(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Congressional serial set"

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 



\ C^ UM-O IHH 



ibY^yxJ'KjQiH 



\ 



1^ 



K: 



icV 



i 




Digitized by VjOOQIC 



\ 



Digitized by viOOQlC 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Digitized by 



Google 



58th Congress, ) HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, j Document 
3d Session. ( | No. 20. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

CHARLES D. WALCOTT, DiRECTOE 



MIl^ERAL RESOURCES 



OP THE 



UNITED STATES 



CALENDAR YEAR 

1 9 O 3 



DAVID T. DAY 
Cbixf of Division of Minino and Mineral RbsourciB 




WASHINGTON 

OOVBRNHBNT FEINTING OFFICB 

1904 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

LriTKR OF Transmittal 7 

IXTBODUCnON 9 

Summary 11 

Ibon Ores, by John Birkinbinb 41 

Prodaction 41 

Lake Superior region 44 

Iron-ore industry of the varioos States daring 1903 55 

Cnba 72 

Statiotics of the American Iron Trade for 1903, by James M. Swank ... 75 

Brief review of the iron trade in 1903 75 

General statistical sommary 76 

Imports of iron and steel 77 

Exports of iron and steel 79 

Prices of iron and steel 86 

Production of pig iron 92 

Production of Bessemer steel 100 

Statistics of steel shiphuilding 117 

Statistics of Canadian iron trade for 1903 122 

Manganese Ores, by John Birkinbine 129 

Gold and Silver 157 

Copper, by Charles Rirchhoff 201 

General trade conditions 201 

Production ^ 201 

Imports 225 

LiAD, BY Charles Kirchhoff 241 

Introduction 241 

Production 241 

Zinc, by Charles Kirchhoff 253 

Production 253 

The rinc mines 1 255 

Consumption 261 

Aluminum and Bauxite, by Joseph Struthbrs 265 

Aluminum 265 

Bauxite 275 

QncKSLVER 281 

Production 281 

Prices 282 

Sterl-Hardeninq Metals, by Joseph Hyde Pratt 285 

Manganese steel 287 

Nickel and cobalt 287 

Nickel steel 287 

Cobalt steel 291 

Chromium 298 

Chromium steel 298 

3 



a "J^ tt^ O ^ Digitized by GoOglC 



4 CONTENTS. 

Steel-Hardeninq Metals— Continued. Page. 

Tungsten 304 

Tungsten steel 305 

Molybdenum 307 

Vanadium 308 

Vanadium steel 308 

Uranium 309 

Titanium 309 

Platinum 311 

Lithium, by Joseph Hyde Pratt 313 

Antimony, by Joseph Struthers..... 317 

Arsenic, by Joseph Struthers 327 

Tin, by Joseph Struthers and Joseph Hyde Pratt 335 

Coal, by Edward W. Parker 351 

Introduction 351 

Coal fields of the United States 353 

Production 357 

Prices 379 

World's production of coal 389 

Production by States 432 

Coke, by Edward W. Parker 539 

Introduction 539 

Production 540 

Gas, Coke, Tar, and Ammonia at Gas Works, and in Retort Coke Ovens, 

BY Edward W. Parker 609 

Petroleum, by F. H. Oliphant 635 

Important features of the year 635 

Foreign countries 692 

World's production of petroleum in 1902 and 1903, by countries 716 

Natural Gas, by F. H. Oliphant 719 

In troduction 719 

Canada 742 

ASPHALTUM AND BITUMINOUS RoCK, BY EdMUND 0. HOVEY 745 

Stone '. 755 

Clay- Working Industries, by Jefferson Middleton 791 

Introd uction 79 1 

Production 796 

Brick and tile 809 

Pottery 823 

Clay 8^ 

Sand-lime brick industry, by S. V. Peppel 866 

Cement 883 

Cement in foreign countries 900 

Portland cement in Michigan in 1903, by L. L. Kimball 903 

Precious Stones, by George F. Kunz 911 

Talc and Soapstone, by Joseph Hyde Pratt 979 

Abrasive Materials, by Joseph Hyde Pratt 989 

Oilstones, whetstones, etc 992 

Grindstones 994 

Buhrstones and millstones 999 

Pumice 1001 

Infusorial earth and tripoli 1002 

Crystalline quartz 1004 



Digitized by 



Google 



CONTENTS. 5 

Abrabiys Matebials— Oontmiied. Page. 

Garnet 1005 

Conmdmn and emery 1006 

Feldspar 1010 

Artificial abrasivee 1010 

Borax, by Charles G. Yale 1 1017 

Fluorspar and Cryolite, by Joseph Hyde Pratt 1029 

Gypsum and Gypsum Products 1033 

Phosphate Rock, by Edmund 0. Hovby 1047 

Salt, by Edmund 0. Hovby 1059 

Sulphur and Pyrfte, by Joseph Hyde Pratt 1073 

Barytbb, by Joseph Hyde Pratt 1089 

Mineral Paints, by Joseph Hyde Pratt 1095 

Ocher, nmber, and sienna 1097 

Metallic paint 1101 

Venetian red 1103 

Slate f;:roand for pigment 1104 

y^hite lead, sublimed lead, zinc lead, red lead, lithaige, and orange 

mineral 1104 

Zinc white 1109 

ASBEBTOfl, BY J06RPH HyDE PraTT 1111 

Flint and Fkldbpar, by Heinrich Ribs 1117 

Graphite, by JoeRPH Hyde Pratt 1121 

Magnebite, by Charles G. Yale 1131 

Mineral Wathrs 1137 

Afoy.iziTB AND Zircon, by Joseph Hyde Pratt 1163 

Glass Sand, by A, T. Coons 1171 

I5D1I 1179 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL, 



Department of the Interior, 
United States Geological Survey, 

Washington^ D, C,^ Novernhei^ 5, 190 J^., 
Sib: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report, Mineral 
Resources of the United States, Calendar Year 1903, being the 
twentieth annual report of the series published by this Office. Besides 
the statistics for the calendar year 1903, considerable descriptive and 
technical matter, obtained while the statistical canvass was in prog- 
ress, is presented. All of the material has been given such prompt 
publication as was possible as advance chapters from the report, in 
accordance with the law providing for the printing of any chapter as 
soon as completed. 

In accordance with your instructions, the report for the calendar 
year 19(>4 is in preparation. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

David T. Day, 
Oeologist in Charge* 
Hon. Charles D. Walcott, 

Dtrtdoi* of United States Geological Sw'vey* 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



MINERAL RWRCES OF THE UNITED STATES, 1903. 

David T. Day, Chief of Division. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The arrangement and scope of this volume are practically the same 
as in the nineteen preceding reports of the series Mineral Resources 
of the United States. Each report records the development of the 
mineral industries of the United States since the time covered by the 
preceding number of the series; the reports should therefore be con- 
sulted together. Every chapter in this report is a census of the pro- 
ductive features of the industry under discussion. The statistics of 
the production of gold and silver have been prepared in conjunction 
with the Director of the Mint, Treasury Department. The statistics 
of the imports and exports of minerals, which form an essential part 
of the volume, are obtained through the courtesy of the Chief of the 
Bureau of Statistics, Department of Commerce and Labor. 

ACKKOWIiEI>GMBNTS. 

Except as noted above, and in a few isolated instances where some 
other well-established agency already exists by which the statistics are 
collected accurately, the figures are obtained directly from the pro- 
ducers, and it is impossible to acknowledge here, otherwise than by 
brief mention, the invaluable assistance which has been freely rendered 
by them and by the voluntary contributions of many local experts. 
The names of the statistical experts who, acting under the authority 
of the United States, have collected statistics from the producers are 
given at the heads of the special chapters. The technical press, 
besides affording much information concerning new mining enter- 
prises, has been largely drawn upon for prices, market reports, and 
new technical processes. 

As heretofore, the publication of this volume has been anticipated 
to a great extent by the issue in advance, in pamphlet form, of the 
several chapters which compose it. 

The summary gives the principal statistical information recorded in 
this report. 



Digitized by 



Google 



10 MINERAL BESOtmOES. 

In presenting these statistics all unnecessary duplication has been 
avoided. The coke product discussed in the following pages and 
amounting to 25,262,360 short tons, valued at $66,459,623, is excluded 
from the tabular statement, as the quantity and value of the coal used 
in its manufacture is included in the statistics of coal production. 
Similarly, white lead, red lead, sublimed lead, zinc lead, litharge, and 
orange mineral, whose average aggregate value for the last ten years 
has exceeded $10,000,000, are not given in the table, the base from 
which they are made being included in the output of pig lead. Zinc 
oxide, or zinc white, made directly from the ores and consequently 
not included in spelter production, is tabulated. The production of 
pig iron and its value are given in the table as the best means of pre- 
senting the statistics of the production of iron in the first marketable 
condition. The value of brick and pottery clays, rather than the value 
of the manufactured products, is embraced in the tabular statement, 
although the statistics of brick, tile, and pottery production are pre- 
sented in detail in the report. Inflation of valuation and all unneces- 
sary duplication are thus avoided. 



Digitized by 



Google 



SUMMARY OF THE MINERAL PRODUCTION 
OF THE UNITED STATES IN 1903. 



GirN:ERAi:j rkmabks. 

The varied character of the units of measurement employed in the 
mineral industry makes it impossible to compare the outputs of the 
several minerals except in the value of the products. The figures 
given in the following summary show a continuation of the remark- 
able activity in the mineral industries of the United States noted in 
1900, 1901, and 1902. 

In 1903, for the fourth time, the total value of our mineral produc- 
tion exceeded the enormous sum of ^1,000,000,000. 

The exact figures for 1903 were $1,419,721,569, as compared with 
rt,26O,509,738 in 1902, with $1,086,552,294 in 1901, with $1,063,678,- 
053 in 1900, and with $972,208,008 in 1899, a gain in 1903 over 1902 
of $159,211,831, or 12.63 per cent; a gain in 1903 over 1901 of $333,- 
169,275, or 30.66 per cent; a gain in 1903 over 1900 of $356,043,516, 
or 33.47 per cent; and a gain in 1903 over 1899 of $447,513,561, or 
46.03 per cent. Although this gain is not so great either actually or 
proportionally as was the gain in 1899, when the gain over 1898 was 
$273,601,810, or 39.17 per cent, it is sufficient to be worthy of note. 

The notable gains and losses of the last two decades are as follows: 

The largest actual gain was that of 1899 over 1898, $273,601,810, or 
39.17 per cent; next, that of 1902 over 1901, $174,053,760, or 16.02 
per cent; next, the gain of 1903 over 1902, $159,211,831, or 12.63 per 
cent; then the gain of 1895 over 1894, which was $94,215,822, or 
17.88 per cent; then that of 1900 over 1899, $91,468,340, or 9.41 per 
cent; and the gain of 1887 over 1886, $74,927,880, or 16.81 per cent. 
In other years than those mentioned between 1880 and 1898 the gains 
were not noteworthy, and in some of the years, notably in 1884, the 
production decreased $40,451,968, or 'nearly 9 per cent. During the 
indostrial depression of 1892-1895 the production would have been 
expected to decline, as it did, going from $648,895,031 in 1892 to 
$574,464,724 in 1893, and to $527,079,279 in 1894, and then rising to 
$620,652,170 in 1895, and not reaching the output of 1892 until 1898. 

As heretofore, iron and coal are the most important of our mineral 
products. The value of the iron in 1903 was $344,350,000; the value 
of the coal, $503,724,381. The fuels increased from $469,078,842 in 1902 

11 



Digitized by 



Google 



12 MIKEBAL BESOUBOES. 

to $634,233,791 in 1903, a gain of $165,154,949, or 35 per cent. Every 
variety of fuel increased in value. Anthracite coal showed an increase 
in value from $76,173,586 in 1902 to $152,036,448 in 1903. The aver- 
age price of anthracite coal per long ton at the mine was $2.50, as 
against $2.35 in 1902, the highest figure obtained up to that time since 
1888, as compared with $2.05 in 1901, with $1.85 in 1900, and with 
$1.80 in 1899; and the average price per short ton for bituminous coal 
at the mine was $1.24, as compared with $1.12 in 1902. The increase 
in value of the bituminous coal output over '1902 was $60,829,450, a 
combined increase in value of coal of $136,692,312 over 1902. 

The gain of $159,211,831 in the total value of our mineral produc- 
tion is due to the large increase in nonmetallic products, the metallic 
products showing a decrease from $642,258,584 in 1902 to $624,318,008 
in 1903, a loss of $17,940,576, and the nonmetallic products showing 
an increase from $617,251,154 in 1902 to $794,403,561 in 1903, a gain 
of $177,152,407. To these products should be added estimated unspec- 
ified products, including building, molding, and other sands reported 
to this oflSce, the rare mineral molybdenum, and other mineral products, 
valued at $1,000,000, making the total mineral production for 1903, 
$1,419,721,569. 

The manufacture of arsenious oxide, noted for the first time in the 
United States in the report for 1901, was continued in 1903, but in 
decreased proportions, as compared with 1902. 

Tin has been found in commercial quantities in South Carolina, and 
the mines were actively exploited during the year 1903. 

METAIjS. 

Iron <md steeL — ^Twenty -two States produced pig iron in 1903, as 
against 22 in 1902, 20 in 1901, and 21 in 1900 and 1899. The total 
production of pig iron in 1903 was 18,009,252 long tons, against 
17,821,307 tons in 1902, 15,878,354 tons in 1901, 13,789,242 tons in 
1900, 13,620,703 tons in 1899, 11,773,934 tons in 1898, and 9,652,680 
tons in 1897. The production of 1903 shows an increase of 187,945 
long tons, or about 1.05 per cent in quantity over the production of 
1902, and a decrease in value from $372,775,000 to $344,350,000, 
amounting to $28,425,000, or 7.6 per cent. The average price per long 
ton of pig iron decreased from $20.90 in 1902 to $19.07 in 1903. The 
average prices per long ton in recent years have been as follows: 1901, 
$15.25; 1900, $18.85; 1899, $18; 1897, $9.85; 1896, $10.47; 1895, $11.14; 
1894, $9.76. 

Iron ores. — ^The production of iron ores in 1903 amounted to 35,019,- 
308 long tons, as compared with 35,554,135 long tons in 1902, a loss of 
534,827 long tons. The value at the mines of the ore mined in 1903 
was $66,328,415. As in the five preceding years, the production of 
iron ores in 1903 has never been equaled by any other country. 



Digitized by 



Google 



SUMMABT. 13 

Manganese ores. — The production of manganese ores decreased from 
11,995 long tons, valued at $116,722, in 1901, to 7,477 long tons, valued 
at $60,911, in 1902, and to 2,825 long tons, valued at $25,335, in 1903, 
a decrease in quantity from 1902 of 4,652 tons and in value of $35,576. 
The average price per ton in 1903 was $8.97, as compared with $8.15 in 
1902, with $9.73 in 1901, and with $8.52 in 1900. 

Gold.—Th^ production of gold in 1903 amounted to 3,560,000 fine 
ounces, as compared with 3,870,000 fine ounces in 1902, with 3,805,500 
fine ounces in 1901, with 3,829,897 fine ounces in 1900, and with 
3,437,210 fine ounces in 1899. The value was $73,591,700, as com- 
pared with $80,000,000 in 1902, with $78,666,700 in 1901, with 
$79,171,000 in 1900, and with $71,053,400 in 1899. 

Silver, — The coining value of the silver produced in 1903 was 
$70,206,060, as compared with $71,757,575 in 1902, with $71,387,800 
in 1901, and with $74,533,495 in 1900. The production in 1903 was 
54,300,000 fine ounces, as compared with 55,500,000 fine ounces in 
1902, with 55,214,000 fine ounces in 1901, and with 57,647,000 fine 
ounces in 1900. The commercial value of the production in 1903 was 
$29,322,000, as compared with $29,415,000 in 1902, with $33,128,400 
in 1901, and with $35,741,140 in 1900. 

Capper. — The production of domestic copper increased from 659,- 
508,644 pounds in 1902 to 698,044,517 pounds in 1903, an increase of 
38,535,873 pounds, or about 6 per cent in quantity, and increased in 
value from $76,568,954 in 1902 to $91,506,006 in 1903, an increase of 
$14,937,052, or about 20 per cent. 

Lead. — The production of lead increased to 280,000 short tons, after 
having been almost exactly the same for three years, viz, 270,000 
short tons in 1902, 270,700 short tons in 1901, and 270,824 short tons 
in 1900. The value of the production in 1903 was $23,520,000, as 
compared with $22,140,000 in 1902, with $23,280,200 in 1901, and with 
$23,561,688 in 1900. 

Zinc. — ^The production of zinc in 1903 showed an increase in quan- 
tity, as compared with 1902 and 1901, the production being 159,219 
short tons, as compared with 156,927 short tons in 1902, with 140,822 
short tons in 1901, and with 123,886 short tons in 1900. The value of 
the zinc production in 1903 was $16,717,995, as compared with 
$14,625,596 in 1902, with $11,265,760 in 1901, and with $10,654,196 in 
1900. 

Aluminum. — ^The production of aluminum during 1903 was 7,500,000 
pounds, valued at $2,284,900, as compared with 7,300,000 pounds valued 
at $2,284,690, in 1902; with 7,150,000 pounds, valued at $2,238,000, 
in 1901, and with 7,150,000 pounds, valued at $1,920,000, in 1900. 

QuicksU/oer. — The production of quicksilver during 1903 amounted to 
35,620 flasks of 76i pounds net, as compared with 34,291 flasks in 1902, 
with 29,727 flasks in 1901, and with 28,317 flasks in 1900. The value 



Digitized by 



Google 



14 MINEBAL BESOUBOES. 

of the quicksilver produced in 1903 was $1,544,934, as compared with 
$1,467,848 in 1902, with $1,382,305 in 1901, and with $1,302,586 in 
1900. California, including Nevada, reported 30,591 flasks, as com- 
pared with 28,972 flasks in 1902, and with 26,720 flasks in 1901; and 
Texas reported 5,029 flasks, as against 5.319 flasks in 1902, and 2,932 
flasks in 1901. 

Nickel. — ^The commercial production of metallic nickel in 1903 was 
114,200 pounds, as compared with 5,748 pounds in 1902, with 6,700 
poimds in 1901, with 9,715 pounds in 1900, and with 22,541 pounds in 
1899. The value was $45,900, as compared with $2,701 in 1902, with 
$3,551 in 1901, with $3,886 in 1900, and with $8,566 in 1899. The 
imports of nickel in 1903 were valued at $1,493,889, as compared with 
$1,437,649 in 1902, with $1,849,620 in 1901, and with $1,183,884 in 
1900. 

Platinum. — ^The production of platinum from domestic ores in 1903 
was 110 ounces, valued at $2,080 (not including $6,000 worth pi plati- 
num reported as contained in slimes obtained from the treatment of 
copper ores from the Rambler mine, Wyoming), as compared with 94 
ounces, valued at $1,814, in 1902, with 1,408 ounces, valued at $27,526, 
in 1901, with 400 ounces, valued at $2,500, in 1900, and with 300 
ounces, valued at $1,800, in 1899. 

Antimony. — No antimony was obtained from domestic ores during 
1903. The antimony obtained from the smelting of foreign imported 
ores amounted to 570 short tons, valued at $103,341, and the antimony 
obtained from hard lead produced from foreign and domestic lead 
ores was 2,558 short tons, valued at $445,092, a total production for 
1903 of 3,128 short tons, valued at $548,433, as compared with 3,561 
short tons, valued at $634,506, in 1902, and with 2,639 short tons, 
valued at $539,902, in 1901. The estimated total quantity of antimony 
available for consumption in 1903 was 5,475 shoil tons, including 
2,347 short tons of imported antimony regulus, as compared with 
6,255 short tons, including 2,694 shoil; tons of imported antimony 
regulus, in 1902, with 4,475 short tons, including 1,837 short tons of 
imported antimony regulus, in 1901, and with 6,053 short tons, includ- 
ing 1,827 short tons of imported antimony regulus, in 1900. 

Bismuth. — ^There was no marketed production of bismuth ores in 
the United States during 1903 or 1902; the latest output was 318.6 
short tons, of a total estimated value of $2,549, exclusive of freight 
and treatment charges, in 1901. The ore has been heretofore obtained 
at the Ballard mine, Colorado, where the metal occurs as a telluride 
associated with gold and silver ore. One analysis of bismuth ore from 
this mine, marketed but not obtained from the mine during 1903, was 
reported to contain 17.8 per cent of bismuth, and 9.8 ounces of gold, 
and 6.1 ounces of silver per ton. Another ore from the same mine 
was reported as containing 12.2 per cent of bismuth, and 2.11 ounces 



Digitized by 



Google 



SUMMARY. 15 

of gold and 24.45 ounces of silver per ton. In all there were 62 tons 
of ore containing bismuth sold during 1903, but as the ore was smelted 
for its gold and silver content and the bismuth was allowed to go to 
waste in the slag, this quantity has not been included in the statement 
of production. Owing to the conditions that the production of bis- 
muth in the world far exceeds the demand, and that the control of 
both output and price is in the hands of a combination of interests 
abroad^ there is no incentive to produce the metal in the United States. 
Moreover, the price of the refined metal is kept so low as to preclude 
the profitable mining of the domestic ores. 

Tin. — ^There was no production of metallic tin in 1903, but about 19 
short tons of high concentrates were shipped from South Carolina to 
England — value not given. 

FUEIiS. 

Coal. — For the second time in the history of the United States the 
production of coal in 1903 reached a total of over 300,000,000 short 
tona, showing an actual output of 357,356^^16 tons of 2,000 pounds, 
valued at $503,724,381. Of this total the output of anthracite coal 
amounted to 66,613,454 long tons (equivalent to 74,607,068 short tons), 
which, as compared with the production of 36,940,710 long tons in 1902, 
was an increase of 29,672,744 long tons, or more than 80 per cent. 
This abnormal increase was due to the suspension of operations by the 
strike in the anthracite region from May 10 to October 23, 1902, a 
little over five months. The value of anthracite coal at the mines in 
1903 was $152,036,448, as against $76,173,586 in 1902, and against 
$112,504,020 in 1901. The average value of the marketed coal sold 
during the year at the mines was $2.50 per long ton, the value having 
been $2.35 in 1902, and $2.05 in 1901. 

The output of bituminous coal (which includes semianthracite and 
all semibituminous and lignite coals) amounted in 1903 to 282,749,348 
short tons, valued at $351,687,933, as against 260,216,844 short tons, 
valued at $290,858,483, in 1902, and against 225,828,149 short tons, val- 
ued at $236,422,049, in 1901. The increase in the production of bitu- 
minous coal in 1903 over 1902 was, therefore, 22,532,504 tons in 
quantity and $60,829,450 in value. The average price per ton at the 
mines during 1903 was $1.24, the highest price recorded by the Survey, 
as against $1.12 per ton in 1902. 

Q)ke. — The coke production of the United States in 1903 exceeded 
that of any year in our history, with the exception of 1902. The pro- 
duction, which includes the output from 1,956 retort or by-product 
oveos, amounted to 25,262,360 short tons, as compared with 25,401,730 
short tons in 1902, vrith 21,795,883short tonsin 1901, and with 20,533,348 
nhort tons in 1900. The decrease in quantity in 1903 from 1902 was 
only 139,370 short tons, or about 0,56 of 1 per cent. The increase in 



Digitized by 



Google 



16 MINEBAL RESOURCEft. 

the value of coke was even more noteworthy than in 1902. The aver- 
age price per ton it the ovens was the highest recorded in a period of 
twenty-four years, and the total value, in spite of the loss in quantity, 
reached the high figure of $66,459,623, an increase over 1902 of 
$3,120,456, or about 5 per cent, and over 1901 of $22,013,700, or 49.5 
per cent 

Gas^ coke^ tar^ and ammonia. — ^The aggregate value of all the prod- 
ucts obtained from the distillation of coal in gas works and retort 
ovens in 1903 was $47,819,555, as compared with $43,869,440 in 1902. 

Petroleum. — ^The total production of crude petroleum in the United 
States in 1903 was 100,461,337 barrels, as against 88,766,916 barrels in 
1902, and 69,389,194 barrels in 1901, an increase of 11,694,421 barrels, 
or 13,17 per cent, over the production of 1902 and of 44.78 per cent 
over that of 1901. Jhe greatest portion of the increase in 1903 
came from California and Indiana, the gain over 1902 being 10,398,204 
barrels, or 74.36 per cent, for California, and 1,705,515 barrels, or 22.80 
per cent, for Indiana. Louisiana produced for the second time in 1903, 
the production being 917,771 barrels, as against 548,617 barrels in 
1902. The increase over 1902 in the production of Kansas was 600,465 
barrels, or about 181 per cent. Kentucky and Tennessee increased 
their production in 1903 by 368,955 barrels, or nearly 200 per cent. 
Indian Territory increased 101,811 barrels, or 274 per cent, as com- 
pared with 1902. The largest decrease in production in 1903, as com- 
pared with 1902, was in Pennsylvania, where it amounted to 708,724 
barrels, or 5.87 per cent, and Ohio showed a decrease of 533,945 
barrels, or 2.54 per cent. The decrease in West Virginia was 613,950 
barrels, or 4.54 per cent. The percentages of production for fields 
show a remarkable change from 1900 to 1903. In 1900 the percent- 
ages were: Appalachian field, 57; Lima-Indiana field, 34; all other 
fields, nearly 9. In 1903 the respective percentages were: Appalachian 
field, 31.41; Lima-Indiana field, 23.97; all other fields, about 44.62. 
The value of crude petroleum produced during 1903 was $94,694,050, 
or 94.26 cents per barrel, as compared with $71,178,910, or 80.19 cents 
per barrel in 1902. 

Natural gas. — The value of the natural gas produced in 1903 was 
$35,815,360, as compared with $30,867,863 in 1902, with $27,067,500 
in 1901, with $23,698,674 in 1900, and with $20,074,873 in 1899— a 
gain of 16 per cent in 1903 over 1902. 

STRUCTURAIi MATERIAIjS. 

Stone. — ^The value of all kinds of building stone produced in the 
United States during 1903 amounted to $67,960,468, as compared with 
$64,559,099 in 1902, with $55,615,926 in 1901, with $44,321,345 in 
1900, and with $44,090,670 in 1899. 



Digitized by 



Google 



8UMMABY. 17 

CU^ products. — The activity in all branches in the clay-working 
industries noted in the reports as true of 1899, 1900, 1901, and 1902 
continued during 1903. The value of all clay products, as reported 
to this oflSce in 1903, was $130,962,648, as compared with $122,169,531 
in 1902, with $110,211,587 in 1901, and with $96,212,345 in 1900. The 
brick and tile products in 1903 were valued at $105,526,596, as com- 
pared with $98,042,078 in 1902, with $87,747,727 in 1901, and with 
$76,413,775 in 1900. The pottery products were valued in 1903 at 
$25,436,052, as compared with $24,127,453 in 1902, with $22,463,860 
in 1901, and with $19,798,570 in 1900. 

The commercial production of clay mined and sold by those not man- 
ufacturing the product themselves in 1903 was valued at $2,649,042, as 
compared with $2,061,072 in 1902, with $2,576,932 in 1901, and with 
$1,840,377 in 1900. The crude brick clay was valued at $15,000,000. 

Cement. — ^The total production of hydraulic cement in the United 
States in 1903 was 29,899,140 barrels, valued at $31,931,341, as com- 
pared with 25,753,504 barrels, valued at $25,366,380, in 1902, with 
20,068,737 barrels, valued at $15,786,789, in 1901, and with 17,231,150 
barrels, valued at $13,283,581, in 1900. The Portland cement produc- 
tion in 1903 was 22,342,973 barrels, valued at $27,713,319, as compared 
with 17,230,644 barrels, valued at $20,864,078, in 1902, with 12,711,225 
barrels, valued at $12,532,360, in 1901, and with 8,482,020 barrels, 
valued at $9,280,525, in 1900 — an increase, as compared with 1900, in 
quantity of about 163 per cent and in value of about 199 per cent. The 
production of natural-rock cement in 1903 was 7,030,271 barrels, val- 
ued at $3,675,520, as compared with 8,044,305 barrels, valued at 
$4,076,630, in 1902, with 7,084,823 barrels, valued at $3,056,278, in 

1901, and with 8,383,519 barrels, valued at $3,728,848, in 1900. The 
production of slag cement amounted, in 1903, to 525,896 barrels, val- 
ued at $542,502, as compared with 478,555 barrels, valued at $425,672, 
in 1902, with 272,689 barrels, valued at $198,151, in 1901, and with 
3^,611 barrels, valued at $274,208, in 1900. 

ABRASIVE MATBRIAIiS. 

Carbarunduvi. — ^The production of carborundum in 1903 was 
4,759,890 pounds, as compared with 3,741,500 pounds produced in 

1902, and with 3,838,175 pounds in 1901. The value of the carborun- 
dum varies from 8 to 10 cents per pound. 

Corundum and emery. — ^The combined production of coinindum and 
emery in 1903 amounted to 2,542 short tons, valued at $64,102, as 
compared with 4,251 short tons, valued at $104,605 in 1902, and with 
4,305 short tons, valued at $146,040 in 1901. 

Crushed steel. — The production of crushed steel in 1903 was 755,000 
pounds, as compared with 735,000 pounds in 1902, and with 690,000 
M R 1903 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



18 MINERAL RESOURCES. 

pounds in 1901. The average price per pound in 1903 is quoted as 
about 7 cents. 

Crystalline quartz. — In 1903 the production of crystalline quartz 
included under abrasives amounted to 8,988 short tons, valued at 
$76,9C8, as against 15,104 short tons, valued at $84,335, in 1902, and 
with 14,050 short tons, valued at $41,500, in 1901. 

Garnet. — The production of abrasive garnet in the United States 
during 1903 amounted to 3,950 short tons, valued at $132,500, as 
against 3,926 short tons, valued at $132,820, in 1902, with 4,444 short 
tons, valued at $158,100, in 1901, and with 3,185 short tons, valued at 
$123,475, in 1900. As reported to the Survey, the prices varied from 
$20 to $60 a ton, the highest price being obtained for the North 
Carolina garnet. The average price for the 1903 production is reported 
as $33.54 per ton. 

Grindstones. — ^The total value of all kinds of grindstones produced 
during 1903 was $721,446, as compared with $667,431 in 1902, and 
with $580,703 in 1901. The production of 1900, valued at $710,026, 
was until 1903 the largest on record for any year. It should be 
remembered, however, that the price has decreased from $15 to $18 
per ton to from $8 to $11 per ton, and that therefore the tonnage of 
grindstones used has correspondingly increased within the last few 
years. The imports for 1903 amounted in value to $85,705, as com- 
pared with $76,906 in 1902, with $88,871 in 1901, and with $92,581 in 
1900. 

Infusorial earth and tripoli. — In 1903 the production of infusorial 
earth and tripoli amounted to 9,219 short tons, valued at $76,273, as 
compared with 5,665 short tons, valued at $53,244, in 1902, and with 
the production of 4,020 tons, valued at $52,950, in 1901. 

Millstones and huhrston^s. — The value of the production of mill- 
stones and buhrstones in 1903 was $52,552, as against $59,808 in 1902, 
and against $57,179 in 1901. From 1886 to 1894 there was a very 
large decrease — from $140,000 to $13,887 — in the production of buhr- 
stones. Since 1894 there has been a gradual increase in the produc- 
tion, though there was a decrease of $7,256 in 1903 as compared with 
1902. 

Oilstones and whetstones. — ^There was a decided increase in the com- 
mercial domestic production of oilstones and whetstones during 1903, 
the value of which amounted to $366,857, as compared with $221,762 
in 1902, and with $158,300 in 1901. 

CHEMICAL MATERIAIiS. 

Arsenums oxide. — The domestic production of arsenious oxide (w^hite 
arsenic) in 1903 was 611 short tons, valued at $36,696, as compared 
with 1,353 short tons, valued at $81,180, in 1902, and with 300 short 
tons, valued at $18,000, in 1901. The entire product was made by the 



Digitized by 



Google 



SUMMABY. 19 

Puget Sound Production Company, at Everett, Wash., which began 
the manufacture of this important substance in 1901. 

Borax. — The reported returns for 1903 gave an aggregate produc- 
tion of crude borax of 34,430 short tons, valued at $661,400, as com- 
pared with 17,404 short tons of refined and 2,600 short tons of crude, 
valued at $2,538,614, in 1902, The production during 1901 was 17,887 
short tons of crude borax and 5,344 short tons of refined borax, with a 
total value of $1,012,118. 

Bromine. — ^The production of bromine in 1903, including the amount 
of bromine contained in potassium bromide, amounted to 598,500 
pounds, valued at $167,580, as compared with 513,890 pounds, valued 
at $128,472, in 1902, and with 552,043 pounds, valued at $154,572, in 
1901. The price per pound during 1903 averaged 28 cents, as com- 
pared with 25 cents in 1902, with 28 cents in 1901, and with 29 cents 
in 1900. 

Fluorspar. — ^The total commercial production of fluorspar in 1903 
was 42,523 short tons, valued at $213,617, as compared with 48,018 
short tons, valued at $271,832, in 1902, and with 19,586 tons, valued 
at $113,803, in 1901. This decrease in production was not due to any 
one State, but there was a large increase in production in Kentucky, 
and a decrease in Illinois and Arizona. The average price of crude 
fluorspar in 1903 was reported as $4.28 per ton, as compared with 
$5.19 in 1902 and with $5 in 1901, and the average price of ground 
fluorspar in 1903 was $9.99 per ton, as compared with $9.98 in 1902 
and with $9.22 in 1901. 

Gypsum. — The production of gypsum, particularly for the manu- 
facture of calcined plaster, continues to show a remarkable gain. 
The output of crude gypsum in 1903 was 1,041,704 sho^ tons, 
valued in its first marketable condition at $3,792,943, as compared 
with 816,478 short tons, valued in its first marketable condition at 
$2,089,341, in 1902, with 633,791 short tons, valued at $1,506,641, in 
1901, and with 594,462 short tons, valued at $1,627,203, in 1900. The 
production in 1899 was 486,235 short tons, and in 1898 it was 291,638 
short tons. The greatly increased production of the last five years is 
attributable to the largely increased use of plaster of Paris in large 
modern buildings and in the manufacture of staff for temporary 
buildings. 

MarU. — ^The production of marls in the United States in 1903 was 
34,211 short tons, valued at $22,521; in 1902 it was 12,439 short tons, 
valued at $12,741. 

Phosphate rock. — The total conmiercial production of phosphate 

rock reported to the Survey in 1903 amoimted to 1,581,576 long tons, 

rained at $5,319,294, as compared with 1,490,314 long tons, valued 

tt $4,698,444, in 1902, and with 1,483,723 long tons, valued at 

$5,816,408, in 1901, an increase in quantity of 1903 over 1902 of 



Digitized by 



Google 



^ 



20 MINEBAL BBSODBOES. 

91,262 tons and in value of $625,850. The total quantity of phosphate 
rock reported as mined during 1903 was 1,618,799 long tons, as com- 
pared with 1,499,617 long tons in 1902, and with 1,440,408 long tons 
in 1901. 

Salt. — ^The salt product includes salt in the form of brine used in 
large quantities for the manufacture of soda ash, sodium bicarbonate, 
caustic soda, and other sodium salts. The domestic production of salt 
in 1903 amounted to 18,968,089 barrels of 280 pounds, valued at 
$5,286,988, as compared with 23,849,231 barrels, valued at $5,668,636, 
in 1902, with 20,566,661 barrels, valued at $6,617,449, in 1901, and 
with 20,869,342 barrels, valued at $6,944,603, in 1900. 

Svlphur and pyrite, — ^The domestic production of sulphur and of 
pyrite in 1903 for the manufacture of sulphuric acid amounted to 
233,127 long tons, valued at $1,109,818, as compared with 207,874 long 
tons, valued at $947,089, in 1902, and with a combined production of 
241,691 long tons, valued at $1,257,879, in 1901. The greater part of 
the output of pyrite was derived from Virginia, Georgia, North Caro- 
lina, Colorado, and Massachusetts, named in the order of production. 

PIGMENTS. 

Barytes. — ^The production of crude barytes in 1903 was 50,397 short 
tons, valued at $152,150, as compared with 61,668 short tons, valued 
at $203,154, in 1902, and with 49,070 short tons, valued at $157,844, in 
1901. 

Cobalt oxide. — ^The domestic production of cobalt oxide in 1903 was 
120,000 pounds, valued at $228,000, not including the value of 60 short 
tons of cobalt ore, as against 3,730 pounds, valued at $6,714, in 1902, 
and against 13,360 pounds, valued at $24,048, in 1901. All the cobalt 
o^ide was obtained as a by-product in smelting lead ores at Mine 
Lamotte, Missouri. 

Mhierdl' pamts. — ^The conunercial production of mineral paints in 
1903 amounted to 62,122 short tons, valued at $646,222, as compared 
with 73,049 short tons, valued at $944,332, in 1902, and with 61,460 
short tons, valued at $789,962, in 1901. 

Zinc white. — ^The production of zinc white in 1902 amounted to 
62,962 short tons, valued at $4,801,718, as compared with 52,645 short 
tons, valued at $4,016,499, in 1902, and with 46,500 short tons, valued 
at $3,720,000, in 1901. 

MISCEIiliAITEOUS. 

Asbestos. — ^The asbestos commercially produced in the United States 
in 1903 was obtained chiefly from the mines at Sail Mountain, White 
County, Gra., but a small qiUmtity was mined at Dalton, Berkshire 
County, Mass., New Hartford, Conn., and Grand Canyon, Ariz. 
The total commercial production was 887 short tons, valued at $16,760, 



Digitized by 



Google 



SUMMABT. 21 

as compared with 1,005 short tons, valued at $16,200, in 1902, and with 
Ul short tons, valued at $13,498, in 1901. 

Asphaltvm. — Under thb title are included the various bitumens or 
hydrocarbons not discussed under the heading '* Petroleum" in the 
volume on mineral resources. The conunercial production in 1903 was 
101,255 short tons, valued at $1,005,446, as compared with 105,458 
short tons, valued at $765,048, in 1902, and with 63,134 short tons, 
valued at $555,335, in 1901. 

Bauxite. — In 1903 the production of bauxite was 48,087 long tons, 
valued at $171,306, as compared with 29,222 long tons, valued at 
$128,206, m 1902, and with 18,905 long tons, valued at $79,914, in 

1901. Greorgia yielded the greater bulk of the product, the remainder 
being supplied by Alabama and Arkansas. 

Chromic iron ore, — California was the only State producing chro- 
mite during 1903, the quantity being 150 long tons, valued at $2,250, 
as compared with 315 long tons, valued at $4,567, in 1902, and with 
368 long tons, valued at $5,790, in 1901. 

Feldspar. — ^The production of feldspar in 1903 was 41,891 short 
tons, valued at $256,733, as against 45,287 short tons, valued at $250,- 
424, in 1902, and against 34,741 short tons, valued at $220,422, in 
1901. 

Fthrous talc. — ^This variety of talc or soapstone occurs in but one 
locality in the United States — Gouverneur, St. Lawrence County, 
N. Y. It is used principally as makeweight in the manufacture of 
paper. In 1903 the production was 60,230 short tons, valued at 
$421,600 as compared with 71,100 short tons, valued at $615,350, in 

1902, and with 69,200 short tons, valued at $483,6(K), in 1901. 
Flint.— Th^ production of flint in 1903 was 55,233 short tons, 

valued at $156,947, as against 36,365 short tons, valued at $144,209, 
in 1902, and against 34,420 short tons, valued at $149,297, in 1901. 

Fuller^ s earth. — As reported to the Survey, the production of 
fuller's earth in 1903 was 20,693 short tons, valued at $190,277, as 
compared with 11,492 short tons, valued at $98,144, in 1902, and 
with 14,112 short tons, valued at $96,835, in 1901. The largest pro- 
duction of fuller's earth hitherto obtained was in 1897, the output being 
17,113 short tons. 

Glass sand. — The production of glass sand in 1903 was 823,044 
fthort tons, valued at $855,828, as compared with 943,135 short tons, 
valued at $807,797 in 1902. 

Graphite. — The commercial production of crystalline graphite 
during 1903 amounted to 4,538,155 pounds, valued at $154,170, as com- 
pared with 3,936,824 pounds, valued at $126,144, in 1902, with 
3,967,612 pounds, valued at $135,914, in 1901, and with 5,507,855 
pounds, valued at $178,761, in 1900. The production of amorphous 
graphite in 1903 was 16,691 short tons, valued at $71,384, as compared 



Digitized by 



Google 



22 MINERAL RESOURCES. 

with 4,739 short tons, valued at 155,964, in 1902, with 809 short tons, 
valued at $31,800, in 1901, and with 611 short tons, valued at $18,818, 
in 1900. The production of artificial graphite was 2,620,000 pounds, 
valued $178,670, the avei-age price being 6.82 cents per pound, as 
compared with 2,358,828 pounds, valued at $110,700, in 1902, the 
average price being 4.69 cents per pound, and with 2,500,000 pounds, 
valued at $119,000, in 1901, the average price being 4.75 cents per 
pound. 

Limestone for iron flux. — ^The quantity of limestone used for flux- 
ing in blast furnaces in 1903 was 12,029,719 long tons, valued at 
$5,423,732, as compared withl2,139,248 long tons, valued at $5,271,252, 
in 1902, with 8,540,168 long tons, valued at $4,659,836, in 1901, and 
with 7,495,435 long tons, valued at $3,687,394, in 1900, 

Lithium. — The production of lithium minerals in 1903 was 1,155 
short tons, valued at $23,425 at the railroad, as against 1,245 short 
tons, vulued at $25,750, in 1902. There is an increase in the demand 
for these minerals from foreign chemical manufacturers. 

Magnesite, — ^The production of magnesite in the United States con- 
tinues to be limited to California, and during the year 1903 the com- 
mercial production reported was 3,744 short tons, valued at $10,595, 
as compared with 2,830 short tons, valued at $8,490, in 1902. 

Jfi^a.— The total production of mica in 1903 was valued at $59,118, 
as compared with a total value of $118,849 for the production of 1902. 

Mineral waters. — The total production of mineral waters in 1903 was 
51,242,757 gallons, valued at $9,041,078, as compared with 64,859,451 
gallons, valued at $8,793,761, in 1902, and with 55,771,188 gallons, 
valued at $7,586,962, in 1901. 

Molybdenum. — The commercial production of molybdenum in 1903 
was 795 short tons of concentrates, valued at $60,865. The value of 
these molybdenum ores fluctuates very greatly, the highest price 
quoted being $1,500 per ton and the lowest $100. 

Monazite and zircon. — ^The production of monazite is confined exclu- 
sively to North Carolina and South Carolina, by far the larger quantity 
being obtained from the former State, and in 1903 this amounted to 
862,000 pounds, valued at $64,630, and 3,000 pounds of zircon, valued 
at $570, as compared with 802,000 pounds of monazite, valued at 
$64,160, in 1902, and with 748,736 pounds, valued at $59,262, in 1901. 
The price per pound received by the miners for the crude monazite 
sand produced in 1903 varied from 2i to 6 cents, according to the 
percentage of thoria. 

Precums stones. — ^The value of the gems and precious stones found 
in the United States in 1903 was $321,400, as compared with $328,460 
in 1902, with $289,050 in 1901, with $233,170 in 1900, and with 
$185,770 in 1899. There has been a great advance in the lapidary 
industry in the United States since 1894. The fact that larger estab- 



Digitized by 



Google 



SUBiMARY. 23 

lishments have been formed, which are able to purchase the rough 
diamonds in greater quantities, has placed our American diamond 
cutters in a position equal to that held by the cutters of Amsterdam, 
Antwerp, and Paris. The cutting of our native gems has also grown 
to the proportions of an industry, notably in the case of the beryls and 
the amethysts found in North Carolina and Connecticut; the turquoises 
from New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and California; the fine-colored 
and deep-blue sapphhires found in Montana; the colored tourmalines 
of San Joaquin County, Cal. ; the chrysoprases from Visalia, Tulare 
County, Cal. ; the garnets of Arizona and New Mexico, and the pale- 
purple gamete of North Carolina. 

Pumice sUme, — The production of pumice amounted in 1903 to 885 
short tons, valued at $2,665, as against 700 short tons, valued at 
$2,750 in 1902. 

Rutile. — No production of rutile was reported in 1903, the supply 
on hand being sufficient for the demands of the trade. 

Talc and soapstone. — Exclusive of the ' production of fibrous talc 
from Gouverneur, N. Y., the production of talc and soapstone in 1903 
amounted to 26,671 short tons, valued at $418,460, as compared with 
26,854 short tons, valued at $525,157 in 1902, and with 28,643 tons, 
valued at $424,888 in 1901. The output for 1900 was 27,943 short 
tons, valued at $383,541, and for 1899 it was 24,765 short tons, valued 
at $330,805. 

Tungsten. — The commercial production of concentrated tungsten 
ores during 1903 amounted to 292 short tons, valued at $43,639, as 
against 184 short tons in 1902, of which not more than a few tons 
were sold. In 1901 the production amounted to 179 tons of concen- 
trated ore, valued at $27,720. The larger part of the production of 
1902 was from Colorado. 

Uranium and vanadium. — The production of uranium and vana- 
dium minerals in 1903, as reported to the Survey, amounted to 30 
^liort ions of concentrates, equivalent to about 1 9 short tons of metal, 
valued at ^,025, as compared with 3,810 short tons, valued at $48,125 
in 1902. ThiB, of course, represents the crude ore. 



Digitized by 



Google 



24 



MINEBAL BESOUBOES. 



Mineral products of the United 



Prodncts. 



1902. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



"I 



MJSTALLIC. 

Pig iron, spot yalae long tons. 

Silver, coining value troy ounces. 

Gold, coining value do... 

Copper, value at New York City pounds. 

Lead, value at New York City short tons. 

Zinc, value at New York City do. . . 

Quicksilver, value at San Francisco flasks. 

Aluminum, value at Pittsburg » pounds. 

Antimony, value at San Francisco short tons. 

Nickel, value at Philadelphia pounds. 

Tin do... 

Platinum, value (crude) at San Francisco troy ounces. 



17,821,807 

66,500,000 

3,870.000 

659,608.644 

270,000 

156,927 

34,291 

7,300,000 

3,661 

6,748 



1372,775,000 

71,767,575 

80,000,000 

76,668,954 

22,140,000 

14,625,596 

1,467,848 

2,284.590 

634,506 

2,701 



94 



1,814 



Total value of metallic products. 



NONMETALUC (SPOT VALUES). 

Bituminous coal short tons. 

Pennsylvania anthracite long tons. 

Natural gas 

Petroleum barrels. 

Brick clay 

Cement barrels. 

Stone . 



Corundum and emery short tons. 

Crystalline quartz do. . . 

Garnet for abrasive purposes do. . . 

Grindstones 

Infusorial earth and tripoli short tons. 

Millstones 

Oilstones, etc 

Arsenious oxide short tons. 

T»«iH, ^/refined do . . . 

^^^ncnide do... 

Bromine pounds. 

Fluorspar short to^ . 

G vDsum do. . . 

Litnium do... 

Marls ». do... 

Phosphate rock .long tons. 

Pyrite do... 

Sulphur do... 

Salt barrels. 

Barytes, crude short tons. 

Cobalt oxide pounds. 

Mineral paints short tons. 

Zinc white do . . . 

Asbestos do. . . 

Asphaltum do. . . 

Bauxite long tons. 

Chromic iron ore do. . . 

Clay (all other than brick) short tons. 

Feldspar do. . . 

Fibrous talc do . . . 

Flint do. . . 

Fuller's earth do... 

Glass sand do . . . 

flranhitp/^'"y^^^^*°*^ pounds. 

"^P'^^namorphous short tons. 

Limestone for iron flux long tons. 

Magnesitc short tons. 

Manganese ore long tons. 

l^{„/8heet pounds. 

Iscrap short tons. 

Mineral waters gallons sold. 

Monazite pounds. 

Zircon do... 

Precious stones r 

Pumice stone short tons . 

Rutile pounds. 

Talc and soapstone short tons. 

Uranium and vanadium do. . . 



Total value of nonmetallic mineral products 

Total value of metallic products 

Estimated value of mineral products unspecified . 

Grand total 



260,216,844 
36,940,710 



88,766,916 
*25,'753,'564 



4,261 
15,104 
3,926 



5.665 



1.353 

17.404 

2,600 

513,890 

48,018 

816,478 

1,245 

12.439 

1,490,314 

207,874 

23,849,231 

61,668 

3,730 

73.049 

62,646 

1,005 

105,458 

29,222 

316 

1,456,357 

45,287 

71,100 

36,365 

11.492 

943,136 

3,936,824 

4,739 

12,139,248 

2,830 

7,477 

373,266 

1,400 

64,859,451 

802,000 



700 



26,864 
3,810 



642,268,581 



290,868,483 

76,173,586 

30,867,863 

71,178,910 

16,000,000 

25,366,380 

64,669,099 

104,605 

84,335 

182,820 

667,431 

53,244 

59.808 

221,762 

81,180 

2,447,614 

91,000 

128,472 

271,832 

2,089, 3J1 

25,760 

12,741 

4,693,444 

947,089 

6,668,636 

203,154 

6,714 

944,332 

4,016,499 

16,200 

765,048 

128,206 

4,667 

2,061.072 

260,424 

616,350 

144,209 

98,144 

807,797 

182,108 

6,271,252 

8,490 

60,911 

83,843 

36,006 

8,793,761 
64,160 



328,450 
2,750 



626, 157 
48,125 



617,251,154 

642,268,584 

1,000,000 



1,260,609,738 



a No metallic tin; between 19 and 20 short tons of high-grade concentrates shipped to England 
from South Carolina. 

b Not including t6,000 worth of platinum reported as contained in slimes from copper ore from the 
Rambler mine, Wyoming. 



Digitized by V^OOQIC:! 



8UMMABY 



25 



States in 190t and 190S, 



190^ 


Increase (+) or 


decrease ( — ) in 


Per cent of increase ( +) or 








1903. 




decrease (-). 






Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




18.009,282 


J344, 350, (flO 


+ 187,946 


-828,426.000 


+ 


1.05 




7.63 


1 


51,900.000 


70, ■_•(*',, ()60 


- 1,200,000 


- 1,651.616 


— 


2.16 


— 


2.16 


2 


3.560,000 


:;...v-*i,700 


- 810,000 


- 6.408.300 


— 


8.01 


— 


8.01 


3 


698,044,517 


'.•1..Hm,,ii06 


+38,635.873 


+ 14.937,062 


+ 


5.84 


+ 


19.51 


4 


280.000 


2:;.. '.^(1.1)00 


-h 10,000 


+ 1,380,000 


+ 


3.70 


+ 


6.23 


6 


159,219 


M.7I7.V«5 


+ 2,292 


+ 2,092,899 


+ 


1.46 


+ 


14.31 


6 


85,620 


l:vii.;«4 


+ 1,329 


+ 77,086 


+ 


3.88 


+ 


5.25 


7 


7,500,000 


•J.-j^i.iOO 


-h 200,000 


+ 310 


+ 


2.74 


+ 


.01 


8 


8,128 


.M'-. 133 


433 


86,073 




12. 16 




13.56 


9 


114,200 

"' no 


1-. '-00 


+ 108,452 


+ 43,199 


+1.886.78 


+1,599.37 


10 
11 


62,080 


+ 16 


+ 266 


+ 


17.02 


+ 


14.66 


12 




624,318.006 




- 17,940,576 




- 


2.79 


13 










282,749,348 


851,687,933 


+22,532,604 


+ 60,829,450 


+ 


8.66 


+ 


20.91 


14 


66,613,454 


162,096,448 


+29,672,744 


+ 75,862,862 


+ 


80.33 


+ 


99.59 


16 




85,815,360 




+ 4,947,497 






+ 


16.03 


16 


10U,461,337 


94,694.050 
15,000.000 
31.981.841 


+11,694.421 


+ 23,516,140 


+ 


13.17 


+ 


33.04 


17 
18 


29,899.140 


+ 4,i45,636 


+ 6,564,961 


+ 


16.10 


+ 


25.88 


19 




67,960,468 




+ 3,401,369 






O- 


6.27 


?0 


2,542 


64,102 


1,709 


40.603 


— 


42.02 


— 


88.72 


21 


8.938 


76,908 


6,166 


- 7,427 


— 


40.82 


— 


8.81 


22 


8,950 


132,600 


+ 24 


— 320 


+ 


.61 


— 


.24 


23 




721,446 




+ 64,015 






4- 


8.09 


?4 


; 9,2i9 


76,273 


+ 3.554 


+ 23,029 


+ 


G2. 74 


+ 


43.26 


26 




52,562 
866,857 




— 7, 2.')6 








12.18 


?6 






+ 145, 095 


• ; 


^ 


65.43 


?7 


611 


86.696 


- 742 


44,484 




54.84 




54.80 


28 


}cnMle,34,430 
698,600 


661.400 














9Q 


167,680 


+ 84,610 


+ 89.108 


1- 


10.46 


+ 


30.44 ! 30 


42,528 


213,617 


5,495 


68,215 


-- 


11.44 




21.42 31 


1,041,704 


3,792,943 


+ 225,226 


+ 1,708,602 


+ 


27.59 


+ 


81.54 


32 


1.155 


23,426 


90 


2,325 


_ 


7.23 




9.03 


33 


84.211 


22,521 


+ 21,772 


+ 9,780 


+ 


175.03 


+ 


76.76 


34 


1.581.576 


5,319,294 


+ 91,262 


+ 625,850 


+ 


6.12 


+ 


13.33 1 85 


1 «23S,127 


1,109,818 


+ 25,253 


+ 162,729 


+ 


12.15 


+ 


17.18 I* 
6.73 ' 38 


1 18,968,089 


6,286.988 


- 4,881.142 


381,648 


- 


20.47 


_ 


60.397 


152,150 


11,271 


51,004 


— 


18.28 


— 


25.11 ; 39 


120,000 


«* 228, 000 


+ 116,270 


+ 221,280 


+3,117.16 


+3,295.89 


40 


62,122 


646.222 


10,927 


- 298.110 


— 


14.96 


— 


31.57 


41 


62,962 


4.801.718 


+ 10,817 


+ 785,219 


+ 


19.60 


+ 


19.55 


42 


887 


16.760 


118 


+ 560 


— 


11.74 


+ 


3.46 


43 


101,255 


1.005,446 


4.203 


+ 240,398 


— 


3.99 


+ 


31.42 


44 


48,087 


171,306 


+ 18.865 


+ 43. 100 


+ 


64.56 


+ 


33.62 


45 


150 


2,250 


- 166 


2.317 


— 


52.38 




60.73 


46 


1 1.660,835 


2,649,042 


+ 195,478 


+ 687,970 


+ 


13.43 


+ 


28.53 


47 


41.891 


256,738 


3,396 


+ 6,309 




7.50 


+ 


2.52 


48 


60,230 


421,600 


- 10,870 


- 198,750 




15.29 


— 


31.49 


49 


i 65.288 


166,947 


+ 18,868 


+ 12.738 


+ 


51.89 


+ 


8.83 


50 


20.698 


190,277 


+ 9,201 


+ 92,133 


+ 


80.06 


+ 


93.88 


51 


823,044 


866,828 


- 120,091 


+ 48,031 




12.73 


+ 


6.95 


52 


i 4,688,156 
I 16,591 


} 225.554 


1 + 601,331 
\ + 11,862 


1 + 43.446 


{ X 


15.27 
260.09 


} + 


23.86 


63 


12,029,719 


5,428,782 


- 109,529 


+ 152,480 




.90 


-t- 


2.89 


54 


8.744 


10,595 


+ 914 


+ 2.105 


+ 


82.30 


+ 


24.79 


55 


2.825 


26,836 


4,662 


36,676 




62.22 




68.41 


56 


90.100 


17,128 


- 283,166 


66,716 


_ 


76.86 


_ 


79.57 


>■> 


1.693 


41,990 


+ 298 


+ 6,984 


+ 


2.09 


+ 


19.95 


51,242,757 


9.041,078 


-18,616,694 


+ 247,317 




20.99 


+ 


2.81 


58 


W2,000 


64,630 


+ 60,000 


+ 470 


+ 


7.48 


+ 


.78 


59 


8,000 


670 


+ 3,000 


+ 570 










60 




821,400 




7,050 
- 86 








2.15 


61 


885 


2,666 


+ 186 


+ 


26.43 


- 


3.09 


62 
63 


26,671 


418,460 


- 183 


- 106,697 


_ 


.68 


_ 


20.32 


64 


19 


6.625 


- 8.791 


42.600 


- 


99.60 


- 


88.31 


66 




794,408.561 
624,818,008 




+177,152,407 
— 17,940.676 






4. 


28.70 


66 










2.79 


67 




1.000,000 












68 


1 














1.419.721,669 




+159,211,831 




+ 


12.03 


69 













ciDcIoded under pyrite in 1901. 1902, and 1903. 

tf Not including value of 60 short tons of cobalt ore produced in Idaho. 



