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59th congress : : 1st SESSION 

DECEMBER 4. 1905-JUNE 30, 1906 



, HOUSE DOCUMENTS 

f 



Vol. 88 



WASHINGTON : : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : : 1906 

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U 6 £Urc^^"t:'^ir. 

USDoc 445 




.A 



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CONTENTS 



No. 

406, pt. 7. Monthly bulletin of American Republics Bureau, v. 23, no. 1, July, 1906. 

406, pt. 8. same, no. 2, Aug. 1906. 

406, pt. 9. same, no. 3, Sept 1906. 

3 



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59th Congress, ) HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. I Doc. No. 406, 
l%t Session. \ \ Part 7. 



Whole No. 1B4. Vol. XXIII. No. 1. 

Monthly Bulletin 



International Bureau 



OV THB 



American Republics. 



IffTEBUTIOIAL DUOR OF AlEBICiH RePPLICS. 



"Wlule the utmost care is taken to insure accuracy in the publications 
of the International Bureau of the American Republics, no responsibility 
is assumed on. account of errors or inaccuracies which may occur therein. 



JTJL-sr, iQoe. 



WASHINGTON, D. C, U. 8. A.: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1906. 



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GENSXAL XFDEX. DI 



GENERAL INDEX. 



I Spanish..^ ly 

English V 

French 1 vi 

List of Honorary Correspondwita vii 

Latin-An^erican Representatives in the United States viii 

United States Representatives in the Latin- American Republics ix 

Rates of Pos ta ge from the United States to Latin- American Countries i 

Foreign Mails — Postage Rates from Latin- American Countries xi 

Parcels- Post Regulations xii 

United States Consulates in Latin America — , xiii 

Consulates of the I^tin- American Republics in the United States xiv 

Weights and Measures xvii 

Metric Weights and Measures , xviii 

Publications of the Bureau xix 

Value of Latin- American Gouts xxiii 



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IV fNDIOE. 



IlSnDIOE. 



PAffllMU 

I.— CONOBESO 80BBB LA TUBEBCULOSIS 1 

II.— RepAblica ABGENTINA 4 

Comercio extranjero durante el primer trimestre de 1906— fixportaciones durante 
loe cnatro primeroe meses de 1906— Comercio con la Gran Bretafia, primer tri- 
mestre de 1906— Censo areola y del ganado de loe terrltorioe nacionaIe»— 
Censo del ganado de Entre Rioe. 

ni.— Bolivia 9 

Resumen de las exportaciones & loe Estados Unidos en el primer semestre de 
1906— Mercanclas exportadas de Kueva York y San Francisco, con destlno & 
Bolivia, en los meses de abril, mayo y junio de 1906. 

IV.— Bbasil 10 

Exportaci6n de cueros de Rio Grande do SuL 

v.— CoBTA Rica 10 

Mensaje inaugural del Presidente Yiquez— Semblanza del Befior Presidente Cleto 
Qonz&lez Yiquez— Mensaje del Sefior Esquivel- La industria minera en 1906. 

VL— Chile 19 

Mensaje del Presidente Riesoo— Compra de material ferroviario. 

VII.— ECDADOB 20 

Canalizaci6n de Guayaquil— £1 Sefior L. A. Carbo, nuevo miembro correspon- 
diente honorario de la Uni6n Intemacional de las Repiiblicas Americanas. 

VIII.— ESTADOe UNID06 28 

Comercio con la America Latina — Comercio extranjero en el mes de mayo de 1906 — 
Elecci6n del modelo de esclusa para el Canal de Panama— Importaciones de 
piedras preciosas en 1906. 

IX.— M4XICO 26 

Comercio exterior en el mes de febrero de 1906— Las minas de cobre de la Re- 
pdblica— £xportaci6n de metales preciosas durante 1906— Valor legal de la 
plata, junio de 1906— Ren tas poetales durante el mes de abril de 1906— Informes 
consulares. 

X.— Panama » 

Estado del comercio en 1905. 

XI.— Salvadob 85 

Datofl estadisticos correspondientes al afio de 1906. 

XIL-Ubuguay 86 

Mensaje del Presidente— Comercio extrangero durante el primer semestre de 1905. 
XIII.— Revista db la Am^bica Latina en 1906 48 



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INDEX. 



iisnDE: 



I.— Tuberculosis CoKOBESB IW 

II.— Abgkntink Repubuc 143 

Foreign commerce, first quarter of 1906— Exports first four months of 1906— Pas- 
toral and agricultural census of the national territories— Live-stock census of 
Entre RIO0— Internal revenue, first quarter, 1906— State licenses for commercial 
travelers— Rosario port works. * 

ni.— Bolivia 147 

Trade with the United States, first half of 1906— Merchandise exported from New 
York and San Francisco to Bolivia In the months of April, May, apd June, 1906. 

IV.--BBAZIL 148 

Boundary treaty with Dutch Guiana— Commerce of Santos, first four months of 
1906— Exports of hides from Rio Grande do Sul- Port movement of Para and 
Manaos— The mineral industry. 

v.— CHILE IM 

Message of President Riesoo— Purchase of railway material. 

VI.— Colombia 165 

New cabinet. 

VIL— CosTTA Rica 166 

Inaugural message of President Gonz&les Viques— Sketch of President Vlquez— 
Message of President Esquivel- The mining industry in 1906. 

VIII.— Ecuador *. 161 

Construction of a sewage system — ^New Honorary Corresponding member. 

IX.— Guatemala 168 

Land laws. 

X.— Honduras 164 

New consular charges. 

XI.— Mexico 166 

Foreign commerce in February, 1906— Port worics at Salina Cruz— Legal value of 
silver, June, 1906— Postal receipts, April, 1906— The copper mines of the Repub- 
lic—Exports of precious metals, 1905— Consular reports. 

XIL— Nicaragua 171 

Valuable concessions granted. 

XIII,— Panama 178 

Commercial conditions, 1905— Customs duties, first quarter of 1906— Revised rates 
of duty. 

XIV.— Paraguay 176 

Exports; first quarter of 19C6— Statistical data for 1905. 

XV.— United States 178 

Trade with Latin America— Foreign commerce, May, 1906— Selection of lock type 
for Panama Canal— Gem imports, 1905. 

XVL-Uruguat 186 

Message of the President— Work and economic conditions— Trade statistics, first 
nine months of 1905— Customs receipts, April, 1906— Budget estimate for 1906— 
Bounty for sugar production— Foreign commerce, first half of 1905. 

XVU.-Venezuela 197 

Recent concessions— Report of the La Guaira and Caracas Railway. 
XVHI.-Latin America in 1905-A Review 198 



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YI TABLE SXS XATIEBES. 



TATRXiB IDES TVT A TI^JItES. 



Page. 

I.-^4PUBUQUE ARGENTIinE 818 

ConAtniction d'lm chemin de fer entre I' Argentine et le Chili— ^tatlstiques sur 
rimmigration — ^Nouveau service maritime avec le Br^l— Les r^oltes dans la 
R^^publique— Demande de machines agricoles. 

II.— BouviE 815 

Caoutcbooo— ConstmoUon de chemins tie fer. 

IIL— BeAstl 317 

Situation du march4 du ooton 4 Rio de Janeiro. 

IV.— Chili 318 

Me5wige prtsldentiel— Traits d' Arbitrage— Le commerce du papier— Commerce du 
Coquimbo— Statlstiques sur lea banques. 

v.— COLOMBIE 328 

Imp6t supplementaire sur les farines dtrang^res. 

VI.— Cuba 323 

Convention avec la France pour la protection r^ciproque de la propri^t* industrielle. 

VII.— ETATS UNIB 326 

Commerce avec TAm^que Latlne — Le oommerce intesmational— Augmentation 
dans les importations de plerres pr^cieuses. 

VIII.— OUATtMALA 327 

Antorisation consulaire— Loi sur les terres libres. 

IX.— HaTti 328 

Nouveau tarif pour le service postal. 

X.— HoNDrRAS 329 

Commerce ext^rieur. 

XL— Mexique 330 

Usages dcs cact<Jcs. 

XII.— Panama 832 

Conditions commerciales h Colon. 

XIII.— Salvador 334 

T616graphe8 et t^K'phones en 1906. 

II v.— Uruguay 336 

Lol sur les primes H Tindustrie micri^re. 
X v.— Le Commerce Mondial 837 



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HOlfOSABT GOKBESPONDUrO XXXBUS. 



rn 



HOSOBAKT OOBSESFOKDnrft MEMBEB8 OF THE UTTESMATIOSAL 
UinOH OF AMEXIOll BEFIJBLIGS. 



Countriee. 


NanMs. 


Residence. 


Argentine Repnblie. - 
Bolivia .../......... 


SefkMT Dr. Don Estanidao S. ZebaUos 

Sefior Don Manuel V. Ballivi^« 


Buenos Ayrea. 
La Paz. 


Brazil 


Pwasmbargador Antonio B^jzerra. ---.. 


Paii. 




Firmino da Rilva 


Florianopolia. 

Santiago. 

Bogota. 


Chile 


Seftor Don M<M86» Vargas 


Colombia ' -.-. 


Seflor Don Rofino Gutierrez 


Costa Rica 


Beflor Don Manuel A rag6n x ^ ^ ^..^ ^ , . . ^ ^ ^ ^ 


San Jos^. 


Cuba 


Seflor Don Antonio S. de Bustamante 

Reflor Don Lin<^fJn d© Zayan. .............. 


Havana. 




Havana. 


Dominican Republic. 
Ecuador . . 


Seflor Don Joe6 Gabriel Garcfa & 


Santo Domingo. 


Seflor Don Francisco Andrade Marfn 

Seflor Don Jm'w Alberto Carbo 

Sefior Don Antonio Batrea Jduregui 

Seflor Don Rafael Montiilar 


Quito. 


Guatemala 


Guayaquil. 
Guatemala City. 




Guatemala City. 


Haiti 


Monsieur Georges Sylvain 


Port au Prince. 


Honduras .- 


Seflor Don E. Constantino Fiallos . 


TeirucitralDa. 


Mexico.. 


Sefior Don Francisco L. de la Barra 

Seflor Don Antonio Garcfa Cubaa 


City of Mexico. 
City of Mexico. 
City of Mexico. 
Managua. 




Nicaragua .-... 


Sefior Don Fernando Ferrari P^rez 

Sefior Don Joa6 D. Gilmez , 


Paraguay 


Sefior Don Joe^ S. Decoud 


Asuncion. 


Panama 


Sefior Don Samuel Lewis 


Panama. 




Sefior Don Ram6n M. Vaid^ 


Panama. 


Peru 


Sefior Don Alejandro Garland 


Lima. 


Salvador 


Sefior Dr. Don Salvador Gallegos 


San Salvador. 


1""* " 
Uruguay 


Sefior Don Jos6 I. Scbiffiano 


Montevideo. 


Venezuela 


Sefior General Don Manuel I^ndaeta 
Roeales. 

Sefior Don Francisco de Paula Alamo 


Caracas. 




Caracas. 

1 



"HoooraiT corresponding member of the Royal Geographical Society of Great Britain. 
bComflponding member of the Academia Nacional de la Historia de Venezuela 



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Vni LATIN- AM2KI0AK BEmStKBEDTATTVlS. 

LATIN-AMEEIOAN EEPEESENTATIVES IN THE UNITED 

STATES. 



AMBASSADORS EXTRAORDINARY AND PLENIPOTENTIARY. 

Brazil Mr. Joaquim Nabuco, 

Absent. 
Mexico Seflor Don JoaquIn D. Oasasus, 

Abeeot 

ENVOYS EXTRAORDINARY AND MINISTERS PLENIPOTENTIARY. 

Argentine Republic Sefior Don Epifanio Portela, 

AbeenL Office of Legation, 2108 Sixteenth street, Washington, D. C. 

Bolivia Seflior Don loNAao Caldbr6n, 

1800 Seventeenth street, Washington, D. C. 

Chile Sefior Don JoAQufN Walker MAJtrf nbz, * 

Absent. 
Colombia Sefior Don Diego Mendoza, 

Absent 
Costa Rica Sefior Don JoaquIn Bernardo Calvo, 

1829 Eighteenth street NW., Washington, D. C. 

Cuba Sefior Don Gonzalo de Qubsada, 

Absent. 
Ecuador Sefior Don Luis Felipe Carbo, 

10 Brighton avenue, Atlantic City, N. J. 

Guatemala Sefior Don Jorge Mu!(oz, 

" The Highlands," Washington, D. G. 

Haiti Mr. J. N. L^gbr, 

^ 1429 Rhode Island avenue, Washington, D. C. 

Nicaragua Sefior Don LuisF. Cokea, 

Office of Legation, 2003 O street, Washington, D. C. 

Panama Sefior Don J. Domingo de OaALDf a, 

Absent. 
Paraguay Sefior Don Cbcelio Baez. 

Absent Office of Legation, 600-682 Bond Building, Washington, D. C. 

Peru Sefior Don Felipe Pardo, 

Office of Legation "The Rochambeau." 

Uruguay Sefior Dr. Don Eduardo Acevedo Diax, 

Absent. 

MINISTER RESIDENT. 

Dominican Republic Sefior Don Emilio C. Joubert, 

Office of LOBration, " The Shoreham," Washington, D. C. 

CHARGES D'AFFAIRES. 

Brazil Mr. Sylvino Gurgel do Amaral, 

Office of Embassy, 1710 H street, Washington, D. C. 
Chile Sefior Don Manuel J. Vega, 

Office of Legation, 1034 Ck)nnecticut avenue, Washington, D. C. 
Colombia Sefior Don Eduardo Perez Triana, 

"The Rochambeau," Washington, D. C. 
Cuba Sefior Don Arturo Pard6 y Almeida, 

Office of Legation, "The Wyoming." 
Mexico Sefior Don Balbino Davalos, 

Office of Embassy, 1416 1 street, Washington, D. C. 
Panama • Mr. C. C. Arosemena, 

Office of L^atiou, "The Highlands." Washington, D. C. 
Uruguay Sefior Don Pedro Requena Berm(jdez, 

Office of Legation, 1752 M street, Washington, D. C. , 

Venezuela Sefior Dr. Rafael Garbirab Guzman, 

Office of Legation, 2007 O street, Washington, D. C. 

CONSULS-GENERAL. 

Honduras Sefior Dr. Don Salvador C6rdovA; 

4 Stone street. New York. 



DIRECTOR OF THE INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

WILLIAMS C. FOX. 



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UNITED STATES BEPBESENTATIVES. IX 



UNITED STATES BEPBESENTATIVES IN THE LATIN- 
AMEEIOAN BEPUBnOS. 



AMBASSADORS EXTRAORDINARY AND PLENIPOTENTIARY. 

BraxU Lloyd C. Gbiscom, Rio de Janeiro. 

Mexico David E. Thompson, Mexico. 

ENVOYS EXTRAORDINARY AND MINISTERS PLENIPOTENTIARY. 

Aifpentine Republic A. M. BsAUPRt, Buenos Ayiee. 

Bolixia William B. Sorsby, La Paz. 

Chile John Hicks, Santiago. 

Colombia John Barrett, Bogotd. 

Costa Rica William L. Merry, San Jos^. 

Cuba Edwin V. Morgan, Havana. 

Ecnador Joseph W. J. Lee, Quito. 

Goatemala Lrblib Combs, Guatemala City. 

Haiti Henry W. Furniss, Portau Prince. 

Hondoras (See Guatemala.) 

Nicaragua (See Costa Rica. ) 

Panama Charles E. Magoon, Panama. 

Paraguay (See Uruguay.) 

Peni Irving B. Dudley, Lima. 

Salvador (See Costa Rica.) 

-Uruguay Edward C. O'Brien, Montevideo. 

Vwiexoela W. W. Russell, Caracas. 

MINISTER RESIDENT AND CONSUL-GENERAL. 

Dominican Republic Thomas C.Dawson, Santo Domingo. 



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BATS8 OF POSTAOI. 



BATES OF POSTAGE FBOM THE UNITED STATES TO LATIN- 
AMEBIOAN OOUNTEIES. 



The rates of postage from the United States to all foreigB countries and colonies (except Canada, 
Mexico, and Cuba) are as follows: 

Cents. 

Letters, per 15 grams (jounce) 6 

Single postal cards, each 2 

Double postal cards, each 4 

Newspapers and other printed matter, per 2 ounces 1 

[Packets not in excess of 10 ounces 6 

Packets in excess of 10 ounces, for each 2 ounces or fraction 

thereof 1 

Packets not in excess of 4 ounces 2 

Packets in excess of 4 ounces, for each 2 ounces or fraction 

1 thereof 1 

Registratioafee on lettersand other articles 8 



Commercial papers. . 
Samples of merchandise .. 



Ordinary letters for any foreign country (except Canada, Mexico, and Cuba) must be forwarded, 
whether any postage is prepaid on them or not. All other mailable matter must be prepaid, at least 
partially. 

Matter mailed in the United States addressed to Mexico is subject to the same postage rates and con- 
ditions as it would be if it were addressed for delivery in the United States, except that articles of 
miscellaneous merchandise (fourth-class matter) not sent as bona fide trade samples should be sent by 
" Parcels Post;" and that the following articles are abaoluUly excluded from the mails without regard 
to the amount of postage prepaid or the manner in which they are wrapp>ed: 

All sealed packages, other than letters in their usual and ordinary form; cUl packages (including 
packages of second-class matter) which weigh more than 4 pounds 6 ounces, except such as are sent 
by "Parcels Post;*' publications which violate any copyright law of Mexico. 

Single volumes of printed books in wnaealed packages are transmissible to Mexico in the regular mails 
without limit as to weight. 

Unsealed packages of mailable merchandise may be sent by "Parcels Post" to Bolivia, British 
Quiana, British Honduras, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragxia, 
Salvador, and Venezuela, at the rates named on page xv. 

FROHIBITED ARTICLBS TO ALL FORErON COU7«TRIE8. 

Poisons, explosives, and inflammable articles, live or dead animals, Insects (especially the Colorado 
beetle), reptiles, fruits or vegetable matter liable to decomposition, and substances exhaling a bad 
odor, excluded from transmission In domestic mails as being in themselves, either from their form 
or nature, liable to destroy, deface, or otherwise injure the contents of the mail bags, or the persons 
of those engaged in the postal service; also obscene, lewd, or lascivious books, pamphlets, etc., and 
letters and circulars concerning lotteries, so-called gift concerts, etc. (also excluded from domestic 
mails): postal cards or letters addressed to go around the world; letters or packages (except those to 
Mexico) containing gold or silver substances, jewelry or precious articles; any packet whatever con- 
taining articles liable to customs duties in the countries addressed (except Cuba and Mexico): arti- 
cles other than letters which are not prepaid at least partly; articles other than letters or postal cards 
containing writing in the nature of personal correspondence, unless fully prepaid at the rate of letter 
postage; articles of a nature likely to soil or injure the correspondence; packets of commercial papers 
and prints of all kinds, the weight of which exceeds 2 kilograms (4 pounds 6 ounces), or the size 18 
inches in any direction, except roUs of prints, which may measure 30 Inches in length by 4 inches in 
diameter; postal cards not of United States origin, and United States postal cards of the largest ("C") 
size (except as letters), and except also the reply halves of double postal cards received from foreign 
countries. 

There is, moreover, reserved to the Government of every country of the Postal Union the right to 
refuse to convey over its territory, or to deliver, as well, articles liable to the reduced rate in regard 
to which the laws, ordinances, or decrees which regulate the conditions of their publication or of 
their circulation in that country have not been complied with. 

49" Full and complete information relative to all regulations can be obtained from the United 
States Postal Guide. 



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PARCELS-POST BEGULAT10N8. 



PAROELS-POST EEGULATIONS. 



Table Showing the Latin- A.merican CJountribb to Which Parcels may be Sent 
FROM THE United States; the Dimensions, Weight, and Rates op Postage Appli- 
cable TO Parcels, and the Exchange Post-Oppices which may Dispatch and 
Receive Parcels-Post Mails. 



COUNTRIES. 



Bolivia 

Chile 

Colombia 

Costa Rica 

Guatemala 

Qoiana, BritlBh 

Honduras 

Honduras, British . 

Mexico 

Nicarasrua 

Salvador 

Venesuela 



ALLOWABLE D I M B N - 
SIOKS AND WEIGHTS 
OF PARCELS. 



Ft. in, 

8 6 

8 6 

2 

2 
8 6 

8 e 

8 e 

3 6 

2 
8 6 

3 6 
8 6 



xi a 

I 



Fl, 
6 

6 



n. 



Lbt. 
11 



^l 



Genu. 
20 



-I 
I- 

l§ 

9 U 



Cents. 
20 

20 

12 
12 
12 

12 
12 

12 
12 
12 

12 
12 



XXCHANOB P06T-OPFICBS. 



UNITED STATES. 



New York and San 
Francisco. 

New York and San 
Francisco. 



LATIN AMERICA. 



La Pas. 
Valparaiso. 



All offices authorized to exchange mails 
between the two countries. 



New York. New Or- 
leans, and San 
Francisco. 



Guatemala City, 
Retalhuleu, and 
Puerto Barrios. 



All offices authorized to exchange mails. 



New York, New Or- 
leans, and San 
Francisco. 

New Orleans 



T^ucigalpa, Puerto 
Cortez, Amapala, 
and TrujiUo. 

Belize. 



All offices authorized to exchange mails. 



New York, New Or- 
leans, and San 
Francisco. 

New York and San 
Francisco. 

All offices authorized to exchange mails. 



Bluefields, San Juan 
del Norte and 
Corinto. 

San Salvador. 



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UKITEP STATES CONSULATES. 



XTTT 



UNITED STATES CONSULATES IN LATIN AMEEIOA. 



Frequent application is made to the Bureau for the address of 
United States Consuls in the South and Central American Republics. 
Those desiring to correspond with any Consul can do so by address- 
ing "The United States Consulate" at the point named. Letters thus 
addressed must be delivered to the proper person. It must be under- 
stood, however, that it is not the duty of Consuls to devote their time 
to private business, and that all such letters may properly be treated 
IS personal, and any labor involved may be subject to charge therefor. 

The following is a list of United States Consulates in the different 
Republics (consular agencies are given in italics): 

Mexico— Continued. 
Nogales. 
Nuevo Laredo. 
OasMca. 
Parral, 



Abgextine Ripublic— 


Dominican Republic— Cont'd. 


BakiaBUxnea. 


Savuina. 


Buenoe Ayrea. 


Sanchez, 


Cordoba. 


Santo Domingo. 


Roeario. 


Ecuador— 


BSAZII/- 


Bahia de Caraqua, 


Araa\ju. 


Etmeraldas. 


Bahia: 


Guayaquil. 


Oeora. 


Mania. 


Jfecoo. 


Guatemala— 


Manaot. 


Champerico. 


Manmhdo. 


Guatemala. 


AotaZ. 


UvingUon. 


Pan. 


0C08. 


Pemambnco. 


San Jo9t de QwOemala, 


Rio de Janeiro. 


Haiti— 


JtioGrmdedoSuL 


Auz Cayea. 


Santof. 


Cape Haitien, 


ViOona, 


Gonaive$. 


Chi LB— 


Jacmel. 


AntofagaKta. 


Jeremie. 


Arica. 


Miragoane. 


CaidaxL 


PeUtQodve. 


CoqHimbo. 


Port au Prince. 


Co^oneL 


PoHdePaiz. 


Iquiqoe. 


St. Mare. 


Pmnla Arena*, 


Honduras— 


nOraJbuno. 


Amapala. 


Valdiria, 


Banacca. 


Valparaiso. 


Ceiba. 


Colombia— 


Puerto Cortee. 


Bairanqnilla. 


San Juancito: 


BofoUL 


San Pedro SukL 


Bumramanga, 
Call 


T^ucigalpa. 


Cartagena. 


Tcuxilib. 


Cuada, 


Buatan. 


Honda, 


Utilla. 


Santa Marta. 


Mexico— 


Quibdo. 


Acapulco. 


CoCTA Rica— 


Aguascalientea. 
Afamos. 


Puerto Umon. 


PuniaArenoi, 


Campeche. 


SaoJos^. 


Cananea. 


Cuba- 


Chibualiua. 


Bona. 


Ciudad Juarez. 


Baracoa. 


Ciudad Porftrio Dias. 


Qiibarien. 


Coatzacoalcot. 


Cardauu. 


Durango. 


Cicnioegoi. 


Eiwenada. 




Frontera. 


Babaoa. 


Ouadalajitra, 


MamanHlo. 


Guanc^uato. 


Matamas. 


Ouoymai. 


Nnetiioi. 


HeiTnoaillo. 


Sa{fua la Orande. 


Jalapa. ^ 


SaniaOara. 
Santiago. 

I>OiUKICAll RlPUBUO— 


Lagunade TermtnoM. 
La Paz. 
Manzanillo. 


Amo. 


Matamoras. 


Maeoris. 


Mazatlan. 


UcmUCkriatL 


Mexico. 


PMrtoPkta. 


Monteref. 



Puebi 

SalUllo. 

San LuU PotoH. 

Sierra Mojada. 

Tampico. 

Tlacotalpan. 

Topolobampo. 

Ton-eon. 

Tux pan. 

Veracruz. 

Victoria. 

ZacateeoB. 
Nicaragua- 

Blu^eUU. 

Cape Gracias A Dioa (Port 
Deitrick). 

Corinto. 

Managua. 

MaJtapalpa. 

San Juan del Norte. 

San Juan del Sur. 
Panama— 

Bocaa del Toro, 

Colon. 

David. 

Panama. 

Santiago. 
Paraguay — 

A8uuci6n. 
Peru— 

Callao. 

CkimboU. 

Eten. 

MoUendo. 

PaUa. 

Salaverry. 
Salvador— 

AcaiuOa. 

La Libertad. 

La Vnidn. 

San Salvador. 
Uruguay— 

Colonia. 

Montevideo. 
Venezuela— 

Barcelona. 

Caracas. 

Carupano. 

Ciudad Bolivar. 

Coro. 

La Guayra. 

Maracaibo. 

Puerto Cabello. 

Tbrar. 

VaUcneia. 

Valero. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



XIT 



LATDf-AHESIOAK OONSULATBS. 



OONSULATES OF THE LATUJ-AMEEIOAir BEPUBLI05 HJ THE 
UKITED &TATE&. 



AROENTINE BEPVBUC. 



Alabama... 
Galifonda.. 
Florida.... 



iQeoifia. 



Louisiana. 
Maine 



MuTlftad 

Mamachusetts . 
SUwifldppi 



Missouri .. 
New York. 



North CaroUna 

Pennsylvania 

Philippine Islands . 
Virginia 



BOUTIA. 



California. 



Illlnoi 

Maryland 

Missouri 

l^ew York 

Pennsylvania . 



BRAZIL. 



Alabama.. 
California. 



Florida . 
Qeocgia. 



Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . 
Mississippi 



Missouri 

New York 

Pennsylvania. 
Porto Rico.... 
Virginia 



CHILE. 



California 

Canal Zone 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Illinois 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

New York 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Philippine Islands. 

Porto Rico 

Washington 



COLOHBU. 



Alabama 

California 

Connecticut 

Illinois 

Louisiana 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . 

Michigan 

Missouri 

New York 

Pennsylvania.. 

Porto Rico 

Virginia 



Mohlle. 

San Ffeaaeisoo. 

Apalachicola. 

Femandina. 

Pensacola. 

Bnroswiok 

Savannah, 

CMcafO. 

New Orleans. 



Baafor. 
Portland 



Portland. 

Baltimore. 

Boston. 

GnH Fort and 

Ship Island. 
Pascagooia. 
St. Louis. 
Buffalo. 

New York City. 
WilmJagton. 
Philadelphia. 
Manila. 
Norfolk. 



San Piego. 
San Francisco. 
Chicago. 
Baltimore. 
Kansas City. 
New York City. 
Philadelphia. 



Mobile. 

San Francisco. 

Fernandina. 

Pensacola. 

Brunswick. 

Savannah. 

New Orleana 

Calais. 

Baltimore. 

Boston. 

Gulfport. 

Pasoagoula. 

SI. Louis. 

New York City. 

Philadelphia. 

San Juan. 

Norfolk. 

Richmond. 

San Francisco. 

Ranama. 

Savannah. 

Honolulu. 

Cliicago. 

Baltimore. 

Boston. 

New York City. 

Portland. 

Philadelphia. 

Manila. 

San Juan. 

l^ort Townsend. 

Tacoma. 

Mobile. 

San Francisco. 

New Haven. 

Chicago. 

New Orleans. 

Baltimore. 

Boston. 

Detroit. 

St. Ivouis. 

New York City. 

Philadelphia. 

San Juan. 

Norfolk. 



COSTA RICA. 



Alabama 

Oalilomia 

Canal Zone 

Colorado 

Oliaois «. 

Louisiana 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . 

MiBSoarl ^. 

New York 

Ohio 

Oregon 

PennsiylTania ■, 

Porto Rico 

Texas 

Virginia 



CUBA. 



Alabama. 
Florida... 



<a«oi!gta 



Illinois 

Kentucky 

LoutfliaxMi 

Main'e 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . 

Michigan 

Mississippi 

Mfssoun 

New York 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania . 
Porto Rioo 



Texas ... 
Viiiginia. 



BOMUVaAN REPUBLIC. 



mtnois 

Maryland 

Massachusetts.. 

New York 

NoKh Carolina. 
Pennsylvania .. 
Porto Rico 



SCUABOR. 



California . 



Illinois 

Louisiana 

Massachusetts 

New York 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

Philippine Islands . 

Sonth Carolina 

Virginia 



GCATKBALA. 

Alabama 

California 



1 1 Florida. 
11 Illinois.. 



Mobne. 

San Franeiaixi. 

Colon. 

Panama. 

Denver. 

Chioajro. 

New Orleans. 

Baltimore. 

Boston. 

St. Louis. 

New York City. 

Cincinnati. 

Portland. 

Philadel{>Ma. 

San Juan. 

Galveston. 

Norfolk. 



Mobile. 

Fernandina. 

Jackson viUe, 

Key West. 

Pensaoola. 

Tampa. 

Brunswick. 

Savannah. 

Chicago. 

Louisville. 

New Orleans. 

Portland. 

Baltimore. 

Boston. 

Detroit. 

Gulfport. 

St. Louis. 

New York City. 

Cincinnati. 

Philadelphia. 

Aqvadilla. 

A red bo. 

Mayaguec. 

Ponce. 

San Juan. 

Galveston. 

Newport Newe. 

Norfolk. 



Chicago. 

Baltimore. . 

Boston. 

New York City. 

Wilmington. 

Philadelphia. 

Aguadilu. 

A reel bo. 

Humacao. 

Mayaguez. 

Ponce, 

San Juan. 

V^ieques. 

Los Angeles. 

San Francitcx). 

Chicago, 

New Orleans. 

Boston. 

New^ York City. 

Cincinnati. 

Philadeif>hla. 

Manila. 

Charleston. 

Norfolk. 



Mobile. 
San Diego. 
San Frandaoo. 
Pensacola. 
Chicago. 



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I^ATIH-AHBBIOAN OONBULATBS. 



XV 



0098ULATES OF THE LATIH-AMESiaAH BEPTJBLICIS--OoiitmiiacL 



GLATEMILA— ConUnved. 



Kanns 

Kentucky 

Loaiaiaoa 

Maryland 

Ifeamchnsetts , 

MlSMMlri 

New York 

Pennsrlrania.. 

Porto Rico 

Texas 

Waabinrton.... 



MAin. 



G«orfria 

Illinois 

Maine 

Maflaachtnetts .. 

New York 

North Carolina . 
Porto Rico , 



BOIIDrBAS. 



Alabama.. 
Califomla. 



Illinois 

Kansaii 

Kentncky 

LmiUiana 

Mar>land 

Michi^n 

Mtwouri 

New York 

Ohio 

PemwylTanla . 

Texas 

Wa»hIn|!ton . . . 



MEXICO. 



Alabama . 
Arizona .. 



C«]ifomia. 



r«naIZone 

Colorado 

Florida 

Hawaii 

r.linow 

Kentucky 

LoQlsiana , 

Maryland 

Ma<««cba.<«etta. 

Mivi^ippi 

Mi»«oun 



New York 

Ohm 

Or^on 

Pennsylvania 

Philippine Islands . 
PorioRico 



Texaa. 



KaniuCity. 

IxmiaTille. 

New OrleABs. 

Baltimore. 

Boston. 

St. Louis. 

New York City. 

Philadelphia. 

San Jtian. 

Galveston. 

Seattle. 



Mobile. 

Savannah. 

Chicago. 

Bangor. 

Boston. 

New York aty. 

Wilmington. 

Mayagnes. 

San Juan. 

MobUe. 

Los Angeles. 

San Diego. 

San Francisco. 

Chicago. 

Kansas City. 

Louisville. 

New Orleans. 

Baltimore. 

Detroit. 

St. Louis. 

New York City. 

Cincinnati. 

Philadelphia. 

Galveston. 

Seattle. 



Mobile. 

Bisbee and Naco. 

Douglas. 

Nogales. 

Phoenix. 

Solomonsville. 

Tucson. 

Yuma. 

Caiexico. 

Los Angeles. 

San Diego. 

San Francisco. 

Ancon. 

Denver. 

Pensacola. 

Honolulu. 

Chicago. 

Louisville. 

New Orleans. 

Baltimore. 

Boston. 

Pascagoula. 

Kansas City. 

St. Louis. 

New York City. 

Cincinnati. 

Portland. 

Philadelphia. 

Manila. 

Mayaguez. 

Ponce. 

San Juan. 

Brownsville. 

Eagle Pass. 

El Paso. 

Galveston. 

Laredo. 

Port Arthur. 

Rio Grande City. 

Sabine Pass. 

San Antonio. i 

Solomonsville. i 



plEXlCO— Continued. 



Virginia 

Washington. 



NICARAQVA. 



Alabama . . 
California . 



Illinois 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Missouri 

New York 

Pennsylvania 

Philiroine Islands . 
Porto Rico 



Texas. .. 
Virginia. 



Washington 

PANAMA. 

Alabama 

Calilornia 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Illinois 

Louisiana 

Maryland 

Massachusetts. 



Norfolk. 
Tocoma. 



Mobile. 

Los Angeles. 

San Diego. 

San Francisco. 

Chicago. 

Kansas City. 

Louisville. 

New Orleans. 

Baltimore. 

Boston. 

Detroit. 

St Louis. 

New York City. 

Philadelphia. 



Ponce. 

San Juan. 

Galveston. 

Norfolk. 

Newport News. 

Seattle. 



Mobile. 

San Francisco. 

Atlanta. 

Hilo. 

Chicago. 

New Orleans. 

Baltimore. 

Boston. 



Missouri St. Louis. 



New York . 
Pennsylvania . 

Porto Rico 

Tennessee 

Texas 



Washington 

PARAGUAY. 

Alabama 

Delaware 

District of Columbia.. 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Maryland 

Michigan 

Missouri 



New Jersey . 
New York.. 



Ohio 

Pennsylvania . 

Porto Rico 

Virginia 



PERU. 



California . 



Canal Zone 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Illinois 

Louisiana 

Maryland 

Massachusetts.. 

New York 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania .. 

Porto Rico 

South Carolina. 
Washington . . . . 



New York City. 
Philadelphia. 
San Juan. 
Chattanooga. 
Galveston. 
Port Arthur. 
Puget Sound. 



Mobile. 

Wilmington. 

Washington. 

Savannah. 

Chicago. 

Indianapolis. 

Baltimore. 

Detroit. 

Kansas City. 

St. Louis. 

Newark. 

Trenton. 

Buffalo. 

New York City. 

Rochester. 

Cincinnati. 

Philadelphia. 

San Juan. 

Norfolk. 

Richmond. 

Ix>M Angeles. 

San Diego. 

San Francisco. 

Panama. 

Savannah. 

Honolulu. 

Chicago. 

New Orleans. 

Baltimore. 

Boston. 

New York City. 

Portland. 

Philadelphia. 

San Juan. 

Charleston. 

Port Townsend. 



Uigitized byXJK^JKJ 



g[c 



XVI 



LATlK-AlfEBIGAN CONSULATES, 



OOHSULATES OF THE LATIN-AMERIOAIT EEPUBLIOS-OontdnTied. 



SALTADOB. 
California 

Loaidana 

Mafisacbusetta 

Missouri 

New York 

VBUtiUAT. 

Alabama 

California 

Florida 



Georgia . 



Illinois.... 
Louisiana. 
Maine 



Maryland 

Massachusetts. 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

New York 

Ohio 



San Diego. 
San Francisco. 
New Orleaps. 
Boston. 
St. Louis. 
New York City. 



Mobile. 

San Francisco. 

Apalachicola. 

Femandina. 

Jacksonville. 

Pensacola. 

St. Augustine. 

Brunswick. 

Savannah. 

Chicago. 

New Orleans. 

Bangor. 

Calais. 

Portland. 

Baltimore. 

Boston. 

Pascagoula. 

St. Louis. 

New York City. 

Cincinnati. 



UBUeUAT-^onUnued. 

Pennsylvania 

Philippine Islands 

South Carolina 

Texas 

Virginia 

TENEZIJELA. 

California 

Florida 

Illinois 

Iowa 

Louisiana 

Maryland 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

New Jersey 

New York 

Ohio 

PenuRylvania 

Philippine Islands 

Porto Rico 

Texas 

VlrginU 



Philadelphia. 

Manila. 

Charleston. 

Galveston. 

Port Arthur and 

Sabine Pass. 
Norfolk. 
Richmond. 



San Francisco. 

Pensacola. 

Chicago. 

Des Moines. 

New Orleans. 

Baltimore. 

Detroit. 

St. Paul. 

Jersey City. 

New York City. 

Cincinnati. 

Philadelphia. 

Cebu. 

Arecibo. 

Mayagues. 

Ponce. 

San Juan. 

Galveston. 

Norfolk. 



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WEKM1T8 AKB MEASURES. 



XVII 



WEiaHTS AND MEASUBES. 

The following table ^^ves the chief weights and measures in commercial use in 
Mexico and the Kepubiics of Central and South America, and their equivalents in 
the United States: 



Denomination. 



Where used. 



United States equivalents. 



Are 

Arobe 

Arroba(d^) ... 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Arroba (liquid) . 

Barril , 

Cap^ 

Centaro , 

Cnadra 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Cubic meter 

Fan^ (dry) ... 



Do. 

Do. 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Fnseo 

Do 

Gram 

Hectare 

Hectoliter (dry) ... 
Hectoliter (liquid) . 

Kilogram (kilo) 

Kilometer 

Le^?ue (land) 

Libra 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

liter 

Livre 

Manzana .......... 

Marc 

Meter 

Pie 

Quintal 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Quintal (metric) ... 
fiiierte 



Vara... 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Metric ,- 

Paraguay 

Aigentine Bepublic 

Brazil 

Cuba 

Venezuela 

Cuba and Venezuela 

Argentine Republic and Mexico. 

Mexico and Salvador 

Central America 

Argentine Republic 

Paraguay 

Paraguay (square) 

Uruguay 

Metric 

Central America 

Chile 

Cuba 

Mexico 

Uruguay f double) 

Uruguay (single) 

Venezuela 

Argentine ReJ)ublic 

Mexico 

Metric 

do 



do 

do 

do 

do 

Paraguay 

Argentine Republic. 

Central America 

Chile 

Cuba 

Mexico 

Peru 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

Metric 

Guiana 

Costa Rica 

Bolivia 

Metric 

Argentine Republic. 
do 



Brazil 

Chile, Mexico, and Peru. 

Para^uay 

Metric 

Uruguay 



Argentine Republic. 

Central America 

Chile and Peru 

Cuba 

Mexico 

Paraguay 

Venezuela 



0.02471 acre. 

25 pounds. 

25.3171 pounds. 

32.38 pounds. 

25.3664 pounds. 

25.4024 pounds. 

4.263 ^llons. 

20.0787 gallons. 

300 pounds. 

4.2631 gallons. 

4.2 acres. 

78.9 yards. 

8.077 square feet. 

2 acres (nearly). 

35.3 cubic feet. 

1.5745 bushels. 

2.575 bushels. 

1.599 bushels. 

1.54728 bushels. 

7.776 bushels. 

3.888 bushels. 

1.599 bushels. 

2.5096 quarts. 

2.5 quarts. 

15.432 grains. 

2.471 acres. 

2.838 bushels. 

26.417 gallons. 

2.2046 pounds. 

0.621376 mile. 

4.633 acres. 

1.0127 pounds. 

1.043 pounds. 

1.014 pounds. 

1.0161 pounds. 

1.01465 pounds. 

1.0143 pounds. 

1.0143 pounds. 

1.0161 pounds. 

1.0567 quarts. 

1.0791 pounds. 

1.5-6 acres. 

0.507 pound. 

39.37 inches. 

0.9478 foot. 

101.42 pounds. 

130.06 pounds. 

101.61 pounds. 

100 pounds. 

220.46 pounds. 

2,700 cuadras. iSee Cu- 

adra.) 
34.1208 inches. 
33.874 inches. 
33.367 inches. 
33.384 inches. 

33 inches. 

34 inches. 
33.384 inches. 



Ball. No. 1-06 2 



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JCnU lUSTKIC WEiaHTS AND MJEA8UBES. 



METBIO WEIGHTS AND MEASUBE8. 



METRIC WEIQHT8. 



Milligrajn (1/1000 grojn) equals 0.0154 gxaln. 

OentigraQi (1/100 gram) equals 0.1543 grain. 

Decigram (1/10 gram) equals 1.5432 grains. 

Gram equals 15.432 grains. 

Decagram (10 grams) equals 0.3527 ounce. 

Hectogram (100 grams) equals 3.5274 ooDces. 

Kilogram (1,000 grams) equals 2.2046 pounds. 

Myriagram (10,000 grams) equals 22.046 x>oands. 

Quintal (100,000 grams) equals 220.46 pounds. 

Millier or tonneau— ton (1,000,000 grams) equals 2,204.6 poondfl. 

METRIC DRY MEASUAC 

Milliliter (l/lOOO liter) equals 0.061 cubic inch. 
Centiliter (1/100 liter) equals 0.6102 cubic inch. 
Deciliter (1/10 liter) equals 6.1022 cubic inches. 
Liter equals 0.908 quart. 
Decaliter (10 liters) equals 9.08 quarts. 
Hectoliter (100 liters) equals 2.838 bushels. 
KiloHter (1,000 liters) equals 1.308 cubic yards. 

METRJC UQULO MEASURE. 

Milliliter (1/1000 liter) equals 0.27 fluid dram. 

Centiliter (1/100 liter) equals 0.338 fluid ounce. 

Deciliter (1/10 liter) ©ciuate 0.845 gill. 

Liter equals 1.0567 quarts. 

Decaliter (10 liters) equals 2.6417 gallons. 

Hectoliter (100 liters) equals 26.417 gallona 

Kiloliter (1,000 liters) equals 264.17 gallons. 

METWC M£AeU«ES OF LENGTH. 

Millimeter (1/1000 meter) equals 0.0394 inch. 

Centimeter (1/100 meter) equals 0.3937 inch. 

Decimeter (1/10 meter) equals 3.5)37 inches. 

Meter equals 39.37 inches. 

Decameter (10 meters) equals 393.7 inches. 

Hectometer (100 meters) equals 328 feet 1 inch. 

Kilometer (1,000 meters) equals 0.62137 mile (3,280 feet 10 inches). 

Myriameter (10,000 meters) equals 6.2137 miles. 

METRIC SURFACE MEASURE. 

Centare (1 square meter) equals 1,550 square inches. 
Are (100 square meters) equals 119.6 square yards. 
Hectare (10,000 square meters) equals 2.471 acres. 

The metric system lias been adopte-d by the following-named American countries: 
Argentine Republic, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Hon- 
duras, Mexico, Paraguay, United 8tates of America, and Venezuela. 



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"BWKLlCATLO&tSm XTT 



PBIOE LIST OF PUBLI0ATIOH8. 



Annual Reports of the Director of the Bureaa, 1891-1904. (Sent upon request.) 
Bolletin of the Bupeau, published monthly since October, 1893, in English, 
Spanish, Portuguese, and French. Average 225 pages, 2 vohimes a year. 
Yearly subscription (in countries of the International (Jnion of American 

Republics and in Canada) $2. 00 

Yearly subscription (other countries) 2. 50 

Single copies 26 

Orders for tha Bulletin should be addressed to the Chief Clerk of the 
Bureau. 
American Constitutions. A compUation of the political constitutions of the 
independent States of America^ in the original text, with English and Span- 
ish translations. Washington, 1906. 3 vols., 8"*. 

Paper each.. 1.00 

Bound in cloth > - do 1.50 

Bound in sheep .- do 2.00 

Vol. I, BOW ready, contains the eoiutitationfr of the Federal Republics of the United 
States of America, of Mexico, of the Argentine Republic, of Brazil, and of Venezuela, and 
of the Republics of Central America, Guatemala, Honduras, £1 Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa 
Rica, and Panama. Vols. II and ni will be ready shortly. 

Vol n will ooutain the conatitntlons of the Dckminiean Republic, Haiti, Cuha, Uruguay, 
Chile, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Paraguay, and Bolivia. 

Vol. Ill will contain Articles of Confederation of the United States, First Constitution 
of Venezuela 1811, Fundamental Law of Republic of Colombia 1819, Ditto of 1821, Consti- 
tution of Colombia of 1821, Constitution of Central American Confederation of 1824, Con- 
atitntion of the Grenadian Confederation of ISfiB, Constitution of the United Siates of 
Colombia of 1863, Pro Ccmstitution of Guatemala of 1870, Convention between United 
States and Republic of Panama for construction of >ihip canal to connect the waters of the 
Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. 

Code of Commercial Nomenclature, 1897. (Spanish, English, and Portujruese. ) 
645 pages, 4^ cloth 2.50 

Code of Commercial Nomenclature, 1897. (Portuguese, Spanish, and English. ) 
WO pages, 4**, cloth 2.50 

Note. — Designates in alphabetical order, in equivalent terms In the three languages, 
the commodities of American nations on which import duties are levied. The English, 
Spanish, and Portuguese edition is entirely exhausted. 

Iicyes y reglamentos sobre privilegios de invenci6n y marcas de fdbrica en los 
pafses hispano-americanos, el Brasil y la Repdblica de Ilaitf. Revisado hasta 
agD8todel904. Washington, 1904. 415 pages, 8° 1.00 

Patent and trade-mark laws of the Spanish American Republics, Brazil, and 

the Republic of Haiti. Re\dsed to Aug., 1904, Washington, 1904 1.00 

The above two works bound together in sheep 3. 00 

SPECIAL BULLETINS. 

Money, Weights, and Measures of the American Republics, 1891. 12 pages, 8* . .05 
Report on Coffee, with special reference to the Costa Ric^n product, etc. 

Washmgton, 1901. 15 pages, 8*» 10 

El caf^, Su historia, cultivo, beneficio, variedades, producci6n, exportaci6n, 
importacion, consume, etc. Datos extensos presentados al Congreso relativo 
al caf6 que se reunird en Nueva York el 1* de octubre de 1902. 167 pdginas, 
8° 50 



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XX PUBLICATIONS. 

• Pkics. 

Coffee. Extensive information and statistics. ( English edition of the above. ) 
108 pages. 8«* $0.50 

International American Conference Reports ftnd Recommendations, 1890. 
Includes reports of the Plan of Arbitration, Reciprocity Treaties, Intercon- 
tinental Railway, Steamship Communication, Sanitary Regulations, Common 
Silver Coin, Patents and Trade-marks, Weights and Measures, Port Dues, 
International Law, Extradition Treaties, International Bank, Memorial 
Tablet, Columbian Exposition. Octavo, bound in paper .' 25 

Intercontinental Railway Reports. Rej)ort of the Intercontinental Railway 
Commission. Washington, 1898. 7 vols. 4®, three of maps 25. 00 

HANDBOOKS (GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND STATIOTICS). 

Argentine Republic. A geographical sketch, with special reference to economic 
conditions, .actual development, and prospects of future growth. Washing- 
ton, 1903. 28 illustrations, 3 maps, 366 pages, 8® 1.00 

Bolivia. Geographical sketch, natural resources, laws, economic conditions, 
actual devolopment, prospects of future growth. Washington, 1904. Illus- 
trated, 214 pages, 8** 1.00 

Brazil. Greographical sketch, with special reference to economic conditions 
and prospects of future development. 1901. 233 pages, 8° 76 

Cuba. A short sketch of physical and economic conditions, government, laws, 
industries, finances, customs tariff, etc., prepared by Sefior Gonzalo de 
Quesada, minister from Cuba, with bibliography and cartography of 198 
pages. Washington, November, 1905. Map and 42 illustrations, 541 pages, 8° . 1. 00 

Guatemala. 1897. (2d edition revised. ) Illustrated, 119 pages, 8** 25 

Honduras. Geographical sketch, natural resources, laws, economic condi- 
tions, actual development, prospects of future growth. Washington, 1904. 
Illustrated, economic and telegraphic maps, 252 pages, 8° 1.00 

Mexico. Geographical sketch, natural, resources, laws, economic conditions, 
actual development, prospects of future growth. Washington, 1904. Illus- 
trated, 454 pages, 8** 1.00 

Paraguay. Second edition, revised and enlarged, with a chapter on the native 
races. 1902. Illustrated, map, 187 pages, 8°. Bibliography, page 141 76 

Venezuela. Geographical sketch, natural resources, laws, economic condi- 
tions, actual development, prospects of future growth. Washington, 1904. 
Illustrated, railway map, 608 pages, 8° 1.00 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL BULLETINS. 

Chile. A list of books, magazine articles, and maps relating to Chile. Wash- 
ington, 1903. llOpagen, 8*» 1.00 

Paraguay. A list of books, magazine articles and maps relating to Paraguay. 
53 pages, 8*. Washington, 1904 1.00 



Guatemala. From official and other sources. 1902. Scale of 12.5 miles to 
1 inch (1:792,000). In 2 sheets, each sheet 71 x 76 cm. No. 1. Greneral 
features. No. 2. Agricultural 1. 00 

Mexico. From official Mexican and other sources. 1900. Scale of 50 miles 
to 1 inch. In 2 sheets, each sheet 108 x 80 cm. No. 1. General map. 
No. 2. Agricultural areas 1.00 



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PUBLICATIONS. 3CXI 

Pbicb. 
Nicaragna. From official and other sources. 1904. Scale of 12.5 miles to 

1 inch (1:192,000). In 2 sheets, each sheet 80 x 80 cm. No. 1. General 

map. No. 2. Agricultural i $1.00 

Bolivia. Mapa de la repdblica de Bolivia, mandado organizar y publicar per 

el Presidente Gonstitucional Greneral JO06 Manuel Pando. Scale 1 : 2,000,000. 

La Paz, 1901. (Reprint International Bureau of the American Republics, 

1904) 1.00 

Costa Rica. From official and other sources. 1903. Scale of 12.5 miles to 1 

inch (792,000) 50 

Brazil. Fiom official and other sources. 1905. Scale of 75 miles to 1 inch 

(1:4,752,000). In one sheet 96x93 cm 1.00 

List of Books and Maps in Course of Preparation, 
law manxjals. 

Leyes Comerciales de America Latina: C6digo de Comercio de Espafia comparado 

con los C6digos y Leyes Comerciales de Pan America. 
Land and Immigration Laws of American Republics. (To replace edition of 1893. ) 

HANDBOOKS. 

Chile. 

Dominican Republic 

MAPS. 

Maps are in course of preparation of the Republics of Honduras and Salvador. 

Payment is required to be made in cash, money orders, or by bank drafts on banks 
in New York City or Washington, D. C, payable to the order of the International 
Bureau of the American Republics. Individual checks on banks outside of New 
York or Washington, or postage stamps, can not be accepted. 

FOR FREE DISTRIBUTION. 

The Bureau has for distribution a limited supply of the following, which will be 

sent, free, upon written application; 

Message from the President of the United States, transmitting a communication from 
the Secretary of State submitting the report, with accompanying papers, of the 
delegates of the United States to the Second International Conference of American 
States, held at the City of Mexico from October 22, 1901, to January 22, 1902. 
Washington, 1902. 243 pages. 8°. (57th Congress, Ist session, Senate Doc. No. 
330.) 

Message from the President of the United States, transmitting a report from the Sec- 
retary of State, with accompanying papers, relative to the proceedings of the Inter- 
national Congress for the study of the production and consumption of coffee, etc. 
Washington, 1903. 312 pages. S° (paper). (67th Congress, 2d session, Senate 
Doc No. 35.) 

Message from the President of the United States, transmitting a report by the Secre- 
tary of State, with accompanying papers, relative to the proceedings of the First 
Customs Congress of the American Republics, held at New York in January, 1903. 
Washington, 1903. 195 pages. 8° (paper). (57th Congress, 2d session, Senate 
Doc No. 180.) 

KoTE.— Senate documents, listed above, containing reports of the various International American 
OongroBes, may also be obtained through memt>er8 of the United States Senate and House of Repre- 
•entativeK. 

Brazil at St Louis Exposition. St. Louis, 1904. 160 pages. 8^ (paper). 
Chile — A short description of the Republic according to official data. Leipzig, 1901. 
106 pages. Biap and 37 illustrations. S"" (cloth). 



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Google 



3^X11 PUBUCAXIONS. 

Chile— Breve de8crii)ci6n de la Repdblica escrita segdn datos oficiales. Leipzig, 

1901. 106 p^nas. Mapa y 36 grabados. 8** (en tela). 
Chile at Pan-American Exposition. Buffalo, 1901. 252 pages (paper). 
Guatemala— The Country of ttie futoxe. By Charlee M. Pepper. Washington, 

1906. 80 pages. 8* (paper). 



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VALUE OF LATIN-AMERICAN COINS. 



xxin 



VALUE OF LATIN-AMEEIOAN COINS. 



The following table shows the value, in United States gold, of coins representing 
the monetary units of the Central and South American Republics and Mexico, esti- 
mated quarterly by the Director of the United States Mint, in pursuance of act of 
Congress: 

ESTIMATE APRIL 1, 1906. 



Coon tries. 


Standard. 


Unit. 


Value 

In U. 8. 

gold. 

or 
aUver. 


Coini, 


AbgbntineRepublic. 
Bolivia ............ 


Gold.... 
Silver... 

Gold.... 
Gold.... 

Silver... 
Gold.... 

Gold.... 

Gold.... 
Gold.... 

Gold.... 

Gold.... 

Gold...: 
Gold.... 

Gold.... 


Peso 

Boliviano 

Milreis . . 
Colon . . . 

Peso 

Peso 

Dollar... 

Sucre 

Gourde. . 

Peso«... 

Balboa.. 

Libra ... 
Peso 

Bolivar . . 


|0.965| 
.480 

.546/ 
.465 

.480 
.365 

1.000 
.487/ 


Gold— Argentine ($4,824) and 

1 Argentine. 
Silver — Peso and divisions. 

Silver — Boliviano and divi- 


Brazil --..-- 


sions. 
Gold— 5, 10, and 20 milreis. 


Central American 
Statbs — 
Costa Rica 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

Salvador 

Chile 


Silver — }, 1, and 2 milreis. 

Gold— 2, 5, 10, and 20 colons 

($9,307). 
Silver— 5, 10, 25, and 50 cen- 

timos. 

Silver — Peso and divisions. 

Gold-Escudo ($1,825), doub- 
loon ($3,650), and condor 


Colombia. - 


($7,300). 
Silver — Peso and divisions. 

Gold— Condor ($9,647) and 
double condor. 


Ecuador 


Silver — Peso. 

Gold— lOsucres ($4.8665). 


HAm 


\ Sliver— feucre ana aivisions. 

965/ ^^^^"^t 2, 5, and 10 gourdes. 
• ^ Silver — Gourde and divisions. 

[ Gold — 5 and 10 pesos. 
.498< Silver— Dollar «> (or peso) and 
1 divisions. 

( Gold— 1, 2 J, 5, 10, and 20 
l.OOWl balboas. 


Mexico. 


Panama ..-.....-.-- 


Peru 


I Silver — Peso and divisions. 

1 ftAfti/' CJold— J and 1 libra. 

-*. »oo5^ Silver— Sol and divisions. 

■ 1 no J Gold— Peso. 
^•"^*\. Silver— Peso and divisions. 

f Gold— 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 

.193 1 bnlivftrs. 


Uruguay 


Vrnezubla 






Silver — 5 bolivars. 



a 75 centigrams fine gold. 



b Value in Mexico, 0.498. 



Paraguay has no gold or silver coins of its own stamping. The silver peso of other 
South American Republics circulates there, and has the same value as in thecoun- 
tries that issue it. 



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BOLETIN MeNSUAL 

D£ LA 

Oficina Internacional de las RepiIblicas Americanas, 

Viki6n Intenuicional de Bepdblicas Ameriamas. 
Vol. XXTTT. JULIO 1906. No. 1. 

OONGRESO 80BRE LA TUBERCULOSIS. 

Los funcionarios del Congreso Internacional Americano contra la 
Tuberculosis anuncian que su siguiente sesi6n se celebrard en la ciu- 
dad de Nueva York los dias 14, 15, y 16 de noviembre pr6ximo. 

El anuncio publicado es el siguiente: 

*'PrE8IDENCIA, 

^^Atistzn^ Tex.^febrero de 1906. 
" Los Funcionarios Ejecutivos del Congreso Internacional Americano 
sobre la Tuberculosis, con la aprobaci6n del consejo de Gobierno, 
anuncian que la corporaci6n celebrai-d un Congreso en la ciudad de 
Nueva York, que comenzai'd en el dfa 14 de noviembre de 1906, y 
durard tres dlas. 

"Todos los funcionarios, miembros y delegados, quedan invitados 
para asistir y contribuir con documentos que serfin leldos ante el Con- 
greso. El tltulo de dichos documentos deberd enviarse al secretario 
i la mayor brevedad posible. 

"Este Congreso admitira a los miembros de todas las profesiones, 
legisladores, estadistas, sacerdotes y seglares. 

"Se cobrard una cuota de inscripcion de $3 con el fin de sufragar 
los gastos de la publicacion de un Boletin. Esta cantidad deberd 
enviarse al Tesorero inmediatamente. 

"Se ruega d todos los gobiernos del Hemisferio Occidental que 
envien delegados fi esta conferencia y que cooperen en sus trabajos. 

"Por la presente se ruega d la pyensa pdblica y d la medica que den 
publicidad d este anuncio. 

"F. E. Daniel, M. D., 

''Austin^ Tex,^ Prm.dente^ 
"Matthew M. Smith, M. D., 

''^ Austin^ Tex,^ Secretario^ 
"Clark Bell, L. L. D., 
^^39 Broadway^ New York^ Tesoi^ero.'"'* 

1 

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2 OFICINA INTERNACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLICAS AMERICANA8. 

El Tesorero del Congreso ha recibido las siguientes cartas del 
Departamento de Estado de los Estados Unidoe: 

''Departamexto de Estado, 
'' Washington^ D. C.^5 dejunio de 1906. 
" Sr. Clark Bell, 

'' Tesorero del Congreso Intemacional 
Americano sobre la Tuberculosis^ 
29 Broadway^ Nueva York. 
*'Senor: En contestacion k su carta del 2 de abril pr6ximo pasado, 
pongo en su conocimiento que en el 31 de mayo se enviaron mstruc- 
ciones 4 los respresentantes dlplomdticos norte-americanos en las 
Rep6blicas Americanas para que apoyen la invitacion hecha por el 
Congreso Intemacional Americano sobre la Tuberculosis para que 
envien delegados k la reuni6n que celebrari dicho Congreso en noviem- 
bre de este aiio. 

"De acuerdo con su ruego la instrucci6n enviada por Mr. Hay sobre 
la reunion del Congreso en San Luis fu6 incluida en las instrucciones 
que se enviaron el 31 de mayo ultimo. Adjunto le envio una copia 
impresa de dichas instrucciones. 

'*En la misma fecha se ordeno k los representantes diplomdticos 
americanos en la Gran Bretana, Francia, Dinamarca y Holanda, que 
rueguen k estas potencias que apoyen la invitaci6n k sus respectivas 
colonias americanas con el objeto de que sean representadas en el 
Congreso. 

*^' Soy su atento servidor, 

*' Robert Bacon, 

" Secretario Inter ino,^'^ 



''Departamento de Estado, 
'' Washington^ D, C.^ 31 de mayo de 1906, 
"yl los Representantes Americanos en las RepiMicas Americanas, 

"Senores: El Comity Ejecutivo del Congreso Intemacional Ameri- 
cano sobre la Tuberculosis ha informado k este Departamento que ha 
enviado k cada Gobierno de las Republicas Americanas, una invitaci6n 
para que envien representantes oficiales k la reunion que celebrar^ 
dicho Congreso en Nueva York durante los dfas 14, 15 j' 16 de noviem- 
bre de 1906; dicho Comite ha rogado ademds k este Departamento 
que apoye dicha invitacion en lo que pueda. 

"Mi predeeesor, Mr. Hay, al ordenar k los funcionarios diplomdti- 
cos que apoyaran una invitacion semejante enviada por el mismo Con- 
greso para la reunion que celebro en San Luis en 1904, dijo lo 
siguiente: 

'''No puede menos que atraer la simpatia y la aprobacion del Go- 
bierno ante el cual estd Vd. acreditado, el objeto humanitario que tiene 
este Congreso, y el cual es obtener, mediante la discusion de hombres 

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OOireBBBO BOBICB LA TUB11SCUL061S. 8 

de denda^ alguB resultado para contrarrestar la propagaci6ii de los 
estrsgoB de este terrible mal que en la aetaaUdad azota & los habitaateB 
del Hemisferio Occidental con una fuerza terrible y fatal. 

^^ ^Este Departamento tendril, por lo tan to, la Batisfaccion de que 
Yd. eomonique d eae Gobiemo que el nuestro simpatiza eon el trabajo 
del proyectado Congreeo, y que tendria mucbo placer en saber que el 

Gobiemo de Be ba toinado un interns igual por el ^xito de la 

conferencia en cuesti6n, aceptanda la invitaci6n del Comity y nom- 
l»raodo trea 6 m^ bombres de cieucia para que lo repre^nten ante el 
Congreso. 

'' ' Este Gobiemo tendria tambi^n mucho gusto, si el de esti- 

maraoportunoaccederal ruegodel Comity, que d^ publicidad al asunto 
para que llegue d conocimiento de las instituciones interesadas y de los 
ciudadanos de ese pais que se toman interes por el bienestar publico.' 

''Este Departaraento se complaceria en que Yds. observen estas 
instrucciones con respecto & la reuni6n de Nueva York. 

" Soy su atento servidor, 

" Elihu Eoot." 

La publicaci6n conocida con el nombre de ^^ Medico- Legal Jmtmal'*^ 
de Nueva York, al referirse k la materia lo hace en los signientes t^r- 
mines: 

'^El Gobierno de Jos Estados Unidos apoya vigorosamente la im- 
phntaeion de una Legrslaci6n Preventiva contra la Tuberculosis. 

"El Congreso Internacional Americano sobre la Tuberculosis ha 
resuelto renovar sus ataques en las mismas Ifneas en que gan6 sus vic- 
torias en el Congreso de San Lufs celebrado en Octubre de 1904, al par 
qtie la Kxposici6n Universal. 

"El Secretario Elihu Root ha puesto el valioso poder de la Gran 
Kepuhlica de la civilizacion del mundo k la disposicion de los fines y 
propositos del Congreso Internacional Americano sobre la Tuberculosis, 
que se celebrard en la metropoli americana en los dfas 14, 15 y 16 de 

noviembre pr6ximo. 

♦ *•»»»♦ 

"Bl Senor Root demuestra ser muy perspicaz, sabio y gran estadbta 
aleolocar toda la fuerza moral de nuestro Gobierno sobre los elevados 
fiaes del Congreso Internacional Americano sobre la Tuberculosis. 

"Ha hecbo uso de las mismas palabi'as de simpatia que el Seilor Hat 
emple6 para poner el asunto ante la consideracion de todos los 
Gobiemos del hemisferio occidental. 

"El Senor Boor est6 hacienda historia tan to para nuestro Gobierno 
Qomo para nuestro pueblo. Las frases que emplea son dignas de la 
causa y de la oeasi6n. 

"El grito de guerra es 'Legislacion preventiva contra la tubercu- 
losis.' El campo de batalla es contrarrestar, prevenir y reducir asu 
mfc minima expresi6n la propagacion de la tuberculosis. 

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4 OFICINA INTERNACIONAL DE LAS REPl^BLIOAS AMEBI0ANA8. 



«',! 



^ El llamamiento del congreso se dirige 6, las masas del pueblo, & 
los hombres de todas las profesiones, al estadista, al publicista, al 
jfildntropo. 

'^£1 asunto de qae se ha de tratar no es una cuesti6n m^dica, no se 
halla limitado & los medicos, sino que el llamamiento se dirige & hombres 
de todas las profesiones y d las proporciones gigantescas de la lucha, 
asl como tambi^n d la magnitud de los problemas que ataSen en este 
caso la salud y seguridad de esa grande y enorme masa de vidas 
huinanas que han sido sacrificadas anualmente por los estragos de este 
terrible mal." 



REPtTBLICA ARGENTINA. 

COMEBCIO BXTBANJERO DUBANTE EL FBIMEB TBIMESTBE DB 

1006. 

Segun el informe del Director de Estadfstica de la Republica Argen- 
tina, sobre el comercio extranjero de la naci6n durante el primer tri- 
mestre de 1906, los valores de importaci6n (sin incluir el oro) ascienden 
d $51,379,376, y los de exportaci6n & $86,143,099. La proporcion de 
jmportaciones sujetas & derechos se d& en $35,651,401 y la de exporta- 
ciones en $12,227. Durante los tres meses de referenda las importa- 
ciones de oro ascendieron & $7,183,243, en tan to que el total de oro 
exportado solo ascendio 6, $600. 

Asi pues, el balance del trdfico & favor de la Republica durante el 
trimestre que nos ocupa fu^ de $34,763,723, de los cuales solamente 
una quinta parte f u6 recibida en oro, destinandose las cuatro restantes 
al pago de los intereses y aniortizacion de la deuda exterior, intereses 
sobre capitales invertidos en la Rebiiblica, fletes, costo de los ailiculos 
de contrabando, etc. 

El Reino Unido encabeza la lista de los paises que importan mercan- 
cias en la Republica, y figum en ella con la cantidad de $416,686,344, 6 
sea, casi una tercera parte del valor total de las iraportaciones. De^pu^s 
sigue Alemania con $7,762,690, & la que siguen los Estados Unidos, 
Francia, Italia, Belgica, Espana, Brazil, Holanda, Uruguay, Chile, 
Paraguay, Cuba, Bolivia, Xfrica, y otros pafses que se hallan acredi- 
tados con $11,623,210. 

En los que respecta & los pafses que reriben exportaciones argen- 
tinas, Alemania encabeza la lista con $13,556,813, seguida por Francia, 
el Reino Unido, Belgica, los Estados Unidos, Brasil, Italia, Africa, 
Uruguay, Espana, Holanda, Chile, Bolivia, Cuba y Paraguay. Bajo 
los epfgrafes *'Por pedidos" y ''Varios" aparece un valor de expor- 
taciones que asciende & $27,739,365, la mayor parte del cual, imos 
$18,000,000, tu6 & la Gran Bretafia. 



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BEPtJBLlCA ABGENTINA. 



5 



El comercio con los varies paises durante el trimestre en cuesti6n 
se da en la siguiente lista: 



Paises. 



Importa- 
ciones. 



£xporta- 
ciones. 



Africa 

AJem&nla 

B^lgica 

Bradl 

BoliTiA 

Cuba 

Chile 

EspaAa 

Estados Unidoe . 

Fnincia 

Italia 

Holanda 

Paraguay 

R«inoUnido 

Pedldoe 



11,991 

7,762,699 

2,269,499 

960,572 

21,812 

87,S43 

262,682 

1,844,619 

7,491.900 

6,584.069 

4,338,483 

510,745 

188.160 

16,686,844 

890.456 

8,498.212 



$1,566,800 

13,556,818 

7,461,926 

2,475,00a 

69.040 

42, 131 

884.53)( 

817,502 

4.126,492 

12C608,85& 

2, 138, 26a 

689,78ft 

26,66& 

11,823,618 

1.111,411 

1,083.751 

26,665,664 



En comparacion con el trimestre correspondiente i. 1905, las impor- 
taciones demuestran un aumento de $3,655,649, y las expoi-taciones 
una disininuci6n de $2,994,228. 

El tanto por ciento del tr&fico total tornado y recibido por los varios 
paises interesados en el comemo argentine, y las ganancias y p^rdidas 
comparadas con el periodo correspondiente d 1905, son como sigue: 





Importacionea. 


Exporiaclones. 




Por 
clento 
total. 


Por 

clento 

de cora- 

paraci6n. 


Por 
cienlo 
total. - 


Por 

ciento 

decom- 

paraci6n. 


Alcmania .•• 


15.1 
14 6 
10 9 
8.4 
82.5 


4 6 
24 9 
12 2 
9 7 
4 7 


15.7 
4 8 

14 6 
2 5 

13.1 

31.0 


14.1 


Estados Unidos 


1.6 


Fmncia . ..t--x 


3.8 


Italia 


33.0 


Inglaterra . 


6.2 


Pedidos. 


2.1 











La clasificaci6n de exportaciones, en coniparaci6n con los tres pri- 
me ros meses de 1905, es como sigue: 



Prodactos ahimales. 
Productos agrlcolas. 
Productos lorestales 
Productofi minerales 
Productos de la caza 
Vanoe 



842. 825, 372 

40,236 694 

1,880,031 

41.bi8 

23*2, 616 

926.535 



1904. 



$3,847,012 

4M,498 

495, 639 

8,088 

88,118 

3*25, 613 



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6 OFICINA INTERNACI(M«AL DB LAS BKPUBLICAS AMERICANA8. 

La diasificacrSa de importackmies^ eon la misma coinparaci6a^ es 
como sigue: 



1905. 



1904. 



Gan&do 

Prodneios allmenticlos 

Tabaco y sua mftDufacturas 

Vinos, aicoholes, etc 

Tejidos 

Aceltes 

Drogas y sustancUs quimicas. . 

Cok>re»y tinturas... 

Madera y sua mannfactuias 

Pkpel y 8US productoe 

Cu«roy BUS productos 

Hierro y bus productoe 

HerramientasagiiGOlas 

LoccMnotoras, etc 

Vanes metales y sua productos 

Vidrio y cerimica 

MatenatM de construcci6a 

Materiales el^tncos 

Varios. ... 



8463,025 
2,915,543 

804,979 

2,526,730 

11,660,967 

1,141,200 

1,433,183 

297, 742 
1,008,805 

968.983 

380,352 
5,809.267 
4, 689. 478 
6,185,001 
1.667.733 
3,95»,77a 
3,859,116 

422,042 
1, 186. 464 



$114,541 

128. 3M 

212,705 

780. 37S 

2,441 400 

90,79» 

211.584 

41,391 

U6.510 

11.565 

24,061 

331,773 

507.881 

2,482,09ff 

60H.80fr 

1.315,459 

105.202 

78.948 

26.152 



L#as rentas aduaneras durante el trimesti-e ascendieron a 813,794^^2 
en oro, y $210,651 en papel, habiendo una disminueian de $112,873 en 
oro, y de $147,592 en papel, en con]paraci6n con el el mismo periodo 
del906. 

Las importaciones de mercancks de los Estados Unidos demtxestran 
un aumento, sobre el mismo trimestre de 1905, de $1,498,122; las de 
Inglaterra, $754,594; Francia, $610,723; Alemania, $342,976; Holanda, 
$273,531; Chile, $184,547; Uruguay, $153,268; Belgica, $94,039; 
Espafia, $58,513; Bolivia, $4,555. Los paises cu3'as importaciones d 
la Kepiiblica ban disminufdo son los siguientes: Italia, $468,588; Brasil, 
$194,595; Paraguay, $68,659; Cuba, $52,542, y africa, $2,984. 



XXPORTACIOITBS DURANTE LOS CUATBO PRIMEROS XSSB8 I>X 

1006. 

Los principales aiticulos que se ban exportado de la Republica 
Argentina durante los cuatro prlmeros meses de 1906, de enero a abril, 
comparados con el periodo. correspondiente al ano anterior, son los 
siguientes: 







1906. 


1906. 


Cueros vftcunos secos 

Cueros vacunossalados 

Cueros secos de caballo 


niimero.. 

id.... 

id 


864.623 
470, 376 

39,027 
1,328 

16, 237 
1,282 
6,19f) 

29,566 
1,143 
4,197 

1,269,266 
2*21,448 
262,080 
87,075 


704,725 

454,92$i 

45,fi6« 

93.878 

20,228 

2.794 

12,353 

34,811 

6.694 

5,373 

264 725 


Cueros salados de c&ballo 

Badana 


id.... 

lardos.. 


Peio 


id . 


SctM) 


id.... 


Id 


barriles. 


1(1 


bocoves . . 


Picl de cabra 


lardos 


Lana 


id.... 


Trigo .. . .. 


. . . toneladfts 


1,329,209 
288 224 


Maiz 


id.... 


Llnaza 


id.... 


335,506 
40,349 


Harina 


id.... 



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RSPUBLIOA ARGENTIKA. 



1906. 



Salvado toneladas. 

Moyuelo aaccw. 

Tortat de bomjo id... 

Heno , fardo8. 

Quehracbo toneladas. 

Extmeto de qaebsacho Id... 

Maotaauilla cajas. 

Carne ae caruero ndmero. 

CarnedeTaea arrobas. 



52,842 


44,135 


»,«)2 


48,848 


55,906 


67,026 


496,492 


869.854 


1(77,150 


94,319 


20.950 


11,926 


82,734 


98,014 


929,592 


1,107.890 


709,692 


644,637 



COHSBCIO COK LA OJlAtf b&eta£^a, pbocsb tbhosbtbe de 

1006. 

El Consul General de la Bep^ibliea Argentina en Londres ba envtado 
& ^te Gobierno los siguientes datos relatives al trafico entre la Gran 
Bretana y la Argentina durante el primer trimestre de 1906: Las expor- 
taciones 6, la Repdblica Argentina ascendieron a £2,175,026; las impor- 
taciones procedentes de la Argentina ascendieron & £3,979,037. Los 
principales articulos clasificados entre dichas importaciones fueron 
los siguientes: Trigo, £1,124,137; harina, £20,546; naafz, £259,110; 
came congelada, £1,073,795; carne de carnero, £536,177; lana, 
£558,489; linaza, £212,606; sebo, £70,914; cueros vacunos salados, 
£52,031; badana, £35,196. 

CENSO AGBlCOLA T DEL OAKAIK) DE LOS TERRITOKlOS 

KAOIOVALBS. 

En noviembre de 1905 el Gobierno Nacional de la Republica Argen- 
tina ordeno & los gobernadores de los territorios nacionales que lev an - 
taran un censo completo en sus respectivos territorios. De los resul- 
tados de este censo ban sido tornados los siguientes datos sobre el estado 
agricola y del ganado de Misiones, Chaco, Formosa, Pampa Central, 
Neuquen, Rio Negro, Chubut, y Santa Cruz. Tambien se dan las 
cifras del censo nacional de 1895, por via de comparacion: 





Misiones. 


Chaco. 


PormosQ. 1 


Pampa Central. 




1809. 


1906. 


1896. 


1905. 1 


1896. 


1906. 


1815. 1 1996. 


Oanado 

(^ballos 


70,259 

2J,516 

6,251 

3,961 


68,968 
20,990 

6.531 
12,029 

9,859 


83,952 

4,427 

7,671 

892 


169,735 

7,167 

2,762 

2, 452 

371 


41,424 

3,136 

2,439 

437 


198,957 

10,?6I 

11,494 

72S 

10.008 


530. 162 512. 442 

229,003 280,147 

6,295.177 7.447.166 

2 147 « tmi 


Oveias 


Ceraos 


Cfcbrw 




221, a57 












Total 


101,987 


117,377 


96,942 


172,487 


47,436 


231,541 


6,0i6.489 j 8,500,016 






Nemjuen. 


Rio Negro. 


Chi 


ibut. 


SnnlaCruz. 




1896. 


1905. 


1895. 


1905. 


1895. 


190.-). 


189-). 


1905. 


Ganado 


173,706 
57,015 
a57.429 


21S,6iM 

92,279 

1.089,473 

2,792 

203,341 


82,050 

39,509 

1,009,777 

8dl 


176,609 

99,792 

.3,501,255 

10,868 

42, 072 


29. 914 
12,907 
47,3U6 


196.010 

93, 8^9 

1,927,647 

1,026 

11 366 


10. 561 

7, 8.18 
868,204 


24,567 
34 519 


Caballos 


Oveias 


2. 557, 859 
538 
206 


Ccrto8 


Cabras 




















Total 


688,160 


1,656,489 


1,132 200 


3,830,596 


90,127 


2,228,938 386,673 i 2,617,689 
















uic 


itized by V: 


iOoqL 



8 OFIOINA INTEBNACIOIf AL DE I,AS BBPtJBLIOAS AMEBIOAirAS. 

TotaUs en todos hs territorios nacionaUs. 





1896. 


1906. 


Ganado 


1,022,844 

876,724 

7. 10?, 479 

8,834 


1,589,814 


Caballos v 


6512,697 


OTeias 


16,901,514 


Ceitlos 


wiSK 


Cabras - 


604,667 








Total 


8,609,881 


19,687,748 







Las dreas de terreno que estdn en cultivo en los respectivos territo- 
rios son las siguientes: 





1895. 


1906. 


MisionesI 


Hectdreas. 

7,098 

738 

6,307 


ffeddrau, 

21.8SS 

1,000 

10,616 

136 


Formosa 1 


Chaco 


Loe Andes •• 


Pampa.. 


10,187 

8,297 

1,728 

6,683 

12 


864,475 


Neuquen 


20,189 


Rio Negro .....*... 


IS, 42^ 


Chubut 


4,143 


SaDta Criiz 


61 






Total- 


88,950 


426,066 







Este firea de 426,058 hectdreas en cultivo en el ano de 1905 se hallaba 
distribuida del modo siguiente: Alfalfa, 236,584 hectdreas; trigo, 
101,411 hectdreas; mafz, 47,491 hectdreas; linaza, 6,774 hectdreas; 
cebada, 3,611 hectdreas, y algod6n, 2,284 hectdreas. Las hectdreas 
restantes estan cultivadas con patatas, habichuelas, vinas, cana-dulce, 
tabaco, etc. El mayor aumento en dreas cultivadas se observa en la 
alfalfa, porque en tanto que en 1895 solo habia 7,412 hectdreas culti- 
vadas, con esta planta, en 1905 habIa 236,584. 

CEKSO DEL GANADO DE ENTKE Bf OS. 

El Departamento de Estadistica de la Provincia de Entre Rfos ha 
publicado, bajo la direccion de Don Prudencio Monz6n, los datos del 
censo del ganado de dicha Provincia en 1905, los cuales se dan d con- 
tinuacion al par que los de 1895, por via de comparaci6n: 





1895. ' 


1906. 


Qanado 


. . .Tiilm 


2,784.810 

614,697 

6,210,185 


8.283.581 


Caballos 


686,021 


Ovejas - -- 


6,889,383 








Total 


9,609,692 


9,208,985 







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OFICJINA INTEBNACIOKAL DE LAS REPUBLICAS AMERIOANAS. 



9 



BOLIVIA, 

BEST7MEK DE TiAfl EXPORTACIOKES L BOLIVIA DE LOS ESTA- 
DOS T7NIDOS EK EL PBIMEB SEMESTBE DE 1906. 



Meses. 



CX>K8ULAD0 DE KUEVA YORK. 



Enero... 
Febrero . 
Uarzo... 
Abril.... 
M*70.... 
Jnnio 



Bultoe. 



Valor. 



2,700 
2,695 
2.339 
3.601 
7,009 
1.696 



$4S,036.50 
26.610.40 
27, 7y9. 42 
48, 709. 39 
63. 7M. 68 
27. 769. 91 



Total 




CON8ULADO DE SAN FRANCISCO. 


20,040 


242.670.30 


Enero 


21.668 
18,312 
30,225 


12,n3.*<.23 


Febrero ................ ............................................. ......... 


23, 290. 29 


Marzo 


18,312.07 


Abril 


30,000.00 


Mayo 




8. 125. 00 


Junio - 




9,204 8:5 








Total ^ 


70,205 


100,970.42 





RESUMEN. 



BuItoH. 



Total, consulado de Nueva York .. 
Total, consulado de San Franrisco 

Gran total 



Valor. 



20.040 t212,670.a0 
70.205 100.970.42 



90,245 I 313.640.72 



XEBCADEBfAS EXPOBTADAS DE NUEVA TOBK T SAN FBANCISCO 
CON DESTINO L BOLIVIA EN LOS MESES DE ABBIL, MATO T 
JX7NI0 DE 1006. 



BulL No. 1—06 3 



Meses. 


Via. 


Bultes. 


V^alor. 


Mftyo 


CONSULADO DE NUEVA YORK. 

Antofagasta 


5.456 

1,10;-) 

134 

57 

257 1 


833 K^ lf% 




Mollendo ! 

Pard 1 


18. 0.">N. 89 
917.00 




Montevideo ." 


1 047 35 




Koeario 


9 267.69 




Total 






7.009 


63.754 68 




Antofagasta ^. 




Junto 


810 
465 
203 
201 
17 


13.060 58 




Mollendo * '. 


6,517.99 




Pari 


1.156 41 




Rosario 


6,7)6.60 




Arica 


278. 33 




Total 






1,6% 


' 27. 769. 91 




CONSULADO DE SAM FRaNCISCO. 




AbrU 




30.000.00 


Mayo 


Mollendo 




«. 125.00 


Jtuuo 


Amolafasta . 




7,927.35 




Mollendo **'.. 


1 


1,277.48 




Total ... 


1 * 








47, 329. 83 









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10 OFICINA INTEBNACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLICAS AMEBIOANAS. 

Mercaderlas exportadas -de Nueva York y San Francisco con deslino d Bolivia en los 
MescB de Abril, Mayo y Junto dt 75(?^— Continiia. 

RESUMEN. 





BnltOR. 


Valor. 


Total, consulado de Nueva York * 


8,705 


$91,524.59 


Total consulado de San Francisco ^ » ... .^^ . ........ 


47.329.88 








Gran total 


8,7a5 


138,854.42 







BRASIL. 

EXPORTACI<$K DS CTTEROS DS Rf O GRANDE IK) SUL. 

Las siguientes son las exportaciones de cueros del Estado de Rio 
Grande do Sul durante los primeros trimestres de los anos 1901-1906: 





Fieles aaladas. 


Pieles seoas. 




Afios. 


Europa. 


Estados 
Unldos. 


Europa. 


Estados 
Unidos. 


Total. 


1906 


82,611 
92.733 
168.573 
02. 621 
bl,161 
43, 343 




79.520 
144.781 
83. 725 
83. 546 
61,S44 
101,762 


5,000 
8,571 
11,015 
5.985 
48,445 
15.000 


167. 131 


1905 




246,085 
263,313 


1904 




1903 




152, 452 


1902 




190,950 
160,105 


1901 









COSTA RICA. 

XENSAJS INAUGURAX DSL PRESIDEKTE ViaUEZ. 

Senorjes Diputados: Cumplo ante todo con el grato deber de pre- 
sentaros mi respetuoso saludo y de felicitar i. la Repiiblica por la dr- 
cunstancia de hallarse tan dignamente representadas en esta Asamblea 
todas las agrupaciones politicas en que se encuentra hoy dividida la 
opinion publica. 

El cargo que asumo en este instante solemne me impone graves y 
trascendentales responsabilidades, toda vez que el Jefe del Poder 
Ejectivo, en pueblos constituidos como el nuestro, puede realizar 
grandes bienes u originar males enormes, segun que en la gestion 
administrativa lo inspire el patriotismo 6 lo guien bastaixlos intereses, 
y segun que comprenda de modo apropiado 6 de modo erroueo lo que 
son las conveniencias publicas. Mas aun, para el buen ^xito de una 
administracion no bastan ni las mejores y mds puras mtenciones de 
parte del gobernante, ni que tenga acertado concepto de los intereses 
nacionales: para ello es preciso, ademfis, que los hombres que se ban 
detenido k meditar con proveeho los complicados problemas sociales, 
politicos y economicos. le presten el concurso de sus luces y exx)erien- 
cia y que los ciudadanos sean, por si mismos, principales factores de 
la paz. 

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008TA miCA. 11 

^sta y el i&aiiteoinnenio 4el orden publico en todas sus relacioQes, 
son abBobi^M»eiite indispeiisables para que k» ciudadanos se entrega^a 
& sus labores respectivas y empleen fitilmente sus energlas individuaies 
y coiecttFas^ y para que los homiMres de gobierno puedan pooer en 
piicdca proyectos desUnados, en iotencidn por lo wcdor^ £ traer n^yor 
«iHita de prosperi^d y de bie&star general. 

AfortaDadunetrte para Gosta Rka, en poblaes^ y territario peqoe^ 
pero de altera co&siderable en cnanto & sensatez y bu^i juicio, sus 
hijos se ban distinguido skmpre por #u amor £ la paz y su devocion al 
trabajo. Es de e^erar, pues, dada la Indole de nuestro pueblo^ que 
babteedo pasado ya la locha electoraL, se conserve sin esfuerzo alguAo 
k tranquilidad pdbUca, y que no baUardn eco las vooes de quieoes, por 
exagerada pasi6Q, Mm se empefien ea propaJar ideas de revuelta; pero 
cstad segurosy Seoores Diputados, de que, si para desdicba del pais, 
asi no i^ucediere, sabr4 complir el niis imperativo de los debei*es de 
gobernante, bacieodo uso de las facultades que me oompeteu para 
impedir y dominar cualquiera perturbacion del orden. 

De otra parte, Senores Diputados, abngo el mis firme proposito de 
dedicar todas mis facultades y eaergias, por desgracia escasas, £ pro- 
mover el bieaestar y el adelanto de esta patria que tanto amamo^; 
pero bien comprendo que poco lograria de pro\^echo si no oontase, 
como me atrevo A contar, con vuestro apoyo 6 inestimable colabora- 
cion. Y tan neoesario 6 importante auxilio lo espero, no solo de 
aquellos de vosotros y dem^ conciudadanos que formaron en las filas 
del partido triunfante, sino tambi^n de los que lo combatieron en la 
pasada contienda, pues de hoy en adeUmte ser4 el Jefe del Estado y 
no el caudiUo de un partido politico; y asi como serd deber mio faa^er 
i todos jiiBticia y & todos amparar en sus derecbos, dentro de la e^f era 
de mis legales atribuciones, asi tambi^n ser£ obligaci6n de todos los 
buenos ciudadanos aiumbrar el camino del Gobierno, unos con sus 
oonsejos amistosoB, (^^x>s con bub criticas adversas, pero todos sin mas 
mira que la patridtica de conf^ribuir al progreso y felicidad de la 
£ep6blica. 

Permitid que os exponga ahora, en forma sucinta, las principales 
tendenciaSf inspiradas por patrioticos anhelos, de la administracion que 
se inauguia. 

Desde luego puedo afirmar que mi Gobierno no omitird esfuerzo 
alguoo para que noestras relaciones con los dem^s Estados conti- 
n6en en ei pie de cordialidad y respeto reciproco en que felisnnente 
fie hallan; y cottseguireaK>s, en gran parte, tan importante resultado, 
si proseguimos dando favorable acogida al eleouento extranjero que 
quiera radicaree en nuesti'o territorio. De este modo, consideiudos 
eu sus dereeboe civiles y tiatados en sus relaciones sociales conK) hijos 
del pais, los extranjeros seguirdn encontrando en nuestro suelo una 
naeva patria, por cuya prosperidad se interesar4n tan vivamente como 



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12 OFICINA INTERNACIONAL DE LAS REP^BLICAS AKEBIOAKAS. 

nosotros, y el pals se verd libre de dificultades internacionales, hijas 
muchas veces de desaf ueros y arbitrariedades con el extranjero y sus 
propiedades. 

Con los Estados vecinos y hermanos hemos de estrechar mds, si 
cabe, las relaciones de familia y buena amistad que & ellos nos unen, y 
ban de informar nuestitt condueta en este punto, de un lado la conve- 
niencia de una aproximaci6n m4s inmediata, para recfproca ventaja, y 
de otro nuestiti polltica tradicional de no intervenci6n, ni directa ni 
indirecta, en los asuntos internos de esos Estados. 

Las relaciones del Estado con la Iglesia deben seguir siendo, como 
en los filtimos tiempos, de respeto recfproco y de mutua benevolencia. 
Para ello no hemos de olvidar que si bien nuestro regimen constitu- 
cional autoriza el ejercicio de todo culto, no contrario d la moral uni- 
versal, y que si bien pocos pueblos son m&a que el nuestro tolerantes 
y respetuosos & los dictados de la ajena conciencia, la Religi6n Catolica 
es la del Estado y debe recibir ayuda del Gobierno, segun expresa- 
mente lo previene la Constitucion. 

Promover cambios en nuestra legislaci6n politico-religiosa serfa del 
todo inconveniente, tanto porque no hay clamor alguno & este respecto, 
como porque la conservaci6n del statu quo actual es prenda de paz y 
armonfa para todos los habitantes de la Republica. 

La ensenanza religiosa que hoy se imparte en los establecimientos 
oftciales debe mantenerse, y aun mejorarse en el sentido de que sea 
sincera y eficaz. Ello contribuira & levantar el nivel moral de nuestro 
pueblo, ya que no es dable arraigar las ideas de sana moralidad entre 
las gentes de poca cultura, sino por medio del sentimiento religioso. 

Esto no implica que deba hacerse precisi6n d las conciencias. Por 
el contrario, los padres de familia han de permanecer en libertad de 
notificar d los maestros su deseo de que d esas clases no asistan 
sus hijos, si tal es su determinaci6n; y es perfectamente 16gico, que 
habiendo suficiente nfimero de alumnos, puedan exigir que se esta- 
blezcan clases de religi6n distinta de la Catolica. 

Esto reclama la justicia y entm en nuestro natural altamente 
tolerante. 

El mismo ideal de mejorar y enaltecer la momlidad publica, nos 
conducird d aplicar en toda su fuerza, las leyes vigentes contra la 
embriaguez, y las que restringen la venta de licores en dias y horas 
determinados. Son tan funestos para el individuo y para su genera- 
cion los males del alcoholismo; acarrea tales consecuencias para la 
sociedad y para el Estado la propagacion de viciotan degradante como 
es la bebida, que no hay sacrificio alguno que deba omitirse con el 
laudable proposito de prevenirlo en cuanto como sea posible y de 
minorar sus horrosos resultados. Hogares sin pan, matrimonios 
desgraciados, familias sin educaci6n, llevando en su senl) el germen 
fatldico de la degeneracion moral 6 intelectual; vejeces y muertes pre- 



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COSTA RIOA. 13 

maturas; rapido aumento de la criminalidad y de las enfermedades 
mentales, todo esto podrd reducirse en mucha parte, con solo que las 
autoridades de policfa sean severas en la ejecuci6n de las leyes. 

Con la misma energia ban de tratarse el juego y la vagancia, tan 
nocivos, uno como otro, en todo sentido. Mas hemos de tener pre- 
sente que, si bien conviene perseguir sin atenuaciones de ningfin g^- 
nero & los mal entretenidos, debe el Gobierno atender & la necesidad de 
procurarles trabajo y modo de regeneraci6n. Para ello seria de gran 
utilidad la fundaci6n de una colonia en algiin punto sano y de tierra 
f^ilil & donde pudieran ir los vagos, y, con auxilio del Estado, dedi- 
carse d las faenas de la agricultura. De este modo, seres perjudiciales 
i la sociedad, pueden Mcilmente convertirse en elementos productores 
y utiles. 

Por razones de igual Indole, importa mucho que el Gobierno regla- 
mente cuanto antes la ley que lo autoriza para dar trabajo & los presos 
en las cdrceles. 

Y no s61o de la higiene moral ha de preocuparse el Gobierno; que 
tambi^n, con igual solicitud y empeno, habra de tratar de que la salubri- 
dad publica y la higiene de las poblaciones y caserfos, se cuiden esme- 
radamente. Verdad es que tan vital asunto incumbe en su mayor 
parte & las municipalidades, pero como ^stas carecen en general de los 
medios materiales indispensables para llevar & cabo obras de caneria, 
cloacas, desinfecci6n y otras de la misma naturaleza el Gobierno estard 
dispuesto & prestar A dichas corporaciones, con ese objeto, toda la 
cooperaci6n que est4 dentro de sus facultades. 

El descuido de la higiene afecta pemiciosamente, en proporcion 
incalculable, al pafs entero. Sus consecuencias inmediatas tienen que 
ser, forzosamente, el decrecimiento de la poblacion y la disminucion 
de la riqueza. 

Nuestra situacion econ6mica, si no del todo bonancible, mejora de 
dia en dia. A ello han contribuido en parte muy principal el sistema 
monetario vigente, que aparto el peligro de graves trastornos de cam- 
bio en el valor del medio circulante, y la ley de bancos y de emision 
de billetes delos mismos, que ha permitido un uso prudente del crddito, 
con positivo beneficio de la circulaci6n de los negocios. 

En estas condiciones "el capital extranjero, sin temor de llegar d 
Costa Sica, en donde encuentra consolidada la base monetaria de oro, 
funda ya nuevas empresas y^ ensancha lasestablecidas; y es de esperar 
que cuando sea mds conocido el pais y.se sepa fuera de ^1 cual nuestro 
respeto a la propiedad individual, cudn grande nuestro amor & la paz 
y al orden, y qu^ de riquezas por explotar encierra nuestro suelo, 
acudirdn en mayor numero hombres de capital ye de tmbajo. 

El cr^dito exterior de Costa Rica tuvo en el ano proximo anterior 
una alza considerable, merced d ciertas esperanzas de que nuestra 
deuda extranjera fuese arreglada; pero como el convenio con tal objeto 

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14 OFIOINA INTERNACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLICAS AMERICANA8. 

£rmado ooa la caaa Speyer Brothers, f u^ con justicia jtugado ioaoep- 
table, por contener condtckmes demaskdo duras y aua depresivas {uura 
el Estado, es natural que el cr^dito baya decaido naevamente. £sta 
Bituacidn de deserSdito no puede ni debe prolong^rse indefinidajnente, 
hin estar recibiendo una af renta diaria, por la falta de eumplimiento 
de noestros compromisos. Es indispensable, pues, que el Gobieroo 
entre en nuevas negociAcioaes con los tenedores de nuestros bonos y 
procure un arre^k) satisfactorio- Para ello esperar^ el momeoto 
oportuno y serd indispensable, tanto con este prop6sito como para 
atender i, otros apremiaDtes servicios de la ccnnunidad, bacer una 
fldministracion tan eeon6aiica como sea posible. 

Siendo la a^cultnra, como es, la principal, por no decir linica f uente 
de la riqueza nacional, el Gobierno ha de mirar sus intereses eon pre- 
f erente euidado, y contribuir, por todo medio adecuado, & su progreso 
y desarroUo. Montar un labors^rio quimico-agricola en doode se 
examinen las tierras y se precisen cientificamente sus condiciones; dar 
increment© y dotar de fondos £ la Sociedad de Agricultura eon el fin 
de que no solo sea centro de estudio y discusiones, sioo activo agente 
de adeknto pr^ico, y ensaye la aclimatacion de nuevos cuitivoe, y 
escriba «irtillas, y publique una revista periddica para repai-tir entre 
los agricultores, y ©omunicai-les ideas Utiles y noticias interesantes 
para sus empresas; favorecer la importacion de m&quinas 6 instru- 
mentos que puedan mejorar las condiciones en que se hacen la siembra, 
recoleccion y beneficio ae nusestros iruto''; abaratar el precio de los 
abonos para que, por su medio, y & poco costo, crezca al rendimiento 
de las cosechas; emitir una ley sobi^ terrenos baldios en forma que 
autorice la apropiacion de pequenas seceiones mediante cultivo; pro- 
mover la industria de fibras textiles y la fabricacion de sacos y corde- 
leria; decretar coneursos y premios anuales que sirvan de esttmulo£ 
los hacendados; todo esto y muchas otras medidas de id^ntica natnra- 
leza darian un impulso beneficioso &, la agricultura. 

Pero, senores Diputados, no se oculta & vuestro ilustrado criterio 
que el m£s ralioso y eficaz apoyo que puede prestirsele es, sin duda 
alguna, mejorar los caminos existentes y abrir nuevas vtas, con el fin 
de que el trasporte de los frutos sea econ6mico y se reduixm asf el 
precio de venta, y con el fin de que entreu en explotacion, con porvenir 
halagueno, extensos terrltorios en la actualidad desaprovechados. Con- 
vencido de la primacia de los caminos, como medio de servir & la a^ri- 
cultura, mi GobieiTK) pondra en este lumo particular empeno, y no 
solo tratari de que se corrijan los def ectos de las vlas actuales y de 
que se termincn ks que oonducen & las llanums de Sarapiquf, de San 
Carlos y de Santa Clai-a, sino de que se estudien y abran caminos como- 
dos que liguen las Provincias de San Jos^ y Cartago con los terrenos 
del General y Buenoe Aires y dem&j del Sur de la liepublica. 

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OOSTA RICA. 15 

fU ferrocarrii & Puntarenas, bastanteadelantado y^L, ha de concluirse 
cuanto antes. Solo asf podremos derlvar de esta eoipnesa alguna 
utiUdad, esta)»lecieiido una competesicia i, la via Mrrea del Atl&atico y 
ay^idaodo por su medio la explotaci6a de los terrenoB de e^ eosta. 
La px'obable y bo remota oonstruccidn del Caoal de Panaiud nos obliga, 
AdeiD^it tener proato en auestro territorio la coinQnicaci6n por ferro- 
carrii entre ambos maves, ya quecuaodo se abra al tdlficoaquella nu^na 
obra de interns universal, no liabr£ diferenda sensible, para elector de 
export;aci^ 6 importaci^si, entre nuestros puertos del Atl^tico y del 
Pacifico- 

£1 departaanento del Guanacaste, tan importante por sa situacioii y 
por las riquezas que contiene, necesita, para su desenvolvimiento, la 
emision de aigunas leyes especiales. £1 gSnero de industria fi que de 
prefereocia se oobsagran sus hijos, y aun cierta diferencia de costum- 
bres y de caracteres, deben obligar al Gobierno i no tratar aquelia 
vasta regi6p con el mismo eriterio con que se trata i, las poblaciones 
del interior. Con viene crear alU una policia mon tada, que d^ seguridad 
4 los ganaderos en sus fincas; regiamentar la caza, bajo euyo pretexto 
se ejerce el merodeo; introducir sementales de i-azas dse carne, i fin de 
mejorar la crla del ganado vacuno; fomentar la de mulas, en otros 
tiempos tan prospera y reproductiva; haoer estudiai* por agrimensores 
^ficiales los antiguos y nuevos titulos de propiedad de los sitios, tan 
indeterminados casi siempre en euanto d sus limites y extension, y 
levaatar pianos y un eatastro regional, todo con el proposito de precisai* 
y garantizar la propiedad. 

Pero ademds de esto, es preciso que la agrieultura tome mayor 
importancia y que liegue & tener auge. El Guanacaste tiene terrenos, 
muchos y buenos, y no falta sino Uevarle mas poblaci6n, que se dedique 
aI cultivo de la tieiTa, La peninsula de JSlcoya tiene un gian por^'enir 
en este sentido, pero es pi^eciso abrir un camino que la cruce, y pon^^fa 
en contacto ixmiediato la r^ion que bana el golfo con la que riegan los 
rios del Oro, de Buenavista y de Nosai^. 

£stos proj'ectos de orden material, completados con la construccion 
de puentes y el mejoramiento de la navegacion fluvial; la creacion de 
ma3^or ndmero de escueks; y la obseiTancia de las leycs relativas a 
trabajo, transformarSan en pooos anos aquelia provlncta, tan privilc- 
giada en todos sentidos. 

La instrttcci6n publica, tratada con tanta solicitud por nuestros 
gobiernos, reclama aJgunas reformas de detailed distinguir mas entre 
las escuelas puramente rurales y las de villas y ciudades; senalar para 
las distintas locaiidades, se^iin sus peculiai*es circunstancias, las boras 
conrententes de escuela durante el dia y los meses con venientes dui^ante 
el ano; esfoi^zar mas el aprendizaje de la higiene y de la moral en todas 
las escuelas, el de la agricultura en las de varones y el de costura y 



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16 OFIOINA INTERN ACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLIC AS AMERIOANAS. 

cocina en las de mujeres; simplificar y arreglar en fin la ensenanza, de 
modo que la escuela no prive a los padres del trabajo de sus hijos per 
mayor numero de anos que el indispensable y los deje libres para las 
^pocas de cosechas, y que ademfis las materias que los ninos aprendan 
les sean en realidad de positivo provecho en su vida ulterior. 

Apaile de esto, importa, d mi entender, que el personal de maestros 
mejore en cuanto & competencia y remuneracion, aunque se reduzca 
en numero, y preste mayor servicio; asi como conviene, pai-a el mejor 
y mfe expedito manejo, que el Ministerio de Instruei6n Publica est^ 
en comunicacion inraediata con las escuelas y Juntas de Educaci6n. 

La costa del Pacifico requiere, para el fomento de sus intereses, que 
se permita de nuevo la pesca de la madre perla. Esto no podrfi 
hacerse, sin embargo, sino cuando, despu^s de una investigaci6n cuida- 
dosa, se puedan determinar las bases sobre que conviene restablecerla. 
El examen de los bancos pcirliferos y su divisi6n en secciones; senalar 
la 6poca en que cada una de ellas pueda explotarse, 6. fin de que una 
desmesurada codicia no agote los j^acimientos; y dar preferencia & 
los hijos del pais en cuanto sea posible, seran desde luego puntos que 
el Gobierno habrfi de tomar en consideraci6n. 

Los establecimientos de beneficencia, que con tantas dificultades y 
escaseces tropiezan para su vida corriente, seran mirados por mi 
gobierno con predilecci6n. For varios anos he seguido de cerca el 
movimiento de tan utiles institutos, y he Uegado fi convencerme de 
que la suerte de los desvalidos y menesterosos, especialmente en 
tiempos que no son de bonanza y de general holgui*a, debe encontrar 
en los Poderes Publicos una generosa proteccion. 

Tales son, & grandes rasgos, los propositos principales del gobierno 
que se inicia, y que pueden resumirse en estas palabras. poca politico, 
mucha administracion. Para realizarlos, lo repito, h^ menester no 
solo de energia y firme voluntad, sino tambi^n de que mis conciuda- 
danos, usando de su habitual sensatez, no coarten, con agitaciones 
esteriles, mi labor administrativa. Confio en que no han de faltarme 
fuerzas para el trabajo y en que el juicio de mis compatriotas me 
ofrecerd facilidades, antes que obstaculos. 

Antes de terminar, s^arae licito manifestar la profunda pena con 
que los pueblos ven alejarse del Gobierno al ciudadano prudente, al 
hombre probo que ha dirigido sus destinos durante cuatro afios. Con 
aplauso general llego al Poder y de el se aparta con la satisfaccion de 
haber sabido guardar el orden, conservar la paz y promover el pro- 
greso. A todos los rmcones de la Repiiblica se ha extendido la accion 
bienhechora de su mano; en todas partes del pais se ha hecho sentir el 
iuflujo de su espiritu. Las convulsiones y circunstancias del ultimo 
momento no lograran impedir que en lo futuro todos los costarricenses 
pronuncien su nombre con respeto y con carino. 

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COSTA RIGA. 17 

Para concluir, sefiores Diputados, me complazco en renovar ante el 
pals entero, el juramento que he prestado ante vosotros, de consagrar 
todas mis energlas & procurar la felicidad de la patria y fi no tener 
otro pensamiento que el de su bienestar y progreso. 

Cleto GoNZi(L£z VIquez. 

San Josi:, 8 de mayo de 1906. 

SEMBIiAKZA BEL SESOB, FSESIDENTE OLETO GONZALEZ VlaXTEZ. 

El senor Gonzalez VIquez naci6 en la villa de Barba, Provincia de 
Heredia, en 1858. Desde su mis temprana juventud se di8tingui6 
como un estudiante de brillantes dotes y perseverante diligencia, cuali- 
dades que despleg6 no s61o en las escuelas primarias, sino tambi^n en 
los colegios y por ultimo en la Eseuela de Derecho que le confiri6 el 
grado acad^mico con senales de la m^ alta distincion. Despu^s de 
haber conclufdo su can-era de una manera tan notable, era de esperarse 
que haria los mfis rdpidos progresos en la prfictica de su profesi6n, y 
en ef ecto los hechos ban demostrado que esta esperanza estaba bien 
fundada. Hoy, cuando a6n estd en toda la lozanfa de su vida, su vasta 
y cultivada inteligencia se ha dirigido al estudio de los mas graves 
problemas sociales y pollticos, y las opiniones que (\ se ha formado & 
este respeto son de un valor inestimable para su pais nativo. El posee 
dos de los rasgos caracterlsticos del genio, que son: la capacidad de un 
esfuerzo poderoso, y la rectitud unida d la ecuanimidad. 

Por el ascendiente de estas rarisimas dotes, su persona ha dominado 
por largo tiempo el rango de los hombres piiblicos de su pais. El ha 
venido k ser de un modo paulatino el hombre '*16gico" para la Presi- 
dencia de la Kepublica, y su exaltaci6n al elevado puesto que hoy 
ocupa, ha sido considerada en todas partes como el galard6n debido d 
una vida consagrada al servicio de sus conciudadanos. 

Todas estas aserciones quedan mds que justificadas por su espl^ndida 
hoja de servicios. En los elevados puestos de miembro del Congreso, 
Ministro de Hacienda, de Helaciones Exteriores, de Gobierno y de 
Fomento ha sido 61 palanca poderosa que ha introducido importantes 
reformas legislativas y administrativas, y que ha impulsado mejoras 
de gran interns entre las cuales se cuentan las que se iniciaron y se 
llevaron a t^rmino feliz cuando el fu6 Presidente de la Junta de Cari- 
dad y del Consejo Municipal. Entre 6stas figuran en primer lugar las 
obras de saneamiento y embellecimiento de la capital de la Repiiblica. 

Es de esperarse, pues, que bajo la tutela de este distinguido caracter 
dotado de I'aras habilidades y de excepcional experiencia, la pequeiia 
Reptiblica gozara de un periodo de prosperidad mayor que cualquier 
otro de los que ha tenido hasta la 6poca presente. 

El SeSor Esquivel, que se retira de la Presidencia, despu^s de una 
brillante carrera como Primer Magistrado, es uno de los mas promi- 



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18 OFICINA INTERNACIONAL DB LAS REPtjBLICAS AMERICANAS. 

fieotee }ai*iscon9ibl4)os <ie CeDtro Ani^rioa, y delndo A ^esto, oo es 
peq»etto el hxmar que recite ei noevo jefe del Estado, al ser ^egkio 
para ocupar el .^io ^ue de}a Taoante aqoel ^minente j reofco cimdadaoo. 

MEWaAJB J>EIi SESTOB ESaUIVEL. 

El siguiente mensaje f u^ derigido al Congreso Constitucional de la 
BepuWica de Costa lUca, a1 terminar el perlodo de su gobier»o, el S 
de mayo de 1906: 

^*Senores Diputados: Ooatro aiws Imoe que en este reclnto y en 
x»casi6fi taa i^olemite como la presente, tom6 pose^^ de ia Prinera 
Magisti'atura de ia Repiiblica, jura&do ante voBotros par Dios y por la 
Patria, ^lae oitmplirfa mi mandate bien y ^Imente; y hoy, terminado 
ya el iM>ble ciuunto difioW eracargo, vuelvo al inismo lugar & poner en 
viiestras manos ^el sagi'ado defp68ito qtre se nae confi6; 1 tributar 4 mis 
tK^neiudadanos desde esta alta tribufia, el homenaje de mi perpeitua 
gratitud por la incoiBparable luynra reciMda, y & decipos que abrigo la 
•oonvieci^n de bo haber faltado uwa «oia yez fi mi promesa^ que be ejer- 
•cidoel poder oon la ley por normpa de mi antoridad; la bonradez per 
inseparable dtstintivo de todos mis actos de administracion; el mayor 
bien de la^jomunidad par norte de mis esfuerzos; la <5onseiTaci6n del 
orden y de ia paz ^omo base de la prosperidad <K»»6n, fu\ par que el 
YTiks imperativode mis deberes; y la defensa de la soberanfa, del deooro 
y del prestigio de Costa Rica, ootno prop6sito encamado en toda mi 
labor de Gobernante. 

*'AIientafli la fe que tengo de baber =cumplido con rai debex en todo 
moDftento, de no haber economizado un solo esfuerzo para oorresponder 
A la oonfianza puesta en mi perscma, los becbos "Con su voz m&s poderosa 
que el grito de las pasiones, los ecos de la f aena rendida por el bien 
publico en sus diversos aspeotos: Ja Naci6n postrada por la penuria en 
1^02, hoy repuesta y ^n vSas de gran prosperidad; el credito de la 
Hacienda Publica agobiado entonces por la falta de medios y oprimido 
por la desconfianza, ahora Tobusto; la situaci6n porextremo diftoultosa 
del Erario en aquel tiempo, en que no podlan atenderse puntualmente 
siquiera los gastos corrientes del servicio, convertida en un estado de 
perfecta solvencia que ba <^errado las <>peraciones del ano, dejando un 
fondo disponible de m^s de un mil Ian de colones; los <'eintros de ense- 
fianza y el personal docente aumentados en una cifra considerable; la 
Ted de nuestros caminos ampliada y naejorada como Bunca lo habfa 
sido antes; el progreso local de todos los pueblos de la Republica apo- 
yado resueltamente; mi culto d la ley y d la m&s amplia libertad, no 
quebrantado ni aun en los momentos en que tibraba sobre la sociedad 
la amenaza de la revolucion', la tranquilidad pfiblioa mentenida durante 
el cuatrietiio d pesar de los tempe^^uosos arrebatos de la lucha elec- 
toral; y finalmente, la alteniabilidad en el poder oonvertida en un 

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CHILE. 19 

hecho necesario de nuesira democraela, en virtod de este Bcto gran- 
dioBO y trascendeotal. 

'^He ahi Ids testimonios irreoosables de mi oonsagracion con&tanteal 
servicio del pals, que me acompaimn al deBceader de este solio, en que 
Ta A sustitvurme el probo ciudadaoo, el meritisimo 6 ilustre estadista 
& quien la voluntad popular, hacienda cumplida justicia & sus virtudes, 
ha llamado & regir los destines de la !Naci6n en el perSodo que hoy 
empieza, y por cuyo acierto en la patriotica labor que ya & emprender 
con Yuestra alta oolaboracion, hago los m^ fervientes votos." 

laA INDTJSTBIA MINEBA EN 1905. 

Xotase un aumento en las exportaciones de metales preciosos de las 

minas de Costa Rica por valor de £58,058, en comparacion con £S,367 

en 1904. Dicho aumento «e atribuye mayormente 6, las extracciones de 

la mina Abangares, la cual estuvo cerrada durante el ano precedente por 

las obras de mejoraque se hubieron de llevar^, cabo. En el 1*" de Julio 

de IPOS'se reanudaron las operaciones de dicbas minas 4e oro, una vez 

terminada la instalaci6n de un boearte de 40 pilones y los apamtos 

para el procedimiento al cianuro y i la lejia, y la prensa de filtrar. La 

Boston Mming Company contin6a operando con un boearte de 10 

pilones y ana instalacion para el procedimiento al ciuanuro. Segun 

informes otras minas se hallan en vias de desarrollo. 



CHILE. 

mSHBAJB 1>SL PRSSIDXafTE BIBSCO. 

En la apertura del Congreso Chileno, el dia 1"* de Junio del presente 
ano, el Presidente Riesco manifesto que todas las cuestiones con las 
naciones vecinas est£n prdximas & su tSrmino. Las relaciones diplo- 
mdtieas con el Peru ban sido reanudadas, con lo cual arabos paises, no 
solamente llegardn d un acuerdo, sino cfue tambi^n se ligaran mas inti- 
mamente. 

Refiri^ndose d las medidas economicas de 1905, el mensaje dice que 
las rentas de la nacion ascendieron 4. 140,000,000 de pesos, y los gastos 
d 135,000,000. Las rentas para 1906 fueron calculadas en 135,000,000 
y los gastos en 165,000,000. Segun el mensaje se habran de adoptar 
k« medidas necesarias para cubrir este deficit, y en el filtimo balance 
anual de la nacion «e expresa la confianza de que asl serd. 

Las exportaciones de nitrato, que en 1901 ascendieron k ^7,000,000 
de quintales, en 1906, segfin cSlculos, akanzardn la cifra de 38,000,000. 
Las exportaciones de yodo en el perlodo de referenda ban aumentadd 
^ doMe, Beg6ii se anunci6. Se esperaba que las rentas de aduanas 



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20 OFICINA INTERNACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLICAS AMERICANAS. 

durante 1906 ascenderfan d 96,000,000 de pesos, y segun los datos que 
ya hay disponibles v^se que se va sintiendo en la Republica un movi- 
miento industrial. Para 1907 se espera un aumento mayor aun en las 
rentas aduaneras, calculdndose las mismas en 99,000,000 de pesos. 

El trdfico durante 1906 se calculo en 180,000,000 de pesos para la 
importacion, incluyendo los materiales industriales, y en 265,000,000 
para las exportaciones, indicdndose un aumento de 49,000,000 sobre 
1905. 

La deuda exterior, que en 1901 importaba £17,000,000, iu6 reducida 
& £16,000,000 en 1905. Sin embargo, en el ultimo citado ano se con- 
trajo un empr6stito de £1,500,000 para el saneamiento de Santiago, y 
.en 1906 se negociaron varios empr^stitos importantes d £1,500,000 
pai'a el saneaniento de otras ciudades de la Repfiblica, y otro de 
£2,700,000 para la construcci6n del Ferrocarril Arica-La Paz. La 
deuda interior importaba en 1905 107,000,000 de pesos y el fondo de 
amortizacion 50,000,000. 

Se proyecta Uevar & cabo algunas mejoras en las Bahias de Santiago 
y Antofogasta con el fin de Uenar las exigencias del comercio de la 
nacion. La extensi6n de los ferrocarriles de la Rep6blica se calcula 
en 2,408 kllometros, ademds de 419 de una linea particular que se estfi 
construyendo, y de 2,216 de otras lineas cuya construccion se ha 
autorizado. 

El numero de los inmigrantes que entraron durante los cinco anos 
de 1901 d 5, ascendi6 d 14,000. 

GOMPBA BE MATEBIAL FEBBOVIABIA. 

Segun el " South- American Journal," el Gobierno Chileno enviarfi 
dentro de breve tiempo, pedidosde locomotoras y material rodante per 
valor de 5,000,000 de pesos. Se ha decidido pagar d la caja del Fondo 
de amortizacion la suma de 20,000,000 de pesos, de los cuales 18,000,000 
seran tomados del ultimo empr^stito. 

El Banco de Chile estd aumentando su capital d $40,000,000; hasta 
el presente su capital ha sido de $20,000,000. 



ECUADOR. 

GAHAIilZAGION BE GUATAaiTIL. 

Publicamos d continuacion el Decreto que ha expedido el Gobierno 
del Ecuador, senalando fondos para la ejecuci6n de dicha obra. 

Al espiritu emprendedor americano se le presenta la oportunidad 
de acometer una empresa importante que se da la mano con los trabajos 
de saneamiento de la Zona del Canal de Panamd. 

Los fondos sefialados pai*a la canalizaci6n de Quayaquil alcanzan d la 
suma de 500,000 sucres ($250,000) anuales. 

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ECUADOB. 21 

La Junta creada para la <*jecuci6n y admini8tracl6D de la obra y para 
la recaudacion 6 inver8i6n de los fondos senalados estfi autorizada para 
contratar con empresas 6 con particulares la construccion, conservacion 
y reparacion de las obras encomendadas d ella. 

Tambi^n esta autorizada para contratar uno 6 mfis empr^titos para 
la e]ecuci6n de la obra, con la garantfa de los fondos que el decreto 
senala. 

Para informaciones, pueden dirigirse & la Legacion del Ecuador en 
Washington 6 al Senor Don Luis Albbrto Carbo, nuestro miembro 
corresponsal en Guayaquil, quien & la vez es el ingeniero en jofe 
nombrado por la Junta que ha creado el siguiente decreto: 

EliOT AI.FABO. 

ENCARGADO DEL MANDO SUPREMO DE LA REPi5bLICA. 

Considerando que las principales necesidades de la ciudad de Guaya- 
quil son: defender la propiedad urbana contra los f recuentes incendios 
J combatir las causas de mortalidad, mejorando las condiciones higi^- 
nicas de la ciudad; 

Considerando que estas necesidades no pueden llenarse sino mediante 
la canalizacion de la ciudad y la provisi6n de un caudal abundanto de 
aRuas; y 

Considerando que el Municipio por su situaci6n econ6mi(^ no puede 
atender por si solo 6. la realizaci6n de tales obras, 

Decreta: 

"Articulo 1. DecMranse obras nacionales la de provisi6n de agua al 
Cuerpo de Bomberos y la de la canalizacion de la ciudad de Guayaquil. 

"Art. 2: Son fondos propios de estas obras: 

" (a) Dos por ciento, tornados de los derechos de importacion por la 
Aduana de Guayaquil; los que se anotardn aparte en cada liquidaci6n 
que se practique, para los efectos del Articulo 12 de este Decreto; 

"(J) Ochenta centavos de sucre por cada quintal de cacao que se 
exporte por la Aduana de Guayaquil, exceptuando la produccion do la 
Provincia de El Oro; 

" ic) Medio por ciento anual sobre la renta que produzca la pro- 
piedad urbana de Guayaquil, previo un catastro sancionado por la 
Municipalidad; y 

"(rf) El valor de los alcantarillados 6 desagiies de que habla cl 
Articulo 6. 

"Art. 3. Para la ejecucion y administraci6n de las dos obras y para 
la recaudaci6n 6 inversion de los fondos senalados, 6 que en lo sucesivo 
se adquieran, se crea una Junta que se denominarfi "Junta de Canali- 
zacion y Provisi6n de Agua al Cuerpo de Bomberos," la cual sera 
compuesta por: 

"(a) Diez y seis miembros principales, de entre los que la niisma 
Junta designard su Presidente, Vice-Presidente, Secretario y Tesorero; 
"(J) Diez miembros suplentes; y r^r^r^r^]r> 

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22 OFIOINA INTERNACIONAJL DE LAS BEPUBLICA8 AMERICANA8. 

^'(<?) Un del^B(k> d«l Mioistro de Obras Pdbticas, con voto 
deliberativo. 

^'Todos Io8 mtembros de la Junta serdn iM>mbrados por ei Poder 
Ejecutivo. 

^^ La Junta tendrfi sesaooes ordinarias una Tez por mes, y extraordi- 
narias cuando lo juzgare conveniente. 

Art. 4. El Tesorero que nombre la Junta cumplird eon todas las 
formalidades que prescribe la Ley de Hacienda j enviari mensoal- 
inente, por 6rgano de la Gobemacion, al Ministerio de Hacienda, un 
balance oomprobado de las operadones praeticadas en el mes. 

*'^La remuneraci^ del Tesorero seri determioada por la Junta en 
sesion ordinaria. 

"Art. 5. El Ejecutivo tendrd intervencion por medio del Ministro 
del Ramo en todo lo relativo & las obras de que habla el Ai-tfculo 1, y 
66 har& repi^esentar en las sesiones de la manera que lo preceptua el 
Articulo 3. 

"Art. 6. Al efectuarse la canaiizacidn y estar tenninada oada sec- 
ci6n de las en que se divide la obra, la Junta harfi constrair, por 
cuenta de los propietarios que se nieguen & eUo, los desagiies de las 
casas cuyo valor exceda de ciiatro nail sucres, segiin el Catastro 
Oficial, y obligara al propietorio & reintegrar el costo de la obra 
despu^s de treinta dias de notificado y empleando, si fuere necesario, 
la jurisdiccion coactiva qne pora el efecto se concede al Tesorero de la 
Junta. 

"Art. 7. Autorizase 4 la Junta para qiie pueda contratai* con 
empresas, 6 con particulares, previas suficientes garaodas i, satisfac- 
ci6n, la construcci6n, conservaci6B, y reparaei6n de las obras encome- 
ndadas & ella. 

"Art. 8. Hasta que se hay an ejecutado los trabajos de canalizacidn, 
la Junta har^ desaguar anualmente la ciudad, para inipedir el estanca- 
miento de las aguas-Uuvias. 

"Esto no exonera del cumplimiento de sus obligaciones, a las 
empresas 6 particulares que tengan contratos con la municipalidad, 
para trabajos andlogos. 

"Art. 9. La Junta queda autorizada para contiutar uno 6 m&s 
emprdstitos para la ejecucion, reparacion 6 conservacion de las obras, 
garantizdndolos con los f ondos que por este Decreto se les sefiale, 

"Art. 10. Los f ondos destinados para las obras de que Labia este 
decreto son f ondos de beneficencia. 

"Art. 11. El tesorero de la Junta percibird dii^etamente del Banco 
Comercial y Agricola, el 2 por ciento sobre los derechos de impor- 
tici6n que se senala x>ara la Junta en el articulo 2 de este decreto, y 
del Banco del Ecuador, los 80 centavos sobre el quintal de eacao, 
prescrito en el mismo articulo. 



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S8TAD08 UKIJ>Oe. 28 

'*Para que el interior surta sua efectoa, el Sefior Minwtro de 
Hacienda pasard el respectivo oficio i los senores gerentes de lo6 
bancos, i fin de que desde la fecha de vigencia del presente decreto 
8e haga sin interrupci6n el suministro de los f ondos destiuados para 
las obras en referenda. 

''Art. 12. Quedan derrogadas todas las leyes anteriorefi d este 
decreto que tratan sobre la materia, y los Ministros de Obras Publicas 
y Hacienda dar&n cumplimiento & las disposiciones que preceden. 

''Dado en Quito, en el Palacio Nacional, d 30 de abril de 1906. 

"Elot A1.FARO." 

EL SSJTOJBt 1a. a. CABBO, ISTUBVO MUEMBBO OOBBBSPOITBISNTE 
HOKORAHIO DE UL UNKSN IKTSBlf ACIONAL BE I^AS BEPltBLI- 
CAS AMSBICANAS. 

El Senor Don L. A. Carbo, recientemente nombrado Miembro Co- 
rrespondientc Honorario de la Uni6n Intemacional de las Repdblicas 
Americanas, naci6 en Guayaquil, Republica del Ecuador, el 7 de 
septiembr© de 1882. C!omenz6 sua estudios en el Colegio Nacional de 
San Vicente del Guayas y los continuo en los Estados Unidos desde 
1895 hasta 190i, fecha en que recibio su diploma de ingeniero en la 
Univesidad de Columbia de Nueva York, habiendo ejercido su prof e- 
si6n en Schenectady, Nueva York, con la General Electric Company, 
y en Nueva York con varias compafilas de ingenieros constructores. 
En 1901 tii6 comisionado del Ecuador en la Exposici6n Pan Ameri- 
cana de Buffalo. En 1905 fu^ delegado del mismo pais al Congreso 
Intemacional de Ferrocarriles que se celebr6 en Washington, y actual- 
mentees Secretario de la Legacion del Ecuador en los Estados Unidos. 
La Junta de Canalizacion y Provecdora de Agua de Guayaquil acaba 
de nombrarle ingeniero en jefe de sus obras, y pr6ximamente saldrd 
para el Ecuador d deeempeflar ese puesto. 



ESTADOS UNIDOS. 

OOKEBOIO CON IiA AK^BIGA IiATINA 
IMPORTACIONES Y EXFORTACIONBS. 

En la p&gina 178 aparece la Ultima relaci6n del comercio entre los 
Estados Unidos y la America latina, tomada de la compilacion hecha 
por la Oficina de Estadlstica del Departamento de Comercio y Trabajo 
de los Estados Unidos. Estos datos se refieren al valor del comercio 
arriba mencionado. La estadfstica corresponde al mes de mayo de 
1906, comparada con la del mes correspondiente del ano anterior, y 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



24 OFICINA INTERNACXONAL DE LAS REFUBLI0A8 AMEEICANAS. 

tambi^n comprende los datos referentes fi los once meses que termina- 
ron en abril de 1906, comparados con igual perlodo de 1906. Debe 
explicarse que las esladlsticas de las importaciones y exportaciones de 
las diversas aduanas referentes d un mes cualquiera no se reciben en 
el Departaniento de Comercio y Trabajo basta el 20 del mes siguiente^ 
necesitdndose algfin tiempopara su compilad6n 6impresi6n; de suerte 
que los datos estadfsticos correspondientes.al mes de mayo, porejemplo, 
no se publican hasta julio. 

GOMEBGIO EXTBAHJEBO EN EL MES DE MATO BE 1008. 

La Oficina de Estadistica acaba de publicar las cif ras preliminares 
del valor total de las importaciones y exportaciones correspondientes 
al mes de mayo, y las de los once meses del ano economico. Mayo no 
es un mes en el cual se hacen tantas importaciones como en los primeros 
meses del ano, y cl valor de las imj)ortaciones ascendio & %104t^94tS,4:93, 
comparado con 8107,318,081, en el mes de abril, y $113,597,577 en el 
mes de marzo; pero aventajan & los $92,525,424 correspondientes al 
mes de mayo del aiio pasado y & los $80,698,161 en 1904, lo cual f\x6 
un resultado mayor en dicho mes que las cif ras obtenidas en cualquier 
ano anterior. Estas cif ras muestran un aumento notable de ano en 
ano.. En los once meses del ano econ6mico el valor total asciende i 
$1,125,821,671, comparado con $1,027,065,826, hace un ano, 6 sea un 
aumento de $98,755,845. En los once meses que terminaron en mayo 
de 1904 el valor total fu^ de $909,930,136. 

Las exportaciones tambi^n fueron menores en mayo que en los 
meses anteriores, por lo general hasta octubre. Este ano el valor de 
las exportaciones ascendio & $130,549,287, comparado con $144,461,462 
en el mes de abril, $145,510,707 en el mes de marzo, $141,766,558 en 
febrero, $170,663,053 en el mes de enero, y $199,738,520 en diciembre, 
siendo estas las cif ras mds altas de todos los meses anotados. Sin 
embargo, dichas cifras pueden compararse ventajosamente con las de 
mayo, que ascendieron & $123,793,569, y $89,887^25 en 1904, exce- 
diendo dichas cifras & las de 1901, que s61o ascendieron 6, $124,567,911. 
En los once meses que terminaron en mayo el valor total de las expor- 
taciones ascendi6n i $1,618,912,839, comparado con $1,397,408,180 en 
el mismo periodo en el ano anterior, 6 sea un aumento de $221,504,659, 
siendo asi que las cifras correspondientes al ano pasado excedieron & las 
del ano anterior, que fueron $1,384,990,728 en los once meses que ter- 
minaron en mayode 1901. Hubo pues un excedente de exportaciones 
respecto de las importaciones quo ascendi6 & $25,600,794 durante dicho 
mes, contra $31,268,145 el ano pasado, y $9,188,764 en 1904. En los 
once meses este excedente 11 ego & $493,091,168, que i\x6 la clfra mas 
alta que se ha obtenido desde 1901, ^poca en que dicho excedente 
ascendi6 & $630,223,220. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



E8TAD0S UNIDOS. 



25 



Las importaciones de oro fueron extraordinariamente importantes 
& fines de mayo, y durante todo el mes ascendieron & ^3,950,671, en 
tanto que el valor de las exportaciones ascendio d $5,716,898, dejando 
asi un excedente de $28,233,773 en las importaciones. El afio pasado 
en el mes de mayo, el valor de las importaciones de oro solo ascendi6 & 
$2,657,143, y el de las exportaciones ascendio 6. $481,570, 6 sea un 
excedente de $2,175,573 respecto del ano anterior, pero hace dos ailos 
se enviaron al extranjero $43,069,053 en oro, en mayo, y se trajeron 
$10,472,582, que hacen un excedente de $32,596,471 en las exporta- 
ciones. £sta exportaci6n considerable en el mes de mayo de 1904, f u^ 
seguida por $90,470,157 que se enviaron al extranjero en el mes de 
abril, pero debe tenerse en cuenta que esa fu6 la ^poca en que se 
efectuo el pago del Canal de Panamd & la Companfa Francesa. En 
los once meses que terminaron en mayo, el valor de las importaciones 
de oro ascendid a $92,892,293, y el de las exportaciones ascendio & 
$35,311,949, 6 sea un excedente de $57,580,344 en el valor de las impor- 
taciones, al paso que en el mismo periodo un affo antes bubo un exce- 
dente de $37,063,232 en las exportaciones, dando el siguienteresultado: 
Importaciones, $51,499,910; exportaciones, $88,563,142. 

La siguiente tabla presenta un bosquejo de la relacion de que se 
trata: 



Mayo 



1906. 



1906. 



En los once meses que ter- 
minaron en mayo— 



1905. 



1906. 



IMPORTACIONB8. 

Comestibles 7 an i males vivos 

Artlculos en brute 6 materia prima para 

usarse en las manufactures 

Articulos entera 6 parcialmente manufac- 

torados para usarse en las manufactures . 
Aniculoemanufacturadoe listoa pare el cou- 

lumo , 

Artlculos de lujo, etc , 

Valor total de las importaciones 

EXPORTACIONES DOMfeSTICAS. 

Productos de la — 

Ainicul tura 

F4bncas 

Minas 

Boeques 

Pesca 

, Diversos 

Valor total de exportaciones dom6s- 
ticas 

Valor de las mercancias extranjeras 
exportadas 

Valor total de exportaciones 



$20,665,326 
82,899,258 
12,787,655 
13,597,068 



$20,864,698 
85,622,636 
17,679,350 
17,012,162 



12,576,117 I 13,747,737 



r267,251,130 

352,737,882 

130,119,715 

150,753,816 
136,203,784 



1235, 479, 594 

280,471,218 

161,026,702 

188. 432, 924 
160,389,323 



92,525,424 104,926,583 



1,027,065,826 



1,125.799,761 



60,821,887 
48,275,181 
6,208,205 
6,923,758 
353,409 
731,576 



121,314,016 
2,479,583 



123, 793, 569 



59,596,467 
56, 345, 552 
4,239,405 
6, 769. 962 
239,169 
955,007 



763, 665, 458 
493,402,26* 
45. 554>, 030 
56,692,369 
6,990,917 
6,665,199 



128, 154, 562 
2,393,825 



1,372,962,232 
24, 446, 948 



130,548,387 



1,397,408,180 



913,118,223 

651,117,040 

47,626, 1.^ 

67,420,7HO 

7,516,441 

8,1W,538 



1,594,979,672 
23, 8.V), 845 



1,618,830,517 



BolL No. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



26 OFIOINA INTEENACIOKAL DE LAS REPtJBLICAS AMEBICANA8. 

ELECGKSN BBIi MODSIiO DB BSOLUSA PABA. EL OAKAL BE 

PAHAMX. 

El 21 de junio de 1906, el Senado de los Estados Uftidos acord6 
definitivamente adoptar el modelo del canal que se ha de construir i 
trav^s del Istmo de Panamd. 

El texto del proyecto de ley por virtud del cual se adopt6 el sistema 
de esclusa es como sigue: 

Que se construya un canal & trav^s del Istmo de Panamd, que conecte 
las aguas del Atldntico y el Pacifico, del modelo general propuesto por 
la minoria de la junta de ingenieros consultores creada por orden del 
Presidente con fecha 24 de junio de 1905, en conformidad con una ley 
intitulada ** Una ley para proveer lo necesario para la construccion 
de un Canal que conecte las aguas de los Oc^anos Atldntico y Paclfico, 
aprobada el 28 de junio de 1902." 

ItfPOBTAGIONES DE PISBBAS PBEGIOSA8 EN 1905. 

La Oficina de Inspeccion de Costas y Geod^sica, en un boletin rela- 
tivo d la produccion 6 importaci6n de piedras preciosas & los Estados 
Unidos, en 1896, dice que en el ano de 1905 el valor de la producci6n 
de piedras preciosas ascendi6 fi $226,350, de los cuales la produccion 
de las minas de safiro representaba $125,000. Despues sigui6 en 
importancia el valor de la produccion de turquesas, que representaba 
$65,000. 

La importaci6n de piedras preciosas representaba un valor de 
$34,998,513, comparado con $26,008,813 en 1904. Los diamantes de 
diferentes clases representaban la mayor parte de las importaciones, 
siendo asi que las piedi-as en bruto se valuaron en $10,281,111, en 
tanto que el valor de las piedras sin montar se calculo en $20,375,304. 



