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KK\. ui:unE:N gayloro 

First Coii^rfjjationHl |)astor in Nobrask;i 
















To my beloved wife, zvJw, for more than twenty-five years, has 

shared with vie the joys and trials of a minister's life, 

this book is affectionately inscribed by the aidhor. 


In preparing- this little book to celebrate the jubilee of 
Nebraska Congregationalism, the work continued to grow 
from a brief sketch to the present treatise. The range of 
study was larger than anticipated ; the sources yielded larger 
results ; the plan of work was radically changed ; and so a 
jubilee volume was undertaken. 

The success of my work I must leave the indulgent reader 
to determine. No one is more conscious of its imperfections 
than am I, but at the same time I am confident that there are 
some things in this volume that will be of interest to the 
churches, for many friends have kindly responded to the 
appeal for information and help, and what they have written 
has added much to the value of the book. The interest they 
have taken in my effort and the help they have rendered are 
highly appreciated ; and to them individually due credit is 
given in connection with their contribution. 

It has been my aim not to give a history of individual 
churches, but rather the historic development of a great 
denomination ; and so I have used the Minutes of the Gen- 
eral Association as the basis of that development. I have 
received much valuable help from Prof. A. B. Show's thor- 
ough work on Congregational Schools published in Cald- 
well's History of Education in Nebraska; the "Life and 
Labors of Reuben Gaylord" ; and other sources of infor- 
mation which have been placed within my reach. In refer- 
ence to the pictures of workers in the state, I have been 
fortunate in securing the photographs of some of the early 
pioneer fathers whose faces all will be glad to see on the 
printed page. I have failed to secure some that I especially 
desired to have. Some I was unable to find; others were 

too feeble to sit for a photograph and had none which they 
could send. 

The Western Publishing and Engraving Co., which is 
publishing the Morton Illustrated History of Nebraska, 
printed by Jacob North & Co., has added several illustrations 
of Nebraska and Nebraska pioneers which have increased 
the attractiveness and value of the book. These illustrations 
could not otherwise have been obtained. I count myself 
happy and the public fortunate in the choice of publishers. 

With the exception of the Moderators of the General 
Association, and members of the Advisory Board, which is 
entering so largel}" in the development of modern Congre- 
gationalism in the state, I have asked no one resident in 
Nebraska for his picture, unless he had been twenty-five 
years in service in the state. If any other pictures have been 
introduced it is through the courtesy of the publishers. I 
may have overlooked some of the pioneers who should have 
had a place in the book ; if so. it was not intentional on my 
part but due rather to my lack of familiarity with the per- 
sonnel of the pioneer fathers, especially the laymen. 

I wish here, for valuable services rendered, to extend my 
thanks to Rev. G. G. Rice of Council Bluffs, Iowa; Rev. 
A. L. Riggs, D.D., of Santee. Nebraska; Mrs. A. N. God- 
dard of Connecticut ; Mrs. E. G. Piatt of Ohio ; Rev. A. E. 
Sherrill, D.D., of Massachusetts; Rev. C. W. Merrill and 
Rev. John L. Maile of California ; Rev. A. A. Cressman of 
Iowa ; Rev. G. W. Mitchell of Clarks ; Supt. Harmon Bross, 
D.D., Mrs. H. Bross, Rev. Lewis Gregory, and Editor H. 
A. Erencli of Lincoln ; Mr. C. S. Paine of the Morton Illus- 
trated History of Nebraska ; Pres. D. B. Perry, D.D., and 
Rev. Laura H. Wild of Doane College; Dr. George L. 
Miller of Omaha; Col. S. S. Cotton of Norfolk; Supt. J. D. 
Stewart of the Congregational Sunday School and Publish- 
ing Societv ; Rev. Charles G. Bisbee of Arlington ; Rev. C. 


S. Harrison of York; Rev. John Gray of Basin; Rev. W. 
S. Hampton of Dodge; Rev. George E. Taylor of Pierce; 
Rev. A. E. Ricker of Aurora; Rev. George Scott, D.D., of 
Wisner; the scribes of the local associations who furnished 
valuable data not found in the state minutes, and, last but 
not least, to Rev. and Mrs. J. E. Storm of Lincoln, v^ho 
prepared the major part of the tables in Part HI, which are 
of especial value for reference. 

These friends have contributed in no small degree to the 
value of this book, and if it is acceptable to the Congrega- 
tionalists in the state much of the credit is due them. 
Hoping that Congregational Nebraska may have a mission 
for good in the state, it is now given the general public. 

Lincoln, October i, 1905. 



Preface . . . . v 

Introdnction ....... 3 

Part I — Development of Church Life 


The field 9 


Congregational pioneers ...... 13 

Gov. Richardson . . . . . . 13 

Dr. Geo. L. Miller 13 

Rev. G. G. Rice 15 

Reuben Gay lord 16-18 

The Congregational Association of Iowa . . 19 


Development of Church life . . . . .20 

Historic date ...... 21 

Temperance work . . . . . -23 

The Fremont Church ..... 23 


Nebraska * . 25 


Some discouragements ...... 28 


Early declarations ....... 30 



A new era in Church development . 

Railroad extension ..... 

New towns and churches . . . ■ . 


Gaylord as Home Missionary Superintendent 

First visit of National Secretary A. H. M. S. . 
The American S. S. Union 
Memorial to Pres. U. S. Grant, in behalf of Ne 
braska Indians ..... 
The Pawnee Indians .... 


Removal of the capital ..... 
Mr. Gaylord's report ..... 
The Fremont Church .... 


Rev. O. W. Merrill, Superintendent . 

Father Gaylord ...... 

The prayer-meeting- ..... 

The Pilgrim's idea and practice 

Amos Dresser ...... 

Supt. Merrill's report ..... 

Rev. J. B. Chase as acting superintendent . 

Organization of woman's work • • • 53 


Rev. H. N. Gates, Superintendent . . . -54 

The ravages of locusts ..... 56 

Rev. Lewis Gregory . . . . -57 








Sunday school development . . . . -58 

Letter from Superintendent Stewart . . . 58 

Translation of Reuben Gaylord . . • .60 

Letter from Mrs. A. N. Goddard .... 62 


Rev. C. W. Merrill, Superintendent . . . . 63 

Modern development of Congregationalism . 63 

Nebraska Congregational News . . . -65 
Organization Nebraska Home Missionary Society 65 

Superintendent Merrill's report ... 67 

The Nebraska Sunday School Assembly . . 68 

The German work ..... 68 

Letter from Rev. C. W. Merrill . . . .68 


Rev. J. L. Maile, Superintendent . . . -7^ 

Rev. LL Bross, General Missionary . . 71 

Church activity . . . . . -73 

Church polity 72) 

Letter from Dr. A. F. Sherrill . . . -74 

Letter from Rev. ]. L. Maile .... 75 

A. F. 

Sherrill . 

J. L. 

Maile . 




Rev. Harmon Bross, D.L)., Superintendent . . 81 

Letter from Dr. Bross ..... 81 

Reports from Superintendents Eross and Stewart, 85, 86 
The frontier ....... 86 

Revs. G. J. Powell and George E. Taylor appointed 

General Missionaries .... 87 

The drouth 87 

The translation of Isaac E. Hcaton . . 88 

A typical meeting . . . . . .90 

The second drouth . . . . . . 91 

Dr. Crofts on the watch tower . . . .92 



Recent declarations . . . . . -94 

Arniy chaplains ...... 94 

The Crete assembly ... . . . -95 

Divorce and desertion ..... 96 

Polygamy ' . 97 

The New Jersey Plan of Union ... 98 

Dr. A. H. Bradford's letter . . . .98 

The National Council (1904J on church union 99 
Obstacles in the Avay ..... 99 

The Geneva meeting and church union . .100 

Other declarations .... 100-102 


Centralization ........ 103 

The State Advisory Board ..... 104 

The Nebraska Idea ....... 107 

The ecclesiastical standmg of churches and ministers 107 
Evangelism . . . . . . . . .109 


The outlook . . . . . . . .110 

The Lincoln convocation . . . . . 112 

The incorporation of the Nebraska Home Alissionar}' 

Society 115 

The responsibility of the churches . . . 116 


Phases of Church growth . . . . . 117 

Congregationalism in Lincoln, Rev. Lewis Gregory 118 

The growth of churches . . . . . .121 

The German work in Lincoln and in the state . 122 
The German Pro-Seminary ..... 123 

Congregationalism in the Elkhorn valley — 

Col. S. S. Cotton 124 


Congregationalism in the Republican valley — 

Rev. W. S. Hampton 134 

Rev. Geo. E. Taylor . . . . . 134 

Congregationalism in western Nebraska — 

Rev. A. E. Ricker • I43- 

Ogalalla, Nebraska 144 

Julesburg. Colorado ...... 145 


Pioneer experiences ...... 147 

Mrs. E. G. Piatt, missionary teacher among the Paw- 
nee Indians 147 

Rev. C. S. Harrison . . . . ... 154 

The liquor war . . . . . . . .156 

Rev. A. A. Cressman . . . . . . 158 

Dr. George Scott ....... 161 

Rev. John Gray 164 

Rev. A. E. Ricker 169 

"Father Barrow's Story" — Rev. J. E. Storm . 188 


\\'c:)man"s work in Nebraska, 

Rev. Laura H. Wild 191 

List of presidents and secretaries, Mrs. PL Bross . 196 

Part H — Congregational Schools in Nebraska 
chapter i 

The Fontanelle school . . . . . .201 

Letter from C. G. Bisbee 206 

Causes operating against Fontanelle . . . 207 

Discussion of new location for a Congregational school 209 
College located at Crete . . . . . 211 

.The end of the Fontanelle school . . . .212 



Doane College .... 

Dr. Willard Scott's address at the fifteenth anniversary 

Founding of Crete Academy 

The founding of Doane College . 

Financial struggle .... 

Thomas Doane ..... 

The Head of the college . 

The deliberation of the trustees 

Foreign population .... 

President Perry's reports 


Education in the state 

The attitude of tlie General Association 

The minute of Chancellor Manatt 

The Pro-Seminary at Crete . 

A Committee on Education 


The college question .... 

Gates College .... 

Vote to recognize defeated 

Dr. Duryea's resolution 

Proposed consolidation of Doane and Gates 

An educational commission 

The attitude of Doane College 

Trouble at Gates College . 

A third school— "Norfolk College" 

Gates becomes an academy 

Results of the controversy 

The standing of Doane College 

Attitude of the churches 



Congregational academies in Nebraska, 

Rev. G. W. Mitchell 254 


A comparative study ...... 259 


Santee Normal Training School .... 265 

Character of the training .... 265 

Pupils in the school 270 

The Riggs family 271 

Artemas Ehnamani . . . . . . 272 

The oversight of the Santee school . . 275 

Missionaries at Santee ..... 275 

Part III 


Sessions of the General Association . . . 280 

Superintendents of home missions .... 281 


Corporate members of the American Board . . 281 


On the foreign field 282 

Delegates to the National Council .... 283 


List of churches dropped ...... 286 


Land grants . ....... 290 



Pastorates in living churches ..... 298 


Alphabetical list of ministers .... 323 


Rev. Reuben Gaylord . . . . f 

Pit-a-le-shar-ii, head chief of the Fa\\nees 
Samuel Alhs ....... 

Omaha in 1870 . . . . . 

Modern Omaha ...... 

First territorial capitol building 

Origen D. Richardson ..... 

Rev. George G. Rice 

Omaha in 1854 ...... 

First Congregational Church, Omaha, 1855 
First Congregational Church, (Jmaha, 1905 

Rev. Isaac E. Heaton 

Airs. Isaac E. Heaton ..... 

Rev. Silas J. Francis . . . . , 

E. H. Barnard ...... 

Site of '"Xebraska L^niversity," Fontanelle, 1905 
Bellevue, Nebraska, 1856 .... 

Rev. A. F. Sherrill, D.D 

Some prominent laymen .... 

Dr. Geo. L. Miller 

Hon. I-I. H. Shedd 

Deacon Geo. T. Lee 

Deacon Geo. S. Harris 

Sioux chief, Spotted Tail 

l^incoln, Nebraska, in 1870 .... 
A section of modern Lincoln . . . . 

Rev. O. W. Merrill 

Rev. Amos Dresser ...... 

Rev. H. N. Gates 

Grasshopper scene, Plattsmouth, Nebraska, 1876 











Rev. J. D. Stewart ...... 59 

Sunday school, Greeley count}-, Nebraska, photo fur- 
nished by W. H. Kimberly, Lincoln, Nebraska, 

State Sunday School Superintendent American 

Sunday School Union ..... 61 

Rev. C. W. iAIerrill 64 

Rev. H. A. French and the A'rbraska Congregational 

Ncz.'s 66 

Rev. John L. Maile. M.A 72 

Rev. Harmon Bross. D.D. 82 

Group of portraits ...... 89 

Rev. S. X. Grout 

Rev. W. P. Bemiett 

Rev. William Leavitt 

Rev. D. Diffenbacher 
Members of the Advisory Board .... 108 

H. C. Herring, D.D.. Chairman 

Rev. G. W. JMitchell 

J. W. Co\van, D.D. 

kev. V. F. Clark 
C. B. Anderson, Crete . . . . . . 11 1 

Falls of the North Loup river . . . . .114 

Rev. Charles Little . . . . . . 117 

First Congregational Church. Lincoln, t868 . .118 
First Congregational Church, Lincoln, 1905 . 119 

Rev. Lewis Gregory 120 

Rev. William Suess, Crete ..... 123 

Col. S. S. Cotton 125 

Col. Charles Mathewson ..... 126 

Group of portraits . . . . . . .127 

George Scott, D.D. 

Rev. J. \\\ Kidder 

Rev. Al. B. Harrison 

Rev. George E. Ta-vlor 


Group of portraits 138 

Rev. W. S. Hamptou 

Rev. R, S. Pierce 

Principal A. C. liart 

Principal F. C. Taylor 

Tvev. Henry Bates 137 

Rev. S. C. Dean 139 

Mrs. E. G. Piatt 148 

Pawnee Indian village, 185.4, from a drawing- by Geo. 

Simons 150 

Rev. C. S. Harrison 154 

Rev. A. A. Cressman 159 

Group of portraits ....... 165 

Rev. John Gray 

Rev. J. E. Storm 

Rev. George E. Hali 

Rev. G. ^^^ Wainwright 
Group of portraits . . . . . . ■ 171 

Rev. S. I. Hanford 

Rev. W. J. Turner 

Rev. John Doane 

Rev. A. E. Ricker 

Rev. E. Cressman 

Xorth Face of Pine Ridge 174 

Industrial scene on the Union Pacific railroad . 180 

Toadstool Park, Sioux county Bad Lands, on Burling-- 

ton and Missouri river railroad . . . .184 
Western Nebraska under irrigation on FTnion Pacific 

railroad 187 

Logan Fontenelle, Omaha Lidian chief . . . 202 
Rev. C. G. Bisbee, Arlington .... 206 

L'^niversity of Nebraska 208 

Doane College, Crete . . . . . . 214 


Group of portraits . 217 

Prof. A. B. Fairchild 

Prof. J. S. Brown 

Prof. G. D. Swezey 

John L. Tidball 

Colonel Thomas, Doane 221 

President D. B. Perr\-, D.D. ... . . 228 

Chancellor E. B. Fairfield. D.D 235 

Chancellor I. J. Manatt, D.D., LL.D. ... 237 

Franklin Academy . . . . . . -255 

Gates Academy ....... 257 

Weeping Water Academy 260 

Chadron Academy ....... 262 

Santee Normal Indian Training- School . . . 266 

Rev. A. L. Riggs, D.D 267 

High school pupils, Santee Indian Training School . 268 

Group of Omaha Indians ..... 269 

Rev. Artemas Ehnamani ...... 272 




In writing a jubilee volume commemorating the work of 
Congregationalists in Nebraska the question arises, Where 
shall we drive the first historic peg? Shall it be at the or- 
ganization of the General Association of Congregational 
Churches of Nebraska, the coming of Reuben Gaylord, the 
beginning of organized work in Omaha, or the advent of 
Congregationalists in the territory who were here ready to 
welcome the missionary when he came? 

Gov. O. D. Richardson came to Omaha from Michigan 
in September, 1854. It was he who persuaded Rev. Reuben 
Gaylord to come to the territory, or at least "gave him his 
call." Congregationalists were in the territory at that time. 
If we drive a peg here our jubilee year is passed. It was 
also as early as September, 1854, that Rev. G. G. Rice se- 
cured lots for the expected Congregational Church in 

In January, 1855, Mr. Rice preached the first Congrega- 
tional sermon in Omaha, and in December, 1855, Rev. 
Reuben Gaylord began his work; 1905 may well, then, be 
taken as the jubilee year of Congregational Nebraska. 

May 4, 1856, the First Church, Omaha, was organized; 
1906 will then be a jubilee year for Omaha. August 8, 
1857, the General Association of Congregational Churches 
in Nebraska was organized; 1907 will be another jubilee 
year. And so it would seem our jubilee time of rejoicing 
and planning for larger things extends over a period of 
several years. 

We, however, make a mistake if we think that the first 
missionary work in Nebraska was as late as 1854-55. As 
early as 1843 Mrs. E. G. Piatt, whose interesting letter will 

Head Chief of the Pawnees 


be found in the chapter on Pioneer Experiences, began work 
as a teacher among the Pawnee Indians in Nebraska. But 
she says she was invited to come by missionaries of the 
American Board. Who were they, and when did they come 
to Nebraska? Inquiry at the rooms of the A. B. C. F. M. 
in Boston brought the following interesting information : 

The American Board sent as missionaries to the Pawnee 
Indians in the Nebraska country in 18^4: 

"Rev. John Dunbar, who was born in Palmer, Massa- 
chusetts, March 4, 1804; a graduate of Williams College in 
1832, and Auburn Seminary in 1854; ordained Ithaca, New 
York, May i, 1834, and set out from Ithaca, May 5, 1834, 
for Nebraska. He arrived at Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas, 
June 26, and at Bellevue, near Council Piluff, the following 

"The Chief of the Grand Pawnees (one of their four 
bands) wished Mr. Dunbar to go with him on his trips. He 
went with this band on several of their long hunting expe- 
ditions. Mr. Dunbar returned to New England, September, 
1836, married Miss Esther Smith, January 12, 1837, and 
returned with her in May (jf the same year. They resided 
in Bellevue, near the agency, until April, 1841, when he re- 
moved 130 miles to a Pawnee village. 

"In June, 1843, this village was raided by the Sioux, 
and many Pawnees were killed, wounded, or carried away 
captive. Other similar attacks were afterward made, and 
the mission was given up in 1847. 

"Rev. P. E. Ranney and wife joined this mission in 1844, 
but were transferred to the Cherokee mission in 1847. 

"Benedict Satterlee, a physician, and wife set out for the 
mission March 2, 1836. She died on the way in Liberty, 
INIissouri, April 30, 1836. He reached Bellevue, May 27, 
1836, and was murdered while on a missionary tour by a 
renegade white man. May 10, 1837. 


"Samuel Allis, farmer and teacher, left Ithaca with Mr. 
Dunbar for the Pawnee village, May 5, 1834; married 
Emiline Palmer at Liberty, Missouri, she having come from 


Ithaca, New York, with Dr. and Mrs. Satterlee. They 
were released from the service of the board in 1846. 

"George B. Gaston and wife arrived at the mission May, 
1840, and were released from service in 1842." 

There were then engaged in Congregational work in 
Nebraska, years before Father Gaylord came to the terri- 
tory, these missionaries besides Mrs. Piatt, who was not 


commissioned by the board, but who did splendid service 
as a Congregational worker. 

Eighteen hundred and eighty-four was, then, a jubilee 
year, but it was passed by unnoticed. 

Historical accuracy, as well as denominational loyalty 
calls upon us to make honorable mention of these brave 
men and women who counted not their lives dear unto 
themselves, that they might take the Gospel of the dear 
Lord to the Indian tribes living in Nebraska. One will need 
to read between the lines to enter into the real spirit of our 
pioneer fathers. The allusions to the periods of drouth and 
grasshopper plague are simply a hint at the terrible suffer- 
ings and deprivations many endured. It is a pathetic chap- 
ter in the history of our state. It revealed many unnamed 
heroes and heroines ; men and women who believed in Ne- 
braska and stayed by the work in the dark hour of need. 
They have lived to see the state rich and prosperous, and 
have learned that drouths and plagues are not confined to 
the region once called "The American Desert," and that 
this "arid" region has sufficient moisture to insure large 
returns from the cultivation of its rich, strong soil. 

Nebraska faces the future with courage and hope. 



Fifty-one years ago, May 30, 1854, the Kansas-Nebraska 
bill was enacted. 

That meant the rapid settlement of the new West; that 
the "American desert" should blossom as the rose; and that 
the great moral question of slavery or no slavery should be 
settled by these new territories for themselves. We are all 
familiar with the story of ''bleeding Kansas," and how she 
won the victory for freedom. 

It was through the immigration of the liberty-loving sons 
and daughters of the East — the transplanting of a virile 
New England stock in this western land. That victory de- 
termined in large measure the moral status of Nebraska on 
the slavery c[uestion. 

The territory at that time extended from latitude 40°. to 
British America, and from the Missouri river to the ridge 
of the Rocky mountains, a vast empire of some 350,000 
square miles. A portion of this territory has been given to 
Dakota, Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado, leaving a 
stretch of territory some 200 miles from north to south and 
450 miles from the INIissouri river west. Its altitude ranges 
from 1,000 feet on the east to 5,000 feet on the west. Its 
soil is unsurpassed. The eastern portion is a splendid farm- 
ing country ; the western is especially valuable for stock 
raising. Such a territory was bound to attract settlers from 
the East, even as Iowa had attracted them a few years be- 
fore. They came in ever-increasing numbers. They and 


their descendants are among us to-day. Who were they? 
And what is their influence? 


It is the purpose of this sketch to answer in part the 
questions, to tell the story, though imperfectly it must needs 
be, of the Congregationalists who came hither, and what 
they have accomplished. Our treatise, then, is Congrega- 
tional Nebraska. 




Lying just west of Iowa it was natural that Nebraska 
should attract some of the pioneer preachers from the "Mas- 
sachusetts of the West" to her own land of promise. One 
of these pioneers, the Reverend Reuben Gaylord, was the 
first settled Congregational minister in Nebraska. 

The way had in part been prepared for him by Gov. O. D. 
Richardson, for four years Lieutenant Governor of Michi- 
gan, Dr. George L. Miller, a physician of Omaha, and the 
Rev. George G. Rice, pastor of the Congregational church 
in Council Bluffs, Iowa. Governor Richardson was a native 
of Vermont, came to Michigan when thirty-two years of age, 
settling in Pontiac. He came to Omaha in September, 
1854, was an earnest Congregationalist, a man of wisdom 
and strength of character. 

Mr. Gaylord said of Governor Richardson: "He was 
an intelligent Congregationalist, and desired to see the Gos- 
pel standard raised in this, the frontier town. . . He 
was a wise counselor in church organization and church 
building. . . He took great interest in all that concerned 
the welfare of the church, and ever proved one of its pillars 
— was constant in attendance upon Sabbath worship and 
the prayer meeting, and was a man around whom others 
loved to gather."^ 

This Christian lawyer had much to do with laying the 
foundations of Congregationalism in Nebraska. 

Dr. George L. Miller was one of the first trustees of the 
old Plrst Church in Omaha,- a warm friend and valuable 

^Gaylord's Life, p. 334. 

"Personal letter to the writer dated June 23, 1904. 



helper in pioneer Congregational work. It is he who tells 
this interesting incident in connection with the early work 
of Reuben Gaylord : In going by the improvised chapel he 
heard the voice of a man in prayer, and looking in he saw 

Trustee First Congregational Church, Omaha 

Mr. Gaylord on his knees praying that the Lord would send 
him an audience. Dr. Miller also said in a letter to Dr. 
Joseph B. Clark, Secretary of the National Home Mission- 
ary society : "It was Reuben Gaylord, the brave Christian 



soldier, who brought Sunday into Omaha and the trans- 
Missouri country."^ 

Who preached the first Congregational sermon in Nebraska territory 

The writer has been at considerable pains to ascertain 
who preached the first Congregational sermon in Nebraska. 
There seemed to be different opinions in reference to the 

^Leavening the Nation, by Dr. Joseph B. Clark, p. 119. 


matter. Fortunately a letter from the Rev. G. G. Rice* 
settles the question. Mr. Rice writes : 

"Dr. D. B. Coe, Secretary A. H. M. Society, wrote me 
in July, 1854, requesting that I keep the society informed 
in regard to the settlements and needs of Nebraska-. Au- 
gust 4, I replied : 'The Indians have not yet been removed 
to their reservations, and until that time the territory will 
not be open to settlement. The agent is hastening the re- 
moval of the Indians, and the territory will likely be open 
for settlers in a few days.' September 19 I wrote again: 
'The Indians have been removed and there is a brisk move- 
ment into the territory. Omaha, just across the river from 
Council Bluffs, is to be the capital of the territory. A steam 
ferry boat is conveying material across the river for the 
capitol building, which is already under way. Omaha 
should have a minister as soon as a suitable man can be 
found, for, being the capital, it will build up rapidly. An- 
other man should be sent to the territory as general 

"About this time I secured two lots — a gift from the 
'Omaha Land Co.' — for a Congregational church. When 
the church was built one of the lots was sold for $700, and 
the money was used in building. 

"The latter part of January, 1855, I spent a Sabbath in 
Omaha and preached morning and evening in the legisla- 
tive hall, and Monday morning I officiated as chaplain in 
the same hall. This was the first Congregational sermon 
in Nebraska after the territory was organized. There were 
a few Congregationalists in Omaha at this time with whom 
I was frequently in conference, trying to aid them in se- 
curing a minister. 

"In September, 1855, Rev. Reuben Gaylord came across 
the state on a vacation tour. I went with him to Omaha 

* Dated July 5, 1904. 


and we called upon Governor Richardson and made ar- 
rangements for Brother Gaylord to preach in Omaha the 
next Sabbath afternoon. Sabbath, after morning- service in 
Council Bluffs, we rode down to the river, tied our horse 
in the willows, and were conveyed across the river in a 
canoe. At the close of the (afternoon) service several per- 
sons expressed the wish that Mr. Gaylord would come and 
be their minister. After considerable correspondence he 
resigned his charge in the eastern part of this state, and 
came to Council Bluffs with his family, December 22, 1855, 
on his way to Omaha, where he at once commenced mis- 
sionary labors. . . The slow movement of Congrega- 
tional ministers into Nebraska was the cause of some Con- 
gregational settlements being organized into Presbyterian 
churches, yet Congregationalism has flourished and been a 
power for good in Nebraska." 

Mr. Gaylord's visit to Omaha in September, 1855, was 
for the purpose of learning the particulars in reference to 
the last sickness and death of a nephew who had lived in 
Omaha, and while in Omaha he consulted with Dr. Miller, 
who was his nephew's family physician. We may rest as- 
sured that their conversation was not limited to family mat- 
ters, but included the pressing needs of a new town and 
growing territory. "Being invited to preach the next day 
he consented, but returned to Council Bluffs and officiated 
for Rev. Mr. Rice on Sabbath morning as he had promised. 
In the afternoon he recrossed the river and preached in the 
old state house."" In his congregation that day was Gov- 
ernor Richardson whom he had met the day before, and 
who, with others, gave him the call to Nebraska ; and it was 
Governor Richardson's earnest appeal that led him to con- 
sider the question of leaving Iowa for this land of promise, 
to which he finally came, as related by Mr. Rice. 

'Life of Reuben Gaylord, p. 167. 


Mr. Rice had already written the A. H. M. Society® of 
the needs of Omaha, that he held the deeds for lots there 
for a church, and said of Governor Richardson, "He is now 
a member of the council of Nebraska, is a member of the 
Congregational church, and probably would do what he 
could to aid and sustain the minister you may send them." 

Others also were looking toward the setting sun, and 
seeing visions of future states, of the growing kingdom of 

"In the latter part of June, 1855, ^^v. John M. Ellis, 
D.D., came to the territory to select a site for a Congrega- 
tional colony. June 24 he preached for Rev. G. G. Rice, 
pastor of the Congregational church in Council Bluffs. 
Crossing the Missouri at that point he spent several weeks 
in explorations along the river, and finally chose a location 
for his colony. The land chosen lay between Omaha and 
Florence, at that time hardly more than names upon the 
map, and extended some distance north of the latter place."^ 

The death of Dr. Ellis, August 6, 1855, was the death 
also of his enterprise. What missionary work he may have 
done, and where he preached while making his explorations, 
are left unrecorded so far as the writer can learn. No rec- 
ords of other Congregational ministers visiting Nebraska 
at this early date can we find. Other men had done valu- 
able preliminary work for the future state, but to one man 
belongs the honor of laying deep and strong the foundation 
walls of our Congregational Zion, and that man was 


Reuben Gaylord was born in Norfolk, Connecticut, April 
28, 1812; graduated from Yale College in 1834; taught in 
Illinois College from the spring of 1835 to the autumn of 

"See Gaylord's Life, p. 176. 
^Education in Nebraska, p. 163. 


1837; returned to Yale Seminary for further study in 1837; 
was ordained in Plymouth, Connecticut, August, 1838, as 
a Cong-regational minister, and the same month left New 
England for his life v/ork in the West. He first settled in 
Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, and afterward located in Danville, 
where he lived during the larger part of his residence in 


In November, 1840, Rev. Harvey Adams, Rev. Reuben 
Gaylord, Rev. Julius A. Reed, and Charles Burnham, a 
licentiate, organized the Congregational Association of 
Iowa, The association was composed of three churches, 
Denmark, Danville, and Fairfield, and the three ministers 
just mentioned.^ 

' \.t 

Reuben Gaylord was one who helped organize Iowa Col- 
lege and was one of its trustees until after his residence in 
Nebraska in 1855. It was very natural, then, that he should 
interest himself in Christian education as soon as he found 
himself settled in his new home in Omaha. This part of 
his work will be considered in a later chapter. 

'See Gaylord's Life, p. 109. 




Of the hardship of Mr. Gaylord's journey to Nebraska 
we need not write ; but it is well to note that the winter of 
1855-56 was intensely cold, the thermometer ranging- from 
25° to 32° below zero. It is no wonder, then, that in the 
house, or partial shelter we may better say, which our mis- 
sionary found, water froze within a foot of the stove, which 
was heated as hot as the best fuel could make it.^ It surely 
took courage and a warm heart to withstand the cold. But 
how shall a missionary live on $600 a year when he pays 
$21 a month rental for a two-room house, $7 to $8.50 for 
100 pounds of flour, and I2>2 cents a pound for sugar? 
This was the munificent salary granted by the Home Mis- 
sionary Society, and but little was added on the home field. 
Our pioneer fathers and mothers knew the meaning of 
sacrifice, and the minister's wife more than anyone else 
entered into its sterner experience. 

But severe though the winter was, it soon passed, and 
our missionary was visiting his larg'e field and organizing 

Mr. Gaylord was a man who could never be content with 
a single parish. The ''regions beyond" were his also. When 
he reached Omaha he found a Rev. Isaac F. Collins, M. E. 
minister, a Methodist class of six members, and a Baptist 
minister by the name of Rev. William Leach. With these 
he took turn in holding services in the council chamber of 
the old state house, and "Sunday was brought into Omaha." 

'Gaylord's Life, p. 179. 



It was May 4, the year 1856. On this date, which was 
the Lord's Day, Mr. Gaylord organized the First Congre- 
gational Church in Omaha with nine charter members. This 
was the first church of our order in Nebraska, not large in 

OMAHA, 1855 

numbers, but strong in faith and good works. A vigorous 
weekly prayer meeting was established, a flourishing Sun- 
day school was maintained, woman's work in the church 
inaugurated, and in due time a new church building erected, 
affording seats for 225 persons, and costing $4,500, ex- 
clusive of furnishings. 


The week following the organization of the church in 
Omaha Mr. Gay lord organized a church in Fontanelle, 
where he found quite a number of Congregationalists from 
the First Church in Ouincy, Illinois. This church had 


Corner of 19th and Davenport Streets. Rev. H. C. Herring, D.D., 

pastor. Erected in 18SS at a cost of about sixty thousand dollars 

twenty-three charter members, and it was in Fontanelle 
that the first educational work of the denomination was 
undertaken. The settlement began in 1854 and was named 
for Logan Fontenelle, a chief of the Omaha tribe of Indians. 




In the very beginning we find temperance work taken up, 
and every effort made to stem the tide of intemperance 


which was coming Hke mighty billows upon the land. From 
that day on our churches have ever taken a strong and de- 
cided stand against intemperance and kindred vices. 


"In 1856 the Rev. Isaac E. Heaton came with his family 
from Wisconsin to Nebraska and located in Fremont, then 



a mere hamlet. He came to teach, but seeing the great need 
of ministers he began preaching, and with the few others 
shared the trials and experiences of pioneer life on the fron- 


tier. Within a few months he succeeded in gathering a 

The Fremont church was organized August 2, 1857, with 
seven charter members. 

'Gaylord's Life, p. 197. 





The organization of the General Association was an im- 
portant event for Congregational Nebraska. It occurred 
on the 8th of August, 1857. 


Three churches, Omaha, Fontanelle, and Fremont, met 
in Omaha through their representatives and perfected the 
organization. The roll call as found in the manuscript 
minutes is of historic value. 

Omaha: Rev. Reuben Gaylord, minister; O. B. Rich- 
ardson (evidently O. D.) and A. R. Orchard, delegates. 



Fontanelle: Rev. Thomas Waller, Rev. Silas J. Francis, 

Fremont : Rev. Isaac E. Heaton, minister ; E. H. Bar- 
nard, H. A. Pierce, delegates. 


A constitution was adopted, and Rev. Reuben Gaylord 
was elected moderator and Rev. Isaac E. Heaton, stated 

After appointing committees to notify the Congregational 
Herald, Independent, and the city papers of the new state 
association, the meeting adjourned for the day, and, the 
next day being Sunday, "met and spent an hour in devo- 
tional exercises. Adjourned to perform the service of ded- 
ication (evidently of the Omaha Church), and the com- 


munion service in the afternoon. At the close of the service 
the association adjourned."^ 

October 30 of the same year the association met in Fre- 
mont in its "first annual meeting." 

Mr. Gaylord was again elected moderator and I. Gibson 
stated clerk, pro tern. A strongly evangelical confession 
of faith vv'as adopted, rules of business were formulated, 
and a committee of three was appointed to "take into con- 
sideration the location of the literary institution" provided 
for in a preceding resolution. 

Mr. Gaylord and P. .Vllen of Ft. Calhoun were two of 
the committee, and Mr. Gaylord was authorized to select 
the third member in Omaha. - 

A special meeting of the association was held in Fonta- 
nelle, January 5, 1858, to consider the report of this com- 
mittee, v;hich will be considered in another place. 

At this time special meetings of the association were not 
unusual, and semi-annual meetings were held for a number 
of years. The next annual meeting was at Ft. Calhoun, 
October i, 1858. Rev. I. E. Heaton was chosen moderator, 
Rev. E. B. Hurlbut is subscribed as stated clerk, and the 
roll of churches is increased so as to include Omaha, Fre- 
mont, Fontanelle, Platford, Decatur, and Ft. Calhoun. •"' 
Congregational Nebraska is becoming already an important 
factor in the development of a state. The State Association 
of Congregational Churches is already considering ques- 
tions of grave importance in the development of church life 
and educational work. 

^Manuscript Minutes, August 8, 1857. 
"See Manuscript Minutes, October 30, 1857. 
'Manuscript Minutes, October 1, 1858. 




It was not all fair sailing for the pioneer churches of Ne- 
braska. The discovery of gold in the Rocky mountains 
almost led to the depopulation of hamlets and seriously 

Photo, by M. R. Giliiiore 

affected the growth of churches. Bank failures crippled 
the work; the breaking out of the Civil war distracted the 
people, the grasshoppers destroyed crops; the Indians at 
times were troublesome ; and when in later days railroads 
were projected, the routes passed by some towns to their 
great disappointment and eventual death, while other towns 
and churches sprang up in unexpected places. 

Tliis in part explains the loss of some churches like Fon- 
tanelle, whose early history was bright ; whose subsequent 


(lisappointments were many; Fremont secured the county 
seat, and its name appears in another county ; Lincohi was 
awarded its hoped-for capitol ; Crete its college; and the 
open tields its once ambitious town. The loss of other 
churches was due to a lack of men and means at the criti- 
cal times in their development. The Home Missionary 
Society either lacked the foresight or the money to come 
to their rescue. Strategic points of strength and oppor- 
tunity were lost beyond recall. 

Some of these churches were turned over to the Presby- 
terians, because we had not the men and money to man 
them. This loss was keenly felt and called forth bitter 
lament on the part of Mr. Gaylord.^ 

His work was constantly growing. He was acting as 
superintendent of Nebraska long before he gave up the 
pastorate in Omaha for the general work of Home Mission- 
ary Superintendent in the state. 

Churches were growing, new ones were being organized, 
and the pioneers of Nebraska met discouragement with 
brave hearts and faced the future with hope. 

'Gaylord's Life, pp. 211 ff. 




Congregationalists in Nebraska were keenly alive to the 
stirring events of the times. At the May meeting, i860, we 
find a resolution urging the A. H. M. S. to send "ministers 
and the Gospel" to the people in the gold fields of the 

Home evangelization received considerable attention in 
1862. At the annual meeting of the association held in 
Nebraska City, October. 1864, we find this report from the 
Comnu'ttee on "The State of the Country" : 

"Resolved, ist. That the only way to secure for this gov- 
ernment true and permanent peace and prosperity is to 
prosecute this war to the complete suppression of the 

"2d, That the earnest efforts of the government to this 
end meet our decided approbation. 

' "3d, That we thankfully recognize the gracious provi- 
dence of God in the recent victories that have so thrilled 
every loyal heart." 

A year later, September, 1865, the committee, consisting 
of Rev. Reuben Gaylord, Rev. Isaac E. Heaton, and Deacon 
J. J. Hawthorn, reported as follows : 

"Resolved, ist. That we gratefully acknowledge the 
kind providence of God in the final victory obtained over 
the armed forces of the Rebellion. 

"2d, That we shall fully secure the legitimate results of 
this great struggle only by administering equal justice and 
giving the rights of citizenship to those who have been 


lifted out of boiulai^c, and intiicting suitable punishment 
upon the leaders of the late Confederacy." 

Again in 1866, at the annual meeting held in Fontanelle, 
the Committee on the State of the Country, consisting of 
Rev. F. Alley, Rev. E. B. Hurlbut, and Bro. G. Gaylord, 
made the following stirring report: 

"Whereas, Our country is now in a very disturbed state, 
lawlessness and bloodshed deplorably increasing, and 

"Whereas, The unreasonable prejudice against and op- 
pression of the colored race are hindrances to our peace 
and the progress of civilization among us, therefore 

"Resolved, That we deeply regret the present unhappy 
disagreement between the legislative and executive depart- 
ments of our government. 

"Resolved, That in impartial suffrage and impartial 
justice to all classes we recognize the only permanent basis 
of the peace and prosperity of this nation. 

"Resolved, That we regard the course of the President 
of these United States in his general policy, and especially 
in his late speeches, as opposed to the peace and prosperity 
of this nation, and derogatory to the dignity of the high 
position in which he has been placed."^ 

In expressing itself on local conditions in 1865 the asso- 
ciation put itself on record as follows : 

"New fields are opening and demanding culture, and 
laborers are needed to go in and possess the land. A large 
increase of material prosperity has characterized this year, 
and we enter upon the year before us with new encourage- 
ments and hope. While we rejoice that so much has been 
done, we feel humbled that no more has been accomplished, 
and desire humbly to beseech a larger measure of divine 
influence and a higher spirituality." 

* Manuscript Minutes for years noted. 


A declaration on temperance in the same year is of 
interest : 

"In view of the alarming prevalence of intemperance in 
our land, and especially among the newly settled portions 
of our country, 


No. 1 (near center), old home of Peter A. Sarpy; No. 2 (in fore- 
ground), Sarpy's new home; No. 3, Indian mission; hill 
on extreme right, present site of Bellevue College. 

".Resolved, That the Association of Nebraska hereby 

"I. That, the chief instrumentality upon which temper- 
ance men must rely in their struggle to put down the great 
evil is the education of the people to the appreciation of the 
evils and dangers of intemperance. 

"IT. That solemn obligation is laid upon the church to 
take a foremost part in the work, and that all Christian 
men and ministers must let their influence be felt decidedly 
against this evil. 


"III. Tliat the onl;/ plalfonii on wliich this struggle can 
he carried to a decided issue in our ccnuitry is total ab- 
stinence from all intoxicating drinks. 

"W. That we decidedl}- (lisapi)rove of the use of beer, 
ale, and all malt liquors or domestic wines, whether manu- 
factured from grapes, currants, or any other fruit, except 
for medicinal purposes. "- 

In 1868 the association says that: 

"The use of intoxicating liquors as a beverage, and the 
present popular uses of tobacco, are spots upon the Chris- 
tian character, examples pernicious to society and the 
Church of Christ ; that they greatly impair personal use- 
fulness, and are to be discountenanced and avoided by 
every professed follower of Jesus. That extravagance and 
intemperate habits in any sphere whatever are opposed to 
the spirit of the Cospel, consequentl}- wrong, and the money 
thus expended ought to be consecrated to the service of 
Christ's cause."-* 

It will thus be seen that our Church fathers were prompt 
in taking advanced ]:ositions on all great moral questions 
in Church and state, not forgetting that they were citizens 
as well as Christians. 

Mamiscript Minutes, ISO".. 
'Printed Minutes, ISOS, pp. 




The advent of railroads, in a new country especially, 
means a revival of industry, the building of towns, the 
settlement of the country, and a larger opportunity for 
church extension. 

The Union Pacific, Burlington & Missouri river, Mis- 
souri Pacific, Chicago, Rock Island &" Pacific, and Chicago & 
North-Western railroads have covered the state with a net- 
work of iron rails. Their lines extend not only across the 
state as part of great trunk systems, but the Burlington 
especially has established lines all over the state with the 
capital city as a center, and has brought remote regions 
into easy communication with the great centers of trade, 
Omaha and Lincoln. The Missouri Pacific has developed 
a part of the richest portion of the state. The Rock Island 
railroad crosses a rich portion of the state. The North- 
Western extends up the Elkhorn valley and on into the 
northwest. These roads, built for the commercial develop- 
ment of the country and as money getters for the com- 
panies controlling them, stand also in close relation to the 
growth of the kingdom of God in the state. 

\Yhat would become of the cattle industry in the sand- 
hills and the mission churches established therein without 
the Burlington railroad? The beautiful Elkhorn valley 
and the regions beyond would not be near!}- so attractive 
without the North-Western railroad, and two at least of 
our Christian schools would cease to be. The Union Pacific 
has made the Platte valley a rich part of the state. What- 
ever else they may be, these roads are the agents of the 


churches in the development of new life. It meant much 
then to Congregational Nebraska, and especially to Omaha, 
when in November, 1863, President Lincoln designated 
Omaha as the location for the entrance of the Union Pa- 
cific railroad into the state. 

The announcement of this was received in Omaha by 
telegraph the second day of December, and the grading 
of the road in eastern Nebraska began in the spring of 
1864.^ Towns sprang up; churches were multiplied; new 
fields called loudly for more attention than could possibly 
be given by one or several men who had pastoral charges. 
It was a situation very similar to the more recent one in 
Oklahoma. The King's business required haste ; we needed 
missionaries to '"ride on the cow-catchers," and get in a 
town ahead of the saloon, and there must be some man to 
look after the work. Who should do it? There was one 
man so well qualified with native endowment and by ex- 
perience for this general work that no one else was thought 
of. This man was Reuben Gaylord. 


'Gaylord's Life, pp.258 ff. 



(;ayi.(;ro as iio:\iE missionary superintendent 

The state superintendent was then called "the agent," 
and Mr. Gavlord's field was Nebraska and western Iowa. 


He, however, ministered to the First Church in Omaha till 
the middle of November, when Rev. A. D. Stowell as- 
sumed the pastorate, which he held onlv a few months 

GAvr.oRn AS I10M1-: missionary supkrtntendrnt 37 

when he was succeeded by Rev. \\\ \V. Rose, who remained 
two years. Rev. E. S. Pahner then served the church two 
years, and after a few months' interval Rev, A. F. Sherrill 
bei:;an his lon^^ and successful pastorate, which left its im- 
press fur !;"ood on the city and state. He was ordained in 
( )nia]ia in 1870 and remained with the church eighteen 

It was in \8()/ at the \\'eeping Water meetinsT; that the 
Secretary of the A. 11. M. Society. Rev. Dr. A. H. Clapp, 
visited the association and greatly encouraged the brethren. 
The association said: 'A\'e have been greatly interested, 
cheered, and encouraged by the attendance with us at our 
associational meeting of one of the secretaries of the A. 
1:1. Yi. Society, Rev. A. IL C.'lapp. "This, the first visit of 
tlie kind we have ever received, a visit that we expect to 
be productive of great good to the general cause of home 
missions in the new state of Nebraska."^ 

Tn this period of our work the churches were feeling 
the need of larger evangelizing forces within the state. The 
work of the A.merican S. S. Union in part ])ro(luce(l this 
need, for the statement is made that "in Nebraska and 
southwestern Iowa more than two hundred and fifty Sab- 
batli scliouls were organised, comprising over thirteen 
Inmdred teachers and more than nine thousand scholars. "- 

( )ther denominations were active, but in the rapidly grow- 
ing state there was work for all. The demand for workers 
exceeded the su])ply. We could not ignore our responsi- 
bilit}-. \\^e bravely tried to meet it, a responsibility not 
only for the incoming settlers and their families btit for 
the Indians of the ])lains as well. \Ve inherited the mis- 
sionary spirit wliich mcrved our fathers to noble deeds in 
behalf of others. 

'Printer! r^Iimitcs. tSGT. pp. 9. in. 
'Minutes, isns. p. G. 


In 1869 the State Association met in Fremont, and Rev. 
Charles Little, first pastor of the First Congregational 
Church of Lincoln, was the moderator. This meeting is 
noteworthy because of two strong appeals in behalf of the 
Indians within the state. One is to President U. S. Grant; 
the otlier to the American Board. 

The memorial to the President, though long, is of such 
historic interest that we reproduce it. It is another illustra- 
tion of the fact that Nebraska Congregationalists were men 
of patriotism, strong convictions, and courage. 

"To His Excellency, Ulysses S. Grant, President of the 
United States: 

''The General ^Association of the Congregational Churches 
of Nebraska, now in session at Fremont, Dodge county, 
Nebraska, send greeting. 

"rlonored Sir — Believing that you are heartily interested 
in the temporal and spiritual interests of Indians; as a re- 
ligious body in the immediate presence of these Indians, 
^ve venture, unaslced, to make to you a few suggestions, as 
to what, — from our standpoint, — seems a practicable, just, 
and Christian method of dealing with them. You are 
doubtless aware that a strong political pressure is now 
being exerted to remove the Indians from our state, and 
plant them on lands further removed from white settle- 
ments ; and to this end strong arguments are found in the 
following facts : 

"ist, The Indian reserves in Nebraska are now nearly 
surrounded by white settlers. 

"2d, These reserves embrace some of the best lands in 
the state, and their opening for the settlement by whites 
would add somewhat to its wealth, population, and pros- 

''3d, The Indians arc unpleasant neighbors even when 
at peace. 


"4th, Their national feuds are continually provoking 
bloody conflicts among themselves, even in the case of those 
Indians who are located on reserves, and in these quarrels 
the rights of adjacent white settlers are often too little 

"5th, The proximity of the reserve Indians to the white 
settlements gives a plausible excuse to the wild Indians 
of the plains to come within a striking distance of white 
settlers, thus ])roducing continually a feeling of distrust' 
and danger, which is very prejudicial to the rapid increase 
of population through immigration. 

"While these facts above stated are indisputable, we 
would request your careful consideration of the following- 
statements, which v/e believe to be equally true and indis- 
putable : 

"I St, The reasons above given for the removal of the 
Indians are all the natural results of the heathen character 
and customs of these uncivilized peoples, aggravated largely 
by the vices contracted and exasperations received at the 
hands of unprincipled white men. 

"2d, The vices contracted and exasperations received 
have been so productive of fatal results, because thus far 
the motives which have prompted intercourse between the 
whites and Indians have been so largely of a mercenary 
and vile character; and because the extreme border settle- 
ments are not often a fair representation of the words or 
manners of our professedly Christian nation. 

"3d, If these Indians are now removed for reasons given 
above, it v/ill be but a short time before advancing immigra- 
tion will again bring about the same state of affairs, and 
with equal force call for another removal. 

"4tli, It is manifest that might does not make right in 
our dealing with the Indians any more than with any other 
people ; and as a powerful Christian nation, while giving 

Dr. (ieu. L. .Miller 
Deacon (ieo. T. Lee 

Hun.H. H.Shcdd 
Deacon Geo. S. Harris 



them every just clue, we should also manifest such a spirit 
of true benevolence as to lift them up to a Christian civili- 

"5th, It is a fact that the present position of these 
.Indians is hecoming- every (la\- more favorable for their 
evangelization and civilization ; and that this work is al- 
ready being prosecuted with some success among the ( )ma- 
has, the Pawnees, and some bands of the Sioux. 

'Tith, It seems i)ossible to obviate almost entirely the 
difficulties, certainly all the dangers, already spoken of, 
which by sfriiigciif laics kccpiiii^ them on their rcscrz'cs, 
forbidding all ■zi.'arlihc and thici'ing demonstrations by one 
tribe on another, and by tlie oeeiipation of the conntry by 
siie'i posts of ea-ralry as sliall form an eifieient proteefion 
from all e-zil disposed persons. 

"In consideration of these things we ask Your Excel- 
lency to pass by all arguments for the removal of these 
unfortunate people, based on selfish, territorial, financial, 
or political reasons. 

"We believe that the new system which Your Excellency 
has recently inaugurated will succeed, if it be supported 
by a military arm sufficient to awe down the dissatisfied 
and lawless, and // the pofiey be held withont wavering 
for a time sufficient to shozi' the reasonable results. 

"To this end we pledge ourselves as a religious body to 
cooperate, so far as we can, in every effort for the evangeli- 
zation and civilization of these Indians. 

"Praying that the Lord would guide Your Excellency 
to adopt and execute the best plans for the welfare of all 
races found within the borders of our nation ; and that He 
will keep you and strengthen you to acomplish all His holy 
will, with great joy to yourself, and a full assurance of 
everlasting life; we have the honor to remain, 



"Your true friends and staunch supporters. In behalf 
of the General Congregational Association of Nebraska. 
"[Signed] J. B. Chase, Jr., 

"Charles Little, 
"J. J. Hawthorn, 



This same committee, authorized by the association, sent 
a most earnest appeal to the .Vmerican Board for mission- 
aries to the Indians, especially the Pawnees in eastern Ne- 

■""Minutes of ISfiO, pp. 6-10. 


In this appeal to the American Board the committee 
speaks of the Pawnees as being- on their reservation within 
seventy miles of Fremont to the number of twenty-five 
himdred, and that one of their number had recently been 
on the reservation. Mr. Albert Watkins in the article on 
Nebraska in the Encyclopedia Americana says that the 
Pawnees ceded all their lands south of the Platte river in 
1833, and the rest of their possessions north of the Platte 
in 1857. It is, however, evident from the minutes of the 
association that the Pawnees were in 1869 on a small 
reservation, a part of the larger one north of the Platte. 
They were removed to the Indian Territory in 1876. 

There is one Indian reservation in the northeastern part 
of the state occupied by the Omahas, 1200 in number, and 
the Winnebagos, 1 100 in number. The lands of the reser- 
vation have been allotted to the Indians in severalty, and 
they are all citizens of the state.* There is also the Santee 

It would be interesting to know how the memorial to 
President Grant was received, but we have failed to find 
anything bearing on the matter beyond what is here stated. 
Nebraska Congregationalists, however, made very plain 
tJicir position in this whole matter, and stood manfully for 
the protection of the weaker race, true to the historic spirit 
of the denomination. 

* Article "Nebraska," Encyclopedia Americana. 





The removal of the capital to Lincoln in 1868 (the en- 
abling act was June 14, 1867) turned the tide of immigra- 
tion to that part of the state, and Superintendent Gaylord, 
whose hard work began to tell upon his health, found the de- 
mands upon his strength w^ere increasing wath each year. 
The opportunity for establishing churches in southern Ne- 
braska was increasing each year. The Union Pacific railroad 
was extending its line w^estward up the Platte valley, and 
settlers were following in its track. The Burlington railroad 
was planning to cross the state, thus making the new 
capital city easy of access, and in time a railroad, as well 
as political and educational center. Southern Nebraska 
in prophecy and in reality was calling loudly for mission- 
aries and churches. 

In Omaha and surrounding country the work was in- 
creasing rapidly. ]\Tr. Gaylord in 1868 reports to the na- 
tional society : "The past year has been one of constant and 
increasing activity in respect to all material interests. Our 
great railroad (the Union Pacific) is extending its iron 
arms toward the Pacific, and even now is reaching to em- 
brace the mountains with their hidden treasures, which 
are soon to be laid at the feet of the nation. The popula- 
tion is increasing ; capitalists are constructing railways ; 
farms are brought under cultivation ; towns and cities are 
springing up ; and now is the time to lay the foundations of 
Gospel institutions for future generations. We must repeat 
here the experience and policy of the early settlers of New 
England, if we would see a prosperous and glorious future. 


Along the whole river front of this new and rapidly de- 
veloping state your society has but two missionaries. We 
neerl a large reinforcement of laborers without delay. 
Situated as we are, in the very heart of the continent, on 
the great highway of nations, destined to become the chief 
source of supply to the mountain territories, how impor- 
tant it is that this valley should be thoroughly evangelized, 
not only for its own sake but for the regions beyond."^ 

If our National Society could only have sent the needed 
men and money into Nebraska at that time, and stood by the 
work through that period of foundation laying, our con- 
stituency would be vastly larger than it is to-day. Much 
was indeed done, but eastern men did not have the large 
vision of opportunity for church extension which the men 
on the frontier had, and when the vision did come, other 
denominations had seized the opportunity. But our men 
on the field were active and the work was constantly grow- 
ing. There is still a great opportunity in Nebraska. We 
need more men and money to develop our work. 

April 6, 1896, Mr. Gaylord alludes to the coming resig- 
nation of Rev. I. E. Heaton, the second Congregational 
pastor in Nebraska, and says, "This church [Fremont] 
furnishes a beautiful illustration of the fruits of patient, 
persevering labor in planting and watering the institutions 
of the Gospel on new ground."- The Fremont church is 
to-day one of the strong churches in the state and has been 
fortunate in the able men chosen for pastors. The list in- 
cludes Rev. I. E. Heaton, Rev. J. B. Chase, Rev. Rosewell 
Foster, Rev. George Porter, Rev. Albert T. Swing, Rev. 
Loren F. Berry, Rev. William H. Buss, and the present 
pastor, Rev. John Doane. 

'Gaylord's Life, p. 295. 
'Gaylord's Life, p. 296. 




Mr. Gaylord resigned the superiiitcndency of home mis- 
sions in Nebraska, March, 1870, and Rev. O. W. Merrill 
of Anamosa, Iowa, was appointed in his place. In his letter 
of resignation, Mr. Gaylord says : "As I now lay down my 
work, I look out upon a goodly family of churches, eigh- 
teen in number, the way to organize others preparing, and 
Gospel influences extending more rapidly than ever be- 
fore. . . . There remaineth yet much land to be pos- 
sessed, and in view of the present outlook of this frontier 
field, I earnestly hope that the resources of the society will 
enable it to enter and occupy the new openings for the 
Gospel that are constantly coming to our knowledge."^ 

As Mr. Merrill could not enter upon his work imme- 
diately, Mr. Gaylord continued to act for some time longer, 
and afterward took a trip to the Rocky mountain region in 
the interests of home missions. He later served the church 
at Fontanelle for a time, and finished his work in the state 
whose foundations for a great commonwealth he had helped 
to lay. He was a sturdy, active, wise, and consecrated 
man. Congregational Nebraska owes nuich to "Father 
Ciaylord," his devoted wife, and their noble and heroic 
work in the state. 

The State Association in its annual meeting 1870 passed 
the following resolution : 

"That this association tender to Rev. R. Gaylord our 
gratitude for all the wisdom of counsel and effective aid he 
has rendered to the ministers and churches of our order 

'Gaylord's Life, p. :503. 

Second State Superintendent of Home Missions 


as agent of the A. H. M. Society, and we pray the Great 
Head of the church to bless and direct him in the future 
in the paths of usefuhiess and pleasantness."^ 


This same association of 1870 gave expression to the 
views of the churches on one of the most practical and 
helpful institutions of the church — the prayer-meeting : 

"Resolved, That we deem the prayer-meeting of the 
highest importance to the Christian church ; that we deem 
it very desirable to have all the members of the church take 
part in the meeting, be they old or young, male or female, 
and that all professing Christians should come froili their 
closets to the meetings, and that they should have special 
subjects for prayer."^ 

It also declared : 

"That the Pilgrim's idea and practice, religiously based 
and built upon the great doctrine of justification by faith, 
and governmentally upon the free, equal, and inalienable 
rights of all men before God and among themselves, de- 
serve and should receive the warmest gratitude to God 
from all their natural and spiritual descendants, and the 
most earnest and whole-hearted extension."* 

These expressions show the trend of thought in the form- 
ative period of our church life, and illustrate the sound 
evangelical position of Congregationalism in the state. 
The Narrative on the State of Religion in the Churches, 
which was a special feature of the early meetings of the 
association, shows that there had been precious revivals dur- 
ing tlie year, and several new churches added to the list. 

"-Minutes, 1870, p. 7. 
'Minutes, 1870, p. 8. 
'Minutes, 1873, p. 9, 



There were then twenty-three Congregational churches in 
the state. 

In 1 87 1 the association met for the first time in Lin- 
coln, and Rev. Amos Dresser was chosen moderator. 