Digitized by 



Google 



26 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Mineral products of the IJmkd »^ 



Product. 



1880. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



METALLIC. 

P\g iron, value at Philadelphia long tons. 

Silver, coining value .troy ounces. 

Gold, coining value do. . . 

Copper, value at New York City pounds. 

Lead, value at New York City short tons. 

Zinc, value at New York City do. . . 

Quicksilver, value at San Francisco flasks. 

Nickel, value at Philadelphia pounds. 

Aluminum, value at Pittsburg *. do. . . 

Antimony, value at San Francisco short tons. 

Platinum (crude), value at San Francisco troy ounces. 



3.375,912 

30,820,000 

1,741,500 

60,480,000 

97,825 

23,289 

59,926 

233,893 



50 
100 



Total value of metallic products. 



NONMETALLIC (SPOT VALUES). 

Bituminous coal long tons . 

Pennsylvania anthracite do. . . 

Stone 



38,242,641 
25,680,189 



Petroleum barrels. 

Lime do... 

Natural gas 

Cement barrels. 

Salt do... 

Phosphate rock , long tons . 

Limestone for iron flux do. . . 

Mineral waters gallons sold . 

Zinc white short tons. 

Potters' clay do. . . 

Mineral paints do... 

Borax pounds . 

Gypsum short tons. 

Grindstones 

Fibrous talc short tons. 

Pyrite long tons. 

Soapstone short tons. 

Manganese ore long tons. 

Asphaltum short tons., 

Precious stones 

Bromine pounds. 

Corundum short tons. . 

Bary tes (crude) do. . . 

Graphite pounds. , 

Millstones , 

Oilstones, etc. a pounds. , 

Marls short tous., 

Flint long tons.. 

Fluorspar short tons. 

Chromic iron ore long tons. , 

Infusorial earth short tons. . 

Feldspar long tons . . 

Mica pounds. . 

Cobalt oxide do 

Slate ground as a pigment short tons. . 

Sulphur do 

Asbestos do 

Rutile pounds.. 

Lithographic stone short tons. , 



26,286,123 
28,000,000 



2,072,943 

6,961,060 

211,377 

4,600,000 

2,000,000 

10, 107 

28,877 

3,604 

8,692,443 

90,000 



4,210 
2,000 
8,441 
5,761 
444 



404,690 

1,044 

20,000 



420,000 

1,000,000 

20,000 

4,000 

2,288 

1.833 

12,500 

81,669 

7,261 

1,000 

600 

160 

100 



Total value of nonmetallic mineral products 

Total value of metallic products 

Estimated value of mineral products unspecified . 



Grand total . 



S89.315, 
39,200. 
36,000, 
11.491, 
9,782, 
2,277. 
1.797, 
257, 



10 



190,132 



53,443 
42,19< 
18,35t 
24,18; 
19,00( 



1,85: 
4,8-2' 

1,12; 

3,80 
50 
76 
20 
13 
27 
4C 
5C 
I 

( 

i 

1( 

i: 



173, i 

190, 

6,( 

369. 



a Prior to 1889 quantity and value are for rough stone quarried; since 1890 they are lor finiahed ] 



Digitized by 



Google 



SUMHABT. 



27 



/or the calendar years 1880-190S. 



1881. 


1882. 


1883. 




Qnantity. 


Value. 


QuanUty. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




4.144,254 


«87, 029,334 


4.623,323 


$106,336,429 


4,595,510 


191.910,200 


1 


33,077,000 


43.000,000 


36,197,695 


46,800,000 


85,783,622. 


46.200,000 2 


1.676,800 


84,700,000 


1,572,186 


82,600,000 


1,451,249 


80,000,000 3 


71.680,000 


12,175,600 


91,646,282 


16,088,091 


117,151,795 


18,064,807 4 


117,086 


11,240,160 


132,890 


12,624,550 


143,967 


12,822,719 , 5 


26.800 


2,680,000 


33,765 


8.646.620 


86,872 


8,311,106 


6 


60.861 


1.764,679 


62,782 


1,487,042 


46,725 


1,253,632 


7 


265,668 


292,235 


281.616 


809,777 


68,800 
88 
60 


52,920 

875 

12,000 


8 
q 


50 


10,000 


60 


12,000 


10 


100 


400 


200 


600 


200 


600 


11 




192,892,408 




219,755,109 




203.128,859 


1? 










48,179,475 


60,224.844 


60,861,190 


76,i)7( 1187 


68,531.500 


82.237,800 


13 


28,500,016 


64,125,036 


31,358,264 


70,^.^ 194 


34,336,469 


77 257,055 


14 




20,000.000 




21, ()<)*) 00 




20,000,000 


15 


27,661,288 


25,448,839 


30,510,830 


24,0(w.,'.l88 


23,449.633 


25.790.252 


16 


30.000,000 


20,000,000 


81,000,000 


21,70t» too 

'2ir.,tO0 


82,000,000 


19.200,000 
475,000 


17 
18 


i'soo^ooo 


2.000,000 


8,250,000 


8,67'J,750 


4,190,000 


4,293,500 


19 


6.200.000 


4.200,000 


6,412,873 


4,:i'2t). 140 


6,192,231 


4,211,042 


20 


266,784 


1,980,259 


832,077 


l,i^J. 162 


378,380 


2,270,280 


21 


6,000,000 


4,100,000 


8,850,000 


2,31(1.(00 


JSi'^S 


1,907,136 


22 


3,700,000 


700,000 


5,000,000 


KCH(,(O0 


7,529,428 


1.119,603 


23 


10,000 


700,000 


10,000 


7*Kt,(O0 


12,000 


840,000 


24 


28,000 


200,000 


88,600 


i>I<i.(O0 


35,840 


250,000 


25 


6,000 


100,000 


7,000 


10.\(O0 


7,000 


84,000 


26 


4.046,000 


304,461 


4,286,291 


•x^^. m 


6,500,000 


585,000 


27 


85,000 


350,000 


100,000 


4r>i),(00 


90,000 


420,000 


28 




500,000 




7LHf.iO0 




600,000 


'^ 


5,000 


00.000 


6,000 


7.^ (00 


6,000 


75,000 


:« 


10.000 


60,000 


12,000 


7:^.000 


25,000 


187,500 


31 


7.000 


76,000 


6,000 


90.000 


8,000 


160,000 


32 


4.895 


78,425 


4,582 


67.980 


6,155 


92.325 


33 


2,000 


8,000 


8,000 


10,500 


3,000 


10.500 


34 




110,000 




160,000 




207,050 


85 


300,000 


75,000 


260,000 


76,000 


801,100 


72,264 


36 


600 


80,000 


. 600 


80,000 


550 


100,000 


37 


20,000 


80,000 


20,000 


80,000 


27,000 


108,000 


38 


400.000 


80,000 


425,000 


34.000 


575,000 


46,000 


39 




150,000 




200,000 




150,000 


40 


566,666 


8,580 


600,000 


10,000 


600,000 


10,000 


41 


1,000.000 


500,000 


1,080,000 


640.000 


972,000 


486,000 . 42 


25,000 


100,000 


26,000 


100,000 


25,000 


100.000 1 43 


4.000 


16,000 


4,000 


20,000 


4,000 


20,000 ' 44 


2,000 


80,000 


2,500 


60.000 


8,000 


60,000 


45 


1.000 


10,000 


1,000 


8.000 


1,000 


5,000 


46 


14.000 


70,000 


14,000 


70.000 


14,100 


71,112 


47 


100,000 


250.000 


100,000 


250.000 


114,000 


285,000 


48 


8,280 


25,000 


11,653 


82,046 


1,096 


2,795 


49 


1.000 


10,000 


2.000 


24.000 


2,000 


24,000 


60 


600 


21.000 


600 


21.000 


1,000 


27,000 


51 


200 


7,000 


1,200 


86.000 


1,000 


80,000 


52 


200 


700 


500 


1,800 


550 


2,000 


53 


50 


1,000 










54 












1 


206.788,144 

192.892,408 

6,600.000 




281,840,150 

219,755,109 

6,500,000 




243,812,214 

208,128,859 

6,500,000 


55 


1 






56 


( 






57 










"," 


406,175.652 




* 


457,595,259 




453,441,073 


68 












Digitized by 



Google 



28 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 

MinercJ jtr<KjucUi of the United States for 



Product. 



Quantity. 



Pig iron, value at Philadelphia long tons. . 4. 097. S68 

Silver, coining value troy ounces. . • 37, 744, 60.'i 

Gold, coining value do....! l,4H9,949 

Copper, value at New York City poundn.. 145,221,934 

Lead, value at New York City short tons.. 139,897 

Zinc, value at New York City do — | 38, 544 

Quicksilver, value at San Fmmisco flasks. . , 31 , 913 

Nickel, value at Philadelphia pounds. . i 64, 550 

Aluminum, value at Pittsburg do \ 150 

Antimony, value at San Francisco short tons..' 60 

Platiniuu (crude), value at Sun FranciH<'o troy ounces..! 150 



Total value of metallic products. 



NONMETALLIC (SPOT VALUES). 

Bituminous coal long tons. 

Pennsylvania anlhnicile do — 

Stone. 



73,730,539 
33.175,750 



Petroleum barrels. . 

Lime do 

Natural gas 

Brick clay 

Clay (all otlur than brick ) sh<»rt tons. . 

Cement barrels. . 

Salt do.... 

Phosphate rock long tons. . 

Limestone for iron flu.x dt) 

Mineral waten* gallons s(»ld . . 

I Zinc white short tons. . I 

; Mineral paint.s do 

Borax poun<ls. . i 

I Gypsum short tons. . I 

I (irindstones 

I Fibrous l4ilc short tons. . 

I Pyrite loii^' tons. . i 

Soapstone sbori t(*iis.. 

I Manganese ore long tons. . 1 

I Asphaltuni short tons. . 

Precious stones 

I Bromine jK)unds. . 

I Corundum short tons. . i 

Barytes (crude) do 

. (traphite pounds..' 

Millstones ! 

I OiIstone.s. cle. <« pounds.. 

1 Marls short tons., 

I Flint long Ions. . 

' Fluorspar short Ions.. 

Chromic iron ore long tons.. 

' Infu^^orial eurlh short tons.. 

I Feldspar long tons.. 

' Mien p(»nnds. . 

Cobalt oxide do.... 

Slate ground as a pigment short tons.. 

Sulphur do 

Asbestos do 

Kutile pounds.. 

Lilhogniphie stone short tons.. 



24,218,438 
37,000,000 



Value. 



S73, 761, 624 
48,800,0tX} 

;ui, 800. 000 

17.789,6S7 

10, 537, 042 

3, 422, 707 

936,327 

48,412 

1,350 

12,0(K) 

450 



39, 200 

4.000.00(1 

(>,511.937 

431,779 

3. lOl.y.'Hl 

10,215.:{28 

1H,|>00 

7, 000 

7. 0(H). 000 

90,000 



10. (MK) 

;;'s.0(>o 
In, (KH» 

lU, IH) 
3,000 



2S1,1(J0 

ooo 

25, 1(00 



SO(l, (KM) 
875. (XN( 
30.(H»0 
1,(HH» 
2.<H'0 
1,(HH) 
lO.'.HMI 
117.410 
2,0(K» I 
L'.MHI I 
5(Mt ' 
l.tHK) I 
(HK) 



Total value of nonmetnllie mineral products 

Total value of metallic jirodncts , 

Estimated value of mineral priMlucts unspe«'itie<l . 



Grand total . 



186, 109, 599 



77,417,066 
66.351,512 
19, (.XK>, 000 
20, 595, 966 
18. .500, 0tX> 
1,460,000 



270,000 

3,720,tK)0 

4.197,734 

2,374,781 

1,700, 9(V) 

1,459.143 

910.000 

84,000 

490, (KHl 

390, (HK) 

570, 000 

110. (HH» 

175. (HH» 

200. (HX) 

r22.hin 

10, ;A\) 

222,975 

67, 4(V4 

ia<<,(KK) 

100, tXK) 




ir»0,(KK) 
12. (HN) 

4:'7.r>(»o 

120. OdU ' 
2(».(MH» I 

;;'i.ooo 

5. (KKl 
.v., 112 ■ 

;>..s,r»2:> 1 

5. KM 
20.000 ! 
IJ.mM) t 
:Io,(^'H) ' 

•J, (HI* 



"Prior to 18b9(iuantily and value are for rough stone <iuurri<'d; since lN90they an- for linished |>r<Mluct. 



Digitized by 



Google 



SUMMARY. 

the cfiJmdar years 1680-1903— Continued. 



29 



I 1885. 


1886. 


1887. 




1 Qimntfty. 


Value. 


Qoantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




4.044,425 


164.712,400 


6,688,329 


$96,196,760 


6, 417, 148 


$121,925,800 


1 


39.910,279 


51,600,000 


39,445,812 


61,000,000 


41,269,240 


68,350,000 


2 


1,538.376 


81,800,000 


1,881,250 


86,000,000 


1,696,600 


88,000,000 


8 


170,962.607 


18,292.999 


161,285,381 


16,827,651 


185,227,331 


21,116,916 


4 


129,412 


10,469,431 


180,629 


12,200,749 


146,700 


18,113,000 


5 


40,688 


8,589.856 


42,641 


8,762,408 


50,340 


4,782,800 


6 


32,073 


979,189 


29,981 


1,060,000 


83,826 


1,429,000 


■ 7 


277,904 


179,975 


214,992 


127, 167 


206,666 


183,200 


8 


283 


2.550 


8.000 


27,000 


18,000 


59,000 


9 


50 


10,000 


85 


7,000 


76 


15,000 


10 


250 


187 


50 


100 


448 


1,838 


11 




181,586,587 




214,897,826 




248,925,054 


12 








64,840,668 


82,347,648 


73,707,967 


78,481.056 


87,887,360 


98,004,656 


13 


34,228,548 


76,671,948 


34,853,077 


76.119.120 


37,578,747 


84,552,181 


14 




19,000,000 




19,000.000 
19,996,313 




25,000,000 


15 


21,847.205 


19,198,243 


28,064.841 


28,278,866 


18,877,094 


16 


40,000,000 


20,000,000 










17 




4, 857, 200 




10 012 000 




15, 817, f>00 


18 








6 200,000 




7,000, fOO 


19 


40,320 


•jTnJrOO 


44,800 


:^25, 000 


48,160 


:m. iKX) 


20 


4,150,000 


;'.u^j,:«) 


4,500,000 


3, WO, 000 


6,692,744 


5,674,^77 ' 21 


7,038,653 


4.sz\:m 


7,707,081 


4,736,f*? 


7,831.962 


4,093, K16 


22 


437,856 


2,^lfn,r«4 


430,549 


1, 872, 936 


480,568 


l,836,.sl8 


23 


3,356,956 


l,h7^,478 


4,717,163 


2,830,297 


6,377,000 


3,-226,'iOO 


24 


9,148,401 


l,:^li,S45 


8,950,317 


1,284.070 


8,269,609 


1,251,463 


25 


15.000 


lJ^r4}jOO 


18,000 


1,440.000 


18,000 


1,410,<K)0 


26 


3.9t0 


VAJ^Tb 


18,800 


315.000 


22,000 


330,000 


27 


8,000,000 


■INJ, 1100 


9,778,290 


48«, 915 


11,000,000 


550,000 


28 


90,405 


4l)n.(J0O 


95,260 


428, 625 


95,000 


425,000 


29 




'W. (.00 

110 J 00 




2W, COO 
125,000 




224, 400 
160,000 


•.M) 


10.000 


12,000 


15,000 


31 


49,000 


'2-M. .^OO 


55,000 


220,000 


52,000 


210,000 


32 


10,000 


21 KM 00 


12,000 


225.000 


12,000 


225,000 


:tt 


23.258 


l-«)/J81 


80,193 


277,636 


34,524 


333.844 


M 


3.000 


in. ,00 


3,600 


14,000 


4,000 


16,000 


:iT 




'*()';1 '00 




119,0.% 




163,600 


;h6 


310.000 


S'J.^tOO 


428,334 


141,3.^>0 


199,087 


61,717 


37 


600 


in^.<00 


645 


116, 190 


600 


108,000 1 m 


15,000 


TniOO 


10,000 


50,000 


15,000 


75,000 


39 


327, SS3 


2u. ■J31 


415,525 


a-?. 242 


416,000 


34,000 


40 




10(1. fOO 

i:\(O0 




140.000 
15,000 




100.000 
16,000 


41 


1,000,000 


1,160,000 


1,200.000 


42 


875.000 


■}H7.rO0 


800,000 


400, 000 


600,000 


300,000 


13 


30 000 


1-0,(00 


30,000 


120, 000 


32,000 


128,000 


44 


5,000 


*-, 00 


5,000 


2-2,000 


5,000 


20,000 


45 


2,700 


iu,uOO 


2,000 


30,000 


3,000 


40,000 


4« 


1,000 


5,000 


1,200 


6,000 


3.000 


15,000 


47 


IS.fKW 


68,000 


14,900 


74,.^ 


10,200 


61,200 


48 


92.000 


161,000 


40.000 


70,000 


70.000 


142, 2,t0 


49 


68.723 


66,373 


3.5,000 


•Si), 878 


18,340 


18, 774 .SO 


1 975 


24,687 










h] 


715 


17,875 


2,500 


75,000 


3,000 


100,000 


52 


300 


9.000 


200 


6.000 


150 


4.. 500 


i^i 


r.00 


2,000 


600 


2,000 


1,000 


3,000 


.54 
.55 








230. Oas, 769 


— 


270, 989, 420 

248, 925,054 

800.000 






241.312,093 

181,586,587 

6,000,000 




r^ 






214,897,.H25 
800,000 

445, 7Sr,, 094 




wi 






58 











I 


427, 898, 680 




r.*.»0,714.474 


59 


1 









Digitized by 



Google 



80 



MINERAL BESOUBGES. 

Mineral products of the Ihiied SMU^Jc 



Product. 



METALLIC. 

Pig iron, value at Philadelphia long tons. 

Silver, coining value troy ounces. 

Gold, coining value do. . . 

Coppier, value at New York City pounds. 

Lead, value at New York City short tons. 

Zinc, value at New York City do. . . 

Quicksilver, value at San Francisco flasks. 

Aluminum, value at Pittsburg pounds. 

Antimony, value at San Francisco short tons. 

Nickel, value at Philadelphia pounds. 

Tin do... 

Platinum (crude), value at San Francisco troy ounces . 



Total value of metallic products. 



NONMETALLIC (SPOT VALUES). 

Bituminous coal short tons. 

Pennsylvania anthracite long tons. 

Stone . 



Petroleum barrels. 

Natural gas 

Brick clay 

Clay (all other than brick) short tons. 

Cement barrels. 

Mineral waters gallons sold . 

Phosphate rock long tons. 

Salt barrels. 

Limestone for iron fl ux long tons. 

Zinc white short tons. 

Gypsum do... 

Borax pounds. . 

Mineral paints short tons. 

Grindstones 

Fibrous talc short tons. 

Asphaltum do . . . 

Soapstone do . . . 

Precious stones 

Py ri te 1 ong ton s . 

Corundiun ^ short tons. 

Oilstones, etc. « pounds. 

Mica do. . . 

Barytes (crude) short tons. 

Bromine pounds. 

Fluorspar short tons. 

Feldspar long tons. 

Manganese ore do. . . 

Flint do... 

Graphite pounds. 

Bauxite long tons. 

Sulphur short tons . 

Marls do. . . 

Infusorial earth do... 

Millstones 

Chromic iron ore long tons. 

Cobalt oxide pounds. 

Magnesite short tons. 

Asbestos do... 

Rutile pounds. 

Ozocerite (refined) do... 



Total value of nonmetallic mineral products 

Total value of metallic products 

Estimated value of mineral products unspecified. 

Grand total 



Quantity. 



6,489,788 

4&, 783, 632 

1,604,927 

231,270.622 

161,919 

55,903 

33,260 

19,000 

100 

204,328 



500 



102,039,838 
41,624,611 



27,612,025 



41,160 
6,503,295 
9,678,648 
448,567 
8,055,881 
6,438,000 

20,000 

U0,000 

7,589,000 

26,500 



20,000 
63,800 
16,000 



64,331 

589 

1,500,000 

48,000 

20,000 

807,386 

6,000 

8,700 

29,198 

30,000 

400,000 



300,000 
1,600 



1,500 
8,491 



100 

1,000 

43,500 



Value. 



$107,000,00 

59,195,00 

33,175.00 

33,833.9.1 

13.399,2.1 

5,500.8.1 

1,413, 1'i 

65. a 

20, W 

127, 6J 



2,0 



253,731.8 



101,860,5 

89,020,4 

25, 500, ( 

17, 947, ( 

22, 629, ( 

7,600.( 

300, < 

5,021, 

1,679,; 

2,018, 

4,374, 

2,719, 

1,600. 

m, 

45.^. 

405. 

281. 

210. 

831. 

250, 

139, 

167, 
91, 
18 
70 

110 
95 
80 
60 

279 

127 



151 
7 

81 
2( 
1( 



286, 15< 
253,73 

90 



540,78 



a Prior to 1889 quantity and value are for rough stone quarried; since 1890 they are for finished pr 



Digitized by 



Google 



SUMMARY. 
tke caUndar yean 1880-1903 — (k)ntinued. 



31 



1889. 


1890. 


1891. 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




7,606,642 

51.S:>4.851 

1.590,869 

231,246,214 

156.897 

68,860 

26,484 

47,468 

115 

258,663 


1120, 000. OOO 
66, 396. 686 
:?-J,><«r.,180 

2*;.W7..K)9 
13,794.235 
ri,7l!l.S'24 

i.r^i. .'>oo 

<J7. .T35 
2S, (>00 
i:.l..^98 


9,202,708 

54,500,000 

1,588.880 

265,115.183 

148,630 

63.683 

22,926 

61,281 

988 

223,488 


8151,200,410 

70,464,645 

32,845,000 

80,848,797 

12,668,166 

6,266,407 

1,203,615 

61,281 

177,508 

134,093 


8,279,870 

58.330,000 

1.604,840 

295.812.076 

178,554 

80,873 

22,904 

150,000 

1,289 

118,498 

125,289 

100 


$128,387,985 

75,416,565 

83,175,000 

38,455,300 

15,534,198 

8,083.700 

1,036,386 

100,000 

217,957 

71,099 

26,058 

600 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 


500 


2,000 


600 


2,500 


12 




267,246,167 




305,872,422 




300,408,748 


13 










95,685,543 
40,714,721 


94,504,746 

65,879,614 

42,809,706 

26,963,340 

21,097,099 

8,000,000 

635,578 

5,000,000 

1,748,458 

2,937,776 

4,196,412 

8,159,000 

1,857,600 

764,118 

500,000 

483,766 

439,587 

244,170 

171,537 

231,708 

188,807 

202,119 

105,665 

82,980 

50,000 

106,313 

125,667 

45,835 

39.370 

240.569 

89,780 

72,662 

2,366 

5; 850 

63,956 

28,872 

35,165 

80,000 

81,092 


111,320,016 
41,489,858 


110,420,801 

66,383,772 

47,000,000 

35,865,106 

18,742,725 

8,500,000 

766.000 

6,000,000 

2,600.750 

8,213,795 

4,752,286 

2,760.811 

1,600,000 

574,523 

617,500 

681,992 

450,000 

389,196 

190,416 

252,309 

118,833 

273,745 

89,895 

69,909 

75,000 

86,505 

104,719 

56,328 

45.200 

219,050 

57,400 

77,500 

6,012 


117,901,287 
45,236,992 


117,188,400 
73.944,735 
47,294,746 


14 
15 

16 


85,163,513 


45,822,672 


54,291,980 


30,526,563 , 17 
15,500,084 ' 18 








9,000,000 19 


329.665 
7.000.000 
12.780.471 
550.245 
8,005.565 
6,818.000 
16,970 


392.000 
8,000,000 
18,907,418. 

510,499 
8,776,991 
5,521,622 


448.000 

8.222,792 

18,892,732 

587,988 

9,987.945 

5,000.000 

23,700 

208,126 

13,380,000 

49,652 


900.000 

6,680,951 

2,996,259 

8,651,150 

4,716,121 

2,800,000 

1,600,000 

628,051 

869,700 

678,478 

476,113 

493,068 

242,264 

243,981 

235.300 

338,880 

90.230 

150,000 

100,000 

118,363 

54,880 

78,330 

50,000 

239,129 

60.000 

110,000 

11, 675 

39,600 

67,500 

21,988 

16,587 

20.580 

18,000 

4,390 

3,960 

800 

7,000 


20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
?6 


267,769 

' 8,000,000 

84,807 


182,995 

9,500,000 

47,782 


27 
28 
29 
80 


23.746 
51,735 
12,715 


41,354 
40,841 
13,670 


63,054 
45,054 
16,514 


31 
32 
33 
34 


98,705 

2,245 

5.982,000 

49,500 

19,161 

418,891 

9.500 

6.970 

24,197 

21,118 


99,854 
. 1,970 


106,536 

2,265 

1,376.000 

75,000 

81,069 

348,000 
10.044 
10,000 
23,416 
16,000 


35 
36 

37 


60,000 
21,911 
387,847 
8,250 
8,000 
25,684 
13,000 


38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 


728 

1.150 

189,622 

8,466 


1,844 


3,593 

1.200 

135,000 


46 

47 


153.620 
2,532 


69.880 
50.240 
23,720 
58,985 
16,291 


48 
49 




50 


, 2,000 
! 13*955 


8.599 
6,788 


1,372 

7,200 

439 

66 

800 

50,000 


61 
52 


80 

1,000 

50,000 


i.866 
3,000 
2,500 


7i 

400 

350,000 


4.560 
1,000 
26,250 


54 
55 
66 


1 


282.623,812 

267,246,167 

1,000,000 




312,776,503 

806,872,422 

1,000,000 




321,767,846 

300,403,748 

1,000,000 


57 









58 








59 










1 


550.809,979 




619,648,925 




623,171,594 


60 


i 









Digitized by 



Google 



82 



MINEBAL RE80UBCES. 



Mineral products of the United Statetfi 



Product. 



1892. 



Quantity. 



METALLIC. 

Pif iron, epot value long tons. 

Silver, coining value troy ounfces. 

Gold, coining value do. . . 

Ctopper, value at New York City pounds. 

Lead, value at New York City short tons. 

Zinc, value at New York City do... 

Quiclullver, value at San Francisco flasks. 

Aluminum, value at Pittsburg pounds. 

Antimony, value at San Francisco short tons. 

Nickel, value at Philadelphia pounds. 

Tin do... 

Platinum, value (crude) at San Francisco troy ounces. 



9,167,000 

63,600,000 

1,896,875 

862,971,744 

173,654 

87,260 

27,998 

259,885 

1,790 

92,252 

162,000 

80 



Total value of metallic products . 



NONMETALUC (SPOT VALUES). 

Bituminous coal short tons. 

Pennsylvania anthracite long tons. 

Natural gas 

Petroleum burels. 

Brick clay 

Cement barr^. 

Stone 



126,856,567 
46,850,450 



Corundum and emery short tons. 

Crystalline quartz do. . . 

Garnet for abrasive purposes , do. . . 

Grindstones 

Infusorial earth and tripoli short tons. 

Millstones 

Oilstones, etc 

Borax pounds. 

Bromine do . . . 

Fluorspar short tons. 

Gypsum do... 

Marls do. . . 

Phosphate rock long tons. 

Pyrite do... 

Salt barrels. 

Sulphur short tons. 

Baiytes (crude) « do... 

Cobalt oxide pounds. 

Mineral paints short tons. 

Zinc white do . . . 

Asbestos do... 

Asphaltum do... 

Bauxite long tons. 

Chromlc iron ore do. . . 

Clay (all other than brick) short tons. 

Feldspar do... 

Fibrous talc do. . . 

Flint do... 

Fuller's earth do... 

Graphite pounds. 

Limestone for iron flux long tons. 

Magnesite short tons. 

Manganese ore long tons. 

Mica pounds. 

Mineral waters gallons sold . 

Monazite pounds. 

Ozocerite (refined) do... 

Precious stones 

Pumice stone short tons. 

Rutile pounds. 

Soapstone short tons. 



Total value of nonmetallic mineral products 

Total value of metallic products 

Estimated value of mineral products unspecified ; 

Grand total 



60,509,136 
* 8* 758,621 
i*77i 



13,500,000 

879,480 

12,250 

256,259 

125,000 

681,571 

109,788 

11,698,890 

2,688 

82,108 

7,869 

51,704 

27,500 

104 

87,680 

10,518 

1,500 

470,400 

16,800 

41,925 

22,400 



5,172,114 

1,004 

13,613 

75,000 

21^876,604 



60,000 



100 
23,908 



Digitized by 



Google 



8UMMARY. 



83 



the calendar years IS80-1 90S— Continued. 



1893. 


1894. 


1895. 




Quantity. 

1 


Value. 
1^,810.426 


Quantity. 


Value. 
865,007,247 


Quantity. 


Value. 
8ia5,196,550 




1 

7,124,502 


H, 657, 388 


9,446.308 


1 


60.000,000 


77,576,000 


49,501.122 


64,000.000 


55.727,000 


72,051,000 


•> 


1.739,081 


a5, 955, 000 


1,910.816 


39,500.000 


2,254.760 


46,610,000 


3 


339.7«5,972 


:«,054.601 


364,866.808 


33,141,142 


385,913.404 


:^, 012, 470 


4 


163,982 


11.8:^9,590 


159,331 


9, 942, -254 


170.000 


11,220,000 


5 


78,832 


6.30H,r>«) 


75.328 


5,288,026 


89,686 


6,278,020 





30, IM 


1,108,527 


30,416 


934,000 


36,104 


1,337,131 


/ 


339.629 


266,90:i 


550,000 


316,250 


920,000 


464,600 


s 


1.503 


270.540 


1,387 


249, 706 


2,013 


304,169 





49,899 


22,197 


9,616 


3,269 


10,302 


3.091 


10 


8,938 


1.788 










It 


75 


517 


100 


GOO 


150 


900 
281,479,931 


12 




250,212,649 




218,382,494 




13 






*' 




128,885,231 


122,751,618 


118.820,405 


107.663,501 


135, 118, 193 


115,749,771 


14 


48,185,906 


86,687,078 


46,368,144 


78.488,063 


51,786,122 


82,019,272 


16 




14,846,250 




13, 964, 400 




13,006,660 


16 


48,412,666 


28,932,326 


49,344,516 


86,622,095 


52,892,276 


67,632,296 


17 




9,000,000 




9 000,000 




9,000,000 
5,J82,264 


18 


8,002,46^ 


6,262,841 


8,362.245 


5,030,081 


8,731,401 


19 




33,886,578 
142,326 




36,534,788 
96,936 




88,319 181 


90 


1,713 


1,495 


2,102 


106,256 


21 






6,024 


18,054 


9,000 


27,000 


'?? 






?8 




888,787 




223,214 




206,768 


?4 




22,582 


2,584 


11, 718 


4,954 


20,614 


?6 




16,645 




13,887 




22,542 


?« 




185,173 




136,873 




165.881 


?7 


8,699,000 


662,425 


14,680.130 


974,445 


11.918,000 


695,900 


28 


848,899 


104,520 


879,444 


102,450 


617,421 


134,343 


29 


12,400 


84.000 


7,500 


47,500 


4,000 


24,000 


80 


258,615 


096,616 


289,312 


761,719 


265,508 


807,447 


31 


75,000 


40,000 


75,000 


40,000 


60,000 


80,000 


82 


941,868 


4,138,070 


996,949 


8,479,547 


1,038,551 


8,606,094 


33 


76,777 


256,652 


105,940 


363,134 


99,549 


322.845 


34 


11,816,772 


4,064.668 


12,967,417 


4,739,285 


13,669,649 


4,423,084 


36 


1.200 


42,000 


500 


20.000 


1,800 


42,000 


36 


28.970 


88,506 


28,335 


86.983 


21,529 


68,321 


37 


8,422 


10,346 


6,768 


10. 145 


14,458 


20,676 


38 


87.724 


580, 8M 


41.926 


498,093 


60,695 


621,552 


39 


24,050 


1,804,420 


19,987 


1,399,090 


20,710 


1,449,700 40 


50 


2,500 


325 


4,463 


795 


18,525 


41 


47,779 


872, -282 


60,570 


853,400 


68,163 


848,281 


42 


9,079 


29,507 


11,066 


86,818 


17,069 


44,000 


43 


1,450 


21.750 


8.680 


68,231 


1.740 


16,795 


44 


448,000 


900,000 


403,200 


800,000 


403,200 


800,000 


46 


20,678 


68.307 


19,264 


167.000 


8,523 


30,000 


46 


8.% 861 


408,436 


89,906 


436,060 


39,240 


870,895 


47 


88,281 


68,792 


42,560 


819,200 


13.747 
6,900 


21,038 
41,400 


48 
49 


843,108 


63.232 


918.000 


64,010 




52,582 


50 


3,968,055 


2,874,838 


8,698.550 


1,849,275 


6,247,919 


2,623,974 


51 


7W 


7,040 


1,440 


10,240 


2,200 


17,000 


62 


7,718 


66.614 


6,308 


58,635 


9,547 


71,769 


58 


66. »n 
23,544.495 


88,929 




52,388 




.55, 831 


54 


4,246.784 


21,569.608 


8,741,846 


21,463,648 


4,254,237 


56 


180.000 


7,600 


&46,866 


86,193 


1,578,000 


137, 150 


56 
57 




264.041 




132,250 




113,621 


58 








59 


::: ::::::::::;:i 


150 
2:?, IM 


450 
401,325 

307, 714, 785 

218,382,494 

1,000,000 

627,097,279 


100 
21,495 


350 
266,495 

338,172,239 

281,479,931 

1,000,000 


60 


21,071 


255,0»n| 

828.257.318 : 

250,212,649 j 

1.000,000 j 


61 






(^2 








6;^ 








frt 











~ ■ - 


574,469.907 | 




620.652,170 


66 











M R 1903 



Digitized by 



Google 



34 



MINERAL RE80UBCES. 



Mineral products of the United States for 



14 

15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
26 
26 
27 
28 
29 
80 
31 
32 
33 
34 
85 
36 
87 



Product. 



METALUC. 

Pig iron, spot value long tons.. 

Silver, coining value .troy ounces. . 

Gold, coining value do 

Ck>pper, value at New York City pounds. . 

Lead, value at New York City short tons. . 

Zinc, value atNew York City do 

Quicksilver, value at San Francisco fiasks. . 

Aluminum, value at Pittsburg pounds. . 

Antimony, value at San Francisco short tons. . 

Nickel, value at Philadelphia pounds. 

Tin do... 

Platinum, value (crude) at San Francisco troy ounces. . 



Total value of metallic products. 



NONMETALUC (SPOT VALURS). 

Bituminous coal short tons. 

Pennsylvania anthracite long tons. 

Natural gas 

Petroleum barrels. 

Brick clay 

Cement barrels. 

Stone 



Corundum and emery short tons. 

Crystalline auartz do. . . 

Garnet foi' abrasive purposes do. . . 

Grindstones 

Infusorial earth and tripoli short tons. 

Millstones 

Oilstones, etc 



Borax pounds. 

Bromine do. . . 

Fluorspar short tons. 

Gypsum do... 

Marls do . . . 

Phwphate rock long ions. 

Pyrite do... 

Siilt barrels. 

Sulphur short tons. 

Barytes (crude) do... 

Cobalt oxide pounds. 

Mineral paints short tons. 

Zinc white do. . . 

Asbestos do. . . 

A.sphaltum do. . . 

Bauxite long tons. 

Chromic iron ore do. . . 

Clay (all other than brick) short tons. 

Feldspar do. . . 

Fibrous talc do. . . 



Flint . 



.do. 



Fullers earth do. . . 

Graphtte (crjTJtalline) pounds. 

Graphite (amorphoiLs) short tons. 

Limestone for iron flux long tons. 

Magnesite short tons. 

Manganese ore - long tons. 

Mica (sheet) pounds. 

Mica (.«*crap) short tons. 

Mineral waters gallons sold . 

Monazite pounds. 

Ozocerite ( refined) do. . . 

Precious stones 

Pumice stone short tons. 

Rutile pounds. 

Soapstone short ions. 



Total value of nonmetallic mineral products 

Total value of metallic products , 

Estimated value of mineral products unspecified . 



1896. 



Quantity. 



8,623,127 

58,834,800 

2,568,132 

460,061,430 

188,000 

81,499 

30,765 

1,300,000 

2,478 

17.170 



163 



137,640,276 
48,523,287 



60,960,361 
"9," sis," 473 



2,120 
6,000 



3,846 



13,508, 

516, 

6. 

224, 

60, 

930, 

116. 

13,850, 

6, 

17, 

10, 

48, 

20, 

80, 
18, 

403, 
10, 
46, 
12, 



635,858 
760 
102 
500 



4,120, 

1, 

10, 



25,796,812 
80,000 



100 
22,183 



Grand total . 



Value. 



$90,250,000 

76,069,236 

53,088.000 

49,456,603 

10,528,000 

6,519,920 

1,075,449 

620,000 

347,539 

4,464 



944 
287, 860, 155 



114,891,515 

81,748,651 

13,002,512 

58,518,709 

9,000,000 

6,473,213 

30,142,661 

113,246 

18,000 



826,826 
26,792 
22,567 

127,098 

675,400 

144,501 
52,000 

573,344 

30,000 

2,803,372 

320,163 

4,040,839 

87,200 

46,513 

16.301 

580, 455 

1,400,000 

6,100 

577,563 

47,338 

6,667 

800,000 
35,200 

399,443 
24,226 
59,360 

48,460 

2,060,000 

11,000 

90,727 

65,441 

1,750 

4,136.192 

1,500 



97,850 . 



850 
854,065 



833,954,110 

287,860,165 

1,000,000 



622,814,266 



Digitized by 



Google 



8UMMABY. 
the calendar years ISSO-lQOS-^-ConiAnned, 



35 



/ 



18»7. 


1898. 


1899. 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




9,662,680 


995,122,299 


11,778,984 


S1U>,.'^57,000 


13,620,703 


S245. 172,654 


1 


58,860,000 


69. f^47. 172 


54,488,000 


70.;^84,485 


54,764,500 


70,806,626 


2 


2.774,«85 


57.;ifi:ija) 


8,118,398 


«V1. 163,000 


3,487,210 


71,053,400 


8 


; 494,078,274 


M, ant. 180 


626.512,987 


r. 1,^66,276 


568,666,921 


101, '222, 712 


4 


1 212,000 


11,SH.\728 


222,000 


1f:,r.50,000 


210,600 


IS, 1145,000 


5 


99,980 


b. !'>,;«) 


115,399 


1U.;{85,910 


129,061 


1J,K40,865 


6 


26.648 


99:\, 446 


31,092 


1.188,627 


80,464 


l,l-')2,745 


7 


4,000,000 


1 , biXi, 000 


5,200,000 


1,716,000 


5,200,000 


1.716,000 


8 


3,061 


442,1^00 


3,238 


.^32,101 


2,861 


r^,189 


9 


23.707 


7,H23 


11.145 


3,956 


22,541 


8,566 


10 
11 


150 


900 


225 


1,913 


800 


1,800 


12 




802,681,147 




843,748,268 




625,779,567 


18 










147,617,619 


U9,5a^,l24 


166,593,628 


132, tm, 713 


193,323,187 


167,962,104 


14 


46.974,714 


7'.l,301.964 


47,668,076 


7r>, IM,.-^ 


53,944,647 


88,142,130 


15 




K-l.S'2r., 122 




15,2iX), ,S18 




20,074,873 
64,603,904 


16 


60,475,516 


'10,>s71,W2 


55,864,288 


44, I93,;3&9 


57,070,860 


17 




S,(KH).(iO0 




9. (MX), t100 




11,250,000 


18 


10.989,468 


x,17^<,•J83 


12,111,208 


9, Sn9, fiOl 


15,520,445 


12,889,142 


19 




34.6C7.772 




36 (H)7 •J84 




44,090,670 


'/O 


2,165 


106, 574 


4,064 


275, ()64 


4,900 


150,600 


21 


7,600 


22,600 


8,812 


2;>, t»90 


13.600 


89,000 


22 


2,654 


80,&t3 


2,967 


8*'..,S50 


2,765 


98,825 


28 




368, a5S 




4H9 769 




675,686 
87,082 


?4 


8,885 


22,835 


2,788 


in. (i91 


4,334 


85 




■'-"> '*32 




2.^> V>34 




28,115 
208,283 


W 




1 1'.t '.»70 




1W),788 




71 


i6,'666,'66o 


1,0&0,UOO 


16,000,000 


1.120. (TOO 


40,714,000 


1,139,882 


28 


487.149 


129,094 


486,979 


125,014 


433,004 


108,251 


29 


6.062 


87.159 


7,675 


r,3,060 


15,900 


96,660 


30 


288,982 


756,864 


291,688 


7.\%280 


486,235 


1,287,060 


31 


60,000 


80,000 


60,000 


SO, 000 


60,000 


30,000 


32 


1.089,845 


2,678,202 


1,806,885 


'^,v<^,m 


1,516,702 


5,084,076 


38 


148.201 


801,541 


193,364 


59-., hOI 


174,734 


548,249 


84 


15,978,202 


4,920,020 


17,612,634 


6,2I2.r^ 


19,706,614 


6,867,467 


35 


2,275 


45,560 


1.200 


32, 960 


4,830 


107,500 


36 


26.042 


58,295 


81,806 


im, :^ 


41,894 


139,628 


87 


19,620 


81.282 


6,247 


9. ;^71 


10,280 


18,512 


38 


60,913 


795.793 


58,850 


r.9i,.^ 


63,111 


728,389 


39 


25,000 


1,750,000 


83,000 


2,310,000 


40,146 


3,2U,680 


40 


580 


6,450 


605 


10,300 


681 


11,740 


41 


75,945 


664,682 


76,837 


675. (49 


75,065 


553,904 


42 


20,690 


67,662 


25^149 


75,437 


85,280 


125,598 


43 
44 


568,115 


978.448 


585,450 


i, 384, 766 


843,279 


1,646,828 


45 


12.516 


43,100 


18,440 


32,395 


24,202 


211,545 


46 


57,009 


896,936 


54,356 


411,430 


54,655 


438,150 


47 


18.466 


26.227 


21,425 


42,670 


29,852 


180,345 


48 


i 17,113 


112,272 


14.860 


106,600 


12,381 


79,644 


49 


f 1,254.402 
\ 1.108 


1 64,277 


/ 2,360,000 
\ 890 


} 75,200 


/ 2,900,732 
\ 2,324 


1 167,106 


150 
151 


4.247,688 


2,124,000 


,S, 275, 819 


2,638,000 


6,707,436 


4,695,205 


62 


1.148 


18,671 


1,263 


19,075 


1.280 


18,480 


53 


11.108 


96,505 


15,967 


129,185 


9,935 


82,278 


54 


82,676 


80,774 


129,520 


103,534 


108,570 


70,587 


55 


740 


14,462 


3,999 


27,564 


1,605 


60,878 


56 


23,265.911 


4.599,106 


28,8.53,40« 


8,051,833 


39,562,136 


6,948,080 


57 


44.000 


1,980 


250,776 


13,542 


360,000 


20,000 


58 
69 




130,675 




160,920 

13,200 

700 




185,770 

10,000 

1,030 


60 


158 


600 
140 


400 
230 


61 


100 


850 


62 


2],S28 


365,629 


22.231 


287,112 

353. 848, .520 

343,748,268 

1,000,000 


24,765 


330,805 


63 




827.684.8^ 

802.581.147 

1.000.000 


V 




445,428,461 

625,779,557 

1,000,000 


64 








65 








66 


<- . 


631.21&.fi22 




698,596,788 




972,208.006 


67 











Digitized by 



Google 



30 



MINFRAL RESOURCES. 



Mineral jtrodiuts of (he rutted States for the calendar y€ar8 J880-190S—Q<MiMv[in^. 



Product. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Pig iron, spot value long tons.. 

Silver, coining value troy ounces. . 

Gold, coining value do — 

('cppcr, value at New Yorlc City pounds.. 

Lead, value at New York City short tons. . 

Zinc, value at New Yorlc City do 

Quicksilver, value at 8au Francisco flasks. . 

.Vluminum, value at Pittsburg pounds. . 

Antimony, value at San FrancL-co short tons. . 

Nickel, value at Philadelphia ix>unds. . 

Tin do. . . . 

Platinum, value (crude) at San Francisco troy ounces. . 



13,7h9,242 


1259, 944. ( 


57,647,000 


74,633,1 


3.H29.897 


79, 171, ( 


606, 117. 166 


98, 494. ( 


270, H24 


23,,^1,( 


123,886 


10,654. 


28,317 


i.aai.i 


7,150.000 


1.920. 


4.226 


837. 


9,715 


3, 



Total value of metallic products. 



NONMETALLIC (SPOT VALUES). 

Bituminous coal short tons. 

Pennsylvania anthracite long tons. 

Natural gas 

Petroleum barrels. 

Brick clay 

Cement ba rrels . 

Stone 

Corundum and emery short t^ms. 

Crystalline quartz do. . . 

Garnet for abrasive purposes do. . . 

Grindstones 

Infusorial earth and tripoli short tons. 

Millstones 

Oilstones, etc. 



I 212.316,112 
' 51,22J,3.->3 



63,620,529 | 
*i7,'23i,'i.^" 



4,305 , 
14,461 I 
3,186 



3,616 



Borax short tons. . | ^24 

Bromine pounds. . 521, 

Fluorspar short tons. . 1 8, 

Gypsum do 594, 

Litnium do — 

Marls do.... 60, 

Phosphate rock long tons. . 1, 491, 

Pyrite do.... 204. 

Salt Imrrels.. 20,869. 

Sulphur short t<m8. . 3, 

Barytea (crude) do — 67, 

Cobalt oxide pounds. . 6, 

M ineral pai nts short tons. . 72, 

Zinc white do.... 48, 

Asbestos do 1 • 1. 

Asphal tum do 54. 

Bauxite long tons. . 23, 

Chromic iron ore do 

Clay (all other than brick) short tons.. 1,221, 

Feldspar do 24, 

Fibrous talc do 63, 

Flint do.... 32, 

Fuller's eart h do ' 9. 

Graphite (crystalline) pounds. .' 5, 507, 

Graphite (amorphous) short tons..; 

Limestone for iron flux longtons.. 7,495, 

Magni*site short tons. . 2, 

Manganest* ore ., long tons. . 11, 

Mica (sheet) pounds. . 456, 

Mica (scrap) short tons. . 6, 

Mineral waters gallons soM . . 47, 558, 

Monazi te pounds. . 908, 

Ozocerite ( rellned) do | 

Precious stones 

Pumice stone short tuns | 

Rutile poun<ls. . 300 ; 

Soapstone short tons. . 27, 943 

Tot<»l value of nonmetallic mineral products 

Total value of metiillic product** 

Estimated value of mineral products unspecified 



602 

235 

444 

4.')0 

462 

520 

000 

216 

615 

342 

525 

680 

471 

222 

840 

a54 

389 

184 

140 I 

660 

821 

500 

495 

698 

8.\5 

611 

4:« 

252 
771 
283 
497 

784 
000 



550,42.-.. 



220, "^MX 

«J,7o7 

23, t.i»> 

75, 9^1' 

12, OD*' 

13,28;^ 

41,321 

10-J 

4( 

12: 

71( 

2 

S: 

17 

17 

84 

14 

1, (VJ 



5, ;>' 

1" 
3,ti 



1,^ 

1 

A 



] 
3,< 



M2, 

5r>o, 
1, 



Grand total . 



1.063, 



a Refined. 



/'Crude. 



Digitized by 



Google 



8UMMABY. 37 

Mineral products of the United Slates for the calendar years 1880-1903 — Continued. 



1901. 



Product. 



METALLIC. 

PigiTon, spot value long toim.. 

Silver, coining value troy ouneey. . 

<T<>ld, coining value do 

Copper, value at New York City pounds. . 

Lead, value at New York City short tons.. 

Zinc, value at New Y'ork CMty do 

Quicksilver, value at San Francisco fltusks. . 

Aluminum, value at Pittsburg pounds. . 

Antimony, value at San Francisco short tons. . 

Nickel, value at Philadelphia pounds. . 

Tin do 

Platinum, value (crude) at San Francisco troy ounces.. 

Total value of metallic products 



NONmCTALUC (SPOT VALUES). 

Bituminous coal short tons. 

Pennsylvania anthracite long tontt. 

Natural gas 

Petroleum barrels. 

Brick clay 

Oment barrels . 

Stone 

Corundum and emery short tons. 

(YT«taIIine quartz do. . . 

Garnet for abrasive purposes do. . . 

Grindstones 

Infusorial earth and tripoli short tons. 

Millstones 

UiNlone^, etc 

Arsenoun oadde short U»ns. 



Quantity. 



15,878,354 

55,214.000 

3,805,500 

602,072,519 

270, 700 

140, 822 

29. 727 

7,150,000 

2,639 

6,700 



1,408 



225,828.149 
60,242,560 



69,389,194 
j""26,'668*787' 




Borax . 



.do. 



Bromine fK >n nds. 

nu( •r'pjar short tons. 

G vitMi m do 

Liinium do... 

MarN do.. . 

Ph' t^phate nn-k lon^ tons. 

P>rite tio... 

H*i] t barrels. 

.*^ulphur 

Barytes (crude j short tons. 

Co^Mtli oxide lM)un(is. 

Mint-nil paints short t<»ns. 

Zinc white do... 

.A.-l»e^tf>S do . . . 

A'^ptialtum , d'>... 

Bauxit4" long t<»nM. 

(•hn»mir inm on* <io... 

("lav lall other than brick) short tons. 

tVNl-^imr <lo... 

Fibrous lule <l<».. . 

Flint «!.... 

FnH«'r'«« earth <lo. . . 

GrK^.hiie ( (ostallint' ) ImhukIs. 

♦ iraphiie (amorj»hon>) short loin. 

Limt-t<-ne for iron rlux loiij; t<»n<. 

Ma^rn^-^ite ^liori ton^. 

M;.ni;.int^-v<» ore lont; tons. 

Mira .«h«^'t) poiiniN. 

Mk-11 tMTJijM short ton>«. 

Mineral waters KalloiissnM. 

M'-na/ilo ImmiikN. 

*»/jK .rite 1 rrtiiuMl) «io. .. 

Pr»tn HIS st« »TM's 

I'l^i-iK e slone short toiH. 

kimle pouiMN. 



'{ 



300 

o5,344 

h 17, KS7 

552,043 

19, 5HG 

633. 791 

1,750 

99.K80 

1.4.h;{,723 

241.691 

20,566.661 

«■) 

49. 070 

13, 3(H) 

61 . 4lK) 

46, 500 

747 

r)3.131 

18, 9(Vi 

368 

1,367.170 

31.711 

69,2(HI ' 

;n. i-ti I 
11. ii-i 
3.'.»(;7,(;iJ I 

.sn. ( 

S..M(i. li^ 

11 /.''.•:. 

;u'-<i. Old 

•J. 171 

.V>.771. 1N.S 

74M.7;_;t; I 



Value. 



$242,174,000 

71,887,800 

78,666,700 

87,300,515 

23,280,200 

11,265,760 

1,382,306 

2,238,000 

539,902 

8,5:-)l 



N^|r.t.,n...... 

\ rdi^ium an*l 



vanadium 



■^l.'-^^n ' 
2.s,6j:5 I 



27,526 



518,266,259 



236,422,049 

112. 504, 020 

27.067,500 

66,417,335 

13,800,000 

15.786.789 

55,615,926 

146,040 

41.500 

158, 100 

580,703 

52,950 

57, 179 

158,300 

18,000 

697,307 

314,811 

154, 572 

113,803 

1,506,611 

43.200 

124, 880 

5,316,40;i 

1,2.')7,879 

6,617,449 

(C) 

157. M4 

24. (.H8 

7H9. %2 

3,720,000 

13, 498 

555, liT) 

79. 1»1 1 

5,790 

2. 57G, mi 

:.*20. 4->2 

■Ki.C^IO 

1 J'», I'M 

%, H3.') 

1(;7,7U 



lU.-^oO 
IIC.TJJ 

ly.7l'.» 



z^y. u.'j I 



Total vahu' of nonmetallif min<ral pro<lu«t> 

Tntnl vnlue<»f nu-tallic pnxlucls 

E.-tiniaUHl valu.' «»f jnineral pn)durts unspe<i 



.')».7.'js(;,it:r. 
.'.l^.i^(;f.,2:.y 

l.(KMI.(«rt» 



Grand total . 



1. ( IN ;..v.L', •_•*.•! 



aKefined. 



'ConiMncd w itli l»\ rih 



Digitized by 



Google 



38 MINERAL BE80UB0E8. 

Mineral products of the United States for the calendar years 1S80-190S — Continaed. 



Product 



METALLIC. 

Pif iron (spotyaloe) long tons. 

Silver, CGoning value troy ounces. 

Qold, coining value do... 

Copper, value at New York City pounds. 

Lead, value at New York City short tons. 

Zine. value at New York City do... 

Quicksilver, value at Ban Francisco flasks. 

Aluminum, value at Pittsburg pounds. 

Antimony, value at San Francisco short tons. 

Nickel, value at Philadelphia pounds. 

Tin do... 

Platinum, value (crude) at San Francisco troy ounces. 



Total value of metallic products. 



NONMETALLIC (SPOT VALUM). 

Bituminous coal short tons. 

Pennsylvania anthracite long tons. 

Natural gas 

Petroleum barrels. 

Brick clay 

Cement barrels. 

Stone 

Corundum and emery short tons. 

Crystalline quartz do... 

Garnet for abrasive purposes do... 

Grindstones 

Infusorial earth and tripoli short tons. 

Millstones 

Oilstones, etc 

Arsenious oxide short tons. 

Borax (refined) do... 

Borax (crude) do... 

Bromine pounds. 

Fluorspar short tons. 

Gypsum do... 

Litninm do... 

Marls do... 

Phosphate rock long tons. 

Pyrite do... 

Salt barrels. 

Sulphur 

Barytes (crude) short tons. 

Cobalt oxide pounds. 

Mineral paints short tons. 

Zinc white do... 

Asbestos do... 

Aspbaltum do... 

Bauxite .*. long tons. 

Chromic iron ore do... 

Clay (all other than brick)....- short tons. 

Feldspar do. . . 

Fibrous talc do . . . 

Flint do... 

Fuller's earth do. . . 

Glass sand do . . . 

Graphite (crystalline) pounds. 

Graphite (amorphous) short tons. 

Limestone for iron flux long tons. 

Magnesite short tons. 

Manganese ore long tons. 

Mica (sheet) pounds. 

Mica (wrap) short tons. 

Mineral waters gallons sold. 

Monazite pounds. 



1902. 



Quantity. 



17.821.807 

55,500,000 

8,870,000 

650,608,644 

270,000 

156,927 

34,291 

7,800,000 

8,561 

5,748 



94 



260,216,844 
36,940,710 



88,766,916 
*25,'758,*664 



4,251 
15,104 
8,926 



5,665 



1.353 

17,404 

2,600 

513.890 

48.018 

816,478 

1,245 

12,489 

1,490,814 

207.874 

23,849,281 

61,668 

3,780 

78.049 

52,645 

1,005 

105,458 

29,222 

815 

1,455,857 

45,287 

71,100 

36,365 

11,492 

943,135 

8,936,824 

4,789 

12,189.248 

2,830 

7,477 

373,266 ' 

1,400 I 

64,859,451 i 

802,000 : 



Value. 



$»72,776,( 

71,757.f 

80,000,( 

76,668,1 

22,140,1 

14,625,1 

1,467,1 

2,284, 

634, 

2. 



642,258, 



Zircon 

Precious stones 


do.... 






Pumice stone 


...short tons.. 


700 
8,810 




Rutile 


pounds.. 




Talc and soapstone 

Uranium and vanadium 


...short tons.. 
do.... 




Total value of nonmetallic mineral products 




617 


Total value of metallic products '. 




642* 


E^sUmated value of mineral products unspecitied - -- . .. 




1 










Grand total 




1.2GO, 











290.858, 

76,173, 

80,867 

71.178 

15,000 

25,366 

64,55S 

IW 

8^ 

132 

661 

5; 

» 

221 

8 

2,44 

9 

12 

27 

2,08 

2 

1 

4,65 

9^ 

6.6( 

'\ 

9- 
4,0 

7 
1 

2,0 
2 
6 
1 

] 



8,' 



a Included under pyrite. 



^Included under estimated unspecified product 



Digitized by 



Google 



SUMMARY. 



39 



MinertU produds of the United States /or the calendar years 1880-1 90S — Continued. 



Product. 



MrrALUc. 

Fig iron. TAlae at Philadelphia long tons . 

Silver, coining value troy ounces. 

QoW, coining value do. . . 

Copper, value at New York City pounds. 

Lead, value at New York City short tons. 

