fortifications around Fort Magruder, just 
below the old town of Williamsburg. On that day the 
Federal cavalry and infantry pressed the Confederate 
rear so closely that the trains became imperiled. Hence, 
the battle fought there on the 5th of May was not from 
Confederate choice, but from the necessity of the hour. 
The Northern reports, and indeed many Northern writers, 
show an entire misconception of the purpose of this bat 
tle. They seem to think that it was part of Johnston s 
purpose to hold permanently the Fort Magruder line. 
Keyes says in his official report: "If Hancock had failed, 
the enemy would not have retreated." This is far 
from the true state of affairs. As Colonel Maury ob 
serves: "General Johnston had no intention of tarrying 
at Williamsburg, nor was the place defensible, for the 
enemy now had control of both York and James rivers, 
on each flank, and intended to push Franklin s division, 
kept on transports . . . rapidly up the York river in the 
vain hope of getting in our rear." General Johnston 
says: "It was an affair with our rearguard, the object 
of which was to secure our baggage trains, "f General 
Webb, of the Federals, observes: "The demonstration 
of the Union cavalry the previous afternoon, and Hook 
er s pressure the next morning, compelled them to face 

* Southern Historical Society Papers. 
\ Johnston s Narrative. 

No 7 



50 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

about to escape being run over at will by their pur 
suers. "* 

General Magruder had been ordered not to stop in 
Williamsburg at all. Gens. G. W. Smith and D. H. Hill 
were ordered to resume the march at 2 a. m. on the 5th, 
and Longstreet was to cover the trains. Accordingly, 
General Smith moved at the hour appointed, and General 
Hill s infantry was just filing into the road to follow his 
trains when he was stopped by the news that a battle 
was imminent in the rear. His division spent most of 
the day on the campus of William and Mary college, 
waiting to see whether Longstreet would need help, for 
a heavy downpour of rain had fallen on the night of the 
4th, flooding the low swampy road, and "part of the trains 
were stalled on the ground where they stood during the 
night, "f 

At daylight on the 5th, Anderson, of Longstreet s 
corps, seeing the condition of things and believing that a 
struggle would be necessary to save the wagon trains, 
re-manned the redoubts on the right of Fort Magruder 
and as many on the left as the heavy rain permitted him 
to see. Two redoubts on the left were not seen, and 
perhaps could not have been occupied if seen, for that 
long line of works had been designed for an army to 
hold, not for a rear guard division fighting for time to 
save its stores. \ These were the two redoubts after 
ward seized by Hancock, and were the scene of the Fifth 
North Carolina regiment s bloody fight. 

Hooker attacked Longstreet manfully at 7 o clock on 
the 5th. However, as General Webb of the Federal 
army chronicles, "he lost ground until Kearny came up" 
about 2 o clock. Subsequently Couch arrived, but the 
three divisions never gained an inch from Longstreet s 

* The Peninsula, in Civil War Series. 

f From Manassas to Appomattox. 

\ Colonel Maury, in his article on Williamsburg in Southern His 
torical Society Papers, seems to overlook this fact when he censures 
the Confederate leaders for not occupying all these redoubts. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 51 

sturdy fighters. When reinforcements began to reach 
the Federals, Longstreet sent to D. H. Hill for one bri 
gade, and at 3 o clock Hill s whole division moved back 
to be in supporting distance, but only two of his regi 
ments were actively drawn into the battle on the right. 
Longstreet s division contained few North Carolinians. 
The Thirteenth, Col. A. M. Scales, and the Fourteenth, 
Col. P. W. Roberts, and Manly s battery, were the 
State s sole representatives in that part of the battle. 
Both of these regiments were in Colston s brigade. Col 
ston was not put in till late in the afternoon. The 
Thirteenth went to A. P. Hill s right and was suddenly 
and fiercely attacked. It, however, under the stimulat 
ing example of Colonel Scales and Lieutenant-Colonel 
Ruffin, held its own till the close of the contest. The 
Fourteenth was deployed in a skirt of woods on A. P. 
Hill s left, and remained under fire for several hours, 
behaving with conspicuous bravery. Longstreet reports: 
" Brigadier-General Colston, though last upon the field, 
was hotly engaged until darkness put an end to the 
struggle, and he compliments both Scales and Roberts 
on "having discharged their difficult duties with marked 
skill and fearlessness. 

Manly s North Carolina battery made an enviable 
record in this battle. Five of its guns were posted in 
Fort Magruder, and one under Lieutenant Guion was in 
a redoubt. When Webber s battery, afterward cap 
tured, was trying to get in position, Manly s guns, the 
first of which was fired by Sergeant Brooks, largely aided 
the infantry in so disabling it that it never rendered 
effective service. Longstreet s fight for time was a 
marked success in that he held his own all day and cap 
tured five of the enemy s guns. 

On General Longstreet s left, Hancock had, during the 
uproar of battle, crossed Cub Dam creek and entered the 
first of the unoccupied redoubts, already mentioned as 
being on the left of Fort Magruder. Having the first 



52 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

one, he then, in the amusing language of the Comte de 
Paris, "seeing no enemy, fearlessly proceeded to march 
into the next." This put his force directly on the Con 
federate flank, in a position of strength, "having a crest 
and natural glacis on either flank, and extending to the 
woods on the right and left," and "entirely commanding 
the plain between me and Fort Magruder. "* As Han 
cock had five regiments and Cowan s battery of six pieces 
and Wheeler s of four, he felt strong enough, as he was 
so advantageously posted, to proceed "to make a diver 
sion in favor of that portion of our forces which were 
engaged with the enemy directly in front of Fort Magru 
der." Up to that time the Confederates had been so 
absorbed in the hard fight in front that "Hancock s 
maneuver had been executed before its dangerous sig 
nificance became apparent"! Webb adds, "By this 
movement on our right, the enemy were forced to pay 
special attention to Hancock." "The occupation of 
these two redoubts on his extreme left, says Lossing, 
"was the first intimation that Johnston had of their 
existence, and he at once perceived the importance of 
the position, for it was on the flank and rear of the Con 
federate line of defense, and seriously menaced its integ 
rity. "{ Hancock soon got his batteries to work, and, 
says the Regimental History of the Fifth regiment, was 
"seriously annoying our troops by an enfilading fire." 
So, to counteract Hancock s "diversion," Early s brigade 
of D. H. Hill s division, all of which division "had been 
waiting to see whether Longstreet needed any further 
support," was moved toward the left, and its officers, 
says General Longstreet, made a reconnoissance in their 
front. As a result of this reconnoissance, "General 
Early," says General Johnston, "sent an officer to report 
that there was a battery in front of him which he could 

* Hancock s Report. 

f Peninsular Campaign. 

j Civil War in America, II, 382. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 63 

take, and asked authority to do so. The message was 
delivered to General Longstreet, who referred the mes 
senger to me, we being together. I authorized the 
attempt, but desired the general to look carefully first."* 
General Hill s report is virtually the same, for he says: 
"He (Early) soon reported to General Longstreet in 
person that there was a Yankee battery in his front on 
the edge of a wood, and asked leave to take it. General 
Longstreet approved the move, and directed me to 
accompany it. "f Generals Hill and Early then rode to 
the front and examined the ground in front of them, 
declares Early in his report. General Hill also says in 
his report, "I reconnoitered the ground as well as I 
could. "J 

General Hill evidently understood that this brigade 
was to wage just such a battle as the right was then 
making a rear guard engagement to gain time, and that 
in addition it was to prevent the enemy on Longstreet s 
left from flanking him, and that the battery the brigade 
was to assail was not to be carried by direct assault but 
by "getting in rear of the battery by passing through 
the woods to its left. " This was the plan he had in view, 
for he says, "I directed this wing (the Fifth and the 
Twenty-third North Carolina) to halt as soon as the 
stream was crossed and undergrowth penetrated, to get 
the whole brigade in line, and sent my adjutant, Major 
Ratchford, to General Early to know whether he had 
gotten over. We had not halted five minutes (waiting 
to reform the line) when I heard shouting and firing, and 
a voice which, above the uproar, I took to be General 
Early s, crying, Follow me! " The advance of that part 
of the brigade made it necessary for Hill to direct "the 
right wing to move rapidly forward, and I went myself in 

* Johnston s Narrative, 122. 

f It is proper to add that General Longstreet says that General Hill 
made this request. 

\ Colonel Maury, evidently writing without carefully reading these 
reports, asserts that no reconnoissance was made. 



54 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

advance of it. " If the batteries were to be charged 
across the open, the quicker the better. He adds, "I 
regretted that our troops had gone into the open field 
where the ground was so heavy . . . and where they 
were exposed for half a mile to the full sweep of the 
Yankee artillery, but it was now too late to change the 
order of things, and there was some hope of a direct 
attack, if made rapidly."* Below in his report, he again 
says, "I have always regretted that General Early, carried 
away by his impetuous and enthusiastic courage, advanced 
so far into the open field. " 

General Longstreet says of the attack: "General Hill 
ordered the advance regiments to halt after crossing the 
streamlet and get under cover of the woods until the bri 
gade could form, but General Early, not waiting for 
orders or the brigade, rode to the front of the Twenty- 
fourth Virginia regiment, and with it made the attack. 
The gallant McRae, of the Fifth North Carolina, seeing 
the Twenty-fourth hotly engaged, dashed forward nolens 
volens to its relief. The other [two] regiments, seeing 
the confusion of movements and of orders, failed to go 
forward."f But these regiments were not as entirely 
inactive as General Longstreet and others have thought. 
General Hill says that, seeing that the woods on the left 
were full of the enemy, and "that a column moving 
across the field would be exposed to a fire in flank, he 
ordered these regiments to change direction to the left 
and clear the woods. The regiments were imperfectly 
drilled and the ground densely wooded, and before they 
succeeded in carrying out the maneuver it was too late 
for them to assist the attack of the Twenty-fourth Vir 
ginia and the Fifth North Carolina. 

The charge made by the Fifth North Carolina, led by 
Col. D. K. McRae, Lieut. -Col. J. C. Badham, Maj. P. J. 
Sinclair and Adjt. J. C. McRae, will be a lasting mon- 

Hill s Official Report 

t From Manassas to Appomattox. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 55 

ument to the heroism of North Carolina troops. This 
regiment, on clearing the woods, changed direction to 
the left and, lapping wings with the Twenty-fourth Vir 
ginia, rushed upon Hancock s strong line. The Regi 
mental History gives this account of the charge: "In 
front of the redoubt were five regiments of infantry 
supported by a battery of ten pieces (Cowan 6, Wheeler 
4), with clouds of skirmishers in their advance. The 
charge of the Fifth has rarely been surpassed in the his 
tory of war. Pressing on from the first in the face of 
the battery, entering in the plunging fire of the infantry, 
wading into a storm of balls which first struck the men 
on their feet and rose upon their nearer approach, it 
steadily pressed on. . . . Officers and men were falling 
rapidly under the withering fire of grape, canister and 
musketry. Lieutenant-Colonel Badham was shot in the 
forehead and fell dead. Major Sinclair s horse was killed 
and he was disabled. Captains Garrett, Lea and Jones 
were all shot down, as were many of the subalterns. 
Among them were Lieut. Thomas Snow, of Halifax, who 
was killed far in advance of his company, cheering on 
his men; and Lieutenants Boswell, Clark and Hays." 

Four hundred and fifteen men of this regiment 
answered to morning roll-call on that day ; before night, 
the blood of 290 fed the soil of that bleak hill. Such 
losses are rarely chronicled. The Light Brigade at 
Balaklava took 600 men into action and lost only 247. 
Twenty-four commissioned officers of the Fifth regiment 
led their men up that slope ; only four came out unhurt. 
No wonder that their antagonist for that day, General 
Hancock, said, in a generous burst of enthusiasm for 
such daring, "Those two regiments deserve to have 
immortal inscribed on their banners. " 

Whether the Fifth and Twenty-fourth would have suc 
ceeded in routing Hancock had they not been ordered to 
fall back, or had the other two regiments pushed rapidly 
to their assistance, must, as General Hill says, "forever 



56 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

remain an undecided question." Colonel McRae evi 
dently thought they would. However, the student of the 
Confederate war history knows from the slaughter at 
Malvern Hill and Boonsboro, at Gettysburg and Fred- 
ericksburg, how well-nigh impossible it is for the most 
dauntless infantry to drive an American foe from an 
artillery and musketry crowned plateau. Even if the 
rest of the brigade had come when sent for, it hardly 
seems possible for two regiments, already crippled by 
many casualties, numbering together "not over 1,000" 
before any loss, aided by only two fresh regiments, all 
without any artillery, to have put to flight five full regi 
ments and ten pieces of artillery, posted on a crest, shel 
tered in part by a redoubt, and commanded by so good a 
soldier as Hancock. Moreover, a careful reading of Han 
cock s report shows that what McRae took for a retreat 
of Hancock s artillery was simply the retirement of his 
guns, one by one, to his original and stronger line, made 
in obedience to an order from General Smith and show 
ing no signs of disorder. Colonel McRae confirms this 
when he says in his report, "the battery had been retired 
en echelon with great precision, and there was no such man 
ifest disorder as would justify storming the redoubt." 
Colonel Maury, of the Virginia regiment, says: "Had 
the regiments been allowed to go on, the redoubt would 
have been captured without further loss." That this is 
a mistake is shown by McRae s report. He says: "I 
had previously sent my adjutant to General Hill, an 
nouncing my loss and the danger of my position, and 
earnestly begging for reinforcements; but finding iny 
force too small and the position fatally destructive, / did 
not wait his return, but ordered my command to fall off 
down to the cover of the fence, and immediately after I 
received the order to retire." 

Colonel Maury in this same article, blames the Confed 
erate commander for not bringing up his whole division 
to extricate the two regiments from their perilous pool- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 57 

tion and to support them ; but he forgets that the com 
manding officer was under positive orders from General 
Longstreet "not to involve us so as to delay the march 
after night, and it was nearly dark when the assault was 
fairly joined. 

In commenting on the battle, General Longstreet says : 
"The success of General Hancock in holding his position 
in and about the forts with five regiments and two bat 
teries against the assault of the Fifth North Carolina and 
Twenty-fourth Virginia was given heroic proportions by 
his chief, who christened him The Superb, to relieve, it 
is supposed, by the picturesque figure on his right, the 
discomfiture of his left. But reading between the lines, 
the highest compliment was for the two Confederate regi 
ments. "* Draper, the New York historian, adds: "The 
manner in which the Confederate rear guard turned upon 
their pursuers at Williamsburg and gave them a bloody 
check will always exact the applause of military critics."! 

On the yth of May, at Eltham s landing, nearly opposite 
West Point, Va., Franklin s division of McClellan s army 
disembarked from transports for the purpose of getting 
in the rear of Johnston s retreating army. The purpose, 
however, was frustrated, for Franklin found G. W. Smith 
on the ground, and Whiting s division attacked him there. 
Captain Reilly s battery and Colonel Fender s Sixth 
North Carolina regiment were under fire, but not seri 
ously engaged. 

The next battle in Virginia was at Slash church, near 
Hanover Court House, on the 2 yth of May. This, with 
the exception of one regiment, was purely a North Caro 
lina fight. The Confederate force, one brigade and two 
attached companies, was commanded by Gen. L. O B. 
Branch, of North Carolina, and of the seven regiments 
present all were from the same State except the Forty- 
fifth Georgia, Col. T. M. Hardeman. This brigade, after 

* From Manassas to Appomattox. 
t Civil War in America. 

Nc 8 



58 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

its engagements around New Bern, had been ordered to 
join Jackson in the valley, but on its way was stopped at 
Hanover Court House, and kept on lookout duty there. 
General McClellan, expecting General McDowell to join 
him in a movement on Richmond, threw forward his 
right wing under Gen. Fitz John Porter to crush Branch s 
force out of his path. 

Porter had in his command Morell s division and War 
ren s brigade. Branch s force consisted of his own bri 
gade the Seventh North Carolina, Col. R. P. Campbells 
the Eighteenth, Col. R. H. Cowan; the Twenty-eighth, 
Col. J. H. Lane; the Thirty-seventh, Col. C. C. Lee; 
and the Thirty-third, Lieutenant-Colonel Hoke; and 
also two temporarily attached regiments, the Twelfth 
North Carolina, Col. B. O. Wade, and Forty-fifth Geor 
gia in all seven regiments and Latham s North Caro 
lina battery, that joined him the night before the battle. 
In view of the hard fight that Branch gave him, it is not 
surprising that General Porter, writing the day after the 
battle, should say that Branch s force "comprised about 
8,000 Georgia, North Carolina and Virginia troops." 
But for General Webb, writing in 1881, and claiming to 
have "sifted" and "collated for careful investigation the 
new material gathered by the war department, and now 
for the first time made a basis of the history of that 
time,"* to say for him to say in the face of such a claim 
as that "that Branch s command must have been about 
10,000 strong" is, as the Federal General Palfrey sweetly 
says in commenting on some of McClellan s figures, 
"one of those extraordinary, inconceivable, aggravating 
things that stirs up everything that is acrid in the nature 
of those who follow his career, "f 

What was the Confederate strength? Branch, in his 
congratulatory order to his brigade (July 24th), states 
that his total force was "about 4,000. " This would make 

* Preface to "Peninsula Campaign." 
f Antietam to Fredericksburg, p. 39. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 59 

his seven regiments average about 600 men to the regi 
ment, a high average for Confederate regiments, and 
especially for those that had been over as much territory 
as Branch s. Even McClellan, with his fondness for big 
numbers on the Confederate side, admits "the regi 
ments (Confederate) will not average over 700 men. "* 
Some of the regiments that opposed Branch that day 
reported fewer than 600. Porter does not state his num 
bers. General Webb says that Porter had "about 12,000 
men. "f Probably, as Porter had one whole division 
(Morell s) and one brigade (Warren s), this is not far 
wrong. General Warren gives the number in each of his 
regiments, and the aggregate is 2,705; his regiments 
averaging 653 men each. In Morell s division there were 
fourteen regiments (eleven infantry, two cavalry, one 
sharpshooters), three batteries, and two companies of 
sharpshooters. Putting these regiments and batteries at 
the same as Branch s (600 to the regiment), they aggregate 
8,700, and with Warren s make a total force of 11,405 
at the very least nearly three times the Confederate 
force. 

At the approach of the two forces, General Branch 
advanced Colonel Lane with the Twenty-eighth North 
Carolina, and a section of Latham s battery, under Lieu 
tenant Potts, to support his pickets. The regiment soon 
became heavily engaged with Porter s van, the Twenty- 
fifth New York regiment, and drove it back, inflicting 
heavy loss. Pressing the Twenty-fifth they encountered 
Butterfield s| entire brigade. Helped by a friendly 
wood, Lane maintained his position for some time. 
However, in spite of the efforts of his two guns, Butter- 
field s force was soon overlapping both his wings, and so 
Lane gave orders to retire along a fence. All the horses 
of one of Pott s guns had been disabled, and he was 

* Rebellion Records, XI, I, 271. 

f Peninsula Campaign. 

\ Not Martindale s, as Lane reports. 



60 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

forced to leave this piece. Lane says of the fight of this 
section: "Never were two guns served more hand 
somely. " On their retreat toward Hanover Court 
House, this regiment found the enemy between it and the 
rest of the brigade and lost many prisoners. However, 
Webb s assertion that "it was almost entirely captured," 
is far wide of the mark, as Lane reports that it reached 
its brigade on the Chickahominy with 480 men.* Col 
onel Lane says of his retreat: "Already exhausted from 
exposure to inclement weather, from hunger, from fight 
ing, it was three days before the regiment, by a circuit 
ous route, rejoined the brigade . . . where it was wildly 
and joyfully received. It was highly complimented by 
Generals Lee and Branch for its behavior on this mas 
terly retreat. 

While Lane was engaged with Butterfield, Branch 
advanced his other regiments toward Peake s crossing 
and found the enemy stationed across the road. Branch 
thus describes his movements: "My plan was quickly 
formed, and orders were given for its execution. Lee 
with the Thirty- seventh was to push through the woods 
and get close to the right flank of the battery. Hoke, as 
soon as he should return from a sweep through the woods 
on which I had sent him, and Colonel Wade, of the 
Twelfth, were to make a similar movement to the left 
flank of the battery, and Cowan (Eighteenth) was to 
charge across the open ground in front, Latham mean 
while bringing his guns to bear on their front. Hoke, 
supported by Colonel Wade, had a sharp skirmish, taking 
6 prisoners and n horses, but came out too late to 
make the movement assigned to him ; and Lee having 
sent for reinforcements, I so far changed my plan as to 
abandon the attack on the enemy s left, and sent Lieu 
tenant-Colonel Hoke to reinforce Colonel Lee, relying on 
the front and right attack. Colonel Cowan, with the 
Eighteenth, made the charge most gallantly; but the 

* Regimental History. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 61 

enemy s force was much larger than supposed, and 
strongly posted, and the gallant Eighteenth was com 
pelled to seek cover. It continued to pour heavy volleys 
from the edge of the woods, and must have done great 
execution. The steadiness with which the desperate 
charge was made reflects the highest credit on officers 
and men. . . . The combined attack of the Eighteenth 
and Thirty-seventh compelled the enemy to leave his 
battery for a time and take shelter behind a ditch bank. "* 
This attack fell on Martindale s Second Maine regiment, 
Forty-fourth New York, some detachments of the Ninth 
and Twenty-second Massachusetts and of the Fourth 
Michigan, and what Lane had left of the Twenty-fifth 
New York, all supporting a section of Martin s battery. 
The Federal line was broken and the gunners driven 
from their pieces. General Martindale says: "The bat 
tle had now lasted for quite an hour, and although the 
center of my line was broken, under a cross fire that was 
entirely destructive and unsupportable, still the Second 
Maine on the right and the largest body of the Forty- 
fourth New York on the left, maintained their ground 
without flinching. (It is now disclosed that they were 
assailed by four times their number.)"! Federal rein 
forcements soon arrived. Generals Porter and Morell 
hastened personally to the firing, and at this crisis sent 
in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth New York and Griffin s 
battery to reform Martindale s broken line. The Ninth 
Massachusetts and Sixty- second Pennsylvania were hur 
ried back from toward Hanover. Their line of march 
threw them on Branch s left flank and rear, and, already 
far outnumbered before the arrival of this new force, 
Branch was left no option except to retreat. The 
Seventh North Carolina and Forty-fifth Georgia, which 
had been held in reserve and not at all engaged, covered 



* Official Report. 

fThis "four times their number" was, as seen above, only Cow 
an s and Lee s regiments. 



62 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

the Confederate retreat. Branch s loss, including 
Lane s, was 73 killed, 192 wounded, and about 700 
captured. If Porter s report, "of the enemy s dead we 
buried about 200," be true, he must have buried some 
twice. The Federal loss was 62 killed, 223 wounded, 
and 70 missing. 

General Lee sent his congratulations to General Branch, 
in which he used these words: "I take pleasure in 
expressing my approval of the manner in which you 
have discharged the duties of the position in which you 
were placed, and of the gallant manner your troops 
opposed a very superior force of the enemy. 

Closely following Hanover Court House came Seven 
Pines, with a list of casualties at that time thought appall 
ing. There, as at Hanover, an officer from North Caro 
lina directed the fiercest and most protracted part of the 
contest; for, says Gen. Cadmus Wilcox, "Seven Pines, 
the successful part of it, was D. H. Hill s fight." Gen 
eral Longstreet, who commanded the whole right wing, 
says: "The conduct of the attack (on the Confederate 
right) was left entirely to Major-General Hill. The 
entire success of the affair is sufficient evidence of his 
ability, courage and skill. 

The Confederates in front of Richmond were appre 
hensive that the force under McDowell would be added 
to that under General McClellan, and thereby give him 
strength enough to overpower them and take Richmond. 
To prevent this, Johnston, learning that two of McClel 
lan s army corps, those of Keyes and Heintzelman, were 
on the south side of the Chickahominy, determined on 
an immediate attack upon them. In order to get an 
intelligible idea of the part of the North Carolina troops 
in this great battle, it will be necessary first to take a 
glance at the whole field. 

Casey s division of Keyes corps was nearest to Rich 
mond. This lay behind earthworks, strengthened by an 
unfinished redoubt, on the Williamsburg road, west of 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 63 

Seven Pines. Behind Casey, at a distance of about a 
mile and a quarter, Couch was in position on the same 
road, his right extending out toward Fair Oaks on the 
Nine-mile road. Kearny s and Hooker s divisions, form 
ing Heintzelman s corps, were in rear of Couch. The 
rest of the Federal army was north of the Chickahominy. 

General Johnston s battle plan was simple, and if all of 
it had been carried out as effectively as a part of it was 
the result must have been disastrous to McClellan. 
Longstreet, who commanded the entire right, was to 
send in D. H. Hill s division in a front attack on Casey 
on the Williamsburg road, and support that attack by his 
own division. Huger was to move on the Charles City 
road, parallel to Hill, and make a flank attack synchro 
nous with Hill s front attack. G. W. Smith, in charge 
of the left wing, was to keep Sumner s corps, north of 
the river, from reinforcing Keyes, and if not attacked 
early, he was to assist the right wing. For various 
reasons, not in the province of this writer to consider, 
only a part of the plan was carried into effect. Huger 
never made the flank attack, and in the first day s fight 
only one of Longstreet s brigades got into close action, 
although Hill s division was fighting Casey, Couch and 
Kearny. On the left wing, the line of battle was never 
formed until the head of Sumner s corps was in position 
to receive it. 

On the day appointed, D. H. Hill, after vainly waiting 
from early morning until i o clock for the flank move 
ment and for the left wing, was ordered by General 
Longstreet to attack Casey s works with his division of 
four brigades. Garland and G. B. Anderson formed the 
left of the attacking column, and Rodes and Rains the 
right. "After more than two hours of very hard fight 
ing," says Gen. G. W. Smith, "these four brigades, 
unaided, captured Casey s earthworks." * Then, aided 
after 4 o clock by R. H. Anderson s brigade of Long- 

* Battle of Seven Pines, p. 149. 



64 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

street s corps,* they broke Couch s line and forced the 
three divisions of Casey, Couch and Kearny back to their 
third line, capturing eight pieces of artillery and 
gathering from the field over 6,000 muskets. 

General Casey, who sustained the first attack, says: 
"To be brief, the rifle-pits were retained until they were 
almost enveloped by the enemy, the troops with some 
exceptions fighting with spirit and gallantry. The 
troops then retreated to the second line, in possession of 
General Couch s division. . . . On my arrival at the 
second line, I succeeded in rallying a small portion of 
my division, and with the assistance of General Kearny, 
who had just arrived at the head of one of his brigades, 
attempted to regain possession of my works, but it was 
found impracticable. The troops of General Couch s 
division were driven back, although reinforced by the 
corps of General Heintzelman. The corps of Generals 
Keyes and Heintzelman having retired to the third line 
by direction of General Heintzelman, I there collected 
what remained of my division. f 

The Federal reports and many subsequent historical 
writers speak persistently of the "overwhelming numbers" 
of the Confederates engaged in the defeat of their left. 
There is little difficulty in showing by the official reports 
that this is a mistake. On the Federal side the divi 
sions of Casey, Couch and Kearny were engaged. Gen 
eral Heintzelman, the senior Federal officer on their left, 
says: "Couch s, Casey s and Kearny s divisions on the 
field numbered but 18,500. "| Each of these division com 
manders reports, without itemization, that he had engaged 
"about 5,000" men. This, of course, would make the 
total 15,000 men, as opposed to Heintzelman s 18,500. 
Five thousand may be right for the strength of Kearny, 
but it seems that there must be some mistake in the 

* Kemper s brigade of Longstreet s was sent Hill, but came too 
late for active service, 
f Official Report. 
; Official Report. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 65 

reports of Casey and Couch. These two divisions made 
up Keyes corps, and it so happens that on the very morn 
ing of the battle, May 3ist, Keyes sent in to the govern 
ment his certified return of men present in his corps. He 
reports as present, but sick, etc., 1,074, and as "present 
for duty" in those two divisions on that day, 17,132; * his 
two division commanders report, at i o clock of the same 
day, and with no march and no battle intervening, that 
between them they had only 10,000 men. How on that 
peaceful May morning 7, 132 men could, between morn 
ing and i o clock, disappear, "vanish into unsubstantial 
air" and not be missed, is difficult to understand. But 
grant that they did, and that Couch and Casey were 
right, and that they and Kearny together had but 15,000 
men, still were they not outnumbered. 

General Hill had only four brigades that day in his 
division, Ripley s being absent. In their official reports, 
his brigadiers report their forces that morning as follows : 
Anderson reports that he took into action 1,865; Gar 
land, 2,065; Rodes, 2,200. Rains states no numbers; 
nearest field returns, May 2ist, give him 1,830. Total, 
Hill s division, 7,960. R. H. Anderson, of Longstreet s 
division (same field return), 2,168. Total Confederate 
force engaged on the right in the first day s battle, 
10,128. So, taking the lowest estimate that the Federals 
make, they were evidently not outnumbered, but out 
numbered the Confederates by at least 5,000 men. 

With the front attack of Garland and Anderson went 
the Fourth, Fifth and Twenty-third North Carolina regi 
ments. These moved at once into a nerve-testing con 
flict. The Fourth was under command of Maj. Bryan 
Grimes. Major Grimes, after speaking of the regiment s 
wading through pools of water waist-deep, in which 
many of the wounded were drowned, thus described the 
advance: "The enemy also had a section of a battery 
(two pieces), which was dealing destruction to my left 

* Rebellion Records, Vol. XI, Part 3, p. 204. 

No 9 



70 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

needs, and he recovered. The North Carolina losses on 
this portion of the field, so far as they can be made out, 
were as follows: In the Sixteenth, 17 killed and 28 
wounded; in the Sixth, 15 killed and 32 wounded. The 
Twenty-second does not report its loss separately, but 
Major Daves states it at 147.* 

During General Smith s action, Guion s section of 
Manly s battery was active just in rear of Whiting s bri 
gade, and one of his limbers bore to the rear the Confed 
erate commander- in- chief, General Johnston, when he 
was wounded just at nightfall. Leaving out the Twenty- 
second, the total North Carolina loss at Seven Pines was, 
as far as reported, 125 killed and 496 wounded. 

The movement of great lines of battle, the fierce onset, 
the bloody repulse, the bold strategy of generals, the 
immortal courage of desperate men these are the glo 
rious side of battle. But there is a woeful side to which 
attention is rarely directed. William R. Gorman, a tal 
ented musician of the Fourth North Carolina, gives a 
glimpse of the dark side of this stern passage at arms. 
He writes: "How calm and still is everything since the 
grand battle of Seven Pines! Nature smiles sweetly, 
and the birds sing as enchantingly as though no deeds of 
blood and carnage had been perpetrated near this now 
peaceful spot. ... I went to the hospital and did all I 
could to alleviate the horrible suffering, till late at night. 
What sights I witnessed ! Piled in heaps lay amputated 
arms and legs an awful scene, while from the bloody 
masses of flesh around the surgeons went up such pierc 
ing cries that the blood almost chilled around the fount 
ain of life. . . . Though chloroform was administered, 
the pain was so intense that it had no effect, and the 
poor wretches broke the stillness of night with cries so 
heartrending that it seemed to me the very corpses 
trembled. And such a sight when the surgeons tasks 
were done arms and legs piled up like cord-wood! Our 

* Regimental History. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY 71 

regiment lost 375 men, and to-day cannot start 400 for 

duty."* 

After General Johnston s wound at Seven Pines, Gen 
eral Lee was put in chief command of the Confederate 
forces. Wishing to strike McClellan a decisive blow, and 
thus relieve the pressure on Richmond, Lee began to 
devise means to increase his army. Hence his attention 
was at once directed to the fifteen North Carolina regi 
ments already mentioned as raised by Governor Clark for 
the defense of his own State against the Federal army at 
New Bern, and then in camp in North Carolina, but not 
yet armed. Major Gordon, who is thoroughly familiar 
with the affairs of the adjutant-general s office at that 
time, gives the following account of the negotiations for 
these regiments: 

On or about the night that General Martin received 
his commission as brigadier-general, the governor of 
North Carolina received a communication from the war 
department of the Confederate States giving him in full 
the plan of the campaign to crush McClellan s army, and 
asking the governor s co-operation with the North Caro 
lina troops in camp, but not then turned over to the Con 
federate government, and also attempting to reconcile 
him to the moving of all the other troops in the State to 
the State of Virginia. The statement above that the 
war department would communicate the plans of one of 
the most famous campaigns of the world more than a 
month before a shot was fired, might, without explana 
tion, seem incredible. The State of North Carolina had 
at this time fifteen regiments, each nearly 1,000 strong, 
and none of them turned over to the Confederate govern 
ment. These troops were raised on the governor s call 
for the defense of the State, and he could have kept them 
for that service if so disposed. This was the only body 
of reserve troops in the Confederacy, at least no other 
State had anything approximating to it, so it was very 
important for General Lee to receive this reinforcement. 
Hence every plan was fully made known to the governor 
of North Carolina. In brief, the plan, as told me by my 

* Our Living and Our Dead. 



68 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

the regiment was withdrawn. Its brave colonel, Champ 
P. Davis, had, however, fallen in the action. 

Colonel Fender s Sixth North Carolina regiment arrived 
on the field somewhat in advance of Whiting s other 
regiments. Colonel Fender was ordered to move for 
ward, with the assurance that the rest of the brigade 
would speedily support him. He advanced rapidly, and 
his skirmishers drove back the first line of the enemy 
from their position near Fair Oaks. He crossed the road 
leading from Fair Oaks to Grapevine bridge, and had 
moved some distance to the front when his attention was 
called to a large force massed in column by company in 
a field near the road, and also near the swamp where 
Pettigrew and Hampton were wounded. In the fog of 
the evening, the enemy had failed to make out Fender s 
colors. At a glance Fender saw that the enemy was sit 
uated so far to his left and rear as to make his capture 
almost a certainty should their officers at once recognize 
him and intervene between his command and the rest of 
his brigade. So, without even replying to the officer 
who pointed out the troops, and with the born soldier s 
quickness of perception and promptitude of action, he 
instantly ordered, "By the left flank, file left, double 
quick!" In an instant his splendidly drilled and disci 
plined regiment had changed direction, and was moving 
in double time to place itself across the front of its foes. 
The moment the line fairly attained its new bearing, 
Colonel Fender commanded, * * By the right flank, charge ! 
Before the Federals realized the intent of the movement, 
his men were pouring volley after volley into their un 
formed ranks. " Under the suddenness and fury of the 
attack," says Judge Montgomery, "the foe reeled and 
staggered, while the glorious soldier withdrew his force 
and rejoined his brigade, which was just coming up."* 
In the general advance which followed, the Sixth regi 
ment, entirely unprotected by the swamp that partly 
* Memorial Address. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 69 

covered the assault of the other troops, fought its way to 
within eighty yards, says Major A very, of the enemy s 
line, and there stubbornly held its own until after dark, 
when it was ordered by the brigade commander to retire, 
being the first of its brigade to enter the battle and the 
last to be withdrawn. 

During the progress of this battle, Colonel Fender s 
coolness, quickness and readiness of resource so impressed 
President Davis, who was on the field, that riding up to 
Colonel Fender, he said, "I salute you, General Fender." 
Colonel Fender afterward said to a friend, "My promo 
tion on the field for good conduct realized the dream of 
my life. 

When General Smith saw his brigades hotly engaged, 
and some of them badly repulsed, he moved Hatton s 
brigade and Colonel Lightfoot s Twenty-second North 
Carolina regiment, which had been in reserve, into 
action. General Smith accompanied these troops, and 
he bears testimony to the courage of their attack: "The 
troops moved across the field with alacrity, and the pre 
cision of their movement in line of battle has been sel 
dom equaled, even on the parade ground." Then, de 
scribing their dashing advance to within a short distance 
of the enemy s line of fire, he says: "Very seldom, if 
ever, did any troops in their first battle go so close up to 
a covered line under so strong a fire, and remain within 
such a distance so long. " * Of the behavior of the 
Twenty-second here, one of its officers says: "In all my 
reading of veterans and coolness under fire, I have 
never conceived of anything surpassing the, coolness of 
our men on this field. In this action General Pettigrew 
was desperately wounded. As he, thinking that he was 
mortally wounded, refused to be moved from the field, 
generously saying that others less severely wounded 
needed more attention than he, he was taken prisoner. 
His captors, however, ministered sympathetically to his 

* Official Report 



70 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

needs, and he recovered. The North Carolina losses on 
this portion of the field, so far as they can be made out, 
were as follows: In the Sixteenth, 17 killed and 28 
wounded; in the Sixth, 15 killed and 32 wounded. The 
Twenty-second does not report its loss separately, but 
Major Daves states it at 147.* 

During General Smith s action, Guion s section of 
Manly s battery was active just in rear of Whiting s bri 
gade, and one of his limbers bore to the rear the Confed 
erate commander-in-chief, General Johnston, when he 
was wounded just at nightfall. Leaving out the Twenty- 
second, the total North Carolina loss at Seven Pines was, 
as far as reported, 125 killed and 496 wounded. 

The movement of great lines of battle, the fierce onset, 
the bloody repulse, the bold strategy of generals, the 
immortal courage of desperate men these are the glo 
rious side of battle. But there is a woeful side to which 
attention is rarely directed. William R. Gorman, a tal 
ented musician of the Fourth North Carolina, gives a 
glimpse of the dark side of this stern passage at arms. 
He writes: "How calm and still is everything since the 
grand battle of Seven Pines! Nature smiles sweetly, 
and the birds sing as enchantingly as though no deeds of 
blood and carnage had been perpetrated near this now 
peaceful spot. ... I went to the hospital and did all I 
could to alleviate the horrible suffering, till late at night. 
What sights I witnessed ! Piled in heaps lay amputated 
arms and legs an awful scene, while from the bloody 
masses of flesh around the surgeons went up such pierc 
ing cries that the blood almost chilled around the fount 
ain of life. . . . Though chloroform was administered, 
the pain was so intense that it had no effect, and the 
poor wretches broke the stillness of night with cries so 
heartrending that it seemed to me the very corpses 
trembled. And such a sight when the surgeons tasks 
were done arms and legs piled up like cord-wood ! Our 

* Regimental History. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY 71 

regiment lost 375 men, and to-day cannot start 400 for 
duty."* 

After General Johnston s wound at Seven Pines, Gen 
eral Lee was put in chief command of the Confederate 
forces. Wishing to strike McClellan a decisive blow, and 
thus relieve the pressure on Richmond, Lee began to 
devise means to increase his army. Hence his attention 
was at once directed to the fifteen North Carolina regi 
ments already mentioned as raised by Governor Clark for 
the defense of his own State against the Federal army at 
New Bern, and then in camp in North Carolina, but not 
yet armed. Major Gordon, who is thoroughly familiar 
with the affairs of the adjutant-general s office at that 
time, gives the following account of the negotiations for 
these regiments: 

On or about the night that General Martin received 
his commission as brigadier-general, the governor of 
North Carolina received a communication from the war 
department of the Confederate States giving him in full 
the plan of the campaign to crush McClellan s army, and 
asking the governor s co-operation with the North Caro 
lina troops in camp, but not then turned over to the Con 
federate government, and also attempting to reconcile 
him to the moving of all the other troops in the State to 
the State of Virginia. The statement above that the 
war department would communicate the plans of one of 
the most famous campaigns of the world more than a 
month before a shot was fired, might, without explana 
tion, seem incredible. The State of North Carolina had 
at this time fifteen regiments, each nearly 1,000 strong, 
and none of them turned over to the Confederate govern 
ment. These troops were raised on the governor s call 
for the defense of the State, and he could have kept them 
for that service if so disposed. This was the only body 
of reserve troops in the Confederacy, at least no other 
State had anything approximating to it, so it was very 
important for General Lee to receive this reinforcement. 
Hence every plan was fully made known to the governor 
of North Carolina. In brief, the plan, as told me by my 

* Our Living and Our Dead. 



72 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

chief, was to concentrate everything that could be taken 
out of North Carolina and elsewhere against General 
McClellan s army, and crush it before Burnside could 
move from New Bern. . . . The governor was informed 
that the defense of his State would be an easy matter 
after the defeat of McClellan s army, and would not be 
overlooked. The governor and adjutant-general went 
into the plan heart and soul, and did everything in their 
power to make it a success; they, and they alone, knowing 
what the Confederate government and General Lee 
expected them and North Carolina to do. About this 
time the State received a shipment of arms from Eng 
land (2,400). . . . They were given to the troops now 
waiting for them. The Confederate government now 
came promptly to the assistance of the State in arming 
the troops at Camp Man gum, and before the ist of June, 
every one of them was armed and ready for service. 
The troops serving in the State were gradually and 
quietly withdrawn and sent to Virginia. . . . When the 
struggle commenced at Richmond, General Lee was 
fearful that Burnside would find out the defenseless con 
dition of North Carolina and move forward. Every 
night he telegraphed, Any movement of the enemy in 
your front to-day ? " * 

At the close of the Seven Days battles only two regi 
ments of infantry, the Fiftieth and the Fifty-first, were 
left in the State, and the forces of the enemy on the coast 
could, had they been apprised of the heavy movement of 
troops, have swept without opposition over all of the 
State. A people less brave and patriotic would never 
have consented to incur such a risk with so strong an 
enemy at its doors. The governor exposed his own cap 
ital to save that of the Confederacy. He finally left only 
one regiment of infantry, one of cavalry, and two or 
three batteries of artillery between him and an army 
then estimated to be about 20,000 strong. At the close 
of this campaign North Carolina had forty regiments in 
Virginia. The fifteen regiments sent to Virginia were 
not sent back to the State after Malvern Hill, but Gen- 

* Organization of the Troops. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 73 

eral Martin was ordered home to organize new regiments 
for its local defense. 

Preceding and preliminary to the great approaching 
battles around Richmond, occurred Jackson s remarkable 
campaign of 1862 in the Shenandoah valley. Jackson s 
matchless soldiership and almost inspired energy brought 
new zeal to the Southerners, whose enthusiasm had been 
somewhat chilled by the reverses in North Carolina and 
in the Mississippi valley. Only to Kirkland s Twenty- 
first North Carolina regiment and Wharton s battalion of 
sharpshooters was accorded the honor of representing 
North Carolina in "Jackson s foot-cavalry," and par 
ticipating in his brilliant victories. The sharpshooters 
were regular members of the Twenty-first regiment 
until after the battle of Winchester, on the 25th of May. 
Then two companies were detached and organized as 
sharpshooters, and under the gallant Col. R. W. Wharton 
did fine service to the close of the war. 

On the approach to Winchester, the Twenty-first, then 
in Trimble s brigade, was in advance, and at daylight of 
the 25th was ordered to enter the town. Two of the 
companies under Major Fulton had been detailed for 
special service the night before, and did not succeed in 
rejoining their regiment until the severest part of the 
fighting was over. The other regiments of the brigade 
followed closely behind Kirkland, who moved toward 
the town in double-time. Just as he reached the suburbs 
of the town, a Federal line rose from behind a stone wall 
parallel to the road, and poured into the Carolinians a 
fire as destructive as it was unexpected. The regiment 
instantly charged the wall but failed to carry it, and 
took refuge behind a wall almost parallel to the one that 
sheltered its antagonists. The Twenty-first Georgia 
regiment, however, seeing the situation of its comrades, 
dashed hastily into the flank of the Federals, and, 
assisted by Kirkland s men, drove them through the 
town. In the midst of a wild ovation that the citizens 

Nc 10 



74 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

of Winchester gave Jackson s soldiers, and while every 
form of edible was being thrust upon the hungry North 
Carolinians, General Trimble ordered them to follow and 
protect Latimer s battery wherever it went As this bat 
tery was pressing the retreating enemy, and moving 
rapidly oftentimes, the regiment was led a dance over 
the twelve miles intervening between Winchester and 
Martinsburg, where the industrious artillerymen finally 
rested. 

In the furious fire at the stone wall Colonel Kirkland 
was wounded, Lieutenant-Colonel Pepper wounded so 
seriously that he died in a few days, and Captains Hedg- 
cock and Ligon killed. The total loss of the regiment 
in the battle was 21 killed and 55 wounded. 

At the battle of Cross Keys, on the 8th and gib. of 
June, the Twenty-first was held in reserve to support 
Courtney s battery, but the two companies of sharp 
shooters, deployed as skirmishers, opened the action. 
General Trimble says of the regiment: "The Twenty- 
first North Carolina, left to support this battery, was 
exposed to the effect of the terrific fire, but under cover 
of the hill, happily escaped with few casualties. When 
the battery was threatened with an infantry force, this 
regiment was called and readily took its place to repel 
the enemy s attack, and stood modestly waiting to do its 
duty as gallantly as heretofore. 

From June 25th to June 28th, some of the regiments of 
Gen. Robert Ransom s North Carolina brigade, in con 
junction with Gen. A. R. Wright s Georgia brigade and 
other troops, were involved in some sharp minor engage 
ments with Gen. Philip Kearny s division of stout fight 
ers on the Williamsburg road, in the neighborhood of 
King s schoolhouse. The regiments taking most part in 
these affairs were the Twenty-fifth, Colonel Rutledge; 
the Forty-ninth, Colonel Ramseur; the Twenty-fourth, 
Colonel Clark; the Thirty-fifth, Colonel Ransom, and the 
Twenty-sixth, Col. Z. B.Vance. At the schoolhouse battle, 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 75 

the Twenty-fifth was under fire for several hours and re 
pelled all efforts to break through its lines. General 
Ransom reports : * * The regiment behaved admirably, and 
I am proud to bear witness to its unwavering gallantry. 
The Forty-eighth was thrown out to support Colonel 
Doles regiment of Georgians, and at French s house rose 
and charged and drove back a superior force very hand 
somely, losing, however, nearly 100 men. The North 
Carolina losses in these three days were 26 killed and 
85 wounded, 



CHAPTER V. 

THE GREAT STRUGGLE OF 1862 FOR RICHMOND BAT 
TLES OF MECHANICSVILLE, COLD HARBOR, FRAY- 
SER S FARM, MALVERN HILL NORTH CAROLINA 
TROOPS CONSPICUOUS IN ALL ENGAGEMENTS 
McCLELLAN S UTTER DEFEAT BY LEE. 

THE series of battles known as the Seven Days 
battles around Richmond resulted in McClellan s, 
forced * change of base, in the relief of Richmond, 
in the Confederate capture of 52 pieces of artillery, 
10,000 prisoners and 27,000 stand of small-arms, and 
stores great in amount and value. * To effect these results, 
174 Confederate regiments of infantry were engaged. Of 
this number, North Carolina contributed 36 regiments. 
The total number of Confederate dead left by these 
bloody combats in the swamps of the Chick ahominy was 
3,279; the total number of wounded, 15,851. To this 
ghastly list North Carolina contributed in killed, 650; in 
wounded, 3,279. 

To turn these numerical abstractions into the concrete, 
this means that, in this array of 174 regiments, every 
fifth regimental color swept by the storm of these bat 
tles floated over North Carolina bayonets. Every fifth 
man who dropped a weapon from hand palsied by death, 
left a desolate home in North Carolina. Nearly every 
fourth wounded man who was litter-borne from the field, 
or who limped to the crude hospitals in the rear, wore a 
North Carolina uniform. Every fifth bullet that helped 
to raise the Union casualties to 15,849 was from a North 
Carolina musket. 

The first of these desperate encounters was at Mechan- 

* General Lee s Official Report. 

76 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 77 

icsville and Beaver Dam. In spite of a constantly erro 
neous statement of numbers, this engagement was be 
tween four brigades (not counting brigades present, but 
not materially engaged) of Fitz John Porter, and five 
brigades of A. P. Hill, assisted just before dusk by Rip- 
ley s brigade of D. H. Hill s division. Gregg s and 
Branch s brigades, of A. P. Hill s, took no part in the 
assault on the fortified lines, being otherwise engaged. 
The plan of the battle was for Jackson to strike the right 
flank of the Federal intrenchments, while A. P. Hill 
attacked in front. Jackson was, however, unavoidably 
delayed, and A. P. Hill, not waiting for his co-operation, 
attacked impetuously in front. Later in the war the 
troops on both sides learned to have great respect for 
intrenched positions; but, as has been said, "we were 
lavish of blood in those early days, and an attack on a 
battery or a strongly-fortified line was deemed especially 
glorious. Pender s North Carolina brigade, made up of 
the Sixteenth, Twenty-second, Thirty-fourth and Thirty- 
eighth and two battalions of other troops, advanced, as the 
division commander says, "gallantly in the face of a 
murderous fire" to the right of Field s advanced brigade. 
Under Pender s personal direction, Col. W. J. Hoke, of 
the Thirty-eighth, and Col. R. H. Riddick, of the Thirty- 
fourth North Carolina, joined in a desperate but "abortive 
effort to force a crossing. In this daring advance the 
Thirty-fourth was outstripped by the Thirty-eighth, and 
that regiment alone tenaciously fought its way close up 
to the Federal rifle-pits, furnishing a magnificent yet 
fruitless exhibition of bravery. Of this attack Judge 
Montgomery says : * Pender and his brave Carolinians 
swept over the plain and down the bottom, under a mur 
derous fire of artillery and musketry, to the brink of the 
creek; nothing could live under that fire. President 
Davis, who was on the field, seeing the charge and the 
terrible repulse, ordered Gen. D. H. Hill to send one of 
his brigades to Pender s assistance, and Ripley s was 



78 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

sent."* Meantime, the Twenty-second North Carolina 
had come "suddenly upon a regiment of the enemy just 
across the run, and after some little parley, opened fire, 
driving the enemy quickly away, but found it impossible 
to cross. The loss of this regiment here was very heavy ; 
among others, its brave colonel (Conner) received a severe 
wound in the leg. "f 

Ripley s arrival brought two more North Carolina regi 
ments into the battle the First, Colonel Stokes, and the 
Third, Colonel Meares. These, with the Forty-fourth 
and Forty-eighth Georgia, formed Ripley s brigade. 
Two of Ripley s regiments, the First North Carolina and 
the Forty-fourth Georgia, united with Fender on the 
right, and the Third North Carolina and Forty-eighth 
Georgia moved to a position in front of the enemy. All 
moved forward. The two regiments directly in front 
suffered little, comparatively, but Fender and the two 
regiments on the right went indeed into a storm of lead. 
The Georgians lost 335 men in a very short while. Colo 
nel Brown thus describes the action of the First: "It 
advanced to the attack in front of the splendid artillery 
of the enemy, posted across the pond at Ellison s mill. 
The slaughter was terrific, yet the regiment pressed for 
ward in the face of this fire for more than half a mile, ad 
vancing steadily to what seemed inevitable destruction, 
till it reached the pond and took shelter in a skirt of 
woods. "J In this movement Colonel Stokes was mortally 
wounded, Lieu tenant- Colonel McDowell badly wounded, 
and Major Skinner killed. Capts. J. A. Wright and 
R. W. Rives and four lieutenants were also among the 
slain. The loss among the men was 140. The Six 
teenth regiment, through an error of its guide, became 

* Memorial Address. It should be stated that General Hill, seeing 
the waste of blood in the front attack, when Jackson s advance 
would soon make the position untenable, sent this brigade only upon a 
second order from General Lee, confirmed by Mr. Davis. 

t Fender s Report 

\ Regimental History. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 79 

separated from its brigade and was called upon to support 
another brigade. Always ready for a fight. Colonel 
McElroy did his part with skill and courage, and the reg 
iment suffered a loss of about 200 men. No better exam 
ple of the hotness of the fire to which these regiments 
were exposed can be found than in the losses of one of 
the companies. Captain Flowers, of the Thirty-eighth 
regiment, lost 27 men out of 32 taken into action. 

Lieutenant Cathey, of the Sixteenth regiment, de 
scribes the situation of the soldiers the night of the bat 
tle. He says: "Our surroundings were deserts of solitary 
horror. The owls, night-hawks and foxes had fled in 
dismay ; not even a snake or a frog could be heard to 
plunge into the lagoons which, crimsoned with the blood 
of men, lay motionless in our front. Nothing could be 
heard in the blackness of that night but the ghastly 
moans of the wounded and dying. 

On retiring from Beaver Dam creek General Porter, 
having, as he says, 30,000 men,* fortified in a naturally 
strong position on the east bank of Po white creek, six 
miles from Beaver Dam. Crowning every available prom 
inence with batteries to sweep the roads, and also posting 
batteries or sections of batteries between his brigades, he, 
with Sykes division of regulars, Morell s and McCall s 
divisions, and later with Slocum s division sent to rein 
force him, awaited the attack of the divisions of Jackson, 
A. P. Hill, Longstreet, Whiting and D. H. Hill. The 
battle that followed the meeting of these forces, known 
as Games Mill, or Cold Harbor, was one of the hottest 
of the war. 

As at Mechanicsville, A. P. Hill was the first to send 
his troops into action, almost in the center of the field. 
As a part of his force went nine North Carolina regi 
ments the Seventh, Eighteenth, Twenty-eighth, Thirty - 



* Battles and Leaders, II, p. 337. ( NOTE. General Webb 
strangely says that "Porter had less than 18,000 infantry at Games 
Mill." Peninsula Campaign, page 130.) 



80 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

third and Thirty-seventh, of Branch s brigade; and the 
Sixteenth, Twenty-second, Thirty-fourth and Thirty- 
eighth, of Fender s brigade. The work before them was 
enough to appal any but the stoutest hearts. General 
Porter himself has put on record testimony to the grim- 
ness of their attack. He says: "Dashing across the 
intervening plains, floundering in the swamps, struggling 
against the tangled brushwood, brigade after brigade 
seemed almost to melt away before the concentrated fire 
of our artillery and infantry ; yet others pressed on, fol 
lowed by supports as dashing and as brave as their pre 
decessors." In the repeated assaults of the afternoon, 
the Sixteenth North Carolina, Colonel McElroy, and the 
Twenty-second, Lieut. -Col. R. H. Gray, won enviable 
reputation, as Gen. A. P. Hill reports, by carrying "the 
crest of a hill, and were in the camp of the enemy, but 
were driven back by overwhelming numbers. Toward 
night, Longstreet, A. P. Hill and Whiting united in a 
final charge on Porter s left, and in spite of the fact that 
he had been reinforced by Slocum, broke through his 
strong lines. Then, writes General Law, "We had our 
innings. As the blue mass surged up the hill in our 
front, the Confederate fire was poured in with terrible 
effect. The target was a large one, the range short, and 
scarcely a shot fired into that living mass could fail of its 
errand. The debt of blood contracted but a few moments 
before was paid back with interest. * In addition to 
the North Carolina troops in A. P. Hill s division, Whit 
ing s charge brought into the battle the Sixth North Car 
olina, under Col. I. E. Avery. They joined in the gen 
eral charge, of which Whiting says: "Spite of these terri 
ble obstacles, over ditch and breastworks, hill, batteries 
and infantry, the division swept, routing the enemy 
from his stronghold. Many pieces of artillery were 
taken (14 in all), and nearly a whole regiment of 
the enemy. . . . Lieutenant-Colonel Avery was wounded, 
* Battles and Leadsrs, II, 363. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 81 

the command devolving upon Maj. R. F. Webb, who 
ably sustained his part. 

Meanwhile, on Porter s right stubborn work was doing. 
There Porter had placed Sykes regulars, the flower of 
his corps, and they were commanded by a persistent 
fighter. D. H. Hill, on the extreme Confederate left, 
and General Jackson, between him and A. P. Hill, moved 
their divisions against these lines. In Jackson s divi 
sion, the only Carolinians were the Twenty-first, Colonel 
Kirkland, and Wharton s sharpshooters. Of their part 
in the battle General Trimble says: "The charge of the 
Sixteenth Mississippi and Twenty-first North Carolina 
(with sharpshooters attached), sustained from the first 
movement without a falter, could not be surpassed for 
intrepid bravery and high resolve. 

Anderson s and Garland s brigades of D. H. Hill s 
division were made up entirely of North Carolinians, 
Anderson having the Second, Fourth, Fourteenth and 
Thirtieth; Garland, the Fifth, Twelfth, Thirteenth, 
Twentieth and Twenty-third. To these two brigades, 
stubborn fighters all, belongs the honor of breaking the 
Federal right, and, as they think, thus making the first 
opening in the Federal lines that bloody day. General 
Hill says in his article in "Battles and Leaders:" "Brig.- 
Gens. Samuel Garland and George B. Anderson, com 
manding North Carolina brigades in my division, asked 
permission to move forward to attack the right flank and 
rear of the division of regulars. The only difficulty in 
the way was a Federal battery with its infantry supports, 
which could enfilade them in their advance. Two of 
Elzey s regiments, which had got separated in crossing 
the swamp, were sent by me, by way of my left flank, to 
the rear of the battery to attack the infantry supports, 
while Col. Alfred Iverson, of the Twentieth North Caro 
lina, charged it in front. The battery was captured and 
held long enough for the two brigades (Garland s and 
Anderson s) to advance across the plain. The effect of 

No 11 



82 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

our appearance, says General Garland, at this opportune 
moment, cheering and charging, decided the fate of the 
day. The enemy broke and retreated. Major Ratch- 
ford, of General Hill s staff, writes: "A short time before 
sunset, Generals Rodes, Anderson and Garland came to 
the writer and asked for General Hill, he being on some 
other part of the line. One of them said to me: Find 
General Hill, and say that unless we get orders to the 
contrary, we will throw our whole strength against one 
part of the line for the purpose of breaking it. I at once 
hunted him up, and he approved the plan. In a few 
minutes a small gap was made, and the Federals gave 
way on each side, as a sand dam will do when a small 
break is made in it. As the yell of victory moved along 
the lines, we could tell that the enemy were giving 
way. This, I claim, was the first breach made in the 
Federal line at Cold Harbor."* General Jackson had 
this to say of the attack of these brigades: "In advancing 
to the attack, Gen. D. H. Hill had to cross the swamp 
densely covered with undergrowth and young timber. 
On the further edge he encountered the enemy. The 
contest was fierce and bloody. The Federals fell back 
from the wood under protection of a fence, ditch and hill. 
. . . Again pressing forward, the Federals fell back, but 
only to select a position for more obstinate defense, when 
at dark, under pressure of our batteries, ... of the 
other concurring events of the field, and of the bold and 
dashing charge of General Hill s infantry, in which the 
troops of Brigadier- General Winder joined, the enemy 
yielded the field and fled in disorder." 

Reilly s battery, now attached to Whiting s division, 
was of much service to its commander during this 
engagement. 

On June 29th, General Lee directed Col. L. S. Baker, 
of the First North Carolina cavalry, to move down the 
Charles City road, and, by a bold reconnoissance, find 

* Manuscript Monograph on General Hill s Life. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 83 

whether the enemy had formed a connecting line with 
the Federal gunboats on the river. Colonel Baker 
moved promptly, but found that the enemy had a heavy 
cavalry force in front of his infantry. "Close action" 
seemed the only way to get the desired information, and 
he determined to charge the cavalry, and, if possible, 
drive it in far enough to see what troops were in front of 
him. This he did effectively, and found all of Hooker s 
corps before him. General McClellan appeared on the 
field a few moments after Baker had retired, and said to 
Captain Ruffin, who had been captured, that the bold 
charge had won his admiration. 

By June soth, McClellan s retreating forces had 
reached the intersection of the Long Bridge and Charles 
City roads, just north of Malvern hill. There Long- 
street, supported only by the division of A. P. Hill, 
attacked the position held by the divisions of McCall and 
Kearny, reinforced by the divisions of Sedgwick and 
Hooker and a brigade of Slocum. This was a square 
stand-up fight, with no intrenchments of any sort on 
either side. It had been expected that General Huger 
would engage Slocum, and that General Jackson would 
attack the Federal right, while Longstreet pressed the 
front. However, both Jackson and Huger found it 
impracticable to reach the ground in time. Hence Long- 
street alone struck the blow in which all were expected 
to participate. On opening the battle, General Long- 
street sent Branch s North Carolina brigade of A. P. 
Hill s division to his right, to keep Hooker from falling 
on his flank. General Branch said of the action of his 
men: "On Monday, at Frayser s Farm, you were again 
in the heat of the engagement from, its opening to its 
close, driving the enemy before you for a great distance, 
and capturing a battery."* Lieut. -Col. R. F. Hoke, of 
the Thirty- third North Carolina, reported: "You then 
halted, formed line of battle, and charged, by the double- 

* Congratulatory address to his soldiers. 



84 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

quick and with a yell, the enemy s batteries, which were 
strongly supported by infantry across this field, a dis 
tance of 500 yards. We, at the same time, were enfiladed 
by grapeshot ; neither fire upon the flank or front at all 
stopped the men, but on they pressed, and soon silenced 
the fire." In this charge, Col. C. C. Lee was killed and 
Colonel Lane wounded. The rest of A. P. Hill s division 
did not go into action until very late in the afternoon. 
Then Field, followed by Fender with his North Caroli 
nians, pressed eagerly forward. A. P. Hill says: "Gen 
eral Pender, moving up to support Field, found that he 
had penetrated so far in advance that the enemy were 
between himself and Field. A regiment of Federals, 
moving across his front and exposing a flank, was scat 
tered by a volley. Pender continued to move forward, 
driving off a battery of rifled pieces." It was the 
charge of Field and Pender that finally broke the obsti 
nate line of McCall, to whose hard fighting that day 
Longstreet pays this tribute: "He was more tenacious of 
his battle than an) T one who came within my experience 
during the war, if I except D. H. Hill at Sharpsburg. 

The failure of all his officers to join Longstreet in this 
battle, in which it had been hoped to deliver a crushing 
blow to McClellan, was a great disappointment to Gen 
eral Lee. A united attack at Frayser s Farm would have 
saved the costly effusion of blood at Malvern Hill. 

The last battle of the "Great Retreat," Malvern Hill, 
was, like later Gettysburg, one of those terrific shocks 
of conflict in which, without apparent strategy, without 
apparent remembrance of man s vulnerability, dauntless 
soldiers were continuously hurled into the muzzles of as 
splendidly served artillery as ever unlimbered on field of 
battle. Presumably, such battles are at times military 
necessities, yet in view of their destructiveness, it is not 
surprising that a Confederate general recalling the 
French officer s sarcastic comment on the English charge 
at Balaklava, "It is magnificent, but it is not war," 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 85 

should have declared, "Malvern Hill was magnificent; 
but it was not war, it was murder. The simple record 
of the destruction wrought in one hour sickens and 
depresses the mind. 

The necessity for further retreat after Frayser s Farm 
caused General McClellan to send General Porter "to 
select and hold a position behind which the army and all 
its trains could be withdrawn in safety. One glance 
at the natural amphitheater formed by Malvern Hill, 
with its plateau terminating in streams, ravines and 
tangled woods, revealed to Porter s trained eye that 
there was an ideal place for a defensive battle. The hill 
commanded nearly all the roads. Porter says: "The 
hill was flanked with ravines, enfiladed by our fire. The 
ground in front was sloping, and over it our artillery and 
infantry, themselves protected by the crest and ridges, 
had clear sweep for their fire. In all directions, for sev 
eral hundred yards, the land over which an attacking force 
must advance was almost entirely clear of forest, and 
was generally cultivated. "* 

All day long on June soth, and far into the night, 
regiments, brigades, divisions were, as they arrived, 
posted under Porter s personal direction to take full 
advantage of the crests and depressions. For the first 
time in the Seven Days battles, all of McClellan s army 
was concentrated on one field. Artillery, to do more 
effective service here and at Gettysburg than in any 
other battles of the four years, rumbled heavily into posi 
tion in nature s own emplacements. As far as the eye 
could see, battery after battery rose tier upon tier 
around the curvature of the hill, the whole surmounted 
by Tyler s long-range siege guns. Both armies were 
worn by constant fighting by day and marching by night, 
but both nerved themselves for the coming ordeal. With 
a confidence born of previous successes against that same 

* Battles and Leaders. 



86 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

army, General Lee ordered an assault, and the Confed 
erates prepared for the "red wrath of the fray." 

The Federals, with calm reliance upon their impreg 
nable position, waited their adversaries; none knows 
better than the American soldier when he is, to use his 
own vernacular, "fixed for fighting." Draper says: 
"There were crouching cannon waiting for them (Con 
federates), and ready to defend all the approaches. Shel 
tered by ditches, fences, ravines, were swarms of 
infantry. There were horsemen picturesquely careening 
over the noontide sun-seared field. Tier after tier of 
batteries were grimly visible upon the slope, which rose 
in the form of an amphitheater. With a fan-shaped 
sheet of fire they could sweep the incline, a sort of nat 
ural glacis up which the assailants must advance. A 
crown of cannon was on the brow of the hill. The first 
line of batteries could only be reached by traversing an 
open space of from 300 to 400 yards, exposed to grape and 
canister from the artillery and musketry from the 
infantry. If that were carried, another and still more 
difficult remained in the rear. 

In the strained, tense hush that precedes a battle, when 
the heart-throbs of even battle-tried soldiers communi 
cate a restless quiver to their bayonet tips, many a North 
Carolina soldier of only a few months experience felt that 
in vain would he throw himself against that hill grim 
with the engines of death, and many a lad fresh 
from the family hearth-stone and there were many such 
there that July day knew that if he could acquit him 
self nobly when all those guns opened, battle would 
thereafter have few terrors for him. Yet all were ready 
to follow their colors. 

General Lee s order of battle was that when Ar- 
mistead, who occupied the highest ground, should see that 
the artillery made any break in the Federal front, he 
should charge with a shout, and the other brigades, on 
hearing his advance, should simultaneously attack. Per- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 87 

haps, if according to this order, all the Confederates had 
assaulted Malvern hill in concert, the issue might have 
been less disastrous to them. However, of the ten divi 
sions present, only those of McLaws, D. R. Jones and 
Huger, all under Magruder, on the right, and that of 
D. H. Hill, in the center, dashed against those guns ; and 
these two forces attacked separately. 

Three of Armistead s regiments were ordered by him 
to drive in the Federal skirmishers in his front. "In 
their ardor," says General Armistead, "they went too 
far." Wright s Georgia brigade advanced to support 
Armistead, but the gallant little force was soon driven to 
the shelter of a ravine, not, however, before the noise of 
their battle and their shout of attack had produced con 
fusion. Gen. D. H. Hill, hearing the noise of this attack, 
thought it was the preconcerted battle-signal, and obey 
ing his orders, moved his five brigades into action. This 
division contained eleven North Carolina regiments, but 
on the day of this battle the Fourth and Fifth were 
absent on detail duty. In Garland s brigade were the 
Twelfth, Colonel Wade; the Thirteenth, Colonel Scales; 
the Twentieth, Maj. W. H. Toon; the Twenty- third, 
Lieut. I. J. Young. In Anderson s brigade, commanded 
at Malvern Hill by Colonel Tew, were the Second, Col 
onel Tew ; the Fourteenth, Colonel Johnston ; the Thirti 
eth, Colonel Parker. In Ripley s were the First and 
Third North Carolina, the First under Lieut. -Col. W. P. 
Bynum, of the Second, and the Third under Colonel 
Meares. As Hill s men moved in, Magruder also ordered 
an advance of his troops, but they were delayed and did 
not get into close action until Hill s division had been 
hurled back. The Comte de Paris, who was on General 
McClellan s staff and had excellent opportunities for 
seeing all that was going on, gives this account of the 
charge of Hill s Carolinians, Georgians and Alabamians: 

Hill advanced alone against the Federal position. . . . 
He had therefore before him Morell s right, Couch s divi- 



88 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

sion, reinforced by Caldwell s brigade . . . and finally 
the left of Kearny. ... As soon as they [Hill s troops] 
passed beyond the edge of the forest, they were received 
by a fire from all the batteries at once, some posted on 
the hills, others ranged midway, close to the Federal 
infantry. The latter joined its musketry fire to the can 
nonade when Hill s first line had come within range, and 
threw it back in disorder on its reserves. While it was 
reforming, new battalions marched up to the assault in 
their turn. The remembrance of Cold Harbor doubles 
the energies of Hill s soldiers. They try to pierce the 
line, sometimes at one point, sometimes at another, 
charging Kearny s left first and Couch s right . . ., and 
afterward throwing themselves upon the left of Couch s 
division. But here, also, after nearly reaching the Fed 
eral position, they are repulsed. The conflict is carried 
on with great fierceness on both sides, and for a moment 
it seems as if the Confederates are at last to penetrate 
the very center of their adversaries and of the formidable 
artillery, which was but now dealing destruction in their 
ranks. But Sumner, who commands on the right, 
detaches Sickles and Meagher s brigades successively to 
Couch s assistance. During this time, Whiting on the 
left and Huger on the right suffer Hill s soldiers to 
become exhausted without supporting them. . . . At 7 
o clock, Hill reorganized the debris of his troops in the 
woods . . . his tenacity and the courage of his soldiers 
have only had the effect of causing him to sustain heavy 
loss. 



General Webb says of the same advance : * Garland in 
front (with a North Carolina brigade) attacked the hill 
with impetuous courage, but soon sent for reinforce 
ments. The Sixth Georgia and the brigade of Toombs 
of Jones division went to his assistance. General Hill 
in person accompanied the column. They approached the 
crest in handsome order, but discipline was of no avail 
to hold them there, much less to make them advance fur 
ther. They soon retreated in disorder. Gordon had made 
a gallant advance and some progress, as also had Ripley 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 89 

and Colquitt s and Anderson s brigades."* The task 
was, however, too great for their unaided strength, and 
having done all that men dare do, they were driven back 
with frightful loss a loss, perhaps, of not less than 2,000 
men. 

Just as Hill drew off his shattered brigades, Magruder 
ordered in his forces on Hill s right. The brigades of 
Armistead, Wright, Mahone, G. T. Anderson, Cobb, 
Kershaw, Semmes, Ransom, Barksdale and Lawton 
threw themselves heavily, not all at once, but in succes 
sion, against their courageous and impregnably posted 
foes. Cobb s command included the Fifteenth North 
Carolina under Colonel Dowd. Ransom s brigade was 
solely a North Carolina one the Twenty-fourth, Col 
onel Clark; the Twenty-fifth, Colonel Hill; the Twenty- 
sixth, Colonel Vance ; the Thirty- fifth, Colonel Ransom ; 
the Forty-ninth, Colonel Ramseur. General Hill says of 
General Magruder s assault: 

I never saw anything more grandly heroic than the 
advance after sunset of the nine brigades under Magru- 
der s orders. Unfortunately, they did not move together 
and were beaten in detail. As each brigade emerged 
from the woods, from fifty to one hundred guns opened 
upon it, tearing great gaps in its ranks ; but the heroes 
reeled on, and were shot down by the reserves at the 
guns, which a few squads reached. . . . Not only did 
the fourteen brigades which were engaged suffer, but the 
inactive troops and those brought up as reserves, too late 
to be of any use, met many casualties from the frightful 
artillery fire which reached all parts of the woods, f 

General Porter, whose activity contributed much to the 
success of the Federal troops, bears this tribute to the 
reckless bravery of the whole attacking force : 

As if moved by a reckless disregard of life, equal to 
that displayed at Games Mill, with a determination to 

* Peninsula Campaign, p. 160. 
f Battles and Leaders, II, 394. 
No 12 



90 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

capture our army or destroy it by driving it into the 
river, regiment after regiment rushed at our batteries; 
but the artillery of both Morell and Couch mowed them 
down with shrapnel, grape and canister, while our 
infantry, withholding their fire until they were within 
short range, scattered the remnants of their columns. 
The havoc made by the rapidly-bursting shells from 
our guns, arranged so as to sweep any position far and 
near, was fearful to behold. Pressed to the extreme as 
they were, the courage of our men was fully tried. The 
safety of our army the life of the Union was felt to be 
at stake.* 

A portion of Ramseur s regiment slept upon the field 
with a portion of Lawton s brigade and some other 
troops, and during the night they heard the movement of 
troops and wondered what it meant. In the morning, as 
they surveyed the bloody field of the day before, the 
enemy was gone. * The volcano was silent. " McClellan 
had, against the protest of some of his generals, contin 
ued his retreat to Harrison s landing. 

Both armies were terribly demoralized by this sanguin 
ary conclusion to a protracted and exhausting campaign. 
On the day of Malvern Hill, General McClellan tele 
graphed to the adjutant-general, "I need 50,000 men."f 
Draper says: "Not even in the awful night that fol 
lowed this awful battle was rest allotted to the national 
army. In less than two hours after the roar of combat 
had ceased, orders were given to resume the retreat and 
march to Harrison s landing. At midnight the utterly 
exhausted soldiers were groping their staggering way 
along a road described as desperate, in all the confusion 
of a fleeing and routed army. "J McClellan seemed not 
to realize his advantage on that day s field. 

On the Confederate side there was also much confu 
sion. The army was too much paralyzed to make any 

* Battles and Leaders, II, 418. 
t Rebellion Records, i, XI, 3, 281. 
\ Civil War in America, II, 414. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 91 

effective pursuit of the Federals, and, after a few days of 
rest, withdrew to the lines around Richmond. 

As already seen, the North Carolina losses in these 
seven days were : killed, 650; wounded, 3,279. Conspic 
uous among the slain were the following field officers : 
Cols. M. S. Stokes, Gaston Meares, R. P. Campbell, 
C. C. Lee; Lieut. -Cols. Petway and F. J. Faison; Majs. 
T. N. Grumpier, T. L. Skinner, B. R. Huske. These 
were among the State s most gifted and gallant sons. 
The losses among the company officers were also heavy. 

During the progress of this great campaign, there was 
little fighting in North Carolina, for most of her troops 
were in Virginia, and the Federals around New Bern 
did not show much further activity. Some skirmishing 
occurred around Gatesville, Trenton, Young s cross 
roads, Pollocksville and Clinton. On the 5th of June, 
there was a collision of an hour s duration between the 
Twenty-fourth Massachusetts regiment, a few cavalry 
men, and two pieces of artillery on the Federal side, 
and Col. G. B. Singeltary s Forty-fourth North Carolina 
regiment at Tranter s creek, near Washington. During 
this engagement Colonel Singeltary was killed. In these 
various actions the Confederate losses were: killed, 8; 
wounded, 17. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST POPE CEDAR MOUNTAIN 
GORDONSVILLE WARRENTON BRISTOE STATION 
GROVETON SECOND MANASSAS CHANTILLY, OR 
OX HILL POPE DEFEATED AT ALL POINTS. 

THE result of the battles around Richmond so weak 
ened Federal confidence in General McClellan s 
ability, that General Halleck was called from the 
West and made commander-in-chief of their armies. 
Previous, however, to his assumption of command, the 
departments of the Rappahannock and the Shenandoah 
were combined into one army, called the army of Vir 
ginia, and Maj. -Gen. John Pope assigned to its command. 
Pope had for corps commanders, Generals Sigel, Banks 
and McDowell, and, as at first constituted, his army 
numbered somewhat over 40,000 men.* As soon as this 
army began to threaten Gordonsville, General Lee, as 
Ropes remarks, "though the whole army of the Potomac 
was within twenty-five miles of Richmond, did not hesi 
tate, on July 1 3th, to despatch to Gordonsville his most 
trusted lieutenant, the justly celebrated Stonewall Jack 
son, with two divisions his own (so-called), com 
manded by Winder, and Swell s, comprising together 
about 14,000 or 15,000 men." Then, when it became 
clear that the peninsula was being evacuated, Jackson 
was reinforced by the division of A. P. Hill. After 
Hill s juncture, Jackson s force numbered between 20,000 
and 25,000 men, and the commander sought opportunity 
to strike a favorable blow. 

The opportunity soon came. * * Having received infor 
mation," reports Jackson, "that only a part of General 
* The Army under Pope. Ropes, p. 3. 

92 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 95 

Pope s army was at Culpeper Court House, and hoping, 
through the blessing of Providence, to be able to defeat 
it before reinforcements should arrive there, Ewell s, 
Hill s and Jackson s divisions were moved on the yth in 
the direction of the enemy." On the gih he reached 
Cedar mountain, about eight miles from Culpeper, and 
found his old antagonist of the valley, Banks, fronting 
him. Jackson had somewhat the advantage in numbers, 
according to the estimates in "Battles and Leaders." 
The tables there give "Pope s effective force on the field 
from first to last" as 17,900, an estimate probably too 
large; Jackson s "estimated strength on the field, at least 
20,000." 

Pope, who was waiting for Sigel to come up, states that 
he did not intend for Banks to attack Jackson with his 
corps, but, as the Confederates advanced, cautiously feel 
ing their way, and themselves preparing to be the assail 
ants, Banks threw the brigades of Prince, Geary, Greene 
and Crawford, and a little later, Gordon, against them. 
The attack came before Jackson s men had finished their 
battle formation, and while there was still a wide gap 
between two of their brigades. Jackson s line of battle, 
commencing on the right, stood: Trimble, Forno (Hays), 
Early, Taliaferro, Campbell (Garnett), and Winder s 
brigade under Colonel Ronald in reserve. In the front 
line, the Twenty-first regiment and Wharton s sharp 
shooters were the only North Carolina troops, and they 
were not engaged until toward the close of the struggle. 
The front assault of Geary and Prince fell on the brigades 
of Early and Taliaferro, and part of Campbell. While 
Campbell s men were meeting the front attack, Craw 
ford, who had been sent to their left, fell on their left 
flank. Under this double attack, the left regiments 
retreated in some confusion. General Garnett, who 
hurried there, was wounded, as were Major Lane and 
Colonel Cunningham. The double fire was severe, and 
Campbell s whole brigade gave way. Crawford pushed 



94 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

on until he struck Taliaferro s flank. This brigade was 
already hotly engaged with Geary, and as Crawford s 
men rushed steadily on, a part of Taliaferro s brigade, 
after a gallant resistance, also fell back. Early, how 
ever, manfully stood firm. Ronald moved up his reserves 
to fill the gap left by Campbell and part of Taliaferro s 
force, and the battle raged anew. Taliaferro had ener 
getically rallied his men, but the battle was still in doubt 
when Branch s North Carolina brigade hurried on the 
field, and with a cheer, rushed against Crawford. The 
Seventh regiment was detached, but the Thirty-third, 
Twenty- eighth, Thirty-seventh and Eighteenth moved 
into Campbell s position and drove back the enemy, who, 
however, made a gallant resistance. General Taliaferro 
says: "At this critical moment the First brigade and 
Branch s brigade encountered the enemy, confused by 
their severe conflict with the Second brigade, and drove 
them back with terrible slaughter. Just as Taliaferro 
resumed his place in line, Bayard s cavalry followed its 
brave leader in a charge upon the Confederate line. 
However, the fire of Branch and Taliaferro was too 
galling, and the cavalry broke in disorder. Gordon s 
Federal brigade now came into action, and gallantly led, 
tried to break the Southern advance ; Gordon was, how 
ever, only to waste blood, for he came too late. Archer 
was now up to the front line, and Fender s North Caro 
lina brigade struck Gordon s flank. Just at this time, 
Thomas, Early, Forno and Trimble joined the left in a 
general advance, and Banks whole line was swept back 
in the gathering darkness. The victory was largely due 
to Branch s front and Fender s flank attack, and the 
North Carolina soldiers felt proud of stopping an enemy 
that had just broken the "Stonewall brigade. " Jackson 
says: "At this critical moment, Branch s brigade, with 
Winder s brigade farther to the left, met the Federal 
forces, flushed with temporary triumph, and drove them 
back with terrible slaughter through the woods." Gen. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 95 

A. P. Hill gives even more credit to Branch. He says : 
"Winder s brigade, immediately in front of Branch, be 
ing hard pressed, broke, and many fugitives came back. 
Without waiting for the formation of the entire line, 
Branch was immediately ordered forward, and passing 
through the broken brigade checked the pursuit, and in 
turn drove them back and relieved Taliaferro s flank." 
Latham s North Carolina battery was also engaged in 
this battle. 

The Union loss in this battle was 2,381 ; the Confeder 
ate, 1,276. North Carolina s loss was 15 killed and 102 
wounded. This small loss is due to the fact that the 
Carolinians were under fire for so short a time. The 
brigades of Taliaferro, Early and Thomas were exposed 
during the whole encounter. 

After the battle at Cedar mountain, General Jackson 
moved his command to the vicinity of Gordonsville. 
There General Lee, accompanying Longstreet s corps, 
joined Jackson, and on the 2ist, the Confederate army 
moved toward the Rappahannock, Then followed a 
movement up that stream by both the Federals and Con 
federates; the Federals moving up the north bank as 
Lee s army moved up the south. 

On the 22d of August, Trimble s brigade was stationed 
near Welford s ford on the Hazel river, a tributary of 
the Rappahannock, to protect the flank of the wagon 
train. Bohlen s Federal brigade was thrown across the 
Rappahannock at Freeman s ford in an effort to damage 
or capture part of the train. Trimble, supported by 
Hood, attacked Bohlen s force and drove it back across the 
river. The Federals suffered considerable loss, General 
Bohlen himself being among the slain. In this "sharp 
conflict," as General Trimble denominates it, the 
Twenty-first North Carolina, Lieutenant-Colonel Fulton, 
attacked the center of the enemy, while Trimble s two 
other regiments made a detour to the right. "After a 
sharp conflict with the Twenty- first North Carolina," 



96 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

reports General Trimble, "the enemy were driven back 
to the hills in the rear. There Bohlen made a brave 
stand, but was not strong enough to hold his own against 
the united Confederates. Trimble s report thus com 
mends Colonel Fulton : " It is specially due Lieutenant- 
Colonel Fulton, of the Twenty-first North Carolina, that 
I should mention the conspicuous gallantry with which 
he took the colors and led his regiment to the charge. 
This brigade was also under fire on the 24th, near War- 
renton, and in the two days the Twenty-first and the 
two attached companies of sharpshooters lost 5 killed 
and n wounded. 

There was heavy artillery firing at Warrenton Springs 
on the 24th. There Latham s North Carolina battery, 
with other batteries, was directed not to reply to the 
enemy s batteries posted across the river, but to wait for 
the appearance of his infantry passing up the river. 
These orders were carried out, and some loss inflicted. 

On the 25th, Jackson started on his daring raid to throw 
his command between Washington City and the army of 
General Pope, and to break up Federal railroad communi 
cation with Washington. On the 26th he marched from 
near Salem to Bristoe Station. "Learning," says his 
official report, "that the enemy had collected at Manas- 
sas Junction, a station about seven miles distant, stores 
of great value, I deemed it important that no time should 
be lost in securing them. Notwithstanding the darkness 
of the night and the fatiguing march, which would be 
since dawn over thirty miles before reaching the junc 
tion, Brigadier- General Trimble volunteered to proceed 
there forthwith with the Twenty-first North Carolina, 
Lieut. -Col. S. Fulton commanding, and the Twenty-first 
Georgia, Major Glover commanding in all about 500 
men and capture the place. I accepted the gallant offer, 
and gave him orders to move without delay. 

About 9 o clock the two regiments started, "every man 
setting out with cheerful alacrity to perform the serv- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 97 

ice."* On approaching Manassas, one regiment was 
formed on the north side and one on the south side of 
the railroad. In this order they moved on in the intense 
darkness, watchwords and responses having been 
arranged. On each side of the railroad the Federals had 
a battery, consisting of four pieces, continuously firing 
toward their foes. The following is General Trimble s 
account of his success: "The position of the batteries on 
either side of the railroad having been ascertained pretty 
accurately, the word was given, Charge! when both 
regiments advanced rapidly and firmly, and in five min 
utes both batteries were carried at the point of the bay 
onet. Sending an officer to the north side of the railroad 
to ascertain the success of the Georgia regiment, he 
could not immediately find them, and cried out, Halloo, 
Georgia, where are you? The reply was, Here! all 
right! We have taken a battery. So have we, was the 
response, whereupon cheers rent the air. 

In addition to the 8 guns and 300 prisoners taken, 2,000 
barrels of flour, 2,000 barrels of salted pork, 50,000 
pounds of bacon, large supplies of ordnance, 2 trains of 
over 100 cars freighted with every article necessary for 
the outfit of a great army, large quantities of sutler s 
stores and other valuable supplies fell into Trimble s 
hands, f The next morning, the 27th, Trimble having 
reported the accomplishment of his mission and asked 
for aid in holding his captures, General Jackson sent the 
divisions of A. P. Hill and Taliaferro to join him at 
Manassas. Ewell, with Jackson s remaining division, 
was left at Bristoe with orders to fall back if attacked in 
force. As these two divisions moved up to Manassas, 
Branch s Carolinians had a sharp encounter with one of 
the Federal batteries and its supports, but soon dispersed 
this force. Shortly after Hill s division arrived, Genera] 



* Trimble s Report. 

f Trimble s and Taliaferro s Official Reports, Rebellion Records, 
XTT, 2. 
ttc 13 



98 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Taylor with his New Jersey brigade, supported a little 
later by Scammon with an Ohio brigade of two regiments, 
attacked the Confederates, presumably with the intention 
of recapturing the stores. The Eighteenth North Caro 
lina regiment was detached from Branch to guard the 
captured supplies, and the rest of Branch s brigade joined 
in the chase of Taylor s men, who had been scattered by 
the brigades of Archer, Field and Fender. General 
Taylor was mortally wounded, and his command driven 
across Bull Run. The Confederates took 200 prisoners, 
and inflicted, according to the itinerary of Taylor s bri 
gade, "a very severe loss in killed, wounded and miss 
ing." 

The short supply of rations upon which Confederate 
soldiers did hard marching and harder fighting is well 
illustrated by this sentence from Gen. Samuel McGow- 
an s report: "In the afternoon of that day, the brigade 
returned to the junction (Manassas), where three days 
rations were issued from the vast supply of captured 
stores ; and the men for a few hours rested and regaled 
themselves upon delicacies unknown to our commissariat, 
which they were in good condition to enjoy, having eaten 
nothing for several days except roasting- ears taken by 
order from the cornfields near the road, and what was 
given by the generous citizens of the Salem valley to the 
soldiers as they hurried along in their rapid march. 

General Jackson s position was now exceedingly haz 
ardous. His three divisions were separated by a long 
interval from Lee, and Pope was rapidly concentrating 
his entire army to fall upon and destroy him before Lee 
could succor him. McDowell, Sigel and Reynolds, hav 
ing forces greatly outnumbering Jackson s command, 
were already between him and the army under Lee. 
McDowell felt, as Ropes states, "that if Jackson could 
be kept isolated for twenty-four hours longer, he ought 
to be overwhelmed, horse, foot and dragoons."* 

* The Army under Pope, p. 67. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 99 

Pope, thinking that Jackson would remain at Manassas, 
wrote McDowell on the 27th, "If you will march promptly 
and rapidly at the earliest dawn upon Manassas Junction, 
we shall bag the whole crowd." Jackson, however, was 
too active an antagonist "to bag" on demand. Burning 
all the captured stores that his army could not use, he 
withdrew from Manassas with the celerity and secrecy 
that marked all his independent actions, and took posi 
tion north of the Warrenton turnpike, on the battlefield 
of First Manassas. Pope spent all the 28th in a search for 
his missing foe. About sunset that night, Jackson dis 
closed himself by fiercely striking, at Groveton, the flank 
of King s division of McDowell s corps while on its 
march to Centreville, where Pope then thought Jackson 
was. This attack was made by the divisions of Ewell and 
Taliaferro. It was gallantly met by Gibbon and Double- 
day, both fine soldiers, and lasted until 9 o clock. The 
opposing forces fought, as Gibbon states, at a distance of 
75 yards, and the engagement was a most sanguinary 
one. Trimble s brigade, containing the Twenty-first 
North Carolina and Wharton s battalion, took a conspic 
uous part, and met with a brigade loss of 310 men. The 
loss in the North Carolina commands was 26 killed and 
37 wounded. Among the killed was Lieut. -Col. Saun- 
ders Fulton, commanding the Twenty-first, who had 
greatly distinguished himself by coolness and daring. 

The next day began the two days of desperate fighting 
at Second Manassas, or Bull Run. North Carolina had 
eleven regiments and one battalion of infantry and two 
batteries of artillery engaged in these battles: In Law s 
brigade was the Sixth regiment, Maj. R. F. Webb; in 
Trimble s, the Twenty-first and First battalion; in 
Branch s brigade, the Seventh, Capt R. B. MacRae; the 
Eighteenth, Lieutenant-Colonel Purdie; the Twenty- 
eighth, Col. J. H. Lane; the Thirty- third, Lieut. -Col. 
R. F. Hoke, and the Thirty-seventh, Lieut -Col. W. M. 
Barbour; in Pender s brigade, the Sixteenth, Capt. L. W. 



100 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Stowe; the Twenty-second, Maj. C. C. Cole; the Thirty- 
fourth, Col. R. H.Riddick, and the Thirty-eighth, Cap 
tain McLaughlin; Latham s battery, Lieut J. R. Potts, 
and Reilly s battery, Capt. James Reilly. 

On the morning of the 29th, Jackson was in position 
along the line of an unfinished railroad, and Longstreet, 
having passed Thoroughfare gap, was marching in haste 
to reunite the two armies. Jackson s line extended from 
near Groveton, on the Warrenton pike, almost to Sud- 
ley s Springs. His own division held his right, Ewell 
the center, and A. P. Hill the left. In Sigel s morning 
attack on Jackson s right, an attack which made little 
impression, no North Carolina troops were under fire. 
However, in the afternoon, the Union forces, showing a 
pertinacity and heroism rarely equaled, rushed contin 
uously against Jackson s obstinate Southerners. The 
puzzled Federals had been searching for Jackson, and 
now that they had found him, they wanted to end the 
search. In their repeated assaults, the Carolinians and 
their comrades on the left found foes of their own mettle. 
Hooker and Kearny and Reno were ordered to advance 
simultaneously against Jackson s center and left. Grover, 
of Hooker s division, however, led his five regiments into 
battle ahead of Kearny, and made one of the most bril 
liant charges of the war. He succeeded in crowding 
into a gap between Gregg s and Thomas brigades, and 
reached the railroad. There he was fiercely driven back, 
and lost 486 men in about twenty minutes. So close was 
the fighting that bayonets and clubbed muskets were 
actually used.* The dashing Kearny, aided by Stevens, 
next fell on Hill s left. Branch s and Pender s North 
Carolinians and Early s Virginians had moved up to rein 
force the front lines, and for some time the line of battle 
swayed forward and backward. General Jackson had 
ordered his brigade commanders not to advance much to 
the front of the railroad, and so they never pressed their 
* Grover s Report. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 101 

advantages far. When Branch advanced, part of the 
Seventh regiment under Capt. McLeod Turner was 
deployed as skirmishers around Crenshaw s battery. The 
Thirty-seventh regiment first became engaged. The 
Eighteenth and Seventh marched to its aid. Col. R. F. 
Hoke, with the Thirty-third, was further to the left, and 
gallantly advanced into the open field and drove the 
enemy from his front. The Twenty-eighth, under Col 
onel Lane, fought determinedly in conjunction with 
Field s left. Finally this brigade, Gregg s and Field s, 
succeeded in freeing their front of the enemy. This 
was done, however, only after prolonged and costly 
effort. Fender, seeing that Thomas was in sore need of 
support, moved his brigade against the enemy, who had 
reached the railroad cut, and there, after a struggle, 
forced back the foe occupying the portion of it in his 
front, and drove him behind his batteries. He moved 
alone, and after waiting in vain for support to attack the 
batteries, retired unmolested to the railroad line. Dur 
ing this battle, General Fender was knocked down by a 
shell, but refused to leave the field. The official reports 
of both sides bear testimony to the unyielding spirit with 
which this contest was waged. Gen. A. P. Hill, to 
whose division both Fender and Branch belonged, says : 
"The evident intention of the enemy this day was to 
turn our left and overwhelm Jackson s corps before Long- 
street came up, and to accomplish this the most persist 
ent and furious onsets were made by column after column 
of infantry, accompanied by numerous batteries of artil 
lery. Soon my reserves were all in, and up to 6 o clock, 
my division, assisted by the Louisiana brigade of General 
Hays, commanded by Colonel Forno, with a heroic cour 
age and obstinacy almost beyond parallel, had met and 
repulsed six separate and distinct assaults. " 

Mean while, Longstreet had reached the field and taken 
position. At 6:30 o clock, King s division, under Gen 
eral Hatch, encountered Hood s Texas and Georgia bri- 



102 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

gade and Law s brigade of North Carolinians, Alabami- 
ans and Mississippians. The Southerners had made a 
toilsome journey to help their comrades, and Longstreet 
says they welcomed the opportunity. "Each," reports 
Hood, the senior commander, "seemed to vie with the 
other in efforts to plunge the deeper into the ranks of the 
enemy."* Longstreet comments: "A fierce struggle of 
thirty minutes gave them ad vantage, which they followed 
through the dark to the base of the high ground held by 
bayonets and batteries innumerable, as compared with 
their limited ra ? nks. Their task accomplished, they were 
halted to wait the morrow. f 

Law s men drove off three guns and captured one. 
Law states in his report that this gun was fought until 
its discharges blackened the faces of his advancing men. 
"What higher praise," exclaims Ropes, "could be given, 
either to the gunners or their antagonists? " J 

That night, General Lee, knowing that the forces 
would again join battle in the morning, readjusted his 
entire line. All of Jackson s men were moved into their 
original and strong position along the unfinished railroad, 
and Longstreet s corps was aligned on Jackson s right. 
Pope mistook these movements fora retreat, and tele 
graphed, * The enemy is retiring toward the mountains. 
Little did he then anticipate how he was to be swept 
across Bull Run by that "retreating army" next day. 

On the morning of the 3oth, General Pope, seemingly 
yet unaware that Longstreet was in position to strike his 
left, massed the commands of Porter, King, Hooker, 
Kearny, Ricketts, and Reynolds in a final effort to crush 
Jackson. Not all the men ordered against Jackson 
joined in the heavy assaults on his weakened lines. Still, 
that afternoon enough pressed the attack home to make 
it doubtful whether his three divisions could stand the 

* Advance and Retreat, p. 34. 

t Manassas to Appomattox, p. 184. 

\ The Army under Pope, p. 108. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 103 

strain, hence he sent to General Lee for another division. 
Longstreet and Hood had, however, both gone ahead of 
their troops, and they saw that the best way to relieve 
the pressure on Jackson was by artillery. Straightway 
Chapman s, then Reilly s North Carolina battery, and 
then Boyce s came rolling into position and opened a 
destructive enfilade fire on Jackson s assailants. "It was 
a fire that no troops could live under for ten minutes," is 
Longstreet s characterization of the work done by these 
batteries, soon added to by all of Col. S. D. Lee s guns. 
The Federal lines crumbled into disorder from the double 
fire, but again and again they stoutly reformed, only at 
last to be discomfited. Jackson s troops were fighting 
in almost the same positions as on the day before. 
Branch s brigade was, however, so far to the left that it 
was not in close action on the 3oth. The Carolinians in 
Trimble s brigade, although not in the action of the day, 
had a day of anxiety, as guards to Jackson s trains that 
had been threatened by a cavalry attack. Fender was 
kept on the left until Archer and Thomas were severely 
pressed. Then his brigade and Brockenbrough s were 
put in, and all together repulsed the assault. 

When Longstreet saw the enemy s attack on Jackson 
fairly broken, he ordered his whole corps to advance 
on the right. This movement in such force was not 
expected by Pope, and in spite of McDowell s efforts the 
left was at once pushed back. For the possession of the 
Henry house hill, so vital to the Federal retreat, both 
sides fiercely contested, and the dead lay thick on its 
sides. General Law reports that he united the Sixth 
North Carolina with his other regiments in a charge on a 
destructive battery near the Dogan house, and drove the 
gunners from it. His whole brigade was active during 
the afternoon s fight. Law also reports that Major Webb 
handled his men with consummate ability. Jackson had 
joined in the forward movement, and the Federal army 
had been slowly driven off the entire field. In the 



104 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

advance of Jackson, Archer s, Thomas and Fender s 
brigades acting in concert had rendered most effective 
service. Latham s and Reilly s batteries contributed 
their full share to this victory. 

The Federal army retreated toward Fairfax, and Jack 
son was sent in pursuit over the Little River road. Near 
German town was fought, on the ist of September, what 
the Confederates call the battle of Ox Hill. The Fed 
erals name it Chantilly. As soon as Jackson overtook 
the Federals, he deployed for attack, and the battle was 
fought during a terrific storm. The brigades of Branch 
and Brockenbrough were sent forward to develop the 
enemy s force, and were soon hotly engaged, and Branch 
was exposed to a heavy fire in front and on his flank. 
General Hill, whose brigades were mainly engaged, says : 
"Gregg, Fender, Thomas and Archer were successively 
thrown in. The enemy obstinately contested the ground, 
and it was not until the Federal generals, Kearny and 
Stevens, had fallen in front of Thomas brigade, that they 
were driven from the ground. They did not retire far 
until later in the night, when they entirely disappeared. 
The brunt of this fight was borne by Branch, Gregg and 
Fender." 

Col. R. H. Riddick, whose power as a disciplinarian 
and ability as a field officer had made the Thirty-fourth 
regiment so efficient, was mortally wounded there, as 
was Maj. Eli H. Miller, and Captain Stowe, commanding 
the Sixteenth North Carolina. The fighting on both 
the Confederate and the Federal side during this cam 
paign was such as is done only by seasoned and disciplined 
troops, commanded by officers of mettle and ambition. 
In modern war, the range of the rifle has about broken 
up personal conflict, and lines of battle do not often come 
in close contact; but in these engagements around 
Manassas, hand-to-hand fighting actually occurred. Gen 
eral Grover reports that, in his charge on Jackson, bay 
onet wounds were given ; on the right a Confederate col- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 105 

onel was struck in the head with a musket ; in front of 
the "deep cut," Gen. Bradley Johnson saw men stand 
ing in line and fighting with stones, and at least one man 
was killed with these antiquated weapons. General Hood 
states that after the night battle on the 28th he found 
the Confederates and Federals so close and so intermin 
gled "that commanders of both armies gave orders for 
alignment, in some instances, to the troops of their 
opponents. In some cases, volleys were exchanged at 
such short range that "brave men in blue and brave men 
in gray fell dead almost in one another s arms. " Gen 
eral Johnson reports that he noticed "a Federal flag hold 
its position for half an hour within ten yards of a flag of 
one of the regiments (Confederate) in the cut, and go 
down six or eight times, and that after the fight 100 
dead men were lying twenty yards from the cut and some 
of them within two feet of it." General Gregg s reply, 
"I am out of ammunition, but I think I can hold my place 
with my bayonets," breathes the spirit of Manassas. 
The result of the campaign was most gratifying to the Con 
federates. Pope, despite the fact that he unfortunately 
entered upon his new command with the declaration, I 
have come to you from the West, where we have always 
seen the backs of our enemies, had been forced back 
from Gordonsville to the Washington lines. His total 
battle casualties had been 16,843,* an d Lee had captured 
from him thirty pieces of artillery and upward of 20,000 
small- arms, f to say nothing of the stores at Manassas. 

The North Carolina losses in the two days and one night 
at Manassas were as follows: killed, 70; wounded, 448. 
At Ox Hill, or Chantilly, they were : killed, 29 ; wounded, 
*39- 

* Official Records, Series i, XII, n, 262,139. 
f Lee s Report. 



Nc U 



CHAPTER VII. 

LEE S MARYLAND CAMPAIGN THE MARCH TO FRED 
ERICK CITY THE "LOST ORDER" MOUNTAIN 
BATTLES CRAMPTON S GAP BOONSBORO VIG 
OROUS SKIRMISHING THE SURRENDER OF HAR 
PER S FERRY BY THE FEDERALS BATTLE OF 
SHARPSBURG OR ANTIETAM FIRST NORTH CARO 
LINA CAVALRY WITH J. E. B. STUART IN PENN 
SYLVANIA. 

IMMEDIATELY after the Rappahannock campaign, 
General Lee, desiring if possible "to inflict father 
injury upon the enemy" before the season for active 
operations passed, and believing that the best way to re 
lieve Virginia was to threaten the North, decided to enter 
Maryland. He took the step fully aware that his army 
was poorly prepared for invasion. He knew, as he says, 
"that his army was feeble in transportation, the troops 
poorly supplied with clothing, and thousands of them des 
titute of shoes, still he rightly felt that seasoned as his 
men were by active service, and filled with enthusiasm 
and confidence as they were by their successes, he could 
rely on them for much self-denial and arduous campaign 
ing. Moreover, the prospect "of shifting the burden of 
military occupation from Confederate to Federal soil," 
and of keeping the Federals out of Southern territory, 
at least until winter prohibited their re-entering, was 
alluring. Accordingly, he ordered the divisions of D. H. 
Hill and McLaws and Hampton s cavalry, which had been 
left to protect Richmond, to join him. These forces 
reported to the commander-in-chief near Chantilly on 
the 2d of September. Between the 4th and the yth, the 
entire Confederate army crossed the Potomac at the fords 

106 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 107 

near Leesburg, and encamped in the vicinity of Freder 
ick City. 

Of this army, thirty regiments of infantry, one battal 
ion of infantry, one cavalry regiment, and four batteries 
were from North Carolina. These were distributed as 
follows : The Fifteenth regiment was in McLaws divi 
sion; Ransom s brigade of four regiments was under 
Walker, as also were the Twenty-seventh, Forty-sixth and 
Forty-eighth ; the Sixth was with Hood ; the Twenty-first 
and the First battalion were in Ewell s division; Branch 
with five regiments, and Fender with four, were under 
A. P. Hill ; Garland with five, Anderson with four, and 
Ripley with two regiments were in D. H. Hill s division. 
The cavalry was under Stuart, and the batteries were 
scattered. 

It had been supposed that as the Confederates advanced, 
the Federal garrisons at Harper s Ferry and Martinsburg 
would be withdrawn. Although General McClellan ad 
vised this, General Halleck prevented it. So, General 
Jackson, General McLaws and General Walker were sent 
to invest these places, and the rest of the army Long- 
street s and D. H. Hill s divisions was ordered to cross 
South mountain and move toward Boonsboro, where 
the army was to be concentrated on the fall of Harper s 
Ferry. 

Meanwhile, General McClellan, Pope having been re 
lieved of command, was advancing by slow stages toward 
his adversaries, and cautiously trying to discover their 
intentions. On the i3th he reached Frederick, just after 
it had been evacuated by the Confederates. There he 
received, says Longstreet, such a complete revelation of 
his adversary s plans and purposes as no other com 
mander, in the history of war, has ever received at a 
time so momentous.* A copy of Lee s celebrated 
order No. 191, frequently known as the "lost dispatch," 
was found by Private Mitchell, of the Twenty-seventh In- 

* From Manassas to Appomattox. 



108 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

diana regiment, and at once transmitted through Colonel 
Colgrove to general headquarters. This tell-tale slip 
of paper" revealed to General McClellan that Lee s army 
was divided, that Harper s Ferry was to be invested; in 
addition, it "gave him the scarcely less important infor 
mation where the rest of the army, trains, rear guard, 
cavalry and all were to march and to halt, and where the 
detached commands were to join the main body. "* As 
this important order was addressed to a North Carolina 
general, D. H. Hill, it should be stated here that it was 
neither received by him nor lost by him. General Hill s 
division was at that time attached to General Jackson s 
command, and hence, in accordance with military usage, 
he received all his orders through General Jackson. 
This fact seems to have been overlooked by some one at 
General Lee s headquarters when this order was pre 
pared, and a copy of it was started to General Hill, but 
never reached him. By whom it was lost will probably 
never be known. General Hill, in a letter to the editors 
of Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, (Vol. II, p. 570, 
note), says: "I went into Maryland under Jackson s com 
mand. I was under his command when Lee s order was 
issued. It was proper that I should receive that order 
through Jackson, and not through Lee. I have now be 
fore me the order received from Jackson. My adjutant- 
general made affidavit twenty years ago that no order 
was received at our office from General Lee. But an 
order from Lee s office, directed to me, was lost and fell 
into McClellan s hands. Did the courier lose it? Did 
Lee s own staff officers lose it? I do not know." The 
copy that reached Hill was in Jackson s own handwriting, 
So important did that officer consider the order that he 
did not trust his adjutant to copy it, but made the copy 
himself. With like care, General Hill preserved the 

* The Antietam arid Fredericksburg, p. 22. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 109 

order then, and preserved it until his death. Who lost 
the order from General Lee is not known, but it is abso 
lutely certain that General Hill did not lose it. 