Better known as "Father Dresser" 

"Father" Dresser was a man who threw his whole life into 
the home missionary work of the state. He was a veritable 
circuit-rider, worked largely in rural fields, was beloved 
by all the churches, and filled a large place in the work 


of the state. Rev. A. F. Sherrill, D.D., writes of Father 
Dresser :^ 

"He was pretty near to pure stuff. I never rode with 
him over the prairies to his appointments without profit. 
He kept up his studies and thinking as long as I knew him. 
With a very tender and sohcitous heart ahvays for the 
people in his parish. He used to own Butler eounty, as to 

At the time of the Lincoln meeting — 187 1 — thirty-two 
churches were represented. Among these was Crete, des- 
tined to become allied with the Congregational educational 
center, and a church of commanding influence. There were 
then only two churches, Omaha and Fremont, that were self- 
supporting. The history of the churches is largely the 
history ,of home missions in the state. In his annual report 
Superintendent iMerrill made a plea for the missionary 
spirit, and uttered these significant words : 

"V/e are laying the foundations of churches and of a 
work that is to be among and for millions, instead of 
thousands, and these foundations must not be laid in 'un- 
tempered mortar.' Permeating our work must be a Bible- 
instructed conscience, and outgrowing in our lives must 
be a deep sympathy with that redemption which Christ 
brought to our world, ^^"e can not afiford to be narrow 
in our views of our duty, or to isolate ourselves from the 
great world-wide v;ork of Christ through our great so- 

Reviewing the work from the beginning Mr. Merrill 
alluded to the fact that forty men had labored in the state, 
nineteen of whom were then in active service, and five 
were still residing in the state but not in regular service. 
This year and the next were especially noted for the dis- 

•■' Letter, August 10, 1904. 
"Minutes, 1871, p. 8. 


cussioii and tinal action on the location of the Congrega- 
tional college. The growth of Congregational churches 
in southeastern Nebraska was a large factor in that issue. 

iJefore another year had rolled by we find Superintend- 
ent ( ). W. Merrill i)rostrate(l with sickness and unable to 
continue his work. 

Rev. J. r>. Chase assumed temporarily a part of the bur- 
den and made the report for 1873. From this report we 
take tlie following passage which shows the rapid develop- 
ment of the state : 

"There is at the present time much work that needs to 
be (lone by us to fill up the demand made by the unparal- 
leled immigration of the past year. The frontier has been 
crowded along toward the setting sun from fifty to one 
hundred niiles. There are some counties which had scarcely 
a settler one year ago, that to-day are so fully occupied that 
there is scarcely a good homestead of government land 
that is not occupied. The counties north of the Platte 
need immediate visitation by the superintendent, and pro- 
vision for spiritual necessity. South of the Platte, especially 
in what will be the garden of the state — the Rei)ul)lican val- 
ley — -there are as many more."' 

The work was growing. 

This association also resolved that "Cod's work would 
1)C honored and advanced by the organization of a woman's 
board of missions," and appointed Mrs. J. E. Elliot, Mrs. 
A. Dresser, Mrs. A. B. Pratt, and Mrs. R. C. Birge a com- 
mittee to "initiate the matter." Steps were taken to se- 
cure a "compact" with the Presbyterians to prevent fric- 
tion in the development of home missionary work. 

'Minutes, 187?., p. 6. 




During the year 1873, Supt. O. W. Alerrill was called to 
his eternal home and Rev. H. N. Gates of Minnesota was 
appointed to fill the office of home missionary superin- 

His first report shows that he was a man of intellectual 
strength, broad vision, and keen spiritual perception. He 
already had his work well in hand. The Association in 
1874 said: 

"It is with devout thanksgiving to God that we record 
His goodness to us the past year. While we lament the ab- 
sence of our late beloved superintendent, a feeling of sad- 
ness comes over us that we shall hear his cheerful voice and 
listen to his wise counsel no more. We at the same time re- 
joice that his place is so richly filled by one in whom we 
find our hearts so readily and easily to confide. With this 
exception death has not been permitted to enter our ranks. 
While some who came with us last year have found fields 
of labor elsewhere, their places have been more than filled, 
so that our present working force is greater than it was a 
year ago. There has been a steady and, we trust, a healthy 
growth of churches and members."^ 

We begin to feel that we are reaching modern times, for 
already such names as D. B. Perry, H. A. French, and H. 
Bross are becoming familiar on the printed page. We note 
also that "The Ladies' " Association for Home and Foreign 
Missions is organized with Mrs. A. Farwell of Ashland as 
president, Mrs. G. W. Hall of Omaha secretary, and Mrs. 
H. M. Bates of Omaha treasurer. 

'Minutes, 1874, p. 14. 

UK\-. H. N. GA-ri-:s 
Third State Superintendent of Home Missions 



It was a trying- ordeal through which Nebraskans passed. 
Crops devastated by the locusts ; people reduced to poverty ; 
many leaving the state ; man}- more unable to leave ; some 
resolving to remain at any cost, believing in the future of 
the new state. These had their reward. W'hat kind of a 


report should wc expect from the home missionarv super- 

'T have to record the mercy of (jod to both churches and 
ministers during the past year — a year of unprecedented 
hardships and suffering to the people of the state, in con- 
sequence of the ravages of the locusts during the last sea- 


son. I would also put ou record the wonderful interposition 
of Providence in shielding our state during the past summer 
from the ravages of the locusts, which, for several months, 
hung over us in nuiubers sufficient to have devoured every 
green thing; ])ut by the hand of God we were protected 
from the evil, and instead of devastating fields and suffering 
families, our people are rejoicing in bountiful harvests and 
a plenty of all the necessaries of life. To God be all the 
praise. "- 

This -year some eleven new churches were organized, 
among them Hastings and Neligh. The work was strength- 
ened throughout the whole state. Superintendent Gates 
reported eighty-one churches in all. 

We find in tlie minutes of- this year the name of the Rev. 
Lewis Gregory, whose twenty-three years service as min- 
ister to the P'irst Church, Lincoln, has made his name a 
household one in the state, and won for him the title of 
"The Nestor of Congregationalism in Nebraska." He has 
filled a large place in the state and has helped in large 
measure to make its history ; a man of rare wisdom, devo- 
tion, and loyalty to the churches. Retired from the active 
ministry, but active in business circles, he still lives among 
us, a help and inspiration to all who learn to know him. 

'Minutes, 1875, p. 12. 




The period of the '70s witnessed a steady development of 
church hfe and the beginning of systematic state Sunday 
school work, which has been so ably carried on by Rev. 
J. D. Stev/art, the only state superintendent of Sunday 
school work Nebraska has had, and the first superintendent 
appointed by our National Sunday School and Publishing- 
Society, though preceded by Superintendent Maile in actual 

Superintendent Stewart, formerly minister at Hastings, 
was called to the state Sunday school work in 1882 ; but it 
was in 1879 that resolutions calling for a national Sunday 
school secretary, and for Sunday school institutes, normal 
classes, and greater efficiency in Sunday school training in 
our Nebraska churches were passed.^ These were the initial 
steps which led up to the present system of Sunday school 
work in the state. A letter" from Superintendent Stewart 
telling of pioneer experiences may well be introduced here : 

"Pioneer work, laying foundations for Christian institu- 
tions and character, mostly on the frontier and in new 
towns, leaves fragrant and lasting memories. To preach 
the gospel of good citizenship to new communities, while 
enterprising business men sit on improvised seats in un- 
furnished store buildings ; to return after the women and 
children arrive, organize Sunday schools and develop them 
into churches, visit their homes, baptize their children, 
marry their young people, and bury their dead, is to estab- 
lish enduring relations with a multitude of families. To 

'Minutes, 1879, p. 11. 
'June 30, 1904, 

. RE\'. J. 1). ST.'LWAUT 

First State Superintendent of Congregational Sunday School Work 

under the C. S. S. and P. Society 


travel in the country and find Christian women, mothers 
of large famihes, Hvine: far away from all Christian privi- 
leges, waiting anxiously for the missionary to come and 
start Sunday schools, to hear their earnest prayers and see 
the tears in their eyes when their children are brought to 
Christ during special evangelistic meetings held v/ith the 
mission Sunday schools, is enough to gladden any Christian 

"To cooperate with pastors and superintendent, gather 
the people into churches, schoolhouses, halls, or tents, hold 
norinal institutes, conventions, and grove meetings, teach 
Bible lessons, discuss the best way to make the Sunday 
school successful, to see the children and young people take 
notes, all anxious to learn 'more about Jesus,' is the most 
satisfactory work a man can be engaged in. This has been 
our experience for twenty-two years." 

In this realistic pen picture of missionary life we see how 
the Sunday school missionary is intimately connected with 
the home missiotiary superintendent in upbuilding Christian 
work in pioneer fields. 

The development of the state called for such help, and 
it was provided. The work continues. The railroad de- 
velopment in the state has enlarged the pioneer work of 
the missionary. There are whole counties with but few 
gospel privileges. The demand for more men is urgent. 
Telephones are preceding the missionary in the sandhills 
and ranches of the West. 


January lo, t88o, witnessed the translation of the pioneer 
preacher and founder of Congregational churches in Ne- 
braska. A brief service was held in Fontanelle where he 
died, "conducted by Rev. T. E. TTcaton of Fremont, and 
more extended services were held in Omaha. At the fol- 



lowiiii^ state association held in Hastings, October, 1880, 
ap[)nipriate memorial services were held. "The service 
was conducted by 'Rev. A. F. Sherrill, and after the me- 
morial paper pre])ared b\' Rev. jnlius A. Reed, remarks 
were made by Rev. J. (i. Spencer, Rev. A. Dresser, and 
Rev. Dr. (II. M. ) Storrs. Extracts were read from letters 
written bv Rev. Dr. Salter of liurlins^ton, Iowa, Rev. Dr. 



















; ' :^^H^^H 


^^^^^nMnV ' 

■ ^H 




«^^ I 










rti.*. ' 


j\[aj.;onn of Iowa College, and Rev. Daniel Lane of Iowa."-' 
In this service Nebraska ]^aid lovinq- tribnte to the memory 
of the man who has done more than any other one man to 
bnild np our Congregational Zion in the state. 

This year also Supt. H. N. Gates made his last report as 
superintendent of home missions. He returned to pastoral 

^:\Iiinites, ISSO, p. 29. 


work, taking charge of the church in David City for a few 
>'ears, and then went to New England, where he passed 
the last years of his life. His sister, Mrs. A. N. Goddard, 
of New Britain, Connecticut, writes : 

"His work to a great extent was organizing and encour- 
aging feeble churches, traveling some ten thousand miles 
a year in that state [Nebraska]. He spent the summer of 
1876 at the East, preaching in many city churches, in the 
interest of home missions, and induced a number of theo- 
logical students to go west to work through their long va- 
cation, guaranteeing them $100 each, and the money was 
raised. Another time, when the home society could not 
meet the quarterly payments of the needy missionaries, he 
advanced thenioney to them, taking no interest, until they 
could repay. At the time of the grasshopper scourge, great 
quantities of clothing were sent to them, and he, with the 
help of his wife, distributed not only to missionaries, but 
other destitute families. He helped in founding Gates Col- 
lege, named for him contrary to his wishes, and felt a great 
interest in it, doing all by his influence for it in his power, 
and when it seemed best no longer to keep it as a college, 
was disappointed. His last years were quietly spent in 
Medford, Massachusetts, reading much, keeping up with 
the times, and waiting the Lord's time to take him. He 
talked much of the future and had no dread of the end,"* 

Mrs. Goddard was with her brother the last nine and 
one-half years of his life and heard much from his lips of 
his experiences in Nebraska. 

Traveling over the state was more difficult in pioneer 
times than it is to-day with our splendid railroad systems, 
but even now a sixty-mile drive over sandhills and prairie 
is by no means uncommon. 

* Letter dated June 29, 1904. 



Superintendent Gates was succeeded in i88i by the Rev. 
C. W. Merrill of Waseca, Minnesota, as State Superin- 
tendent of Home Missions, and with his advent we may 


When Superintendent Mcrriil made his first report he 
found, out of the "136 nominal organizations 132 dc facto 
churches" ; of these fourteen were self-supporting. Sev- 
enty-four churches were supplied with regular services ; 
fifty-one a part of the year ; and eleven had no regula- 

The German Association, which has such an interesting 
history, had come into being with eight churches, and Rev. 
T. D. Stewart was soon to enter upon his duties as State 
Superintendent of Congregational Sunday School Work, so 
that Superintendent Merrill had the help of his valuable 
assistance, for the cultivation of a Sunday school mission 
field was often the most valuable preparation for vigorous 
church extension. The problems of the field were very 
similar, to those which confront us to-day. 

During the first six and one-half months of Superin- 
tendent Merrill's service he traveled 12,595 miles, 580 of 
these by team. It was no sinecure ofifice which he filled. 

He had a strong conviction that there was need of "a. 
better understanding of the relation of the church to the 
A. H. M. S. The idea of some seems to be to get all that 
can be secured from the society, and the church make up 

Fourth State Superintendent of Home Missions 


the rest of pastor's salary; the idea of others, to ask and 
get a certain amount from the society and raise a certain 
amount themselves. 

''What is the true idea? .Simply this: the Home Mission- 
ary Society is a helper. A thorough, careful canvass should 
be made of the church, the field, all who will give to sup- 
port the Gospel, and then an honest answer given to ques- 
tion tv/enty in the form of application, 'The least amount 
that will suffice from the A. H. M. S.' Pardon the blunt- 
ness, but in many cases that question is not honestly an- 
swered."^ The Board of Directors of the Nebraska Home 
Missionary Society in their monthly meetings appreciate 
the application of these plain words to present-day condi- 
tions. Too many times a thorough canvass of the local 
field has not been made. This may be natural, but it is 
not Christian. 

The association this year — 1881 — recommended to the 
churches the Congregational paper "Church and Village," 
established and owned by Rev. H. A. French, then pastor 
at Mil ford. This paper was established in July, 1880, and 
in July, 1882, its name was changed to "The Nebraska 
Congregational News." It has held a unique place among 
the state Congregational papers of the country and is 
placed in the very front rank. Tt has been a valuable 
medium 1?hrough which church and school news, secured 
in no other way, comes to our homes and has been published 
in Lincoln where Mr. French resides. 

The association in 1882 was able to record a marked in- 
crease in benevolences and conversions, and a "kindling 
enthusiasm in Bible study and Sunday school work." It 
also took measures to organize a State Home Missionary 
Society to take the place of the State Central Home Mis- 
sionary Committee. This organization was completed at 

'Minutes, 1881, p. 29. • 


Ki:\-. C. W. .MI-:i<Kll.l., SlMMiklXTENDENT 67 

the meeting in York in 1883 with the following officers: 
President Rev. \\'. S. Hampton, Recording Secretary Rev. 
L. Gregory, Treasnrer Rev. C. W. Merrill ; Board of Di- 
rectors : Rev. H. iJross. Leavitt r>urnham. Rev. L. Greg- 
ory, Pres. D. B. I\^rry, Rev. W. Scott, Rev. A. F. Sherrill, 
and Charles West. 

With this organization Congregational Xehraska came 
into line with the older states in the aggressive work of the 

At the meeting of 1883 Superintendent Merrill reported 
that he had traveled during the year 27,173 miles, visited 
130 churches and fields, and delivered 123 sermons and 
addresses. The churches had increased to 147. Fourteen 
churches had been organized during the year, five of whom 
were German. Omaha now boasted its second church, St. 
Mar\ 's Avenue, organized May 8, 1883. Omaha has now, 
1905, eight churches, the First, St. Mary's Avenue, Ply- 
mouth. Saratoga, German, Cherry Hill, Hillside, and Park 

It was generally the privilege of the association at its 
annual meetings to welcome representative Congregation- 
alists from the Fast and from other state associations. In 
the earlier days delegates from other state bodies were re- 
ceived, and the association appointed delegates to their state 
meetings. This pleasing custom gradually went out of 
use, but our missionary secretaries continue to visit us from 
time to time, and in these later days enterprising business 
committees have secured the presence of some of the most 
noted missionaries from the foreign field. They have 
thrilled us with their addresses, and have given us a larger 
vision of the world-wide work in which we all have a 
common interest. We shall not soon forget the visits of 
such men as Dr. W. S. Ament of China and Dr. R. A. 
Hume of India. 



In the '80s we find the Nebraska Sunday School assem- 
bly established, with Rev. A. E. Dunning, D.D., of Boston, 
as conductor. A Chautauqua assembly for some years 
was conducted at Crete with superior programs, which at- 
tracted visitors outside of the state, but the enterprise was 
not a financial success, and was, after some years' trial, 
reluctantly given up. It is a matter of sincere regret that 
this movement, which gave prestige to the denomination 
and was developing a Congregational consciousness, should 
have failed for want of financial support. The reasons for 
this it is not our purpose to discuss. Opinions vary. The 
loss to the churches, however, is evident. 


The German \vork was so rapidly expanding that a 
general superintendent, the Rev. George E. Albrecht, was 
appointed with headquarters at Davenport, Iowa. Dr. Al- 
brecht, in the interest of the German work, visited the asso- 
ciation at its Norfolk meeting in 1S84. Dr. Dunning was 
also a visitor, speaking in the interest of the Sunday School 
Assembly, and Dr. Wm. M. Barrows, Secretary of the A. H. 
M. S., represented that society. At this meeting Superin- 
tendent Merrill closed his work in the state, having been 
enticed to resume pastoral labor in Minnesota. 

Mr. Merrill is now in Saratoga, California, and in re- 
sponse to a request for some reminiscences of his experi- 
ences in Nebraska sends the following characteristic letter : 

"Saratoga, Cal., June 4, 1904. 
"Dear Brother — I send in this some crude material for 
you to work over if you can make use of it. I have left it 
in 'the rare' because I had but little idea how much room 
you would wish to give, if any, to what I send. 


"I preached one Sunday in the First Church of Omaha; 
the next Sunday the same sermon in a sod schoolhouse in 
northern Nebraska, the insects so thick I could hardly 
breathe without swallowing bugs ; yet cultured and college- 
educated people in the schoolhouse could appreciate the best 
sermon as well as the people in the Omaha church. When 
the church at Arlington was organized there was not an 
original Congregationalist in the organization. Congrega- 
tionalism is the solution of such a situation. Church or- 
ganized at Phelps Center, the county seat. New railroad 
went through, and town of Holdrege started four miles 
away. Phelps Center in winter time was put on runners, 
every building, stores, schoolhouse, residences, and all and 
'slid' over to Holdrege, four miles. 

"Student employed on one field of three points for the 
summer; preached every Sunday morning at one point, and 
in the afternoon alternated between other two points. I 
went on the field and wished to visit all three points in one 
day ; rode forty miles ; preached three times ; held three 
coinmunion services ; held three church meetings ; reached 
home at midnight, or rather reached starting point; strong, 
hot south wind, mercury 107 degrees above zero; student 
used up riding around and looking on while superintendent 
next morning started on for other work. 

"Church building put up at Freewater in the Republican 
valley. Foundation had to be in by a certain time or largest 
subscription lapsed ; delayed in getting brick ; they came 
right in height of harvest, when the men could not be spared 
from the fields for a single day ; women took teams and went 
twenty-four miles to railroad, loaded the brick on wagons, 
drove them home ; foundation put in at night, subscription 
saved ; and building dedicated free from debt. These wo- 
men were of finest culture and education. 


"Had correspondence with persons in Beatrice about 
church organization; one night by telephone arranged for 
services the next Sunday ; conducted the services, completed 
the arrangements, laid the plans, called the council, and in- 
side two weeks the church was organized and services, 
regular services, established. 

''When I closed my work as superintendent, I received a 
call from this church, signed by every member, some over 
fort}', in the church. 

"When I began my work the First Church in Omaha was 
the only Congregational church in the city ; their idea was 
to have one strong central church. They saw their mistake 

"I secured Rev. Geo. Hindley to work in the neighbor- 
hood of the St. ]\Iary's Avenue Church. In about a year 
effected an organization ; secured Re^. Willard Scott from 
New York; had to give $750 from the missionar\- society 
on salary of $1500. Committee thought it very unwise; in 
third year the church came to self-support, and soon be- 
came one of the best churches in the state. 

"W^ent to Ogalalla : no church. Sunday school, or any- 
thing of the kind. Just before I was there a fire burned 
down most of the business part of the town ; some men were 
gambling in a saloon ; saloon took fire, men moved their 
table into the street and went on with their gambling by 
light of the burning buildings. 

''T secured a man to go there as teacher and preacher, 
and in a short time had coimcil called to organize a church. 

"But I think T better 'say amen and quit.' 

'"'I don't know as I have come within forty rods of what 
you wish, but have at least shown my good will, 
"^ilost cordially yours, 

"C. W. Merrill." 

RFA'. J. r.. MATI.i:, Sl-PKUFNl-RXDENT 7I 



Rev. J. L. Mailc, lornieiiy of Arichii;"an, was chosen state 
superintendent in ];lace of Mr. ATerrill. 

During^ Mr. Merrill's service in the state the work had 
so expanded thai we find in his last report that in this 
time, three years and eight months, he had traveled 93,712 
miles: by team 2,666; by railroad 91,046, and had given 
534 sernions and addresses. Forty-two churches had been 
organized with a membership, of 646, and forty-three meet- 
ing-houses erected.^ A general missionary was also ap- 
pointed, Dr. H. Bross. for several years pastor at Crete, 
entering ui)on the work. 

Superintendent Maile's first report, given at Beatrice, 
1884, shows that the list of churches had increased to 168. 
Seventeen of these were self-supporting. Nebraska was 
still a niissionar}- state, and its histor_\- largely of home 
missionary \vGrk. The development of church and school 
was largely dependent on the fostering care of the Na- 
tional Home Missionary Society. 

The state itself is a large debtor to the generous aid of 
the home missionary societies connected with the dififerent 
denominations represented within its borders. It has not 
yet. nor can it easily, cancel its obligations. 

The churches in this period believed in the installation 
of pastors, and the year 1885 witnessed the following in- 
stallations by councils : Rev. \\\ P. Bennett at Crete, Rev. 
S. H. Harrison at York, Rev. C. E. Harwood at Fairfield, 
Rev. William O. Wheeden at Beatrice, and Rev. W. D. 
Page at Cowles. There were also ordained that year Rev. 

'Minutes, 1SS4, p. 24. 

Fifth State Superintendent of Home Missions 


George C. Hall, Rev. John Lich, Rev. George W. Mitchell, 
Rev. A. B. Show, Rev. W. D. J. Stevenson, Rev. W. O. 
Wheeden, Rev. W. D. Page, and Rev. J. W. Hadden. 

The following churches were dedicated that year : Be- 
atrice, Cambridge, Cumniiusville, Doniphan, Emanuel, 
Franklin, Fremont, Gloversville, Indianola, Liberty, Mar- 
tinsburg, Milford, Newcastle, Omaha Third, Pierce, Rich- 
mond, and West Cedar \ 'alley. Chadron, Cowles, Lincoln, 
Norfolk, Ogalalla, and Stratton had houses of worship 
nearly completed. - 

Such lists from year to year were not infrequent. These 
are noted as an illustration of the ecclesiasticism of the 
period ; the development of a Congregational consciousness. 
There was "something adoing" in the state all the time. 

The five years of Superintendent Maile's service in the 
state represents a time of marked interest in the develop- 
ment of the educational interests of the denomination and 
in questions of church polity. At the Beatrice meeting 
1885, Rev. W. P. Bennett read a strong paper representing 
the old view, "The second principle in our polity," which 
was published in the Congregational Nezvs, and was spoken 
of as "especially timely in our own state," which indicates 
the conservative trend of thought at the time in reference 
to the fellozvship of the churches. 

The centralizing tendency in church polity of the present 
day would have been vigorously opposed then. In 1888 
Rev. L. F. Berry of Fremont gave a masterful paper on 
"What constitutes a quorum of a council?" and by vote 
of the association it was ordered printed in the minutes.^ 

It was this year that Dr. A. F. Sherrill closed his long 
pastorate in First Church Omaha and removed from the 
state, to the great regret of all the churches. 

'Minutes, 1885, pp. 18, 19. 
'Minutes, 1888, pp. 15-33. 



In response to repeated and urgent requests Dr. Sherrill 
sends a jubilee message to the Nebraska churches: 

"Lee^ Massachusetts^ August i8, 1904. 

"Dear Brother — You ask me to give the relative status 
of the Congregational churches in Nebraska when I went 
there in 1869, and when I left in 1888. At the former 
date there were about twent}^ of our churches in the state. 
Some of them had a very plain frame meeting-house, more 
had none, and all depended on the Home Missionary So- 
ciety for help. In 1888 there were 168 churches in the 
state. Forty-seven were self-supporting, generally with 
good, modern buildings, some of which had cost $50,000 
or more. The early churches, though few and small, cor- 
responded well with other growth and conditions in the 
state, and with their pastors were useful, and regarded 
well by the people. 

"The superintendents succeeding Mr. Gaylord kept pace 
with frontier progress, and preserved oirr good reputation 
as pioneer churches. Our first pastors were followed by 
younger men, as President Perry. Rev. Lewis Gregory, 
Superintendent Bross, and others, who came to the state 
to remain and do permanent work, and their services to 
the churches, to education, and other interests can not be 
overstated. When I left Nebraska, our denomination was 
in the forefront as to number and activity of churches, 
and Doane College with affiliated academies, illustrated our 
reputation everj'where for interest in Christian education. 

"In those earlier days we tried to plant churches only 
where they were plainly needed, avoiding sectarian ambi- 
tion, and keeping the responsibility for too many churches 
in the town where it belonged. In closing, let me pay a 
hearty tribute to the lavmen of both sexes, whose worth. 


generosity, and devotion contriliuted so lari^ely, not only 
to the growth of the chiuxhes bnt also to all that enters into 
the fonndations of a good commonwealth." 

Supt. J. L. JVlaile closed his labors with the Nebraska 
churches in 1889 at the Ashland meeting of which he was 

The Home Missionary Society expressed by vote its "high 
appreciation of the consecration and devotion he has mani- 
fested, and the efficiency he has shown in his five years 
of service with ns ; and we heartily commend him for the 
vVork he has done, and bid him Godspeed in the work 
wdiich lies before him."* 

Mr. Alaile has kindly furnished recollections of his work 
in the following letter : 

"Los Angeles, California, June 18, 1904. 

"Dear Sir — In line with your request for some recollec- 
tions of the events of my work in Nebraska, I send you 
the follow ing : 

"As Superintendent for the Congregational Home Mis- 
sionary Society in Nebraska, I began my labor in October, 
1884, attending the State Association at Norfolk, as a be- 
ginning of my work. 

"I relinquished my superintendency of state Sunday 
school work in Missouri to accept this appointment. Dur- 
ing the tw^o previous summers I taught in the normal de- 
partment of the Crete Chautauqua assembly, directing the 
program during the second season. My previous acquaint- 
ance with the Rev. J. D. Stewart at Chautauqua, New York, 
led to these engagements. 

"From the acquaintance thus formed in the state, I was 
asked to succeed Rev. C. W. Merrill, resigned. He had 
successfully led the home missionary work for a number 

'Minutes, ISS9, p. 24. 


of years, following Superintendent Gates. I may say that 
as Secretary of our National Sunday School Committee, 
formed at Chautauqua, New York, in 1878, I there met 
Brother Stewart, and thus one contact and friendship led 
on to another. 

"The work of this national committee led to the holding 
of a Congregational congress at Chautauqua in 1879, at 
which Joseph Cook, Lyman Abbott, Dr. J. O. Means, Dr. 
Hutchins, and others addressed our Congregational people. 
Our agitation of the need of an advanced movement in our 
denominational Sunday school work culminated in the ap- 
pointment by the directors of the Sunday School and Pub- 
lishing Society of Rev. A. E. Dunning, D.D., as National 

"Under the reorganization. Rev. Jno. L. Maile was ap- 
pointed first on the list of superintendents to serve in 
Colorado, Rev. J. D. Stewart was next assigned to Ne- 
braska, and Rev. H. P. Case succeeded Mr. Maile in Colo- 
rado, the latter being transferred to Missouri. 

"These successive steps in the development of our general 
Sunday school work are interesting and important because 
the prosperity of our home missionary work has been much 
assisted by the aggressive life of our Sunday school enter- 

"My five years' work as superintendent of home missions 
in Nebraska occurred during a period of energetic expan- 
sion and occupancy of many communities on the advanc- 
ing of settlements. 

"Some sixty-one churches were organized during this 
period; not all of these organizations were due to my 
initiation. I recall as having little to do with starting the 
work at Beatrice and Seward ; the German churches were 
not recipients of my care, although I cooperated for their 
welfare as best I could. 


"General Missionary- Harmon Bross, my most efficient 
and honored successor, started the work at Chadron, Craw- 
ford, Hay Springs, Hemingford, and other places. I 
vividly recollect the improvised meeting-house of Plymouth 
Church in Lincoln, with earth banked well-nigh up to the 
eaves of the board structure, resultant in comfort during 
severest winter storm. In the council organizing the church 
at Burwell, Rev. Lewis Gregory rendered very important 

"Thus I might recall the incidents occurring on many 
new fields. 

"At Curtis the v»ork was started under very primitive 
conditions. Doniphan required persistent faithfulness on 
the part of Rev. J. H. Embree. The church at Dustin 
was due to the energetic efforts of Mrs. Dustin and family. 
They had come from Boston for the benefit of the health 
of a son and daughter, and found a marked contrast in the 
manner of life at the metropolis, and in the distant valley 
of northern Nebraska. Mrs. Dustin rode her broncho from 
one isolated ranch home to another, and interested mothers 
and children in Sunday school and temperance work. 

"The work at Farnam was first led by Rev. John Wool- 
man, whose large family was domiciled in very small 
quarters, and at that time the people of the congregation 
were in the midst of the trials incident to pioneering in those 
days. Our Grand Island church was formed under cir- 
cumstances which led some good people to doubt the success 
of the enterprise. Rev. Mr. Comstock was the first pastor, 
and I judge a succession of efficient ministers have wisely 
led the church. 

"At Leigh I found a Dr. Geer, brother to a former fellow- 
student at Oberlin, and have since met him here in southern 
California. This church enjoyed one or two genuine re- 
vival seasons, and was much strengthened thereby. 


"1 thiiik it was at Newcastle that I made my first visit in 
northeastern Nebraska immediately after the association 
meeting in 1884. The elderly minister was in a peck of 
trouble, and the wisdom of the superintendent was drawn 
npon to solve sundry problems. I trust this work survives 
in strength. 

'■xA.t Ogalalla I assisted in dedicating the meeting-house. 
Mr. L. E. Brown, who was passing from the law into the 
ministr}', was the }oung pastor. A successful series of 
meetings was held. The family of the station-master was 
specially interested and the work received a strong impulse. 

"Five churches were organized in Omaha during my 
administration, and I suppose they have had varying de- 
grees of success. 

"I recall the beginning of the work at Strang and 
Sliickley, under the lead of Air. Glen A. Taylor, who came 
direct from Yale Theological Seminary. Special difficulty 
seemed to attend these enterprises, but they were in good 
measure overcome. 

"Geneva was started by the Presbyterians, but was 
changed to our Congregational fellowship by the almost 
unanimous action of the people concerned. 

"At Trenton, well on toward the western line of the 
state in the Republican valley, Mr. and the Misses Hogg 
were the pillars in that church. If memory serves, a very 
ungodly man made a generous subscription toward build- 
ing the meeting-house, on the ground that he did not wish 
passengers, looking from the Pullman car windows upon 
the village, .should consider it a heathen community because 
no church edifice was visible. I have met the Misses Hogg 
in Los Angeles, as indeed many old friendships have here 
been renewed. 

"My recollections of the details of the work are so im- 
perfect that I hesitate to write the above. Aluch more 


might be said. A true spirit of consecration and of earnest 
desire to build up the Kingdom of Christ characterized our 
ministry and churches as a whole. J enjoyed the hearty 
cooperation and fr'cndliness of pastors of self-supporting 
churches. A. F. Sherrill, Willard Scott, Lewis Gregory, 
President Perry, Professor Fairchild, J. D. Stewart, and 
many others might be mentioned whose inspiring friend- 
ship was of greatest value to me. 

"JMr. Charles West of Lincoln very efficiently served as 
Secretary of the State Board of Home Missions. He re- 
moved to Denver and there passed to the Beyond. 

"It was my privilege to serve as trustee on the board 
at Doane College. The inside views there obtained con- 
firmed my sense of the importance of education conducted 
under distinctly Christian auspices. Much ciuiet, hard work 
has gone into the young life of Nebraska from this insti- 
tution. The affiliated academies arc doing an equally im- 
portant work, the circle of institutions forming an ideal 
combmation for the attainment of the great ends thev 

"In my addresses to the churches, I frequently urged the 
importance of dedicating- promising young men to the 
Christian ministry, and since our churches were served by 
pastors who had been raised up elsewhere, we should de- 
velop our proportion of ministers for the time to come. I 
pressed the importance of sustaining our educational in- 
.stitutions as an efifective method of building up our 
churches in the Christian life. 

"The impression was thus unwittingly made that I was 
specially interested in Christian education, and when the 
Educational Society at Boston was, in 1889, looking for 
some one to serve as college field secretary, I was asked to 
take that responsibility. I accordingly resigned my Ne- 
braska appointment, and in October of said year began in 


New England my work of representing western colleges 
and academies to the eastern churches. 

"Nine colleges, eighteen academies, and twelve mission 
schools were at times on our list to be presented in public 
and in private. I frequently met President Warren of 
Gates College (now of Yankton College) and other veteran 

"In 1895-97 I made a special campaign for endowment 
for Whitman College, Washington, and gathered much 
original data concerning the great work of Missionary Mar- 
cus Whitman in saving to our country the great northwest 
region of the Pacific Coast. 

"Health being impaired under the stress of continuous 
and heavy work, I sought a change by accepting, in 1897, 
the home missionary superintendency of North Dakota. I 
served in this field with happiness to myself until the effect 
of severe winter compelled the seeking of a milder climate. 

"Rev. James T. Ford, the veteran superintendent of 
southern California, having resigned, to take effect April 
I, 1899, I entered the open door of that work, and am 
wholly rejuvenated by the restoring effects of the most 
attractive climate on earth. 

"1 treasure the remembrances of my Nebraska life as 
among my most precious treasures. It must be that such 
rich reminiscences will spring into new life in the realms 
of the Great Beyond, to which we are hastening, and where, 
perhaps, we shall perfect much that has been begun in this 
]5resent life under circumstances of limitation and imper- 
fection which the Master wishes to see perfected. 

"My affectionate greeting to many friends in the grand 
state of Nebraska. 

"Very sincerely yours, 

"John L. Maile." 




The logical successor to Superintendent Maile was Rev. 
H. Bross, D.D., the General Missionary of the state and 
superintendent of the Black Hills region. His long service 
as stated clerk of the association had kept him in touch 
with all the churches of the state. 

At the request of the writer, Dr. Bross has furnished a 
brief account of some missionary experiences while he was 
general missionary. These serve as a valuable illustration 
of the pioneer work in the state in comparatively recent 
times. Dr. Bross writes : 

"Lincoln, July 6, 1904. 

"After a pastorate of nearly eleven years at Crete, ex- 
tending from August i, 1873, to February i, 1884, during 
which time the church increased from a membership of 
fourteen to 185, and the present house of worship was built, 
I entered upon general missionary work in northern Ne- 
braska with headquarters at Norfolk. 

"At that time we had comparatively few churches in 
the North Platte region, and efforts were made at once to 
extend the work. The churches at Wisner, Pierce, West 
Cedar Valley, and other points which were nearly extinct 
were revived and strengthened. Special meetings were 
held in Dixon county, out of which the churches of New- 
castle and Daily Branch grew, also a church at Martins- 
burg now nearly extinct. The churches at Gloversville 
and Park in Antelope county also grew out of this work. 
Ainsworth had been organized but was nearly extinct ; it 
was revived and Long Pine added. The churches in Holt 
county were also gathered the following summer. 



Sixth Stale Superintendent of Home Missions 


"During the session of the legislature in 1885 the coun- 
ties of northwestern Nebraska were organized and a great 
tide of settlement poured into that region. In the early 
spring I made an exploring expedition into that region, 
visiting the new towns of Gordon, Rushville, Hay Springs, 
and Chadron. 

"With the first train into Chadron, August, 1885, I went 
to begin permanent work. I made headquarters at Chadron 
and soon had a gospel tabernacle ready for church and 
Sunday school. On Sunday, September 13, 1885, the three 
churches of Rushville, Hay Springs, and Chadron were 
recognized by council, Rev. M. L. Holt of Neligh being 
delegate from that church, and Mrs. Bross from the church 
at Norfolk, where we were then living. 

"Houses of worship were soon built at these three points ; 
but later at Rushville, when the Methodists, Baptists, the 
United Presbyterians, the German Methodists, and the 
regular Presbyterians all crowded in, it did not seem wise 
to continue further expenditure of home missionary money, 
and that point was given up. With the extension of the 
railroad in the spring of 1886, church work was established 
at Crawford, where we now have a thriving church with 
a good brick house of worship and parsonage all paid for. 
The church at Chadron has also just come to self-support ; 
has a good house of worship and parsonage free of debt. 

"September 29, 1887, the Northwestern Association was 
organized at Chadron, and later Chadron Academy was 
established. The work then extended into the Black Hills 
and into W^yoming and T was made superintendent of that 
region in connection with my north Nebraska work. 

"The extension of the Burlington road into northwestern 
Nebraska and the Black Hills in 1888-89 opened another 
large region, and population began pouring in. With Hem- 
ingford in Box Butte county as a center, preaching points 


had been established throughout the county, and the church 
at Hemingford was organized in 1886. Then followed 
Hyannis and Reno and these formed the nucleus of a large 
group of churches since gathered in the sandhills. 

"The aim had been to have our churches organized in 
groups, so that they might "support each other and have 
fellowship among themselves. With this in view, we passed 
from Ainsworth 150 miles west before attempting the or- 
ganization of another church. These churches have proved 
very efficient and fruitful in their influence for good, and in 
developing Christian character among young people who 
have made themselves strong for good work. The church 
at Chadron has made a good history in this respect. The 
young people who have gone from there to college, and 
have become teachers, Christian business men, home keep- 
ers, will date their first impulses for the higher life to in- 
fluences em.anating from the church and academy. One 
of our most influential international Y. M. C. A. workers 
was converted in that church and started on his career of 
usefulness. The community of churches in the Black Hills 
and in central Wyoming owe their existence and their 
strength largely to their close contact with this work in 
northwest Nebraska. 

"An interesting feature in the extension of this work 
was the use of Gospel tabernacles in the beginning. The 
success of the one at Chadron was suggestive of what 
might be done in other places, and in a short time the gen- 
eral missionary had at his disposal six canvas roofs which 
might be used for gospel tabernacles at various places. 
One of these had been purchased at Chadron by the Sun- 
day school of Farmington, Connecticut; another was 
bought by money given by the Sunday school at Milburn, 
Illinois, and four were donated by the firm of J. V. Far- 
well & Co., Chicago. 


- "At each place the use of a lot was secured, a collection 
taken to furnish sufficient lumber for the walls of the tem- 
porary building, and this was covered with the heavy duck- 
ing. No windows were needed, and one small door allowed 
entrance to the unique structure. In this way the church 
and Sunday school had a home at once with regular hours 
for service and a distinct place in the life of the community. 

"One of these tabernacles, that at Buffalo Gap, was used 
for eighteen months. When the one which had been used 
at Lusk for some time was not needed there, it was brought 
down to Ravenna and sheltered that church in its early 

"In December, 1889, when Rev. J. L. Maile discontinued 
his work as superintendent, the writer was appointed super- 
intendent of the state work with headquarters at Lincoln. 
When he entered upon his work as general missionary 
February i, 1884, the denomination had 148 churches in 
the state with a total membership of 4,042, with 6,390 in 
Sunday school. There are now 203 churches with member- 
ship of 15,212; and 16,719 in our Sunday schools. 

"Our yearly contributions then for home expenses were 
$45,248; now $160,287. Our benevolences then were, per 
annum, $8,722; now $21,827. 

"H. Bross." 

In his first report to the Home Missionary Society Super- 
intendent Bross says : 

"The western half of our state presents all the phases of 
work in a region where home missionary efforts have been 
in progress fifteen or sixteen years. There are the same 
difficulties, the same opportunities, the same mighty incen- 
tives to aggressive work. It is as yet almost entire mission- 
ary ground. We have there only five self-supporting 


churches, and but about thirty in all, including several Ger- 
man churches."^ 

Superintendent Stewart says in his report : 

"In many places the people are entirely destitute of any 
religious services. The few Simday schools that have been 
organized are but little better than none, as ignorance and 
infidelity prevail to a great extent. The scattered settlers 
in those new communities consist very largely of those 
classes that care nothing for Bible study, and those who 
have been members of Sunday schools have been so long 
without them that in many cases they are indifferent . . . 
In all that region (the western frontier) there are but few 
people who are competent for officers and teachers, and of 
these only a small number have consecration and Christian 
character sufficient to make the Sunday school a success. "- 

And yet that year Superintendent Stewart organized 
twenty-one schools. 

The association of 1890 made a strong protest against 
opening the World's Fair on Sunday, and a stirring appeal 
for an amendment to the state constitution prohibiting the 
liquor traffx. A spirited address by the Rev. A. A. Cress- 
man upon "Work among the Bohemian population of the 
state" called forth vigorous resolutions, endorsing the 
work already done, and expressing sympathy with those 
engaged in that service. 

As we contrast this period with that of three decades 
preceding we find similar problems. The frontier has only 
been pushed to the western part of the state, and there 
the work is as truly pioneer as that in eastern Nebraska 
when Father Gaylord began work on the banks of the 
Missouri. In 1890 the State Missionary Society employed 

'Minutes, 1890, p. 31. 
'Minutes, 1890, p. 34. 


two general missionaries, Rev. G. J. Powell and Rev, George 
E. Ta}'lor, to supplement the work of the state super- 

At this time the American Home Missionary Society 
was beginning- to reduce appropriations to Nebraska, and 
said : 

"Your churches should be made deeply to feel that what- 
ever new work is undertaken must come from the savings 
of the old work, anu an increase in the contributions to 
the cause."-' 

It is not always understood that as the eastern portion 
of the state has become self-supporting, a vast empire in 
the western portion has sprung into being; that this is 
pioneer soil, and being more sparsely settled than eastern 
Nebraska will remain a missionary field for some time to 
come, and that in eastern Nebraska there are parishes, 
once self-supporting, which on account of removals and 
changes find themselves once more on the home missionary 

The missionary problem is always being solved, but each 
year new elements enter, and so it is ever with us. 


This period is also remembered for the severe drouth 
which devastated homes, ruined the financial prospects of 
many, and was a staggering blow to the growth of the 
churches in the state. It was one of the elements then 
entering into the missionary problem. 

In alluding to this severe experience and emergence into 
a brighter outlook Superintendent Bross says : 

"The cities and towns that contributed money; the 
farmers who shared their provisions with others ; the coal 
men who donated trainload after trainload of coal, asking 

'Minutes, 1890, p. 30. 


in return only enough to pay the miner for his under- 
ground work; the railroads and express companies that 
transported, free, tons and tons of produce, goods, fuel, 
and seed, have added another chapter to the abundant testi- 
mony accumulated through the years, showing that we are, 
after all, one family and responsive to the same appeals for 
help. We gather this 3^ear in the presence of such abundant 
crops of all sorts that the transformation seems a miracle 
of Providence. In spite of losses and difficulties the year 
has been one of substantial progress."' 

We are not surprised that at this time there should be 
an unusual number of changes in the churches, and that 
vigorous words should be uttered in favor of permanence 
in the pastoral office. Biit the hopeful spirit which per- 
vaded the Fremont meeting of 189 1 shows the vast recupera- 
tive forces resident in the state. 

In the following year a carefully outlined plan for the 
development of Sunday school work was presented by 
Superintendent Stewart,^ and the whole work of the denomi- 
nation began to be more thoroughly unified and system- 
atically prosecuted. 


The Fremont church, and the churches of the state as 
well, were called to mourn the loss of the inspiring pres- 
ence and wise counsels of Rev. I. E. Heaton who was called 
to his eternal home September 17, 1893. One by one the 
early pioneers have disappeared. The memory of their 
devotion and heroism remains with us ; their works do 
follow us ; 

"But, oh, for the touch of a vanislied hand 
And the sound of a voice that is still." 

^Minutes, 1891, p. 50. 
'Minutes, 1892, p. 37. 

Rev. S. N. Grout 
Rev. Wm. Leavitt 

Rev. W. P. Bennett 
Rev. B. Diffenbacher 


Mrs. Heaton passed to her reward August 8, 1905, aged 
ninety-three years. Dr. Geo. L. Miller of Omaha, one of 
the first trustees of the First Church, still remains with 
us, but there are not many who can tell of the first 
beginnings of pioneer work in the state. It is the second 
generation of w^orkers who are now called pioneers. But 
all have partaken of the same spirit and are doing a noble 
work in the development of a Christian state. 


The practical treatment of live questions is characteristic 
of the State Association. This was well illustrated in the 
Beatrice meeting of 1893, with these topics for discussion : 
"Morals involved in the coinage question," by Rev. W. P. 
Bennett ; "Morals involved in the labor question," by Rev. 
Wilson Denney ; "Morals involved in the immigration ques- 
tion," by Rev. John Power; "The evils resulting from short 
pastorates and how they may be remedied," by Rev. H. A. 
French; "Why are not more young men in the Sunday 
school?" by Rev. T. W. DeLong; "More systematic and 
thorough instruction in Sunday school," by Rev. John 
Doane; "How to secure trained and efficient superintend- 
ents," by Rev. A. G. Washington ; and "Are our churches 
doing their whole duty toward destitute places within their 
reach?" by Rev. C. W. Preston. 

This meeting was selected at random from among the 
later meetings of the association, and the topics show, as 
do those of other meetings, that it is practical rather than 
doctrinal questions in which our churches are especially 
interested, although the doctrinal is not eliminated from 
the thought and life of western Congregationalism, and it 
only takes the occasion to bring it to the front. Life was 
real and earnest, and the churches of the state were, in 
the very struggle for existence, compelled to face stern 
every-day problems. 



The drouth again blasted the crops and the hopes of the 
people. The state superintendent's report at the Crete 
meeting, 1895, had a more pitiful story of hardships and 
loss than the one some years before, but with it a glad re- 
frain of thanksgiving on account of the practical and gen- 
erous sympathy of the outside world. 

"True to its genius and its history, Congregationalism 
did its work, not for itself but for the community.- Carloads 
of coal and flour were wisely and carefully distributed in 
homes where the only condition was that of need. These 
offerings of clothing, provisions, and money came from all 
parts of the country, from Maine to California, and from 
North Dakota to Alabama. . . . These offerings were 
distributed in the counties of Antelope, Boyd, Brown, Cus- 
ter, Dav/son, Franklin, Frontier, Garfield, Grant, Harlan, 
Hayes, Hitchcock, Holt, Keya Paha, Knox, Lincoln, Loup, 
Merrick, Perkins, Phelps, Platte, Red Willow, Webster, 
Wheeler" ; and adds Superintendent Bross, 'T believe it 
will surprise you all, no matter how carefully you have been 
observing the changes among us, when I say that although 
the hardships of the year have been unparalleled in the his- 
tory of our state, only four of our home missionaries have 
left the state during the year. ... Of our vacant 
churches, correspondence is under way looking to the 
support of nearly all. There are only two or three that 
have been entirely without supply during the year."^ 

There is hopefulness also in the Sunday school report of 
Superintendent Stewart for the same year: "Our corres- 
pondents write that whole families come to Sunday school 
now who never could be induced to attend before. One lady 

'Minutes, 1895, pp. 28, 29. 


says, 'Men who were scoffers, and who made Hght of the 
lesson quarteriies, calHng them almanacs, are now regular 
attendants upon the Sunday school and students of those 
same quarterlies.' This is certainly some compensation for 
the shortage in crops during the last three years. Possibly 
this is the purpose of God's providence in withholding the 
rain. . . 'Neither tribulation, nor distress, nor persecu- 
tion, nor famine, nor nakedness, nor peril, nor sword, can 
separate them from the work that God has given them to 
do.' "' 

In these later years we have had an abundance of rain; 
they have been "years of plenty," and the work of our 
Congregational Zion has been making steady progress. 

The annual appropriations for missionar>^ work have been 
gradually reduced, and the work steadily advanced, and 
yet we could wisely expend double what we receive. 


The Committee on State of Religion, Dr. George W. 
Crofts, chairman, at the David City meeting, 1898, gave 
a happy expression to the outlook in Nebraska then. With 
an increase in figures quoted it is applicable to the outlook 
in 1905. 

"As you open the gate of the year and look over the field 
of Congregational Nebraska, what do you see? You see 
our state superintendent, our apostles, going about as they 
did in early days, strengthening the churches, flying as 
compared with the means of transportation in those days, 
like the angel of the Apocalypse with the everlasting 
Gospel. You see 105 pastors and preachers shepherding 
their various flocks comprising the sum total of over 13,000 
souls. You see these men, men of culture, men of consecra- 

' Minutes, 1895, pp. 40, 41. 


tion, men of God, self-sacrificing, prayerful, faithful, and 
efficient. You see an army of over 15,000 Sunday school 
children being matured in the Christian faith. You see 
6,000 Christian Endeavorers, not only being trained for act- 
ive service in the cause of Christ, but doing service for 
Him that is telling on the spirituality and energy of the 
church for great good. You see our colleges and academies 
promoting Christian education, and presenting year by year 
a company of young men and women to the Master for His 
work in the world in every avenue of life. You see nearly 
a thousand born from above coming into the Church on 
confession of faith. You see increased benevolences. You 
see debts melting away like snow banks in spring. You 
see silvery streams of Congregational, Christian literature 
irrigating the moral soil of the state and making the desert 
with its sage-brush of sensuality bloom like a garden. You 
see all this activity and faithfulness. Y'ou see unity and 
peace and fraternity and fellowship, and that charity which 
edifieth. Y"ou see less restlessness and more contentment 
amongst pastors and people. You see a tendency toward 
longer pastorates, and hence a larger degree of confidence 
and forbearance, more of Christ and less of criticism. You 
see all these factors working harmoniously together, work- 
ing as though impelled by a divine principle. And then you 
ask, 'What is the state of religion in Nebraska?' 

"There is a dark side, but there is a bright side, and it is 
encouraging to look at it. Even the dark side is bright 
compared with what has been seen in the past history of 
the Church, in the times of Savonarola, -of Luther, and of 
Wesley. Let us thank God and take courage."^ 

Nebraska is looking up and reaching out, ready to seize 
any new opportunity to extend more widely the Kingdom 
which is within it. 

^Minutes, 1898, p. 28. 



The deliberations of a body of Christian men and their 
mature conchisions reflect in large measure the thought and 
life of the people whom they represent. 

We have seen how in the early days of our history Con- 
gregational Nebraskans were keenly alive to all that was 
going on in their own midst and in the country at large. 
Recent declarations in the meetings of the State Associa- 
tion show the same characteristics. 

The Ashland meeting, 1889, appointed a committee, Rev. 
M. L. Holt, chairman, to report upon "The religious and 
moral condition of our army" ; originally to "cooperate with 
array chaplains for the better welfare of our soldiers." 
This committee at the Fremont meeting, 1891, reported the 
following, which was adopted : 

"To the Nebraska delegation of Honorable Senators and 
Representatives in tlie United States Congress: 
"Gentlemen — We, the Congregational churches and min- 
isters of Nebraska, in Annual State Association assembled, 
recognizing our obligation to the national army and navy 
for their moral and spiritual training and development, do 
most respectfully urge upon you the importance of the 
passage of the bill entitled 'An act to increase the number 
of chaplains in the army of the United States ; to define their 
duties and increase their efficiency.' We do, moreover, pray 
that a moral condition of promotion be at once established 
in the army and navy, whereby no man of immoral charac- 
ter of any rank shall be promoted over one of pure moral 
character. This we do in order that everv incentive be used 


to encourage the army and navy to combine in an effort to 
remove from among them the debasing- immoral practices 
which to so large an extent prevail."^ 

In the '90s our churches were considerably interested in 
the Chautauqua movement, and maintained for some years 
an assembly at Crete. Many have regretted that the as- 
sembly was ever given up. This is what was said of the 
movement at the Omaha meeting, 1892: 

"Whereas, The Chautauqua movement has proven to 
be strongly helpful to our churches, Sunday schools, Bible 
students, and Christian workers; and 

"Whereas, The Crete assembly has special claims on 
us as a denomination, therefore 

"Resolved, That we commend to our ministers and 
churches the wisdom of promoting local training classes in 
harmony with the assembly work, of preaching an annual 
sermon in the interests of the Chautauqua endeavor, of se- 
curing a large attendance at the summer assembly, and of 
acquiring a proprietary interest by the purchase of as- 
sembly stock. "- 

The Crete assembly had the reputation of presenting an- 
nual programs of high order of merit ; and from the stand- 
point of literary, moral, and spiritual benefit was a great 

The management secured men of national reputation to 
lecture from its platform ; but as a financial venture it 
failed, and after a few years' trial was given up. It is a 
question well worth considering, if the time has not now 
come when the denomination should take up some phases 
of Bible study, normal training and correlated subjects in a 
summer assembly established at a center like Lincoln, where 
a larger attendance could be secured with better financial 

'Minutes, 1891, pp. 11, 12. 
'Minutes, 1892, p. 18. 


prospects. The difficulty is in reviving- an effort which has 
once failed for want of financial support. 

The association at its meeting in 1891 appointed Rev. 
John Power, Dr. Joseph T. Duryea, and Rev. Lewis Greg- 
ory a Committee on Divorce Legislation. The next year 
this committee made the following report, which was 
adopted : 

"Tg the General Association of Congregational Churches 
of Nebraska: 

"Your Committee on Divorce Legislation recommend that 
the following petition be presented to the legislature of the 
state of Nebraska: 
"'To the Honorable Legislature of the State of A^ebraska: 

" 'Whereas, By the law of the state no remedy is pro- 
vided for a deserted husband or wife within the space of 
two years from the date of desertion, and then only by an 
action for divorce ; and, 

" 'Whereas, Alimony, when allowed, is to be collected 
only as a civil debt, and consequently, in most cases, not to 
be collected at all ; and, 

" 'Whereas, Marriage, followed by immediate desertion, 
is the easiest method of escape for an unmarried man from 
the consequences of an action for seduction or bastardy, 
and has been frequently performed for that very purpose ; 

" 'Whereas, A divorce may be obtained from an absent 
respondent where due diligence has not been used to notify 
such respondent that action for divorce has been com- 
menced ; 

" 'Therefore, we, the undersigned, do respectfully petition 
your honorable body that during your present session such 
amendation of the law may be made as shall 

" 'First — Make desertion on the part of a married person 
a penal offense. 


" 'Second — Subject a man against whom desertion has 
been proven to the same conditions as one against whom 
bastardy has been proven. 

" 'Third — Give this remedy independent of any action for 

" 'P'ourth — Prohibit proceeding in any action for divorce 
until due dihgence has been used to bring the respondent 
into court. 

" 'And your petitioners will ever pray.' 

"Your committee further recommend that this petition 
be presented to the legislature by a delegation from this 
association, and that the W. C. T. U. and other associa- 
tions be invited to cooperate in urging the matter upon the 

Some of the evils petitioned against have been removed 
by recent legislation, and desertion in some cases is made 
a criminal offense, and in other ways the law has been 

vSpirited resolutions are sent to the President of the 
United States, requesting that vigorous measures be taken 
to protect American citizens, and maintain the treaty rights 
in the Ottoman Empire.^ 


"Recognizing the increased activity of the Mormon 
church, and the aggressiveness on the part of the polyga- 
mous propaganda, be it therefore 

"Resolved, That we hereby most respectfully call upon 
our United States Senators and Representatives to use 
their utmost endeavor to secure early action by Congress 
proposing an amendment to our Federal Constitution for- 
ever prohibiting the practice of polygamy in any place sub- 

' Minutes, 1892, pp. 19, 20. 
* Minutes, 1896, p. 14. 



ject to our governmental jurisdiction, and providing for the 
disfranchisement of those who are guilty of this crime."^ 

vSonie years ago a plan of church union of all Protestant 
bodies in this country was proposed. It was called the New 
Jersey Plan and was considered by the Nebraska churches 
during 1894 and 1S95, but the association came to the con- 
clusion that "We are unable to find a feasible way to such 
unity in what is known as the New Jersey Plan."*' 

The time, in the estimation of the association, had not 
come to agitate the question of the organic union of the 
Protestant bodies, but the Plan itself is of interest. The 
essential features of this plan are stated by Dr. A. H. Brad- 
ford of New Jersey in a letter dated January 6, 1905 : 

"The New Jersey Plan for the Union of Protestant 
Evangelical Churches was based on four proposals namely : 
I, The acceptance of the Scriptures of the Old and New 
Testaments, inspired by the Holy Spirit, as containing all 
things necessary to salvation, and as being the real and ulti- 
mate standard of Christian faith. 2, The discipleship of 
Jesus Christ, the Divine Lord and Savior, and the teacher 
of the world. 3, The Church of Christ, which is His body, 
whose mission it is to preach the Gospel to the world. 4, 
Liberty of conscience in the interpretation of the Scriptures 
and in the administration of the Church. 

"I have not given the proposals in the exact form in which 
they were originally presented, but in their substance. You 
will find them in the Minutes of the National Council of 
1895, page 36. 

"Very sincerely yours, 

"Amory H. Bradford." 

The plan of church union in some form has, however, 

been kept before the Church, and the action of the National 

* Minutes, 1900, p. 17. 
•Minutes, 1895, p. 14. 