Zinc, value at New York City do... 

QaicuUver, value at San Francisco flasks. 

Alamlnum, value at Pittsburg pounds . 

Antimony, value at San Francisco short tons. 

Nickel, value at Philadelphia pounds. 

Tin do... 

Platinom, value (crude) at San Francisco troy ounces. 

Total value of metallic products 



NOKMETALUC (SPOT VALUES). 

Bituminous coal short tons. 

Pennsylvania anthracite long tons. 

Natunlgas 

Petroleum barrels. 

Brick clay 

Cement barrels.. 

Stone 

Corundum and emery short tons. 

Crystalline auartz do. . . 

Qainet for aorasive purpoees do. . . 

Grindstones 

Infusorial earth and tripoli short tons. 

Millstones 

Oilstones, etc 

Axsenioos oxide short tons. 

Borax (crude) do... 

Bromine pounds. 

Floontpar short tons. 

QvTMum do... 

iiihiom do... 

MarU do... 

Phaq>hate rock long tons. 

Pyrite do... 

Sulphur do... 

Salt barrels. 

Barytes (crude ) short tons. 

Cobalt oxide pounds. 

Mineral paints short tons. 

ZhM; white do... 

Asbestos do... 

A^thaltum do... 

Baaxlte long tons. 

Chromic iron ore do. . . 

Clay (all other than brick ) short tons. 

Fddspar do... 

Rbroustalc do... 

Flint do... 

Fuller's earth do... 

Glassand do... 

Graphite (crjnrtalline) pounds. 

Graphite (amorphous) short ions. 

limestone for iron flux long tons. 

Magnesite short tons. 

Manganese ore long tons. 

Mka (sheets) pounds. 

Mica (scrap) short tons. 

Mineral waters gallons sold. 

Mooazite pounds. 

Zircon : do... 



Prerioas stones 

Pom ice stone short tons. 

Radle pounds. 

Talc and soanrtone short tons. 

rimninm ana vanadium do . . . 



Total value of nonmetallic mineral products 

Total value of metallic products 

btimated value of mineral products unspecifled . 

Grand total 



Quantity. 



18,009,252 

54,800,000 

3,560,000 

698,044,517 

280,000 

159,219 

35,620 

7,600,000 

3,128 

114,200 

(«) 

110 



282,749,348 
66,613,454 



100,461,887 
"29,' 899,* MO 



2,542 
8,938 
3,960 



9,219 



34, 

598, 

42, 

1,041, 

1, 

34, 

1,581, 

c283, 

18,968, 
60, 
120, 
62. 
62, 

101, 
48, 

1,650, 

41, 

60, 

56, 

20, 

823, 

4,538, 

16, 

12.029, 

3, 

2, 

90, 

1, 

51,242, 



397 
000 
122 
,962 
887 
255 
087 
160 
835 
891 
230 
233 
693 
044 
155 
591 
719 
744 
825 
100 
693 
757 
000 
000 



26,671 
19 



Value. 



$344,850,000 

70,206,060 

73,591,700 

91,506.006 

28,520,000 

16,717,995 

1,544,984 

2,284,900 

M8,433 

45,900 



(>2,080 



624,318,008 

851,687.938 

152,036,448 

35,815,860 

94,694,050 

15,000,000 

31,931,341 

67.960,468 

64,102 

76,908 

132,500 

721,446 

76.278 

52,562 

866,857 

36,696 

661,400 

167.580 

213,617 

8,792,943 

23.425 

22,521 

5,319,294 

1,109,818 

5.286,988 
152, 150 

d 228, 000 
646,222 

4,801,718 
16.7C0 

1,005,446 

171.306 

2,260 

2,649.042 
256.733 
421.600 
156.947 
190,277 
855,828 

225,554 

6,423,732 

10,595 

25.335 

17,128 

41,990 

9,041,078 

64,680 

570 

321,400 

2,666 




1,419,721,569 



« So meullic tin; between 19 and 20 short tons of high-grade concentrates shipped to England from 
South Carolina. 

*Sot including 16,000 worth of platinum reported as contained in slimes from copper ore from the 
lUmbler mine, Wyoming. 

« Indoded under pyrite in 1901. 1902, and 1903. « 

' Sot Including value of 60 short tons of cobalt ore produced in Idaho. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



IRON ORES. 



Bv John Birkinbine. 



PROBUCTION. 

In the year ending December 31, 1903, the quantity of iron ore 
produced in the United States was 35,019,308 long tons. This is a 
decrease of 634,827 long tons, or about li per cent, from the maxi- 
mum of 35,554,135 long tons in 1902; but the quantity mined in 1903 
is the second largest recorded, and is greater than the combined totals 
of (iermany and Luxemburg and of the British Empire (the nearest 
competitors of the United States) in the year 1902. The data for 1903 
for the countries named are not 3^et available, but the same compari- 
son will probably prove true for this year also. The average iron 
content of the ore mined in the United States is also higher than that 
obtained in the two countries mentioned, and therefore the ore can 
produce a greater amount of pig iron. 

The total yearly production of iron ore in the United States from 
the year 1889, when statistics were first collected by the United States 
Geological Survey, to the close of the year 1903, is as follows: 

ProducOon of iron ore. in the United SlateSy 1889-190S. 



Year. 



Quantity. 



vm 

WW 

1891 

W92 

1W& I minimum) 

UM 

W» 

1«6 

wn 



Long tons. 
14,518,041 
16.086,(M3 
14,591,178 
16,296,666 
11,687,629 
11,879,679 
16,967,614 
16,006,449 
17,618,046 



Year. 



Quantity. ■ 



1899 

1900 

1901 

1902 (maximum) . 
1903 



Long tons. 
19,433,716 
24,683,173 
27,653,161 
28,887,479 
36,654,135 
35,019.808 



Total for fifteen years I 305, 521, 317 

Average for fifteen year8 20, 368, 088 



The average of the annual production of iron ore mined in the 
Tnited State.s in the last fifteen years exceeds the maximum output of 
any other country in any one year, the maximum production for (ler- 
niany and Luxemburg being 18,964,294 metric tons in 1900," and for 
Great Britain 18,031,957 long tons in 1882. 

The iron ore obtained in 1903 came from 22 States and 2 Territo- 
ries, Vermont and Montana reporting no ore mined in 1903, and 
Nevada being added to the list. 

■ LOe data give the production of iron ore in Germany and Luxemburg in 1903 as 21,230,639 metric 



Digitized by 



^^ott^le 



42 MINERAL RESOURCES. 

PRODUCTION BY VARIETIES OF IRON ORE. 

As in previous reports the iron ore produced has been divided into 
four general commercial classes, as follows: 

1. Red hematite^ including all anhydrous hematites (sesquioxidesof 
iron) known by various names, such as red hematite, specular, mica- 
ceous, fossil, slate iron ore, martite, blue hematite, etc. 

Some of the ore which is classed in this report as red hematite is 
designated locally as brown hematite, but such ores are mainly hydrated 
portions of deposits of red hematite and are therefore classed as red 
hematite. 

2. Brown Jiematite^ including the varieties of hydrated sesquioxide 
of iron recospiized as limonite, gothite, turgite, bog ores, pipe ores, 
etc. 

3. Magnetite^ those ores in which the iron occurs as magnetic oxide, 
and including some martite which is mined with th% magnetite. 

4. Carbonate^ those ores which contain a considerable amount of car- 
bonic acid, such as spathic ore, blackband, siderite, clay ironstone, etc. 

In 1903 the quantity of red hematite mined in the United States was 
30,328,654 long tons, or 86.6 per cent of the total for the country, a 
decrease of 203,495 tons, or about 1 per cent, from the 1902 produc- 
tion of 30,532,149 long tons. Minnesota contributed over one-half of 
the red hematite ore, followed in order by Michigan and Alabama, 
each of these States with the exception of Michigan showing an increase 
over the 1902 totals. 

The total quantity of brown hematite mined in 1902 (3,305,484 long 
tons) decreased in 1903 to 3,080,399 long tons, a loss of 225,085 tons, 
or 7 per cent. Alabama was the most important contributor of this 
class of ore, followed by Virginia and West Virginia, and Tennessee. 

The production of magnetite in 1903 was 1,575,422 long tons, a 
decline of 113,438 long tons, or 7 per cent, from the 1902 total of 
1,688,860 tons. The three principal States mining this class of ore 
are New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, ranking in 1903 in the 
order named. 

The carbonate ores, the least important class, show an increase, the 
1903 total of 34,833 long tons being 7,191 tons, or 26 per cent, more 
than the quantity mined in 1902, 27,642 long tons. As in 1902 all of 
this class of ore was obtained in Ohio and Maryland. 

The following table shows the quantities of the different classes of 
iron ore rained in the year 1903 by States, except where two or more 
States have been combined to preserve the confidential character of the 
reports. The different States are arranged according to their rank as 
producers. 



Digitized by 



Google 



ISON OBES. 



43 



Production of iron ore in the United States in 1903^ \ 

[Long tons.] 



f States and varieties. 



State. 



Red 
hematite. 



Brown 
hematite. 



Magnetite. 



Carbonate. 



Total. 



Minnesota 

Michigan 

Alabama 

TenneflKe 

Virginia and West ViiKinia 

Wisconsin 

Pennsylvania 

New York 

New Jersey 

Geoigia 

Nerada^NewMexico, Utah. and Wyoming. 

Colorado 

North Carolina 

MtescHiri 

Texas 



Kentucky 

Connecticut and Massachusetts . 

Ohio 

Maryland 



Total . 



871,396 
592.933 
779,691 
371,189 
31,609 
646,042 
15.420 
83,820 



7,397 



905,269 
481,515 
764,948 

29,011 
202,542 

' 5, 159 



4,604 



426,637 
451,481 
484,796 



124.648 

235,599 

3,621 



49,359 



23,327 ' 



318,804 
13,800 

249,288 
17,588 
14,021 
34,050 
8,900 
30,729 



142,843 



4,775 



20,328,654 ■ 3,080,399 1,575,422 



57,664 



29,688 
5,145 



34,833 



15,371,396 

10,600,330 

3,684,960 

a52,704 

801,161 

675,053 

644,699 

540,460 

484,796 

443,452 

392,242 

252,909 

75,252 

63,380 

34,050 

32,227 

30,729 

29,688 

9,920 



35,019,308 



The statistics of the production of iron ores in the United States in 
the last decide and a half have been collected annually by the United 
States Geological Survey, and a summary of the totals of the different 
classes of iron ore mined is presented in the table below, together 
with the grand totals for the entire period, and the perc/cntage which 
the total for each class bears to that of the entire country. 

Production of iron ares in the United States, by varieties, 1889-190S. 
[Maxima in italics.] 



Year. 


Red 
hematite. 


Brown 
hematite. 


Magnetic. 


Carbonate. 

Long tons. 
I»92,ft61 
377,617 
189,108 
192,981 
134,834 
87,278 
73,039 
91.423 
83,295 
55,373 
81,659 
76,247 
51,663 
27,642 
34,833 

1.989,143 
0.7 
0.1 


Total. 


1889.. .. 


Long tons. 

9,066,288 
10,627,650 

9,827,398 
11,&16.619 

8,272,637 

9,347,4^4 
12,513,996 
12,676,288 
14,413,318 
16,160,684 
20,004,399 
22,708,274 
24,006,025 
SO, 6S£, 11^ 
30,328,654 


Long tons. 
2,523,087 
2,659,938 
2,757,564 
2,486,101 
1,849,272 
1,472,748 
2,102,358 
2,126,212 
1,961,954 
1.989.681 
2,869,785 
3,231,089 
3,016,715 
S,S05,l^U 
3,080,399 


Jjong ions. 
2,506,416 
2,670,8S8 
2,317,108 
1,971,965 
1.330,886 
972,219 
1,268,222 
1,211,526 
1,059,479 
1,237,978 
1,727.430 
1,537,651 
1,813,076 
1.688,860 
1,575,422 

24,788,976 
8.1 
4.5 


Long tons. 
14,518,041 


ino 


16,036,043 


vm\ 


14, 591, 178 


mn 


16,296,666 


MS.. 


11,587,629 


18M... 


11,879,679 


lt«5 


15,957,614 


mc » 


16,005,449 


van 


17,518,W6 


un 


19, 433, 716 


^fm 


24,683,173 


1900 


27,553,161 


1*01 


28,887.479 


i«tt. 


55. r>5tt, 155 


nes 


35,019.308 






Tocal 


241,411,812 
79.0 
86.6 


37.331,387 
12.2 

8.8 


305.521,317 


Pereentagea ol totals for 15 years 


100.00 


I^voentages of total for 1903 


loaoo 







Digitized by V^OOQIC 



44 MINERAL BESOURCES. 

The year 1902 is credited with maximum quantities of both the red 
hematite and the brown hematite varieties; the year 1890 shows the 
greatest production of the magnetite, and the year 1889 of the 
carbonate. 

The output of concentrated ore in the year 1903 was 269,469 long 
tons, most of which was magnetically separated, the remainder having 
been passed throusrh jigs. 

In 1903 there were also produced 73,264 tons of zinc residuum for 
use in the production of spiegeleisen and ferro-manganese. 

liAKE SUPERIOR REGION. 

This district stands preeminent as a producer of iron ore, its annual 
output exceeding that of any foreign country and the average chai*ac- 
ter of the ore being excellent. 

In the year 1903 there was obtained from the Mesabi and Vermilion 
ranges in Minnesota, the Marquette Range in Michigan, and the Me- 
nominee and Gogebic ranges in Michigan and Wisconsin, a total of 
26,573,271 long tons of iron ore. Of this ore 51 per cent, or 13,452,81^ 
long tons, was obtained from the Mesabi Range; 15 per cent, or 
4,093,320 tons, was won from the Menominee; 14 per cent, or 3,686,214 
tons, was mined on the Marquette Range; 13 per cent, or 3,422,341 
tons, came from the Gogebic Range; and 7 per cent, or 1,918,584 tons, 
was credited to the Vermilion Range. 

In addition to the above-named ranges in the United States, wbicTn 
by common consent compose the Lake Superior iron ore region, a 
sixth, the Michipicoten Range, was opened in Canada in the year 1900 
but its product in 1903, 223,976 long tons, is not included in the above 
data. The total production of the Michipicoten Range to the close o 
the 3"ear 1903 is only 815,152 long tons. The greater portion of thi 
ore has been sent to the United States, and is non-Bessemer i 
chai'acter. 

The production of iron ore in the Ltike Superior Region (not inclu< 
ing the Michipicoten Range), from 1889 to 1903, inclusive, by range 
is as follows: 



Digitized by 



Google 



mON ORES. 



45 



Production of Lake Superior iron ores, by ranges, 1889-190S. 
[Maxima in italics.] 



Range. 


1889. 


1890. 


1891. 


• 1892. 


1693. 


Mmrquette 


Long tons. 

2,631,026 

1,876,157 

2,147,928 

864,508 


Ldngtons. 

2,863,848 

2,274,192 

2,914,081 

891,910 


Long tons. 

2,778,482 

1,856,124 

2, (Ml, 754 

945,105 


Long tons. 
2,848,552 
2,402,195 
3,058,176 
1,226,220 
29,245 

9,5&i,388 


Jxmgtons. 

2,064,827 

1,563,(M9 

1,466,815 

815, 735 

684,194 


Menominee 

GoifeWc 

Vermilion 

MeBabi 








7,621,465 




Total 


7,519,614 


8,944,031 


6,594,620 



Range. 



Marquette... 
Menominee . 

Gogebic 

Vermilion . . . 
Meabi 



189i. 

Long tons. 
1,935,379 
1,255,265 
1,523,451 
1,065,229 
1,913.234 



Total. 



7,682,648 



1895. 



Long tons. 
1,982,080 
1,794,970 
2,625.475 
1,027,103 
2,839,350 



Long tons. 
2,418,846 
1,763,235 
2,100,398 
1,200,907 
3,082,973 



Long tons. 
2,673,785 
1,767,220 



1,381,278 I 
4,220,151 



Long tims. 
2,987,930 
2,275,6&1 
2,552,205 
1,125,538 
4,837,971 



10,268,978 10,666,859 



12,205,522 ' 13,779,308 



Range. 



Marquette.. 
Menominee 

Gogebic 

Vermilion.. 
Menbi 

Toul. 



1900. 



Long tons. < 
3,634,596 ; 
3,281.422 { 
2,725,648 ; 
1,643,984 I 
6,517,3a5 ! 



Long tons. 
5,91*5,063 
3,680,738 
3,1(M,033 
1,675,949 
8,158,450 



17,802,955 ; 20,564,238 



1901. 



Long tons. 
8,597,089 
3,697,408 
3,041,869 
1,805,996 
9,303,641 



21,445,903 



Lmig tons. 
8,734,712 
h,ltSl,t50 
S,6SS,79S 
2,057,532 

13,080,118 

26,977, J^U 



1903. 



Long tons. 
3,686,214 
4,093,320 
3,422,311 
1,918,584 
13, h5Z, 812 



26,673,271 



This table shows that until 1895 the Marquette Range, embracing 
the oldest developments, was the most prominent producer, except in 
the years 1890 and 1892, and that since 1895 it has either occupied 
tjecond or third position. In late years the Menominee Range has 
alternately occupied second and third position, but it has never ranked 
first. The Gogebic Range took first place in 1890, and again in 1892; 
it then ranked second or third until 1898, inclusive; and subsequently 
it has occupied fourth place as a producer. 

The most recently developed range, the Mesabi, took first rank as a 
producer in the fourth year of its history, 1895. This position it has 
Bteadily maintained until now its annual output is equal to that of the 
other four ranges comhined. 

All of the ranges except the Mesabi showed a falling off in produc- 
tion in the year 1903. The years of maximum production are: For 
the Marquette Range, 1900; for the Menominee, Gogebic, and Ver- 
milion rangers, 1902; and for the Mesabi, 1903. 



Digitized by 



Google 



46 



lOKEBAL B£SOUBO£S. 



Cargo analyses of the Lake Superior iron ores as shipped i 
year 1903, together with some expected analyses for 1904 (fun 
through the courtesy of the Lake Superior Iron Ore Associatiot 
as follows: 

Complete average cargo analyses of Lake Superior iron ores of season 1903. 

GOOEBIG RANGE. 

[The upper line of figures opposite each ore represents its analysis when dried at 212° Fahreul 
lower line, when in its natural condition.] 



Ore. 


Iron. 


Phos- 
phorus. 


Silica. 


Manga- 
nese. 


Alumi- 
na. 


Lime. 


nesin. 


Sul- 
phur. 


Loss 
by ig- 
nition 
























Percent. 


I'erccnt. 


Perct. 


Pcrct. 


Pcrd, 


Prrct. 


Pcrct 


Perct. 


Prrct. 


Ashland 


1 60.89 
1 53.9M6 


0.0897 


6.58 


0.280 
.2235 


3.13 
2.7985 


0.130 
.1162 


0.090 
.0801 


0.012 
.0107 


3.03 




.03549 6.88&I 


2.7091 


Anvila 


61.626 
I 53.20 


.0495 
.0427 


6.06 
5.22 


.79 

.68 


1.145 

.988 


.335 
.289 


.166 
.14 


.0245 
.021 


2.695 




2.326 


Anvil special « 


f 52.00 
I 45.76 


.050 
.044 


6.80 
5.10 


10.00 
8.80 


.97 


.26 
.22 


.17 
.149 


.005 
.004 


3.02 
2.657 




r 69.00 
I 62.968 


.14 J 9.00 












Argosa 
















.12666 


8.078 







j 68.2855 

1 56.6262 

J 62.8198 

55.8950 


.0443 
.03964 
.0365 
.03248 


6.3451 
4.7827 
A.G234 
4.1137 


.5276 
.4721 












Atlantic 




















i 






Aurora 














Best 


[ 65.90 
1 49.73 


.059 


12.82 


.90 
.80 


1.219 
1,084 


.32 

.28 


.45 
.40 


.011 
.0097 


3.25 




.052 10,96 


2.89 


Bonnie 


f 51.80 
I 46.76 


.066 
.0505 


12.00 
10.88 


4.621 
4.17 


1.53 
1.88 


.06 
.045 


.16 
.14 


.015 
.0135 


5.33 




4.81 


Brotherton « 


f 62.00 
1 56.5192 


.027 
.02461 


7.50 
6.887 


.57 
.6196 


.899 
.8196 


.21 
.1914 


.21 
.1914 


.003 
.0027 


1.19 




l.OMi 


Buckeye 


J 69.96 


.071 


8.96 


.41 


1.98 


.59 


.67 


.019 


2.50 


I 52.5789 


.06226 


7.8670 


.3595 


1.7363 


.5174 


.5875 


.0167 


2.192: 


Car>' 


j 60.07 


.078 


6.96 


.41 


1.01 


.20 


.13 


.006 


4.92 


54.3213 


.07054 


6.2849 


.3708 


.9183 


.1809 


.1176 


.0054 


4.449 


Gary Empire 


J 67.86 


.062 


6.30 


3.05 


1.16 


.26 


.13 


.006 


5.26 


1 62.2534 


.05599 


5.6895 


2. 7M5 


1.0476 


.2258 


.1174 


.0054 


4.75a 




J 56.0189 
( 55.7025 
j 63.170 


.0767 

.07627 

.036 


17. 4557 
17.8570 
5.100 


.4011 












Chicago 


.3988 








* 




Colby 


.500 


1.390 


.246 


.117 


.006 


3.420 


1 67.6416 


.03279 


4.6456 


.4554 


1.2662 


.2241 


.1066 


.0055 


3.115 




f 61 2745 


.ff>77 ' 11 4.'V« 


5 2216 












Geneva 


I 46.0958 


.05187 


10.3010 


4.6942 








Hildreth 


[ 51.63 


.080 


13.91 


.59 


2.45 


.39 


.46 


.009 ' 3.71 




I 47.4844 


.06954 


12.0906 


.5128 


2.1296 


.3390 


.3998 


.0078 


3. 2*24 


Iron Belt 


f 59.91 
1 52.4692 


.042 
.08678 


8.95 
7.8384 


.40 
.3603 


1.66 
1.3662 


.30 
.2627 


.40 
.3503 


.020 
.0175 


8.75 




8.284 




J 62.800 


.046 


6.200 


.780 


1.620 


.347 


.258 


.006 


2.920 




66.5200 


.(M140 


6.5800 


.7020 


1.8680 


.3123 


.2822 


.0046 


2.628 


Ironton Manguncsc . 


56.200 


.0-17 


9.050 


4.740 


.600 


.650 


.480 


.006 


2.950 


50.4957 


.04223 


8.1314 


4.2589 


.5391 


.5810 


.4318 


.0054 2.650 




J 6L10 
I 53.77 


.037 
.033 




\ 








Jack Pot 


... 1 


1 










Lawrence 


62.47 
1 56.2606 


.054 
.01863 


4.64 
4.1788 


.44 
.3963 


L46 
1.3149 


.11 
.0991 


.12 
.1081 


.008 
.0072 


3.96 
8.666 


Lyon a 


f 5S.75 


.048 9.76 


.20 


1.08 


.95 


.10 


.040 


8.40 


1 52.875 


.M32 


8.775 


.180 


.927 


.855 


.360 


.0360 


3.060 



a Expected analysis for the season of 1904. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



IRON OBE8. 



47 



OmtplHe cwemge cargo analyses of lAike Superior iron ores of season 190S — Continued. 
GOGEBIC RANGE— Continued. 



Ore. 



Meln>^' 

Mot«><»rn 

Mikailo 

Monti^al 

MontniM' 

New Era , 

NVw Era No. 2 

Newport** 

Norden 

Nome 

Ottawa 

(ntawa Manirane?«o n. 

Piilm«a 

Rand 

IlitWe 

SuTKlay I>;ikert 

Tayli.ri 

TiM-ii 

WirjMnart 

Wivtinnin « 

Yi> 



Iron. 



Pho8- 
phonm. 



Prrcmi. 
[ 60.88 j 
I 54.348 I 
55.910 
49.9835 
58.00 I 
50. 57fiol 
63.78 I 
57. 657 
60.45 
56.18 
57. .lO 
51.118 
56.92 
52.06 
.■16.18 
50.23 
62.6623 
56. 5962, 
63.1134' 
66.2571 
68.17 I 
62. .5391. 
54.46 I 
49. laiO 
62.00 ' 
54.97.'> 

62. 4:m 

51. 9059' 

66.25 I 

49.79 

62.00 

56.6618 

58.60 I 

52.15 ' 

62.86.'iH 

.55. 08Ki 

61.100 ' 

54.8067 

50.00 

44.5000 

62.0339 

54.9:M1 



HnicB. I 



Percent 
0.043 
.038 
.043 
.01844 
.167 
.13690 
.044 
.03978 
.076 
.069 
.032 
.028 
.069 
.063 
.031 
.0277 
.0751 
.0GG63; 
.0375 
.03*43 
.061 

. a'v»09 

.0C.8 I 
. 0(^132' 

.010 ! 

.0133 

.01806 

.017 

.0116 

.026 

.02376 

. o.v> 

.019 
.0511 
. 04478 
.CM3 
.0.'W57 

.av> 

. 04895 
.0:^6 ! 
.031S8 



Peret. \ 
5.90 
5.267 j 

12.850 

11.4879 

12.40 

10.8128 
3.68 
3.3267 
6.56 
6.988 

10.68 
9.49 

11.63 

10.638 
4.19 
3.74 
3.8108, 
3.3811 
4.1580' 
3. 7063' 
5.18 
4.6786 
4.36 ' 
3.931H 
5.27 ' 
4.67 
3. 1654 
2. 7826 

12.41 

11.01 

7.r.o 

6. S5r.> 
9.18 
8. IHI 
3. 8.S6:V 
3. 40.V) 
9.180 
8.2:^15 
10. 00 

8. 'Mm 

5. 12 
4. 7997 



Manga- 
nese. 


Alumi- 
na. 

Per cl. 


Lime. 
Perct. 


Perct. 


0.65 


1.39 


0.08 


.58 


1.21 


.07 


.390 


1.150 


.246 


.3487 


1.0281 


.2199 


.40 


1.03 


.59 


.3488 


.8982 


.5145 


.42 


.94 


.08 


.3797 


.&198 


.0723 


.64 


.72 


.48 


.49 


.657 


.138 


.61 


1.92 


.20 


.569 


1.706 


.177 


.66 


1.05 


.29 


.60 


.96 


.2S.> 


6.22 


.81 


.22 


5.56 


.72 


.19 



Mag- 
nesia. 



Perct. 
0.06 

.07 

.172 

.1538 

.12 

.1016 

.06 

.0512 

.21 

.19 

.18 

.16 

.19 

.17 

.18 

.16 



Sul- 
|)hur. 



Perct. 

0.019 
.0169 
.007 
.0063 
.009 
.0078 
.006 
.OOM 
.016 
.0146 
.009 
.008 
,015 
.0137 
.008 
.007 



Loss ' 
by ig- 
nition. 



Mois- 
ture. 



Perct. 


Perct. 


4.70 




4. 195 


10. 728 


1.610 




1.4662 


10.600 


1.76 




1..5347 


12.80 


3.68, 




3.3267 


9. 60 


4.37 




3.989 


8.717 


3.21 





2.85 
4.09 
3.74 
5. 15 



I 



1.37 


.20 


1.2374 


.1806 


1.18 1 


.12 ' 


i.06ir 


. 1082 


.91 1 


.19 


.SO*; 


.16.8 



. 225s' 
.09 I 



.013 

.on: 

.005 



5. 29 
4. 7779 
6.76 



1082 .asi2 .0(Mr, G.O'.HVJ 



.18 
.16 



.0115 1.21 
.010 3.76 



8. .53 



1.51 

i.:«<; 

1.13 
1.032: 
3.77 
3. 3<U 



.21 
. 1S.5 
.07 

. 2:iO 

. 223 



.19 

.n;s 

. 2 167 
. 205 



.009 I 3. 19 

.0079 3.0Sy ■ 11. IS 

.00<; 1.02 ' 

. WCvl . 0321 8. Cl 

.014 2.11 ' 

.1)125 2. lis I 1(1. S5 



. 7590 . . 


1 








■ I" :;:!■' 


.730 


. S'.H) 


215 


. ()sr» 


.(HtT 


2. 7(M) 


. «Wl.s 


. 79s:i . 


h»29 


. 07<;2 


.(kh;:; 


2. 1219 Kt.I.tMi 


. 00 . . 












.12(H1 .. 










11. <H) 



.73 






5 .012 :5. SN 



Ahln.tUsfOPi 

X\U,tA 

'Ki f lint*, hard. 



MAK(iFKTT': K.\N<iE. 

r " 



I 56, 
I 66.81 
j 63.33 



62.8003 0.03;J1 

62.1279 .o;i;yj4 

2312 .0474 
4668 .04167 

Oil 

010 I 
aExpe('te<^l amilysis for lli 



7.9191 ' 




7. KAi\ 


1 MTllT 


5 132(i* 


4.5122 


1" (iss-J 








:>.■_'! 



rjl^f'Il nf VAW. 



Digitized by 



Google 



48 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



MARQUETTE RANGEM>)nUnued. 
ConipUte average cargo analyses of Lake Superior iron ores of season 1903 — Con 



Ore. 


Iron. 


Phos- 
phorus. 


Silica. 
Perct. 


Manga- 
nese. 

Perct. 


Alumi- 
na. 

Perct. 


Lime. 


nesia. 


Sul- 
phur. 


L088 
by ig- 
nition 




Per cent. 


PercerU. 


Perct. 


Perct. 


Prrct. 


Perct 


Angeliiie, hematite . 


64.69 

57. 51 

f 62.24 

I 55.35 

f 51.74 


0.047 
.042 
.099 


























Angeliiie, south 








1 






.088 








1 






Beaufort a 


.260 


7.93 


0.15 


1.01 


2.44 2.58 


0.080 


11.02 




I 47.4352 


.23837 7.2702 


.1375 


.9260 


2.2370, 2.3663 


.073310.103 


Bedford 


60.1813 
53.2258 
38.4412 
37.9436 
62.7731 
62.2658 
63.50 
62.992 
58.50 
68.032 
59.9002 
[ 65.2330 
f 53.0833 
I 51.1969 
40.00 


.1609 j 7.9131 
.13*46 6.9985 
.0434 j 41. .5627 
.04284 41.0244 
.1142 1 5.7504 
.11326' 6.7119 
.14 8.00 
.13888 4.960 


























1^11 




















i 






Beresford 


::::::;:l:::::: 




I 










Beresford No. la 














1 






.14 

.13888 

.0603 

.05560 

.4760 

.45908 

.016 


11.50 
11.408 
7. 9878 
7.3654 
10.6146 
10.2374 
38.40 












Beresford No. 2" 










I 














Bemhart 


i 






1 














Bessdc 












BreituuK Silieiou.s«.. 


.95 


2.30 


.81 


.11 


.008 j 1.95 




J 61.0652 
I 52.0830 
[ 60.41 
I 53.698 


.0^3 
.08014 
.053 
.0-17 


5.4283 
4.6307 
6.M 
5.90 












Buffalo 












Cambria t 


.98 
.87 


2.63 
2.337 


.90 
.80 


.32 

.28 


.010 ' 2.71 
.0088 2.A0A 


Cambridge 


f 60.16 
I 51.3741 
57.4046 
50.2290 


.703 
.60043 
.0969 
.08479 


5.15 
4.3986 
7. 1371 
6.24.V) 


.57 

.4868 


1.10 
.9395 


2.73 
2.3316 


.67 
.4868 


.036 1.90 
.0307,' 1.622 


Cameo 












Cameron " 


f 59.70 
I 52.54 


.213 
.187 


7.01 
6.168 


.22 
.19 


2.91 j .26 
2.56 . .23 


.39 
.34 


.032 2.09 




.028 1 1.84 


Castleford 


f 56.5791 
I 5.5.093^1 
f 64.00 
1 63.49 


.0875 
.08674 
.060 
.a595 


16.2241 
16.0823 

4. .55 

4.51 




















Champion No. 1, 
Crushed a 


.20 
.198 


2.38 
2.36 


.32 
.317 


.29 

.288 


.013 

.0129' 


('hampion, Hema- 


[ 52.2.'» 


.397 


9.ai 


.28 


1.67 


3.16 


1.81 


.(m 6.a5 


titea 


I 47.76 


.363 


8.99 


.256 


1.53 


2.89 


1.65 


.018 5.80 


Charlotte" 


f 55.00 
I 48.40 


.ia5 

.092 


12.26 
10.788 


.32 

.28 


2.61 
2.208 


.49 
.43 


.75 
.66 


.016 2.40 




.014 1 2.11 


Chatfonl 


51.4015 

1 46. 8828 
f 45.:i.5 
I 41.85 


.1220 
.11127 
.061 

.mi 


20.9279 
19.0870 
28. .54 
26.512 


















1 1 


Chestt-r No. l*e 


.33 
.3069 


1.76 
1.6275 


.89 
.8277 


.65 
.6045 


.009 1.7s 
.0083 1.65.> 


Chester No. J n 


f 40.80 
I 38.72 


.027 
.0252 


36.16 
33.809 


.478 
.4469 


1.422 
1.3296 


.22 
.2057 


.25 

.23:^8 


.006 2. 12 
.0a56 1.9.S2 


Cliffs Shaft, Crushed. 


f 62.60 
[ 62.0679 


.102 
.10095 


4.29 
4.2535 


.180 
.1784 


2.09 
2.0722 


.750 .570 
. 7436 . 5651 


.016 .820 
.0158 .813< 


Cliffs Shaft, Lump... 


J 63.40 
1 63.1590 


.116 
.11565 


4.25 
4.2338 


.190 
.1892 


2.23 
2.2215 


.930 .700 
.9264 .6973 


.019 1 .900 
.0189 .896.' 


Comrade 


1 '''' 
[ 51.9847 


.098 
.09761 


13.67 
13.6166 


.120 
.1195 


2.% 
2.9184 


.:m 1.890 

. I9S0' 1.8826 


.017 1 1.000 




. 0169 . 9961 




a 


Expected analyy 


s for th( 


i season of 1904. 














DJgiti 


zed by ' 


ZOQ 


)Qle 





IBON OBESt 



49 



Compute average cargo analyses of Lake Superior iron ores of season 1903 — ContiDued. 
MABQUBTTE RANGE— Contmued. 



Ore. 


Iron. 


PhOfr 
pbonu. 


Silica. 


Manga- 
nese. 


Alumi- 
na. 


Lime. 


Mag- 
nesia. 


Sul- 
phur. 

Per ct. 


Loss 
by ig- 
nition. 


Mois- 
ture. 




Per cent. 


PercaU, 


Pcrct. 


Perct. 


Perct. 


Perct. 


Perct. 


Perct. 


Per ct. 


Foley No. la 


f 63.65 
1 67.285 


0.030 
.027 


4.64 
4.176 


0.12 
.108 


1.89 
1.701 


0.25 
.225 


0.15 
.135 


0.006 1.71 
.005 1.539 




10.00 


Foley No. 2n 


1 58.50 


.027 


13.98 


.22 


.73 


.37 


.002 


.003 1.25 




Imperial Wcb«l«?r a.. 


1 52.44 
I 47.03 


.256 
.229 


13.49 
12.10 


.198 
.177 


1.20 
1.076 


1.37 
1.228 


1.39 
1.246 


.011 7.38 
.009 ' 6.62 


10.32 


Jackion, South 


f 42.90 


.078 


29.26 


2.81 


1.49 


.31 


.29 


.021 3.24 




I 39.2964 


.06687 


26.8022 


2.5740 


1.3648 


.2840 


.2666 


.0192 2.9678 


8.40 


Ukp 


1 60.80 
i 63.2690 


.110 
.09717 


5.64 
4.9823 


.470 
.4162 


2.43 
2.1466 


.430 
.3798 


.380 
.3357 


.011 3.45 
.0097 3.0477 






11.66 


L&ke Beamner 


r 63.44 


.0389 


6.56 


.240 


1.53 


.230 


.110 


.009 1.30 




66.4679 


.03461 


4.9400 


.2186 


1.3618 


.2047 


.0979 


.0080. 1.1571 


10.99 


l-*lMf» .. . 


f 69.465 
1 62.01 


.0706 
.0617 


6.16 
6.888 


.34 
.297 


2.10 
1.837 


.41 

.358 


.09 

.078 


.013 ' 3.34 
.011 2.92 






12.52 


Marva. 


f 60.00 
I 62.80 


.106 
.092 


7.20 
6.836 


.32 
.28 


2,51 
2.208 


.49 
.43 


.75 
.66 


.016 
.014 


2.40 
2.11 






12.00 




f 60.70 
I 60.3358 


.092 
.09144 


10.03 
9.698 


.180 
.1789 


2.02 
2.0078 


.700 
.6958 


.820 
.8150 


.020 
.0198 






ilirhlgHmme 




.60 




f 86.78 
i 35.861 


.046 
.04486 


43.09 
42.013 
















Moorea 


















2.50 


Negaunei* Bessemer . 


f 60.30 
I M.1976 


.057 
.06123 


7.25 
6.6163 


.35 
.3145 


2.77 
2.4896 


1.00 

.8988 


.52 
.4673 


.020 1.90 
.0179 1.7077 


10.12 


Nefiraanee non-Bes- 


J 57.61 


.104 


9.23 


























iemer 


51 7914 


09350 


8 2978 












10 10 


Norfolk Bessemer, 


f 66.55 


.056 


15.26 


.27 


3.35 


.38 


.21 


.034 1 .15 




Crushed a 


1 64.91 
f 57.17 


.0643 
.126 


16.08 
13.91 


.267 
.27 


3.31 
3.08 


.376 
.38 


.208 
.21 


0336 148 


1 15 


Norfolk Non-Bess., 


.034 , .15 




Crttfheda 


I 66.51 
f 63.00 
I 52,7688 


.1245 
.056 
.04606 


13.75 
2.30 
1.9264 


.267 
.43 
.3601 


3.04 
1.37 
1. 1476 


-.376 
1.05 
.8794 


.208 
.93 

.77^9 


03;i6 148 


1.15 
16.24 


Princeton No. la 


.021 1.60 
.0175 1.3401 


Princeton No. 2 


1 61.11 
1 51.0207 
f 66.85 
i 66.856 
f 62.62 
1 61.94 


.157 

.13107 

.047 

.0466 

.045 

.0445 


6.57 
5.4862 


.497 
.4149 


1.576 
1.3158 


,73 
.6094 


.66 
.5510 


.029 1 2.01 
.0242 1.6781 


16. 51 


Republic Crushed a. . 


1 






1 


.75 


Republic Kingstona. 


7.21 
7.132 


.12 
.118 


1.42 
1.404 


.42 
.415 


.30 
.296 


.027 .31 
. 0267 . 306 


1.08 




67.77 
67.0M 
44.00 
48.159 


.050 
.0494 
.066 
.0649 












1 




Republic Specular a . 












1 


1.13 


Richmond 


33.45 
82.81 


.18 
.176 


1.41 

1.38 


.24 
.235 


.17 


. 006 1 2. 16 
.0058 2.118 


1.91 


RON^ 


f 69.08 


.146 


6.41 


.32 


2.45 


..0 


.18 


.029 2.16 




i 63.17 


.131 


5.769 


.297 


2. -20 


.45 


.16 


.026 1 1.94 


10. (X) 


Sali-bur>- 


f 60.80 
1 63.2810 


.096 


6.71 


.250 
.2209 


2.90 
2.66.S4 


.500 
.4418 


• HOC 
.70*^9 


.010 1.95 
.(H)8.H 1.72:^ 






.08394 5.9289 


11. »M 


Scot.h 


f 61.70 
I 61.2125 


.134 
.13294 


6.70 
6.&470 


.120 
.1190 


2.60 
2.5794 


. 450 
. 4 I(V1 


. .'HiO 
. 5,555 


.on . :v>o 

.(ii:{H .3172 






.79 




f 60.98 
1 58.08 
f 44.20 
i 43.6077 


.038 
.036 
.046 
.04538 
















Sheffield 


















4. 75 


SUrWe<<ta 


35.20 
34. 72s:i 


.060 


.6 IS 
. 6;?98 


.519*.' 


.l:U 
.i:v_»2 


.(•1)1 2.16 
.(Hi:n> 2. loll 






l.:u 


TiMen Silica 


f 41.50 
( 40.9439 


.040 


37.25 


. 270 
. 2. W 


. S.-X ) 


. 1212 


.110 

. lov> 


.(Mr.> 1.17 
.(KISS 1.151:; 






.03946 3(^.7.ias 


l.:tl 



a Expected analy.sis for the season of VMM. 



M R 1903 i 



Digitized by 



Google 



50 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Complete average cargo artalyses of Lake Superior iron ores of season 190S — Ckmti 

MENOMINEE RANGE. 



Ore. 


Iron. 


Phos- 
phorus. 


Silica. 


Manga- 
nese. 

Perct. 

0.220 

.1974 


Alumi- 
na. 

Perct. 
2.400 
2.1540 


T.ime. 


ne^. 


Sul- 
phur. 


L088 
by ig- 
nition. 

Perd. 
1.470 


Armenia 


Percent 
r 66.400 
I 50.6190 
j 54.7272 
I 51.0137 
J 58.24 
1 58.8246 
r 68.00 
I 62.200 
f 68.4426 
1 54.6590 
f 54.090 
1 49.6222 
f 65.66 
I 61.2406 
1 55.6102 
I 49.4791 
1 59.7686 
1 55,7286 
] 69.2768 
i 51.8355 
J 40.70 
I 39.6255 
J 68.100 
I 62.7548 
f 65.76 
I 49.8963 
1 40.82 
1 40.199 
f 65.40 
i 50.86 
1 61.15 


Percent. 
0.248 
.21809 
.0629 
.05863 
.650 
.60868 
.30 
.2700 
.4618 
.48065 
.289 
26513 
.680 
.62601 
.6410 
.48135 
.0656 
.06117 
.1328 
. 11613 
.015 
.01460 
.684 
.62107 
.168 
. 14141 
.029 
.0286 
.283 
.287 
.028 


Perct. 

10.000 
8.9750 

10.3939 
9.6886 
4.41 
4.0878 
9.00 
8.10O 
4.7917 
4.4733 
6.240 
5.7246 
4.45 
4.0967 
6.8689 
6.6667 
6.2752 
6.8610 
6.6490 
4.8526 

38.56 

37.5420 
4.500 
4.0860 
7.40 
6.6230 

36.06 

36.50 
5.70 
5.18 
6.26 


Perct. 
1.600 
1.3462 


PeriA. 
1.660 
1.4809 


Perct. 
0.007 




.0063' 1.8193 


AJax 














1 


Baltic 


.26 
.2881 


3.22 
2.9482 


.89 
.8149 


.88 
.7599 


.048 5.M 




.0394 


5.4387 


Bangoro ■ ... 






1 i " " 














1 j..^_. _ 




Barton 






1 






1 


Basic 


4.150 
3.8072 
1.18 
1.0668 


1.260 
1.1669 
2.32 
2.1368 


1.450 2.600 
1.3302 2.3852 
2.49 1.07 
2.2923 .9850 


.008 1 3.400 


Bristol 


.0073' Z.XWi 
.008 i 6.98 




.0074. 6.42K 


Brunswick 


































Chapin..... 





























Clearfield 


















Clifford 


.10 

.0974 

.240 

.2179 

.16 

.1842 

.16 

.147 

.23 

.209 


.82 

.7983 
1.860 
1.6889 
8.46 
8.0967 

.82 

.807 
3.74 
3.399 


.32 

.3116 
2.720 
2.4698 
1.40 
1.2630 

.99 

.97 
1.90 
1.727 


.86 

.3605 
1.270 
1.1582 
2.60 
2.SG70 
1.07 
1.06 
2.43 
2.209 


.013 

.0127 

.007 

.0064 

.210 

.1879 

.012 

.0118 

.083 

.076 


1.20 


Crystal Falls 

Davidsona 


1.168i 
2.900 
2.633! 
4.76 


Davy 


4.251! 
2.10 


Florence 


2.068 
4.80 




4.36 


Porest<» 














Genesee 


J 59.720 
1 64.3810 
f 60.0264 
1 56.565 
j 44.1640 
48.8401 
58.100 
58.2428 
51.300 
I 49.2224 
( 55.75 

52.9468 
j 56.00 
1 62.0968 
1 61.57 


.747 

.68022 

.0612 

.05665 

.0872 

.03693 

.805 

.27950 

.046 

.(M414 

.210 

.19W4 

.252 

.2344 

.419 


5.200 
4.7351 
6.0908 
5.6382 
24.2807 
24.1026 
6.600 
6.0482 
11.220 
10.7656 
6.87 
6.5747 
7.28 
6.7725 
11.65 


.460 
.4189 


1.570 
1.4296 


2.230 
2.aH06 


1.320 
1.2020 


.008 
.0073 


2.860 




2. 604; 


Granada 




























ixray 














Great Western 

Qroveland « 


.980 

.8981 
1.100 
1.0555 

.41 

.38M 

.60 

.5581 


1.980 

1.8145 

2.490 

2.3892 

3.08 

2.9251 

2.62 


1.210 

1.1088 

3.610 

3.8678 

3.10 


2.040 

1.8695 

4.620 

4.4329 

2.41 


.008 

.0073 

.008 

.0077 

.011 

.0104 

.019 

.0176 


2.950 
2.70a 
5.290 


Hemlock 


5.075 
4.63 


Hiawathaa 


2.944i; 2.2888 

.28 ! .21 


4.397 
7.65 


Hilltopa 


2.3443 .2604 .1963 


7.116 




i 




Hope 


( 69.4928 
I 50.9882 
[ 56.700 
1 51.1326 


.2620 
.22455 
.660 
.60588 


8.7978 
7.5401 
6.300 
5.7834 






' t 








i 1 


Kimballa 


.210 
.1928 


l.GOO 
1.4688 


2.500 
2.2950 


1.900 
1. 7442 


.008 
.0073 


3.100 
2,«5« 



a Expected analysis for the season of 1904. 



Digitized by 



Google 



ntON 0BE8. 



51 



Oo/mplde average cargo analyses of Lake Superior iron ores of season 190S — Continued. 
MENOMINEE RANGE— Gontiiiued. 



Ore. 



Iron. 



Lunonti 

Lertda 

Lincoln .* 

LorettDo. 

Manganate No. 1 

Manganate No. 2 

Michigan No. 1 a 

MIcfaigmnNo. 2a 

Mime 

Paint RiTero 

F^wabic 

Penrabic Oeno* 



Qninneaec. 



TDbin ... 
Toledo... 
Tyrone «. 
ViTian .. 
Walpole . 



Percent, 
56.360 
51.3349 
59.035 
54.785 
57.200 
52.1664 
56.85 
54.169 
52.78 
48.5068 
50.48 
46.6061 
59.00 
58.965 
50.00 
46.750 
60.40 
57.37 
56.800 
5L238iy 
68.70 
56.0484 
42.00 



Phos- 
phorus. 



Silica. 



44.270 

48.2841 

57.95 

58.146 

54.85 

50.78 

59.870 

54.6486« 

54.0 

48.9078 

58.48 

54.2811 

41.00 

89.3682 

58.67 

54.6570 



Percent, 
0.650 
.50215 
.0828 

.886 

.80648 

.019 

.017 

.566 

.52066 

.575 

.58064 

.825 

.2974 

.225 

.2104 

.026 

.0847 

.640 

.582401 

.010 

.009U 

.011 



.027 

.02687 

.814 

.2879 

.068 

.058 

.780 

.71198 

.009 

.00815 

.050 

.04640 

.013 

.01248 

.102 

.09602 



Manga- 



Perct, 
7.500 
6.8825 
6.9622 
6.4549 
7.740 
7.0589 

11.01 

10.188 
4.45 
4.096( 
4.62 
4.2652 
5.25 
4.804 
7.25 
6.779 ' 
8.82 I 
8.628 { 
6.900 I 
6.2790 
5.00 
4.55601 

34.70 



Perct. 

0.460 

.4191 



.640 

.583; 

.22 

.20 
8.18 
2.9258 
4.85 
4.4775 



85.200 
84.87631 

4.46 

4.09 

9.58 

8.86 

4.400 

4.0168 
17.21 
15.5871 

8.78 I 

8.1496 
85.77 
34.8464 

8/51 

7.9279 



.21 

.199 

.480 

.4868] 

.14 

.1276 



.130 

.12701 

.82 

.29 

.28 

.259 

.560 

.50201 

.11 

.0996 

.13 

.1207 

.20 

.1920 

.15 

.1397 



I 



Alumi- 
na. 



Perct. 
1.510 
1.87561 



2.170 

1.9790 

1.82 

1.675 

2.98 

2.7413 

2.95 

2.7284 



Lime. 



Perct. 
2.840 
2.1317 



1.430 
1.3042 

.85 

.82 
1.70 
1.561 
2.12 
1.9572 



.79 

.75 
2.900 
2.6890 
L06 

.9659 
1.62 



1.050 
L0254 
2.61 
2.80 
2.76 
2.65 
1.080 
.98581 
1.55 
1.4068 
1.10 
1.0210 
1.94 
L8628 
L50 
1.8974 



1.91 
L81 
L540 
1.4014 

.37 

.8371 

.62 



.462 

.4512 
L12 
1.027 
1.45 
1.34 
2.250 
2.0688 

.68 

.6159 
1.14 
1.0581 

.59 

.66651 
1.18 
1.0993 



Mag- 
nesia. 



Perct. 
L280 
L1661 



1.860 

1.6968 
.80 
.786 

L87 

1.2606 

L22 

L1263 



Sul- 
phur. 



L068 

by ig- 
nition. 



Perct. 

0.006 

.0073 



.006 

.0078 

.025 

.023 

.025 

.023( 

.026 

.0240 



I 



1.87 

1.776 

1.100 

1.0010 

L3 

1.2119 

L61 



.672 
.6561 

L80 

1.19 

8.45 

3.19 
.890 
.8124 

1,61 

L4582 

L88 

1.7450 
.92 
.8834 

2.37 

2.2079 



.017 

.016 

.009 

.0082 

.004 

.003( 

.013 



Mois- 
ture. 



Per ct. Per cL 

2.100 

L9131' 8.900 



2.690 
2.4533' 

.91 ; 

.887 
7.12 
6.5497 
7.66 
7. 0625 



7.2867 



4.80 
4.06 
2.800 
2.5480 
1.03 
.968 
1.21 



.006 

.0059 

.056 

.051 

.027 

.0241 

.006 

.0078 

.005 

.0045 

.002 

.0019 

.014 

.0184 

.007 

.0065 



1.850 

L8067 

4.58 

4.20 

4.00 

3.699 

2.180 

L9899 

1.43 

1.2952 

1.87 

1.73571 

L90 

1.8244 

2.06 

1.9191 



MESABI RANGE. 



Adams 

AdamK, No. 2 
Admiral* ... 



6L0446 

54.6627' 

57.7159 

49.1548! 

63.800 

58.828( 

69.96 

50.52 



0.0862 


4.6891 


.03241 


4.1096| 


.0757 


5.2713 


.06447 


4.4894 


.027 


4.900 


.02489 


4.5178 


.066 


5.24 


.046 


4.41 



0.5687 
.5092' 
.7016* 
.5975 
.300 
.2766 
.87 
.78 



8.800 



7.92 



8.01 



8.60 



6.50 



5.01 
9.000 

8.88 



2.340 



8.29 
7.509 



8.720 
9.43 



7.18 
3.98 
6.84 



T 



10.4545 



0.620 
.5716 
2.84 
1.97 



I 



0.280 
.2121 
.16 
.14 



0.180 
.13 



0.006 
.0055 



I 14.8882 

2.140 • 

1.9731 7.800 

^•«2 i 

4.07 I 15.66 



a Expected analysis for the season of 1904. 



Digitized by 



Google 



52 



MIKEBAL BE8OUB0E8. 



Complete average cargo analyses of Lake Superior iron ores of season 190S — Conti 
MESABI RANGE— Continued. 



Ore. 


Iron. 


Phos- 
phorus. 


Silica. 


Manga- 
nese. 


Alumi- 
na. 


Lime. 


nesm. 


Sul- 
phur. 


Loss 
by ig- 
nition. 


Albany a 


Percent. 
r 60.00 
1 53.0400 
1 63.20 
I 56.60 
J 60.50 
{ 55.660 
r 61.93 
i 66.6111 
f 62.00 
I 67.0400 
f 59.00 
I 53.6900 
J 61.2441 
i 65.0483 
J 60.00 
1 54.00 

62.7807 
I 56.7237 
1 63.100 
i 57.2817 
1 57.00 
[ 50.0745 
r 58.00 
i 51.91 
f 58.87 
1 62.928 
r 60.25 
1 58.1646 
r 60.7764 
I 54.6149 
f 61.67 
I 66.2924 
[ 63.0445 
I 57.6279 
j 62.00 
1 68.038 
f 62.6554 
t 57.0477 
j 60.84 
1 52.64 
f 56.89 
I 50.16 
J 62.00 
1 56.7300 
r 61.00 
i 54.9000 
1 61.6846 
I 54.8448 
j 62.10 
i 65.7658 
f 61.1178 
I 52.9020 


Percent. 
0.077 
.06807 
.079 
.0707 
.038 
.03496 
.044 
.04015 
.055 
.05060 
.040 
.08640 
.0467 
.04107 
.069 
.0581 
.0321 
.02902 
.089 
.03587 
.044 
.03865 
.040 
.0868 
.067 
.05124 
.064 
.05647 
.0453 
.04071 
.036 
.08286 
.0328 
.02998 
.037 
.03464 
.0295 
.02686 
.073 
.068 
.047 
.0406 
.035 
.03202 
.040 
.08600 
.0610 
.05482 
.057 
.05119 
.0490 
.01241 


Perct. 
8.74 
8.3062 
2.89 
2.14 


Perct. 

0.76 

.6630 

.28 

.26 


Perd. 
1.80 
1.5012 
1.89 
1.24 


Perct. 

0.80 
.2652 
.23 
.206 


Perct. 
0.19 

.1680 

.15 

.18 


Perd. 

0.008 
.0071 
.016 
.014 


Perd. 
7.01 


Beaver 


6.2234 
4.45 




8.98.1 


Bewemer . , 




















Biwabik 

Butler a 


4.54 

4.1427 

4.60 

4.1400 

9.32 

8.4812 

4.9478 

4.4468 


.49 

.4471 

.49 

.4508 

.989 

.8644 

.7586 

.6818 


1.87 

1.2501 

1.20 

1.1040 

1.766 

1.6061 


.32 

.2920 

.82 

.2944 

.24 

.2184 


.08 

.0780 

.06 

.0786 

.06 

.0465 


.010 

.0091 

.010 

.0092 

.014 

.0127 


4.47 

4.078S 

4.47 


Cass a 


4. 112^ 
5.20 




4.732( 


Chlsholm ... 


1 














i 








Clairtona 






1 














8.6830 

8.2399 

4.150 

3.7640 

9.05 

7.9604 


.6361 

.6752 

.200 

.1814 

.98 

.8609 


1 








Clark 
















Commodore" 

Corsica 


1.210 
1,0976 
1.27 
1.1167 


.240 
.2177 
.19 
.1669 


.060 
.0544 
.18 
.1581 


.004 
.0086 
.009 
.0079 


8.400 
3.083f 
6.22 




6,4643 


Crosby <« 




















Croxton 


6.38 

6,735 

8.78 

3.8855 

6.0045 

4.4972 

4.13 

8.7699 

8.9870 

3.6446 


.718 
.6455 
.98 
.8648 


1.446 
1.2999 
1.77 
1.6618 


.22 
.198 
.29 
.2559 


.16 
.144 
.22 
.1941 


.010 
.0090 
.009 
.0079 


G.04 


Cyprus 


5.430 
6.35 




5.603i 


Duluth 


















Elba 


.96 
.8763 


1.08 
.9402 


.20 
.1826 


.11 
.1004 


.008 
.0073 


4.70 




4.290! 


































Franklin 


1 














4.1599 
3.7876 
6.05 
4.37 

11.69 

10.19 
8.00 
7.8200 
5.27 
4.7430 
3.8914 
8.4666 
4.160 
3.7267 
6.1829 
5.8518 






' 






Qenoa 


















































Hawkins 


.27 
.22 


2.13 
1.88 


.19 
.17 


.14 
.12 




8.95 




3.50 






1 1 


1 


Holland n 


.41 
.3690 


.92 
.8280 


.29 
.261 


.11 
.099 


.012 3.37 




.0108 3.033( 


Island 












Jordan 


.625 
.5612 
.2879 
.2492 


.628 

.5639 

2.3817 

2.0615 


.153 
.1374 


.IM 
.1383 


.006 3.584 




.Oa'>4 3.218- 











a Expected analysis for the season of 1904. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IBOK OBES. 



53 



OmtpleU ctrerage cargo anah/aes of Lake Superior iron ores of season 190S — Continued. 

MESABI RANQE--Continaed. 



Ore. 


Iron. 