To relieve Harper s Ferry and to strike the divided 
Confederates, it became necessary for McClellan to pass 
through the gaps of South mountain, for the direct turn 
pike by Knoxville was not suited to military purposes. 
He accordingly put his army in motion "to cut the enemy 
in two and beat him in detail. * Franklin and Couch 
were to move through Crampton s gap, and their duty 
was first to cut off, destroy, or capture McLaws com 
mand, and relieve Colonel Miles "at Harper s Ferry; if 
too late to aid Miles, they were to turn toward Sharps- 
burg to prevent the retreat of Longstreet and D. H. Hill, 
who were to be attacked by the main body. All the rest 
of McClellan s army set out, by way of Turner s gap and 
Fox s gap, for Boonsboro. This main part of the army 
was intended to crush Longstreet and D. H. Hill, and 
then to join Franklin against Jackson, McLaws, and 
Walker. 

So unexpected was the movement, and so successfully 
did the Federals mask the march of their army on the two 
gaps, that General Stuart s cavalrymen, ever untiring and 
daring, had not found out up to the time of attack on 
these gaps that McClellan s whole army was before them. 
When the cannon opened at Crampton s gap, General 
McLaws, who heard it from Maryland heights, attached 
no special significance to it. He says in his official re 
port, "I felt no particular concern about it and 

General Stuart, who was with me on the heights and had 
just come in from above, told me that he did not believe 
there was more than a brigade of the enemy. This * bri 
gade" turned out to be Slocum s division of Franklin s 
corps, and Smith s division of the same corps was soon 
added. The gap at that time was held only by Colonel 
Munford with two regiments of cavalry, Chew s battery, 

* Order to Franklin, September 



110 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

and a section of the Portsmouth naval battery, supported 
by "two fragments of regiments" of Mahone s brigade, 
under Colonel Parham. Colonel Munford reports that the 
two infantry regiments numbered scarcely 300. This small 
band made a most determined stand for three hours, for 
it had been directed to hold the gap at all hazards, and 
did not know that it was fighting Franklin s corps. The 
action began about noon. Gen. Howell Cobb with 
his brigade, consisting of the Fifteenth North Carolina 
regiment and three Georgia regiments, left Brownsville, 
two miles from the gap, about 5 o clock, to reinforce 
Munford. On their arrival they went promptly at their 
enemies. Weight of numbers soon broke their thin line, 
and left the gap to Franklin. Manly s battery was en 
gaged here all day, and General Semmes reports that it 
"did good service in breaking the enemy s line" by its 
deliberate and well-directed fire. Cobb s total force, as 
stated by him,* "did not exceed 2,200," while Franklin s, 
as given by him,f "hardly exceeded 6,500. " However, 
the last "field returns" gave Franklin a force greatly in 
excess of those figures. Semmes and Wilcox s brigades, 
that had been ordered up, did not reach the ground until 
during the night. Cobb s brigade loss was 690. The 
Fifteenth North Carolina lost 1 1 killed, 48 wounded, 1 24 
captured or missing. McLaws ordered his brigades all 
up that night and set them in battle order, but Franklin 
did not press him the next morning. 

While this action was going on, a conflict in which much 
larger forces were engaged was in progress at Turner s 
gap of South mountain. This action lasted from early 
morning until after dark, and, first and last, many troops 
took part ; but until afternoon it was a series of small 
battles rather than a connected struggle. This was 
due to the fact that the Confederates, in small force in the 
morning, were trying to hold the gap, which was wide 

* Official Report. 

f Battles and Leaders, II, 595. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. Ill 

and traversed by many roads. Hence their forces had to 
be scattered. But the defense made by these scattered 
brigades against odds was persistent and heroic. On the 
1 3th, Stuart reported that his cavalry was followed by two 
brigades of infantry, and asked D. H. Hill, whose forces 
were closest to South mountain, to send a brigade to 
check the Federals at the foot of the mountain. Owing 
to long field service and poor equipment, Southern bri 
gades were at that time very small. * So instead of one 
brigade, Hill sent Garland s North Carolina brigade and 
Colquitt s Georgia brigade. Colquitt s brigade was 
posted by General Hill across the National turnpike. 
The Twenty-third and Twenty- eighth Georgia were 
placed behind a stone wall. Garland s North Carolina 
brigade took position at Fox s gap, on the old Sharps- 
burg road, and to the right of Colquitt. Garland had 
five regiments, but the five amounted to a little less 
than 1,000 men. "The Fifth regiment, Colonel Mc- 
Rae, then Captain Garnett, was placed on the right 
of the road, with the Twelfth, Captain Snow, as its sup 
port. The Twenty-third, Colonel Christie, was posted 
behind a low stone wall on the left of the Fifth ; then came 
the Twentieth, Colonel Iverson, and the Thirteenth, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Ruffin. From the nature of the 
ground and the duty to be performed, the regiments 
were not in contact, and the Thirteenth was 250 yards to 
the left of the Twentieth. Fifty skirmishers of the Fifth 
North Carolina soon encountered the Twenty-third Ohio, 
deployed as skirmishers under Lieut. -Col. R. B. Hayes 
(afterward President of the United States), and the 
action began at 9 a. m. between Cox s division and Gar 
land s brigade, f 

Against Garland s 1,000 men, General Cox, of Reno s 
corps, led the brigades of Scammon and Crook, stated by 

* At the battle of Boonsboro, many of the regiments reported un 
der 150 men to the regiment. 

f General Hill, in Battles and Leaders, II, 563. 



112 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Cox as "less than 3,000. " "The Thirteenth North Caro 
lina, under Lieutenant- Colonel Ruffin, and the Twentieth, 
under Col. A. Iverson, were furiously assailed on the left. 
Both regiments were under tried and true soldiers, and 
they received the assault calmly. Lieutenant Crome ran 
up a section of artillery by hand, and opened with effect 
upon the Twentieth North Carolina ; but the skirmishers 
under Captain Atwell of that regiment killed the gallant 
officer while he was serving as a gunner. The Federal 
effort was to turn the left where the Thirteenth was 
posted. * There General Garland, who had been urged 
by Colonel Ruffin not to expose himself so needlessly, was 
killed. "Upon the fall of Garland, Colonel McRae 
assumed command, and ordered the two regiments on 
the left to close in to the right. This order was not re 
ceived, or it was found to be impossible of execution. The 
main attack was on the Twenty- third North Carolina be 
hind the stone wall. Its namesake, the Twenty- third 
Ohio, seems to have been particularly zealous in this 
attack. The Federals had a plunging fire upon this regi 
ment from the crest of a hill, higher than the wall, and 
only about 50 yards from it. The Twelfth North Caro 
lina, only 72 men strong, could not offer much aid. It 
was, says Minor, commanded by an inexperienced captain, 
and under his order fell back and was thrown in some 
disorder from a severe fire, but nearly half of its mem 
bers attached themselves to the Thirteenth, and received 
Colonel Ruffin s commendation for bravery and "effi 
cient aid. The fight in front of the wall was of the stub- 
bornest nature. Some of the Ohio men broke through a 
gap, and for a few seconds bayonets and clubbed muskets 
were brought into play. Cox s numbers enabled him to 
fall on both flanks of the Carolinians, and this, with an 
assault < n their center, broke them in confusion. Gar 
land s d ath at the most critical time had also a depress 
ing effec t. Colonel Ruffin and part of his regiment were 
* Gener U Hill, in Battles and Leaders. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 113 

entirely surrounded at one time, but fought their way 
out with great gallantry. 

With the breaking of Garland s brigade, the enemy had 
no one in his front. Colquitt s brigade could not be 
moved from its important position, and Hill s other bri 
gades had not come up. General Hill, in desperation, ran 
two guns down from above, and, to give the appearance of 
infantry support, formed behind them a dismounted line 
of staff officers, teamsters, cooks and couriers. General 
Cox, however, did not know that he had an open front, 
and remained stationary. Half an hour later, Gen. 
G. B. Anderson arrived with his small North Carolina 
brigade. Anderson was sent to hold one of the two 
roads to the right of the turnpike, and nearer than the 
one on which Garland met his death. General Rosser 
with one regiment of cavalry and a few pieces of artillery 
occupied the other, and behaved gallantly during the 
day. Anderson made a gallant effort to recover the 
ground lost by Garland, but failed. Shortly after, Rodes 
brigade reached the field and was ordered to a command 
ing position considerably to the left of Colquitt. Ripley 
on arriving was directed to attach himself to Anderson s 
left. Anderson, thus strengthened, moved the Second 
and Fourth North Carolina forward to see what was in his 
front, and the Fourth was fired into by a whole brigade, 
which, however, did not follow the Fourth as it moved 
back to its position. A skirmish line attack on Colquitt 
was driven back. While waiting for reinforcements, all 
Hill s available artillery was kept busy. General Cox, 
from his article in "Battles and Leaders," evidently 
thought that up to this time he had fought Hill s whole 
division, whereas he had engaged only two brigades of it. 

About 3:30 p. m., Col. G. T. Anderson s brigade and 
Dray ton s brigade, of Longstreet s corps, arrived after an 
exhausting march of fourteen miles from Hagerstown. 
These brigades were sent to Ripley s left, and took posi 
tion in front of Cox. In some way, Ripley s brigade got 
INC 15 



114 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

out of line and marched backward and forward without 
finding its position, and "did not fire a gun all day. " 
General Hill now ordered his men forward. He had 
already found from an early morning observation that 
General McClellan s large army was advancing on the 
pass, and while such an advance made his position haz 
ardous, he was relieved to find McClellan in his front in 
such force, for the Confederates had feared that the Fed 
erals would cross nearer to Crampton s and strike 
McLaws rear before Harper s Ferry surrendered. 
While Longstreet s brigades were reaching the top of the 
mountains, the Federals were steadily marching heavy 
columns up to push their way through. Reno s other 
divisions, Willcox, Sturgis, Rodman, joined Cox and 
formed on the Confederate right. The First corps under 
Hooker, consisting of three divisions of 42 regiments of 
infantry, 10 batteries and cavalry, formed on the Con 
federate left to attack the position held by Rodes. Gib 
bon, of this corps, advanced on the National turnpike 
against Colquitt. Before the general advance in the 
afternoon, the Federals had, according to General McClel 
lan, 30,000 men; according to "Battles and Leaders of 
the Civil War," 23,778 men on the field of battle. The 
Confederates at no time during the day had over 9,000 
men on the field, and at the time of the opening attack 
on Rodes position, Hill s division of less than 5,000 
men had been reinforced by only the brigades of G. T. 
Anderson and Drayton and Hood s two. 

The general advance in the afternoon divided itself 
into three separate actions that on the Confederate 
right, that on the extreme left, and that against Colquitt 
near the center. The attack on the right was made by 
Reno s corps. This fell on Anderson s and a portion of 
Garland s North Carolinians, Drayton s South Carolinians 
and Georgians, and less heavily on G. T. Anderson s 
Georgians. Drayton s men were heavily attacked and 
broken. The other brigades held their own, with Hood s 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 115 

assistance, and while there were frequent advances and 
retreats, remained on their line till withdrawn for 
Sharpsburg. On the left, Rodes gallant brigade of 
1,200, attacked by the whole of Meade s division of 
Hooker s corps, made one of the most memorable stands 
of the war. Although fairly enveloped, he reformed and 
fought repeatedly, his men perfectly controlled, until at 
dusk Evans brought him relief enough to save him from 
destruction. Hatch s division advanced in beautiful 
order between Meade and Gibbon. As these brigades 
moved forward at first, there was not a Confederate sol 
dier to oppose them. The brigades of Kemper and of Gar- 
nett from Longstreet arrived, jaded and worn, but just in 
time to form in the face of Hatch. These two brigades, 
together not numbering over 800 men,* fought Hatch s 
men, numbering 3,500 men,f and held their own until 
both sides, exhausted, fell asleep within 100 yards of 
each other. 

Gibbon made, just before dark, a furious attack on Col- 
quitt s men posted across the pike. This assault was 
especially directed against Colquitt s two brave regi 
ments behind the stone fence. Gibbon lost 3 1 8 of his 1,500 
men, but failed to move Colquitt from his advantageous 
position. 

During this day of scattered battles, many gallant offi 
cers and men on both sides were killed or wounded. Of 
the Federals, General Reno, commanding a corps, was 
killed by the Twenty- third North Carolina. J General 
Hatch was wounded, as were also Colonels Gallagher and 
Wainwright, both commanding brigades. The death of 
General Garland was a serious loss to the Confederates. 
Daring to the point of recklessness, courteous, just and 
upright, he had completely won the affection of his Caro 
lina brigade, which followed him with the utmost loyalty 
and confidence. 

* Battles and Leaders, II, 575. 
f Hatch s Report, 
t McRae s Report. 



116 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

That night General Lee determined to withdraw his 
troops and concentrate on Sharpsburg. Maj. J. W. 
Ratchford, of General Hill s staff, one of the bravest of 
the brave, was sent in company with staff officers from 
General Longstreet s and General Hood s commands to 
give the requisite orders. So close were the contending 
lines, that Major Ratchford says that in some places 
they had to approach the lines on hands and knees and 
give the orders in a whisper. The retirement to Sharps- 
burg was made in good order and covered by the cavalry, 
which during the Maryland campaign was kept busy. 
The day before the battles just described, the First North 
Carolina cavalry, Col. L. S. Baker, had taken part in a 
sharp artillery and cavalry fight at Middletown. Colo 
nel Baker s regiment held the rear, and, General Stuart 
says, acted with conspicuous gallantry. General Hamp 
ton says of the same battle that this regiment was ex 
posed to a severe fire of artillery and musketry, which it 
bore without flinching ; nor was there the slightest con 
fusion in its ranks. The regiment had eight men 
wounded, and Captain Siler lost a leg. 

On the 1 5th, Harper s Ferry surrendered, and the 
troops operating against it were free to hasten a junc 
tion with Lee, now seriously endangered. Nothing but 
the desperate resistance to the Federal advance at the 
mountain gaps saved Lee, for this check to the move 
ment of the Federals gave Jackson and his comrades time 
to receive the surrender of Harper s Ferry, and then to 
reach Sharpsburg early enough to participate in that 
great battle. During the investment of this beautiful 
place, the divisions of Jackson, McLaws and Walker had 
co-operated. McLaws, on the north bank of the river, 
seized Maryland heights and placed his artillery in posi 
tion where it did execution. General Walker approached 
on the Hillsboro road. At the foot of Loudon heights, 
he sent Colonel Cooke with the Twenty-seventh North 
Carolina to occupy the heights. Batteries were then 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 117 

established, and on the i4th engaged in an artillery duel 
with the enemy, in which Maj. F. L. Wiatt, of the Forty- 
eighth North Carolina, was wounded, and one or two pri 
vates were also struck. General Jackson moved by way 
of the Winchester & Harper s Ferry railroad. On near- 
ing the town, General Fender, in command of his own, 
Archer s and Brockenbrough s brigades, was sent to seize 
a crest overlooking the town, which was done with slight 
loss. This eminence was that night crowned with artil 
lery. Generals Branch and Gregg marched along the 
river and occupied the plains in rear of the enemy s 
works. E well s division was moved into position on 
Schoolhouse hill, and other batteries were placed. On 
the 1 5th, all the guns on both sides opened with much 
noise and little destruction. Just as General Fender 
prepared to move his infantry forward in assault, a white 
flag was displayed, and General White, the commanding 
officer, surrendered n,ooo men, 73 pieces of artillery, 
13,000 small-arms, and other stores.* 

After a brief rest, Jackson and Walker started to join 
their commander. "By a severe night march," they 
reached Sharpsburg about noon on the i6th. General 
Walker says: "The thought of General Lee s perilous 
situation, with the Potomac river on his rear, confronting 
with his small force McClellan s vast army, had haunted 
me through the long hours of the night s march, "f 
A. P. Hill and McLaws followed Jackson, arriving during 
the battle when they were sorely needed. When Jackson 
and Walker reported for position, General Lee s ground 
had been selected, and he had placed Longstreet on his 
right and D. H. Hill to Longstreet s left. The line of 
battle extended along a slight crest, parallel to the Antie- 
tam river, and just in front of the village of Sharpsburg. 
General Jackson was assigned to the extreme left, his 
right connecting with Hill s left, and his line at first 

* Jackson s Report. 

f Sharpsburg," Battles and Leaders, II, 675. 



118 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

being almost parallel to the Hagerstown turnpike. Gen 
eral Walker was first placed on Longstreet s right, but 
subsequently moved to reinforce the left. 

The Confederate army had now been continuously en 
gaged since early spring. It had not had the rest that a 
large part of McClellan s army enjoyed while Pope was 
engaging Lee. In this campaign its marches had been 
long and its men so badly clothed and fed that the 
straggling, even of good soldiers, was enormous. Hun 
gry men may fight well, but they do not march well. 
Moreover, many of Lee s men had been wounded more 
than once during the year and their bodies were con 
sequently frail, and hard service and hunger told fear 
fully on these weakened men. Hence it was with largely- 
depleted ranks that Lee faced McClellan at Sharpsburg. 
The Federals, on the other hand, had moved slowly from 
around Washington, had an abundant commissariat, and 
were well clothed and in all respects well supplied. 

On the afternoon of the i6th, Hooker crossed the Antie- 
tam without opposition, and after a sharp assault on 
Hood s brigades, which had been moved to D. H. Hill s 
left before Jackson s arrival, bivouacked on that side of 
the river. The Sixth North Carolina was engaged in 
this attack on Hood. During the night Hood was with 
drawn to allow his men, "who had been without food for 
three days, except a half ration of beef for one day, and 
green corn," to cook. The brigades of Trimble and 
Law, of Jackson s corps, took Hood s place on the line, 
Trimble connecting with Hill. During the night the 
Federals were not idle. General Mansfield, with the 
Twelfth corps, crossed and moved up behind Hooker. 
This made five Federal divisions ready to fall on the 
Confederate left in the morning. 

Before daylight on the lyth, the reverberation of can 
non along the sluggish Antietam ushered in the most 
bloody one day s shock of battle yet seen on the western 
continent Before merciful night intervened to stop 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 119 

the fratricidal strife, 11,657 Federal soldiers lay dead or 
wounded on the river slopes, and almost 10,000 South 
erners lay near them. The choicest soldiers of two great 
armies of countrymen had met, wrestled to sheer exhaus 
tion for victory, and yet, as the day closed, the line of 
battle stood nearly as it began. 

As soon as it was light enough to see, Hooker moved 
his three divisions against the Confederate left flank. 
The attack fell first on Jackson, and Ripley, of D. H. 
Hill s left, went to his aid, and fierce and bloody was the 
encounter. The two lines," as Palfrey says, "almost 
tore each other to pieces." The carnage was simply 
frightful, and yet it was only beginning. Between 6 
and 7 o clock Mansfield pressed forward to support Hook 
er. The Twenty-first North Carolina and the P^irst bat 
talion, of E well s division, and the First and Third regi 
ments of D. H. Hill s division were so far the only North 
Carolina troops engaged. Hood is now sent for, and the 
Sixth regiment, Major Webb, enters with him. G. T. 
Anderson enters to brace the Confederate left. Double - 
day s attack was driven back, Gibbon and Phelps suffer 
ing terribly; the Confederates, however, were repulsed 
in an effort to follow their advantage. Hofmann and 
Ricketts, and subsequently Mansfield s brigades, moved 
further toward the Confederate center, and this brought 
into action the brigades of Colquitt and Garland, of D. H. 
Hill s division. Garland s brigade was commanded by 
Col. D. K. McRae, and included the Fifth, Twelfth, Thir 
teenth, Twentieth and Twenty-third North Carolina regi 
ments. The artillery, under Col. S. D. Lee and Major Fro- 
bel, watched for its opportunity, moved for every com 
manding position, and was most handsomely served. Dur 
ing this time men had fallen as leaves fall. So thick 
were men lying that General Hood found difficulty in 
keeping his horse from stepping on wounded men. On 
the Federal side, General Mansfield was killed; Generals 
Hooker, Hartsuff, Crawford and many subordinates were 



120 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

wounded. On the Confederate side, General Starke and 
Colonel Douglass, commanding Lawton s brigade, had 
been killed; Generals Lawton, D. R. Jones and Ripley 
wounded. A third of the men of Lawton s, Hays and 
Trimble s brigades were reported killed or wounded. Of 
Colquitt s field officers, 4 were killed, 5 wounded, and the 
remaining one struck slightly. All of Jackson s and D. H. 
Hill s troops engaged suffered proportionately.* 

As Mansfield s men of the Twelfth corps deployed, 
Hooker s corps, worn from its struggle with Jackson, 
withdrew up the Hagerstown pike. General Long-street 
says : "Walker, Hood and D. H. Hill attacked against the 
Twelfth corps; worn by its fight against Jackson, it was 
driven back as far as the post and rail fence on the east 
open, where they were checked. They (the Confederates) 
were outside of the line, their left in the air, and exposed 
to the fire of a 3o-gun battery posted at long range on the 
Hagerstown ridge by General Doubleday. Their left 
was withdrawn and the line rectified, when Greene s bri 
gade of the Twelfth resumed position in the northeast 
angle of the wood, which it held until Sedgwick s divi 
sion came in bold march. " 

The Sixth Regiment History says of the part of that 
command: "The enemy s guns in our front poured shot 
and shell in us w T hile we were exposed to a cross-fire from 
his long-range guns, posted on the northeast side of An- 
tietam creek. . . . Our line was called into action, and 
moved to the front on the Snaketown road, and 
between it and the Hagerstown pike. The front 
line had made a noble stand, but they were being 
pressed back. The enemy with fresh lines was 
pushing forward when we met them. Here it was 
that, for the first time in the war, I saw men fix 
their bayonets in action, which they did at the com 
mand of General Hood, who was riding up and down the 
line. We broke their line and held our place for awhile, 

* Manassas to Appomattox, p. 243. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 121 

but the enemy was bringing up fresh columns and over 
lapping our left, and we were forced back. The enemy 
seemed to be overcoming us until our left was reinforced 
by troops ordered from our right. They engaged the 
enemy and drove them back of the Dunker church, and 
our lines were re-established." The Twenty-first, com 
manded by Capt. F. P. Miller, who was killed during the 
battle, along with the Twenty-first Georgia, was posted 
by Colonel Walker, commanding Trimble s brigade, be 
hind a stone fence, and, says General Early, "concentrat 
ing their fire upon a part of the enemy s line in front of 
the latter [regiment], succeeded in breaking it. " Colonel 
Thruston, of the Third North Carolina, gives this picture 
of the part of Ripley s brigade in the action on the left: 

The house being passed, the Third North Carolina in 
fantry mounted over the fence and through the orchard, 
when the order was given to change direction to the left 
to meet the pressure upon General Jackson, near what is 
known as the Dunker church. This change of front 
was admirable, though executed under heavy fire of infan 
try and artillery. Owing to this change, our line of bat 
tle was 500 yards further to the left than it was in the 
early morning, and brought us in close connection with 
the troops of the right, and in the deadly embrace of the 
enemy. I use the word embrace in its fullest meaning. 
Here Colonel DeRosset fell, severely wounded and per 
manently disabled, Captain Thruston taking command at 
once. It was now about 7 130 a. m. Jackson s troops were 
in the woods around, and west of the Dunker church 
and north of the Sharpsburg-Hagerstown turnpike. As 
we came up he advanced and drove the enemy back 
across a cornfield and into a piece of woods east and 
north of the church. Here the enemy, being reinforced 
by Mansfield s corps, returned to the assault, and the 
fighting became desperate for an hour. The two weak 
divisions of Jackson and one brigade of D. H. Hill 
fought and held in check the six* divisions of Hooker 
and Mansfield; so tenaciously did their brave troops 
cling to the earth, that when reinforced by Hood and two 

* There were only five present. 

N 1 



122 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

brigades of D. H. Hill, they were still north of the pike 
and contending for every inch of ground between it and 
the cornfield in front. At the moment when their am 
munition was absolutely exhausted and all had been used 
from the boxes and pockets of dead comrades, the rein 
forcements of Hill and Hood, above referred to, came up 
and stayed the tide for a short time. Now Sumner with 
his three divisions put in appearance, when our thin 
lines were slowly pressed back by the weight of num 
bers into the woods, and beyond the church to the edge 
of a field to the south, through which the divisions of 
Walker and McLaws were hurrying to our assistance. 

Garland s brigade under Colonel McRae went into ac 
tion with alacrity, but owing to an unfortunate blunder of 
one of the captains, several of its regiments became 
unsteady and fell back in much confusion. The Twenty- 
third, General Hill reports, was kept intact, and moved to 
the sunken road. Portions of this brigade were rallied 
by Colonel McRae and Captain Garnett and others, and 
again joined in the battle. 

A little before ten, General Walker, having been or 
dered from the right, pushed into the smoke and confu 
sion of combat just behind Hood. Walker s division, 
consisting of Walker s own brigade and Ransom s bri 
gade, was, with the exception of two regiments, composed 
of North Carolinians. His own brigade, under Manning 
and then under Col. E. D. Hall, of the Forty-sixth North 
Carolina, included the Twenty-seventh, Col. J. R. Cooke ; 
the Forty-sixth, Colonel Hall, and the Forty-eighth, 
Col. R. C. Hill, North Carolina regiments; and Ran 
som s brigade comprised the Twenty-fourth, Col. J. L. 
Harris; the Twenty-fifth, Col. H. M. Rutledge; the Thirty- 
fifth, Col. M. W. Ransom, and the Forty-ninth, Lieut. - 
Col. L. M. McAfee, North Carolina regiments. As Gen 
eral Walker went in, he was notified that there was a gap 
of a third of a mile to the left of General Hill, and he 
detached the Twenty-seventh North Carolina and the 
Third Arkansas, under Col. J. R. Cooke, of the Carolina 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 123 

regiment, to fill this gap, and well did they carry out 
their instructions. General McLaws division from Har 
per s Ferry entered coincidently with Walker at 10:30.* 
The second stage of the battle has now been reached. 
Hooker has retired and Mansfield has been brought to a 
stand. Jackson, worn and exhausted, has retired. Hood s 
brigade has been so cut to pieces that when its daunt 
less commander was asked, "Where is your division?" he 
answered, "Dead on the field." D. H. Hill s three bri 
gades have been drawn in, and only a small force 
guards the Confederate left. At this moment General 
Sumner marched against the Confederates with the Sec 
ond corps of three divisions. General Sumner, as quoted 
by Longstreet, thus described the field when he ad 
vanced: "On going on the field, I found that General 
Hooker s corps had been dispersed and routed. I passed 
him some distance in the rear, where he had been carried 
wounded, but I saw nothing of his corps at all, as I was 
advancing with my command on the field. There were 
some troops lying down on the left which I took to belong 
to Mansfield s command. In the meantime, General Mans 
field had been killed, and a portion of his corps (formerly 
Banks ) had also been thrown into confusion." Sedg- 
wick, of Sumner, was in the lead, and his three brigades 
moved toward the Bunker church and left it a little to 
their left. Just then there were not enough Confederates 
in his front to stop a brigade, but Walker, as seen above, 
was just arriving and McLaws was supporting him, and 
Early made splendid use of his brigade. Walker at the 
head of his six North Carolina regiments and two others, 
"charged headlong," says Gen. J. D. Cox, who com 
manded the extreme Federal left, "upon the left flank 
of Sedgwick s lines, which were soon thrown into con 
fusion; and McLaws, passing by Walker s left, also 
threw his division diagonally upon the already broken 
and retreating lines of Sumner. Taken at such disaci- 

* Walker, in Battles and Leaders, II, p. 678. 



124 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

vantage, these had never a chance, and in spite of the 
heroic bravery of Sumner and Sedgwick, with most of 
their officers (Sedgwick being severely wounded), the 
division was driven off to the north with terrible 
losses, carrying along in the rout part of Williams men, 
of the Twelfth corps."* Palfrey says: " Nearly 2,000 
men were disabled in a moment. Then he adds, with 
a candor rare among some Federal participants: "The 
jubilant assertions of Confederate officers in regard to 
the repulse of Sedgwick s divisions are not more than 
the facts warrant. They did drive the enemy before them 
in magnificent style; they did * sweep the woods with per 
fect ease; they did inflict great loss on the enemy; they 
did drive them not only through the woods, but (some of 
them, at any rate) over a field in front of the woods, and 
over two high fences beyond and into another body of 
woods (i. e. , the east woods) over half a mile distant from 
the commencement of the fight. "f 

In this rout of Sedgwick, the North Carolina regi 
ments were destructive participants, Walker s division 
containing them being, as stated by Cox, the first to 
start the rout. On the right, Colonel Manning, com 
manding a brigade, took the Forty-sixth and Forty-eighth 
North Carolina and Thirteenth Virginia, "and dashed 
forward in gallant style, crossed the open field beyond, 
driving the enemy before them like sheep until, arriving 
at a long line of strong post and rail fences, behind which 
heavy masses of the enemy s infantry were lying, their 
advance was checked ; these regiments, after suffering a 
heavy loss, were compelled to fall back to the woods. J 
General Walker, however, mistakes about this advance 
being checked by Mansfield s men at this fence, so often 
mentioned in reports of this battle ; for, as Lieut. W. F. 
Beasley has shown, the Forty-eighth (and perhaps the 

* Battles and Leaders, II, 644. 

t Antietam and Frederick sburg, p. 91. 

i Walker s Official Report 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 125 

others) "not only reached this fence, but drove the enemy 
from it, passed over and far beyond it (some 75 yards) 
before Lieut. -Col. S. H. Walkup ordered the regiment to 
fall back."* In the retirement of this regiment, Colonel 
Manning, a native of Pitt county, was severely wounded, 
and Col. E. D. Hall succeeded to the command of the 
brigade. To the left, General Ransom s brigade of Caro 
linians drove the enemy from the woods in its front, and 
then, with grim determination, held, for the rest of the 
day, that important position, called by General Walker 
"the key of the battlefield," in defiance of several sharp, 
later infantry attacks. Ransom s men endured a pro 
longed fire from the enemy s batteries on the extreme 
edge of the field. General Walker reports: "True to 
their duty, for eight hours our brave men lay upon the 
ground, taking advantage of such undulations and shal 
low ravines as gave promise of partial shelter, while this 
fearful storm raged a few feet above their heads, tearing 
the trees asunder, and filling the air with shrieks and 
explosions, realizing to the fullest the fearful sublimity 
of battle." Colonel Ransom, of the Thirty-fifth regi 
ment, left in command of the brigade by the temporary 
absence on official duty of General Ransom, withstood a 
serious attack and led his command in a hot pursuit. 
The Twenty-seventh North Carolina and Third Arkansas 
regiments, left to guard the gap in the lines already men 
tioned, fought as an independent little brigade. Their 
conduct was so conspicuously gallant that it received the 
special commendation of the commander-in-chief, a corps 
commander, and two division commanders. 

"Thus, " comments Palfrey upon Sedgwick s defeat at 
the end of the second stage of this great battle, "by 10 
o clock the successes of the morning were lost." The 
disappearance of Sedgwick ended the serious fighting 
on the left. But Sumner s remaining divisions, com 
manded by French and Richardson, were already on the 

* Our Living and Dead, I, 330. 



126 CONFEDERA TE MILITARY HISTOR V. 

march against the Confederate center. The center was 
held by D. H. Hill. Three of his brigades had been 
used since early morning in the battle on the left ; of 
these, Ripley s, the first to be engaged, had retired with 
Walker; Garland s had been badly broken; Colquitt s, 
after the fall of most of its officers, was withdrawn, but 
some of its men in desultory squads went back to active 
work on the line. So Hill was left with only the Ala 
bama brigade of Rodes and the North Carolina brigade 
of G. B. Anderson to stand against the divisions of 
French and Richardson. To his left, the Twenty-sev 
enth North Carolina and Third Alabama of Walker s 
brigade were still bravely in line. Against these two 
brigades and some regimental fragments, Richardson and 
French moved. "They came," says General Longstreet, 
"in brave style, in full appreciation of the work in hand, 
marched better than on drill, unfolded banners making 
gay their gallant step." But these were no holiday sol 
diers; they struck long and hard,* and in vastly superior 
force. 

So immovably, however, did the battle-tried North 
Carolinians and Alabamians, aided later by R. H. An 
derson s division,! die in piles on the sunken road in 
which they fought, that they have made it immortal as 
"Bloody Lane." Colonel Allan says: "After a most 
gallant resistance, Hill was driven from the Bloody Lane. 
Anderson was involved in the defeat, and it looked as if 
the enemy was about to pierce the Confederate center. 
The noble efforts of many brave men prevented this 
result. The artillery was managed and served with a 
skill never surpassed. Fragments of commands fought 
with a splendid determination. As General Longstreet 
says, the brave Col. J. R. Cooke (Twenty-seventh North 
Carolina) showed front to the enemy when he no longer 

* The losses in these two divisions in their attack on the center 
were 2,915. 
f Rebellion Records, Vol. XIX, p. 191, et seq. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 127 

had a cartridge. Such instances of gallantry as Long- 
street relates of his own staff did much to encourage our 
men. The manner in which Longstreet, D. H. Hill and 
other officers of high rank exposed themselves, contributed 
to the result, and though, as General Longstreet says, 
some ground was gained and held at this point by the Fed 
erals, the attempt to break through the center failed."* 

Without any disparagement of the gallantry of the 
attackers, it must be said that their gaining the Bloody 
Lane was not entirely the result of their righting, good 
as that was. General Rodes, whose men were in most 
excellent positions, having profited by their experience 
as campaigners and piled rails in front of the sunken 
road, ordered Colonel Lightfoot to turn his regiment to 
the left so as to meet an enfilade fire. Lightfoot seems 
to have misunderstood, and drew his men out of line and 
told the next regiment that the order was intended also 
for it. General Rodes was, at the time the movement 
began, aiding a wounded comrade, and was at the same 
time struck by a fragment of a shell. Before he could 
correct the mistake, the enemy poured into the gap. 
The withdrawal of these regiments, as unexpected to 
their commanders as it probably was to their enemies, 
gave their earnest assailants their first advantage. 

While bravely discharging his duty in this part of the 
field, Gen. George B. Anderson, of North Carolina, re 
ceived a wound that proved mortal. It is stated that he 
was the first officer in regular army service at the time to 
resign his commission to join the Confederacy, and he 
served his new government with zeal, ability and devo 
tion. He was a man of winning manners, warm heart, 
modest manliness and intense love of truth. No man in 
service had gained more steadily the admiration and 
respect of his own men and officers, and the confidence of 
his superior officers. 

There remains now only the final stage of this day of 

* Southern Historical Society Papers, Vol. XIV, p. 114. 



128 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

slaughter. This was the attack of Burnside s corps, 
mainly directed by General Cox, as Burnside was in 
command of one of the wings. To make this attack, the 
corps thought it necessary to carry what has since been 
known as Burnside s bridge across the Antietam, held by 
two regiments and a part of a regiment from General 
Toombs brigade. No more gallant deed was done that 
day than the defense of this bridge by those devoted 
Georgia regiments. The enemy, however, found a ford, 
and by attack from the men who crossed there and a 
direct assault on the bridge carried it. This was fol 
lowed by the attack of this corps on the Confederate 
right, held by the division of D. R. Jones, in which there 
were no North Carolina troops. Jones men stood man 
fully to their lines, but while his left baffled the efforts of 
Burnside s men, his right was overlapped and broken. 
At this crisis, A. P. Hill s division, after a hard march of 
17 miles, deployed into battle line without a moment s 
breathing spell, and their fearless onslaught decided the 
day on the right. In his brigades were two purely North 
Carolina ones, Branch s and Fender s. General Long- 
street, to whose corps Jones belonged, thus describes the 
close of the battle : 

When General Lee found that General Jackson had left 
six of his brigades under Gen. A. P. Hill to receive the 
property and garrison surrendered at Harper s Ferry, he 
sent orders for them to join him, and by magic spell had 
them on the field to meet the final crisis.* He ordered 
two of them, guided by Captain Latrobe, to guard against 
approach of other forces that might come against him by 
bridge No. 4, Pender s and Brockenbrough s, and threw 
Branch s, Gregg s and Archer s against the forefront of 
the battle, while Toombs , Kemper s and Garnett s 
engaged against its right. . . . Pegram s and Crenshaw s 
batteries were put in with A. P. Hill s three brigades. The 
Washington artillery, vS. D. Lee s and Frobel s, found 
places for part of their batteries, ammunition replenished. 

* Thomas brigade was, left behind to finish at Harper s Ferry, so 
Hill had only five. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 129 

D. H. Hill found opportunity to put in parts of his artillery 
under Elliott, Boyce, Carter and Maurin. Toombs 
absent regiments returned as he made his way around to 
the enemy s right, and joined the right of Gen. D. R. 
Jones. The strong battle concentrating against General 
Burnside seemed to spring from the earth as his march 
bore him further from the river. Outflanked and stag 
gered by the gallant attack of A. P. Hill s brigades, his 
advance was arrested. . . . General Cox, reinforced by 
his reserve under General Sturgis, handled well his left 
against A. P. Hill ; but assailed in front and on his flank 
by concentrating fires that were crushing, he found it 
necessary to recover his lines and withdraw. A. P. Hill s 
brigades, Toombs and Kemper, followed. They recov 
ered Mclntosh s battery and the ground that had been 
lost on the right, before the slow advancing night drop 
ped her mantle upon this field of seldom equaled strife. "* 

Gen. A. P. Hill reports of his brigades: "With a yell 
of defiance, Archer charged them, retook Mclntosh s 
guns, and drove them back pellmell. Branch and Gregg 
with their old veterans sternly held their ground, and 
pouring in destructive volleys, the tide of the enemy 
surged back. 

Pender s brigade was not actively engaged. In Branch s, 
General Lane says that the Twenty-eighth was detached, 
and with the Eighteenth, was not seriously engaged. 
The Thirty-third, Seventh and Thirty-seventh were the 
regiments principally engaged. They fought well, and 
assisted in driving back three separate and distinct col 
umns of the enemy. 

The artillery came in for a full share of fighting in this 
campaign. Latham s, Manly s, and Re illy s batteries did 
hard service. Manly s was especially commended for 
active and accurate service at Crampton s gap. At 
Sharpsburg, Major Frobel, chief of artillery, highly ap 
plauds Reilly s conduct of his guns. He reports: "I cannot 
too highly applaud the conduct of both officers and men. 
Captains Bachman and Reilly fought their batteries with 

*Manassas to Appomattox, pp. 261, 262. 
No 17 



130 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

their usual determination and devotion to the cause. 
Captain Reilly s first lieutenant, J. A. Ramsey, who that 
day fought his section for a time under the direct per 
sonal orders of General Lee, is also commended for 
gallant conduct. 

In this brilliant close to a hard day s battle, North Caro 
lina lost a gifted son in the death of General Branch. 
His commander, Gen. A. P. Hill, said of him: "The 
Confederacy has to mourn the loss of a gallant soldier 
and accomplished gentleman, who fell in this battle at 
the head of his brigade, Brig. -Gen. L. O B. Branch, of 
North Carolina. He was my senior brigadier, and one to 
whom I could have intrusted the command of the division 
with all confidence. For a time in this campaign he 
did command the division. Just as his brigade had so 
gloriously helped to shatter the columns of his old New 
Bern adversary, General Burnside, he fell dead on the 
field. General Branch had achieved high honors in civil 
life. These he had given up to serve his country man 
fully in the field, and he was rapidly working toward the 
highest rank when he fell, as soldiers love to die at the 
head of a victorious command. Major Gordon, of the 
adjutant-general s office, says that on the very day Gen 
eral Branch was killed, he had been appointed major-gen 
eral, but that the government, hearing of his death, never 
issued his commission. Sutton says of his death : "No 
country had a truer son, or nobler champion, no princi 
ple a bolder defender than the noble and gallant soldier, 
Gen. Lawrence O Brian Branch." 

General Lee lost about one-third of his army on this 
field of blood. The next day, however, he remained on 
the field, defiant and ready to meet any new attack Mc- 
Clellan might order, but his enemy had suffered enough 
and made no move. That night he quietly crossed the 
Potomac "without loss or molestation." General Pen- 
dleton, with the reserve artillery and about 600 infantry, 
was left to guard the ford near Shepherdstown. General 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 131 

Griffin headed some volunteers from four regiments, 
crossed the river, and driving off Pendleton s infantry, 
captured three or four pieces of artillery. The next 
morning, some brigades from the divisions of Morell and 
Sykes crossed the river. Their crossing and advance were 
protected by numerously posted batteries on the Federal 
side. Gen. A. P. Hill s division was ordered by General 
Jackson to drive these forces across the Potomac. Hill 
advanced with the brigades of Pender, Gregg and 
Thomas, in his front line, Lane (Branch s brigade), Archer 
and Brockenbrough in his second. The advance of these 
brigades was made in the face of "a tremendous fire of 
artillery. The infantry in front of Gregg and Thomas 
was in small force and soon brushed away." Pender 
met a sharp infantry fire. His Carolinians were not 
retarded, however, and Archer s brigade and Lane, with 
his North Carolinians, supporting them, the small force in 
front was soon driven across the Potomac. These 
brigades remained under artillery fire the rest of the day. 
General Pender in his report pays a high compliment to 
the Twenty-second regiment, commanded by Maj. C. C. 
Cole. He says: "In the Twenty-second the list (for 
good conduct) will be rather long, as it is upon it and its 
commander that I usually call when any special or dan 
gerous services are to be performed. There have been 
many exaggerated statements made as to the Federal 
losses in this battle. Their official reports itemized show 
a total loss of only 363. 

The total North Carolina losses in the invasion of 
Maryland so far as they are officially reported were, killed, 
335; wounded, 1,838. This official list, however, does 
not include the casualties in the Fifth, Twelfth and Four 
teenth regiments. The following field officers, or acting 
field officers, were killed or mortally wounded: Gen. 
L. O B. Branch, Gen. G. B. Anderson, Col. C. C. Tew, 
and Capts. W. T. Marsh and D. P. Latham, commanding 
Fourth North Carolina. The following field officers, or 



132 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

acting field officers, were wounded: Cols. Van H. Man 
ning, R. T. Bennett, F. M. Parker, W. L. DeRosset; 
Lieut -Cols. Sanders, W. A. Johnston, Thomas Ruffin 
(three times); Majs. R. F. Webb and S. D. Thruston; 
Captains (commanding regiments) S. McD. Tate and 
E. A. Osborne. 

In October, Gen. J. E. B. Stuart made a daring cavalry 
expedition into Pennsylvania. In this expedition the 
First North Carolina cavalry, Lieut. -Col. J. B. Gordon, 
took part. General Hampton in his official report com 
mends the regiment, and especially the squadron com 
manded by Capt. W. H. H. Cowles, which had some 
special duties assigned to it. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THE FREDERICKSBURG CAMPAIGN AFFAIRS IN NORTH 
CAROLINA SUPPLIES FOR TROOPS BROUGHT BY 
THE ADVANCE ENGAGEMENTS IN NORTH CARO 
LINABATTLE NEAR GOLDSBORO NORTH CARO 
LINA TROOPS IN THE WESTERN ARMY BATTLES 
OF MURFREESBORO AND STONE RIVER. 

THE last great battle of 1862 was fought on the 
hills around Fredericksburg. There, seeing the 
design of the Federal commander, General Lee con 
centrated his army to await attack. General McClellan 
had been displaced by the Federal authorities on the 
8th of November, and General Burnside appointed 
to succeed him as commander in the field. The new 
leader, yielding to public pressure for some success 
before the year closed, prepared to attack Lee in his 
chosen position. Burnside had organized his army into 
three grand divisions, under Sumner, Hooker and Frank 
lin. The first weeks in December, these grand divisions 
were stretched along the northern bank of the Rappa- 
hannock, and were searching for ways to cross over for 
an attack. On the southern side of the river, Lee s army 
was posted on the hills and ridges just back of Freder 
icksburg. His line extended parallel to the river, and 
stretched from a point just across from Falmouth to 
Hamilton s crossing, a distance of about three miles. His 
left was under Longstreet, and his right under Jackson. 
R. H. Anderson s division formed the extreme left of 
Longstreet. His line reached from Taylor s hill to the 
foot of Marye s hill. There, in the famous sunken road 
behind a stone wall, Cobb s brigade of McLaws division 
was posted. On the left of Cobb and on the prolongation 

133 



134 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

of his line, the Twenty-fourth North Carolina stood. 
General Ransom was in charge of a North Carolina divi 
sion of eight regiments, and this was assigned place behind 
McLaws on the reserve line, and immediately behind the 
crest of Marye s and Willis hills. The immediate care 
of this important point was committed to General Ran 
som. The eight regiments of this division formed two 
brigades, one Ransom s own, the other Cooke s. To 
Ransom s right was Pickett, and then Hood holding 
Longstreet s right. In Hood s division there were three 
North Carolina regiments. Jackson s troops were 
massed along the line of the Fredericksburg & Poto 
mac railroad. A. P. Hill held the front line without 
much cover. Pender s North Carolina brigade, Lane s 
North Carolina brigade, and Archer s mixed brigade were 
on A. P. Hill s front line. They were supported by the 
brigades of Thomas, Gregg and Brockenbrough, respect 
ively. Taliaferro and Early formed a third line, and 
D. H. Hill s division was in reserve. Marye s hill was 
occupied by the Washington artillery; the reserve artil 
lery was on its right and left. The division batteries of 
Anderson, Ransom and McLaws, including Manly s North 
Carolina battery, were stationed along the line. On 
Jackson s front, fourteen pieces of artillery, including a 
section of Latham s battery, were posted under Lieuten 
ant-Colonel Walker, and Stuart s horse artillery and cav 
alry were on Jackson s right flank. North Carolina had 
present in the army thus drawn up, thirty-two regiments 
and one battalion of infantry, two regiments of cavalry, 
and three batteries of artillery. Two division commanders 
and six brigade commanders were also from the same 
State. 

General Burnside arranged to cross the river by pon 
toon bridges. Franklin s grand division was not opposed, 
and his men made the passage near Deep run without 
difficulty. Sumner s grand division in front of the 
town, however, was so harassed by Barksdale s Missis- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 135 

sippi sharpshooters that every effort to lay the bridges 
was futile. Finally, regiments enough to attack Barks- 
dale were sent over in boats under cover of a fearful can 
nonade from 147 guns on Stafford hills. After Barks- 
dale was withdrawn, the right grand division crossed 
on the pontoon bridges. Burnside ordered Franklin s 
grand division to attack the position held by Jackson. 
Reynolds corps was selected, and he advanced Meade s 
division, supported on the right by Gibbon s division ; and 
then, when Meade was fired upon on his left, Doubleday s 
division was advanced to Meade s left. Meade s attack 
fell first on Lane s brigade of North Carolinians. In the 
general alignment, Lane s brigade did not join Archer s 
brigade on his right by, Lane says, 600 yards. Into this 
interval the enemy marched, thus turning Lane s right 
flank and Archer s left. Lane s Thirty-seventh and 
Twenty-eighth regiments, under Colonels Barbour and 
Stowe, stationed on the left, made a resolute stand, but 
were firmly pressed back. The Thirty-third, Colonel 
Avery, checked the enemy for a few moments and even 
essayed to charge, but found its effort unsupported. The 
Eighteenth, Colonel Purdie, fell back firing until it 
reached the woods. The Seventh, Lieutenant- Colonel 
Hill, had been ordered across the railroad to support a 
battery, and had acted with gallantry. It was now sent 
for, but the brigade was pushed out of line before the 
message was delivered. Thomas then moved his brigade 
to Lane s support, and, with the Eighteenth and Seventh 
formed on his left, pushed the enemy back across the 
railroad. Lane s brigade had made a bold, stand and 
gave ground only after what General Lee called * * a brave 
and obstinate resistance." Gen. A. P. Hill reported that 
the Twenty-eighth and Thirty-seventh "continued to 
fight until their ammunition was exhausted and were 
then quietly and steadily retired from the field." 
Archer s left regiments were broken, and the enemy 
pushed gallantly on to the second line. Three brigades 



136 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

of Early s division were called to the front, and these 
uniting their efforts to those of tne other troops, Meade s 
men were driven back with great loss. Only one of 
Early s three brigades contained any North Carolina 
troops. That was Trimble s brigade, commanded by a 
North Carolina colonel, R. F. Hoke. In this brigade 
were the Twenty-first North Carolina and the First bat 
talion. General Early says of the charge of this brigade: 
I ordered Hoke to advance to his [Archer s] support. 
This was done in gallant style, and Hoke found the 
enemy in possession of the trench (which had been occu 
pied by General Archer s brigade). . . . Hoke attacked 
the enemy vigorously and drove them from the woods 
and trench to the railroad in front, in which there were 
reserves. He followed up his attack and drove the 
enemy from the railroad, which was a strong position, 
some distance, capturing a considerable number of pris 
oners. Colonel Scales says this charge made Colonel 
Hoke a brigadier-general, although it nearly cost him his 
life ; for his horse fell from a shell wound and threw his 
rider. The animal, however, immediately rose and 
dashed off, dragging Colonel Hoke, whose foot was 
caught in the stirrup. He was rescued by Colonel Gates 
men. Colonel Gates said of the Twenty-first North Caro 
lina: "The Tarheels moved them down in files." * 

Fender s brigade, stationed to Lane s left, was not 
exposed to so severe an ordeal as Lane s. When the 
skirmishers and sharpshooters in his front became too 
annoying, his Twenty-second regiment, Major Cole, drove 
them away. Colonel McElroy, with the Sixteenth North 
Carolina, was posted in advance of the line near the rail 
road cut to support a battery. While there, and with his 
left entirely unprotected, a brigade of Federals took him 
unawares and captured an officer and fifteen men who 
had been thrown out as flankers. General Law, of Hood s 
division, saw the danger that the battery and regiment 

* Scales address in Fredericksburg. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 137 

were in, and detaching- the Fifty-seventh and Fifty-fourth 
North Carolina, both new regiments never under fire 
before, he advanced with them, and joined by McElroy, 
the three regiments dispersed the enemy. During the 
engagement, a body of the enemy opened fire from the 
woods bordering the run, upon the left of the advancing 
line. "This was checked by a fire from the left of the 
Fifty-seventh and Fifty-fourth, which changed front obli 
quely to the left in order to face the woods." General 
Law says in his report : * * The conduct of the Fifty-seventh 
and Fifty-fourth North Carolina regiments was admirable. 
I cannot speak too highly of their steady courage in 
advancing, and the coolness with which they retired to 
the line of railroad when ordered. Colonel Godwin, com 
manding the Fifty- seventh, and Colonel McDowell, com 
manding the Fifty-fourth, ably assisted by Lieut. -Col. 
Hamilton C. Jones, Jr., and Kenneth M. Murchison, 
handled their commands with great skill and coolness." 
The Regimental History of the Fifty- fourth regiment says 
it was hard to call the Fifty-fourth from its pursuit, and 
that some of the men, after the regiment had handsomely 
repulsed the enemy and followed him for a long distance, 
were distressed because General Hood would not allow 
them "to win some glory." By special order from corps 
headquarters, a handsome compliment to these two regi 
ments was read at dress parade. 

The effort to break through Jackson s lines met a bloody 
and disastrous repulse. Birney s division was sent to 
cover the retreat of Meade and Gibbon, and Franklin s 
grand division, nearly one-half of Burnside s army, did 
no more considerable fighting on that field. 

During the ensanguined battle on the Confederate right, 
Sumner s grand division had been making desperate 
attempts to carry Marye s hill, the salient point on the 
Confederate left. The heroic defense of the Confederates 
behind the stone wall will live perpetually. At the open 
ing of the attack, this wall was held by the gallant brigade 

Ncl8 



138 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

of the gifted Gen. Thomas R. R. Cobb, whose fall on this 
field of battle ended a brave and noble life, and by the 
Twenty-fourth North Carolina regiment, Lieut. -Col. J. L. 
Harris. As the attacks grew warmer, Gen. Robert Ran 
som, who was specially charged with the keeping of this 
point, sent in three more North Carolina regiments and a 
part of a fifth. These fought "shoulder to shoulder with 
Cobb s men. Ransom s brigade supported the twenty 
guns that so admirably helped to defend these hills. 

The first Federal attack was made by French s division, 
followed by Hancock s division. General Couch, who 
commanded the army corps to which both these divisions 
belonged, says of their charge in the face of "the sheet of 
flame" that came from the stone wall: "As they charged, 
the artillery fire would break their formation and they 
would get mixed; then they would close up, go for 
ward, receive the withering infantry fire, and those who 
were able would run to the houses and fight as best they 
could ; and then the next brigade coming up in succession 
would do its duty, and melt like snow coming down on 
warm ground. * Before the first assault, General Ransom 
had brought up Cooke s brigade to the crest of Marye s 
hill, and during the assault Cooke took the Twenty- 
seventh and Forty-sixth and part of the Fifteenth North 
Carolina into the sunken road. The Forty-eighth North 
Carolina, under Walkup, fought on top of the crest all day. 
General Howard was next ordered by the Federal com 
mander to assail the hill, but was hurled back as his prede 
cessors were. General Ransom now moved the rest of 
his division to the crest, and sent the Twenty-fifth North 
Carolina to the front line; General Kershaw came up 
with some of his regiments, and subsequently some of 
Kemper s were ordered forward. The men in the rear 
loaded guns, and the ranks interchanged, and in this way 
an almost continuous fire blazed forth from the line of 
the stone wall. 

*Battles and Leaders, III, 113. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 139 

After Howard, attacks were made by Sturgis division, 
supported by Getty s division. Then Griffin made the 
brave endeavor. Humphreys next essayed to carry the 
hill by the bayonet, and desperately did he try, but again 
his men melted as snow. Dead men were lying in such 
piles in some places that the living could hardly get by, 
and yet the rash endeavor was kept up. So clearly did 
those Federals who had stubbornly battled against the 
position recognize that it was useless to continue such 
assaults, that General Humphreys says they tried by 
force to prevent his men from making the attempt. In, 
it seems, sheer desperation, the Federal commander 
ordered gallant men to die before the fire from that hill, 
and silently * and sternly the men tried to carry out orders, 
and left their bodies to freeze on the winter night that 
followed their hopeless and crushed endeavors. General 
Palfrey, the Union general and historian, thus concludes 
his account of this battle: "The short winter s day came 
to an end. Fifteen thousand men lay dead or wounded 
along the banks of the Rappahannock, and the army of 
the Potomac was no nearer Richmond than it was when 
the sun arose. The Confederates were elated, and the 
Federals were depressed. The Confederates had had a 
day of such savage pleasure as seldom falls to the lot of 
soldiers, a day on which they saw their opponents doing 
just what they wished them to do, but what they did not 
dare to hope they would do. The Federals had had a 
day of hard and hopeless effort, and they had nothing to 
cheer them but the consciousness of duty nobly done. 

According to Longstreet s recent figures, the Federals 
had, not "present for duty," but actually available for 
duty, 1 16,683, an d used in the battle about 50,000. The Con 
federates had available 78,000, and engaged less than 
20,000. The total Federal losses were 12,653; the total 
Confederate losses were: killed, 595; wounded, 4,074; 

* General Couch says there was no cheering on the part of the men. 



140 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

missing, 653. North Carolina losses were: killed, 173; 
wounded, 1,294. It will thus be seen that just a little 
less than a third of the killed and the wounded were 
from North Carolina. General Cooke was among the 
wounded. 

During the interval between the battle of Seven Pines 
and the battle of Fredericksburg, there were not many 
important military events in North Carolina. The duty 
of organizing new regiments still went on. The Fifty- 
sixth, Col. P. F. Faison; the Fifty-seventh, Col. A. C. 
Godwin; the Fifty-eighth, Col. J. B. Palmer; the Fifty- 
ninth (cavalry), Col. D. D. Ferrebee; the Sixteenth, Col. 
W. M. Hardy; the Sixty-first, Col. J. D. Radcliffe; the 
Sixty-second, Col. R. G. A. Love; the Sixty-third (cav 
alry), Col. J. H. McNeil; and the Sixty-fourth, Col. 
L. M. Allen, were all organized during this time. 

Major Gordon, in his article on the "Organization of 
the North Carolina Troops, " states: "When the legisla 
ture, in 1 86 1, directed General Martin to furnish clothing 
for the North Carolina troops, there were then only about 
thirty regiments in service. In less than a year that 
number was more than doubled, and it became very plain 
to General Martin that the resources of the State were 
not adequate to the demands of the army. In August, 
1862, he laid the matter before Governor Clark, and asked 
permission to buy supplies abroad, also a ship to transport 
them. The governor s term of service being near an end, 
he declined to give any order, and requested that the mat 
ter lie over till Governor Vance was inaugurated. Soon 
after Governor Vance s inauguration, General Martin 
brought the matter to his attention. The governor took 
it under advisement for a few days. Soon his attention 
was called to the subject again, and he requested General 
Martin to come to the executive office that night and 
meet two or three prominent men, when the matter would 
be discussed on both sides." Then, atter stating how 
some prominent men opposed the scheme and declared 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 141 

that the governor and adjutant-general would make them 
selves liable to impeachment if they followed out the plan, 
and how General Martin contended for its adoption, 
Major Gordon proceeds: "The governor reserved his 
decision that night, but when asked for it next day, he 
authorized General Martin to buy the ship and clothing 
for the troops, and signed sufficient bonds for this purpose. 
The next thing for the adjutant-general to do was to get 
a man of ability and responsibility to be sent as agent to 
England. The governor made no suggestion on this 
point. On the recommendation of Major Hogg, Mr. 
(John) White, of Warrenton, was selected as State agent 
to go abroad to purchase the ship and supplies, and Col. 
Tom Crossan was sent to command the ship, and well did 
they perform this and every other duty intrusted to them 
by the State. In due time the steamer Lord Clyde, after 
ward named the Advance, arrived safely in Wilmington 
with supplies for the troops. Governor Vance got a great 
deal of credit forth is ; General Martin, who was the real 
author of it, practically none. From this time forward 
it is certain that the North Carolina troops were better 
clothed than those of any other State." 

In July of this year (1862), Lieut. A. B. Andrews, com 
manding 41 men of the First North Carolina cavalry, 
attacked three gunboats at Rainbow banks, near Wil- 
liamston. His men fired upon the boats from the 
banks until the shells from the boats made it impossible to 
continue the firing. Colonel Baker says: "This was one 
of the boldest and most successful attacks on gunboats 
that I know of during the war. 

On September 6th a small expedition, under the com 
mand of Col. S. D. Pool, arranged for an attack on the 
Federal garrison at Washington, N. C. This town was held 
by a force under Colonel Potter, of the First North Caro 
lina Union cavalry. Colonel Pool s force consisted of two 
companies from the Seventeenth regiment, two from the 
Fifty-fifth under Capt. P. M. Mull, 50 men under Captain 



142 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

MacRae from the Eighth, and 70 men of the Tenth artil 
lery acting as infantry and commanded by Captain Man- 
ney. This force dashed into Washington in the early 
morning, surprised the garrison, and after a hot fight 
withdrew, taking several captured guns. The gunboat 
Picket, stationed there, was blown up just as her men 
were called to quarters to fire on the Confederates, and 
nineteen of her men were killed and wounded. The 
Confederates inflicted in this action a loss of 44, and 
suffered a loss of 13 killed and 57 wounded. 

On the 26. of October, General Peck sent Colonel Spear, 
with 1,700 men and some artillery, to Franklin, Va., on 
the Blackwater, to attack the Confederates at that point, 
and if possible to destroy a floating bridge there. The 
place was defended by Col. J. K. Marshall, of the Fifty- 
second North Carolina. Spear reached the river on the 
3d, and a lively skirmish took place across the river. In 
spite of the fact that General Peck reported his force as 
having inflicted a loss of from 75 to 200, the Confederate 
casualties were 2 wounded. 

General Foster with 5,000 men left Washington, N. C., 
for Williamston, on the 2d of November. At Little creek 
and at Rawls mill, spirited resistance to his advance was 
offered by the Confederates, and Foster lost 6 killed and 
8 wounded. The Confederates, however, were not in 
force enough to do more than retard Foster s movements. 

Captain Newkirk, of the cavalry, and Captain Adams, 
commanding a section of artillery, attacked and destroyed 
the gunboat Ellis on the New river. According to Gen 
eral Whiting s report, this affair was very creditable to 
the officers and men engaged. 

On December loth, Lieut. -Col. John C. Lamb, with 
some companies from the Seventeenth regiment, a squad 
ron of cavalry under Colonel Evans, and Moore s bat 
tery, captured for a time the town of Plymouth, N. C. 
Colonel Galloway gives the following account of the 
adventure: "The plan was to capture the pickets and 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 143 

take the place by surprise. We reached the picket station 
just before day, captured all but one, who escaped, firing 
his musket as he ran. This gave notice of our approach, 
and when we reached Plymouth, a body of Federals were 
seen formed across the main street ready to receive us. 
The cavalry was ordered to charge these men, which was 
done in good style and with a full allowance of the rebel 
yell. The enemy fired one volley and broke in all 
directions. Some escaped to the gunboats in skiffs, some 
hid, some took to the houses and fired from the windows. 
Quite a lively cannonade ensued between the gunboats 
and our battery. Captain Galloway and three privates 
were wounded. 

Two days before the battle of Fredericksburg, General 
Foster left New Bern, N. C., with a force of 10,000 in 
fantry, 6 batteries, having in all 40 pieces of artillery, 
and 640 cavalry. * On the i jth, Foster had reached South 
west creek, not far from Kinston. The Confederates had 
destroyed the bridge, and Colonel Radcliffe s Sixty-first 
North Carolina regiment was posted on the west side to 
delay Foster s advance. The Ninth New Jersey and 
Wessell s brigade crossed over the creek, and after an 
engagement of about an hour, Gen. N. G. Evans, com 
manding the Confederates, was obliged to withdraw. He 
took position on the Neuse river, about two miles from 
Kinston bridge. General Evans had, to oppose Foster s 
10,000 men, the Seventh, Twenty-second, Twenty-third 
and Holcombe legion, all South Carolina volunteers; in 
addition, he had the Sixty-first North Carolina regiment, 
Mallett s North Carolina battalion, and Boyce s South 
Carolina, and Starr s and Bunting s North Carolina bat 
teries in all 2,014 men. 

While Evans was moving from the creek to the river, a 
fleet of small gunboats that had come up from New Bern 
to attack the works at Kinston, under Commander Mur 
ray, endeavored to get in reach of the works. Owing to 

* Rebellion Records, XVIII, 54- 



144 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

low water, only one of the boats, the Allison, came 
into action, and Col. S. D. Pool s battalion of heavy artil 
lery soon drove it back. 

On the 1 4th, General Evans, with his South Carolina bri 
gade on the left and the North Carolinians under Radcliffe 
on the right, awaited Foster s attack. Foster sent in Wes- 
sell s brigade and batteries, supporting Wessell s by 
Amory s brigade and then by Stevenson s brigade. The 
odds were, of course, too great for Evans, and after two 
and a half hours of stubborn contention he was forced 
back across the bridge, and followed so closely that at the 
crossing 400 of his men were captured. Evans reformed 
his broken lines, and was joined by the Forty-seventh 
North Carolina regiment, which had just arrived, under 
Col. S. H. Rogers. 

General Foster sent a demand for the surrender of the 
Confederates; but, of course, Evans promptly declined 
compliance. General Evans retreated to Falling creek. 
General Foster did not pursue, but recrossed the river and 
continued toward Goldsboro. On arriving at White Hall, 
eighteen miles from Goldsboro, General Foster found the 
bridge burned and Gen. B. H. Robertson, of General 
Evans command, posted on the opposite bank of the river 
ready for battle. General Robertson, having under 
his command the Eleventh North Carolina, Colonel Lev- 
enthorpe; the Thirty-first, Colonel Jordan; 600 dis 
mounted cavalrymen from Ferrebee s and Evans regi 
ments; and a section of Moore s battery, under Lieut. N. 
McClees, had been sent to burn the bridge and dispute 
Foster s crossing should he attempt to rebuild the bridge. 
General Foster sent forward the Ninth New Jersey regi 
ment, followed by Amory s brigade, and eight batteries 
took position on the river bank. A heavy artillery and 
infantry fire commenced at 9:30 on the i6th. General 
Robertson says in his report: "Owing to a range of hills 
on the White Hall side, the enemy had the advantage of 
position. The point occupied by his troops being narrow, 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 145 

not more than one regiment at a time could engage him. 
I therefore held Leventhorpe, Ferrebee and Evans in re 
serve, leaving the artillery [two pieces], Thirty-first regi 
ment, and two picked companies in front. The cannonad 
ing from the enemy s batteries became so terrific that the 
Thirty-first regiment withdrew from their position with 
out instructions, but in good order. I immediately or 
dered Colonel Leventhorpe forward. The alacrity with 
which the order was obeyed by his men gave ample proof 
of their gallant bearing, which they so nobly sustained 
during the entire fight, which raged with intensity. . . . 
The conduct of this regiment reflects the greatest credit 
upon its accomplished and dauntless commander. 

The two guns of McClees were no match for the many 
batteries across the Neuse, but he served them with cool 
ness and gallantry. Captain Taylor, of Foster s signal 
service, reported that the fire from the Eleventh was 
"one of the severest musketry fires I have ever seen." * 
Col. W. J. Martin, historian of the Eleventh regiment, 
says of the conduct of his regiment: "Posted along the 
river bank, from which another regiment had just been 
driven back, it was pounded for several hours at short 
range by a terrific storm of grape and canister, as well as 
musketry ; but it never flinched, and gained a reputation 
for endurance and courage which it proudly maintained 
to the fateful end." The Eleventh regiment that thus 
distinguished itself was the first regiment organized in 
North Carolina, and while known as the First North 
Carolina had fought the battle at Bethel. General Rob 
ertson reported his loss at 10 killed, 42 wo,unded. The 
Federal loss was 8 killed and 73 wounded. 

After this brush with Robertson, Foster moved on 
toward Goldsboro, his main object being to burn the rail 
road bridge there. At and near the bridge were stationed 
General Clingman, with the Eighth, Fifty-first and Fifty- 
second North Carolina regiments, under Cols. H. M. 

"""Rebellion Records, XVIII, 62. 

Nc 18 



146 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Shaw, W. A. Allen and J. K. Marshall; Companies B, 
G and H, Tenth artillery, acting as infantry, and Company 

F, Fortieth artillery, acting as infantry, tinder Lieut. -Col. 
S. D. Pool; and Starr s battery. Other troops were in 
the vicinity, but for reasons not now apparent, were not 
moved to the bridge in time to assist the men engaged. 
The Sixty-first regiment, Lieutenant-Colonel Devane, 
arrived on the field during the engagement and reported 
to its brigadier, General Clingman, in time to take part 
in the afternoon action. 

When General Foster reached a point near Goldsboro, 
he ordered five regiments to move down the railroad track 
and burn the bridge. A regiment was sent with them to 
protect the flank. General Wessell s brigade was ad 
vanced, to be in supporting distance of the advance. The 
Federal regiments and artillery attacked promptly. All 
the Federal artillery seems, according to Foster s report, 
to have been engaged at the bridge. The attack fell 
principally on the Fifty-first and Fifty-second regiments 
on the southwest side of the bridge, and on Pool s four 
companies on the north side of the bridge. Starr s two 
pieces opened. The two regiments were unable to hold 
their own, broke, were reformed again by General Cling 
man, and then driven back to the county bridge. As 
these regiments were in retreat, Lieut. George A. 
Graham, of the Twenty-third New York battery, dashed 
gallantly forward, and in spite of the efforts of Pool s men 
to reach him with their rifles, set fire to the bridge. Gen. 

G. W. Smith reported that as Clingman s regiments fell 
back, Gen. N. G. Evans arrived on the field with his 
South Carolina brigade, and assumed command. By 
his direction, the Fifty-first and Fifty-third, supported 
by Evans Holcombe legion, made a charge against 
H. C. Lee s brigade, of which that officer said: "A por 
tion of the enemy instantly, with loud cheers, 
charged up the hill toward the battery, and bore 
up steadily in the face of a well-directed and most 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 147 

destructive fire. . . . The enemy, meanwhile, had been 
staggered by the crushing fire of the batteries, and at 
sight of my supporting regiments, broke and fled in dis 
order to the woods. His retreat was covered by a heavy 
fire from the battery on his right, which inflicted on my 
command a loss of 3 killed and 19 wounded." 

This "battery," as Colonel Lee calls it, was one gun of 
Lieut. T. C. Fuller s section of Starr s; the other gun 
was overturned. Lieutenant Fuller acted with great 
coolness, and showed a soldier s aptitude for finding and 
striking his enemy. General Clingman said of the deter 
mined manner in which Fuller fought his solitary gun : 
4 Lieutenant Fuller with the greatest gallantry continued 
to reply until darkness put an end to the contest." 
Captain Reinhardt s company of the Third regiment of 
cavalry is warmly commended in the report of Colonel 
Stevens. 

After the afternoon engagement, General Foster with 
drew his troops and returned to New Berne. The total 
Federal losses during this expedition were 591 killed and 
wounded. * The total Confederate loss, as reported by 
General Smith, was 339. The North Carolina losses, with 
the exception of the Sixty-first regiment, from which there 
is no report, were 40 killed and 177 wounded. 

During the operations mentioned above, North Carolina 
was represented in the Western army by the following 
regiments: Twenty-ninth, Col. R. B. Vance; Thirty- 
ninth, Col. D. Coleman; Fifty-eighth, Col. J. B. Palmer; 
Sixty-second, Col. R. G. A. Love; Sixty-fourth, Col. L. 
M. Allen; Sixty-ninth (Thomas legion), .Col. W. H. 
Thomas; Fifth cavalry battalion, Maj. A. H. Baird; 
Seventh cavalry battalion, Lieut. -Col. G. N. Folk, and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Walker s cavalry battalion. 

In September the Sixty-ninth regiment (Thomas 
legion) was ordered to Powell s valley. This regiment 
was raised in the mountains of North Carolina and had 

* Rebellion Records, XVIII, p. 60. 



148 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

in it two companies of Cherokee Indians. On this march, 
one of these Indian companies became engaged in a sharp 
little battle with the Federals, and Lieutenant As-too-gah- 
sto-ga, who is described by Major Stringfield of that reg 
iment "as a splendid specimen of Indian manhood," led 
a charge and was killed. "The Indians," says Major 
Stringfield, "were furious at his death, and before they 
could be restrained, scalped several of the Federal 
wounded and dead, for which ample apology was made 
at the time."* 

In General Bragg s battles at Murfreesboro and Stone s 
river, North Carolina had engaged these regiments: 
Twenty-ninth, Thirty-ninth and Sixtieth. Col. R. B. 
Vance, after the death of Gen. J. E. Rains, commanded 
the Second brigade of Stevenson s division. At Murfrees 
boro, on the 3ist of December, the Twenty-ninth was 
under fire for over five hours, captured one piece of artil 
lery, and engaged in a gallant charge upon a brigade posted 
in a cedar thicket. General McCown, the division com 
mander, said of its colonel: "Colonel Vance bore himself 
gallantly. The Thirty-ninth was temporarily serving 
in Gen. Patton Anderson s brigade. General Anderson 
thus mentions it in his report: "The adjutant of the 
Thirty-ninth North Carolina, Lieut. I. S. Hyams, reported 
to me on the battlefield that his regiment had become 
detached . . . and was at that time out of ammunition 
and under command of Capt. A. W. Bell, the field officers 
having been killed or wounded. I supplied the needed 
ammunition, and formed the regiment on the right of the 
Twenty-seventh Mississippi. It participated creditably in 
all our subsequent movements until it was detached. 

The Sixtieth regiment, Colonel McDowell, was in both 
these battles. At Murfreesboro, it was at the opening of 
the battle under a heavy fire of artillery, but advanced 
without hesitation until thrown into some confusion by 
the houses and fences ; but most of the companies were at 

* Regimental History. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 149 

once rallied, and moved against the enemy posted in the 
cedars. The movement was successful, and the brigade 
remained that night on the field. Colonel McDowell 
makes this report of his regiment in the action at Stone s 
river on the 26. of January: "On Friday, in the after 
noon, we occupied Stone s river, and formed line of battle 
in rear of Hanson s and Pillow s brigades to support them 
in the advance. About 4 o clock we were ordered to 
advance, which we did in good order ; engaged the enemy, 
and kept driving him before us until sunset, when it 
became apparent that he was strongly reinforced and 
flanking us, and we were ordered to fall back. The 
North Carolina losses in these battles were 10 killed, 144 
wounded. 



CHAPTER IX. 

NORTH CAROLINA IN THE BEGINNING OF 1863 GATH 
ERING FRESH SUPPLIES DEMONSTRATIONS BY 
D. H. HILL AGAINST NEW BERN FIGHTS AT DEEP 
GULLY AND SANDY RIDGE SIEGE OF WASHING 
TON, N. C. BLOUNT S MILLS AND GUM SWAMP. 

AT the opening of this year, the troops of North Caro 
lina were disposed, so far as the records show, as 
follows: Thirty- two regiments and one battalion 
of infantry, two regiments of cavalry and three batteries 
were with General Lee; under Gen. Kirby Smith, the 
Fifty-eighth, Colonel Palmer, the Sixty-fourth, Colonel 
Allen, and Fifth cavalry battalion, Capt. S. W. English, 
were stationed at Big Creek gap, Tenn. ; the Sixty- 
second regiment, Colonel Love, was guarding bridges 
near Knoxville; the Seventh cavalry battalion was in 
Carter county, Tenn. ; Walker s cavalry battalion was 
in Monroe county, Tenn. ; the Twenty-ninth, Colonel 
Vance, and the Thirty-ninth, Colonel Coleman, were in 
Bragg s army. In the State, General Whiting was in 
charge of the defenses of Wilmington, with 9,913 officers 
and men. Gen. S. D. French, in charge of the department 
of North Carolina, had his forces stationed as follows: 
General Pettigrew s brigade at Magnolia; Gen. N. G. 
Evans South Carolina brigade at Kinston; General 
Daniel s brigade, General Davis brigade, Maj. J. C.Hask- 
ell s four batteries, Colonel Bradford s four artillery com 
panies, and Capt. J. B. Starr s light battery at Goldsboro; 
the Forty-second regiment, Col. George C. Gibbs, and 
Captain Dabney s heavy battery at Weldon ; the Seven 
teenth regiment, Col. W. F. Martin, at Hamilton ; Gen. 
B. H. Robertson and three regiments of cavalry at Kins- 

150 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 151 

ton ; Thomas legion in the mountains. The field returns 
for January show that the forces scattered over the 
State aggregated 31,442 men.* This large number of 
soldiers was collected in the State because it was thought 
another strong expedition was about to descend upon 
Wilmington, or some point on the coast. Upon the open 
ing of the spring campaign, these troops were sent in all 
directions. 

After General Foster s return to New Bern from Golds- 
boro, his force around New Bern showed little activity. 
Some expeditions were occasionally sent out, resulting in 
skirmishes or minor engagements. At Sandy Ridge, on 
the 1 3th of February, the Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania in 
fantry had a skirmish with a detachment from the Eighth 
North Carolina regiment, in which 4 North Carolinians 
were wounded. An expedition under Capt. Colin Rich 
ardson, of the Third New York cavalry, engaged some 
militia near Swan Quarter and Fairfield on the 4th of 
May. In these two skirmishes the Federals lost 18 men. 

During this spring, enormous supplies of meal and meat 
for the maintenance of the Confederate armies were 
drawn from North Carolina, and military operations in 
Virginia and North Carolina were made to so shape 
themselves as to facilitate the collection of these sup 
plies. Shortly after General Longstreet was assigned to 
command the department of Virginia and North Caro 
lina, he learned "that there was a goodly supply of pro 
duce along the east coast of Virginia and North Carolina, 
inside the military lines of the Federal forces. To col 
lect and transmit this to accessible points for the Con 
federates, it was necessary to advance our divisions so as 
to cover the country, and to hold the Federal forces in and 
about their .fortified positions while our trains were at 
work. To that end I moved with the troops in Virginia 
across the Blackwater to close lines about the forts around 
Suffolk, and ordered the troops along our line in North 

* Rebellion Records, XVIII, 865. 



152 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Carolina to a like advance. " * In a letter to General Lee, 
General Longstreet stated to him his plans: 4< In arraying 
our forces to protect supply trains in the eastern coun 
ties of North Carolina, we had hoped to make a diversion 
upon New Bern and surprise the garrison at Washing 
ton. The high waters have washed away the bridges and 
detained us a week, and it is probable the enemy has 
discovered our movements. ! 

So, in pursuance of this policy, while the Confederate 
wagon trains were moving busily among the rich corn 
counties east of the Chowan, Gen. D. H. Hill, who had 
been assigned to command the troops in North Carolina 
when it was thought that another great expedition was 
about to invade the State, organized a demonstration 
against New Bern, and, to still further confine the Fed 
erals, shortly afterward laid siege to Washington. These 
were the two towns containing large Federal garrisons. 
At the same time, General Longstreet made a similar 
movement against Suffolk. Gen. Junius Daniel s North 
Carolina brigade, made up of these regiments : Thirty- 
second, Colonel Brabble; Forty-third, Colonel Kenan; 
Forty-fifth, Lieut. -Col. S. H. Boyd; Fifty-third, Colonel 
Owens, and Second battalion, Lieut. -Col. H. L. Andrews, 
moved toward New Bern by the lower Trent road ; the 
cavalry under General Robertson was sent by the upper 
Trent road, and General Pettigrew s brigade, with fif 
teen guns under Major Haskell, was ordered to approach 
the city near Barrington s Ferry, to bombard the gun 
boats and Fort Anderson. General Pettigrew s brigade 
consisted of the following North Carolina regiments: 
Eleventh, Colonel Leventhorpe; Twenty-sixth, Colonel 
Burgwyn; Forty-fourth, Colonel Singeltary; Forty-sev 
enth, Colonel Faribault, and Fifty-second, Colonel 
Marshall. 

At Deep Gully, a few miles out from New Bern, 

* From Manassas to Appomattox, p. 324. 
t Rebellion Records, XVIII, 951. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 153 

General Daniel found five companies and two field pieces 
in strong position. With four companies, he at once 
attacked and routed the Federals. This initiatory 
success could not, however, be followed up, as General 
Pettigrew, after every exertion, found it impossible to 
carry out his orders. He was expected to take Fort 
Anderson, to advance his guns to that point, a com 
manding one, and then to drive away the gunboats 
on the river, and if possible, shell the garrison. 
General Pettigrew, however, found his artillery and 
ammunition so worthless and unsuited to the work in 
hand, that he made no progress in his attack. He had 
only four guns of range enough to reach the boats. 
These were 2o-potmd Parrotts of Confederate manu 
facture. Of these, one burst, killing or wounding several 
of the gunners, another broke down, and the shells from 
the others "burst just outside the guns."* So rather 
than sacrifice his men by storming the work with infan 
try alone, General Pettigrew wisely decided to withdraw. 
The Twenty- sixth regiment had been under orders since 
daylight to assault Fort Anderson, when the artillery open 
ed, and its youthful and gallant Col. H. K. Burgwyn and 
his men withdrew with great reluctance after having been 
under a heavy artillery fire for some hours. The Confed 
erate losses in this demonstration were, so far as reported, 
4 killed and 1 9 wounded. 

Between this movement against New Bern and the 
siege of Washington, only one or two skirmishes took 
place. A few men from the Seventeenth regiment made 
a demonstration against Plymouth. Col. John. E. Brown, 
with three companies of the Forty- second regiment, at 
tacked the post at Winfield, on the Chowan river, below 
Gatesville ; after a brisk exchange of shots, he withdrew. 

At Sandy Ridge, three companies of the Forty-ninth and 
some of the Eighth regiment had a short skirmish on the 
2oth, and lost i killed and 6 wounded. 

* Pettigrew s Report. 
Nc 20 



154 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Toward the last of March, General Hill sent General 
Garnett to lay siege to Washington. It had been hoped, 
as already seen, to surprise the town, but the rains de 
layed and exposed the movement. General Lee advised 
against an assault on the town on account of the loss it 
might entail.* In a letter to General Beauregard, then 
at Charleston and expecting to be reinforced from North 
Carolina, General Hill describes the objects of his attack 
on Washington : * For the last four weeks I have been 
around Washington and New Bern with three objects in 
view to harass the Yankees, to get our supplies from the 
low country, and to make a diversion in your favor . . . 
Washington was closely besieged for sixteen days, but 
they succeeded in getting two supply boats into town, 
furnishing about twenty days rations to the garrison, I 
then withdrew, "f This was done in accordance with his 
instructions from General Longstreet. Longstreet 
states these instructions as follows: "General Hill is 
ordered and urged to be prompt in his operations. If he 
finds that too much time will be consumed in reducing the 
garrison at any point, he is to draw off as soon as he gets 
out the supplies from the eastern counties. J 

The reason for these instructions was, that now as the 
spring was fairly opening there were loud calls for the 
troops operating in North Carolina. General Lee was 
trying to reinforce for his spring campaign. General 
Beauregard was asking for aid at Charleston, and the Rich 
mond authorities were anxious to strengthen the Western 
armies. Hence the campaign in North Carolina was 
again reduced to defensive issues, and the troops moved 
to bigger fields. 

During the siege at Washington there was some spir 
ited fighting around the town, and General Pettigrew at 
Blount s mills repulsed, after a sharp attack, a column 

* Letter to Longstreet Rebellion Records, XVIII, 966. 
f Rebellion Records, XVIII, 1007. 
\ Rebellion Records, XVIII, 959. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 155 

under General Spinola as it was marching to the relief of 
Washington. 

On the 2 ad of May, Lee s Federal brigade, one regi 
ment of Pennsylvania troops, seven pieces of artillery, 
and three companies of cavalry, surprised the Fifty- sixth 
and Twenty-fifth North Carolina regiments at Gum 
Swamp, below Kinston. These regiments were broken 
and scattered, and lost 165 prisoners; but rallied and sup 
ported by some companies of the Forty-ninth regiment, 
the Twenty-seventh regiment and other troops, attacked 
the Federals and drove them back to New Bern, killing 
their commander, Col. J. R, Jones, 



CHAPTER X. 

CHANCELLORSVILLE BRANDY STATION WINCHES 
TER BERRYVILLE JORDAN SPRINGS MIDDLE- 
BURG UPPERVILLE FAIRFAX. 

AFTER the battle at Fredericksburg, General Lee s 
army went into winter quarters along the south 
side of the Rappahannock, and the Federal army 
made itself comfortable on the north side of the same 
river. It was a rigorous winter, and many of the Confed 
erates suffered severely from lack of proper uniforms and 
shoes, and from want of proper food. In April, General 
Hooker, who had succeeded Burnside in command of 
the Federal army, began a demonstration against the 
Confederate front and right, and under cover of this 
movement, marched the Eleventh, Twelfth and Fifth 
corps up the Rappahannock, crossed at Kelly s ford, and 
concentrated at Chancellorsville on Thursday afternoon, 
the 3oth of April. The Second corps crossed at United 
States ford, and the Third was ordered to follow by the 
same route. Four corps were thus massed on Lee s left 
flank, and a fifth was nearly in position, with "scarcely 
a man lost. The initial success was certainly with 
Hooker, and a continuation of this vigorous offensive 
would have "desperately compromised" the army of 
Northern Virginia. But Hooker s energy seemed to 
expend itself in the movement. "Lee had not been." 
says Dodge, "unaware of what the Federals had been 
doing, but he had been largely misled by the feint below 
the town, and had so little anticipated Hooker s movement 
by the right, that less than 3,000 of his cavalry were on 
hand to observe the crossing of the Rappahannock and 
the Rapidan. Stuart had not until Thursday fully gauged 

156 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 157 

the importance of this movement, and only on Thursday 
night had Lee ascertained the facts, and been able to 
mature his plans for parrying Hooker s thrust." * 

On the night of the 29th, R. H. Anderson s division was 
directed to proceed toward Chancellorsville and cover the 
important roads leading to the Confederate rear. When 
Anderson arrived at Chancellorsville about midnight, he 
found two of his divisions Mahone s and Posey s al 
ready there. These two brigades had been stationed at 
Bark Hill ford (or United States ford). As the crossing 
of the enemy flanked their position, they retired with a 
view to check his advance on the Confederate flank, f 
General Anderson took position at the intersection of the 
mine and plank roads, near Tabernacle church, and began 
to intrench himself. As Anderson withdrew from Chan 
cellorsville to take this position, his rear guard was 
attacked by Federal cavalry, but this was soon driven off 
by Mahone s brigade. Up to this point no North Carolina 
troops were on the field. By this time, General Lee was 
satisfied that Hooker s objective point was his flank ; so 
leaving Early s division, Barksdale s brigade and part of 
the reserve artillery under Pendleton, to guard his lines 
at Fredericksburg, he ordered McLaws to move toward 
Anderson s position at midnight on the soth, and Jackson 
to move at dawn. General Jackson reached Anderson s 
"hasty works" at 8 o clock, and at once prepared to ad 
vance the whole Confederate force. Gen. R. F. Hoke s 
North Carolina brigade of four regiments and one battal 
ion remained with Early. With Jackson there moved 
four North Carolina brigades and two regiments. Two 
of these brigades, Lane s and Fender s, were in A. P. 
Hill s division, commanded by General Rodes; the First 
and Third regiments were in Colston s division. 

Hooker s plan was to uncover Banks ford so as to get 
in easy communication with his troops left at Fredericks- 

* Dodge: Lowell Institute Speech, 
f Mahone s Report. 



158 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

burg, and advance to the open ground beyond Chancellors- 
ville. He had already lost a day, and the day was very 
valuable to Lee. His troops moved forward, and Sykes 
and Hancock ran against and engaged McLaws and 
Anderson; and Slocum, commanding the Eleventh and 
Twelfth corps on the plank road, also engaged the Confed 
erates. Sykes for a while drove McLaws back, but 
Anderson and Ramseur s Carolinians came to his support 
and drove him back of Hancock, who advanced to 
strengthen the fight. Hancock and Slocum then both 
formed line. The position of each of these officers was 
good, being free from the undergrowth of the wilderness, 
and open enough for advantageous use of cavalry and 
artillery. Suddenly, says Dodge, * every one concerned 
was surprised by an order from Hooker to withdraw again 
into the wilderness. Here may be said to have begun 
the certain loss of the campaign. The proceeding was 
absurd. . . . Hooker had come to the end of his mental 
tether. The march had taxed his powers to their limit. * 

When the Federals retired, they were followed by the 
Confederate advance, but no more serious fighting took 
place that day. During the night the Federals in 
trenched themselves, as Hooker had, in spite of his num 
bers, resolved to fight a defensive battle. "It was evi 
dent," says General Lee in his report, "that a direct 
attack on the enemy would be attended with great diffi 
culty and loss, in view of the strength of his position and 
his superiority of numbers. General Jackson was there 
fore sent with his corps, on the 2d, to assail the Federal 
right, held by General Howard with the Eleventh corps. 
Although Jackson s men had just seen arduous service, 
they set out with great cheerfulness, and by 5 p. m. had 
reached the Federal right. "To cover Jackson s march, 
Lee at intervals during the day tapped at the lines in 
his front, principally where Hancock lay." 

At 6 o clock, General Jackson advanced. D. H. Hill s 

* Colonel Dodge: Boston Speech. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 159 

division, under Rodes, held the front line. On the left 
of this division was Iverson with the Fifth, Twelfth, 
Twentieth and Twenty-third North Carolina regiments. 
In reserve just behind Rodes right brigade (Colquitt s), 
was Ramseur, with the Second, Fourth, Fourteenth and 
Thirtieth North Carolina regiments. Trimble s division 
under Colston composed the second line; in this were the 
First and Third North Carolina regiments. A. P. Hill s 
formed the third line. Two of his brigades, Lane s and 
Fender s, were entirely composed of North Carolinians. 

General Howard, in spite of repeated warnings, had not 
strengthened his position, and when Jackson s troops 
rushed fiercely upon his command, over half of which was 
composed of Germans, his men were cooking supper and 
amusing themselves.. Colonel Dodge, of the Federal army, 
writes : "At 6 p. m. the order was given, and 22,000 of the 
best infantry in existence closed rapidly down upon the 
flank of 10,000 of the least hardened of the troops of the 
army of the Potomac. . . . The fight was short, sharp, 
deadly, but partial only. But the force on the right was 
swept away like a cobweb by Jackson s mighty besom. 
. . . Never was an army more completely surprised, more 
absolutely overwhelmed. . . . Happily, night was ap 
proaching and Jackson s troops had to be halted and 
reformed, his three lines having become inextricably 
mixed." * 

With the exception of some of Schurz s regiments and 
Buschbeck s brigade, which made a gallant stand in some 
breastworks from which Doles drove it, there was no 
severe fighting until Berry s division could be placed in 
position. Then the lines were exposed to much hotter 
fire. However, the North Carolinians, as well as their 
comrades, had, although their success was marvelous, 
no such arduous battling as came on the next day. 
Col. H. A. Brown, in his Regimental History, says: 
"We captured piles of fat knapsacks and piles of fatter 

* Boston Speech. 



160 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Dutchmen. Private Faw, of Company B, remarked that 
the thick woods that we were passing through were like 
a strainer, letting the lean and lesser Dutchmen through, 
and holding the fat ones." Colonel Parker, of the Thir 
tieth, says that* upon the attack, many of these surprised 
Germans broke to the rear, shouting in terror the ominous 
word, Shackson! Shackson! " 

During this rapid advance, the front lines, in the ardor 
of the pursuit and by the entanglement of the wilderness, 
became so mixed that it was necessary to halt for adjust 
ment, and A. P. Hill s line was ordered forward to relieve 
the two front lines. It was during this change in his lines 
that General Jackson, one of the pillars of Lee s success, 
was wounded by the relieving line. These troops, hav 
ing just come into position, did not know that he was 
reconnoitering in front. When Hill s regiments reached 
the front, line of battle was formed. Lane s brigade was 
in advance. His Thirty-third regiment was deployed in 
front as skirmishers; the Seventh and Thirty-seventh 
were on the right of the road, the Eighteenth and Twenty- 
eighth on the left. Jackson meant to push his attack 
immediately on with these fresh lines, but his fall and 
the wounding of General Hill stopped the further 
attack. During the night, when Sickles was pushing his 
way back to his friends, the Eighteenth, Twenty-eighth 
and portions of the Thirty-third North Carolina regi 
ment distinguished themselves by effective work against 
him, and won General Heth s hearty praise. During 
Jackson s triumphant progress, Anderson hotly attacked 
the Federal front, but there were no North Carolina 
troops on his part of the field. 

Before the renewal of combat, Sunday, May 3d, each of 
the contestants formed new battle order. Hooker drew 
Sickles back from Hazel Grove in the morning, and posted 
the whole of Sickles corps and Williams division of the 
Twelfth corps in works on a crest to the right of Fair- 
view, and at right angles to the plank road. Fairview 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 161 

was covered with artillery from the Third, Twelfth and 
Eleventh corps. French of Couch s division was on the 
right of Sickles, and Humphreys of Meade s corps was 
near by. This new line was at right angles to Geary and 
Hancock, who were still in front of Anderson and McLaws. 

Stuart formed his lines with A. P. Hill s division in 
front. Fender and Thomas were on the left of the plank 
road, Fender s right resting on the road; Lane, McGowan 
and Archer were on the right of the road and in the order 
named from the left. Lane s left was on the road. Trim 
ble s division, under Colston, composed the second line, 
and Rodes the third. To aid the infantry attacks, thirty 
pieces of artillery were placed on the eminence at Hazel 
Grove, abandoned by Hooker s order. The whole line 
moved forward shortly after daylight, with "Remember 
Jackson" as a watchword. The breastworks, where the 
night attack stopped, were carried after desperate effort. 
The troops on the left of the plank road carried the next 
line, and then the Federals took refuge in their third, and 
strongly intrenched, line. The Confederates three times 
ran over these works, and three times were they driven 
back. French fell on their left flank, but they brought up 
their reserves and renewed the fiery onslaught. How fierce 
the fighting was may be gauged by the fact that 9,000 
Federals fell here. * Dodge comments : * * No praise is too 
high for the staunchness of the attack or the stubbornness 
of the defense." Finally the Confederate left and right 
joined and drove the Federals from their lines. 

This general sketch of the battle has been necessary for 
a proper understanding of the service of the -North Caro 
lina brigades. Fender and Thomas attacked to the left 
of the road. General Heth, commanding the division 
after its senior commander s wound, says in his report: 
"Generals Fender and Thomas, on the left, found the 
enemy posted behind a breastwork of logs and brush 
immediately in their front, at a distance of 150 yards. 



* Dodge, in Boston Speech. 
No 21 



162 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

The breastworks were charged and carried, the men never 
hesitating for a moment, driving the enemy before them 
until a second line was reached, which was in like manner 
broken. A third line of the enemy was now encountered. 
After a desperate and prolonged fight, without supports 
or a piece of artillery to aid them, but on their part sub 
jected to heavy artillery fire of from ten to twelve pieces, 
these gallant brigades fell back in order to the breast 
works from which the enemy had been driven." These 
they held for reinforcements, and joined in the fresh 
assault that drove the Federals off the field. General Pen- 
der says of his men: "I can truly say my brigade fought, 
May 3d, with unsurpassed courage and determination. 
Fender lost 700 men in a few hours. 

General Heth reports of Lane s assault: "Lane s bri 
gade, supported by the Fortieth and Forty-seventh Vir 
ginia regiments, and McGowan s brigade, advanced and 
charged the enemy (behind his breastworks) who was sup 
ported by twenty-nine pieces of artillery. I cannot con 
ceive of any body of men ever being subjected to a more 
galling fire than this force. The brigades of Lane, 
McGowan and a portion of Heth s (Colonel Brockenbrough 
commanding), notwithstanding, drove the enemy from 
his works and held them for some time, but were finally 
compelled to fall back, which was unavoidable from the 
course that affairs had assumed on the right of the line. 
Their flank had been turned. General Lane justly felt 
proud of his men: "I shall always feel proud of the 
noble bearing of my brigade in the battle of Chancellors- 
ville the bloodiest in which it has ever taken a part 
where the Thirty-third discharged its duty so well as skir 
mishers, and, with the Eighteenth and Twenty-eighth, 
gallantly repulsed two night attacks made by vastly supe 
rior numbers, and where the Seventh and Thirty-seventh 
vied with each other as to who should first drive the 
vandals from their works." His losses, 739 killed and 
wounded, show hard struggling. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 163 

Iverson s brigade went into action on the left of the 
Confederate line and to the left of the plank road; Rodes 
brigade was on Iverson s right. Both of these were sup 
porting brigades and in the third line. The Fifth regi 
ment, the left regiment, became entangled in the dense 
undergrowth and had to be moved to the right to get for 
ward. This left the Twelfth on the flank. Lieut. -Col. 
R. D. Johnston, of the Twenty- third, was that day in com 
mand of the Twelfth and he deployed skirmishers on the 
flank and the brigade moved on the enemy. Iverson 
reached the front line as it was falling back from its 
assault on the third Federal position. General Double- 
day, of the Union army, says: "Then another front 
attack was organized by the enemy, and Nicholls , Iver 
son s and O Neal s brigades charged over everything, 
even up to Best s batteries at Fairview. " * This attack, 
however, divided itself into two parts. A portion of 
Iverson s brigade and a portion of Fender s and two reg 
iments of O Neal s, under the personal leadership of Fen 
der, assailed the part of the enemy s battery and line rest 
ing on the road. General Rodes said of this movement : 
"The enemy was compelled to fall back, and pressing 
on, Colonel Hall s two regiments (Fifth and Twenty-sixth 
Alabama), together with the Twenty-third North Caro 
lina, Colonel Christie, carried the heights in magnificent 
style, planting their flags inside the works. f The rest of 
Rodes , Iverson s and Fender s troops were repulsed, and 
this exposing the three regiments Fender had in advance, 
they, too, fell back. At this juncture the flank attack of 
French, and later Humphreys, struck the Confederate 
left. Iverson and Thomas hurried some troops there, and 
Colston and Colquitt soon stopped the movement, and the 
general Confederate advance followed. Iverson s brigade 
loss was 370 men. 

While these North Carolinians and others were striking 



* Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, p. 48. 
f Official Report. 



164 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

so manfully on the left, Ramseur s Carolinians and Doles 
Georgians were warmly at work on the right. Ramseur, 
as he had been on the front the day before, was on the 
last line at the opening of the battle. As Ramseur went 
in, the Thirtieth North Carolina, Colonel Parker, was 
detached, with discretionary orders to support Pegram s 
battery. When Ramseur reached the first line of works 
from which the Federals had been driven, he found a 
small part of one of the Confederate divisions so demoral 
ized by the death of some of its officers, as to be lying 
behind the works for protection. Ramseur, after futile 
efforts to induce them to do their duty, marched his men 
over them and over the works, and formed in face of a 
murderous fire. * As soon as he had established his line, 
Ramseur rushed forward without firing a gun and cap 
tured the enemy s works. General Cox says: "This was 
one of the few times during the war when the opposing 
troops actually crossed bayonets, and where an inferior 
force, in broad daylight, without firing a gun, captured 
breastworks held by superior numbers and drove them out 
at the point of the bayonet. General Ramseur says of 
his regiments: "The Fourth North Carolina, Colonel 
Grimes, and seven companies of the Second, Colonel Cox, 
drove the enemy before them until they had taken the 
last line of his works, which they held under a severe 
direct and enfilading fire, repulsing several assaults on 
this portion of our front. The Fourteenth and three 
companies of the Second could not get as far as the other 
part of the brigade, for they found no troops on their right 
and the enemy was in force on that flank. Ramseur tried 
in vain to get his right protected. Colonel Parker, how 
ever, returning with the Thirtieth regiment to join him, 
saw this flanking force, and always prompt and brave, he 
charged and stayed its progress. Grimes and Cox had 
now to be withdrawn until reinforcements came. But 
for Colonel Bennett s coolness and Colonel Parker s 
* General Cox s Memorial Address. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 165 

charge, Grimes and Cox, after their handsome efforts, 
would doubtlessly have been captured or severely cut up. 

The First and Third North Carolina regiments were in 
Colston s brigade and division. Colonel Warren was in 
command of Colston s brigade. This brigade was, 
however, under its fifth commander when Sunday s 
battle ended. Colonel Warren fell severely wounded, 
as did in turn his successors, Col. T. V. Williams, 
Col. John A. McDowell, and Lieut. -Col. S. D. Thrus- 
ton. Lieut. -Col. H. A. Brown, of the First North 
Carolina, was fortunate enough to be the only unin 
jured commander. This list of wounded officers proves 
that the brigade fought unflinchingly. The Regi 
mental History of the Third regiment gives this account 
of the brigade s part in the action: "On Sunday, the 3d, 
the regiment was formed on the right of the road, and 
advancing, captured the first line of the enemy s works 
a barricade of huge logs with abatis in front. The por 
tion of these works that crossed a ravine and swamp, and 
which was favorable to the occupancy of the enemy, was 
assaulted three times by the Confederates before it was 
finally held. This regiment (also the brigade) partici 
pated in the last two of these charges. It was then that 
Gen. J. E. B. Stuart ordered the whole line forward. 
The enemy s earthworks were carried by storm, and many 
pieces of artillery which had occupied them were captured. 
We were now in full view of the Chancellor house. . . . 
Soon the Chancellor house was on fire and a glorious vic 
tory perched on our banners. 

The Federals retreated toward the Rappahannock by 
10 a. m., and General Lee halted his men to rest and 
reform. It was his intention to follow Hooker for a 
new attack when word from Fredericksburg made other 
action necessary. General Sedgwick s corps had crossed 
the Potomac, captured the heights intrusted to Early, and 
was moving in Lee s rear to help the sorely beset Hooker. 
General Lee sent first McLaws and then Anderson to 



166 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

meet and check this advance. No force except Jackson s 
corps was left in front of Hooker s vast army. "Here, 
then," is Colonel Dodge s caustic comment upon his com 
mander s allowing Lee to do this with impunity, "we 
have the spectacle, happily rare in war, of a slender force 
of 20,000 men, who had been continuously marching and 
fighting for four days, penning in their defenses an army 
of over 60,000, while its commander cries for aid to a lieu 
tenant who is miles away and beset by a larger force than 
he himself commands. And this slack-sinewed com 
mander is the very same who initiated the campaign with 
the watchword: Fight! Fight!! Fight!!! and with the 
motto: Celerity, audacity and resolution are everything 
in war. 

McLaws took position at Salem church. Brooks and 
Newton, of Sedgwick s corps, lost 1,500 men in an at 
tempt to move him, but failed. General Lee then ordered 
the rest of Anderson s division to reinforce McLaws, and 
directed these forces and Early s command to strike Sedg- 
wick. This was done, and though a loss of 2,000 men 
was inflicted, Sedgwick after holding his ground until 
night crossed the river, and Lee s flank was clear. Sedg 
wick s corps sustained a loss of 4,590 in these engage 
ments.* In this last battle, Hoke s brigade was most 
actively engaged in the charge against Howe. The main 
assault was made upon Howe s left by the brigades of 
Hoke and Hays. These two brigades, although attacking 
with "an easy contempt of danger," were repulsed until 
Gordon s brigade found opportunity to move down a 
ravine and take Howe in flank. This compelled Howe s 
hasty withdrawal. General Hoke was wounded in this 
charge. His brigade lost first and last 230 men. 

As Sedgwick was retreating toward the river, Manly s 
battery was called into play, and General Wilcox said : 
"Captain Manly s battery rendered valuable service in 
shelling the retreating enemy near Banks ford. Twenty 

* Rebellion Records, XXV, I, 191. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 167 

of the enemy were wounded by this shelling and fell into 
our hands the next day, and many were killed." 

The total Federal killed and wounded in this series of 
battles reached 12,216; they also lost 5,711 prisoners.* 
The total Confederate loss in killed and wounded was 
as follows: killed, 1,581; wounded, 8,700; total, 10,281. 
North Carolina had fewer regiments than usual with 
General Lee at this time. Both Ransom s and Cooke s 
brigades were on other duty. There were present in 
General Lee s army in these battles, 124 regiments and 5 
battalions of infantry. North Carolina had present 24 
regiments and i battalion. Nearly exactly, then, one-fifth 
of the Confederate army was from North Carolina, and 
one-fifth of the battle casualties would have been, 
therefore, that State s fair share of loss. However, of the 
total Confederate casualties killed, 1,581; wounded, 
8,700 North Carolina lost in killed, 557; in wounded, 
2,394.f Thus more than one-third of the killed, and 
considerably over one-fourth of the wounded, were sons of 
North Carolina. Of the 1 24 regiments in the army of 
Northern Virginia, only three regiments J lost in this 
battle over 200 men in killed and wounded, and all three 
of these regiments were from North Carolina. Of the 
same number of regiments, only twelve lost over 150 men, 
and six of the twelve were from the same State. These 
twelve and their losses are as follows: Thirty- seventh 
North Carolina, 227; Second North Carolina, 214; Thir 
teenth North Carolina, 209; Third North Carolina, 179; 
Fiftieth Virginia, 170; Twenty-second North Carolina, 
169; Seventh North Carolina, 164; Fourth Virginia, 163; 
Cobb s legion, 157; Fourth North Carolina, 155; Fifth 
Alabama, 154; Fourth Georgia, 150. 