Council, October, 1904, in adopting the report of the com- 
mittee appointed in 1901 to confer with other denomina- 
tions, especially the United Brethren and Methodist Prot- 
estants, has made this a live question, and it is possible 
that some kind of federation may be adopted in which these 
denominations, together with the Free Baptists and Con- 
grcgationalists, may come into much closer fellowship, and 
l)erhaps eventually into organic union. This is for the 
churches of all the denominations to say. There can be no 
coercion. Local and state bodies are discussing it. De- 
nominations are coming closer together, but there are many 
obstacles to be overcome before organic union can be 
realized. The readjustment of missionary boards and 
church papers, of publishing houses and Sunday school lit- 
erature, is a tremendous undertaking; but this is a simple 
problem as compared with that of bringing the individual 
churches into line with the movement, and "delivering the 
goods." There will doubtless be a cleavage when it is under- 
taken. Some United Brethren and Methodist Protestants 
will prefer the M. E. Church to the proposed Union Church ; 
some Congregationalists will prefer to remain Independent ; 
and so there is a danger of the proposed union of denomina- 
tions resulting in the organization of still another, and the 
weakening of those that remain. Much will depend on the 
skill, w"isdorn, and patience of the leaders in the movement. 
Congregational Nebraska at the Geneva meeting, 1903, 
unanimously adopted the following resolutions, which may 
be said fairly to represent the thought and desires of our 
churches : 

"Whereas, There is at the present time a movement look- 
ing toward a closer federation and possibly organic union 
of dififerent denominatioHS with the Congregational body ; 


"Resolved, That we hail hopefully the movement for a 
closer association with sister denominations, trusting to find 
in it the beginning of that consummation of Christian fel- 
lowship so long desired and prayed for by the Church. The 
end sought is worth sacrifice, and while we still cherish the 
constitutive principles of our order — the independence of 
the local church, and the fellowship of the churches — with a 
conviction too profound to be surrendered, we stand ready 
to sink personal preferences and all non-essentials of method 
and tradition that we may strike hands in love and labor 
with the v/ider fellowship. 

"Resolved, That it should be the aim of our churches to 
strengthen the denomination through the development of an 
inner life, and the application to all our work of those his- 
toric ideas which have left such a profound and beneficial 
influence upon the development of our national life, as well 
as upon the educational and spiritual life of our churches. 

"Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent to 
the next National Council as a testimony of the position 
of our churches in the state of Nebraska."^ 

These represent a friendly attitude toward a closer affilia- 
tion of Christian workers in all denominations, but em- 
phasize the need of the "development of an inner life, and 
the application to all our work of those historic ideas which 
have left such a profound and beneficial influence upon the 
development of our national life, as well as upon the educa- 
tional and spiritual life of our churches." 

The same Geneva meeting in connection with the preced- 
ing adopted the following resolutions on the Bible Society ; 
Labor and Capital ; Temperance and the Observance of the 
Lord's Day : 

Minutes, 1903, p. 21. 


"Whereas, The American Bible Society, through its trans- 
lation of the Holy Scriptures into many languages and the 
distribution of the same in mission fields, has become an 
indispensable agency in the development of our missionary 
work ; therefore be it 

"Resolved, That we heartily commend the American 
Bible Society to our churches as worthy their moral and 
financial support. 

"Resolved, That it is the sense of this association that 
the Bible Society should also print the very best English 
version, and we therefore respectfully request that the so- 
ciety publish the American Revised Version of the Holy 
Scriptures for general distribution. 

"Resolved, That the -state registrar be requested to send 
a copy of these resolutions to the officers of the Bible Society 
in New York. 

"Resolved, That without at present expressing ourselves 
as to the nierits of the controversy between organized labor 
and capital, we heartily approve of the appointment by the 
National Council of a labor committee to inquire into the 
facts as to labor and its relation to capital and to the 
churches, and recommend the appointment by this body of 
a committee to cooperate with the national committee as 

"Whereas, We recognize in the use of alcoholic liquors, 
and in their agent, the liquor traffic, after sin in the heart, 
the most destructive foe to the progress of the Kingdom of 
our Redeemer in the hearts and lives of men ; be it 

"Resolved, i, That we pledge ourselves to favor total 
abstinence on the part of individuals and total prohibition 
of the traffic on the part of the state and nation. 

"2, That working toward this we favor vigorous presen- 
tation of the evils of intemperance and vigorous enforce- 
ment of existing laws, and as rapidly as possible the enact- 


meiit of new restrictive measures until the traffic is wholly 

"We deplore the growing laxity in the observance of the 
Lord's Day and urge upon our ministers and churches the 
necessity of recovering the reverent regard for the Lord's 
Day so valuable to family life and to the Kingdom of 

The Lincoln meeting, October, 1904, was alive to the 
inhuman treatment of the natives in the Congo valley and 
adopted the following resolution : 

"In \'iew of charges made by responsible parties that 
grossest outrages are being perpetrated upon the native 
people of the Congo valley, reducing them in many in- 
stances practically to a condition of slavery, 

"Resolved, That the General Association of the Con- 
gregational Churches of Nebraska urges upon Congress a 
thorough investigation of the charges made against the 
authorities of the independent state of the Congo, to the 
end that if such charges are found to be true, the United 
States unite with other western powers to secure to the 
native people of the Congo the humane and just govern- 
ment which is their right." 

In all these, and in other declarations, the churches of 
the state show an active interest in the questions which 
afifect not only the denomination but our common humanity 
as well. Congregational churches would be untrue to their 
historic life if they failed to keep in touch with the great 
movements in thought and life which characterize the pres- 
ent century. A new and interior state feels the throb of this 
vigorous life as well as those states nearer the great com- 
mercial centers of the country. 



Interested as onr churches are in the movement looking 
toward a closer affiliation with other denominations, it is 
even more interested in the trend of thought and action in 
favor of a more centralized government. There has been 
milch discussion of late of some one or more phases of this 

Congregationalists "to the manner born" and those who 
have drunk deep of the historic spirit of the denomination 
will hardly surrender their freedom for a centralized gov- 
ernment, acting with authority and assuming legislative 
functions. It is the independence of the local church to 
conduct and manage its own affairs, subject only to the 
laws oi fellowship, which makes pulpits in our 
churches so attractive to ministers in other denomina- 
tions. We rejoice in our independence, but we are not In- 
dependents ; we are Congregationalists, because we are 
bound together by the law of fellozvship. We shall see 
how the application of this principle may work out the 
unification of the churches, without surrendering our first 
constitutive principle, the independence of the local church. 
It is also historically shown that our freedom has been as 
valuable a safeguard to the orthodox faith of the churches, 
colleges, and theological seminaries as the more centralized 
government of other denominations. 

On the other hand, it is felt that if, as a body of churches, 
we can work in closer touch with one another, we may 
largely increase our efficiency in the Kingdom of God. 

It was to secure this that Congregational Nebraska at 
its Geneva meeting, 1903, appointed a State Advisory 


Board, which has been widely commented upon in the re- 
Hgious press. The board is an experiment in Nebraska 
Congregationahsm, and will be continued only as it proves 
that it has a mission for good, a mission in harmony with 
the; genius of our polity, in the development of a vigorous, 
healthful church life dominated by the democratic spirit in 
fellowship with the best thought and life of the churches. 

After a year's trial the churches at the Lincoln meeting, 
October, 1904, with only one dissenting vote, gave their 
most hearty approval of the work of the board, and en- 
larged its membership from three to five mernbers. It has 
done much in helping pastorless churches to secure minis- 
ters ; in planning for fellowship meetings, evangelistic ser- 
vices, and in other ways promoting Congregational interests. 
The board is the child of the fertile brain of the large- 
hearted pastor of the First Church in Omaha, Rev. H. C. 
Herring, D.D. 

The following resolutions and explanatory statement, 
adopted by the association, were prepared and introduced 
by him, and are here given in full because of their historic 
value : 

"Resolved, i. That there be appointed by this associa- 
tion two of its number who, with the State Superintendent 
of Missions, shall constitute a body to be known as the 
State Advisory I^oard; one of the two named to be chosen 
for one year and one for two years, and hereafter one to be 
chosen each year for a term of two years. 

"2, That this board be instructed to associate with itself 
at its discretion, and as may be arranged with the Home 
Mission Board, the General Missionary of the state in order 
that his work may be coordinated with its own. 

"3, That this board be charged with the duty of aiding 
the churches of the state in their work in all ways within 
its power, so far as they are willing to accept such aid. 


Especially is it charged to seek to be helpful to the churches 
ill the following- particulars : 

"a. The promotion of evangelistic effort through the 
services of the general missionary, through the introduction 
of other evangelists in whom it has confidence, and through 
the cultivation of the evangelistic spirit. 

"b. The settlement of pastors by placing at the disposal 
of vacant churches the information it may possess or may 
obtain concerning applicants, by seeking to bring good men 
into the state, and by endeavoring through personal con- 
ference to guide the churches in wise methods of seeking 

"r. The strengthening of weak fields through the con- 
centration of workers in them for brief periods. 

"(/. The investigation of eligible localities and the de- 
velopment of Congregational churches there when feasible. 

"e. The cultivation of systematic and efifective methods 
of missionary giving among the churches. 

"/. The promotion of the circulation of our denomina- 
tional literature among the churches, 

"g. The furthering of union locally bet\yeen our churches 
and the Methodist Protestant and United Brethren churches 
wherever it may seeni desirable. 

"4, The members of this board shall be chosen by ballot 
from six names to be submitted by the nominating com- 
mittee. In subsequent years the number submitted shall be 
three, from whom one shall be chosen. 

"explanatory statement 

"The aim of the accompanying resolutions is five-fold : 
"i. To secure for the State Association a continuous 
executive agency, speaking with such authority as is com- 
patible with our independent polity. There would thus come 
to be in time a consciousness among the churches that our 


work has a unity and coherence of which they are largely 
unconscious now. 

"2. To secure a definite instrumentality for furthering 
the lines of effort mentioned in the resolution, such further- 
ance being made possible by the fact that two of the board 
give their whole time to the work and the other two con- 
stant oversight and counsel and it is expected some measure 
of personal activity. 

"3. To reinforce the home mission superintendent in all 
the relations which he now sustains to the home missionary 
churches, and to extend the same relationship of advisory 
helpfulness to the self-supportiiig churches. 

"4. To protect the churches against unworth}- ministers 
and evangelists and to attract worthy men to the state. 

"5. To promote the organizations of Congregational 
churches in the man}- promising fields now open to us 
throughout the state. 

"The reasons for the existence of such a board are three- 

"i. The acknoAvledged weakness of our churches in all 
enterprises calling for united effort and the frequent laxness 
w^ith which the affairs of the local church are managed. 

'"2. The fact that in our whole state system there is but 
one common and continuous meeting point for the churches, 
vi.7., the home mission superintendent, and he, of course, is 
unrelated to the self-supporting churches and can not 
possibly compass much beyond the routine duties which de- 
mand attention in connection with the churches under his 

"3. The fact that the value of an advisory or executive 
agency is in proportion to its permanence and prominence 
before the eyes of the churches. 

"For this reason the resolutions suggest that the functions 
of the Evangelistic and the Benevolence Committee be con- 


centrated in this committee in connection witli its other 
duties. It is hoped that an agenc}' such as this might in 
process of time exercise an important influence in bringing 
our state to self-support.'"^ 

In adopting this measure the General Association ap- 
pointed as members of the Advisory Board : Rev. H. C. 
Herring, D.D., Rev. J. W. Cowan, D.D., and Supt. H. 
Bross, D.D. The following year Rev. G. W. Mitchell and 
Rev. V. F. Clark were elected additional members. The 
work of the board will be watched with growing interest 
by the churches. There are those who think that in this 
board, or some development of it, we have the happy solu- 
tion of the more "centralized government" which some be- 
lieve is necessary to the vigorous prosecution of our church 
work. It is the "Nebraska Idea." How far it may enter 
into the life of the churches in other states remains to be 

It will be noted that this is an effort to unify the churches 
and secure greater efficiency along the line of a command- 
ing fellowship, and not through a legislative body with au- 
thority over the churches. It is doubtful if we ever go 
beyond this. And whatever centralization the churches 
may sanction will be along Congregational, not Presbyterial 
nor Episcopal lines. 


The development of the constitutive principle of fellow- 
ship has placed an emphasis on the ecclesiastical standing 
of churches and ministers in the association of churches. 
This is thoroughly Congregational. 

A church can not organize itself, call whomsoever it will 
as pastor regardless of moral and doctrinal fitness, and then 
say "We are a Congregational church, and our pastor is a 

'Minutes, 1903, pp. 8-10. 

Rev. G. W. Mitchell 
Rev. V. F. Clark 

H. C. Herring, D.D. 
J. W. Cowan, D.D. 

H. C. Herring, D.D., Chairman 


Congregational pastor and must be received as such." It 
may be an Independent church and its pastor an Independ- 
ent, minister, but neither church nor minister can lay claim 
to the name Congregational until recognized by a Congre- 
gational council, or received into a Congregational associa- 
tion which is responsible for the standing of both church 
and minister. 

The old idea of ministerial standing in the local church 
is a relic of independency zviiJioitt fellowship. Modern Con- 
gregationalism has long since repudiated it, and the western 
churches have been among the foremost in pushing forward 
this development of Congregationalism, holding in even bal- 
ance its two constitutive principles, the independence of the 
local church in the management of its own affairs, and the 
fellowship of the churches in a united body — the denomina- 
tion. Any future centralization in government of the de- 
nomination must continue to hold in even balance these tivo 
constitutive principles if our churches remain Congrega- 
tional. There is no indication that Congregational Nebraska 
is ready to renounce its birthright and disown its inheritance. 


But there are tokens of a vigorous denominational life, a 
truly Congregational life. The action of the recent Na- 
tional Council at Des Moines in creating' a Committee on 
Evangelism, representative in every way, earnest and de- 
voted, a committee who mean business, is already sending 
a purer blood through our denominational veins, and with 
the development of a new spiritual life there is coming also 
into our churches a strong Congregational consciousness, 
which indicates a more rapid growth in churches and a 
commanding influence in the management and life of our 
great missionary societies and institutions of learning — 
the congregational academies, colleges, aild theological 




.Vt the Geneva meeting Superintendent Bross in his an- 
nual report makes mention of the fact that the Nebraska 
State Missionary Society had ahnost reached its majority, 
which to-day it boasts, in the following words : 


"This is the twentieth anniversary of our Home Mission- 
ary Society. The history of the years has much to show 
of progress. Then we had a membership of 4,042, now 
16,005 • then our home expenses were $45,248, now $150,030; 
then we raised for our benevolences $8,723, now $19,479. 
While then we had nominally 147 churches, many of them 
were so only in name, and even their names have since dis- 
appeared. Only seventy-seven of our present 205 churches 
had then been organized. We often mourn over our lost 
churches, and in many cases we ought not only to weep but 
to humble ourselves in dust and ashes that we forsook them 
in the time of their dire extremity ; but it is worth remember- 
ing that the total membership of the churches whose names 
have disappeared from that list of twenty years ago amounts 
to only 453, only four or five of them having a membership 
above twenty. 


"Three features of the work of the past year I wish to 
emphasize, viz. : the Lincoln Convocation, the advent of the 
Yale Band, the efforts of the board to take advantage of 
this occasion to increase the volume of our work. 


"The Lincoln Convocation [presided over by Hon. C. 
B. Anderson of Crete] March 23, brought together 
many representatives from different parts of the state and 
gave utterance to the deep conviction on the part of many 
that we need an awakening interest in our Congregational 
ranks. Dr. Herring evidently interpreted the feeling when 
he said : 'I am oppressed with the sense of the weakness 
of our Congregational Zion.' 

"For a whole day, from 8 :oo o'clock in the morning until 
9 :oo in the evening, the convocation faced the question of 
ways and means for an advance along the line. Prayer and 
conference, addresses and resolutions, the best wisdom and 
concentrated attention in committee meetings combined to 
make the day memorable in our Congregational history. 
The publication in the Congregational Nezvs of April of Dr. 
Herring's strong address and the resolutions adopted 
brought the message of the meeting into many of our homes. 
The paper ought to have gone into many more homes. 

"Among the resolutions adopted was the following: Tn 
our judgment the time has come to set a higher standard 
for our missionary gifts. Especially in the matter of home 
missionary offerings do we feel that our 15,000 members 
ought not to attempt to raise less than $10,000 per year, 
nor to be satisfied to fall short of it.' This certainly struck 
a high note, none too high, for our home missionary gifts. 
The meeting also expressed the conviction that in view of 
the great need of laborers, the superintendent should visit 
eastern seminaries and appeal to the young men to come to 
the rescue. Upon reporting this matter to New York it 
struck a responsive chord there, and Secretary Choate, with- 
out waiting to write, wired the superintendent at once ad- 
vising the visit. . . . 

"It has been felt by the board and the superintendent 
that the coming of this band in connection with the utter- 


ances of the Lincoln Convocation ought to mark the begin- 
ning of better things in the development of our work. Evi- 
dently we ought to be moving more rapidly toward the goal 
of self-support. In the hard-time years we could not press 
forward with much momentum. We have outgrown hard- 
time conditions. It is amazing to witness the recuperative 
power of our great state. Churches in eastern Nebraska 
that have almost reached self-support need to make the ad- 
ditional effort to complete the work. 

■'But especially do we need to bestir ourselves for in- 
creased contributions. With this fact in view, the board 
has given much time of late to this aspect of the work. 
The sessions have not been simply to pass upon applications 
but to advance the interests of our Congregational Zion. 
One result of these deliberations has been the publication 
in a red-letter circular of a' statement and an appeal to the 
churches for the raising of $8,000 the present year. Enough 
of these have been prepared to circulate among our fam- 
ilies, or at least in groups of families. This is a red-letter 
edition, and it is hoped that pastors will make free use of 
them in connection with their annual collection. Take sam- 
ples of them to your homes. The other is along a different 
line and I can not use three minutes of your time to better 
advantage than to read it. 

"the christian stewardship band 

"Dear Friend — In view of the abundant means now in 
the hands of Congregational Christians in Nebraska, many 
of the more conscientious are seriously asking the question 
whether it is right for us to look to eastern givers — many 
of whom are less able than we — to provide two-thirds of 
the financial help needed for the home missionary work in 
our state, when the Lord has placed in our hands ample 
means for this work if we are willing to use it in any way. 



A movement is therefore on foot to band together such as 
recognize the claims of Christian stewardship, for the pur- 
pose of doing more thoroughly our fair share of this im- 
portant work within our own state. Recognizing the fact 
that the amount received from church collections is not suf- 
ficient for these important lines of Christian work, many 
persons in the East contribute annually, as individuals, to 
the work, because they firmly believe that no agency is as 


well fitted to strengthen and develop the institutions of free- 
dom inherited from our Pilgrim forefathers as are the 
churches and Sunday schools, and that these should be 
planted and kept actively at work in each local community. 
Many in Nebraska share in these convictions, and to such 
this letter is addressed. 

"Out of over 16,000 Congregational Christians in the 
state it is believed that from 300 to 500 at least can be found 
who are able and who will be willing to contribute in sums 


of $10, $25, $50, or $100 a year for this specific work in 
addition to what is usually given in connection with the 
annual church offering. In this way it is hoped at least 
$5,000 additional can be raised for this work. At present, 
of the $12,000 and more of home missionary money used 
in the state, the Nebraska givers furnish less than $5,000. 
The Christian Stewardship Band is a recognition that this 
sum is no fair proportion of the abundance with which the 
Lord has blessed us and is an effort to organize a 'band 
whose hearts God hath touched,' to the end that Christ's 
work may receive the same businesslike attention which is 
given the less important secular enterprises of the state. 

"If this movement meets your approval and you are will- 
ing to join us in it, please fill out the enclosed pledge form 
for such sum as you are willing to ins^est in the work and 
forward it to Supt. H. Bross, D.D., Lincoln, Nebraska. DO 

"Yours in the Master's service, 

"S. I. Hanford, 
"W. A. Selleck, 
"H. Bross, 


At the Geneva meeting steps were taken looking toward 
the incorporation of the Nebraska Home Missionary So- 
ciety. This was accomplished a year later at the Lincoln 
meeting, and the Nebraska Home Missionary Society is now 
a corporate body, and is looking forward to the near fu- 
ture, when it shall be independent of the National Congre- 
gational Home Missionary Society and administer its own 
funds, commission its own missionaries, and be able, 
through the C. H. M. Society so long its foster mother, to 
do something for "the regions beyond." 

'Minutes, 1903, pp. 44-47. 


In incorporating, the society elected the following officers : 
President John E. Tuttle, D.D., Lincoln; Secretary Rev. 
A. E. Ricker, Aurora ; Treasurer Rev. Lewis Gregory, Lin- 
coln. Board of Directors : Prof. A. C. Hart, Franklin ; 
W. A. Selleck, Lincoln ; Rev. J. D. Stewart, Aurora ; Rev. 
S. L Hanford, Weeping Water; M. A. Bullock, D.D., Lin- 
coln; Rev. George E. Taylor, Pierce; Rev. A. E. Ricker, 
Aurora ; Siipt. C. H. M. S. for Nebraska Harmon Bross, 
D.D., Lincoln. Officers of the board: M. A. Bullock, 
D.D., chairman ; Rev. George E. Taylor, secretary. 

Before, however, the State Home Missionary Society can 
become self-supporting there will have to be a vigorous 
growth of the feeling of responsibility for our home mis- 
sionary work on the part of our churches. Our contribu- 
tions will have to be increased three-fold before we can as- 
sume self-support, and four-fold before we can do an ag- 
gressive work in the state. The society awaits the response 
of the churches. The society has secured the help of Rev. 
N. L. Packard as general missionary and he entered upon 
the work November i, 1904. He combines evangelistic 
work with that of caring for pastorless churches, and great 
good is expected from his labors in the state. 





We have noted in a general way the growth of our 
churches throughout the state "beginning at Jerusalem," 

First pastor First Congregational Church, Lincohi, 1867 

in this case Omaha; seeing the little church organized by 
Father Gaylord growing in strength and numbers, sending 



colonies here and there in the rapidly growing city until 
our Congregational Zion numbers in that city eight churches. 
We have seen Fremont become a strong and leading church 
under the successive pastorates of able men. We have 
noted the increase in the number of churches and men, but 
have felt constrained rapidly to pass by the development 
of church life in various places. 

A chapter devoted to some phases of church life in differ- 
ent parts of the state may be of positive value. Especially 
is this true since the writer has been able to call to his aid 


the help of men who were on the field and entered largely 
into the work concerning which they write. 

It is a source of great gratification to the writer that 
these busy men have been willing to take the time to give 
this valuable service to the churches. The first to respond 
is Rev. Lewis Gregory, who for twenty-three years was 
pastor of the First Congregational Church in Lincoln, and 
is now president of the American Savings bank in that 
city. Mr. Gregory writes of 


"Congregationalism in Nebraska was ten years old and 
had ten churches when it began regular services in Lancas- 
ter countv. This was one of the least settled of the eastern 



counties. Only 116 votes were polled in the county at an 
exciting election in 1866. A county seat, the present site of 
Lincoln, was laid off in 1864 and named Lancaster. 

"Rev.. E. C. Taylor preached here occasionally as an out- 
station of Greenwood. In August, 1866, a little church of 

Cut loaned by the I<iiicoln Lusiness College 

six members was organized. This is the oldest existing 
church in Lincoln. The minutes of the council state that 
there were then seven buildings in the town, viz., a school- 
house, a store, a blacksmith shop, and four dwellings. In 
the following summer it was decided to locate the state 
capital here, and call the town Lincoln. In December of 


the same year (1867) Rev. Charles Little, having been 
chosen pastor of the Congregational Church, set about se- 
curing for it a meeting-house. This was erected in 1868 at 
a cost of $2,778, and v/as the first permanent building dedi- 
cated to the worship of God in Lincoln. 


"For a few years there was an ecclesiastical society con- 
nected with the church, after the old New England fashion, 
but was discontinued in 1873. After an arduous and self- 
sacrificing pastorate Mr. Little resigned in 1870, leaving a 
church of thirty-four members, Mr. Little afterward re- 
turned to Lincoln, where he and his wife are buried. 

''His successors, Rev. L. B. Fifield and Rev. S. R. Dim- 
mock, were men of scholarly ability and oratorical gifts. 


Considerable additions were made to the church, but there 
was so much going as well as coming that the residue was 
small. However, the congregation of strangers kept in- 
creasing. The church building was enlarged and 

"B\' act of the state legislature of 1869 lots were given to 
churches erecting buildings within two years. As a con- 
sequence there was an unfortunate division of efifort and 
multiplication of church edifices. All the parishes were in 
debt; religious interest declined. When Mr. Dimmock re- 
signed in 1875 there were only about fifty active members 
on the roll. 

"The church seriously considered whether it was not 
best to disband. In the good old Congregational way they 
called a council to advise on the matter. The council dis- 
couraged the idea of disbanding, and the church decided to 
go forward. 

"The failure to ask advice, and the mistake of looking 
only on the surface for the results of the first hard years of 
pioneering have wrecked many Nebraska churches. They 
abandon the foundations laid, and leave the good seed sown 
in tears, when only a little more persistence and patience 
are necessary to justify the years of labor seemingly spent 
in vain. Later in the same year (1875) a call was ex- 
tended to Rev. Lewis Gregory who continued in the pastor- 
ate twenty-three years. He was succeeded in 1898 by Rev. 
W. H. Manss, followed in 1903 by Rev. J. E. Tuttle, D.D., 
the present minister. 

"These thirty years have witnessed a steady growth. 
The church is now the largest of our order in the state. 
It shares with its seven sister churches of our order in the 
city, with their united memberslrip of 1,773. the honor of 
contributing largely to the religious life of Lincoln and 


"It is to the credit of our denominational fellowship 
that none of these churches, Lincoln First, Plymouth, First 
German, Vine Street, Butler Avenue, Swedish, Zion, and 
Salem, sprang out of dissension or rivalry. Each, with the 
approval of all, is located in a distinct parish in centers of 
influence. Each has been established in turn to meet the 
growing needs of population and the general interests of 
Christ's Kingdom. 

"The history of the German churches of Lincoln is of 
special interest. The largest German church of our order 
is located in Lincoln. More German Congregationalists are 
here than in any other city of our countr\^ The origin of 
this work in 1889 came of the helping hand extended by the 
Congregationalists of the city in suggesting and contribut- 
ing to a place of worship for the German people coming 
here, poor but thrifty, to escape the exactions of Russian 
despotism. In the way of sympathy, advice, and little 
courtesies, mutual good will has grown until in apprecia- 
tion of its liberty and fellowship Congregationalism has no 
more loyal children than our German brethren of Lincoln." 

It may be added that Mr. Gregory's characteristic mod- 
esty prevented him from saying how large a factor he him- 
self was in building up the First Church, erecting its present 
attractive church building, establishing the other Congre- 
gational churches, and in helping our German brethren to 
see in our church polity the freedom for which they had 
hungered when in their German villages in Russia. Whole 
villages of these Russo-Germans emigrated in a body from 
Russia to Nebraska. A people intensely religious and de- 
voted, liberty loving, and loyal, they soon found in our 
fellowship a congenial church home. 

We nov/ have German churches in Alliance, Butte, Crete, 
Deweese, Friend, Germantown, Guide Rock, Hallam, Hast- 
ings, Hayes County, Inland, Lincoln, McCook, Napier, 



Omaha, Princeton, Stockham, Superior, Sutton, Timber 
Creek, and Turkey Creek. 

The church at Crete, organized in 1876, is the oldest, and 
in that town for some years was located the German Pro- 


Seminary which for a time had a loose connection with 
Doane College. This pro-seminary, designed to prepare 
students for the German department of Chicago Theolog- 
ical Seminary, was transferred to Wilton Junction, Iowa, 
and became the Wilton German-English College in Septem- 


ber, 1894, the Wilton Congregational Academy, with two 
brick buildings and several acres of land, being turned over 
by its trustees to the German brethren for this purpose. 

In September, 1904, the Wilton school was consolidated 
with Redfield College, South Dakota, and the property in 
Wilton was disposed of for about $4,500 in favor of the 
town, and the sum applied on indebtedness. The location of 
Redfield College is near the territory from which a large 
number of German students come, and the change is 
thought to be desirable in every way. 

Rev. F. C. F. Scherff of Minden, Iowa, writes ■} 

"The new articles of incorporation of Redfield College 
provide a full German course for German theological stu- 
dents. It is believed that the college under the new condi- 
tions will have more sympathy and financial aid from the 
German churches. Prof. H. Seil has been elected presi- 

This digression has come naturally through following 
out the history of a Nebraska institution, sprung from our 
German work, a large part of which is in the city of Lincoln. 


Col. S. S. Cotton of Norfolk has kindly furnished the 
following account of church life in the Elkhorn valley : 

"Until the year 1867, the Elkhorn valley was uninhabited 
by white people. Only Indians roamed over it in search of 
game, or interchanging visits among the different tribes. 
This v/as a part of the country considered by eastern peo- 
ple to be 'the great American desert.' 

"It was Albert D. Richardson who, perhaps half a century 
ago, traveled through this country in company with Horace 

^Letter, August S, 1904. 



Greeley and published a work, 'Be3'ond the Mississippi/ 
and £^ave a faint idea of its wonderful possibilities, its vast 
commercial, mining-, and agricultural resources. What he 
prophesied as possibilities then are realities now. 


"With the march of progress, the mission church has held 
a foremost place. From the beginning until now, Norfolk 
Church has been a center to which the younger churches 
have looked for inspiration and help. 

"Col. Charles Mathevvson, the main founder of the Nor- 
folk Church, was a man eminently fitted to be a leader in 
this work of beginnings. He was clear headed, with a 



great heart full oi sympathy for everything looking to the 
upbuilding of church life. A royal welcome to his home 
always awaited the workers in the little sister churches. 
They could not fail to catch encouragement from his genial, 
hopeful nature and inspiring advice. 


"The Norfolk Church had its beginning with the settle- 
ment of the town. In the summer of 1869 Colonel Mathew- 
son, with his family, located in Norfolk, building a flouring 
mill and the first house. His birthplace was Pomfret, Con- 
necticut, a town noted in history as the home of the Revolu- 
tionary patriot. General Putnam. 

Geo. Scott, D.D. 
Rev. M. B. Harrison 

Rev. J. \V. Kidder 
Rev. Geo. E. Taylor 


"Religious meetings were frequently held in the Mathew- 
son home, but in 1871 it was decided to organize a church 
ixud erect a church building. When this was known in 
Pomfret, $200 was forwarded from the friends there as a 
greeting to the Norfolk organization. I have the names of 
the donors in my possession — thirty-four in number. All 
but five have joined the Church Triumphant. Of the five, 
two are now living in Norfolk, enjoying the benefit of that 
early benevolence. 

"In all $900 was raised for the church building. The 
Congregational Union added $500 more. In May, 1871, a 
church was organized with ten members : Rev. J. W. Kid- 
der, from Michigan, was called to the work. He continued 
his services until 1878, when he was succeeded by Rev. M. 
H. Mead, who in turn resigned May, 1881. In February, 
1882, Mr. Spencer was called as pastor and remained three 
years. During these pastorates, a period of fifteen years, 
the church was fostered by the Home Missionary Society. 

"At its organization and for several years afterward this 
was the extreme frontier church in northern Nebraska of 
any English speaking denomination, and the only Congre- 
gational church west and north of Fremont, except the one 
at Columbus. 

"In 1885" the town had grown so much that our little 
church seemed about to be crowded out by the business 
blocks, which were approaching very near, and the building 
was too small for the growing audiences, so a beautiful 
church was erected upon new lots in the residence part of 

"Rev. J. J. Parker of New York was called to the work. 
His coming had almost the touch of romance. Some one 
had heard of Mr. Parker in a roundabout way. The clerk 
of the church wrote, inviting him to come and preach four 
Sundavs, and if there was mutual satisfaction he was to 


become the pastor oi the church ; otherwise he was to 
return to New York. A distance ai i,ooo miles to travel, 
unacquainted with a single person in the town, $30 for re- 
muneration — it took a brave man to accept such conditions, 
but it was done to the lasting satisfaction of all parties. 
Some men are born preachers. This was Mr. Parker's good 
fortune. Sixteen years this pastorate continued, with 
strengthening affection between pastor and people. It has 
many times been said that during this period Mr. Parker 
never preached a poor sermon. 

"A temperament capable of preaching with great earnest- 
ness and fire must sometimes flame. If this was so with Mr. 
Parker, we must recall the words of President Roosevelt, 
'The only man who never makes a mistake is the man who 
never does anything.' Norfolk Church and the name Parker 
will go down the years together. 

"August 5, 1899, a great grief came to Mr. Parker and 
the church in the death of Mrs. Parker. The mother of 
ten children, she was of necessity a home keeper, but no 
'servant question' troubled her, for she took care of her 
own family, yet found time and strength for all the devo- 
tional meetings. Mrs. Parker was a woman of calm, sweet 
nature and great spirituality. The uplifting power of her 
prayers will always remain as a benediction upon this church. 

'T think every one present at a State Association in Nor- 
folk will recall Mrs. Parker's coming forward, holding her 
baby boy, and saying, T have not silver nor gold, but I give 
this baby boy to the Lord, and to His service.' Who can 
estimate the meaning of such a gift? Perhaps the sainted 
mother can. 

"Rev. W. J. Turner was called to the church in 1902 and 

is still the pastor. He preaches good sermons, is of sweet 

spirit and fine social nature. The church prospers under 

his influence in all departments of its activity. The mem- 



bership now numbers more tlian two hundred. The church 
has had its vicissitudes, but out of small numbers and weak- 
ness and poverty it has q,risen, strong and vigorous, to do 
valiant service for the Master. 

"Every little town in the Elkhorn valley wanted a church. 
It was needed as a check to lawlessness, and as an induce- 
ment for respectable citizens to settle. This idea was illus- 
trated in a neighboring town. The citizens wanted a church. 
There was not a church member among them. Not one 
had attended church enough to be interested in any particu- 
lar organization. They decided to take bids from the differ- 
ent societies. The Congregationalists offered the most 

"In the early times home missionaries often passed 
through Norfolk, as it was a railroad center. Many times 
it w^as convenient tor them to stay over a day or two. 
A large corner room was always ready for them in our 
home, and one of our greatest privileges was the entertain- 
ment of these heroic pioneers. 

"Chief among them, and counselor for them all, was the 
Rev. Dr. Bross, General Missionary, and afterward Superin- 
tendent of Home Missions. He was many times an honored 
guest in our home, but never for long. It w^as always 
'move on.' I ^^-ell remember one Sabbath. The Doctor told 
a most eloquent story of his v;ork in our church in the 
morning. He v^as due at Pierce in the evening. At noon 
a blizzard began. Snow falling fast; wind blowing faster 
still. Unavailing were all entreaties to prevent his ventur- 
ing on the perilous drive of twelve miles. His faithful wife 
insisted on keeping him company. The Lord needed them 
for future work, and they arrived safely. Where is the ro- 
mance to home missions ? 

"Many interesting experiences were related by these 
visitors in otir homes. One missionary said, 'I shall never 


forget the day that fixed our clioice on this work. My hus- 
band came in with two letters. One contained an offer 
of a home missionary church in Nebraska w-ith a salary of 
$700 ; the other an invitation to a church in a pleasant east- 
ern town with $1,400 salary. He looked at me, "Which shall 
it be?" he questioned. 1 answered, "You say," and he did. 
It was to go to the frontier on $700 a year.' Then she spoke 
of some of their hardships. One winter the roads were all 
blocked, and very little fuel could be bought. They shared 
what they had stored with others. When all was exhausted, 
the mother and two children went to bed to keep from 
freezing. They stayed there one week, not knowing but it 
might be a month; then relief came. One day, she said, 
her husband dug down eight feet and hauled out five sticks. 
She said, '1 cried when he gave a neighbor two.' 

"Another missionary told of work in a little mountain 
town, where even the saloon-keepers closed up and attended 
church. In the same town were men living in tents, who 
baked cakes and sent them to a children's entertainment. 

"A pleasing incident comes to mind in connection with 
Green Island (now Aten) Church. In 1879 a niece of 
Colonel Mathewson was teaching in the Pomfret, Connecti- 
cut, Sunday school. She had a class of well-grown boys, 
restless, eager, young fellows, and, anxious to interest them 
in home missions, she conceived the idea to have them raise 
money to buy a bell for the little church at Green Island. 
The boys entered with enthusiasm into the plan, and soon 
the bell was pealing forth on the little mission church. 
Later the Lord called this teacher into His higher service. 
The boys scattered and entered life's work. In 1882, the 
year of great floods, I one day read in the paper that Green 
Island was entirely swept away by an ice gorge in the Mis- 
souri. The church Avas seen floating down the river, the bell 
ringing. Instantlv there came to mind the bright class of 


boys, the devoted teacher, the ringing of their bell drowned 
by the roaring water of the Missouri. Was its mission 
ended ? Or will its tones echo down the ages, kept in tune 
by those who know the story — by the seed sown in the 
hearts of young manhood in their first effort for home 
missions ? 

"Do we not sow sometimes better than we know ? A little 
seed dropped here and there. Only the Master Gardener 
can tell of the harvest. What encouragement for weary 
workers ! If the outcome of their working, watching, wait- 
ing was only what their eyes could see, they might well be 
faint-hearted. But with the Master's touch upon it all, and 
all effort is in vain without it, how can these heroic workers 
be cast down? 

"The work grows so gradually. Its magnitude can hardly 
be realized except as we pause and take in the retrospect. 
Thirty years ago, how few the churches in all this region 
of country! How bare and unadorned they were! How 
small the congregations ! With what struggling they main- 
tained the preaching! Now, dotting the landscape every- 
where, are beautiful houses of worship, with earnest and 
increasing memberships. 

"And let it not for one moment be forgotten that the 
home missionary and the church building societies are the 
parents of them all. They have all been helped into exist- 
ence, and sustained until strong enough to stand alone, by 
these societies. 

"The dear little church on the prairie ! If all the boards 
could speak, what a story they would tell of the dollars that 
nailed them there ! But the record is not lost. God has the 
storv written down in His own book. All the consecration, 
all the self-denial that has planted His houses is put down 
in letters that time can never blot out." 

Rev. W. S. Hampton 
Prin. A. C. Hart 


R. S. I'ierce 
F. C. Taylor 


Colonel Cotton in this attractive story of church life 
speaks as a pioneer who has witnessed the development from 
the beginning-. One riding to-day through the Elkhorn 
valley thickly covered with beautiful and productive farms, 
with good houses and barns, thriving towns here and there, 
can hardly realize that a little more than a generation ago 
this was virgin soil, the Itome of the Indian and hunter, 
where occasionally the buffalo might be seen. Now it is 
one of the richest portions of the state, and in these prosper- 
ous towns and settlements Congregationalism has taken deep 
root, has already a history which is the prophecy of a 
bright future of service in the Kingdom. 


The Republican valley is known for its rich alfalfa fields. 
It is a veritable garden spot. A good alfalfa farm in this 
valley is a fortune. The towns are not large, but are well 
located to accommodate the settlers. In this valley Franklin 
Academy, which is doing such noble service, is located. 
Congregationalism, as well as alfalfa, has here found con- 
genial soil. Two men. Rev. W. S. Hampton and Rev. 
George E. Taylor, commissioned as general missionaries, 
had a large share in laying the foundations of Congrega- 
tionalism in southwestern Nebraska. They have kindly con- 
sented to tell in brief something of their work. 

Rev. W. S. Hampton writes : 

'Tn April, 1880, I was commissioned as General Mission- 
ary for southwest Nebraska, ^^^est of Franklin county 
there were very few people who had been resident more 
than two years except along the streams. The country was 
filling rapidly with homesteaders and small tradesmen in 
the growing towns. The railroad was just completed to 
Indianola. The Texas cattle trail entered the state near 
where the Driftwood creek crosses the state line. Culbert- 


son was the objective point for all cattlemen for that region. 
Thousands of cattle were driven across the valley annually 
on their way to the ranches of the big cattlemen of Ne- 
braska, W}oming, and the regions farther north. A church 
organized on the Driltv ood not far from the trail was 
scattered to the four winds by the severe drouth and the 
sharp hoofs of the cattle. I have seen a large herd turned 
aside from the old trail to trample out the scant crop of a 
]ioor homesteader. The homesteaders would ruin the busi- 
ness of the cattle king. The prairies were covered with 
cattle. At the spring round-up a large number of cowboys 
were in town. A stranger just arrived with broadcloth suit, 
polished boots, a gold headed cane, and a shining silk hat. 
Offended at the conduct of some of the cowboys he re- 
buked them. Soon after, when crossing the street, he was 
surprised by the crack of a revolver, the whiz of a bullet 
and a little cloud of dust at his feet. This was followed by 
another, and still others from different directions, keeping 
him jumping to escape the bullet striking at his feet, until 
almost breathless, hatless. and covered with perspiration 
and dust he was given a rest. He purchased a new hat, 
hired a liver}- team to drive to Tndianola, vowing that he 
had enough of the cattle business. 

"Better listeners I never had than those same cowboys. 
I preached the first sermon ever preached in the village of 
Cambridge in early May, 1S80. The only building avail- 
able was an unfinished store building. I obtained permis- 
sion to use it for Sunday services. Saturday evening after 
the men had finished their da}-'s work, with coat off and 
broom in hand, 1 was doing my best to get it ready for next 
morning. I was reinforced by a young man engaged in 
Sunday school missionary work wdio was also looking for 
a place to hold service and organize a Sunday school. He 
introduced himself as N. D. Hillis. and wished to secure 


the use of the building. A few words of explanation re- 
sulted in his taking off his coat and assisting in arranging 
seats as best we could with boxes, nail kegs, and boards. I 
preached the next morning, and N. D. Hillis in the evening. 
At that time I believe 1 could preach as well as he. He is 
now pastor of Plymouth Church, Brooklyn. 

"Aly next service in Cambridge was in an unfinished 
blacksmith shop with roof partly shingled, dirt floor, and 
improvised seats as before. For the winter we used the 
'barracks,' as the building was called. It was three stories 
long, the west sod, the center log, and the east boards, all 
on the ground. We occupied the log story. It had been 
used for a dwelling, and sometimes called a hotel. All the 
inhabitants had not moved out. The warm spring days 
seemed to bring them forth, and their gamboling up and 
down the walls and elsewhere compelled us to seek other 
quarters. A frame building was secured for a school house, 
and we used that until better accommodations could be had. 

"I preached the first sermon in Oxford in an unfinished 
store building. The next time I was there the services 
were held in a grove where a platform had been erected for 
Fourth of July celebration. We used that until cold weather 
forbade. We then accepted the offer of a ]Mr. Mugg of 
the space between the counters of his drug store, which we 
used till spring. j\Ir. Alugg furnished fuel and seats. 

'T preached in sod dwelling houses, in dugouts and in the 
open air, wherever there was need and people could be 
gathered together. 

"At one place we found a novel Sunday school. Chris- 
tians were scarce, but the people wanted a school. Several 
men, only one of them claiming to be a Christian, agreed 
to superintend one month each, thus distributing the burden. 
It was a success. We now have a Congregational church 
in the town. I think N. D. Hillis assisted the school when 



on his way np the valley. I do not know that the plan was 

"When Franklin v\as first seen by me there were three 
buildings on the present town site, a dugout, a log cabin, 
and a small frame building unoccupied. 1 preached there 
in October, 1880, in a schoolhouse, part dugout and part 
log, with sod roof. In company with Rev. J. M. Strong 
I took dinner at the home of A. E. Rice, now of Hillsboro, 
Oregon. Our conversation drifted naturally to the subject 
of Christian education. Mr. Rice was anxious to give his 
children as good an education as possible. He was ac- 
quainted with the history and work of Denmark Academy, 
Iowa. The need of an academy for the Republican valley 
was considered, and from that time plans were thought out 
which resulted in Franklin Academy. My plans were for 
the institution to be further west in the valley, but I was 
content with the location, as at the time that seemed best. 
Everywhere I went parents were discussing the educational 
problem. Young people were anxious to have better ad- 
vantages than the sod schoolhouse afiforded. It was not 
strange that the first term of Franklin Academy opened 
with fifty-five students. 

"My experiences during my work as general missionary 
were an inspiration to me. The strong faith of the people 
in the possibilities of the valley, and their determination to 
win ^•ictory out of every seeming defeat were worthy the 
heroes of any age. The gracious revival in Franklin in 
January, 1882, followed by constant revival in the Academy, 
the campaign of Mrs. S. M. I. Henry at Riverton, Alma, 
Bloomington, Franklin, and Red Cloud in the winter of 
1884-85, have left their impress ui^on all that regiou, and 
have reached to far distant places through the immigration 
of converts. 

"These seasons of spiritual refreshing have been among 
the most precious remembrances of my life." 



Rev. George E. Taylor writes as follows : 

"The year 1880 was notable in the development of south- 
western Nebraska. The region was reviving after the pro- 
longed drouth that had discouraged all but the most per- 
sistent of the early settlers. The B. & M. railroad was 
extending its line up the Republican valley. The flickering 
churches at Guide Rock, Red Cloud, Riverton, and Franklin 
were being fanned to increased ardor under the new leader- 
ship of Rev. George Bent at Red Cloud, and Rev. J. M. 
Strong at Riverton. 

'■'At the uttermost frontier in Red Willow county, the 
venerable Amos Dresser was heroically at work. In the 
north part of Franklin county a little church had gathered 
about that herculean Vermonter, the Rev. S. N. Grout, 'hold- 
ing down' a homestead at Alacon. In the spring of 1880 
Rev. W. S. Hampton of Arborville was commissioned for 
general missionary work in the Republican valley with head- 
quarters at Cambridge. During the year eight churches 
were organized, mostly under his care. 

"In the northwest corner of Franklin county Amos N. 
Dean was one of the sod house dwellers. In his Iowa home 
he had served as county superintendent of schools, also as 
an elder in the Presbyterian church. In his new prairie 
home he was an efficient teacher in Sunday school. With 
no minister in the region he could not resist the call to 
unfold the Word of God to the congregations which crowded 
the schoolhouses at Freewater and Morning Star. Churches 
were soon fomied at both these points. Mr. Dean, well 
passed his fiftieth year, responded to the invitation of the 
two chi.irches to become their pastor, and was ordained by 
council. In 1881 Mr. Dean was called to Cambridge, where 
for nearly ten years he was a beloved and effective pastor 
and an esteemed brother and father in the association. 


"In the autumn of 1880 some seventeen churches united 
in forming the Republican Valley Association of Congrega- 
tional Churches. Early in 1881 the association founded 
Franklin Academy. From the first this school has been a 
loved and loving child of the churches, a bond of fellowship, 
a force for spiritual and intellectual life. The men who 
have wrought themselves into the school are those who 
have most effectually built up the Kingdom of Christ from 
Hastings and Red Cloud to the Colorado line. 

"Rev. Amos Dresser, then pastor at Indianola, prayed, 
toiled, and won for the academy a constituency extending 
to the eastern seaboard. Rev. W. S. Hampton relinquished 
the pastorate of six frontier churches to become the first 
principal. Rev. C. S. Harrison, pastor at York, assisted 
Republican valley pastors in evangelistic work and gave 
tremendous impulse to the academy movement. Later, in 
1884, Mr. Harrison accepted the call of the Franklin 
church to become its pastor. As pastor of the church and 
'father of the academy,' he toiled with masterful efficiency 
till 1892, when he devoted himself to the wider academy 

"Mr. Harrison was succeeded by Rev. G. W. Mitchell, 
less massive in form but mighty in faith, love, and capacity 
for effective work. As pastor, as chairman of academy 
trustees, as member of association, he made his impress on 
every church and on nearly every Congregational house- 
hold in southwestern Nebraska through a period of ten 

"Since 1888 Alexis C. Hart has been headmaster of the 
academy. Peerless as administrator, as teacher of youth, 
as trainer of teachers, he has proven not less a spiritual 
father and wise counselor. It is doubtful whether there is 
a church in the Republican valley and Frontier associations 
that has not been helped by his kind and timely influence. 


'The construction of the 'Kenesaw Cut-off' in 1884; of 
the DeWitt-Holdrege-Cheyenne divisions in 1885 and 1886, 
and later the Frenchman valley line of the Burlington & 
Missouri railroad opened many fields for aggressive work. 
At its fall meeting in 1887 the Republican Valley Associa- 
tion adopted a memorial to the State Board presenting the 
urgent need and asking the appointment of a general mis- 
sionary. The proposition was cordially approved at Lincoln 
and New York. Rev. George E. Taylor, pastor at Indianola, 
was appointed for the work. The association authorized its 
home missionary committee to hold monthly sessions in 
conference with the general missionary. The following 
yeal"S were marked by careful oversight of feeble churches, 
prompt occupation of new and needy fields, constant en- 
deavor to secure effective ministers, the equipment of each 
church with a commodious house of worship and progress 
of churches in careful and forceful administration. 

"In 1890 the churches along the Holdrege-Cheyenne divi- 
sions of the Burlington railroad withdrew from the Republi- 
can Valley Association to form the Frontier Association. 

"The limits of this review do not permit appreciative men- 
tion of many worthy ministers and laymen whose sustained 
devotion, faithful and wise labors have built up churches 
and established Christian institutions in southwestern Ne- 
braska. Some are yet there, some are in other fields, and 
some have gone to their reward." 

From these reports of the work in southwestern Ne- 
braska it would seem that the foundations of our Congrega- 
tional work are well laid ; that Congregationalism is a 
growing tree whose roots, like the alfalfa of the region, 
strike down deep to the springs of living water. 

The Republican valley represents a strong and aggressive 
force in Congregational Nebraska. 


wi£STi:rn ni-:i;kaska 

Rev. A. E. Ricker, who has had much to do with the 
pioneer work in western Nebraska, has kindly furnished the 
following- account of our work in western Nebraska : 

"In the autunni of 18S3 a little company of Christian 
people met in the parsonai^e of the Methodist minister in 
the town of Sidney. It was a very small company, per- 
haps not more than six or eight persons, including the 
Methodist pastor. Rev. Leslie Stevens, now departed hence, 
and his devoted wife. The occasion of that meeting was 
the regular prayer-meeting of the Methodist-Episcopal 
Church of vSidney. In those days the people of Sidney, 
however pious they may have been, did not manifest their 
religious proclivities by excessive attendance upon the week- 
day meeting of the church. 

"Though this particular meeting was so small its influence 
has been large. Among the number present were Rev. C. 
W. Merrill, then Superintendent of the A. H. M. S. for 
Nebraska, a young Congregational preacher who was that 
year teaching the Sidney high school. Rev. L. E. Brown, 
and the writer of these words, who was just about to begin 
study for the ministry. 

"During the evening, conversation naturall}^ turned to the 
religious needs of the surrounding regions of western Ne- 
braska. The town of Ogalalla, especially, was mentioned 
as a point of a few hundred people where there was no 
regular preaching and almost no religious work on foot. 

"Superintendent ATerrill turned to Mr. Brown with the 
question, 'Why couldn't you go down to Ogalalla and preach 
for them occasionally, during the time you are teaching 
here?' Little m.ore was said on the subject, and presently 
the little company scattered. Although it is probable no 
definite agreement was made, I think there was an under- 


Standing between Superintendent IMerrill and Mr. Brown, 
at the close of the prayer-meeting, that the latter should 
visit Ogalalla and establish a preaching station. This was 
the real origin of the Congregational Church of Ogalalla, 
Keith county, Nebraska, for shortly after that hint of Mr. 
Merrill's Mr. Brown went down from Sidney to Ogalalla, 
a distance of seventy miles, and preached, leaving an ap- 
pointment for another preaching service in two weeks. This 
appointment was filled, the writer himself being present 
at one of these services, which was held, as were the other 
meetings of that period, in the old frame schoolhouse. And 
I am nearly certain that Air. Brown kept up preaching ser- 
vices every two weeks during that winter — 1883-84 — and 
the follo\\dng summer, and quite so that he preached fre- 
quently, even if not so often during this time. For to meet 
one of these preaching appointments the writer made his 
first eflfort in the pulpit; this was June 9, 1884, in the 
schoolhouse of Ogalalla. 

'T can say from personal knowledge that Mr. Brown 
came to Ogalalla as a Congregationalist, and that his work 
was the first regular and permanent work ever taken up 
in the town. The school board of Ogalalla employed Mr. 
Brown to teach the town school for the year beginning 
September, 1884, and in connection with his work as teacher 
of the village school, he kept up stated preaching services. 
He was presently ordained to the Gospel ministry, and in 
due time a Congregational church was organized, and 
recognized by an ecclesiastical council in the orderly Con- 
gregational way. 

"These facts arc of considerable importance because the 
Ogalalla church has since become a center of evangelistic 
movements that have affected the town and the regions 
about for many miles. Following Wx. Brown's work have 
been the labors of Rev. J. A. Thome, closing about 1887, 


Rev. A. E. Ricker, 1888-91 ; Rev.. W. E. Pease, 1892-93 
perhaps; Rev. W. S. Hampton for several years; then Rev. 
G. W. Knapp, and the present pastor, Rev. Mr. Duncan. 

"During Mr. Hampton's pastorate wide-reaching revivals 
occurred, and the work was pushed into outlying rural re- 
gions, resulting in the organization of at least three churches 
which now cluster about Ogalalla as a center. 


''While, strictly speaking, it is not a part of the history 
of Nebraska, the beginning of the work in Julesburg was the 
outgrowth of Nebraska influences, and indeed during 
.Superintendent Maile's time, by agreement with the Colo- 
rado superintendent, this town was reckoned as a part of 
the Nebraska field. 

'"In the spring of 1885, returning from Chicago Seminary 
to my parents' home in Sidney, I called on Superintendent 
Maile in Omaha, and he suggested that during my summer 
vacation I look about m that western part of the state, and 
if I found a needy field, establish a preaching station, and 
see what I could do. So early in May, going down from 
Sidney, I visited the town of Julesburg. It was in the 
midst of the liveliest boom and buildings were going up 
everywhere. Perhaps there were 300 people then in the 
town and 'land agents' were doing a thriving business 
'locating' new corners on their claims. I succeeded in find- 
ing some Christian people and others who were interested 
in having preaching services. Finding accommodation in 
the dining room of a hotel, I held the first religious meet- 
ing in the history of the town, and continued preaching 
statedly through that summer, going down from Sidney 
and preaching once in two weeks. 

"A Sabbath school was organized in an empty saloon 
building, and toward the latter part of the summer, a Con- 


gregational church was organized of about twelve mem- 
bers. Rev. H. P. Case, now Sunday school missionary in 
southern California, was present and assisted in the or- 
ganization of the church. The meeting for the organization 
was held in the waiting room of the Union Pacific depot, 
and I remember that the meeting had to be hurried a bit 
to get out of the way and remove all evidences of the meet- 
ing before a passenger train went through toward evening. 

"This first organization was sufTered to lapse, but at a 
later date was revived and the Julesburg church has main- 
tained a continued existence. 

"It was my privilege again to minister to this church 
for about a year from the summer of 1890, preaching every 
alternate Sabbath there while pastor at Ogalalla. Two or 
three weeks of special meetings were held during the winter 
of 1890-91, several converts resulted, part of them joining 
the Congregational church, and part of them the M. E. 
church, which at that time was without a pastor." 

This rapid survey of Congregationalism in western Ne- 
braska completes the survey of church extension as we have 
seen it, beginning with Omaha and eastern Nebraska, ex- 
tending up the Elkhorn valley and into the sandhills and 
cattle ranges of the northwest, in the Republican valley 
and the v/estern part of the state. 

In much of this territory pioneer work is going on to-day, 
and western Nebraska is especially home missionary ground. 
Whenever irrigation is extended in western Nebraska, there 
we find rich farms and growing settlements^ and there is a 
field for home missionary enterprise. With the extension 
of irrigation canals there wdll be an enlargement of mis- 
sionary work. In other parts of the western half of the 
state we find the large cattle ranches, with few settlers, and 
correspondingly small opportunities for church growth. 

piONEKR exim-:rif.ncks 147 



Years before Father Ga3'lord came to the territory of Ne- 
braska, CongregationaHsm had a Congregational teacher 
among the Pawnee Indians, Mrs. E. G. Piatt, now of Ober- 
lin, Ohio. 

Thougli hardly recovered from a severe illness during 
which for days she was supposed to be lying on the border- 
land between this and the life beyond, she has kindly con- 
sented to give a brief account of her experiences among 
the Pawnees. It is fortunate that we can have these remi- 
niscences from the pen of Mrs. Piatt herself. The oppor- 
tunity to hear from any of the first pioneers will soon be 
gone. But few of them' remain. 

Mrs. Piatt writes: 

"Oberlin, Ohio, November 29, 1904. 

'Tn 1843 I went with my husband, L. W. Piatt, to the 
Pawnee villages situated in the Indian territory, in that part 
of the land nov/ known as Nebraska. We went in response 
to a request made by the missionaries of the A. B. C. F. M. 
who were stationed there. In a treaty which these Indians 
made with our government they were promised teachers, 
and the missionaries, wishing to secure those wdio would 
cooperate with them in their work, had invited us to join 
them. We were successful in learning to converse with 
the Paw^iees, won their confidence, and in 1846, when they 
started on their sum.mer hunt, thev left twenty of their chil- 
dren with us to teach. 

"But the Sioux came down upon us that season, often 
making war-like demonstrations, thus hindering the work 



of the men in the field, and at last firing upon some of the 
company, and so it was deemed unsafe to remain, and all, 
both missionaries and government employees, left the sta- 
tion, going to Bellevue, the seat of Council Bluffs agency 
for the Otoes, Omahas, and Pawnees. 

"The missionaries were requested by their board to leave 
the field, but we remained with our school. 

"There was no agent there at that time, as our good tem- 
perance agent had been dismissed through the influence of 
the fur traders, as he had given orders to his employees to 
destroy all liquors they found designed for sale to the 

"Poinding an old log building infested with fleas and rats, 
we made it our school home and reported to the superin- 
tendent of western Indians who w^as in St. Louis, the build- 
ing being a government storehouse. There, under many 
difiiculties, I taught the children, having great pleasure in 
my work, as they learned their English lessons well, de- 
lighting to perform any work given them to do, and when 
given a play time, asking for Bible stories instead. 

"When the new agent arrived, he proved to be a man with 
whom whisky lovers and dealers readily affiliated, per- 
mitting the Indians near the agency to ride through its 
streets with bottles of the vile stuff in their hands, giving 
their drunken yell, thus so alarming us at the school it 
seemed wise to draw curtains, lock the door, and go to the 
second floor where we would not be seen. 

"The winter was very cold which w^e spent in that store- 
room, and we hailed the warmth of spring joyfully. But 
our joy was of short duration, as the new agent decided on 
appointing a teacher more in harmony with him, and in 
May, 1847, I delivered m.y charge with aching heart to 
those who, I knew, would not do duty by them ; and cross- 
inof the Missouri river Mr. Piatt and I went down and 




made our home four miles above old Ft. Kearney, now Ne- 
braska City, still keeping a friendly communication with the 
Pawnees by visiting them, receiving them as guests, and 
keeping one or more of them in our family. 

"In 1857 the Pawnees made a new treaty with our govern- 
ment, as they had wandered hither and thither during 
the years of our separation. 