Phos- 
phorus. 


Silica. 


Manga- 
nese. 


Alumi- 
na. 


Lime. 


^^. 


Sul- 
phur. 

Perct. 


Loss 
nitlon. 


Mois- 
ture. 




Percent. 
f 53.691 
I 46.972 
r 68.50 
I 62.06 
f 60.00 
i 56.2000 
f 61.00 
1 54.9000 
f 69.95 
1 63.96 
1 68.41 
1 52.79 
1 57.676 
1 50.828 
r 65.20 
i 58.777 
f 62.63 
1 56.9808 
f 60.00 
i 55.1340 
J 60.00 


Percent. 
0.0826 
.07226 
.09 
.08 
.046 
.(M140 
.061 
.05490 
.071 
.064 
.089 
.085 
.0621 
.05473 
.047 
.042 
.027 
.02456 
.035 
.03216 
.060 


PercL 


PercL 


Perd. 


Perct. 


Perct. 


Perct. 


Perct. 


Kanawha 




1 












12.514 




5.00 
4.45 
7.87 
7.2404 
3.81 
3.4290 
8.24 
2.92 
10.22 
9.24 


0.60 2.50 
- .53 2.22 
.423 .958 
.3891 .8813 
.975 1 .924 
.8775 .8816 
.38 1.67 
.84 1.50 


0.70 
.62 
.16 
.1472 
.05 
.0450 
.24 
.22 


0.40 
.36 
.03 
.0276 
.04 
.0360 
.12 
.11 








Kinney <« 










11.00 


La Rue o 


0.012 


2.72 




Leetoniaa 


.0110 2.5024 
.009 j 6.93 


8.00 


Leonard « 


.0081 
.008 


6.2370 
8.50 


10.00 




.007 


7.66 


10.00 


Lincoln 


****! 
















9.63 









1 








Loni?yeaT.. .... 






1 










11.872 


MaboniBK 

Malta 

Minorca <* 


1.90 

1.71 

5.60 

5.0949 

8.62 

7.9209 


.28 

.26 

.70 

.6369 

.64 

.5881 


1.06 
.955 
.80 
.7278 

1.76 

1.6173 


.15 

.135 

.28 

.2547 

.29 

.26ty> 


.05 

.015 

.18 

.1638 

.18 

.16M 


.019 3.20 
.017 ' 2.88 
.012 2.45 
.0109 2.2290 
.008 2.53 
.0074 2.3248 


9.85 
9.02 




8.11 


Morrl'4 a 






1 




' 








Mi^rrowa 


f 60.00 
i 54.6000 
J 63.4528 
1 54.9330 
1 62.3949 
I 51.1228 
f 60.00 

54.0000 
j 59.8843 
54.3963 
J 62.5452 
1 56.1166 
60.3268 
52.5822 
60.50 
54.4500 
57.4201 
50. '2267 
( 64.00 
1 56.32 
J 62.18 
( 56.0000 
J 62.53 
I 57.3163 
Ij 58.4383 
[ 48.4858 
j 57.9121 
li 51.5085 
a 


.061 
.05561 
.0429 
.03713 
.0491 
.(M259 
.045 
.04050 
.0540 
.04905 
.0412 
.03696 
.0503 
.043M 
.065 
.a5H50 
.0599 
.05240 
.040 
.0352 
.063 
.ai674 
.028 
.02.568 
.0690 
.05724 
.0776 
.06902 
Expecte<] 


7.52 

6.8432 

4.3351 

8.7530 

5.1103 

4.4328 

7.00 

6.3000 

6.6604 

6.0500 

4.1964 

3. 7651 

6.6447 

5. 7917 

4.75 

4.2750 

7.6562 

6.6971 


.810 


1.391 


.22 
.2002 


.05 
.0455 


.016 1 4.94 






.7371 1.2658 
.2093 1.9757 
.1812 1.7104 
.2417 2.1360 
.2096 1.8528 
1.10 1.50 
.9900' 1.3500 


.0145 4.49.54 9.00 


M4»anlain 




. .1 j 1.3.4270 








Oliver 






1 1 




' 13. '2.577 


Pearce a 


.18 
.1620 


.30 
.2700 


.020 1 5.G2 






.0180 5.0580 


10.00 


Penobscot 


i 




; 


9.1644 




1 




I 




PiiNborv- 


\ 




1 






10. 2784 




.3198 2.3682 
.2787, 2.0642 






1 




Preble 






* 






12. S377 










>«untr}*<j 


t 












10. 00 












^iianm 










12..VJ76 












*iu-I'HIl^4»" 
















VI. m 


"Uiilinjf '* ..-.-. 


3.81 
3. 4316 
6.44 
5.9061 
4.3472 
3. 6068 
6.85% 
6.1011 
I anal y si 


.65 1 1.36 
.58M 1.2249 
.52 .H9 
.4769 .81«V2 

.6192 

.5137 


.10 
.(t9(H) 
.17 
. 1.m9 


.05 

. oi:^ 

.13 

AVSl 


.010 6.(i'J 


•f*rta« 

-pp.«-«- .No. 1 


.(110 •2.i:r> 

i7.(i:;oT 


Pl.^'Iair 


1 








llJtiTl 




8 for the 


gca«oi» 


of IMOI. 









Digitized by 



Google 



54 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Complete average cargo analyses of Lake Superior iron ores of season 190S — C^on ti 
MESABI RANGE-Contliined. 



Ore. 


1 


Silica. 


Manga- 
nese. 


Alumi- 
na. 


Lime. 


Mag- 1 Sul- 
nesia. phur. 

1 


Loe« 1 
nitiOT.! 




Percent. 'Percent. 
1 59.4478' 0.0621 
1 50.8306 .06810 
f 64.100 ' .038 
i 68.81181 .03486 
1 62.4480' .0863 
1 86.1025 .08261 
1 61.00 j .037 
I 64.9061 .08330 
1 65.00 .085 
I 48.4000 .08080 
1 59.6991 .0688 
I 51.6698 .05479 
1 59.02 1 .062 
1 63.196 .0469 
r ffi no 1 HRi 


PercL 
4.6467 
8.8876 
3.600 
8.3090 
8.4268 
8.0772 
7.84 
6.1667 

10.68 
9.3984 
6.4679 
4.7826 


Perct. 

0.4409 
.8770 
.850 
.8211 
.6451 
.6795 
.69 
.6811 
.69 
.6072 


Perct. 

2.6804 

2.2919 

.760 

.6978 


Perct. 


Perct. 


Perct. 


rcrct 


1 

•1 


Stephens 














1 


Stevenson 


0.316 
.2890 


0.148 
.1358 


0.004 
.0087 


1.420 ,. 




1.9028/ 


Thompson 










'1 






) 


TopBrown« 

Troy o 


1.11 
.9991 
3.17 
2.7896 


.29 
.2610 
.25 
.2200 


.21 
.1890 
.74 
.6612 


.010 
.0090 
.138 
.1214 


2.86 
2.574J 
6.43 
4.7784 


\ 




] 


Tubal 


















1 


















Union 






























1 








,r,-_, , w* f 62.50 .075 
Virginia Minesa.... ^^ ^^ 








1 


».,..-.. 


. 


S.00 
2.7000 
3.670 
3.8666 
















1 


1 


If 


Wallace 


1 62.950 .061 
I 67.6652 .04668 


.892 
.3684 


.858 
.7846 


.215 .157 
.1966 .1435 


.006 ' 2.100 
.0065 1.9200 


8 



VERMILION RANGE. 





63.9292 

60.6527 

62.3289 

58.5416 

f 63.0881 

I 59.646 

J 67.0021 

65.50 
J 61.2853 
1 '60.7384 
f 64.0700 
I 60.3768 
1 65.0337 
1 6L5926 
f 66.7906 
[ 66.5053 
1 58.9729 
( 68.4490 
1 66.8901 
1 61.9303 


0.0444 
.04212 
.0684 


4.7889 
4.4918 
4.0973 










1 l... 


Chandler 
















5, 
















Jura 
















.06424 8.8488 
.0859 1 6.1426 
.08895, 4.8626 
.0296 2.1245 


6 


















Pioneer 


















5^ 


















Pilot 


.02894 2.0769 
.1113 1 9.1355 
.11089! 9.0606 
.0538 3.5972 
.06070 3.3899 
.0323 1 3.4602 
.08059 3.2676 










' 








'I'. 






1 




1 




Red Lake 
















,^ 






1 










Savoy 
















f).'/ 




1 




! 






Sibley 


1 












.S.'JJ 


Soudan Vermilion 
Lump 


.1015 8.2170 
.10107 3.2038 






1 














■It 




1 










Soudan Silicious 


.05045 

.0386 

.03G45 


14.0806 
3.4910 
3.2962 








1 




.s^ 
















Zenith 












5.57 



















MICHIPICOTEN RANGE. 



Helen . 



57.65 
64.06 



0.094 



7.40 
6.989 



0.28 
.215 



1.48 
1.888 



0.12 
.11 



0.10 
.09 



0.177 
.166 



7.64 
7.16 



6.22 



a Expected analysii} for the season of 1904. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IRON ORES. 55 

DISTRIBUTION OF IRON-ORE PRODUCTION IN 1903, BY 

STATES. 

Minnesota. — The iron ore mined in this State in 1903 (15,371,396 
long tons), all of the red hematite variety, came from the Mesabi and 
Vermilion ranges in the Lake Superior region. The State shows an 
increase of 238,746 long tons, or about 2 per cent, over the 1902 total 
of 15,137^650 tons. The shipments, however, were less in 1903 than 
in 1902, and the stocks of ore on hand at the mines increased. 

Minnesota has a unique record as a producer of iron ore. Until the 
year 1884, when the Vermilion Range was first exploited in what was 
then a wilderness, no ore was mined in the State, but in that year the 
initial production of 62,122 long tons was obtained. The output has 
increased rapidly year by year. Mining on the Mesabi Bange began 
in 1892, since which time it has made marvelous progress, the Range 
attaining the preeminence in the Lake Superior district in the year 
1895 which it has since held. The State, as a whole, shows a yearly 
increase in the iron-ore production from the time iron ore was first 
obtained in 1884 to the close of the year 1903, a period of twenty years. 
No other State in the Union has such a record. In addition, the known 
reserves of iron ore on the Mesabi Range are greater than on any other 
of the Lake Superior ranges, and explorations are being prosecuted 
on both the Mesabi and the Vermilion ranges. 

It is hard to understand from figures what is represented by the 
15,371,396 long tons of iron ore mined in Minnesota in 1903. In this 
connection a comparison with some of the more prominent of the older 
producers may be appropriate. The Cornwall Ore Hills in Pennsyl- 
vania were first opened in 1740, and since that period they have pro- 
duced to the close of 1903 over 18,000,000 tons of ore. The Lake 
Chaniplain district since its initial exploitation in 1804 is reported to 
have contributed over 20,000,000 tons. The magnetite deposits of 
New Jersey were probably first worked about the year 1710, and since 
that time the output has reached a total of nearly 22,000,000 long tons. 
Thus it will be seen that Minnesota in the single year 1903 produced, 
in round numbers, three-fourths of the total output for nearly two 
centuries of either of these three celebrated regions or, say, one-fourth 
of the combined output of all three. 

Michigan, — Michigan holds second rank as a producer of iron ore 
with a total of 10,600,330 long tons, a decrease of 534,885 tons, or 
nearly 5 per cent, from the 1902 output of 11,135,215 tons. Of the 
19<j3 total, 10,592,933 tons were red hematite, giving it second rank 
in this class of ore, and the remainder 7,397 tons was of the magnetite 
variety. As in the case of Minnesota there was an increase in Michi- 
gan in the stocks of ore on hand at the mines. All of the iron ore 
obtained comes from the Marquette, Menominee, and Gogebic ranges, 
which are treated collectively under the head of the Lake Superior 
region. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



56 MINERAL RESOURCES. 

The production of 1903 shows a decline from the maximum output 
of 1902, but with that exception it is the largest quantity mined in 
any one year in the history of the State. 

Alabama. — This State occupies third position as a producer of iron 
ore, with a total of 3,684,960 long tons, of which 2,779,691 tons were 
of the red hematite variety, and 906,269 tons were brown hematite. 
The total production in 1903 was 110,486 tons, or 3 per cent greater 
than in 1902 when 3,574,474 tons were obtained. All of this increase 
was in the red hematite ores, the brown hematites showing a decrease. 
The State occupied third position as a producer of red hematites, and 
first of brown hematites. 

Tennessee. — This State, which ranked fifth in 1902 with a total of 
874,542 long tons, showed a falling off of 21,838 long tons, or 3.5 per 
cent in 1903, when 852,704 tons were mined; but Tennessee advanced 
to fourth place owing to the decrease in the combined output of Vir- 
ginia and West Virginia. The State contributed 481,515 tons of 
brown hematite ore, and 371,189 tons of red hematite, occupying in 
these classes third and fifth rank, respectively. 

Virgmia and West Virginia. — These two States (which have been 
combined in order not to disclose individual statistics) in the year 1903 
supplied 801,161 long tons of iron ore, a decline of 186,797 tons, or 
19 per cent from the 1902 total of 987,958 tons. Of this quantity 
764,948 tons were brown hematite, 31,609 tons red hematite, and 4,604 
tons magnetite, giving the States second, tenth, and seventh place, 
respectively, in these classes of ores. 

Wisconsin. — This State produced 675,053 long tons of iron ore in 
the year 1903, a decline of 108,943 long tons, or 14 per cent from the 
1902 total of 783,996 tons. Of the total production 646,042 long tons 
were of the red hematite variety, in which class the State occupied 
fourth place, and the remainder, 29,011 long tons, was brown hematite. 
The State ranked sixth as an iron-ore producer. 

This year witnessed the initial production of iron ore in the new 
Baraboo Iron Range, near the town of Freedom in southern Wisconsin. 
In 1903 Mr. S. Weidman made an investigation for the Wisconsin 
geological and natural history survey of the occurrence of iron ore in 
the Baraboo Range, which is summarized as follows in Bulletin No. 
225 of the United States Geological Survey:^ 

A pre-Cambrian quartzite formation, having an estimated thickness of 3,000 to 5,000 
feet, forms an east-west synclinorium about 20 miles long and ranging in width from 2 
miles on the east to 10 or 12 miles on the west, resting on a basement of igneous rock. 
The upturned north and south edges of the quartzite form, respectively, the north and 
the south ranges of the Baraboo bluffs, standing 700 to 800 feet above the surround- 
ing country and above the intervening valley. This valley is occupied by formations 
younger than and conformable with the quartzite. Mr. V^eidman has named these 

a Contributions to Economic Geology, 1903: Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey No. 226, 1904, pp. 218-220. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ntoN OBES. 57 

formadons the 8eeley slate and the Freedom formation. The Seeley slate has an esti- 
nuited thickness of 500 to 800 feet, and above this is the Freedom formation, mainly 
dolomite, which has a thickness estimated to be at least 800 feet, and which bears 
the iron-ore deposits in its lower horizon. 

Flat-lying Paleozoic sediments, unconformably overlying the pre-Cambrian rocks, 
occupy the smronnding area and partly fill the valley. Paleozoic rocks range from 
Upper Cambrian (Potsdam) in the valley bottom to the Ordovician (Trenton) on 
the upper portions of the quartzite ranges. The Potsdam sandstone has a thickness 
ranging from a few feet to a maximum of about 570 feet in the valley. Glacial drift 
ie abundant over the quartzite ranges and in the valleys in the eastern half of the 
district, but occurs only in the valleys in the western half. 

The iron ore occurs in the lower horizons of the Freedom formation and is mainly 
I bessemer hematite, with soft and earthy, hard and black, and banded siliceous 
phases. A very small amount of hydrated hematite or limonite is also present 
The rocks immediately associated with the ore and into which the ore grades are 
dolomite, cherty ferruginous dolomite, ferruginous chert, ferruginous slate, and femi- 
ginoos dolomitic slate — in fact, all possible gradations and mixtures of the minerals 
dolomite, hematite, quartz, and such aiigillaceous minerals as kaolin and chlorite. 
In the ferruginous rocks associated with the iron ore, the iron occurs as hematite and 
also in the form of carbonate, isomorphous with carbonate of calcium, magnesium, 
and manganese, in the form of ferrodolomite and manganic-ferro-dolomite, and as 
silicates combined with various proportions of alumina, lime, magnesia, and manga- 
nese, as chlorite and mica, and also very probably to a small extent as iron phosphate. 
The ore deposits thus far found are all in the valley between the quartzite ranges, 
and because of the structure of the pre-Cambrian series it is hardly possible that ore 
deposits will be found elsewhere than in this valley. 

The iron ore is a stratified formation and is conformable with the associated strati- 
fied rocks, both below and above. The ore bodies, therefore, have the dip and 
strike of the associated rocks, and are found dipping at various angles from nearly 
horizontal to nearly vertical. 

At the Illinois mine, 3 miles southwest of North Freedom, and on the south limb 
of the syncline, the ore deposit has a thickness of 30 to 35 feet, and bears an average 
of 54 to 58 per cent metallic iron. The dip of the ore body and adjacent formation 
i0*about 50** N. Between the ore and the underlying Seeley slate are 100 feet of 
mltemating beds and thin seams of iron ore with a considerable thickness of dolomite 
and ferruginous dolomite, ferruginous chert, and ferruginous slate. Between the 
ore deposit and the overl3ring dolomite are alternating strata of similar character 
grading up into the nearly pure dolomite. North of the Illinois mine a thickness of 
000 feet of dolomite is known to occur. 

Underground exploration seems to show that the conditions and character of the 
rock existing at the Illinois mine prevail generally, as should be expected, throughout 
the valley wherever the iron formation and overlying rocks have not been eroded 
by the subsequent pre-Potsdam erosion. In general, there appears to be a highly 
ferruginous horizon near the base of the dolomitic formation, having a variable 
thickness, probably ranging from 400 to 500 feet. This ferruginous horizon bears 
one or more deposits of iron ore separated by intervening strata of associated ferru- 
ginoos rock. In one of the drill holes in the west end of the district nearly 200 feet 
nf iron ore and paint rock were penetrated immediately beneath the unconformable 
Fotsdam sandstone, the average content of iron for this distance being about 45 per 
cent 

fhe iron ore is believed by Weidman to be mainly a product of metamorphism of 
what was originally a deposit of nearly pure ferric hydrate, deposited in shallow 
hgooxm and protected bays and formed in a manner similar to bog and lake ore 
at the present day, throogh chemical and organic processes acting upon and within 



Digitized by 



Google 



58 MINERAL RE9OUE0E8. 

shallow waters unusually rich in iron. The evidence of shallow water, and not 
deep sea, in which the iron was originally deposited, is furnished by the numerous 
sun cracks in the ferruginous carbonaceous slate immediately associated with the ore 
strata and the presence of carbonaceous matter in the iron ore and associated rocks. 
The process of metamorphism, it is believed, has been mainly that of dehydration of 
the original ferric hydrate, analagous to the partial dehydration of the originally 
hydrated silicates, chlorite, and kaolin of the underlying Seeley slate. 

These deposits of Bessemer ore, within convenient railroad haul of 
the blast furnaces at Chicago, 111., may prove an important adjunct to 
the ore supply of these furnaces. 

Pennsylvania. — This State contributed 644,599 long tons of iron ore 
in the year 1903, being a decline of 178,333 long tons, or 22 per cent, 
from the 1902 total of 822,932 long tons. Three classes of ore were 
mined in 1903; 426,637 tons were of the magnetite variety, 202,542 
tons brown hematite, and 15,420 tons red hematite, giving the State 
third, sixth, and twelfth place, respectively, in these classes of iron 
ore. 

This decline is due almost entirely to the diminished output of one 
of the large mines, the Cornwall Ore Hills, to which Pennsylvania 
was indebted for its position as a prominent producer for a number 
of years. 

JS^eio York, — In the year 1903 New York mined 540,460 long tons 
of iron ore, a decrease of 14,861 tons, or 3 per cent, from the 1902 
total of 555,321 tons. Of this quantity 451,481 tons were of the mag- 
netite variety, 83,820 tons were red hematite, and 5,159 tons brown 
hematite ore, giving the State second, eighth, and fourteenth position 
in these respective classes of iron ore. 

JS'ew Jersey. — All of the iron ore mined in New Jersey is of the 
magnetite variety, in which class of ore it occupied first place in 1903, 
with a total of 484,796 long tons. This was an increase of 42,917 
long tons, or nearly 10 per cent, over the 1902 production of 441,879 
long tons. 

The construction of several modern furnaces has been the predomi- 
nating and instigating cause of the increased output in New Jersey, 
and it is probable that an augmented production may be expected in 
the near future. 

Georgia. — In the year 1903 Georgia produced 443,452 long tons of 
iron ore, an advance of 78,562 tons, or 22 per cent, over the 1902 total 
of 364,890 long tons (including the quantity mined in North Carolina, 
which in the year 1903 is reported separately, owing to the increasing 
number of mines). 

Of this total 318,804 long tons were brown hematite and 124,648 
tons were red hematite. 

Nevada., New Mexico^ Utah^ and Wyoming. — Nevada, New Mexico, 
Utah, and Wyoming contributed in the year 1903 392,242 long tons 
of iron ore, the greater portion of which, 235,599 long tons, was of 



Digitized by 



Google 






IRON ORES. 59 

the red hematite variety, the i*emainder being magnetite with a small 
amount of brown hematite. The increase over the year 1902 output 
of 362,034 long tons was 30,208 tons, or 8 per cent. In 1902 Montana 
was a producer of iron ore, while the Nevada mines were idle; in the 
year 1903 the reverse was the case. 

Oolcrado. — In the year 1903 the amount of iron ore mined in this 
State was 252,909 tons, being 40,388 tons, or 14 per cent less than the 
1902 production of 293,297 tons. 

Of this total 249,288 tons were of the brown-hematite variety, the 
remainder, 3,621 tons, being red hematite. 

The determination of exact statistics in regard to the iron ore mined 
in Colorado is difficult, as much of the ore comes from mines produc- 
ing precious metals, but when iron ores do not contain sufficient 
quantities of silver, gold, lead, or manganese to cause them on that 
account to be valued at or in excess of about $12 per ton, and are used 
as fluxes by the smelters, they have been classed as iron ores. 

Other States. — None of the other States reached a total production 
of 100,000 tons. Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Texas supplied 
brown hematite ore; Maryland, brown hematite and carbonate; Mis- 
souri, I'ed and brown hematites; North Carolina, brown hematite and 
magnetite; and Ohio, carbonate ore. 

PROMTNENT IRON^ORE MINES. 

In the year ending December 31, 1903, there were 141 iron-ore 
operations which produced over 50,000 tons each, the total being 
31,301,938 long tons, or 89 per cent of the United States output. In 
1902, 126 mines produced 31,561,628 long tons. 

Of these larger mining operations 116 contributed 28,660,132 tons 
of red hematite, 15 supplied 1,336,337 tons of brown hematite, and 10 
reported 1,305,469 tons of magnetite. Of these operations 1 reported 
over 1,500,000 tons, 1 over 1,300,000 tons, 2 over 1,200,000 tons, 2 
over 1,000,000 tons, 2 over 800,000 tons, 2 over 700,000 tons, 3 over 
600,000 tons, 4 over 500,000 tons, 3 over 400,000 tons, 9 over 300,000 
tons, 13 over 200,000 tons, 35 over 100,000 tons, and 64 between 
100,000 tons and 50,000 tons. 

Of these larger mining operations 48 were in Minnesota, 46 in Mich- 
igan, 19 in Alabama, 6 in Tennessee, 4 each in Wisconsin and New 
Jersey, 3 in New York, 2 each in Pennsylvania, Virginia, Colorado, 
and Georgia, and 1 each in New Mexico, North Carolina, and Wyoming. 

The table below gives a list of the mining operations in the United 
States which in the year 1903 produced over 50,000 long tons of iron 
orp« together with the States in which they are located and the quan- 
tity contributed by each, except 12 mines, the managers of which 
objected to such publication, these being grouped at the end. 



Digitized by 



Google 



60 MINERAL BE80URCE8. 

Prominent iron-ore mines of the United States^ wiih their production in 1903. 

Long tons. 

Fayal, Minn 1,519,450 

Mountain Iron, Minn , 1, 336, 864 

Adams, Minn 1,265,501 

Red Mountain Group, Ala 1,231,409 

Stevenson, Minn 1,014,608 

Mahoning No. 3, Minn 1,010,327 

Nome Group, Mich 865,141 

Biwabik, Minn 807,511 

Lake Superior, Mich 706,267 

Pioneer, Minn 703,925 

Chapin, Mich 683,481 

Spruce Mining Company, Minn 663, 290 

Burt, Minn 627,049 

Amgon, Mich 552,898 

Cleveland Lake, Mich 459,650 

Cleveland Hard Ore, Mich 65,753 

525,403 

Chandler, Minn 518,738 

Pewabic, Mich 500,855 

Aurora and Vaughn, Mich 468, 518 

Hull, Minn 429,860 

Cornwall, Pa 401,470 

Ashland, Mich 373,933 

Penn Iron Mining Company, Mich 358, 421 

Genoa, Minn 346,678 

Lake Angeline, Mich 325,200 

Tilden,Mich 323,972 

Regent Iron Company, Mich 321,680 

Savoy-Sibley, Minn 312,655 

Clark, Minn 304,328 

Newport and Bonnie, Mich 295, 507 

Lincoln, Minn 284,677 

Rust, Minn 257,413 

Cliffs Shaft, Mich 252,506 

Bristol (Claire), Mich 250,300 

Sellers, Minn 247,691 

Sunrise, Wyo 214,880 

Pillsbury, Minn 214,026 

Chisholm, Minn 213,003 

Minnesota Iron Company, Minn 202, 558 

Leetonia, Minn 200, 163 

Brown Mining Company, Tenn 198, 841 

Glen, Minn 191,942 

Champion, Mich 190,902 

Jordan, Minn : 190, 353 

Zenith, Minn 180, 708 

Negaunee, Mich 179, 282 

Sali8bur>, Mich 176,107 

Montreal and Ottawa, Wis 173, 149 

Port Henry No. 21, N. Y 164,895 

Great Western, Mich 163, 795 

Utica,Minn 168,154 



Digitized by 



Google 



IBON ORES. 61 

Long tons. 

Atlantic, Wis 156,627 

Duluth, Minn 150,053 

Elba, Minn 142,987 

Beaaiort, Mich 141,900 

FieiTo and Union Hill, N. Mex 137,843 

Crystal Fallfi, Mich 137,169 

Riverton Group, Mich 131,673 

Tobin and Geneeee, Mich i 131,022 

Cyprus, Minn ..1 122,641 

Cundy. Mich 120,616 

Ironaton IVIinee, Ala 120, 572 

Republic and West Republic, Mich 120, 218 

Florence, Wis 116, 180 

Albiiny, Minn 112,315 

Day, Minn 111,587 

Hemlock River, Mich 110, 749 

Clifford, Mich 108,277 

Mikado, Mich 107,750 

Oriflkany,Va 107,293 

Volunteer, Mich 107,035 

Minorca, Minn 105,587 

Loretto, Mich 104,498 

Grmoea Gap, Ala 101,719 

Bartow, Ga 97,758 

Agnew, Minn 96,073 

CYoxton, Minn 95,877 

BalUc, Mich 95,553 

Rddmnnd, Ala 93,636 

Brotherton, Mich 93,061 

Longyear, Minn 90, 650 

Helen-Bcas, Ala 88,223 

Richards, N.J 87,782 

Princeton, Mich 87,396 

Cmrvy WeetCary,and Superior, Wis 87,393 

Stephens, Minn 87,055 

Sunday I^e, Mich 85,338 

UuD<Hit, Mich 80,394 

Sparta, Minn , 77,933 

£«ireka, Tenn 76,538 

Lone Pine 1, 2, and 3, Ala 76,356 

Laura, Minn 75,552 

^ith, Tenn 74,379 

Mannie, Tenn 74, 357 

Winthrop, Mich 72,433 

Houston, Ala 71,690 

Hammond Bros. & Company, Ala 70, 172 

Tinnehill. Ala 69,622 

Ia Follette Coal and Iron Company, Tenn 69, 270 

Hawking Minn - 67,244 

ifinnfieW, Mich 65,244 

Sbaron, 3£inn 64, 835 

La Beiie, Minn 64,563 

Ptttit, Minn ^»378 



Digitized by 



Google 



62 MINERAL RESOURCES. 

Long tons. 

Union, Minn 60,079 

Franklin, Minn 60, 049 

Hiawatha, Mich 60,000 

Yale, Mich 59,460 

Orient, Colo 58,848 

Anvil, Mich 58,229 

Estelle Mining Company, Ga 57, 419 

North Alabama Mining Company (Slope No. 1 ), Ala 67, 216 

Cambria, Mich 56,620 

Grant, Minn 55,945 

Richmond (Gribben), Mich 55, 593 

Lillie, Mich 55,162 

Greeley Group, Ala 54, 499 

Alfretta, Ala 54,484 

Midas, Colo 64,448 

La Rue Mining Company, Minn 53, 375 

Verona, Mich 53,231 

Hillman, Ala 53,166 

Quinnesec, Mich 53,160 

Cass, Minn 52,905 

Scotia, Pa 52,763 

Hartford, Mich 52,152 

Chateaugay, N. Y 51,654 

Pinkney Mining Company, Tenn 50, 928 

Pearce, Mmn 50,439 

St. Clair, Minn 50,257 

Total 29,735,431 

Twelve mines not reported by name 1, 566, 507 

Total 31,301,938 

SHIPMENTS OF IRON ORE FROM IiAKE SUPERIOR REGION. 

The greater portion of the iron ore mined in the Lake Superior 
region is sent by rail to seven shipping ports for transportation by 
water to ports on Lakes Erie and Michigan, and from these ports most 
of the ore received is forwarded by rail to Mast furnaces and rolling 
mills in Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia, Illi- 
nois, Wisconsin, Michigan, Kentucky, etc. Owing to the large stocks 
carried over and to the reduced demand, the distribution of Lake 
Superior iron ores will probably extend in 1904: over a greater terri- 
tory than that named. Five of the seven shipping ports — Two Har- 
bors, Duluth, Superior, Ashland, and Marquette — are located on Lake 
Superior, and two — Escanaba and Gladstone — are on the northwestern 
shore of Lake Michigan. Duluth and Two Harbors are in the State 
of Minnesota, Superior and Ashland in Wisconsin, and the others in 
Michigan. 

Climatic conditions interfere with shipments by water and limit the 
season of ore transportation to about seven months. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IBON 0BE8. 



63 



The total amount of iron ore forwarded by water from the Lake 
Superior region during the year 1903 wa8 23,649,550 long tons, and in 
addition 632,045 tons were sent to points of consumption by all rail, a 
total of 24,281,596 long tons. The ports of Duluth and Two Harbors 
in 1903, as in 1902, head the list, but the relative positions are reversed, 
Duluth now ranking first with 6,356,473 long tons, followed by Two 
Harbors with 5,120,656 tons. Escanaba is third with a shipment of 
4,277,561 tons, Superior fourth with 3,978,579 tons, Ashland fifth 
with 2,823,119 tons, Marquette sixth with 2,007,346 tons, and Glad- 
stone last with 85,816 tons. 

The shipments by ports from 1895 to 1903, inclusive, as supplied by 
the Iron Trade Review, are as follows: 

Lake shipments of iron orCy 1896-1 90S ^ by ports. 



ShippififiT port. 



Two Harbon* 

Eecaiutba 

Duhitb 

AahUnd 

Marquette 

Superior 

Gladstone 

Total 

All-rail shipments 

Gland total 

Shipping port. 

Two Harbors 

Eieaoafaa 

Daluth 

Ashiaod 

MAfqaette 

Soperlor 

GladstcMie 

TWal 

An-fmn shipments 

<;rmnd total 



1896. 



Long tons. 
2,118,156 
2,860,172 
1,598,783 
2,350,219 
1,079,485 
117,884 
109, 2U 



10,233,910 
195,127 



10,429,037 



1896. 



1897. 



Long tons. 
1,818,992 
2,321,981 
1,968,982 
1,566,286 
1,561,813 
167,246 
220,887 



9,644,036 
290,792 



Long tons. 
2,651,465 
2,802,121 
2,876,064 
2,067,637 
1,946,519 
531,825 
341,014 



12,215,645 
263,993 



9,934,828 12,469,638 



1899. 



Long tons. 
2,698,245 
2,806,513 
2,635,262 
2,391,088 
2,245,965 
550,403 
335,956 



13,655,432 
369,241 



14,024,673 



Ixmg tons. 
3,973,783 
3,?20,218 
3,609,965 
2,703,447 
2,738,596 
878,942 
381,467 

17,901,358 
350,446 



18,251,804 



1900. 



Long tons. 
4,007,294 
3.436,781 
3,888,986 
2,633,687 
2,661,861 
1,622,899 
418,854 



18,670,815 
480,078 



19,059,393 



1901. 



Long ions. 
5,018,197 
4,022,668 
3,437,955 
2,886,252 
2,854,284 
2,321,077 
117,089 



20,157,522 
431,715 



20,589,237 



1902. 



Long tons. 
5,605,185 
5,413,704 
5,598,408 
3.553,919 
2,595,010 
4,180,568 
92,375 



27,039,169 
531,952 



27,671,121 



Long tons. 
5,120,656 
4,277,561 
5,356,473 
2,823,119 
2,007,346 
3,978,579 
85,816 

23,649,550 
632,015 

24,281,596 



Most of the iron ore shipped from the upper lake ports is received 
tt the Lake Erie ports, the quantity during the year 1903 being 
I*»,681,731 long tons of iron ore. The diflFerence between this quan- 
tity and 23,649,550 tons, the total tonnage forwarded by water from 
the shipping port«, represents the quantity forwarded to blast fur- 
nace- located on or near Lake Michigan, at Detroit, etc. There should 
be added to the total shipments the (juantity of iron ore sent to the 



Digitized by 



Google 



64 



MimSBAL BE80UBGES. 



United States from the Michipicoten Range of Ontario. The ore won 
from this Canadian range in 1903 was 223,976 long tons, of which 
170,666 tons were sent to the United States, and 32,745 long tons were 
supplied to Canadian furnaces, the remainder being placed on the 
stock pile. This would therefore show a total of 4,138,485 long tons 
sent to blast furnaces at or near Chicago, Milwaukee, and in the lower 
peninsula of Michigan. 

In 1903 Cleveland occupied first place as an iron-ore receiving port, 
with a total of 4,434,160 long tons of iron ore, followed by Ashtabula 
with 4,242,160 long tons, Conneaut with 3,903,937 tons, Buffalo and 
Tonawanda with 2,149,901 tons, Fairport with 1,434,342 tons, and Erie 
with 1,257,798 tons. Of the other Lake Erie ports, Lorain, Toledo, 
Huron, and Sandusky, none received 1,000,000 tons, but they ranked 
in the order named. 

The following table presents the receipts of iron ore at lower lake 
ports from 18&5 to 1903, inclusive: 

Iron-ore receipts at Lake Erie pnrtSf 1895-190S. 



Port 



Ashtabula, Ohio 

Cleyeland, Ohio 

Conneaut, Ohio 

Buffalo and Tonawanda, N. Y 

Erie, Pa 

Fkdrport, Ohio 

Toledo, Ohio 

Lorain, Ohio 

Huron, Ohio 

Sandusky, Ohio 

Total 



1895. 



Long tons. 

2,474,791 

2,312,870 

244,967 

719,742 

811,989 

914,617 

260,790 

214,219 

146,442 

12,361 



8.112,228 



1896. 



LongUms. 

2,272,822 

2,818,170 

827,623 

645,101 

847,849 

941,446 

801,794 

191,445 

226,515 

58,667 



8,026,432 



1897. 



LongtoHB. 

3,001,914 

2,456,704 

495,327 

797,446 

1,311,526 

1,008,840 

416,488 

855,188 

198,231 

79,792 



10,120,906 



1898. 



Long tone. 

2.684,668 

2,645,818 

1,404,169 

1,075,975 

1,092,364 

912,879 

414,012 

586,066 

126,755 

136,200 



11,028,821 



1899. 



Longtotu, 
3,841,538 
8,222,682 
2,320,696 
1,580,016 
1,809,961 
1,241,018 

792,848 
1,112,946 

263,600 
87,499 



15,222,187 



Port. 



1900. 



1901. 



1902. 



1906. 



Ashtabula, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Conneaut, Ohio 

Buffalo and Tonawanda, N. Y. 

Erie, Pa 

Fairport, Ohio 

Toledo, Ohio 

Lorain, Ohio 

Huron, Ohio 

Sandusky, Ohio 



Totol. 



LongUm$. 

8,709,486 

8,876,644 

2,556,681 

1,616,919 

1,240,715 

1,085,554 

645,147 

1,090,285 

821,914 

1M,M2 

15,797,787 



LongtoT^s. 

3,981,170 

8,831,060 

3,181,019 

1,475,886 

1,379,877 

1,181,776 

798,298 

721,662 

431,311 

33,017 



Longtont. \ 
4,796,805 
4,878,318 I 
4,300,301 
2,266,798 ' 
1,717,268 I 
1,538,744 j 
1,037,671 I 
1,442,417 I 
520,646 , 
165,556 I 



17,014,076 



22,649,424 



LongtOM. 

4,242,160 

4,434,160 

3.903,937 

2,149,901 

1,257,798 

1,434.342 

652,806 

990.490 

486,106 

180,532 

19,681,731 



The bulk of the iron ores when received at lower lake docks is loaded 
on cars and forwarded directly to the blast furnaces, but quantities are 
also held in stoc-k »t the receiving ports to be shipped during the winter 



Digitized by V^OOQIC:! 



IBON 0BE8. 



65 



or as required at the furnaces. The quantity of ore on hand at lower 
lake portH on December 1, 1903, according to figures compiled by the 
Iron Trade Review, was 6,371,085 long tons, the largest stock of ore 
recorded with the exception of the year 1902, when the accumulation 
was 7,074,254 long tons. The stock on hand at lower lake ports on 
December 1, for the years 1896 to 1903, inclusive, is shown in the 
annexed table: 

Stork» of iron ore at lower lake ports f J896-190S. 



Port. 



AahUboU, Ohio 
OereUnd^Ohio 
Fairport, Ohio... 

■ii«,Pa 

Lorain, Ohio.... 
Coime«it« Ohio . 
Toledo. Ohio.... 

HaiOD. Ohio 

BafUo^N.Y... 
SuaOmkj, Ohio 

TWal 



At close of navigation, December 1- 



1896. 



Long tons. 

l,a01,8Q2 

1,200,792 

606,470 

836,718 

224,264 

292,460 

U8,132 

101,000 

207,199 

84,876 



4.416,712 



1896. 



Long tout. 

1,441,666 

1,419,811 

773,906 

366,222 

281,288 

276,800 

116,969 

200,076 

82,267 

80,491 



4,964,984 



1897. 



LongtoM. 

1,886,694 

1,478,356 

826,312 

484,871 

817,509 

860,895 

194,614 

230,029 

111,660 

84,786 




6,923,766 



6,136,407 5,530,283 



Port. 



At close of navigation, December 1— 



1900. 



1901. 



1902. 



1908. 



AihtahoK Ohio . 
aeveland, Ohio . 
Fklrport^Ohio... 

■lie, P&. 

Loniii,Ohio 

ConneMit,Ohio.. 

Toledo, Ohio 

Himm,Ohio 

BoSalo, N. Y .... 
T,Ohio.. 



Long tons. 

1,8U,469 

1,837,446 

611,717 

480,734 

261,838 

680,614 

242,376 

211,877 

282,100 

96, m 



Long ton*. 

1,769,145 

1,878,060 

710,590 

470,718 

196,863 

604,106 

264,196 

231,601 

198,100 

47,384 



Long tons. 


Long tons. 


1,967,136 


1,911,911 


1,500,604 


1,337,750 


924,286 


846,946 


722,966 


667,409 


328,304 


288,581 


678,679 


691,864 


310,023 


106,710 


232.764 


263.249 


319,367 


282,890 


95,175 


96,275 



Total. 



6,904,070 



6,869,663 



7,074,264 



6,371,085 



This accumulation of 6,371,085 tons of iron ore a lower lake ports 
in 1903 was not drawn upon as heavily as in previous years, and at the 
opening of navigation on the Lakes, May 1, 1904, there remained on 
the docks 4,534,103 tons, the largest total heretofore recorded. 

In the spring of the year 1904, owing to strikes of employees of the 
lake carriers and to the practical disorganization of the Lake Superior 
Ore Association, efforts were made to approxiniate the quantity of 
Lake Superior ore on hand at blast furnaces. The total reported was 
doae to 7,000,000 long tons on May 1, which, added to the stock of 
ore on hand at the lower lake ports, made a reserve of 11,500,000 tons 
at that date on which the furnaces could draw. 

M B 1903 6 r^^^^T^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



66 



MINERAL KE80URCES. 



The stocks of iron ore on hand at the lower lake ports on May 1 for 
the years 1896 to 1904, inclusive, is given in the following table: 

Stocks of iron are at Imver kike ports^^ 1896-1904. 



At opening of navigation, May 1 — 



Port. 



I 38%. 



Ashtabula, Ohio. 
Cleveland, Ohio . 
Fairport, Ohio... 

Eric, Pa 

Lorain, Ohio 

Conneaut, Ohio. . 
Toledo, Ohio.... 

Huron, Ohio 

Buffalo. N.Y 

Sandusky, Ohio.. 



Long ion». 

636.254 

fi06,693 

346, 847 

137,826 

118,820 

112,400 

10.593 

55, 173 

16,644 

8. 442 



Total j 1,949,698 



1897. 

lA)nfj tons. 

926,865 

979,705 

480,984 

l.'V3,26l 

180,605 

207,034 

66,337 

162,292 

50,477 

48,937 



1898. 



Long tons. 

1,031,441 

853,776 

501,592 

236,485 

158,797 

69,047 

71,726 

143, 170 

53,081 

48,800 



I^ng tons. 

855,691 

472,946 

289,417 

95.626 

168.C>46 

6,116 ! 

22,915 

82,055 

72,757 

7,086 



1900. 



Long tons. 

678, 789 

386,291 

282,298 

97,894 

126, 212 

8,649 

52, 616 

48, 412 

35,195 

4,300 



3,256,497 3.167,915 I 2,073,254 i 1,720,666 



At openinjjr of navi^'ation, May 1 — 



Port. 



1901. 



Ashtabula, Ohio . 
Cleveland. Ohio . 
Fairport, Ohio... 

Erie, Pa 

Lorain. Ohio 

Conneaut, Ohio.. 

Toledo, Ohio 

Huron. Ohio 

Buffalo. N.Y 

Sanduvky. Ohi.... 



T..l:il 



Long tons. 
1.046,974 
806.119 
30<), 706 
225, 412 
1 10. 562 

69. 755 
138, 457 
135,043 
118.007 

6:i,14H 

:5,o:)0,i.h;^ I 



1902. 



lAmg tons. 

921,712 

624,865 

472. 325 

223, 972 

*M^, 992 

152.891 

111,511 

129, 635 

73. S(;i 

37, 100 

2.848.194 



19(i:i. 



Dmg tonit. Long tons. 



1,073.967 


1,559,028 


82<), 347 


9f>8, 5as 


555. 709 


579, 077 


426,741 


474, 275 


190.311 


237,404 


125, 400 


128.018 


126,831 


160.216 


147,817 


208.008 


<i(),241 


150,106 


56.500 


fiS, S«>3 


3,592.3(>7 


4,.S34.103 



A AJ^FK OF IROX OHKS. 

The total value at the mines of the 35,019,308 long tons of iron ore 
produced in the I'nited Stntos in tlie year 1903 was ^♦5r>.32S,415, or 
vl.S9 per ton, an increase of 5 cents per ton, or 3 per cent, over the 
1902 figures of .^l.S4. 

The sidliiij.,^ prices of the Lake Superior ()r<^s, which form the greater 
portion of the United States total, have i?i latt* years heen fixed by the 
Lake Supj^rior ()i-e As.^ociation, and in tlie year liH»3 these ligures were 
the same as in l!*oti, jis follows: A basis ])rice of 5?4.50 per long ton, 
free on board at 1o\v<m- lake ]X)rts, for old Kange Bessemer ores guar- 
anteed to contain (13 per cent of mc^tallic iron, 0.045 per cent of phos- 
phorus, and 10 per rvni of moisture when dried at 212 F. For old 
Ranoj' non-P>ess(»mer or(v^, frec^ on board at lower lake ports, basis 
price. S^3.rit» ])er ton, guaranteed to contain <»() per cent of iron and 



Digitized by 



Google 



IBON 0BE8. 



67 



12 per cent of moisture. For Mesabi Range Bessemer ores, free on 
board at lower lake ports, basis price $4 per ton, guarantee, 63 per 
cent of iron, 0.045 phosphorus, 10 per cent moisture. For Mesabi 
Range non-Bessemer ores, free on board at lower lake points, basis 
price, $3.20 per ton, guarantee, 60 per cent of iron and 12 per cent 
moisture. These Mesabi non-Bessemer ores are divided into three 
classes, according to physical structure, with a diflFerential of 15 cents 
between the first and second classes and 10 cents between the second 
and third classes, or a total differential of 25 cents between the first 
and third classes. 

The returns collated show that the highest average value at the 
mine in 1903 was placed on the Colorado iron ores, viz, $3.12 per ton, 
and the lowest on Texas ores, $1 per ton. Generally speaking, there 
were but slight changes in the various States between the prices which 
prevailed in 1902 and in 1903. Of the States comprising the Lake 
Superior region, Michigan reported the same average price as in 1902, 
$2.40 per ton, Minnesota an advance of 17 cents, and Wisconsin a 
decline of 1 cent from the respective 1902 valuations of $1.58 and ^2.30 
per ton. 

The following table gives the total production and value of the iron 
ore produced in 1903, by States, together with the average value per 
ton at the mines: 



QtiatUity and raltte of iron ore produced in 1903^ by Staiej^. 



State. 



Mlnn««otft 

MichiK&n 

Xlabama 

Tentiesaee 

Virginia and Went Virginia 

Wwn>Tij4n 

Penn^lvania 

NVw York 

New Jenvy 

G^>rvia 

X* Ta<lii. New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. 

Oilonido 

V rth CarDlina 

MU^mri 

T-Ta5 

K«-ntu< ky 

ranDK'tirui and Maiwachusetta 

o^Io 

Vary land 



ToUl. 



Quantity. 


Total value 
at mint's. 


Average 

vulue 
fier ton. 


Ltmg Omn. 






15,371,8% 


$-.6.8;«,(M3 


fl.75 


10, 000, 3;« 


2.5,48:^,075 


2.40 


3,r»g4,9(>0 1 


3, 9:^9, 000 


1.07 


S.V2, 704 


1,075,619 


1.2G 


801,101 


1.432,024 


1.79 


r.75,o.->3 


1.542,517 


2. 29 


044,599 ' 


1,0<V2, 4.M 


1.65 


MO, 400 


1.2<)9,.H99 


2.21 


48-1,790 


l.:«0.745 


2.74 


443, 452 


571.124 


1.29 


392,242 


012. 199 


1.56 


2.52,909 


787, .S21 


3. 12 


75.252 


99. S.S5 


i.:i:{ 


63,380 


110.127 


1.71 


34,a50 


31.(i.'><) 


1.00 


32. 227 


40. .5-17 


1. 11 


30. 729 


82, 21 1 


2. TkS 


-29. TnSS 


51.9-V. 


1 . 75 


9, 920 


22.012 


2. 2H 


35, 019. :^1s 


(U',.;-;2s. i]:> 


1.S9 



Digitized by 



Google 



68 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



STOCKS OF IRON ORBS. 

On December 31, 1903, the total stock of iron ore on hand at the 
mines was reported as 6,297,888 long tons, an increase of 2,463,171 
long tons, or 64 per cent, over the 3,834,717 tons reported at the close 
of the year 1902. As would naturally be expected, the greater por- 
tion of this ore, 5,976,249 long tons, was in the Lake Superior region, 
of which 3,810,751 tons were in Michigan. The large stocks of ore in 
this district are due to the fact that the greater part is forwarded to 
lower lake ports by water, and when navigation is suspended the 
stocks accumulate rapidly. The ore on hand at the mines at the close 
of the year 1903 was 18 per cent of the production of the United 
States during the year. 

The following table gives the stock of ore on hand at the mines on 
December 31, 1903, by States: 

Stocks of iron ore on hand December SI, 1903, by States. 



state. 



Michigan 

Minnesota 

Wisconsin 

Alabama 

New York 

Kew Jersey 

Texas 

Tennessee 

Nevada and Utah 



Quantity. 



LongtoM. 

3,810,751 

1,920,438 

245,060 

126,157 

60,741 

48,427 

18,500 

16,668 

18,750 



State. 



Georgia and North Carolina 

Pennsylyania 

Missouri 

Virginia and West Virginia .... 

Ohio 

Maryland 

Connecticut and Massachusetts 

Total 



Quantity. 



LongtoM. 
14,999 
9.6M 
5,865 
4,528 
2,350 
6U 



6,297,888 



IMPORTS OF IRON ORE. 

The following tables furnished by the Bureau of Statistics of the 
Department of Commerce and Labor show the imports and exports 
of iron ore into and from the United States during the calendar year 
1903. 

Considerable quantities of iron ore are annually imported into the 
United States. The Bureau of Statistics reports this import for 1903 
as 980,440 long tons, valued at $2,261,008, or $2.31 per ton; this was a 
decrease in quantity of 185,030 long tons, or 16 per cent from the 
1902 total of 1,165,470 long tons, which was valued at $2,583,077, or 
$2.22 per ton. The island of Cuba, where the mines are owned by 
American companies, contributed 63 per cent of the imported ore, fol- 
lowed by Canada, Spain, and Newfoundland. Smaller amounts were 
supplied by Algeria, the United Kingdom, British Columbia, Bel- 
gium, and Germany. 

In considering the valuation of these ores it should be borne in 
mind that the value is placed on them at the port of shipment and 



Digitized by 



Google 



IRON ORES. 



69 



does not include freights nor the duty of 40 cents per ton. It is also 
evident from the relatively high value placed, on the ores from some 
countries that the estimate is based on some other constituent than 
the iron contained in the ore. 

The following table shows the importation of iron ore by countries 
for the years 1897 to 1903, inclusive: 

QuanUty and value of iron ores imported into the United Stales^ 1897-1903 ^ by countries. 



Imported from— 



1897. 
QuanUty. Value. 



LongtonB, 
883,820 
66.196 
8,504 



Coba 

^Min 

French Africa 

Italy 

Greece 

Kevfoondland and Labrador 

United Kingdom 

OolomUa 

Portugal j 8,612 

Other oonntries 8,238 



29,250 
358 



ToUU. 



489,970 



$454,709 

167,878 

7,785 



29,431 
4,091 



5,881 
9,187 



1898. 



Quantity. Value. 



Long ton*. 
165,623 
13,885 



7,200 



678,912 



367 



$187,721 
84,982 



26,581 
5,385 



929 



Quantity. Value. 



Long tons. 

360,813 

145,206 

22,233 

48,863 

16,765 

77,970 

172 



Hi9,616 
889,058 
51,746 
122,786 
27,656 
77,970 
994 



7,560 



13,121 



187,208 I 255,548 ; 



674,082 1,062,847 



/ 





1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1908. 


Imported from— 


Qnan- 
Uty. 


Value. 


Quan- 
Uty. • 


Value. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Value. 


X"- 


Value. 


Qil)^ 


Lang 
Umt. 

481,265 

268,604 

20,000 

18,961 

23,850 

140.535 

397 

3,000 


$687,496 
494,668 
28,686 
50,945 
81,685 

142,686 
3,274 
4,864 


tons. 
526,583 
180,810 


$705,086 
399,364 


Long 
tons. 

696,375 

153,627 

19,167 


$1,576,619 


618.685 


$1,501,480 


Of^in 


388,259 ! 94,720 
85,707 7,830 


196,139 




14,586 


ItalT 








"••5 •-• 


12,950 

a79,860 
490 


42,896 

79,860 
16,989 


1 


Vewfoandland and 
lA^ra<V>r 


81,920 
1,269 


81,918 !a86,730 
17,882 ' 6,843 


86,680 


United Kingdom 

Coknnbia 


31,868 


Britifh Columbia 


2,875 
400 


4,313 
3,415 


5,661 
861 


9,312 
3,478 


525 
207 


789 


Ofmany... 


145 
181 
5,588 
700 
25 


1,839 

854 

10,189 

1,621 
100 


1,820 


■^Vrlandf 




Qnefaec, Ontario, etc... 
Veoezoela 


163,883 


406,431 


203,824 


509,711 169,681 


424,440 


Sweden and Norway . . . 














500 
2,866 


4,850 300 


2,964 


Krux-e 










5,341 










699 


469 


980,440 


242 




897,831 




1,165,470 






Total 


1,808,196 


966,950 


1,660,273 


2,683,077 


2,261,008 



• XeirfooBdland only. 

^<H thi4 amount H7 tons, rained at $442, came from Mexico, and 12 tons, valued at $27, from the 
rtttoch West Indieii. 



Digitized by 



Google 



70 



MINERAL BESOUKOfiS. 



The greater portion of the iron ore imported into the United States 
is received at the Atlantic ports, the total in 1903 being 805,629 tons, 
principally at the ports of Philadelphia -and Baltimore, at which 
303,722 and 490,920 tons, respectively, were brought in. 

The lake ports rank second with 169,681 long tons, most of which 
came from tiie Michipicoten range in Canada and was sent to Buffalo. 
It is only in late years since the opening of this range that these ports 
have become prominent as receivers of foreign ore. 

Small quantities were imported at Pensacola, Fla., and at the Pacific 
coast ports, the latter being used principally at the Irondale Furnace, 
Washington, when it is active, and at the precious-metal smelters. 

The iron ore imported by customs districts into the United States 
in the years 1898 to 1903, inclusive, is given in the following table: 



Imports of iron ore 


into the United States 


, 1898-19€iS, by cuOams districts 






1896. 


1899. 


1900. 


Port. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Baltimore, Md 


Long tons. 
144,218 


$178,906 


888,268 

5,767 

830,594 

120 

75 


9516,888 

7.875 

549,180 

708 

176 


Long tons. 

448,660 

8,881 

414,064 

25,878 

15 


$629,507 


Delaware 


5,805 


PhUadelphia, Pa 


42,861 
119 


74,226 
1,815 


589,749 


New York N. Y 


63.540 


Boston Mass 


71 


NGWT>ort News Va. 


15 


602 

• 




Norfolk and Portsmouth Va 
























Total Atlltotic porta 


187,208 


255,548 


669,804 


1,074,271 


891,948 


1,288,172 


Caoe Vincent N. Y 






196 
20 


489 
52 






Buffalo Creek N. Y . ... 






1,023 
2,456 

286 
52 

211 
1,181 

267 


586 


Cuvaboca Ohio 






6,141 


Cbamplain, N. Y ^ 






641 
904 


1,655 
168 


GSD 


Detroit, Mich 






78 


Genesee, N. Y 






442 


Oswesratchie, N. Y 






125 
1,089 


260 
2,045 


2,064 


Vermont 






454 


Erie 








Miami 




























Total lake ports 






2,824 


4,569 


5,366 


10,285 










Saluria. Tex. (total Gulf Dorts) 






2 


17 
















Puget Sound, Wash 






1.912 


3,746 


424 


3,781 


San Francisco, Cal 








San Diego, Cal 














Lob Ansreles. Cal . 




























Total Pacific ports 






1,912 


8,746 


424 


3,781 










Pittsbuig, Pa 







40 


244 


98 


958 


Evansville, Ind I 




















Total Interior ports 






40 


244 


93 


958 






255,548 




Total imports 


187,208 


674,082 


1,082,847 


897,831 


1.303,196 





Digitized by 



Google 



IRON ORES. 
Imports of iron ore into the United Stales^ 1898-190S — Continued. 



ri 



Port 


19( 
Quantity. 


M. 


1902. 


1903. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Baltimore Md 


1 
Long tons. ' 

481,085 t73S.071 


Long tons. 
600.711 


$1,401,326 


LoTigtons. 
490,920 


$1,232,546 


DcUtwftre .- 








Philadelphia, Pa 


298,256 
15,865 


459,696 1 838,848 
46,863 1 14.546 


597,896 

39,800 

142 

8,130 


303,722 

6,940 

650 

3,397 


560,880 


New York. N Y 


19,759 


Boaton, Maae 




60 
197 


2,436 


Newport News, Va 






8.825 


Norfolk and Portamouth Va . . 