MEXICO. 

GOMEBGIO EXTEBIOB EN EL MES BE FEBBEBO BE 1006. 

La Secretaria de Hacienda de la Republica de Mexico acaba de 
publicar los datos relativos al comercio exterior de la Republica en el ^ 
mes de f ebrero de 1906, y en los ocho primcros mcses de 1905-6, compa- 
rados con los correspondientes & los de igual periodo de 1904-5: 

Mercanclas extranjeras con un valor de $132,621,517.27, moneda 
nacional, fueron importadas, comparadas con $117,252,690.71, impor- 
tadas durante el igual periodo del ano fiscal precedente, un aumento 
de $15,368,826.51 en favor del corriente ano fiscal. 

Las exportaciones durante los ocho meses del ano fiscal de. 1905-6 
fueron $180,452,584.42, plata, una diferencia en favor de 1905-6 de 
$51,822,392.38, plata. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



HEXICX). 



27 



£1 siguiente cuadro muestra el comercio de importaciones en detalle: 



IMPORTACION. 
[Valor en plata.] 



GIa8tfl<»cl6n segiln la taiifa de Ixh' 
porUtci6n. 


Febrero— 


Ocho piimeroe meses del afio 
flscal- 


1906. 


1905. 


1905-6. 


1904-5. 


Materiafl ftnlmales 


$1,256,894.43 

2,949,608.25 

9,865.963.04 

1,767,714.84 

6&8,464.88 

467,130.78 
888,538.09 
1,504,687.45 
870,662.00 
867,194.81 
546,877.67 


tl. 123, 206. 41 

2.774,064.68 

8,-5,32,240.28 

1,690,888.64 

534,492.03 

542,716.80 
386,502.15 
1,816,399.78 
223,576.51 
276,442.89 
869,210.19 


$10,515,884.51 

20,693,369.83 

51,932,061.16 

13,878.640.86 

4,852,416.87 

4,638,516.03 
8,525,050.82 
12,491, 8:.3. 31 
2,630,912.32 
2,698,7.'>0.69 
4.764,061.87 


t9,87»),213.27 


Vafpriaa TPeet aIm 


19,865,i*63.92 


Materiu mfneralen 


85,006.4Hrt.5:i 


Telidos v sns manufacturas 


l.'», 980. 076. 58 


Productoe qulmicos y farmac6utlco8.. 

Bebidas esplrituoeaa, fermentadas y 

naturales 


4,801,680.57 
4, 437, If 8. 10 


Paoel V sus aDlicacionea 


8, 672, 606. 36 


Mfloiiinflfi V ArMrfttOA. .. ....*......«.. 


14.931,318.80 
2,701,9u6.28 


Vehicnlos 


Annas y ezplosi vos 


8,5.39,834.27 


bivenoci . . ."L 


8,416,007.06 






Total imDortaci6n 


20,083,221.24 


12,768,740.36 


132,621,517.27 i 117.252.690.76 









exportaci6n. 

[Valor en plata.] 



Febrero— 



Ocho meses — 



1906. 



1905. 



1905-6. I 1904-5. 



Metalea preciosos 
Dem&s arUculoA . 

Total 



114,359,160.70 
9,120,504.68 | 



$6,849,944.67 $107,246,049.46 
9.260,050.92 I 73. 206, 534. 96 



559.637,61.5.40 
68, 992, 57(i. 64 



23,479,665.38 I 16,109,995.59 180,452,584.42 I 128,630,192.04 



Las exportaciones en detalle fueron como sigue: 



Cla&iflcacl6n sesnln la nomenclatura 
de exporuci6n. 



Febrero— 



1906. 



ProductOB minerales: 

Oro acufiado mexicano 

Oro acufiado extran jero ' 

Oroenpasla '. j $2,417,656.51 

Oroen otras espeeies 410,614.28 



Total oro 

Plata acuflada mexicana . . 
Plata aeuftada extranjera . 

Plata en pasta 

Plata en otras espeeies 



Total plata. 



2,828,270.79 



4,198.298.00 

8,701.00 

6,692.887.04 

Wl,063.87 



Total oro y plata 

Antimonio 

Cobre 

MilnDOlen bruto 

Plombagina 

Plomo : 

Zfnc 

Demils productos mmerales. 



Prodactoe vegetales. 

Caf4 

Ca3calote, y cortezas y ratces para 

curtir 

Caticho 

Chicle 



11.530,889.91 



19a5. 



$1,609.70 

1,955,8.58.70 

216, 843. 27 



2,174,311.67 



Ocho primeroa meses del afio 
fiscal— 



1904-5. 



84,835.98 

20,392,971.11 

1,810,633.38 



$181,036.48 

43,145.06 

17,3/2,208.16 

1,371,725.46 



22, 208. 440. 47 I 18, 918. 115. 16 



5,891.00 , 
10,587.00 
3,696,019.88 
963, 135. 12 



33,891,126.00 

79, 870. 62 

45,136.:^50.25 

5,930,262.12 



4, 675, 683. 00 | 85, 037, 608. 99 



14,359,160.70 

93,103.00 

3,284,069.50 



14,200.00 

570,648.23 

5,384 00 

45,194.50 



18,371.754.93 



1,352,653.60 

600.00 
176.051.7^ 
183,080.03 



6,849,944.67 107,246,049.46 

! 6H8.b.V2 96 

20,2.")8,90-? 23 

73,098.00 

65,621.51 

3,646,295.77 

148,211.99 

268,751.34 



2,797,091.60 

400.00 

8,001) 00 

455, K>5 00 

12,451 00 

2, 9*24. 85 



10,126,670.12 , 132,395,586.26 



1,258,796.28 1 4,741,026.10 



11,769.00 
61.854.00 
228,319.04 I 



639. 29>. 25 

59.131 10 

32.8,^1,275.90 

7. 189. 795. 09 



40. 719, 500. 24 



59,637,615 40 

52,^.513 00 

19, 149. '221. 18 

53. 896. 00 

44.3f)0.00 

3,971.5.')3.00 

43.781.00 

20,672.87 



83.441,612.45 



20,747.00 
hTO, S.58. 74 
851,387,49 



Digitized by 



3,286,484.48 

38,916.00 
355, 679. 99 
840,614.23 

Google 



28 OFICINA INTERNACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLIC AS AMEBIC ANAS. 



Clasificaci6n sepiSn la nomenclatura 
de exportaci6a. 


Febrero— 


Ocho prlmeros meses del aAo 
fiscal— 


1906. 


1905. 


1905-6. 


1904-5. 


Productos vcKetales— Contlniia. 

Frijol 


$67,372.90 
13,182.00 
82,684.00 
9,798.00 


$43,758.00 
6.0<;5.00 
58,351.00 


$620,653.72 

223,870.90 

1,866,884.75 

41,139.00 

110,540.00 

19,037,456.00 

2,455,519.88 

1,317,608.74 

58, 2%. 20 

54,987.87 

286,885.20 

1,241.364.00 

650.411.06 

2,629,321.99 

992,228.53 


$392,226.00 


Fru tas f rescas 


183,653.48 


Garbanzo 


1,364,433.00 


Guayule 




Haba 




18.00 


Henequ^n en rama 


835,008.00 
279,356.00 
78,614.88 
24.310.20 
18,007.87 
56,801.50 
106,921.00 
106. 8*20. 32 
123,601.03 
146,440.05 


1,861,272.00 

286,285.00 

157,225.80 

28,518.08 

4,942.00 

29.a54.00 

125,878.00 

69,235.00 

32,850.00 

92,924.00 


19,054,535.12 


Ixtle eii rama 


2, 548, 679. 55 


Maderas 


1,559.424.44 


Matz 


64.822.8S 


Palo de moral 


25.741.00 


Palo de tinte 


517,769.68 


Raiz de zacat6n 


1,344,734.00 


Tabaco en rama 


809,398.00 


Vainllla 


977, 1 40. 00 


Demds productos vegetales 


580.558.30 




8,651.203.07 


4,357.096.80 


87,971.187.17 


83,894.813.05 


Productos animales: 

Ganados 


185,064.00 
805.570.60 
47,455.50 


1 
130,028.50 2. 173 012. "iO 


1,754,900.00 
4, 473, 716- 70 


Pieles sin curtir 


699,474.05 
33,760.50 


5,203,676.85 
340,316.43 


DemAs productos animales 


841,264.00 




1,038,090.10 


763,253.05 i 7,717,005.78 


6,569,880.70 


Productos manufacturados: 

AzOcar 


99,246.00 
75,959.00 


650,140.00 

78,900.00 
1,046. 00 
15,459.00 
29,009.00 
26.810.00 
33,438.00 


859,878.00 
862,821.00 


2,867,496.00 

470.824.00 
1 235 00 


Harina y pasta de semilla de algo- 
d6n. y hannolina , 


Henequi^n en jarcia 


Pielea curtidas 


80,782.00 
76, 077. 00 


157.487.00 
874,136.29 
226.893.19 
896,589.59 


133.510.60 


Sombreros de pal ma 


182.040.00 
309,915 55 


Tabaco labrado 


28, 063. 6-1 


Demfis productos manufacturados 


47,751.20 


344, 950. 55 


Di versos 


357.878.84 
60, 738. 44 


829,8^2.00 1,867,305.07 
33,173.62 501,500.14 


4,309,971.68 
410.914 16 







Las paises de procedencia fueron como sigue: 





Febrero— 


Ocho meses— 




1906. 


1905. 


1905-6. 


1904-5. 


Europa 


$5, 409, 604. 24 

92,371.16 

246. 18 

14,534.232 39 

3,384 49 

20.621 36 

17.817.42 

4.944 00 


$4,952,294.10 

121,259.48 

1.686.45 

7,592.704.22 

10,033.95 

70.028.12 

17,999.56 

2.714.48 


$45,835,228.55 
930. 797. 96 
16.C09.76 
83,421.781.26 
22.892.82 
184,500 30 
158.057 00 
52, 249 62 


$&9,511.906.S3 

936.932.05 

105,701.61 

65.009.995.53 

68.114.34 

408.635.34 

154,304 47 

57. 100. 59 


Asia 


A f nca 


America del Norte 


America Central 


America del Sur 


An til las 


Oceania , 


lotal 


20,083,221 24 


12. 768. 740 86 


132,621.517.27 


117,252.690.76 





Lo.s paises de destmo de las mercancias exportadas fueron como 
sigue: 





Febrero— 


Ocho meses— 




1906. 


1905. 


1905-6. 


1904-5. 


Europa 


$8,087,674.52 


SA 018 045 91 


«fU ftAA ej;! 97 


$30,001,891.06 

10.500.00 

95,656,658 41 

582.370.14 

83,513 40 

2,293.259.00 


Asia 




America del None 


15,040,200.08 

82.851.46 

8,310.3-2 

260.629 00 


11,814,313 65 


1*22, 253.027.02 

806.9t)8.71 

51,027.32 

2,77.3.020.00 


America Central 


69, 8 16 03 

4,639.00 

203.141.00 


America del Sur 


Antillas 




Total 


23,479,665 38 


16,109,995.59 lK0,452.&b4.42 


128,630.192.04 



Digitized by 



Google 



MEXICO. 29 

ULS lONAS DE COBBE DE LA BEPTtBLICA. 

Las minas de cobre de Mexico rinden el 11 por ciento del producco 
total de este metal en el mundo, y la produccion anual de la Rep6blica 
ocupa el segundo lugar, despu^s de los Eytados Unidos. 

La siguiente es una lista de la situacion de las niinas de cobre, segun 
las estadisticas fiscales del Depai'tamento de Fomento. 

Sonora ocupa el primer lugar, con 239 minas; Jalisco tiene 102; 
Michoacan, 96; Baja California, 65, y Chihuahua, 53. 



Estados. 



Agpascalientes 

Chihuahua 

Coahuila 

Colima 

Dunngo 

Goanajuato . . . 

Guerrero 

Hidalgo 

Jalfcco 

M<:xico 

Michoacan 

Nuevo Le6n . . . 



Minas. 


HectAreas. ' 


49 


180 , 


63 


900 1 


6 


66 1 


12 


157 1 


51 


1,580 1 


4 


140 


44 


1,212 1 


6 


44 


102 


1,845 


3 


20 


»5 


4,557 


3 


22 



Estados. 



Oaxaca 

Puebla 

San LuisPotoei 

Sinaloa 

Sonora 

Tamaulipas 

Zacatecas 

Territorio de 1 epic 
Baja Califorina 

Total 



Minas. HectAreas. 



5 
5 
14 
25 
239 
11 
14 
2 
65 



127 

54 

115 

293 

1.007 

167 

232 

12 

600 



796 



35,891 



EXPOBTACldN DE METALES PBECIOSOS DUB ANTE 1905. 

Las estadisticas recientemente publicadas por el Departamento de 
Hacienda y Creditos Publicos, y que abarcan los ingresos de aduanas 
de Mexico durante los anos economicos de 1904 y 1905, demuestran 
que la exportacion de metales preciosos es seis veces mayor que la de 
los demas productos del pais. Un estado comparativo de los aumentos 
en las suinas de productos exportados en 1905, sobre las de 1904, 
demuestra que en los seis meses, es decir, de julio & diciembre del 
61timo citado ano las exportaciones ascendieron i, §94,829,224.41, y en 
el mismo perlodo de 1905 fi $131,864,507.96, haciendo un aumento total 
de $37,035,283.55. De este aumento, $31,517,571.27 corresponden i 
las exportaciones de metales preciosos, en tanto que el aumento en la 
exportaciones de otros articulos asciende solamente a $5,517,712.28. 

Comparando los ingresos de los primeros seis meses de 1906 con los 
otros seis primeros de 1905, resulta evidente que tal ha continuado 
sienda el estado del comercio de exportacion durante el presente ano 
economico. 

Durante los seis primeros meses del ano 1904-5 las exportaciones 
ascendieron a $61,692,719.55, y durante el mismo periodo de 1905-6 
ascendieron a $95,227,111.04. De este aumento de $33,534,391.49 en 
el ultimo periodo, $26,000,000, aproximadamente, corresponden & 
productos minerales. 

VALOR LEGAL DE LA PLATA, JXJNIO DE 1906. 

Segun la circular publicada por el Departamento de Hacienda de la 
Repfibiica Mexicana, el valor legal de la plata en el mes de junio de 

Digitized by VJ^ii^^lC 



30 OFIOINA INTEKNACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLICAS AMEKICANAS. 

1906 se fij6 al tipo de ^2.81 "por kilogramo, sirviendo el mismo tipo 
coino base para el impuesto de sellos. 

Este tipo estd basado en el hecho de que el valor proporcional de la 
plata de ley en Londres, desde el 20 de abril hasta el 19 de mayo, era 
de 30.6540 peniques, y de que el tipo proporcional de cambio, de 
Mexico sobre Londres, durante el mismo peHodo, era de 24.8814 
peniques. 

BENTAS POSTAI.SS DUBANTE £L MES DE ABRIL DE 1906. 

Las rentas del Servicio de Correos de la Republica Mexicana durante 
el mes de abril de 1906 ascendieron a $310,475.45, en comparacion con 
los $281,139.31 correspondientes al mismo mes del ano anterior. 

Los ingresos mensuales de este servicio durante los diez primeros 
meses del presente ano economico son como sigue: 



1905. 1906. 

Julio $303,279.41 Enero $336,423.68 

Agosto 283,496.94 Febrero 280,374.74 

Septiembre 298,300.00 Marzo 317,826.15 

Octubre 310,790.62 Abril 310,475.45 

Noviembre 286,979.17 

Diciembre 312,053.66 

Siendo por lo tantoel total de este periodode diez meses $3,009,990.82, 
en comparacion con $2,751,748.40 por el mismo periodo del precedente 
ano econ6mico, resultando un aumento de $258,251.42 en 1905-6. 

IKFOBMES CONSULABES. 

El Consul General de Mexico en Nueva York, anuncia que durante 
el mes de abril de 1906, 11 buques procedentes de puertos mexicanos 
entraron en el puerto de la ciudad de Nueva York, conduciendo d bordo 
79,455 bultos de mercancfas. Durante el mismo mes salicron del 
puerto de Nueva York 10 buques, que conducian 144,990 bultos de 
mercancfas consignadas a puertos mexicanos. Las importaciones deta- 
lladas de Mexico a Nueva York en el mes de abril de 1906, fueron las 
siguientes: 



Articulos. 



I Cantldad. 



Henequ^n terclos.. 

('a f e sacos . . 

Cue^os lercios. . 

Id... , sueltos.. 

JxUe pacas.. 

Pielos dc eabra lercios.. 

Pieles de venado Id... 

Hule Id... 

Tabacoen rama Id... 

Puros cajas. . 

Azilcar sa< os . 

Zacai6n lercuw. . 

Chicle id , . . 

Pelo pacas.. 



I 



10. 823 

11,4J0 

3,799 

b,A22 

1,582 

940 

141 

1,307 

2, 454 

21 

263 

2S,^ 

3.a'«<9 

53 



Articulos. 



Barras dc plomo niXmero. 

Melales cajas. 

Minerales bultos. 

ZarzaparUla lercios. 

Vainllla cajas. 

Pieles de coiodrilo ndmero. 

Plumas de garza cajas. 

Huesos buHos. 

M lel de abeja barn les. 

'^obn irozos. 

Purga de jalapa sacos. 

('obre barras 

A JO cajas. 



Cantidad. 



18,944 

558 

12,360 

296 

127 

15 

2 

87S 

270 

873 

76 

2,467 

706 



Digitized by 



Google 



MEXICO. 



31 



El C6nsul General de Mexico en Nueva York, anuncia que durante 
el mes de mayo de 1906, 11 buques procedentes de puertos mexicanos 
entraron en el puerto de la ciudad de Nueva York, conduciendo & 
bordo 74,962 bultos de raercancfas. Durante el mismo mes salieron 
del puerto de Nueva York 12 buques, que conducfan 195,873 bultos 
de mercancias consignadas & puertos mexicanos. La importaciones 
detalladas de Mexico & Nueva York en el mes de mayo de 1906, f ueron 
las siguientes: 



Artlculos. 



Henequ^n tercioa. 

Caf4 sacos. 

Cuerofi tercioa . 

Id sueltofl, 

Ix tie pacas . 

Pieles de cabra tercios, 

Pieles de yenado Id . . , 

Hule Id.. 

Tabaco en rama Id . . , 

Puros cajas. 

Azilicar sacos, 

Zacat6ii tercfos. 

Chicle id... 

Ftiste te t rozos . 

Pelo pacas. 



Cantidad. 



6,681 

11,919 

3,297 

2,437 

1,581 

638 

432 

791 

698 

23 

8,000 

125 

4,267 

1,874 

81 



Articulofl. 



Barrosde plomo nilmero. 

Metales caJas. 

Mineral es bultos. 

Zaraaparilla terclos, 

Vainiila cajaa, 

Pieles de Cocodrilo nilmero, 

Pluinafl de garza cajaa, 

Huesos baltoe, 

Miel de abeja bnrrilos, 

I Cedro trozos 

' Caoba id.. 

Cobre »>arras, 

A jo caias. 

Pesos mexicanos in.., 

Limones Id.., 



Cantidad. 



24,281 

657 

7,800 

150 

163 

67 

6 

347 

19 

511 

600 

2,786 

690 

215 

1X0 



La exportacion de mercancias procedentes del Estado de Sonora, 
Mexico, por el puerto de Nogales 6 introducidas por la Aduana ameri- 
cana de Nogales, Arizona, en el mes de mayo de 1906, f u^ la siguiente: 



Productos. 



Cantidad. 



Area de corral 

Artefactos de papel 

Aguardiente mezcal galones. 

Aiiicar de cafla libras. 

Cueros de res al pelo do... 

Came f resca 

Desperdlcioe de h ierro toneladas. 

Especies no cspecificadas 1 ibras. 

Fmtas encurtidas al natural 

Ganado vacufio cabozaa. 

Legumbres y tuberciiloe fanegas. 

Limones li bras . 

Mail fanegas. 

Naranjas libras. 

Oro en pasta y en pol vo - onzas. 

Plata en pasta do... 

Plmnas naturales de ave 

Piedra mineral de plomo libras . 

Queso. 



40 
26,773 
116,821 



101 

423 

110 

51 

3,156 

7,256 

305,566 



15,246 



Salcomun libraa..' 40,908 

Sombreroa de paja I 

Trigo fanegas. . 11 

Tabaco sin labrar libras..' 699 

Total 



Valor. 



^03 

4 

31 

1,231 

12,666 

21 

250 

62 

8,208 

1,241 

180 

4 

51 

51 

181,287 

254, 480 

290 

458 

6 

231 

20 

11 

398 

456, 574 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



32 OFICINA INTERNACIONAL DE LAS REPtJBLICAS AMERI0ANA8. 

La importacion de mercancias extranjeitis por la Aduana de Nogales, 
Mexico, al Estado de Sonora, en mayo de 1906, fu^ conio sigue: 



MateriAs aniinales 

Idem vegetales 

Idem mineralcs 

Tejidos y sus manufacturas. 

Productos quimicos 

Bebidas espirituosas 

Papel y sus aplicaciones .... 



Valor. 



S24,882-20 
27,570.47 
4S1,H91.77 
25,716.56 
18,784.56 
6,111.43 
5,208.53 



MAquinas y aparatos. 

! V^hiculos 

I Armas y explosives .. 
' Diversos 



Total . 



Valor. 



$125,577.97 
6,685.31 
9,609.11 
80,002.75 



760,940.66 



PAfSES DE DONDE PROCEDEN LAS MERCANCf AS. 



Estados Unidos de America. 

Inglaterra 

Francia 

Alemania 

Espafia 



8644,832.52 

24.620.49 

3,326.55 

6,618.93 

81,679.87 



Austria . 
Jap6n .. 



Total . 



f321.G0 
140.70 



760,940.66 



Derechos arancelarios recaudados en el mes, J92,011.79. 

PANAMA, 

ESTADO DEL COMEBCIO EN 1905. 

El Consul de los Estados Unidos, James C. Kellogg, ha enviado 
la estadistica de comercio de Colon correspondiente & 1905, la cual 
muestra que las importaciones de aquel puerto de Panami han excedido 
de $2,000,000. El expresado Consul dice lo siguiente: 

En 190.'> el valor de las importaciones ascendi6 & $2,008,904, 6 sea un 
aumento como de $408,000 respecto de 1904. De esta cantidad el 
valor de las importaciones por paises fu^ el siguiente: 



Estados Unidos $1, 376, 074 

Gran Bretafia 229,107 

Alemania 196,084 

Francia 89,248 

Espafla 33,528 



B^lgica 

Italia 

Todoslos demas pafses. 



$11,592 
11,487 
61,784 



Total 2,008,904 



Los principales articulos importados de los Estados Unidos fueron 
lo.s siguientes: Material para ferrocarriles, carbon de piedra, madera, 
provisiones en general, petroleo, g^neros de algod6n, ferreteria, cer- 
veza, calzado, muebles, sombreros y maquinas de coser. De Europa 
se importaron los siguientes articulos: G^neros de algodon, lana y lino, 
ropa hecha, calzado, sombreros, velas, fosforos, cervezas de varias 
clases, vinos y articulos de fantasia. La mayor parte de las exporta- 
ciones de Colon van a las Estados Unidos, que en 1905 recibieron 
platanos por valor de $35,780, cocos por valor de $54,600, cueros por 
valor de $4,755, nuez de marfil por valor de $26,080, goma elastica 
por valor de $8,185, cary por valor de $9,240, y articulos diversos por 
valor de $2,845, 6 sea un total de $141,485. 

El transporte de carga de los Estados Unidos A los puertos del Sur 
del Pacifico alcanz6 un aumento de 3,375 toneladas, en tanto que el 



Digitized by \JK^JKJWl\^ 



PANAMA. 33 

aumento & la America Central y & los puertos mexieanos ascendio a 
6,855 toneladas, y & Panamfi ascendio a 6,790 toneladas. El aumento 
de lacarga procedente de Europa fu^ de 3,390 toneladas, d los puertos 
del Sur del Paeifieo, y 5,080 toneladas, & los puertos de la America 
Central y Mexico. La disminucion de la carj^ procedente de los 
puertos aaiericanos y mexieanos & los de Europo fu^ de 6,075 
toneladas, y de los puertos del Sur del Pacffico al mismo destino f u6 
de 9,950 toneladas. La carga total conducida & trav^s del Istmo 
en 1905 ascendio d 444,230 toneladas, 6 sea un aumento como de 
30,000 toneladas. La carga de un pais & otro mostr6 un aumento 
de un 66 per ciento respecto de todo el tonelaje conducido, contra 
un 82 pov ciento en 1904. El ndmero total de pasajeros conducidos 
por el ferrocarril en el ano ascendio d 273,165, contra 114,000 en 
1904. El producto total en el ano de 1905 ascendio d $1,912,552, 
6 sea un aumento de 644,981, respecto del ano anterior. La renta 
derivada del flete de mercancias y carb6n de piedra ascendio d 
$1,306,145, 6 sea un aumento de $198,620, respecto de la renta de 
1904. El producto derivado de la conduccion de pasajeros ascendio 
a $129,163, que representa un aumento de como un 50 por ciento 
compai'ado con 1904. La renta procedente del transporte de dinero y 
eorrespondencia ascendi6 d $116,790, contra $110,792 en el ano de 1904. 
La renta procedente de pasajeros conducidos de un puerto d otro 
sufri6 una disminucion de $3,372, por mas que el numero mostro un 
un aumento de 1,425 pasajeros. La cuota del pasaje de un puerto d 
otro en los pasajes de primera se redujo de $10 que era antes d $6.50, 
y los de segunda se redujeron de $5 que se cobraban antes d $4.50 (|ue 
se cobran ahoi*a. El numero de pasajeros locales mostro un aumento 
de 185,867 que dieron un resultado de $47,064, debido d la reanudacion 
de los trabajos en el Canal. 

El total de los productos del ferrocarril de Panamd y la linea de 
vapores combinados, en 1905 ascendio a $3,077,611, 6 sea un aumento 
de $536,512 respecto del total de 1904. El total de gastos ascendio d 
$2,541,099, 6 sea un aumento de $679,358 respecto de 1904. En 1905 
en el puerto de Col6n entraron 471 vapores que representaban 1,301,150 
toneladas, y 268 buques de velas que representaban 22,348 toneladas, 
lo cual muestra un aumento de 94 vapores de 24,150 toneladas y una 
disminucion de 73 buques de velas, 6 sea un aumento de 6,948 toneladas 
respecto de 1904. El n6mero de buques de velas americanos que 
entraron en el puerto de Colon en 1905, ascendi6 d 73 vapores, que en 
conjunto representaban 156,371 toneladas, y 21 buques de velas que 
representaban 13,354 toneladas. Las lineas de vapores denominadas 
The Royal Mail y la de Hamburg American Steamship, ban establecido 
lineas quincenales entre Colon y Nueva York, las cuales, con los cinco 
vapores de la Panama Railroad Steamship Line, hacen un total do 
nueve vapores que viajan mensualmente entre Nueva York y Col6n. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



34 OFICINA INTERNACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLICA8 AMERICAN AS. 

Mediante la politica nuevamente adoptada por la Compania de 
Ferrocarril de Fanamd, que of rece alicientes para ef ectuar el desarrollo 
y trdfico comercial en el Istmo, las rebajas considerables en los tipos de 
pasaje y de flete locales y otros cambios ef ectuados, ban aumentado con- 
sidei*ablemente el trfitico. La creciente demanda de trabajadores habiles 
y de los bisonos, ban hecbo que se aumenten casi todas las clases de 
empleados de ferrocarril. Se ban construido nuevos apartaderos 6 
chuchos, lineas ramales y de otras clases; se estd construyendo una 
nueva via doble en la linea principal, y se ban becho mucbas mejoras, 
tales como estaciones de agua, depositos de carb6n y mucbas otras 
mejoras. Se estan extendiendo lineas telegrdficas y telef6nicas a lo 
largo de toda la lineal del ferrocarril; se ban construido dos grandes 
muelles d la entrada del Canal, y se ba aumentado mucbo el antiguo 
muelle numero 4 del Ferrocarril de PanamA en Colon, faeilitando asi 
el trabajo de los dos vapores en este muelle. 

Con cxcepcion de unas pocas fabricas de agua gaseosa y las plantas 
electricas y fabrica de bielo, no existen otras industrias. Tbe Colon 
Electric and Ice Supply Compan}", cuyos duenos residan en Colon, es 
una compania por acciones, y tiene una concesion por veinticinco anos. 
Dicba planta tiene una fuerza de bujia de 1,200 luces incandescentes, 
y la fabrica de bielo puede producir 10 toneladas diarias. Los brazos 
que podrian obtenerse para los fines agricolas 6 industriales, no pueden 
conseguirse por estar empleados en los muelles, y en el Ferrocarril del 
Canal L;tmo. La agricultura, que jamfc se exploto en gran escala, 
tambien se esta abandonando, debido & la creciente demanda de obreros 
para los trabajos del Canal. 

La construccion de una estacion de tel^grafo sin bilos por el Depar- 
tamento de Marina de los Estados Unidos, comenzo en 1905 y se com- 
pleto en agosto del mismo ano. Dicba estacion tiene una planta 
electrica de 37i kilovatios, y esta en comunicacion con Cayo Hueso, 
Estado de Florida, en Guantinamo, Cuba, y con buques y pequenas 
estaciones en un radio de 300 millas. La estacion estd provista de los 
instrumentos de la De Forrest Wireless Telegrapb Company, y est4 
situada en unos terrenos en el extremo oriental de la Isla de Manza- 
nillo, precisamente mfis abajo del Hospital Colon, en la playa. Los 
edificios consisten de una casa de operaciones y de vivienda en com- 
binacion, planta de potencia y deposito de aceite. Los alambres aerios 
se suspenden por medio de tres velas, cada una de las cuales tiene 208 
pies de altura. Tiene el mando el Comandante de Marina, Camp Eliot, 
Haut Obispo, en la Zona del Canal. Esta planta estd & cargo de cuatro 
ayudantes pertenecientes a la marina americana. 

Hay dos companias de cables fi saber: una via Galveston, y la otra 
via de Jamaica, que se reparo 6 compuso recientemente. El costo de 
los cablegramas d los Estados Unidos es 69 centavos por palabra. Los 
derecbos de importacion cobrados en la Ciudad de Panama, Col6n y 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



SALVADOB, 



35 



Bocas del Toro, per los tres primeros meses de 1906, excedieron con 
macho & los del ultimo trimestre de 1905, siendo asi que las cif ras 
obtenidas son las siguientes: 

La recaudacion de derechos sobre mercancias por la Repiiblica de 
Panamd en estos puertos, durante el trimestre que termin6 el 31 de 
marzo de 1906, ascendi6 d un total de $132,977, contra $122,639 en el 
trimestre anterior. L#os derechos que se cobraron sobre licores en 
^general, en el trimestre que termin6 el 31 de marzo de 1906, ascen- 
dieron & $72,446, 6 sea un aumento de $10,941, comparado con el 
trimestre anterior. Por tanto, el aumento total de la renta ascendio fi 
$21,279, sin haber ocurrido ningun cambio en los derechos de inipor- 
tacion. 



SALVADOR. 

BATOS ESTABfSTICOS COBRESPONDIENTES AX AH^O DE 1905. 

[Del " Oiario Oficial " de mayo 11 de 1906.] 

Los siguientes datos estadisticos se han tomado de la memoria de los 
actos del Poder Ejecutivo en los i-amos de Hacienda y CrMito Publico, 
correspondiente fi 1905, presentada por el Subsecretario del Despacho, 
Don Manuel L6pez MENcfA, d la Asamblea Legislativa de 1906: 



Importaci6ii 

Exportaci6n 

Ren la de licores . 
Rentas dlversaa . . 
Scrvicioe 



ToUl. 



AAimblea Nacional 

Presidencla de la RepOblica 

Ctrlera de Gobemaci6n 

Cartera de Fomento 

Canemde In»triicci6n POblica... 
Carteim de Relaciones Exteriores. 

Cartera de Justfcia , 

Cartera de Beneficencia , 

Cartera de Giierra 

Cartera de Hacienda 

Cartera de Credito Pdblico 



Total. 



1905. 



$4,849,832 86 

731,174.67 

1,924,911.07 

663.094.84 

367, 429. (i3 



8, 536. 443. 07 



$4,274,068.16 

850, 01 0.15 

2, 1 13. :U.'J. 66 

46i*.y92.78 

323,241.50 



8,060.689 05 



39.883.17 


42,713.13 


57, 9(;0. 00 


53,510.00 


1,419,829 95 


1,171,310 96 


806. 557. 44 


451,89.'> 63 


630, 505. 53 


5W), ^M\ 95 


74. m 11 


f>9,3«.9 38 


f)3*<. 428 09 


569,213 91 


166.2.^9 21 


153,727 25 


1,796,514 56 


l,(.H7.15t J3 


M>8, 764. 31 


518,^70.24 


3,8t6,-207 66 


3,4H4,.s:i2 96 



10,045.413.03 ' 



8,759,404.63 



Los rendiniientos habids ingresaron de la manera sicruiente: 

RENTAS ADUANERAS. 



Aduana de Sonsonnntc 

Aduana de la U ni6ii 

Aduana de la Libertad 

DirecciOn de Correos (faido» po$tale») 



Importaci6n 



S2,869 485 25 
I 1,046,356 61 
I 813. 37^ 25 

I 90.612 72 



Total. 



Exportaci6n. 



4,849,«SJ2 ^6 



$4I1,8.S7.5( 
203. 0N9. 40 
316,227 73 



731.174.67 



Digitized by ^ 



joogle 



86 OFICINA INTEKNACIONAL DE LAS REPtJBLICAS AMER1CANA8. 

El niimero d^ bultos de mercaderfas importados y registrados para 
el consume en el interior, fu6 de 355,777, con peso de 24,731,580 kilo- 
gramos y un valor declarado de $4,346,070.32 en oro, segun factui^as. 

La exportacion ascendi6 & 496,619 bultos, con peso bruto de 
72,580,890 libras y un valor en plata de $14,098,833.15. 

Reducida & oro al 150 por ciento de cambio la suma de las expor- 
taciones, y comparada con la de importaciones, se encuentran las si- 
guientes diferencias: 

Exportaciones $5,639,533.26 

Importaciones 4,346,070.32 

La exportacion en 1905 se compuso de los siguientes articulos: 



URUGUAY. 

MENSAJE DEL PBESIDENTE. 

El siguiente es un extracto del mensaje que el Presidente Don Jos£ 
Batlle y Ordonez envio a la Asamblea General el 15 de febrero de 
1906: 

"administraci6n interior. 

'^Aunque en capitulo separado se da cuenta de las principales inicia- 
tivas y obras relacionadas con las Juntas y Jefaturas, cree el Poder 
Ejecutivo oportuno evidenciar que en la administracion interior de la 
Republica el periodo a que se refiere cste mensaje, ha sido de tran- 
quilidad }• laljor sm que la propaganda antipatnotica de los eleinentos 
nial inspirados haya podido causar perturbaciones ni malestar. 

'^Las elecciones complementarias realizadas en algunos Departa- 
mentos ban demostrado que los ciudadanos gozan de completa libertad 
y de las mas eficaces garantias para el ejercicio de sus derechos, sm que 
la autoi idad en forma alguna haya pasado tampoco en la acci6n de los 
partidos. 

'^La libertad }' la garantia de los derechos se han hecho efectivas en 
todos los casos en una forma que cree el Poder Ejecutivo es un honor 
para el pais y para la actual admmistracion que mira esto, sin embargo, 
como el cumplimiento estricto de los deberes gul>ernamentales. 

'•"Todo hecho que en cualquiera forma haya llegado al conociraiento 
del Gobierno sobre abuso de autoridad 6 contrano a las leyes y & los 
derechos de los habitantes de la Republica, ha sido investigado y 
reprimido con absoluta imparcialidad, y el Poder Ejecutivo puede 
decir con entera verdad que no ha habido delitos mipunes por defi- 
ciencias de su accion y que de un extremo & otro del pafs rigen para 
todos las leyes y el amparo mas completo de los derechos. 



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URUGUAY, * 37 

"JUSTICIA T LEGI8LACI6n. 

"El Gobierno en un niensaje, fecha 28 de junio, remitio a la Asam- 
blea General un proyecto de ley sobre la abolicion de la pena de muerte, 
que establecen los codigos penal y militar. 

" En el mensaje de ref erencia el Poder Ejecutivo consigno los prin- 
cipales argumentos que le inspiraron esa reforma y manifiesta el de- 
seo de que pronto se conviertan en ley, haciendo desaparecer asi de 
Duestra legislacion una pena que no es ejemplar ni legitima y que no 
corrige ni regenera al delincuente. 

'^CORREO Y TELjfeORAFOS. 

"El movimiento de estos servicios, como lo pre vela el Poder Ejecu- 
tivo en un mensaje anterior, sigue en aumento, habiendo Uegado el 
intercambio postal de 1905 a la cif ra de 80,757,289, de la cual 79,926,442 
son piezas ordinarias, 485,462 recomendadas y 345,385 de carga. 

"El giro intemo alcanzo & $3,898,774 y el externo ^ $59,528, lo que 
representa un tottil de $3,958,302. 

" El gir o internacional esti todavia limitado a la Argentina, Italia, 
Francia, D^lgica, Suiza, Alemania, Chile, Inglaterra por conducto de 
Klgica, Bolivia por conducto de Chile, Mexico por conducto de Ale- 
mania, y Jap6n por conducto de Belgica, pero se espera poder exten- 
derlo en el presente ano d otros paises. 

" Las tentativas hechas para establecerlo con Espana y el Brasil ban 
eneontrado dificultades por el regimen financiero de ambos Estados. 

"La renta ha llegado d la suma de $476,327.76, formada por $374,- 
450.05 de fmnqueo, $71,043.90 del teldgrafo, §17,414.66 de giros, 
16,224.87 de trdnsito, y $71,945.28 de otros conceptos. 

"El movimiento de 1905, comparado con el de los dos ailos anteriores, 
ofrece las siguientes diferencias: 



Aflos. 


Piezas de 

corre^pon- 

dencia. 


GIros. 


Renla. 


1903 


70,615,160 
57. 2S9, 881 
80, 757, 808 


84,647,612 
1.339.23M 
8, 958, 352 


$430,889 
380 0(>2 


19W 


1905.. 


476, 327 





"La siguiente tabla muestra las lineas telegraficas concluidas 6 que 
estaban en operacion en 1905: 

Kil6metros. 

Reparaciones efectuadaa en las Ifneas telegrdficae 108 

CoDstrocciones de Hneas telegrdficas 832 

Reconslruccion de Ifneas telegrdficas 232 

Construccion de redes lelef6nicas de policfa 607 

Reconstnicci6n de redes telef6nica8 de policfa 223 

Rfidea telef6nica8 ne policfa en estudio 600 



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88 OFICINA INTERNACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLICAS AMERI0ANA8. 



" Despu6s de haber cumplido el deber primordial de prestar solfcitos 
cuidados fi los enfermos heridos de la ultima contienda, el Gobierno ha 
consagrado su atencion al perfeccionamiento de este importante ramo, 
y espera obtener resultados satisfactorios. 

"hIGIENE T 8ANIDAD. 

''El Consejo Nacional de Higiene patrocin6 en este periodo el pro- 
yecto de uno de sus miembros sobre la creaci6n de los establecimientos 
denominados 'Gota de Leche,' tan beneficiosos d la salud de los ninos 
y para la educacion de las madres por cuanto les proporciona recursos 
y conocimientos para eriar sus hijos en debida forma. 

'' Se confi6 esta mision a la Comisi6n Nacional de Caridad y se pro- 
curai*d completarla mediante una ley que proteja & los i^eci^n nacidos 6 
impida que sus madres los abandonen al ejercer la profesi6n de nodrizas. 

''Al continuar la aplicaci6n del convenio sanitario internacional 
vigente dicho Consejo proyecto est^blecer un centro de desinfeccion 
en el puerto, y al aceptar dicho proyecto el Gobierno ofreci6 propor- 
cionar con tal fin un cr(5dito de $32,000 que deberfin ser reintegrados. 

"Ademas dicho Consejo fu^ autorizado para adquirir un vapor 
dotado de los aparatos necesarios para el servicio de sanidad maritima. 

"Se propuso crear el puesto de inspector de sanidad terrestre cuya 
mision sera trasladarse a cualquier punto de la Repiiblica en donde se 
desarrolle una epidemia a fin de adoptar las medidas del caso con la 
debida autoridad y competencia. 

"En la actualidad se estudia un proyecto de reforma de la ley 
organica del Consejo, la formacion del ^ Codex medicamentarius' y 
varios reglamentos que han de completar el servicio de sanidad. 

" Por lo demas el estado sanitario de la Republica es excelente y las 
autoridades municipales cooperan con el Consejo Nacional de Higiene 
para mejorar todo este servicio y hacer que las ordenanzas se apliquen 
estrictamente y que se demuestre un verdadero celo en combatir las 
enfermedades contagiosas. 

"MINISTERIO DE RELACIONES EXTERIORES Y CULTO. 

"Las relaciones que la Republica mantiene con las naciones aniigas, 
continuan dcsarrollandose inspiradas en la mayor cordialidad y en el 
respeto y considcracion reciprocos. 

"Me es en extremo satisfactorio aseguraros que no se han producido 
en este sontido ni las mas pequenas diferencias, ni el mas leve roza- 
miento, ni se han hecho otras manifestaciones que las que engendran 
naturalmente la lealtad y la franqueza, obscrvadas en todos sus actos 
por el Gobieit^o. 

"Ala realizaci6n de fines tan plausibles, que evidencian las con- 
quistas alcanzadas por la Republica en sus esfuerzos por ocupar, como 

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URUGUAY. 39 

ocapa felizmente, un puesto honroso en el concierto de las Daciones 
civilizadas, han contribuido, jasto es reconocerlo asi, los distinguidas 
miembros que forman el honorable Cuerpo Diplomdtico acreditado 
ante mi Gobiemo. 

''Tan luego como dign^is prestar vuestra sanci6n a los proyectos 
que OS han sido sometidos, recibird nucvo y vigoroso impulso la vida 
internacional de la Repiiblica, as( diplomdtica como comercialmente. 

'* PUERTO DE MONTEVIDEO. 

*'La construcci6n de las obras generales del puerto de Montevideo, 
comparada con los trabajos concluidos i fines de 1904, estd relativa- 
mente adelantada. 

"La construccion do los muros que constituyen el trabajo in&s im- 
portante del puerto }^ que se habia demorada & causa de las dificultades 
que en la practica presentaba el proyecto del Professor KCmmer se ha 
resuelto satisfactoriamente y de tal modo que la prof undidad de dicho 
puerto puedo llegar sin inconveniente basta 10 metros bajo cero. 

" Obtuvose este resultado mediante la celebracion de un contrato con 
la Empresa General del Puerto el 28 de enero de 1905, gracias el cual 
se resolvio definitivamente acerca del modelo de construccion de dichas 
obras, modificandose radicalmente el que habia sido aprodado en 
febrero de 1903. 

"Los diques externos 6 gmndes rompeolas que no se han concluido 
afin, sin embargo tienen una extension suficiente para proporcionar 
abrigo i. los buques. Con motivo de las huelgas generales de los tra- 
bajadores del puerto a medidados de 1905, los grander buques de ultra- 
mar empezaron & utilizar el ante puerto para efectuar sus operacionos 
de carga y descarga. 

"La ge^tion de la Comision Financiera durante el afio 1905 se sin- 
tetiza con los datos num^ricos quo & continuacion se exponen: 

"Al cerrar el aiio de 1904 la Comision disponia de una existencia de 
fondos que ascendia a $323,131.33. 

"Durante cl afio de 1905 percibio por patentes adicionales la suma 
de $1,120,407.33. 

"Recobro de la Empi'esa del Puerto, por concepto de anticipos quo 
8e le hicieron en virtud de la base VI del contrato, la cantidad do 
$142,866.08. 

"El impuesto de faros, que desde el 1** de enero de 1905 fuo desti- 
nado & la renta de puerto, en virtud de la ley de 7 de noviembre de 
1889, ha dado un producto liquido de $60,004.15. 



"Deseoso el Poder Ejecutivo de resolver la importante cuesti6n de 
la Tialidad que tantos beneficios puede proporcionarle al pais en gene- 
ral formul6 un proyecto de ley que fu6 sometido oportunamente & la 
8anci6n de la Asamblea Greneral. ^ j 

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40 OFICINA INTERN ACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLICAS AMERICAN AS. 

'^Al someter el Poder Ejecutivo la Ley de Vialidad d la Asamblea, 
tuvo tambien en cuenta la construcci6n de carreteras y reparaciones 
en las grandes vias nacionales que atraviesan la Republica y, como una 
obra indispensable, la de contribuir & la construcci6n de grandes puen- 
tes d trav^s de los principales rios y arroyos con el fin de evitar la 
interrupcion de las comunicaciones debidas principal men te a las cre- 
cientes de les rios y arroyos en la estacion de las Uuvias, interrupci6n 
que paraliza y perjudica al comercio y al pais en general. 

''INSTRUCCi6n SECUNDARIA Y SUPERIOR. 

'^El Gobierno ha consagrado especial atencion a la ensenanza secun- 
daria y superior coadyuvando d la accion de las autoridades universita- 
rias, y, gracias d csa accion, conjunta puede en la actualidad asegurarse 
que el periodo d que este mensaje se refiere lo caracteriza iin impor- 
tante desarrollo en el expresado ranio de ihstruccion publida en general. 

"La Facultad de Comercio y Secci6n de Veterinaria funcionan con 
buen nuniero de alumnos, por mds que ambas organizaciones dejan 
mucho que desear por la falta de recursos con que hasta la fecha se ha 
luchado. Sin embargo, se espera que en breve desaparecerdn las defi- 
ciencias que actualmente se notan y que dichos ramos pronto llegardn 
d la altui-a de la importante mision que les corresponde. 

''Para robustecer el vigoroso impulso que ya han recibido ciertos 
i-amos de la ensenanza y hacer que resulte eficaz el que se trata de 
dar d las de reciente 6 pr6xima fundacion, las autoridades universi- 
tarias han pensado contratar prof esores extranjeros de solida y probada 
reputacion, habiendo dicho iniciativa encontmdo caluroso apoyo en el 
Poder Ejecutivo y en el seno de las Cdmaras. La idea que se desea 
poner en prdctica es dotar de directores t^cnicos de competencia teorica 
y prdctica indiscutible d las facultades veterinaria y de agronomfa, y 
contratar un inspector de id^nticas condiciones para la facultad de 
ensenanza secundaria y un jefe de la seccion de arquitectura de la 
facultad de matemdticas. 

'* instrucci6n primaria. 

*' Por mds que el Poder Ejecutivo reconoce que la instrucci6n pri- 
maria figura en primer termino en los factores mds fecundos del pro- 
greso, no ha podido consagrar d ella toda la atencion que merece, pero 
la Cdmara de Representantes ha destinado 1,000,000 de pesos d la 
construccion de edificios escolares, que se necesitan con mucha urgencia, 
y se ocupa con ahinco en muchas ref ormas relacionadas con este impor- 
tante ramo. 



''El Gobierno, por conducto del departamento correspondiente, estd 
estimulando por todos los medios d su alcance la importante industria 
pecuaria y ha tomado las medidas conducentes para exterminar la 

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URUGUAY. 41 

garrapata que tanto perjudica al ganado vacuno, y para combatir 
la enfermedad denominada tristeza, 6 fiebre de Texas. 

"La producci6n de cereales y plantas oleaginosas en 1905 disminuy6 
en una proporcion notable, pero dicha disminuci6n qued6 cooipcnsada 
por los buenos rendimientos de las cosechas, cuyos resultados en- 
kilogramos son los siguientes: 

Kilogramos. 

Trigo ^ 205,888,045 

Lino 14,046,417 

Avena 525,553 

Cebada 588, 7&4' 

Alpiste 1,745,734 

"El ultimo censo acerca de la produccion de niafz muestm el" 
siguiente resultado total: 

"Kilogramos sembrados, 2,297,568; hectdreas cultivadas, 176,899, 
ascendiendo la cosecha & 112,186,773 kilogramos. 

"La estadistica vitieola muestra un notable adelanto en dicha indus- 
tria, como lo indican las siguientes cifras: N(imero de vinedos, 1,453; 
hectdreas cultivadas, 4,259; cepas en estado de produccion, 14,050,214; 
UTa cosechada, 21,472,773 kilogramos, que produjeron 10,494,247 
litres de vino. 

" Los recientes trabajos sobre la prevencion y curacion de la tuber- 
culosis bovina, que tanta importancia revisten desde el punto de vista 
de la salubridad pfiblica y economla rural, merece ocupar seriamente 
la atencion del Poder Ejecutivo y seria muy conveniente disponer su 
estudio experimentacion. 

"Se ban dado instrucciones d nuestros consules en los principales 
paises de exportaci6n, acerca de la documentaci6n que se requiere 
para autorizar la entrada de los animales que se iraporten, con el fin 
de evitarles & los importadores los perjuicios que necesariamente tienen 
que ocasionarles cualquiera omisi6n 6 deficiencia en el servicio prove- 
niente del desconocimiento de las disposiciones vigentes 6 de un con- 
cepto erroneo respecto de su alcance. 

" FERROCARRILES. 

"El trafico de pasajeros estd representado por 1,228,386, contra 
1,175,803, que se condujeron el ano anterior, 6 sea un aumento de 
52,583, equivalente & un 4.47 por ciento. 

"El aumento en el transporte de cargas es verdaderamente excep- 
cional. 

"Los frutos del pals muestran un aumento de 55,804 toneladas 6 
sea una proporcion de un 18.77 por ciento. 

"En el transporte de materiales de c6nstrucci6n se advierte uu: 
aumento de 34,714 toneladas, 6 sea un 48.60 por ciento. 

" Las mercaderias en general acusan un aumento de 34,802 toneladas, . 
6 sea un 22.63 por ciento. 
Bull. No. 1—06 5 

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42 OFICINA INTEBNACIONAL DE LAS BEPtJBLICAS AMEBICANAS. 



"1 



^ El total de la carga transportada durante el ano asciende & 680,475 
toneladas, contra 548,223 el ai¥o anterior, 6 sea una diferencia de 
132,252 toneladas que representan un 24.12 por ciento. 

"A pesar del gran atraseo que sufri6 la industria de ganado caballar, 
en el transporte se nota un aumento de 68,929 cabezas 6 sea un 9.69 
por ciento. 

"CONGRESO MEDICO LaTINO- AMERICANO. 

*^La filtima conferencia de Buenos Aires, celebrada en abril de 1904, 
design6 & Montevideo para sede del Tercer Congreso Medico Latino- 
Americano. AI aceptar la invitaci6n el Poder Ejecutive expidi6 un 
decreto el 30 de septiembre del ano pasado, disponiendo que el expre- 
sado Tercer Congreso se reunirfi en dicha ciudad del 13 al 20 de enero 
de 1907. En la misma ^poca se efectuard la inauguraci6n de la Expo- 
sici6n de Higiene anexada al Congreso. 

"Marc AS de FXbrica y de Comercio. 

**La renta de marcas de fdbrica y de comercio en 1903 produjo un 
total de $8,032; en 1904, ^,272, y en 1905, $9,564. 

^^ Amort izaci&n de la deuda publica, 

** La siguiente tabla muestra el estado de la deuda publica en 1905: 

Deuda interna extinguida por amortizaci6n $1,034,350 

Deuda externa extinguida por amortizaci6n 453, 350 

Deuda intemacional extinguida por amortizaci6n S2, 550 

Total 1,570,450 

Amortizacion de la deuda consolidada con el excedente de 
1905: 

En Montevideo $421,590 

En Londrea 921,294 

1,342,884 

Total amortizada 2,913,334 

"Durante el ano de 1905 no se ha hecho ninguna emision de deuda 
publica. 

"exportaci6n de ganado. 

"Habiendo demostrado el Ejecutivo que los aforos del ganado 
menor en el amneel vigente aprobado en 1892 no se aproximaban al 
verdadero precio corriente que dicho ganado tiene en plaza, por 
decreto de 12 de Mayo se acord6 que hasta nueva resoluci6n los 
carneros que se exporten por las f rontei*as terrestres y fluviales de la 
Rcpublica scan avaluados en dos pesos, quedando vigente el aforo 
relativo alasovejas, y quedando entendido que estiin libres de derechos 
los que se exporten por los puertos raaritimos para enviarse fuera de 
los cabos." 



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UICA KEVI8TA DE LA AMERICA LATINA IN 1905. 43 

COKEBCIO SXTRAKJEBO DXTRAKTE EL PBIMEB SEME8TBE DE 

1906. 

Segun los datos recientemente publicados por el Departmento de 
Estadistica de las Aduanas de la Republica del Uruguay, las importa- 
ciooes del primer semestre de 1905 alcanzaron un valor total de 
$14,696,483, y las exportaciones, $18,303,614, demostrando un balance 
de trdfico a favor del Uruguay de $3,607,131. Durante el mismo 
semestre del ano precedente las importaciones ascendieron & 9,357,632, 
y las exportaciones fi $23,581,748. El total del trdfico durante el 
primer semestre del 1905 tu6 por lo tanto de $33,000,097, comparado 
con $32,939,380 por el mismo perlodo en 1904. 

El comercio total del primer semstre de cada uno de los diez anos 
del periodo de 1896 a 1905, es como sigue: 

1896 $32,677,840 1901 $30,291,680 

1897 26,797,175 1902 32,302,289 

1896 31,514,398 1903 37,151,558 

1399 34,568,866 1904 32,939,380 

1900 30,448,9?1 1905 33,000,097 



UNA REVISTA DE LA AMERICA LATINA IN 1905. 

El valor total del comercio correspondiente al aKo de 1904 entre 
los Estados Unidos y las demds Republicas americanas muestra un 
aumento de mds de $40,000,000, respecto del ano anterior. Las cifitts 
exactas son las siguientes: En 1903 los Estados Unidos importaron 
mereancias por valor de $223,002,139, y exportaron mercancias por 
valor de $121,134,597, 6 sea un total de $344,136,736. En 1904 el 
valor de las importaciones ascendi6 fi $241,080,891, y el de las expor- 
taciones d $141,344,504, 6 sea un valor total de $385,425,395. 

Por mas satisf actorio que f uese este resultado pam los que se interesan 
en estimular las relaciones comerciales entre las veinte y un Republicas 
de ambas Americas, el ano de 1905 muestra un comercio cuyo valor 
ascendio a $451,307,080, es decir, un aumento de $65,881,685 en 1904, 
6 sea un aumento de mas de $107,000,000 en dos anos. Las importa- 
ciones representaban $269,546,784, y las exportaciones $181,761,296. 
Esta cantidad representa como un 27 por ciento del valor total del 
comercio de los Estados Unidos con Europa, y una cantidad mayor 
que su comercio con cualquier otro pais, excepcion hecha de la Gran 
Brctana. Sin embargo, el valor de un comercio entre naciones no debe 
calcularse solo por pesos y centavos, sino mds bien por la indole del 
mismo comercio. 

El comercio de exportacion mas valioso es el que rcpresentan los 
productos de las fdbricas de un pais,y mientras mds alta sea la calidad 
del articulo fabricado, 6, lo que es lo mismo, mientras mayor sea la 



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44 OFICINA INTEBNACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLICA8 AMEEI0ANA8. 

proporcion del costo de produccion comparado con el costo de la mate- 
ria prima, mayor serd el beneficio que reciba el pais que exporte 
ciertos productos especiales; y, d la in versa, mientras mas alta sea la 
ealidad de los articulos importados, menor serd el valor pai-a el pais 
que los importe. Considerado desde este punto de vista, tanto el 
comercio de exportacion como el de importaeion de los Estados Unidos 
con las otras Repilblicas americanas representan la clase de comercio 
mas valioso, es decir, exportacion mayormente de productos de supe- 
rior ealidad 6 importaciones de materia prima. Por otra parte, el 
volumen mayor del comercio con Europa representa la clase de comer- 
cio menos valioso, es decir, exportaciones de materia prima 6 de 
material levemente manufacturado, 6 importaciones de productos 
esmeradamente elaborados. 

Por mds que la Indole del comercio y su desarrollo son bastante 
satisfactorios, sin embargo, en realidad de verdad, el progreso efec- 
tuado corresponde mds bien & la America Latina que d los Estados 
Unidos. Estos pafses estan ensanchando y extendiendo su comercio 
con el mundo entero, y los Estados Unidos obtienen incidentalmente 
el beneficio de este progreso. 

Esto acontece especialmente respecto de los Estados de la America 
del Sud. El desarrollo del comercio entre estos Estados y los Estados 
Unidos no es mayor que el crecimiento de su comercio con Europa, y 
en algunos casos es menor, con excepcion de Mexico, Cuba y algunos 
otros de los paises norteamericanos. 

Venezuela envia a los Estados Unidos como la tercera parte de sus 
exportaciones, y les compra casi la misma proporcion de mercancias. 
Colombia tambien les compra d los Estados Unidos casi la tercera parte 
de sus importaciones, y les vende un poco mds de la mitad de sus 
exportaciones. Los Estados de la America del Sud les compmn a los 
Estados Unidos como una octava parte de sus importaciones, por mas 
que el Biusil les envia la mayor parte de sus exportaciones. 

Son muchas las razones por qu6 Europa ocupa una posicion tan 
ventajosa respecto de los Estados Unidos, en cuanto al comercio de la 
America del Sud. Algunas de estas razones puoden exponerse breve- 
mente: Practicamcnte todo el sistema bancario de la America del Sud 
se hace con capital europeo 6 esta intimamente relacionado con 61. El 
capital bancario norteamericano no esta absolutamente representado 
en este sentido. 

La ventaja que el hecho que queda expuesto ofrece en la cuestion 
de credito al comerciante 6 europeo, seria un factor muy importante 
si se tratase de una competencia pareja en el comercio. Ademas, d 
esta ventaja hay que agregar otra todavia mayor en la cuesti6n de 
transporte, que Europa disfruta en su relaciones comerciales con 
la America del Sud. Excepcion hecha de Venezuela, Colombia y 
Ecuador, donde las condiciones en que se encuentran los Estados 



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UNA REVI8TA DE LA AMEBICA LATIN A IN 1906. 45 

Unidos son mds 6 menos semejantes & las de Europa, los medios de 
comunicacion de los Estados Unidos con el resto de la America del 
Sud son sumamente inadecuados. Por consiguiente, los tipos de flete 
de los Estados Unidos & cualquier puerto del Biasil al Perd resultan 
demasiado altos, y ademds, el transporte resulta lento 6 inseguro, 
comparado con los tipos de flete y transporte de los puertos europeos 
& los mismos puntos. 

Pero la verdadera dificultad no es la falta de medios bancarios 6 de 
transporte, por cuanto dicha dificultad la constituye el hecbo de que 
Ids norteamericanos son bisono.s en el negocio de exportaci6n y no 
han aprendido adn esta ciencia ni constnifdo esa especie de maquinaria 
que es tan necesaria para llevar d cabo la exportaci6n de articulos 
manufacturados. No cabe duda de que los Estados Unidos siempre 
han exportado en gran escala ciertos productos, y que tienen d su 
favor un inmenso saldo del comercio, pero <5ste se deriva principal- 
mente del malz, trigo y fi otros comestibles, asl como al algodon, que 
tienen sus propios mercados. La experiencia en la venta de estos 
articulos no les ayuda fi aprender el arte de vender los productos de 
sus fabricas. 

Al principio consiguieron el comercio de la America del Sud sin 
solicitarlo, y asl acontece todavia en la mayor parte de los casos. Lo 
que puede hacerse mediante un pequeno esf uerzo lo demuestran clara- 
mente las exportaciones de maquinaria agricola & la Argentina. 

En 1905 el valor total de las exportaciones de esta clase de maquinaria 
ascendi6 a $22,124,312, en la cual cantidad la Argentina lepre^enta 
$5,733,615. Sin embargo, el resto de los paises sudamericanos 861o 
compraron como una octava parte de la precitada candidad. Lo que 
se ha hecbo en la Argentina en este caso indica lo que puede hacerse 
en otros puntos en la America del Sud en otros casos. 

Republica Argentina, — El afio de 1905 f u6 sumamente pr6spero para 
la Republica Argentina afin mds que el ano anterior, el cual, desde 
todos los puntos de vista, f u4 un aiio de gran progreso y dejsarrollo. 
Tanto las exportaciones como las importaciones fueron mayores que 
las del ano anterior, siendo asi que en 1904 las primeras ascendieron 
i 1322,843,841, y las segundas d $205,154,420, coraparadas con 
$264,157,525 y $187,305,969, respectivamentc. Otro hecho impor- 
tante acerca del comercio argentino es que en 1905 las exportaciones 
de came congelada de la Republica Argentina al Reino Unido excedie- 
ron por vez primera a las exportaciones de los Estados Unidos k 
dicbo Reino Unido. 

Este pals, que es un gran productor de cereales, el ano pasado ocup6 
un puesto mds alto en los mercados del mundo, y ha continuada ade- 
lantando sin interrupcion. La cantidad de los principales productos 
agricolas, asi como la cantidad de estos, ha aumentado considerable-* 
mente y su explotaci6n y exportacion han contribufdo proporcionada- 
mente i la riqueza de la nacion. Por ejemplo, la cosecha de grano, 

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46 OFICINA IKTEBN AOIONAL DE LAS BEPI^BLICAS AKEBI0ANA8. 

lino y maiz lindio $7,900,000 toneladas, 6 sea un aumento de 1,000,000 
de toneladay, respecto de la producci6n del ano anterior. 

Dicha Republica ha continuado progresando constantemente en otros 
productos agricolas, como el azilcar y la uva, y se estin baciendo 
grandes esf uerzos para comenzar & estimular nuevas industrial. La 
industria de lecberia progresa gradualmente, y la mantequilla argen- 
tina comienza & ser favorablemente eonocida y apreciada en Europa. 
De id^ntica manera el cultivo del algodon estA siendo objeto de espe- 
cial atencion, y ya las muestras que de esta libra se ban obtenido ban 
feido acogidas favorablemente por los peritos de Liverpool. Ya se 
sabe que en algunas partes de la Sepdblica tanto el clima como el suelo 
son muy propicios x)&ra producir con abundancia algodon de buena 
calidad. 

Hasta hace poco tiempo, relativamente, no so habia considerado la 
Republica Argentina como un pais minero, sino como un pafs esen- 
cialmente agricola y pastomL £s evidente que siempre se ha sabido 
que existen minas en la Republica, pero ^tas apenas se ban explotado, 
sobre todo si se tiene en cuenta la inmensa exten8i6n del pais. Sin 
embargo, las nuevas comunicaciones ferroviarias ban estimulado las 
empresas mineras. y este afio las posibilidades respecto de la industria 
minora ban sido objeto de mayor atencion y la perspectiva de ^xito es 
muy evidente. 

Sabido es que la Republica Argentina produce una gran cantidad de 
came, pero no se sabe a ciencia cierta si el numero de cabezas de 
ganado de la Republica aumenta 6 no. Sabese que se engordan gran- 
des numeros de ganado vacuno y lanar, y que una gran cantidad de 
^ste se envia & los establecimientos de congelacion y conservacion de 
came que siempre estan dispuestos i, comprar animales gordos y pagar 
buenos precios por eHos. De este raanera se ha hecho un buen nego- 
cio el ano pasado, y hay esperanzas de que continuen haci^ndose con 
igual dxito. El ganado que se cria en la Argentina se ha mejorado 
mucho con la introduccion de ganado de raza inglesa, y como resultado 
de esto la calidad de la came argentiua ha llegado a un grado muy 
alto. 

Bajo la administraci6n del Prcsidente Quintana, en 1905 las relacio- 
nes de la Republica Argentina con todas las potencies se caracterizaron 
por una amiwtad sinceia y f mnca, habiendo el Gobierno garantizado 
apoyar el arbitraje en el Congreso Panamericano de Rfo de Janeiro y 
en la Conferencia de La Haya, como linico medio de resolver las oon- 
troversias que surjan. 

En la actualidad hay en la Argentina 2,250 escuelas pfiblicas, con 
14,118 maestros y 543,881 alumnos, contra 4,909 escuelas, 13,308 
maestros, y 385,844 alumnos que habia en 1904, habi^ndose obtenido 
las cif ras correspond ientes & 1905 sin tener en cuenta las universidades 
de los colegios normales. 



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UKA RKVTSTA DE LA AX^BIOA LATIKA IN 1905. 



47 



Se proyectan nuevas leyes que favorezcan & las clases obrerae, y que 
provean pensiones de protecci6n y de ancianidad. Tambi^n se proyecta 
nombrar unaoomision de arbitraje especial para resolver las cuestiones 
de obreros. 

En la actualidad se oalcula que la ciudad de Buenos Aires tiene 
1,000,000 de habitantes, y es digno de notarse que en 1869 se publi- 
caron datos estadisticos que mostraron que el niimero total de habi- 
tantes solo ascendia & 171,277, d los cuales debfa agregarse la poblaci6n 
flotante del puerto que se calculada en 15,000 habitantes, y un 2 por 
ciento de omisiones, lo cual arrojaba un total de 190,000 almas. El 
aHo pasado f u^ un ano excepcional respecto & la inmigraci6n, puesto 
que en 1905 llegaron 221,622 personas & los puertos de la Bep(iblica, 
comparadas con 161,078 en el ano anterior. Las salidas del pais en 
1905 ascendieron 6, 82,772, y en 1904 & 66,597, de manera que las entra- 
das en 1905 excedieron 6. las salidas en 138,850, y en 1904 en 94,481. 
Los inmigrantes por nacionalidades fucron los siguientes: 88,984 
italianos, 52,856 espanoles, 3,524 franceses, 10,100 rusos, 7,096 sirios, 
1,853 alemanes, y 7,264 de otras nacionalidades. 

La prosperidad general de la Republica continua tanto respecto de 
la renta como del cr^dito piiblicos, y en 1905 la renta publica, que se 
dLlculo en $164,692,000, rindio realmente fl96,237,(XK). Los gastos 
ordinarios del Gobierno argentino correspond ientes al ano de 1906, 
segun el presupuesto, se fijan en $24,119,059 en oro y $122,589,381 en 
papel moneda, y convirtiendo el oro en papel, resultan $177,405,424 
en esta liltinia moneda. 

El 31 de diciembre de 1905, la deuda interna ascendia d 88,000,000 
de pesos en papel moneda, y 16,000,000 de pesos en oro. La deuda 
extranjera en esa misma fecha ascendfa & 329,000,000 de pesos oro, 
m&s 37,000,000 de pesos que se babfan obtenido prestados para redimir 
el empr^stito de 1891. 

Segun los datos proporcionados por las autoridades de aduanas, en 
1905 la Repfiblica Argentina import6 oro y plata en barras i>or valor 
de $28,902,115.50. De esta cantidad $16,873,600 vino de Inglaterra, 
$11,047,800 de Nueva York, y el resto de varios paises. 

La siguiente t»bla muefitra los principales paises que en 1905 parti- 
ciparon del comercio argentino y la cantidad que cada uno de ellos 
representaba: 



Pftltes. 



ReinoUnido 

Alemaaia 

B6lglca 

Espafla 

Francia 

Italia 

Eitados Unidoa 

Bfadi 

Otroe paises 

A destinoB que no se saben eon certeza. 



Importaclones.! Exportacioncs. 



568.391,043 

29.083.027 

8,727,076 

5,726.872 

21,218,202 

20.281,673 

28, 920, 443 

6,828.004 

17,446,080 



844,826,670 
37,058,221 
20, 780. 850 
2,334,802 
37,591.281 
6,468.941 
15,717,458 
13,039,395 
36,792,495 

109,030,728 



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48 OFIOINA INTERNAOIONAL DE LAS REPtJBLIOAS AMEBICANAS. 

El valor de las principales mercancias importadas en 1905 fu^ el 
siguiente: 

G^neros de algodon, $46,218,951; hierro y ferrocaria, $26,172,285; 
vehiculos y material rodante, $23,362,431; objetos de barro, vidrio, 
y articulos cerdmicos, $17,466,903; instrumentos de agricultunt, 
$16,532,552; madera y sus manufacturas, $14,168,163; comestibles, 
$13,739,650; vinos, licores, etc., $9,167,842, substancias quimicas y 
productos farmacduticos, $6,275,786; aceites de todas clases, $5,556,067; 
tabaco, etc., $4,445,408; papel y sus manufacturas, $1,133,842; cuero 
y sus manufacturas, $1,796,844. 

El valor de las exportaciones principales bechas de la Bepublica 
Argentina durante el expresado ano fu6 el siguiente: 

Trigo, $85,883,141; lana en bruto, $64,312,927; maiz, $46,537,402; 
cueros y pieles, $30,509,533; linaza, $26,233,851; came congelada, 
$21,553,752; harina de trigo, $5,373,699; ganado vacuno, $5,160,483; 
quebracho, $2,427,772. 

Los paises extranjeros que bacen la mayor parte del comercio 
argentino ban contribuido desde luego al desarroUo del pais, segfin lo 
demuestran las siguientes proporciones del valor del comercio en 1904 
y 1905. En 1905 el aumento ea las importaciones de Inglaterra tu6 
como de un 5i ^or ciento, comparado con 1904; en las de Alemania, 
un 20 por ciento; en las de los Estados Unidos, un 30 por ciento; en 
las de Francia, un 20 por ciento, y en las de Italia, un 8 por ciento. 
En cuanto d las exportaciones d los precitados paises, la proporcion de 
aumento fue respectivamente como sigue: Inglaterra, un 25 por 
ciento; Alemania, un 16 por ciento; los Estados Unidos, un 40 por 
ciento; Francia, un 10 por ciento, 6 Italia, un 80 por ciento. El 
aumento del comercio con los Estados Unidos se debe en gran parte al 
hecho de que en la actual idad hay una comunicaeion directa mds 
frecuente por vapor con dicho pais. El aumento en las ordenes de 
exportacion, de las cualcs dos terceras partes son -por cuenta de 
Inglaterra, asccndio d un 15^ por ciento. 

La Kepiiblica Argentina tambidn es un factor importante en el comer- 
cio del Bmsil, habiendo superado d todos los demds paises como uu 
abasteeedor de harinas y habiendo mostrado probabilidades de vender 
en el Brasil el producto de sus fincas de crianza de ganado vacuno. 

El valor de los carneros congelados, que en 1905 se exportaron de 
la Repiiblica Argentina, se ha calculado oficialmente en $6,268,059, y 
el de carne de vaca congelada se ha calculado en $15,285,693, en tanto 
que las varias clases de carne congeladas representan un valor de 
$356,299. En 1894, 6 sea 11 ailos antes, los articulos de referenda 
mostraron un valor de exportaci6n quo ascendio a $1,864,110, $12,400 
y ^50,645, respectivamente. En 1905 la Repiiblica exporto cerca de 
2,000,000 cuartos de carne de vaca congelada, 6 sea como 500,000 cabe- 



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tTNA BE VISTA DE LA AMERICA LATIN A IN 1906. 



4» 



zas de ganado vacuno escogido, y el resultado inmediato de estos grandes 
embarques ha sido una gran escasez de este articulo de consumo. 

En 1900 los puertos del Beino Unido, que hasta entonces habian sido 
los principales puertos de salida de ganado ai'gentino, se cerraron para 
las importaciones de ganado y carneros de la Argentina, y por consi- 
guiente, los embarques & dicho lugar, que antes habian sido 812,150 
cabezas de ganado vacuno y 543,462 de carneros, en 1899 bajaron 4 
150,550 cabezas de ganado, y 6, 198,102 carneros en 1900. Poco tiempo 
despu^s de esta baja en las exportaciones de ganado vivo, la industria 
de carne congelada comenz6d mejorar y ha continuado progresando. 
Las exportaciones de ganado hasta 1904 no recobraron su antigua 
importancia, pero en 1905 el valor de los embarques de ganado vacuno 
vivo de la Rep6blica ascendio & $5,160,483, y el de carneros vivos 6, 
1361,209. 

Los embarques de cereales del aflo se enviaron d los paises siguientes: 





Trlgo. 


Maiz. 


Ldnaza. 


Ordenes 


Toneladas. 

1,286,871 

422, 879 

925,133 

201,418 

17,790 

87 


Toneladat. 

1,270,667 

217,054 

•761,086 

4,712 

4,132 

1,220 


Toneladas. 
296,373 


Reino Unldo 


75.596 


£1 Continent* ©nropeo ........................ r ....r 


265,285 
19 


Bnwa 


Africa del Sur 


55 


VaJios paises 








Total r. 


2,854,178 


2,268,871 


636,327 


• 





NingiSn hecho relacionado con el cre^iente desarrollo del comercio 
extranjero de la Kepfiblica, tiene mayor importancia para los Estados 
Unidos que el sorprendente aumento en las corapras de hierro y acero. 
El los cuatro anos transcurridos de 1895 k 1898, las importaciones que 
la Repfiblica hizo de estos artfculos representaban por t^rmino medio 
un valor auual de $16,032,000. En los cinco anos que acaban determi- 
nar, es decir, de 1900 d 1904, dicho valor anual se habia elevado a 
$25,500,000, 6 sea un aumento de un 59 por ciento. En 1903, el valor 
total fud de $26,845,000, y en 1904 fu6 de $42,173,000. Este aumento 
es tan fenomenal que esta clase de mercancias pronto promete ser el 
ramo mfis importante en las compras extranjeras argentinas. De 1895 
i 1898, las importaciones de hierro y acero solo representaron un 15.9 
por ciento del total de todas las importaciones. De 1900 d 1904, la 
proporcion se habla elevado d un 19.8. En la proporcion s61o en el 
ano de 1904 fu^ de un 22.5, y en el primer semestre de 1905 subi6 k 
un 29.8, superando k los g^neros 6 tejidos por vez primera. 

En 1905, las areas sembradas de trigo y linaza ascendian k 5,617,291 
y 1,022,814 hectdreas, respectivamente, mostrando las primeras un 
aumento de im 14^ por ciento, y las seo^mdas una baja de 5^ por 
ciento, comparadas con las de 1904. Por el niimero de acres anun- 
ciado, los calculos acerca de las cosechas de trigo y linaza del ano de 



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50 OFIOINA INTEBNAOIONAL DE LAS BEPtJBLICAS AMEBICANAS. 

1905-6, fijan la cosecha de trigo en 3,881,739 toneladas y la de lioaza 
en 640,038 toneladas. 

Los datos estadlsticoB muestran la necesidad de hacer otro uso del 
maiz que no sea la exportaci6n, por cuanto su cultivo puede extenderse 
de una manera ilimitada, y el t^rmino medio de la cantidad que cada 
hectdrea produce podrla aumentarse empleando m^todos de cultivo 
mejorados, pero el oonsumo dom^stico no absorbe m&a de como 
1,000,000 de toneladas por ano, y tomando como base el promedio de 
lo8 filtimos anos, los mercados importadores de Europa no requieren 
mas de 6,000,000 & 7,000,000 de toneladas. 

EI resultado de la cosecha de este ano se ha calculado por las inres- 
tigaciones que hicieron los inspectores nombrados con tal fin por el 
Departamento de Agricultura, asC como por los inf ormes proporciona- 
dos por los numerosos corresponsales de la expresada divisi6n de esta- 
dfstica, y ywr el verdadero rendimiento de la cosecha en diferentes 
puntos, que se ha determinado por las operaciones de las desgranadoras- 

En estos filtimos anos, y especialmente en 1905, el cultivo de la 
alfalfa en la Repfiblica Argentina se ha desarrollado mucho, segfin lo 
demuestran las cifras relativas & las importaciones de semilla de 
alfalfa de enero & septiembre inclusive, ^poca en que el valor oficial 
de las semillas importadas se calculo en ^2,359,000. 

La Repfiblica Argentina es la que mas ganado lanar crfa para los 
fines comcrciales y dom^sticos del mundo, y en 1905 el nfimero de 
cabezas de ganado vacuno matadas por las fdbricas de tasajo de dicha 
Bepublica ascendio & 1,515,000 solo en las fabricas de Rio de la Plata 
y del Rio Grande. Las ordenanzas y disposiciones que rigen la impor- 
tacion al pafs de inza de ganado son mu}^ severas. De aqui en ade- 
lante sqv& necesario mostrar la genealogia de todos los animales de 
pura raza, al someterse d un examen en la cuarentena, asl como una 
relacion de las marcas y rasgos caracterlsticos que puedan ayudar & 
identificarlos. El inspector de las importaciones y exportaciones 
deberd anotar todos los datos que se proporcionen, Sl saber: El nombre, 
el sexo, la raza, la nacionalidad, el nfimero y la f echa de la inscrii)ci6n 
que aparece en los registros del ganado del pals de origen, asi como 
las precitadas marcas de identificacion. Cumplidas las ordenanzas de 
sanidad, el inspector devolvera la genealogia al dueflo del animal, 
habiendo antes refrendado dicho document© con su numero en su 
registro oficial, junto con una relacion tocante fi la aceptacion 6 matanza 
del animal, con arreglo al articulo 53 de las ordenanzas sanitarias. 

En 1904 & 1905 la Repfiblica Argentina produjo 130,000 toneladas de 
azficar, y la cosecha de 1905 d 1906, que comenz6 en mayo de 1905, 
rindi6 140,000 toneladas, por haber estado los canaverales en mejores 
condiciones que el ano pasado. El promedio del precio de que se pago 
por la cosecha del ano pasado por azucares de primera calidad tu6 de 
$2.65 en papel (4 chelines y 7 peniques) por cada 10 kilogramos, 6 



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UNA REVI8TA DE LA AMERICA LATINA IN 1905. 51 

sean 22 libras, puesto libre de costo en el ferrocarril en el lugar de la 
producci6n. 

En el Rosario hay 37 ingenios 6 f dbricas de azficar y una refinerfa en 
operaci6n. En la actualidad esta industria prospera mucho y los 
precios no ban variado de una manera apreciable, & pesar del aumento 
de produccion, lo cual se debe, & lo que parece, al mayor consumo que 
hay en el pais. Los ingenios 6 fdbricas que estdn mejor dirigidas y 
que tienen maquinaria modema, est&n pagando buenos dividendos, 
auxiliados, per supuesto, por el subido derecho de importaci6n sobre 
el aziicar. 

El primero de enero de 1905 se declar6 vigente la nueva ley ndmero 
4288, relativa 4 la contribuci6n interna sobre el azficar y la prima sobre 
la exportaci6n de dicho artfeulo. Anteriormente, con arreglo & la ley 
Dumero 3884, todo el aziicar que se producla en la Republica pagaba 
una contribuci6n de 6 centavos por kilogramo, pero se concedio una 
prima de 16 centavos por kilogramo sobre una cantidad del azucar 
exportado que no excediese de la cuarta parte de la produccion total 
del ano. Esto equivalia & devolverles & los productores dos terceras 
partes del producto de la contribuci6n, conservando el Estado una 
tercera parte, y de esta manera el precio del azucar que se consumia 
en el pais aumento 6 centavos por kilogramo. 

Por virtud de una ley posterior, d los productores de este dulce se 
les concedio el beneficio de una prima de 2 centavos por kilogramo, 6 
sea la proporci6n de la contribuci6n perteneciente al Estado, al expor- 
tarse otra cuarta parte 6 cualquiera proporci6n menor del azucar pro- 
ducido, de manera que si se hubiese efectuado la exportacion permitida 
de la mitad de la produccion, el Estado solo hubieiu reeibido una cuarta 
parte del producto de la contribuci6n impuesta d los consumidores. 
Pero acontecio que la exportaci6n nunca lleg6 a una mitad completa 
de la produccion, de manera que el Estado percibio realmente mas bien 
mfe de una cuarta pai^te del producto de dicha contribucion, pero se 
obtuvo el resultado que se deseaba mantenieado alto el precio del 
azucar en el pais, haciendo asi que los productores pudiesen vender en 
el extranjero una gran proporci6n de su producto d un precio menor 
que el costo de producci6n. 

La Convenci6n de Bruselas, por virtud de la cual los Estados signa- 
tarios convinieron en abolir las primas 6 imponer al azficar importado 
de paises que pagan primas un derecho equivalente d dicha prima, 
hizo necesario revocar las leyes que concedian las primas, pero la nueva 
ley restablecio dicho beneficio en otra fonna. Dicha ley impone una 
contribuci6n de 15 centavos por kilogramo sobre una cuarta parte de 
toda la cantidad producida, i)ero dicho importe se devuelve en la 
misma proporcion d los expoiladores de la expresada cantidad 6 de 
cualquiera cantidad mds pequena. En realidad de verdad, dicha con- 
tribuci6n no la pagan absolutamente los productores, d menos que 



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52 OFICIKA INTEBNACIONAL DE LAS BEPtlBLIOAS AMEBICANA8. 

dejen de exportar dicha proporci6n de la produccion, por cuanto ellos 
dan pagar^s por dicba coiitribuci6n los cuales se les devuelven al com- 
probarse la exportacion. En realidad esta contribuci6n equivale & una 
contribucion de 3f centavos por kilogramo sobre todo el aziicar pro- 
ducido, pero aunque los consumidores dom^sticos tienen que pagarla 
en el precio del azucar, el Estado no percibe ninguna parte del pro- 
ducto de dicha contribucion. La ley tambien concede notable poder 
al Jefe Ejecutivo para alterar la operacion 6 aplicaci6n de la ley, con 
el fin de mantener alto el precio del azdcar hasta $3 por cada 10 kilo- 
gramos, al salir de la fabrica, incluso la contribucion; es decir, $2.62i^ 
neto. 

Se espera que de la cosecha de 1905 d 1906 el Uruguay tome como 
15,000 toneladas, puesto que en la Argentina los precios son mas 
bajos que en Europa, y los embarques no se demoran tanto. 

En el sentido estricto de la palabra, la Repfiblica Argentina no es 
un pais industrial, pero, sin embargo, la gran extensi6n de su terri- 
torio, la fertilidad de su suelo, y su clima, hacen probable que su 
actividad fabril se aumente grandemente. 

La industria de lecheria estd progresando mucho, y si se tiene en 
cuenta la gran capacidad productora del pais y que casi todas las lineas 
de vapores que ahora hacen la travesia entre la Argentina y Europa 
estan pro vistas de refrigeradores en los cuales pueden embarcarse 
tanto la carne como la mantequilla, no cabe duda de que la industria 
de la mantequilla ha de constituir una fuente de riqueza nacional. En 
1904 la exportacion ascendio & 5,294 toneladas, valuadas en $2,117,461, 
en tanto que en el primer semestre de 1905 se enviaron 3,222 tone- 
ladas al extranjero, la mayor parte de ellas & la Gran Bretana y al 
Africa. 

En la actualidad en la Provincia de Tucumdn hay como 300,000 mora- 
les, 200,000 en Santa Fe, 350,000 en Cordoba, y mds de 50,000 en 
Salta Jujuy y Santiago del Estero. Parece que el clima de Tucum&n 
es el mas propicio para el cultivo de la mora y del gusano de seda. 

En los siete meses transcurridos de enero a julio de 1905 la cose- 
cha de vino de la Provincia de Mendoza a8cendi6 d 451,981 barriles, 
por los cuales se pagaron contribuciones federales que ascendieron d 
$3,803,411 en papel moneda nacional. 

En 1905 la fabrica nacional de sombreros fabric6 las siguientcs 
cantidades de sombreros: 57,116 de lana y 51,327 de fieltro, 6 sea un 
total de 108,443, en los nueve primeros meses. No se tienen & mano 
las cifras exactas acerca de los sombreros fabricados en el tercer tri- 
mestre de 1905, pero pueden calcularse con seguridad en 19,000 de 
lana y 17,000 de fieltro. Sobre esta base en 1905 la producci6n ascendi6 
& 76,000 sombreros de lana y 68,000 de fieltro, 6 sea un total de 
144,000. Se emplearon 30,400 kilogramos de lana en la fabricaci6n 
de 76,000 sombreros de lana, 6 sea un promedio de 400 gramos por 



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UNA BEVI8TA DE LA AMiRIOA LATINA IN 1906. 53 

cada sombrero. Durante los nueve primeros meses de 1905 la fabrica 
vendio 51,700 sombreros de fieltro y 43,187 de lana, 6 sea un total de 
94,887. 

Continua aumentdndose la explotaci6n del quebracho, y una com- 
pania que tiene un capital de $3,000,000 ha tornado 881,000 hectdreas 
de los terrenos pertenencientes a los bienes de Casado, que segfin la 
opinion de peritos contienen mucho quebracho y otras maderas valio- 
sas. Los capitalistas calculan que de un producto auual de 120 tone- 
ladas de quebracho Colorado, si se labra y convierte en vigas y rojillos, 
obtendrian una ganancia de $633,000 oro, y si se convirtiese en ex- 
tracto para los fines de la tenerla, se obtendria una ganancia de 
$1,306,000 oro. 

Con el fin de estimular nuevas industrias, un decreto presidencial de la 
Bepublica Argentina prescribe que los productos de la pesca maritima 
obtenida fuera de las aguas territoriales argentina, se considerardn 
como productos nacionales para los fines de las aduanas, y que, por 
tanto, se dejai-dn entrar libres de derechos cuando se cojan y conduz- 
can 6. puertos de la Repiiblica por buques argentinos. Ademfis, se ha 
expedido un arancel de impuesto interno, en el cual se expresa que 
a contar del 20 de junio de 1905 se cobrard dicho derecho sobre los 
cigarros 6 puros, cigarillos y tabaco manufacturado que se importen 
a la Republica Argentina. 

Durante el ano se continue la explotacion de dep6sitos de carbon de 
piedra, con la ayuda de concesiones hechas por el Gobierno, y con tal 
motivo las varias companias de ferrocarriles aumentaron la cantidud 
de su material rodante, y aumentaron en otro sentido los medios de 
transporte de productos & los puertos de embarques. Esto sucedo 
especialmente respecto de Buenos Aires y Bahia Blanca, donde habia 
19,950 kil6metros en opemcion, 2,462 kilometros en vias de construc- 
cion, y se habian hecho concesiones parn la construccion de 7,400 
kilometros mas. Se estaban construyendo nueve puertos y el puerto 
militar de Belgrano se iba fi abrir al comercio. 

Los ingresos de los ferrocarriles ascendieron 6. $70,803,564 en oro 
contra $61,675,575 en 1904; los egresos ascendieron & $38,302,753 en 
oro contra $32,349,705, y la ganancia liquida ascendio & $32,415,811 
en oro contra $29,325,810. El mterds devengado sobre el capital era 
un 5.50 por ciento contra un 5.12 por ciento en 1904, y un 5.69 por 
ciento en 1903. Los carros dc carga que antes tenian una capacidad 
de 551,246 toneladas han aumentado dicha capacidad hasta 648,809 
toneladas, y el numero de locomotoras que antes era 1,441 se ha 
aumentado a 1,624. Ninguna linea de ferrocarril dio perdida, y de 
esta manera se mantuvo el tipo 6 norma establecido en 1904. 

El primero de enero de 1905, los ferrocarriles tenian 1,462 locomo- 
toras, lo cual muestm un aumento de 202 locomotoms durante el ano. 
Las maquinas se dlstrlbuian de la manei*a siguiente: 472 de pasajero, 



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64 OFIOINA INTERN ACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLIC AS AMEBIC ANAS. 

679 mezcladas, 305 de carga, y 208 de desviadero. El 29 de marzo 
ultimo el Gobierno ordeno & las companias de f errocarriles que aumen- 
tasen sus locomotoras de la manera siguiente: 2 en el ferrocarril An- 
dino, 106 en el del Sud, 46 en del Oeste, 41 en el de Central de Argen- 
tine, 33 en el del Pacifico, 3 en el del Noroeste de Bahia Blanca, 20 en 
el Central de Cordoba (en la secci6n del Norte); en la 8ecci6n 7 del 
Este, 27, y 6 en el de C6rdoba y Rosario. 

El dia primero de enero de 1906 los f errocarriles de la Rep6blica 
Argentina poseian 1,664 locomotoras, de las cuales 171 pertenecfan & 
las lineas del Gobierno, y 1,493 pertenecian & companias particulares. 

En los doce 6 dieciocho liltimos meses se ha visto una actividad 
extraordinaria en los cfrculos navieros. Los Alemanes tomaron la 
iniciativa el ano pasado, siendo asf que la Hamburg South American 
Line, repuso prdcticamente su flota de antiguas buques con vapores 
de construcci6n, comodidades y capacidad modemas. Las Ifneas 
denominadas The Royal Mail, The Pacific y The Italian en seguida 
hicieron lo mismo. Estas tres Ifneas tienen vapores de construcci6n 
moderna. Tambi^n se ha inaugurado una companfa de vapores de 
" bajos fletes," que ha de hacer la travesia entre los Estados Unidos y 
La Plata. Esta nueva companfa, que se ha f ormado especialmente para 
hacerle la competencia 5 la companfa que cobra altos tipos de flete, y 
que opera en la actualidad, comenzarfi & operar d raz6n de un viaje 
mensual de ida y vuelta. 

Las plantas el^ctricas parecen no tener Ifmite en Buenos Aires, y 
dentro de poco tiempo todos los tranvfas serfin el^ctricas. El alum- 
brado el^ctrico se estfi< instalando hasta en las pequenas poblaciones y 
aldeas. 

En 1904 se registraron 25,659 casas y 21,045 fincas de cultivo que 
representaban un valor de $243,564,800, y en 1905 se registraron 32,491 
y 33,160 fincas de cultivo que representaban un valor de $345,349,000. 
Esto arroja un aumento de un 150 por ciento en 1905, comparado con 
los registroo de 1904. En 1904 se expedieron 53,422 tftulos de pro- 
piedad, al paso que en 1905 se expedieron 74,089. En 1904 las hipo- 
tecas que se registraron representaban un valor de $690,399.76, en 
tan to que en 1905 dicha cantidad se redujo d $207,522.10. En 1904 
se cobraron contribuciones que ascendieron & $528,696.30, en tanto que 
en 1905 la recaudacion de contribuciones ascendio & $732,237. 

Los datos estadisticos postales mucstran que se obtenfa un aumento 
de casi 50,000,000 de cartas, y otro aumento proporcionado en los 
telegramos. A las Ifneas telegrdficas del Gobierno se les agregaron 
622 kilometres, y la extensi6n total de dichas Ifneas ascendia a 24,777 
kilometres, que agregados A los f errocarriles de las provincias, hacen 
un total 54,846 kiloftietros. 

El estado sanitario del pais es excelcnte, segfin lo demuestra la pro- 
porcion sumamente baja de la mortalidad. 



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UK A REVI8TA DE LA AMERICA LATIN A IN 1905. 55 

Bolivia. — Por los datos estadisticos que ha sido posible utilizar, 
resiilta evidente que & pesar de las malas eondiciones en que se encuen- 
tra en la Kepiibliea, Bolivia progres6 mucbo in 1904-6. 

El Presidente Ismael Montes eontinu6 su administraci6n de los 
asuntos pfiblicos durante todo el ano, y entre las importantes medidas 
que se promulgaron, puede citarse la siguiente ley que fu^ aprobada 
el 13 de octubre de 1905 por el Congreso Nacional en La Paz: 

*' Article 1. La propiedad de terrenos del Gobierno podrd adquirirse 
per medio de compra, excepto seg6n lo prescriban ciertas dlsposiciones 
y leyes especiales. 

"Art. 2. La unidad de medida para toda clase de concesiones serd 
la hectarea, y se prohiben las concesiones por estradas. 

"Art. 3, La propiedad del terreno incluye las plantas que en 61 se 
desarroUen. 

"Art. 4. Los naturales del pais 6 los extranjeros que puedan cele- 
brar un conti-ato con arreglo al codigo civil, puedan comprar al estado 
hasta 20,000 hectdreas, pagfindo d raz6n de 10 centavos al contado por 
(»da bectdrea. Si el terreno puede usarse para los fines agricolas, asf 
como para la crianza de ganado, se pagard 1 boliviano por cada 
hectdrea en los territorios que contengan drboles de goma (Sifonia y 
Hebea). Los compradores quedardn obligados d establecerse en los 
terrenos que adquierdn y ocupardn por lo menos una familia por cada 
1,000 hectdreas. Toda solicitud de concesion que exceda de 20,000 
hectdreas deberd ser aprobada por el Congreso. 

"Art. 5. Una vez becha la concesion, dos peritos, uno nombrado 
per el Gobierno y el otro por el comprador, efectuardn las mediciones 
y fijardn los mojones, d menos que el comprador acepte el perito del 
Gobierno. Todos losgastos serdn por cuenta del comprador." 

El Gobierno de Bolivia, por una comunicacion oficiul de 30 de agosto 
de 1905, denuncio el tmtadode amistad, comercio y navegacion firmado 
en Santiago el 17 de agosto de 1860 entre B^lgica y Bolivia. En con- 
formidad con el articulo 32, dicho tratado quedard nulo el 8 de enero 
de 1907. 

Tanto el Peru como Chile tienen ciertos privilegios por virtud de los 
cuales sus mercancfas quedan exentas de derechos, y basta esto para 
explicar la raz6n por qu^ estos dos parses obtienen una parte tan 
grande del comercio. Sin embargo, segun un tratado comercial que 
se acaba de celebrar entre Bolivia y Peru, estos privilegios tcrminaran 
el l** de Julio de 1906, y tanto las mercancius peruanas como las chile- 
n£.s se pondrdn al nivel de aquellas de las naciones mas favorocidas. 
El objeto principal de Bolivia al celebrar este tratado ha sido aumcntar 
sa renta, pero como quiem que se ha fijado un termino antes de que 
sus clausulas se declaren vigentes, todos los importadorcs que se 
encuentren en eondiciones de hacerlo aprovecharan la oportunidad de 
suilirse completamente algun tiempo antes de que ella recoja el bene- 



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56 OFICINA HfTERirACIOlf AL DE LAS REPtJbLIOAS AMEKI0ANA8. 

ficio que espera. Con id^ntico fin, aunque se dice que como una 
medida proteccionista, ha aumentado su arancel de aduanas casi en 
todos los articulos, y en algunos casos hasta un 200 por ciento. Este 
nuevo arancel empez6 d regir el 1** de enero de 1906. No se ha hecho 
ninguna modificacion tocante & la maquinaria, la cual continda impor- 
tdndose libre de derecho & la llepublica. 

El Congreso ha tornado otra medida con el fin de aumentar la renta 
del Estado, aumentando al ef ecto el derecho de exportaci6n sobre el 
estano. fiste se ha fijado en una escala variable, segun las cotizaciones 
de los Estrechos. 

El 31 de diciembre de 1905, el balance del Tesoro Nacional de Bolivia 
muestra el siguiente resumen en bolivianos: 

Debe 117,865,145.38 I Active 29,526,905.80 

Haber 117,865,145.38 | Pasivo 29,526,905.80 

El presupuesto general hecho por el Gobierno boliviano correspon- 
diente d 1906, muestra que los egresos ascienden a $4,000,000 en moneda 
de los Estados Unidos. Los ingrcsos se han calculado en una suma 
igual, derivados de las rentas de aduana que representan un 70 por 
ciento del total, es decir, $2,500,080 procedentes de derechos de impor- 
tacion, y $580,000 de derechos de exportacion. El 30 por ciento 
restante se forma de la manera siguiente: El producto del monopolio 
del alcohol, facturas consulares, derechos de minas, papel sellado, 
sellos de correos, ferrocarriles del Estado, concesiones de bosques de 
goma, renta de terrenos, contribuciones impuestas fi las companias, 
bonos hipotecarios, y cinco 6 seis ramos menores. 

Por una relacion que publico el Director General de Estadisticas 
aparece que en 1904 el valor total de las importaciones ascendio d 
£1,585,872. La nacion que mas articulos en vio f u^ Alemania, las cuales 
mercancias se valuaron en £315,302, y luego sigue el Reino Unido, 
que envio mercancias por valor de £304,120; Peru, £270,403; Chile, 
£110,407, y los Estados Unidos de Norte America, £105,648. Otros 
paises contribuyeron con cantidades mas pequenas, que variaban como 
sigue: La Repiiblica Argentina, £74,406, y China, £16. Todaviaquedaba 
una suma de poco mas de £200,000, de otras fuentes desconocidas. 
La proporcion procedente de varias fuentes t\i6 como sigue: Alemania, 
19.88; el Keino Unido, 19.18; Peru, 17.11; Chile, 6.97; Estados Unidos, 
6.67; Repiiblica Argentina, 4.70; Bdlgica, 3.34; Francia, 3.25; Italia, 
3.20; Brasil, 1.72; Espana, 112; Uruguay, 0.07; Portugal, 0.05; Para- 
guay, 0.04; Suiza, 0.02; Cuba, 0.01; America Central, Ecuador y 
China, 0.01, y las fuentes desconocidas, 12.66. 

Las exportaciones muestran un excedente de 3,570,449 bolivianos 
rospecto d6l aiio anterior. Este excedente se debe principalmente a la 
continua prosperidad de la industria minera, y, sobre todo, al estano, 
que sin duda se estd desarroUando de una manera satisfactoria. Como 



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UNA REVISTA DE LA AMERICA LATINA IN 1905. 



57 



consecuencia el dinero esta mds abundante y ban aumentado los podi- 
dos de maquinaria de minas en general, asi como los pedldos de toda 
clase de articulos manufacturados. En el comercio de importaeion 
Alemania ocupa el primer puesto, el Reino Unido el segundo, y el 
Peru el tercero. 

Las exportaciones de estano, que constituyen el articulo principal 
de exportacion, ascendleron 6. 13,852,570 kilogramos, cuyo valor en el 
comercio asceodio & 11,082,080 bolivianos, en el primer semestre de 
1905, en tanto que en todo el ano de 1904 se embarcaron 21,545,703 
kilogramos valuados en 17,064,197.05 bolivianos. 

En 1904: el promedio del mineral de estano procedente de la Colonia 
Inglesa de la Indio-China era £126 17s. 5d. por tonelada de 1,000 
kilogramos, resultando asi el producto Boliviano equivalente d £66 por 
tonelada. 

La siguiente tabla es una recapitulacion, por aduanas, de las impor- 
taciones y exportaciones de Bolivia en 1904, compiladas por la Oficina 
de Estadistica de la Republica: 



Adaanas. 



Importacioncs. 



Exportaciones. 



Antofagasta... 

La Pa* 

UjTuni , 

Arica 

Tupiza 

Tarija 

Puerto Snarez, 
Villa Bella... 

Oniro 

Pelechofcho . . 

Total... 



KOoB. 

17,558,287 

22,774,634 

24,032.510 

2,220,766 

663,977 

448,620 

631,323 

631,800 

1,699.454 

62.514 



70,613,835 



Bolivianos. 

7,800,978.63 

7,006,191.12 

1,833,592.21 

880,963.32 

817,464.45 

494,412.90 

433,220.85 

815,931.03 

213, 138. 22 

27,560.86 



KUoi, 



4.659,141 
29,570,760 



1,714,418 

258,306 

265, 449 

831,717 

13,132,299 

79,876 



19,823,444.69 I 60,511,966 



Bolivianos. 



3, 725, 188. 80 
7,496,068.63 



1,467,455.70 
87, 018. 32 

633,191.98 
2,007,402.70 
5,551,827.00 

194,794.31 



21,162,947.44 



Con arreglo k los datos oficiales el comercio de exportacion no ha 
Uegado d ser lo que el pals esperaba. Por mfis que es innegable que 
el comercio de importaci6n ha aumentado considerablemente d la som- 
bra de aqu^l, es digno de notarse que el valor oficial de las exporta- 
ciones ha disminuido en 4,006,201 bolivianos, compamdo con el ano 
anterior. Para explicar este fen6meno, el Ministro de Hacienda en 
su mensaje al Congreso dice que la merma no se debe absolutamente ni 
i la disminuci6n de la produccion de las minas ni k los precios bajos 
que los productos bolivianos obtienen en los mercados europeas, sino 
que es muy probable que sea debido al comercio de contrabando. 

En cuanto al cob re, aunque los datos estadisticos no lo ju.stitican, es 
probable que en 1904 la produccion fuera mayor que en 1903. 

La plata que en la actualidad se produce en Bolivia procede ca«i 
exclusivamente delas famosas minas de Huanchaca, San Jose y Oruro. 

Aunque las ganancias obtenidas de las minas de plata en estos lilti- 
naos anos han sido relativamente pequenas, parece que la situacion ha 
empezada a mejorar, debido k los m^todos mas economicos que se 

BuU. No. 1—06 6 r^r^r^ni\r> 

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58 OFICINA INTEBNACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLICAS AMEBICANAS. 

emplean para tratar los minerales de baja ley, mediante la lexiviacion, 
al paso que en muchos easos los minerales mezclados de estano, cobre, 
y zinc ayudau mucho & mejorar su valor. 

Con arregk) & los datos oficiales, en 1904 la produccion de bismuto 
excedio con mucho & la del ano anterior. Las minas de Chorolque, de 
las cuales se exti^ae principalmente este mineral, esULn bajo el dominio 
de una compania europea muy conocida. 

La industria de la goma que ocupan un lugar principal entre los 
productos del pais, segun las notieiaa que se reciben, progresa sati^fac- 
toriamente. En 1904 la candidad que se produjo fu^ mayor que la de 
1903, y la perspectiva aeerca del porvenir de esta industria parece ser 
balaguena. 

Debido a los bajos precios & que se cotiza actualmente la quinina en 
los mercados europeos, las plantaciones se estdn abandonando cada dia 
m&s. Existen enormes plantaciones de quinina tanto cultivadas coino 
iucultas, pero como quiera que el costo de transporte i los mercados 
europeos es muy subido, no rinde ninguna gananeia. 

Todos los demfis articulos que Bolivia produce se consumen casi 
enteramente en el pais. 

Se ha celebrado un contrato con la "Bolivian Rubber and Greneral 
Enterprise Company (Limited)," para la construccion de un camino que 
se ha de extender desde La Paz hasta Puerto Pando, 6 sea una distancia 
como de 120 kilometros. Dicese que ya se ban concluido los 25 pri- 
meros kil6metros. Esta nueva vfa ha de facilrtar el tr^nslto de 4 Beni, 
y desde este punto, y se espera que reemplace la linea de Sorata y 
Mapiri. 

Nada se ha resuelto definitivamente, aun aeerca de la construccidn de 
ferrocarriles. Los reconocimientos que en la actualidad se estan ha- 
ciendosonlossiguientes: DeViachaaOruro,deOruroaPotosi, dePotosi 
& Tupiza, de La Paz 4 Yungas y de Oruro A Cochabamba. El Gobiemo 
Chileno acaba de confiarte la construccion de la linea que se ha de 
extender desde Arica a La Ptiz & k '^Society of Public Works" (Com- 
pania de Obras Publicas) que es una razon social chil«na. El costo de 
esta linea ascendera d £2,152,000 y el plazo estipulado para su con- 
struccion es cuatro aflos. 

En 1893 habia 2,765 kilometros de lineas telegrdficas, de los euafes 
1,455 kilometros pertenecfan al Gobiemo, y en 1905 habia 5,678 kil6- 
metros de dichas lineas, de los cuales 3,380 kilometros perteneclan at 
Gobiemo. 

A principios de 1905 k libra esterlinafu^ declarada moneda corriente 
al tipo de cambio de 12^- pesos bolivianos. Durante el primer semestre 
del ano el tipo de cambio sobre Londres era por t^rmino medio eoiHe 
Is. 7Jd., y las fltictuaciones extremas eran de Is. 7d. y ls> Si'^d., y 
durante el segundo semestre el tipo de cambio ha fluctuado de Is. 8^ 



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UNA BEVISTA DE LA AMERICA LATINA IN 1905. 59 

i Is. 8id. Burante el ano dos banco8 extranjeros, d saber, el Banco 
Alemdn Tranaatlantko y el Banco de Chile y Alemania, ban establecido 
agendas en los principales centros de la Republica, y ademds se ha 
hecho una concesion d un aeaudalado dueno de miuas para que establezca 
otro banco. 

BrasU. — En 1905 el Brasil continuo manteniendo la eminente posi- 
cion que siempre ha ocupado entre las Kepiiblicas sudamericanos. El 
Presidente KodrIque^ Alves, que asunii6 el poder k fines de 1902, 
compleio el tereer ano de su administraeion, y la manera hibil coino k 
dirigido los asuntos del pals, ha contribufdo, ademds, &, la consolidacion 
de sua grandes recursos econ6niieos y financieros y a la progresiva y 
prdctiea realizacion de sus grandes elementos naturales. 

En ire las medidas que han redundado en beneficio publico tan to 
para el pais coma para el extranjero, es digna de menci6n el convenio 
inlernacional para abolir la trata de esclavos blancos y la Convencion 
Sanitaria Intemacional eelebrada en Bio de Janeiro el 12 de junio de 
190^ con la £epublica Argentina^ el Uruguay y Paraguay; el tratado 
con el Ek^uador que se promulgo el 18 de naayo de 1905; dos protocolos 
relativos k la realizacion del tratado sobre limites eelebrado entre Bra- 
sil y Veoezuela el 5 de mayo de 1859, y que fu^ firmado en Caracas 
per los plenipotenciarios de los dos paises, el dia 9 de diciembre de 
1905, y la renovacioa de las negociaciones para obtener un convenio 
sobre limites entre el Bmsil y Colombia. 

En conformidad con las condiciones de un convenio eelebrado entre 
losGobiernos del Brasil y el Peru, y que fu^ firmado en Rio de Janeiro 
el 12 de julio de 1904, las reclamaciones de los ciudadanos brasilenos 6 
peruanos por p^rdidas pecuniarias 6 de otra indole que puedan haber 
sufrido en el alto Jurua y alto Purus desde 1902, f ueron sometidas & 
an tribunal de arbitraje mixto que se reunio en Rio de Janeiro el 10 
de julio de 1905. Mediante otro convenio de igual fecha, se resolvi6 
que las negociaciones diplonaiticas para celebrar un tratado con el fin 
de definir la linea divisoria entre el Brasil y el Peru debia comenzar 
el V de agosto y terminar el 31 de diciembre de 1904, el cual convenio 
se prorrogo despu^s hasta el 31 de^iayo de 1905. Mientras estas 
Begociaciones estaban pendientes de resolucion, los territorios del alto 
Jurua y alto Purus fueron declarados neutrales, y habian de ser 
ftdministrados por comisiones de policia mixtas. La indenmizacion 
de JE2,000,000, que le correspondia k Bolivia con arreglo k las condi- 
ciones del tratado del 17 de noviembre de 1903, f u6 pagada al represen- 
tante de dicho pais el 10 de junio de 1904 y el 31 de marzo de 1905. La 
controversia relativa k los limites con la Guiana Inglesa fu^ arreglada 
finahnente media«te el laudo del Rey de Italia, el dia 6 de mayo de 
1904. El tratado de amistad y comercio eelebrado con el GxDbierno de 
Perma el 16 d& julio de 1903 fu^ aprobado por el Congreso Brasilefio. 



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60 OFIOINA INTEBNACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLICAS AMERICANAS. 

El Brasil reestablecio su legacion en Mexico, y el Gobiemo de los 
Pafses Bajos establecio una legacion en Rfo de Janeiro que se inaugur6 
el dia 16 de diciembre de 1905. 

Los representantes del Braesil en la Conferencia de Bruselas sobreel 
azucar, lo f ueron el Ministro acreditado & dicho pais y un delegado 
del Departamento de Hacienda. 

Por la iniciativa del Rey de Italia, en Koma se ha establecido un 
Instituto Internacional de Agricultura. El Brasil fu^ invitado d tomar 
parte en las conferencias preliminares y envi6 su representante. 

La invitaci6n para concurrir d la Segunda Conferencia de la Paz 
en La Haya f u^ aceptada, y los representantes de las Republicas del 
continente americano, en una reunion celebrada en Wdshington el 6 
de diciembre, acordaron celebrar la Tercera Conferencia Americana en 
la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro. Esta resoluci6n fu^ apoyada entusidsti- 
c^mente por los paises interesados, y en seguida se inauguraron loe 
preparativos para cooperar sinceramente en beneficio de todos. 

A principios de ano se anunci6 que el Senor Joaquim Nabuco de 
Araujo, Ministro del Brasil en Londres, habia sido nombrado el 
primer Embajador del Brasil en los Estados Unidos de America. El 
Senor Thompson, que antes habia sido Ministro de los E^stados Unidos 
en Rio de Janeiro, f u^ elevado simultaneamente al rango de Embaja- 
dor, y el Baron de Rio Blanco, Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores 
brasileno, dio un banquete en honor suyo en Petropolis. 

Tanto el Brasil como la Republica Argentina demuestran un gran 
deseo de estimular y reforzar las relaciones comerciales, y el Senador 
Benito Villanueva, d gu regreso de una mision d Francia, e^tuvo en 
Rio de Janeiro para celebrar una conferencia con el Doctor Lauro 
MuLLER, Ministro del Departamento de Industria. Dicese que uno 
de los asuntos discutidos f u6 la conveniencia de efectuar la conexi6n 
del sistema de ferrocarriles brasilefios con la Ifnea argentina que una 
compaiiia inglesa estd concluyendo en el territorio de Misiones, lo cual 
comunicaria directamente d las dos Republicas por ferrocarril. 

Gran importancia da el Brasil d la necesidad de atraer inmigrantes, 
y persuadirlos d que se queden en el pais garantizdndoles cierta renta 
y haci^ndoles concesiones de terrenos. La posicion de los inmigrantes 
en cuanto d la entrada es favorable, pero se proyecta dictar leyes que 
les proporcionen una posici6n permanent© en el pafs, establecer insti- 
tuciones de credito y proteger d los productores contra las fluctuaciones 
en los precios. 

Las mejoras introducidas en las condiciones sanitarias de la capital 
son muy satisfactoria, y el ano de 1905 ha sido el mds saludable de los 
cinco ultimos anos. Las enfermedades que pueden evitarse, excepcioa 
^echa de la tuberculosis, estdn desapareciendo paulatinamente. La 
fiebre amarilla, sobre todo, ya no existe en forma epid^mica, y no 
puede citarse mds d Rio de Janeiro como centro de infecci6n de esta 



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UNA REVISTA DE LA AMERICA LATIN A IN 1905. 61 

enfermedad. Este extraordinario restdtado se debe enteramente al 
servicio profilactico especial que el Gobiemo Federal ha establecido y 
mantenido, & pesar de todo la oposici6n que se le ha hecho. 

En 1905 el valor del comereio extranjero de la Repiiblica ascendio & 
$363,809,400, comparado con $326,727,795 en el ano anterior. En 
1905 el valor de las exportaciones ascendi6 & $223,161,260 y el de las 
importaciones ascendio & $140,567,425, lo cual arroja un aumento de 
comereio 4 favor de la Bepdblica por valor de $82,567,425. 

Comparando las cif ras correspondientes d 1905 con las de los cuatro 
anos anteriores, resulta que las cif ras del dltimo ano, & pesar del hecho 
de que hubo un aumento relativamente pequeiio en las exportaciones 
de caf^ respecto de los anos anteriores, excede a la de cualquier ano, 
incluso el de 1901, en que la cosecha fu^ inmensa, y bien puede juz- 
garse que este es el rasgo mis halagueno respecto de las cif ras de las 
exportaciones. 

Durante los cinco dltimos ai!os los siguientes siete productos han cons- 
titiiido el volumen principal de las exportaciones brasileflas, habiendo 
eontribuido & establecer su cr^dito en los mcrcados monetarios extran- 
jeros. Estos siete productos con caf^, goma, algodon, azucar, tabaco, 
cueros y cacao. De estos productos todos, con excepci6n del algodon, 
son productos que el Brasil usa relativamente poco en articulos manu- 
facturados en el extranjero. El valor del algodon en bruto que el 
Brasil exporta asciende como d $5,000,000, 6 importa por el valor de 
$16,000,000 a $17,000,000 de articulos de algod6n manufacturados. 

En 1905 el valor de las exportaciones de caf^, que es el artfculo prin- 
cipal de exportacion del Brasil, ascendi6 & $107,102,575, comparado 
con $99,787,815 en 1904. El valor de las exportaciones de caf6 en 
1905 y en 1904 ascendi6, respectivamente, & $72,078,845 y $56,096,965. 
El valor de las exportaciones de cuero, que es el proximo articulo en 
importancia, ascendi6 a $6,941,775; el valor de las exportaciones de 
yerba mate ascendi6 a 6,182,750; el de las exportaciones de algod6n & 
$5,788,570; el de las de cacao d $5,197,675; el de las de tabaco & 
$4,126,030; el de las de pieles & $2,316,145; el de las del oro en bar ras 
i $2,100,640, y el de las de azucar fi $2,029,770. 

El valor de las exportaciones de manganeso ascendio & $1,164,135, 
comparado con $1,533,995 en el afio anterior, y el de la arena monacita 
fu^ un poco mas de $500,000. 

Comparado con el resultado obtenido en 1904, el caf^ en 1905 mos- 
tro un aumento de un 7.33 por ciento, la goma un 26.81 por ciento, el 
algodon un 40.01 por ciento, y el az6car un 334.23 por ciento, siendo 
asi que este gran aumento indica que esta fibra no solo es probable 
que llegue d la gran proportion que obtuvo en otros tiempos, si no que 
el Brasil se convierta en un gran productor de azucar, como esta des- 
tinado d ser por la naturaleza. La verdadera cantidad de azucar 
exportado no es grande, pero basta para demostrar la tendencia hacia 

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62 OFICTNA INTEKNACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLICAS AMEEICANAS. 

el aumento de esta industria, y tambi^n muestra lo que puede bacerse 
en lo porvenir. Esta tendencia general que se advierte hacia la 
explotacion de diversos productos, es caso el rasgo mas importante de 
la situacion comercial del Brasil desde el punto de vista brasilefio. 

Se advierte un gran aumento en la cantidad de los articulos que se 
exportaron en 1906. Las exportaeiones de azucar, que en 19lM 
ascendieron 4 7,861,450 kilogrames, en 1905 ascendieron & 37,746,510 
kilogramos; la goma, que en 1904 ascendio a 28,792,206 kilogramos, en 
1905 las exportaeiones llegaron i, 32,073,285 kilogramos; el caf4, que 
en 1904 ascendi6 & 10,024,536 kilogramos, en 1905 llego a 10,820,661 
kilogramos; las exportaeiones de sacos de semilla de algod6n, que en 
1904 ascendieron & 26,600,538 kilogramos, en 1905 ascendieron & 
37,493,736 kilogramos; las exportaeiones de algod6n, que en 1904 
ascendieron i 13,262,738 kilogramos, en 1905 llegaron 4 24,081,753 
kilogramos, en tan to que las exportaeiones de harina de mandioca ascen- 
dieron & 1,296,070 kilogramos. El tabaco y la hierva mate f ueron los 
linicos productos que mostraron una merma, siendo asi que las canti- 
dades exportadas f ueron 3,573,697 kilogramos y 3,042,122 kilogramos, 
respectivamente, menos que el ano anterior. En 1904 los Estados 
Unidos compraron lamitad del total de las exportaeiones de mercancias 
brasilenas por euanto la parte que compraron Alemania y la Gran 
Bretana en conjunto representan un total eomo de un 30 por ciento. 
Sin embargo, las exportaeiones 6. los Estados Unidos se destinan casi 
por com pie to al consumo dom^stico, al paso que una gran cantidad de 
las que se hacen i Alemania y £ la Gran Bretana se destinan i la 
reexportacion. 

El comercio de los Estados Unidos con el Brasil represent© un valor 
total de $110,000,000, cantidad mayor que la del comercio con cual- 
quier otro pais sudamericano, y solo la supera la del comercio con 
Reino Unido, Alemania, Francia, Canada y Cuba. El Biusil ocupa el 
tercer puesto entre las naciones de las cuales los Estados Unidos 
importan. Sin embargo, en euanto d las exportaeiones, cl Bi*asil 
ocupa el vig^simo puesto entre los paises a los cuales se exportan 
mercancias americanas. Los Estados Unidos usan en sus fabricms 
prdcticamente la mitad de la goma elastica en bruto que se produce en 
el orbe entero, y el pueblo de los Estados Unidos consume mds de la 
mitad del cafe que se produce en el inundo. Como quiera que el 
Brasil es el mayor productor de goma elastica y de caf^ del mundo, 
las ventas que dicho pais hace d los Estados Unidos son grandes, pero 
como sus puertos principales estdn situados en la trayectoria de los 
buques que eontribuye a hacer el comercio entre Eiuropa y Sud 
America, y como quiera que sus comerciantes y consumidores son de 
origen europeo y estan intimamente identificados con los intereses y 
costumbres comerciales europeos, dicha Kepublica hace princip»lmeate 
sus importaciones de Europa« 

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rifA BBVISTA im LA AUlfEICA LATUTA TN 19(». 63 

Los importacioaes que los Eatados Unidos hacen del Brasil son 
mucba mayores que las que haee de cualquier otro pais sudamericauo, 
uendo asi que el valor de dichas importaciones en el ano economico de 
1905 ascendi6 i $99,843,094, contra $15,3£^901 valor de las exporta- 
ciones de la Repiiblica Ai-gentina, y $11,071,613 de Chile. En verdad, 
en 1906 las mereancias procedentes del Brasil representaban practioa- 
mente dos terceras partes de las importaciones hecbas de toda la 
America del Sud. Por otra parte, en 1906 las exportaciones al Brasil 
solo representaron uia valor de $10,985,096, contra un valor de 
$23,564,066, que se exportaron & la BepAblica Argentina, represen- 
tando asi menos de una qointa parte del valor total de las exportaciones 
hecbas & la America del Sud procedentes de los Estados Unidos. 

En 1905 el valor de las importaciones hecbas del Brasil & los Estados 
Unidos excedieron & las exportaciones en cerca de'$90,000,000. Este 
gran exeedente de importaciones respecto de las exportaciones, que es 
macho mayor que el aumento que se advierte en eualquier otro pais, 
siempre ha caracterizado el comercio entre los Estados Unidos y el 
BrasiL Como resultado de la demanda de caf^ y de goma elastica, el 
exeedente de las importaciones respecto de las exportaciones en el 
comercio del Brasil rara vez ha sidon^nor de $50,000,000 en los veinte 
ultimos anoa, y en 1905 exeedi6 de $88,000,000. De 1867 & 19(>5 el 
valor total de las importaciones d los Estados Unidos procedentes del 
Brasil fn6 de $2,158,095,230, y el valor total de las exportaciones del 
Brasil durante dicho periodo ascendio & $37^,707,684, mostrando a.si 
ea dicho periodo un exeedente de importaciones de $1,785,387,546 
respecto de las exportaciones. 

De los $100,000,000, que pr&etieamente representaron el valor de 
las importaciones del Brasil & los Estados Unidos, en 1905, las impor- 
taciones de caf^ representaron $64,000,000, las de goma elastica 
$28,500,000, )as de coero y pieles $2,750,000, las de azucar $1,250,000, 
7 las de cacao $1,250,000. En 1905 la cantidad total de caf^ impor- 
tado del Brasil ascendi6 & 820,000,000 de libras contra 596,000,000 en 
1900, 435,000,000 en 1895, y 310,000,000 en 1890. 

Les exx)ortaeiones del Brasil, cuyo valor en 1905 ascendio a $10,- 
985,096, comprenden un gran n6mero de artlculoe, entre los cuales el 
tceite mineral representa la cantidad mayor, 6 sea un valor de $2,456,- 
645; harina, $1,225,565; madera, $621,433; locomotoras, $117,086; otms 
clasesde m^uinas de vapor, $103,733; mdquinas de coser, $142,105; 
otras clases do mfiquinas de hierro y acero, $663,540; instrumentos 
agricolas, $151,715; gfoeros de algodon de color, $562,872; y g^neros 
de algod6o blancos, $183,090. 

La harina de trigo se importa casi completamente de los Estados 
Unidos, la Bepiibliea Argentina y Austria Hungria. La mejor cali- 
dad de harina que se exporta al Brasil es Austro Hiingara, cuyo costo 
viene a ser un promedio en los tres 61timos anos de un 12.4 por ciento 



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64 OFICINA INTERN ACIONAL DE LAS BEPUBLICA8 AMEBICANA9. 

mayor que la americana, y un 27.8 por ciento mayor que la de la 
Republica Argentina. La harina americana ocupa el puesto siguiente 
en cuanto 6, su calidad, siendo asl que el promedio del costo en los tres 
anos es un 13.8 por ciento mayor que el de la Kepdblica Argentina. 

En 1905, la renta de aduana ascendi6 d 177,735,851 milreis, en papel 
moneda, y 53,775,501 milreis en oro, 6 sea un aumento de 15^936,635 
milreis en papel, y 7,187,543 milreis en oro, respecto del ano anterior. 

El derecho de consumo en 1905 ascendi6 & 86,015,892 milreis, 6 sea 
un aumento de 822,412 milreis respecto de 1904. 

La ley del 30 de diciembre de 1904 calcul6 los ingresos de 1905 en 
47,844,880 milreis, en oro, y 260,813,000 milreis en papel, sin incluir 
las cantidades que se recaudaran para las obras de mejoras de puerto 
en los diferentes Estados, cuya recaudaci6n no habia sido ordenada. 
Las rentas que realmente se cobraron durante el ano ascendieron 6, 
56,359,679 milreis en oro, y 287,751,726 milreis en papel, sin incluir 
los depositos, que ascendfan & 8,514,798 milreis en oro, y 26,938,726 
milreis en papel, que exceden de los ingresos calculados. 

Los egresos del ano econ6mico se calcularon en 46,794,481 milreis 
en oro, y 273,679,237 milreis en papel, sin contar los gastos para las 
obras de mejoras de puertos en los diferentes Estados. El total de 
egresos ascendi6 d 48,471,688 milreis en oro y 301,487,486 milreis en 
papel. 

La comision nombrada por la Bolsa de Caf^, de Rio de Janeiro, para 
hacer el c6mputo de la cosecha de caf 6 de 1905 & 1906, dice que la exis- 
tencia de caf^ listo para'la exportaci^n de Rio de Janeiro, es de 3,500,- 
000 a 4,000,000 de sacos. 

En realidad de verdad, ningiSn pais del mundo aventaja al Brasil en 
cuanto & la diversidad y valor de sus productos que consumen, en la 
actualidad, todos los paises del mundo. 

El estado actual de la industria de algod6n en el Brazil es resultado 
del arancel proteccionista contra la competencia inglesa. En 1875 
661o habia 30 fabricas de algodon en el Brasil, y en 1879 se impuso un 
derecho de 50 reis por kilogramo sobre el algodon importado, un dere- 
cho de 250 reis sobre el algodon cardado 6 hilado y uno de 100 & 600 
reis sobre el hilo de al algod6n, y dicese que esto di6 por resultado 
que en 1882 las fabricas de algod6n aumentaron hasta 50 y en 1895 
llegaron fi 155. En el actualidad hay 108 fabricas que tienen 715,000 
husos mediante los cuales se tratan mds de 30,000,000 kilogramos de 
algod6n nativo, y se emplean mas de 37,000 obreros, que producen 
anualmente 235,000,000 de m^tros cuadrados de g^neros de algod6n, 
habidndose invertido en esta industria un capital como de 191,208 con- 
tos de reis. 

En Rio de Janeiro, Nitheroy, Maranhao, Porto Allegre, y Rio 
Urande do Sul, hay fabricas importantes de g^neros, f raneles, t-apetes 
6 alfombrillas, fieltro, etc., y en Petropolis, cerca de Rio, hay dos fdbri- 



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UNA REVI8TA DE LA AMERICA LATINA IN 1906. 65 

cas de seda. Ademas, en Rio de Janeiro hay tambi^n cuatro Mbricas 
grandes de harina, una de las cuales se cerr6 recientemente, las cuales 
paeden moler 60,000 y 40,000 tonelads respectivamente por afio, 
import4ndose el trigo principalmente de la Argentina y del Paraguay. 
El Gobierno hace todo lo posible para estimular esta industria, y se 
continua el estudio de los dep6sitos carbonlferos situados al sud del 
Brasil, y que se extienden del norte de Sao Paulo. Los andlisis que se 
ban he<dio muestran que en la fabricacion de ladrillos existe un medio 
inicial de crear un mercado para los productos en el extranjero. Los 
dep6sitos de carbon de piedra del Bi-asil empiezan en el norte de Sao 
Paulo, cerca de la f rontera de Minas Geraes, y se extienden hacia el 
sud & trav€s de los Estados de Parand, Santa Catalina y Rfo Grande 
do Sul, y es probable que se extiendan hasta el Uruguay y la Uepdblica 
Argentina. 

El petr61eo tambi^n se encuentra en cantidades que dejarfan utilidad. 
El manganeso se exporta principalmente de Rfo de Janeiro y de Bahia, 
siendo asf que en 1902 se exportaron 157,295 toneladas m^tricas; en 
1903, 161,926, y en 1904, 208,260. En 1904 se exportaron 4,860 tone- 
ladas de harina de monacita, y en el mismo afio se exportaron otros 
minerales como, por ejemplo, 14 toneladas de mica y talco, 160 tone- 
ladas de mineral de cobre, 2,122 gramos de platino, 37 toneladas de 
cristal de roca, y 54 toneladas de dgata. 

La producci6n de piedras preciosas se ha aumentado mucho en el 
Brasil, y dichas piedras se venden hoy con estimaeion en todos los 
mereados del mundo. Las continuas exploraciones que se han hecho 
en el Estado de Minas Geraes ban dado por resultado el descubri- 
miento de la turmalina que ha proporcionado preciosas piedras rojas, 
asi como verde-azules, de las cuales en 1904 se encontraron, pulieron 
y vendieron grandes cantidades. Tambi^n se han descubierto otras 
piedras preciosas, tales como el aguaraarina, que se ha vendido en los 
mereados del mundo. Muchas de las ametistas brasilenas se exhibie- 
ron en la Exposici6n de Dusseldorf , en 1902, y se vendieron & subidos 
precios como amatistas siberianas. 

El platino se ha encontrado en el Brasil en las corrientes de Lages, 
en el distrito de Serro, en los dep6sitos aluviales en Itabira do Campo, 
en el distrito de Ouro Preto, y en el Rfo Abaete, todos ellos situados 
en el Estado de Minas Geraes. 

El Gobierno del Estado de Matto Grosso recientemente hizo varias 
ctoncesiones para efectuar la explotaci6n por medio de dragas de los 
depositos de numerosos rios que se cree que contengan oro 6 diamantes, 
6 ambas cosas, en cantidades que presten utilidad. Una de estas con- 
cesiones se le ha hecho 6, una compama inglesa denominada la '' Matto 
Grosso Dredging Comjwiny", que ya ha extraido una gran cantidad de 
oro y varios diamantes del Rfo Coxipo de Ouro, y se propone explorar 
el Rfo Manso. 



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66 OFICINA IKTEBNACIONAL I>£ LAS BEPtJBLICAS AME&ICANAS. 

Tambien hay minas de diamantes en Minas Geraes, Bahia y otras 
Provincias. 

El Brasil insiste en poner en prActica su polltica de expansi6n de 
ferrocarriles, y aunque por lo general se ignora basta qii6 grade se 
esta llevando acabo esta obra, es evidente que en todo el pals ae advierte 
una gran actividad en este sentido. Por ejemplo, en el norte de 
Madeira, el Feri*ocarril de Mamone, cuando se conecte con las lineas 
bolivianas proporeionard comanicacidn entre todos los puntos prin- 
cipales situados entre la coenca del Amazonas y el Pacifico. Este 
servicio se prestai*4 por tierra y agua, y esta parte del prc^rama de 
ferrocarriles sin duda es de gran valor para el pais en general. £1 
vasto y valioso territorio de Matto Grosso tenddl buena comuBicaci6ii, 
en tanto que m&s hacia el sud se efectuard una conexi6n entre los rios 
Tocantfus y Araguaya. La companla concesionaria estd haciendo im 
rdpido y excelente progreso en esta obra. Tambien se proyecta poner 
en comunicaci6n la parte norte y sud del Brasil mediante la eondtmc- 
cion de una linea ramal que se extiende desde Cachoeira de Itepemirtm 
hasta Matilde, en la parte sud del Estado de Espiritu Santo. La 
extensi6n de dicha linea hacia el interior, desde Rio Grande do Norte 
d Baturite, asi como la construcci6n de la linea de Clara-Mirim, k 
construccion de la linea de Victoria Minas que coneeta las lineas de 
Bahia y un entronque 6 union que se proyecta de la linea de Sobnd 
con una prolongacion & trav^s del Piauhy basta San Luis. Tambien 
serd una linea importante la que se extiende de Caxias & Cajazeiras, 
por correr, como efectivamente corre, ceroa de la costa. En lo6 
Estados de Bio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Bio Giun^ do Norte, Pernam- 
buco y otros, se estdn construyendo nuevas lineas y conectdndoee loe 
varios sistemas, d fin de completar los medics de comuni€aci6n. 

Los 61timos datos estadisticos relativos al sistema de ferrocMrriies 
del Brasil, d principios de 1905, indican que hay 17,059 kil6metros de 
via en completa operacion y 1,200 kil6metros en vias de construccion. 
Los ingresos del Ferrocarril Central correspondientes al aila citado 
ascendieron & 28,649,980$761 contra 28,223,886$529 en 1904, 6 sea un 
aumento de 426,094^232. De este aumento el trdfico de pasajeros 
contribuyo con 292,460$535, en tanto que la conducci6n 6 transporte 
del caf6 produjo 109,145|590 m&s que en 19(M. Los egresos en 1904 
ascendieron & 27,840,953$150, y en 1905 ascendieron & 27,561, 335$693, 
6 sea una disminuci6n de 279,617$458, en tanto que el salda que 
muestran los trabajos del ano resulta 1,088,645$069. 

Colombia. — Durante el ano & que esta revista se refiere, el Geseral 
Betes, Presidentc de la Bepublica de Colombia, consagr6 principal- 
mente bus esfuerzos al desarrollo de los recursos naturales del pais, 
y con tal fin se expidieron varios decretos que protegen ks induslrias j 
los intereses locales. 



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UNA BEVI8TA DE LA AMERICA LATINA IN 1905. 67 

El 28 de enero de 1905 se declard vigente un decreto del Ejecutivo 
por virtud del cual se introdujo un arancel modificado que fija los 
derechos que se ban de pagar por los certificados de Ism facturas y 
manifiestos consulares. 

Algunas de las prescripciones m^ importantes de este decreto son 
ks siguientes: 

El Articulo 1** prescribe el page de derechos de importacion en con- 
formidad con el arancel fijado por la ley No. 63 de 1903, con un 
anmento de un 70 por ciento con arreglo 4 la clasificacidn arancelaria 
de la ley No. 36 de 1886. 

El Articulo 5** especifica ciertos efectos que son necesarios para el 
desarroUo industrial y que, por tanto, se ban de eximir de pagar el 
recargo de 70 por ciento, en tanto que se aumentan los derechos sobre 
otros artfculos determinados, tales como las bebidas alcoh61icas, y el 
azdcar. La nueva ley monetaria aprobada por el Congreso de Colom- 
bia en marzo de 1905, y que comenz6 £ regir el 1** de enero de 1906, 
prescribe la conversidn en oro del papel moneda que en la actualidad 
eircula, y en eonformidad eon dicha prescripci6n de la ley, el Presi- 
dente Retes expidio un decreto ordenando que se destinase un 25 por 
eiento del readimiento de las nuevas leyes al objeto precitado. 

El 3** de marzo de 1905 el Presidente pronaulg6 un importante decreto, 
por virtud del cual se creaba un monopolio del Gobierno con el fin de 
subir lofl impuestos sobre los licores 6 bebidas alcoholicas, cueros, 
cigarros 6 puros, cigarrillos y f 6sf oros, el cual decreto babia de comen- 
zar & regir desde la f ecba de su promulgacion. 

Con fecha 1** de julio de 1905 se impuso un derecbo d los cueros en 
kt Kepublica. £1 Banco Central, con la autorizacion del Ministro de 
Hacienda, ha arganizado la cobranza del expresado derecbo de tal 
manera, que se obtenga el resultado mas alto posible del expresado 
derecbo, a^ como la renta de dicbos cueros en el extranjero. 

El producto del impuestos sobre los cueros se calcula en un 25 por 
ciento de la nueva f uente de reota asi creada, y que se destina para 
efectuar la conversion del papel moneda durante el primer afio, y en 
un 50 por ciento en los anoe siguientes. 

Si los ingresos no ascendiesen d un 25 y d un 50 por ciento respectiva- 
mente, de los nuevos derechos, el deficit se pagard de la renta de minas 
de esmeralda. 

Mediante un decreto presidencial el derecbo de exportacion sobre la 
goma eldstica exportada por los puertos de la aduana de la region 
oriental del Caqueta se fija en 10 centavos oro por kilogramo. 