"Again they were pledged teachers, and after waiting 
four years to learn of the establishment of a school, and 
finding none had been given them, in 1861 we returned, I 
being appointed as teacher and Mr. Piatt as trader, a posi- 
tion which, through treachery, he never filled on the reser- 
vation, and it was months before I was permitted to have a 
room in Vv hich I could open a school. 

"This was not accomplished till a company of the em- 
ployees to whom the agent had failed to fulfil his pledges 
uniteci and so proved their case at Washington that he was 
removed, and one sent who permitted the gatherinig of the 
school. This was not difi'icult to do as we spoke Pawnee 
and many of our old friends were left. 

"My work was pleasant and all went prosperously till a 
young Methodist minister was sent to assist in the school. 
The Methodists of Nebraska, learning there was an appro- 
priation for scliools for the Pawnees, wished to obtain it to 
establish a mission among them, and as there was one of 
their society at the head of the Indian Department at that 
time they felt quite sure of obtaining it. 

"Good Congregationalist as I tried to be, I made an 
effort to harmonize with my associate teacher, but in 1864 
it seemed wise for us to separate, lest those who had come 
to that savage people in the name of the Prince of Peace 
should dishonor their Leader : and I left my beloved school, 
going to work in the Christian Commission till the close 
of the war, and then actinc" as matron for the Iowa Soldiers' 


Orphan Home till in 1866 I was called back to take charge 
of my Pawnee school. There being an Episcopalian in 
charge of the agency at that time, Bishop Clarkson of 
blessed memory asked the rector of the Columbus church, 
Rev. Mr. Goodale, to look after the lambs in the Pawnee 
school. As he was the son of a Congregational minister, we 
wrought together most pleasantly. During his stay with 
us, coming each month to hold service in the school build- 
ing, there was a lar^e class desiring baptism, and by his 
request properly to instruct them as to the meaning and 
design of the solemn sacrament, I used a catechism prepared 
by his society for instructing the young, and found it very 

"The Sabbath morning when the ceremony was to occur, 
as I passed through one of the halls, a small girl who had 
been present during the training of the class, but had not 
been reckoned as one, met me and in beseeching tones said, 
'Mrs. Piatt, I want to be baptized.' 'O Maria,' I said, T am 
afraid you do not understand.' With pathetic tone and 
look she answered, 'Yes, I do.' 

"Consulting with Mr. Goodale, we decided if a lamb stood 
bleating at the gate, we would not forbid her entering the 
fold, and she was baptized with the twenty-seven. 

"While absent on my vacation that summer she died, and 
my assistant teacher told me that the morning of her death 
she said to Maria, 'Do you know we think God will call 
you to Himself .to-day ?' Her answer was 'I am ready.' 

"Our good helper continued with us till Grant's Quaker 
policy was inaugurated, when his church thought it honor- 
able to withdraw, and he left the field for others to occupy. 

"The Rev. Mr. Elliott, who was a home missionary sta- 
tioned at Columbus twenty miles distant, soon visited me, 
he being a Congregationalist, and I a charter member of 
the church in his care. With his wife he often came to 
hold service and give aid and courage to those of us con- 


nected with the school. While he was thus assisting us 
one of our caretakers asked for baptism, and two of our 
Indian boys wished to unite with her. They were brothers, 
and the elder was one who was obliged to assist the men 
on the reservation farm. The younger was a gentle, loving 
brother. They hesitated about presenting themselves, as 
the elder brother feared he should dishonor the Savior by 
getting angry when the farm men swore at and kicked him, 
but as the younger refused to go without him they at last 
pledged themselves to the service of our Lord in the coveted 
rite. The younger, our gentle Richard, was soon after called 
to' leave us for his Heav.enly Home. 

"Our Quaker agent was catholic in his views, and the 
years we wrought together were those of Christian friend- 
ship. But at last there came an editor from the East to 
view our work, and on his return he commenced his report 
by writing, 'It is just tvro years since an effort was com- 
menced to christianize and civilize the Pawnees,' and closed 
by adding, Tt is very incongruous that a school under the 
rule of the Friends should be in charge of an orthodox 

"It was not long before I was requested to leave my 
children, and with a heart full of sorrow I went. 

"Between these lines lie veiled volumes of broken govern- 
mental treaties, of robbery and deceit and treachery and 
uncleanness practiced by those sent to the Pawnees to teach 
them the arts of civilization which proved to be to them a 
curse, and which, if uncovered, would lead us to feel it were 
better that they had been left in their wildness and 

"Yours in Christian bonds, 

"Mrs. E. G. Platt." 

Mrs. Piatt's severe arraignment of government officials 
only shows that in too many cases the government has been 



as treacherous in its dealings with the Indians as have 
been the Indians before their christianization in their rela- 
tions to the whites. 

The treatment of the Indians by the government is a sad 
chapter in American histor}', and Mrs. Piatt's experience 






^4^ A 





among the Pawnees shows how politics enters in to disturb 
a work which, if protected, would result in great good. 


All Nebraskans know Rev. C. S. Harrison as a cultivator 
and propagator of beautiful and rare plants and flowers. 


But the pioneers know him better as a courageous, l)ol(l, 
successful, and devoted pioneer preacher and worker. Wy 
request Mr. Harrison has furnished the following- 


"In the fall of '71 while pastor of the Congregational 
church of Earlville, Illinois, I received a request from 
George S. Harris, land commissioner of the Burlington & 
Missouri railroad, to take charge of a colony. I came out 
to look the ground over. 

■'Lincoln was but a village with plenty of room to grow. 
The railroad terminus was Sutton. I rode out on a load 
of railroad ties. The track was so rough the bell rang of 
its own accord. Sutton had three shanties ; two of these 
were saloons, and I noticed that towns started that way 
were tainted for a long time after if not permanently. 

"Finally York was settled upon. The place had six shan- 
ties, and one of these was built of sod. I believe I preached 
the first sermon in York, November, 1871. Service was 
held in an unfinished store, and it was very cold. There 
were fourteen persons present and the service was short. 
The county was new and raw ; hardly a house to obstruct 
the vision, and those that were seen were miserably built of 
sod. Tlie Congregational church was organized with only 
a iew members in an unfinished land office in the spring of 
1872. Soon after a little schoolhouse was built. 

"the academy 

"One of the inducements offered a colony w^as that an 
academy should be built. For this purpose fortv acres of 
land were donated, and in those early days, when the locust 
invasion was the worst, a fine building went up as a glorious 
hope in the midst of despair. 


"On account of its proximity to Crete it was thought best 
not to open the academy. It was used for our church. 
About this time the Methodists located their college at York, 
and we freely gave them the use of the building. It was 
eventually sold at half cost, and the proceeds went into the 
church building. I think in the year 1873 I organized the 
church at Arborville with six members, in the parlor of 
Deacon Twichell, the son of a faithful pioneer missionary. 
Rev. Royal Twichell, who did heroic work in Minnesota. 
The old man was a father to me when, sick and discouraged, 
1 went to that new state in 1857. I attended his funeral in 
Arborville. It was like burying a father. 

"Having organized a church I knew it was necessary for 
them to have a home, and so we erected a building 26 x 40. 
That was then the largest in the county. I held at different 
times two series of meetings there which resulted in quite 
an ingathering. We had to haul the lumber thirty-six 
miles. I gave much time and a block of land, and preached 
a year or two without a cent of salary. The people were 
very poor. But now they have a fine new church, an able 
and beloved pastor, and the work and sacrifice paid. Six 
churches .were organized in York county, and those I or- 
ganized and fostered are the only ones alive. 

"the liquor WAR 

"Yes, it was war ! I was the means of bringing in about 
600 people into the town and count}- and these were mostly 
in favor of education and temperance. But 'Satan came 
also,' and we determined to keep him out, and so there was 

"At first, knowing the tremendous malignity of the liquor 
power, we were afraid to prosecute. Finally I suggested 
that seven of us should unite. We did so, and with such a 
backing there was dismay in the ranks. That, however, was 


the timidity under the first fire. When they threatened to 
kill me and started out to do so, and nearly killed a witness, 
all fear was banished, and I entered prosecutions thick and 
fast. I raised $1,500 one night with which to fight it out. 
We fought to the finish. The thing seems settled. The 
matter does not come up at all at our elections. 

"Crete and Seward had a far better start, and far better 
locations, but York went ahead two to one because it kept 
clean.. It has over 6,000 population to-day. 

"It was hard to give up the academy idea. Our edu- 
cators had not yet realized the importance of having feeders 
for the college, and it was a long time before the present 
attitude was reached. 

"In the last of the '70s I was helping Rev. Mr. Strong in 
a series of meetings in Bloomington, Nebraska, and the idea 
of an academy came up. We talked till midnight over it. 
'Where should it be?' 'At Franklin,' a new town with six 
houses, no saloon, and the right kind of people. I was so 
much impressed that I walked down, wading through snow- 
drifts, got the leading people together, outlined the plan, 
and the academy was located there. I was called in 1883 
from the pastorate of Pueblo, Colorado, to become pastor 
at Franklin. I put in there eight of the most important 
}'ears of my life. It was a work of faith, in ways new and 
strange. The Lord opened unseen gates for us, and money 
rained down upon us, twice $500; once $1,000. 

"I was called thence to be Field Secretary of the Educa- 
tion Society at Boston. I continued in that work two years, 
till my health failed. 

"Rising from the borders of the grave from rheumatic 
fever, I >vas called to the pastorate of the Weeping Water 
church. There I had the hardest work in my life. The 
church was about $10,000 in debt, and discouraged. The 
times were the hardest. The academv was worse than 


bankrupt. The church debt was paid. The academy was 
placed on the h'st of the Education Society, and a good deal 
of money was raised. Buildings w^ere hired and furnished, 
and to crown all, a blessed revival added over 100 to the 
church within a month. 

"Now the nation on Thanksgiving Day, 1904, celebrates 
m}' seventy-second birthday, and I bless the Lord that He 
has permitted me to live and work for Him. 

"When a boy in 1844 I hunted the dirty little village of 
Chicago over for a peck of potatoes. I have seen the 
mighty West grow up from babyhood. 

"In 1857 I began work in ]\Iinnesota; was often nearly 
frozen ; once a horse sank with me three times and I was 
nearly drowned. I have had the bitter with the sweet. 

"To sum up: I helped to found tw'o academies; built 
and paid for ten churches ; have been in above forty pre- 
cious revivals, and I hope to meet a thousand souls in glory. 
And I now wait on the hither shore among my flowers, 
adorning Eeulah Land, making it prophetic of the glory 


"C. S. Harrison." 


Rev. A. A. Cressman served in the work of the churches 
for twenty-five years, most of the time as a home mission- 
ary. A brief sketch of his work in Nebraska is here given : 

"I came into Nebraska from the Presbyterian church in 
Monroeville, Ohio, in March, 1879. I took charge of the 
Congregational church at Camp Creek, where T remained 
one year. I organized a church at Sheridan which after- 
w^ard disbanded ; was called to Congregational church at 
Albion. The organization was small, having no church 



building. I served also every alternate Sunday the churches 
at Boone and Cedar Rapids for several years. Both churches 
later disbanded. I was at Albion six years ; while there a 
house of worship was erected and the church brought to 
self-support. During this time I also served as county 


superintendent ot schools for four years, and preached at 
a number of schoolhouses. 

"A more devoted and loyal people I never served. In 
April, 1886, I took charge of the Congregational church 
at Wahoo, ha\ing a membership of some twenty-five. We 
paid a debt of $300 on building, and built a commodious 
parsonage. The cluirch contributed $900 for benevolent 


objects other than her own work, and received eighty-six 
members, of whom sixty-six were received on confession 
of faith. I resigned, April i, 1892, after serving the church 
six years. While at AVahoo I was secretary of the city 
school board. 

"I commenced niy pastorate of four and a half years 
with the church at Fairmont, April i, 1892. There we 
built a parsonage, paid a church debt, raised over $700 for 
benevolences. The church was self-supporting. I also 
served during this pastorate the churches at Strang, Shick- 
ley, and Bruning, preaching at all three churches once a 
month, for which I received home missionary aid. I was 
also a member of the Fairmont school board for two years. 
While pastor here ninety-six members were received, sixty 
of v/hom came into the church on confession of faith. 

'T resigned September i, 1896, to become state secretary 
of Doane College, which position I held until September i, 
1901. While secretary the first two years I supplied every 
Sunday the church at Grafton, and the next two years the 
church at Waverly, and for a few months the Rokeby 
church. As secretary I visited and addressed nearly all 
the high schools in the state, and most of them a number of 
times, traveling over 65,000 miles. I preached in nearly 
all the Congregational churches in the state, and lectured 
over 200 times in the interest of institutes and high schools. 
I sensed as chaplain in the state senate of Nebraska during 
the sessions of 1899 and 1901. 

"I took charge of the church at Grand Island, September 
I, T901, and remained as pastor until March i, 1904, when 
I left to take charge of my present field, Farragut, Iowa, 
rounding out just twenty-fi\e years of service in Nebraska. 
During this time I received into the church by letter no; 
on confession of faith 180; total 290. I officiated at 130 
funerals and 65 weddings, was Moderator of the General 


Association at Holdrci^c in 1899, and have been elected 
delegate to five National Conncils. 

'■\\'lien I went to .Mbion in 1880 most of the honses ont- 
side of town wore built of sod, an<l so were the school'.ionses. 
It seems to me my hai)piest da}-s were when visiting- in, 
and preaching- to peo]-)le crowded into these sod honses. 
The people in those earl\- da}'s were eager to listen to 
Gospel truths. They did not remain at home on account 
of poor clothes or distance from place of preaching. They 
came in all sorts of clothes and vehicles. Many walked 
three and four miles to the sod schoolhouse wdiere the Sun- 
day school and services were held. A large number of the 
young- people in the Sunday school then are now the fore- 
most leaders in our cliurches. The seed sown is vielding 
fruit in man^' cases a hundred fold." 

One must read between the lines in such a rapid survev 
of work to appreciate fully the busy life of a pioneer pastor. 


Rev. Dr. Scott is an Englishman who came into Ne- 
braska in an earlv day. worked with a sister denomination 
for a time until he finally "came unto his own." He has 
also served the government as L'nited States consul in 
Odessa, Russia, from 1884 to 1886, and is well known in 
affairs of state. He served as chaplain of the Nebraska 
house of representatives in a special session in 1882, and in 
the regular sessions of 1883 and of 1903. 

Dr. Scott writes as follows : 

"Wliile I was eng;aged in missionary work among the 
coal miners in the north of England, the call came for men 
to preach the Gospel in the great West to the large body of 
immigrants who had gone to the states after the close 
of the Civil war. 


''I felt perfectly sure that a man could be secured to fill 
ni}^ position in England very much easier than for the 
work across the sea. So althoug-h I had been in this par- 
ticular woric for six years, and was much attached to it, I 
decided to heed the call, and in May, 1871, I, with my wife 
and infant son, started for Nebraska. 

"We entered Nebraska from Sioux City, Iowa, at Cov- 
ington, and thence toward the frontier, fifty miles from 
railroad, with the mail carrier in his open democrat wagon. 
"The people had not had a minister for a year, and al- 
though they v^'ere anxious for one, they had not expected 
one and had made no provision for him. There was no 
parsonage nor any house that could be rented, so we lived 
around among the people in their poor narrow quarters. 
The hearty welcome accorded us compensated for the rough- 
ness of the living. 

'T found that the only place for holding meetings was 
in a poor log schooihouse with rough home-made benches. 
But the old schooihouse became a Bethel to many. 

"That winter we held a series of meetings lasting for 
thirty nights, to which many came regularly, even as far 
as twelve miles, and great numbers were converted. We 
knew that there could be no permanent success without a 
church home, so every one put his shoulder to the work, 
and the next summer a church building and parsonage were 
built and dedicated, out of debt. . 

"When we got into the ne^v clean church the men kept 
up their old practice of chewing tobacco and making the 
floor a cuspidor, as they had in the old schooihouse. I 
made up my mind that this must be stopped, so before 
preaching one Sunday morning I said, 'You people used 
to chew tobacco and spit all about the schooihouse, but now 
we are in a beautiful church building and I wish you would 
not do it. I know it will be hard work for some of you to 


quit for an hour, but if you make an effort I believe you 
can do it. If you can not succeed we will get a log of wood 
and place it outside the door, on which you can place your 
quid when you come in, and it will not be considered an 
interruption of the service, if you find you can not endure 
the abstinence, if you retire and take your quid and chew 
it a few times and then return to the church.' I added, 
'I'll guarantee that you will find your tobacco where you 
placed it, for there is not a hog in town that vs^ould touch 
it.' The cure was perfect. 

"'Next summer the grasshoppers came in such numbers 
that the heavens were darkened. Wherever they alighted, 
in a few hours the crops were destroyed. The people were 
helpless; nothing to sell; no money to be had. Many be- 
came subjects of charity. For a long time I had not enough 
money to buy a postage stamp. Friends in England offered 
to send money to take us back again ; our answer was, 'We 
have made our choice to preach the Gospel to this people, 
and we v/ill continue to work here.' 

"These were hard times, but it paid. Sixteen years after 
this I returned to visit one of the settlements. I preached 
to them two evenings and held a fellowship meeting. In 
the experiences that were given, numbers testified that they 
were converted in the old log schoolhouse sixteen years be- 
fore. Among those giving experiences was the pastor of 
the church, who said, T was converted at the close of a 
meeting held by Brother Scott in my father-in-law's house.' 
His wife bore the same testimony. It pays to make sacrifice 
for the Lord. 

"The harness that I was required to wear for seven and 
one-half 3'^ears in Nebraska never did fit me, so I determined 
to put it aside and chose a system of church government 
that was more in accord with mv views. 


"In the fall of 1878 I made application for admission into 
the Coln.mbns Association of Congregational Churches. 
After due and strict examination I was accepted. 

"The Rev. Hiram Gates, who was then Superintendent 
of Home Missions, asked me what I intended to do and 
where I expected to preach. My answer was that I did not 
come to the Congregational church for financial consid- 
erations, nor to step into work commenced by others, but 
intended to go to W^^st Point and Wisner to organize two 
Congregational churches and bring them with me into this 
fellowship. And under God's leadership and blessing this 
was accomplished. The church building which now stands 
in West Point was erected during that pastorate. After 
serA'ing three other churches I am back again at Wisner, 
one of my first Congregational fields." 


Rev. John Gray represents still another type of pioneer 
life and work. From a lengthy communication, for all of 
which there is not place, the following extracts are taken : 

"At the suggestion of Superintendent Gates I went to 
Sutton and preached for them on Sunday, and then visited 
Kearney, where 1 in\/ested in land. Coming back to Sutton, 
I returned to my home in Lyndon, Illinois, and there de- 
cided to accept ni} call to Sutton. 'Grasshoppers or no 
grasshoppers, I would go there.' 

"I preached my farewell sermon in Lyndon from the text, 
'The steps of a good man are ordered by the Lord.' The 
next day, riding with Simeon Gilbert, the axle of the buggy 
broke, and stepping out on a rolling stone, I broke my 
ankle, and was laid up seven weeks. 'How about that step?' 
said one of the facetious. 'Oh, it is all right,' I replied. 
The saints collected $75 for me to help me in this calamity. 
The sinners said, 'We have never done anvthing for Mr, 

Rev. John t;ray 
Rev. Geo. E. Hal 

Rev. J. K. Storm 
Rev. G. W. Wainwright 


Gray; let us do as well as the saints/ and so they brought 
me $75 also. 

"After seven weeks of inaction I thought I was well 
enough to travel. The people said, 'Do not go out West 
where you will have to feed your children on grasshopper 
soup.' But T said, T must go to those poor people as I 
pronnsed.' 'Well then,' they said, 'we will put vegetables 
and provisions on your car to provide some living for you.' 
So they brought potatoes, squashes, and other vegetables 
to supply our needs. Alas ! they were all frozen. During 
the grasshopper winter friends from Illini, Illinois, 'sent 
barrels of wheat, oats, corn, and potatoes as their contribu- 
tion to Congregational ists in Nebraska. 

'"When I reached Sutton there was no decent house to 
be obtained, so I had to pack my wife and six children and 
furniture into an unpleasant shack 12 x 14 feet which had 
been used for a stable. I began to preach in the courthouse 
and afterward we hired the Odd Fellows' hall. People 
came to the services. 

"That winter, after New Year's, was three days' storm, 
three days finer weather. The week of pra}er I began 
meetings and continued them ever\' fine night for seven 
weeks. There was quite a revival, and the membership of 
the church was increased from about thirteen to thirty. 

'"During December we had a series of fellowship meet- 
ings. Brothers Bross and Piatt traveling on train, Brother 
French and I by team. We held one all-night meeting at 
each town from Ashland to the first station beyond Hastings 
encouraging the people and doing good. 

"As soon as spring came we started to build a church at 
Sutton, though impoverished by the grasshoppers. I said, 
'We can buifd. The C. C. B. S. will help us $500.' This 
enthu.sed them so that saint and sinner started into the 
work. One man opposed. A profane man with an oath 


replied,, 'Go home ; little Gray has started into building a 
church, and we are going" to help him, and don't you talk 
against it.' 

"One told me several years afterward, 'Gray, you came 
to me about the third one for a subscription for the church 
building. I put down a liberal sum, but I never expected to 
pay it. You were so smart in earnest, that I did not dare 
to discourage you, but I thought when you got further along 
you would get discouraged and give it up.' 'But you found,' 
.1 snid, 'I was not that kind of man, but went through with 
the thing, till it was done and paid for, and }'ou remember 
that the lumberman in Omaha said that he had never been 
paid as promptly by any church as he had by the church at 

"Having finished the church at Sutton I raised a sub- 
scription of $1,000 for a church at Harvard. During all 
this time I had not neglected preaching in every school- 
house about four miles apart in all the northern part of 
Clay county. North and south, east and west of Harvard 
T established Sabbath schools and preaching stations, and 
had I had more experience I would have organized churches. 
But I was new to the West, and simply wanted to preach 
the (jospel to all tlie i}eople I could reach. Sometimes 1 
preached five times on a Sabbath. My good team got the 
fichooihouse habit and would stop of their own accord at 
every schoolhouse, supposing of course that their master 
would hold a service. 

"\\liile at Sutton the grasshoppers had so impoverished 
the people that ti)iies v/ere hard. The merchants could give 
no credit. I was refused trust for a bag of flour. A 
wealthy Russian loaned me $100. There was no bank at 
Sutton in those days. A great many of the farmers suf- 
fered severely. I ^^•ent to see the sick, and as long as my 
pocket would stand it, I would take a parcel of meat and 


groceries v. ith me, and while I was praying" with the sick 
my boy would manage to convey the parcel into the house 
where they would find it after we were gone. In many 
cases sickness was caused by lack of nourishing food. 
\\ hen my own pocket gave out I wrote eastern friends 
who furnished me with clotiiing and mone}', so that I could 
supply the needs of the people. ]\Ien came to church with 
their feet tied up in rags to keep them warm. It was hard 
times indeed. 

■'Later on I preached at V\'ahoo, Cedar Bluff, \\'eston, 
and other places, and sometimes I would cover forty miles 
Saturday and Sunday riding to my appointments, but I 
never fa/iled, blizzard -or no blizzard. I encountered storms 
of v.dnd and dust, rain and snow. I have been so cold that 
I had to be lifted from the buggy almost frozen. A brother 
said to me once, 'Brother Gray, if I keep on preaching and 
give up farming I shall be as poor ten years from now as I 
am to-day, but if I give up preaching and go on farming in 
ten years I will be worth $10,000.' I said, 'Woe is me if I 
preach not the Gospel. I shall go on with preaching.' 
'Well,' he said, 'I sliall farm." I saw him later on at York, 
and reminded him of what he said. 'I don't remember say- 
ing that," he replied, 'but I have the $10,000.' 'All right.' 
I s.'riid, 'I am still preaching.' 

"V/hen pastor at Columbus I often went to Xeligh as one 
of the trustees of Gates College, and heard a great deal 
about the country west of Xeligh. and that we were doing 
nothing there. So when I took my vacation, I went up to 
the countr\- reputed to be in the hands of Doc Middleton 
and Kidd A\^ade's band of horse thieves. Leaving the team 
at Atkinson I took the train to Ainsworth, where I found 
a student who had preached during the summer, and had 
gathered a few members ready to join a church. The 
pastor at Neligh came up for a Sunday and we formed a 


council and organi/cd a Congrcy:ational church. Monday 
I went on to X'alontine, saw Inchans, and looked over the 
prospects for work. I wrote to Xew York concerninj^: the 
needs of the field. The next year Brother Ijross was ap- 
]:)ointed to tak'e up that work which he so abl_\' did. As 1 
was nturnino- froni Valentine information came to me that 
led me, when I reached Atkinson, to write back to the stu- 
dent at Ainsworth and tell him to i^o out on the street and 
talk C^ong-regational church building- next morning, and 
that 1 could get $400 from Xew York to help erect the 
meeting-honse. This he did. The result was that I re- 
ceived a letter at Columljus, asking me to come up and 
advise them how to proceed. So at a personal expense of 
$35 to $40 I went up and drew plan of building, wrote out 
specifications for workmen, and started the deacon out with 
subscri])tion paper. They went on and built the church, 
and a year later were afjie to pay $400 toward tlie support 
of a pastor. 

'T remember sonie of our early financial struggles. At 
one time I could not buy a postage stamp, but going to the 
post-office I took out a letter containing $3 which the writer 
said T should use. Then 1 had to go out eight miles to 
marry a couple Xevv Year's day. It was grasshopper time, 
and the man gave me $20 for a fee, the largest I ever re- 
ceived anywhere, and I never wanted it worse, as I had to 
feed mv horse on stra'vx', the rains having washed away my 
hay, some thirty tons. In some way the Lord provided for 
our wants." 


Rev. A. E. Ricker is one of our younger men in the prime 
of strong manhood, and the pastor of the Congregational 
church at Aurora. The following pages from his pen are 
like the fresh breezes from the northwest — full of life : 


"It was in the year 1886 that I was directed to go to 
Crawford and begin work under the auspices of the Con- 
greg;ational tionie Missionar}- Society. I was young and 
inexperienced, although the summer before, as a seminary 
student, I had preached the first sermon and organized the 
first Sunday school in Julesburg, Colorado. 

"Taking the train at Chicago for Sidney, Nebraska, 
where I paid a short visit to my parents, I started by stage 
from Sidney to Ft. Robinson, 125 miles north. I think I 
shall never forget that ride. The stage was not a stage, 
but a stiff buckboard, with two seats, capable of carrying 
three passengers besides the driver. The company made 
two or three trips a week, and the principal business was 
the carr3nng of the United States mail. 

"It was about 9:00 o'clock of a bright, cool morning in 
early A/fay that our buckboard started for the long trip. It 
was twenty-four hours later when we rode down into the 
White river bottom, and finally stopped at the station near 
Ft. Robinson and Crawford. And that t\Venty-four hours ! 
The horses and drivers were changed at intervals during 
the journey, hut the passengers sat through steadily from 
first to last. Didn't they stop ? Yes, to feed the horses and 
get meals at the stage stations, perhaps pauses of an hour, 
and then on we went another weary expanse of prairie and 
along the interminable road. But such meals as those were 
at the stage stations ! The best thing about them was the 
price, fifty cents — quite metropolitan ; but the meals ! 

"We came into one station just as the gray streaks of 
morning struggled feebly up the eastern horizon. The 
family — it was the home of our driver — were just begin- 
ning to stir. It was a lone log house, meanly built, with 
various sheds and pens round about. On one side the tim- 
bers that supported the roof projected four or five feet from 
the eaves, and were covered with brush and earth, as was 

Rev. S. I. Hanford 
Rev. A. E. Ricker 

T 1 T-, l^ev. W. J. Turner 

Rev. John Doane ^^^_ ^^ Cressman 


the whole roof. This formed a sort of piazza. A stove- 
pipe had been run up through this extension of the roof, 
and the cookstove was out on this veranda. The process 
of getting breakfast was going forward. We were both 
cold and hungry, and it was natural for the travelers to 
gather about the stove and watch the preparations for our 

'T think the chicken house must have been near, not sim- 
ply because chickens were present, biit because they dis- 
played such fearless familiarity wnth the other members of 
the family, and such interest in what was going on. The 
cook and hostess was busy frying potatoes on the stove, for 
one item in our bill of fare. She was also setting the table 
in a room in the house. When she bestowed her attention 
on the potatoes she turned them with a knife. When she 
went into the house to the table, she laid the knife on a low 
bench, and the chickens jumped up on the bench, walked 
over the knife, and picked off bits of potatoes that adhered 
to its blade. The hostess came out, shooed the chickens 
off, picked up the knife they had walked around on, and 
turned over the potatoes with it some more. Now we like 
our potatoes turned and fried on both sides, but we did not 
feel much like eating these potatoes. 

"When I sat at the table in a dark room dimly lighted 
with one small, dirty, smoky chimneyed kerosene lamp, I 
wondered what articles of food would be most likely to 
have least dirt in theni. I was desperately hungry. I had 
to eat something. I thought there was as little risk about 
the coffee as anything — maybe any unnecessary ingredients 
would settle to the bottom of the cup. I drank about half 
of my coffee as quickly as possible, and then concluded 1 
had made one mistake anyway. I thought it would be. run- 
ning great chances trying bread — it looked of a tremen- 
doufly questionable color. I kiiczv I did not want any of 

pioNKiiR i:xi'kkii-:nces 173 

those potatoes. I selected a little that seemed to promise 
as small amount of risk as anything- and swallowed a few 
anrelished mouthfuls. Alter paying- niy fifty cents 1 
thought to niNself that i liad never yet paid more money 
for less value- received in my life's previous experiences. 

"The morning was crisp and cold as we rode down from 
the table-land into tlie valley of the White river. At one 
point we passed a freighters' canij). The horses were pick- 
eted near at hand ; tlie wagon \\'ith its canvas top stood be- 
side tl;e road, and under it, v/rapped in th.eir blankets, the 
freighters were still asleep. 

"The scene as we wound do-\v-n the valley was indeed 
1<cautiful in the early morning light. Heneath us the deep 
v,-inding valley, and beyond the strange rugged bluffs, just 
north of Ft. Robinson, their bare rocks like the turrets of 
some vast castles, lifting themselves against the sky. while 
at their base grew the dark green pines. Away oft" to the 
right — that is. the east — extends the uneven line of the Pine 
Ridge whh 'Crow Butte' standing out. prominent, against 
the morning- sky like a giant captain of a g'ant host. 

"Presently the driver turnedi the heads of his horses into 
a yard in which was a long, low log house, with sheds for 
liorses. A v.oman stood in the door. Children and dogs 
and domestic animals of various orders uttered for us each 
his peculiar greeting. Here our horses stopped, and our 
journey was ended, so far as staging was concerned. 

"I could see nothing but open and apparently uninhabited 
prairie, and [ looked around with some interest, not to sav 
foreboding, for the town in which my missionary labors 
were to be. After scanning the landscape with some care 
in silence T asked the driver. 'Where is Ft. Robinson?' 
Pointing off across the valley and toward the buttes, he 
said. 'Just over th' hill an' th' trees a little ways ; ver can't 
see it f'm here.' I gained a little encouragement and asked. 


'Where is Crawford?' 'Wall th' aint much Crawford now. 
"T's goin' to be over thar. Yer ken go out t' thet ridge 
thar an' see all ther is.' 

"I went as directed. I could see a small, clear stream 
winding along under cottonwood trees and brush. I could 
see a line of embankment, evidently a partial grade for a 
railroad, and where the grade approached the stream a pile- 
driver was sending down the heavy posts for a bridge. 
That was a sign of coming life, but it wasn't a town. Over 
a little farther I could see a tent, and beside it a few pieces 
of timber sticking up in the air. Evidently some one had 
begun a building of some sort. That was all I could see. 
That was all there was to see. That tent contained the 
first stock of goods that was ever brought upon the site of 
the present city of Crawford, and those pieces of timber 
were 4:he posts of the first frame building — a hardware 
store — erected in the town. That was Crawford as I saw 
it first in May, 1886. 

''For a few days I was kindly entertained in the home 
of an officer at Ft. Robinson, and then I met Mr. Bross and 
a company of three of my fellow students from the semi- 
nary. They were traveling with a wagon, in real emigrant 
style, on their way to points' still farther up the line of the 
projected railroad. After a pleasant dinner about the camp- 
fire with them, and consultation with the General Mission- 
ary, which gave me a notion of what he wanted me to do, 
I bade my companions farewell and saw them move out of 
sight on the trail to Wyoming. Then I turned to the task 
before me. 

"The town of Crawford had not come yet, and there was 
nothing to do at that point. But down the valley twelve 
miles farther was a little hamlet called then Earth Lodge. 
There my work was to begin. That same afternoon the 
ambulance, at the generous command of the officer who was 


my host, took me to the settler's cabin at the foot of Crow 
Butte, to which Air. Bross had directed me. There I found 
a Christian brother and a Christian home, housed in a log 
cabin. That evening was pleasantly spent in conversation, 
in singing gospel hymns, for this brother was a singer, and 
after the season of worship came rest and refreshing 

"And there was sort of a weird, poetic charm about it. 
The slight shelter of that frail cabin, on the utmost rim of 
the regions inhabited by man, the mighty and desolate 
plains everywliere, and the great buttes, shadowed with 
piiies, lifting swarthy shoulders into the night close at hand, 
and the silence of the great plains that stretched darkly 
beneath the starry heavens — all these spoke a mystic lan- 
guage, oppressive, yet enchanting, saddening, yet delight- 
ful. But the stars looked through the cabin window from 
their mighty heights and thoughts of home and thoughts 
of God sang a glorious lullaby. 

"Early the following morning the brother took me to the 
corner of his farm and pointed out the location of Earth 
Lodge, and directed the way to it. Taking my grip from 
his hand, I trudged along afoot and finally found my way 
to Earth Lodge. Ten or a dozen small houses huddled to- 
gether on the banks of the \Miite river constituted the 

"Then I sent out the announcement of preaching for the 
next Sabbath, and began the work of getting acquainted 
with the people. I found Christian men and women, 
started a Sunday school, and kept up a preaching service 
during the summer. One thing may be of interest, and 
that is the straits to which I was put to find a place to 
study and pre])are my sennons for Sunday. There was a 
'hotel.' It consisted of three rooms and a shed kitchen. 
There was no room in which I could be by myself day 
times. A few hundred vards awav ran 'Ash creek,' a small 


Stream whose banks were quite steep, and in the creek bot- 
tom were some trees. Under one of them was a log, quite 
well shaded by foliage. That shady nook I appropriated 
for a study, and during the most of that summer what 
reading I could do and the work of preparing my Sabbath 
sermons were done almost wholly in that outdoor study. 
My Bible and tlie commentary of nature were all the helps 
I had. 

"Sabbath services at first were held in an empty store- 
room, in one corner of which was a land office, and boards 
with such supports as could be appropriated served as pews. 
Later in the summer, after the railroad came through, the 
town was removed to a site near the station and the name 
changed to Whitney. A 'tabernacle' boarded up to the 
eaves, the roof covered with canvas, served the purposes 
of a sanctuary. The work at Whitney was kept up during 
that summer, but the town failed to develop. Congregation- 
ally speaking. 

"Within about two weeks of the beginning of my work 
at Earth Lodge, nee Dawes City, nee Wliitney, a rumor 
came that people were coming into Crawford. Promptly 
securing a pony, I rode down to investigate. Imagine my 
surprise when I came in sight of the place where I had 
seen, a fev/ days before, a solitary tent and a part of a 
frame building, and beheld a village of at least two hundred 
inhabitants. The railroad graders were at work in the 
immediate vicinity of the town and things were 'booming.' 
There were two or three frame business houses of the fron- 
tier sort — light frame, rough boards, battened over cracks, 
no paint, no plaster, no finish, — the rest of the town con- 
sisted of tents, some of them stretched over a frame of two 
by fours, some with walls of v/ood ; in fact every sort of a 
contrivance to make a temporary shelter for goods or 


"It was a strange looking town. It was a motley col- 
lection of people. It was humanity in epitome. Business 
men, American and Jew; workmen, mostly carpenters, 
blacksmiths, and day laborers ; frontiersmen of every stripe, 
hunters, freighters, cattlemen, land agents, railroad men 
of the various 'gangs' ; negro soldiers of Ft. Robinson close 
at hand, and the floating population that infests a new town, 
toughs, gamblers, saloonkeepers, lewd women, and various 
other grades and sorts of degenerate humanity. 

"One thing I soon noticed. There were no hotels and 
no residence houses. Every building was some sort of a 
business house, or shop, or office. Men, and their families 
if they had any, lived in their places of business. Restau- 
rants there were, but no rooms for lodging. Every man 
was supposed to have his own roll of blankets and find a 
place to spread them under his own or some one else's 
canvas. I soon discovered my former friend with whom I 
had lodged at Crow Butte on my way to Earth Lodge and 
covenanted with him. for six feet of space on the floor of 
his wagon shop. My first step was to find a place in which 
Sabbath services could be held. After some inquir}', I 
learned of a large tent that was only partially occupied as 
a storeroom for a feed store, and from the owner I gained 
permission to use it for a preaching place. Then the an- 
nouncement was given out, and on the following Sabbath 
I preached the first sermon in Crawford. The tent was 
well filled. In one corner of it a young man had placed a 
barber's chair and was plying the tonsorial art Sabbath 
day. It was not until after the service had proceeded for 
some time that he ceased work. 

"The audience consisted of representatives of nearly all 
the classes I have enumerated above as dwellers in the vil- 
lage, and were seated somewhat irregularly on boards and 
blocks; some on bran and meal sacks of various heights, 


and many stood. But all were respectful and listened to 
the young and inexperienced missionary less critically, I 
am quite sure, than some much more highly favored au- 
diences would have done. I remember distinctly the text, 
Zech. 8:16-17, 'These are the things that ye shall do; speak 
ye every man the truth with his neighbor; execute the judg- 
ments of truth and peace in your gates : And let none of 
you imagine evil in your hearts against your neighbor ; and 
love no false oath, for all these are things that I hate, saith 
the Lord.' Whatever may have been the tenor of the ser- 
mon, such a text certainly contained wholesome sentiment 
for such an audience and such a time. 

"At the close of the sermon the question of Sunday 
school was presented. The blacksmith moved that we have 
a Sunday school 'to-day,' and the motion having carried, 
the audience resolved itself into classes, disposing itself 
among the planks and grain sacks to the best advantage 
possible, and an hour was spent in the study of the Sabbath 
school lesson. 

"Preaching services were maintained from that day dur- 
ing the whole summer. 

"In the earlier portion of my stay there we never knew 
one Sunday where the service would be held the next. 
Empty rooms in partially completed buildings were the 
favorite refuge, but the dining room of a hotel — when one 
was built — the waiting room of the depot are among the 
places which I rem.ember served our purpose. Then I se- 
cured some posts and boards, set the posts in the ground, 
nailed the boards on. put up the frame of a roof, took some 
heavy ducking to the home of a lady and stitched the seams 
myself on her sewing machine, put this over the roof; my 
friend the wagon-maker assisted in making some benches, 
and we had a place to worship of our own. To be sure, the 
floor was mother earth, and our carpet the velvet grass, 

r^ c <" "" 


but many worshipers among those whom the Father seek- 
eth to worship Him have Hfted spiritual song and fervent 
prayer to the God and Father of us all in places less at- 
tractive and comfortable. 

"Among the farmers who had settled in the country 
round about, and among the merchants, shopkeepers, and 
workmen I found Christian men, and also Christian women. 
A little band of these gathered each Sabbath, participated 
in the worship, assisted in the Sabbath school, and in a 
multitude of ways held up the hands of the young mis- 
sionary. Our superintendent, a young man from the east- 
ern part of Nebraska, would have done credit to any Sun- 
day school, and our teachers did faithful work. 

"At the close of the summer a dozen names had been 
gathered for membership in the church to be organized, 
and a provisional organization was effected, and at that 
service one woman who united on confession was baptized. 

"So far as my connection with this Crawford work is 
concerned, it remains only to add some details, and some 
incidents that may be of interest to the friends of home 
missions. After the work was started at both Whitney 
(Earth Lodge) and Crawford my plan was to preach every 
Sunday in each place. After the morning service at Whit- 
ney, I put my Bible and gospel songs in a sack, and tied 
them on the back of my saddle and rode to Crawford — 
twelve miles. There I preached in the afternoon. At first 
I tried to take a hasty dinner before starting for my second 
appointment, but I found that the motion of the horse made 
it impossible for me to get to Crawford zvith my dinner. 
So, of necessity, I had to postpone my Sunday meal until 
after the afternoon service. 

"Among the most blessed experiences of that summer's 
work were my rides back from Crawford to Whitney, on 
Sabbath evenings, after the messages of the day had been 


delivered and its work done. Nebraska, especially in its 
western portions, is a land of beautiful evenings. As my 
horse sauntered leisurely homeward, the shadows would fall 
softly on the rolling prairie, the western heavens would be 
painted on cloud and glowing blue in colors delicate, bril- 
liant, glorious, as with pencils of light in the hand of God. 
Through skies as clear as those of Italy or Syria the stars 
would look down, and then, over the glorious pine-fringed 
outlines of the eastern hills, would come forth the silver 
moon, shedding her soft indescribable glory over a land- 
scape that seemed to tremble for joy in the mellow light. 
And how could such a symphony fail to impart itself to the 
heart of man? But through the waning moonlight and 
above the voices of nature there came oft to the missionary 
a higher communication. The consciousness of the Father's 
presence, the approval of the Savior whose message had 
that day been delivered, however weakly, the deep gratitude 
to Him w^ho had guided and supported the weakest of His 
servants in situations where the strongest would have been 
as tow to the fire without His grace, the deep sweet delight 
of fellowship with God in that lonely road : — these and a 
myriad emotions no pen can write down made that ride 
of a solitary horseman a pleasant and a blessed part of his 
life's experiences. 

"Another little incident of delightful memory is con- 
nected with the process of securing the little tabernacle at 
Crawford. To get the lumber it became necessary to make 
a trip to a sawmill. This was located well up among the 
hills east of Crawford, toward the head of a huge gully, or 
."^mall canyon, that made down from the 'Pine Ridge' into 
the plain below. After a brisk horseback ride in the crisp 
■^lorning air, I came to the edge of the canyon, the sides of 
vv'hich were timbered to the bottom, which was perhaps 150 
feet below. The road or trail wound around among the 


pines, and toward the bottom of the glen a perfect mass of 
roses in full bloom, in beautiful contrast with the somber 
evergreen, made a picture of surpassing loveliness, and 
loaded the air with fragrance. No one knows how lovely 
a diversified landscape with forests is save him who has 
lived until his eyes have become weary of it upon an un- 
timbered prairie, and then suddenly come upon a royal view 
of timber. 

"I have spoken of the difficulty of securing lodging dur- 
ing those first weeks in Crawford. A striking experience 
is associated in my mind with that fact. Of course in that 
day the gambling profession was liberally represented. It 
\\ as no uncommon thing to see a man walk out of a saloon, 
set up a little three-legged stand in the middle of the main 
street, cry out, 'Walk up here, gentlemen, walk up, bet your 
money and win your pile. This way, fellers, this way,' 
and go forv.-ard with his gambling business as unconcern- 
edly as though he were selling fruit or notions. One of the 
favorite devices of this gentry was the 'ball and shell' trick. 
With his little stand, or some board or counter before him, 
the gambler produced the half of a shell, as of a large wal- 
nut, and three balls, each about the size of a pea. These he 
would appear to put under the shell, and manipulating them 
with great skill, induce some one to bet that one or more 
of the balls were under the shell, or were not, when of 
course the victim VN'as taken in, or his money was, by the 

"For some days we had noticed one of these men about 
town who appeared to be of rather quiet disposition for one 
of his class. In fact, I am quite sure that he was in the 
audience the first time that I preached in Crawford, and 
of course he knew who I was. One day he spoke to me : 
'Where are you going to sleep to-night?' I said, 'Oh, I 
don't know, I shall have to find a chance to turn in some- 


where.' 'Well, say, come and sleep with me, I've got a 
good tent, all by myself, and a comfortable bed ; the tent is 
in a quiet place, too.' 1 was a little surprised, I knew he 
was a gambler and he knew I was a preacher. I knew he 
had no thought of making money from me. At any rate, 
whatever his thought was, I was perfectly safe on that 
score. He couldn't enrich himself through me. I gave 
him an indecisive answer, thanking him for his ofTer. Again 
before night he repeated the invitation, and the outcome 
was that when night came on, I went with him to his tent 
and slept with him. 

"It was pitched on a grassy plot about forty feet to the 
rear of a large saloon tent. In that saloon, with nothing 
but canvas intervening, I could hear the conversation and 
the revelry wlienever I was awake through the night. We 
liad a comfortable bed in one corner and he also had an 
extensive collection of various devices which he used in 
his vocation as a gambler. He became quite confidential, 
showed me the contrivances, and explained, sparingly, how 
the various tricks were worked. When we were talking 
about the 'ball and shell' trick, I asked the question, 'Where 
is the ball when you get people to bet it is under the shell ?' 
'In my pocketj he answered. After I had listened to his 
descriptions for some time, I took up my Bible, and asked 
him if he would listen to a chapter from the Book. 'Oh, 
} es, I'll listen, you can read if you want to ; I ain't got 
nothin' agin the Bible.' So I know that he heard one chap- 
ter from the Gospel of the divine Lord, whether he ever 
heard one again or not. When the evening was growing 
late, perhaps ten or ten thirty he rose and said to me : 
'Now, you can turn in whenever you want to. There's the 
bed 'n' it's all right. I'm goin' out to see if I can make 
somethin'.' And he vanished into the night. And I lay 
down to sleep, and the strangeness of the situation came 


upon me. I in the tent of a frontier desperado and gam- 
bler, and he gone out to 'make somethin' !' 

"I heard the chink of glasses, the click of 'chips,' the 
boisterous talk and laughter in the saloon tent, and won- 
dered just where ray friend and bunkmate was, and just 
what were his transactions. But presently I fell asleep, 
and did not waken when he came to bed. Some time dur- 
ing the night I was awakened by the sound of voices. My 
gambler friend was by my side in the bed. Some other 
man was in the tent and was pleading with my bedfellow 
in husky, excited half-whispers. The intruder was the first 
to speak: 'Say, pard, let me take yer pop, jest for a few 
minutes.' The voice at my side answered: 'No, I can't let 
yer have it.' 'O say, pard, I don't want it but jest a little 
while: let me take it, won't yer?' 'No.' More decidedly, 
'I won't let it go.' 'O come now, I've got t' have a pop. 
I'll bring it back to you in jest a few minutes. I'll do any- 
thing fer ye on earth if ye'll jest let me have yer pop a few 
minutes.' But my gambler com])anion steadily refused to 
lend his 'pop' (revolver). The other kept up his excited 
pleading for some time, using every persuasion, but to no 

"During the progress of the conflab I felt something 
under the blankets touch me, and I knew that in his de- 
termination not to let this stranger, whoever he might be, 
get possession of his gun, he had shoved it back into the 
bed between us. Penally the intruder became convinced 
that his request was not going to be granted and went 
away. As he disappeared into the night, the gambler said : 
'You bet, I ain't goin' to give up my gun, for anybody ; ye 
don't ketch me without my gun.' A paitse. Then : 'I 
wonder if he thought I'd let him take my gun ? Not much. 
I've got too many enemies in this country. There's one 
feller, if we ever meet agen it's jest who can shoot first. 



that's all. 'N' he's look'n f me, too.' A pause. 'That's 
wh}' I wanted you to stay with me. That feller may come 
into this town." That was interesting. I suppose he 
thought that if there wcve'tzvo men in his tent, and his 
enemv should put in an appearance, there would be some 
chance that he would not be hit ! We talked in this refresh- 
ing way for some time. I asked : 'Did you see that fellow 
before he spoke to you?' 'You bet, I heard him before he 
got to the tent, and I had my gun right on (pointed at) his 


heart.' Then as we lay down to sleep again, I did some 
thinking. What a life this man was leading! To be every 
moment on guard for his life, night and day. That man 
had approached our tent over the soft grass with well-nigh 
noiseless footfall in the dead of night. He might easily 
enough have surprised me, for I did not hear him till his 
voice awoke me. But this gambler was living under such 
a tension of watchfulness and dread that he had been 
aroused and was fully prepared for self-defense before that 


Stranger had reached the tent. 'Truly,' I said, 'the way of 
the transgressor is hard.' No further interruptions dis- 
turbed our shimbers, but I presume that for many a day I 
shall not forget the night when I enjoyed the hospitality 
of a border gambler." 

In this and the preceding chapter we get various glimpses 
of pioneer work, of the characteristics of different men who 
have had no small part in the development of Congrega- 
tional Nebraska. We are wont to think of pioneer work 
as something which occurred long ago. But here we find 
it very recent. Some of it is even now, and the work goes 
on. There is some romance as well as hardship in home 
missionary work. 

The following story of grasshopper relief was prepared 
by Rev. J. E. Storm who knew the facts, and is related to 
show how Congregationalists worked in the interests of the 
people in need. There was much suffering, hardship, and 
destitution on the part of many. There was no little hero- 
ism on the part of missionaries and pastors who in the 
midst of great deprivation staged by their posts and helped 
bring relief to. the destitute. 


''While Polk county was suffering from the grasshopper 
devastation of '74, Rev. Simon Barrows was county super- 
intendent of public instruction in connection with his pastor- 
ate at Osceola. On his rounds of duty he made note of the 
most pressing needs of the settlers — so many pairs of shoes, 
so many undergarments, trousers, socks, stockings, cotton 
and woolen cloth, etc., etc. This condition he set forth in 
detail in a letter to a ministerial friend in Boston with the 
comment, 'This represents one-quarter of Polk county ; if 
you can multiply this by four you will know our need.' 


"The friend took the letter to Hon, Alpheus S. Hardy, one 
of Boston's best business men. Hardy read it through and 
said, 'That is business ; now we know what to do." He had 
a large number of copies of the letter struck ofif, and set on 
fire the pulpits of the city the following Sunday morning. 
People saw the need and gave heartily and liberally. Boot 
and shoe firms gave whole boxes of new goods, dry goods 
merchants gave by the bolt, money poured in freely to pur- 
chase with, so that within a few days a whole carload was 
ready to hurry west. The freight was prepaid through to 
Columbus, Nebraska, the whole cargo being shipped direct 
to Rev. Simon Barrows. Some little time after he had re- 
ceived word from Boston of the shipment being on the road 
and all freight prepaid, he received word from Omaha to 
send on money to pay freight from there to Columbus. He 
at once telegraphed to Mr. Hardy and Mr. Hardy tele- 
graphed to Omaha to 'forward the car immediately.' 
When the car arrived at Columbus teams were sent for the 
goods, but not enough teams to take the whole at once. 
The agent would not open the car unless they would sign 
a release of the whole carload. This the men feared to do, 
lest they would never more catch sight of that car or its 
contents, so they went home v/ithout the goods. The fol- 
lowing day teams enough were sent to empty the car, but 
they had to ^agree to deliver their loads to the county relief 
committee. Wh\ the agent .should insist on such a move, 
the reader may guess. Arriving at the county seat the boxes 
and bundles were deposited in the court house, and a mes- 
senger sent to Father Barrows to see how the wind blew. 
He talked of the arrival of the goods, and casually sug- 
gested that the committee might open the boxes. 'No,' 
said Father Barrows, 'they would not do that,' 'But.' said 
he, 'suppose they should ?' 'They would not open but one, 
for I would put them where they could not open any more.' 


'Well, what can they do?' 'Do! There is but one thing 
for them to do, — load up the goods and send them to me.' 
'They have no right to them at all.' 'It was an individual 
shipment to myself.' 

"The result was that the committee were called together, 
and they got Father Barrows to help them get up a suitable 
resolution that the goods belonged to him, and that they had 
no right to them, and to him they should, would, and did go. 

"Then came the task of distribution. For this careful 
preparation had been made. A large book made of common 
brown wrapping paper was used for entries. The needs of 
each family had been itemized and listed therein. When the 
boxes and bundles were opened, packages were made to cor- 
respond with the entry against each name. These were 
labeled and stored away in the attic, where a floor of new 
boards had been laid for this emergency. As the recipients 
came, everything was ready, the packages were delivered, 
and receipts signed right in the book. 

"When all had been served this book was taken to three of 
the coimty officials, including the county judge, and they 
were asked to look the book through and give such certifi- 
cate as they thought best. They did as requested and gave 
a certificate to this eft'ect : 'We are satisfied that the goods 
have been disposed of according to the wish and purpose of 
the donors.' This certificate Father Barrows sent to Mr. 
Hardy. The reply came back at once. 'We are perfectly 
satisfied; you need give }'ourself no further trouble.' 

"If all grasshopper relief had been as carefully and con- 
scientiously handled nnich suffering would have been 
avoided, there would have been a more equal distribution, 
and the bright days that followed would not have left a 
cloud upon some otherwise fair names." 




The writer counts himself fortunate in securing from the 
president of the W. H. M. U. of Nebraska, the Rev. Laura 
H. Wild, recently pastor Butler Avenvie Church, Lincoln, 
the following account of the organized work of the women 
in Nebraska. A woman's pen can best describe women's 

Miss Wild writes : 

"The women of Nebraska have not been slow to help. 
In the Year Book of 1904, out of the 196 church clerks re- 
ported 91 are women, and 35 of the 181 Sunday school su- 
perintendents. The ladies' aid society in almost all the 
churches is an indispensable assistant to local interests, 
financial and otherwise, and in the missionary work it is 
the women who have kept things stirring outside the annual 
Sunday morning offering. * 

"The women's annual missionary meeting occurs in Octo- 
ber, usually before the State Association meeting. One day 
is devoted to the home work and one day to the foreign. 
From forty to sixty delegates are present, not a large at- 
tendance, but made up of some of the most consecrated and 
earnest women of the state. 

"The interest in foreign fields is centered about workers 
who have gone from our own number, Miss Wainwright in 
Japan and Miss Stella Loughridge (of Vine Street Church, 
Lincoln) in western Turkey. A Bible woman is also sup- 
ported in central Turkey, and the children are working for 
an industrial school in Africa. 


"The home work is concentrated upon the missionary 
fields we have within the boundaries of our own state, mis- 
sionaries in the sandhills ; two Indian children attending the 
Santee school, our four academies, and the churches and 
Sunday schools that are being built. The money raised is 
nearly equal — $1,700 in 1903 for foreign work, $1,600 for 
the home. 

"Certain distinctive points in the development of the work 
stand out clearly. The first gift from the state to the 
Woman's Board of the Interior was $5 from Mrs. Reuben 
Gaylord in 1871. The first contribution to the Home Mis- 
sionary Society was from Nebraska City in 1876. The first 
contribution from a local society was from the Ashland 
'Little \\'orkers" in 1874. 

"The oldest auxiliary is the one at Weeping Water. In 
1873 at the State Association meeting held in \\'eeping 
Water the women got together and organized the \\'oman's 
Board of Missions for the State of Nebraska, its object be- 
ing both foreign and home work. The next year, that this 
double end might be clearly understood, the name was 
changed to the Ladies' Association of Nebraska for Home 
and Foreign Missions, and ]\Irs. Asa Farwell of Ashland 
was made the president. Mrs. A. E. Dean became president 
in 1876, — the wife of one of the pastors, who herself was 
born in India, who had labored there after her marriage, 
and who went back there in July. 1901. after her husband's 
death, to give still further missionary sers^ice. The meet- 
ings were held up to 1887 in connection with the State 
Association meetings, not as a part of them but in some 
neighboring church. 'Many times,' as jNIrs. Sherrill said in 
one of her reports, 'by overcoming great obstacles, leaving 
the pleasant gathering of our brethren, who. Ave know, 
thought us much more zealous than wise, and retiring to 
some cold, neighboring church.' 


"In 1877 a paper on 'Woman's Work for Woman' by 
Mrs, Farwell, read before the State Association itself, was 
so well received that it had the honor of being incorporated 
in the minutes of that body. There were twelve auxiliaries 
then. In 1879 ^ milestone was passed when the women de- 
cided to attempt the support of a missionary, Miss Van 
Duzee of Turkey. 

"In 1880 it was resolved to raise an equal sum for home 
missions. The report of this year says, 'Our infancy is 
past, and we enter upon our next stage with great promise.' 
Four hundred and sixty-two dollars were raised that year, 
three-fourths going to foreign work and one-fourth to 
home. It has taken Christian people longer to realize that 
there is as much of a responsibility upon us for home 
missions as for foreign. 

"The Nebraska Woman's Board of Missions was or- 
ganized with that fact in view. It was to be a union effort, 
one society working for the entire missionary field. But 
owing to the tardiness of the home missionary consciousness 
and urgent foreign missionary pressure from the Woman's 
Board of the Interior, which had been organized in 1868, 
it was the foreign work which received the lion's share of 
the gifts. Mrs. Sherrill writes in 1880: 'The proposition 
to change our name and constitution, and limit our work to 
foreign missions so as to become auxiliary to the W. B. 
M. I., has been discussed every year, but the feeling pre- 
vails that we can not exclude from our thought and prayers 
and gifts the society that is working to Christianize our own 
land', both because that society needs our allegiance, and 
because we need that our intelligence and activities be 
stimulated by connection with it.' 

"Nevertheless the receipts fell ofif, and because the so- 
ciety had pledged a definite amount for the support of their 
foreign workers, it was the home cause which suffered. 


"In 1883 two treasurers were appointed. In 1884 the 
W. B. M. I. called for $750. That year there was raised 
for foreign missions $892.66, for home missions $313.89, 
for the Educational Commission $2, for the A. M. A. $22, 
for the American Congregational Union — our present 
Church Building Society — $5. These sums show the rela- 
tive importance, in the eyes of the women, of these various 

"While the amounts increased and home missions gained 
as the years went by, and many of the founders and strong 
supporters of the society believed most earnestly in union, 
it was voted in 1887 ^^ the meeting held in Lincoln that 'the 
\\'oman's Missionar}^ Association limit its work to foreign 
missions, being auxiliar\- to the ^^^ B. ]\I. I., and that we 
form a Woman's Home [Missionary Society of Nebraska.' 
This accounts for the fact that the Branch (the foreign 
work) reports date of their meetings from the very begin- 
ning. 1873, ^^'^^^ tl''s Union '(the home work) from 1888. 
That is, the annual report of 1904 is the thirty-first of the 
Branch and the seventeenth of the Union. 