1,850 1-860 
















Total Atlantic porta 


800.005 


1,240,482 1 9M,352 


2,047,293 


805,629 1,824,445 


Cane VinoenL K Y 


1 




, 


BnflaloCreek, N. Y^ 


53,827 


146.696 1 63.286 


133,877 

808,951 

38 

112 


23,167 

122,021 

171 

56 


57,798 


CiiTahoga, Ohio 


107,810 256.936 ' 123.476 


305,804 


Champlain, N. Y 

Detmit. Mich 


68 
32 


149 34 
49 • 78 

1 


928 
133 


Genesee, N.Y 




Oswegatchle, N. Y 

Vennont 


2,088 
48 


4,485 
186 


139 

18 

22,821 

8,962 


209 

72 

57,024 

9,905 


182 

760 

23,326 


273 
1,190 


Erie 


58,814 


ICianii ... 














169,681 
4,100 




Total lake norta 


163,863 


408,401 


203,809 


509,688 


424,440 






Penmcola, Fla. (total Oulf 










6,660 














Pu^t Sonnd, Wawh 


2,875 
660 
87 


4,313 

4,875 

442 

............ 


6,661 
1,241 


9,812 
12,581 


626 
200 


789 




1,989 


Ran T>l4»o Cal . . ^ . t - 




Loa Anirelea. Cal 


857 


8,461 
25,364 


306 


2,785 










ToUl Pacific porta 


3,512 


9,630 


7,259 


1,030 


5,563 


Pittaborg, Pa 


60 
20 


730 
30 


50 


742 












Total interior porta 













70 


760 


50 


742 








Total importa 


966,950 


1.650,273 


1,165,470 


2,583,077 


980,440 


2,261,00b 







EXPORTS. 

Until about five years ago the exportation of iron ore from the 
United States was comparatively unimportant, but in 1899 and in 
Mib»equent years moderate quantities have been shipped, the greater 
portion of which was sent to blast furnaces located in the Province of 
Ontario, Canada, and elsewhere in eastern Canada. Some shipments 
were a]K> made to European countries, and it is not improbable that 
thiH will be rejjeated. The total exports in the year 1903 were 80,611 
tooK, valued at $255,728. This was a decrease of 7,834 tons from the 
1902 shipments of 88,445 long tons. 



Digitized by 



Google 



72 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



In the following table will be found the exports of iron ore from 
the United States, by customs districts, for the years 1899 to 1903, 
inclusive: 

Exports of iron ore from the United States^ 1899-1 90S, by customs districts. 



CustomN district. 


1899. 


1900. 
Quantity. Value. 


1901 




Quantity. 


* Value. 


Quantity. | 


Value. 


New York 


Long tons. 


Long tons. 




Longtofu. 




Niagara 


17,857 

11,389 

10,634 

703 

172 

7 

3 


930,000 

20,012 

22,465 

2,930 

823 

42 

15 




........................ 




Superior 


11,004 
38,485 


$35,213 
113,962 


8,982 
84,966 


$19,754 


Dulnth 


83,744 


Paso del Norte 




Saloria 











Detroit 


34 


120 


40 


7SJ 


Huron 




Cbamplain 






9.219 


24,258 


NewDort News 






8 

120 

1,809 


128 

300 

5,083 




Buffalo Creelc 






9,849 

1,543 

104 


31,061 


Mempbremagog 







4,191 


Vermont 




200 




40,665 






l&i,756 




Total 


76,287 


51,460 


64.708 


168,466 







Customs district. 


1902. 


1903. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


New York * 


Long tons. 

204 

802 

19,157 

49,233 


$2,227 

1,708 

63,772 

162,454 


Long tons. 
831 


$2,000 


Niagara 




Superior 


70,870 
5,006 


223,482 


Duluth 


13,463 


Paso del Norte 




Saluria 










Detroit 


115 


408 






Huron 






Champlain 


18,876 


78,348 


4,814 


16,548 


NewiKjrt News 




Buffalo Creek 


58 


251 


90 


285 


Memphrcmagog 




Vermont 














294,168 


80,611 




Total 


88,445 


255,728 





CLTBA. 

As all the active iron-ore mines in the island of Cuba are situated in 
the province of Santiago de Cuba, in the southeastern section of the 
island, and are owned and operated by American companies, most of 
the ore produced is shipped to the United States. 

The Juragua Iron Company (Limited), the pioneer, made its first 
shipment in 1884, and contributed up to the close of 1903, 4,067,693 
long tons of iron ore, the total for the latter year being 165,898 tons. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IKON ORES. 



73 



The only other company active is the Spanish- American Iron Company, 
which commenced exporting ore in 1895 and supplied 2,244,841 tons 
to the close of 1903, of which 467,723 tons were shipped in the latter 
year. In 1892 and 1893 the Sigua Iron Company produced 20,438 tons, 
and in 1901 and 1902 the Cuban Steel Ore Company produced 41,241 
tons; but both of these operations have been abandoned. 

The total amount shipped from the island of Cuba from the year 
1884 to 1903, inclusive, was 6,374,213 long tons, of which all but 81,060 
tons were sent to the United States. 

A summary of the shipments of Cuban ore from the time of opening 
to date, which has been prepared by Mr. Josiah Monroe, of Philadel- 
phia, is of interest. 

SkipmenU of iron ore from mines in ike province of Santiago de Cuba, 1S8^190S, 



Year. 


Jaragua 

Iron 

Company 

(Lff). 


Siflmalron 
Company. 


Spanish- 
American 

Iron 
Company. 


Cuban 
Steel Ore 
Company. 


Total. 


18S4 


LongUmt. 
25,295 
80,716 
112.074 
94,240 
206,061 
260,291 
963,842 
264,262 
385,236 
837,155 
156,826 
307,508 
296,885 
a248,256 


LongtoM. 


Long tons. 


L^U>^. 


Long tons. 
25,295 
80,716 
112,074 
94,240 
206,061 


1886. 








18M 








1887 








1888 








ism. 








260,291 
863,842 


vm 








un 








264,262 


18C 


6,418 
14,020 






841,654 
351,175 


180 






18M 






156,826 
882,494 
412,995 
454,285 


1815 




74,991 

114,110 

6206,029 

84,643 

215,406 

292,001 

<'834,883 

455,105 

rf467,728 




18K 






1897 






18M 


83,696 
161,788 
154,871 
199,764 
221,089 
155,898 






168,339 
377,189 
446,872 


UN 






MDO. 






tm 


17,651 
23,590 


552,248 
699,734 
623,621 


1N2 


ifn 




TMaI 








4,067.603 


20,438 


2.244,841 


41,241 


6,374,213 







a Of thiB quantity, 5,982 tons were sent to Pictou, Nova Scotia. 
bOt this quantity, 51.587 tons were sent to foreign ports. 
e Of this quantity, 12,601 tons were sent to foreign ports. 
^f Of this quantity, 10.900 tons were sent to foreign ports. 

Total 81,060 tons sent to foreign ports. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



STATISTICS OF THE AMERICAN IRON TRADE FOR 1903. 



By James M. Swank, 
Qtnend Manager of the American Iron and Steel Asgociation. 



BRIEF REVIEW OF THE IRON TRADE TS 1903 A^STD 1904. 

The prosperity which characterized the iron trade of the United 
States from the beginning of 1899 to 1902 and throughout the early 
part of 1903, as noticed in previous reports, was suddenly checked 
about the middle of the last year by a sharp reaction in the stock mar- 
ket, which caused a decline in the demand for iron and steel and a 
consequent decline in prices. Production in the first half of the year 
had been on a large scale, fairly comparable with any half year since 
the beginning of the boom of 1899, and prices had been as a whole 
satisfactory, but in the last half of the year both production and prices 
declined rapidly. Soon after the beginning of the year 1904, however, 
there was a revival of activity in production, but prices did not rally. 
Apiil and May, 1904, were especially active months, but with slight 
increase in prices. June and July were characterized by a sluggish 
demand. August, September, and October were again active months. 
Prices, except in some special products and for special reasons, have 
been remarkably uniform all through 1904. In September and Octo- 
ber there was a distinct revival of confidence and hopefulness in the 
iron trade, and as this report is written, in the latter part of October, 
there are few signs of the reaction which began a little more than a 
year ago. The prices of pig iron have advanced in October. The 
stock market has recovered its buoyancy, and this recovery has been a 
leading cause of the revival of the iron trade. Details of production 
aod prices and of imports and exports for 1903 and immediately pre- 
ceding years will be found in succeeding pages. Some prices for the 
fint ten months of 1904 have been added. 

76 



Digitized by 



Google 



76 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



GENERAIi STATISTICAIi SUMMARY. 

The following table gives the shipments in 1902 and 1903 of Lake 
Superior iron ore, the shipments of coke and of anthracite coal, the 
total production of iron ore, coal, and coke, and of all iron and steel, 
the imports and exports of iron and steel, etc. : 

Summary of iron, lieel, etc., statistics for the United States for 1902 and 190S, 
[Long tons, except for coke and nails.] 



Article. 



Shipments of iron ore from Lake Superior 

Total production of iron ore 

Shipments of Pennsylvania anthraci te coal 

Total production of all kinds of coal 

Total production of coke short tons.. 

Shipments of Connellsyille coke do 

Shipments of Pocahontas Flat Top coke do 

Production of pig iron, including spiegeleisen and ferromaaganese 

Production of spiegeleisen and f erromanganeso 

Production of Bessemer steel ingots and castings 

Production of open-hearth steel ingots and eastings 

Production of all kinds of steel 

Production of structural shapes, not including plates 

Production of plates and sheets, except nail plate 

Production of all rolled iron and steel, except rails 

Production of Bessemer steel rails 

Production of all kinds of rails 

Production of iron and steel wire rods 

Production of all rolled iron and steel, including rails 

Production of Iron and steel cut nails kegs of 100 pounds. . 

Production of iron and steel wirenaHs do — 

Imports of iron ore 

Exports of iron ore 

Imports of iron and steel value . . 

Exports of iron and steel do 



1902. 



27,571,121 

85,654,135 

31,200,890 
269,277,178 

25,401,730 

14,138,740 
1.191,486 

17,821,807 

212,981 

9488,368 

6,687,729 

14,947,250 
1,800,326 
2,665,400 

10,996,188 
2,935,392 
2,947,938 
1,574,293 

13,944,116 
1,638,762 

10,982,246 

1,165,470 

88,445 

841,468,826 

197,892,036 



1903. 



24,289.878 
35,019,308 
59,362,881 
819,068,229 
25,262,360 
18,345,230 
1,693,403 
18,009,252 
192,661 
8,692,829 
5,829,911 
14,534,978 
1,095,813 
2,599,665 
10,215,220 
2,946,756 
2,992,477 
1.503,455 
13,207,697 
1,485,83S 
9,631,661 
960,440 
80,611 
941,255,864 
$99,085,865 



The shipments of Lake Superior iron ore in 1903 were 3,281,243 
tons less than in 1902, but the country's total production of iron ore 
in 1903 was only 534,827 tons less than in 1902. The shipments of 
Connells\dlle coke in 1903 declined 793,510 short tons as compared 
with 1902. The shipments of Pocahontas Flat Top coke increased 
501,967 short tons as compared with 1902. The total production of 
coke in 1903 was 139,370 short tons less than in 1902. The shipments 
of Pennsylvania anthracite coal in 1903 increased 28,161,941 lon^ tons 
over the shipments of the strike year 1902. The production of all 
kinds of coal in 1903 increased 49,791,051 long tons over 1902. 

The production of all kinds of pig iron increased 187,945 long tons 
in 1903 over 1902, but the production of spiegeleisen and ferroman- 
ganese decreased 20,320 tons. The production of Bessemer steel 
decreased 545,534 long tons; open-hearth steel increased 142,182 tons; 



Digitized by 



Google 



AMERICAN IRON TRADE. 



77 



all kinds of steel decreased 412,272 tons; structural shapes decreased 
204,513 tons, and plates and sheets 65,744 tons; Bessemer steel rails 
increased 11,364 tons, and all kinds of rails 44,544 tons; iron and steel 
wire rods decreased 70,838 tons; iron and steel cut nails, 197,869 kegs; 
iron and steel wire nails, 1,350,585 kegs, and all kinds of rolled iron 
and steel, 736,419 long tons. 

Our imports and exports of iron and steel in 1903 corresponded 
closely with the imports and exports in 1902. The imports in 1903 
amounted in value to $41,255,864, against $41,468,826 in 1902, and the 
exports in 1903 amounted to $99,035,865, against $97,892,036 in 1902. 
The imports in 1903 were, of course, largely in response to orders 
sent abroad before the reaction of that year. In the year 1904 the 
imports will be much less than in 1903 and the exports will be much 
greater. 

IMPORTS OF IBON ANI> STEEIi. 

The following table, compiled from statistics obtained from the 
Bureau of Statistics of the Department of Commerce and Labor, gives 
the quantities and values of our imports of iron and steel and manu- 
facturesT thereof in the calendar years 1902 and 1908: 

Imports of iron and steel into the Untied States in 1902 and 190S, 



1902. 



Article. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



1903. 



Quantity. Value. 



P!g icon, spiegeleisen, and ferromanganene . 

Scrap iron and scrap steel 

Bar iron 

Iron and steel n\\» 

Hoop, band, andscrol] iron or steel 

Steel ingots billets, blooms, etc 

Sheet, plate, and taggers iron or steel 



Long tons. 

619,354 

109,510 

28,844 

63,522 

8,302 

289,818 

7,l56 



$10,935,831 
1,606,720 
1,286,238 
1,576,679 

131,052 
7,943,818 

545,789 



Boiktinf form5 and all other structural shapes, 
fitted tor use 



Tin plates 

Wire rods, of iron or steel 

Wire and wire rope, of iron or steel . 

Anvih 

ChaiM 

Catlery 

fOe>, file blanks, rasp«, and floats. . . 

Firearms 

Sbotffun barrels, in single tubes 

Mtchlnery 

Seedkai 

All other 



60,115 

21,382 

8,469 

203 

676 



4,023, 

1,033, 

606, 

29, 

55, 

1,672, 

80, 

953, 

263, 

4,230, 

417, 

4,076, 



Long tons. 
599,574 
82,921 
43,896 
05,555 
1,525 
261,570 
11,557 

8.865 

47,360 

20,836 

5,018 

260 

873 



til, 173, 802 
1,273,941 
1,904,469 
2,159,278 
74,898 
7,831,299 
540,272 

266,265 

2,999,252 

1,028,977 

728,430 

35,378 

62,481 

1,903,895 

82,939 

687,917 

198,126 

8,927,165 

466,294 

4.421,291 



Total. 



1,206,811 



41,468,826 



1,178.797 



41.255.864 



Of tlie pig iron imported in recent years a large part was spiegel- 
eisen and ferromanganese, but in 1902 and 1903 there was a great 
increase in the imports of foundry and Bessemer pig iron. 



Digitized by 



Google 



78 



MINERAL BESOUBGES. 



IMPORTS FOB CONSUMPTION OP FERROMANGANESlfi, 
SPIEGBIiEISEN, AND PERROSILICON. 

The Bureau of Statistics of the Department of Commerce and Labor 
furnishes the following statistics of the imports of ferromanganese, 
spiegeleisen, and ferrosilicon which were entered for consumption in 
the calendar years 1901, 1902, and 1903. These imports are included 
in the statistics of imports of pig iron, spiegeleisen, ferromanganese, 
and ferrosilicon given in the preceding table. 

Imports of ferromanganese^ spiegeleisen, and ferrosilicon into the United States in 190 J ^ 

1902, and 190S. 



Article. 


1901. 


1902. 


1908. 


Quantity. 


Value, 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Ferromaiurajiefle 


Long tons. 

20,761 

26,827 

822 


1870,828 

677,246 

21,224 


Long tons. 
50,888 
62,813 
16,944 


91,818,036 

1,473,853 

962,110 


Long tons. 
41,518 
122,016 
14,880 


$1,699,666 

2,709,317 

379,900 


Spiegeleiflen 


Ferrosilicon 











IMPORTS OP TIN PliATES SINCE 1872. 

The following table gives the quantities and foreign values of our 
imports of tin plates in the calendar years 1872 to 1903. The decline 
in imports since 1891 is a result of the tariff of 1890. The domestic 
consumption of tin plates and terne plates has greatly increased in late 
years. 

Imports of tin plates into the United States, 187S-190S. 



Year. 



1872 
1873, 
1874, 
1875, 
1876, 
1877, 
1878. 
1879, 
1880, 
1881, 
1882, 
1883, 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 



Quantity. 



Long tons. 

85,629 

97,177 

79,778 

91,054 

89,946 

112,479 

107,864 

154,250 

158,049 

183,005 

213,987 

221,233 

216,181 

228,596 

257,822 

283,836 



Value. 



113,898,460 
14,240,868 
18,067,658 
12,098,885 

9,416,816 
10,679,028 

9,069,967 
13,227,659 
16,478,110 
14,886,907 
17,975,161 
18,156,773 
16,858,650 
16,991.152 
17,504,976 
18,699,145 



Year. 



1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 



Quantity. 



Longtonfi. 
296,238 
331,311 
329,435 
327,882 
268,472 
253,155 
215,068 
219,545 
119,171 
83,851 
66,775 
58,915 
60,386 
77,396 
60,115 
47,860 



Value. 



$19,762,961 

21,726,707 

23,670,158 

25,900,9(» 

17,102,4S7 

15.559,423 

12,068.167 

U,482,380 

6,140.161 

4,366,828 

3,311,658 

3,738,667 

4,617,813 

5,2»4.7S9 

4.023,421 

2,999.252 



Digitized by 



Google 



AMERICAN IRON TRADE. 



79 



EXPORTS OF IRON AND STEEIi. 

As reported by the Bureau of Statistics of the Department of Com- 
merce and Labor, the domestic exports of iron and steel in the calendar 
years 1902 and 1903 were as follows: 

Exports of iron and steel in 1903 and 190S. 



Article. 



PigiiDD 

Scmpuidold 

Bar iron 

Sieel bars or rod« other than wire rocl»*. 

Steel wire rods 

Iron mils 

Steel rails 

Bllleta, ingoU, and blooms 

Hoop, band, and scroll 

Iron sheets and plates 

Steel sheets and plates 

Tin plates and teme plates 

Stmctnral iron and steel 

Wire 



Cat nails and spikes 

Wire nails and spikes 

All other, including tacks 

Car n heels number. 

Cft?tingn, not elsewhere specified 

Culler>- 

Firearms 

Cash registers number. 

Lockii. hinprcj*, eXfi 

Saws 



Tools, not eb«where specified 

Electrical machinery 

Laundr}' machinery 

Metal-working' machinery 

Printing preswos and parts of 

Pnmp«» and pu roping machiner>' 

Strwing machi -ncj* 

Shf lemaking n^achinerj- 

Fire engine* tmniber.. 

L>»f <)motive engines do 

Sutionary en^nes do — 

I'art!* of engines and boilers 

Tvpewriting machines, and parts of 

\\..h1- working machinerya 

\\\ tether machiner>' 

\^\^*s and fitting?* 

Saft-s number,. 

Sral'-s an4 balances 

Stoves, rangt"*. and parts of 

All oihtr manufactures 



1902. 



Quantity. 



Long tons. 

9,4U 
22,249 

9,300 

24,618 

211 

67,466 

2,409 

1,674 

3,4S4 
14,866 

1,666 
63,859 
97,843 

7,198 
26,580 

2,244 
21,714 



Value. 



14,018 



11 

:if;s 

,2K0. 



$602,947 

149,013 

869,519 

608,144 

881,067 

4,639 

1,902,396 

74,938 

82,322 

229,887 

726,647 

143,691 

2,828,460 

5,140,702 

339,227 

1,181,140 

275,628 

141,969 

1,685,600 

282,454 

976, 907 

1,220,791 

7,ai4,375 

345, 895 

3, 930, 495 

5.937,613 

519,CH>5 

2,863,709 

843, 613 

2,510,300 

4,606,791 

788, 377 

23,008 

3,966,007 

072, 957 

•2, 432, 098 

3, 575, iKVJ 



1903. 



Quantity. Value. 



Long tons. 

20,879 

8,034 

19,380 

17,802 

22,449 

181 

30,656 

5,446 

2,141 

4,782 

13,312 

292 

30,641 

108, 521 

8,890 

31,453 

2,321 

18,966 



20,9;W,519 

5 J 07,1 S3 

102,0i:>, 

50<», S77 
8(;s. 09') 

ui, o.vj, 7rK; 



Tcial 



Arrirnltunil iraplements, additional. 
Ir >n «ir*i 



88,-115 



17,9sl,r,97 



20,260 



8 
2S7 

i.7;iO 



37'J,399 97,>9-J,030 t 3:ii5,079 



8384,334 

117,972 

796,631 

929,915 

713,718 

8,808 

937,779 

141,924 

101,839 

273,618 

667, 713 

28,481 

1,788,656 

5,628,726 

424,985 

1,410,105 

288,395 

136,569 

1,76.5,901 

389,837 

1,206,951 

1,825,503 

6,980,357 

495,729 

4,658,972 

5,104,502 

552,291 

3,310,088 

1,113,121> 

'Jt. 72*.\ 2KS 

5, 340, 174 

831,99.') 

10, tKi7 

3. iW, rvji 

714,508 
2, '273, 83^1 
4,537,390 

:i-i9, :«s 

■2(>,0<)8,8]0 

5, 919, 340 

•209,514 

702, :m'> 

9S 1.475 
9, 073, 059 

99,03.'), M'.5 



"Included in "All other machiniTv, etc.,' prior in July i, l'jo3. 



Digitized by 



Google 



80 



inNERAL BE80UB0E8. 



EXPORTS OF AGRICUIiTURAIi IMPIiEMENTS. 

The exports of agricultural iiuplemeuts, not separated in the fore- 
going table, amounted in the calendar year 1903 to $22,951,805, 
against $17,981,597 in 1902, $16,714,308 in 1901, $15,979,909 in 1900, 
$13,594,524 in 1899, $9,073,384 in 1898, and $5,302,807 in 1897. 

IMPORTS ANI> EXPORTS OF IRON AND STBBIi SINCE 1872. 

The following table, compiled from the reports of the Bureau of 
Statistics of the Department of Commerce and Labor, shows the for- 
eign value of the imports of iron and steel and manufactures thereof 
in the calendar years from 1872 to 1903, including tin plates; also the 
value of the exports of iron and steel and manufactures thereof, except 
farm implements, in the same years: 

Value of imports and exports of iron and steel into the United StateSy 187i^-190S, 



Year. 



1872 
187S 
1«74. 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878. 
1879 
1880. 
1881 
1882. 
1888 
1884. 
1885, 
1886. 
1887. 



Imports. 



176,617,677 
60,006,688 
87,662,192 
27,368,101 
20,016,603 
19,874,899 
18,018,010 
38,881.669 
80,448,862 
61,656,077 
67,075,125 
47,506,306 
37,078,122 
81,144,662 
41,680,779 
56,420,607 



Exports. 



112,606,539 
14,173,772 
17,812,239 
17,976,883 
18,647,764 
18,549,922 
16,101.899 
14,228,646 
16,156,703 
18,216,121 
22,348,834 
22,716,040 
19,290,896 
16,622,611 
14,865,087 
16,286,922 



Year. 



1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1908 



Imports. 



|42,aU,689 
42,027,742 
44,640,418 
41,988,626 
33,882,447 
29,656,689 
20,848,676 
25,772,186 
19,506,587 
13,835,960 
12,474,572 
15,800,679 
20,443,911 
20,396,015 
41,468,826 
41,255,864 



Exports. 



119,678.489 
28,712,814 
27,000,184 
30,736,507 
27,900,862 
30,169,368 
29,943,729 
85,071,563 
48,670,218 
62,787,260 
82,771,650 
106,600,047 
129,688,480 
102,534,675 
97,802,086 
90,086,865 



IMPORTS OF IRON AND STEEL INTO THE UNITED STATES 

SINCE Z884. 

In the following table the total weight of imported iron and steel, 
including tin plates, is given for the last twenty years. In none of the 
years, however, is the weight of machinery, hardware, cutlery, fire- 
arms, and similar manufactured products included. 

Imports of iron and steel into the United States^ 1884-190S. 
[Long tons.] 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


1884 


654.606 
578, 478 
1.098.666 
1,783,256 
914,940 
748,650 
665,771 


1891 


557,882 
494,468 
438,496 
309,249 
378,208 
265.500 
167,834 


1898 


144,885 
178,220 
209,956 
221,292 
1,206,811 
1,178,797 


1886 


1892 


1899 


1886 


1898 


1900 


1887 


1894 

1896 


1901 


1888 


1902 


1889 


1896 


1903 


1890 


1897 











Digitized by V^OOQIC:! 



AMERIOAK IBON TRADE. 



81 



FBOOUCTION OF IRON ORE IN 1902 ANI> 1903. 

The following table, compiled from statistics obtained by Mr. John 
Birkiabine for the United States Geological Survey, gives the 
production of iron ore in 1902 and 1903, by States: 

Production of iron ore in the United States in 190£ and 1903, by States. 



state or Territory. 



1902. 



1908. 



MlniMaoca . 
Micbigan.. 



VifftnU and West Vin^nia. 

WlMOOiill 

hennsylTania 

N«wYork 

XewJeney 

Geocsia 



Noctb GaicUna 

Momaiia, Nerada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. 
Off |ffrn lf> 



TexM 

Kentucky 

Oonnecticat, Maaachtuetta, and Vermont . 

Ohio 

JCazylaod 



I/mgtont. 

]5, 137, 650 

11,185,215 

8,574,474 

874,542 

987.958 

783,996 

822,082 

555,821 

441,879 

864.890 

362,084 
298,297 
66,806 
6,516 
71,006 
29,093 
22,657 
24,867 



IVHal 85,554,185 | 35,019,808 



LongUnu. 

15,871,396 

10,600.330 

3,684,960 

852,704 

801,161 

675,058 

644,509 

540,460 

484,796 

443,452 

! 75,262 

392,242 

252,909 

63,880 

84,050 

32,227 

30,729 

29,688 

9,920 



The production of iron ore in any given year must not be confounded 
with the shipments of iron ore in that year. 

FBOBUCnON OF IRON- ORE Sr^CE 1870. 

Previous to 1870 statistics of the production of iron ore in the 
United States are incomplete. The figures in the following table for 
1870 and 1880 are for the census years ending on May 31. For 
1889 (also the census year) and all subsequent years they are for cal- 
endar years. The iron-ore statistics for all years subsequent to 1889 
have been compiled by Mr. Birkinbine for the United States Greo- 
logictl Survey. 

ProdwHon of iron ore in the United States since 1S70. 
[Long ton?.] 



Tear. Quantity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


IJ30 • nn Ml 


19QS 


11,687,829 
11,870,670 


1899 


24,688,178 




7.i».ae2 

14.518,011 
1*. 086,048 
14,991.178 
18,898,888 


1804 


1900 


27,658,161 


m» 


1896 


16,067,614 
16,006,440 
17,618,048 
10,488,716 


1901 


28,887,470 


'^^-- — 


1806 


1902 


85,664,186 


na 


1807 


1908 


86,010,808 


P» 


«» 







Il»l906 — a 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



82 



MINEBAL BB80UB0ES. 



IjAJTb superior iron-orb shipments. 

The Iron Trade Review gives full details of the shipments of iron 
ore from the Lake Superior region in 1903 and in preceding years. 
The total shipments by water and by all-rail routes in 1903 amounted 
to 24,289,878 long tons, against 27,571,121 tons in 1902, a decrease of 
3,281,243 tons, or almost 12 per cent. The shipments in 1903 from 
the Helen mine on the Canadian side, 203,419 tons, are not included. 
Of these shipments 170,672 tons were shipped to Lake Erie ports in 
the United States. 

The following tables give the shipments in long tons of Lake Supe- 
rior iron ore in the last four years by ranges and by ports and all-rail. 
The figures include all shipments to local furnaces. 

Shipments of Lake Superior iron ore^ 1900-1908^ by ranges and by ports, 

[Lon^ tons.] 



Bfarquette niuge . . 
Menominee range. 

Qi^eblc range 

Vermilion range . . 

Mesabi range 

Iron Ridge mine. . . 



Total. 



BHcanaba 

Marquette 

Ashland 

Two Harbors . 

Gladstone 

Superior 

Duluth 

All-rail 



1900. 



8,457,522 
3,261,221 
2,875,295 
1,665,820 
7,809,635 



19,059,893 



Total. 



3.486,784 
2,661,861 
2,688,687 
4,007,294 

418,854 
1,522,899 
8,888,986 

489,078 



19,059,893 



1901. 



1902. 



3,245,346 
3,619,083 
2,938,155 
1,786,063 
9,004,890 



20,593,537 



4,022,668 
2,854,284 
2,886,252 
5,018,197 

117,089 
2,821,077 
3,487,955 

486,015 



20,508,537 



3,868,025 
4,612,509 
3,663,484 
2,084,263 
13,342,840 



27,571,121 



5,418,704 
2,605,010 
3,558,919 
5,605,185 
92,875 
4,180,568 
5,596,406 
581,962 



27,571,121 



vacR. 



8,040.245 
8,749,967 
2,912,912 
1,676,699 
12,892,512 
17,913 



24,289,878 



4,277.661 
2,007,346 
2,823,119 
5,120,656 
85,816 
8,978,579 
5,856,478 
640,328 



24,289.8:ffi 



The Marquette range is wholly in Michigan, the Menominee and the 
Gogebic ranges are partly in Michigan and partly in Wisconsin, and 
the Vermilion and the Mesabi ranges are in Minnesota. The 17,913 
tons of iron ore shipped in 1903 from the Iron Ridge mine, at Iron 
Ridge, Dodge County, Wis., can not strictly be credited to the Lake 
Superior region, Dodge County being in the southern part of Wis- 
consin. Prior to 1903 this mine was never included in Lake Superior 
statistics. The newly developed Baraboo iron ore field is in the adjoin- 
ing counties of Sauk and Columbia. The production of the Baraboo 
district in 1903 was a little less than 19,000 tons, but no ore was 
shipped. Shipments from this district began in 1904. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AMEBIOAN IBON TBADB. 



83 



SHIPMENTS OF IRON ORE PROM NEW JERSEY MINES. 

The shipments of iron ore from the mines in New Jersey were as 
follows from 1892 to 1903, inclusive: 

Shipments of iron ore from New Jersey mineSy 189g-190S. 
[Long tons.] 



Year. 



Quantity. , Year. 


Quantity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


469,236 
828,028 


1896 


262,070 
239,634 
269,771 
800,768 


1900 


339,914 
419,762 
399,984 
472,490 


1897 


1901 


277,483 


1896 


1902 


285,417 


1899 


1903 









UB2. 

vm. 

1M6. 



SHIPMENTS OF IRON ORE FROM THE CORNWAI^Ii MINES. 

The following table shows the shipments of iron ore, in long tons, 
by the Cornwall mines ill Pennsylvania, from 1892 to 1903, inclusive: 

Shipments of iron ore from Cornwall mines,' 189S-190,i, 
[Long tons.] 



Year. 

\m 

^m 

\m 

vm 



Quantity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


1 Year. 


Quantity. 


634,714 j 
438.705 1 


1896 

1897 


463,059 
419,878 
584,342 
763,152 


1900 


668,713 


1901 


747,012 


871.710 


1898 


1902 


694,177 


614,598 


1899 


1903 


401,469 







SHIPMENTS OF IRON ORE FROM READING DISTRICTS. 

The shipments of iron ore from some of the leading iron-ore districts 
of the country in the last three years were as follows: 

Shipments of iron ore from some leading iron-ore districts in 1901, 190f, and 190S. 

[Long tons.] 



District. 



Uke Saperior mines of Michigan and Wisconsin 

VcrmiUoDand MeaaU mines of Minnesota 

MlarMiri mines 

Contwall Biines, Pennsylvania 

!Cev Jetaej mines 

Chateangay mines, on Lake Cbamplain 

Ptoit Henry mines 

BsUAory region. Connecticut 

Aikfhany County. Va 

Ckanbefry mines, North Carolina 

T in i Mtt Coal. Iron, and Railroad Co.'s Inman mines in Ten- 



The luw company's mines in Alabama 

Oilboai. Etowah, and Shelby counties, Ala . A . 



Tolal of the above districts. 



1901. 



1902. 



9,802,684 

10,790,963 

94,374 

747,012 

419,762 

70,025 

167,642 

19,472 

212,690 

180 

26,904 

1,416,728 

202,096 



12,144,018 
16,427,108 

66,645 
694,177 
899,964 

88,688 
366,487 

28,276 
199,690 

30,810 

4,948 

1,276,969 

422,746 



28,968,816 31,068,490 



1903. 



a9, 720, 637 
14,669,241 

67, 477 
401,469 
472,490 

65,707 
378,666* 

24,256 
196,126 

60,108 

24,347 

1,802,207 

240,227 



27,507,866 



• ftttr»^«^f 17,918 toDs of iron ore shipped from the Iron Bidge mine, in Wisconsin, 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



84 



MIKEBAL BR80UBGES. 



SHIPMENTS OF IRON ORE FROM CUBA. 

In the calendar year 1903 only two companies shipped iron ore from 
Cuba, namely, the Juragua Iron Company (Limited) and the Spanish- 
American Iron Company, the shipments by the Juragua Company 
amounting to 167,230 long tons and the shipments by the Spanish- 
American Company amounting to 467,628 tons: total, 624,858 tons. 
Of the total shipments by the Spanish- American Company 456,826 tons 
were sent to the United States and 10,802 tons to England. All the 
shipments of the Juragua Company were made to the United States. 

The total shipments of iron ore by companies from Cuba to all coun- 
tries from the opening of the mines in 1884 to the close of 1903 were 
as follows, in long tons: The Juragua Iron Company (Limited) and the 
Juragua Iron Company, the latter company succeeding the former 
late in 1903, 4,069,025 tons; the Sigua Iron Company, 20,438 tons; the 
Spanish-American Iron Company, 2,244,746 tftns; the Cuban Steel Ore 
Company, 41,241 tonsu total shipments since 1884, 6,375,450 tons. 

With the exception of 5,932 tons of iron ore shipped by the Juragua 
Iron Company (Limited) in 1897 to Pictou, Nova Scotia, and 51,537 
tons shipped to foreign countries by the Spanish- American Iron Com- 
pany in 1897, 4,200 tons shipped in 1899, 12,849 tons in 1901, and 
10,802 tons in 1903, all the iron ore referred to above was shipped to 
the United States. The total shipments to foreign countries amounted 
to 85,320 tons, and the total shipments to the United States to 6,290,130 
tons. 

IMPORTS OF IRON ORB IN 1901, 1902, AND 1903. 

The following table, furnished by the Bureau of Statistics of the 
Department of Commerce and Labor, gives the quantities and value of 
iron ore imported into the United States in the calendar years 1901, 
1902, and 1903, by customs districts: 

Imports of iron ore into United States m 1901, 190S, and 1903 j by customs distrids. 



Customs district. 



Baltimore. . . . 
tlewYork... 
Philadelphia 
Puget Sound 

Vermont 

Another 

Toul.. 



1901. 



Long tont. 

484,035 

15,866 

296,265 

2,875 

48 

165,872 



966,960 



Quantity. Value. 



$788,071 

45,863 

469,698 

4,818 

186 

416,142 



1902. 



Quantity. 



Long Urns, 

600,711 

14,546 

888.848 

5,661 

18 

206,686 



1,650,278 1,165,470 



Value. 



$1,401,826 

80,800 

697,896 

9,812 

72 

534,672 



2, 588, on 



190S. 



Quantity. Value. 



Long tons* 

490,920 

6,940 

808,722 

525 

760 

177,578 



$1,282,646 

19.759 

660,880 

789 

1,190 

446,844 



960.440 2,261,00f) 



Digitized by 



Google 



AMERICAN IRON TRADE. 



85 



The impoils of iron ore in 11K)3 included 170,206 tons from Canada, 
valued at $425,129, received chie% at Lake Erie ports. There were 
also imported in 1903 from Newfoundland into the customs district 
of Philadelphia 86,730 tons, valued at $86,680. 

TOTAIi IMPORTS OF IRON ORB SINCE 1879. 

The following table gives the imports of iron ore into the United 
States in the calendar years 1879 to 1903, inclusive. In 1879 this 
country for the first time imported iron ore largely from Europe. 
Prior to that year such iron ore as was imported came chiefly from 
Oanada, more than one-half coming from that country in 1873, 1874, 
and 1875. 

Tbtoi imports of iron ore into the United States^ 1879-190S, 

[Long tons.] 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


1879 


284,141 
493.406 
782,887 
589.655 
490.875 


1888 


687,470 
853,573 
1,246,880 
912,856 
806,585 
526,951 
168,541 
524,153 
682.806 


1897 


489,970 


lao 


1889 


1898 


187,098 
674,082 
897,831 


U81 


1890 


1899 


1882 


1891 


1900 


U88 


1892 


1901 


966,950 


194 . . 


487.820 

890.786 

1,039.433 

1.194,901 


1 1893 


1902 


1,165,470 
980,440 


IMffk 


i 1894 


1903 


isas 


1895 






M87 


'l896 











IMPORTS OF MANGANESE ORE SINCE 1889. 

The following table, furnished by the Bureau of Statistics of the 
Department of Commerce and Labor, gives the imports of manganese 
ore into the United States from 1889 to 1903, inclusive: 

Imports of manganese ore into the United States, 1889-1903, 
[Long tons.] 



Year. 


Quantity. 

4,286 
34,154 
28,825 
58,572 
68.118 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


vm 


1894 


44,655 
86.111 
31,489 
119,961 
114.885 


1899 


188,849 


UM 


1895 


1900 


256,252 
165,722 
285.576 
146, ttK 


un 


1896....; 


1901 


vm.. 


1897 


1902 


vm 


1898 


1908 











The United States produces annually only a few thousand tons of 
maDgaoese ore, but most of the iron ores of the United States contain 
varying percentages of manganese. 



Digitized by 



Google 



86 



MINERAL BESOUBOES. 



AVERAGE MONTHI.Y PRICES OF IRON AND STEEL. 

In the following table are given the average monthly prices of lead 
ing articles of iron and steel in Pennsylvania in 1901, 1902, and 1903, 
and in the first ten months of 1904. The prices named are per long 
ton, except for bar iron, which is quoted by the 100 pounds from store 
at Philadelphia and from mills at Pittsburg, and for steel bars by the 
100 pounds at Pittsburg mills: 

Average monthly prices of iron and steel in Pennsylvania from January i, 1901 ^ to October fO^ 

J904i inclusive. 



Year and 
month. 



1901. 

January 

February . . , 

March , 

April 

May 

June 

July 

Augrust 

September. 
October ... 
November. 
December . 

1902. 
January . . . 
February . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

Auffust 

September. 
October ... 
November . 
December . 

1903. 
January . . . 
February . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 




^long 
ton. 


Perlong 
ton. 


$18.00 


$16.05 


18.25 


16.00 


18.87 


16.00 


19.50 


16.00 


19.50 


16.00 


19. 12 


16.00 


19.00 


15.87 


19.00 


16.60 


18.60 


15.60 


19.90 


15.60 


21.25 


16.75 


21.50 


16.25 


21.80 


17.65 


21.25 


18.37 


23.00 


19.44 


26. -25 


20.37 


26.00 


21.00 


24.60 


22.87 


24.70 


24.20 


24.00 


24.50 


24.25 


24.50 


24.80 


24. 45 


24.26 


24.87 


23.62 


24.20 


'28.60 


24.00 


23.76 


23.75 


24.50 


23.50 


24.90 


22.70 


24.50 


21.37 


23.60 


20.62 


22.00 


19.00 


19.37 


18,00 


18.76 


17.50 



Perlong 
ton. 



$14.50 
14.19 
14.00 
14.87 
14.30 
14.06 
13.87 
13.75 
13.75 
13.75 
13.94 
14.44 

15.66 
16.62 
17.75 
18.19 
18.35 
19.44 
20.80 
21.00 
20.60 
20.25 
20.94 
20.90 

20.60 
20.00 
19.50 
19.10 
18.62 
18.00 
17.50 
15.81 
14.94 



II 



0} 0/ 

1^ 



g5i 



Perlong 
ton. 



$13.25 
13.66 
14.62 
14.56 
14.62 
14.15 
14.00 
13.87 
13.81 
14.10 
14.69 
15.12 

16.00 
16.37 
17.44 
18.66 
19.75 
20.06 
21.00 
20.69 
20.81 
21.60 
21.06 
•20.55 

20.50 
20.50 
20.87 
20.45 
19.87 
18.87 
17.90 
16.04 
15.25 






Perlong 
ton. 



$13.43 
14.60 
16.87 
16.94 
16.70 
16.00 
16.00 
16.00 
16.00 
16.00 
16.31 
16.37 

16.70 
16.94 
17.37 
18.76 
20.76 
21.56 
21.60 
22.19 
22.50 
23.00 
28.81 
22.92 

22.85 
21.91 
21.85 
21.28 
20.01 
19.72 
18.93 
18.36 
17.22 



5 . 


it 



Perlong 
ton. 

r26.00 
26.00 
26.00 
26.00 
28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
28.00 

28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
'28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
28.00 

•28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
•28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
28.00 



1& 

as 
I 



Perlong 
ton. 



$19.75 
20.31 
22.87 
24.00 
24.00 
24.37 
24,00 
24.20 
24.87 
26.70 
27.00 
27.50 

27.60 
29.37 
31.25 
31.50 
32.20 
32.87 
31.75 
81.75 
31.00 
30.40 
28.50 
29.20 

'29.60 
80.00 
30.62 
80. -20 
30.25 
28.87 
27.40 
27.00 
27.00 



a OS 

S « 4 






.3 



Period iPer 100 \ Per 100 
pounds, pounds.^ pound*. 



$1.75 
1.75 
1.75 
1.85 
1.85 
1.85 
1.86 
1.85 
1.86 
1.90 
1.90 
1.90 



1.90 
2.00 
2.10 
2.10 
2.10 
2.20 
•2. -20 
2.20 
2. -20 
2.20 
•2. -20 
2.-20 

2. 20 
2.20 
2. -20 
2.20 
•2.16 
2.08 
•2.01 
1.93 
1.81 



$1.76 


$1.20 


1.82 


1.27 


1.90 


1.44 


1.90 


1.50 


1.90 


1.50 


1.86 


1.50 


1.75 


1.52 


1.75 


1.50 


1.75 


1.50 


1.76 


1.52 


1.75 


1.60 


1.76 


1.60 


1.87 


1.56 


1.90 


1.50 


1.90 


1.60 


1.96 


1.67 


2.02 


1.80 


2.10 


1.80 


1.86 


1.72 


1.96 


1.75 


2.00 


1.75 


1.92 


1.69 


1.86 


1.60 


* '2.00 


1.68 


2.00 


1.64 


2.00 


1.60 


2.00 


1.60 


•2.00 


1.60 


2.00 


1.60 


1.77 


1.60 


1.70 


1.60 


1.70 


1.60 


1.70 


1.60 



Digitized by 



Google 



AMEBIOAN IBON tBADE. 



87 



Avtrage momUy prices of iron and steel in Pennsylvania from January i, 1901, to October 
SO, 1904, indwive — Continaed. , 



Tear and 
month. 



1-3 



o 



•g^ 






bfl'S. 



5£ 



II 

•5,08 



II 



":l 



O, 
gP 






1'^ 



II 



s 

h 

lie 



PerUmg PerUmg 
Um, ton. 



October .. 
Norember 
December 

1904. 
Jaonary.. 
February.. 

March 

April 

May 

Jnne 

July 

Ans:o8t 

Seirtember. 
October 20. 



17.50 
16. »7 
15.40 

15l87 
15.00 
16.70 
18.87 
15.85 
14.60 
14.12 
14.55 
15.50 
16.00 



16.70 
16.00 
15.85 

16.50 
15.50 
15.45 
15.75 
15.40 
15.19 
14.94 
15.00 
15.00 
15.00 



PerUmg 
Um. 



14.05 
13.75 
18.75 

18.50 
13.50 
13.60 
13.75 
18.55 
18.31 
13.12 
13.00 
12.87 
13.00 



PerUmg 
ton, 



14.20 
13.00 
12.80 

12.81 
12.75 
13.17 
13.09 
12.62 
12.27 
11.92 
11.89 
11.75 
1Z12 



PerUmg 
Um. 



16.00 
15.19 
14.40 

18.90 
18.66 
14.03 
14.19 
18.60 
12.81 
12.46 
12.76 
12.69 
12.93 



PerUmg 
Um. 



28.00 
28.00 
28.00 

28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
28.00 
28.00 



Per long 
ton. 



27.00 
24.00 
23.00 

23.00 
28.00 
23.00 
23.00 
23.00 
23.00 
23.00 
28.00 
21.25 
19.50 



Per 100 
pounds. 

1.81 
1.71 
1.71 



1.71 
1.71 
1.71 
1.71 
1.71 
1.71 
1.71 
1.71 
1.71 
1.71 



Per 100 
pounds. 

1.70 
1.84 
1.80 



1.30 
1.31 
1.38 
1.50 
1.50 
1.50 
1.50 
1.60 
1.60 
1.60 



Per 100 
pouTide. 

1.60 
1.87 
1.80 



1.80 
1.80 
1.38 
1.85 
1.82 
1.30 
1.30 
1.31 
1.88 
1.80 



AVERAGB TTEARIiY PRICES OF IRON AND STBBIi. 

The following table gives the average yearly prices of leading 
articles of iron and steel in Pennsylvania and of wire nails at Chicago 
from 1899 to 1903. These prices are obtained by averaging monthly 
quotations, which have in turn been averaged from weekly quotations. 
The prices given are per ton of 2,240 pounds, except for bar iron and 
bar steel and cut and wire nails, which are quoted by the 100 pounds 
and in 100-pound kegs, respectively. 

Average yearly prices of vran and steel, 1899-190S, 



Article. 



Old iron T-zmik, at Philadelphia 

No. 1 foundry pig imn, at Philadelphia. . 

Gfsj foige pig iron, at Philadelphia 

Ormy loige pig iron, at Pittsburg 

Beaemer pig iA>n, at Pittsburg 

Bleel railfl, at mlllfl, in Penniylvania 

3l«d biHetB, at milla, at Pittsburg 

Bat bar iroo. from store, at Philadelphia 

Bat bar Iron, at mills, at Pittsburg 

Steel baa. at millB, at Pittsburg 

cut naite, from store, at Philadelphia 

WIrenaite. base price, atChloago 



1899. 1900. 1901. 1902. 1908. 



S20.86 
19.86 
16.60 
16.72 
19.08 
28.12 
81.12 
2.07 
1.95 
1.98 
2.21 
2.60 



$19.51 
19.98 
16.49 
16.90 
19.49 
82.29 
26.06 
1.96 
2.15 
1.68 
2.46 
2.76 



119.32 

15.87 

14.08 

14.20 

15.98 

27.33 

24.18 

1.84 

1.80 

1.47 

2.29 

2.41 



S23.8S 
22,19 
19.20 
19.49 
20.67 
28.00 
80.57 
2.18 
1.94 
1.67 
2.29 
2.15 



121.17 
19.92 
17.18 
17.52 
18.98 
28.00 
27.91 
2.00 
1.77 
1.56 
2.86 
2.18 



Digitized by 



Google 



88 



HIKERAL BBSOtmOBS. 



AVERAGE MONTHIiT PRICES OF STEEL BARS AT 

prrrsBCTRG. 

The following table, compiled from weekly quotations in the Ameri- 
can Manufacturer, gives the average monthly prices of steel bars, per 
100 pounds, at mills in Pittsburg from 1897 to 1908: 

Average mmUhly prices of sUel bars at PiUtkurg, Pa., per 100 pounds^ 1897-190S. 



Month. 



1897. 



189S. 



1899. 



1900. 



1901. 



1902. 



190S. 



jAnoary . . . 
February . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

Kovember . 
December. 



fl.07 

1.06 

1.00 

.96 

.92 

.90 

.90 

.90 

1.00 

1.00 

1.00 

1.00 



H.OO 

1.00 

.99 

.96 

.96 

.96 

.95 

.96 

.99 

1.00 

1.01 

1.00 



fl.07 
1.09 
1.48 
1.75 
1.71 
2.06 
2.00 
2.21 
2.50 
2.60 
2.46 
2.25 



«2.26 
2.25 
2.26 
2.12 
1.94 
1.79 
1.24 
1.06 
1.12 
1.15 
1.18 
1.20 



fl.20 
1.27 
1.44 
1.60 
1.60 
1.60 
1.62 
1.60 
1.60 
1.62 
1.60 
1.60 



$L66 
L60 
L60 
1.67 
1.80 
L80 
1.72 
L76 
L75 
Ld9 
L60 
1.68 



$L64 
L60 
1.60 
1.60 
1.60 
1.00 
LOO 
1.60 
1.60 
1.60 
1.87 
1.S0 



Average. 



.97 



.96 1.98 1. 



1.47 1.67 



1.66 



The lowest quoted price at which steel bars were sold at Pittsburg 
within the last seven years was 90 cents per 100 pounds, this price 
prevailing in June, July, and August, 1897. 

AVERAGE MONTHLY PRICES OF CUT NAIIiS AT PHTT.A- 

DEIiPHIA. 

The following table gives the average monthly base prices of cut 
nails, per keg of 100 pounds, from store at Philadelphia, since 1896, 
as reported to us by the Duncannon Iron Company: 

Average monthly prices of cut nails at Philadelphia, from store, 1896^190$, 
[Per keg of 100 pounds.] 



Month. 



January... 
Febroary.. 

March 

April , 

May 

June 

July 

August..... 
September. 
October ... 
November. 
December., 



Ayerage. 



1896. 



12.80 
2.80 
2.45 
2.46 
2.45 
2.58 
2.58 
2.58 
2.53 
2.58 
2.00 

al.70 



2.86 



1897. 



$1.60 
1.55 
1.66 
1.60 
1.45 
1.46 
1.40 
1.40 
1.45 
1.45 
1.40 
1.40 



1.47 



1896. 



$1.86 
1.85 
1.80 
1.80 
1.80 
1.80 
1.80 
1.80 
1.80 
1.80 
1.80 
1.80 



1.81 



1899. 



$1.40 
1.65 
1.75 
1.96 
1.96 
2.20 
2.80 
2.85 
2.60 
2.75 
2.80 
2.80 



2.21 



1900. 



$2.80 
2.80 
2.80 
2.62 
2.45 
2.42 
2.80 
2.80 
2.25 
2.28 
2.30 
2.25 



2.46 



190L 



$2.25 
2.27 
2.27 
2.80 
2.80 
2.80 
2.80 
2.80 
2.85 
Z80 
2.80 
2.80 



2.29 



1902. 



$2.80 
2.20 
2.25 
2.80 
2.80 
2.80 
2.80 
Z80 
2.80 
2.80 
2.80 
2.80 



2.29 



1908. 



f2.8S 
2.86 
2.86 
2.41 
2.41 
2.41 
2.41 
2.41 
2.41 
2.41 
2.20 
2.20 



2.86 



aBarly in 1893 the baro price and schedule of extras of cut nails were changed to correspond with 
the wire-nail schedule, and in December, 1896, the schedule of extras was again changed to omrrespond 
with the wire-nail schedule referred to on the following page. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AMEBICAK IRON TRADE. 



89 



AYEBAOB MONTHIiY PRICES OF WIRE NAILS AT CHICAGO. 

Tbe following table, compiled from quotations in the Iron Age, 
^ves the average monthly base prices of standard sizes of wire nails, 
per keg of 100 pounds, in carload lots, free on board at Chicago, in the 
eight years from 1896 to 1903, inclusive: 

Average monthly bcue prices of standard sizes of wire nails at Chicago^ 1896-1 90S, 

[Per keg of 100 pounds.] 



Month. 


1896. 


1897. 


1896. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


Juiaaiy 


12.42 
2.42 
2.57 
2.66 
2.70 
2.70 
2.70 
2.70 
2.70 
2.70 
2.70 

al.60 


$L60 
1.45 
1.60 
1.46 
L42 
1.42 
1.86 
1.87 
1.60 
1.62 
1.60 
1.60 


$1.65 
1.67 
1.66 
1.47 
1.45 
1.48 
1.86 
1.86 
1.45 
1.47 
1.40 
1.87 


$1.69 
1.73 
2.09 
2.26 
2.85 
2.60 
2.70 
2.80 
8.10 
8.20 
8.28 
8.68 


$§.63 
8.68 
8.68 
8.28 
2.68 
. 2.48 
2.48 
2.48 
2.86 
2.85 
2.85 
2.85 


$2.36 
2.45 
2.45 
2.45 
2.45 
2.45 
2.45 
2.46 
2.46 
2.42 
2.85 
2.25 


$2.16 
2.20 
2.20 
2.20 
2.20 
2.20 
2.20 
2.20 
2.16 
2.05 
2,00 
2.00 


$2.08 


r^bnauT 


2.12 


lUreh ^ 

April 


2.20 
2.15 


May 


2.16 


Jwat. . . 


2.16 


Jvlj.. . 


2.15 


Ai^lMt . . 


2.16 




2.15 


Oelober 


2.15 


^y«iljw 


2,16 


P***iDlMr . a . . - 


2. 00 






ATonfe ' ■ 


2.54 


1.46 


1.45 


2.60 


2.76 


2.41 


2.16 


2.13 







« A new daU e&rd was adopted in December. 1896. The ayerage price given for wire nails in Decem- 
ber, 18W« on the new card, $1.60 per keg, would be eqoiyalent to $1.10 per keg on the old card, showing 
ft Tery greftt decrease In prices. 

AVEBAGS -WHOIiBHAIiE MONTHIiY PRICES OF TIN PliATES. 

In late years foreign tin plates have not been an important factor in 
0Qppljing the home market The prices of foreign tin plates will not 
be foond in the following table, which gives the average monthly prices 
of American Bessemer tin plates, I. C, 14 by 20, per box of 100 pounds, 
at mills in Pennsylvania from January 1, 1901, to October 20, 1904, 
ioclnsive: 



Digitized by 



Google 



90 



MINERAL RE8OUB0ES. 



At^erage whoUmle monthly prices of tin plates at mills in Pennsyhnmia from January /, 
1901 J to October 20, 1904, inclusive. 





[Per box of 100 pounds.] 








Month. 1 Price. 


Month. 


Price. 

$4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 

8.eo 

3.60 


Month. 


Price. 

18.60 
3.60 
8.80 
8.80 
8.80 
8.80 
8.80 
3.80 
8.80 
3.80 
3.65 
8.60 


Month. 


Price 


1901. 

January 

February 

March 


$4.00 
4.00 
4.00 


1902. 

January 

February 

March 


1908. 

January 

February 

March 


1904. 

January 

February 

March 


tS.56 

8.45 
8.45 


April 


4.00 


April 


April 


April 


3.45 


May ' 4.00 

June ' 4.00 


May 


May 


May 


8.45 


June 


June 


June 


8.45 


July 1 4.00 

August 4.00 

September j 4.00 

October 4.00 

November 4. 00 


July 


July. .. 


July 


8.41 


August 

September 

-October 

November 

December 

Average . 


August ' 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Average. 


August 

September 

OctobetM 

November 


8.30 
3.90 
3.80 


December 4. 00 


December 








Avenge. 




Average... 


4.00 


8.98 


8.74 







Foreifjfn tin plates are imported chiefly by the oil and canning interests 
that the benefit of the drawback system may be secured in the export 
trade. 

AVKBAGE YEARIiY PRICES OF FOREIGN TIN PliATES. 

The following table gives the average yearly prices of imported coke 
Bessemer tin plates, I. C, 14 by 20, per box of 108 pounds, at New 
York, freight and duty paid, from 1890 to 1898: 





Average yearly prices of imported tin plaUis at New York, 1890-1898, 


. 


Year. 


Price. ■ 


Year. 


Price. 


Year. 


Price. 


1890... 




84.80 1 


1898 


$5.87 
4.89 
3.87 


1896 


.J I8.80 


1891 


5.34 
5.30 ' 


1894 


1897 

1898 


' 3«) 


1892 


1895 


4.00 








1 



AVERAGE YEARLY PRICES OF DOMESTIC TIN PISTES. 

The following table gives the average yearly prices of domestic Bes- 
semer tin plates, 1. C, 14 by 20, per box of 100 pounds, at mills in 
Pennsylvania, from 1899 to 1903, with the price in October, 1904: 

Average yearly prices of domestic tin plates at mills in Pennsylvania from 1899 to October 

20, 1904i inclusive, 

[Per box of 100 potinds.] 



Year. 


1 
Price. 


Year. 


Price, ij Year. 


Price. 


1899. . 


$4.06 
4.47 


1901 


$4.00 
8.93 


1908 

j 1904 (October 20) 


$8.74 


1900 


1902 


8.80 









Digitized by 



Google 



AHEBIOAN IBOK TBABE. 



91 



PRICES OP STEEIi SHIP PliATBS AT PITTSBUBG. 

The following table gives the average monthly prices of steel ship 
plates free on board at Pittsburg from October 1, 1900, to September 
30, 1904. On September 6, 1904, the price was reduced from 1.6 
cents per pound to 1.4 cents, or from $35.84 to $31.36 per ton. 