Con fecha 7 de mayo de 1905, y por un decreto de la Asamblea 
Nacional, el territorio de Colombia f u^ dividido en quince departa- 
mentos. La antigua municipalidad de Bogotd se ba tornado del Departa- 
ffiento de Cundinamarea y se convertido en un distrito federal. 



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€8 OFICINA INTERNACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLICAS AMERICANA8. 

En 1905 los Estados Unidos importaron mercancias de Colombia por 
valor de $6,411,793, que consistian principalmente de caf^, por valor de 
$3,517,664; cueros y pieles, por valor de $963,422, y frutas y nueces, 
por valor de $923,085. En cambio las exportaciones de los Estados 
Unidos d dicho pais consistieron de diversos produetos que se valuaron 
en $3,582,789, siendo, los mds importantes los g^neros de algodon, que 
se valuaron en $817,025; mahufacturas de hierro y ae^ro de varies 
clases, por valor de $552,859; articulos de cuero, incluso ealzado de 
todas clases, por valor de $160,268; aceite para alumbi^ado por valor 
de $100,320, y provisiones de todas clases que se valuaron en $253,062. 

En 1905 el valor declarado de las exportaciones de Ciudad Bolivar 
ascendio & $2,500,000 en oro. Los principales ramos 6 articulos f ueroo 
la goma denominada ^' balata," valuada en $800,000; caoutchouc, por 
valor de $25,000; cueros, por valor de $550,000; oro, por valor de 
$475,000; plumas de heron, por valor de $170,000; la goma denomi- 
nada ^' sernamby," por valor de $110,000, y ganado vivo, por valor de 
$170,000. 

El Senor Ellsworth, c6nsul de los Estados Unidos, envia desde 
Cartegena las cifras relativas & las exportaciones hechas por dicho 
puerto colombiano en el ano que termin6 el 31 de diciembre de 1905. 
El valor de las exportaciones & los Estados Unidos ascendi6 4 $1,076,954, 
y el caf^, que fu^ el articulo principal de exportaci6n, represento un 
valor de $691,603. Los otros articulos importantes fueron los siguien- 
tes: Cueros, por valor de $172,927; goma eldstica, por valor de $62,216, 
y cedro y caoba, por valor de $34,524. 

Los principales articulos de exportacion del pais son los siguientes: 
Caf^, cueros, tabaco, dividivi, plantas, cacao, goma elfoticA, algod6n, 
semilla de algodon y minerales. Como un 67 por ciento del caf6 se 
exporta & los Estados Unidos, en tanto que todo el tabaco se enyia i 
Alemania y todo el algodon a Liverpool 6 al Havre. Los principales 
articulos de importacion son los siguientes: Harina, manteca, petr61eo 
y generos de algodon procedentes de los Estados Unidos; azficar, arroz 
y papas de Alemania, y generos de algod6n de la Gran Bretana. 

Los vapores de la Orinoco Steamship Company hacen la travesia entre 
el puerto de Ciudad Bolivar y Orocue durante ocho meses del ano, 
y se les han hecho propuestas d los Gobiernos de Venezuela y Colom- 
bia para construir un camino para carruajes que conduzca desde la 
capital de Colombia hasta un punto en el Rio Meta, sobre el Orocu^, 
donominado Barrigon. 

Sc cree que los siguientes distritos de Colombia son los m&s propi- 
cios para el cultivo del algodon: El valle del Magdalena, la peninsula 
de Goajira, el llano de Valledupar hasta el Paso, el Departamento de 
Bolivar de este, San Juan Nepomuceno hacia arriba hasta el Corozal, j^ 
la region de los llanos, el Departamento de Antioquia, todo el valle 

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UNA BEVISTA DK LA AMiRIOA LATINA TS 1905. 69 

del Canca y el rnds propicio de todos que es el Departamento de 
Tolima, cuyos llanos 6 praderas, que al parecer son dridos, y en los 
cuales serfa f acil efectuar la irrigaci6n. Las regiones de Fusagusada 
y Leiba, asi como los valles de Cucutd, poseen terrenos que se adoptan 
especialmente al cultivo del aIgod6n. En este lugarel algodon secon- 
sidera perenne, por cuanto una vez que la planta se siembra dura 
muchos anos sin necesidad de resembrarla, pero despu^s que el algod6n 
se recoge, por lo general el drbol se corta y se quema, lo cual equivale 
& una completa poda, y entonces puede considerarse una planta anoja, 
puesto que el nuev^o drbol que crece s61o tiene un ano de edad. Por t^r- 
mino medio, cada 100 libi'as contienen 60 partes de vaina y 40 de fibra 
de algodon. En algunos casos la proporci6n de fibra de algod6n 
asciende 6, un 56 por ciento. Antes de extraerse la vaina, el algod6n 
se vende desde 97 centavos hasta $1.46 por arroba. Las fincas mds 
grandes de algod6n no pasan de 17 millas cuadradas. 

En el periodo transcurrido del l** de mayo de 1904 al 31 de enero de 
1905, la producci6n de las minas de esmeralda de Colombia, expresada 
en quilates, fu^ la siguiente: 262,548 esmeraldas de primera clase, 
467,690 de segunda clase, 22,700 de tercera clase y 16,000 de cuarta 
clase. Estas cif ras expresan un total de 768,938 quilates de esmeralda 
enviados & Bogotd durante el precitado periodo. Las minas de Muzo 
en 10 meses dieron $696,410 de ganancia. 

En 1904 el Ferrocarril del Sud transport© 29,102 pasajeros de pri- 
mera clase y 81,961 de segunda, siendo el producto de la venta de bole- 
tines $486,894.30 y $953,685, respectivamente. En 1905 se condujeron 
29,695 pasajeros de primera clase y 97,051 de segunda, y el producto 
de la venta de boletines ascendi6d$627,352.40 y $1,450,465.50, respecti- 
vamente. En 1904 se transportaron 3,958 cabezas de ganado vivo por 
este ferrocarril, por las cuales se pag6 un flete de $81,354, comparadas 
con 3,286 cabezas de ganado que se transportaron en 1905, por las 
cuales se pagaron $108,618. En 1904 se condujeron un total de 10,189 
toneladas de carga, comparadas con 13,546 en 1905, habi^ndose cobrado 
un flete de $823,790.40 y $1,394,415, respectivamente. Ademds de los 
articulos mencionados, el flete que se cobr6 por la carga de diversas 
clases que se transporto en 1904 y en 1905 ascendio d $8,533 y $9,050, 
respectivamente. Por las cifras que anteceden se verd que el pro- 
ducto total de la Ifnea en 1904 y en 1905 ascendi6 d $2,354,256.70 y 
$3,589,900.90, respectivamente. 

Durante el ano de referenda el Gobierno de Colombia celebro un 
contrato para efectuar la construccion de un ferrocarril que ha de 
conectar los puertos de Girardot, en el alto Magdalena, y Honda, en el 
bajo Magdalena. Se espera que dicha Ifnea empiece d operar dentro 
de cinco anos, d contar de la fecha en que se comience la obra, por 
mds que puede concederse una prorroga de un ano, si d la terminaci6n 

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70 OFICINA INTEBNACIONAL DE LAS BEPUBLICAS AMEBICANAS. 

del expresado plazo se han concluido por lo menoa 50 kilometroB del 
camino. El Gobierno haee una subvencion de $^,900 en oro del pais 
por cada kilometro de linea, cantidad que es pagadera en bonos. 

El Gobierno ha celebrado otro contrato importante, por virtud del 
cual se ba de establecer una Mbrica de encajea que ha de eontar con 
una maqulnaria enteramente moderna, y tambi^n una planta para 
efectuar la extraccion d-el aceite de la semilla de algodon. EI Go- 
bierno se compromete & subvencionar esta empresa mediante un page 
mensual de $400 en oro americano, 6 sean £80. Dicba subvencion 
comenzard & pagarse desde el 1° de enero de 1906, y ha de durar tres 
anos d eontar de la exprekada f echa. 

Colombia esta desarrollando una industria de ladriUos que antes de 
mucho tiempo promete dar resultados muy satisfactorios. La planta 
para dicha industria se ha instalado en Barranquilla, y cuenta eon la 
debida maquinaria moderna. Wcha planta puede hacer 6,000,000 de 
ladriUos al ano, que se venden d $6 el miliar. 

Costa Rica, — En 1905 el estado geneml del coutercio de Costa Bica, 
bajo la Administraci6n del Presidente Esquivel, era mds satisfactorio 
que lo que habla sido algunos anos antes. En el interior de la Bepd- 
btica el valor de la propiedad tenia una base mds estable, el credito se 
usaba con mds prudeneia, y el tipo de interns que prevalecia en el 
pais, de un 12 por eiento anual que antes se cohraba ha bajado d un 10 
por eiento anual. El 1** de junio de 1905 el Banco Comercial de Costa 
Rica debidamente organ izado, comenzo sus operaciones con un capital 
de 1,000,000 de colones. 

El 31 de marzo de 1905, al terminar el ano eeon6mico, la deuda in- 
terna ascendia d 7,868,776.96 de colones, contra 8,593,374.49 de colones 
el 31 de marzo de 1904, 6 sea una disminucion de 724,597.53 colones, 
es decir, un 8.68 por eiento. 

Las siguientes cifras muestran los ingresos y egresos en el ano que 
termino el 31 de marzo de 1905: Total de ingresos, 5,306,132.97 colones^ 
y total de egresos, 4,113,655.22 colones, lo cual muestra un superdvit 
de 1,192,477.75 de colones. El aumento principal en los ingresos se 
debio d losderechos deaduana, que muestran un aumento de 201,849.50 
colones, y procedentes de los monopolios que el Gobierno tiene del 
alcohol y del tabaco. 

De $5,333,000 en 1896, el valor total de las exportaetones de todm 
clase de artfculos d pafses extranjeros en 1905 se aumento d $8^148,000. 
Como era natural, d este aumento en ks exportaciones stgui6 el 
desarroUo del comercio de importacion, debido al aumento general de 
capital para hacer compras, asi como d la creciente demanda de toda 
clase de instrumentos, maquinaria, etc., que necesitan las florecientea 
industrias. Los Estados Unidos han sido un factor muy importante 
en el crecimiento de este importante comercio de importaci6n. 



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UNA KEVI8TA I>B LA AMERICA LATINA IN 1905. 



71 



Las siguientes cif ras, compiladas de los datos cstadisticofi sobre las 
importacioDes correspoDdientes al ano que termini el 31 de dicienibre 
de 1905, nraestran los principales ardculos que Costa Rica importcS en 
1905, asi como la proporcion de cada uno de elloa, impartados de los 
Estados Unidos, dando dichas cif ras una idea general del comercio de 
importacion de Costa Rica: 



Mercanelas. 



Total. 



Delos 
EHtados 
Unidoa. 



Proporcl6n 

de K» Es- 

tadofl 

Unldcx*. 



Tejidos de a]ffod6n 

Q>Biestil>ies, rncluno harinas. TtTeres^ vinos, etc. 

Hiecro, acero y sua manufacturaa 

Plntiiru, i^gmentos, tintes. etc 

Substancias qui micaa^ drogaa, medicinas, etc 

P)ipel 7 sun mairalactiina 

Tabaco y sua manufacturas 

Cane tooes, carruajes, etc 

Cueroe, no especificados 

Madera....??^ 

Dinero acnfiado 

ArtlenkM diTcnos 



Total. 



$1,171,159 
1,070.2«2 
777,336 
157,600 
147,306 
111.330 
lot-. K99 
73,3«8 
76,874 
66,187 
501,601 
»«,425 



5,239,477 



$243,674 
670, 8*f2 
525, 078 
92,677 
66,401 
31.814 
66. 6M 
71,880 
55, 126 
66,738 
501,601 
814,599 



2,706,063 



20.8 
62. 7 
67.5 
58.7 
45.1 
28.6 
66.6 
97.9 
71.7 
99.4 
100.0 
31.9 



46.9 



Los principales articulos de exportaci6n de Costa Rica son el caf ^ y 
Ids pULtanod, que representen uda de un 90 por ciento del valor de 
todas las exportactones. La naayor parte del 10 por ciento restante lo 
representan las maderas, los cueros, y pequenas cantidades de metales 
preciosos. El caf 6 ocapa cl puesto principal entre dichos articulos, en 
tanto que en Costa Rica la calidad de los bananos 6 pl^tanos ha hecbo 
que este produeto se coloque al nivel del caf ^, y pronto promete supe- 
rarlo. Durante los diez 61timos anos el valor de las exportaciones de 
odd ha permanecido casi estacionario. En 1896 el valor de dichas 
exportadones ascendio it $1^310^000, y en 1905 solo ascendid & $3,- 
TU^OOO. Por otra parte, el valor de las exportaciones de pl£tanos, que 
en 1896 ascendio & $565,000^ se ha anmentado con asombrosa rapidez^ 
y en 1905 aseeodi6 & 93,648,000. El n^rcado para los pl£tanos del 
America Central se estaextendiendo con inucha rapidez, siendo asi que 
^ estos ^Itimos anos se han hecho iniportantes ventas en Inglaterra, 
y DO cabe duda de que el ^xito de dicho industria en la Rep(iblica de 
Costa Rica ha de estimular el cultivo de esta fruta en los otros cinco 
pftises que tienen terrenos propicios para ello. 

Los dates estadisticod nauestran que el valor total de los pldtanos en 
D^rcados del distrito de Bluefields en los tres ultimos anos ascendio d 
l^7^^548. El valor de las exportaciones correspondiente & cada uno 
de los tres aiios meneionados que terminaron el 30 de junio, f u4 como 
ague: en 1903, $942^220; en 1904, $814,900, y en 1905, $647,428. 

En el informe hecho por la "Bluefields Steamship Company-' se 
expresa que los pMtanos y otras f rutas tropicales en 1905 dieron una 
ganancia total de $1,044,703, y del negocio de az6car se obtuvo una 
ganancia de $573,017. El 30 de septiembre de 1905 dicha companfa 



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72 OFICINA INTEBNAOIONAL DE LAS BBPUBLICA8 AMEBIOANAS. 

poseia un total de 295,617 acres de terreno, comparadas con 298,583 
que poseia el ano anterior, y ademfis habfa tornado en arrendamiento 
319,313 acres, comparadas con 324,889 el ano anterior. Dicha com- 
pania posee 11,942 cabezas de ganado, contra 13,239 que poseia el ano 
anterior, y 2,940 caballos y mulos, contra 2,710 que tenia el ano ante- 
rior. Tambi^n posee 173.65 millas de ferrocarril, sin incluir el Ferro- 
carril del Norte de Costa Rica, comparadas con 153.79 millas que tenia 
en 1904 y 123.64 millas en 1903. Tambi^n posee 30 locomotoras y 
669 carros. 

La United Fruit Company constituye una de las empresas prin- 
cipales del pais, y el informe que ha hecho correspondiente fi los anos 
de 1903-4 muestra que tiene 6,242.70 hect^reas sembradas de pMta- 
DOS, al paso que el informe que pre8ent6 correspondiente a 1904-5 
muestra que tiene 8,335.37 hectdreas sembradas de pldtanos, lo cual 
muestra un aumento de 2,092.67 hectdreas sembradas de dicha fruta. 
En 1904r-5.el numero total de racimos de pldtanos exportados ascen- 
dio d 6,138,009, valuados en 5,213,005.97 colones, 6 sea un aumento 
de 677,646 racimos, valuados en 152,026.74 colones, respecto de las 
expoi-taciones del ano anterior. En el transporte de la expresada 
fruta se emplearon 267 buques. En el mismo periodo, es decir, de 
1904-5, la precitada compaiiia import6, en pago de una parte de sus 
gastos, $317,000 en oro americano, 6 como $117,000 mds que sus 
importaciones de oro americano durante el ano anterior. 

La cosecha de caf6 de 1904-5 produjo 296,509 sacos^ de los cuales 
un 61.33 por ciento se exportaron con cdscara. En las Provincias de 
Heredia y Alajuela la cosecha f u^ muy grande. 

En 1905 se exportaron 73 toneladas m^tricas de goma el&stica, contra 
67 toneladas en 1904. Debe advertirse que esta goma la produjeron 
drboles que no tu\aeron ningdn cultivo. Por mds que tanto el suelo 
como el clima de Costa Rica se prestan al cultivo de la goma, hasts 
ahora no hay plantaciones de consideraci6n en dicha Repfiblica. 

Las exportaciones de cacao, que antes ascendieron & 119 toneladas, 
han aumentado hasta 149 toneladas m^tricas. La demanda dom^stica, 
quo es muy considerable, se abastece por completo del cacao producido 
en el pais. 

Durante el ano de 1904-5, la Rep6blica de Costa Rica produjo 
1,415,000 kilogramos de mieles y 2,305,950 kilogramos de azucar. 

En cuanto d todos los demds productos de su suelo, ademds de los 
mencionados, solo se requiere convertir las florestas primitivas en ricos 
campos de algodon, maiz, cana de az6car, cacao, caucho, etc., de los 
cuales hay mucha demanda, en tanto que no cabe duda de que el cul- 
tivo de naranjas y pinas en mayor escala han de obtener un 6xito com- 
pleto, tan luego como desaparezca enteramente la escarcha, que es el 
gran enemigo de estos plantlos. 



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UNA BEVI9TA DE LA AMioRICA LATIN A. IN 1905. 73 

Costa Rica es un pals eminentemente agrfcola, por mfc que por el 
lado del Pacifico tiene minas que bien merecen explotarse y dosarro- 
llarse, j como quiera que los medics de transporte son sumamente 
eficaces, no hay inconveniente en desarrollar empresas de esta indole. 

En 1905 se advierte un notable aumento en las exportacioncs de 
productos de las minas costarricenses habi^ndose embarcado metales 
preciosos j>or valor de £58,058, eomparadas con £8,367 en 1904. Esto 
se atribuye en gran manera d los minerales triturados de la mina de 
Abangares, que se cerro el ano anterior para efectuar en ella algunas 
mejoras. £1 1** de julio de 1905, se reanudaron los trabajos de la 
compania en las minas de oro, habi^ndose completado la instalacion 
de un molino de 40 pilones, una planta para Uevar &. cabo el procedi- 
miento al cianuro y de lixiviaci6n, asi como una prensa de filtro. La 
Boston Mining Company continda operando con un molino de 10 
pilones y el procedimiento al cianuro. Se dice que se estdn desarro- 
llando otras minas. 

Punta Arenas es el centro de la industria de la pesca de perla en 
Costa Rica, la cual, sin embargo, se 8uspendi6 mediante el decreto del 
Gobierno del 5 febrero de 1905, d fin de que el Gobierno pudiera 
efectuar un examen mds minucioso de los lechos 6 depositos, y dis- 
poner lo conducente para su debida explotaci6n. 

El 18 de abril de 1905 el Congreso de la Republica de Costa Rica 
autorizo al Presidente para disminuir 6 abolir por completo los dere- 
chos sobre las impoii:aciones de maiz y frijoles por el tiempo que 
juzgase conveniente, y aun importar estos cereales por cuenta del 
Gobierno, si f uere necesario. Debido d la escasez que de entos pro- 
ductos hay en la actualidad en Costa Rica, el 25 de abril de 1905 el 
Presidente expedio un decreto cuya clausula principal es en substancia 
como sigue: Por la presente se suspenden temporalmente losderechos 
de iraportacion sobre el maiz y los frijoles, debiendo dicha suspension 
6 exencion empezar el 1"* de mayo (iltimo y continuar hasta el 31 do 
diciembre del corriente ano. 

Por virtud de un decreto expedido el 20 de mayo do 1905, la impor- 
tacion de tabaco en rama & Costa Rica', que hasta estonces habia sido 
un monopolio del Gobierno, se declaro libre. 

En 1904-5 la renta de aduana fu^ enteramente satisfactoria. Sin 
incluir los derechos de aduana que se cobren en Puerto Limon sobre 
las mercancias destinadas al consumo, cuyo producto se destina al 
mantenimiento de un hospital en dicho punto, ni la contribuoion do 
exportacion sobre maderas (cuyo producto tambi^n se destina & un fin 
especial) en el presupuesto de 1904-5 la renta de aduana se calculo en 
3,533,000 colones. El verdadero resultado do esta f uente ascendio & 
3,696,166.02 colones, 6 sea un superavit de 1()3,166.02 colones respecto 
de los ingresos calculados. En 1903-4 la renta de aduana ascendi6 

Bull. No. 1—06 7 

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74 OFICINA INTERNACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLICA8 AMEKICANA8. 

& 3,492,613.24 colones, y la renta correspondiente al au« economico 
1902-3 ascendi6 & 2,965,017.14 colones. Estas cifras muestran un 
aumento constante en la renta de aduana de la Rep(iblica en el periodo 
conoiprendido en los anos economicos do 1902-3 basta 1904 y 1905. 

La renta neta procedente de licores y de tabaco en el ano economico 
de 1902-3 ascendio & 974,163.94 colones, la de 1903-4 ascendio & 
997,979.94 colones, y la correspondiente al ano economico de 1904-5 
ascendio & 1,075,659.78 colones. 

En el ano econ6mico de 1904-6, la renta de correos y telegrafos 
ascendio fi 188,359.59 colones, en vez de 180,000 colones, que es la 
cantidad que se calculo en el presupuesto. En el ano econ6mico ante- 
rior los ingresos procedentes de esta fuente ascendieron & 182,937.78 
colones, y los correspondientes al ano econ6mico de 1902-3 ascendieron 
& un total de 158,688.59 colones. 

En 1904-5 la renta procedente de correos de paquetes ascendi6 £ 
91,189.92 colones, en tanto que la del ano anterior ascendio a 80,016.56 
colones y la de 1902-3 6. 53,455.61 colones. 

El siguiente es un resumen de la deuda de la Bepublica en oro de 
los Estados Unidos: 

(A) Deuda poremision de bonos (pendiente el V de abril de 1905): 

1. Deuda extranjera $11,690,925.00 

2. Deuda interior 693,315.00 

3. Bonos del Ferrocarril del Pacffico 1,449,000.00 

(B) Deuda no consolidada (pendiente el 1" de enero de 
1905): 

1. Deuda flotante $991,928.24 

2. Deuda consolidada 458,382.44 

1, 450, 310. 68 

15,283,550.68 

Durante el ano la Repfiblica emiti6 sus bonos de 5 por ciento de 
reembolso en oro de los Estados Unidos por valor de $11,500,000 en 
denominaciones de $1,000 y $500, pagaderos al portador, los cuales 
llevan la fecha de julio l*" de 1905, y devengan interes desde la expi-e- 
sada fecha. Este emprestito Duede aumentarse hasta $13,239,000. 

Debido & las condiciones sanitarias mejoradas y al constante cuidado 
de los autoridades, la salud pfiblica de la Republica sido muy satisfacto- 
ria. A pesar de haberse declarado la f iebre amarilla en el Istmo en el 
mes de julio, ni en Puerto Limon ni en Punta Arenas ocurri6 ningiin 
caso. Durante el ano se abrio en Lim6n el nuevo hospital de la 
United Fruit Companj', que tiene 117 camas. 

La Republica de Costa Rica ha comenzado & disf rutar de los benefices 
resultados obtenidos del hecho de que su territorio lo atraviesa el Ferro- 
carril Interocednico, ademas de los grandes medios de transporte que 
de esta manera se proporcionan £ lacomunicacion con el interior del 
pafs. La prensa del pafs anuncia (jue durante los ultimos meses los 
viajeros de los Estados de la America Central y de algunos paises del 



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TJTXA. BEVISTA DE LA AH^BICA LATIXA IK 1906. 75 

SOT, que raa al extnmjero^ ban desembarcado en Punta Arenas^ desde 
donde ban seguido basta Puerto Liiu6Q y de alii se ban embarcado para 
los Kstados Unidoe- 6 para Europa. Como todo el mundo sabe, bay 
lineas de comiuiicacion directa entre Puerto Lim6n y Nueva York y 
entre Puerto LJm6n y Nueva Orleans, y ademas es un puerto en donde 
tocan los vapores trasatl4nticos eon destino dCol6n. En la actual idad 
el viaje por f errocarril & traves del pals no se ef ectua sin suf rir ciertas 
molestias, debido al becbo de que en el lado del Pacifico bay una pequeila 
parte de la Knea — entre Esparta y Santo Domingo de San Mateo — que 
a6n se esti construyendo^ pero por otra parte diebo viaje se baee & 
traves de una region que es sumamente pintoresca y saludable, cuyo 
dima i^^radable no proporciona ninguno de los peligros que existen en 
el Istmo de Panama. 

La extension de los ferrocarriles es la siguiente: 217 kilometros de 
Puerto Limon por la costa del Atl£ntico basta San Jos^, capital de la 
Republica, incluyendo en estas cifras el ramal de La Junta d Jimenes, 
en la costanera occidental, desde lacual se proyecta construir un f erro- 
carril basta Nicamgua; 227 kilometros de f errocarril de Puerto Lim6n 
& Bio Banano, y desde alii basta los platanales situados bacia el norte; 
21 kilometros de ferrocarril en la planicie interior que conecta las 
princtpales ciudades con la capital; 66 kilometros de esta Altima & 
Santo Domingo, cerca de la costa del Pacifico; 22 kilometros de Esparta 
i Punta Arenas, y 72 kilometros de camino de caiTcterro desde la costa 
del Pacifico 4 Alajuela, que conecta la capital con Punta Arenas. 

Los representantes del Ferrocarril de Costa Rica, que es una Com- 
pania inglesa, y los del Ferrocarril del Noite de Costa Rica, que es 
Hna Companta americana, firmaron un contrato en Londres, con arre- 
glo & cuyas condiciones la Compania del Ferrocarril del Norte toma en 
arrendamiento el Ferrocarril de Costa Rica, debiendo bacersele 
eotrega del mismo el 1^ de julio de 1905. Dicbo arrendamiento se 
hace por el I'esto del plazo de 99 anos, estipulado en la concesion ori- 
ginal hecba al Ferrocarril de Costa Rica, 6 sea por mas de 60 aiios & 
contar de la expresada f ecba. 

En 1905 en los puertos de Costa Rica entraron y salieron 1,200 
buques de todas clases y nacionalidades, cuyo tonelaje ascendio & 
1,500,000. 

El desarroHo del pais estA limitado unicamente por el numero de 
habitantes. 

El Gobierno dispone actualmente de 60,000 acres do terreno, que 
ofrece & precios muy bajos y que se deStinan expresamente & los inmi- 
grantes. No se pagan impuestos sobre la tierra de cultivo, con excep- 
cion de pequenfw contribuciones que se destinan & la conservacion de 
los caminos municipales. Los caminos p6bIicos se sostienen en buen 
estado con los f ondos de la Nacion. 



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76 OFICINA INTEBNACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLICA8 AMEBIOANTAS. 

Cxiba, — El dia 1^ de diciembre de 1905 se celebraron las elecciones 
generales de Representantes, Senadores, Gobernadores, Magistrados 
y Prcsidente de la Republica — elecciones que se comprobaron pos- 
teriormente con arreglo k la Ley Electoral de la Republica. El 
General TomXs Estrada Palma fu6 electo Presidente, obteni^ndose 
asi la continuacion de la politica progresiva de los asuntos publicos 
iniciada por el Senor Estrada Palma. 

Durante todo el ano, las relaciones extran jeras de la Repdblica f ueron 
amistosas. Habidndosele comunicado al Gobierno cubano la separa- 
cion del Gobierno de los Reinos de Noruega y Suecia; en seguida se 
tomaron las medidas conducentes para reconocer su independencia 
coniun. En el mes de noviembre el Senor Carlos Renoz f u6 recibido 
como Ministro residente de Belgica, y con tal motivo el Representante 
cubano el Bruselas asumio tambi^n un rango correspondiente. Los 
Senores Jos6 F. Godoy, Edwin V. Morgan y Luis F. Corea f ueron 
recibidos posteriormente como Enviados Extraordinarios y Ministros 
Plenipotenciarios de Mexico, los Estados Unidos y Nicaragua, respec- 
tivamento. 

La mision del Ministro nicaraguense se considera como un motivo 
para destinar enviados extraordinarios a los varios paises de la Ame- 
rica Central y del Sud, con el fin de establecer relaciones cordiales 
entre las Repiiblicas hermanas de la America Latina. Ademas, el Presi- 
dente Palma pidio que se nombrase y enviase un representante extraor- 
dinario al Brasil, k fin de que pudiera recibir y presentar los delegados 
al Gobierno brasileno d reunirse en Rio de Janeiro la Tercera Confe- 
rencia Internacional de Estados Americanos. Los representantes 
diplomaticos cubanos enviados k Espana y Francia f ueron nombrados 
y recibidos por los Gobiernos de referencia, y se envio otro represen- 
tante al Reino de Italia. En la actualidad el cuerpo consular de la Repu- 
blica consibte de 36 consules y 105 miembros honorarios, en tantcTque 
que el niimero de representantes consulares enviados por otras naciones 
a la Republica de Cuba asciende d 131. 

Tambien se nombraron los representantes que ban de asistir al deci- 
moquinto Congrcso Mddico Internacional que se ha de reunir en Lisboa 
del 19 al 26 de abril de 1906. 

El Gobierno cubano trata la cuestion de instruccion publica con un 
espiritu de liberalidad, y el Presidente pide que se dicten nuevas leyes 
que favorczcan este importante ramo de administracion. 

En 1904 el numero total de inmigmntes d la Republica de Cuba 
ascendio a 28,407, al paso que en 1905 ascendio a 54,219. En 1904 el 
mayor numero de inmigrantes de un pais determinado, 23,759 vinieron 
de Espana, numero que en 1905 subio d 47,902. D^spu^s siguen los 
Estados Unidos, que en 1904 enviaron 1,549 inmigrantes a Cuba y en 
1905 enviaron 1,861. En el segundo semestre del afio comun de 1905, 
al puerto de Habana llegaron 41,838 individuos, de los cuales 29,319 



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UNA BEVISTA DE LA AMERICA LATINA IN 1905. 77 

eran ininigrantes, comparados con 31,210 pasajeros, incluyendo 18,723 
inmigrantes, que llegaron durante el mismo penodo del ano anterior. 
En el ultimo semestre de 1905 Hebron 3,510 viajeros que f ueron dete- 
nidos en cuai*antena con arreglo al reglamento que prescribe dicha 
detencion cuando se trata de pasajeros procedentes de los puertos del 
sud de los E^stados Unidos. 

Las medidas sanitarias han sido objeto de especial atencion, obteni(»n- 
dose por resultado la extirpacion prdctica de la fiebre amarilla. Debido 
& las eficaces medidas tomadas por el Ministro de Cuba en Washington, 
Senor Gonzalo de Quesada, se evito la proyectada cuarentena de 
los puertos del sud de los Estados Unidt)s contra los buques que llega- 
ban de Cuba, puesto que las condiciones sanitarias de la Republica de 
Cuba no justificaban semejante cuarentana. 

La estadistica demografica muestra que de noviembre de 1905 6, 
febrero de 1906, ocurrieron 8,629 defunciones, 6 sea un promedio de 
un 15.81 por ciento, calculando toda la poblaci6n en 1,656,776. Como 
quiera que los nacimientos en el mismo periodo ascendieron d 22,252, 
rcvsulta un aumento de 13,623 en los habitantes de la Repfiblica. 

El presupuesto del ano economico de 1905 muestra que el total de 
egresos ascendi6 & $19,138,102, al paso que los ingresos ascendieron a 
$19,699,850, quedando asi un supemvit de $561,745. 

Los ingresos calculados son los siguientes: Renta de aduana, $17,- 
862,000; derechos consulares, $260,000; comunicaciones, $533,400; 
renta interna, $585,000; premios procedentes de propiedades del 
Estado, $257,250, y de diversas fuentes, $202,000. 

Los egresos se calculan como sigue: Departamento de Estado y 
Justicia, $473,488; Departamento de Gobernacion, $6,099,214; De- 
partamento de Hacienda, $2,253,003; Departamento de Instruccion 
Piiblica, $3,901,993; Departamento de Obras Publicas, $4,813,854; 
Departamento de Agricultura 6 Industria, $262,347; Administracion 
de Justicia, $1,265,813, y Departamento del Ejecutivo, $68,390. 

En el primer semestre del ano economico de 1905-6 los gastos 
nacionales se calculan en $10,655,067.66, al paso que los ingresos co- 
rrespondientes al mismo periodo se calculan en $16,383,131.27. La 
renta de aduana d^ semestre ascendio a $13,264,228.46, y la renta 
interna ascendio a f676,388.31. 

Habiendose aprobado la le}'^ del 29 de agosto de 1905, que pros- 
cribe el pago de los cr^ditos aprobados, celebroso un contrato con 
la American Bank-Note Company, de Mueva York, para imprimir los 
bonos de $100, a que se refiere el Articulo III de la expresada Ic}'. 

El interes de los bonos emitidos por la Delegacion del Gobierno 
Revolucionario en 1896 y 1897 continua pagandose en los plazos con- 
venidos, de acuerdo con las prescripcionos dc la ley del 22 de enero do 
1904 y el decreto numero 48 del 6 del siguiente mes de febrero. 



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78 OFICIHA INTERN ACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLIC AS AMERICANA8. 

A principios de junio en el Tesoro Nacional habia un superdvife con- 
siderable del producto de la coatribucion extraordinaria impuesta con 
motivo del empr&tito de $35,000,000. A. fin de emplear eficazmente 
dicha superavit, el Secretario del Tesoro ]uzg6 que lo m£s ascertado 
era emplear $1,000,000 6 $1,500,000 en la compra de bonos del preci- 
tado empr^stito, ejerciendo asl el derecho concedido por la ley deenero 
de 1904. Con tal fin, el expresado Secretario se puso en comunicacion 
con algunos banqueros a fin de obtener propuestas, y Uevar d cabo las 
negociaciones bajo las condiciones mds ventajosas que f uese posible. 
Efectuose dicha transacion 6 negociacion por el valor nominal de 
$1,000,000, al tipo de un 6i por ciento de premio, entregindose los 
bonos en la Tesoreria General de la Republica, libres de todo costo. 
Se pagaron §1,062,500, que le producen al Estado una ganancia anual 
de $50,000, derivada del interns de un 5 por ciento que dichos bonos 
devengan, siendo asi que la expi*esada cantidad viene k aumentar d 
producto de las contribuciones extraordinarias. Ya se ban cobrado 
los $25,000 que representan el interns de seis meses. Los bonos com- 
prados estan depositados en el Tesoro como titulos 6 valores d cuenta 
del empr^stito, y sei*dn redimidos k su debido tiempo de la misma 
manera que se redimieron los otros bonos de la misma deuda. 

En el ano economico de 190tt-5, el valor de las importaciones de la 
Kepublica de Cuba ascendiod $83,950,000, comparado con $70,150,000, 
& que ascendio el valor de las importaciones del ano anterior, resultando 
asi im aumento de $13,800,000 en 1904-5. Cumple advertir que las 
cifras que anteceden no incluyen el dinero importado. 

Los Estados Unidos representan $8,900,000 (6 sea un 65 per ciento) 
en dicho aumento, Francia representa menos de $800,000, Espana 
$740,000, y Alemania $460,000. 

En el mismo periodo el valor total de las exportaciones sin induir 
el dinero importado ascendio a $99,100,000, comparado con $93,100,000, 
fi que ascendio el valor de las exportaciones del ano anterior, resultando 
asi un aumento de $6,000,000. En valor de las exportaciones k los 
Estados Unidos muestra un aumento de $7,500,000, y d Inglaterra 
$400,000, notdndose una disminucion respecto de otros paises, especial- 
mente en las exportaciones a Alemania, en las one resulto una dis- 
minucion de $1,300,000. *" 

Del valor total de las exportaciones, el azucar representa $60,700,000, 
es decir, $3,000,000 mas que el ano anterior; el tabaco representa 
$26,600,000, 6 sea un aumento de $1,800,000. 

La actividad comercial reinante muestra el estado satisfactorio de la 
prosperidad general de la Republica, siendo asi que las rentasdel Estado 
hanaumentado proporcionalmente y, por consecuencia, ban aumentado 
tambidn el trabajo que exige el servicio de recaudacion y admin istracion. 

En el ano comun de 1905, el valor de las miportaciones ascendio & 
$94,806,665, comparado con $77,028,314, en los doce meses anteriores, 6 

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Xnf\ KSTISTA DE LA AMiBICA LATUTA IN 1905. 79 

sea nn aomento de $1T,T78,361, Debc advertise que estas cifras no 
hielnjan ki moneda iroportada que aseendio & $8,249,467, comparada 
con $5,807,337 en 1904. 

Distribuidas por pafses, la fuente de hs importaeiones fu^ la 
signiente: $42,981,888 de lo« E^tados Unidoa, $5,784,784 de Alemania,, 
$10,35«,46d de Espana, $5,283,2^ de Francia, $13,424,6r)0 del Reino 
Uoido, $12,522,620 de otros paises de America, $3,602,493 de otroe 
paises Eoropeos, y $890,498 de todos los demis palses. 

Durante el mismo periodoel valor total de las exportaciones ascendi6 
i $110,167,484, eomparado eon $8^,012,756 en 1904, 6 sea un aumento 
de $21,154,728 en 1905, sin incluir las exportaciones de dinero, que 
en 1905 se vahiaron en $2,112,540, y en 190t en $965,385. 

Los si^ientes son lo© parses & Ice cuales se hicieron dichas exporta- 
ciones: A los Estados Unidos, por vaTor de $95,330,475; i Alemania, 
$3,905,471; dEspana, $786,344; fiFrancia, $1,198,652; al Reino Unido, 
$5,795,350; i otro& pafses de America, $1,717,568; & otros patses 
Europeos, $770,358, y i todos los demis paises, $633,266. 

Eb el aik>eom6n de 1905 el valor de las mercancias enviadae de Cuba 
fi tos Estados Unidos ascendi6 & $95,857,856, contra $57,228,291 en 
1903, $31,747,229 en 1900, y $16,233,456 en 1897, ano en que las im- 
portaciooes que los Estados Unidos hicieron de Cuba raarcaron el 
panto m&s bajoen los eineoenta iiltimos anos. En el afio com(in de 1905, 
las importaeiones que Cuba hizo'de los EstadovS Unidos se valuaron en 
$44,569,^12, contra $33,504,417 en 1903, $26,934,524 en 1900, y 
$7,396,613 en 1896, aik> en que las importaeiones fuei*on menores que 
en cualquier ano anterior en los cineuenta 61timo9 anas. Tanto en las 
importaeiones cofno en las exportaciones, las cifras correspondientes 6, 
1905 son Bfwtyores que lasde cualquier otro aiio anterior en el comercio 
de los Estados Unidos eon Cuba. 

Los prineipales artlculos de exportaci6n de Cuba & los Estados 
Unidos son el az6car y las mieles, el tabaco, los cigarros 6 puros, y las 
frntas. No bay para que decir que el azficar e.s el articulo mayor y 
mfe hnportante de todos los citados, siendo asf que en 1905 el valor 
total de las exportaciones de este dulce aseendio & $72,649,818, y repre- 
sentaba un 70 por ciento de todo el az6car importado por los f^sttulos 
Unidos de paises extranjeros, y un 48 por ciento del importado de 
todos los parses del mundo. No cabe duda de que este aumento se 
debe tambi^n, en parte, al gran aumento de produccion de azucar en 
dicha Republica en 1904 y 1905, comparados con otros anos en que la 
prodacci6n de este dtilce se disminuyo A causa del dark) causada & los 
ingenios durante la guerra que hubo en dicha i«la. 

Seg6n ya se ha indicado, en 1905 el valor de las exportaciones de 
ftzucarexcediode $72,000,000, en tanto que el valor de las exporta- 
eiooes en el ano comfin de 1903 sdlo ascendi6 & $37,000,000 y el de las 
de 1902 i $30,000,000. En 1905 las exportaciones de mieles de Cuba 



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80 OFICINA INTEENACIONAL DE LAS BEPtJBLICAS AMEBICANA8. 

& los Estados Unidos so valuaron en $1,097,153, contra $1,108,289 en 
1903 y $770,893 en 1902. En 1905 las exportaciones de tabaco en rama 
se valuaron en $11,879,938, contra $10,157,975 en 1903 y $9,736,526 en 
1902. En 1905 el valor de las exportaciones de cigarros 6 puros ascendi6 
. A $3,855,820, contra $2,977,924 en 1903 y $2,522,089 en 1902. En 1905 
el valor de las exportaciones de frutas ascendi6 6, $1,236,028, y con 
excepcion de $5,803, toda esa cantidad la representaban las exporta- 
ciones de pldtanos. El minei'al de hierro constituye otro articulo de 
exportaci6n de gran importancia, por cuanto en 1905 el valor de las 
exportaciones de dicho mineral ascendi6 & $1,537,890, contra $1,501,480 
en 1903 y $1,576,617 en 1902. Entre los otros productos importantes 
deben mencionarse el cobre que se export6 por valor de $55,889, 
caoba por valor de $89,204, al paso que bajo la denominaci6n general 
de *'todos los dem£s articulos," se incluyen las mercanclas exportadas 
por valor de $3,456,316. 

El numero de los articulos que los Estados Unidos exportaron £ 
Cuba cs mucho mayor que el numero de los que importaron de dicba 
Repiiblica. El artfculo del cual exportaron mas en 1905 iu6 la barina, 
valuada en $4,443,048, contra $2,068,083 en 1903, y $2,059,876 en 1902; 
ganado vacuno, por valor de §1,983,152, contra $1,393,295 en 1903, y 
$1,243,166 en 1902; carbon bituminoso, $1,487,776, contra $1,277,471 
en 1903; g^neros dc algodon, por valor de $1,212,319, contra $271,582 
en 1903, y $208,039 en 1902, siendo a«i que en 1905 la cantidad expor- 
tada ascondio & 24,247,573 yardas, contra 3,861,295 yardas en 1903, y 
3,530,775 en 1902. En 1905 las exportaciones de calzado en general & 
dicha isla se valuaron en $1,586,790, contra $744,119 en 1903, y $485,073 
en 1902. Las exportaciones de manteca se valuaron en $2,231,650, 
contra $1,408,673 en 1903, y $2,198,238 en 1902; las composiciones de 
manteca ascendieron & $1,005,215, contra $1,515,757 en 1903, y $773,211 
en 1902; el valor do las exportaciones de tocino ascondio d $412,672, 
contra $322,383 en 1903; el de jamones ascondio a $468,842, contra 
Sr>76,673 en 1903; el de las do carne do puerco ascendio & $480,938, 
contra ^273,938, y el de las exportaciones de leche ascondi6 d $647,926, 
contra $277,745 on 1903. 

La madora tambi^n os un articulo importante, y on 1905 las expor- 
taciones que se hicioron A Cuba se valuaron on $2,001,214, contra 
$1,011 ,r>28, on 1903. En las exportaciones de los Estados Unidos a Cuba 
las loi^umbros ticnen mucha importancia, siendo asi que el valor de 
his que se hicieron A dicha Repiiblica en 1905 ascendio d $885,997. En 
el expresado ano el valor de los mucbles que se exportaron & dicha isla 
ascondi6 & $696,579; el del petroleo ascondio d $412,867; el del aceite 
mineral refinado ascendio d $351,120; el del papol y sus manufactui^as 
ascondio d $406,400, y el del arroz ascondio a $845,049. El embarque 
do arroz para Cuba constituye un dotallc entoramonte nuevo en el 
comercio de oxportaci6n do los E^stados Unidos, por cuanto el valor 

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UNA BEVISTA DE LA AMl^RICA LATINA IK 1906. 81 

total del arroz cnviado & dicha Repiiblica en 1904 861o ascendi6 & 
^172,707, y en 1903 no ascendio mfis que 4 $15, en tanto que, como 
antes se ha indicado, el valor total del arroz enviado & Cuba en 1905 
ascendio d f345,049. 

El grupo mds grande de artfculos qtie se exportan & Cuba de los 
Estados Unidos es el de las manufacturas de hierro y acero, cuyo 
valor total en 1905 ascendio a $8,484,267, contra $3,461,937 en 1903, y 
$4,325,304 en 1902. Las locomotoras para ferrocarriles constituyen 
el articulo mas importante de este grupo, siendo asi que el valor de las 
que se exportaron en 1905 ascendio d $628,831, contra $127,845 en 
1903. En 1905 el valor de los articulos de ferreteria para earpinteros 
y constructores, incluso sennichos, sierras y demds instrumentos, se 
valuaron en $628,809. 

Las exportaciones de tabaco de la Repfiblica de Cuba en el ano comun 
de 1905, comparadas con el ano anterior, fueron como sigue: 27,570,180 
libras en 1904, y 34,879,570 libras en 1905, lo cual muestra un aumento 
de 7,309,390 libras en 1905. 

En 1904-5 la Repfiblica de Cuba produjo 1.083,258 toneladas de 
azficar. 

Entre las industrias menores la industria pecuaria es la que p^ogresa 
mas en la isla. Dicha industria estd recobrando rdpidamente su antigua 
importancia y contribuye en gran manera d las impoi-taciones que se 
hacen al pais. Las importaciones may ores de ganado vacuno se hacen 
de Mexico, que de 1899 d 1903, inclusive, embarc6 para la isla ganado 
vacuno por valor de $12,005,000, contra $8,346,000 que se importaron 
de los Estados Unidos por un valor total de $38,286,300. 

En los 12 meses que tcrminaron el 30 de junio de 1905, el valor 
total de las importaciones de ganado vacuno ascendio d mds de $6,000,- 
000, y el de las importaciones de dicho ganado de los Estados Unidos, 
incluido en dicha suma, ascendi6 d $1,927,676, 6 sea como la tercera 
parte del valor total de dichas importaciones. El valor de las impor- 
taciones de ganado vacuno de Venezuela ascendio a $1,667,000, el de 
las de Colombia ascendio d $1,104,000, y el de las de Mexico d $009,- 
OOO. Tambi^.n se import6 ganado de otros paises americanos, tales 
como Honduras, Nicaragua, Haiti, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo y las 
Antillas Inglesas. 

Si se compara el servicio postal dom^stico del ultimo ano economico 
con el de los anos anteriores, se nota desde luego un aumento consi- 
derable en el niimero de piezas de correspondencia despachadas en 
1904-5, que hacen un total de 20,750,356, comparado con 17,590,548 
en 1903-4, y 11,903,801 en 1902-3. Tambi^n se advierte un aumento 
considerable en el servicio de correos internacional, por cuonto en 
1903-4 se despacharon un total do 10,073,588 piezas de corresponden- 
cia, y el numero de 6stas que se despacharon en 1904-5 ascendio d 
13,789,348. Se verd, pues, que el servicio postal dom^stico casi se ha 



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82 OPIOUf A IlfTEBlf AOIONAL BE LAS BEPUBLICAS AMEBICAKAS. 

duplicado en dos affos, j todo indica un aumento gradual, no s61o & 
causa de la prosperidad del pais y de las garantias de vidas 3^^ hacienda 
que ofrece la Bepdblica, sino tambi^n debido 4 la prapagacion de kt 
instruccion por medio del gran ndmero de escuelas que se ban e^sta- 
biccido en los aiete dltimos afios. 

En el ano economico de 1904r-5 el servicio de giros postales dio los 
siguientes resultados: Se expidieron 110,831 giros postales, que asceo- 
dieron & $8,542,173.80, y en el servicio internacional se expidieron 
49,173 giros postales que ascendieron & $855,569.58, 6 sea un total de 
160,004 giros postales que representaban una suma de $4,397,743.38. 
Lo mismo que en 1902-3, se expidieron 64,710 giros postales en el 
servicio postal dom^stico que ascendieron & $2,015,568.49, y en el 
servicio postal internacional se expidieron 32,693 giros postales, que 
ascendieron & $658,361.98. 

En el periodo de 1902-3, se recaudaron $420,173.77; en el de 1903-4 
la cobranza ascendi6 & $471,561.07 que en 1904-5 se aumento & $597,- 
242.27. Corao quiera que la renta postal ha seguido aumentando en 
los tres meses transcurridos de julio i septiembre inclusive, puede 
decirse con toda seguridad que la cantidad recaudada & fines de la 
actual periodo ha de ser mucho mayor que la que representan las 
clfras citadas. 

El servicio de comunicaciones en toda la Rep6blica ha adelantado 
extraordinariamente, y se han establecido dos estaciones de telegrafo 
sin hilos en El Mariel y en la Isla de Pinos, respectivamente. De 
julio de 1905 al 28 de febrero de 1906 se enviaron 602,510 telegranaas 
que representaron la cantidad de $413,346.49. 

Las siguientes empresas telegrdficas se inaugurar&n en la Habana 
durante el ano: 

*^The Havana Central Railway Company " (Compania del Ferro- 
carril Central de la Habana) ha celebrado contratos para la construe- 
cion y equipo de un gran sistema de ferrocarril el^ctrico en Cuba. 
Dicha compafiia ha de construir y hacer f uncionar una red de lineas 
en los suburbios que ha de partir de la Habana y comprender un 
extenso territorio en el interior de la isla, que liasta ahora no tenia 
medios de comunicaci6n. 

En el primer caso, se han de construir 125 millas que representan 
un costo de cerca de $5,000,000. Ademds del transjx>rte de pasajeros, 
la linea ef ectuari el transporte de f rutas, legumbres y otros productos. 

Un ramal de ella se extenderd d traves de la isla hasta Kosario, 6 sea 
una distancia como de 40 millas. Se estableoeran estaciones en Cuarto 
Caminos, las Lomas de Candela y Providencia. Una segunda linea se 
extendera de la Habana d una distancia de 17 millas hacia el sud de 
Bejucal, y tendrd una estacion en Santiago de las Vegas. Una tercera 
linea que se extender^ desde el suroeste de la Habana hasta El Mariel, 
tendrd una longitud de 37 millas, y lineas ramales que se ban de 

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UlfA BBYI8TA BE LA AMiMOA LATINA IK 1905. 83 

extender hacia el norte y hacui el sod hasta El Girmelo, Santiago do 
las Vegas J Craira de Helena, que lian de hacer un total eomo de 
30 mOlas. 

La planta de poteacia el^rica que se ha de construir en la Habana 
ha de desarroilar 7,500 caballoe do f nerza de energia el^ctrica, d una 
corriente de 1^,000 y61tio6 de tres fases para hacer operar las lineas. 
Con tal fin se han de usar turbmas de vapor. 

Con la General Electric Company (Companm General El^trica) 
se eelebr6 un contrato valuado en m&s de $1,500,000 para efectuar el 
equipo el^trico completo del sistema. El contrato para el suministro 
de lo6 rieles se ha celebrado con la United States Steel Products 
Export Company y dicho contrato exige la entrega de 15,000 toneladas 
de rieles de tamafio normal. 

El 9 de noviembre de 1905 el Departamento de Obras Publicas de la 
Republica de Cuba expedi6 una circular pidiendo propuestas para la 
eoBstruccion de un tajamar 6 dique, nueras oficinas de aduanas, un 
edificio para la administrador de aduanas del puerto, y un maelle 
publico en Habana. El Gobiernose propone introducir las precitadas 
mejoras conocidas por el proyecto de Sylvester Scovel. La con- 
cesioQ hecha 4 Scovix se vender^ en remate publico y .se recibiran 
las propuestas y constmiran las obras con arreglo & las condiciones do 
esta conGesi6n. 

Chile. — El progreso general que se efectu6 en Chile en 1905 bajo la 
Administracion del Presidente Riesco f u^ bastante satisfactorio. Bajo 
dicha Administraci6n se arreglaron todas las cuestiones de las naciones 
Teciaas; se reanudaron las relaciones diplomdticas con el Perij, las 
coales dieron por resultado la celebraei6n de un convenio mediante el 
enal no solo terminarian las diferencias existentes entre los dos paises, 
flino qiie los uniria m£s intimamente. lAs controversiaa de Chile con 
la Repfiblica Argentina y Bolivia tambi^n so arreglaron, y durante el 
aSo so presentaron resoluciones que tenian por objeto reWsar los c6di- 
g06 vigentes, la reforma del servicio consular, las majoras del servicio 
dB policia, la realizacion de obras p6blicas, incluso la irrigacion, el 
deearrollo de la marina mercante y el estimulo de la pesca de salm6n. 
La situacion financkra tambi^n ha majorado mucho, y la actividad y 
los recorsos materiates de la naci6n continiian propendiendo £ que 
exista mayor seguridad y prosperidad tanto en el comercio como en la 
estabilidad del sistema monetaria. 

Los buenos precios que obtienen en Europa los tres artfculos prin- 
cipales de exportaci6n de la Eepublica, & saber, salitre, lana y cobre, 
ban estimnlado todas las industrias que con su produccion se relacionan, 
kabiendo esta circanstancta contribuido consideraMemente & la ere- 
dcnte prosperidad del pais* Por consecuencia, el capital nacional 
est£ en la aetuftlidad reemplazando al capital extranjero, y en prueba 
<fe ello puede mencionarse el hecho de que hace un corto tiempo que los 



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84 OFICINA INTERNACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLICA8 AKEBIOANAS. 

desiertos de salitre en los alrededores de Antofapista y Taltal estaban 
despoblados, con excepcion de unos pocos arrojados colonizadores, al 
paso que en la actualidad se ban abierto varias oficinas en dichos 
lugare8, las cuales contribu3^en eficazmente a la produeci6n del expre- 
sado abono. Las tierras bajas del sud en Tierra del Fuego y Maga- 
llancs, que hace poco eran desconocidas casi por completo, en la 
actualidad se utilizan para la crianza de ganado lanar y vacuno, y antes 
de mucho tiempo ha de ser una ayuda valiosa y permanente de la 
riqueza nacional de Chile. La industria de la lana se aumenta rdpida- 
mente en dicha regi6n, y es de advertir que estas nuevas 6 importantes 
industrias se ban iniciado con capital chileno, y por consecuencia es 
16gico suponer que las ganancias de aqu611as se queden en el pais y se 
empleen en nuevas empresas industriales y agrlcolas. Por tanto, no 
cabe duda de que se esta estimulando practicamente el desarroUo com- 
pleto de los recursos naturales de Chile. 

En 1905 los ingresos del pais ascendieron d 139,688,449 de pesos, y 
los egresos ascendieron d 136,326,749 de pesos. En 1906 los ingresos 
se calcularon en 137,000,000 de pesos, y los egresos en 165,000,000 de 
pesos. 

El 31 de diciembre de 1904 la deuda extranjera ascendia fi £16,449,960. 
A dicha suma deben agregarse £1,350,000, importe de los bonos que 
han de emitirse para efectuar el pago del sistema de cloacas 6 alcanta- 
rillado de la ciudad de Santiago. En esa misma fecha la deuda interna 
ascendia & $103,815,822.45. En 1904 el comercio extraniero de la Re- 
publica llego & representar un valor de 372,804,502 de pesos en ore, de 
los cuales 215,652,422 de pesos correspondlan d los productos nacionales 
exportados, y 157,152,080 de pesos correspondian & las mercancias 
extranjeras iraportadas. En 1905 las importaciones se valuaron en 
157,000,000 de pesos, y las exportaciones se valuaron en 216,000,000 
de pesos. 

De los $11,071,613 valor de las meicancias que los Estados Unidos 
importaron de Chile en 1905, el salitre fu^ el producto principal, por 
cuanto el valor de las importaciones de 6ste ascendio d $9,306,577. En 
1905 las exportaciones d Chile se valuaron en $5,391,357, y consistieron 
do un gran numero de articulos, siendo los mds importantes los g^ne- 
ros de algod6n, que se valuaron en $742,771; las manufacturas de 
hierro y acero, cuyo valor total ascendi6 d $1,435,168; las de lana y 
sus manufacturas, incluso la madera y los muebles, se valuaron en 
$484,356; las de aceites para el alumbrado se valuaron en $649,272, y 
las de provisiones en general en $90,105. 

En el primer semestre del ano comfin de 1905 los ingresos de renta 
de aduana ascendieron d $24,467,335, procedentes de los derechos de 
exportacion, y $14,859,992 procedientes de losderechos de importaci6n, 
los cuales hacian un total de §39,327,377. En 1904, durante el mismo 
periodo, los derechos cobrados de las exportaciones 6 importaciones. 

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UNA REVISTA DE LA AMERICA LATINA IN 1905. 85 

inclujendo los que se recaudaron en la aduana de Arica, ascendieron & 
$21,316,133 y ^15,4:66,409, respectivamente. En 1905 los derechos de 
exportacion raostraron un aumento de $3,151,252. Este aumento 
se debe al creciente desarrollo de la industria de salitre. Durante el 
mismo periodo de tiemp^ la disminuci6n en los derechos de impor- 
tacion ascendio fi $606,417. 

El resultado total de la cosecha de trigo del afio secalcula en 4,301,312 
quintales m^tricos, cantidad que representa 1,153,049 quint^les mdtri- 
cos menos que el resultado obtenido en 1904. 

Las cifras relativas d la producci6n, exportaci6n y consumo de sali- 
tre en 1904-5 son muy interesantes. La produccion y exportacion 
del salitre se efectua del 1** de abril al 31 de marzo, y el consumo se 
efectua del 1** de mayo al 30 de abril. La produccion total ascendi6 & 
36,661,125 quintales, 6 sea un aumento de 5,021,746 qumtales respecto 
de la produccion de 1903-4. En 1904-5 la exportacion de este pro- 
ducto ascendio fi 34,200,521 quintales, 6 sea un aumento de 2,604,619 
quintales respecto de 1903-4. Las entregas que se hicieron para el 
consumo en 1904-5 ascendieron & 33,798,013 quintales, 6 sea un 
aumento de 994,454 quintales respecto de 1903-4. 

En el primer trimestre de 1905-6 la produccion total ascendio & 
9,225,106 quintales, 6 sea un aumento de 941,308 respecto del periodo 
correspondiente de 1904-5. Las expoiiaciones ascendieron d 6,799,564 
quintales, 6 sea un aumento de 844,111 quintales, al paso que las 
entregas para el consumo ascendieron d 5,691,628 quintales, que repre- 
sentan un pequeno aumento de 138,743 quintales. Por mas que en 
1904-5 el consumo tu6 3.033 por ciento mayor que el de 1903-4, el 
aumento en las exportaciones represento un 8.244 por ciento. 

Hay 38 nuevas plantas en vias de constniccion y en proyecto, que 
han de tener una capacidad productora de 38,000,000 de quintales. 

Durante el ano habido neuva animacion en la mdustria minera en 
Chile, y en el raes de junto se hizo un importante descubrimiento en 
la Bahia de Cif uncho, en el Departamento de Taltal. Los depositos de 
cobre que hay en Copaquife, Chile, los estan explotando una compafiia 
inglesa, y el cobre que se obtiene tiene la forma del sulfato, y el 
mineral es de baja ley. En Humquintipa tambi^n se ha descubierto 
un deposito de cobre muy valioso. 

El 9 de Julio de 1904 se establecio comunicacion telegrafica con la 
Repfiblica Argentina por la linea de los Andes, habiendose enviado 
2,336 mensajes en dicho mes, cuyo niimero aumento gradualmcnte 
hasta diciembre del 1904, ^poca en que ascendieron d 6,256 mensajes. 
Tambi^n se establecio una Imea telegi'dfica internacional con Bolivia, 
la cual se termino, y los alambres se conectaron en agosto de 1905. 

A principios de ano tuvo efecto la explotacion provisional del ferro- 
earril que se extiende desde Pitruf quen a Antihue, uniendo asi la linea 



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86 OFIOLBTA INTERN ACIONAL BE LAS REPtJBLIOAS AMKRICANA8. 

centittl con Valdivia y Osorno. Tambi^n se espera que las lineas de 
Ovalle & Trapiche, Choapa & Illapel, Melipilla, Puangue, tunel del 
Xrbol 3' de Temuco d Carahue, esten todas operando en 1906. En 1904 
y en 1905, se celebraron contratos para la construccion de f errocariiles 
por valor de 3,660,000 pesos, las cuales lineas han de comprender 92 
kilometros de via en las secciones que se extienden desde las Animas 
hasta los Pozos, de la Paloma hasta San Marcos, de Choapa 4 Sala- 
manca, y de Alcones al tunel del Arbol. Se propone comenz&r la 
construccion de un ferrocarril que ha de recorrer un total de 185 kil6- 
metros, que han de costar aproximadamente 8,000,000 de pesos. A 
fines de 1905 se terminaron los pianos y reconocimientos para construir 
238 kil6metros de ferrocarril, los cuales han de costar mds de 9,000,000 
de pesos. 

Los trabajos en el Ferrocarril Transandino se continuaron con mucha 
actividad. A partir de la Cordillera de los Andes se han colocado 
rieles en una distancia de 45 millas, extendi^ndose dicha linea hasta 
Guardia Vieja, 6 sea una distancia de 37 kilometros. Cuando se ter- 
minen los tuneles que en la actualidad se estan construyendo, dicha 
linea se extendera todavia mas hacia la f rontera argentina. 

La longitud de los ferrocarriles del Estado se ealcula en 2,408 kilo- 
metros, y ademis hay 469 kilometros de una via particular que se est4 
concluyendo, y se ha autorizado la construccion de otras lineas cuya 
longitud total aaciende & 2,212 kilometros. 

Durante el aiio citado se coloearon 394 kilometroa de alambres tele- 
graficos; se construyeron 27,000 m^tros de puentes y se construyeron 
180 casas-escuelas. Las mejoras hechas en los puertos de ValparaLso 
y Anto£agasta, satisfacen las necesidades del comercio del pais. 

En 1905 el total de gastos pai*a operar la aduana de Valparaiso 
ascendio 4 $1,042,597.86, de la cual cantidad $618,659.20 representa- 
ban sueldos pagados a los empleados y $312,509.43 representaban 
gastos diversos, habiendo ascendido los derechos de aduana recaudados 
d $23,237,773.79. 

El 5 de enero de 1905 el Congreso de la Repiiblica celebr6 un con- 
trato para construir y operar un tranvia el^ctrica entre Valparaiso y 
Santiago, el cual ha de pasar por los famosos valles de Casablaaca y 
Curacavi, y ha de entrar en la capital de la Nacion por el lado occi- 
dental. Se construira una linea ramal de este tranvia que ha de 
conectar el Valle de Curacavi con la progresiva poblacion de Melipilla. 
Dicho contrato se ha celebrado por el t^rmino de cien ailos, y los con- 
tratistas estan exentos del pago de derechos sobre el material que 
necesiten, autorizandoseles, ademas, para usar los terrenos del Go- 
bierno y para que ejerzan el dereeho de expropiacion, etc. 

En el periodo de cinco afios, es decir, de 1901-5, & la Repfiblica de 
Chile llegaron 14,000 inmigrantes. 



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UK A BEV18TA DE LA AMERICA LATINA IN 1905. 87 

Republica Dominicana. — A. pesar de las condiciones instables que 
prevalecieron en toda la Republica Dominicana durante la mayor parte 
de 1906, ha sido posible obtener una relaci6n satisfactoria que com- 
prende la dtuacion comercial. Durante el perlodo de la Administra- 
cion del Presidente Morales, se hicieron muchas concesiones de im- 
portancia para el desarroUo de los recursos naturales del pafs. 

Kl si^aiente decreto f u^ promulgado con el fin de facilitar la comu- 
nicacion por toda la Rep6blica: 

'* ArtIculo 1**. A contar del 1** de enero de 1906, un 30 por ciento de 
la renta derivada de exportaciones, que se denominard renta interior, 
se consagrard d la construccidn de f errocarriles por cuenta del Estado, 
con arreglo k los contratos que el Jefe Ejecutivo celebrard y el Con- 
greso Nacional aprobard. 

^' Parrafo l^ Se autoriza al Ejecutivo para distribuir esta renta para 
pa^r los premios 6 garantizar el interns sobre el capital invertido en 
la construcci6n de f errocarriles particulares, por virtud de concesiones 
debidamente otorgadas. 

"Pdrrafo 2*. El interns puede ascender hasta un 6 por ciento anual, 
segun se determine, y se concederd un premio hasta la cantidad de 
^,000, por cada kil6metro de linea que se construya. 

*'Art. 2*. Los productos de esta empresa no pueden dedicarse d 
ningfin fin que no sea el estipulado en este decreto. 

*'Pdrrafo l^ Todos las compromisos fi obligaciones contraidas que 
se relacionen con estos ingresos se considerai^dn nulos y sin valor, sino 
Be conceden tal como se ha estipulado en el artlculo anterior. 

"Art. 3**. Para celebrar contratos y hacer concesiones para la cons- 
trucei6n de ferrocarriles, el Poder Ejecutivo, en igualdad de circuns- 
tancias, las hard sobre una base igual, dando la preferencia al ferro- 
carril que se ha de extender de Moca d Monte Christi, que se ha de 
conectar con el Ferrocarril Central Dominicana, desdo Barahona d 
Laguna del Fondo, desde Romano 6 Macoris del Este al Seybo, y 
desde Azua d Banica. 

En vista de la unidad de intereses existente entre dicha Republica y 
los fistados Unidos, el 12 de octubre de 1905, el Senor Emilio C. 
JouBEKT, que el ano anterior habfa sido encargado de negocios de la 
Republica Dominicana en Washington, fu^ ascendido d Ministro Resi- 
dente ante el Gobiemo de los Estados Unidos. 

Uri 50 por ciento del comercio extranjero de la Republica Domini- 
cana se hace con los siguientes palses europeos: la Gran Bretaffa, Ale- 
mania, Francia y Espafla. La mayor parte de las importaciones se 
hacen de Inglaterra, aparte las que se hacen de los Estados Unidos. 
En 1903 el valor de los productos dominicanos exportados d Alemania 
a8cendi6 a 7,0^,000 marcos. Durante el mismo periodo el valor de 
las exportaciones de Alemania d la Republica Dominicana ascendi6 d 
875,000 marcos. 

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88 OFICXNA INTERNAOIONAL DE LAS REPUBLI0A8 AMEEICANAS. 

En el ano comiin de 1905, el valor total del comercio extranjero de 
la Republica Dominicana ascendio como d $10,000,000, siendo asi que 
segun lo indican los documentos de la aduana, la suma exacta ascendio 
6. §9,992,361. El valor de las importacioncs, sin incluir las de dinero, 
ascendio d $2,730,828, cx)ntra el valor de las exportaciones que ascendio 
A $6,880,890, mostrandose asi que el valor de los productos del pais 
vendidos d naciones extranjeras representaba mds del doble del valor 
de las mercancias compradas en el extranjero, y que las operaciones 
del afio habian dado por resultado un saldo de $4,144,062, relativamente 
grande a favor de la Republica. En el valor total del comercio, 
aunque no en el valor total de las importacioncs y exportaciones, se 
ban incluido $359,435 de dinero en oro, plata y papel importado de los 
Estados Unidos, y $15,208 cxportado al mismo pafs. 

Por mas que practicamente $1,000,000 se habia depositado en el 
extranjero durante el ano para destinarlo & la amortizacion de la deuda 
p6blica — cantidad que habia sido pagada por virtud del cambio resul- 
tante de ventas del excedente de los productos del pais — no se habian 
necesitado embarques de papel moneda con tal motivo, y todavia habia 
un crcdito extranjero por mas de $2,500,000. 

El comercio extranjero se hizo principalmente con los Estados 
Unidos, Alemania, Francia y la Gran Bretana, en el orden mencionado 
en cuanto & la importancia de aqu^I. El valor del comercio que se 
hizo con los Estados Unidos ascendio d $6,445,346, 6 sea un 65 por 
ciento del total, que reprcsentan importacioncs de aquel pais por valor 
do $1,961,075, y exportaciones cuyo valor, segun las facturas, ascendi6 
d $4,484,271. Asi pues, los Estados Unidos compraron un 65 por 
ciento de todos los productos del pais que se exportaron, y suminis- 
traron un 59 por ciento de las mercancias importadas durante el aiio. 

Un 17 por ciento del comercio se hizo con Alemania, un 11 por ciento 
con Francia y un 4.5 por ciento con la Gran Bretana, siendo este ultimo 
pais el 6nico de los mencionados cuyas ventas a la Republica Domini- 
cana f ueron mayores que las compras que le hizo. En resto del comer- 
cio se dividio en pequenas partes entre Italia, Espana, B^lgica, Cuba, 
Puerto Rico y todas las demas naciones. 

Un 80 por ciento del valor de las importacioncs lo representaban las 
manufacturas de algodon, las de hierro y acero, el arroz, los aceites, 
vivcres y provisiones de todas clases, pescado en conservas 6 latas, aili- 
culos de madcm, dc cuero, de fibras vegetales, sombreros y cachuchas, 
substancias quimicas y drogas, cervezas y toda olase de maquinaria 6 
instrumentos agricolas, en tiinto que el resto consistia de productos 
di versos detallados 6 espocificados bajo la denominacion de ^' todos los 
demas articulos" en el orden siguiente: 

De los Estados Unidos se reeibieron articulos dc algod6n por valor 
de $218,100 y de la Gran Bretana por valor de $190,074, en tanto que 



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UNA REVISTA DE LA AMERICA LATIN A IN 1905. 89 

de Alemania, Francia, Espana 6 Italia se recibieron dichos articuloa 
por valor de $69,450, $36,707, $19,742 y $14,591, respectivamente. 

De los Estados Unidos se recibio hierro y acero por valor de 
$287,381, 6 sea un 71 por ciento, y el resto se recibio principalmente 
en el orden mencionado, de Inglaterra, Alemania, Francia y B^lgica, 

De los Estados Unidos se recibieron harinas por valor de $232,049, 
6 sea un 99.9 por ciento, las cuales consistieron principalmente de 
41,413 barriles de harina de trigo, valuadas, segfin se factura, en 
$209,823. 

Se recibieron 10,000,000 libras de arroz valuadas en $201,329, de las 
cuales 5,913,424 libras vinieron de Alemania, 2,203,707 libras de la 
Gran Bretana, 1,532,319 libras de los Estados Unidos y 271,517 libras 
de Francia. 

Se importo aceite por valor $155,934, de los cuales los Estados Unidos 
suministraron un 95 por ciento, en tanto que las importaciones de 
viveres que incluyen carnes y productos de las lecherias, se dividieron 
casi por partes iguales entre el expresado pals y Alemania, siendo asf 
que el primero de ^stos suministro las carnes y el segundo los productos 
de las lecherias. Prdcticamente, todo el pescado salado ordinario que 
consistia mayormente de bacalao y cu3^o valor ascendio & $109,455, se 
importo de los Estados Unidos, en tanto que los pafses europeos 
suministraron pequenas cantidades de la clase de golosinas, cuyo valor 
total ascendio & $4,679. 

Los Estados Unidos suministraron la mayor parte de las substancias 
quimicas y drogas, jab6n, material para las Mbricas de jab6n, azficar 
refino, y confiterias, legumbres, vehlculos, articulos de madera, de 
cuero y papel, al paso que la maquinaria 6 instrumentos agricolas, los 
suministraron casi en proporciones iguales el primero de dichos palses 
y Alemania. Francia envio una parte considerable de las substancias 
qufmicas y drogas, y el valor de sus vinos, licores y bebidas destiladas 
excedio al valor de las importaciones de todos los demds pafses. La 
Gran Bretana suministr6 la mayor parte de los g^neros de fibras vege- 
tales, en tanto que Italia 8uministr6 los sombreros y cachuchas. 

Las exportaciones principales fueron las siguientes: Azucar, cacao, 
tabaco en rama, plfitanos, caf^, maderas preciosas, cueros, pieles y 
cera. 

Las exportaciones de 105,972,400 libras de az6car, valuadas en 
$3,272,470, representaron prdcticamente la safra de 1905, y con excep- 
cion de 1,359,799 libras que se distribuyeron principalmente entro 
Alemania y la Gran Bretana, dicha safra se export6 enteramente & los 
Estados Unidot!. Este dulce, que los productores vendieron con buena 
utilidad, represent6 casi la mitad del valor total de las exportaciones 
bechas durante el ano. 



Bull. No. 

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90 OFIOINA INTERIM AOIONAL DE LAS REPUBLICAS AMEMCANA8 

Las exportaciones de cacao, que tambien proporcionaron una ganan- 
cia, ascendieron £ 28,836,364 libras, cuyo valor, seguu factura, ascendio 
d $2,211,873, consignadas de la manera siguiente: 11,840,612 libras a 
Alenmnia; 8,981,591 d Francia; 7,816,441 fi los Estados Unidos y 
197,720 al Reino Unido. 

Del tabaco en rama exportado que ascendi6 d 11,510,762 libras valua- 
daw en $840,487, se enviaron 5,890,655 libras d Alemania, 3,719,458 
d los Estados Unidos y 1,900,639 d Francia. 

La cera produeida en la Repfiblica ascendio d 470,922 libras valuadas 
en $94,669, de las cuales Alemania compro 182,783 libras; Francia, 
152,550 libras y los Estados Unidos compraron 111,462. 

Se exportaron cueros vacunos y de eabra por valor de $111,075, 
habi^ndose valuado en $63,714 los que se enviaron a los Estados Uni- 
dos, en $24,278 los que se enviaron d Alemania y en $21,591 los que 
se enviaron d Francia. 

Se exportaron d los Estados Unidos 514,000 racimos de pldtanos 
valuados en $257,000; 2,149,188 libras de caf6 valuadas en $156,t>63, 
que se exportaron principalmente d Alemania, Francia y los Estados 
Unidos, asl como varias clfises de maderas preciosas tropicales, tales 
como caoba, guayacdn y madera de dguila, cuyo valor total ascendio d 
$135,154 y que representan otras exportaciones importantes. 

El tonelaje total de los buques extranjeros que entraron y salieron 
en los 8 puertos habilitados de la Republica, ascendio d 1,751,172 tone- 
ladas registradas, que representaban 1,544 entradas y salidas de buques. 
Del total de las importaciones se trajeron en buques americanos mer- 
cancias por valor de $1,952,332, 6 sea un 63 por ciento del valor total 
de todas las importaciones; en buques alemanes se importaron mer- 
cancias por valor de $700,382; en buques franceses, por valor de 
$208,990; en buques ingleses, por valor de $93,945; en buques norue- 
gos, por valor de $88,621, y en buques de todas las demds nacionali- 
dades, por valor de $51,975. 

En cuanto d las exportaciones los buques noruegos Uevaron mercan- 
cias por valor de $1,827,426, 6 sea un 26.5 por ciento del total; los 
buques americanos Uevaron mercancias por valor de $1,692,741, 6 sea 
un 24.5 por ciento; los alemanes Uevaron mercancias por valor de 
$1,574,134, 6 sea un 22.8 por ciento; los ingleses Uevaron mercancias 
por valor de $1,123,838, 6 sea un 16.3 por ciento, y los buques fran- 
ceses Uevaron mercancias por valor de $367,072. 

Los buques italianos, dominicanos, holandescs, cubanos y de otros 
nacionalidades, tambien transportaron mercancias en el orden de 
importancia mencionado. 

Ecuador. — Los ultimos datos estadisticos relativos al comercio ex- 
tranjero del Ecuador corresponden al ano de 1904. La siguiente tabla 
muestra las procedencias y punto de destino de las mercancias im 
portadas y exportadas durante dicho perlodo: 

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UKA BEVISTA DE LA AMEEIOA LATINA IN 1905. 



91 



Paisea. 


Importacion^s. 


Exportaciones. Paises. 


Importaciones. Exportaciones. 


Fran^ia 


f617,i58 

1,492,557 

184,899 

238,946 

293,970 


$3,903,851 !! Holanda 


$47 

762 
370 

2,004,878 


$145,004 


Alemania ..... 


2,173,152 ; Austria 


15,125 


Ki^^^^ . 


674,768 ' Portugal 


Irali* 

Baglca 


167,634 < Gran Bretafta.... 
2,949 


949,496 



En 1905 el valor de las mercancias que los Estados Unidos importa- 
ron del Ecuador ascendio d $2,502,175, es decir, cacao por valor de 
$1,054,716 y goma eldstica por valor de $538,172. El valor de las 
exportaciones hechas d los Estados Unidos se valuaron en $1,750,378 
y consistieron de diferentes mercancias, siendo las m&s importantes 
los articulas de hierro y acero, cuyo valor ascendio a $499,598; los 
g^neros de algodon, cuyo valor ascendio & $136,803; los viveres, cuyo 
valor ascendio d $389,287, y los aceites, cuyo valor ascendio & $81,105. 
En 1904 la producci6n de cacao fu6 mucho mayor que en los anos 
anteriores. Entre los mercados principales para este producto debe 
mencionarse d Francia, que consume mds de 11,000,000 de kilogramos; 
Inglaterra, que consume mds de 3,000,000 kilogramos; Espana y los 
Estados Unidos, que consumen mds de 2,000,000 kilogramos, y Ale- 
mania, que consume mas de 1,500,000 kilogramos. 

Los paises consumidores de este producto son Bdlgica, Holanda, 
Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Salvador, Chile, Mexico, Italia, 
Perd, Uruguay, la Rep6blica Argentina^ Austria, Cuba y Colombia. 
De todos estos paises Holanda sola consume mds de 500,000 kilogramos^ 
a1 paso que la demanda que hay en los demds paises apenas asciende d 
1<K>,000 kilogramos. El valor total de las exportaciones de este pro- 
ducto ascendio d 15,284,691 sucres, de los cuales Francia sola pag6 
mds de la mitad. 

Las exportaciones de caf6 por todos los puertos de la Repfiblica 
arrojan un total de 3,489,628 kilogramos, que representen un valor de 
1,014,596 sucres. Chile es el pais que consume mds caf^ ecuatoriano, 
siendo asi que el valor de las compras que hizo de e«tc producto 
ascendio a 409,746 sucres; los Estados Unidos compraron caf^ por 
valor de 330,414 sucres, y Alemania conipr6 caf6 por valor de $126,030 
sucres. Los demds paises consumidores son Costa Rica, Holanda, 
Colombia, Italia, Perfi, Francia y la Gran Bretana, pero esto filtimo 
pais es el linico que importa caf^ ecuatoriano por valor de mds de 
50,000 sucres. 

Las importaciones principales consisten de gdneros de algodon, 
harinas, articulos de hierro y acero, oro y plata. Los principales 
articulos de exportaci6n son cacao, nueces, moneda de oro, goma 
elastica, caf ^, sombreros y cueros. De las grandes cantidadcs de cacao 
que se han embarcado para el Havre, la mayor parte se distribuye 
finalraente entre otros paises. 



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92 OFICINA INTERNACIONAL DE LAS REPUBUCAS AMERICANAS. 

El producto principal del Ecuador es el cacao, que crece en Los 
Rigs y en otras Piovincias proximas k la costa. En 1904 la produccion 
total de cacao ascendio & 28,564,123 kilogramos. Tambi^n se cultiva 
el caf^, cuya produccion en 1904 ascendio d 3,489,628 kilogramos, y 
ademds se producen las nueces del Brasil, el algodon, la quina, orchilla 
y zarzaparrilla. La industria de la goma elastica tambi^n es muy 
importante, y como quiera que el abastecimiento que seobtiene de los 
firboles silvestres se cstd agotando rdpidamente, en la actualidad se 
esta consagrando la debida atencion d la plantation de drboles de 
gopaa. En 1903 se exportaron 494,864 kilogramos, y en 1904, 619,566 
kilogramos. 

El Ecuador es un pais eminentemente aurifero. En Zaruma, Pro- 
vincia de Oro, hay bocartes para cuarzo; en Esmeraldas una compaiiia 
americana efectfia la extraccion del oro de los depositos de cascajo 
mediante m^todos hidrdulicos, y los indios en mucbas corrientes 6 
manantiales aurfferos encuentran cantidades considerables de oro por 
medio de los lavatorios. En Pillzhum, Canan, se encuentra un rico 
mineral de plata, pero en la actualidad no se explota. En los lavatorios, 
que se efectuan en Esmeraldas, el platino se encuentra en diferentes 
cantidades. La brea tambi^n se encuentra, pero no se explota, y 
ademds se sabe que el pais contiene mucho cobre, hierro, plomo y 
carb6n de piedra, y se dice que en el distrito de Pichincha se ban 
descubierto depositos de azuf re. 

Los sombreros de Panama se hacen casi exclusivamente en el Ecua- 
dor, y la fabricacion de el los no dan abasto d la demanda. Tambien 
hay fdbricas de azucar, cervecerias y fdbricas de chocolate en toda la 
Rcpublica. 

El Gobierno ha resuelto construir un f errocarril que se ha de extender 
desde Ambato hasta el Rio Curarey, que desemboca en el Amazonas 
cerca de Iquitos. En estc distrito abunda mucho la goma eldstica, que 
hasta ahora se habia exportada por el Valle del Amazonas d los Estados 
Unidos y d Europa con el nombre der goma brasilena. Cuando se 
constniya este ferrocarril, tanto la goma como otros productos podrdn 
exportarse de esta region via Guayaquil, desminuyendo asi en cerca de 
3,000 millas el transporte por mar d Nueva York via Iquitos y Pard. 
Esta linea ha de correr casi por completo al este de los Andes, puesto 
que Ambato esta situado on el coraz6n de la Cordillera d una elevaci6n 
de 8,000 pies. Dicha linea ha de costar como £800,000 y ha de toner 
100 millas de longitud. 

Durante el ano que termino en, agosto de 1905 se activo mucho el 
Ferrocarril de Guayaquil y Quito, hasta que en la actualidad corre tre^ 
trenes por semana hasta la importante y populosa ciudad de Riobamba. 
A fin de llegar d 6sta, la linea tiena que desviarso de la tra3'ectoria 
dirccta hacia Quito, y despu^s retroceder, efectudndose una desviaci6n 
de mds de 10 millas. Actualmente dicha linea estd trazada y nivelada 

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UNA BEVISTA DE LA AMERICA LATINA IN 1905. 93 

hasta una distancia considerable, mfis alld do Riobamba, y se espera 
que pronto Ue^e & Ambato. 

En la actualidad un capitalista americano se propone establecer 
un sistema de autom6viles que se espera que hag'an el viaje de Rio- 
bamba d Quito en doce boras, acortando asi dos dias el tiempo que se 
inviertc en ir de Guayaquil d Quito. 

En 1905 el Ministro de Haciende de la Repfiblica del Ecuador 
prcsento al Congreso un extenso y detallado informe de todos los 
asuntos relativos d su Departamento. El presupuesto proyectado co- 
rrespondiente d 1905, ascendio fi $12,319,146, pero solo se gastaron 
$10,526,248.26 durante el expresado periodo, de nianera que hubo 
un saldo de $1,600,000 y 106,302 sucres, & favor del Tesoro Nacional. 

Guatemala, — Las condiciones de Guatemala se resintieron d causa 
del estado anormal de la Kepublica durante el aiio de 1905, pero el 
aumento del trafico, las mejoradas cotizaciones de los bonos guatemal- 
tecos en manos de tenedores extrangeros, la reanudacion de v arias 
obras p(iblicas y semipdblicas, como la construccion del Ferrocarril 
del Norte, y otros varios factores, parecen indicar que la administra- 
cion del Presidente Estrada Cabrera ha sido establecida para el bien 
del pais. Las rentas para el ano economico de 1905-6 ban sido calcu- 
ladas en 23,000,000 de pesos, y los gastos en 27,317,659 pesos. De 
esta cantidad, 17,000,000 pesos son para la Deuda Piiblica; 2,252,300 
pesos pai-a Interior y Justicia; 2,082,926 pesos para Guerra; 1,736,119 
pesos para Fomento, y 1,391,910 pesos para Instruccion Piiblica. 
Durante el pcrlodo de depresion el comercio de los Estados Unidos con 
Guatemala se ha resentido al par que el de las otras naciones, aunque 
en nienor grado, y en la actualidad, d pesar de que el comercio de dicha 
oacion es manor que el de hace diez anos, la porcion total que la cor- 
rcfiponde es ma\'or. La tabla que se da d continuacion permite formar 
una clara idea de las clases de mercancias que tienen demanda en 
Guatemala, y del lugar que ocupan de los Estados Unidos en el trdfico 
(danse los v^alores en miles de dollars de los Estados Unidos): 



Articulo6. 



TotloH los , Estados ; For ciento 

paines, I Unidos, delosEst-a- 

19a'>. 1905. jdoH Unidos. 



PR0DUCT08 ALIMENTiaOS. 



CCTCAles 

Bebidas 

Comestibles 

Fratfts y vei?etales. 

W verso* prudDctoe en conserva. 
Otroeproauctos 

Total 



$1,054.8 ' 8937.5 . 8«.8 

210.1 45.4 I 21.6 

128.0 116.2 90.8 

88.4 29.5 76.8 

89.6 48.4 M.O 

25.7 4.8 I 18.8 



1.546.6 I 1,181.8 76.4 



Los productos alimenticios constituyen la mayor exportacion de los 
Estados Unidos d Guatemala. En 1905, cuando los pedidos do pro- 
ductos alimenticios norteamericanos en Guatemala fueron excepcio- 

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94 OFICINA INTEENACIONAIi DE LAS BEPUBLIOAS AMEBICANAS. 

nalmente grandes, hicieron por si solos, un 35 por ciento de las im- 
portaciones totales de los Estados Unidos, Por lo menos un tanto per 
ciento igual constituyen los diversos articulos manufacturados, de los 
cuales los principales son los de hierro y acero y los tejidos. El decai- 
miento de la cosecfaa de maiz de Guatemala tuvo su efecto principal- 
mente en la importaci6n de cereales, siendo el aumento durante el aiio 
$558,000 (de $i50,000 en 1904 6 $1,008,000 en 1905). 

Los tejidos de los Estados Unidos hacen solamente el 21 por ciento 
de la importacion total, por mas que hay ciertas clases de estos articu- 
los cuya importacion progresa, lo cual augura grandes cambios en lo 
futuro. En manufacturas de lana, liilo y yute los Estados Unidos 
apenas compiten, pero si importa ya la mayor cantidad de sedas, y la 
importacion de varias clases de algodones ha progresado notablemente. 

El trafico de Guatemala con los Estados Unidos durante el ano eco- 
n6mico de 1904-5 tu6 como sigue : Importaciones de los Estados Unidos, 
$2,654,575; exportaciones & los Estados Unidos, $3,082,062. 

Una de las industrias m£s lucrativas de Guatemala serd indudable- 
mente el cultivo del pMtano. Existen varias regiones productivas en 
la costa del Atldntico, y con certeza algunas mas serfin puestas en cul- 
tivo, por cuanto que el Ferrocarril del Norte abrirfi el territorio dando 
acceso al mercado de Nueva Orleans en el tiempo necesario para reco- 
lectar y embarcar la f ruta. Actualmente la produccion anual es de 
unos 800,000 racimos, de los cuales la mitad se consume en el pals y la 
otra se exporta d los Estados Unidos. Se calcula que, un ano despues 
que quede terminado el Ferrocarril del Noii», las exportaciones de 
esta f ruta & los Estados Unidos excederdn de 750,000 racimos el aiio, y 
que pronto llegaran fi la suma de 1,000,000 de racimos. 

La produccion mas importante del pais es el cafe, cuyas exporta- 
ciones en quintales fueron como sigue: En 1902, 856,744; en 1903, 
631,505; en 1904, 716,537. Los alemanes poseen las plantaciones mis 
grandes. Unos 1,680 acres dc terreno son dedicados al cultivo del 
tabaco, produciendo 19,550 quintales. Se cultiva la cana-dulce en 
41,000 acres, 3^ la cosecha alcanza la cifra de 3,054,865 quintales. El 
platano se cultiva en 12,000,000 acres que producen 786,830 racimos; 
cacao en 7,500 acres, produciendo 3,068 quintales. Las demds cosechas 
son de trigo, mafz, batatas y habichuelas. La produccion de la goma 
en 1904 ascendio & 4,389 quintales. Mas de 5,696,470 pies cuadrados 
de madera fueron cortados en 1904. El algodon es cultivado en peque- 
fias cantidades. En los terrenos altos, los pastos de ganado abarcan 
unoH 758,640 acres de terreno. En 1899 so calcul6 el numero de caba- 
llos existentes en la Kepublica en 50,343; el del ganado vacuno en 
196,780 cabezas; ovejas, 77,600; cerdos, 29,784. 

Ija cantidad de oro que se encuentra actualmente en Guatemala es 
insignificante y toda procede de lavaderos 6 terreros. Hay abundantes 
Clones de plata, plomo, zinc, hierro, y antimonio, segiin el " London 

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UNA BEVI3TA DE LA AMERICA LATINA IN 1905. 95 

Mining Journal," los cuales no han sido explotados hasta ahora. El 
tanto por ciento aproximado de las j^angas se calcula en 20 d 25 por 
ciento de plomo, 15 & 25 de zinc, 5 fi 20 do cobro, y un pequeiio por 
eiento de plata. En el norte, cerca de Santo Tomfis, se encuentran los 
mejores dep6sitx)s de carb6n, los cuales no son explotados. Las leyes 
de Guatemala favorecen la industria minera. Conceden la propiedad 
de una mina al primer solicitante, quien lo linico que ticne que hacer 
es indemnizar al propietario del terreno en donde se encuentm la mina. 

Hay ademds depositos de manganeso, azufre, sal, lignito, y otros 
minerales, pjero apenas son explotados. En Las Quebradas, cerca de 
Izabal, se explotan con ^xito varias minas de oro; minas de plata en los 
Departamentos de Santa Rosa y Chiquimula, y de sal en los departa- 
mentos de Alta Vera Paz y Santa Rosa. 

Durante la dominacion espanola se explotaron vurias minas, como lo 
atestiguan las ruinas que se han encontrado en varias partes del pals, 
y las tradiciones sobre el particular. 

Industrias en estado mds 6 menos prospero, son la fabricaci6n de 
articulos de lana y algod6n, cemento, ladrillos, alfareria, muebles, 
cigarros, etc., y la preparaci6n de ramio. Tambi^n se operan fundi- 
ciones, molinos de azdcar, cervecerfas y destilerias. 

La Guatemala Central Railroad Company ha firmado un contrato 
con una compania de San Francisco para que la suministre 100,000 
barriles de petroleo crudo al ano por espacio de diez anos, para com- 
bustible. Las locomotoras de carb6n se estdn cambiando por otras de 
petroleo. Se esta colocando grava de granito & lo largo de las 150 
millas del ferrocarril, el cual atraviesa las f^rtiles regiones de caf(5 y 
az6car, con estaciones centrales en la Ciudud de Guatemala, San Josi', 
el puerto principal, y Mazatenango, al oeste de la Repiiblica. 

IlaltL — El General Nord Alexis ha continuando manejando las 
riendas del Gobierno haitiano durante el ano de 1905, y su represen- 
tante diplomitico en los Estados Unidos, M. L^ger, se valio de todas 
las oportunidades que se le presentaron para estrechar las relaciones 
amistosas que existen entre las dos Republicas. 

Las relaciones comerciales en general que inantienen los Estados 
Unidos y Haiti son muy buenas, relativamente. Las facilidades do 
trasporte son excelentes, por cuanto que hay tres lineas de vapores 
que hacen el servicio entre Haiti y los Estados Unidos. La corauni- 
cacion telegrdfica es tambi^n excelente. 

El comercio de Haiti con los Estados Unidos durante el ano eco- 
nomico de 1904r-5, fu6 como sigue: Importaciones de los Estados 
Unidos, $2,297,080; exportaciones & los Estados Unidos, $1,101,650. 

Mas de las dos terceras partes del valor total de importaciones son 
procedentes de los Estados Unidos. El resto de las importaciones so 
adapta & los gustos de los haitianos educados en fcuropa, cuyos gustos 
pon fomentados por los comerciantes europeos residentes en Haiti. 



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96 OFICINA INTERN ACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLIC A8 AMERICAN AS. 

Con respecto a las exportaciones sucede lo contmrio, yendo el grueso 
de los productos del pals d Europa, y envidndose solamente d los Esta- 
dos Unidos una gran cantidad de palo campeche y pequenas eantidades 
de otras maderas, pieles de cabra, etc. La porcion restante de palo 
campeche se exporta d Europa, asi como casi todo el caf6 y cacao. 
La memoria publicada por la Banque Nationale d'Haiti, para el a no 
que termin6 el 30 de septiembre de 1905, da una idea de la extension 
de las exportaciones. Los principales articulos son: Cafe, 45,224,242 
libras; cacao, 4,924,383 libras; palo campeche (incluyendo raices), 
112,050,758 libras, y algod6n, 3,287,669 libras. Hay ademas una 
respetable cantidad de maderas para ebanisteria, guayaco, cueros, 
pieles de cabra, miel, cortezas de naranja, cera, etc. 

La importacion de tejido de los Estados Unidos ha aumentado el 50 
per ciento durante cuatro anos. Una gran compania que negocia en 
esta clase articulos solamente, dice que Uega aproximadamente al 75 
por ciento. Antes de este periodo, solamente la clase ordinana de 
tejidos se importaba de los Estados Unidos, y la clase superior de 
Inglaterra, pero desde hace algun tiempo las mejores clases de tejidos 
se compran en los Estados Unidos, excepto telas para camisas. 

Inglaterra Ueva una pequena ventaja sobre los Estados Unidos en 
los articulos de ferreteria, por mfc que la importacion de los proce- 
dentes de 6stos aumenta anualmente. Uno de los principales articulos 
en este ramo, son las planchas de zinc para tejados. Casi todas.iaa 
casas estan cubiertas con este material. Actualmente la mayor parte 
de estas planchas se importa de Inglaterra porque, seg6n se dice, son 
mejores que las de los Estados Unidos. 

Francia domina aiin este mercado en los articulos de joyeria, fan- 
tasia, perfumeria y otros semejantes, como Alemania en los objetos 
de porcelana de clase ordinaria. 

La importacion de productos alimenticios, que estaba exclusivamente 
en manos de los Estados Unidos, ha suf rido una gran baja durante este 
periodo. EUo es debido, no a la competencia de otros mercados, sine 
fi la penuria por que ha atravesado la Republica durante los tres filti- 
nios anos. 

Todo el caf^ que se produce en el pais es vendido & Fiuncia y 
Alemania. 

El caf^ es el producto principal del pais, y es de calidad superior, 
no pudiendo compararse con 61 otros cafes de calidad barata que se 
venden actualmente. Claro esta que es mas caro, pero el compi'ador 
tiene la seguridad de que adquiere una cosa buena. 

Haiti necesita maquinaria agricola, mercerla, y otros articulos de 
utilidad dom6stica. La mayor parte se importa de Europa. Los 
vinos de California son preferidos por los comerciantes porque d 
transporte desde ese Estado es mas barato que desde Francia. 



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UNA BEVI8TA DE LA AMERICA LATINA IN 1905. 97 

Las siguientes cif ras indican el raovimiento de exportacion en los 
distintos distritos aduaneros de Haiti durante el primer trimestre del 
ano economico 1905-06, dandose la unidad de las cantidades en libras: 
Cafe, 19,952,178; palo carapeche, 28,364,310; cacao, 1,282,691; gua- 
yaeo, 1,803,400; edscaras de naranja, 10,000; algod6n, 142,909; cem, 
21,876; madei-as para ebanisteria, 104,^00; cueros, 44,853; pieles de 
cabra 38,359; maiz, 1,790; goma, 3,441; varias maderas, 118,000; cobre, 
3,051; henequen, 208,539; carey, 325; pieles curtidas, 1,040; semillas 
de algodoD y ricino, 274,840; cigarros, 150; frutas, 1,150; yerbas 
medieinales, 18,919; cocos, 6,100; cuernos, 1,849; pistacho, 6,027; 
caoba, 1,075 pies; miel, 470 galones; y aceite de palma, 8,465 galones. 
El valor total de estas exportaciones ha sido de $3,350,000. 

El valor de las importaciones durante el periodo de octubre 1, 1904, 
4 junio 30, 1905, en los once puertos, fu^ de $3,981,675.86. Las 
importaciones durante 1904 procedentes de tres pauses europeos fu6 
como sigue: Francia, $389,437.10; Gran Bretana, $385,678.04; Ale- 
mania, $61,401.85. 

La cosecha de caf^ en el ano 1905 se calcula que fu^ de m&s de 

75,000,000 libras. Esta cantidad excedc fi la de la cosecha de 1904 por 

Unas 30,000,000 de libras, pero no llega & la de 1903, que exeedi6 

de 100,000,000 libras. Sin embargo, la de 1903 fu6 considerada como 

una cosecha fenomenal. Ademds, la cosecha de cacao ha sido tambi<5n 

muy grande en el ano de 1905, mucho mayor que la del ano anterior. 

La cosecha de algod6n f u^ tambi^n muy buena. 

Una concesi6n para construir un ferrocarril desde Gonaives hasta 

Hinche, y desde aqui hasta Port au Prince, ha sido otorgada durante el 

ano i dos ciudadanos norte-americanos, Mr. Louis Dalmas, y Mr. E. 

A. Blanton. Esta concesi6n es, segfin se dice, muy valiosa, puesto 

que la proyectada linea serd & traves de la parte central de la Repft- 

blica, y atravesard la faja forestal mds valiosa que contiene las mejores 

maderas para ebanisteria en el mundo. En la mencionada faja se 

encuentran firboles de caoba de 8 d 9 pies de diametro; tambien hay 

irboles de palo aloe, ^bano, palisandro, cedro de calidad superior, y 

otras maderas que cuando se introduzcan en los mercados competirdn 

con las mencionadas anteriormente para la confecci6n de las clases miis 

finas de muebles y la ornamentaci6n interior de casas. El ferrocarril 

atravesard tambi^n la gran faja de terrenos minerales en donde se 

encuentra cobre, oro, plata, hierro, y posiblemente otros metales. 

Se sabe que estos minerales existen, y se estdn formando companias 

para explotarlos. La Ifnea atravesard tambien la region en donde se 

ha descubierto petroleo recientemente. Dfcese que este petr61eo cs 

mejor que el que se encuentra en Azua, y los que lo han analizado 

dieen que tiene parafina por base. 

Se ha ofrecido d los mismos concesionarios la administracion de la 
linea que el Gobierno ha construido entre Cabo Haiti y el Rio Grande. 



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98 OFICINA INTEBNACIONAL DE LAS BEPTJBLICAS AMEBICANA8. 

Un pequeno mmal serfi construido desde Rio Grande hasta San Miguel, 
per donde se extiende la llnea principal. Con esto la Republica tendril 
una linea continua desde Port au Prince hasta Cabo Haiti, lo cual serd 
de gran beneficio para el pais por las rentas que se derivardn de ella, 
y porque evitara en grande escala los viajes por agua, con todos los 
incovenientes que ti*ae consigo, siendo actualmente el 6nico medio de 
trasporte abierto. La estaci6n terminal del sur se halla situada en una 
region que produce en abundancia frutas y algodon. Puede conside- 
rarse esta concesion como la m&s importante que se ha concedido hasta 
ahora d extranjeros. 

El Gobierno Haitiano declaro en 1905 que el Tratado de Comercio con 
Francia expiraba el 30 de abril de 1906. En virtud de las clausulas 
de este tratado, algunos articulos f ranceses estdban libres de derechos de 
importacion en Haiti, por lo que respecta los recargos de 50 y 33 y medio 
por ciento, impuestos por las leyes de 1876 y 1888, respectivamente. 

El Puerto de Mole St. Nicholas f u6 abierto al trifico extrangero el 
1'' de octubre de 1905. Sera clasificado en la categoria de los dis- 
tritos de tercera clase, y el personal administrativo serd igual al de los 
otros de la misma categoria. 

Los recargos de 50 3^ 33 y medio por ciento en moneda corriente, y 
el de 25 por ciento en oro, sobre importaciones, asi como los de 20 y 
10 por ciento sobre exportaciones, siguen en vigor. El recargo de 
25 por ciento no se impone sobre el jabon importado. 

JFondni'ds. — Durante la administraei6n del Presidente Bonilla, la 
Republica de Honduras sostuvo relaciones amistosas y coixliales con 
todos los gobiernos europeos y americanos, teniendo representantes 
en los paises centro-americanos. La disputa sobre limites con Nica- 
ragua fue sometida d arbitraje, y los representantes de ambos paises, 
por mutuo acuerdo, designaron a Su Majestad Catolica el Rey de 
Espaila como drbitro supremo. 

Una epidemia en la costa norte y la escasez de cereales han afectado 
en gran manera el Tesoro Publico. Se hicieron desembolsos publicos 
con el fin de contrarrestar los males causados por estas dos calaniidades. 
Solamente en cereales pedidos & los Estados Unidos se gastaroo 
$75,312.82. Sin embargo, los gastos del Gobierno fueron puntualmente 
pagados,y secontinuaron las obras publicas yacomenzadas. Estoprueba 
que las rentas de la Republica son bastantes para hacer frente al pre- 
supuesto, aiin en casos extraordinarios. 

Durante el ano de 1905, el Gobierno dio especial atencion & la 
instruccion pubiica. Grandes cantidades de libros de texto y material 
de instruccion fueron importadas de los Estados Unidos ydistribuidas 
en las escuelas de instruccion primaria. Las rentas publicas durante 
el afio econoraico de 1903-4 ascendieron d $3,380,253.21, y durante el 
ano 1904-5 d $3,304,362.20. Los gastos, incluyendo los desembolsos 
hechos para amortizar la deuda pubiica, importaron en el ano econ6- 



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UNA REVI8TA DE LA AMERICA LATINA IN 1905. 



99 



mico de 1903-4 la cantidad de $3,287,349.94, y en 1904-5 la cantidad 
de $3,341,492.80. Las deudas totales de la Repfiblica hicieron un 
total de $4,048,478.96, de cuya suma se ban hecho pagos 6, cuenta, 
durante los (iltimos anos econ6mico8, que importan la cantidad de 
$1,220,758.20, quedando un balance por p^far de $2,827,720.76. A 
esta suma debe anadirse la cantidad de $415,685.76, total de las p^rdidas 
sufridas en la guerm de 1903. 

El total de las impoilaciones durante el aiio econ6mico de 1905 f u^ 
avaluado en $2,362,760, de cuya cantidad corresponden & los Estados 
Unidos $1,689,900, 6 sea mfis del 70 por ciento. El total de las expor- 
taciones fu^ mfis del doble del de las importaciones, 6 sea $5,564,003, 
de cuya cantidad corresponde & los Estados Unidos $4,622,700, 6 sea mds 
del 80 por ciento. La parte correspondiente & los demds pafses queda 
indicada en la siguiento tabla: 



Paises. 



Importa- 
ciones. 



Exporta- 
ciones. 



EstadM Unidos ' $1,689,900 



iDgkterra . 

Alemania 

HondnrtB BriUnican . 

Fianda 

Nicaragua 

Espafia 

Salvador 

China 



212.800 

186.000 

96,000 

66,500 

56,600 

21,300 

8,400 

8,000 



14.622,700 , 

86.500 I 

217,400 I 

74,400 ! 

3,600 . 

15,500 I 



18,600 i 



Paises. 



Importa- Exporta- 
ciones. ciones. 



Jap6n 


$1,800 

1,000 
900 
200 




Guatemala 


8130 000 


Cuba 


391,000 


PanamA 


1 HOO 


Co0ta Rica 


3,800 


OtroB paises 


i5.666 






Total 


2, 362, bOO 


5 5«>4 000 







Las principales exportaciones son las diversas producciones vo^eta- 
les del pais, y que ascienden fi la cantidad de $2,593,700 en valor. Los 
productos minerales exportados fueron avaluados en Jl, 998,700, y los 
productos animales en $909,900. Entre los productos vogetalcs expor- 
tados, el pl&tano es el mfis importante, siendo el valor total de sua 
exportaciones $2,078,400. Despu^s sigue el coco, con §210,900; des- 
pu^s las maderas duras, con $128,100; sigue la goraa, con $83,900; el 
caf6, con $52,700, y por ultimo la zarzaparrilla, con $30,000. 

De los productos minerales exportados el mds importante es el 
eobre, cuyas exportaciones ascendieron fi §1,154,000; casi todoel resto 
de las exportaciones totales de minerales lo constituyen el oro y la 
plata, $813,700. Los finicos productos animales importantes que 
se han exportado son los siguientes: Ganado, $595,600; y pieles y 
cueros, $298,000. 

Honduras produce anualmente 14,000 quintales dc tabaco y 1,000 de 
anil. Hay en cultivo 8,000 manzanas (15,220 acres pr6ximamente) 
decana dulce, que producen 600,000 de aguardiente y 45,000 libras de 
azucar crudo, anualmente. En algunos sitios la cana dulce crece husta 
una altura de 20 pies. 

El plfitano constituye el producto principal de la costa nortc de 
Honduras, babiendo 25,000 manzanas (unos 47,220 acres) en cultivo, 
y se exportan anualmente 300,000,000 racimos de esta f ruta. 

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100 OFICINA INTERNACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLICA8 AMEBIOANAS. 

Hay 9,300 propietarios de ganaderias en el pals, calculandoBC el 
numero total del ganado en 572,000. En 1905 so exportaron a Cube 
11,000 cabezas de ganado. Estadisticas recientes fijan el numero de 
cerdos en las haciendas y villas de la Republica en 112,000 cabezas. 
Hay 29,000 manzanas (unos 53,165 acres) de terrenos bien cultivados 
para pasto de ganado. 

Explotanse en pequena escala depositos de oro y plata. en varias 
partes de la Kepublica. En el Departamento de Alancho op^ranse 
filones y lavaderos de oro. Los lavaderos mds grandes y abundantes 
se hallan situados en un arroyo tributario del Rio Rucio. En las 
montanas de Lepaterique hay un importante centro de minas de filon, 
d 30 niillas del Golfo de Fonseca. La '' New York and Honduras Min- 
ing Company ■' es la sociedad minera mas f uerte, y tiene sus minas en 
San Jacinto, Departamento de Tegucigalpa. Los talleres de esta 
compania no estan distantes de la costa del Pacifico, y se Uega d ellos 
por el Puerto de Amapala. 8e esta construyendo un f errocarril desde 
este punto hasta las minas. Durante el ano de 1904 se trabajaron 
5,26'! pies de galerias y atajos, y 1,443 pies de contracielo, resultando 
de la abertura 23,930 toneladas de ganga. El molino tiene una capaci- 
dad diaria de 85 toneladas y esta dispuesto de tal manera que las 
operaciones de estampar, amalgamar y concentrar se llevan & cabo en el 
mismo. En 1904, se trataron 21,005 toneladas, aquilatdndosc 59.54 
onzas de plata y 0.28 de onza de oro, con recipientes de 84.35 y 86.70 
por ciento, respectivamente, fi un costo de 86.14 por tonelada. Las 
ganancias totaies de la companfa fueron $724,170, 3^ las Ifquidas 
$217,290. En el ano anterior se exti-ajeron y trataron 15,620 tone- 
ladas, que produjeron 3,653 onzas de oro y 638,806 onzas de plata. 
La produccion de 1904 excedio d del ano anterior con 1,445 onzas de 
oro, y 370,000 de plata. El promedio de la produccion diaria es de 
Unas sesenta toneladas de ganga seca y el valor de la concentrada 
aicanza varios miles de dollars al ano. 

Explotase oro y plata en estas minas: La Aramecina Gold and Silver 
Mining Company tiene sus minas situadas d unas 30 millas del Golfo 
de Fonseca, las cuales producen unas 15,000 onzas de oro al ano. Las 
minas proximas a Yuscaran, en la frontera nicaraguense, dieron 
magniticos resultados en el pasado, pero, actualmente, d causa de estar 
en litigio, han quedado sin explotar. La principal industria del pals 
es la mineria, por mas que el cultivo del platano y la cria del ganado 
recibcn tambicn atencion en la costa del Atldntico. Las minas del 
Departamento de Tegucigalpa son como sigue: 5 de oro, 55 do oro y 
plata, 224 de plata, 3 de plata y plomo, 2 de plata, cobre y plomo, y 
3 de cobre. 

Adyacente d Puerto Cortes y la bahia, se halla situada la Laguna de 
Alvarado, de 2 millas do ancho por 3 de largo, y de una prof undidad 



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UNA RE VIST A DE LA AMERICA LATIN A IN 1905. 101 

de 6 d 14 brazas, la cual es una magnifica bahla cerrada. La Ulna 
. Commercial Company, cuyas oficinas centrales estan en Puerto Cortes, 
acaba de construir un canal que comunica la babla de Puerto Cortes 
con la Laguna de Alvarado. Esta misma compania ha construido tam- 
bi^n otro canal desde la Laguna Alvarado hasta el Rio Chamelicon, 
cuya extension es de tres millas. Los botes y lanchones de la com- 
pania navegan por ese rio unas cincuenta millas 6 mds, y actualmente 
se hallan ocupados en el trasporte de frutas & este puerto. 

La Republica de Honduras tiene una linea costanera en el Pacifico 
de 60 millas de extension, siendo el puerto principal en este lado el de 
Amapala, situado en la Isla del Tigre, en el Golfo de Fonseca. Ama- 
pala es el centro de distribucion para el trdfico de la Republica 
en el Pacifico, en donde tocan los vapores de la Pacific Mail Steam- 
ship Company, y los de la Cosmos Line. Una linea de vapores 
mexicanos entre Guatemala y el Salvador une tambidn el puerto de 
Amapala con otros extranjeros. 

La construccion de caminos recibe especial atencion por parte del 
Gobiemo; y estos caminos dar^n un gran impulso d las minas que 
abundan en la Republica. 

Durante el ano economico de 1904-05, la administracion de correos 
de Tegucigalpa recibio 12,629 cartas oficiales, 3,479 cartas franque- 
adas, 48,003 con franqueo pagado, 1,212 con franqueo por cobrar, 
2,063 tarjetas postales, 156,659 periodicos y revistas, etc., 2,481 cartas 
oficiales certificadas, 4,640 cartas y paquetes certificados con franqueo 
pagado, 1,573 muestras, 3486rdenes oficiales bajo el sistema de paquetes 
postales, y 716 ordenes con franqueo pagado, 1,591 documentos de 
negocios, }' 2,197 paquetes postales— 6 sea, un total de 237,590 objetos 
de correspondencia. Durante el mismo periodo, la oficina de correos 
de Tegucigalpa despach6 12,315 cartas oficiales y 2,628 franqueadas, 
47,065 cartas con franqueo pagado, 903 con franqueo por cobrar, 860 
tarjetas postales, 127,635 periodicos, revistas, etc., 2,335 cartas oficiales 
certificadas, 2,683 cartas certificadas con f ranquo pagado, 269 muestras, 
1,537 ordenes oficiales de paquetes postales, 987 ordenes de paquetes 
postales con franqueo pagado, 904 documentos de negocios, y 49 
paquetes postales — 6 sea, un total do 200,170 objetos de correspon- 
deneia. 

Los pasajeros que entraron en la Republica en 1904 fueron 4,634, 
de los cuales 2,041 eran hondureiios, y 2,593 extranjeros. El numero 
de personas que salieron durante el mismo afio hicieron el numero do 
3,798, de los cuales 2,109 fueron hondureiios y 1,689 extranjeros. 
El oumero total de habitantes en 1905 se fijo oficialmente en 500,136. 

Mexico. — El desarroUo material de Mexico, bajo la administracion 
del Presidente Diaz, queda demostrado con el continuo y notable incre- 
mento de las rentas de la Repdblica dui*ante los trece ultlmos auos. 



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102 OFICINA INTEBNACIONAL I>E LAS BEPUBLICAS AHEEICANAS. 

Empezaiido con el ano economico de 1892-93, en que los ingresos 
totales ascendieron d $37,000,000, y termmando con el ano de. 
190^5, durante el cual se pueden calcular con seguridad en 
$92,000,000, vemos un aumento yerdadermente notable. Durante este 
periodo, solamente un ano dejo de contribuir con su parte cor- 
respondiente en la magnifica demostracion del progreso comercial e 
industrial. 

La era de prosperidad de que estd gozando la republica es debida eo 
gran parte & la reforma monetaria que, entre otros resultados bala- 
gCienos, ha dado un estimtdo poderoso & la inversion del capital extran- 
jero en el pals. Se puede asgumr que se ha conseguido establecer el 
valor fijo de la moneda mexicana, y que, gracias a esta circunstancia, 
serd posible explotar las grandes riquezas del suelo que ha pennane- 
cido improductivo fi consecuencia de los insuficientes medios con que 
entonces contaba la nacion. La reclente subida del valor de la plata 
en barras tenderd d consolidar los resultados obtenidos per medio de 
las leyes y decretos sobre la moneda. 

La Repdblica estuvo representada en el Tercer Congreso Cientifico 
Latino-Americano que se celebro en Rio Janeiro en Septiembre de 
1905; en el Congreso sobre Expansion Economica celebrado en Mens 
en el mismo mes y ano, y en el Congreso sobre la Tuberculosis que 
tuvo lugar en Paris en el susodicho ano. 

Se invito d la Rep(iblica d que enviard representantes d varias asam- 
bleas intemacionales, y tom6 parte en el Congreso sobre Deportes y 
DesarroUo Fisico que se celebr6 en Bruselas en julio de 1905, y en el 
Congreso de Instruccion Agricola, que tuvo lugar en Lieja, en el 
mismo mes y ano, y se han nombi*ado delegados para que representen 
d Mexico en el Congreso de la Union Postal Universal de Roma. 

Durante el ai!o se finno un tratado postal con Inglaterra, y se 
inauguraron otras medidas que tenderdn d fomentar la prospeHdad 
interna de la naci6n. 

El Senor Don Joaquin Casasus f u^ nombrado Embajador de Mexico 
en los Estados Unidos para llenar la vacante producida con la lamen* 
table muerte del Senor Aspiroz. 

El tratado sobre reclamaciones pecuniarias, firmado durante la 
Segunda Conferencia Pan-Americana, fu6 promulgado despufe de 
recibirla sancion del Senado. Un convenio firmado durante la misma 
conferencia sobre el canje de publicaciones entre los Gobiernos de 
Am^irica, fu6 tambi^n promulgado, despuds de ser aprobado por el 
Senado y ratificado por el Ejecutivo. 

En 1** de septiembre de 1905 se puso en vigor un nuevo arancel de 
aduanas. La refoma monetaria, al reducir el tipo de cambio extran- 
jero, redujo tambien los precios que se debian pagar por los articulos 
extranjeros, y con el fin de protejer las fabricaciones nacionales de 
ciertos articulos, fue preciso elevar los derechos sobre la impoilacion 



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UKA BEVISTA DE LA AMl^BICA LATINA IN 1905. 103^ 

de similared articulos extranjeros. Se aprovech6 de esta oportunidad 
para hacer una revisi6n total del arancel, aboliendo 6 reduciendo los 
derechos sobre varies articulos en los cases en que el tipo era prohibitive, 
y para simplificar el arancel, incluyendo en un solo epfgrafe varios 
derechos que antes se imponfan separadamente. 

Se dietaron decretos suplementarios d la ley sobre la reforma mone- 
taria, tomandose los pases necesarios para penerles en vigor. Entre 
estos decretos merecen especial menci6n la clausura de las casas de 
moneda de Zacatecas y Culiacan, la creaci6n de la Comisi6n de la 
Moneda y Cambie, y la acuHacidn de la nueva moneda que est£ actual- 
mente en circulacion. Se modificaron las leyes relativas & los baneos 
de emisi6n, en lo que se refieren & los preceptes de las nuevas leyes 
sobre la moneda, con el fin de mantener la moneda nacional dentro de 
los limites fijados per estas leyes. 

En 11 de mayo de 1905 se dict6 un decreto reformande algunas de las 
bases de la ley del 4 de mayo de 1895, relativa al impuesto sobre la 
fabricaci6n de bebidas alcoh61icas. Los resultados satisfacorios de 
esta reforma quedaron demostrados inmediatamente. 

De acuerdo con la ley que cre6 el nuevo Departamento de Instruc- 
eion Pdblica y Bellas Artes, este centre t\x6 organizado en el 1^ de 
Julio de 1905. El numero de alumnos que asistieron & las escuelas de 
instruccion primaria en el Distrito Federal y los territories ascend io 6. 
57,703, resultando un aumento deunes 10,000 alumnos en cemparacion 
con el numero del periodo correspondiente & 1904. Varies maestres 
que fueron enviados al extrajero para cempletar sus estudios, ban 
vuelto y estan prestando valiosos servicios. Otres se hallan aiin 
investigando y estudiando los mfitodos de otres paises, principal men te 
en los Estados Unidos y en Estocolmo. 

El numero total de escuelas de instruccion pfiblica bajo la jurisdic- 
cion federal asciende d 544. 

Con el fin de obtener maestras competentes para las des nuevas 
escuelas de nines, se celebraron examenes de epesicien entre las 
graduadas del Colegio Normal de Seneritas, que hioieren solicitudes 
para los puestos, y con el fin de mejorar este rame de instruccion, se 
enviaron d los Estados Unidos des maestras para que visitaran los 
estahlecimientos modelo de esta clase, durante los des iiltimes raeses 
del ano escolar pasado y el primero del presente. 

Come durante el liltimo curse se nembraren 175 maestres para lag 
escueUs nacionales de instrucci6n primaria, el numero actual de maes- 
tros es 2,148. 

Se ban introducido recientemente mejeras en los curses que se siguen 
en las escuelas normales, habi^ndese ensanchado los edificies ocupades 
por ks mismas y creAdose nuevos curses de importancia, al par que 
un sistema de conf erencias sobre metodelogfa. 



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104 OFICINA INTERNACIONAL DE LAS REPtJBLIOAS AMEBICANA8. 

La inmigracion total en Mexico es muy escasa, teniendo en con- 
8ideraci6n la extension del \ysas y sus multiples riquezas sin explotar. 
El promedio aproximado de 500 personas al mes, 6 digase, de 6,000 al 
aiio, se considera como un cfilculo liberal, por m&s que se admite que no 
es posible f ormarse una idea exacta del numero de personas que cruzan 
anualmente la extensa f rontera mexicana del norte. Indudablemente 
el grueso de inmigrantes procede de Espana, por mas que no se puede 
averiguar con eerteza qu6 proporcion del supuesto numero de 6,0()0 
por ano es de esta nacionalidad. 

La cantidad de dinero en efectivo que tiene el Gobiemo en sus dis- 
tintas oficinas y depositado en varios bancos, era, en 30 de junio de 
1905, ultimo dia del ano economico de 1904-5, de $57,300,198.74. El 
aumento de las transacciones bancarias durante los seis meses de enero 
d junio 30 de 1906, queda demostrado con los siguientes dates tornados 
de los balances mensuales de los cinco bancos de la capital de la nacion 
y de los veintisiete de las capitales 6 ciudades principales de los dis- 
tintos Estados. El capital total autorizado de los treinta y dos bancos 
y aprobado por el Departamento Hacienda era, durante los meses 
de enero d mayo, dc $109,600,000, y en el mes de junio aument6 i 
$120,600,000, por los $11,000,000 del nuevo capital del entonces Banco 
Central, aumento que f\i6 debidamente autorizado por el Departamento 
dc Hacienda. El Banco de Londres y Mexico fudtambi^n autorizado, 
durante los seis meses de referenda, para que aumentara su capital de 
$15,000,000 con $6,500,000 mas, pero este aumento no fu^ efectivo 
hasta el 1** de enero de 1906, fijandosc su capital en el entretanto en 
la suma anterior de $15,000,000. 

Los ingresos de aduanas aumentaron de una manera sorprendente 
durante el scgundo semestrc de 1905. El aumento dc estos ingresos 
durante los meses de julio y agosto podria haberse explicado con los 
esfuerzos que se hicieron para apurar la importacion de los articulos 
cuyos derechos se habian aumentado en el ai*ancel que entro en vigor 
en septiembre ultimo; pero en vez de una reaccion, que podria haberse 
temido como resultado del camblo de los tripos del arancel, las recau- 
daciones aumentaron durante los meses siguientes, y ban continuado 
aumentando hasta la fccha, tanto es asi que los derechos de importa- 
cion recaudados durante el semestre de julio & diciembre ultimo, pro- 
dujeron cerca de $3,000,000 mas que los recaudados durante el periodo 
corrcspondiente a 1904. Este incremento es tambi6n una prueba 
ine([uivoca de que los numerosos cambios hechos en el arancel no han 
causado perjuicio alguno al trafico de importacion. 

Las recaudaciones del impuesto del timbre tambidn han dado resulta- 
dos satisfactorios. Podria liaberse temido que la supresi6n y redu<«i6n 
de ciertos impuestos sobre minas habria de afcctar el total de timbres 
vendidos. Afortunadamente no ha ocurrido tal cosa, y el aumento de 
los ingresos en otros ramos de este impuesto no s61o ha compensado 



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UNA REVISTA DE LA AMERICA LATINA IN 1905. 



10& 



la disminuci6n de los ingresos de los impue^tos sobre tninas, sino que 
tambi^n produjo un incremento de $500,000 en las reoaudaciones del 
semestre en cue:sti6n, comparadas eon las del semestre eorrespondiente 
al ano economico anterior. 

Los seLs pafses principales que sostienen relaeioncs comerciales con 
Mexico se hallan representadas del modo si^ij^nte en las importaciones 
durante los afios econ6raicos de 1904-5 y 1903— i: 



PafscA. 


1904-5. 1 

%iS, 303, lfi7. 60 
9,810,?)3H.M ' 
1.433.759.92 1 
8,7ai,4M.62 , 
8. 4«2. 685. 03 1 
10,418,343.11 I 


1903-4. 


Edtadoe Tnidos 


$42, WO. 296. 89 


Alemania 


9. 549. 6(^. 09 


BelgicH 


2. 1H<», 405. 87 


Espan& 


3, 271, 4W. 82 


Prancia 


7,473.474.80 


Gran Bretafia 


10, 026, 146. 4» 







Estados Unidos fue el pais principal de procedencia en el trafico de 
importacion, con un aumento de $5,662,870.71 sobre el ano anterior. 
De los seis paisc^s mencionados, solamente B^lgica ha sufrido una 
disminucion, p)or la suma de $746,645.95. 

La siguientc tabla demuestra los valores (en plata) de las expor- 
taciones de M<?xico: 



PalFca. 


1904-6. 

1 


1908-^. 


E^todos Unidos 


$139,989,418.61 

16,719,884.6.=) 1 

8. 875, 212. 18 1 

1,934,316.00 > 

6,905,746.57 i 

16, 719, 892. 12 


$141,537,181.06 


Alomania .. 


10. 9J0 414 00 


B61gica 


6. 5*<9, 142 9i3 


fimafta 


2 401 0<>4 00 


PrancU 


6.297,698 5$ 


Oran Bretafia 


24,991.465.06 





Entre estos paises Alemania ha experimentado el maj^or aumento, 
siguiendole despu^s B^lgica. Todos los demds paises indican una dis- 
minucion, siendo H major la de la Gran Bretafia. 

Durante los liltimos treinta anos las exportaciones de Mexico d 
Alemania ban aumentado de $1,005,673 d $10,000,414, al par que las 
importaciones procedentes de Alemania en Mexico ban aumentado 
durante el mismo tiempo de $444,344 d $15,719,884. Claro es que 
este incremento ha sido factible gracias al notable desarrollo del trafico 
de Mexico. Sin embargo, el comercio entre Inglaterra y Mexico no 
ha corrido parejas con el de Alemania. Las importaciones inglesas en 
Mexico durante treinta anos s61o ban aumentado de $9,218,837 d 
$16,719,892. 

Entretanto, los Estados Unidos se ban convertido en un factor 
importante en el trdfico y comercio mexicanos. Las impoi-taciones 
procedentes de los Estados Unidos en Mexico ban aumentado en 
treinta anos de $6,000,000 d $60,000,000, proximamente, y las expor- 
taciones de Mexico d los Estados Unidos durante el mismo espacio do 
tiempo ban aumentado de $5,000,000 d $50,000,000. 
Bull. No. 1—06 ^9 

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106 OFICINA IKTEBNACIONAL DE LAS BEPUBLICAS AMERICANAS. 

Lo8 principales articulos exportados durante el affo 190-1^5 fueroo 
como sigue (se dan los valorem en plata): 

Plata en barras, moneda, y otras formas, $65,523,645.70; cobre, 
$29,803,420.63; otrosproductos minerales, $1,110,361.39; caf6, $9,256,- 
781.67; henequ^n en fibras, $29,389,128.12; maderas, $2,197,815.13; 
maderasde tinte, $691,81v7.10; tabaco, en i*ama, $2,725,362; otros pro- 
ductos vegetales, $14,815,365.21; ganado, $3,149,320.50; cueros sin 
curtir, $6,739,612. 16; otros productosanimales,$616,186.45j henequen 
elaborado, $41,785; tabaco elaborado, $465,446.34; otras fab ncaciones, 
$7,389,728; varios productos, $738,125.36. 

EI henequ^n es el mas importante de los productos vegetales expor- 
tados y ropresenta el 50 por ciento de los articulos incluidos en e5?te 
encabezaniiento. Esta planta se cultiva en la Peninsula del Yucatan, 
y se exporta solamente por el Puerto de Progreso. Su punto de des- 
tino son los Estados Unidos como centi'o dedistribucion. El valor de 
las exportaciones de esta tibra durante los doe filtimos affos ha sido 
como sigue: 1903-4, $31,525,157; 1904-5, $29,389,138. 

El comercio de los Estados Unidos con Mexico, durante el ano 
economico de 1905, hizo un valor total de $92,000,000, comparados con 
$31,000,000 de 1895 y $18,000,000 de 1885. De las importaciones 
totales que recibe Mexico, el 53 por ciento procede de los Estados Uni- 
dos, y de las exportaciones que despacha, el 71 por ciento se remite 
& los Estados Unidos. Ningdn otro pais, excepto Canadd, recibe la 
mayor parte de sus importaciones de los Estados Unidos; como tampoco 
ningiin otro pais, exceptuando Cuba, exporta la maj'or parte do i^us 
articulos a los Estados Unidos. 

Las exportaciones de sisal d los Estados Unidos en 1905 ascendie- 
ron a cerca de $15,000,000, y las de cobre en varias formas a mas 
de $15,000,000. Iraportase el cobre en los Estados Unidos pai'a ser 
fundido y retinado y para la extraccion de los'metales preciosos 
que contiene. I^as fabricaciones de hierro y acero exportadas de los 
Es^tados Unidos a Mexico durante 1905 ascendieron a $12,000,000 de 
$45,000,000 del total de las exportaciones de estos metales. 

Gracias a la continua demanda del caf^ mexicano en los Estados 
Unidos y Alemania, la exportacion de este producto aumenta invaria- 
bleiuento, y como las nuevas plantaciones que se estableeieron bace 
cinco 6 seis afios en la parte sur de la Repiiblica, especialmente en el 
Istmo de Tehuantepec, empiezan a dar fruto, las exportaciones podran 
ser facihnente aumentadas sin menguar la cantidad requerida para el 
consumo nacional. 

El valor del ganado exportado durante los dos ultimos afios indica 
una ligera disminuci6n--1903-4, $3,625,548; 1904-5, $3,149,320. 

El ganado so exporta a Cuba y los Estados Unidos, y en menor 
escala & Canada. 



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UNA REVI8TA DE LA AMERICA LATINA IN 1905. 107 

La exportacion de pieles y cueros durante los dos iiltimos anos ba 
sido como sigue: 1903-4, $6,554,089; 1904-5, $6,739,612. 

Los cueros y pieles se exportan sin curtir, incluyendo las pieles de 
cabra, que se envlan principalmente & los Estados Unidos; pieles de 
vaca £ los Estados Unidos, Alemania y Francia, y pieles de venado & 
los f^tados Unidos. 

Las principales manufacturas exportadas son de aziicar, tabaco 
elaborado y fabricaciones de henequ^n. 

£1 tabaco elaborado es exportado en cantidades muy pequeSas en 
comparaci6n con el tabaco en rama. El promedio de las exportaciones 
anuales no llega a £50,000, de cuya cantidad se envla la mayor parte 
& Inglaterra. 

La gran demanda que hay en los mercados de los Estados Unidos y 
Alemania de una buena hoja para la fabricacion de cigarros ba indu- 
cido £ los plantadores del Estado de Veracn^z i producir una boja de la 
calidad deseada, y la consecuencia de ello es el aumento indicado en las 
cif ras de las exportaciones de tabaco en rama, las cuales son como 
sigue: 1903-4, $1,899,624; 1904-5, $2,725,362. 

Las manufacturas de benequ^n, tales como cordeleria, bamacas, etc., 
son enviadas & los Estados Unidos. El valor de las exportaciones, que 
el ano pasado fu6 casi nada, es como sigue: 1903-4, $1,065,522; 
1904-5, $41,785. 

Los productos animales importados son animales vivos, y los dis- 
tinto8 articulos y fabricaciones de los mismos. Los Estados Unidos 
encabezan la lista bajo aste epfgrafe, por mfis que Espana suministro 
la mayor cantidad de cames y pescados en conserva durante el ano 
190^5. 

Los productos vegetales comprenden algodon en rama, lino, canamo 
y yute, frutas, cereales, semillas y plantas, tabaco, t^, corcbo, pro- 
ductos de plantas y ^rboles usados como sustancias alimenticias, tales 
conK> aceite de oliva, aziicar, etc., maderas, y articulos fabricados de 
las mismas como muebles. Las mercancias importadas bajo e^te 
encabezamiento vienen principalmente de los Estados Unidos, y en 
grado mucbo menor de Alemania, Francia 6 Inglaterra. 

Durante el ano de que se trata las importaciones procedentes de 
Europa ban aumentado casi el doble. Las importaciones bajo el enca- 
bezamiento de bierro y acero incluyen alambres de piias y oi^dinarios, 
de los Estados Unidos; barrenos de acero para minas, de los Estado« y 
Unidos Francia; tuberia de bien^o, de los Estados Unidos, Inglaterra y 
Alemania; railos de bierro y de acero, de los Estados Unidos y Belgica; 
J vigas de bierro y de acero para construceiones, de los Estados Unidosi 
y Alemania; ferreteria, cucbilleria y herramientas, de fabricacion 
americana y alemana principalmente; utensilios 6 instrumentos agri- 
colas, de lo6 Estados Unidos 6 Liglaterra y clavos y tornillos de los 
Estados Unidos y Alemania. 



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108 OFICINA LNTEENACIONAL DE LAS BEPUBLICA8 AMEBICANAS. 

Bajo el encabezamiento de piedras y tierras, se hallan comprendi- 
dos los siguientes productos: Cal y cemento de todas clases, proce- 
dentes de los Estados Unidos, y en escala mucbo menor de B^lgica, 
Alenmnia 6 Inglaterra; carb6n, importado en casi iguales propor- 
ciones de Inglaterra y sus colonias y de los Estados Unidos; coque de 
los Estados Unidos, y aceites minerales de los mismos. 

Las botellas de vidrio para tines comunes, y vajillas y objetos de loza 
de clase inferior proceden de Alemania. Las articulos de vidrio fino 
vienen de los Estados Unidos, y los objetos de loza y vajillas de calidad 
superior son tambi^n importados de dicha naci6n y, en menor escala, 
de Inglaterra y Francia. 

De los tejidos de algodon importados, el Reino Unido suministr6 
el 64 por ciento en 1902-3, el 61 por ciento en 1903-4, y el 54 por 
ciento en 1904-5. Los tejidos de hilo y los de yute y otras fibras de 
grado basto se importan .principalmente de Inglaterra y la India. 
Los tejidos de lana proWenen prinicpalmente de Francia, Alemania y 
el Reino Unido. Las sedas, de Francia, y los tejidos en que la seda 
Gst& mezclada con algod6n, hilo 6 lana, vienen de Francia, Alemania 6 
Inglaterra. 

Las fabricaciones de algodon proceden principalmente de los Estados 
Unidos, Francia y Alemania; las de hilo, de Inglaterra, Estados 
Unidos, Francia y Alemania; las manufacturas de lana son importadas 
de Inglaterra, Estados Unidos y Alemania; las fabricaciones de seda 
pura, 6 de seda mezclada con algodon, hilo 6 lana proceden de Francia 
y Alemania, principalmente. 

Los Estados Unidos y Francia suministran en proporciones casi 
iguales las drogas y medicinas de patente. La mayor parte de los 
colores de todas clases, en cristales 6 secos, proceden de Alemania. 
Inglaterm suministra exclusivamente la sosa caustica y la potasa. 

Las bebidas alcoholicas pro vienen principalmente de los Estados 
Unidos y Fmncia. La cerveza — aparte de las pequefias cantidades 
que se importan de Inglaterra y Alemania — procede de los Estados 
Unidos; la sidra viene de Espaua; los vinos y licores de Espana y 
Francia; las aguas minerales de Alemania principalmente. 

El comercio de papel estd virtualmente monopolizado por Alemania 
y los Estados Unidos. 

Bajo el epigrafe de maquinaria y aparatos se incluye toda clase de 
maquinas, herramientas, instrumentos cientificos, baterias y demas apa- 
ratos el6ctricos, bombas, prensas impresoras, relojes de pared y bolsillo, 
locomotoras, etc. Los Estados Unidos suministran la ma^'or parte de 
estos articulos, por mds que Inglaterra y Alemania importan tambion 
grandes cantidades. 