No words can ever make such undying attestation to 
North Carolina heroism as is borne by these simple fig- 

*Rebellion Records, XXV, I, pp. 185, 191. 
f Official Report, Rebellion Records, XXV, I, 809. 
\ These three are, of course, the three highest on the list of the 
twelve. 



168 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

ures. Among the killed were the following officers from 
North Carolina: Cols. J. T. Purdie, J. C. S. McDowell; 
Lieut. -Cols. C. C. Cole, J. L. Hill, and Maj. L. Odell. 
In the list of wounded were Gens. R. F. Hoke, S. D. 
Ramseur; Cols. T. M. Garrett, T. F. Toon, W. R. Cox, 
A. M. Scales, W. M. Barbour, C. M, Avery, E. G. Hay- 
wood; Lieut. -Cols. J. W. Lea, R. V. Cowan, W. H. A. 
Speer, Forney George, J. B. Ashcraft; Majs. M. McR. 
McLauchlin, W. G. Morris, W. L. Davidson, T. W. May- 
hew; Adjt. Ives Smedes. 

On June 9, 1863, at Fleetwood, near Brandy Station, 
the greatest cavalry engagement of the war occurred. 
The Union forces, numbering about 10,000 men, under 
General Pleasanton, attacked General Stuart, command 
ing the Confederate cavalry, which numbered nearly the 
same as the Union horsemen. Stuart was caught be 
tween the columns of Buford and Gregg, and drove back 
each in turn in a magnificent battle, in which both sides 
fought earnestly and courageously. General Hampton 
led the First North Carolina in a flank attack, and as the 
front attack succeeded, this regiment, under Colonel 
Baker, followed in hot pursuit, took many prisoners, and 
captured the colors of the Tenth New York regiment. 
General Hampton commends a dashing feat performed 
by a squadron under command of Capt. W. H. H. Cowles, 
who, with Capt. W. R. Wood, "charged through the ranks 
of the enemy, following him for some miles and return 
ing around his columns in safety, with sixty prisoners. 
Captain Wood charged successfully an infantry force. 
The Fifth, Fourth and Second cavalry were also engaged. 
The Second regiment was severely engaged and lost its 
brave colonel, Sol. Williams, of whom General Stuart 
said: "He was as fearless as he was efficient." Maj. 
Rufus Barringer, whose conduct is praised by General 
Hampton, was severely wounded. The Union loss was 
837; Confederate, 575. 

The day after this battle, General Ewell started on his 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 169 

campaign against General Milroy in the Shenandoah val 
ley. General E well s corps embraced the divisions of 
Rodes, Early and Johnson. In Rodes division were 
three North Carolina brigades, Iverson s, Daniel s and 
Ramseur s; in Early s was Hoke s brigade, commanded 
during this campaign (General Hoke being wounded) by 
Col. I. E. Avery, of the Sixth North Carolina; in John 
son s division were the First and Third regiments. Gen 
eral Daniel s brigade had but recently been incorporated 
into the army of Virginia, and was constituted as follows : 
Thirty- second, Colonel Brabble; Forty- third, Colonel 
Kenan; Forty-fifth, Lieut. -Col. S. H. Boyd; Fifty-third, 
Colonel Owens, and Second battalion, Lieut. -Col. H. L. 
Andrews. 

General Rodes was sent to dislodge a force at Berry- 
ville, and General Ewell marched directly for Winchester. 
In the assault made by Early s troops on the fortifications 
at Winchester, Hoke s brigade was in reserve and not 
actively engaged. When the enemy evacuated Winches 
ter and attacked General Steuart, of Johnson s division, 
who had taken position at Jordan Springs to intercept the 
retreat, the First and Third North Carolina regiments 
and the two Virginia regiments making up the brigade, 
became engaged in a brilliant night battle. These regi 
ments were in position along a railroad cut, and were 
largely outnumbered, but Milroy s men could not move 
them from their line, and about 1,000 surrendered to 
General Steuart alone, who had been reinforced by the 
brigades of Nicholls and Walker. The First" North Car 
olina captured four stand of colors. Lieut. John A. 
Morgan, of the same regiment, greatly distinguished him 
self by serving gallantly a piece of artillery commanding 
a bridge desired by the Federals. The losses in the two 
regiments were only 9 killed, 28 wounded. 

The brigades in General Rodes division were engaged 

Nc22 



170 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

in a successful pursuit of the enemy at Berryville and 
Martinsburg, but had no serious engagement until they 
reached Gettysburg. 

The weeks following Chancellorsville were busy weeks 
with the cavalry. At Middleburg, General Robertson, 
commanding the Fourth and Fifth North Carolina cav 
alry, attacked a brigade of Pleasan ton s cavalry, and 
more than held his own in a plucky fight. In this engage 
ment, Maj. James H. McNeill was wounded. Again near 
Middleburg, on the ipth of June, a sharp skirmish took 
place, in which the First, Fourth and Fifth cavalry were 
participants. 

At Upperville, on the 2ist of June, the two cavalry 
forces joined in severe saber-to-saber conflicts, and the 
day was one of repeated and varying combat. The 
First North Carolina had a hand-to-hand fight with the 
First United States dragoons, and, Colonel Baker says, 
broke them by the charge. The Fifth and Fourth were 
heavily set upon in the rear, and Col. P. G. Evans se 
verely wounded. 

On the 27th, at Fairfax Court House, the First North 
Carolina had, as General Stuart reported, "a spirited 
encounter with and chase after a detachment of Federal 
cavalry denominated Scott s Nine Hundred, killing, 
wounding and capturing the greater portion, among them 
several officers ; also horses, arms and equipments. The 
First North Carolina cavalry lost its major in the first 
onset Maj. John H. Whitaker an officer of distinction 
and great value to us. The North Carolina losses in 
these battles were, killed, 31; wounded, 103. 



CHAPTER XL 

THE CONFEDERATE INVASION OF PENNSYLVANIA- 
BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG NORTH CAROLINIANS 
IN THE THREE DAYS FIGHTING ON THE RETREAT 
THE POTOMAC RECROSSED BY LEE S ARMY CAV 
ALRY FIGHTING IN VIRGINIA DURING THE INVA 
SION OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

AFTER General Hooker retreated from General 
Lee s front at Chancellorsville, the Confederate 
commander determined to transfer the scene of 
hostilities beyond the Potomac. His army was put in 
motion, and by the 2 yth of June, his advance corps, under 
Ewell, was at Carlisle, Pa. , and his other two corps, under 
Longstreet and A. P. Hill, were encamped near Cham- 
bersburg. The further advance of the army was arrested 
by intelligence that the Federal army had crossed the 
Potomac and was approaching South mountain. "In 
the absence of the cavalry," says General Lee, "it was 
impossible to learn his intentions ; but to deter him from 
advancing farther west and intercepting our communica 
tion with Virginia, it was determined to concentrate the 
army east of the mountains. " 

Accordingly, A. P. Hill s corps was set in motion to 
ward Gettysburg, and this corps was followed by Long- 
street s a day later. General Ewell was directed to move 
back from Carlisle, and to join the army either at Cash- 
town or Gettysburg. Hill s advance division, Heth s, 
reached Cashtown on the 2pth of June. From that point 
General Heth sent Pettigrew s North Carolina brigade to 
Gettysburg to procure supplies. When General Petti- 
grew arrived at the outskirts of the town, he found it 

171 



172 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

occupied by the Federals, and, not knowing the force 
there, he returned to Cashtown. 

This was the first service of Pettigrew s brigade with 
General Lee s army, but, notwithstanding this fact, it 
was to render itself immortal by losing in this battle in 
killed and wounded (not prisoners), 208 more men than 
any other brigade in General Lee s entire army.* S win- 
ton says of this brigade, as well as the rest of Heth s 
division: "The division on the left of Pickett, under com 
mand of General Pettigrew, was in considerable part made 
up of North Carolina troops, comparatively green. f 
While the expressions "in considerable part " and "com 
paratively green " are somewhat indefinite, yet, taking 
language in its usual sense, both are erroneous as applied 
to this division. In the first place, the division was com 
posed of seventeen regiments, only five of which were 
from North Carolina. In the second place, if one bears 
in mind that none of Lee s regiments was over two years 
old, "comparatively green" fits no one of those five regi 
ments. The Eleventh regiment, the "Bethel regiment," 
as it was known in North Carolina, was composed "in 
considerable part" of the men who had made up the First 
North Carolina regiment of volunteers, the oldest regi 
ment in the Confederate service. After its reorganization 
under the accomplished Leventhorpe, it had been severely 
tested at Franklin, at White Hall, and at Blount s creek. 
The Twenty- sixth regiment, commanded by as gallant a 
soldier as ever wore epaulettes, Harry K. Burgwyn, saw 
bloody service at New Bern, and took part, an honor 
able part, in all the battles around Richmond. The 
Fifty-second regiment, trained and commanded by an 
educated soldier, the noble J. K. Marshall, was over a 
year old in its organization and had been tried, and borne 
itself bravely, in battle on the Black water, at Blount s 
creek and at Goldsboro. The Forty-seventh regiment 

* See Dr. Guild s Casualty List, Rebellion Records, 
f Army of the Potomac, p. 350 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 173 

also had been in service over a year, had for its officers 
many men originally members of the First regiment, had 
been under fire for three months in its campaigning in 
North Carolina, and while it had been in no great pitched 
battle, it was battle-tried. In like manner, the Fifty- 
fifth was not a new regiment. It was organized in the 
spring of 1862, had a dashing set of officers, and had 
many times before been under severe fire. 

The battle of the first day at Gettysburg was a clear 
Confederate victory. Gen. A. P. Hill reached Cashtown 
on the soth, with his former division, now commanded by 
Fender, who was promoted to a major-generalship when 
General Hill became corps commander. The next morn 
ing, July ist, General Hill advanced Heth and Fender to 
develop the force of the Federals. As Heth, who had 
the van, approached Gettysburg, he found his adversaries 
strongly posted on the northwestern approaches to the 
town. Heth, little realizing that he was opening in front 
of that obscure little town the greatest contest of modern 
times, ordered his leading brigades under Davis and 
Archer into action. Davis was north of the Chambers- 
burg pike, and was supported by Brockenbrough, who was 
just south of the pike. Archer, supported by Pettigrew, 
was south of the pike. Both brigades faced Seminary 
ridge. When the fighting began, only Buford s cavalry 
held the ground for the Federals; but the First army 
corps, under Reynolds direction, was advancing rapidly 
to the support of the cavalry, and Cutler and the "Iron 
brigade," under Morrow of Wadsworth s division, soon 
took position in front of Seminary hill. 

Davis brigade, which consisted that day of only the 
Fifty-fifth North Carolina regiment, Colonel Connally, 
and two Mississippi regiments, encountered Cutler s bri 
gade. After a stubborn contest, waged until Davis men 
advanced within a few yards of their line, the Federals 
were broken, and by General Wadsworth s order were 
temporarily retired to Seminary hill. Archer was not so 



174 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

fortunate as Davis. The "Iron brigade," advancing 
through a wood that concealed it, swept unexpectedly 
around Archer s right flank, captured him and many of 
his men, and broke the brigade badly. Archer out of the 
way, General Doubleday, who was directing operations 
after General Reynolds was killed, turned all his atten 
tion to Davis. The Federal reserves were ordered in, and 
struck Davis in flank as he was, says General Double- 
day, * pursuing Cutler s brigade toward town." This 
reserve consisted of three regiments and 100 men of the 
brigade guard. General Doubleday says this reserve 
"went forward with great spirit, but was altogether too 
weak to assail so large a force. " * A little search into 
records would have shown General Doubleday that Gen 
eral Davis, the only officer on the field, had but three 
regiments f to meet his reserve three, and that they had 
already lost very severely, while the Federal three and 
brigade guard had not been under fire. This new attack 
fell on Davis front and flank just as he was preparing to 
retire, and broke his line, leaving the arriving brigades 
of Doubleday s division free to form line of battle. Gen 
eral Heth reports that Colonel Connally and Maj. A. H. 
Belo, of the North Carolina regiment, bore themselves 
"with conspicuous gallantry. " Lieutenant-Colonel Smith 
was killed. 

The high spirit of Connally and his men is shown by 
an incident narrated by Capt. C. M. Cooke of this regi 
ment. Colonel Connally, while the regiment was advanc 
ing, seized the battleflag and waved it encouragingly. 
He was at once shot down. Major Belo, who was near 
him, sprang to his side, inquiring whether he was much 
hurt. " Yes, " answered the colonel, "but do not pay any 
attention to me. Take the colors and keep ahead of the 
Mississippians. " 

After the re pulse of Davis, a lull in the battle occurred. 

* Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, p. 132. 
I One of his regiments was in Virginia. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 175 

Heth reformed his lines, putting Archer s brigade on his 
right next to the woods, then Pettigrew s brigade of four 
North Carolina regiments on Archer s left, then Brock- 
enbrough s Virginia brigade to Pettigrew s left. Davis 
was placed on the extreme left as a reserve, and to collect 
his stragglers. Pender s division was formed just behind 
Heth; Lane s brigade of North Carolinians on the right, 
then Perrin in the center, and Scales North Carolinians 
on the left. Thomas brigade was retained by the corps 
commander to meet a threatened advance from the left. 
General Doubleday in his book on Gettysburg again gets 
numbers wrong. He says: "As I had but four weak 
infantry brigades at this time against eight large brigades 
that were about to assail my lines, I would have been jus 
tified in falling back. " * As just seen, the Confederates 
sent in only six brigades. The six Confederate brigades 
consisted of twenty-seven regiments. Doubleday s four 
brigades had only eighteen regiments, it is true, but he 
had the assistance of Buford s two cavalry brigades and 
horse artillery, and good service they did him by a dis 
mounted fight, for they practically neutralized Archer s 
gallant brigade. There is no reason to think that there 
was any great disparity in the regimental strength of the 
contestants ; hence any claim of excessive numbers on the 
Confederate side is inadmissible. Moreover, the position 
of the Federal troops, on the ridge and behind stone walls, 
was worth several regiments. 

On the Federal side, Biddle faced Pettigrew and part 
of Stone s brigade, and Meredith fronted Brockenbrough. 
Stone s men faced both north and west, and were in 
formidable position on a ridge and behind a stone fence. 
To his right was Cutler, and then Baxter and Paul. 
These last two brigades, says General Hunt, "took post 
behind the stone walls of a field." Baxter faced to the 
west and Paul to the north. These, then, were the posts 
of the six infantry brigades of the First corps, and formed 
* Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, 1882, p. 134. 



176 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

the left of the Federal line. Buford s cavalry was mainly 
on the left. To their right, the Eleventh corps, under 
General Howard, took post as it arrived on the field. 
General Schurz s two brigades, tinder Schimmelfennig 
and Krzyzanowski, were on Reynolds immediate right, 
and Barlow s two, tinder Gilsa and Ames, formed the 
extreme Federal right. 

While these troops were getting into battle order, Gen 
eral E well s corps was arriving and arraying itself on the 
Confederate left. Rodes division, the first to reach the 
field, formed on Heth s left; Iverson s North Carolina 
brigade occupying his right, O Neal his center, and Doles 
his left. Daniel, with his North Carolina brigade, sup 
ported Iverson, and had instruction to attack on his right 
if opportunity arose. Ramseur s four North Carolina 
regiments were held in reserve. When Early s division 
reported, it went into action with Gordon on the right, 
next to Doles, Hays on his left, and Hoke s North Caro 
lina brigade on the extreme Confederate left. Smith was 
in reserve. Johnson s division did not arrive in time for 
the afternoon battle. 

General Doubleday, commenting on the converging 
lines of A. P. Hill and Ewell, says: "It would of course 
have been impossible to hold the line if Hill attacked on 
the west and Ewell assailed me at the same time on the 
north ; but I occupied the central position, and their con 
verging columns did not strike together until the grand, 
final advance at the close of the day, and therefore I was 
able to resist several of their attacks before the last crash 
came. " * As these early attacks of the Confederates 
were not synchronous, it may facilitate an understanding 
of the part taken by the North Carolina brigades to follow 
them from the Confederate right to the left. On the 
right, Pettigrew s brigade attacked Biddle s Federal bri 
gade, posted just in front of the west face of Seminary 
ridge. The attack began between two and three in the 
* Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, p. 139. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 177 

afternoon, and by 4 o clock the brigade of Biddle was 
broken and driven back to aline partly protected by rails, 
just outside of the town. Capt Louis G. Young, of 
Charleston, S. C., an aide-de-camp to General Pettigrew, 
bears this testimony to the soldiership of the brigade : 
"Opposite our left wing, composed of the Twenty- sixth 
and Eleventh North Carolina troops, the Federals fought 
desperately, inflicting so heavy a loss that too few were 
left for a successful bayonet charge ; but our men pressed 
on persistently until the enemy was driven back to his 
intrenchments * just outside of the town, and from which 
he was quickly driven by Fender s fine division. No 
troops could have fought better than did Pettigrew s bri 
gade on this day, and I will testify, on the experience of 
many hard-fought battles, that I never saw any fight so 
well. Its conduct was the admiration of all who witnessed 
the engagement; and it was the generally-expressed 
opinion that no brigade had done more effective service 
and won greater fame for itself than this one. The pris 
oners themselves testified that they, native to the soil or 
which they were fighting, had fought with unusual deter* 
mination, but that there was no withstanding such an 
attack."! General Hill, in his official report, corrobo 
rates Captain Young: "Pettigrew s brigade, under the 
leadership of that gallant officer and accomplished scholar, 
Brig. -Gen. J. Johnston Pettigrew (now lost to his coun 
try), fought as well, and displayed as heroic courage as 
it was ever my fortune to witness on a battlefield. . . . 
The Eleventh North Carolina regiment, Col. C. Leven- 
thorpe commanding, and the Twenty-sixth North Caro 
lina regiment, Col. H. K. Burgwyn, Jr., commanding, 
displayed conspicuous gallantry, of which I was an eye 
witness. The Twenty-sixth North Carolina regiment lost 
in this action more than half its numbers in killed and 



* This refers to the line of rails on Seminary ridge, mentioned by 
General Doubleday. 

f Our Living and Dead. 
Nc 28 



178 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

wounded, among whom were Colonel Burgwyn, killed, and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Lane, severely wounded. Colonel 
Leventhorpe, of the Eleventh regiment, was wounded, 
and Major Ross killed. The Fifty-second and Forty-sev 
enth, on the right of the center, were subjected to a heavy 
artillery fire, but suffered much less than the Eleventh and 
Twenty-sixth North Carolina regiments. These regi 
ments behaved to my entire satisfaction." Biddle s bri 
gade being driven back, Pettigrew s men co-operated 
with Brockenbrough s brigade in its attempts to dislodge 
Meredith s "Iron brigade" under Morrow, that was tena 
ciously holding its position. The two soon sent him back 
to Biddle s new position on Seminary hill, but he had 
been a gallant foeman, for he reports here a loss of 316 
killed and wounded, out of a total of 496. 

Fender s division moved up behind Heth s lines, now 
commanded by General Pettigrew, as General Heth had 
been wounded; and when Pender found Heth s men 
"much exhausted and greatly reduced by several hours 
hard and successful fighting, he ordered his division to 
take the front line and charge Seminary hill. General 
Lane s brigade was so delayed by the dismounted Federal 
cavalry on the right, that it did not get a fair opportu 
nity to engage the enemy in front except a force posted in 
a wood. Perrin and Scales pressed straight up the hill 
in face of a close and accurate fire. Major Engelhard, 
assistant adjutant-general, who made the official report 
for Pender s division > said of Scales North Carolinians: 
"General Scales on the left, with his left resting on the 
turnpike, after passing the troops of General Heth, ad 
vanced at a charge upon the flank of a brigade of the 
enemy which was engaged with the extreme left of Gen 
eral Heth s division, upon the opposite side of the road, 
which soon caused the enemy to fall back." The Fed 
erals, under General Doubleday s direction, had been very 
actively putting artillery on the hill, and it now opened 
murderously upon Scales, as he descended the hill to 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 179 

charge up on the other side. Engelhard s report contin 
ues: "[The brigade] encountered a most terrific fire of 
grape and shell on the left flank, and grape and musketry 
in front, but still it pressed forward at double-quick until 
the bottom was reached. . . . Here the fire was most 
severe." The brigade halted at the foot of the hill to 
make reply to the enemy s fire. General Fender rushed 
up, urging the men to stop only to reform, and General 
Scales, though badly wounded in the leg, ordered his 
men to charge the hill. Led by Lieut. -Col. G. T. Gor 
don, of the Thirty-fourth regiment, the men dashed for 
the ridge, and attacking it concurrently with Ewell s 
advance, drove the Federals through Gettysburg. As 
they entered the town, the men of this brigade met their 
comrades from Ramseur s North Carolina brigade, and 
also from Hoke s brigade. These latter brigades entered 
from the north side of the town. 

During the progress of this battle on the right, Rodes 
division of Ewell s corps had been fiercely engaged. Bax 
ter s Federal brigade repulsed O Neal, and then moved 
forward and took post behind a stone wall on the Mum- 
masburg road. In that position Iverson, supported by 
Daniel, attacked it. Iverson seems to have sent forward 
his line of battle with no skirmishers in front, and reports 
that his men rushed upon a "concealed stone wall." 
General Doubleday thus states the disadvantage at which 
Iverson s brave men were taken: "As his [Baxter s] men 
lay down behind the [rock] fence, Iverson s brigade came 
up very close, not knowing our troops were there. Bax 
ter s men sprang to their feet and delivered a most deadly 
volley at very short range, which left 500 of Iverson s 
men dead and wounded, and so demoralized them that 
all gave themselves up as prisoners. One regiment, how 
ever, after stopping our firing by putting up a white flag, 
slipped away and escaped. * There is a mixture of 
truth and error in these statements. The men composing 

* Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, p. 143. 



180 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Iverson s line of battle did fall almost in their tracks. 
General Rodes expression, "His dead lay in a distinctly 
marked line of battle, exactly describes the catastrophe. 
As they stood there, too proud to retreat without orders 
and too sorely smitten to advance, they did, as General 
Rodes says, "fight and die like heroes. " When their left 
was overpowered, many were captured, but no regiment 
raised a white flag and slipped away under it. The 
Twelfth regiment, under Lieutenant-Colonel Davis, which 
is the regiment to which General Doubleday refers, so 
far from slipping away, stood its ground under the terrific 
fire until Ramseur s brigade came to its succor. It then 
joined Ramseur, and had the satisfaction of assisting in 
forcing the Federals from their position, and of capturing 
more prisoners than it well knew what to do with. The 
fire that was so destructive to Iverson and also to Daniel 
was not from Baxter s men alone. Baxter was aided by 
the batteries posted between his brigade and that of 
Cutler, which was thrown forward on Iverson s flank, and 
also by a more distant fire from Stone s men. So long 
as Stone held his position, his line with that of Cutler 
and Robinson s division constituted what is known as a 
demi-bastion and curtain, and * every force, says Double- 
day, "that entered the angle suffered severely. " Rodes, 
in his report, speaks of it as a "murderous enfilade and 
reverse fire, to which, in addition to the direct fire it 
encountered, Daniel s brigade had been subject to from 
the time it commenced its final advance. 

General Daniel s brigade of North Carolinians had fol 
lowed Iverson into action, but when Iverson obliqued his 
men somewhat to the left, the movement uncovered Dan 
iel s front, and he went into direct action against Stone 
and his reinforcements ; but sent Colonel Kenan with the 
Forty-third and Colonel Owen with the Fifty-third, to aid 
Iverson and his own left. Some of Stone s men were advan 
tageously posted in a railroad cut, and were assisted by two 
batteries of artillery. As Daniel surged forward, the action 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 181 

was becoming more general. General Rodes report gives 
a succinct account of what followed. He says : * * The right 
of this brigade coming upon the enemy strongly posted in 
a railroad cut, was, under its able commander s orders, 
thrown back skillfully, and the position of the whole bri 
gade was altered so as to enable him to throw a portion 
of his force across the railroad, enfilade it, and attack to 
advantage. After this change General Daniel made a 
most desperate, gallant and entirely successful charge 
upon the enemy, driving him at all points, but suffering 
terribly. The conduct of General Daniel and his brigade 
in this most desperate engagement elicited the admiration 
and praise of all who witnessed it. Just as his last effort 
was made, Ramseur s brigade, which under my orders had 
been so disposed as to support both Iverson and O Neal, 
was ordered forward, and was hurled by its commander, 
with the skill and gallantry for which he is always con 
spicuous, with irresistible force, upon the enemy just 
where he had repulsed O Neal and checked Iverson s 
advance. . . . The Twelfth North Carolina regiment, 
which had been held well in hand by Lieutenant- Colonel 
Davis, and the shattered remnants of the other regiments 
of Iverson s brigade, which had been rallied and organized 
by Capt. D. P. Halsey, assistant adjutant-general of the 
brigade, made, under his guidance, a dashing and effect 
ive charge just in time to be of considerable service to 
Ramseur and Daniel, and with them pressed closely after 
the enemy. Davis three regiments, including the Fifty- 
fifth North Carolina, had also joined Daniel in his persist 
ent endeavors. 

The success of this part of the line had not been easily 
won. Paul s brigade went to reinforce Baxter, and the 
whole Federal First corps was now engaged. At one 
time Daniel s line was brought to a halt on the railroad 
cut, which was impassable at the point the men reached 
it. The Forty-fifth regiment and the Second battalion, 
gallantly supported by the Forty -third and Fifty-third, 



182 CONFEDERA TE MILITARY HISTORY. 

fought their way to this critical point. Then Colonel Brab 
ble, bold and ready always, was ordered to take the Thirty- 
second and, by a circuit, cross the cut and storm the bat 
tery at the barn. This was handsomely done. At the same 
time, the brigades of Pettigrew and Brockenbrough, as 
already seen, threw their weight on the right of Daniel as 
he advanced, and all the forces on his left also advanced. 
This general attack crushed the opposition in its front, 
and the Federal line swung back. Rodes followed the 
enemy into Gettysburg. Two of his brigades, Doles and 
Ramseur s, became involved in skirmishes in the streets. 

Only one other North Carolina brigade was in action 
on this day. That was Hoke s brigade, commanded by 
Col. I. E. Avery. It, as seen above, was on the extreme 
Confederate left, just east of the Heidlersbarg road. 
When the Eleventh corps was defeated, the brigades of 
Hoke and Hays were sent in pursuit. General Howard 
ordered Coster s brigade to advance and cover the retreat 
of Schurz division. This brigade formed behind a fence 
on the hillside to the northeast of the town. Avery s 
men and Hays Louisianians pressed toward Coster s 
fence. Shells from the artillery on top of the ridge, fol 
lowed by canister, admonished the Carolinians to move 
quickly. Colonel Avery, cool and resolute, ordered the 
brigade to double-quick up the slope and go over the 
fence. The men dashed after him, and in a few moments 
had displaced the Federal brigade and were hastening to 
the town. The Sixth North Carolina captured two pieces 
of artillery. Avery s brigade was directed to the east of 
the town and was halted at the foothills of Cemetery 
ridge. There it was exposed to a rapid artillery fire from 
the guns on that hill, but soon found shelter in a 
depression. 

That night thirteen Confederate brigades bivouacked in 
or around the town of Gettysburg ; six of these were from 
North Carolina. Sixteen Confederate brigades did all 
the fighting on the first day at Gettysburg ; seven of these, 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 183 

Daniel s, Hoke s, Iverson s, Lane s, Pettigrew s, Ram- 
seur s and Scales , were from North Carolina. These bri 
gades had been opposed principally to the Federal First 
corps, Buford s cavalry and the artillery of both arms. 
Their own losses and the losses of the First corps are suf 
ficient evidence of soldierly bearing. The commander of 
that corps, after Reynolds, says: "General Wadsworth 
reported half his men as dead or wounded, and Rowley s 
division suffered in the same proportion. Stone reported 
that two-thirds of his brigade had fallen. Hardly a field 
officer remained unhurt. General Robinson reported a 
loss of 1,667, out of 2,500." 

The second day at Gettysburg was nearly equal in 
advantages to the contending armies, but the result 
inspired the Confederates with the hope of triumph. On 
the morning of the second day at Gettysburg and in the 
early afternoon, no North Carolina troops were in the 
assaulting forces. Four North Carolina batteries were 
posted along the center and right of the Confederate 
lines. These were Manly s, Reilly s, Latham s and 
Capt. Joseph Graham s. They faithfully executed the 
duties assigned them, and were under fire and engaged 
as circumstances required. 

In the late afternoon, Johnson s division was ordered to 
assail Gulp s hill. One of his brigades, Walker s, was 
detached, but his remaining three prepared for the attack. 
Early s and Rodes divisions were to co-operate in this 
movement up the rugged and mountainous acclivity, 
strong by nature, and rendered more formidable by 
intrenchments and abatis. Jones led off, followed by 
Nicholls and Steuart. The First and Third North Caro 
lina regiments were members of Steuart s brigade. 
These two regiments were veteran campaigners and 
indomitable fighters. They crossed Rocky creek and 
broke their way through the thick woods in spite of an 
incessant artillery fire, and were soon within range of 
Greene s and Wadsworth s muskets. If it had not been 



184 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

so dark, they would have fared far worse. On they 
pressed until Steuart s men captured Greene s works. 
Colonel Brown, of the First regiment, says that Lieut. 
Green Martin of that regiment was the first to enter the 
works, and was mortally wounded a moment later. That 
night they slept in the captured works, but their slumbers 
were broken before day by fast-falling shells. They were 
attacked by infantry, but repulsed the attack. Daniel s 
brigade, which had marched nearly all night, now rein 
forced Stewart. These two brigades then made a deter 
mined charge against the Federal works in their front, 
but were repulsed. Again they boldly charged, but the 
position was too strong and defended by too many soldiers 
for their weak numbers to be successful. They inflicted 
a severe loss on the Federals. There in the lines of the 
enemy these brigades and other troops remained until 12 
o clock that night, when they were ordered back to town. 

It had been ordered that when Johnson engaged Gulp s 
hill in the attack just described, Early and Rodes should 
assault Cemetery hill. Rodes failed to get there in time, 
but it was through no fault of that resolute, skillful and 
energetic soldier, for he moved promptly on his orders, 
but arrived just after the repulse of Early s two brigades. 

Early selected the brigades of Hays and Hoke (the lat 
ter commanded by Col. I. E. Avery) "to dare the ven 
ture of that bristling hill. These two brigades, under 
the immediate command of General Hays, moved through 
the wide ravine between Gulp s and Cemetery hills, up 
the rugged ascent, and made, as General Longstreet de 
clares, "as gallant a fight as was ever made." General 
Hunt, of the Federal army, says of their advance : " A line 
of infantry on the slopes was broken, and Weidrich s 
Eleventh corps battery and Pickett s reserve batteries 
near the brow of the hill were overrun ; but the excellent 
position of Stevens 12 -pounder sat the head of the ravine, 
which enabled him to sweep it, the arrival of Carroll s 
brigade sent unasked by Hancock, and the failure of 

Nc 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 185 

Rodes to co-operate with Early, caused the attack to mis 
carry. The cannoneers of the two batteries so summarily 
ousted, rallied and recovered their guns by a vigorous 
attack with pistols by those who had them, by others 
with handspikes, rammers, stones, and even fence-rails 
the Dutchmen showing that they were in no way in 
ferior to their Yankee comrades who had been taunt 
ing them ever since Chancellorsville. After an hour s 
desperate fighting, the enemy was driven out with heavy 
loss, Avery being among the killed."* This gallant 
officer, smitten unto death by a bullet through the neck, 
and being unable to speak, drew from his pocket a slip of 
paper, and in the darkness traced on it with dying fingers, 
"Major Tate, tell father that I died with my face to the enemy." 

The fighting over the guns was unusually fierce. In 
reference to one of the captured batteries, Major Tate, in 
a letter to Governor Vance, dated July 8, 1863, says: 
"Seventy-five North Carolinians of the Sixth regiment, 
and twelve Louisianians of Hays brigade, scaled the wall 
and planted the colors of the Sixth North Carolina regi 
ment and Ninth Louisiana on the guns. The enemy stood 
with a tenacity never before displayed, but with bayonet, 
clubbed musket, sword and pistol, and rocks from the 
wall, we cleared the heights and silenced the guns." 
Their bravery was to go unrewarded, however. No sup 
ports came to relieve their struggles for the guns and for 
the hill. Not only Carroll, but also a Pennsylvania regi 
ment and a force from Schurz division joined their 
enemies, and finding that they were about to be over 
whelmed, they retreated. The lodgment here effected, 
if followed up promptly, would have turned the whole 
Federal line. 

On the third day the Federals were entirely successful 
in defense, but were made unable to assail. The result 
of the second day s battle "induced the belief," says Gen 
eral Lee in his official report, "that we should ultimately 

*. Battles and Leaders, III, p. 312. 

No 24 



186 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

succeed, and it was accordingly determined to continue 
the attack. General Lee s report continues : "The gen 
eral plan was unchanged. Longstreet, reinforced by 
Pickett s three brigades, . . . was ordered to attack the 
next morning, and General Ewell was directed to assail 
the enemy s right at the same time." General Long- 
street, however, found that he needed some of his troops, 
hence a change in the plan of assault became necessary. 
It was finally decided that Pickett s division from Long- 
street s corps, and Heth s division from Hill s corps, should 
constitute the column of assault, and that this column 
should be properly supported by a second line. It has 
often been asserted, and there are still people ignorant 
enough to believe the assertion, that to Heth s division, 
commanded that day by General Pettigrew, was assigned 
the duty of supporting Pickett s division. Others have 
been found ignorant enough of their country s history to 
assert that Pickett s attack failed because it was not sup 
ported by Pettigrew. General Lee s official report ought 
forever to dispose of these errors. He accurately sets 
forth the true relations of all the attacking forces when 
he says : * * General Longstreet ordered forward the column 
of attack, consisting of Pickett s and Heth s divisions, 
in two lines, Pickett on the right. Wilcox s brigade 
marched in rear of Pickett s right, to guard the flank, 
and Heth s was supported by Lane s and Scales brigades 
under General Trimble. Here, then, is given the front 
line, Pickett and Heth ; the second, or supporting line, 
Wilcox, Lane and Scales. Pettigrew was no more sup 
porting Pickett than was Ewell, a mile or more away; all 
three were ordered to make coincident attacks, as General 
Lee states, and Pettigrew was ordered to dress his line on 
Pickett. Pickett s assault failed for the same reason that 
Pettigrew s failed because the men making it were flesh 
and blood. Had they been disembodied spirits, they could 
possibly have survived the artillery and musketry fire 
from those heights. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 187 

In the memorable charge of the last day at Gettysburg 
there were forty-seven Confederate regiments engaged. 
Nineteen of these were from Virginia, fifteen being in 
Pickett s division and four in Heth s; fifteen regiments 
were from North Carolina, three from Tennessee, seven 
from Alabama, and three from Mississippi. The North 
Carolina regiments were distributed as follows: Five in 
General Scales brigade, commanded by Colonel Low- 
ranee; five in General Lane s brigade, four in General 
Pettigrew s brigade, and one in General Davis brigade. 

To prepare the way for the assaulting column, 115 Con 
federate guns had been massed in front of the left center 
of the Federal position. These were replied to by 80 
Federal guns massed in front of the point of attack. The 
roar of these guns as they burst into deadly action fairly 
shook the rocky hills, and was heard, it is said, fifty miles 
away. * Strong battle was in the air, and the veterans of 
both sides swelled their breasts to gather nerve and 
strength to meet it. 

The Federals had strengthened their stronghold on the 
ridge and concentrated their lines for the stern conflict 
that they saw impending. Hancock held the portion of 
their line that was to receive the severest shock. Webb s 
brigade was behind a stone wall and breastworks. Hall 
and Smyth were on his left and right, respectively, Wil- 
liardto Smyth s right. Stannardwas ready to fall on the 
flank of the Confederate right. The second line was 
posted behind a crest. Howard s corps held its former 
place, and Doubleday s men held lines to Gibbon s left. 
All lay in readiness, screening themselves as best they 
could from the fire of the artillery that was soon to cease 
from want of ammunition. "We lay behind a slight rise 
of ground," says an occupant of the second line, "just 
sufficient to hide us from the view of the rebels. It was 
awfully hot, and we were so close to the ground that not 
a breath of air could reach us. A row of guns quivered 
expectantly between the two lines. 



188 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Pickett and Pettigrew mounted and spurred for their 
commands. Officers with stern smiles and fixed faces 
took their places to lead the long lines of eager men 
toward their grimly waiting foes. Clouds of dust arose 
from moving columns ; aides dashed from command to 
command, bearing orders and rectifying alignments ; bay 
onets were set, ammunition boxes were opened, battle- 
flags tossed impatiently. Then the grand march against 
stone walls, fortifications, a hill crowned with the engines 
of death, was taken up with dauntless step. The lesson 
taught by Malvern Hill and Fredericksburg was again 
to be burned into unretentive memories. Two armies 
watch with fiery excitement as the stately columns, soon 
to moulder into dust, sweep over the intervening plain. 
Gallantly the officers lead; superbly the men follow. 
Now with blazes of pent-up destruction the silent guns 
burst into life. Round shot, shells, canister, shrapnel 
mingle in mad race to carry desolation to distant homes. 
Men begin to fall. * Close on your colors, fiercely shout 
the captains ; officers go down, their juniors rush forward ; 
colors from death-loosened fingers strike the ground only 
to be raised triumphantly by the nearest hand ; greater 
gaps are rent, and instantly filled by the shrinking but 
unfaltering lines. Brockenbrough s brigade is borne 
down, Davis line is staggered. Lane and Lowrance from 
the second line rush forward with their sturdy Carolinians, 
and without a halt Pettigrew s men push closer. The 
rifle shots from Gibbon s men now begin to find lodg 
ment, and men sink by scores. In the wild roar of the 
battle no words of command can be heard, but caps and 
swords wave on the depleted ranks to still more desperate 
attempts. 

The Federal line was parallel to Pickett s front, but 
turned back at an angle in front of Pettigrew, hence his 
men had further to go to reach the works. They 
reached the Emmitsburg road, struggling then at close 
quarters and pushing down the first fence. The sur- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 189 

vivors of the division clambered over the fence on the other 
side of the road, and rushed for the works and guns. The 
front Federal line was seriously broken, but the second 
line rushed to the front and savagely engaged, while the 
guns worked incessantly. Some of the men from differ 
ent companies and regiments broke into the Federal lines 
in a frenzied endeavor to plant their colors there. Let 
an eye-witness, Captain Young, tell the sequel : * * Under 
this fire from artillery and musketry, the brigade on our 
left, reduced almost to a line of skirmishers, gave way. 
Pettigrew s and Archer s brigades advanced a little 
farther, and in perfect continuation of Pickett s line, 
which arrived at the works before we did, only because 
they jutted out in his front, and because he had to move 
over a considerably shorter distance. The right of the 
line formed by Archer s and Pettigrew s brigades rested 
on the works, while the left was, of course, further re 
moved, say 40 to 60 yards. [The Federal line, as seen 
above, bent back here.] Subjected to a fire even more fatal 
than that which had driven back the brigade on our left, 
and the men listening in vain for the cheering commands 
of officers who had, alas, fallen, our brigade gave way 
likewise, and simultaneously with it, the whole line. * 

The North Carolina losses in this battle were startling. 
It has been erroneously said that they were "raw troops. " 
If this were so, ambitious generals ought to ask only for 
such "raw troops." Captain Young states that on the 
morning of July ist, Pettigrew s brigade numbered from 
2,800 to 3,000 men, and on the 4th only 835 were present 
for duty. "All the field officers, save one, who was cap 
tured, were killed or wounded, and the brigade was com 
manded, after the repulse at Cemetery hill, by Major 
Jones of the Twenty-sixth regiment, who had been struck, 
on the ist, by a fragment of a shell, and was knocked 
down and stunned on the 3d. On the ist, Captain Tuttle, 
of the Twenty -sixth regiment, led into action 2 lieu- 

* Our Living and Dead. 



190 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

tenants and 84 men ; all of the officers and 83 of the men 
were killed or wounded. Company C of the Eleventh 
regiment lost 2 officers killed, and 34 out of 38 men. 
Captain Bird, with the remaining four, participated in the 
fight of the 3d." Every man in Company A of the 
Thirty- eighth regiment was shot down except two, and 
they were captured. The losses were equally great in 
other companies, whose glorious records have not been so 
painstakingly preserved. 

The North Carolina soldiers feel that writers on the 
great combat at Gettysburg have never placed a fair esti 
mate upon their important services. Almost uniformly 
Pickett s splendid charge has been glorified, and Petti- 
grew s equally splendid one minimized or disparaged. 
No North Carolina soldier desires to detract one scruple 
from the fame of "Pickett and his Virginians," but he 
does want "Pettigrew and his North Carolinians" 
and other troops accorded their bloodily-won laurels. 
Take as an example, a writer quoted by Captain Bond : 
44 The right (Pickett) behaved gloriously ; the left (Petti- 
grew) faltered and fled. Each body acted according to 
its nature, for they were made of different stuff; the 
one of common earth, the other of finest clay. Petti- 
grew s men were North Carolinians, Pickett s were superb 
Virginians. To show that on this field the North Caro 
linians measured squarely up to every soldierly obliga 
tion, it is necessary only to examine, first, what they 
accomplished; second, to add the official casualty list. 
Let us take these separately. 

In the first day s entirely successful battle, sixteen 
Confederate brigades followed their colors in action ; seven 
of these, nearly one-half, were from North Carolina. In 
the second day s battle, but two Confederate brigades 
penetrated within the lines on Cemetery hill; one of 
these was Hoke s North Carolina brigade. On the third 
day, the unequivocal testimony of the commanders on the 
field, and under the guns, is that they went as far and 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 191 

remained as long as Pickett s line of battle, and that the 
only reason they did not penetrate as solidly into the 
enemy s works was that, as already explained, the Fed 
eral works, beginning at Pettigrew s right, bent back. 
Hence Pettigrew s men, being in line with Pickett s, had 
farther to charge to enter those works. General Trimble, 
a sternly courageous Marylander, says : * * They did get to 
the road and drove the opposing line from it. The loss 
here was fearful, and I knew that no troops could live 
long to endure it. I was anxious to know how things 
went on with the troops on our right, and taking a quick 
but deliberate view of the field over which Pickett had 
advanced, I perceived that the enemy s fire seemed to 
slacken there, and men in squads were falling back on 
the west side of the Emmitsburg road. By this I inferred 
that Pickett s division had been repulsed, and if so, that 
it would be a useless sacrifice of life to continue the contest. 
I, therefore, did not attempt to rally the men who began 
to give back at the fence. * 

General Lane s testimony, the testimony of a gallant 
Virginian, is the same. He says: "As soon as I could 
dismount from my wounded, plunging horse, I ordered 
Colonel [C. M.] Avery, in command of my left regiment, 
to move to meet the force above referred to. when he 
quickly replied, * My God, General, do you intend rushing 
your men into such a place unsupported when the troops 
on the right are falling back? Seeing that it was useless 
to sacrifice my brave men, I ordered my brigade back. f 
The testimony of scores of others to the same facts is on 
record. 

In the Gettysburg cavalry fight, of which W. Brooke- 
Rawle says, "for minutes which seemed like hours, 
amid the clashing of sabers, the rattle of small-arms, the 
frenzied imprecations, the demands to surrender, the 
undaunted replies, and the appeals for mercy, the Con- 

* Letter quoted in Moore s History, II, 256. 
t Letter in same, p. 206. 



192 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

federate column stood its ground," North Carolina had 
also worthy representation in the enthusiastic charge of 
its First cavalry regiment under Colonel Baker, and in 
the meritorious services of the other regiments from that 
State. 

In the second place, it is a rule of war, to which there 
are exceptions generally due to position, that the force that 
incurs the most casualties in killed or wounded is the force 
that stands most obstinately under fire and also inflicts 
the most loss on its adversaries. Tried by this rule, the 
soldiers from the North State have, according to Surgeon 
Guild s official report,* much to show their bravery. 

First, the total Confederate loss in killed and wounded 
(not including "missing") was 15,301; the total North 
Carolina loss in killed and wounded was 4,033, over one- 
fourth of the total loss. Four hundred in killed and 
wounded is considered a severe brigade loss. Only six 
teen Confederate brigades lost over that number at Gettys 
burg; four of these, one-fourth, were from North Caro 
lina. The heaviest regimental loss at Gettysburg, 588 
men, was incurred by the Twenty-sixth North Carolina 
regiment. In the whole of General Lee s army, only eight 
regiments lost as high as 200 men in killed and wounded; 
three of these, the Eleventh, Twenty-sixth and Forty- 
fifth, were from the same State. Only eighteen regi 
ments had over 150 killed and wounded; seven of these 
were likewise from North Carolina. 

Second, in Pickett s grand charge on the right there 
were fifteen regiments. The total number of killed and 
wounded in these fifteen regiments was 1,364. In Heth s 
division, commanded on the 3d by Pettigrew, there were 
five North Carolina regiments. The killed and wounded 
in these five regiments amounted in the two days that 
they fought to 1,303. In other words, the killed and 
wounded in five North Carolina regiments of Pettigrew s 
division lacked only 61 men of numbering as many as the 

* Rebellion Records, XXVII, II, 338-346. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 193 

killed and wounded in the whole fifteen of Pickett s 
division. The five regiments just mentioned had 229 
killed in their two days of fighting; Pickett s fifteen regi 
ments had 224 killed. That is, these five regiments from 
North Carolina had, during the battle, actually five more 
men killed than Pickett s fifteen. Yet little has been 
written of the modest daring of these men. Swinton goes 
so far as to say that men who could die in this way were 
only induced to charge by being told they were to 
meet merely Pennsylvania militia, and that when they 
saw Meade s banners, they broke in disorder, crying, "The 
army of the Potomac ! Most of the men on the left, of 
Pettigrew s and Trimble s divisions, had chased the army 
of the Potomac too often to so suddenly make a god Pan 
out of it. 

During these days of blood, North Carolina lost many 
of her most soldierly sons. Gen. W. D. Pender, the 
State s senior officer on the field, was mortally wounded. 
General Pender was graduated from West Point in 1854. 
He served with distinction in many Indian campaigns, 
and, after resigning from the United States army to serve 
his native State, had, in every battle he entered, added 
to his reputation as a cool, sagacious, intrepid and persist 
ent fighter. No fitter eulogium can be framed than was 
penned by the great commander whom he loved so well 
and served so faithfully. General Lee said of his loss : 
"General Pender has since died. This lamented officer 
has borne a distinguished part in every engagement of 
this army, and was wounded on several occasions while 
leading his command with conspicuous gallantry and 
ability. The confidence and admiration inspired by his 
courage and capacity as an officer were only equaled by 
the esteem and respect entertained by all with whom he 
was associated for the noble qualities of his modest and 
unassuming character. " 

Next in rank to fall was Col. I. E. Avery, commanding 
Hoke s brigade. Colonel Avery had been recommended 

Nc 25 



194 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

for promotion by Generals Fender, Hood, Law and Early, 
and only his untimely death robbed him of his general s 
commission. He had been mentioned for meritorious 
conduct upon every field upon which his regiment was 
engaged. During General Hoke s absence, from a 
wound, Colonel Avery had commanded the brigade, and 
as General Early reports, "worthily filled the absent 
general s place. " Although a believer and enforcer of 
discipline, Colonel Avery s fairness, urbanity and upright 
ness had drawn his men very close to him. 

With him had gone other splendid soldiers. Among 
them the "boy colonel" of the Twenty-sixth, the noble- 
souled, lion-hearted Harry K. Burgwyn; the daring, 
experienced and able Col. D. H. Christie; the accom 
plished, polished and soldierly colonel of the Fifty-second, 
J. K. Marshall; Lieut. -Col. H. L. Andrews, whose splendid 
leadership had encouraged the Second battalion to fight 
so grimly and lose so terribly; Lieut. -Col. M. T. Smith, 
the Christian soldier whose quiet example of conscientious 
discharge of duty left a lasting impression on the Fifty- 
fifth regiment; Maj. E. A. Ross, a hard fighter and 
earnest friend. Among the wounded field officers were 
Cols. J. K. Connally, C. Leventhorpe, T. S. Kenan, S. D. 
Lowe, F. M. Parker, R. T. Bennett; Lieut.-Cols. J. R. 
Lane, S. H. Boyd, R. D. Johnston, M. A. Parks, and 
W. J. Green, acting aide to General Pettigrew; Majs. 
A. H. Belo, J. R. Winston, J. M. Hancock, H. G. Lewis, 
D. W. Hurtt, C. C. Blacknall; Adjts. T. C. James and 
J. B. Jordan, and perhaps others equally brave whom the 
records do not mention. Several of these officers, like 
the gallant colonel of the Forty-third, T. S. Kenan, had 
not only the ill fortune to be wounded, but had added to 
it the misfortune of spending the rest of the time covered 
by the war in a Federal prison. 

The day after the battle of Gettysburg, General Lee 
remained in position to see whether the Federals desired 
to attack him. General Meade showing no intention of 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 195 

acting, the Confederate army withdrew on the night of 
the 4th of July, but owing to delays incident to heavy 
rains, General E well s corps did not leave its ground until 
the 5th. 

On the 6th, Buford s cavalry, subsequently reinforced 
by Kilpatrick, moved on Williamsport to destroy the Con 
federate trains. This attack was met by Imboden s small 
cavalry command, reinforced by the Fifty-fourth North 
Carolina regiment of infantry, under Col. K. M. Murchi- 
son, and the Thirty-first Virginia infantry. These two 
regiments were returning from Richmond, where they had 
been sent to escort prisoners. These forces completely 
repulsed the Federal cavalry in a spirited fight. General 
Buford says in his report : "Just before dark, Kilpatrick s 
troops gave way, passing to my rear by the right, and 
were closely followed by the enemy. After this, Buford 
ordered his forces to withdraw. Colonel Murchison lost 
2 men killed and 15 wounded. 

At Hagerstown, on the same day, Stuart s cavalry and 
portions of Iverson s North Carolina brigade were engaged 
in a hot conflict with Kilpatrick s cavalry division. In 
this engagement, the four North Carolina cavalry regi 
ments that had followed Stuart in his long raid into Penn 
sylvania, participating in the battles at Sykesville, Little 
ton, Hanover, Hunterstown and Gettysburg, bore them 
selves with their usual gallantry. These four were the 
First, Colonel Baker; the Second, Lieut. -Col. C. M. 
Andrews; the Fourth, Colonel Ferebee, and the Fifth, 
commanded by Lieut. -Col. J. B. Gordon, of the First regi 
ment, after the mortal wounding of its brave and soldierly 
colonel, Peter G. Evans. Chambliss brigade, to which 
the Second cavalry belonged, although reduced to a skele 
ton, made, in co-operation with General Robertson s two 
regiments, the Fourth and Fifth, what General Stuart 
called a "gallantly executed charge. " General Stuart 



196 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

specially praised a repulse of the Federals by Colonel 
Gordon, commanding a fragment of the Fifth North 
Carolina cavalry. 

On the 8th, the First regiment of cavalry and the other 
regiments of Hampton s brigade, commanded, after Gen 
eral Hampton was wounded, by Col. L. S. Baker of the 
First North Carolina, and Chambliss brigade, had an ani 
mated dismounted fight near Boonsboro. The North 
Carolina losses in these cavalry operations, so far as 
reported, were, killed, 9; wounded, 79. There is no 
report from the First nor the Second regiment. 

In the cavalry fight at Funkstown, the North Carolina 
troops took part on the i6th of July, and Manly s North 
Carolina battery was engaged nearly all day, losing sev 
eral men. 

Pettigrew s North Carolinians formed the rear guard 
when the Potomac was recrossed at Falling Waters on 
the 1 4th of July. There a portion of the Sixth Michigan 
cavalry regiment, not knowing in what force the Con 
federates were present, charged the line. At the time of 
this charge Pettigrew s men were resting, and many of 
them were asleep after their exhausting marches through 
the rain and mud. The small Federal force coming so 
boldly upon them was mistaken for Confederate cavalry, 
and allowed to come almost within the lines. They were, 
of course, quickly routed with severe loss, but, in the short 
struggle, Gen. J. J. Pettigrew, of North Carolina, was 
mortally wounded. "At the beginning of the melee, " 
says Captain Graham, "General Pettigrew s horse, fright 
ened by the sudden and near discharge of musketry, 
plunged and threw his rider. Rising in great pain, for he 
was still suffering from his wound received at Seven 
Pines, and his arm was in a sling from his injury of the 
3d of July, Pettigrew beheld a Federal corporal near him 
in the act of firing on his men. Drawing his pistol, he 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 197 

was approaching this soldier with a view of engaging in 
combat with him, when he fell to the ground, himself 
pierced with a pistol ball. * 

General Pettigrew graduated at the university of North 
Carolina with brilliant honors, cultivated his mind in 
America and Europe, and was easily one of the ablest 
men in his State. He commenced his career as the colo 
nel of the Twelfth, afterward the Twenty-second, regi 
ment. His attainments as a man and his success as a 
soldier won speedy recognition, and he was promoted to 
command a brigade. His career as brigadier-general 
showed his ample capacity for command. Few nobler 
men ever died for any cause. 

After the Confederate army crossed the Potomac, the 
corps of Longstreet and A. P. Hill were stationed near 
Culpeper Court House. General E well s corps operated 
for awhile in the valley, then retired toward Madison 
Court House. On the ist of August the Federal cavalry, 
following him, crossed the Rappahannock at the station 
and at Kelly s ford, and advanced toward Brandy Sta 
tion. The progress of the enemy, says General Lee, was 
gallantly resisted by General Stuart with Hampton s bri 
gade, commanded by Col. L. S. Baker, who fell back 
gradually to our lines about two miles south of Brandy. 
Colonel Baker fought against great odds, and the engage 
ment was most creditable to his efficiency and the bravery 
of his veteran troopers. Colonel Baker was severely 
wounded, losing an arm, and after he was wounded 
would probably have been captured but for the ever dar 
ing Capt. W. H. H. Cowles, who shouted to the men, 
" Charge again and save our colonel." For his gallant 
conduct in this campaign, Colonel Baker was promoted to 
a brigadier-generalship. 

In the fall of this year Col. James B. Gordon was also 
promoted and assigned to a brigade, made up of the First, 
Second, Fourth and Fifth North Carolina cavalry regi- 

* New Bern Memorial Address. 



198 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

ments. " About the same time," says Moore, "bold and 
fearless James Bearing succeeded Beverly Robertson in 
command of the Second North Carolina brigade. After 
this memorable campaign in the North, Lee s army took 
position along the Rapidan. 

During the invasion of Pennsylvania, Gen. D. H. Hill, 
commanding the department of North Carolina, was tem 
porarily assigned to the defenses around Richmond. The 
troops under his command took part in some minor 
engagements during this time. On the 26th of June, Col 
onel Spear, with a cavalry force numbering 1,050 men, * 
moved from the White House to destroy the bridge over 
the South Anna river. The bridge was defended by 125 
men, commanded by Lieut. -Col. T. L. Hargrove, of the 
Forty-fourth North Carolina regiment. Colonel Spear 
says of Colonel Hargrove s battle, "He held the bridge 
manfully for over an hour, when by a stratagem he found 
me in his rear and his entire force captured. Colonel 
Hargrove had 7 men killed and 13 wounded. 

An expedition under General Getty was sent by the 
Federals to destroy the bridges over the South Anna and 
tear up the railroads in that vicinity. At the point 
in danger, Cooke s North Carolina brigade met the 
Federals and repulsed them successfully. General Cooke 
states in his official report : "The principal point of attack 
was the railroad bridge, where they were met by com 
panies of Col. E. D. Hall s and William MacRae s regi 
ments under Maj. A. C. McAlister, who repulsed them 
repeatedly in handsome style. Col, John A. Baker s regi 
ment [Third North Carolina cavalry] occupied the right 
of our line and behaved very well. 

A raiding party under Gen. E. E. Potter, in July, 
inflicted much damage on some of the towns in eastern 
North Carolina. At Rocky Mount this force destroyed 
the bridge over Tar river, and also mills, depots, 
factories, and large quantities of flour and 800 bales 

* Spear s Report, Rebellion Records, XXVII, p. 796. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 199 

of cotton; at Tarboro some Confederate gunboats in 
process of construction were burned ; at other places simi 
lar damage was done. This party was frequently fired 
upon by local troops, especially Whitford s battalion, and 
a loss of 32 men was entailed upon it. 

On the 28th of July, Gen. M. W. Ransom, with four 
companies and a section of artillery, routed, at Jackson, 
N. C., a cavalry force of 650 men under Colonel Spear. 



CHAPTER XII. 

DEFENSE OF CHARLESTON NORTH CAROLINIANS IN 
MISSISSIPPI THE BATTLE OF CHICKAMAUGA EAST 
TENNESSEE CAMPAIGNING NORTH CAROLINA 
CAVALRY IN VIRGINIA INFANTRY ENGAGEMENTS 
AROUND RAPPAHANNOCK STATION FIGHTS AT 
KELLY S FORD, BRISTOE AND PAYNE S FARM. 

ON the 1 6th of July, Clingman s brigade, consisting 
of the following North Carolina regiments, the 
Eighth, Colonel Shaw; the Thirty-first, Lieut. - 
Col. C. W. Knight; the Fifty-first, Colonel McKethan; 
the Sixty-first, Colonel Radcliffe, Lieutenant- Colonel 
Devane and Major Harding, was ordered to South Caro 
lina to assist in the defense of Charleston harbor. The 
brigade arrived on the isth, and was at once assigned to 
duty. The Fifty-first and Thirty-first became members 
of the garrison at Fort Wagner. The Eighth and Sixty- 
first went to James island. At Battery Wagner the gar 
rison endured many hardships, suffering a constant can 
nonade from land batteries and ironclads, and being 
exposed to an alert sharpshooter force at all hours. In 
addition, the water was bad, food insufficient, and the 
heat in the pits and bombproofs almost intolerable. 

"Battery Wagner was," says Lieutenant McKethan, "a 
field work of sand, turf and palmetto logs, built across 
Morris island. From north to south it varied from 
twenty to seventy-five yards. Its bombproofs were capa 
ble of holding from 800 to 1,000 men." Its armament 
was far inferior in range to the guns of the Federals, and 
"so we had to submit to the hail of iron sent upon us by 
the superior and larger range guns, from sunrise to 
sunset. 

200 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 201 

At length came the i8th day of Jiily, made memorable 
by a land and naval bombardment of unusual severity, 
lasting eleven hours, and followed by a well sustained land 
assault. The garrison, under command that day of Gen. 
W. B. Taliaferro, consisted of the Charleston battalion, 
assigned to the right of the defenses; the Fifty-first 
North Carolina, posted at the center; the Thirty-first 
North Carolina, commanded to hold the left of the work. 
The artillery, four companies, was commanded by Lieut. - 
Col. J. C. Simkins. 

The Federal land batteries numbered about forty guns 
and the ships added twenty more, making probably 
sixty-four guns of all sorts turned against the fort and its 
little garrison. General Seymour, of the Union army, 
says: "From about noon until nightfall the fort was 
subjected to such a weight of artillery as has probably 
never before been turned upon a single point." Lieu 
tenant McKethan of the Fifty-first North Carolina gives 
the experience of his regiment inside the fort: "During 
the bombardment we had concentrated upon our little 
band forty-four guns and mortars from the land batter 
ies, distant about 1,200 or 2,000 yards, and the heavy guns 
from the Ironsides, five monitors and five gunboats. . . . 
The sand was our only protection, but fortunately one shot 
would fill up the hole made by another, or we should soon 
have been annihilated. * 

Near dusk the artillery fire slackened and the land 
troops made ready for the assault. General Seymour com 
manded the Federal division, made up of Strong s, Put 
nam s and Stevenson s brigades. General Strong s bri 
gade was in advance. His leading regiment was the Fifty- 
fourth Massachusetts, a negro regiment commanded by 
white officers. During the bombardment, the Confeder 
ate troops had been partly protected in the bombproofs. 
They now, although the shelling was still murderous, 
sprang to their posts. Many of the guns of light weight 

* Regimental History. 

Nc 26 



202 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

had been withdrawn from the walls and covered with 
sandbags. They were, at sight of the infantry, run into 
the embrasures, and cleared for action. 

Shaw s negro regiment of 600 men advanced at a double- 
quick, but broke at the ditch of Wagner under the with 
ering fire of the Charleston battalion and the Fifty-first 
North Carolina, and, says Major Johnson, "rushed like a 
crowd of maniacs back to the rear. * Colonel Shaw was 
killed; and as his men, with a few brave exceptions, 
rushed back, they, General Seymour reported, "fell 
harshly upon those in their rear." The other regiments 
of Strong s brigade continued their forward movement, 
but fell in heaps before the riflemen of the two Carolinas. 
Two of General Strong s regiments had be^n affected by 
the panic of the negro regiment, and soon the whole First 
brigade was routed. General Strong was mortally 
wounded. 

Meantime Putnam s brigade, after some delay, was dar 
ingly led by him against the left of the fort. This part 
of Wagner had been assigned to the Thirty-first North 
Carolina. That regiment, however, General Taliaferro 
states in his report, could not be induced to occupy its 
position, and hence Putnam, though exposed to a flank 
fire from the other troops, met no severe fire in his front. 
He and about a hundred or more of his most determined 
followers effected a lodgment, and for more than an 
hour held their place inside the fort, although their com 
rades had been repulsed. General Taliaferro called for 
volunteers to dislodge Putnam. Maj. J. R. McDonald of 
the Fifty-first North Carolina, and Captain Ryan of the 
Charleston battalion, both offered their services. Ryan s 
company was accepted, but failed. Whenever, however, 
any of Putnam s men showed themselves, the Fifty- first 
North Carolina opened upon them. Colonel Putnam was 
killed, and his force approached in rear by some Georgi 
ans who, with General Hagood, had crossed over during 
* The Defense of Charleston Harbor, p. 104. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 203 

the battle was captured. General Taliaferro makes this 
favorable report of the Fifty-first regiment: " Colonel 
McKethan s regiment, the Fifty-first North Carolina 
troops, redeemed the reputation of the Thirty-first. 
They gallantly sought their position, under a heavy shell 
ing, and maintained it during the action. Colonel 
McKethan, Lieutenant-Colonel Hobson and Major 
McDonald are the field officers of this regiment and 
deserve special mention. The Confederate loss in this 
battle was only 181; the Federal, 1,515.* 

The two direct assaults upon Wagner having failed, the 
Federals determined to besiege it by regular approaches. 
Heavy Parrott guns and mortars were called into service, 
and from the i8th of July to the 6th of September, when 
it was evacuated, the troops serving in the fort had 
arduous duties. Ludgwig, in his Regimental History of 
the Eighth regiment describes the routine of duty there: 
"The nature of the service on Morris island was such as 
to render it necessary for the regiments composing the 
army on that side of Charleston to perform duty there 
alternately. While on the island the men were exposed 
at all times to the enemy s fire, both from land and sea. 
An attack had to be prepared for at any instant, day or 
night. It was no place for rest. The battery, frequently 
shelled, had to be repaired. The enemy s ever active 
sharpshooters had to be watched. To expose one s self to 
view meant to be shot at with attending consequences. 
The men had to keep under cover of the battery or in 
sandpits near by. Under such circumstances it was 
necessary to relieve the men once about every seven or 
eight days. . . There was no place for cooking. All the 
rations had to be prepared and carried there. . . It was a 
veritable target practice between the sharpshooters every 
day, and any careless or reckless exposure meant work 
for the ambulance corps." All of General Clingman s 
regiments took their regular tours of duty at Wagner. 

* Official Reports, Rebellion Records, 



204 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

On the 28th of August, an infantry assault on the rifle- 
pits in front of Wagner was bravely met and repulsed by 
the two Confederate regiments there. General Taliaferro 
reports: "Soon after dark he advanced upon the rifle-pits 
in front of Wagner, but General Hagood s forces were, 
fortunately, prepared to receive him. His mortar practice 
ceased and his infantry assaulted fiercely, but the position 
was held with courage and spirit, and success crowned the 
efforts of the brave men of the Sixty-first North Carolina 
and Fifty-fourth Georgia regiments, who constituted the 
advance pickets and reserve." Circumstances in North 
Carolina were such that, in November, Clingman s men 
gladly received orders to leave the island and return to 
their native State. The brigade loss during its service 
in South Carolina was: killed, 76; wounded, 336. 

Three North Carolina regiments served under J. E. 
Johnston in Mississippi. These were the Twenty-ninth, 
Lieut. -Col. W. B. Creasman, the Thirty-ninth and the 
Sixtieth. On the Yazoo river, near Yazoo City, the 
Twenty- ninth had, on the i3th of July, an all-day skirmish 
with gunboats. In the same month, the Sixtieth regi 
ment was engaged in actions of some severity before 
Jackson. These regiments were greater sufferers from 
the hardships of campaigning than they were from battle 
casualties, as it was their lot not to be engaged during 
this time in serious battle. 

The "Great Battle of the West" was fought near 
Chickamauga. There the Confederate army, under Gen 
eral Bragg, gained, on the iQth and 2oth of September, 
a great, but entirely barren victory. North Carolina was 
not largely represented in this bitterly-contested field. 
One corps commander, D. H. Hill, who had recently 
been appointed lieutenant-general and assigned to the 
command of the divisions of Breckinridge and Cleburne, 
and five regiments four of infantry and one of cavalry 
were the North Carolina participants in the two days of 
bloodshed. These five regiments were as follows : The 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 205 

Twenty-ninth, Col. W. B. Creasman; the Thirty-ninth, 
Col. David Coleman ; the Fifty-eighth, Col. J. B. Palmer; 
the Sixtieth, Lieut. -Col. J. M. Ray and Capt J. T. 
Weaver, and the Sixth cavalry, Col. G. N. Folk. 

How nobly these five regiments upheld the honor of 
their State is so clearly set forth in a personal letter to 
the author from Col. C. A. Cilley, a Federal staff officer 
of the Second Minnesota regiment, that no further me 
morial to their valor is needed. The testimony has the 
added value of coming from a generous foe who stoutly 
fought these regiments, and whose official position has 
since put him in possession of all the facts bearing upon 
the successes attained by the troops from different States. 
This position was that of member of the State commis 
sion appointed to examine and decide, conjointly with 
and under direction of the National Park commission, 
upon the achievements of all the troops engaged, and to 
direct the erection of tablets to commemorate valiant 
exploits. Colonel Cilley s letter is as follows: 

There were present at that battle the Sixth cavalry, the 
Twenty-ninth, Thirty-ninth, Fifty-eighth, and Sixtieth 
infantry. The fortunes of the day so ordered it that I 
was personally aware of the conduct of all save the Thir 
ty-ninth regiment. As to that, the published reports, 
aided by the decision of the United States Park Commis 
sion in a contest between the troops who claimed to have 
captured a number of cannon also claimed by the Thirty- 
ninth, must be the authority for whatsoever I say. 

On the meeting of our State commission at the battle 
field, October 25, 1893, we went over all available maps 
and reports of the action and the territory with the two 
members of the National commission then present, viz : 
Lieutenant-General Stewart, late of the Confederate 
States army, and Brevet Brigadier-General Boynton, late 
Thirty-fifth Ohio. In marking, the next day, the loca 
tion occupied by the North Carolina troops, we had their 
full concurrence and approval. 

As soon as General Bragg discovered that Rosecrans 
had gained the main road from Lafayette to Chattanooga, 



206 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

and was marching up the same toward the town he had 
just been maneuvered out of, he sent Forrest, followed 
up by infantry under Ector, to dislodge us. To meet 
this attack, General Thomas detached Vanderveer s 
brigade of his old division, in which General Boynton 
commanded a brigade, and on the staff of which I was 
serving my regiment, the Second Minnesota, being in the 
command. So two of the party which traversed the field 
and marked the points reached by the North Carolina 
troops had met them in actual conflict. It was agreed 
that the Sixth cavalry gained an honorable position on 
the right of the Confederate line, closely followed by the 
Twenty-ninth infantry, who fought over substantially 
the same ground. 

Col. David Coleman, of the Thirty-ninth infantry, who 
assumed command of McNair s brigade after that officer 
was wounded on Sunday evening, reported that his regi 
ment charged and captured a massed collection of nine 
cannon in Dyer s field, during what was known as the 
"great break" through the Federal lines, late on Sunday. 
Other commanders, after the battle, put in a claim to this 
capture, and asked the National commission to so credit 
them on the memorial to be erected. We carefully col 
lated all evidence on both sides, and at last General 
Stewart directed us to put up a tablet setting forth the 
exploit as Colonel Coleman reported it. This was the 
only case in which both General Boynton and myself 
were not personally cognizant of each achievement of 
North Carolina troops as set forth in the tablet erected. 

Next in order of time was the attack by Breckinridge 
(of Hill s corps) upon the right. Brannan s division of 
Thomas corps had made a lodgment on the road to 
Chattanooga at Kelly s field, when Breckinridge, who 
had attained a position on the road between Brannan 
and Chattanooga, charged with Stovall s brigade, in 
which was the Sixtieth North Carolina infantry. Two 
of our number were in the brigade which received that 
attack, and had good reason for remembering it. Again 
reports and maps were brought out, and one of the party 
paced the distance. General Stewart collated the evi 
dence and announced the decision. By his direction, an 
oaken tablet, suitably inscribed, was put up on the side of 
the State road, marking the spot where at noon on Sun 
day, September 20, 1863, the Sixtieth regiment reached the 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 207 

farthest point within the Federal lines attained by any 
Southern troops in that famous charge. 

Fourth and last. It remained only to ascertain the 
facts as to the conduct of the Fifty-eighth North Carolina 
infantry, a regiment until that battle never under fire. 
We followed its course from where it entered the field to 
the scene of its splendid achievement on Snodgrass hill. 
Three of our State commissioners were survivors of that 
regiment, and, under their guidance, we easily traced the 
path from its first service, supporting batteries, across the 
field just traversed by the Thirty-ninth, to the place 
where, about the middle of the afternoon, this command, 
hitherto unused to hostile shot, plunged into the bloodiest 
struggle of the battle, and one of the deadliest conflicts 
of the war. There it was, at the base and up the slopes 
to the crest of the wooded hill, up which Longstreet had 
hurled six divisions in an attempt to drive Thomas to 
retreat, and so secure the coveted State road. 

The slopes up which it toiled, the ravines in which it 
fought, were again trodden by some of its old officers, 
while General Boynton and myself identified the place 
on the crest where the lines met. After the fullest ex 
amination, a tablet, stating that that was the point where 
the topmost wave of Southern battle broke nearer than 
any other to the lines of Thomas defense, was erected in 
honor and in the name of the Fifty-eighth North Carolina. 
Singularly enough, this was close to the place selected 
by the Second Minnesota volunteers for its monument. 
Both of these regiments lost one-half of their number in 
killed and wounded, a percentage reached, so far as I am 
aware, by no other body of troops in that engagement. 

The affair of Snodgrass hill presents one of the most 
desperate attacks and one of the most stubborn defenses 
of the entire war. Other States which had soldiers there 
have spent money in the erection of suitable monuments 
to the valor of their sons. As I personally took word to 
General Thomas on two or three occasions that the men 
who held our line were out of cartridges, and took back 
orders from him for them to repel assaults with the bay 
onet, I know that the men of the Fifty-eighth had this 
most dreaded of weapons to confront, and I am sure no 
troops made a more distinguished record for heroism than 
they. 



208 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

In this battle, the Fifty-eighth lost nearly one-half of its 
effective strength. The Thirty-ninth lost 14 killed and 
86 wounded; the Sixtieth, 8 killed and 36 wounded. 

In the East Tennessee campaign, the Sixty-second, 
Sixty-fourth and Sixty-ninth (Thomas legion) were en 
gaged in the mountain fights in the summer and fall of 
1863. Part of the time, Gen. Robert Ransom oper 
ated in some of the same territory. Gen. A. E. Jackson 
with Walker s battalion, portions of the Sixty-ninth 
North Carolina, and other troops, including artillery, 
routed and captured a Federal force, commanded by 
Colonel Hayes of the One Hundredth Ohio regiment, at 
Limestone bridge. After a reconnoissance made by 
Maj. W. W. Stringfield, General Jackson ordered an 
assault upon the blockhouse and brick buildings occu 
pied by the Federals. Lieut. -Col. M. A. Haynes says in 
his official report: "With a shout and a hurrah for the 
Bonnie Blue Flag/ the North Carolina boys made the 
charge, and the enemy fled before them, as you and the 
general well know. The artillery and the infantry 
joining in a general attack, 314 prisoners surrendered 
and many were killed and wounded. The North Caro 
lina loss was 6 killed and 15 wounded. Shortly after 
ward the Sixty-ninth regiment encountered a large cav 
alry force under Foster. This cavalry had been sent 
to intercept the Confederate retreat toward Virginia. 
Colonel Love gallantly charged this force, and General 
Williams coming to his aid, drove it from his front. 

North Carolina cavalry were active in many of the en 
gagements during the fall campaign in Virginia. At 
Jack s shop, near Liberty mills, Orange county, Va. , 
on September 22, 1863, Hampton s division of cav 
alry joined battle with Davies and Custer s brigades of 
Kilpatrick s cavalry division. Custer s brigade was 
commanded by Colonel Stagg. Hampton s division was 
composed of three brigades: Butler s, commanded by 
Col. J. B. Gordon of the First North Carolina; Jones 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 209 

brigade, and Baker s North Carolina brigade (afterward 
Gordon s), commanded by Colonel Ferebee of the Fourth 
North Carolina. This brigade included these regiments : 
The First, Second, Fourth and Fifth. 

As the Confederates moved up the Madison pike 
toward Gordonsville, the First North Carolina regiment 
in advance encountered Davies dismounted skirmishers 
posted in some pines. Lieutenant Foard, of the advance 
guard, bravely charged in to ascertain the forces of the 
enemy, and, on his report, the First regiment was soon 
dismounted, and sharpshooters from every company en 
gaged, Major Cheek commanding in front. The fire from 
the Federal sharpshooters was very accurate, and Capt. 
A. B. Andrews, while gallantly performing his duty, 
was shot through the body, and many others were shot 
down. The action then became more general. Colonel 
Ferebee, with a mixed force, charged through the line 
of Federals moving to the Confederate rear, and the 
Federals began to draw off. Soon, however, their lines 
were re-established and their artillery opened. General 
Stuart then ordered a general charge, and the Federal 
force was driven off the field, and Colonel Stagg s rear 
cut off and captured. 

Gordon s cavalry brigade attacked, near James City, 
on the loth, the front of a cavalry force while General 
Stuart led Young s brigade to make a flank attack. The 
Federals were driven into James City, but Stuart found 
the cavalry and infantry there too strong for his force, 
and he made no attack. 

On the nth of October, the Fourth North Carolina 
cavalry dispersed a cavalry force at Culpeper Court 
House. In this charge, Colonel Ferebee and Adjutant 
Morehead of the Fifth were wounded, and Lieutenants 
Baker of the Second and Benton of the Fourth were 
killed. On the same day, Gen. W. H. F. Lee with his 
cavalry force and Johnston s North Carolina brigade, 
commanded by Colonel Garrett of the Fifth regiment, 

No 27 



210 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

opposed the crossing of Buford s cavalry division at 
Morton s and Raccoon fords. The brigades of Buford 
that had crossed over were driven back. The Fifth, 
Twenty-third and five companies of the Twelfth regi 
ment, under Colonel Garrett, crossed at Raccoon ford, 
and the Twentieth and five companies of the Twelfth 
crossed at Morton s ford, and followed the Federals to 
Stevensburg. These regiments succeeded in forcing the 
enemy to retire. The loss in the brigade was 4 killed 
and 38 wounded. 

At Brandy Station, General Gordon reports: "Near 
Bradford s house I sent the First North Carolina cavalry 
to attack the enemy in rear while we were moving 
on his flank. That command captured and killed 60 of 
the enemy. Near Mr. Bott s house, the Fourth and 
Fifth were charged in flank by the Eighteenth Pennsyl 
vania cavalry, and broke in considerable confusion. The 
brigade took no further active [part in the] operations 
during the day. 

While making a reconnoissance toward Catlett s Sta 
tion on the night of the i3th, General Stuart suddenly 
found himself and command enveloped by a marching 
corps of Federal infantry. His situation was extremely 
critical, and a less resourceful commander would most 
probably have been captured. He, however, concealed 
his men in a body of woods so near the Federals that 
he could hear their conversation. His troops having 
"unbounded confidence in the resources of the major- 
general commanding, remained quiet and determined 
during the night. "* A few bold men ran the gauntlet of 
the Federal lines to take word to General Lee of the per 
ilous situation of his cavalry. At dawn a dense fog pre 
vented a disclosure of Stuart s presence. "An army 
corps," reports that officer, "halted on a hill just oppo 
site to us, stacked arms, and went to making coffee. 
This operation had considerably progressed when a sharp 

* Gordon s Report. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 211 

volley of musketry was heard on the Warrenton road. I 
waited until it appeared more general, when, believing 
that it was our attack in earnest, I opened seven guns 
upon the enemy and rained a storm of canister and shell 
upon the masses of men, muskets and coffee-pots. 
Strange to say, the fire of our infantry ceased as soon as I 
opened, and I soon found myself maintaining an unequal 
contest with an army corps. The Federal batteries on 
the hill were turned on Stuart, and he ordered Gordon s 
brigade to cover his left flank. Unflinchingly the North 
Carolinians carried out the order. During this action, 
Gordon saw that a Federal regiment was about to reach 
the road of the retreating line, and ordered the First 
North Carolina cavalry to charge it. Though the First 
was small in number, Col. Thomas Ruffin, commanding 
it, led a dashing charge on the Federal bayonets and held 
the regiment back from the road. Colonel Ruffin, 
whom General Stuart described as a "model of worth, 
devotion and heroism, lost his life in the attack. Gen 
eral Gordon and Major Barringer were both wounded, but 
continued on duty. Sheer hard fighting alone extricated 
Stuart. 

General Lee crossed the Rapidan early in October And 
moved toward Culpeper Court House, "with a view of 
bringing on an engagement with the Federal army. * 
General Meade, however, retreated before Lee, and the 
Confederate army moved on toward Bristoe Station. 
Gen. A. P. Hill s corps reached that point first, and, on 
the 1 4th, brought on an engagement with Warren s Sec 
ond corps. This was almost entirely, on the Confederate 
side, a North Carolina battle ; for the two brigades that 
did nearly all the fighting were both from, that State. 

Just before reaching Bristoe, General Heth, command 
ing the advance division, was ordered to form line of battle 
on the road from Greenwich. Accordingly Cooke s North 
Carolina brigade was formed on the right of the road; 

* Lee s Report. 



212 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Kirkland s brigade, also North Carolinians, was formed 
to Cooke s left, and Walker s brigade was directed to move 
to Kirkland s left ; but Cooke and Kirkland, having formed, 
were ordered forward before Walker could reach his post. 
Davis was held in reserve. A Federal force was soon 
discovered in Kirkland s front, but one of Poague s bat 
teries caused it to retire, and General Heth was ordered 
to cross Broad run to follow up Poague s success. It 
was not known to the Confederate commander that the 
Federals were in force across the run ; for their lines were 
marching parallel to a railroad that concealed them from 
sight. Cooke and Kirkland advanced, and no opportu 
nity offered Walker to form on line with them. They 
encountered General Warren s Second corps drawn up 
along a line of railroad. 

The Federal forces that these two brigades were or 
dered to attack were posted in a low cut almost perfectly 
sheltering the men, and behind an embankment forming 
equally good protection. Hays division, consisting of 
the brigades of Smyth, Carroll and Owen, held the center. 
On his right was Webb s division, made up of Heath s and 
Mallon s brigades Baxter not being present. Cald- 
well s division was on Hays left, but the Confederate 
front was not long enough to reach his position, and only 
his skirmishers were engaged. Miles brigade of Cald- 
well s division was supporting the artillery. The Fed 
eral brigades most severely engaged were those of Heath, 
Mallon and Owen. 

Against these two divisions the two North Carolina 
brigades, under the protest of General Cooke, gallantly 
advanced. General Heth says of the Federal position : 
"On seeing our advance, the enemy formed his line in 
rear of the railroad embankment, his right resting on 
Broad run and hidden by a railroad cut. In his rear, a 
line of hills ascended to some 30 or 40 feet in height, giv 
ing him an admirable position for his artillery. The rail 
road cut and embankment gave him perfect protection 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 213 

for his infantry." Two batteries of Ricketts Brown 
and Arnold occupied these advantageous positions and 
swept the slope down which the Confederates had to 
advance. 

As General Cooke marched to the attack, his Carolina 
regiments were drawn up as follows: The Forty-sixth, 
Colonel Hall, on the right; the Fifteenth, Col. William 
MacRae, next ; the Twenty-seventh, Colonel Gilmer, next, 
and on the left, the Forty-eighth, Colonel Walkup. Gen 
eral Kirkland s North Carolinians were on Cooke s left in 
this order : The Eleventh, Lieutenant-Colonel Martin, and 
the Fifty-second, Lieut. -Col. B. F. Little, were on the left ; 
the Twenty-sixth, Colonel Lane, the Forty-fourth, Colo 
nel Singeltary, and the Forty- seventh, Colonel Faribault, 
on the right. 

Cooke s men, on the right, stepped to the front with 
boldness and began the descent of the slope. Then for 
the first time they saw the enemy s real line of battle; 
but their orders were to break it if possible. The batter 
ies speedily got their range and the infantry fire was 
incessant. "As they fired up the hill," says Capt. J. A. 
Graham, "every one of their shots told." Almost at 
the first volley, General Cooke and Colonel Gilmer were 
seriously wounded. Col. E. D. Hall succeeded to the 
command of the brigade. Colonel Hall, seeing how rap 
idly his command was falling, rushed to the center and 
ordered the firing to cease and a charge to be made. 
The Twenty-seventh led off, followed by the other regi 
ments. "The point from which we started the charge," 
says Graham, "was distinctly marked; in some cases 
ten men from each company lying dead or wounded on 
that line."* When these determined men reached 
within forty yards of the railroad, the Federals rose and 
delivered a volley that so thinned the shattered ranks 
that an order to fall back was given. In their exposed 
condition, to fall back was almost as dangerous as to 

* Regimental History. 



214 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

proceed. Col. William MacRae s thoughtful bravery, 
however, prevented much loss of life. He ordered his 
regiment to fall back by companies, and so poured a con 
tinuous return fire upon the hottest of the Federal front 
fire. Cooke lost 526 men* in this action, which lasted 
only about forty minutes. The Twenty-seventh regi 
ment, which, says Colonel Hall, went further than any 
other of his regiments, lost 204 out of 426 taken into 
action. 

Kirkland s brigade was not called upon to endure so 
heavy a loss as Cooke s, for a pine field protected in part 
his advance, but his officers and men behaved with 
equal gallantry. His men fought their way into the rail 
road cut on the left of his line. The Eleventh and Fifty- 
second drove the Federals out of the cut and occupied it 
themselves. But they were exposed to a flank fire from 
infantry and an enfilade fire from artillery, and reluc 
tantly gave up their advantage. General Kirkland was 
wounded, Colonel Martin was several times wounded, 
and a loss of 270 inflicted upon the brigade. 

General Warren in his official report bears testimony to 
the fearlessness of the North Carolina men in their 
attacks. He reports, "the enemy s line of battle boldly 
moving forward, one part of our own steadily awaiting it 
and another moving against it at double-quick. . . . The 
enemy was gallantly led, as the wounding of three [two] 
of his general officers in this attack shows, and even in 
retiring many retired but sullenly. 

Why these two brigades were left to fight an entirely 
unsupported battle against such odds seems never to 
have been explained. The total Confederate loss around 
Bristoe was 1,381. The total North Carolina loss, as 
shown by the official reports, was 912. This was divided 
as follows: killed, 133; wounded, 779. 

A cavalry engagement, jocularly denominated by the 
Confederate troopers, "the Buckland Races," occurred on 

*Official Returns, Army Northern Virginia. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 215 

the 1 8th. General Stuart, who was in front of Kilpat- 
rick s division, received a note from General Fitzhugh 
Lee stating that he was moving to join his commander, 
and suggesting that Stuart with Hampton s division 
should retire in the direction of Warrenton, drawing the 
enemy after him. This being done, Lee was to come in 
from Auburn and attack in flank and rear while Stuart 
attacked in front. General Stuart s report tells the 
sequel: "This plan proved highly successful. Kilpat- 
rick followed me cautiously until I reached the point in 
question, when the sound of artillery toward Buckland 
indicating that Major-General Lee had arrived and com 
menced the attack, I pressed upon them suddenly and 
vigorously in front, with Gordon [North Carolina bri 
gade] in the center and Young and Rosser on his flanks. 
The enemy at first offered a stubborn resistance, but the 
charge was made with such impetuosity, the First North 
Carolina gallantly leading, that the enemy broke and the 
rout was soon complete. I pursued them from within three 
miles of Warrenton to Buckland, the horses going at full 
speed the whole distance. General Stuart quotes from 
a Northern writer, who speaks of Kilpatrick s retreat as 
"the deplorable spectacle of the cavalry dashing hatless 
and panic-stricken through the ranks of the infantry. 

In the operations around Rappahannock Station, 
Hays brigade occupied a tete-de-pont on the enemy s 
side of the Rappahannock. Hoke s brigade, now com 
manded during General Hoke s absence, from a severe 
wound, by Col. A. C. Godwin, was ordered to cross the 
river to reinforce Hays. There, on the yth of Novem 
ber, these two brigades were completely surrounded by 
the Federal First and Second corps, and a large part of 
them forced to surrender in spite of the efforts of Hays 
and of Godwin, a splendid officer, to extricate them. Gen 
eral Early thus speaks of this unfortunate affair : "Hoke s 
brigade had not at this time been captured, but they 
were hopelessly cut off from the bridge without any 



216 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

means of escape and with no chance of being reinforced ; 
and while making preparations to defend the bridge and 
prevent an increase of the disaster, I had the mortifi 
cation to hear the final struggle of these devoted men, 
and to be made painfully aware of their capture without 
the possibility of being able to go to their relief. Eight 
hundred and forty-seven men of this brigade were thus 
made prisoners. Capt. Joseph Graham s North Carolina 
battery, posted on the Confederate side of the river, 
made continuous efforts to direct a successful fire upon 
the assailants of its comrades across the river. 

On this same date, the Federals succeeded in crossing 
the Rappahannock at Kelly s ford notwithstanding the 
efforts of Rodes division, which was guarding several 
fords along the river, to prevent it. The troops most 
actively engaged at Kelly s ford were the Second North 
Carolina, commanded at the opening of the affair by 
Colonel Cox, then, upon that officer s being wounded, 
by Lieutenant- Colonel Stallings, and the Thirtieth 
North Carolina, Lieutenant-Colonel Sillers commanding. 
Colonel Sillers also received a terrible wound. The North 
Carolina losses in these engagements were: killed, 6; 
wounded, 109. 

The most serious infantry engagement during the No 
vember movements was at Payne s farm, or Bartlett s 
mill, on the 27th. The Federals unexpectedly attacked 
Johnson s division. The main attack fell on Steuart s 
and Walker s brigades. Here again, as at Bristoe, the 
heaviest losses fell on North Carolina troops. The Third 
North Carolina, Lieutenant-Colonel Brown, sustained the 
heaviest loss in the division 72 men. The First North 
Carolina, Colonel Thruston, suffered next in casualties. 
His regiment and the Fourth Virginia each lost 55 men. 
The brigades of Hoke, Daniel and Ramseur were several 
times under fire, but not seriously engaged. The total 
North Carolina casualties in the infantry were: killed, 
17; wounded, 138. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 217 

Gordon s cavalry brigade had a skirmish at New Hope 
church, and took part in a sharp action at Parker s store. 
The Second North Carolina and a portion of the Fifth, 
all tinder command of Captain Reese, made a successful 
dismounted attack on the Federal skirmishers. In this 
affair, Captain Reese and Lieutenant Copeland were 
killed. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

NORTH CAROLINA EVENTS, 1863-64 FEDERAL TREAT 
MENT OF THE EASTERN PART OF THE STATE- 
MILITARY OPERATIONS IN THE STATE RANSOM 
RECOVERS SUFFOLK VICTORY OF HOKE AND COOKE 
AT PLYMOUTH GALLANT FIGHTING OF THE AL- 
BEMARLE SPRING CAMPAIGN, 1864, IN VIRGINIA. 

THERE were no large military operations in North 
Carolina contemporaneous with the Bristoe and 
Mine Run campaigns. Frequent expeditions 
were sent out from New Bern by the Federals. These 
were frequently fired upon by the militia, but, as the IO-CL! 
troops were not regularly organized, the expeditions r^n- 
erally came and went without much molestation. Whit- 
ford s battalion was often active and useful in deterring 
such raids. On December 3oth, near Greenville, there 
was a brisk skirmish between Colonel McChesney, com 
manding a Federal cavalry and artillery force, and Major 
Moore, with some companies of the Third North Carolina 
cavalry. 

The close of 1863 was gloomy enough in eastern North 
Carolina. Moore thus describes it: "The condition of 
eastern North Carolina grew hourly more deplorable. 
Frequent incursions of the enemy resulted in the destruc 
tion of property of all kinds. Especially were horses and 
mules objects of plunder. Pianos and other costly furni 
ture were seized and sent North, while whole regiments 
of bummers wantonly defaced and ruined the fairest 
homesteads in eager search for hidden treasures. The 
Buffaloes, in gangs of a dozen men, infested the 
swamps and made night hideous with their horrid visita 
tions. They and their colored coadjutors, by all manner 

218 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 219 

of inducements, enticed from the farms such of the 
negro men as were fitted for military duty. ... To the 
infinite and undying credit of the colored race, though 
the woods swarmed with negro men sent back on detailed 
duty for the purpose of enlisting their comrades in the 
Federal army, there were less acts of violence toward the 
helpless old men, women and children than could have 
been possibly expected under the circumstances." 

In an effort to alleviate this state of affairs, a force of 
some magnitude was sent to North Carolina at the open 
ing of 1864. Gen. George E. Pickett, with a division of 
troops, was sent to the State to co-operate with the forces 
already there. The dispersion or capture of the Federal 
garrison at New Bern seems to have been Pickett s 
objective. General Pickett had in his command Corse s 
Virginia brigade; Gen. M. W. Ransom s brigade, com 
posed of these North Carolina regiments: Twenty-fourth, 
Colonel Clarke ; Twenty-fifth, Colonel Rutledge ; Thirty- 
fifth, Colonel Jones; Forty-ninth, Colonel McAfee, and 
Fifty-sixth, Colonel Faison; Clingman s North Carolina 
brigade the Eighth, Colonel Shaw; Thirty-first, Colonel 
Jordan ; Fifty- first, Colonel McKethan, and Sixty-first, Col 
onel Radcliffe; Hoke s Carolina brigade Sixth, Colonel 
Webb; Twenty-first, Colonel Rankin; Forty- third, Lieu 
tenant-Colonel Lewis; Fifty-fourth, Colonel Murchison; 
Fifty-seventh, Colonel Godwin, and Twenty-first Georgia. 
In addition, he had four unbrigaded regiments, including 
the Sixty-seventh North Carolina, Colonel Whitford, and 
five regiments of cavalry, including the Third North Caro 
lina, Colonel Baker, and the Sixth, Colonel Folk. The artil 
lery under Pickett s orders consisted of the Tenth North 
Carolina regiment, Colonel Pool s command, Starr s 
light artillery battalion, Robertson s heavy battery, all 
of North Carolina, and several batteries from other States. 
The field returns for February give his total effective 
strength as 13,308.* 
"^Rebellion Records, XXXIII, p. 1201. 



220 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

In addition, General Whiting at Wilmington had 6,690 
men. Whiting s infantry was largely made up of General 
Martin s brigade the Seventeenth North Carolina, Col 
onel Martin; Forty-second North Carolina, Colonel 
Brown ; Fiftieth North Carolina, Colonel Wortham ; Six 
ty-sixth, Colonel Moore. He had 2,326 heavy artillery 
men, 374 light artillerymen, and about 500 cavalrymen. 
The total force then stationed in the State was 19,998. 

Acting under General Lee s orders, General Pickett, on 
the 2oth of January, set three columns in motion from 
Kinston to attack New Bern. General Barton with his 
own brigade, Kemper s brigade, part of Ransom s bri 
gade, twelve pieces of artillery, and twelve companies of 
cavalry, was directed to cross the Trent and take the 
works of New Bern in reverse, and to prevent rein 
forcements reaching the town. Colonel Bearing was sent 
with a cavalry force to attack Fort Anderson, Barrington s 
ferry. General Pickett, with Hoke s brigade, three regi 
ments of Corse s brigade, the Eighth and Fifty-first regi 
ments of Clingman s brigade, and ten pieces of artillery, 
advanced on New Bern by the Dover road. 

General Pickett, in his official report, states his plan of 
operations as follows : * Barton with his cavalry was to 
have cut the railroad and cross Brice s creek, taking the 
forts on the banks of the Neuse, and pass across the rail 
road bridge; effectually, should he only succeed in the 
first, cutting off reinforcements. Bearing, by taking 
Fort Anderson, would have a direct fire on the town and 
an enfilading fire on the works in front of it. Commander 
Wood, having secured the gunboats, would co-operate, 
and I, with the party under my command, create a diver 
sion, draw off the enemy, and if the chance offered, go in 
the town." 

Following out this plan, General Hoke, after a brisk 
skirmish on Monday, February ist, drove in the enemy s 
outpost at Batchelder s creek. The brigade of Hoke, 
three regiments of Corse, and two of Clingman, crossed 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 221 

the creek and advanced toward the town. The batteries 
from the Federal works opened upon them, but no assault 
was ordered. General Pickett reports : * 4 There was un 
fortunately no co-operation, the other parties having failed 
to attack, and I found we were making the fight single- 
handed. " General Barton reported that he could not 
cross Brice s creek to carry out his part of the plan. Gen 
eral Pickett waited one day for him and then retired his 
forces, and the expedition from which North Carolinians 
had hoped much, came to an unsuccessful close. In the 
engagement at Batchelder s creek, Col. H. M. Shaw, of 
the Eighth North Carolina regiment, was killed. Gen 
eral Clingman said of him that he was "equally remark 
able for his attention to all the duties of his position, and 
his courage on the field. The Confederate loss here 
was about 45 killed and wounded. 

Col. J. Taylor Wood, who was assigned the duty of 
attacking the gunboats, was more successful. Colonel 
Wood had six picked crews of fifteen men each from ships 
about Wilmington, Richmond and Charleston. They 
dropped down the river from Kinston in the darkness, 
and with rifles and cutlasses assaulted and boarded the 
gunboat Underwriter, lying just under the guns of the 
forts. The men under Wood were exposed to a hot fire 
on approaching the boat, and, after boarding, they became 
at once engaged in a desperate hand-to-hand cutlass and 
pistol fight with the Underwriter s crew. Wood finally 
captured the vessel, but had to burn it. Few more dar 
ing deeds than this were done during the war. 

On the 28th of January, Gen. J. G. Martin,_commanding 
the Forty-second regiment, Col. J. E. Brown; the Seven 
teenth regiment, Lieutenant-Colonel Lamb; a cavalry 
force under Colonel Jackson and Lieutenant-Colonel Jef 
fords, four pieces of the Ellis battery of Moore s battal 
ion (accompanied by the major), and Paris battery, set 
out from Wilmington to attack the garrison at Newport 
barracks, near Shepherdsville. That post was defended 



222 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

by the Ninth Vermont regiment, a Massachusetts heavy 
battery, and two companies of cavalry. 

On the 2d of February, General Martin made the attack 
successfully and captured the barracks, several guns, 70 
or 80 prisoners, and many stores. This whole affair was 
well managed and well fought. Martin lost 7 men killed 
and 14 wounded. 

Gen. M. W. Ransom, on the pth of March, at the head 
of his brigade and a cavalry force, drove the Federals 
from Suffolk, capturing a piece of artillery and quarter 
master stores of much value. Judge Roulhac says in his 
Regimental History: "This was a most exciting little 
affair, in which our troops met negro soldiers for the first 
time. Quick work was made of their line of battle, and 
their retreat was soon converted into a runaway. . . . 
The firing of our artillery was excellent, every shot tak 
ing effect upon the fleeing ebony horsemen. At a swift 
run by sections, Branch s artillery kept shot and shell in 
their midst as long as the fleeing cavalry could be 
reached. 

The next important event in North Carolina was Gen. 
R. F. Hoke s capture of the town of Plymouth. This 
town had been very strongly fortified, especially on the 
land side. Forts Williams, Gray, Amory, Battery Worth 
and other defenses made an attack quite a formidable 
matter. It was held by Gen. H. W. Wessells, command 
ing a garrison of 2,834 men. General Hoke, who had 
been selected to lead this important expedition because 
the President knew "his energy and activity," designed 
attacking Plymouth, and wished naval assistance. He 
rode up the river to inquire of Commander Cooke, who 
was building an ironclad at Edward s ferry on the 
Roanoke, when he could get the co-operation of the boat. 
At the first interview, Cooke said that it would be impos 
sible for him to have the boat ready by the time suggested 
by General Hoke. But when General Hoke explained 
that he wanted to attack Plymouth, and that it was neces- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 223 

sary to have the co-operation of his boat, the brave 
Cooke s fighting spirit rose, and he promised to take his 
boat to Plymouth, finished or unfinished, and General 
Hoke left him with that assurance. On the day set 
by General Hoke, Commander Cooke, true to his 
promise, started down the river, finishing his work 
and drilling his men in gun practice as he went. 
Maffitt says: "At early dawn on the i8th, steam was up; 
ten portable forges, with numerous sledge hammers, were 
placed on board, and thus equipped the never-failing 
Cooke started. Naval history affords no such remarkable 
evidence of patriotic zeal and individual perseverance. " * 

This tribute to Cooke is a just one. No boat could have 
been built under more difficulties than was the Albe- 
marle, as Cooke named his new venture, and its construc 
tion shows the difficulties under which the Confederates 
waged a long war. It was designed by Gilbert Elliott. 
The prow, which was used as a ram, was of oak sheathed 
with iron ; its back was turtle-shaped and protected by 
2 -inch iron. Cooke had ransacked the whole country 
for iron, until, says Maffitt, he was known as the "Iron 
monger captain." "The entire construction," continues 
Maffitt, "was one of shreds and patches; the engine was 
adapted from incongruous material, ingeniously dove 
tailed and put together with a determined will that mas 
tered doubt, but not without some natural anxiety as to 
derangements that might occur from so heterogeneous a 
combination. The Albemarle was built in an open corn 
field, of unseasoned timber. A simple blacksmith shop 
aided the mechanical part of her construction. 

Notwithstanding the difficulties of her construction, the 
vessel was, when finished, a formidable fighting machine. 
In the early hours of the igih of April, she dropped down 
the river and passed the fort at Warren s neck, under a 
furious fire. The protection from the shield was so com 
plete that the shot from the guns at Warren sounded to 

* Reminiscences of Confederate Navy. 



224 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

those on board, says Elliott, "no louder than pebbles 
against a barrel." In the rear of Fort Williams, the 
Albemarle saw two Federal gunboats lashed together. 
These were the Southfield and the Miami, under the bril 
liant C. W. Flusser. Immediately the Albemarle dashed 
nine feet of her prow into the Southfield, delivering at 
the same time a broadside into the Miami, killing and 
wounding many of her crew. Flusser was killed, and in 
ten minutes the Southfield was at the bottom of the 
river, the prow of the ram still clinging to her, and excit 
ing for a few moments serious apprehensions for the 
safety of the Albemarle. The vessel soon worked herself 
free and followed the other retreating gunboats. 

Maffitt thinks that this * brilliant naval success insured 
the triumph of General Hoke," for it gave him, on the 
water side, a vulnerable point of attack. General Hoke 
had invested the town with his own brigade, the bri 
gade of Ransom, and one of Pickett s under Terry. 
When Cooke returned, his ship opened fire with its two 
guns upon Fort Williams, the citadel of Plymouth. 
General Hoke moved General Ransom s brigade around 
to attack from the river side. Ransom s men gallantly 
stormed the works, meeting not only the usual artillery 
and infantry fire, but encountering hand-grenades thrown 
from the works. On all sides the Confederate forces 
closed in, and, after a struggle in which both sides fought 
as only seasoned soldiers are apt to fight, the town with 
its garrison of nearly 3,000 men and 25 pieces of artillery 
was surrendered. The Confederate Congress passed a 
vote of thanks to General Hoke and Commander James 
W. Cooke and the officers and men under their command, 
"for the brilliant victory over the enemy at Plymouth." 
This gallant deed awakened great enthusiasm in the 
State, for it was now hoped that North Carolina might be 
cleared of invaders. 

A few days later, the ram Albemarle, accompanied by 
the little transport Cotton Plant, and the captured gun- 



CONFEDERA TE MI LIT A R Y HIS TOR Y. 225 

boat Bombshell, came down the river and met the vessels 
searching for her. These were the "double-enders" 
Mattabesett, Sassacus, Wyahising, Miami, and the 
smaller ships Whitehead, Ceres, Commodore Hull and 
Seymour. The Miami was armed with a torpedo and 
watched carefully for an opportunity to explode it. These 
steamers circled around the Albemarle, firing, and then 
circling until again opposite the ram, and ready for a 
second broadside. This plan of battle was carried into 
effect, but the heavy shot rattled off from the sloping 
decks of the Albemarle without doing much injury. 
"This terrific grand waltz" continued for some time; the 
ram taking the fire with stoical indifference. The little 
Bombshell was speedily forced to drop out of the fight. 
Then the Sassacus backed away and ran into the Albe 
marle at a reported speed of ten knots. The ram was 
materially jarred, but sent a shot through and through 
the Sassacus, and soon another shot filled the Sassacus 
with steam and drove her from the fight. The Wyalus- 
ing signaled that she was sinking, and shortly afterward 
the command "cease firing" was signaled. The 100- 
pound Parrot ts and the 9-inch Dahlgrens had produced 
little appreciable effect on the Albemarle, and she had 
fairly discomfited her antagonists. 

The fall of Plymouth led to the Federal evacuation of 
Washington, N. C., on the 28th of April. On the evacu 
ation, the town was burned by the Federal troops. Gen 
eral Palmer, in an order condemning the atrocities com 
mitted by his troops, used these words: "It is well known 
that the army vandals did not even respect the charitable 
institutions, but bursting open the doors of the Masonic 
and Odd Fellows lodge, pillaged them both and hawked 
about the streets the regalia and jewels. And this, too, 
by United States troops! It is well known that both 
public and private stores were entered and plundered, and 
that devastation and destruction ruled the hour." * 

* Rebellion Records, XXXIII, p. 310. 
No 29 



226 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

General Hdke next moved against New Bern, and 
Roman says: "General Hoke had already taken the 
outworks at New Bern and demanded its surrender; 
when in obedience to instructions from Richmond, Gen 
eral Beauregard sent him a special messenger (Lieutenant 
Chisolm, A. D. C.) with orders to repair forthwith to 
Petersburg, no matter how far his operations might have 
advanced against New Bern. . . . No time was lost in 
carrying out the order. * 

The effect that may be produced by the daring battle 
of a small force was most clearly shown by the attack of 
306 North Carolina horsemen upon Kilpatrick s cavalry 
at Atlee s station near Richmond. On the 28th of Feb 
ruary, General Kilpatrick was ordered by the Federal 
government to take 3,000 cavalrymen and six pieces of 
aitillery and make a dash upon Richmond, then but 
slightly guarded. He was to be accompanied by Col. 
Ulric Dahlgren, and the avowed object of the movement 
was to liberate the Federal prisoners at Belle island, and 
do such other damage as time and means would allow. 