Averoffe monUUy prices of steel skip plates at Pittsburg, Pa., from October i, 1900, to 
September 30, 1904, inclusive. 

[Per long ton.] 



Month. 



1900. 



October ... 
November. 
December. 



Price. 



1901. 



Jftmmry... 
FebroMy.. 

lUreb 

April 

M*y 

June 

July 

Aogtttt 

September. 

October 

NoTember. 
December.. 



1902. 



January. 



$24.64 
28.00 
80.24 

81.86 
81.96 
83.15 
35.84 
85.84 
35.84 
85.84 
35.81 
35.84 
35.84 
35.84 
85.84 

85.84 



Month. 

1902. 

Febroary 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1908. 

January 

February... ^.. 

March , 

April 

May 

June , 



Price. 



135.84 
85.84 
35.84 
85.84 
85.84 
85.84 
85.84 
35.84 
35.84 
35.84 
35.84 



35.84 
35.84 
35.84 
35.84 
35.84 
35.84 



Month. 



1908. 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 



19M. 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July I 35.84 

August ' 35.84 

September 32.48 



Price. 



$35.84 
35.84 
35.84 
35.84 
35.84 
35.84 



•| 



35.84 
35.84 
35. »4 
35.84 
35.84 
35.84 



AVERAGE QUABTEBIiY PRICES OF BEAMS AND CHANNEIiS. 

The following table, which gives the average quarterly prices of 
steel beams and channels at Pittsburg, Pa., from 1894 to 1904, has 
been compiled for this report by one of the leading manufacturers of 
btructural shapes in western Pennsylvania: 

Average Quarterly prices of beams and channels at Pittsburg, Pa., 1894^1904. 
[Price per 100 pounds.] 



Year. 
IW.... 

ur.... 
vm.... 



FlnA 

qoAT- 

tcr. 


Second 

"•ST 


Thlid 
quar- 
ter. 


Fourth 


Aver- 
age. 


fl.21 


91.20 


«1.27 


11.25 


SI. 23 


1.21 


1.26 


1.66 


1.58 


1.40 


1.44 


1.49 


1.66 


1.60 


1.49 


1.66 


1.38 


.98 


1.09 


1.24 


1.15 


1.16 


1.19 


1.20 


1.17 


L36 


1.60 


2.12 


2.26 


1.88 



Year. 


rirvi, 

quar- 

1 ter. 


1900 


'■ 12.25 


1901 


' 1.61 


1902 


1.60 


1908 


1.60 


1904 


1.60 



Second 


Third 


Fourth 


quar- 
ter. 

$2.21 


quar- 
ter. 

$1.68 


quar- 
ter. 


11.50 


1.60 


1.60 


i.eo 


1.60 


1.60 


1.60 


1.60 


1.60 


1.60 


1.60 


1.46 









Aver- 
age. 



11.91 
1.58 
1.60 
1.60 



Digitized by 



Google 



92 



MINERAL BESOUBOES. 



During the period covered by this table the lowest average quarterly 
price for beams and channels was in the third quarter of 1897, when 
the ruling price was 98 cents per 100 pounds, or less than 1 cent per 
pound. The highest average quarterly price was in the last quarter 
of 1899 and the first quarter of 1900, when the price was $2.26 per 
100 pounds. 

PRICES OF TiAKFi SUPERIOR IRON ORB. 

The following table gives the prices at which Lake Superior iron 
ore has been sold upon season contracts in 1902 and 1903, per long ton, 
delivered at lower ports on Lake Erie; also the prices at which sales 
were made in the spring of 1904 for season delivery. These prices 
have been furnished by Mr. A. I. Findley, the editor of the Iron 
Trade Review. 

Prices of Lake Superior iron ore, 1909-1904^ 

[Per long Urn.] 



Grade. 



Meeabi Beesemer 

Meeabi noD-BesBemer 

Marquette specular No. 1 Beasemer 

Marquette specular No. 1 non-Benemer. 

Chapin 

Soft hematites, No. 1 non- Bessemer , 



Uogebic, Marquette, and Menominee No. 1 Bessemer 
hematites 



Vermilion No. 1 hard non-Bessemer 

Chandler No. 1 Bessemer 

Marquette extra low-phosphorus Bessemer . 



1902. 



I8.00@SS.25 
2.60® 2.86 
4.65<^ 5.00 
3.80® 4.00 
3.91 
8.00® 8.25 

4.25® 4.65 
4.07 
4.60 
5.40 



1908. 

af4.00 

a8.20 

4. 85® 5. 15 

4.00®4.25 



<i8.00 



04.50 



1904. 

92. 75® IS. 00 
2.85® 2.50 
3.60® 8.86 
3.10® 3.85 



2.60® 2.80 
8.00® 8.25 



a Prices for base ores. 

Quotations have been omitted for 1903 and 1904 for Chapin, Vermil- 
ion No. 1 hard non-Bessemer, Chandler No. 1 Bessemer, and Marquette 
extra low-phosphoixis Bessemer ores because none of these are now 
on the market, these ores being mined for their own use by the 
United States Steel Corporation and other companies which own the 
mines from which they are obtained. For the first time since 1894 
the Lake Superior iron-ore market became an open one for 1904 ship- 
ments. 

TOTAIi PRODUCTION OF PIG IRON. 

High-water mark in the production of pig iron in the United States 
was reached in 1903, notwithstanding the reaction in the latter part of 
that year from the active demand for iron and steel that had prevailed 
in immediately preceding years. 

Twenty -two States made pig iron in 1903, against 22 in 1902, 20 in 
1901 , and 21 in 1900 and 1899. The total production of pig iron in 



Digitized by 



Google 



AMERICAN Iron trade. 



93 



1903 was 18,009,252 long tons, against 17,821,307 tons in 1902, 16,878,354 
tons in 1901, 13,789,242 tons in 1900, 13,620,703 tons in 1899, and 
11,773,934 tons in 1898. The production in 1903 was 187,945 tons in 
excess of that in 1902, but the production in the second half of 1903 
was 1,405,482 tons less than in the first half. The production in the first 
half was, however, much the largest in our history. The following 
table gives the half-yearly production of pig iron in the last six years: 

Production of pig iron in the United States^ 1S98-190S, by half -years. 
[Long tons.] 



l^riod. 


1898. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1908. 


Flnthalf 


5,860,708 
5,904,231 


6,289,167 
7,331,586 


7,642,569 
6,146,678 


7,674,618 
8,203,741 


8,808,574 
9,012,733 


9,707,367 
8,301,885 


Beoondbalf 




TotMl 


11,773,984 


13,620,708 


13,789,242 


15,878,85^ 


17,821,307 


18,009,252 





The following table gives the production of pig iron, by States, in 
1903 and 1903, in the order of their prominence in 1903: 



Production of pig iron in 190f and 1903^ 
[Long tons.] 



^Stales. 



State. 


1902. 


1903. 


State. 


1902. 


1908. 


PeonsylTaniA 


8,117,800 

8,631.888 

1,730,220 

1,472,2U 

401,869 

587,216 

892,778 

808.229 

278,987 

209,960 


8,211,600 

8,287,484 

1,692,875 

1.561,896 

552,917 

544,084 

418,368 

824,570 

288,516 

270,289 


Vf AhlfTAn , . 


155,213 
191,380 
183,005 
110,726 

82,315 
12,086 
3,095 
8,360 


244,709 


Ohio 


New Jersey 


211,667 
199,013 
102,441 


nnfv>to 


West Virginia 


A%twim 


Kentocky 


5ewYork 


North Carolina and 
Georgia 




VindniA 


75,602 


* 


Connecticut 


14,501 


MmTwimw^A 


Texas 


11,653 




Massachusetts 


3,265 


mKoodnuid Minnesota 


Total 


lOaoiiif, Colorado, and 


17,821,807 


18,009,262 


Wftfblngton 









PB0I>UCT10N OF PIG IRON ACCORDING TO FTTEIi USED. 

The production of pig iron in 1903, classified according to the fuel 
used, was as follows, compared with the four preceding years: 

Production of pig iron according to fad used, 1899-1908, 
[Long tons.] 



Fuel used. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1908. 


ntvBfnnos, fiblefly ooki> , , 


11.786,886 

1,666. 6S1 

41,061 

284,766 


11,727,712 

1,686,866 

40,682 

889,874 

44,608 


18,782,886 

1,668,806 

48,719 

860,147 

28.294 


16,815,891 

1,096,040 

19,207 

878,604 

U,665 


15,502,221 


abcW|^^ and coke .... 


1,864,199 


ABtkndtR ainnfi , , , . 


47,148 


"TmiiimI 


604,757 


<*>mMj aad mk« 


927 








IVMal 


18,620,706 


18,789,242 


15,878,864 


17,821,807 


18,009,268 







Digitized by 



Google 



94 



MIXEBAL BESOUBCES. 



PRODUCTION OF Blk^BBMEB PIG IRON. 

The following table gives the production of Bessemer pig iron, by 
States, in each year from 1898 to 1903, in long tons. Bessemer pig 
iron made with charcoal is included. Low-phosphorus pig iron is 
included in the statistics for 1901, 1902, and 1903. 

Ftoduction of Bessemer pig iron in 1898-1903^ by Stales. 
[Long tons.] 



State. 



Pennsylvania 

Ohio 

Illinois 

Maryland 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

Colorado 

Missouri 

Kentucky and Tennessee . 

Wisconsin 

Michigan , 

Minnnsota , 

New Jersey , 

New York , 

Virginia and Alabama 



1896. 



4,040,966 

1,570,535 

1,210,124 

186,563 

192,699 



88.701 
80,288 



14,620 
2,939 



Total I 7,837,384 



473,498 
852,965 
830,169 
210,670 

187,858 



96,364 
22,756 

14,519 

13,984 



1900. 

4,242,897 

1,898,663 

1.178,^1 

260,688 

169,802 

118, 146 
13,430 

21,786 
40,300 



8,202,778 7,943,452 



1901. 



4,885,877 

2,637,091 

1,394,430 

297,149 

166,597 
147,216 



1902. 



5,130, 

2,927, 

1.495, 

296, 



1908. 



022 



298 
971 



182,987 



201, 
9, 



580 I 

I 

746 I 



89,941 



K2,328 I 



66,681 



9,596,793 ' 10,398,168 | 



5,213,143 

2,422,676 

1,886,688 

821,784 

198.688 

176,116 
26.866 

111,340 

129,328 

3,299 

9,989,906 



Of the production of Bessemer and low-phosphorus pig iron in 
Pennsylvania in 1903 the Lehigh Valley made 106,184 tons; the 
Schuylkill Valley, 77,882 tons; the lower Susquehanna Valley , 368,745 
tons; AUegheuyCounty, 3,276,850 tons; the Shenango Valley, 806,708 
tons, and the remainder of the State, 576,774 tons: total, 5,213,143 
tons. 

In Ohio in 1903 the Mahoning Valley produced 872,758 tons of 
Bessemer and low-phosphorus pig iron; the Hanging Rock bituminous 
district, 100,972 tons; the Lake counties, 715,608 tons; and other 
parts of Ohio, 733,338 tons: total, 2,422,676 tons. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AMERICAN IRON TRADE. 



96 



PBOOUCTIOK OF BESSEMER PIG IRON SIKCE 1887. 

The production of Bessemer pig iron in the United States was not 
collected separately from that of other kinds of pig iron until 1887. 
Since that year it has been as follows: 

Production of Bessemer pig iron in the United StaleSj 1887-190S. 
[Long tons.] 





Year. 


Quantity. 


1887 


2,875,462 


lass... 


2,637,859 


1889.. 
1890... 




8,151,414 
4,092,343 


1891... 




8,472,190 


lan... 




4,444,041 











Year. 


Quantity. 


1898 


8,568,598 
3,806,567 
5,623,695 
4,654,955 
5,795,584 
7,387,884 


1894 


1896 


1896 


1897 


1898 -- 







Year. 


Quantity. 


1899 

1900 


8,202,778 
7,943,452 
9,596,793 


1901 


1902 


10,393,168 
9,989,908 


1908 



PROBUcrrioN of basic pig iron. 

The production of basic pig iron in 1896, with coke or mixed anthra- 
cite and coke as fuel, was 336,403 tons; in 1897 it was 556,391 tons; 
in 1898 it was 785,444 tons; in 1899 it was 985,033 tons; in 1900 it 
was 1,072,376 tons; in 1901 it was 1,448,850 tons; in 1902 it was 
2,038,590 tons, and in 1903 it was 2,040,726 tons. Basic charcoal pig 
iron is not included in these figures. The production of basic pig iron, 
by States, since 1899 is given in the following table: 

Production of basic pig iron, 1899-190S, by States. 
[Long tons.] 



State. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


Hew Toric and New Joaey 




4,929 
446.543 
844,065 

179,717 

97,122 


34,320 
568,516 
442,744 

301,444 

101,826 


90,736 
982,532 
696,216 

295,191 

123,915 


117,802 


FennsylTani*— Allegheny County 

^Bamfvivftiii* — Other ixmntiAH 


470,848 
267,760 

106,093 

80,882 


791,175 
626,078 


MttTlAiMi. Vixglnia, Tenneaoee, and 


267,999 


OU^J^Qte. unaooDflin, JCinonri, and 


237,672 






Total 


965,033 


1,072,376 


1,448,860 


2,038,690 


2,040,726 







Maryland, Tennessee, Illinois, and Wisconsin did not make basic 
pig iron in 1901 or 1902, as in some previous years, and Maryland, 
Illinois, and Wisconsin did not make any in 1908, while Colorado for 
the first time made basic pig iron in 1908. 



Digitized by 



Google 



96 



MINEBAL BESOUB0E8. 



PRODUCTION OF SPIEGEIiEISEN^ AND FIIBBOMANGANEBE. 

The production of spiegeleisen andferromanganese in 1903, included 
in the total production of pig iron, was 192,661 tons, against 212,981 
tons m 1902, 291,461 tons in 1901, 265,977 tons in 1900, 219,768 tons in 
1899, 213,769 tons in 1898, 173,695 tons in 1897, 131,940 tons in 1896, 
171,724 tons in 1895, 120,180 tons in 1894, and 81,118 tons in 1893. 
The spiegeleisen and ferromanganese produced in 1903 were -made in 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Alabama, Illinois, and Colorado. In the 
total for 1902 is a small quantity of ferrophosphorus, made in Alabama. 

The production by States in 1901, 1902, and 1903, of speigeleisen 
and ferromanganese was as follows: 

Production of spiegeleisen and femmianganese in 1901, 190^, and 1903, by Spates. 

[Long tons.] 



State. 


Splegeleisei 


1. 

1908." 


Fenomanganese. 


1901. 


1902. 


1901. 


1902. 


1908. 


New Jerifiv i 


28,789 

188,986 

302 

«0,297 

8,448 


14,182 

99,888 

476 

45,801 

8.567 


15,846 
76,498 
24 
57,955 
6,882 








Penxisylvftiiia 


57,406 

2,049 

182 


44,453 
120 


34, 9n 


Alabama 


1,000 


Illinois 




Colorado .'. . 












Total 


281,822 


168,406 


156,700 


59,689 


44,578 


85,961 







The figures given for ferromanganese for 1902 include a small quan- 
tity of ferrophosphorus made in one of the Southern States. Ferro- 
phosphorous was not reported to us for 1903. As a rule, spiegeleisen 
contains from 9 to 22 per cent of manganese, and ferromanganese from 
46 to 82 per cent. The standard for spiegeleisen is 20 per cent and 
for ferromanganese 80 per cent. 

PRODUCTION OF PIG IRON BT GRADES. 

The following table gives the total production of pig iron ia the 
United States in 1901, 1902, and 1903, by grades: 

ProducUon of pig iron in 1901, 190£, and 1903, by grades. 
[LonR tons.] 



Grade. 



1901. 



1902. 



1908. 



BeMemer and low-phosphonu pig iron 
Basic pig iron made with mineral fuel. 

Foige pig iron 

Foundry and high Bilicon pig iron 

Malleable Bessemer pig iron 

White and mottled and loiscellanous . . 

Spiegeleisen 

Ferromanganese 

Direct castings 

Total 



9,606,796 

1,448,850 

689,454 

8,648,718 

256,582 

87,964 

281,822 

60,680 

8»662 



10,iB96,168 

2088,500 

838,096 

8,851,276 

811.456 

172,085 

168,408 

44,578 

8,666 



15,878,854 



17.821,807 



0,989.908 

2,040,726 

788,016 

4,400,028 

478,781 

130,187 

156,700 

35,961 



18,009.252 



Digitized by 



Google 



AMEBIOAK IBON TBADE. 97 

The Bessemer figures include low-phosphorus pig iron — ^that is, 
iron running' below 0.04 per cent in phosphorus. Pig iron containing 
from 0.04 to 0.10 per cent of phosphorus is classified as Bessemer. 
The basic figures are confined strictly to pig iron made with mineral 
fuel, and do not include the small quantity of basic iron that is annu- 
ally made ^th charcoal, practically all of which is used by manu- 
hctorers of steel castings. A few thousand tons of castings direct 
from the furnace are included in the totals for white and mottled and 
miscellaneous grades of pig iron for 1903. Ferrosilicon and high sili- 
con pijr iron are included in the foundry figures. 

Of the total production of pig iron in 1903 over 65.4 per cent was 
Bessemer and low-phosphorus, as compared with over 58 per cent in 
1902; 24.4 per cent was foundry, against 21.6 per cent in 1902; over 
11.3 per cent was basic, against 11.4 per cent in 1902; 4.3 per cent 
was forge, against 4.6 per cent in 1902; 1.06 per cent was spiegel- 
eisen and ferromanganese, against 1.19 per cent in 1902; and 2.6 per 
cent was malleable Bessemer, against 1.7 per cent in 1902. The pro- 
duction of white and mottled and miscellaneous grades of pig iron and 
of castings made direct from the furnace amounted to a little over 1 
per cent in 1902, and to less than 1 per cent in 1903. 

In 1903 the production of low-phosphorus pig iron amounted to 
900,422 tons, against 164,246 tons in 1902. In 1903 low-phosphorus 
pig" iron was made in New York, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Ohio. 

STOCKS OF UNSOIiD PIG IRON. 

The statistics of stocks of unsold pig iron do not include pig iron 
made by the owners of rolling mills or steel works for their own use, 
but only pig iron made for sale, which has not been sold. The stocks 
of pig iron which were utisold in the hands of manufacturers or which 
were under their control at the close of 1903, and were not intended 
for their own consumption, amounted to 691,438 tons, against 49,951 
tons at the close of 1902, 70,647 tons at the close of 1901, and 442,370 
tons at the close of 1900. Warrant stocks not controlled by the 
makers are not included. 

The American Pig Iron Storage Warrant Company held in its yards 
on December 31, 1903, 47,200 tons of pig iron. On December 31, 
1902, the company had no pig iron stored in any of its yards. At the 
end of 1901 it bad 3,000 tons in its yards, and at the end of 1900 it 
lad 16,400 tona. 
MS 1903 7 



Digitized by 



Google 



98 



MINEBAL BESOUBCES. 



NUMBER OP COMPIiBTBD FURNACES. 

The whole number of completed furnaces m the United States at 
the close of 1903 was 425, against 412 at the close of 1902 and 406 at 
the close of 1901. The following table shows the niunberof com- 
pleted furnaces at the end of each year since 1898, not counting aban- 
doned furnaces in any year: 

Number of competed fumaceSf 1898-190S, according tofud used. 



Faelused. 


189a 


1899. 


1900. 


190L 


1902. 


1908. 


Bltninlrioui coftl n-ntl cok^^ ^,,^ 


242 
94 

78 


286 
99 
80 


240 
94 
72 


267 
90 
69 


272 
81 
50 


288 


Anthracite and &nthracite and coke 


77 


r!hA.mnAl and charcoal and coke 


00 






Total 


414 


414 


406 


406 


412 


425 







NUMBER OF FURNACES EN" BIx^ST. 

The whole number of furnaces which were in blast at the close of 
1903 was 182, against 307 at the close of 1902 and 266 at the close of 
1901. The following classified table shows the number of furnaces in 
blast at the close of each year since 1898: 

Number of fumcuxs in blast f 1898-190S, according tofud used. 



Fuel used. 


1898. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


190S. 


Bituminous coal and coke 


1S2 
80 
20 


191 
68 
80 


156 
46 
82 


188 
64 
24 


222 
62 
88 


120 


Anthracite and anthracite and coke 


39 


Chaicoal and charcoal and coke 


88 






Total 


202 


289 


282 


266 


807 


182 







The number of furnaces out of blast at the close of 1903 was 243. 
Some of these furnaces were only temporarily banked. 

PRODUCTION OF PIG IRON IN THE FIRST HAIiF OF 1904. 

The production of pig iron in the first half of 1904 was 8,173,438 
long tons, against 8,301,886 tons in the last half of 1903 and 9,707,367 
tons in the first half of 1903. The decrease in production in the first 
half of 1904 as compared with the second half of 1 903 amounted to only 
128,447 tons, but as compared with the first half of 1903 it amounted 
to 1,533,929 tons. And yet the production in the first half of 1904 
was greater than in any half year prior to the second half of 1901. 

The production of Bessemer pig iron in the first half of 1904 was 
4,530,946 long tons, against 4,509,289 tons in the last half of 1908 and 



Digitized by 



Google 



AMEBIGAN IBON TBADE. 99t 

5,480,619 tons in the first half of 1903. The figures for the first half 
of 1904 include 87,582 tons of low-phosphorus pig iron, against 110,699 
tons in the last half of 1903 and 89,723 tons in the first half of that 
year. 

The production of basic pig iron in the first half of 1904 was 1,061,901 
long tons, against 836,923 tons in the last half of 1903 and 1,203,803 
torn? in the first half of 1903. Basic pig iron made with charcoal is not 
included in these figures. 

The production of charcoal pig iron in the first half of 1904 was 
213,356 long tons, against 272,040 tons in the last half of 1903 and 
232,717 tons in the first half of 1903. In addition there were pro- 
duced in Wisconsin and Washington 927 tons of mixed charcoal and 
coke pig iron in the first six months of 1903. No pig iron has been 
made with this fuel since the first half of 1903. 

The production of spiegeleisen and ferromanganese in the first half 
of 1904 was 114,206 long tons, against 81,986 tons in the last half of 
1903 and 110,675 tons in the first half of 1903. The production of 
ferromanganese alone in the first half of 1904 amounted to 26,541 tons, 
BfrsAnst 14,118 tons in the last half of 1903 and 21,843'tons in the first 
half of that year. In addition to the above, Tennessee made 304 tons 
of ferrophosphorus in the first half of 1904. 

The production of bituminous coal and coke pig iron in the first six 
months of 1904 amounted to 7,337,279 long tons, of anthracite and 
coke mixed to 607,624 tons, of anthracite alone to 15,179 tons, and of 
charcoal to 213,356 tons. Included in the bituminous figures is a small 
quantity of ferrosilicon made with electricity. 

The stocks of pig iron which were unsold in the hands of manufac- 
turers or their agents or were under their control in warrant yards or 
elsewhere on June 80, 1904, amounted to 623,254 tons, against 126,301 
tons on June 30, 1903. 

On June 30, 1904, the American Pig Iron Storage Warrant Com- 
pany had 78,600 tong of iron stored in its various yards, virtually all 
of which was controlled by the makers, and all of which was included 
in the 623,254 tons of unsold iron reported on that date. 

The whole number of furnaces in blast on June 30, 19u4, was 216, 
•gainst 320 on June 30, 1903, and 286 on June 30, 1902. The number 
of furnaces idle on June 30, 1904, was 209. Of the active furnaces 
on June 30, 1904, 170 used bituminous fuel, 26 used anthracite coal 
and coke mixed, 2 used anthracite coal alone, and 18 used charcoal alone. 



Digitized by 



Google 



100 



MINEBAL BBSOUBOES. 



ANKTJAIi CONSUMPTION OF PIG IRON. 

Our consumption of pig iron in the last five years is approximately 
shown in the following table. The comparatively small quantity of 
foreign pig iron held in bonded warehouses has not been considered. 
Warrant stocks not controlled by the makers are included in unsold 
stocks for each year. 

Annual consumption of pig iron in the United States^ 1899-190S, 
[Long tons.] 



Pig iron. 



Domestic production. 
Imported 

Stocks unsold Jan. 1. . 



Total supply 

Deduct stocks Dec. 31 . 
Also exports 



1900. 



18,620,708 
40,893 
415,833 



14,076,429 

68,809 

228,678 



Approximate consumption j 18, 779, 442 



13.789,242 
52,665 



18,910,116 
446,020 
286,687 



13,177,409 



1901. 



15,878,854 
62,930 
446,020 



16,387,804 
73,647 
81,211 



16,282,446 



1902. 



1908. 



17,821.307 18,00».2SQ 
619,354 699,574 

73,647 ' 49,951 



18,514,808 18,658,777 
49,951 I 698,489 
27,487 20,879 



18,436,870 



18,039,909 



It will be observed that, although the production of pig iron in 1903 
exceeded that of 1902 by 187,945 tons, the consumption in 1903 
was 396,961 tons less than in 1902. Of course these figures are only 
an approximation to absolute accuracy. 

MMESTONE CONSUMED IN MAKING PIG IRON. 

The limestone consumed for fluxing purposes by the blast furnaces 
of the United States in the production of 18,009,262 tons of pig iron 
in 1903 amounted to 9,591,760 tons. The average consumption of 
limestone per ton of all kinds of pig iron produced was 1,193 pounds 
in 1903, against 1,192.8 pounds in 1902, 1,186.5 pounds in 1901, and 
1,205.6 pounds in 1900. The consumption in 1903 by the anthracite and 
bituminous furnaces was 1,207.3 pounds per ton of pig iron made, 
and by the charcoal and mixed charcoal and coke furnaces it was 696. E 
pounds. Oyster shells are regularly used by Muirkirk (charcoal 
Furnace, in Maryland, for fluxing purposes, to the entire exclusion o1 
limestone. 

PRODUCTION OF BESSEMER STEEIj. 

The total production of Bessemer steel ingots and casting in th 
United States in 1903 was 8,592,829 long tons, against 9,138,363 ton 
in 1902, a decrease of 645,534 tons, or 5.9 per cent. The followin 
table gives the production of Bessemer steel ingots and castitigB in th 
last five years by States. Of the 1903 production 18,099 tons wei 
steel castings, against a similar production of 12,548 tons in 1902. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AMEBIOAN IBON TBADE. 

Produetum of Beuemer gleel in the United States, 1899-190S, by States, 

[Long tons.] 



101 





1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1908. 


PmiMylTaniA 


3,968,779 

1,679,287 

1,211,246 

727,092 


3,488,731 

1,388,124 

1,115,571 

692,344 

6,684,770 


4,293,439 

2,1M,846 

1,324,217 

940,800 


4,209,326 

2,528,802 

1,443,614 

956,621 


3,909,436 


Ohio 


2,830,134 


Tiling , 


1,366,569 


Other States 


966,690 






T^ital 


7,686,854 


8,713,802 


9,138,368 


8,502,829 







There were no Clapp-Griffiths works in operation in 1903, and only 
2 Robert-Bessemer plants were active. Eight Tropenas plants were at 
work, as compared with 5 in 1902. In addition 1 plant made steel by 
the Bookwalter process and 1 plant on the Pacific coast made a small 
quantity of steel in a special surface-blown converter. One plant also 
made steel by the Evans- Wills process. All these works produced 
steel castings only. 

During 1903 the Lackawanna Steel Company completed the Bessemer 
department of its new plant at Lackawanna, N. Y. This department 
is equipped with four 10-long-ton converters, which have an annual 
capacity of 845,000 long tons of ingots. Steel ingots were first pro- 
duced on October 13, 1903. The International Harvester Company 
also completed its new Bessemer steel plant at South Chicago in 1903. 
It is equipped with two 10-long-ton converters, with an annual capacity 
of 500,000 tons of ingots. Steel was first made on September 3, 1903. 

The following plants, which are equipped to make steel castings by 
the Tropenas and other modifications of the Bessemer process, were 
completed and put in operation in 1903: Isaac G. Johnson & Co., 
Incorporated, Spuy ten Duy vil, New York City, one 2-long-ton Tropenas 
converter; Naval Gun Factory, United States Navy-Yard, Washing- 
ton, D. C, one 2-long-ton Tropenas converter; Newport News 
Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company, Newport News, Va., one 
2- long-ton Tropenas converter; and the Columbia Engineering Works, 
Incorporated, Portland, Oreg., one 2-long-ton surface-blown converter. 

Since the close of 1903 the following plants have installed or are 
now installing Tropenas or other ''little Bessemer" converters: 
Watertown Arsenal, Watertown, Mass., one 2-long-ton Tropenas 
converter; Providence Steel Casting Company, Providence, R. I., two 
2-long-ton Tropenas converters; Southern Steel Works, Chattanooga, 
Tenn., one 2-long-ton Tropenas converter; and the Milwaukee Steel 
Foundry Company, Milwaukee, Wis., one 1-long-ton special steel 
converter. 

In 1902 a plant for the manufacture of steel castings by the 
Evans- Wills process, which is a modification of the Bessemer process, 



Digitized by 



Google 



102 



MINERAL RE80UB0E8. 



was erected at Rah way, N. J. Its first castings were madeonOctobcT 
18, 1902. The plant is now equipped with two 4:,000-pound con- 
verters. Steel castings by this process were made in 1903, but an 
open-hearth furnace has been added in 1904. 

PRODUCTION OF OPEN-HEARTH STEEIi. 

The total production of open-hearth steel ingots and direct castings 
in the United States in 1903 was 5,829,911 long tons, against 5,687,729 
tons in 1902, an increase of 142,182 tons, or 2.4 per cent. As com- 
pared with 1898, five years ago, when the production of open-hearth 
steel amounted to 2,230,292 tons, there was an increase in 1903 of 
3,599,619 tons, or over 161 per cent. The following table gives the 
production of open-hearth steel ingots and castings, by States, since 
1898: 

Production of openrhearth steel in the United States^ 1898-1903, by Stales, 

[Long tons.] 



State. 



New England 

New York and New Jersey 

Pennsylyania 

Ohio 

IlUnolB 

other States 

Total 



1898. 


1899. 


47,381 


57,124 


47,957 


61,461 


1,817,521 


2,893,811 


79,886 


117,458 


183,103 


246,183 


54,444 


71,279 


2,230,292 


2,947,316 



1900. 



1901. 



74,522 ' 

67,361 I 

2.699,502 . 

130,191 I 

285,551 ; 

141,006 i 



170,876 
82,965 
3,594,763 
184,913 
398,522 
224,220 



3,398,135 4,656,809 



1902. 

179,928 
92,763 
4,375,864 
278,854 
435,461 
325,364 



6,687,729 



1903. 



169,209 
104,596 
4,442,730 
369,349 
422,919 
821,106 



5,829,911 



The open-hearth steel made in 1903 was produced by 111 works in 
17 States: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Tennessee, Alabama, 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Missouri, Colorado, and Califor- 
nia. Ninety-eight works in 16 States made open-hearth steel in 1902. 
The States which have open-hearth furnaces, but which did not 
produce open-hearth steel in 1903, were West Virginia and Kentucky. 

In 1902 there were made 4,496,533 tons of open-hearth steel by the 
basic process and 1,191,196 tons by the acid process; in 1903 the pro- 
duction by the basic process amounted to 4,734,913 tons and by the 
acid process to 1,094,998 tons. There was. a decrease in the produc- 
tion of acid steel in 1903 as compared with 1902 of 96,198 tons, or a 
little over 8 per cent, but an increase in the production of basic steel 
of 238,380 tons, or 5.3 per cent. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AMEBIOAK IBOX TBADE. 



108 



In the following table tbe production by States of both acid and 
basic open-hearth steel ingots and castings in 1903 is given: 

Productian of bcuic and add open-fiearth sUd in the United Stales in 190St by Stales. 

[Long tons.] 



State. 



Basic open- Acid open- 



hearth 
steel. 



hearth 
steel. 



Total. 



New England 

New York and New Jersey 

PtoDsylTania 

Ohio 

UliiKiig 

Other States 

Total 



106,778 
71.687 
8,567,408 
806,675 
890,518 
801,017 



68,481 
88,061 
885,287 
60,774 
82,406 
20,089 



169,209 
104,596 
4,442,780 
869,849 
422,919 
321,106 



4,784,918 



1,094,998 



6,829,911 



PRODUCTION OF OPBN-HBARTH STEKL CASTINGS. ' 

The total production of open-hearth steel castings in 1903, included 
above, amounted to 400,348 long tons, of which 134,879 tons were 
made by the basic process and 266,469 tons were made by the acid 
process. I n 1902 the production of open-hearth steel castings amounted 
to 367,879 tons, of which 112,404 tons were made by the basic process 
and 255,475 tons by the acid process. 

The following table gives the production of open-hearth steel castings 
by the acid and basic processes in 1903, by States: 

ProducHam of open^keorih sled castings in the United States in 1903^ by States. 

[Long tons.] 



state. 



Basic 
castings 



Add 
castings. 



Total. 



Xev England, New York, and New Jersey 

Bennsylrania 

OUo, IlUsois, and other States 

Total 



6.311 
14.483 
116,066 



80.78S 
167,638 
67.148 



86.094 
182.021 
182.288 



134.879 



266.469 



400.848 



Massachusetts, Connecticut, Tennessee, Alabama, Indiana, Wiscon- 
sin, Missouri, and California made open-hearth steel castings in 1903 
in addition to the States specifically mentioned in the table. 

The growth of the open-hearth steel-casting industry in this country 
has been very rapid within the last six years, as is shown by the fol- 
lowing table, the increase from 1898 to 1903 amounting to 279,761 
long tons, or almost 232 per cent. The greatest growth has been in 
Pennsylvania, the increase in that State alone from 1898 to 1903 
amounting to 134,751 long tons, or over 285 per cent. The produc- 
tion of open-hearth steel castings was first separately ascertained by 
the American Iron and Steel Association in 1898. 



Digitized by 



Google 



104 



MINEBAL BBSOUBOBS. 



ProdiuHon of open-hearth steel castings in the United States, 1898-190$, by States, 

[Long tons.] 



State. 


1898. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1W6. 


New England, New York, and New Jer- 
sey 


14,657 
47,270 
58,660 


21,640 
69,996 
78,098 


21,888 
78,584 
77,024 


87,154 
108,486 
166,982 


37,011 
15S,899 
178,439 


96, OM 


Pennsylvania 


182,021 


Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, and other States. 


182,283 


Total 


120,587 


160,729 


177,491 


801,622 


367,879 


400.848 







PRODUCTION OF CRUCIBIiE STBEIi. 

The production of crucible steel in the United States in 1903 
amounted to 102,434 long tons, against 112,772 tons in 1902, 98,513 
tons in 1901, 100,662 tons in 1900, 101,213 tons in 1899, 89,747 tons in 
189^, 69,959 tons in 1897, 60,689 tons in 1896, 67,666 tons in 1895, 
61,702 tons in 1894, and 63,613 tons in 1893. Ten States made crucible 
steel in 1903, namely, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Wiscon- 
sin. The direct castings produced in 1903, included above, amounted 
to 6,409 tons, against 4,965 tons in 1902 and 3,927 tons in 1901. Penn- 
sylvania made a little less than three- fourths of the total crucible steel 
production in 1903, against a little over three-fourths in 1902, the year 
of maximum production in the whole country. 

PRODUCTION OP MISCEIiliANEOUS STEBIi. 

The production of steel in the United States in 1903 by various 
minor processes amounted to 9,804 long tons, against 8,386 tons in 
1902, 5,471 tons in 1901, 4,862 tons in 1900, 4,974 tons in 1899, 3,801 
tons in 1898, 3,012 tons in 1897, 2,394 tons in 1896, 858 tons in 1895, 
4,081 tons in 1894, and 2,806 tons in 1893. Blister, puddled, and 
"patented" steel, including '* patented" steel castings, are included 
in these figures. 

PRODUCTION OP AL.L. KINDS OP STEEIi. 

The production of all kinds of steel ingots and castings in 1903 
amounted to 14,534,978 long tons, against 14,947,250 tons in 1902, a 
decrease of 412,272 tons, or 2.7 per cent. The maximum production 
of steel ingots and castings was reached In 1902; the year of next high- 
est production was 1903. Blister, ''patented," and all other kinds 
of steel are included in these figures. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AMBBIOAK IBON TBADE. 



105 



In the follo^ng table the production in 1903 of all kinds of steel 
ingots and castings is given by States, in long tons. Of the total pro- 
duction, 430,265 tons were direct steel castings. 

Production ofaU kind$ ofsUd in the United States in 1903, by Stales. 

[Longtona.] 



Stmte. 



Beisemer. 



Open- 
hearth. 



Cracible 

andmiscel 

laneouB. 



Total 
iDffota and 
castings. 



Maanchosetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut 

New York and New Jersey , 

FnuMylTmikia , 

I>elaware. Maryland. Virginia, West ViiginU, Dis- 
trict of Colombia, Kentucky, Tennenee, and Ala- 



Oldo 

Indiana and niinois 

Ifiehigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Missouri, Colorado, 
Oregon, and Calif omia 



62,978 
8,909,486 

766,406 
2,880,184 
1,866,669 

168,806 



169,209 

104,696 

4,442,780 

180,241 
369,849 
497,898 

66,886 



2,886 
23,819 
80,461 

50 

10 

3.314 

2.199 



171,594 

191,896 

8,482,627 

966,697 
2,699,496 
1,867,281 

286,891 



Total. 



8,602,829 



6,829,911 



112,288 



14,634,978 



The total production of all kinds of steel ingots and castings in the 
United States in the fourteen years from 1890 to 1903 is given in 
detail in the following table: 

Production of all Hnds of steel ingots and castings in the United Stales, 1890-190S, 

[Long tons.] 



Tear. 


Bessemer. 


Open- 
hearth. 


Crucible. 


Miscella- 
neous. 


Total 

ingots and 

castings. 


l^gO 


8,688.871 
3,247,417 
4,168,486 
8.216,686 
8,671,818 
4,909,128 
8,919,906 
6,475,316 
6,609,017 
7,686,864 
6,684,770 
8,718,802 
9,188,368 
8,502,829 


618,282 

679,768 

669,889 

787,890 

784,906 

1,187.182 

1,298,700 

1,606,671 

2,230,292 

2,947,816 

8,896.136 

4,656,809 

5,687,729 

5,829,911 


71.175 
72,686 
84,709 
63,613 
61,702 
67,666 
60,6»9 
69,959 
89,747 
101,213 
100,562 
98.513 
112,772 
102,434 


3,798 
4,484 
4,648 
2,806 
4.061 
868 
2,894 
3.012 
3.801 
4,»74 
4,862 
6,471 
8,886 
9,804 


4,277,071 


um 


8.904,240 


IHB 


4.927,681 


fgff , 


4,019.996 


igpi 


4,412,082 


UK . . .. 


6,114,834 


IgU 


6,281,689 


tM7 


7,156.967 


UM 


8,982.867 


IflM 


10,689,857 


MM 


10.188.329 


IMI 


18,473,596 


1«M 


14,947,260 


MM 


14,634.978 







Digitized by 



Google 



106 



MINERAL BES0UBCE8. 



PRODUCTION OF AIjI. KINDS OF STEEL CASTINGS. 

In 1903 the production of all kinds of steel castings amounted to 
430,265 long tons, against 390,935 tons in 1902, 317,570 tons in 1901, 
192,803 tons in 1900, 181,112 tons in 1899, and 131,937 tons in 1898. 
The increase in 1903 over 1902 was 39,330 tons, or over 10 per cent. 
The following table gives by States the production of all kinds of steel 
castings in 1903: 

Production of all kinds of steel castings in the United Stales in 190S, by States. 

[Long tons.] 



State. 



Open- 
hearth. 



Crnciblc 

and 
miscel- 
laneous. 



Total. 



Maasachosetts, Connecticut* New York, and New Jersey. . . . 

Pennsylvania 

District of Columbia, Virginia, Tennessee, Alabama, and 
Ohio 

Indiana, Hlinois, and Michigan 

Wisconsin. Minnesota, Missouri, Colorado, Oregon, and 
California , 

Total 



6.837 



86.094 



1,626 182,021 



1,414 
5,704 

3,018 



54,270 
106,296 

19,667 



5,827 
2,068 

10 

1,714 

2,199 



48,2S6 
185,715 

55, QM 
116,714 

24.8B4 



18.099 400,348 



11,818 



430,215 



Of the total production of steel castings in 1903, Pennsylvania made 
over 43 per cent, against over 39 percent in 1902; Illinois nearly 23 per 
cent, against over 25 per cent in 1902; and Ohio over 12 per cent, 
against over 8 per cent in 1902. No other State made 5 per cent in 
1903 or 6 per cent in 1902. 

PRODUCTION OF Alili KINDS OF RAIJjS. 

The maximum production of Bessemer steel rails was reached in 
1903, when 2,946,756 long tons were rolled, against 2,935,392 tons 
in 1902, an increase in 1903 of 11,364 tons. In the following table 
the production of Bessemer steel rails is given by States from 1898 to 
1903. Rails rolled from purchased blooms, crop ends, "seconds," 
and reroUed, or renewed, rails are included. Renewed rails are rails 
that have been in use and are rolled down to smaller sections after 
reheating. 

Production of aU kinds of steel rails in the United States, 1898-190S, by States. 

[Long tons.] 



State. 


1898. 

1,053,826 
923,370 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


190S. 


Pennsylvania 


1,224,807 
1,045,778 

2,270,586 


1.195,255 
1.188,399 


1,406,008 
1,464,808 


1,148,425 
1,786,967 


1,186,284 
1.760.472 


Other States 




Total 


1,976,702 


2,883,654 


2,870,816 


2.985,892 


2.946,756 





Digitized by 



Google 



AMERICAN IRON TRADE. 



107 



In addition to Pennsylvania the States which made Bessemer steel 
rails in 1903 were New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Ohio, Illinois, 
Wisconsin, Colorado, and Wyoming. 

The production of Bessemer steel rails by the makers of Bessemer 
steel ingots, included above, amounted to 2,873,228 long tons in 1903, 
2,876,293 tons in 1902, 2,836,273 tons in 1901, 2,361,921 tons in 1900, 
2,240,767 tons in 1899, and 1,955,427 tons in 1898. In the following 
table is given the total production of all kinds of Bessemer steel rails 
from 1898 to 1903, the rails rolled by makers of Bessemer ingots being 
separated from those rolled by companies which did not operate Bes- 
semer converters: 

Production of all hinds of Bessemer steel rails in the United Slates^ 1898-190S, 

fLong tons.] 





1898. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1906. 


Bt mAkera of Bessemer 
tncotf 


1.966.427 
21,275 


2,240,797 
29,818 


2,361,921 
21,788 


2,886,278 
34.543 


2,876,293 
59,099 


2.878,228 
78,528 


BjallotbeiB 






Total 


1,976,702 


2,270,685 


2,883,654 


2,870,816 


2,935,892 


2,946,756 







As a rule the Bessemer rail mills were operated nearly to their full 
capacity in 1903, the demand for steel rails being good throughout the 
year. The new rail mill of the Lackawanna Steel Company, at Lacka- 
wanna, N. Y., was completed and put in operation late in 1903, and 
its first Bessemer steel rail was rolled on October 20 of that year. 
Twenty-two plants rolled or reroUed Bessemer steel rails in 1903, of 
which 6 were located in Pennsylvania, 3 in Maryland, 5 in Ohio, 2 in 
Illinois, 2 in New York, and 1 each in New Jersey, Wisconsin, Colo- 
rado, and Wyoming. 

The total production of open-hearth steel rails in the United States 
b 1903 was 45,064 long tons, against 6,029 tons in 1902, 2,093 tons in 
1901, and 1,333 tons in 1900. The maximum production of open-hearth 
rails was reached in 1903; the year of next highest production was 1881, 
when 22,515 tons were made. Alabama rolled almost all the open- 
hearth rails that were rolled in 1903, Pennsylvania being the only other 
producer. Over 37,000 tons of the open-hearth rails rolled weighed 
between 45 and 85 pounds per yard; a few tons weighed 85 pounds or 
over; the remainder weighed less than 45 pounds. 

The production of iron rails in 1903 was 667 tons, all rolled in Ten- 
nessee, Alabama, Ohio, and California, and all weighing less than 45 
poonds to the yard. In 1902 the production of iron rails was 6,512 
tons, against 1,730 tons in 1901, 695 tons in 1900, 1,592 tons in 1899, 
and 8,319 tons in 1898. 



Digitized by 



Google 



108 



MINEBAL BE80UR0B8. 



The production of all kinds of rails in the United States in 
amounted to 2,992,477 long tons, against 2,947,983 tons in 1902, an 
increase of 44,544 tons. The year of maximum production was 1903; 
the year of next largest production was 1902. 

In addition to our large production of rails we imported 95,555 tons 
of iron and steel rails in 1903. During the same year we exported 
30,837 tons. In 1902 our exports of rails amounted to 67,666 tons and 
our imports to 63,522 tons. Virtually all our imports and exports of 
rails are steel rails. 

WEIGHT OF Alili KTNDS OF RAHiS. 

The following table gives the production of all kinds of rails in 1903, 
according to the weight of the rails per yaixi. Street rails are included 
in the total production of rails, but the quantity made in each year 
can no longer be given separately. 

Production of aU Hruh of rails in the United States, 1897-1903, by kind of raiU and by 

weight per yard, 

[Long tons.] 



Kind of rAll8, 


Under46 "^"^ 
Po^<^- 1 thfn Is! 


85potmde 
and over. 


Total 




218,888 1,665,849 
7,257 87.789 


1,168,069 
58 


2,946,7(6 


Open-hearth steel rails 


45,054 


Iron rails 


667 




667 










Total for 1903 


221,262 
261,887 
155,406 
157,531 
188,886 
128,881 
88,896 


1,603,068 
2,040,884 
2,226.411 
1,626,093 
1,569,840 
1,'404,160 
1,228,435 


1,168,127 
645, 1«2 
488,822 
602,058 
579,524 
458,210 
885,561 


2,992,477 


Total for 1902 


2,947,933 


Total for 1901 


2,874,639 


Total for J900 


2,885,682 


Total for 1899 


2,272,700 


Total for 1898 


1,961,241 


Total for 1897. 


1,647,892 







The increase in the production of rails weighing under 45 pounds to 
the yard, from 1897 to 1903, was 132,366 long tons; in rails weighing 
45 and less than 85 pounds, 379,653 tons; and in rails weighing over 
85 pounds, 832,566 tons. The increasing use in late years of rails 
weighing over 85 pounds to the yard, especially in 1903, is strikingly 
shown in the table. 

PRODUCTION OF STRUCTURAIi SHAPES. 

Our statistics of iron and steel structural shapes embrace the produc- 
tion of beams, beam girders, zee bars, tees, channels, angles, and other 
structural forms, but they do not include plates or girders made from 
plates. Plates are provided for under other classifications, and in the 
general statistics of plates are included all plates cut to specifications. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AMERICAN IRON TRADE. 



109 



Practically all the structural shapes and plates used for structural 
purposes are made of steel. The total production of strictly structural 
shapes in 1903 was 1,095,813 tons, and in 1902 it was 1,300,326 tons. 
The production of structural shapes in 1902 and 1903, by States, was 
as follows: 

I^roducHon of iron and tUd ttructural. shapes in the United Slates^ J902-190S, by States. 

[LongtODs.] 



State. 


1902. 


1908. 


State. 


1902. 


1908. 


Uahkt, New York, and 
New Jeney 


62,564 
1,178,700 


82,884 
1,004,875 


IndUna, nUnois. Colo- 
rado, and California . . . 

TnfAl 


18,762 


24,868 






PennsylTanla 


1,300,826 


1,096,818 


Delaware. AJabama, and 
Ohio 


60,260 84.191 


• 






' 1 





Pennsylvania made over 91 per cent of the total production in 1903, 
against over 90 per cent in 1902; Ohio, 2.6 per cent, against over 3.7 
per cent in 1902; and New Jersey over 3 per cent, against almost 3 
per cent in 1902. No other State made 1.6 per cent of the total pro- 
duction in either year. 

In the following table we give the production of structural shapes 
from 1892 to 1903. Prior to 1892 structural shapes were not sepa- 
rated from other rolled products in our statistics. 

Production of iron and steel structural skUpes in the United States, J89IB-190S. 

[Long tons.] 



Tear. 


Qnantlty. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


vm 


. 468,967 
887,807 
506,901 
517,920 

1 


1896 


496,571 
588,790 
702,197 
860,876 


1900 

1901 


816,161 


yq$ 


1897 


1,018,150 


194 


1806 


1902 


1,800,826 


UK 


1899 


1908 


1,096,818 











The increasing use of structural shapes in the construction of large 
office buildings, bridges, steel cars, etc., is shown in the table. Plates 
or girders made from plates are not included. 

PRODUCTION OP WIRE RODS. 

The production of iron and steel wire rods in the United States in 
1903 amounted to 1,503,455 long tons, against 1,574,293 tons in 1902, 
1.365,934 tons in 1901, and 846,291 tons in 1900, showing a decrease 
of 70,838 tons in 1903 as compared with 1902, or almost 4.5 per cent. 
Of the total production in 1903, 1,508,425 tons were steel rods and 30 
tons were iron rods; in 1902 the quantity of steel rods rolled was 
ly574,067 tons and iron rods 206 tons. The following table gives the 
prodoctioo of wire rods, by States, in the last four years: 



Digitized by 



Google 



uo 



MINERAL RES0UB0E8. 



Production of wire rods in the United States, 1900-190S, by States. 
[Long tons.] 



State. 



1900. 



1901. 



1902. 



1903. 



Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York 
and New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Kentucky, Alabama, and Ohio 

Indiana, Illinois, and Colorado 

Total 



184,602 
240,688 
244,781 
226,526 



176,101 
886,087 
422,679 
881,117 



201,658 
609,802 
440,458 
422,880 



846,291 



1,865,984 



240.024 
478,719 
424,172 
865,640 



1,574.293 1,603,455 



Pennsylvania made the largest quantity of wire rods in 1903, with 
Ohio second, Illinois third, and Massachusetts fourth. Eight other 
States — Kentucky, Indiana, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, 
Rhode Island, Alabama, and Colorado — also rolled wire rods in 1903, in 
the order named. With the exception of Colorado, which first rolled 
wire rods in July, 1903, all the States named also rolled wire rods 
in 1902. 

PRODUCTION OF WIRE NAII^. 

The production of wire nails in the United States in 1903 amounted 
to 9,631,661 kegs of 100 pounds, as compared with 10,982,246 kegs in 
1902, a decrease of 1,360,586 kegs, or over 12 per cent. The wire 
nails produced in 1903 were all made of steel, and were turned out by 
67 works, as compared with 62 in 1902, 61 in 1901, 56 in 190(J, and 69 
in 1899. For 1903 it was necessary for the first time to estimate the 
production of two wire-nail plants. 

The following table gives the production of wire nails by States in 
1901, 1902, and 1903, in kegs of 100 pounds: 

Production of wire nails in the United States, 1900-1903, by States. 
[Kegs of 100 pounds.] 



State. 


1901. 


1902. 


1908. 


New HampBhire, Massachusetts, Bhode Island, and Connecticut. 
New York 


71,668 

186,118 

8,118,508 

8,688,894 

2,716,748 

127,001 


809,651 

182,864 

4,219,604 

8,261,918 

2.902,006 

166,218 


230,264 
190,624 


Pennsylvania 


3,918,272 


Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky, Alabama, and Ohio 

Indiana and U linois 


2,588,310 
2,867,820 


Michigan, Wisconsin, Colorado, and California 


835,471 






Total 


9,808,822 


10,982,246 


9,631,661 







Digitized by 



Google 



AMEBIOAN IRON TRADE. 



Ill 



PRODUCTION OF CUT NAIIiS. 

Oor statistics of the production of iron and steel cut nails and cut 
spikes embrace only standard sizes of nails and spikes cut from plates. 
They do not embrace railroad and other spikes forged from bar iron, 
wire nails of any size, machine-made horseshoe nails, cut tacks, or 
hob, clout, basket, shoe, or other small sizes of nails. 

The production of -cut nails and of spikes cut from plates in 1903 
was 1,435,893 kegs of 100 pounds each, against 1,633,762 kegs in 1902, 
a decrease of 197,869 kegs, or over 12 per cent. In 1886 the maximum 
production of 8,160,973 kegs was reached. In 1903 the production of 
wire nails exceeded that of cut nails by 8,195,768 kegs, in 1902 by 
9,348,484 kegs, in 1901 by 8,261,582 kegs, in 1900 by 5,660,485 kegs, 
in 1899 by 5,713,790 kegs, in 1898 by 5,846,254 kegs, and in 1897 by 
6,890,446 kegs. 

Eleven States made cut nails in 1903, the same number as in 1902. 
The following table shows the production of iron and steel cut nails 
by States from 1898 to 1903, in kegs of 100 pounds. The wire nail 
production is added to the table. Except Indiana and Virginia all the 
States which produced cut nails in 1903 decreased their production as 
compared with 1902. 

Production of cut nails in the United States, 1898-190S, by Stales. 
[Kegs of 100 pounds.] 



State. 


1896. 


1899. 

920,183 
886,215 
178,006 

149,700 

256,286 

16,000 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1908. 


PfniMtylTMil* ■ 


768,171 
892,008 
184,942 

127,708 

87,899 

12)000 


777,611 
261,216 
168,469 

156,968 

198,280 

17,000 


883,469 
128,788 
150,222 

179,474 

240,657 

14,630 


762,729 
99,938 
271,362 

167,963 

804,990 

36,780 


726,000 
59,240 


OUo *.. 


West VixginiA and Indiana. . 
nj 


274,808 
143,898 


mtDota, Maryland. Virginia, 
sod Kentncky 


223,447 


Mlaoail. Wisconsin. Col- 
otftdo. Wyoming, and Cali- 
foraiA., .... 


9,500 






Total cut nails 


1^672,221 
7,418.476 


1,904,340 
7,618,180 


1,573,494 
7,288,979 


1,542,240 
9,806,822 


1.633,762 
10,962,246 


1,486,898 


Total irire nails 


9,631,661 


Onod total 


8,990,606 


9,522,470 


8,807,478 


11,846,062 


12,616.008 


11,067,554 









Digitized by 



Google 



112 



Mll<rEBAL BEeOUBOES. 



PBODUCnON OF CUT ANT> WIRE KAIIjS SINCE 1886. 

In the following table is given the production, in kegs of 100 pounds, 
of standard sizes of cut nails and spikes cut from plates from 1886, the 
year of maximum production, to 1903; also the production of standard 
sizes of wire nails for the same period. Prior to 1889, statistics of the 
production of wire nails were not collected by the American Iron and 
Steel Association. For the three preceding years, the statistics given 
are careful estimates. 



Production of cut and wire nails in the United States, 1886-1903. 
[Kegs of 100 pounds.] 



Year. 


Cut nails. 


Wire naite. 


Total. 


Year. 


Cut nails. 


Wire nails. 


Total. 


1886 


8,160,978 
6.908,870 
6,493,691 
6,810,758 
5,640.946 
6.002,176 
4,507,819 
3,048,933 
2,425,060 


600,000 
1,250,000 
1,500,000 
2,435,000 
3,135,911 
4,114,886 
4,719,524 
5,096,945 
5,681,801 


8,760,973 
8,168,870 
7,993,691 
8,245,758 
8,776,857 
9,116,661 
9,227,348 
8,144,878 
8,106,861 


1896 


2.129,894 
1,616,870 
2,106,799 
1,672,221 
1,904,340 
1,573.494 
1,542,240 
1,688,762 
1,485.893 


6.841.408 
4.719,860 
8.997,245 
7.418,475 
7.618.180 
7,238,979 
9,803,822 
10,982,246 
9.681.661 


7.971,297 


18C7 


1896 


6,835,790 


1888 


1897 


11,104,044 


1889 


1898 


8,990,696 


1890 


1899 


9.622,470 


1891 


1900 


8.807,47) 


1892 


1901 


11.316.062 


1893 


1902 


12.616,008 


1894 


1908 


11.067,5M 









PROBUCTION OF PliATES AND SHEETS. 

• 

The production of plate and sheet iron and steel in the United States 
in 1903, excluding nail plate, amounted to 2,599,665 long tons, against 
2,665,409 tons in 1902, a decrease of 65,744 tons, or over 2.4 per cent 
Skelp iron and steel are not included in our statistics of plates and 
sheets, but are classed with bars, hoops, etc., elsewhere. The follow- 
ing table gives the production, by States, of all kinds of plates and 
sheets in 1901, 1902, and 1903: 

Production of plates and sheets in the United States, 190 1 -1908, by States. 

[Long tons.] 



state. 



1901. 



1902. 



1903. 



New England 

New York and New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware and Maryland. . . . 