La mayor parte de vehiculos de todas clases, coches, automoviles, 
bicicletas, material rodante de ferrocarril, y embarcaciones procede 
de los Estados Unidos, cerrcspondiendo una pequena proporci6n & 



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UNA BEVISTA DE LA AMEBIC A LATIKA IN 1905. 109 

Francia y £ Inglaterra, consistiendo las importaciones de esta en 
material rodante de ferrocarril principalmente. 

Los Estados Unidos suministran la mayor cantidad de explosivos, y 
tanibi^D una gran proporcion de escopetas de retrocarga.. Alemania 
tambi^n importa escopetas de este g^nero, sables, florestes, etc.. y pol- 
vora de fusil para caza. Las escopetas baratas que se cargan por la 
boca proceden de Espana y B^lgica. Las importaciones de Inglaterra 
en este ramo son muy insignificantes para ser mencionadas. 

La esc^isez de trigo y maiz en Mexico ha ocasionado un aumento 
considerable en la importacion de estos cereales de los Estados Unidos. 
Durante los ocho meses que terminan el 31 de agosto del presente ano, 
el valor total del trigo importado de los Estados Unidos por los 
puertos limitrofes de entrada ascendi6 d -$294,617 oro, en compara- 
ci6n con el valor total de $15,288 por el mismo espacio de tiempo en 
el ano anterior. 

El valor total del mafz importado durante los ocho meses de refe- 
renda fu^ de $391,903 oro, en comparacion con el valor total de 
$78,970 por igual periodo del aiio precedente. La importacion de la 
harina americana en Mexico es considerable & pesar de que existen en 
el pals numerosos molinos. Las estadisticas demuestran que el valor 
de la harina importada de los Estados Unidos durante los ocho meses 
en cuestion ascendi6 & $203,995 oro. Virtualmento todo el trigo que 
se incluye en los mencionados ocho meses fu^ importado durante el 
mes de agosto, siendo el valor del producto en dicho mes, $236,747. 

£1 comercio total de Mexico con los demds paises americanos, sin 
incluir los Estados Unidos, durante 1904-5, se halla representado por 
las siguientes cifras: Centro America, $1,013,871.15, en comparacion 
con $441,385.80 del aiio precedente; Sur America, incluyendo Colom- 
bia, Chile, Ecuador, Peru, la Repdblica Argentina y Venezuela, 
$138,766.99, en comparacion con $165,383.73 del ano anterior; Canadfi, 
$33,501, en comparaci6n con $12,376 del ano precedente, y Cuba, 
$3,875,470, en comparaci6n con $4,260,288 de 1903-4. Otros paises 
bajo el epigrafe de "Antillas" estan representadas con $2,700 en 
1903-4 y nada en 1904r-5. 

Segtin un informe hecho por el c6n8ul de los Estados Unidos en 
Durango, ha sido notable el aumento de los terrenos cultivados con 
t"go> y la calidad y cantidad de este cereal cosechado durante los 
ultimos anos. 

La produccion del azdcar en la Republica de Mexico durante el aiio 
1904-5 alcanz6 la cifra de 107,038,785 kilogramos, en tanto que la pro- 
ducci6n para 1905-6 se calcula solamente en 105,000 toneladas. La 
exportacion de aziicar refinado durante los dos ultimos anos ha sido 
lasiguiente: 1903-4, $2,594,178; 1904-5, $5,717,446. De estas canti- 
dades el 85 por ciento corresponde & Inglateri-a. 



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110 OFIOINA INTERNAOIONAL DB LAS EEPUBLICAS AMEBICANAS. 

El desarrollo de la industria minera de la Republica, durante los ulti- 
mos anos, ha sido sorprendente, como se puede ver por el nfimero de 
las pertenencias mineras con tftulos otorgados por el Gobierno, las 
cuales han aumentado de 8,500, que cubren un espacio de 76,000 hec- 
tareas, en 1898, & 19,000, que cubren un espacio de mas de 250,000 
hectdreas, en 1904. El buen resultado de las nuevas leyes de minas, con 
respecto & la reforma monetaria, se estd haciendo palpable. 

El progreso de la mineria de oro constituye una parte de la actividad 
general que est£ elevando & la Republica & una posici6n espl^ndida. 
La region aurifem mds importante es El Oro, situada d 90 millas de ia 
capital, en donde hay un grupo de minas extraordinarias, las cuales 
estdn en la actualidad en un estado excclente, y las que problamente 
continuaran siendo productivas por varios anos mds. Al norte de 
Mexico se han hecho importantos descubrimientos, en Lluvia de Oro, 
Minaca y Santa Barbara. Es probable que la produccion del oro en 
Mexico aumentard invariablemente. 

Las minas de cobre de Mexico rinden el 11 por ciento de la produc- 
cion total del mundo, ocupando la Rep6blica el segundo lugar despu^ 
de los EJstados Unidos, en su produccion anual. El enorme desarrollo 
de los distritos productores de cobre en los Estados de Sonora, Miches- 
can, Durango, y Guerrero, y en el territorio de la Baja California, ha 
ocasionado un aumento consiguiente en las exportaciones de cobre. 

Las exportaciones de plomo, bien en forma de ganga, bien como 
resultado de la fundicion, se calcula en unos 95,000 toneladas por ano. 

Durante el segundo semestre del ano economico de 1904-5 (enero 
& junio de 1905), el Departamento de Fomento otorgo 998 titulos, con- 
virtiendo en propiedad particular 659,327 hectdreas de teiTenos vacan- 
tes y del Estado, los cuales rindieron al Tesoro Federal la cantidad de 
$314,654, no obstante el hecho de que varios de dichos terrenos fueron 
concedidos gratuitamente, por via de subvencion d ferrocarriles, reem- 
bolso por gastos de medici6n, concesiones d agricultores, y terrenos 
para lugares pdblicos de los pueblos. Durante el mismo periodo el 
Gobierno celebr6 contratos para la colonizacion de ciertas secciones 
del Estado de Chihuahua, y de la Costa del Yucatdn. La Comision 
de Exploraciones Geogrdficas ha publicado un mapa, en forma de atlas, 
del estado de Vera Cruz y 14 hojas del mapa general de la Republica. 
Fijo 57 puntos por el procedimiento astron6mico en Chihuahua, Coa- 
huila, Nuevo Leon, y Tamaulipas, haciendo, ademds, pianos topo- 
grdficos de 1,190 kilometros de rfos y 6,164 kilometros de caminos. 

En el mismo semestre se otorgaron 1,608 titulos de minas, que com- 
prenden un drea de 26,135 pertenencias. Anadiendo esta cifra d las 
del primer semestre tenemos que durante todo el aito econ6mico de 
1004-5 se han otorgado 2,840 titulos nuevos de propiedades mineras, 
que cubren un drea de 45,826 hectdreas. 



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UNA REV18TA DE LA AMERICA LATINA IN 1905. Ill 

Los trabajos de explotacion minera durante el ano de que se trata 
ban sido satisfactorios. Se estd proveyendo & las minas con fuerza 
motriz electrica para el alumbrado y el arrastre subterrfineo. Se 
poddi obtener fuerza motriz adicional de los f undidores tan pronto 
como 6st8LS est^n provistos de genei^adores el^ctricos con capacidad 
para suministrar corrientes de alta tensi6n. La lena Iia sido sustitulda 
por el carb6n en cast todas las minas. 

En l**de marzo de 1905 la ''Mexican National Dynamite and Explo- 
sives Company," empezo a poner en venta sua productos en el mer- 
cado nacional, de acuerdo con su contrato con el Gobierno. Se^un 
los certificados del inspector t^cnicd de la fabrica de Tinaja, la dina- 
mita fabricada en elia result6 poseer las cualidades de fuerza 6 inalte- 
rabilidad que se requieren en sustancias de esta naturaleza. 

En 10 de junio de 1905 habia on la Repfiblica 132 fabricas de per- 
cales, estampados, 6 biiazas de algodon; estas fabricas se hallan sujetas, 
en virtud de la ley del timbre, al pago del impuesto en la proporcion 
del valor de la produccion de cada una. Este impuesto de timbre es 
pa^adero por adelantado cada semestre, tasdndose la cantidad de con- 
formidad con la producci6n calculada para el semestre correspondiente. 
Las euotas prescritas para cada f&brica durante el semestre de juIio 1 
& diciembre 31 de 1905 hacen un total de $1,164,300. Las cantidades 
oorrespondientes d cada una varian enti-e $500 la menor, y $180,000 
la m&s elevada. Esta {iltima cantidad corresponde & la Companfa 
Industrial de Orizaba, cuyo capital es de $8,000,000, distribuidos en 
80,0<X> acciones de a $100 cada una, valord la par, que se cotizan actual- 
mente en el mercado & razon de $226, y aun & esto precio muy raras 
veces pueden conseguirse. Despu^s sigue la Compania Industrial 
Veracruzana, que pag6 $75,000. El capital de esta compania es de 
$3,350,000, distribuidos en 33,500 acciones de & $100 cada una, valor & 
la par, y cotizadas en el mercado §l razon de $207, sin poderse conse- 
guir nuDca. La CompaiiLa Industrial de Atlixco pago $00,000; su 
capital es de $3,500,000, en acciones de d $100 cada una, valor d la par. 

Estas fabricas hdllanse distribufdas entre los varios estados del modo 
aiguiente: Coahuila, 11; Chiapas, 1; Chihuahua, 3; Durango, 8; Gua- 
najuato, 6; Guerrero, 2, Hidalgo, 3; Jalisco, 5; Mexico, 8; Miehoa- 
dLn, 4; Nuevo Le6n, 4; Oaxaca, 3; Puebla, 30; Quer^taro, 4; San 
Luis Potosi, 1; Sinaloa, 4; Sonora, 1; Tlaxcala, 8; Veracruz, 13; 
Tepic, 3; Distrito Federal, 9. 

Las contribuciones impuestas por el Gobierno Mexicano sobre las 
destiierfas de alcohol, ]X)r el ailo econ6mico pr6ximo, aseienden & 
800,000 pesos- 

Durante el periodo comprendido entre el 1** de julio y el 31 de 
diciembre de 1905 se concedieron 498 patentes de invencion y 46 
potentes pai^a modelos y dibujos industriales; se registraron 387 



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112 OFICINA INTERN ACIONAL DE LAS EEPUBLICAS AMERICAN AS, 

marcas de fdbrica y 32 nombres coraerciales y anuncios; 16 marcad 
f ueron registradas de nuevo, de acuerdo con la ley vigente. 

EI volumen total de las transacciones Ueyadas & cabo en el Registro 
de la Propiedad y Mercantil, durante el iiltimo ano, fu^ de $4:52,363,- 
135, que es mds de $100,000,000 en exceso del total de las transacciones 
Uevadas d cabo en cualquier ano anterior, lo cual demuestra un 
aumento considerable en los negocios sobre inmuebles y de naturale^a 
mercantil, en la Ciudad de Mexico solamente. 

Con el fin de fomentar la colonizaci6n, se otorgo una concesion para 
una colonia de Europeos en terreno nacional en el Estado de Chihua- 
hua; otras dos concesiones han sidb otorgadas para la division de te- 
rrenos naclonales en parcelas y para colonizacion, en el Estado de 
Sonora. Las industrias manufactureras son tambi^n protejidas 
poderosamente, autorizdndoselas el uso del agua para generar f uerza 
motriz. Se han otorgando concesiones autorizando el uso de mas de 
21,000 litros de agua, al mes, en los i-fos que estdn bajo la jurisdiccion 
del Gobierno Federal. 

Durante el mismo espacio de tiempo se otorgaron titulos garanti- 
zando los derechos de los que se aprovechan de las.corrientes de aguas; 
5,251 litros por segundo para riego, y 558 litros por segundo para 
generacion de f uerza motriz. 

El aumento de los ingresos postales mexicanos desde que comenzo la 
presente era de actividad comercial y desarrollo material, ha sido muy 
sorprendente. La memoria del Administrador General de Correos 
pai'a el ano 1904-5 dice que se vendieron sellos de correo por la canti- 
dad de $2,835,944.01, en comparaci6n con $2,608,914.64 del ano 
anterior, un aumento de $227,029.37. 

Los ingresos procedentes de los alquileres de apartados de correos 
ascendieron d $90,133, un aumento de $9,637; de multas, etc, 
$32,265.23, un aumento de $5,719.51; de premios sobre giros postales 
en oficinas de correo mexicanas, $291,916.22, un aumento de $7,574.94; 
de premios sobre giros postales en oficinas de correo de los Estados 
Unidos, $6,385.08, un aumento de $2,304.46; de premios sobre giros 
postales de editores, $36,452.43, un aumento de $4,492.15. Total de 
aumentos, $256,690.26. 

El volumen de la coirespondencia llevada durante el primer semes- 
tre del ainfo economico, fue de 84,000,000 piezas contre 81,000,000 
durante el mismo periodo del ano anterior. Se libraron giros postales 
interiores por valor de $22,000,000. El canje de giros postales con 
los Estados Unidos aument6 el 71-80 por ciento sobre la cantidad emi- 
tida durante el primer .•^^emestre del ano econ6mico anterior, siendo el 
total $1,115,000 en moneda mexicana. En el serviciode giros postales 
entre la Republic y el Reino Unido de la Gran Bretana 6 Irlanda, 
Mexico giro la cantidad de $33,300 en moneda mexicana, 6 Inglaterra 
giro contra Mexico la cantidad de $7,500, tambi^u en moneda mexi- 



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UNA REVI8TA DE LA AMERICA LATINA IN 1905. 113 

cana. Las ganancias totales de los correos importaron la cantidad de 
$1,763,000 durante el semestre. 

El movimiento de las administracione^ de correo de la Republica, 
durante el ano 1904-5, fu^ de 178,000,000 piezas de correspondencia. 
Se han establecido cinco nuevas estafetas locales, 25 agendas, y 10 
estafetas ambulantes. Los ingresos totales de correos importaron la 
cantidad de $3,290,000 en ndmeros redondos, con un aumento de 8.4 
por ciento sobre los ingresos del ano anterior. El movimiento de 
giros postales interiores f u6 de $45,800,000, y el de giros interna- 
cionales de $1,480,000. Se firm6 un eonvenio postal con el Imperio 
Alem&n para el cambio reciproco de giros, y para el cambio de los 
mismos con la mayoria de las oficinas de correo de la Uni6n. Postal 
Universal. Este tratado entro en vigor el V de julio de 1905. 

Las adiciones al sistema telegrfifico fueron representadas por 1,200 
kilometros, al par que se tendieron tres cables nuevos de un total de 
10 kilometros. Dos de estos cables son submarinos, uno entre 
Xilango y El Carmen y el otro entre la Isla Aguada y Puerto Real. 
El tercer cable se ha tendido fi lo largo del Rio Tepetitan. Se han 
establecido doce nuevas oficinas de tel^rafos, y las ganancias totales 
del sistema indican un aumento de 7 por ciento sobre las correspon- 
dientes al mismo periodo del afio anterior. '*La Mexican Telegraph 
Company," de acuerdo con su contrato, ha tendido un nuevo cable 
entre Gralveston y Coatzacoalcos, y las companias de tel^fonos que 
estan a cargo del servicio urbano de la capital han empezado & tender 
los hilos subterrfineos. 

La extensi6n total de las lineas ferroviarias de la Republica es en la 
actualidad de 17,170 kilometros. El Ferrocarril Pan-Americano ha 
oontinuado sus trabajos para el tendido de la Imea, y se han com- 
pletado 20 kil6metros de vfa durante el afio. Sc ha reanudado el 
trabajo de construcci6n en el camino de Guadalajara & Manzanillo, 
entre 198 y 207 kil6metros. Se ha continuado la sustituci6n de rieles 
de 34 kilogramos por rieles de 27 kilogramos en el Ferrocarril 
Nacional de Tehuantepec, al par que el puente de Santa Lucrecia 
quedo terminado y abierto al ti'fifico publico. 

Las nuevas construcciones ferroviarias hacen un total de 304 kilo- 
metros, contribuidos por el Ferrocarril de Kansas City, Mexico and 
Orient, el Pan-Americano, el de Cananea, Rio Yaqui and Pacific, el de 
Linares-San Jos^, y el de Zitacuaro-Joconusco. En la extension del 
Ferrocarril Central en la costa del Pacifico se ha abierto un tunel de 
151 metros de largo y construido un puente de 90 metros de largo. 

Las siguientes obras fueron completadas en el Ferrocarril de 
Tehuantepec: Rieles de 28 kilogramos se han colocado en vez de los de 
39i en 5(H kil6raetros de la linea, completdndose al mismo tiempo el 
terrapMn y la renovaci6n de traviesas en la misma extensi6n. Puen- 
tes provisionales, de una extensi6n total de 151 metros, fueron susti- 



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114 OFICINA INTERN ACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLICAS AMEBIC AN AS. 

tuidos por puentes permanentes de raamposteria. Se han puesto en 
el servicio 37 wagones nuevos de mercancias. 

Durante el semestre de julio d diciembre de 1905 se tendieron 5(H) 
kilometres de hilos de los tel%rafos federales, y la extension total 
del sistema de los raismos ei^a, en el ultimo mes, de 55,586 kilooietros. 
Se comenzado los trabajos en la ereccion de una linea de postes de 
hierro entre esta ciudad y Puebla, con el fin de comunicar el este con 
el sureste de la Republics, con el tendido de una linea entre Santa 
Rosalia y Mulege, I^ja California. 

Durante el semestre de enero i junio del ano de 1905 entraron en 
los puertos mexicanos 689 buques dedicados al trafico extranjeix), con 
715,964 toneladas de mercancias. Durante el mismo periodo saliei*on 
de los puertos mexicanos, con direccion a puertos extranjeros, 707 
buques con 171,401 toneladas de mercancias de produccion mexicana. 

Las llegadas de buques dedicados al tiufico de cabotage ascendieron 
& 3,511, con 132,070 toneladas de carga, y las salidas A 3,574, con 
113,700 toneldas de carga. 

Veintiun lineas distintas de vapores, con 332 buques, hacen el tHfico 
en aguas mexicanas 6 entre Mexico y otros paises. Estas lineas son: 
La Austro-Mexicana, la Mexican Navigation, la del Atlantic and (julf 
of Mexico, la Harrison, la Mala Imperial Alemana^ la New York and 
Cuba Mail, la Mexican-American, la Leyland, la Escolente, la Tras- 
atldntica Francesa, la Canadian-Mexican, la Trasatldntica Espauola, la 
Pacific Mail, la Pacific Steamship, la Kosmos, la Pacific Coast, la Cali- 
fornia Gulf Development, la Abaroa, la Navigation Steamship, la 
Chiva Commercial, y la Mason. 

Los principales puertos mexicanos de enti'ada son: En el Golfo de 
Mexico: Ascension, Campoche, Coatzacoalcos, Frontera, Laguna, 
Morelos, Progreso, Tampico, Tecolutla, y Vei-acmz; en el Pacifico: 
Acapulco, Agiabampo, Alcata, Bahia de Magdalena, Ensenada de 
Todos los Santos, Eureka, Guaymas, La Paz, Loreto, Manzanillo, 
Mazatlan, Medano Blanco, Mulege, Perihuete, Puerto Xngel, Salina 
Crux, San Benito, San Bias, San Jos^ del Cabo, San Qumtin, Santa 
Rosalia, Tonala, y Topolobampo. 

Se han terminado las obms de saneamiento de la ciudad de Tam- 
pico, y fueron entregadas al Consejo Municipal de aquel puerto el 
dia 17 de octubre de 1905, siendo los unicos detalles que estan por 
completarse el tcrraplen de algunas partes bajas de la ciudad, y una 
pequena porcion del algibe de filtracion para el suministro de agua. 
Se ha terminado el dragado & lo largo de los muelles de Tampico, y la 
renovacion del pavimento del muelle del Erario. El canal entre Tux- 
pam y Tampico se ha terminado hasta la distancia de 23 kilometi'os. 

En Veracruz la superficie de la mitad occidental del terreno que se 
ha quitado al mar esta casi acabada. 

En Coatzacoalcos el muelle occidental fue construido hasta una 



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UNA REVI8TA DE LA AMERICA LATINA IN 1906. 115 

extensi6n de 1,066 metres, siendo de 8 metres la profundidad del agua 
en la extremldad actual. El muelle oriental ha sido prolongado hasta 
una extension de 1,050 meti-os con una profundidad de 6 metros. Se 
ha completado la construccion del muelle quinto y de los cobertizos 
cuatro y cinco. En la estacion terminal se han eontinuado las obras del 
tendido de railes pennanentes. Se ha const loiido un camarfn para 8 
locomotoras, 2 balanzas para carros, y 1 taller de reparaciones. 

En Man2sanillo se ha terminado casi del todo la reparaci6n del rom- 
peolas. 

En Salina Cruz se han completado 920 metros del rompeolas oriental 
con una altura de 3 metros cuando la marea es alta y de una pre- 
fundidad de 17 metros, faltando solamente 80 metros para que quede 
terminado per complete. Se han comenzado las obras de la construc- 
cion de la pared de piedra monolita del puerto interior, asi como tam- 
bi^n de la construcci6n de tres cobertizos. El dragado hecho en el 
puerto ha sido de 1,300,000 metros cdbicos, y estan adelantando las 
obras de la const rucci6n del pisos del mismo. En la estacion terminal 
se ba terreplenado una extensi6n de 82,000 metros cuadrados, y se han 
tendido 13 kil6metros de via permanente. Para el suministro de agua 
se han establecido conecciones de la tuberia principal con las casas 
particulares. 

Las obras de saneamiento en la capital fueron llevadas & cabo sin 
interrupcion, y desde septiembre se han construido mfis de 2,100 metros 
lineales de alcantarillas, mds de 10,000 metros de alcantarillas laterales, 
y mas de 2,600 metros de de^agiies. Se ha pedido un motor el^ctrieo 
para hacer f uncionar las bombas de desague da San Ldzaro. 

Ijas medidas sanitarias tomadas contra la fiebre amarilla en el literal 
del Golfo y en el Istmo de Tehuantepec se aplican continuamente con 
energia. Desde septiembre de 1905 hasta febrero de 1906 ocurrieron 
132 cases, y el mal volvio & aparecer en Veracniz y Merida, adem^s de 
invadir Tuxtepec y Coixioba, en donde no es end^mico, pero les 
esfiierzos que se hicieron para impedir su propagaci6n han sido coro- 
nados con el 6xite. 

Niai7*agua. — En un mensaje dirigido al Congreso Nicaragfiense el 
1** de diciembre de 1905, el Presidente Zelaya dije que las relaciones 
que sostiene Nicaragua con etros paises, continuan siendo de las mtis 
cordiales. Con rcspecto d las republicas hermanas de la America Con- 
tml, estas relaciones cordiales han sido estrechadas, no solamente 
porque se han observado las dispesiciones de los tratados firmados, 
sine porque tambidn los habitantes y los gobiernos, gufados por 
anilogas tendencias y similares aspiraciones, han hecho que la prfictica 
de una inteligencia mutua sea nifis ficil de dia en dla. 

Se ha firmade un tratado de amistad y comercio con Guatemala, el 
cual eontribuidl eficazmente al desarrollo de las relaciones comer- 
ciales de ambes paises. 



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116 OFICINA INTERN AOIONAL DE LAS REPUBLICA8 AMEBICANAS. 

Las franquicias del puerto libre de San Juan del Norte f ueron res- 
cindldas durante el aiio, y en lo futuro dicho puerto estard en la 
misma categoria de los demds de la Repfiblica, de acuerdo con el tra- 
tado relativo al territorio Mosquito celebrado con la Gran Bretana y 
que f u6 firmado en Managua. 

El servicio consular, que se halla casi todo en manos de nicaraguen- 
ses, respondio & los deseos del Gobierno para la mejora del servicio 
y para la eonsecucion de todas las ventajas que trae consigo este ser- 
vicio en los pafees civilizados. En 1** de enero de 1906 entro en vigor 
el nuevo Codigo de Enjuiciamiento Civil, el cual introdujo importantes 
y utiles reformas en la legislaci6n segiin los principios m&s adelantados 
del derecho moderno. 

Durante el afio, el Gobierno puso especial atenci6n en la instruccion 
piiblica, y con este fin el Ejecutivo suministr6 & las escuelas naciona- 
les de primera y segunda ensenanza y profesionales, con abundante 
material cientifico, pedido al extrangero & un costo de mas de 200,000 
francos. Una gran parte de este material fu6 escogida en catalogos 6 
informaciones facilitados por los principales fabricantes europeos y 
norteamericanos, y ha sido distribulda entre las escuelas nacionales 
segiin las exigencias de cada una. Deseando el Gobierno ensuncbar el 
plan de estudios profesionales, ha ordenado el establecimiento de dos 
escuelas de agrimensura, anexos & los institutos de Le6n y Managua. 
El niimero de alumnos en ias escuelas publicas ascendio 6. 25,363, y se 
abrieron 76 escuelas nuevas durante el ano. 

El Gobierno, deseoso de mejorar y mantener en buen estado los 
caminos piiblicos, carreteras y senderos, y de construir los adicionales 
que scan necesarios para fomentar la agricultura, mineria y comercio, 
promulgo en 16 de agosto una ley organica sob re caminos que tendr£ 
un efecto benefice y practico en el particular. 

El arrendamiento de los ferrocarriles y vapores del Gobierno ha 
dado satisfactorios resultados, tanto para el Tesoro como para la efi- 
cacia del servicio. Los beneficios percibidos por el Erario Publico en 
vlrtud de este arrendamiento serdn demostrados con s61o decirse que, 
en tanto <}ue en el presupuesto de 1904 se destinaron $850,000 para los 
ferrocarriles del Gobierno, estos produjeron en el primer semestre de 
1905 la cantidad de $953,917.53, 25 por ciento de los cuales pertenecen 
al Gobierno. 

La construccion del Ferrocarril de Monkey Point es una de las obras 
mas importantes que se han acometido, puesto que no solamente pon- 
drd a la capital en comunicaci6n con el Oc^ano Atldntico, sino que 
tambi^n abrird d la explotacion extensas y ricas regiones en donde 
puede desarroUarse toda clase de industrias. 

En 17 de octubre se deposito en Londres suficiente cantidad de 
fondos para pagar los intereses del empr^stito de 1886, que vencian 



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UNA REVI8TA DE LA AMEBICA LATIN A IN 1906. 117 

despu&» de un mes, y la cantidad de ^12,950.46 destinada & la amor- 
tizacion de la deuda interna. 

El comercio de Nicaragua con los Estados Unidos dui*ante el ano 
economico de 1904-6 fu^ como sigue: Importaciones de los Estados 
Unidos, $1,944,556; exportaciones & los Elstados Unidos, 11,513,875. 

Las exportaciones de goma de Bluefields durante el afio economico 
que termino en 30 de junio de 1905 fueron avaluadas en $280,609.28, 
en comparaci6n con $201,661.78 del ano anterior. Las exportaciones 
de platanos durante el ano de referenda y del mismo puerto ascendie 
ron & $647,423, contra $814,900 de 1904. 

Las exportaciones de oro de San Jos^ del Norte en 1905 ascendieron 
& $403,866, un poco menos que las del ano anterior. Esto es dcbido & 
que dos de las minas mds productivas se explotaron solamente durante 
parte del ano & causa de las mejoras que se lie varan d cabo en el las y 
de la nueva maquinaria que se instalo. 

Las montanas de la Cordillera, sobre todo en la ladera oriental, 
son ricas en minerales. Hay minas de oro en cxplotacion en los dis- 
tritos de Tunki, Pispis, Siuna, Coco, Cincuenta, Rio Grande y La 
Gapera. Hdllanse actualmente en operacion unas cien minas, y la 
producci6n de oro varia entre 20,000 y 30,000 onzas al ano. Esta 
industria tropieza con los inconvenientes de la escacez de obreros, 
agua 3' facilidades de comunicaci6n. 

Tambi^n se encuentra cobre, carb6n, aceite y piedras preciosas. 
Las industrias locales son la fabricaci6n de muebles, calzados, tabacos 
y eigarrillos, aziicar, ron, cerveza, candelas y jabones, pero casi todos 
estos productos son para el consumo del pals. 

La cosecha de caf^ para el aiio 1905-6 se calcula que serd de 150,000 
quintales, poco menos de dos tercios de una cosecha ordinaria. La 
sequia y las erupciones del volcfin Santiago disminuyeron la produc- 
cion. El caf^ de los terrenos bajos es pequeno y de calidad inferior, 
pero el de Matagalpa es grueso y de buena forma, lo cual es debido & 
la f rescura del clima y £ la mayor abundancia de agua. La proxima 
cosecha promete mucho, y podrfan esperarse excelentes resultados si 
la estacion de Uuvias empieza en su debido tiempo y continua con 
regularidad. 

La Repfiblica produjo durante el ano 1904-5, 1,150,000 kilogramos 
de miel y 4,235,000 kilogramos de azucar. 

El cultivo del tabaco estd reglamentado por el Gobierno, el cual, en 
1903 percibio una renta de 262,904 pesos por licencias fi los planta- 
dores. Esta f uente de ingresos ha sido arrendada por diez anos desdo 
junio de 1904, mediante el pago de 160,000 pesos anuales, con un 
aumento de 5,000 pesos al ano. El cultivo del algod6n se ha explotado 
de tiempo en tiempo, pero se duda que continue. En 1903 se exporta- 
ron 205,709 libras. Se extrae la goma en los bosques de las montanas, 



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118 QFICINA INTERN ACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLICAS AMERICAN AS. 

y en les costas del Pacifico y del Atlantico existen plantaciones que 
hace poco se ban empezado. Los bosques contienen adem^ irboles 
de caoba y cedro, cuyas maderas se exportan en grandes cantidades, 
muchas maderas valiosas, maderas de tinte y plantas medicinalee. 
Explotanse los bosques de ambas costas, pero las estadfsticas de la 
corta de madera son incompletas. 

Hay probablemente 1,200,000 cabezas de ^nado en Nicaragua. En 
1903 se sacrificaron mds de 51,000 reses. El queso y la lecbe se con- 
sumen en grandes cantidades. Se curten cueros para las indostrias 
del pais. Se crian caballos y cerdos, pero no ovejas. Se cultiva maiz, 
babicbuelas y arroz para el consumo nacional. 

Panama. — La Republica de Panarai, que comenz6 su vida nacional 
el 3 de noviembre de 1903 con el apoyo un&nime de los babitantes del 
Istrao, en 1 de julio de 1905 entr6 k 'formar parte de la Union Inter- 
nacional de las Republicas Americanas. Las riquezas naturales de la 
Kepublica son muy poco conocidas en el mundo exterior, por cuanto 
que las eelipsa el proyecto monumental de un canal transistmiano. El 
trabajo del Gobierno de Panarafi, en abrir el pafs y en facilitar la 
explotacion de sus riquezas con extensas mejoras en los medios de 
trasporte y comunicacion, no ha sido anuneiado tan plenamente 
como lo garantizan los resultados conseguidos y por conseguir. Entre 
los proyectos que el Presidente Amador ha aprobado b^lanse 
bahias, caminos, ferrocarriles y la f undaci6n de una nueva ciudad, en 
las cuales se est^n llevando k cabo obras. ^ 

Pocos paises del taroano de Panam^ tienen una linea costanera tan 
grande. Desde la frontera costarriquena del Atldntico y el Pacffico 
se extiende basta la desembocadura del Rio Atrato en el Atlantico y 
hasta Puerto Cocolito en el Pacifico, la linea limiti'ofe entre Panani£ 
y Colombia, una extension, incluyendo ambos lados no menor de 
1,000 millas. El territorio se balla situado entre los 7^ 15' y 9° latitud 
norte y 77° y 82*^ longitud oeste de Greenwicb, y tiene un firea de 
31,500 millas cuadradas. La parte mfis ancba del Istmo tiene 160 
millas de extension, y la parte mis estrecba entre 35 y 40 millas, 
siendo la longitud extrema de unas 400 millas. 

El numero de babitantes de la Republica es de 300,000, compuesto 
de indios puros y salvajes, espanoles, colomblanos, panamenses, ingle- 
ses, alemanes, franceses, cbinos, italianos y americanos. Se calcuia 
que bay mas de 40,000 jamaicanos (que son ingleses) y unos 2,000 
cbinos, la mayor parte de los cuales fueron atraidos durante la ^poca 
en que la construccion del canal se hallaba en manos de franceses. 

Los puertos de la Rep6blica en el Pacifico son Panamd, Aguadiilce, 
Pedregal, Montijo y Puerto Mudis; y en el Atlantico, Col6n, Bocas 
del Toro y Puerto Bello. 

No bay mas que una linea de ferrocarril en la Repdblica, que se 
extiende desde el Pacifico, en Panama, basta el Atlantico, en Col6n, y 

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JJNA B£VISTA D£ LA AMERICA LATINA IK 1905. 119 

se hallft Hdininis$li*ada por la Paitainn Railroad Company. Tiene 47 
miDas de exteDsion y fu^ terminada en 1855, pasando el primer tren 
por el Istmo el 28 de enero del mismo afio. El costo de esta linea 
imports la cantidad de $7,500,0(X), y las ^nancias totalcs del aiio 
de 190S ascendieron i $1,267,570.91. La mayorfa de las aceiones 
(Ireinta y cuatro trig^simo quintos), anteriormente de la propiedad de 
h Compania Francesa del Canal, iia pasado & ser de la propiedad del 
Gobierno de los Estados Unidoe. Los cimienfeos de la via se hallan en 
baen estado, y el material rodante llena las necesidades por ahora. 
Las ofieinas centrales de la compatiia est£n en la ciudad do Nueva 
York. 

£1 ir&fico de carga de los Estados Untdos i los puertos al sur del 
P^cifieo aanoenio 3,375 toneladas, en tanto que & los puertos eentro- 
americanos y mexicanos aament6 6,885 toneladas, y al de Panama 6,71K) 
toneladas. De Europa & los puertos al sur del Pacitico el aiunento f u^ 
de 3.390 teneladas, y 5,080 & los puertos centro-americanos y mexi- 
eanoe. La dismmoeion del trafieo de cargtf de los puertos centro- 
unericaDOS y n>exieanos & Europa fu6 de 6,075, y la de los puertos al 
sardel Pacifieo al mismo destino fu6 de 9,950 toneladas. El total 
de mercancias trasporiadas a trav^ del Istmo en 1905 ascendio & 
444,230 toneladas^ un aumeDto de unas 30,000. El traiico interocednico 
de mercancias indicd un aumento del 66 por ciento del total de tonela- 
das trasportado, contra 82 por ciento del ano 1904. El n6mero total 
de pasajeros trasportados en el fenrocarril, durante el ailo, ascendio d 
273,165, en comparacifin de 114,000 del ano de 1904. 

Las ganancias totales durante el ano de 1905, ascendieron & la can- 
tidadde $1,912,552, un aunsientode $644,981 sobre las del ano anterior. 
Las ganancias derivadas del trasporte de mercandas y carbon impor- 
taron la sunrn de $1,306,145, un aomento de $198,620 sobre las de 1904; 
hs derivadas de la venta de billetes de pasaje ascendieron a la (^nti- 
dad de $129,163, con un aumento de 50 por ciento sobre las de 1904; 
1116,790 se derivaron del trasporte de moneda y correspondencia, con- 
tra $110,792 del ano 1904. Las ganancias derivadas de pasajes intero- 
ceinicos disminuyeron en la cantidad de $3,372, por mas que el niimero 
de pasajeros aumento 1,425. El precio de pasajes interoceanicos f u^ 
rediicidode$10a $6.50, y en segunda clase de $5 i $4.50. El numero do 
pasajeros locales aumento 185,867, importando las ganancias $47,064, 
debido i la reanudacion de las obras de constmccion del canal. 

Kl total combinado dc las ganancias de la "Panama Kailroad and 
Steamship Company,*' durante 1905, ascendio i $3,077,611, un aumento 
dfe $536,512 sobre las de 1904. Los gastos totales ascendieron a 
12,541,099, un aumento de $679,358 sobre los de 1904. Durante el 
ano de que se trata entraron en el Puerto de Colon 471 vapores, de 
1,361,150 toneladas^ y 268 buques de vela de 22,348 toneladas, indi- 
cindoee un mamento de 94 vapores de 24,150 tcmeladas, y una dismi- 



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120 OFIOINA INTERNAOiOKAL D£ LAS BEPUBLIOAS AMEiUOAKAS. 

nucion de 73 buques de vela de 6,948 toneladas en comparacion cod el 
ano 1904. Los buques americanos que entraron en el puerto de Colon 
en el ano de referenda fu^ron 63 vapores de 156,371 toneladas, y 21 
barcos de vela de 13,354 toneladas. La '' Royal Mail y la Hamburg 
American Steamship Company" ban establecido lineas quincenales 
entre Col6n y Nueva York, cuyos vapores, juntamente con los de la 
"Panamd Railroad and Steamship Company" hacen un total de 9 
vapores mensuales entre Colon y Nueva York. 

El movimiento comercial del Puerto de Colon durante el ano de 1905 
indica que las importaciones de Panamd por dicho puerto ascendieron & 
mds de dos millones de dollars, importando la cantidad de $2,008,904, 
un aumento de unos $408,000 sobre las de 1904. De esta cantidad las 
importaciones por los distintos paises fu6 como sigue: Estados Unidos, 
$1,376,074; Gran Bretana, $229,107; Alemania, $196,084; Francia, 
$89,248; Espana, $33,528; B^lgica, $11,592; Italia, $11,487; otros 
paises, $61,784. 

Los principales articulos importados por los Estados Unidos f ueron: 
Material ferroviario,carb6n, maderas, substanciasalimenticias,petr61eo, 
fabricaciones de algod6n, f erreterla, cerveza, calzado, muebles, sombre- 
ros, y m&quinas de coser. De Europa se importaron los siguientes 
articulos: Fabricaciones de algodon, lana 6 hilo, ropa hecha, calzado, 
sombreros, candelas, fosforos, cerveza, vinos, y articulos de fantasia. 
Las principales exportaciones de Col6n vdn & los Estados Unidos, para 
dondese despacharon en 1905 los siguientes ai-ticulos: Plfitanos, $35,780; 
cocos, $54,600; cueros, $4,755; marfil vegetal, $26,080; goma, $8,185; 
carey, $9,240; varios articulos, $2,845; haciendo un total de $141,486. 

El gran aumento del trdfico es el resultado de la independencia de 
Panamd, y del feneeimiento de la era de constantes disturbios civiles, 
los cuales hacian que el desarroUo de empresas industriales f uera casi 
imposible. Con un largo periodo de paz y buen orden, los beneficios 
derivados de la construccion del Canal, y la inmigraci6n de los Estados 
Unidos, puede predecirse que el incremento del comercio serd invari- 
able. 

El cultivo y la exportaci6n de platanos es la industria que directa 6 
indirectamente mantiene & casi todos los habitantes del Distrito de 
Bocas del Toro. Las exportaciones de esta f ruta d los Estados Unidos 
ascendieron, en 1905, d 3,414,500 racimas, 131,200 cocos y 1,157 cajas 
de carne de tortuga en latas. Las exportaciones 6. Europa f ueron raiz 
de zarzaparrilla y carey. Las importaciones de los Estados Unidos, 
Europa y Asia f ueron de toda clase de mercancias. 

El comercio total de los Estados Unidos con la Republica de Panamd 
durante el aiio economico terminado en 30 de junio de 1906 fu6 por valor 
de $6,000,000. 

Las exportaciones de Panama d los Estados Unidos consisten prin- 
cipalmente en pldtanos, gutapercha, caf6 y otros productos tropicales. 



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FN A BEVISTA BE LA AMEBIC A LATIN A IN 1906. 121 

Las importaciones procedentes dedichos estados fueronharina, lejidos 
de algodon, rieles de acero, otras fabricaciones de algod6n, trozos de 
madera, tablas, muebles, herramieDtas, hierro y acero para construc- 
ciones de edificios, mecanografos, mdquinas de coser, maquinaria, y 
una larga lista de articulos varies. Las importaciones procedentes 
de los £stados Unidos no incluyen los artfculos importados por el 
Gobiemo de los mismos en sus propios vapores, pero sf los importados 
por el mencionado Gobierno en las lineas particulares. Las exporta- 
ciones de las Estados Unidos & Panamd salen de los puertos de Nueva 
York (tres cuartas partes), Nueva Orleans, Mobile, y San Francisco. 
Las importaciones procedentes de Panamd entran por Mobile y Nueva 
York en casi iguales proporciones. 

En la actaalidad las provincias centrales de Los Santos, C!ocle y 
Veraguas son las regiones que necesitan mejoras importantes, para 
las coales se ba destinado la cantidad de $1,050,000 plata. 

Las Bahias de Pescaderfas y Puerto Posada seran mejoradas con el fin 
de que los pasajeros y la carga pueden desembarcar en muelles. Con 
excepcion de la ciudad de Panamd, el puerto de Agua Dulce es el (inico 
que actualmente tiene Panami en el Pacifico en donde los buques 
pueden hacer la carga y descarga en muelles. 

El proyecto es tener para dentro de breve tiempo, primeramente 
buenos caminos, y despu^s, ferrocarriles que crucen los pianos y las 
faldas de las montanas y que atraviesen ^stas hasta el AtUntico, y de 
esta manera desarroUar las riquezas naturales que hasta el presente 
ban estado sin explotar. 

Mlnas de ore abandonadas por largo tiempo ban vuelto 6, ser descu- 
biertas y en la actualidad se explotan con ^xito. Los m^todos primi- 
tivos de los espanoles tenian eficacia solamente en los sitios en que las 
vetas mineraies eran mfis asequibles. Los resultados obtenidos con la 
aplicacion de los m^todos modernos, serdn superiores d los conseguidos 
por los descubridores originales. A causa de la f alta de facilidades de 
trasporte los dep6sitos de hierro y carb6n en las faldas de las montanas 
ban permanecido sin explotarse. 

Desde julio & diciembre de 1905, el Gobierno de Panamd otorgo los 
siguientes titulos de minas: Boca de Igui, veta de oro; San Francisco 
de la Montana, Veraguas; El Basto, veta de oro, San Francisco de la 
Montana, Veraguas; The Disraeli, veta de oro, San Francisco de la 
Montana; La Bonita, terrero de oro, Santa F^, Veraguas; La Espe- 
ranza, terrero de oro, Santa F^, Veraguas; continuacion de La Bonita, 
terrero de oro, Santa F^, Veraguas; El Aguila, terrero de oro, Santa 
F^, Veraguas; Antigua Guaca, vete de oro, Canazas, Veraguas; La 
Buena Esperanza, veta de oro, Canazas, Veraguas; La Esperanza, 
estratos de hierro, Macararcas, Los Santos; La Providencia, estratos 
de cobrc, Macararcas, Los Santos; Hipelisa, terrero de oro, Pino- 
gana, Panam£; Quebrada de Arena, Pinogana, Panamd; Tres do 
Bull No. 1—06 IP ^ T 

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122 OFICINA INTERNACIOITAL D£ LAS BEPUBLIGAS AMERICANAS. 

Julio, terrero de oro, Chiriqui Grande, Bocas del Toro; Juan de Dios, 
Robles 6 Fiter, veta de oro, San Francisco de la Montana, Veragiias. 

Hace algunos anos so encontraron valiosos dep6sitos de gangas de 
manganeso cerca de Nombrede Dios, en la Provincia de Colon, y varies 
capitalistas americanos organizaron la Maganese Mining Company que 
repartio grandes dividendos. La mayor parte del carb6n que se 
importa procede de los Estados Unidos, y una pequena parte de 
Australia, que importa la Pacific Steam Navigation Company-. Se 
encuentran muchas vetas de carbon en muchas partes de la Republica 
de Panamfi. En la Provincia de Bocas de Toro se descubrio un carb6n 
bituminoso de buena calidad, pero el de{>6sito se hallabe tan distanteeo 
el interior que su explotacion no bubiera resultado lucrativa. En la 
Zona del Canal Istmiano los f rancescs descubrieron vetas de carbon 
durante el tiempo que ocuparon el territorio. Este hecho parece 
haber sido comprobado con la reapertura de una antigua veta de car- 
bon en el Rio Negrito. Por las muestras, este carb6n resulta ser de la 
formacion de lignito. Kecientemente se hicieron excavaciones en 
otros dos sitios del mismo terrcno, pero & un nivel mas bajo, y se dice 
que se encontraron estratos carboniferos de tres pies de grueso. 

Extensos bosques que contienen maderas finas quedarSn a.<equihles 
en cuanto se establezcan mejores medios de comunicaci6n. El co<*o, el 
caf6 y la goma crecen con exhuberancia selvfitica. Para citar un 
ejemplo, se dice de buena tinta que un cacique indio posee 25,00i) 
drboles de goma. Con los beneficios del cultivo, y la conduccion del 
producto a un mercado disponible, una cosecha de goma rinde una 
ganancia de $1 & ^2 plata por cada firbol. Los obreros indios necesa- 
rio pueden obtenerse mediante el pago un jornal de 10 centavos 
platas por firbol. 

En noviembre de 1905 la casa de moneda de Filadelfia, Estados 
Unidos, mando a Panamd una emisi6n de $1,000,000 en nuevas mone- 
das de plata de $1 al tipo fijo de $1 oro, las cuales fueron acuiiadas 
para el Gobierno de Panama. Para mantener la paridad de las mone- 
das de oro y plata de la Republica se ha hecho un dep6sito de $300,- 
000 oro en la Bankers' Trust Company de Nueva York. Esta cantidad 
es el 15 por ciento de la emision total de $4,000,000 de la nueva 
moneda de plata de Panamfi. 

FA Gobierno ha hecho un contrato para la elevacion de toda ciudad 
de Ik>cas del Toro, a la altura do 1 metro sobre su presente nivel, para 
la construccion de una muralla de mar, y para la del alcantarillado, 
incluyendo el dragado de un estero situado en la parte trasera de la 
poblacion. Todo este trabajo, que es dif icil que quede terminado en 
dos aiios, sera ejecutado mediante el pago de $241,000 en plata de 
Panama (equivalente a $120,500 oro americano). 

Paraguay. —El mensaje del Pro^idente Baez, de la Republica del 
Paraguay, leido en la apertura de las sesiones oi^dinarias del Congi'eso, 



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UNA RKVISTA DE LA AMERICA LATIN A IN 1905. 123 

es xnuy intcresante considerado como una pinieba del considerable 
progreso moral y material alcanzado en este pais desde la t6rminaci6n 
de la ultima guerra civil. En 61 se demuestra la mejora manitiesta 
que se ha experimentado en la situacion general del pals, como lo 
prueba la afluencia de capitales extranjeros y el desarrollo de las 
riquezas del pais, lo cual es debido al funcionamiento mas regular 
de sus instituciones y d un sentido creciente de seguridad social y 
economiea. 

Haciendo referenda 6, las relaciones internacionales, el Presidento 
dijo que las Republicas Argentina y del Brasil mantienen con el Pam- 
guay las relaciones mfis cordiales 6 intimas, y que la politica comercial 
de la Argentina es enteramente favorable a los intereses de la nacion. 
Con respecto a la cuestion de limites, dijo que Bolivia ha enviado & 
Asuncion un nuevo plenipotenciario con el tin de arreglarla amistosa- 
mente. 

Las elecciones generales para la renovaci6n bienal de los miembros 
del Congreso se celebraron en medio del mfis porfecto orden. Las 
elecciones municipales en la capital y oti-as partes de la Republica 
tambien se celebraron en medio de iguales circunstancias favorables. 

Durante el ano de 1905 se han abierto nuevas oficinas de correos 
en distintas jmrtes de la Republica; se modific6 la tarifa postal, y 
se continuaron los trabajos en la linea telegrafica a Bahia Negra, 
habiendose tendido tambi^n lineas desde Ilemhy a San Antonio, 
desde Punta Fierro hasta Yuty y desde Limpio & Piquete. Tambi^n 
se hicieron convenios para el cambio de mensajes telegrdticos con los 
ferrocarriles. 

En 1904 las recaudaciones de aduanas ascendieron a $15,069, 70t>. 30 
en papel moneda. Las importaciones y exportaciones fueron $3,508,- 
138.17 y $3,100,559 oro, respectivamente. Los ingresos dc rentas 
intemas ascendieron durante el mismo ano & $1,459,614.39, cantidad 
macho mas pequena que la recaudada en 1903. 

El Banco Agricola, cuyas operaciones quederon paralizadas durante 
la ultima guerra civil, las ha i-eanudado. Su capital, autorizado por 
la ley de 14 de julio de 1903, es de $14,531,238.35, de cuya cantidad 
16,793,850 corresponden al Departamento de Hipotecus, y el resto, 
17,737,388.35, al Departamento Agricola 6 Industrial. 

La deuda exterior del pals ei"a, en diciembre de 1903, $4,623,217.84 
oro, a cuenta de cuya cantidad se.hizo un pago de $24,866.04 oro eu 
1904, quedando el total de la deuda en 31 de diciembre de 1904 
li,598,351.80 oro. 

En 1905 las recaudacionfes de aduanas hicieron un total de 22,467,970 
pesos, encomparacion con 8,428,705 pesos del de 1900, y los ingresos 
de la contribucion interna han aumentado. 

El extract© de quebracho y la yerba mate son ahom dos de los 
productos m£s importantes de las riquezas nacionales, y hay en la 



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124 OFICINA INTEBNACIONAL DE LAS BEPUBLI0A8 AMSBICANAS. 

Republica mds de 300,000 plantes de algodon en cultivo, 200,000 de 
cafe, y unos 300,000 de lechetrezna. 

Los principales articulos importados durante el primer semestre 
de 1905, clasificados segun los paises de procedencia, son conio sigue: 
Gran Bretana: Tejidos, $258,315.73; ferreteria, $65,549.71; merceria, 
$25,663.09; armas, municiones, etc., $5,888.72; drogas, $6,041.58; 
sombreros, $3,899.25; articulos en general, $3,281,61; vinos, licores, 
etc., $2,182.42; sustancias alimenticias, $4,687.86; vajillas y crista- 
leria, $1,088.49. Italia: Tejidos, $33,095.64; sustancias alimenticias, 
$28,705.74; ferreteria, $2,044.55; vinos, licores, etc., $45,446.85. Ale- 
mania: Tejidos, $111,300.25; sustancias alimenticias, $46,828.78; ferre- 
teria, $45,016.80; vinos, licores, etc., $7,171.72; merceria, $8,128.78; 
drogas, $11,211.70; armas, municiones, etc., $4,099.32; sombreros, 
$2,469.26; efectos de escritorio, $7,034.97; articulos en general, 
$2,822.57. Espaffa: Sustancias alimenticias, $29,758.77; vinos, licores, 
etc., $39,269.44; merceria, $760.22. Francia: Tejidos, $21,634; sus- 
tancias alimenticias, $24,633.20; ferreteria, $9,363.55; vinos y lico- 
res, $19,424.92; merceria, $11,801.44; drogas, $6,533.59; sombreros, 
$5,448.98. Republica Argentina: Sustancias alimenticias, $107,832.58; 
ferreteria, $3,502.40; cueros, $3,064; tejidos, $3,056.28; vinos, licores, 
etc., $1,511.02. Estados Unidos: Ferreteria, $23,942.59; drogas, 
$6,190.59; armas y municiones, $2,962.90; sustancias alimenticias, 
$8,669.83. 

La mayor parte de las mantas baratas, ponchos y arroz que se 
importan proceden de Alemania; las candelas, de Holanda, via Alemania; 
drogas y aziicar, de Francia; los tejidos, de Inglaterra; las medicinas de 
patente y los molmos de viento, de los Estados Unidos, cu3'o pais 
^suministra la mayor cantidad de mdquinas refrigeradoras, molinos de 
viento y hachas. El hierro galvanizado se importa de la Gran Bretana; 
barina, trigo, mantequilla y queso, de la Republica Argentina, y los 
vinos de inferior calidad se importan de Espana 6 Italia. 

Dui-ante dicho semestre entraron en el puerto de Asuncion, 953 
vapores y buques de vela, de 177,663 toneladas. 

El capital total de los establecimientos comerciales de Asunci6n 
ascendio a $43,000,000, y el de obras ciudades a $27,000,000, haciendo 
un total general de $70,000,000. Estas cif ras est^n indudablemente 
representadas en papel moneda, que viene & valer 10 centavos oro por 
cada dollar de papel. Por lo tanto, el valor total en oro seria de unos 
$7,000,000, 6 un promedio de $14 por cada habitante. 

La Industria Paraguaya aumento su capital de $8,000,000 i 
$30,000,000; esta es la compauia mas importante de la Republica. La 
sigue la compania de scguros La Nacional, con un capital de $5,000,000; 
La Pamguay, con $10,000,000; La Paraguay (compania porteadora), 
con $2,000,000; La Selvatica, con $3,000,000; El Quebracho de Puerto 
Maria, con $5,000,000, y el Gran Hotel del Paraguay, con $1,000,000. 



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UNA REVISTA DE LA AHEBIOA LATINA IN 1905. 125 

El niimero de establecimientos industriales en la capital era de 348, 
y en otras partes dc la nacion, 841, es decir, un total de 1,180, con un 
capital total de $139,0CM),000 papel moneda, 6 $13,900,000 oro. De 
este total, $124,000,000 correspondian d los establecimientos existentes 
en Asuncion, y los $15,000,000 restantes 6. los de otras partes de la 
Republica. 

Una ley fechada en 14 de julio de 1905 autoriza al Gobierno fi impo- 
ner los siguientes derechos especiales, cuyos productos serdn destinados 
& ciertas obras de puerto especificadas en la ley: 

{a) Un muellaje de un centavo oro por cada 10 kilogramos sobre 
todos los articulos que se cargnen 6 descarguen en cualquier puerto, 
Mgase 6 no uso dell muelle; y 

(J) Un impuesto de 46 centavos oro por cada metro cubico, sobre 
maderas cargadas en el Puerto de Asunci6n. 

El muellaje especial debfa imponerse desde la fecha de la promulgji- 
ci6n de la ley, y el impuesto sobre maderas serd recaudado en cuanto 
se abran al publico los muelles que se estfin construyendo para la carga 
de maderas. Ambos impuestos permanecerfin en vigor hasta que se 
amortice el empr&tito levantado para las obras de puerto autorizadas. 

Peni. — La situacion economica del pais en 1905, bajo la administra- 
cion del Presidente Pabdo, pone de manifiesto el dcvsarrollo do la 
nacion. 

El Tratado de comercio entre Brazil y Per6 fu^ denunciado y ces6 
de operar el 18 de mayo do 1905. El Gobierno peruano, de con- 
formidad, derog6 el decreto del 12 de septiembre de 1898, y otras 
resoluciones dictadas para poner en eiecuci6n el mencionado tratado, 
de modo que en lo f uturo la navegaci6n de los buques brasilenos en 
aguas peruanas, la importaci6n de mercancias brasilenas por el Puerto 
de Loreto, y en la regi6n Yavari, y la exportacion de goma, quedardn 
sujetas a las leyes, tarifas, y reglamentos del Per6. 

El aumento de las exportaciones de la Aduana de Iquitos, durante 
los filtimos anos, da una idea del r&pido progreso de la naci6n. En 
1902 el valor de estas exportaciones ascendi6 solamente, en niimeros 
redondos, & $1,405,000; en 1903, d $2,137,000; en 1904, $3,306,000, 
y 8eg6n los indicios las de 1905 ascenderdn & mfis de $5,000,000. El 
grueso de estas exportaciones en 1904 fue la goma, que fu6 exportada 
por valor de $3,209,000. El valor de las importaciones aumenta tam- 
bi^n constantemente. En 1900 ascendieron i la cantidad $11,284,000; 
en 1904 alcanzaron la de $20,931,000, indidindose un aumento do 100 
por ciento proximamente en cuatro anos. Los ingresos de los f erro- 
carriles en el ano economico de 1895 importaron la cantidad de 
$1,246,300, suma que fu^ aumentdndose hasta la de $3,203,700 & que 
ascendieron las ganancias producidas en 1905, indicdndose un aumento 
de 157 por ciento en diez anos. 



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126 OFIOIKA INTERN AOIONAL DE LAS BEPUBLICAS AMEBIC AN AS. 

Las importaciones durante el primer semestre del ano 1905 ascen- 
dieron a $9,896,000 oro. No solamente aumentaron las importaciones, 
sino tambien las exportaciones, de un promedio semestral de $8,500,000 
a $12,282,000 en el primer semestre de 1905. 

Las exportaciones de Perii a los Estados Unidos en 1905 fueron 
avaluadas en $3,152,964; los articulos exportados fueron: Nitrato de 
sosa, $370,935; guano, $273,988; y azficar, $1,018,208. Las importa- 
ciones procedentes de los Estados Unidos ascendieron & $3,657,225; los 
articulos principales fueron: Varias fabricaciones de hierro y acero, 
$1,364,285; tejidos de algodon, $142,302; carros, carruajes y otros 
vehiculos, $135,430, y harina, $254,442. 

Los aumentos de las importaciones son los siguientes: 1902, $17,000,- 
000; 1903, $19,000,000; 1904, $21,000,000, y dumnte el primer semes- 
tre de 1905, $10,000,000. Las exportaciones aumentaron del mode 
siguientes: 1902, $18,000,000; 1903, $19,500,000; 1904, $20,300,000. 

Las exportaciones consisten principalmente en goma, siendo el total 
durante los seis meses de referenda, 745 toneladas m^tricas (de 2,205 
libras), avaluadas en $1,180,000. Esta industria se estd desarrollando 
con gran rapidez y promete continuar siendo el producto principal de 
exportacion. 

La disminucion que se nota en las exportaciones del Peru A los 
Estados Unidos desde 1901 es debida al deeaimiento en las consigna- 
ciones de azdc^ar d estos. La cantidad de azucar peruano recibida en 
los Estados Unidos en 1901 fu^ de 130,000,000 libi-as, la cual ha disnii- 
nuido de ano en ano hasta 48,000,000 en 1904. 

Grandes cantidades de mercancias se importan al Peru por medio de 
puertos brasileiios y por el Rio Amazonas. 

Los ingresos de aduanas durante el ano 1905 fueron como sigue: 
Callao, £593,592.505; Mollendo, £134,317.525; Paita, £37,366,957; 
Eten, £36,684.187; Salaverry, £32,545.995; Pireo, £23,854.737; 
Pecamayo, £15,206.114; Compaiiia Nacional de Recaudacion, £7,- 
561.170; Ho, £1,381.845; Pimentel, £101,633; Tumbe, £79,158, 
haciendo un total de £882,692.116, mds £128,887.348 de Iquitos, 
6 sea, im total geneml de £1,011,579.464. 

El comercio del Peru, aiin cuando es satisfactorio, todavfa no esta en 
proporeion con sus grandes riquezas, que en fecha no lejana of receriLn 
un vasto campo a las empresas y la inversion de capitales. 

Los derechos de aduanas y los impuestos sobre el consume de ciertos 
articulos, son las fuentes principales de ingresos. Obs^rvanse en ellos 
los siguientes aumentos, correspondiendo las cantidades d los primeix)s 
semestresdelosanosmencionados: 1903, $1,773,000; 1904, $2,153,000; 
1905, $2,304,000. Los ingresos totales dumnte 1905 ascendei*an ppo- 
bablemente a $5,000,000. Las rentas del impuesto sohre el alcohol 
fueron como sigue: 1901, $1,028,000; 1902, $984,000; 1903, $1,027,000; 
1904, $1,641,000; 1905, $1,800,000. Durante los primeros nueve 



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UNA BEVISTA DE LA. AMERICA LATINA IN 1905. 127 

meses de 1904 los ingresos del impuesto sobre tabaoo ascendieron & 
1541,000, y durante igual perfodo de 1905, & $575,(X>0. El total de 
todos los impuestos sobre el consumo de articulos durante lo.s primeros 
nueve meses de 1904, fu^ de $2,265,00(), j durante el raismo periodo de 
1905 $2,776,000. 

Las rentas de todas clases durante 1905 aleanzai-an probablemente la 
oifra de $10,000,000. Este aumento de rentas ha sfervido para mejorar 
el cr^ito nacional, habi^ndose negociado empr^stitos de c^onsiderables 
cantidades durante el ano pasado — uno de £600,000 para la compra de 
dos cruceros, y otro de £3,000,000 para la construccion de ferrocarriles. 

Durante el ano de 1905 se establecieron 28oficinas nuevas de corrcos 
y el aumento en el numero de piezas de eorrespondencia llevada, que 
fu^ notable durante los affos anteriores, ha sido mayor. El numero 
total de piezas de eorrespondencia en 1903 fu<5de 16,081,000; en 1904, 
17,581,000, y en 1905, 20,000,000 (parte de esttx cantidad ha sido calcu- 
lada). La extensi6n total de las lineas telegr^ficas de la nacion ha sido 
aumentada de 2,165 millas en 1904 & 2,496 fi fines de 1905, aumontan- 
dose tambien el numem de estaciones de 88 a 99. 

El prog'reso del desari-ollo agricola queda demostrado con las sigui- 
entes cifras que representan el valor de las exportaciones durante el 
primer semestre de 1905 (en moneda de los-Estados Unidos): 

Aziicar, $4,143,000; goma, etc., $1,48^000; algodon, $779,000; 
cocaina, $321,000; cacao, $215,000. 

La producci6n del algodon ha aumentado mfis rapidamente (jue lo 
que se indiea en las precedentes cifras, porque considerables canti- 
dades de dicho producto son consumidas en las fabricas peruanas. 
Calculase que la cosecha de algodon de 1905 consistio de 125,000 
fardos. 

La gran meseta de la Cordillera contiene inmensos pastos con agua 
abundante y of rece excelentes oportunidades para la cria de toda clase 
de ganado. Las exportaciones de lana en 1904 ascendieron a 4,100 
toneladas avoirdupois, valoradas en $1,600,000. 

Una compaflfa inglesa ha importado 6,000 ovejas para mejorar la 
criade su ganado lanar en los pastos que posee en el Departamento de 
Junin. Los resultados que ban obtenido hasta ahora proraeten mucho, 
per mfis que afin es temprano para decir que han tenido 4xito. 

Haciendo un examen de las exportaciones de goma queda demos- 
trada la importanciade las plantaciones del alto Ucayali. De la expor- 
tacion de 475 toneladas durante el primer semestre de 1905, corres- 
ponden a la producci6n de este rfo y tributarios 357 toneladas, 6 sea 
el 48 por ciento; en tanto que corresponden al Putumayo, 194 tonela- 
das; al Yavari, 155; y los demfis tributarios del Iquitos produjeron 39 
toneladas. Claro esta que la produccion de estos rios no representa 
toda la goma que produce el Peru, sino solamente la de aquellas sec- 
ciones del pais cuya exportacion se hace por la aduana de Iquitos. 



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128 OFIOINA INTERN ACIONAL DE LAS BEPUBLICA8 AMEBIC ANAS. 

Otros distritos importantes son los valles de Madre de Dios, Tambo- 
pata, Beni, etc. ; la cantidad de cuyo producto no se puede determinai*. 

El azucar constituye uno de los articulos mds importantes de la 
exportacion, ascendiendo d 134,000 toneladas la de 1905. Toda la costa 
del Peru es & prop6sito para el cultivo de aziicar, algod6n y otros 
productos tropicales, pero el abastecimiento de agua es limitado. La 
sequia dui^ante el ano 1905 fu6 terrible. 

El tabaco que se cultiva en Tarapoto, Provincia de San Martin, 
Departamento de Loreto, es excelente. Antiguamente este distrito 
producia anualmente de 12,000 & 15,000 arrobas de tabaco, pero en 
1904 la cosecha ascendi6 solamente i 2,400 arrobas. Los habitantes de 
San Martin, que es una de las provincias m&s ricas y f^rtiles, la est£n 
abandonando para establecerse en los distritos del bajo Amazonas y 
Ucayali. 

Es bien sabido que el Peru es uno de los pocos paises en donde la 
quina crece silvestre, pero la corteza ya no constituye uno de los 
articulos mas importantes de exportacion por cuanto que casi todos 
los arboles ban sido destruidos en casi todas las regiones asequiblcs. 
Debierac estimurlarse la plantacion de estos drboles en locales adecuados. 
Se dice que ep la actualidad no seria lucrativo este cultivo, lo cual 
indudablemente es cierto, pero con la proteccion del Gobierno prodnan 
obtenerse magniticos resultados en lo futuro. 

Ademds de las importantes industrias agricolas debe mencionarse el 
cultivo de muchas variedades de frutas, etc., para el consumo naciooaL 
Encu^ntranse muchos minerales en Per6, y algunos de los {itiles se 
hallan en grandes cantidades. Actualmente hay inscritas en el registro 
oficial 10,000 pertenencias mineras. Casi todas las minas son de la 
propiedad de extranjeros. Los principales metales y otros productos 
minerales que se encuentran en este pais son los siguientes: Oro, plata, 
cobre, plomo, mercurio, molibdena, tungstato de hierro, niquel, azufre, 
carbon, petroleo, borax, sal, hierro, mica, bismuto, estano y grafito. 

El Peru es rico en plata, pero el bajo precio de este metal ha 
paralizado las operaciones de sus innumerables mmas. Los principales 
distritos en donde se encuentra este metal son Hualgayoc, Salpo, 
Huaylas, Recuay, Cajatambo, Yauli, Cerro de Pasco, Huallanca, 
Huarochiri, Castrovirreyna, Lucanas, Cayllona, Lampa y Puno. 

Muestras del carbon que se encuentra en el Departamento de Ancachs 
f ueron exhibidas en la Exposicion de San Luis, en donde las examinaron 
varios americanos interesados en este ramo de la mineria. Son bien 
conocidas las valiosas notas del naturalista Italiano Raimondi sobre los 
depositos minerales y de carbon de dicho Departamento. 

Desde hace algunos anos ha habido un interns creciente en la explo- 
tacion de los campos de petroleo situados al norte del Perfi. Se sabe 
desde hace tiempo que existen aceites lubricativos y para combusti6a 
en las Provincias de Paita y Tumba. Se ban explotado algunos de 



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UNA BEVI8TA BE LA AMKBICA LATINA IN 1905. 129 

estos depositos dui'ante los ultimos quince anos. Los dep^sitos m&s 
antiguos que siiministran petr61eo d los mercados peruanos son los que 
estan situados en Negritos y Zorritos. Sin embargo, en Lobitos, & 
Unas 20 millas de distancia de Negritos, y en la costa, hay un nuevo 
depdsito recientemente abierto por la Corporacion Peruana. 

Durante el ano de 1905, el capital invertido en la explotacion y des- 
arrollo de minas, distritos agrfcolas 6 instalaciones 6l^ctricas se calcula 
en $10,000, y el nfimero de naolinos aument6 fi raz6n de 5 por ciento. 
Abri^ronse tambi^n dumnte el mismo ano varios molinos de harina, 
algodon, lana, y papel, f abricas de porcelana, y otros establecimientos de 
menor importancia, tales como zapaterfas, sombrerias y camiserias. 

El consul general del Peru en Valparaiso, Chile, hace poco recibi6 
6rdenes de su Gobierno para enviar al Perd 50 cabezas de ganado por 
cada vapor que saliera de aquel puerto con direccion & la Repiiblica. 
Se calcula que se recibiran mensualmante unas 500 cabezas. Ya se 
observo una baja en los precios de la came con la llegada de la pri- 
mera consignaci6n. El misoio consul ha enviado ademds grandes can- 
tidades de habichuelas, guisantes y patatas. El Gobierno de la 
Repiiblica ha nombrado una comision para que vaya & la Republiea 
Argentina y escbja 200 animales para mejorar la raza del ganado 
peruano. 

Casi todos los ferrocarriles de la nacion se hallan en manos de una 
companfa llamada " Corporaci6n Peruana." Sus ganancias totales por 
el trafico de mercancias y pasajeros ascendieron & $1,245,300 en el afifo 
economico de 1895, y & $3,203,700 en el ano econ6mico de 1905, perci- 
bi^n dose un aumento de 157 por ciento en diez afifos. Puede predecirse 
el incremento de las lineas de ferrocarril dentro de veinticinco aiios, 
per el hecho de que si antiguamente se explotaban con p^rdidas, 
durante los ultimos seis aSos se han pereibidos ganancias liquidas 
sobre los gastos. 

El capital total de las instituciones bancarias del Perd ei*a, en 1895, 
de $1,460,000; diez afios despu^s aumento hasta $3,781,000 con una 
ganancia de 150 por ciento. 

Durante el ano se organizaron unas veinticinco compafifas nuevas 
para iSnes industriales 6 la explotacion de las riquezas minerales 6 vege- 
tales del pais, ademds de haberse aumentado el capital de algunas ya 
existentes. EI aumento total del capital, con la formacion de compa- 
fiias nuevas y el aumento de algunas ya existentes, es nominalmente 
deunos $15,000,000 (en moneda de los Estados Unidos), y es probable 
que gran parte de esta cantidad sea invertida de hecho. Esta cantidad 
no incluye las nuevas obras de construccion que estA llevando & cabo la 
Cerro de Pasco Mining Company, que alcanzan una grande suma, ni 
el capital de la compania que acaba de formarse para la explotacion de 
los bosques de gutapercha de Sandia y Carebaya, el cual es nominal- 
mente de $10,000,000. Por lo tanto, el capital total de las empresaa 



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130 OFIOINA INTERN ACIONAL DE LAS REPUBLIC AS AMERICAN AS. 

industriales que operan en la Repiiblica ha sido aumentado en udos 
veinticinco 6 treinta millones de doUai-s desde el 1** de enero de 1905. 
Las companias minei'as y de gutapercha vienen d poseer el gnieso de 
este total, por mds que considerables porciones del mismo corres- 
ponden a otras empresas, como $2,500,000 pai*a la construccion de 
tranvlas 6 la sustitucion de la fuerza motriz de los mismos por la 
electrica, $2,900,000 de la National Steamship and Floating Dock Com- 
pany of Callao, y $975,000 del Banco Alemdn Transatlantico de Lima, 
ademas de varias cantidades menores para distintos fines industriales. 

El Peru se ha adherido al convenio sobre el azficar, habi^ndose 
reducido los derechos sobre este producto hasta los Ifmites prescritos. 
La lista de artioulos de libre importacion incluye sacos pai-a contener 
azucar, automoviles, mecanografos, ciertas fabricaciones de hierro, 
acero, cobre y bronze, plomo, zinc, mercurio, crisoles, alambiques, 
explosivos, maquiuas e instrumentos agricolas y de mineria, maqui- 
naria para telares y fundiciones, bomba^i y maquinas de incendios, 
railes, mateiial rodante de ferrocarriles y ti*anvias, carbon, cemento, 
maderas, buques bajo la bandera peruana, petrechos na vales (sin 
incluir lonas), enyases, maquinas y tipos de imprenta y libros. Para 
fines especiales, derechos adicionales de 10 por ciento se recaudaa en 
el puerto de Callao y de 8 por ciento en otros puertos. En los 
derechos que se recaudan en el Callao, hfillase incluido el de 1 por 
ciento para las obras del alcantarillado de la ciudad, las cuales estan ya 
casi terminadas. En Loreto, en el Amazonas, hay un arancel especial, 
en virtud del cual se admiten libros de derechos, el azucar, cereales, 
sustancias alimenticias, instrunientos agricolas y nauticos, en tanto 
que sobre la goma se imponen derechos de exportacion que varian 
entre el 8 y 20 por ciento por kilogramo. 

De los 4,610,000 que se calcula tiene la Kepublica, solo 650,000 son 
de sangre blanca. 

Salvador. — El Presidente Escal6n, en un mensaje dirigido al Con- 
greso salvadoreiTo en 19 de febrero de 1906, dijo que durante el aik) 
de 1905 las relaciones extrangeras de la Republica continuaron siendo 
cordiales y amistosas, y expreso el deseo de mantener la paz con el 
mundo entero. Con el fin de estrechar las relaciones con la vecina 
Republica de Guatemala se ha establecido en la capital de la misma 
una legacion. Otra se establecio en setiembre en la Republica Fran- 
cesa, cuyo trabajo ha sido hasta el presente muy satisfactorio. 

Su Majestad el Rey de Italia invito al Salvador k que enviara un 
representante al congreso celebrado en Roma para la fundacion de un 
institute internacional para el estudio de la verdadera condici6n de la 
agricultura en todas las naciones interesadas en el particular. Invi- 
tacion que fue aceptada, nombrandose un delegado con tal fin. 

El Gobierno tambi^n tomo parte en el Congreso sobre la Tubercu- 
losis celebrado en Paris en octubre pasado, en el Congreso Interna- 
cional sobre el desarroUo fisico de jovenes, que se reunio en Lieja en 

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UNA BE VISTA DE LA AMERICA LATIN A IN 1906. 131 

agosto pasado, y tomara parte en la conferencia sobre la paz que se 
<;elebrar4 en La Ilava dentro de poco. 

En junio pasado, el Gobierno salvadoreno autorizo al Seiior Don 
JoAQulx Bernardo Calvo, Enviado Extraordinario y Ministro Pleni- 
pontenciario de Costa Rica en Washington, para que, en representa- 
cion del Salvador, tomara los pases necesarios ante el Gobierno de los 
Estados Unidos para poner fin d los abusos cometidos por los capitanes 
de los vapores de la Pacific Mail, abusos que estfin causando grave dailo 
al comercio de todas las naciones. 

El Departamento de Instrucci6n Pfiblica hizo grandes esf uerzos para 
reorganizar todas las instituciones de enseBanza, adoptando en todo lo 
posible los m^todos modernos mas adelantados que ban dado los 
mejores resultados en las demas naciones. 

Aun cuando el servicio de sanidad publica, quizas, no ha dado aun 
los resultados satisfactorios que son de desear, el pais se ha librndo de 
la invasion de la peste bub6nica y de la fiebre amarilla, dos epidemias 
de las cuales azotaron varios paises del continentc americano causando 
muchos estragos. Sin embargo, el Gobierno, con el fin de prevenir 
cualquier invasion repentina de los males mencionados, ha tomado las 
medidas de precauci6n mfis eficaces por medio dc la Junta Superior de 
Sanidad, y ha pedido al extranjero grande cantidad de desinfectantes 
para combatir cualquier invasi6n de estos males. Se han establecido 
lineas sanitarias en las f ronteras de Guatemala y Honduras para evitar 
en todo lo posible la invasi6n de la fiebre amarilla, que tanto dano 
causo en la Ciudad de Zacapa de la vecina Republica. 

El Gobierno prest6 especial atenci6n & las Uneas telegrdficas y tele- 
fonicas, las cuales han sido provistas de un personal competente y de 
todos los adelantos modernos y necesarios para su funcionamiento, 
dando todo ello por resultado la gmn mejoiti que ha experimentado el 
servicio. 

La agricultura, que es una industria de vital importancia para el 
pais, ha recibido la constante protecci6n del Gobierno. 

El producto total de las rentas piiblicas durante el ano de 1905 fu6 
de 8,536,443.07 de pesos, en comparacion con 8,060,689.05 de pesos, 
ambas cantidades en plata. 

Las rentas del impuesto sobre licores, durante el aiio de 1905, compa- 
radas con las del ano 1904, fueron como sigue: 1904, 2,142,207,48; 
1906, 1,924,366.41. 

El valor en oro de las importaciones durante el ano de 1904 ascendi6 
4 3,610,376.97, y durante el affo de 1905 d 4,346,070.32; las exporta- 
ciones durante el afifo de 1904 fueron de un valor en oro de 6,635,444.71, 
y las de 1906 de 5,639,533.26. 

Los siguientes paises son los cinco principales de procedencia (indi- 
canse los valores en oro): Alemania, 478,374*53; Estados Unidos, 
1,354,646.50; Gran Bretana, 1,318,995.99; Francia, 339,957.90; Nica- 
ragua, 165,409.25. upt,ze..y Google 



132 OFICINA INTERNACIONAI. DE LAS BEPUBLICAS AMEBICANAS. 

Los siguientes son los cinco paises principales de destine (indi- 
canse los valores en plata): Alemania, 2,469,245.83; Estadoa Unidos, 
3,062,603.27; Francia, 4,136,662.77; Gran Bretana, 2,161,889.86; 
Italia, 1,366,004.76. 

Jjas cif ras correspondieutes d los valores de las exportaciones durante 
los cinco anos de 1900 a 1904, indican un promedio de valor anual 
de 4,891,148.94; en tanto la cantidad de 2,881,049.65 representa el 
promedio del valor anual de las importaciones durante el mismo 
quinquenio. 

Un decreto del Gobierno salvadoreno dispone que desde el 1** de 
septiembre de 1905, la parte de derechos de importacion recaudados 
anteriormente en plata a razon de 94 por ciento del tipo del arancel, 
sea reducida d (yS por ciento, convirti^ndose el restant^ 26 por ciento 
en el 12 por ciento, oro americano, pagadero en metdlico 6 en letras 
bancarias d la vista sobre los Estados Unidos. 

En 31 de enero de 1906, la extension total de las lineas telegraficas 
de la Rcpiiblica era de 3,266 kilometros, y la de las lineas telefonicas, 
de 1,882 kilometros. Hay en servicio efectivo 168 estaciones de tel^- 
grfos y 78 de tel6fonos, con 264 telegrafistas y 86 telefonistas. El 
numero de despachos trasmitidos en 1905 ascendio a 1,039,778. En 31 
de diciembre de 1905 habia en la Kepublica 31,294 postes de tel^rafos 
y tel^fonos. Las principales estaciones telegrdficas son las de San 
Salvador, Santa Ana, San Miguel, Sonsonate, Santa Tecla, Abnacha- 
pan, Cojutepeque, San Vicente, La Libertad, Acajutla, La Union, 
Chalchuapa, y El Sauce, por medio de las cuales esta establecida la 
comunicaci6n por tierra con las Kepublicas de Honduras, Nicaragua y 
Costa Rica. Hay tres lineas a^reas que comunican con Guatemala, y 
otra cablegrdfica que pasa por San Jos^. Hay seis lineas telegrdficas 
que unen la Republica con Honduras. Las lineas entre Nicaragua y 
Costa Rica cruzan el territorio salvadoreno. Se estdn tendiendo 
nuevos alambres telegrdficos y telefonicos por toda la Kepublica. 

Gran parte de los habitantes del Salvador se dedican d la agricul- 
tui*a. El producto principal es el caf^, bajo cuyo cultivo hay unas 
50,000 hectdreas. Las exportaciones de este articulo en 1905 ascen- 
dieron d 61,822,223 libras. Los demas productos son el anil, del cual 
se exportaron en el mismo ano 524,628 libras, az6car 6,007,304, y 
otros varios. El Gobierno fomenta la cxportacion del algodon ofre- 
ciendo un subsidio de 1 peso de plata por cada quintal que se exporte de 
ese producto. La riqueza mineral de la Republica incluye el oro, la 
plata, cobre, hierro, y mercurio. Las finicas minas que se explotan son 
las de oro y plata, las cuales rinden oro principalmente. Son de la 
propiedad de companias salvadorenas, americanas 6 inglesas. No se 
ban publicado, estadisticas completas de la produccion total, pero la 
exportacion do oro y plata en 1905 ascendio d 8,330 libras. 

Urngivay, — Bajo la presidencia de Dr. Batlle t Ordonez, la Kepu- 
blica del Uruguay, d pesar de las malas condiciones de la prosperidad 

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UNA RE VIST A DE LA AMEBIC A LATIN A IN 1905. 133 

comercial 6 industrial del pafs, cumpU6 puntualmente con sus obliga- 
ciones en el extranjero durante el ano de 1905. 

El estado economico de la Republica f u^ mejorado, y se nombro una 
comisi6n, investida de plenos poderes, para oir, examinar y determinar 
todas las reclamaciones justas presentadas para la indemnizacion de 
daoos y perjuicios causados & propiedades muebles 6 inmuebles 
durante la ultima revo!uci6n, y, con el fin de crear un fondo para el 
page de las mismas y otros gastos, se emitio un nuevo empr^stito. 

Durante el ano, las rentas del Gobierno aumentaron de una manera 
sin precedente. Los in^esos de aduanas (la parte principal de las 
rentas generales) dieron un aumento durante el ano de mfis de lM(),0()(),- 
000 que los de 1904, y mucho mfis aun que la mayor cantidad de cual- 
quier ano anterior. Esto permitird al Gobierno llevar & cabo la amor- 
tizaci6n mas cuantiosa que se ha hecho hasta ahora de los bonos de 3 y i 
por ciento. El precio de los terrenos ha cuadruplicado, se han estable- 
cido nuevas industrias (como la de carnes heladas), y el niimero de edifi- 
cios nuevos en la capital no tiene precedente. Las obras del Puerto de 
Montevideo que cuando est^ terminado serfi uno de los mejores de la 
America del Sur, han adelantado invariablemente, y dentro de poco 
tiempo los grandes vaporos trasatlanticos podrdn acomodarse en ^1 
convenientemente. Las lineas de f errocarril del pais han sido tambidn 
extendidas, y hdnse construido nuevos caminos en el interior. Todos 
estos son signos evidentes de desarrollo material. 

El Gobierno ha puesto especial atenci6n en la instruccion publica, 
cooperando con las autoridades escolares en el fomento de la educa- 
cion, y gmcias & esta cooperaci6n miitua dumnte el periodo men- 
cionado la instruccion publica ha sido mejorada en grado sumo. 

El presupuesto uruguayano para 1906, segfin ha sido aprobado por 
el Congreso de la Republica, dispone el gasto de $24,119,659 en oro, y 
de $123,673,352 en papel. 

Durante el primer trimestre de 1905 las importaciones alcanzaron 
un valor total de $14,696,483, y las exportaciones $18,303,614, dando 
un balance comercial & favor del Uruguay de $3,607,131. En el 
semestre correspondiente al ano anterior, las importaciones de la 
nacion ascendieron & $9,357,632, y las exportaciones & $23,581,748. 
El volumen total del trdfico durante el semestre mencionado de 1905 
fu6 por lo tanto de $33,000,097, en comparacion con $32,939,380 
durante el mismo periodo de 1904. 

Las exportaciones del Uruguay & los Estados Unidos, en 1905, 
ascendieron & $3,158,856, y consistieron principalmente en pieles y 
cueros, $1,529,288. Las importaciones procedentes de los Estados 
Unidos ascendieron & $1,990,694, consistentes en unaj gran variedad de 
mercancias, principalmente aceites minerales, $393,378; fabricaciones 
de hierro y acero, $405,047; madera y varias fabricaciones de la misma, 
$361,311, y herramientas agricolas, $114,400. 

Los ingresosde las aduanas uruguayanas, durante el primer semestBC 

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134 OFICINA INTERNACIONAL DK LAS BEPUBUGAS AMEBICANAS. 

de 1905, ascendieron & $5,428,940 en comparacion con $4,265,012 del 
perfodo correspondiente d 1904, con un aumento de $1,163,928. El 
aumento principal tu6 hecho durante el primer trimestre del ano, 
habidndose contrarrestado el movimiento creciente en junio & causa de 
una huelga general de los obreros del puerto, que duro hasta. principios 
de Julio. 

El comercio uruguayano en 1904 ascendio a un valor total de 
$59,672,856, que, comparado con el de 1903, $62,421,875, indica una 
disminucion de $2,749,019. Sin embargo, como hubo una disminucion 
en los valores de importaciones y un aumento en los de exportaciones, 
8e puede decir que el balance comercial estA en favor del Uruguay, como 
lo demuestran la« siguientes cifras: Importaciones, 1904, $21,216,689; 
1903, $25,103,966, disminucion de $3,887,277; exportaciones, 1904, 
$38,456,167; 1903, $37,317,909, aumento de $1,138,258. Se ve, pues, 
que el balance comercial f ue d favor de la nacion en 1904 por la canti- 
dad de $17,239,478, en comparacion con $12,213,943 en 1903, 6 sea un 
aumento de $5,025,545 d favor de 1904. 

La produccion de cereales y plantas oleaginosas en 1905 disminuyd 
considerablemente, pero esta disminucion qued6 contrarrestada por la 
abundancia de las cosechas, el resultado de las cuales es como sigue, en 
kilogramos: 

Trigo, 205,888,045; lino, 14,046,417; avena, 525,553; cebada, 588,764; 
alpiste, 1,745,734. 

Las cstadisticas mds modernas de la producci6n del mafz demuestran 
los siguientes resultados: Granos sembrados, 2,297,568 kilogramos; 
hectareas bajo cultivo, 176,879; cosecha recolectada, 112,186,773 kilo- 
gramos. 

La industria vinicola ha recibido un gran incremento, habiendo 
1,453 villas y 4,259 hectdreas en cultivo; hay 14,050,214 parras fructi- 
feras, y la cosecha recolectada iu6 de 21,472,773 kilagramos, que pro- 
dujeron 10,494,247 litros de vino. 

La region del Rio de la Plata, que incluye la Rep6blica del Uruguay y 
gran parte de la Argentina, ha sido contado desde hace tiempo entre 
los principales distritos ganaderos ^el mundo. De generaci6n tras 
generacion los inhabitantes de esta seccion han considerado la cria del 
ganado como la unica fuente de riqueza material, y han dado poca 
atencion d la agricultura en general. El ganado del pals no ha 
necesitado de cuidado especial, porque los pastos son abundantes y 
sanos. El clima es tan bueno que los animales dom^sticos no han 
necesitado de cereales ni col)ertizos. Hasta hace poco tiempo los 
ganados del pais no eran domesticados, y vagaban por las praderas 
libremente y en estado semi-salvaje. I^s cruzamientos se efectuaban 
sin que los duenos pusieran cuidado 6 atencion alguna. En aquelk» 
tiempos, la venta de cuerosera la linica parte de la industria que rendla 
ganancias en nietalico a los duenos, y la carne, excepto las porciones 
necesarias para alimentacion, ei'a descartada por considerarse sin valor. 

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XTHTA EEVI8TA DE LA AMERICA LATINA IW 1905, 135 

8in embargo, desde hace pocos anos los comerciantes de otras partes 
del globo han sido atraidos a e«ta secci6n, y no solamente ban facilitado 
un mercado mayor pam sus productos, sino que tambi^n han dado 
atenei6n & su principal industria. La fabricaci6n del extracto de carne 
ha abierto un gran mercado para ei ganado. La demanda constante- 
inente creciente del cuero ha abiei"to este mercado y subido lo8 precios 
de las pieles, vendi&idose facilmente los huesos y euernos, con el 
resultado de que la industria ganadera ha llegado & ser muy lucrativa. 
Como los precios han subido y las gananci&s son mayores, los gana- 
deros han puesto mas atencion en el negocio. Han cercado sus ha- 
ciendas y dado mas atencion a la mejora de los cruces. Durante los 
ultimos anos se han establecido maquinarias de ref rigeracion, tanto en 
el pats como en Buenos Aires, para la preparaci6n de carnes destinadas 
i la exportacion. 

Como i*esultado de estos nuevos mercados, la industria ganadera ha 
revivido. Hase importado ganado de pura raza para la procreacion, 
Solamente los animales de la mejor clase son escojidos en los pafses en 
donde no existen enferraedades que atacan al ganado y que estdn 
sujetos i reglamentos sanitarios. 

Las exportaciones de lana urugaya durante el ano de VJ04:-5 aiR-en- 
dieron & 64,130 fardos, en comparacion con 67,818 del afio anterior. 

El Ministro de Fomento ha comprado hace poco un ndniero de 
moreras con el fin de iniciar la cria de gusanos de seda en el Departa- 
mento de Canelones. Ya se han plantado varias moreras cerca de 
Montevideo, y se espera que la industria de la seda sea una de las 
fuentes permanentes de riqueza del pais. 

Los ingresos postales en 1905 ascendieron & $476,327. 76, consistentes 
en sellos de correos, $374,450.05; servicio telegrafico, $71,043.90; giros 
postales, $17,414.66; tramites, $6,224.87, y $71,945.28 en otros eon- 
oeptos. 

En total de mercancfas transportadas en 1905 ascendio 6. 680,475 
toneladas, en comparacion con 548,223 toneladas transportadas durante 
el ano anterior, con un aumento de 132,252 toneladas, 6 dtel 23.12 por 
ciento. 

A pesar de la gran disminucion del numero de caballos criados ha 
habido un aumento en el numero de las transportados que ascendio a 
H8,929 cabezas, 6 sea 9.69 por ciento. 

Los ingresos del registro de marcas de fabrica ascendieron en 1903 i 
$8,032, en 1904 & $6,272, y en 1905 a $9,564. 

Veneztida. — El Gobierno de esta Republica, bajo la administracion 
del General Cipriano Castro, permanecio estable durante el ano de 
1905, y, por m&a que no hay disponibles estadisticas completas sobre 
las condiciones economicas, parece que no ha habido ningun cambio 
de importancia en el estado comercial del pais. 

Calcfilanse las rentas de aduanas imra 1905-6 en 24,870,000 lx>livares, 
y las del impuesto extraordinario de guerra, para el raisrao ano, qn 



136 OFIOIKA INTEBNACIONAL DE LAS BEPUBLICAS AMEKICANAS. 

12,500,000 bolfvares; los gastos de guerra y marina, durante el afio de 
referenda, se calculan en 11,054,567 bolivares. 

Las mercaneias expoiiadas & los Estados Unidos en 1905 hicieron 
un valor total de $7,109,850, de las cuales la principal tu6 el cafe, 
por valor de ^,526,036, en tanto que el valor de los cueros y pieles 
ascendi6 i $1,549,205; el guano, $37,457, y la gutapercha, $228,465. 
Las importaciones procedentes de los Estados Unidos ascendieron & 
$3,213,575, siendo las mercaneias mas importantes: Harina, $654,567; 
tejidos de algodon, $415,843; vehlculos, $10,410; medicinas de patente, 
$69,076; fabricaciones de hierro y acero, $393,440; aceites minerales, 
$145,359, y sustancias alimenticias, $432,826, de las cuales la m&s prin- 
cipal fu6 la manteca, $298,256. 

En el ano de 1904 el peso de las importaciones de Venezuela, en 
toneladas, fu^ como sigue (no hay disponibles cifras de los valores): 
Varias mercaneias, 11,936; ferreteria, 2,539; comestibles y bebida^, 
15,124; aceites minerales, sin incluir el petr61eo, 915; petr61eo, 1,988; 
maderas, 1,746; cemento, 4,445; carb6n, 16,518; maquinaria, 595; ma- 
teriales de ferrocarril, 443. Inglaterra encabeza la lista de los paises 
de procedencia, con un total de 18,668 toneladas; despufo siguen 
los Estados Unidos, con 18,369; viene en tercer lugar Alemania, con 
11,994, y la sigue Holanda, con 2,628 toneladas. En 1903 ocupaban el 
primer lugar los Estados Unidos, con 17,703 toneladas; Inglaterra, 
el segundo, con 12,708; Alemania, el tercero, con 7,319, y Holanda, 
el cuarto, con 2,052. Las exportaciones ascendieron & 21,185 toneladas, 
en contraste con 17,762 en 1903, fu^ron como sigue: Caf^, 11,018; 
cacao, 7,530; cueros, 1,875; varios articulos, 792 toneladas. En tanto y 
que las de 1903 fueron como sigue: Caf6, 9,060; cacao, 6,318; cueros, 
1,492; varios articulos, 892 toneladas. El destino de las exportaciones 
de Venezuela no puede ser determinado por ahora. Sin embargo el 
caf6 tu6 destinado 6, Europa y los Estados Unidos, el cacao fu^ & 
Espafia y Francia, y la mayor parte de los cueros f\x6 & los Estados 
Unidos. 

Las llegaflas y salidas de buques en los diferentes puertos de la 
Repiiblica de Venezuela dui*ante el ano de 1905 fu6 2,516 y 2,604, 
respectivamente. 

Durante el primer semestre de 1905 se recibieron en el puerto de La 
Guaii-a importaciones de mercaneias por valor de 9,435,965.56 boli- 
vares, y durante el mismo periodo se recibieron en Maracaibo y Puerto 
Cabello 2,141,148 y 1,443,610 bolivares, respectivamento. 

La exportacion total de mercaneias por Ciudad Bolivar durante el 
aiio ascendieron d mas de 2,000,000 bolivares. Se obtuvieron precios 
mas subidos para la goma de Pard y los plumones, pero las exporta- 
ciones de ganado disminuyeron. 

Examinando en detalle la lista de articulos exportados, se verd que 
la mayor parte consiste en productos naturales que solamente necesitan 



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UNA REVISTA DE LA AMERICA LATINA IN 1905. 187 

ser recolectadod y requieren poca 6 ninguna preparaci6n pam la expor- 
taci6n, en tan to que los productos cultivados, tales como el tabaco y el 
cafe, han disminufdo en comparacion con los anos anteriores. Es dif icil 
encontrar braceros, y los jornales son muy subidos. Consecuente- 
mente la produccion del cultivo y la manufactura es muy limitada, 
resultando m^ facil y lucrativo el recolectar los productos naturales, 
que el dedicarse & empresas agrlcolas. 

El ten-itorio de Venezuela se halla naturalmente dividido en tres 
zonas-7la agricola, la pastoral, y la forestal. En la primera crece la 
cana-dulce, el caf^, el cacao, cereales, etc., en la segunda se hallan los 
pantos para el ganado; y en la tercera explotan los habitantes produc- 
tos tropicales selvaticos, tales como el caoutchouc, la tonga, la copaiba, 
vainilla, etc. El caf^ se cultiva en unos 180,000 6 200,000 acres de 
terreno, export&ndose anualmente unas 62,000 toneladas de este pro^ 
ducto. Hay unas 33,000 plantaciones de caf^ y unas 5,000 de cacao. 
Las plantaciones de azijcar son unas 11,000, que florecieron cuando 
estaba prohibida la importaci6n del articulo. Esta prohibici6n fu^ 
leventada hace poco. Hay fabricas para la produccion del aguar- 
diente de cana. En febrero de 1905 se celebr6 un contrato de 50 anos 
para la formacion de plantanciones para el cultivo en grande escala de 
la cana-dulce, plantas fibrosas y otros productos. Todos los terrenos 
de la Republica que no tienen duefio legitimo son considerados como 
publicos y administrados por el Ejecutivo Federal, el cual, con su]eci6n 
i ciertos reglamentos, tiene la facultad de venderlos, 6 hacer con- 
cesiones de los mismos para fines agrlcolas 6 pertenencias mincras, 6 
para cederlos & inmigrantes debidamente documentados, en la pro- 
porcion de 2^ acres & cada individuo de la familia. 

Una quinta parte de los habitantes de la naci6n se dedica d la agri- 
cultura. El ganado de Venezuela es como sigue, segun cdlculos: 
2,0OJ:,257 bueyes; 176,688 ovejas; 1,667,272 cabras; 191,079 caballos; 
89,186 mulas; 312,810 asnos; 1,618,214 cerdos. Se ha ordenado el 
levantamiento de un nuevo censo. Empl^anse unas 60,000 cabezas de 
ganado en las industrias agricolas y de ganaderia. 

La Republica abunda en metales y otros minerales. La mayor parte 
del oro se encuentra en el Territorio Yuruari. La cantidad de este 
metal que se despach6 del distrito mencionado durante los diez y seis 
anos de 1884-1899 fu6 de 1,394,480 onzas; en 1901, 49,355 onzas. Hay 
roinas de plata en los Estados de Bermudez, Lara y Los Andes. Hay 
cobi-e, plata y hierro en abundancia. Tambi^n se encuentra azufre, 
carbon, asfalto, plomo, caolin y estafio. Las minas de hierro de Ima- 
taca en el Bajo Orinoco estfin en manos de una compania americana. 
Las minas de sal, que hay en varios Estados, estdn bajo la administm- 
cion del Gobierno. Hay dep6sitos de petr61eo en Tachira, pero se 
necesita capital para su explotacion, y existen extensos lagos de asfalto 

Bull. No. 1—06 11 

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188 OFIOINA INTERKAOIONAL DE LAS EEPtJBLICAS AMEBIC ANAS. 

que permanecen intactos virtualmente. Al rededor de la isla de Mar- 
garita y en la costa norte de la Rep6blica los indigenas se dedican i 
la pesca de perlas. Hay iinas 400 embarcaciones dedicadas & esta 
industria, y el producto anual, que pudiera ser aumentado exten- 
samente, se calcula en unas £20,000. En 17 de junio de 1900 el 
Gobierno otorg6 una concesion para la pesca exclusiva de perlas, 
esponjas, carey y otros productos, con la condicion de recibir el 10 
por ciento de los productos. Los Pescadores indigenas no deberin 
ser molestados en su industria. 

La industria minera de oro ha permanecido paralizada durante el 
ano, no pudi^ndose dar cuenta de mejores algunas. Antes de ensan- 
char sus operaciones los mineros y capitalistas esperan que se dicten 
leyes que reduzcan los impuestos sobre esta industria y coneedan 
t^rminos mfis favorables en general. 

La explotacion de las salinas venezolanas ha constituldo hasta hace 
poco un monopolio del Gobierno, y ha sido otorgada en concesion 
mediante el pago de una renta anufd de 3,500,000 bolivai^es, pagaderos 
trimestralmente, con sujecion & las modificaciones que resulten de los 
pix)ductos anuales. El perlodo del conti-ato es die anoz, prorro- 
gables en otros diez. 

La navegacion por el Orinoco y sus tributarios es virtualmente un 
monopolio que ejerce la Compania de Vapores del Orinoco, la cual 
tienc tambidn el privilegio de navegar por las desembocaduras menores 
del Orinoco, como el Pedernales y el Mecareo, que forman parte de b 
Delta. Permitese el trdtico de otros vapores y buques de vela sola- 
mente por la via mas larga de Boca Grande. Jjsl navegacion d Colom- 
bia por los rios Orinoco y Meta se halla tambi^n limitada d los vapores 
de la compania mencionada. 

En febrero de 1905 se otorgo una concesion especial al vapor Ddta 
pam transportar mercancias desde Trinidad sin pagar el recargo del 
30 por ciento. Despues, en enero de 1906, se suprimi6 este recargo, 
y las importaciones se hacen casi exclusivamente via Trinidad, como 
en los anos anteriores. 

Con fecha 31 de marzo de 1905 el Presidente de la Republica 
promulgo un importante decreto creando la "deuda nacional interna 
consolidada del 3 por ciento" para el pago de la deuda nacional 
interna del 6 por ciento y los bonos del 1 por ciento. 

Un decreto dictado por el Gobierno de la Repiiblica autoriza al Ejecu- 
tivo para aumentar, hasta una suma que no exceda del 25 por ciento, 
los derechos sobre mercancias importadas de los paises con los cuales 
Venezuela no tiene celebrado tratado de comercio. Se ha autorizado 
tambi^n al Ejecutivo para que en casos de urgencia aumente, dismi- 
nuya, 6 suprima derechos de importacion, dando cuenta al Congreso 
de su accion. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Monthly Bulletin 

OF THB 

International Bureau of the American Republics, 

Imternatloaal Unien vf American Republics. 



Vou XXm. JULY, 1906. No. 1. 



TUBERCULOSIS CONGRESS. 

The officers of the American Tubei-culosis Congress, which meets 
in New York on November 14, 15, and 16, 1906, have issued the fol- 
lowing call: 

"Office of the President, 

''Amtin Tex., February, 1906. 
"The executive officers of the American Congress on Tuberculosis, 
with the approval of its governing council, announce that the body 
will hold a Congress in the city of New York commencing the 14th 
day of November, 1906, to be held three days. 

"All the officers, members, and delegates are invited to attend, and 
to contribute i)apers to be read at the Congress, and to send the title 
of papers to the secretary as early as possible. 

"This Congress will be open to members of all the professions, 
legislators, statesmen, the intelligent laity, and the reverend clergy. 
"An enrolling fee of $3 is solicited to defray the expenses of a bul- 
letin which should be sent forthwith to the treasurer. 

"All the Governments in the Western Hemisphere are invited to 
send delegates to this Congress and to cooperate in its labors. 

"The public press, lay and medical, are hereby invited to give pub- 
licity to this announcement. 

"F. E. Daniel, M. D., 

^^ Austin, Texas, President. 
"Matthew M. Smith, M. D., 

'*'' Austin, Texas, Seaxtary. 
"Clark Bell, Esq., LL. D., 
^^39 Broadway, New York, Treasurer ^ 

139 



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140 INTERNATIONAL BUBEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The Congress has the approval of the State Department, as shown 
by the following communications: 

"Department op State, 
'* Washington^ June 5, 1906, 
'* Clark Bell, Esq., 

^^ Treasurer of the American International Congress o?i 
^'Tuberculosis^ £9 Broadway^ New York. 
"Sir: In reply to your letter of April 2 last, I have to inform you 
that on May 31 instructions were sent to American diplomatic officers 
in American States to support the invitation extended by the Ameri- 
can International Congress on Tuberculosis to send delegates to its 
meeting in November next. 

"In compliance with your request, the instructions sent by Mr. Hay 
concerning the meeting of the Congress at St. Louis was embodied 
in the instructions sent on the 31st ultimo. I inclose a printed copy 
of them. 

" On the same day the American diplomatic representatives in Great 
Britain, Fi-ance, Denmark, and the Netherlands were directed to sup- 
port the invitation to their respective American colonial possessions 
to be represented at the Congress. 

" I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

"Robert Bacon, 

'''Acting Secretary.^ 

"Department of State, 

" Washington^ May 31, 1906. 
''To the Diplomatic Officers of the 

" United States in American States. 

"Gentlemen: The Department is informed by the executive com- 
mittee of the American International Congress on Tuberculosis that 
they have sent to the Government of each American country an invi- 
tation for official representation by that Government m the next ses- 
sion of the Congress, which will be held at the city of New York 
during the three days of November 14, 15, and 16, 1906, and the 
request is made of the Department to give such support to the invita- 
tion as it properly may. 

'*In instructing the diplomatic officers to give their support to a 
similar invitation extended by the Congress for their St. Louis meet- 
ing in 1904, my predecessor, Mr. Hay, said: 

^''The humanitarian object which this Congress has in view — to 
reach by the discussion of scientific men, some result in arresting the 
spread and averting, so far as it may be found possible, the ravages 
of this dreadful disease, which now falls with such terrible force and 
fatality upon the people of the Western Hemisphere — can not but 



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TUBERCULOSIS CONGRESS. 141 

enlist the sympathy and approval of the Government to which you are 
accredited. 

" 'The Dex)artment will, therefore, be pleased to have you say to 
that Government that this Government is in entire sympathy with the 
work of the proposed Congress, and would be pleased to learn that 

the Government of took a like interest in its success by the 

acceptance of the committee's invitation and the appointment of three 
or more scientific gentlemen to represent it at the Congress. 

" 'This Government would also be pleased if that of could 

find it convenient to comply with the request of the committee to give 
the matter publicity in order that it may come to the knowledge of 
interested organizations and public spirited citizens of that country.' 

"The Department will be pleased to have you present the matter of 
the New York meeting in the same light. 

" I am, gentlemen, your obedient servant, 

"Elihu Root." 

From advance sheets of the '* Medico-Legal Journal of New York" 
the following conmoients are reproduced: 

"The American Government has taken strong ground in aid of 
preventive legislation in the conflict with tuberculosis. 

"The American International Congress on Tuberculosis has decided 
to make a renewal of the assault along the same lines on which it won 
its victories at the St. Louis Congress, held at the World's Exposition 
m October, 1904. 

"Hon. EuHU Root brings the splendid sympathetic power of the 
Great Republic of the world's civilization in support of the aims and 
purposes of the American International Congress on Tuberculosis, to 
be held in the American metropolis November 14, 15, and 16, 1906. 

• **»*** 

"Mr. Root shows great foresight, wisdom, and statesmanship in 
placing the whole moral force of our Government behind the great 
purpose of the American International Congress on Tuberculosis. 

" He has used the same splendidly sympathetic language in bring- 
ing it to the official notice of all the Governments in the Western 
Hemisphere, through our diplomatic corps, that Mr. Secretary Hay 
employed in recommending the St. Louis Congress to foreign 
Governments. 

"Mr. Root is making history for both our Government and for our 
people. The language employed is worthy of the cause, worthy of 

the occasion. 

• •***** 

"The battle cry of the Congress is preventive legislation against 
tuberculosis — to arrest, to avert, to minimize the spread of consump- 
tion, is the battle ground. 



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142 INTEBNATIONAL BUBEAU OF THE AMERICAN BEPUBLICS. 

^^The call of the Congress is to the masses of the people, to the men 
of all professions, the statesman, the publicist, the humanitarian* 

'^It is not a medical question, not confined to medical men, but the 
call is to all men of all professions, and to the gigantic proportions of 
the conflict, and the magnitude of the problems, which now confront 
the health and the safety of that great, that enormous mass of human 
lives that have been yearly sacrificed to the ravages of this dreadful 
disease." 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

FOREIGN COMMEBOE, FIB8T aUABTSB OF 1906. 

The report of the Director of Statistics of the Argentine Govern- 
ment covering the foreign commerce of the Republic during the first 
quarter of 1906, shows import valuations (exclusive of gold) of 
$51,379,376 and exports to the value of $86,143,099. The proportion 
of imports subject to duty is given as $35,651,401, and of exports, 
$12,227. During the three months in reference, gold imports figured 
for $7,183,243, while the amount of gold exported was only $600. 

The balance of trade in favor of the Republic for the quarter was 
therefore $34,763,723, of which only about one-fifth was received in 
gold, the other four-fifths being diverted for the payment of interest 
and the amortization of foreign debts, interest on capital invested in 
the Republic, freights of exports, cost of smuggled goods, etc. 

The United Kingdom heads the list as a source of supply for the 
merchandise imported into the country, and figures on the list for 
$16,686,344, or nearly one-third of the value of all the imports. Ger- 
many ranks next, with $7,762,699, followed by the United States, 
France, Italy, Belgium, Spain, Brazil, Holland, Uruguay, Chile, 
Paraguay, Cuba, Bolivia, Africa, while '^ other countries'' are credited 
with $11,623,210. 

As regards the countries receiving Argentine exports, Germany 
heads the list, with a valuation of $13,556,813, followed by France, 
the United Kingdom, Belgium, the United States, Brazil, Italy, Africa, 
Uruguay, Spain, Holland, Chile, Bolivia, Cuba, and Pamguay. Under 
the headings ''for orders'' and ''various," a valuation of exports 
amounting to $27,739,365 is reported, the greater part of which — about 
$18,000,000— went to Great Britain. 

The trade with the various countries during the quarter under review 
is sho»irn by the following table: 



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ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 



148 



Africa 

Germany 

Belgiam 

Brazil 

BoliTiit 

Cuba 

Chile 

Spain 

United States 



Imports. 



Exports. 



11,566,800 

13.556,813 

7,461.926 

2,475,008 

60,040 

42, 181 

3»4,538 

817,602 

4.126,492 



France 

Italy 

Holland 

Paraguay , 

United Kingdom 

Uruguay 

VarTouB 

Orders 



Imports. 



$5,6^,059 

4,338,483 

510, 745 

188,160 

16, 686, ail 

390,456 

3,498,212 



Exports. 



$12,608,856 

2, 138, 263 

689,736 

26,556 

11,323.613 

1,111,411 

1,083,751 

26,665,661 



As compared with the corresponding quarter of 1905 the impoils 
show an increase of $3,555,649 and the exports a decrease of $2,994,228. 

The percentage of the total trade taken and received by the various 
countries interested in Argentine commerce and the gain or loss, as 
compared with the corresponding period of 1905, is shown as follows: 





Imports. 


Exports. 




Per- 
centage, 
total. 


Compari- 
son, per 
cent. 


Per- 
centage, 
total. 


Compari- 
son, per 
cent. 


Germany 


15.1 
14.6 
10.9 
8.4 
32.5 


4.6 
24.9 
12.2 
- 9.7 
4.7 


15.7 
4.8 

14.6 
2.5 

18.1 

81.0 


14.1 


United States 


1.5 


France 


- 3.8 


Italy 


33.0 


United Kingdom 


— 6.2 


Ordere 


2.1 


1 







The classification of exports, with comparisons with the first three 
months of 1905, is as follows: 



First quarter— 



1906. 



1905. 



Pastoral products 

AgTicultoral products 

Forest products 

Mineral products 

Products ot the chase 
Virioufl 



843, 825, 372 
40,236,694 

1,880, oat 

41,818 

232,646 

• 926,535 



-$3,847,012 

48, 498 

49f), 639 

8,088 

88,118 

325,613 



Tbe classification of imports, with comparisons, is as follows: 



First quarter- 



1906. 



1905. 



Uteatork 

Foodstufla 

Tobacco and manufactures 

Winea, spirits, etc 

Textiles 

Oite 

Chemicals and drugs 

Ci^ocs and d jes 

Lomber and applications. ...... 

Paper and applications 

Leather and applications 

Iron and applications 

AgTieoltara] appliances 

LoeomotlTes, etc 

Tarioos metals and applications. 

Glsn and ceramics 

Bonding materials 

Bcctrie materials 

▼siiow 



)25 
)43 

m 
joo 

L83 
742 

m 

)83 
J52 
267 
178 
XM 
r33 
773 
116 
M2 
164 



?114,541 
128,3.')6 

- 212,705 
780, 373 

-2,441.400 

- 90,793 

- 211,534 

41.391 
136. 510 

- 11,565 
24,061 

331,773 

607,881 
2, 482, 096 

608,800 
1,315,458 

105,202 

- 78. 948 
26,152 



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144 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OP THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The customs receipts for the quarter amounted to $13,794,912, gold, 
and 1210,651, paper, being a decrease of $112,873, gold, and $147,592, 
paper, as compared with the same period of 1905. 

The receipts of merchandise from the United States show an increase 
over the same quarter of 1905 of $1,498,122; from the United King- 
dom of $754,594; France, $610,723; Germany, $342,976; Holland, 
$273,531; Chile, $184,547; Uruguay, $153,268; Belgium, $94,039; 
Spain, $58,513; Bolivia, $4,555. Countries showing a decline in ship- 
ments to the Republic were: Italy, $468,588; Brazil, $194,595; Para- 
guay, $68,659; Cuba, $52,542, and Africa, $2,984, 

EXPOBTS, FIBST F0X7B MONTHS OF 1906. 

The leading articles of export from the Argentine Republic during 
the first four months of 1906 (January- April) with comparisons with 
the corresponding period of the preceding year were as follows: 





1906. 


1906. 




1906. 


1905. 


Oxhidee: 








Maize 


tons.. 


224,448 


288.224 


8a?t .*.*.'.* 


number.. 


854.628 


704.725 


Linseed 


do.... 


262.080 


836, 5C« 


do.... 


470,376 


454,928 


Flour 


do.... 


87,075 


40.S19 


Uonehiden: 








Bran 


do.... 


62.842 


44,175 


Salt!!!!' 


do..;. 


89,027 


46,664 


Pollards 


bags.. 


19.802 


43.848 


do.... 


1,32H 


98,878 


Oilseed cake. 


do.... 


66,906 


67,02S 


Sheepekins. 


bales.. 


16.237 


20,228 


Hay 


bales.. 


496,492 


869,854 


Hair 


do.... 


1,282 


2,794 


Quebracho .. 


tons.. 


107,180 


94,819 


Tallow 


pipes.. 


6,196 


12,853 


Quebracho eztract.do — 


20,960 


11,926 


Do 


casks.. 


29,566 


84,811 


Butter 


cases.. 


82,734 


96,014 


Do 


.hogsheads.. 


1,143 


6,964 


Mutton carcasses . .num- 






Goatskins . . 


bales.. 


4.197 


6,873 


ber 




929,716 


1,107,890 


Wool 


do.... 


225.486 


264,725 


Beef 


..quarters.. 


709,592 


644,587 


Wheat 


tons.. 


1,269,266 


1,329,209 











PASTOBAL AND AGBICTTLTXJBAI< CENSUS OF THE NATIONAJL 

TEBBITOBIES. 

In November, 1905, the National Government of the Argentine 
Republic instructed the Governors of National Territories to have a 
complete census of their respective sections taken. From the returns 
of this census, the following figures showing the pastoral and agri- 
cultural status of Misiones, Chaco, Formosa, Pampa Central, Neuquen, 
Rio Negro, Chubut, and Santa Cruz are reproduced. The figures 
showing returns of the national census of 1896 are also furnished for 
purposes of comparison. 





Misiones. 


Chaco. 


Formosa. 


Pampa Central. 




1895. 


1905. 


1895. 


1905. 


1895. 1 1906. 


1895. 1 1906. 


Cattle 


70. 259 
21,510 
6.251 
8,961 


68.968 
20.990 

5.531 
12,029 

9,859 


83,952 

4, 427 

7,671 

892 


159,735 

7,167 

2.762 

2.452 

371 


41.424 

8.136 

2,439 

437 


198,967 
10,364 
11,494 

728 
10.008 


630,162 642.442 


Horst'S 


229.003 

6,296,177 

2,147 


280.147 


Sheep ■. ... 


7,447,166 
8,904 


l*igs 


Goats 




221,357 












Total 


101,967 


117.377 


96.942 


172,487 


47,436 231,641 


6,056,489 , 8,600.016 

1 



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ABOENTIITE REPUBLIC 



145 





Neuquen. 


Rio Negro. 


Chubut 


Santa Crux. 




1896. 


1906. 


1896. 


1906. 


1896. 


1906. 


1895. 


1905. 


Cattle 


178.706 

57,015 

857,429 


218,604 

92,279 

1,089,478 

2,792 

208,841 


82,050 

89,509 

1,009,777 

864 


176,609 

99,792 

8,501,255 

10,868 

42,072 


29,914 
12,907 
47,806 


195,010 

96,889 

1,927,647 

1,026 

11,866 


10,551 

7,858 

868,264 


24,567 
34,519 


Hones 


Sheep 


2,557,859 
588 




Goats 








206 














Total 


588,150 


1,556,489 


1,182,200 


8,830.596 


90,127 


2,228,938 


386,673 


2, 617, 689 







Toted in all National Territories, 



1895. 



1905. 



OatUe.. 
Hones. 
Sheep.. 
P!gi.... 
Ooata.. 



1,022,844 

875,724 

7,102,479 

8,334 



1,589,834 

652,697 

16,901,514 

89,586 

504,667 



Total. 



8,509,881 



19,687,748 



The areas under cultivation in the respective territories are as 
follows: 





1895. 


1905. 


MMoaea 


Hectares. 

7,098 

738 

5,807 


Hectares, 
21,883 


FWinoaa 


1,160 


Charo . ..,,. 


10,646 


Los Andes 


136 


Pamim CVntml ....,- ^..^-^^^.-^ Trrxrr 


10. 187 

8.297 

1,728 

5,583 

12 


854,475 


Kenqneii ............•-•• 


20,189 


Rio NeffTo 


13,425 


Chubut 


4,143 


Santa Cmz t T--r-.....rt.,... 


51 






Total 


33,950 


426,058 







The above area of 426,058 hectares under cultivation, in 1905, were 
distributed aniong alfalfa, 236,584 hectares; wheat, 101,411 hectares; 
maize, 47,491 hectares; linseed, 6,774 hectares; barley, 3,611 hectares, 
and cotton^ 2,284 hectares. The remaining hectares are under culti- 
vation in potatoes, beans, vineyards, sugar cane, tobacco, etc. The 
largest increase in cultivated areas is indicated for alfalfa, for whereas 
returns in 1895 show 7,412 hectares under this culture, the 1905 result 
gives 236,584 hectares. 

LIVS-STOCK CENSUS OF ENTBE BIOS. 

The statistical department of the Province of Entre Rios has pub- 
lished the figures of the live-stock census of that Province for 1905, the 
statement for 1895 being also furnished for purposes of comparison. 



Cattle 

Hones 

Bbeep 

Total 



1895. 



1905. 



2,784,810 

514,597 

6.210,185 



8,283.581 

586,021 

6,339.383 



9.509,592 9,208,965 



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146 INTEBNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



INTEBNAIi BEVENTTE, FIBST QUAItTEB, 1906. 

Comparing the internal revenue of the Argentine Republic for the 
first quarter of 1906 with the corresponding period of 1905, there is 
indicated an increase from alcohol of $89,500; f ix>m tobacco, $472,000; 
wine, $6,280; beer, $374,300; matches, $121,000; also a decrease from 
artificial beverages of $1,111, and from insurance $1,300 gold, which 
gives an effective increase in favor of the 1906 period of over 
$1,000,000 currency. 

STATE lilCENSES FOB COMICEBCIAL TBAVEI.EBS. 

The commercial traveler in the Argentine Republic has to pay the 
following licenses in th^ various States: 



Bnenos Ayres $400 

Santa Fe 400 

Entre Rios 600 

Corrientea 330 

Cordoba 600 

San Luis 100 

Mendoza 400 

San Juan 2, 000 

Tucuman 1,200 



Santiago del Estero $500 

Salta 1,680 

Jujuy 200 

Rioja 400 

Catamarca 265 

Pampa 100 

Misiones 100 



Total 9,276 



BOSABIO POBT WOBKS. 

The English consul at Rosario, Argentine Republic, reports that the 
French company constructing the port of Rosario have, in accordance 
with the terms of their contract with the National Government, opened 
to the service of shipping a section comprising 1,094 yards of wharf- 
age, in virtue of which they have commenced to collect from shipping 
the following charges: 

Entrance dues at $0.15 gold per ton. 

Permanence, cleaning, lighting, and health, at $0.05 gold per each 
10 tons or fraction thereof per day. 

Wharfage at $0. 10 gold perr each 10 tons or fraction thereof per day. 

It is calculated that on a steamer of 2,490 tons register, with ten 
days permanence in port, $747 gold would have to be paid, as com- 
pared with $135.45 under the old tariff. 

Besides the above tariff to be paid by shipping, wheat, linseed, and 
maize, whether shipped from the company's premises or from those 
of private persons, will have to pay in accordance with the following 
tariff until the close of the present j- ear, when the company will collect 
their full tariff as per contract: 

[Values In gold.] 



Prom 
>n to 



waffon 
ship. 



Tnctkm. 



Wheat and linseed per ton of ^,000 kilos- 
Maize per ton of 1,000 kilos 



90.147 
.132 



la on 



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nffTESNATIOKAL BUBJSAU OF THE AMEBIOAK BSPUBLI08. 147 



BOLIVIA. 

TBADE WITS THE TJNITED STATES, FIBST HALF, 1006. 

Following is a statement showing the shipments of merchandise 
from the ports of New York and San Francisco, United States, to 
Bolivia, as reported by the Bolivian consuls at the ports mentioned: 



Jtna&ry... 
February . 
Much.... 
April 

}^7 

June 



Total. 



HxmMTf .. 
robruary . 
Mtifh.... 
April 

fV 

Jrme 



Total 



Month. 



CX>N8ULATS OF NEW YOBK. 



CONSULATE OF SAN FRANCISCO. 



Packages. Vnlne, 



2,700 
2,695 
2,839 
8,601 
7,009 
1,696 



20,040 



$48,036.60 
26. 610. 40 
27,789.42 
48, 709. 39 
63,754.68 
27,769.91 



242. 670. 30 



21.668 
18,312 
80,225 



70,206 



12,088.28 
23,290.29 
18,312.07 
30,000.00 
8, 125. 00 
9,204.83 



100. 970. 42 



RESUMfe. 




Packa«^ 


Value. 


lev York 


20,040 

70,205 


8242, 670. 80 


San Francisco 


100,970.42 






Grand total , . , . , 


90,245 


343, 640. 72 







XEECHAin>ISE BXPOBTED FBOM NEW YORK AND SAN FBAN- 
CISCO TO BOLIVIA IN THE MONTHS OF APBIL, MAY, AND JUNE, 
1006. 



Month. 


Via. 


Packagea 


Value. 


May 


AntofaintfU. 
MolIenBo.... 


CONSULATE OF NEW YORK. 


5,456 
1,105 

131 
57 

267 


833 833 75 






18,058.89 
947 00 




PiarA 




Montevideo . 
Roaarto 




1,647.35 
9 267 69 








Total.. 

Antofagasta 
Mofiendo... 








7.009 


^ 63,754.68 






June ;. 


810 
465 
203 
201 
17 


13 060 58 






6,517.99 
1 166 41 




Part 




Roeario 


6, 7.56. 60 




Artrw 


278 83 




Total.. 








1.686 


27,769.91 




OOKSULATB OF SAN FRANCISCO. 


April 




30,000.00 
8, 125. 00 
7,927.85 
1,277.48 


Ky... ....:. 


Mollendo -- - - 




ioi : 


Antofagasta . 
Mollendo.... 














Total., 












47,829.88 











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148 INTERNATIONAL BUBEAU OF THE AMEBICAN BEPUBLICS. 

Merchandise exported from New York and San Francisco to Bolivia in the months tf 
April, May, and June, 190& — Continued. 





Packa«re& 


Value. 


New York 


8,706 


$91,6^1.59 


Ban Francisco 


47,829.0 








Grand total 


8,705 


188,851.12 







BRAZIL. 

B0X7NDABY TBEATT WITH DUTOH GXJIAKA. 

Senhor Baron Rio Branco, Minister of Foreign Relations of Brazil, 
and Frederic Palm, Minister of the Netherlands, accredited to Brazil, 
signed on May 8, 1906, a treaty fixing the boundary between Brazil 
and Dutch Guiana, or the Colony of Surinam. In accordance with 
this treaty the frontier follows the watershed of the Tumucumaque 
range of mountains from the headwaters of the Maroni River to tlioee 
of the Corentyne, near which the line meets the frontiers of French 
and British Guiana. 



COMME&OE OF SANTOS, FIRST FOX7B MONTHS OF 1906. 

The commerce of the port of Santos for the four months Janoarj 
to April was as follows: 





1908. 


190K. 


Exports 


£3, 688, OSS 
1,852,680 


£8,977,178 


Imports 


l,691,6tf 






Total 


6,470,716 


6,668,7W 





Compared with the first four months of 1905 the trade of Santos 
shows an aggregate falling off of £198,067. The shrinkage is all in 
exports, which fell off £359,142, while imports increased £161,075. 
Among imports an increase is shown in chemical products, skins and 
hides, jute yarn, kerosene, rice, codfish, wheat flour, wheat and vari- 
ous alimentary substances. Imports showing a falling off are cotton, 
steel and iron, industrial and agricultural machinery, coal, wine, and 
foreign gold and bank notes. Among exports coffee, rubber, and 
bran all show a falling off, while salted hides increased slightly. 
Among countries of origin for imports, increase is shown by Ger- 
many, Argentina, United States, and France, while a decline is shown 
by Belgium, Great Britain, Italy, and Portugal. Among countries of 
destination for exports Belgium, France, Holland, and Italy show an 



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BBAZIL. 



149 



increase, all the rest showing a shrinkage. The tonnage entering the 
port was 585,290, as against 495,614 for the corresponding period last 
year. 

EXPORTS OF HIDES FBOM EIO GKAKDE DO SXTL. 

Following are the exports of hides from the State of Rio Grande do 
Sul during the first quarter of the years 1901-1906: 





Salted hides. 


Dry hides. 




Pint qimrter— 


Europe. 


United 
SUtea. 


Europe. 


United 
States. 


ToUl. 


1906 


82,611 
92,733 
168,673 
62,621 
81,161 
48,348 




79,620 
144,781 
83,725 
83,546 
61,344 
101,762 


5.000 
8,571 
11,015 
5,985 
48.445 
15,000 


167, 131 
246,085 


1906 




1904 




263,318 
152,452 
190 950 


1906 




19(tt 




1901 




160,105 







The following are the comparative exports of hides from the State 
of Rio Grande do Sul for the four months January to April, inclusive, 
from 1901 to 1906: * 





Salted hides. 


Dry hides. 




January to April— 


Europe. 


United 
States. 


Euroj)e. 


United 
States. 


Total. 


1906 


167,477 
147,004 
285,435 
170,826 
148,875 
80,467 




114,808 
153.324 

98,625 
124,694 

93,161 
122,441 


5,000 
8,571 
11,015 
5.985 
48, 445 
25,000 


287,286 


1905 




308,899 


1904 




389,975 


1908... 




301 505 


1902 




281,981 


1901 




227,908 









PORT MOVBMENT OF PABA AND MANAOS. 

The entries at Para and Manaos for the month of April were 380 
tons naore than for the same time last year and 430 tons more than for 
March, 1904. The figure of 5,710 in January, 1906, still constitutes 
record entries for any month hitherto known; the next largest entries 
recorded were 5,000 in the month of March, 1905. The following table 
shows the entries at Manaos and Para in the nine months' period July, 
1905, to March, 1906: 



Jnly 

Ao^nst 

September. 
October.... 
NoTember. 
December. 
January . . . 
February.. 

March 

April 

Total 



1903-4. 


1904-5. 


1906-6. 


Tbns. 


Tom. 


Ton*, 


1,280 


1,250 


1,450 


1,230 


1,260 


1,300 


2,010 


1,780 


2,200 


2, 440 


2,820 


S. .'i80 


2,980 


2,890 


2,890 


3,530 


3,390 


3, 270 


4,3C0 


4..S99 


5,710 


3,6hO 


4, 82(> 


3.920 


3,940 


5,000 


3.700 


2,070 


2,120 


2. ThK) 


27,620 


29,330 1 22,.V20 


Digitize 


dby VjO 


oqIc- 



150 INTERNATIONAL BUBEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

THE MINSBAIi IVBXJSTBY. 

The "Mining World" of recent issue publishes the following treat- 
ing of the mineral industry in the Brazilian Republic: 

"The geological formation of Brazil has not as yet been fully 
studied. It can be affirmed, however, that the base of the great 
plateau is composed of metamorphie rocks of ancient origia, which 
also forms the mountains. 

"In the eastern part of the State of Minas Geraes quantities of pre- 
cious stones have been found, among them topaz, chrysolite, green 
and red tourmalines, amethyst and andalusite, rubies, beryls, chalce- 
dony, emeralds, sapphires, euclases, crocoites. 

" Graphite. — In the same regions, on the borders of the river Jequi- 
tinhonha, are extensive deposits of good graphite. 

^'Iron ore. — Large deposits of iron ore of fine quality are found in 
the Huronean formation. These await development. 

'^Gold. — Many gold mines have been located all over the country. 
Gold mining has been carried on for over a century, and large quanti- 
ties of the precious metal have been extracted. Extensive alluvial 
deposits are known to exist which contain as much as 778 grains of 
gold per ton of gravel, in the States of Minas Geraes, Goyaz, Sao 
Paulo, Espirito Santo, Rio Grande do Sul, and especially in Matto 
Grosso and Ceara. There are now working in Minas Geraes eight 
large gold-mining companies, of which five are English and one French, 
representing an aggregate capital of $10,000,000 besides many smaller 
ones in course of organization. There are no American syndicates as 
yet in Brazil, and there is a splendid opportunity for American 
capitalists to become interested in the exploitation of mines. 

'^ Copper. — Next to gold the most valuable is copper, found all 
through the Jurassic sandstones, shales, and conglomerates covering 
the Serra de Cassapara, to the extent of about 75 miles north to south 
and of almost equal width. In the State of Bahia the deposits of 
Carahyba and Maracas are very rich. 

'^ Silver aiid lead. — There are large deposits of lead in the States of 
Bahia, Parana, and Matto Grosso. Native silver is found at Lavras 
in a curious kind of scale yielding 29 ounces to the ton. Farther on 
two lodes of rich galena crop out. One yields 23 ounces silver and 44 
per cent lead; the other 20i ounces silver, 20 per cent lead, and 16 per 
cent copper. 

"J7n and wolfram. — In Serra do Herval there is a broken and 
jagged region known as the Serra do Arvore, across which runs a belt 
of gneiss with quartzite and an abundance of mica. In this gneiss 
three or four quartz lodes have been proved very regularly devel- 
oped, averaging about 1 to 2 feet in thickness. 



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BBAZIL. 151 

" Coal, — ^The rapid industrial growth and railroad development have 
created an active demand for fuel. The Government, authorized by 
Congress, has been obliged to consider the exploration of the domestic 
coal fields as a substitute for wood as fuel. The coal beds of Santa 
Oitharina seem to be of good quality, and an extensive railroad, 
extending 70 miles, facilitates transportation to the seacoast, and it is 
calculated that with necessary improvements coal can be brought to 
Rio de Janeiro and the other leading seaports at a cost of $4.50 per 
ton. 

y"Over 1,000,000 tons of Welsh coal are imported yearly and sold at 
an average price of $10 per ton. The calorific power of the Santa 
Catharina coal is 77 per cent of that of the best Welsh coal, but it will 
doubtless come to be used with advantage as a substitute for wood and 
prove a lucrative enterprise to those who market it 

^^Manffomese. — Of equal importance with iron ore are the immense 
deposits of manganese found in many States, principally Minas Geraes 
and Matto Grosso. 

^^Mon(izite, — ^The Brazilian monazites are known as the richest in 
thorium, used in the manufacture of mantles for the Welsbach incan- 
descent gaslight. Monazite generally contains from 1 to 6 per cent 
of tboria; its specific gravity is 5.12. As the monazite sand is usually 
found on the seacoast, in the zone belonging to the General Govern- 
ment, the Federal Government supervises this work and leases the 
land annually to the highest bidder. 

^^ Diamonds, — The existence of diamonds in the auriferous districts 
b the north of Minas Geraes has been known with certainty since 1789. 
The diamantiferous basins ai'e situated in the States of Minas Geraes, 
Bahia, Parana, Goyaz, Matto Grosso, and SSo Paulo. Mapy of these 
basins are untouched. 

*' Carbons used for diamond drilling are found in Bahia and Minas 
Geraes. 

^^ Minas Geraes has proved to be the richest. Here diamonds are 
found in Quaternary alluvial deposits. The most important deposits 
are those of Cocaes, 40 miles north of Ouro Preto; those of Diaman- 
tiiia, covering an area of 120 miles long by 12 to 20 miles wide, includ- 
ing the basins of the rivers Jequitinhouha, Doce, and Sao Francisco, 
from the valley of Conceicao to Jequitahy ; those of Grflo Mogol; those 
of Abache and affluents of the Sfio Francisco, and those of Bagagem in 
the Parana basin. In the State of Bahia, the deposits cover vast 
areas in the Kio das Contas, near the towns of Lencoes and Sincoral, 
by which names the workings are known. In the Rio Pardo basin, 
some years ago (1886-87) there were discovered, near its mouth, two 
diamantiferous placers which bear the name of Cannaviciras. 

^*At Parana the diamantiferous gravels are being worked by a local 
company. All these deposits present the same characteristics in the 

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152 nrrERNATIONAL BXTREAU OF THE AHEBIOAN REFITBLIOS. 

water courses, the river banks, the plateaus traversed by small streams, 
and in the mountain gorges. The alluvial deposits are formed of a 
calcareous bed, locally termed *'ctw<?aZA^," consisting of pebbles much 
rounded by attrition in the water courses; also covered by a layer of 
stones, more or less argillaceous, having their angles slightly rounded, 
and called ^^ gorgulJw^'^ when found in the mountain gorges, on some 
of the plateaus, and in other localities. 

*' The true diamond-bearing strata includes a number of minerals, of 
which 40 have been identified and are on exhibition at Ouro Preto 
School of Mines. These minerals form, as it were, the 'satellite' of 
the diamond. The most frequent and abundant are rutile, the ''agvl- 
has^ of the miners, and anatase {airicorid)^ a rutile pseudomorph of 
anatase {captivos de cohre)^ rounded turmaline {feijoes)^ aluminum 
hydrate with phosphates of the rare earths of the cerium group (Jhvas)j 
hematite, magnetite {esmeril^ caJmclos^ lustroso)^ xenotine, and mona- 
zite. Gold in grains and flakes is found in all the diamond workings, 
and in quantity often sufficient to pay expenses. Platinum is less fre- 
quent, but is found in all the deposits in and around the town of Serro. 

'^In the deposits of SSo JoSo da Chapada diamonds are found in 
situ^ and are obtained in altered schists, often transformed into argil- 
laceous earths of varying colors, of which the Ouro Preto School of 
Mines possesses a collection. These schists, often impregnated with 
small octahedral crystals of martite, are traversed by veins of quartz, 
accompanied by tilanium, similar to the topaz deposits of Ouro Preto; 
both belong to the same geological horizon. 

"Near the town of Grfto Mogol diamonds occur in the micaceous 
quartzites or itacolumytes, passing into * putting stone,' where the 
quartz is fpund in a rock of the same nature as already cited. 

"The search for diamonds is always preceded by that for gravel 
{' cascalho^). 

" In the Jequitinhonha district a few cubic meters of gravel, accumu- 
lated by the rock bars crossing the beds of the rivers, often furnish 
hundreds of thousands of dollars' worth of diamonds. Operations are 
carried on by isolated workers known as ^gaAmpeiros^ or by local 
companies. The former are able to work only when the streams are 
low, while the latter often undertake very considerable engineering 
operations in diverting streams so as to lay bare the rich gravels. 
In either case the gravel is washed by the most primitive methods, and 
the diamonds are obtained in bateas or panning dishes somewhat 
deeper than those used for gold. The most productive centers nre 
Serro, m Diamanthina, which is subdivided mto a number of small 
districts, such as Curralinho, Caetemirim, Jequitahy, etc, Terra 
Brancha, GrSo Mogol, Sincoral, and Cannaviciras, the last two being 
in Bahia. 