General Kilpatrick, acting upon his orders, moved so 
rapidly and unexpectedly that on the ist of March he 
reached the immediate neighborhood of Richmond with 
out his movement being disclosed. By a feigned attack 
at Ashland, Kilpatrick succeeded in throwing the Con 
federates off his track, and captured the pickets and a 
small force in the rifle-pits on the Brook pike. Then, 
ascertaining that the Confederates were reinforcing in 
his front, Kilpatrick felt that an attack would end "in a 
bloody failure. " So he withdrew his command, destroyed 
the bridges on the Virginia Central road, and went into 
camp near Mechanicsville. However, from scouts and 
spies, Kilpatrick learned that night that the entire avail 
able Confederate force had been concentrated in front of 
Brook pike, where he had attacked, and that no force of 
Confederates was on the road from his camp to Richmond. 

* Roman s Life of Beauregard, II, p. 199, Note. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 227 

He says: "It was now 10 p. m. I at once determined to 
make another attempt to enter the city. " His men were 
ordered to set out. Just, however, as they started, Gen 
eral Kilpatrick was informed by Colonel Sawyer, com 
manding his Second brigade, that his pickets had been 
driven in on the road from Hanover Court House. Kil- 
patrick s report continues: "A few moments later he 
(Sawyer) sent me word that the enemy was advancing in 
force and rapidly driving in his people. I sent orders for 
him to throw out a strong line of skirmishers, and if pos 
sible charge the enemy and drive him back, as I intended 
to make this last effort to release our prisoners. Heavy mus 
ketry and carbine firing could now be heard, and a moment 
later the enemy opened with a battery. I was forced to 
recall my troops to resist this attack, which now became 
serious. The enemy charged and drove back the Sev 
enth Michigan, and considerable confusion ensued. The 
night was intensely dark, cold and stormy. . . . Not 
knowing the strength of the enemy, I abandoned all fur 
ther ideas of releasing our prisoners. 

The force that brought about this commotion on that 
dark, sleety night, and made Kilpatrick give up his last 
chance of accomplishing his mission, was composed of a 
small band of North Carolina cavalry. General Hampton 
learned from citizens that a cavalry force was heading for 
the Central railroad, and he reports: "As soon as I could 
learn what direction the enemy had taken, I sent all the 
mounted men from the North Carolina cavalry (Colonel 
Cheek), and 53 from the Second (Major Andrews), with 
Hart s battery to Mount Carmel church." -The next 
morning General Hampton joined the command and 
moved down to strike the enemy. At Atlee s station, 
about midnight, General Hampton sent Colonel Cheek 
to see what force the enemy had. Colonel Cheek took 
200 of his regiment and 30 of the Second. He found 
Sawyer s brigade lying down, many of them asleep. 
Bringing a section of artillery, he endeavored to get the 



228 CONFEDERA TE MI LIT A R Y HIS TOR I r . 

pieces in position, but one mired so that it was useless. 
Then dismounting 150 men under Captain Blair, Colonel 
Cheek directed them to close in, and, at the sound of the 
gun, to fire, shout and advance. The colonel waited with 
a squadron to charge on the stampede. At the flash of 
the signal gun, Blair s men rushed forward, firing and 
shouting, and in the confusion that followed, Cheek 
charged with his mounted men. The result was that the 
brigade was badly broken and driven on the main body. 
General Hampton reports: "Kilpatrick immediately 
moved his division off at a gallop, leaving one of his 
wagons with horses hitched to it and one caisson full of 
ammunition." This bold deed, as seen, probably saved 
the liberation of the prisoners at Belle island. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

THE WILDERNESS, 1864 GRANT MOVES ON RICHMOND 
THE OPENING BATTLES OF MAY THE "BLOODY 
ANGLE "BATTLE OF DREWRY S BLUFF SERVICE 
OF NORTH CAROLINA COMMANDS HOKE S DIVI 
SION. 

IN March, 1864, Gen. U. S. Grant was given the su 
preme command of all the Federal forces in the field. 
From that time on, the Federal armies were, as Gen 
eral Grant says, "all ready to move for the accomplish 
ment of a single object. They were acting as a unit so 
far as such a thing was possible over such a vast field. 
Lee, with the capital of the Confederacy, was the main 
end to which all were working. * The cost in men and 
money was not to be counted in the accomplishment of 
that end. General Lee s army had been so worn by con 
stant attrition, that at the beginning of this campaign 
many Federal officers were of opinion that he could not 
recruit it enough to make another year s campaign, f 
This belief may account for the apparently reckless ex 
penditure of blood in this year s operations against Lee. 
Men were thrown against the Confederate works and 
slaughtered, until at Cold Harbor, ordered to assault 
again, "his immobile lines pronounced a silent, yet em 
phatic verdict against further slaughter," J by refusing to 
budge. Attrition seemed to be the grand strategy of this 
campaign in which, according to the official returns pub 
lished in the Rebellion Records, 88,387 Federals were 
killed, wounded or captured from May to November 

* General Grant, in Battles and Leaders. 

f General Webb s article, "Through the Wilderness." 

\ Swinton. 

Vol. XXXVI, I, p. 195. 



230 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

a loss probably greater than the numerical strength of the 
army that inflicted it. The continued attacks by new Fed 
eral troops, notwithstanding these startling losses, how 
ever, produced a depressing effect on the Confederate 
soldiers. They were often heard to say : * * It is of no use 
to kill these fellows; they are like flies, kill one and 
two come in its place. 

At midnight on May 3d, General Grant s army began 
to cross the Rapidan, and move on the Germanna ford 
road toward the Wilderness. General Webb, of that army, 
gives this concrete illustration of the comparative 
strength of the two armies: "His [Grant s] 118,000 men, 
properly disposed for battle, would have covered a front 
of twenty-one miles, two ranks deep, with one- third of 
them held in reserve; while Lee, with his 62,000 men, 
similarly disposed, would cover only twelve miles. Grant 
had a train which he states in his Memoirs would 
have reached from the Rapidan to Richmond, or sixty 
miles."* 

This great army marched toward Richmond on the 
Germanna road. Two parallel roads, the Orange turn 
pike and the Orange plank road, cross the Germanna road, 
nearly at right angles, not far from the famous Wilder 
ness tavern. As General Grant s columns stretched out 
along the Germanna road, General Lee moved the corps 
of Ewell and A. P. Hill on the two parallel roads, to 
strike the Federal flank. General Longstreet s corps at 
the time of contact of these armies, May $th, was distant 
a day s march. General Swell s corps, moving on the 
turnpike, was diminished by the absence of Gen. R. D. 
Johnston s North Carolina brigade, then stationed at 
Hanover Court House, and by Hoke s North Carolina 
brigade, just then ordered up from North Carolina. An 
derson s division of Hill s corps also was not present at 
the opening of the battle. "So," says Colonel Venable 
of Lee s staff, "on May 5th, General Lee had less than 
* Through the Wilderness. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 231 

28,000 infantry in hand. " * The willingness of the great 
Confederate commander to do battle against such odds 
is an enduring tribute to the fighting qualities of his 
followers. 

In General Swell s corps were these North Carolina 
troops: Daniel s brigade, composed of the Thirty-second, 
Colonel Brabble; Forty-fifth, Colonel Boyd; Fifty-third, 
Colonel Owens, and Second battalion, Major Hancock; 
Ramseur s brigade, made up of the Second, Colonel Cox; 
the Fourth, Colonel Grimes; the Fourteenth, Colonel 
Bennett, and the Thirtieth, Colonel Parker; Johnston s 
brigade (absent the first day), constituted as follows: Fifth, 
Colonel Garrett; Twelfth, Colonel Coleman; Twentieth, 
Colonel Toon ; Twenty- third, Colonel Blacknall ; and the 
First, Colonel Brown, and Third, Colonel Thruston, in 
Steuart s brigade. 

E well s battle of the 5th was entirely distinct from 
Hill s fight of the same day. As Ewell advanced Jones 
brigade in front, followed by Battle s and Doles on 
Battle s right Griffin s division of Warren s corps, com 
posed of the brigades of Ayres, Bartlett and Barnes, fell 
upon Jones and drove him back. Jones men somewhat 
disordered Battle s line as they gave way, but Doles held 
steady on the right. General Daniel was sent to the aid 
of Doles, who was hard pressed, and Gordon a little later 
formed on Daniel s right. These North Carolinians and 
Georgians gallantly dashed against Griffin s men, forced 
Ayres across the pike, and restored the Confederate line. 
Gordon being on the flank captured many prisoners. 
Wadsworth s Federal division, supported on .the left by 
Dennison s brigade, advanced through the dense thickets 
to reinforce Griffin. He reached the firing line, says 
Humphreys, just about the time that Daniel s and Gor 
don s brigades got on the ground, with his left flank to 
ward them. They "took instant advantage to attack, 
and his front line being so entangled in the wood as not 

* Richmond Address. 



232 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

to admit of ready handling, its left fell back quickly and 
in some confusion, and the enemy passing through the 
opening thus made, took Dennison s brigade in flank, as 
well as two brigades of the right, and after a short, sharp 
engagement forced them also to retire." * McCandless 
brigade of Crawford s division was also engaged and 
broken by these same brigades, assisted by a front fire. 

During the busy work of Daniel and Gordon on the 
flank, the Confederate front also had been seriously 
struggling. Steuart s brigade, along with Battle s, en 
gaged the right of Griffin, whose left had been turned by 
Daniel and Gordon. In Steuart s attack, the First and 
Third North Carolina regiments, forming his right, bore 
an honorable part. They charged upon a line of infantry 
supporting one of Griffin s batteries, drove it and cap 
tured two howitzers. The Regimental History of the 
Third regiment thus describes the capture: "Preceding 
and up to the capture of the howitzers, the fighting was 
desperate, muskets and their butt ends and bayonets being 
used. . . . We recall that in a gully, which ran for more 
than a brigade front, Confederates and Federals were so 
nearly on even terms or at equal advantage, that they 
were simultaneously demanding each other to surrender. 
We, however, succeeded in establishing the superiority 
of our claim and came off victors. " In the rest of Ewell s 
hard fighting that afternoon, the North Carolinians were 
not called upon to take part. Ramseur s brigade was in 
reserve. The First North Carolina cavalry was on 
Ewell s left. At nightfall, Ewell had resisted all assaults, 
and at once fortified the line he held. 

While Ewell s forces were thus engaged, Gen. A. P. 
Hill s corps was battling with Getty and Hancock on the 
lower road. The fact, however, that there are in the 
official records so few reports from the officers engaged, 
makes it difficult to fully ascertain the parts borne by the 
North Carolina troops. There were four North Carolina 

* The Virginia Campaign of 1864 and 1865. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 233 

brigades and one regiment, the Fifty-fifth, Colonel Belo, 
in Hill s corps: Kirkland s the Eleventh, Colonel Mar 
tin; Twenty- sixth, Lieutenant- Colonel Jones; Forty- 
fourth, Colonel Singeltary; Forty-seventh, Colonel Fari- 
bault; Fifty-second, Colonel Little; Cooke s brigade the 
Fifteenth, Lieutenant-Colonel Yarborough; Twenty-sev 
enth, Colonel Gilmer; Forty-sixth, Colonel Saunders; 
Forty-eighth, Colonel Walkup ; Lane s brigade the Sev 
enth, Colonel Davidson; Eighteenth, Colonel Barry; 
Twenty-eighth, Colonel Speer; Thirty-third, Colonel 
Avery; Thirty-seventh, Colonel Barbour; Scales bri 
gade Thirteenth, Colonel Hyman; Sixteenth, Colonel 
Stowe ; Twenty-second, Colonel Galloway ; Thirty-fourth, 
Colonel Lowrance; Thirty-eighth, Colonel Ashford. 
Cooke and Kirkland were in Heth s division, Scales and 
Lane in Wilcox s division. 

When Heth s division, the head of A. P. Hill s corps, 
approached the Federal lines, General Meade ordered 
Getty s division of Sedgwick s corps, supported by Han 
cock s corps, to attack the Confederates and drive them 
back to Parker s store, so that Hancock might connect 
with Warren s left. Hancock formed the divisions of 
Birney, Mott, Gibbon and Barlow on Getty s left. These 
five divisions were resisted all the afternoon by Heth s 
and Wilcox s divisions alone, Anderson, Hill s other 
division commander, being still absent with his command. 
The divisions of Getty, Birney, Mott, two brigades of 
Hancock and two of Barlow were composed of seventy- 
nine regiments. The two divisions that opposed them 
numbered forty regiments. Of these forty regiments, 
twenty, as seen above, were from North Carolina. 

Heth s division was drawn up across the plank road. 
Cooke s North Carolina brigade had two of its regiments, 
the Fifteenth and Forty-sixth, on the right of the road, 
and two, the Twenty-seventh and Forty-eighth, on the 
left of the road. During a part of the engagement, Kirk- 
land s men supported Cooke. Later it passed to the front 

Nc 30 



234 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

line and was heavily engaged. Both of these brigades 
did steady, hard fighting during all the afternoon as they 
met the heavy masses of the Second corps. How effective 
their fire was is shown by a statement made by Col. W. J. 
Martin of the Eleventh regiment. He says, in his Regi 
mental History: "At one time, during the fighting on 
the 5th, our regiment lay down behind a line of dead Fed 
erals so thick as to form a partial breastwork, showing 
how stubbornly they had fought and how severely they 
had suffered. It was a novel experience, and seems 
ghastly enough in the retrospect. " As the Federals con 
tinued to multiply in Heth s front, Wilcox s division was 
withdrawn from the flank and put in to relieve Heth. 
This brought the brigades of Lane and Scales into the 
thickest of the fight. Wilcox assigned Scales and Lane 
to the right of the road, McGowan to the road and Thomas 
to his left. "The two brigades on the right," says Hum 
phreys "(Lane s and Scales ), passed through Heth s lines 
and advanced at different times as far as the swamps, in 
and near which they encountered Hancock s and Getty s 
men with varying success, but were finally forced back 
to Heth s position."* Lane says in his account of the 
battle, that his men did not lose ground until they were 
doubled in on both flanks. Davis brigade, of which the 
Fifty-fifth North Carolina formed a part, was posted be 
hind a hill crest, and Colonel Cooke says in his Regi 
mental History, "Our line never wavered. About 3:30 
our skirmish line was driven in and the first line of the 
Federal forces charged us, but they got no further than 
the crest of the hill in front of us, and were repulsed with 
great loss ; from then until sunset they charged us seven 
times, but we repulsed every attack." 

As these troops were to be relieved by Longstreet at 
daylight, no attempt was made to readjust their tangled 
lines that night. The jaded men sank to sleep just where 
they had been fighting. The two armies were so close 

* The Campaign of 1864 and 1865. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 235 

to each other that many men from both sides were, while 
searching- for water, captured by their opponents. The 
failure to form fresh line of battle or to fortify during 
the night came near working disaster, for the Federals 
assaulted at dawn, and as a result much disorder was 
created. Cooke s men, contrary to orders, had slightly 
intrenched, and they, bravely assisted by Williams North 
Carolina battery, held their front intact. Just as the 
men on each side of them began to be pressed beyond 
their flanks, Longstreet s corps arrived and restored the 
broken lines by an energetic onset. In this early morn 
ing fight, the North Carolinians were heavy sufferers. 
Lane says: "We opposed this force for a short time (the 
Thirty- third fighting like heroes), but could not long 
stand the terrible fire in our front and fbnk. Col. C. M. 
Avery, of this regiment that Lane praises, was mortally 
wounded while courageously passing up and down his line 
and urging his men to stand firm. 

During the morning attacks on Hill s position, and the 
splendid fighting of Longstreet s men, who flanked Han 
cock and doubled him up, repeated assaults were made on 
E well s lines, but they were all repelled. His men had 
intrenched themselves and were anxious to be attacked. 
"Grant," comments General Webb of the Federal army, 
"had been thoroughly defeated in his attempt to walk 
past General Lee on the way to Richmond. * 

Owing to the absence of official reports, no accurate 
summary of North Carolina losses is possible. Lane 
reports his loss as 43 killed, 229 wounded and 143 missing. 
Captain Graham states that the loss in Cooke s brigade 
was about 1,080. The total Federal loss in this battle 
was 15,387. 

On the yth, General Grant began to move his army to 
ward Spottsylvania Court House. That night the race 
of the two armies for Spottsylvania began. Warren was 
pushed out of the way, and Lee s army occupied the cov- 

* Battles and Leaders. 



236 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

eted point. During the movements on the yth, Ramseur s 
brigade was ordered to form on Daniel s right to prevent 
a movement that Burnside was making to cut off the 
Second corps. Ramseur reports: "Moving at a double- 
quick, I arrived just in time to check a large flanking 
party of the enemy, and by strengthening and extending 
my skirmish line, I turned the enemy s line, and by a 
dashing charge with my skirmishers, under the gallant 
Maj. E. A. Osborne of the Fourth North Carolina regi 
ment, drove not only the enemy s skirmishers, but his 
line of battle back, capturing some prisoners, and the 
knapsacks and shelter tents of an entire regiment. " 

New lines were soon formed around the court house; 
Longstreet s corps resting on the Po river, E well s in the 
center, and A. P. Hill s on the right. The 9th of May 
was a day of comparative rest from fighting. The Con 
federates spent the day in intrenching, and made a most 
formidable line around the town. 

On the loth, Hancock s corps crossed the Po to ascertain 
whether Lee was moving. This corps was afterward 
ordered to return. As it was being withdrawn, Heth s 
division, under directions from General Early, attacked 
it. His attack especially fell upon the brigades of Brooke 
and Brown, and General Humphreys states that their 
loss was severe. General Early, in his account of this 
affair, says: "Heth s division behaved very handsomely, 
all of the brigades, Cooke s, Davis , Kirkland s and 
Walker s, being engaged in the attack."* During this 
retreat of the Federals, the woods in their rear took fire, 
and their retreat, as well as the Confederate advance, was 
through the burning forests. Many of the Union wounded 
were burned to death. 

But the day was to close with a sterner conflict. Han 
cock had been recalled from across the Po to join in a 
front attack on Lee s lines. The first assault was on 
Longstreet s corps, and was disastrously repulsed. The 

* Preface to Valley Campaign. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 237 

Federals then, after as careful a reconnoissance as the 
proximity of the lines permitted, decided that the 
part of Lee s line held by Doles brigade was vulnerable 
to front assault. Accordingly a storming force was or 
ganized. Colonel Upton, with three brigades of Sedg- 
wick s corps, twelve regiments in all, led the storming 
columns against the works held by Doles and his three 
Georgia regiments. Upton was followed by Mott s divi 
sion of Hancock s corps. This division numbered seven 
teen regiments. The attack of the first line, made after 
a violent artillery fire, was somewhat of a surprise to the 
Confederates. Doles three regiments, after a splendid 
resistance, were overrun, and the assailants poured through 
the gap thus made. But it was a death-trap into which 
they had bravely plunged. Daniel s North Carolina bri 
gade, withdrawing from its line, attacked Upton on one 
flank. Gordon hurried forward Battle s Alabamians to 
strike him in front. R. D. Johnston s North Carolinians 
joined Daniel on the flank, and Steuart s North Caroli 
nians and Virginians fired into the other flank, as did also 
the Stonewall brigade. The Federals were forced out of 
the works, leaving, says General Ewell, 100 dead men in 
the works and many outside of them. Upton states his 
loss at 1,000. Mott s division did not follow closely 
Upton s lead, and it seems to have been more easily 
repulsed. During the interim, squads of Confederates 
slipped over the works and picked up muskets and am 
munition, and all along the line many a soldier had sev 
eral muskets. These they fired in rapid succession, and 
as they were reloaded by comrades, the fire was incessant. 
Many of Upton s men lay down outside the works to 
await the approaching night in order that they might 
retire in safety. The conduct of one of Gen. R. D. 
Johnston s regiments drew from General Lee the follow 
ing letter: 



238 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY 

Headquarters Army of Northern Virginia. 

May n, 1864. 

Sir: Yesterday evening the enemy penetrated a part 
of our line and planted his colors upon the temporary 
breastworks erected by our troops. He was immediately 
repulsed, and among the brave men who met him, the 
Twentieth North Carolina regiment, under Colonel [T. F.] 
Toon, of the brigade commanded by Brig. -Gen. R. D. 
Johnston, captured his flag. It was brought to me by 
Maj. John S. Brooks, of that regiment, who received his 
promotion for gallantry in the battle of Chancellorsville, 
with the request that it be given to Governor Vance. I take 
great pleasure in complying with the wish of the gallant 
captors, and respectfully ask that it be granted, and that 
these colors be presented to the State of North Carolina 
as another evidence of the valor and devotion that have 
made her name eminent in the armies of the Confederacy. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Hon. Secretary of War, Richmond, Va. R E - LEE> 

"The next day was rainy and disagreeable, and no 
serious fighting took place. There were movements, 
however, along the Federal lines during the day that 
indicated a withdrawal from the front of Longstreet s 
corps. Late in the afternoon, under the impression that 
General Grant had actually begun another flanking move 
ment, General Lee ordered that all artillery on the left 
and center that was difficult of access should be with 
drawn from the lines, and that everything should be in 
readiness to move during the night if necessary. Under 
this order, General Long, E well s chief of artillery, re 
moved all but two batteries from the line of Gen. Edward 
Johnson s division. Johnson s division held an elevated 
point somewhat advanced from the general line, and known 
as the salient, or "Bloody Angle," the breastworks there 
making a considerable angle, with its point toward the 
enemy. ... To provide against contingencies, a second 
line had been laid off and partly constructed a short 
distance in rear, so as to cut off this salient. " * 

* General Law, in Battles and Leaders. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 239 

Against this salient, thus stripped of its artillery, Gen 
eral Grant was, on the rainy nth, preparing a grand 
assault. Hancock was ordered to take three divisions of 
the Second corps to join the Ninth corps in an assault at 
4 o clock on the morning of the i2th. Barlow s, Birney s 
and Mott s divisions were massed during the night in front 
of Johnson s position. Gibbon s division was moved up 
as a reserve, but really joined in the assault. Russell s 
and Getty s divisions were directed to be under arms and 
ready to move wherever needed. 

Johnson had heard the heavy movements of troops in 
the night, and, promptly reporting it to General Ewell, 
asked for the return of the artillery. Orders were issued 
for the guns to be replaced at daylight, and Gordon was 
directed to take position to aid any threatened point. 

Owing to a heavy fog, General Hancock delayed his 
advance until the first glimmer of the morning. Then, 
with a rush, his serried columns, wedged almost into one 
moving mass, dashed over the works, capturing Generals 
Johnson and Steuart and over 2,000 men. The Confed 
erate artillery was just galloping on the field, and was cap 
tured before it could fire a shot. The infantry, however, 
struggled desperately for the works. General Hancock 
says in his report: "The interior of the intrenchments 
presented a terrible and ghastly spectacle of dead, most 
of whom were killed by our men with the bayonet, when 
they penetrated the works. So thickly lay the dead at 
this point that at many places the bodies were touching 
and piled upon each other. Almost all of the First and 
Third North Carolina regiments were among the cap 
tured. Col. S. D. Thruston of the Third was wounded, 
and Col. H. A. Brown of the First regiment was also 
"wounded, captured and recaptured three times." Col 
onel Brown says of the Federal assault: "The terrific 
onslaught of this vast multitude was irresistible, there 
being a rectangular mass of 20,000 Federal troops. . . . 
The portion of the works assaulted by this formidable 



240 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

column was little more than 400 yards wide. The clash 
of arms and the murderous fire around this bloody angle 
are indescribable. 

The Federals found that it was easier to get within the 
Confederate lines than it was to stay there. As soon as 
they were fairly inside, they began to extend their lines 
on both flanks, and at the same time to move forward. 
By a singular coincidence it fell to the lot of North Caro 
lina troops to attack them on three sides. The first fresh 
troops that they encountered in front were R. D. Johns 
ton s North Carolinians of Gordon s division. The im 
pact was too strong for Johnston. That gallant officer 
was wounded, and his men, though struggling heroically, 
driven back. Gordon, however, threw forward his other 
brigades, and by hard fighting drove the Federals back 
toward the place of their entrance. 

On Gordon s right, the extension of the Federal left 
encountered Lane s North Carolina brigade. * They were 
checked by General Lane," says Colonel Venable, "who, 
throwing his left flank back from the trenches, confronted 
their advance."* General Lane, in his report, tells how 
this was done : " In the best of spirits, the brigade wel 
comed the furious assault which soon followed, with pro 
longed cheers and death-dealing volleys. . . . It is impos 
sible for me to speak in too high terms of my command 
in repulsing this terrible attack of the enemy men could 
not fight better, nor officers behave more gallantly; 
the latter, regardless of danger, would frequently pass 
along the line and cheer the men in their glorious work. 
We justly claim for this brigade alone the honor of not 
only stemming, but of rolling back this tide of Fed 
eral victory which came surging furiously to our right. " 

On the other side of the angle, similar bravery was 
shown. General E well s report clearly shows the service 
of the North Carolinians there. He says: "Their main 
effort was evidently against Rodes position to the left of 

* Richmond Address. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 241 

the angle, and here the fighting was of the most desper 
ate character. General Rodes moved Daniel s brigade 
(all North Carolinians) from its works to meet the enemy. 
General Kershaw extended so as to allow Ramseur (North 
Carolina brigade) to be withdrawn, and as Daniel s right 
was unprotected, Ramseur was sent in there. He retook 
the works to Daniel s right along his whole brigade front 
by a charge of unsurpassed gallantry, but the salient 
was still held by the enemy, and a most deadly fire poured 
on his right flank." Davis and McGowan then went in, 
and these brigades held their ground until 3 o clock, when 
all were withdrawn to the new line behind the salient. 
General Daniel was mortally wounded, and General Ram 
seur seriously, but the latter courageously remained 
on the field. General Ramseur in his report thus de 
scribes the part his brigade took in this most gallant 
movement: "Major-General Rodes ordered me to check 
the enemy s advance and drive him back. To do this, I 
formed my brigade in a line parallel to the two lines of 
works (which the enemy had taken and were holding) in 
the following order : On the right, Thirtieth North Caro 
lina, Colonel Parker; on the left, Fourteenth North Caro 
lina, Colonel Bennett; right center, Second North Caro 
lina, Colonel Cox; left center, Fourth North Carolina, 
Colonel Grimes. This formation was made under a severe 
fire. Before ordering the charge, I cautioned the men 
to keep the alignment, not to fire, to move slowly until 
the command Charge! and then to move forward on the 
run, shouting Charge! and not to pause until both lines 
of works were ours. . . . Two lines of Yankees were 
driven pellmell out and over both lines of our original 
works, with great loss. This was done without any assist 
ance on my immediate right. The enemy still held the 
breastworks on my right, enfilading my line with a de 
structive fire, at the same time heavily assaulting my right 
front. In this extremity, Colonel Bennett, Fourteenth 
North Carolina, offered to take his regiment from left to 

No 31 



242 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

right, under a severe fire, and drive back the growing 
masses of the enemy on my right. This bold and hazard 
ous offer was accepted as a forlorn hope. It was success 
fully executed ; the enemy was driven from my immediate 
right, and the works were held, notwithstanding the 
enemy still enfiladed my line from a part of our works in 
front of Harris brigade, which he held unto the last. 
For this all honor is due Colonel Bennett and the gallant 
officers and men of his regiment. To Colonels Parker, 
Cox, Grimes and Bennett, to the gallant officers and pa 
triotic men of my little brigade, the country owes much 
for the successful charge, which I verily believe turned 
the fortune of the day at that point in our favor." 

"Hancock," says General Law, "had been reinforced 
by the divisions of Russell and Wheaton, and about half 
of Warren s corps as the battle progressed." All day 
long the men contended like fiends for the works over 
which both Federal and Confederate flags were waving. 
Two extracts from official reports will show the fierceness 
of the fighting. Brigadier-General Grant, of the Vermont 
brigade, says: "It was not only a desperate struggle, but 
it was literally a hand-to-hand struggle. Nothing but the 
piled up logs and breastworks separated the combatants. 
Our men would reach over the logs and fire into the 
forces of the enemy, would stab over with their bayonets ; 
many were shot or stabbed through the crevices between 
the logs. ... It was there that the somewhat celebrated 
tree was cut down by bullets, there that the bush and logs 
were cut to pieces and whipped into basket stuff." 

General McGowan, on the Confederate side, says: "Our 
men lay on one side of the breastworks, the enemy on 
the other, and in many instances men were pulled over. 
The trenches in the bloody angle had to be cleared of 
the dead more than once." 

General Grant in his report sums up this attack in the 
brief sentence, "But the resistance was so obstinate that 
the advantage gained did not prove decisive. " General 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 243 

Humphreys states from Federal records that Grant s loss 
in this sanguinary assault was 6,820. There are no official 
returns of the Confederate losses. General Lane states 
the loss in his brigade at 470. General Daniel s death 
was a great blow to his State and to the army. His mas 
terly handling of his men at Gettysburg, his hard fighting 
in the Wilderness, and his skillful management at Spott- 
sylvania, showed his great worth as a soldier. His care 
for his men, and his affectionate interest in their comfort 
and happiness, showed that he was more than a mere sol 
dier. His largeness of heart and generous nature had 
been proved in countless ways. In his fall, North Caro 
lina lost a son whom its people not only honored but thor 
oughly esteemed. 

The captured angle, rendered useless by the second 
line, was abandoned on the i4th. Attacks by the Feder 
als on that day and again on the i8th were repulsed. On 
the 1 9th, Ewell s corps was directed to cross the Ni, and 
threaten Grant s communication. Ewell became right 
heavily engaged, and Ramseur s brigade again rendered 
conspicuously brave service. 

While this active campaign was being waged above 
Richmond, another army, in which North Carolina was 
largely represented, fought, under General Beauregard s 
able direction, the battle of Drewry s Bluff on the south 
side of the Confederate capital. Of the four division com 
manders under Beauregard, three of them, Gens. Robert 
Ransom, Hoke and Whiting, were citizens of North Car 
olina. The following North Carolina troops were part of 
that organization: Hoke s old brigade under Col. W. G. 
Lewis, made up of these regiments Sixth, Colonel Webb ; 
Twenty-first, Lieutenant-Colonel Rankin; Fifty-fourth, 
Colonel Murchison ; Fifty-seventh, Colonel Godwin ; First 
North Carolina battalion, Colonel Wharton ; Clingman s 
brigade, composed of these regiments Eighth, Colonel 
Whitson ; Thirty-first, Colonel Jordan ; Fifty-first, Colonel 
McKethan; Sixty-first, Colonel Radcliffe; Ransom s bri- 



244 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 



Twenty-fourth, Colonel Clarke; Twenty-fifth, Col 
onel Rutledge ; Thirty-fifth, Colonel Jones ; Forty-ninth, 
Colonel McAfee; Fifty-sixth, Colonel Faison; Martin s 
brigade Seventeenth, Lieutenant-Colonel Lamb ; Forty- 
second, Colonel Brown; Sixty-sixth, Colonel Moore. The 
following cavalry regiments were present : Third, Colonel 
Baker; Fourth, Colonel Ferebee; Sixth, Colonel Folk. 
Miller s and Cumming s batteries also participated in the 
campaign. 

General Butler, commanding an army estimated at 
36,000 men, was to advance on Richmond from the south 
James side, intrench as he came, and ultimately join 
General Grant. The united armies were then to crush 
Lee and take Richmond. When Butler s initiatory move 
ments began, there were few Confederate troops in his 
front. But General Hoke s division was hurried there, 
thus stopping his brilliant campaign in North Carolina. 
General Whiting s force was moved up, and General 
Ransom s division placed under General Beauregard s 
direction. Scattered troops were also hastily sent to 
Beauregard. That able soldier soon organized them into 
an effective command, and took the offensive from Gen 
eral Butler by moving against the latter s works. Gen 
eral Hoke s division reached Petersburg on the loth of 
May. General Beauregard at once placed Hoke in charge 
of the advance column of six brigades, with orders to 
proceed at once toward Drewry s bluff and effect a junc 
tion with General Ransom s division. General Whiting 
arrived at Petersburg on the i3th, and General Beaure 
gard, after explaining to him his plans, set out, escorted 
by a regiment of Colquitt s brigade and Colonel Baker s 
Third North Carolina cavalry, to assume command in 
front. General Beauregard estimated his strength at 
25,000 men. 

On the 1 3th of May, General Terry assaulted the Con 
federate lines near Wooldridge s hill. Gen. M. W. 
Ransom s brigade, on the extreme Confederate right, was 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 245 

engaged in his repulse. As Terry advanced, the Confed 
erate skirmishers, tinder the dashing Capt. Cicero A. Dur 
ham, made a most stubborn resistance, and did some 
gallant fighting, in which Durham was mortally wounded. 
The first assault of the Federals was disastrously repulsed. 
As the Federal charge was broken, "the Forty-ninth and 
Twenty- fifth North Carolina regiments," says Judge 
Roulhac, "leaped over the works and poured a destructive 
volley into the ranks of the flanking party. While the 
Federals were preparing for a second attack, the Confed 
erate forces were withdrawn to an inner line. During 
this engagement, Gen. M. W. Ransom was severely 
wounded, and Colonel Rutledge succeeded to the com 
mand of the brigade. 

On the i6th, General Beauregard, putting Ransom s 
division on his left, next to Drewry s bluff, Hoke s on his 
right, Colquitt in reserve, ordered an attack at daylight. 
The attack was to begin by Ransom s turning the Fed 
eral right. Whiting s division, then at Walthall Junction, 
and almost directly in rear of Butler, was, as soon as the 
Federal front was broken, to strike Butler s flank and 
rear. Each division was accompanied by a battalion of 
artillery and a small cavalry force. From this admirably 
conceived plan, General Beauregard expected to destroy 
or capture Butler s army. 

The Confederate troops took position by bright moon 
light. Just after dawn a fog, so dense that a horseman 
could not be seen at fifteen paces, settled down and greatly 
retarded operations. General Ransom s left was con 
fronted by Generals Weitzel s and Brooks Federal divi 
sions. General Hoke faced Terry s and Turner s divisions. 
The Federals occupied a line of works that the Confeder 
ates had constructed. In front of a good part of the Fed 
eral line, telegraph wires had been stretched near the 
ground. 

General Ransom moved out of the trenches before day, 
and formed line of battle with Gracie, supported by 



246 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Terry on his left, and Hoke s old brigade, commanded by 
Colonel Lewis, supported by Fry on the right. He struck 
Heckman s brigade on the extreme right, and carried 
his line of works by storm, forcing Heckman back in con 
fusion toward the center. In this attack, the North Car 
olina brigade acted with the utmost bravery, and lost 
some most gallant officers and men. Soon after the 
engagement opened, the Twenty-fourth regiment, Colonel 
Clarke, and the Forty-ninth, Major Davis then in com 
mand (Colonel McAfee being w r ounded and Lieutenant- 
Colonel Fleming being in charge of the skirmish line), 
were ordered to the right flank of Johnson s brigade, and 
shared nobly in the hard fighting done by that brigade, 
materially helping Johnson to clear his front and cap 
ture the works in front of him. The confusion caused by 
the fog and the additional derangement of lines conse 
quent upon an attack, caused General Ransom to halt and 
reform his battle front. The cavalry under Colonel Don- 
ovant was dismounted and actively employed as skirmish 
ers on the left of Ransom s line, and the artillery was 
engaged all the morning. General Beauregard says of 
this action that General Ransom s troops behaved with 
"acknowledged gallantry." 

On the right, General Hoke, of whom General Beaure 
gard says, "he handled his command with that resolution 
and judgment for which he was conspicuous," formed his 
line with Hagood and Johnson on his left, and Clingman 
(North Carolina) and Corse on his right. At dawn he 
threw out skirmishers, and opened his artillery. The 
infantry attack began with an advance of Hagood s and 
Johnson s brigades. They went in with determination 
and success. Hagood s brigade captured five pieces of 
artillery and a number of prisoners, and the two brigades 
occupied the enemy s works. But the enemy attacked 
Hoke s front with fierceness. Especially on Johnson s 
right was the fighting continuous, Generals Terry and 
Turner struggling tenaciously to hold their ground. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 247 

General Clingman s and General Corse s brigades were 
sent to Johnson s right. A spirited attack by them failed 
to entirely carry the intrenchments before them. Gen 
eral Butler, however, withdrew his forces to the line of 
Proctor s creek. 

All day the Confederate commander anxiously expected 
General Whiting to make the flank attack ordered, and 
from which it was hoped so much would result. For 
reasons stated at some length in General Whiting s report, 
he failed to carry out the part assigned, and the defeat of 
General Butler was not so complete as the Confederate 
commander had hoped to make it. This battle, however, 
resulted in what General Grant styled "the bottling up" 
of Butler s forces in defensive works, and shattered all 
expectations of active co-operation on Butler s part in the 
advance on Richmond. 

During the day General Bearing, commanding General 
Whiting s cavalry, forced his way by Ames men, 
reported to General Beauregard, and returned that after 
noon with many prisoners. The boldness of the move 
ment won warm praise from Bearing s superiors. 

An assault on part of Butler s advanced lines of in 
trenchments and rifle-pits took place on the 2oth of May 
at Hewlett s house. Those held by Ames were captured 
and retained ; but Terry was fortunate enough to regain 
from the Confederates those that he at first lost to them. 
In this action, the young and chivalrous Lieut. -Col. J. C. 
Lamb, of the Seventeenth North Carolina, was mortally 
wounded. The North Carolina losses in this series of 
actions were, killed, 99; wounded, 574. 

After the battle at Brewry s bluff, Lewis brigade 
(Hoke s) was ordered to join General Lee, and the Forty- 
third regiment that had been acting with it took its old 
place in Baniel s brigade. This brigade was now com 
manded by Gen. Bryan Grimes, he having been promoted 
on General Baniel s death. 

General Hoke, to whom a permanent division, composed 



248 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

of Martin s and Clingman s North Carolina brigades and 
Colquitt s and Hagood s brigades, had been assigned, 
also reported to General Lee at Cold Harbor just in time 
to be of the utmost service to him. 

Commenting on the services that had just been rendered 
by General Hoke s command, and also upon its record at 
Cold Harbor, Colonel Burgwyn says: 

In the spring of 1864 the Confederate authorities de 
cided to anticipate the pending campaign by the capture 
of some of the towns held by the enemy in eastern North 
Carolina. Brig. -Gen. R. F. Hoke was selected to com 
mand the expedition. He took with him his own, Ran 
som s, Terry s Virginia brigade, the Forty-third North 
Carolina regiment, of which your distinguished citizen, 
Thomas S. Kenan, was colonel, and several batteries of 
artillery, assisted by the ram Albemarle operating in the 
Roanoke river. 

Capturing Plymouth (April 20, 1864), after one of the 
most brilliant of assaults, with some 2,500 prisoners and 
large supplies of provisions and munitions of war, Gen 
eral Hoke marched to Washington, forced the evacuation 
of the place, and promptly invested New Bern, which was 
to be assaulted the next day with every prospect of suc 
cess, when telegrams from President Davis, Secretary of 
War Seddon, Generals Lee and Beauregard ordered him 
to withdraw from New Bern with all haste, and interpose 
his troops between Butler and Richmond. Moving with 
out a moment s delay, General Hoke reached Petersburg 
in advance of Butler; but so close was the race, that as 
Hoke s troops filed into the works protecting Petersburg, 
the advance of Butler s army appeared in view, making 
for the same point. This march of General Hoke s troops 
stands at West Point as the most rapid movement of 
troops on record. Appointed a major-general for his 
distinguished services as above, Hoke with his division, 
of which Clingman s brigade was part, helped to win 
the victory of Drewry s Bluff. Transferred to the north 
bank of the James, they saved the day at Cold Harbor. 
Hurried again to the southern side of the Tames, they 
reached the works defending Petersburg just in time to 
save the cty on the memorable attack, June 17, 1864.* 

* Memorial Address on Clingman. 



CHAPTER XV. 

SERVICES OF THE NORTH CAROLINA CAVALRY 
ALONG THE RAPIDAN BATTLE OF YELLOW TAV 
ERNTHE SECOND COLD HARBOR BATTLE EAR- 
LY S LYNCHBURG AND MARYLAND CAMPAIGNS - 
BATTLES IN THE VALLEY OF VIRGINIA ACTIVITY 
OF THE CONFEDERATE CAVALRY. 

WHEN the spring campaign opened, the North Caro 
lina cavalry brigade, commanded by Gen. James 
B. Gordon, was transferred from Hampton s to 
W. H. F. Lee s division, and, a little later., Colonel Ba 
ker s Third North Carolina cavalry took the place of the 
Fourth North Carolina in that brigade. 

At the opening of Grant s campaign, the First North 
Carolina was on picket duty along the Rapidan, and 
Colonel Cheek and Major Cowles were of signal service 
in reporting hostile movements. This regiment cap 
tured over 400 prisoners in a short time. When Sheri 
dan, with a force estimated at from 10,000 to 12,000 men, 
started on his Richmond raid, General Stuart had only 
three available brigades for detachment to meet this for 
midable cavalcade. Taking Wickham s and Lomax s 
brigades under his personal command, General Stuart 
sought, by forced marches, to interpose between Sheri 
dan and Richmond. He left Gordon s North Carolina 
brigade to retire before Sheridan, and harass him as 
much as such a pitifully inadequate number could harass 
so great a force as Sheridan commanded. Gordon s un 
flinching horsemen were involved in almost daily skir 
mishes with the Federals, and daily lost men he could ill 
spare from his thinning ranks. Among these was the 

249 

Nc 32 



250 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

vigilant and resourceful colonel of the First regiment, 
W. H. Cheek, who was wounded. 

At Yellow tavern, on the nth of May, Stuart in front 
of Sheridan attacked with his two brigades, while Gordon 
assailed the Federals in the rear. Stuart made a mas 
terly fight, as the severe Federal losses show, but, in the 
action, both he and General Gordon fell mortally wound 
ed. No loss since the incomparable Jackson s death was 
so hurtful to General Lee s strategic power as Stuart s 
fall. 

General Gordon, trained under Stuart, and sharing his 
dash and reckless courage, was a model cavalry offi 
cer. Undaunted by difficulties and perils, equal to great 
physical hardships, undismayed by reverses, his men had 
implicit confidence in him, even as he had unwavering 
trust in his cavalry leader. 

Following Yellow tavern, came Hampton s great fight 
at Trevilian station, and sharp combats at Todd s tavern, 
White house, Haws shop, Hanover and Ashland. In 
these, General Barringer says the cavalry was more and 
more following Forrest s example, and fighting on foot. 
The saber was giving place to the more deadly short rifle. 
The First, Second and Fifth were all active and daring in 
their service in these trying days. 

In June, Colonel Barringer was commissioned brigadier- 
general and assumed command of Gordon s brigade, and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Cowles became commander of the 
First regiment, as Colonel Cheek was away wounded. 

When General Grant found that he could not success 
fully break through the Confederate lines at Spottsylvania, 
he again renewed what the soldiers called his sidling" 
movement toward Richmond. Again General Lee made 
a counter move, and took position around Cold Harbor. 
On the way to the new position some brisk fighting 
occurred. 

At Jericho ford, Lane s North Carolinians and Mc- 
Gowan s South Carolinians became entangled in a river- 



CONFEDERA TE MILITARY HISTORY. 251 

side fight with the Federal line posted on a crest. Lane 
sustained a loss of n killed and 79 wounded. This 
same brigade had sharp skirmishes at Starr s farm on 
Totopotomoy creek, and at Turkey ridge. In the latter, 
General Lane was wounded by a sharpshooter, and during 
his enforced absence, first Col. J. D. Barry and then 
General Conner commanded his brigade. 

The next important battle was at Cold Harbor, where 
General Grant made two prolonged assaults upon the 
Confederate lines. In these, according to General Hum 
phreys figures, he lost 9,948.* The Confederate losses 
are reported at 1,500, a figure that is perhaps too small, 
but as Lee s men fought behind intrenchments, their 
losses were comparatively light. General McMahon, 
of the Federal army, utters the opinion of most mili 
tary men when he says: "In the opinion of a majority 
of its survivors, the battle of Cold Harbor should never 
have been fought." He then adds: "It was the dreary, 
dismal, bloody, ineffective close of the lieutenant-gen 
eral s first campaign with the army of the Potomac, and 
corresponded in all its essential features with what had 
preceded it. " f 

General Lee s army was posted as follows: Hoke s 
division was on his right, near Cold Harbor. Then came 
Kershaw, Pickett and Field, of Longstreet s corps. 
Ewell s corps under Early, and Early s division under 
Ramseur, occupied the center, A. P. Hill holding the left. 
There were present in the army thus posted, so far as may 
be made out from the meager reports, the following 
North Carolina troops: Martin s, Clingman s, Daniel s 
(now commanded by Brig. -Gen. Bryan Grimes), Ram- 
seur s (now under Brig.-Gen. W. R. Cox), Johnston s, 
Cooke s, Kirkland s (now under MacRae), Lane s, Scales , 
and Hoke s (under Lewis and later Godwin) brigades, 
and the remnants of the First and Third regiments sub- 
Campaign of 1864 and 1865. 
f Battles and Leaders. 



252 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

sequently assigned to General Cox s brigade. Then op 
erating on the flanks was Gordon s gallant brigade of cav 
alry, the First, Second and Fifth, commanded after Gor 
don s death by General Barringer. Of the batteries 
present, the records show only Planner s, Ramsey s, 
and Williams , but Manly s also was there. The reports 
from the artillery all through the war are very unsatis 
factory in detail, and those faithful men are rarely men 
tioned except for some unusually brilliant service such 
as that of Williams battery in the Wilderness. 

Forty- three regiments of infantry, three of cavalry and 
four batteries of artillery were then North Carolina s 
representatives in this disastrous repulse of Grant s army. 

On the ist of June, the Sixth corps and most of the 
Eighteenth corps were directed by General Grant to 
move directly against the Confederate right, held by 
General Hoke s and General Kershaw s divisions. Gen 
eral Hoke s division contained Martin s and Clingman s 
North Carolina brigades. The Federals made the 
assault with vigor and without reserves. This attack was 
everywhere repulsed except at Hoke s extreme left and 
Kershaw s right. Clingman held Hoke s left, and it 
has been stated that his brigade and that of Wo fiord s, of 
Kershaw s division, were both broken. General Cling 
man in a letter to the Richmond papers, dated June 5, 
1864, denied the allegation. He says: "This attack 
was repeatedly and signally repulsed with great loss to 
the enemy on my entire front. Near our left where 
they came in columns their dead were much thicker than 
I have ever seen them on any battlefield. . . . There 
was, however, at the beginning of the engagement a bri 
gade from another State than my own, stationed on our 
left. This brigade did give way, and while the contest 
was going on in our front, the enemy in large force occu 
pied the ground on our left flank and rear. After we had 
repulsed the last attack in front, and the men were cheer 
ing along the line, the Eighth regiment, which formed my 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 253 

left, was suddenly attacked on its left flank and rear. 
The woods there being thick and the smoke dense, the 
enemy had approached within a few yards and opened a 
heavy fire on the rear of the Eighth as well as its left. 
... It, by facing in two directions, attempted to hold its 
position, and thus lost about two-thirds of its numbers." 
He further states that the Sixty-first regiment came to 
the aid of the Eighth, and that his brigade, assisted by 
the Twenty-seventh Georgia, drove back the Federal 
flank attack, and still held its entire front of the works. 

The part of the line captured on Clingman s left was 
held by the Federals and the Confederates intrenched 
behind it. The loss of the two attacking corps was 2,200 
men. 

That afternoon General Lee telegraphed to the secre 
tary of war : * This afternoon the enemy attacked Gen 
eral Heth and were handsomely repulsed by Cooke s and 
Kirkland s brigades." 

On the afternoon of the 2d, the divisions of Gordon, 
Rodes and Heth were ordered to move down the front 
of the Confederate line in an effort to break the Federal 
flank. "This movement brought on sharp fighting," 
says Humphreys, "but did not accomplish what was de 
signed. General Early reports that his men took sev 
eral hundred prisoners. Early intrenched on his front, 
and thus the new lines were almost at right angles. 
Hill s corps and Breckinridge s men were moved to 
Hoke s right to meet the massing of Federal troops on 
that flank. 

On the morning of the 3d, General Grant ordered an 
assault by his entire army. The Confederates nerved 
themselves for stern work all along the line. The Fed 
erals advanced in many lines. Captain Lawhorn says: 
"One line would fire and fall down, another step over 
and fall down, each line getting nearer us until they got 
within 60 or 75 yards of our lines, but finding themselves 
cut to pieces so badly they fell back. * The account of 



^64 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

this assault as given by Federal officers taking part in it 
show the terribly destructive fire of the Southern muskets. 
General Humphreys says: "The assaulting was done 
by the Second, Sixth and Eighteenth corps. Promptly 
at the hour these corps advanced to the attack under 
heavy musketry and artillery fire, and carried the ene 
my s advanced rifle-pits. But then the fire became still 
hotter, and cross-fires of artillery swept through the 
ranks, from the right of Smith to the left of Hancock. 
Notwithstanding this destructive fire, the troops went for 
ward close up to the main line of intrenchments, but not 
being able to carry them, quickly put themselves under 
cover. 

General McMahon says : * The time of actual advance 
was not over eight minutes. In that little period more 
men fell bleeding as they advanced than in any other like 
period of time throughout the war. A strange and ter 
rible feature of this battle was that as the three gallant 
corps moved on, each was enfiladed while receiving the 
full force of the enemy s direct fire in front. " The total 
number of Grant s killed and wounded, again using 
Humphreys figures, was 5,600, and he adds, "It is prob 
able, indeed, that the numbers were considerably larger. " 

These great battles had brought to their graves many 
gallant spirits among the North Carolina troops. Gen 
erals Daniel and Gordon, Cols. J. H. Wood, C. L. An 
drews, Edmund Brabble, C. C. Blacknall, C. M. Avery, 
W. M. Barbour, John G. Jones, A. D. Moore, W. H. A. 
Speer, J. R. Murchison, Majs. J. J. Iredell, J. A. Rog 
ers, and perhaps other field officers whose name sought 
to be recorded, gave up their lives for the cause they 
loved. Deaths and consequent promotions brought, of 
course, changes in the brigade and regimental commands. 
General Ramseur became a major-general. Bryan 
Grimes, W. R. Cox, William MacRae, gallant soldiers, 
all received worthily-won commissions as brigadier-gen 
erals. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 255 

The great "Overland campaign" was ended, and 
Grant was still no nearer Richmond than McClellan had 
been in 1862. In a few days he moved his army toward 
Petersburg. "The object of crossing the James was to 
carry out the plan with which the army of the Potomac 
began the campaign, that is, to destroy the lines of sup 
ply to the Confederate depot, Richmond, on the south 
side of the James, as close to that city as practicable, after 
those on the north side had been rendered useless."* If 
Petersburg could be captured, but one railroad leading 
into the city of Richmond would be in Confederate 
hands. 

Just after the disappearance of the Union army from 
Lee s front at Cold Harbor, General Hoke s division was 
sent back to Petersburg to assist General Beauregard in 
the defenses around that city. It arrived just in time to 
be of most signal service. 

On the r 3th of June, General Early, commanding 
E well s corps, was directed to take his command and 
move to the valley of Virginia, to meet Hunter. The 
North Carolina troops that followed Early up and down 
the valley, and shared in all the hardships of a campaign 
that had its full share of successes and reverses, were as 
follows: The Thirty-second, Fifty-third, Forty-third, 
Forty-fifth regiments and Second battalion, of Gen. Bryan 
Grimes brigade; the First, Second, Third, Fourth, 
Fourteenth and Twenty-third regiments and First bat 
talion, of Gen. R. D. Johnston s brigade; the Sixth, 
Twenty-first, Fifty-fourth, and Fifty-seventh regiments, 
of Gen. A. C. Godwin s brigade (General Lewis , com 
manded, after his wounding, by Godwin). Gen. Robert 
Ransom was sent to command the cavalry in the valley. 
The Sixtieth North Carolina cavalry was in Wharton s 
command. 

Early s corps was engaged in skirmishes at Lynchburg 
and Martinsburg, demonstrated against Harper s Ferry, 

* Campaign of 1864 and 1865. 



256 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

and on the pth of June fought the battle of Monocacy. 
At Monocacy the Federals were commanded by Gen. 
Lew Wallace, since famous as the author of Ben Hur. 
General Rodes division, including the brigades of Grimes 
and Cox, was posted on the right of Ramseur, who was 
in front of Wallace. McCausland, followed by Gordon s 
division, crossed the Monocacy and struck the Federal 
flank, and with the aid of artillery threw it in confusion 
and drove Wallace from his position. Ramseur then 
crossed, as did Rodes, and followed up the advantage. 
The brigades of Johnston and Lewis were in Ramseur s 
command. The Confederates captured between 600 and 
700 prisoners, and lost about 700. 

Early then marched to Rockville, and by the nth was 
in sight of Fort Stevens, one of the works of the Wash 
ington defenses. Grimes skirmishers were in front, and 
doubtless were nearer Washington than any other Con 
federate troops during the war. The defenses were too 
strong for Early s command to attack. The spires of 
the city were in plain view, and the presence of Confed 
erate troops so near created quite a panic in the capital. 
After a consultation with his division commanders, Gen 
eral Early determined to spend the i2th in front of the 
city, and then to retire that night. During the afternoon 
a reconnoitering force from the city was driven back by 
Rodes advance guard. 

On the morning of the lyth, the Confederates recrossed 
the Shenandoah. On the i8th, the Federals, following 
Early s retirement, through Snicker s gap, made a dash 
at Parker s ford. On the iQth, Col. W. A. Owens was 
killed in a skirmish. Rodes division, however, drove 
the Federal advance back. In this skirmish, Col. Joseph 
H. Wood, commanding the Fourth regiment, was killed. 
On the 2oth, Ramseur s division, while moving, was 
assailed in flank by Averell, then advancing in line of 
battle. The division was thrown into much confusion 
and hastily fell back. Jackson s cavalry, however, made 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 257 

a vigorous charge, and Ramseur rallied his men in time 
to prevent Averell from reaching V/inchester. General 
Lewis was wounded in this affair. At the battle of 
Kernstown, it fell to Rodes lot to follow the enemy s 
flight for some miles, but most of the North Carolinians 
had little fighting there. 

The morning of the i9th of September found General 
Early s forces much divided. Rodes was at Stephen- 
son s depot, Breckinridge and Gordon at Bunker Hill, 
and Ramseur at Winchester. Sheridan, now in command 
of the Federal Valley army, determined to take advan 
tage of this dispersion, and bore down in full force on 
Ramseur, before it was fully light. Johnston s North 
Carolina brigade seems to have had an advanced position, 
and was the first to encounter Sheridan. Gen. Bradley 
Johnson gives this graphic picture of what followed: 
"By daylight, the ipth of September, a scared cavalry 
man of my own command nearly rode over me as I lay 
asleep on the grass, and reported that the Yankees were 
advancing with a heavy force of infantry, artillery and 
cavalry up the Berryville road. Johnston and I were 
responsible for keeping Sheridan out of Winchester, and 
protecting the Confederate line of retreat and commu 
nication up the valley. In two minutes the command 
was mounted and moving at a trot across the open fields 
to the Berryville road to Johnston s assistance. There 
was not a fence nor a bush nor a tree to obscure the 
view. We could see the crest of a hill covered with a 
cloud of cavalry, and in front of them, 500 yards for 
ward was a thin gray line moving off in retreat solidly and 
with perfect coolness and self-possession. A regiment of 
cavalry would deploy into line, and then their bugles 
would sound the charge, and they d swoop down on 
the thin gray line of North Carolina. The instant the 
Yankee bugles sounded, North Carolina would halt, face 
by the rear rank, wait until the horse got within 100 
yards, and then fire deliberately and coolly as if firing 

No S3 



258 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

volleys on brigade drill. The cavalry would break and 
scamper back, and North Carolina would about face/ 
and continue her march in retreat as solemnly and with 
as much dignity as if marching in review." Johnston s 
brigade, on reaching the rest of the division, united with 
it in forming line at right angles to the pike west of Win 
chester. Then this division, numbering only 2,560 men, 
had, aided by Nelson s artillery and the cavalry, the 
disagreeable duty of righting Sheridan s force, number 
ing, according to the official returns quoted by General 
Early, about 53,000 men, from daylight until 10 o clock, 
when Rodes and Gordon arrived. Of course, Ramseur 
could not have held his position had the Federals been 
aware that his division was there alone. Rodes and 
Gordon came in on Ramseur s left, and were at once 
thrown on the flank of the attacking columns, and for 
awhile drove everything before them. In the charge, 
General Rodes, one of the most promising officers and 
accomplished soldiers in Lee s army, was killed, as was 
also Brigadier-General Godwin, an earnest and conscien 
tious soldier. Late in the afternoon, however, the Fed 
eral cavalry in heavy force broke through Early s left 
flank and rear. This, with a second front attack, threw 
Early s army into confusion, and it retired to Fisher s 
Hill. Ramseur s division, which General Early says 
maintained its organization, covered the retreat. The 
total Federal loss was, according to official returns, 5,018. 
The Confederate killed and wounded are reported at 
1,707.* Among the wounded were Colonel Cobb and 
Colonel Thruston. 

General Ramseur succeeded Rodes in command of his 
veteran division, and Pegram took charge of Early s old 
division that Ramseur had been commanding. General 
Breckinridge s command was sent to southwestern Vir 
ginia. 

On withdrawing from Fisher s Hill, Cox s brigade hand- 

* Rebellion Records, XLIII, 557. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 259 

somely repulsed the portion of the Federal army that 
was pressing the rear. At Cedar creek, General Ker- 
shaw s command returned to General Early. 

Sheridan having fallen back, Early moved forward 
again to Fisher s Hill. Then by a flank movement, Gor 
don, Pegram and Ramseur moved all night, and at dawn 
attacked Sheridan s left flank and rear on Cedar creek. 
Wharton and Kershaw, with all the artillery, made the 
front attack. At the opening of the battle, Sheridan was 
returning to his army after a trip to Washington. The 
Federal army was surprised and routed. But no organ 
ized pursuit was made. General Sheridan gives the fol 
lowing account of the condition of his army: "At Mill 
creek my escort fell behind, and we were going ahead at 
a regular pace when just as we made the crest of the rise 
beyond the stream, there burst upon our view the appall 
ing spectacle of a panic-stricken army hundreds of 
slightly- wounded men, throngs of others unhurt, but 
utterly demoralized, and wagons by the score, all press 
ing to the rear in hopeless confusion, telling only too 
plainly that a disaster had occurred -at the front. On 
accosting some of the fugitives, they assured me that the 
army was broken up, in full retreat, and that all was 
lost." 

Sheridan s return and the delay of Confederate pursuit 
gave the Federals opportunity to recover and reorganize. 
Learning that the Confederate force was not so strong 
as anticipated, Sheridan prepared for offensive work. 
About 3 o clock, he set a new battle in order against 
Early. Ramseur s men were posted behind a rock fence. 
Grimes and Cox repelled all attacks on them, but the left 
of Early s line gave way in disorder. General Grimes 
says that up to that time no serious break occurred on the 
left, and that his men had been kept well in hand and 
fought successfully. The rout of the left, however, 
affected the right, and that also gave way. In rallying 
his men, and exposing himself daringly, General Ram- 



260 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

seur was mortally wounded. Gen. Bryan Grimes suc 
ceeded to the command of the division. Early lost all 
the captures he had made except 1,300 prisoners that 
were brought off the field. The Federal loss in this 
battle, including prisoners, was 5,665. There seems to 
be no report of Confederate losses. General Early states 
in his "Early in the Valley" that his loss was 1,860 casu 
alties, and 1,000 prisoners. 

The death of General Ramseur removed a soldier who 
had risen rapidly and deservedly. A graduate of West 
Point, he had entered the army in charge of a battery 
that made itself an honored name. Then transferred to 
command the Forty-ninth regiment, he so impressed the 
Confederate commanders that promotion to command a 
brigade and then a division soon followed. General 
Early in his book on the Valley campaign bears this 
tribute to his merits : * He was a most gallant and ener 
getic officer, whom no disaster appalled, but his energy 
and courage seemed to gain new strength in the midst of 
confusion and disorder. He fell at his post fighting like 
a lion at bay, and his native State has reason to be proud 
of his memory. " 

Shortly after this battle, the North Carolina troops 
were returned to General Lee, and took their part in 
the dreary service in the trenches around Petersburg. 

During the movement of General Lee s army from 
Cold Harbor, and for a month thereafter, the cavalry was 
given little rest. On the yth of June, Barringer s bri 
gade, now composed of the First, Second, Third and 
Fifth regiments, was stationed along the fords of the 
Chickahominy, and was engaged in skirmishes at Malvern 
hill, Herring creek and the Rocks. When the Federals 
made an effort to destroy the Weldon railroad, just below 
Petersburg, Barringer s troopers had a hot fight. The 
First, Second and Third regiments were dismounted, and 
with McGregor s guns poured a volley into Barlow s 
division. This produced a momentary panic, and Colonel 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 261 

Baker, of the Third regiment, rushed upon the Federals 
and captured many prisoners. The Federals, however, 
rallied, and in turn captured Colonel Baker. 

The famous Kautz-Wilson raid for the destruction of 
the southward railroads was the occasion of severe cavalry 
activity and battles. At "Blacks and Whites," Gen. 
W. H. F. Lee managed to get between the two Federal 
columns on the 23d of June. General Bearing was in the 
lead. His brigade, a small one, included the Fourth and 
Sixth North Carolina cavalry. This brigade was about 
to be overpowered when Barringer s brigade galloped to 
its relief. Major Cowles dismounted the First regiment 
and sent that to the guns. Maj. W. P. Roberts, of the 
Second regiment, reached the Federal rear, and the bat 
tle was sharp for some hours. At nightfall the Federals 
retired. Col. C. M. Andrews, one of North Carolina s 
best cavalry officers, was killed. 

At Staunton river bridge, guarded by Junior and 
Senior reserves and disabled soldiers, Kautz s attack 
was repulsed, Lee s cavalry attacking his rear. Col. 
H. E. Coleman, of the Twelfth North Carolina regiment, 
rendered gallant service in assisting the raw troops in 
the repulse of the cavalry division at this bridge. He 
was at home wounded and volunteered his services. So 
freely did he expose himself, that he was again wounded, 
but did not then leave the field. This raiding party 
before it reached Meade lost all its artillery, wagon 
trains, and hundreds of prisoners. 



CHAPTER XVJ. 

AROUND PETERSBURG BEAUREGARD S MASTERLY 
DEFENSE LEE S ARMY IN PLACE AND GRANT IS 
FOILED THE ATTEMPT OF GRANT TO BLOW UP 
THE FORTIFICATIONS BATTLE OF THE "CRATER" 
THE DREARY TRENCHES REAMS STATION THE 
FORT HARRISON ASSAULT THE CAVALRY. 

AFTER being foiled at Cold Harbor, General Grant 
determined to change his base to the south side of 
the James, and break the Confederate communica 
tions with the South. This plan had been previously 
proposed by McClellan, but rejected. Its danger to 
the Confederacy is shown by General Lee s assuring 
Richmond friends, some time before, that the people of 
that city might go to their beds without misgivings so 
long as the Federals assailed the capital from the north 
and east, and left undisturbed his communications with 
the Carolinas. Those sources of supply and reinforce 
ment were now to be attempted. 

From June 4th to nth Grant s army was engaged 
in its mobilization on the banks of the Chickahominy. 
Wilson s well-organized cavalry corps and Warren s infan 
try corps were to threaten Richmond directly, and thus 
mask the movement on Petersburg. By midnight of the 
1 6th of June, the army with all its artillery and trains 
was over the James. General Smith s corps was given 
the right of way over all other troops. On the i4th he 
reported to General Butler at Bermuda Hundred. But 
ler directed him to attack Petersburg at daylight. His 
corps was strengthened for the attack by the addition of 
Kautz cavalry and Hinks negro division. These addi 
tions gave Smith, according to General Humphreys, chief 

262 



CONFEDERA TE MILITARY HISTORY. 263 

of staff of the army of the Potomac, 16, 100 men. Hancock s 
corps immediately followed Smith, and in his attack ren 
dered him material assistance by relieving his men in the 
captured works. 

At the opening of the assaults on Beauregard s works 
around Petersburg, the men holding those works num 
bered only 5,400. These were gradually, by the arrival 
of Ransom s brigade and Hoke s division, and a few 
other troops, increased to 11,000 effectives. General 
Grant continually added to the two corps in front until, 
according to Colonel Roman s figures, at least 90,000 men 
were pressing daily against Beauregard. Colonel Roman 
says: "With such fearful and almost incredible odds 
against him, General Beauregard, from the i$th to the 
1 8th of June, maintained a successful barrier to the 
Federal advance a feat of war almost without a prece 
dent, in which the courage and the endurance of the 
troops, no less than the skill with which the commander 
used his small resources, were fully as conspicuous as 
the good fortune that lent itself to such a result. * 

General Badeau, in his military history of General 
Grant, offers this explanation of the failure of the great 
army to dispatch Beauregard: "Then, indeed, when all 
their exertions had proved fruitless, when, having out 
marched and out-maneuvered Lee, the soldiers found 
themselves again obliged to assault intrenched positions 
then they seemed in some degree to lose heart, and 
for the first time since the campaign began, their attacks 
were lacking in vigor. 

As Smith moved forward, on the isth, his first opposi 
tion came from a slight redan and works held by Graham s 
battery and a small dismounted cavalry force under Dear- 
ing, "a young brigadier of high and daring spirit, and 
of much experience in war. Bearing made a resolute 
fight to delay Smith as long as possible, and then sul 
lenly withdrew inside the main works. At this time Gen- 

* Life of Beauregard, vol. II, p. 227. 



264 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

eral Beauregard had only Wise s brigade, 2,400 strong, 
and Bearing s cavalry, within the lines. Smith s attack 
met a heavy loss, but carried the line of redans from 
No. 5 to No. 9. Had this attack been more vigorously 
pushed, Petersburg must have fallen. 

On the 1 6th, Ransom s brigade arrived at Petersburg. 
Judge Roulhac in his Regimental History says: "After 
marching all night of the i5th, we reached Petersburg 
about 8 o clock in the morning, and were hurried to 
our fortifications on Avery s farm. At a run we suc 
ceeded in getting to the works before the enemy reached 
them. Through a storm of shot and shell we gained 
them, just in time to meet their charge and drive them 
back. In the afternoon we were hurried to Swift creek, and 
with the Fifty-sixth North Carolina, under Maj. John W. 
Graham, and Gracie s brigade, drove back the Federal 
cavalry which had attempted to cut our communications 
with Richmond." 

Martin s and Clingman s brigades, of Hoke s division, 
also reached Petersburg on the i6th after forced marches, 
and were ready for their share of hard fighting on the 
1 6th. From the extreme right of the Confederate line 
held by Wise, to the left held by Hoke, was about five 
miles, so the men in gray had an attenuated line in these 
works. The engineers estimated that 25,000 were neces 
sary to properly man these works. General Beaure 
gard s number on the morning of the i6th was, he states, 
10,000 men of all arms. Hancock and Smith were joined 
by Burnside s corps about noon on the i6th, making an 
aggregate force of over 53,000 men. Warren s corps, 
17,000 strong, reached Petersburg that night. Hancock, 
in command until General Meade s arrival, assaulted all 
along the front in the afternoon of the i6th, and the North 
Carolina brigades had a day of arduous battle. The artil 
lery also had a day of incessant activity. After an after 
noon of desperate struggling, Birney s division effected a 
lodgment. The contest ended only with darkness. 



CONFEDERA TE MILITAR Y HISTOR K - 265 

With the same disparity in numbers, another day of 
strife, attack and recoil, noise and bloodshed began on 
the i yth. At dawn, Potter carried a portion of the Con 
federate line, where the Federals found the exhausted 
Confederates asleep with their guns in their hands. 
Willcox s assault was, however, without success. Ledlie s 
attack was partly successful, but his losses were great 
and his success short, for he was driven out and many 
prisoners taken. At midnight, the lines were still in 
Confederate hands. But General Beauregard, not know 
ing that Longstreet s corps was near at hand, ordered 
withdrawal to a new and shorter line that his engineers 
had constructed. New fires were lighted along the old 
line, and the withdrawal was effected without Federal 
knowledge. The men at once fortified the new line, using 
bayonets, knives and even tin cans as dirt removers. 
On the 1 8th, Longstreet s advanced division got in place, 
and all assaults were repulsed with loss. These repeated 
assaults cost Grant s army 8,150 men. Grant learned, as 
McCabe aptly quotes, that Petersburg "could not be 
taken by the collar. 

With the coming of the rest of Lee s army, other North 
Carolina troops went into the trenches, as follows: 
Cooke s brigade, MacRae s brigade, Lane s brigade, 
Scales brigade, and Williams and Cummings batteries. 
The four brigades in the valley were not recalled until 
the beginning of winter. 

Then followed the dreary, suffering, starving months 
in the trenches around Petersburg. Soldiers have never 
been called upon to endure more than the Confederate 
soldiers were there forced to stand, and to stand with a 
full knowledge that their distant homes were being ruth 
lessly desolated, and that the pangs of hunger were press 
ing cruelly upon their unprotected families. What Cap 
tain Elliott says of Martin s North Carolina brigade was, 
changing only the numbers, true of every brigade that 
there lived in the ground, walked in the wet ditches, ate 

Nc 84 



266 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

in the ditches, slept in dirt-covered pits. He says: "At 
the beginning of the siege, June 2oth, the report of Mar 
tin s brigade, occupying Colquitt s salient, showed 2,200 
men for duty. In September, when they were relieved, 
the total force was 700 living skeletons. Occupying the 
sharp salient, the work was enfiladed on both flanks by 
direct fire, and the mortar shells came incessantly down 
from above. Every man was detailed every night, either 
on guard duty or to labor with pick and spade repair 
ing works knocked down during the day. There was no 
shelter that summer from sun or rain. No food could be 
cooked there, but the scanty provisions were brought 
in bags on the shoulders of men from the cook yards 
some miles distant. The rations consisted of one pound 
of pork and three pounds of meal for three days 
no coffee, no sugar, no vegetables, no tobacco, no grog 
nothing but the bread and meat. No wonder that the 
list of officers was reduced to three captains and a few 
lieutenants, with but one staff officer (spared through 
God s mercy) to this brigade of 700 skeletons. But every 
feeble body contained an unbroken spirit, and after the 
fall months came, those who had not fallen into their 
graves or been disabled, returned to their colors, and 
saw them wave in victory in their last fight at Benton- 
ville. T 

Scarcely more than 100 yards from the salient held by 
Elliott s South Carolina brigade, which had Ransom s 
North Carolina brigade on its left, Burnside constructed a 
line of rifle-pits. Colonel Pleasants, a mining engineer, 
secured Burnside s approval of a plan to run a mine under 
the Elliott salient, blow it and its defenders in the air, 
attack by a heavy column in the confusion, and take the 
Confederate works. The mine was painstakingly exca 
vated, charged with 8,000 pounds of powder, tamped 
with 8,000 sandbags, and on the 28th of July was ready 
to be sprung. 

At that time, only the divisions of Hoke, Johnson and 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 267 

Mahone were in the trenches. The mine was under 
Johnson s portion of the fortifications. Wise was on 
Elliott s right, Ransom s brigade under Colonel McAfee 
(Ransom being wounded) on his left. Hill s corps, and 
most of Longstreet s, had been sent north of the James 
to counteract Hancock and Sheridan, who were demon 
strating against Richmond in order to draw Lee s forces 
from the trenches, and thus insure the success of the 
attack that was to follow the destruction and confusion 
wrought by the explosion of the mine. 

All the siege and field artillery was to support the 
attack. Then, says McCabe, "Ledlie was to push through 
the breach straight for Cemetery hill. Willcox was to fol 
low, and after passing the breach, deploy on the left and 
seize the Jerusalem plank road. Potter was to pass to 
the right and protect his flank, while Ferrero s negro 
division, should Ledlie effect a lodgment on Cemetery 
hill, was to push beyond that point and immediately 
assault the town. 

The Confederates had detected the mining and had 
thrown up intrenchments at the gorge of the salient and 
traversed their works. 

At daylight on the 3oth, the mine was fired. First a 
slight quake, then an erupted mass of earth, and a roar 
appalling followed. Next came a hail of stone, earth, 
wood, and mangled bodies, and a ragged chasm marked 
the place where the salient had stood. Two hundred 
and seventy-eight South Carolina officers and men, 
together with part of Pegram s battery, were mangled to 
death in the upheaval and subsidence. Then every gun 
on the Federal line opened, and an unenthusiastic line of 
Ledlie s division made unopposed headway toward the 
destroyed works. These men filed into the crater and 
filled it with a confused mass of disorganized troops. 
Their commander was not with them. The coming of a 
tangible enemy, however, aroused the Confederates, who 
had been thrown in consternation by the eruption. Gen- 



268 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

eral Elliott rushed to the breach, calling to his men to 
drive back the assailants. He was wounded, and Colonel 
McMaster took his brigade, sent to division commanders 
for reinforcements, and soon had his men firing into the 
excavation, or crater, where Ledlie smen huddled. This 
excavation was 135 feet in length, 97 broad, and 30 
deep.* Potter s, Willcox s and Ferrero s divisions of 
Burnside s corps pushed after Ledlie, and then Ord was 
directed to join in the effort to break through the lines. 

Meanwhile, Haskell s guns had been rushed up at a gal 
lop and began to open ; Planner s North Carolina battery 
from the Gee house, and Larrikins mortars on Plan 
ner s left. Wright s battery of Coit s battalion was also 
nobly served. These guns and a few regiments saved 
the day by repulsing all efforts to advance heavily from 
the crater. The shells bursting in the massed troops did 
great execution. Colonel McAfee sent the Twenty-first 
North Carolina regiment to McMaster, and this, with the 
Twenty-sixth South Carolina, formed in a ravine on the 
left and rear of the breach. The Twenty-fourth and 
Forty-ninth North Carolina regiments, also of Ransom s 
brigade, closed in on Elliott s brigade, continuing his 
line. These regiments in front and the two in rear met 
and drove back the charge along the trenches, says Gen 
eral Johnson. "Two companies of the Forty-ninth North 
Carolina, posted in the covered way near the main line, 
poured a heavy volley on the flank of the enemy in rear, 
and our men of the Seventeenth North Carolina and 
Forty-ninth Carolina . . . drove back the charge along 
the trenches." 

On the right, Wise s men joined Elliott in grim resist 
ance. The Sixty- first North Carolina regiment, sent by 
General Hoke to reinforce the troops engaged at the 
breach, arrived at the same time with two brigades of 
Mahone s division. These reinforcements began to 
form in rear of Pe gram s salient to charge the Federals 

* Johnson s Report. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 269 

in the breach. While Mahone was still forming, the 
Federals advanced on him. "He," says General John 
son, "met their advance by a charge, in which the Twen 
ty-fifth and Forty-ninth North Carolina regiments, and 
the Twenty-sixth and part of the Seventeenth South 
Carolina . . . gallantly joined, moving upon the left of 
General Mahone s line. The enemy was driven from 
three-quarters of the trench cavalier and most of the 
works on the left of the crater, with moderate loss to our 
forces. . . . During this time a large number of the ene 
my s troops, black and white, abandoned the breach and 
fled precipitately to the rear. Three separate attempts 
were made before the Union soldiers were entirely dis 
lodged. This charge, which General Johnson says gave 
him entire possession of the crater and adjacent lines, 
was made by Sanders brigade, of Mahone s division, and 
by the Sixty-first North Carolina, Colonel Radcliffe, and 
the Seventeenth South Carolina.* Ransom s front had 
been more than once assailed during the day, but no suc 
cess attended such assaults. The only result of this 
novel warfare undertaken by General Burnside was the 
loss of 3,500 lives on the Federal side. 

On the 1 6th of August, Hancock s corps being engaged 
in a demonstration in force to prevent aid going to Early, 
Birney took a part of the Confederate line at Fussell s 
mill. Lane s brigade, led by Colonel Barbour (General 
Lane absent, wounded) , recaptured the intrenchments on 
the Darbytown road, in the presence of General Lee. 
General Clingman s brigade took part in Mahone s and 
Heth s attack on Warren s corps on the ipth. In this 
engagement, General Clingman was so seriously wounded 
that he was never again able to join his brigade. 

Hancock s corps marched for the Weldon railroad on 
the 22d of August. That officer was to destroy the road to 
Rowanty creek. His force consisted of his first division, 
commanded by General Miles, his second division, under 

* Johnson s Report 



270 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY, 

General Gibbon, and Gregg s cavalry. By the 24th, Han 
cock had destroyed the road nearly to Reams Station. 
This road was vital to the comfort of the Confederates. 
So A. P. Hill was directed to stop its destruction. 

Hill took with him the North Carolina brigades of 
Scales, Lane, Cooke, MacRae, and in addition, McGowan s 
and Anderson s brigades, and two of Mahone s. On 
Hill s approach, Hancock formed behind some old in- 
trenchments constructed in June. General Gibbon was 
posted in the left half of these, and General Miles occupied 
the right half. Gregg s force was on the flank, and seems 
to have been partly dismounted and intrenched. 

The first attack of Hill, about 2 o clock, seems to 
have been made only by the brigades of McGowan and 
Scales. They were repulsed. At 5 o clock, General 
Hill sent forward three North Carolina brigades, Cooke s, 
Lane s (under General Conner) and MacRae s, to make 
a second attempt. Captain Graham in his Regimental 
History states that the combined strength of the three 
brigades was only 1,750. These brigades dashed forward 
with great spirit upon Miles line. Miles men made, in 
part, a good resistance. They were, however, forced to 
give way in confusion. General Cooke stated that the 
first colors planted on the captured works were those of 
the Twenty-seventh North Carolina in the hands of 
Sergt. Roscoe Richards. Gibbon s division was ordered 
to retake the works, but failed signally. Hampton, dis 
mounting his men, attacked on the left and forced Gregg s 
cavalry back to a new line that Hancock established. 

This was one of the most brilliant events toward the 
close of that gloomy summer. General Hill s loss in killed 
and wounded was 720. He captured 12 stand of colors, 
9 guns, and 3,100 stand of arms. General Lee, in a let 
ter to Governor Vance, dated August 29th, writes: "I 
have been frequently called upon to mention the services 
of North Carolina troops in this army, but their gallantry 
and conduct were never more deserving of admiration 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 271 

than in the engagement at Reams Station on the 25th 
instant. The brigades of Cooke, MacRae and Lane, the 
last under the temporary command of General Conner, 
advanced . . . and carried the enemy s works with 
a steady courage that elicited the warm commendation of 
their corps and division commanders, and the admiration 
of the army." 

On the 3oth of September, Clingman s brigade was 
engaged in the desperate attempt to recapture Fort Har 
rison, and lost in that unfortunate assault more men than 
it had lost in weeks in the trenches. 

Lane s and MacRae s brigades formed a part of A. P. 
Hill s force in his attack on Warren at Jones farm on 
September 3oth. There Major Wooten s skirmish line 
greatly distinguished itself, and the two brigades made 
many captures. On the Qth, Hoke and Field, supported 
by Lane and Gary s cavalry, dispersed a large cavalry 
force under Kautz and captured all his guns. 

In all the movements around Petersburg, the cavalry 
under Hampton and Dearing, both full of fight and dash, 
was untiringly engaged. Many changes had occurred in 
the old North Carolina brigade. Gen. Rufus Barringer 
commanded the brigade, Colonel Cheek the First regi 
ment, Col. W. P. Roberts the Second, Colonel Baker 
(until his capture) the Third, Maj. J. H. McNeill the 
Fifth. Bearing s independent brigade included the 
Fourth under Colonel Ferebee, and the Sixteenth battal 
ion under Lieut. -Col. J. T. Kennedy. 

The brigade of Barringer was engaged at Fisher s, 
White Oak swamp and White s tavern. At White Oak 
swamp, after General Chambliss was killed, Gen. W. H. 
F. Lee formed a new line with the First and Second 
regiments and made good his battle. On the 2ist of 
August, all four of Barringer s regiments were engaged 
with Mahone on the Weldon road. After a preliminary 
success, the cavalry was forced to follow the retirement 
of the infantry. 



272 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

At Reams Station, Gen. W. H. F. Lee was about sick 
and General Barringer commanded his division, Col. 
W. H. Cheek commanding Barringer s brigade. The 
whole command was actively engaged, and materially 
aided in the victory gained. At McDowell Junction, on 
the 27th of September, at .Jones farm, Gravelly run 
and Hargrove s house, the brigade was engaged with 
varying success, but with continuous pugnacity. 

In November Hampton made his "cattle raid," and 
dashing in at Grant s depot, City Point, drove off over 
2,000 head of cattle. This raid was admirably planned 
and as admirably executed. On the return the North 
Carolina brigade had a brisk rear-guard action at Belcher s 
mill. 

On the 8th of December, when the North Carolina 
Senior and Junior reserves so admirably defended the 
Weldon railroad bridge near Belfield, the pursuit was 
conducted by General Barringer, and he states that two 
squadrons of the First regiment, commanded by Captain 
Dewey, made a splendid mounted charge. General Bar 
ringer puts the losses in his brigade for this campaign as 
follows : Killed, 99 ; wounded, 378 ; missing and captured, 
127; total, 604, 



CHAPTER XVII. 

THE NORTH CAROLINA REGIMENTS IN TENNESSEE 
AND GEORGIA CAMPAIGNS, 1864 EVENTS IN NORTH 
CAROLINA FORT FISHER THE CLOSE OF THE 
FOURTH YEAR NORTH CAROLINA TROOPS IN 
ARMY NORTHERN VIRGINIA, 1865 BATTLES NEAR 
PETERSBURG HATCHER S RUN FORT STEDMAN 
APPOMATTOX. 

THE limits of this sketch of the North Carolina troops 
forbid a detailed account of the services of the four 
regiments in the Tennessee and Georgia campaigns. 
These regiments were, so far as official reports seem to 
show, the Twenty-ninth, Lieut. -Col. B. S, Proffitt; the 
Thirty-ninth, Col. D. Coleman; the Fifty-eighth, Maj. 
T. F. Dula, and the Sixtieth, Col. J. B. Palmer. For 
awhile Colonel Palmer was in command of Reynolds bri 
gade. During his absence, that regiment was com 
manded by Lieut. -Col. J. T. Weaver, whose gallant life 
was given up for his State. 

Through all the trying marches, hungry days and 
nights, stubborn fighting and nerve-testing vicissitudes, 
these noble men kept close to their colors, and illustrated 
by their patient endurance and cheerful obedience that 
they were of the heroic clay from which soldiers are made. 

After Hoke s division was recalled from New Bern to 
engage with Beauregard s army at Drewry s bluff, there 
were no military operations, except of minor importance, 
in North Carolina, until the first attack on Fort Fisher. 

Colonel Lamb, the heroic defender of the fort, thus 
describes his works: "At this time Fort Fisher extended 
across the peninsula 682 yards, a continuous work, mount 
ing twenty heavy guns, and having two mortars and four 

273 

No 85 



274 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

pieces of light artillery. The sea face was 1,898 yards in 
length, consisting of batteries connected by a heavy cur 
tain and ending in the mound battery 60 feet high, mount 
ing in all twenty-four heavy guns, including one 
i7o-pound Blakely rifled gun and one i3o-pound Arm 
strong rifled gun. At the extreme end of the point was 
Battery Buchanan with four heavy guns. " 

General Whiting and Colonel Lamb had both expended 
much labor and ingenuity in perfecting the defenses of 
this fort. Wilmington was the port into which the block 
ade runners were bringing so large a portion of the sup 
plies necessary for the Confederacy that General Lee 
said if Fort Fisher fell he could not subsist his army. 
This thought nerved Lamb to prolonged resistance. 

The garrison, when the Federal fleet arrived on Decem 
ber 2oth, consisted of five companies of the Thirty-sixth 
North Carolina (artillery) regiment. General Whiting, in 
command of the department, entered the fort as soon as 
it was threatened. Major Reilly, of the Tenth regiment 
(artillery) , with two of his companies also reported there. 
Colonel Lamb states that the total effective force on 
December 25th was 1,431, consisting of 921 regulars, 
about 450 Junior reserves, and 60 sailors and marines. 

The " powder-ship" Louisiana, loaded with 250 tons of 
powder, was headed for the fort, and exploded on the 
night of the 23d. This explosion, however, proved harm 
less. Then, on the 24th, the fleet approached for bom 
bardment. Colonel Lamb thus tells his experience under 
that fire: "The fleet, consisting of the Ironsides, four 
monitors and forty- five wooden steam frigates, com 
menced a terrific bombardment. . . . For five hours a 
tremendous hail of shot and shell was poured upon 
the works with but little effect. At 5 130 the fleet with 
drew. . . . Some 10,000 shot and shell were fired by the 
fleet. The fort being obliged to husband its ammuni 
tion, fired only 672 projectiles. . . . Only 23 men were 
wounded. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 275 

General Butler determined to make a second attempt. 
So on Christmas day at 10:30 a. m., the flest, reinforced 
by one more monitor and some additional wooden steam 
ers, began another bombardment. Colonel Lamb tells 
the result: "At 5 :3o p. m., a most terrific enfilading fire 
against the land face and palisade commenced, unparal 
leled in severity. Admiral Porter reported it at 130 shot 
and shell per minute, more than two every second. The 
men were required to protect themselves behind the trav 
erses ; the extra men were sent to the bombproof s with 
orders to rally to the ramparts as soon as the firing 
ceased. As soon as this fire commenced, a line of skir 
mishers advanced toward the works. When the firing 
ceased, the guns were manned and opened with grape 
and canister, and the palisade was manned by two vet 
erans and Junior reserves. No assault was made. Our 
casualties for the day, were, killed 5, wounded 33. In the 
afternoon both of the 7 -inch Brooke rifles exploded. . . . 
five other guns were disabled by the enemy. . . . There 
were only 3,600 shot and shell exclusive of grape and 
shrapnel in the works. . . . Except when special orders 
were given the guns were only fired every half hour. In 
the two days, the frigates Minnesota and Colorado fired 
3,551 shot and shell, almost as many as were in all the 
batteries of Fort Fisher." 

With this second experience, General Butler retired, 
and the fort had a respite until January. The expedition 
had been fitted out elaborately and was unusually strong. 
Captain Self ridge, who commanded one of Butler s ships, 
says: "The navy department was able to concentrate 
before Fort Fisher a larger force than had ever before 
assembled under one command in the history of the 
American navy a total of nearly sixty vessels. The 
total number of guns and howitzers, according to 
the computation of the editors of "Battles and Leaders," 
was over 600, and the total weight of projectiles at a 
single discharge of all the guns was over 22 tons. The 



276 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

retirement of this great armament without accomplish 
ing anything was a great disappointment to the Federal 
authorities. Captain Selfridge says: "Words cannot 
express the bitter feeling and chagrin of the navy." 

When it became evident to the Confederate govern 
ment that Fisher was to be attacked, General Hoke s 
division was ordered to its relief, reaching Wilmington 
on the 24th of December, and the advanced regiments 
arrived at Fisher on the same day. Butler, having 
landed a force on the ocean side, the Seventeenth North 
Carolina was withdrawn from the fort on the 25th and 
ordered to attack. As General Butler withdrew his men, 
only a skirmish occurred. General Bragg was in chief 
command in the State. Evidently not expecting a sec 
ond attack, he withdrew Hoke from Sugar Loaf, and the 
division went into camp near Wilmington, sixteen miles 
from Fisher. 

But General Terry, with about the same force that 
General Butler had commanded, except that it was rein 
forced by two negro brigades, was ordered to retrieve the 
first reverse. On the i4th of January, Terry landed 
8,500 men without opposition, and that night, moving 
across the peninsula, constructed a line of field works 
from the ocean to Cape Fear river, thereby cutting off 
all land communication between the fort and General 
Bragg s command. No effort of any importance seems 
to have been made by the commanding general to assist 
the doomed fort. After the first bombardment, five 
companies of the Thirty-sixth regiment (artillery) 
returned from Georgia and took their old place in the gar 
rison. The total force there, after the return of these 
men, was about 1,900. 

"All day and all night on the i3th and i4th [of Janu 
ary]," says Colonel Lamb, "the fleet kept up a ceaseless 
and terrific bombardment. ... It was impossible to 
repair damage at night. No meals could be prepared 
for the exhausted garrison ; the dead could not be buried 



FRONT opWILMINGTON.N 

in Februarv,1865 




CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 277 

without new casualties. Fully 200 had been killed dur 
ing these two days, and only three or four of the land 
guns remained serviceable. 

Then the land forces approached nearer and nearer by 
pits and shelter, and the assault began. Most desper 
ately did General Whiting, Colonel Lamb, and all their 
officers and men fight for the important fort ; frequently 
did they signal for the aid they sorely needed. General 
Whiting and Colonel Lamb were both severely wounded. 
On the 1 5th, after exhausting every energy, the fort was 
surrendered. The Federal loss is stated at 1,445. Tne 
garrison lost about 500. Few more gallant defenses 
against such odds are recorded. General Whiting died 
shortly after in a Northern prison. 

The winter around Petersburg was the worst one of 
the four years of the war, to the North Carolina troops, as 
well as to all of Lee s army. The gloom of despondency 
was fast settling upon the army that had defied so many 
perils. It was now known that there was not meat enough 
in the Southern Confederacy for the armies it had in the 
field; that there was not in Virginia either meat or 
bread enough for the armies within her limits ; that meat 
must be obtained from abroad. 

But by heavy drafts upon North Carolina, food was 
sent to the armies in Virginia, and by February of 1865, 
their condition was somewhat improved. Reserve depots 
were established at Lynchburg, Danville and Greensboro. 
Even then new difficulties appeared, for the railroads 
were so poorly equipped that they could not haul rations 
as fast as the armies consumed them. Wagons had to 
make regular trips to supplement the worn-out trains. 

At the opening of the spring campaign, the following 
North Carolina troops were present in the army of 
Northern Virginia: In Gen. Bryan Grimes division 
were the First North Carolina, Maj. L. C. Latham; the 
Second, Maj. J. T. Scales; the Third, Maj. W. T. En- 
nett; the Fourth, Capt. J. B. Forcum; the Fourteenth, 



278 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Lieut-Col. W. A. Johnston; the Thirtieth, Capt. D. C. 
Allen; all of Gen.W. R. Cox s brigade; the Thirty-second, 
Capt. P. C. Shurord; the Forty-third, Capt. W. J. Cobb; 
the Forty-fifth, Col. J. R. Winston; the Fifty- third, Capt. 
T. E. Ashcraft, and the Second North Carolina battalion, 
all of Grimes old brigade, commanded by Col. D. G. 
Cowand. In other divisions Walker s, Heth s, Wilcox s 
and Johnson s were the Fifth, Col. J. W. Lea; the 
Twelfth, Capt. Plato Durham; the Twentieth, Lieut. 
A. F. Lawhon; the Twenty-third, Capt. A. D. Pe-ace; 
the First battalion, Lieut. R. W. Woodruff; all of 
Gen. R. D. Johnston s brigade; the Sixth, Capt. 
J. H. Dickey; the Twenty-first, Capt. J. H. Miller; the 
Fifty- f ourth ; the Fifty- seventh, Capt. John Beard; all of 
General Lewis brigade; the Eleventh, Col. W. J. Mar 
tin; the Twenty-sixth, Lieut. -Col. J. T. Adams; the 
Forty-fourth, Maj. C. M. Stedman; the Forty-seventh; 
the Fifty-second, Lieut. -Col. Eric Erson, of Gen. Wil 
liam MacRae s brigade; the Fifteenth, Col. W. H. Yar- 
borough; the Twenty-seventh, Lieut. -Col. J. C. Webb; 
the Forty-sixth, Col. W. L. Saunders; the Forty-eighth, 
Col. S. H. Walkup; the Fifty-fifth, Capt. W. A. Whit- 
ted; all of Gen. J. R. Cooke s brigade; the Eighteenth, 
Maj. T. J. Wooten; the Twenty-eighth, Capt. J. T. Line- 
barger; the Thirty-third, Col. R. V. Cowan; the Thirty- 
seventh, Maj. J. L. Bost; all of Gen. J. H. Lane s brigade; 
the Thirteenth, Lieut. -Col. E. B. Withers; the Sixteenth, 
Col. W. A. Stowe; the Twenty-second, Col. T. D. Gal 
loway; the Thirty-fourth, Lieut. -Col. G. M. Norment; 
the Thirty-eighth, Col. John Ashford; all of General 
Scales brigade; the Twenty-fourth; the Twenty-fifth, 
Col. H. M. Rutledge; the Thirty-fifth, Maj. R. E. 
Petty; the Forty-ninth, Maj. C. Q. Petty; the Fifty- 
sixth, Col. P. F. Faison; all of Gen. M. W. Ransom s 
brigade. The First, Second, Third and Fifth North 
Carolina cavalry, composed Gen. Rufus Barringer s 
brigade; the Fourth and Sixteenth battalion , Gen. W. P. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 279 

Roberts brigade. * The following batteries are reported : 
Capt. H. G. Planner s, Capt John Ramsey s, Capt. A. B. 
Williams and Capt. Guion s. 

To break up the wagon trains that were thought to aid 
in supplying the Confederate army, General Grant 
ordered the Second and Fifth corps to move on Hatcher s 
run. Portions of the Sixth and Ninth corps were after 
ward sent to reinforce the Second and Fifth. February 
6th, General Lee, being apprised of this threat to his right, 
arranged for parts of Gordon s and Hill s corps to meet 
it. The Federal corps, on establishing line, promptly 
intrenched. That afternoon Pegram led an attack on 
the new line and broke General Warren s front. That 
was afterward restored, and the success, in which 
Cooke s and MacRae s brigades shared, was without 
fruit, and resulted in Pegram s death. 

In the brilliant attack on Fort Stedman, Grimes divi 
sion and other North Carolina troops bore their full share 
of deadly battle. At Rives salient, on the day of evac 
uation of Petersburg, at Southerland s Station, at Sailor s 
creek, on to Appomattox, the North Carolina infantry 
were as a wall of fire to the great commander whose 
peerless worth they reverenced. At Chamberlin s run, 
so glorious to the North Carolina cavalry under Generals 
Barringer and Roberts, and in all that hopeless cam 
paign, the Carolina horsemen measured to the full their 
soldierly duty. At almost every fortified line on the 
south side of the James, the guns of Carolina s batteries 
had added to the destruction worked. But all their 
matchless heroism, combined with that of their dauntless 
comrades from sister States, could no longer delay the 
hour of humiliation. And at Appomattox, on the pth of 
April, the remnant of as peerless an army as ever stepped 
under banners surrendered. 

* The commanders of these regiments as given in the records are 
generally those in charge at the surrender. It is regretted that not 
all are given. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE LAST BATTLES IN NORTH CAROLINA GEN. J. G. 
MARTIN S COMMAND BATTLES WITH KIRK AND 
THE FEDERAL MARAUDERS THE ARMY UNDER 
GEN. JOE JOHNSTON -EVACUATION OF FORTS- 
FIGHT AT TOWN CREEK ENGAGEMENT AT KINS- 
TON BATTLE AT AVERASBORO JOHNSTON RE 
PULSES SHERMAN AT BENTONVILLE JOHNSTON 
FALLS BACK TO DURHAM SURRENDER. 

IT remains now only to consider the final campaign in 
North Carolina. Toward the close of 1864, Gen. 
J. G. Martin had been recalled from the Virginia 
army and placed in command of the Western department 
of North Carolina, with headquarters at Asheville. Under 
his command were, according to Martin s return, March 
loth, the following troops : Col. J. B. Palmer s brigade, 
embracing the Sixty- second, Sixty-fourth and Sixty-ninth 
(?) North Carolina regiments; Macbeth s light artillery; 
Erwin s battalion of Senior reserves; Thomas legion 
(Love s regiment), McKamy s battalion, Indian battalion, 
and Barr s battery a total force of 2,910. It is not clear 
why in this report General Martin seems to count one 
regiment twice. 

These regiments of active, hardy mountaineers were 
mainly employed in repelling the numerous raids through 
the mountains by Federal mixed forces, and in meeting 
detachments from Col. George W. Kirk s notorious regi 
ment of Union North Carolinians. This regiment was a 
constant menace to that section and was restlessly ener 
getic. In July, 1864, it surprised and captured Camp 
Vance, near Morgan ton. Into this camp about 200 Jun 
ior reserves had been assembled to be mustered into the 
Confederate service. Only one company had arms, and 



BEXTONVILLE 



BENTONVILLE 

5T3 Confederate Assault March 19 
,-- -^ Subsequent Position 
MW Federal Line;, 
/ Federal tf&pj 





ft: 

VA^y.. - 




AXTil^ASBORO, N. 

fou|ht March 16^,1865. 




CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 281 

the surprise was so complete that this company could not 
fire a shot. Kirk made off with his captures. At Wind 
ing Stairs a few regular and local troops overtook and 
attacked him, but he made good his escape with his pris 
oners. In this engagement Col. W. W. Avery was mor 
tally, and Col. Calvin Houk, seriously wounded. 

To meet the raiders, and, in many cases, marauders 
of that section, General Martin directed Maj. A. C. 
Avery, of Hood s staff, then at home on account of family 
reasons, to organize a new battalion to operate against 
them. This little battalion, composed of Capt. John 
Carson s company, of McDowell, Capt. N. A. Miller s 
company, of Caldwell, and Capt. W. L. Twitty s company, 
of Rutherford county, rendered most faithful service in 
keeping deserters and marauders out of their counties. 
In March, Colonel Kirk entered Haywood county, but 
Colonel Love, of the Sixty-ninth regiment, met him at 
Balsam Grove and drove him back. On March 5, 1865, 
Colonel Kirk encamped on the headwaters of the Saco 
with part of his command. The next morning Lieuten 
ant-Colonel Stringfield, also of the Sixty-ninth regiment, 
attacked him with some Indian and white companies of 
the Thomas legion. During the time of Stoneman s 
raid into the mountains, all the troops there were more 
or less engaged. Near Morganton a little field piece 
served by Lieut. George West and some soldiers on fur 
lough, and supported by Captain T witty, of Avery s bat 
talion and Maj. T. G. Walton of the militia, bravely held 
in check for some hours one of Stoneman s detachments. 

At Waynesville, on the 8th of May, occurred the last 
engagement on North Carolina soil. There, Col. J. R. 
Love, with a force of about 500 men of the Thomas legion, 
routed a regiment of Union cavalry. 

After the fall of Fort Fisher, the Federal government 
sent General Schofield s corps to New Bern. General 
Terry s corps at Fisher was ordered to capture Wilming 
ton, effect a junction with Schofield, and move up toward 

No 86 



282 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Goldsboro to reinforce Sherman, who was then marching 
for North Carolina. 

The shattered fragment of the Western army had again 
been placed under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, and the sol 
diers gave their old commander an enthusiastic welcome. 
General Hardee, commanding most of the forces in Sher 
man s front from upper South Carolina to Averasboro, 
showed fight whenever circumstances allowed, but his 
force could do little more than harass Sherman s march. 
General Johnston, as soon as he reached his command, 
determined to take the initiative, and if possible deliver 
battle before the Federals could unite. All the force 
under Bragg at Wilmington was ordered to join Hardee, 
and Johnston hoped, with a united army, small but 
entirely pugnacious, to fight his foes in detail. 

With this general plan in mind, it is necessary to notice 
the troops with which he purposed to carry it out. Com 
ing from the South under Generals Hardee, Cheatham 
and S. D. Lee, were the veteran fragments of Cle- 
burne s, Cheatham s, Loring s, Taliaferro s, ). H. Hill s, 
Walthall s and Stevenson s divisions of infantry, and 
Hampton s consolidated cavalry. Hoke s division con 
sisted of four very small but veteran brigades. Major 
Manly s and Major Rhett s artillery battalions accom 
panied Hardee s corps. In addition, the following troops 
were found in North Carolina ; four regiments of Junior 
reserves under Cols. C. W. Broadfoot, J. H. Anderson, 
J. W. Hinsdale and Charles M. Hall all under General 
Baker. At Fort Caswell, the First North Carolina battal 
ion, Col. T. M. Jones; the Third North Carolina battal 
ion, Capt. J. G. Moore, and the Sampson artillery were 
stationed. At Fort Campbell there were three com 
panies of North Carolina troops under Lieut. J. D. Taylor. 
Fort Holmes was garrisoned by eight companies of the 
Fortieth regiment and one company of the Third battalion ; 
that post was commanded by Col. J. J. Hedrick. At 
Smithville, a post of which Maj. James Reilly had been 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 283 

the commander, two companies of the Tenth North Caro 
lina battalion and one light battery constituted the garri 
son. At Magnolia there was a small post under Col. 
George Jackson. Parts of all these garrisons joined 
Johnston s army. 

The union of all these forces would give General John 
ston an effective strength of only about 36,000. A larger 
number than this is reported on the parole list of the sur 
render, but this comes from the fact that many soldiers 
never in Johnston s army were paroled in different parts 
of the State. 

Before he received his concentration orders, General 
Hoke, at Wilmington, had been engaged in some minor 
actions. Moore says: " General Hoke had posted Lieut. 
Alfred M. Darden with 70 of the survivors of the Third 
North Carolina battalion, on the summit of Sugar Loaf. 
This battery and the guns at Fort Anderson, just across 
the river, kept the enemy s gunboats at bay. Brig. -Gen. 
W. W. Kirkland, of Orange, with his brigade, held the 
intrenched camp. He had highly distinguished himself 
as colonel of the Twenty-first North Carolina volunteers. 
At the foot of the hill were posted the Junior and Senior 
reserves, under Col. J. K. Connally. Across the Tele 
graph road, upon their left, was Battery A, Third North 
Carolina battalion, Capt. A. J. Ellis. Next was the 
brigade of General Clingman, and still further the Geor 
gia brigade of General Colquitt. For tedious weeks the 
great guns of the mighty fleet, close in upon the left 
flank, and the sharpshooters in front, made no impres 
sion upon General Hoke and his men." 

General Schofield, however, came to reinforce his lieu 
tenant, and the landing of his forces made necessary the 
evacuation of Forts Caswell, Holmes, Campbell, Fender 
and Anderson. The garrisons from these forts and 
part of Hagood s brigade became engaged at Town 
creek, and for some time gallantly defied all efforts to 
push them aside. By the yth of March, Hoke was near 



284 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Kinston and part of the Southern army was at Smithfield. 
On that date Gen. D. H. Hill was ordered to take his 
own division and Pettus brigade of Stevenson s division 
and move to Hoke s position for battle. Clayton s divi 
sion of Lee s corps and the Junior reserves under Baker 
soon after reported to General Hill. On the 8th, Gener 
als Hoke and Hill engaged the corps of General Cox, 
stated by him to be 13,056. The battle was fought near 
Kinston, and its opening was fortunate for the Confeder 
ates. Upham s brigade was broken and this initial suc 
cess was about to be followed up vigorously, when an 
order from the commanding general diverted a part of 
the force engaged. The Federals retained their works, 
and the Confederates retired to effect the purposed junc 
tion. The Federal loss was 1,257. 

Hardee at Averasboro, on the i5th of March, was called 
upon to make a stand against Sherman until Hoke and 
Hill could get up from Kinston. Bravely Hardee s men 
met the issue and gained the time. 

General Johnston, determined to strike Sherman before 
Schofield s arrival, concentrated his army at the ham 
let of Bentonville. There, on the iQth, he inflicted a 
signal repulse on Sherman. Davis was the first to feel 
the weight of the Confederate battle. Carlin advanced 
two brigades against the Confederate front and recoiled 
in disorder. Buell s brigade was next broken by Bate, 
and then Stewart and Hill continued the success toward 
the center. Brigade after brigade of Davis was crushed, 
and but for a gallant charge by Fearing, the center 
would have been entirely disrupted. Morgan tried in 
vain to break Hoke s front. Toward 5 o clock a gen 
eral advance was ordered by the Confederate front, and 
was also continued until dark. It was successful in front 
of Cogswell and at other points, but did not result in driv 
ing off Sherman. The Junior reserves, of North Carolina, 
"the unripe wheat" of the State, made themselves promi 
nent for gallantry on this field. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 285 

How reduced the Confederate army was by this time is 
shown by a statement in Gen. D. H. Hill s report. He 
commanded that day Lee s corps, and states that his 
whole corps numbered 2,687 men! 