WestVliginla 

Kentucky and Alabama . . . 
Ohio 



Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Missouri. Wisconsin, Colorado, and 
California 



416 
6,512 
1,572,500 
29,484 
81,928 
47,608 
294,266 

271,816 



4,394 
4.846 
1,806,207 
84,282 
67,072 
56,828 
404,902 

284,888 



Total . 



2,264,420 



2,665,409 



8.580 
8.960 
1,771,745 
28.708 
56,961 
40,635 
408,705 

290,966 



2,509,666 



Digitized by 



Google 



AMERIOAN IRON TRADE 



113 



Fifteen States rolled plates and sheets in 1903, against 16 States in 
1902. Of the total production of plates and sheets in 1903 Pennsyl- 
vania made over 68 per cent, against over 67 per cent in 1902; Ohio 
over 15.5 per cent, against over 15.1 per cent in 1902; and Illinois over 
5.7 per cent, against almost 6 per cent in 1902. Indiana, West Vir- 
ginia, Kentucky, Delaware, Missouri, Maryland, Alabama, Massa- 
chusetts, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and California also 
made plates and sheets in 1903 in the order named. Michigan and 
Wisconsin, which rolled plates and sheets in 1902, were not producers 
in 1903, and Connecticut, which was not a producer in 1902, reported 
a small quantity of plates and sheets in 1903. 

The production of black plates or sheets for tinning in 1903, which 
is included above, amounted to 490,652 long tons, against 365,743 tons 
in 1902, an increase of 124,909 tons, or over 34 per cent. In 1901 the 
production of these plates and sheets amounted to 398,026 tons. Of 
the production in 1903, Pennsylvania made over 52 per cent, against 
over 48 per cent in 1902. Ohio, Indiana, West Virginia, Illinois, 
Maryland, and Missouri also made black plates for tinning in 1903 in 
the order named. In 1902, in addition to the States named, Michi- 
gan also made several thousand tons of black plates. 

PRODUCTION OF TIN PliATES AND TERNE PliATES. 

In the following table we give the production of tin plates and terne 
plates in the United States from July 1, 1891, to December 31, 1903, 
the production in 1902 and 1903 being partly estimated from the best 
available sources of information. The production of tin-dipping 
plants is included in all the figures that are given. 

Production of tin pkUes and terne plates in the United StateSf 1891-1 90S. 

[Long tons.] 



Ymr. 


QtutnUty. 


UnClMtdz months) 

tm 


999 

18,808 

66.182 

74,260 

118,606 


UK 


UM 


Vm .. r 







Year. 


Quantity. 


1896.. 




160,862 
256,098 
826.915 
860,875 
802,665 


1887 


1898 


1899 


1900 





Year. 



1901 
1902 
1908 



Quantity. 



899,291 
860,000 
480,000 



M B 1903 6 



Digitized by 



Google 



114 



MINERAL BES0UBCE8. 



PRODUCTION OF Aljli ROIiliED IRON AND STEEL. 

By the phrase rolled iron and steel we include all iron and steel 
rolled into finished forms. Forged armor plate, hammered axles, and 
other forgings are not included, nor such intermediate rolled forms as 
muck bars, billet*^, tin plate and sheet bars, etc. 

The production of all iron and steel rolled into finished forms in the 
United States in 1903 was 13,207,697 long tons, against 13,944,116 tons 
in 1902, the year of maximum production, a decrease of 736,419 tons, 
or over 5.2 per cent. The increase in 1902 over 1901 amounted to 
1,594,789 tons, or almost 13 per cent. Twenty -five States rolled either 
iron or steel or both iron and steel in 1903, against 26 States in 1902. 
The following table gives the total production by States of all kinds of 
finished rolled iron and steel in 1902 and 1903: 

Production of rolled iron and steel in the United States in 190S and 1903, by States. 

[Longr tons.] 



State. 



1902. 



Maine and Massachusetts. 

Rhode Island and Con- 
necticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Kentucky 

Tennessee and Georgia. . . 



173,463 

95,200 

181,443 

139,310 

7,642,636 

61,409 
339,773 

41,329 
247,812 
170,320 

25,398 



1903. 



167,627 

181,182 

255,905 

145,282 

7,171,982 

47,673 
372,009 

43,631 
252,331 
158,280 

23,208 



state. 



Alabama 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

W isconsi n 

Missouri 

Colorado and Wyoming. 

Washington, Oregon, 
and California 

Total 



1902. 



131,298 

2,019,962 

415,049 

1,686,806 

89,297 

232,752 

64,741 

200,771 

35,357 



1908. 



13.944,116 



112,245 

1,883,648 

406,076 

1,481,662 

77,693 

204,685 

75,470 

169,409 

38,904 



13.207,607 



Pennsylvania made over 54 per cent of the total production of rolled 
iron and steel in 1903, against almost 65 per cent in 1902; Ohio over 
14 per cent and Illinois over 11 per cent in each year; and Indiana 
over 3 per cent in 1903, against almost 3 per cent in 1902. No other 
State made over 2.9 per cent in 1903 or over 2.5 per cent in 1902. 
Maine, Minnesota, and Kansas, all three of which States have rolling 
mills, did not produce any rolled iron or steel in 1903, but Minnesota 
made a small quantity of direct steel castings in both 1902 and 1903. 
The single rolling mill in Maine, which wasactiv'e for a short time in 

1902, was destroyed by fire in August of that year. It was rebuilt in 

1903, but not put in operation until October, 1904. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AMERICAN IKON TBADB. 



115 



PRODUCTION OP IBON BLOOMS AND BIIiliETS. 

In 1902 and 1903 there were no forges in operation in the United 
States for the manufacture of blooms and billets from the ore. In 
1901 the blooms and billets so made amounted to 2,310 long tons, 
against 4,292 tons in 1900, 8,142 tons in 1899, 1,767 tons in 1898, 1,456 
tons in 1897, 1,346 tons in 1896, 40 tons in 1895, 40 tons in 1894, 864 
tons in 1893, and 2,182 tons in 1892. All the ore blooms produced 
since 1897 were made by the Chateaugay Ore and Iron Company, of 
Plattsburg, N. Y., at its Standish Works, which were, however, idle 
in 1902 and 1903. . 

The iron blooms produced in forges from pig iron and scrap in 1903, 
and which were for sale and not for the consumption of the makers, 
amounted to 9,939 tons, against 12,002 tons in 1902, 8,237 tons in 1901, 
8,655 tons in 1»00, 9,932 tons in 1899, 6,345 tons in 1898, 7,159 tons in 
1897, 6,494 tons in 1896, 7,185 tons in 1895, 3,221 tons in 1894, and 
6,605 tons in 1893. AH the pig and scrap blooms made in forges from 
1895 to 1903, a-nd for sale, were made in New York, Pennsylvania, and 
Maryland. 

PBODrcmON OF ROIil^ED IRON AND STEBIi SINCE 188T. 

The total production of all kinds of iron and steel rolled into finished 
forms in the United States from 1887 to 1903 is given as follows: 



Production of rolled iron and steel in the United States^ 1887-190S, 
[Long tODfl.] 



Year. 



Iron and 
gteel rails. 



Plates and 
sheets, ex- 
cept nail 
plate. 



Wire rods. 



Cut nails. 



Bars, hoops, 
shapes, and 
all other. 



Total. 



1»7. 

\m. 
vm. 

ttW. 

un. 

ttn. 
iw. 

MM. 

u». 
vm. 
vm. 
\m. 

Ml. 

HM. 



2,139.640 
1.408,700 
1,622,204 
1,885,807 
1,307,176 
1,651,844 
1,185,458 
1,021,772 
1,306,186 
1,122,010 
1,647,892 
1,961,241 
2,272,700 
2,385,682 
2.874.689 
2,947,983 
2,992,477 



608,365 

609,827 

716,496 

809,961 

678,927 

761.460 

674,846 

662,900 

991,409 

965,776 

1,207,286 

1,448,801 

1,903,505 

1,794,628 

2,264,425 

2,665.409 

2,609.666 



279,769 
868,851 
457,099 
586,607 
627,829 
587,272 
678,402 
791,180 
623,966 
970,736 
071,683 
086,898 
846,291 
865,964 
574,298 
608,466 



806,432 
289,891 
259,409 
251,828 
228,312 
201,242 
186,113 
108,262 
95,065 
72,187 
94,054 
70,188 
85.016 
70,245 
68,860 
72,936 
64,102 



2,184,279 
2,034,162 
2,874,968 
2,618,660 
2,644.941 
3,033,439 
2.491,497 
2,155,875 
8,005,765 
2,781,982 
8,081,760 
8,941,957 
4,996,801 
4,390,097 
5,785,479 
6,683,645 
6,047,998 



5,235,706 
4,617,349 
5,236,928 
6,022,875 
5,390,963 
6,165,814 
4,975,685 
4,642,211 
6,189,574 
5,515,841 
7,001,728 
8.013,870 
10,294.419 
9,487,448 
12,^9,327 
13,944,U6 
18,207,697 



Digitized by 



Google 



116 



MINEBAL BESOUBCES. 



8UMMABY OF IRON AND STEEL STATISTIC8 FOR 1902 AND 

1903. 

Summary ofiron^ steel, etc., statMcsfor the United States for 190^ and 1903. 
[Long tons, except as stated.] 



Item. 



1902. 



Production of iron ores 

Imports of iron ores 

Production of bituminous coal 

Production of Pennsylvania anthracite 

Production of all kinds of coal 

Shipments of Pennsylvania anthracite 

Imports of coal 

Exports of coal 

Production of coke short tons.. 

Production of pig iron 

Production of splegeleisen and ferromanganese, included in pig iron 

Production of Bessemer steel 

Production of open-hearth steel 

Production of crucible steel 

Production of blister and patented steel 

Productlonof all kinds of steel 

Production of open-hearth steel castings 

Production of all kinds of steel castings 

Production of Bessemer steel rails 

Production of open-hearth steel rails 

Production of iron rails 

Production of all kinds of rails 

Production of structural shapes 

Productlonof iron and steel wire rods 

Production of plate and sheet iron and steel, except nail plate 

Production of iron and steel cut nails and cut spikes, kegs of 100 
pounds 

Productlonof iron and steel wire nails kegs of 100 pounds.. 

Production of bar, bolt, hoop, skelp, rolled axles, rolled armor plate, etc. . . 

Production of all rolled iron and steel, including cut nails and excluding 
rails 



Production of all rolled iron and steel, including both cut nails and rails. 

Production of tin plates and teme plates 

Production of ore, pig, and scrap blooms for sale , 

Value of imports of iron and steel , 

Value of exports of iron and steel 

New railroad built (revised figures) miles. 

Immigrants in the year ended Dec. 31 



35,6M,1S5 

1,165,470 

282,336,468 

86,940,710 

269,277,178 

31,200,890 

2,551,881 

6,126,946 

25,401,730 

17,821,807 

212,981 

9,138,363 

5,687,729 

112,772 

8,386 

14,947,250 

867,879 

890,935 

2,935,392 

6,029 

• 6,512 

2,947,933 

1,300,326 

1,674,293 

2,665,409 

1,683,762 
10,982,246 
5,883,219 

10,996,188 

18,944,116 

860,000 

12,002 

t41,468,826 

997.892,086 

5,068 

739,288 



35,019,306 
960,440 
252.454,775 
66.613,451 
319,068,229 
59,862,831 
3,446,402 
8,812,098 
25,262,860 
18,O09,2S2 
192,661 
8,502,829 
5,829,9U 
102,434 
9,8(M 
14,534,978 
400,348 
430,268 
2,946,75< 
45,05^ 
66- 
2,992,47 
1,096,81 
1,503,45 
2,699,66 

1,435,89 
9,681,6« 
4,9«2,U 

10,215,25 

13,207,61 

480,01 

9,9 

$41,255,8 

$99,065,8 

4,7 

987.3 



Digitized by 



Google 



AMEBIOAN IBON TRADE. 



lit 



STATISTICS OF STEEIi SHIPBUIIiDING. 

In the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903, there were built in the United 
States 108 steel vessels, and in the fiscal year 1904 there were built 98 
steel vessels. The gross tonnage of the vessels built in the fiscal year 
1903 was 258,219 tons, and the gross tonnage of the vessels built in the 
fiscal year 1904 was 241,080 tons. In the fiscal year 1902 one iron 
vessel, of 193 tons' capacity, was built at Wilmington, Del. This may 
prove to have been the last iron vessel to be built in the United States. 
Vessels for the United States Navy are not included in the figures 
given below, which have been furnished by the Hon. Eugene T. Cham- 
berlain, Commissioner of Navigation. The following table, received 
from tiie Commissioner, shows the number and gross tonnage of the 
steel vessels launched and officially numbered during the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1903: 

Number <tnd tonnage of sUd vemU launched and officially numbered in the United States 
in the fiscal year 1903^ by ports. 



Port. 



SalUng. 



Steam. 



No. 



Tons. No. Tons: 



Bath.Me 3 6, 

Boston, Maw 1 6,218 

Bridgeport, Conn 

New York, N.Y 

Newark, N.J 

Philadelphia. Pa 

Wilmington. Del .' 

Baltimore, Md 

Rkhmond.Va 

Xe wport N e w s, Va 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Memphis, Tenn 

Loai«ville. Ky 

St-Louin, Mo 

I>Dbuqae, Iowa 

Buffalo. N. Y 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Toledo, Ohio 

Oetrr.ii, Mich 

Port Huron, Mich 

Marquettt', Mich 

Grand Haven, Mich 

Chicago. Ill ' 5 

!^n Francisco, Cal ' 4 

PonTownsend, Wash i 2 



I 



Total . 



12, 184 100 



Barges. 



No. Tons. 



47 

3,522 

361 

70,983 

5,404 

8,955 

223 

17,594 

194 



240 j 
88 I 
5«8 
384 , 
682 
542 
800 j 
845 ' 
079 
IIG 
760 
428 
2G4 



1,423 



Total. 



No. Tons. 



240, 107 



855 



5.928 I 108 



6,966 

5,218 

47 

3,6-22 

660 

70,983 

6.827 

8,955 

223 

17,594 

194 

8 

240 

88 

2.5S8 

0, 735 

45,682 

11, M2 

10,H00 

22,700 

11,079 

116 

14,760 

10,428 

264 

258, 219 



Of the 108 vessels built in the fiscal year 1903, 42 were built at ports 
on the Great Lakes, their tonnage amounting to 128,414 long tons out 
of a total toDiiage of 258,219 tons. 



Digitized by 



Google 



118 



MIlfEBAIi BE80UBCB8. 



The following table, also received from Commissioner Chamberlain, 
give^ the number and gross tonnage of the steel vessels launched and 
officially numbered during the fiscal year 1904: 

Number and tonnage of steel vessels launched and officially numbered in the United Stakt 
in the fiscal year 1904, by ports. 



Port. 



Boston, Man 

New York, N.Y.... 

Newark, N.J 

PhUade]phia,Pa... 
Wilmington, Del . . . 

Baltimore, Md 

Richmond, Va 

New Orleans, La 

Pittsburg, Pa 

Burlington, Vt 

Bu«Wo,N.Y 

Gleyeland, Ohio.... 

Toledo, Ohio 

Detroit, Mich 

Port Huron, Mich.. 
Marquette, Mich . . . 

Chicago, ni 

San Francisco, Cal . 



Total. 



Sailing. 



No. Tons. 



8,708 
11,582 



15,290 



Steam. 



No. Tons. 



2,508 
1,225 
46,815 
6,680 
9,166 
446 
58 



1,195 

1,979 
66,837 

8,133 
23,593 
17,980 
16,723 
18,028 

1,866 



222,307 



Barges. 



No. 



Tons. 



494 



458 
1,423 



479 



3,483 



Total. 



No. Tons. 



96 



8,706 

14.669 

1,226 

46,778 

8,103 

9.156 

446 

» 

479 

1,196 

2,606 

66.S87 

8.13S 

28,593 

17,980 

16,728 



U 



211,060 



Of the 98 vessels built in the fiscal year 1904,- 47 were built at ports 
on the Great Lakes, their tonnage amounting to 153,402 long tons out 
of a total tonnage of 241,080 tons. 

IRON ANTD STEEIi WORKS OF THE TTNTTED STATES. 

The American Iron and Steel Association has recently issued a new 
edition of its directory to the iron and steel works of the United States, 
and from this publication the following information is obtained which 
shows the growth of the country's iron and steel industries from 
November, 1901, to June, 1904 — particularly the increase or decrease 
in the number of plants and in their productive capacity. 

Whole number ofhlastfurndces. — In the edition of the directory for 
1901 there were described 406 completed furnaces as being then active 
or as having been reported as likely to be some day active. The annual 
capacity of these furnaces as reported by their owners amounted, in 
round numbers, to 24,800,000 long tons, not all of which capacity could, 
of course, be employed at the same time, nor would some of the fur- 
naces enumerated ever run again. In the edition for 1904 there are 
described 428 completed furnaces, either active or reported as likely 



Digitized by 



Google 



AJIEBIOAN IBON TBADE. - 119 

to be some day active. Eliminating some of the furnaces in the latter 
category as being probably dead for all time there remain about 410 
live furnaces to-day. The annual capacity of these furnaces is placed, 
in round numbers, at 27,675,000 long tons. The actual production of 
pig iron in 1903 was 18,009,252 long tons. 

Furnaces building. — When the directory for 1901 appeared 12 fur- 
naces were being built, namely, 2 in New York, 1 in New Jersey, 3 in 
Pennsylvania, 1 in West Virginia, 2 in Alabama, 1 in Michigan, and 2 
in Colorado. In the edition for 1904 there are enumerated 17 furnaces 
in course of erection or as being rebuilt, namely, 3 in New York, 5 in 
Pennsylvania, 1 in Virginia, 2 in Alabama, 4 in Ohio, 1 in Michigan, 
and 1 in Colorado. In the figures for both years projected furnaces 
or furnaces that had been undertaken and work upon which had been 
suspended are not included. 

Fud used in blast furnaces. — ^The 406 furnaces described in the 
directory for 1901 were classified as follows: Fifty-five used charcoal 
as fuel, 5 used mixed charcoal and coke, and 346 used anthracite and 
bituminous fuel. Of the 428 furnaces that are described in the 
directory for 1904, 56 use charcoal -and 372 use anthracite and bitumi- 
nous fuel. No furnaces now use mixed charcoal and coke. Five fur- 
naces, not included above, make ferrosilicon, ferrochrome, ferro- 
tungsten, etc., by electricity. 

Oapadfy of furnaces according to fuel used. — ^The average annual 
capacity of the 55 charcoal and 5 mixed charcoal and coke furnaces in 
1901 was 14,179 long tons, and the average annual capacity of the 56 
charcoal furnaces that are described in 1904 is 15,207 tons. The aver- 
age annual capacity of the mineral fuel furnaces in 1901 was 69,252 
tons; in June, 1904, it is 73,286 tons. 

Boiling mills andsted works. — In the edition of the directory for 1901 
there were enumerated 527 completed rolling mills and steel works, 28 
in course of erection, 1 being rebuilt, 1 to be rebuilt, and 6 projected. 
In the edition for 1904 there are enumerated 572 completed rolling mills 
and steel works, 12 in course of erection, 1 being rebuilt, and 2*partly 
erected. In addition the directory for 1904 mentions 14 •projected 
pfauts. The annual capacity of the completed rolling mills in 1904 
amounts to 26,978,050 tons of finished rolled products, as compared 
with 23,220,350 tons in 1901. 

PuddUng furnaces. — ^The number of puddling furnaces in Novem- 
ber, 1901, each double furnace counting as 2 single furnaces, was 
3,251. In June, 1904, there were 3,161 puddling furnaces. The highest 
nomber of puddling furnaces reported in any edition of the directory 
wag in 1884, when 5,265 were enumerated. 

Bessemer sited works. — The total number of completed Bessemer 
steel works in November, 1901, including 1 Clapp-Griffiths plant, 2 
Bobert-Bessemer plants, and 9 Tropenas and '' special" Bessemer 



Digitized by 



Google 



120 MIKBBAL BfiSOUBOES. 

plants, was 47, and the whole number of converters was 100. In June, 
1904, there were 32 standard Bessemer steel works with 75 converters, 
1 Clapp-GriflBths plant with 1 converter, 2 Robert-Bessemer plants 
with 3 converters, 10 Tropenas plants with 14 converters, 1 Book- 
waiter plant with 1 converter, 1 Evans- Wills plant with 2 convertera, 
and 4 plants with 7 converters which make steel by special processes; 
total number of Bessemer plants, 51; total number of converters, 103. 
The increase in the number of small Bessemer plants in the last few 
years is noteworthy. Since November, 1901, 6 standard Bessemer 
plants, vrith 15 converters, have been dismantled. In addition, 2 Tro- 
penas plants with 3 converters have been abandoned. The annual 
capacity of the completed and building Bessemer converters in Novem- 
ber, 1901, was 12,998,700' long tons; in June, 1904, it was 13,628,600 
tons, an increase of 629,900 tons. No basic-Bessemer steel is made in 
this country. 

Open-hearth sted works. — The directory for 1901 described 112 com- 
pleted open-hearth steel plants, with 403 completed furnaces. In the 
directory for 1904 there are described 135 completed plants, with 549 
completed furnaces, and 28 building and partly erected furnaces. The 
annual capacity of the 549 completed and of the 28 building and partly 
erected open-hearth furnaces, in ingots and direct castings, in June, 
1904, was 11,335,100 long tons, against an annual capacity in Novem- 
ber, 1901, of 8,289,750 tons, showing an increase of 3,045,350 tons. 

Orowth of basic sted. — In the directory for 1904 the character of the 
product made at the open-hearth steel works, whether acid or basic steel, 
or both, is indicated. Of the 403 completed furnaces in November, 
1901, 236 were prepared to make basic steel and 167 to make acid steel, 
and of the 46 building furnaces 33 would make basic steel and 13 acid 
steel. The completed and building basic furnaces had an annual 
capacity of 6,415,100 tons, and the acid furnaces of 1,874,650 tons. 
In the directory for 1904, 185 open-hearth furnaces are described as 
making acid steel and 364 as making basic steel; also 4 acid and 24 
basic furnaces as being built or as partly erected: Total, 189 acid and 
388 basic furnaces. The acid furnaces have an annual capacity of 
2,015,900 long tons of ingots and castings, and the basic furnaces of 
9,319,200 tons. 

Crucible steel works. — In November, 1901, there were 45 completed 
crucible steel plants, equipped with 2,896 pots, and their aggregate 
capacity was 175,000 tons. In June, 1904, there were 57 completed 
plants, the number of pots was 3,606, and the aggregate annual 
capacity of the plants was 226,610 tons. 

Steel castings. — In 1901 there were 56 open-hearth steel plants which 
were prepared to make steel castings, and in June, 1904, there were 
84 plants. The production of open-hearth steel castings has greatly 
increased since 1898. As already mentioned, the number of small 



Digitized by 



Google 



Bessemer plants has also increased since 1901, all of which make steel 
castingfs. Steel castings are also made by 26 crucible plants, also by 
a few plants which use special processes. 

Rail miUs. — In the edition of the directory for 1901 there were 
enumerated 45 rolling mills which were prepared to make standard, 
girder, light T, and other iron and steel rails, and 3 mills as in course 
of erection. In the edition for 1904 there are enumerated 44 com- 
pleted rail mills, 1 building, and 1 projected. 

Structural mills. — The whole number of works which are now 
equipped to roll beams, beam girders, zee bars, tees, channels, angles, 
bridge rods, building rods, plates for bridge work, structural tubing, 
etc, is 70, as compared with 67 in November, 1901. 

Plate and sheet mills. — In the directory for 1901 there were enu- 
merated 153 completed plate and sheet mills, 7 building, and 1 pro- 
jected. In the directory for 1904 there are enumerated 157 completed 
mills, 2 building, 1 partly erected, and 4 projected. 

Iron and steel skdp mills. — In the directory for 1901 there were enu- 
merated 60 completed iron and steel skelp mills and 2 building. In 
the directory for 1904 there are enumerated 61 completed mills and 2 
projected. 

Black-pUUe mills. — In the directory for 1901 there were enumer- 
ated 46 completed black plate plants, 6 building, and 1 projected. In 
the directory for 1904 there are mentioned 49 completed and 3 building 
plants. 

Tin-plate and teme-plate works. — In November, 1901, there were 55 
completed tin-plate and terne-plate works, 7 building, and 1 projected. 
In the directory for 1904 there are enumerated 53 completed works, 
2 building, and 1 projected. 

Wire rods. — In November, 1901, there were 32 completed wire-rod 
mills, 4 building, 1 rebuilding, and 1 projected. In June, 1904, there 
were 33 mills equipped to roll iron and steel wire rods. 

Out-nail works. — In November, 1901, there were 32 rolling mills 
which were devoted in whole or in part to the manufacture of cut nails 
and cut spikes, containing 3,161 nail and spike machines. In June, 
1904, there were 23 rolling mills which made cut nails and cut spikes, 
equipped with 2,302 nail and spike machines. 

Wire-nail works. — A full description of the wire-nail works of the 
United States will be found in the supplement to the directory for 
1901, published in 1903, in which 69 wire-nail works are described. 

Natural gas. — In the directory for 1901 there were enumerated 110 
completed iron and steel works which used natural gas and 7 were in 
coarse of erection. In June, 1904, the total number of works which 
used natural gas was 135, and in addition 2 works to use natural gas 
#eie beings erected, 1 was partly erected, 1 was rebuilding, and 2 were 
projected. 



Digitized by 



Google 



122 



MIKEBAL RESOURCES. 



Forges and hloomeries, — The number of pig and scrap iron bloomeries 
which made blooms, billets, etc., for sale in November, 1901, was 8, 
nearly all of which were active in that year. The number of forges 
which made blooms directly from the ore was 2. The number of 
bloomeries enumerated in 1904 is 8 completed and 1 building. The 
number of forges which make blooms directly from the ore is reduced 
to 1, located in New York. 

STATISTICS OF THE CANADIAN IRON TRADE FOR 1903. 
PRODUCTION OF PIG IRON IN CANADA. 

The American Iron and Steel Association has received from the 
manufacturers the statistics of the production of all kinds of pig iron 
in Canada in the calendar year 1903. They show a decrease of 64,139 
long tons, or nearly 17 per cent, as compared with 1902, but an increase 
of 20,442 tons as compared with 1901. 

The total production in 1903 amounted to 265,418 long tons, against 
319,557 tons in 1902, 244,976 tons in 1901, and 86,090 tons in 1900. In 
the first half of 1903 the production was 132,930 tons and in the second 
half it was 132,488 tons, a decrease of 442 tons. Of the total produc- 
tion in 1903 exactly 247,905 tons were made with coke and 17,513 tons 
with charcoal. Nearly one-half of the total production, 126,892 tons, 
was basic pig iron. Less than 1,000 tons of Bessemer pig iron were 
made. Spiegeleisen and ferromanganese have not been made since 
1899. 

The following table gives the total production of all kinds of pig iron 
(including spiegeleisen and ferromanganese) in Canada from 1894 to 
1903. Prior to 1894 the statistics of pig-iron production in Canada 
were not collected by the American Iron and Steel Association. 

Production of pig iron in Canada^ 1894-1903, 
(Long tons.] 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Year. 
1898 


Quantity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


1894 


44,791 
37,829 
60.030 
63,796 


68,755 
94.077 
86.090 
244,976 


1902.. 
1903.. 




319,557 


1895 


1699 




265,418 


1896 


1900 






1897 


1901 











On December 31, 1903, the unsold stocks of pig iron in Canada 
amounted to 19,168 long tons, as compared with about 20,000 tons at 
the close of 1902, 59,472 tons at the close of 1901, and 12,465 tons 
at the close of 1900. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AMEBIOAN IBON TBADB. 



128 



On December 31, 1903, Canada had 15 completed blast furnaces, of 
which 9 were in blast and 6 were idle. Of this total 11 were equipped 
to use coke for fuel and 4 to use charcoal. In addition 3 coke fur- 
naces and 1 charcoal furnace were being built or were partly erected 
on December 31, but work on at least two of the furnaces had been 
suspended for some time. 

The statistics of the production of pig iron in Canada in the first six 
months of 1904 have also been received from the manufacturers. The 
figures show a decrease as compared with either of the two halves of 
1903, as will be seen by the following table, which gives the produc- 
tion by fuels, in long tons, in half-yearly periods: 

Production of pig iron in Canada in 190S and 1904, by half -years, and by Hnd of fuel iued. 



Fuel used. 


First half 
of 1903. 


Second half 
of 1906. 


First half 
of 1904. 


Cbke 


Longtont. 

123,500 

9,430 


Longtont. 

124,406 

8,088 


I^mgUms. 
111,840 


Chtrooal 


8,808 






Total 


132,930 


182,488 


120,648 







The deci^ease in production in the first half of 1904, as compared 
with the first half of 1903, was 12,287 tons, and as compared with the 
second half of 1903 it was 11,845 tons. Of the production in the first 
half of 1904 35,291 tons were basic pig iron, against 69,325 tons in the 
first half of 1903 and 57,567 tons in the second half of that year. A 
small quantity of Bessemer pig iron was produced in the second half 
of 1903, but no Bessemer pig iron was made in the first half of 1903 
or in the first half of 1904. 

The unsold pig iron held by manufacturers on June 30, 1904, 
amounted to 36,868 long tons, as compared with 19,168 tons on Decem- 
ber 31, 1903, and 13,585 tons on June 30, 1903. Of the unsold stocks 
on June 30, 1904, a little less than 4,000 tons were made with charcoal, 
the remainder being coke iron. 

During the first half of 1904 the total number of furnaces in Canada 
actually in blast for the whole or a part of the period was 10, of which 
7 used coke and 3 used charcoal. The number of furnaces idle during 
the whole period was 5, of which 4 used coke when last in blast and 1 
used charcoal. Of the 15 completed blast furnaces in Canada on June 
30, 1904, 7 were located in Nova Scotia, 3 in Quebec, and 5 in Ontario. 

PRODUCTION OF STEEL IN CANADA. 

The American Iron and Steel Association has also received from the 
mano&cturers the statistics of the production of steel ingots and cast- 
ings and of rolled iron and steel in Canada in 1903. 



Digitized by 



Google 



124 



MINEBAL BESOUBOES. 



The total production of steel ingots and castings in Canada in 1903 
was 181,514 long tons, against 182,037 tons in 1902, a decrease of 523 
tons. Bessemer and open-hearth steel ingots and castings were made 
in each year. Almost all the open-hearth steel reported in 1902 and 
1903 was made by the basic process. The direct steel castings made 
in 1903 amounted to 4,506 tons. 

The following table gives the production of all kinds of steel ingots 
and castings in Canada from 1894 to 1903, inclusive: 

Production of ail kinds ofsted ingots and castings in Canada, 189jhl90S, 

[Long tons.] 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


1894 


25,685 
17,000 
16,000 
18,400 


1898 


21,540 
22,000 
28,577 
26,084 


1902 


182,087 


1896 


1899 


1903 


181,514 


1896 


1900 






1897 


1901 











PRODUCTION OP ROLLED IRON AND STEEL IN CANADA. 

The production of Bessemer and open-hearth steel rails in 1903 
amounted to 1,243 long tons, against 33,950 tons in 1902; structural 
shapes, 1,983 tons, against 423 tons in 1902; cut nails made by rolling 
mills and steel works having cut-nail factories connected with their 
plants, 118,686 kegs of 100 pounds, against 114,685 kegs in 1902; 
plates and sheets, 2,450 tons, against 2,191 tons in 1902; all other 
finished rolled products, excluding muck and scrap bars, blooms, 
billets, sheet bars, and other unfinished forms, 118,541 tons, against 
119,801 tons in 1902. The total quantity of all kinds of iron and steel 
rolled into finished forms in Canada in 1903 amounted to 129,516 long 
tons, against 161,485 tons in 1902. 

The following table gives the production of all kinds of iron and 
steel rolled into finished forms in Canada from 1895 to 1903, inclusive: 

Production of aU kinds of roUed iron and steel in Ckinada, 1895-1903, 
[Long tons.] 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


1895 


66,402 
75,048 
77,021 


1898 ... 


90,808 
110,642 
100,690 


1901 


112,007 


1896 


1899 . . 


1902 


161,485 


1897 


1900 


190S 


129,516 









On December 31, 1903, there were 18 completed rolling mills and 
steel works in Canada, 1 building steel plant, and 1 projected rolling 
mill. Of the completed plants, 2 were equipped for the manufacture 



Digitized by 



Google 



AMEBIOAN IBON TRADE. 126 

of steel castings only, 5 for the manufacture of Bessemer or open- 
bearth steel ingots and rolled products, and 11 for the manufacture of 
rolled products only. The building plant is being equipped for the 
manufacture of basic open-hearth ingots only. The projected plant 
is to be equipped for the manufacture of skelp and bar iron, the 
former for use in a wrought-iron pipe plant which was put in opera- 
tion on May 4, 1903. 

Of the 18 completed rolling mills and steel works in Canada on 
December 31, 1903, 3 were located in Nova Scotia, 5 in Quebec, 9 in 
Ontario, and 1 in New Brunswick. The building plant is in Nova 
Scotia, and the projected plant is in Ontario. 

CHANGES IN CANADIAN IRON AND STEEL WORKS. 

The Nova Scotia Steel and Coal (Company (Limited), of New (jlasgow. 
Nova Scotia, has completed a new coke blast furnace at Sydney Mines, 
Nova Scotia. The furnace was first blown in on August 30, 1904. It 
is 85 by 17 feet, is equipped with 4 Roberts stoves, and has an annual 
capacity of about 75,000 long tons of forge and basic pig iron. The 
furnace is also equipped with one pig-iron casting machine. The com- 
pany is also erecting a new open-hearth steel plant at Sydney Mines, 
which is to be equipped with four 40-long-ton basic furnaces, of which 
three are to be stationary Wellman furnaces and one is to be a tilting 
furnace. Ingots only will be made, for which the plant will have an 
annual capacity of about 60,000 long tons. 

The Halifax Rolling Mills, near Halifax, Nova Scotia, have been 
dismantled. They were built in 1878, and were equipped with two 
heating furnaces, two trains of rolls, and twenty cut-nail machines. 
They were formerly operated by the Halifax Rolling Mills (Company, 
but had been idle for years. 

The Montreal Steel Works, of Montreal, Canada, are now equipped 
with two 15-long-ton acid open -hearth-steel furnaces, a second furnace 
having been added in 1903. The 3,000-pound modified Bessemer con- 
verter with which the plant is also equipped was not operated in 1903. 
Tie works produce steel castings. 

The Peck Rolling Mills (Limited) have succeeded Peck, Benny & Co., 
of Montreal. The rolling mill of the company was partly destroyed 
by fire in 1903, but was rebuilt in the same year. 

The Iron and Steel Company of Canada (Limited) has acquired the 
rolling mill at Belleville, Ontario, formerly operated by the Abbott- 
Mitchell Iron and Steel Company of Ontario (Limited). M. Wright 
18 president, D. Jackson is vice-president, and J. F. Wills is managing 
director, secretary, and treasurer. 

The Toronto Bolt and Forging Company (Limited) is now the owner 
of the rolling mill at Sunnyside, Toronto, formerly operated by the 



Digitized by 



Google 



126 



MINERAL BESOUBOES. 



McDonell Rolling Mills Company of Toronto (Limited). George 
Gillies is president of the new organization, T. H. Watson is secretary 
and treasurer, John Stephens is general superintendent, and C. 0. 
JoUey is assistant superintendent 

The Page-Hersey Iron and Tube Company (Limited), of Guelph, 
Ontario, which manufactures wrought-iron pipe, did not install in 
1903 the 2 trains of rolls for the manufacture of skelp and bstr iron 
which it proposed adding to its works; The company is now uncertain 
when the rolls will be added. 

THE WORIiD'S IRON TRADE IN 1903, 
THE WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF IRON ORE AND COAL. 

The following table gives the production of iron ore and coal in all 
countries in 1903, except in some instances, when %ures for 1902 are 
given. Tons of 2,240 pounds are used in giving the production of the 
United States, Great Britain, Canada, Cuba, India, Natal, South Afri- 
can Republic, New South Wales, New Zealand, other Australasia, and 
** other countries," and metric tons of 2,204 pounds are used for all 
other countries, the latter being used as the equivalent of long tons 
in ascertaining the total production of all countries. The statistics are 
from official sources. The Belgian coal statistics do not include 
lignite. 

WorlcP 8 production of iron ore and coal and lignite in 1908^ by countries. 



Country. 



Year. 



United States 

Great Britain 

Germany and Luxemburg... 

France 

Belgium 

Austria-Hungary a 

Russia and Finland 

Sweden 

Spain 

Italy 

Canada 

Cuba 

South African Republic 

Natal 

India 

Greece 

New South Wales 

New Zealand 

Other Australasia 

Japan 

Algeria 

Other countries (estimated) . 



Total. 



Iron ore. 



1903 
1903 
1903 
1902 
1902 
1902 
1902 
1903 
1903 
1902 
1902 
1903 



1902 
1902 
1902 



1902 
1901 
1902 
1903 



Quantity. 



Tbng. 

35,019,308 

13,715,645 

21,230,639 

5,003,782 

166,480 

3,829,128 

5,648,227 

3,677,841 

8,478.600 

240,705 

860,717 

624,858 



85,286 

546,409 

13,555 



116,994 

70,172 

526,012 

2,046,696 



100,900,000 



Per- 
centage. 



Year. Quantity. ^^ 



84.71 

13.59 

21.04 

4.96 

.16 

8.80 

5.60 

8.65 

8.40 

.24 



.08 
.54 
.01 



.12 

.07 

.52 

2.08 



100.00 



Coal and lignite. 



1903 
1908 
1903 
1903 
1903 
1902 
1902 
1903 
1903 
1902 
1908 



1903 
1908 
1903 
1902 
1903 
1902 
1902 
1901 
1902 
1908 



Tons. 

319,068,229 

230.834.469 

162.312,075 

85,002.992 

623,870,820 

89,904,818 

15,506,924 

820,890 

2,798,113 

418,810 

7,189,852 



2,258,284 
718,548 

7,480,589 
8,546 

6,854,846 

4,862,702 
916,442 

8,945,988 
285 

5.782,883 



870,498,000 



Per- 



86.65 

26.46 

18.65 

4.02 

2.74 

4.58 

1.78 

.04 

.82 

.05 



.26 
.06 
.86 
.00 
.78 
.16 
.11 

i.oa 

.00 
.66 



100.00 



a Includes BosQia and Qerzegoy^oa, 



b X4giUte Ao^ liipiq<3le4. 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 



AMERICAN IBON TRADE. 



127 



The iron ore figures for '* other countries" include 728,721 long 
tons whiqh were mined by Newfoundland in 1902. 

THE WORLD'S PRODUCTION OP PIG IRON AND STEEL. 

In the following table is given the production of pig iron and steel 
in all countries in 1903, exc€7>t in a few cases in which figures for 1902 
are given. Long tons of 2,240 pounds are used for the United States, 
Great Britain, Canada, and ''Other countries," and metric tons of 
2,204 pounds for all other countries, metrfc tons being used as the 
equivalent of long tons in ascertaining the total production for all 
countries. The statistics of steel production for the United States, 
Great Britain, Germany and Luxemburg, France, Belgium, Austria- 
Hungary, Russia and Finland, Sweden, Spain, and Canada embrace 
bgots and in some cases direct castings, but for Italy complete ingot 
statistics are not available and the statistics for finished steel have been 
used. 

World's production of pig iron and tied in 1903^ by countries. 



Country. 



United States 

GrettBritaiD 

GefBADy and Loxemboig. 
nance 



Aottria-Hun^aryb.. 
land Finland. 



Italy 

Cuada 

Other coontrieB (estimated) . 



Total. 



Pig Iron. 



Year. 



1908 
1908 
1908 
1908 
1906 
1902 
1902 
1903 
1908 
1902 
1903 
1908 



Quantity. 



Tons, 

18.009,252 

8,811,204 

10,085,684 

2,827,668 

1,216,600 

1,470,000 

2,602,952 

606,826 

880 W4 

043,835 

265,418 

210,898 



46,420,000 



Percent- 
age. 



88.80 

18.98 

21.73 

6.09 

2.62 

8.17 

5.59 

1.09 

.82 

.09 

.57 

.45 

100.00 



Steel. 



Year. 



1903 
1908 
1903 
1903 
1908 
1902 
1902 
1906 
1906 
1902 
1906 
1938 



Quantity. ^'^J^S?*" 



Tbnf. 

14,584.978 

a 5, 134, 101 

8,801,515 

1,905,006 

981,740 

1,190,000 

2,118,971 

818,887 

199,642 

108,864 

181,514 

84.778 



85.510,000 



40.96 

14.46 

2179 

5.86 

2.76 

8.85 

5.97 

.90 

.66 

.81 

.SI 

.10 



100.00 



• Doea not include direct steel 'Ratings. b includes Bosnia and HerEegovina. 

c Includes blast-furnace castings. 

In tables that have previously appeared, the world's probable total 
production of pig iron has been given as 825,000 long tons in 1800; 
•8 1,825,000 tons in 1830; as 4,750,000 tons in 1850; as 11,900,000 tons 
in 1870; as 17,950,000 tons in 1880; as 27,157,000 tons in 1890; as 
40,400,000 tons in 1900, and now it is estimated as 46,420,000 tons in 
1903. 

Id 1879 the world's production of steel was estimated as amounting 
to 3,021,000 long tons. The production of 1889 was estimated as 
VDoonting to 10,948,000 tons. The figures given in the preceding 
toUe abow that the production had incr^^^sed Xq 35,510,000 tons in 1903. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



PRODUCTION OF MANGANESE ORES IN 

1903. 



By J.OHN BiRKINBINE. 



PBODUCnON. 

In the year ending Decen?ber 31, 1903, the production of manganese 
ore in the United States was 2,825 long tons, valued at $25,335, or 
$8.97 per ton. This is an apparent but not an actual decline from the 
quantity reported in 1902 (16,477 tons) of 13,652 long tons, or 83 per 
cent. In the total for the year 1902 was included a report, obtained 
through the United States census local agent, of 9,000 tons from the 
State of Montana, none of the ore being shipped (to which fact attention 
was called in the report). This operation being omitted, the corrected 
total for 1902 is but 7,477 long tons. Subsequent investigation has 
shown that the ore reported was not actually mined, and it therefore 
has not been included in the 1903 report, although exploratory work 
has been prosecuted and a liberal amount of ore exposed. The geo- 
graphical location of these reported deposits is not such as to encour- 
age the expectation of immediate development and shipment upon a 
liberal scale. 

The following table shows the production of manganese ores in the 
United States in the years 1896 to 1903 by States, together with the 
total valuations and the average value per ton: 

Prodnctum and value of manganese ores in the United *StateSj 1896-190S. 





1806. 




1897. 






1898. 




ttate. 


Qnmntity. 


Value. 


Arenge 

yalne 

per ton. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 

value 

per ton. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 

value 
per ton. 


Akh«. 


LongUms. 






Lonffton$. 






Longtons. 

22 

2,662 

641 

6,689 


afi43 
26.036 

3,222 
41,671 


n86.50 


AltaMM 

CUUmSa 


3,421 

284 

4,066' 


S36,686 
3,416 
27,032 


110.72 
12.02 
6.62 


3,240 

484 

8,882 

87 


833,708 

2,788 

22,064 

370 


110.40 
5.76 
6.63 
10.00 


9.78 
5.96 
6.21 


VM^pn 






BorthCuolina..' 2 


17 


8.60 
7.60 








FaagjriTsnia ... 


266 1,988 


3M 

11 

3,650 


2,882 

98 

83,630 


8.00 
8.45 
9.21 








881 
5,662 


2,276 1 5.97 


▼fafSala 


2,018 
18 


21,486 
104 


10.66 
8.00 


55,938 . 9.88 


WotVbfinia... 








1 






8.10 


Tol»l 


10,068 


90,727 


8.99 


11,106 


96,606 


8.60 


15,967 


129,185 



M B1903 9 



aBitixnated. 



129 



Digitized by 



Google 



130 MINERAL BESOUBOES. 

Production and value of manganese ores in the United States^ 2896-2903 — Continaed. 





1899. 


Quantity. 


11 
Va 


»0. 




1901. 


state. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 

value 
per ton. 


Jue. 


Average 

value 
per ton. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Avenge 

value 

per ton. 


Alabama 


lAmgtOM. 






Long tons. 








LongtoM. 

17 

91 

610 

4,074 

28 


$U1 

657 

3,610 

24,674 

280 


16.60 


Arkansas 

California 

GeorgriA 


356 

115 

3,089 

16 


S3, 781 
855 

28,377 
160 


$10.62 
7.43 
7.57 
10.00 


145 

131 

8,447 


$1,580 

1,310 

26,816 


$10.56 
10.00 
7.78 


7.22 
6.06 


Missouri 


laoo 


Montana 


137 


514 


3.76 




North Carolina . . 


90 
12 
19 


765 
68 
183 


8.50 
4.83 
7.00 










Pennsylvania ... 

Tennessee 

Utah 














30 


196 


6.50 


400 
2,500 
4,275 


8,287 
31,250 
52,858 


8.22 
12. SO 


Virginia 


6,228 
10 


63,069 8.52 
80 1 8.00 


7,881 


69,924 


8.87 


12.36 


West Virginia... 










1 


Total 


9,985 


82,278 


8.28 




11,771 


100,289 


8.62 


11,995 ill6,722 


9.7S 




Ate. 


1902. 


1903. 


St 


Quanti 


ty. 


Value. 


Average 

value 
per ton. 


1 
Quantity, i Value. 


Avenge 

value 

per ton. 


Arkansas . ....... . 


Long to 


$422 

10,175 

20,830 

40 


$5.15 
12.08 
5.95 
5.00 


Long tons. 






Callfomia 


3,600 
8 


16 
500 

25 

483 

1,801 


$116 

2,930 

263 

2,415 

19,611 


t7.S 


Qeoigia 


5.86 


South Carolina 


10. S2 


Utah -- 


5.00 


Virginia 




8,041 

1 


29,444 


9.68 


10.89 


Total 






•I '•'" 


60, S 


11 


8.16 


2,826 1 25,885 


, - 



In the 3'ear 1903 five States contributed manganese ores. Montana 
and Arkansas, which were reported active in 1902, furnished no ore, 
but Utah again supplied manganese ores. The chief sources of the 
minei-al in this country, viz, the States of Virginia, Georgia, and 
Arkatisas, showed a falling oflf. Utah has some deposits of manganese 
ores which may in the future supply more ore than has been produced 
heretofore. 

Of the 1903 total 1,801 tons, or 64 per cent, came from Virginia, 
500 tons from Georgia, and 483 tons from Utah; with these excep- 
tions the quantities mined were small. 

The table below shows the production of manganese ores in the 
States of Virginia, Georgia, Arkansas, and other States, the total pro- 
duction for the United States, and the total value for the 3'ears 188C 
to 1903, as well as the totals for the twent3^-four years covered. 



Digitized by 



Google 



MANGANEBB ORES. 

Production of manQantte ores ia the United 8taie», 1880-1908. 
[Maxima aro given in italica] 



131 



Tear. 


Virginia. 


Georgia. 


Arkansas. 


Other 
States. 


Total pro- 
duction. 


Total value. 


yggf^ 


LongUma, 

8.661 

8,295 

2,982 

5,355 

8.980 

18,745 

to, 667 

19,885 

17,646 

14,616 

12,699 

16,248 

6,079 

4,092 

1,797 

1,715 

2,018 

8.650 

5,6«2 

6,228 

7,881 

4,276 

8, Oil 

1,801 


Long tons. 
1,800 
1,200 
1,000 


Long tons. 


Long torn, 

800 

800 

876 

400 

400 

450 

269 

14 

1,672 

1,846 

6,897 

1,948 


LongioM. 

6,761 

4,895 

4,532 

6,155 

10,180 

28,258 

80,198 

Sh,6tU 

29,198 

24,197 

25,684 

28,416 

13,618 

7,718 

6,308 

9,547 

10,088 

11,108 

15,957 

9,965 

11,771 

11,995 

7,477 

2,825 


186,415 


1881 


100 

175 

400 

800 

1,4US 

8,816 

5,651 

4,812 

2.528 

5.839 

1,650 

6,705 

2.020 

1,984 

2,091 

8,421 

8,240 

2,662 

866 

145 

91 

82 


78,425 


1882 


67,980 


1888 


92.825 


18P4 




122,160 


1885 


2.580 
6,041 
9,02U 
5,568 
6,208 

749 
8,575 

826 

724 
1,277 
8,856 
4,065 
8,882 
6.689 
8,089 
8,447 
4,074 
8,500 

500 


190,281 


1886 


277,686 


1887 


SSS,8hU 


1888 


279,571 


1889 


240,550 


1890 


219,060 


1891 


239,129 


18B2 


129,586 


1888 


882 
1,800 
985 
564 
886 
944 
202 
296 
8,655 
864 
624 


66,614 


1894 


53,635 


1805 


71,769 


1896 


90,727 


1807 


96,605 


18(8, 


129,185 


1880. 


82,278 


1900 


100,280 


1901 


116,722 


1902 


60,911 


1908 . . 


25,885 








Total for 24 ycara 


192,868 


72,144 


49.404 


25,919 


840.885 


8.244,981 



PRODUCTION OF MANGAKIFEROUS IRON ORES. 

As has been the case in former reports the quantity of manganif- 
erous iron ore mined has been included in the iron-ore statistics, but 
18 briefly outlined here. 

In the Lake Superior region considerable quantities of iron ores are 
mined which contain from a fraction of 1 per cent up to 20 per cent or 
more of manganese, and ores from the same deposit may be marketed 
as iron ore, or as manganiferous iron ore, which is used in the produc- 
tion of spiegeleisen. It is impossible to indicate clearly the quantities 
of such manganiferous iron orgs as are employed in the production of 
spi^eleisen from those which form integral parts of the blast furnace 
charge in the manufacturing of pig iron. 

The Colorado ores usually carry a higher percentage of manganese 
than the Lake Superior ores, and though some of these are also used 
in the manufacture of spiegeleisen, the bulk are employed as flux by 
the smelters. 



Digitized by 



Google 



182 



MINXBAL BB80UB0E8. 



The production of this class of iron ore by States in 1902 and 1903, 
together with the value of the same, is given in the annexed table: 

Produdionf percentage of manganese, and total and average value of numgan^erousvm 

ores in 1902 and 190S, 





1902. 


1906. 


Locality. 


Quantity. 


Percent- 
age of 

manga- 
nese. 


Reported 

total 
valne at 
mines. 


Arer- 

vaine 
per ton. 


Quantity. 


Percent- 
age of 
manga- 
nese. 


Reported 

total 
value at 
mines. 


Ayei- 
per ton. 


Colorado 


Long torn. 

18,275 

884,989 

8,000 


18 to 82 

ItolO 

Not given. 


•62,871 

1,946,266 

8,000 


•8.96 
2.20 
1.00 


LomgUms. 

14,856 

666,886 

2,802 


Not given. 

lto28 

Not given. 


•55,710 

1,611,557 

4,488 


13.75 


Lake Superior region . 
Virginia 


2.67 
1.60 






Total 


901,214 


lto82 


2,001,626 


2.22 


584,498 


lto28 


l,5n,750 


2.69 




1 



The yearly quantity of this character of ore, its total valuation, and 
the average value per ton from 1889 to 1903, inclusive, are given in 
the following table: 

Production of manganiferous iron ores in the United States f 1889-1908 • 
[Maxima in italics.] 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Aversge 
value 
per ton. 


1880 


Longtona. 
88,484 
61,868 
182,611 
158,873 
117,782 
205,488 
125,729 
888,712 
202,304 
287,810 
761.845 
877,577 
674,489 
901, tU 
584,493 


•271,680 
381,656 
814,099 
354,664 
288.228 
408,597 
233,996 
726,418 
848,784 
429,302 
1 147 047 


ta.a 


1890 


5.7i 


1891 


2.3 


1892 


2.3 


1893 


2.4 


1894 


l.t 


1895 


1.} 


1896 


2.1 


1897 


1. 


1898 


1. 


1899 


1 


1900 


1 087 814 ' ^ 


1901 


1,475,084 

s,ooi,eg6 

1,671,750 


1 ^ 


1902 


2, 


1903 


2, 







ARGENTIFBKOU8 MANGAlrtFEROUS IRON OIt:EI8. 

In mining the silver ores of Lake County, Colo., a large quantity 
mineral is obtained too low in the precious-metal content to make 
valuable on that account (the limit being usually taken at about | 
per ton), and it is used as a flux by the smelters. This ore has be 
considered as an iron ore and is included in that report, but the qui 
titles obtained annually from 1889 to 1903, inclusive, together w 
their valuation will be found in the following table: 



Digitized by 



Google 



MANGANESE OBES. 



188 



Productum of manganiferous silver ores in the United States, 1889-190S, 



[Maxima in italics.] 








Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 

value 

per ton. 


1^ , 


Long tons, 

64,987 

61,840 

79,611 

62,809 

a55,962 

681,687 

64,163 

188,079 

149,602 

99,661 

79,856 

188.609 

n8,m 

194,132 
179,206 


8227,466 
181,440 
897,666 
828,794 
256.696 
148,292 
229,661 
416,020 
424,161 
296,412 
266,348 
897,068 
866,969 
908,098 
649,727 


$8.50 


vmo 


3.60 


lan 


6.00 


1892. 


5. to 


UM 


4.76 


UM 


4.84 


U9& 


4.M 


U95 


• 

8.01 


1897 


2.84 


ifm 


2.96 


199 


8.84 


1900 


4.76 


isoi 


3.79 


M02 


4.68 


ISQS 


3.63 







« Including 1,600 tons from Montana, for which no value is given.^ 
Mncludlng 1,049 tons from Montana, for which no value Is given. 



MANGANIFEROUS ZINC ORES. 

In the manufacture of zinc from ores mined in northern New Jer- 
sey a clinker is obtained containing iron and manganese, which is used 
in the production of spiegeleisen. The annual quantity of this class 
of material contributed from the years 1889 to 1903, inclusive, as well 
as the total and average value of the same, will be found in the follow- 
ing table: 

Production of manganiferous zinc ore residuum in the United States, 1889-190S, 

[Maxima in italics.] « .^ 



> 


f Year. 


Quantity. 

Long tons, 
43,648 
48,560 
38,228 
81,859 
37,612 
26,981 
43,249 
44,958 
83,924 
48,502 
66,010 
87,110 
62,311 
66,246 
78,264 


Value. 


Average 

value per 

ton. 


/ 


impp ,.x 


$64,660 
60,700 
57.432 
25.937 
30,686 
20.464 
24,461 
20,455 
18.718 

a26,676 
32,506 
34,844 
62,811 
65,246 
78,264 


11.25 




IMA . . , . • ' ^ ^ ■' ^ r...-,..T--.T-,-T-«T-,-.,,TT^-r 


1.25 




\gg^ 


1.60 




UM . 


.81 




^g^ - - - 


.81 




^m, 


.76 


■ 


^n^ 


.57 


\ 


UK 


.46 


* 


ljH7 


.66 




nn 


.66 


t'l 


ttgi 


.50 




m , 


.40 


t^> 


n 


1.00 


f*' ' 


YHL 


1.00 




tm .. 


1.00 







L 



aAtimated. 



Digitized by 



Google 



184 



KnrEBAL BE80UBGE9. 



PRODITCTION OF MANGANESE ORES AND MANGAOTFEU- 

OUS IKON ORES. 

The following table presents the production of ores carrying differ- 
ent percentages of manganese mined in the United States in the years 
1901, 1902, and 1908, together with their average value per ton: 

Production of manganese ores and manganiferous ores in the United States in 1901^ 1902^ 

andlSOS, 





1901. 




1902. 




Kind of ore. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 

value 

per ton. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
value 
per ton. 


MftnganeM oraci ^ . 


Long tons. 

U,995 
574.489 
228,187 

62,811 


$116,722 

1,475,084 

865.969 

62,811 


19.78 
2.57 
8.79 
1.00 


Longton$. 

7,477 

901. ii4 

',^4,182 

65,246 


160, 9U 

2,001,626 

906,098 

65,246 


$8.15 


Manganiferoos Iron ores 


2.22 


Manganiferous silver ores 

Manganiferous zinc residuum a . . 


4.68 
LOO 


Total 


86«,982 


2,510,076 


2.90 


1,168,069 


8,035,881 


2.60 








of ore. 






1908. 


Kind 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Averige 
value 
per ton. 


Manganese ores 


Longtont. 

2,825 

584.493 

179,205 

73,264 


. «25,335 

1,571,750 

649,727 

78,264 


18.97 


Manganiferous iron ores 


2. 69 


Manganiferous silver ores 


3.63 


Manganiferous zinc residuum^ 


1.00 












Total 


839,787 


2,320,076 


2.76 













a As this is a by-product in the treatment of zinc ores, the value given to It is nominal. 

PRODUCTION OF MANGANESE ORES BT STATES. 
ARKANSAS. 