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BRAZIL. 153 

'*Iii general, Brazilian diamonds are well crystallized and colorless. 
Colored stones are rare, but of good 'water.' Bortz and carbonados, 
or black diamonds, are found principally in Bahia, although they have 
also been encountered at Terra Branca, in Minas Geraes. 

*' Brazil has not yet produced many large diamonds. Among the 
paragons may be cited the 'Star of the South,' weighing 254.5 carats 
in the rough and 125.5 carats after being cut. This was found at 
Bagagem in 1853. The Dresden diamond, discovered in the same 
locality in 1857, weighed 117.5 cai-ats in the rough and 63.5 carats cut. 
Both of these gems belong to an Indian prince in Calcutta, and were 
sold at $200,000 and $100,000, respectively. 

''Small stones {vitriers) occur very frequently. A few years ago 
Brazil exported all her diamonds in the rough. At present many 
stones are cut in the country. In Diamanthina there are 19 lapidaries, 
employing 146 workmen, who cut 460 carats per month, at a cost of 
$3 per carat. In the town of Serro there is one lapidary's establish- 
ment. In Jequitahy two-thirds of the stones cut are exported, one- 
third is mounted and sold locally. 

"The average price of diamonds in Brazil is about $100 per octave 
of 3,689 grams (18 carats), and the annual output is valued at about 
$200,000. 

" In 1904, Brazil exported diamonds to the value of $1,000,000. Two 
new companies have been formed in London, the Brazilian Diamond 
Exploration Company, with £225,000 capital, to work in Bahia, and 
the Brazilian Diamond Fields Corporation (Limited), capital £150,000, 
to operate in Minas Geraes. 

''Brazilian diamonds are noted for their brilliancy and clearness of 
a pure white. Many beautiful colored diamonds have also been found 
in Brazil, and some of the largest diamonds existing in the crown 
jewels of Europe came from Brazil. 

"Carbons used for diamond drills are found in large quantities 
in Bahia and Minas Geraes, the greater part coming from Lavras 
Diamanthina, Sincora, and Chapada. The largest carbon ever seen 
was found in 1895 in Lencoes, Bahia. It weighed 3,150 carats, and 
was first sold for $16,000 and later for $25,000. It was taken to 
Parb, where it was broken into small pieces to be used in the industry. 
Many other carbons from 500 to 900 carats have been frequently 
found in the same place. 

^^A^estos. — This mineral is found in the neighborhood of Ouro 
Preto, on the scarp of the Serra de Caraca, in Minas Geraes, and also 
in Bahia and Goyaz. 

BulL No. 1—06 12 



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154 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS, 

CHILE. 

KES8AQ£ OF PRESIBEKT BIESCO. 

At the opening of the Chilean Congress on June 1, 1906^ President 
RiESco stated that all questions with neighboring nations were on the 
point of conclusion. Diplomatic relations with Peru had been resumed 
and would result in agreement whereby the differences between the 
two countries would not only be ended, but that would also have the 
effect of drawing them closer together. 

Referring to financial measures in 1905 the message stated that the 
revenue of the country amounted to 139,688,449 jt)^^ and expenditures 
to 136,326,749. For 1906, the revenue was estimated as 137,000,000 
pesos and expenditures 165,000,000. Measures for covering this deficit 
would be taken, and confidence was expressed in the ultimate balancing 
of the country's account for the year. 

Nitrate shipments, which in 1901 aggregated 27,385,228 quintals, 
would in 1906 reach the amount of 38,000,000, according to calcula- 
tions. During the period in reference the exports of iodine from 
Chile were reported to have doubled. It was expected that the cus- 
toms receipts for 1906 would reach 96,000,000 pesos^ and from data 
already available it was apparent that a great industrial impetus had 
been felt throughout the Republic For 1907 a still greater advance 
of customs receipts was anticipated, the figures being estimated at 
99,000,000 ^€»r2«. 

Figures of the 1900 trade were placed at 188,696,428 pes^ for 
imports, including industrial materials, and 265,000,000 pesos for 
exports. An advance of 49,000,000 pesos over 1905 is thus indicated. 

The foreign debt, which in 1901 amounted to £17,000,000, bad in 
1905 been reduced to £16,000,000. During 1905, however, a loan of 
£1,500,000 was contracted for the sanitation of ^^tiago, and in 1906 
there were loans for the sanitation of other towns in the Republic 
amounting to £1,500,000 and of £2,700,000 for the construction of the 
Arica-La Paz Railway. The internal debt amounted, in 1905, to 
107,000,000 pesos and the convei*sion fund stood at 50,000,000 pesos. 

It is proposed to carry out harbor improvements at Valparaiso and 
Antofagasta to meet the requirements of the coimtry's trade. The 
length of State railways is placed at 2,408 kilometers, and there are 
469 kilometers of private line under construction, and other lines of a 
total length of 2,216 kilc«neters have been authorized. 

The number of immigrants arriving in the RepubKc during the five- 
years' period 1901-5 was 14,000. 

PTTBCHASE OF BAIIiWAT MATERIAL. 

The Chilean Government, according to the *' South American Jour- 
nal," will shortly place orders for locomotives and rolling stock to the 
value of 5,000,000 pesos. It has been decided to pay into the Caisse 

Digitized by V3^iV./V l'^ 



OOIiOMBIA. 155 

of the Conversion Fund a sum of 20,000,000 pesos in gold, of which 
18,000,000 pesos will be taken from the proceeds of the last loan. 

The Bank of Chile is increasing its capital to $40,000,000. Up to 
the present the capital has been $20,000,000. 



COLOMBIA. 

NEW CABINET. 

Under date of July 12, 1906, the International Bureau of the 
American Republics was informed through the Department of State 
of the United States of the formation of a new Colombian Cabinet, as 
follows: 

Minister of Government, Seffor Dionisio Arango. 

Minister of Foreign Affairs, Senor Gen. Alfbedo VXsquez Cobo. 

Minister of Hacienda and Treasury, Senor Tobias Valenzuela. 

Minister of War, Senor Gen. Manuel MarIa Sanclemente. 

Minister of Public Instruction, Senor Jos6 Mar^a Gonzalez 
Valencia. 

Minister of Public Works, Senor Francisco de P. Manotas. 



COSTA RICA. 

TNAJJOTTRAIa MBSSAGE OT PBESrDENT GONZAliXZ VlaXTEZ. 

In his inaugural message, delivered May 8, 1906, President Gon- 
zIlez YIquez said in part: 

"My administration shall spare no effort in order that the relations 
of Costa Rica with the other States may continue to be as cordial and 
mutually respectful as they are at present, a result which t hope to 
accomplish, to a great extent, by welcoming to the Republic the 
foreign element desirous of permanently establishing itself in Costa 
Rican territory. On being granted the same civil and social rights as 
are accorded to natives of the country, foreigners shall continue to 
ibid in our soil a new country for the welfare of which they will 
doubtless feel as lively an interest as ourselves, and thus the country 
will be free from international diflSculties which most of the time are 
due to outrages and arbitrary proceedings concerning foreigners and 
their properties. 

"My purpose shall be to render still closer the ties of blood and 
friendship with the neighboring countries, and in this connection our 
poUcy shall be inspired on the one hand by the advisability of closer 
relations which will result in mutual advantage to all the parties con- 
cerned, and on the other hand by continuing the traditional policy of 

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156 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Costa Rica of not interfering, either directly or indirectly, in the 
internal affairs of said neighboring countries. 

*'The relations between the church and the state should continue to 
be those of mutual respect and forbearance, as they have been for many 
years. To accomplish this result, we should bear in mind that although 
our constitutional law authorizes the exercise of all religious beliefs, 
provided it is not inimical to universal morals, and that although few 
people are more tolerant and show more respect for the religious 
beliefs of others than ours, yet it remains a fact that the Catholic 
religion is the religion of the country and consequently should receive 
proper help from the Government, as explicitly provided by the 
Constitution. 

"The system of religious instruction which is at present given in 
the public schools should be continued, and improved, if need be, in 
the sense that it should be sincere and eflScient. Such religious instruc- 
tion would tend to raise the moral standard of the people, inasmuch 
as the only way to deeply impress the sense of good morals among 
the people who have had scanty means of education is through religious 
feelings and principles. 

"This does not imply, of course, that religious teaching should be 
compulsory. On the contrary, parents should remain at liberty to 
notify the teachers of said schools of their desire npt to have their 
children attend said religious classes, if they have so decided before- 
hand, and it is, of course, perfectly fair that when there is a sufBcient 
number of pupils, parents have the right to request that a class of 
other than the Catholic religion be established. This is perfectly just 
and shall constitute an important feature of the liberal policy of the 
Government. 

"The administration shall not only concern itself with the moral 
hygiene, so to speak, of the country, but shall also take up with equal 
earnestness and sincerity the question of public health, both in large 
and in small towns. It is true that this important matter devolves 
mainly on the municipal authorities, but inasmuch as the latter gener- 
ally lack the means essential to carry out the works relating to the 
water supply, sewage system, disinfecting plants, and the like, the 
Government will be willing to the full extent of its means to cooperate 
with said municipal corporations to accomplish the desired results. 

"The neglect of public health and sanitation greatly injures the 
good name of the whole country, and therefore the consequences of 
such neglect must necessarily be a decrease in the population and 
wealth of the country. 

"The financial situation of the country has greatly improved by the 
monetary system now in force, which avoided the danger of serious 
trouble in the rate of exchange of the circulating currency as well as 
by the bank laws and the law relating to the issue of bank notes, which 

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COSTA EICA. 157 

has mad^ it possible to wisely use the credit with an evident benefit to 
the circulation of said currency and of business in general. 

"In view of such favorable conditions, foreign capital is not afraid 
to come to Costa Rica, where it is sure to find the gold standard, andi 
where it has commenced to establish new enterprises and to enlarge 
those already established, and it is to be hoped that when the country 
is better known abroad, when all the advantages it affords are also 
known, and, finally, when it is known that the Government of Costa 
Rica respects life and property, loves peace and order, and how immense 
is the unexploited wealth hidden in the bosom of this soil, then will 
capitalists and skilled laborers come in great numbers to this country. 
"Last year the credit of the country abroad improved considerably 
owing to the hope which was entertained concerning the final settle- 
ment of our foreign debt; but since the agreement which was signed 
with the firm of Speyer Brothers to that end was not considered 
admissible, because it contained conditions which were altogether 
unfair and even oppressive to the Government, it is but natural that 
said credit should fall again. This situation of impaired credit can 
not and must not be indefinitely prolonged, else the country must 
expect to be daily slighted on account of its failure to comply with its 
international obligations. Therefore the Government must enter into 
new negotiations with the holders of our bonds and endeavor to make 
a satisfactory settlement. In order to accomplish this result, as well 
as to attend to other urgent demands, it shall be necessary that the 
administration be as economical as possible. 

"Since agriculture is the principal, if not the only source of our 
national wealth, the Government shall pay special attention to the 
same, and shall contribute by all proper means to its progress and 
development. To this end it shall establish a chemical agricultural 
laboratory, wherein the different soils shall be examined and have 
their conditions scientifically determined; to promote and furnish 
funds to the Agricultural Board, in order that it may not only become 
a center for study and investigation but also an active agent of prac- 
tical advancement, making experiments in the introduction of new 
crops and writing and publishing pamphlets and reviews to be dis- 
tributed among farmers, and to communicate to the latter useful and 
interesting information of all kinds concerning agriculture in general; 
to encourage the importation of modern machinery and tools which 
may tend to improve the conditions of the crops and the harvesting 
and benefiting of our products; to reduce the price of fertilizers, in 
order to increase thereby the yield of the crops; to issue a law con- 
cerning uncultivated land in such manner as to authorize the appro- 
priation of small tracts thereof by means of their cultivation; to 
promote the textile industry and the manufacture of bags and cordage; 
to decree the holding of national exhibitions and the award of annual 

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158 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

prizes which shall serve as a stimulus to farmers, all of which and 
many other similar measures would give a great and benefiicial 
impulse to agriculture. 

^^ Realizing the great importance of public roads as a means ot 
developing the agriculture of the country, my administration shall 
devote special attention to this question and shall not only endeavor 
to correct the deficiencies of the present roads and to finish those 
which lead to the plains of Sarapiquf , San Carlos, and Santa Clara, bat 
also to discuss the opening of new and easy roads which shall put into 
communication the Provinces of San Jos4 and Cartago w^ith the lands 
called 'General, Buenos Aires and other southern lands of the 
Republic' 

''The railroad which will run to Punta Arenas must be completed as 
soon as possible if the country, is to derive any benefit therefrom, 
establishing competition with the Atlantic Railroad and encouragiof 
the exploitation of the rich lands of that coast. Besides, the con- 
struction of the Panama Canal compels us to have good railroad com- 
munication between both oceans, since when that great waterway 
shall be opened, there shall be no apparent drawback for the proper 
export and import trade among our Atlantic and Pacific ports. 

"Public instruction, to which our Governments have generally 
devoted particular attention, is in need of many improvements, 
namely: To make a more marked distinction between city and country 
schools; to fix school hours during the day according to the special 
conditions of each individual place, as well as the number of schocJ 
months in the year; to impress upon the minds of all pupils the impor- 
tance of acquiring some knowledge of sanitary rules in general, and 
the observance of strict morals in the schools; to give agricultural 
training in the male schools, and that of sewing and cooking in the 
female schools; to so simplify and arrange said training that the 
attendance in the schools may not deprive parents of any help which 
their elder children may render them and which may be necessary, for 
instance during harvest time, and besides endeavoring at all times to 
give them such instruction as will be of practical benefit to them in 
after years. 

"Teachers also should be required to have the necessary qualifica- 
tions and their salaries should be increased, even at the expense of 
reducing their number, and to that end the Department of Public 
Instruction should be in constant and immediate communication with 
all the schools and boards of education." 

SKETCH OF PKESLDENT CLETO GONZALEZ VlaiTEZ. 

President VfQDEZ, recently inaugurated Chief Executive of the 
Republic of Costa Rica, was born in the city of Barba, in the Province 
of Heredia, Costa Rica, in the year 1858. From his earliest youth be 



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006TA MCA. 159 

was a diligent and brilliant student, qualities which were displayed in 
an increasingly noteworthy degree in the primary schools, in the col- 
leges, and ultimately in the law schools, the last of which gave him 
his degree with the * ' highest distinction. " After so auspicious a career 
in the academies it was natural to anticipate a rapid and conspicuous 
advance for the young man in the practice of his profession, and the 
event showed that this expectation was well grounded. To-day, in the 
prime of life, his elevated and cultured intelligence has been addressed 
to the consideration of the gravest of problems, social and political, 
and bis opinions upon these subjects have been of inestimable value to 
his native country. He has two of the gi*eat chaiucteristic^ of genius, 
the capacity for infinite effort and great equanimity and rectitude of 
mind. By reason of these unusual qualities his personality has long 
dominated the rank and file of the public men of his country. He has 
gradually become the logical man for the Presidency, and his assump- 
tion of power is everywhere accepted as the natural culmination of a 
life devoted to the service of his fellow-citizens. 

All of these assertions have been more than justified by the splendid 
catalogue of his achievements. In the high posts of Congressman, 
Secr^ary of Hacienda, of Foreign Affairs, of Gobierno, and of 
Fomento he has been instrumental in introducing important legis- 
lative and administrative reforms and many great enterprises of inter- 
est or value, among the most interesting of which may be mentioned 
those movements initiated and carried to a fortunate conclusion during 
his term as President of the Charity Board and as Municipal Presi- 
dent, his sanitary work, and his labors on behalf of the beautification 
of the capital of the Republic. 

It is expected that, under the guardianship of a man of such high 
character, distinguished abilities, and exceptional experience, the 
Republic will enjoy a period of prosperity greater than it has known 
up to the present moment. 

Senor Esquivel, who retires from the Presidency after a brilliant 
career as Chief Magistrate, is one of the most learned and accom- 
plished jurisconsults of Centi-al America, and it is no small compli- 
ment to the new head of the State that he has been deemed worthy to 
occupy the place vacated by so eminent and upright a citizen. 

KX8SA0E OF PRESIDENT ASCENSION ESaXHYEL. 

The following was addressed to the Congress of the Republic of 
Costa Rica by President Esquivel at the end of his Presidential term: 

"Gentlemen: Four years ago, when I took the oath as Chief 
Executive of the Republic, I solemnly promised that I would faith- 
fully fulfill the duties intrusted to me, and now, after having com- 
pleted so difiScult a task, I simply desire to express my perpetual 
gratitude to all my fellow-citizens for the great honor conferred upon 

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160 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

me, and to further state that I am satisfied that I have never failed to 
comply with my promises to you. My policy has been to exercise 
power in strict agcordance with the law, so that all the acts of the 
Administration should be characterized by honesty and the endeavor 
to obtain the welfare of the whole people; the preservation of order 
and peace as the basis of common prosperity, and also as my para- 
mount duty, and, finally, the protection of the sovereignty, decorum, 
and good name of Costa Rica has been one of the principal aims of 
my acts as Chief Executive. 

"Our country, which was suffering a great financial crisis in 1902, 
is to-day prosperous and its prosperity is increasing daily; the public 
credit, which in the aforesaid year was greatly impaired, owing to the 
lack of means and the prevailing distrust, at present is good; the 
National Treasury, which was practically without funds in the afore- 
said year, when even the expenses of the Government could not be 
punctually paid, is at present able to meet all its obligations and with 
a surplus of over one million colones; public education has greatly 
improved; the number of our public roads has increased considerably; 
efficient help has been given to all towns in order to promote their 
progress; public order and peace have been steadily maintained during 
my four years of office, notwithstanding the excitement produced by 
political campaigns, and, finally, it has become an acknowledged fact 
of our democratic institutions that the Chief Executive should be 
peacefully and constitutional!}' elected. 

''Having conscientiously done my duty, 1 take great pleasure in 
congratulating the learned and distinguished statesman whom you 
have elected to succeed me as your Chief Executive, and as a reward 
for his many virtues and accomplishments, and for whose success I 
sincerel}' pray." 

THE MINING INDUSTBT IN ;L905. 

A sensible increase is noted in the exports from Costa Kican mines 
in 1905, precious metals to the value of £58,058 as compared with 
£8,367 in 1904 having been shipped. This is attributable, in a large 
degree, to the crushings of the Abangares mine, which was shutdown 
for improvements in the preceding year. On July 1, 1905, crushing 
was resumed at the company's gold fields, the installation of a 40-stamp 
mill, a cyanide and leaching plant, and a filter-press plant. The Bos- 
ton Mining Company continues milling with a 10-stamp mill and cya- 
nide plant. Several other mines are reported in course of development 



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INTEBNATIOITAL BUBEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 161 

ECUADOR. 

COKSTBXTCnON OF A SEWAGE ST8TEK. 

The President of Ecuador has issued the following decree concerning 
the construction of a sewage system : 

"Article 1. The water-supply works for the fii*e department and the 
sewage system of the city of Guayaquil are hereby declared national 
works. 

"Art. 2. The funds belonging to these works are : 

"(«) Two per cent taken from import duties collected at the Guay- 
aquil custom-house, which shall be accounted for separately at each 
liquidation made for the purposes stated in article 12 of this decree. 

"(5) Eighty cents for each hundredweight of cocoa exported through 
the Guayaquil custom-house, except the production of the province 
of El Oro. 

"(c) One-half per cent per annum of the income derived from real 
estate in Guayaquil, after taking a census which shall be approved by 
the municipal authorities. 

"((Q The value of the sewage or drainage works referred to in 
article 6. 

"Art. 3. For the execution and management of the two works and 
the collection and investment of the funds provided or which may 
hereafter be acquired, there shall be organized a board which shall bo 
called 'Junta de Canalizacion y Provhioii de Agiiu al Cuerpo de Bom- 
leivs^^ which shall be composed of: 

"(a) Sixteen principal members, from which numl>er a president, 
vice-president, secretary, and treasurer shall be chosen. 

"(J) Ten substitute members. 

"(c) One delegate of the Secretary of Public Works, who shall be 
entitled to vote. 

"All the membei-s of the board shall be appointed by the Executive 
Power. 

"The board shall hold a meeting every month and special meetings 
whenever it may be deemed convenient to do so. 

"Art. 4. The treasurer appointed by said board shall comply with 
all the fomialities prescribed by law in such cases, and shall send 
monthly, through the Department of Government to that of the Treas- 
ury, a verified statement of the operations carried on during the 
month. 

" The salary of the treasurer shall be fixed by the board at a regu- 
lar meeting. 

"Art. 5. The Executive shall have the right to intervene, through 
the proper department, in everything relating to the works referred 
to in article 1, and shall be represented at the meetings in the manner 
prescribed by article 3. r^ t 

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162 INTEBNATIONAL BUKEAO OF THE AMEBICAK BBPUBLIC8. 

''Art. 6. In carrying out the construction of the sewage system, 
and when each section thereof is completed, the board shall, at the 
expense of the owners of property who refuse to do so, order the con- 
struction of the drainage of premises the value of which shall exceed 
4,000 sitcres^ in accordance with the oflScial real estate list, and the 
owner shall be bound to reimburse the cost of the work, after thirty 
days' notice, and the board shall, if necessary, avail itself of the coac- 
tive jurisdiction granted to that end to the treasurer of the board. 

''Art. 7. The board is authorized to enter into contracts with com- 
panies, or with private parties, who shall furnish sufficient and satis- 
factory bond for securing the construction, preservation, and repair 
of the works entrusted to said boai'd. 

"Art. 8. Until the sewage system is finished, the board shall cause 
the city to be yearly drained, in order to prevent the stagnation of 
rain water. 

"The above shall not exempt such companies or private parties as 
may have entered into contracts with the municipal government for 
similar works from the fulfillment of their obligations. 

"Art. 9. The board is authorized to raise one or more loans to be 
applied to the execution, repair, and preservation of the aforesaid 
works, and shall guarantee said loans with the funds appropriated for 
that purpose by this decree. 

"Art. 10. The funds appropriated for the works mentioned in this 
decree are public charity funds. 

"Art. 11. The treasurer of the board shall receive directly from 
the ' Banco Comercial y Agricola^ 2 per cent of the import duties 
allotted to the board by article 2 of this decree, and shall likewise 
receive from the ^ Banco del Ecuador^ the 80 cents on each hundred- 
weight of cocoa prescribed by the same article* 

"In order that the above decree may be fully complied with, the 
Secretary of the Treasury shall forward the proper communication to 
the directors of the banks, in order that from the date on which the 
present decree shall go into effect they supply without any interrup- 
tion the funds appropriated for the works in question. 

"Art. 12. All laws previous to this decree relating to this matter 
are hereby repealed, and the Secretaries of Public Works and Treasury 
shall cause the foregoing provisions to be complied with. 

"Given at Quito, at the National Palace, on the 30th day of April, 
1906. 

"Eloy Alfaro.'' 

NEW HONOBABT COBBESPONDING MEMBER. 

Senor L. A. Carbo, recently appointed Corresponding Honorary 
Member of the International Union of American Republics, was 
born in Guayaquil, Republic of Ecuador, on the 7th of September, 



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QUATBMALA. 163 

1882. He commenced his studies in the National College of San 
Vicente del Guayas, continuing them in the United States since 1895 
till 1904, in which latter year he graduated as engineer in the Colum- 
bia University of New York. He practiced his profession in Sche- 
nectady, New York, under the employ of the General Electric 
Company, and also in New York with several companies of construct- 
ing engineers. In 1901 he was appointed Commissioner of Ecuador 
to the Pan-American Exposition held in Buffalo. In 1905, he was 
selected to represent his country before the International Railroad 
Congress, which was held in Washington, and at present he holds the 
position as Secretary of the Ecuadorian Legation in the United States. 
The Committee on Canalization and Water Supply of Gua3^aquil has 
appointed him chief engineer of their works. 



GUATEMALA. 

LAND LAWS. 

Vacant lands in the Republic of Guatemala uiay be claimed by a 
written petition, offering three witnesses, who must declare they know 
that the land claimed is not owned by anybody. Each claim can not 
cover more than 1,680 acres. After the claim is filed it is published 
in the oflScial paper. If nobody opposes the claim within thirty days 
from the publication, the papers are sent to the Interior Department, 
which appoints a surveyor if the land is not needed for public use. 
The applicant must pay the expenses of the sui*vey, but the amount 
paid is credited to the price of the land. After the survey is made, it 
is examined by the Surveyor-General. If the survey is approved, 
experts are appointed to appraise the land, which is done on the fol- 
lowing basis, from which is deducted the expenses of the survey and 
of its revision: 

A. Two dollars and twenty-three cents, Guatemala currency, per 
acre, if the land is proper to raise cattle, grow cereals, vintage, indigo, 
jeniquen, and other analogous cultivations. 

B. Three dollars and fifty-seven cents per acre if the land is proper 
to grow sugar cane, banana, tobacco, and raim^. 

C. Four dollars and ninety cents per acre if the land is proper to 
grow coffee or cotton, or contains wood from which timber can be 
extracted, either for buildmg or for other purposes. 

The prices quoted are in Guatemala currency, which at present is 
worth 9 cents United States gold for 1 peso, making the prices of land 
20, 32, and 45 cents United States gold, respectively, per acre. When 
the present prices were fixed, in 1894, the currency was silver, worth 
about 50 cents gold for 1 peso. 

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164 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

After the appraisement is made, the President orders that the title 
be issued to the applicant on payment of the value of the land, less 
expenses of survey. 

There is no restriction on foreigners acquiring and holding land in 
Guatemala save on the f rontiei's of the adjoining countries, which is 
not definitely defined, but it is generally understood there must beat 
least one tract of 250 acres between it and the border. 



HONDURAS. 

NEW CGNSXniAB CHABGES. 

United States Consul William E. Alger, of Tegucigalpa, reports 
the new consular tariff of Honduras taking effect June 1, 1906, as 
follows: 

^'1. Consular invoices: Value not exceeding $50, $1; $50 to $100, 
$2; $100 to $500, $4; $500 to $1,000, $6; above $1,000, 25 cents for 
every $100 or fractions to $5,000; from $5,000 up, 10 cents for each 
$100 or fraction. 

^^2. Registry births, deaths, marriages, certification as to civil state 
citations, notifications, naming experts, or similar acts, §2. 

'^3. Registry of contracts, protests, wills, powers of attorney, or 
other notarial acts, $5. 

''4. Placing or removing seal, $3. 

*'5. Presence at takmg inventories, sale of lands, administration of 
same, or for deposits in consulate, 1 per cent of cash, one-half per 
cent on balance. 

^'6. Entering and clearing Honduranean vessel, including all neces- 
sary papers, if under 100 tons, $10; over 100 tons, $20; when called 
on to intervene between captain and crew, visiting vessel on account 
damage, time occupied in office, $1 per hour; outside of ofiBce, $2. 

'^7. Vis6 passports, manifests, etc., each, $1. 

''S. Vis6 of or extending bill of health, $2. 

''9. Intervention in sale of vessel, under 100 tons, $10; over 100 
tons, $20. 

'' 10. Each set of manifests, $5. 

"' 11. Provisional patent to fly Honduranean flag while en route to 
Honduranean port for matriculation, $5. 

'M2. Crew list, $3. 

*' 13. Noting changes in crew list, $1.50. 

" 14. Arbitration, $10. 

'' 15. Extending passports when requested, $2. 

" 16. \\s6 passports when requested, $1. 

" 17. Deposit of documents in consular archives, $1. 



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MEXICO. 



165 



" 18. Authent'cation of signatures, each document, $5. 

'' 19. Copies of documents authorized or deposited, $1 for first copy, 
50 cents for following copies. 

"20. If authorization outside of office, in addition to expenses, $2 
for first, $1 for succeeding hours. 

'* 21. Certification of manifest of vessel in ballast, $2. 

'^ 22. Certification as to consular invoices which have gone astray, $2. 

" No charge is to be made for services when requested by the author- 
ities of country where consul resides. Fees to be collected in money 
of country where service is performed." 



MEXICO. 



FOBSIGN COMMERCE IN FEBBTTABY, 1006. 

According to figures issued by the Statistical Division of the Treas- 
ury Department of the Republic of Mexico, the foreign commerce of 
the Kepublic for February, 1906, and for the first eight months of the 
current fiscal year, 1905-6, was represented by the following valu- 
ations, the figures for the corresponding periods of the preceding year 
being also given for purposes of comparison: 

The total value of importations during the eight months under 
renew was $132,621,517.27 in silver currency, as declared in the cus- 
tom-houses, an increase of $15,368,826.51, as compared with the pre- 
ceding year. 

The exports for the eight months were valued at $180,452,581.42, 
showing an increase of $51,822,392.38, as compared with the same 
period of 1904-5. 

The detailed imports during the eight months were as follows: 



IMPORTS. 

[Silver yaluaUon ] 





February. 


Ei^ht months— 




1906. 


19a5. 


1905-6. 


1904-5. 


AniiDAl rabfttAncea .- 


$1,266,394.43 
2,949,603.25 
9,866,963.04 
1,767,714.84 

598,454.88 
467,130.78 
888,538.09 
1,604,687.45 
870,662.00 
867.194.81 
516,877.67 


$1,123,206.41 
2,774,064.68 
3,632,240.28 
1,690,888.64 

634,492.03 
642,716.80 
386,602.16 
1,316,399.78 
223,576.51 
275,442.89 
369,210.19 


$10,515,884.51 
20,693,369.83 
51,932,061.16 
13,878,640.86 

4,852,416.37 
4,^38,516.03 
3,525,060.82 
12,491,853.31 
2,630,912.32 
2,698,760.69 
4,764,061.37 


$9,370,213.27 
19,865,353.92 
35, 006, 485. 63 
16,980,076.58 

4,301,680.57 
4,437,168.10 
8,672,606.36 
14,931,318.80 
2,701,956 28 


> egeUble substance^ 


Mineral subetances 


I>ryRoods 


Chemical and pharmaceutical sub- 
stances .. 




^V*6t and Ita aDolications 


Maehlfif IT ana aDPRTatUfl ^^^^.,. 


vehiciS^*^.!7.. .::..:::.:. 


Anns and exDloaives 


3,639,834.27 
8,446,007.08 


MiK«iian«S.?!.:?:.:;;...:.:. 






Tbtal 


20,083,221.24 


12,768,740.86 


132,621,517.27 


117,262,690.76 







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166 INTERNATIONAL BUBEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



EXPORTS. 

[Silver yaluAtion.] 





February— 


Eight months— 




1906. 


1906. 


190^-6. 


1904-6. 


Precious metals 


$14,359,160.70 
f, 120, 601 68 


$6,849,944.67 
9,260,060.92 


$107,246,049.46 
78,206,684.96 


$59,637,615.40 


Otlicr articles 


68,992,576.64 






Total 


23,479,666.88 


16,100,996.59 


180,458,684.42 


128,630,192.04 







The details of the export trade for the periods under comparison 
show the following classification and figures: 



Mexican gold coin . . , 

Foreign gold coin 

Gold in bars 

Gold In other forms. 



Total gold. 



Mexican silver coin. . , 
Foreign silver coin . ., 

Silver In bars 

Silver in other forms. 



Total silver . 



February — 



$2,417,656.61 
410.614.28 



2,828,270.79 



4,193,298.00 

3,701.00 

6,692,837.04 

641,063.87 



11,530.889.91 



^ 190=). 



$1,609.70 

1,9.'S5,85H.70 

216,*43.27 



Eight months— 



1905-6. 



$4,835.98 

20.392,971.11 

1,810,633.88 



2,174,311.67 22,208,440.47 



1904-5. 



$181,036.48 

43,145.06 

17,322,208.16 

1,371,725.46 



18,918,115.16 



5,891.00 

10,587.00 

3,696,019.88 

963,135.12 



4,675,688.00 



Total gold and silver . 

Antimony 

Copper 

Marble 

Plumbago 

Lead 

Zinc 

other metals 



Total. 



Vegetable products: 

Coffee 

Ca.scalote and tanning barks . 

Rubber 

Chicle 

Beans 

Fruits 

Chick pease 

Guayu le 

Horse beans 

Ilenlquen 

Ixtle 

W(K>ds 

Maize 

Mahogany 

Dyewoods 

Zacaton 

Leaf tobacco 

Vanilla 

other vegetable products 



ToUl , 

Animal products: 

Cattle , 

Skins and hidet^ 

Other animal products. 



Total 

Manufactured articles: 

Sugar 

Flour and pastes 

Rope 

Dri.'sscd skins 

Straw hats 

Manufactured tobacco. 
Other manufactures 



14,359,160.70 

93,103.00 

8.284,069.50 



6,849,944.67 



14,200.00 

670, 643. 23 

5,384.00 

46, 194. 50 



18,371,754.93 



1,352,&53.60 

600.00 

176, ail. 72 

183, 080. 0« 

57,372,90 

13,182.00 

82, fW4. 00 

9, 798. 10 



835,008.00 
279. 3,'>f>. 00 
78, 614. 88 
24,310.20 
18.007.87 
56, .SOI. 50 
106,921.00 
106, 820. 32 
123.501.00 
146,440.05 



3.651,203.07 



2.797,094.60 

400.00 

8.000.00 

455,8.=>5.00 

12,451.00 

2,924.85 



10,126,670.12 



1,258,796.28 
11,769.00 
61,854.00 
228, 319. 64 
43, 758. 00 
6,066.00 
58,351.00 



1,861,272.00 
2.%, 28.1. 00 
157,225.80 
2S,518.08 
4,942.00 
29,a'>4.00 
125,878.00 
69.2a5.00 
32.850.00 
92,924.00 



4,357,096.80 



33,891,126.00 

79,870.62 

45,136,350.26 

5,930,262.12 



85,067,608.99 



107,246,049.46 
688,652.96 
20,258,902.23 
73,098.00 
65,621.51 
8, W6, 295. 77 
148,211.99 
268,754.84 



182,396,686.26 



4,741, 

20, 

870, 

851, 

620, 

223, 

1,866, 

41 > 

110, 

19,037, 

2, 455, 

1,317, 

58, 

54, 

2%, 

1,241, 

650, 

2,629, 

992, 



026.10 
747.00 
838.74 
387.49 
653.72 
870.90 
884.76 
189.00 
540.00 
456.00 
519. 88 
608.74 
296.20 
987.87 
885.20 
864.00 
411.06 
321.99 
228.58 



639,298.25 

59,181.00 

82,831,275.90 

7,189,7V6.0e 



40,719,500.24 



59,637,616.40 

623,613.00 

19,149,221.18 

53,896.00 

44.360.0$ 

8,971,568.00 

48,781.00 

20,672.87 



83.444.612.45 



3,286,4^4.43 
38,916.00 
355,679.99 
840,614.23 
392,226.00 
183,653.48 

1,864,438.00 



19, OM, 

2. 548, 

1,559, 

fr4, 

25, 

517. 

1,344, 

809, 

977, 

530, 



18.00 
585.12 
679.55 
424.44 
822.83 
741.00 

59.68 
734.00 
393.00 
140.00 
558.80 



37.971,187.17 | 83,894,813.05 



18-), 064. 00 
805, 570. 60 
47,455.50 



1,038,090.10 



130,028.50 2,178,012.50 

599,474.06 6,208,676.86 

33,750.50 840,316.43 



763,253.05 7,717,005.78 



1,754,900.00 

4,478,716.70 

341,264.00 



,569.880.70 



99,246.00 
75,959.00 



80,782.00 
70,077.00 
28,063.64 
47, 751. 20 



650,140.00 
73,900.00 
1,(M6.00 
15,459.00 
29,000.00 
26,810.00 
33, 438. 00 



ToUl. 



367,878.84 ! 



829,802.00 



859,878.00 
852,821.00 



157.487.00 
874,136.29 
226,896.19 
896,589.59 



1,867,806.07 



2,867,496.00 
470,824.0$ 
1,285.00 
138,510.00 
182,040.00 
809,915.56 
944.960.68 



4,809,971.68 



Various . 



00.738.44 I 



33,173.62 I 



501,500.14 j 



410.914.16 



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MEXICO. 



167 



Following is a r^sum^ of the valuations of Mexican imports during 
the periods under comparison with reference to their countries of 
origin: 



Coontry. 


February— 


Eight months— 


1906. 


1906. 


1905-6. 


1904-6. 


Bnrope 


$5,409,604.24 
92,371.16 
246.18 
14,534.232.39 
3.8S4.49 
20,621.30 
17,847.42 
4,944.60 


$4,«S2,294.10 

121,959.48 

1,680.45 

7,592,701.22 

10,053.26 

70,028.12 

17,999.56 

2,714.48 


$46,835,228.55 
930,797.96 
16.009.76 
85,421,581.26 
22.892.82 
I'M, 500. 30 
158,057.00 
52,249.62 


$60, 511, 906. 83 


jUU 


936,932.05 


Africa 


105,701.61 


North America 


65,009.995.69 
68.114.34 


Central America '. 


South America 


408, 685. 34 


Wert Indies 


154.304.47 


Octania 


57, 100. 59 






Total 


20,083,221.24 


12,768,740.36 


132,621,517.27 


117,252,690.76 



Following is a r^sum^ of the valuations of Mexican exports during 
the periods under comparison with reference to their countries of 
destination: 



Country. 


February— 


Eight months— 


1906. 


li0'>. 


1905-6. 


1904^. 


Bmope 


$8,067,674.52 


$4,018,046.91 


154,666,551.87 


$30,001,891.06 


Aria?!^......;::; :::::::: 


10,500.00 


North America 


15,040,200.06 

82,851.46 

8,310.32 

200.629. 00 


11,814.318.65 

69,836.03 

4,659.00 

203,141.00 


122,253,027.02 

806,958.71 

51,027.32 

2,775,020.00 


95,656,658.44 
582, 370. 14 


CeDtrtl America 


Booth America 


85, 513. 40 


Wtttlndles.. 


2,293,259.00 






Total 


23,479,665.38 


16, 109, 995. 59 


180,452,584.42 


128, 630, 192. 04 







POBT W0BK8 AT SAI^INA CBUZ. 

The following is the text of the recent contract made by Mr. John 
R Body, representing S. Pearson & Son (Limited) with the Secretary 
of Public Communications and Works (Engineer Leandro Fernan- 
dez), representing the Federal Executive of Mexico: 

"Article 1. The Federal Government obligates itself to expend 
$05,000,000 on the works for the ports of Salina Cruz and Coatzacoal- 
cos, on the understanding that the said sum shall include the amounts 
expended to this date under the contract of April 2, 1898. 

"Art. 2. The Federal Government further obligates itself to expend 
$15,000,000 during the year 1906 and $12,000,000 in the year 1907, 
and the balance to complete the said sum of $65,000,000 within the 
time lacking for the termination of the contract hereby amplified. 

''Art. 3. If, in each of the years mentioned in the preceding article, 
the contractors shall construct more works than those stipulated, these 
works shall be received, but the Government shall pay during that 
year only the corresponding sum as before expressed, and the balance 
in the following year, deducting the said amount from the assignation 
for this year. If the works constructed shall be of less value than 



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168 INTERNATIONAL BUBEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS* 

that herein agreed, the Messrs. Pearson & Son shall have the right to 
construct during the following year works for the value corresponding 
thereto, and also for the amount that may have been deficient in the 
preceding year. 

"Art. 4. The contractors do not obligate themselves to terminate 
with the before-mentioned sum of $65,000,00(X all the works to which 
the contract of April 2, 1898, refers, and detailed in the plans approved 
by the Department of Public Communications and Works; but they 
do oblige themselves to construct, by preference, and to finish the 
outside works of the said ports and the interior works most impoi'tant 
for the service thereof, the value of which shall be included in the 
sum of $65,000,000 before mentioned. 

*' Art. 5. The period stipulated in the contract of November 7, 1904, 
for the termination of the Coatzacoalcos and Salina Cruz port works, 
the cost of which is included in the aforesaid sum of $65,000,000, is 
hereby extended for one year — that is to say, until April 25, 1909. 

''Art. 6. All the stipulations in the contracts of April 2, 1898, of 
April 25, 1900, and of November 7, 1904, which have not herein been 
amended continue in full vigor. 

"Art. 7. This contract shall be submitted for the approval of the 
Chambers of the Congress of the Union. 

LEaAIi VALUE OF SILVEB, JUNE, 1906. 

According to the circular issued by the Treasury Department of the 
Mexican Republic, the legal value of silver for the month of June, 
1906, was fixed at the rate of $42.81 per kilogram, said rate to serve 
as basis for the stamp tax. 

The rate is based on the fact that the average price of standard 
silver in Ijondon from April 20 to May 19 was 30.6540 pence, and that 
the avei'age rate of exchange, Mexico on London, was 24.8814 pence 
during the same period. 

POSTAL RECEIPTS, APRIL, 1906. 

The revenues of the Mexican mail service during April, 1906, 
amounted to $310,475.45, as compared with $281,139.31 in the corre- 
sponding month of the preceding year. 

The monthly returns from this service for the ten months of the 
present fiscal year are shown as follows: 



1905. 

July $303,279.41 

August 283,496.94 

September 268,300.00 

October 310,790.62 

November 286,979.17 

December 312,a53.66 



1906. 

January $336,423.68 

February 280,374.74 

March 317,826.15 

April 310,475.45 



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MEXICO. 



169 



The total for the ten-months' period was thus $3,009,999.82, as com- 
pared with $2,751,748.40 in the same period of the preceding fiscal 
year, an increase of $258,251.42 being indicated in 1905-6. 

THE COPPER MINES OF THE BEPTTBLIC. 

The copper mines of Mexico yield 11 per cent of the world's total 
output of this metal, the Republic ranking second only to the United 
States in its annual production. 

Following is a table of the location of the copper properties, as 
shown by the fiscal statistics of the Department of Fomento. 

Sonora leads with 239 mines; Jalisco has 102; Michoacan, 95; Lower 
California, 55, and Chihuahua, 53. 



states. 


Proper- 
ties. 


Area. 


1 

' states. 


Proper- 
ties. 


Area. 




49 
53 

5 
12 
51 

4 
44 

5 
102 

3 
95 

8 


Hectares. 

180 

900 

56 

157 

1,580 

140 

1,212 

44 

1,345 

20 

4,557 

22 


j Oaxaca , 


5 
5 
14 
25 
239 
11 
H 
2 
65 


Hectares. 
127 


Chihuahua 


Puebla 


54 


Coahuila 


; San Luis Potosi 


115 


CdllTnit . , 


Sinaloa 


293 


Dorango 


' Sonora 


8,C07 
167 


Guanajuato 


. Tamaulipati 


Guerrero 


Zacateoas ... 


232 


Hidalgo 


Tepic Territory 


12 


Jalisco 


i Lower California 

1 Total 


600 


Mexico 




Michoacan 


796 


35,891 


Noevo Leon 









EXPORTS OF PRECIOUS METALS, 1005. 

Statistics recently issued by the Department of Hacienda and Pub- 
lic Credits covering the custom-house receipts of Mexico for the fiscal 
years 1904 and 1905 show that in the exportation of precious metals, 
the Republic dispatches six times as much as the other products of 
the country. A comparative statement of the increases in the amounts 
of exported products for the fiscal year 1905 over 1904 shows that in 
the six months, July-December, 1904 the total exports were valued at 
194,829,224.41, and in the same period of 1905 they were $131,864,- 
507.96, making a total increase of $37,035,283.55. Of this increase 
the advanced exports of precious metals are credited with $31,517,- 
571. 2T, the increase in exports of other articles only figuring for 
$5,517,712.28. 

That this condition of export trade has continued through the pres- 
ent fiscal year is evident from a comparison of the receipts of the first 
six months of 1906 and of 1905, as follows: 

For the first six months of the year 1904-5 the exports were $61,692,- 
719.55, and for the same period of 1905-6 they amounted to $95,227,- 
111.04. Of this increase, amounting to $33,534,391.49 in the later 
period, the increase in mineral products is approximately $26,000,000. 



Ball. No. 1—06 13 



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170 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

COKSXTIiAB BEPOBTS. 

The Consul-General of Mexico at New York reports that during the 
month of April, 1906, 11 vessels proceeding from Mexican ports 
entered the harbor of New York, bringing 79,455 packages of mer- 
chandise. During the same period 10 vessels cleared from the port 
of New York cariying 144,990 packages of merchandise destined to 
Mexican ports. The imports in detail from Mexico to New York 
during the month referred to were as follows: 



Articles. 


Quantity. 


Articles. 


Quantity. 


Alligator skins 


bales.. 


15 


Hides, looae 


....number.. 


&,ia 


Bones 

Broom root 


:::r.^.bX:: 


873 

285 

3,389 


Honey 

Ixtle 

Jalap 

Lead bullion 


barrels.. 

bales.. 

sacks.. 


270 
1,582 


Chicle grum 


do.... 


76 


Cigars 


boxes.. 


21 


bars.. 


18, «4 


Coffee 


sacks.. 


11,420 


Mahogany 


logs.. 


m 


Copper bullion 


bars.. 


2,467 


Metals 


boxes.. 


m 


Deerskins 


bales.. 


141 


Ores 


sacks.. 


12, 3M 


Garlic 


cases.. 


706 


Rubber, crude 


balea.. 


1,307 


Goatskins 


bales.. 


WO 


Sarsaparilla 


do.... 


296 


Hair 


do.... 


53 


Tobacco, ieai 


sacks.. 


aB3 


Henequen 


do.... 


10,823 


bales.. 


2,«l 


Heron plumea 


boxes.. 


2 


VanUla 


boxes.. 


127 


Hides 


bales.. 


3,799 









In May, 1906, according to the report of the Consul-General of 
Mexico in New York, 11 vessels proceeding from Mexican ports, 
laden with 74,962 packages of merchandise, entered the harbor of New 
York. During the same month 12 vessels, carrying 195,873 packages 
of merchandise, cleared from the port of New York bound for Mexi- 
can ports. The following is a list of the imports from Mexico 
received at the port of New York during the month of May, 1906: 



Articles. 



Quantity. 



Articles. 



Quantity. 



Alligator skins bales. 

Bones packages. . 

Brriom root bales.. 

Ce<iar logs. . 

Chicle gum bales. . 

Cigars boxes. . 

Coffee sacks. . 

Cop|>er bullion bars. . 

Deerskins bales. . 

FuHt ic logs 

Garlic cases 

Goattikins bales. . 

Hair do. 

Henequen do 

Heron plumes boxes.. 



67 
847 

125 

511 

4,267 

23 

11,919 

•2,786 

432 

1,874 

090 

538 

31 

5,581 

5 



Hides bales. 

Hides, loose number. 

Honey barrels. 

Ixtle bales. 

Lead bullion bars. 

Lemons boxes. 

Mahogany logs. 

Mexican dollars boxes. 

Metals do... 

Ores sacks. 

Rubber, crude bales. 

Sarsaparilla do. . . 

Sugar sacks. 

Tobacco, leaf bales. 

Vanilla boxes. 



S.29C 

2.437 
19 

1.6« 
24,2«1 
1*« 
6dO 
215 
657 

7,8W 
791 
IM 

S.OPt 

m 

163 



The Mexican Consul at Nogales, Arizona, reports that the imports 
of foreign merchandise through the custom-house of Nogales, Mexico, 
to the State of Sonora in May, 1906, were as follows: 



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X1CAKAOT7A. 



171 



Product. 


Value. 


Country of origin. 


Value. 


AnlfftAl |>n>4iKrti.a . . .. . 


t24,S6S.S0 

27,570.47 

«1, 391.77 

25,716.56 

lfi.784.S6 

^ 6,111.43 

6.208.68 

125,577.97 

6,686.81 

9,509.11 

30,002.75 


United 8tat«8 


a644,S32.68 

24, 620. 49 

S,S26.» 

6 61B 93 


V^retable producUi 


England 

France . . 


Textiles and manuiactures thereof. 


G^rmanF 




Spain. ' ... 


81,679.87 
321 60 


Liqaora and bey^ra^es 

PSB^aad pfoaocts thereof 

Machinery and apparatus 


Austria '...'..'. 


Total 


140.79 


vehici^ . ^ ...... :.7.™:.: :;:::: 




Firearmsand explosives 

Sundries 




ToUl 


760,910.66 


760.940.66 







The customs duties during the nontb of May, 1006. amounted to 
^011.79. 

The exports of merebandise from the State of Sonora, Mexico, 
shipped from the Mexican port of Nogales and introduced through the 
American custom-house of NogaJes, Arizona, in May, 1906, were as 
follows: 



Product 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Product. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


PdoltoT ' 

Pai)er products 


$IOt 
4 

n 

1.231 

250 

3,208 

1.241 

MO 

4 

51 

51 


Gold 1»iillioa and doet. 
ounces 


7,256 
106,546 


$181,287 

254,480 

290 


M^i 


..galkHU.. 
..pounds.. 
do. 


40 

1 26,773 

116.821 


flflvnr ItntllAn 


. fliinf*mi 


Canesusar 


Bird feathecB 


Hwiet.T:...::::: 

Fresh meat 


Lead4»re 

Cheese 


..pounds.. 


15,346 


4M 
6 


Iron waste 


tons.. 




Salt ^ 

8traw hats 


.pounds.. 


40,906 


281 


Preserred fruits . . . 




20 


Cattle 

Vegetables 

Lemons 

Corn 


....head.. 

.bushels.. 
..pounds.. 

.bushels.. 
..^unda.. 


101 
' 428 

110 
1 51 
1 8,1*» 


Wheat 

Tobaoc».leaf 

Miscellaneous 

T<>tal 


.bushels.. 
..pounds.. 
do.... 


11 

599 

1,010 


11 
398 
52 


0"iM»g™ 




466,574 









NICARAGUA. 

YAJAJABUL CONCESSIONS O&ANTED. 

Following are the leading features of valuable concessions recently 
gnmted by the Nicaraguan Government and recorded in the official 
journals of the Eepubilic: 

Carlos A. Deshon contracts to establish within two years a factory 
for utilizing, by means of the vacuum process, the fruit produced in 
Kicaitigiia- He must make a deposit of a note for 5,000 pe^os^ the 
pajHient of which will be exacted if he iails to fulfill his agreement, 
which includes that he shall teach his process to two persons from 
each department of the Republic. In return Deshon receives the right 
to exploit for ten years the fruits of the country by his process, and 
to in^)ort free of duty all equipment for his factory. 

FBTROLECM OONCEflSIOK. 

Dr. Josifc Antonio Montalvan is granted a thirty -year concession 
for extracting the products of crude petroleum, and shall have the sole 
Yight of exploiting these deposits in the Republic. He undertakes 



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172 INTEBNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

to drill wells and erect refineries, all of the machinery, drills, and other 
appliances to be admitted free of duty. Doctor Montalvan is given 
the right to construct pipe lines, and is to establish his works and storage 
depot at the port of Corinto, or such other locality as may be agreed 
upon by the Government. Failure on his jpart to establish the works 
within three years will cause the enforcement of his promidsory note 
of 5^000 pesos deposited with the Government. 

SALT AND FLOUR MANUFACTURING MONOPOLIES. 

Julio Wiest is conceded the exclusive right to manufacture table 
salt by natural evaporation on the Pacific coast of Nicaragua for thirty 
years. He may use public lands and forests without charge for the 
manufacture of salt or construction of vessels, and may import his 
equipment free of duty. Vessels calling at San Juan del Sur, Corinto, 
or other ports of entry for loading salt will not have to pay for anchor- 
age, wharfage, or any other dues whatsoever. 

RuB^N Alonzo is empowered to establish modern flour mUis for 
using wheat, rice, corn, and other cereals, the machinery and equip- 
ment for which he may import free of duty. Mr. Alonzo is to have 
the sole right for twenty years to control the manufacture of flour in 
the Republic, and obligates himself to stimulate the cultivation of 
cereals for use in his mills. 

LIQUOR CONCESSION EXTENDED. 

Carlos A. Gomez, manager of the ^^ Campania de Aguardiente 
(Limitada)," has formed a new agreement with the Nicaraguan Govern- 
ment, by which the lease of the revenues derived from liquors is 
extended to December 31, 1931. The company agrees to pay about 
30 per cent more money per annum, or at the rate of 2,000,000 /><?«» 
(peso = 47.8 cents American) yearly until December 31, 1909; 
2,050,000 2^e808 in 1910 and 1911, 2,100,000 in 1912 and 1913, and 
2,300,000 each year thereafter until the end of the contract. 

valuable chicle CONCESSION. 

An exclusive five-year concession has just been granted to JosA 
Blen and Cla^udio Fernandez Gento for extracting chicle from 
Nicaraguan national forests. The concessionaires may export the 
product free of duty for two years, but must pay an export duty for 
the remainder of the contract term, to be based upon that imposed on 
rubber pro rata upon the actual market value of the two articles. 
As the export duty on crude rubber is $5 gold per 100 pounds, and 
the quotation for chicle in the United States market is 30 cents gold, 
with rubber at 80 cents per pound, the export duty on the former 
would consequently amount to $1.87 gold per 100 pounds. 



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PANAMA. 173 

The only consideration for the concession is the obligation imposed 
npon the grantees that they shall instruct 25 natives, who are to be 
named by the Govemqient, into the mysteries of scientifically incis- 
ing the trees, preparing and shipping the product. In tapping the 
trees for the milk the concessionaires are to take every precaution to 
prevent excessive bleeding; they must also conform to the rules and 
be subject to the penalties imposed upon persons having the right to 
exti^act rubber from the national forests. 

Large quantities of chicle are used in the United States in the manu- 
facture of chewing gum, while in Europe it is used for adulterating 
gutta-percha. At present the supply of this product for the United 
States market is exported from Mexico. It has never been collected 
in Nicaragua, although the trees are numerous in certain sections of 
the Republic, it being a native of that portion of South and Central 
America extending from Mexico to Guiana. It is known here as the 
nispero or *' bully" tree. The wood is frequently manufactured into 
lumber for building purposes, and being susceptible to a fine polish is 
valuable for cabinet work. 



PANAMA. 



COMMEBCIAIi CONDinOKS, 1905. 

United States C!onsul James C. Kellogg supplies the trade returns 
of Colon for the year 1905, showing that the imports of that Panama 
port have gone over the two million dollar mark. 

The value of the imports during 1905 amounted to $2,008,904, an 
increase of about $108,000 over that of 1904. Of this amount the 
imports by countries were as follows: 

United States 11,376,074 

Great Britain 229,107 

Germany 196,084 

France 89,248 



Spqin 33,528 



Belgium Ill, 592 

Italy 11,487 

All other countries 61, 784 



Total 2,008,904 



The principal articles of import from the United States were rail- 
road material, coal, lumber, provisions, kerosene, cotton goods, hard- 
ware, beer, shoes, furniture, hats, and sewing machines. From Europe: 
Cotton, woolen, and linen goods, ready-made clothing, shoes, hats, 
candles, matches, ale, beer, wines, and fancy articles. The principal 
exports from Colon go to the United States, which in 1905 took of 
bananas, $35,780; cocoanuts, ^4,600; hides, $4,755; ivory nuts, $26,080; 
rubber, $8,185; turtle shell, $9,240, and miscellaneous, $2,845, being 
a total of $141,485. 

Freight traffic from the United States to the South Pacific ports 
increased by 3,375 tons, while the increase to Central American and 
Mexican ports was 6,855 tons, and to Panama 6,790 tons. From 



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I7i INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Europe the increase was 3,390 tons to South Pacific ports and 5,080 
tons to Centi^al Attterican and Mexican ports* The decrease from 
Central American and Mexican ports to Euicope was 6,075 tons and 
from the South Pacific ports to the same destination it was 9,950 tons. 
The total freight carried across the IsthiDus in 1905 amounted to 
444,230 tons, an increase of about 30,000 tons. The through traffic 
showed an increase of 66 per cent of the total tonnage handled, as 
against 82 per cent for 1904. The total number of passengers can-ied 
over the railroad during the year amounted to 273,165, as against 
lU,000in 1904. The total earnings for the year 1905 amounted to 
$1,912,552, an increase of $644,981 over the previous year. The 
revenue derived frcnn merchandise and coed freight was $1,306, 145, an 
increase of $198,620 over that of 1904. The passenger earnings were 
$129,163, an increaseof about 50 per cent ov«* 1904. From transportiiig 
treasure and mail the receipts were $116,790, as against $110,792 for 
the year 1904. Revenue from through passengers decreased $3,372, 
although the number increased 1,425. The through rate of passage 
was reduced on first class from $10 to $6.50, and on second class fixmi 
$5 to $4.50. The number of local passengers increased 185,867, 
amounting to $47,064, due to the resumption of work on the canal. 

The combined total earnings of the Panama Railroad and Steamship 
Line during 1905 amounted to $3,077,611, an increase of $536,512 
over that of 1904. The total expenditures amounted to $2,541,099, an 
increase of $679,358 over 1904. During 1905, 471 steamers, of 1,361,150 
tons, and 268 sailing vessels, of 22,348 tons, entered the port of Colon, 
showing an increase of 94 steamers, of 24,150 tons, and a decrease of 
73 sailing vessels, with an increaseof 6,948 tons over 1904. The num- 
ber of American vessels entering the port of Ck)lon during 1905 was 
63 steamers, of 156,371 tons, and 21 sailing vessels, of 13,354 tons. 
The Royal Mail and the Hamburg American Steamship lines have 
established fortnightly lines between Colon and New York, which, 
together with the five steamers of the Panama Railroad Steamship 
Line, make a total of nine steamers monthly between New York ^nd 
Colon. 

By the newly declared policy of the Panama Railroad Company, 
which offers inducements for the development of commercial traffic oa 
the Isthmus, material i*eductions in local passenger and freight rates 
and other changes have increased the trafBc considerably. Increased 
demand for skilled and unskilled labor has caused inci*ease in the pay 
of nearly all grades of the railroad company's employees. New sidings 
and spur tracks have been hud; a double track on the main line la 
being laid, water stations, coaling plants, and many other improTe- 
ments are being made; telegraph and telephone lines are being extended 
along the entire line of the railroad; two large piers have been coa- 
structcd at the entrance of the canal and old Panama Railroad pica* 



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PANAMA. 176 

JJo. 4, at Colon, enlarged consideniblj, thereby facilitating the work- 
ing of two steamers at this dock. 

With the exception of a few aerated- water factories, electric and ice 
plants, there are no other industries. The Colon Electric and Ice Sup- 
ply Company, owned in Colon, is a stock company and holds a con- 
cession for twenty-five years. The power is 1,200 incandescent lights 
and the ice capacit}^ 10 tons. Labor which could be secured for agri- 
cultural and industrial pursuits can not be obtained, as it is employed 
on the docks, railroad, and Isthmian Canal. Agriculture, which was 
never carried on to any great extent, is also being abandoned, owing 
to the increased demand for laborers for canal work. 

The erection of the wireless station by the United States Navy 
Department began in 1905 and was completed in August of the same 
year. It has an electric plant of 37J kilowatts, and is in communica- 
tion with Key West, Fla., Guantanamo, Cuba, and ships and small 
stations within a radius of 300 miles. The station is equipped with 
the De Forrest Wireless Telegraph Company's instruments, and is 
situated on a reservation on the east end of Manzanillo Island, just 
below the Colon hospital, on the beach. The buildings consist of a 
combined operating and dwelling house, power house, and oil store- 
house. The aerial wires are suspended by three masts, each 208 feet 
in height. The conunanding officer of marines, Camp Elliot, Haut 
Obispo, Canal 2k>ne, is in charge. Fo^ assistants, enlisted men of 
the Navy, operate this plant. 

There are two cable companies, one via Galveston and the other via 
Jamaica, the latter having been recently repaired. The cost of cabling 
to the United States is 69 cents per word. 

The import duties collected at Panama City, Colon, and Bocas del 
Toro for the first three months of 1906 greatly exceeded those for the 
last quarter of 1905, the figures being: 

Collections on merchandise by the Republic of Panama at these ports 
dnring the quarter ^ided March 31, 1906, aggregated $132,977, against 
$li2S,63d for the previous quarter. The duties collected on liquors for 
the quarter ended March 31, 1906, were $72,446, an increase of $10,941 
over the previous quarter. The total increase of revenue was there- 
fore $21,279, with no change in the import duties, 

CUSTOHS B17TIES, FIBST QUABTEK OF 1906. 

Collections on merchandise by the Republic of Panama at Panama, 
Colon, and Bocas del Toro during the quarter ended March 31, 1906, 
aggregated $132,977, against $122,639 for the previous quarter. The 
dirties colle<^:ed on liquors for the quarter ended March 31, 1906, were 
$72,446, an increase of $10,941 over the previous quarter. The total 
ittcrease of revenue was therefore $21,279, with no change in the 
noport duties. 



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176 INTERNATIONAL BTJBEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 
REVISED BATES OF DUTY. 

Consul James C. Kellogg, of Colon, sends the following revised 
rates of duty promulgated at Panama: 

Merchandise of all kinds (excepting those below specified) pay on 
the declared consular invoice, 10 per cent. 

Coffee, per 100 pounds, $8. 

Matches, per kilo, $0.30. 

Salt, per 100 pounds, $2. 

Rum, brandy, gin, and whisky, per liter, $1.50. 

Liqueurs of all kinds, per liter, $2. 

Bitters, per liter, ^.60. 

White wines and claret, per liter, $0.10. 

Sherry, port, malaga wines, and vermuth, per liter, $0.20. 

Beer and ale of all kinds, per liter, $0.20. 

Sparkling wines, per liter, $1. 

Champagne, per liter, $2. 

Alcohol of 42 grades, per liter, $1. 

Alcohol of more than 42 grades, per liter, $1.50. 

Mineral waters and medicinal wines, 25 per cent. 

Animals for breeding purposes, ice, guano, plants, seeds, shoots, 
sprigs of vine, machines whose weight does not exceed 1,000 kilos, 
machines for making roads, cars, material for railroads, telegraph 
machinery, mineral, coal, boilCrs, iron bridges, boats for navigation in 
waters of the Republic and material for their construction, printing, 
bookbinding, and lithographing materials; also books sent through 
the mail. 

PARAGUAY. 

EXPORTS, FTEtST QJJARTETL OF 1906. 

The exportations of Paraguay for the months of January, February, 
and ^larch of 1906 are reported as follows, by the United States consul 
at Asuncion: 

In forest products hard- wood beams was the leading item, amounting 
to 246,442 gold pesos; hard- wood logs, S^4,peso8^ and quebracho logs, 
11,650 2><^^o^' Cedar wood, deerskins, tiger skins, silvestria skins, 
palms, and other articles brought the forest products total up to 
273,170 gold pesos ($263,609 United States currency). 

Salted hides worth 252,663 gold pesos were the principal cattle prod- 
uct exports, tallow amounting to 20,420 jp^«^^, and dried beef to 106,112 
pesos^ other items such as cow horns, tongues, hair, bones, etc., and 
wool, making the aggregate 420,997 jt?^^«, or $406,262. Among agri- 
cultural products, tobacco comprised 95 per cent of the 39,826 pesos 
worth of exports, while in extmct products the aggrega-te was 108,173 



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SALVADOR. 



177 



ye^os. The leading items of the latter class were quebracho extract 
worth 72,915 ^^«<?.<?, and yerba mat^, 32,000 j9^c?«. 

The total value of Paraguayan exports for the three months was 
848,298 j>esos^ or $818,607 United States currency, an increase of 
$53,404 over the same period of 1905. 



SALVADOR. 

STATISTICAL DATA FOB 1905. 

[From the " Diario Oflcial" of May 14, 1906.] 

The following statistical data have been taken from the report of the 
Executive Power on the Treasury and Public Credit Departments for 
1905, said report having been presented to the Legislative Assembly 
of 1906 by Manuel L6pez MencI a, Secretary of said Departments: 



1905. 



1904. 



Imports 

Exports 

Liqoor revenue . 
MJicellaneoiis... 
Senrices 



Total. 



KXPENDITUBES. 



Katkmal Assembly 

PresideDtial Office 

Department of Government 

Department of Interior 

DefNirtment of Public Instruction . 
Department of Foreign Kelatlonfi.. 

Department of Justice 

Department of Public Charity 

Department of War . 



Department of Treasury 

Department of Public Credit . 



Total. 



$4,849,832.86 

731,174.67 

1,924,911.07 

663, 094. M 

367,429.63 



8,536,443.07 



57, 

1,419, 

806, 

630, 

74, 

638, 

166, 

1,796, 

568. 

3.816, 



883.17 
960.00 
829.96 
557. 44 
595.53 
433.11 
428.09 
239. 21 
514.56 
HA. 31 
207.66 



10,046,413.03 



$4,274,068.16 

850,016.95 

2,143,369.66 

469, 992. 78 

323,241.50 



8,060.689.05 



42,713.13 

63,510.00 

1,171,310.96 

451, 895. 63 

666,806.95 

69,369.38 

569,213.91 

153,727.25 

1, 687. ir>4. 23 

518.S70.24 

3, 484, 832. 96 



8,759,404.63 



The receipts were derived from the following sources: 

CUSTOM-HOUSE REVENUE. 



6ooM>nate cu«tom-houae. . 
La Cni6n custom-house. . - 
La Ubertad cuatom-house 
General po«t-oAce 

Total 



Import duties. 



$2, 8<.9, 485. 25 

l,046.:iV..64 

M3. 378. 25 

90, 612. 72 



Export duties. 



4,819,832.86 I 



$411,857.54 
203, (\s\). 40 
116,227.73 



731,174.67 



The number of packages of merchandise imported and registered 
for consumption in the interior of the country amounted to 355,777, 
weighing 24,731,580 kilograms, valued at $4,346,070.32 in gold, in 
accordance with the invoices. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



178 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The number of packages exported amounted to 496,619, weighing 
72,580,890 pounds, valued at $14,008,833.15 in silver. 

The value of both the imports and exports in gold was as follows: 

Exports 16,639,533.26 

Imports 4,346,070.32 



UNITED STATES. 

TBAI>E WITH LATIK AMEBICA. 
STATEBIENT OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 

Following is the latest statement, from figures compiled by the 
Bureau of Statistics, United States Department of Ownmerce and 
Ijabor, showing the value of the trade between the United States and 
Latin- American countries. The report is for the. month of May, 
1906, with a comparative statement for the corresponding month of the 
previous year; also for the eleven months ending May, 1906, as com- 
pared with the same period of the preceding year. It should be 
explained that the figures from the various custom-houses, showing 
imports and exports for any one month, are not received at the Ti'eas- 
ury Department until about the 20th of the following month, and some 
time is necessarily consumed in compilation and printing, so that the 
returns for May, for example, are not published until some time in 
July. 

IMPORTS OF MERCHANDISE. 



Articles and countries. 


May- 


Eleven months end- 
inif May— 




1905. 


1906. 


1905. 


1906. 


Chenlcalfl, etc. : 
Ceil tral America 


DoUan. 


DoOan, 


35,205 


DoOxxn, 
25,120 
4)487 


Mexico 




955 

1,533 

19.236 

259.363 

793.296 

318,833 

2, 823, 568 

903,935 

"i" 349*266* 
40,668 

49,043 
2,014,094 

579,051 
223,225 
68,617 


Cocoa ( Cacao; Coco on cacao cnl; Cacao) : 
Central America 


5,760 

41,206 

341,384 

724,937 

416, 793 

3, 586, 855 

423,590 

4,831 

1,226,994 

56 

13,581 
1,226,743 

445,169 

271, 179 

82,858 


54,229 
1,175,383 
1,603,403 

5 682.806 


16,950 
1,158,472 
1,806,449 


Brazil - 


other South America 


Coffee ((•«/(?.- Ca/6; Ca/6): 
' Ccutral America 


ft CkAS. 491 


Mexico 


1,830,015 1 '>-.'n9-918 


BraKil 


62,645,391 
7,861,657 

85.450 

14,208,095 

15,483 

441.633 
13,777,434 

3,981,851 

1,141,473 

544,488 


48,398,129 
9,189,135 

65.746 


Other South Am.erica 


Copper {Oobre; Cobre; Cuivre): 


Mexico 


16,494,086 

626, oa 

888,066 
18,968,358 

4,M7,451 
720,961 


South America 


. Fibers: 

-Cotton, unmanfactured {Alpoddn cii rama; Algodao 
em rama; Colon, nan mami/acture): 
South America 


Sisal grass {Uenequin; Hetxequen; Haincquen): 
Mexico 


Frwlts: 

»Ti tral America . . 


iba 


uth America 


409,9Q9 



Digitized by 



Google 



UNITED STATES. 



17^ 



IMPORTS OF KEECHANDISB— Continaed. 



Articles and countries. 



May— 



1905. 



Eleven months ending 
May— 



1905. 



Pur skins {PiHaJlnas; Pelles; Iburruree): 
Sooth Amerfca 

HU«fl and skins { 0*tero9 y pide$; Oouro$ e peUes; Cktin 
H peauxy. 

Central Ameriea 

Mexico 

South America 

India mbber, prude ( Gama eidsUca: Borracha cma ; 
Vaoutckouc): 

Central America , 

M«xlco 

Bmril , 

Other Sooth Americ^ 

"LeAd, in pigs, bars, etc {Ftomo en tfoUipagos, barras, 
tic; Cfuuitbo em linguadcB, barrcu, tic.; Plomh tn 
tatnmms, en harre*^ €tc. ) : 

Mexico 

South America 



-, not above Ko. Ii6 Duteh standard (AtAoor, no 
Muperior al Xo. 16 de la e$cala holandeta: AMmt- 
car, n/ho superior ao No. 16 depadrOo hoUandez; 
Sturr, pa$ au-des9u$ du type houandaU No. 16): 

Oeatml Amerioa 

Mexico 

Oaha 



Ottier South America 

Ibbacco, leaf (Tkibaco en rama; TAaeo em rama: 
ToiMC m/enUleB): 

Mexico 

Cuba , 



Weed, mahogmair {Cadbm; Megno; Aca$0^ : 

Central America , 

Mexico 

Cuba 

South America 



Weol (Lana; 14,* Loiiv): 
Oeoth Amerioa— 
Clanl (clothing) 



Dollars. 
33,931 



44,109 

284,694 

1,188.900 



93,851 

89,851 

896,446 

92,«42 



174,368 
9 



19,766 

117,905 

€,721,985 

421,060 

9».844 



1,P21 
840,960 



1,837 

88,440 

697 



Cla» 2 (combing) . 
C1«H 3 ( earpet) . . . 



217,961 
16, 154 
20,140 



Dollars. 
8,267 



46,^00 

298,985 

1,289,801 



64,059 

170,986 

1,763,494 

66,407 



287,692 
6,866 



11,186 

1,823 

7,396.940 

26,820 
2,887 



905 

898, 187 



8,871 

101, 7o8 

14,486 

S8 



1,180,126 

686 

169,159 



Dollars. 
224.008 



610,641 
8,098,762 
11,880,528 



787,726 

146,746 

27,448,986 

1,189,662 



3,156,681 
9,9^2 



106,170 

677,848 

68,845,208 

1,266,275 

2,714,022 



84,218 
10,012,295 



570,212 
278, 782 
87,886 
41,684 



7.058,774 
498,662 
607,010 



Dollars. 
445, 1«7 



602,033 
8,856,041 
13,077,467 



706.988 

738,280 

22,851,571 

1,112.804 



8,071,444 
68,^1 



14,242 

83,165 

58,628,338 

898,140 

2,048,560 



6,604 
12,496,296 



471,207 

482.006 

117,684 

22,498 



7,409,182 
199,650 

778,774 



EXPORTS OF MERCHA^IDISE. 



A^Kleultuial Anpkm ents < i>MCrumnt/osde6({rici4i:<ura; 
InttmmentosdeagrieuUura; Machines agrictUes): 
Central America ....- - 


1,824 

35,935 

24,785 

203,853 

7,894 

6,562 

96 

8 

15,962 

2,290 

34,862 

279,300 

3,179 

15,329 


832 

71.567 

16, 136 

852, 898 

9,333 

5,131 

548 

11 

38,426 

460 
65.925 
220,678 
10,886 

24,611 


17,249 

331,666 

177,696 

4, 528, 502 

143, 100 

243, 464 

3,196 

1.856 

148,036 

8,465 

371,675 

1,792,3>6 

70,393 

68,481 
512 

6.716 

226,587 

4,753 


14,830 


Mexico 


no 1,469 


Gnha _ 

Ais^ntlne Bepoblic < 


181,092 
5, 309, 147 


Biaxn ;. 

cadie 


91,677 
296,712 


CWombIa _ 

Veneiuela « 

Other South A merica 


3,434 

1,978 

297,313 


iBl«ak: 

Cattle {QoModo: Cfado; BUaU): 
Central America ...., 


7,028 


Mexico 


560,785 


Ooha 


1, 799, .'i81 


Booth America 


110,210 


Hop {QrdcM; F^reos; Pares): 
floDth ji^Hioii .--- - - 


157,083 
1,320 


Uomm ( CdfaOov ' CabaUos; Chevauz) : 

Oemral America 

Mexico 


750 
16,435 


4.009 
27,829 


16, 619 
274,681 


South America 


4.256 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



180 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



EXPORTS OF MERCHANDISE— Ck)ntinued. 



Articles and countries. 



May— 



1905. 



1906. 



Eieyen months ending 
May— 



1905. 



1906. 



Breadstaffs: 
Com {Malz; MU!u>; MdU): 

Ceiitrai America 

Mexico 

Cuba .• 

South America 

Wheat (Tn.ao; Trigo; BU): 

Central America 

Mexico 

South America 

Wheat flour (Harinade trigo; Farinha dc trigo; Farine 
debUy. 

Ceil t ral A merica 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other South America 



Dollars. 
84,729 
16,029 
57,629 
26,581 



6,089 
14 



187,000 
22,074 

265,022 

126,732 
15, 196 

184,789 



I'arrlai^es, ct<c.: 
Automobiles {Autonuji'ilcs; AuUmioviUs; AiUomdbike): 

Mexico , 

South America 

Carriages, cars, etc., and parts of ( Carrtuijes, can-os y 
8U9 accegorioe; CarruageHS, carros e partes de car- 
ros; Voilureg, wagons it leurs parties): 

Central America 

Mexico , 

Cuba 

Argentine Republic , 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Venezuela 

Other South America 



26, 
124, 
24, 
192, 
2, 
15, 
2, 



974 
560 
981 
576 
969 
048 
829 
18 
11,686 



Copper {Cobre; Cubrt; Cuiire): 
Mexico , 



Cotton: 
Cotttm, unmanufactured (Algoddn non manv/actu- 
rado; Algodao uAo inanu/acturado; Coton, noti 
manv/acturi): 

Mexico 

South America 

Cotton cl(»ths ( Tejidos de olgodOn; Fazcndas de algo- 
dao; Cotoii. mamt/acturi): 

Central America 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentine Republic 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Venezuela 

Other South America 

Wearing apparel ( Ropa dc algoddn; Fazaidas de algo- 
ddo; V/Unnents en coU)u) : 

Central America 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentine Republic 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Venezuela 

Other South America 



88,774 



215,267 



Electric and scientific apparatus {Aparalos cUctricos 
y cientljiroti; Appardhos ilectricins e scientijlcot>; 
Apparrils Hfctrimics it scicntijtqucs): 

Central America 

Mexico 

Argentine Republic 

Brazil 

Chile 

Venezuela 

Other South America 



110,351 
33.840 

114,918 
40, 682 
64,565 
90,699 
26, 818 
30, 172 
53,411 



46,623 

59,006 

38, 516 

66,949 

11,711 

1,309 

1,887 

2,487 

6,092 



13,796 
60,933 
19,6^ 
29, 240 
9,571 
14,972 
15,941 



Dollars. 

5,162 

115,666 

99,145 

1,369 

2,612 

116,418 

39 



168,094 
6,723 

265,720 
70, 514 
18,190 

216,240 



4^.690 
15,495 



440,277 
128,086 
93,111 
283,088 
27,376 
67,731 
3,053 
274 
33,602 



21,108 



144.090 
17,624 
61.445 
18.477 
26,760 
29,286 
66,414 
31,356 
27,207 



55,772 

44,876 

39,776 

18, 427 

l,33i 

1,807 

3,538 

2,037 

6,737 



15, 793 
95,716 
50,032 
101,324 
13,024 
4,107 
25,093 



DoUart. 
392,165 
281,574 
873,046 
109,760 

13,168 

26,S80 

266 



1,579.414 
217, 742 

8,084,620 

1,146,868 
377.880 

1,962,463 



187,081 

1,097,695 

487,654 

1,048,108 

66.341 

104,494 

29.443 

8,802 

157,587 



1,047,057 



8,723.377 
26,926 



l,349.2il 
247, 775 
803,796 
346,280 
678, 725 
681,603 
764.566 
888.123 
431,022 



640,070 
555, 749 
357, 371 
333,085 
70, 561 
19,626 
75,830 
20,286 
47,869 



113,076 
812. 779 
217.606 
331,4a=> 
83.505 
96,714 
174,461 



Dollars. 

105,798 

888.205 

1,124,680 

19.166 

88,206 

1.815.194 

461,981 



1,683,445 
153.^7 

2,976,579 

1,119,699 
607,869 

2,404,027 



341.692 
77,276 



1.552,277 

1,501,218 

1,165.172 

1,362,912 

180,996 

496,066 

43,693 

7,195 

264,606 



1,1M,099 



1,612,103 



,464,234 
248.682 
991,292 
274,846 
651,061 
818,867 
594,713 
362,578 
409,425 



635,988 
^1,520 
416.422 
189.298 
41.018 
24.164 
87.093 
28,922 
60.506 



187, 191 
941.816 
336,482 
729.830 
158,091 
69,279 
275,086 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



UNITED 8TATE8. 



181 



EXPORTS OF MERCHANDISE— ConUnued. 



Articles and countries. 


May- 


Eleven months ending 
May- 




1906. 


1906. 


1906. 


1906. 


Electrics] machinery {MaquinartaeUctrica; Machina* 
eiieMeas; Machines iUciriqua) • 
Cen tral America 


DoUar$. 

2,4M 

182.464 

7,153 

6.813 

82,897 

30 

9,514 

8.862 
88,671 
186,766 

19,685 
98,760 
49,995 
47,587 
40.633 
14,014 
4,4»1 
2,214 
19,ai8 

6,223 
60,886 
41,581 
66,178 
18,621 

2,445 
24,158 


DoOarf. 

2,119 

77,182 

40,527 

28,747 

63,527 

462 

6,101 

67,404 

58.373 

330,403 

22,696 
89, 479 
64.368 
88,897 
81,326 
29,125 
7,050 
2,496 
26, 7W 

11,921 
75,404 
32,581 
71,471 
9,549 
7,083 
82,039 

17,500 
40,026 
7,932 


Dollarf. 

31,614 

843,151 

47,995 

166,746 

166, 742 

6,690 

218,259 

288,042 

7«,872 

1,307,020 

213,971 
737, :M2 
453, 122 
525,621 
303, 8.'^7 
136.013 
69, ,586 
34,652 
191, 156 

91.168 
507,037 
818,869 
444,888 
128. 204 

87,866 
272,523 

60,810 
362, 626 
216,801 
207, 448 
117,086 
19,330 
78, 316 

33,906 

237,216 

61,936 

74, 36H 

30,811 

7, 645 

126,965 

13.5, 138 
70, 4H9 
210, 693 
215, 967 
90,145 
84,304 
23,268 
48. (m 
5.5,392 

249, 794 

1,005.521 

105, 1»37 

184,351 


DoUarf. 
21 304 


Mexico 


927, .567 

485 885 


Cuba 


Argentine Repablic 


137,915 


BrSrii ^:..,v;...::: :;: 


287,831 

2,422 

18.5,725 

603,053 
1, '269. 912 
8,354,021 

811,513 
1,073,820 


Colombia 


Other Soutti America 


IrM sad ftt««I, aiaBafsctareii of: 

Steel rails {CarrUes de cuxro; Trilhos de a^o; EaiU 
deader): 
Central Americft 


Mexico 


South America. - 


Builders' hardware, saws and tools {Materiaies de 

mtUd para conttrucciAn, sierras y herramimtas; 

Faragens, serras e /erramentag; MaUriaux de con- 

strueUon en fer et acier, scies ei outUs) • 

Central America 


Mexico 


Cuba 


591,968 


Aieentine Republic 


664, Oa5 


^l7^!.^: ..":;:::.:.:.:.:.:::.:::.:::...: 


376 869 


Chile 


218.791 


Colombia 


60,943 


Venezuela 


35, 713 


Other South America 


249, 821 


Sewing machines, and parts of ( MdqtUnas de coser 
y aceesorios; Machmas de coser e accessorios: 
Maekiates d coudre et leurt parties): 
Central America 


114, 839 


Mexico 


622 053 


Cuba 


289, 121 


Argentine Republic 


678, 961 


BrLii^!._.. !::::::::::::.::;:.: 


178,383 


Colombia 


60, 462 


Other South America 


350,790 


Bteam engines, and parts of ( Locomotoras y accciorios; 
Loeomotiras e aecessorioi; LocomoHfM et leun par- 
ties): 
Central America 


841,2.%5 


Mexico 


11,800 
8,420 


3;J8. 626 


Cuba 


6.58,353 


Argentine Reoublic 


189 651 


Brazil .. 




50,400 

7,125 

152,960 

7,276 
37,639 
6,643 
8,780 
2, 159 
839 
9,280 

21,975 
3,169 
19,539 
17, 124 
17,419 
8,83.5 
8,746 
6,581 
19,693 

44,528 

124,733 

4, 109 

24,050 


306, aT'S 


Colombia , 




18.928 


Other South America 


6,626 

5,631 
27,833 
6,6'17 
6.210 
2,781 
469 
14,215 

14,287 
9.807 

16,331 

26,842 

9,981 

5.827 

539 

8,134 

18,196 

17,011 

108,0Js7 

2, 945 

19,805 


448, 274 


Typewriting machines, and parts of {Mdquinas de 
escrUrir y aceesorios: Machinas de escribir e 
aeeetorios: Machines d icrire et leurs parties): 
Central America 


50,441 


Mexico 


311,873 


Cuba 


66, 43.5 


Argentine Republic 


90, 193 


Brazil 


55. 08 1 


Colombia 


10, .'k'^S 


Other South America 


123, 3,^)5 


Leather, other than sole ( Cuero distinlo del de suelas; 
Omro noo para solas; Cuire, autres que pour 
semeila): 
Central America 


179,,S24 


Mexico... 


80, .>5t> 


Cuba 


2,54,520 


Argentine Reoublic 


301,947 




140,950 


Chile '..'. 


52, 462 


Colombia 


60,550 


Venezuela 


53, (KvS 


Other South America 


97, 137 


Boots and shoes ( Od/zado; Caliado; Chaussurea): 
Central America 


388, 757 




1,40.5,643 


Colombia. 


45,194 


Other South America 


278, 325 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



182 INTEKNATIONAL BUBEAU OF THE AMERICAN BEPUBLICS. 



EXPO&TS OF ME&CHANDI6E— Oonttnued. 



Articles and countries. 



May— 



1905. 



1906. 



Eleven months ending 
May— 



1906. 



1906. 



Naral stores: 
Roftin^ tar, etc. (Iteeina yalguiirdn, etc.: Hesina e alca- 

trCLo: Rt»ahe€igoudrvn): 

Central America. 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentine Republic - 

Brazil 

Chile « 

Colombia , 

Venezuela 

Other South America 

Turpentine {Aguarrdi; Agua-raz; Tbthaithine): 

Central America 

Mexico - 

Cuba 

Argentine Republic - . 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Voneeuela 

Other South America 

OiU, mineral, <aiide {Aceitet wdneraia, emdos; Oleoa 
mineracs^ cms; HuUea ^mmbralcs, brvia): 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Oils, mineral, r^ned or manufactured {Aoeite* 
minerale$, reflriadoe 6 man^factt^rado8: Oleos mir 
neraes, rdlnados ou mani^acturados; Huilcs mini- 
rales, rafinies ou manvfaduries) : 

Central America 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentine Re»ablic 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Venezuela 

Other South America 



Oiht,veget&tAe{Aceit€sveffet(dcs; Oleotvegetaes; Huilcs 
vtgttales) : 

Central Amedca , 

Mexico , 

Cuba 

Argentine ReiHiblic 

Brazil 

Chile 

Other South America , 

Paper (Papd; Papel; Papier): 

Central America 

Mexico - , 

Cuba 

Argen tine Republic 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia 

Venezuela 

Other South America 



PrerlsIOBi, «om|>rlKliig meat and dairy prodorts: 
Beef, canned (Came de vaca en lotas; Come de t-occa 
cm lotas; B<Bii/ conserve): 

Central America 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentine Itepublic 

Brazil 

Colombia , 

"* Other South America 

Tallow (Sebo; Sebo; Suif): 

Central America 

Mexico 

Cuba , 

Brazil 

Chile 

Colombia , 

Other South America , 



Dollars. 

828 

533 

5,507 

1,292 

41,429 

1,889 

248 

1,652 

7,437 

1,531 

318 

4,120 

7,210 

5.958 

2,256 

706 

280 

1,716 



63,737 
137,813 



17, 897 

18,271 

10,578 

227,909 

132,665 

90,019 

7, 175 

12,423 

114,698 



1,821 
39,761 

6,847 

1,937 
21,035 

1,444 
13,921 



10,585 

72, 279 

33,749 

20,253 

6,666 

13,682 

1,623 

8,762 

6,079 



3,132 

1,118 

1,411 

27 

302 

827 

2,101 

6,3S3 
2,417 



4S0 
2,766 



Dollars. 
2,369 
384 
4,274 
2,503 
70,069 
3, 115 
2,017 
8,404 
5,248 

2,668 
982 

6,717 
86.328 

8,388 

4,981 
449 
620 

1,731 



39,710 
41,436 



28,860 
23,616 
19,391 
427,273 
162,346 
108,258 
18,096 
16,882 
4S,620 



4,925 
116. 186 
27,758 
14,120 
19,670 
97 
29,216 



16,527 

53.355 

26,909 

50,951 

1,891 

6,093 

1.218 

2,048 

9,654 



6,596 

3,463 

1,643 

116 



2,698 

12.460 
533 
530 



24,733 
1,188 
1,814 



DoOar^. 
15.314 
14,383 
66.264 
216. 8S9 
275,697 
16,797 
15,610 
26,832 
ldl,612 

22.807 
7,261 

59,805 
177,261 

86.890 

68,532 
6.041 
6,384 

51.735 



732,751 
475,434 



267,461 
201,422 
864,279 
2,158.]«2 
2,215,485 
735, 7W 
106,990 
132,669 
708,875 



27,556 
838,567 

71,205 

37,188 
178,963 

41.608 
124,476 



125,710 

515.191 

839,212 

227,771 

57,539 

216,343 

83,204 

84, MO 

104,418 



20,4fi7 
37,491 
9,764 
352 
6,010 
4.501 
21,949 

98,149 
27,735 
9,383 
1,327 
4,427 
6,626 
47,167 



DoOars, 
S4.4V7 
lfl.4»l 
66.4B8 

889,510 

Ml,lf9 

72.117 

31.9«o 

84.NVI 

146. ei 

il.flO 
6,4S6 
64.210 
217.4)4 
M7.639 
«8,102 
6,474 
6.219 
8S,«W 



MT.64S 
422,817 



S».746 
4Q2,S3 
SU.IB 
2.14ft.fil 
2.473.M9 
801. U7 
10S.8I6 
129, «36 
882,570 



a».4M 

794. 8» 
181,709 

84. «S 
299,80 

18.7JB 
162.466 



200.411 

58ft. MS 

S99.Sfi2 

Sfi,«5 

79.613 

207.a3 

24.756 

8i,fiS6 

191,689 



48. lid 

26.00 

22,«5 

716 

88,10 

14;,M2 

89,917 
8,M9 
1,012 
76,957 
15,798 
30,967 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



UNITED STATES. 



183 



EXPORTS OP MERCHANDI8B— Continued. 



Articles and countries. 



Bactm {Tocino: Taucinho; Lard/umi): 

Central America 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Bnxil 

Colombia 

Other South America 

Hams {JamoneM; Prtsunto; Jcunbona): 

Oeatral America 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Braril 

Colombia 

Venexuela 

Other South An^erica . 



Fork i Oame de puereo; Come de poroo; Pore) : 

Central Amcnca 

Cuba 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Other Sonth America 

Lard ( Jfanteca; Banha; Saindotue): 

Central America 

Mexico 

Cnba 

▲iireQ tine Republic 

Braxil 

Chile 

Cnlombia 

Vea6snela 

Other Sonth America 

BoOtT {Mante^ttiUa; Manieiga; Beurre): 

Central America 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Bmil 

Col om bia 

Venexoaia 

Other South America 

Che«M ( QueM; Quei^; FrowMge): 

Centra] Amcri(» 

Mexico 

Cnba 

OoUMBbia 

Other South America 



Tobacco, unmanufactured {Tabato tin daborar; 
TkAaco n&o faan\tfaetura4io: Tabac ntm maivtk- 

Central America 

Mexioo 

Arirentine Republic 

CSojombia 

Other South America 



Tohaceo. manufactures of ( Tdbaeo daborado; Manu- 
fotHuTfu de taboeo; Tabac fabriqui): 

Central America 

Mexioo 

Cnba 

Argentine Republic 

Colombia 

Other South A merica 



Wm4, aai lAaaafactares of: 
Wood, nnmanulactured i Madera tin manvfaclurar; 
Madeira nilo manvjoiourada: BoiBbrut): 

Centxal America 

Mexico 

cnba 

Argentine Republic 

Braxil 

ChOe 

Colombia 

Other South A merica 

Lmnber (Maderm: Madeiras; Bois de construction) : 

Central America 

Mexico 

Cuba 

AiKeatia« BAwblie 

BiaxU.....Vr!^7. 



May — 



1906. 



Dollars. 
T94 
3,156 
44,859 
6,994 
85 
1,318 

8,618 
10.184 
42,095 
62 
256 
2,565 
2,422 

10.187 

24,944 

4,867 

210 

14,255 

61,226 

26,663 

194,116 

92 

18,003 

7,845 

30.114 

80,729 

21,394 

7,260 
13,917 
1,338 
5,009 

656 
8,924 

689 

4,480 
2,262 

2,837 
258 
22 



2,875 
21,687 



6,741 

a53 

6,621 

47 

370 

2,237 



36,661 
114,112 

5H4 

4, 556 

684 

16,241 



3,200 

20,395 
156,321 
126,699 
162, 1T2 

29,769 



1906. 



Dollars. 

2,255 

3,692 

28,970 

5,320 

15 

194 

12,029 
8,422 
41,770 



650 
8,977 
9,970 

17,066 
71,857 



73 
25,218 

23.458 

22,339 

285,848 

1,287 
19,201 
18,201 

8,381 
23,301 
46,727 

6,466 
11,326 
6,291 
6,590 
601 
6,918 
1,808 

7,530 

1,945 

1,305 

59 

180 



6,587 

4, 249 

334 

334 

1,162 



11,484 

5,428 
10,284 



172 
4,454 



62,589 
98.883 
28,955 



95 
90 

54, 510 
272,454 
231,989 
300,311 

21,248 



Eleven months ending 
May— 



1905. 



Dollars, 
15,860 
38,297 
409, 156 
W,458 
912 
9,9^ 

55,783 
112,112 
417,126 
1,396 
6,697 
36,264 
80,335 

132,890 
812,530 
55,605 
8,187 
186,570 

241, 952 
311,372 
1,537,496 
2,443 
190,220 
66,789 
125,920 
257,239 
351,308 

74,030 
118,751 
21,662 
91,607 
12,950 
86,778 
16,486 

43,880 

38,516 

13,650 

3,848 

60.1 



52,382 

152, 897 
84,818 
84,818 
19,612 



98,929 
16, im 
102,051 
6,501 
11,798 
48,681 



892,001 

013, 836 
87, 391 
35, 439 
8,961 
30,979 
17,527 
64,432 

353,968 
1,799,266 
1,425,232 
2, 067, 886 

668,656 



1906. 



Dollars. 
24,455 
41,457 
401,919 
149,459 
410 
13,263 

91,068 

111,894 

456,383 

820 

4,066 

46,085 

66,189 

177,203 

574,390 

1,232 

2,534 

217,863 

402,386 

608,786 

2,634,782 

4,808 

246.659 

86,764 

802.857 

836,635 

552,163 

112.414 
119,595 

48,265 

123,725 

6,810 

102,206 

29,183 

64,835 

88,991 

12,438 

1.480 

1,710 



71,520 

80,948 

44.428 

44, 428 

9,634 



182.863 
26, 591 

106, 444 

11,601 

1,115 

45,190 



476, 378 
911.987 
171.116 
163, 401 
3,050 
12,664 
17,995 
93, ir»8 

637.784 
l,748..'vS4 
2,2:»3,024 
3.166.C91 

373,252 



Digitized by 



Google 



184 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS, 



EXPORTS OF MERCHANDlSE--ConUnued. 



Articles and countries. 


May- 


Eleven months endins: 
May— 




1905. 


1906. 


1905. 


1906. 


Wood, and manafactMres of— Continued. 
Lumber, etc.— Ck)ntinued. 
Chile 


Dollars, 

48, 573 

6,183 

569 

62,421 

9,720 
54,774 
55,420 
29,180 
2,389 
5.769 
4,857 
16,566 
10,568 


DolUm. 

43,306 

453 

646 

142,551 

22.055 

86,899 

44.610 

38,429 

2,835 

6,094 

2.070 

2,635 

5,267 


Dollars. 

804,616 

63,199 

12,886 

41,032 

144,403 

679, 775 

498.012 

192,261 

24,839 

33,650 

44, 753 

81,855 

84,908 


DoUars. 
561,787 


Colombia 


21,419 


Venezuela 


15,679 


Other South America 


738,462 


Furniture {Muchles; Mobilia; MeubUs): 
Central America 


291,859 


Mexico 


767,689 


Cuba 


672,355 


Argentine Republic 


293,704 


Brazil 


41,732 


Chile . . 


67.906 


Colombia 


20,706 


Venezuela 


35.682 


Other South America 


73,857 







FOREIGN COMMERCE, MAT, 1906. 



The figures of the total values of imports and exports by the United 
States for the month of Maj^ and the eleven months of the fiscal year 
1906, as published by the Bureau of Statistics, give the following par- 
ticulars. May is not as heavy a month for imports as the earlier 
months of the year, and the values were $104,948,493, as compared 
^vith $107,318,081 for April and $113,597,577 for March; but they 
compare with $92,525,424 for May last year and $80,698,161 in 1904, 
which was higher for that month than any figure previously attained. 
This shows a substantial increase from year to year. For the eleven 
months of the fiscal year the total is $1,125,821,671, compared with 
$1,027,065,826 a year ago, a gain of $98,755,845. For eleven months 
ending with May, 1904, the total was $909,930,136. 

Exports are also lighter in May than in previous months, usually as 
far back as October. This year the value was §130,549,287, compared 
with $144,461,462 in April, $145,510,707 in March, $141,766,558 in 
February, $170,663,053 in January, and $199,738,520 in December, 
the last being the highest of all monthly records. It compares, how- 
ever, with $123,793,569 in May last year, $89,886,925 in 1904, and 
exceeds the previous high record of $124,567,911 in 1901. For the 
eleven months ending with May the total was $1,618,912,839, com- 
pared with $1,397,408,180 for the same period a year .before, an 
increase of $221,504,659, and last year's figures were above the previ- 
ous high record of $1,384,990,728 for eleven months ending with May, 
1901. The excess of exports over imports was $25,600,794 for the 
month, against $31,268,145 last year and $9,188,764 in 1904. For 
eleven months this excess amounted to $493,091,168, the highest since 
1901, when it reached $630,223,220. 

Gold imports were unusually heavy in the latter part of Ma^^ and 
for the month they amounted to $33,950,671, while the exports were 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



UNITED STATES. 



185 



$5,716,898, leaving $28,233,773 as the excess of imports. Last year 
in May the gold imports were only $2,657,143 and exports $481,570, 
an excess of the former of $2,175,573; but two years ago $43,069,053 
in gold was sent abroad in May and $10,472,582 brought in, making 
an excess of $32,596,471 in exports. This heavy export in May, 1904, 
followed $19,470,157 sent out in April, but that wb,s the time of the 
Panama Canal payment to the French company. For eleven months 
ending with May the import of gold was $92,892,293 and the export 
$35,311,949, an excess of imports of $57,580,344, while for the same 
period a year before there was an excess of $37,063,232 in exports, 
the figures being imports $51,499,910 and exports $88,563,142. 
The following table presents an outline of the statement in question: 



Groups. 



Month of May- 



1905. 



1906. 



Eleven months ending 
with May— 



1905. 



1906. 



UfFOBTS. 

Azticles of food and live animals 

Articles in a cmde condition for use in man- 
ofactorinff 

Articles wholly or partially manufactured, 
for Qse in manufacturing 

Articles manufactured, ready for consump- 
tion 

Articles of voluntary use, luxuries, etc 

Total imports 

DOMESTIC EXPORTS. 

Products of— 

A^cnlture 

Manufactures 

Mining 

Forest 

Fisheries , 

Miscellaneous 

Total domestic exports 

Foreign merchandise exported 

Total exports 



920,665,826 

82,899,258 

12.787,666 

18,697,068 
12,676,117 



920,864,698 

85,622,636 

17,679,850 

17,012,162 
13,747,737 



9257,251,130 

352,737,882 

180,119,715 

150,763,316 
136,203,784 



9235,479,594 

880,471,218 

161,026,702 

188,482,924 
160,389,328 



»2, 525, 424 104,926,683 



1,027,065,826 



1,125,799,761 



60,821,887 

48,275,181 

6,208,206 

6,923,758 

353,409 

731,676 



69,696,467 
56,345.562 
4,289,405 
6,769,962 
239,169 
956,007 



763,665,453 

493,402,264 

45,656,080 

66,692,369 

6,990,917 

6,665,199 



913,118,223 
551,117,040 
47,626,450 
67,420,780 
7,516.641 
8,180,538 



121.314,016 I 
2,479,533 I 



128,154,562 
2,393,825 



1,372,962,232 
24,445,948 



1,594,979,672 
23,860,846 



123,798,569 130,548,387 



1,397,408,180 



1,618,830,517 



SEIiECnON OF LOCK TYPE FOB PANAMA CANAL. 

On June 21, 1906, the Senate of the United States rendered its final 
decision in regard to the type of canal to be constructed across the 
Isthmus of Panama. 

The text of the bill in which the lock system was indorsed is as 
follows: 

That a lock canal be constructed across the Isthmus of Panama, con- 
necting the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, of the general 
type proposed by the minority of the board of consulting engineers 
crerted by order of the President dated June 24, 1905, in pursuance 
of an act entitled "An act to provide for the construction of a canal 
connecting the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans," approved 
June 28, 1902. 

BalL No. 1—06 14 r^^^^T^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



186 INTEBNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

GEK IMPOKTS, 1906. 

The United States Geological Survey, in a bulletin on the produc- 
tion and importation of precious stones to the United States in 1905, 
says the value of the output of precious stones in 1905 reached 
$326,350, of which the yield from the sapphire mines amounted to 
$125,000. Next in value was the turquoise output, quoted at $65,000. 

The importation of precious stones amounted to $34,998,513, as 
compared with $26,008,813 in 1904. Diamonds represent the bulk of 
the importations, the rough or uncut stones being valued at $10,281,111, 
while the value of the unset stones is placed at $20,875,304. 



URUGUAY. 

MESSAGE OF THE PBESIDENT. 

Following are extracts from the message that President Jose 
Batlle y Ordonez addressed to the General Assembly on February 15, 
1906: 



" The National Board of Health favored during the present fiscal 
year the motion made by one of its members concerning the creation of 
establishments called the {Gota de Leche) ' Drop of Milk,' so benefi- 
cial to the health of children and for the education of mothers, inas- 
much as these establishments furnish them the means and knowledge 
necessary to bring up their children in the proper manner. This 
mision was intrusted to the National Commission of Public Charity, 
and efforts will be made to complete it by means of a law protecting 
the newly bom, and to prevent mothers from neglecting their off- 
springs when engaged as wet nurses. 

" In continuing the application of the international sanitary agree- 
ment now in force, the aforesaid commission endeavored to establish 
a disinfecting center at the port, and upon accepting said plan the 
Government offered to furnish for that purpose, as a loan, the sum 
of $32,000, which is to be returned to the nation. Furthermore, 
said commission was likewise authorized to acquire a steamer 
equipped with the necessary apparatus for the maritime hospital 
service. 

" It was proposed to create the office of Sanitary Land Inspect<H', 
whose duty shall be to go to any place in the Republic where an 
epidemic exists, in order to take the necessary measures with due 
authority and intelligence. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



URUGUAY. 187 

"domestic atfaibs. 

"Although an account of the principal undertakings and works 
relating to the boards and departments has been made in a separate 
chapter, the Executive Power deems it proper to show that in the 
administration of the domestic affairs of the Republic, the period to 
which this message refers has been one of tranquillity and industrial 
activity, the antipatriotic propaganda of the ill-advised elements not 
having been able to disturb or alter the peace of the country. 

"The complementary elections held in some of the departments 
have shown that the citizens of the Republic enjoy complete liberty 
and possess the most efficient guaranties in the exercise of their rights, 
the authorities not having in any instance exerted any influence in the 
campaign of the different political parties. 

" The liberty and guaranty of the rights of citizens have been re- 
spected in a way the Executive Power considers an honor to the 
comitry and to the present administration, which, however, looks at 
this fact as the strict compliance with governmental duties. 

" Every act that has come to the knowledge of the Government con- 
cerning any abuse committed by the authorities or which has been 
contrary to the laws and the rights of the inhabitants of the Republic 
has beoi investigated and corrected with absolute impartiality, and 
the Executive Power may truthfully say that no crimes have gone 
mipunished through the neglect of the Executive, and that through- 
out the coimtry the laws of the land apply equally to all and the 
rights of all citizens are fully protected. 



" The Executive, on June 28, in a message to the General Assembly 
submitted a bill concerning the abolition of the death penalty estab- 
lished by the penal and military codes. In said message the Execu- 
tive set forth the main arguments suggested to him by said modifi- 
cation and expressed his desire that said bill might soon become a 
law, thus eliminating from our laws a punishment which produces 
no good results, is not himiane, and neither corrects nor reforms the 
offender. 

"the postal and telegraphic service. 

"As predicted by the President in a previous message, the postal 
Mid td^raphic service continues to increase in volume and efficiency, 
the number of pieces of mail matter handled in 1905 aggregating 
80,757,299, of which 79,926,442 pieces consisted of ordinary mail 
matter, 485,462 pieces of registered mail, and 345,385 pieces of 
parcels or packages. Domestic money orders amounted to $3,898,774 
•nd foreign money orders aggregated $59,528, making a total of 
18^68,302 in 1905. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



188 INTERNATIONAL BUBBAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

"At present money orders can be drawn only on the Argentine 
Republic, Italy, France, Belgium, Switzerland, Germany, Chile, 
England through Belgium, Bolivia through Chile, Mexico through 
Germany, and Japan through Belgium, but it is hoped that the sys- 
tem may be extended during the present year to other countries. 
The efforts made to establish a money-order service with Spain and 
Brazil have met with some difficulties because of the financial system 
of both countries. 

" The postal receipts in 1905 amounted to $476,327.76, consisting of 
postage stamps, $374,450.05; telegraph service, $71,043.90; money 
orders, $17,414.66; in transit, $6,224.87; and $71,945.28 from other 
sources. 

" The postal service in 1905 compared with that of the two previous 
years is as follows : 



Years. 


Pieces of 
mail matter. 


Money or- 
ders. 


Total re- 
ceipts. 


1903 


70,616,160 
67.289,881 
80,757,808 


$4,647,612 
1,880,838 
8,968,dSe 


1430,880 


1904 : 


980;gS 


1906- 


476,327 







" The following table shows the telegraph lines completed or in 
operation in 1905 : 

Kilometers. 

Repair of telegraph lines 108 

Construction of telegraph lines 82 

Reconstruction of telegraph lines 232 

Construction of police telephone systems 607 

Reconstruction of police telephone systems 223 

Police telephonic system under consideration 500 



"After having fulfilled the important duty of carefully attending 
to the sick and wounded of the late war, the Government has 
devoted its attention to the improvement of this important branch 
of the public service and hopes to obtain satisfactory results. 

"At present, a plan for the modification of the fundamental law of 
said Commission, the preparation of the 'Codex medicamentarius^ 
and other rules and regulations are under consideration, all of which 
will complete the equipment of the sanitary service. 

" In other respects the sanitary condition of the Republic is excel- 
lent, and the municipal authorities cooperate with the National Board 
of Health in order to improve the entire service and to cause the rules 
and regulations to be strictly enforced, thus showing an earnest pur- 
pose of waging war on infectious and contagious diseases. 



" The relations which the Republic maintains with friendly nations 
continue to be inspired by the most amicable feelings and mutual 
respect. ^ , 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



URUGUAY. 189 

" The distinguished members of the diplomatic corps accredited to 
my Government have greatly contributed to the success of the policy 
of the Government in the attainment of these laudable ends. If the 
plans submitted to the consideration of the Congress meet with its 
approval, a great stimulus will thereby be given to the prosperity of 
the Republic, as well from a diplomatic as from a commercial point 
of view. 



" The construction of the general works of the port of Montevideo, 
compared with the works which were completed at the close of 1904, is 
comparatively advanced. 

" The construction of the walls, which constitutes the most impor- 
tant work to be done at the port, and which was delayed on account of 
the difficulties encountered in carrying out the plan submitted by 
Professor Kummeb, has been satisfactorily solved, in such a manner 
that the depth of said port may easily be made ten meters. This 
result was obtained through a contract made with the General Con- 
struction Company of the port, dated January 28, 1905, by means 
of which the type of the construction of said works was definitely 
agreed upon, the type approved in February, 1903, having been 
radically modified. The large dry docks, or breakwaters, which, 
though not yet finished, afford, nevertheless, sufficient protection to 
vessels. On account of the general strike of workingmen in 1905 
the large foreign vessels commenced to utilize the outer port for car- 
rying out their operations of loading and unloading. 

" The following is a summary of the work done by the finance com- 
mittee in 1905 : 

"At the close of 1904 the Commission had available funds on hand 
to the amount of $323,131.33. 

" In 1905 the committee further received for additional licenses the 
sum of $1,120,407.33. 

"The Construction Company of the port, reimbursed from ad- 
vances made it, in accordance with Clause VI of the contract, the 
amount of $142,866.68. 

" Light-house taxes, which from January 1, 1905, had been credited 
to the port receipts, by virtue of the law of November 7, 1889, pro- 
duced a net amount of $60,004.15. 



" The Executive Power, being desirous of solving the great question 
of means of communication so beneficial to the general welfare of 
the country, prepared a bill, which was submitted in due time for the 
approval of the General Assembly. On submitting this bill to the 
General Assembly the Executive also called attention to the construc- 
tion of public wagon roads and the repair of the great Government 

Digitized by VJ^ii^^lC 



190 INTKBNATIONAL BUBEAU OF THE AMEBIC AN BEPUBMCS, 

highways which traverse the Republic, and also especially recom- 
mended the construction of large bridges across the principal rivers 
and streams for the purpose of avoiding the interruption of communi- 
cation resulting mainly from the overflow of rivers and brooks in the 
rainy season, which interruption interferes with and injures the 
commerce of the country in general. 



" The Government has devoted special attention to both elemen- 
tary and higher instruction, assisting the college authorities in the 
promotion of education, and owing to this joint cooperation and help 
it can be affirmed that during the period referred to in this message 
public education has been greatly promoted. 

" The commercial and veterinary schools have many pupils in spite 
of the fact that they have not yet the proper modern equipment, 
owing to the lack of funds. It is hoped, however, that this difficulty 
will be remedied shortly and that said schools will soon be provided 
with the necessary equipment required by such institutions. 

" In order to promote and encourage this department of instruction, 
the faculty of the college recommend the engaging of foreign teach- 
ers of solid attainments and well-known reputation, a plan which has 
the warm approval and support of the Executive Power as well as 
of the C!ongress. The plan that it is desired to carry out is to engage 
competent teachers to instruct in the branches of veterinary and 
agronomic knowledge, both practically and theoretically, and like- 
wise to engage a competent superintendent for the higher branches 
of education, and an experienced teacher for the school of archi- 
tecture and higher mathematics. 



" Through the proper department the Government is promoting by 
all possible means the cattle industry, and has already taken the nec- 
essary measures in order to exterminate the tick, which causes such 
great injury to cattle, and also to control and exterminate the disease 
called Texas fever. 

" In 1905 the production of cereals and oleaginous plants decreased 
considerably, but said decrease was offset by the large yield of the 
crops, the result of which, in kilograms, was as follows : 



Products. 


Kilofi. 


Products. 


Kilos. 


Wheat --- 


205,888,045 

14,046,417 

526,653 


Barley 

Bird seed (alpiste) 


5m, m 

1.745,791 


in*x 




Oats 







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UKUGUAY. 191 

" The latest statistics concerning the production of corn show the 
following total result: Kilograms sown, 2,297,568; hectares in cul- 
tivation, 176,899; crop harvested, 112,186,773 kilograms. 

" The grape industry shows a great increase, the number of vine- 
yards being 1,453; hectares in cultivation, 4,259; number of grape 
vines bearing fruit, 14,050,214; grape crop harvested, 21,472,773 
kilograms, which produced 10,494,247 liters of wine. 

"The recent measures taken to prevent and cure tuberculosis in 
cattle, and which are so important to public health and rural wealth, 
deserve the careful attention of the Executive Power, who recom- 
mends a thorough study and trial of the same. 

" Instructions have been sent to Uruguayan consuls abroad con- 
cerning the documents or billing required for the importation of 
stock, for the purpose of saving importers the trouble and expense 
caused by any omission or deficiency in the service due to the igno- 
rance of the rules and regulations in force, or to an erroneous inter- 
pretation of their meaning. 



" The passenger traffic in 1905 numbered 1,228,386, compared with 
1,175,803 carried in the previous year, or an increase of 52,583, or 
4.47 per cent. 

"The increase in the transportation of freight was exceptional. 
There was an increase of 55,404 tons of domestic freight, or 18,77 per 
cent 

"The increase in the transportation of construction material 
amounted to 34,714 tons, or 48.60 per cent. 

"The transportation of miscellaneous merchandise shows an in- 
crease of 34,802 tons, or 22,63 per cent. 

" The total freight carried in 1905 amounted to 680,475 tons, com- 
pared with 548,223 carried during the previous year, or an increase 
of 132,252 tons, or 23.12 per cent. 

" In spite of the great decrease in the number of horses raised, there 
was an increase in the number transported amounting to 68,929 head, 
or 9.69 per cent. 



" The last conference held at Buenos Aires in April, 1904, selected 
Montevideo as the place where the Third Latin-American Medical 
Congress should be held. Upon accepting the honor thus conferred 
the President issued a decree, under date of September 30 last, stat- 
ing that the said third congress will be held from the 13th to the 20th 
of January, 1907. The sanitary convention will also be held on the 
same date- 



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192 INTEBNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEBICAN BEPUBUCS. 

" TRADE-MARKS. 

" In 1903 the receipts from trade-marks amomited to $8,032 ; in 
1904, to $6,272, and in 1905, to $9,564. 

"amortization of the public debt. 

" The following table shows the payments on account of the public 
debt in 1905 : 

Internal debt extinguished by amortization $1,034,350 

Foreign debt extinguished by amortization 453,350 

International debt extinguished by amortization 82.550 

Total 1,570,450 

Amortization of the public debt with the surplus of 1905 : 

In Montevideo 1 $421,590 

In London 921, 294 

I,a42,8»4 

Total paid 2,913,334 

" No public debt was contracted in 1905. 

" EXPORTS OF STOCK. 

" The Executive having shown that the appraisement of sheep, 
hogs, etc., in the tariff now in force, approved in 1892, did not give 
the true price of said stock in the market, ordered, by a decree of 
May 12, that, until further notice wethers exported through the land 
frontiers and fluvial highways of the Republic be appraised at $2 a 
head, the appraisement on other sheep remaining in force, it being 
understood that those exported through maritime ports to be sent 
abroad are free of duty." 

WORK AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS. 

Senor Pedro Requena Bermudez, representative ad interim of 
Uruguay to the United States, gives the following interesting infor- 
mation concerning the financial and economic condition of that pro- 
gressive Republic: 

" The country has entered in full sway into an era of commercial 
activity and progress which it had not enjoyed for many years past, 
owing to the wholesome initiative and beneficent projects of our pres- 
ent administration, presided over by Senor Jose Batlle y Ordonez. 

" Our national credit is in the very best state. A loan has just 
been negotiated to the amount of $32,500,000 for the conversion of our 
6 per cent debts into a 5 per cent interest and 1 per cent cumulative 
interest on the unpaid residue thereof, which stands as the foremost 
financial operation ever accomplished in our country, or even in the 



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UBUGUAY. 198 

rest of South America. Congress passed the conversion bill on Janu- 
ary 23 last. 

" Our public works are in a flourishing condition, among these 
being the great harbor works at Montevideo, which promise to be the 
most important of its kind to the south of this continent; national 
bridges and highways, for which 3,000,000 of Uruguayan pesos (a 
peso being 103 cents to a dollar) have been appropriated; naviga- 
tion of inland rivers; the harbor works at Salto and at Paloma, 
which are about to be imdertaken. A new railway line is soon to be 
built which will run through Melo to the Brazilian frontier at Paso 
de Centurion, with a 300-kilometer extension and a branch line to 
the city of Treinta y Tres. 

" Some great Government buildings have been planned, to be de- 
voted to the Parliament, Executive Mansion, and the National Univer- 
sity, as well as the completion of the medical college. Our Govern- 
ment has obtained the appropriation by Congress of $100,000, to be 
employed in the establishment of a national agricultural and indus- 
trial exposition to be inaugurated at Montevideo in September of this 
year. There is also to take place a Latin- American medical congress 
with a hygienic exposition annexed, such as is to be held at Vienna 
next May. It will be located in Montevideo, the capital of Uruguay, 
and opened in January, 1907. 

" Our legation at Washington has been instructed to invite the 
Mexican Government to send delegates thereto, an invitation which 
has been readily accepted. Finally, our minister for foreign affairs. 
Dr. Jose Eomeu, has formulated a plan for a consular atid diplomatic 
reform, which was approved b}b^e Congress. Various agricultural 
colonies have been founded for the encouragement of immigration, 
and numerous other pulic improvements are in course of inception, 
all of which is due to the patriotic efforts made by the present admin- 
istration of Uruguay." 

" During the months that have elapsed of the present fiscal year the 
amount of the public revenues collected has reached a sum without 
precedent, all of which tends to prove the vitality of the country and 
its steady development under the stimulus and aid of the present Gov- 
ernment. The customs revenues collected during the month of March 
of the present year aggregated 1,519,709.68 Uruguayan dollars, or 
1,468,318.53 gold dollars of the United States. (It should be borne 
in mind that the Uruguayan dollar is equal to $1,035 American gold.) 
The customs revenues during the month referred to could not have 
been more favorable. A comparison of the customs receipts in 
March, 1906, with those of March, 1905, shows an increase in the 
receipts of the former year over those of the latter of 311,259.34 Uru- 
guayan dollars, equal to $300,733.66 American gold. The following 



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194 nrrERNATIONAL BUREAU OP THE AMERIOAK REPUBLICS. 

table shows the customs revenues collected in the month of March dur- 
ing the years 1896 to 1906, inclusive : 



March- 


Amotuit. 


March- 




1896 


$1,106,147.14 
782,627.80 
1,221,432.46 
1,064,797.44 
1,078.098.18 
1,118,240.08 


1902 


$996,813.84 
1,011,196.96 


1897 


1908 


1898 


1904 


890,496.98 


1899... 


1906 


l,208,4fi0.84 


1900 


1906 


1,519,709.68 


1901 











"As will be seen from the foregoing table, the customs revenues 
collected in March, 1906, exceeds those collected during the same 
month in any of the preceding years, and the present prosjjerous 
condition of the Republic of Uruguay indicates that in future the 
revenues of the country will increase, thereby enabling the Congress 
to apply the excess revenues to the prosecution of the public works 
already commenced by the present Government, and to encourage 
colonization, which has a vast and promising field in Uruguay on 
account of that Republic being one of the South American countries 
most suitable to the needs of agricultural immigrants. 

"Another fact of great importance, which shows the excellent 
administrative management of the present Uruguayan Government, 
so ably presided over by President Batlle y Ordonez, is the fact 
that the latter has presented to Congress the general budget of 
expenses and an estimate of the revenues for the fiscal year 190G-7, 
accompanied by a message showing that the present fiscal year will 
close with a surplus of $400,000 gold, to which there should be added 
the $500,000 surplus in bonds of the new debt, and which is to be 
spent in the construction of public works. The large surplus just 
referred to has never before been obtained by any former Adminis- 
tration. 

" On closing the accounts for the fiscal year 1904r-5, in which was 
included the deficit for the year 1903^, the public treasury should 
have shown a shortage of $5,089,385, but owing to the honest and 
able financial administration of the Government in the difficult 
period through which the country passed, the deficit of the fiscal 
year 1904-5 amounted to only $2,073,305, and therefore there was 
a saving of $3,016,080. These figures show, at the same time, the 
vitality of the economic policy of Uruguay, where, at present, there 
is a revival of business enterprise much greater than ever before, and 
which will soon result in a general prosperity throughout the country. 

" The House of Representatives passed a bill praising the financial 
policy of the Government as shown in the message referred to." 



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UBUGUAY. 196 

TRAI>S 8TATI8TI08, IfTRST KINIBB KOHTH0 07 1905. 

The Statistical Office, following close on the publication of the trade 
statistics of the Republic for the first two quarters of 1905, has just 
issued those for the third quarter of the same year. The totals are as 
follows: 

Importation, $8,762,413, against $5,627,121 for the corresponding 
quarter of 1904 (year of war) and $6,686,422 in 1903 (normal year). 

Exportation, $4,585,789, against $6,159,987 in the corresponding 
quarter of 1904 and $4,812,320 in 1903. 

As in the case of the first two quarters, there has been a substantial 
increase in the importation and a decline in the exportation. 

CUSTOMS BECBIPTS, APRIL, 1906. 

The following were the custom-house receipts of Uruguay for the 
month of April, 1906: 

Importation $1,076, 390. 8S 

Exportation - 130,245.88 

Departments, estimate 80,000.00 

Total 1,286,636.76 

This compares with the same month in previous years as follows: 



1905 1878,438 

1904 924,329 

IWa 868,000 

1902 969.976 

1901 990,898 



1900 $1,012,082 

1809 1,078,362 

1898 1,018,950 

1897 702,641 

1896 1,039,613 



For the fourth month in succession, the figures make a record for 
the month. As compared with last year (when for some transitory 
reason the figures for the month were unusually low) there is an 
increase of no less than $879,769; and the figures are also higher by 
more than $200,000 than those of any other year on the list. The 
activity and productiveness of the custom-house is thus being main- 
tained beyond the most sanguine expectations. With the winter 
season now at hand, however, the receipts for the next few months 
are hardly likely to reach the remarkably high figures attained in the 
first four months of the year. The customs revenue for the four 
months January to April reaches some $4,932,000, against $3,914,500 
in the same period last year, an increase of over a million dollars. 
This is highly satisfactory from every point of view. 

BiroOBT E0TIMATB FOK 10O6. 

The Budget presented for 1906-7 shows an estimated expenditure 
of $18,200,000, an increase of $1,104,300 on the previous Budget, the 
most onerous Budget the country had until then experienced. In 



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196 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

addition, the Government proposes to* add $1,000,000, consisting of 
the surplus from last year and a surplus out of the war indemnity 
loan, to transit works, i-aising the amount devoted to that purpose to 
$4,000,000. A further $1,000,000 (also out of the new loan) is to be 
devoted to school buildings. Six hundred and ninety thousand nine 
hundred and eighty -two dollars (again out of the new loan) is to be 
applied to the establishment of veterinary and agricultural schools; 
$100,000 is assigned to a monument to General Artigas, the founder 
of the national independence. The Government proposes to initiate 
the building of a new Government house and permanent Presidential 
residence, absorbing $2,000,000 or $3,000,000. 

BOXJNTT FOK SUGAB PBGBTTCTIGN. 

The Executive has signed and promulgated the Sugar Bounties Act 
recently approved by the Chambers. It is substantially as follows: 

Article 1. Hereby is granted to tne plantation of beet root, and the 
production of native sugar, a bounty {prima) under the following 
conditions: 

Art. 2. The said bounty shall be $50,000 in the first year, $J^,000 
in the second, $30,000 in the third, and $20,000 in the fourth and fifth, 
after which it shall cease. 

Art. 3. Those desiring to obtain these bounties must produce 300,000 
kilograms of sugar in the first year, 400,000 in the second, 600,000 in 
the third, 1,100,000 in the fourth, and 1,500,000 in the fifth, save in 
duly justified cases oi force majeure admitted by the Executive. They 
are also obliged to cultivate from the first year 300 hectares of beet 
root. 

Art. 4. The cultivators of beet root, and manufacturers of native 
sugar claiming these bounties, may discount them in advance, deduct- 
ing their amount from the customs duties they have to pay on sugar 
imported for refining; but if they fail to comply with the stipulations 
of article 3 they must refund the bounty corresponding to the year 
in which such failure occurs, this being guaranteed by a first mortgage 
on the factory building and machinery. 

Art. 5. Raw sugar imported for refining shall pay duties with the 
discount of a margin (inerma) of 6 per cent on the net weight of the 
same. 

Art. 6. Until the end of the year 1915, there shall prevail a differ- 
ence in favor of the native product of not less than $0,067 per kilo- 
gram of unrefined sugar and $0,078 per kilogram of refined sugar 
between the total taxes paid respectively by the native and the imported 
article. 

Art. 7. The benefits of this act shall only be enjoyed by those who 
within the first two years (190G-7) fulfill the stipulations of article 3 
by manufacturing 300,000 or 400,000 kilograms of sugar. 

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VENEZUELA. 



197 



Akt. 8. The seeds of saccharine plants, coal, and machinery intended 
for sugar factories shall be exonerated from import duties, under the 
usual conditions of control. 

FOSSIGN COMMEBOE, FIRST HALF OF 1905. 

According to figures recently published by the statistical depart- 
ment of the customs-house of the Uruguayan Republic, it is shown 
that for the first half of the year 1905, imports into the country reached 
a total valuation of $14,696,483 and exports $18,303,614, showing a 
balance of trade in favor of Uruguay of $3,607,131. In the corre- 
sponding half of the preceding year the nation's imports figured for 
^,357,632 and the exports $23,581,748. The total volume of trade 
for the first half of 1905 was therefore $33,000,097, as compared with 
$32,939,380 during the same period in 1904. 

The total commerce of the first half year for the ten-year period 
1896-1905 was as follows: 



1896 $32,577,840 

1897 26,797,175 

1898 31,514,398 

1899 34,568,866 

1900 30,448,921 



1901 $30,291,580 

1902 32,302,289 

1903 37,151,558 

1904 : 32,939,380 

1905 33,000,097 



VENEZUELA. 

BECENT CONCESSIOKS. 

The official journals of Venezuela report»the following valuable con- 
cessions recently granted by the Venezuelan Government: 

A twenty-five-year contract made with Jos6 Antonio Bueno, a citi- 
zen of the country, in regard to the asphalt mines in the Federal dis- 
trict "Delta Amacuro."' According to this contract the parties who 
hold the concession will be obliged to pay to the National Government 
the smn of 4 bolivares for each ton exported, besides the Government 
taxes. The contractor is allowed the exemption of customs duties for 
only one time on all the machinery and implements needed for exploit- 
ing and exporting the asphalt. 

A contract has been made between the Minister of Fomento and Dr. 
M. M. PoNTE, of Caracsis^ which gives to Mr. Ponte and his company 
the sole right to explore and elaborate all fibrous plants like ''La 
Cocuisa," "El Cocuy," and the Sanseveria and others found upon 
Government land for the next fifteen years. 

Dr. Antonio P. Mora, a citizen of Maracaibo, has secured a fifteen- 
year franchise from the Venezuelan Government for the manufacture 
of nutritious oils and oleomargarine. The free importation is allowed 



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198 INTEBNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

once only for nmchinery, materials, and all articles needed for facto- 
ries and offices. Free importation is also allowed of empty bags and 
boxes for the product. Doctor Mora may establish several factories 
under the concession. 

BEPOBT OF THE LA GUAIBA AND CABACAS BATLWAT. 

During 1905, the gross revenue of the La Guaira and Caracas Rail- 
way Company's railway (22J miles) was £74,011. The working 
expenses amounted to £^2,750. As compared with the figures for 
1904, the gross revenue shows a decrease of £6,218 and the working 
expenses a decrease of £24. The balance of net revenue account from 
1904 brought forward is £1,194, and the balance for 1905 amounts to 
£31,261. These two sums, with the amount received for interest and 
transfer fees, etc., give a total of £33,616. Deducting debenture 
interest, £18,500; loss on exchange, £1,809; furniture depreciation in 
Venezuela, £42; new works, improvements, etc., £736; compensation 
on account of accident, £158, and bad debt written off, £12, there is a 
balance of £12,258. Out of thb the directors paid, gn January 29, 
1906, an interim dividend at the rate of 3 per cent per annum, £5,260, 
and now propose to pay a further dividend at the same rate, £5,250, 
leaving a sum of £1,758 to be carried forward to the next account. 
The traffic receipts for the first three months of the year 1906 show an 
increase of £2,500 over the same months of the previous year. 



LATIN-AMERICA IN 1905.— A REVIEW, 

The total trade between the United States and the other American 
Republics for the year 1904 showed an increase over the preceding 
year of over forty millions of dollars in value. The exact figures are: 
1903— imports into United States, $223,002,139; exports, $121,134,597; 
total, $344,136,736. For 1904— imports, $241,080,891; exports, 
$144,344,504; total, $385,425,395. 

Gratifying as was this showing to those engaged in promoting com- 
mercial intercourse between the twenty-one Republics of the two 
Americas, the year 1905 shows a trade of $451,307,080, an increase over 
1904 of $65,881,685, or more than $107,000,000 increase in two years. 
Of this trade $269,546,784 was imports and $181,761,296 exports. This 
is about 27 per cent of the total ti*ade of the United States with 
Europe, and greater than its trade with any single country except 
Great Britain. However, it is not in dollars and cents that the value 
of any particular trade is to be estimated, but rather in the character 
of the trade itself. 

The most valuable export trade is that represented by manufactured 
products, and the higher the degree of fabrication or, in other words, 

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iJkTIN-AMEEICA IK 1006. — A. BEVIEW. 199 

the greater the percentage of the cost of labor expended in manufac- 
ture, as compared with the cost of the raw niaterial^ the greater the 
benefit to the coantry exporting the particular products. Conversely, 
the greater the degree of fabrication of imported articles the less the 
value to the country importing them. Judged by this standard, both 
the exx>ort and the import trade of the United States with the other 
American Republics represents the most valuable class of trade; that 
is^ exports in the main of highly fabricated products and imports of 
raw materiaL On the other hand, the bulk of the trade with Europe 
represents the least valuable class of trade, exports of raw, or of but 
slightly fabricated material, and imports of highly finished products. 
Satisfactory as is the character of the trade and the growth thereof, 
in reality the progress made is more that of the Latin- American 
States than of the United States. These countries are broadening out 
and extending their trade with the whole world, and incidentally the 
United States gets the benefit of this progress. This is particularly 
true as to the States of South America. The growth of trade between 
these States and the United States is no greater than the growth of 
their trade with Europe, and in some cases it is less. With Mexico, 
Cuba, and some others of the North American States the conditions 
are otherwise. 

Venezuela sends about one-third of its exports to, and takes about 
the same proportion of its imports from the United States. Colom- 
bia also takes about one-third of its imports from, and sells something 
over half of its exi)orts to the United States. The remaining South 
American States take only about one-eighth of their imports from the 
United States, although Brazil sends the bulk of her exports there. 

The reasons why Europe occupies such an advantageous position 
over the United States in the matter of South American trade are 
many. Some of these reasons may be briefly stated. 

Practically the whole banking system of South America is controlled 
by European capital or is in close afliliation therewith. North Amer- 
ican banking capital is to all intents and purposes unrepresented. The 
advantage this fact gives the European merchant in the matter of 
credits would be a controlling factor in anything like an even contest 
for trade. Joined to this, however, is the still greater advantage in 
the matter of transportation which Europe enjoys in its intercourse 
with South America. With the exception of the three States of Ven- 
ezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador, where the United States is on more or 
less even terms with Europe, for the remainder of South America 
its shipping facilities are grossly inadequate. Consequently, freight 
TSites from the United States to any port from Brazil around to Peru 
are excessive, and transport is alow and unreliable as compared with 
fates and traiisi>ort from European ports to the same points. 

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200 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

But the real difficulty lies deeper than the want of either banking 
or transportation facilities. It is in the fact that the United States 
is new in the business of exporting, and has not yet learned the science 
nor built up the machinery necessary to carry on the business of ex- 
porting manufactured products. It has always been a large exporter 
of certain products and has an inmiense balance of trade in its favor, 
but this is derived in the main from corn, wheat, other food products, 
and cotton, which command their own markets. Its experience in tiie 
sale of these is no help in teaching it the business of selling factory 
products. 

In the beginning its South America trade came to it unsought, 
and this is even yet true for the most part. What can be done with a 
little effort is shown in the case of exports of agricultural machinery 
to the Argentine Republic. 

The total exports of this class of machinery for the United States 
for the year 1905 was $22,124,312, of which the Argentine Republic 
took $5,733,615. The remainder of South America, however, took 
only about one-eighth of this amount. What has been done in the 
Argentine Republic in this case points the way to what can be done 
elsewhere in South America in other cases. 

Argentine Repicblic. — ^The year 1905 was an exceedingly prosperous 
one for the Argentine Republic, more so than even the preceding 
year, which, from every point of view, was in itself a record for prog- 
ress and development. The exports and imports surpassed those of 
any previous year, the former figuring for $322,843,841 and the latter 
for $205,154,420, as compared with $264,157,525 and $187,305,%9, 
respectively, in 1904. Another important fact in regard to the coun- 
try's trade is that in 1905, for the first time, the exports of frozen 
beef from the Argentine Republic to the United Kingdom exceeded 
those from the United States. 

This country, as a great producer of cereal crops, took a still 
higher position in the markets of the world within the year, and the 
advance has been uninterruptedly favorable. The chief agricultural 
products considerably increased in volume and improved in quality 
and their exploitation and export added conunensurately to the wealth 
of the nation. The harvest of grain, flax, and maize yielded 7,900,000 
tons, an increase of 1,000,000 tons over the previous year's product 

In other branches of agricultural activity, such as sugar and grape 
production, the Republic continued to make steady progress and 
promising efforts are being made to promote new industries. The 
dairy industry is gradually gaining ground and Argentine butter is 
becoming better known and appreciated in Europe. The cultivation 
of cotton is likewise attracting serious notice and specimens of the 
staple obtained have been favorably appreciated by Liverpool experts. 
It is admitted that in some portions of the Republic both the climate 



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lATIN-AMBBICA IN 1906. — A KBVIBW. 201 

imd the soil are most suitable for the abundant production of cotton 
of good gnde. 

Until comparatively recently, the Argentine Republic has not been 
looked on as a mining country, but as essentially an agricultural and 
pastoral one. Minerals, of course, have always been known to exist, 
but little exploited, especially in comparison with the country's 
immense area. The provision of railway transport facilities has, how- 
ever, stimulated mining enterprise, and during the year the mining 
capabilities of the Republic received greater attention and the outlook 
is very promising. 

The meat-producing capabilities of the Argentine Republic are very 
^eat, but whether the number of cattle in the Republic is actually 
increasing is not at all certain. Very large numbers of cattle and sheep, 
including breeding ewes, and lambs, and calves, are fattened up and sent 
to the freezing and meat-preserving establishments, which are always 
ready to buy fat animals at good prices. In this way a profitable 
business has been done during the past year and the prospects for 
the present are encouraging. Argentine stock has been immensely 
improved by the introduction of British pedigree animals and Argen- 
tine meat has already attained a high level as to quality. 

Under the executive administration of President Quintan a, the 
relations of the Argentine Republic, during 1905, with all the Powers 
were marked by sincere and unreserved friendship, the Government 
guaranteeing to support arbitration at the forthcoming Pan-American 
Congress at Rio de Janeiro and at The Hague Conference as the sole 
means of solving disputes. 