"From that time to the present there have been two sets 
of officers and two state headquarters, but the meetings are 
always held together at the same place, and the local soci- 
eties have never divided. There is the utmost harmony in 
the work, a mid-winter fellowship and consultation of the 
officers of both societies having been held in 1888 and 1904. 
The first reports after the division were published together ; 
then each pursued her own way until 1903, when they were 
published together once more. 

"After the division there were more active efiforts put 
forth for the home missionary cause. Special circular let- 
ters were sent to every pastor, and there were added thirty- 
three new auxiliaries during the year. The church in Ken- 
sington, Connecticut, sent $100 to encourage the new-born 


child. At the close of the year there were fifteen junior 
and juvenile societies, one of them being a boys' club in 
South Bend. Boxes for the home missionaries were pre- 
pared. There was raised for the home work $1,105.82, 
including- the $100 from Connecticut, against $513 the year 
before. The foreign work saw quite an increase also, 
$1,000 coming into its treasury. 

"There was a steady increase in gifts, with some fluctua- 
tions, until the year 1892, when the high-water mark was 
reached for the Union — $2,002.43, the Branch that year rais- 
ing $2,185.34, and the next more still, $2,345. 

''Then came on the hard times and a most discouraging 
drop, falling down in 1897 to $1,280 for the Branch and in 
1899 to $1,091 for the Union. 

"Again prosperity is making itself felt throughout the 
state, and this time of a more solid character. Receipts 
are rising. But just as business men are more cautious in 
their ventures the women are not as liberal accordingly as 
they were in earlier days. But each year a higher goal is 
set, and it is hoped soon not only to reach but to pass our 
former high-water mark. 

"During the last two years there has been broader intelli- 
gence concerning foreign missions owing to the systematic 
study of the most admirable books prepared by the national 
boards, and consequently a more real interest in those aux- 
iliaries where such study is carried on. Mention should be 
made of the special library fund raised by the Union, by the 
publishing of a serial story called 'Inasmuch.' Twelve 
chapters were written by well-known women, including 
Mrs. Caswell and Mrs. Sangster. The sale of these books 
at twenty-five cents has brought in enough money to buy 
and circulate a library of forty home missionary volumes. 
The Branch also has a half dozen books in this collection. 


"Nebraska has two young ladies' missionary societies, 
one at Vine Street Church, Lincoln, and one at Weeping 
Water. These have a splendid record, but for the most 
part the young ladies' work has been merged in that of the 
C. E. S. The children's department has been quite success- 
ful, with special objects to work for. Of late years in 
some of the larger churches the departmental plan has been 
adopted, all the women in the church being united in one 
association with various departments, chosen according to 
individual preference. The missionary department of such 
associations is counted as an auxiliary. In 1894 there was 
one German auxiliary organized by the pastor at Princeton. 
The same year Mrs. Caswell spent several weeks in the 
state visiting the local societies in the interest of home mis- 
sions, and in 1898 Miss Wright, Field Secretary of the 
W. B. M. L, did the same. 

"The women's work in Nebraska has had in the past 
most faithful women at the helm, pouring into it effort, 
strength, and patience of which few will ever know. The 
result has been not a brilliant record, but a creditable one 
in its breadth of view, practical methods, financial fruitage, 
and warm Christian fellowship." 

The following list of presidents and secretaries of the 
women's w^ork in Nebraska has been compiled by Mrs. H. 
Bross, and is of no little interest : 


Mrs. Asa Farwell, 1875-76. Mrs. S. C. Dean, 1876-87. 

''branch'' PRESIDENTS 

Mrs. S. C. Dean, 1887-88. Mrs. F. L. Fitchett, 1894-99. 

Mrs. G. W. Hall, 1888-93. None, 1899- 1900. 

Mrs. J. G. Haines, 1893-94. Mrs. E. H. Wood, 1900-. 

women's work in nebraska i97 

''union'' presidents 

Mrs. S. H. Leavitt, 1887-91. Mrs. J. T. Duryea, 1893-95. 

Mrs. Whitfield Sanford, Mrs. D. B. Perry, 1895-1901. 

1891-92. . Mrs. M. A. Bullock, 1901-03. 

Mrs. S. H. Leavitt, 1892-93. Rev. Laura H. Wild, 1905-. 


Mrs. J. E. Elliott, 1873-74. Mrs. A. F. Sherrill, 1879-83. 
Mrs. G. W. Hall, 1874-75. Mrs. H. A. Leavitt, 1883-84. 
Mrs. H. Bates, 1875-79. Mrs. E. L. Childs, 1884-87. 

''branch" SECRETARIES 

Mrs. N. C. Bosworth, 1887- Mrs. W. H. Russell, 1894- 

90. 1900. 

Mrs. A. R. Thain, 1890-94. Mrs. W. A. Higgin, 1900-. 


Mrs. L. F. Berry, 1887-90. Mrs. S. C. Dean, 1893-94. 
Mrs. E. S. Smith, 1890-92. Mrs. H. Bross, 1894-. 
Mrs. W. R. Dawes, 1892-93. 




Congregational Educational Institutions 


At the second meeting- of the State Association held at 
Fremont, October 30, 1857, and called "The First Annual 
Meeting," a preliminary meeting for organization having 
been held in Omaha, August 8, 1857, it was 

"Resolved, That we deem it expedient to take measures 
to lay the foundation of a literary institution of a high or- 
der in Nebraska. 

"Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed to 
take into consideration the location of the literary institution. 

"Resolved, That R. Gaylord of Omaha and P. Allen of 
Ft. Calhoun be two of this committee, and that Brother 
Gaylord select the other in Omaha. Voted, That this com- 
mittee view locations, receive propositions, and, if thought 
expedient, call a special meeting of the association."^ 

This is the first record of action looking toward Congre- 
gational education in Nebraska. Our pioneer fathers could 
not well be good Congregationalists without building a 

True to the historic spirit of the denomination they be- 
gan building up a Christian school as soon as they were 
organized into an association of churches. 

In compliance with the preceding resolution Moderator 
Gaylord called a special meeting of the association at Fon- 
tanelle, January 5, 1858, to consider the question of found- 
ing an institution of learning. 

^Manuscript Minutes, .1857, p. 10. 


Mention has been made in a preceding chapter- of the 
efi'ort of Dr. John AI. Ellis to locate a colony and establish 
a Congregational college. A year earlier than that, "on 
the 24th day of June, 1854, less than thirty days after the 


passage of the Kansas-Xebraska act, a little company of 
Ouincy (Illinois) people met together and organized the 
'Nebraska Colonization Company.' "^ 

= Part I, chap. II. 

'Caldwell's Education in Nebraska, p. 165. 


This company, in carrying- out their project, located, Sep- 
tember 15 of the same year, the town of Fontanelle on the 
east side of the Elkhorn river a few miles northwest of 
Omaha, and named after Logan Fontenelle, a half-breed 
Indian, chief of the Omaha tribe, who had rendered them 
valuable assistance. There a tract of 112 acres was set 
apart for Nebraska University. Says Prof. A. B. Show : 
"It would be difficult to find a more satisfactory location 
for a college. The westward view is broad and charming, 
embracing- in its sweep not only the Elkhorn and its tribu- 
taries, but also the wide valley of the Platte many miles to 
the south. It did not seem visionary to expect that some 
day a half score of substantial college buildings would look 
down from this height upon a thickly populated and pros- 
perous community."'* 

Rev. W. W. Keep, a Baptist clergyman, was one of the 
leading promoters of the colony, trustee and financial agent 
of the university, and it may be it was intended to establish 
a Baptist colony and build up a Baptist college. Professor 
Show says : "The evidence is not clear and satisfactory. 
. . . In the first board of trustees of w^hich a record re- 
mains, that of 1856-57, three out of eight trustees were 
already members of the Fontanelle Congregational Church 
and two others were members before i860. In the next 
board of trustees, elected before the question of transferring 
the management had been raised, five out of eleven were 
Congregationalists, but the chairman, Rev. J. M. Taggart, 
was a Baptist clergyman."^ 

■* Caldwell's Education in Nebraska, pp. 167-68. Professor Show, 
who writes of Congregational educational institutions in Education 
in Nebraska, has done such thorough and scientific work that when 
we quote from him we are assured there is no need for further re- 
search in the matter quoted. 

= Ibid., p. 171. 


The first church organized in Fontanelle^ was Congre- 
gational, and "quite a number of these were from the Con- 
gregational Church of Quincy, Illinois,"' showing that they 
were a part of the colony. 

The First Church in Omaha was organized May 4, 1856. 
One week later the church in Fontanelle was organized 
with twenty-three members. 

It is quite evident that Congregationalists predominated 
in influence, for when Mr. Gaylord called a special meeting 
of the State Association at Fontanelle, January 5, 1858, the 
Nebraska Colonization company and the trustees of Ne- 
braska University were ready with proposals to transfer 
the college to the Congregationalists. In view of these pro- 
posals and of donations by the citizens of Fontanelle, the 
association voted, January. 6, 1858, to locate the college at 
Fontanelle, Dodge county, Nebraska.^ The next day the 
association considered the question of a charter for the new 
college, appointed a committee to look after the matter, and 
instructed the moderator and " clerk, as a committee, "to 
draw up and arrange a contract with the previous trustees 
and Nebraska Colonization company.''^ 

In accordance with this contract^" the State Association 
of Congregational Churches undertook to erect a "building 
for a preparatory department of sufficient dimensions to 
accommodate 100 pupils" before the third Monday of the 
next October, and "a good and substantial building for 
college purposes of architectural proportions" within a pe- 
riod of five years. 

The revised charter of the Nebraska University secured 
by act of the legislature October 25, 1858, "changed en- 

''The modern spelling — Fontanelle— is used throughout this work. 
'Gaylord's Life, p. 1SS. 
'Manuscript Minutes, p. 12. 
"Ibid., pp. 12, 13. 
"Ibid., p. 14. 


tirely the mode of electing; trustees, that power henceforth 
being vested solely in the Congregational Association."^^ 
In the Ft. Calhoun meeting of the association, October, 
1858, "much interest was manifested concerning the present 
and future prosperity of the institution."^- It was now a 
child of the church, and had a lofty ambition to become a 
leading western college. 

A series of misfortunes made its history a checkered one. 
Hard times interfered with its material advancement; the 
discovery of gold at Pike's Peak took away many of the 
inhabitants of Fontanelle ; the Indian scare of 1859 had a 
depressing efifect; and, above all, in i860 it was, by act of 
legislature, detached from Dodge county and made a part 
of Washington county. The coveted county seat of Dodge 
county went to Fremont, Avhich secured also the Union 
Pacific railroad, leaving Fontanelle to one side and with 
hopes of the future largely blasted. College work was sus- 
pended for a time, debts increased, and Mr. Gaylord be- 
came actively engaged in securing funds from the East. 

While these changes and disappointments "proved the 
death blow to the future prospects of Fontanelle as a city,"^^ 
yet the pioneer churches stood by the infant college with a 
heroism v/orthy of larger results. 

In 1864 the school resumed work under Miss A. B. Sav- 
age, who had charge of the "preparatory and ladies' depart- 
ment," and in the following spring Prof. Henry E. Brown, 
a graduate of Oberlin College, was engaged as "professor 
of languages and principal of the preparatory department." 
Professor Brown began work in midwinter (1866?), and he 
and Miss Savage continued the work until the spring of 
1867, when Professor Brown retired from the school. 

"Education in Nebraska, p. 174. 
''Manuscript Minutes, p. 22. 
"Education in Nebraska, p. 176. 


Rev. Charles G. Bisbee. who for a year had been pastor 
of the Fontanelle Church, assumed charge of the school, 
and remained for some three years. 

''He was assisted in teaching by Mrs. Bisbee, Miss Sarah 
Jenny, Rev. J. F. Kuhhnan, and perhaps others. The 


records do not incHcate precisel}- the attendance of students 
during- these years. Obviously, in that respect it was the 
most flourishing period in the life of the school, but at the 
best the number was small."' ^ 

Rev. C. G. Bisbee now resides in Arlington, and writes :^^ 

"Education in Nebraska, p. 170. 
'"June 14, 1904, letter to writer. 


"You ask for reminiscences in regard to the early history 
of Congregationalism in Nebraska. I am not one of the 
pioneers. There were Cong-regational churches in Ne- 
braska ten years before I came. I attended the meeting of 
the State Association of Congregational Churches at Fon- 
tanelle in September, 1866. The ministers and delegates 
attending that meeting were in all thirteen. None of them 
are now living but myself. At that time I was elected 
stated clerk, and the minutes of the association were printed 
that year, I think for the first time ... At the same 
meeting I was elected a trustee of the Nebraska University, 
the first school of high order which the Congregationalists 
of Nebraska undertook to sustain. At the meeting of the 
board of trustees I was elected secretary of the board and 
clerk of the executive committee. I kept the records of 
said institution while it lasted. Said records can be found 
among the archives of Doane College. 

"From the minutes of the State Association and the 
records of the Nebraska University you will find the im- 
portant facts for your history (of that period). But the 
difiiculties, trials, and arduous labors attending the estab- 
lishing and building up of the Redeemer's Kingdom in 
those early days can not be told in a brief history. This 
state is one of magnificant distances. 

"Yours truly, 

"C. G. BiSBEE." 

"About the beginning of 1871 Mr. Bisbee resigned, and 
Mr. J. J. Boulter was engaged to conduct the school. Un- 
der his supervision instruction continued until -some time in 
1872, when it was given up never to be resumed." ^^ 

Different causes brought about the downfall of the school : 
The first in point of time was doubtless the failure of Fon- 

'" Education in Nebraska, p. 180. 




1 :■ 


' "^W^r-iE^ ^J 

HVm' ^^H 


tanelle to develop as a town, due to its failure to secure the 
railroad and the county seat. In the beginning it tried also 
to secure the capital of the territory. 

These disappointments resulted in the collapse of the 
town, which might have become a small college town had 
not a second factor entered into the problem of its exist- 
ence — the removal of the capital from Omaha to Lincoln. 
This and the establishment of the state university at Lin- 
coln caused the more rapid development of southern and 
southeastern Nebraska. Immigration went that way. Con- 
gregational churches were organized, and by 1871 there 
was a strong sentiment in favor of a new location for a 
Congregational college. Weeping Water with its compara- 
tively strong church made a bid for it. Milford with its 
academy already in operation wanted it. Crete with its 
academy, with its pastor Rev. Fred Alley, backed by the 
strong influence of Mr. Thomas Doane, and the Burlington 
8z Missouri river railroad was persistent in asking for the 
college. It also put in the plea of having a central location, 
and Nebraska is a large state. It began to look dark for 

At the Fremont meeting of the General Association, 1869, 
the report from Fontanelle was discouraging. One must 
read between the lines to catch the spirit of the meeting. 
The following resolution was adopted : 

''Resolved, That a committee be appomted to have power 
to convey all the property, right, and title we possess in the 
Nebraska University to the citizens of Fontanelle, as per 
original contract, or to such other persons as the trustees 
may decide upon.",^" 

In 1870 the association heard a report from Fontanelle 
but took no action. 

'"Minutes, 1869, p. 16. 


In 1871 the association met in Lincoln. Something evi- 
dently had been done during the year. The Burlington & 
^Missouri river railroad company gave the association a free 
excursion to Crete and return. While at Crete the associa- 
tion assisted in laying the cornerstone of the new academy 
building. College matters were generally discussed. The 
following significant resolutions were adopted : 

"I. Resolved, That we believe the time has come to take 
measures for the establishment of two or more academies. 

"11. Resolved. That Fontanelle has strong- claims upon 
the association for sympathy, and we commend the institu- 
tion at that place to the confidence of our people. 

'TIL Resolved, That the people of Milford and Crete 
shall have the sympathy and good will of the association, 
to do all they can in 'Establishing first-class academies at their 
respective points. 

'TV. Resolved, That the thanks of the association arc 
due to the people of Milford and Crete, and also to the 
Burlington & Missouri river railroad company for the very 
generous ofi"ers they have made us in the matter of locating 
a college; and that the association respectfully :isk further 
time for considering the matter."^^ 

At this same meeting Supt. O. W. Alerrill introduced the 
following resolution w hich was also adopted : 

"Resolved, That it is the sense of this association that 
we should concentrate our educational efforts on our acade- 
mies and our one college for our order in the state. "^^ 

That emphatic "one" has a peculiar significance. The 
resolution is prophetic. Doane College has its "Merrill 

'-]Minutes, 1871, p. 12. 


Milford and Crete at this meeting of the association pre- 
sented definite bids for the college. Rev. O. W. Merrill, 
Rev. Julius A. Reed, and George Lee were appointed a com- 
mittee to supervise the general educational interests in the 
state until the next meeting of the association. 

This committee in a voluminous report of marked literary 
flavor, the following year, 1872, recommended that Crete 
be chosen as the location of the new college. In the mean- 
time Weeping Water presented a strong showing in favor 
of the location there, so that there were three competing 
points, Milford, Crete, Weeping Water. The report of the 
committee aroused a spirited discussion. It was shown in 
the report that in 1870 Nebraska had sent thirty-tv.^o pupils 
to Tabor College, Iowa — "enough at that one school to 
make a respectable beginning were they gathered into a 
school of our own."' This, too, because Nebraska had no 
school for them ! 

"The conclusion to which we come is that we have al- 
ready waited too long, and that we can not move too soon 
or too vigorously.'" 

Some wanted to postpone action till the next October. 
This was voted down, and the recommendation of the com- 
mittee that the college be located at Crete was adopted by a 
decisive vote.-*^ 

The association then appointed trustees for the new col- 
lege and took initial steps to establish it. 

A paper respecting "Fontanelle University" was referred 
to a committee consisting of Rev. Messrs. A. Dresser, John 
E. Elliott, and I. E. Heaton, to report on the following 
year, and when the report was called for, it was "No cause 
of action.""^ 

'"Minutes, 1872, pp. 6-11. 
''Minutes, 1873, p. 10. 


This ends the history of Nebraska University so far as 
the State Association is concerned. "It can not be said that 
the enterprise — the Fontanelle School — ever reached secure 
footing, or even promised permanent success. At the outset 
the time was not ripe for such undertaking, and long before 
the general conditions were favorable, the particular lo- 
cality selected for the school had ceased to claim attention."-- 
The institution came to an end in August, 1873, but "Alay 
15, 1874, the trustees held their last meeting and concluded 
their work."-'^ This might be called the official ending of 
the Fontanelle school. 

Mr. Gaylord was wont to speak of the "rcmovaV of the 
college from Fontanelle to Crete,-* but the minutes of the 
association show that Fontanelle was abandoned and a new 
college organized at Crete. 

"Education in Nebraska, p. 183. 

^Mbid., p. 182. 

='See Gaylord's Life, pp. 327, 430. 



Doane College was more fortunate in its founding than 
was Fontanelle. It had a better financial backing. Mr. 
Thomas Doane, a native of Alassachusetts, and at the time 
chief engineer of the Burlington & Missouri river railroad 
in Nebraska, became interested in the establishment of an 
educational institution in the state. 

Dr. Willard Scott, at the time pastor of St. Mary's Ave- 
nue Church in Omaha, gave an address at the fifteenth an- 
niversary exercises of Doane College and presented 
a graphic picture of the preliminary work attending the 
planting of Crete Academy : 

''Our attention is now directed to Plattsmouth. The Bur- 
lington & Missouri river railroad company in Nebraska was 
operating its construction from that place and pressing 
westward. At the Brooks House we are asked into a room 
in the winter of 1870-71. It is small; so small that when 
the necessary articles of furniture are placed, there is room 
only for two large easy chairs and a fur robe, kept rolled up 
and strapped ready for use at short notice, in a nook between 
the bureau and the table. Here evening by evening — and 
long evenings they seemed to the lady seated upon the fur 
robe — sit in the easy chairs two gentlemen, a civil engineer 
and a preacher, the pastor of the First Congregational 
Church at Plattsmouth. The theme is a college and the 
idea seems to the lady on the fur robe as 'impossible as es- 
tablishing one in the moon.' 'Can we secure the land? 
Where is the best place for it?' Crete is proposed 'as being 
beautifully situated upon the Big Blue.' 


"Before February 20 Mr. Alley had located there, enter- 
ing, it is said, upon a load of lumber, and had contracted 
with Mr. George W. Bridges for $100 per year for two years 
to start an academy. 

"Articles of incorporation for the Crete Academy were 
adopted May 22, 1871. June 30 the president and secretary 
were authorized to execute a note to Mr. Thomas Doane 
for the amount of $2,000, borrowed for building purposes, 
and Rev. Frederic Alley was 'requested to act as principal 
of the academy for the coming year.' "^ 

The story of the founding of Crete Academy is also told 
by Professor Show : 

"After the associational action of 1869 and 1870 great 
interest prevailed among the Congregational churches as to 
the educational problem. Many minds were busy upon it. 
During the winter of 1870-71, the matter was much dis- 
cussed by two men destined to play conspicuous parts in 
the founding of the future college — Rev. Frederic Alley, 
pastor of the Congregational Church at Plattsmouth, and 
Thomas Doane, chief engineer of the Burlington & Missouri 
river railroad in Nebraska, then in the process of construc- 
tion. As the result of their deliberations they selected Crete 
as the most desirable location, and decided to open the way 
for a college by locating an academy. In the spring of 
1871 Mr, Alley moved to Crete, organized a church, and 
devoted himself, with the constant aid of Mr. Doane and 
others, to the establishment of Crete Academy. The erec- 
tion of a building was begun at once, lumber being hauled 
twenty miles by team. On the 12th of June the corner- 
stone was laid, the General Association coming down en 
masse frorn Lincoln, where it was in session, to witness the 
ceremony. The building was dedicated November 5, 1871."^ 

^Historical Glimpses, pp. 8, 9. 
^Education in Nebraska, p. 186. 


Rev. F. .Vlley was elected principal for the first year and 
with him were associated Miss Mary W. ^^lerrill, Miss 
Kesterton, and Miss Bridges. It w-as a prosperous year for 
the school, a good preparatory year for the college about 
to be organized. 

Among those who had much to do with locating- the col- 
lege and pushing forward its interests were George S. 
Harris, a deacon in First Church, Lincoln, and Rev. Charles 
Little, the first pastor of the First Church, Lincoln. Through 
their efforts as well as those of Mr. Doane the railroad 
company was led to offer very liberal inducements to the 
proposed college. President Perry relates this incident in 
connection with the railroad grant : 

"An indescribable charm invests the story that I\Ir. Ed- 
ward Alclntyre of Seward tells of the way in which the 
prime movers in the college enterprise were encouraged to 
ask the railroad company for the large grant of 600 acres. 
These men in earnest deliberation had purposed to limit their 
petition to eighty acres, but one of them. Rev. Charles Lit- 
tle, at length, with a peculiar light in his eye, says, 'Why not 
ask for the whole 600 acres? The Scriptures say. Ask and 
ye shall receive.' Thereupon these college builders had a 
large accession of faith, and they asked and received. 

'"That their faith was rewarded was due in no small 
measure to the railroad land commissioner, Mr. George S. 
Harris, v.ho was a large-hearted, broad-minded man who 
took great interest in all educational and religious work in 
the new state. "^ 

The larger faith won, and the 600 acres were received. 

It was in June, 1872, that by vote of the State Associa- 
tion the new Congregational college was located in Crete. 
The academy was made a preparatorv school to the college, 

'Historical Glimpses, p. 38. 

Prof. A. B. Fail-child 
J. L. Tidball 

Prof. J. S. Brown 
Prof. G. D. Swezey 


which was duly incorporated July ii, 1872, and was named 
Doane College "in recognition of the services of Thomas 
Doane, Esq., of Charlestown, Alass., who was then among 
its most devoted friends, and has since proved its most gen- 
erous benefactor/"* 

In addition to the 600 acres donated to the college by the 
Burlington railroad, the South Platte Land company gave 
fifty town lots in Crete. 

The college began its work in the academy building, 
which for the time being served well for that purpose. 


The land grants above mentioned were conditional on the 
college raising $30,000 and securing official recognition of 
tlie Society for the Promotion of Collegiate and Theologi- 
cal Education. The indorsement was readily secured ; rais- 
ing the money meant a struggle.^ 

... Mr. Doane came to the rescue. He pledged $10,000 of 
the $30,000 ; Professor Perry raised $10,000 in New Eng- 
land, and the remaining $10,000 was pledged in Nebraska 
The conditions were met and the land secured. 

At the Lincoln meeting of the association in October. 
1874, Professor Perry made a committee report in behalf of 
the board of trustees. From this report the following is 
taken : 

"The committee desire to put on record that the past year- 
the good hand of our God has helped us. The college year 
opened the 9th of September with a debt of $6,593.97. O^ 
this $2,250 were in the banks. The financial crisis came, 
and the banks refused to renew. For a time the college 
treasurer was in darkness like that of Egypt. A generous 

■"Education in Nebraska, p. 187. 
'Ibid, p. 19L 


friend east who promised Si, 000, payable in five years, 
upon being informed of our embarrassment, imdertook to 
meet the pledge at once. He horroivcd money at 18 per cent 
interest and sent on the full amount promptly, to our great 
relief. Others exerted themselves in a similar way. By 
such sacrifices the college was lifted out of debt.'"*' 

"At commencement, 1874, the trustees reported the young 
institution out of debt, with $500 in the treasury, and with 
$30,000 in notes and pledges."^ 

When we remember the financial straits to vrhich men 
were reduced by the devastation from grasshoppers and by 
the prevailing hard times, it seems wonderful that Doane 
College emerged as well as it did out of its financial diffi- 
culties. Surely the good hand of our God helped it and 
the people made sacrifices for it. 

In these and other trying times Mr. Thomas Doane proved 
tiie loyal friend and generous supporter of the college. 
Through the kindness of Pres. D. B. Perry we are permitted 
to use the following sketch of his life, which will be of in- 
terest to all lovers of Doane College. 


"Thomas Doane, son of John and Polly Eldridge Doane, 
was born at Orleans, Massachusetts, September 20, 1821. 
The Doane family, has been closely identified with the de- 
velopment of New England, and the Pilgrim ancestry of the 
subject of this sketch was shown in his life work. Deacon 
John Doane was a member of the Plymouth settlement as 
early as 1630, and from that date until the present the an- 
nals of that section of New England are filled with the men- 
tion of members of the Doane family. A descendant of the 

"Minutes, 1874, p. 9. 
"Education in Nebraska, p. 192. 


Puritans. Thomas Doane combined in his character the 
rugged honesty, the tireless industry, the love of religious 
liberty, and the hatred of sham and pretense, that character- 
ized the men and women who landed upon Plymouth Rock 
and set about to conquer the wilderness of an unknown 
hemisphere. His early education was received in an acad- 
emy established in the Cape Cod district of Massachusetts 
by his father and others. After completing the course re- 
quired by this academy he spent five terms at Phillips Acad- 
emy, Andover. Early in life he conceived a liking for civil 
engineering, and determined to make that his profession. 
His father, John Doane, was one of the best known lawyers 
in the Cape district, but the son had no taste for the law. 
Ujion leaving the academy at Andover he entered the office 
of Samuel M. Felton. one of the noted civil engineers of 
his time. Mr. Felton's office was at Charlestown, and here 
Thomas Doane studied for three years, as was the custom 
at that time. Immediately after this term of study he en- 
tered upon the active pursuit of his profession. His first 
professional engagement was as engineer of the Windsor, 
White river division of the Wrmont Central railroad, 
where his work soon attracted wide attention. From 1847 
imtil 1849 h^ was resident engineer of the Cheshire railroad 
at Walpole, New Hampshire. In December, 1849, he re- 
turned to Charlestown, Massachusetts, and established an 
office, conducting a civil engineering and surveying business 
either personally or through capable assistants. He con- 
tinued this office up to the time of his death. His ability 
as an engineer was recognized in all engineering circles, 
and at different times he was connected with all of the rail- 
roads running out of Boston, particularly the Boston & 

"In 1863 the state of Massachusetts assumed the work of 
building the Hoosac tunnel, and the board of commission- 



ers at once eneaged Air. Doane as chief engineer. With 
characteristic energy he proceeded to relocate the tunnel 
line and established new grades. The distance to be tun- 
neled was nearly five miles. He pushed the borings on four 
faces from both sides of the mountain and a central shaft, 
and so accurate were his measurements and levels that the 
centers of the borings met with a variation in alignment of 
only nine-sixteenths of an inch in one case and five-six- 
teenths of an inch in the other. He was a pioneer in the 
use of compressed air in this country, and he built a dam 
across the Deerfield river to furnish power for the turbine 
wheels to operate his air compressors. The successful use 
of nitro-glycerine, drilling by machine drills operated by 
compressed air, and 'simultaneous blasting' by electricity 
were here established for the first time in the United States. 
Naturally this attracted universal attention, for at that time 
the Hoosac tunnel was justly considered one of the engi- 
neering marvels of the world. In his book on tunneling, 
Mr. Henry S. Drinker pays the following deserved tribute 
to Mr. Doane's ability as an engineer and his energy in ex- 
ploring the field of compressed air and mechanical con- 
trivance for tunnel work : 'Mr. Doane's connection with 
the Hoosac tunnel in the early days of that great work is 
not a matter of especial but of universal interest to the 
engineering profession in America, for to his persistent 
energy, far-seeing sagacity, and his able management we 
in a large measure and, in fact, chiefly owe the develop- 
ment and introduction into 'this country of the present ad- 
.vanced system of tunneling with machinery and high ex- 
plosives. It was under his direction as engineer of the 
commission that the state experiments were made, and the 
long and disheartening fight carried through which ter- 
minated in favor of the new system, the system which has 
since given us the Burleigh, Ingersoll, and Wood drills, and 


which also first showed Americans practically what the 
potent agency of nitro-giycerine, first applied by Nobel in 
Europe, actually was.' 

"In 1869 Mr. Doane was called west and became chief 
engineer and superintendent of the Burlington & Missouri 
river railroad in Nebraska, an extension of the Chicago, 
Burlington & Ouincy system. Though new to the West he 
gave the men of the West an example in their own push 
and energy, and in less than four years completed 241 miles 
of road on the frontier, establishing a steam ferry at Platts- 
mouth and building and maintaining a telegraph line the 
full length of the road. And on a rush order he surveyed 
the branch line from Crete to Beatrice, the distance of thirty 
miles, and had the road ready for operation in ninety days. 
He named the towns on the line between Plattsmouth and 
Kearney, and this will explain the frequent recurrence of 
New England names — Dorchester, Exeter, Harvard, Low- 
ell, etc. This line was built with a view to economy of 
operation, and time has proved the soundness of his judg- 
ment in constructing the road on the low grades he 

"In 1871 Mr. Doane thoroughly identified himself as a 
citizen of Crete, Nebraska, selecting what is now known 
as the college section, on which he erected a dwelling-house 
and occupied it with his family during his connection with 
the Burlington system. In 1873 Mr. Doane returned to 
Charlestown and shortly after was reappointed consulting 
engineer of the Hoosac tunnel and also of the reconstruc- 
tion of the Troy & Greenfield railway. On February 9, 
1875, the Hoosac tunnel was opened and Mr. Doane ran 
the first train through. He remained in charge of the tun- 
nel work until 1877. In 1879 he was appointed consulting 
and acting chief engineer of the Northern Pacific railroad 
and served in this capacity for one year. From that time 


on Mr. Doane devoted himself chiefly to office practice as 
a consulting' engineer. 

"While in Nebraska Mr. Doane saw the possibilities of 
the country and believed that it would soon become a pop- 
ulous and wealthy section of the republic. His first thought 
was a characteristic one — how best to pro\ide for the edu- 
cational growth of the young commonwealth. 

"Before the railroad reached Crete he took a prominent 
part in the effort to establish a college there. Cooperating 
with the land commissioner, Air. George S. Harris, and 
others, he secured from the Burlington railroad company 
the offer of a beautiful college site just east of Crete, em- 
bracing in- all 600 acres, and when the Congregational 
churches of Nebraska in General Association had located 
their college at this point, he gave liberally of his means to 
make it a success. In recognition of his services the college 
was named after him. and for many years he was the effi- 
cient chairman of its board of trustees. His interest in the 
college never waned, and from his eastern home he did 
much to guide it by wise counsel and tide it over financial 
difficulties. He was rarely absent from its annual com- 
mencements, though his attendance involved a journey of 
3,000 miles. He made generous provision for the colleg-e 
in his will, and a large part of his estate has become a per- 
manent college endowment. Doane College is fulfilling the 
ex])ectation of its founders. From its walls are going forth 
young men and women who are making their mark in the 
world and leaving a noble impress upon their generation. 

"Mr. Doane was also one of the founders of the first bank 
established in Crete in 1S72 and its first president. During 
the years that he was actively engaged in his profession he 
received many young men into his office as students, and a 
goodly number of these have carved their names high in the 
engineering world. For upwards of twenty years he was a 


member of the Uoston Soeiety of Civil Engineers and for 
nine years its president. He was gxeatly interested in 
various educational and charitable institutions, and took an 
active part in religious work. 

"November 5, 1850, .Air. Doane was married to Miss 
Sophia D. Clark, who died December i, 1868. To this 
union five children were born, viz. : Mrs. David B. Perry, 
wife of the President of Doane College ; Mrs. William O. 
Weeden, Concord, Massachusetts; Mrs. Plenry P.. Twombly, 
Summit, New Jersey ; the Rev. John Doane, Fremont, Ne- 
braska; and Thomas who died in infancy. November 19, 
1870, Mr. Doane was married a second time to Miss Louisa 
A. Barber of Brattleboro, Vermont, who was in close sym- 
pathy with him in his Nebraska enterprises, taking an active 
part in the first eft'orts to establish the college at Crete. 
October 22, 1S97, after a short illness and while on a visit 
at West Townshend, Vermont, he departed this life. It 
was fitting that he should pass away among the rock-ribbed 
hills and amid the trees he loved so well, the maples all 
aglow with autumn's choicest colors. His grave is in the 
old family burial ground at Orleans, Massachusetts, a com- 
manding knoll which looks out over a pleasantly diversified 
landscape and the great sea, an environment rich in ances- 
tral associations. Of him it may be well said that the world 
was better because of his having lived. Successful in the 
management of his own business affairs, he took delight in 
assisting others, and he was never more pleased than when 
doing something to help those about him to higher and 
better things. The long line of generations constituting the 
D'oane family contains many illustrious men, but none was 
more so than Thomas Doane, founder of Doane College. 
The family is an old one, probably of Norman origin, its 
history being traceable to the year 1000. There were 
Doanes with William the Conqueror; Doanes were promi- 


nent in Englisli church history ; they were conspicuous in 
the civil hfe of England, ^\'hen the good ship Fortune 
sailed from Wales in the wake of the historic Mayflower 
a Doane placed his name upon the passenger register and 
established the family in the new world. 

"From such stock as this sprang the eminent engineer 
and philanthropist whose monument is the splendid college 
upon the upland overlooking the beautiful valley of the Big 
Blue where the river, as seen from college heights, turns 
sharply to the west to make room for the picturesque little 
city of Crete, Nebraska. Not marble shaft or polished brass 
can best perpetuate his memory, but it will live forever in 
the minds and hearts of thousands wdio have been, and will 
yet be made better and more useful citizens by reason of his 
integrity, his wisdom, his enterprise, his liberality, and his 
devout Christianity." 


In 1 87 1 JMr. David Braincrd Perry, graduate of Yale 
College and Theological Seminary, traveler and student in 
Germany, Italy, and Switzerland, tutor in Yale College, de- 
cided to be a missionary on the western frontier, and asked 
for one of the hardest fields. He was stationed at Aurora, 
and the same year, 1872, was ordained at Crete to the Gospel 

Mr. Perry was the man whom the trustees decided to 
call to take charge of the new college ; he accepted the call 
anrl began senace in the autumn of 1872, being, during the 
first year, the only teacher in the school. Thirteen students 
were in attendance, but at the end of the year five young 
men. examined and approved by the trustees July I, 1873, 
entered the freshman class of Doane College, and at the 
July meeting, 1873, the trustees elected Mr. Perry professor 
of Greek and Latin, and also Miss ]Marv \V. Merrill as 


principal of the preparatory department and teacher of Ger- 
man and French. As yet the office of president had not 
been created, but Professor I'erry had charge of the 

He has the unique record of being the first teacher in 
Doane College, its first professor in charge of the school, 
and its first and only president, being elected to that office, 
and Perry professor of mental and moral philosophy in 
1 88 1. A man who has been and still is so intimately con- 
nected with the development of Congregational educational 
interests in the state is worthy of the more extended sketch 
of his life which Ave are permitted to use, and it is here 


"David Brainerd Perry, president of Doane College, 
Crete, was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, March 7, 
1839. His ancestors on his father's side came from England 
to Massachusetts at a very early date, and the old home- 
stead farm bordering on the city of Worcester was for many 
generations a permanent and noted family possession. Sam- 
uel Perry, the father of the subject of this sketch, inherited 
the sturdy characteristics of his family and was a thrifty 
farmer. Possessing the respect and confidence of his neigh- 
bors to a rare degree, he was an important member of the 
community in which he lived and a generous supporter of 
religious and educational enterprises near and far. The aid 
he rendered to Doane College at an early and critical period 
in its history was invaluable. He married Mary Harring- 
ton, who in addition to the care of her own family of ten 
children, was an efficient and nnich loved medical adviser 
for the neighborhood. 

"In his early boyhood Brainerd Perry preferred work on 
the farm to attendance at school. Perhaps few boys have 



been more fond of an outdoor, active life. Few boys took 
more interest in the great anti-slavery agitation with which 
New England was at that time all alive. As he was too 
young to go in person to Kansas to take part in the struggle 
for freedom he did the next best thing — he sent his small 
earnings to buy Sharps rifles. When at the age of seven- 
teen his life work had been chosen, he gave himself with 
intense purpose to making amends for lost educational time. 
He fitted for college in the Worcester high school, an in- 
stitution of high grade. He went to college for the purpose 
of preparation for the Christian ministry. His high school 
teachers, who were recent graduates of Yale, did much to 
determine his choice of a college. He entered Yale in 1859 
and graduated in 1863 with the degree of A.B., taking sec- 
ond rank in scholarship in a class of 122. During his train- 
ing at Yale the freshman and senior college societies were 
in high favor, but he carefully avoided the sophomore so- 
ciety and used that of the junior year simply as a stepping 
stone to the senior society. The war for the Union was 
being fought out while he was in college and he would 
gladly have thrown himself into the conflict, but he was 
held back by the advice of friends. 

"Immediately after graduation from Yale he took one 
year of theological training at Princeton Seminary, New 
Jersey. For an interval during this year he was able to 
give himself to the service of the Christian Commission in 
Virginia where he saw the camp-fires of the enemy. 

''He spent the following year at Union Theological Sem- 
inary. New York city, and engaged in religious work in 
Iowa during the summer vacation. He had gone to An- 
dover, Massachusetts, for a third year in the theological 
seminary at that place wh'en he received an invitation from 
President Woolsey to become a tutor in Yale, which led 
him to change his plans and to take his third seminary year 


in the Yale Divinity School during- the two years of his 
college tutorship. 

"President Perry graduated from the Yale Divinity 
School in 1867 with the degree of S.T.B. In the following 
year he went abroad and continued his study and travel for 
fourteen n.ionths. Upon his return he was engaged for 
nearly two years again as a tutor at Yale. At the end of 
his student life his health, which had always been excep- 
tionally good in his college days, was so much impaired that 
he asked the Congregational Home ]\Iissionary Society for 
a frontier parish, where he could have outdoor life and 
breathe the high, dry air of the plains. Superintendent 
O. W. Merrill assigned him to Hamilton county, Nebraska, 
where he lived near Aurora from April to September, 1872. 
In a short time the north half of Clay county was added 
to his parish, and he was then in charge of three little 

"Efforts that had been put forth for some time to estab- 
lish a Congregational college in the state culminated in 
June of this same year, and Mr. Perry was at once urged to 
take up educational work in the new institution soon to be 
known as Doane College. During his first year of service 
at Doane, 1872-73, he was sole instructor with the title of 
tutor, and was engaged in preparing a few students to enter 
a freshman class. Then he became professor of Latin and 
Greek, and afterward successively senior professor, acting 
president, and. in 1881, president: He received from Yale 
the degree of M.A. in 1866, and of D.D. in 1898. 

"His sympathies have always been with the Republican 
party, but he has taken no active part in politics and has 
neither held nor sought public office. He is a member of 
the Crete Congregational Club, the oldest organization of 
its kind in the state, and the Schoolmasters' Club, which 
was organized in 1898. He was married J"lv 3. 1876, to 


Helen Doane, and five children were born to them : Thomas 
Doane, born May 27, 1877; Brainerd Clark, August 13, 
1879 (died July 21, 1880) ; Charles Boswell, January 25, 
1884; Helen Clark, February 17, 1888; Henr}- Eldridge, 
October 8, 1889. 

"If, contrary to expectations, the college educator speed- 
ily took the place of the frontier home missionary, President 
Perry has never forgotten the missionary work that drew 
him to Nebraska, and he has lost no opportunity to identify 
himself with the religious life of the state. He has sought 
to come in close touch with every phase of school life 
whether public or private. It has seemed to him that there 
should be no divorce between education and religion, but 
that each siiould help the other to what is highest and best. 
The college of which he has been the head for thirty years 
has taken a high rank, and it is his ambition that he may 
be a part of its vitalizing power in the generations to come. 
He still fills the office of president of Doane College ac- 
ceptably to all who are concerned in its welfare." 


In this sketch we have anticipated somewhat the action 
of the trustees of Doane College. They were very careful 
in making a clioice of president and took time thoroughly 
to study the question. 

In 1875 the .State Association by resolution* recommended 
to the trustees that "as soon as possible and expedient they 
secure a suitable man to fill the place of president of the 
institution.'' But still they waited, it may be to watch more 
fully the development of the young head professor whom 
they had in mind and whom they finally chose. 

The association the same year unanimously recommended 
"to the trustees of Doane College that they take measures 

'Minutes, 1S7j, p. 8. 


to open at the earliest possible date a training school for 
ministers competent to work among the Germans and other 
foreign populations of our country, and to call upon the 
churches of our state and such others as may be interested 
to carry out the needful work/' and also resolved to "take 
steps to raise $10,000 to be appropriated to the erection of 
a permanent building, to be called Merrill Hall, in memory 
of O. W. jNIerrill, one of the earliest and stanchest friends 
of the entfrprise."" The churches of the state, which at 
that time, 1875, numbered only seventy-seven with a mem- 
bership of 2,002, had no small task before them — the prose- 
cution of missionary work, the building and equipping a 
Christian college, and the training of men for service among 
the foreigners in our own state. How large this foreign 
work was we may not fully realize, but the churches and 
the college as well felt the imperative need of immediate 
action and earnest effort. Professor Perry in 1876 reported : 

'Tn less than five years in Nebraska I have met the rep- 
resentatives of sixteen different languages. In this number 
I do not include various Indian tribes of discordant tongues, 
nor the African, whose speech, like his nationality, has been 
merged in our own ; nor certain of American parentage, 
who were born in Asia and first learned to speak JMahratta ; 
and I am reckoning respectively as one. Englishman and 
American, Hollander and Frisian, Dane and Norwegian. 
The rest are Swede, German, Pole, Bohemian, Russian, 
French, Italian, Portuguese, Irish, Scotch, Hungarian, and 
Jew. ^^'ithin a radius of twelve miles of Doane College I 
can count the representatives of more than twelve different 

We do not wonder that in 1877 the association votes 
"especially [to] Avelcome foreigners and their children to 

"Ibid, p. 8. 
'"Minutes, ISTfi, p. 8. 


the halls of the college, '"^'^ and that in 1879 it "Resolved, 
That we regard the effort to found a German Theological 
Seminar}' at Crete with deep interest, and are glad to learn 
that its friends have succeeded in raising about $9,000 to- 
wards the endowment, and hope that success will continue 
to attend their effort. "^- 

The establishment of a German department in the Chi- 
cago Theological Seminary made the organization and de- 
velopment of a German Theological Seminary in Crete un- 
wise, but a '"pro-seminary" was eventually organized and 
later on moved to Wilton, Iowa, and still later to Redfield 
College, South Dakota, as stated in a preceding chapter. 
As the "pro-seminary" movemicnt began in Crete, the Ne- 
braska churches from the first have followed its develop- 
ment with deep interest and contributed to its support at 
the time they were seeking to build and equip Doane College. 

The active interest of Congregational Nebraska in Chris- 
tian education in general, and in Doane College in particu- 
lar, was marked and abiding, and found expression in the 
meetings of the association from year to year. 


President Perry's reports on Doane College were a unique 
feature in former meetings of the association. They had 
the true ring in them, and many of them were classics. It 
is a decided loss to the association that it does not provide 
for their continuance. They could follow the reports of 
the Committee on Education, and the churches would be the 
gainer thereby. 

President Perry's utterance on religion in our schools 
before the Fremont meeting in 1878 was timely and strong: 

"Minutes, 1877, p. 8. 
'"Minutes, 1879, p. 13. 


"There are special hardships involved in legislating the 
Bible out of the school. No other place is so treated. The 
president-elect of the United States is inaugurated with 
ceremonies which culminate as he presses his lips to the 
sacred volume ; halls of legislation have their chaplain ; civil 
tribunals administer the solemn oath ; the lawyer knows 
tliat the r.ible underlies Blackstone; the general understands 
that men who carry the New Testament in their vest pocket 
and drink in its spirit, like Cromwell's old Ironsides, make 
the best soldiers. But the great army of boys and girls, a 
mightier host than king or emperor can marshal, gathering 
in every town and school district, soon to join the ranks of 
those engaged in fighting the battle of life, standing in need 
of the same sanctions, warnings, and encouragements — 
these forsooth in the most plastic period of their lives must 
be far removed from Bible, oath, and chaplain. 

"Even where free thought has not full sway religious in- 
fluences are greatly diminished. It can not be denied that 
there is a strong tendency toward the divorce of religion 
and education in our public schools. How shall education 
be kept Christian becomes an important question. The bal- 
lot can not be relied upon, nor the secular press. The 
classes to be reached are 'largely inaccessible to preaching. 
The great remedy lies in the Christian college."^'* 

"We all believe in the common school system, but how 
shall it be kept Christian ? Maintain the Christian college ; 
make the Christian college a success, and the light which 
shines from it will attract with more than magic power. 
From the higher institutions of learning go forth the teach- 
ers who are to .shape and fashion the minds of the young 
people all over our great state. They who mould these 
young people determine the destinies of the next genera- 

■'iMimitcs. 1S78, p. 19. 


Chancellor of the State University, prominent Congregational 
minister and author, formerly president of Hillsdale College, 
Michigan, and lieutenant governor of Michigan. 


tion. . . It is of the utmost importance that they who 
teach others should first have been taught by the Great 

These strong words met the hearty approval of the 
churches, and it will be noted that Congregational Ne- 
braska, in most hearty accord with Christian education, 
has a deep and growing interest in the public schools of 
the state from the primary school to the State University. 
It believes with President Perry that we need the Christian 
college for the sake of the better moral inflnencc of all these 
schools, common school, high school, normal school, and 
State University. We need the Christian college for what 
it is, for what it is doing directly and indirectly, for what 
it may do in conserving the best interests of the state, and 
in counteracting the "godless" influence which here and 
there seeks to control public action in education and 

'Minutes, 1879, p. 22. 





We sliall find in the endorsements of the State Associa- 
tion the general attitude of the churches toward education 
in the state. 


The steady progress of Doane College was a source of 
satisfaction. Merrill Hall has a companion in Gaylord 
Hall, fittingly named after Reuben Gaylord, whose widow 
expressed in substantial ways her sympathy and interest. 


An observatory well adapted for practical use in due time 
appeared ; a library building was added to the group ; debts 
are paid ; an endowment is being planned for, and the trus- 
tees are looking forward to a much larger and better equip- 
ment. In all these things the churches take a profound in- 
terest and help on in the work. But they can not forget 
that the}' are a part of a great state; and state interests 
Jiave their claim. How shall they express themselves in 
reference to these? \\'hat is their relation thereto? 

At the Beatrice meeting, 1885, Chancellor Manatt of the 
State University presented a minute bearing on this general 
matter, and it was adopted by the association. It is inter- 
esting in showing not only the attitude of the association 
toward education in the state, but is also a good illustration 
of some of the problems with which the state had to deal, 
and though somewhat lengthy it is worthy of record here : 

"I. The entire education of the commonwealth is one 
common interest, to be administered with a single view to 
the highest intellectual and moral improvement of the whole 
people and the people as a whole. 

'TI. In order to its administration with economy and 
effectiveness, its promoters must act on the principle of co- 
operation rather than of competition. 

"III. We recognize as constituting our system of educa- 
tion in Nebraska: (a) the common schools and the private 
elementary schools; (b) the public schools and the acad- 
emies; (c) the University and the chartered colleges. 

'TV. (0) We believe that in this system elementary edu- 
cation is for quantity abundantly provided for, while we 
urge the importance of improving its quality as a prepara- 
tion for life, and particularly as a means of moral discipline. 
(b) We recognize as a weak point in this system the want 
of good secondary schools. While Massachusetts has nearly 
300 high schools and academies, training 30,000 pupils. 


from whose numbers five colleges are recruited, Nebraska 
has a smaller number of genuine preparatory schools than 
of colleges. We therefore urge the building up of good, 
honest high schools and academies throughout the state, at 
carefully chosen points, with an ultimate view to providing 
thorough preparation for college, as well as a sound English 
education, in at least one place in every county, (c) In the 
higher education we hold that concentration is the neces- 
sary law. Tlie nuiltiplication of colleges, out of all propor- 
tion to the provision for secondary and the demand for 
higher education, violates every principle of economy, and 
tends inevitably to the degradation of college standards and 
degrees. The fact that young Nebraska, with but a fraction 
of her sod turned over, has now three times as many col- 
leges as old Connecticut, nine times as many as New Hamp- 
shire, must convince even the wayfaring man that it is high 
time to call a halt. 

"V. In view of these principles, it is the sense of this as- 
sociation : (a) that the founding of new colleges is unwise 
and inexpedient; (b) that those now existing should be 
supported on their merits; (c) that the best interests of 
education would be promoted by such concert of action on 
the part of the University and the other colleges as to secure 
substantial uniformity in standards and degrees."^ 

Doubtless the association remembered its attitude and 
vote at this time when soon after it was called upon to de- 
cide whether it should support a second college in the state. 
Nor are we surprised that the next year, 1886, Chancellor 
Manatt, as visitor to the German Seminary at Crete, recom- 
mended that it should be affiliated with Doane College in 
the interests of economy and efficiency, having as much of 
the work as possible done in the college, and that the Com- 

' Minutes, 1885, p. 11. 


mittee on Education, Rev. Willard Scott, D.D., chairman, 
to whom the Chancellor's report had been referred, recom- 
mended that the report and suggestions be referred to a 
committee consisting of President Perry, Supt. George E. 
Albrecht, and Rev. Wm. Suess for such action as "in their 
united judgment may seem best." 

The Committee on Education also recommended "that 
a committee be raised to consist of one representative from 
each of our educational institutions in the state, to be ap- 
pointed by itself and the Chancellor of the State University, 
to consider the general educational interests of our denomi- 
nation in Nebraska, and to report at the next meeting of the 
General Association. "- 

= Minutes, 1886, pp. 12, 18. 




The General Association in 1887 met in Lincoln, and in 
its sessions considered largely educational matters. 

A new college knocked at its doors for recognition. Its 
origin may be briefly stated. With returning prosperity in 
1880 the northern counties of Nebraska began to ask for an 
educational institution, and took steps to organize a second 
Congregational college. The Columbus Association was 
active in the movement. In its annual meeting, 1881, it de- 
cided to ask for bids for the location of "an institution of 
academy or seminary grade." Neligh, Antelope county, 
secured the institution. The articles of incorporation gave 
it the name of 


The institution was named in memory of former State 
Superintendent of Home Missions, Rev. H. N. Gates. The 
college came into legal existence September 29, 1881, but 
for the first four years it did only preparatory work, and 
was recognized by the association as doing academy work. 
The association was loath to recognize a second college, 
and in 1885, as we have seen, deemed the "founding of new 
colleges as unwise and inexpedient," and in 1886 a commit- 
tee, formed of representatives from the educational institu- 
tions and local associations, together with the Chancellor 
of the State University, in accordance with the instruction 
of the association, took the whole matter under advisement 

'For further ,'iccount see Education in Nebraska, pp. 219-2G. Our 
object is only to show the organization and place of Gates College 
in the development of Congregationalism in the state. 


and presented a lengthy and in part divisive report before 
the association in Lincohi in 1887. This report was favor- 
able to the academies, recommending the endowment of 
those already existing, and the planting and endowment of 
others "in wisely selected locations throughout the state" ; 
it endorsed the German Theological Seminary at Crete. 
But on the number of colleges to be encouraged the report 
was divisive. A part of the committee consisting of H. 
Bross, Geo. E. Taylor, Wm. Suess, A. V. Rice, John 
Schaerer, and G. A. Gregory reported in favor of endorsing 
Gates College as a college, but deprecated "the further in- 
crease of the number in the state." The other members, con- 
sisting of W. P. Bennett, D. B. Perry, Willard Scott, George 
Hindley, C. H. Dye, Irving J. jManatt, and J. B. Pamialee, 
reported to recognize and endorse Gates College as a useful 
preparatory institution. "But it is the sense of this commit- 
tee that its highest usefulness and the interest of our gen- 
eral educational work in the state will be best served by 
limiting its work in the main to its preparatory department."^ 

On the program of this meeting of the General Associa- 
tion we find such questions as these : "The need for a col- 
lege in northern Nebraska," Prof. R. A. Harper of Gates 
College ; "One college or two," Dr. Willard Scott. It is 
easy to conjecture that the interest in the general question 
was intense and growing. 

The following years committees were appointed to visit, 
and reports were received from both Doane and Gates col- 
leges, but it does not appear that there was any particular 
discussion of the college question until 1 891 at the Fremont 
meeting, when the recognition of Gates College was given 
a special place on the program of the association, and the 
issue was squarely met in the discussion of the question, 

'Minutes, 1887, pp. 30-41. 


"Resolved, That the association endorse Gates College as 
a Congregational college." 

Before the vote on the question "it was voted that, imme- 
diately upon announcement of the vote, the congregation 
rise and sing the doxology, Traise God from whom all 
hlessings flow' " ! "The resolution was defeated by a vote 
of 107 to 124." And "upon the announcement of the vote 
the members arose and united in singing the doxology." 

Dr. J. T. Duryea of Omaha then introduced the follow- 
ing resolution, which was adopted : 

"Resolved, That the association advise the trustees of 
Gates College to direct their efforts for the present to the 
development of the preparatory department, extending its 
course as far as the end of the sophomore year, and in case 
they decide to adopt this advice, that they be commended 
to the churches for aid."" 

But the college question was by no means settled. It 
assumed the form of a relocation of the Congregational 
college and a union of Doane and Gates. Dr. Duryea of- 
fered the following, which was unanimously adopted : 

"Whereas, In the course of the discussion of the endorse- 
ment of Gates College it was suggested that there might be 
a union effected between Doane College and Gates College ; 

"Resolved, That the whole matter of the policy of the 
churches of Nebraska in respect to its educational institu- 
tions be referred to a commission of nine members, select- 
ing one from each local association, which shall report at 
the next meeting of the State Association."* 

The Omaha meeting of 1892 will long be remembered 
for the discussion on the report of the educational commis- 

' Minutes, 1891, pp. 12-14. 
'Minutes, 1891, pp. 15, 16. 


sioii. The question of the proposed consoHdation of the 
colleges was before the meeting-. The excitement was in- 
tense, the discussion spirited, the appeals from the floor 
confusing to both moderator and people, and the confusion 
at times distracting. It is said that the devotional service 
which came in the midst of the heated discussion, and was 
led by Dr. S. Wright Butler, subdued the feeling, brought 
the members into a more normal condition of mind and 
heart, and made possible a course of action which was cred- 
itable to the association if not acceptable to all. The result 
was the creation of a new educational commission, consist- 
ing of Rev. A. A. Cressman, A. G. JNIcGrew, ]\I.D., Rev. 
F.' C. Cochran, O. W. Needham, Rev. T. W. De Long, F. P. 
Wigton, Rev. Geo. S. Biscoe, Y. S. Abraham, Rev. William 
Fritzemeier, John Asmus, Rev. L. Gregory, C. j\I. Root, 
Rev. F. L. Ferguson, Rev. G. J. Powell, Rev. W. H. Buss, 
William Fleming, Rev. George E. Taylor, and Prof. A. C. 
Hart, "whose duty it shall be to incorporate themselves into 
a board of trustees of one union Congregational college in 
Nebraska, as soon as they are definitely assured by the 
official boards of Doane and Gates colleges that all trans- 
ferable assets of said institutions will be transferred to the 
new corporation, whose duty then shall be to take all possible 
action looking toward such consolidation, receive bids of 
donations, and report at the next annual meeting of the 
association."^ This commission through its chairman, Rev. 
G. J. Powell, reported the following year — Beatrice, 1893 — 
that "it was found impossible to accomplish anything in 
accordance with the resolution under which the commission 
was appointed. "° Doane College did not see its way clear 
to surrender its charter and turn over its assets, amounting 

■''Minutes, 1S92, pp. 10-16. 
"Minutes, 1S93, p. 47. 


then to $200,000, to a new corporation, although Gates was 
favorable to the proposition.'^ 

This ended the efforts to consolidate the two institutions. 
Other causes were operating to bring about an end to the 

"In icS95 the trustees of Gates College, confronted with 
a grave financial deficit, voted to remove the college from 
Neligh to Norfolk, at which place they were promised a 
considerable gift in lands and moneys. To prevent this 
action the citizens of Neligh, including several trustees, in- 
voked the aid of the courts. But the major part of the 
trustees, the president and part of the faculty, resigned and 
threw their support to a new institution at Norfolk, which 
they christened Norfolk College. The result was not the 
removal of Gates College, but the founding of a third col- 
lege- in competition with it. For about three years this 
division of forces continued. In 1898, in deference to the 
findings of a "committee of investigation" of representative 
Congregational clergymen from Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, 
and Colorado, the institution at Norfolk closed its work, 
leaving the field to Gates College ; but the long controversy 
had so far weakened its strength that Gates College was 
unable to maintain its position; and in the spring of 1899 
it resigned its college charter and became an academy."* 

The years of controversy were unfortunate ; they hin- 
dered the real advance of educational work in the state. 
A divisive question unsettled the people, caused, some to 
lose interest in Doane College, and prevented the college 
from doing its best work, because of meager equipment, 
at a time when it should have had the individual support 
of all the churches, and yet during all this time Doane was 
overcoming great difificulties, was doing splendid work, was 

'Minutes, 1893, pp. 46, 47. 
'Education in Nebraska, p. 223. 


slowly increasing its assets, and paying its debts. It was 
securing an accredited standing among the colleges of the 
land, and the high merit of its work was recognized by the 
State University. 