Sherman was unwilling to attack after the repulse at 
Bentonville, but quietly waited for his other corps to join 
him, knowing that Johnston must retreat, as his num 
bers would never again enable him to join a pitched 
battle. General Johnston, after retreating as far as Dur 
ham, realized that further resistance was useless and sur 
rendered his army. 

What Judge Roulhac, of the Forty-ninth regiment, says 
of his comrades applies to all the youth who in 1861 
marched to obey the call of their State: " How splen 
did and great they were in their modest, patient, earnest 
love of country ! How strong they were in their young 
manhood, and pure they were in their faith, and con 
stant they were to their principles ! How they bore suf 
fering and hardship, and how their lives were ready at 
the call of duty ! What magnificent courage, what unsul 
lied patriotism! Suffering they bore, duty they per 
formed, and death they faced and met, all for love of the 
dear old home land ; all this for the glory and honor of 
North Carolina. 

"As they were faithful unto thee, guard thou their 
names and fame, grand old mother of us all. If thy sons 
in the coming times shall learn the lesson of the heroism 
their lives inspired and their deeds declared, then not 
one drop of blood was shed in vain. " 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



287 



MAJOR-GENERALS AND BRIGADIER-GENERALS, PRO- 
VISIONAL ARMY OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES, 
ACCREDITED TO NORTH CAROLINA. 

Brigadier-General George Burgwyn Anderson, the 
oldest son of William E. Anderson and his wife, Eliza 
Burgwyn, was born near Hillsboro, Orange county, N. C. , 
April, 1831. At an early age he entered the State uni 
versity at Chapel Hill, and on graduation divided first 
honors with three others of his class. He was appointed to 
the United States military academy when seventeen years 
old, and was graduated tenth in a class of forty- three in 
1852, with a commission in the Second dragoons. After 
a few months at the cavalry school at Carlisle he was 
detailed to assist in the survey of a railroad route in Cali 
fornia, after that duty rejoining his regiment at Fort 
Chadbourne, Tex. Having been promoted first lieuten 
ant in 1855, he commanded his troop in the march from 
Texas across the plains to Fort Riley, Kan. ; accompanied 
his regiment as adjutant in the Utah expedition of 1858, 
and remained in that territory until 1859, when he was 
ordered on recruiting service at Louisville, Ky. There 
he was married in November following to Mildred 
Ewing, of that city. When the crisis of 1861 arrived he 
promptly resigned, being, it is said, the first North Caro 
linian in the old army to take this step, and offered for 
the defense of his State the sword which he had worn 
with honor, and which descended to him from his uncle, 
Capt. John H. K. Burgwyn, U. S. A., who was killed at 
Puebla de Taos during the Mexican war. Anderson was 
at this time a magnificent specimen of manhood, full six 
feet, erect, broad-shouldered, round-limbed, with a deep, 
musical voice, and a smile wonderfully gentle and win 
ning. Being commissioned colonel of the Fourth regi- 

289 

Nc 37 



290 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

ment by Governor Ellis, he rapidly completed its organ 
ization, and soon after the battle of July 2ist, reached 
Manassas Junction, where he was appointed post com 
mandant and charged with the construction of the defens 
ive works. He remained in command here until March, 
1862, and meanwhile was strongly recommended for 
promotion to brigadier-general by Gens. D. H. Hill and 
J. E. Johnston, but this was for some reason withheld 
until forced by the unsurpassed gallantry of his regiment 
at the battle of Williamsburg. It is sufficient evidence 
of the magnificent training and discipline of his men to 
record that out of 520 rank and file which the regiment 
carried into action, 462 were killed or wounded, and out 
of 27 commissioned officers, all but one were killed or 
wounded. This was not a foredoomed forlorn hope or a 
charge of a "Light Brigade," but surpassed any such 
recorded in history, both in loss and achievement, for 
they went in to win and did win. During this fight Col 
onel Anderson seized the colors of the Twenty-seventh 
Georgia and dashed forward leading the charge, and 
though his men, cheering wildly as they followed, lost 
scores at every step, their courage was irresistible, and 
Anderson planted the colors on the stubbornly-defended 
breastworks. This was witnessed by President Davis, 
who at once promoted Anderson to brigadier-general. 
His brigade included the Second, Fourth, Fourteenth 
and Thirtieth North Carolina regiments. During the 
bloody Seven Days fighting which followed, he was con 
spicuous for skill in detecting the weak points of the 
enemy and boldness and persistence in attack. While 
leading a desperate charge at Malvern Hill he was 
severely wounded. His next serious engagement was at 
South Mountain, Md., where his brigade, with the 
others of D. H. Hill s division, held back half of McClel- 
lan s army till nightfall. Three days later at Sharps- 
burg, on September 17, 1862, he was for the last time dis 
tinguished in battle. During an assault of the enemy, 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 291 

in which a large part of Hill s division fell back through 
a mistake in conveying orders, General Anderson and 
his men nobly held their line, until he was struck by a 
ball in his foot near the ankle, which brought him to the 
ground. It was a most painful injury, and he suffered 
great agony in being carried to Richmond and thence to 
Raleigh, where finally an amputation was made. He 
sank under the operation, and died on the morning of 
October 16, 1862. He was a man of spotless purity of 
life, integrity and honor, as well as dauntless courage. 
His ennobling influence upon the North Carolina soldiery 
can hardly be overestimated. 

Brigadier-General Lawrence S. Baker, distinguished 
as a cavalry officer in the service of the Confederate 
States, was born in Gates county, N. C., in May, 1830. 
His family is an old and honorable one, founded in 
America by Lawrence Baker, who came to Virginia from 
England early in the seventeenth century and became a 
member of the house of burgesses. His descendant, Gen. 
Lawrence Baker, of North Carolina, was a leader in the 
movement for independence, served in the Revolutionary 
war, and was one of the two representatives of North 
Carolina in the Continental Congress. His son, John B. 
Baker, M. D. , father of Gen. L. S. Baker, was a well- 
known physician and prominent citizen of North Caro 
lina, in the legislature of which he sat as a member from 
Gates county. General Baker received his early educa 
tion in his native State and at Norfolk academy, and then 
entered the United States military academy at West 
Point, where he was graduated in the class of 1851. At 
his graduation he was promoted second lieutenant of the 
Third cavalry, and by meritorious and gallant service he 
had passed the grade of first lieutenant, and had been 
promoted captain, when he resigned after his State had 
announced its adherence to the Confederacy, in order that 
he might tender his services for the defense of North 



292 CONFEDERA TE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Carolina. He was commissioned lieutenant-colonel, Con 
federate States cavalry, to date from March 16, 1861, and 
on May 8th was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the Ninth 
North Carolina regiment, afterward known as the First 
North Carolina cavalry. With this command he joined 
the cavalry brigade of Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, in 1861, and 
on March i, 1862, he was promoted colonel of his regi 
ment. During the opening of the Seven Days battles 
which followed, he served upon the right wing of the 
army, and on June 2pth commanded the Confederate 
cavalry in the affair on the Charles City road, which was, 
in fact, a reconnoissance in which the Federal cavalry 
were driven back until reinforced by heavy bodies of 
infantry, when Colonel Baker was compelled to retire. 
After this campaign the cavalry division was organized 
and Colonel Baker and his regiment were assigned to the 
brigade of Gen. Wade Hampton. With the active and 
heroic work of this brigade through the campaigns of 
Manassas and Sharpsburg, Colonel Baker was gallantly 
identified. He fought with his regiment at Frederick 
City, Md. , and in defense of the South Mountain passes ; 
took part in the battle of Sharpsburg, and subse 
quently skirmished with the enemy at Williamsport. 
During the many cavalry affairs that preceded and fol 
lowed the battles of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, 
he rendered valuable service. Particularly at the battle 
of Fleetwood Hill, preceding the movement into Penn 
sylvania, he displayed his soldierly qualities. Here, on 
June 9, 1863, in command of his regiment and supported 
by the Jeff Davis legion, he charged upon the enemy, 
and after what may truly be said to have been in point of 
the number of men who crossed sabers, the most impor 
tant hand-to-hand contest of cavalry in the war, drove the 
Federals from their position. At Upperville he was 
again distinguished, and it was to his regiment that 
Hampton turned in the moment of greatest peril, draw 
ing his saber and crying, "First North Carolina, follow 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 293 

me!" The regiment participated in Stuart s Pennsyl 
vania raid, and reaching the field of Gettysburg on July 
3d, engaged in the desperate hand-to-hand cavalry fight 
on the right of the army. In this bloody action Hamp 
ton was twice wounded, and Colonel Baker was given 
command of the brigade during the subsequent impor 
tant work of protecting the retreat of the army, including 
fighting about Hagerstown and Falling Waters. After 
the army had crossed into Virginia, Colonel Baker was 
assigned the duty of picketing the Potomac from Falling 
Waters to Hedgesville, and had frequent skirmishes with 
the enemy until withdrawn to the line of the Rappahan- 
nock. Here, on July 3ist, the Federal cavalry crossed 
the river in force and advanced toward Brandy Station, 
stubbornly resisted by Hampton s brigade of cavalry 
under command of Colonel Baker, General Stuart also 
being at the front. In his report of this affair, Gen. 
R. E. Lee wrote: "Hampton s brigade behaved with its 
usual gallantry and was very skillfully handled by Col 
onel Baker. Our loss was small, but among our wounded, 
I regret to say, are those brave officers, Colonel Baker, 
commanding the brigade; Colonel Young, of Cobb s 
legion, and Colonel Black, of the First South Carolina 
cavalry." On the same day General Lee recommended 
Colonel Baker for promotion to the rank of brigadier- 
general, which was promptly confirmed, and in the sub 
sequent reorganization of the cavalry he was assigned to 
the command of a brigade composed exclusively of 
North Carolina regiments, the First, Second, Fourth and 
Fifth. But the wound he had received at Brandy Sta 
tion was a serious one the bones of his arm being com 
pletely shattered, and the use of it lost to him, in conse 
quence of which he was unable to continue his service 
with the cavalry. When General Wade Hampton 
became chief of the cavalry in the spring of 1864, he 
desired General Baker to accept division command under 
him with promotion to major-general, but the disability 



294 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

prevented, and he was assigned by the war department 
to the responsible command of the Second military dis 
trict of South Carolina, in which capacity he had the 
duties of a major-general, in charge of the forces 
at Goldsboro, Kinston, Wilmington, Plymouth and 
Weldon, and was particularly intrusted with the pro 
tection of the Weldon railroad. Later he was called to 
confront Sherman s advance in the vicinity of Savannah 
and Augusta, Ga., and then being recalled to North 
Carolina by Bragg, he commanded in the final campaign 
the First brigade of Junior reserves, in Hoke s division 
of Hardee s corps. He surrendered at Raleigh, after the 
capitulation of Johnston, and then, having spent all his 
life, so far, in military employment, was confronted by 
the difficult task of finding a place in civil life in a 
country ravaged by war. He lived at New Bern for 
awhile, and near Norfolk, Va., carried on a trucking busi 
ness, after which he returned to North Carolina, and was 
engaged in insurance until 1877. At the latter date he 
was offered the position of agent of the Seaboard 
Air Line railroad at Suffolk, Va. , a position he has since 
occupied. General Baker is held in warm remembrance 
by Confederates everywhere, particularly in Virginia and 
North Carolina, where his bravery and devotion are most 
intimately known. He maintains a membership in Tom 
Smith camp, United Confederate Veterans, at Suffolk, 
and keeps alive his comradeship with the survivors of 
the great struggle. In 1855 he was married to Elizabeth 
E., daughter of Dr. Alex. Henderson, of North Carolina, 
and they have three children living: Alexander Baker, 
sheriff of Nansemond county, Va. ; Stuart A. Baker, of 
Richmond, and Elizabeth E. Baker. 

Brigadier- General Rufus Barringer was born in Cab- 
arrus county, N. C., December 2, 1821. He was of 
sturdy German stock, a grandson of John Paul Barringer, 
who was born in Wurtemburg, June 4, 1721, and emi- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 295 

grated to this country, arriving at Philadelphia, in the 
ship Phoenix, September 30, 1 743. John Paul or Paulus 
Barringer, as he was called, married Catharine, daughter 
of Caleb Blackwelder and Polly Decker of Germany. Of 
their ten children by this (second) marriage, the eldest, 
Paul Barringer, was prominent in the service of the State 
and was commissioned a brigadier-general during the war 
of 1812. During his infancy his grandfather Black- 
welder, and his father Paulus Barringer, a captain in the 
colonial militia and a conspicuous member of the com 
mittee of safety, were taken prisoners by the tories and 
carried to Cheraw, S. C. Paul Barringer married Eliza 
beth, daughter of Jean Armstrong and Matthew Brandon, 
who was with Joseph Graham and Colonel Locke in the 
repulse of the British near Charlotte, and also served 
with Col. John Brandon at Ramseur s mill. Gen. Rufus 
Barringer, son of the above, was born in 1821, and was 
graduated at North Carolina university in 1842. He 
studied law with his brother Moreau, then with Chief- 
Justice Pearson, settling in Concord. A Whig in politics, 
in 1848 he served in the lower house of the State legisla 
ture, and here was in advance of his time in advocating 
a progressive system of internal improvements. The 
following session he was elected to the State senate. He 
then devoted himself to his practice until he was made in 
1860 a Whig elector in behalf of Bell and Everett. He 
was tenacious of his principles, and not to be swerved 
from duty by any amount of ridicule or opposition ; was 
devotedly attached to the Union and the Constitution, 
and with rare discernment saw that the consequence of 
secession would be war, the fiercest and bloodiest of 
modern times, and he was so outspoken with his convic 
tions that he was once caricatured in the streets of Char 
lotte. However, when he saw that war was inevitable, his 
duty to his State came uppermost, and even before the 
final ordinance of secession was passed he urged the legisla 
ture, then in session, to arm the State and warn the 



296 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

people that they must now prepare for war. He himself 
was among the first to volunteer. He raised in Cabarrus 
county a company of cavalry, of which he was chosen 
captain and which became Company F, First North Caro 
lina cavalry, his commission bearing date May 16, 1861. 
He was promoted to major, August 26, 1863, and three 
months later to lieutenant-colonel. In June, 1864, he 
was commissioned brigadier-general, and succeeded to 
the command of the North Carolina cavalry brigade, con 
sisting of the First, Second, Third and Fifth regiments. 
General Barringer was in seventy-six actions and was 
thrice wounded, most severely at Brandy Station. He 
had two horses killed under him at other engagements. 
He was conspicuous at the battles of Willis Church, 
Brandy Station, Auburn Mills; Buckland Races, where 
he led the charge; Davis Farm, where he was com 
mander; and he was in command of a division at Reams 
Station. His brigade was distinguished at Chamberlain 
Run, March 31, 1865, when it forded a stream one hun 
dred yards wide, saddle-girth deep, under a galling fire, 
and drove back a division of Federal cavalry, this being 
the last decisive Confederate victory on Virginia soil. 
On April 3, 1865, at Namozine church, he was taken 
prisoner by a party of "Jesse scouts" disguised as Con 
federates, Colonel Young and Captain Rowland among 
them, and sent to City Point along with General Ewell. 
President Lincoln, then at City Point, was at Colonel 
Bowers tent and asked that General Barringer be pre 
sented to him, jocosely adding, "You know I have never 
seen a real live rebel general in uniform. The Presi 
dent greeted him warmly, and was pleased to recall 
acquaintanceship with his elder brother, D. M. Barringer, 
with whom he served in Congress. General Barringer 
was then sent on to the old Capitol prison, and afterward 
transferred to Fort Delaware, where he was detained till 
August, 1865. While there, he had the opportunity of 
ascertaining the current of public sentiment in regard to 




Brig. -Gen. JOHN R. COOKE. 
Brig.-Gen. GABRIEL J. RAINS. 
Brig. -Gen. LAWRENCE S BAKER. 
Brig.-Gen. ROBERT D. JOHNSTON. 



Brig.-Gen. W. G. LEWIS. 
Brig.-Gen. GEO. B. ANDERSON. 
Brig.-Gen. W. \V. KIRKLAND. 
Brig.-Gen. RUFUS B^RRINGER. 



Maj.-Gen. BRYAN GRIMES. 
Brig.-Gen. JAS. G. MARTIN. 
Brig.-Gen. THOS. L. CLINGMAN. 
Brig.-Gen. JUNIUS DANIEL. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 297 

the results of the war, and as he had foreseen that war 
would follow secession, he now realized that the con 
querors decreed free suffrage, and believed the wisest 
action of the South would be to accept the consequences. 
With his accustomed directness and fearlessness of 
action, he advocated the acceptance of the reconstruction 
acts of 1867, and urged his fellow citizens to the policy 
he believed best suited to the country. Of course he 
suffered from the violent animosity incident to political 
differences, yet the appreciation of his home people was 
shown by his election in 1875 to the State constitutional 
convention, as a Republican from a Democratic county, 
and though defeated for lieutenant-governor in 1880, his 
own Democratic county gave him a majority of its votes. 
In 1865 General Barringer removed to Charlotte, and 
resumed the practice of law till 1884; at first in partner 
ship with Judge Osborne. After his retirement from the 
bar he devoted himself to his farming interests, striving 
to imbue the farmer with ambition for improvement in 
himself and his circumstances. For this purpose he often 
had recourse to the press, the last week of his life con 
tributing to the papers an article protesting against the 
farmers desertion of their homes for the towns. He had 
abiding faith in the power of the press and in its influ 
ence for good. Among his latest pleasures were talking 
with the old veterans and contributing to the history of the 
war. In 1881 he wrote a series of cavalry sketches 
describing the battles of Five Forks and Chamberlain 
Run, Namozine Church, and other notable engagements, 
which are preserved to-day among the most interesting 
and valuable historical data of the war; and again he 
made valuable contributions to "The War Between the 
States," published by John A. Sloane. He was ever 
interested in history, and zealous of the fame of North 
Carolina. He wrote sketches of "The Dutch Side," a 
history of the "Battle of Ramseur s Mill," "A History 
of the North Carolina Railroad," etc. On November 19, 

Nc 38 



298 CONFEDERA TE MILITARY HISTORY. 

1894, came a plea from Judge Clark for a history of the 
Ninth regiment, State troops (First North Carolina cav 
alry), saying, "You are very busy, and that is one reason 
you are selected. Only busy men have the energy and 
talent to do this work. Your record as a soldier satisfies 
me that you will not decline the post of duty. Already 
confined to bed, he called for books and papers, and with 
the zeal and haste of one impressed with the importance 
of the work and the shortness of time, he put on the fin 
ishing touches not many days before the end. It was a 
labor of love. The purpose of his thought, which never 
seemed to weaken, was the uplifting of his fellow men, 
the prosperity of his beloved church, and care for his old 
comrades. One of his last injunctions to his son was, 
* Remember Company F ; see that not one of them ever 
suffers want. They ever loved me, they were ever 
faithful to me, and Paul, always stand by our Confeder 
ate soldiers, and North Carolina. Let her never be 
traduced." He died February 3, 1895, leaving a wife 
and three sons; the eldest, Dr. Paul Barringer, now 
chairman of the university of Virginia; the youngest, 
Osmond Long Barringer, with his mother in Charlotte. 
His first wife was Eugenia Morrison, sister of Mrs. T. J. 
(Stonewall) Jackson ; the second Rosalie Chunn, of Ashe- 
ville; the surviving one Margaret Long of Orange county. 

Brigadier- General Lawrence O Brian Branch was born 
in Halifax county, N. C., November 28, 1820. Five 
years later his mother died, and his father, who had 
removed to Tennessee, died in 1827. He was then 
brought back to his native State by his guardian, Gov. 
John Branch, and was taken to Washington when the 
governor was appointed secretary of the navy in 1829. 
At the national capital the boy studied under various 
preceptors, one of them being Salmon P. Chase, after 
ward secretary of the treasury. He was graduated with 
first honors at Princeton in 1838, after which he resided 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 299 

eight years in Florida, practicing law and in the early 
part of 1841 participating in the Seminole war. In 1844 
he married the daughter of Gen. W. A. Blount, of Wash 
ington, N. C., and soon afterward made his home at 
Raleigh. In 1852 he was an elector on the Pierce ticket; 
in the same year became president of the Raleigh & Gas- 
ton railroad, and in 1855 was elected to Congress, where 
he served until the war began. Upon the resignation of 
Howell Cobb he was tendered, but declined, the position 
of secretary of the treasury. Returning from Congress 
March 4, 1861, he advocated immediate secession, and in 
April enlisted as a private in the Raleigh rifles. On May 
2oth he accepted the office of State quartermaster-general, 
but resigned it for service in the field, and in Septem 
ber following was elected colonel of the Thirty-third regi 
ment North Carolina troops. On January 17, 1862, he 
was promoted to brigadier-general in the provisional 
army of the Confederate States, his command including 
the Seventh, Eighteenth, Twenty-eighth, Thirty-third 
and Thirty-seventh regiments. At New Bern, March 
14, 1862, he was in his first battle, commanding the 
forces which disputed the advance of Burnside. Retir 
ing to Kinston, he was ordered to Virginia and his bri 
gade was attached to A. P. Hill s famous light division. 
It was the first in the fight at Slash church (Hanover 
Court House), also the first to cross the Chickahominy 
and attack the Federals, beginning the Seven Days 
battles, in which the brigade fought at Mechanicsville, 
Cold Harbor, Frayser s Farm, and Malvern Hill, winning 
imperishable fame, at a cost of five colonels and 1,250 
men killed and wounded, out of a total strength of 3,000. 
General Branch bore himself throughout this bloody 
campaign with undaunted courage and the coolness of a 
veteran commander. Soon followed the battles of Cedar 
Run, Second Manassas, Fairfax Court House and Har 
per s Ferry. Hurrying from the latter victory on the 
morning of September i;th, he reached the field of 



300 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Sharpsburg with his brigade about 2 130 in the afternoon, 
just in time to meet an advance of the enemy which had 
broken the line of Jones division and captured a bat 
tery. "With a yell of defiance," A. P. Hill reported, 
"Archer charged them, retook Mclntosh s guns, and 
drove them back pellmell. Branch and Gregg, with 
their old veterans, sternly held their ground, and pour 
ing in destructive volleys, the tide of the enemy surged 
back, and breaking in confusion, passed out of sight. 
The three brigades of my division actively engaged did 
not number over 2,000 men, and these, with the help of 
my splendid batteries, drove back Burn side s corps of 
1 5, ooo men. " Soon after, as Hill and the three briga 
diers were consulting, some sharpshooter sent a bullet 
into the group, which crashed through the brain of Gen 
eral Branch, and he fell, dying, into the arms of his staff- 
officer, Major Engelhard. In noticing this sad event, 
General Hill wrote: "The Confederacy has to mourn the 
loss of a gallant soldier and accomplished gentleman. 
He was my senior brigadier, and one to whom I could 
have intrusted the command of the division, with all 
confidence." General Branch left one son, W. A. B. 
Branch, who has served in Congress from the First 
district. 

Brigadier-General Thomas Lanier Clingman was born 
at Huntsville, N. C., July 27, 1812, son of Jacob and 
Jane (Poindexter) Clingman. His grandfather, Alexan 
der Clingman, a native of Germany, emigrated to Penn 
sylvania, served in the continental army, was captured 
in General Lincoln s surrender, and after the war made 
his home in Yadkin, now Surry county, becoming allied 
by marriage with the Patillo family. Young Clingman 
was graduated by the university of North Carolina, and 
began the practice of law at Hillsboro, where in 
1835 he was elected to the legislature as a Whig, begin 
ning a career of national prominence in politics. Remov- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 301 

ing to Asheville in 1836, he won considerable fame in a 
public discussion, concerning a proposed railroad, with 
Colonel Memminger, of South Carolina, and was elected 
to the State senate. He speedily assumed leadership in 
the Whig party, and in 1843 was elected to Congress, 
where he served in the lower house until 1858, contin 
uously with the exception of the twenty-ninth Congress. 
In 1858 he was appointed United States senator to suc 
ceed Asa Biggs, and at the end of this term was elected. 
He took part in many famous debates in Congress, and 
attained a position of leadership in national affairs. His 
speech on the causes of the defeat of Henry Clay led to a 
duel with William L. Yancey, of Alabama. On January 
21, 1861, he withdrew from Congress with the other 
Southern members, and in May was selected to bear 
assurances to the Confederate Congress that North Caro 
lina would enter the Confederacy. Volunteering for the 
military service, though nearly fifty years of age, he was 
elected colonel of the Twenty-fifth infantry, and eight 
months later was promoted brigadier-general. His prin 
cipal services were in command at the defense of Golds- 
boro; at Sullivan s island and Battery Wagner during 
the attack on Charleston; the attack on New Bern in 
February, 1864; the defeat of Butler at Drewry s bluff, 
May, 1864; the battle of Cold Harbor, where he was 
wounded ; the repulse of the Federal attack on Peters 
burg, June i yth, and the battle on the Weldon railroad, 
August i pth. In the latter fight he was severely 
wounded, and was unable to rejoin his command until a 
few days before the surrender at Greensboro. After the 
war he was a delegate to the national Democratic con 
vention of 1864. In the department of science he was 
quite as distinguished as in law, statecraft and war. He 
explored the mountains of North Carolina, establishing 
the fact that they contained the loftiest peaks of the 
Appalachian range, one of the chief of which, measured 
by him in 1855, now bears his name; opened the mica 



302 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

mines of Mitchell and Yancey counties ; made known the 
existence of corundum, zircon, rubies and other gems in 
the State ; furnished valuable evidence of the depth of 
the atmosphere by his observations on the August 
meteor of 1860, and affirmed long before the days of 
Edison that sound might in some way be transmitted 
with the speed of electricity. He published several vol 
umes, including his public addresses. In later years 
the unselfish services which had brought him fame left 
him unprovided with the comforts of life, and the close 
of his days was a pathetic illustration of how the world 
may forget. He died at Morgantown, November 3, 1897. 

Brigadier-General John R. Cooke was born at Jefferson 
barracks, Mo., in 1833, the son of Philip St. George 
Cooke, then first lieutenant First dragoons, U. S. A. 
It is an interesting fact that while the son and his 
sister s husband, J. E. B. Stuart, fought for Virginia in 
the war of the Confederacy, the father, a native of Fred 
erick county, Va. , remained in the United States army, 
and attained the rank of major-general, finally being 
retired after fifty years service. Young Cooke was edu 
cated at Harvard college as a civil engineer, but in 1855 
was commissioned second lieutenant, Eighth infantry, 
after which he served in Texas, New Mexico and Ari 
zona. When Virginia seceded he promptly resigned his 
commission, reported to General Holmes at Fredericks- 
burg as first lieutenant, and after the battle of Manassas 
raised a company of light artillery, which did splendid 
service along the Potomac. In February, 1862, he was 
promoted major, and assigned as chief of artillery to the 
department of North Carolina. In April, at the reorgan 
ization, he was elected colonel of the Twenty-seventh 
North Carolina regiment. On being ordered to Virginia 
his regiment was attached to A. P. Hill s division, and 
was first in battle at Seven Pines. After the battle of 
Sharpsburg, in which he won the admiration of the 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 303 

whole army, he was promoted to brigadier-general, 
and put in command of a brigade of North 
Carolinians, the Fifteenth, Twenty-seventh, Forty- 
sixth, Forty-eighth and Fifty-ninth regiments. At 
Fredericksburg he supported General Cobb, holding the 
famous stone wall, and all through the war, until its 
close, he and his brigade were in the thickest of the 
fray. He was wounded seven times, at Sharpsburg, 
Fredericksburg, Bristoe Station, and in the Wilderness 
campaign. No officer bore a more enviable reputation 
than General Cooke for prompt obedience to orders, skill in 
handling his men, splendid dash in the charge, or heroic, 
patient, stubborn courage in the defense. After the close 
of hostilities General Cooke entered mercantile life at 
Richmond, and during his subsequent life was prominent 
in the affairs of the city and State. He served several 
years as a member of the city committee of the Demo 
cratic party, was a director of the chamber of commerce, 
and president of the board of directors of the State peni 
tentiary. During the years of peace and reconciliation, 
the estrangement in his family which had followed his 
espousal of the Southern cause, was fully healed; but 
he remained loyal to his old comrades. He was promi 
nent as a founder and manager of the Soldiers Home at 
Richmond, was one of the first commanders of the Lee 
camp, Confederate veterans, and acted as chief of staff 
at the laying of the cornerstone of the Lee monument, 
and at its unveiling. He married Nannie G. Patton, of 
Fredericksburg, daughter of Dr. William F. Patton, 
surgeon U. S. N., and they had eight children. General 
Cooke s death occurred April 10, 1891. 

Brigadier-General William Ruffin Cox was born March 
u, 1832, at Scotland Neck, Halifax county, N. C. He is 
of English and Scotch- Irish descent, and his ancestors 
were early and prominent colonists in the new world. 
The father of General Cox died when the latter was four 



304 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

years old, and later his mother moved to Nashville, 
Tenn. , where he was educated and graduated in letters 
at the Franklin college, and in law at the famous Leb 
anon law school. He formed a partnership in the legal 
practice with a prominent member of the Nashville bar, 
and was active in his profession until 1857, when he 
removed to North Carolina and engaged in agriculture 
in Edgecomb county. Removing to Raleigh in 1859, he 
was nominated for the legislature on the Democratic 
ticket, and though leading the same, was defeated by 
thirteen votes. Upon the outbreak of the war in 
1 86 1, he contributed liberally to the equipment of the 
" Ellis artillery" company, and was employed in organ 
izing a company of infantry when he was commissioned, 
by Governor Ellis, major of the Second regiment, North 
Carolina State troops, commanded by Col. C. C. Tew. 
Upon the death of the gallant colonel at Sharpsburg, 
Judge W. P. Bynum became colonel and Cox lieutenant- 
colonel, and soon afterward Bynum resigned and Cox 
took command of the regiment, and was promoted to col 
onel in March, 1863. In the battle of Chancellorsville, 
where his brigade suffered great loss, he was three times 
wounded In his official report General Ramseur gave 
unusual and prominent attention to "the manly and chiv 
alrous Cox of the Second North Carolina, the accom 
plished gentleman, splendid soldier and warm friend, 
who, though wounded three times, remained with his 
regiment until exhausted. In common with the entire 
command, I regret his absence from the field, where he 
loves to be." He was able to rejoin his command after 
the return from Pennsylvania and take part in the Wil 
derness and Spottsylvania battles of 1864. He took a 
conspicuous part with Ramseur s brigade in the battle of 
May 1 2th, for which Generals Lee and Ewell gave their 
thanks upon the field. After this battle he, though the 
junior colonel, was promoted to the command of the bri 
gade, composed of the Second, Fourth, Fourteenth and 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 305 

Thirtieth regiments, to which were attached those of the 
First and Third regiments who escaped from the wreck 
of Steuart s brigade of Johnson s division. After the 
battle of Cold Harbor he served with Early s corps in the 
relief of Lynchbttrg, the expedition through Maryland to 
Washington, including the battle of Monocacy, and the 
Shenandoah battles of the fall of 1864. He then 
returned to the heroic army of Northern Virginia in the 
trenches before Petersburg, participated in the gallant 
and desperate effort of Gordon s corps to break the 
enemy s line at Fort Stedman, and during the retreat 
rounded out his reputation for good soldiership. It has 
been related by Governor Vance that on one occasion 
during the retreat to the west, when General Lee was 
endeavoring to form a line from disorganized troops, his 
heart was gladdened by the appearance of a small but 
orderly brigade, marching with precision. He called 
out to an aide: "What troops are those?" " Cox s North 
Carolina brigade, was the reply. Then it was that, tak 
ing off his hat and bowing his head with knightly cour 
tesy, he said, "God bless gallant old North Carolina." 
Cox led the division at the last charge at Appomattox, 
and had ordered his brigade to cover the retreat, when he 
was recalled to the rear. It was the brigade of General 
Cox, marching in the rear, which faced about, and with 
the steadiness of veterans on parade, poured such a sud 
den and deadly volley into the overwhelming numbers 
of the Federals that they temporarily abandoned the 
attempt to capture the command. General Cox was with 
his men to the bitter end. Eleven wounds had not 
sufficed to retire him from the service. Subsequently 
he resumed his law practice, and became president of the 
Chatham railroad. For six years he held the office of 
solicitor of the metropolitan district; was chairman of 
the Democratic State executive committee for five years; 
was delegate for the State-at-large in the national con 
vention of 1876, and in January, 1877, was appointed cir- 

Nc 39 



306 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

cuit judge of the Sixth judicial district. This office he 
resigned to enter Congress, where he served with dis 
tinction for six years. Intending to retire from politics, 
General Cox returned to his estate in Edgecomb and 
resumed the pursuit of agriculture, and was thus 
employed when, without his knowledge, his name was 
agreed upon and he was elected as secretary of the 
United States Senate, to succeed Gen. Anson G. McCook. 
This position he has since filled to the entire satisfaction 
of that great body, also giving much personal attention 
to his agricultural interests. General Cox was married 
in 1857 to a daughter of James S. Battle, and after her 
death in 1880, to a daughter of Rt. Rev. T. B. Lyman, 
bishop of North Carolina. 

Brigadier-General Junius Daniel was born at Halifax, 
N. C., June 27, 1828. He was the youngest son of J. R. 
J. Daniel, attorney-general of North Carolina and repre 
sentative in Congress, and a cousin of Judge Daniel of 
the Superior and Supreme courts of the State. He was 
appointed to the United States military academy by 
President Polk as a cadet-at-large, and was graduated in 
1851 and promoted to second lieutenant in the fall of 
that year. After a year or two of service at Newport 
barracks, Kentucky, he was ordered to New Mexico, 
where he served in garrison at Forts Filmore, Albu 
querque and Stanton, and in skirmishes with the Indians 
until 1857, when he was promoted first lieutenant, Third 
infantry. In 1858 he resigned to take charge of his 
father s plantation in Louisiana. In October, 1860, he 
married Ellen, daughter of John J. Long, of Northamp 
ton county, N. C. When his State had decided to enter 
the Confederacy, Lieutenant Daniel offered his experience 
and soldierly ability, and upon the organization of the 
Fourteenth infantry regiment at Garysburg was elected 
colonel, and commissioned June 3, 1861. His regiment 
was an ideal one in its composition, representing the best 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 307 

families of the State, and he gave it a splendid training 
for the stern warfare which was to follow. He was also 
elected colonel of the Forty-third regiment, but declined, 
and was tendered the colonelship of the Second cavalry, 
which he refused in favor of Col. Sol Williams. After 
rendering valuable service in the organization of North 
Carolina troops, he went into the Seven Days campaign 
before Richmond in command as senior colonel of a bri 
gade composed of the Forty-third, Fiftieth and Forty- 
fifth infantry, and Burroughs battalion of cavalry. He 
behaved gallantly under fire at Malvern Hill and nar 
rowly escaped injury, his horse being killed under him. 
Early in September he was commissioned brigadier-gen 
eral, and the Thirty-second, Forty-third, Forty-fifth, 
Fifty- third regiments and Second battalion were put 
under his command. With this brigade he remained 
near Drewry s bluff until December, 1862, when he was 
ordered to North Carolina to meet the Federal invasion. 
Just before the Pennsylvania campaign he and his men 
were transferred to Rodes division, Ewell s corps, army 
of Northern Virginia, with which they took part in the 
battle of Gettysburg. He was distinguished for cool 
ness and intrepid conduct during the fierce fighting of 
the first day of that historic struggle, in which his bri 
gade suffered the severest loss of any in the corps, but 
displayed wonderful discipline and drove the enemy 
before them. They were again in hard fighting on the 
second day, and lay under fire during the third. His last 
battle was at the t4 bloody angle" on the Spottsylvania 
lines, May 12, 1864, when, cheering his men forward to 
drive Hancock from the position the Federals had gained, 
he fell mortally wounded. On the next day he died, 
after sending a loving message to his wife. He was 
a thorough soldier, calm, resolute and unpretending. 
Before his untimely death he had been recommended by 
General Lee for promotion to major-general. 



308 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Brigadier-General Richard C. Gatlin was a native of 
North Carolina, and was appointed from that State to the 
United States military academy, where he was graduated 
in 1832, in the same class with Generals Ewell, Archer 
and Humphrey Marshall. He received a lieutenancy in 
the Seventh infantry, and served on frontier duty in 
Indian Territory, in the Florida war, 1839-42, and was 
subsequently stationed in Louisiana until 1845, when he 
joined the army of occupation in Texas, and was pro 
moted to captain. He participated in the war with Mex 
ico, being engaged in the defense of Fort Brown in May, 
1 846; was wounded in storming the enemy s works at 
Monterey, and received the brevet of major. In 1847 he 
was tendered the commission of colonel, First North 
Carolina volunteers, but declined it. Subsequently he 
served in Missouri and Louisiana, took part in the Semi- 
nole war of 1849-50, and was on frontier duty in Kansas, 
Indian Territory, Arkansas and Dakota until he marched 
with Johnston to Utah. In 1 860 he shared the march to 
New Mexico; was stationed at Fort Craig, and was 
promoted major of Fifth infantry in February, 1861. 
While on a visit to Fort Smith, Ark., on April 23, 1861, 
he was captured by the forces of the State, and released 
on parole, after which he resigned his commission and 
tendered his services to his native State. He was 
appointed adjutant-general of the State, with the 
rank of major-general of militia, and received the com 
mission of colonel of infantry, in the regular army of 
the Confederate States. Subsequently he was given 
command of the Southern department, coast defense, with 
headquarters at Wilmington, and being promoted briga 
dier-general in August, 1 86 1, was assigned to command 
of the department of North Carolina and the coast 
defenses of the State. Very soon afterward Fort Hat- 
teras was taken by the Federals, and he made energetic 
preparations for the defense of New Bern. He located 
his headquarters at Goldsboro in September, Gen. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 309 

J. R. Anderson having charge under him of coast 
defenses, and organized troops and prepared for 
resisting invasion. Upon his suggestion an additional 
coast district was formed and Gen. D. H. Hill put in 
command. The exigencies of the service in other quar 
ters prevented the sending of reinforcements, which he 
repeatedly called for, and in March, 1862, New Bern 
fell into the hands of the enemy. He was at this time 
suffering from a severe illness, and on this account, on 
March 19, 1862, was relieved from duty. In his final 
report he stated that "we failed to make timely efforts 
to maintain the ascendency on Pamlico sound, and thus 
admitted Burnside s fleet without a contest; we failed 
to put a proper force on Roanoke island, and thus lost 
the key to our interior coast, and we failed to furnish 
General Branch with a reasonable force, and thus lost 
the important town of New Bern. What I claim is that 
these failures do not by right rest with me." Being 
advanced in years, he resigned in September, 1862, but 
subsequently served as adjutant and inspector-general of 
the State. After the close of hostilities he engaged in 
farming in Sebastian county, Ark., until 1881, and then 
made his residence at Fort Smith. He died at Mount 
Nebo, September 8, 1896, at the age of eighty-seven 
years and eight months. 

Major-General Jeremy Francis Gilmer was born in 
Guilford county, N. C., February 23, 1818. He was 
graduated at the United States military academy in 1839, 
number four in the class of which General Halleck was 
third. Receiving a second lieutenancy of engineers, he 
served in the military academy as assistant professor of 
engineering till June, 1840, and then as assistant engineer 
in building Fort Schuyler, New York harbor, until 1844, 
after which he was assistant to the chief engineer at 
Washington, D. C. , until 1846, with promotion to first 
lieutenant in 1845. During the Mexican war he was 



310 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

chief engineer of the army of the West in New Mexico, 
constructing Fort Marcy at Santa Fe. He afterward 
served at Washington, and was superintending engineer 
of the repairs to various forts and the building of Forts 
Jackson and Pulaski, Georgia, and of the improvement of 
the Savannah river. In consideration of his continuous 
service of fourteen years, he was promoted captain, July 
i, 1853. After this, as a member of various commissions 
of engineers, he was continually engaged in fortification 
work, and the improvement of rivers throughout the 
South until 1858. From that time he was in charge of 
the construction of defenses at the entrance of San Fran 
cisco bay until June 29, 1861, when he resigned to join 
the Confederate States army. He was commissioned 
lieu tenant- colonel, corps of engineers, C. S. A., in Sep 
tember, 1 86 1, and was assigned to duty as chief engineer 
of Department No. 2, on the staff of Gen. Albert Sidney 
Johnston. He was present at Fort Henry at its sur 
render, and rode to the front with General Johnston at 
the opening of the battle of Shiloh. Here he was 
severely wounded late on the second day. Subse 
quently he was promoted to brigadier-general, and 
on August 4, 1862, was made chief engineer of the 
department of Northern Virginia. October 4, 1862, he 
became chief of the engineer bureau of the Confederate 
States war department. In 1863 he was promoted 
major-general and assigned to duty as second in com 
mand, in the department of South Carolina, Georgia and 
Florida, in which capacity he rendered valuable services 
in the defense of Charleston, and fortified Atlanta. 
Subsequently he resumed his duties as chief engineer, 
and so continued until the evacuation of Richmond. 
After the war he engaged in railroad and other enter 
prises in Georgia, and from 1867 to 1883 was president 
and engineer of the Savannah gaslight company. He 
died December i, 1883. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 311 

Brigadier-General Archibald C. Godwin, though a 
native of Norfolk county, Va. , was associated throughout 
the war with the troops of North Carolina. Being 
engaged in business in the latter State at the beginning 
of hostilities, he entered the Confederate service there 
and at first received a staff appointment. Afterward he 
was commissioned colonel of the Fifty-seventh infantry, 
with which he served in the vicinity of Richmond, Va. , 
during the Maryland campaign. His first battle was at 
Fredericksburg, where his regiment formed a part of 
E. M. Law s brigade, Hood s division. On December 
1 3th, during the fighting on Hood s right, a considerable 
force of the enemy defiled from the bank of Deep run, 
and advanced upon Latimer s battery, driving in the 
pickets and occupying the railroad cut. The Fifty- 
seventh, supported by the Fifty-fourth, was ordered for 
ward, and the Federals were driven back and pursued 
some distance, after which the two regiments held the 
railroad until dark. General Hood reported that it was 
with much pleasure that he called attention to the gal 
lant bearing of both officers and men of the Fifty-seventh, 
Colonel Godwin commanding, in their charge on a 
superior force of the enemy posted in a strong position. 
In the Gettysburg campaign his regiment was attached 
to Hoke s brigade, Early s division, Ewell s corps. He 
participated in the defeat of Milroy at Winchester, and 
the first day s battle at Gettysburg. Here Col. I. E. 
Avery, commanding the brigade, was mortally wounded, 
and was succeeded by Colonel Godwin, who retained 
command during the retreat. He was in command of 
three regiments of the brigade, the Sixth, Fifty-fourth 
and Fifty-seventh, during the disastrous affair at Rap- 
pahannock Station, November 7, 1863, and was sent 
across the river to occupy a tete-du-pont, in support of 
Hays brigade. They were soon assailed by overwhelm 
ing numbers. Hays gave way, and Godwin soon found 
himself cut off from the bridge and completely sur- 



312 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

rounded. General Early reported that Colonel Godwin 
continued to struggle, forming successive lines as he was 
pushed back, and did not for a moment dream of sur 
render ; but on the contrary, when his men had dwindled 
to sixty or seventy, the rest having been captured, killed 
or wounded, or lost in the darkness, and he was com 
pletely surrounded by the enemy, who were in fact 
mixed up with his men, some one cried out that Colonel 
Godwin s order was for them to surrender, and he imme 
diately called for the man who made the declaration, and 
threatened to blow his brains out if he could find him, 
declaring his purpose to fight to the last moment, and 
calling upon his men to stand by him. He was literally 
overpowered by force of numbers, and taken with his 
arms in his hands. These facts, said Early, were learned 
from Captain Adams, of Godwin s staff, who managed to 
make his escape after being captured, by swimming the 
river almost naked. They were in accordance with the 
character of Colonel Godwin, and General Early asked 
that a special effort be made to secure the exchange of 
the gallant officer. After returning to the army he was 
promoted brigadier-general in August, 1864, and 
assigned to the command of his old brigade, now mus 
tering about 800 men. He participated in the Shenan- 
doah campaign under Early, until he fell, nobly doing 
his duty, in the fatal battle of Winchester, September 19, 
1864. 

Brigadier- General James B. Gordon was born Novem 
ber 2, 1822, at Wilkesboro, Wilkes county, N. C., where his 
ancestors had made their home for four generations 
since the coming of John George Gordon from Scotland 
about the year 1724. In childhood he attended the 
school of Peter S. Ney, in Iredell county, afterward 
studied at Emory and Henry college, Va., and then 
engaged in mercantile business at his native town. He 
was. a leader in local politics and sat in the legislature in 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 313 

1850. At the first organization of troops in 1861 he 
became a lieutenant in the Wilkes county guards, which 
became Company B of the First regiment, State troops, 
with Gordon as captain. Soon afterward he was com 
missioned major of the First cavalry, and went to the 
front in Virginia, where the regiment under command of 
Col. Robert Ransom was assigned to the brigade of Gen. 
J. E. B. Stuart. On November 26, 1861, he gallantly 
led the charge in the first encounter of his regiment 
with the Federal cavalry, which was also the first 
engagement of Stuart s brigade with the same arm of the 
enemy, and was entirely successful. Thereafter he was 
among the foremost in every fight, and was frequently 
commended for bravery in the reports of Stuart. In the 
spring of 1862 he was promoted lieutenant- colonel of his 
regiment, which was assigned to Wade Hampton s bri 
gade. He commanded the detachment which took part 
in Hampton s raid on Dumfries in December, and in the 
spring of 1863 was commissioned colonel. In the fight 
at Hagerstown during the retreat from Gettysburg, a 
charge of the enemy was gallantly met and repulsed by 
Gordon with a fragment of the Fifth cavalry, "that 
officer exhibiting under my eye individual prowess deserv 
ing special commendation," Stuart reported. In Sep 
tember, 1863, he was promoted brigadier-general and 
assigned to command of the North Carolina cavalry bri 
gade, with which he defeated the enemy at Bethsaida 
church October loth, and at Culpeper Court House, 
and took a prominent part in the fight at Auburn, where 
Colonel Ruffin was killed and he was painfully wounded, 
but "continued, by his brave example and marked ability, 
to control the field, and two days after commanded in 
a fight on Bull run. He led the center in the "Buck- 
land races," driving Kilpatrick before him, and during 
the Mine Run campaign took an active part, his horse 
being shot under him at Parker s store. In the memor 
able campaign of May, 1864, Gordon s outposts were the 

Nc 40 



314 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

first to meet the enemy as he crossed the Rapidan, and 
he fought against Grant s army until the battle lines 
were drawn at Spottsylvania, when the cavalry hastened 
to cut off Sheridan s raid upon Richmond. On the nth 
Stuart fell at Yellow Tavern, and Gordon, having 
defeated the enemy at Ground Squirrel church on the 
loth, sustained the attack of Sheridan s corps in force at 
Meadow bridge in sight of Richmond, May i2th. He 
fought with reckless daring, inspiring his men to such 
exertions that they held the enemy in check until rein 
forcements could come up. The capital was saved, but 
the gallant Gordon was borne from the field mortally 
wounded. On May i8th he died in hospital at Richmond, 
deeply lamented by the army. 

Major- General Bryan Grimes was born at Grimesland, 
Pitt county, N. C., November 2, 1828, the youngest son 
of Bryan and Nancy Grimes. He was graduated at the 
university of North Carolina in 1848, then made his 
home upon a plantation in Pitt county, and in April, 
1851, was married to Elizabeth Hilliard, daughter of Dr. 
Thomas Davis, of Franklin county. This lady died a few 
years later, and in 1860 he traveled in Europe, but 
returned home soon after the national election. He hast 
ened to the scene of conflict at Fort Sumter as soon as he 
heard of the bombardment, and then visited Pensacola 
and New Orleans, returning to take a seat in the conven 
tion of his State which adopted the ordinance of secession. 
In the latter part of May he resigned his seat in this body 
and accepted appointment as major of the Fourth 
infantry regiment, in organization at Garysburg under 
Col. George B. Anderson. He reached Virginia after 
the battle of First Manassas; May i, 1862, was promoted 
lieutenant-colonel, and thereafter commanded his regi 
ment with promotion to colonel June ipth. At Seven 
Pines every officer of the regiment but himself, and 462 
out of 520 men, were killed or wounded. His horse s 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 315 

head was blown off by a shell, and the animal fell upon 
him, but he waved his sword and shouted, "Forward!" 
and when released from his painful position, seized the 
regimental flag and led his men in their successful 
charge. At Mechanicsville the remnant of the command 
was again distinguished. At this time General Ander 
son declared, "Colonel Grimes and his regiment are the 
keystone of my brigade. He was disabled by typhoid 
fever until the Maryland campaign, and as he went into 
that his leg was so injured by the kick of a horse that 
amputation was considered^ necessary ; but nevertheless 
he took the field at Sharpsburg, and another horse was 
killed under him, the third of the seven which he thus 
lost during his career. General Anderson was mortally 
wounded in this battle, and in November Grimes was 
assigned to temporary command of the brigade, which 
he led at the battle of Fredericksburg. At Chancellors- 
ville he and his regiment were distinguished on all three 
days of battle, on the third driving the enemy from their 
breastworks at the point of the bayonet, but at the cost 
of many lives. In this fight the gallant colonel again 
narrowly escaped death. In the Pennsylvania cam 
paign he and his men were in the advance of E well s 
corps, and on picket eight miles from Harrisburg ; and at 
Gettysburg on the first day they were the first to enter 
the village and drive the enemy to the heights beyond, 
only pausing in obedience to orders. During the retreat 
from Pennsylvania he served efficiently on the rear 
guard. At Spottsylvania Court House, after General 
Ramseur was wounded, he led the brigade in an impet 
uous charge which recovered much of the ground gained 
by Hancock at the "bloody angle," in recognition of 
which General Lee told the brigade "they deserved the 
thanks of the country they had saved his army. " Gen 
eral Daniel having been mortally wounded in this fight, 
Colonel Grimes was put in command of his brigade. On 
May 1 9th, after he had made an effective fight in a flank 



316 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

movement upon the enemy, General Rodes declared: 
"You have saved E well s corps, and shall be promoted, 
and your commission shall bear date from this day." 
This promise was fulfilled early in June, and soon after 
ward he took his men to the Shenandoah valley, and 
joined in the movement through Maryland to Washington. 
In the fall campaign in the valley, though in impaired 
health, he did his duty gallantly and desperately 
against the overwhelming numbers of the Federals, and 
had many remarkable escapes from death or capture. 
When Ramseur fell at Cedar Creek, he took command of 
the division, which he held until the end, being pro 
moted major-general in February, 1865. In spite of 
their terrible reverses, he infused such spirit in his men 
that they were able to rout 4,000 Federal cavalry at 
Rude s hill, November 226.. In the spring of 1865 he 
fought in the Petersburg trenches, and participated with 
great gallantry in the fight at Fort Stedman, in which 
he rode, a captured horse, and was a conspicuous target to 
the enemy, but still seemed to bear a charmed life. 
When his line was broken April 2d, he rushed down his 
line on foot, and seizing a musket joined in the fire upon 
the enemy, until his troops, encouraged by his coolness, 
were able to recover the greater part of their lines. Dur 
ing the retreat from Petersburg he was almost constantly 
in battle; at Sailor s Creek saved himself by riding his 
horse through the stream and up the precipitous banks 
amid a shower of bullets, and on the next day led his 
division in a splendid charge which captured the guns 
taken from Mahone and many Federal prisoners, winning 
the compliments of General Lee. Bushrod Johnson s 
division was now added to his command, and on April 
9th the other two divisions of the corps, Evans and 
Walker s, were put under his command, he having vol 
unteered to make the attack to clear the road toward 
Lynchburg. He was successful in driving the enemy 
.from his front, but after receiving repeated orders to 








Brig.-Gen. WM. McRAE. Brig.-Gen. L. O B. BRANCH. 

Maj.-Gen. W. I). FENDER. Brig.-Gen. ROBERT B. VANCE. Maj.-Gen. ROBT. F. HOKE. 

Brig.-Gen. WM. P. ROBERTS. Brig.-Gen. A. C. GODWIN. Maj.-Gen. W. H. C. WHITING. 

Maj.-Gen. MATT. W. RANSOM. Brig.-Gen. THOS. F. TOON. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 317 

withdraw fell back to his original line, and was then 
informed of the proposed surrender. At first refusing 
to submit to this, he was about to call upon his men to cut 
their way out, when General Gordon reminded him of 
the interpretation which might be put upon such action 
during a truce, and he was compelled by his sense of 
honor to acquiesce. As an estimate of his character as a 
soldier, the words of Gen. D. H. Hill in March, 1863, are 
exact and comprehensive : "He has been in many pitched 
battles and has behaved most gallantly in them all. His 
gallantry, ripe experience, admirable training, intelli 
gence and moral worth constitute strong claims for pro 
motion." After the close of hostilities he returned to his 
plantation. He had married in 1863, Charlotte Emily, 
daughter of Hon. John B. Bryan, of Raleigh, and sev 
eral children were born to them. His life went on in 
quiet and honor until August 14, 1880, when he was shot 
by an assassin and almost instantly killed. 

Major-General Robert F. Hoke was born at Lincoln- 
ton, N. C., May 27, 1837, and was educated at the Ken 
tucky military institute. He entered the military serv 
ice of the State in April, 1861, as a member of Company 
K, of the First regiment, was immediately commissioned 
second lieutenant, and as captain was commended for 
"coolness, judgment and efficiency" in D. H. Hill s 
report of the battle of Big Bethel. In September he 
became major of this regiment. At the reorganization 
he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the Thirty- 
third regiment, Col. C. M. Avery. He had command of 
five companies at the battle of New Bern, March 14, 
1862, and was distinguished for gallantry. The colonel 
being captured here, he subsequently had command of 
the regiment, and in that capacity participated with 
Branch s brigade in the Virginia battles of Hanover 
Court House, Mechanicsville, Games Mill, Frayser s 
Farm and Malvern Hill. With promotion to colonel he 



318 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

took part in the campaigns of Second Manassas and 
Sharpsburg. On the return of Colonel Avery to his 
regiment, Colonel Hoke was assigned to the command of 
the Twenty-first regiment of Trimble s brigade, Early s 
division. This brigade he commanded in the battle of 
Fredericksburg, and won the unstinted praises of Early 
and Jackson by the prompt and vigorous manner in 
which he drove back Meade s troops after they had 
broken the Confederate right. He pursued the enemy, 
capturing 300 prisoners, until he found himself exposed 
to a flank attack, when he retired in good order, leav 
ing part of his command to hold the railroad cut from 
which the Federals had been ousted. In January follow 
ing he was promoted brigadier-general and assigned to 
the command of Trimble s brigade, including the Sixth, 
Twenty-first, Fifty-fourth, Fifty-seventh North Carolina 
regiments and the First battalion. During the battle of 
Chancellorsville he fought at Fredericksburg, where he 
was wounded May 4th, so seriously as to prevent his par 
ticipation in the Pennsylvania and Rappahannock cam 
paigns. In January, 1864, he reported to General Pickett 
at Petersburg, where his brigade was sent, and for 
warded to North Carolina. In the latter part of the 
month he organized the movement against New Bern 
from Kinston. At the head of one column he successfully 
surprised and captured the enemy s outposts, and 
defeated the troops which were thrown against him, but 
on account of the delay of the other column, was unable 
to reduce the post. On April i ;th, in command of the 
Confederate forces, he attacked the Federal forts at 
Plymouth, and vigorously pushed the assaults, aided by 
the ram Albemarle against the enemy s gunboats, until 
the garrison of 3,000 men was surrendered April 2oth. 
For this brilliant achievement, which was of great value 
in moral effect at this critical period in the war, Congress 
voted him a resolution of thanks, and he was promoted 
major-general, the commission bearing the date of his vie- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 319 

tory. General Lee wrote to President Davis: "I am very 
glad of General Hoke s promotion, though sorry to lose 
him, unless he can be sent to me with a division. Now, 
Petersburg and Richmond being threatened by Butler, 
he was called to that field, and joining Beauregard May 
loth, was put in command of the six brigades sent for 
ward to Drewry s bluff. Upon the further organization 
of the hastily-collected army he had charge of one of the 
three divisions, the front line being composed of his divi 
sion and Ransom s. In the battle of May i6th he 
handled his command with resolution and judgment, one 
of his brigades, Hagood s, capturing five pieces of artil 
lery. At Cold Harbor he held one of the most important 
parts of the Confederate line with his division, repelling 
repeated furious assaults, and again before Petersburg 
fought in the battles of June. From the Petersburg 
trenches he moved in December with his division to Wil 
mington to confront Butler, who was frightened away 
from Fort Fisher by part of his command. After the 
landing of the second expedition under Terry, he 
advanced his two brigades and drove in the enemy s 
pickets, and according to the accounts of the Federal 
officers, might have relieved Fort Fisher had he not been 
ordered back by General Bragg. He subsequently 
opposed the advance of Cox from New Bern. On March 
8th, while wading a swamp, his column was suddenly 
met by a fire from the enemy, when he displayed his 
presence of mind by ordering his officers to "make all 
the men cheer. By his coolness, what might have been 
a disaster to his own division was converted into a defeat 
of the enemy. Moving on Bragg s right flank he vigor 
ously assailed the enemy on the loth, and on the ipth, in 
the battle of Bentonville, his division sustained gallantly 
and hurled back the heaviest attack of the Federals. On 
the 2oth, Sherman s whole army being up, the attacks 
were renewed, mainly on Hoke s division, but were 
repulsed on every occasion. His services and those of 



320 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

his men at this famous battle are among the most illus 
trious examples of Confederate generalship and valor in 
the whole course of the war. As General Hampton has 
said : * * Bragg, by reason of his rank, was in command of 
this division, but it was really Hoke s division, and Hoke 
directed the fighting." On May ist General Hoke 
issued a farewell address to his division, in the course of 
which he said : * * You are paroled prisoners, not slaves. 
The love of liberty which led you into the contest burns 
as brightly in your hearts as ever. Cherish it. Asso 
ciate it with the history of your past. Transmit it to 
your children. Teach them the rights of freemen and 
teach them to maintain them. Teach them the proudest 
day in all your proud career was that on which you 
enlisted as Southern soldiers." Upon the return of 
peace he devoted himself to the development of the 
material resources of the State, becoming the principal 
owner of the Chapel Hill iron mine, and obtaining a 
large interest in the Cranberry iron mine, in Mitchell 
county. 

Brigadier-General Robert D. Johnston, of North Caro 
lina, at the time of the secession of his State, was second 
lieutenant in the Beattie s Ford rifles, State troops. He 
entered the Confederate service as captain of Company K, 
Twenty- third North Carolina infantry, July 15, 1861. 
His regiment was on the peninsula during 1861 and the 
spring of 1862, and participated in the battle of Williams- 
burg. On May 21, 1862, he was promoted to the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel. He was wounded at Seven Pines 
while gallantly leading his men, and at South Mountain 
and Sharpsburg fought with conspicuous bravery in 
Garland s brigade. In describing the fighting on his 
part of the field near the center of the Confederate line 
at Sharpsburg, Gen. D. H. Hill reported the fact that 
the Twenty- third North Carolina was brought off by "the 
gallant Lieutenant-Colonel Johnston" and put in posi- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 321 

tion in the sunken road, and he especially commended 
Johnston among the officers distinguished on that bloody 
field. At Chancellorsville, when Major Rowe, leading 
the Twelfth North Carolina, was killed, Lieutenant-Col 
onel Johnston took command of that regiment. This 
regiment and the Twenty-third were both in Rodes gal 
lant division, which was in the front of Jackson s brilliant 
flank attack. In this battle the North Carolinians under 
Johnston captured a stand of the enemy s colors. After 
Gettysburg Johnston was promoted to the rank of brig 
adier-general, to date September i, 1863, and assigned to 
the command of his brigade, formerly led by Samuel 
Garland and D. K. McRae. It was composed of the 
Fifth, Twelfth, Twentieth and Twenty-third regiments 
and Second battalion of North Carolina infantry. This 
command fought under its gallant leader in the battles of 
the Wilderness and Spot tsyl van ia, at which latter battle 
General Johnston received a severe wound. He was 
again in command during the valley campaign under 
Early, participating in the series of severe battles which 
ended with that of Cedar Creek, a victory in the morn 
ing, a defeat in the afternoon. He was with his men in 
the subsequent weary winter, watching and fighting in 
the trenches around Petersburg, and was included in 
the surrender at Appomattox. After the close of hostil 
ities General Johnston practiced law at Charlotte for 
twenty years from 1867 as a partner of Col. H. C. Jones. 

Brigadier-General W. W. Kirkland, as colonel of the 
Eleventh North Carolina volunteers, known later as the 
Twenty-first regiment, reached the field in Virginia in 
time to participate in the affair at Mitchell s ford on Bull 
run, with Bonham s brigade, on July 18, 1861. On the 
memorable 2ist of July he was field oificer of the day for 
the brigade, and at 2:30 a. m. brought to General Bon- 
ham information of the approach of the enemy toward 
the stone bridge. His regiment manfully sustained a 

Nc 41 



322 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

heavy fire through the day, and at 3 p. m. assisted in the 
pursuit of the enemy. Subsequently he was assigned to 
the brigade of Col. Jubal A. Early, and later to that of 
General Trimble, and with General E well s division par 
ticipated in the Shenandoah valley campaign of 1862. 
Trimble s command opened the attack on Winchester, 
May 25th, and Kirkland and his regiment gallantly 
dashed into the western part of the town, driving in the 
pickets, and was for a time exposed to murderous fire 
from a Federal regiment posted behind a stone wall, in 
which Colonel Kirkland was wounded, and a large num 
ber of officers and privates were killed or disabled. His 
wound kept him from service with his regiment until the 
Gettysburg campaign, when he resumed command, the 
brigade then being under command of Gen. R. F. Hoke, 
and temporarily under Col. I. E. Avery, and participated 
in the desperate fighting of July ist and 2d. In August, 
1863, he was promoted to brigadier-general, and on Sep 
tember yth was assigned to command of General Petti- 
grew s old brigade of Heth s division, A. P. Hill s corps, 
consisting of the Eleventh, Twenty-sixth, Forty-fourth, 
Forty-seventh and Fifty-second North Carolina regi 
ments. With this command he took a gallant part in the 
battle of Bristoe, October i/j.th, where the North Caro 
linians suffered heavily in a hasty attack upon largely 
superior forces of the enemy, and he fell severely 
wounded. His gallantry was commended in the reports 
of Heth and Hill. But he was incapacitated from fur 
ther active duty for nearly a year, General MacRae 
taking his place until August, 1864, when he was 
assigned to the command of the North Carolina brigade 
of Hoke s division, formerly commanded by General Mar 
tin. He served with Longstreet north of the James river, 
before Richmond, participating in the attack on Fort 
Harrison and other engagements. His brigade was one 
of the best disciplined on the line, and was compli 
mented by General Lee for the fine appearance of its 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 323 

camp and defenses. Being transferred to Wilmington 
late in December, he advanced to the relief of Fort 
Fisher, and with two regiments held in check the advance 
of Butler s forces, by his spirited action persuading that 
commander that a large body of Confederates was before 
him. Butler abandoned the attack, but it was renewed 
under Gilmore, when Kirkland again at the front skir 
mished with the enemy near Sugar Loaf, but was with 
drawn by Bragg. During the retreat to Wilmington he 
commanded the rear guard, was engaged at Northeast 
river, and subsequently took a prominent and dashing 
part in the fighting at Wise s Fork against the enemy 
under Gen. J. D. Cox. At Bentonville the steadfastness 
of Kirkland and his brigade contributed materially to the 
failure of Sherman s attempt to break the Confederate 
line. It is related that during the battle, Johnston in 
quired who was responsible for heavy firing then going 
on at the moment, and was told that the enemy was at 
tacking Kirkland s brigade. Turning to Hardee, John 
ston said, * * I am glad of it. I would rather they would 
attack Kirkland than any one else. The military career 
of this gallant officer ended with the surrender at Greens 
boro. 

Brigadier- General James H. Lane was born at Matthews 
Court House, Va., the son of Col. Walter G. and Mary 
A. H. (Barkwell) Lane. He was one of the two "star 
graduates" of his class at the Virginia military institute, 
and afterward pursued a scientific course at the university 
of Virginia. After serving on the hydrographic survey of 
York river, he was appointed assistant professor of math 
ematics and tactics at the Virginia military institute, and 
later professor of those branches at the Florida State 
seminary. At the time of the formation of the Confed 
erate States government he was professor of natural 
philosophy in the North Carolina military institute at 
Charlotte. With the other officers of the college he 



324 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

offered his services to the State He acted as drill- 
master and adjutant in the first camp of instruction near 
Raleigh, where he was elected major of the First North 
Carolina volunteers, Col. D. H. Hill. His first service 
was on the Virginia peninsula, where on July 8th, with a 
detachment composed of the Buncombe riflemen and 
one gun of the Richmond howitzers, he attacked and 
chased a marauding party across New Market bridge in 
full view of Old Point and Hampton, becoming respons 
ible, as Colonel Hill publicly declared at the time, for 
the subsequent affair at Big Bethel. In that encounter 
he served in the salient before which Major Winthrop 
was killed. His regiment here earned the title of the 
4 Bethel" regiment, and he was dubbed the "Little 
Major" and elected lieutenant-colonel when Hill was 
promoted. Not long afterward he was elected colonel of 
the Twenty-eighth North Carolina regiment, which he re 
organized for the war, before the passage of the conscript 
acts. He was then again unanimously elected colonel, 
and at inspection near Kinston his command was compli 
mented by General Holmes for being the first of the 
twelve months regiments to re-enlist for the war. He 
commanded his regiment at Hanover Court House when 
it was cut off by the overwhelming force under Fitz 
John Porter, and was praised by Generals Lee and Branch 
for the gallantry of the fight and the masterly extrica 
tion from disaster. At Cold Harbor he was wounded at 
the same time that the noble Campbell fell in front of his 
regiment, colors in hand, and at Frayser s Farm he received 
an ugly and painful wound in the face while charging a 
battery, but refused to leave the field. At Sharpsburg, 
when the brigade under Branch was hastening to the left, 
Lane and his regiment were detached by A. P. Hill and 
sent into the fight to support a battery and drive back 
the enemy. About dark Lane received an order from 
Branch to join the brigade, and when coming up met 
Major Engelhard, who, in response to an inquiry as to 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 325 

where General Branch could be found, replied in a voice 
choked with emotion: "He has just been shot; there he 
goes on that stretcher, dead, and you are in command of 
the brigade." Two days after, Lane s brigade, with 
Gregg s and Archer s, constituted the rear guard of the 
army in crossing the Potomac. The brigade hailed with 
delight Lane s promotion to brigadier-general, which 
occurred November T, 1862, christened him their "Little 
General," and presented him a fine sash, sword, saddle 
and bridle. He was at this time twenty-seven years old. 
In his last battle under Stonewall Jackson, Chancellors- 
ville, he and his North Carolinians fought with gallantry 
and devotion. At Gettysburg he participated in the first 
shock of battle on July ist, and on the 3d his brigade 
and Scales formed the division which Trimble led up 
Cemetery hill. In this bloody sacrifice half his men 
were killed or wounded, and his horse was killed under 
him. Subsequently he was in command of the light 
division until the i2th, when it was consolidated with 
Heth s. During 1864 he was in battle from the Rapidan 
to Cold Harbor. At Spottsylvania Court House, at the 
critical moment when Hancock, having overrun the 
famous angle and captured Johnson s division, was about 
to advance through this break in the Confederate line, 
Lane s brigade, stationed immediately on the right of 
the angle, rapidly drew back to an unfinished earthwork, 
in which he flung two of his regiments, while the other 
three were posted behind them to load and pass up rifles 
to the front line. Thus a terrible fire was opened upon 
the Federals, which checked their triumph and permitted 
Gordon s and other divisions to arrive in time to hold 
the line. At Cold Harbor General Lane received a pain 
ful wound in the groin which disabled him for some 
time, but he was with his brigade at Appomattox. After 
the surrender he made his way, penniless, to his child 
hood home, and found his parents ruined in fortune and 
crushed in spirit by the loss of two brave sons, members 



326 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

of their brother s staff. He worked here until he could 
borrow $150 to assist him in search of other employ 
ment. Since then he has been prominently associated 
with educational work in the South, serving eight years 
as commandant of cadets and professor of natural phi 
losophy in the Virginia agricultural and mechanical col 
lege ; for a short time as professor of mathematics in the 
school of mines of the Missouri State university, and for 
a long time with the Alabama agricultural and mechan 
ical college, first acting as commandant, as well as pro 
fessor of civil engineering and drawing, the chair he still 
holds. He has received the degrees of Ph. D. , from the 
university of West Virginia, and LL. D., from Trinity 
college, North Carolina. At the first interment of Pres 
ident Davis he was one of the three guards of honor. 
General Lane married Charlotte Randolph Meade, of 
Richmond, who died several years ago, leaving four 
daughters. 

Brigadier- General Collett Leventhorpe was born May 
15, 1815, at Exmouth, Devonshire, England, where his 
parents were then temporarily residing. He was 
descended from an ancient and knightly family of Leven 
thorpe hall, Yorkshire, who settled in Hertfordshire dur 
ing the reign of Richard II, and were created baronets by 
James I. One ancestor was an executor of Henry V, 
and another married Dorothy, sister of Jane Seymour, 
third wife of Henry VIII. General Leventhorpe derived 
his Christian name from his mother, Mary Collett, a 
descendant of a brother of the first lord of Suffield. He 
was educated at Winchester college, and at the age of 
seventeen was commissioned ensign in the Fourteenth 
regiment of foot, by William IV. He was promoted 
captain of grenadiers, served three years in Ireland, 
several years in the West Indies, and a year in Canada. 
In 1842 he disposed of his commission, returned to Eng 
land, and thence came to the United States and settled in 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 327 

North Carolina, where his high character and many 
accomplishments soon made him popular and prominent 
In 1849 he married Louisa, second daughter of Gen. 
Edmund Bryan, of Rutherfordton, N. C., and during 
the following years he became thoroughly identified 
with the interests of his adopted State. When North 
Carolina joined in the Confederate movement he offered 
her his military services, and upon the organization of 
the Thirty-fourth regiment was unanimously chosen its 
first colonel, in November, 1861. He soon brought his 
regiment to such a remarkable state of discipline and 
training, that in the latter part of December he was 
given command of a brigade, including the Thirty-third, 
Thirty-fourth, Thirty- seventh and part of a new regi 
ment, at Raleigh. April 2, 1862, he was elected colonel of 
the Eleventh, formerly First or "Bethel" regiment, and 
at Wilmington was put in charge of a brigade, composed 
of his regiment and the Forty-third and Fifty-first, and 
Moore s horse artillery, to which two more regiments 
were added later. He remained in command of the dis 
trict of Wilmington until September, when General 
Clingman was assigned, but on account of the prevalence 
of yellow fever, Colonel Leventhorpe was left in charge 
until he was ordered with his brigade to the Blackwater, 
where he was on duty some time, defending a line of 
twenty-six miles. His admirable disposition of troops 
and active defensive operations prevented any Federal 
success in that quarter. General Pryor relieved him in 
December, but kept Leventhorpe in command in the 
field. Early in January, 1863, returning into North Car 
olina, he fought the battle of White Hall, and won a bril 
liant victory. At this time his regiment was reported as 
the best drilled in the service, and received many com 
pliments. In all drilling contests the Eleventh North 
Carolina was barred, a tribute to its superiority. He 
participated in the siege of Washington in the spring of 
1863, defeating an attack by the enemy April pth, at 



328 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Blotmt s mill. Then with his regiment he joined the 
army of Northern Virginia, and fought at Gettysburg in 
Pettigrew s brigade of Heth s division. In the fierce 
battle of the first day he was a conspicuous figure and fell 
severely wounded, and thus was prevented from taking 
part in the desperate charge of the 3d of July, in which 
his regiment was among the bravest of the heroes of 
Pettigrew s division. During the retreat he was cap 
tured, and it became necessary to cauterize his wound 
with nitric acid, an operation to which he submitted, 
without recourse to anesthetics. After an imprisonment 
of nearly nine months he was exchanged from Point 
Lookout. He then accepted from General Vance a com 
mission as brigadier-general of State troops, and com 
mand of a large body of Confederate troops. He cleared 
the enemy from the Roanoke river, and defended that 
important line of communication, the Weldon railroad. 
In February, 1865, ne was commissioned brigadier-gen 
eral in the Confederate army, and in this rank he served 
with Johnston s army until the surrender. After the 
close of hostilities he devoted himself to various business 
enterprises, made several journeys to England, resided in 
New York for some time, but finally returned to the 
valley of the Yadkin, where he remained until his death, 
December i, 1889. General Leventhorpe was a notably 
handsome man, nearly six and a half feet in height, erect 
and stately in bearing, and gentle as well as brave. He 
was faithfully devoted to the South, and the rank he 
attained, considering his natural aversion to self-aggran 
dizement, does not adequately measure the value of his 
services. 

Brigadier- General William G. Lewis, of North Caro 
lina, began his service in the Confederate army as third 
lieutenant of Company A, First North Carolina infantry, 
April 21, 1 86 1. By the close of the year he had shown such 
efficiency as an officer that we find him on January 17, 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 329 

1862, major of the Thirty- third North Carolina, and be 
fore the active campaign of 1862 had fairly begun, lieu 
tenant-colonel of the Forty-third North Carolina infantry, 
April 25, 1862. In the Gettysburg campaign this regi 
ment was in the brigade of Gen. Junius Daniel, of Rodes 
division and Ewell s corps. On June 10, 1863, Ewell s 
corps left Brandy Station, and two days later reached 
Cedarville, whence Ewell sent Rodes and Jenkins to 
capture Martinsburg, while he with Early s and Edward 
Johnson s divisions marched directly upon Winchester. 
On June i4th Ewell captured Winchester and Rodes cap 
tured Martinsburg. The valley was thus cleared of Fed 
eral troops, 4,000 of whom were captured. Immense 
supplies were the spoils of the Confederates, who marched 
on and crossed the Potomac. In his report of the battle 
of Gettysburg, Gen. Junius Daniel, after giving an account 
of the part acted by his brigade, makes special mention 
of Lieut. -Col. W. G. Lewis among others, and adds, 
"These officers all acted with bravery and coolness, as did 
all my officers and men whose conduct came under my 
observation, but the above were more conspicuous than 
the rest. " Lewis participated with credit in the siege 
and capture of Plymouth, N. C., in April, 1864, winning 
promotion to colonel, and then, being ordered to Peters 
burg, won the rank of brigadier-general in Beaure- 
gard s campaign against Butler. Here he was in com 
mand of Hoke s old brigade, the Sixth, Twenty-first, 
Fifty-fourth and Fifty-seventh North Carolina regi 
ments and First battalion, which was . assigned to the 
division of Gen. Robert Ransom. The latter, in his 
report of the battle of Drewry s bluff, May i6th, said that 
after they had gained the enemy s outer works, and were 
in confusion in the midst of a dense fog, a sudden assault 
was delivered by the Federals, driving back the left of 
Hoke s division. Though ammunition was almost ex 
hausted, "Colonel Lewis was ordered to throw the only 
regiment he had in hand at double-quick" to the point 

Nc 42 



330 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

of danger, "which was handsomely done, and he engaged 
the enemy long enough to allow Colquitt s brigade, of the 
reserve, to arrive. " In command of his brigade, assigned 
to Ramseur s division, General Lewis participated in 
Early s victorious march down the Shenandoah valley 
and through Maryland to Washington, and in the hard 
battles with Sheridan in the valley, during the remainder 
of 1864, and then returning to Richmond and Petersburg 
was on duty there until the retreat westward. In a des 
perate fight of the rear guard at Farmville, April yth, he 
was severely wounded and taken prisoner. This gallant 
officer participated in thirty-seven battles and heavy 
skirmishes. His life since the war has been one of activity 
and honor. He has served as State engineer thirteen 
years, and at present is chief engineer of the Albany & 
Raleigh railroad, with his residence at Goldsboro. 

Brigadier-General William MacRae was born at Wil 
mington, N. C., September 9, 1834, the son of Gen. 
Alexander MacRae, whose wife was the daughter of 
Zilpah McClammy. His family was descended from the 
clan MacRae, of Rosshire, Scotland, whose valor is 
recorded in the history of many famous wars, from the 
Crusades to Waterloo. He was educated for the profes 
sion of civil engineering, in which he was occupied at 
Monroe when the crisis arrived between the North and 
South. He at once enlisted as a private in the Monroe 
light infantry, and was elected captain when it became 
Company B, Fifteenth infantry. In April, 1862, he was 
promoted lieutenant-colonel ; in February, 1863, colonel, 
and in 1864 was commissioned brigadier-general. In the 
peninsular campaign in Virginia and at Second Manassas 
his regiment was a part of Howell Cobb s brigade, first 
under the division command of Magruder and later of 
McLaws. At Sharpsburg he commanded the brigade, 
reduced to 250 men, repelled three assaults of the enemy, 
and fell back when he had but 50 men left and the am- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 331 

munition was exhausted. At Fredericksburg he fought 
with his regiment at Marye s hill. Immediately after 
this battle the Fifteenth was transferred to J. R. Cooke s 
North Carolina brigade, with which he served in his native 
State and southeast Virginia until after the Pennsylvania 
campaign. Rejoining the army of Northern Virginia, 
he was distinguished for valor at the battle of Bristoe 
Station. After General Kirkland was wounded at Cold 
Harbor, 1864, Colonel MacRae, with the temporary rank 
of brigadier-general, was assigned to the command of that 
brigade, General Pettigrew s old command, and he proved 
a fit leader for the heroes which composed it. He was 
identified with the record of Hill s Third army corps dur 
ing the Richmond campaign, among the bravest of the 
brave. At Reams Station, August 25, 1864, the brigade 
under his command, in line with Lane and Cooke, advanced 
at double-quick without firing a gun, drove Hancock s 
corps from its intrenchments in their front, and captured 
a Federal battery which was fought with valor equal to 
that of its assailants. It may be said that the success of 
this assault was largely due to the keenness of General 
MacRae in selecting the moment to strike without wait 
ing for orders. At Burgess Mill, October 27, 1864, he 
displayed remarkable coolness and gallantry. Having 
advanced against the enemy, broken his line and captured 
a battery, he was left unsupported while the Federals 
closed about him. In this predicament he drew back his 
flanks and kept up a desperate fight, holding the enemy 
at bay until night approached, when he cut his way back 
through the Federal lines partly formed in his rear. He 
was with the army to the end at Appomattox, and then 
returned to his native State, penniless, but enshrined in 
the hearts of his countrymen. He had not gained high 
rank speedily during his service, but his ability, as well 
as his modesty, was recognized by General Lee as well 
as by the people, and it was generally understood that a 
major-general s commission would in a measure have 



332 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

rewarded his services if the war had not come to a sudden 
close. In civil life, during the years of peace which fol 
lowed, he was conspicuous as general superintendent of 
the Wilmington & Manchester railroad, later of the 
Macon & Brunswick, and finally of the State road of 
Georgia, now known as the Western & Atlantic, His 
intense application to the duties of these positions wrecked 
his strength, and he died at Augusta, Ga., February n, 
1882, at the age of forty-seven years. 

Brigadier-General James Green Martin was born at 
Elizabeth City, N. C., February 14, 1819. He was gradu 
ated at the United States military academy in 1840, num 
ber fourteen in the class of which Richard S. Ewell was 
thirteenth, and George H. Thomas twelfth. With promo 
tion to a lieutenancy in the artillery, he served mainly on 
the northern coast, on the Maine frontier, and in the coast 
survey, until he went into the war with Mexico, where 
he participated in the battles of Monterey, Vera Cruz, 
Cerro Gordo, Contreras and Churubusco, in the latter 
losing his right arm. He had previously been promoted 
captain of staff, and was breve tted major. At the out 
break of the war of 1861, he was on staff duty at Fort 
Riley. Resigning June 14, 1861, he offered his services 
to North Carolina, was commissioned captain of cavalry, 
C. S. A. , and appointed adjutant-general of the State, a 
position in which he rendered valuable service in the 
organization and equipment of troops. At his sugges 
tion, blockade-running ships were first employed to bring 
supplies from Europe. On September 28, 1861, he was 
appointed commander-in-chief of the State forces, with 
the rank of major-general of militia. With due appreci 
ation of the gravity of the struggle, he raised 12,000 more 
men than his State s quota, which were found of great 
service when hastily called into the field in Virginia when 
McClellan made his advance from Yorktown. After 
General Martin had completed this work he applied for 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 333 

duty in the field, and in May, 1862, was promoted briga 
dier-general in the provisional army, Confederate States. 
In August, 1862, he was given command of the district 
of North Carolina, with headquarters at Kinston. In the 
fall of 1863 he was directed to organize a brigade from 
the troops at his disposal and take the field. With this 
brigade, composed of the Seventeenth, Forty-second, 
Fiftieth and Sixty-sixth regiments, he went into camp 
near Wilmington and soon had as well-drilled and equip 
ped a command as the Confederate army possessed. 
When Pickett made his demonstration against New Bern 
in February, 1864, Martin successfully attacked and 
drove the Federals from Newport. When the campaign 
of 1864 opened in Virginia he was called to Petersburg, 
and reaching there May i4th, was first in the field under 
Whiting. D. H. Hill was in command of the division 
May 2oth, and Martin and his brigade won distinction by 
their gallant charge, driving the enemy from the works 
in their front. After this battle of Howlett s House, his 
men carried him around on their shoulders, shouting: 
Three cheers for Old One Wing," much to the surprise 
of the gallant officer, whose stern discipline had not been 
calculated to inspire affection. After this Martin was 
the object of the warm admiration of his men. The bri 
gade now was assigned to Hoke s division, and rein 
forced Lee at Turkey ridge, where they gallantly repulsed 
the enemy s assaults on June 3d, and for about ten days 
afterward were engaged in a sharpshooting fight along 
the line. Lee, believing Grant would make another 
attack, informed Martin that he held the key to the Con 
federate position, and asked if his troops, comparatively 
new, could be relied upon. Martin promptly responded 
that his men were as good as veterans, but that he 
thought he should be transferred to the south of the 
James, as he believed Grant would attack Richmond 
from the rear. This opinion was soon verified, and 
Martin s brigade being hastily transferred to Petersburg, 



334 CONFEDERA TE MILITARY HISTORY. 

marched out where there was not a Confederate line be 
tween that city and the enemy. In the famous battles 
of June before Petersburg, Martin and his brigade dis 
played courage, discipline and fortitude unsurpassed by 
any. During the siege which followed, General Martin s 
health gave way under the strain and exposure, and he 
was transferred to the command of the district of Western 
North Carolina, with headquarters at Asheville, his field 
of service at the close of the war. After he had left the 
army of Northern Virginia, General Lee one day highly 
complimented his old brigade for faithful obedience to 
orders, and when reminded by General Kirkland that the 
praise was largely due to his predecessor, replied: 
"General Martin is one to whom North Carolina owes a 
debt she can never repay." The gallant brigade was 
almost continuously under fire, was never driven from 
a position, and never failed in an attack. After the close 
of hostilities General Martin found himself bereft of the 
considerable property he had previously held, and man 
fully took up the study of law, a profession in which he 
met with success, practicing at Asheville during the re 
mainder of his life. He died October 4, 1878. 

Major-General William Dorsey Fender was born in 
Edgecomb county, N. C., February 6, 1834, at the country 
home of his father, James Fender, a descendant of Edwin 
Fender, who settled near Norfolk in the reign of Charles 
II. The mother of General Fender was Sarah Routh, 
daughter of William Routh, of Tidewater, Va. He was 
graduated at the United States military academy in 1854, 
the class of Custis Lee, Stephen D. Lee and J. E. B. 
Stuart. His first commissions were in the artillery, but 
in 1855 ne secured a transfer to the First dragoons, and 
in 1858 was promoted first lieutenant. He had an active 
career in the old army, in New Mexico, California, 
Washington and Oregon, fighting the Apaches at Amalgre 
mountain, Four lakes and Spokane plains. He served 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 335 

as adjutant of his regiment during the latter months of 
1860, and was then ordered on recruiting service at Car 
lisle, Pa. On March 3, 1859, he had married Mary 
Frances, daughter of Hon. Augustine H. Shepperd, of 
Salem, and after reaching Washington they made a visit 
to their native State. Here he observed the situation 
and determined to go with North Carolina, consequently 
resigning his commission and accepting that of captain 
of artillery in the Confederate army. His first service 
was in charge of the recruiting depot at Baltimore, 
whence he returned to North Carolina, and made ready 
for service the First, or Bethel, regiment. On May i6th, 
being post commandant at Garysburg, he was elected 
colonel of the Third infantry. He was with this com 
mand at Suffolk until in August, 1861, when he took com 
mand of Fisher s famous Sixth regiment at Manassas. 
At Seven Pines, while advancing into action, he suddenly 
found himself menaced on the flank and rear by a Federal 
command, but in a flash gave the order, "By the left 
flank, file right, double-quick," his splendidly-drilled 
regiment responding as if on parade, and before the 
enemy could complete his formation assailed with such 
vigor that all danger was past. A brigade joining in the 
attack was repulsed and Colonel Pender reformed its ranks 
with great coolness. President Davis, who witnessed his 
conduct, said to him on the field, "General Pender, I 
salute you," and three days later he was put in command 
of Pettigrew s brigade. His commission as brigadier- 
general was dated from this day, June 3d. At Beaver 
Dam he led two desperate assaults ordered against the 
Federal works, in which his men suffered great slaughter, 
but bore themselves as heroes. He fought next day at 
Cold Harbor, then at Frayser s Farm, and at Cedar Run, 
by a skillful and energetic flank movement, saved the day. 
At Second Manassas he exposed himself almost recklessly, 
fighting like Ney. At Chantilly he led the movement, 
and was again wounded. At Winchester, Harper s Ferry 



336 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

and Sharpsburg he was a heroic figure, and at Fredericks- 
burg, where he was wounded, he and his brigade received 
great praise for coolness and steadiness under heavy fire. 
At Chancellorsville, General Jackson, after receiving his 
fatal wound, recognized in the darkness the gallant Pen- 
der near him, and said, "You must hold your ground, 
General Fender, you must hold your ground, sir." This 
last command of Stonewall Jackson s was obeyed, and 
more, for in General Lee s report of the next day s fight, 
it is recorded that General Fender led his brigade to 
the attack under a destructive fire, bearing the colors of 
a regiment in his own hands up to and over the intrench- 
ments, with the most distinguished gallantry." After 
the wounding of A. P. Hill, Pender took command of 
the " Light division," and was himself wounded in the 
battle. General Lee recommended his permanent as 
signment to this position, as "an excellent officer, atten 
tive, industrious and brave; has been conspicuous in 
every battle, and I believe wounded in almost all of 
them." He was promoted major-general May 27, 1863. 
At this time he was just twenty-nine years of age, and 
very attractive as well as soldierly in appearance. His 
height was about five feet ten, his carriage graceful, 
complexion a clear olive, head faultless in shape, eyes 
large and lustrous. His manner was both dignified and 
modest. So reserved was he that Jackson knew him only 
by his gallantry in battle, the discipline of his troops and 
the orderliness of his camps, after Pender had fought 
under him in half a dozen battles. Pender s first battle 
as a major-general was Gettysburg, and unhappily it was 
his last. On July ist his division drove the enemy from 
Seminary ridge. On the second day, while riding down 
his line to order an assault on Cemetery hill, he was 
struck by a fragment of shell and mortally wounded. 
He lived to be carried to Staunton on the retreat, where 
his leg was amputated July i8th, an operation which he 
survived only a few hours. His body was interred at 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 337 

Tarboro, in Calvary churchyard. His wife and three 
sons survived him, Samuel Turner, William D. and 
Stephen Lee Fender. Gen. G. C. Wharton has related, 
that in a conversation with A. P. Hill and himself, Gen 
eral Lee said: "I ought not to have fought the battle 
at Gettysburg; it was a mistake. But the stakes were 
so great I was compelled to play ; for had we succeeded, 
Harrisburg, Baltimore and Washington were in our 
hands; and we would have succeeded had Fender lived. " 
It is a tradition that Lee regarded him as the officer who 
should take the place of Stonewall Jackson. However 
that may be, General Lee wrote in his official report: 
"The loss of Major-General Fender is severely felt by the 
army and the country. He served with this army from 
the beginning of the war, and took a distinguished part 
in all its engagements. Wounded on several occasions, 
he never left his command in action until he received the 
injury that resulted in his death. His promise and use 
fulness as an officer were only equaled by the purity and 
excellence of his private life." Gen. A. P. Hill wrote: 
"No man fell during this bloody battle of Gettysburg 
more regretted than he, nor around whose youthful 
brow were clustered brighter rays of glory." 

Brigadier-General James Johnston Pettigrew was born 
on the shores of Lake Scuppernong, in Tyrrell county, 
N. C., July 4, 1828, at"Bonarva," the home of his father, 
Ebenezer Pettigrew, representative in Congress. The 
family was founded in America by James, youngest 
son of James Pettigrew, an officer of King William s 
army, rewarded by a grant of land for gallantrv at the 
battle of the Boyne. Charles, son of the founder, was 
chosen the first bishop of North Carolina. Young Petti 
grew was graduated at the State university in 1847, with 
such distinction that President Polk, who attended the 
commencement, accompanied by Commodore Maury, 
offered the young student one of the assistant professor- 

Nc 43 



338 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

ships in the observatory at Washington. He held this 
position until 1848, when he began study for the profes 
sion of law, which he completed under his distinguished 
relative, James L. Pettigrew, of South Carolina. After 
traveling in Europe two years he entered upon the prac 
tice of his profession at Charleston, and in 1856 was 
elected to the South Carolina legislature. In 1859 he 
again visited Europe and sought to enter the Sardinian 
service during the Italian war, but was prevented by the 
early close of that struggle. Returning, he took an active 
part in the military organization of Charleston, and be 
came colonel of the First regiment of rifles of that city. 
During the early operations in Charleston harbor, he was 
in command at Castle Pinckney, and later on Morris island. 
On account of some disagreement about the admission of 
his regiment to the Confederate service, he went to Rich 
mond and enlisted in the Hampton legion, but in May, 
1 86 1, received a commission as colonel of the Twenty- 
second North Carolina infantry. With this regiment he 
was engaged in constructing and guarding batteries at 
Evansport, on the Potomac, until the spring of 1862. He 
was then, without solicitation and over his objections, 
promoted brigadier-general, and assigned to a brigade 
which he led to the peninsula. At the battle of Seven 
Pines, July ist, in which his brigade lost heavily, he was 
severely wounded in the shoulder, and while lying uncon 
scious on the field was captured. He was confined as a 
prisoner two months, during which he asked that his 
rank might be reduced so that he could be more easily 
exchanged. But without this sacrifice he returned to the 
service, and while yet an invalid was assigned to command 
at Petersburg, and a new brigade of North Carolinians was 
formed for him. He operated with much skill and gal 
lantry in North Carolina in the fall of 1862 and spring of 
1863, defended Richmond against Stoneman s raid, and 
then accompanied Lee to Pennsylvania, his brigade form 
ing a part of Heth s division, A. P. Hill s corps. The 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 339 

conduct of his men on the first day of the battle of Gettys 
burg was magnificent, and their loss was terrible. Gen 
eral Heth being wounded, Pettigrew took command of 
the shattered division, and on the third day led it in the 
immortal charge against the Federal position on Ceme 
tery hill. A remnant of his brave men gained the Fed 
eral lines, but were crushed back by sheer weight of lead 
and iron. At Gettysburg his brigade suffered the great 
est loss in killed and wounded of any brigade in the army, 
over i , i oo out of a total of 3, ooo. Though painfully wound 
ed in the hand, Pettigrew kept the field, and was on duty 
during the painful retreat which followed. On the morn 
ing of July 1 4th, Heth s division reached the Potomac at 
Falling Waters, and while Pettigrew was receiving or 
ders from Heth to remain there in command of the rear 
guard, a body of about forty Federal cavalrymen, who 
had been allowed to approach under the error that they 
were Confederates, dashed recklessly into the Confeder 
ate troops, demanding surrender. General Pettigrew s 
horse took fright and threw him to the ground. Rising 
he drew his pistol, and was about to take part in the 
skirmish, when he was shot and mortally wounded. He 
was borne tenderly across the river and to a hospitable 
home at Bunker Hill, Va. , where he yielded his life with 
Christian resignation, July 17, 1863. 

Brigadier-General Gabriel J. Rains was born in Craven 
county, N. C., June, 1803, the son of Gabriel M. Rains, 
and was educated at West Point, with graduation in the 
class of 1827, of which Leonidas Polk was a member. 
He was given a lieutenancy in the Seventh infantry, and 
during his service in the West, mainly in Indian Ter 
ritory, won promotion to captain by the close of 1837. 
Participating in the Florida war against the Seminole 
Indians, he defeated a large body of the savages near 
Fort King, April 28, 1840, but was so severely wounded 
that an announcement of his death was widely published. 



340 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

He received the brevet of major for his gallantry on this 
field. Returning to duty, he served at the Louisiana and 
Florida posts and in the military occupation of Texas. 
At Fort Brown in 1846 he gave the deciding vote in 
the council of officers against capitulation to General 
Ampudia and took an active part in the defense. He 
was at the battle of Resaca de la Palma, and immedi 
ately after was detailed on recruiting service, in which 
he was quite successful. In March, 1851, he was pro 
moted to major, and in the following year was sent by 
sea to California. On the Pacific coast he made a fine 
reputation as an Indian fighter, and in 1860 was promot 
ed to lieutenant-colonel. Upon the organization of the 
Confederate States he resigned from the United States 
service and was commissioned colonel of infantry in the 
regular army. In September he was commissioned briga 
dier-general and assigned by General Magruder to com 
mand of one of the brigades on the Yorktown, Va. , 
lines. Soon afterward he was given charge of the first 
division of Magruder s army, the second being under 
General McLaws. He took a prominent part in the de 
fense of Yorktown, and in command of a brigade of Ala 
bama and Georgia regiments participated in the battles 
of Williamsburg and Seven Pines. In the latter con 
flict he made an opportune flank movement under great 
difficulties through a swamp and attacked the enemy. 
He was subsequently put in charge of the bureau of con 
scription at Richmond, and during his service in this 
capacity he began the organization of a plan of torpedo 
protection for the Southern harbors, which he subse 
quently put in successful operation at Charleston, Mobile, 
Savannah and other ports, also invented an explosive 
sub-terra shell, which was an effective weapon of defense. 
He was appointed chief of the torpedo bureau, June 17, 
1864. At the close of the war he made his home at 
Augusta, Ga., and subsequently removed to South 
Carolina. From 1877 to 1880 he was connected with the 




Maj.-Gen. ROBERT RANSOM, JR. Brig .-Gen. R. C. GATLIN. 

Maj.-Gen. S. D. KAMSEUR. Brip:.-Gen. JAMES H. LANE. Brig.-Gen. C. LEVENTHORPK. 

Brig.-Gen. J. J. PETTIGREVV. Maj.-Gen. JAS. B. GORDON. Maj.-Gen. J. F. GILMER. 

Brig.-Gen. WILLIAM R. Cox. Brig.-Gen. ALFRED M. SCALES. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 341 

quartermaster s department, United States army, at 
Charleston. He died at Aiken, S. C., August 6, 1881. 

Major-General Stephen Dodson Ramseur was born 
May 31, 1837, at Lincolnton, N. C., son of Jacob A. and 
Lucy M. Ramseur. Among his ancestors was John Wil- 
fong, a revolutionary hero, who fought valiantly at 
King s Mountain and Eutaw Springs. He was educated 
at the United States military academy, with graduation 
in 1860, and was promoted to lieutenant in the Fourth 
artillery. His brief service in the United States army 
was rendered at Fortress Monroe and Washington, 
D. C., and was ended by his resignation April 6, 1861, to 
enter the service of the Confederate States government. 
He was offered the command of the Ellis light artillery, 
of Raleigh, was commissioned major of State troops, 
and was ordered to Smithfield, Va. He served at 
Yorktown, during the siege by McClellan, in command 
of artillery. Subsequently he was elected colonel of the 
Forty-ninth regiment of North Carolina infantry, of 
Robert Ransom s brigade, in which rank he won distinc 
tion during the Seven Days battles, and was severely 
wounded in the fatal charge at Malvern Hill. On Octo 
ber 27, 1862, General Lee recommended his promotion to 
brigadier-general as successor to the lamented George 
B. Anderson, of D. H. Hill s division. With this rank 
he was able to take the field after the battle of Freder- 
icksburg. At Chancellorsville he led the advance of the 
division, then under Rodes, and in the fight on Sunday 
was conspicuous for determined valor. -General Lee, 
writing to Governor Vance, June 4th, said of his brigade : 
"I consider its brigade and regimental commanders as 
among the best of a their respective grades in the army, 
and in the battle of Chancellorsville, where the brigade 
was much distinguished and suffered severely, General 
Ramseur was among those whose conduct was especially 
commended to my notice by Lieutenant-General Jack- 



342 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

son, in a message sent to me after he was wounded. 
At Gettysburg he rendered invaluable service at the crit 
ical period on the first day when Iverson was repulsed, 
turned the enemy s flank and gained possession of the 
town. His skill and gallantry were commended by 
Rodes and Ewell. During the terrific fighting of May, 
1864, he, with his brigade of heroes led by Parker, 
Grimes, Bennett and Cox, rendered services which re 
ceived the thanks of Ewell and Lee upon the field. At 
first in reserve, he moved at double-quick on May yth to 
meet the advance of Burnside, who sought to cut off the 
Second corps, and drove back the enemy s line of battle 
half a mile. On the night of the same day by another 
rapid movement he saved Humphreys right flank from 
a similar attack. Immediately after Hancock s success 
ful attack on the morning of May i2th at the "bloody 
angle," he was ordered to drive the enemy out of the 
works. He instructed his men to keep the alignment, 
move forward slowly without firing until the order 
"Charge," and then not to stop till the works were 
cleared. Before he was able to give the word "Charge" 
his horse was shot under him and a ball tore through his 
arm, but Grimes gave the order for him at the right 
time, and the brigade swept everything before it, and 
held the works under a murderous fire, both direct and 
enfilade, during the whole day. General Ewell alluded 
to this movement in his official report as "a charge of 
unsurpassed gallantry." Though painfully wounded, 
Ramseur refused to leave the field, and on the ipth led 
an attack on the enemy s flank. On the 2yth he was 
assigned to the command of the division of General 
Early, with the rank of major-general. After the battle 
of Cold Harbor, his division was the first to reach Lynch- 
burg to relieve the siege, attacked the retreating enemy 
at Liberty, and following him to Harper s Ferry took 
part in the expedition through Maryland, the battle at 
Monocacy, and the demonstration against the United 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 343 

States capital. On the return to the Shenandoah valley 
he suffered a reverse at Winchester in July, though as 
General Rodes testified, "he acted most heroically, and 
as usual exposed himself recklessly. " He patiently sub 
mitted to adverse criticism, and continued to fight with 
devotion. At the September battle of Winchester he 
bore the brunt of Sheridan s attack without wavering, 
withdrew his division in order, and repulsed the enemy s 
pursuit near Kernstown. At the battle of Cedar Creek, 
October ipth, his division had an effective part in the 
initial defeat of the enemy, and after the main army had 
fallen back, Ramseur succeeded in retaining with him 
two or three hundred men of his division, and Major 
Goggin, of Kershaw s staff, about the same number of 
Conner s brigade, and "these men, aided by several 
pieces of artillery, held the enemy s whole force on our 
left in check for one hour and a half, until Ramseur was 
shot down mortally wounded, and their artillery ammu 
nition was exhausted." These words are quoted from 
General Early, who also wrote: "Major-General Ram 
seur fell into the hands of the enemy mortally wounded, 
and in him not only my command, but the country 
suffered a heavy loss. He was a most gallant and ener 
getic officer whom no disaster appalled, but his courage 
and energy seemed to gain new strength in the midst of 
confusion and disorder. He fell at his post fighting like 
a lion at bay, and his native State has reason to be proud 
of his memory." He died on the day following the bat 
tle, with these last words: "Bear this message to my 
precious wife I die a Christian and hope to meet her in 
heaven." He had been married in October, of the pre 
vious year, to Ellen E. Richmond, of Milton, and on the 
day before the fatal battle had been informed of the birth 
of a daughter. 

Brigadier-General Matthew Whittaker Ransom was 
born in Warren county, N. C., in 1826. His father was 



344 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Robert Ransom, who was descended from a colonial 
Virginia family of Gloucester county. His mother was 
Priscilla West Coffield Whittaker, whose lineage is traced 
to Alexander Whittaker, the English clergyman who 
baptized Pocahontas. He was graduated at Chapel Hill, 
the State university, in 1847, and was soon afterward 
admitted to the practice of law. The remarkable ability 
which he at once displayed led to his election five years 
later as attorney-general of the State. This office he 
resigned in 1855 to return to general practice. Three 
years later he was called upon to represent his district 
in the legislature, and was re-elected twice, serving 
until 1 86 1. In the latter year he was sent by North 
Carolina as a peace commissioner to the provisional con 
gress at Montgomery. At the organization of the First 
regiment of infantry, at Warrenton, June 3, 1861, he 
was commissioned lieutenant-colonel. Subsequently he 
was appointed colonel of the Thirty-fifth regiment, of 
Robert Ransom s brigade. With this command he partici 
pated in the Seven Days battles before Richmond, and 
was particularly distinguished in the repulse of a night 
attack June 25th, and in the attack on Malvern hill, 
where his regiment suffered severely and he was twice 
wounded, so that he had to be carried from the field. 
He was again on duty with his regiment in the Maryland 
campaign, and during part of the battle of Sharpsburg 
had temporary command of the brigade, repelling a Fed 
eral assault, and pursuing the enemy and inflicting such 
punishment that no further attack was made in that quar 
ter during the day. After the battle of Fredericksburg 
he served at Wilmington and other points in North Caro 
lina, and being promoted brigadier-general took com 
mand of the brigade formerly led by Robert Ransom. 
He held the Suffolk line during the Gettysburg campaign, 
and in the latter part of July defeated the enemy s ad 
vance toward Weldon. He continued to serve in North 
Carolina during 1863, participated in the capture of Ply- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 345 

mouth, defeated the enemy at Suffolk March 9, 1864, 
and then fought with Beauregard before Petersburg, 
with Longstreet on the north side of the James, and in 
Bushrod Johnson s division on the Crater line. During 
the latter part of 1864 he was in command of this divi 
sion, comprising his own brigade and those of Wise, Gra- 
cie and Wallace. In the famous assault upon the Fed 
eral works on Hare s hill, March 25, 1865, he command 
ed two brigades, whose service was particularly compli 
mented by General Lee. He was again in battle at Five 
Forks, and finally surrendered with Lee at Appomattox. 
After the close of hostilities he resumed the practice of 
law and engaged in planting, until 1872, when he was 
elected to the United States Senate, where he served by 
re-election a continuous period of twenty-four years. As 
a member of this exalted body he rendered efficient serv 
ice to his State, and while retaining the affections of the 
people of whom he was part, gained the respect and 
admiration of the representatives of the whole nation. 
As a forcible and elegant public speaker and a wise coun 
cilor he held a high position during his public career in 
the Democratic party. In the second administration of 
President Cleveland he served as minister to Mexico, 
succeeding ex- Governor Gray, of Indiana. 