There are now 5,260 Government public schools, with 14,118 teach- 
ers and 543,881 pupik, as against 4,909 schools, 13,308 teachers, and 
385,844 pupils in 1904, the figures for 1906 being arrived at without 
taking into account the universities for superior education or the nor- 
mal colleges. 

It is proposed to legislate in favor of the working classes, insuring 
protection and old-age pensions. It is further proposed to appoint a 
special arbitration committee to deal with the labor questions. 

The estimated population of Buenos Ayres is now 1,000,000 and it 
is interesting to note that in 1869 returns were published showing a 
total of 171,277 inhabitants, to which must be added the floating popu- 
lation of the port, estimated at 15,000, and 2 per cent for omissions, 
which would give in all 190,000 souls. The past year was a record 
one as regards immigration, as during 1905, there arrived in the ports 
of the Republic 221,622 persons, compared with 161,078 in the year 
preceding. Departures from the country numbered 82,772 in 1905, 
and 66,597 in 1904, so that the excess of immigrants over emigrants 
in ^905 was 138,850, and 94,481 in 1904. According to nationality the 
immigrants were: Italians, 88,984; Spaniards, 52,856; French, 3,524; 

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202 INTEBKATIOKAL BUREAU OF THE AMEBIOAK SEFUBLIOS. 



Russians, 10,100; Syrians, 7,096; Germans, 1,853, and other nation- 
alities, 7,264. The labor office reports the placing of 85,000 immi- 
grants in 781 localities. 

The general prosperity of the Republic continues, both as regards 
revenue and Government credit, and the National revenue for 1905, 
which was estimated at $164,692,000, actually yielded $196,237,000. 
The "ordinary" expenses of the Argentine Government for the year 
1906 are fixed by the Budget at $24,119,059 gold and $122,589,381 
paper, or, converting the gold to paper, $177,405,424 paper. 

On December 31, 1905, the internal debt amounted to 88,000,000 
^e%08 paper, in round figures, and 16,000,000 j9<?«^ gold. On the same 
date the foreign debt was 329,000,000 pesos gold, plus 37,000,000 
pesos which had been borrowed to redeem the loan of 1891. 

The imports of bullion by the Argentine Republic in 1905, according 
to the returns of the customs authorities, amounted to $28,902,115.50. 
Of this amount $16,873,600 came from England and $11,047,800 from 
New York, the remainder being from various countries. 

The principal countries participating in the Argentine trade and the 
share taken by each in 1905 were: 



Country. 



Imports. 



ExpoTtB. 



United Kingdom 

Germany 

Belfirlum 

Spain 

France 

Italy 

United States 

Brazil 

Ottier coim tries 

Uncertain destinationB . 



168,891,048 
29.083,027 
8.727,076 
5,726,872 
21,248,202 
20.284,678 
28.920,443 
5,828,004 
17,445,080 



$44,826,670 
37.056,221 
20,780,850 
2,334.802 
87.594,281 
6.468,941 
15,n7,468 
18,039,395 
86,792,495 

109,080,728 



The values of the principal articles imported during 1905 were: 

Textiles, $46,218,951; iron and hardware, $26,172,285; vehicles and 
rolling stock, $23,362,431; stoneware, glass, and ceramic goods, 
$17,466,903; agricultural implements, $16,532,552; wood, and manu- 
factures of, $14,168,163; food stuffs, $13,739,650; wines, spirits, etc., 
$9,167,842; chemicals and pharmaceutical products, $6,275,786; oils, 
$5,556,067; tobacco, etc., $4,445,408; paper, and manufactures of, 
$4,133,842; leather, and manufactures of, $1,796,844. 

The values of the principal exports from the Argentine Republic 
during the year were: 

Wheat, $85,883,141; wool in the grease, $64,312,927; maize, 
$46,537,402; hides and skins, $30,509,533; linseed, $26,233,851; frozen 
meat, $21,553,752; wheat flour, $5,373,699; cattle, $5,160,483; que- 
bracho, $2,427,772. 

The foreign countries which have the bulk of Argentine commerce 
have shared in the development of the country, as is shown by the 
following ratios of trade values in 1904 and 1905. The increase in 

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LATIN-AMEBICA IN 1906. — ^A REVIEW. 



208 



imports from England was about 5i per cent in 1905 compared with 
19(M; from Germany, 20 per cent; from the United States, 30 per 
cent; from France, 20 per cent, and from Italy, 8 per cent. For the 
exports to those countries the rates of increase were, respectively, 
as follows: England, 25 per cent; Germany, 16 per cent; United 
States, 40 per cent; France, 10 per cent, and Italy, 80 per cent. The 
augmented commerce with the United States is due in a large measure 
to the fact that there is now more frequent direct communication by 
steamship with that country. The increase in exports for orders, of 
which two-thirds are on British account, was 15i per cent. 

The Argentine Republic is also a valuable factor in Brazilian trade, 
having passed all other countries as a supplier of breadstuffs, and show- 
ing indications of marketing in Brazil the produce of her cattle ranges. 

The value of the frozen mutton exported from the Argentine Re- 
public in 1905 is officially quoted as $6,268,059, and of frozen beef 
$15,285,693, while frozen meats, various, figure for $356,299. In 
1894, or eleven years previous, the articles in reference showed export 
valuations to the amount of $1,864,110, $12,400, and $59,645, respect- 
ively. The Republic exported in 1905 nearly 2,000,000 quarters of 
refrigerated beef, or about 500,000 head of choice beef cattle, the 
inunediate eflfect of such large shipments being an unprecedented 
scarcity of this article of consumption. 

In 1900, the ports of the United Kingdom, until that time the prin- 
cipal outlet for the Argentine stock industry, were closed to imports 
of cattle and sheep from the Argentine Republic, and shipments 
thither dropi)ed from 312,150 cattle and 543,462 sheep in 1899 to 
150,550 cattle and 198,102 sheep in 1900. Shortly after this decline in 
the exports of live stock, the frozen-meat industry began to improve 
and has continued to advance. The cattle exports up to and including 
1904 did not regain their former importance, but in 1905 live cattle 
shipments from the Republic were valued at $5,160,483 and live sheep 
at $364,209. 

The year's cereal shipments had the following destinations: 





Wheat. 


Maize. 


Linseed. 


Orten 


Tom. 

1,286,871 

422.879 

926,133 

201,418 

17,790 

87 


Tom. 

1,270,667 

217,064 

761,086 

4,712 

4,182 

1,220 


Tms. 
296,378 
75,595 


Cni ted Kingdom 


ConUnent 


265,285 
19 


BmU 


South Africa 


66 


Vtriooa 








ToUl 


2,864,178 


2,258,871 


636,327 







No feature of the recent growth of the Republic's foreign trade is 
of greater significance to the United States than the astonishing devel- 
opment in the purchases of iron and steel. During the four years 

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204 uttebnational bubeau of the akerioan republics. 

1896-1898 the imports by the Republic of these goods averaged 
$16,032,000 per annum. In the five years 1900-1904, this had risen to 
$25,500,000 per annum, an increase of 59 per cent. In 1903 the total 
was $26,845,000, and in 1904, $42,173,000. The growth is so phenom- 
enal that this class of goods bids fair soon to become the most impor- 
tant item in Argentine foreign purchases. In 1895-1898 the imports 
of iron and steel constituted only 15.9 per cent of the grand total of 
all imports. In 1900-1904 the percentage had risen to 19.8. For the 
single year 1904 it was 22.5, and in the first six months of 1905 it 
jumped to 29.8, passing textiles for the first time. 

The areas sown for wheat and linseed in 1905, were 5,617,291 and 
1,022,814 hectares, respectively, the former showing an increase of 
14i per cetot and the latter a decrease of 5i per cent as compared with 
1904. From the reported acreage the estimates of the wheat and lin- 
seed crops for the year 1905-6 place the wheat crop at 3,881,739 tons 
and the linseed crop at 640,038 tons. 

Statistics tend to show the necessity of making another use of maize 
than that of exportation, for the cultivation of it is susceptible of 
unlimited expansion, and the average quantity produced per hectare 
might be raised by improved methods of cultivation, but the home 
consumption does not absorb more than about a million tons a year, 
and taking the average of several years past, the importing markets 
of Europe do not require more than from 6,000,000 to 7,000,000 tons. 

The results of the harvest have been estimated by means of the 
investigations made by the inspectors appointed for the purpose by 
the Ministry of Agriculture, of the information supplied by the 
numerous correspondents of the said Division of Statistics, and of 
the actual yield of the harvest in different places ascertained by the 
operations of the maize shelling machines (''desgranadoras"). 

The cultivation of alfalfa in the Republic has developed greatly of 
late years, and especially during 1905, as is shown by the figures of the 
importation of alfalfa seed from January to September, inclusive, 
when the oflScial valuation of seed imported was $2,359,000. 

The Argentine Republic leads the world in the number of sheep 
bred for commercial and domestic purposes, and the number of cattle 
slaughtered by the jerked beef factories in the Argentine Republic in 
1905 was 1,515,000 in the Rio Plate and Rio Grande factories alone. 
Stringent regulations govern the importation of pedigree stock into 
the country. Henceforth the pedigrees of all blood animals must be 
produced at the time of their quarantine examination, together with 
a statement of such marks and traits as may assist in identifying them. 
The inspector of imports and exports will register all the data fur- 
nished — uame, sex, race, place of birth, number and date on inscrip- 
tion on the stock records in the country of origin, as well as the above- 
mentioned identification marks. When the sanitary regulations have 



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LiATIN-AMEBICA IN 1905. — ^A REVIEW. 205 

been complied with the inspector will return the pedigree to the pro- 
prietor of the animal, having previously indorsed that document with 
its number in his official register, and a statement as to the acceptance 
or sacrifice of the animal under article 53 of the Sanitary Regulations. 

The Argentine Republic produced in the year 1904-5, 130,000 tons 
of si^r, and the crop for 1905-6, beginning in May, 1905, amounted 
to 140,000 tons, as the cane fields were in somewhat better condition 
than last year. The average price paid for the year's crop for sugars 
of the first quality is $2.65 paper currency (4s. 7d.) per 10 kilograms 
(22 pounds) free on rail at the place of production. 

There are 37 sugar factories in operation and 1 refinery in Rosario. 
The industry is very prosperous at present and prices have not varied 
much in spite of the larger production, owing, presuihably, to larger 
consumption in the country. The better managed factories with 
modern machinery are paying good dividends, assisted, of course, by 
the very high import duty on sugar. 

On January 1, 1905, the new law No. 4288, relating to the internal 
tax on sugar and the bounty or drawback on the exportation of that 
article, came into operation. Previously, under the law, No. 3884, all 
sugar produced in the Republic was subject to a tax of 6 cents per 
kilogram, but a bounty waa given of 16 cents per kilogram on the sugar 
exported, not exceeding in quantity one-fourth of the total produc- 
tion of the year. This was equivalent to giving back to the producers 
two-thirds of the proceeds of the tax, the remaining third being 
retained by the State, the price of sugar consumed in the country 
increasing by 6 cents per kilogram. 

By a subsequent law the producers were given the benefit of a draw- 
back of 2 cents per kilogram (the proportion of the tax belonging to 
the State) upon the exportation of another one fourth or any less pro- 
portion of the sugar produced, so that, if the permitted exportation 
of one-half of the production had taken place, the State would have 
received only one-fourth of the proceeds of the tax imposed upon the 
consumers. As it happened, the exportation never reached the full 
half of the production, so that the State actually received rather more 
than one-fourth of the proceeds, but the end was attained by keeping 
up the price of sugar at home by enabling the producers to sell a 
large proportion of their sugar abroad at less than cost price. 

The Brussels Convention, whereby the signatory States agreed to 
abolish bounties and to impose upon sugar imported from bounty- 
paying countries a duty equivalent to the bounty, made it necessary 
to repeal the laws granting bounties, but the new one restored the 
benefit in another form. It imposes a tax of 15 cents per kilogram 
upon one-fourth of the whole quantity produced, but this is to be 
returned at the same rate to the exporters of that porportion or any 
smaller quantity. The tax is not, in fact, paid at all by the producers 

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206 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

unless they fail to export the said proportion of the production, for 
they give bills for the tax, which are returned to them upon the veri- 
fication of the exportation. This tax is in effect equal to a tax of 3J 
cents per kilogram upon all the sugar produced, but though the home 
consumers have to pay it in the price of sugar the State does not 
receive any part of the proceeds. The law also gives remarkable 
powers to the National Executive for altering the operation of the law 
for the purpose of keeping up the price of sugar as it leaves the mill 
to $3 per 10 kilograms, including the tax; that is to say, $2.62^ net 

It is premised that of the 1905-6 crop Uruguay will take about 
15,000 tons, as the prices in the Argentine Republic are lower than in 
Europe and the shipments are not so belated. 

The revenue from all sources during 1905 shows a surplus of over 
$2,500,000 currency as compared with 1904. 

Thirty-one molasses distilleries were at work during the year, turn- 
ing out 60,457 tons of alcohol, which yielded 12,000,000 liters of good 
alcohol and 2,000,000 liters inferior (100^ centigrade proof). Six 
grain distilleries worked up 16,717 tons of maize, yielding 5,000,000 
liters of good and less than a million of inferior quality, grade 100°. 
There was a notable decrease in wine alcohols, used to give body to 
the national wines, amounting to some 91,000 liters. The total amount 
of revenue derived from all classes of alcohols of national production 
amounted to over $13,500,000 paper, and that from imported alcohol 
to $1,750,000, nearly; making a grand total of over $15,000,000. The 
consumption of alcohol of national production and different grades 
reached 15,250,000 liters, and of imported alcoholic beverages 5,500,- 
000, total 20,750,000 liters, that correspond to 16,000,000 liters of 100°. 

Over 12,000,000 liters of the alcohol of commerce were used in the 
manufacture of liquors, and 3,500,000 liters of pure alcohol in the 
prepai-ation of rum (cana). A remarkable decrease is seen in the use 
of wine alcohol. 

Fifty million liters of beer were consumed during the year, being 
an increase since 1902 of 23,000,000. There are three breweries in 
the capital, seven in the Province of Buenos Ayres, and seventeen in 
the upper Provinces. The revenue from this was over $2,250,000. 

The tobacco tax produced $12,500,000 for native grown and about 
$2,000,000 for imported tobacco, showing an excess over 1904 of nearly 
$1,000,000. The total number of plants is over 100,000,000. The 
plantations produced more than 8,000 tons of tobacco, of which 6,000 
were used for the manufacture of cigars, cigarettes, and pipe tobacco. 
The total amount imported was a little under 3,000 tons. One hun- 
dred and eighty-six million packets of cigarettes were made up; 238,- 
000,000 cigars, 4,000,000 packets of cut tobacco, and 250 tons of leaf 
tobacco. 



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LATIN-AMBBICA IN 1906. — ^A BEVIEW. 207 

There are in the Republic 31 national and 24 foreign insurance com- 
panies. The national companies paid on premiums $85,000 paper and 
$1,680 gold, while the foreign companies paid $266,000 paper and 
$27,000 gold, showing an increase over 1904 of $32,000 paper and a 
decrease of $1,500 gold. 

Two hundred and fifty-six million boxes of wax matches were put 
on the market, being an increase over 1904 of 10,000,000. The rev- 
enue received on this account was above $2,500,000. 

The specific tax affects 195 national factories and 196 importing 
houses. 

The Argentine Republic is not, properly speaking, an industrial 
country, yet the extent of its territory, the fertility of its soil, and 
its climate make it probable that its industrial activity may be greatly 
augmented. 

The dairy industry is a growing one, and considering the enormous 
productive capacity of the country and that nearly all the steamers of 
lines now in operation with European destinations have freezing cham- 
bers, in which butter as well as meat can be shipped, butter making is 
certain to be a source of national wealth. During 1904 the exporta- 
tions reached 5,294 tons, valued at $2,117,461, while during the first 
six months of 1905, 3,222 tons were sent abroad, mostly to Great 
Britain and Africa. 

There are now about 300,000 mulberry plants in the Province of 
Tucuman, 200,000 in Santa Fe, 350,000 in Cordoba, and more than 
50,000 in Salta Jujuy and Santiago del Estero. The climate of Tucu- 
man appears to be the best adapted for mulberry cultivation and silk- 
worm rearing. 

For the seven months from January to July, 1905, the wine output 
of Mendoza Province was 451,981 barrels, on which the amount of 
$3,863,411 (national currency) was paid in Federal taxes. 

In 1905, the national hat factory manufactured hats in the following 
quantities: In the first nine months, 57,116 woolen and 51,327 felt 
hats, or a total of 108,443. Exact figures of the hats manufactured 
during the third quarter of 1905 are not at hand, but a conservative 
estimate is 19,000 woolen and 17,000 felt hats. On this basis the pro- 
duction in 1905 was 76,000 woolen and 68,000 felt hats, or a total, in 
round numbers, of 144,000. In the manufacture of the 76,000 woolen 
hats 30,400 kilograms of wool were used, or an average of 400 grams 
per hat. During the first nine months of 1905 the factory sold 51,700 
felt hate and 4a,187 woolen hats, or a total of 94,887. 

Exploitation of quebracho culture continues and a company, cap- 
italized at $3,000,000, has taken up 881,000 hectares of the succes- 
sion Casado, which have been reported on by experts as rich in que- 
bracho and other valuable timber. The promoters calculate that on 
an annual output of 120,000 tons of quebracho Colorado there would 

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208 INTBRNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEBIOAN REPUBLICS. 

be a profit, if worked into vigas and rollizos, of $638,000 gold, or, if 
converted into extract for tanning purposes, the profit would then 
come to $1,306,000 gold. 

With the purpose of encouraging new industries a Presidential 
decree of the Argentine Republic provides that products of ocean fish- 
eries gathered outside the territorial waters of the Republic shall be 
regarded as national products for customs purposes, and therefore 
admitted free of duty when gathered and conveyed to ports of the 
Republic by Argentine vessels. Furthermore, a tariff of excise duties 
{impuesto intemo) has been issued, stating that from June 20, 1905, 
these duties were to be levied on cigars, cigarettes, and manufactured 
tobaccos imported into the Argentine Republic. 

Exploitation of coal deposits was proceeded with during the year, 
aided by Government concessions, and the various railway companies 
increased rolling stock and otherwise augmented the facilities for 
moving produce to the ports of shipment. This is especially so in 
reference to Buenos Ayres and Bahia Blanca; 19,960 kilometers were 
at work, 2,462 kilometers in construction, and concessions had been 
granted for a further 7,400 kilometers. Nine ports were being 
constructed and the military port of Belgrano was to be opened to 
commerce. 

The gross milway earnings amounted to $70,803,564 gold, as against 
$61,675,576 in 1904; the expenses $38,392,753 gold, as against $32,349,- 
705, and the net receipts $32,415,811 gold, as against $29,325,810. The 
interest earned on the capital is 5.50 per cent, as against 5.12 per cent 
in 1904 and 4.69 per cent in 1903. The carrying capacity of the freight 
cars increased from 551,246 tons to 648,809 tons, and the number of 
locomotives from 1,441 to 1,624. Not a single line was worked at a 
loss, thereby maintaining the record established in 1904. 

On January 1, 1905, the railways possessed 1,462 locomotives, so 
that there was an increase of 202 during the year. The engines are 
divided up as follows: Passenger 472, mixed 679, freight 305, shunt- 
ing 208. On March 29 last the Government ordered the companies 
to increase their locomotive stock by the following: Andine, 2; South- 
ern, 106; Western, 46; Central Argentine, 41; Pacific, 33; Bahia 
Blanca northwest, 3; Central Cordoba (north section, 20; east section, 
7), 27; Cordoba and Rosario, 6. 

On January 1, 1906, the railways in the Argentine Republic pos- 
sessed 1,664 locomotives; of these, 171 belonged to the State lines and 
1,493 to the private companies. 

The last twelve or eighteen months have witnessed an unprecedented 
activity in shipping circles. The Germans took the initiative last year, 
the Hamburg South American Line practically replacing its fleet of 
old vessels by steamers of modern construction, accommodations, and 
capacity. The Royal Mail, the Pacific, and the Italian lines at once 



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LATIN-AMEBICA IN 1905. — ^A REVIEW. 209 

followed suit. These three lines have modem vessels in construction. 
A "low-freight" steamship company to trade between the United 
States and the Plate has also been inaugurated. This new concern, 
formed especially to compete with high-freight trust vessels actually 
runnmg, is to start work at the rate of one trip per month, either 
way. 

There seems to be no limit to electrical work. In a very short 
time there will not be a horse-drawn tram car in Buenos Ayres. A 
commencement has been made in the construction of lines to the more 
distant suburbs. British manufacturers appear to be competing for 
this business and getting a share of it. Electric lighting is being 
installed even in small towns and villages. 

House property realized large prices. In Buenos Ayres, Rosario, 
and Bahia Blanca especially, house rents rose about 20 per cent, and 
much building is in progress. In 1904, registrations to the number 
of 25,659 were made, and 21,045 farms, representing a value of 
$243,564,800, and in 1905, 32,491 registrations were made, and 33,160 
farms, representing a value of $345,349,000, were recorded. This 
gives an increase of 150 per cent in 1905, compared with the transac- 
tions of 1904. In 1904, 53,422 titles were issued, while in 1905, the 
number was 74,089. In 1904, the mortgages recorded represented a 
value of $690,399.76, while in 1905, this amount was reduced to 
$207,522.10. In 1904 taxes were collected to the amount of 
$528,694.30, while in 1905 the collection of taxes amounted to $732,237. 

The postal and telegraphic returns for the year show an increase of 
nearly 50,000,000 letters and proportionate increase in telegrams. 
The length of the Government telegraph lines increased by 622 kilo- 
meters, and there was a total extension of 24,777 kilometers, which 
added to the provincial and railway lines makes an aggregate of 54,846 
kilometers. The health of the country is excellent, as proved by the 
exceptionally low rate of mortality. 

Bclwia. — From such statistics as are available, it is evident that 
Bolivia, in spite of the adverse conditions pressing upon the Republic, 
made appreciable progress in 1904-5. 

President Ismael Montes continued his administration of public 
affairs throughout the year and among the important measures pro- 
luulgated was the following law as passed on October 13, 1905, by the 
National Congress at La Paz: 

"Article 1. The ownership of public lands shall be acquired by 
purchase, except as provided for by special regulations and laws. 

"Art. 2. The unit of measurement for all kinds of grants shall be 
the hectare, grants by ^estradas^ being prohibited. 

"Art. 3. The ownership of the land includes the plants that may 
develop thereon. 



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210 INTERNATIONAL BUBBAU OF THE AMEBIOAN BBPUBLIOS. 

^^ Art. 4. All natives, or foreigners capable of making a contract 
under the civil law, may buy from the State up to 20,000 hectares, 
paying 10 centavos cash per hectare; if the land may be used for agri- 
cultural purposes and for raising cattle, one boliviano shall be paid 
per hectare in the territories containing rubber trees (Siphonia and 
Hebea). Buyers shall be bound to settle on the lands bought, at least 
one family for each 1,000 hectares. Every application for a grant 
exceeding 20,000 hectares must have the prior approval of Congress. 

''Art. 6. After the grant has been made, the survey and fixing of 
the landmarks shall be made by two experts, ap][)ointed one by the 
Government and the other by the buyer, unless the latter is satisfied 
with the Government's expert. All expenses shall be borne by the 
buyer." 

The Bolivian Government also, by official communication of August 

30, 1905, denounced the treaty of friendship, commerce, and navi- 
gation, signed at Santiago August 17, 1860, between Belgium and 
Bolivia. In conformity with article 32, the said treaty will become 
ineflfective the 8th of January, 1907. 

Both Peru and Chile hold certain privileges exempting their goods 
from duties, and this alone explains the reason why both these coun- 
tries secure so large a portion of the trade. However, according to 
a commercial treaty just concluded between Bolivia and Peru, this 
will be discontinued from July 1, 1906, and both Peruvian as well as 
Chilean goods will be placed on the same footing as the most favored 
of other nations. Bolivia's main object in concluding this treaty has 
been to augment her revenue, but as a certain term has been fixed 
before its clauses are to be put in force, all importers who find them- 
selves in a position to do so will take the opportunity to stock them- 
selves thoroughly, and some time will pass before she derives the 
benefit she anticipates. With the same object, although it has been 
announced as protective, she has increased her customs tariff on almost 
every article, and in some instances to the extent of 200 per cent. 
This new tariff was put in force on January 1, 1906. No modifica- 
tion has been made in the case of machinery, which continues to be 
imported into the Republic free of duty. 

Yet another measure taken by Congress to increase the revenue has 
been that of increasing the export duty on tin. This has been fixed on 
a sliding scale according to the quotations for the Straits production. 

The balance sheet of the National Treasury of Bolivia on December 

31, 1905, shows the following summary in bolivianos: 

Debtor 117,865,146.38 

Creditor 117,866,145.38 

Assets 29,626,905.80 

LiabiUtiee 29,626,906.80 



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LATIN-AMEBICA IN 1905. — ^A BEVIEW. 211 

The estimate of expenses {Preav/pueato OeneraJ) made by the Boliv- 
ian Government for the year 1906 shows expenditures of $4,000,000 
United States currency. The receipts are estimated in a like sum, 
formed by the customs receipts, which make up 70 per cent of the 
whole — $2,580,000 being import duties and $580,000 export duties. 
The remaining 30 per cent is made up of the following: Product of 
the alcohol monopoly, consular invoices, mining rights, stamped 
paper, postage stamps. State railways, grants of rubber forests, sale 
of lands, tax on companies, mortgage bonds, and five or six minor 
items. 

From a statement published by the Director-General of Statistics it 
appears that the total value of imports for the year 1904 was £1 ,585,872. 
The largest sender was Germany, with a total value of £315,302, the 
United Kingdom following with £304,120; Peru, £270,463; Chile, 
£110,407, and the United States of North America, £105,648. Other 
countries contributed with smaller values, ranging from the Argentine 
Republic with £74,406 to China with £16. There still remained a 
sum of a little over £200,000 from sources unknown. The percent- 
ages from the various sources were as follows: Germany, 19.88; 
United Kingdom, 19.18; Peru, 17.11; Chile, 6.97; United States, 
6.67; Argentine Republic, 4.70; Belgium, 3.34; France, 3.25; Italy, 
3.20; Brazil, 1.72; Spain, 1.12; Uruguay, 0.07; Portugal, 0.05; Para- 
guay, 0.04; Switzerland, 0.02; Cuba, 0.01; Central America, Ecua- 
dor, China, 0.01; source unknown, 12.66. 

Imports show an excess of 3,570,449 iolwianos on the previous year. 
This is principally due to the country's continued prosperity in the 
mining industry, and especially tin, which is undoubtedly being devel- 
oped in a convenient manner. As a consequence, money being more 
abundant, the demand for machinery and mining implements, as well 
as for all classes of manufactured goods, has increased. He notes that 
Germany occupies the first place in the import trade, with the United 
Kingdom following very closely as second and Peru as third. 

Exports of tin, which constitute the principal item of exporta- 
tion, amounted to 13,852,570 kilograms, whose commercial value was 
11,082,080 bolivianos in the first six months of 1905, while for the 
entire year 1904 21,545,703 kilograms, valued at 17,064,197.05 
iolivianosy were shipped. 

The average price of tin ore from the Straits Settlements in 1904 
was £126 178. 5d. per ton of 1,000 kilograms, thus making the Bolivian 
product equivalent to £66 per ton. 



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212 INTERNATIONAL BUBEAU OF THE AMSEIOAN BEFUBLIOS. 

The following table is a recapitulation, by custom-houses, of the 
imports and exports of Bolivia in 1904, compiled by the Bureau of 
Statistics of the Republic: 



Custom-house. 



Importa. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Exports. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Antofagasta.. 

La Paz 

Uyunl 

Arica 

Tupiza 

Tarija 

Puerto Suarez 
VUla Bella... 

Oruro 

Pelechucho . . 

Total... 



KUot. 

17,568,287 

22,774,684 

24,032,510 

2,220.706 

553,977 

448,620 

681,828 

681,800 

1,699,454 

62,514 



Bolivianos. 

7,800,978.63 

7,006,191.12 

1,888,592.21 

880,958.32 

817,464.45 

494,412.90 

483,220.85 

815,981.08 

213,138.22 

27,560.86 



KUoB. 



Bolivianos. 



4.659,141 
29,570,760 



1,714,418 

258,806 

265,449 

831,717 

13,132,299 

79,876 



70,618,835 



19,828,444.59 



50,511,966 



8,725,188.80 
7,496.068.63 



1,467,455.70 
87,018.32 

633,191.96 
2,007,402.70 
5,551,827.00 

194,794.31 



21,162,917.44 



The export trade has not, according to official data, reached the 
country's expectations. Although it is an undeniable fact that the 
import trade has to a great extent flourished under its shadow, it is 
curious to note that the official values of exports have diminished by 
4,006,201 holivianos as compared with the previous year. As an 
explanation of this phenomenon, the Minister of Finance in his 
message to Congress states that the falling off is not on any account 
due to either the reduced output of the mines or to the unfavorable 
prices for Bolivian produce in the European markets, but is most 
probably due to contraband trade. 

As regards copper, though statistics do not justify it, the produc- 
tion during 1904 was probably larger than that of 1903. 

The silver at present produced in Bolivia comes almost exclusively 
from the famous mines at Huanchaca, San Jose, at Oruro; other mines 
produce insignificant quantities hardly worthy of mention. 

While the profits from silver mining of late years have been com- 
paratively small, the situation latterly seems to be improving, due to 
more economical methods of treating low-grade ores by lixiviation, 
while in many cases the associated ores of tin, copper, and zinc are of 
great assistance in improving values. 

According to official data the production of bismuth in 1904 greatly 
exceeded that of the previous year. The Chorolque mines, from which 
this mineral is principally extracted, are under the control of the well- 
known European combine. 

The rubber industry, which takes a leading part among the prod- 
ucts of the country, is to all accounts progressing satisfactorily. The 
quantity produced during 1904 was superior to that of 1903, and if 
anything the prospects for the future seem to be encouraging. 

Owing to the poor prices ruling for quinine in the European mar- 
kets the plantations are becoming more and more neglected. Enor- 



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LATIN-AMERICA IN 1905. — ^A BEVIBW. 218 

mous plantations exist, both wild and cultivated, but, as the cost of 
placing the commodity on the European markets is so heavy, there is 
no margin for profit. All other articles that Bolivia produces are 
almost entirely consumed in the country itself. 

A contract was given to the Bolivian Rubber and General Enterprise 
C!ompany (Limited), during the year for the construction of a road from 
La Paz to Puerto Pando, a distance of some 120 kilometers. The first 
25 kilometers are said to be concluded. This new route will facilitate 
transit to and from the Beni, and is expected to supersede that of 
Sorata and Mapiri. 

Regarding the construction of railways, nothing has as yet been 
definitely settled. The interest on the indemnities paid by Brazil and 
Chile continues to be employed in making the surveys of the various 
lines in project. The surveys that are being made at present are the 
following: Viacha to Oruro, Oruro to Potosi, Potosi to Tupiza, La 
Paz to Yungas, and Oruro to Cochabamba. The construction of the 
line from Arica to La Paz has just been given by the Chilean Govern- 
ment to the Society of Public Works (a Chilean concern). The cost 
will be £2,152,000 and the term four years. 

In the year, 85 money orders for 1,919.98 lolivianoa^ equivalent to 
1695.71 at the current rate of exchange at their respective dates, were 
issued. United States money orders drawn on the diflferent post- 
offices of Bolivia numbered 33 in the same year and aggregated 506.13 
holivianos^ equivalent to J181.75, which were paid immediately on 
presentation at the proper offices. 

According to the statement of the La Paz post-office, on the 31st of 
December, 1905, there were on hand in account with the United States 
1,776.10 lolivianoa^ of which amount 894.29 bolivianos represent the 
aggregate of postal orders issued in the Republic, and the balance of 
881.81 bolivianos the profits obtained up to said date for commissions 
received and for differences in the rates of exchange fixed by the 
post-office. 

The receipts of the telegraph lines in 1902 were scarcely 10,776 
hfjlivianos; in 1903, 68,750 bolivianos; in 1904, 82,435, and it is esti- 
mated that in 1905 the receipts will exceed 100,000 bolivia?io8. 

The extent of the telegraph lines in 1893 was 2,765 kilometers, of 
which 1,455 kilometers belonged to the Government. In 1905, there 
were 4,678 kilometers of telegraph lines, of which 3,380 kilometers 
belonged to the Government. 

At the beginning of 1905, the pound sterling was made legal tender 
at an exchange of 12^ Bolivian dollars. During the first half of the 
year the exchange on London for first-class drafts averaged about 
Is. 7Jd., with extreme fluctuations between Is. 7d. and Is. 8/ffd., and 
for the latter half has been very steady from Is. 8id. to Is. 8id. Two 



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214 INTEBNATIONAL BIJBEAU OF THE AMERIOAK REPUBLIOS. 

foreign banks have established agencies in the principal centers of the 
Republic during the year, viz, the Banco Aleman Transatl&ntico and 
the Banco de Chile y Alemania. In addition to these a concession has 
been granted to a wealthy Bolivian mine owner for still another bank. 

Brazil. — During 1905, Brazil continued to fully maintain the position 
of eminence it has always held among the South American States. 
President Rodriguez Alves, who was installed in power at the close 
of 1902, completed his third year of office, and his able administration 
of the affairs of his country further contributed to the consolidation 
of its economic and financial resources and to the progressive and 
substantial realization of its natural potentialities. 

Many measures for public benefit, both domestic and foreign, were 
carried to a successful outcome, notably: the international agreement 
for the repression of the white slave tmffic and the International Sani- 
tary Convention concluded in the city of Rio de Janeiro on June 12, 

1904, with the Argentine Republic, Uruguay, and Paraguay; the 
boundary treaty with Bk;uador promulgated on May 18, 1905; two 
protocols relating to the execution of the boundary treaty concluded 
between Brazil and Venezuela on May 5, 1859, signed at Caracas by 
the plenipotentiaries of the two countries on the 9th day of December, 
1905; the renewal of negotiations for a boundary agreement between 
Brazil and Colombia. 

By the terms of an agreement entered into between the Governments 
of Brazil and Peru, and signed at Rio de Janeiro July 12, 1904, the 
claims of Brazilian and Peruvian citizens for pecuniary or other losses 
which they may have suffered on the upper Jurua and upper Purus 
since 1902 were submitted to a mixed arbitration tribunal, meeting at 
Rio de Janeiro on July 10, 1905. By another agreement of the same 
date it was decided that the diplomatic negotiations for a treaty to 
define the boundary between Brazil and Peru should begin August 1 
and terminate December 31, 1904, which was afterwards extended 
to May 31, 1905. Pending these negotiations the territories of the 
upper Jurua and upper Purus were declared neutral, and were to be 
administered by mixed police commissions. The £2,000,000 indemnity 
due Bolivia by the terms of the treaty of November 17, 1903, was paid 
to the representative of that country on June 10, 1904, and March 31, 

1905. The boundary dispute with British Guiana was finally adjusted 
by the award of the King of Italy on May 6, 1904. The treaty of 
friendship and commerce concluded with the Government of Persia 
July 16, 1903, was approved by the Brazilian Congress. 

Brazil also reestablished a legation at Mexico and the Government 
of the Netherlands created a legation at Rio de Janeiro, which was 
inaugurated on the 16th of December, 1905. 

Brazil's representatives at the Sugar Conference of Brussels were 



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L.ATIN-AMEBICA IN 1905. — A BEVIEW. 215 

the accredited Minister to that country and a Delegate from the 
Treasui^ Department. 

Through the initiative of His Majesty the King of Italy, an Inter- 
national Institute of Agriculture has been established at Rome. Brazil 
was invited to take part in the preparatory conferences and sent a 
representative. 

The invitation to attend the Second Peace Conference at The 
Hague was accepted, and the representatives of the Republics of the 
American continent, at a meeting held at Washington on December 6 
last., decided to hold the Third International American Conference at 
the city of Rio de Janeiro. This decision received the enthusiastic 
support of the countries interested and preparations for hearty co- 
operation for mutual benefit were inaugurated. 

Early in the j'^ear it was officially announced that Senhor Joaquim 
Nabuco de Araujo, the Brazilian Minister in London, had been 
appointed to assume the important post of first Ambassador of Brazil 
to the United States of America. Mr. Thompson, who had previ- 
ously represented the United States at Rio Janeiro as Minister, was 
simultaneously raised to the rank of Ambassador, and a banquet was 
given in his honor at Petropolis by the Baron de Rio Blanco, Brazil- 
ian Minister of Foreign Affairs. 

Both on the part of Brazil and the Argentine Republic a great 
desire is manifested to promote and strengthen conmiercial relatione, 
and Senator Benito Villanueva, an Argentine envoy, on his return 
from a mission to France, remained at Rio for a conference with Dr. 
Lauro Muixer, the Brazilian Minister of Industry. One of the sub- 
jects discussed was understood to be the utility of effecting a connec- 
tion of the Brazilian railway system with the Argentine line in course 
of construction by an English company in the Misiones territory, which 
would plac^ the two Republics in through railway communication. 

Special stress is attached by Brazil to the necessity of attracting 
immigration and of inducing immigrants to remain in the country by 
guaranteeing them a certain income and by making grants of land. 
The immigrants are already in favoi*able position as regards income, 
but it is proposed to draw up laws giving them a fixed position in the 
country, establishing credit institutions, and protecting producers 
against fluctuation in prices. 

The improvement made in the sanitary condition of the capital is 
most gratifying. The year 1905 was the healthiest of the last five. 
Avoidable diseases, with the exception of tuberculosis, are disappear- 
ing. Yellow fever especially no longer exists in an epidemic form, 
and Rio de Janeiro can no longer be pointed to as the center of infec- 
tion of this disease. This extraordinary result is entirely due to the 
special prophylactic service which the Federal Government has estab- 
lished and maintained in the face of all opposition. 



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216 INTEBNATIONAL BUBBAU OF THE AMEBIOAK BEFUBLIOS. 

The foreign trade of the Republic in 1905 amounted in value to 
$363,809,400, as compared with $326,727,795 in the preceding year. 
Exports in 1905 amounted to $223,161,260 and imports to $140,567,425, 
giving a balance of trade in favor of the Republic to the amount of 
$82,567,425. 

Taking the figures for 1905 in comparison with those of the previ- 
ous four years, it is seen that last year's record, in spite of the fact 
that there was comparatively small increase in the exports of coffee 
over the previous years, surpasses that for any year, including that of 
1901, the year of the immense coffee crop, and this may generally be 
held to be the most encouraging feature of the export returns. 

During the last five years seven staple products have constituted the 
vast bulk of Brazilian exports, and upon them it has based its fiscal 
system for the time being and with them it has established its credit 
in foreign money markets. These seven products are coffee, rubber, 
cotton, sugar, tobacco, hides, and cocoa. Of the seven all but cotton 
are products of which Brazil uses comparatively little in a manufac- 
tured form from abroad. In cotton Brazil exports about $5,000,000 
of the raw product and imports between $16,000,000 and $17,000,000 
of manufactured cottons. 

Coffee, the principal article of export from Brazil, was shipped in 
1905 to the value of $107,102,575, as compared with $99,787,815 in 
1904. Rubber shipments for the two years were $72,078,845 in 1905 
and $56,096,965 in 1904. Hides, which rank next on the export list, 
were shipped to the value of $6,941,775, followed by yerba-mate, 
$6,182,750; cotton, $5,788,570; cocoa, $5,197,675; tobacco, $4,126,030; 
skins, $2,316,145; gold, in bars, $2,100,640, and sugar, $2,029,770. 

Manganese shipments were worth $1,664,135, as compared with 
$1,533,995 in the preceding year, and monazite sand was sent abroad 
valued at a little over a half million dollars. 

As compared with 1904, coffee in 1905 showed an increase of 7.33 per 
cent, rubber 26.81 per cent, cotton 40.01 per cent, and sugar 334.23 
per cent, the immense increase of the last item indicating that this 
staple is likely to not only attain its old-time record, but that Brazil 
may become the great sugar-producing nation nature has fitted it to 
become. The actual amount of sugar shipped is not great, but it is 
great enough to indicate the drift of things and to demonstrate what 
may be done in the near future. This general tendency to diversify 
products is probably the most important feature of the trade situation 
of Brazil from a Brazilian standpoint. 

A considerable increase is noted in the quantities of goods exported 
in 1905. Exports of sugar, which in 1904 amounted to 7,861,450 kilo- 
grams, in 1905 reached 37,746,510 kilograms; rubber increased from 
28,792,206 kilograms in 1904 to 32,073,285 kilograms in 1905; coffee, 
10,024,536 kilograms in 1904 to 10,820,661 kilograms in 1905; bags of 



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LATIN- AMERICA IN 1906. ^A REVIEW. 217 

cotton seed, 26,600,638 kilograms in 1904 against 37,493,736 kilograms 
in 1905; cotton, 13,262,738 kilograms in 1904 against 24,081,753 kilo- 
grams in 1905, while the exports of mandioca flour increased to 
1,296,070 kilograms. Tobacco and yerba mat^ were the only products 
which showed a decrease, the quantities exported being, respectively, 
3^573,697 kilograms and 3,042,122 kilograms less than in the preced- 
ing year. 

In 1904, the United States alone took half of the total exports of 
Brazilian merchandise, the share of Germany and Great Britain com- 
bined aggregating about 30 per cent. The shipments to the United 
States, however, are almast entirely for consumption and use by that 
country, while those of Germany and Great Britain are largely reex- • 
ported. 

Trade of the United States with Brazil aggregates $110,000,000, a 
larger sum than with any other country of South America, and is only 
exceeded by trade with the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Can- 
ada, and Cuba. Brazil stands third in rank among the countries from 
which United States imports are drawn; on the export side, however, 
Brazil stands twentieth among the countries to which American mer- 
chandise is sent. The United States uses in manufacturing industries 
practically one-half of the crude india rubber produced in the world, 
and her people consume more than one-half of the coffe*^ grown. As 
Brazil is the world's largest producer of india rubber and coffee, her 
sales to the United States are large, but as her principal ports lie upon 
the beaten track of vessels engaged in trade between Europe and South 
America, and as her merchants and consumers are of European origin 
and closely identified with European business interests and customs, 
she draws most of her imports from Europe. 

United States imports from Brazil are far larger than those from 

any other South American country, having been in the fiscal year 1905, 

199,843,094, against $16,354,901 from the Argentine Republic and 

$11,071,613 from Chile. Indeed, merchandise from Brazil formed, in 

1905, practically two-thirds of the imports from all South America. 

On the other hand, the exports to Brazil were, in 1905, but $10,985,096, 

against $23,564,066 to the Argentine Republic, and formed less than 

one-fifth of the total exports to South America from the United States. 

In 1905, imports into the United States from Brazil exceeded exports 

thereto by nearly $90,000,000. This large excess of imports over 

exports, a much larger excess of imports than occurs with any other 

country, has always characterized the trade between the United States 

and Brazil. As a result of the demand for coffee and india rubber the 

excess of imports over exports in the trade with Brazil has seldom 

fallen below $50,000,000 in the last twenty years, and was in 1905 

over $88,000,000. The total value of imports into the United States 

BuIL No. 1—06 16 

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218 INTEBNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERIOAN BEPUBLIC8. 

from Brazil from 1867 to 1906 was $2,168,095,230 and the total exports 
to Brazil in that period $372,707,684, making the excess of imports 
over exports during that time $1,786,387,546. 

Of the practically $100,000,000 worth of United States imports 
from Brazil in 1906, $64,000,000 was coffee, $28,500,000 india rubber, 
$2,750,000 hides and skins, $1,260,000 sugar, and $1,250,000 cocoa. 
In coffee importations there has been a steady growth in quantity, 
though the values have fluctuated by reason of changes in prices. 
The total quantity of coffee imported from Brazil in 1905, was 
820,000,000 pounds, against 596,000,000 in 1900, 435,000,000 in 1895, 
and 310,000,000 in 1890. 

The United States exports to Brazil, which amounted, in 1905, to 
$10,985,096, include a very large number of articles, mineral oil show- 
ing the largest total, with $2,456,645; flour, $1,225,565; lumber, 
$621,433; locomotives, $117,086; other steam engines, $103, 733; sewing 
machines, $142,165; other machinery of iron and steel, $663,540; agri- 
cultural implements, $151,715; colored cotton cloths, $562,872, and 
uncolored cotton cloths, $183,090. 

Wheat flour comes to Brazil almost wholly from the United States, 
the Argentine Republic, and Austria-Hungary. The finest quality of 
flour imported into Brazil is Austro-Hungarian, the cost of which 
averaged, f orthe three past years, 12.4 per cent higher than American 
and 27.8 per cent higher than the Argentine. It is used for special 
purposes, and its consumption tends to increase independent of prices 
or competition. American flour comes next as to quality, the average 
cost for the three years being 13.8 per cent higher than that of the 
Argentine Republic. 

The custom-house revenues for 1905 amounted to 177,735,851 
milreis paper and 53,775,501 milreis gold, which is an increase over 
those of the preceding year of 15,936,635 mUreia paper and 7,187,543 
milreis gold. 

The consumption duties in 1905 amounted to 36,015,892 milreis^ 
showing an increase of 822,412 milreis over those of 1904. 

The law of December 30, 1904, estimated the receipts for 1905 at 
47,844,880 milreis gold, 260,813,000 milreis paper, exclusive of amounts 
that might be collected for port improvement works in the States, the 
collection of which had not been ordered. The revenues actually col- 
lected during the year amounted to 56,359,679 milreis gold and 
287,751,726 milreis paper, exclusive of deposits, which are 8,514,798 
milreis gold and 26,938,726 milreis paper in excess of the estimated 
receipts. 

The expenditures for the fiscal year were fixed at 46,794,481 milreis 
gold and 273,679,237 m^Vr^ paper, exclusive of expenditures for port 
improvement works in the States. Extraordinary credits were author- 
ized during the year to the amount of 1,677,207 milreis gold and 



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LATIN-AMEBICA IN 1905. — ^A BEVIEW. 219 

27,808,249 mUreis paper, making the total expenditures 48,471,688 
mUreis gold and 301,487,486 mU/reis paper. 

The commission appointed by the Coffee Exchange of Rio de 
Janeiro for the computation of the coffee crop of 1905-6 have con- 
firmed the estimate placing the quantity of coffee available for export 
from the port of Rio de Janeiro at 3,500,000 to 4,000,000 bags. 

As a coffee producer Brazil continues to hold the leading position 
unchallenged, but it would be a mistake to undervalue the importance 
of her agricultural capabilities in other directions. In point of fact, 
no country in the world excels the possibilities of Brazil in regard to 
the diversity and value of the products of universal consumption and 
conmierce. A very considerable portion of the Republic is admirably 
suited for cattle raising, and practical steps are being taken, both by 
the Federal and State authorities, to foster enterprises with a view to 
placing the agricultural and industrial activities of the nation on a 
broader and more productive basis. Already conspicuous develop- 
ment has taken place, and the policy of the Government with this 
object in view has so far been commensurately favorable. 

The report of the North Brazilian sugar factories for the year 
ended March 31, 1905, states that the quantity of cane obtained during 
the year was 41,129 tons, which yielded 3,154i tons .of sugar, 309,781 
liters of alcohol, and 451,600 liters of molasses, estimated to produce 
another 150,533 liters of alcohol. As compared with the previous 
year, the increase in the quantity of cane is 7,129 tons; in sugar, 523^ 
tons, and in alcohol and its equivalent in molasses, 38,482 liters. The 
crop was an unusually heavy one, necessitating the carrying forward 
of heavier stocks than would otherwise have been the case. These are 
represented by 675 tons of sugar and alcohol and molasses, equal to 
about 214,560 liters of finished alcohol. Part of these stocks had been 
sold forward and have been valued accordingly at sale prices, while the 
unsold portion has been taken at cost. The year's trading resulted 
in a profit of ^11,981, as compared with £10,224 for 1903-4, and 
exchange has been favorable to the company. The profit for the year, 
after deducting all expenses and debenture interest to March 31, paid 
and accrued, and after providing for the redemption of £1,000 of 
debentures and bonus thereon, is £8,226; adding to this £2,326 brought 
forward from last year, the total is £10,552, out of which the directors 
recommend a dividend of 5 per cent. 

In view of the difficulty which has been experienced for some years 
past in obtaining adequate supplies of cane, the directors have secured 
two of the best cane-growing estates in the immediate neighborhood 
of the factory, and they believe that these will, under improved 
methods of cultivation, be a valuable acquisition for the company. 
An extension of the company's lines of communication has also been 
effected, and although the work of construction was completed only in 

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220 INTERNATIONAL B0EEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

February, one section of the line was opened by the middle of Decem- 
ber, and over 850 tons of cane were obtained by the end of March 
from the new district which has thus been opened up. 

The present condition of the cotton industry in Brazil is the result 
of protective tariflFs against British competition. In 1875, there 
were only 30 cotton factories in Brazil; in 1879 a duty of 50 rets per 
kilogram was imposed on raw imported cotton, one of 250 reis on 
carded or spun cotton, and one of 100 to 600 reia on cotton thread; 
and the result of this is stated to be that in 1882 the number of cotton 
mills increased to 50, and in 1895 to 155. At present there are 108 
mills, with 715,000 spindles, which treat over 30,000,000 kilograms of 
native cotton and employ over 37,000 hands, turning out about 
235,000,000 square meters of cotton cloth annually, the total capital 
invested in the industry being about 191,208 contos of reis. 

There is a great incentive to produce raw cotton in the Republic, as 
mills are flourishing and will continue to flourish. 

There are important woolen factories for cloths, flannels, rugs, felts, 
etc., at Rio Janeiro, Nitheroy, Maranhao, Porto Allegre, and Rio 
Grande do Sul. There are two silk mills at Petropolis, near Rio. In 
Rio de Janeiro are also two large flour mills (but one of them was 
recently closed) capable of grinding per annum 60,000 and 40,000 tons, 
respectively, wheat being imported chiefly from the Argentine and 
Uruguayan Republics. 

New capital is being progressively invested in mining enterprises, 
and several companies, formed with the object of exploiting mines, 
have been authorized to engage in operations to that end. The Gov- 
ernment does all in its power to facilitate this industry. The study 
of the carboniferous deposits situated in the south of Brazil, extend- 
ing from the north of Sao Paulo, is being continued. Already sev- 
eral borings and sinkings have been effected, and the analyses made 
in North America show that in the manufacture of briquettes there 
exists an initial means of creating a market abroad for the products. 
The coal formation of Brazil begins in northern Sao Paulo, near the 
border of Minas Geraes, and extends southwestward across the States 
of Parana, Santa Catharina, and Rio Grande do Sul, probably passing 
into Uruguay and the Argentine Republic. 

Petroleum also exists in workable quantities. Manganese o>es are 
largely exported from Rio de Janeiro and Bahia — 157,295 metric tons 
in 1902, 161,926 in 1903, 208,260 in 1904. Monazite sand was exported 
in 1904 to the amount of 4,860 tons. Other mineral exports in 1904 
were mica and talc, 14 tons; copper ore, 610 tons; platinum, 2,122 
grammes; rock crystal, 37 tons; agate 54 tons. 

Great development has taken place in gem production in Brazil. 
Continued exploration in the State of Minas Geraes has led to great 
discoveries of tourmaline, which have furnished magnificent red 



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LATIN-AMEBICA IN 1906. — ^A BEVIBW. 221 

(rubellites) as well as blue-green, and green gems, and large quantities 
were found, cut, and sold during 1904. Further discoveries of gem 
beryls in the same State have furnished magnificent blue and green 
aquamarines, which have been cut and have reached the gem markets 
of the world. In regard to the Brazilian amethyst, a large quantity 
of gems have come from the great geode, the bulk of which was shown 
at the Dusseldorf Exposition in 1902. Many of these which were 
obtained from the points of the myriads of crystals that, lined the 
great grotto were, on account of their rich, dark color, sold as Siberian 
amethyst. There has been an extensive demand for many of the semi- 
precious stones, such as the j>eridot, of which quantities have been cut 
from Egyptian material, and the yellow smoky quartz called topaz 
from Spain and Brazil. A number of attempts were made to form 
new diamond mining companies, but the output has been very small. 

The existence of platinum has been recognized in Brazil in the 
Lages stream, in the Serro district, in alluvial deposits at Itabira do 
Campo, in the Ouro Preto district, and in the river Abaete, all in the 
State of Minas Geraes. 

The government of the State of Matto Grosso has recently granted 
several concessions for the exploitation by means of drags of the beds 
of numerous streams which are thought to contain gold or diamonds, 
or both, in sufficiently large quantities to make it remunerative. One 
of the concessions belongs to an English company, the Matto Grosso 
Dredging Company which has already taken out a large quantity of 
gold and several diamonds from the Rio Coxipo de Ouro and is pre- 
paring to explore the Rio Manso. Another concession has been trans- 
ferred to the Eastern Matto Grosso Company, organized at Buenos 
Ayres. This last concession embraces the bed and banks of the Rio 
Coxipo and Rio Jauro for an extent of about 340 kilometers. Diamond 
mining is also carried on in Minas Gereas, Bahia, and other Provinces. 

Brazil is persistent in its policy of railway expansion. How thor- 
oughly this work is being carried out is not generally known, but the 
great activity is manifested throughout the country as a whole. In 
the north of Madeira the Mamone Railway, when joined up to the 
Bolivian lines, will provide communication between all the principal 
places between the basin of the Amazon and the Pacific. The service 
will be carried on by land and water, and this part of the railway pro- 
gramme is unquestionably of extreme value to the country at large. 
The vast and valuable territory of Matto Grosso will be opened up, 
while farther south there will be connection between the Tocatins and 
the Araguaya River. This arrangement is in the hands of a company 
to whom the Government has granted a concession, and is making 
rapid and excellent progress. The intercommunication between the 
north and the south of Brazil is also being promoted by a proposed 
construction of a branch line from Cachoeira de Itepemirim to 



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222 INTEENATIONAL BUBEAU OF THE AMERICAN BEPUBLIC8. 

Mathilde, in the southern part of the State of Espirito Santo; the 
extension of the line inland, from Rio Grande do Norte to Baturite, as 
well as the construction of the Clara-Mirim line; the building of the 
Victoria-Minas line, connecting up the Bahia lines, and a contem- 
plated linking up of the Sobral line, with an extension across the 
Piauhy to San Luiz. A line from Caxias to Cajazeiras is likewise an 
important one, running as it does near the coast. In many other direc- 
tioiis, in the States of Rio de Janeiro, SSo Paulo, Rio Grande do Norte, 
Pernambuco, and others, new lines are being constructed, and the 
various systems being linked up so as to complete the transport 
facilities. 

Recent statistics show that the railway system in Brazil included, at 
the beginning of 1905, 17,059 kilometers in full working order and 
1,200 kilometers in course of construction. In operating the Central 
Railway the receipts for the year were 28,649,980$761, as against 
28,223,886$529 in 1904, an increase of 426,094$232. Of this increase 
292,460$535 were contributed by passenger traffic, while freights of 
coflfee produced 109,145$590 more than in 1904. The expenditure in 
1904 was 27,840,953*150 and, in 1905, 27,561,335$692, a decrease of 
279,617*458, while the balance shown on the year's working comes out 
at 1,088,6451069. 

Chile. — The general progress made by Chile in 1905, under Presi- 
dent RiESCo's administration, was satisfactory. All questions with 
neighboring nations were arranged. Diplomatic relations with Peru 
were resumed and resulted in agreement whereby the differences 
between the two countries would not only be ended, but would 
also have the effect of drawing them closer together. Chile's differ- 
ences with the Argentine Republic and Bolivia were also promptly 
arranged. Congressional bills were announced during the year for 
the revision of existing codes, the reform of the consular service, the 
improvement of the police service, the carrying out of public works, 
including irrigation, the development of the merchant marine, and the 
promotion of salmon fishing. 

The financial position greatly improved and the material resources 
and activities of the Nation are continuing to move in the direction of 
increased security and prosperity, both as respects commerce and 
monetary stability. 

Favorable prices ruling in Europe for three of the principal arti- 
cles of export from the Republic, namely, nitrate, wool, and copper, 
stimulated all industries connected with their production, and this 
greatly contributed to the growing prosperity of the country. The 
immediate consequence of this increase in industrial wealth is that 
national capital is taking the place of foreign capital. In proof of this 
it may be mentioned that the nitrate deserts around Antofagasta and 
Taltal were a short time ago uninhabited, except by the few hardy 



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LATIN-AMEBIOA IN 1905. — ^A BBVIEW. 223 

pioneers. Numerous ^^qficinas^ have been opened there, and add very 
materially to the production of the fertilizer. The low-lying lands of 
the south, in Tierra del Fuego and Magellan, a few years ago almost 
unknown, have now been nearly all taken up for the production of 
sheep and cattle, and will soon become a most valuable permanent aid to 
the riches of Chile. The production of wool, in that neighborhood in 
particular, is increasing very rapidly. Most of these new and valuable 
investments have been started with Chilean capital, and the inference 
may be drawn that profits will generally remain at home and be used 
in further industrial and agricultural enterprises. Many of these 
investments have been floated as companies or syndicates on the San- 
tiago and Valparaiso stock and share market. The country on the 
whole has benefited by the interest thus aroused and by the capital 
invested in opening up unexplored regions. There can be no doubt 
that more practical encouragement is being extended to proposals for 
developing the natural resources of Chile. 

In 1905, the revenue of the country amounted to 139,688,440 2)e808 
and expenditures to 136,326,749 pesos. For 1906, the revenue was 
estimated as 137,000,000 pesos and expenditures 165,000,000 pesos. 

The foreign debt on December 31, 1904, stood at £16,449,960. To 
that sum must be added £1,350,000, the amount of the bonds to be 
issued for the payment of the Santiago sewage works. On the same 
date the internal debt amounted to 103,815,821.45 j9^£>«. 

The foreign commerce of the Republic rose in 1904 to 372,804,502 
pesos gold, of which 215,652,422 pesos corresponded to national prod- 
ucts exported, and 157,152,080^^^ to foreign merchandise imported. 
In 1905, the imports amounted in value to 157,000,000 pesos and the 
exports to 216,000,000 j?^s/w. 

Of the $11,071,613 worth of merchandise imported into the United 
States from Chile in 1905, nitrate of soda was the principal item, its 
value being stated at $9,306,577. The exports to Chile, valued at 
$5,391,357 in 1905, consisted of a large number of articles, of which 
the most important were cotton cloths, $742,771; iron and steel manu- 
factures, as a whole, $1,435,168; wood and manufactures thereof, in- 
cluding lumber and furniture, $484,356; illuminating oils, $649,272, 
and provisions, $90,105. 

During the first six months of the calendar year 1905 the customs 
receipts amounted to $24,467,335 from export duties and $14,859,992 
from import duties, making a gross total of $39,327,377 (Chilean 
currency). During the same period of 1904 the total revenue col- 
lected from exports and imports, including Arica custom-house, was 
$21,316,133 and $15,466,409, respectively. Export duties increased 
during 1905 by $3,151,252. This increase is due to the progressive 
development of the nitrate industry. The decrease in the imxx>rt 
duties during the same period amounted to $606,417. This decrease 



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224 IKTEBNATIONAL BUBEAU OF THE AMEBIOAK BEPUBLIC8. 

principally occurred at the ports adjacent to the agricultural districts 
and is due to the poor cereal harvests, which affected the resources 
and consequent consumption of the majority of the inhabitants of 
those districts. 

The total yield of the year's wheat crop is given as 4,301,312 metric 
quintals, which is 1,153,049 metric quintals less than that of 1904. 
The home consumption of wheat is estimated at 4,500,000 quintals, con- 
sequently there was a deficiency for 1905 of 198,688 metric quintals. 
This deficiency was, however, covered by the surplus stock of 1904, 
which was about 1,000,000 metric quintals in excess of home require- 
ments. Of this surplus about 800,000 quintals were exported, leaving 
a net surplus for the supply of the 1905 deficiency of 200,000 quintals. 
The data in the possession of the statistical oflSce showed, while there 
was no available export surplus in the country, it was not necessary 
to import wheat to cover a possible shortage for local needs. 

The agricultural year closed unfavorably for the two principal 
wheat-producing zones, owing to the rains in the spring, the want of 
fertilizers for impoverished lands, and the want of proper cultivation 
and careful selection of seed. 

The figures relating to the production, exportation, and consump- 
tion of nitrate in the nitrate year 1904-5 are interesting. The nitrate 
year for production and exportation runs from April 1 to March 31, 
and for consumption, from May 1 to April 30. The production 
totaled 36,661,125 quintals, which was an excess of 5,021,746 quintals 
over the production *in the nitrate year 1903-4. The exportation in 
1904^5 amounted to 34,200,621 quintals, which was an increase of 
2,604,619 quintals over 1903-4. Deliveries for consumption in 1904-6 
amounted to 33,798,013 quintals, being an increase of 994,864 quintals 
over 1903-4. The figures for 1904^5 constitute a record. 

Production, exportation, and consumption in the first quarter of the 
nitrate year 1905-6 show slight increases as compared with the corre- 
sponding quarter of 1904^5. The production in the first quarter of 
1905-6 totaled 9,225,106 quintals, an increase of 941,308 over the cor- 
responding period of 1904r-5; the exportation ambunted to 6,799,564 
quintals, an increase of 884,111 quintals, while the deliveries for eon- 
sumption reached 5,691,628 quintals, a small increase of 138,743 quin- 
tals. While the consumption in 1904-5 exceeded that of 1903-4 in 3.033 
per cent only, the increase in exportation represented 8.244 per cent. 

In construction and under consideration there are 38 new works of 
a productive capacity of 38,000,000 quintals. The association, in view 
of the foregoing, is desirous of extending the propaganda for the use 
of nitrate, in which endeavor it has been spending for some years past 
£40,000 per annum. 

There was a very gratifying revival of mining enterprise in Chile 
during the year, and in June an important discovery of iron ore 



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LATIN-AMEBICA IN 1905. A REVIEW. 225 

was announced at Cifuncho Bay, in the Department of Taltal. The 
discoverers awaited, so the report stated, the establishment by French 
concessionaires of the iron industry in Chile to commence digging out 
the ore. 

The copper deposits at Copaquire, Chile, are being worked by an 
English company. They are situated in the rainless high altitude of 
Chile. The copper occurs in the form of sulphate, and the ore is of 
low grade. Valuable copper ore has been discovered at Huinquintipa. 
The lodes are of large size and the ore of good grade. 

Telegraphic eommunication over the Andes line was established with 
the Argentine Republic on July 9, 1904, 2,336 messages being sent 
daring that month, the number gradually increasing until in Decem- 
ber, 1904, it amounted to 6,256 messages. The establishment of an 
international telegraph line with Bolivia was also completed and the 
wires connected in August, 1905. 

At the beginning of the year 1905, the provisional exploitation of the 
railway from Pitrufquen to Antihue took place, thus uniting the cen- 
tral line with Valdivia and Osomo. Work was also done on the 
lines from Ovalle to Trapiche, Choapa to Illapel, Melipilla, Puangue, 
tunnel of Arboi, and Temuco to Carahue, all of which should be open 
for traffic in 1906. Duribg 1904, and in the months from January to 
June, 1905, contracts for railway construction to the value of 3,630,000 
ptsos were let, covering 92 kilometers of trackage in the sections from 
Animas to the Pozos, Paloma to San Marcos, Choapa to Salamanca, 
and Alcones to the Arbol tunnel. Plans have been made and the nec- 
essary steps taken for the beginning of the construction of railway 
lines aggregating 158 kilometers at an approximate cost of 8,000,000 
pesos. During the remainder of 1905, plans and surveys were com- 
pleted for the construction of 238 kilometers of railways at a cost of 
more than 9,000,000 peso&. 

Work on the Transandine Railway was actively pushed forward. 
Starting at the Andes Range rails were laid for a distance of 45 miles, 
and the line exploited to Guardia Vieja, a distance of 37 kilometers. 
On the completion of tunnels now in course of construction the line 
will be still further extended toward the Argentine boundary. 

The length of State railways is placed at 2,408 kilometers, and there 
are 469 kilometers of private line under construction, and other lines 
of a total length of 2,216 kilometers have been authorized. 

During the year 394 kilometers of telegraph lines were laid down, 
27,000 meters of bridges constructed, and 180 schools built. Much 
was done to improve internal communication. 

Harbor improvements at Valparaiso and Antofagasta meet the 
requirements of the country's trade. 

The total expenses of operation of the Valparaiso custom-house in 
1905 was $1,042,697.86, of which amount $618,659.20 consisted of 

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226 INTEBNATIOKAL BUREAU OF THE AMERIOAN BEPUBLIOB. 

salaries paid employees and $312,509.43 of sundry expenses, and the 
customs duties collected aggregated $23,237,773.79. 

The Congress of the Republic granted to Mr. Ambrosio Oljvos, on 
January 6, 1906, an important concession, permitting him, or his rep- 
resentatives or assigns, to construct and operate an electric traction 
railway between Valparaiso and Santiago, passing through the cele- 
brated Casablanca and Curacavl valleys and entering the capital city 
of the nation from the west. A branch is to built from the main line 
which will connect the Curacavl Valley with the thriving town of 
Melipilla. The life of the concession is one hundred years, and carries 
with it exemptions from the payment of import duties on material, 
the use of Government lands, the right of expropriation, etc. 

The number of immigrants arriving in the Republic during the 
five-year period 1901-1905 was 14,000. 

Colomhia. — ^The efforts of General Reyes, the Chief Executive of 
the Republic of Colombia, during the year under review were mamlj 
centered in the development of internal resources, for which purpose 
a number of decrees for the Safeguarding of local industries and inter- 
ests were passed. 

A Presidential decree came into force on January 28, 1906, intro- 
ducing a modified tariff and fixing the fees •to be paid for the certi- 
fication of consular invoices and manifests. 

The substance of the more important provisions of this decree was 
as follows: 

Article 1 provides that import duties shall be paid in accordance with 
the tariff fixed by law. No. 63 of 1903, increased by 70 per cent, and in 
conformity with the tariff classification of law 36 of 1886. 

Article 5 specifier certain articles necessary to industrial develop- 
ment which are to be exempted from the surtax of 70 per cent; while 
the duties on certain other articles, such as alcoholic beverages, 
tobacco, and sugar, are to be increased. 

The new monetary law passed in March, 1905, by the Congress of 
Colombia, and becoming operative on the 1st of January, 1906, pro- 
vides for the conversion of the paper money now in circulation into 
gold, and in pursuance with that provision of the law President Retes 
issued a decree directing that 25 per cent of the yield of the new reve- 
nues shall be set aside for that purpose. 

An important decree creating a Government monopoly for the pur- 
pose of raising revenue on liquors, hides, cigars and cigarettes, and 
matches was promulgated by the President under date of March 8, 
1905, to take effect from the date of its promulgation. 

A duty on hides was imposed in the Republic, dating from July 1, 
1905. The Central Bank, under the authority of the Minister of 
Finance, has organized this in such a way as to secure the highest 
possible return from the duty, as well as the sale of the hides abroad. 



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liATIN-AMEBICA IN 1905.— A REVIEW. 227 

The product of the revenue from hides is estimated at 25 per cent of 
the new source of revenue created and destined for the currency con- 
version during the first year and at 50 per cent thereafter. If the 
receipts should not amount to the 25 and 50 per cent, respectively, of 
the new duties the deficit will be made good from the emerald mines 
revenue. 

A Colombian Presidential decree fixes the export duty on india rub- 
ber ex]>orted through the customs ports of the eastern region of the 
Caqueta at 10 cents gold per kilogram. 

Under date of May 7, 1905, by decree of the National Assembly, the 
territory of Colombia was divided into 15 Departments. The old 
Municipality of Bogotd has been taken from the Department of Cun- 
dinamarca and made into a Federal District. 

From Colombia, the United States imported in 1905 merchandise 
to the value of $6,411,793, consisting chiefly of coflfee, $8,517,664; 
hides and skins, $968,422; fruits and nuts, $928,085. Exports thither 
on the part of the United States consisted of miscellaneous products 
valued at $3,582,789, the most important being cotton cloths, $817,025; 
iron and steel manufactures of various kinds, $552,859; manufactures 
of leather, including boots and sTioes, $160,268; illuminating oil, 
$100,320; and provisions, $253,062. 

The declared exports of Ciudad Bolivar for the year 1905 amounted to 
nearly $2,500,000 gold. The principal items were: Balata rubber, 
$800,000; caoutchouc, $24,000; hides, $550,000; gold, $475,000; heron 
feathers, $170,000; semamby, $110,000; living cattle, $170,000. 

United States Consul Ellsworth supplies from Cartagena the 
export figures of that Colombian port for the year ending December 
31, 1905. The value of shipments to the United States was $1,076,954, 
the most important article being $691,608 of coflfee. The other promi- 
nent items were $172,927 of hides, $62,216 of rubber, and $84,524 of 
cedar and mahogany. 

The principal exports of the country are coflfee, hides, tobacco, 
dividivi plants, cocoa, rubber, cotton, cotton seed, and minerals. 
About 67 per cent of the coflfee goes to the United States; all the 
tobacco to Germany; and all the cotton to Liverpool or Havre. The 
chief imports are flour, lard, petroleum, and cotton goods from the 
United States; sugar, rice, and potatoes from Germany; and cotton 
goods from Great Britain. 

The steamers of the Orinoco Steamship Company run between the 
port of Ciudad Bolivar and Orocue during eight months of the year, 
and proposals are being made to the Venezuelan and Colombian Gov- 
ernments that a wagon road be made from Bogota, the capital of 
Colombia, to a place on the Meta River above Orocue, called Barrigon. 

The following districts of Colombia are considered to be the most 
aoitable for cotton cultivation: The valley of the Magdalena, the Goa- 



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228 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

jira Peninsula, the plain of Valledupar as far as Paso, the Department 
of Bolivar from San Juan Neponuceno up to Corozal and the region 
of plains, the Department of Antioquia, the whole of the valley of the 
Gauca, and, the most suitable of all, the Department of the ToUma, 
the apparently sterile plains of which would easily lend themselves to 
irrigation. The regions of Fusagasuga and Leiba, as also the valleys 
of Cucuta, possess the soils especially adapted to cotton planting. 
Cotton here is considered as a perennial, whereas once sown it lasts 
for many j^ears without need of resowing; hut, as after the gathering 
of the cotton the tree is generally cut and burned, this being equal to 
a complete pruning, it can be thereby considered as annual, the whole 
of the new-grown tree being only 1 year old. Taking a general aver- 
age, every 100 pounds gathered contains 60 parts pod and 40 cotton 
fiber. In some cases the proportion of cotton fiber amounts to as high 
as 55 per cent. The cotton is sold, before the pod is exti-acted, at 
from 97 cents to $1.46 per arroba. The largest cotton estates do not 
exceed 17 square miles. The highest wage, including board, amounts 
to 16 cents per day. 

The production of the emerald mines of Colombia for the period 
included between May 1, 1904, and January 31, 1905, was as follows, 
stated in carats: First-class emeralds, 262,548; second-class, 467,690; 
third-class, 22,700; fourth-class, 16,000. These figures give a total of 
768,938 carats sent to Bogotd. in the period under review. The profits 
of the Muzo mines for ten months were as follows: Ten per cent of 
the production, 76,893 carats; allow one-half for cutting, 38,446 carats; 
production, estimated value, £153,784; less wages and other expenses 
at mines, £10,784; net profit, £143,000, equal to $696,410. 

In 1904, the Southern Railway carried 29,102 first-class passengers 
and 81,961 second-class passengers, the receipts from the sale of tickets 
being, respectively, $486,894.30 and $953,685. . In 1905, the first-class 
passengers carried numbered 29,695 and the second-class passengers 
97,051, the receipts from tickets being, respectively, $627,352.40 and 
$1,450,465.50. The live stock carried over this railway in 1904 num- 
bered 3,958 head, on which freight was paid to the amount of $81,354, 
as compared with 3,286 head in 1905, on which freight was paid amount- 
ing to $108,618. The total number of tons of freight carried in 1904 
aggregated 10,189y^oVir? as compared with 13,5467^^^^ transported in 
1905, the amount of the freight charges being, respectively, $823,790.40 
and $1,394,415. In addition to the items mentioned the charges for 
sundry freight carried in 1904 and 1905 amounted to $8,533 and $9,050, 
respectively. . From the foregoing it will be seen that the total receipts 
of the road in 1904 and 1905 were $2,354,256.70 and $3,589,900.90, 
respectively. 

A contract between the Government of Colombia and a British 
company was entered into during the year, for the construction of .a 



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LATIN-AMERICA IN 1905. — A REVIEW. 229 

railway connecting the ports of Girardot, on the Upper, and Honda, 
on the Lower Magdalena. The line must be open to traffic within five 
years from the date of the commencement of the work, though a year's 
extension may be granted if, at the expiration of that time limit, a 
minimum of 50 kilometers of road shall have been completed. The 
company is to receive a Government subvention of $9,900 national 
gold for each kilometer of line, payable in bonds. 

Another important contract was signed by the Minister of Public 
Works and Senor H. de la Esprielu^, the owner of the textile factory 
in Cartagena, by which the latter has agreed to set up new machinery 
for the manufacture of lace, and also for the extraction of oil from 
cotton seed. The Government on its part agrees to subsidize the 
undertaking with a monthly payment of $400 American gold (£80). 
The payment of this subvention is to take effect from January 1, 1906, 
and is to last for three years from that date. 

Colombia is developing a sand-lime brick industry which is promis- 
ing very profitable results in the near future. The plant has been 
placed at Barranquilla by European enterprise, and the machinery has 
been imported from Germany. Its present capacity is 6,000,000 bricks 
a year, and the selling price of the product is $6 a thousand. 

Costa. Rica. — The general condition of trade in Costa Rica during 
1905, under the administration of President Esquivel, was sounder 
than for some years past. Values of property in the interior were on 
a more stable basis, credit was used with greater care, and the rate 
of interest current in the country fell from 12 to 10 per cent per 
annum. On June 1, 1905, the Commercial Bank of Costa Rica, with 
a capital of 1,000,000 colones^ commenced operations, having been 
duly organized. 

The internal debt at the close of the financial year, March 31, 1905, 
amounted to 7,868,776.96 colones^ against 8,593,374.49 colones on March 
31, 1904, this being a reduction of 724,597.53 colones— t\i2it is, 8.68 
per cent. 

For the year ended March 31, 1905, the following figures are given 
showing revenue and expenditure: Net revenue, 5,306,132.97 colo7ies; 
expenditure, 4,113,655.22 colones^ showing a surplus of 1,192,477.75 
colones. 

The principal increase in revenue was from customs duties, which 
show an advance of 201,849.50 colones^ and from the alcohol and tobacco 
monopolies of the Government. 

The total value of shipments of all commodities to foreign countries 
increased from $5,333,000 in 1896 to $8,148,000 in 1905. This growth 
in exports has naturally been accompanied by a development of the 
import trade through general increase of purchasing power as well as 
through the increased demand for the paraphernalia needed by the 



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230 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

expanding industrien. In this growing import trade the United States 
has played a more and more important part. 

The general character of the import trade of Costa Rica is well 
illustrated by the following figures compiled from the import statistics 
for the year ending December 81, 1905, showing the principal imports 
into Costa Rica in 1905, with percentage of each coming from the 
United States: 



Class of goods. 



Textiles , 

Food stoffR, including breadstuflTs, provisions, wines, etc. 

Iron and steel, and manufactures of , 

Paints, pigments, dyes, etc , , 

Chemicals, drugs, medicines, etc * , 

Paper, and manufactures of 

Tobacco, and manufactures of 

Carts, carriages, etc 

Leather, unenumerated 

Lumber 

Coined money 

All other articles 

Total 



Total. 



$1,171,150 

1,070,262 

777,886 

167,690 

147,306 

1U,890 

100,899 

78,898 

76,874 

66,137 

601,601 

985,425 



6,289,477 



From United 
States. 



$248,674 

670.882 

626,078 

•2,577 

66,401 

81,814 

66,684 

71,889 

65,126 

66,738 

601,601 

814,599 



2,706.068 



Percentsige 

from United 

States. 



20.8 
62.7 
67.5 
58.7 
46.1 
28.6 
66.5 
97.9 
71.7 
99.4 
100.0 
81.9 



46.9 



The proximity of the United States accounts for the preponderance 
of imports from that country, particularly in view of the large amount 
of food stuflfs imported into Costa Rica. 

Importation by means of parcels post declined in 1905. France 
leads with 30.68 per cent, followed by the United States with 29.14 
per cent, Germany with 24.32 per cent, the United Kingdom with 
10.29 per cent, and Italy with 5.42 per cent. 

The chief exports of Costa Rica are coflfee and bananas, these two 
items together making up over 90 per cent in value of all shipments 
abroad. Hard woods, hides, and small quantities of precious metals 
supply the major part of the remaining 10 per cent. In the other five 
countries the exports comprise nearly the same list, but in different 
proportions. In most of them coffee occupies the leading place, while 
in Costa Rica bananas have risen to a point of equality with coffee and 
bid fair soon to surpass it. The value of coffee exports has remained 
nearly stationary during the past ten years; in 1896 it was $4,310,000, 
in 1905 only $3,774,000. Banana exports, on the other hand, have 
grown with astonishing rapidity from $565,000 in 1896 to $3,648,000 
in 1905. The market for Central American bananas is extending 
rapidly, the last few years having seen large sales in England, and it 
is certain that the success of the industry in Costa Rica will stimulate 
the development of the banana lands of the other five countries. 

Statistics show that the total value of bananas shipped from the Blue- 
fields district the past three years to have been $2,304,548. The ship- 
ments for each of the three years named, ending June 80, are as 
follows: 1903, $842,220; 1904, $814,900; 1905, $647,428. 



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liATIN-AMEBICA IN 1905. — A EEVIEW. 231 

The report of the Bluefields Steamship Company states that of the 
total net earnings, for 1906, $1,044,703 was from bananas and miscel- 
laneous tropical fruits and $573,017 from the sugar business. The 
company owned a total of 295,517 acres of land September 30, 1905, 
compared with 298,583 the previous year, and leases of 319,313 acres, 
compared with 324,889 the previous year. The company owns 11,942 
head of cattle, against 13,239 the previous year, and 2,940 horses and 
mules, against 2,710 previous year. The company owns 173.65 miles 
of railroad, not including the Northern Railway of Costa Rica, com- 
pared with 153.79 miles m 1904 and 123.64 miles in 1903. Its rail- 
road equipment consists of 30 locomotives and 669 cars. 

The United Fruit Company is one of the principal enterprises of 
the country. The report of this company for the years 1903-4 showed 
a total area of bananas in cultivation of 6,242.70 hectares, while the 
report for 1904-5 shows 8,335.37 hectares of bananas in cultivation, 
or an increase of 2,092.67 hectares. The number of bunches of 
bananas exported during the year 1904-5 aggregated 6,138,009, valued 
at 5,213,005.97 cclonea^ or an increase over the exports of the previous 
year of 677,646 bunches, valued at 152,026.84 colones. Two hundred 
and sixty -seven vessels were employed in the transportation of this 
fruit During the same period, 1904-5, the United Fruit Company 
imported, in part payment of its expenses, $317,000 American gold, 
or about $117,000 more than its imports of American gold during the 
previous year. 

The coflfee crop of 1904-5 amounted to 296,509 bags, of which 61.33 
per cent were exported in husk. The crop in the Heredia and Ala- 
juela provinces was a large one. 

Seventy-three metric tons of rubber were exported in 1905, against 
67 metric tons in 1904. This rubber is from uncultivated trees. 
Although Costa Rica, as regards soil and climate, offers a fine field for 
rubber planting, no considerable plantations have yet been made in 
the Republic. 

The export of cacao shows an increase from 119 to 149 metric tons. 
The home demand, which is considerable, is entirely supplied from 
cacao grown in the country. 

The Republic of Costa Rica produced during the year 1904-5 
1,415,000 kilograms of molasses and 2,305,950 kilograms of sugar. 

As to all the other products of the soil labor only is required to 
convert the primeval forests into rich fields of rice, cotton, maize, 
sugar cane, cocoa, rubber, etc., for which there is a large demand, 
while the cultivation of oranges and pineapples on a large scale will 
undoubtedly prove a great success, the great enemy, frost, being 
entirely absent. 

Costa Rica is essentially an agricultural country, though on the 
Pacific side there are mines well worth exploitation and development. 



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282 INTEKNATIONAL BUREAU OP THE AMERIGAir BEPUBUOB. 

and as transport facilities are unusually adequate there is no bar to 
enterprises of this character. 

A sensible increase is noted in the exports from Costa Rican mines 
in 1905, precious metals to the value of £58,058, as compared with 
£8,367 in 1904, having been shipped. This is attributable in a large 
degree to the crushings of the Abangares mine, which was shut down 
for improvements in the preceding year. On July 1, 1905, crushing 
was resumed at the company's gold fields, the installation of a40-8tamp 
mill, a cyanide and a leaching plant, and a filter-press plant having 
been completed. The Boston Mining Company continues milling with 
a 10-stamp mill and cyanide plant. Several other mines are reported 
in course of development. 

Punta Arenas is the center of the pearl-fishing industry of Costa 
Rica, which was, however, suspended by a Government decree of 
February 5, 1905, in order to enable the Government to make a 
more thorough examination of the beds and to make provision for 
their adequate exploitation. 

On the 18th of April, 1905, the Congress of the Republic of Costa 
Rica authorized President Ascenci6n Esquivel to reduce or entirely 
remove the duties on imports of corn and beans for such period of 
time as he might deem desirable, and if necessary even to import these 
cereals for account of the Government. Owing to the scarcity of 
these products in Costa Rica at that time, the President of the Republic 
issued on April 25, 1905, a decree, the principal clause of which is 
in substance as follows: The import duties on corn and beans are 
hereby temporarily suspended, said suspension or exemption to take 
effect from May 1 last, and to continue until December 31 of the 
present year. 

By a decree issued on May 20, 1905, the importation of leaf tobacco 
into Costa Rica, which had heretofore been a Government monopoly, 
was made free to everyone. 

The customs receipts in 1904-5 were quite satisfactory. Exclusive 
of the 6 per cent customs duties on merchandise intended for con- 
sumption in Limon (the receipts from which are for the maintenance 
of the hospital there), and the export tax on woods (the product of 
which is also set aside for a special purpose), the receipts from customs, 
estimated in the budget for 1904-5, were 3,533,000 colones. The 
actual receipts from this source amounted to 3,696,166.02 colones^ or a 
surplus over the estimated receipts of 163,166.02 colones. The cus- 
toms receipts in 1903-4 amounted to 3,492,613.24 colones^ and those 
for the Hscal year 1902-3 aggregated 2,965,017.14 colones. These 
figures show a steady increase in the customs receipts of the Republic 
during the period embraced in the fiscal years 1902-3 to 1904-5. 

The net receipts from liqueurs and tobacco during the fiscal year 



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liATIN-AMEEICA IN 1906. — A EEVIEW. 233 

1902-3 amounted to 974,163.94 colones; those for 1903-4 to 997,979.94 
colones, and those for the fiscal year 1904^-6 to 1,075,659.78 colones. 

During the fiscal year 1904-5 the receipts from posts and telegraphs 
amounted to 188,359.59 colones^ instead of 180,000 colones^ the amount 
estimated in the budget. During the previous fiscal year the receipts 
from this source were 182,937.74 colones^ and those for the fiscal year 
1902-3 aggregated 158,688.59 colones. 

The receipts from parcels posts in 1904-5 were 91,189.92 colones, 
while those for the previous year were 80,016.56 colones^ and in 
1902-3, 53,455.61 colones. 

Following is a summary, in United States gold, of the indebtedness 
of the Republic: 

(A) Bonded debt (oatstanding April 1, 1905): 

1. Exterior debt $11,690,925.00 

2. Interiordebt 693,315.00 

3. Pacific Railway bonds 1,449,000.00 

(B) Unfunded debt (outstanding January 1, 1906): 

1. Floating debt $991,928.24 

2. ConsoHdated debt 458,382.44 

1,450,310.68 

. 15,283,550.68 

During the year, the Republic issued its 5 per cent refunding United 

States gold bonds for $11,500,000 in denominations of $1,000 and $500, 

payable to bearer, dated July 1, 1905, and carrying interest from such 

date. The loan may be increased to $13,239,000. 

The public health of the Republic, owing to improved sanitary con- 
ditions and to the constant care taken by the authorities, is very sat- 
isfactory. In spite of the outbreak of yellow fever on the Isthmus 
in July, 1905, not a single case occurred in Limon or at Punta 
Arenas. The new hospital of the United Fruit Company in Limon 
(117 beds) was opened during the year. 

The Republic of Costa Rica has begun to enjoy the beneficial results 
growing out of the traversing of its territory by the Interoceanic 
Railway in addition to the great facilities afforded thereby to internal 
communication. The press of the country states that for several 
months travelers going abroad from the other States of Central 
America, and from some of the countries to the south, have debarked 
at Punta Arenas, whence they have proceeded to Limon and thence 
embarked for the United States or Europe. As is well known, there 
are direct lines of communication between Limon and New York and 
between Limon and New Orleans, it also being a touching point for 
traos- Atlantic steamers en route to Colon. The trip by rail across the 
country is not at present effected without some slight discomfort, 
owing to the fact that on the Pacific side there is a small portion of 
the line— between Esparta and Santo Domingo de San Mateo— still in 

BolL No. 1—06 17 

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234 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERIOAN REPUBLICS. 

process of construction; but, on the other hand, the journey is made 
through a region in the highest degree picturesque and healthy, whose 
agreeable climate offers none of the possible dangers existent on the 
Panama Isthmus. 

The railways and principal roads are: Two hundred and seventeen 
kilometers of railways from Port Limon, on the Atlantic coast, to 
San Jose, the capital of the country, including a branch from La 
Junta to Jimenez, on the western slope, from which a railway is pro- 
jected right to Nicaragua; 227 kilometers of railway from Port Limon 
to Banano River, and thence to the northern banana fields; 21 kilo- 
meters of railway on the interior plateau, connecting the principal 
towns with the capital; 66 kilometers from San Jose to San Domingo, 
near the Pacific coast; 22 kilometers of railway from Esparta to 
Puntarenas, the port on the Pacific coast; 72 kilometers of cart road, 
from the Pacific to Alajuela, which thus connects the capital with 
Puntarenas. 

A contract was signed in London by the representatives of the Costa 
Rica Railway, an English company, and of the Northern Railroad of 
Costa Rica, an American company, by the terms of which the Northern 
Railroad Company leases the Costa Rica Railway, control to be given 
July 1, 1905. The lease is for the remainder of the term of ninety- 
nine years stipulated in the original concessions to the Costa Rica Rail- 
way, or for over sixty years from date. 

One thousand and two hundred ships of all kinds and nationalities 
entered and left the Costa Rican ports in 1905, with a tonnage of 
1,500,000. 

The development of the country is limited by the number of its 
inhabitants. A certain number of hands can work only a certain 
number of acres. Hence, when railway concessions were granted, 
provision was made for the introduction of agriculturists from other 
parts. 

The Government has now to offer to intending immigrants 60,000 
acres of titled land which will be sold at very low prices. 

No land or ground taxes are paid, except the small contributions 
for the proper maintenance of the municipal roads. The public roads 
are opened and cared for with national funds. 

Cuha. — On December 1, 1905, the general elections for Cuban rep- 
resentatives, senators, governors, counselors, and President were held, 
these elections being subsequently verified in accordance with the 
electoral law of the Republic. Gen. Tomas Estrada Palha was 
rechosen for the executive office, thus insuring a continuation of the 
progressive character of public affairs. 

The foreign relations of the country continued on the basis of ami- 
cable understanding throughout the year. The separation of the 
Government of the Kingdoms of Norway and Sweden having been 



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LATIN-AMEBICA IN 1905. — A BEVIEW. 235 

communicated to the Cuban Government, suitable action was taken in 
recognition of their common independence. In November, Mr. 
Chables Benoz was received as Minister Resident for Belgium, the 
Cuban representative in Brussels also taking a corresponding rank, 
Sefiores Jos£ F. Godot, Edwin V. Morgan, and Luis F. Cobea 
were subsequently received as Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers 
Plenipotentiary from Mexico, the United States, and Nicaragua, 
respectively. 

The mission of the Nicaraguan Minister is adduced as an urgent 
cause for the assignment of special envoys to the various countries of 
Central and South America, for the establishment of cordial relations 
between the sister Republics of Latin America. President Palma 
further urged the appointment of a minister to Brazil, that he might 
receive and present the delegates to the Brazilian Government on the 
occasion of the assembling in Rio de Janeiro of the Third Interna- 
tional Conference of American States. Cuban diplomatic representa- 
tives to Spain and France were named and received by the Govern- 
ments in reference, and another assigned to the Kingdom of Italy. 
The consular body of the Republic consists at present of 36 consuls 
and 106 honorary members, while the number of consular representa- 
tives accredited by other nations to Cuba number 131. 

Representatives were also named for the Fifteenth International 
Medical Congress assembling in Lisbon between April 19 and 26, 1906. 

Educational measures are dealt with in a spirit of liberalty by the 
Cuban Government, and the President urges renewed legislation in 
their behalf. 

In 1904 the total immigration to the Republic of Cuba was 28,467, 
while in 1905 the total number of immigrants aggregated 54,219. 
The largest number from any one country was, in 1904, 23,759 immi- 
grants from Spain, while this number was increased in 1905 to 47,902. 
The next country in importance was the United States, which sent 
1,549 immigrants to Cuba in 1904 and 1,861 in 1905. During the 
second half of the calendar year 1905 there arrived in the port of 
Havana 41,838 individuals, of whom 29,319 were immigrants, as com- 
pared with 31,210 passengers, including immigrants to the number of 
18,723, in the same period of the preceding year. Of the incoming 
travelers in the latter half of 1905, 3,510 were detained at quarantine, 
in accordance with regulation providing for such detention in the case 
of passengers from the ports of the southern United States. 

Sanitary measures received adequate attention, with the consequent 
practical extirpation of yellow fever. Owing to active measures 
taken by the Minister of Cuba in Washington, Sefior Gonzalo 
DE QuESADA, a projected quarantine of southern ports of the United 
States against vessels arriving from Cuba was averted, as no justifica- 
tion for such action was alBforded by sanitary conditions in the island. 



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236 INTEBNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Demographic statistics show deaths numbering 8,629 from Novem- 
ber, 1905, until February, 1906, or an average of 35.81 per cent, 
calculating the entire population at 1,656,776. As births in the same 
period number 22,252, an increase in population of 13,623 is indicated. 

The budget for the fiscal year 1905 shows a total expenditure of 
$19,138,102 and receipts $19,699,850, leaving a surplus of $561,745. 

The estimated receipts are as follows: From customs, $17,862,000; 
consular fees, $260,000; communication, $533,400; internal revenue, 
§585,000; state dues from properties, $257,250, and sundries, $202,000. 

The expenditures are stated thus: Ministry of state and justice, 
$473,488; government, $6,099,214; finance, $2,263,003; public instruc- 
tion, $3,901,993; public works, $4,813,854; agriculture and industry, 
$262,347; judiciary, $1,265,813, and executive, $68,390. 

For the first half of the fiscal year 1905-6 national expenses are 
placed at $10,655,067.66, while receipts for the same period are given 
as $16,383,131.27. Customs receipts for the six-months period aggre- 
gated $13,264,228.46, and internal revenues figure for $676,288,31. 

The law of the 29th of August, 1905, which provides for the payment 
of approved claims, having been passed, a contract was made with 
the American Bank Note Company, of New Tork, for the printing of 
the $100 bonds referred to in Article III of said law. 

Payments were made in December, 1905, the Royal Bank of Canada 
having taken charge, in accordance with a contract entered into on the 
7th of October, to pay, on presentation, such checks as the paymasters 
shall issue, the bank making no discount whatever or charging any 
commission, either to the State or to the creditors. 

The interest on the bonds issued by the delegation of the Revolu- 
tionary Government in 1896 and 1897 continues to be paid at the times 
agreed upon in accordance with the provisions of the law of the 22d 
of January, 1904, and the decree. No. 48, of the 6th of the following 
February. 

Of the proceeds of the special tax for the loan of $35,000,000, there 
was a substantial surplus in the General Treasury in the early part of 
June. In order to use the same advantageously the Secretary of the 
Treasury thought that the best thing to do was to employ $1,000,000 
or $1,500,000 in buying bonds of the aforesaid loan, thus exercising 
the power granted by the law of January, 1904. To this end the 
Secretary put himself in communication with some bankers, in 
order to secure bids and carry out the negotiations on the most 
advantageous terms possible. Said transaction or negotiation was 
carried out for the nominal value of $1,000,000 at the rate of 6J 
per cent premium, the bonds being delivered at the General Treas- 
ury of the Republic free from all expense. The amount paid was 
$1,062,500, which produces for the State an annual profit of $60,000, 



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LATIN-AMERICA IN 1905. — ^A REVIEW. 237 

due to the interest of 5 per cent which the bonds bear, said amount 
increasing the proceeds of the special taxes. The $25,000, which 
represents the interest for six months, has already been collected. 
The bonds which were bought are kept on deposit at the Treasury as 
securities for account of the loan, and will be redeemed in due time in 
the same manner as other bonds of the same debt. 

During the fiscal year 1904-5 the imports of the Republic reached 
the sum of $83,950,000, as compared with $70,150,000, the amount 
of the imports of the previous year, thus showing an increase of 
$13,800,000 in favor of the year 1904-5. The above figures do not 
include imported money. 

Of said increase, the United States represents $8,900,000 (65 per 
cent), France less than $800,000, Spain $740,000, and Germany 
$i60,000. 

The total experts during the same period, not including imported 
coin, amounted to $99,100,000, as compared with $93,100,000, which 
was the amount of the exports of the previous year, the result being 
an increase of $6,000,000. The exports to the United States show an 
increase of $7,500,000 and to England $400,000, there being a diminu- 
tion with regard to other countries, especially Germany, where there 
was a decrease of $1,300,000. 

Of the total value of the exports, sugar represents $60,700,000, 
that is, $3,000,000 more than the previous year; tobacco represents 
$26,600,000, or an increase of $1,800,000. 

The prevailing commercial activity shows the satisfactory state of 
prosperity of the Republic, the revenues of the State having increased 
in proportion and consequently augmenting the work which the serv- 
ice of collection and administration demands. 

For the calendar year 1905, imports are valued at $94,806,665, as 
compared with $77,028,314 in the preceding twelve months, an 
increase of $17,778,351 being thus shown. These figures do not 
include coin imports, which amounted to $8,249,467, in comparison 
with $5,807,337 in 1904. 

By countries, the source of imports was as follows: United States, 
$42,981,888; Germany, $5,784,784; Spain, $10,356,469; France, 
$5,243,263; United Kingdom, $18,424,650; other countries of America, 
$12,522,620; other European countries, $3,602,493; all others, 
$890,498. 

Total exports during the same period figure for $110,167,484, as com- 
pared with $89,012,756 in 1904, an increase for 1905 of $21,154,728 
being indicated, exclusive of coin exports, which are valued at 
$2,112,540 in 1905 and $965,385 in 1904. 

The countries of destination for the exports were the following: 
United States, $96,330,476; Germany, $3,906,471; Spain, $786,344; 



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238 INTERNATIONAL BUBEAU OF THE AMEBIGAN BEPUBLIO, 

France, $1,198,652; United Kingdom, $5,795,350; other countries of 
America, $1,747,568; other European countries, $770,358; all others, 
$633,266. 

The value of merchandise imported into the United Stat^ from 
Cuba in the calendar year 1905, was $95,857,856, against $57,228,291 
in 1903, $31,747,229 in 1900, and $16,233,456 in 1897, in which year 
United States imports from Cuba touched the lowest point in the last 
half century. The exports from the United States to Cuba in Uie 
calendar year 1905, were valued at $44,569,812, against $23,504,417 in 
1903, $26,934,524 in 1900, and $7,296,613 in 1896, in which year they 
were smaller than in any preceding year in the last half century. In 
both imports and exports the figures of the year 1905 are larger than 
those of any earlier year in United States trade with Cuba. 

Sugar and molasses, tobacco, cigars, and fruits are the principal 
articles forming the imports into the United States from Cuba. By 
far the largest and most important of these articles is sugar, of which 
the total importation in 1905 was valued at $72,649,818, and formed 
70 per cent of the sugar brought into the United States from foreign 
countries and 48 per cent of that brought in from all parts of the 
world. The growth is doubtless due also in part to the great increa^ 
in production of sugar in that island in 1904 and 1905, as compared 
with the years in which production was reduced by reason of damage 
to sugar estates during the period of hostilities which existed in that 
island. 

The value of sugar imports in 1905 was, as already indicated, over 
$72,000,000, while that of the calendar year 1903 was $37,000,000, and 
that of 1902, $30,000,000. Imports of molasses from Cuba by the 
United States in 1905, were valued at $1,097,153, against $1,108,289 in 
1903 and $770,893 in 1902. Leaf -tobacco imports in 1905 amounted to 
$11,879,938, against $10,157,975 in 1903 and $9,736,526 in 1902. Cigar 
imports in 1905 amounted to $3,855,820, against $2,977,924 in 1903 and 
$2,522,089 in 1902. Fruit importations in 1905 amounted to $1,236,028, 
of which all but $5,803 represented the value of bananas. Another 
item of considerable importance in the impoiis from Cuba is iron ore, 
of which the value imported in 1905 was $1,537,890, against $1,501,480 
in 1903 and $1,576,617 in 1902. The other items of importance were, 
copper, $55,689; mahogany, $89,204; while under the general group 
of "all other articles" is included merchandise to the value of 
$3,456,316. 

United States exports to Cuba include a much larger number of 
articles than do the imports from that island. The largest single 
item in 1905 was flour, valued at $3,443,048, against $2,068,083 in 1903 
and $2,059,876 in 1902; cattle, $1,983,152, against $1,393,295 in 1903 
and $1,243,166 in 1902; bituminous coal, $1,487,776, against $1,277,471 

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LATIN-AMEBICA IN 1905. — A BBVIBW. 239 

in 1903; cotton cloth, $1,212,319, against $271,582 in 1903 and $208,039 
in 1902, the quantity being, in 1905, 24,247,573 yards, against 3,861,295 
yards in 1903 and 3,530,775 in 1902. Exports of boots and shoes to 
the island in 1905 amounted to $1,586,790, against $744,119 in 1903 
and $485,073 in 1902; lard, $2,231,650, against $1,408,673 in 1903 and 
$2,198,238 in 1902; lard compounds at $1,005,215, against $1,515,757 
in 1903 and $773,211 in 1902; bacon at $412,672, against $322,383 in 
1903; hams, $468,842, against $576,673 in 1903; pork at $480,938, 
against $273,938, and milk at $647,926, against $277,745 in 1903. 
Lumber is also an important item, the exports of this article to Cuba 
in 1905 being valued at $2,001,214, against $1,011,628 in 1903. Vege- 
tables are also of considerable importance in United States exports to 
Cuba, the value exported to that island in 1905 being $885,997. 
Exports of furniture to the island in that year amounted to $696,579; 
crude mineral oil, $412,867; refined mineral oil, $351,120; paper and 
manufactures thereof, $406,400; and rice, $845,049. The shipment of 
rice to Cuba is an entirely new feature in United States export trade, 
the total value of rice sent to that island in 1904 being but $172,707, 
and in 1903 but $15, while, as above indicated, the total for 1905 was 
$845,049. 

By far the largest group of articles in the exports to Cuba from the 
United States is that of iron and steel manufactures, of which the 
total in 1905 was $8,484,267, against $3,461,937 in 1903 and $4,325,304 
in 1902. The largest single item under this head is locomotives for 
railways, $628,831 in 1905, against $127,845 in 1903. Builders' hard- 
ware, including saws and tools, amounted to $628,809 in 1905. 

The exportation of tobacco from the Republic of Cuba for the calendar 
year 1905, as compared with the previous one, was as follows: 1904, 
27,570,180 pounds; 1905, 34,879,570 pounds, showing an increase in 
1905 of 7,309,390 pounds. 

The Republic of Cuba produced during the year 1904-5, 1,083,258 
tons of sugar. 

Among minor industries which are making very satisfactory prog- 
ress in the island is that of cattle raising. This industry is rapidly 
regaining its former prominence and contributes no small share to 
the importations to the island. Mexico shipped a total estimated at 
$12,005,000 to the island during the years 1899 to 1903, inclusive, as 
against $8,346,000 from the United States, out of a total of $38,286,300. 

For the twelve months ending June 30, 1905, the total values of 
cattle imports were over $6,0p0,000, of which sum importations from 
the United States were valued at $1,927,676, pr about one-third of the 
total. From Venezuela the importations were valued at $1,667,000; 
from Colombia $1,104,000, and from Mexico $909,000. Importations 
were also received from several other American countries, including 



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240 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Honduras, Nicaragua, Haiti, Porto Rico, Santo Domingo, and the 
English Antilles. 

Comparing the domestic mail service of the last fiscal year with 
that of previous years, a considerable increase is observed in the num- 
ber of pieces of mail matter handled in 1904-5 aggregating 20,750,356, 
as compared with 17,590,548 in 1903-4 and 11,903,801 in 1902-3. As 
to international mail service there is also a notable increase, inasmuch 
as the number of pieces of mail matter handled in 1903-4 aggregated 
10,073,588, and the number of pieces handled in 1904-5 amounted to 
13,789,348. It will be seen that the domestic postal service has been 
approximately doubled in two years, and everything indicates a gradual 
increase, not only because of the prosperity of the country and of 
the guaranties of safety which the Republic affords, but also owing to 
the spread of education by means of the great number of schoob 
established during the last seven years. 

The money -order service in the fiscal year 1904-5 gave the following 
results: 110,831 money orders were issued, amounting to $3,542,173.80, 
and in the international service 49,173 money orders were issued, 
aggregating a value of $855,569.58, or a total number of 160,004 money 
orders, amounting to $4,397,743.38. As in 1902-3, 64,710 money 
orders were issued in the domestic service, amounting to $2,015,568.49, 
and 32,693 international money orders were issued, amounting to 
$658,361.98. The comparison of the respective figures shows that 
during the two years elapsed there has been an increase of 64 per cent 
in the number and value of the money orders issued during the last 
fiscal year. 

The increase in the postal receipts may be estimated by the com- 
parative data of the aforesaid periods. In 1902-3, $420,173.77 were 
collected; in 1903-4 the collection amounted to $471,561.07, which has 
increased to $597,242.27 in 1904-5. 

Communication service throughout the Republic advanced to an 
extraordinary degree during the year, and two wireless-telegraph 
stations were established in El Marieland on the Isle of Pines, respec- 
tively. Further development along these lines is in prospect. The 
number of telegrams transmitted from July, 1905, to February 28, 
1906, was 602,510, at a cost of $413,31 1.49. 

The report of the united railways of Havana for the year 1904-5 
is indeed an excellent one, for it shows the total receipts from all 
sources to have amounted to £557,912, as compared with £441,293 for 
1903-4. 

A bill which recently passed the Cuban Senate provides for the sub- 
vention of the Cuba Railroad Company by the Cuban Government by 
the advance of a credit of $798,450, which is to be paid to the company 
in installments and repaid to the Government within ten years. 



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LATIN-AMEBICA IN 1905. — ^A REVIEW. 241 

A.mong the electric enterprises inaugurated in Havana during the 
year were the following: 

The Havana Central Railway Company awarded contracts for the 
construction and equipment of a great electric railway system in Cuba, 
The company is to build and operate a network of interurban lines 
radiating from the city of Havana and covering an extensive territory 
in the interior of the island which has hitherto been without transpor- 
tation facilities. 

About 125 miles will be constructed in the first instance, involving 
an expenditure of nearly $5,000,000. The road, besides catering for 
passenger traffic, will have a freight service for fruits, vegetables, and 
other products. 

One branch will extend clear across the island to Rosario, a distance 
of about 40 miles. Substations will be located at Cuatro Caminos, 
Lomas de Candela, and Providencia. A second line will run from 
Havana 17 miles south to Bejucal, with a substation at Santiago de las 
Vegas. A third line, running southwest from Havana to Mariel, will 
have a length of 37 miles and branch lines running north and south to 
El Carmelo, Santiago de las Vegas, and Tuira de Melena, amounting 
to about 30 miles. 

The power house to be constructed in Havana will operate 7,500 
horsepower of electric energy at 19,000 volts three phase current for 
the purpose of operating the lines. Steam turbines will be used. 

The initial rolling stock for passenger service will consist of twenty- 
four 30-ton cars seating 50 passengers and equipped with four motors 
geared for a maximum speed of 40 miles an hour. The freight service 
will be handled by ten 40-ton locomotives equipped with four motors 
geared for a speed of 17 miles an hour when hauling a 300-ton train. 

The General Electric Company was awarded the contract, valued at 
more than $1,500,000, for the complete electrical equipment of the 
system. The United States Steel Products Export Company has been 
allotted the rail contract, calling for 15,000 tons standard size. 

The Department of Public Works of the Republic of Cuba issued a 
circular calling for bids to be opened on November 9, 1905, for the 
construction of a breakwater, new custom-house offices, a building for 
the use of the collector of the port, and a public wharf at Havana. 
The intention of the Government is to cause to be built these improve- 
ments as contemplated by what is known as the Sylvester Scovel 
project The concession to Scovel will be sold at public auction, and 
the bids will be received and the works constructed under the terms 
of this concession. 

Dominican Jieptiblic. — Despite the unsettled conditions prevailing 
throughout the Dominican Republic during the greater part of 1905, 
it was possible to obtain a satisfactory statement covering the com- 

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242 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPTJBLI08. 

mercial situation. During the period covered by President Mobales's 
occupation of the chief executive office many concessions of great 
value for the development of the resources of the country were 
granted. 

With the design of facilitating communication throughout the 
Republic the following decree was promulgated: 

"Article 1. From January 1, 1906, 30 per cent of the revenue 
received from exportations, which will be termed internal revenue, 
will be devoted to the construction of railroads for account of the 
State, according to contracts which will be made by the Executive 
and approved by the National Congress. 

^^ Paragraph 1. The Executive is authorized to distribute this reve- 
nue to pay the premiums or guarantee the interest on the capital 
invested in the construction of private railroads by idrtue of conces- 
sions duly given. 

^'Par. S, The interest can be as high as 6 per cent per year, as deter- 
mined, and a premium to the amount of $2,000 will be allowed for 
each kilometer of road constructed. 

'^ Art. 2. The proceeds from this source can not be devoted to any 
purpose other than that stipulated in this decree. 

" Paragraph 1. All compromises or obligations contracted bearing 
on these receipts will be null and void if not given as stipulated in the 
preceding article. 

''Art. 3. The Executive power in celebrating contracts and giving 
concessions to construct railroads will endeavor, under equal condi- 
tions, to grant them on an equal basis, giving preference to the rail- 
road from Moca to Monte Christi, connecting with the Dominican 
Central Railroad; from Barahona to Laguna del Fondo; from the 
Komano or Macoris del Este to the Seybo; and from Azua to Banica." 

In view of the unity of interests between the two countries, Senor 
Emilio C. Joubert, who had been Charg^ d'Aflfaires of the Dominican 
Republic at Washington for the preceding year, was, on October 12,* 
1905, made Minister Resident to the Government of the United 
States. 

Fifty per cent of the foreign commerce of the Dominican Republic 
is chiefly with the following European countries: Great Britain, Ger- 
many, France, and Spain. England supplies the largest proportion 
of imports aside from those drawn from the United States. Dominican 
products were exported to Germany in 1903 to the value of 7,043,000 
marks. The German exports to the Dominican Republic in the same 
year aggregated a value of 875,000 marks. 

The aggregate value of the foreign trade of the Dominican Republic 
during the calendar year 1905 amounted to approximately $10,000,000. 
the exact sum, as shown by customs documents, being $9,992,361. 



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LATIN-AMERICA IN 1905. — A REVIEW. 243 

The value of imports, not including currency, was $2,736,828, against 
exports valued at $6,880,890, showing that the value of native prod- 
ucts sold to foreign countries had been more than double that of the 
merchandise purchased abroad, and that the year's operations had 
resulted in the relatively large balance of trade in favor of the Repub- 
lic of $4,144,062. Included in the total value of trade, but not in the 
value of imports and exports, are $359,435 of gold, silver, and paper 
currency imported from the United States, and $15,208 exported to 
the same country. 

The deductions from these facts regarding the year's business 
appear most satisfactory, indicating that, while practically $1,000,000 
had been deposited abroad during the year for use in the amortization 
of the public debt, the amount had been paid through the exchange 
resulting from sales of the country's surplus products — no currency 
shipments had been required on that account, and a foreign credit 
exceeding two millions and a half still remained. This latter inference 
must, however, be qualified to some extent in consideration of the 
fact that the sugar industry of the Dominican Republic, furnishing as 
it does approximately one-half the value of exports, is largely owned 
and financed from abroad. 

The foreign trade was carried on principally with the United States, 
Grermany, France, and Great Britain, in the order named as to rela- 
tive importance. The trade with the United States amounted to 
$6,445,346, or 65 per cent of the whole, representing imports received 
from that country valued at $1,961,075, and exports to it invoiced at 
$4,484,271. Thus the United States purchased 65 per cent of all the 
native products exported and furnished 59 per cent of the merchan- 
dise imported during the year. 

Seventeen per cent of the trade went to Germany, 11 per cent to 
France, and 4.5 per cent to Great Britain, the latter being the only 
country mentioned whose sales to the Republic were greater than its 
purchases from it. The remainder of the trade, in minor proportions, 
was divided between Italy, Spain, Belgium, Cuba, Porto Rico, and 
"all other countries." 

Eighty per cent of the import values were furnished in the order 
named by manufactures of cotton, manufactures of iron and steel, 
rice, oils, provisions, preserved fish, manufactures of wood, manufac- 
tures of leather, manufactures of vegetable fibers, hats and caps, 
chemicals and drugs, malt liquors, and agricultural implements, while 
the remainder consisted of widely diversified products as itemized or 
shown under the heading of ''all other articles" in the following 
schedules: 

Cotton manufactures invoiced at $218,100 were received from the 
United States and $190,074 from Great Britain, while Germany, 

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244 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

France, Spain, and Italy furnished $69,450, $36,707, $19,742, and 
$14,591, respectively. 

Sevetfty-one per cent of the iron and steel, valued at $287,381, came 
from the United States, the remainder being furnished principally, in 
the order named, by Great Britain, Germany, France, and Belgium. 

Of the breadstufFs imported, to the value of $232,049, 99.9 per cent 
came from the United States, and consisted chiefly of wheat flour, of 
which 41,413 barrels were received, invoiced at $209,823. 

Ten million pounds of rice, valued at $201,329, were received, 
5,913,424 pounds coming from Germany, 2,203,707 pounds from Great 
Britain, 1,532,319 pounds from the United States, and 271,517 pounds 
from France. 

Oil to the value of $155,934 was imported, of which the United 
States furnished 95 per cent, while provisions, including meats and 
dairy products, were divided about equally between that country and 
Germany, the former supplying the meats and the latter the dairy 
products. PmcticAlly all of the ordinary dried fish, consisting chiefly 
of cod and valued at $109,455, was imported from the United States, 
while European countries furnished small quantities of the delicatessen 
class to a total value of $4,679. 

The United States furnished much the largest proportion of chem- 
icals and drugs, soap, soap stock, refined sugar and confections, 
vegetables, vehicles, manufactures of wood, leather, and pwaper, while 
agricultural implements were furnished in about equal proportions by 
that country and Germany. France furnished a considerable propor- 
tion of the chemicals and drugs, and exceeded all others in the value 
of wines, liquors, and distilled spirits supplied. Great Britain fur- 
nished the greatest values in manufactures of vegetable fibers, and 
Italy in hats and caps. 

The principal exports, of relative value in the order named, were 
sugar, cacao bean, tobacco leaf, bananas, coffee, hard woods, hides 
and skins, and beeswax. 

The sugar shipments of 105,972,400 pounds, valued at $3,292,470, 
represented substantially the 1905 crop, and, with the exception of 
1,359,799 pounds, which were distributed principally between Ger- 
many and Great Britain, went entirely to the United States. The 
product, which was sold at a good profit to the producer, furnished 
nearly half the total value of the year's exports. 

The total shipments of cacao beans, which were also a profitable 
crop, amounted to 28,836,364 pounds, invoiced at $2,211,873, being con- 
signed as follows : To Germany, 11,840,612 pounds; France, 8,981,591; 
the United States, 7,816,441, and to the United Kingdom, 197,720. 

Tobacco leaf, aggregating 11,510,762 pounds, valued at $840,487, 



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LATIN-AMEBICA IN 1906. — A KEVIEW. 245 

^?ras exported, Germany taking 5,890,665 pounds, the United States 
^,719,458, and France 1,900,639. 

Beeswax produced in the Republic amounted to 470,922 pounds, 
valued at $94,669, of which Germany purchased 182,783 pounds, 
France 152,550, and 111,462 were sent to the United States. 

The aggregate value of cattle hides and goat skins exported was 
placed at $111,075, shipments to the United States being invoiced at 
$63,714, to Germany $24,278, and to France $21,591. 

Bananas, of which 514,000 bunches, valued at $257,000, were shipped 
to the United States; coflfee to the extent of 2,149,188 pounds, with a 
value of $156,963, shipped principally to Germany, France, and the 
United States; and various kinds of tropical hard woods, including 
mahogany, lignum-vitae, and satin wood, with a total value of $135,154, 
are among the other important exports. 

Cocoanuts, copra, dyestuffs, honey, gums, resins, and vegetable 
fibers are also natural products of the country, but owing to lack of 
attention they are at present exported only in small quantities. 

The aggregate foreign tonnage of the eight entry ports of the Re- 
public was 1,751,172 (registered tons), representing 1,544 entrances 
and clearances by foreign vessels. Of the total imports, cargoes val- 
ued at $1,952,352, or 63 per cent of the value of all importations, were 
brought in American bottoms, while import values to the extent of 
$700,382 were delivered by German, $208,990 by French, $93,945 by 
British, $88,621 by Norwegian, and $51,975 by ''all other" vessels. 

In the exiK)rt trade Norwegian vessels head the list of carriers, hav- 
ing* received cargoes valued at $1,827,426, or 26.5 per cent of the 
whole; American vessels were next, with consignments invoiced at 
$1,692,741, or 24.5 per cent; followed by German vessels, with 
$1,574,134, or 22.8 per cent; British vessels, with $1,123,838, or 16.3 
per cent, and French vessels, with cargoes valued at $367,072. 

Italian, Dominican, Dutch, Cuban, and other vessels, in the order 
named as to relative value of cargoes carried, were also engaged in 
the foreign trade of the Dominican Republic. 

Probably no country on the globe of equal extent has so many nat- 
ural elements of prosperity within its borders as has Santo Domingo. 
Its agricultural, forest, and mineral resources, although comparatively 
neglected by its people, are remarkably varied and important. The 
principal products of the soil are sugar, cocoa, coffee, tobacco, bananas, 
and other tropical fruits. The mineral resources include gold, iron, 
copper, quicksilver, petroleum, rock salt, and other valuable minerals 
and metals. The products of the forests are also extremely rich, 
including mahogany, satinwood, lignum vitae, lancewood, oak, pine, 
logwood, several species of palms, and many valuable fiber-producing 
and medicinal plants. 



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246 INTEBNATIONAL BUBEAU OF THE AMEBIOAN BEPUBLIOS. 

Fertile lands suitable for the production of almost any product of 
the tropical or the temperate zone may be purchased very cheaply, and 
stock raising has proved to be a very profitable industry, shelter for 
the stock not being required and nutritious grasses being found in 
abundance on the plateaus. Several fields of domestic enterprise await 
profitable occupation, particularly railroads, coasting steamers, banks, 
and sawmills. 

Santo Domingo has eleven ports of entry — Monte Christi and Puerto 
Plata on the north, Samana and Sanchez on the east, and Macoris, 
Santo Domingo, Azua, and Barahona on the south coast, with the land 
ports of Tierra Nueva, Commendador, and Dabajon on the west along 
the Haitian frontier. 

Ecuador, — The Chief Executive of the Ecuadorian Republic in 1905 
was Senor Don Lizardo Gabcia. The latest data concerning the for- 
eign trade of Ecuador cover the year 1904, the following table showing 
the countries of origin and destination for the merchandise imported 
and shipped during that period. 



Country. 



1904. 



Imports. Exports. 



France $617,268 

Germany 1,492,667 

Spain 184,899 

Italy 288,946 

Beliium 293.970 

Holland 47 

Austria 762 

Portugal I 370 

GreatBritain 2,004,878 



98,908.851 

2.173,152 

574.768 

157,684 

2.949 

145.004 

16,128 



949,496 



United States imports from Ecuador in 1905 amounted in value to 
$2,602,175— chiefly cocoa, $1,054,716, and India rubber, $538,172. 
Exports to that country reached a valuation of $1,750,378, consisting 
of miscellaneous merchandise, the most important being manufactures 
of iron and steel, $499,598; cotton goods, $136,803; provisions, 
$389,287, and illuminating oils, $81,105. 

The production of cacao during the year 1904 was much larger than 
that of the preceding years. Among the principal markets for this 
product figures France, with a consumption of more than 11,000,000 
kilograms; England, with more than 3,000,000; Spain and the United 
States, with more than 2,000,000; Germany, with more than 1,500,000. 

The other consuming countries are Belgium, Holland, Costa Rica, 
Guatemala, Nicaragua, Salvador, Chile, Mexico, Italy, Peru, Uruguay, 
Argentine Republic, Austria, Cuba, and Colombia. Of all these coun- 
tries Holland alone consumes more than half a million kilograms; the 
demand from the others scarcely amounts to 100,000 kilograms. The 
total value of the exportation in this branch is 15,284,691 sucreSj of 
which France alone paid more than half. 

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LATIN-AMEBICA IN 1905. — ^A REVIEW. 247 

The exports of coffee from all the ports of the Republic give a total 
of 3,489,628 kilograms, representing a value of 1,014,596 sucres. 
Chile is the largest consumer of Ecuadorian coffee, its purchases of 
this product reaching a value of 409,746 siicres^ the United States 
comes next with a consumption valued at 330,414 sucres^ and Germany 
with 126,030 aucres. The other consuming countries are Oosta Ricja, 
Holland, Colombia, Italy, Peru, France, and Great Britain, but this 
last country is the only one whose imports reach more than 50,000 
sacres. 

The chief imports are textiles, food stuffs, ironwork, and gold and 
silver. The chief exports are cocoa, nuts, gold coin, rubber, coffee, 
hats, and hides. Of the large quantities of cocoa shipped to Havre, 
the greater part is ultimately distributed among other countries. 

The staple product of Ecuador is cocoa, which is grown in Los Rios 
and other provinces near the coast. The total production of cocoa in 
1904 was 28,564,123 kilograms. Coffee is also grown, the production 
having amounted in 1904 to 3,489,628 kilograms. Brazil nuts, cotton, 
Peruvian bark, orchilla, and sarsaparilla are also produced. The rub- 
ber industry is also important, and as the accessible supply from wild 
trees is being rapidly exhausted, attention is now turned to the plant- 
bg of trees. The quantity exported in 1903 was put at 494,864 kilo- 
grams; in 1904 at 519,566 kilograms. 

Ecuador is eminently auriferous. At Zaruma, in the Province of 
Oro, there are quartz crushings; at Esmeraldas an American com- 
pany extracts gold by hydraulic methods from gravel beds; in mdny 
auriferous streams the Indians, by washings, find considerable quan- 
tities of gold. At PiUzhum, in Canan, rich silver ore is found, but it 
is not now worked. In the Esmeraldas washings platinum is found in 
variable quantities. Pitch is found, but not worked. The country is 
known to be also rich in copper, iron, lead, and coal; and sulphur is 
stated to have been discovered in the Pichincha district. 

Panama hats are made almost exclusively in Ecuador, and the 
demand for them is greater than the makers can meet. There are 
sogar works, breweries, and chocolate factories throughout the 
Republic. 

The Government has decided upon the construction of a railroad from 
Ambato to the Curarey River, which flows into the Amazon near Iquitos. 
This district is very rich in rubber, which until now has been exported 
through the Amazon Valley to the United States and Europe under 
the name of Brazilian rubber. With the construction of this rail- 
road, rubber and other products can be exported from this region via 
Guayaquil, thus reducing by 3,000 miles the water route to New York 
via Iquitos and Para. This line runs almost entirely east of the 
Andes, as Ambato is in the heart of the chain, at 8,000 feet elevation. 
It will cost about £800,000 and will be about 100 miles long. 

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248 INTEBNATIONAL BUBEAU OF THE AMEBIOAN BEPUBLI08. 

During the year 1905, the Guayaquil and Quito Railway was pushed 
gradually forward until it now runs three trains per week to the 
important and populous town of Riobamba. To reach this the line has 
to leave the direct route toward Quito and afterwards to run back, 
causing a deviation of over 10 miles. The line is now laid out and 
leveled for a considerable distance beyond Riobamba, and it is expected 
that Ambato will soon be reached. 

An American capitalist is now occupied in establishing a system of 
automobiles, which are calculated to do the journey from Riobamba to 
Quito within twelve hours, thus reducing the time occupied between 
Guayaquil and Quito to two days. 

The Minister of the Treasury of the Republic of Ecuador presented 
to Congress a large and detailed report of all business relative to his 
department during the year 1905. The proposed expenses for the 
year 1905 amounted to $12,319,146, but only $10,526,248.26 were 
expended during that period, so that the balance in favor of the 
Treasury amounted to $1,600,000 and 106,302 sucres. 

Guatemala, — Conditions in Guatemala suffered from tlie unsettled 
status of the Republic during 1905, yet the increase in trade, the 
improved quotations of Guatemalan securities held abroad, the resump- 
tion of work on several public and semipublic undertakings, such as 
the Northern Railway, and several other factors, seem to indicate that 
President Cabbeba's administration is established for the country's 
betterment. 

For the year 1905-6 the revenue was estimated at 23,000,000 pesos^ 
and the expenditures at 27,317,659 pesos. Of this amount, 17,000,000 
was for the Public Debt, 2,952,300 for Interior and Justice, 2,082,926 
for War, 1,736,119 for Fomento, and 1,391,910 for Public Instruction. 

Throughout the period of depression, the commerce of the United 
States with Guatemala has suffered in common with that of other 
countries, but in less degree, and to-day, although United States trade 
is smaller than it was ten years ago, the share in the total is larger. 
A clear idea of the kinds of goods in demand in Guatemala and the 
position of the United States in the ti'ade may be obtained from the 
following table, which includes all principal items of Guatemalan 
import (values in thousands of United States dollars): 



Articles. 



All ooun- 
tries, 
1905. 



United 
States, 
1906. 



Percent 
from 
United 
States. 



POOD 8TUFF8. 

Breadstu£to 

Beverages 

Provisions 

Fruits and vegetables 

Sundry preserved goods 

All others 

Total 



1,054.8 
210.1 
128.0 
88.4 
89.6 
26.7 



937.5 
45.4 

116.2 

29.5 

48.4 

4.8 



I 



1,546.6 1,181.8 



88.8 
21.6 
90.8 
76.8 
54.0 
1&8 



7tt.4 



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liATIN-AMEBIOA IN 1906. — A REVIEW. 249 

The trade of Guatemala with the United States during the fiscal year 
1904-5 was as follows: Imports from the United States, $2,654,575; 
exports to the United States, $3,082,062. 

Food stuffs constitute the largest single item in United States exports 
to Guatemala. In 1905, when Guatemalans purchases of food stuffs 
from the United States were abnormally large, they formed only about 
35 per cent of her total purchases from that country. At least an 
equal percentage is made up of sundry manufactured goods, of which 
the chief are iron and steel and textiles. The shortage of the Guate- 
nudan maize crop affected mainly the importation of breadstuff s, the 
increase for the year being $558,000 (from $450,000 in 1904 to $1,008,000 
in 1905). 

In textiles the United States holds but 21 per cent of the total trade, 
yet there are certain lines of these goods in which progress is being 
made which is prophetic of considerable changes in the near future. 
In woolen, linen, and jute manufactures the United States hardly com- 
pete at all, but in silks that country already holds the largest share, 
and in several classes of cottons has made marked progress. 

The most impoii^ant crop is coffee, of which the exports reached in 
quintals (100 pounds): In 1902, 856,744; in 1903, 631,505; in 1904, 
716,537. The largest coffee plantations are in the hands of Germans. 
About 1,680 acres are devoted to tobacco culture, yielding 19,550 quin- 
tals. Sugar is grown on 41,000 acres, and the crop reaches 3,054,865 
quintals. Bananas are grown on 12,000 acres, yielding 786,830 
bunches; cocoa on 7,500 acres, yielding 3,068 quintals. Other crops 
are wheat, maize, sweet potatoes, and beans. The rubber yield in 
1904 amounted to 4,389 quintals. Over 5,696,470 square feet of tim- 
ber were cut in 1904. Cotton is grown in small quantities. On the 
high plateaus the area of the cattle grounds is about 758,640 acres. 
The number of horses in the Republic in 1899 was estimated at 50,343; 
cattle, 196,780; sheep, 77,600; swine, 29,784. 

One of the most profitable of future industries in Guatemala 
undoubtedly is that of banana culture. There are vast productive 
regions on the Atlantic slope, and these are certain to be cultivated, 
since the building of the Northern Railway insures opening up the 
lands by giving access to the New Orleans market within the time that 
is necessary for gathering and shipping the fruit. The annual produc- 
tion is now about 800,000 bunches, of which one-half are consumed at 
home and the balance shipped to the United States. It is estimated 
that within a year after the Northern Railway is completed the ship- 
ments to the United States will exceed 750,000 bunches per annum and 
will soon amount to 1,000,000 bunches. 

The amount of gold actually found in Guatemala is insignificant and 
IB all from sands or alluvials. There are rich deposits of lead, silver, 

Bull. No. 1—06 18 

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250 INTERNATIONAL BUBEAU OF THE AMEBIC AN BEPUBL1C8. 

zinc, copper, iron, and antimoiiy, according to the ^* London Mining 
Journal," which have as yet not been worked. The average percent- 
age of the ores is estimated at 20 to 25 per cent for lead, 15 to 
25 for zinc, 5 to 20 for copper, and a smaller percentage for sil- 
ver. In the north, near Santo Tomas, the best coal deposits are 
found, which are not mined. The laws of Guatemala are very favora- 
ble to the mining industry. They concede ownership of the mines to 
the first applicant, who has merely to indemnify the proprietor of the 
land where the deposits are found. 

Gold, silver, lead, tin, copper, manganese, antimony, sulphur, salt, 
lignite, and other minerals exist, but are little worked. Placer gold 
mines at Las Quebradas, near Yzabal, are worked successfully; silver 
in the Departments of Santa Rosa and Chiquimula; and salt in the 
Departments of Alta Vera Paz and Santa Rosa. 

During the Spanish domination rich and varied mines were worked, 
as is demonstrated by remains of furnaces and ruins of workings met 
with in various parts of the country and traditions on the subject 

Industries more or less prosperous are the manufacture of woolen 
and cotton goods, cement, bricks, earthenware, furniture, cigars, etc, 
and the preparation of ramie; also foundries, sugar mills, breweries, 
and distilleries are at work. 

The Guatemala Central Railroad Company has contracted with a 
San Francisco company for 100,000 barrels of crude oil per year for 
a period of ten years, for fuel purposes. Locomotives are being trans- 
formed from coal to oil burners. Rock ballast is being placed over 
the entire 150 miles of the railroad, which passes through the rich 
coffee and sugar producing districts, and having terminals at Guate- 
mala City, San Jose de Guatemala, the principal seaport, and Mazate- 
nango, in the west of the Republic. 

IlaltL — General Noed Alexis continued to administer the affairs of 
the Haitian Republic throughout the year 1905, and his representative 
in the United States, Mr. L^oer, availed himself of every occasion to 
cement the friendly relations existing between the two countries. 

The general commercial relations between Haiti and the United 
States are very good, when due allowance is made for the size of the 
countries. The transportation facilities are excellent, as there are 
practically three companies maintaining steamship service between the 
United States and Haiti. Telegraphic communication is ako very 
good. 

The trade of Haiti with the United States during the fiscal year 
1904-5 was as follows: Imports from the United States, $2,297,080; 
exports to the United States, $1,101,650. 

More than two-thirds in value of the total importations come from 
the United States. The hulk of the remaining importations conforms 



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lATIN-AMEBICA IN 1905. — ^A BBVIEW, 251 

to tastes acqnired in Europe by natives educated there and fostered 
by foreign merchants resident in Haiti, most of whom are Europeans. 

With regard to exportations the conditions are quite the reverse, 
the great bulk of native produce going to Europe, a considerable 
portion of logwood and a small quantity of other woods, goatskins, 
etc., only going to the United States. The rest of the logwood and 
practically all the coffee and cacao go to Europe. An idea of the 
extent of the exports may be obtained from a statement recently pub- 
lished by the Banque Nationale cT Haiti for the year ended September 
30, 1905. The principal articles are: Coffee, 45,244,232 pounds; cacao, 
4,924,383 pounds; logwood (including roots), 112,050,758 pounds; and 
cotton, 3,287,669 pounds. There is in addition a respectable quantity 
of oibinet woods, guaiac, hides, goatskins, honey, orange peels, 
wax, etc. 

Trade in textiles from the United States within four years has 
increased 50 per cent. One large house, that deals exclusively in these 
goods, states that it nearly approaches 75 per cent. Before this period 
only the coarser line of textiles was bought in the United States, and 
the finer from England, but for some time past all the finer qualities 
of this class of goods have been bought in the United States, except 
shirtings. 

In hardware England has a slight advantage, but United States 
trade in this direction is increasing annually. One of the principal 
articles in this line is zinc roofing. Nearly all the houses are covered 
with it. England has at present the command, for the reason, it is 
stated, that the zinc roofing that comes from England is better than 
that received from the United States. It is also said that calicoes 
from England are better than those of the United States. 

France still conmiands this market for jewelry, bric-a-brac, per- 
fumery, and articles of a like nature, as Germany does for the ordi- 
nary or rougher class of pottery. 

The provision trade, which was exclusively in the hands of United 
States dealers, has suffered a great decline. This arises, not from any 
competition from other markets, but is due to the great stringency 
that has existed in the Republic for the last three years. 

All the coffee grown in the country is sold to France and Germany, 
Necessarily commerce begets commerce. Coffee is the principal native 
product and is of the first quality, not to be compared with many of 
the cheap qualities which are being sold to-day. Of course it is more 
expensive, but the purchaser is sure that he is getting value returned 
for his money. 

Haiti needs agricultural machinery, dry goods, and other domestic 
utilities. Most of those are now procured from Europe. Flour is 
from the United States. More could be used, because no wheat is 



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252 INTBBNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

grown in Haiti. California wines would be preferred by merchants, 
because the transportation from that State to Haiti is cheaper than 
from France. 

The following figures show the export niovement from the rarions 
customs districts of Haiti during the first three months of the fiscal 
year 1905-6, the unit of quantity being pounds: Coflfee, 19,952,178; 
campeche wood, 28,364,310; cacao, 1,282,691; guaiacum wood, 
1,803,400; orange 'peel, 10,000; cotton, 142,909; wax, 21,876; cabinet 
woods, 104,300; hides, 44,863; goatskins, 38,359; maize, 1,790; gum, 
3,441; woods, various, 118,000; copper, 3,051; pitte, 208,539; tortoise 
shell, 325; leather, tanned, 1,040; cotton seed and castor-oil beans, 
274,840; cigars, 150; fruits, 1,150; medicinal herbs, 18,919; cocoa- 
nuts, 6,100; horns, 1,849; pistachio nuts, 6,027; mahogany, 1,075 
feet; honey, 470 gallons; and palm oil, 8,465 gallons. The total value 
of these shipments is stated to have been $3,350,000. 

The value of imports during the period from October 1, 190i, to 
June 30, 1905, into the eleven open ports was $3,981,675.86. The 
following imports were received during the year 1904 from three 
European countries: France, $389,437.10; Great Britain, $385,678.04; 
Germany, $61,401.85. 

Haiti's crop of coflfee for the year 1905 is estimated at over 
75,000,000 pounds. This exceeds the crop of 1904 by about 30,000,000 
pounds, but does not reach that of 1903, which was over 100,000,000 
pounds. That, however, was considered a phenomenal crop. Added 
to this, the cacao crop for the year was very large, much greater than 
that of the preceding year. 

The cotton season was also a very fine one. 