Members of the faculty, for the good w'ork which they 
did, were called to other institutions — Prof. F. L. Kendall 
to Williams College; Prof. A. B. Show to Leland Stanford 
Junior University; Prof. G. D. Swezey to the University of 

When Professor Perry became President Perry in 1881, 
Doane College reported the following professorships : men- 
tal and moral philosophy, D. B. Perry; mathematics, Arthur 
B. Fairchild; natural sciences, Goodwin D. Swezey. And 
a year later there were added to these, chemistry, John S. 
Brown ; German and French, Francis L. Kendall ; Greek, 
Howard F. Doane. Besides these there were several in- 
structors, but the college had not reached the eight full 
professorships which now are deemed necessary to secure 
recognition as a high grade college of front rank. 

It, however, was making progress year by year, and the 
catalogue of 1904 gives a corps of professors and instructors 
of whom it is justly proud, men whose magnificent work 
would be even better if Doane College had the larger and 
better material equipment which it is now seeking to secure, 
and which its growing number of students demands. 

The following is the register of 1904: 


Faculty and Instructors. — Rev. David Brainerd Perry, 
D.D. (Yale), President, Perry professor of mental philoso- 
phy and history; Arthur Babbitt Fairchild, A.B. (Berea), 
David Whitcomb professor of economics and ethics ; John 

'Historical Glimpses, p. 30. 


Sewall Brown, i\..]\I. (Bates), principal of academy and 
professor of ancient languages; Howard Freeman Doane, 
A.B. (Harvard), Boswell professor of Greek and Latin; 
Margaret Eleanor Thompson, S.B. (Doane), A.M. (Uni- 
versity of Nebraska), professor of English literature and 
instructor in history of art; William Everett Jillson, A.M. 
(Brown), professor of German and French and instructor 
in elocution; Henry Hallock Hosford, A.M. (Western Re- 
serve), professor of chemistry and instructor in physics and 
astronomy; Joseph Horace Powers, S.B. (University of 
Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Gottingen), Crete professor of biology; 
John Newton Bennett, A.B. (Doane), A.M. (University of 
Nebraska), professor of mathematics and assistant principal 
of academy; Hiram Gillespie, A.B. (University of Chi- 
cago), A.M. (Yale), acting professor of Greek and Latin; 
Mildred Ethel Vance, A.B. (Doane), principal of women's 
department and instructor in history and physical training; 
Laura Hulda Wild, A.B. (Smith), instructor in Biblical 
literature; Walter Guernsey Reynolds, diploma from Mans- 
field (Pennsylvania) State Normal Conservatory of Music, 
private pupil of M. Guilmant and Madame de Picciotto, 
Paris, musical director, singing, pianoforte, organ, theory; 
Jennie Chamberlain Hosford (Mrs.), A.B. (Smith), piano- 
forte; Robert Lithgov/ Dick, S.B. (Doane), private pupil 
of Miss Silence Dales and Gustav Menzendorf, violin and 
harmony; Sadie Davis Reynolds (Mrs.), S.B. (Lawrence 
University), instructor in art; John William Fuhrer, phys- 
ical director for men ; Oscar Tretonious Swanson, instructor 
in bookkeeping ; George Roger La Rue, teacher of biology ; 
Perry Clayton Swift, teacher of stenography ; George Joshua 
Taylor, teacher of mathematics ; Flora May Waldorf, 
teacher of physics ; Flenry William Wendland, teacher of 


Officers. — Hiram Gillespie, registrar; Joseph Horace 
Powers, secretary of faculty; \\'illiam Everett Jillson, 
librarian; jMrs. Eliza r\Iar.garet Boehne, mati-on. 

Committee on Scholarship Funds. — David Brainerd 
Perry, John Sewall Brown, Arthur Babbitt Fairchild. 

Student Assistants. — William Everett Jillson, Jr., as- 
sistant in Whitin Library ; Genevieve Krainek, assistant in 
Whitin Library ; George Roger La Rue, weather bureau 
observer in charge of Boswell Observatory ; Arthur Walton 
JMedlar, assistant in treasurer's ofifice ; Alonzo Loudon 
Moon, assistant in Whitin Library ; Ernest Clifford Potts, 
assistant in Whitin Library. 

Congregational Nebraska in its educational work now 
concentrates its effort to the upbuilding of Doane College 
and the five academies which enter into its unique educa- 
tional system — Crete, Franklin, Chadron, Gates, and Weep- 
ing Water; but it takes a profound interest in the public 
schools of the state, in its normal schools and State Uni- 
versity, and rejoices in the Christian men and women called 
to service in these institutions. It would gladly see the 
whole state Christian in the highest and best sense of the 

The present attitude of the churches to the educational 
work in the state is expressed in the report of the Commit- 
tee on Education at the Hastings meeting of the association 
in 1900. The report was presented by the writer as chair- 
man, was unanimously adopted, and is in part as follows : 

"Your Committee on Christian Education desires in the 
beginning to express its belief in the great need of a clear 
understanding of what is involved in the use of the term 
'Christian education.' 

"i. It does not believe that the term has reference simply 
to an education received in a denominational or church 
school which mav or inav not be Christian. 


"2. It does not believe that the term necessarily rules out 
an education which is received in our public schools, some 
of which are decidedly Christian in their influence, while 
others may be far from it. 

"3. Neither does your committee believe that Christian 
education is all summed up in the chapel exercises, reading 
the Bible in school, and in devotional services of various 
kinds, valuable and helpful as these are in the development 
of Christian character. Indeed, these may be so conducted 
as to narrow ratlier than to enlarge the student's spiritual 
range of vision and limit the field of his spiritual activities. 

"4. Your committee does believe that Christian education 
brings into harmonious relations and adjustment scientific 
and philosophical truth and the teachings of the Gospel of 

"(i) It is just as easy -to create a sect in scientific or 
philosophical teachings as it is in religious instruction. 
Christian education avoids both, but ever seeks to discover 
the truth, and then show that truth is not inconsistent with 
itself, but in the ultimate analysis is in perfect harmony in 
all its relations. 

''('2) Christian education goes still further and empha- 
sizes the personal relation of Him who is the embodiment 
and incarnation of truth with and to the individuals, so that 
the feeling of personal responsibility and accountability is 
established and maintained, and human conduct regulated 
by the teachings of the Scriptures. 

"(3) It is evident, then, that the detennining agent in 
making evident the character of a school is the teacher him- 
self. Are the teachers in our schools men and women of 
broad culture, sterling integrity of character, possessed of 
the true Christian spirit, who have the ability to show that 
the truths which they are called to teach harmonize with 
the religion whose center and life is Christ himself, who 


comes into personal relation to those whose eyes and hearts 
are opened to the reception of all truth as it is made known 
to them? With rare exceptions we believe they are. We 
also believe that the greatest care should be exercised in 
the selection of such teachers. 

"5. Your committee still further believes that in estab- 
lishing and maintaining the Christian school and academy 
the location should be such as to make imperative the de- 
mand for the Christian school in that place. 

"(i) What are the elements which enter into this de- 
mand? (a) The inefficieyicy of the public schools to do the 
nQcessary work, due to a lack of equipment, mental, moral, 
and material, (b) The failure of the public schools to 
maintain Christian instruction in accordance with the above 
interpretation. (c) Inability on the part of the public 
schools to afford thorough preparation for our colleges or 
universities should be deemed sufficient reason for the es- 
tablishment of a first-class secondary school in the destitute 

"6. Your committee is also convinced that the determi- 
nation to maintain, for the present at least, only one denom- 
inational college in the state is eminently wise, and that 
earnest efforts should be made to increase the endowment 
and enlarge the field of operation of that institution which 
is already the pride of the state and whose superior work is 
its best recommendation to the citizens of Nebraska, viz., 
Doane College of Crete. Doane College and Academy are 
seeking to afford opportunities for the best instruction in 
college work, and, through the application of modern meth- 
ods, to bring out the best thought of the student in the de- 
velopment of the symmetrical education, which is not only 
literary, scientific, and philosophical, but decidedly Christian. 
Through personal visitation and examination of work done, 
vour committee is assured that Doane College has an able 


faculty whose instruction is limited only by the equipment 
of the institution, and that the enlargement of its work must 
be preceded by the enlargement of its endowment. In a 
commonwealth whose State University has entering into it 
such a large measure of Christian influence as we are glad 
to see in our state university, a denominational college, to 
hold its own in educational competition, must be able to 
give the very best service in laboratory and class room, to- 
gether with a personal influence which may be lacking in 
the larger universities. It is right here that the small college 
has a distinct and unique field of usefulness. It is not so 
much that the student in the large university does not come 
into personal contact with the head professors as it is that 
he is liable, in the course of his university life, to come under 
the influence of some one or more teachers of agnostic trend 
of thought who unsettle the Christian belief of those whom 
they may influence. In this respect the Christian college 
holds a preeminent position of influence for good, as it is 
the business and aim of its trustees to keep in its faculties 
only men of positive Christian faith as well as of sound 
learning with ability to teach. It is not always easy to do 
this in a state institution where political and other reasons 
may influence, to a greater or less degree, the action of its 
regents. But in all these institutions their influence will be 
determined by the character of the teachers and the spirit 
of the student body which is in part determined by the gen- 
eral influence of the faculties. 

"The demand, then, for a Christian college of broad cul- 
ture, large equipment, modern methods of instruction, pos- 
itive Christian character, where students of small means 
may receive the very best instruction at moderate cost, will 
continue and grow m.ore imperative with passing years. 
We believe that Doane College has such possibilities, and 
that it is for the Congregationalists of Nebraska to say how 


largely these possibilities siiall be realized. In order to 
realize them, Doane College must have a material equipment 
second to no college in the West. 

"7. It is not the aim of this report to enter largely into 
the individual needs of our different institutions. These are 
presented in the special printed and other reports at hand. 
Nor is it in the province of this committee to apply the prin- 
ciples of Christian education to these different institutions. 
They are applying them themselves, and are their own best 
exponents of their right to be and their right to ask a gen- 
erous support. But your committee does feel convinced 
that, if these institutions of Christian learning are to have 
a healthful, vigorous development it must be through the 
generosity of Congregationalists in Nebraska. One college 
and five academies looking for financial support and for stu- 
dents among two hundred churches, a large number of 
which are on the home missionary list, is a heroic test of 
faith! It is not to be wondered at that these institutions 
aft'ord examples of painful self-sacrifice and self-denial. 

'Tt is evident that the growth of these institutions will 
depend largely upon the growth of Congregationalism in 
the state. The enlargement of the work of our Home Mis- 
sionary Society will enlarge the foundation for their greater 

■'The growth of our churches must precede the growth of 
our educational institutions, or churches and institutions 
will enter upon a period of arrested development. 'The de- 
nomination which educates' is the denomination which ez>a)i- 
gclizes that it may educate. The churches must be the base 
of our educational pyramid and furnish the power which 
generates the light streaming from its apex through college 
and academ.y, a light to the world, or that light will be flick- 
ering and uncertain, and leave us in total darkness when 
electrical storms of agnosticism, infidelity, and pessimism 


are upon us. For the sake of Christian education in Ne- 
braska, increase the Congregational forces in the state. 
And, for the sake of an enUghtened Congregationalism, 
enlarge the equipment and increase the efficiency of our 
Christian institutions of learning. 

"M. A. Bullock, 
"L. A.' Turner, 
"]. H. Beitel, 
"Coiiuniffcc on Edncation."^^ 

""minutes, 1900, pp. 50-54. 



At the request of the writer the Rev. G. W. Mitchell, for 
ten years pastor at Franklin, chairman of "The Academy 
Endowment Fund," prepared the following statement of 
the academies which enter into our educational system. As 
j\Ir. Mitchell is thoroughly acquainted with the work and 
needs of the academies, no one is better qualified than is 
he to give this brief resume of the Congregational acad- 
emies in Nebraska : 

"Doane College is the center of a Congregational educa- 
tional system in Nebraska that has. in addition to Crete 
Academy, its ovvU preparatory department, four outside 
academies, Avhich stand to it in the relation of feeders, 
though there is no organic connection. 

"These academies are at Chadron, in the far northwest 
corner of the state, at Franklin, in the southwest, at Neligh 
(Gates Academy), in the northeast, and Weeping Water in 
the southeast. The total student enrolment in this system, 
in the year 1903-4, was 768, of whom 555 were in the 
four 'corner' academies. 

"Franklin and Gates academies were established in 1881, 
soon after the homesteaders settled the new country. At 
Franklin, in 1880, four or five men, members of the little 
home missionary Congregational church, used to gather fre- 
quently at the home of one or another of them, and talk 
and plan and pray for their children and the welfare of the 
new country. They agreed at last that a Christian academy 
would be the best contribution thcv could make to the new 


"This mutatis mutandis might be stated as the origin and 
motive of each of the other three academies. FrankHn 
Academy has three good buildings set in a campus of ten 
acres with an athletic field of five acres adjoining. The 
first principal was Rev. W'. S. Hampton, who for five years 
did a splendid work in organizing and laying foundations. 
Prof. Alexis C. Hart, principal since 1888, the Nestor among 
academy people in Nebraska, has made Franklin Academy 
the foremost Christian academy in the A\'est. 

"Gates Academy, the predecessor and successor of Gates 
College, at Neligh, was opened in September, 1882. In 
1886 college work was begun; in 1899 the college charter 
was given up, and the institution continued as an academy. 
It has two substantial brick buildings, a library of 5,000 
volumes, well equipped laboratories, and in 1903-4 enrolled 
171 students. 

''Weeping Water Academy was started in 1885 in the 
hearts of a few Christian people who wanted their own 
boys and girls to prepare for college. The students have 
come from many counties in southeast Nebraska, and an 
unusually large per cent of them have gone on to college. 
Its home has been the old church meeting-house. The first 
new permanent building, Hindley Cottage, a dormitory for 
young women, is now completed at a cost of $9,000. 

"Chadron Academy was established in 1888. In 1890 a 
fine brick building was erected which, two years later, was 
totally destroyed by fire. School continued >vithout a day's 
delay, and a new brick building was soon erected. Chadron 
Academy has a contributory territory of not less than 35,- 
00a square miles, a region of vast cattle ranges, isolated 
ranch homes, and scattered farms. It is just the place for 
a Christian academy, and has well fulfilled the ideal and 
purpose of its founders. 


1 — Girls' dormitory. 2 — Main building. 3 — Laboratory, 


"Not less than 5,000 different students have attended 
these four academies, about 500 of whom have completed 
the full three-years courses, and 400 of them prepared for 

"January i, 1902, a committee of five was organized to 
help the academies secure funds to pay off all debts, pro- 
vide for current expenses, and raise a permanent endow- 
ment fund of $100,000. June 30, 1904, the committee 
reported : 

Cash received $58,300 00 

Pledges still unpaid 5.170 00 

Making a total of $63,470 CXD 

"The cash received, $58.3<do, was enough to pay all ex- 
penses of the four academies for the two and one-half years, 
covered by the canvass, and leave a surplus of about $13,000 
for debts, endowments, and new buildings, besides the 
$5,000 of pledges still unpaid." 

A COMr.\KAll\ !•: STUDY 25.9 


The question is sometimes asked, Would it not l)e better 
to have all our Congregational schools located in one place? 
Would we not administer the schools for less money, and 
reach just as many students? 

The ]\I. E. Church in Nebraska, which numbers some 
55,000 members to our 16,000, has all its educational work 
centered in one iristitution, the Nebraska Wesleyan Univer- 
sit}- at L'niversity i'lace. This gives a good opportunity to 
compare the two systems. Naturally we should expect a 
nuich larger number of students in the Methodist institu- 
tion because the JNIethodist membership in the state is more 
than three times as large as the Congregational. The fol- 
lowing study will be of interest : 

Students graduating in 1904 from — 
Weeping Water acadensy 

( 1 ) In college preparator}' 7 

(2) Commercial 

(3) Music 

Gates Academ}' 

( 1 ) In college preparatory 5 

(2) Commercial 

(3) Music 

Chadron Academy 

( 1 ) In college prepai-'atory 4 

(2) Commercial 9 

(3) Normal 2 

(4) Music 

Old First C()ii,!:;regati()iial Churcli 

U/ICOL/t /lEE. >- ' ' 




Franklin Academy 

( I ) In college preparatory 8 

(2) Commercial 4 

(3) Music 12 

Crete Academy 

( I ) In college preparatory 10 

Total preparatory graduates from academies 34 

Number normal graduates ; 2 

Total 3^> 

Preparatory graduates Nebraska Wesleyan University^ 

Academy i'"> 

Normal 59 

Music 3 

The normal students in Wesleyan University have from 
two to three years' work in college courses, so that they 
can hardly be classed as academy preparatory or college 
students. They are normal students. 
Number of students graduating from Doane college in 

1904 • 19 

Number of Doane akunni 219 

Number graduating from Wesleyan University in 1904.. 16 
Number of Wesleyan alumni 203 

College preparatory students in — 

Weeping Water Academy 37 

Gates Academy 35 

Chadron Acadeniy 28 

Franklin Academy' 5^ 

Crete Academy 55 

Total in Congregational schools 206 

College preparatory students in Nebraska Wesleyan 
University 186 


By college preparatory we mean those who, upon grad- 
uation, are entitled to enter the college or university. 

Enrolment in — 

Weeping Water Academy 69 

Gates Academy 171 

Chadron Academy 149 

Franklin Academy 181 

Doane College and Crete Academy 180 

Total number students in Congregational schools. 750 

Students in Nebraska Wesleyan University in all de- 
partments including summer school 803 

Total number for school year 710 

Total expenses of schools for 1903-4 — 

Weeping Water Academy $ 3^239 00 

Gates Academy 3.586 00 

Chadron Academy 4,800 00 

F'ranklin Academy 7,150 00 

Doane College and Crete Academy 21,850 00 

Total for Congregational schools $40,625 00 

Nebraska Wesleyan University $33,464 11 

This enumeration does not include moneys for new build- 
ings, which should be classified as special, and will vary 
from time to tim.e in each institution. 

Wesleyan spent last year for conservatory of music 
$10,261.97; for greenhouse, gymnasium, etc.,- $2,518.71. 

Weeping Water spent for new building, a dormitory for 
girls, $Q,ooo. 


Total number of teachers employed in- 
Weeping Water Academy 5 

Gates Academ\- 5 

Chadron Academ.y 6 

Franklin Academy 8 

Doane College 18 

Total number in Congregational schools 42 

Number of teachers in Nebraska W^esleyan University. . 38 

Estimated cost or value of buildings and grounds — 

Weeping Water Academy $ I-2430 00 

Gates Academy 17.536 00 

Chadron Academy 12,800 00 

Franklin Academy 20,000 00 

Doane College including Crete Academy.. . 116,500 00 

Total cost or value of Nebraska Congre- 
gational schools $179,266 00 

Estimated cost or value of Nebraska Wesleyan 

University Methodist-Episcopal $175,000 00 

Indebtedness — 

Doane College $2,300 00 

Wesleyan University 

In this study the reader is asked to draw his own con- 
clusions as to the advantages of either system. This will 
not be difficult to do. He can easily see which thus far 
reaches the larger number of students and which costs the 
more money per year. The two systems have been in exist- 
ence side by side now for several years, and this study for 
the year 1903-4 may fairly be taken as representing the 
comparative merits in the educational work of both 




The Indian school at Santee, while not supported directly 
by the Cong-regational churches in Nebraska, is a part of 
the educational work in the state. The school was founded 
in 1870 by the American Board, but in the readjustment of 
our missionary work it was later on transferred to the 
American IMissionary Association. 

Situated in the northeast corner of Nebraska it is well 
located to accommodate the Indians of the Northwest. The 
principal of the school is the well-known Rev. A. L. 
Riggs, D.D. 

Santee is neither a college nor academy, but, as its name 
signifies, is a normal training school. Prof. F. B. Riggs, 
M.A., the assistant principal, has given a concise account 
of the object of the school in these words: 

"The fundamental purpose of Santee is the preparation 
of Indian young men and women for missionary and edu- 
cational leadership among their own people. Active Chris- 
tians and working churches are the result of Christian edu- 

■'Government schools do not and can not provide adequate 
])reparation for tlie missionary teachers, preachers, and other 
Christian leaders that are needed. Santee does not conflict 
with, compete with, or parallel the work of the government 
schools or any other schools. . . . Home life is recog- 
nized as a potent educational means, and Santee dormitories 
are accordingly small and numerous, each in charge of a 
Christian lady who appreciates the responsibilities of moth- 
ering her flock. ... In the academic work the peda- 



.cjo^ical (k'vel()i)nicnts at Santcc arc not (Hily alji'cast ol thr 
times, Imt often ach'ance into originality. The eourse of 
study is essentially unique. The secondary value of "form 
stud}-,' such as language and mathematics, is recognized. 

■X. A. I.. RIGGS, D.D. 

and the 'real studies,' or 'thought studies,' as history or the 
humanities, and the sciences, are made the hasis of all 
'form study' teaciiing. 

"The order, relative value, and most advantageous use 
of studies is made a constant pedagogical and psychological 

^^ HI, 

fe o 


study at Santee. . . Industrial training occupies half of 
every pupils school day. 

"Jjcsidcs the domestic training that the pupils inciden- 
tally receive in the care of their rooms, houses, and clothes — 
both boNS and girls — the school, cooking school, shop, and 
farm give the;n more systematic instruction planned to fit 
the possibilities of their home conditions. Santee pupils are 
taught to make good bread, and to prepare plain, nourish- 
ing food economically, and from such materials as the\' have 
at home, or should be able to have. 

"The students are practiced in the essentials of stock 
raising and general farming. And in laboratory they have 
experimental demonstration of the more important theories 
of agriculture. 

"With the mechanical arts the object is not trade training, 
but 'manu-mental' instruction, development of the mind and 
character through the hand and body. Blacksmithing, car- 
])entering, printing are used for their mental and ethical 
value, a means to' all-around development."^ 

The school also has an extension course with lectures by 
Santee teachers. Special classes are formed for adults who 
have had none or but few educational advantages. These 
are called "adult primaries.'' 

In 1903 there were 230 students catalogued, of whom 123 
were in the correspondence school, 8 in the high school, 51 
in the intermediate, including from the fourth to the seventh 
grades, 7 in the adult-primary, 40 in the primary, 18 in in- 
strumental music, and i unclassified. The music scholars 
are included in the other grades. 

Looking at the bright and intelligent faces of the high 
school pupils one can hardly realize that these are the chil- 
dren of "wild Indians." They illustrate what Christian 
training can do and is doing for the Indian races. 

'Santee Normal Training School, by F. B. Riggs. 


In Santee there are representatives from different tribes 
including the Santee, Winnebago, Navajo, Sioux, and other 
tribes, but in Christ Jesus they are all one. 

Says Prof. Riggs : "During. thirty-four years of Santee's 
history there have been great changes in the condition of 
all the Indians of the Northwest. Christianity has been the 
onlv i^ower that transformed barbarism into the begin- 
nings of civilization." 

The Santee pupils, with scarcely an exception, are or be- 
come while in school Christians and church members. And 
in answer to the question : "Does an Indian on returning 
from school relapse to the heathen ways of his people?"" 
Prof. Riggs answers, "No, never if lie lias become a geii- 
iiiite Christimi." 

There are eighteen teachers and helpers in the Santee 
school, and the work v/hich they are doing for the up-lift 
and Christian civilization of the Indian tribes can never be 
told by statistics, nor by a superficial study of the work 
done. It is onl)^ they who watch the progress of these In- 
dian boys and girls as they go through the years of study 
in Santee, and then out among their people as leaders and 
helpers, who are competent to judge of the character of 
the work done in the school, and the transformation of the 
Indian into a Christian and honored member of societv. 
And they have but one report to make, and that is that the 
Santee Normal Training School is an institution of untold 
blessings to the Indians of the Northwest. 

Into this Indian mission work the Riggs family have put 
their lives. "Dr. A. L. Riggs was born in the work," his 
father being a missionary among the Sioux in 1857, and his 
son is following in his steps. They have made Santee 
largely what it is, and are the inspiration of its growing 


This brief outline of Sautee would be incomplete without 
a sketch of that remarkable Indian preacher, pastor, and 
missionary, Artemas Ehnamani. 

AK'^l■:^[As i:iin'amani 

Much of the information for the following- sketch of the 
life of this noted Indian minister has been received from 


leaflets and personal letters from Rev. A. L. Riggs, D.D., 
of Santee, who more than any one else is conversant with 
the facts of his life. 


Artemas Ehnamani was born at Red Wing, Minnesota, 
in 1825. His boyhood days were passed along the banks of 
the Mississippi river. As a young man he was tall, attract- 
ive, a lover of the chase, and ready for the war path, es- 
pecially v/hen opportunity came to strike a blow against the 
Chippewas, the enemies of his people. He also won for 
his bride the maiden of his choice, the most beautiful one in 
the tribe, and in this contest he had many noted rivals from 
the young men of renown. 

While yet in the prime of life he and his tribe ceded 
their ancestral homesteads along the A'lississippi and moved 
on to the Sioux reservation on the Minnesota river. 

Ehnamani was a participant in the Sioux outbreak of 
1862, and with the other leaders was captured, imprisoned 
at Mankato, Minnesota, and Davenport, Iowa, and con- 
demned to death. 

While in prison he was converted, and became a devoted 
Christian, and was eventually pardoned by President 

His one book was the Dakota Bible, and the prison was 
his school. 

When he and the others were released prison, they 
found that their families had been removed to Northeastern 
Nebraska on the banks of the Missouri River. 

Ehnamani was soon chosen one of the preachers and 
pastors in the reorganized church. He served Pilgrim Con- 
gregational church as pastor for thirty-five years and was 
translated on the eve of Easter Day, 1902. His wife also 
became a Christian, and in many ways a helper in his work. 
Ehnamani was an out-and-out Christian ; his faith was 
genuine, his experience real. He rejoiced in Christian fel- 
lowship, and believed strongly in the brotherhood of the 
church. He was a successful leader, tender, compassionate, 
a man of wnsdom and rare executive ability. He was a veri- 


table missionary superintendent among the Indian workers 
of his day, and yet was as humbly amenable to the discipline 
of the church as any other member. 

Dr. Riggs says that he "very humbly and courteously 
accepted the investigation and reproof of the Board of El- 
ders when he was accused of having fired off a gun to kill 
the spirits causing the sickness of his wife. The truth was 
that he was humoring the whim of his wife, made childish 
and half demented by her sickness." 

His message to his people was that of the Risen Savior 
and Lord. 

He often made trips among the wild tribes of the Sioux 
and Dakotas as a Gospel missionary. He was licensed to 
preach in 1866, and in 1867 was ordained pastor of Pilgrim 
Church at Santee agency and held that position until his 
death in 1902. 

On account of railroad facilities Santee affiliated with the 
South Dakota Congregational churches more than with the 
Nebraska churches with which it is connected. However, 
from time to time Pastor Ehnamani attended the State As- 
sociation of Nebraska, an interested spectator of its pro- 
ceedings, and one of its principal speakers, though speaking 
through an interpreter. 

He has the distinction of serving a Congregational church 
as pastor longer than any other minister in the state. 

Ehnamani's second son. Rev. Francis Frazier, is pastor of 
Pilgrim Church which his father served so many years. 

The eldest son, Albert Frazier, preaches to the Bazile 
Creek Church, Santee reserve, some ten miles away from 
Santee, but he has not yet (January, 1905) been ordained 

And so the work of Santee, under the efficient leadership 
of the Riggs family, goes on, the Indian pastor's son follow- 
ing in the footsteps of his father, and the noted missionary's 
son trained to the work from infancy, a leader among men, 


a scholar and teacher of that science which makes for per- 
fect manhood. 

Santee mission was under the American Board from 1866 
to 1882, when it was transferred to the A. M. A. 

The following missionaries have been in commission : 

Rev. John P. Williamson, D.D., Mrs. Sarah F. William- 
son, 1866 to 1870. 

Mr. Edward R. Pond, Mrs. Mary F. Pond, 1866 to 1871. 

Rev. A. L. Rig-gs, D.D., Mrs. Mary B. Riggs, 1870 to 
1882 and since 1882 imder the A. M. A. 




The following tables furnish many items of interest to 
the churches. Rev. J. E. Storm prepared the tables contain- 
ing an alphabetical list of all ministers who have served the 
Nebraska churches, the delegates to the National Council, 
the names of disbanded churches. Mrs. J. E. Storm pre- 
pared Table VIII, giving pastorates in living churches. 
The South Platte and Lincoln Land Companies furnished 
the tables which bear their names. The Secretaries of the 
American Board sent the list of Nebraskans on the foreign 
field. The table showing the sessions of the General Asso- 
ciation has been revised with great care from the manuscript 
minutes of the association, and will show quite a variation 
from the table in recent printed minutes of the association. 


The General Association was organized in Omaha, Au- 
gust 8, 1857, Rev. I. E. Heaton temporary moderator, E. H. 
Barnard temporary clerk. At this meeting Rev. R. Gay- 
lord was elected moderator, and Rev. I. E. Heaton stated 
clerk. It was voted that the "First annual meeting of this 
association be held at Fremont on the last day of October 
next at 7:00 p.m." (Ms. Minutes, p. 4.). Taking the Fre- 
mont meeting as the Urst annual meeting, the sessions of 
the General Association are as follows: 











R. Gaylord 

R. Gaylord 



I E. Heaton.... 

R. Gaylord 



E. B. Hurlbut . . 

I. E. Heaton.. . . 



R. Gaylord 

E. B. Hurlbut . . 



I. E. Heaton . . . 

R. Gaylord 



R. Gaylord 

I. E. Heaton.. . . 


Elkhorn .... 

I. E. Heaton.... 

R. Gaylord 


Neb. City.... 

R. Gaylord 

I. E. Heaton . . . 



L. H. Jones 

R. Gaylord 


Fontanelle. . . 

W. W. Rose .... 

L. H. Jones 



E. B Hurlbut . . 

W. W. Rose . . . 



R. Foster 

E. B Hurlbut . . 



Chas. Little 

R. Foster 


Camp Creek . 

Fred Alley 

Chas. Little 



Amos Dr.sser. . . 

Fred Alley 



J.J.A.T. Dixon 

Amos Dresser. . . 


Weep'g W'ter 

S. R. Dimmock. 

A. F. Sherrill... 



A. F. Sherill.... 

H.M.Storrs, DD 



Col. ('. MathewsoM. . . . 

W. Barrows, DD 



Lewis Gregory . . 

E. B. Fairfield.. 



Amos Dresser. . . 

S. J. Humphrey. 



Lewis Gregory . . 

Amos Dresser. . . 


T. A. Reed 



H. C. Abernethy 

(1. W. Waimvrislit.... 



H. N. Gates .... 

C. W. Merrill... 



Lewis Gregory . . 

\V. M. Barrows.. 



A. F. vShernli. . . 



f C W Merrill 



\ Willard Scott. . 



E. H. Ashniun. . 

Willard Scott . . . 



W. S Hampton. 



Loren F. Berry.. 

John L. Maile . . 


Kearney .... 

Col. S. S. Cotton. 

J. J. Parker 



J. L. IMaile 

A. R. 'Ihain .... 



John Askin 

J. T. Duryea.... 



A. R. Thain 

U. A. Deeper . . . 



J.J. Parker 

Lewis Gregory . . 



A. C. Hart 

S. W. Butler . . . 



J. E. Brrre on . . 

R. T. 



G. W. Mitchell.. 

C. S. Harrison.. 



A. E. R cker . . . 

F. A. Warfield.. 



John Dome 

S. I. Hanford... 


Uayid City... 

A. J. Rogers.. .. 



A. A. Cre.s-sman. 

J. F. Bacon 



R. T. Cross 

H. C. Herring . . 



W. J. Turner... . 

John Doane 


Weep"g W'ter 

Geo. E. Taylor.. 

CD. Gearhart. . 



S.I. Hanford... 

Geo. W. Crofts.. 



A. B. Fairchild.. 

Geo. A. Munro . 

I. (iibsoii, pro lem. 
E.B. Hurlbut 
R Gaylord 
I. E. Heaton 
E.B, Hurlbut 
E B. Hurlbut 
E.H. Hurlbut 
E.B. Hurlbut 
C. G. Bisbee 
C. G. Bisbee 
C. G. Bisbee 
C. G. Bisbee 
J. B. Chase 
J B. Chase 
J. B. Chase 
J. B. Chase 
H. Bross 
H. Bross 
H. Bross 
H. Bross 
H. Bross 
H. Bro-ss 
H. Bross 
H. Bross 
H. Bross 

H. Bross 

H. Bross 
H. Bross 
H. Bross 
H. Bross 
H. Bross 
H. Bross 
H. Bross 
H. Bross 
F. C. Taylor 
F. C. Ta'ylor 
F. C. Taylor 
F. C. Taylor 
F. C. Taylor 
F. C. Taylor 
F. C. Taylor 
F. C. Ta'ylor 
F. C. Taylor 
F. C. Taylor 




Gaylord, Rev. Reuben — 1 867-1 870. 
Merrill Rev. O. W.— 1870-1874. 
Gates, Rev. H. N.— 1874-1880. 
Merrill, Rev. C. W.— 1880-October 1884. 
Maile, Rev. J. L.— 1884-1889. 
Bross, D.D., Rev. H.— 1890- 




1892— John E. Tuttle, D.D., Lincoln. 
1894 — Col. S. Storrs Cotton, Norfolk. 
1894 — Motier A. Bullock, D.D., Lincoln. 
1895 — Rev. Lewis Gregory, Lincoln. 
1905— Pres. D. B. Perry, D.D., Crete. 














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The year of 
1882— Merrill, Rev. C. W. 
Biirnham, Leavitt, 
1888— Berry, Rev. L. F. 
Kilner, J. C, Esq. 
1891 — Bross, Rev. H. 
Barnard, E. H. 
1894— Hart, Prof. A. C. 

election is given. 

1894 — Gregory, Rev. Lewis. 
1897 — Taylor, Prof. F. C. 

Hanford, Rev. S. I. 
1900 — Herring, Rev. H. C. 

Ricker, Rev. A. E. 
1903 — Hampton, Rev. W. S. 

Bullock, Rev. M. A. 

Selleck, W. A., Esq. 


1889 — Wannamaker, Rev. 
H. S. 

Ba'ker, Rev. E. H. , 
1892— Bennett, Rev. W. P. 

Hanford, Rev. S. L 

Storm, Rev. J. E. 
1895 — Cressman, Rev. E. 

Rose, Rev. L. P. 
1898— Perry, Pres. D. B. 

1898— Stewart, Rev. J. D. 

Cressman, Rev. A. A. 
1901 — Cressman, Rev. A. A. 

Beaver, Rev. C. H. 

Harrison, Rev. C. S. 
1904— Hunt, Rev. T. C. 

Cowan, Rev. J. W. 

Smith, Mr. C. C. 


1874 — Dresser, Rev. Amos 1880 — Reed, Rev. J. A. 

Elliott, Rev. J. E. Biscoe, Rev. G. S. 

1877— Reed, Rev. Julius Tiffany, Mr. F. B. 

Mathewson, Col. C. 1883 — Eastman, Rev. W. H. 


1883— Lee, Mr. C. H. 1895— Peas, Rev. F. W. 

1886 — Cressman, Rev. A. A. Needham, Mrs. O. M. 

Lewis, Mr. Hiram 1898— Batty, Rev. G. J. 

1889 — Tasker, Rev. J. O. 1901 — Appleton, Rev. F. G. 
1892 — Doane, Rev. John Price, Mr. John A. 

r904 — ]\[iinro. Rev. G. A. 


i8<;5 — Parker, Rev. J. J. 1901 — No record. 

ElHs, Rev. J. F. 1904 — Schroder, Rev. G.W. 

Clark, Mr. Geo. E. Kokjer. Rev. J. M. 

i,S(j8— Bacon, Rev. J. F. Parker, Rev. J. J. 

Copeland, Mr. Geo. 


1892— Hampton, Rev. W.S. 1901— Axtell, Rev. A. G. 
1895 — No record. 1904 — No record. 

1898 — No record. 


1877— Chase, Rev. J. B. 1892— Enlow, Rev. C. E. 

Lee, Dea. Geo. F. Bell, Mr. W. O. 

i88c^Leavitt, Rev. ^^^ M. 18^)5— Bell, Mr. J. w'.^ 

Peet, Mr. W. W. Bell, Mr. W. O. 

1883 — Gregory, Rev. Lewis 1898 — Stevens, Dr. J. F. 

Post, Dea. E. 1901 — Manss, Rev. W. H. 
1886— Ashmiin, Rev. E. H. Crofts, Rev. G. W. 

Bellows, Mr. Fred 1904 — Han ford, Rev. S. T. 
1889 — Gregory, Rev. Lewis Taylor, Principal 

Leavitt", Mr. T. H. F. C. 



1874 — Gaylord, Rev. Reuben 1889 — Alexander, Mr. N. H. 

1877 — Sherrill, Rev. F. A. 1892 — Wainwright, Rev. 
i88(^Spencer, Rev, J. G. G. W. 

1883— Swing, Rev. A. T. 1895— Buss, Rev. W. H. 

Scott, Rev. Willard 1898 — Pearson, Rev. Sam- 
1886 — Wainwright, Rev. uel 

G. W. 1901— Hatch, Rev. F. A. 

Burnham, Mr. Lea- Loomis, Mr. G. L. 

vitt 1904 — Herring, Rev. H. C. 
1889— Scott, Rev. Willard Loomis, Mr. G. L. 


1883— Hampton, Rev. W.S. 1895— Mac Ayeal, Rev. H. S. 

Bush, Hon. A. H. ' Clark, Rev. V. F. 

1886— Harrison, Rev. C. S. 1898— Foster, Rev. John 

Bush, Mr. Royal Faling, Mr. W. H. 

1889 — Taylor, Rev. Geo. E. 1901- — -No report. 

Cading, Mr. C. L. 1904— Mitchell, Rev. G. W. 

1892— Taylor, Rev. Geo. E. Campbell, Mr. T. B. 

MacAyeal, Rev. H. S. 


1883 — Suess, Rev. Wul 1892 — Mannhardt, Rev. Mr. 

1886— Albrecht, Rev. Geo. i8()5— Eversz, Supt. M. E. 





The printed record from w 


1 868 — Lancaster. 
1870 — Papillion. 
1871 — Salt Creek. 
1873 — Pepperville. 

Jenkins Alills. 

Nursery Hill. 

Twin Grove. 




Bell Creek (Ger.). 
1875 — Palmyra. 

Green Island. 

Pleasant Hill. 
1876 — Elkhorn City. 

Fremont (German). 

La Platte. 

Maple Creek. 

Elmwood Precinct. 

Webster County First 
1877 — Pleasant Prairie. 

Boone County 2d. 

1878— Central City. 

Sarpy Center. 

lich this roll is made begins 


1879 — Mapleville. 

1 88 1 — Sheridan. 

Scott Precinct. 

Lincoln (German). 

Rock Creek. 
1882— Driftwood. 


Iowa Ridge. 

Pleasant Grove. 

Red Willow. 


Valley Grange. 

Lincoln Valley. 
1883 — Boone. 

Richardson Co. ist. 


1884 — Dorchester. 


West Cedar Valley. 


Buda Flatts (Ger.). 

Ebenezer (German). 

Fricdensau (Ger.). 

Prairie Center. 



1885— Buffalo Creek. 

Cedar Creek. 


Hazel Dell. 

Lone Tree. 

Morning- Star. 



Way land. 
1886— Af ton. 



Beaver Crossing. 






Gar Creek. 

Gibbon (German). 


Holt County First. 

1887— Elk City (German), 





New Hope. 



Otoe Reservation. 

Pleasant Grove. 


1887 — Salem. 


Spring View. 

1888— Bethel. 


Butler County First. 

Cedar Bluffs. 

Cedar Rapids. 



Grafton (German). 

Guide Rock. 



Oak Grove. 


Pleasant Ridge. 
1889 — Enterprise. 

Hayes County First 



Palisade (German). 

Pleasant View. 



York (German). 
1890 — Highland (German). 






congri:gatio.\al n'i:i'.kaska 


1889 — Greeley. 
1891 — Bradshaw. 


North Bend. 

Osborne ( German ) , 




1892 — Pilger. 

South Bend. 
1893 — Flag Butte. 


Spring Ranch. 
1894 — Keuka. 


Park Place. 

Snake Creek. 


Willow Valley. 
1896 — Belknap. 


. Nonpareil. 


Pleasant Ridge. 

Clear Water. 


1897— Blyville. 
1898 — Douglas. 


1899 — Berlin. 

Culbertson (German) 



1 900 — Gloversville. 

Hayes Center. 




Oak Creek. 

Bennington. ' 

Platte Valley. 
1902 — Nelson (German). 
1903 — Crete Bethlehem. 

Free W^ater. 

Omaha Pilgrim. 

Pleasant Valley. 


Hope moved to S. D. 


Fremont ( German ) . 

Maple Creek. 

Pleasant Hill. 
1904 — Beaver Creek. 

Ft. Calhoun. 






The aggregate membership in the preceding Hst of 
churches dropped is not large. Some names have been 
changed, merged into other churches ; some after a time 
have been reorganized, and others have ceased to exist 
entirely. They illustrate the changes going on in a frontier 
state v/here population is not settled and show that the 
present list of living churches by no means indicates the 
active work of Congregationalists in the state. 




The foliowino- is a list of town lots donated by the South 
Platte Land company for school and church purposes: 

South Bend. 2, 3 

Highland... 20. 21 .... 

Loui.sville. . . 411, 412 . 

Waverly.... 41, 42, 23. 

Greenwood . 294, 295 . 


Exeter . 

551, 552 

f37, 38, 39, for consideration of 
\ S50, equals donation of one lot 
( 321, 322, for con.sideration of S55, 
i equals donation of one lot to . 
f 491, 492, Baptist Church for 830, 
\ equals the donation of one lot. 

7, 8, block 51 

7, 8, block 60 

3, 4, in 1. y 

7, block 79 

23, 24, block 82 

10, block 84 

11, 12, block 85 

9, block 94 

31, 32, block 108 

10, 11, 12, block 110 

1, 2, block 113 

12, 13, block 119 

19, 20, block 120 

22, 2.<, 24, block 120 

4, 5, block 121 

35, block 121 

20, block 122 

12, block 125 

20, block 128 

Crete . . 
Crete . . 
Crete . . 
Crete. . 
Crete . . 
Crete. . 
Crete. . 
Crete. . 
Crete. . 
Crete . . 
Crete . . 
Crete. . 
Crete. . 
Crete . . 
Crete. . 
Crete . . 
Crete . . 

Crete 1, 2, block 129 

Crete ' 22. block 142.. 


Crete . 
Crete . 

G. block 144 

16, block 15H 

11. 12, block 11, 1, 
6, 7, block 187 . . . . 

School Dist. No. 57 
I) No. 24 Cong. Church 
School No. 42 
I Cong. Church of 
i Cxreenwood 
Church of Christ 

Catholic Chinch 

M. E. Church 

Baptist Church 
Doane College' 
Doane College 
Doanc College 
Doane College 
Doane College 
Doane College 
Doane College 
Doane College 
Doane College 
Doane College 
Doane College 
Doane College 
Doane College 
Doanc C ollcge 
Doane College 
Doane College 
Doanc College 
Doanc College 
Doanc College 
Doanc College 
Doanc College 
Doane College 
Doane College 
Doane College 
Doanc College 







11, 12. block 192 

Doane College 
Doane College 
Doane College 
Doane College 
Doane College 

Episcopal Church 
M E Church 


9, 10, block 193 


11, 12, block 203 .. . 


11, 12, block 210 


7, 8, 9, block 210 


De Witt 

I 7, 8, block 118, for consid. of $30, 
\ equal to a donation of one lot . . . 
660. 661 


503 504 ... . 

School Dist No 44 



Cong. Church 
M. E. Church 

Dorchester . 

rl237, 1238, M. E. Church for a 
< consideration of $25, equal to a 


M. E. Church 

674, 675 


Sutton, 1st add. 

86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 9] , 92, 93, 94,95,96 
13, 14, 15 16 block 4 .. .. 

I School Dist. No. 
\ 17, Adams Co. 
Ger Ininianuel Ch 

11, 12, block 28 

Rt.Rev.J. O'Conner 
1st Cong. Church 


1, 2, block 29 

Harvard .... 


1st Cong. Church 
School Dist. No. 11 
School Dist. Juniata 
M E Church 

Harvard .... 




Kenesaw. . . . 



861 862 863 

1022, 1023 

f German Baptist 
\ Brethren Church 
[School No. 
I 3, Adams Co. 
Baptist Church 
(School No.. 2, 

11, 12. 13, 14 



562 563 564 

63, 64 

\. Kearney Co. 

/ School No. 7, 


4 5 block 40 ... 

\. Buffalo Co. 
School Dist No 12 


1, block 12 



Methodist Church 

Aside from the above list of town lots donated for school 
and chtirch ptn-poses, a great many lots were given by the 
South Platte Land company for the promotion of immi- 
gration and for the furtherance of local business enter- 
prises, such as hotels, nev^^spapers, and stores in nearly every 
town in the territory of said company. 








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^I'-^'t^lt-l 2=3-3 5^S5SS'S'5'§ . 

<u "S : 

Iwood, Neb. 
dison, Neb. . 
ustis, Neb. . . 
ricson, Neb. 
Isie, Neb .... 
iidicott, Neb 
dgemont, S. 







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Filley, Neb 

Farnam, Neb 

Ft. Morgan, Col 

Farwell, Neb 

Guide Rock, Neb 

Gillette. Wvo 

Greelev, Neb 

Grant,' Neb 

Guern.sev. Wyo 

Giltner. Neb .' 

Graf, Neb 

Holdres^e, Neb 

Holvoke, Col 

Holbrook, Neb 

Heniin!L(ford, Neb 

Herndon, Kan 

Hcn.llev. Neb 

Hildretii, Neb 

Hardv, Neb 

Hai-ler, Neb 

Hub1)ell, Neb 

Holli.s, Kan 

Haxtiini, Col 


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The following table of pastorates in living churches was 

prepared by Mrs. J. E. Storm. Its value is apparent to 

those who wish to study the record of any given church. 
This table is as correct as could be made from the printed 


Present pastors marked — . 

Addi.son (Bloomfield) — Organized 1889. — Revs. G. R. 
Berry, i8c)o; J. W. Hardy (Lie), 1891-92; E. Martin, 
1893-96; E. S. Sarkis, 1896-98; R. Y. Grey, 1898; C. 
Anderson, 1899; Mrs. J. W. Mason, 1902; R. Graham, 
1903 ; A. J. Iden, 1903 ; N. Shemian, 1904—. 

AiNSWORTR — Organized 1883. — J. Herbert (Stu.), 1883; 
Revs. T. Gray, 1883; N.^L. Packard, 1884; J. A. Mil- 
ligan, 1884-86; T. W. De Long, 1888-^)5; S. Eveland, 
1896-98; H. M. Triplett, 1898-1902; C. D. Gearhart, 
1902-3 ; R. F. Paxton, 1905 — . 

Albion — Organized 1872. — Revs. C. C. Huniphrc}-, 1874- 
78; T. Armstrong, 1878-80; A. A. Cressman, 1880-86; 
E. S. Chandler, 1887; W. J. Turner. 1887-91: F. W. 
Peas, 1892-95; L. H. Stoughton, 1895-1900; C. Doug- 
las, 1900-3; A. C. Townsend. 1903—. 

ALf.iANCE (German)- — Organized 11)03. — Rev. Otto 
Roehrig, 1903 — . 

.\i.,M.\-- Organized 1888.— Revs. Wni. :\larshali. 1881 : |. W. 
Hadden, 1884-85; G. L. Dickenson. 1888-90; A. E. 
Ricker, 1891-95; R. i\r. Travers. 18(^5; W. S. Hills. 
i89(>-<j8: V. W. IVas, 181)9-1902; A. J. l-olsom. 
1902-3; V\u. llauptman. 1904-5; D. H. Piatt. 1905 — . 

Almeria — Organized 1905. — Rev. T. Evans, 1905 —. 


Arborvif.le — Organized 1876. — Revs. C. S. Harrison, 
1875-76; W. S. Hampton, 1877-80; S. S. Haines, 
1881 ; J. W. Young, 1882-84; D. E. French, 1884; J. E. 
Storm, 1885-87; G. W. Mitchell, 1888-92; J. A. High, 
1892-93; N. E. Gardner, 1895-99; W. W. Hart, 1899- 
1902 ; W. B. Payne, 1900-2 ; G. R. Martin, 1902-3 ; 
D. E. French, 1903 — . 

Arcadia — Organized 1889. — Revs. H. Hitchcock, 1889- 
90; M. J. P. Thing, 1891-95; T. F. Smith, 1895-98; 
W. TrI. Houston, 1898-1900; F. G. Appleton, 1900-2; 
Harold Hunting (Stu.), 1903; H. A. Shuman, 1903 — . 

Arlington — Organized 1883. — Revs. B. F. Dififenbacher, 
1883-85 ; W. P. Clancy, 1885-87; A. Otis (Stu.), 1887; 
J. P. Bidwell, 1888-89; A. W. Ayers, 1889-^)2; J. W. 
Kidder, 1S93-94; F. G. Appleton, 1899; L. S. Hand, 
1900-1 ; G. H. Rice, 1902-3; G. Rindell, 1904—. 

AsJiLAND — Organized 1871. — Revs. Asa Farwell, 1871-77; 
Wm. Leavitt, 1878-86; J. E. Brereton, 1886-92; W. 
Denney, 1892-97 ; T. W. C. Cheeseman, 1898^-1900 ; 
W. C. Blakeslee, 1900-2 ; J. W. Carson, 1903 — . 

Aten— Organized 1882.— Revs. R. FI. Baker, 1884; W. H. 
Stuhbins, 1884-87; L. Belknap, 188S; G. R. Berry, 
1889-91; E. Durant, 1891-92; J. Hardy, 1893-94; W. 
T. Williams, 1895-1902 ; A. J. Iden, 1903-4; T. Dyke, 

Aurora — Organized 1872. — Revs. D. B. Perry, 1872; A. 
Maxwell. 1873; Rev. Mr. Hill, 1874-75; W. Woolman, 
187^80; A. L. Seward, 1880-84; J- G. Spencer. 1885- 
86; E. Cressman, 1887; M. Baskerviile, 1888-91; S. I. 
Hanford, 1891-97; W. H. Hopkins, 1898-1901; A. E. 
Ricker, iqoi — . 

AvocA— Organized 1865.— Revs. F. Alley, i86(>-68; C. B. 
Taylor, 1883; J. ATorley. 1884-87; G. W. Mitchell, 
1887-89; D. L. Flillard, 1889-90; G. C. Hicks, 1891- 


94; C. J. Sage, 1897-99; J. H. Andress, 1S99-1901 ; 
J. H. Bennett, 1901-4; M. B. Bird, -1905 — . 

Baker — Org-anized 1900. — Rev. G. W. oNIartin, 1900; Rev. 

J. B. Brown, 1905 — . 
Bassett — Organized 1903. — Rev. W'm. Haresnape, 1903 ; 

Mr. A. Mygatt (Stu.), 1904 — . 
Bazile (Niobrara) — Organized 1888. — Revs. A. Eluia- 

mani, 1888-91; J. Garvie, 1891-94; F. Frazier. 1905 — . 
Beatrice— Organized 1884.— Revs. :M. F. Piatt, 1884; Wm. 

O. Weeden, 1884-S6; E. H. Ashman, 1886-88; Mr. A. 

Hertel (Stu.), 1888; E. S. Smith, 1888-92; G. W. 

Crofts, 1892-1904; E. Booth, Jr., 1904 — . 
Beemer — Organized 1899. — Revs. A. W. Ayers, 1899- 

1903 ; Geo. Scott, 1903 — . 
Bertrand — Organized 1885. — Revs. C. H. Hiiestis, 1886- 

88; A. W. Coffman, 1888-90; U. C. Bosworth, 1890; 

J. Kerr, 1892; H. C. Snyder, 1893-94; F. D. Healey, 

1895-99; J. S. Calhomi, 1899-1901 ; J. Embree, T902-4; 

J. Crocker, 1904; H. F. Holton, 1904 — . 
Bingham — Organized 1900. — Mr. M. W. WilHams (Stu.), 

1S90; Revs. H. C. Cleveland, 1898-1900; J. E. Storm, 

1900-2; W. D. King, 1903-5; W. T. Hadsel (M. E.), 

Bijuden— Organized 1886.— Revs. D. O. Smith, 1886-87; 

W. H. Houston, 1889-90; B. O. Snow, 1891-93; W. 

A. Davies, 1894-96; A. S. Heathcote, 1897-98. F. W. 

Grupe, 1900-1 ; T. F. May, 1904 ; J. T. Ellis, 1905 — . 
Beair— Organized 1870.— Revs. M. S. Sperry, 1868; M. 

Tingley, 1869-77; R. Campbell, 1878-80; G. W. Wain- 

wright', 1880-82; Mr. Fink (Stu.); H. M. Goodell, 

1882-84; A. M. Case. 1884-87; A. Rogers, 1887-88; 

J. Powers, 1S89-92; T. D. McLean, 1893; G. B. Per- 
kins, 1894-97: F. W. Gardner. 1899-1900; J. W. Lar- 

kin, 1901-3; A. G. Axtell, 1904 — . 


BLOOMFiELD^Organized 1891.^ — Revs. J. W. Hardy, 189 1- 

()2; E. Martin, 1893-96; E. S. Sarkey, 1896-97; C. 

Anderson, 1898-1900; E. Booth, Jr., 1900-3; G. L,. 

McDougal, 1903; R. Graham, 1903 — . 
Brewster— -Organized 1899. — Mr. T. A. Dungan (Stu.), 

1899; Revs. T. Evans, 1900-4; J. C. Noyce, 1904 — . 
Brule — Organized 1896. — Revs. W. S. Hampton, 1894- 

97; F. S. Perry, 1898; G. W. Knapp, 1898-1902; Mr. 

H. H. Rhule (Stu.), 1902; T. Jones (Stu.), 1903-4. 
Bruning — Organized 1890. — Revs. E. L. Ely, 1890; F. 

Fox, 1891 ; E. Martin, 1892; G. J. Battey, 1893-95; 

W. R. Griffiths, 1897; A. L. Squires, 1898; W. A. Al- 
corn, 1899-1902; -D. E. Thomas (Stu.), 1903; M. J. 

Millard, 1904 — . 
Brunswick — Organized 189 1. — Revs. H. Griffith, 1S91- 

92; W. A. bavies," 1893; S. A. Bear (M. E.), 1894; 

G. T. Noyce, 1895-1901; W. J. Isaacs, 1901-3 ; C. M. 

Thomas, 1903-5 ; J. M. Kokjer, 1905 — . 
Burwell— Organized 1888.— Mr. J. A. Otis (Stu.). 1888; 

Revs. G. F. McHenry, 1888; A. W. Connett, 1889-90; 

D. W. Comstock, 1890; C. E. Walker, 1891 ; A. A. 

Baker, 1892-93; A. L. Squires, 1894; H. M. Evans, 

^^95-^7- J- E- McKenney, 1897-98; C. E. Campbell, 

1899-1902 ; H. A. Shuman, 1902 ; J. B. Stocking, 

]^>UTTE — Organized 1891. — Revs. W. Loney, 1893-95; W. 

A. Hensel, 1896-98; J. Gray, 1898-1901 ; P. B. West, 

1902-4; J. M. Brown, 1905 — . 
Butte (German) — Organized 1895. — Revs. J. Single, 

1898-1901 ; H. J. Dietrick. 1901-3 ; H. Hess, 1003 — . 

CA]\rBRiDGE — Organized 1883. — Revs. W. S. Hampton, 
i88c^82; F. W. Barber, 1883; J- W. Hadden, 1884; 
A. N. Dean, 1885-89; H. S. MacAyeal, 1889-95 ; D. R- 


James, 1895-96; J. Foster, 1897-98; W. Hardcastlc, 
1899-1903 ; J. P. Ratzell, 1903 — . 

Campbell — Organized 1875. — ^^Ir. Gardner (Stu.), 1886; 
Revs. D. O. Smith, 1886-89; W. H. Houston, 1889- 
91; B. O. Snow, 1891-93; S. A. ATomits, 1893; W. A. 
Davies, 1894-96; A. S. Heathcote, 1897-99; G. W. 
Grnpe, 1900-2; F. Pile, 1903; T. F. JNIay, t 904-5 ; 
T. T. Ellis, 1905 — . 

Camp Creek — Organized 1868. — Revs. R. Foster, 1868- 
ji; C. C. Humphrey, 1871-73; A. B. Pratt, 1873-75; 
J. E. Lowes, 1876-78; A. K. Cressman, 1879-80; L. T. 
Mason, 1881-82: E. C. W. Hill, 1883-85; A. Dresser, 
1886-96; J. L. Fisher, 1896-97; G. B. Spangler. 1898- 
1902 ; T. Jeflries, T902 — . 

Carroll (Welsh) — Organized .1891. — Revs. S. Jones, 
1891-1901 ; D. T. Morgan, 1902-3; J. V. Jones, 

Center — Organized 1902. — Mr. J. H. Mason (Stu.), 1902; 
Revs. J. A. Kraemer, 1903; R. Graham, 1905 — . 

Chadron — Organized 1885. — Revs. FI. Bross, 1885; G. J. 
Powell, 188^^88; J. A. Thome, 1888-90; F. L. Fergu- 
son, 1890-92; J. Powers, 1893-94; A. E. Ricker, 1895- 
1900; J. H. Andress, 1901 — . 