Major-General Robert Ransom was born at Bridle 
Creek, Warren county, N. C., February 12, 1828, the 
second son of Robert Ransom, his elder brother being 
the soldier and statesman, Matthew W. Ransom. He 
was graduated at the United States military academy in 
1850, and promoted to a lieutenancy in the dragoons. 
As a cadet and officer he was distinguished for splen 
did horsemanship and the practical qualities of a 
soldier. He was on duty at the Carlisle cavalry school 
until March, 1851, when he led a detachment of troops 
to Fort Leavenworth, Kan., thence accompanying the 
command of Col. E. V. Sumner to New Mexico. Dur- 

No 44 



346 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

ing the succeeding four years he was engaged in scouting 
through that territory, Arizona, Texas, Colorado, and 
Utah, until in the fall of 1854 he was detailed as instruct 
or of cavalry at West Point, under Col. R. E. Lee, super 
intendent. With promotion to first lieutenant he joined 
the new First cavalry in 1855, and served nearly two 
years as adjutant of the regiment; at Fort Leavenworth, 
in the Sioux expedition, and in the quelling of the Kan 
sas disturbances. In 1859 he took part in the march to 
the Arkansas river, and remained on the frontier, with 
promotion to captain January 31, 1861. On May 24th, 
when informed of the secession of his State, he resigned, 
and on July 4th reached his native State. He was com 
missioned captain of cavalry, C. S. A. , and the Ninth of 
the first ten regiments of State troops was organized 
under his direction near Ridgeway. Of this regiment, 
thereafter known as the First North Carolina cavalry, 
he was the first colonel. He started with his regiment 
to Virginia, October 13, 1861, and in November com 
manded at Vienna, in the first encounter of the cavalry of 
the opposing armies. On March 6, 1862, he was pro 
moted brigadier-general for the express purpose of organ 
izing the cavalry of Generals Johnston and Beauregard 
in the West and Southwest, but New Bern having fallen, 
his destination was changed, and he was engaged for a 
time in holding in check the enemy in eastern North 
Carolina. In June, 1862, in command of a brigade of six 
North Carolina regiments, he was temporarily attached 
to Huger s division. His troops, though mainly new to 
battle, were distinguished both at the opening and the 
close of the bloody Seven Days struggle. In the Mary 
land campaign he commanded a brigade composed of the 
Twenty-fourth, Twenty-fifth, Thirty- fifth and Forty-ninth 
regiments, Walker s division, Longstreet s corps; partici 
pated in the reduction of Harper s Ferry, and was distin 
guished at Sharpsburg. In his report of the latter battle 
General Walker wrote: "To Brigadier- General Ran- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 347 

som s coolness, judgment and skill we are in a great 
degree indebted for the successful maintenance of our 
position on the left, which, to have been permanently 
gained by the enemy, would in all probability have 
been to us the loss of the battle." At the battle 
of Fredericksburg he was in command of the divi 
sion, and had immediate charge of the position on 
Marye s and Willis hills, where the severest fighting of 
the battle occurred. He subsequently served with his 
division in North Carolina in defense of the Weldon rail 
road, until May, 1863, when he was promoted major-gen 
eral and given charge of the district including the Appo- 
mattox and Black water. He was in command at Rich 
mond until July of that year, when he was for some time 
disabled by illness. In October, 1863, he took command 
in east Tennessee and drove the Federals as far south as 
Knoxville, and remained in that department in command 
of cavalry under Longstreet and Buckner, until April, 
1864, when he was ordered to Richmond, with the inten 
tion of assigning him to command of the Trans- Missis 
sippi department. But the condition at the Confederate 
capital compelled his retention there, where he met 
Butler s operations at Bermuda Hundred and Sheridan s 
and Kautz s raids with the handful of men at his disposal. 
He commanded Beauregard s left wing at the battle of 
Drewry s Bluff, May i6th, and gallantly stormed the 
enemy s breastworks, playing a prominent part in the 
44 corking up" of Butler s army. In June he took com 
mand of Early s cavalry in the movement against Hunter 
and the expedition through Maryland against Washington. 
In August he was relieved on account of illness, in Sep 
tember served as president of a court of inquiry connected 
with Morgan s operations in Kentucky, in November 
was assigned to command at Charleston, but was soon 
compelled by illness to abandon that post. He surren 
dered to General Howard at Warrenton, May 2, 1865. In 
the trying times following the close of hostilities he 



348 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

found employment as express agent and city marshal at 
Wilmington, subsequently engaged in farming until 1878, 
and then accepted a position as civil engineer in charge 
of river and harbor improvements by the national gov 
ernment, making his home at New Bern. General Ran 
som was married in 1856 to Minnie Huntt, of Washing 
ton, who died in 1881, leaving eight children. In 1884 
he married Katherine DeWitt Lumpkin, of Columbus, 
Ga. 

Brigadier-General William Paul Roberts was born in 
Gates county, N. C., July n, 1841. Before he was twenty 
years old he entered the Confederate service as a non 
commissioned officer in the Nineteenth North Carolina 
regiment, or Second cavalry, Col. S. B. Spuill. He was 
promoted third lieutenant August 30, 1861; first lieu 
tenant September 13, 1862; captain November 19, 1863, 
and though the junior captain, soon attained the rank of 
major. He served with distinction during the operations 
of the regiment in North Carolina, until transferred to 
Virginia in the fall of 1862. He then served on the Rap- 
pahannock line, at Fredericksburg, in the Suffolk cam 
paign, and in the famous battle of Brandy Station, where 
the gallant Col. Sol Williams was killed. After partici 
pating in the fighting of the spring of 1864, in the North 
Carolina brigade of W. H. F. Lee s division, Roberts 
was promoted to colonel of the regiment. At Reams 
Station, August 25th, with his regiment dismounted he 
made a gallant charge upon the enenw s rifle-pits, carry 
ing them handsomely and capturing a number of prison 
ers. February 21, 1865, he was promoted brigadier-gen 
eral, and General Lee s gauntlets were presented him by 
the great chieftain as a mark of personal recognition of 
the young hero s distinguished gallantry. With his 
command, mainly composed of North Carolinians, he 
fought with valor at Five Forks, and during the retreat 
to Appomattox. After the close of hostilities he address- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 349 

ed himself with the same activity and courage to the re- 
establishment of the State and the restoration of its 
prosperity. In 1875 he represented Gates county in the 
convention, and in 1876-77 served in the legislature. In 
1880 and 1884 he was elected auditor of State, an office 
the duties of which he discharged with notable ability 
for a period of eight years. 

Brigadier-General Alfred Moore Scales was born No 
vember 26, 1827, in Rockingham county, son of Dr. Rob 
ert H. Scales. He was educated at the Caldwell institute 
and Chapel Hill, and after teaching for a time, studied 
law with Judge Settle and later with Judge Battle. He 
was elected county solicitor in 1852, and was a member 
of the house of commons in 1852-53. In 1854 he made a 
creditable race as the Democratic candidate for Congress 
in a Whig district. Again being elected to the legislature, 
he served as chairman of the finance committee. In 
1857 he was elected to Congress over his former oppo 
nent, but was defeated for re-election. From 1858 until 
the spring of 1861 he held the office of clerk and master 
of the court of equity of Rockingham county. In 1860 
he was an elector on the Breckinridge ticket, and in 1861 
was a candidate for the convention, favoring the calling 
of the same, though he did not propose immediate seces 
sion. Soon after the call for troops from Washington he 
volunteered as a private in the North Carolina service, 
but was at once elected captain of his company, H of 
the Thirteenth, and succeeded General Fender as colonel 
in the following October. He was engaged in the skir 
mishes at Yorktown, the battle of Williamsburg and the 
Seven Days campaign about Richmond, Fredericksburg 
and Chancellorsville. In the latter engagement he con 
tinued on the field, though shot through the thigh, until 
loss of blood forced him to a halt. It was to his regi 
ment that General Fender said : "I have nothing to say 
to you but to hold you all up as models in duty, courage 



350 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

and daring." In his official report Fender referred to 
Colonel Scales as "a man as gallant as is to be found in 
the service." While at home, recovering from his 
wound, he was promoted to brigadier-general June 13, 
1863, and on his return was assigned to the command 
of Fender s old brigade. In the first day s fight at Get 
tysburg he fought with great gallantry, and fell severely 
wounded by a fragment of shell on Seminary ridge, 
where every field officer of his brigade was killed or 
wounded save one, and his brigade, already sadly reduced 
by its terrible sacrifices at Chancellorsville, lost in all 
nearly 550 men. With General Fender at his side he 
was carried back to Virginia in an ambulance, and being 
left at Winchester, recovered. He took part in the cam 
paigns of the army of Northern Virginia during 1864, in 
command of his brigade, and was faithful to the end, 
though at home on sick furlough at the time of the sur 
render. He subsequently resumed the practice of law, 
a profession in which he gained very high distinction. 
In 1874 he was elected to the Forty-fourth Congress, and 
his career in this capacity met with such general approval 
that he was re-elected to the four succeeding Con 
gresses. He was then in 1884, chosen governor of North 
Carolina by a majority of over twenty thousand 
votes. Upon the expiration of his term as governor he 
retired permanently from political life, repeatedly refus 
ing to be returned to Congress. In 1888 he was elected 
president of the Piedmont bank at Greensboro, and con 
tinued as its president until he died, in February, 1892. 
At the time of his death at Greensboro all business houses 
closed and the city turned out en masse to attend his 
funeral. He was greatly beloved and respected by all 
who knew him, and his home life was particularly pleas 
ant and charming. He was survived by his wife, Kate 
Henderson Scales, and his daughter, Mrs. John N. 
Wynne, who now reside at Danville, Va. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 351 

Brigadier- General Robert B. Vance was born in Bun 
combe county, N. C. , April 28, 1828, and received the 
old-field school education of his day. He was elected 
clerk of the court of pleas and quarter sessions for his 
native county in 1848, and after a term of eight years, 
declined re-election and devoted himself to mercantile 
pursuits until the outbreak of war. He then organized 
a company, the Buncombe Life Guards, of which he was 
elected captain. This company was assigned to the 
Twenty-ninth regiment of infantry, and he was unani 
mously elected as its first colonel. The command left 
Camp Vance, in Buncombe county, October 28, 1861, for 
Raleigh, and in the latter part of November was sent to 
the field in east Tennessee. There the regiment served 
mainly in garrison duty on the railroad until February, 
1862, when it was concentrated at Cumberland gap, in 
the defense of which it took part until the evacuation in 
June. Under the command of General Stevenson, Colonel 
Vance and his regiment took part in the assault and 
defeat of the enemy at Tazewell in August, after which 
Colonel Vance, in command of his own and other regi 
ments, held a position at Baptist gap until the Federals 
retreated, when the army under Kirby Smith advanced 
into Kentucky as far as Frankfort, thence returning 
through Cumberland gap in October, marching about 
500 miles in forty days. At the battle of Murfreesboro, 
December 3ist, after the death of the brigade commander 
Gen. J. E. Rains, who was shot through the heart as the 
brigade charged the enemy, Colonel Vance took com 
mand of the brigade, and as Major-General McCown 
reported, "bore himself gallantly." After Bragg had 
fallen back to Shelbyville, Colonel Vance was taken with 
typhoid fever, and while in this condition his regiment 
was ordered to Jackson, Miss., and he never afterward 
was in command of it. While sick he received his com 
mission as brigadier-general, issued in June, 1863. On 
returning to duty he was assigned to service in western 



352 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

North Carolina, in which region he was captured Jan 
uary 14, 1864, at Cosby creek, which ended his military 
career. He experienced the life of the prison camps at 
Nashville, Louisville, Camp Chase and Fort Delaware. 
While at the latter place he was appointed to act with 
General Beale in buying clothing for Confederate prison 
ers of war, which occupied his attention until he was 
paroled March 14, 1865. Since the return of peace he 
has had a conspicuous career in the Congress of the 
United States, as representative of the Eighth district, 
elected first in 1872, and continuously thereafter tip to 
and including 1882. He declined renomination in 1884, 
but took an active part in the Democratic campaign of 
that year, and in the following spring was appointed 
assistant commissioner of patents by President Cleve 
land. He also attained prominence in the masonic order 
as grand-master for his State, in the Methodist church 
as delegate to general conferences and the ecumenical 
conference in London in 1881, and as a lecturer and 
author. 

Major-General William Henry Chase Whiting was born 
at Biloxi, Miss., March 22, 1824, of Northern parentage. 
His father, Levi Whiting, a native of Massachusetts, was 
for forty years an officer of the United States army, from 
1812 to 1853, and at his death was lieutenant-colonel of 
the First artillery . He was educated at the Boston high 
school, at Georgetown college, D. C., and at the United 
States military institute, being graduated with promo 
tion to second lieutenant of engineers at the head of 
the famous class of 1845. He served as an officer of 
the engineer corps on the gulf coast until 1853, on the 
Pacific coast until 1856, and then in Florida, Georgia and 
North Carolina, being engaged in the improvements of 
Savannah river when he resigned in February, 1861, 
having at that time attained the rank of captain. Offer 
ing his services to Georgia, he was appointed major of 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 353 

engineers, and the same rank was given him in the Con 
federate States army. He was sent to inspect the works 
at Charleston harbor, and under Beauregard rendered 
valuable service, not only as engineer in fortifying Mor 
ris island, but as acting assistant adjutant and inspector 
general in stationing the troops on that island. Soon 
afterward he was appointed inspector-general in charge 
of the defenses of North Carolina, and after the coast 
defenses were safely in the hands of the State, he joined 
Gen. J. E. Johnston at Harper s Ferry as chief of staff. 
He was in charge of the blowing up of the arsenal at 
Harper s Ferry, which Johnston pronounced a masterly 
piece of work, and made the arrangements for moving 
the army to reinforce Beauregard at Manassas Junction. 
His service at the glorious victory of July 2ist was grate 
fully mentioned in the official report of General Johnston, 
and President Davis promoted him on the field to the 
rank of brigadier-general of volunteers. He was assigned 
to the command of the brigade of the lamented General 
Bee, his classmate at West Point, with which and Hood s 
brigade he handsomely dislodged Franklin s Federal divi 
sion during the retreat from Yorktown. At Seven Pines 
he was in command of G. W. Smith s division, and by 
vigorous fighting prevented the junction of Sumner with 
Keyes. It is related by Major Fairly of his staff that 
Whiting suggested to General Lee the stratagem of rein 
forcing Jackson in the valley, to keep back reinforce 
ments for McClellan while Jackson should move rapidly 
and strike the Federal flank, and that Whiting volun 
teered to take his brigade and Hood s and move to Staun- 
ton. Thence he returned at the head of Jackson s corpx 
and in the battle of Gaines Mill skillfully handled the 
two brigades under E. M. Law and Hood, driving the 
enemy from their fortified line, winning the battle. In 
November, 1862, he was assigned to the district of Cape 



354 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Fear, N. C. , where it was his duty, during the remainder 
of the war, to keep open the port of Wilmington, of vital 
importance to the Confederate cause. Aided by Col. Wil 
liam Lamb he provided batteries for defense with consum 
mate skill, and in letter after letter implored troops 
sufficient to repel the attack which must soon be expected. 
He was promoted major- general, tardily, in February, 1863. 
A year later J. E. Johnston wrote him that he made a vain 
effort to have him commissioned lieutenant-general and 
assigned as second in command to himself. "The reason 
for putting aside the recommendation," Johnston said, 
"was an odd one to me. It was that you were too val 
uable in your present place. But it is a remarkable fact 
that while Whiting was esteemed too valuable at Wilming 
ton for promotion, as soon as the port was threatened by 
the vast Federal armada Bragg was given command over 
him, and the gallant officer, without orders, went into the 
fort, and refusing to relieve Lamb of command, assumed 
the duty of counseling him and righting as a volunteer. 
The garrison, who almost worshiped him, easily repulsed 
the first attack of the enemy. Again at the opening of the 
second attack he came to the fort, and said to Lamb: "I 
have come to share your fate, my boy. You are to be 
sacrificed. After two days and nights of a terrific bom 
bardment, by the side of which all previous artillery fight 
ing in the world s history was child s play, Whiting and 
Lamb could still rally a little band which repelled the 
attack of the United States naval troops. Then calling his 
men to meet another column, Whiting joined in a hand- 
to-hand fight with the enemy, and fell with two wounds 
in the act of tearing down a Federal flag. The garrison 
did not surrender, but were forced from the fort and 
finally captured on the shore. General Whiting was car 
ried as a prisoner of war to Governor s island, N. Y., 
where he died March 10, 1865. 



ADDITIONAL 

BIOGRAPHICAL 

SKETCHES 



355 

Nc46 



ADDITIONAL SKETCHES ILLUSTRATING THE SERVICES 
OF OFFICERS AND PRIVATES AND PATRIOTIC CITI 
ZENS OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

John O. Alexander, one of the most prosperous farmers 
of Mecklenburg county, of which he is a native, was born 
February 27, 1832, the son of Almerean and Nancy 
(Ormond) Alexander. When he was four years old his 
father died, and he and his only brother, Samuel D. , 
were called upon early in life to devote themselves 
exclusively to the work of providing for their mother and 
five sisters, a work of love which they heartily performed. 
In 1858 he married Jane E., daughter of William Lee, 
by whom he has now four children living. His first en 
listment in the Confederate service was in the fall of 
1861, as a private in the company of Capt. Jack Harrison, 
which he accompanied to New Bern, participating in the 
fight there as color-bearer. Going thence to High Point 
he re-enlisted in Company I, of the Thirty-seventh regi 
ment, Col. L. O B. Branch, afterward Lane s brigade, 
with which he was subsequently identified in all of its 
campaigns. From the spring of 1862 he served as quar 
termaster-sergeant of the regiment, and during the last 
two years of the war also performed the duties of forage- 
master of Lane s brigade. His service, faithfully and 
intelligently performed, with hardly a day s intermission 
throughout three years, contributed in no slight degree 
to the efficiency and good record of his regiment and bri 
gade. Since then he has given his attention exclusively 
to farming, and is well known throughout his county for 
his success in this industry. He is a member of Mecklen 
burg camp, chairman of the county road commission, 
and in various channels active and enterprising as a citizen. 

Richard B. Alexander, an enterprising and philan 
thropic citizen of Charlotte, was born in that city April 
24, 1840, one of four brothers who served in the war 
of the Confederacy. Their parents were Frank Alex 
ander, a native of Mecklenburg county and a soldier of 
the war of 1812, and Adeline, daughter of John Gilmer, 

356 




R. B. ALEXANDER 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 357 

of the same county. The oldest brother, John D., served 
as a private in the western army tinder Gen. J. E. John 
ston, was wounded near Atlanta in 1864, and is now 
farming in Jasper county, Miss. The other three were 
members of the Bethel or Eleventh regiment, North 
Carolina troops James F., who died in 1895, a lieuten 
ant in Company E ; Charles W. , now a resident of Bir 
mingham, Ala. , a lieutenant of Company A, and later, on 
account of disability, an enrolling officer. Richard B. 
enlisted in March, 1862, in Company A, Eleventh regi 
ment, as a sergeant, and was promoted later to orderly- 
sergeant and finally to second lieutenant. He took part 
in the battles of White Hall, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, 
the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, the rest of the campaign to 
the James, and numerous engagements about Petersburg 
until, with his whole command, he was captured on the 
Petersburg lines, April 2, 1865. He was subsequently 
held as a prisoner of war at Johnson s island until June 
15, 1865. He was wounded seriously at the battle of 
Gettysburg, and in consequence disabled for four months. 
After the return of peace he promptly accepted the situ 
ation, became as earnest a supporter of the Union as he 
had been of the Confederacy, and set about the work of 
providing for his own welfare and that of his fellowmen. 
After farming six years in Cabarrus and Mecklenburg 
counties he made his home at Charlotte and began a suc 
cessful career as a merchant. In 1895, impressed by the 
wants of the homeless and friendless children of the city, 
he built and put in operation the Alexander rescue home, 
and in 1896 founded the Groveton school for poor chil 
dren, which he supports unaided. Both these institutions 
are prospering and doing a wonderful amount of good in 
the community. On September 19, 1861, Mr. Alexander 
was married to Amanda, daughter of Albert Wilson, of 
Mecklenburg, who died in 1865, leaving one child, now 
Mrs. Banna Sarratt. In 1866 he married Jane Wilson, 
sister of his first wife. 

George M. Allen, of Raleigh, is one of three Wake 
county brothers who were members of Manly s battery. 
William B. served as commissary-sergeant of the com 
mand, and Sidney F. as a private, both throughout the 
entire war. George M. was born March 9, 1835, an ^ 
entered the Confederate service as a private in the bat- 



358 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

tery then known as Ramseur s, from the fact that Gen. 
S. D. Ramseur began his illustrious Confederate career 
as its commander, and later as Manly s battery, or Com 
pany A, First regiment light artillery. He served with 
this command on the Virginia peninsula in the spring 
of 1 86 1, being under fire for several weeks on the York- 
town line, then at Williamsburg and Seven Pines, and 
during the Seven Days battles on the York River railroad 
at the right of the Confederate line. He was again in 
battle at Sharpsburg, and fought during the three days 
battle at Gettysburg, where the battery opened the fight 
on the Confederate right ; at Fredericks burg, Chancellors- 
ville, the Wilderness, Spottsylvania ; and during the long 
siege of Petersburg and the retreat to Appomattox was 
in almost constant service. At Appomattox the company 
was disbanded and the men scattered to their homes. 
He returned to Wake county, and after farming for two 
years found employment for several years as section- 
master on the Raleigh & Gaston railroad. In 1872 he 
went into business at Forestville, and in 1875 removed to 
Raleigh, where he is now a respected citizen. After 
two years service in a subordinate capacity he embarked 
in the foundry and machine manufacturing industry, in 
which he has been notably successful. By his marriage 
in 1878 to Mrs. Helen Harris (nee Pair) he has one 
daughter, Helen P. 

John Nathaniel Anderson, of Rural Hall, Forsyth 
county, a veteran of the Thirty-third regiment, North 
Carolina troops, was in Confederate service throughout 
the war, but though in several great battles was so unfor 
tunate as to be a large part of the time an inmate of 
Northern prison camps. He was born September 16, 
1837, in Forsyth county, and in the spring of 1861 
enlisted in Company I of the Thirty-third regiment, of 
which he was elected second lieutenant, and a year later 
promoted to first lieutenant His first battle was under 
General Branch at New Bern, in March, 1862, and being 
captured there he was conveyed to Governor s island, 
N. Y., and thence transferred to Johnson s island, Lake 
Erie. Finally, being exchanged at Vicksburg, Miss. , he 
was able to regain his command in time to participate in 
the battle of Fredericksburg. In his next battle, Chan- 
cellorsville, he was crippled by a wound in the knee, 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 859 

and was sent to Richmond, whence upon recovery he 
started to join his regiment in the Pennsylvania campaign 
and met the army at Hagerstown on the retreat. He 
was in the fight on the Potomac in which General Petti- 
grew was killed, and in the following May fought in the 
Wilderness battles until shot through the thigh. Upon re 
covery he took part in the battles before Petersburg and 
was again captured, and taken to Johnson s island, where 
he was held until after the close of hostilities. Since then 
he has been an influential citizen to his native county, 
serving fourteen years as member of the board of educa 
tion. By his marriage in 1871 to Miss F. J. Kiser he has 
four children living: Marietta, Lelia Roberta, Charles 
Wesley and James Kiser. 

Captain Alexander Boyd Andrews, a gallant Confed 
erate soldier, who in later years has attained great prom 
inence in railroad and industrial affairs, was born near 
Franklinton, N. C., July 23, 1841, the son of William J. 
Andrews, a merchant of Henderson. The mother of the 
latter was a daughter of Col. Jonas Johnston, a revolu 
tionary hero who was wounded at Moore s creek, and 
died from wounds received at the battle of Stono, in June, 
1779. The wife of William J. Andrews was Virginia, 
daughter of Col. John Hawkins, of Franklin county, and 
granddaughter of Alexander Boyd, of Mecklenburg 
county, Va. The subject of this sketch and his brothers 
and sisters, lost both their parents at an early age and were 
reared by Colonel Hawkins. In 1859 he was given the 
position of general superintendent, purchasing agent and 
paymaster, by his kinsman, Gen. Philip B. Hawkins, 
who had a large railroad contract in South Carolina, but 
he forsook these duties to enlist in the spring of 1861 as 
a private in the First North Carolina cavalry regiment, 
commanded by Col. Robert Ransom, afterward major- 
general. He was soon promoted lieutenant and rose 
rapidly to the rank of captain of Company B, during his 
first year s service. He accompanied this splendid regi 
men to Virginia, and fought under Stuart and Hampton 
in many brilliant encounters with the enemy until on 
September 22, 1863, in a bloody fight at Jack s shop, near 
Gordonsville, a Federal bullet tore its way through his 
left lung and injured the spine in its exit from his body. 
The wound was considered mortal, and the adjutant of 



3GO CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

the regiment, writing to the Fayetteville Observer soon 
afterward, apparently paid a tribute to the dead, in these 
words: "While cheering on his men the gallant Captain 
Andrews fell, shot through the lungs. No braver man 
or better man has fallen during the war. He was uni 
versally beloved." Captain Andrews was removed to 
the hospital at Gordonsville where, by indomitable cour 
age, he managed to improve the slight chance of recovery 
which remained to him. But the weary months of suffer 
ing and convalescence which followed did not permit him 
to return to the field. Twice he made the attempt to 
rejoin his comrades during the terrible struggle of 1864, 
but his strength was unequal to the task. Yet, after 
Lee s surrender, he made his way to Johnston s army, 
and was paroled with the veterans of that command in 
April, 1865. He then at once gave his attention to the 
work of material reconstruction and development. He 
established a ferry at Gaston to supply the place of the 
bridge destroyed by war, and in 1867 became superin 
tendent of the Raleigh & Gaston railroad, under Dr. 
W. J. Hawkins, president. Here he had duties of 
construction as well as maintenance, and assisted in the 
building of many miles of the Raleigh & Augusta air 
line. In 1875 ne became superintendent of the North 
Carolina railroad, then leased by the Richmond & Dan 
ville company, and in addition to his duties as superin 
tendent acted as assistant to the president of the Rich 
mond & Danville system, and in 1886 became third vice- 
president of the company. He had an important part in 
the development of this great system, and when the lines 
were acquired by the Southern railroad company in 1894, 
he was elected second vice-president of the new company. 
About a year later he became first vice-president of this 
famous railroad system, one of the greatest in the world. 
Largely through his energy and administrative power 
the Western North Carolina railroad was pushed to com 
pletion after it had practically been abandoned about 1880. 
He became president of this road and united it with the 
system now known as the Southern. He has also served 
as president of several of the minor lines included in the 
system, and in addition to these multifarious duties has 
been active in the promotion of industrial enterprises, 
has served as a director of various financial institutions, 
acted as a vice-president of the World s Columbian 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 361 

exposition, and has not neglected his duties as a citizen 
of Raleigh, where he has served many years as a member 
of the board of aldermen. Throughout the two admin 
istrations of Governor Jarvis he served on the governor s 
staff with the rank of colonel. In September, 1869, Col 
onel Andrews was married to Julia, daughter of Col. 
William Johnston, of Charlotte, and they have five 
children. 

Captain William M. Andrews, of Burlington, entered 
the Confederate service as a private in Company E, Capt. 
Thomas Ruffin, Jr., of the Thirteenth regiment, North 
Carolina troops, of the famous brigade commanded suc 
cessively by Garland, Fender and Scales. The regi 
ment, first known as the Third volunteers, served in all 
the famous campaigns of the army of Northern Virginia, 
and Private Andrews, by his gallant and intelligent per 
formance of duty, won promotion to second lieutenant 
after the battle of Seven Pines, to first lieutenant after the 
Seven Days fight, and was acting captain, in which 
rank he served to the close of the war, frequently being 
in command of two or more companies. He was on duty 
near Suffolk in 1861; in the spring of 1862 took part in 
the defense of Yorktown, and during the remainder 
of 1862 fought at Seven Pines, Mechanicsville, Cold 
Harbor, Mai vern Hill, South Mountain, Sharpsburg and 
Fredericksburg. At Chancellorsville he lost thirty-five 
men of his company in the battle of May 3d, and at Get 
tysburg took a conspicuous part with his regiment in the 
fighting of the first and third days, including the famous 
assault of the North Carolinians on Cemetery hill. On 
the retreat he was in battle at Hagerstown and Falling 
Waters. In 1864 he was a participant in the deadly 
struggles at the Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court House, 
Hanover Court House and Cold Harbor, and fought at 
Fort Harrison and on the Petersburg lines during the 
siege. Five Forks, Farmville and Appomattox, of sad 
but proud memory, were his last encounters with the 
enemy of those days, fellow patriots of to-day. Captain 
Andrews was born in Orange county in 1835, son of 
Green Andrews, a farmer. At the outbreak of war he 
was in railroad service as a baggagemaster, and when he 
returned to his home in 1865 he returned to railroad 
employment, serving as clerk at Raleigh four years, then 



362 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

as agent at Graham three years, and seven years as a 
passenger conductor. After four years in the internal 
revenue service he engaged in business as a contractor 
and builder, in which he has met with notable success. 

James T. Anthony, of Charlotte, N. C., a veteran of 
the Fifteenth Virginia infantry, was born in Hanover 
county, Va., May 12, 1843. His father was James 
Anthony, son of a revolutionary soldier of Virginia and 
of Scotch-Irish descent ; his mother, Louisa Timberlake, 
of a Virginia family of French origin. He left his farm 
home early in 1861, enlisting May i3th in Company D 
of the Fifteenth Virginia regiment, with which he served 
as a private and non-commissioned officer until the close 
of the war. His first battle was Williamsburg, and in 
rapid succession followed the engagements at Savage 
Station, White Oak Swamp, Malvern Hill, Harper s 
Ferry, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, and the Suffolk 
campaign, all under the corps command of Longstreet, 
and at the last in the brigade of General Corse. In the 
fall of 1863 and following winter he took part in the 
East Tennessee campaign, one of the severest of the 
war, in which he fought at Bean s Station and Bull s 
Gap, but suffered most from the inclement weather. 
One of his worst experiences was the forced march from 
Bull s Gap to Bristol, a distance of 90 miles, marching 
barefooted in the snow and wading the ice-cold rivers, 
with the mercury at zero. With Pickett s command he 
took part in the capture of the blockhouses at New 
Bern, and subsequently fought at Drewry s bluff against 
Butler. In this battle his regiment was on the extreme 
right, a very exposed position, and lost half its number 
in killed and wounded. It is related by Gen. A. L. 
Phillips, of Virginia, then an officer of Company D, 
Fifteenth regiment, that two days before this battle the 
company was on the picket line, and Private Anthony 
and two comrades, sheltered behind a pine stump, found 
themselves confronted by three Yankees about 75 yards 
cistant, behind a rail fence. A miniature battle at 
once ensued, and in the first exchange of volleys two on 
each side were put out of action. Anthony was left 
to fight on his side against the surviving enemy, and 
they exchanged twenty-five rounds with the accuracy of 
sharpshooters before Anthony s opponent was disabled. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 363 

Later he fought on the Cold Harbor line against Grant 
and participated in the recapture of the Hewlett house 
fortifications. There, while at a vidette post he was cap 
tured, September 24, 1864, and imprisoned at Point 
Lookout until April 12, 1865. After the close of hostili 
ties Mr. Anthony resided at Richmond until 1877, then 
making his home permanently at Charlotte, where he is 
a prominent merchant. He is conspicuous in industrial 
circles as former president of the Alpha cotton mills and 
president of the Cotton and Spinners association. He is 
a member of Mecklenburg camp, and has been active in 
the organization of State troops. In 1882 he reorgan 
ized the Hornet s Nest Riflemen, of which he was cap 
tain two years, and was then made colonel of the Fourth 
regiment, a rank he held for ten years. Colonel Anthony 
was married in 1868 to Clara V. Flanhardt, of Rich 
mond, and they have eleven children living. 

Lieutenant Thomas Munroe Argo, a prominent attor 
ney of Raleigh, N. C., is a native of McMinnville, Tenn., 
born in 1844. He was educated at Chapel Hill, and 
immediately upon his graduation by the university, in the 
spring of 1863, enlisted in the First North Carolina bat 
talion of heavy artillery, and was commissioned second 
lieutenant by Governor Vance. During his service he 
engaged in several skirmishes on the coast and took part 
in the heroic defense of Fort Fisher. In the famous fight 
with the Federal fleet in January, 1865, he endured all 
the sufferings of the gallant command of Colonel Lamb. 
The blood was forced from his ears and nose by the ter 
rible concussions of the bombardment, and he was struck 
and slightly wounded by a fragment of shell. With the 
survivors of the fight he was captured, and from then 
until the latter part of March, 1865, was a prisoner of war 
at Governor s island, N. Y. Though paroled he was 
was not exchanged before the close of hostilities. He 
then entered upon the study of law at Chapel Hill, under 
William A. Battle, and being admitted to the practice in 
1867, embarked in his professional career at Chapel 
Hill. He took an active part in politics in the recon 
struction period, and being elected to the legislature in 
1868 from Orange county, served one term as a member 
of the judiciary committee. In 1872 he removed to Ral 
eigh, where he has subsequently resided. From 1886 to 



364 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

1891 he ably discharged the duties of solicitor of the met 
ropolitan district, comprising the counties of Wake, 
Wayne, Johnson and Harriett. 

Colonel John Ashford, of the Thirty-eighth regiment, 
North Carolina troops, was born in North Carolina, Sep 
tember 6, 1837. He entered the Confederate service as 
captain of the "Sampson Plowboys," a volunteer com 
pany he had organized in Sampson county, which became 
Company D of the Thirty-eighth regiment, organized at 
Camp Mangum, January 17, 1862, under Col. William J. 
Hoke. The regiment served in North Carolina until 
April, when it was ordered into Virginia and was first in 
line of battle near Fredericksburg. In Fender s brigade 
it participated in the Seven Days battles before Rich 
mond. At Cedar mountain Captain Ashford was in com 
mand of his regiment, and was commended by General 
Fender. On August 2ist he was promoted major. The 
battle of Second Manassas followed, and in his report 
General Fender wrote that "Capt. John Ashford, com 
manding the Thirty-eighth, behaved with great coolness 
and bravery. I had the misfortune to lose him on 
account of a wound in the leg. After the battle of 
Fredericksburg he was promoted lieutenant-colonel, and 
in this rank at Chancellorsville he again won the especial 
commendation of his general and the admiration of his 
men. He was in command of the regiment while Col 
onel Hoke was in charge of the brigade, and in the ter 
rible slaughter of July ist at Gettysburg, in which his 
brigade was reduced to a mere squad, he was among the 
wounded. He was again on duty in the great battles of 
the Wilderness and Spottsylvania, serving as colonel, to 
which rank he was promoted when Colonel Hoke was 
assigned to other duty on account of his wounds, received 
at Gettysburg. He led his gallant regiment to the end, 
participating in the battles at Reams Station and the 
Davis house, the fighting on the Petersburg lines, and 
the battles at Sutherland s farm, April 2d, and Farm- 
ville, April 7, 1865. His later life and his death were thus 
referred to in the message of Gov. A. M. Scales of Jan 
uary, 1889: "Within a few days past, the State has sus 
tained a great loss in the death of a distinguished citizen 
and his two sons, under circumstances of peculiar horror. 
Col. John Ashford, at the call of his State, entered her 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 365 

service, and fought through the late war to Appomattox, 
with a gallantry and daring second to none in that 
struggle. As a citizen he was no less distinguished than 
as a soldier, devoting all the energies of his life to repair 
ing the waste places of the land and restoring the State 
to prosperity and happiness. His death is a calamity to 
the whole State." 

Lieutenant James W. Atkinson, of Fayetteville, was 
born at that city, the son of John W. and Sarah (Gur- 
gains) Atkinson. His father did honor to his native State 
on the battlefields of two wars, serving in the Mexican 
war in the company of Capt. Robert Mitchell, and in the 
Confederate war with the Fifth regiment, State troops, 
from the time of his enlistment in April, 1861, until he 
was killed in 1864 at the battle of Cedar Creek. Lieu 
tenant Atkinson enlisted in 1861 as a private in the com 
pany of Capt. Robert Wooten, which became Company 
G of the Thirty-third regiment, Lane s brigade, A. P. 
Hill s division. In March, 1862, he was promoted ser 
geant, and on May 9, 1864, was appointed color-bearer of 
his regiment. At the close of the service he held the 
rank of first lieutenant. He participated in many impor 
tant battles, beginning with that at New Bern, March 
14, 1862, and including the Seven Days campaign before 
Richmond, Cedar Run, Sharpsburg, Chancellorsville, 
the Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court House, Hanover 
Court House, Cold Harbor and the battles about Peters 
burg. He was slightly wounded at Cold Harbor, 1862, 
was shot through both hands at Sharpsburg on May 3, 
1863, was shot through the hip at Chancellorsville, was 
wounded in the leg at James farm, near Petersburg, 
and again at Reams Station, while carrying the flag of 
his regiment. At Hanover Court House he was captured 
but made his escape the following night. He was sur 
rendered at Appomattox and from there walked to his 
home at Fayetteville. Since 1869 he has been engaged 
in the transportation business and as local manager for 
the Standard oil company. During one term he has served 
as deputy United States marshal. He is esteemed by 
his surviving comrades as a gallant and deserving soldier, 
and by the community generally as a valuable citizen. 
He has seven children living: Mary A., Herbert C., 
John A., Sarah K., Jane Augusta, Mattie and Hollie Lee. 



366 CONFEDERA TE MILITAR Y HIS TOR Y. 

Colonel John Wilder Atkinson of Wilmington, was 
born in Lunenburg county, Va., in 1830, the son of 
Rev. Thomas Atkinson, whose grandfather, a native of 
England, settled upon the plantation known as Mansfield, 
near Petersburg, in colonial times. Thomas Atkinson 
married in 1828, became rector of Grace church, Balti 
more, and in 1853 was chosen bishop of North Carolina, 
an office which he filled with great distinction and use 
fulness until his death, January 4, 1881. Colonel Atkin 
son was reared and educated at Baltimore, and in 1852 
was married to a daughter of Robert A. Mayo, of Rich 
mond, Va. In 1 86 1 he entered the service of the Con 
federate States as captain of a volunteer company which 
was assigned, as Company A, to the Fifteenth Virginia 
infantry. With this regiment he took part in the action 
at Big Bethel in 1861, and at the battle of Seven Pines 
served on the staff of General McLaws, who took occa 
sion to mention his services in official report. He was 
then promoted major and transferred to the Nineteenth 
Virginia regiment of artillery. To this the Tenth Vir 
ginia artillery was added in 1863, and he was promoted 
to colonel of the consolidated command. He took part 
in the Seven Days campaign before Richmond, and sub 
sequently remained on duty in the Richmond defenses, 
where he was toward the last in frequent and arduous 
service combating the Federal raids and defending the 
city against regular siege. He took a prominent part in 
the defeat of the raider Dahlgren, and buried the body of 
that bloodily-disposed warrior. For some time he was 
in command of the defenses about the Confederate cap 
ital. His last battle was at Sailor s creek, where he was 
captured. Thence he was taken to Johnson s island, 
but was soon released without taking the oath, through 
the influence of his kinsman, Gen. Winfield Scott. Since 
1866 Colonel Atkinson has made his home at Wilmington, 
where he is a popular citizen and successful business man. 

Major Alphonso Calhoun Avery, justice of the supreme 
court of North Carolina, was born at Morganton, Sep 
tember ii, 1837. He took first honors at Chapel Hill, 
read law with Chief Justice Pearson, and was subse 
quently engaged in the practice of his profession until 
the spring of 1861, when he entered the military service 
of the State as first lieutenant of the second company 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 367 

organized in Burke county, of which his brother, I. E. 
Avery, was captain. This became Company E, Sixth 
North Carolina regiment, with which he went to the 
front in Virginia, and was complimented for gallantry at 
the second battle of Manassas. In 1862 he was promoted 
captain, and later was commissioned major and assistant 
adjutant-general, in which capacity he was assigned to 
the staff of Maj.-Gen. D. H. Hill, whom he accompanied 
during the Chick amauga campaign, and afterward served 
on the staffs of Breckinridge, Hindman and Hood. 
Later in the course of the war he was given command of 
a battalion in North Carolina, but was captured by 
Stoneman s forces near Salisbury, and was held as a 
prisoner of war until August, 1865. His civil career 
since has been one of the most honorable prominence. 
In 1866 he was elected to the State senate, and two years 
later was returned but not permitted to take his seat, on 
account of the reconstruction provisions. In 1875 ^ e 
represented Burke county in the constitutional conven 
tion, and rendered valuable services; in 1876 was an 
elector on the Democratic presidential ticket, and in 1878 
was elected judge of the superior court for the Eighth 
judicial district. After ten years service in this capacity 
he was elevated to the bench of the supreme court of the 
State, where his talent and learning and ability as a jurist 
have been of great service to the commonwealth. He 
was married in 1861 to Susan W., daughter of Rev. R. H. 
Morrison, granddaughter of Gen. Joseph Graham, and 
sister of the widow of Gen. Stonewall Jackson. She died 
in 1886, leaving children of whom three survive, Isaac 
Erwin, Susan W., and Alphonso C. December 31, 1888, 
Judge Avery was married to Sallie Love, daughter of 
Col. W. H. Thomas, by whom he has a son, Lenoir, and 
two daughters. Judge Avery is a son of Isaac Thomas 
Avery, born in 1785, several times a member of the leg 
islature, and an influential man of his period, whose wife 
was Harriet, daughter of Col. W. W. Erwin. Isaac 
Thomas was the son of Waightstill Avery, born in 1741, 
a descendant of Christopher Avery, who emigrated from 
England to Massachusetts in 1631. He studied law in 
Maryland and came to North Carolina in 1769, served in 
the provincial congresses of 1775 an( ^ J 776, was chosen 
attorney-general in 1777, and made his home at Swan 
Ponds, Burke county, in 1781. Three elder brothers of 



368 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Judge Avery were distinguished in the Confederate serv 
ice. Col. William Waightstill Avery, the eldest, born 
May 25, 1816, was graduated at the university of North 
Carolina, studied law with Judge Gaston, and began a 
political career of considerable prominence as a State 
rights Democrat. He often represented his county in 
the legislature, was chairman of the North Carolina del 
egation in the national conventions of 1856 and 1860, and 
was a member of the provisional congress of the Confed 
erate States. He lost his life in 1864 in the Confederate 
service. An incursion into the State had been made 
from Tennessee by a party led by Colonel Kirk, who had 
been successful in capturing a body of recruits in camp, 
and Colonel Avery, hastily gathering a body of militia, 
started in pursuit. In attacking Kirk s force in a strong 
position in the mountains, he was mortally wounded, and 
died on July 3, 1864. Col. Clark Moulton Avery, next 
in age, born October 3, 1819, was graduated at the State 
university, and was elected to the convention of 1861. 
He went into the military service as captain of the first 
company organized in Burke county in 1861, which was 
assigned to the First regiment of volunteers. He served 
as captain at the battle of Big Bethel, and after the dis- 
bandment of his regiment, was commissioned lieutenant- 
colonel of the Thirty- third regiment. When his colonel, 
L. O B. Branch, was promoted to brigadier-general, 
Avery became colonel in 1862. At New Bern in the 
same year he was captured, with about half his com 
mand, and imprisoned at Johnson s island, Ohio, until the 
following October. Subsequently he commanded his 
regiment, and took part in the battle of Gettysburg with 
great credit, commanding Lane s brigade on the third 
day, and again on the retreat, during which his regiment 
was engaged in severe fighting. After surviving the 
terrible carnage of the Wilderness in May, 1864, he was 
fatally wounded on the i2th near Spottsylvania Court 
House, while rallying his men to the defense of the 
Confederate lines, broken by Hancock at the "bloody 
angle. His left arm and right leg were both shattered. 
He lived through the amputation of the first, but died 
upon the removal of the second, June 19, 1864. By his 
marriage to Elizabeth Tilghman Walton he left four 
children. The third brother was Col. Isaac Erwin 
Avery, of the Sixth regiment, who fell at Gettysburg. 
His career is noted in another connection. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 369 

Henry T. Bahnson, of Salem, N. C., was born March 
4, 1845. He is the son of Rt. Rev. G. F. Bahnson, 
bishop of Southern province of Moravian church, and was 
educated at Nazareth hall and college, Bethlehem, Pa. 
In December, 1862, he volunteered as a private in Com 
pany G, Second North Carolina battalion of infantry. 
With this command he participated in the battle of Get 
tysburg, where he was captured. He was imprisoned in 
Baltimore city jail and at Point Lookout, Md., until Jan 
uary, 1864, when he was exchanged. He was in all the 
battles in which his battalion was engaged, from the Rap- 
idan to the James. In November, 1864, he was trans 
ferred to Company B, First North Carolina battalion of 
sharpshooters, and served in that command to the sur 
render at Appomattox. During the last fighting he was 
appointed captain of the sharpshooters of General Grimes 
brigade, but as this promotion came too late in the war 
for him to receive a commission, he claims that it does 
not invalidate his boast of being the only private who 
survived. After the war closed he studied medicine at 
the university of Pennsylvania, where he graduated in 
1867. He then spent two years in study in Germany 
and Holland, after which he returned to his old home in 
Salem, N. C. , where he is now engaged in the practice 
of his profession. 

Lieutenant William Hall. Bailey, a merchant and 
prominent citizen of Mocksville, N. C. , was born at that 
place June 22, 1843, and enlisted in the Confederate 
service March 26, 1862, as a private in Company F of the 
Forty-second regiment, under Col. John E. Brown. He 
served in North Carolina with this command and partici 
pated in various skirmishes, as well as taking part in the 
famous victory at Plymouth under General Hoke, and 
then with Martin s brigade went to the assistance of the 
army of Northern Virginia in its fight against Grant. 
He took part in the defeat of Butler at Bermuda Hun 
dred, the repulse of Grant at Cold Harbor and the subse 
quent check given the Federal advance against Peters 
burg, and served on the Petersburg lines and on the north 
side of the James until ordered to Wilmington and Fort 
Fisher. After the fall of the latter stronghold, he par 
ticipated in the operations against Sherman and Schofield, 
fighting at Kinston and Bentonville, and finally sharing 



370 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

the surrender of the army at Greensboro. His faithful 
and gallant service led to his early promotion to orderly- 
sergeant and later to second lieutenant of his com 
pany. After the close of hostilities he engaged in 
farming until 1870, when he embarked in a mercantile 
career at Mocksville, in which he has met with deserved 
success. 

John B. Baker, of Goldsboro, a veteran well remem 
bered by the comrades of the Twenty-seventh regiment, 
North Carolina troops, is a native of Wayne county, born 
in 1842. He enlisted in the service of the State April 
15, 1 86 1, as a private in the Goldsboro Rifles, which 
became Company A of the Twenty-seventh regiment, 
and was at the front with this command until near the 
close of the war. He participated in the battles of New 
Bern, Malvern Hill, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Bris- 
toe Station, the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Second Cold 
Harbor, White Oak Swamp and Reams Station, and the 
fighting around Petersburg and Richmond during the 
siege until about a month before the surrender of the 
army, when he was captured in a fight on the rail 
road near Petersburg, and sent to Hart s island, N. Y. 
He remained a prisoner of war until the conclusion 
of hostilities. Since then he has been a citizen of 
Wayne county, except two years which he spent in 
Texas. 

Joseph Henry Baker, M. D., of Tarboro, formerly 
of the medical service of the Confederate States army, 
was born in Edgecombe county in December, 1831. He 
was educated at Louisburg and in the university at 
Chapel Hill, and was graduated in medicine at the uni 
versity of Pennsylvania in 1854. Embarking then in the 
practice of his profession at Tarboro, he was thus 
occupied until, in April, 1861, he enlisted in the State 
military service, and accompanied the Edgecombe Guards 
as surgeon to their first rendezvous. At Raleigh the 
company was assigned to the First regiment of volun 
teers, and he was commissioned first assistant surgeon. 
In this capacity he was at the famous engagement at Big 
Bethel on the Virginia peninsula, and continued with 
the regiment until it was disbanded, when he was 
assigned to the hospital at Tarboro, as surgeon in 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 371 

charge. He remained on duty there until the close of 
the war, also being present at the battle of Plymouth. 
Subsequently resuming his practice at Tarboro, he has 
had a very successful career in his profession. He has 
also taken an active part in public affairs, as an alderman 
of his city, as mayor two terms (and is also present 
mayor), as a delegate to the constitutional convention of 
1868, and as a member of the house of commons, in 
which body his father and grandfather also served in 
their day as representative of Edgecombe county. Edge- 
combe county has been represented in the State legislature 
by four generations of the Baker family. By his marriage 
in 1855 to Susan A. Foxhall, who died in 1873, he has 
four children : Frank S. , Dr. Julian M. , Thomas A. , and 
Joseph H., Jr. In 1874 he married Ida, daughter of 
ex-Gov. Charles Manly, and they have two children, 
Ida H. and William M. 

Captain Virginius Ballard, a well-known business man 
of Durham, entered the Confederate service early in 1861 
as a private in Hedrick s artillery. With this command 
he served for a short time at Wilmington, and then, on 
account of his superior business capacity, was trans 
ferred to important duties in the quartermaster s depart 
ment at Weldon, and a few months later removed to 
Raleigh. During the remainder of the war he discharged 
the duties of paymaster, and by his efficient and faithful 
services won the approbation of his superiors in com 
mand. For a considerable time he held the rank of cap 
tain of the City battalion of Raleigh, and moved with his 
company to Wilmington just before the fall of Fort 
Fisher. Subsequently he was ordered back to Raleigh. 
Captain Ballard is a native of Northampton county and 
son of Jethro Ballard, a leading business man. He was 
educated at St. Timothy s hall, near Baltimore, and then 
embarked in a commercial career as bookkeeper. After 
his removal to Durham he became chief clerk of W. T. 
Blackwell, and as trustee settled the affairs of Colonel 
Blackwell with entire satisfaction to all concerned. Sub 
sequently he was trustee for the settlement of the estate 
of B. L. Duke. He has also held the position of treasurer 
of Trinity college, is secretary of the board of trustees of 
that institution, and manager of the Durham electric light 
company. 

Nc 47 



372 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Captain Calvin Barnes, of Wilson, N. C., was born at 
that place in 1839, and educated at Chapel Hill, where 
he was graduated in 1861. In April, 1861, he enlisted in 
Company B of the Second regiment, North Carolina 
State troops, and went into service as second lieutenant 
of his company. He was promoted first lieutenant, and 
then captain of Company A during his first year s service. 
In the spring of 1862 the regiment went to Goldsboro, 
N. C. They were taken to Wilmington and soon after 
his command became Company H of the Fortieth regi 
ment, heavy artillery, and he continued in the rank of 
captain. He was assigned to duty at Fort Anderson, on 
Cape Fear river, until the summer of 1863, and after 
ward was detailed successively to Fort Johnson, Smith s 
island and Reeves point, where his company built forti 
fications and served on garrison duty. During the at 
tacks on Fort Fisher he was on scouting duty at the point 
opposite, and he was subsequently on scouting duty for 
General Hebert, rendering valuable and dangerous serv 
ice, at times within the enemy s lines. During the retreat 
to Goldsboro he acted as major of his command, and in 
that rank took part in the battles of Kinston and Benton- 
ville. His four years service was ended by the surren 
der of Johnston s army, at Greensboro, N. C., but he did 
not participate in that event and has never given his 
parole. In 1865, Captain Barnes was married to Mrs. Mary 

A. Sterett (nee Bensell), and engaged in farming in Wil 
son county. Since 1875 he has resided at Wilson, and 
for twenty-five years has held the office of magistrate. 
He has three children living: Kate, James D. and Allie 

B. A brother of the foregoing, John Barnes, enlisted in 
Company H of the Fortieth regiment in 1864, and sur 
rendered at Bentonville. 

Lieutenant Frank W. Barnes, in recent years a pros 
perous citizen of Wilson, N. C., did faithful service 
throughout the war as an officer of the Fourth North 
Carolina cavalry. He was born in that part of Edge- 
combe which is now Wilson county, in 1844, and in 
August, 1862, at eighteen years of age, enlisted in the 
Fifty-ninth regiment, or Fourth cavalry, Col. Dennis R. 
Ferrebee, Robertson s brigade. He first served as 
orderly-sergeant of his company, and eighteen months 
later was promoted second lieutenant of Company H. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 373 

During his career with this gallant command he took 
part in the engagement at Little Washington, N. C., 
and in Virginia next was in the fights at Brandy 
Station, Middleburg, Upperville and Paris. During the 
battle of Gettysburg he was detailed to take charge of 
prisoners. Subsequently he took part in the cavalry 
affairs near Gordonsville, at Stevensburg, and the en 
gagements about Petersburg, with the brigade com 
manded by General Dearing and finally by General Rob 
erts. His health giving way he was in hospital at Wilson 
in April, 1865, and was captured there, but escaped a 
few hours later en route to Goldsboro. Since the close 
of hostilities he has been engaged in the management of 
his agricultural interests in Wilson county, and the con 
duct of the First national bank of Wilson, of which he 
was vice-president in 1874, president from 1875 to 1897, 
and since then again vice-president. In 1869 Mr. Barnes 
was married to Mattie Bynum, and they have three chil 
dren living: Elizabeth, wife of Floyd S. Davis; Alice B., 
wife of Dr. E. K. Wright, and Robert Barnes. 

John Daniel Barries, of Concord, editor of the Concord 
Standard, was born in Cabarrus county, September 16, 
1844, the son of David Barries, and descendant of Ger 
man ancestors who came to North Carolina from Penn 
sylvania about the time of the revolution. He was 
reared upon the farm and educated in the North Caro 
lina college. He enlisted in July, 1862, as a private in 
Captain Cannon s company, which became Company F, 
Fifty-seventh regiment, State troops, and was promoted 
to corporal in 1863, and to color-bearer of the regiment 
in 1864. He was identified with the record of Law s 
brigade, Hood s division, Longs treet s corps, and was 
distinguished for gallantry. Among the battles in which 
he participated were Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, 
Lynchburg, Monocacy, Strasburg, Cedar Creek and 
Hatcher s Run. While with the skirmish line driving 
the Federals from Charlestown to Harper s Ferry, he had 
his most enjoyable experience in warfare. He was 
slightly wounded at Winchester by a shell, receiving a 
bayonet wound at Rappahannock bridge, and a gunshot 
wound in the left shoulder at Petersburg. Three times 
he was a prisoner of war, first for about three weeks at Fort 
Delaware, after his capture at Fredericksburg; next at 



374 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Point Lookout four months after the disaster at Rappa- 
hannock bridge, and finally fell into the enemy s hands 
while lying wounded at Richmond, in April, 1865, and 
was held until July. He is now one of the prominent men 
of his county and quite successful in the field of journalism. 

Colonel John Decatur Barry, Eighteenth regiment, 
North Carolina troops, was born at Wilmington, Jan 
uary 21, 1839. His father was John A. Barry, a native 
of Philadelphia, a graduate of the United States naval 
academy, and in later life a member of the firm of Barry 
& Bryant, at Wilmington; and his mother was Mary, 
daughter of Gen. James Owen. Colonel Barry was grad 
uated with honor at the university of North Carolina in 
1859, and in November, 1861, enlisted as a private in the 
Wilmington Rifle Guards, at Coosawhatchie. At the 
reorganization in May, 1862, at Kinston, he was elected 
captain of Company I, and soon after the battle of Fred- 
ericksburg he was promoted to major for gallantry and 
efficiency. Following the next great battle, Chancellors- 
ville, where Colonel Purdy was killed, he was promoted 
to the command of the regiment. As captain he partici 
pated in the engagements at Hanover Court House, the 
Seven Days before Richmond, Cedar Run, Second Ma- 
nassas and Fredericksburg ; as major in the battle of 
Chancellorsville, and as colonel of the Eighteenth he was 
distinguished at Gettysburg, Mine Run, the Wilderness, 
Spottsylvania Court House, South Anna River, Fussell s 
Mill, Gravelly Run, Games Mill, Jones House, Hatcher s 
Run, served in the defense of Petersburg, and after its 
evacuation surrendered with Lee at Appomattox. He 
never received a commission as brigadier-general though 
recommended for that richly-deserved promotion. After 
the close of hostilities he was editor and proprietor of 
the Wilmington Dispatch, one of the leading Democratic 
papers at Wilmington, until his death, March 24, 1867. 
In 1863 Colonel Barry was married to Miss Fannie Jones, 
of Hampton, Va., a sister of Pembroke Jones of the United 
States navy, and Tom Jones of the old United States army. 

Alexander N. Basket, of Henderson, a veteran of the 
engineer corps of the Confederate States army, was born 
in Vance county in 1827, son of Pleasant Basket, a sol 
dier of the war of 1812. He was educated in the schools 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 375 

of the county and was occupied in farming until the 
beginning of the war of the Confederacy. He enlisted 
in the spring of 1861 and was assigned to duty in the 
quartermaster department, where he served for a period 
of about nine months. In March, 1862, he became a 
member of the Second regiment of engineers, C. S. A. 
His command, under Captain James, was stationed on 
the North Carolina coast and was engaged in the erec 
tion of fortifications at Fort Fisher, Wrightsville and 
various other points. In this duty he continued through 
out the four years struggle and finally was surrendered 
at Chesterfield, S. C., then being under the command of 
General Bragg. He attained the rank of sergeant of his 
company and frequently was in charge of important 
duties. At Wilmington he participated in the battle 
which preceded its evacuation. Returning to his home 
after the conclusion of hostilities, he found his property 
in a devastated condition, but he bravely entered upon the 
work of repairing the damages of war, and is now one of 
the most successful farmers of his county. He is a mem 
ber of Wyatt camp, United Confederate Veterans. He was 
married in 1857 to Dinah T. Burroughs, who died in 1894. 
His only living child, Joseph H. Basket, who resides with 
his father, was married in 1889 to Lucy J. Burroughs. 

Lieutenant Dossey Battle, of Rocky Mount, promi 
nently known as an attorney, is a native of Edgecombe 
county, born in 1842. He was educated in the State 
university at Chapel Hill, but abandoned his studies, 
after completing three years of the course, to enlist in the 
Confederate cause. On June 8, 1861, he became a pri 
vate in Company B of the Second North Carolina volun 
teer infantry, afterward numbered as the Twelfth regi 
ment of State troops. While with this command he was 
promoted to sergeant of Company H in January, 1863, 
and sergeant-major of the regiment in March following. 
In August of that year he was transferred to the Seventh 
regiment and commissioned second lieutenant of Com 
pany A. On August 25, 1864, he was promoted first lieu 
tenant of Company I, acted adjutant of one regiment for 
several months, and was then detailed for duty as aide- 
de-camp to Gen. W. G. Lewis, commanding Hoke s old 
brigade, and in that capacity was paroled at Appomattox. 
During his service he participated in all the battles of 



376 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

the army of Northern Virginia except South Mountain 
and Sharpsburg, the list in which he took part including 
the famous names of the Seven Days , Fredericksburg, 
Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, the Wilderness, and Spott- 
sylvania Court House. He was slightly wounded at 
Chancellorsville, on the night when Gen. Stonewall 
Jackson received his fatal hurt. Returning to Rocky 
Mount after the close of hostilities, Lieutenant Battle 
began the study of law at Chapel Hill in 1866, and being 
admitted to the superior court bar in January, 1868, em 
barked in the practice. In 1875 he purchased a half 
interest in the Tarboro Southerner, and removing to 
that place, in 1877, edited that journal, also continuing 
his practice until 1894, when he returned to Rocky 
Mount, where he has subsequently resided and devoted 
himself to the legal profession. While connected with 
journalism he was for two years, 1879-80, president of 
the North Carolina press association. He has always 
been active in political affairs as a Democrat. He is the 
author and secured the passage of the law forbidding 
cruelty to animals, not before on the statute books of the 
State. In September, 1898, he was nominated by accla 
mation for the judgeship of the First criminal circuit of 
North Carolina, by the Democratic convention, which 
met in Fayetteville, and was elected in November follow 
ing by a majority of 2, 759. He was commissioned by the 
governor and qualified before Associate Justice Clark of 
the supreme court, on November soth, and at once 
entered upon the duties of the office, holding his first 
court at Halifax on December 5th. The counties com 
posing the First criminal circuit are Mecklenburg, Robe- 
son, New Hanover, Cumberland, Craven, Wilson, Nash, 
Edgecombe, Halifax and Warren. 

Lieutenant Richard Henry Battle, of Raleigh, was 
born at Louisburg, N. C., December 3, 1835. He was 
graduated with honors at Chapel Hill in 1854, served there 
four years as an instructor in Greek and mathematics, 
and in 1858 began his career as a lawyer at Wadesboro. 
In the winter of 1861-62 he aided in the organization of a 
company for the Forty-third North Carolina infantry 
regiment, of which he was elected first lieutenant. With 
his regiment, in Daniel s brigade, he was under fire at 
Malvern hill, and afterward served at Drewry s bluff 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 377 

until September, 1862, when, being acting quartermaster, 
he resigned on account of failing health, and became 
the private secretary of Gov. Z. B. Vance. He was 
associated with the famous war governor in this capacity 
for two years, and was then appointed auditor of State in 
1864. After the fall of the Confederate government he 
resumed his practice of law, making his home at Raleigh, 
where he has been for many years prominent in his pro 
fession and influential in public affairs. 

J. B. Beal, a prominent manufacturer at Gastonia, was 
born in Lincoln county, N. C., in 1843, the son of Chris 
topher Beal. At the outbreak of the war of the Confed 
eracy he volunteered for military service, but, having 
recently sustained an injury which crippled one of his 
arms, he was at that time rejected. Still desirous of 
serving for the cause, he succeeded in enlisting early in 
the year 1862 as a private in Company D, Twenty-third 
regiment North Carolina troops. With this command 
he served in Virginia until, on account of his disability 
which still existed, he was detailed for hospital duty, and 
ten months later was honorably discharged. After re 
maining at home a large part of the year he returned to 
the Twenty -third regiment and became a private in Com 
pany B. He participated in the Shenandoah Valley cam 
paign of 1864 and served on the Petersburg lines a short 
time. Then he was detached and assigned to duty in the 
hospital at Danville, where he remained until the close 
of hostilities. After his return to North Carolina he 
embarked in an active and industrious career which has 
brought him notable success and aided materially in the 
development of the manufacturing industries of his State. 
He was the organizer of the Beal manufacturing company, 
and with other enterprising citizens under the firm style of 
Beal & Hinson, is the manager of the Gaston iron works. 
He has other manufacturing interests and is a director of 
the Modena cotton mills. By his marriage in 1869 to Sarah 
Hallman, he has three children, Mary Ida, wife of B. E. 
Long ; Dora E. , wife of J. S. Barnwell ; and John Lawrence. 

Marsden Bellamy, for many years a leading lawyer 
and county attorney at Wilmington, was born at that 
city, January 14, 1843, the son f Dr. John D. Bellamy, 
a prominent physician and citizen. He was educated at 



378 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Chapel Hill, but left the university in July, 1861, to 
enter the service of his State. He was first a member 
of the Scotland Neck cavalry, an independent company 
of cavalry, which had many interesting and dangerous 
experiences and brisk skirmishes with the enemy in 
northeast North Carolina and southeast Virginia. After 
about a year of this service he was appointed commissary 
sergeant of the Third North Carolina cavalry, a position 
he held for about six months. He was then appointed 
assistant paymaster in the Confederate States navy, and 
in this capacity served until the close of hostilities, first 
at Richmond, but mainly at Charleston, S. C., which he 
left upon the evacuation. Subsequently he was at Rich 
mond, accompanied the army to Appomattox Court House 
and thence made his way to Danville and on to Haw River, 
N. C. , escaping the surrender. Afterward he resumed his 
studies at Chapel Hill, was graduated in law in 1866, and 
was admitted to the practice in January, 1867. 

William James Harriss Bellamy, M. D., a distinguished 
physician of Wilmington, was born at that city in 1844, 
the son of Dr. John D. Bellamy and his wife, Eliza M., 
daughter of Dr. William J. Harriss. He entered the 
university at Chapel Hill in 1860, but abandoned his 
studies in the summer of 1861 to enlist as a private in 
Company I of the Eighteenth North Carolina infantry, 
with which he served in Virginia, participating in the 
battles of Hanover Court House, Williamsburg and the 
Seven Days campaign, receiving slight wounds in the 
shoulder and knee at Games Mill. In the latter part of 
August, 1862, his year s enlistment having expired, he 
enlisted in the Confederate navy, but a day later fur 
nished a substitute and returned to Chapel Hill. After 
studying half a session, he organized a company of 
mounted men for home defense in Brunswick county, and, 
reporting to General Bragg, was assigned to coast duty, 
in which he served with the rank of captain until the 
close of hostilities, surrendering near Raleigh after the 
capitulation of General Johnston. Then, being about 
twenty-one years of age, he entered upon the study of 
medicine at New York city, and was graduated at the 
university of New York in March, 1868, immediately 
after which he began his long and successful professional 
career at Wilmington. While in college he was a mem- 



CONFEDERA TE MILITARY HISTORY. 379 

her of the "Aylette" quiz class and received his diploma. 
He was also a member of Professor Loomis private class 
in physical diagnosis in Bellevue hospital. He served on 
the board of State medical examiners from 1884 to 1890, 
and has held the offices of president and secretary of the 
county medical society. In 1869 he was married to Mary 
W. Russell, of Wilmington, and they have six children. 
He has been a member of the North Carolina medical 
society since 1870, and has been, since its organization, 
on the board of regents of the Wilmington city hospital. 
He has been State medical examiner for the Knights of 
Honor for fourteen years and grand dictator of same 
for 1878 and 1879. He is examiner for several large life 
insurance companies. 

Captain David N. Bennett, of Norwood, a survivor of 
the gallant Fourteenth regiment, was born in Chester 
field county, son of Archie E. and Mary Crawford Ben 
nett. His mother s father, David Crawford, was a soldier 
of the war of 1812, and her grandfather, Jackson, held 
the rank of general in the revolutionary army. With 
such a patriotic strain in his blood it is not a matter of 
surprise that young Bennett was among the early volun 
teers for the war of the Confederacy, though but sixteen 
years of age. His enlistment was in the Anson Guards, 
Capt. C. E. Smith, a volunteer organization which be 
came Company C of the Fourteenth regiment, State 
troops, of which Junius Daniel was the first colonel. 
When the latter was succeeded by W. P. Roberts, 
R. Tyler Bennett became lieutenant-colonel. He enlisted 
as a private and in 1862 was elected sergeant, and in 
1863 appointed ordnance-sergeant, but after serving in 
that capacity five months, he voluntarily resigned, feel 
ing that it was his duty to stay with the men in the ranks 
as a private soldier. He was distinguished for bravery 
on many fields. During the service in southeastern Vir 
ginia, when the regiment was in line of battle under 
heavy fire, and the men were ordered to lie down and 
two volunteers were called for to go forward and draw 
the enemy s fire, he and William A. Maner were the dar 
ing men who stepped forward. His courage was men 
tioned in orders ?.nd he was recommended for promotion. 
At Seven Pines, through the Seven Days campaign, the 
Maryland campaign, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, 



380 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Gettysburg, Kelly s ford, and the campaigns of 1864, he 
shared the glorious record of his regiment. In 1864, 
near Charleston, he was shot through the hip and left on 
the battlefield to die, but fortunately recovered. After 
the close of the war he was elected to the captaincy of 
his old company. Since the close of hostilities he has 
been engaged in mercantile pursuits and in farming. As 
a magistrate he was one of the first Democrats elected to 
office in his county after the war, and in 1883, 1885 and 
1887 he was elected to the legislature of the State. In 
1894 he was appointed a director of the State peniten 
tiary, an office which he held for three years. Captain 
Bennett was married in 1866 to Agnes C., daughter of 
Benjamin I. Dunlap, and has six children, John T., 
Crawford D., Burt E., Mary E., Irene L., and David N. 
Bennett. 

Captain Frank Bennett, a prosperous farmer of Anson 
county, was born at Paris, N. C., in December, 1839. 
His father, Lemuel Dunn Bennett, was the son of Wil 
liam Bennett, a native of North Carolina; his mother, 
Jane Little, was the daughter of William Little, a native 
of England. Captain Bennett was reared in his native 
county, completed his education at King s mountain mil 
itary school, Yorkville, S. C. , and then engaged in farm 
ing with his home at Paris, but soon answered the call of 
his State in the spring of 1861, for armed forces to 
defend her soil and maintain the Confederate Union. 
He enlisted in May, 1861, as orderly-sergeant of Com 
pany A, Twenty-third North Carolina regiment, and was 
promoted captain of his company May 2, 1862. From 
that date he led his men through all the battles of Early s 
brigade, participating in the famous campaigns of the 
army of Northern Virginia with credit to himself and 
the State which he and his brave comrades represented. 
He was wounded four times, first in the right knee at the 
battle of Seven Pines. At Hatcher s run he was yet 
more severely wounded, losing his left arm. The list 
of battles in which he bore an honorable part would be 
a long one; conspicuous in the list are the bloody 
struggles of Chancellorsville (where he was wounded in the 
right leg) and the Wilderness (wounded in the left leg). 
Finally surrendered at Appomattox he came immediately 
to his home, and resumed the occupations of peace, sor- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 381 

rowing for the fall of the government for which he 
fought, but realizing that he could now best serve it by 
making the wilderness which war had left bloom again 
as the rose. His exertions have been amply rewarded in 
the prosperity of his region and his own handsome estate. 
On June 8, 1876, Captain Bennett was married in Baker 
county, Ga. , to Elizabeth Curry, a relative of Dr. J. L. M. 
Curry, and their home has been blessed with two chil 
dren, Frank and Lizzie Curry Bennett. 

William H. Bernard, editor of the Wilmington Star, 
conspicuous among the newspapers of North Carolina, 
was born at Petersburg, Va., in January, 1837, and was 
reared and educated at Richmond. He is the son of 
Peter D. Bernard, a native of Goochland county, Va., 
who was a journalist of Richmond ; and is the grandson 
of a soldier of the revolution, who died from wounds 
received at Brandy wine. In 1855 Mr. Bernard went to 
Texas, but three years later returned to Virginia, and in 
1859 was married to Maggie Stedman of Fayetteville, 
N. C. Then, making his home at Helena, Ark., he re 
mained there until March, 1861, when he came to Fay 
etteville and enlisted in Company H, First regiment 
North Carolina volunteers. With this regiment, famous 
for fighting the first battle of the war, he was in the 
engagement at Big Bethel, and, after its disbandment, 
he was debarred from further service on account of 
physical disability. He was subsequently connected with 
the Presbyterian and the Daily Telegraph at Fayetteville, 
and in 1865 was one of the founders of the Wilmington 
Dispatch, which he left soon afterward to establish the 
Wilmington Star in 1867. Mr. Bernard is a man of 
influence in public affairs and is a member of the Demo 
cratic State committee. 

William G. Berryhill, of Charlotte, a veteran of the 
Bethel regiment and the Forty-seventh North Carolina, 
was born in Charlotte in 1842. His father, Jefferson J. 
Berryhill, was killed in a railway collision in 1863, while 
returning from a visit to his son, then stationed between 
Petersburg and Richmond. He entered the Confederate 
service as a private in the Charlotte Grays, which became 
Company C of the First regiment, under Col. D. H. 
Hill. He accompanied his regiment to the Virginia pen- 



382 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

insula and shared its six months service, including the 
famous first battle of Big Bethel, and, after his return 
home, re-enlisted in Company K of the Forty-fifth regi 
ment, in which he had the rank of sergeant. He was 
with this regiment throughout its service in North Caro 
lina and Virginia, participating in a number of engage 
ments, among them the famous ones of the Wilderness 
and Spottsylvania, with the army under Lee, and Win 
chester and Fisher s Hill under Early in the Shenandoah 
valley. He was wounded in the right hand at Spottsyl 
vania, and at Fisher s hill, September 22, 1864, was cap 
tured by the Federals. Until March, 1865, he was a pris 
oner of war at Point Lookout, Md., and after his return 
to Confederate territory he had no opportunity for 
further military service. Since then he has been engaged 
in business at Charlotte, with much success financially, 
and is a highly respected citizen. He is held in warm 
regard by his comrades of the Mecklenburg camp, 
United Confederate Veterans, and has served two terms 
as an alderman of the city. By his marriage in November, 
1867, to Amanda J. Roark, of Shelby, he has one son, 
William Montrose Berryhill. 

Lieutenant James W. Biddle, of New Bern, a veteran 
of the famous First North Carolina cavalry, was born in 
Craven county, N. C., in 1840, and was educated in the 
schools of his county and at Wake Forest college. In 
April, 1 86 1, he enlisted in the cavalry company of Capt. 
Thomas Rufnn, which was mustered in as Company H 
of the First cavalry, under Col. Robert Ransom. He 
served in the ranks until the spring of 1864, when he was 
elected second lieutenant, in which rank he commanded 
his company near the close of the war. He was identi 
fied with the history of his regiment throughout its entire 
career, taking part in the first cavalry fight at Dranes- 
ville, the Seven Days campaign before Richmond, the 
several engagements at Brandy Station, including the 
famous battle of June 9, 1863, Upperville, the fierce cav 
alry fight on the third day at Gettysburg, the cavalry 
actions during the bloody struggle in the Wilderness and 
about Spottsylvania, the various battles about Petersburg 
and during the retreat to Appomattox, and many other 
engagements in which his regiment was conspicuous. 
Escaping with the cavalry from the field of Appomattox 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 383 

he was paroled in May at Louisburg, N. C. Subse 
quently, with the exception of two years in Georgia, he 
was engaged in farming in Craven county until 1889, 
when he was appointed clerk in the sheriff s office at 
New Bern. From 1890 until December, 1896, he held the 
office of register of deeds of the county, and since then 
has been teller of the Farmers and Merchants bank. His 
brother, Samuel S. Biddlo, inspired by the same patriotic 
devotion, served as captain in the Sixty-first North Caro 
lina infantry through the war, and died in 1868. 

William DeWitt Biggers, of Lexington, N. C. , was born 
in Rowan county, November 20, 1842, and entered the 
Confederate service early in 1 86 1 as a private in Company 
B of the Fourth regiment, with which Gen. George B. 
Anderson went out as colonel in July. The regiment 
reported to General Beauregard at Manassas Junction, 
Va., after the first battle there, and in the spring of 1862 
served in the defense of Yorktown, after the evacuation 
of that point fighting against the Federal advance at 
Seven Pines. In the latter famous encounter, Corporal 
Biggers was severely wounded in the left hip, which dis 
abled him for further service as a soldier, and he was 
honorably discharged. Since the close of this honorable 
military career he has occupied the office of deputy clerk 
of the superior court of Davidson county for about ten 
years, and for many years has been prominently associ 
ated with the business development of his city as cashier 
of the bank of Lexington. 

Captain John D. Biggs, Sixty- first North Carolina reg 
iment, now prominent in the lumber industry at Wil- 
liamston, was born in Martin county in 1839. On Novem 
ber 4, 1 86 1, he enlisted in Company H of the Sixty-first 
regiment, and was made first sergeant. On May i, 1862, 
he was elected first lieutenant, and on May 30, 1864, was 
promoted captain of his company. During 1862 and 1863 
he served with the troops engaged in the defense of 
North Carolina, going into battle during Foster s raid in 
October, 1862, and at Kinston in November of the same 
year. In Clingman s brigade of Hoke s division he took 
part in the battle of Drewry s Bluff in May, 1864, at Cold 
Harbor, in the fighting about Petersburg up to and includ 
ing the battle of the Crater, the battle of Fort Harrison, 



384 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

October, 1864, and then returning to North Carolina par 
ticipated in the operations about Fort Fisher and Wil 
mington, fought at Kinston in March, 1865, and at the 
battle of Bentonville was severely wounded by a minie 
ball in the right thigh, disabling him for two months. 
Upon his recovery the war was at an end, and he soon 
afterward engaged in mercantile pursuits, which occupied 
him until 1890, when he embarked in the lumber busi 
ness. He is now secretary and treasurer of the Dennis 
Simmons lumber company. He has served as commis 
sioner of his county, and is a director of the insane 
asylum. In 1871 Captain Biggs was married to Fanny, 
daughter of John Alexander, of Terrell county, and they 
have five children, Dennis S., Patty A., wife of A. 
Crawford, John D. , Harry and Carrie A. 

Noah Biggs, a worthy citizen of Scotland Neck, Va. , is 
one of four brothers who entered the military service of 
the Confederate States, one of whom was killed at the 
first battle of Manassas. He was born near Williams- 
ton, June 9, 1842, and was educated in the old field 
schools. On May 20, 1861, he enlisted in a volunteer 
company which at a later date became Company A, 
Seventeenth regiment, State troops. In August follow 
ing, the entire command was captured by the Federal 
invasion at Hatteras island, but this disaster he fortun 
ately escaped by being absent on furlough. He then 
joined the Scotland Neck mounted riflemen, afterward 
Company G, Third North Carolina cavalry, and served 
with this command until 1863, when he was transferred 
to Company H, Sixty-first infantry, of which his brother, 
John D. Biggs, was captain. He was connected with 
this regiment during the remainder of the war. In Vir 
ginia he participated in the fighting of Clingman s bri 
gade of Hoke s division, at Bermuda Hundred, Second 
Cold Harbor, Fort Harrison, the battle of the Crater, and 
other operations about Petersburg, including many 
months in the trenches, and then in North Carolina was 
in the engagement at Wilmington, at Kinston and the 
battle of Bentonville, and was surrendered with the army 
of General Johnston. Soon after the return of peace he 
embarked in mercantile life as a clerk at Scotland Neck, 
rising in 1869 to the position of proprietor of a store of 
his own, and for fifteen years he conducted a very sue- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 385 

cessful business. His recent years have been given to 
retirement and to beneficent deeds that have crowned his 
life with the affectionate regard of his fellow men. He 
is one of the founders and a trustee of the Baptist orphan 
asylum at Thomasville. Since 1883 he has been a mem 
ber of the board of trustees of Wake Forest college. 
He was married, April 22, 1873, to Mary Lawrence, of 
Halifax county, and they have one daughter, Annie. 

James Cooke Birdsong, of Raleigh, State librarian from 
1885 to 1893, rendered his military service in a regiment 
of Virginia, of which State he is a native, born in South 
ampton county in 1842. He enlisted April 20, 1861, as 
a private in Company B, Twelfth Virginia regiment, 
Mahone s brigade, and served as a private until the end 
of the war. He was in battle at Seven Pines and Second 
Manassas, and was then in hospital until the first of 1862. 
At Chancellorsville he was captured and thence taken to 
the Old Capitol prison, but paroled twenty days later and 
exchanged in September, 1863. In the battle of Cold 
Harbor, 1864, he was shot in the right shoulder and dis 
abled until early in 1865. Other battles in which he par 
ticipated were Brandy Station, Hatcher s Run, Burgess 
Mill and Farmville. Finall) 7 he was paroled at Appomat- 
tox. He has resided at Raleigh since 1866, engaged in 
the printing business when not in official service. From 
1876 to 1897 he filled the position of examiner of State 
printing. In 1893 he published a volume of " Brief 
Sketches" of the North Carolina troops, compiled by him 
under the direction of the general assembly. 

George Bishop, of New Bern, was born at that city in 
August, 1824, the son of Samuel Bishop, a native of 
Craven county, born in 1792, who served with the North 
Carolina troops in the war of 1812. Beginning in 1850, 
Mr. Bishop was engaged in wood manufacture at New 
Bern. In 1847 he married Eliza B. Good, of that 
city, who died in 1849, and in December, 1851, he was 
married to Eliza Jane Kilpatrick, of Suffolk, Va. His 
business was diverted in 1860 to the manufacture of war 
supplies for the State, such as ambulances and camp 
fixtures, and in addition to this service he became a mem 
ber of the Athens Guards, organized at New Bern, which 
was mustered in under the command of Col. Henry J. B. 



386 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Clark. After six months service he was detailed to 
manufacture camp and ordnance material, and was so 
engaged at New Bern until the battle there, in which he 
took part with his regiment. He was subsequently 
engaged in the manufacture of wood canteens for the 
army until December, 1863, when he contracted to furnish 
supplies for the Atlantic & North Carolina railroad at 
Goldsboro. Since December, 1865, he has been a resident 
of New Bern. By his second marriage he has eight 
children living: Edward K., Julia A., wife of J. W. Small- 
wood, Eliza J., wife of Green Bryan, Susan Caroline and 
Mary Virginia (twins, born September 10, 1862), Robert 
Hoke, Samuel Cooper, William Herbert. 

Colonel Charles Christopher Blacknall was born in 
Granville county, N. C., December 4, 1830. Through 
his grandfather, Thomas Blacknall, the boy soldier of the 
revolution, and his great-great-grandfather, the Rev. 
John Blacknall, one of the first Episcopal clergymen to 
officiate in North Carolina, his line has been traced back 
through fifteen generations of English gentlemen to the 
Blacknalls of Wing, Buckinghamshire, whose armorial 
bearings were old when Columbus sailed to discover the 
new world. The Blacknalls have ever been quick to 
draw the sword in defense of liberty. In the revolution 
the family sent its two male members, mere lads, into the 
patriot ranks. With eleven members of military age it 
sent fourteen into the Confederate service, and gave five 
lives for Southern independence. In 1851 Colonel Black- 
nail married Miss Virginia Spencer. He had prepared 
himself for the law, but, although an effective speaker, 
and by nature fitted to succeed in intellectual rather 
than practical pursuits, by some perversity of circum 
stance he became a merchant instead of a lawyer. Tak 
ing deep interest in the political contest that ended in 
war, and fully convinced that the safety of the South lay 
in separation from the North, he was necessarily and log 
ically a secessionist. When the war came on he devoted 
himself to the defense of the South with an ardor not 
surpassed by any of his contemporaries, and which flagged 
not while he lived. In May, 1861, he raised, and was 
elected captain of the Granville Riflemen, which became 
Company G of the Thirteenth, afterward known as the 
Twenty-third North Carolina volunteers. In June, 1862, 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 387 

he was promoted to major, and in August, 1863, to col 
onel. On the retreat in the Peninsular campaign he dis 
tinguished himself at great peril by saving from capture 
a part of his company occupying rifle-pits near the enemy. 
At Seven Pines he was thrice wounded and his horse was 
killed, falling on him, he having gone into battle mounted, 
rather than be kept inactive by a severe abscess on the 
knee. His regiment led the van in the famous flanking 
march at Chancellorsville, on which he displayed charac 
teristic gallantry and steadiness by charging, with a hand 
ful of men, some suddenly unmasked Federal guns which 
had struck down the head of the column. In the impet 
uous onset of that evening and the next morning he con 
tributed his full share to the Chancellorsville victory, but 
in a flank attack made by the enemy in overwhelming 
force, toward the close of the battle, he was surrounded 
and captured in a redoubt which, with a few men, he had 
just carried. Exchange liberated him just in time for the 
Gettysburg campaign. On the first day of the great bat 
tle his regiment bore the focal fire that nearly annihilated 
Iverson s devoted brigade, which, unable to advance, lit 
erally died where it stood, not a man going to the rear. 
In the heat of the action Major Blacknall was severely 
wounded through the mouth and neck. He was captured 
on the retreat through the mountains, and escaped, but 
owing to his wounds was again taken. When lots were 
cast at Fort McHenry to select a Confederate officer to be 
hanged in retaliation for a Federal about to be executed as 
a spy in Richmond, Colonel Blacknall drew the fatal num 
ber, but for reasons unknown his life was spared. While 
spending the winter of 1863-64 amid the hunger, cold and 
misery of the bleak prison on Johnson s island, Lake Erie, 
he was elected an officer to lead the forlorn hope in an 
assault with brick-bats on the guards, but the plan was 
betrayed, the guards heavily reinforced, and the escape of 
the i, 800 officers to Canada rendered impossible. Again 
in 1864, as in 1863, he was exchanged just in time to take 
part in the most desperate fighting of the campaign, the 
prolonged death grapple which attended Grant s move 
ment to Lee s right flank in May and June. Colonel 
Blacknall afterward led his regiment in Early s Shen- 
andoah Valley campaign, taking effective part in the 
numberless battles and skirmishes of the noted march on 
Washington, a member of his original company having, 

Nc 48 



388 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

it is said, fallen nearest of all Confederate soldiers to the 
Federal capital. Sheridan s advance on Winchester, 
September 19, 1864, found Colonel Blacknall with his 
depleted regiment picketing the Berryville pike. Al 
though his videttes were captured and his bivouac ridden 
down at dawn by a division of cavalry, he formed a square 
and fought his way back to his supports, receiving his 
death wound on the way. Too severely wounded to be 
brought off in the retreat, he was left in Winchester and 
died a prisoner in the enemy s hands. Colonel Black- 
nail s war career, the salient points of which alone have 
been outlined, was as picturesque and eventful as that of 
any other North Carolinian. To courage, the birthright 
of the Confederate soldier, he added a command of faculty, 
and sureness of thinking and acting in danger and 
emergency, possessed by few, and it is certain that no 
other officer of like rank in the Confederate service had 
in larger degree the confidence and affection of the men. 

Richard D. Blacknall, of Durham, a veteran of the 
artillery of the Confederate States army, was born in 
Orange county, N. C., in 1846, a son of Richard Black 
nall, M. D., who was a native of Granville county. The 
families of both his father, and his mother, Harriet 
Russell, are among the oldest in the State. The Black- 
nails settled in North Carolina in the early part of the 
eighteenth century, and were represented in the revolu 
tionary war, two of them participating in the battle of 
Yorktown; and the Russell family was founded in Gran 
ville county by his great-grandfather, who acquired a 
large tract of land under a patent from King George III. 
In 1864, at the age of seventeen years, Mr. Blacknall 
enlisted as a private in Moseley s battery of light artillery 
and served at Fort Caswell, at the mouth of Cape Fear 
river, from April of that year until January 16, 1865. 
After the fall of Fort Fisher he was one of the garrison 
which defended Fort Anderson until the ammunition 
was exhausted, and he subsequently retreated toward 
Fayetteville. During this campaign he took part in the 
battle of Town Creek, where his battery was severely 
handled. The battery was ordered to Danville, Va. , and 
soon afterward was returned to North Carolina and 
attached to the reserve artillery of Johnston s army. He 
was paroled at Greensboro, in the rank of corporal, to 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 389 

which he had been promoted in the fall of 1864. After this 
Mr. Blacknall engaged in business, and in 1873 embarked 
in the drug trade, in which he has had a very successful 
career. He has taken a leading part in municipal affairs, 
serving as alderman and acting mayor. In 1881 he was 
married to Sadie Fuller, daughter of R. H. J. Blount. 

Jacob Henry Blakemore, of Mount Airy, N. C., is a 
native of Virginia, born at Mount Crawford, August 12, 
1832. In 1859 he removed to Augusta, Ga., and there 
enlisted in April, 1861, as a private in the celebrated 
Letcher Guards. On being mustered into the Confeder 
ate service he took part in the Peninsular campaign and 
the Seven Days battles before Richmond, in the com 
mand of General Longstreet, and subsequently fought 
at Savage Station and Fredericksburg. After the latter 
battle he was transferred to the band of the Fifty-third 
Georgia regiment, as a musician, and served in that 
capacity in the campaigns of the army of Northern Vir 
ginia, until the spring of 1864 he joined Breathed s bat 
talion of Stuart s horse artillery, and was assigned to 
duty as chief bugler of the battalion. In this position he 
was with this famous body of fighters in the thick of the 
conflict of 1864 and 1865 until his command was disbanded 
after the surrender, at Staunton, Va. Not long after 
ward he made his home at Mount Airy, where he has 
ever since been quite successfully engaged in the busi 
ness of photography. 

Merritt E. Blalock, commander of the camp of United 
Confederate Veterans at Norwood, was born at that place 
in June, 1841. His father was David Blalock; his 
mother Elizabeth, daughter of William Swearingen, a 
soldier of the war of 1812. He was educated in the 
schools of Stanley county, and reared upon his father s 
farm, which he left early in 1862 to enlist in the month 
of February as a private in Company I, Fifty-second regi 
ment, State troops. With the service of this command 
he was identified during the remainder of the war, being 
on duty mainly in North Carolina. During the campaign 
of 1864 he was with his regiment, a part of Kirkland s 
brigade of North Carolinians, in the desperate struggle 
of the Wilderness and Spottsylvania Court House, and 
on the loth of May lost his right thumb in battle. 



390 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

At Reams Station, Burgess Mill, Goldsboro and many 
other actions, he fully upheld the honor of his State as 
one of the gallant and self-sacrificing private soldiers who 
made the fame of her soldiers pre-eminent. At Burgess 
Mill he was nearly captured by the enemy, but, 
though surrounded, he followed his flag out, and fortu 
nately escaped, while his comrades on each side fell dead 
upon the field. With the surrender at Appomattox his 
service came to an end, and since then he has been 
engaged quite successfully in business as a merchant, in 
the conduct of his extensive agricultural interests, and of 
late years as the proprietor of a roller flouring mill. His 
estimation by his surviving comrades of the Confederacy 
is shown by his rank in the camp of Stanley veterans. 
By his marriage in 1868 to Nancy Lee, in 1871 to Hettie 
R. Staton, and in 1892 to Estelle B. Cowan, he has the 
following children: Walter J., Uriah B., Gaston D., 
Ada, Ethel, Carl B., Merritt E. Jr., and Cowan B. Estelle 
Balfour (Cowan) Blalock is the mother of the last-named 
child, Cowan Balfour Blalock. She is the great-great- 
granddaughter of Gen. Hardy Griffin, who rendered 
military services in the revolutionary war of 1776. Gen 
eral Griffin was a member of the first general assembly 
of North Carolina. He represented Wake county for 
sixteen consecutive years. Mrs. Blalock is also the great- 
great-granddaughter of Col. Andrew Balfour, who repre 
sented Randolph county in the first general assembly of 
North Carolina. He was the only member of that assembly 
who could translate French communications received by 
that body. Colonel Balfour was educated in Edinburgh, 
Scotland, and was fitted to be of great benefit to his 
adopted home, North Carolina. In his death North 
Carolina lost a loyal citizen. He possessed the best 
library then in that section of the country. His wife 
was a Miss Elizabeth Dayton, of Rhode Island. After 
Colonel Balfour s death, President Washington appointed 
her postmistress at Salisbury, which position she held for 
years. 

Captain William M. Blanton, of Marion, a gallant Con 
federate veteran, was born in Rutherford county, N. C. , 
the son of Charles Blanton, for a considerable time sheriff 
of Cleveland county. In the latter county Captain Blan 
ton was educated, and in 1856 was elected to the State 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 391 

legislature. In March, 1859, he was married to Jose 
phine Seltzer, of Iredell county, and he now has three 
children living, Josephus, John P. and Albert. In 1862 
he enlisted as a private in Company F of the Fifty-sixth 
regiment, North Carolina troops. His service of fourteen 
months with this command was rendered in eastern 
North Carolina, and during that period he encountered 
the enemy in various minor affairs and in the engage 
ment at Gum swamp. He was then transferred to the 
Thirty-eighth regiment, with the rank of lieutenant, and 
joining this command at Orange Court House, Va., was 
soon after promoted to captain of the company. The 
Thirty-eighth regiment was part of the brigade of Gen. 
Alfred M. Scales, Wilcox s division, A. P. Hill s corps, 
and took a prominent part in the campaign from the 
Rapidan to the James, including the battles of the Wil 
derness and Spottsylvania Court House. Throughout 
this struggle Captain Blanton displayed admirable quali 
ties as a soldier and officer, and throughout the long 
weary defense of the Petersburg lines he served faith 
fully and courageously. After the evacuation of Peters 
burg he took part in the engagement at Farmville and 
various skirmishes, and finally was paroled at Appomat- 
tox in command of his company. His military record 
worthily supplements that of his grandfather, Burrell 
Blanton, who was a gallant soldier of the revolution. 
Since the war Captain Blanton has been engaged with 
much success in mercantile pursuits at Marion. He has 
taken a prominent part in municipal affairs, and in 1888 
was elected to the legislature from McDowell county. 

Levi Blount, of Plymouth, born in Washington county 
in 1840, was a faithful Confederate soldier in the Third 
North Carolina cavalry, and since the close of that hon 
orable service has been distinguished in various official 
positions in his county. He enlisted as a private in Sep 
tember, 1862, in Company K, Third cavalry, and from 
that time fought in the ranks, except during part of 
1863-64, when he served as courier to Col. A. M. Waddell, 
commander of the regiment. He participated in a con 
siderable number of engagements with his gallant regi 
ment, including the fights around Suffolk, Malvern Hill, 
1864, the battles about Petersburg in October, 1864, 
Bellefield, Smithfield and Franklin, Va. ; and in North 



392 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Carolina was engaged near Plymouth and at Washington. 
After the close of hostilities he resided at New Bern a 
year, after which he embarked in business at Plymouth, 
his home since then. He served as town constable of 
Plymouth four years from 1878, and in December, 1881, 
was wounded while suppressing a negro riot. For more 
than a year he served as deputy sheriff, and subsequently 
was elected to the board of county commissioners. He 
was two years agent of the Norfolk & Southern railroad, 
and meanwhile was appointed sheriff of the county to fill 
a vacancy. He was afterward twice elected to this 
office, and served in all nearly seven years, proving to be 
a popular and efficient officer. Mr. Blount was married 
in 1868 to Sarah A. Newberry, and they have one child, 
Loulie May, wife of W. H. Hampton. 

William A. Blount, M. D., of Washington, N. C., sur 
geon of the First North Carolina cavalry, was born at 
Washington in 1839, son of Thomas H. Blount, a native of 
Beaufort county, who served in the war of 1812. He was 
graduated in medicine at the university of New York in 
1860, and practiced his profession in Pitt county until 
January, 1862, when he became assistant surgeon, at 
tached to Rodman s company, with which he served until 
captured at New Bern, where he had remained in charge 
of the wounded. He was paroled and sent to Washing 
ton in charge of his patients and exchanged just after the 
Seven Days campaign before Richmond. After a short 
service at the conscript camp at Raleigh, he asked for 
duty in the field, and was assigned as assistant surgeon 
of the First North Carolina cavalry regiment, and in the 
spring of 1863 was promoted surgeon. He was with his 
regiment under fire at Hanover Junction, Brandy Sta 
tion, South Mountain, Sharpsburg, Harper s Ferry, 
Gettysburg, Yellow Tavern, the demonstration before 
Washington, D. C., Winchester, Reams Station, Five 
Forks, Sailor s creek and Appomattox. Since those 
heroic and exciting days he has been quietly engaged in 
his professional duties at Washington, where he is highly 
regarded by all. 

Lieutenant Duncan A. Blue, of Southern Pines, a vet 
eran of Ransom s brigade, was born in Moore county in 
1841, the son of Daniel Blue, and a member of a family 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 393 

which came to North Carolina from Argyle, Scotland, 
about the year 1808. He was reared upon the farm of 
his parents and educated in the schools of the vicinity, 
and thus his life passed quietly until the secession of 
North Carolina, and the defense of the South, which 
became necessary, called him to scenes of war. He 
enlisted as a private in Company C, Thirty-fifth regiment, 
State troops, under Capt. J. M. Kelly, was made orderly- 
sergeant of his regiment, and subsequently promoted to 
second lieutenant, but was captured by the enemy before 
he received his commission. His record was that of his 
regiment and Ransom s brigade, first in the fight at New 
Bern, then in the carnage of the Seven Days before Rich 
mond, in the thick of the terrible fighting at Sharpsburg 
and Fredericksburg, and in these and the many other 
engagements of his command he bore himself as a true 
soldier of North Carolina. In the battle of Petersburg, 
June 17, 1864, he was captured, and subsequently he was 
imprisoned at Point Lookout and Elmira, N. Y., until 
released on account of sickness in October, 1864. He 
was never able to rejoin his regiment. Since the war he 
has been engaged in the turpentine industry, and is now 
a prosperous and influential citizen. By his marriage in 
1874 to Sarah E. Wicker, he has the following children: 
Cattie, Lawrence, Maggie, Walter, Lulu, Myrtle, Carrie, 
Carson, Lalan, Shelton, and Bernice. 

Gabriel J. Boney, of Wilmington, a survivor of the 
campaigns of 1864-65 in North Carolina, was born in Du- 
plin county in 1845, and was there reared and educated. 
When eighteen years of age, in March, 1864, he enlisted 
in Company H of the Fortieth regiment, North Carolina 
troops, and was on duty until the war was practically 
ended, completing his service in a northern prison camp. 
He was in the fight with the Federal gunboats at Fort 
Anderson; and at Town Creek, having been promoted 
corporal, was in command of twenty men on the line. 
His last fight was at Bentonville, where the North Caro 
lina soldiers in the State made their last demonstration 
of heroic valor. Being captured by the enemy, March 
19, 1865, he was transported to Point Lookout, Md., and 
confined until June 4th. After he reached home again 
he gave his attention to mercantile pursuits in his native 
county until 1873, when he removed to Wilmington. 



394 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

There he was engaged in the commission business until 
1884, when he entered the milling trade, in which he has 
attained much prominence and gratifying success. He 
is influential in municipal affairs and has held the office 
of alderman four years. A brother, William J. Boney, 
served one year as lieutenant of Company E, Thirtieth 
regiment, and subsequently was engaged in saltmaking 
for the Confederate government. 

Lieutenant Macon Bonner, commander of Bryan Grimes 
camp, United Confederate Veterans, at Washington, 
N. C., was born at that city in 1836, the son of Richard H. 
Bonner, of Scotch descent, who was a soldier of 1812, a 
member of the constitutional convention of 1835, and a 
magistrate for many years in Beaufort county. Command 
er Bonner was educated at Mt. Holly college and Prince 
ton, N. J., and in September, 1861, entered the Confeder 
ate service as first lieutenant of Company A, Thirty-first 
North Carolina regiment. Early in 1862 he was transferred 
with his company to the heavy artillery, and stationed at 
Fort Hill, near Washington, and later at Fort Fisher, 
where they remained until December, 1863, when they 
were ordered to Fort Holmes on Bald Head island. In the 
fall of 1864 his company and several others were sent to 
Augusta, Ga. , and later to Savannah, to meet the inva 
sion of General Sherman, with whose forces he was en 
gaged in several skirmishes. After the evacuation of 
Savannah he was taken sick and disabled for a few weeks, 
but was with his command again at Fort Holmes until 
the fall of Fort Fisher, when he was stationed at Fort 
Anderson, and participated in the fight with the enemy. 
At the evacuation of this fort he was captured, and con 
fined at the Old Capitol prison and Fort Delaware, until 
June 30, 1865. Since then he has resided at Washington, 
where he served as postmaster, by appointment of Presi 
dent Cleveland, for four years from April, 1885. 

Captain Thomas D. Boone, of Winton, a gallant officer 
of the First regiment, North Carolina State troops, was 
born in Northampton county, October 12, 1840. He was 
educated at Wake Forest college, with graduation in 1859, 
and then entered upon the profession of teaching. At 
the beginning of the war of the Confederacy he was thus 
engaged in Mississippi, but he promptly abandoned this 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 395 

vocation to enter the military service of his State, and 
returning to North Carolina, enlisted May 5, 1861, in the 
company of Capt. J. M. Harrell, of Hertford county, 
which became Company F, First regiment of infantry, 
Col. M. S. Stokes commanding. Becoming first sergeant 
of his company, he was successively promoted second lieu 
tenant, first lieutenant and captain. With his regi 
ment he participated in the Seven Days battles around 
Richmond, in one of which Colonel Stokes was killed, 
and bore an honorable part in the famous engagements 
of South Mountain, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Chan- 
cellorsville, Winchester, Gettysburg, the Wilderness, and 
in fact all the battles of his command up to its surrender 
at Appomattox, when he was one of the remnant of the 
army with Lee. He was wounded by a piece of shell at 
Chancellorsville, and during Early s Valley campaign of 
1864 was wounded in the side by a minie ball at Win 
chester. On the close of hostilities he resumed his occu 
pation of teaching, and continued in it until in 1886 he 
was elected clerk of the superior court of Hertford 
county, a position he has held by repeated elections ever 
since. By his marriage, in 1864, to Margaret Vann, he 
has four children, John V., Willie H., Sallie S., and 
Lucy A. Captain Boone has published a history of his 
company, a composition of rare interest, covering the 
famous campaigns of the army of Northern Virginia and 
Early s command in the valley, which is a faithful pic 
ture of the valor and endurance of the soldiery of North 
Carolina, and a valuable contribution to war literature. 

Lieutenant William H. Borden, of Goldsboro, a patri 
otic citizen who gave four years service to the cause of 
the Confederate States, is a native of Goldsboro, born in 
1841, and enlisted there in April, 1861, in a volunteer 
company which became Company E of the Twenty- 
seventh regiment, North Carolina State troops. After 
one year s service in this command, on the Virginia pen 
insula, he was appointed adjutant of the Fiftieth regi 
ment. He held this position for two years, participating 
in the service of his regiment, and then resigned his 
adjutancy and was commissioned first lieutenant of Com 
pany E of the same regiment. In this rank he partici 
pated in the North Carolina campaign against Sherman, 
fought at the battle of Bentonville, and surrendered at 



396 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

High Point, when further conflict was in vain. Since 
the war he has resided at Goldsboro, where he is success 
fully engaged in business as furniture manufacturer. 
James C. Borden, a brother of the foregoing, held the 
rank of captain in the First North Carolina cavalry, 
served throughout the war with that famous command, 
and surviving the perils of battle, died at his home in 
1885. 

McDowell Boyd, of Pinnacle, N. C. , is a native of Pitt 
county, born April 20, 1846. On account of his youth he 
did not enter the Confederate service in the field until 
the last year of the war, though he was previously on 
duty as a drill-master at Weldon and Goldsboro. Then, 
enlisting as a private in Company H of the Sixteenth 
battalion, in the cavalry brigade of Gen. W. P. Roberts, 
he joined the army of Northern Virginia at Orange Court 
House and fought under Fitzhugh Lee during the cam 
paigns of 1864, participating in the fights at Belfield, 
Reams Station and other noted combats. Toward the 
close of the war, while at home to obtain a fresh horse, 
he was cut off from the army by the Federals. He then 
reported to General Whitford and served with his com 
mand in eastern North Carolina until the surrender. 
He was paroled at Swift Creek, and returned to his home, 
and in 1875 removed to Pinnacle, where he has since 
resided, prospering in his occupation as a farmer, also as 
a manufacturer of tobacco, his business during the past 
few years. He has served as deputy sheriff of Surry 
county, and now holds the position of gauger for Stokes 
county in the United States internal revenue service. 
In 1866 he was married to Annie Bernard. 

Robert H. Bradley, marshal and librarian of the su 
preme court of North Carolina, was born in Edgecombe 
county in 1840. He enlisted April 18, 1861, in the 
Edgecombe Guards, Capt. J. L. Bridgers, which later was 
assigned as Company A to the First North Carolina regi 
ment. He was associated with this regiment during its 
six months service, in which time it was so fortu 
nate as to demonstrate in the first battle of the war, at 
Big Bethel, on the Virginia peninsula, the daring and 
staying qualities of the North Carolina soldier. In this 
affair Private Bradley was one of the five who were vol- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY PI I STORY. 397 

unteers from Company A to advance between the lines 
of battle and fire a house which had been used as a shel 
ter by the enemy. In making this attempt Henry L. 
Wyatt, one of the five, was killed by a volley from the 
enemy, being the first Confederate soldier killed in line 
of battle in the great war. After the disbandment of 
the Bethel regiment Mr. Bradley was assigned to duty 
as a guard at the Salisbury prison, but was at once de 
tailed for service in the office of the Southern express 
company at Raleigh, where he remained until April, 
1865. This assignment was made on account of his disa 
bility, caused by an accidental wound in the left arm. 
After the close of hostilities he became a merchant at 
Raleigh until 1879, when he was appointed to the posi 
tion of marshal and librarian of the supreme court, which 
he has held for more than two decades. 