A concession to construct a railroad from Gonaives to Hinche, and 
from thence to Port au Prince, was granted during the year to two 
American citizens, Messrs. Louis Dalmas and E. A. Blanton. This 
concession is reported to be a most valuable one, as the proposed 
line of the road is through the central part of the Republic and 
through the most valuable timber belt of some of the finest cabinet 
woods m the world. There are to be found within this belt mahogany 
trees from 8 to 9 feet m diameter; also satin wood, ebony, rosewood, 
a very fine quality of cedar, and other woods, which, when introduced 
to commerce, will rival those above named in the making of the finer 
classes of furniture and the interior decorations of houses. It will 
also pass through the great mineral belt, where may be found copper, 
gold, silver, iron, and possibly other metals. The above are known 
to exist and companies are being formed to develop them. It will also 
pass through the petroleum belt which has recently been discovered. 
This petroleum is said to be better than that found in Azua, and is 
said by those who have tested it to have a paraflSn base. 



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LATIN-AMERICA IN 1905. — ^A BEVIBW. 253 

The same gentlemen have also been offered the option to operate the 
road that the Goveiiiment has lately constructed from Cape Haiti to 
Grand Rivifere. A small branch road will have to be built from Grand 
Riviire to St. Michel, through which place the main line extends. 
This will give the Republic a continuous rail route from Port au 
Prince to Cape Haiti, which will be a great advantage to the Republic 
in point of revenue to be derived from it, and will eliminate to a great 
extent travel by boat, with all its attendant inconveniences, which is 
the only means now open to the traveling public. The southern 
terminus of the road passes through a large fruit and cotton growing 
district; in a word, the road as planned passes through virgin territory. 
This concession may be considered as the most important that has ever 
been granted to foreigners. 

During 1905, the conunercial convention of 1900 between France and 
ELaiti was denounced by the Haitian Government to expire on April 
80, 1906. Under the provisions of this convention certain French 
goods are at present exempted on importation into Haiti from the 
customs surtaxes of 50 per cent and 3di per cent, respectively, imposed 
by Haitian laws of 1876 and 1888. 

The port of the Mole St. Nicolas was opened to foreign commerce 
from October 1, 1905. it will be classed in the category of the third- 
class districts, and the administrative personnel will be the same as 
that of the other districts of the said category. 

The provisions of a law modifying the duties levied on merchandise, 
coming into operation during the year, are as follows: 

The surtaxes of 50 per cent and 33i per cent currency and of 25 per 
cent gold, levied on imports^ as also the surtaxes of 20 per cent and 
lo per cent levied on exports, are retained in force. The surtax of 25 
per cent is not levied on imported soap. 

The following additions are made to the free list: Apparatus and 
accessories for bee keeping; machines of all kinds and their accessories 
for use in industries, and also for agriculture or for the preparation of 
native products; maize mills; accessories of fire-extinguishing pumps. 

The exportation of the following articles is prohibited: Animals; 
silver or gold, in ingots or bars; national coin of silver, bronze, or 
nickel; gold or silver wares. 

Honduras. — Under the government of President Bonilla, the Re- 
public of Honduras maintained, throughout 1905, amicable and cordial 
relations with all the Goverments of Europe and America having 
diplomatic representatives in the Central American Stales. The 
boundary dispute with Nicaragua was submitted to arbitration, the 
representatives of both countries by mutual agreement designating his 
Catholic Afajesty, the King of Spain, supreme arbitrator. 

An epidemic on the northern coast and the scarcity of cereals in 
the Republic affected the Public Treasury. In order to offset the evils 

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254 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEBIOAN BEPUBLI06. 

caused by both these calamities large outlays were made. There were 
spent in cereals alone, ordered from the United States of America, 
$75,312.82. Nevertheless, the expenses of the Government were 
punctually met, and the public works already commenced were con- 
tinued. This is proof that the revenues of the State are ample for 
the payment of all the items of the budget, even in extraordinary 
cases. 

Public instruction was the object of careful attention on the part 
of the Government throughout the year. Large numbers of text- 
books and instruction materials of the best kind were brought from 
the United States and distributed to the primary schools of the 
Republic. 

The public revenues in the fiscal year 1903-4: were $3,380,253.21, and 
in the fiscal year 1904r-5 $3,304,362.26. The expenditures, including 
the disbursements for account of the public debt, in 1903-4 amounted 
to $3,287,349.94, and in 1904-5 to $3,341,492.80. The total liabilities 
of the State aggregated $4,048,478.96, of which sum payments have 
been made during the last fiscal years amounting to $1,220,758.20, 
there still remaining unpaid $2,827,720.76. To this sum there must 
be added $415,685.76, amount of the losses sustained in the war of 
1903. 

The total imports of the country for the fiscal year 1905 were valued 
at$2, 362,760, and of this amount the United States furnished $1,689,900, 
or over 70 per cent. The exports were more than twice as large as the 
imports ($5,564,003), the United States taking $4,622,700, or more than 
80 per cent. The share of the countries is shown by the following table: 



Country. 



United States 

England 

Gennany 

British Honduras 

France 

Nicaragua 

Spain 

Salvador 

China 



Imports. 



tl, 689. 900 

212,800 

185,000 

95,000 

66,600 

56,600 

21,300 

8,400 

8,000 



Exports. 



$4,622,700 

85,500 

217,400 

74,400 

8,600 

15,500 



18,600 



Country. 



Japan 

Guatemala. 

Cuba 

Panama. 

Costa Rica. 
All others.. 

Total. 



Imports. 



91.800 

1,600 

900 

200 



15.000 



2,862,800 



Exports. 



$130,000 

391,100 

1.300 

8,800 



5.564.000 



The principal items of export are the various natural vegetable 
products of the country, amounting in value to $2,593,700. Mineral 
exports were valued at $1,998,700, and aninoial at $909,000. Among 
the vegetable products exported, bananas are by far the most impor- 
tant, the total value of shipments being $2,078,400. Cocoanuts come 
next, with $210,900; then hard woods, with $128,100; rubber, with 
$83,900; coffee, with $52,700, and sarsaparilla, $30,000. 

The chief mineral export is copper, $1,154,000; gold and silver 
make up most of the balance, $813,700. The only important animal 
products exported are cattle, $595,600, and hides and skins, $298,000, 



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LATIN-AMEBICA IN 1905. — ^A KEVIEW. 255 

Honduras produces annually 14,000 quintals of tobacco and 1,000 
quintals of indigo. There are in cultivation 8,000 manzanas (about 
15,220 acres) of sugar cane, and 600,000 bottles of aguardiente and 
45,000 pounds of raw sugar are produced in Honduras annually. 
Sugar cane ^rows, in some places, to a height of 20 feet. 

Bananas constitute the most valuable product of the northern coast 
of Honduras, there being 25,000 manzanas (-1:7,220 acres) in cultivation, 
and the annual exports of this fruit aggregate more than 3,000,000 
banches. 

There are 9,300 owners of cattle ranches in the country, the total 
number of cattle being estimated at 572,000. In 1905, there were 
exported to Cuba 11,000 head of cattle. Recent statistics fix the 
number of hogs on the farms and in the villages of the Republic at 
112,100. There are 29,000 manzanas (53,165 acres) of well cultivated 
pastures for the grazing of cattle. 

Gold and silver deposits are worked in a small way in many parts of 
Honduras. In the Department of Alancho both lode and placer mining 
is carried on. The largest and richest placers are on a tributary of 
the Rucio River. An important lode-mining center is in the Lepate- 
rique Mountains, 30 miles from the Gulf of Fonseca. The largest 
individual producer is the New York and Honduras Mining Compan}*, 
whose property is at San Juancito, in the Department of Tegucigalpa. 
This company's plant is not far from the Pacific coast, and is 
approached from the port of Amapala. A railroad is being built from 
Amapala to the mine. During 1904, development comprised 5,264 feet 
of drift and crosscut and 1,443 feet of raise, resulting in the opening 
of 23,930 tons of ore. The mill has a daily capacity of 85 tons, and is 
arranged for stamping, amalgamating, and concentrating. In 1904, 
21,005 tons, assaying 59.54 ounces silver and 0.28 ounce gold were 
treated, with receivers of 84.35 and 86.70 per cent, respectively, at a 
cost of $6.14 per ton. The company's gross earnings were $724,170 
and the profit $217,290. In the previous year 15,620 tons were mined 
and treated, for a return of 3,653 ounces gold and 638,806 ounces 
silver. The 1904 yield exceeded this by 1,445 ounces gold and 370,000 
ounces silver. The average output is 60 tons of dry ore daily and the 
value of the concentrates reaches many thousands of dollars each 
year. The mines are worked for gold and silver. The Aramecina 
Gold and Silver Mining Company has its workings some 30 miles 
from the Gulf of Fonseca, with an annual production of 15,000 ounces 
of gold. The mines near Yuscaran, on the Nicaragua frontier, have 
shown splendid results in the past, but lately, through litigation, have 
remained undeveloped. Mining is the principal industry of the Repub- 
lic, though cattle raising and banana growing also receive attention, 
principally, however, on the Atlantic slope of the country. The min- 

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256 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEBIOAN REPUBLICS. 

ing properties in the Department of Tegucigalpa are as follows: Grold, 
6; gold and silver, 55; silver, 224; silver and lead, 3; silver, copper, 
and lead, 2; copper, 3. 

The Republic of Honduras has a coast line on the Pacific 60 milee 
in extent, the principal port on that side being Amapala, situated od 
the island of Tigre, in the Gulf of Fonseca. Amapala is the distrib- 
uting center for the Pacific trade of the Republic, and is a calling 
point for the vessels of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company and the 
Kosmos Line. A Mexican line of steamers running to Guatemala 
and Salvador also connects it with foreign ports. 

Adjoining the port of Puerto Cortes and the bay is the Alvarado 
Lagoon, 2 miles wide by 3 miles long, with a depth of water from 6 
to 14 fathoms, a splendid land-locked harbor. The Ulna Commercial 
Company, with headquarters at Puerto Cortes, have completed a ship 
canal from the bay of Puerto Cortes to Alvarado Lagoon. The com- 
pany has ale$o completed a canal from Alvarado Lagoon to the Chame- 
licon River, 3 miles. Its boats and barges navigate the river 50 miles 
or more, and are now busy in carrying fruit to this port. 

The opening of highways or wagon roads in the country is receiving 
the fostering care of the Government, which will greatly advance the 
mining properties in which the Republic abounds. 

During the year 1904:-5, the post-oflSce at Tegucigalpa received 12,629 
official letters, 3,479 franked letters, 48,003 post-paid letters, 1,212 
letters "postage collect," 2,063 postal cards, 156,659 newspapers and 
magazines, etc., 2,481 official registered letters, 4,640 registered letters 
and packages on which postage was paid, 1,573 samples, 348 official 
orders under the parcels-post system and 716 orders on which postage 
was paid, 1,591 business documents, 2,197 postal packages — or a total 
of 237,590 pieces of mail matter. During the same period the Teguci- 
galpa office issued the following: 12,315 official letters and 2,628 franked 
letters, 47,065 post-paid letters, 903 letters postage to collect, 860 postal 
cards, 127,635 newspapers and magazines, etc., 2,335 official r^^tered 
letters, 2,683 post-paid registered letters, 269 samples, 1,537 official 
parcels-post orders and 987 parcels-post orders on which postage was 
paid, 904 business documents, 49 postal packages — or a total of 200,170. 

The passengers entering the Republic in 1904 numbered 4,634, of 
whom 2,041 were Hondureans and 2,593 foreigners. The departures 
during the same year numbered 3,798, of whom 2,109 were Hondureans 
and 1,689 foreigners. The total population in 1905 is officially stated 
as 500,136. 

Mexico. — The material development of Mexico under President 
Diaz is strikingly illustrated by the steady and remarkable growth of 
her revenues in the last thirteen years. Starting with the fiscal year 
1892-93, when the total collections were $37,600,000, and ending with 



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LATTN-AMEBIOA IN 1906. — ^A BBVIEW. 257 

the year 1904-5, which can be safely estimated to have produced 
$92,000,000, the record is certainly a remarkable one. Throughout 
this period only a single year failed to maintain its proportionate 
share in the magnificent showing of conmiercial and industrial progress. 

The era of prosperity which the Republic is enjoying is due in a 
large measure to the monetary reform which, among other gratifying 
results, has given a powerful stimulus to the investment of foreign 
capital in the country. It may be affirmed that fixity in value of 
Mexican currency is now accomplished, and, owing to that fact, it 
will be possible to exploit the great wealth of the soil, which has 
remained unproductive owing to the insufficient resources available 
to the nation. The recent rise in the value of bar silver will further 
tend to consolidate the results obtained through the monetary laws 
and enactments. 

The Republic was represented at the Third Latin-American Scien- 
tific Congress which met at Rio Janeiro in September, 1906; at the 
Congress of EJconomic Expansion held at Mons, also in the month of 
September, 1906, and at the Congress on Tuberculosis which assembled 
at Paris in October, 1905. 

The Republic was invited to various international assemblies, and 
was duly represented at the Congress of Sports and Physical Culture 
which met at Brussels in July, 1905, at the Congress of Agricultural 
Training held at Liege, also in the same month, and delegates were 
appointed to represent Mexico at the fourth Congress of the Universal 
Postal Union to be held at Rome. 

A postal convention with Great Britain was concluded during the 
year and other measures tending to promote the internal prosperity 
of the Republic were inaugurated. 

Sefior Don Joaquin Casasus was appointed as Ambassador of Mex- 
ico in the United States, during 1905, the lamented death of Sefior 
AspfKOZ causing a vacancy at that diplomatic post. 

The treaty signed during the second Pan-American Conference in 
regard to pecuniary claims and damages was, after approval by the 
Senate, duly promulgated. A convention signed during the course of 
the same conference for the exchange of publications among the gov- 
ernments of America was also promulgated, after approval by the 
Senate and ratification by the Executive. 

A new customs tariff came into force on September 1, 1905. The 
monetary reform, by reducing the rate of foreign exchange, decreased 
also the prices to be paid for foreign goods, and in order to safeguard 
the home manufacture of certain articles it was necessary to protect 
those articles by increasing the duties imposed on their introduction 
into the country. Advantage was taken of this opportunity to revise 
the entire tariff, abolishing or reducing the rate on various goods 
where the previous duties had proved prohibitive, and simplifying the 

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258 INTEBITATIONAL BUBEAU OF THE AKEBIOAN REPUBLICS, 

tariff by including under one head various dues which had formerly 
been levied separately. 

The Mexican Government, in July, 1905, abolished the special fiscal 
regime hitherto applied in the so-called free zone, under which foreign 
goods, imported for consumption within a narrow strip of territory 
on the Mexican side of the northern frontier, paid only 10 per cent 
of the ordinary customs tariff rates. 

Decrees supplementary to the laws of monetary reform were issued 
and the necessary steps taken for their enforcement. Among them 
special mention must be made of the closing of the mints at Zacatecas 
and Culiacan, the organization of the Currency and Exchange Com- 
mission, and the mintage of the new coins which are at present in 
circulation. Modification of the legislation governing banks of issue 
in some points connected with the precepts of the new monetary laws 
was made, with the object of maintaining the value of the national 
currency within the limits fixed by said laws. 

On May 11, 1905, there was issued a decree which amended some of 
the bases of the law of May 4, 1895, with regard to the tax on the 
manufacture of alcoholic beverages, for the purpose, among others, of 
remedying the drawbacks incidental to the assessments of the distrib- 
uting committees. The satisfactory results of this reform were imme- 
diately evidenced. 

In accordance with the provisions of the law, which created the new 
Department of Public Instruction and the Fine Arts, said Department 
came into being on July 1, 1905. The number of pupils attending 
the primary schools in the Federal District and territories is 57,703, a 
gain of approximately 10,000 as compared with 1904. Several of tiie 
instructors who were sent abroad to complete their studies have 
returned and are rendering valuable services. Others are still inves- 
tigating and studying methods of other lands, notably in the United 
States and at Stockholm. 

The total number of primary schools under the jurisdiction of the 
Federation aggregates at present 544. 

In order to obtain competent teachers for the two new infant schools 
test examinations were previously held among the graduates of the 
Girls' Normal College who applied for the posts, and for the purpose 
of improving this department of education two female teachers were 
detailed to visit the model establishments of this nature in the United 
States during the closing months of the last scholastic year and the 
first month of the present year. 

Inasmuch as during the course of last year, 175 new professors for 
the national primary schools were appointed, the present number 
thereof is 2,148. 

Improvements have recently been introduced in the courses at the 
normal schools for teachers, the premises occupied by said schools 

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LATIK-AMEBICA IN 1906. — ^A BEVIEW, 259 

having been enlarged and new courses of great importance, as well as 
a system of lectures on methodology, having been created. 

The total immigration in Mexico, is very small, considering the 
extent of the country and its manifold undeveloped resources. As a 
rough approximation an average of some 500 persons a month, or, 
say, about 6,000 per annum, all told, is mentioned as probably a liberal 
estimate, although it is admitted that no correct idea can be formed of 
the numbers annually crossing the extended northern frontier of the 
Republic. The bulk of the inmiigrants undoubtedly come from Spain, 
though what proportion of the assumed 6,000 per annum are of this 
nationality can not be ascertained with any approach to certainty. 

The amount of available cash held by the Government at its various 
offices and on deposit in various banks on June 30, 1905, the last day 
of the fiscal year 1904-5, was $57,300,198.74. The development of 
banking in Mexico during the six months from January to June 30 of 
the year 1905 is shown in the following statements compiled from the 
monthly balances of the 5 chai'tered city banks and the 27 chartered 
banks of the capitals or leading cities of the various States. The com- 
bined capital authorized by the 32 respective charters and approved 
by the Treasury Department was, in each month, January to May, 
1109,600,000, and in June it was increased to $120,600,000 by the 
addition of $11,000,000 of new capital to the then Banco Central^ an 
addition duly authorized by the Treasury Department. The Bank of 
London and Mexico, during the six months, was also authorized to 
increase its capital of $15,000,000 by the addition of $6,500,000, but 
this addition did not become effective until January 1, 1906, and its 
capital was in the meantime rated at the actual sum of $15,000,000. 

The collection of custom-house revenue increased in a striking man- 
ner during the last half year of 1905. The increase in those collections 
in July and August, 1905, might have been explained by the efforts 
to rush the importation of goods on which the import duties were 
increased by the tariff which came into force at the beginning of Sep- 
tember; but instead of a reaction, which might have been feared as 
the result of change in tariff rates, the collections increased during 
the succeeding mojiths, so much so that import duties during the half 
year from July to December last yielded nearly $3,000,000 more than 
during the corresponding period of the previous year. Said increase 
is also an unequivocal proof that the numerous changes made in the 
tariff rates have not caused any inconvenience to the import trade. 

The various forms of income constituting the stamp revenue also 
show satisfactory returns. It might have been expected that the sup- 
pression and reduction of taxes on mining would have affected the 
total of stamps sold. Fortunately this has not been the case, and the 
increased yield of the other forms of this revenue not only compensated 

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260 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS, 



for the diminution in the yield of the mining taxes, but occasioned an 
increase in collections in the half year under review of $500,000 as 
compared with the corresponding half year in 1904. 

The statistics of the foreign trade of Mexico during the fiscal year 
1904-5 (July-June) show that during that period foreign goods to the 
value of $85,861,081.94 gold were imported into the Republic, as 
compared with $78,360,771.06 imported during the previous fiscal year. 

The six leading countries engaged in commerce with Mexico figure 
as follows in importations during the fiscal years 1904-5 and 1903-4: 



Country. 



United States 

Germany 

Belgium 

Spain 

France 

Great Britain 



1904-6. 



l9(»-4. 



$48,303,167.60 
9,810,638.54 
l,433,7.'y9.92 
3,7ai.4«4.62 
8,482,686.03 
10.418,343.11 



$42,640,296.89 
9.649,665.09 
2,180,406.87 
8,271,494.82 
7,478,474.80 
10,026.146.48 



The United States was the principal country of origin for the 
import trade, showing an increase of $5,662,870.71 over the preceding 
year. Of the six countries mentioned, Belgium is the only one to 
show a decrease, amounting to $746,645.95. 

The following table shows the values (in silver) of Mexico's exports 
to the six leading countries: 



Countrj'. 



United States )$1 89, 989, 418. 61 



Germany. 

Beleium 

Spain 

France 

Great Britain . 



1904-6. 



16,719,884.66 
8,376,212.18 
1,934,316.00 
6,905,746.67 

16,719,892.12 



1903-4. 



$141,587,181.05 
10.900,414.00 
6.589,142.96 
2,401,064.00 
6.297,698.68 
24,991,466.66 



Of these countries Germany shows the greatest increase, with Bel- 
gium following close. All the other countries show a falling oflf, the 
decrease of British trade being the largest. 

Within the last thirty years, Germany's purchases from Mexico have 
increased from $1,005,673 to $10,000,414, while Germany's sales to 
Mexico have increased from $444,344 to $15,719,884. Naturally this 
increase has been made possible through Mexico's remarkable trade 
development. Yet England's business with Mexico has not kept pace 
with that of Germany. British sales to Mexico in thirty years have 
risen only from $9,218,837 to $16,719,892. 

The United States has in the meantime made itself the most impor- 
tant factor in Mexican trade and commerce. American imports from 
Mexico have increased in thirty years from $5,000,000 to $50,000,000, 
and American sales to Mexico from $6,000,000 to nearly $60,000,000. 

The leading articles of export for the year 1904-5 were, in silver 
valuation: 



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liATIN-AMEBICA IN 1905. — ^A EEVIEW. 261 

Silver in bars, coin, and other forms, $65,623,646.70; copper, 
$29,803,420.63; lead, $6,504,669.11; other mineral products, $1,110, 
361.39; coffee, $9,266,781.67; henequen, in fiber, $29,389,128.12 
woods, $2,197,816.43; dyewoods, $691,817.10; tobacco, in leaf , $2,726, 
362; other vegetable products, $14,816,366.21; cattle, $3,149,320.60 
rawhides, $6,739,612.16; other animal products, $616,186.46; hene 
quen, manufactured, $41,785; tobacco, manufactured, $466,446.34 
other manufactures, $7,389,728; miscellaneous, $738,126.36. 

Of the exports of vegetable products the most important is hene- 
quen fiber, which represents 60 per cent of the articles included under 
this heading. It is cultivated in the Peninsula of Yucatan, and is 
exported only through the port of Progreso. The value of the 
exports of this fiber in the past two years has been: 1903-4, $31,626,157; 
1904-6, $29,389,138, 

The trade of the United States with Mexico in the fiscal year 1906 
aggregated in value $92,000,000, as compared with $31,000,000 in 
1895, and $18,000,000 in 1885. Of Mexico's total imi)orts of merchan- 
dise, 63 per cent is drawn from the United States, and of her total 
exports, 71 per cent is sent to the United States. No other country, 
except Canada, draws as large a percentage of its imports from the 
United States as does Mexico; and no other country except Cuba 
sends as large a percentage of its exports to the United States as does 
Mexico. 

Imports from Mexico of sisal grass in 1905 by the United States 
amounted to nearly $15,000,000, and of copper in various shapes to 
over $15,000,000. The copper is taken to that country for smelting 
and refining processes and the extraction of the precious metals which 
it contains. Iron and steel manufactures exported to Mexico from 
the United States in 1906 aggregated over $12,000,000, out of a total 
of $45,000,000 of exports. 

Owing to the continued demand for Mexican coffee in the United 
States and Germany, the export is steadily increasing, and as the new 
plantations which were started some five or six years ago in the south- 
em part of the Republic, especially in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, are 
now banning to bear fruit, the exports can be easily increased with- 
out encroaching upon the supply required for home consumption. 

The value of the live stock exported in the last two years shows a 
light falling off— 1903-4, $3,626,648; 1904-6, $3,149,320. 

Live cattle are exported to Cuba and the United States, and in a 
lesser degree to Canada. 

The export of hides and skins during the past two years has been as 
follows: 1903-4, $6,654,089; 1904-6, $6,739,612. 

The hides and skins are all exported in an untanned condition and 
inclade goatskins, which are sent principally to the United States; 

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262 INTERNATIONAL BUREAXT OF THE AMEBIOAN BEFUBLI09, 

oxhides to the United States, Crermany, and France, and deerskins to 
the United States. 

The principal manufactures exported are sugar, manufactured 
tobacco, and manufactures of henequen. 

Manufactured tobacco is exported in very small quantities as com- 
pared with leaf tobacco. The average annual exports do not amount 
to £50,000, and of this the greater part is sent to the United Kingdom. 

The great demand in the markets of the United States and Grermany 
for a good leaf for the preparation of cigars has induced planters in 
the State of Vera Cruz, especially in the district of the Tuxtlas, to pro- 
duce a leaf of the quality desired, and the consequence is the increase 
shown in the figures of the exports of uncut tobacco, which are is 
follows: 1903-4, $1,899,624; 1904-6, $2,725,362. 

The manufactures of henequen, such as cordage, rope^ hammocks, 
etc., are sent to the United States. The value of the exports, which 
last year was practically nothing, is set down as follows: 1903-4, 
$1,065,522; 1904r-5, $41,785. 

Animal products imported comprise live animab and all the mis- 
cellaneous products or manufactures of the same. The United States 
holds the lead under this head, though Spain supplied the largest 
amount of preserved meats and fish during the year 1904-5. 

Vegetable products imported include raw cotton, flax, hemp, and 
jute, fruit, grain, seeds, and plants, tobacco, tea, cork, the produce of 
plants and trees used for alimentary purposes, such as olive oil, sugar, 
etc., wood, lumber, and articles made therefrom, such as furniture 
Articles imported under this head come chiefly from the United States, 
and in much smaller degree from Germany, the United Kingdom, and 
France. 

During the year under review the imports from Ehirope nearly 
doubled. The imports under the head of iron and steel include barbed 
and ordinary wire from the United States; steel for mining drills from 
the United States and France; iron pipes from the United States, the 
United Kingdom, and Germany; iron and steel rails from the United 
States and Belgium, and iron and steel beams for structural purposes 
from the United States and Germany; hardware, cutlery, and tods, 
mostly of American and German manufacture; agricultural imple- 
ments and tools from the United States and the United Kingdom, and 
nails and screws from the United States and Germany. 

Under the heading of stones and earths are included lime and cement 
of all kinds, which come from the United States, and, in a much 
smaller degree, from Belgium, Germany, and the United Kingdom; 
coal imported in almost equal quantities from the United Kingdom 
and dependencies and the United States; coke from the United States, 
and mineral oils from the United States. 

Glass bottles for ordinary purposes and cheap china and earthen 



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lATIN-AMBBIOA IK 1905. — A BEVIEW, 268 

ware are supplied by Germany. Fine glass comes from the United 
States, while the finer grades of china and earthen ware are provided 
by the United States, and, in a lesser degree, by the United Kingdom 
and France. 

Of cotton piece goods imported, the United Kingdom supplied 64 
per cent in 1902-3, 61 per cent in 1903-4, and 64 per cent in 1904-6. 
Linen piece goods and piece goods made of jute and other similar 
fibers of heavier grade are principally imported from the United 
Kingdom and India. Woolen clothes in the piece come principally 
from France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Silk goods in the 
piece come principally from France, while France, Germany, and the 
United Kingdom supply the greater part of the piece goods in which 
silk is mixed with either cotton, linen, or wool. 

Articles manufactured from cotton come chiefly from the United 
States, France, and Germany; articles manufactured from linen from 
the United Kingdom, the United States, France, and Germany; 
articles manufactured from wool chiefly from the United Kingdom, 
the United States, and Germany; articles manufactured of pure silk, 
or of silk aiixed with cotton, linen, or wool, chiefly from France and 
Germany. 

Medicinal drugs and patent medicines are supplied in almost equal 
proportions by the United States and Fran^ve. Colors of all kinds, 
dry or in crystals, are almost exclusively imported from Germany. 
Caustic soda and potash are supplied solely by the United Kingdom. 

Spirits come chiefly from the United States and France. Beer— 
apart from a small amount from the United Kingdom and Germany — 
is imported from the United States. Cider comes from Spain; wines 
and liqueurs from Spain and France; mineral waters principally from 
Germany. 

The paper trade is practically monopolized by Germany and the 
United States. 

Under the heading of machinery and apparatus are included all kinds 
of machinery, tools, scientific instruments, batteries and other electric 
supplies and appliances, pumps, printing presses, clocks, watches, 
locomotives, etc. The United States supply by far the larger amount 
of the above articles, though there is also a considerable trade in them 
from the United Kingdom and Germany. 

The greater portion of all kinds of carriages, motor cars, bicycles, 
railway rolling stock, and boats, come from the United States, but a 
small proportion comes from France and the United Kingdom, the 
imports from the latter country being chiehy in the form of railway 
rolling stock. 

Most of the explosives are supplied by the United States, as also 
a large proportion of breech-loading guns. Germany also supplies 
breech-loading guns, swords, foils, etc., and gunpowder for sporting 



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364 DTTEBNATIONAL BUBEAU OF THE AMEBIOAN BEPUBLIOS. 

purposes. Cheap muzzle-loading firearms come from Belgium and 
Spain. The imports from the United Kingdom under this heading 
are insignificant. 

The scarcity of wheat and corn in Mexico caused a considerable 
increase in the importation of that grain from the United States. 
During the eight months of the year ending August 31 the total 
value of wheat imported from the United States through the border 
ports of entry was $294,617 gold, as compared with the total value 
of $15,288 for the same period of the preceding year. 

The total value of com imported during the eight months was 
$391,903 gold, as compared with a total value of $78,970 for the eight 
months of the preceding year. There is a considerable business 
done in American fiour in Mexico, notwithstanding the numerous 
mills in this country. The statistics show that the value of the 
flour imported from the United States for the eight months ending 
August 31 was $203,995 gold. Practically all of the wheat cover- 
ing the eight months' period of the year was imported during the 
month of August, the value of the product for that month being 
$236,747. 

The total trade of Mexico with American countries, other than the 
Uuited States, during 1904-5 was represented by the following fig- 
ures: Central America, $1,013,871.16 as compared with $441,385.80 
in the preceding year; South America — including returns for Colom- 
bia, Chile, EJcuador, Peru, the Argentine Republic and Venezuela — 
$138,766.99 as compared with $165,383.73 in the preceding year; 
Canada, $33,501 as compared with $12,376 in the preceding year, and 
Cuba $3,875,470, as compared with $4,260,288 in 1903-4. Other 
countries under the heading " West Indies " are credited with $2,700 
in 1903-4 and nothing in 1904-5. 

According to a report made by the United States consul at Durango, 
Mexico, the increase in acreage planted and in the quality and amount 
of wheat raised during the past few years has been notable in Mexican 
agriculture. Wheat has advanced in price along with other crops 
with the building of railroads, which brought also industrial enter- 
prises, and in the cities and more lively of the smaller towns there 
has been springing up a middle class of artisans. With increase of 
wages comes a betterment of diet, seen, for one thing, in the rela- 
tively large consumption of meat that was noted in a recent report 
from this office. An even more conspicuous feature of the trend 
toward social improvement is the growth in popularity of white bread. 

The production of sugar in the Republic of Mexico during the year 
1904-5 amounted to 107,038,785 kilos (107,000 tons), while the pro- 
duction for 1905-6 is estimated at only 105,000 tons. The export of 
refined sugar in the past two years has been: 1908-4, $2,594,178; 

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LATIN-AMERICA IN 1906. — A BEVIEW. 265 

1904-5, $5,717,446. Of this 85 per cent finds its way to the United 
EjDgdom. 

The growth of mining in the Republic for recent years has been 
remarkable, as may be seen from the number of mining properties 
under Government titles, which by last returns had advanced from 
8,500, covering 76,000 hectares (hectare is equal to 2.471 acres), in 
1898, to 19,000 properties, covering more than 250,000 hectares, in 
1904. The result of the new mining laws issued by the Mexican Gov-, 
emment, with respect to the monetary reform, is now becoming fairly 
evident. 

Progress in gold mining forms part of a general activity which is 
lifting the Republic to a splendid position. The chief gold district is 
El Oro, 90 miles from Mexico City, where there is a group of remark- 
able mines, now in excellent condition, and likely to continue pro- 
ductive for several years. In northern Mexico there have been 
iinportaDt discoveries at Lluvia de Oro, MiHaca^ and Santa Barbara. 
Mexico is likely to increase its gold output steadily. 

The copper mines of Mexico yield 11 per cent of the world's total out- 
put of this metal, the Republic ranking second only to the United States 
in its annual production. The enormous development in the copper- 
producing districts in the States of Sonora, Michoaean, Durango, Guer- 
rero, and the territory of Lower California has caused a correspond- 
ing increase in the exports of copper from Mexico. 

The exports of lead from Mexico, whether in the shape of ore or as 
the product ef smelting, are on an average 95,000 tons a year. 

During the second half of the fiscal year 1904-5 (January to June, 
1905) the Department of Fomento issued 998 title deeds, reducing to 
private property 659,327 hectares of vacant and national lands, which 
yielded to the Federal exchequer $314,654, notwithstanding the fact 
that much of said land was granted free by way of subsidy to rail- 
roads, reimbursement for surveying expenses, concessions to small 
farmers, and provisions for village commons. During the same period 
contracts were entered into for the colonization of certain sections in 
the State of Chihuahua and on the east coast of Yucatan. The Geo- 
graphical Explorations Commission has published in atlas form the 
map of the State of Veracruz and 14 sheets of the general map of the 
Republic. It fixed 57 points by astronomical process in Chihuahua, 
Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas, making, moreover, topograph- 
ical plans of 1,100 kilometers of river and 6,164 kilometers of roads. 

In the same half-year period there were issued 1,608 mining title 
deeds, covering an area of 26,135 pertenencias. Adding these to the 
figures given for the preceding half year, it is found that during the 
fiscal year 1904-5 a total of 2,840 new title deeds for mining properties, 
covering an area of 45,826 hectares, were issued. 
Boll. No. 1—06 19 

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266 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THIC AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Mining-development work during the year under review was sat- 
isfactory. The mines are being supplied with electrical power for 
lighting and undei'ground haulage. Additional power at the mines 
can he advantageously brought from the smelter as soon as the latter 
is equipped with electric generators capable of furnishing high-ten^sion 
current. Coal has been substituted for wood as fuel in most places* 

The Mexican National Dynamite and Explosives Company began, 
on March 1, 1905, to offer its products for sale in the home market, 
in accordance with its contract with the Government. As shown by 
the certificates of the technical inspector at the Tinaja factory, the 
dynamite turned out there possesses the qualities of strength and 
inalterability, which are the desiderata in substances of this nature. 

On Juno 10, 1906, there were 132 mills or factories in the country 
equipped for manufacturing calicoes, prints, and yarns from cotton, 
and subject to taxation under the stamp law in proportion to the value 
of the production of ^ach. This stamp tax is payable in advance every 
six months, the amount being calculated on the estimated output for 
that half year. The quota prescribed for each factory for the half 
year from July 1 to December 31, 1905, makes a total of $1,164,300. 
The individual amounts vary from $500, the lowest, to $180,000, the 
highest. This latter is paid by the Compafita Indtistrial de Orizaba^ 
whose capital is $8,000,000, represented by 80,000 shares of $100 each 
par value, and are to-day held at $225 each on the market, and very 
rarely to be obtained at this large premium. The next highest is the 
C(m}pnhia Industrial Yet^acrmana^ which paid $75,000. The capital 
of this company is $3,350,000, in 33,500 shares of $100 par value each, 
quoted on the market at $207, and none are ever to be had. The Conx- 
jHinin Industrial de Atlixco paid $60,000; it has a capital of $3,500,000, 
in 35,000 shares of $100 par value each. 

The mills are thus distributed among the various States: Coahuila, 
11; Chiapas, 1; Chihuahua, 3; Durango, 8; Guanajuato, 6; Guerrero, 
2; Hidalgo, 3; Jalisco, 5; Mexico, 8; Michoacan, 4; Nuevo Leon, 4; 
Oaxaca, 3; Puebla, 30; Queretaro, 4; San Luis Potosi, 1; Sinaloa, 4; 
Sonora, 1; Tlaxcaia, 8; Veracruz, 13; Tepic, 3; Federal District, 9. 

The Mexican Government levied taxes on the distillers of alcoholic 
beverages for the next fiscal year to the amount of 800,000 pesos. 

During the period comprised between July 1 and December 31, 
1905, 498 patents of invention and 46 patents for models and Indus- 
trial designs were granted, 387 trade-marks and 32 commercial naipes 
and advertisements were registered, and the registration of 16 marks 
was roneweil in a(*cordance with the law in force. 

The total volume of transactions entei*ed at the offices of the Public 
Begistry of Property and Commerce during the last year was 
$452,363,135, which is more than $100,000,000 in excess of the trans- 
actions entered in any previous year, showing the considerable increase 



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U^TIN-AMEBICA IN 1905.— A REVIEW. 267 

to dealings in property and of commercial nature in the City of Mexico 
alone. 

In order to encourage colonization, a concession was granted for 
the settlement of European colonists on national land in the State of 
Chihuahua, also two other concessions for the parceling out of national 
land into lots and for colonization in the State of Sonora. Manu- 
facturing industries are also being powerfully aided by the utiliza- 
tion of water for power purposes. Concessions were granted carrying 
the right to the use of more than 21,000 liters of water per month, 
from rivers subject to Federal jurisdiction, for motive -power purposes. 

During the same period of time title deeds were issued guarantee- 
ing the rights of the actual beneficiaries of water course, 5,251 liters 
per second being for irrigation and 558 liters per second for power 
purposes. 

The increase of the postal receipts of Mexico since the inauguration 
of the present era of business activity and material development has 
been quite remarkable. The report of the postmaster-general for 
the fiscal year 19(M~5 shows that postage stamps to the amount of 
12,835,944.01 were sold, asrainst $2,608,914.64 during the previous 
year, an increase of $227,029.37. 

The receipts from rental of post-office boxes were $90,133, an 
iKirease of $9,637; fromfines, etc., $32,265.23, an increase of $5,719.51; 
from premiums on postal money orders on Mexican post-offices, 
$291,916.22, an increase of $7,574,94; from premiums on postal money 
orders on poet-offices in the United States, $6,385.08, an increase of 
$2,304.46; and from premiums on editor's money orders, $36,452.43, 
an increase of $4,492.15. Total increase, $256,960.26. 

The volume of mail matter carried during the first half of the 
present fiscal year was 84,000,000 pieces, against 81,000,000 pieces 
during the same period of the previous year. Interior postal drafts 
a^regating $22,000,000 were issued. The interchange of drafts with 
the United States increased by 71-80 per cent over the amount issued 
in the first half of the previous fiscal year, the total being $1,115,000 
Mexican currency. In the service of postal drafts between this 
country and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
Mexico drew $33,300 Mexican currency and England drew against 
Mexico $7,300, also Mexican currency. The general earnings of the 
poet-offices amounted to $1,763,000 in the half year. 

The movement of the postal offices of the Republic was represented 
by a total for the year 1904r-5 of 178,000,000 pieces. Five new local 
offices were established, 25 agencies, and 10 ambulatory offices. The 
total earnings of the post-office establishments amounted to $3,290,000, 
in round numbers, an increase of 8.4 per cent as compared with the 
wfcrDiBgs of the previous year. The movement of interior postal 
dsmtts represented $45,800,000, and the movement of international 

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268 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

drafts $1,480,000. A postal convention was entered into with the 
German Empire for the reciprocal exchange of drafts and, through 
its intermediary, for the exchange thereof with the majority of the 
post-oflSces of the Universal Postal Union, said convention becoming 
effective on July 1, 1906. 

The total aggregate length of the railway lines of the Republic is 
now 17,170 kilometers. The Pan-American Railway continued its 
work of clearing, locating, and grading, and 20 kilometers of track 
were laid during the year. On the road from Guadalajara to Manza- 
nillo construction work was resumed between kilometers 198 and 207. 
Gn the National Tehuantepec Railway the work of substituting rails 
of 39 kilograms for rails of 27 kilograms continued, while the new 
bridge of Santa Lucrecia was completed and opened to tmffic. 

The new railway construction totals 304 kilometere, contributed by 
the Kansas City, Mexico and Orient, the Pan-American, the Cananea, 
Rio Yaqui and Pacific, the Linares-San Jose, and the Zitacuaro- 
Joconusco railways. On the Central's Pacific extension, between 
Tuxpam and Colima, a tunnel of 160 meters in length and a bridge of 
90 meters span have been completed. 

The following work was done on the Tehuantepec Railway: Twenty- 
eight kilogram rails were replaced by rails of 39i kilograms on 50i 
kilometers of the road, and the earthwork, ballasting, and renovation 
of ties have been effected for the same length. Provisional bridge 
work of an aggregate length of 151 meters was replaced by per- 
manent bridge work, with the customary masonry abutments; 37 new 
freight cars were put into service. 

During the half year from July to December, 1905, 500 kilometers 
of new Federal telegraph lines were strung, and the total length of the 
Federal telegraph system in the latter month was 55,586 kilometers. 
Work was begun in the erection of a line of iron posts between this 
city and Puebla, with a view to communicating with the east and 
southeast of the Republic on the stringing of a line between Santa 
Rosalia and Mulege, Lower California. 

The additions to the telegraph system were represented by 1,200 
kilometers, while three new cables with an aggregate length of 10 
kilometers were laid. Two of these cables are submarine, one stretch- 
ing between Xicalango and El Carmen and the other between Isia 
Aguada and Puerto Real, the third being laid in the river Tepetitan. 
Twelve new telegraph offices were established, and the general earn- 
ings of the system show an advance of 7 per cent over the correspond- 
ing period of the previous year. The Mexican Telegraph Company 
has, according to its contract, laid a new cable between Galveston and 
Coatzacoalcos and the telephone companies having charge of the urban 
service in the capital city have begun to lay their underground wires. 

During the six months from January to June of the year 1905, the 



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LATIN-AMERICA IN 1905. — ^A REVIEW. 269 

namber of vessels entering Mexican ports, engaged in foreign trade, 
was 689, -with 715,964 tons of merchandise. During the same perio(l 
707 vessels sailed from Mexican to foreign ports, carrying 171,401 
tons of merchandise of Mexican production. 

The arrivals of vessels engaged in the coasting trade amounted to 
3,511, with 132,070 tons of freight, the departures being 3,574, with 
113,700 tons of cargo. 

Twenty-one separate lines of steamers, operating 332 boats, are 
engaged in trade in Mexican waters or between Mexico and other 
countries. These lines are the Austro-Mexican, Mexican Navigation, 
Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, Harrison, Imperial German Mail, New 
York and Cuba Mail, Mexican-American, Leyland, Escolente, French 
Transatlantic, Canadian-Mexican, Spanish Transatlantic, Pacific Mail, 
Pacific Steamship, Kosmos, Pacific Coast, California Gulf Develop- 
ment, Abaroa, Na\'igation Steamship, Chiva Commercial, and Mason. 

The principal Mexican calling points are: On the Gulf of Mexico: 
Ascension, Campeche, Coatzacoalcos, Frontei-a, Laguna, Morelos, 
Progreso, Tampico, Tecolutla, Tuxpam, and Veracruz; on the Pacific: 
Acapulco, Agiabampo, Alcata, Magdalena Bay, Ensenada de Todos 
Santos, Eureka, Gua^^mas, La Paz, Lioreto, Manzanillo, Mazatlan, 
Medano Blanco, Mulege Perihuete, Puerto Angel, Salina Crux, San 
Benito, San Bias, San Jose del Cabo, San Quintin, Santa Rosalia, 
Tonala, and Topolobampo. 

The sanitation works of the city of Tampico were completed and 
turned over to the municipal council of that port on October 17, 1905, 
the only details lacking being the grading of some of the low-lying 
portions of the city and a small portion of the straining reservoir for 
the water supply. The dredging alongside the lateral wharves at 
Tampico and the renovation of the floor of the fiscal wharf were com- 
pleted. The canal between Tuxpam and Tampico was completed for 
a dbtance of 23 kilometers. 

At Veracruz, the surface of the western half of the land reclaimed 
from the sea is almost completed. 

At Coatzacoalcos, the western jetty was built out to a total length of 
1,006 meters, the depth of water at its present extremity being 8 
meters. The eastern jetty was carried out to a length of 1,050 meters 
and to a depth of 6 meters. The construction of the fifth wharf and 
of sheds 4 and 5 was completed. At the terminal station work on lay- 
ing the permanent tracks was continued; a roundhouse for 8 engines, 
2 weighing scales for cars, and a c^r- repair shop have been completed. 

At Manzanillo, the revetment on the breakwater was almost com- 
pleted. 

At Salina Cruz, 920 linear meters of the eastern breakwater were 
completed to a height of 3 meters above mean tide, and in a depth of 
17 meters, and only 80 linear meters are lacking for its completion. 



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270 INTEBNATIONAL BUREAU OF THB AMEBIOAir REPUBLICS, 

Work was prosecuted on the construction of the monolitii wall of 
the inner port, and the construction of 3 sheds begun. The vdumB 
of dredging done in the port is 1,300,000 cubic meters. The extrac- 
tion of earth and rock in the excavation destined for the dry dock 
*&gregates 117,000 cubic meters, and work is proceeding on the con- 
struction of the coping and concentration bottom. At the termiati 
station an area of 82,000 square meters was graded to an average 
height of 3 meters, and 13 kilometers of permanent track laid. In 
sanitation and water supply a beginning was made in the establi^ 
ment of conuections with private houses. 

The sanitation works at the capital were prosecuted without inter- 
ruption, and since September, 2,100 linear meters of main sewers, 
more than 10,000 meters of lateral sewers, and more than 2,600 meters 
of drains, with all accessories, have been laid. The electric motor 
plant has been ordered for the operation of the drainage pumps at 
San Lazaro. 

The sanitary measures taken against yellow fever on the Gulf 
littoral and on the Isthmus of Tehauntepec are continually beiBf 
applied with energy. From September, 1905, to February, 1906,132 
cases occurred and the malady reappeared at Veracruz and Merida, 
besides invading Tuxtepec and Cordoba, where it is not endemic; 
but the efforts to prevent its propagation were successful. 

Nbcaragua. — In a message addressed to the Nicaraguan Congress 
on December 1, 1905, President Zelaya stated that the relations which 
Nicaragua maintains with other countries continue to be of the moei 
cordial nature. With regard to the sister Republics of Central 
America, these cordial relations have been strengthened, not only 
because of the fairness with which the conventions entered into have 
been complied with, but also because the people and governments, 
guided by analogous tendencies and similar aspirations, have rendered 
the achievement of a mutual understanding easier day by day. 

A Treaty of Amity and Commerce was concluded with the Republic 
of Guatemala, which will effectively contribute to the development 
of the commercial relations of both countries. 

The franchises of the free port of San Juan del Norte were rescinded 
during the year, and in future said port will be in the same cat^ory 
as the other ports of the Republic, in conformity with the treaty 
celebrated with Great Britain on July 28, 1905. In April, 1905, the 
treaty with Great Britain concerning the Mosquito Territory was 
signed at Managua. 

The consular service, principally in the hands of Nicaraguan citi- 
zens, responded to the desires of the Government for the improvnwnt 
of the service and for securing from it all the advantages which that 
service affords in civilized countries. On January 1, 1906, the new 
Code of Civil Procedure, which introduced important and useful 

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LATIN-AMEBICA IN 1905. — A REVIEW. 27 1 

improTeraents in legislation, in accordance with the most advanced 
principles of noodem law, became eflfective. 

The Government gave special attention to public instruction through- 
out the year, and with this end in view the Executive provided all the 
national primary, high, and professional schools with abundant and 
suitable scientific material, ordered abroad at a cost of more than 
200,000 francs, A large part of this material, which was selected 
from catalogues and information obtained from the principal European 
and North American manufacturers, has been distributed in the national 
schools in accordance with the requirements of each educational estab- 
lishment. The Government, desirous of broadening the scope of pro- 
fessional instruction, also decreed the establishment of two topographic 
engineering schools, annexed to the institutes at Leon and Managua. 
The pupils attending the public schools numbered 25,363, and there 
was an increase of 76 schools during the y tmr. 

The Government, desirous of improving and maintaining in good con- 
dition the public roads, bridle roads, and trails, and to construct such 
new ones as may be necessary to foster agriculture, mining, and com- 
merce, decreed on the 16th of August an organic road law which will 
have a beneficial and practical effect In this connection. 

The lease of the Government railroad and steamers has given satis- 
factory results both to the Public Treasury and also concerning good 
service. The benefits received by the Public Treasury by virtue of 
the lease will be shown by the mere statement that, while in the Bud- 
get for 1^04:, §850,000 were appropriated for the Government railroad; 
in the first six months of 1905 the road produced $953,917.53, '25 per 
cent of which belongs to the Government. 

The Monkey Point Railroad is one of the most important works 
undertaken, since it will not only put the capital in rapid comnmni- 
cationwith the Atlantic Ocean, but will also offer to labor and capital 
extensive and rich regions where all kinds of important enterprises 
may be developed. 

On October 17, 1905, sufficient funds to pay the interest on the 
loan of 1886, due within a month, were deposited in London, and 
$812,950.46 applied to the liquidation of the domestic debt. 

The trade of Nicaragua with the United States during the fiscal year 
1904r-5 was as follows: Imports from the United States, $1,944,556; 
exports to the United States, $1,513,875. 

The rubber exports from Bluefields for the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1905, were valued at $280,609.28, as compared with $201,661.78 in 
the preceding year. For the same period banana shipments from the 
port aggregated $647,423.09, as against $814,900 in 1904. 

The exports of gold from the San Juan del Norte district of Nica- 
ragua in 1905 amounted to $403,866, somewhat less than during the 
previous year. This is accounted for by the fact that two of the 



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272 INTEBKATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AKEBICAK BEPUBLIC8. 

largest producing mines were worked only part of the year owing to 
improvements being made and new machinery installed. 

The Cordillera Mountains, particularly on the eastern slope, are 
rich in minerals. Gold is being worked in the districts of Tiinki, 
Pispis, Siuna, Coco, Cincuenta, Rio Grande, and La Grapera. At 
present about 100 mines are operated, and the gold yield is between 
20,000 and 30,000 ounces per annum. The industry is hampered by 
scarcity of labor, water, and crude means of communication. 

Copper, coal, oil, and precious stones are also found. Local indus- 
tries are the manufacture of furniture, boots and shoes, cigars and 
cigarettes, sugar, rum, beer, candles, and soap; but these products 
are almost entirely for local use. 

The coffee crop of Nicai'agua for the season 1905-6 will be about 
150,000 quintales, or slightly less than two-thirds of a crop. Drought 
and eruptions from the volcano ''El Santiago" curtailed the yield. 
The low-country coffee is small and inferior, but the Matagalpa prod- 
uct is large and well formed, owing to cooler climate and ample moi:;^ 
ture. The coming crop so far is very promising, and excellent results 
may be expected if the rainy season sets in at the proper time and con- 
tinues normally. 

The Republic of Nicaragua produced, during the year 1904-5, 
1,150,000 kilograms of molasses and 4,235,000 kilograms of sugar. 

Tobacco growing is regulated by the Government, which in 1908 
derived a revenue of 262,904 pesm from permits to growers. This 
source of revenue is leased for ten years from June, 1904, for an 
annual payment of 160,000 pesos^ increasing yearly by 5,000 pewf. 
Cotton planting has long been carried on intermittently; it is doubtful 
whether it will be continued. In 1903, 205,709 pounds were exported. 
Rubber is collected in the mountain forests, and there are young 
rubber plantations on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. The forests 
contain, besides mahogany and cedar, which are largely exported, 
many valuable timber trees, dyewoods, gums, and medicinal plants. 
They are worked both from the Atlantic and the Pacific, but statistics 
of the timber cut are incomplete. 

There are probably 1,200,0(^)0 cattle in Nicaragua. In 1903 over 
5 1 ,000 cattle were slaughtered. Cheese and milk are largely consumed; 
hides are tanned for local industries. Horses and pigs are reared, but 
not sheep. Maize, beans, and rice are grown for local consumption. 

Panama, — The Republic of Panama, which commenced its national 
life November 3, 1903, with practically the unanimous support of the 
people of the Isthmus, became, on July 1, 1905, a member of the Inter- 
national Union of American Republics. The natural resources of the 
Republic of Panama are but little known to the world at large, the 
interest in the monumental project of a trans-isthmian canal over- 
shadowing them. The work of the Panama Government in open- 



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LATIN-AMEBICA JN 1905. — A BEVIEW. 278 

ing the country and facilitating the exploitation of its resources by- 
extended improvements in transportation and communication has not 
been recognized as fully as warranted by present accomplishment and 
expected results. Harbors, highways, and railwa3's and a new city 
are among the projects to which President Amador has given his 
approval, and upon which work is in progress. 

Few countries of the size of Panama have such a large coast line. 
From the Costa Rican boundary on the Pacific and Atlantic it stretches 
to the mouth of the Atrato River on the Atlantic, and to Puerto 
Cocolito on the Pacific, the dividing line between Panama and Colom- 
bia — a distance, including both sides, of not less than 1,000 miles. 
The territory lies between 7° 15' and 9^ north latitude and 77^ and 
82^ west longitude from Greenwich, and has an area of 31,500 square 
miles. In the widest place the Isthmus is about 160 miles, and at the 
narrowest between 35 and 40 miles, the extreme length being nearly 
400 miles. 

The Republic has a population of 300,000, composed of pure and 
even wild Indians, Spaniards, Colombians, Panamans, English, Ger- 
mans, French, Chinese, Italians, and Americans. It is estimated that 
there are some 40,000 Jamaicans (who are English), and about 2,000 
Chinese, most of whom were attracted to the Isthmus during French 
canal days. 

The ports of the Republic on the Pacific are Panama, Agua Dulce, 
Pedregal, Monti jo, and Puerto Mudis; and on the Atlantic, Colon^ 
Bocas del Toro, and Puerto Bello. 

There is but one railroad in the Republic, and this extends from the 
Pacific at Panama to the Atlantic at Colon, and is operated by the 
Panama Railroad Company. It is 47 miles long and was completed 
in 1855, the first train passing over the Isthmus, January 28 of that 
year. The cost of this road was $7,500,000, and the gross earnings 
for the year ended December 31, 1903, were $1,267,570.91. The 
majority of the stock, formerly owned b}^ the French Canal Company, 
has passed to the United States Government. The roadbed is in good 
condition and the rolling stock answers the purposes for the present. 
The principal offices of the company are located in the city of New 
York. 

The combined total earnings of the Panama Railroad and Steam- 
ship Line, during 1905, amounted to $3,077,611, an increase of 
1536,512 over 1904. The total expenditures amounted to §2,541,099, 
an increase of $679,358 over 1904. During 1905, 471 steamers, of 
1,361,150 tons, and 268 sailing vessels, of 22,348 tons, entered the port 
of Colon, showing an increase of 94 steamers, of 24,150 tons, and a 
decrease of 73 sailing vessels, with an increase of 6,948 tons over 1904. 
The number of American vessels entering the port of Colon during 
1905 was 63 steamers of 156,371 tons and 21 sailing vessels of 13,354 

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274 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF. THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

tons. The Royal Mail and Hamburg Anaerican Steamship lines have 
established fortnightly lines between Colon and New York, which, 
together with the 5 steamers of the Panama Railroad Steamship Line, 
make a total of 9 steamers monthly between New York and Colon. 

Freight traffic from the United States to the South Pacific ports 
increased by 3,375 tons, while the increase to Central American and 
Mexican ports was 6,855 tons, and to Panama 6,790 tons. From Europe 
the increase was 3,390 tons to South Pacific ports, and 5,080 tons to 
Central American and Mexican ports. The decrease from Central 
American and Mexican ports to Europe was 6,075 tons, and from the 
South Pacific ports to the same destination it was 9,950 tons. The 
total freight carried across the Isthmus, in 1905, amounted to 444,230 
tons, an increase of about 30,000 tons. The through traffic showed 
an increase of 66 per cent of the total tonnage handled, as against 82 
per cent for 1904. The total number of passengers carried over the 
railroad during the year amounted to 273,165, as against 114,000 in 
1904. The total earnings for the year 1905, amounted to $1,912,552, 
an increase of ^644,981 over the previous year. The revenue derived 
from merchandise and coal freight was $1,306,145, an increase of 
$198,620 over that of 1904. The passenger earnings were ^129,163^ 
an increase of about 50 i>er cent over 1904. From transporting treas- 
ure and mail the receipts were $116,790, as against $110,792 for the 
year 1904. Kevenue from through passengers decreased $3,372, 
although the number increased 1,425. The through rate of passage 
was reduced on first class from $10 to $6.50, and on second class from 
$5 to $4.50. The number of local passengers increased 185,867, 
amounting to $47,064, due to the resumption of work on the canaL 

The trade returns of Colon for the year 1905, show that the imports 
of tliat Panama port passed the two-million-dollar mark, amounting 
to §2,008,904, an increase of about $408,000 over 1904. Of tht 
amount the imports by countries were as follows: United States^ 
$1,376,074; Great Britain, $229,107; Germany, $196,084; France. 
$89,248; Spain, $33,528; Belgium, $11,592; Italy, $11,487; all other 
countries, $61,784. 

The principal articles of import from the United States were rail- 
road material, coal, lumber, provisions, kerosene, cotton goods, hard- 
ware, beer, shoes, furniture, hats, and sewing machines. From Europe: 
Cotton, woolen, and linen goods, ready-made clothing, shoes, hats, 
candles, matches, ale, beer, wines, and fancy articles. The principal 
exports from Colon go to the United States, which, in 1905, took of 
bananas, $35,780; cocoanuts, $54,600; liides, $Jl,755; ivory nuts, $26,080; 
rubber, $8,185; turtle shell, $9,240, and miscellaneous, $2,845, being 
a total of $141,485. 

The great increase in trade is the result of the independence of the 
Republic of Panama and the closing of the era of constant civil dis- 

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lATIN-AMEBICA IN 1906. — A BEVXEW. 2T5 

turbances which made profitable derelopments of industrial pursuits 
on a targe scale ahnost impossible. With a long period of peace and 
good order assured, the benefits derived from the construction of the 
Pknama Canal, and immigration from the United States a steadily 
increasing trade DEiay be looked forward to. 

The growing and exporting of bananas is the industry th^t supports, 
directly or indirectly, practically every inhabitant in the Bocas del 
Toro district. The exports to the United States for 1905 were 3,414,- 
500 bunches of bananas, 131,200 cocoanuts, and 1,157 cases of canned 
turtle meat. Exports to Europe were sarsaparilla root and turtle 
shells. The imports from the United States, Europe, and Asia were 
of all elasses of merchandise. 

In the fiscal year which closed June 30, 1905, United States total 
commerce with the new Republic of Panama was of the value of 
16,000,000. Imports from Panama consist chiefly of bananas, india 
rubber, coffee, and other articles of tropical production. Exports 
thither consisted of flour, cotton cloths, other cotton goods, steel rails, 
timber logs, boards, furniture, builder^s hardware, structural iron and 
steel, typewriters, sewing machines, machinery, and a long miscella- 
neous list. The figures of exports do not include any goods shipped 
by the United States Government in its own vessels, but do include 
Cfovemment shipments sent as freight by ordinary shipping lines. 
Shipnoents to Panama go by the ports of New York (three-fourths), 
New Orleans, Mobile, and San Francisco. Imix)rts thence come 
through Mobile and New York in about equal proportions. 

At present the central Provinces of Los Santos, Code, and Veraguas 
are the fields for important improvements, for which $1,050,000 silver 
have been appropriated. 

The harbors of Pescaderias and Puerto Posada are to be improved, 
so that it will be possible for passengers and cargo to be received and 
landed at wharves. With the exception of Panama Cit}^ the port of 
Agua Dulce is at this time the only harbor on the Pacific where it is 
po^ible for vessels to discharge and load from piers. 

The project is to have, in the nc^ far distant future, first, good roads, 
aad later, railways, stretching across the plains and foothills, through 
the mountain passes, to the Atlantic, and thus develop rich natural 
resources which to-day lie dormant. 

Long-abandoned gold mines have recently been relocated, and are 
now worked with profit. The crude methods of the Spaniards were 
oolj successful where the mineral veins were most accessible. The 
resuhs obtained by the use of modern facilities will surpass those 
of the original discoverers. Because of the lack of transportation 
facilities coal and iron have lain undisturbed in the flanks of the hills. 
From July to December, 1905, mining titles as follows were issued 
Vf the Ptaama Govcmment: Boca de Igui, vein gold, San Francisco 

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276 IKTEBNATIONAL BUREAU OP THE AMERIOAK REPUBLICS. 

de. la Montana, Veraguas; El Basto, vein gold, San Francisco de la 
Montana, Veraguas; The Disraeli, vein gold, San Francisco de la Mon- 
tafia, Veraguas; La Bonita, alluvion gold, Santa Fe, Veraguas; La 
Esperanza, alluvion gold, Santa Fe, Veraguas; continuation of La 
Bonita, alluvion gold, Santa Fe, Veraguas; El Aguila, alluvion gold, 
Santa Fe, Veraguas; Antigua Guaca, vein gold, Canazas, Veraguas; 
La Buena Esperanza, vein gold, Canazas, Veraguas; La Esperanza, 
iron sediment, Macararcas, Lios Santos; La Providencia, copper sedi- 
ment, Macarareas, Los Santos; Hipelisa, alluvion gold, Pinogana, 
Panama; Quebrada de Arena, alluvion gold, Pinogana, Panama; El 
Tigre, alluvion gold, Pinogana, Panama; La Lajita, alluvion gold, 
Pinogana, Panama; Tres de Julio, alluvion gold, Chiriqui Grande, 
Bocas del Toro; Juan de Dios, Robles 6 Fiter, vein gold, San Fran- 
cisco, Veraguas. 

In recent years valuable deposits of manganese ore have been found 
near Nombre di Dios, in the Province of Colon, and American in- 
vestors organized the Manganese Mining Company. 

Most of the coal is shipped here from the United States, a. small 
portion being imported from Australia by the Pacific Steam Naviga- 
tion Company. Coal beds or veins are to be found in many parts of 
the Republic of Panama. In the Province of Bocas del Toro a very 
good grade of bituminous coal has been discovered, but it is so far back 
in the interior that it is not a paying investment. In the Isthmian 
Canal Zone coal veins were found by the French during their occu- 
pancy of this territory. This statement seems to be verified by the 
reopening of an old coal bed on the Negrito River. Samples of this 
coal appears to be of lignite formation. Recently, two other places 
on the same property, but at a lower level, were bored, and it is 
repoi-ted that a coal stratum 3 feet thick was discovered. 

A large area of fine woods will become accessible when better com- 
munication is established. Cocoanuts, coflfee, and rubber grow wild 
in luxuriance. To cite an example, it is credibly reported that an 
Indian cacique possesses 25,000 rubber trees. With the benefits of 
cultivation and transportation to an available market, a rubber crop 
yields a profit of from $1 to $2 silver per tree. Necessary Indian 
labor can be obtained for about 10 cents silver per tree. 

In November, 1905, the Philadelphia Mint (United States) shipped 
to Panama an issue of $1,000,000 in new $1 silver coins of the fixed 
value of $1 gold, which had been minted for the Panama Government. 
To insure the parity of the gold and silver currency of the Republic, 
a deposit of $300,000 gold was made with the Bankers' Trust Company 
of New York. This is 15 per cent of the total issue of $i,000,000 of 
the new Panama silver currency. 

A contract was let by the Government of the Republic for the rais- 
ing of the entire town of Bocas del Toro to about 1 meter above its 



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LATTW-AMEBICA IN 1905. — A REVIEW. 277 

present mean level ^ the construction of a sea wall and a system of 
sewers, including the digging of a canal in the rear portion of the 
town. All this work, which will hardly be completed imder a couple 
of years, is to be done for $241,000 Panama silver (equal to $120,500 
American gold). 

Paraguay. — The message of President Baez, of the Republic of 
Riraguay, read at the opening of the ordinary sessions of Congress, 
considered as an indication of the very considerable material and moral 
progress realized in that country since the close of the last civil war, 
is of more than usual interest. It shows manifest improvement in the 
general situation of the country, evidenced by the influx of foreign 
capital and the development of the nation's resources, due to the more 
regular working of its institutions and a growing sense of social and 
economic security. 

With reference to international relations, the President mentioned 
that the Republics of Argentina and Brazil cultivate the most cordial 
and neighborly relations with Paraguay, and that the commercial 
policy of the Argentine Republic is entirely favorable to Paraguayan 
interests. On the question of boundaries he stated that Bolivia had 
sent to Asuncion a new plenipotentiary, with a view to an amicable 
solution of the territorial differences existing between the two countries. 

Hie general elections for the biennial renewal of the members of 
Congress were held in the midst of the most perfect order. The 
municipal elections in the capital and in other parts of the Republic 
were also held under equally favorable circumstances. 

During the year 1905, new post-offices were opened in different parts 
of the Republic, the postal tariff was modified, and the work on the 
telegraph line to Bahia Negra was continued, and branch lines were 
extended from JTemby to San Antonio, from Punta Fierro to Yuti, 
and from Limpio to Piquete. Arrangements were also made for the 
interchange of telegraph messages with the railroads. 

In 1904, the custom-house collections amounted to $15,069,706.30 
paper money. The imports and exports were, during the year; 
$3,508,138. 17 and $3,106,559.82 sealed gold, respectively. The internal- 
revenue receipts during the same year amounted to $1,459,614.39, a 
much smaller amount than the sum collected in 1903. 

The Agricultural Bank, whose business was paralyzed during the 
late civil war, is again doing its accustomed business. Its capital, 
authorized by the law of July 14, 1903, is $14,531,238.35, of which 
sam f6,793,850 belongs to the Mortgage Department, and the remain- 
der, $7,737,388.35, to the Agricultural and Industrial Department. 

The foreign debt of the country was, on December 31, 1903, 
^,623,217.84 sealed gold, upon which a payment of $24,866.04 sealed 
gold was made in 1904, leaving the total debton December 31, 1904, 
$1:9598,351.80 sealed gold* 

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278 INTERNATIONAL BUBEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS, 

In 1905, the customs receipts reached a total of 22,467,^70 /?<»a«, as 
contrasted with 8,428,705 in 1900, and the product of the internal 
taxation has doubled. The extract of quebracho, together with the 
yerba mate, is now one of the most important items in the national 
resources, and there are in the Republic of Paraguay over 300,000 
cotton plants in process of cultivation, 200,000 of coffee, and about 
300,000 of spurge. 

The principal articles imported during the first half of 1905, accord- 
ing to the countries of origin, were as follows: Great Britain — ^Tex- 
tiles, $258,315.73; hardware, $65,549.71; dry goods, $25,663.09; arms, 
ammunition, etc., $5,888.72; drugs, $6,041.58; hats, $3,899.25; arti- 
cles in general, $3,281.61; wines, liquors, etc., $2,182.42; food prod- 
ucts, $4,687.86; crockery and glassware, $1,088.49. Italy: Textiles, 
$33,095.64; food products, $28,705.74; hardware, $2,044.55; wines, 
liquors, etc., $45,446.85. Germany: Textiles, $111,300.25; food prod- 
ucts, $46,828.78; hardware, $45,016.80; wines, liquors, etc., $7,171.72; 
dry goods, $8,128.78; drugs, $11,211.70; arms, ammunition, etc., 
$4,099.32; hats, $2,469.26; stationery, $7,034.97; articles in general^ 
$2,822.57. Spain: Food products, $29,758.77; wines, liquors, etc., 
$39,269.44; dry goods, $760.22. France: Textiles, $21,634; food 
products, $24,633.20; hardware, $9,363.55; wines, liquors, etc,, 
$19,424.92; dry goods, $11,801.44; drugs, $6,533,79; hats, $5,448.98. 
Argentine Republic: Food products, $107,832.58; hardware, $3,502.40; 
hides, $3,064; textiles, $3,056.28; wines, liquors, etc., $1,511.02. 
United States: Hardware, $23,942.59; drugs, $6,190.59; arms, ammu- 
nition, etc., $2,962.90; food products, $8,669.83. 

Cheap blankets, ponchos, and rice are mostly imported from Ger- 
many; candles from Holland, via Germany; drugs and sugar are 
imported from France; textiles from Great Britain; patent medicines 
and windmills from the United States, which country supplies most 
of the refrigerating machines and hatchets. Galvanized iron is 
imported from Great Britain; flour, wheat, butter, and cheese from 
the Argentine Republic, and wines of inferior grade are imported 
from Italy and Spain. 

During said half year 952 steamers and sailing vessels, representing 
177,663 tons, entered the port of Asuncion. 

The total capital of the commercial establishments of Asuncion 
amounted to $43,000,000 and those outside of it to $27,000,000, making 
a grand total of $70,000,000. The above figures undoubtedly refer to 
paper currency, which is worth about 10 cents gold per dollar papier. 
Therefore the total value in gold would be about $7,000,000, or an 
average of $14 per capita. 

Za Industrhd Paraguaya increased its capital from $8,000,000 to 
$30,000,000. This is the most important limited liability company in 
the Republic, followed by the insurance company La Nacioyxal^ with a 

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TiATTSr-AMEBICA IN 1905. A KBVIEW. 279 

capital of $5,000,000; Za Pa/raguay^ with 110,000,000; La Parag^uay 
(a carrying company), with $2,000,000; La Selratica, with $3,000,000; 
B QuJyracho ds Puerto Maria^ with $5,000,000; El Gran Hottl dd 
Paraguay, with $1,000,000, etc. 

The number of industrial establishments in the capital amounted to 
S48, and 841 in the country — that is to say, 1,189 in all-^with a total 
capital of $139,000,000 paper currency, or $13,900,000 gold. Of tliis 
total $124,000,000 paper currency belonged to those establishments 
existing in Asuncion and the remaining $15,000,000 paper currency 
to those outside of it. 

A Paraguayan law, dated July 14, 1905, authorizes the Government 
to levy the following special duties, the revenues from which are to 
be appropriated to certain port works specified in the law: 

{a) A wharf duty of 1 cent gold per 10 kilograms on all articles 
loaded or unloaded at any port, whether or not use be made of the 
wharf; and 

(J) A tax of 46 cents gold per cubic meter on timber loaded in the 
port of Asuncion. 

The special wharf duty {a) was to be levied from the date of the 
promulgation of this law, and the tax on timber {b) is to be collected 
EsS soon as the wharves which are to be constructed for loading timber 
are open for public use. Both the taxes will remain in force until 
the loan to be raised in connection with the authorized port works is 
paid off. 

Peru. — Peruvian development is evidenced by the economic condi- 
tions of the Republic in 1905 under the administration of President 
Pardo. 

The commercial treaty of 1896 between Brazil and Peru -was 
deiMmnced and ceased to be operative from May 18, 1905. The Peru- 
vian Government accordingly repealed the decree of September 12, 
1898, and the other resolutions issued for the execution of the above- 
mentioned treaty, so that in future the navigation of Brazilian ships 
on the Peruvian waters of the Amazon and its tributaries, the impor- 
tation of Brazilian merchandise through the Loreto custom-houses, 
the importation of merchandise into the Yavari rigion, and the expor- 
tation of rubber thei^ef rom are to be subjected to the laws, tariffs, and 
regoktions of Peru. 

An idea of Peruvian progress is given by the increase in 
the exports from Iquitos during the ' last few years. In 1902 the 
Talue of these exports was, in round numbers, only $1,405,000. In 
1903 it was $2,137,000, in 1904 $3,306,000, and the indications are 
that the record for 1905 when completed will be more than $4,000,000. 
The purchasing ability of the countrj' has, therefore, nearly doubled 
in the short space of five years, in spite of the fact that home pro- 
duction of many articles has also increased. The bulk of these 

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280 INTEKNATIONAL BUBEAU OF THE AMEBIOAK BEPUBLIC8* 

exports in 1904 was rubber, which was exported to the value of $3,209,- 
000. The value of imports into Peru is also constantly increasing. In 
1900 they amounted in value to $11,284,000; in 1904 the record was 
$20,931,000, showing a gain of nearly 100 per cent in four years. The 
receipts of railroads in the year ended June 30, 1895, were $1,245,300, 
an amount which was swelled to $3,203,700 for the year 1905, showing 
an increase of 157 per cent in ten years. 

Peruvian imports during the first half year of 1905 amounted to 
$9,896,000 gold. Imports not only increased, but exports increased 
from a previous half-yearly average of $8,500,000 to $12,282,000 for 
the first half of 1905. 

The exports consist mainly of rubber, the total for the six months 
being 745 metric tons (of 2,205 pounds), valued at $1,188,000. This 
industry is developing with great rapidity and promise and will prob- 
ably remain the chief source of exports. 

The impoils into the country show the following advance in values: 
1902, $17,000,000; 1903, $19,000,000; 1904, $21,000,000, and for the 
first six months of 1905 (January to June), $10,000,000. During the 
same periods exports were as follows: 1902, $18,000,000; 1903, 
$19,500,000; 1904, $20,300,000. 

The imports from Peru by the United States in 1905 were valued 
at $3,152,964, including nitrate of soda, $370,935; guano, $273,988, 
and sugar, $1,018,208. Exports to Peru, amounting to $3,657,225, 
included various iron and steel manufactures, $1,364,285, under which 
item machinery alone counts for $801,604; cotton cloths, $142,302; 
cars, carriages, and other vehicles, $135,430, and flour, $254,442. 

The decrease noted in regard to Peruvian exports to the United 
States subsequent to 1901 is accredited to a decline in sugar shipments 
to that country. Thus in 1901 the amount of Peruvian sugar received 
by the United States was 130,000,000 pounds, decreasing in 1904 to 
48,000,000 pounds. 

Large quantities of goods were imported into Peru through Bra- 
zilian ports and by the Amazon River. Such consignments entered 
the Republic by way of the river port of Iquitos (about $1,500,000 
included in ''All other countries'"), but owing to insufficient returns 
from Iquitos it is not possible to state the countries of origin. 

During the year 1905 the customs receipts at Callao were £593,- 
592.505; Mollendo, £134,317.525; Paita, £37,366.957; Eten, £36,684.- 
187; Salaverry, £32,545.995; Pireo, £23,854.737; Pecamayo, £15,- 
200.114; Ilo, £1,381.845;. Pimentel, £101,633; Tumbe, £79,158, and 
Compania Nacional de Recaudacion, £7,561.170, making a total of 
£882,692.116, plus £128,887.348 from Iquitos, or in all a grand total 
of £1,011,579.464. 

The trade of Peru, though satisfactory, is still out of proportion to 



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LATIN-AMEBICA IN 1905. — A, KEVIEW. 281 

ltd great resources, which will offer a vast field for enterprise and the 
employment of capital at no distant date. 

Customs duties and taxes on the consumption of certain articles are 
the chief source of national income. They show the following increase, 
the figures showing receipts for the'^rst six months of the years 
named: 1903, $1,773,000; 1904, $2,153,000; 1905, $2,304,000. The 
total revenue from this source for the entire year 1905 will probably 
reach nearly $5,000,000. The receipts from tax on alcohol were as 
follows, 1905 being partly estimated: 1901, $1,028,000; 1902, $984,000; 
1903, $1,027,000; 1904, $1,641,000; 1905, $1,800,000. Receipts from 
tax on tobacco for the first nine months of 1904 were $541,000, and 
for the first nine months of 1905, $575,000. The total of all taxes on 
consumption for the two nine-month periods were, for 1904, $2,265,- 
000, and for 1905, $2,776,000. 

The revenues from all sources for 1905 will probably reach $10,- 
000,000. This increasing revenue has led to an improvement of 
national credit, and loans to a considerable amount have been negoti- 
ated during the past year — one for £600,000, for the purchase of two 
cruisers, and one for £3,000,000, for the construction of railways. 

During the year 1905, 28 new post-oflices were established, and the 
increase in the number of pieces carried, which was noticeable in 
former years, has been still further augmented. The total number in 
1903 was 16,081,000; in 1904, 17,581,000; and in 1905, 20,000,000 
(partly estimated). The total length of telegraph lines in the country 
has been increased from 2,165 miles in 1904 to 2,496 miles at the end 
of 1905, and the number of offices from 88 to 99. 

The progress being jnade in agricultural development is exhibited 
in the following statement showing the value of exports for the first 
sk months of the year 1905 (in United States dollars): Sugar, 4,143,- 
000; rubber, etc., 1,488,000; wool, 1,069,000; cotton, 779,000; cocaine, 
321,000; cocoa, 215,000. 

The production of cotton has grown more rapidly than is indicated 
by the foregoing figures, for increasing amounts are being consumed 
in the Peruvian factories. The cotton crop for 1905 is estimated to 
have consisted of about 125,000 bales. 

The great plateau region between the ranges of the Cordillera con- 
tarns many large areas of well-watered grazing lands and offers excel- 
lent opportunities for the raising of meat, wool, etc. The exports of 
wool in 1904 reached 4,100 tons avoirdupois, valued at $1,600,000. 

The introduction of improved breeds of sheep has only just begun, 
an English company having imported some 6,000 last year for their 
grazing lands in the department of Junin. Results thus far are very 
promising, though it is perhaps too early to claim certain success. 

Analysis of the rubber exports illustrates the importance of the 
rubber fields of the upper Ucayali. Of the total exjKjrt for the first 

BaU. No. 1-06 ^20 PoocTlr> 

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282 INTEBNATIOKAL BtTRBAtT OF THE AMSBIOAK BEPUBLIC8, 

six monthfl of 1905 of 745 tons, t^is river and its tributaries f omiabed 
357 tons, or 48 per cent; while the Putumayo furnished 194 tons; the 
Yavari, 155, and all others tributary to Iquitos furnished ^ tona. 
The product of these rivers does not, of course, repr^ent the whok 
rubber output of Peru, but only of those sections whose export goe« 
through the custom-house of Iquitos. Other important districts aw 
the valleys of the Madre de Dios, Tambopata, Beni, etc., the amount 
of whose product there is no means of determining. 

Sugar forms one of the staple articles of export, the quantitj 
exported in 1905 being 134,000 tons. The whole coast of Peru is 
suited to the cultivaticm of sc^ur, cotton, and various other trc^icil 
products, but the supply of water is very limited. During the j^ear 
1905 the drought was severe. 

Excellent tobacco is grown in Tarapoto, in the Province of Sta 
Martin, Department of Loreto. Formerly that district prodtwed 
annually from 12,000 to 15,000 arrobas of tobacco, of 25 pounds each, 
but in 1904 the production was only 2,400 arrobas* The inhabitaots 
of San Martin, which is one of the healthiest and most fertile provineet 
of Peru, are leaving it for the lower Amazon and Ucayali dbtricts. 

It is well known that Peru is one of the few countries where the 
finest species of cinchona grows wild, but the bark no longer forms 
an important article of export, inasmuch as nearly all the quinia trees 
have been ruthlessly destroyed in almost all accessible regions. The 
planting of these trees in suitable localities ought to be encouraged. 
It is said that at present it would not pay to plant them, which is do 
doubt true, but under the fostering care of the Government great 
results might be obtained hereafter. 

In addition to the more important agricultural industries must be 
mentioned the cultivation of many varieties of fruits, etc., for local 
consumption. 

Many minerals are represented in Peru, and some of the useful 
metals occur in large quantities. There are now some 10,000 mining 
claims on the official register. Most of these mines are owned by 
foreigners. The chief metals and other mineral products found ia 
this country are the following: Gold, silver, copper, lead, quicksilver, 
molybdenum, wolfram, nickel, sulphur, coal, petroleum, borax, salt, 
iron, mica, bismuth, tin, and graphite. 

Peru is rich in silver, but the low price of this metal has natundly 
checked the working of her innumerable silver mines. The principal 
districts where that metal is found are Hualgayoc, Salpo, Huaylas. 
Recuay, Cajatambo, Yauli, Cerro de Pasco, Huallanca, Huarodiiri, 
Castrovirreyna, Lucanas, Cayllona, Laryipa, and Puno. 

Specimens of the coal obtained in the Department of Ancachs were 
exhibited at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, at St. Louis, where 
they wei'e viewed by a number of Americans interested in these nttt- 



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lATIK-AMEBICA IK 1905. — ^A BEVIEW. 288 

ters, and the valuable notes of the Italian naturalist Raimoxdi on the 
subject of the mineral and coal deposits of Ancachs are well known. 

Of late years there has been an increasing interest in the develop- 
ment of the oil fields of northern Pena. For many years it has been 
known that lubricating and fuel oils existed at several points in the 
provinces of Paita and Tumba. Some of these have been developed 
in a commercial way within the last ten or fifteen years. The oldest 
fields now supplying oil to the Peruvian markets are those situated at 
Negritos and Zorritos. At Lobitos, however, about 20*miles north of 
N^fritos, and on the coast, is a new field recently developed by the 
Peruvian corpdration. 

During 1905, the capital invested in electrical installations is esti- 
mated at $10,000, and the number of mills increased in the ratio of 
5 per cent. Flour, cotton, woolen, paper mills, porcelain and other 
minor establishments, such as shoe, shirt, and hat factories, were 
placed in operation. 

The Consul-Qeneral of Peru in Valparaiso, Chile, recently received 
orders from this Grovemment to send by every freight steamer coming 
from that port to the Republic of Peru 50 live cattle. It is estimated 
that about 500 live cattle will be received each month. A decrease in 
the |»*ice of meat has already been felt by the arrival of the first ship^ 
ment. The Consul, besides, has sent large quantities of beans, pease, 
and potatoes. A commission has also been named by the Government 
of Peru to go to the Argentine Republic and select 200 animals for 
the purpose of improving the Peruvian breed of cattle. 

The I'ailways of the country are almost exclusively in the hands of 
a company known as the Peruvian Corporation. Their gross receipts 
frcflm freight and passenger traffic are stated at $1,245,300 for the year 
fading June 30, 1896, and $3,203,700 for the year ending June 30, 
11K)5, an increase of 157 per cent in ten years. Within twenty-five 
years the development of railroad lines is shown by the fact that 
whereas they formerly were operated at a loss, net gains over expenses 
are indicated for the past six years. 

The total capital of the banking institutions of Peru in 1895 was 
$1,460,000; ten years later it was reported as $3,781,000, a gain of 
more than 150 per cent. 

Daring the year 1905 there were organized some twenty-five new 
companies for industrial purposes or the exploitation of the mineral 
or v^etable resources of the country, besides the enlargement of the 
capital of several already existing concerns. The total increase in 
capitalization by the formation of new companies and the enlargement 
of old is, nominally, about $15,000,000 (United States gold), and it is 
probaWe that a considerable portion of this will actually be invested. 
This amount does not include new construction work of the Cerro de 
Pasco Mining Company, which reaches a large sum, or the capital of 



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284 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

the newly formed company for the exploitation of the rubber forests 
of Sandia and Carabaya, whose nominal capital is $10,000,000. The 
total capitalization of industrial enterprises operating in the country 
has probably therefore been increased by some twenty-five or thirty 
million dollars since January 1, 1905. Mining and rubber companies 
claim the bulk of this, but considerable amounts are for other pur- 
poses, as $2,500,000 for the construction or electrifying of tramways, 
$2,900,000 for the ''National Steamship and Floating Dock Company 
of Callao," aod $975,000 for the Banco Alemdn Transatl&ntico, in 
Lima; besides varioHs smaller amounts for sundry industrial purposes. 

Of the 4,610,000 enumerated in the estimated population of the 
Republic, but a small percentage are of white blood — about 650,000. 

Peru has signified its adherence to the sugar convention, and the 
sugar duties have been reduced to the prescribed limits. The free list 
now includes sugar bags, motor cars, typewriters, and certain forms 
of iron, steel, copper and brass work, lead, zinc, mercury, crucibles, 
stills, explosives, agricultural and mining machininery and tools, tex- 
tile and foundry machinery, pumps and fire engines, sails, railway and 
tramway rolling stock, coal, cement, timber, ships undfer Peruvian flag, 
naval stores (not canvas), packing, belting, printing type and ma- 
chinery, and books. For special purposes additional duties are levied 
of 10 per cent at Callao and 8 per cent at other ports. Those at 
Callao include 1 per cent for drainage of the town, which is almost 
completed. At Loreto, on the Amazon, there is a 8j)ecial tariff under 
which cereals, sugar, provisions, agricultural and nautical implements 
and machinery are free, while export duties ranging from 8 to 20 
cents per kilo are levied on rubber. 

Salvador, — President Escal6n, in a message delivered to the Salva- 
dorean Congress on February 19, 1906, reported that during 1905 the 
foreign relations of the Republic continued cordial and amicable, and 
expressed earnest desire to be at peace with all the world. For the 
purpose of strengthening relations with the neighboring Republic of 
Guatemala a legation was established in March at the capital of said 
Republic. In September, a legation was established in the Republic of 
France, the work of which has so far been very successful. 

His Majesty the King of Italy invited Salvador to send a delegate 
to the Congress held at Rome to cooperate in the founding of an inter- 
national institute to study the actual condition of agriculture in all 
the countries interested in the subject. Said invitation was accepted 
and a delegate was appointed. 

The Government also became interested in the International Con- 
gress on Tuberculosis, held in Paris last October, the International 
Congress on the Physical Education of Young Men, assembled at 
Liege last August, and finally in the Peace Conference held at Tho 
Hague. 



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LATIN-AMEBICA IN 1905. — A REVIEW. 285 

In June the Government of Salvador authorized Sefior Don JoAQufN 
Bernardo Calvo, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary 
of Coeta Rica at Washington, that, in representation of San Salvador, 
he might take proper steps before the Governnaent of the United 
States to put an end to the abuses committed by the captains of the 
Pacific Mail steamers, which are causing great damage to the com- 
merce of all nations. 

Great efforts were made in the Department of Public Instruction 
for the purpose of reorganizing all educational establishments by 
adopting, so far as possible, the most improved modern methods which 
have given the best results in other nations. 

As to the sanitary service, though the results obtained have not, 
perhaps, been as satisfactory as might be desired, yet the country has 
escaped the invasion of the bubonic plague and the yellow fever — two 
epidemics that have caused many deaths in several countries of the 
American Continent. The Government, however, in order to prevent 
any sudden invasion of the aforesaid epidemics, did, through the 
superior board of health, take the most efficient measures against 
these terrible diseases, having ordered from abroad a sufficient supply 
of disinfectants, in order to fight the first of these epidemics, and 
established sanitary lines on the frontiers of Honduras and Gautemala 
in order to avoid, as far as possible, the invasion of yellow fever, 
which did such havoc in the city of Zacapa in the neighboring Republic. 

Special attention was given to the Government telegraph and tele- 
phone lines, which have been equipped with a competent personnel 
and all the necessary and modem appliances for their operation, the 
result being a great improvement in the service. Agriculture, which 
is an industry of vital importance to the country, received constant 
and earnest protection at the hands of the Government. 

The total Governmental receipts during the year aggregated 
18,536,443.07 silver, as compared with ^8,060,689.05 in the preceding 
year, the revenues from liquors being for the two periods: 1905, 
$1,924,366.41; 1904, ^2,142,207.48. 

Import values for the year 1905 are given as $4,356,070.32 gold, as 
against $3,610,376.97 in 1904. Exports amounted to $5,639,533.26, 
showing a slight decrease as compared with the preceding year, 
when the total merchandise shipped from the country was valued at 
$6,635,444.71 gold. Figures showing commercial valuations during 
the five years' period 1900-1904 indicate an annual avemge of 
$1,891,148.94 for exports and $2,881,049.55 for imports. 

Official statistics showing the five leading countries of origin for 
unports in 1905 give the following, in gold; United States, $1,354,- 
646.50; Great Britain, $1,313,995.99; Germany, $473,374.53; France, 
$339,957.90; Nicaragua, $165,409.25. Exports, whose value is 
expressed in silver, figure as follows: France, $4,136,662.77; United 



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286 IKTEBNATIOKAL BUBSAU OT 1*HX AMKBICAK BEPUBLICS. 

States, $3,062,603.27; Germany, $2,469,246.83; Great Britain, 
$2,161,889.86; Italy, $1,366,004.76. 

A decree of the Government of Salvador pi-ovides that from Sep- 
tember 1, 1905, the portion of the import duties previously collected 
in silver at the rate of 94 per cent of the tariff duties has been reduced 
to 68 per cent, the remaining 26 per cent to be converted into 12 per 
cent, American gold, payable in coin or in sight bank drafts on the 
United States. 

The 31st of January, 1906, the total length of the telegraph lines of 
the Bepublic was 3,266 kilometers and that of the telephone lines 1,882 
kilometers. There are in actual service 168 telegraph and 78 tele- 
phone offices, employing 264 telegraphers and 86 telephone operators* 
The number of dispatches transmitted in 1905 was 1,039,778. On 
December 31, 1905, there were 31,294 telegraph and telephone poles 
in the Republic. The principal telegraph offices of the Republic are 
those of San Salvador, Santa Ana, San Miguel, Sonsonate, Santa 
Tecla, Ahnachapan, Cojutepeque, San Vicente, La Libertad, Acajutla, 
La Union, Chalchuapa, and El Sance, by which communication is main- 
tained with the Republics of Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica 
by land. There are three overhead lines communicating with Guate- 
mala and a cable line which passes by San Jose. There are six tele- 
graph lines connecting Salvador with Honduras, and the lines for 
Nicaragua and Costa Rica cross this Republic. New telephone and 
telegraph wire is being put up all over the country, and soon com- 
munication can be had with the smallest and most distant points in the 
Republic. 

The population of Salvador is largely engaged in agriculture. The 
chief product i^ coffee, under which culture there .are about 50,000 
hectares. The coffee exports in 1905 amounted to 61,822,223 pounds. 
Other products are indigo, of which 524,628 pounds were exported in 
1905; sugar, 6,007,304 pounds exported in 1905. The Goveniment is 
encouraging cotton growing by offering a bounty of one silver dollar 
on each centner of cotton exported. The mineral wealth of the 
Republic includes gold, silver, copper, iron, mercury. The only 
mines worked are gold and silver mines, yielding chiefly gold. Oper- 
ations are carried on by Salvadorian, United States, and British com- 
panies. Full statistics of output are not published, but the exports of 
gold and silver in 1905 amounted to 8,330 pounds. 

Umtgnay. — Under the Presidency of Doctor Batlle y Ordonez, 
the Republic of Uruguay, in spite of conditions subversive of indus- 
trial and commercial prosperity at home, maintained a punctual ful- 
fillment of its financial services abroad during 1905. 

The financial status of the Republic was placed in an improved posi- 
tion, and a commission was appointed, with full powers, to hear, exam- 



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lATIN-AMEBICA IN 1905. — A BEVIEW. 287 

ine, and determine all justifiable claims presented for compensation 
for damages to real and personal property during the last revolution, 
and to provide a fund for the satisfaction of these and for other 
objects a new loan was issued. 

During the year, the revenue showed an increase hitherto unknown, 
the customs (the main part of the revenue) showing an increase 
of over $10,000,000, as compared with 1904, and much o\'er the 
highest record in existence. This will enable the Grovemment to carry 
out the highest amortization ever known of the 3^- per cent bonds. 
The price of land advanced fourfold, new industries were introduced 
into the country (such as the frozen-meat industry), and thie number of 
new buildings in the capital is unprecedented. The Montevideo 
harbor works, which, when concluded, should provide one of the best 
ports of South America, made steady progress, and in a very short 
time the big Atlantic liners will find convenient accommodations there. 
The country 's i-ailway system was also extended and new roads in the 
interior constructed. These are all healthy and promising indications 
of substantial development. 

The Government devoted special attention to both elementary and 
higher instruction, assisting the college authorities in the promotion 
of education, and owing to this joint cooperation, public education 
has been greatly promoted. 

Through the proper department the Government is promoting by 
all possible means the cattle industry. 

For the first half of the year 1905, impoils into the country reached 
a total valuation of $14,696,483 and exports $18,303,614, showing a 
balance of trade in favor of Uruguay of $3,607,131. In the corre- 
sponding half of the preceding year the nation's inl ports figured for 
$9,357,632 and the exports $23,581,748. The total volume of trade 
for the first half of 1905 was, therefore, $33,000,097, as compai-ed with 
$32,939,380 during the sam^ period in 1904. 

United States imports from Uruguay in 1905 amounted to $3,158,856, 
and consisted chiefly of hides and skins, §1,529,288. The exports, which 
amounted to $1,990,694, included a large variety of articles, the prin- 
cipal items being mineral oils, $393,378; manufactures of iron and 
steel, $105,047; lumber and various manufactures of wood, $361,311, 
and agricultural implements, $114,400. 

The Uruguaj^an budget, as approved by the Congress of the Repub- 
lic, provides for the disbursement of $24,119,659 gold and $123,673,352 
paper in 1906. 

In 1905 the production of cereals and oleaginous plants deci-easod 
considerably, the result of which was as follows: 

Wheat, 205,888,045 kilograms; flax, 14,046,417 kilogi-ams; oats. 



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288 INTEBNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMEBIOAK BEPUBUGS. 

625,553 kilograms; barley, 588,764 kilograms; bird seed (alpidte), 
1,745,734 kilograms. 

The latest statistics concerning the production of com show the 
following total result: Kilograms sown, 2,297,668; hectares in cultiva- 
tion, 176,899; crop harvested, 112,186,773 kilograms. 

The grape industry shows a great increase, the number of vineyards 
being 1,453; hectares in cultivation, 4,259; number of grape vines 
bearing fruit, 14,050,214; grapes harvested, 21,472,773 kilograms^ 
which produced 10,494,247 liters of wine. 

The customs receipts at the Uruguayan custom-houses for the first 
six months of 1905 amounted to $5,428,940, as compared with W:,265,012 
during the corresponding period of the preceding year, an increase of 
$1,163,928 being indicated. The principal increase was made during 
the first three months of the year, the upward movement having been 
checked in June, owing to a general strike of the laborers at the port, 
which was brought to a close early in July. 

The Uruguayan trade returns for 1904, compared with 1903, show 
a total valuation of $59,672,856 and $62,421,875, respectively, or a 
decrease for 1904 of $2,749,019. As, however, there was a decrease 
in import values and an increase in exports, the trade balance may be 
said to be in favor of the Republic, as is indicated by the following 
figures: Imports, 1904, $21,216,689; 1903, $25,103,966, a decrease of 
$3,887,277; exports, 1904, $38,456,167; 1903, $37,317,909, an increase 
of $1,138,258; so that the balance of trade stood, in 1904, in favor 
of the country to the amount of $17,239,478, as against $12,213,943 in 
1903, an increase for the year of $5,025,535. 

The River Plate country, which includes the Republic of Uruguay 
and a great portion of the Republic of Argentina, has long been in- 
cluded among the leading stock-raising districts of the world. For 
generations the people of this section looked upon the ranch as about 
the only source of material wealth. They were in past years and to a 
very large extent still are a meat-eating people, and have given but 
little attention either to general agriculture or to truck farming. The 
cattle of the country needed no special care, as grass of the best quality 
for maturing and fattening grew in great abundance over this entire 
country and remained fresh and green during the whole year. The 
climate is such that domestic animals needed neither grain nor shelter. 
Until recently the cattle of this country were not domesticated, but 
roamed the plains almost at will, in a semiwild state. They were allow^ed 
to breed and inbreed without any care or attention from the owner. 
At that time the sale of the hides was the only part of the industry 
that yielded the owner any cash, and the meat, except a small por- 
tion required for food, was discarded as of no value. 

In recent years, however, the meat-eating people of other quarters 
of the globe have been attracted to this section, and have not only pro- 



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LATIN-AMEBICA IN 1905. — A KEVIEW/ "SSO 

vided a wider market for its products, but have given its chief industry 
their attention. A large market has been provided for cattle by the 
manufacture of beef extract, which is carried on here very exten- 
sively. The ever-increasing demand for leather has opened up this 
market and increased the price of Ijides, and the bones and horns find 
ready sale, with the result that the cattle-raising industry has become 
very profitable. As prices increased and the business yielded greater 
profits the ranch (or camp) owners gave more attention to the busi- 
ness. They have fenced their farms and have given attention to the 
improvement of breeds. Within the last few yeara freezing plants 
have been established, both here and in Buenos Ayres, where meat is 
prepared for export. These establishments, although new, are already 
exporting annually several million dollars' worth of their product. 

As a result of these new markets a revival has taken place in the 
stock-raising industry, and this is most noticeable with respect to cattle. 
Thoroughbreds have been imported for breeding puiposes, and the 
results have been so satisfactory that there is at this time a great 
demand for good bulls. The best class of animals, with good pedi- 
grees, are sought, and are taken only from countries not infested with 
cattle diseases, and which are subject to proper sanitary regulations. 

The shipments of Uruguayan wool during 1904-5 amounted to 
04,180 bales, as compared with 67,818 in the preceding fiscal year. 

The Uruguayan Minister of Fomento has recently purchased a num- 
ber of mulberry trees in the Argentine Republic with a view to initi- 
ating silkworm rearing in the Department of Canelones, Uruguay. 
There is already a certain amount of mulberry cultivation carried on 
near Montevideo, and it is hoped that a development of the silk indus- 
try will prove a permanent source of revenup to the country. 

The postal receipts in 1906 amounted to $476,327.76, consisting of 
postage stamps, $374,450.05; telegraph service, $71,043.90; money 
orders, $17,414.66; in transit, $6,224.87; and $71,945.28 from other 
sources. 

The total freight carried in 1905 amounted to 680,475 tons, com- 
pared with 548,223 carried during the previous year, or an increase of 
132,252 tons or 23.12 per cent. 

In spite of the great decrease in the number of horses raised, there 
waH an increase in the number transported, ampunting to 68,929 head 
or 9.69 per cent. 

In 1903, the receipts from trade-marks amounted to $8,032; in 1904 
to «6,272, and in 1905 to $9,564. 

Venezuda. — The Venezuelan Government under General Cipriano 
Ca8tro remained stable throughout the year 1905, and though com- 
plete statistics of the economic conditions are not available, no vital 
change in the commercial status of the country is apparent. 



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290 INTERNATIONAL BUBEAU OS* THE AMEBICAN BEPUBLIC8. 

For 1905-6 the customs duties are put at 24,870,000 holi/vares^ and 
the extraordinary war tax to 12,500,000 holivare6\ for war and marine 
the expenditure will be 11,054,567 ioUvares. 

From Venezuela the United States imported, in 1905, merchandise 
to the value of $7,109,850, of vhich the largest item was coflFee, 
$4,526,036, while hides and skins amounted to $1,549,205, guano 
$37,457, and india rabber $228,465. Exports aggregated $3,213,575, 
the more important items being flour, $654,557; cotton cloths, $415,843; 
cars and carriages, $10,410; patent and proprietary medicines, $69,076; 
manufactures of iron and steel, $393,440; mineral oils, $145,359, and 
provisions, $432,826, of which the largest item was lard, $298,256. 

In the year ended December 31, 1904, the weight of imports into 
Venezuela, by long tons (valuas are not available), was: Miscellaneous 
merchandise, 11,936; hardware, 2,539; provisions and liquors, 15,124; 
oils, other than kerosene, 915; kerosene, 1,988; timber, 1,746; cement, 
4,445; coal, 16,518; machinery, 595; railway materials, 443. Great 
Britain leads in importations into Venezuela with a total of 18,668 
tons, the United States next with 18,369, Germany third with 11,994, 
and the Netherlands fourth with 2,628. In 1903 the United States 
held first place with 17,703 long tons, Great Britain second with 12,708, 
Germany third with 7,319, and the Netherlands fourth with 2,052. 
The exports amounted to 21,185 long tons, in contrast to 17,762 in 
1908. Coffee was represented by 11,018 tons; cocoa, 7,530; hides^, 
1,875, and sundries 762, while the figures for 1903 were: Coffee, 9,060 
tons; cocoa, 6,318; hides, 1,492, and sundries 892. The destinatioa 
of exports from Venezuela can not be exactly ascertained at present. 
The coffee, however, was shipped to the United States and Europe, 
the cocoa was bought by Spain and France, while nearly all the hides 
were taken by the United States. 

The arrivals and departures of ships at the various ports of the 
Republic of Venezuela during the first half of the year 1905, from 
and to the different countries, numbered 2,516 arrivals and 2,604 
departures. 

Through La Guaira, during the first six months of 1905, imports of 
merchandise valued at 9,435,965.56 holhares were received, and for the 
same period Maracaibo and Puerto Cabello received 2,141,148 and 
1,443,619 bolivars, respectively. The United States leads as a coun- 
try of origin for imports, followed by Germany. 

The total shipments of merchandise from Ciudad Bolivar through- 
out the year aggregated over $2,000,000. Higher values for Pai^ 
rubber and egret feathers, the leading items of local trade, were 
obtained, but cattle shipments declined. 

Examining in detail the list of articles exported, it will be noticed, 
that the majority consists of natural products which only require to 
be collected and need little or no preparation for shipment, while ciilti^ 



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LATIK-AMEBIOA IK 1906. — A BEVIEW. 291 

vated products, like tobacco and coffee, hare decreased in comparison 
with former years. Labor is costly and difficult to obtain. The 
capacity of production by cultivation or manufacture is consequently 
rery limited, and it is found easier and more lucrative to collect natui*al 
produce than to employ labor in agricultural pursuits. 

The surface of Venezuela is naturally divided into three district 
zones— the agricultural, the pastoral, and the forest zone. In the fii'St 
are grown sugar cane, coflFee, cocoa, cereals, etc. ; the second affords 
runs for cattle; and in the third tropical products, such as caoutchouc, 
tonka beans, copaiba, vanilla, growing wild, are worked by the inhab- 
itants. The area under coffee is estimated at from 180,000 to 200,000 
acres, and about 52,000 tons of coffee are annually shipped abroad. 
The coffee estates number about 33,000, and those of cocoa 6,000. 
There are about 11,000 sugar estates which flourished while sugar 
importation was prohibited, but the prohibition was recently removed. 
There are factories for the production of aguardiente from sugar. In 
Febmary, 1905, a contract was made, for the term of fifty years, for 
the formation of plantations to raise sugar cane, textile plants, and 
other produce on a large scale. All lands within the bounds of the 
Bepublic without a lawful owner (corporate or private) are considered 
public lands and are managed by the Federal Executive, who, under 
certain reg-ulations, has power to sell or to make grants therefrom 
for the purposes of agricultural or mining settlements, or to properly 
certified immigrants, in the proportion of 2i acres to every member 
of the family. 

One-fifth of the population is engaged in agriculture. The live 
stock in Venezuela is estimated as follows: 2,004,267 oxen, 176,668 
sheep, 1,667,272 goats, 191,079 horses, 89,186 mules, 312,810 asses, 
1,618,214 pigs. A new census of stock has been ordered. In the 
agricnltnral and cattle industries about 60,000 are employed. 

Venezuela is rich in metals and other minerals. Gold is found 
chiefly in the Yuruari territory. The quantity sent from that district 
in the sixteen years, 1884r-1899, was 1,394,480 ounces; in 1901, 49,355 
ounces. There are silver mines in the States of Bermudez, Lara, and 
Los Andes. Copper, silver, and iron are abundant, while sulphur, 
coal, a.sphalt, lead, kaolin, and tin are also found. Iron mines at 
Imataca, on the lower Orinoco, are in the hands of an American com- 
pany. Salt mines in various States are under Government adminis- 
tration. Petroleum is found in Tachira, but capital is wanting for its 
exploitation, and there are vast asphalt lakes, which are practically 
untouched. Round the island of Margarita and the neighboring islets 
off the north coast of Venezuela pearl fishing is carried on by tlie 
natives. About 400 boats are engaged in the industry, and the annual 
product, which might be largely increased, is estimated at about 
jC20,000. Tlie Government granted, on July 17, 1900, a concession 



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292 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

for the exclusive right of fishing pearls, sponges, tortoise shell, and 
some other products, on condition of receiving 10 per cent of the profitjs 
The native fishermen are not to be disturbed in their industry. 

The gold mining industry has remained stationary during the year 
under review, and no improvements can be reported. Legislation 
which will grant this industry lighter taxation and more favorable 
terms generally is still awaited by mine owners and capitalists before 
extending opei'ations. 

The exploitation of the salines of Venezuela has until lately been 
a Government monopoly, and it is now ceded to the concessionaire 
under payment of a yearly rent of 3,500,000 holivares^ to be paid quar- 
terly, subject to certain modifications in accordance with a sliding 
scale, varying with the product of the mines. The contract is for 
ten years, with option of prolongation for a similar period. 

The navigation of the Orinoco and its affluents by steamboats is 
virtually a monopoly belonging to the Comyafiia de Vapored dd 
Orinoco^ who also possess the privilege of navigating through the 
smaller mouths of the Orinoco River, like the Pedernales and Alacareo, 
which form part of the Delta. Other steamers and sailing vessels are 
only permitted to traffic by the longer route of the Boca Grande. 
The navigation of Colombia by the Orinoco and Meta rivers is also 
limited to steamers which belong to the company referred to. 

In February, 1905, a special concession was given to the steamer 
Delta to carry transshipment goods from Trinidad without the surtax 
duty of 30 per cent. Since then (January, 1906) this surtax has been 
entirely abolished and imports are agaid almost exclusively effected 
via Trinidad in transit, the same as in former years. 

Under date of March 31, 1905, the President of the Republic pro- 
mulgated an important decree, the substance of which is as follows: 

Article 1. For the payment of the national internal 6 per cent con- 
solidated national debt and the 1 per cent bonds, a debt is created 
called "national internal consolidated 3 per cent debt." 

Article 2. During the present year the holders of these securities 
should apply to the Board of Public Credit to verify the respective 
exchange and the rate that may be agreed upon. 

Article 3. For the payment of this new internal consolidated 3 per 
cent debt the entire product of the tax on liquors, which according 
to law corresponds to the National Executive, shall be exclusively 
used. 

Article 4. From the 1st of January, 1906, the Board of Public 
Credit shall pay monthly, during the first days of each month, the 
accrued interest*} of said debt. 

Article 5. One per cent is set apart for the amortization of this 
debt, the auction sales taking place at the end of each six months, or 
during the first fifteen days of July and January, respectively. 



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BOOK NOTES. 293 

Article 6. The bills auctioned of the 3 per cent internal consolidated 
debt shall be used in such quantity as may be necessary to be exchanged 
for bills of the national internal debt which have not yet been con- 
verted, and the remainder shall be incinerated in the presence of the 
Board of Public Credit, a due record thereof, showing the amount 
burned, the date, etc., being made. 

A decree issued by the Venezuelan Government authorizes the 
Executive to increase, by an amount not exceeding 25 per cent, the 
duties on mercnandise imported into Venezuela from countries not 
entitled by treaty to most-favored-nation treatment. The Executive 
is also authorized to increase, diminish, or suppress import duties in 
cases of emergency, accounting to Congress for such action. 



BOOK NOTES. 

Books and pamphlets sent to the International Bureau of the American 
Eepublics and containing subject-matter bearing upon the countries of 
the International Union of American Eepublics, will be treated under 
this caption in the Monthly Bulletin. 

Under the title ''Tierra de Promision" (The Land of Promise), 
Senor Carlos M. Maeso has published, through the " Tlpografia 
de la Escuala Nacional de Artes y Ojicios^'^ what is practically a val- 
uable handbook of the Republic of Uruguay. It is a general descrip- 
tion of the country, its commerce, industries, stock raising, agriculture, 
finances, resources, education, and progress in every phase of human 
endeavor, the statistics furnished being exact and detailed through the 
year 1901. In some instances data to the end of 1903 is also included. 
The author, while deprecating the internal conflicts which have retarded 
in a great degree the natural progress of his country, sees, in the un- 
mistakable advance of the Republic, in spite of political stress, the 
surest indication of the enormous possibilities of Umguay as a nation. 
The various Departments of the Republic are described with special 
reference to their natural resources, the extent of development in each 
being accurately and interestingly set forth. But a small part of the 
vast mineral lands of the country have been exploited, though deposits 
of precious and other metals are known to exist in all the departments. 

The population of the country is shown to have doubled in the 
period from 1872 to 1902, the figures at the opening of the latter 3'ear 
being 964,577 inhabitants. The rapid rise of the city of Montevideo 
is cited as an indication of the progress of the nation's progress, it 
being stated that in the period from 1872 to 1889 the constructive 
advance of the city was 253 per cent, and that in 1901 there were 
17,106 buildings and dwellings whose united value was 123,572,214 



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294 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THB AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

pesos. Electric lighting and gas are found on all the thoroughfares, 
and public buildings and grounds abound for the benefit of all classes* 
"The Cook Shop of the World," as the great beef extract establish- 
ment at Fray Bentos is called, is most interestingly described, and the 
causes leading to the development of the supplemental industry of 
shipping dressed beef are noted. The stock of the country; the vast 
plains adapted to either pastoral or agricultural purposes; the estab- 
lished financial status of the Republic and its infinite possibilities are 
set forth by a patriotic pen, while photographs, maps, and numberless 
prints throughout the volume give a pictorial representation of the 
subject-matter. 

The interest attached to the Third International Conference of 
American States at Rio de Janeiro by the periodicals and journals of 
tlie United States is evidenced by the number of so-called "Pan- 
American" issues. Notably among them is the June number of the 
"American Exporter," which is devoted exclusively to a consideration 
of the various matters connected with the said conference. The mis- 
sion of Secretary Root and its probable effect upon inter- American 
relations; commerce between the United States and its twenty Latin- 
American sister Republics, followed by a sketch of each of the coun- 
tries interested, form the leading items of interest. A very timely 
and able discussion by an ex official of the State Department of th« 
Monroe Doctrine fills several pages. The author therein discuases 
in a very characteristic way forgotten chaptei's of the Doctrine's his- 
tory, John Quincy Adams's Advice, Canning's Trade Statesmanship, 
President Roosevelt's Interpretation, Spectres of Territorial Absorp- 
tion, European Attitude on Economic Value of Latin-America, etc 
The Chief of the Division of Consular Reports in the Department 
of Commerce and Labor contributes an interesting article on the 
"Effects of Immigi-ation into South and Central America." When it 
is considered that the twenty Latin- American Republics cover an area 
equal to that of the German Empire, while the total population of 
those vast territories scarcely approaches that of the Fatherland, it 
will be readily understood that there is room for immigration and 
colonization, the prime elements in the development of any unsettled 
country. Another article, well worth reading, details the progress 
of the Pan-American Railroad. Mr. Waldon Fawcett, of Wash- 
ington, describes the work of *'The International Bureau of the Amer- 
ican Republics" in Washington, while the Chief of the Bureau of 
Statistics in the Department of Commerce and Labor discusses in a 
A'cry able way the tremendous '' Growth of American Industries*^' 
Hon. John Barrett, for years United States Minister to Siain, 
and now official representative of his country at Bogota, Colombia, 
calls attention to the resources and possibilities of that country, while 



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BOOK NOTBS. 296 

Sefior Jorge Munoz, Minister of Guatemala at Washington, furnishes 
an interesting description of the progress and natural resources of his 
native country. The entire issue is profusely illustrated by portraits 
of South and Central American Presidents and typical views of trop- 
ical scenery. The publisher, Mr. William J. Johnston, who last 
year accompanied Secretary Taft to the Far East, will personally 
attend the Congress in Rio dc Janeiro, and subsequently make an 
extensive tour of South America. 

The "Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture" of the United 
States for 1905, issued July 1, 1906, contains its usual record of the 
efforts made by this branch of the public service toward the develop- 
ment of the agricultural resources of the country. In regard to crop 
production during the year covered, it is stated that corn reached its 
highest output, amounting to 2,708,000,000 bushels, a gain of 42,000,000 
over its previous record. A new record price was also established for 
the total crop, the total value being given as $1,216,000,000. No other 
crop of the country was worth more than half as much, although the 
hay crop did not reach its highest product figure for the year in value 
it far exceeded other years, ^605,000,000 being its estimated valuation. 
Cotton, ranking third, is valued at $575,000,000, while wheat, whose 
output was excelled in only one previous year, reached production 
figures of 684,000,000 bushels, the value of which ($525,000,000) 
overtops the highest value before reached, in 1891, by $11,000,000. 
Following these four leading articles come oats, 930,000,000 bush- 
els, valued at $282,000,000; potatoes, showing a decline, and valued at 
$138,000,000; barley, 133,000,000 bushels, valued at §58,000,000; to- 
bacco, with an estimated valuation of §52,000,000; sugar cane and 
sugar beets, valued at $50,000,000, and rice, worth $13,892,000. 
Dairy products have an estimated value of $665,000,000, an advance 
of $64,000,000 over the preceding year. Farm animals are graded as 
follows: Horses, over 17,000,000, valued at $1,200,000,000; milch 
cows, 17,570,000, worth $482,000,000; sheep show a decline in num- . 
her and value, and swine number 47,321,000, valued at $283,255,000. 
The grand aggregate of wealth produced on farms in 1905 exceeds 
that of 1904 by $256,000,000, being estimated at §6,415,000,000. Sup- 
plementary statistical tables give interesting statistics concerning the 
agricultural productions of other countries. Thus the Argentine 
Republic is shown to lead the world in its number of sheep, with 
74,379,562, followed by the United States with 51,001,809; Cuba\s 
sugar crop for 1905-6 is shown to be 1,300,000 tons, and Ecuador, 
which leads the world in cacao production, is credited with 62,684,017 
pounds in 1904, followed by its nearest competitor, Brazil, with 
51,059,046 pounds. Fifth as a cacao producer was the Dominican 
fiepublic, with 29,888,060 pounds, and sixth, Venezuela, with 
28,765,908 pounds. 

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296 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The " Outlook," in its issue for July 21, 1906, has a paper of present 
interest concerning ''The Western World in Conference," written by 
Mr. Sylvester Baxter, who is serving as special commissioner of the 
"Outlook" at the Conference at Rio de Janeiro. Mr. Baxter finds a 
high significance in the fact that the relations of the United States 
with Latin America have furnished the more immediate steps whereby 
the country has advanced to its position as a world power. "The 
three Americas have been brought into relationship with the world at 
large more than ever before. Ties and counter ties, continental and 
intercontinental railways and steamship lines, canals and river routes, 
highways and telegraphs, are binding all with the bonds of commercial 
intercourse that lead to closer relations of all kinds." By these indi- 
cations the writer forms the opinion that the gathering at Rio de 
Janeiro will be more significant than either of its predecessors. 

In an interesting paper entitled, "South America and the peace 
movement," contributed to the Independent for July, 1906, Senor 
DiEGO Mexdoza, Minister from the Republic of Colombia to the 
United States, calls attention to the fact that it was Bolivar, the Great 
Liberator, who was the first among Americans to take practical steps 
for a realization of the idea of uniting all America by means of a per- 
manent Pan-American Congress. While he was President of Colom- 
bia the Congress initiated by him held its session at Panama, and 
while the time was not then ripe for the fulfillment of the purposes of 
the meeting the seed thereof has been shown in subsequent conferences. 

Among the many United States periodicals discussing the impor- 
tance of a unanimity of commercial feeling among the countries of 
America, as an outgrowth of the Third International Conference of 
American States at Rio de Janeiro, the international edition of Dun's 
Review for July, 1906, has an important paper treating of "Past Pan- 
American conferences." A comprehensive review of the results of 
the two previous meetings of American nations in friendly conclave 
is given, and an anticipatory outline of the present one is sketched. 

Senor P. Requena Bermudez, Charge d'Aflfaires of Uruguay at 
Washington, publishes in the American Exporter for July 1, 1906, a 
paper on the Republic of Uruguay. To the present Administration 
Senor Bermudez gives unqualified praise for the economic advance- 
ment of his country within recent years. 



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LIBBART ADDITIONS. 297 

ADDITIONS TO THE ' COLUMBUS MEMORIAL 
LIBRARY DURING JUNE, 1906. 

Argentine Republic. 

Aeqektinb Republic. Mensaje del Presidente de la Repiiblica al abrir las sesiones 

del Congreeo Argentine en mayo de 1906. Buenos Aires, Imprenta Mar- 

quez y cfa., 1906. 58 p. 8^. 
Chaigkbau, J. F. Jeografia nautica de la Repiiblica Arjentina arreglada segun los 

documentos mis modernos, por J. F. Chaigneau . . . Santiago de 

Chile, Imprenta Barcelona, 1896. xiv, 195 p. 8°. 
GicOTiNiAN, Jos^ Indice concordado de las leyes de la Nacion Argentina des<ie el 

afio 1852 hasta el afto 1905. Por Jos^ Giustinian. Buenos Aires, Estab. 

tip. *'E1 Comercio," 1906. xcix, 474 (1) p. 4°. 

Brazil. 

Great Britain. Foreign Office: Report for the year 1905 on the trade and com- 
merce of the State of Rio Grande do Sul. . . . London, Harrison & 
Sons, 1906. 7 p. 8°. (Dip. & cons, rept., ann. ser. no. 360S.) 

Chile. 

Alounos Datos sobre los Distintos Proybctos para Dotar de Agua potable d Val- 
paraiso. Obras de pefiuelas. Descripci6n de los trabajos. Valparaiso, 

Babra y Ca. [1900]. 12 (1) p. table, map. 8°. 
Anrique R., Nicolas: Biblioteca jeogrdfico-hidrografico de Chile. Segunda serie. 

Publicado por Nicolas Anrique R. Santiago de Chile. Imprenta Elzevi- 

riana, 1898. 292 p. 12«. 
Same. Cinco relaciones jeogrdficas 6 hidrograficas que interesan d Chile. 

Publicados por Nicolas Anrique R. Santiago de Chile. Imprenta Klze- 

viriana, 1897. Various paging. 12°. 
Asociaci6n de los Antiguos Alumnos: Anuario de la Asociaoion de los antiguos 

alnmnoe del institute agrfcolade Chile. 1902. Aflol. Santiago de Chile. 

Imprenta Franco-Chilena, 1902. Ill p. ilhia. tables. 8°. 
Ai'fprbt, C: Socorros d los heridos y li los ntiufragos de las gnerras marftimas. Por 

C. Auffret, director del servicio sanitario de la marina de Rochefort. 

Traducido por el Dr. Godofreflo Bermildez, cirujano 1* de la marina de 

Chile, con un pr61ogo del traductor. Valparaiso, Imprenta y Lit. Inglesa, 

1896. 164 p. diagr. 8*». 
Ballestskos, Jose Rodriguez: Revista de la guerra de la independencia de Chile. 

Por Jos^ Rodriguez Ballesteros. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Cervantes, 

1901. 349 p. 8**. 

(Tomo 6 de la coleccI6n de historiadores i documentos relatlvos A la Indt'pondcncla 
de Chile.) 
Baera, Eduardo de la: El problema de los Andes . . . Buenos Aires, Pablo Coni 

6 Hijos, 1895. 446 p. 12°. 
Barros, Jcuo Zenteno: Condicion legal del indfgena por Julio Zenteno Barros. 

Publicacion hecha en los numeros 5 y 6 del tomo quinto de la ** Revista 

Florense Chilena.'^ Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Cervantes, 1891. 49 p. 8°. 
BascuSan, Montes A. : Recopilaci6n de tratados y convenciones celebrados entre la 

Republica de Chile y las potencias extranjeras. Edicion autorizada por el 

supremo gobiemo y revisada por el Ministerio de relaciones esteriores. 

Tomo Begundo. 1863-1893. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Cervantes, 

1894. 398 p. 8°. 

Bull. No. 1-06 21 p onirrTr> 

Digitized by VjOOv IC 



298 INTERNATIONAL BUBBAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Basurco, Santiago M.: La exposici6n de minerfa y metalurgia de 1894. PorSia- 
tiago M. Basurco, ingeniero civil . . . Santiago, Iraprenta Roma, 1885. 
X, 339 p. 4°. 

Beaugency, a. R. (tr): Determinadores de distancias antiguos y modemoe, Ti>- 
dacido del ingles por R. Beaugency A. Valparaiso, 1901. 21 p. 8°. 

Minajg, submarinas, tori>edos flotantes, cables el^ctricos y cerradorea de cir- 

cuitos. Traducido del ingl^a por Ricardo Beaugency A., teniente de 
marina. Valparaiso, Imprentade ** La Patria," 1888. 75 p. diagrp. S'. 

Tel^metro del capitun Aubry. Traducido del francos por R. Beaugency i. 

Valparaiso, Tall. tip. de U armada, 1900. 39 p. 8°. 
Tel^metro Kelway. Traducido del ingl<^ por R. Beaugency A. Valparaiso, 

Imprenta del Mercurio, 1889. 10 p. 8**. 
BsRMi^DBZ, GoDOFREDo: Tratamiento de los accidentea repentinos mientras Uegi us 

m^ico cirujano de la Universidad de Chile , . . Valparaiso, Imp. y Lit 

Inglesa, 1895. 142, (1) p. diagrs. 12*». 
BiLLiNGHURST, GuiLLERMO E. : Estudio sobre la geograffa de Tarapacd. (PaigiMsde 

un libro.) Trabajo escrito para el ateneo de Iquique por Guillermo E. 

Billinghurst . . . Santiago, Imprenta de *'E1 Progreso," 1886. 113 jv 

tables. 8^. 
Bride, Ch.: Nociones sobre las operaciones del ejercito y la marina por Ch. Bride^ 

capitdn titulado del Estado Mayor de Francia. Traducido |X)r R B. A. 

Valparaiso, Tall. tip. de la armada, 1900. 170 p. 1 plate. 8**. 
Brisej^o, Ram6n: Factos de la Amr^ica en jeneral y de Chile en particular. libio 

compuesto por Ramon BriseQo i dedicado tl sua antiguos discipuloe. San- 
tiago de Chile, Imprenta Cervantes, 1900. 410 p. 4*^. 
C, L. A. : Instrucciones para correjir el com pas de paten tede Sir William Thompeoa. 

(Traducido del Ingles por L. A. C.) Valparaiso, Imprenta **La Pfttrii," 

1895. 22 p. 8^. 
Chayarria Contardo, Ram6n (comp.): Recopilacion de leyes. Cooftitocion 

polftica, leyes constitucionales, poUticas y algunas administratlvasy dviles, 

vigentes en 1880 por Ramon Chavarrfa Contardo. Santiago de Chile, 

Imprenta Nacional, 1886. xiii, 411 p. 8**. 
Chile. Ajencia jeneral de colonizaci6n de Chile en Europa: Memoria que el 

Ajente jeneral de colonizacion de Chile en Europa pasa al Sefior Mini?tn) 

de Relaciones esteriores, 1885. Half-title. 284 p. S*'. 

Apuntes sobre torpedos. No imprint. Caption title. 15 p» 8**. 

BiBLioTECA Nacional: Anuario de la prensa Chilena. Publicado por U 

Biblioteca Nacional, 1886, 1889, 1894, 1896, 1898 & 1899. Santiago de ChiW. 

(Various pagination.) 5 v. 8*^. 
Camara de diputados: Reglamento de la Camara de Diputados i leyee ct>iii- 

pleUientarias. Edici6n oficial. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Barcelona, 

1904. 70 p. 8°. 
Cartilla del timonel y marinero sEi^ALERo. Valparaiso, Imp. ylit Eic«»i- 

sior, 1896. 130 p. plates. 12°. 
Codificaci6n AGRicoLA DE Chile. Primem parte: Recopilacion de disposi- 

ciones legales con relacion d la agricultura. Segunda parte: Prayecto de 

codigo rural por el abogado Jos^ Ravest . . . Santiago de Chile, Imjaenta 

Gutenl>erg, 1887. 335 p. S°. 
C6DIG0 DE SE55ALB8 p«ra la marina de la repiiblica. Santiago de Chile, 

Imprenta Nacional, 1866. 299 p. 8**. 
CoMANDANciA JENERAL DE MARINA: Reglamcnto provislonal pani el senicio 

militar de guardias en puerto y en la mar. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta 

Gutenberg, 1888. 21 p. 8*. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



LIBKABY ADDITIONS. 299 

Chils. CoMANDAicciA JBMBRAL DE mabina: Beglamento proviaorio de policfa interior 
& bordo de loe boqnes de la annada. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Guten- 
berg, 1888. 13 p. 8°. 

^— [Comi8i6n sobrb tratadob combbcialbs] : Informe de la Comisidn nombrada 
para eeiudiar loa proyectos de tratados comerciales no ratificados hasta el 
dfa. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Cervantes, 1902. 139 p. 8°. 

■ Convbnci6n bktbb bl Impbrio Albman I LA Rbpublica db Chile. . . . 

Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Nacional, 1886. 27 p. 8°. (Text in Span- 
ish and German. ) 

CoBTB S0PREMA DB justicia: Dictamen espedido i la corte suprema de justicia 

por su fiscal Don Vicente Agairre Vargas. Acerca de la sentencia del 
Tribunal arbitral en que se ordena el pago d razon de 26 peniques por peso 
de las cantidades que el fisco adeudad los representantes de la '* North 
and South American Construction Company." Santiago de Chile, 
Imprenta del Esfcado, 18^9. 47 p. 8**. 

DBLBQACidir FISCAL DK SALiTRBRAS Y OUANEBA6: luformes sobre la produccion 

del sulfato de amoniaco. Iquique, R. Bini, 1897. 110 p. 8®. 

Same. Memoria del delegado fiscal de salitreras presentada al seflor Ministro 

de hacienda en 1904. Iquique, B. Bmi 4 hijos, 1904. 128, 109 p. 
table. 8*». 

Dbrbotbro paba I/A8 O08TA8 DB Chilb. Santiago, Imprenta del ferrocarril, 

1860. 63 p. 8°. 

DiBEocf6N dbl tbrritorio marItzmo: Anuario deA. servicio meteorolojico de 

la direcci6n del territorio marftimo. Tomo sesto correspondiente al afio 
1904. Valparaiso, Tall. tip. de la armada, 1905. 390 p. tables. 4°. 

• EjERcicioe DB artiller!a para la instrucci6n militar de la marinerfa de los 

bnques de la armada. Valparaiso, Imprenta del Mercurio, 1864. 182 [16] 
p. diagrs. 8**. 
■■ £sPO0icf6N DB MiNBBiA I METALURjiA.* Memoria presentada por el directorio 
i la junta jeneral de miembros de la Sociedad nacional, de mineria en se- 
tiembre de 1895. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Roma, 1895. 103, 173 
p. 8«. 

Ebtodio 80BRX BL atAqub y dbpbnsa cou el material de torpedos. No im- 
print. Caption title. 25 p. 8°. 

Gekeral rbgulations op maritimb POLICE. Valparaii^o, Imprenta, Calle 

Arrayan, num. 157, 1893. 21 p. 12*. 

Ikstruccionbs jbnbrales para el manejo y cuidado de los faros de la repu- 

blica para el uso de los empleados d sn servicio. Valparaiso, Imp. y Lit. 
Centnd, 1895. 22 (1) p. 12°. 

• IiraTBrocioKEs PARA LOS JUBCB8 DB 8ubdblbgaci6n i dc distrito. Publicado 

' por orden del supremo gobiemo. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta de La 
Repiiblica, 1876. 37 p. 8°. 

Lei de presupuestos de los gaatos jenerales de la administracion piiblica de 

Chile para el aflo de 1901. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Nacional, 1901. 
Various paging. [938 p.] 4°. 

"■ Lei blbctoral al altamce de todos leyes i decretos supremos que la comple- 

mentan . . . Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Gutenberg, 1892. 118 (1) 
p. S"*. 

LisTA NAVAL DE LA MARiKA Chilena 6 fndice por sefiales con espreeion de sus 

nombrea y sefiales distintivas, dimensiones y otros datos estadfsticos . . • 
Valparaiso, Imp. y lit Excelsior, 1896. 20 p. tables. 8°. 

MufisTBRio DB hacienda: Actas i documentos de la comisi6n financiera nom- 

brada por decreto de 26 de setiembre de 1896. Santiago de Chile, Im- 
prenta Ercilla, 1896. 204 p. 8°. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



800 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Chile. Minfsterio de haciendb: La cuestion monetaria. (De la memoria de 
hacienda. ) Buenos Airee, CJompaflfa Sud- Americana de Billetes de Banco, 
1900. 48 p. 8°. 

MiNisTEKio DE justicia: Annario del Ministerio deiusticia hecha por Ricardo 

Anguita fy] Valerio Quesney M. 1901-1902. Santiago de Chile, Im- 
prenta Nacional, 1902. 437 p. 8**. 

[Ministerio de guerra]: Ordenanza jeneral del ej^rcito con anotaciones 

hechas por los profesores del ramo en la esciiela militar i de clases. San- 
tiago de Chile, Imprenta nacional, 1890. (2) 419 p. 12° 

Same. Reglamento i plan de estudios para la escuela militar. Santiago, 

novierabre 10 de 1866. 33 p. 8°. Caption title. 

Ministerio de guerra y marina: Lei i reglamentos sobre reclutas i reem- 

plazos del ej^rcito i armada. Santiago de Chile, Imp. '* El Globo," 1900. 
40 p. 12°. 

[Ministerio -de marina]: Annada do CJiile. Prospecto de admision de la 

escuela de aspirantes A injenieros. Valparaiso, Tall. tip. de la armada, 

1899. 13 p. 12°. 

Ministerio de Marina: Examen de guardias marinas. Programa de nave- 

gaci6n. Decreto supremo de abril 22 de 1874. Valparaiso, Imp. Colon, 

1875. 6 p. 8°. 
Same. Programa de manbioraa . . . Valparaiso, Imp. Colon, 1875. 

21 p. 8°. 
Same. Programa de artillerfa naval . . . Valparaiso, Imp. Colon, 

1875. 7 p. 8°. 
Same. Programa de hidrograffa y topograffa . . . Valparaiso, Imp. 

Colon, 1875. 4 p. 8°. 
Same. Programa de jeograffa ffsica . . . Valparaiso, Imp. Colon, 

1875. 10 p. 8°. 
Same. Programa de tiictica naval. Valparaiso, Imp. Colon, 1875. 

lip. 8°. 
Same. Programa de con8trucci6n naval . . . Valparaiso, Imp. Colon, 

1875. 5 p. 8°. 
Same. Programa de mdquinas de vapor . . . Valparaiso, Imp. Colon, 

1875. 4 p. 8°. 
Same. Programa de derecho internacional marftimo . . . Valparaiso, 

Imp. Colon, 1875. 15 p. 8°. 
Faros i valizas de la costa de Chile. Publicacion oficial. Santiago, 

Imprenta del Mercurio, 1873. 18 p. 12°. 
Instrucciones d que debenln sujetarse los oficiales encargados de los 

relojes marinos abordo de los buques de la repiiblica. Publicaci6n oiiciaL 

Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Nacional, 1855. 16 p. 8°. 
Ordenes jenerales y circulares. 1889-90, 1892-93, 1894-97, 1898- 

1900. 4 V. 8°. 
Same. 1887-1891. 1 v. 8°. 



Same. Programas de los ramos de que se debe rendir examen para optar lo8 
distintos grados de injenieros de la armada. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta 
Nacional, 1888. 30 p. 8°. 

• Same. Reglamento: Atribuciones i deberes de los subdelegados marftinios. 

Santiago, Oct. 13, 1865-. Caption title. 16 p. 8°. 
■ Same. Reglamento de arqueo para los buques de comercio dictado el 21 de 
Julio de 1836. Santiago, Imprenta Gutenberg, 1886. 39 p. 8°. 

• Same. Reglamento de ascensos para la armada. ( Dictado el 28 de agosto de 

1896.) Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Barcelona, 1898. 8 p. 8°. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



LIBRARY ADDITIONS. 801 

CfliLB. MiNisTERio DB Mamna: Reglamcnto de sanidad marftima dictado el 18 de 

febrero de 189 Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Nacional, 1896. 21 p. 8®. 
Same. ReglameDto jeneral de atribuciones i deberes del personal de sanidad 

de la armada. Santiago de Chile, Imp. Barcelona, 1898. 25 p. 8°. 
Same. Reglamento jeneral de enganche de jente de mar para la marina de 

guerra. [Santiago], Tall. tip. de .la armada, 1899. 19 p. 8°. Caption 

title. 
Same. Reglamento para la admini8traci6n del alumbrado marftimo y avali- 

zamiento del litoral de la repiiblica. Valparaiso, Imprenta de " La Patria, " 

1896. lip. 8°. 
Same. Reglamento para el arsenal de marina. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta 

Nacional, 1894. 36 p. 8°. 
Same. Reglamento para la escuela de aspirantes A injenieros de la armada 

nacional. Valparaiso, Tall. tip. de la armada, 1899. 28 p. 12°. 
Same. Reglamento para establecer una escuela de condestables, ayudantes 

de condestables, artilleros y torpedistas de preferencia, d bordo de uno de 

los buques de la armada. Valparaiso, 1892. Caption title. 32 p. 8®. 

(Circular [del Min. de marina] no. 48. ) 
• Same. Reglamento para examen de guardia-marinas. Santiago, abril 22 de 

1874. Caption tiUe. viii p. 8°. 
• Same. Reglamento sobre el servicio de pnicticos para la navegaci6n del Rfo 

Imperial. Decretado por el Ministerio de marina con fecha 12 de octubre 

de 1887. Valparaiso, Imprenta y Lib. Americana, 1887. 6 p. 12°. 
Same. R^lamento sobre los deberes de loa condestables i bus ayudantefi 

dictado el 23 marzo de 1867. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Nacional, 1867. 