Clarks— Organized 1878.— Revs. B. A. Dean, 1878; G. S. 
Biscoe, 1879-85; G. W. Brownjohn, 188(^87; Miss 
E. K. Henry, 1887: J. A. Thome, 1888-89; J. E. Storm, 
1890-91: C. W. Terrell, 1892-93; Mrs. E. B. Perkins, 
T893-95; H. J. Hinman, 1897-98; Mrs. E. B. Perkins. 
1899-190-I ; G. \V. Mitchell, 1905 — . 

Clay Ciinter — Organized 1882. — Revs. G. E. Taylor, 
1 881-86; E. Southworth, t886; R. R. Williams, 1887- 
90; Mr. F. L. Johnston (Stu.), 1890; E. H. Baker, 
1891-93: B. L. Webber, 1894-95; Airs. E. B. Perkins, 
1896-99: J. 1^. Storm, 1899-1900; C. S. Harrison, 
1901-2 ; R. M. Travers, 1903-4 ; J. H. Bennett, 1904 — . 


Clemen — Organized 1901. — jMr. J. W. Ellis (Stu.), 1901 5 

Revs. J. C. Noyce, 1901-3 ; T. E. Nugent, 1904. 
CoL\T]\[]u-s — Organized 1867. — Revs. J. B. Chase, 1868- 

69; J. E. Elliot, 1870-75; C. C. Starbuck, 1875; T. 

Bayne, 1876-78; E. L. Sherman, 1878-81; J. Gray, 

1882; O. V. Rice, 1883-89; G. Morton, 1889; W. S. 

Hunt, 1890-01; O. D. Crawford, 1893; A. J. Rogers, 

1894-99; G. A. Monroe, 1900^ — . 
CoMSTOCK — Organized 1903. — Revs. Mrs. Mary A. Helser 

1903 ; S. x\. Van Luvan, 1904-5 ; J. H. Kraemer 

CoRTLANi> — Organized 1875. — Revs. C. H. Heustis, 1884 

H. Bates, 1885-87; H. C. Halbersleben, 1888-90; G. R 

Battey, 189(^93; F. G. McHenry, 1893-96; E. E 

Sprague, 1898; G. Scott, 1 899-1 903 ; C. G. Oxley 

1904; W. H. LeBar, 1904-5. 
CovvLES — Organized 1883. — Revs. A. Martinis, 1884; W, 

D. Page, 1885-88; H. D. Piatt, i888-<^3; S. Deakin^ 

1893-1900; J. M. Kokjer, 1901-3; S. Deakin, 1904 — 
Crawford— Organized 1889. — Air. I. Meredith (Stu.) 

1889; Revs. E. H. Pound, 1889-90; I. J. Gardner 

1891; H. R. Baker, [892; J. Jeffries, i893-<}5; H. V 

Rominger, 1896-98; A. C. Townsend, 1899-190T ; G. L 

Shull, 1901— . 
Creighton — Organized 1872. — Revs. C. H. Emerson, 

1871-83; J. P. Sparrow, 1883-84; T. Kent, 1884-86; 

J. P. Preston, 1887-89; J. W. Barron, 1890-93; G. W, 

James, 1894-1900; C. J. Rogers, 1900; E. L. Wismer. 

1901-2; A. A. Brown, 1903 — . 
Crete — Organized 1871. — Revs. F. Alley, 1871-73: H, 

Bross, 1873-84; W. P. Bennett, 1884-96; M. W. Morse, 

1806-1901 ; J. \y. Cowan. 1901 — . 
Crete (German) — Organized 1876. — Revs. C. F. Veitz 

1875-79; F. Falk, 1880; P. VVeidman, 1881-84; J 


Schaerer, 1884-91; \V. Fritzemeier, 1892-97; F. Eger- 

land, i8c)7-i90i ; K. L. Stahl, 1902-4; IL C. Stahner, 

Crofton — Organized 1896. — Revs. W. T. \\'illiams, 1896- 

1902 ; A. J. Iden, 1903-5 ; T. Dyke, 1905. 
CuMMiNGS Park — Organized 1900. — Revs. S. Deakin, 

1901-4; T. Evans, 1904. 
Curtis— Organized 1888.— Revs. W. D. Page. 1888-90; 

C. W. Preston, 1892-1900; E. U. Menzi, 1900; J. L. 

Fisher, 1901-3 ; F. W. Gardner, 1904 — . 

Daily Branch — Organized 1883. — Revs. G. H. Rice, 1898- 
1900; I. McRae, 1900-2; G. W. Schroeder, 1903-4; 
J. Roberts, 1905 — . 

Danbury — Organized 1898. — Revs. L, A. Turner, 1898; 
Mr. T. A. Dungan (Stii.), 1898; O E. Hayes, 1898^ 
99; H. C. Cleveland, 1900; H. C. Halbersleben, 1901-3 ; 
J. W. Mason, 1905 ; F. Hall, 1905 — . 

David City — Organized 1878. — Revs. M. A. Crawford, 
1878; A. W. Curtis, 1879-81; H. N. Gates, 1881-82; 
T. FI. Avars, 1883-84; Jas. Oakey, t886-S8; V. F. 
Clark, 1888-92; A. W. Ayers, iSg2-<)S: W. A. 
Schwimley, 1896-99; H. J. Hinman, 190C-1 ; E. Booth, 
Jr.-, 1902-4; V. H. Ruring, 1905 — . 

DeWitt — Organized 1874.— Revs. F. Alley, 1874; L Good- 
ell, 1876^ D. J. Jones, 1877; J. Winslow, 1878-79; 
E. E. Webber, 1880-81 ; J. M. Woodward, 1883; C. H. 
Heustis, 1884-86; D. E. Hathaway, 1886-88; L T. 
Hull, 1889-90; J. E. Storm, 1891-93; G. T. Tangeman, 
1S94-96; R. M. Travers, 1809-1900; C. E. Campbell, 
190T ; M. J. Millard, 1902-4; J. E. Storm, 1904-5. 

Dodge— Organized 1887. — Revs. W. D. J. Stevenson, 1887; 
Mr. G. I. (Lie), 1887; S. Pearson, 1888-90; 
P. H. Hines (Evan.), 1891-93; A. Farnsworth, 1894- 
95; E. Cressrnan, 1896; W. A. Davies, 1897-99; C. E. 


Howard, 1900-2; A. C. Miller, 1902-4; W. S. Hamp- 
ton, 1905 — . 

Doniphan — Organized 1884. — Revs. I. C. Hughe--, 1883- 
84; J. H. Embree, 1885-90; E. Cressman, 1891-95; 
R. M. Travers, 1896-98; C. EI. Heustis, 1899-1901 ; 
W. A. Alcorn, 1902-4; R. Jones, 1904 — •. 

DUxNNiNG — Organized 1900.- — Revs. C. W. Preston, 
1900-4 ; J. C. No3'ce, 1904 — . 

Di:sTiN— Organized 1S86.— Revs. G. W. Mitchell, 1886; 

E. H. Lii^bv, 1887; S. W. Johnson, 1889; W. T. Wil- 
liams, f890-93; J. M. Kokjer, 1895-99; O- V. Kenis- 
ton, 1899; W. A. Hensel, 1900-1 ; J. T. Ellis, 1903-5. 

Eagle— Organized 1885.— Revs. W. .S. Hills, 188^87; J. 

F. Tucker, 1888; B. C. Preston, 1889; A. N. Dean, 
1890-92; W. Haynes, 1892; S. P>. Crosby, 1893-94; 

B. F. Diffenbacher, 1898-99; C. H. Huestis, 1902. 
Eureka — Organized 1896. — Rev. J. H. Beitle, 1898-1901. 
EusTis — Organized 1894. — Revs. O. E. Ticknor, 1894-95; 

Mrs. C. W. Preston. 1897-98; A. E. Davies,_ 1899; 
A. G. Axtell, 1900-1 ; J. L. Fisher, 1902-3 ; G. A. 
Gardner, 1904-5 ; C. M. Thomas, 1905 — . 
Exeter — Organized 1872. — Revs. T. N. Skinner, 1872-73; 

C. Hibbard, 1874-75 ; B. G. Page, 1876-78; B. A. Dean, 
1880-83; ^'I. L. Butler, 1883-85; J. B. Gilbert, 1886- 
90; Wm. Haynes, 1891 ; C. H. Huestis, 1892-99; H. C. 
Plalbersleben, 1899-1901 ; W. B. Payne, 1902 — . 

FAiRFiELD-^Organized 1873.— Revs. T. Pugh, 1872-78; A. 
Abbott, 1878; R. R. V/illiams, 1879-83; C. E. Har- 
vv^ood, 1884-89; R. C. Mtorse, 1889; -^- W. Connett, 
1890; E. L. Sherman, 1891-95; B. O. Snow, 1896-97; 

G. H. Hull, 1898^9; P. S. Bandy, 190(^2; G. H. 
Wright, 1903 — . 



Fafrmokt — Organized 1872. — Revs. A. ^Maxwell, 1872; C. 
Hibbard, 1873-75; ^^ • Cockran, 1876-77; H. C. Aber- 
nethy, 1878^87; W. W. Fellows, 1887; F. R. Bunker, 
1888; T. W. Cole, 1889-91 ; A. A. Cressman, 1892-95; 
G. T. Tang-eman, 1896-98; C. H. Reaver, 1899-1905; 
C. A. Gleason, 1905 — . 

Fairview (Dodge) — Organized 1896. — Revs. D. Donald- 
.son, 1895-96; \Y. A. Davies, 1897-99; C. E. Howard, 

Fairnikw (Trenton) — Organized 1895. — Revs. D. F. 
Bright, 1893-96; C. E. Campbell, 1898-99; A. G. Ax- 
tell, 1902-3 ; G. T. Noyce, 1904 — . 

Farnam — Organized 1887. — H. S. Snyder (Stu.), 1887; 
Revs. W. Woolman; 1887-89; J. B. Doolittle. i89C^ 
92; E. E. Sprague, 1893-97; F. \V. Grupe, 1898-99; 
G. J. Battey, 1900-2 ; J. E. Craig, 1903 — . 

Franklix — Organized 1873. — Revs. S. X. Grout, 1872- 
So; J. M. Strong, 1880-82; W. S. Flampton, 1882-83; 
C. S. Harrison, 1884-92; G. W. Alitchell, 1892-1902; 
T. p. Douglas, 1902 — . 

Fremont — Organized 1857. — Revs. I. E. Heaton. 1856- 
69; T. B. Chase, 1869-72; R. Foster, 1872-75; G. Por- 
ter. 1875-78; A. f. Swing-. 1878-86; L. F. Berry, 
1886-90; W. H. Buss, 1890-1901 ; J. Doane, 1902 — . 

Friend — Organized 1875. — Revs. B. G. Page, 1874-78; J. 
Winslow. 1879-83; O. C. Clark, 1883-84; Sidney 
Strong, 1885-87; W. E. Davidson, 1887; J. Sharrett, 
1888; E. P. Dada, 1889-94; A. N. Dean, 1895-96; 
W. B. Payne, 1897-1900; W. W. Hart. IV900-3 ; P. A. 
Sharp, 1903 — . 

Friend (German) — Organized 1884. — Revs. E. Jose, 1883; 
J. Lich, 1884-88; L. Newman, 1889-90; F. Reichardt, 
1891 ; P. Lich, 1892-95; G. Essig, 1896-97; G. L. 
Brakemeyer, 1898-1904; W. F. Vogt, T904-5. 


Geneva— Organized 1886.— Revs. G. A. Taylor, 1886; H. 
S. Wannamaker, 1887-90; H. J.J^erker, 1890-92; J. E. 
Brereton, 1893-95; P. H. Hines, 1896; T. Griffiths, 

Genoa— Organized 1882.— Revs. J. P. Dyas, 1879-82; C. 
H. Crawford, 1883; O. C. Todd, 1884-85; U. C. Bos- 
worth, 1887-88; R. Killip, 1889; C. W. Tnrrell (M. 
E.), 1890-91; J. S. VanAlstine, 1892-93; N. E. Gard- 
ner, 1894: C. A. Richardson, 1895-96; H. J. Hinman, 
1897-99; W. Haiiptman, 1900; R. Rein, 1901 ; C. M. 
Lowe, 1902-4; A. J. Iden, 1905. 

Germantov/n — Organized 1900. — Revs. . S. Anderson, 
1902 ; G. L. Brakemeyer, 1904 — . 

Germantown (German) — Revs. F. Woth, 1890-99; C. 
Richert, 1 899-1901 ; J. B. Happel, 1902-3 ; G. L. Brake- 
meyer, 1904 — . 

Grafton— Organized 1878.— Revs. W. S. Hills, 1878; B. 
A. Dean, "1879 ; J- T^. Doolittle,, 1880-87; J- E. Herbert, 
1887-88; F. C. Baker (Sta.), 1889; E. H. Baker, 
1889-93; J. FI. Andress, 1894-95: A. A. Cressman, 
1896-97; J. H. Andress, 1898-99; C. S. Harrison, 
1900; E. W. Altvater, 1901-2 ; C. L. Hammond, 1903 — . 

Grand Island — Organized 1887. — Revs. D. W. Comstock, 
1887-88; W. L. Demorest, 1888; J. Doane, 1889-92; 
J. H. Henderson, 1893; T. W. Cole, 1894; H. M. 
Evans, 1896; G. J. Battey, 1897-^8; E. V. Gardner, 
.1890-1900; A. A. Cressman, 1901-4; L. J. Marsh, 

Grant— Organized 1887.— Revs. J. A. Thome, 1887-88; 
M. H. Wallace, 1889; W. S. Hampton, 1889-^1; G. S. 
Brett, 1892; G. D. Tangeman, 1893: G. W. Knapp, 
1894-98; O. L. Anderson, 1899; J- Crocker, 1900-2; 
F. Barnard, 1905 — . 

305 ( (_).\(iKi:(;Ario.\AL m:i!kaska 

IJAr.LAii Kicrman)— Organized 1893. — l^<^vs. J. Alorach, 
1893-1)6; R. Hilkerbaeunicr, 1897-1902; K. L. Hobein, 
Haruine — Organized 1889. — Revs. J. R. Cooper, 1890- 
92; J. 11 Doolittlc, 1893-94; G. J. Battey, 1895-97; 
A. L. Brown, 1898; J. A. Jones, i8qg; G. R. Martin, 
1900-1 ; J. E. Storm, 1902-4 ; A. W. Nevill, 1904 — . 
Harvard — Organized 1872. — Revs. B. F. Haviland, 1873; 
J. Gray, 1874-76; H. P. Page, 1877-79; G. E. Taylor, 
1880-83; E. Southworth, 1883-88; G. R. Parish, 1888- 
89; O. V. "Rice, 1889-91 ; W. O. Wark, 1892-94; R. S. 
Osgood, 1898-99 ; A. R. Rogers, 1900 ; A. A. Brown, 
1901-3; W. S. Hunt, 1904 — . 
Hastings — Organized 1872. — Revs. B. E. Haviland, 1873; 
M. F. Piatt, 1874-75; T. Winslow, 1876-77; A. W. 
Curtis, 1878; J. D. Stewart, 1879-83; H. Wilson, 1883- 
84; G. R. Milton, 1885; Wm. Walters, 1886-91; F. S. 
Powell, 1892-93; S. S. Healey, 1894; L. P. Rose, 
1895-97; J. W. Nelson, 1898-190T ; T. C. Plunt, 1901- 
4; PI. R. Harrison, 1905 — . 
PTastixgs (German) — Organized 1890. — Revs. G. Grob, 
1890-91; P. O. R. Ouarder, 1892-93; G. W. Goerlitz, 
i8c)4; C. W. W'uerrschmidt, 1895-1904; P. J. Thiel, 
Havflock — Organized 1892. — Revs. C. E. Enlow, 1892- 
93; S. W^ood. 1893-97; J. E. McHenry. 1897-99; R- ^■ 
Graham (Pres.), 1900-1; R. W. Burton, 1902-4: 
I. McRae, 1004 — . 
Haves County (German) — Organized 1886. — Revs. W. F. 
Vogt, 1897-98; G. Essig, 1899-1901; G. L. Henkel- 
mann, 1902 — . 
Hav Springs — Organized 1S85. — Revs. B. F. Diffenbacher. 
1885-88: S. Deakin, i888:-<\v W. P. Peas. 1894-98: 
]'.. H. Jones, 1898-1000; D. C Curry. 1900-1 ; G. W. 
Knapp. 1902 — . 

TM'.LES 309 

I-Ic]\nNGFORD — Org-anized 1886. — Revs. N. E. Gardner, 

1886-90; C. M. Thomas (Stii.), 1890; W. Wiedeii- 

hoeft, 1890-93; E. P. Dada, 1894-96; E. E. Preston, 

1896-97; G. J. Battey, 1898-1900; N. E., Gardner, 

1901-2; J. H. Embree, 1903 — . 
Highlands — Organized 1905. — Rev. W. H. LeBar, 1905. 
PIiLDRETH — Organized 1891. — Revs. C. H. Hnestis, 1890- 

91 ; W. P. Peas, 1893-94; S. I. linger, 1895-96; O. E. 

Ticknor, 1897-98; W. H. LeBar, 1899-1900; G. T. 

Noyce, 1901-04; G. I. Reeves, 1905 — . 
PToLDRKGE — Organized 1883. — Revs. W. H. Forbes, 1883- 

85; V. F. Clark, 1892-96; A. L. Squire, 1897; F. F. 

Lewis, 1898-1901 ; T. A. Stubens, 1901 ; Miss A. E. 

Switzer, 1902-3; J. F. Lansborough, 1904-5; C. W. 

Dnncan, 1905 — . 
HowELLS— Organized 1887.— Mr. J. Dunlap (Stu.), 1887; 

G. Parrish (Lie.), 1887; Revs. S. Pearson, 1888-91 ; P. 

H. Hines (Evan.), 1892; A. L. Brown, 1893; A. Farns- 

worth, 1894-96; E. Cressman, 1896; W. A. Davies,. 

1897-1900; A. C. Miller, 1902-4; W. S. Hampton, 

Hyannis— Organized 1889.— Mr. M. W. Williams (Stu.), 

1890; Revs. J. B. Brown, 1890-94; O. E. Ticknor 

1895; E. E. Preston, 1896: B. H. Jones, 1897; H. C. 

Cleveland, 1898-1900; J. E. Storm, 1900-2; W. D. 

King. 1903-5; W. T. Hadsel, 1905 — . 

Indian Creek (Red Cloud) — Organized 1897. — Revs. F. 
W. Dean, 1898-190T ; W. Hauptman, 1902-3 ; G. H. 
Rice, 1904 — . 

Indianola — Organized 1875. — Revs. T. Pugh, 1878; A. 
Dresser, 1879-82 ; G. Dungan, 1882-84 ; G. E. Taylor, 
1886-88; J. Flook, i888-t)2; C. D. Gearbart, !8<)2-94: 
A. S. Houston, 1895-97; L. A. Turner, 1897-1900; 


J. S. Calhoun, 1900; H. C. Halbersleben. 1901-3; 

X. H. Hawkins, T903 — . 
Inland (German) — Organized 1876. — Revs. E. Jose, 1881- 

84; G. F. Stuecklin, 1884-85; G. Grob, 1886-93; P- O. 

R. Onarder, 1893; G. W. Goerlitz, 1894; C. W. Wuerr- 

schmidt, 1895-1902;!. Smit, 1904 — . 
1 K\ I XGTON— Organized 1866.— Revs. E. B. Hurlbut, 1865- 

70; T. J. A. T. Dixon, 1871 ; A. Fitch, 1874; J. G. 

Spencer, 1875-81; J. P. Preston, 1882-86; J. T. Otis, 

i887-<)3; G. T. Noyce, 1893; B. O. Snow, 1894-96; 

H. C. Halbersleben, 1896-99; A. L. Brown, 1899- 

1900; B. F. Diffenbacher, 1900-4; G. H. Rawson, 


Kearney— Organized 1872.— Revs. L. B. Fifield, 1872-78; 

W. L. Camp, 1878; A. D. Adams, 1879-80; T. H. 

Avars, 1880-83 ; Mr. Fisk (Stu.), 1883 ; J. Askin, 1885- 

93; J. H. Hoffman, 1893; J. Powers, 1894-96; J. P. 

Burling, 1897-1900; J. J. Parker, 1901-2 ; J- Flook, 

Keystone (Loomis) — Organized 1896. — Revs. G. 'M. Ken- 

iston, 1898-99; J. H. Embree, 1900-3; J. Croker, 

KEY.ST0NE (Bertha) — Organized 1900. — Mr. E. Bacon 

(Stu.), 1898; Mr.W. H. Hotze (Stu.), 1899; Mr. C. 

A. Javne (Stu.), 1900; T. Jones (Stu.), 1903-4. 

Leigh— Organized 1887.— :\Ir. J. Dunlap (Stu.), 1887; G. 

Parrish (Lie), 1887-88; Mr. O. Ostrum (Stu.), 1888; 

Revs. R. M. Travers, 1889-92; F. S. Perry, 1892; 

A. G. Washington, 1893-94; J. Lange, 1895-99; J. F. 

Smith, 1899-1905. 
Lii'.RRTY Creek (Deweese) — Organized 1896. — Revs. P. 

Lich. 1895-98: J. B. Happle. 1899-1900; W. F. Vogt. 

1901-3 ; J. Smit, 1905 — . 

Lincoln (First)— Organized 1866. — Revs. C. Little, 1868- 
69; L. B. Fifield, 1870-72; S. R. Dimmock, 1873-75; 
L. Gregory, 1875-99; Wni. Afanss, 1899-1903; J. E. 
Tiittle, 1903 — . 

Lincoln (Plymouth) — Organized 1887. — Revs. E. S. Rals- 
ton, 1887-91; N. Plass, 1891-93; J. Doane, 1893- 
1902; C. R. Hamlin, 1902-4; C. H. Rogers, 1904 — . 

Lincoln (German) — Organized 1889. — Revs. H. H. Sal- 
lenbach, 1875-86; J. B. Cimz, i88c^8i ; A. Trandt, 
1888; J. Lich, i889-(:.7; C. E. Osthoff, 1898^1900; 
G. L. Henkelmann, 1900-2; J. Lich, 1902 — . 

Lincoln (Vine Street) — Organized 1890. — Mr. J. E. 
Hunter (Stu.), 1890; Revs. H. S. Wannamaker, 1890- 
93; A. F. Newell, 1893-99; M. A. Bullock, 1899 — . 

Lincoln (Butler Avenue) — Organized 1895. — Revs. A. F. 
Nev\-ell, 1895-99; O- ^^- Anderson, 1899-1900; Miss 
L. A. Wild, 1901-5 ; C. W. I-'reston, 1905 — . 

Lincoln (Swedish) — Organized 1895. — Revs. J. M. Till- 
berg, 1893-96; J. Johnson, 1897-98; C. E. Peterson, 
1899-1901 ; J. E. Swanson, 1902-4; A. Poison, 1905 — . 

Lincoln (Zion)— Organized 1900. — Rev. S. H. Schwab, 
190 1 — . 

Lincoln (Salem) — Organized 1899. — ^^y- A. Suffa 
1901 — . 

LiNwooD — Organized 1873.- — Revs. A. Dresser, 1873-78 
B. Beal, 188(^83; M. J. P. Thing, 1884-87; J. O 
Tasker, 1887-92; H. C. Halbersleben, 1892-96; W. A 
Davies, 1896-98; F. G. Appleton, 1898-1900; R. M 
Sargent, 1901-2 ; Mrs. M. J. Dickenson, 1902 — . 

Long Pine — Organized 1884. — Revs. N. L. Packard, 1884; 
J. A. Milligan, 1884-86; S. I. Hanford, 1887-91 ; Wm. 
Walters, 1892-93 ; J. S. VanAlstine, 1894-95 ; J. H. 
.A.ndress, 1896; J. E. Storm, 1897-98; E. Booth, Jr., 
1899-1901 ; Wm. Haresnape, 1901-3 ; Mr. A. Mygatt 
(Stu.), 1904; M. Weidm?'-". 1905 — . 


LoOiMis — Organized 1898. — Revs. G. M. Keniston, 1898- 
1900; J. H. Embree, 1900-3; J. Croker, 1904; W. E. 
Ilannan, 1905; C. ^I. Thomas, 1905 — . 

]\Iadrid — Organized 1S89. — Revs. H. B. Ery, 1889-93; G. 

W. Knapp, 1894-98; O. L. Anderson, 1898-99; J. 

Croker, 1900-4; F. Barnard, 1905 — . 
Maple Creek — Organized 1891. — Revs. C. B. Fellows, 

1890-91 ; A. G. Washington, 1892; Y. O. Hellier, 1893; 

H. U. Lyman, 1894-96; J. J. Klopp, 1898—. 
McCooK — Organized 1884. — Revs. G. W. Dungan, 1882- 

86; J. S. Kelsey, 1886-90; W. C. Stephenson, 1891- 

93; H. L. Preston, 1894-97; W. J. Turner, 1898-1902; 

F. W. Dean, 1902-4; G. A. Conrad, 1904; G. B. 

Hawkes, 1905 — . 
McCooK (German) — Organized 1S87. — Revs. Wm. Suess, 

1887-89; H. Buettner, 1889-92; E. T. Bettex, 1892; 

A. Hodel, 1893-96; W. F. Vogt, 1897-99; G. Essig, 

1 899-1902; G. L. Henkelmann, 1902 — . 
MiLFORD — Organized 1869. — Revs. T. N. Skinner, 1869- 

71: H. A. French, 1872-83; S. G. Lamb, 1883-90; G. 

S. Biscoe, 1890-91; R. M. Travers, 1892-94; G. A. 

Monroe, 1895-1900; J. Jefferies, 1901-2; G. R. Mar- 
tin, 1903 ; F. Wrigley, 1904-5. 
MiNERSViLLE — Organized 1893. — Revs. A. Dresser, 1893- 

95; J- L- Fisher, 1896-97; G. B. Spangler, 1898-1901 ; 

J. Jefferies, 1902 — . 
Monroe — Organized 1869. — Revs. J- B. Chase, 1868-70; 

J. E. Elliot, 1870-73; C. C. Starbnck, 1875-79; J- 3'- 

Dyas, 1880-82; H. C. Crawford, 1883; O. C. Todd, 

1884-86; U. C. Bosworth, 1887-88; R. Killip, 1888- 

89; R. W. Ganmion, 1890; G. B. Clark, 1891 ; H. A. 

Shuman, 1892-98; W. A. Davies, 1900-1 ; C. M. 

Lowe, 1902; W. F. Benjamin, 1903; G. O. Heide 

(Bapt.), 190.:^ — . 

TAni.KS 313 

MuRNiNG Star (Ogalallaj — Organized i8y6.— T. Jones 

(Stu.), 1903-4- 
Ixfoi'LTON— Orjjatiized 1905. — Rev. J. C. Noyce, 1905 — . 
MuMPKR— Organized 1901.— Mr. J. W. Ellis (Stu.), 1901 : 

Rev. J. C. Noyce, 1901-3. 

Napier (German) — Organized 1893. — Revs. J. Single, 
1 898-190 1 ; H. J. Dietrick, 1901-93; H. Hess, 1903 — , 

Napier — Organized 1899. — Revs. W. A. Hensel, 1900-4; 
J. T. Ellis, 1904-5. 

Xaponee— Organized 1881.— Revs. W. Marshal, 1881-83; 
A. N. Dean, 1884; Wm. Woolman, 1885-88; G. L. 
Dickenson, 1889; S. A. Pettit, 1 890:^93 ; A. E. Ricker, 
1894-95; W. S. Hills, 1896-98; H. C. Cleveland, 
1900-2; W. C. Archer, 1902-3; T. Dyke, 1904; J. H. 
Reitle, 1005 — . 

Neligh — Organized 1875. — Revs. H. Griffiths, 1874-81; 
J. Woodrnff, 1882; A. F. Marsh, 1882-87; J. W. 
Davies, 1888-90; AV. J. Turner, 1891-93; J. T. Ellis, 
1893-9)4; J- E. Bacon, 1894-1900; F. V. Moslander, 
1900-3 ; V. F. Clark, 1903 — . 

Niobrara^ — Organized 1905. — Rev. A. Frazier, 1905 — . 

Newcastle— Organized 1884.— Revs. G. W. Mitchell, 
188.^-85; Wm. J. Paske, 188(^88; J. Roberts, 1888- 
98; G. FT. Rice, 1898-99; L McRae, 1900-2; G. W. 
Schroeder, 1903-4 ; J. Roberts, 1905 — ■. 

Newman Grove — Organized , 1900. — Revs. C. D. Gear- 
hart, 1900-2 ; E. L. Wismer, 1903-4 ; H. L. Preston, 

Noble (Indianola) — Organized 1899*. — Revs. L. A. Turner, 
1900; J. C. Calhoun, 1900-2: N. H. Hawkins, 1904 — . 

Norfolk (FirsF) — Organized 1870. — Revs. J. W. Kidder, 
1870-7S; M. H.^Mea-1, 1878-81; ].'w. Laughlin 
(Stu.), 1881; J. G. Spencer. 1882-84; J. J. Parker, 
1885-1901 ; W. J. Turner, 1901 — . 

314 eO.\GK!:GArH).\AL MCr.RASKA 

NoKFuLK (Second) — Organized 1893. — Revs. A. Farns- 
worth, 1893-94; J.' Jefferies, 1896-1901 ; F. Baker, 
1901-2 : Wm. Haresnape, 1903 — . 

Ogalalla — Organized 1884. — Revs. L. E. Brown, 1884- 
85; J. A. Thome, 1886-^8; A. E. Ricker, 1888-91; 
Mr. J. R. Danforth (Stu.), 1890; W. P. Peas, 1891- 
93; W. S. Hampton, 1893-97; F. S. Perry, 1898; G. 
W. Knapp, 1898-1902; J. Watson, 1902; C. W. Dun- 
can, 1903-05. 

OrJVE Branch (German) — Organized 2875. — Revs. Wm. 
Suess, 1877-85; G. Scheuerle, 1885-86; J. Morach, 
1887-95 : Wm. Fritzemeier, 1895 ; Wm. Suess, 1896 — . 

Omaha (First) — Organized 1856. — Revs. R. Gaylord, 
1855-64; W. W^ Rose, 1865-67; E. S. Palmer, 1867- 
69'; A. F. Sherrill, 1869-88; J. T. Duryea, 1888-95; 
F. A. Warfield, 1896-98; H. C. Herring, 1898—. 

Ojntaha (St. T^.Tary's Avenue) — Organized iS83.^Revs. W. 
Scott, 1883-91; S. W. Butler, 1892-99; C. S. Sargent, 
1900-1 ; R. Yost, 1902-5 ; C. O. Baird, 1905 — . 

Omaha (Plymouth) — Organized 1885. — Revs. G. S. Pel- 
ton, 1883-86; A. E. Penniman, 1886-88; A. H. Thain, 
1889-94; J.. A. Fisher, 1894; H. S. MacAyeal, 1895-99; 
F. A. Hatch. 1900-3; A. J. Folsom, 1904 — . 

Omaha (Saratoga) — Organized 1886. — Revs. J. A. Milli- 
gan, 1887-88; F. S. Forbes, 1888; H. N. Smith, 1889- 
90; G. A. Conrad, 1891-93; E. L. Ely, 1894-96; L. S. 
Hand, 1896-1900; F. E. Henry, 1900-4; B. F. Diffen- 
bacher, 1904 — . 

Omaha (German)— Organized 1885.— Rev. F. H. W. 
Bruechert, 1885. 

Omaha (Cherry Hill)— Organized 1886.— Revs. J. A. Mil- 
ligan, 1887-91 ; W. A. Lipe, 1891 ; E. L. Ely, 1894-96; 
L. S. Hand, 1896-1900; T. A. Williams, 1900-1 ; P. 
A. Sharp, 1901-3 ; H. L. Mills. 1903-4; W. D. King, 

TABLKS • 315 

Omaha (iiillsidc) — Organized \^^:. — Revs. H. C. Crane, 

1886-90; H. H. Morse, 1890; A. H. Ross, 1891 ; G. J. 

Powell, 1892-95; J. Flook, 1895-1900; H. G. Croker, 

1902; W. F. Berger, 1903; H. L. Mills, 1904 — . 
Omaha (Park Vale)— Organized 1887.— Revs. M. L. Holt, 

1887-90; A. Torbet, 1890; W. J. Paske, 1891-93; W. 

H. LeBar, 1895-96; F. FI. Anderson, 1897-1900; T. 

A. Williams, 1900-1 ; P. A. Sharp, 1901-2 ; H. L. 

Mills, 1903-4; W. D. King, 1905 — . 

Paisley (Unadilla) — Organized 1892. — Revs. Thos Bell, 

1893-96; D. K. Miller, 1897-1900; H. W. Cope, 

1900-2 ; C. L. Myers, 1903 ; C. E. Buck (M.E.), 1904 — . 
Palisade — Organized 1889. — Revs. \Vm. Woolman, 1889- 

90; J. H. Beitel, 1891-^4; T. C. Moffatt, 1894-97; H. 

C. Halbersleben, 1904 — . 
Park (Elgin) — Organized 1885. — Revs. FL Griffiths, 

1885-87; B. F. Pearson, 1888-91 ; A. C. Tueber, 1891- 

92; C. D. Thompson, 1893-95; C. H. Kershaw, 1896- 

97: W. Debenham, 1898; O. E. Ticknor, 1899-1900; 

J. Roberts, 1901-5. 
Petersburg — Organized i8()4. — Revs. T. Griffiths, 1895- 

97; S. Eveland, 1898; J. Roberts, 1898-1901 ; R. M. 

Travers, 1901-3 ; J. M. Kokjer, 1903-5. 
Pickrell— Organized 1886.— Revs. H. Bates, 1885-87; H. 

C. Halbersleben, 1888-89; G. J. Battey, 1891-93; F. G. 

McHenry, 1893-96; E. E. Sprague, 1898; Geo. Scott, 

1899-1900; H. Langley, 1902; J. S. Medlin (M. E.), 
. 1903; R. E. Pogue (M. E.), 1904-5. 
Pii.-.RCE— Organized 1883.— Mr. J. W. Brooks (Stn.), 1882; 

Revs. E. P. Dada. 1884-85; D. J. Baldwin, 1886-88; 

W. J. Paske, 188S-91 ; A. G. Brande, 1891-95; C. D. 

Gearhart, 1896-1900 ; G. E. Taylor, 1900 — . 
Pine Camf— Organized 1905.— Mr. Albert Mygatt (Stu.), 



PlainviI'W — Organized 1903. — Rev. J- J- Parker, 1903 — . 

Plymouth ist. — Organized 1872. — Revs. H. Bates, 1872- 
7^; J. Winslow, 1878; E. E. Webber, 1880; S. C. 
Dean, 1882-85; D. E. Hathaway, 1886; E. Cressman, 
1S88; L. B. Wharton, 1889; J. Cooper, 1890; J. B. Doo- 
Httle, 1893; G. J. Battey, 1895-97; A. L. Brown, 1898; 
J. A. Jones, 1898-1900; G. R. Martin, 1900-1 ; J. E. 
Storm, 1902-4; A. W. Xevill, 1904 — . 

Princeton (German) — Organized 1875. — Revs. G. 
Scheiierle, 1S84-86; J. ^lorach, i887-c)7; R. Hilker- 
baeumer, 1 897-1 903 ; F. Gafert, .1904 — . 

Ravenna— Organized 1886.— :\Ir. Barstow (Stu.), 1886; 
Revs. R. :\I. Travers, 1886-88; C. B. Taylor, 1888-89; 
Wm. Haynes, 1889-90; J. B. Gilbert, 1891-92; T. W. 
Cole, 1893-^94; F. W. Peas, 1895-99; C. J. Sage, 1899- 
1901 ; A. C. Townsend, 1901-3 ; S. H. Buell, 1903 — . 

Ri:d Cloud — Organized 1874. — Revs. A. Maxwell, 1874- 
79; Geo. Bent, 1879-82; O. C. Todd, 1882-84; J. G. 
Aikman, 1885-86; M. C. Butler, 1886-88; C. E. Tag- 
gart, 1889-91; E. L. Ely, 1891-94; H. O. Spellman, 
1894-95; O. E. Ticknor, 1896-98; F. W. Dean. 1898- 
1902; W. Hauptman, 1902-3; G. H. Rice, 1904 — . 

Reno— Organized 1891.— Air. :M. A\'. Williams (Stu.). 
1890; Revs. J. B. Brown. 1890-95; E. E. Preston. 
1896-98; G. J. Battey. 1899-1900; J. B. Brown. 
1901-2; J. H. Euibree, 1903 — . 

Rising City — Organized 1875. — ^^^'- E. T. Lee (Stu.), 
1881; Revs. J. E. Storm. 1883-85; J. C. Otis, 1887; 
W. P. Peas, 1887^1; F. C. Cockran, 1891-94; C. J. 
Sage, 1894-97; J. L. Fisher, 1898-1900; H. A. Shu- 
man, 1900-2; F. G. Appleton, 1903-4; T. Jones (Stu.). 

Riverton — Organized iS-j.—Rcvs. S. X. Grout. 1875-79; 
J. M. Strong. 1879-82; O. C. Todd, 1882-83; F. Bar- 

TAIU.KS 317 

bcr, 1883-86; W. S. Hampton, 1886-88; I). W. Coin- 
stock, 1889; J. W. Hadden, 1890; F. Lawson, 1891-94; 
S. Williams, 1894-1905. 

RoKRCY — Organized 1893. — Revs. J. Doane, 1893-1900; 
Miss L. A. Wild, 1901-2. 

RosEFiELD (Trenton) — Organized 1890. — Revs. C. E. 
Campbell, 1898; G. E. Lincoln, 1899-1900; G. T. 
Noyce, 1904 — . 

1867-1902; F. Frazier, 1902 — . 
Sargent — Organized 1893. — Revs. J. F. Smith, 1893-95; 

C. E. Howard, 1897-1900; B. H. Jones, 1900-1 ; J. H. 

and Mrs. Heiser, 1901-2; S. A. Van Ltiven, 1904 — . 
ScRinNER — Organized 1871. — Revs. W. Bruce, 1869-77; 

A. L. Seward, .1878-79; A. Doremus, 1879-S0; M. B. 

Flarrison, 1881 — . 
Seneca — Organized 1904. — Mrs. C. W. Preston (Lie), 

SE^^-ARD— Organized 1887. — Revs. A. M. Darley, 1887; 

J. A. Dobson, 1888-90; G. A. Ray, 1891-92; C. B. 

Carlisle, 1893-94; T. W. C. Cheeseman, 1896-97; 

E. C. Burhans, 1898-1900; F. W. Leavitt, 1903 — . 
Shickley — Organized 1887. — Revs. J. G. Robertson, 1887; 

C. H. Eaton, 1887; E. L. Ely, 1889-91 ; F. Fox, 1891 ; 

E. Martin, 1892; G. J. Battey, 1893-95; W. R. Griffith, 

1897; A. L. Squire, 1898; W. A. Alcorn, 1899-1901 ; 

E. W. Altvater, 1901-2 ; C. L. Flammond, 1903 — . 
Silver Creek — Organized 1874. — Revs. C. C. Starbuck, 
- 1878; J. P. Dyas, i88c^82; M. H. Mead, 1883-85; 

J. Roberts, 188^88; W. H. Houston, 1888-89; Mr. 

E. L. Marsh (Stu.), 1889; H. C. Halbersleben, 1890- 

92; I. T. Gardner, 1892; N. E. Gardner, 1893-94; Mr. 

W. B. Allis (Stu.), 1890; Mrs. E. B. Perkins, 1895- 


97; W. S. Hampton, 1898-1900; W. A. Davis, 1901-2 ; 

N. E. Gardner, 1903-4; G. W. Mitchell, 1905 — . 
South Platte (Doniphan) — Organized 1894. — Revs. C. 

H. Huestis, 1899-1901 ; J. L. Cross (Stii.), W. A. 

Alcorn, 1902-4; R. Jones, 1904 — . 
Spencer — Organized 1891. — Revs. W. Loney, 1893-95; 

W. A. Hensel, 1896; G. Wadsworth, 1897-99; G. R. 

IMartin. 1899-1900; F. Pile, 1901-2; W. J. Isaacs, 

SPRrNGFrELD — Organized 1878.— Revs. J. B. Gilbert, 1882- 

85; E. P. Dada, 1886-89; M. J. P. Thing, 1889-91; 

W. Radford, 1891-94; J. E. Storm, 1894-97; E. Cress- 
man, 1897-1900; J. Foster, 1901-2; H. M. Triplett, 

1902 — . 
Springview — Organized 1887. — Revs. J. E. Power, 1887- 

89; Mr. J. D. Hoffman (Stu.), 1889; J. W. Hadden, 

1891-93; J. S. Van Alstine, 1894-95; S. Eveland, 1896; 

J. Kokjer, 1897-1900; W. A. Hensel, 1900; Wm. 

Haresnape, 1901-2 ; E, B. Sikes, 1904 — . 
Stanton — Organized 1870. — Revs. J. W. Kidder, 1870-78; 

M. H. Mead, 1878-82; J. W. Laughlin (Stu.), 1881 ; 

W. B. Dada, 1882-86; T. Kent, 1887; F. D. Green, 

1888-89; C. B. Fellows, 1889-92; A. G. Washington, 

1892-93; F. O. Hellier, 1893-94; H. M. Lyman, 1894- 

96; J. J. Klopp, 1898—. 
Steele City — Organized 1872. — Revs. S. C. Dean, 1872- 

82; E. Cressman, 1882-86; H. J. Alacomber, 1887-88; 

E. Durant, 1889-91; D. W. Comstock, 1891-92; Z. K. 

Heinzman, 1893-94; H. H. Avery, 1894-1902; E. 

Cressman, 1901-4 ; A. W. Nevill, 1904 — . 
Stockham (German) — Organized i884.^Revs. G. Grob, 

1888-90; M. Trieber, 1890-91; J. Bruse, 1893-94; R. 

Hilkerbaeumer, 1894-97; G. Essig, 1898; G. Grob, 



Stockville — Organized 1890. — Mr. H. F. Gilt (Stu.) 

1888; Revs. A. C. Bartlett, 1893-97; A. G. Axtell, 

1900-3 ; J. E. Craig-, 1903 — . 
Strang— Organized 1886.— Revs. G. Taylor, 1886; J. G. 

Robertson, 1887; C. H. Eaton, 188/; E. L. Ely, 1889- 

91; F. Fox, 1891; E. Martin, 1892; G. J. Battey, 

1893-95; W. R. Griffiths, 1897; A. L. Squire, 1898; 

W. A. Alcorn, 1899-1902; D. E. Thomas (Stu.), 1903; 

M. J. Millard, 1904—. 
Superior (German) — Organized 1893. — Revs. F. Bren- 

necke, 1894-96; P. Lich, iSc)/'-<:)8 ; J. B. Happel, 1899- 

1901 ; W. F. Vogt, 1 90 1. 
Sutton — Organized 1872. — Revs. D. B. Perry, 1872; C. H. 

Hibbard, 1873; J. Gray, 1874-77; C. F. Graves, 1878- 

80; Geo. Scott, 1881-83; E. H. Baker, 1883-86; H. B. 

Fry, 1887-88; F. C. Cockran, 1889-91; J. Flook, 1892- 

95; F. D. Jackson, 1896-97; J. B. Losey, 1898-1902; 

T. A. Dungan, 1903 — . 
Sutton (German) — Organized 1880. — Revs. E. Jose, 

188(^83; H. Bentz, 1884-87; M. Treiber, 1888-91; 

J. H. Schlechter, 1892; J. Bruse, 1893; R. Hilker- 

baeumer, 1894-97; G. Essig, 1897-99; G. Grob, 1899 — • 
Syracuse — Organized 1871. — Revs. J. Hall, 1875-76; J. M. 

1\ Chessington, 1877-78; H. S. Thompson, 1879-81; 

M. F. Piatt, 1881; E. H. Ashman, 1882-86; E. H. 
• Baker, 1886-87; P- St. Clair, 1888-89 ; G. F. McHenry, 

1889-91; C. W. Anthony, 1892-93; E. V. Gardner, 

1894-98; J. Foster, 1899-1900; F. F. Lewis, 1901-4; 

F. E. Henry, 1904 — . 

Taylor — Organized 1893. — Revs. D. F. Bright, 1893-96; 

J. Poeton, 1896-99; E. L. Wismer, 1899-1900; S. 

Deakin, 1901-4; T. Evans, 1904 — . 
Thedford — Organized 1899. — ^1^. E-. W. Ellis (Stu.), 

1899; Revs. G. H. Rice, 1900; C. W. Preston, 1900-5. 


T.i.Mr.i:ii Creek ( \\'olbach) — Organized 1897. — Revs. W. 

F. Essig-, 1898; G. Henkelmann, 1899; F. A. Stoelting, 
1900; J. B. Happel, 1901-2. 

Trenton— Organized 1886.— Revs. G. W. Rich, 1886-87; 
U. C. Bosworth, 1S88-90; J. H. Beitel, 1891-94; O. A. 
I'almer, 1894; D. Donaldson, 1895; D. F. Bright, 1896- 
97; G. E. Lincohi, 1899-1901 ; A. G. Axtell, 1902-4; 

G. T. Noyce, 1904 — . 

Turkey Creek "(German) Friend — Organized 1894. — 
Revs. P. Lich, 1893; G. Essig, 1896-97; G. L. Brake- 
meycr, i8()8: \\\ F. Vogt, 1904-5. 

U[.YSSE.s — Organized 1877. — Revs. S. Barrows, 1876-82 ; 
J. F. Roberts, 1882; E. T. Lee (Stu.), 1882; J. E. 
Storm, 1883-85; J. F. Otis, 1886-87; W. S. Hills, 
1888-90; O. A. Palmer, 1892-94; B. F. Diffenbacher, 
i8()4-97; H. A. Shuman, 1898-1900; W. S. Hampton, 
1901-5 ; .\. J. Fitt, T905 — . 

Urt?ana — Organized 1884. — Rev. R. S. Pierce, 1884 — . 

Venango — Organized 1888. — Revs. \\'. S. Hampton, 1889- 

92; G. \V. Knapp, 1894-98; J. Croker, 1900-4; F. 

Barnard, 1905. 
Verdon— Organized 1868.— Revs. \\'. S. Hills, 18ST-84; 

^r. H. Mead, 1885-87; J. T. Hull, 1887; C. W. Preston, 
. 1888-92; D. L. Hillard, 1892-93; J. L. Fisher, 1894- 

96; W. T. P^aacs. 1896-1900; I. AIcRae, 1903-4; Ji. 

F. Boiin, 1904 — . 

Wattoo — Organized 1871. — Revs. J. F. Clarkson, 1874; W. 
B. Atkinson, 1897; J. Gray, 1896-81; E. E. Webber, 
1882; H. M. Goodell, 1884; A. A. Cressman. 1886-92; 
J. G. Lange. 1892-95; W. H. Brearley, 1896; S. Wood, 
1897; J, B. Stocking, 1 899-1903 : R. W. Burton, 


W ALi Aci-:— Oro^anized 1888. — Revs. H. B. Fry, 1889-91; 

(i. S. Biscoe, 1891-94; C. T. Murphy, 1894-98; I. Mc- 

Rae, 1898-1900; J. L. l^'ishcr, 1900-1 ; A. W. Nevill, 

1902-4; F. W. (larduer, 1904 — . 
\\a\i:rlv— Organized 1876.— Revs. M. F. Piatt, iSyC^yH; 

F. Cressman. 1879-81; R. Campbell, 1881-84; G. W. 

Richards. 1884; G. S. Biscoe, 1885-90; C. E. Enlovv, 

1891; I. L. Lowe, 1895-97; A. A. Cressman, 1898-99; 

O. L. Anderson, 1900; C. H. Hnestis, 1902-5; T. 

Jones, 1905 — . 
\Va\'i-:rly (Swedish) — -Organized 1904. — Rev. J. E. 

SwaiTson, 1904 — . 
Weeping Water — Organized i860. — Revs. F. Alley, i86r)- 

69; S. Barrows, 1870-73; J. B. Chase, 1874-78; C. F. 

Graves, 1880; G. Hindley, 1883; C. S. Harrison, 

1893-7: S. L Hanford, 1898 — . 
W'liSCOTT (Comstock) — Organized 1889. — Revs. H. Hitch- 
cock, 1890; M. J. P. Thing! 1891^3; J. F. Smith, 

1893-96; C. E. Howard, 1897-1900; B. H. Jones, 1900; 

J. H. and ^^Trs. Helser, 1901-3 ; S. A. Van Lnven, 

1904 ; J. PL Kraemer. 1905 — . 
A\'i:sT Cedar Valley (Elgin) — Organized 1874. — Revs. 

H. Griffith, 1874-83; D. E. French (Stu.), 1884; J. A. 

:Milligan. 1884; H. H. Avery, 1884; H. Houlding, 1885; 

S. Pearson, 1887-89: PL O. Spellman (Stu.), 1889; 

A. C. Trieber, 1891 ; C. D. Thompson, 1893-95 ; C. H. 

Kershaw, 1896-0)7; J. Roberts, 1901-5. Hamilton (Doniphan) — Organized 1878. — Revs. 

Wm. AVoolman. 1876-77; T. Pugh, 1879-80; Wm. 

Woolman, 1882; P C. Hugh, 1883-85; J. H. Embree, 

1885-90; E. Cressman, 1891-95; R. M. Travers, 1896- 

98: C. PL Huestis, 1899-1901 ; W. A. Alcorn. 1902-4; 

R. Jones, 1904 — . 



West Point — Organized 1878. — Revs. Geo. Scott, 1878- 
81; J. Oakey, 1881-85; <^^- C. Hall, 188(^87; C. H. 
Huestis, 1888-90; Wm. Haynes, 1890; S. Pearson, 
1891-99; F. W. Leavitt, 1 899-1 903 ; C. A. Gleason, 


WiLtox— C,)roanized 1886.— Revs. J. W. liadden, 1886- 
88; Mr. C. M. Severance (Stu.), 1888; W. S. Hamp- 
ton, 1888-89; ^- H. Huestis, 1890-92; W. P. Peas, 
1893-94; S. 1. linger, 1895-96; O. E. Ticknor, 1897- 
98; W. H. Le Bar, 1899-1900; G. T. Noyce, 1901-4; 
G. I. Reeves, 1905 — . 

WiLLOWDALE (Plainvicw) — Organized 1881. — Revs. G. 
T. Noyce, 1895-1901 ; W. 1. Isaacs, 1901-3 ; C. M. 
Thomas, 1903-5. 

WiSNF.R— Organized 1880.— Revs. Geo. Scott, 1878-81 ; J. 
Oakey, 1881-84; C^- C. Hall, 1885-86; G. A\ . Brown- 
john, 1887-90; D. .L. Hillard, 1890-92; P. H. Hines, 
1893-95; J- Foster, 1896; A. W. Ayers, 1897-1902; 
F. Baker, 1902; Geo. .Scott, 1903 — . 

Wymore — Organized 1882. — Revs. C. E. Harwood, 1882- 
84; G. A. Coleman. 1884; J. V. Dimon, 1885-90; W. S. 
Woolworth, 1890; J. A. Milligan, 1891; J. V. Willis, 
1892; S. F. Wilson, 1893^)4; W. S. Hills, 1895: T. C. 
Moffatt. 1897; W. F. Berger, 1903-4: R. M. Travcrs, 

York — Organized 1872. — Revs. C. S. Harrison, 1873-75; 
H. Herrick, 1875; C. S. Harrison, 1876-82; C. H. Mc- 
intosh, 1882-83: H. S. Harrison, 1884-86; R. S. Lind- 
sey. 1887-89: E. R. Leeper. i889-c;2; R. T. Cross. 
1893-1903; W. H. Medlar, 1903 — . 




The figures represent the pastors. 

F'or correct showing of length and number of pastorates 
see Table VIII. 

The pastorates still continuing are marked with a — . 

Abbott, Rev. Amos Fairfield, 1878-79. 

Abernethy, Rev. H. C. ... Fairmont, 1878-87. 

Adams, Rev. A. D Kearney, 1878-80. 

Aikman, Rev. J. G Red Cloud, 1883. 

Alcorn, Rev. Wm. A Shickley, 1899-1902, 

Doniphan, 1902-04. 
Alley, Rev. F Weeping Water, 1866-67, 

Ord, 1867, Plattsmouth, 1869-71, 

Crete and Wilber, 1873. 

Dorchester, 1878. 
Altvater, Rev. Ernest W. . Shickley, 1901, Grafton, 1903. 
Anderson, Rev. Charles .. Gloversville, 1896. 

Bloomfield, 1S98, Addison, 1899. 
Anderson, Rev. O. L Grant, 1899. 

Lincoln Butler Avenue, 1899. 

Waverly, 1900-02. 
Anderson, Rev. Samuel .. Germantown, 1902. 
Andress, Rev. J. H Grafton, 1894-96, 

Long Pine, 1896, 

Avoca, 1 899-1901, 

Chadron, 1901 — . 
Anthony. Rev. Charles W. 

Evangelical Association. Syracuse, 1892-94. 


Appleton, Rev. Fayette G.Linwood, 1898, Arlington, 1899, 

Arcadia, 1900, Rising City, 1903. 

Archer, Rev. Win. C Xaponee, 1902-03. 

Arnold, Rev. John Osborn (Ger.), 1886-88. 

A.rmstrong-^ Rev. J -Vlbion, 1878. 

Ashmun, Rev. E. H Syracuse, 1882-86, 

Beatrice. 1 886-88. 

Askin, Rev. John Kearney, 1885-93. 

Atkinson, Rev. \V. B Wahoo, 1876. 

Avery, Rev. Holly H Keya Paha divide, 1884. 

Steele City, 1 894-190 1. 
Axtell, Rev. .Vrchie G. . . . Enstis and Stockville, 1900, 

Trenton, 1902, Blair, 1904 — . 
Ayars, Rev. T. H Kearney, 1880-82, 

David City, 1883-86. 
Ayers, Rev. Alfred W. ... Arlington, 1889-92, 

David City, 1892-96, 

Omaha Pilgrim, 1896-97. 

Wisner. 1 898-1902. 

Bacon, Rev. J. F Xeligh, 1895-99. 

Baker, Rev. Arid A Burwell, 1892. 

B>aker, Rev. Henry Rolfe. Crawford, 1892. 
Baker, Rev. E. H Sutton, 1883, 

Bradshaw, 1888-89, 

Grafton, 1889, Clay Center, 1890. 
Baker, Rev. Franklin. . . . Wisner, 1902. 
Baldwin, Rev. David J... Pierce, i88rv-88. 
Bandy, Rev. Paul S Ft. Calhoun, 1899, 

Fairfield to 1902. 
Barber, Rev. Frank W.. . Cambridge, 1883, Riverton, 18S2. 

.Moline, 1886. 
Barnard, Rev. Fred Grant. 1905, 

^Madrid and Venango, 1905 — . 
Barron. Rev. John W. . . . Creighton, 1890. 


Barrows, Rev. S Weeping Water, 1870-74, 

Osceola, 1874-79, Ulysses, 1882. 
J3artlett, Rev. Albert X. . . Stockville, 1800-93. 
Baskerville, Rev. Mark. . .Aurora, 1888-91. 
Bates, Rev. Henry Fiymouth ist, 1872-82, 

Pickrell, 1885. 
Batty, Rev. George J Cortland, 1890, 

Shickley, Strang, Bruning, 1893, 

Harbine, 1895, 

(irand Island, 1898, 

Hemingford, 1899, 

Farnam, 1900. 
liayne, Rev. Thomas. . . . Columbus, 1876-78. 
Beal, Rev. Byron Butler Co. ist, 1880, 

Cedar Rapids and 

Linv.'ood, 1884. 
Bear, Rev. S. A. (M. E.) .Brunswick, 1894-95. 

Beaver, Rev. C. H Fairmont, 1899-05. 

Beitle, Rev. Julius H Palisade, Trenton, 1891, 

Hayes Co. ist, 1892, 

Eureka, 1898, 

S. S. and P. Missionary, 

Naponee, 1905 — . 

Bell, Rev. Thomas Palmyra, 1871, Paisley, 1893. 

Belknap. Rev. Lafayette. . Aten and Herrick, 1888. 
Benjamin, Rev. W. E 

(Bap.) Monroe, 1903-05. 

Bennett, Rev. W. P Crete, 1884-96. 

l^ennett. Rev. ]. H Avoca, 1901-04, 

Clay Center, 1904 — . 

Bent, Rev. George Red Cloud, 1879. 

Benton, Rev. L. E Jalappa, Glenco, 

Mapleville, 1875-76, 

Beaver Crossing, 1878. 


Berger, Rev. W. Francis. . Wymore, 1903, 

Omaha Hillside, 1903-04. 
Bentz, Rev. H Friend (Ger.), 1884, 

Grafton (Ger.), 1885. 

Berry, Rev. Geo. R Aten, 1889-90, Addison, 1890. 

Berry, Rev. Loren F Fremont, 1887-90. 

Bettex, Rev. Edward T. . ALcCook (Ger.), 1892-93. 

Bidwell, Rev. John P \rlington, 18S8. , 

r.isbee. Rev. C. G Fontanelle, 1866-67. 

Instructor in School, 1870-75. 

Supplying many of the smaller 
churches for a number of yrs. 

Bird, Rev. M. B \voca, 1905 — . 

Biscoe, Rev. Geo. S Clarks, 1879-86, Waverly, 1886, 

Milford, 1890, Wallace, 1891-94. 

Bohn, Rev. H. F Verdon, 1904 — . 

]^>osworth. Rev. Uriah C. .Genoa and Monroe, 1887, 

Trenton, 1888, Bertrand, 1890. 
liooth, Rev. Edwin, Jr... Long Pine, 1899, 

I>loomfiekl, 1900-02, 

David City, 1903, 

I'catrice, 1904 — . 
I'.rakemeyer. Rev. Gus- 
tavus L Friend (Ger.), 1898-04, 

Germantown, 1904 — . 
l'>rande. Rev. Alfred G. .. Pierce. 1891. 
Breareley, Rev. Wm. H..\\alioo, 1896. 
Brennecke, Rev. Frederick 

(Ger.) Superior and 

Beaver Creek, 1894. 
r.rereton. Rev. James E. . . Ashland. 1886-92, 

Sec. for Doane College, 

( ieneva, 1893-96. 
Brett, Rev. Geo. Southwell, Grant, 1892-93. 


Bright, Rev. D. Franklin. 
Bross, Rev. H 

Brown. Rev. Aniasa A... 
Brown, Rev. Aurelian L. . . 