Captain John Goldsmith Bragaw, of Washington, 
N. C. , is one of the many men of Northern birth, includ 
ing some officers of great prominence, who were loyally 
devoted to the South during the great war. He was 
born on Long Island, N. Y., in 1838, and made his home 
at Washington in 1858. In the summer of 1862, at Golds- 
boro, he entered the military service, and, being incapaci 
tated for duty in the field, was assigned to the quarter 
master s department. In the following year he was 
commissioned assistant commissary by Governor Vance, 
with the rank of captain, and stationed below Kinston, 
but not long afterward he resigned this rank and re 
turned to his former duties at Goldsboro. There he 
remained until the close of hostilities. In February, 1865, 
he was married at Greenville to Anne C., daughter of 
Henry C. Hoyt, and after a visit to New York they made 
their home at Washington. They have six children liv 
ing: William, Stephen C., Annie T., Henry C., John 
G., and Richard. Captain Bragaw is a son of William 
Bragaw, a native of Long Island, born in 1790, died in 
1879, who served with the rank of major in the war of 
1812. 

Alpheus Branch, born in Halifax county, N. C., May 7, 
1843, died at his home in Wilson, January 3, 1893, was 
in his lifetime one of the most prominent business men 
of that part of the State, enterprising, liberal, broad- 



398 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

minded, and financially very successful. His father, 
Capt. S. Warren Branch, a prosperous planter, was a 
leader in political affairs in the ante-war period. The 
son, whose life is here briefly described, was educated 
at the academy of Dr. Charles F. Deems, at the Homer 
school and Trinity college. The latter institution he left 
at the age of seventeen years to enlist in the military 
service of the State. Throughout the war he served with 
gallantry in the Scotland Neck cavalry. After the close 
of the great struggle he maintained an interest in military 
matters as an honorary member of the Wilson light 
infantry. On returning to the affairs of civil life in 1865 
he was united in marriage to Nannie, the daughter of 
Gen. Joshua Barnes, of Wilson county, who yet survives. 
He was engaged in agriculture for three years, and then 
established at Wilson the mercantile house of Branch 
& Co., which became widely known as remarkably suc 
cessful in business, and its name as a synonym for com 
mercial integrity. He was also the senior partner in a 
house at Spring Hope, was very influential in the estab 
lishment of the Wilson cotton mills in 1883, of which he 
was president and principal stockholder; was a stock 
holder and member of the auditing committee of the Wil 
mington & Weldon railroad, and was the founder and 
president of the banking house which bore his name. 
These institutions, under his management, were con 
ducted for the best interests of his fellow citizens and for 
the promotion of the growth of the town in which he was 
interested. At his death he provided that the bank and 
the mill should continue in the hands of trustees in the 
same liberal policy. In business he was active, untiring 
and indomitable; in social life courtly, hospitable and 
gentle. There have been few, if any, more noble types 
of the manhood that was represented in the ranks of the 
armies of the Confederacy. 

Lieutenant Seth Bridgman, a prominent citizen of 
Washington, N. C., born in Hyde county in 1841, served 
during the war of the Confederacy among the troops for 
State defense. He became a resident of Washington in 
1858, and there, in April, 1861, enlisted as a member of 
the Washington Grays. He went with this company to 
Portsmouth, N. C., and was there taken sick, requiring 
that he should be left behind when the command was 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 399 

ordered to Hatter as. In this way it happened that he 
escaped the capture which befell most of his company. 
Subsequently with the remnant of the Grays he returned 
to Washington and was at once attached to the company 
of Capt. W. B. Rodman. Sickness again disabled him, 
and upon his recovery he joined the company of Captain 
Whitehurst, which was assigned to the Fortieth regiment, 
heavy artillery. This regiment he entered as a private, 
and continuing in the service until just before the fall of 
Fort Fisher, when he was granted a furlough of sixty 
days, he rose to the rank of second lieutenant. It was 
not his fortune to participate in many battles, the engage 
ment at New Bern and skirmishes about Fort Fisher 
constituting his main experiences. Since the war Mr. 
Bridgman has been for some time prominent in business 
and financial circles as president of the Bank of Washing 
ton. In 1865 he was married to Mary E. Carrow, and 
they have five children living: Margaret A., wife of 
Doane Herring, Anne H., Hattie G., Celia R., and 
Henry P. Bridgman. 

Colonel John Luther Bridgers, a distinguished North 
Carolina soldier, was born in Edgecombe county, Novem 
ber 28, 1822. He was graduated with distinction at the 
university of North Carolina, and licensed to practice law, 
in which he was actively engaged at Tarboro, also man 
aging his agricultural interests, until the outbreak of 
war. He was a man of noble character; strong but 
gentle, his firmness mixed with mercy ; and was success 
ful in his enterprises without injustice to his fellows. As 
member of the legislature and solicitor for Greene 
county he attained prominence early in his career. At 
the crisis in 1861 he was regarded as one of the strong 
men of the State, was one of Governor Ellis councillors 
of State and intimate friend, and was sent as commis 
sioner to the Montgomery conference. At the organiza 
tion of the Edgecombe Guards in 1859 he had been unan 
imously chosen captain, and his command was the first 
to tender its services to the governor. Early in 1861 it 
went into camp at Raleigh, and was assigned as Company 
A to the First regiment, North Carolina volunteers, Col. 
D. H. Hill. Captain Bridgers accompanied the regiment 
to Virginia, and on June n, 1861, took a conspicuous 
part in the battle of Big Bethel, his company suffering 



400 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

greater loss than all the other troops combined, and 
furnishing the first martyr of the war, Private Henry L. 
Wyatt. Captain Bridgers gallantly led his company in 
a charge upon the enemy, driving the Zouaves from the 
advanced howitzer battery. Colonel Hill reported: "It 
is impossible to overestimate this service. It decided 
the action in our favor," and General Magruder also 
alluded in the most complimentary terms to the daring 
gallantry of Captain Bridgers at the critical period of the 
battle. Subsequently Captain Bridgers was promoted to 
lieutenant-colonel of the Tenth artillery, commanded by 
Col. J. A. J. Bradford, and after the latter officer was 
captured by the Federals at Fort Macon, Bridgers suc 
ceeded to the command, and occupied the fort until fail 
ing health compelled him to resign. In the latter part 
of 1863 he declined, on account of ill health, the promo 
tion of brigadier -general in cavalry. Afterward, when 
his health permitted, he was on duty upon the staff of 
Gen. D. H. Hill, when the latter was in command in 
eastern North Carolina. He was also associated with his 
brother, R. R. Bridgers, at the request of the govern 
ment, in the management of the High Shoals iron fur 
naces, nail and rolling mills, which were the second in 
importance in the South, and did much government 
work. At the close of hostilities he resumed his profes 
sional work until forced to retire to his farm on account 
of sickness. He died January 22, 1884, after a long 
illness. 

Captain Benjamin F. Briggs, of Wilson, N. C., was born 
in Wayne county in 1836, and was there reared and edu 
cated. As a young man he held a station of much promi 
nence in his community, and resigned the office of clerk of 
the superior court to enter the Confederate service in the 
summer of 1862. He enlisted as a private in Company 
A of the Fifty-fifth regiment, was at once appointed first 
sergeant, soon afterward promoted third lieutenant, then 
passed through the grades of second and first lieutenant, 
and after the battle of Gettysburg was promoted captain 
of his company. Among the engagements in which he 
participated were those of the Suffolk campaign, three 
days of battle of Gettysburg, Falling Waters, the Wil 
derness, Spottsylvania Court House, and the subsequent 
fighting from the Rapidan to the James, after which he 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 401 

was on duty in the trenches about Petersburg until the 
evacuation. He then resigned, expecting to enter the 
cavalry, but the speedy termination of the war made that 
impossible. He was slightly wounded at Gettysburg and 
at the Wilderness. Returning to Wilson county, he was 
elected clerk of the county court in 1866, and in 1867 
sheriff of the county, an office which, by re-election, he 
held for six years. He is now proprietor of the Briggs 
hotel, at Wilson, and an influential citizen. In 1859 he 
was married to Nannie J. , daughter of Jonathan Barnes, 
who died in 1895, leaving one child, Roscoe G. In 
December, 1897, he married Elizabeth K., daughter of 
Col. Boland B. Barrow, of Edgecombe county. 

Joseph L. Britt, of Enfield, was born in Edgecombe 
county, N. C., March 16, 1842, and in 1860 removed with 
his parents to Halifax county, where he enlisted in April, 
1 86 1, in the Enfield Blues, which became Company I of 
the First regiment of volunteers. He accompanied this 
command to Yorktown, Va. , and was present at the bat 
tle of Big Bethel, which was fought mainly by the First 
regiment of the Confederate side. On the next day one 
of his brothers was accidentally killed at Yorktown, this 
being the only fatality among the six brothers, all of 
whom served honorably in the Confederate ranks. After 
the First regiment disbanded at the end of its six 
months enlistment, Private Britt re-enlisted in Company 
F, Thirty-sixth regiment, heavy artillery, and soon after 
ward was promoted to a non-commissioned officer, in 
which capacity he continued until the close of hostilities. 
He was in battle at New Bern, and was one of the 
heroic garrison of Fort Fisher under Colonel Lamb, tak 
ing part in the defense of the fort against the two attacks 
in the winter of 1864-65. At the last, battle he was 
wounded by a shot through the thigh and captured by 
the enemy. He was in hospital at Hampton, Va. , until 
his recovery, and was then confined at Fort Delaware 
until June 29, 1865, when he was finally paroled. After 
farming for twelve years following the war, he estab 
lished himself in business as a merchant, and has contin 
ued in that occupation, first for a few years at Tarboro, 
and since then at Enfield. Mr. Britt was married in 1869 
to Emma, daughter of L. H. Morris, of Halifax county. 
She died a few years later, and in 1881 he married 



402 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Josephine Hawkins, of the same county. They have 
seven children living: Normalena, Arthur Lawrence, 
Joseph Burchmans, Maurice, Francis, Mary Louise and 
Josephine Clara. 

Major Marcus L. Brittain, of Murphy, was born in 
Macon county, N. C., in 1827, the son of Benjamin S. 
Brittain, a native of Buncombe county, who, after his 
marriage to Celia Vance, removed with his family to 
Macon county, and thence in 1842 to Cherokee county, 
which he represented several terms in the State legisla 
ture, and also represented as a soldier in the first year of 
the Confederate war, at the close of that time being hon 
orably discharged on account of age and illness, from 
which he died soon afterward. Major Brittain, after 
becoming of age, was first engaged in iron manufactur 
ing on Hanging Dog creek, being one of the first to util 
ize the mineral wealth of the county ; later entered upon 
a business career as a merchant at Valley Town, now 
Andrews, and removed to Murphy in 1860, where he 
abandoned his business interests in 1862 to enlist in the 
State military service. He was soon afterward commis 
sioned by Governor Vance as major of the Forty-seventh 
North Carolina battalion, with which he served in a num 
ber of engagements, the most important of which was at 
Murphy in 1864, where with about 100 men he attacked 
an invading force of 1,500, and though obliged to retreat 
with some loss, captured about 25 prisoners. Soon after 
this affair he was captured by the enemy and sent to 
Knoxville, where the Federal authorities meditated his 
execution. Information that it was decided upon reached 
his friends at Murphy, and thereupon two citizens, 
Pleasant Henry and Edmond Dewees, both Union men, 
hastened to Knoxville on foot, 80 miles over the 
mountain, and by their intercession, saved his life. At 
that place he and his fellow prisoners were confined in an 
old jail without heat, and many of them died from the 
hardships of their imprisonment. Later he was trans 
ferred to Camp Morton, Ind. , where, personally, he was 
in a more comfortable condition on account of being 
detailed for special duty, but was the unwilling witness of 
suffering among his comrades which was most harrow 
ing. When released, after the close of hostilities, he 
returned home and engaged in farming until 1882, when 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 403 

he removed to Murphy and resumed mercantile pursuits, 
from which he has only recently retired. By his mar 
riage in 1852 to Sarah C., daughter of David H. Hen- 
nesa, a farmer of Valley River, he has eight children 
living. 

Captain David G. Broadhurst, ex-mayor of Goldsboro, 
and a veteran of the Twentieth regiment, was born in 
Wayne county in 1844. He enlisted April 27, 1861, in 
the volunteer organization which became Company E of 
the Tenth volunteers, after the reorganization, Twentieth 
regiment, North Carolina troops. He served as a private 
until the fall of 1862, when he was transferred to Company 
K of the same regiment, and commissioned second 
lieutenant. Promotion speedily followed to first lieuten 
ant, and in the following March he was elected captain. 
He was a gallant participant in the Seven Days battles, 
fought at South Mountain and Sharpsburg, and on the 
field of victory at Chancellorsville suffered the loss of his 
right hand. This severe wound put an end to his mil 
itary career and he resigned in the summer following. 
Since the war he has resided in Wayne county, where he 
held the office of superintendent of public instruction 
from 1887 to 1893, and served two years as mayor of 
Goldsboro. His brother, William G. Broadhurst, now 
living in Wayne county, served throughout the war as a 
private, first in the Twentieth regiment and later in the 
First cavalry. 

Robert Hall Brooks, of Raleigh, since February, 1898, 
superintendent of the North Carolina Soldiers home, 
was one of the heroic youth of the State who left their 
collegiate studies to encounter the perils of battle. He 
was born in October^ 1841, at Wake Forest, the son of 
William Tell Brooks, then professor of Latin and Greek 
at the college, and had advanced in his studies into the 
sophomore year when the call of his State drew him from 
his books to the field. He enlisted as a private in the 
Ellis light artillery, afterward known as Manly s battery, 
in April, 1861; in February, 1862, was promoted to cor 
poral, and after the battle of Fredericksburg was given 
the rank of sergeant. He was actively engaged during 
the siege of Yorktown by the Federal forces, fired the 
first shot at Dam No. i on the peninsula, and participated 

Nc 49 



404 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

in the affairs at Warwick island, Fort Magruder, and the 
battles of Williamsburg, Seven Pines, Savage Station, 
White Oak Swamp and Malvern Hill, during the hard- 
fought campaign before Richmond between Johnston and 
Lee and McClellan. While lying sick at Warrenton, 
Va., in October, 1862, he was captured and paroled, and 
being exchanged in the following month, took part in 
the battle of Fredericksburg. During 1864 and 1865 he 
was in numerous artillery engagements, including the 
great battles of Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, the Wil 
derness, Spottsylvania (where he was slightly wounded), 
Cold Harbor and the affair at the Dunn house. In 
November, 1864, he was sent with a squad to western 
North Carolina for the purpose of recruiting the horses 
of Cabell s battalion of artillery, and was still on this 
detail when the war came to an end. He then busied 
himself with farming at his home for nine years, and 
after a few years of service on the Raleigh & Gaston rail 
road, engaged in mercantile pursuits at Raleigh until 
1891, when he was appointed deputy sheriff, the position 
he held until December, 1896. Mr. Brooks was married 
in 1866 to Annie ; Seawell, and they have four children: 
William T., Nellie Lewis, Henry Seawell and John 
Brewer Brooks. 

Lieutenant Alexander Davidson Brown, now a promi 
nent merchant of Wilmington, though a native of Scot 
land, born in 1837, earnestly supported the cause of the 
State during the great war, and for four years wore the 
Confederate gray. He came to America in 1857, and for 
three years resided at Boston, not becoming a citizen of 
Wilmington until 1860. He enlisted in April, 1861, as a 
private in the artillery company of Capt. James D. Cum- 
mings, later known as Battery C, of the Thirteenth bat 
talion. In this gallant command he was successively 
promoted to corporal, junior second lieutenant and senior 
second lieutenant. During his military career he par 
ticipated in the fighting at New Bern and on the Peters 
burg lines in numerous engagements, took part in the 
righting on the retreat from Petersburg, and at Appo- 
mattox Court House previous to the surrender. After 
his return to Wilmington he embarked in the dry goods 
trade in 1867, an d in this line of business has made a 
successful career. He has served as director of the State 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 405 

penitentiary four years, and is recognized as a leading 
and influential citizen. In 1868 he was married to Eliza 
beth, daughter of Thomas Emanuel, and they have two 
children, Rachel F., wife of F. D. Alexander of Char 
lotte, and Maggie F. Brown. 

Captain John D. Brown, a soldier of the Confederacy, 
in these latter days enjoying comfort and prosperity as 
a farmer of Mecklenburg county, N. C., was born in 
Robeson county, November 17, 1840, the son of Archibald 
S. Brown, a lawyer of prominence in his time. When 
nineteen years of age he moved with his parents to 
Mecklenburg county, and there entered Davidson col 
lege, of which he was a student at the beginning of the 
war era. He left his studies to enlist as a private in the 
company of Capt. W. B. Lynch, and upon its disband- 
ment became a member of Company I, Fifth North Caro 
lina cavalry. He was with this command as private 
and sergeant until early in 1863, when he was elected 
third lieutenant of Company C, Thirty-seventh regiment. 
In 1864 he was promoted to captain of his company. 
Among the battles in which he participated were those of 
White Hall Bridge, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, the 
Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court House, and the fighting 
in the trenches and in the vicinity of Petersburg. He 
was once wounded and twice captured. At Spottsylvania 
he first fell into the hands of the enemy, but was 
exchanged sixty days later. Finally, on the right of the 
line at Petersburg, a few days before the evacuation, he 
was made prisoner, and thence was carried to Johnson s 
island, Lake Erie, where he was held until the following 
June. Subsequently he became a farmer in Mecklen 
burg, met with success, increased his land holdings to 
some seven or eight farms, and for ten years conducted 
a good retail business at Davidson, where he now resides. 
By his marriage in 1864 to Mary Johnson he has ten 
children living. 

Captain Daniel O. Bryan, of Jonesboro, N. C. , a gal 
lant veteran of the Second cavalry, was born in 1835, 
son of Winship Bryan and his wife Nancy Mclver. He is 
of old North Carolina lineage, of Irish and Scotch origin. 
He was educated in the common schools and in early 
manhood was engaged in agriculture. Previous to the 



406 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

war he served as deputy sheriff of the county in the years 
1858 to 1860. In the summer of 1861 he enlisted in the 
cavalry troop of Capt. Jesse L. Bryan, which became 
Company I, of the Nineteenth regiment State troops or 
Second cavalry, and was mustered in as second lieuten 
ant. In 1862 he was promoted to first lieutenant, and in 
1864 to captain. In 1862, under the command of Col. 
S. B. Spruill, the regiment participated in numerous skir 
mishes about New Bern, picketing the south side of the 
Neuse river until the fall, when under the command of 
Col. Sol Williams it was called into Virginia and joined to 
Stuart s cavalry. It was on picket duty at Warrenton and 
on the Rappahanncck, was engaged as skirmishers and 
sharpshooters at Fredericksburg, fought with Stoneman s 
raiders, and was particularly distinguished in the battle 
of Brandy Station in June, 1863, when Colonel Williams 
was killed. In the fight at Upperville, soon afterward, 
Lieutenant Cole of Company I was killed and Lieutenant 
Bryan was badly wounded. The next important fight 
was at Hanover, Pa., and it did creditable work in the 
cavalry fight at Gettysburg. Subsequently it was iden 
tified with the gallant record of Gordon s brigade, later 
commanded by Barringer, until the end of the war. 
Captain Bryan was on the skirmish line fighting, at Ap- 
pomattox, when a courier rode up to bring them news of 
the surrender, but he, like many other cavalrymen, did 
not participate in that event, but cut his way out and 
never gave his parole. Reaching home May 12, 1865, he 
immediately went to farming, the occupation which he 
has ever since followed. He is an influential man in his 
county, has served as county commissioner by election in 
1888 and 1890, and for one term was chairman of the 
board. In 1868 he was married to Anna E. Gardner, of 
Carbonton, and they have two children: Eiva and 
Marshal. 

Captain Edward K. Bryan, of New Bern, is a native 
of that city, born in 1835, of an honorable North Caro 
lina lineage running back to the colonial period. His 
greatgrandfather, William Bryan, a native of Craven 
county, served in the revolutionary war for independence 
with the rank of brigadier-general. Captain Bryan was 
reared and educated at New Bern, and during Presi 
dent Buchanan s administration, held the office of deputy 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 407 

collector of customs for Pamlico district, but resigned 
after the election of Mr. Lincoln. In 1859 he was mar 
ried to Mary Moore, of the same city. The advent of the 
crisis in national affairs found him second lieutenant of 
the Beauregard Rifles, and ready to serve in defense of 
the State. He held the same rank after the Rifles were 
mustered in as Company I of the Second regiment, North 
Carolina troops. He served with his regiment in Vir 
ginia from just after the first battle of Manassas, took 
part in the severe skirmish on the Williamsburg road 
preceding the Seven Days battles, fought through that 
campaign, and at Boonsboro, Sharpsburg and Fredericks- 
burg. He was then appointed adjutant of the Thirty-first 
regiment, which changed his field of duty to South Caro 
lina. He took part in the famous defense of Charleston, 
including the defense of Battery Wagner and the battle 
on James island, was in the fight at Fort McAllister, near 
Savannah, and was then ordered back to Virginia, where 
he fought at Second Cold Harbor and received a severe 
wound that disabled him for several months. After his 
recovery he took part in the battle of Bentonville, and 
finally surrendered May i. 1865, at Bush Hill, near High 
Point. With the exception of five years residence at 
Charlotte, following 1865, he has been a resident of New 
Bern since the close of the war, and has met with marked 
business success as a cotton broker. He has served as 
chairman of the board of education of Craven county four 
years, and has been a frequent participant in the various 
local and State conventions of his party. Captain Bryan 
has four children living : Florence, wife of James W. 
Waters, Edward K. Jr., William P. M., and Mary C., 
wife of C. S. Hollister. His brother, William G. Bryan, 
Jr., was orderly- serge ant in the Second regiment, and 
received wounds at Fredericksburg which caused his 
death a month later. 

Major James A. Bryan, president of the National 
bank of New Bern since 1888, was born in the city 
of New Bern in September, 1839. He graduated at 
Princeton college, N. J., in June, 1860, after which, 
returning to his native city, he entered upon the study 
of the law. Upon the breaking out of hostilities, a 
few months later, between the North and the South, he 
became a member of a local company of cavalry, known 



408 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

as the Neuse cavalry, and in April, 1861, was commis 
sioned by Governor Ellis second lieutenant of artillery in 
the State service of North Carolina, and assigned to duty 
with Col. John D. Whitford, chief of ordnance at New 
Bern, N. C. Upon the transfer of the State forces to 
the Confederate government in August of the same year, 
he was commissioned second lieutenant of artillery in the 
Confederate army by President Davis, and assigned to 
duty at New Bern as ordnance officer of the district 
of Pamlico and placed upon the staff of Gen. L. O B. 
Branch, as ordnance officer of his brigade, with whose 
command, after the fall of New Bern, in March, 1862, 
he joined the army of Northern Virginia, and on July i, 
1862, was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant of artil 
lery. Acting as aide-de-camp to General Branch he took 
part in the battle of Hanover Court House, the battles 
before Richmond, Second Manassas, Cedar Run, Ox Hill, 
Harper s Ferry and Sharpsburg, in which latter battle 
General Branch was killed. Upon the death of General 
Branch, Gen. James B. Lane succeeded to the command 
of the brigade, upon whose staff he served through the 
battles of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, 
the Wilderness and Spottsylvania Court House. On Sep 
tember 20, 1864, he was commissioned captain, under act 
No. 155, for military service with volunteers, but shortly 
before the surrender he resigned this rank and was com 
missioned by Governor Vance major and chief quarter 
master of the State of North Carolina. After the decision 
of the Federal authorities not to parole Governor Vance 
and his staff, upon the advice of the governor he took a 
parole as captain C. S. A. While at Greensboro, before 
the arrival of the Federal troops, General Johnston turned 
over to him, as representative of the State, all the artil 
lery, horses, mules, wagons and stores of his army, which, 
with the exception of the artillery, by the direction of 
Governor Vance, he distributed among the farmers. He 
was twice promoted for gallantry on the field, the second 
time, when advanced from first lieutenant to captain, the 
examination which officers of the ordnance corps were 
usually required to pass before obtaining promotion, was 
waived as a special distinction in his favor. After the 
close of the war he was engaged in the lumber business, 
and afterward in farming in Craven county until elected 
to his present position. He has had an honorable official 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 409 

career for twenty- two years, as a member of the board of 
commissioners of his county, being for twenty years of 
the time chairman of the board. 

John Ruffin Buchanan was born May 10, 1830, in Gran- 
ville county, N. C. ; enlisted May 12, 1862, as a private in 
Company A, Forty-fourth regiment, North Carolina 
troops; was promoted sergeant in 1863, served in Petti- 
grew s brigade in eastern North Carolina and engaged in 
several skirmishes around New Bern, Washington and 
other places. The Forty-fourth regiment was transferred 
to Virginia in the fall of 1862 and served around Rich 
mond until June, 1863. When General Lee started on 
the Gettysburg campaign, the Forty-fourth was detached 
at Hanover Junction to guard bridges on the South 
Anna and protect the supplies at Hanover Court House. 
On June 26, 1863, Company A, sixty-two men, and fifteen 
men from Captain Bingham s company, under command 
of Col. T. L. Hargrove, were stationed at the bridge of the 
Chesapeake & Ohio railroad over the South Anna river, 
when they were attacked by General Speer, with 
between 1,200 and 1,500 cavalry. Then occurred one of 
the most stubborn fights of the war, when this handful of 
Carolina soldiers held their ground for more than three 
hours, and would never have yielded, but General Speer 
divided his forces and made a detour to the right and 
crossed the river and attacked them in the rear. Just 
as the column dismounted to make the charge, Sergeant 
Buchanan shot one of the commanding officers off his 
horse. The Yankees then charged and a hand-to-hand 
fight ensued around a little cabin, on the porch of which 
Colonel Hargrove was standing, fighting with several 
Yankees at one time. One gigantic trooper, with drawn 
sword, was rushing on him when Joe Cash, a mere boy 
sixteen years old, pierced him with his bayonet, and as 
he fell another trooper shot Joe, and he fell across the 
man he had just killed. Before he fell a Yankee called 
on him to surrender, and though he saw they were over 
whelmed by numbers, he replied, "I ll never do it, till my 
colonel tells me, and fought on until he was killed. By 
this time the Yankees had surrounded the handful of 
Confederates and Sergeant Buchanan was shot through 
the breast just over the heart. The fight continued 
hand to hand until the Yankees were afraid to fire their 



410 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

carbines for fear of killing their own men, and resorted 
to their pistols and clubbed carbines, and forced the Con 
federates down by sheer weight of numbers. Nearly 
every man on the Confederate side was either killed or 
wounded, while they inflicted as great or greater loss on 
the enemy. When the fight was over the Yankees gath 
ered up their own dead and wounded and such of the 
North Carolinians as could be moved, and started on their 
retreat. They put Sergeant Buchanan and such others 
as they considered mortally wounded in a negro cabin 
near by and left them there to die. The next day all 
except Sergeant Buchanan were moved to Richmond, 
and he was left to die, but a noble lady, Mrs. Rosa Winston, 
living in the vicinity, had him removed to the hospital 
at South Anna male academy, where, under the skillful 
ministration of Drs. Meredith and McKinne, he was 
nursed back to life and enabled to go home, where he 
remained in a disabled condition for several months. 
Upon his return to the regiment he was detailed for light 
duty at Lynchburg, but after several months service his 
suffering was such that he w r as furloughed for six months, 
and before the expiration of his furlough the Confederacy 
had ended. Mr. Buchanan is a highly-respected citizen 
of Granville county, superintendent of the home for the 
aged and infirm, and a member of Maurice Thomas 
Smith camp, U. C. V. In 1854 he married Miss Nancy 
A. Pittard, by whom he has five children living, Luther 
T. , a successful teacher, William R., Robert Hill, James 
P. and Mrs. Bettie F. Knott. 

Captain Benjamin Hickman Bunn, of Rocky Mount, a 
well-known lawyer and public man, was born in Nash 
county, N. C., October 19, 1844, the son of Redman and 
Mary Hickman (Bryan) Bunn. His father was a grand 
son of Benjamin Bunn, who removed from Virginia to 
North Carolina soon after the revolutionary war. At the 
age of seventeen years, July 20, 1861, he enlisted in 
Company I, Thirtieth North Carolina infantry, and was 
at once appointed orderly-sergeant. In September, 1862, 
he was elected junior second lieutenant of Company A, 
Forty-seventh infantry, and was subsequently promoted 
to second and then to first lieutenant. Eighteen months 
prior to the close of the struggle he was put in command 
of the Fourth company of sharpshooters of General Mac- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 411 

Rae s brigade, a service in which he was distinguished 
both for personal valor and efficiency as an officer. He 
took part in the battle at Gettysburg during the three 
days righting, and was slightly wounded; was in the 
Bristoe Station campaign, and at the Wilderness opened 
the fighting on the plank road with his sharpshooters. 
For fourteen nights during the campaign which followed, 
including the Spottsylvania battles, he commanded the 
guard. At Second Cold Harbor, and the fighting about 
Richmond, including the battle of Reams Station, he 
and his company were in the thick of the fray. Finally, 
in the engagement at Burgess Mill, March 25, 1865, he 
received a severe wound which compelled him to go to 
hospital at Richmond. When advised that Petersburg 
was evacuated he rose from his bed, walked to Danville, 
and reached home on the day of Lee s surrender. A 
few months later he began the reading of law at Golds- 
boro, and being admitted to practice in 1866, embarked 
in the profession at Rocky Mount. He has gained wide 
fame as a jurist, also as a State and national legislator ; 
was a member of the constitutional convention of 1875, 
served in the general assembly as chairman of the joint 
committee on the code, was an elector on the Democratic 
presidential ticket of 1884, an d in 1888 was elected to the 
United States Congress, where his services gave such sat 
isfaction that he was re-elected in 1890 and 1892. In the 
Fifty-second and Fifty-third congresses he was chairman 
of the committe on claims. In 1871 he was married to 
Harriet A., daughter of Dr. James J. Phillips, to whom 
have been born nine children. Two brothers of the 
foregoing served in the Confederate armies: William H., 
the eldest, a graduate of the university of North Caro 
lina, who left the practice of law at Wilson to enlist, 
became captain of a company of cavalry, and was killed 
at Burgess Mill, October 27, 1864; and Elias, who left the 
university to become adjutant of the Twelfth regiment, 
and was killed at Hanover Court House, May 27, 1862. 

Thomas O. Bunting, deputy United States marshal of 
the eastern district of North Carolina, is a native of 
Sampson county, born in 1845. He received his youthful 
education at the famous school of Dr. Wilson in Ala- 
mance county. In May, 1861, though only about sixteen 
years of age, he enlisted in the Twentieth North Carolina 



412 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

infantry, but in July following withdrew and entered the 
university of North Carolina, where he studied one year. 
Returning to the Confederate service he became a private 
in Company C of the Sixty-third regiment, of Fifth cav 
alry, and shared the subsequent gallant career of this 
command, taking part in the engagements at White Hall 
and Goldsboro, N. C., in 1862, and then, in Virginia, 
under the leadership of Baker, Gordon, Barringer, Hamp 
ton and Stuart, meeting the enemy on many a glorious 
field. In the long list of battles in which he participated 
are the names of Brandy Station, Upperville, Gettys 
burg, Hagerstown, Jack s Shop, the Buckland races, 
Mine Run, Spottsylvania Court House, Trevilian Sta 
tion, Yellow Tavern, the Wilderness, Reams Station, 
Belfield, Five Forks, Chamberlain Run, and besides 
these were the daring achievement known as Hampton s 
cattle raid and numerous minor encounters with the 
enemy. In the spring of 1865 he was sergeant of his 
company, now much reduced in numbers. On April 3d, 
at Namozine church, he was captured by the Federals, 
and being confined at Point Lookout was held there until 
June 28th. Throughoiit this gallant career he was once 
seriously wounded, receiving a shot through the ankle 
on the Ground Squirrel road near Petersburg, which 
disabled him for three months. When he returned to 
North Carolina he, like many other veterans, first made 
a crop, and then removed to Wilmington, where he has 
ever since resided. From 1883 to 1895 he was assistant 
tax collector for the city. He has also served twelve 
years as deputy United States marshal. In 1868 he was 
married to Louise Smith, of Smithville, who died in 1885, 
leaving five children: Thomas, William S., John H., 
Richard C. and Mildred Louise. 

John Henry Burgess, a prominent business man of 
Elizabeth City, had an adventurous career in the Con 
federate service as a soldier and scout. Born at Eliza 
beth City, February 27, 1843, he enlisted among the 
early volunteers, in May, 1861, as corporal of Company 
I, Seventeenth regiment, and was at a later date pro 
moted to sergeant. He was among the troops stationed 
at Oregon inlet at the time of the first Federal invasion 
of the coast, and after the fall of Fort Hatteras, fell back 
to Roanoke island and was stationed at Fort Bartow. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 413 

Here they were attacked by the fleet and army of Burn- 
side s expedition and compelled to surrender. Soon 
afterward he was paroled, but was not exchanged until 
the fall of 1862, when he went on duty at Weldon as 
provost guard and remained until the spring of 1863. 
Subsequently he joined the signal corps commanded by 
Maj. James F. Milligan, and was stationed on the lower 
James river, successively at Brandford, Brandon, Swan s 
Point and Mount Pleasant, and at Fort Clifton on the 
Petersburg lines. His service on this line of signalmen 
was of great importance to the defense of Richmond and 
was frequently attended with danger. With eleven com 
rades under the command of Sergeant Averett, he was 
engaged on scouting duty in the rear of Grant s army 
during May, 1864, obtaining valuable information for 
General Lee. He was finally with the army on the 
retreat from Petersburg and was surrendered at Appo- 
mattox. Soon after the close of hostilities he embarked 
in the mercantile business, in which he is still engaged. 
By his marriage in 1866 to Martha R. Newbold, he has 
seven children living: Henrietta Louise, wife of C. R. 
Bell, of Baltimore ; John Henry, Jr. , and William Fred 
erick Martin, both in business at Norfolk ; Nancy New- 
bold, Creighton Newbold, Joseph Warren and Arthur 
Earl. 

Colonel Harry King Burgwyn, who succeeded Gov. 
Zebulon B. Vance in command of the Twenty-sixth regi 
ment, North Carolina troops, was a native of North Caro 
lina, born in affluence and of distinguished ancestry. 
Before he was of the proper age to become a cadet at West 
Point he was offered an appointment there, where he 
studied for some time ; in 1 85 9 was graduated at the uni 
versity of North Carolina in special studies, and then 
matriculated at the Virginia military institute, where he 
remained until the beginning of the Confederate war. 
He shared the services of the cadets as drill-master at 
Richmond in the spring of 1861, and in June following 
was put in command of the camp of instruction at Crab 
Tree creek near Raleigh. Here he served with great 
efficiency until, on August 27th, he was elected lieuten 
ant-colonel of the Twenty-sixth regiment. In his first 
battle he won the admiration and love of his men. On 
the retreat from New Bern in crossing Brice s creek, he 



414 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

saw every man of his command safely across before he 
embarked; bore himself with conspicuous gallantry in 
the Seven Days battles before Richmond, and upon the 
election of Colonel Vance as governor in August, 1862, 
was promoted colonel. During the campaign in 
North Carolina, at Rawles Mill, in Martin county, he 
met and defeated his old instructor at West Point, Gen- 
eral Foster. A bright military career appeared to be 
opening before the young soldier and patriot, then in his 
twenty-first year, when he joined the army of Northern 
Virginia, in Pettigrew s brigade. He participated in the 
Pennsylvania cainpaign and led his regiment in the 
charge upon the enemy on the first day of the battle of 
Gettysburg. They were met by a terrible fire, and the 
color-bearer fell, when Colonel Burgwyn seized the flag 
and rushed to the front cheering on his men. Turning 
slightly to the left to see how they were behaving, a 
ball entered his left side and passed through both his 
lungs. He fell with the colors wrapped about him, and 
with his last breath sent a message to his commander: 
"Tell the general my men never failed me at a single 
point." He was laid to rest where he fell, but in 1867 
his body was reinterred in the beautiful Oakwood cem 
etery at Raleigh. 

Charles Manly Busbee, of Raleigh, N. C., conspicuous 
in the affairs of his city and State, and widely known 
throughout the United States for his able services as the 
supreme officer of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
served faithfully in 1863-65 as one of the boy soldiers of 
the Confederacy. He was born at Raleigh, October 23, 
1845, son f Perrin Busbee, an able lawyer and popular 
leader in Wake county in his day, and grandson of Johnson 
Busbee, who for thirty years presided over the county 
court of Wake. He was in the midst of a course of study 
at Hampden-Sidney college, Virginia, when, in October, 
1863, he enlisted in the Fifth North Carolina infantry as 
a private, but was soon appointed sergeant-major, the 
capacity in which he subsequently served. During the 
retreat to Appomattox he was acting adjutant of his regi 
ment. He participated in the battles of the army of 
Northern Virginia at Kelly s ford, the Wilderness and 
Spottsylvania Court House until, on the morning of May 
1 2th, he shared the fate of many of Johnson s brigade of 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 415 

Rodes division in becoming a prisoner of war. He was 
confined at Fort Delaware until in August, 1864, when 
he had the misfortune to be one of the 600 Confederate 
officers who, in retaliation for the placing of Federal 
prisoners in Charleston, were stationed on Morris island, 
exposed to the fire of the contending forces and the more 
deadly unhealthiness of the situation. He was paroled 
at Fort Pulaski in the following December, and until he 
was exchanged in March, 1865, he acted as private sec 
retary to Governor Vance. Then rejoining his regi 
ment, at that time guarding the ferries of the Staunton 
river, Va., he had a week s experience in the 
trenches before Petersburg, and finally participated in 
the fighting on the retreat to Appomattox, where he was 
surrendered. After the close of hostilities he studied a 
few months in the university of North Carolina, and then 
read law, gaining admission to the bar in 1867. He was 
reading clerk of the North Carolina senate in the winter 
of 1866-67, was elected county solicitor of Wake county in 
1867, was elected to the State senate in 1874, and was 
elected to the house in 1884, and in 1886 was appointed 
one of the three commissioners to refund the State debt 
connected with the construction bonds of the North Caro 
lina railroad. From 1874 he was a prominent member of 
the sovereign grand lodge of Odd Fellows, and in 1890 
received the honor of election as grand sire of the order 
in America. Meanwhile he has gained distinction in his 
profession, and has given to its requirements the main 
part of his active career. He is now engaged in the active 
practice of his profession. 

Lieutenant Fabius H. Busbee, conspicuous in the legal 
profession of the North Carolina capital, was born at 
Raleigh, March 4, 1848. Though but thirteen years of 
age at the beginning of the great struggle which drew so 
heavily upon the youth of the State, it was his privilege 
before the close of the war to share the military service 
of his Confederate comrades and engage in one of the 
famous battles of that heroic era. In February, 1865, he 
enlisted as a private in the Third regiment, Junior 
reserves, also known as the Seventy-first North Carolina 
infantry, and a few days later was promoted second lieu 
tenant of Company E. He served in this rank until the 
close of hostilities, and was under fire at Southwest 



416 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY 

creek, near Kinston, and in the battle of Bentonville, 
where the Junior reserves formed part of the gallant 
command of General Hoke. At the end of this service 
Lieutenant Busbee returned to Raleigh, and in 1868 was 
graduated at the State university. He was admitted to 
the practice of law in January, 1869, and at once em 
barked in the work of the profession in which he has 
made an honorable and successful career. 

Edward Gale Butler, of Raleigh, bursar of the Agri 
cultural and Mechanical college of North Carolina and 
assistant instructor in English, had a gallant career as a 
soldier of the Twelfth regiment of infantry. He is a 
native of Virginia, born at Norfolk, February 26, 1841, 
but was reared at Granville, N. C., from the age of two 
years. He entered the service with a company organized 
there by Capt Henry E. Coleman, which became Com 
pany B of the Twelfth regiment. With this command 
he served in Virginia from May, 1861, with Garland s 
brigade, fought through the sanguinary Seven Days 
campaign, and was captured at Malvern hill. He was 
held as a prisoner at Fort Delaware five weeks and then 
exchanged. For this experience he was revenged in full 
measure. During the retreat from Gettysburg he took 
prisoner a captain and two other men from an Illinois 
regiment; and on the night before the evacuation of 
Petersburg, with three or four men he recaptured Fort 
Mahone, taking prisoner 95 Federals, including four com 
missioned officers, whom he turned over to the proper 
authorities and received a receipt therefor. At Sailor s 
creek Sergeant Butler was again captured, and was held 
at Johnson s island until the following June. Return 
ing to Granville, now Vance county, he followed farming 
and teaching school until August, 1897, when he accepted 
his present position. 

John Gray Bynum, a prominent attorney residing at 
Greensboro, N. C. , formerly judge of the Tenth judicial 
district of North Carolina, was born at Gilbert Town, in 
Rutherford county, N. C., February 15, 1846, which was 
Fergusson s headquarters two nights before the battle 
of King s Mountain. At the age of seventeen years 
Judge Bynum entered the Confederate service as a pri 
vate in Company I of the Seventh regiment, North Caro- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 417 

lina troops, enlisting in June, 1863, from Yadkin county, 
where he lived at that time. He was with his regiment 
in the fall campaign which followed the battle of Gettys 
burg, was in battle at Bristoe Station, and at Mine Run 
was on exhausting duty and under fire for about three 
weeks. The exposure to the inclement weather during 
this service brought on pneumonia, and he was sent 
home. He was examined and declared unfit for service, 
but he nevertheless became a member of the Junior 
reserves, and going to Camp Vance, was appointed adju 
tant of the First battalion of this organization. Going 
with his command to Wrightsville, his poor condition for 
service on the line caused his appointment as purser s 
clerk on the blockade-runner Advance. He welcomed 
the adventurous career which this appointment opened, 
but he was destined not long to enjoy it, for the vessel 
was captured in a trip from Wilmington to Nova Scotia, 
and he was taken to New York and thrown into Ludlow 
street jail. When his health was utterly broken by this 
confinement and his weight was reduced to sixty-six 
pounds, he was turned out into the streets of New York. 
He at once found passage to Halifax as a stowaway on 
the Cunard liner Asia, and then shipped back to Wil 
mington through the blockade, arriving just before the 
fall of Fort Fisher. Reaching home again, he took to his 
bed and was not able to leave it for eight months. After 
his recovery the Confederate States had passed into his 
tory, and he turned his attention to a civil career, taking 
up the study of law. Being admitted to the bar he 
practiced at Morgan town until 1889, also taking an active 
part in political affairs and serving from 1878 to 1880 in 
the State senate, and in 1882 as clerk of the special com 
mittee of the United States Senate which investigated the 
internal revenue matters of the district. .In 1885 he was 
appointed judge of the superior court of the Tenth dis 
trict to fill an unexpired term, and in 1890 was elected 
for a full term, serving until 1895. He then removed to 
Greensboro, becoming a member of the law firm of 
Bynum, Bynum & Taylor. 

Lieutenant William Calder, a prominent business man 
of Wilmington, was born at that city, May 5, 1844, of an 
old Carolina family, his great-great-grandfather having 
served as sergeant-major in the war of the revolution. 



418 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

In 1859 he entered the military academy at Hillsboro, 
and left there in May, 1861, having been appointed drill- 
master by Governor Ellis, and assigned to the camp of 
instruction at Raleigh. Upon the organization of the 
first ten regiments of State troops he was commissioned 
junior second lieutenant of the Third regiment. In this 
rank he served as drill-master at Garysburg about four 
months, then being transferred to the Second regiment 
of infantry as second lieutenant of Company K. With 
this command he participated in the Seven Days cam 
paign about Richmond, and at Malvern hill was wounded 
in the left thigh, causing his disability until after the 
battle of Sharpsburg. He was in battle at Fredericks- 
burg, Chancellorsville, and most of the engagements of 
Jackson s and E well s corps, and during the three days 
righting at Gettysburg was in command of the sharp 
shooters of Ramseur s brigade. On the return to Orange 
Court House he was appointed adjutant of the First 
North Carolina battalion, heavy artillery, and subse 
quently was on duty with this command at Fort Caswell, 
until that post was evacuated; was in battle at Fort 
Anderson, Town Creek and Kinston, and at the battle of 
Bentonville served as acting assistant adjutant-general 
on the staff of Colonel Nethercutt, commanding the bri 
gade of Junior reserves. From that time until the end 
of hostilities he was with his artillery battalion in out 
post duty on upper Cape Fear river. Then, returning to 
Wilmington, he began his civil career in the service of 
the Wilmington & Manchester railroad ; was four or five 
years connected with the newspapers Dispatch and Star, 
and later as bookkeeper entered upon a commercial 
career. In 1873 he became a partner in the wholesale 
house of Kerchner & Calder Brothers, since 1886 known 
as Calder Brothers. He has been enterprising and active 
as a citizen as well as in the line of business, and ren 
dered valuable service from 1881 to 1897 as a member of 
the board of audit and finance of the municipal govern 
ment. In 1872 he was married to Alice L., daughter of 
Dr. John H. Boatright, of Columbia, S. C., and they 
have four children: Mary F., Milton, Robert E. and 
Hugh C. A brother of the foregoing, Robert Edward 
Calder, served in the Second North Carolina infantry 
until his left eye was destroyed by a wound at Mal 
vern hill. He afterward became professor in the 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 419 

Hillsboro military academy until the close of the war, 
subsequently going into business with his brother. He 
died in 1888, leaving two children: Phila L., wife of 
Joseph K. Nye, of New Bedford, Mass., and Edwin Keith 
Calder. 

W. H. Call, of Washington, N. C., since the war 
mainly engaged as a minister of the Methodist church, is 
a native of Davy county, born at Mocksville in 1842. He 
was educated at the university of North Carolina, where 
he left his studies in June, 1862, to enlist in the Confed 
erate service. He became a private in the Seventh Con 
federate cavalry, composed of North Carolinians and 
Georgians. In the latter part of 1864 the North Carolini 
ans in this command were transferred to the Sixteenth 
North Carolina battalion, and Mr. Call, who had up to 
this time served as orderly-sergeant, was appointed 
ordnance-sergeant During his service he participated 
in the engagements at White Oak road, Va., Burgess 
Mill, Five Forks, Port Walthall Junction, Suffolk, 
Reams Station, and in the trenches at Petersburg. 
After the close of hostilities he returned to his studies at 
Chapel Hill, and upon completing his education, entered 
the ministry of the Methodist church as a member of the 
North Carolina conference. He was actively devoted to 
this calling, residing at various stations until 1884, when 
he made his home permanently at Washington. Mr. 
Call was married in 1871 to Maggie, daughter of John 
A. Arthur, late of Washington. 

Lieutenant Francis Hawkes Cameron, of Raleigh, was 
born at Hillsboro, June i, 1839. In l8 55 he entered the 
United States service, and was stationed at Brooklyn, 
N. Y. , in the coast survey when Fort Sumter was bom 
barded. Declining a commission in the" Federal army 
he ran the blockade and landed at Savannah, reported 
at Montgomery, Ala., and was commissioned a lieuten 
ant in the regular army of the Confederate States. He 
served under General Bragg at Pensacola, and while 
there took part in the perilous duty of blockading the 
channel under the guns of the Federal forts. Compelled 
to return home in June by violent illness, he subse 
quently was on duty with Commodore Tattnall on the 
South Carolina and Georgia coast, serving on the Hun- 
Nc 50 



420 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

tress, the flagship Savannah and the Fingal, as lieuten 
ant of marines, and fighting in the battle of Port Royal 
and other engagements. Early in 1862 his command, 
First battalion of marines, was ordered to Virginia, 
where he took part in the repulse of the Federal fleet at 
Drewry s bluff, and was in the Seven Days campaign. 
He was commissioned first lieutenant of marines in the 
winter of 1862-63, an ^ remaining on the James river took 
a conspicuous part in the defeat of Butler at Drewry s 
bluff in 1864, commanding the left wing of the Confed 
erate skirmish line. He was in command of Camp Beale 
for several months, fought in the rear guard during the 
retreat of 1865, escaped the disaster at Sailor s creek, 
and was in battle on the last day at Appomattox. 
Since the close of his Confederate service he has been 
prominently connected with insurance business in North 
Carolina. He has also taken a patriotic interest in the 
organization of the military of the State, serving in 
1877-78 as captain of Company A, First regiment State 
guards; from 1879 to 1891 as inspector-general with the 
rank of colonel, and from 1893 to 1897 as adjutant-general 
of the State, with the rank of brigadier-general. Colonel 
Cameron is a descendant of Rev. John Cameron, who 
came to Virginia from Scotland after the battle of Culloden 
and settled near Petersburg. His son, William Cam 
eron, grandfather of Colonel Cameron, made his home in 
Orange county, N. C., about 1825. 

Colonel John Lucas Cantwell, of Wilmington, a vet 
eran of two wars, was born at Charleston, S. C. , Decem 
ber 29, 1828. From 1844 he resided at Columbia, S. C., 
until the beginning of the Mexican war, when he enlisted 
as a private in the Richland Rifle Guards, Capt. William 
D. DeSaussure, which became Company H of the Pal 
metto regiment, Col. Pierce M. Butler. Mustered in at 
Charleston, December, 1846, he served in Mexico with 
General Scott, participating in the siege of Vera Cruz 
and the battles of Contreras, Churubusco, Molino del 
Rey, Chapultepec, and other engagements, until dis 
charged at the City of Mexico on account of disabilities 
due to three wounds received at Churubusco. He left 
the Mexican capital in the same wagon-train with Gen 
erals Quitman and Shields, November i, 1847, and re 
turned to his parental home at Charleston. He now 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 421 

receives a pension as a Mexican veteran from the United 
States government. Subsequently he was at New 
Orleans three years, and in 1851 made his home at Wil 
mington, where in 1853 he was one of the founders of 
the Wilmington light infantry, organized in January of 
that year. He served as first sergeant, lieutenant, and 
captain, and in April, 1855, was elected colonel of the 
Thirtieth militia regiment. At the outbreak of the Con 
federate war he was also clerk of the United States court 
for the Cape Fear district, and a magistrate for the county. 
In April, 1861, as commander of the only organized regi 
ment in the State, he was ordered to take possession of 
Forts Caswell and Johnson, and in the performance of 
that duty he selected the following companies for his 
command: The Wilmington light infantry, Capt. W. L. 
DeRosset; the German volunteers, Capt. C. Cornehlson; 
the Rifle Guards, Capt. Oliver Pendleton Meares, and 
Capt. John J. Hedrick s company, the Cape Fear artil 
lery, under Lieut. James M. Stevenson. The Cape Fear 
Riflemen, Capt. M. M. Hankins, was left in Wilmington. 
Colonel Cantwell seized the forts April i6th, and re 
mained in command at Fort Caswell until July, after 
which he served with his former Company, then Company 
G, Eighteenth regiment, at Coosawhatchie, S. C. ; with 
the Seventh regiment at New Bern; raised and com 
manded the Railroad Bridge Guard, which was on duty 
from Roanoke river, Va. , to Livingston creek, near the 
Sotvth Carolina line ; was colonel of the Fifty-first regi 
ment about one year, and in November, 1863, joined the 
army of Northern Virginia as captain of the Cape Fear 
Riflemen, Company F, Third North Carolina regiment. 
With this command he participated in the fighting of 
the Wilderness and Spottsylvania Court House until 
captured with Johnson s division, May 12, 1864. He 
was confined at Fort Delaware until August 20, 
1864, and then was one of the 600 Confederate officers 
placed under fire on Morris island and starved at Fort 
Pulaski. Returned to Fort Delaware in March, he 
was held there until May 27, 1865. He was one 
of the original members of the association of officers 
of the Third regiment, afterward the Third North 
Carolina infantry association, organized February. 1866, 
which is claimed to be the first organization of Southern 
veterans. 



422 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Captain Thomas Capehart, now a prominent citizen of 
Kittrell, is one of the survivors of the First or Bethel 
regiment. He was born at Murfreesboro, N. C., August 
27, 1840, and was reared there until seven years of age, 
when upon the death of his parents he made his home 
with an uncle in Bertie county. He was educated at 
Raleigh, at the Wilson school in Alamance county, and 
at Chapel Hill, where he was a student in the spring of 
1 86 1. Leaving his studies, however, in that stirring 
epoch, he enlisted as a private in a volunteer company 
known first as the Dixie Rebels, and later as Company 
M, First North Carolina volunteers. He was soon pro 
moted to corporal, then to sergeant, and finally to lieuten 
ant two weeks before the battle of Big Bethel, in which 
the regiment was distinguished. After the disbandment 
of the First he returned home and organized a company 
for light artillery service, for which he furnished part of 
the uniforms, and the churches contributed their bells for 
cannon. The company was attached to the Third battal 
ion of artillery, commanded by John Wheeler Moore, but 
was disbanded four or five months later for want of equip 
ment. After this Captain Capehart was out of the service 
until November, 1864, when he was appointed by Gov 
ernor Vance captain of cavalry in the State troops, the 
capacity in which he served until the close of hostilities. 
With the return of peace he engaged in farming, and 
since making his home at Kittrell, in 1867, he has also 
conducted a mercantile business there. He is now one 
of the leading business men of his town and section. By 
his marriage, in 1862, to Amelia Tucker, of Northampton 
county, he has eight children living: Emily Southall, 
Lucy Goode, Kate Tucker, Thomas Tucker, Cullen, 
Junius Long, Anthony Ashburn, Joseph Tudor and 
Tucker Stanley. 

James Carmichael, rector of St. John s Episcopal 
church, Wilmington, was devoted to the Confederate 
cause during the great struggle, in which others of his 
family also participated. His father, Dr. George F. Car 
michael, born at Fredericksburg, Va., in 1807, was in 
charge of a portion of the hospitals at Danville; his 
brother, Spotswood W. Carmichael, was on hospital duty 
at Newnan, Ga., Lynchburg and Chapin s Bluff, Va. ; 
and another brother, Charles Carter Carmichael, served 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 423 

as a lieutenant in the Thirtieth Virginia regiment through 
out the war, participating in the famous Confederate 
charge on Cemetery hill at Gettysburg. James Carmi- 
chael was born at Fredericksburg in 1835, and was edu 
cated at Concord academy, Hanover academy and the 
university of Virginia, after which he entered upon the 
study of law with Judge W. S. Barton, of Fredericks- 
burg, and was admitted to the bar in 1858. Then deter 
mining to devote his life to the Christian ministry, he 
began a course of study at the Alexandria theological 
seminary, from which he was compelled to retire by the 
advance of the invading armies in 1861. In May of that 
year he was commissioned chaplain of the Thirtieth 
Virginia infantry, and he was with this command in the 
field of duty until the spring of 1862, when he was disa 
bled by lung trouble and was sent on furlough to Greens 
boro, N. C. There he remained unfit for duty until 
November following, when, at the request of Dr. James 
L. Cabell, post surgeon at Danville, he was assigned as 
post chaplain at the latter place. In this capacity he 
served until July 3, 1865. Subsequently Dr. Carmichael 
was in charge of St. James church, near Louisville, Ky., 
until the fall of 1868, then at Grace church, Memphis, 
until 1878. After a briefer service at Port Deposit, Md., 
he assumed his present duties at Wilmington in 1883. 
Dr. Carmichael is chaplain of Cape Fear camp of Wil 
mington, and was recently made an honorary member of 
Camp 171, Confederate veterans, of Washington, D. C. 

Samuel Carmon, a popular railroad man of Wilming 
ton, is a survivor of a patriotic North Carolina family, for 
two generations connected with the soldierly career of 
the Fayetteville light infantry. His father, Joshua Car 
mon, a native of Fayetteville, served with this command 
in the war of 1812, and in civil life was noted for his 
faithful service during fifty years as bookkeeper of the 
Bank of Cape Fear, at his native city. An older son of 
the latter, Joshua Carmon, Jr., served in the Mexican 
war, and as a private in General Lane s brigade in the 
Confederate war, was badly wounded at the battle of 
New Bern, and has since died. Samuel Carmon, born at 
Fayetteville in 1841, and there reared and educated, went 
on duty for the State as a private in the Fayetteville 
light infantry in April, 1861, and with the Bethel regi- 



424 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

merit, of which his command was Company H, served in 
the famous first encounter at Big Bethel on the Virginia 
peninsula. When the Bethel regiment was disbanded he 
re-enlisted in Company E, Fifty-sixth regiment, and 
served as a sergeant until the four years struggle came 
to an end. He was one of the valorous fighters who 
achieved the capture of Plymouth, and was also in battle 
at Little Washington, Kinston and Gum Swamp, N. C. ; 
fought under Beauregard at Bermuda Hundred and in 
defense of Petersburg, and in the breastworks around 
Richmond; at the battle of the Crater, at Jerusalem 
plank road, at the lead works toward Weldon, and 
shared the suffering and fighting of the army of Northern 
Virginia until just before the evacuation of Petersburg, 
when he was permitted to go home on a furlough. He 
was wounded at Plymouth and again slightly at Gum 
Swamp. Since the war he has resided at Wilmington, 
and has had an honorable career in the railroad service, 
now holding the position of a conductor on the Atlantic 
coast line. 

Julian Shakespeare Carr, of Durham, N. C., a gallant 
soldier of the Confederacy, and now one of the most 
prominent business men of the South, was born October 
12, 1845, at Chapel Hill. His father, John Wesley Carr, 
a prosperous business man of that town, is well remem 
bered by many prominent people of the South who were 
students at the North Carolina university during the 
period of his commercial career. John Wesley Carr 
married Eliza Pannel Bullock, a member of the well- 
known Bullock family of Greenville county. Her broth 
er, Col. Robert Bullock, formerly represented a Florida 
district in the United States Congress. Of the children 
of this marriage, besides Julian Carr, there are living, 
Dr. Albert Gallatin Carr, of Durham, N. C. ; Robert 
Emmett Carr, associate editor of the Durham Globe; 
Mary Ella, wife of William A. Guthrie, of Durham; 
Lizzie, wife of Rev. J. T. Harris, of Durham ; and Emma, 
wife of Prof. J. F. Heitman of Trinity college. Julian 
S. Carr was reared in the quiet village of Chapel Hill 
under the influence of pious and exemplary Methodist 
parents, and received his education amid the favorable 
facilities of his native place until the outbreak of the war. 
Though under sixteen years of age when his State 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 425 

seceded, he became at a later date a member of a cav 
alry company, which was assigned to the Third North 
Carolina cavalry regiment, of Barringer s brigade. With 
this gallant command he did service in Virginia, particu 
larly amid the active and desperate campaigns of 1864-65, 
and won the esteem of his comrades by manly and sol 
dierly behavior. Since the close of hostilities he has 
been a warm and patriotic friend of the Confederate 
soldier, and the regard which his comrades have for him 
is evidenced by his long tenure of the office of president 
of the North Carolina Veterans association. No man like 
wise is more patriotic and loyal to the union of the States. 
It is due to his patriotic impulse and generosity that the 
coat-of-arms of North Carolina now appears among those 
of the other thirteen original States in the old Independ 
ence hall at Philadelphia. Observing the omission of 
the insignia of his State, while on a visit to that historic 
spot, he promptly secured the permission of the gov 
ernor, and at his own expense placed the shield of North 
Carolina in its appropriate place. In November, 1886, 
he served as chief marshal at the Fayetteville centennial 
celebration by the State of North Carolina of the adoption 
of the Constitution of the United States, and the success 
of that event was largely due to his efforts, assisted by 
a corps of aides selected by him from the ablest and most 
prominent citizens of the State. After the close of the 
war Mr. Carr attended the university at Chapel Hill for 
a short time, then became a partner of his father in 
business, and three years later removed to Little Rock, 
Ark., returning in 1870 to North Carolina and becoming 
interested in the manufacture of tobacco, in which his 
career has been pre-eminently successful. He purchased 
a one-third interest in the manufacturing business of 
W. T. Blackwell & Co., the firm then being com 
posed of W. T. Blackwell and J. R. Day, at Durham. 
The business of this famous house had then just begun to 
grow, and its progress has continued from that day until 
the Blackwell Durham corporation, as now organized, 
has a capital stock of $4,000,000, on which it pays good 
semi-annual dividends. While taking a leading part in 
the development of this great business, Mr. Carr has also 
been active in other lines, and the extent of his business 
enterprises can best be briefly described by reference to 
the following list of corporations and companies with 



426 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

which he has been connected: He is president of Black- 
well s Durham tobacco company; First national bank 
of Durham ; Commonwealth Cotton manufacturing com 
pany, Durham; Golden Belt manufacturing company, 
Durham ; Jule Carr home loan fund, Durham ; Durham 
electric lighting company; North Carolina bessemer 
company, McDowell county; Atlantic hotel company, 
Morehead City; vice-president Lynchburg & Durham 
railroad company; Durham cotton manufacturing com 
pany ; Durham Bull fertilizer company, Durham ; North 
Carolina steel and iron company, Greensboro ; Kerr bag 
machine company, Concord; Durham & Clarksville rail 
road; the executive committee of the National tobacco 
association of the United States. This represents but one 
side of his character. He is not only one of the wealthiest 
men in the State, but is one of the most influential, hon 
ored and loved ; generous to all worthy enterprises, and 
a popular leader among public-spirited men. He is not 
only a liberal promoter of industrial enterprises, but a 
strong supporter of religious, educational and charitable 
institutions. He has been the patron of many a poor and 
struggling man; has given home and assistance to the 
maimed and Confederate soldier ; has rendered substan 
tial aid to the university, Wake Forest college, Trinity 
college, and other institutions of learning, and in many 
ways has made his great wealth minister to the good of 
humanity. He is a member of the board of trustees of 
the Methodist female seminary at Durham; of the 
Greensboro female college association; trustee of the 
university of North Carolina, of Trinity college, and of 
the Davenport female college; Kittrell s normal school; 
the American university at Washington, and the Oxford 
orphan asylum. In political affairs Mr. Carr has not 
sought office, but has taken the part of a public-spirited 
man desirous to do his patriotic duty. He has twice 
represented the State in national convention of the Dem 
ocratic party, and was one of the committee to frame the 
platform upon which Mr. Cleveland was elected in 1884. 
He is a member of the association of Young Men s Dem 
ocratic clubs, and the State Democratic committee. He 
has also served on the governor s staff as paymaster- 
general with the rank of colonel. At the age of twenty- 
five years Mr. Carr was married to Nannie G., youngest 
daughter of Col. D. C. Parrish, of Durham. They have 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 427 

five children living, two daughters, Alida and Lallah, 
and three sons, Julian, Marvin and Claiborne. His family 
residence at Durham is one of the handsomest in the 
State, and his home life is one of ideal happiness. 

Captain Obed William Carr, of Greensboro, a veteran 
of the Forty-sixth regiment, was born in Duplin county, 
March 12, 1833. He was graduated at Trinity college in 
1859, and remained at that institution as a tutor until 
March, 1862, when he entered the Confederate service 
as captain of a company which he had organized, and 
which was assigned to the Forty-sixth regiment as Com 
pany G. From the camp of instruction at Goldsboro the 
regiment was ordered to Virginia, arriving at Richmond 
just after the battle of Seven Pines. It was on duty at 
Drewry s bluff, and during the Seven Days battles was 
on the extreme right of the Confederate line, next the 
river, at Malvern hill. Remaining at Drewry s bluff 
until the Maryland campaign, he took part in the capture 
of 13,000 Federal soldiers at Harper s Ferry, supporting 
a battery stationed on Loudoun heights, and was in the 
heat of the fight at Sharpsburg, coming out of battle 
with all his officers disabled and only sixteen men left 
on duty out of forty-eight. His health failed after this 
campaign, and in October he was granted a leave of 
absence. Rejoining his regiment, January ist, at Peters 
burg, he was on duty in North Carolina during the spring, 
participating in skirmishes at Gum Swamp and else 
where ; was stationed at Richmond during the Pennsyl 
vania campaign, and served in the army of Northern 
Virginia until he was compelled to resign by failing 
health in December, 1863. Captain Carr then engaged 
in teaching until the close of hostilities, with the excep 
tion of two weeks service at Kinston in the fall of 1864. 
From 1866 to 1878 he was a member of the faculty of 
Trinity college ; subsequently he has been engaged in the 
insurance business at Greensboro. He was State senator 
for the Twenty-fifth district, embracing the counties of 
Moore and Randolph, in 1881, and was for several years 
secretary and treasurer of the chamber of commerce at 
Greensboro, N. C. He is at present on the board of direc 
tors of the Greensboro female college association, trustee 
of Trinity college, Durham, N. C., and president of the 
Randleman manufacturing company at Randleman, N. C. 



428 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Major Daniel T. Carraway, for many years a well- 
known business man of New Bern, was born in Craven 
county in 1833, of an old North Carolina family. His 
maternal grandfather, Zadok Parris, was a soldier of the 
revolution, Mr. Carraway rendered valuable and faith 
ful service throughout the four years of war which at 
tended the career of the Southern Confederacy, in the 
commissary department. The work of a commissary 
officer of the Confederate army was attended by many 
embarrassments and difficulties, but it is greatly to his 
credit that notwithstanding all these he made a record of 
which he may well be proud, and ministered efficiently 
to the maintenance of the armies in the field. In April, 
1861, he was appointed commissary of subsistence for 
State troops and stationed at New Bern, and acted in 
this capacity until November, when the Confederate 
States government took charge. In January, 1862, he 
was appointed brigade commissary with the rank of 
major, for the brigade of General Branch, and just after 
the Seven Days campaign was detailed as commissary for 
Gen. A. P. Hill s division of the army of Northern Vir 
ginia. With the exception of a period, December, 1862, 
to June, 1863, when he was commissary for the brigade, 
then under General Lane, he continued to discharge the 
duties of division commissary, under General Pender and 
General Wilcox successively, until the surrender of the 
army at Appomattox, when he was present. Returning 
to North Carolina he found his family at Graham, and 
soon went into business at Raleigh, and a few months 
later at Wilmington, but after September, 1866, was a 
resident and influential citizen of New Bern, and held for 
some years prior to his death the position of superintend 
ent of the cotton and grain exchange. He died at his 
residence in the city of New Bern, November 26, 1898, 
in the sixty- sixth year of his age. 

Owen Judson Carroll, a well-known citizen of the State 
capital, appointed in 1894 United States marshal for the 
eastern district of North Carolina, was born in Duplin 
county in 1845, the grandson of John Carroll, of Mary 
land, who served in the continental army. He entered 
the Confederate service May i, 1862, as a private in Com 
pany B, Tenth regiment, heavy artillery, and was en 
rolled with this command until April, 1864, when he was 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 429 

transferred to Company D, Southerland s battery, light 
artillery. During the entire years 1863-64 he was detailed 
for duty in the provost marshal s office at Wilmington, 
acting as clerk for the court-martials of the army. Going 
into active service in January, 1865, he took part in the 
famous defense of Fort Fisher, and in March served with 
the artillery in the battles of Kinston and Bentonville. 
He was paroled with the army at Greensboro in May, 
1865, and then returned to his home in Duplin county, 
whence he went to Poughkeepsie, N. Y., and completed 
a business education, remaining for some time afterward 
as an instructor in the Eastman college. Returning to 
Duplin county in 1868 he married Mary A., daughter of 
Jesse B. Southerland, and in January, 1869, opened an 
academy at Magnolia, which he conducted until 1871. 
He was subsequently engaged in mercantile pursuits, 
traveling throughout the South for wholesale houses, and 
making his home at New York from 1885 until 1893, 
when he removed to Raleigh. In January, 1894, he was 
appointed to the office of United States marshal. 

Edward W. Carson, a veteran of the Forty-ninth regi 
ment, North Carolina troops, was born in Gaston county 
in 1838, son of Andrew Carson, who died in 1847. He 
was reared and educated in his native county, and in the 
spring of 1862 enlisted as a private in Company H of the 
Forty-ninth regiment, which was organized with Ste 
phen D. Ramseur as colonel early in that year. With 
this famous regiment, drilled by Ramseur and inspired 
by his heroic spirit, Carson served as private and corporal 
until the end of the war. In Robert Ransom s brigade 
he fought in the Seven Days battles before Richmond, 
going into the Malvern Hill fight between sundown and 
dark, and remaining on the ground until near noon the 
following day; and in the Maryland campaign, partici 
pating in the capture of Harper s Ferry and fighting at 
Sharpsburg, where his regiment made a gallant charge 
upon the enemy and did great execution in the Federal 
ranks. Here he was hit by a spent ball and disabled for 
a few days, and subsequently was furloughed for sixty 
days on account of poor health. He rejoined his regi 
ment at Wilmington, N. C. , and took part in numerous 
skirmishes along the line of the Weldon railroad. He 
was then on duty near Richmond; in January, 1864, took 



430 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

part in the New Bern expedition and the defeat of the 
enemy at Batchelder s creek; in March participated in 
the attack on Suffolk, and in May fought under Beaure- 
gard in the defense of Petersburg. From this time he 
remained on the Petersburg lines, was stationed to the 
left of the Crater, and participated in the capture of Fort 
Steadman in March, 1865. On the retreat from this 
battle he carried back Lieutenant Rankin, who had been 
severely wounded and who soon afterward died in hos 
pital. At Five Forks he was in the thick of the fight and 
narrowly escaped capture. After his parole at Appomat- 
tox he returned to his native county, penniless but with 
a brave heart, and ever since has been engaged in farm 
ing, now being one of the most prosperous farmers of his 
county. He is a member of the Presbyterian church, and 
has been a ruling elder in the same for a number of years. 

Lieutenant Benjamin H. Cathey, of Bryson City, was 
born in Jackson county, N. C., January 4, 1836. During 
the crisis of 1 860-61 he was a supporter of the old Union 
until his State decided to ally herself with the Confeder 
ate States, when he was among the first to enlist for the 
war which followed, going out in May, 1861, with the 
first company from his native county, to enter upon a 
career of four years uninterrupted service. He was pro 
moted to the rank of first lieutenant and was distin 
guished for coolness and bravery in battle. In the cam 
paigns of the army of Northern Virginia he served under 
Generals Pender and A. P. Hill for two years, from 
Seven Pines to Shepherdstown, and then under Johnston 
and Hood was identified with the army of Tennessee. 
At Chickamauga he seized the flag after the color-bearer 
had been shot down, and cheered his men forward in a 
desperate charge in the face of a terrible fire from the 
enemy. After the close of the war, returning to North 
Carolina, he refused to take the oath of allegiance until 
his State was relieved from the incubus of foreign ad 
venturers, and was restored to self-government. This 
accomplished, he at once devoted himself with entire 
loyalty to the best interests of the reunited Union. He 
is an active member of the United Confederate Veterans, 
has served as adjutant of the camp at Bryson, and is now 
aide-de-camp to General DeRosset, with the rank of 
major. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 431 

John L. Cathey, a veteran of the Sixtieth regiment, 
North Carolina troops, now clerk of the superior court of 
Buncombe county, was born in Macon county in 1832. 
His parents, Thomas and Mary Ann (Ingram) Cathey, 
were of North Carolina nativity, his mother being a 
granddaughter of Solomon Ingram, who moved from 
Ashe county to Cherokee before the Indians were re 
moved. His family made their home in Cherokee 
county when he was a child, and thence removed to 
Beaver Dam creek and later to Haywood county. In 
April, 1862, he left the farm and its peaceful duties to 
enlist in the cause of the Confederacy, becoming a mem 
ber of a company of the Sixth battalion, and marching 
to Greenville, Tenn. , where he was mustered in as a pri 
vate in Company I of the Sixtieth regiment, North Caro 
lina State troops. He fought in the battle of Murfrees- 
boro ; under Gen. Joe Johnston marched to the relief of 
Vicksburg; after the fall of that post joined in the gal 
lant stand made at Jackson against the victorious hosts 
of the United States army, and then, returning to Chat 
tanooga, took part in the bloody battle of Chickamauga, 
where his valor won for him a place on the official roll of 
honor. But for this distinguished honor he paid, as sol 
diers do, with blood. In the fight of Sunday, September 
2oth, he was severely wounded in the right leg, and on 
the next day, while lying in a thicket, on the field, his 
leg was amputated. Thus maimed he was carried to 
Ringgold, and thence to Coweta county, Ga., where he 
was in hospital until December 20, 1863. A few days 
later he reached home, where for a long time his wound 
disabled him, and afterward in his crippled condition the 
straggle for existence was beset with much discourage 
ment. By shoemaking, and finally, with the aid of his 
eldest son, by farming, he maintained himself and family, 
and in 1890 removed to Asheville, where he has twice 
been elected to the office of clerk of the superior court. 
He has taken an active part in political affairs in the 
Democratic party, and was one of the organizers of the 
Vance camp, Confederate veterans. By his first mar 
riage, in 1856, to Louisa L. Hyatt, a native of Missouri, 
who died in 1878, he has eight children. His second 
wife, Barbara Elizabeth Luthen, to whom he was mar 
ried in 1890, died in 1897, 



432 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

James Nettleton Caudle, prominent as a business man 
at Randleman, Randolph county, was born in Orange 
county, N. C., February 7, 1833. Since 1849 he has 
made his home at Randleman, and there was a member 
of the company of the State militia for five years prior to 
the war, holding the rank of first lieutenant. He entered 
the regular service in North Carolina in the fall of 1863, 
and took part in the defense of the State during the inva 
sion by Sherman s army, acting as a courier under Gen 
eral Johnston. Since the close of hostilities he has been 
engaged for the greater part of the time in agricultural 
pursuits, but for three years past has been a merchant 
at Randleman. For thirty years he has served his com 
munity as magistrate. 

Isham Johnson Cheatham, of Franklinton, who served 
the Confederate States as a member of the Forty-fourth 
regiment, North Carolina State troops, was "born in 
Granville county, January 22, 1830. He was educated 
at Henderson, and then became engaged in business at 
Townsville, whence he was called by the Southern war 
for independence. In the spring of 1862 he volunteered 
as a private in Company A, of the Forty-fourth regi 
ment, and was soon promoted to the rank of quarter 
master-sergeant. In this office he served the regiment 
until the end of the war, performing the important duties 
of his position with intelligent devotion to the wel 
fare of his comrades. He was in battle with his regiment 
at the South Anna bridge, at Mine Run and Bristoe 
Station, at the Wilderness and Spottsylvania Court 
House, and in all the battles around Richmond, after 
the Confederate capital was beleaguered by the United 
States army under Grant. After the surrender at Appo- 
mattox he returned to Townsville, and for a few years 
was occupied in farming. Since 1868 he has been 
engaged in railroad work, first as station agent at Little 
ton for eighteen months, and then as agent at Frank 
linton. In 1858 he was married to Mary Eliza Hunt, of 
Townsville, and they have eight children living : Fannie 
B., Richard I., Sue A., Kate W., Edwin J., Jane R., 
Mattie G. , and James B. The eldest son, Richard I. , is 
assistant general freight agent at Atlanta, for the Sea 
board Air Line railroad, and the other two sons are also 
in railroad service. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 433 

Colonel William H. Cheek, who made a splendid record 
as colonel of the First North Carolina cavalry, and who 
for gallantry was recommended by General Lee for pro 
motion to the rank of brigadier-general, was born in 
Warren county, N. C., March 18, 1835. After graduat 
ing at Randolph-Macon college, in 1854, he studied law 
under William Eaton, Jr., of Warrenton and was admit 
ted to the bar in June, 1856. In the following August he 
was elected commonwealth s attorney, which position he 
held until he was elected in 1860 to the legislature of 
North Carolina. When it became evident, in 1861, that 
the country was drifting into war, he resigned his seat 
in the legislature in order to raise a company for the 
defense of his native State. He had had some experi 
ence in military affairs, having been orderly-sergeant of 
the Warren Horse Guards, a company organized in the 
spring of 1859. In April, 1861, the Horse Guards were 
ordered to take possession of Fort Macon, but that 
important post had been occupied by the State troops 
before the arrival of that company, which accordingly 
returned home. The legislature, of which Mr. Cheek 
was a member, having passed a bill to raise ten regi 
ments of State troops to serve during the war, he re 
cruited Company E, First North Carolina cavalry. His 
commission as captain of that company was dated May 
1 6, 1 86 1. Robert Ransom, afterward brigadier-general, 
was the first colonel of this regiment, which was in 1862 
assigned to Hampton s brigade, and on the promotion of 
that officer to Baker s, Gordon s and Barringer s bri 
gades successively, being in the last-named brigade at 
the time of the surrender at Appomattox. Captain 
Cheek participated in more than 150 cavalry combats, the 
most important being the cavalry engagements of the 
Maryland campaign, Brandy Station, - the Gettysburg 
campaign, Williamsport, Spottsylvania Court House, 
Chamberlain Run and Five Forks. In September, 1863, 
he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel, and one month 
later, upon the death of Colonel Ruffin, he was promoted 
to colonel. In 1864, during the Kilpatrick and Dahlgren 
raid, when near Lee s Station the Federals broke 
through the lines and Richmond was in great danger, 
Colonel Cheek, under instructions of General Hampton, 
with about 100 raen attacked a brigade of the enemy at 
2 o clock in the morning. The Federals were stampeded 



434 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

and scattered, thinking that the whole Confederate cav 
alry was upon them. After the fight at Chamberlain 
Run, March 31, 1865, General Lee recommended that 
Colonel Cheek be commissioned brigadier-general for 
gallantry. As the surrender occurred a few days later, 
there was not time for this recommendation to be atced 
upon. At Five Forks, April ist, he had a thrilling 
experience. Falling into the hands of two Federal sol 
diers, he shot one and escaped from the other. On the 
morning of April 6th, General Lee sent him with a bugler 
and orderly to find a certain regiment. While on this 
errand they met three Federal scouts wearing Confeder 
ate uniforms. Being thrown off their guard, they were 
captured and carried as prisoners to General Sheridan s 
headquarters. One of Colonel Cheek s captors was a 
Major Young. After he had been feasted at Sheridan s 
headquarters by some of the prominent Union officers, 
Major Young told him that one of his men would mail a 
letter for him to his wife. The letter was written and 
mailed according to promise, reaching its destination in 
due time. Colonel Cheek was sent to the Old Capitol 
prison in Washington, were he was at the time of the 
assassination of Lincoln. The arrival of a Federal regi 
ment, sent for their protection, saved them from being 
put to death by an angry mob. He was next sent to 
Johnson s island, where he was held until August, 1865. 
At that time he was released and allowed to return home. 
He at once took charge of his father s plantation, then 
went to Norfolk, Va. , and engaged in the commission 
business. In 1882 he moved to Henderson, N. C., where 
he has since been engaged in the practice of law. He 
was married in 1864 to Miss Alice M. Jones, of Warren 
county, Va. They have six children. 

Colonel Daniel Harvey Christie, the circumstances of 
whose death inspired the well-known poem, "The Dying 
Soldier," was born in Frederick county, Va., March 28, 
1833, the only son of Robert W. and Sarah Christie. In 
youth he displayed great talent as a singer and teacher 
of music. Removing to southeastern Virginia, he was 
married, in 1855, to Lizzie A. Norfleet, and went into busi 
ness at Norfolk, but lost all in the commercial disasters 
of 1857. He then removed to Henderson, N. C., and 
established the Henderson military institute, which he 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 435 

conducted with much success until the separation of his 
adopted State from the Union, when he tendered his 
services to North Carolina. He assisted materially in 
the organization of troops, and in July was elected major 
of the Thirteenth, afterward the Twenty-third regiment. 
A few days after the battle of Williamsburg he was 
elected colonel. He commanded his regiment in the 
battle of Seven Pines, and was severely wounded in this 
fight, where his regiment was left in command of a lieu 
tenant on account of the casualties among the officers. 
At Mechanicsville he was again in battle, and at Cold 
Harbor was a second time wounded, and disabled for two 
months. At South mountain, September i4th, he and 
his regiment were distinguished in the heroic check of 
McClellan s army, and at Sharpsburg he fought through 
out the day. Subsequently he commanded the brigade 
for a time. At Chancellorsville he was commended for 
gallantry and recommended for promotion to brigadier- 
general. At Gettysburg his brigade was sacrificed in the 
bloody fight of the first day, and in the midst of the car 
nage Colonel Christie was conspicuous for the coolness 
with which he exposed himself, encouraging his men to 
stand fast. Only one lieutenant and sixteen privates of 
the Twenty-third escaped death, wounds or capture in 
this fearful conflict, and the gallant colonel fell with a 
mortal wound. He died at Winchester at the residence 
of a Mrs. Smith, who tenderly nursed him until the end 
came, July 17, 1863. Mrs. Christie, with her three chil 
dren, was called to him by telegraph, but was unable to 
arrive until two days after his death. His last words 
inspired the pathetic poem beginning: "I am dying; is 
she coming? Throw the window open wide." Mrs. 
Christie was a guest of honor at the laying of the corner 
stone of the Confederate monument at Raleigh in 1894. 
One son is living, Harvey L. Christie^ a lawyer of St. 
Louis, Mo. 

James Beverly Clifton, a prominent physician of Louis- 
burg, N. C., was distinguished during the Confederate 
war for the faithful and skillful manner in which he 
filled responsible positions in the medical department of 
the Southern army. He was born in Franklin county, 
April 27, 1836, was educated at the Louisburg academy 
and the university of Virginia, and was graduated in 

No 51 



436 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

medicine at the university of New York in 1857. When 
the war began he was engaged in the practice at Louis- 
burg, but he promptly entered the service as surgeon of 
the Fifteenth regiment. After about six months service 
with that command he was assigned to the hospital at 
Williamsburg, Va. , subsequently was stationed at York- 
town, and then at Jamestown island, where he remained 
until the evacuation of the peninsula. During about a 
year following he was on duty at Richmond, until the 
spring of 1863, when he was assigned to Semmes Geor 
gia brigade of Longstreet s corps. From that time until 
the close of the war he was associated with Longstreet s 
corps, attached to various brigades, and experienced the 
important and arduous service of that famous command. 
In the list of engagements in which he was on duty are 
the names of Games Mill, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, 
Chickamauga, Knoxville, the Wilderness, Spottsylvania 
Court House and Cedar Creek, October 19, 1864. Re 
turning to Louisburg after the end of the war he resumed 
the practice of his profession, and has ever since contin 
ued in it, adding to his repute as a physician and win 
ning the love and esteem of the community. In Novem 
ber, 1867, he married Ann R. Smith, of Granville county, 
who died in 1885. In June, 1890, he wedded Mrs. Lucy 
D. Clifton, sister of A. B. Andrews, of Raleigh. His 
children living are William Thomas, Mary Grey, Fan 
nie Neal, Maurice Smith, Lucy Birdie and Kate Davis. 
The eldest son is engaged in business at Waco, Tex. , and 
the eldest daughter is the wife of John W. King, a pros 
perous merchant of Louisburg. 

John T. Clifton, since the war a leading citizen of 
Franklin county, was born in that county, December 9, 
1839, an d was educated at Louisburg and Goldsboro. 
Preparing himself for the profession of pharmacy, he 
embarked in the drug business and was so occupied when 
the war broke out, but he answered the call of his State 
as a true and loyal citizen. In August, 1861, he became 
associated in an independent capacity with the Franklin 
Rifles, Company L of the Fifteenth regiment, State 
troops, of which his brother, Dr. J. B. Clifton, was sur 
geon. He continued with this command until October, 
1862, in the meantime participating in the gallant fight 
of the Fifteenth at Dam No. i on the Virginia peninsula. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 437 

Finally returning home on account of poor health, he 
was unfit for duty for a considerable period. In Febru 
ary, 1864, though still infirm in health, he enlisted as a 
private in Company A, Fifth North Carolina cavalry, 
with which he was in battle at Yellow Tavern, and in all 
the succeeding engagements of his regiment, except 
Reams Station, until he was captured, April 2, 1865, at 
Williams Station, on the Southside railroad. The Fed 
eral troops then taking possession of Petersburg, he was 
taken as a prisoner to the fair-ground hospital and 
assigned to duty there as a hospital nurse for the Confed 
erate wounded, until he was paroled June 20, 1865. Then 
returning to Louisburg, Mr. Clifton engaged in farming 
and milling, in which he has successfully continued until 
the present, also in merchandise until 1882. He began 
an official career of valuable public service in 1885, as a 
member of the State legislature, and was re-elected to 
that body in 1888. In the same year he served the 
unexpired term of his brother as county treasurer. In 
1 896 he was elected register of deeds of the county. 

Thaddeus L. Clinton, of Gastonia, N. C. , was born in 
York county, S. C., the son of Robert A. Clinton, a native 
of that State. His great-grandfather, Peter Clinton, was 
a captain in the patriot army of the revolution. He was 
a resident of Gaston county at the beginning of the Con 
federate era, and in April, 1861, enlisted in the first com 
pany from that county. At Garysburg, this was assigned 
to the Twenty-third North Carolina regiment as Com 
pany H. He accompanied his regiment to Virginia, was 
in camp at Manassas Junction until the spring of 1862, 
and participated in the defense of Yorktown and the 
retreat to Richmond. He fought at Seven Pines, and 
in the Seven Days campaign under Robert E. Lee, 
during which he was under fire every -day. He was an 
active participant in the battles of Mechanicsville and 
Malvern Hill. His brigade, commanded by Gen. Sam 
uel Garland, in the division of D. H. Hill, was conspic 
uous in the bloody struggle before Richmond and won 
new honors in the Maryland campaign, where Private 
Clinton was one of the little band of heroes who held 
South mountain against the army of McClellan and 
fought against enormous odds. At the December battle 
of Fredericksburg his regiment was held in reserve, but 



438 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

at Chancellorsville, in the early May days of 1863, he was 
in the heat of battle and suffered a severe wound in the 
left leg, which necessitated its amputation on the field. 
Thus terribly crippled, he was carried to hospital at 
Richmond and subsequently was honorably discharged. 
During his service he gained promotion to the rank of 
corporal. After his return to North Carolina he worked 
as a shoemaker for ten or twelve years, afterward con 
ducted a store until 1893, and is also a farmer. He was 
married in 1890 to Clarice I. Smith, and they have two 
children, Roland Smith and Foster S. G. Clinton. 

Lieutenant William Henry Harrison Cobb, M. D., of 
Goldsboro, a veteran of the Confederate States service, 
was born in Wayne county in 1841, and prepared for col 
lege at the famous Bingham s school in Orange county. 
He was graduated in medicine at the university of Penn 
sylvania, March 14, 1861, and then returning to his native 
State, enlisted for her defense, April i6th, as a private in 
the Goldsboro Rifles. After about a month s service at 
Fort Macon he joined the Second regiment, North Caro 
lina troops, Col. Charles C. Tew, and was at once ap 
pointed sergeant-major. On October i4th following, 
he was commissioned second lieutenant of Company D, 
and on February 20, 1863, was transferred to the medical 
service, and commissioned assistant surgeon, provisional 
army, in which capacity he remained with his regiment 
until nearly the end of the struggle. About two weeks 
before the surrender he was transferred to the Twentieth 
regiment, Benning s Georgia brigade, Longstreet s 
corps, with which he was paroled at Appomattox. While 
an officer of the line he was under fire of gunboats on 
Potomac creek, and at Fort Fisher in 1862, and partici 
pated in the Seven Days battles before Richmond, and 
Fredericksburg. After the Seven Days battles he was 
detailed to care for the wounded at Richmond, and 
before he could return to the army was disabled for sev 
eral weeks with typhoid fever. After his appointment as 
assistant surgeon he was under fire in the performance 
of his duties at Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, the Wil 
derness, Spottsylvania, Second Cold Harbor, Winchester 
and Cedar Creek, on the Petersburg lines, and the retreat 
to Appomattox. Surgeon Cobb had three brothers 
equally devoted to the Southern cause, and their united 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 439 

record is one not often equaled in patriotic devotion and 
usefulness. John P., now living at Brooksville, Fla., 
was a gallant officer of the Second regiment, served as 
colonel during the last year of the war, and lost a leg at 
Winchester September 19, 1864; Rev. N. B. Cobb, now 
residing in Sampson county, was a chaplain and colpor 
teur in the army of Northern Virginia, and Bryan W. 
Cobb, now residing in Fender county, held the rank of 
major in the Second regiment. Dr. W. H. H, Cobb is 
ex-president of the Medical society of the State of North 
Carolina, a member of the State board of medical 
examiners and State medical examiner for the Royal 
Arcanum. 

Captain Robert E. Cochrane, of Charlotte, a veteran of 
Barringer s cavalry brigade, was born in Cabarrus 
county, January 26, 1836, the son of Maj. Robert C. and 
Statira (McKinley) Cochrane. His father, of Scotch- 
Irish descent, was an officer of the State militia, and died 
in 1846, his wife preceding him by a year. Left an 
orphan at the age of ten years, young Cochrane was 
reared, according to the provisions of his father s will, 
by Rev. John Hunter, and educated primarily in the 
school of the latter. In 1856 he was graduated at Ers- 
kine college, South Carolina, and in 1858 he made his 
home at Charlotte, where two years later he embarked in 
business as the proprietor of a hardware store. This he 
left early in 1862 and enlisted as a private in a cavalry 
company organized at Charlotte, of which he was 
appointed quartermaster- sergeant. When the company 
was assigned to the Fifth North Carolina cavalry he was 
appointed quartermaster of the regiment, with the rank 
of captain, the capacity in which he mainly served. But 
for a considerable time, toward the close of the war, he 
acted as quartermaster of Barringer s cavalry brigade, 
composed of the First, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth 
regiments. He was with his regiment, faithful and 
efficient in service, throughout its gallant career and 
contributed to the high repute in which this famous body 
of North Carolina troopers was held. Since the war he 
has resided at Charlotte and given his attention chiefly 
to insurance. He is a member of the public school board, 
president of the Charlotte sash, door and blind manufactur 
ing company, and secretary and treasurer of the Mechan- 



440 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

ics perpetual building and loan company. He is a faith 
ful comrade of Mecklenburg camp. Captain Cochrane 
was married in October, 1860, to Susan Elizabeth Orr, 
and they have three children living. 

Captain Kinchin Wesley Coghill, of Henderson, who 
was severely wounded at the battle of Sharpsburg while 
carrying the colors of the Twenty-third regiment, was 
born in Franklin county in 1837, the son of Capt. James 
O. Coghill. Three of his brothers were in Company G, 
of the Twenty-third regiment, Joseph W. and James 
Norfleet, who died of disease contracted in the first Ma- 
nassas campaign; and Jonathan F., who served in the 
corps of sharpshooters until the close of the war. Mr. 
Coghill entered the Confederate service as corporal of 
Company G, Capt. C. C. Blacknall, Twenty-third regi 
ment, North Carolina troops, Col. D. H. Chrisjtie, and 
with his command participated in the first battle of 
Manassas. Subsequently, in Garland s brigade, he 
served at Yorktown, Williamsburg, the Seven Days 
battles before Richmond, Second Manassas, South 
Mountain and Sharpsburg. He was promoted to ser 
geant at Richmond, and after the battle of Seven Pines 
served as color-bearer of his regiment. At Sharpsburg 
he was severely wounded, and after lying for some time 
in hospital was sent to his home for recovery. Though 
in a weak and enfeebled condition he rejoined his regi 
ment in time to participate in the Gettysburg campaign. 
On the return of the army to Virginia he was appointed 
to a clerkship in the quartermaster s department at Hen 
derson, and while there he served for a time as captain of 
a company of disabled soldiers. He was finally paroled 
with Johnston s army at Greensboro. Still maintaining 
his comradeship, he is a valued member of Wyatt camp, 
United Confederate Veterans. Since the war Captain 
Coghill has been engaged in contracting and building, 
and has erected a great part of the handsome residences 
and business houses of Henderson and Rocky Mount. 
He is also prominent in church work, and is the author 
of a Sunday-school record and class-book which is in 
extensive use. He was married in 1865 to Miss Fannie 
Lassiter, a daughter of Ridick and Lovier Lassiter. 
They have been blessed with nine children and twelve 
grandchildren. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 441 

D. K. Collins, of Bryson City, a veteran of Thomas 
legion, was born in Hay wood county, N. C., in 1844, the 
son of Robert and Elizabeth (Beck) Collins. His father, 
though over military age, entered the Confederate serv 
ice from Jackson county in 1863, in command of two 
companies of Cherokee Indians, but died after six 
months of patriotic duty. Mr. Collins was reared and 
educated in Jackson county, and enlisted in 1863 as 
a private in Company F, First regiment of Thomas 
legion, later known as the Sixty- fifth regiment North 
Carolina troops. With this command he served in south 
west Virginia and in the Shenandoah valley under Gen 
eral Early, and participated in sixteen battles, among 
them Winchester, Cedar Creek, Kernstown, Piedmont, 
Berry ville and Snicker s Gap. At Cedar Creek, fighting 
as a sharpshooter, he was upon the field after the retreat 
of the Confederate troops and was attacked by a Federal 
cavalryman. His last shot killed the latter s horse and 
the two men then engaged in a desperate hand-to-hand 
struggle, which was finally ended by the arrival of an 
armed comrade of his antagonist, and Collins was forced 
to surrender. Three clays later, at Winchester, he 
escaped during the confusion caused by a night attack of 
Mosby s men. He was afterward captured near Ashe- 
ville, but easily made his escape. After the close of hos 
tilities Mr. Collins attended school two years, was in Col 
orado a year, and another year with Captain Conley in 
Alabama, and then embarked in business as a merchant 
at the site of the present town of Bryson City, becoming 
the pioneer business man of that thriving place in 1871. 
He has been very successful in this enterprise and is also 
one of the leading farmers of the county. By his mar 
riage in 1867 to Mattie Frank of Macon county, who died 
in 1883, he has three children. In 1890 he was married 
to Ellen Sheffer, of Huntsville, Ala. 

Major George P. Collins, of Hillsboro, was born in New 
York, of North Carolina parentage, and was reared in 
Washington county. His father, Josiah Collins, was a 
native of Edenton and proprietor of a large plantation. 
The family in America is descended from Josiah Collins, 
of England, who came to America in 1773, established 
the first rope- walk in this country, and gained such dis 
tinction as a patriot that he was offered the position of 



442 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

secretary of the treasury in the cabinet of President 
Washington. Major Collins was educated at Harvard 
college and the university of Virginia, and then took 
charge of his father s plantation. During the early part 
of the war of the Confederacy he served as an officer of 
militia in the vicinity of Roanoke island. In the spring 
of 1862 he brought a body of twenty volunteers into the 
Confederate service and was assigned to Company G of 
the Seventeenth regiment, North Carolina troops, as 
second lieutenant. With this command he served at 
Drewry s bluff, after the Seven Days campaign before 
Richmond, and continued in the rank of second lieuten 
ant until after General Pettigrew, who had been wounded 
and captured at Seven Pines, returned to the service and 
assumed brigade command. He was then, in August, 
1862, assigned to duty on his staff as quartermaster, and 
three months later was promoted major, to date from 
his enlistment, and made chief quartermaster of the bri 
gade. He continued to perform the duties of this posi 
tion with great ability and fidelity until the close of the 
war, on the staff of Pettigrew and his successors, Gener 
als Kirkland and McRae. After the close of hostilities 
Major Collins was engaged in the management of an 
extensive plantation in northwestern Mississippi, his 
family remaining part of each year at Hillsboro, where 
he was a frequent visitor and finally made his permanent 
home in 1883. By his marriage in 1860 to Annie Cam 
eron, he has seven children living: Annie, wife of W. L. 
Wall ; Rebecca Anderson, wife of Frank Wood ; George 
K., civil engineer; Henrietta Page, Mary Arthur, Alice 
Ruffin and Paul Cameron Collins. The father of Mrs. 
Collins was Paul Carrington Cameron, of Hillsboro, 
whose period of activity belonged to the ante-Confeder 
ate era rather than to that epoch of stress and storm. 
He was born in 1808, son of Judge Duncan Cameron, and 
was a splendid representative of the Scotch families whose 
sturdy virtues have contributed so much to the position 
North Carolina now holds in the galaxy of States. He 
was educated at the military school of Captain Partridge, 
in Connecticut, the university of North Carolina, and 
Trinity college, Connecticut, being graduated at the 
latter in 1829; studied law and was admitted to the bar, 
but never practiced, instead devoting his great mental 
equipments to the study and elevation of agriculture. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 443 

He was president of the first agricultural society organ 
ized in the State, and successfully conducted on his plan 
tations the labor of nearly 2,000 slaves. An enthusiastic 
friend of the development of transportation and manu 
facturing, he undertook a large contract in the building 
of the North Carolina railroad; served as director of 
other roads, and invested heavily in cotton manufactor 
ies. In politics he was a Whig until secession and ever 
afterward a Democrat, but never accepted office except 
one term in the State senate. He is linked with the 
Confederate era by his service as successor of Colonel 
Fisher as president of the North Carolina railroad, and 
his revival for a time of the military school at Hillsboro, 
which Col. C. C. Tew abandoned to enter the army. As 
a friend of education he built enduring monuments as 
the firm friend of the St. Mary s school for girls at 
Raleigh, which his father, Judge Duncan Cameron, 
founded, and the unfailing supporter of the State uni 
versity in the darkest hours of its history. Of this insti 
tution his grandfather, Richard Bennehan, was one of 
the founders; his father and uncle were trustees, and 
he was "a friend and counselor under Swain, a father 
and guide under Battle." His name is particularly asso 
ciated with that grand monument, the Memorial hall, 
upon the dedication of which he delivered the commence 
ment oration in the seventy-seventh year of his age. His 
wife was Anne, daughter of Chief- Justice Thomas Ruffin. 
His death occurred January 6, 1891. 

Captain Robert T. Conley, a famous Confederate sol 
dier of western North Carolina, up to sixteen years of 
age attended school in Hay wood county, and at the 
beginning of hostilities volunteered as a private in the 
first military company which left his county. He was 
soon afterward elected first lieutenant, and in 1864 was 
promoted captain. He served in several campaigns and 
was mentioned for gallantry and efficiency in the general 
orders of his commanding officers; was with General 
Ransom in the East Tennessee campaign of 1863, with 
General Early in the Shenandoah Valley campaign of 
1864 in command of sharpshooters, won distinction under 
the most unfavorable circumstances, and after the return 
of Thomas legion to western North Carolina in Novem 
ber, 1864, took part in many skirmishes. On May 2, 1865, 



444 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

he led in what is believed to be the last fight with the 
Federal troops east of the Mississippi. The Federals under 
General Bartlett, disregarding the terms of the capitu 
lation of Lee and Johnston, had plundered the people of 
the county, and under a pretended truce were continuing 
their pillage when Captain Conley, with 25 men, assailed 
a party of 200 or more of the marauders with such spirit 
that they were glad to arrange honorable terms of peace. 
This gallant soldier removed to Alabama not long after 
ward, and carried on a successful business at Talladega 
until his death, December 18, 1892. His widow and 
six children survive. 

Captain Jonas Cook, of Mount Pleasant, a veteran of 
Clingman s brigade, was born in Gaston county, February 
28, 1842, son of Matthew Cook and his wife, Mary M. 
Costner. His father emigrated to this country early in 
the 3o s from Baden, Germany, where the name was 
written Koch. He was educated in North Carolina col 
lege at Mount Pleasant, and at the beginning of hostili 
ties in 1 86 1 was employed in the office of the clerk of the 
county court for the county of Cabarrus. This position 
he promptly resigned and took an active part in the 
organization of a volunteer company, the Cabarrus Pha 
lanx, of which he was elected second lieutenant, although 
but nineteen years of age. The company was organized 
in August, 1 86 1, enlisting for three years or the war, 
and became Company H of the Eighth regiment, North 
Carolina State troops. In February, 1863, he was pro 
moted to first lieutenant, and in January, 1864, to captain 
of his company. His first service was on Roanoke island 
in 1861-62, chiefly on heavy artillery duty, and he was 
there surrendered after participating in the battle of 
February, 1862. In August following he was exchanged 
and then returned to the service. Among the important 
engagements in which he participated were the first bat 
tle of Goldsboro, three encounters with the enemy during 
the siege of Charleston, S. C., the siege and capture of 
Plymouth, N. C., and the fighting about Drewry s bluff, 
Va. At Plymouth, while his command was charging the 
Federal s strongest works, a shell from the gunboats ex 
ploded in the ranks of his company, killing and wounding 
1 8 men; Captain Cook was knocked insensible for awhile 
by a piece of the shell, receiving a severe contusion on 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 445 

left shoulder and side of his head and a wound in the ear. 
After his wound was dressed, he returned to his com 
mand to join in the final assault and capture of the 
enemy. On two days of the fighting about Drewry s 
bluff he had command of the skirmish line in front of his 
regiment. He was wounded three times, by a piece of 
shell at Battery Wagner, in 1863; at Plymouth, as has 
been stated, and through the right arm in an heroic 
effort to dislodge the enemy and save the lives of his 
men at Bermuda Hundred. His service in the army 
finally ended at High Point, upon the surrender of Gen 
eral Johnston. Since the war Captain Cook has been 
engaged in trade as a merchant, and has prospered in 
his business. He has served many years as postmaster, 
and for some time as chairman of the board of magis 
trates. He served one term as commissioner for the 
county of Cabamis. By his marriage, in 1868, to Mar 
tha Regina, daughter of Col. John Shimpoch, he has 
eight children: Mary J. C., John M., Walter M., Lelia 
R., Winona, Anna M., Agnes W. and Carl M. 

Captain Charles Mather Cooke, of Louisburg, one of 
the prominent citizens of North Carolina, a successful 
lawyer and political leader, was born March 10, 1844, in 
Franklin county, the son of Capt. Jones Cooke and his 
wife Jane A. Kingsbury. His father was born in the 
same county in 1786, held important civil office, and won 
his military title in the war of 1812, adding to the excel 
lent patriotic record of his family, which gave six soldiers 
to the continental army during the revolution. The 
mother of Mr. Cooke was the daughter of Darius Kings- 
bury and Esther Mather, the latter being a descendant of 
a brother of Cotton Mather, the distinguished Puritan 
divine of New England. Mr. Cooke was educated at 
Louisburg academy and Wake Forest college, but left 
the latter institution in the second year of his course to 
volunteer as a private in the Confederate army. In the 
winter of 1861 he was enrolled as a private in Company 
I of the Fifty-fifth regiment, North Carolina State 
troops, and soon afterward he was promoted to lieuten 
ant. In this rank he fought in the engagements of the 
army of Northern Virginia, under the brigade command 
of Gen. Joseph R. Davis, and subsequently commanded 
his company, until June, 1864, when he became adjutant 



446 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

of the regiment. In the latter capacity he served until 
the surrender at Appomattox. He was identified with 
the gallant record of his regiment throughout, and par 
ticipated in some of the deadliest conflicts of the war. 
At Petersburg, March 31, 1865, he was shot in the leg 
and badly wounded, forcing him to the use of crutches 
during the following year. Being paroled at Richmond, 
after the surrender he returned to his father s farm in 
Franklin county, where he soon entered upon the study 
of law, with the result that he was admitted to practice 
in 1867-68. In 1874 he was elected to the State senate; 
in 1877-78 held by appointment the office of solicitor 
of the Sixth judicial district; in 1878 was elected to the 
house of representatives, where he served as chairman 
of the judiciary committee, and upon re-election in 1880 
he became speaker of the house. From 1884 to 1888 he 
was a director of the State penitentiary but resigned to 
again accept a seat in the house, and served as chairman 
of the committee on internal improvements and on the 
railroad commission committee. In 1894 he received the 
Democratic nomination for representative of the Fourth 
congressional district, but was defeated by a combination 
of Republicans and Populists. Then, being appointed 
by Governor Carr to fill the unexpired term of Octavius 
Coke, deceased, as secretary of State, he held that office 
until January, 1897. He has also rendered valuable serv 
ice as a trustee of the State university and of Wake For 
est college. In professional life, meanwhile, he has 
attained high rank as a lawyer. Throughout the State 
he is popular as an eloquent and convincing political 
speaker. In February, 1868, Mr. Cooke was married to 
Miss Bettie Person, and they have seven children living, 
Percival H., Charles M. Jr., Francis N., Frederick K., 
Wilbur C., Edwin W. and Lizzie K. The eldest son is 
practicing law at Louisburg, the second is superintendent 
of cotton mills at Bessemer City, and Francis is a cadet 
at West Point. 