19 p. 8°. 
■ Ministerio de relaciones esteriores: [Chile and the International conference 

of American States held 1901-2.] Santiago, October 1, 1900. 14 p. 8°. 

No tide. 

(Text in English and Spanish.) 
Oficina hidrogrufica. Estudios hidrograficos sobre la Patagonia occidental 

ejecutados por el Comandante i oficiales de la real corbeta italiana **Carac- 

ciolo'* en 1882. Traducci6n de la Oficina Hidrografica. Santiago de 

Chile, Imprenta Nacional, 1883. 34 p. Maps. 8°. 
• Same. Noticias sobre el canal, Trinidad i bus adyacentes. Traducido del 

ingles para la Oficina hidrogrdfica. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Nacional, 

1881. 36 p. 8°. 
■ OncnJA Central de EstadIstica. Septimo censo jeneral de la poblaci6n de 

Chile levantado el 28 de noviembre de 1895 i compilado por la Oficina 

central de estadfstica. Tomo 1. Valparaiso, Imprenta Guillermo Helf- 

mann, 1900. xxx, 591 p. 4°. 
Ordbnanza que rbglamenta la caza 6 PE8CA DE pocAs 6 lobos marines 

nutrias y chungungos en las costas, islas y mares territoriales de Chile. 

Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Nacional, 1892. 10 p. 12°. 
" Plan ge.veral de toques y combinaciones para el servicio de la armada. 

No imprint. [12] p. 8°. 
• Proyecto de c6digo de procedimiento judicial para la armada. Santiago 

de Chile, Imprenta Barcelona, 1897. 219 p. 12°. 
PROYBCTO DE c6digo PENAL PARA LA ARMADA. Valparaiso, Imp. de "La 

Patria,'* 1893. xiv, 93 p. 8°. 

■ ■ — PROYBCTO DB LEI SOBRE PROTECCI6n A LA MARINA MERCHANTE nacioual COn 

los documentos relativos it su preparaci6n i estudio. Santiago de Chile, 
Imprenta Nacional, 1895. 52 p. 8°. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



302 INTERNATIONAL BUBEAU OP THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Chilb. Proybcto db rbglambnto orgAnico db la dirrcci6n jenbral db la armada. 

Valparaiso, Tall. tip. de la armada, 1899. 80 p. 8°. 
Pboybcto db rboroanizaci6n db LA8 POLidAfl de la Bepiiblica. Santiago de 

Chile, 1897. 45 p. 8°. 
Rbqlambnto db POLicfA para la Bahia de Con8tituci6n dictado el 13 de novi- 

embre de 1868. Santiago, de Chile, Imprenta Nacional, 1868. 14 p. 8°. 
Reglamento de POLicf a para los puertos de Curanipe, Buchapureo, Llico i 

Tuman, dictado el 13 de noviembre de 1868. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta 

Nacional, 1868. 8 p. 8®. 
Reglamento jeneral de POLicf a marItima. Santiago, Imprenta Gutenberg, 

1887. 25 p. 8°. 
Reglamento jeneral de policIa marItima. Valparaiso, Impr^ita de *'La 

Patria," 1888. 20, (1) p. 12°. . 
Reglamento jenbral db POLicfA marItima. Valparaiso, Imprenta de **La 

Patria," 1896. 17 p. 12°. 

Same. French tra. 18 p. 12°. 

Same. German tra. 19 p. 12°. 

Reglamento jeneral de policIa MARhiMA, para lo8 paertos de Atacama, 

Coqaimbo, Aconcagua, Valparaiso, Concepci6n, Valdivia, Llanquihue y 

Chiloe. Valparaiso, Imprenta de " La Patria,'* 1882. 20 p. 12°. 
• Same. Italian trs. 21 p. 12° 



- Rbglambnto marItimo paba evttar choqubb t abordajbs dictados en 4 de 

agosto de 1884. Santiago de Chile, 1886. 21 p. 8°. 
Reglamento para el ctjbrpo db balva-yidas de Valparaiso dictado por el 
supremo gobiemo en 31 de mayo de 1876. Santiago, P. Cadot, 1876. 
15 p. 8°. 

- Same. Valparaiso, Imprenta ''La Patria," 1886. 34 p. 8° 



Reglamento para los APRiNDicss de faros. Santiago de Chfle, Imprenta 

de *' El Correo," 1896. 27 p. 12°. 

Reglamento sobre organizaci6n i SERvrcio db la POLicfA de Santiago. 

Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Nacional, 1896. 31 p. 12°. 
Colecci6n DE nisTORiADORES I DE DOCTMENTOS relativos & la independencia de Chile. 
Tomos 2, 4, & 6. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Cervantes, 1900-1901. 
3v. 8°. 

T. 2. Memoria sobre los principales sucesos de la revolaci6n de Chile desde 1810 ha^ta 
1814. Informe del Brigadier Don Joan Mackenna §obre la conducta militar 
de las carreras, etc. 369 p. 
T. 4. Relaci6n de la conducta observada por los padres misioneros del Colego de prop** 
ganda fide, de la ciudad de Chilian desde el afio 1808-1814. ConducU militar 
1 polilica. 350 p. 
T. «. Revista de la gtierra de la independencia de Chile par Jo*6 Rodriquez Bailee* 
teros. 349 p. 

[Collet, A.] : E8po6ici6n historica de las investigaciones te6rica8 y prdcticas relativas 
d las desviaciones de loa compaees. (Traducido de la ** Revue maritime " 
por Domingo Salamanca, capitdn de fragata gradoado.) Valparaiso, 
Imprenta de " La Patria," 1873. 29 p. 8°. 
(Signed, A. Collet.) 

CoNGREsociENTiFico JENERAL Chilbnode 1900. Reglamento i comisiones. Santiago 
de Chile, Imprenta Cer^•ante8, 1899. 9 p. 8°. 

CoxoREso INDUSTRIAL Y AG Rf COL A. 1899. I. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Barcelonai 
1899. 366 p. front, (photos). 4°. 

Cruz Salvo, Jos^ db la: La juri8dicci6n militar. Despu^ de la vigencia del c6digo 
penal y la ley de tribunales con formularios para la tramitaci6n de procesoe, 
montepfos, retiros, y testamentos militares por Joe6 de la Cruz Salvo. 
Segunda edici6n . . . Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Cervantes, 1894. 
604 p. 4°. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MBEABY ADDITIONS. 308 

Dkott, B.: Eatodio eobre las operaciones combinadafi de loe ej^rcitos de mar y 

tierra. (Libro 5.) Por el teniente de la Maxina, Francesa E. Degouy. 

Tradnckio por X. Y. W. Valparaiso, Imprenta de "La Patria," 1888. 

223(1) p. illus. 8°. 
DnLLOtB, Jacobo; Reiact^ diaria del viaje de Jacobo Demaire y Guillermo Comello 

Schouten. En que descubiieron Huevo estrecho i paeaje del mar del norte 

al mar del sor, i. la parte austral del estrecho de Magallanes. En Madrid, 

por Bernardino de Guzman, (I6I9). §6 p. 12°. 

(lu Cinoo relaciones JeogrifioM 6 hidroiriAacafl que intereean 4 Chile. Por NieoUts 
AnriqueR.) 
DEXABCACidN i>E lImites entre Chile I LA REPi&BLiCA Arjentina. Tratados i pro- 

tocoles vijentes. Actas i comunlcaciones oficiales relativas d la Ifnea 

jeneral de fronteraa. Santiago de Chile, 1898, 83 p. maps. 8°. 
Debrota jbnbral I pabciales desde el puerto del Callao hasta el grado 42 de lati- 

tud meridional; regreso al de el 1; breve descripci6n de los puertos del 

reino de Chile con el modo de dirijirse d eWoB. 38 p. 12°. 

(In Biblioteca jeogrAflco-hidro^r&flca de Chile . . . Por Nicolaa AnriqueR.) 
BocuMENToe PABA LA HiBTQRiA DB LA nXutica db Chilb . . . Santiago de Chile, 

Imprenta Nacional, 1886, 1889 & 1892. 3 v. in 2. 8°, 
FucATi, L. : Aforismos mOitares por el contra alznirante L. Fincati. Traducidos por 

el capitdn de fragata Federico Chaigneau. Valparaiso, Imp. y lit. 

Universal, 1888. 136 (1) p. 12°. 
Flobbs db Valdeb, Di^o: Belaci6n de la jomada de ida i yuelta al estrecho de 

Magallanes por on snjeto que fu^ i vino en la armada de Bi^^o de Valdes. 

9 p. 12°. 

(In Cinco relackwes jeogi&ficas 6 hidrogiAficas que intereaan A Chile. Puhlicadms 
por KicoIAs Anrique R.) 

F(JKCK, Francisco: Examen crftico de la obra del sefior peri to Argentine, Francisco 
P. Moreno, por Francisco Fonck, como contribuci6n d la defensa de Chile. 
Con doce diagramas y pianos. Valparaiso, Carlos F. Niemeyer, 1902. 
ix, (1)146 p. 8°. 

Ga3»a, Ignacio L. : Estudios jenerales sobre la guerra de costas. Por don Ignacio L. 
Gana . . « Valparaiso, Imprenta del Mercurio, 1868. 144 p. 8°. 

GoNA, Miguel: Estudios sobre las maniobras de combates navales, escrito en Frances 
por el vice-almirante Bourgois. Traducido al castellan© por Miguel Gona, 
teniente 1°. Valparaiso, Imprenta del Mercurio, 1879. 119 p. diagrs. 
8°. 

60XBE, Fbbkakdo: Mfloiual del aprendiz de buzo. Beoopilaci6n hecha por el capitan 
de fragata Den Fernanda Gomez. Valparaiso, Imp. y lit. Inglesa, 1897. 
31 p. d^igre, 12°. 

GoSi, Lets A. : Cartilla para uumneroe artUleros. Por Luis A. Gofii . . . Valpa- 
raiso, Impi«nta Inglesa, 1900. 2 v. in 1. Continuous paging. 12°. 
illos. 

GciKiBBo Vebgara, Bam6n: Loe descubridores del estrecho de Magallanes i sus 
primeros esploradores. Examen de las relaciones aatenticas de sus viajes, 
concordadas con los conodmientos modernos, por Bam6n Guerrero Ver- 
gara . . . Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Nacional, 1880. 2 v. in 1. 8°. 

Lei de navegaci6n de la repiiblica de Chile, promulgada el 24 de julio de 

1878. Preoedida de una resefia hist6rica de nuestra marina mercante i 
comentada por Bam6n Guerrero Vergara. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta 
del Mercurk), 1878. xxiv, 220 (1) p. 8°. 
^AAa Sierba, Enrique: Estudios sobre las aguas de Skyring 1 la parte austral de 
Patagonia por el comandante i oficiales de la corbeta MagaUenen. Mennma 
de Don Ennqne Ibar Sierra. Santiago, Imprenta Nacional, 1879. 60 p. 
maps. 8°. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



804 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Hermann, Albbbto: La producci6n en Chile de loe metales i minerales m^ iInpo^ 
tantes de las sales natarales, del aziifre i del gnano desde la conqoista hasta 
fines del afio 1902. For Alberto Hermann . . . Santiago de Chile, Im- 
prenta Barcelona, 1903. 81 (2) p. diagrs. 4°. 

Hopp, B. : Principios y comentarios sobre tdcticas navales modemas por el Coman- 
dante B. Hoff, M. de EE. UU. Traducido del Franc^ por M. Lmdor 
Perez G., teniente 1° de marina. Valparaiso, Imprenta Americani, 
1884. 126 p. plans. W, 

Larrain Z., J. Ignacio y J. Joaquin (comps.): Boletfn de las prindpales leyes y 
decretos vijentea dictadcs desde enero 1° de 1871, y recopilad<w por orden 
de materias por J. Ignocia y J. Joaquin Larrain Z. Valparaiso, Imprenta 
del Mercurio, 1871. (2) 1024 p. 8°. 

Larrain Z., J. Joaquin: Nociones de derecho intemacional marftimo s^un la 
mas recientes progresos de la ciencia. Adaptaci6n & las leyes i preceptos 
de Chile . . . Por J. Joaquin Larrain Z. Santiago de Chile, Im- 
prenta Nacional, 1892. 423 p. 8°. 

Matte, Augusto: Memoria presentada d la excma. junta de gobiemo por Augusto 
Matte y Augustin Ross, agentes confidenciales del gobiemo de Iquiqae tn 
Europa durante la revoluci6n. Paris, Paul Dupont, 1892. x, 192 p. 8". 

Mayne, Ricardo C. : Derrotero del estrecho de Magallanes y canales que condocen 
al golfo de Penas. Por el Capitdn D. Ricardo C. Mayne, de la marina 
real Inglesa . . . Traducido al espaflol por D. Patricio Lynch Zaldi- 
var, capitdn de navio graduado de la marina de Chile. Publicado por 
orden del Ministro de marina. Valparaiso, Imprenta de **La Patria," 
1874. vi, (2) 117 p. 8°. 

MoRALBDA I MoNTBRo, Jo86 DEI De8cripci6n de los nuevos descubrimientos i recouo- 
cimientos hechos posteriorraente en este oc^anico Pacffico, fundada sobre 
las noticias adquiridas de los sujetos mds intelijentes que han ejecutado los 
viajes que se han hecho por Don Jos6 de Moraleda i Montero. 1773-1777. 
viii, 46 p. 12°. 

(In Cinco relaciones Jeogr&flcas 6 hidrogr&flcas que interesan & CHiile. Publicad(wp(ff 
Nicolas Anrique R.) 

Esploraciones jeogrdficas y hidrogrdficas de Jos^ de Morale<ia i Montero. 

Precedidas de una introducci6n por Don Diego Barros Arana. Santiago de 
Chile, Imprenta Nacional, 1888. xxiv (1), 533 p. map. 8**. 
(Has half-title: " Documentos para la historia de la nautica de Chile.") 

Ojeda, Juan de: Informe descriptive de la frontera de la Concepci6n de Chile. Por 
el Coronel Don Juan de Ojeda. 1803. pp. 219-292. 12°. 

(lu Biblioteca Jeogrdflca-hidrogr&fica de Chile . . . por Nicolas Anrique R.) 

Parker, Fox hall A.: Tactica de escuadras de buques & vapor eecrita en ingles por 
Foxhall A. Parker, comandant en la marina de EE. UU. Tradocidaal 
espaflol por Domingo Salamanca, capitdn de fragata, graduado y mayor 
de ordenes de la escuadra. Valparaiso, Imprenta de la **La Patria," 1872. 
171 p. diagrs. 8°. 

Perez G. Lindor: Tratado de hidrograffa jwr Lindor Perez G., capittln de navio. 
Republica de Chile. Publicaci6n ordenada por el Supremo Gobiemo . . . 
Leipzig, Imprenta de F. A. Brockhaus, 1897. xii, 280 p. diagrs. 8°. 

PoMAR, Luis: El bergantfn Mcteoro en una tempestad en el cabo de Homos del 7 al 9 
de marzo de 1859. (Recuerdos de 30 aftos.) Por Luis Pomar . . • 
Valparaiso, Tall. tip. de la armada, 1888. 15 p. 8**. 
(Reproducido do la Revista, de marina, tomo 6. 1888.) 

■ E8ploraci6n hidrogrdfica del litoral de Antofagasta. Por Don Luis Pomar 

. . . Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Nacional, 1886. 67 p. 8®. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



LIBRARY ADDITIONS. 305 

PoMAR, Lris: Memoria eobre la pesca en Chile. Leida en el VI Congreso cientifico 
jeneral celebrado en la serena en enero de 1900, por el delegado de la 
marina, Don Louis Pomar . . . Valparaiso, Tall. tip. de la armada, 1900. 
54(1) p. 8^ 

RiBERA, Lazaro de: Discnrso que hace el alferez don Lazaro de Ribera, injeniero 
delineador, sobre la provincia de Chilo^ por orden del supremo gobiemo de 
Lima, desde esta misma ciudad en agosto de 1872. 67 p. 12^. 

(In Cinco relaclones jeogrr^flcas 4 hydrogr&ficas que intereaan & Chile. Publlcadas por 
Nicolas Anrique R. ) 

RosALEs, Jl'sto Abel: Instrucci6n piiblica en su parte secundaria, superior, especial 
6 hist6rica. Recopilaci6n de leyes, decretos supremos circulares y acuerdos 
del consejo de instrucci6n pdblica por Justo Abel Rosales, comisionado 
especial del Supremo Gobiemo para esta obra. Tomo pri mero : Instrucci6n 
secundaria y superior. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta de * -Los Debates," 
1890. XXXV, 704, (1) p. 8°. 

Salamanca, Domingo (tr.): Reglamento para evitar choques en la mar. Traducido 
del ingl^ del orden de la comandancia jeneral de marina por Domingo 
Salamanca . . . Valparaiso, Imprenta de **La Patria," 1872. 58 p. 
plates. 8**. 

Santa Cruz, Juan lost de: Noticias pertenencientes al reino de Chile. Dadas en el 
ano de 1730. Por Don Juan Jos^ de San ta Cruz. 40 p. 12°. 

(In Cinco relaclones Jeogr&flcas 6 hidrogr&flcas que interesan & Chile. Publlcadas por 
NicolAs Anrique R.) 

SwpsoN, Enrique M. ( tr. ) : Torpedo Sch wartzkopff. Descripci6n de un torpedo B. 30 

A. Traducci6n de Enrique M. Simpson, contra-almirante. Valparaiso, 

Imp. y lit central, 1897. 19 p. 12*>. 
Simpson, J. M. : Instrucciones para fondear en escuadra y para el empleo de la rosa 

de fondeo y de maniobra. Dictadas por el capitdn de navio Don J. M. 

Simpson . . . Valparaiso, Imp. y lit. Excelsior, 1899. 16 p. 2 tables. 8®. 
Reglamento de tiro al bianco con cafl6n para los buques de la armada. Por 

el capit^n de navio Don J. M. Simpson . . . Valparaiso, Imp. Sud- 

Americana de Babra y Ca., 1899. 24 p. diagrs. 8®. 
SociEDAD Filat6lica **Santiago: '* Anales de la Sociedad filat^lica "Santiago.** 

Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Cervantes, 1898. Tomo 4. 116, iv p. 8°. 

Same. Tomo 5. Santiago de Chile, Imp. Barcelona, 1899. 102, iv p. 8°. 

• Same. Tomo 6. Santiago de Chile, Imp. Barcelona, 1900. 102 p. 8**. 

SocneoAD Uni6n Mas6nica: Reglas para el salvamento deabogados. Publicadas por 

la Sociedad Union Mas6nica. Valparaiso, Imprenta y lit. Excelsior, 

1890. 13 p. illus. 12''. 
ScuvAN, B. J. : Derrotero de las islas Malvinas por B. J. Sulivan, capitdn de la marina 

inglesa. Traducido del ingles por M. de Coriolis, teniente de la marina 

francesa i del fran«^'S por la oficina hidrogrdfica. Santiago de Chile, 

Imprenta Nacional, 1882. 98 p. 8°. 
Uribi y Orrego, Luis: Los combates navales en la guerra del Pacffico, 1879-1881. 

Por Luis Uribe y Orrego . . . Valparaiso, Imprenta de ** La Patria,** 1886. 

200 p. illus. plates. 8°. 
Cartilla de tictica naval escrita para el uso de los guardias marinas por Luis 

Uribe Orrigo . . . Paris, Imprimerie Chaix, 1898. 144 p. illus. 8°. 
UsAURo Martinez de Bernabe, Pedro de: La verdad de compafia. Relaci6n his- 

t6rica de la plaza, puerto i presidio de Valdivia. Existencia militar i polf- 

tica, clima, minas, frutos, plantas i comercio. Descripcion de la calidad, 

reliji^n, caracter, i costumbres de los indios que habitan su juri9dicci6u i 

continente. Por Don Pedro de Usauro Martinez de Bernabe . . . 1872. 

pp. 39-218. 

(In BlWioteca jeogrAflco-hldrogrtlfica de Chile . . . por Anrique Nicolas R.) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



806 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

[Vald^s Oarrsra, J. M.]: La condenacion del Miniaterio Vicufia. El Ministro de 
hacienda y 808 detractores. Parifl, Imprenta Universal, 1893. 110 p. 8®. 

(Sigired, J. M. VaM^ Carrem.) 

VXroas, Lupkrcio Fernandez (comp.): R^lamentos de tranpportes 1 tarifas de los 
ferrocarriles del estado. Reeopilados por Lupercio Fernandez Vargas, 
oficial de la contadurfa de la 2* 8e8i6n j>or encargo del consejo directivo. 
Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Barcelona, 1894. 107 p. 8®. 

Vera, Robustiano: Protuario de los juicioe militares. Por Rohustiano Vera . . . 
Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Gutenberg, 1891. vii, 128 p. 12°. 

ViAJEs i>BL PADRB Franci8CO Mbnendes rI lago Nahuelgtu^ en 1791-1794. 71 (1) p. 
8°. 

Vial, A. Fernandez: Factorea en la con8trucci6n de los buqnes de com bate. Com- 
postci^n de las escuadras. Por A. Fernandez Vial, oficial de la marina de 
Chile. Liverpool, Philip and CO. [1890.] 141 p. diagrs. 8°. 

VicuSa, Santiago Marin: A1 traves de la Patagonia. (Pdjinas fntimas). Per San- 
tiago Marin VicuQa. Santiago de Chile, Casilla num. 1953, 1901. 202 p. 
map. 8°. 

Vidal Gormaz, Ramon: Organizacion i maniobras de una flota de buques mixtos; 
medios de determinar las diatancias en la mar, 6 instrucciones para el 
desenibarco de marineros i caftones de desembarque. Por R. i F. Vidal 
Gormaz . . . Santiagode Chile, Imprenta Nacional, 1865. 126 p. illus. 
diagrs. 12°. 

ViEL C, Oscar: La guerra marftima ante el derecho internacional. (Prdcticaa de 
Chile. ) Por Oscar Viel C. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Esmeralda, 1899. 
iv, 304(1) p. 8°. 

Zegers, Luis L. (comp.): Instrucciones para el uso de los obeervadores de las esta- 
ciones meteorol6jicas i de la marina de la repiiblica de Chile. [Por Luis 
L. Zegers.] Valparaiso, Imprenta Espafiola, 1899. 145 p. 8°. 

Z6SIGA Montufar, Gbrardo: El ej^rdto de Chile. (Impresiones yapontes.) Por 
Gerardo Zdfliga Montufar . . . 1904. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta 
Esmeralda, 1904. (1) 194 (2) p. illus. 12*>. 

Colombia. 

Colombia. Ministbrio de instrucci6n pi!iblica: R^lamentos de las facultades de 
la Vniversidad Nacional. £dici6n oficial. Bogota Imprenta Nacional, 
1906. 71 p. 8°. 

Cuba. 

Ct'BA. Pkpartamento de estado: Congreso internacional contra la tuberculosis. 
Jnforine pres^entado por los doctores Mario Garcfa Lebredo y Miguel San- 
chez Toledo, delegados de la republica de Cuba. Habana, Imprenta de 
Rambla y Bouza, 1906. 59 p. 8°. 

[QiESADA, GoNZALO de] : Islc of Piucs and the political term "Cuba." [Des:crip- 
tive pamphlet.] No imprint, n. d. Caption title. 16 p. 8°. 

Isle of Pines. [Bibliography.] No imprint n. d. Cover-title. 9 p, 8**. 

Isle of Pines. [Descriptive pamphlet.] No imprint, n. d. 11 p. 8**. 

Robinson, Albert G.: Cuba and the intervention. By Albert G. Robinson. New 

York, London, etc., Longmans, Green & co., 1905. 5 p. 1., 359 p. S^. 
Universidad de la Habana: Memoria anuario correspondiente al curso adad^mico 
de 1904 d 1905 . . , Habana, Manuel Ruiz S. en C, 1906. 286 p. 
illus. 8°. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



UBBARY ADDITIONS. 807 

U. 8. 69th Cono., IsT sBas.^ Senate: . . . Condition of the people of the Isle 
of Pines [presented by Mr. Morgan. Washin^n, Government Printing 
Office, 1906]. 13 p. 8°. (Sen. doc. 279.) 

V. S. War Dept., Division of insolab appaibs: . . . The Isle of Pines: (Carib- 
bean Sea) its situation, physical features, inhabitant?, resources, and 
industries. With maps. . . . Washington, Government Printing 
Office, 1906. 43 p. 8*». (U. S, 59th cong., 1st sess., sen. doc. 311.) 

Costa Rica. 

CoOTA EiCA. MiNisTEBio DE gobernaci6n, policIa y pomento : Memoria . . . 
presentada al congreso constitucional . . . 1905-1906. San Jos^, 
Tip. Nacional, 1906. unpaged, 1 v. 4°. 

Ecuador. 

ViDAL GosMAZ, Francisco: El archipi^lago de las Galapagos. Por Vidal Gor- 
maz . . . Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Nacional, 1890. 47 p. map. 

Guatemala. 
MnnsTERio DE POHBNTO: Memoria . . . presentada d la asamblea nacional legis- 
lativa en 1906. Guatemala, Tip. Nacional, [1906]. 212 p. 8^. 

HONDUBAS. 

Honduras. Comisi6n general de leqi8Laci6n: Informe de la Comisi6n general 
de legislaci6n. 1906. Tegucigalpa, Tip. Nacional, [1906]. Various 
paging. 4**. % 

Ley db inmigraci6n. 1906. Tegucigalpa, Tip. Nacional, [1906]. iv, (1) 7 

(i)p. a". 

MEXICO. 

Mexico. Inpobme Lei do pob el C. Pbbiidbnte de la ReptJblica al abrirse el tercer 
perfodo de sesiones del XXI Congreso de la uui6n el 16 de septiembre de 
1903. Mexico, Tip. y lit " La Europea,'* 1903. 32 p. 8°. 

Ley de Ixgbssob y Prbsupuesto de egreeos del erario federal para el afto fiscal 

que comienza el 1" de julio de 1906 y termina el 30 de junio de 1907. 
Mexico, Tip. de la Oficma Impreaora de Estampillas, 1906. vi, 300 p. 4°. 

Nicabagua. 

K1CARA6UA. C6DIG0 DB MiNEBfA. 1906. Managua, Tip. Nacional [1906]. 40 (1) 

p. 8°. 
• iNSTRtKxnoKBs 80BBE CoNTABiLiDAD fiscal poT partida doble, aplicada d las 

cuentas de la munidpalidad de Blueiields. Bluefields, 1906. 42 p. S°, 

PERiSr. 

Chile. Opicina Hidbogbapica: Datos sobre los recursos i las vias de comunicacion 
del litoral de las provincias de Chancay i de Lima. Por la Oficina Hidro- 
grdfica. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Nacional, 1880. 12 p. maps. 8°. 

■ Some. Noticias del departamento litoral de Tarapaca i sus recursos. San- 
tiago de Chile, Imp. Nacional, 1879. 23, 32 p. maps. 8°. 

~- Same. Noticias de los departamentos de Tacna, Moquegua i Arequipa i algo 

sobre la hoya del lago Titicaca. Por la Oficina Hidrogrdfica. Santiago 
de Chile, Imprenta Nacional, 1879. 44 p. map. 8°. 

Same. Noticias sobre las provincias del litoral correspond iente al departa- 
mento de Lima y de la provincia constitucional del Callao. Por la Oficina 
Uidrogrdfica. Santiago, Imprenta Nacional, 1879. 75 p. map. 
Same. Noticias sobre las provincias litorales correspondientes il los departa- 
mentos de Arequipa, lea, Huancaveliva i Lima. Por la Oficina Hidro- 
grdfica. Santiago, Imprenta Nacional, 1880. 40 p. 8°. 

Uigitized by VjOOQIC 



308 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OP THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

HuRD, H. C. : Estndio para aumentar las aguas del Rfo Chili ( Arequipa). Por H. 0* 

Hurd, ingeniero civil. Lima, Lit. tip. Carlos Fabbri, 1905. 42 p. 1 

diagr., 5 fold. maps. 8®. 
Malaga Santolalla, FERMfN: Importancia imnera de la provincia de Cajamarca. 

Por Fermfn Malaga Santolalla . . . Lima, Lit. tip. Carlos Fabbri, 1905. 

83 p. illus. maps. 8*. 
Loa yacimientos minerales y carbonifercs de la provincia de Celend6n por 

Fermfn Malaga Santolalla . . . Lima, Lit. tip. Carlos Fabbri, 1905. 50 p. 

maps. 8°. 
Sutton, C. W. (and others): I n formes sobre la provincia constitucional del Callao. 

Por C. W. Sutton, J. J. Bravo y J. I. Adams. Lima, Imprenta de **E1 

Lucero," 1905. 58 p. maps. 8*. 
Velarde, Carlos E. : Reglamentaciones mineras para el Cerro de Pasco. Por Carlos 

E. Velarde . . . Lima, Imprenta de **E1 Lucero," 1905. 61 p. S'', 
ViDAL (jormaz, Francisco: Estudio sobre el puerto de Iquique. Por Francisco 

Vidal Gormaz. Santiago de Chile, Imprenta Nacional, 1880. 24 p. 

maps. 8®. 
Jeoorafia NAUTicA I DERBOTERO DE LAS cosTAS DEL Per6. Arrsglado segim 

los documentos mils modernos por la Oficina hidrogrdfica de Chile. San- 
tiago de Chile, Imprenta Nacional, 1879. 191, (1) p. 8°. 

Salvador. 

DuRAN S. CoRTfo: Impresiones de un viajero por S. Cortes Diinin. San Salvatior 

[Imprenta Nacional], irfbe. 240 p. 12°. 
Sylvestre, Gaspar: . . . Vademecum. San Salvador, Imprenta Nacional, 1906. 

50, (2) p. 12°. 

United States. 

Klein, Fj^lix: In the land of the strenuous life. By Abb^ F^lix Klein . . . 
Author's trs. Chicago, A. C. McClurg & co., 1905. xix, 387 p. front. 
(port.) plates. 8°. 

Morris, Robert C. : . . . Report of Robert C. Morris, agent of the United States, 
before the United States and Venezuelan Claims Commission, oi^^anized 
under the protocol of February 17, 1903, between the United States of 
Americaand the Republic of Venezuela. Washington, Government Print- 
ing Office, 1904. 563 p. 8° (58th cong., 2d sets., Sen. doc. 317.) 

United States. Bureau op the Census: Census of manufactures. 1905. Missouri 
and Arkansas. Washington, Government Printing Office, 1906. 47 p. 
4*^. (Bull. 35.) 

Same. Indiana. Washington, Government Printing Office, 1906. 37 p. 4**. 

(Bull 38.) 

Same. Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. Washington, Government 

Printing Office, 1900. 47 p. 4°. (Bull. 37.) 

Telephones and telegraphs. 1902. Washington, ( Jovemment Printing Office, 

1906. xi, 172p. 4°. (Special rpts.) 

Bureau of Rolls and Library: Bulletin of the Bureau of Rolls and Library 

of the Department of State. No. 11, pt. 2. September 1, 1905. Wash- 
ington, Government Printing Office, 1905. 603 p. 4®. 

United States Congress. House op Representatives: . . . Digest and manual of 
the House of Representatives. . . . First session, 59th congress. Pre- 
pared by AsherC. Hinds. . . . Washington, Government I*rinting Office, 
1905. 715 p. 8°. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



LIBBABY ADDITIONS. 809 

U. S. CoKOREBS. Senate: Senate manual containing the standing rules and orders 
of the U. S. Senate. The Constitution of the United States. The Decla- 
ration of Independence, articles of confederation, the ordinance of 1787, 
Jefferson's manual, etc. . . . Edition of February 8, 1905. Wash- 
ington, Government Printing Office, 1905. 683 p. 8*. {68th cong., 3d 
sess., doc no. 198.) 

U. S. Congress. Senate Committbe on Interoceanic Canals: Hearings before the 
Committee on Interoceanic Canals of the U. S. Senate in the matter of the 
Senate resolution adopted January 9, 1906, providing for an investigation 
of matters relating to the Panama Canal, etc. Washington, Government 
Printing Office, 1906. 2 v. Continuous paging. 8®. 

Same. . . . Report of the Senate Committee on Interoceanic Canals on 

the proposed ship canals through the American isthmus connecting the 
continents of North and South America . . . Washington, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, 1901. 551 p. 8°. 

Same. . . . Sea-level canal connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, etc. 

. . . Beport [Washington, Government Printing Office, 1906.] Cap- 
tion title. 32 p. 8**. 

U. 8. Isthmian Canal Commission: Minutes of meetings of the Isthmian Canal 
Commission and of the executive and engineering committees. October 
to December, 1905. Washington, 1905. 203 p. 8®. 

• Same. January to March, 1906. Washington, 1906. 179 p. 8**. 

U. 8. Library op Congress: Copyright law of the United States of America in force 
March 3, 1905. . . . Washington, Government Printing Office, 1905. 
30 p. 8**. (Copyright office bull. no. 1. ) 

U. 8. Patent Office: Patent laws, with annotations. Revised December 1, 1905. 
Half title. 53 p. 8^ 

• United States statutes concerning the registration of trade-marks, with the 

rules of the Patent Office relating thereto. Revised to December 1, 1905. 
Half title. 54 p. 8°. 

Ureutia, Francisco Jps^: La doctrina de Monroe. Conferencia dada en la Sociedad 
*' Jurfdico-Literaria** el 5 de mayo de 1906 por Francisco Jos6 Urrutia. 
. . . Quito, Imprenta de la Universidad Central, 1906. 39 p. 8°. 

Uruguay. 

MiEso, Carlos M.: . . . Tierra de promisi6n. Descripci6n general de la Repd- 
blica O. del Uruguay y de su comercio, industrias, ganaderfa, agricultura, 
finanzas, riquezas, educaci6n y progresos y todas las manifestaciones de 
la actividad humana. Obra escrita por Carlos M. Maeso. Con arreglo d 
los m^B modemos datos recopilados espresamente ^ illustrada con numero- 
808 grabados. Montevideo, Tip. de la Escuela nac. de artes y oficios, 1904. 
384 p. plates, illus. 4°. 

^BCQUAY. Oficina DE Cr^dito Publico: Deuda piiblica de la Repilblica O. del 
Uruguay. 1905. Montevideo, 1905. [20] p. obi. 8*». 

Venezuela. 

Fkbmb Cordero, Tduo: Datos hist6ricos sobre la imprenta en Venezuela. Estado 
M^rida. Publicados con motivo del centenario de la primera imprenta, 
introdncida por el General Francisco Miranda. 1806 — 28 de abril — 1906. 
M^rida, Tip. de "El Lapiz," 1906. Cover-title. 8 p. 8®. 
(Signed, Tulio Febrea Cordero.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



810 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Mbndoza, MAmiBL: DatoB hi8t6nco8 sobre U imprenta en Venezuela. Tn^lla 
Trnjillo, Imprenta Trojillana, 1906. 8 p. Cover-title. 8*. 
(Sigrned, Manuel Mendosa.) 

Venezuelan arbitration before the Hague tribunal. 1903 . . . Washington, 
Government Printing Office, 1905. 1403 p. 8°. 

GENERAL WORKS, REFERENCE BOOKS, AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES. 

Alvarez, Albxandrb: 1. Hidtoire diplomattqne des i^pnbliques Am^ricaines et la 
conference de Mexico. Par Alexandre Alvarez . . . Paris, A. Pedone, 
1902. 64, iii p. 8**. 

American Academy or political and social science: The Parr-American confCT- 
ences and their significance. Phila., The Academy, 1906. 22 p. 8°. 
(Supp. to Annals of Che Amer. academy of pol. & soc. sci., May, 1900.) 

Arteaqa Ureta, Clauiho: Informes y conclusiones del Congreso intemacional de 
derecho marftuno de G^ova. (Septiembre d octubre del aflo 1892.) . . . 
Version del italiano y notas de Olaudio Arteaga Ureta . . . Santiago de 
Chile, Imprente Nacional, 1893. 289 p. 8®. 

Blair and Robertson: The Philippine Islands. Vols. 35, 37, and 38. Cleveland, 
1906. 3v. 8^ 

Bureau international dr la propri^tA industribllb: Recueil des trait^^ conven- 
tions, arrangements, accords, ete., conclus entre les difft^'rents ^tats ea 
mati^re de propriety industrielle. Reproduits ea langue Iranyaise et 
dans celles des langues origlRalee qui peuvent ^tre imprim^ en carac- 
t^res romains. Berne, Bureau International de la Propri^t^ Industriellei 
1904. 918 p. 8^ 

Calvo, Charles: Le droit international th<^orique et pratique, preo6d^ d'un historiqoe 
des progr^ de la science du droit des gens. Par M. Charles Calvo . . . 
5th ed. Revue et compl^t^e par un suppl^ent. Paris, Arthur Rouaseao, 
1896. xxxiv, 605 (l)p, 4^ 

Commission on international exchange: Grold standard in mtemational trade. 
Report on the introduction o£ gold exchange standard into China, the 
Philippine Islands, Panama, and other silver-using countries, and the sta- 
bility of exchange. Submitted to the Secretary of State, October 22, 1904, 
by the Commission on International Exchange . . . Washington, Goy- 
emment Printing Office, 1904. 511 p. 8*. 

Crub, Francis de: Le parti des politiques au Lendemam de la SaiDi Barthelemy. 
La Molle et Coconat par Francis de Crue. Paris, E. Plon Nonrrit et de., 
1892. vii, 365 p. 8*^. 

EixjiNOTON, T. B.: The Monroe doctrine by T. B. Edgington, Boston, Little, 
Brown & Co., 1905. viii, 344 p. front (port). 8<». 

Elmes, Webster: A treatise on the law of the customs. By Webetar Elmes . . . 
Boston, Little, Brown & Co., 1887. xxxii, 532 p. 8°. 

EscHRicnE, JoAQufN: Diccionario razonado de legislaci6n y jurwpnidencia por 
Joaqufn Eschriche . . . Nueva edici6n corregida notablemente, y aurnen- 
tada con nuevas artfculos, notas y adiciones sobre el derecho araericano 
por Juan B. Guim, . . . y un suplemento que contiene el codigo de co 
mercio, la ley de enjuiciamiento, las ordenanzas de mineria, laa ordenaAJM 
de tierras y agnas y la nueva ley de enjuiciamiento civil, etc., etc. Va 
afiadido un cuadro sinoptico de los juicios civiles ordinarios y extraonii* 
narios con arreglo d la legislad6n peruana. Por El Doctor D. Antonio 
Flores . . . Paris and Mexico, Lib. de Ch. Bouret, 1888. x, 1543, 240, 
19, 61 p. 4°. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



LIBBABY ADDITIONS. 811 

£rAT UBRs Du CorNANi . . . Memorandtim adreae^ aax puissances au sujet de la 
reconnaissance officielle de r£tat Libre. Janvier, 190d. No imprint 
83 p. 4^ 

GiBur, Emilio J. : Marina frmnceea. Grandes maniobras de la escoadra de evolu- 
ciones del Mediterraneo mayo d septiembre de 1888. Presentada al sefior 
contre aloiirante don Joan J. Latorre por el teniente 2? PImilio J. Garin, 
embarcado en ei aconusado Omrbet. Valparaiso, Imp. y lit. Inglesa, 1889. 
38 p, plans. 8*. 

Gitmro [Huoo]: The rights of war and peaoe, including the law of nature and 
nations; tr. from the original Latin of Grotius, with notes and illustrations 
from political and legal writers, by A. C. Campbell . . . with an Intro- 
doction by D. J. Hill . , . Washington, [D. C] & London, M, W. Dunne 
[1901]. X, 423p. front (port.) 8°. 

Hall, William Edward: A treaties on international law, by William Edward Hall. 
5th ed., edited by J. B. Atlay . . . Oxford, Clarendon press [etc., etc.], 
1904. xxiv, 7^p. 5^ 

InsBVATiONAL BuRXAU OP THE Amirican REPUBLICS: Monthly Bulletin. May, 
1906. Vol. 22, no. 5. Washington, Government Printing OflSce, 1906. 
pp. 1259-1486. 8*». 

CONTENTS. 

▲igentioe Republic. RatiAcation of foreign patents; railroad exposition in Buenotf 

Ayres; QoTemment inspection of butter factories; crop estimates, 190&-1906; exports, 

flnt two mtniths, 1906; sugar-cmne harvest in 1905. 
BoUria. Budipet estimate for 1906; COTamerce with the CnltedSUter. imports in 1904. 
Brazil. Exports of rubber; customs revenue, February, 1906; exports from Santos, 

eleven months of 1905; exports from Pemambuco, February, 1906; export tax on 

coffee. 
Chile. N«w cabinet; work on the Tmnsandine Railroad; import tax and bounty on 

sugar; commerce and industries; treaty of arbitration with Brazil. 
Colambia. Delegates to the Third International Coniercnce of American States; new 

monetary law; duty on hides; railroad oonceasion; tariff changes; exports from 

Ciudad Bolivar, 1905. 
Costa Rica. New president and cabinet; customs modifications. 
Cuba. MesMige of Pnotident Palma; commerce in 1904-1906; production and export 

of tobacco, 1906. 
Dominican Republic. Foreign commerce in 1905. 
Ecuador. Treasury report, 1906. 
Guatemala. The Ititure of the Republic. 
Mexico. Foreign commerce in December, 1905; mining statistics; railway traffic with 

the United States, 1900-1901 to 1904-1905; report of the Monterey steel foundry; 

Henequen exports, March, 1906; customs receipts, March, 1906; new railroad for 

west coast; postal receipts, July-February, 1905-1906. 
Nicaragua. Coffee crop, 1905-1906; soap indontry and imports; amended steamship 

contract 
Panama. Tnds conditions at Colon. 
Paraguay. Customs modiiications. 
Peru. Imports and exports, 1905; Callao port movements, 1905; tariff modifications In 

the department of Loreto. 
Balvador. Port movements, December, 1905; exports during October, 1905; imports 

during August, 1905. 
United States. Trade with Latin America; foreign commerce, March, 1906; live-stock 

industries, March, 1906; exports of coal and colte in 1906; consular trade reports. 
Uruguay. Construction ol the Zabala Canal; particulars of the recent loan; banic 

TQportB. 
Venezuela. Rules and regulations of the mining law; asphalt and petroleum con- 
cession, imports of foreign merchandise through Puerto Cabello, July to December, 

1904; commerce in 1904. 
TTMle of America and Great Britain, first quarter ol 1906. 
The world's visible coffee supply. 
Comparison of trade routes. 
Trade opportunities in Latin America. 
Book notes. 
Library accessions and files. 

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812 INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLIOS. 

Keltib, J. Scott (ed): Statesman's year book . . . 1906 . . . London and New 

York, Macmillan and co., 1896. ixiv, 1604 p. 12**. 
Moore, John Bassett: American diplomacy, its spirit and achievements, by John 

Bassett Moore . . . New York and London, Harper A bros., 1905. xi, 

285 p. 16 port map. 8®. 
History and digest of the international arbitrations to which the United States 

baa been a party, together with appendices containing the treaties relate 

ing to such arbitrations, and historical and legal notes ... by John 

Bassett Moore . . . Washington, Government Printing Office, 1898. 6 v. 

maps. 8®. 
Oppenheim, L. : International law. A treatise. By L. Oppenheim . . . London, 

New York, etc., Longmans, Green and oo., 1905 & 1906. 2 v. 8°. 

V. 1. Peace. 

V. 2. War and neutmllty. 

Poo RE, Ben. Perley (comp): A descriptive catalogue of the government publications 
of the U. S, Sept. 6, 1774-March 4, 1881. Compiled by order of congress 
by Ben. Perley Poore, Clerk of printing records. Washington, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, 1885. 1392 p. 4°. 

Pradier-Fod6rb, p.: TtslM de droit international public europ^n et am^ricain 
suivant les progres de la science et de la pratique contemporaines. Par 
P. Pradier-FoderiS • . . Paris, G. Pedone-Lauriel, 1885-1897. 7 v. 8'». 

RossE, M. : Elementos de derecho internacional marftimo por M. Rosse. Traducido 
por Antonio Marazzi. Valparaiso, Imprenta de la Librerla del Mercuric, 
1889. 110 p. 8**. 

Schuyler, Eugene: American diplomacy and the furtherance of commerce. By 
Eugene Schuyler . . . New York, Charles Scribner's sons, 1901. xiv, 
469 p. 8*». 

Scott, James Brown, (ed): Cases on international law. Selected from decisions o£ 
English and American courts. Edited with syllabus and annotations by 
James Brown Scott . . . Based on the late Dr. Freeman Snow's cases 
and opinions in international law. Boston, The Boston Book co., 1902. 
Ixvii, 961 p. 8°. 

Taylor, Hannis: A treatise on international public law by Hannls Taylor . . . 
Chicago, Callaghan & co., 1901. Ixxvi, 912 p. 8**. 

Tribune almanac and political register. 1906. New York, The Tribune associa- 
tion, 1906. 416 p. 8*». 

Trow's business directory of Greater New York. (Five boroughs combined). 
1906 . . . Vol. 9. New York, Trow directory, printing and bookbinding 
CO., 1906. Various paging. 8°. 

U. S. Department of Justice: Catalogue of the library of the department of justice 
to September 1, 1904. By James A. Finch, Librarian. Washington, 
Government Printing Office, 1904. xlvi, 1135 p. 8*. 

Vattel, [Emmerich de]: The law of nations; or, principles of the law of nature, 
applied to the conduct of affairs of nations and sovereigns. From the 
French of Monsieur de Vattel . . . From the new eilition, by Joseph 
Chitty . . . With additional notes and references by Edward D. Ingra- 
ham. Phila., T. & J. W. Johnson & co., 1883. Ixvi, 656 p. 8**. 

Westlake, John: A treatise on private international law, with principal reference 
to its practice in England. Fourth edition. By John Westlake . . . 
Assisted by Alfred Frank Topham. London, Sweet and Maxwell, 1905. 
XXX, 437 p. 8°. 

Wheaton, Henry: Elements of international law. By Henry Wheaton . . . 8th 
ed. Edited, with notes, by Richard Henry Dana, Jr. Boston, Little, 
Brown and co., 1866. xlvii, 749 p. 8®. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Bulletin Mensuel 

DU 

Bureau International des RfiPUBLiQUEs Am^ricaines, 

Union Internationale dee R^pnbliqnes Im^rieaines. 



Vol. XXIII. JUILLET 1906. No. I. 



ElfiPTJBLIQUE AEGENTINE. 

OOKSTBUCnON D'XTN CHEMIN DB FEB ENTRE L' AEGENTINE ET 

LE CHTTJ. 

Les gouvemements argentin et chilien viennent de conc^der un 
chemin de fer qui traverser les Andes au point d^nomm^ La Cumbre, 
situ^ & une altitude de 3,950 metres, un peu au sud de I'Aconoagua, 
montagne la plus ^lev^e de I'Am^rique du Sud (6,900 metres). 

Cette ligne unira le pont d'Inca, terminus du chemin de fer argentin, 
au Salto del Soldado, point extreme de la ligne ehilienne. Elle aura 
une longueur de 45 kilometres et supprimera la solution de continuity 
existant sur la grande ligne de Buenos- Ayres k Valparaiso. Les tra- 
vaux sont estim^s a 37,000,000 de francs et le d61ai pour leur acheve- 
ment expirera en 1907. 

Ce chemin de fer n^cessitera I'ex^cution de nombreux travaux d'art, 
de divers tunnels, etc. 

La ligne, k partir des Andes, sera k crdraaillcre sur la plus grande 
partie de son parcours et des travaux auxiliaircs de protection assure- 
ront la circulation incessante des trains pendant Thiver. La construc- 
tion de ce chemin de fer permettra de parcourir en quarante-huit heures, 
au lieu de soixante-deux heures n^cessitees aujourd'hui, les 1,430 kilo- 
metres qui s^parent Buenos-Ayres de Valparaiso. 

STATISTiatTES SX7B L' IMMIGRATION. 

Les statistiques montrent que le courant d'^migration dans la Repu- 
blique Argentine est constant. De 1880 jusqu'en 1889 il a atteint un 
total de 1,020,907, et de 1890 a 1905 un total de 1,252,171. Parmi les 
Bull. No. 1—06 22 313 



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314 BUREAU INTERNATIONAL DE8 RlfiPUBLIQUES AM^RICAINBB, 

nationalitds qui ont contribu^ au courant d'^migration, I'ltalie vient 
en premier lieu, avec une population de 1,331,536, depuis Tannic 1860. 
Viennent ensuite I'Espa^ne avec 414,073, la France avec 170,2(^3, 
I'Anpfleterre avec 35,435, 1'Autriche-Hongrie avec 33,953, FAllemagDe 
avec 30,690, la Suisse avec 25,755, la Belgique avec 19,521, et les 
autres pays avec 92,238. 

N0X7VEAU SERVICE MARITIME AVEC LE BR^SLL. 

Une nouvelle compagnie de navigation qui portera le nom de 
*'Unione Sotueta Anonima di Navigazione," au capital de 10,000,000 
de couronnes, susceptible d'etre 61ev^ k 20,000,000, vient d'etre fond^ 
a Trieste. Un tiers du capital sera fourni par le "Lloyd austro- 
hongrois" et les deux autres tiers par la " Unione Austriaca," ancien- 
nement "Austro- Americana". La compagnie commencera ses opera- 
tions par I'inauguration, en septembre prochain, d'un service mensnel 
pour passagers et marchandises, avec le Br^sil et la B^publique Argw- 
tine. Au d^but de 1907, le service sera double, les departs auront lieu 
tous les quinze jours de et pour le Br&il et la R^publique Argentine. 
La flotte se composera de 3 cargos du "Lloyd" et de 3 vapeursde 
la "Unione Austriaca," auxquels viendront s'adjoindre 2 nouvewix 
vapeurs a 2 helices; enfin 3 navires seront commandos aux chantiere 
de constructions navales. 

LES R]£COLTES BANS IiA R]£PXTBLiaUE. 

On lit dans le Times: 

" Le chef du departement de statistique du ministere de I'ai^cul- 
ture vient de publier un document qui met en relief Taugmentation 
des exportations de la Republique Argentine et Taccroissement des 
terres consacrees a la culture pendant les dix dernieres ann^es. 

"Durant cette p^riode, la valeur des exportations s'est ^lev^ 
d'environ £24,0(X),000 en 1895 a plus de £64,500,000 en 1905; la surface 
des terres cultivees a pass^, dans le meme temps, de 4,892,000 hectares 
& 13,082,000 hectares. 

" Le memo departement a publi6 des chiffres retificatifs concernant 
le rendement probable des r^coltes de bl6 et de graine de lin. Void 
ces chiffres en tonnes anglaises: 



Bk\ 



Graine 
de liiL 



Province de Buenos-Ayres . 

Province de Santa- F6 

Province de Cordo]>a 

Province d' Entre-Rios 

Territoire de la Pampa, etc. 



ToUl . 



2,078,«2 


224. 1M 


819,063 


284, S«6 


66^.101 


29. «C 


15H,650 


«,« 


162.000 


6,» 



8,881,730 6ia.oas 



Ces estimations laisseraient pr^voir une ''disponibilit^" pour Tex- 
portation d'environ 2,800,000 et 500,000 tonnes respectivementy 

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B^PUBLIQUE ARGENTIKE. 816 

qnoiqne Fopinion g^n^rale re^rde ces chiffres comme plut6t au-dessu8 
qn'an-dessous de la r^lt^. 

Les Evaluations concernant la graine de lin ne modifient pas tr^ 
sensiblement celles pnbli^es ant^rieurement; mais celles qui sont rela- 
tives au blE accu8ent une forte dimiuution de plus de 25 pour cent sur 
restimation faite k la fin de I'ann^e demiere. Les pluies, trop tardives 
surtoute la R^publique, ainsi que les gelEes, exceptionnellementdures 
qui se sont fait sentir dans le Sud, ont en effet provoquE des pertes 
condd^rables oii d'abord tout promettait une r^colte des meilleures. 

BSXAKBS BE KAOHnrXS AOBIC0LB8. 

On signale une demande importante et croissante de charrues et 
d'instruments agricoles dans la REpublique Argentine ; les constructeurs 
int^ressfe se trouvent la en presence d'un ddbouchE tr^s s^rieux pour 
Fextension de leur industrie s'ils veulent bien y preter attention et 
recourir k des moyens pratiques de publicity et de representation. 

Pendant les neuf premiers mois de 1905 il a it6 import^ en Argen- 
tine 55,227 charrues, 8,500 moissonneuses et lieuses, 774 "headers," 
5,291 rSteaux a traction animale, 666 semeuses et 444 machines a battre. 
Ce dernier appareil coflte environ 800 k 900 livres sterling. En 1900 
il n'en avait 6t6 import^ que 228 dans toute I'annde. 

H y a lieu, d'ailleurs, de noter que la majeure partie des importa- 
tion:* de machines agricoles est effectu^e pendant les trois demiers mois 
de Tann^e, avant que la moisson ne commence, de telle sorte que les 
chiffres precedents diminuent plutot qu'ils n'exagerent la demande de 
toute Pannee. 



BOLIVIE. 

CAOUTCUOUC. 



On rencontre le caoutchouc dans toutes les regions arrosdes par le 
fleuve des Araazones, y compris de vastes parties de la Bolivie, dont 
les ports d'acc&s sont situds au Chili. Les capitalistes Strangers por- 
tent actuellement leur attention vers I'exploitation de ces regions. 

Les parties les plus eievdes de la region des Amazones produiscnt 
Tesp^ de caoutchouc connu sous le nom de "caucho," tandis quo les 
plaines, inond^es par le fleuve, produisent le ''jebe." Le caucho 
et le jebe se ressem blent beaucoup, seulement ce dernier a plus 
d'^lasticite. Le jebe sert done k des applications plus ddlicates et 
obtient un prix plus eiev^, gdneralement 25 pour cent de plus que le 
caucho. L'extraction des deux matieres se fait differemment. Le jebe 
s'obtient en faisant des incisions en spirale sur toute la longueur de 
I'arbre, tandis que le caucho s'extrait en abattant Tarbre et en recueil- 
lant le sue dans des recipients specialement approprids a ce but, 

/Google 



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816 BUREAU INTERNATIONAL DES REPUBLIQUES AMERICAINES. 

L'arbre k caucho ne r^siste pas aux incisions, mais vingt ans apr^ 
qu'il a ^t^ abattu un nouy^l arbre a grand! et pent subir le mSme 
traitement. 

On estime que i'arbre a caucho produit environ 65 livres, valant de 
3 a 4 shillings la livre sur les lieux et environ 2 shillings de plus sur 
le march^. L'arbre a jebe donne environ 25 livres par an pendant une 
p^riode ind(?finie. Cer taines parties des f or^ts k caoutchouc situ^ pris 
des sources du fleuve des Aniazones ont ^t^ d^truites par suite d'une 
exploitation excessive, mais le d^veloppement rapide des arbres per- 
mettra de r^parer le mal et de rendre ces regions de nouveau produc- 
tives. Le d^veloppement de I'industrie du caoutchouc en Bolivie offre 
un int^ret special au Chili et aux tfutres pays qui sont en relations 
d'affaires avec les nations de la c6te ouest de I'Am^rique du Sud, 
attendu que tons les produits boliviens ^tant export^s par la c6te du 
Pacifique, doivent atteindre les marches ext^rieurs par les ports 
chiliens. 

La construction de chemins de f er k travers le nord du Chili vers h 
Bolivie, par suite du traits conclu en 1905 entre les deux pays, encou- 
ragera le d^veloppement des ressources naturelles de la Bolivie en 
offrant des facilit^s de transport pour amener les produits sur les 
marches. Les vastes ^tendues de f orets k caoutchouc de la region 
sup^rieure du fleuve des Amazones, qui ont produit Fannie derniJre 
plus de 50,000 tonnes de caoutchouc valant plus de 20,000,000 de livres 
sterling et dont une faible partie seulement a 6t6 mise en valeur, 
offrent un champ plein de promesses pour les capitaux Strangers. 

CONSTBUCTION BE CHEIONS BE FEB. 

Les chemins de f er qui ont ^t^ projetes en Bolivie et qui, d'apres les 
adjudications passkey, doivent 6tre construits par MM. Speter A 
CiE, relieront'les riches districts producteurs de caoutchouc de Pest de 
la Bolivie et Ic territoire br^silien de I'Acre aux ports du Pacifique qui 
n'ont maintenant que le commerce restreint des hauts plateaux. En 
meme temps on ouvrira au commerce un pays pour ainsi dire inexplor^, 
comprenant des milliers de milles carr^s de forets riches en bois dure 
et offrant de grands avantages pour la colonisation a cause de la ferti- 
lity du sol. Actucllcment on transporte par I'Amazone et ses affluente 
aux ports de I'Atlantique le caoutchouc d'Acre et le bois dur qu'on y 
coupe. De h\, on expedie ces produits par vapeurs en Europe de pre- 
ference aux parts des Etats Unis, la distance ^tant moins grande i 
cause de la situation g<?ographique de la cote de I'Am^rique du Sud, 

Le systeme actuel des chemins de fer de la Bolivie se relie avec le 
Pacifique a Antofagasta, port du Chili qui faisait autrefois partie du 
territoire bolivien. Le point terminus de cette ligne est & Oruro, 
ville situ^e au milieu du plateau. EUe sert principalement au trans- 
port des minemis d'argent et de cuivre qui forment la plus grande 



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BOLIVIE. 817 

partie des recettes boliviennes. Un embranchement impoi'tant de la 
ligne va d'Uyuni a Huanchaca. 

Ce systeme a environ 300 milles de longueur. La seule autre ligne 
est un petit embranchement qui relie le port principal sur le lac Titi- 
caca a la capitale bolivienne, La Paz. Cette ville est le point de depart 
de la plus importante des nouvelles lignes devant aller dans le Mon- 
tana, nom que Fon donne aux forfits du Nord et de FEst. 

D'apres les plans approuv^s Fannie derniere par le Congres bolivien, 
le capital social de la compagnie de construction des lignes sera de 
$26,766,000, 8ur cette somme les banquiers de New York fourniront 
|U,600,0(X) et le gouverneraent bolivien $12,166,000. La compagnie 
aura le privilege d'acheter une grande ^tendue de terres publiques 
qu'on pourra choisir partout oil il existe de ces terres, au prix actuel 
de li cent en or par acre. En plus de cet avantage le chemin de fer 
est exempt d'imp6ts. 

En ce qui concerne la ligne de Guaquil a La Paz, appartenant au 
gouvernement, les ch iff res d^montrent clairement les bons r^sultats de 
Pentreprise. 

Le cofit total de la ligne a ^t^ d'environ £330,000, sur lequel le gou- 
vernement a avanc^ £190,000, }• corapris £22,000 d'int^ret. La diffe- 
rence fut combine par un emprunt de £140,000 a la "Peruvian 
Corporation (Limited)." 

Les recettes pour Fannie ont ^t^ de £60,000 et les f rais d'exploita- 
tion de £36,000. B^n^fice net, $24,000, soit le 7 pour cent. 

Le gouvernement payant a la ''Peruvian Corporation " le 6 pour cent 
d'int^ret sur la somme pret^e realise done encore sur ladite somme un 
benefice de 1 pour cent en outre du 7 pour cent qu'il gagne sur les 
£190,000 par lui-raeme avanc^es. 



BRfiSIL. 
srrnATioK dv habchiS bu coton bbut k bio be janeibo. 

Les reuse ignements suivants au sujet de la situation du march6 du 
coton brut a Rio de Janeiro en 1905 sont extraits du mpport du Con- 
sul G^n^ral d'Allemagne a Rio de Janeiro: 

D apres les donn^es, publi^es dernierement, du courtier asserment^ 
da Cunha, relatives a la situation du march6 du coton brut a Rio de 
Janeiro en 1905, on estime a 15,931 balles de 80 kilogrammes le stock 
existantau 31 d^cembre 1904, contre 2,834 balles au31 d^cembre 1903; 
lesarrivages du nord du Br^sil sont ^valu^s pour 1905 a 181,350 
balles contre 186,960 en 1904 et 182,191 en 1903; ils se r^partissaient 
comme suit en 1905: 20,683 balles provenant de FEtat de Sergipe, 
9,213 d'Alag6as, 81,846 de Pernambouc, 24,606 de Parahyba, 34,473 



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318 BUREAU INTERNATIONAL DES REPUBLIQUE8 AMERICA1NE8. 

de Rio Grande do Norte et 10,527 de Ceara. II restait, au 31 decem- 
bre 1905, dans les entrepots de Rio de Janeiro, 17,238 balles. 

De mSme que les anne^s pr^c^dentes, I'acheteur allemand Eissengar- 
then a 6t6 le plus fort importateur de la place, avec 34,467 balles. 
Parmi les autres firmes allemandes int^ress6es a ce commerce — qui se 
trouve d'ailleurs pour la plus grande partie entre les mains de n^goci- 
ants br^siliens — on ne pent encore citer que la maison Herm. Stolz et 
Cie., avec 2,096 balles. Les prix se sont maintenus I'ann^ derniere 
jusqu'au raois de mai; ils ont subi une forte hausse en juin et juillet, 
et sont de nouveau retomb^s d'aoflt k octobre pour remonterapres par 
suite de la diminution suppos^e dans la r^colte des Etats-Unis. Dans 
les cinq principaux Etats producteurs, les prix (pour 10 kilogr., en 
milreis papier) se sont pr^sent^s comme suit: 

[Valeur en milreis.] 



RioGniKlf 
do Norte 



Janvier 

Fevrier 

Mars 

Avril 

Mai 

Juin 

Juillet..... 

AoOt 

Septembre 
Octobre..., 
Kovembre . 
D6cembre 



Sergipe. 


Alagdas. 


Pernam- 
bouc. 


Parahyba. 


Nominal. 


Nominal. 


8.0-9.0 


7.6-8.6 


Nominal. 


Nominal. 


8.0-8.6 


7.6-8.2 


7.(K7.4 


7.2-8.0 


7.6-8.5 


7.0-8.0 


6.6-6.3 


6.0-7.0 


6.3-7.0 


6.0-7.0 


6.5-6.7 


Nominal. 


6.3-7.6 


6.0-7.2 


6.4-7.2 


Nominal. 


7.3-8.0 


7.0-7.6 


7.4-8.0 


Nominal. 


8.4-9.0 


8.0-S.6 


6.0-7.4 


Nominal. 


7.6-8.0 


7.4-7.8 


6.4-7.0 


7.0-7.3 


7.6-«.0 


7.4-7.7 


6.4-7.5 


7.0-7.8 


7.8-9.0 


7.4-8.4 


6.8-7.6 


7.8-8.0 


8.8-9.0 


Nominal. 


7.2-8.0 

. . a.. , 


8.0-8.4 


8.8-9.2 


8.6-8.8 



8.MLe 

S. 0-8.8 

Nomiul 

NomiiutL 

«.3-7.» 

7.(M.i 

8.a-&o 
7.4-ie 
7,1-Ae 

7,2-1.0 
8.0^0 

8.5-9.1 



11 resulte d'autre part d'une note parue dans le *'Diario Official^ du 
12 septembre dernier, que le Br^sil a exports pendant le premier 
semestre de 1904, 9,619,020 kilogrammes d'une valeur de 12,900,266 
milreis papier, de 1905; 5,343,713 kilogrammes d'une valeur de 
3,458,597 milreis papier. Les ports de destination ne sont pas 
indiqu&. 

Les previsions de la rdcolte de I'ann^e courante, ainsi que I'ademon- 
tr6 Tenquete effectu^e aupres des plus forts importateurs, sentient 
jusqu'a present bonnes, particuli^rement a Pemambouc. 



CHILI. 

MESSAGE PBl^SIDENTCBX. 

Le 1*^" juin, M. German Riesco, president de la R^publique du 
Chili, a lu & I'ouverture du Congres le message dont voici les passages 
les plus importants: 

''En vous rendant compte de I'administration publique durant la 
derniere ann^e, il m'est agr^able de vous dire que nos relations avec 
les autres Etats sont amicales et cordiales. 



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CHILI. 319 

"La cordiality des relations existant en ce moment entre nos pays 
et la R^publiqae voisine du P^rou nous permet de croire qitc nous 
pourrons parvenir a des accords qui rendront plus solides les liens qui 
nnissent nos deux nations. 

"Pour Texercice finissant en 1905, les recettes ont et^ de 140 mil- 
lions. Pour Pann^e de 1906 les recettes ont 6t6 de 137 millions, les 
d^penses de 165 millions; cependant on ne fermera pas le di^ficit; il 
restera sans inversion. La somme n^cessaire & Texportation du sal- 
pfitre, qui fut en 1901 de 27 millions de quintaux, est calculde pour 19W 
a 38 millions. L'exportation de I'iode a doubl6 pour la mOme p^riode. 

"Les recettes des douanes pour 1906 monteront k 96 millions et 
d'apr^s les donn^es connues, attendu ['effort des industriels, elles 
monteraient en 1907 a 99 millions. 

"Les chiffres du commerce international sont les suivants: Impor- 
tations, 18 millions correspondant a 56 millions pour les mat^riaux 
industriels; exportations, 265 millions; elles excedent de 49 millions 
le chiffre de 1905. 

"Ce fait r^vSle I'activit^ des forces productives du pays; mais il ne 
faut pas oublier que notre prosp^rit^ couimeroiale est due presque 
exclusivement ft Pindustrie du nitrate; pour la rendre g6nerale et per- 
manente, il est necessaire d'appliquer de gros capitaux au relevement 
de Findustrie miniSre, du cuivre, de I'argent et de For, qui fut dans le 
passi la base de la richesse nationale. II faut aussi encourager et 
d^velopper Tagriculture, I'^levage et I'industrie en g^n^ral." 

TBAITi: D'A&BITBAOE. 

Le Pr^ident de la R^publique du Chili a promulgu^ le traits d'arbi- 
trage sign^ le 18 mai 1899, entre le Chili et le Br^sil. 

Par ce traits les parties contractantes s'engagent k soumettre a un 
arbitre tout diff^rend qui pourrait surgir entre elles pendant la durce 
du traits et qui semit de nature ft provoquer des pretentions contra- 
dictoires susceptibles d'etre r^solues juridiquement et qu'on n'aurait 
pas r^ussi ft solutionner ft I'amiable par des negociations directcs. 

L'arbitre sera le Gouvernement d'une puissance amie, choisi par los 
deux parties ou un tribunal de justice, une corporation Kcientlfique de 
fonctionnaires ou de simples particuliers, qu'ils soient ou non citoyens 
de FEtat que les d^signem. 

Le traits durera dix ans ft partir de la date de la mtification. II 
<X)ntinuera ft produire ses effets apres expiration du dclai adopts?, 
jusqu'au jour oii une des deux parties contractantes en notitiera la fin. 

LB COMMERCE J>V PAPLEB. 

Suivant le rapport du consul g^n^ral du Chili a New York, I'impor- 
tation du papier au Chili s'est ^Icvee en 1905 ft 4,101,987 piastres. 
Ce commerce est ^troitement li^ au ddveloppement intellectuel du 



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820 BUBEAU INTEBNATIONAL DE8 Rl^PUBLIQUES AMERICAIWE8. 

pays; a mesure que I'instruction publique se d^veloppe, le commerce 
de cet article augmente. Sa fabrication n'est pas encore considerable. 

La loi de 1867, qui a fait naitre au Chili un grand nombre d'indus- 
tries dans le but de favoriser les fabriques nationales de papier et de 
cai*ton et sp^cialement dans I'intention d'int^resser les capitalistes i 
I'^tablissement de fabriques, a grev€ les importations ^trang^res de h 
maniSre suivante: Le carton et le papier & lettre payent un droit de 25 
pour cent ad valorem ; le carton ordinaire et le papier buvard payent 
15 centavos le kilogramme; les articles en papier comprim^, les boltes 
de carton, etc., acquittent un droit de 35 pour cent ad valorem. 

Afin de favoriser la presse, les imprimeries et I'instruction en g^n^nJ, 
Pimportation du papier d'impression est libre de droits. L'importa- 
tion des livres imprimis est ^galement exempte de droits d'entrfe. 

La majeure partie des journaux du Chili constituent des entreprises 
prosperes avec lesquelles les fabricants europ^ens pourraient facile- 
ment traiter directement par corresiX)ndance et envoi d'^chan til Ions et, 
en proc^dant ainsi, passer avec elles chaque annee, leurs marchfo pour 
toute la consommation annuelle. De Pavis du consul-g^n^ral du Chili 
k New York, le papier, plus que tout autre article, se prete au com- 
merce direct entre le producteur et le consommateur, en premier lieu, 
parce que c'est un article qui ne se d^t^riore pas en voyage et ensuite 
pour la raison qu'une grande partie de sa consommation est faite dans 
le pays par les journaux. Les bureaux fiscaux sout ^galement ache- 
teurs du papier pour la consommation annuelle des publications p^rio- 
diques de chaque ministere. 

On ne fabrique pas encore au Chili de papier k lettres, mais seule- 
ment le papier ordinaire pour envelopper, tel que celui dont on se sert 
g^ndralement dans les ^piceries. On fabrique aussi du carton. 

Une autre Industrie qui devrait etre ^tabliedans le pays est la fabri- 
cation de la pate de cellulose, Industrie considerable de nos jours dans 
les pays du nord de TEurope, aux Etats-Unis et au Canada. Au Chili, 
oil existent en abondance les Elements qui constituent la base de cette 
Industrie, c'est-ii-dire le bois et la force hydraulique, la fabrication de 
la cellulose parait appelee a un grand avenir. 

COMMERCE BE COaXTIMBO. 

D'apres un rapport consulaire anglais sur le commerce du district 
de Coquimbo, Chili, pour Tannine 1905, la prosp^rit^ de ce district 
ddpend principalment de Tindustrie minicre et malheureusement 
pendant ces dernieres annees cette Industrie n'a pas dt^ aussi florissante 
qu'autrefois par suite du manque de bras, ce qui est le principal obsta- 
cle a son plus grand d^veloppement. 

La fonte du cuivre se poursuit sur une grande dchelle dans deux 
villages de la cote et sur une plus petite ^chelle & plusieurs stations 



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CHILI. 821 

int^rieures relics plus ou moins directement avec le port, g^n^rale- 
ment par voie f err^e. 

A part quelques exceptions, les mines de cuivre ne sont pas d^- 
velopp^s et g^n^ralement elles sont assez pauvres. II y a beaucoup de 
mines d'argent mais quelques-unes seulement rapportent de bons 
b^n^fices. 

On trouve le mangan&se en grandes quantit^s et de quality sup^- 
rieure, mais les d^pensea de transport d la cote et d'exp^ition sont trop 
lourdes pour faire r^ussir cette exploitation et le commerce en est 
abandonn6, au moins k present. Des recherches r^centes ont mis i 
nu des minerals de fer (hematites) qui, par raison de la quantity et de 
la valeur du minerai m^ritent une attention sp^ciale; mais, de meme 
que pour le manganese, les depenses de transport au port d'exp^dition 
sont un obstacle k une exploitation profitable a moins que les conditions 
actuelles ne puissent Stre am61ior6es. L'usine pour la fabrication 
de I'acide sulfurique construite k Guayacan est en operation active et 
son produit fait concurrence k I'article dimportation. 

La principale brasserie k La Serena est mont^e avec des machines du 
dernier modele; il y a plusieurs autres brasseries installdcs sur un pied 
plus modeste et leur production est plus que suffisante pour faire face 
k la consommation de la province. Actuellement la consommation de 
la bi^re Strange re est insignifiante. 

La fabrique du savon, la tannerie et I'extraction d'huile sont des 
industries lucratives et contribuent mat^riellement k faire diminuer 
I'importation de ces produits. L'agriculture est limit^e aux valines 
des fleuves Coquimbo et Limari et aux plaines ^troites avoisinantes 
qu'on peut irriguer artificiellement par de I'eau que Pon fait venir de 
ces fleuves. 

Le sol de ces plaines est fertile et, k part les difficultds de I'irriga- 
tion on pourndt en retirer de bons b^n^fices et ^tendre consid^rable- 
m3nt la superficie ix)ur la culture. On cultive le h\6, I'orge et les 
feves, mais seulement en quantit^s suffisantes pour la consommation 
locale. On cultive Talfalfa en quantity assez considerable pour laisser 
un surplus de foin press^ meme apres avoir consacr^ une assez partie 
considerable aux fourrages, I'^levage ^tant une branche importante de 
Tindustrie. 

Les habitants dela partie haute de la Valine de Coquimbo, oii la cul- 
ture des fruits devient chaque ann^e plus importante, s'occupent de la 
viticulture, de la fabrication du vin et de la distillation. Des raisins 
de quality sup^rieure sont pr^par^s ici pour le commerce ext^rieur. 

Les graines de Tarbre algarrobilla qu'on emploie dans les tanneries 
sont ramass^es en quantit^s qui ont atteint jusqu'd. 600 tonnes pendant 
la saison, et pour le commerce des fourrures on fait venir reguliere- 
ment des montagnes un grand nombre de peaux de chinchillas. On en 
a re^u 27,000 douzaines pendant rann^e. Ce commerce est entre les 



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822 BUREAU INTERNATIONAL DE8 Rl^PUBLIQUES AMERICAINE8. 

mains d'otrangers; les Etats-Unis en prennent la plus grande quantitf. 
La quantity annuelle de peaux de chfivres et de chevreaux est de 250i 
300 tonnes et celle de cuirs verts (boeufs et vaches) d'enriron 150 
tonnes. 

Les fruits sec, le miel et la cire, la laine (200 tonnes environ) et le 
pemmican constituent a peu pres toutes les exportations. 

L'importation fournit environ tout I'habillement des 150,000 habi- 
tants, dont les tissus de coton constituent la majeure partie, soit en 
comparaison aux lainages dans la proportion de 2 ^ 1. 

Les importations de comestibles commencent k se ressentir de Tac- 
tlvit^ croissante des raffineries de sucre Stabiles dans le pays, les fruits 
confits et les confitures ainsi que le sucre ayant 6t6 remplac^s par Par- 
ticle domestique. On importe r^guliSrement du Paraguay le sucre, 
le riz, le saumon, les sardines et le th^. 

Les t61es en fer galvanis^ et autre, le fil de fer et d'acier, les barres, 
rails et f ontes de fer et feiTonnerie, jouissent d'une demande constante. 

Pour les machines la demande est petite mais constante, surtout 
pour les mines et pour traiter les minerais. Quant aux machines 
agricoles, leur usage se r^pand peu k peu. On importe tout le char- 
bon et le coke pour les f ourneaux de reduction, ainsi que la plus grande 
partie des briques r^fractaires. 

STATISnaUSS Stm LSS BAKatTBS. 

Les bilans des banques cbiliennes viennent de paraitre dans la 
Gazette OflScielle Chilienne. A cette date il y avait vingt-trois ban- 
ques et leur capital s'^levait k $76,047,683 entierement verses. 

Voici le capital de chacune des banques k la date pr^cit^e, ainsi que 
les depots et prets: 



Banques. 



Chile 

HantioKO 

Mobiliario 

Republica 

Kspafiol-Italiano 

AlemAii-TrasatlJintico 

Chile y Alcmunia 

Tarapaeu y Argentina 

TaUa 

C('ncepci6u 

Curioo 

Melipilla 

Nubfo 

CriSilto , 

Popular 

Llnnq uihue 

Arauco 

Serena 

Tacna 

Punta Arenas 

Industrial 

I^ni6n Comerclal 

Na ional 



Capital. 



D<^pdt8. 



$20,000. 
3,200, 
7,000, 
2,WX», 
10,000, 
4.000, 
9,^97, 
6. 65(;, 
8,000, 

CV). 
600. 

ro, 

1,500, 
2f)9, 
140, 
39. 
600, 
280, 
450. 
400, 
600, 

4,000, 



000.00 
000.00 
000.00 
000.00 
000.00 
000. CO 
128.83 
410.25 
000.00 
000.00 
000.00 
000. to 
000.00 
000.00 
500.00 
344.00 
3(X).00 
000.00 
000.00 
000.00 
000.00 
000.00 
000.00 



$111,699, 

12, W8, 

13,262, 

17,171 

82, 108, 

24,57 V, 

9, 443. 

27,733, 

6, 125, 

4,^62, 

793, 

958, 

548, 

439, 

3.C87, 

193, 

202, 

1,414, 

9vS2. 

660, 

170. 

669, 

24,668, 



114.02 

548.37 , 

259.13 

6:6 H9 , 

411.58 

4(J3.39 

.Vi7.34 

542. IS 

142.51 , 

338.42 I 

523. 10 i 

703,28 

6H4.5X 

488.00 

475. 77 

ISO. 41 

428.18 

959.37 

109.42 

327.39 

993.72 

aj7.ao 

367.60 



$95,^98, 060. n 

13, ?a, 360117 

1H.281.87S.O 

14,333,3^7.11 

38. 806, 3^1. » 

26.185,271.0 

17.0l8.?.i«i 

28,oJ9.J«).l« 

7, 121. 749. ?» 

6,5S1.9c^.!<? 

1.32S,>t^.« 

1,824. 9*. •! 

5&^,8?»7.1S 

27\ffri«5 

S,W9.217.» 

25\(B0.<» 

190,SM.M 

l,a91.(».77 

916, 695. » 

1,113, ate 

S30,«i» 

6I0,i4S.» 

21, 310. ^71 fl 



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COLOMBIE. 333 

COLOMBIE. 

IMPOT SUPPUgMEKTAraE SX7B LES FABIVES ]£TKAN0£BE8. 

Un d^cret colombien du 5 f^vrier dernier a frapp^ d'un droit fluppl^- 
mentaire de 8 centavos par kilogramme les farines 6trangeres sortant 
des ports colombiens de TAtlantique a destination de ceux du Rio 
Magdalena. 

Voici la traduction de ce d^eret: 

"Article 1. Las farines 6trang&res sortant des ports de PAtlantique 
pour tous ceux du Rio Magdalena, depuis Colamar, paicront un di'oit 
suppl^mentaire de 8 centavos par kilogramme. 

"Art. 2. Ce droit sera per^u par la douane du port d'exp^dition pour 
rint^rieur et I'administrateur de la douane remettra & rint6ress6 un 
permis d^tach^ d'un talon, sur lequel seront port^es les mentions 
saivantes: Nom de Pexp^diteur et destinataire, celui du port de debar- 
quement, le nombre et le poids total des colis et la constatation du paie- 
ment des droits. 

"Art. 3. Les compagnies de vapeur ne pourront exp<?dier de con- 
naissements de farines ^trangferes s'ils ne sont accompagnds du permis 
prdcit^, sous peine d'etre consid^r^es comme contrabandiers et punies 
comme tels. 

"Art. 4. Le permis sera pr^sent^ k I'administration de la douane 
du port du d^barquement, qui le visera et d^livrera la passe n^cessaire, 
au cas de destination k Pun des points de I'int^rieur. 

"Art. 5. Les farines transit^es sans les formalit^s requises seront 
consid^r^es comme de contrabande, et les entrepreneurs de transport 
punis suivant la loi. 

"Art. 6. En cas de fraude, seront comp^tents les fonctionnaires 
dont il est traits a Tarticle 78 du d^cret 339 du 4 avril 1005, et la 
proc^urc suivie sera celle indiqude audit article et au d^cret 72 du 
16 Janvier 1906. 

"Art. 7. Le present d^ret sera communiqu6 par t^I^graphe aux 
douanes de PAtlantique et entrcra en vigueur du jour de reception par 
les autorit^s locales, qui devront le publier par voie de la poste et par 
voie d'affiches. 

CUBA. 

BlfiCKET POBTANT PBOIHJLGATIGN BE LA CONVENTION SIGNISE 
EVTBE JJL FRANCE ET LA BJ^PITBLiaUE BE CUBA POX7B LA 
PROTECTION B^CXPBOaUE BE LA PBOPBl]£T]g INBUSTBIELLE. 

Le Pr&ident de la R^publique Fran^ise, sur la proposition du 
ministre des affaires ^trangeres et du ministre du commerce, do Tin- 
dustrie et du travail, d^cr&te: 

"Article 1. Le S^nat et la Chambre des D^put^s ayant approuv^ 
la convention sign^ k la Havane, le 4 juin 1904, entre la France et la 

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824 BUREAU INTERNATIONAL DES R^PUBLIQUES AH^RICAINES. 

R^publique de Cuba pour la protection r^ciproque de la propriAe 
industrielle, et les ratifications de cette convention ayant 6t& ^chang^ 
Sl la Havane, le 11 avril 1906, ladite convention dont la teneur suit 
recevra sa pleine et entiere execution. 



"Le President de la R^publique Fran^aise et le Pr&identde la 
R^publique de Cuba, d^sirant faciliter les relations commerciales entre 
les deux pays, ont r^solu de conclure une convention concernant la 
propriety industrielle, et, a cet effet, ont nomm^ leurs pl^nipoten- 
tiaires, savoir: 

'^Le President de la R<?publique Fran^aise, M. FRANgoi8-EDM0M) 
Bruwaert, ministre resident de France k la Havane, officier de k 
Legion d'honneur; 

''Et le President de la Republique de Cuba, M. Carlos de Zaldo 
Y Beurmann, secretaire d'Etat et de Justice: 

"Lesquels, apr^s s'etre communique leurs pleins pouvoirs en bonne 
et due forme, sont convenus des articles suivants: 

''Article 1. Les citoyens de chacune des hautes parties contrac- 
tantes auront, sur le territoire de Tautre, les memes droits que les 
nationaux en ce qui concerne les brevets d'invention, les dessinsou 
modeles industriels, les marques de fabrique, Etiquettes, euseignes, 
noms de commerce et de fabrique, ainsi que pour les noms des lieui 
et les indications de provenance. 

"Art. 2. Pour s'assurer la protection garantie par Particle pr&s^- 
dent, les ressortissants de Tun et de Tautre Etat ne sont pas astreints 
k etablir leur domicile, leur residence ou une representation commer- 
ciale dans le pays o\i la protection sem redam^e, mais ils devront 
remplir les autres conditions et formalit^s prescrites par les lois et 
reglements de ce pays. 

"Art. 3. La prej^ente convention s'appliqueen France aux marques 
qui, a Cuba, sont legitimement acquises par les industriels et n^go- 
ciants qui en usent, et r^ciproquement s'applique a Cuba aux mar- 
ques qui, en Fi-ance, sont legitimement acquises par les industriels et 
ne^rociants qui en usent. 

"II est, toutefois, entendue que chacun des deux Etats se resen-e le 
droit de refuser le depot et d'interdire Tusage de toute marque qui 
serait, par sa nature, contraire a la morale et k I'ordre public ou aux 
bonnes mceurs. 

"Art. 4. Les noms eommerciaux, les raisons de commerce et les 
ensoignes seront proteges dans les deux Etats sans obligation de d^p6t, 

"Art. 5. Le fait d'apposer ou de faire apposer sur un produitune 
fausse indication de provenance, dans laquelle un des Etats contrac* 
tants, ou un lieu situe dans Tun d'entre eux serait directement ou 
indirectement indique comme pays ou comme lieu d'origine, sera puni 
conformement a la legislation de cliaque Etat. Si I'une des Wgisla- 

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CfUBA. 825 

UoDB n^a pas pr^vu ce fait, celui-ci sera soumis k I'application des 
dispositions ^dict^es contre la falsification des marques. 

^^Abt. 6. L'application des dispositions contenues aux articles 3 et 5 
aura lieu a la requite soit du ministere public, soit d^une partie int^- 
resale, individu ou soci^t^, conf orm^ment k la legislation de chaque 
Etat 

"Sera r^put^ partie int^ress^e tout fabricant, commeryant ou pro- 
ducteur engag^ dans la fabrication, le commerce ou la production du 
produit et ^tabli dans la ville, la locality, la region ou le pays fausse- 
ment indiqu^ comme lieu de provenance. 

"Les autoritfe ne seront pas tenues d'effectuer la saisie en cas de 
transit. 

"Art. 7. Les pr^sentes dispositions ne font pas obstacle k ce que le 
vendeur indique son nom et son adresse sur les produits provenant 
d'un pays different de celui de la vente, mais dans ce cas I'adresse ou 
le nom doit etre accompagn^ de I'indication precise et en caracteres 
apparents du pays ou du lieu de fabrication ou de production. 

"Art. 8. Les tribunaux de chaque pays auront k decider quelles 
sent les appellations qui, k raison de leur caractere g^n^rique, ^chap- 
pent aux dispositions de la pr^sente convention, comme, par exemple, 
celle de brandy, vermouth, eau de Cologne. Les appellations r^gio- 
nales de provenance des produits vinicoles ne sont pas cependant com- 
prises dans la reserve ^dict^e par cet article. 

"Art. 9. La pr^sente convention sera ratifi^e et les ratifications 
en seront ^chang^es aussit6t apres I'accomplissement des formalit^s 
prescrites par les lois constitutionnelles des Etats contractants. 

"EUe sera ex^utoire k partir du jour dudit ^change et elle denieu- 
rera obligatoire jusqu'S, ce que I'une des deux parties contractantes ait 
annonc^ a I'autre, mais six mois k I'avance, son intention d'en faire 
cesser les effets. 

"En foi de quoi les pl^nipotentiaires respectifs ont sign6 et scell^ 
la presente convention. 

"Fait k la Havane, en double original, le 4 juin 1904. 

"[l. s.J Edmond Bruwaert. 

"[l. s.] Carlos de Zaldo. 

"Art. 2. Le ministre des affaires ^trang^res et le ministre du com- 
merce, de I'industrie et du travail sont charges chacun, en ce qui le 
conceme, de I'ex^cution du present d^cret. 
"Fait k Paris, le 12'mai 1906. 

"A. Falli^res, 
^^ President de la Hepxibliqxie. 
''Li:oN Bourgeois, 
^^ MlniHtre des affaires etrangeres, 
"Gaston Doumergue, 
^^ Ministre du commerce^ de P Industrie et da travail.'^'* 

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326 BUREAU INTEENATIONAL DBS BfPUBLIQUES AMEEICAimES. 

fiTATS-UNIS. 

COMMERCE AVEC L'AMtiBiaXTE LATINE. 

IMPORTATIONS ET EXPORTATIONS. 

On trouvera a la page 178 le dernier i-apport du commerce entre les 
Etatij-Unis et I'Ameriquc Latine, extrait de la compilation faite par 
le Bureau des Statistiques du Ministere du Commerce et du Travail. 
Le rapport a trait au mois duo mai 1906, et donne un tableau compa- 
ratif de ce mois avec le mois correspondant de Tannee 1905. 11 donne 
aussi un tableau des onze mois finissant au mois du mai 1906, en 
les coraparant avec la pdriode correspondante de I'ann^e prdc^dente. 
On sait que les chiffres differents bureaux de douane montrant les 
importations et les exportations pour un mois quelconque ne sent 
re^us au Ministere des Finances que le 20 du mois suivant, et qu'fl 
faut un certain temps pour les compiler et les faire imprimer, de sorte 
que les rdsultats pour le mois du mai ne peuyent etre publics avant 
le mois de juillet. 

LE COMMERCE INTEBNATIONAIi. 

Le Bulletin public? par le Ministere du Commerce et du Travtfl 
estime que le commerce intei^national du monde entier atteindra un 
total de $25,000,000,000 pour Pann^ 1906. Ce Bulletin expHque que 
par le terme "Commerce international du Monde" on entend les 
importations et les expoi-tations de tons les i>ays du monde dont on a 
pu obtenir des I'apports statistiques sur le commerce. Les chiffres 
donnas montrent que pour Tannic 1906 le commerce entre nations en 
1906 depassera de six fois celui de 1850, de deux fois et demie celui de 
1870 et de 25 pour cent celui de 1900. 

Un examen des chiffres de la mo^enne du commerce mensuel des 
principaux pays du monde fait ressortir que les Etats-Unis sont i la 
tete des principales nations exportatrices du monde entier. D'apres les 
chiffres statistiques du Bureau, la moyenne de I'exportation mensuelle 
des Etats-Unis dans les neuf mois finissant en mars 1906 a ^t^ de 
$147,208,973; la moyenne mensuelle pour I'Angleterre pendant la 
meme p^riode a ^te de $143,574,912; la moyenne pour TAIlema^ 
pendant les douze mois finissant en d^cembre 1905 a ^t^ de $110,777,800 
et la moyenne mensuelle pour la France pour les douze moi« finissant 
en fevrier a 6t^ de $72,370,400. 

Un examen des importations fait ressortir que les Etats-Unis occu- 
pent le troisieme rang parmi les nations importatrices, la moyenne men- 
suelle des importations dans les Etats-Unis pour les neuf mois finissant 
en mars dtant de $101,506,417; pour I'Angleterre, la meme moyenne 



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ETATS-UNI8. 327 

pendant la meme periode a 6t6 de $241,390,911; pour I'Allemagne 
l;emlant les douze niois iinissant en d^cerabre 1905, cette meme moy- 
enne a ^te de $183,478,333 et pour la France elle a 6t6 de $85,423,050. 

ATJGICBKTATION BANS LES IMPORTATIONS BE PIEBBE8 PK^- 

CIEXJSES. 

D'apres un Bulletin public par la ''Geological Surve}^" sur la pro- 
duction des pierres pr^cieuses dans les Etats-Unis en 1905 et sur leur 
importation, la valeur de la production des pierres pr6cicuses en 1905 
s'est elev^e a $326,350. Sur cette somme le rendement des mines de 
saphirs s'eleve a $125,000. Viennent ensuifce par ordre d'importance 
les mines de turquoises ave^c une production evalu^e a $65,000. 

L'iraportation de pierres pr^cieuses s'est ^lev6e k $34,998,513 contre 
ft?6,008,813 en 1904. Les diamants reprdsentent le volume des impor- 
tations, les pierres brutes ou non taill^es 6tant ^valu^es d $10,271,111 
et la valeur des pierres non mont^es est estim^o k $20,375,304. 



GUATEMALA. 

AXrrOBISATIOK OOKSTTLAHtE. 

Les repr^sentants consulaires du Guatemala ont 6t6 autoris^s de cer- 
tifier la valeur des produits guat^maliens vendus en leur circonscrip- 
tion. lis recevront 1 par millo sur le total des operations certifices. 

liOI 8X7B LES TEBBES LIBBES. 

On peut demander k entrer en possession de terres libres en faisant 
une demande par ^crit, avec la signature do trois temoins certifiant 
que la terre en question n'appartient a personne. Chaque lot ne doit 
pas avoir plus de 1,680 acres. Apres renrogistrement de la demande 
on la public dans le '''Journal OflBciel." S'il n'y a pas de reclamation 
dans un delai de 30 jours a partir de la publication, on envoie le 
dossier au Ministere de I'lnterieur qui nomme un arpentcur dans le 
cas oii ces terres ne seraient d'aucune utilitc au gouvemement. Lo 
p^titionnaire doit payer les f rais de I'arpentage, mais la somme pay^e 
est portee au credit de son compte pour ctre deduite ensuite du prix 
total du terrain. Apres que Tarpentagc en a 6t6 fait, Tinspecteur- 
g^neral le v^ritie. Si Tarpentage est approuve on nomme dos experts 
pour estimer le terrain d'apres.los bases suivantes, d<5duction faite des 
d^penscs de Tarpentage et de sa verification: 
A. $2.23 en monnaie guatdmaliennc par acre, si le terrain convient 

a r^Ievage, a la culture des c^reales, de la vigne, de Tindigo, du hene- 

quen et d'autres produits similaires. 



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328 BUREAU INTEBNATIONAL DES REPUBLIQUES AMERICAHTES. 

B. $3.75 par acre &i la terre convient a la culture de la canne i sucre, 
des bananes, du tabac et du raime, 

C. $tl:.90 par acre si la terre convient a la culture du caf^ ouda 
coton ou encore si elle contient des arbres pouvant servir comme bois 
de construction. 

Les prix cot^s sont en monnaie du pays qui vaut actuellement 9 
cents en or des Etats-Unis, par piastre, ce qui fait que les prix du 
terrain sont de 20, 32 et 45 cents respectivement en or des Etats-Unk 
par acre. Lorsqu'on avait dtabli les prix actuels en 1894, la monnaie 
^tait en argent, une piastre valant environ 50 cents en or. 

Apres que restimatiorn en a ^t^ faite, le President ordonne que le 
titre soit rem is au pdtitionnaire contre paiement de la valeur du terrain 
moins les d^peuses de I'arpentage. 

II n'y a aucune restriction contre les Strangers achetant du terrain aa 
Guatemala sauf sur les f rontieres des pays voisins. Ces restrictions 
ne sont pas connues d^finitivement, mais il est entendu g^n^ralement 
que le terrain du p^titionnaire doit Stre s^par^ de la f rontiere par une 
^tendue de terre de 250 acres. 

On n'a jamais fait I'arpentage des terres publiques du Guatemala. 
On ne le fait que sur la demande de Tint^ress^ qui, apres avoir fait 
son choix, di?sire en faire Pachat. Le gouvernement ne semble pas 
connaitre exactement Tendroit ou la plupart de ces terres libres sont 
situ^es. 

Quand une personne cherche un terrain qui puisse lui convenir c est 
a elle de le trouver et de prouver au Gouvernement qu'il n'appartient 
a personne. C'est souvent une chose trSs diflScile, tres longue et trea 
cofiteuse. 



HAITI. 

NOUVEAU TABIF POXJB LB SERVICE POSTAL. 

Le ''Moniteur" publie que, conform^ment aux dispositions de Tarti- 
cle 10 des reglements de la convention principale adoptde i Washing- 
ton dans la tenue du 15 juin 1897 du congres de I'Union Postale 
Universelle, le franc est consider^ comme unit^ mon^taire dans les 
rapports de la Rcpublique d'Halti avec les pays de I'Union. Le 
d^partement des finances informe le public, ainsi que. le commerce, 
qu'A paiiiir du l^"" avril prochain Faff ranchissement des lettres et autres 
objets de correspondance pour r<?tranger devra etre per^u au bureau 
des postes de la Rcpublique, en monnaie d'or ou d'argent ou T^uira- 
lent, suivant le change, en monnaie nationale, conformement au tarif 
suivant pour tous les pays de TUnion Postale: 



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H0NDUBA8. 82^ 

"Les lettres ordinaires seront affranchies avec des timbres de 5 cen- 
times de piastre ou 2 centimes de franc, par 15 grammes ou fraction 
de 15 grammes. Les cartes postales, 2 centimes de piastre ou 10 
centimes de franc. Les papiers d'affaires, 3 centimes de piastre ou 
15 centimes de f i^anc, jusqu'i 50 grammes et 1 centime de piastre par 
chaque 50 grammes en sus ou fraction de 50 grammes. Les dchantil- 
lons de merchandises, 2 centimes de piastre par 50 grammes et 1 cen- 
time de piastre par chaque 50 grammes en sus ou fraction do 50 
grammes, jusqa'a 250 grammes. Les journaux et imprimis, 1 centime 
de piastre ou 5 centimes de franc par 50 grammes ou fraction de 50 
grammes. Pour les lettres non affranchies k la reception, 10 centimes 
de piastre par 15 grammes ou fraction de 15 grammes. Les demandes 
d avis de reception 3 centimes de piastre ou 15 centimes de franc. La 
taxfe de recommandation, 5 centimes de piastre ou 25 centimes de f mnc 
pour lettres ou tout autre objet de correspondance." 



HONDURAS. 

COMMEBCE EXTl^BIEtrB. 

Les chiffres du commerce ext^rieur du Honduras pour 1903-4 
Tiennent d'etre publics. Pendant Tannic dconomique 1903-4, les im- 
portations de ce pays se sont chiff rdes i 5,337,926 piastres-argent, contre 
3,448,823 piastres argent en 1902-3, p^riode troubl^e par des revolu- 
tions. Par ordre d'importance, les pays qui ont contribud a ces impor- 
tations sont les suivants: Etats-Unis, 3,644,682 piastres-argent; 
AUemagne, 514,121; Angleterre, 426,898; Honduras britannique, 
347,508; France, 121,682; Nicaragua, 109,593; Belgique, 51,905; 
Espagne, 45,609 piastres-argent. 

Les articles qui s'importent le plus au Honduras sont les tissus de 
coton, de lin, de laine et de soie, la quincaillerie, les machines pour 
les mines, les instruments aratoires, la farine, les vins, sucres et li- 
queurs, les conserves alimentaires, les produits pharmaceutiques, etc. 

Les exportations, qui n'atteignent en 1902-3 que 4,212,150 piastres- 
argent, ont pass6 en 1903-4 a 5,322,816 piastres-argent, soit une aug- 
mentation de 1,110,677 piastres-argent. 

Les principaux pays de destination ont ^te: Etats-Unis, 3,964,045 
piastres-argent; Cuba, 808,035; Belize, 125,864: P AUemagne, 120,353; 
TAngleterre, 95,817; le Guatemala, 51,032, etc. Durant cette p(5riode, 
les exportations du Honduras ont port^ spdcialement sur les produits 
suivants: bananes, 2,265,164 piastres; grosb^tail, 1,030,311; minerals. 
Bull. No. 1—06 23 



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3S0 BUBEAU INTEBNATIONAL DBS B^PUBLIQUES AMEBICAINE8. 

525,638; argent en barres, 362,864; noix de coco, 284:,332; peaux de 
gros Mtail, 210,205; argent rnonnay^, 145,096; or en poudre, 140,900; 
caf 6, 100, Y05; caoutchouc, 62,436; peaux de daim, 56,925; salsepareille, 
39,021; or et argent, 37,849; marchandises r^xport^, 11,314; bob 
d'acajou, 11,078; oranges, 10,335 piastres, etc. 

Exprim6 en piastres-argent, le budget du Honduras pour 1904-5 se 
balance aux recettes et aux d^penses par 3,043,500 piastres. Les re- 
cettes proviennent des douanes, 1,350,000 piastres; des impdts de con- 
sommation, 1,015,000; des postes et tSl^graphes, 88,000; des taxes 
d'exportation, 105,000; des loteries et droits de port, 225,000, ei du 
timbre, 80,000 piastres. 

Quant aux d^penses, elles comportent 1 million 166,169 plasties 
pour le Ministfere de la Guerre, 464,525 pour celui de Plnt^rieur, 
149,020 pour celui de la Justice, 259,788 pour celui des Finances, 
130,285 pour la Dette publique, 58,250 pour le Ministfere des Affaires 
Etrangeres, 478,020 pour celui des Travaux Publics et 337,175 pour 
celui de I'Instruction Publique. 



MEXIQUE, 

17SAOES BSS CACnfiSS. 

D'apres les renseignements public dans la Soci6t6 Beige d'Etud^ 
Coloniales, les cactus, tres r^pandues dans le Mexique, sont aussi 
tres employees par les indigenes et cela a des usages auxquels nous, 
qui sommes habitu^ k les voir dans les serres, ne les croirions pas 
appropries. C'est ainsi, d'apres les observations recueillies par M. L. 
DiouET, certaines des plantes de ce groupe ont un bois suffisament 
compact pour pouvoir 6tre employees comme bois de constructioQ et 
de chauffage. Ce sont naturellement les grandes espSces, et surtout les 
Cereus qui se developpent en cand^labres que Ton emploie comme 
essences forestieres. Certain Cereus^ tel que le Cereus candelabn^ a 
meme et^ employ^ en 6b^nisterie. Ce sont naturellement les arbres 
tres vieux qui seuls peuvent 6tre convertis en bois de construction; c'est 
dans les lieux incultes, oil existent de vastes forets de cact^es couvrant 
le sol depuis des siecles, que Tindigene rencontre les pieds capables de 
f ournir du bois. L'abatage se fait a la p^riode seche et on laisse le 
tronc expos6 au soleil et aux intemp^ries jusqu'a ceque toutesks 
parties moUes aient ^t^ d^truites. 

Comme combustible il n'est naturellement pas n^cessaire de choisir 
des specimens aussi lignifi^s et presque toutes les especes formant des 
buissons servent a cet usage au Mexique. 



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KEXIQUE. . 331 

Quand a la suite de longues p^riodes de sdcheresse, les plantes 
fourrageres sont d^truites dans les prairies et sur les flancs des mon- 
tagnes, les Mexicains des regions d^rtiques ont recours k des cact^es 
pour nourrir leur b^tail. Ce sont en pf^ndral des eapfeces du genre 
Echinocactus qui servent & cet usage, mais comme elles sont admirable- 
ment defendues contre les herbivores par les pinceaux ^quineux qui 
gamissent les cdtes, il est n^cessaire que Thomme le prive de ces 
Opines, pour mettre a nu la substance interne chamue et aqueuse qui 
seul peut etre consomm^e par le bi^tail. Les indigenes commencent 
done a debarasser sur place des extr^mit6j des cotes en les enlevant 
rapideoient a la machete, la masse restante est alors transport^e sans 
difficult^ et peut etre r^partie. 

Ces ^chinocactus ne contiennent i I'int^rieur aucune partie lignifi^e, 
leur pnlpe est tres ricbe en principes aqueux et peut meme ^tancher la 
soif des voyageurs. Aussi les indigenes ont-ils applique S ces plantes 
le nom de teocomitl (reservoir d'eau des dieux). On peut m6me so 
senir de cette pulpe pour fabriquer des f riandises en la faisunt con- 
fire dans du sucre. 

Soutnis au regime de la pulpe des cact^es, les troupeaux peuvent 
supporter pendant assez longtemps les s^cheresses, mais ils ne profitent 
guJre et lear lait est toujours 16ger. 

D'autres cact^es, et entre autres les fieurs et les f iniits du Cer&us 
pringlei, peuvent au contraire faire engraisser rapidement les vaches 
et leur faire produire un lait tr^ eharg^. Beaucoup d'^Opuntta sont 
Element susceptibles de produire un bon fromage. Les journaux 
sp&iaux ont dans ces derniers temps f r^quemment attir^ I'attention 
sur la valeur de la culture de certains d'entre eux. 

On a frequemnient employ^ autrefois dans diverses regions mexi- 
caines les graines de certaines cactees comme suecMan^s des c^r6alea, 
ces graines 6taient moulues et pouvaient remplacer le mais dans les 
preparations culinaires. De nos jours cet usage s'est continue dans 
certaines regions; dans le sud de PEtat de Puebla deux Ctreus 
fournissent encore des graines alimentaires aux marchds indiens. 

Outre le bois et les graines, les cactees peuvent encore fournir des 
fibres textiles, trfis utilisables dans I'industrie. Deux especes, toutes 
deux bizarres, les PUocereus lateralis et alensis^ ont ii& surtout 
employees pour la fabrication des matelas et pour le rembourrage; elles 
auraient meme sur les polls ou soies d'autres v^g^taux Pa vantage de ne 
point se briser et de ne pas se tasser par Pusage. Elle pouri'ait ^gale- 
ment entrer dans la preparation des f eutres, des essais r^cents sem- 
blent avoir d^montr^ que mdlang^s i un quart de poil de lapin ou de 
laine de mouton, le feutre que Pon obtient est de bonne quality et 
peut servir en chapellerie. Ces laines ont ^galement le grand avantago 
de ne pas ^tre attaqu^es par les insectes. 



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832 BUBEAU INTERNATIONAL BES BEPUBLIQUES AMEBICAINES. 



PANAMA. 

CONDITIOHS COMMEBCIAIiES A COLON. 

M. James C. Kellogg, Consul des Etats-Unis, fait savoir dans son 
rapport sur le commerce de Colon pour I'ann^e 1905, que les importa- 
tions du port de Panama ont d^pass^ le chiffre de $2,000,000. 

La valeur des" importations en 1905 s'est 61ev^e a $2,008,904, soit 
une augmentation d'environ ^408,000 sur Pannde 1904. Cette somme 
s'est r^partie de la maniere suivante entro les diff^rents pays: 



Etata-Unifl $1,376,074 

Angleterre 229,107 

Allemagne 196,084 

France 89,248 

Espagne 33,528 



Belgique , 

Italic 

Tons autres pays 



$11,592 
11,487 
61,784 



Total 2,008,904 



Les principaux articles provenant des Etats-Unis sont: le mate- 
riel de chemins de fer, le charbon, le bois de charpente, les provisions, 
I'huile de p^trole, les tissus de colon, la ferronnerie, la biere, les chaus- 
sures, les meubles, les chapeaux et les machines a coudre. Les arti- 
cles provenant de I'Europe sont: Les tissus de coton et de laine, les 
toiles, les vetements confectionn^s, les chaussures, les chapeaux, les 
bougies, les allumettes, I'ale, la biere, le vin et les articles de f antaisie. 
La plus grande partie des exportations de Colon sont k destination des 
Etats-Unis. Voici pour I'ann^e 1905, I'espSce et la valeur de ces 
exportations: 



Bananes $35,780 

Noix de coco 54, 600 

Cuirs 4,755 

Noixd'ivoire 26,080 

Caoutchouc 8, 185 



Ecaille de tortue $9,240 

Divers 2,845 



Total 141,483 



Voici un tableau indiquant I'augmentation du tonnage des marchan- 
discs exp^dides des Etats-Unis et de I'Europe aux diff^rents ports: 

Tonnes. 

Etats-Unis aux ports du Sud Pacifique 3,375 

Etats-Unis aux ports de 1' Am^rique du Centre et du Mexique 6, 855 

Etats-Unis aux ports de Panama 6,790 

Europe aux ports du Sud Pacifique 3,390 

Europe aux ports de T Am^rique du Centre et du Mexique 5, 080 

II y a eu une diminution de 6,075 tonnes dans la quantity de marchan- 
dises exp^dides des ports de I'Am^rique du Centre et du Mexique k 



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PANAMA. 333 

destination de I'Eiirope et une autre de 9,950 tonnes dans la quantity 
exp^di^e des ports du Sud ^acifique a la mSme destination. En 1905 
le total des marchandises transport^es par I'lsthme de Panama est 
flev6 i, 444,230 tonnes, soit une augmentation d'environ 30,000 tonnes. 
Sur le total des marchandises ayant traverse I'lsthme, il y a eu une 
augmentation de 66 pour cent, contre 82 pour cent en 1904. Le nom- 
bre total de voyageurs transport's par chemin de fer pendant I'ann'e 
a et' de 273,165, contre 114,000 en 1904. Les recettes totales pour 
1905 se sont 'levies i $1,912,552, soit une augmentation de $644,981 
8ur Tann'e pr'c'dente. 

Les recettes provenant du transport de marchandises et de charbon 
se sont 'valu6es k $1,306,145, sOit une augmentation de $198,020 sur 
celles de Tann'e 1904. Les recettes provenant du transport des voya- 
^urs se sont dlev'es ii $129,163, soit une augmentation d'environ 50 
pour cent sur I'ann'e 1904. Pour le transport de I'argent et de la 
poste les recettes ont 6i6 de $116,790, contre $110,792 pour I'ann'e 
1904. Les recettes provenant des vo3'ageurs qui ont travers' I'lsthme 
ont diminu' de $3,372 bien que le nombre de voyageurs ait augments 
de 1,425. On a r'duit le prix des billets de premiere classe de $10 a 
$6.50 et celui de deuxieme classe de $5 i $4.50. Le nombre de voya- 
geurs pour les stations intei*m'diaires a augment' de $185,867, s'ele- 
vant si $47,064. Cette augmentation est due k la reprise des travaux 
du canal. 

Les recettes totales du Chemin de fer de Panama et de la ligne de 
navigation pendant I'ann'e 1905 se sont 'lev'es a $3,077,611, soit une 
augmentation de $536,512 sur I'ann'e 1904. Les d'penses totales se 
sont 'lev'es k $2,541,099, soit une augmentation de $679,358 sur 
Pann'e 1904. Pendant I'ann'e 1905, 471 vapeurs jaugeant 1,361,150 
tonnes et 268 voiliers jaugeant 22,348 tonnes sont entr's dans le port 
de Colon, ce qui montre une augmentation de 94 vapeurs jaugeant 
24,150 tonnes et une diminution de 73 voiliers, laissant quand meme 
une augmentation de 6,948 tonnes sur I'ann'e 1904. Le nombre de 
navires am'ricains entr's dans le port de Colon pendant I'ann'e 1905 
a ^t' de 63 vapeurs jaugeant 156,371 tonnes et de 21 voiliers jaugeant 
13,354 tonnes. Les compagnies maritimes "Royal Mail" et *•' Ham- 
burg American " ont 'tabli un service bi-mensuel entre Colon et New 
York qui, avec les cinq vapeurs de la ligne '* Panama Railroad Steam- 
ship," font un total de neuf vapeurs mensuels entre New York et Colon. 



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334 BUBEAU INTERNATIONAL DE8 BEPUBLIQUES AM^BICAINES. 

SALVADOR. 

T£l4tiOBAPHSS £T T^UfiPHONSS SN 1906. 

M. Pedro J. Matheu, le charg^ d'afl^aires de la R^publique du Sal- 
vador a Paris, a pr6par6 les renseignementa suivants sur les tdl^graphes 
et t^l^phooes dans la R^publique en 1906, qui ont parudans la ''Revue 
Diplomatique" de Paris: 

La premiere ligne t61%raphique f ut pos6e le 27 avril 1870 de San 
Salvador, capitale de la K^publique, d La Libertad, port sur POc^m 
Pacifique, 6tant President de la R^publique le Dr. Franciscx) Duenas. 
Le concessionnaire de cette premiere ligne ^tait un Am^ricain du 
ttord, M. Charles H. Billings, qui fut aussi le premier t616graphi«te 
qui vint au Salvador, et c 'est lui qui apprit Fart de la telegraphic aux 
Salvadoriens Don Carlos AziJcar, Don Luis DIaz et Don Eui 
Angulo. La longueur de ce premier fil conducteur de I'electricit^ 
parmi nous est de 40 kilometres de fil de fer galvanise No. 9. 

Le systeme est celui de Morse. Le premier tdiegraphiste qui pat 
recevoir les d^peches au simple moyen de Pouie ^tait aussi un Salva- 
dor ien du d^partement de San Salvador, village de N^japa, M. Cajulo 
AcEiTUNO, le premier aussi dans toute rAm6rique Centrale. 

Le cdble sous-marin fut pos4 dans le mSme port de La LiberUd en 
1882, sous la pr^sidence du Dr. Kafael Zaldivar, ^tant Tinitiateur 
et le concessionnaire, un Canadien, M. Stanley MgNider, a qui le 
r^seau tei^graphique de la Kepublique doit d'importantes ameliorations 
et qui etait un des plus notables eiectriciens venus dans FAmerique 
Centrale. Le premier chef des teiegraphes nationaux fut Don Carlos 
AziicAR, eleve de M. Billings de 1871 i 1873. 

Les bureaux du cable k La Libertad sont relies au nord avee le 
port de San Jos^, du Guatemala, et avec le port de Salina-Cruz, au 
Mexique. De ce bureau les d^peches vont par le tei^graphe a Coatza- 
coalcos, d'ou un nouveau c&ble leur fait traverser le golfe du Mexique 
jusqu'a Galveston, port de I'Etat de Texas, aux Etats-Unis. De cctte 
derniere station elles vont par les lignes teri^estres a New York. 

Du port de La libertad vers le sud, il part une autre ligne qui aboutit 
a San Juan del Sur, R^publique de Nicaragua, et de \k plus loin a 
Panama, dans la nouvelle Rdpublique de Panama. Ensuite le long 
des cotes occidentales de PAmerique du Sud vers PEquateur, le Perou 
et le Chili et par des lignes terrestres a Santiago et Buenos Ayres. 

Le service teldphonique fut inaugurd a San Salvador (capitale de la 
R^publique) en 1888, le G^n^ral Francisco Menendez etant Pr&ident 
de la R6publique et Dirccteur General des tei^graphes et telephones, 
M. Andres Arnaya. 

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SALVADOR. 335 

Le r&eau des lignes t^l^graphiques de la R^publique, au 31 Janvier 
1906, arait une longueur totale de 3,266 kilometres et celui des lignes 
t^lephoniques 1,882 kilometres. 

Le nombre des bureaux t^l^graphiques en service actuel est de 168 
et le nombre des stations t^l^phoniques est de 78, comprenant 264 
employ^ t^l^grapbistes et 86 employes t^l^phonistes. 

Voici le nombre de d^peches transmises en 1905: 

Officielles 378,747 

Privte 632,880 

Service 28,151 

Total 1,039,778 

La valeur en argent de la transmission de ces d^pSches est de: 

OffideUes 212,865.25 

iViv^ 116,424.57 

Service 14,072.88 

Pltxiuit effectif du t^^pbone 59,252.93 

Le nombre de poteaux qui supportent les fits t^l^graphiques et 
t^l^phoniques dans toute la B^publique est de 31.294 en date du 31 
d^mbre 1905. 

Les principaux bureaux t^l^graphiques de la R^publique sont ceux 
de: San Salvador, Santa Ana, San Miguel, Sonsonate, Santa Tecla, 
Ahnachapan, Cojutep^ue, San Vicente, La Libertad, Acajutla, La 
Union, Chalchuapa et celui de El Sauce qui desservent les communica- 
tions entre notre R^pnblique et les R^publiques du Honduras, du 
Nicaragua et de Costa Rica par la voie de terre. 

Avec la R^publique voisine du Guatemala, le Salvador a 3 voies de 
communication terrestres et celle par cable qui passe par San Jose. 
Avec celle du Honduras, il y a 6 voies terrestres de communication et 
i travers cette derni^re passent les lignes vers le Nicaragua et le Costa 
Rica. Le cSble aussi passe par San Juan del Sur (Nicaragua). 

Actaellement on est en train de construire des nouvelles lignes 
t^lephoniques et t^l^graphiques dans tout le pays et bientot on pourra 
communiquer d'une f a^on rapide avec les plus petits et les plus ^loign^s 
endroits du territoire national. 

Dans le batiment de la Direction des T^l^graphes et T^l^phones on 
est en train de construire une tour qui pouriti supporter 1,060 fils, 
chose qui devient n^cessaire vu le grand d^veloppement des t^l^pbones 
ptrmi nous. 



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836 BUREAU INTERNATIONAL DEd B^PUBLIQUES AJCiEICAINBB. 

URUGUAY. 

LOI BTTR liES PRIMES A L'INDTTSTBIE STTCHTfeBE. 

La Chambre des D6put^s vient de sanctionner la loi sur les protec- 
tions k accorder a Tindustrie sucriere. 

Voici le texte de cette loi que le Pouvoir L^gislatif a promulgufe i 
la date du 10 avril 1906: 

"Le Senat et la Chambre des D^put^s de la R^publique Orientale 
de I'Uruguay, r^unis en Assemblde G^nerale, d^cretent: 

''Article 1. Est accord^e a la culture locale de la betterave et ila 
production nationale du sucre une prime aux conditions et fonnalit^j 
suivantes: 

''Art. 2. La prime k laquelle se r^fere Particle ant^rieur sera de 
cinquante mille piastres la premiere ann^e, de quarante mille la 
seconde, de trente mille la troisieme et de vingt mille la quatrieme et 
cinquieme ann^e. 

"Le droit a la prime cessera aprSs la cinquieme ann^e. 

"Art. 3. Les producteurs optant pour ces primes seront obliges de 
produire 300,000 kilogrammes la premiere ann^e, 400,000 kilogrammes 
la deuxieme ann^e, 000,000 kilogi-ammes la troisieme ann^e, 1,100,000 
kilogrammes la quatrieme et 1,500,000 la cinquiSme, sauf cas de force 
majeure dument justifi6, et dont I'appr^ciation restera soumise a la 
decision du pouvoir ex^cutif . 

"lis devront dgalement, a partir de la premiere ann^e, mettre en 
culture betteraviere une ^tendue de 300 hectares. 

"Art. 4. Les producteurs de betteraves et fabricants de sucre 
national qui opteront pour les primes Stabiles par la loi, pourront les 
escompter par avance en les d^duisant du montant des droits de douane 
qu'ils auraient a payer sur les sucres import^s pour etre raffin&$; mais 
s'ils ne cultivaient pas le nombre d'hectares stipule ou s'ils ne pro- 
duisaient pas la quantity de sucre stipul^e par la loi, ils auraient i 
restituer la prime correspondante h I'ann^e de Pinobservation de 
Pobligation contract^e. 

"La restitution de la prime k PEtat, dans ce cas, deVra gtre garantie 
par une premiere hypotheque sur la fabrique (Edifice ef outillage)si le 
Pouvoir Ex^cutif Pestime suffisante, et Pex^cution en sera exigible 
dans la meme ann^e. 

"Art. 5. Les droits k acquitter par les sucres bruts import^s pour 
etre raiBnds seront calculus sur le poids net diminu6 du 6 pour cent 
comme d^chet. 

"Art. 6. Jusqu'a la fin de Pannde 1905, il devra etre maintenu en 
favour du produit national, une difference non moindre de 67 mil^simos 



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L£ COMMEROfi MONDIAL. 337 

(10.067) par kilogramme de sucre non raffing entre la totality des 
imp6ts que paient ces produits et les imp6ts que paient les sucres 
import^s. 

"Art. 7. Ont droit seulement & jouir des b^n^fices de cette loi, ceux 
qui, dans les deux premieres ann^es (1906-7) auront rempli les condi- 
tions stipul^es dans Part. 3, c'est-i-dire qu'en 1906 ils auront fabriqu^ 
300,000 kilogrammes, et 400,000 en 1907. 

"Art. 8. Les semences de plantes saccharines, houille, machines 
neuves ou pieces de rechange destinies aux fabriques de sucre sont 
exon^r^es des droits d'importation. 

"Pour jouir de ces franchises, il est n^cessaire k tons ceux qui ont 
accepte la loi, de presenter respectivement aux Bureaux d'lng^nieurs 
et de I'Elevage et Agriculture I'^num^ration des mat^riaux, houille 
et semences qu'ils pensent introduire. 

"Les Bureaux mentionn^s contr61eront Pexactitude de cette liste et 
leurs decisions seront rigoureusement observ^es. 

"Art. 9. Sont abrog^es toutes lois et dispositions ant^rieures s'op- 
posant a Pex^ution de la pr^sente." 



LE COMMERCE MONDIAL. 

Suivant les publications r^centes de I'Office statistique des Etats-Unis 
le commerce ext^rieur des 28 principaux Etats du monde dans les dix 
ann^es 1894r-1904 s'est accru pour I'importation de $7,484,000,000 si 
$11,429,000,000 (+53 pour cent) pour I'cxportation de $6,157,000,000 
i $10,177,000,000 (+ 65 pour cent). 

Dans les diflf^rents pays ou groupes de pays la croissance est tres 
variable. Pour I'importation on remarque en tete le Japon avec, 207 
pour cent; suivent le Mexique, 155 pour cent; Canada, 150 pour cent; 
I'Egypte, 122 pour cent; I'Argentine, 102 pour cent; la Chine, 95 
pour cent; TAfrique du Sud, 88 pour cent; les Indes Britanniques, 70 
pour cent; la Confederation Australienne, 69 pour cent; et les an- 
ciens Etats commer^ants, TAUemagne, 62 pour cent; Autriche- 
Hongrie, 54 pour cent; Etats-Unis d'Am^rique, 53 pour cent; la Bel- 
gique, 77 pour cent; I'ltalie, 75 per cent; la Grande-Bretagne, 35 pour 
cent; et la France, 17 pour cent; I'importation de la Suisse s'est aug- 
ment^e de 50 pour cent. 

De mSme pour I'exportation le Japon tient le record avec une crois- 
sance de 173 pour cent; en seconde ligne suit: I'Argentine avec 100 
pour cent; le Mexique avec 123 pour cent; la Bulgarie 116 pour cent; 
I'Afrique du Sud 90 pour cent; Etats-Unis d'Am^rique 88 pour cent; 



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338 BUBEAU INTEBNATIONAL DE8 RiPTTBLIQUES AMf RICAINE8. 

les Indes britanniques 83 pour cent; la Confederation Australienne 79 
pour cent; les Pays-Baa 78 pour cent; Canada 77 pour cent; PAlle- 
magne 76 pour cent; I'Egypte 75 pour cent; la Chine 72 pour cent; la 
Belgique 67 pour cent; le Danemark 60 pour cent; I'ltalie 56 pour 
cent; la France 45 pour cent; la Suisse 44 pour cent; I'Espagne 43 
pour cent; la Grande-Bretagne 39 pour cent; PAutriche-Hongrie 38 
pour cent; la NorvSge 39 pour cent; la Sufede 38 pour cent. 



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ADDITIONS 



TO THE 



Columbus Memorial Library 



(International Bureau of the American Republics). 



LIBRARY SERIES 
No. 12. 

JANUARY — JUNE, 

1906- 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

I 906. 



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OFFIOIAIi PTTBLICATIOHS. 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

Amadeo Baldrich, J.: Historia de la gnerra del Braeil. Contribuci6n al estudio 
razonado do la historia militar Argentina por J. Amadeo Baldrich. 
Buenos Aires, Imprenta La Harlem, 1905. xii, 639 p. Map. 4°. 

Argentine Republic. Direcx:i6n General de EstadIstica: Anuario de la Direc- 
ci6n general de estadfstica correspondiente al aflo 1904. Tomo 2. . . . 
Buenos Aires, Compafifa Sud- Americana de Billetes de Banco, 1905. 
571 p. 4°. 

Divi8i6n de Inmigraci6n: Inmigraci6n en el aflo 1905 . . . Buenos Aires 

[1905]. Caption title. 18 p. 4<». 

Mensajb del I^esidente de la Repiiblica al abrir las sesiones del Congreso 

Argentino en mayo de 1906. Buenos Aires, Imprenta Marquez y ^fa., 
1906. 58 p. 8*». 

Bicknell, Frank W. : Agricultural development in Argentina by Frank W. Bick- 
nell . . . [Reprint from Yearbook of the [U. 8.] Department of Agri- 
culture for 1904.] pp. 271-286. illus. 8°. 

British Argentine Exhibition. Report of the commercial and railway sections of 
the British Argentine exhibition held in Buenos Aires November 25th- 
29th, 1905. Reprinted from the ** Review of the River Plate." Buenos 
Aires, 1905. 36 p. 8°. 

Chaioneau, J. F. : Jeografia ndutica de la Republica Arjentina arreglada segiin los 
documentos mds modernos por J. F. Chaigneau . . , Santiago de 
Chile, Imprenta Barcelona, 1896. xiv, 195 p. 8®. 

GirsTiNiAN, Jose: Indice concordado de las leyes de la naci6n Argentina desde el 
afio 1852 hasta el aflo 1905. Por Josd Giustinian. Buenos Aires, Estab. 
tip. "El Comercio,'' 1906. xcix, 474 (1) p. 4°. 

Gorringe, Henry H.: Derrotero del rfo de La Plata por Lieut. Com. Henry H. 
Gorringe de la marina de los EE. UU. de Norte America. Traducida para 
la Oficina Hidrogrdfica por Ram6n Guerrero Vergara. Santiago, Imprenta 
del Mercurio, 1875. 269 p. 8*». 

Gr£at Britain, Foreign Office: Report for the year 1905 on the trade, com- 
merce, and navigation of the consular district of Buenos Ayres. London, 
Harrison and Sons, 1906. 28 p. 8°. (Dip. and Cons, repts., ann. ser. 
no. 3557.) 

0Bif?p<)8 Y ARzoBisPos DE BuENos AiREs: 1622-1897. Buenos Aires, J. A. Berra, 
1897. 126 p. illus. 12°. 

Rio, Manuel E. y Achaval, Luis: Geograffa de la provincia de C6rdoba por Ma- 
nuel E, Rfo y Lufa Achaval . . . Publicaci6n ofidal. Atlas. Buenos 
Aires, Compafifa Sud- Americana de Billetes de Banco, 1905. 8 maps & 
illus. 

Short, Fiderico: La nueva ley de quiebras de la Republica Argentina, siendo una 
reproducci6n de **The Standard*' de Buenos Aires de un artfculo por 
Federico Short . . . Buenos Aires, J. H. Kidd & co., 1903. 31, 34 p. 
24**. (In English and Spanish. ) 

III 



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IV INTERNATIONAL BUBEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

BOLIVIA. 

Bolivia. Ministebio de Colonias y Agricultura: Anexos d la memoria del Minis- 

tro de Colonias y Agricultura presentada al Congreso onlinario de 1905. 

Primera parte. La Paz, Tall. Tip. -Lit. de Jos<^ M. Gamarra, 1905. 162 

(2) p. 8-. 
Same. Segunda parte. (Detalles de la estadfstica comercial de 1904). 

La Paz, J. M. Gamarra, 1906. 260 (1) p. 4°. 
Same. Lecturaa agrfcolas. Misceldnea de propaganda industrial, agro-peciui- 

ria. Primera serie. Edici6n oficial. La Paz, Tip. de Ismael Argote, 

1905. V, 211(1) p. 8°. 
MiNiSTERio DE Hacienda t Industria: Memoria y anexos presentados a la 

legislature de 1905. La Paz, Jos6 M. Gamarra, 1905. Ixxvii, 3S8, 62, 

(l)p. 4°. 
MiNisTERio DE RELACI0NE8 EXTERI0RE8 Y cuLTo: MemoHa que presenta el 

Ministro de relaciones exteriores y culto . . . al CJongreso ordinario de 

1905. La Paz, " Los Debates," 1905. 69, 215 (1) p. 4<». 

Presupuesto GENERAL sauciouado por el H. Congreso Nacional para el afio 

econ6mico de 1906. La Paz, Imprenta de **E1 Comercio de Bolivia," 1906. 
192 (1) p. 4°. 

Caij)er6n, Ignacio: Apreciaciones sobre la admini8traci6n del General Jos^ M. Pando, 
por Ignacio Calder6n. Washington, 1906. 24 p. 8°. 

CA.HARA DB Comercio de La Paz: Vig^sima cuarta memoria que el directorio pre- 
senta d los socios. Afio de 1905. La Paz, Imp. Velarde, 1906. Cover- 
title. 23, xxxvii (4) p. 8°. 

LoAYZA, Hiram (comp.): Juicios de hacienda . . . Compilacion concordada y 
anotada por Hiram Loayza. Con suplemento . . . por el Doctor 
Enrique Mallea Balboa. La Paz, Imp. Velarde, 1906. ii, 104, iii p. 8^ 

Ren6-Moreno, Gabriel: Ensayo de una bibliograffa general de los periodicog de 
Bolivia, 1825-1905. Por Gabriel Ren^-Moreno. Santiago de Chile, Imp. 
y Lit. ^aTniverso," 1905. xiv, 334 p. 12°. 

Jenaro: Las constituciones poHticaa de Bolivia. Estudio historico i com- 
parativo por Jenaro Sanjines. La Paz, Imp. de ** El Comercio de Bolina," 

1906. 245 p. 8*^. 

RMAZ, Ram6n: Jeograffa nautlca de Bolivia por Ram6n Vidal Gormaz 
. . . Segunda edici6n, anotada i con una carta. Santiago, Imprenta 
Nacional, 1879. 35 p. Map. 8°. 

BRAZIL. 

e Brasileiro Garnier para o anno de 1904. Publicado sob a direct de 

B. F. Ramiz Galvao. Anno 2. Rio de Janeiro, H. Garnier (1905) 504 p. 

8°. 

DO Est ADO do Rio Grande do Sul para o anno de 1906. Publicado sob a 

direc^o de Graciano A. de Azambuja. Anno xxii. Porto Alegre, Krahe 

& Cia., 1905. 440 p. 12°. 

loDRiGUEs, J. : Mba6 Kad tapyiyetji enoyndauda ou a botanica e a nomen- 

clatura indigena. Memoria apresentada ao 3* Congresso scientifico Jjatino- 

Americano por S. Barbosa Rodrigues . . . Rio de Janeilt), Impren^ 

Nacional, 1905. vi, 87 (1) p. 8°. 

CA E Archivo Publico do Para: Annaes . . . Tomo quarto . . . ^^^ 

Typ. do Instituto Lauro Sodr6, 1905. 389 (1) p. 8<». 

Bala n^o da receita e despeza. 1901 . Rio de Janeiro, Imprensa Nacional, 

1905. V. p. 4°. 



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LIBBABT ADDITIONS. V 

Brazil. Congresso Nacional: Annaes da Camara doe Srs. Deputados . . . Nov., 
1890-Maio, 1902. Rio de Janeiro, Imp. Nacional, 1891-1902. 49 v. 8*». 

Annaes da Camara doe Depatadoe. Appendice. Or^a a redta geral da 

repoblica para o exercicio de 1902. Hio de Janeiro, Imprensa Nacional, 
1901. 603 p. 8^. 

Annaes do Senado Federal . . . Maio-Dezembro, 1902. Rio de 



Janeiro, Impiensa Nacdooal, 1903-1904. 2 y. S"", 

DntBCTOsiiA GBLAL. D« BAUDB pubuoa: Anouaiio de estadstica deenographo- 

sanitaria . . . 1904. Rio de Janeiro, Imprensa Nacional, 1906. vi, 
266 p. Maps. 4^ 

Scavi^o DBJEBTATimcA COMMERCIAL: Importa^&o a exports^. Movimento 

maritimo, cambial e do caf^ da Republica do Bstados Unidos do Brazil em 
1904. Rio de Janeiro, Imprensa Nacional, 1906. ix, 247 p. tables. 4"". 

BuLn6sB, Lbotouk) de: Introdocyik) ao relatorio do Ministerio da Faz^kla em 1905. 
Rio de Janeiro, Imprensa Nacional, 1905. 133 p. 8°. (At head of title: 
Leopokio de Bolhdes. ) 

EwBAXc, Thomas: Life in Brazil; or, A jonmal of a visit to the land of the cocoa 
and the palm. With an appendix, containing illostrations of ancient 
Soath American arts ... by Thomas Ewbsnic . . . New York, 
HarperA Bros., 1856. xri, [17]-ifi9 p. 8°. 

Grrat Bbttaist. Fobugx OFFfcs: Report ior the year 1904 on the tnMie and com- 
merce of BimziL Loader, Harrison & Sons, 1906. 13 p. 8^. 
(Dip. & cons, repts., ann. ser. no. 3640. ) 

Report lor the years 1902^)4 on the trade of Santoe. London, Har- 
rison & Sans, 1906. 29 p. 8^. (Dip. dc oons. repts., ann. ser. no. 3521.) 
■ Report for the year 1905 on the trade and commerce of the State of 



Rio Grande do Sul . . . London, Harrison & Sons, 1906. 7 p. S° 
(Dip. <&con8. rept., ann. ser. no. 3608.) 

HmcHDOox, Lincolh: Report on trade conditions in Braxil. By Lincoln Hutchin- 
son, special agent Transmitted to Ck>ngreBB in compliance with the act 
of Febroary 3, 1905, anthoriring investigations of trade conditions abroad. 
Washingtcm, Government Printing Office, 1906. 116 p. 8", 

Kerry, J. Okton: The land of to-morrow. A newspaper exploration up the Ama- 
zon and over the Andes to the California of South America. By J. Ortou 
Kerby . . . New York, W. F. Bndnard, 1906. ix, 405 p. front. , 
illus. y». 

MooftK, John Basbstt: Brazil and Pern bonndary question. By John Bassett Moore. 
New York, The Knickeri)ocker Press, [1904]. 32 p. Maps. 8°. 

RocHA, Alfredo: As caixas economicas. Memoria . . . pelo Dr. Alfredo Rocha. 
Rio de Janeiro, Imprensa Nacional, 1905. 18 p. 8°. 

(At head of UQe: Oongreaso BrasUeiro de expans&o economica promorldo pela Acade- 
mia de Commercio do Rio de Janeiro.) 

Sknka, Neubon Coelho de: Bada do Rio Doce, Minas Geraes. Descrip^fto doa 
mnnicipios do Pe^anha e CJaratinga. Bello Horizonte, Imprensa Official 
do Estado de Minas Geraes, 1905. 14 p. 8**. (Ext. da "Revista Agrf- 
cola," V. 2, fasc. 7, de 30 de janio de 1906.) 

Estado de Minas Geraes na Exposi^o universal de S. Luiz . . . pavilhao 

do Brazil. Notas estatisticas organizadas pelo Dr. Nelson Coellio de Senna 
• . . • Bello Horizonte, Imprensa Official do Estado de Minas Geraes, 1904. 
59 p. 8°. 

Serranos illostres. Esbo^os biographicos. Bello Horizonte, Imprensa Offi- 
cial do Estado de Minas Geraes, 1905. Corer-title. 37 p. 8°. 



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VI INTERNATIONAL BUBEAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

CENTRAL AMERICA. 

Mantellini, Domenico: En Centre America. Extractado de la Tribuna Eecoldstica. 
Afio 1, niim. 37. Milan, G. Abbiati, 1905. front, 21 p. 8**. 

CHILE. 

Algunos datos sobrb LOS distinto proyectos para dotar de agua potable d Valpa- 
raiso. Obras de pefiuelas. Deecripci6n de los trabajos. Valparaiso, Ba- 
bra y Ca., [1900]. 12 (1) p. table. Map. 8*». 

Anrique R. Nicolas: Biblioteca jeogrdfico-hidrogrdfica de Chile. Seganda s^rie. 
Publicado por Nicolas Anrique R. S