Brown. Rev. H. E 

Brownjohn, Rev. G. W. 
P.rown, Rev. James M 
Brown, Rev. J. B. . . 

Brown, Rev. L. E. . . 

Bruce, Rev. W 

Bruechert, Rev. F. H. 
Buettner, Rev. Henry 
Bruse, Rev. John. . . . 


Buck, Rev. Charles E. 

(AI. E.) 

Buell, Rev. Seth A 

Burhans, Rev. Paul C. . . . 

Burling, Rev. Jas. P 

Bullock, Rev. Motier A . . 
Bunker, Rev. Fred R . . . . 

Burt, Rev. J. S 

Burton, Robert W 

Butler. Rev. M. C 

Taylor, 1893, 

]*"air\iew (Trenton), 1896. 

Crete, 1873-84, Chadron, 1885, 

(Ten. Atiss. in N. W. Neb., 1886- 
90, State Supt. of Home Mis- 
sions, 1890 — . 

Harvard, 1901, 

Creighton, 1903 — . 

Douglas, 1891, Howells, 1893, 

Harbine, 1898, Irvington, 1899. 

Talmage, 1901. 

Ordained by Gen. Assn., 

Pastor Fontanelle, 1866-67. 

Clarks, 1886, Wisner, 1887-90. 

Butte. 1905 — . 

Snake Creek, 1889, 

Hyannis, 1890-95, Reno, 1902. 

Ogalalla, 1884. 

Glenco, 1876-78. 

Omaha (Ger.), 1885—. 

McCook (Ger.). 1889-92. 

Stockham, 1893, 

Sutton (Ger.), 1893-94. 

Paisley, 1904 — . 

Ravenna, 1903 — . 

Seward, 1898. 

Kearney, 1897. 

Lincoln Vine St., 1899 — . 

Fairmont, 1888-89. 

Itinerant Licentiate. 

Havelock, 1902, Wahoo, 1904 — . 

Exeter, 1883-86, 

Red Cloud, 1886. 



I'.r.tler, Rev. S. WriHit. 

lUiss. Rev. William, 

Calhoun, Rev. John S 
(."amp, Rev. W. L. . . . 
Campbell, Rev. C. E. 

Campbell, Rev. Randolph 

Carlisle, Rev. Charles B . 
Carson, Rev. J. William. 

Case, Rev. A. M 

Chase, Rev. J. B 

Cheesman, Rev. T. W. C 
Chessington, Rev. G. F. AT 

Clancy, Rev. \\'. P 

Cleveland, Rev. H. C 

Clark, Rev. Allen. 

Clark. Rev. G. B. 

Clark, Rev. O. C. 

Clark, Rev. V. F. 

Clarkson, Rev. J. F 

Cockran, Rev. Pdorenzo C 

Cockran, Rev. Warren.. 
Cofifman, Rev. Arthur W 
Cole, Rev. Thomas W. . . 

Omaha St. ]\lary's Ave., i8<j2- 

I'^en-iont, iSyo-1902. 

Bertrand, i(Sy9, Indianola, lyoo. 

Kearney, 1878, Wheatland, 1878. 

Fairview (Trenton), 1898, 

Hurwell, 1899-1902. 

Blair, 1878, 

Waverly and 

Pleasant Mew, 1881-85. 

Seward, 1S93. 

Ashland, 1903 — . 

Blair, 1884-87. 

Butler Co., 1868, 
Fremont, 1869-72, 

Fontanelle, 1873. 

Seward, 1896, Ashland. 1898. 

Syracuse, 1877. 

Arlington, 1885. 

Hyannis, 1898, 

Xaponee, 1900-02. 
, Nebraska City, 1887. 

Monroe, 1891-92. 
, Friend, 1883-85. 

Davi<l City, i88&-<;2, 

Holdrege, 1892-97, 

Xelig^i, 1903—. 

Wahoo, 1874. 

Sutton, 1886, Rising City. 1891, 

Greenwood, 1895. 
, Fairmont, 1876-78. 
. Bertrand, 1888-89. 
. T'airmont, 1889, Ravenna, 1893, 

Grand Island, 1894. 


Coleman, Rev. George A. . Wymore, 1884-85. 

Collier, Rev. J. L Nebraska City, 1877-79. 

Comstock, Rev. Davillo W.Grand Island, 1887, 

Riverton, 1889, Burwell, 1890. 
Connett, Rev. Allen W. . . liurwell, 1889, Fairfield, 1890. 

Conrad, Rev. Geo. A Omaha Saratoga, 189 1, 

]McCook, 1903-05. 

Cooper, Rev. James Harbine and Plymouth, 1890-93. 

Cope, Rev. H. W. (M. E.) Paisley (Unadilla), 1900-02. 

Cowman, Rev. J. W Crete, 1901 — . 

Craig, Rev. John E Farnam and Stockville, 1903 — . 

Crane, Rev. H. C ( )maha Hillsid-e, 1887-90. 

Crawford, Rev. C. H. . . . . Genoa and Monroe, 1883-84. 

Crawford, Rev. M. A David City. 

Crawford, Rev. Otis D ... Columbus, 1893-94. 
Cressman, Rev. A. A.... Camp Creek, 1879, 

Albion and Boone, 1880, 
Wahoo, 1886, Fairmont, 1892, 
Grafton, 1896-97, 
Waverly, 1 898-1900, 
Field for Doane College, 
Grand Island, 1901-04. 

Cressman, Rev. E Waverly, 1879, 

Steele City, i88t, Aurora, 1887, 
Plymouth, 1888, Doniphan, 1891, 
Dodge and Howells, 1897, 
Springfield, 1898, 
Steele City, 190T-04. 
Cresswell, Rev. William 

(Pres.) Ft. Calhoun, 190T. 

Crocker, Rev. Herbert G. .Omaha Hillside, 1902-03. 

Croker, Rev. John Grant, 1900, 

Bertrand and Loomis, 1904. 

Crofts, Rev. Geo. W Beatrice, 1892-1904. 



Crosby, Rev. Samuel B..Loomis, 1892, Eagle, 1893. 

Cross, Rev. R. T York, 1893-1903. 

Curry, Rev. David G Hay Springs, 1900-02. 

Curtis, Rev. A. W Hastings, 1878, 

David City, 1879. 

Dada, Rev. E. P Pierce, 1884-86, 

Springfield, 1886, Friend, 1889, 
Hemingford, 1894-96. 

Dada, Rev. W. B Stanton, 1882. 

Davidson, Rev. Wm. E. . . Friend, 1887-88. 

Davies, Rev. Arthur E. . . . Eustis, 1899-1900. 

Davies, R.ev. George Xursery Hill, 1871. 

Davies, Rev. W. A Brunsv/ick, 1893, Bladen, 1894, 

Linwood, 1896, 
Dodge, 1 897-1901, 
2\Ionroe, 1900-02. 

Davis, Rev. Joseph W Xeligh, 1888. 

Darley, Rev. Alexander ^L, Seward, 1887-88. 

Deakin, Rev. Samuel Hay Springs, 1888-93, 

Cowles, 1893, Taylor, 1901, 
Cowles, 1904 — . 

Dean, Rev. Amos N Freewater, 1881, 

Morning Star and Moline, 1881, 
Naponee, 1884-85, 
Cambridge, 1884-89, 
Oxford. 1885, Talmage, 1889, 
Eagle, 1890, Douglas, 1894, 
Friend, 1895. 

Dean. Rev. Benj. A Clarks. 1878. 

Exeter and Grafton, 1879-83. 

Dean, Rev. Edwin B South Bend, 1890. 

Dean. Rev. F. W Red Cloud, 1898, 

AlcCook, 1902-03. 



Dean, l^ev. S. C Jenkins Mills, 1872, 

Steele City, 1874-82, 
Plymouth, 1882, 
South Bend, 1885-90. 

Debenham, Rev. Walter 

(Presbyterian) Park (Mentorville), 1898-99. 

De Long, Rev. Thomas W. . Ainsvvorth, 1888-95. 

Demorest, Rev. W. L Grand Island, 1888-89. 

Denney, Rev. Wilson- Nebraska City, 1884, 

Ashland, 1892-97. 

Dickenson, Rev. Geo. L. . Alma, 1888, Naponee, 1889. 

Dickenson, Rev. Airs. M. J., Linwood, 1902 — . 

Dietrick, Rev. Henry J... Butte, Zion's, 1901, Hope, 1902. 

Diffenbacher, Rev. B. F.. . .Mainland, 1877, 

Sarpy Center, 1878, 
Louisville, 1879-83, 
Arlington, 1883, 
Hay Springs and 
Rushville, 1885-88, 
Ulysses, 1894, Eagle, 1898, 
Irvington, 1900-03, 
Omaha Saratoga, 1904 — . 

Dimmock, Rev. S. R Lincoln, 1873. 

Dimon, Rev. J. V Wymore, 1885. 

Dixon, Rev. J. J. A. T Irvington, 1871. 

Doane, Rev. John Grand Island, 1889-93, 

Lincoln Plymouth, 1 893-1902, 
Fremont, 1902 — . 

Dobson, Rev. John A. ... Seward, 1888. 

Donaldson, Rev. David ... Trenton, 1895-96. 

Doolittle, Rev. J. B Grafton, 1880-87, 

Farnam, 1890-93, 

Plarbine and Plymouth. 1893-95. 

Doremus, Rev. Andrew. . .Glencoe, 1879. 


Dorsey, Rev. Geo. X Ilubbell and Chester, 1881. 

Douglas, Rev. Clinton Albion, 1900-03. 

Douglas, Rev. Thomas ... Fontanelle, 1870. 

Douglas, Rev. T. O Franklin, 1902—. 

Dresser, Rev. Amos Butler Co. ist, 1870, 

Linwood, 1875, Indianola, 1879, 

Guide Rock, 1885, 

Camp Creek, 1886-96, 

Duncan. Rev. Calvin W . . Ogalalla, 1903, 

Holdrege, 1905 — . 
Dungan, Rev. Geo Indianola, 1882, 

McCook, 1882-86. 
Dungan, Rev. Thomas A.Sutton, 1903—. 
Durrant, Rev. Edward. . . Steele City, 1889, 

Alma and Blyville, 1891. 
Duryea, Rev. Joseph T. . . Omaha ist, 1888-94. 
Dyas, *Rev. J. P Silver Creek, 1879, 

Genoa and Monroe, 1880-83. 
Dyke, Rev. Thomas Naponee, 1904. 

Aten and Crofton, 1905 — . 

F,astman, Rev. W. F Osceola, 1882, Richmond, 1884, 

Greeley, 1885, Rushville, 1886. 

Eaton. Rev. Cyrus H Shickley, 1887. 

Egerland, Rev. Franz Crete (Ger.), 1897-1902. 

Ehnamani, Rev. Artemas. . Santee Agency, 1867-1902. 

Elliott, Rev. John E Columbus, 1870-75. 

Ellis, Rev. Jacob T Neligh, 1893-94. 

Ellis, Rev. John T Dustin, 1903, Naper 1904,- 

Campbell and Bladen, 1905 — . 

Ely, Rev. Edward L Shickley, 1889-91, 

Red Cloud, 1891, 
Omaha Saratoga and 
Cherry HiH, 1894-96. 


Emljree, Rev. J. H Doniphan, 1885, Trumbull, 188 

Loomis, 1900, 
Bertrand, 1902-03, 
Ilemingford, 1903-05, 
Reno, 1905. 

Emerson, Rev. C. H Creighton, 1871. 

Emerson, Rev, F. E Osceola, 1886, 

Enlow, Rev. Charles E. . . Greenwood, 1891, 
Waverly, 1891, 
Havelock, 1892-93. 

Essig, Rev. Gotleib Friend (Ger.^), 1895, 

Stockham (Ger.), 1897. 
Hayes Co. ist, 1 899-1902. 

Evans, Rev. H. M .Burwell," 1895, 

Grand Island, 1896-97, 
Cummings Park, 1904 — . 

Evans, Rev. Thomas Brewster, 1900-04. 

Taylor, 1904, Almeria, 1905 — 

Eveland, Rev. Samuel. .-. .Ainsworth, 1895-98, 
Springview, 1896, 
Petersburg, 1898. 

Falk, Rev. Theo Crete (Ger.), 1880. 

Farnsworth, Rev. Arthur. Norfolk 2d, 1893, 

Dodge and Howells, 1894-96, 
Nebraska City, 1896. 

Farwell, Rev. Asa Ashland, 1871. 

Fellows, Rev. C. B Pilger and Stanton, 1889. 

Fellows, Rev. Wm. W. . . . Fairmont, 1887-88. 

Ferguson, Rev. Frank L. . Chadron, 1890. 

Fifield, Rev. L. B Lincoln ist, 187(1^72, 

Kearney, 1874-78. 

Finch, Rev. J. B Nebraska City, 1865-67. 

Fisher, Rev. James A. . . . Omaha Plymouth, 1894-95. 


Fisher, Rev. Jessie L Verdon, 1894, 

Camp Creek, 1896-98, 
Rising City, 1 898-1900, 
Curtis and Wallace, 1900-02. 

Fitch, Rev. Albert Irvington, 1874, 

Central City, 1875, 
Chapman, 1879. 

Fitt, Rev. A. J Eagle, 1904, Ulysses, 1905—. ' 

Flock, Rev. Jacob Indianola, 1888-92, 

Sutton, 1892-95, 
Omaha Hillside, 1895, 
Kearney, 1903 — . 

Folsom, Rev. Arthur J. . . Alma, 1902, 

Omaha Plymouth, 1904 — . 

Forbs, Rev. Frank S Omaha Saratoga, 1888, 

Nebraska City, 1889. 

Forbs, Rev. W. H White Water,' 1883. 

Foster, Rev. John Wisner, 1896, Cambridge, 1897 

Syracuse, 1899, 
Springfield, 1902. 

Foster, Rev. Roswell Nebraska City, 1867. 

Foster, Rev. W. C Nebraska City, 1869. 

Fox, Rev. Frank Shickley, Strang, and 

Bruning, 1891-92. 

Francis, Rev. Silas F Fontanelle, 1857. 

Frazier, Rev. Francis. ... Santee, 1902 — . 

Frazier, Rev. Albert Niobrara, 1905 — . 

French, Rev. D. E Arborville, 1903 — . 

French, Rev. H. A Milford, 1872-83, 

Creenwood, 1883-90, 
Editor Nch. Congl. News — . 

Frilzemcier, Rev. William. .Crete (Ger.), 1891, 

Olive Branch, 1895-96. 

Frv, Rev. Holland B Pilfer and Stanton, 1880. 


Gafert, Rev. Fredrick. . . 
Gammon, Rev. Robert W 

Gardiner, Rev. G. A 

Gardner, Rev. E. V 

Gardner, Rev. F. W 

Gardner, Rev. Isaac J . . . , 

Gardner, Rev. N. E 

Gates, H.N 

Gavlord, Rev. Reuben 

Gearhart, Rev. Charles D, 

Geer, Rev. Herman 

Giddings, Rev. William . . 
Gilbert, Rev. J. B 

Gleason, Rev. Charles A. . 

Goerlitz, Rev. G. Wolde- 

Goodell, Rev. H. M 

Princeton, (Ger.), 1904 — . 

Monroe, 1890-91. 

Eustis, 1904-05. 

Syracuse, 1894, 

Cirand Island, 1899. 

Blair, 1899, Curtis, 1904, 

Wallace, 1904 — . 

Crawford, 1891, 

Silver Creek, 1892-93. 

Hemingford, 1886-90, 

Silver Creek, 1893, Genoa, 1894. 

Arborville, 1895-99, 

Tiemingford, 1903, 

Silver Creek, 1904. 

Supt. Home Missions, 1874-80. 

Omaha, 1857, 

State Supt. li. M., 1864-70, 

La Platte, 1870, 

Deceased at Fontanellc, 

Jan. 10, 1880. 

Indianola, 1892, Pierce, 1896, 

Newman's Grove, 1900, 

Ains worth, 1902-05. 

Bradshaw, 1887-88. 

Cedar Bluffs; 1871. 

Fontanelle, 1880, 

Springfield, 1882, 

Exeter, 1886-189 1, 

Ravenna, 1891. 

West Point, 1903-05, 

Fairmont, 1905 — . 

liastings (Ger.) and 

Inland, 1894-95. 

Blair, 1882, Wahoo, 1884-86. 


Goodell, Rev. J DeWitt, 1876-77. 

Gordon, Rev. Thomas Nebraska City, 1876-77. 

Graham, Rev. Robert N . . Ilavelock, 1901, 

Bloomfield, 1903 — . 

Addison, 1903. 

Gregor}-, Rev. Lewis Lincoln ist, 1875-99. 

Graves, Rev. C. F Sutton, 1878-80, 

Weeping Water. 

Grawe, Rev. J. F Wilber and Highland, 1881. 

Gray, Rev. John Sutton, 1874-76, Wahoo, 1876, 

Columbus, 1882, 

Ainsworth, 1883, 

Butte, 1898-1902. 

Gray, Rev. R. Y Addison, 1898-99. 

Green, Rev. Fred D Stanton, 1888-89. 

Griffith, Rev. Harvey Clear Water, 1873, Neligh, 1875, 

Much missionary work. 
Griffiths, Rev. Thomas. .. Petersburg, 1895, 

Geneva, 1897 — . 
Griffiths, Rev. Wm. R Shickley, Strang, and 

Bruning, 1897-98. 
Grob, Rev. Gottfried Liland (Ger.), 1887, 

Hastings, 1890, Sutton, 1899, 

Sutton (Ger.), 1899 — , 

Stockham — . 

Grob, Rev. John Inland (Ger.), 1886-87. 

Grout, Rev. S. N Elmore, 1869-70, 

Franklin Co. ist, 1874. 
Grupe, Rev. Fred W Farnam, 1898, 

Campbell and 

Bladen, 1898-1900. 
Hadden, Rev. J. W Alma, 1884, Free water, 1885, 

Wilcox, 1886. MoHne, 1887, 

Upland, 1888, Riverton, 1890, 

Spring\aew, 1891, Out stations. 



Hadsel, Mr. W. T. 

(M. E.) Hyannis and Bingham, 1905 — . 

Haines, Rev. S. S -. Arborville, 1881-82, and 


Halbersleben, Rev. H. C. . Highland, 1887, 

Cortland, 1888-90, 

Silver Creek, 1890, 

Linwood, 1892, Irvington, 1896, 

Exeter, 1899-1901, 

Indianola, 1901-03, 

Palisade, 1904 — . 

Hall, Rev. E. J Precept, Stoughton, 

Vailton, 1885. 

Hall, Rev. George C Wisner, 1885, West Point, 1886, 

Nebraska City, 1892-95. 

Hall, Rev. James S3Taciise, 1874. 

Hamlin, Rev. Christopher 

R Lincoln Plymouth, 1902-04. 

Hammond, Rev. Charles L.Grafton, and Shickley, 1903 — , 

Hampton, Rev. W. S Arborville, 1877, 

Cambridge, 1880, 

Franklin, 1882, 

Riverton, 1886, Wilcox, 1888, 

Grant, 1889, Ogalalla, 1894, 

Brule, 1897, Silver Creek, 1898, 

LHysses, 1901-04, Howells and 

Dodge, 1905 — . 

Hand, Rev. Leroy S Omaha Saratoga, 1896, 

Arlington, 1900-02. 

Hanford, Rev. S. I Long Pine, 1887, Aurora, 1891, 

Weeping Water, 1898 — . 

Hannan, Rev. W. E Dunning, 1905, 

Eustis and Loomis, 1905 — . 


Happel Rev. John 15 Superior, 1899, 

Germantown, 1902-03, 


Hardcastle, Rev. Wm Cambridge, 1899-1903. 

Hardy, Rev. James W. . . . Bloomfield and 

Addison, 1891-92, 

Aten, 1893-94. 
Harrison, Rev. C. S York, 1876-82, 

Franklin, 1884-91, 

Weeping- Water, 1893-97, 

Grafton, 1900, Clay Center, 1900. 

Harrison, Rev. H. S Centerville, 1881, York, 1884. 

Harrison, Rev. James. . . . North Bend, 1886. 

Harrison, Rev. H. R Hastings, 1905 — . 

Harrison, Rev. M. B Scribner, 1881 — . 

Harsnape, Rev. Wm Long Pine, 1901, 

Norfolk 2d, 1903 — . 
Hart, Rev. William H Arborville, 1899-1900, 

Friend, 1900-03. 
Harwood, Rev. C. E Wymore, 1882, 

Fairfield, 1884-89. 
Haskin, Rev. Spencer C. . Clearwater, 1S90. 
Hatch, Rev. Fredrick A.. Omaha Plymouth, 1900-04. 
Hathaway, Rev. Daniel E. DeWitt, 1886, 

Plymouth, 1886-88. 

Haviland, Rev. B. F Hastings and Harvard, 1873. 

Hauptman, Rev. William. Genoa, 1900-02, 

Red Cloud, 1902-03, 

Alma, 1904-05. 

Hawkcs, Rev. G. B McCook, 1905—. 

Hawkins, Rev. Newman H.Indianola and Noble, 1904 — . 
Hayes, Rev. Edward L. . . Danbury, 1898. 
Haynes, Rev. William. . . .Ravenna, 1889, 

West Point, 1890, 

Exeter, 1891-92, 


Healcy, Rev. Sullivan 


Healy, Rev. Frank D. ... 
Heathcote, Rev. Arthur S. . 

Heaton, Rev. I. E 

Hdde, Rev. G. O. (Bap.). . 
Hellier, Rev. Frank O . . . . 

Hastings,' 1894-95. 
Bcrtrand, 1895-99. 
Bladen, 1897. 
Fremont, 1856-59. 
Monroe, 1904. 
Maple Creek 
(Stanton), 1893-94. 
Sargent, 1902-04. 
Steele City, 1893. 
Grand Island, 1893. 

Helser, Rev. Mrs. Mary A. ; 

Heinzman, Rev. Z. K. 

Henderson, Rev. J. H. 

Henklemann, Rev. Gus- 

tavus L Timber Creek, 1899, 

Lincoln (Ger.), 1900, 
Hayes Co. ist (Ger.), 1902, 
]\IcCook (Ger.), 1902 — . 

Henry, Rev. F. Edmonds. Omaha Saratoga, 1900, 
Syracuse, 1904 — . 

Hensel, Rev. William A.. Spencer, 1896-98, Dustin, 1900, 
Napier, 1903. 

Flerbert, Rev. Joseph E. . . Ainsworth, 1883, 

Huntington and Trumbull, 1886, 
Grafton, 1887. 

Herrick, Rev. H York, 1875. 

Herring, Rev. H. C Omaha ist, i8q8— . 

Hertel, Rev. Arthur York (Ger.),' 1888. 

Hess, Rev. Henry Niobrara, 1898, 

Hope (Ger.), 1899-1902, 
Butte (Ger.), 1903 — . 

Heustis. Rev. H. C Cortland, 1884,' 

Bertrand, 1886-88, 
West Paint, 1888, 
Freewater, 1890, Exeter, 1892, 
Doniphan, 1899- 1902, 
Waverly, 1902-05. 


Hibbard, Rev. Charles. . . . Exeter and Sutton, 1873, 

Fairmont, 1874. 
Hicks, Rev. George C. . . . Avoca, 1891. 

High, Rev. Jedd A Arborville, 1892-95. 

Hilkerbaumer, Rev. R.... Guide Rock (Ger.), 1889, 

Beaver Creek, 1893, 

Nelson, 1894, 

Hallam, 1897-1903. 

Many Outstations. 
Hill, Rev. E. C. W Talmage, and 

.Camp Creek, 1883-86. 

Hilliard, Rev. D. C Avoca, 1889. 

Hills, Rev. William S. ... Council, 1872, Aurora, 1S73, 

Seeley, 1875, Grafton, 1878, 

Richardson Co. ist and 2d and 

Verdon, 1881-85, 

Eagle, 1886-88, Ulysses, 1888, 

Wymore, 1895, Alma and 

Naponee, 1896. 
Hindly, Rev. Geo Nebraska City, 1881-84, 

Weeping Water, 1883-93. 
Hines, Rev. P. H Dodge, 1891, Howells, 1892, 

Wisner, 1893, Geneva, 1896-97. 
Hinman, Rev. Herbert J- .Clarks and Genoa, 1879, 

David City, 1900-02. 
Hitchcock, Rev. Howard. Arcadia, 1889. 
Hobein, Rev. Edward L. . Hallam (Ger.), 1903 — . 
Hodel, Rev. Abram Culbertson (Ger.), 1890, 

McCook, 1893. 
Hoffman, Rev. John H. . . Kearney, 1893-94. 
Holt. Rev. M. L Knox Co. ist, 1880, 

Plain view, 1881, 

Omaha Park View, 1887-90. 
Holton, H. F. (Stu.) Bertrand, 1904—. 


Homsaker, Rev. David S.Ft. Calhoun, 1898-99. 
Hopkins, Rev. William H.Aurora, 1898-1901. 
Houlding, Rev. H Gloversville and 

West Cedar Valley, 1885. 

House, Rev. J. T Greenwood, 1894-95. 

Houston, Rev. Warren H.Macon, 1886, 

Silver Creek, 1888, 

Bladen, 1889-91, 

Arcadia, 1898-1900. 
Houstoii, Rev. Albert S. . . Indianola, 1895-97. 
Howard, Rev. Charles E. . Sargent, 1897, Dodge, 1900, 

Fairview, 1901-02. 

Hughs, Rev. I. C Doniphan, 1883-85. 

Hurlbert, Rev. E. B Fontanelle, 1858, 

Irvington, 1865, 

Papillion, 1866-68. 

Hull, Rev. G. H Fairfield, 1899. 

Hull, Rev. Irving T DeWitt and Talmage, 1889. 

Humphrey, Rev. C. C....Camp Creek, 1871, 

Osceola, 1873, Albion, 1874-78. 

Hunt, Rev. T. C Hastings, 1901-04. 

Hunt, Rev. W. S Columbus. 1890, Harvard, 1904. 

Hulbert, Rev. J. M Flag Butte. 1890. 

Iden, Rev. Alpheus J Addison and Crofton, 1903-04, 

Genoa, 1905 — . 
Irvine, Rev. Alexander F.Omaha Pilgrim, 1894-96. 
Isaacs, Rev. William J...Verdon, 1896-1903, 

Spencer, 1903 — . 

Jackson, Rev. Frank D. . . Sutton, 1896, 

Omaha Pilgrim, 1897-1900. 

James, Rev. David R Cambridge, 1895. 

James, Rev. George W. . . Creighton, 1894-1900. 


Jeft'eries, Rev. John Crawford, 1893-96, 

Norfolk, 2(1, 1896, 
Camp Creek, 1902 — . 

Johnson, Rev.. Jonas Lincoln Swedish, 1898. 

Johnson, Rev. Samuel W.Richmond, Belknap, and 
Dustin, 1 889-1 890. 

Jones, Rev. Burton H. . . . Hyannis, 1897-98, 

Hay Springs, 1 898-1900, 
Sargent, 1900-02. 

Jones, Rev. D. J DeWitt, 1877-78. 

Jones, Rev. J. V Carroll, 1905—. 

Jones, Rev. T. A Richardson Co. ist and 

Elmore, 1873-74. 

Jones, Rev. John A Harbine, 1899. 

Jones, Rev. L. H Fontanelle, 1864-68, 

Lone Tree, 1872. 

Jones, Rev. Samuel Carroll (Welsh), 1891-1901. 

Jones, Rev. Thomas Brule, 1903-04, 

Rising City, 1905, 
Waverly, 1905 — . 

Jones, Rev. Richard West Hamilton, 

Doniphan and 
South Platte, 1905 — . 

lose. Rev. Emanuel Scott Precinct, 1876, 

Friend (Ger.), 1883. 

Kelsey, Rev. Joel S McCook, 1886. 

Keniston, Rev. Geo. N... Keystone and 

Loomis, 1898-99, 
Kenniston, Rev. O. V.... Dustin, 1899-1900. 
Kent. Rev. Thomas Knox Co. ist, 1884, Pilger and 

Stanton. 1887-88. 

Kerr, Rev. Joseph Bertrand, 1892-93. 

Kershaw, Rev. C. H Park and Mentorville and 

West Cedar Valley, 1896. 


Kidder, Rev. Josiah Arlington, 1893. 

Kidder, Rev. T- W Norfolk and Stanton, 1870-78. 

Oakdale, 1878. 

Killip, Rev. Robert Genoa, 1889-90. 

King. Rev. J. C Bethel, Newcastle and 

Martinsburg, 1883-86. 
King, Rev. Willet D Hyannis, 1903, Cherry Hill and 

Park Vale Omaha, 1905 — . 
Klopp, Rev. John J Stanton and 

Maple Creek, 1898—. 
Knapp, Rev. George W.. Grant, 1894-98, Ogalalla, 1898, 

Hay Springs, 1902 — . 
Knowles, Rev. David Salt Creek, 1869, 

Greenwood, 1879-83. 
Kokjer, Rev. Jordan M. . .Springview, 1897, Cowles. 1901, 

Petersburg, 1903-05, 

Brunswick, 1905 — ■. 
Kraemer, Rev. Julius H. .Center, and Wescott and 

Comstock, 1905 — . 

Lamb, Rev. G. S Alilford, 1883-90. 

Lange, Rev. John G Wahoc, 1892, Leigh, 1895-99. 

Langley, Rev. Harry Pickrell, 1902. 

Lansborough, Rev. J. F..Holdrege, 1904-05. 

Larkins, Rev. James W. . . Blair, 1901-03. 

Lavv^son, Rev. Francis. . . . Riverton, 1891. 

Leavitt, Rev. William Ashland, 1878-86. 

Leavitt, Rev. Fred W. . . .West Point, 1899-1903. 
Seward, 1903 — . 

LeBar, Rev. William H. . . Omaha Park Vale, 1895, 
Wilcox, 1899, 
Hiland Center, 1905, 
Cortland, 1904-05. 

Leeper, Rev. Edward R..York, 1889-92. 



Lewis, Rev. F. F Holdrege, 1 898-1901, 

Syracuse, 1901-04. 
Lewis, Rev. E. M..... ... 1864. 

Lewis, Rev. Thomas G. . . Pleasant Ridge, 1887. 
Libby, Rev. Edward H. . . Cumminsville, 1886-1902. 

Lich, Rev. John Friend and Grafton (Ger.), 


Lincoln (Ger.), 1902 — . 
Lich, Rev. Peter Friend (Ger.), 1892, 

Deshler, 1895, 

Superior, 1897-99. 
Lincoln, Rev. George E.. Trenton, 1899. 
Lindsay, Rev. Robert S..York, 1887-89. 

Linskea, Rev. J. B Wilber, 1880. 

Little, Rev. Charles Lincoln ist, 1868-69. 

Lipe, Rev. W. A Omaha Cherry Hill, 1891. 

Loney, Rev. Wesley { Cli. 

of Disc) Butte and Spencer, 1893. 

Losey, Rev. John B Sutton, 1898. 

Lowe, Rev. C. Marshall. . Genoa and Monroe, 1902-04, 

Wattsville, 1902-02. 
Lowes, Rev. J. E Cedar Creek and 

Boone Co. ist., 1872. 
Lyman, Rev. Henry Mar- 
tin . . . Stanton and 

Maple Creek, 1894. 

Macomber, Rev. Hiram, 
Maile, Rev. John 

Manss, Rev. William H, 
Manwell, Rev. B. T. . . 
Marsh, Rev. A. F 

Steele City, 1887. ' 

State vSupt. Home Missions, 

Lincoln ist, 1898-1903. 
Plattsmouth, 1871. 
New England Valley, 1882, 
Neligh, 1882. 

TABLES ' 345 

Marsh, Rev. L. J Grand Island, 1904 — . 

Marshall, Rev. William. .. Alma and Naponee, 1881. 
Martin, Rev. Edwin Shickley, 1892, 

Addison, 1893-96. 
Martin, Rev. George R. . . Spencer, 1899, Harbine, 1900, 

Arborville, 1902, 

Milford, 1903-04. 
Martinis, Rev. A Cowles and 

Wheatland, 1884-85. 
Mason, Rev. James W. . . . Danbury, 1905 — . 

Mason, Rev. L. T. ...... . Camp Creek, 1881. 

Maxwell, Rev. A Fairmont, 1872, Aurora, 1873, 

Red Cloud, 1874, 

Wheatland, 1878, 

Loup City, 1880. 

May, Rev. Jacob Culbertson, 1888-89. 

May, Rev. Thomas F. .... Campbell, 1904 — . 
MacAyeal, Rev. Howard S. Cambridge, 1889-95, 

Omaha Plymouth, 1895. 
McDougall, Rev. Geo. L. . Bloomfield, 1903. 
McHenry, Rev. Feargus .. Syracuse, 1889, Cortland, 1893. 
McHenr3% Rev. Geo. F. . . Burwell, 1888. 

Mcintosh, Rev. C. H York, 1882-84. 

McKinney, Rev. James E.Havelock, 1897. 
McLeary, Rev. Owen L. , Clearwater and 

Gloversville, 1893. 
McLean, Rev. Thomas D.Blair, 1893-94. 
McRae, Rev. Isaac Wallace, 1898, 

Newcastle, 1900-02, 

V^erdon, 1903, Havelock, 1904 — 

Mead, Rev. M. H Norfolk, 1878, Stanton and 

Silver Creek, 1883-85. 
Verdon, 1885. 
Medlar, Rev. William H. .York, 1903 — . 



Medlin, Rev. 7. S. (M. E 
Menzi, Rev. Ernest U. 
Merrill, Rev. C. W. . . 

Merrill, Rev. Elijah W 
Merrill, Rev. O. W. .. 

Myers, Rev. L. L 

Miles, Rev. M. N 

^lillarcl Rev. Martin J 

Miller, Rev. Albert C. 
Milligan, Rev. J. A . . . 

Mills, Rev. Herbert L. 
Mitchell, Rev. G. W. . 

Moffatt, Rev. T. Clemence. 

Mollen1:)eck, Rev. B . . . 
Monroe, Rev. Geo. A, 

Morach, Rev. Jacob. 
Morlev, Rev. John. . 

) I'ickrell, 1903-04. 

. Curtis, 1900-01. 

. State Snpt. of Home Missions, 

. Pleasant View, 1883. 
. State Supt. of Home Missions, 

. Paisley, 1903-04. 
. Calla, 1870. 
.De Witt, 1902, Strang and 

Benning, 1904 — . 
. Dodge, 1902-04. 
. Ainsworth, 1884-86, 

Long Pine, 1886-87, 

Omaha, Saratoga and 

Cherry Plill, 1887-8S, 

Wymore, 1891-92. 
. Omaha Cherry Hill, 1903, 

Hillside, 1904 — . 
.Juniata, 1882 (Stu. 3 Mo.), 

Bethel, 1884, Newcastle, 1S85, 

Dustin, 1886, Avoca, 1887, 

Arborville, 1888-92, 

Franklin, 1892-02, 

Clarks, 1905 — , Silver Creek. 

Hayes Center and 

Palisade, 1894, 

Wymore, 1897- 1903. 

Fairmont (Ger.), 1873. 

Milford, 1895, 

Columbus, 1900- — . 

Olive Branch, 1887, 

Hallam, 1893-97: 

Avoca. 1884-87, Victoria, 1887. 


Morse, Rev. Henry H.... Omaha Hillside, 1890-91. 

Morse, Rev. M. W Crete, 1896-1901. 

Morse, Rev. Robert C. . . . Fairfield, 1889-1890. 
Moslander, Rev. Frank- 
lin V Neligh, 1900-03. 

Mounts, Rev. S. A Upland, 1892, Campbell, 1893. 

Murphy, Rev. Charles J.. Wallace, 1894-98. 
Mygatt, Mr. Albert. . . : . . Bassett, 1904—, 

Pine Camp, 1905 — . 

Nelson, Rev. J. W Hastings, 1 898-1902. 

Neuman, Rev. L Friend (Ger.), 1889-91. 

Neuman, Rev. Isaac Beaver Creek (Ger.), 1888-89. 

Newell, Rev. A. F Lincoln Vine St., 1893-99. 

Nevill, Rev. Alfred W. 

(Friend) Wallace, 1902-04, Harbine, 

Plymouth and 
Steele City, 1904 — . 

Nichols, Rev. Joseph 

(M. E.) Calhoun, 1894. 

Norcross, Rev. L. P Osceola, 1879-82. 

Norval, Rev. W. O Vailton, 1888. 

Noyce, Rev. Geo. T Irvington, 1893-94, 

Brunswick, 1895, Wilcox, 
Hildreth, Trenton, 1901-04, 
Fairview, 1904 — . 

Noyce, Rev. Joseph C. . . . Cleiuen, 1902, Mumper. 1901-03, 
Brewster, 1904-05, 
]\Ioulton, 1905 — . 

Oakey, Rev. James West Point and Wisner. 1881, 

David City, 1886-88. 
Osgood, Rev. Robert S. . . Harvard, 189S-99. 

Otis, Rev. A. J Bradshaw, 1889. 

Otis, Rev. Jonathan T Ulysses and Rising. 1886, 



Osthott, Rev. E. C 

Oxley, Rev. Charles G. 
Packard, Rev. N. L 

Page, Rev. B. G 

Page, Rev. H. P 

Page, Rev. W. D 

Palmer, Rev. E. S 

Palmer, Rev. Oscar A. 
Parish, Rev. Geo. R. . . 

Parker, Rev. J. J 

Paske, Rev. William J- 
Pavne, Rev. W. B . . . . 

Paxton, Rev. R. F. . . , 
Pearson, Rev. B. F. . . , 
Pearson. Rev. Samuel. 

Peas, Rev. Frank W. 
Peas, Rev. W. P 

frvington, 1887-93. 
• Lincoln (Ger.), 1898-1900. 
. Corliand, 1904-04. 
. Ainsworth, 1884, 
Gen. 2yliss., 1904 — . 
. Dorchester, 1873, 

Friendville, 1875-78. 
. .Harvard, 1877, Exeter. 1878. 
. . Cowles, 1885, Guide Rock, 1886, 

Curtis, 1888. 
. . Omaha, 1867. 

. . Ulysses, 1892, Trenton, 1894-95. 
. . Leigh and Howells, 1887, 

Harvard, 1888-89. 
. . Norfolk, 1885-01, 
Kearney, 1901-02, 
Plainview, 1903 — . 
. . Newcastle, 1886, Pierce, 188S 
Omaha Park Place, 1891. 

• • Friend, 1897, 

Arborville, 1900-02, 
Exeter, 1902 — . 

• • Ainsworth, 1905 — . 
. . Gloversville, 1888. 

• • Bethel and Martinsburg. 1886, 

Oxford, 1887, Dodge and 

Howells, 1888^1, 

West Point, 1891. 
. .Albion, 1892-95, 

Ravenna, 1895. Alma, 1899-1902. 
. . Rising City, Irvington, 1890, 

Ogalalla, 1891, Freewater, 1893, 

Wilcox and Hildreth, 1894, 

Hay Springs, 1894-98. 


rV'lton, Rev. Geo. S Omaha 3d, 1883. 

iV'niiinian, Alfred B Omaha 3d, 1887. 

I'erkins, Rev. Mrs. E. B. . Clarks, 1893, Silver Creek, 1895, 

Clay Center, 1S96-99, 

Clarks, 1899-1904. 

I'erkins, Rev. Geo. B Blair, 1894. 

Perry, Rev. D. B Aurora, 1872, Called to 

Doane Col, 1872; 
Perry, Rev. Frank S I-eigh, 1892-93, Brule and 

Ogalalla, 1898. 

Peterson, Rev. C. E Lincoln (Swedish), 1898-1902. 

Pettit, Rev. Samuel A . . . . Naponee, 1890, Moline, 1891, 

Clearwater, 1892, 

Gloversville, 1892-93. 

Phipps. Rev. Wm. C Wescott, 1897. 

Pierce, Rev. Robert Phelps (Welsh), 1884, 

Urbana, 1884—. 
Pile, Rev. Francis Spencer, 1901, 

Campbell, 1903-04. 

Plass, Rev. Norman Lincoln Plymouth, 1893. 

Piatt, Rev. PL D Cowles, 1888-93, Alma, 1905-— 

Piatt, Rev. M. F Weeping Water, 1865, 

Hastings, 1874-76, 

Waverly, 1876, Juniata, 1879, 

Rock Creek, 1880, 

Syracuse, 1882, 

Greenwood, 1883, 

Beatrice, 1884. 

Poeton, Rev. Josiah Taylor, 1896-99. 

Poison, Rev. August Lincoln Swedish, 1905 — . 

Porter, Rev. George Fremont, 1875-78. 

Pogue, Rev. R. E. (M. E.) Pickrell, 1904-05. 

Pound', Rev. E. H Crawford, 1889-91. 

Powell, Rev. F. S Hastings, 1892. 



Powell, Rev. Gregory J. . . . Chadron, i8S6, 

Omaha Hillside, 1892-95. 

I'ower, Rev. John Springview, Blair, 1889-93, 

Kearney, 1894. 

Pratt, Rev. A. P. Camp Creek, 1873. 

Preston, Rev. B. C Eagle, 1889-90. 

Preston, Rev. C. W \'erdon, 1888, 

Curtis, 1892-1900, 

Thedford, 1900, 

Lincoln Butler Ave., 1905 — . 

Preston, Rev. ^Nlrs. C. W. . Eustis, 1897-99, 

Dtmning, 1900-03, 

Lincoln Butler Ave., 1905 — . 

Preston, Rev. Elmer E. . . Hemingford, 1896, 
Hyannis, 1896-97. 

Preston, Rev. H. L McCook, 1894-96, 

Newman Grove, 1905. 

Preston, Rev. Joseph P. . . Irvington, 1881, 

Creighton, 1887-90. 

Price, Rev. John Elmore, 1858. 

Pugh, Rev. Thomas Jalappa, 1870-73, 

Fairfield, 1873-78, 
Indianola, 1878-79. 

Ouarder, Rev. Paul O. B.Hastings (Ger.), 1892-93. 

Radford, Rev. Walter. ... Springfield, 1891-94. 
Ralston, Rev. Edward S.. Lincoln Plymouth. 1887-91. 

Ramser, Rev. Jacob Plighland (Ger.), 1888. 

Ratzell, J. Perry Crawford, 1903, 

Cambridge, 1904 — . 
Rawson, Rev. Greggs H. .Irvington, 1904 — . 

Ray, Rev. Geo. A Seward, 1891. 

Reichardt, Rev. Frederick. Friend (Ger.), 1891-92. 
Reeves, Rev. G. I Hildreth and Wilcox, 1905—. 

TABLES 35 [ 

Rice, Rev. Guy H Newcastle, 1898-1900, 

Thedford, 1900, 
Arlington, 1902-03, 
Red Cloud, 1904 — , and 
Indian Creek. 

Rice, Rev. O. V Columbus, 1884-89, 

Harvard, 1889. 
Richards, Rev. George W. Stratton, 1886-89. 
Richards, Rev. Emanuel. . Sutton, 1885. 
Richardson, Rev. Charles 

H Geneva, 1895. 

Ricker, Rev. A. E Ogalalla, 1888, Alma, 1891-95, 

Chadron, 1895, Aurora, 1901 — . 
Richert, Rev. Cornelius. .. Germantown, 1891. 
Rig'gs, Rev. Alfred L. . . . Santee Agency for many years — . 
Rindell, Rev. Gilbert T. . . Arlington, 1904 — . 

Robberts, Rev. J. F Ulysses and Newlands, 1882-83. 

Roberts, Rev. John Silver Creek, 1886, 

Newcastle, 1888, 
Petersburg and Park, 1901, 
Newcastle and 
Daily Branch, 1905 — . 

Rockwell, Rev. J. H Palmyra, 1873. 

Rogers, Rev. Alonzo Blair, 1887. 

Rogers, Rev. A. J Columbus, 1894, 

Harvard, 1899-1901. 

Rogers, Rev. C. H Lincoln Plymouth, 1904 — . 

Rogers, Clarence J Creighton, 1900. 

Rohring, Rev. Otto /Vlliance (Ger.), 1900 — . 

Rominger, Rev. H. V. . . . Crawford, 1896-99. 

Rose, Rev. A. H Omaha Hillside, 1891^)2. 

Rose, Rev. L. P Hastings, 1895. 

Rose, Rev. W. W Omaha, 1865-67. 

Roser, Rev. Theodore Inland, 1883. 


Rundus, Rev. John Wilber, Bethlehem, 1892. 

Ruring, Rev. Victor H. . . David City, 1905 — . 

Sage, Rev. Charles J Rising City 1898-99, 

Ravenna, 1 899-1 902. 

Sallenbach, Rev. H. H Lincoln (Ger.), 1877. 

Sargent, Rev. Clarence S. Omaha St. Mary's Ave. .190C-02. 
Sargent, Rev. Robert M. . Linwood, 1901-02. 

Sarkeys, Rev. Elias S Addison and Eloomfield, 1896-98. 

Schaerer, Rev. John Crete (Ger.), 1884. 

Schaufield, Rev. Paul AI. . Nelson and Deshler, 1894. 
Sch.euerle, Rev. G Emanuel (Ger.), 1884-85, 

Olive Branch, 1885. 

Schlechter, Rev. Jacob Sutton (Ger.), 1892. 

Schroeder, Rev. Geo. W. . Newcastle, 1903-04. 
Schwab, Rev. S. Herman. Lincoln Zion (Ger.), 1901 — . 
Schvvimle}^ Rev. William 

A David City, 1897-1900. 

Scott, Rev. George ^^>st Point, 1878-81, 

Sutton, 1 88 1, 

Cortland, 1890-1903, 

Wisner, 1903 — . 
Scott, Rev. Willard. .' . . .Omaha St. Mary's Ave., 1883. 
Seccombe, Rev. Charles. . Alonroe and Grand Island, 1875. 

Seward, Rev. A. L Glencoe, 1878, Aurora, 1880. 

Sharpe, Rev. Perry A. . . . Omaha Cherry Hill, 1902-^3, 

Friend, 1903 — . 

Sharrett, Rev. James Friend, 1888-89. 

Sherman, Rev. E. L Columbus, 1878-81, 

Fairfield, 1891-96. 
Sherman, Rev. Newton. . . Bloomfield, 1904 — . 

Sherril, Rev. A. F Omaha ist, 1869-188S. 

Shull, Rev. Gilbert L. . . . CraAvford, 1901 — . 
Show, Rev. A. B Waco, 1885. 


Sliuman, Rev. Henry A. . Ulysses, i8(j8, Rising City, kjoo. 

Burwell, 1902, Arcadia, 1903 — . 

Shunian, Rev. S. H Monroe, 1892. 

Sikes, Rev. Eric B Springview, 1905 — . 

Single, Rev. John Butte Zion (Ckr.), 1898- 1902. 

Skinner, Rev. J. H Mascott, 1897. 

Skinner, Rev. T. N Milford, 1869-70, 

Dorchester, 1872-73. 
Sniitt, Rev. John Inland* (Ger.), and 

Liberty Creek, 1904 — . 

Smith, Rev. David O Campbell, 1886-80. 

Smith, Rev. E. F Juniata, 1877. 

Smith, Rev. Edwin S Beatrice, 1888-92 

Smith, Rev. Howard N. . . Omaha Saratoga, 1889 -c)i. 

Smith, Rev. J. A Avoca, 1888. 

Smith, Rev. J. Franklin. . Sargent, 1893, 

Arcadia, 1895-98, 

Leigh, 1899-05. 

Smith, Rev. J. P Fontanelle, 1868-70. 

Smith, Rev. L. Adams Stratton, 1889. 

Smock, Rev. W. D Schuyler, 1883. 

Snow, Rev. Beecher O. ..Bladen, 1891, 

Upland, 1892-93, 

Irvington, 1894-96, 

Fairfield, 1896. 

Snyder, Rev. Henry C Bertrand, 1893. 

Southworth, Rev. Edv/ard. Harvard, 1883, 

Clay Center, 1886-88. 
Spangler, Rev. George B.Camp Creek, 1898-1902. 
Spellman, Rev. Henry O.Red Cloud, 1894. 
Sprague, Rev. Elmer E. . Farnam, 1893, 

Cortland, 1898-99. 

Spencer, Rev. J. G Irvington. 1875. Norfolk, 1882. 

Sperry, Rev. W. S Blair,^ 1868. 


Sparrow, Rev. J. P Knox Co. ist, 1882-84. 

Lakeside, 1885-87. 
Squire, Rev. A. L Burwell, 1894-95, 

Holdrege, 1897, 

Shickley, 1898-99. 

Stahl, Rev. Carl D Crete (Ger.), 1902-04 

Stahner, Rev. H. C Crete (Ger.), 1905—. 

Starbiick, Rev. C. C Columbus and Monroe, 1877, 

St. Clair, Rev. Peter Osceola, 1883-86, 

Rushville, 1887. 

Syracuse, 1888-89. 
Stephenson, Rev. Wm. 

D. J Lakeside, 1887, 

Clearwater, 1889-90. 

McCook, 1 89 1. 
Stewart, Rev. J. D Hastings, 1879-83, 

Supt. of State S. S. work 
from 1 883- 1 905 — . 
Stocking, Rev. James B..Wahoo, 1898-1902, 

Burwell, 1903 — . 

Stoelting, Rev. F. A Timber Creek, 1900-01. 

Storm, Rev. J. E Rising and Ulysses, 1883, 

Arborville, 1885, Clarks, 1890. 

DeWitt, 1 89 1, Springfield, 1894, 

Long Pine, 1897, 

Clay Center, 1899, 

Hyannis, 1900, Harbine and 

Plymouth, 1902, 

DeWitt, 1904-05. 
Stoughton, Rev. Lewis H.Albion, 1895-1900. 
Strong, Rev. J. M Inavale, 1879. 

Franklin, 1880-82. 

Strong, Rev. Sidney Friend, 1885-87. 

Stubbins, Rev. W. H Burwell, 1883. 


Stuecklin, Rev. G. F Inland (Ger.), 1884. 

Siiffa, Rev. Andrew Lincoln Salem (Ger.), lyoi- 

Suess, Rev. William Buda Flat, 1875, 

Culbertson, 1S85, 
McCook (Ger.), 1889, 
Olive Branch, 1896 — . 

Swanson, Rev. John E... Lincoln Swedish, 1902-04, 
Waverly Swedish, 1904 — . 

Switzer, Rev. Miss A, E. Hoklrege, 1902-04. 

Swing, Rev. A. F Fremont, 1878-87. 

Taggart, Rev. Charles E. . Red Cloud, 1889-91. 
Tangeman, Rev. Gottlob D. Grant, 1893, DeWitt, 1894, 
Fairmont, 1896-99. 

Tasker, Rev. Joseph O. . 

. Linwood, 1887-92. 

Taylor, Rev. C. B 

. Ravenna, 188&-89. 

Taylor, Rev. E. C 

. In State, 1866, Ord, 1867, 

Letter to Iowa, 1869. 

Taylor, Rev. George E. . 

. Harvard, 1880^83, 

Clay Center, 1883-86, 

Indianola, 1886-88, 

Pierce, 1900 — . 

Taylor, Rev. Glen A.... 

. Strang and Geneva, 1886-87. 

Taylor, Rev. J. G 

. Nebraska City, 1872-76. 

Terrell, Rev. C. W 

. Genoa, 1890-92, 

Clarks, 1892-93. 

Thain, Rev. A. R 

. Omaha Plymouth, 1889. 

Thiel, Rev. P. J 

.Hastings (Ger.), 1904 — . 

Thing, Rev. Milo J. P. . . 

. Butler 1st and 

Linwood, 1884-87, 

Springfield, 1889, 

Arcadia, 1801-95. 

Thomas, Rev. Charles M 

. Brunswick, 1903 

Loomis and Eustis, 1905 — . 


Thompson, Rev. Carl D. . Clearwater, 1891-92, 

Park (Mentorville), 1893. 

Thompson, Rev. H. S Syracuse, 1879. 

Thompson, Rev. J. C. . . . Nebraska City, 1879. 

Thome, Rev. James A Ogalalla, 1886, Grant, 1887, 

Clarks, 1888-90. 

Ticknor, Rev. Owen E. . . Eustis, 1894, Hyannis, 1895-96, 
Red Cloud. 1806, 
Freewater and ^^'ilcox, 1897, 
Park, 1899. 

Tillbery, Rev. John M. . . . Linwood Swedish, 1896-97. 

Tingley, Rev. M Blair, 1870-77. 

Todd, Rev. Q. C Red Cloud and Riverton, 1882, 

Monroe and Genoa, 1884. 

Torbet, Rev. Albert Omaha Park Place, 1890-91. 

Townsend. Rev. Ardiur C. Crawford, 1899-01, 

Ravenna, 1901, Albion, 1903 — . 

Traudt, Rev. -\dam Lincoln (Ger.), 1888-89. 

Traverse, Rev. R. M Ravenna, 1887-88, 

Leigh, 1888-92, Milford, 1892, 
Alma, 1895, Doniphan, 1899, 
DeWitt, 1 899-1902, 
Petersburg, 1902, 
Clay Center, 1902, 
Wymore, 1903-04. 

Treiber, Rev. Alichael Sutton (Ger.), 1888, 

Stockham and Sutton, 1890. 

Triplet, Rev. H. M Ainsworth, 1898-1902, 

Springfield, 1902 — . 

Tucker, Rev. John F Eagle, 1888-89. 

Tueben, Rev. A. C Park, 1891. 

Turner, Rev. L. A Plymouth and Kilpatrick, 1895, 

Indianola, 1897-1900. 


Turner, Rev. W. J Mbion, 1887, Neligh, 1891-93, 

McCook, 1 898-1902, 
Norfolk, 1902—. 

Tiittle, Rev. John E Lincoln ist, 1903—- 

Uber, Rev. William Received 1867. 

Unger, Rev. Samuel L. . . Hildreth, 1895. 

VanAlstine, Rev. Sylvester. Genoa, 1892-94, 
Long- Pine. 

VanLuven, Rev. Sanford 

A Sargent and Comstock, 1904 — . 

Vietz, Rev. C. F Crete (Ger.), 1875-76. 

Yogt. Rev. William F Culbertson (Ger.), 1897, 

McCook, 1897-99, 
Beaver Creek, 1901, 
Friend (Ger.), 1903-05. 

Wadsworth, Rev. George. Spencer, 1898. 
Wainwright, Rev. Geo. W.Blair, 188(^82, 

Representative of A. B. S. 
from 1882 nearly 20 years. 
Walker, Rev. Cornelius C. Burwell, 1891-92. 
Waller, Rev. Theodore. .. Fontanelle, 1857. 
Walters. Rev. William Hastings, 1886-92, 

Long Pine, 1892. 
Wannamaker, Rev. H. S.Geneva, 1887-90, 

Lincoln Vine St., 1890-93. 
Warfield, Rev. Frank A. . Omaha ist, 1896-98. 

Wark, Rev. W. O Harvard, 1892-93. 

Warwick, Rev. Andrew. . Glencoe, 1872. 
Washington, Rev. Alonzo 

G Maple Creek, 1892, 

Leigh, 1893. 
Watson, Rev. Jonathan. . . Ogalalla, 1902-03. 


Webber, Rev. Berthold L.Clay Center, 1894-95. 
Webber, Rev. E. E DeWitt, i88c^S2, 

Wahoo, 1882-84. 
Weeden, Rev. William. .. Beatrice, 1884-86. 

West, Rev. Parley B Butte, 1902-04. 

Wiedenhoeft, Rev. . Wil- 
liam Hemingf ord and 

Nonpareil, 1890. 
Wiedmann, Rev. P Crete (Ger.), 1881-84, 

Emanuel, 1885, 

Beaver Creek, 1887-88. 

Weidman, Rev. Milo Long Pine, 1905 — . 

Wharton, Rev. Lawrence 

B. (Bap.) Omaha Plymouth, 1889. 

Williams, Rev. R. R Fairfield, 1878, 

Clay Center, 1887-90. 
Williams, Rev. Samuel. .. Riverton, 1 894-1905. 
Williams, Rev. Thistle A . Omaha Cherry Hill, 1900-02. 
Williams, Rev. William T. Dustin, 1890, Aten, 1895, 

Blyville, 1896, 

Crofton to 1903. 
Wild, Rev. Laura A Lincoln Butler Ave., 1901-05, 

Doan€ Professorship, 

Crete, Neb., 1905 — . 
Willis, Rev. J. Vincent... New Hope, 1892, 

Wymore, 1892-93. 
Wilson, Rev. Samuel F. . . New Hope, 1893, 

Wymore, 181)3. 

Wilson, Rev. Henry Hastings, 1883-85. 

Winslow, Rev. Jacob Hastings, 1876-78. 

DeWitt, 1878-80. 

Friend, 1880, Bradshaw, 1883. 
Wisnier, Rev. Ernest L. . . Taylor, 1899-1901, 

Newman Grove, 1903-04. 


Wood, Rev. Samuel Havelock, 1893-97, 

Wahoo, 1898. 

Woolman, Rev. W Aurora, 1876-78, 

Bradshaw, 1880, T'.Iayflowcr, 
Prairie Home, West 
Hamilton, 1S82, Naponee, 1885, 
Moline and Farnam, 1886-87, 
Palisade, 1889-91. 

\Voohvorth, Rev. William 

S Wymore, 1890. 

Woth, Rev. Friedrick Germantown, 1891-99. 

Wright, Rev. Garvin H.. . Fairfield, 1903 — . 

Wrigley, Rev. Francis Milford, 1904-05. 

Wuerrschmidt, Rev. C. W. Hastings (Ger.), 1895-1904. 

Wycoff, Rev. Edwin D. . . Omaha Pilgrim, 1900. 

Yost, Rev. Robert Omaha St. Mary's Ave., 1902-05 

Youngs, Rev. J. W Arborville, 1882. 

Zercher, Rev. Henry J.... Geneva, 1890-93. 

Tables VHI and IX present the history of each church 
and each minister in their ecclesiastical relations. We can 
only hope that they are approximately correct. Church 
scribes were not always particular in reporting the changes 
of pastorates with the proper dates. We have found at 
times the printed minutes at fault. In such a number of 
names and dates we can not hope that we have made no 
mistakes, but these tables have been prepared with much 
labor and painstaking, and we trust they will prove to be 
of permanent and real value to the churches. Where appar- 
ent discrepancies occur Table VIII may be considered as 
the standard authoritv.