Captain James Wallace Cooke, Confederate States 
navy, was born at Beaufort, N. C., August 13, 1812, the 
son of Thomas and Esther Cooke. His father, a mer 
chant, was lost at sea in a hurricane, three years later, 
while on his return from a trip to New York, and in the 
following year the mother died, leaving two children, 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 447 

James and Harriet, to be reared by their uncle, Col. 
Henry M. Cooke, first collector of customs of the port of 
Beaufort. At sixteen years of age young Cooke was 
appointed a midshipman in the United States nav} r , 
beginning his service on the training ship Guerriere 
April i, 1828. He was promoted to lieutenant February 
25, 1841, and served on the Macedonian, Constitution, 
Ontario, John Adams, German town and Decatur ; at the 
naval observatory and in command of the Relief. While 
stationed at Norfolk he was married, July 5, 1848, to 
Mary E. A. Watts, of Portsmouth. One son was born to 
them, who died in 1882, leaving two sons now residing at 
Portsmouth. Lieutenant Cooke promptly resigned his 
commission when the war broke out, and was appointed 
lieutenant in the Virginia navy, and soon afterward 
transferred to the Confederate navy. His first duty was 
in connection with the fortification of the James, after 
which he was transferred to the Potomac. In the fall of 
1 86 1 he was given command of the Ellis, a mail steam 
tug, with which he sailed to Roanoke island under Com 
modore Lynch. He fought his boat in the battle of Feb 
ruary yth until his ammunition was exhausted, and in 
the subsequent desperate fight near Elizabeth City 
refused to surrender after his boat had been boarded and 
he had received a musket wound in the arm and bayonet 
thrust in the leg, the crew finally being taken by main 
force. After his exchange he was promoted commander 
and in 1863 was ordered to the Roanoke river to super 
intend the construction of the ironclad Albemarle. In 
the spring of 1864 he was assigned the duty with this 
ram of clearing away the Federal vessels before Ply 
mouth, in co-operation with the land attack under Gen 
eral Hoke. Starting down the river before his boat was 
entirely completed, he was enabled by high water to run 
over the obstructions and torpedoes in the river. He 
passed the batteries without injury, encountered two Fed 
eral steamers, the Miami and the Southfield, under Cap 
tain Flusser, fought them at such close range that a shell 
with a io- second fuse, fired by Captain Flusser, rebounded 
from the iron sides of the Albemarle and killed the gal 
lant officer who pulled the lanyard, sunk one and drove 
the other down stream, and thus made it possible for 
the forces under General Hoke to assault and carry the 
Federal works. For this service Cooke and his men 



448 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

received the thanks of the Confederate Congress. On 
May 5, 1864, he left Roanoke river with the Albemarle 
and two tenders, and entered Albemarle sound, intend 
ing if possible to regain control of the two sounds and 
Roanoke island and Hatteras. Soon after reaching the 
sound he was met by the Federal squadron, consisting 
of seven heavily- armed vessels, all under the command 
of Capt. Melancthon Smith. At 2 o clock in the after 
noon this squadron advanced in double line, and moving 
past in turn the gunboats delivered their heaviest shot 
at close range. The Albemarle responded effectively, 
but her boats were soon shot away, her smokestack rid 
dled, and her after-gun broken off. This terrible contest 
of seven against one continued without intermission until 
5 o clock, when the commander of the Sassacus conceived 
the idea of running down the ram, and struck her with a 
full head of steam abaft her starboard beam. The Albe- 
marle s after-deck was forced several feet below the 
water, but the calm voice of her gallant commander was 
heard: "Stand to your guns, and if we must sink let us 
go down like brave men." In retaliation Cooke sent a 
shot through one of the boilers of the Sassacus, badly 
scalding nineteen of her men. The conflict continued 
with unabated, fury until night put an end to the battle. 
The smokestack of the Albemarle had lost its capacity, 
and the boat lay helpless until Cooke made use of the 
bacon and lard on board to get up steam, when he 
brought the ram back to Albemarle, having suffered lit 
tle injury and inflicted heavy loss upon his assailants. 
He was promoted captain in July, 1864, and put in com 
mand of all the naval forces in eastern North Carolina. 
After the close of hostilities he lived at Portsmouth until 
he passed away June 21, 1869. He was as bold and gal 
lant a sailor as ever walked the quarter-deck. 

Captain John A. Cooper, president of the First national 
bank at Statesville, was born in Davidson county, N. C., 
in 1839, son of William W. Cooper. He entered the 
Confederate service in 1861 as a private in the Eleventh 
regiment, North Carolina volunteers, organized at Dan 
ville, Va. He was made sergeant-major of the regiment 
at the organization, the rank in which he served during 
its period of enlistment. He participated in the battle 
of Blackburn s Ford, July 18, 1861, under General Beau- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 449 

regard, and in the glorious victory of the 2ist, and was 
subsequently stationed at Thoroughfare gap, and in win 
ter quarters at Manassas Junction and on the Rappahan- 
nock. At the reorganization in the spring of 1862 the 
company with which he entered became Company B, of 
the First North Carolina battalion, of which he was 
elected first lieutenant, and soon after promoted to cap 
tain. He marched with Ewell to reinforce Jackson in 
the Shenandoah valley, and shared the gallant record of 
Trimble s brigade in the famous campaign which fol 
lowed, participating in the battles of Front Royal, Win 
chester, Cross Keys and Port Republic. Then being 
transferred rapidly to the left of Lee s army before 
Richmond, he took part in the fighting of his brigade in 
the Seven Days campaign. With Jackson s corps he 
was in the battle of Cedar Mountain, the raid to Manas 
sas Junction, the battle of Second Manassas, the capture 
of Harper s Ferry, and Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg and 
Chancellorsville. During the Pennsylvania campaign, 
when Swell s corps reached Carlisle, Captain Cooper was 
appointed provost marshal at that place. After the bat 
tle of Gettysburg and the retreat to Virginia he served in 
North Carolina, and was in command of a picked com 
pany of 200 men in the gallant and victorious assault upon 
the Federal forts at Plymouth. After this he served as 
assistant adjutant-general on the staff of Major-General 
Hoke, the position which he occupied during the remain 
der of the war, on duty at Petersburg and Drewry s 
bluff, and in North Carolina again during the siege of 
Fort Fisher, and in the campaign against Sherman. He 
took part in the battle of Bentonville, and was surren 
dered at Greensboro. During this conspicuous career he 
was wounded several times, but not seriously. Previous 
to the war Captain Cooper had been engaged in cotton 
manufacture, and on his return he became a partner of 
his brother as a merchant, and later rebuilt the cotton fac 
tory that the Federal raiders had burned. In 1868 he 
retired from manufacturing, and after residing at the 
family homestead five years began a mercantile career 
which continued with much success until 1892. He then 
removed to Statesville and became president of the First 
national bank. He is also president of the Iredell 
tobacco company and a member of the grocery firm of 
Cooper & Gill. As a county official he has served 



450 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

eighteen years as commissioner of Wilkes county and for 
some time as chairman of the board of Iredell. By his 
marriage in 1868 to Julia Tomlin, he has two children, 
A. D. Cooper, and a daughter, Mattie. 

Captain James C. Cooper, Jr., a Confederate veteran 
of Henderson, N. C., was born in Granville county in 
1841, a son of Alexander Cooper. The latter, who was 
a son of James Cooper, a native of Scotland, was a pros 
perous planter, and was in the Confederate service as a 
member of the Senior reserves. Captain Cooper was 
educated at the Hillsboro military academy, and in the 
spring of 1861 enlisted in the Granville Grays, which was 
assigned as Company I to the Second regiment, North 
Carolina troops. On May 5, 1861, he was transferred to 
the Eighth regiment and promoted to lieutenant. While 
a member of this command he was captured at Roanoke 
island and after a short imprisonment on board a Federal 
steamship was paroled, and in September, 1861, was 
exchanged. In December, 1862, he was commissioned 
as captain commissary of the Second North Carolina cav 
alry, commanded by Col. Sol Williams, and he served 
with this regiment until after the Gettysburg campaign. 
Returning then to his lieutenancy in the Eighth regi 
ment he was appointed, after the battle of Cold Harbor, 
assistant inspector-general of Clingman s brigade, in 
which capacity he served until the close of the war. 
With the Second cavalry he was in battle at Brandy Sta 
tion, Hanover, Carlisle and Gettysburg; in 1-864 met the 
advancing army at Cold Harbor, and subsequently 
shared the services of Clingman s brigade at Drewry s 
bluff, Petersburg, Wilmington, Kinston and Bentonville, 
finally being paroled at High Point, N. C. After the 
conclusion of hostilities Captain Cooper was engaged 
in the cotton and commission business at New York 
city for twelve years or more, and then entered the to 
bacco trade, first at Oxford, N. C., and since 1885 at 
Henderson. 

D. W. Corl, of Greensboro, was born in Rowan county 
January 6, 1837, and made his home at Greensboro prior 
to the war. He was in the service of the Confederacy 
from the first, but was not in the field during the early 
part of the war, being engaged in the very necessary 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 451 

duty of providing arms for the soldiers. Having become 
an experienced and skillful mechanic, he was on detailed 
duty until the latter part of 1863 as a gunsmith in the 
Confederate armory, after which, desirous of meeting the 
enemy in battle, he became a member of the Rowan 
Rifles, Company K of the Fourth regiment, North 
Carolina troops. He was with his command in the fierce 
battles of the Wilderness and Spottsylvania, and acquitted 
himself as a true soldier in that fiery trial. He was 
wounded at Spottsylvania in the foot, and was sent to 
hospital and upon his recovery was detailed by order of 
the secretary of war for duty in the arsenal at Salisbury, 
where he remained until the struggle came to an end. 
In the spring of 1866 he came to Greensboro, of which 
he has ever since been a resident, engaged in the 
peaceful work of his craft, and in the manufacture of 
carriages. 

Captain William C. Coughenour was born in Salisbury, 
N. C., in 1836, and there was raised and educated. He 
was a conductor on the Western North Carolina railroad 
when the war began. In April, 1861, he entered the 
service with the Rowan Rifle Guards, one of the old com 
panies of which he had for some time been a member, 
and which became Company K, Fourth North Carolina 
infantry. He went in as a private and a month later, 
May 30, 1 86 1, he was elected first lieutenant. On May 
31, 1862, he was made captain, and was appointed inspec 
tor-general of Ramseur s brigade in August, 1863. Early 
in February, 1865, he was transferred to Gen. W. P. Rob 
erts cavalry brigade and served in this command until 
the close of the war. On April 4, 1865, a few days before 
the surrender, he was wounded at Amelia Court House, 
Va. Once before, during his long and faithful service, 
he had been slightly wounded. This was at Seven 
Pines, but the wound received there did not prevent his 
being in the next engagements of his command during 
the famous Seven Days before Richmond. The other 
battles in which he participated were Fredericksburg, 
Chancellor sville, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Gettysburg, 
and in Early s Valley campaign of 1864, Harper s Ferry, 
Jack s Shop, Winchester, Fisher s Hill and Cedar Creek, 
also in the last fights around Petersburg, Five Forks and 
Sailor s Creek. After the war he returned home to enjoy 

Nc 52 



452 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

the reward of a faithful soldier in the love and esteem of 
his countrymen. He has served two terms (four years) 
as mayor of Salisbury, one of the leading towns of his 
native State. 

Captain Pulaski Cowper, of Raleigh, was born in Hert 
ford county, N. C. , February 5, 1832. As a student of 
law he was associated with Hon. Thomas Bragg, of 
Jackson, and when Bragg was elected governor of the 
State in 1855, he accompanied him to Raleigh and served 
as private secretary during his two terms of office. Sub 
sequently he was engaged in farming in Beaufort county 
until the summer of 1861, when he became private sec 
retary to Gov. H. T. Clark, and when the latter was suc 
ceeded by Governor Vance, Mr. Cowper entered the 
military service. He was detailed about four months on 
an army court, sitting at Richmond, and was then 
ordered to North Carolina to report upon the operation 
of the conscript law. He subsequently served as chief 
of a bureau at Raleigh, with the rank of first lieutenant, 
and was promoted to captain while on this duty. About 
two months before the close of the war he removed his 
bureau to Greensboro and there surrendered with Gen 
eral Johnston. Since 1871 he has been prominently con 
nected with the insurance business of the State. Cap 
tain Cowper was married in 1857 to Mary B., daughter of 
Gen. Bryan Grimes, and they have four children living. 

Burton Craige, deceased, a statesman of the Confeder 
ate era, was born in Rowan county, March 13, 1811, son 
of David Craige and Mary Foster, his wife. His grand 
father, David Craige, was a lieutenant in the command 
of Col. William Temple Cole, in the war of the revolu 
tion. His ancestors, adherents of Prince Charles in Scot 
land, came to Rowan county after the battle of Culloden. 
Burton Craige was graduated at the university of North 
Carolina in 1829, and then edited the Western North 
Carolinian and read law until his admission to the bar in 
1832. At the same time he was first elected to the legis 
lature. In 1836 he was married to Elizabeth Phifer, 
daughter of Col. James Erwin, and granddaughter of 
Gen. Matthew Locke, a member of the provincial con 
gress of 1775, and of Col. Martin Phifer, of the Light 
Horse of the revolution. Soon after his marriage, being 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 453 

in feeble health, he visited Europe and was treated by 
the famous physician, Sir Astley Cooper. After his 
return he devoted himself to his profession and speedily 
won high honors and became widely known as a lawyer 
and as a leader in affairs of State. He was elected to 
Congress in. 1853, and was returned successively until the 
formation of the Confederate States. He then resigned 
his seat and cast his lot with the South. He represented 
Rowan county in the North Carolina convention of 1861, 
and on May 2oth offered the ordinance of secession which 
was adopted. By the same convention he was elected a 
representative in the Congress of the Confederate States, 
and he continued to sit in that historic body until the 
collapse of the government. In this capacity he was a 
firm supporter of the administration of President Davis, 
of whom he was a warm personal friend. He was in 
politics a devoted disciple of the strictest school of State 
rights. His retirement from public affairs after the close 
of the war was not more thorough than was agreeable to 
him, and he buried his aspirations for public honors in 
the same grave which entombed the government which 
he had so enthusiastically and consistently supported. 
He did not complain because the government placed a 
solemn ban upon his citizenship, and kept it there almost 
until his death. He died December 30, 1875. 

Major James A. Craige, eldest son of the foregoing, 
was educated at the Charlotteville military institute and 
Davidson college, and was prepared for the United 
States military academy by Gen. D. H. Hill. He entered 
West Point in 1860, but at the first call of the Confed 
eracy resigned and made his way home. Reaching Salis 
bury he was offered a captaincy in Colonel Fisher s regi 
ment, the Sixth, State troops, and he aided in drilling 
that regiment and others at Garysburg. He went to the 
front in time to participate in the engagements of Black 
burn s Ford and First Manassas. Subsequently he was 
commissioned major of the Fifty- seventh regiment, with 
which he served during the rest of the war. At the 
battle of Winchester, September 19, 1864, he was severely 
wounded, and was brought home by his father and Drs. 
Magill, of Hagerstown, Md., and Boyle, of Richmond. 
Under skillful care he recovered, and when Salisbury 
fell into the hands of Stoneman s raiders, he mounted a 



454 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

horse, crutches in hand, and took part in the hopeless 
fight at the river bridge. Immediately afterward he set 
out with some friends for the Trans- Mississippi, but 
retraced his steps on hearing of Johnston s surrender. 
After the war he returned to his father s plantation to 
take charge of the negroes, who wanted to work under 
"Marse Jim," and becoming fond of farm life he has 
ever since been engaged in planting. He is now a resi 
dent of Maury county, Tenn. 

Captain Kerr Craige, second son of Burton Craige, 
was educated at Chapel Hill, but left the university when 
a boy of eighteen, and enlisted May 20, 1861, as a private 
in the First North Carolina cavalry. He was promoted 
to captain of Company I, was tendered the position of 
adjutant by Colonel Ruffin, just before the latter s 
death, and served for some time as aide-de-camp on the 
staff of Gen. James B. Gordon, his brigade commander. 
After a gallant career he was captured at Namozine 
church, April 3, 1865, and subsequently held as a pris 
oner at Johnson s island until the following July. Then 
returning to Salisbury he read law, was admitted to the 
bar in 1867, and after his father s death, succeeded him 
in the practice, at the same office. He has served as 
reading clerk of the North Carolina house of representa 
tives and as member of that body ; as collector of revenue 
for the Fifth district, as director of the North Carolina 
railroad, as trustee of the State university, and as third 
assistant postmaster-general during the second adminis 
tration of President Cleveland. His wife is Josephine, 
daughter of Gen. L. O B. Branch. 

Captain Frank B. Craige, youngest son of Burton 
Craige, was a student at the Hillsboro military institute 
when, at the age of sixteen years, he enlisted in Company 
I, Thirty-third regiment, State troops, under Col. Moul- 
ton Avery. He was elected lieutenant, and was promoted 
to captain. He went to the front in time to participate in 
the battle of the Wilderness, and in his first encounter 
with the enemy was hit by a bullet, knocked down and 
stunned, and was carried from the field as dead ; but for 
tunately the buckle of his belt kept him from serious 
injury, and he went through the hard service of his com 
mand at Spottsylvania Court House and all the remainder 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 455 

of the struggle. He was captured in Battery Gregg, in 
April, 1865, and was sent to Washington, where among 
his fellow prisoners he recognized his brother Kerr. 
For fear of being separated they kept their relationship 
a secret, and they were both sent to Johnson s island. 
After the close of hostilities he took charge of some plan 
tations of his mother s, in Tennessee, and has since then 
resided there, being married in 1875, to Fannie, daughter 
of Archibald Williams. 

John Samuel Cranor, of Wilkesboro, United States 
commissioner for the Western district of North Carolina 
by appointment of President Cleveland, in June, 1894, 
was one of the boy soldiers of the Confederacy. He was 
born April 26, 1847, at Rockford, Surry county, but 
from the age of ten years was reared at Wilkesboro. In 
1864, at the age of seventeen years, he enlisted in Com 
pany B, intended to be assigned to the First battalion, 
North Carolina reserves, and was stationed at Camp Vance 
for instruction. Here he was captured by Col. George 
W. Kirk, of the United States army, and was conveyed 
as a prisoner of war to a prison camp at Chicago, where 
he was held for twelve months. When he and his com 
rades were made prisoners several attempts were made 
by the Confederate troops to rescue them, but in vain. 
In one of these fights, the gallant Colonel Avery was 
killed. In his Northern prison camp young Cranor 
experienced many hardships and much brutal treatment, 
and witnessed the death of many gallant Confederates 
from exposure to the inclement climate. On being 
paroled, after the close of hostilities, he returned to 
Wilkesboro, and prepared for the profession of law, which 
he entered in 1868, with a license to practice from the 
supreme court. Since then he has been. engaged in the 
practice, also serving in various official capacities. He 
held the office of register of deeds from 1884 to 1886, and 
in 1893-95 he served in the State senate, his popularity 
being attested by election with a majority of 745 in a 
district usually as strongly in opposition. 

Captain James R. Crawford, commander of Charles F. 
Fisher camp, United Confederate Veterans, at Salisbury, 
was born at that city March 12, 1836, son of William D. 
and Christine E. (Mull) Crawford, North Carolinians of 



456 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Scotch descent. He left the farm in the spring of 1861 
as a private in the first company which left Rowan 
county, commanded by Capt. Francis M. W. McNeely, 
which was mustered in as Company K of the Fourth 
regiment, State troops, under Col. (afterward gen 
eral) George B. Anderson. He was first on duty at Fort 
Caswell, and being detailed as sentinel his second night 
there, earned promotion to corporal by his vigilance. In 
June, 1862, he was commissioned second lieutenant by 
Governor Vance, and came home to organize a company, 
which became Company B, Forty-second regiment, Col. 
John E. Brown commanding. At Shepardsville, N. C. , 
he was promoted to captain of this company. With the 
Fourth regiment he was at Manassas during the fall and 
winter of 1861-62, and was under fire at Seven Pines, 
and as an officer of the Forty-second he participated in 
its entire career, ending at the battle of Bentonville and 
the surrender by General Johnston. In the brigade 
commanded by General Kirkland and General Martin 
successively he took part in the fighting around Peters 
burg and at Cold Harbor, and in the final operations in 
North Carolina, and on every occasion the regiment per 
formed its duty with gallantry and steadiness. Since the 
war Captain Crawford has been engaged in farming, is 
influential in his community and popular with his surviv 
ing comrades of the Confederacy. In 1868 he was mar 
ried to Sally E. Heilig, and they have seven children: 
Mary Lee, Nora, Hallie, Katie, Sallie, James and 
William. 

Preston Cumming, of Wilmington, N. C. , a survivor of 
the Cape Fear artillery, was born in Greensboro county 
in 1843, whence he enlisted in October, 1861, as a private 
in the artillery company commanded by his brother 
James D. Cumming, and known as the Cumming s bat 
tery or Cape Fear artillery. During his service he was 
promoted to sergeant, participated in the fighting on the 
Petersburg lines several months, and the battles of 
Washington, Kinston and Bentonville, N. C., and finally 
surrendered with Johnston at Greensboro. Since then 
he has made his home at Wilmington. A third brother, 
William A. Gumming, served as a captain in the Third 
North Carolina regiment. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 457 

Lieutenant James Dalrymple, of Jonesboro, a lieuten 
ant and gallant soldier of the Fiftieth North Carolina, is 
a native of Moore county, born in March, 1835. He is the 
son of John Dalrymple and Ann McFarland, whose par 
ents came to North Carolina from Scotland about 1775. 
Like other North Carolinians of Scotch descent he was a 
stalwart and daring soldier during the great war, and in 
the years of peace that have followed has prospered and 
gained a leading position among his fellows. He was 
educated in the common schools, and bred to the work of 
his father s farm, and then engaged in school teaching, 
finding employment in this profession in his native State 
and in Louisiana and Texas. Being in Louisiana when 
the war began he returned to North Carolina and enlisted 
as a private in Company F, Fiftieth regiment, State 
troops. In 1862 he was promoted to lieutenant. During 
his service he was identified with the excellent record of 
his regiment and Daniel s brigade, to which it belonged, 
in the Seven Days campaign about Richmond, the cam 
paign in eastern North Carolina, and finally in the cam 
paign under Gen. J. E. Johnston in the spring of 1865. 
Though participating in many hard-fought battles he was 
never wounded. He was surrendered with the army 
under Johnston, and then returned to Jonesboro in May, 
1865. After teaching school for five years he engaged in 
mercantile pursuits, in which he continued with much 
success for a period of twenty-two years. He has served 
for a considerable period as magistrate. By his marriage 
in 1860 to Margaret S., daughter of N. R. Bryan, he has 
four children : Palmer, John N. , Annie and Myrta. 

Captain George David Darsey, of Charlotte, N. C., is a 
native of Georgia, and served during the great war with 
a Georgia regiment. His father, Edward Darsey, son of 
George and Malinda Darsey, natives of Maryland, was a 
planter of Columbia county, Ga., and married Martha, 
daughter of David Stanford, a soldier of the war of 1812, 
and afterward judge of the inferior court of Columbia 
county. These parents gave three sons to the Confed 
erate service, Francis Marion, a sergeant of Company K, 
Sixteenth Georgia infantry, killed at the battle of South 
Mountain, September 14, 1862; Thomas Edward, private 
in a Georgia cavalry command, now residing in his 
native county, and the subject of this notice, who was 



458 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

born July 7, 1839, and on July 25, 1861, left home with 
his brother Francis, and enlisted at Richmond, July 3ist, 
as a private in the same company. His gallant service 
soon won promotion through the lieutenancies to cap 
tain of Company K. He took part in the early battle of 
Dam No. i on the Virginia peninsula, and the famous 
engagements at Malvem hill, Fredericksburg, Chancel- 
lorsville, Gettysburg and the Wilderness; during the 
battles of South Mountain and Sharpsburg being detailed 
in the commissary department. In the battle of the 
Wilderness he received a severe wound which put a stop 
to his military service and disabled him more or less for 
fourteen years. After the close of hostilities he resided 
in his native county, occupied as a planter and serving 
from 1866 to 1880 as receiver of tax returns, and thence 
until 1892 as ordinary. In 1893 he removed to Charlotte. 
He is a member of the Confederate survivors association 
of Augusta. In 1870 he was married to Anna V. Hall, 
of Warren county, Ga., and they have three children: 
James Edward, a prosperous business man of Charlotte, 
Mary C. , and Henry Francis. 

Graham Daves, third son of John P. Daves, of New 
Bern, N. C., and Elizabeth B. Graham, his wife, was 
born in New Bern the i6th of July, 1836. His father 
died when Major Daves was but two years old. His 
childhood and youth were passed in New Bern, where 
his early education was had at the New Bern academy. 
In the autumn of 1851 he was placed as a cadet of the 
Maryland military academy at Oxford, Md., where he 
remained for nearly two years, and in 1853 was entered 
as a freshman at Trinity college, Hartford, Conn., where 
he was graduated in July, 1857. After his graduation 
Major Daves read law with Hon. Richmond M. Pearson, 
afterward chief justice of North Carolina, and on Jan 
uary i, 1859, was appointed private secretary to Hon. 
John W. Ellis, governor of North Carolina, his brother- 
in-law. This position he held until the outbreak of the 
war between the States. Governor Ellis having died 
July 7, 1 86 1, Major Daves joined the army as first lieu 
tenant of the Twelfth volunteers, Col. J. Johnston Petti- 
grew, afterward known as the Twenty-second regiment, 
North Carolina troops, of which he was appointed adjut 
ant, July 24, 1 86 1. With this regiment he served until 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 459 

April, 1862, being on duty at different times at Raleigh, 
Richmond, Brook s Station, Va., but most of the time at 
Evansport, Va. , now called Quantico, where the regiment 
was employed in erecting, and a portion of it in manning 
after their completion, and serving the heavy batteries 
that so long blockaded the Potomac river at that point. 
The regiment was in a brigade during the time, with 
troops from other States, under Gens. Isaac R. Trimble 
and Samuel G. French. On the ist of April, 1862, Gen 
eral French having been assigned to the command at Wil 
mington, N. C., Lieutenant Daves was detached from 
the infantry, transferred to the general staff and placed 
on duty with General French as assistant adjutant-gen 
eral with rank of captain. In this capacity he served 
until July following, when the command was ordered to 
Petersburg, Va. On November 5, 1862, he was promoted 
major and was in active service in Virginia until June, 
1863, when he was ordered to Mississippi, where he 
served as assistant adjutant-general of a division in the 
command of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston in the campaigns 
in that State previous, and subsequent to, the surrender 
of Vicksburg. Returning to Virginia, Major Daves 
resigned his commission November 16, 1863, and report 
ing to the bureau of conscription, was enrolled as a pri 
vate and assigned to duty in the conscript office, Ral 
eigh, N. C., where he remained until July, 1864. On 
the yth of that month he was promoted and commis 
sioned first lieutenant and aide-de-camp to Lieut. -Gen. 
Theophilus Holmes, and remained on duty with him until 
March, 1865, when he was temporarily transferred by 
General Holmes to the division of Maj.-Gen. Robert F. 
Hoke, then in Hardee s corps, with which he served until 
the surrender of Gen. Joe Johnston s army to General 
Sherman near Greensboro, N. C. , at which time he was 
paroled, his parole bearing date of April 26, 1865. Re 
turning to his home, he has been occupied at different 
times since in mercantile pursuits, and as a railway 
official in Wilmington, Charleston and elsewhere, and 
has devoted much time to the study and writing of the 
colonial and revolutionary history of North Carolina. 
He married in November, 1862, Alice DeRosset, daugh 
ter of Armand J. DeRosset, M. D., of Wilmington, N. C. 
Mrs. Daves died, without issue, September 2, 1897. 
Major Daves present residence (1898) is New Bern, N. C, 



460 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Theodore F. Davidson, a prominent lawyer and public 
man of North Carolina, is a descendant of a Scotch-Irish 
family which has been conspicuous in the history of the 
commonwealth from colonial times. William Davidson 
came to the State with his parents from Pennsylvania as 
early as 1748, served during the revolutionary war as a 
major of militia, represented Rutherford county in the 
general assembly of 1791, and was prominent in the 
organization of Buncombe county, of which he was a 
member of the first court and a representative in the 
senate. One of his sons, William Mitchell Davidson, born 
in 1773, married Elizabeth, daughter of Capt. David 
Vance, a hero of the continental army and an ancestor of 
Gov. Z. B. Vance and Gen. R. B. Vance. One of the nine 
children of these parents was Allen T. Davidson, born in 
Hay wood county in 1819, who was prominent as an 
attorney, banker and railroad director and representative 
in the Confederate States Congress. By his marriage to 
Adeline Howell he had eight children, of whom the 
eldest is Theodore F. Davidson, the subject of this notice. 
The latter was born in Hay wood county, March 30, 1845, 
was prepared for college in the school of Col. Stephen 
Lee, and had been appointed a cadet at the United States 
naval academy when the beginning of hostilities in 1861 
enlisted his patriotic activity. On April 16, 1861, at the 
age of sixteen years, he became a private in the Bun 
combe Rifles, W. W. McDowell captain, that being the 
first company organized in the State west of the Blue 
ridge. The company was assigned to the First regi 
ment, and after the disbandment of this command he 
enlisted in Company C, Thirty-ninth regiment, Col. 
David Coleman, with which he served in the western 
army. He was made sergeant-major and held that posi 
tion until after the battle of Murfreesboro, when he was 
commissioned as aide to Gen. Robert B. Vance, in com 
mand of the military district of western North Carolina. 
Subsequently he served as assistant adjutant-general on 
the staff of his brigade, successively commanded by Col. 
John B. Palmer and Gen. James G. Martin, until the 
close of the war. He participated with gallantry in the 
campaigns of Cumberland Gap, Bragg s Kentucky cam 
paign, East Tennessee and Chickamauga. A portion of 
the brigade to which he belonged, about May i, 1865, 
fired the last hostile guns of the war east of the Missis- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 461 

sippi. After the close of hostilities he resumed his 
studies under Colonel Lee, and then began the reading of 
law and was admitted to practice two years later. He 
formed a law partnership with his father in 1868, and, 
after the dissolution of that partnership in 1882, was asso 
ciated with James G. Martin. In 1867 he was elected 
solicitor of Clay county. Taking an active part in polit 
ical affairs, he was chairman for his county and congres 
sional district in the Democratic organization for ten 
years, from 1872, and in 1878 and 1880 was elected to the 
State senate, where he was accorded a position of leader 
ship. In 1879 he was appointed director for the State-at- 
large of the Western North Carolina railroad, and in 1881 
director of the Western North Carolina insane asylum. 
His prominence as a jurist led in 1882 to his appointment 
as judge of the criminal court of Buncombe, and in 1884 
he was called upon to relinquish this position to accept 
the office of attorney-general of the State, to which he 
was elected by a handsome majority and re-elected in 
1888, declining a renomination in 1892. In 1895 he was 
elected mayor of Asheville for one year, but resigned in 
about eight months. Since then he has been practicing 
law. 

Major David S. Davis, of Goldsboro, was born in 
Lenoir county in 1840, the son of James Davis, a native 
of that county and a soldier of the war of 1812. He was 
educated at Goldsboro and enlisted there in the spring 
of 1 86 1 in the First North Carolina cavalry, in which he 
served one year as a sergeant. He then organized a com 
pany of partisan rangers, of which he was commissioned 
captain by the secretary of war, July 23, 1862. With 
this independent command he served in eastern North 
Carolina until August, 1862, when he was attached to the 
Eighth battalion under Maj. J. H. Nethercutt. In 
December, 1863, this and the Tenth battalion were con 
solidated in the Sixty-sixth regiment, under Col. A. D. 
Moore. On July 14, 1864, he was commissioned major of 
this regiment, and in March, 1865, was recommended for 
promotion to lieutenant-colonel. During his career he 
participated in the skirmish of October 15, 1862, near 
New Bern, in November near Ten Mile house in the same 
vicinity, the battle of Kinston, December, 1862, skir 
mish at Sand Ridge, January, 1863, and, going into Vir- 



462 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

ginia in May, 1864, took part in the battles at Walthall 
Junction, Bermuda Hundred and Cold Harbor; served in 
the trenches before Petersburg until September 3oth, 
under fire of the enemy s mortars, fought in the battle of 
Fort Harrison, and then was sent to Wilmington; was 
under fire at Fort Gatlin, took part in an encounter at 
Fort Fisher, and several skirmishes following, the battle 
at Cobb house, near Kinston, at Wise s fork, at the battle 
of Bentonville and subsequent skirmishes, up to the sur 
render, when he was present. From June, 1864, until the 
end, he was in command of the Sixty-sixth regiment. 
In 1872 Major Davis was married to Anna Lightner, 
widow of his brother, Dr. John Davis. 

John Dixon Davis, commander of James W. Cooke 
camp, U. C. V., of Beaufort, who has had a long and honor 
able career as a county and Federal official at that city, also 
rendered faithful service in his youth as a soldier of the 
Confederacy. He was born in Carteret county, July 4, 
1845, and there enlisted October 16, 1861, as a private in 
Company G, Fortieth regiment, North Carolina heavy 
artillery. After a year s service, in which he participated 
in the battle of New Bern, he was honorably discharged 
on account of physical disability, and was not able to do 
further service until January, 1864, when he went to 
Columbus, Ga. , and enlisted in Company C, in one of the 
battalions organized from the men stationed at that point. 
There he was detailed in the arsenal iron works, except 
when ordered out on active duty. With this command he 
participated in the battle of Ezra Church, near Atlanta, 
under Gen. S. D. Lee; was in skirmishing at Macon 
when Sherman was on his fiery "marching through 
Georgia;" served at Savannah under Hardee, and at 
Girard, Ala., near Columbus, took part in the defense of 
that city against Wilson s raiders. He was captured in 
this last battle, sent to Macon and paroled. Subsequently 
he resided at Morehead City until July, 1868, when he 
was elected sheriff of Carteret county, an office which he 
filled with much efficiency for six terms. From 1879 he 
was in mercantile business until July, 1884, when he 
was elected clerk of the superior court of the county. 
This he resigned in his third term to accept the position 
of collector of customs. By his marriage in 1868 to 
Narcissa E. Webb, he has five children living: Lena C., 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 463 

wife of Robert Lee Humber, Lucy McLean, Maud D., 
Marion L. and Charles W. Mrs. Davis is the author of 
the beautiful poem entitled "The Soldier True Who Wore 
the Gray," published in the Baltimorean, September, 
1884. George W. Davis, a brother of the foregoing, born 
in Carteret county in 1832, enlisted at the outbreak of 
the war as lieutenant of Company H, Tenth artillery, 
and resigning in October, 1861, re-enlisted in Company 
G, Fortieth heavy artillery, in which he served a year 
as second lieutenant. Then resigning he engaged in 
blockade running until he was captured in June, 1863. 
He was offered by his captors his freedom and a large 
sum of money if he would pilot the Federal gunboats over 
the bar for their contemplated attack on Fort Sumter, 
but indignantly declined the proposition and suffered 
imprisonment at Fort Warren until July, 1865. He con 
tinued subsequently in the merchant marine, and was 
drowned in the Gulf of Mexico in 1893. 

Junius Davis, a prominent attorney of Wilmington, is 
a native of that city, born June 17, 1845. He was in 
school at Bingham s institute in Alamance county when 
North Carolina decided to cast her lot with the Confed 
erate States, and in the spring of 1863, being nearly 
eighteen years of age, he left his books to enter the mil 
itary service. As a private in Battery C, Third battalion, 
North Carolina artillery, Capt. J. G. Moore, he served 
until the close of the war, for nearly a year in the bat 
teries about Petersburg, fighting in the battles of Drewry s 
Bluff and Bermuda Hundred, and on the Richmond lines, 
where he took part in the battle of Fort Harrison. In 
the last day s fight at Petersburg he was slightly wounded, 
but continued on duty during the retreat until captured 
in the fighting on the evening preceding the surrender 
of the army. Returning then to his old home he took up 
the study of law, and was admitted to the practice in 1868. 
During the three decades which have followed he has 
attained notable distinction in his profession. 

Marcellus L. Davis, of Charlotte, a veteran of the First 
North Carolina cavalry, was born in Mecklenburg county, 
March 7, 1843, son of James H. Davis, who was a captain 
of militia previous to 1 86 1 . His mother was Jane Delilah 
Lee. The fact that his father was a Davis and his mother 



464 CONFEDERA TE MILITARY HISTORY. 

a Lee once secured him generous entertainment at the 
home of a farmer while on a foraging expedition, the fact 
being ingeniously stated by one of his comrades to the 
previously inhospitable citizen. He was educated at the 
Charlotte military institute, under President D. H. Hill, 
and in the spring of 1861 accompanied the cadet corps to 
the Fisher camp of instruction at Raleigh. While there 
he sought to enlist in Colonel Hill s regiment, the First, 
but, under the ruling of that officer, that the cadets must 
obtain the permission of their parents, was prevented by 
his mother s message to "Come right home." Subse 
quently he was permitted to join the regiment in Vir 
ginia, after the battle of Big Bethel, and remained there 
with a squad of cadets until they were called back to 
Raleigh for drill duty. Subsequently, after aiding in the 
organization of an infantry company at his home, he 
enlisted in the First cavalry, with whom he served dur 
ing the remainder of the war in all its marches, skir 
mishes, campaigns and battles. The regiment was one 
of the best of the splendid army, and gave to the Confed 
erate service four generals, Ransom, Baker, Gordon and 
Barringer. Since those stirring scenes passed into his 
tory he has been equally active in the pursuits of peace. 
He has been engaged in farming and in manufacturing 
with much success, and since 1895 has resided at Char 
lotte. He is a prominent member of Mecklenburg camp 
and quartermaster of the Second brigade, North Carolina 
division, United Confederate Veterans. In 1865 he was 
married to Julia J. , daughter of Samuel A. Davis, and 
sister of Lieut. -Col. James T. Davis, of the Forty-ninth 
North Carolina infantry, who was killed in the battle of 
Hare s Hill, Petersburg. 

Colonel William S. Davis, of the Twelfth North Caro 
lina regiment, was born in Warren county, N. C. , Janu 
ary 9, 1840, and was graduated at Randolph- Macon 
college, Va, in 1859, receiving the highest grade ever 
given at that institution under the old curriculum. He 
subsequently attended the university of Virginia till the 
war broke out, when he came home and enlisted in May, 
1 86 1, in the Warren Rifles, or Company C, Second North 
Carolina infantry. He was elected first lieutenant, and 
in the spring of 1862 promoted captain. A year later he 
became lieutenant-colonel of his regiment, and com- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 465 

raanded it with great ability in several famous battles, 
including Gettysburg. In the latter fight, having but a 
remnant of 175 men at his command, he charged the 
enemy successfully, and was afterward complimented by 
General Rodes in the presence of the entire brigade. 
Subsequently he was recommended for promotion to 
brigadier-general. Among the battles in which he par 
ticipated were Hanover Court Hotise, Cold Harbor, Mal- 
vern Hill, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, 
Spottsylvania Court House, the Wilderness, Winchester, 
Monocacy and Strasburg. In the latter fight, command 
ing Hoke s brigade, he lost his left arm and was disabled 
for further service until February, 1865, when he 
reported to his command at Petersburg, and was not 
again on active duty in the field. In 1885, after various 
employment, he entered the ministry of the Methodist 
church, and served faithfully in that sacred calling until 
September, 1897, when, on duty in the pulpit, he sus 
tained a stroke of paralysis which compelled him to retire 
from the ministry. He then made his home at Warren 
Plains, N. C. In 1863 he was married to Bettie Jones, of 
Warren county, and they have reared a family of ten 
children. 

Captain William H. Day, a prominent attorney of 
Raleigh, N. C. , was born at Twilight, Halifax county, 
August 25, 1844, and was educated at Oaks, Orange 
county, and at the university of North Carolina. He 
abandoned his college studies on April 20, 1861, to enter 
the service of the South, enlisting in the Second regiment 
of State troops, afterward known upon reorganization as 
the Twelfth regiment. He enlisted as a private and 
soon afterward accompanied his regiment to Virginia, 
where the command was attached to M ah one s brigade in 
the vicinity of Norfolk until the spring of 1862. He was 
then elected second lieutenant of Company K, which he 
had taken part in organizing. Early in 1863 he was 
promoted first lieutenant, and November 27, 1863, cap 
tain of Company K. With his regiment, in Garland s 
brigade, he passed through the bloody struggle of the 
Seven Days before Richmond, took part in the heroic 
struggle on South mountain where Garland was killed, 
and continued in the ranks of this fighting regiment 
through the famous battles of Sharpsburg, Fredericks- 



466 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

burg, Gettysburg, Mine Run, and the Wilderness. On 
May 12, 1864, he had the misfortune to be one of the 
many captured at Spottsylvania Court House, the begin 
ning of a tedious and painful experience as a prisoner of 
war. After four or five months at Point Lookout he was 
transferred to Fort Delaware, and thence was sent with 
the unfortunate six hundred officers who were held under 
fire of the batteries on Morris island in August, 1864. 
Subsequently he was detained at Fort Pulaski and Fort 
Delaware until his release, June 17, 1865. 

Alfred Washington Dean, a resident of Surry county, 
N. C., since 1867, and now a prosperous merchant of 
Mount Airy, was born in Patrick county, Va., Septem 
ber 20, 1842. He entered the Confederate States service 
in the summer of 1861 as a private in the Twenty-ninth 
Virginia infantry regiment, and was first in battle at 
Prestonburg or Middle Creek, Ky., January 10, 1862. 
During the years of campaigning which followed he was a 
participant in many battles and skirmishes, including 
Blountsville, Tenn., Bachelor s Creek, N. C., Drewry s 
Bluff, Spottsylvania Court House and Cold Harbor, in 
the last battle receiving a slight wound. On June 16, 
1864, he crossed the James river to the Bermuda Hun 
dred line, and was on duty there until February, 1865. 
On account of his long service on General Pickett s divi 
sion guard he was not a participant in many pitched 
battles. During the retreat from Petersburg he was in 
battle for the last time April 6, 1865, and escaping from 
Appomattox Court House, he went to Carroll county, 
Va., and remained until 1867, when he came to Surry 
county, N. C. Throughout his active and devoted 
career as a soldier he had the good fortune never to be 
captured, or sent to hospital or to be seriously wounded. 

Henderson Randolph DeLoatch, a Confederate veteran 
of Jackson, N. C., was born in Northampton county. 
September 9, 1836. He enlisted in April, 1861, in Com, 
pany A of the Fifteenth regiment, State troops, as a 
private, and accompanied that command to Virginia, 
where the regiment was assigned to the brigade of Gen- 
Howell Cobb. He participated in the battles of Dam 
No. i, on the peninsula, Seven Pines, Malvern Hill, 
South Mountain and Sharpsburg, Md. ; fought on Marye s 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 467 

hill, at Frederick sburg, and at Bristoe Station in the fall 
of 1863 was severely wounded in the foot. This injury 
necessitated his transfer to the cavalry, and he was sub 
sequently a participant in all the engagements of Com 
pany H, Second North Carolina cavalry, until the close 
of the war. In one of the minor engagements in North 
Carolina near the close of the war he was in immediate 
command of the line of battle. On eight occasions during 
his service he was struck by bullets, but never danger 
ously hurt. Two of his brothers were in the service, both 
of whom lost their lives, one dying from wounds received 
at the Wilderness, and the other from disease. Since the 
war Mr. DeLoatch has been mainly engaged in farming 
and mercantile business. After filling minor official 
positions he was elected register of deeds for a term of 
two years in 1882, and in 1896 he was elected to the same 
position. He was married in 1874 to Maria Drake, who 
also lost two brothers in the Confederate service, and they 
have six children: Maria Randolph, Mary Julia, Daisy 
Dean, Junius Ramsey, Janie Drake and Rennie Peele. 

Captain Armand Lamar DeRosset, of Wilmington, 
N. C., experienced a varied service as a soldier of the 
Confederate States, took part in a number of famous 
battles, and did not escape without the suffering which 
fell so liberally to the lot of the Southern armies. He 
was born at Wilmington in 1842, a son of Dr. A. J. 
DeRosset and a brother of William L. DeRosset, colonel 
C. S. A., and conspicuous in the organization of Confed 
erate veterans ; was educated at New York and in Trinity 
college, Hartford, Conn., and on April 15, 1861, entered 
the service as a private in the Wilmington light infantry. 
After this organization became Company C of the 
Eighteenth infantry regiment, he remained with it three 
months, then being promoted to a lieutenancy in the 
Third regiment. In July, 1863, he was detached from 
the latter command, by order of the war department, and 
ordered to report to General Winder at City Point. As 
provost-marshal he served six months at Wilmington, and 
then, being promoted captain, was ordered to Fayetteville, 
where he took command of Company B, Second North 
Carolina battalion, known as the Arsenal Guard. Upon 
his request for active service he was ordered to Virginia 
and given command of the battalion. But the defenses 



468 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

of Wilmington now being seriously threatened he was 
transferred to Fort Caswell, where he was on duty until 
the fort was evacuated. Reporting to General Hoke he 
and his battalion were ordered to Wilmington, and after 
the fall of that city, he was sent with his battalion and 
Moseley s artillery to Elizabethtown to protect the flank 
of Hardee s army from the gunboats on the river. Pro 
ceeding to Fayetteville in the same duty, he joined 
Hardee s corps and took part in the battle of Averasboro, 
March 16, 1865. Here he received a severe wound in 
the breast, and, being left in the field hospital, was cap 
tured and paroled by the Federal troops. During his 
service in the army of Northern Virginia with the Third 
regiment he was in the battles of Mechanicsville, Cold 
Harbor, Malvern Hill, Chantilly, Sharpsburg and Fred- 
ericksburg (May, 1863). At Mechanicsville he was 
knocked down and badly bruised by a grapeshot, which 
struck his pistol on his right hip, and at Sharpsburg he 
received a wound in the arm. Since the war Captain 
DeRosset has resided at W ilmin g ton > where he is a val 
ued citizen. He was married in May, 1866, to Tallulah, 
daughter of James H. Low, of New Orleans, and they 
have six children: Louise, Anne, wife of J. W. Harris 
of Cartersville, Ga., Armand L. Jr., Tallulah, Madeline, 
and James Low, now in the banking business in New York. 

Colonel William L. DeRosset, commander of the North 
Carolina division, United Confederate Veterans, with 
the rank of major-general, was born at Wilmington in 
1832, the eldest son of Dr. Armand J. and Eliza DeRosset. 
He was prepared for college at St. Timothy s hall, Md., 
and during 1849 and 1850 was a student in the university 
at Chapel Hill. Subsequently he was with his father 
for a time at New York and then indulged a natural bent 
for mechanics in the Lawrence machine shops, Massa 
chusetts. Returning to Wilmington, he was mainly con 
nected, for several years, with the mercantile firm of 
DeRosset & Brown, of which he became a member in 
1860. In 1855 he became lieutenant of the Wilmington 
light infantry, and in the following year was elected 
captain. In this command, under orders from the gov 
ernor, he occupied Fort Caswell with other companies, 
in April, 1861, and about two weeks later was ordered to 
occupy Federal Point, the site of Fort Fisher, where there 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 469 

was then a two-gun battery. Here he was on duty for 
several months. At the organization of the troops for serv 
ice during the war, he was commissioned major and 
assigned to the Third regiment, of which Gaston Meares 
was colonel and R. H. Cowan lieutenant-colonel. At the 
reorganization in May, 1862, Cowan having been elected 
colonel of the Eighteenth regiment, DeRosset was pro 
moted to lieutenant-colonel. In this rank he served in 
Ripley s brigade in the campaign before Richmond, par 
ticipating with credit in the battles of Mechanicsville, 
Games Mill and Malvern Hill. In the latter engagement 
the gallant Meares was instantly killed by a fragment of 
shell, and DeRosset assumed command of the regiment, 
soon afterward being promoted to colonel. He partici 
pated in the Maryland campaign, in command of Ripley s 
brigade, but not actively engaged, at South mountain ; 
and at Sharpsburg commanded his noble regiment, which 
lost in the carnage of that day 330 killed and wounded out 
of 5 20 taken into the fight, including 23 out of 27 officers, 
seven of whom were killed or died from their wounds. 
Colonel DeRosset was among the wounded, a minie ball 
passing through the lower part of his body, nearly caus 
ing his death and disabling him for service in the field. 
Gen. D. H. Hill, in recounting the severe losses of his 
division, reported: "Colonel DeRosset, Third North 
Carolina, received a severe wound which I fear will for 
ever deprive the South of his valuable services." After 
many months of suffering he finally gave up hope of 
resuming his command, and resigned his commission as 
colonel in the summer of 1863. But in January, 1865, 
he accepted the appointment of colonel in the invalid 
corps, from President Davis, and was surrendered with 
the army in North Carolina at Greensboro. While the 
fear expressed by General Hill was practically realized, 
so far as military duty was concerned, happily it is true 
that the Sharpsburg bullet has not deprived the South of 
the valuable services of this true and loyal hearted gentle 
man in the years of peace which have followed the great 
struggle. In the midst of business pursuits he has lived 
the life of a gentleman of high character and noble 
ideals. He has been very prominent in the work of 
organization of the veterans association, maintaining in 
this way a close touch with the Confederate soldiers of 
the entire South, and at the Houston reunion he was 



470 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

elected commander of the division comprising his State. 
The family of Colonel DeRosset was a unit in the support 
of the cause, from 1861 to 1865. His father was a mem 
ber of the committee of safety of Wilmington, and aided 
as best he could the soldiers in the field. His mother, 
whose memory is blessed, was president of the Soldiers 
aid society of Wilmington throughout the war, and 
revealed a remarkable administrative ability in providing 
relief for the boys who wore the gray. Under her direc 
tion, and that of her able lieutenant, Mrs. Alfred Martin, 
the ladies would daily gather at the city hall and labor 
unweariedly for the comfort of their sons and their com 
rades. When Hoke s footsore and hungry veterans came 
to Wilmington, the women provided them food and hos 
pitality, and during the harrowing scenes of hospital life 
which followed, she was the leader in deeds of mercy. 
When all was over she was the first to urge the organiza 
tion of the Ladies memorial association, in which she 
never accepted office, but faithfully devoted her talents 
as long as she lived. Four other of her sons, younger 
brothers of Colonel DeRosset, were in the Confederate 
service: Dr. M. John DeRosset, who left a position as 
surgeon in Bellevue hospital. New York, and offers of 
position in a New York regiment to volunteer for the 
South, served with Jackson in the Valley in 1862, and 
afterward was one of the surgeons in charge of the Baptist 
college hospital, Richmond; Capt. A. L. DeRosset, 
Third North Carolina regiment, who was several times 
wounded and finally was left for dead on the field of 
Averasboro, but fortunately recovered; Louis H. De 
Rosset, who was detailed in the ordnance and quarter 
master s department and was sent to Nassau on duty 
connected with the latter, and Thomas C. DeRosset, who 
left school to join the Junior reserves, was detailed for 
duty at the Fayetteville arsenal, and died in 1878 from 
sunstroke while in command of the Whiting Rifles attend 
ing memorial services at Oakdale cemetery. A sister of 
Colonel DeRosset also experienced the bitterness of war 
in the loss of her husband, Col. Gaston Meares. 

Thomas Byron Douthit, a leading citizen of Salem, 
N. C., born in Forsyth county in 1839, entered the Con 
federate service in the spring of 1861 as a member of 
Company E of the Eleventh regiment, Col. W. W, Kirk- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 471 

land. After participating in the first battle of Manassas 
with this command, he was transferred at the reorganiza 
tion, in 1862, to the First battalion, North Carolina 
sharpshooters, which was formed from this regiment. 
This command had an adventurous and famous career, 
full of hard fighting, and took part in all the great battles 
of the army of Northern Virginia. It was identified with 
the career of E well s corps, and was attached to the same 
brigade all the way through, though under different com 
manders. In the battles of Stonewall Jackson in the val 
ley and in the Second Manassas campaign, in the fighting 
before Richmond, on the Rappahannock, in Maryland and 
Pennsylvania he was in the thick of the fight, and he was 
with the ragged and starving band of heroes who surren 
dered at Appomattox, April 9, 1865. Since then he has 
lived a life of honorable social and business activity at 
Salem, where he first became a citizen in 1857. He has 
been honored by his fellow citizens with the office of 
mayor, and for four years was postmaster of the city. 
He has been and is now serving as magistrate. 

Henry D. Duckworth, a veteran of the Eleventh regi 
ment, North Carolina troops, was born in Burke county, 
August 15, 1846. His father, John A. Duckworth, was 
also in the military service of the Confederate States. 
Mr. Duckworth was reared from the age of ten years at 
Charlotte, which has since been his home. He was much 
under military age at the opening of hostilities between 
the South and North, but in March, 1861, he entered the 
volunteer organization known as the Charlotte Grays, 
which became Company A of the First, or Bethel regi 
ment, later known as the Eleventh. He served with 
this command throughout the war, participating in num 
erous engagements, prominent among which were the 
battles of White Hall, Gettysburg, the Wilderness, Spott- 
sylvania Court House, Cold Harbor and Ream s Station. 
It was the fortune of his command to be almost invari 
ably opposed in battle to the commands of General Burn- 
side or Hancock, and their gallant combats turned some 
times in favor of one side, sometimes of the other. At 
Reams Station, his brigade, under General Heth, very 
nearly effected the capture of Hancock. He was wounded 
in the first day s battle at Gettysburg, and April i, 1865, 
was captured on the Petersburg lines. He was subse- 



472 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

quently imprisoned at Fort Delaware until June, 1865. 
During the past eight years Mr. Duckworth has been 
connected with the office of the tax collector of his county, 
for three years as deputy. He is a member of Mecklen 
burg camp. By his marriage in 1878 to Mary E. Severs, 
he has four children living. 

Brodie L. Duke, of Durham, one of the most famous 
business men of the South, is a native of Orange county 
and son of Washington Duke, with whom he was associ 
ated in the management of a tobacco manufacturing 
establishment, which, in its special lines, is the greatest 
in the world. Washington Duke was the son of Taylor 
Duke, a native of Orange county, and began life as a 
farmer, in which occupation his business capacity was 
manifested by his progress from renter to proprietor of 
a farm of three hundred acres previous to the war. He 
enlisted as a private in the Confederate service in 1863, 
served at Camp Holmes and Charleston, S. C., and then 
was transferred to Richmond, where he was on duty at 
Battery Brook and won promotion to the rank of orderly- 
sergeant by his skill as an artilleryman. Upon the evac 
uation of Richmond he was captured and confined in 
Libby prison until the close of hostilities, when, being 
given transportation to New Bern, he walked the remain 
ing distance to his home, 1 34 miles. Meanwhile, Brodie L. , 
the eldest son, had been left in charge of Major Gee, com 
mandant at the Salisbury prison, and he had become a 
member of a company of boys who were assigned to duty 
as guards. Just before Stoneman s raid they removed 
the prisoners to South Carolina and remained there until 
the close of the war. Brodie L. Duke served as orderly 
to Major Gee, and when the latter was on trial before 
the United States court, accused of cruelty to prisoners, 
his testimony had great influence in bringing about ac 
quittal. When young Duke returned to Durham after 
the surrender of the army, he was penniless and home 
less. Walking six miles into the country, he was given 
a change of raiment by his aunt and then went to work 
for an uncle, receiving as his share of the profits of one 
year s labor on the farm six barrels of corn and three 
barrels of flour. In the meantime his father had re 
turned from Federal prison and the family was again 
united, In addition to farming, the elder Duke, 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 473 

aided by his sons, began the manufacture of smoking 
tobacco in 1865, using a log cabin as a factory. Their 
business increased, and in 1869 B. L. Duke removed to 
Durham and established a factory in a vacant house. 
His father joined him in 1874, but their operations were 
distinct until 1878, when they formed the firm of W. 
Duke, Sons & Co. The business rapidly increased in 
volume, and imposing buildings were erected to accommo 
date it. Before the institution was merged into the 
American tobacco company it was doing an annual busi 
ness of over four and a half million dollars, with nine 
hundred employes at Durham and five hundred at New 
York. B. L. Duke, in addition to this manufacturing 
business, has large interests in real estate throughout the 
South and in various cotton factories. He established 
and built up the prosperous town of North Durham, and 
in various ways devotes his talents and wealth to the 
good of his community and the advancement of the State. 

Henry V. Dunstan, M. D., a prominent physician of 
Windsor, was born in Bertie county, September 2, 1842. 
He was educated at the Wake Forest college and the 
university of Virginia, and in medicine at the Virginia 
medical college, where he received his professional degree 
in 1862. He then immediately devoted his professional 
attainments to the service of the Confederacy, joining 
the army in June, 1862, and being assigned to hospital 
duty at Richmond, with the rank of assistant surgeon. 
About a year later he was ordered on field duty and 
attached to the Eighth Georgia cavalry, a command with 
which he was connected during the remainder of the war. 
In the performance of his duty as surgeon he was with 
his command in the military operations about Peters 
burg during 1864-65, a period of service perhaps the most 
trying of any in the whole course of the great war; and 
when finally the Confederate capital was given up and 
the President and his cabinet started for a more central 
point, he accompanied the Georgia cavalry regiment 
which acted as escort to the presidential party. The 
story of the journey has often been told and is familiar. 
After the party was scattered and the President captured 
Surgeon Dunstan surrendered himself at Macon and was 
paroled. Thence he returned to Murfreesboro, N. C., 
where his people were then living, and remained there 



474 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

until 1867, when he made his home at Windsor, in his 
native county, and began the long professional career to 
which his life has been devoted. He is highly regarded by 
his people, both professionally and socially. Since the 
establishment of the office of superintendent of the county 
board of health he has been serving the public in that capa 
city. Dr. Dunstan was married in 1869 to Mary E. Miller, 
of Bertie county, who died in 1890, leaving two sons, Henry 
V. Jr., and Frederick Miller. By his second marriage, 
in 1894, to Bessie Tayloe, he has one son, Thomas E. 

Oren Osborn Eidson, of Elkin, N. C., is a native of 
Iredell county, where he was reared and educated. 
Early in 1861 he enlisted in a volunteer company organ 
ized in Iredell, which became Company A of the Seventh 
regiment, North Carolina troops, with which he joined 
the brigade of General Branch and participated in the 
battle of New Bern before going into Virginia and becom 
ing a part of the army of Northern Virginia. In May, 
1862, he went with his regiment to Gordonsville, Va., 
thence returning to Hanover Court House and, after the 
battle there, participating in the Seven Days campaign 
before Richmond and the folio wing engagements of 1862: 
Cedar Run, Second Manassas, Harper s Ferry, Sharps- 
burg and Fredericksburg. At Chancellorsville he was 
within 50 yards of Gen. Stonewall Jackson when the 
latter received his fatal wound, and at Gettysburg his 
regiment was distinguished among the immortal assail 
ants of the Federal line on Cemetery hill. He also went 
through the campaign from the Rapidan to the James in 
1864, and was with his command throughout the siege of 
Petersburg. On the day before the evacuation, his regi 
ment was sent on special duty to Greensboro, where he 
first learned of the surrender at Appomattox. Mr. Eid 
son served first as a private in the line, later as orderly- 
sergeant in the ambulance corps, and finally in the com 
missary and medical departments. After the close of 
hostilities he resided in his native county until 1873, 
when he became a citizen of Elkin. For twelve years he 
has served efficiently as deputy sheriff. 

Lieutenant Jesse T. Ellington, sheriff of Johnston 
county, N. C. , is remembered by his comrades as a gal 
lant private and officer of the Fiftieth regiment, Kirk- 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY, 475 

land s brigade, Hoke s division. He was born in Clayton 
county in 1842, and was educated at Wake Forest col 
lege, which he left after two and a half years study, in 
February, 1862, to enlist in Company C of the Fiftieth. 
He served as a private until December following, when 
he was elected first lieutenant. In Gen. Junius Daniel s 
brigade he took part in the battle of Malvern Hill, in 
Virginia, and later in the war participated in the engage 
ments at Little Washington, N. C., Savannah, Ga., Salke- 
hatchie river, S. C., Averasboro and Bentonville, N. C. 
After the surrender at Greensboro he returned to his 
native county, and taught school for two years, then 
engaged in farming, his present occupation. He has 
been prominent and influential in this county, and was 
elected in 1881 as its representative in the legislature. 
In 1884 he was appointed sheriff, an office he has ever 
since filled, except two years, 1886-87, with much 
credit. By his marriage in 1867 to Delia Smith, who 
died in 1882, he has four children: John W. , Jessie D. , 
Henter D. and Lucille. In 1885 he married Sallie Wil 
liamson, of Suffolk, Va. , and they have three sons: Doug 
las D. , Kenneth R. and Eric L. A brother of the fore 
going, Joseph C. Ellington, for four years State librarian 
of North Carolina, served also in the Fiftieth regiment, 
as third lieutenant of Company C. 

Captain Andrew J. Ellis, M. D., of Garysburg, N. C., 
was born in Northampton county in 1834, and received 
his academic education in the university of North Caro 
lina at Chapel Hill, and was educated professionally at 
the tmiversity of Pennsylvania, where he was graduated 
in 1858. He then began the active practice of medicine 
at Garysburg, in which he has continued for forty years, 
with the exception of his service as an. officer of the 
Confederate States army. When North Carolina had 
united her fortunes with the Confederacy he gave himself 
manfully to her support, and organized a company for 
light artillery service, with which he was mustered in as 
captain February 10, 1862. In this capacity he was on 
duty in North Carolina during the remainder of the war, 
participating in the various defensive operations of the 
earlier period, and in the winter of 1864-65, being stationed 
in the vicinity of Wilmington, taking part in the defense 
of that city and the operations against the Federal army 



476 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

which attacked Fort Fisher. His final battle was at Ben- 
ton ville, and soon after he was surrendered with the army 
by General Johnston. Dr. Ellis is prominent as a physi 
cian and holds a position of honor in the community, 
fairly earned by his long and illustrious professional 
career and upright life. By his first marriage, in 1859, 
to Sarah J. Ramsey, of Northampton county, he has one 
daughter living, Mrs. John H. "Weaver, of Texas; and by 
his second marriage in 1885 to Margaret Bell Fitzhugh, 
he has a daughter, Margaret Bell. 

Thomas Leyburn Emry, of Weldon, N. C., widely 
known as an enterprising citizen and a leader in the 
development of the resources of the State, was born at 
Petersburg, Va., December 18, 1842. In boyhood it was 
his misfortune to be left an orphan and penniless, and in 
consequence his youth was a struggle against adverse 
circumstances. But however bitter this may have been 
at the time, this trial but served to develop and strengthen 
those rugged qualities of self-reliance and manly activity 
which have brought him success in life. Learning the 
trade of a tinner, he removed to Halifax, N. C., in 1859, 
to follow that business. But in December, 1860, his 
adventurous and generous nature was appealed to by the 
bold action of South Carolina in declaring her secession 
from the Union, and going to that State he enlisted as 
a private in the Sixth South Carolina regiment. While 
in the ranks of this command he witnessed the bombard 
ment and reduction of Fort Sumter. In July, 1861, 
accompanying his regiment to Virginia, he reached the 
field of Manassas just as the shattered Federal army was 
fairly started on its flight to Washington, and subse 
quently at Dranesville, he realized the varying fortunes 
of war by sharing in the discomfiture of his command. 
In the fall of 1861 he obtained a transfer to the Second 
regiment, North Carolina volunteers, afterward Twelfth, 
State troops, under Col. Sol Williams, in order that he 
might rejoin the Halifax light infantry company, to 
which he had belonged before the war. With this regi 
ment he was in the Seven Days campaign before Rich 
mond, and at Malvern Hill, by his intrepid conduct, won 
honor and promotion. He was thus commended in the 
general orders of Col. B. O. Wade, commanding the regi 
ment : * * It is gratifying to know that the bravery of some 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 477 

was without precedent. The noble daring of Private 
T. L. Emry won the admiration of all his command, he 
having seized the flag and rushed through a shower of 
bullets to the brow of the hill, and there stood defiantly 
waving it in the enemy s face until it and staff were 
completely riddled with bullets." He was also men 
tioned with praise in the orders of the brigade com 
mander, the gallant Samuel Garland. During the re 
mainder of the war, Mr. Emry, having been incapacitated 
by wounds, was detailed on light duty of various kinds, 
but he continued on duty until the close. Returning to 
Halifax in 1865 he embarked in mercantile business, 
and in 1869 he removed to Wei don, where he has ever 
since been one of the foremost citizens. From 1876 until 
1891, with the exception of one term, he was kept by his 
fellow citizens in the office of mayor, an expression of 
confidence and popularity not often witnessed. From 
1886 to 1889 he served upon the board of county commis 
sioners, and he then accepted his party s nomination for 
the State senate and overcame the adverse majority and 
took his seat for one term. For fifteen years he devoted 
his talents to the public good as president of the Roanoke 
Tar river agricultural society, which was very suc 
cessful under his management. In the spring of 1889 
he conceived the project of utilizing the great water 
power at the rapids of the Roanoke and building there a 
manufacturing town, and entering into this enterprise with 
his characteristic energy, he has had the satisfaction of 
seeing the town of Roanoke Rapids grow to a population 
of 1,200 in three years from its foundation, with various 
industrial plants, including two mammoth cotton mills. 
It promises to become the Lowell of the South. Of this 
new city Mr. Emry was the first mayor. In the associa 
tion of Confederate veterans he is an active and devoted 
member, and is commander of W. A. Johnston camp at 
Weldon. By his marriage in 1866 to Emma J. Spiers, of 
Virginia, he has one son, Charles Ransom Emry. 

Captain John R. Erwin, of Charlotte, first commander 
of Mecklenburg camp, United Confederate Veterans, 
was born in York county, S. C., August i, 1838, the son 
of William L. and Anna (Williamson) Erwin, natives of 
that State. From the age of twelve years he was reared 
in Mecklenburg county, upon his father s farm, and his 



478 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

old-field school education was supplemented by study at 
Ebenezer academy in his native State. At seventeen 
years he began mercantile life as a clerk at Charlotte, 
and in 1859 he sought a fresh field for enterprise in 
Texas, but was called thence in 1861 by the prospect of 
war. He enlisted in April, 1861, in the Ranaleburg 
Rifles, was elected first lieutenant, and after reaching 
Garysburg was appointed adjutant of the camp of in 
struction and offered the rank of major of the Third regi 
ment, to which the Rifles were assigned as Company B. 
Declining this honor he remained with his company 
during the period of enlistment. In May, 1862, he was 
elected captain of Company F, Fifth North Carolina cav 
alry, and with this gallant command was identified during 
the remainder of the war. While with the Third he 
participated in the fighting at Yorktown, Va. , and as a 
cavalry officer took part in the many engagements of his 
regiment, notably those at Brandy Station, Culpeper, 
Warrenton Court House, Warrenton Junction, the Wil 
derness, Yellow Tavern, Second Cold Harbor, White 
Oak Swamp, Second Malvern Hill, Reams Station, 
Belfield, all his regiment s fights, in fact, except during 
the Gettysburg campaign, when he was disabled by 
illness. From March 31, 1865, he was in command of the 
Fifth, in the battles of Chamberlain Run, where he took 
part in the last defeat of the Federals, Five Forks and 
Namozine church. Since the close of hostilities Captain 
Erwin has resided in Mecklenburg county and has had 
an honorable career as a public official. He served as 
chief of police of Charlotte from 1873 to 1875; from that 
date until 1886 as clerk of the superior court ; chairman 
of the finance committee from 1886 to 1892, then as a 
member of the State legislature; from 1893 to 1895 as 
private secretary of S. B. Alexander, member of Con 
gress ; chairman of the board of county commissioners in 
1895 and 1896; chairman of the building committee of 
the new courthouse in 1897. He was married in 1867 to 
Jennie, daughter of Maj. Z. A. Grier, and after her death 
in 1878, he married Sallie, daughter of Col. W. M. Grier. 
He has five children living. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 479 

Captain E. Everett, a prominent citizen of Swain 
county, was born in Tennessee in 1830 of North Caro 
lina ancestry. His parents were Signer and Catherine 
(Walker) Everett, natives of Tennessee, whither their 
parents removed from the old North State at an early 
day. His father, who returned to North Carolina in 
1866 and died in 1898 at the age of ninety- two years, 
served in the cavalry company of Captain Hollins, in the 
Confederate army, though much over military age; par 
ticipated in the battles of Fishing Creek, Murfreesboro 
and many others, and being captured in east Tennessee, 
late in the war, was held a prisoner until the close of 
hostilities. Captain Everett was reared upon a farm in 
east Tennessee, in 1852 was married to Mary Cave, and 
in 1858 went to the California gold-fields by the ocean 
route and spent two years profitably in that region. 
Returning to Tennessee for a visit he was swept into the 
Confederate army by the popular enthusiasm of 1861, 
which he fully shared, and became a member of the Third 
regiment of Tennessee volunteers. Having assisted in 
raising Company E of this command, he was commis 
sioned lieutenant, and in this rank at once went to the 
front in Virginia, and was in the fight at Newtown under 
Johnston, and at First Manassas. In May, 1863, with 
the rank of captain, he was detailed for enlistment serv 
ice in Blount county, and in August, 1863, he became 
captain of a company of Thomas legion, with which he 
served to the end. On May i, 1865, having been sent to 
Knoxville with a dispatch for General Sheridan from 
Gen. J. E. Johnston, he was made a prisoner on the 
same street of the town where he had been mustered in, 
May i, 1 86 1. After this he was held in military prison 
until the hostilities were considered closed by the Fed 
eral authorities. He removed to North Carolina in the 
same year and has resided there ever since. At the 
organization of Swain county in 1871, he was elected the 
first sheriff and retained in office until he declined fur 
ther service, five years later. In 1875 he was a member 
of the constitutional convention. He has had an active 
career in politics, and has been a delegate to many State 
conventions of his party. For many years he was a 
leading merchant of his city, but of late has confined 
his attention to agricultural pursuits. He has one son 
living, John H., his successor as a merchant. 



480 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

E. G. Everitt, of Mount Airy, a veteran of the First 
regiment, who bears upon his body the insignia of suffer 
ing in the army of the Confederacy, and in his heart true 
devotion to the cause, was born in Isle of Wight county, 
Va., March 5, 1836, and entered the service from Halifax 
county, N. C. He enlisted at Gaston in January, 1862, 
as a private in Company K of the First regiment, North 
Carolina troops, Col. M. S. Stokes, and in the following 
spring was at the front before Richmond among the 
heroes who met the army of McClellan at Seven Pines, 
and under the leadership of the great Robert E. Lee, 
pounded back the invaders to the cover of their gun 
boats. At Games Mill he received his first wound, a 
painful one in the left thigh. Afterward he fought at 
Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville and Win 
chester. In the latter fight he was again wounded, but 
this did not prevent his going on with the army to the 
field of Gettysburg, where among the terrible losses of the 
army it was his misfortune to be hit on the thigh, break 
ing the bone from the knee to the hip. His wound was 
so severe that he was left on the field, and after 
that he was in the Federal hospitals and a prisoner 
at Point Lookout until released a short time before 
the surrender at Appomattox. Subsequently he resided 
in Halifax county, N. C., until 1886, and in 1893, after 
various places of residence, he made his home at Mount 
Airy. 

Captain William T. Faircloth, of Goldsboro, elected 
chief justice of the supreme court of North Carolina in 
1894, was born in Edgecombe county, January 8, 1829. 
His parents were of English descent and his father was 
a farmer, the vocation to which he was reared. Enter 
ing Wake Forest college in youth, he defrayed his ex 
penses by teaching, and was graduated with distinction 
in 1854. He read law with Judge Pearson, was licensed 
to practice, located at Snow Hill, Greene county, and in 
the next month was elected county solicitor. Soon after 
ward he removed to Goldsboro and practiced there until 
the spring of 1861, when he enlisted in Company C of 
the Second regiment, State troops, Col. C. C. Tew. 
Entering the service as a private, he was soon elected 
first lieutenant, and in December, 1861, upon the recom 
mendation of Colonel Tew, was appointed quartermaster 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY 481 

of the regiment with the rank of captain of cavalry. 
During the latter part of the war he also discharged the 
duties of brigade quartermaster. He was with his regi 
ment through the Seven Days campaign before Rich 
mond, at Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, 
the Wilderness and Spottsylvania Court House, the Val 
ley campaign under Early, including the demonstration 
against Washington, in the siege of Petersburg and the 
retreat to Appomattox, where he was surrendered. Then 
returning to Goldsboro he resumed his practice as a law 
yer, and in August, 1865, was a delegate to the provisional 
State convention. In the same year he was elected to 
the legislature, and was chosen State solicitor of the 
superior courts for the Third judicial district, an office 
which he held until all offices were vacated in 1868. In 
1875 he was a delegate to the State constitutional con 
vention, and in November, 1875, was appointed to fill the 
vacancy on the supreme bench occasioned by the second 
resignation of Judge Settle, his term expiring January 
i, 1879. In 1884 he canvassed the State as the Repub 
lican nominee for lieutenant-governor, and in 1888 was 
the candidate of his party for justice of the supreme 
court. In 1894 he was elected to the honored position 
of chief justice. In addition to his prominent official 
duties and his busy career as a lawyer he has been a 
director of the Wilmington & Weldon and Atlantic & 
North Carolina railroads. In 1867 he was married to 
Evaline E., daughter of Council Wooten, of Mosely 
Hall, Lenoir county. 

Lieutenant William T. Farly, of Milton, a veteran of 
the famous Thirteenth North Carolina infantry, enlisted 
April 24, 1 86 1, as a private in Company C, when the 
regiment, as one of the ten original regiments of North 
Carolina, was known as the Third, and "was promoted 
through the grades of corporal and orderly-sergeant to 
first lieutenant. He was identified with the career of his 
regiment under the gallant colonels, W. D. Fender, A. M. 
Scales and Joseph Hyman, throughout the four years 
struggle, taking part in all the long list of famous battles 
which belong upon its banner, including Williamsburg, 
Seven Pines, Frayser s Farm, Games Mill, Malvern 
Hill, Cold Harbor, South Mountain, Sharpsburg, Fred 
ericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Falling Waters, 



482 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

Spottsylvania Court House, Second Cold Harbor, Peters 
burg, Ream s Station, Burgess Mill, Farmville and 
Appomattox. At Gettysburg, in the first day s battle, 
every member of his company was killed or wounded 
except him and one comrade, and such was the fatality 
throughout the regiment that he, as orderly-sergeant, was 
its ranking officer. During the subsequent retreat he 
was captured at Falling Waters, and for two months 
afterward he was held as a prisoner at Point Lookout. 
Upon the close of this faithful career as a soldier, Lieu 
tenant . Farly returned to his native town of Caswell and 
soon embarked in the business of a contractor and 
builder, in which he has met with success. He is also a 
member of the firm of Farly & Ferguson, furniture 
dealers and undertakers. Mr. Farly was born Septem 
ber 1 8, 1839, son of Abner B. and Anna Owen Farly, 
and in July, 1866, he married Mary Elizabeth Covington, 
by whom he has four children living. His son, W. H. 
Farly, is in business at Danville, Va. 

Captain Owen Fennell, of Wilmington, N. C. , formerly 
of the First regiment, North Carolina troops, was born 
in New Hanover county in 1832, and was reared at Wil 
mington, where his father became a resident five years 
later. He entered the Confederate service as junior sec 
ond lieutenant of Company C, First regiment, under Col. 
M. S. Stokes, in June, 1863. The regiment did good 
service during the Seven Days campaign around Rich 
mond and the Maryland campaign, and Lieutenant Fen 
nell shared its marching and fighting until just after the 
battle of Sharpsburg, when he was made acting assistant 
commissary of subsistence, with the rank of captain. He 
continued in this duty until the office was abolished after 
the Gettysburg campaign. Returning home in Septem 
ber, 1863, he was appointed quartermaster of the re 
serve forces by Governor Vance. Three or four months 
later he accepted the appointment of treasurer of New 
Hanover county from the county court, and held that 
position until the close of the war. In 1872 he was 
elected county treasurer, and in 1893 city treasurer, each 
for a term of two years. Two brothers of the foregoing 
were also in the service : Hardy L. Fennell, first lieuten 
ant of Company C, First regiment, who was wounded in 
the Seven Days battles and died a year later, and John 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 483 

Gaston Fennell, now residing in Texas, who served six 
months as a private in the same company, was honorably 
discharged on account of disability, and subsequently 
served in the Third cavalry until the surrender. 

Garland Sevier Ferguson, a prominent attorney of 
Waynesville, was born at Crabtree, N. C. , May 6, 1843. 
He is the son of William Ferguson, the latter of Robert 
Ferguson, who was born in County Tyrone, Ireland, and 
was brought to America when four years old by his par 
ents, who, after settling in York, S. C. , removed to west 
ern North Carolina, where Robert, at the age of eleven 
years, carried water to the American soldiers during the 
battle of King s Mountain. His mother was Ruth, 
daughter of Nathan Gibson, of a colonial family of 
Scotch-Irish extraction, and a second cousin of Andrew 
Jackson. She was also related to the noted families of 
Davidsons and Vances through her mother, a Branch, 
and her grandmother, a Penland. Mr. Ferguson was 
reared in Highland county, and when eighteen years of 
age enlisted, June 29, 1861, as a private in the Hay wood 
Highlanders, which became Company F of the Twenty- 
fifth regiment, North Carolina troops. His regiment 
went to the front in Virginia in the spring of 1862, in the 
brigade of General Ransom, and he first met the enemy 
on the old Seven Pines battleground during the Seven 
Days battles, his regiment being on that day, June 25th, 
i, 100 strong. He participated in the following battles: 
Frayser s Farm, Savage Station, Malvern Hill, Sharps- 
burg and Fredericksburg, and the other engagements of 
his regiment; was in the assault and capture of Ply 
mouth, April, 1864; was wounded at Dre wry s bluff in 
the fight against Butler, Mayi4th; returned to duty in 
June and fought at Petersburg, June i6th and iyth, then 
was in the battle on the Weldon railroad, August 2ist, 
and then served in the Petersburg trenches through the 
succeeding fall and winter. He led his company in the 
memorable charge which cleared the line of Federals after 
the mine explosion at the Crater. On March 25, 1865, in 
the sortie of Gordon s corps against Fort Steadman, he 
received a severe wound which kept him in hospital until 
some time after the closing acts of the great war drama. 
During his service he was promoted to second sergeant 
June, 1 86 1, then to orderly-sergeant, and in July, 1864, to 

No 54 



484 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

lieutenant. Returning home he was elected clerk of the 
superior court at Waynesville in 1865, and re-elected in 
1868, but resigned in 1872, and having been admitted to 
the bar, entered upon his career as a lawyer, in which he 
has been eminently successful. He was elected to the 
State senate in 1876, and in 1878 and 1882 was elected 
solicitor of his judicial district. He is the present com 
mander of Pink Welch camp, United Confederate Veter 
ans, of which he was one of the organizers. Lieutenant 
Ferguson has seven children by his marriage in 1866 to 
Sarah, daughter of James H. Norwood, of North Caro 
lina, who was murdered in 1851, while Indian agent at 
Pine Bluff, Mo. 

James T. Ferrell, of Durham, a veteran of Fisher s 
regiment of heroes of First Manassas, was born in Wake 
county in 1841, the son of William Ferrell, a farmer. 
He enlisted in Company C of the Sixth regiment, North 
Carolina troops, in March, 1862, joining his command at 
Richmond. About two months later he had his intro 
duction to war in the fiercely fought battle of Seven 
Pines. A few weeks later he participated in the battle 
of Games Mill, and soon afterward fought at Malvern 
hill. During the Maryland campaign of that year he 
was in battle at Boonesboro and Sharpsburg. Thus, in 
six months after his enlistment, he had done the duty of 
a brave soldier in a number of the most famous battles of 
history, in which the fighting qualities of a North Caro 
lina volunteer were abundantly demonstrated. He was 
at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, and while with 
his regiment storming the heights of Gettysburg received 
a severe wound which disabled him for a considerable 
time. Rejoining his regiment, he fought in the Shen- 
andoah Valley campaign and in the engagements about 
Richmond, during which he was taken prisoner by the 
enemy and held until July, 1865. After his return home 
Mr. Ferrell was engaged in farming for several years and 
then removed to Durham and entered the employment 
of Duke & Co. He held an important position in the 
shipping department of this establishment until the close 
of 1897, when he resigned and engaged in the mercantile 
business. By his marriage in 1860 to Frances Turner he 
has four children living, William L., John W., Martha, 
wife of William Warren, and James A. Ferrell. 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 485 

Colonel Charles F. Fisher, Colonel Isaac Erwin A very 
and Colonel Samuel McDowell Tate were three brave 
North Carolina officers who successively commanded the 
gallant Sixth regiment. It is fitting that their names be 
associated in history, as their lives were during those 
days of carnage and suffering. Col. Charles F. Fisher, 
the first commander of the Sixth regiment, North Caro 
lina troops, was, during the formation of the first regi 
ments in the State, president of the North Carolina rail 
road. When the military institute at Charlotte was 
abandoned by most of the cadets, who volunteered in 
various commands, he brought a number of men from 
along his own road and the Western, quartered them in 
the barracks and secured their drilling by the cadets who 
still remained. Soon afterward all were removed to 
company shops, and the work rapidly progressed until 
the Sixth regiment was organized in June, with Fisher 
as colonel, and mustered in for the war. On being mob 
ilized the regiment acted as escort at the funeral of Gov 
ernor Ellis at Raleigh, was reviewed and addressed by 
President Davis at Richmond, and proceeded to Win 
chester, where it was assigned to General Bee s brigade, 
of Gen. J. E. Johnston s army in the Shenandoah valley. 
They reached Manassas Junction on the morning of the 
famous battle and marched hurriedly to the front, where 
the rattle of musketry and boom of cannon were already 
heard, going into their first battle in front of the Henry 
house, and were immediately under a destructive fire. 
After the enemy had recovered the ridge at this place 
and Rickett s battery, the Sixth joined in the superb 
Confederate charge which finally swept back the Fed 
erals. In this movement General Bee and Colonels Bar- 
tow and Fisher were killed. Colonel Fisher led his gal 
lant men in the charge and fell 50 yards in advance of 
his line. Col. W. D. Fender, not long afterward, took 
command of the regiment, and upon his promotion, fol 
lowing the battle of Seven Pines, Isaac E. Avery, up to 
this time captain of Company E, was promoted lieuten 
ant-colonel. 

Colonel Isaac Erwin Avery was born December 20, 
1828, at the Avery home near Morganton. He was the 
son of Isaac T. Avery and grandson of Waightstill Avery, 
a descendant of a Massachusetts family whose ancestors 
came over in 1631. Cols. W. W. Avery, C. M. Avery 



486 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

and Judge A. C. Avery were his brothers. After receiv 
ing his education at Chapel Hill, he had been engaged in 
the management of a stock farm, and as an associate of 
Colonels Fisher and Tate in railroad construction. He 
entered the Sixth regiment at its organization as captain 
of Company E; was the first to call out "Let us charge," 
at First Manassas, was wounded there, and in command 
of the regiment was again wounded at Games Mill, in 
the campaign before Richmond. Being for some time 
disabled, the command devolved upon Maj. Robert F. 
Webb. Promoted colonel he had command of Hoke s 
brigade, including his regiment, at the battle of Gettys 
burg, and fell mortally wounded in the attack upon Cem 
etery hill on the second day. The Sixth entered the 
enemy s works and held them for a brief space, but the 
gallant leader of the brigade, while his men were ascend 
ing the hill, was shot down in an attempt to save his old 
regiment from an enfilading fire. His wound was in the 
neck, rendering him speechless. In his hand was found 
a bloody scroll, upon which he had written with evident 
effort: "Colonel Tate, tell my father that I fell with my 
face to the enemy. General Early reported that the 
place of the gallant Hoke was worthily filled that day by 
Colonel Avery. "In his death the Confederacy lost a 
good and brave soldier. 

Colonel Samuel McDowell Tate, the last of this patri 
otic trio, was born at Morgan ton, September 6, 1830, 
son of David Tate, a member of the legislature ; and a 
great-grandson of David Tate, one of four brothers who 
came to North Carolina from Pennsylvania about 1790. 
He was a delegate to the national convention at Charles 
ton in 1860, and a prominent man before the events of 
the war. He went out with the Sixth as captain of Com 
pany D, and was promoted major after the battle of 
Seven Pines. He was severely wounded at Sharpsburg, 
as lieutenant-colonel commanding, led the regiment up 
Cemetery hill, on July 2d, at Gettysburg, and after that 
was in command until the close of the war. He was sub 
sequently wounded at Rappahannock bridge and at Cedar 
creek, and yet more severely in the battle of Fort Stead- 
man, March 25, 1865, which compelled his return to his 
home. Immediately after the close of hostilities he was 
elected president of the Western North Carolina railroad, 
with which he was prominently identified for several 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 487 

years, though removed from this office by Governor Hoi- 
den. He was elected to the legislature in 1874, 1880, 
1882 and 1884; in 1886 was appointed examiner of national 
banks in the South Atlantic States, and afterward was 
elected treasurer of the State. He has been an earnest 
worker in the Democratic party and a delegate to every 
national convention of his party, except that of 1872, 
from and including 1860. 

Lieutenant John Martin Fleming, of Raleigh, a native 
of Wake county, rendered his Confederate service in the 
Trans- Mississippi department. Two brothers repre 
sented his family in the North Carolina troops : Jasper 
Fleming, now living at Milton, who served as adjutant 
of the old Fourth infantry regiment, and Dr. James R. 
Fleming, of Dunn, N. C., who was an assistant surgeon 
in Early s division of the army of Northern Virginia. 
John Martin Fleming was born in 1836, and after receiv 
ing a preparatory education entered Randolph- Macon col 
lege, Virginia, leaving there in 1856 to matriculate in 
the university of North Carolina, where he was graduated 
in 1859. He removed to Clark county, Ark., in 1860, 
and was there engaged in farming when the Confederate 
States government began its struggle for a place among 
the nations of the earth. He entered the military serv 
ice in the spring of 1862 as a private in an independent 
command, which became part of the Thirty-third Arkan 
sas infantry, Col. H. L. Grinstead, of Shaver s brigade, 
Parsons division, Hindrnan s corps, of the army under 
Gen. T. H. Holmes. Soon after his enlistment he was 
elected second lieutenant of Company E of his regiment, 
the rank in which he served until honorably discharged 
on account of disability in March, 1865, just before the 
end of hostilities. During his military -career he took 
part in a number of skirmishes and the engagements at 
Boston mountain and near Fayetteville, Ark. He was 
never paroled and never took the oath. Lieutenant 
Fleming remained in Arkansas until 1870, when he 
returned to his native county and engaged in farming 
and the conduct of a village store. He served as a mag 
istrate from 1874 to 1883, and was then elected deputy 
warden of the State penitentiary, a position he held for 
ten years. In 1893 he was elected warden of the insti- 
ttition for a term of four years. Since his connection 



488 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

with the penitentiary he has been a resident of Raleigh. 
In 1859 he was married to Nannie, daughter of Dr John 
McKay, and they have three children living : Nora Belle, 
John Martin and Nannie McKay. 

Colonel George W. Flowers, of Taylorsville, a native 
of Alexander county, born in 1842, of North Carolinian 
parentage, had a noteworthy career in the Confederate 
States service, identified with that of the Thirty-eighth 
regiment, which he commanded toward the close of the 
war. He entered the service early in 1862 as second lieu 
tenant of the Rocky Face Rangers, a volunteer company 
of Alexander county ; on the reorganization was elected 
captain, subsequently became major, and in the summer 
of 1864 was promoted lieutenant-colonel. The Thirty- 
eighth, under command of Col. W. J. Hoke, served in 
North Carolina until the latter part of April, 1862, when 
it was assigned to Maxcy Gregg s brigade of the army of 
Northern Virginia, and ordered to Milford Station and 
later to Fredericksburg. Then being transferred to 
Fender s brigade, it took part in the battles between Lee 
and McClellan before Richmond, beginning at Mechan- 
icsville, where Captain Flowers was severely wounded in 
a charge upon a Federal battery. Upon his recovery he 
resumed command of his company and participated in 
the battles of Cedar Run, Manassas Junction, Second 
Manassas, Ox Hill, Harper s Ferry, Sharpsburg, Shep- 
herdstown, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. At the 
beginning of the movement to Pennsylvania he was 
taken sick and was thus disabled until after Gettysburg, 
during which period he was for a short time in command 
at Staunton. Rejoining his regiment at Hagerstown, 
he took part in the engagement at Falling Waters, and 
in the spring of 1864 was again badly wounded in the 
battle of the Wilderness. He was sent to hospital at 
Richmond and thence to Danville, and a few weeks 
later to his home, but was able to join his regiment again 
in the trenches before Petersburg, where he was on duty 
until the evacuation. He was surrendered at Appomat- 
tox as the commanding officer of the gallant old Thirty- 
eighth. On returning home he engaged in farming for a 
time, and then entered the mercantile business, in which 
his career has been a marked success. By his marriage in 
1870 to Sallie J, Haynes he has eight children : Robert 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 489 

L., a graduate of the United States naval academy, and 
now professor of mathematics at Trinity college, Dur 
ham ; Charles E. , a merchant in Montana ; William W. , 
superintendent of public schools at Durham ; John M. , 
Horace, Frederick, Claude and Estella. 

George A. Foote, of Warrenton, a prominent member 
of the medical profession of North Carolina, and distin 
guished in the service of the Confederate States, was 
born in Warren county in 1835. After pursuing aca 
demical and collegiate studies at Warrenton and at Rich 
mond college, he was educated professionally at the 
Jefferson medical college, Philadelphia. He was a stu 
dent at the latter institution when the secession of the 
Southern States began, and ardently sympathizing with 
their cause he returned home and went to Charleston, 
S. C., to offer his services, before the fall of Fort Sum- 
ter. After that event he enlisted at Warrenton as a pri 
vate in one of the first companies of volunteers, but was at 
once ordered before the board of examiners, and was com 
missioned as a surgeon. In this capacity he was assigned 
to Gen. W. W. Kirkland s command, with whom he 
served from the first battle of Manassas until his health 
gave way in 1863. Finding the fatigues of army life 
beyond his strength, he secured an assignment to the 
navy and became surgeon of the ironclad Raleigh, which 
was lost off the coast at Wilmington. He was then 
transferred to the ram Albemarle and shared the famous 
career of that vessel to the last, being on board when she 
was blown up and sunk by Lieutenant Gushing. This 
disaster leaving the troops at Plymouth in a dangerous 
situation, surrounded by the enemy, he was ordered by 
Gen. L. S. Baker to take command there and extricate 
the garrison from their perilous position. This he suc 
ceeded in doing without the loss of a man, and was 
warmly complimented by General Baker in special order 
No. 41, for the skill and gallantry with which this duty 
was performed. Subsequently he was ordered to Wil 
mington and Fort Fisher, and put in charge at hospitals. 
Upon the capture of Fort Fisher, in January, 1865, after 
a terrific bombardment, he was taken prisoner, and sent 
to Governor s island, New York harbor, where he was 
held until a few days before the surrender of General 
Lee, when he was exchanged and permitted to return to 



490 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

his home. Since that momentous period he has been 
engaged in the practice of his profession at Warrenton, 
held in the highest esteem by the people of his commu 
nity, and honored wherever he is known. Though twice 
offered professorships in medical institutions he has pre 
ferred the active life of a practicing physician. He has 
held the positions of president of the State medical 
association and member of the State board of medical 
examiners, and is a member of the State historical 
society of Texas and a member or corresponding mem 
ber of various scientific societies. He is also a valued 
comrade of John White camp, United Confederate 
Veterans, at Warrenton. By his marriage in 1863 
to Sallie J. McDowell, of Edenton, Dr. Foote has four 
children living: George M., Helen N., George A. and 
Gaston S. 

Henry A. Foote, of Warrenton, lawyer, journalist and 
Confederate veteran, was born in Warren county, Novem 
ber 20, 1845. He was one of the younger soldiers of the 
great war, and did not enjoy as long a service as was 
permitted to others, but the patriotic record of his family 
was fully maintained by his four elder brothers, all of 
whom wore the gray and devoted themselves unselfishly 
to the cause of Southern independence. He enlisted in 
December, 1863, in Company F of the First engineer 
regiment, and from that time until the close of the 
struggle served as commissary-sergeant of his company. 
During his service he was with the army in the trenches 
about Petersburg, Va. , and participated in the battle of 
the Crater, in which a bloody repulse was given to the 
attempt of Grant s army to break the line of gray. He 
was with the army in the retreat to Appomattox and par 
ticipated in the surrender. Then returning home he 
began preparation for his civil career and entered Wake 
Forest college, whsre he was graduated in 1868 with the 
first honors of his class. He then adopted law as his pro 
fession and established himself in the practice at Warren 
ton, where he is still devoted to the career of a lawyer. 
He has held the office of State s attorney for the county 
for fourteen years, and during the first administration of 
President Cleveland was deputy collector of internal 
revenue for the Fourth district. Since 1872 he has 
been editor and proprietor of the Warrenton Gazette, 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 491 

a record in journalism which has but one equal in the 
State. In John White camp, United Confederate 
Veterans, he holds the rank of adjutant. By his 
marriage, in 1876, to Minnie C. Young, of Wilson, Mr. 
Foote has five charming daughters, and one son, Thomas 
James. 

Josiah C. Fowler, M. D., a prominent physician of 
Wake Forest, N. C. , formerly of the medical service of 
the Confederate States army, was born in Wake county 
April 8, 1830. His medical examination was obtained at 
the university of Pennsylvania, a popular professional 
school with the young men of the South in ante-war 
times, and he was graduated there in 1854. During the 
next few years he was engaged in the practice of his pro 
fession in Franklin county, N. C., which he abandoned 
at the call to arms, and was called by a company from 
his owntown to come to Raleigh. In the summer of 1861 
he was appointed assistant surgeon of the Seventeenth 
North Carolina regiment. In this capacity he served 
until January, 1865, when ill health compelled his resig 
nation. During the war he was with his regiment in its 
North Carolina service, and was under fire also at the 
great battle of Gettysburg, at the Wilderness and Spott- 
sylvania Court House, at Cold Harbor and Ream s Sta 
tion, and during the siege of Petersburg, faithfully min 
istering to his men and sharing their dangers and priva 
tions. After the close of the war and the recovery of his 
health he resumed his professional career in Franklin 
county, and remained there for fifteen years. Since 
then he has resided at Wake Forest, where he is esteemed 
as a professional man of unusual ability and reputation, 
and is valued as a citizen. By his marriage, in 1866, to 
Mary H. Hart, of Franklin county, he has one son living, 
Pettigrew Fowler, and two daughters, Rosa C. , wife of 
J. L. Allen, and Columbia C., wife of W. W. Holding, 
and all reside in the vicinity of Wake Forest. 

Lieutenant William Graves Foy, a prominent business 
man of Mount Airy, N. C. , was born in Surry county, 
March 26, 1845. His career in the service of the Confed 
erate States, which was marked by bravery and devotion 
and suffering, was rendered in the Twenty-first regiment, 
originally the Eleventh, commanded by Col. (after- 



492 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

ward general) W. W. Kirkland. He enlisted on May 21, 
1861, in Company E of this regiment, and in 1862 was 
transferred to Company C. His gallant conduct brought 
him promotion to lieutenant, and after the battle of 
Gettysburg he was appointed adjutant of the regiment. 
He reached the field of Manassas just before the famous 
victory of July 21, 1861, and participated in the pursuit 
of the routed enemy, and in the following spring fought 
in Trimble s brigade in Stonewall Jackson s Shenandoah 
Valley campaign, and then in the Seven Days battles 
before Richmond with Jackson s corps. After partici 
pating in the second battle of Manassas, he was detailed 
for some time as a drill-master for recruits, but was 
again in the fight at Fredericksburg, and in the follow 
ing battles of Chancellorsville, Winchester, and Gettys 
burg, where he was wounded in the foot. After the 
return to Virginia he was with the forces detailed for the 
North Carolina campaign, and thence was recalled to 
Petersburg, where he took part in the battle of Drewry s 
Bluff and the defeat of Butler, and from the Cold Har 
bor lines, went with Ramseur to the Shenandoah valley 
again. He marched with Early through Maryland and to 
the gates of Washington city, and later fought against 
Sheridan at Winchester and Cedar creek, in the latter 
fight receiving a wound in the face which destroyed his 
left eye, and put an end to his service for the Con 
federacy. 

Captain Joseph G. Freeland, Sixth regiment North 
Carolina State troops, was born in Alamance county, 
January 16, 1838, the son of George J. Freeland, a 
planter, who served sixteen years as register of deeds. 
The father of the latter was Joseph Freeland, of the same 
county, then a part of Orange, whose brother was killed 
by a mob of Tories during the revolutionary war while in 
the discharge of his duties as county sheriff. Captain 
Freeland was a student in a high school in Guilford 
county at the beginning of the Confederate war, but 
promptly left his books, and in May, 1861, enlisted as a 
private in Company F of the Sixth North Carolina regi 
ment. His services, which extended throughout the four 
years of conflict, were marked by soldierly behavior 
under all circumstances, and he steadily rose through the 
various grades to the rank of captain. During two years 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 493 

he was detailed with the sharpshooters of the Second corps. 
Four times he was found by the bullets of the enemy, 
but not seriously injured. Among his battles were First 
Manassas, Seven Pines, the Seven Days fighting before 
Richmond, Second Manassas, Harper s Ferry, Sharps- 
burg, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Winchester, 
Gettysburg, Brandy Station, Drewry s Bluff, Hatcher s 
Run and other battles about Petersburg. On March 25, 
1865, he was captured before Petersburg, and subsequently 
was imprisoned at Point Lookout until July, 1865. On 
returning to his native State he farmed in Alamance and 
Mecklenburg counties until 1874, when he removed to 
Charlotte and engaged in business as a merchant. In 
1893 he was appointed to his present position as janitor 
of the government building at Charlotte. Captain Free- 
land was married in 1866 to Nannie Whitfield, and after 
her death he was wedded in 1890 to Mrs. Fannie Steele, 
nee Black, of Florida. One son, Joseph E., was grad 
uated at the Baltimore dental college, and died in that 
city in 1894. Three brothers of Captain Freeland were 
in the Confederate service, Thomas L., color-bearer of 
the Forty-ninth North Carolina regiment; George J., a 
private in the Forty-ninth North Carolina, and William 
B., who was in Fitzhugh Lee s cavalry and was wounded 
at Fort Fisher, when the latter was captured. 

James Calhoun Freeman, an influential citizen of 
Bertie county, is one of four brothers who served in the 
Confederate armies, one of them giving his life for the 
cause. He was born in the county where he now resides, 
October 5, 1831, and when he had grown to manhood, he 
there engaged in farming, which has been his life occu 
pation. In April, 1862, obedient to the call of his State, 
he left his home and enlisted as a private in Company F, 
Fourth North Carolina cavalry, and was at once appointed 
orderly- sergeant of the company. He was with his 
command in its campaigns in North Carolina, in the 
fights at Franklin, Whitehall and the siege of Little 
Washington, and then going into Virginia and joining 
Stuart s cavalry, participated in the cavalry fighting at 
Brandy Station and other encounters on the Rappahan- 
nock. After this he rode into Pennsylvania with Stuart 
and took a hand in the famous cavalry battle at Gettys 
burg. On the retreat from that memorable field, while 



494 CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 

on duty guarding the wagon train of Ewell s corps, he 
was captured by the enemy at South mountain, Md., and 
was not again permitted to join his regiment of gallant 
troopers. As a prisoner of war he was carried first to Fort 
McHenry, thence to Fort Delaware and later to Point 
Lookout, and was not released until February, 1865, 
when he was paroled. * * His innate love of his native 
State, his fealty toward the Southern cause and the well- 
being of the Southern people, together with the ill treat 
ment and cruelties of life experienced for nearly two 
years as a prisoner of war, made it almost impossible for 
him to realize for a long time that he was a reconstructed 
Reb. " Mr. Freeman is a popular and enterprising cit 
izen, and has had the honor of serving his county thirteen 
years as a member of the board of county commissioners. 
By his marriage, in 1857, to Margaret E. Redditt, he has 
eight children: William J., Mollie H., wife of R. J. 
Shield; Joseph W., Louise J., Maggie E., Leon H., 
Laura C. and Annie M., wife of C. C. Sessoms. 

William George Freeman, M. D., of Murfreesboro, a 
veteran of the cavalry corps of the army of Northern 
Virginia, was born in Bertie county, N. C., August 19, 
1840. He was educated at Wake Forest, and then pur 
sued the study of medicine at the university of Virginia 
and the university of Pennsylvania, being graduated at 
the latter institution in 1861. Sacrificing for the time 
his professional ambition on the altar of his State, he 
enlisted in the spring of 1862 as a private in the Sussex 
Light Dragoons, a cavalry organization which became 
Company H, Thirteenth Virginia cavalry, Col. J. H. 
Chambliss commanding. He served as a trooper, in all 
the operations of his regiment, in W. H. F. Lee s bri 
gade of Stuart s cavalry, until the spring of 1864. Dur 
ing this period he was wounded in a skirmish with a Fed 
eral scouting party between Suffolk and Petersburg, 
which disabled him about one month, and at the battle 
of Upperville he was taken prisoner, but fortunately was 
exchanged after a short confinement at the Old Capitol 
prison. In the spring of 1864 he went before the med 
ical examining board and was commissioned assistant 
surgeon, and assigned to the general hospital at Peters 
burg. Thence, in the fall of 1864, he was transferred to 
Danville, where many of the sick and wounded were 



CONFEDERATE MILITARY HISTORY. 495 

taken to avoid the Federal shells at Petersburg. He 
remained at Danville on duty until June, 1865, and then 
joined his parents at Norfolk. In January, 1866, he began 
the practice of medicine at Union, Hertford county, 
removed to Harrellsville in 1868, and since 1874 has 
made his home at Murfreesboro, N. C., where he is 
yet a successful practitioner and an esteemed citizen. 
By his marriage, in 1869, to Lucy Tyner Boone, of 
Northampton county, he has one son, George King Free 
man. 

Thomas C. Fuller, a distinguished lawyer and justice 
of the United States court of private land claims, was 
born at Fayetteville, N. C. , and was educated at Chapel 
Hill. After leaving the latter institution he read law 
with Chief-Justice Pearson, and began the practice at 
Fayetteville upon his admission to the bar in 1856. He 
was one of those who opposed secession until the fall of 
Fort Sumter, when he promptly offered his services to 
the State of North Carolina. In April, 1861, he became 
a member of Company F, First regiment, North Carolina 
infantry, Col. D. H. Hill, and as a private served during 
the career of this regiment, including the battle of Big 
Bethel. When the command was disbanded he and Col. 
J. B. Starr organized a company of light artillery at Fay 
etteville and vicinity, which was subsequently known as 
Starr s battery; Starr being elected captain and Fuller 
senior first lieutenant. The government not b