The State of Arkansas was at one time the third State in impor- 
tance as a producer of manganese ore in the United States, the 
deposits of this mineral being found in the vicinity of Batesville and 
Cushman, Independence County, in the northern central part of the 
State. Although the ore bodies encountered are often high in man- 
ganese, they are expensive to mine and usually contain considerable 
percentages of phosphorus, which makes them undesirable for use in 
the manufacture of steel. These facts, taken in connection with the 
limited transportation facilities, account for the gradual decline of the 
industry from 6,708 long tons in 1892 until in 1903 the production was 
given as nil. The accompanying table is, however, inserted to show 
the quantities of manganese ore contributed by the Batesville district 
from 1850 to date: 



Digitized by 



Google 



MANGANESE ORES. 



135 



Production of manffaneae in the BalesvUle district of Arkansas from 1850 to 190S, inclusive. 

[Maximum in italics^.] 



Year. 



ISO to 1867. 

1888 

1881 

1882 

18BI 

1884 

1885 



1887.. 
1888.. 

18B8.. 
1810.. 
18n.. 



Authority. 



Quantity. 



Rsti mated 

do 

Railroad reports of shipments 

do 

do 

do 

Mineral resources of the United States . 

do 

do 

do 

Eleventh Census 

Mineral resources of the United States. 
do 



Long tons. 

400 

10 

100 

175 

400 

800 

1,483 

3,316 

5,651 

4,312 

2,628 

5,339 

1,650 



1882. 


.. ..do 


6,708 
2.180 
1,984 
2,991 
3,421 
3,240 
2,662 
366 


vm 


do 


18N 


do 


18ft 


do 


t8» 


do 


WW 


do 


18M 


do 


1809 


do 


1800 


do 


145 


1901 


do 


91 


1902... 


do „ 


82 


1908.. . 


do 


None 








ToUl 


49,974 







CALIFORNIA. 

Small quantities of manganese ore are mined in California, and are 
QBually sent to the chlorination works, the 1902 output of 846 tons 
being the largest recorded. In 1903, however, but 16 tons were 
reported. The table below shows the annual record from 1874 to 1903, 
inclosive, the total being 11,347 tons: 

Toicd production of manganese ores in California, 1874-190S. 



Year. 


Quantity. 

Long ions. ' 

6,000 

53 

386 

706 


Year. 


Quantity. 


18:4!ol«8*» 


1897 


long tons. 
484 


mt 


1 899 


541 


vm 


1899 


115 


un 


1900 


131 


ME 


1901 

1902 

1903 

Total 


610 


UBI 


400 

278 

284 


846 


MM 


16 


1886 




ISK 


11,374 







Digitized by V^OOQIC 



136 



MINEBAL BE80UBGE8. 



COLORADO. 

In mining the silver ores of this State considerable quantities of ore 
are obtained which contain varying amounts of iron, manganese, and 
silver. When the percentage of the last metal is too small to make 
the mineral valuable as a silver ore, that is, to pay the smelting charges 
and have a sufficient value remaining as reimbursement for mining 
expenses (say $12 per ton or less), it has not been considered as a silver 
ore, but it is valued on account of its iron and manganese content ad a 
flux in the smelters, although the silver may somewhat augment this 
value. When the ore is sufficiently high in manganese, some of it is 
utilized in the manufacture of spiegeleisen, the quantity so reported 
in the year 1903 being 14,866 long tons, the remainder, 179,205 tons, 
going to the smelters for fluxing purposes. 

The following table shows the amount of the tifro classes of manga- 
niferous ores mentioned above which have been mined in Colorado 
from 1889 to 1903, inclusive: 



Production 


of manganiferous 


ores in Colorado^ 


1889-1903 






Ore. 


1889. 


1890. 


1891. 


1892. 


1898. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


Manganif erouB iron ores used 
for producing spiegeleisen. . 

Manganiferous silver ores 


Long 
tons. 

2,075 
64,987 


Long 
ions. 


Long 
ton$. 

964 
'79,511 


Long 
tons. 

8,100 
62,309 


Long 
tons. 

6,766 
64,462 


Long 
tons. 

7,022 
30,187 


Long 
tons. 

13,464 
58,506 


lAmg 
tons, 

9,072 


51,840 


137,697 


Total 


67,062 


51,840 


80,475 . 66.409 


60,228 


87,209 


66,970 


146,609 






Ore. 


1897. 


189 

Long 

18, 
99, 


8. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1908. 


Manganiferous iron ores used 
for producing spiegeleisen . . 

Manganiferous silver ores 


Long tons. 

16,519 
149,502 


tons. 

848 
651 


Long tons. 

29,366 
79,866 


Long tons. 

43.303 
188,509 


Long tons. 

62,385 
228,187 


Longtons.j 

13,275 
194,132 


Longtons. 

14,856 
179.206 


Total 


166,021 


118, 499 


109.210 


231.812 


290 B72 


207.407 


194,061 


























' 1 





GEORGIA. 

The two principal manganese districts in this State are the Carters- 
ville, the only one active in late years, and the Cavespring. The 
quantity mined in 1903, 600 long tons, is the smallest recorded since 
1874, except in 1883 and 1884, when no output was reported. The 
total quantity mined from 1866 to 1903, inclusive, was 92,094 long 
tons, the annual production being given in the following table: 



Digitized by 



Google 



MANGANESE OSES. 
JProduciion of manganese ores in Georgia^ 1866-1903. 



137 



Ye*r. 


Quuitity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


From 1M6 to 1873 (estimated) 


Long toM. 
5,560 
2,400 
2,400 
2,400 
2,400 
2,400 
2,400 
1.800 
1,200 
1,000 

2,580 
6,041 
9,084 
6,568 
5,206 


1890 


Ijong tons, 
749 


W\ 


1891 


8,576 
826 


iSJS 


1892 


!«;$ 


1898 


724 


UJ7 


1894 


1,277 
8.856 
4,085 
8.S82 
6,689 
3,089 
8,447 
4,074 
3,500 


MB8 


1895 


]gj9 


1896 


U80 


1897 


M81 


1898 


1^82 


1899 


1883 and 1884 


1900 


IgS^ 


1901 


1886 


1902 


1887 


1908 


600 




Total 










92,094 


18(49 











a None reported. 
VIRGINIA. 

This State has been the principal producer of manganese ore in the 
United States, the bulk being obtained from the Crimora mine, in 
Augusta County, located Aear the railroad station of the same name. 
The maximum output was 20,567 long tons in 1886. In 1903 only 
1^801 tons were mined, the minimum output reported with the excep- 
tion of the years 1894 and 1895. 

The greater portion of the ore mined was used in chemical works, 
etc, the demand of steel works for fen*o-manganese being met by 
imports of manganese ores. 

The total production of the State of Virginia from 1880 to 1903, 
inclusive, is 192,868 long tons, and the annexed table shows the yearly 

output 

Production of manganese ores in Virginia, 18S0-190S, 
[Maximum in italics.] 



ma 

us. 

UH. 

vm. 

1S7. 

vm 
vm 

vm 



Quantity. 



LongtoM. 

3,661 

8,296 

2,962 

5,855 

8,980 

18,745 

to, 667 

19,885 

17,646 

14,616 

12,699 

16,248 

6,079 



Year. 



1898 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 

1900 

1901 

1902 

1903 

Total 



Quantity. 



Long 



ton*, 

4,092 

1.797 

1,716 

2,018 

3,660 

5,662 

6,228 

7,881 

4,275 

3.041 

1.801 



192,868 



Digitized by V^OOQIC:! 



138 



MINERAL BE80UBCES. 



IMPORTS OF MANGANESE ORES. 

As spiegeleisen and f erro-manganese, which are both manufactured 
from manganese ores and manganiferous ores, are used in the produc- 
tion of steel, the limited supply of native ore is largely augmented by 
that imported from foreign countries. On most of this no duty ia 
levied. The quantity of manganese ore brought in during the year 
ending December 31, 1903, as reported by the Bureau of Statistics, 
was 146,056 long tons, valued at $1,278,108, or $8.75 per ton, as against 
235,576 long tons imported in 1902, which were valued at $1,931,282, 
or $8.20 per ton. This is a decline of 89,520 long tons, or 38 per cent 

While there was a falling oflf in the quantity of manganese ore mined 
in the United States and also of the importation of ore, the amount of 
ferro-manganese and spiegeleisen imported increased from 69,034 long 
tons in the fiscal year 1902 to 175,687 tons in 1903. 

The principal foreign source of manganese ore was Brazil, which 
contributed 76,910 long tons, or over one-half thfi total. The other 
important countries are India, Cuba, Russia, Chile, Germany, and 
Spain, ranking in the order named. 

The following table, prepared from data furnished by the Bureau of 
Statistics of the Department of Commerce and Labor, shows the im- 
ports of manganese ore by countries into the United States in the years 
1899 to 1908, inclusive, together with the valuations for the same: 

Imports of manganese ores into the United States during the calendar years 1899, 1900, 
1901, 1902, and 190S, by countries. 



Country. 



1899. 
Quantity. | Value. 



Brazil 

Russia, Black Sea 

British East Indies 

Cuba 

Chile 

Colombia 

Turkey in Asia 

Turkey in Europe 

Japan 

France 

Germany 

United Kingdom 

French West Indies 

Greece 

Quebec, Ontario, etc 

Nova Scotia, New Bruns- 
wick, etc 

Austria-Hungary 

Spain 

Netheriands 



Long tons. 

28,115 

73,397 

17,950 

16,359 

17", 575 

8,900 

5,782 

8,310 

4,492 

2,953 

1,274 

134 



Total. 



3,030 



78 



188,349 



S299,877 

598,644 

&4,471 

221,785 

111,726 

82, 489 

46,822 

61,241 

81,657 

21,080 

34,927 

6,697 



10,526 



2,586 



Quantity. 

Long tons. 

64,451 

132, 121 

10,650 

20,582 

9,925 

7,902 

7,062 

6,186 

5,338 



156 
65 
50 
89 

19 
10 



1,584,528 256,252 



Value. 



$590,825 
812,592 
30,787 
269,348 
69,670 
86,678 
49,482 
43,693 
44,707 



1901. 



Quantity. Value. 



Long tons. 

48,029 

32,600 

11,000 

21,627 

14,794 

2,600 

6,980 

11,879 

6,985 



43,025 

7,466 

660 

897 

1,100 

1,114 
427 



2,042,861 



4,184 



29 



6,060 
29 



165,722 



$460,024 
224,798 
40,148 
307,064 
104,364 
84,800 
43,653 
87,380 
62,443 



76,827 
10,563 



8,669 
1,U0 



38,947 
763 



1.486,573 



Digitized by V^OOQIC:! 



VAKOANESE OBKB. 



139 



Imports of mangcmege ores into the United States during the calendar years 1899^ J900, 
1902, 290^, and 190Sy by countries— Continued. 



Country. 



1903. 



Quantity. 



BnzU 

BmU, Black Sea 

Roadft, Baltic and Whlt« seas . 

Britiih East Indies 

Cuba 

Chile 



I Long tons. 

192,550 

3,338 



Value. 



$1, 



006,969 
24,581 



M,170 
36,294 



Colombia 

Torkey in Eorope 

JapaD 

Germany 

United Kingdom 

Quebec, Ontario, etc .' 

Sora Scotia, New Brunswick, etc. 

Aoftria-Hongary 

Spain 

Belgium 



700 

12,609 

2,481 

2,155 

451 

140 

69 



10,464 
165 



Total. 



235,576 



352,487 
285,571 



3,385 
88,979 
37,064 
68,241 
10,814 
820 

2,311 



Quantity. Value. 



Long tons. 
76,910 
1,596 
3,980 
85,960 
17,721 
3,461 



1,962 ; 



400 

2,837 

893 

3 

35 

1 

2,244 

25 



1,931,282 



146,056 



5738,885 
15,565 
39,800 
226,796 
111,670 
25,555 



10,693 

77,985 

23,138 

303 

1,395 

85 

5,836 

552 



1,278,108 



An examination of the table shows that in earlier years Russia has 
been the main reliance. The extent of these Russian deposits was 
indicated in the report for the year 1897, and there are undoubtedly 
large reserves obtainable from the Sharopan district; but in 1903 Rus- 
sia's contribution to the United States was comparatively unimportant. 

An examination of the importation of manganese ores in 1903 by 
customs districts shows that the greater portion came through the 
port of Baltimore, viz: 115,701 long tons, or 79 per cent of the total, 
the remainder being brought in via Mobile, Ala. ; New Orleans, La. ; 
New York, N. Y. ; Perth Amboy, N. J. ; Philadelphia, Pa. ; Newport 
News, Va-; Chicago, III.; Pittsburg, Pa.; Boston, Mass.; Huron, 
Mich., and a few scattering ports. 

The table below, prepared by the Bureau of Statistics of the Depart- 
ment of Commerce and Labor, shows the importations by customs 
districts from 1899 to 1903, inclusive. 



Digitized by 



Google 



140 



MINEBAL BE8OUB0E8. 



Manganese ore imported into the United States during the calendar years 1S99, 1900^ 1901 
190^ y and 190S, by customs districts. 



Custonyi district 



Philadelphia. Pa... 

Baltimore, Md 

New York, N.Y 

Perth Amboy, N.J. 

Pittsburg, Pa 

Newport News, Va. 

Chicago, III 

Boston, Mass 

New Orleans, La... 

PensACola, Fla 

Mobile, Ala 

Huron, Mich 

Champlain, N. Y... 
All others 



Total. 



1908. 



Quantity. Value. 



Long tons. 

983 

115,701 

3,893 

2,244 

17 

613 

153 

6 

4,750 



17,721 
3 



22 



146,056 



«25,600 

999,835 

72.091 

5,836 

1,459 

18,332 

6,397 

408 

84,170 



111,670 



2,007 



1,278,106 



1902. 



Quantity. Value, 



Long tons. 

1,007 

200,434 

4,287 



10 
53 
116 
82 



5,339 

24,158 

80 

80 

80 



235,576 



1901. 



Quantity. Value. 



Long tons. 

130,927 24,396 

1,583,903 I 120,579 

77,978 8,108 



850 
1,616 
4,874 
1,450 



46,281 

188,157 

240 

240 

366 



8,935 

8,100 

896 

72 

2 



165,722 



$188,869 

1,004,750 

110,979 



2,994 

862 

2,392 



127,159 

44,100 

8,170 

499 

106 



1.486,573 



Customs district. 



Philadelphfa, Pa 

Baltimore, Md 

New York, N.Y 

Norfolk, Va 

Pittsburg, Pa 

Newport News, Va. . . 

Chicago, 111 

Boston, Mass 

Passamaquoddy, Me . 
All others 



Total. 



1900. 



Quantity. 



Long tons. 
80,333 
161,932 
13,883 



Value. 



9726,545 

1,134,823 

176,944 



1,578 






1 I 
2 
61 



256,252 



24 

SO 

1,849 



2,042,361 



1899. 



Quantity. Value. 



Long tons, 

90,583 

80,006 

14,762 

2,901 

44 

26 

16 

5 

4 

2 



188,349 



f655,061 

739,547 

152, 9d0 

32,248 

2,473 

1.851 

596 

116 

83 

96 



1,584,628 



In order to illustrate the dependence of the United States on for- 
eign sources of manganese ores, the following table has been pre- 
pared, showing the annual domestic production and value of manganese 
ores, together with similar data in regard to the importations. This 
will show that in the 15 years, from 1889 to 1903, inclusive, the total 
amount of manganese ore mined was 191,639 long tons, valued at 
$1,721,294, an average per year of 12,776 tons, valued at $114,753. 
During the same period 1,583,006 tons of manganese ores were im- 
ported, valued at $14,306,540, an average per annum of 105,534 tons, 
valued at $953,769. From this table it will be seen that the total 
domestic production in 15 years has been exceeded on two occasions 
by the importations in a single year. 



Digitized by 



Google 



KASQASWB ORES. 



141 



Rdative quanUUes and values of domestic and imported manganese ores, 1889-1903, 



Year. 



Domestic production. 



Quantity. Value. 



Imports. 



Quantity. Value. 



18» 

lao 

18W 

1892 

las 

104 

WKi 

IW 

\m 

1898 

1899 

1900 

1901 

1902 

1908 

Total for 15 years . . . 
Arerttge for 15 years 



LongloM. 
24,197 
25,681 
28,416 
13,618 
7,718 
6,808 
9,547 
10,068 
11,108 
15,967 
9,935 
11,771 
11,995 
7,477 
2,825 



1240,569 
219,060 
239,129 
129,686 
66,614 
53.686 
71,769 
90,727 
95,605 
129,185 
82,278 
100,289 
116,722 
60,911 
26,835 



Long tons. 

4,286 

84,154 

28,825 

58,672 

68,113 

44,665 

86,111 

31,489 

119,961 

114,886 

188,849 

266,252 

165,722 

236,576 

146,066 



191,689 
12,776 



1,721,294 
114,768 



1,583.006 
106,534 



178,391 

516,900 

380,618 

840,811 

880,238 

432,661 

747,910 

260,468 

1,028,824 

831,967 

1,584,628 

2,042,361 

1,486,573 

1,931,282 

1,278,108 



14,306,540 
963,760 



CONSUMPTION OF DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED METAIiUC 

MANGANESE. 

The consumption of metallic manganese, either as ferro-manganese 
or as alloyed with iron in spiegeleisen, includes that which is imported 
from foreign countries and that which is manufactured in the United 
States, the manufacture of the richer alloy, ferro-manganese, being 
mainly from imported ores. 

On page 143 of Mineral Resources of the United States for 1902 
the consumption of metallic manganese in the manufacture of various 
classes of steel is given and from this an estimate is possible of the 
approximate quantity of manganiferous alloys used in the United 
States during the year. The Bureau of Statistics reports that during 
the calendar year 1903, there were imported into the United States 
41,518 tons of ferromanganese and 122,016 tons of spiegeleisen, and 
the domestic statistics collected by the American Iron and Steel Asso- 
ciation show that during the same time there were produced by the 
blast furnaces of the United States 156,700 tons of spiegeleisen and 
35,961 tons of ferromanganese, a total of imported and domestic metal 
of 356,195 long tons. 

The largest production of domestic spiegeleisen and ferromanga- 
nese was in the year 1901 when 291,461 tons were reported, but in 
1903 the total was only 192,661 long tons. In the following table will 
be found the annual production of domestic spiegeleisen and f erro- 
maiigaDese in the United States from 1893 to 1903, inclusive, compiled 
from the reports of the American Iron and Steel Association. 



Digitized by 



Google 



142 HIKEBAL BBSOUBOES. 

Production of domegUc spiegdeisen and ferromanganesey calendar years IS93-I90S. 



Year. 


Qaantity. 


1 

Year. 


QoanUty. 


1893 


Long tons. 
81,118 
120,180 
171,724 
131,940 
173.696 
218,769 


1899 


LtmgUm. 
219,768 


1894 


! 1900 


255,977 


1896 . .. 


1901 


291,461 


1896 


1902 


212,981 


1flQ7 


1903 


192,661 


1898 











From the reports of the Bureau of Statistics the table below has 
been prepared to show the imports of ferromanganese and spiegelei- 
sen into the United States for the fiscal years ending June 30, 1884 to 
1903, inclusive, together with separate data of both metals for the 
years 1898 to 1903, inclusive. From this table it will be seen that the 
maximum importation was in the year ending June 30, 1903, when 
176,687 tons, valued at $4,866,760, were imported. 

Imports offerromamjaneae and tqih'fjelel^m for fiscal years ending June SO, 188jhl90S, 



Year. 



1884. 
1886.. 
1886., 
1887., 
1888. 
1889., 
1890., 
1891.. 
1892., 
1893. , 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897.. 
1898.. 
1899.. 
1900., 
1901., 
1902., 
1903., 



Ferroman- 
ganese. 



Spiegelel- 
aen. 



Long tons. Long tons. 



6,346 
10,392 
10,684 

8,995 
37,618 
53,121 



Total. 



Quantity. Value. 



10,108 
3,615 
13,615 
16,308 
81,416 
122,566 



Longtxms. 
94.210 
65,406 
99,426 

150,205 

108,973 
93,032 

106,771 
54,239 
55,080 
49, 157 
11,579 
8,127 
66,608 
11,301 
16,454 
14,007 
24,209 
25,303 
69,034 

175,687 



$2,353,366 
1,587,108 
2,188,363 
3,327,128 
2,868,600 
1,757,035 
3,032,006 
1,556,969 
1,347,364 
1,273,468 
230,840 
284.409 
1,632,466 



491,898 

518,756 

1.178,098 

952, 144 

2,140,758 

4,866.760 



PRODUCTION OF MANGANESE ORES IN FOREIGN 
COUNTRIES. 

As the most of the manganese ores used in the United States are 
imported from foreign countries, it will be of interest to refer briefly 
to the principal producers of this mineral. 



Digitized by 



Google 



MANOANESE 0BE8. 
CANADA. 



149" 



Manganese ore has been obtained in small amounts in the Provinces 
of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, but figures of production for the 
year 1903 are as yet unobtainable. The quantity of ore mined in the 
years 1886 to 1902, inclusivCj together with the total value and the 
average value per ton for each year, is given in the following table: 

Production of manganese ore in Canada, 1S8S-1902. 



Year. 



1886... 
1887... 
1888... 
1889... 
1860... 
18n... 
1882... 
189B... 
18M... 
1886... 
1886' . 
18J7-. 
1896... 
18B»». 
1900 <^. 
1901... 
2908... 



Quantity. 


Value. 


Value 
per ton. 


SkoH tons. 






1,78» 


»41,499 


«23.20 


1,245 


43,658 


36.07 


1,801 


47,944 


26.62 


1,456 


32,737 


22.50 


1,328 


32,650 


24.51 


265 


6,694 


26.25 


115 


10,250 


89.18 


213 


14,578 


68.44 


74 


4,180 


66.49 


125 


8,464 


67.71 


1234 


8,975 


82.19 


15J 


1,166 


76.46 


50 


1,600 


82.00 


1,681 


20,004 


12.66 


80 


1,800 


60.00 


440 


4,820 


10.96 


84 


2,774 


38.02 



(■Exports. 

e» NoTft Scotia mined 63 tons. New Brunswick's product was 1,518 tons. 

<7 Nova Scotia mined 10 tons and New Brunswick 20 tons. 

The geological survey of Canada supplies the figures showing the 
quantity and value of the exports of manganese from 1873 to 1902 
given in the following table. These figures apparently show that 
there are sources of manganese ore which have not as yet been oflScially 
located. 



Digitized by 



Google 



144 



MINEBAL BE8OUB0E8. 

Exports ofmartganese ore from Canada^ 1873-1905, 



Year. 


NovaScotUL 


New Bruiiflwick. 


Total. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Ytlne. 


1878 


Short tons. 




Short toriM. 

1,081 

776 

194 

891 

785 

520 

1,782 

2,100 

1,504 

771 

1,013 

469 

1,607 

1,877 

887 

1,094 

1,877 

1,729 

238 

69 

10 

45 

A 


$20,192 
16,961 

5,314 

7,816 
12,210 

6,971 
20,016 
31,707 
22,532 
14,227 
16,708 

9,085 
29,695 
27.484 
20,662 
16,078 
26,826 
84,248 

6,18L 

2,026 
112 

2,400 
3 


ShoHloM. 

1.081 

782 

203 

412 

891 

626 

1,886 

2,179 

1,704 

891 

1,826 

608 

1,684 

«1,818 

1,416 

1,181 

1.486 


120,192 


1874 


6 
9 

21 

106 

106 

154 

79 

200 

123 

318 

184 

77 

a441 

578 

87 

59 

177 

22 

84 

128 

11 

108 

128* 

15i 

U 

67 


$42 

200 

728 
3,699 
4,889 
7,420 
3,090 
18,022 
11,520 
8,635 
11,054 
5,054 

854 
14,240 
5,750 
8,024 
2,588 

568 
6,180 
12,409 

720 
6,848 
8,975 
1,166 

826 
2,828 


16,973 


1875 


5,514 


1876 


8,069 


1877 


15,909 


1878 


10,860 


1879 


27,486 


1880 


34,797 


1881 


40,554 


1882 : 


25,747 


1883 


25,343 


1884 


20,069 


1885 


34,649 


1886 


66,SS8 


1887 


34.802 


1888 


21,832 


1889 


29.SS0 


1890 


1,906 86,831 


1891 


255 6,eM 


1892 


148 8,206 


1898 


188 , 12,521 


1894 


56 8.120 


1895 


108ft 6,351 
128* 3,975 


1896 


1897 






16i 1,166 


1898 






11 825 


1899 


3 


82 


70 1 2-410 


1900* 


34 
440 
172 
135 


1,720 


1901 










4,820 


1902 










4,062 


1908 










1,889 

















a 250 tons should be more correctly classed under the heading of mineral pigments. 

mowing to changes in compiling customs returns, exports can no longer be given by Provinces. 

CUBA. 

In the report for 1902 there appears a summary.of the manganese 
deposits of Cuba which have thus far been exploited, practically all 
of which are found in the southeastern section of the island. 

As far as can be learned the only mines active in 1903 were those 
of the Ponupo Mining and Transportation Company in the Province 
of Santiago de Cuba, shipments being made from the port of Santiago. 
In the year 1903 the production of manganese ores from the Ponupo 
mines was 20,349 long tons, and the shipments 18,796 tons. 

The following table gives the annual exports of manganese ore from 
the Santiago district of Cuba for the years 1888 to 1903, inclusive: 



Digitized by 



Google 



MANGANESE 0BE8. 
ExporU of manganese ore from Santioffo distrid, Oaha, 1388-1903. 



145 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


188B 


Longtont. 
1,942 
704 
21,810 
21,987 
18,761 
10,640 


1896 


Long tons. 
None 


IflM 


1897 


None, 


18W 


1898.. . 


950 


lan 


1899 


13,686 
22,600 
25,183 
89,628 


wan 


1900 


1388 


1901 


18M 


1902 


U85 


1,894 


1908 


18,796 







PANAMA. 

There are important deposits of manganese ore in the Nombre de 
Dios district of Panama, but no manganese ore was reported as mined 
in the year 1903. 

BRAZIL. 

Brazil is at present the principal contributor of manganese ore to 
the United States, the greater portion being obtained in the Minas 
Geraes district, and a relatively small quantity from the Nazareth dis- 
trict A summary of these deposits was given in the 1902 report. 

No official data as to the shipments in 1903 are obtainable, but in the 
following table will be found the exports of manganese ore from 
Brazil from 1896 to 1902, inclusive: 

Exports of BrcusUian manganese ore, 1896-190^. 



I 



TeftT. 



Quantity. 



LongUmt. 
14,710 
14,870 
27,110 
62,170 



Year. 



1900. 
1901. 
1902. 



Qoantity. 



Long ions. 

al27,848 

696,710 

156,269 



aEoTope, 75,910; United States, 51,438. 



b Europe, 47,680; United States. 48,080. 



CHILE. 

Manganese ores occur in most of the provinces of Chile, but those 
which are actively worked are in the provinces of Atacama and 
SsotiagD. 

Jd 1902 the manganese ore exported from Coquimbo was 12,990 
metric tons, valued at $389,700 Chilean dollars ($142,241). 
jf B 1903 10 



Digitized by 



Google 



146 



HIKEBAL BESOUBGBS. 



The following table shows the exports of Chilean manganese ores 
from 1885 to 1902, inclusive, together with the values in some of these 
years: 

Exports of Chilean manganese ores, 188S-190£. 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1886 


LongUms. 
4,041 
23,928 
47,521 
18,713 
' 28,683 
47,986 
34,462 
50,871 
86,162 




1894 


LongtoM. 
47,238 
23,696 
26,740 
28,156 
20,522 
40,285 
25,819 
31,477 
al2,785 


$3n,374 


1886 




1896 


186,747 


1887 




1896 


202,335 


1888 




1897 




1889 ... 




1898 


163,165 


1890 




1899 


448,195 


1891 




1900 




1892 


$399,881 
284,262 


1901 




1898 


1902 


142,241 









a Prom €k>quimbo. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 



A small amount of manganiferous iron ore is obtained in Great 
Britain, the quantity mined in 1903 being 818 long tons. The follow- 
ing table gives the production and value of manganiferous iron ores in 
the United Kingdom from 1884 to 1903, inclusive: 

Production and value of manganiferous iron ores in the United Kingdom, 1884-i90S. 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1884 . 


Long tons. 
909 
1,688 
12,763 
18,777 
4,342 
8,852 
12,444 
9,476 
6,078 
1,886 


$6,921 
11,669 
52,722 
68,772 

9,361 
31,364 
82,588 
80,071 
21,461 

3,688 


1894 


Longtons. 

1,809 

1,273 

1,060 

609 

231 

415 

1.362 

1,646 

1,278 

818 


|3,S62 


1885 


1896 


3,32S 


1886 


1896 


2,963 


1887 


1897 


a 1,650 


1888 


1898 

1899 

1900 

1901 


974 


1889 


1,212 


1890 


3,285 


1891 




1892 


1902 


3,319 


1893 


1908 











a Estimated. 



BELGIUM. 



Manganiferous iron ores are obtained in Belgium, the amount mined 
in 1902 being reported as 14,440 metric tons, valued at 187,300 francs 
($36,149). 

The annexed table gives the annual production and value of man- 
ganiferous iron ore in Belgium from 1880 to 1902, inclusive: 



Digitized by 



Google 



UAVGAN^BE OBES. 

Production of mangcmiferous iron ores in Bdgvam, 1880-190fS, 



147 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1880 ,. 


Metric ioM. 
700 
770 
846 
820 
760 


772 
888 

791 
724 


1892 


Metric Urns. 
16,776 
16,800 
22,048 
22,478 
23,265 
28,872 
16,440 
12,120 
10,820 
8,610 
14,440 


$40,202 
38,798 
68,696 
66,250 
66,689 
66,141 
40,820 
30,246 
25,158 
21,384 
36,149 


lan 


1893 


U82 


1894 


1883 


1895.... 


1884. 


1896 


1885 


1897 


1886 


750 
12,750 
27,787 
20,906 
14,256 
18,498 


1.787 
80,079 
62,726 
47,864 
33,968 
49,022 


1898 


1887 


1899 


1888 


1900 


1889 


1901 


1890 


1902 


1»1 . .. 









FRANCE. 

Manganese ores are mined in two departments of France, in the 
southern part of L'Ariege and in the western and central sections of 
Sftone and Lioire, the production in 1902 being 12,536 metric tons, 
valued at 327,600 francs ($63,227). 

The f oUowng table gives the production and value of manganese 
ores produced in France from 1886 to 1902, inclusive, together with 
the average value per ton: 

J^roduction and value of manganese ores in France, 1886-190S, 



* 

Year. 


Qnantity. 


Value. 


Value 
per ton. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Value 
per ton. 


ms 


LongtoM, 
7,566 
11,982 
10,878 
9,842 
16,781 
15,101 
81,894 
87,406 
82,239 


$58,099 
50,601 
60,757 
69,000 
89,517 
90,816 
206,074 
290,078 
192,264 


$7.08 
4.28 
6.69 
6.99 
6.69 
6.98 
6.43 
7.76 
5.96 


1895 


LongtoM, 
30,385 
80,797 
86,612 
81,896 
89,270 
28,634 
21,952 
12,838 


$177,698 
179,297 
200,720 
160,883 
216,681 
164,060 
91,699 
63,227 


$5.85 


1887 


1896 


5.82 


vm 


1897 


6.48 


1889 


1898 


6.11 


im 


1899 


6.49 


ttW.... 


1900 


6.75 


MS 


1901 


4.18 


1881 


1902 


5.12 


laM 
















QERB/ 


lANY. 









The Kingdom of Prussia contributes the major portion of the man- 
ganese ore obtained in Germany, but this is more strictly speaking a 
manganiferous iron ore, the quantity mined in 1903 being 47,110 
metric tons, valued at 463,000 marks ($110,194). The production of 
tn£e manganese ore from other provinces of Germany was 884 metric 
Urns, valued at 57,000 marks ($13,566). 



Digitized by 



Google 



148 



MINEBAL BE8OUB0BS. 



The annual production of manganese ores mined in Germany from 
1890 to 1903, inclusive, and the production and value of manganiferous 
iron ores in Prussia from 1881 to 1902, inclusive, the later years being 
furnished by Mr. E. Schr(kiter, of Dusseldorf , are as follows: 

Production of manganese ores in Germany, 1890-190S, 





Year. 


Quantity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


1890 


LongtofM. 
41,180 
89,698 
82,841 
40,067 
48,012 
40,674 
44,860 


1897 




longUm. 
45, aM 


1891 


1898 

1899 

1900 

1901 

1902 




4^G» 


1892 


60,960 


1888 


1 58,260 


1894 


1 55,796 


1896 


49,025 


1896 


1908 




47,286 







Production and value of mamganew ores in Prussia, 1881-190S. 



Year. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Year. 



Quantity. Value. 



1881. 
1882. 
1888. 
1884. 
1886. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891, 
1892 



Long tons. 
10,911 
4,597 
4,502 
7,629 
14,464 
24,649 
86,967 
26,877 
48,811 
89,497 
86,278 
80,892 



179,104 
88,745 
28,423 
43,118 
81,802 
177,066 
228,489 
147,280 
216,881 
174,428 
174,624 
101,844 



1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1908 



Long tons. \ 




88,384 


$93,506 


41,854 


94,992 


39,266 


100,832 


42,925 


97,469 


44,638 


98,185 


41,565 


92,060 


59,425 


151,368 


67,100 


157,2n 


54,984 


166,662 


48,110 


126,140 


46,866 


110,194 



ITALY. 

The Kingdom of Italy in 1902 produced 2,477 metric tons of man- 
ganese ores, valued at 103,740 lire ($20,022) and 23,113 metric tons of 
maganiferous iron ore, valued at 276,601 lire ($53,384). 

The following table shows the annual production of manganese ores 
in Italy, together with the value of the same, from 1860 to -1902, inclu- 
sive; also of manganiferous iron ores from 1874 to 1883 and from 1892 
to 1902, inclusive, except 1895: 



Digitized by 



Google 



MAKOAITESE OBES. 



149 



Production and value of manganese ctnd manffaniferous iron ores in Italy ^ 1860-190^. 



Year. 


Manganese ores. 


Manganiferous iron 
ores. 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1»0 


Long torn. 

642 

515 

1,714 

714 

712 

571 

7U 

677 

661 

768 

630 

779 

1,125 

3,106 

3,169 

3,760 

6,800 

6,704 

6,560 

5,614 

6,373 

8,629 

6.868 

11,204 

871 

1,774 

5,473 

4,363 

3,573 

2,168 

2,113 

2,391 

1,223 

797 

748 

1,544 

1,860 

1,606 

2,965 

4,287 

5,919 

2,147 

2,438 


112,873 

9,174 

15,661 

6,674 

8,667 

6,716 

7,191 

8.079 

7,894 

19,406 

8,646 

9,796 

12,811 

46,548 

58,697 

64,341 

61,074 

56,546 

46,567 

83,842 

40,682 

45,219 

67,201 

62,975 

7,570 

10,899 

80,943 

21,872 

15, OM 

9,998 

10,050 

12,467 

8,067 

6,320 

4,586 

18,634 

19,734 

14,483 

18,062 

21,647 

29,910 

16,062 

20,022 


Long torn. 




1«1 






1882 






]m . 






U64 






1865 






1806 






1867 ^ 




r 


1868 






1869 






1810 . 






1871 






1872.. .• 






1873 






1874 , 


3,446 

19,684 

22,878 

7,874 

6,868 

1,366 

20,148 

a29,526 

a29,528 

8,858 


$6,765 

96,600 

98,315 

26,248 

15,297 

2,679 

68,214 

a92,640 

092,640 

27,792 


1835 


187» 


1877. 


1878 


187» 


van 


1881 


1882 


vm - T 


1884 


1885 






1886 '. 






VK 






1888 






1861 






1860 






lan 






18K 


4,549 
8,666 
5,718 


8,028 
14,445 
8,971 


186*. 


18M. 


UK 




1866 


9,842 
20,926 
10,974 
29,402 
26,877 
28,906 
22,748 


19,800 


vm 


32,829 


U6» 


25,828 


1869 s 


74,449 
64,655 
58,131 


nn 


IIBI. 




58,384 





a In original. 90,000 metric tons, valued at 480,000 lire, poasibly an estimate. 



SPAIN. 



The manganese ore obtained in Spain comes chiefly from the Prov- 
ince of Hoelva, where ores of the carbonate and silicate varieties are 
obtained. Mr. Carl Doetsch, of Huelva, has supplied the following 



Digitized by 



Google 



150 



MINEBAL SESOUBCES. 



table of exports of maDganese ore from that Province from the year 
1869 (the beginning of the industry) to 1903, inclusive: 

Exports of manganese ore from the Province of Hudva, 



Year. 


Metrictons. 


Year. 


MetrlctoM. 


1859-60 


27,898 
1,102 
6,400 
18,266 
20,690 
24,292 
81,871 
41,050 
85,306 
20,646 
17,102 
24,297 
27,055 
15,510 
25,588 
18,860 
6,973 
7,295 
86,475 
4,750 
27,572 
4,828 


1888 


4,0tt 


1861 


1884 




1862 


1886 




1868 


1886 




1864 


1887 




1865 ^ 


1888 




1866 


1889 . .... 




1867 


1890 4,720 


1868 


1891 1 3,884 

1892 10-410 


1869 


1870 


1898 


6,394 
. 7.S21 


1871 ' 


1894 


1872 


1895 83,358 

1896 . . . .... 90,821 


1878 


1874 


1897 103.267 


1875 


1898 


188,062 


1876 


1899 


138,419 


1877 


1900 


129,916 


1878 


1901 . . ... 


91,C?2 
62,944 


1879 


1902 


1880 


1908 


54,540 


18S1 


Total/ 






1,817,0M 


1882 













The distribution of the exports in the years 1899 to 1903, inclusive, 
was as follows: 

Exports of Huelva manganese ores, 1899-190S, 



Country. 


Quantity. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1908. 


RAlgiiim ftn^ Liixembimg: 


Metric Urns, 

127,743 

4,842 

4,449 

1,885 


Metric tons. 

126.482 

1,218 

2,221 


Metrictons. 

85,961 

918 

2,861 

2,442 


Metrictons. 

57,927 

12 

1,828 

8,182 


Metric ioM, 
68.429 


England 


France 


1,111 


Germany 








Total 


138,419 


129.916 


91,672 


62,944 


54,540 





Mr. Doetsch estimates the total value of the exports in 1903 as 
1,500,000 pesetas ($289,500). 

From the north of Spain, also, a small amount of manganese ore, 
estimated at about 1,000 tons per annmn, is exported. 



Digitized by 



Google 



MANGANESE OBES. 



PORTUGAL. 



151 



Most of the manganese ore mined in Portugal comes from the dis- 
trict of Beja, in the Province of Alentejo, the production of 1901 
bemg reported as 904 metric tons. 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

The Kingdom of Austria mines some manganese ore, the quantity 
produced in 1903, as reported by Prof. Hans Hoefer, being 61,789 
metric centners, valued at 128,851 crowns ($26,157). 

The following table gives the annual production of manganese ore 
in Austria from 1876 to 1903, inclusive: 

Production of manganese ore in Austriaj 1876-190S, 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


1«6 


Centner: 
67,817 
78,999 
41,836 
34,837 
88,744 
91,097 
84,183 
93,821 
79,423 
61,677 
92,464 
98,108 
65,541 
89,261 


1890 


Centners, 
80,068 
62,793 
46,000 


1877 


1891 


1S78 


1892 


1879 


1893 


54,000 

101,120 

a 92, 270 

Metric tons. 


1880 


1894 


wsi 


1896 


1882 


1897 


188S 


6,012 
6,132 
6,411 
8,804 
7,796 
6,646 


1884 


1898 


1885 


1899 


18» 


1900 


1887... .' . 


1901 


1888.. 


1902 


1889 


1908 


6,179 







a Including Boshia. 

Professor Hoefer gives the quantity of manganese ore mined in the 
Kingdom of Hungary in 1903 as 124,895 metric centners, valued at 
^970 crowns ($13,189), and in Bosnia and Herzegovina as 45,374 
metric centners, valued at 136,122 crowns ($27,633). 

The following tables give the production of manganese ores in Hun- 
gary from 1897 to 1903, and in Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1892 to 
1903, inclusive: 

Production of manganese ore in Hungary , 1S97-190S,^ 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


MK... 


Metric tons. 
8,976 
8,056 
6,078 
6,746 


1901 


Metric tons. 
4,691 


ttfc.... 


1902 


7,847 


2M 


1908 


12,490 


mt 











a Ungarischea Statiitichea Jahrbnoh. 



Digitized by 



Google 



152 MINERAL BESOUBOBS. 

Production of manganese ore in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1899-190S. 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


1892 


Long torn, 

7,819 

8,016 

6,718 

a5,a60 

a5,286 


1899 - -- 


Longttm, 
5,536 


1895 


1900 

1901 

1902 

1908 




7,813 


1896 


6,147 


1897 


5,609 


1898 


4,465 








! • • 






aBosniflches Bureau Montan Abthellung. 
SWEDEN. 





The production of manganese ore in Sweden is unimportant, the 
quantity mined in 1903 being 2,244 metric tons, valued at 36,550 
kroners ($9,795). 

The following table gives the official statistics of the annual pro- 
duction and value of manganese ores in Sweden from 1888 to 1903, 
inclusive: 

ProdticHon of manganese ore in Sweden, 1S88-190S, 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1888 


Long ions. 
9,537 
8,509 
10,529 
8,986 
7,708 
6,949 
8,306 
3,068 




1896 


Long ions. 
2,028 
2,706 
2,821 
2,581 
2,609 
2,285 
2,806 
2,244 


17,197 


1889 




1897 


12,616 


1890 




1898 


11,060 


1891 




1899 


11,990 


1892 




1900 


13,179 


1893 




1901 

1902 

1908 


11,256 


1894 




14,729 


1895 




9,795 









RUSSIA. 

Late official statistics in regard to the production of manganese in 
Russia, the principal manganese producing country in the world, are 
difficult to obtain. 

According to a report lately presented by Mr. Ethelbert Watts, 
consul-general of the United States at St Peteraburg, Russia, the ore 
is mined in the provinces of Perm, Orenburg, Ekaterinoslav, and 
Kutais (Caucasus). The latter province yields three-fourths of the 
manganese produced in Russia, and nearly all of it is exported. The 
total yield of the province in 1901 is given as 375,211 metric tons, a 
decrease of 286,733 tons compared with the quantity mined in 1900. 
The exports in 1901 were 355,545 metric tons, as against 461,125 tons 
in 1900. 

The following table shows the production of manganese ore in the 
different provinces of Russia from 1885 to 1901, inclusive: 



Digitized by 



Google 



MAK0ANB8E OBBS. 



153 



StaiMcs of manganese ores in Russia, (^ 
[In poods.] 



1 



18».. 

las.. 

JS89.. 

1990.. 

1891.. 

1892.. 

189$... 

1894... 

UK... 



1887. 






1900. 
1901. 



Production. 



Uml. 



64,700 
50,000 
50,000 
82,700 
179,100 
143,500 
118,000 
56,000 
186,000 
108,000 
168,000 
255,000 
303,000 
896,000 
111,000 



^^ C«nc«««. 



250,000 

226,850 

89,600 

841,500 

528,100 

660,000 

1,795,000 

4,740,000 

8,562,000 

2,287,000 

2,782,000 

3,417,000 

3,640,000 

5,919,000 



8,640,800 
4,242,100 
8,277,200 
1,822,800 
4,243,200 
10,468,100 
6,126,000 
10,560,000 
11,678,000 
11,198,000 
9,943,000 
9.662,000 
12,343,000 
16,066,000 
34,077,000 
40,363,486 
22,569,085 



Total. 



695,500 
542,100 
353,550 
995,100 
763,800 
139,700 
904,000 
411,000 
599,000 
863,000 
398,000 
699,000 
063,000 
102,000 
107,000 



Exports. 



Caucasus.^ Total. 



2,567,000 
3,408,000 
3,690,000 
8,055,000 
3,287,000 
8,235.000 
4,575,000 
7,876,000 
7,633,000 
8,961,000 
10,172,000 
8,808,000 
10,900,000 
14,610,000 
23,849,000 



2,567,000 
8,408,000 
3,690,000 
3,055,000 
3,237,000 
8,285,000 
4,575,000 
7,876,000 
7,666,000 
8,965,000 
10,172,000 
8,842,000 
11,441,000 
14,950,000 
25,836,000 



a One lOD^ ton equals 62 poods. 



b Exports within Russia not included. 



TURKEY. 



Turkey has some good mangaDese deposits which are worked to 
supply a portion of the foreign demand, none of it being used locally. 
Mr. Hugh Whittall, of Constantinople, states that the ministry of mines 
report the exportation of manganese ore from Turkey in the year 1903 
as 49,100 metric tons, valued at 66,950 pounds ($325,812). 

QREBCE. 

Greece produces considerable quantities of manganese ore, the quan- 
tity reported mined being given as 18,076 metric tons, valued at 
542,280 francs, in 1901, and 14,962 metric tons, valued at 448,860 
francs, in 1902. A considerable amoimt of manganiferous iron ore is 
also obtained. 

INDIA. 

India in late years has attained considerable prominence as a pro- 
ducer of manganese ores, the greater portion coming from the presi- 
dency of Madras. The production of manganese ore in India in 1903, 
locording to the report of Mr. L. Robertson, under secretary to the 
jfovemment of India, was 165,006 long tons, valued at 1,991,117 
rupees ($645,123), this year's production being the maximum. 



Digitized by 



Google 



154 



MIIfEBAL BES0UBCE8. 



The following table gives the production of manganese ore in India 
from 1894 to 1903, inclusive, the figures for the earlier years being 
those of exports. 

Exports of manganese ore from British India by sea to other countries, 1894-190S. 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Year. 


Qnantity. 


1894 


Long tons. 
11,410 
15,816 
66,869 
73,680 
60,449 


1899a 


Longlons. 
87,126 


1895 


1900a 


130,670 


1896 


1901a 


162,097 


1897 


1902a 


157,780 


1898a 


1903a 


165,006 









a Production. 



JAPAN. 

Manganese ores are mined in Japan, but the quantity secured is 
moderate. 

In the following table the first column, taken from the Financial 
and Economical Annual of Japan, gives the production of manganese 
ores from 1886 to 1901, inclusive, and the second column, taken from 
the annual returns of the Empire of Japan (department of finance), 
shows the exports of this mineral from 1881 to 1903, inclusive, together 
with the value of the same from 1893 to 1903. As both sets of figures 
are claimed as official, no attempt at harmonizing is made. 

The exports of manganese ores in 1903 are given as 5,571,518 kin, 
valued at 77,892 yen ($38,791). Of this quantity, 4,065,841 kin were 
exported from Yokohama, 1,502,047 kin from Kobe, and 3,630 kin 
from Osaka. 

Production and comport of manganese ores, Japan, 1881-1908, 



Year. 


Produc- 
tion. 


Exports. 


Value of 
exports. 


Year. 


Produc- 
tion. 


Exports. 


Value of 
exports. 


1881 


Long Urns. 


Long tons. 

2 

156 

151 

125 

123 

404 

312 

813 

945 

2,604 

3,178 

4,948 




1893 


Long tons. 
15,655 
13,007 
16,679 
17,482 
15,081 
U,207 
11,049 
15,430 
15,858 


LorigtoTts. 
18,510 
17,465 
16,338 
20,785 
14,624 
9,905 
9,157 
12,576 
8,726 
2,625 
3,258 


$106,016 

99,007 

97,906 

136,668 

102,248 

77,853 

76,089 

111,750 

98,214 


1882 .- . 






1894 


1883 






1805 


1884 






1896 


1885 






1897 


1886 


892 

802 

688 

916 

2,526 

3,142 

4,891 




1898 


1887 




1899 


1888 


I 


1900 


1889 


1 


1901 


1890 


1 


1902 


1891 


1 


1903 




38,791 


1892 















Digitized by 



Google 



MANGANESE 0BE3. 
JAVA. 



155 



Manganese ores are exploited in the regencies of Pengasin and 
Mangolaen, but no late reports are at hand. In 1899 the quantity 
mined is given as 1,888 metric tons. 



NEW ZEALAND. 



In 1902 no manganese ore was mined in New Zealand, but in 1901 
808 long tons were produced, valued at £614 ($2,988). 



AUSTRALIA. 



NEW SOUTH WALES. 



No manganese ore was mined in this province in 1902, but in 1901 
there was a production of 12 tons of manganese. 



QUEENSLAND. 



In 1902 Queensland supplied 4,600 tons of manganese ore valued at 
£16,989 ($82,677). The following table shows the production and 
value of manganese ore in Queensland from 1881 to 1902, inclusive: 

Production and value of manganese ores in Queenalandy 1881-1884 and 1889-1902, 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


im 


LangUmi, 
87 
100 
20 
55 
4 
5 
10 


$1,268 
1,094 
290 
799 
87 
97 
126 


1894 


Lcmgtons. 
140 
855 
300 
300 

67 
785 

75 

218 

4,600 


$1,936 
5,387 
4,880 
5,475 
1.221 

18,775 


UB2 


1896 : 


un 


1896 


UM 


1897 


im 


1898 


\m 


1899 


WW. 


1900 


998 


UR 


1901 


8,869 


IW 






1902 


82,677 






1 





SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

There was exported from South Australia to Queensland, in the year 
1902, 18/^ tons of manganese ore, valued at £62 ($302). 

WORIiI>'S PRODUCTION OF MANGANESE ORES. 

Contemporaneous data of the production of manganese ores in 
foreign countries can not be secured, but in the following table are 
pret^nied the latest reliable statistics which were obtainable, together 
with the year which the figures represent. The tons are either long 
or metric, except in the case of Canada, where the short ton is used. 



Digitized by 



Google 



156 



HINEBAL BESOUBOE8 



World's prodsiction of manganese ores. 



Country. 



Year. 



Piodac- 
tion. 



Country. 



Year. 



reduc- 
tion. 



North America: 

United States 

Canadaa 

Cubao 

South America: 

Brazila 

Chilea 

Europe: 

Austria 

Bosnia and Herzegoyina 

Hungary 

France 

Germany 

Greece 



1903 
1908 
1906 

1902 
1902 

1908 
1908 
1908 
1902 
1908 
1902 



Tom. 
2,825 
186 
18,796 

156,269 
12,990 

6,179 
4,587 
12,490 
12,586 
47,994 
14,962 



Europe— continued: 

Italy , 

Portugal 

Russia 

Spain , 

Sweden 

Turkeya 

Asia: 

India 

Japan 

Javaa 

Oceania: 

Queensland 

South Australia. 



1902 
1901 
1900 
1903 
1903 
1908 

1908 
1901 
1899 

1902 
1902 



Tom. 

2,477 

904 

884,200 

55,640 

2,244 

49,100 

165,006 
16,296 
1,888 

4,000 
18 



a Exports. 



Digitized by 



Google 



GOLD AND SILVER 



! 



PRODUCTION. 

The total statistics of the production of gold and silver for 1903 are 
furnished, as heretofore, by the Director of the Mint, but the statis- 
tical canvass made by the United States Geological Survey resulted in 
some differences in the distribution of the product among the several 
States and Territories. 

During the calendar year 1903 the United States produced 3,560,000 
fine ounces of gold, valued at $73,591,700, a decrease of $6,408,300, or 
8.01 per cent, as compared with the production of 1902. 

Of the 21 States and Territories yielding gold in 1903, 11 
showed an increase in production, Nevada leading with an increase 
of $492,700, or 17.02 per cent. Alaska, which led in increase in 1902, 
was second in 1903, with an increase of $268,900. Kansas and Ten- 
nesaee^ with productions valued, respectively, at $9,700 and $800, 
reported for the first time in 1903. The other States and Territories 
showing gains in 1903 were as follows: Arizona, $245,300; Utah, 
$102,900; Idaho, $95,400; Montana, $38,300; Virginia, $10,400; Wash- 
ington, $7,700, and Alabama, $1,900. 

The greatest decrease in production in 1903 was in Colorado, where 
the production fell off $5,928,600, or 20.82 per cent. California was 
second in amount of decrease in 1903, falling off $687,600. Decreases 
were also noted in the following States and Territories: Oregon, 
$526,500; New Mexico, $286,500; South Dakota, $138,700; Georgia, 
$35,800; Wyoming, $35,200; South Carolina, $21,200; North Carolina, 
$20,200, and Maryland, $2,000. 

The silver yield of the United States for 1903 amounted to 54,300,000 
fine ounces, with a coining value of $70,206,060 and a commercial value 
of $29,322,000, a decrease in quantity of 1,200,000 fine ounces, or 2.16 
percent 

Of the 21 States and Territories producing silver in 1903, 11 showed 
increased production. Nevada, which led in increase of production 
of silver in 1902, held the same position in 1903, showing an increase 
of 1,304,300 fine ounces, or 34.82 per cent. This great increase is due 
to further developments in the rich Tonopah district in Nye County. 
The following States and Territories abo showed gains in production 

167 



Digitized by 



Google 



158 



HmSBAL BESOX7B0ES. 



in 1903 over 1902: Idaho, 652,600 ounces; Utah, 365,100 ounces; 
Arizona, 344,000 ounces; Alaska, 51,600 ounces; California, 30,700 
ounces; Oregon, 24,700 ounces; Texas, 8,200 ounces; Virginia, 3,600 
ounces; and Tennessee, 700 ounces. Kansas reported silver for the 
first time in 1 903, having a production of 97,400 ounces. The greatest 
decrease in the production of silver in 1903 was in Colorado and 
amounted to 2,685,800 fine ounces. Alabama, which reported 100 fine 
ounces of silver in 1902, reported no production in 1908. Other 
decreases were as follows: Montana, 601,500 ounces; Washington, 
324,500 ounces; New Mexico, 276,500 ounces; South Dakota, 119,000 
ounces; Michigan, 60,800 ounces; North Carolina, 9,900 ounces; and 
Wyoming, 4,800 ounces. 

The total value of the production of the precious metals by the United 
States in 1903 (silver at conmiercial value) amounted to $102,913,700, 
a decrease of $6,501,300, or 5.94 per cent, from the yield of 1902. 

The following table shows the production of gold and silver in the 
United States from 1792 to 1903, inclusive: 

Production of gold and sUver in the United StateSf 179S-190S. 

[The estimates for 1792 to 1878 are by Dr. R. W. Raymond, United States mining commlsioner, and 
since by the Director of the Mint] 



Year. 



Total. 


Gold. 


SUver (coin- 
ing yalne). 


tl4,000,000 


$14,000,000 


Small 


7,760,000 


7.600,000 


«250,000 


1,068,827 


1,008,827 


50,000 


1.189,867 


1,189,867 


60,000 


939,086 


889,085 


50,000 


10,060,000 


10,000,000 


50,000 


40,060,000 


40,000,000 


60,000 


60,060,000 


60,000,000 


60,000 


56,050,000 


56,000,000 


60,000 


60,060,000 


60,000,000 


60,000 


66,060,000 


66,000,000 


50,000 


60,060,000 


60,000,000 


50,000 


56,060,000 


55,000,000 


50,000 


56,050,000 


56,000,000 


60,000 


56,050,000 


66,000,000 


60,000 


50,600,000 


60,000,000 


500,000 


50,100,000 


50,000,000 


100,000 


46,160,000 


46,000,000 


150,000 


46,000,000 


48,000,000 


2,000,000 


48.700,000 


89,200,000 


4,600,000 


48,500,000 


40,000,000 


8,600,000 


57,100,000 


46,100,000 


11,000,000 


64,476,000 


63,226,000 


U, 250,000 


68,500,000 


58,500,000 


10,000,000 


65,225,000 


51,725,000 


13,500,000 


60,000.000 


48,000,000 


12,000.000 


61,600,000 


49,600,000 


12,000.000 


66,000,000 


60,000,000 


16,000,000 


66,600,000 


43,500,000 


28,000,000 


64,750,000 


86,000,000 


28,760^000 


Digitiz 


BdbyGoO 


Qle 



April 2, 1792, to July 81, 1834 
July 81, 1834, to Dec. 81, 1844 

1845 

1846 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850 

1851 

1852 

1853 

1854 

1855 

1856 

1857 

1858 

1859 

1860 

1861 

1862 

1863 

1864 

1865 

1866 

1867 

1868 

1869 

1870 

1871 

1872 



GOLD AND SILVER. 



159 



Production of gold and gUver in the United /^cUes, 179^-1903 — Continued. 



Year. 



Total. 



Gold. 



Silver (coin- 
ing value). 



187* 

1K74 

1875 

1876 

vsn 

vm 

1879 

ISO 

1881 

1882 

1883 

MM 

1885 

1886 

1887 

1888 

1S89: 

Mint.. 
Censtu 

1890 

isn 

1892 

19» 

18&4 

1W5 

1»6 

urn 

M98 

1W9 

1900 

1101 

1902- 



971,750,000 
70,800,000 
65,100,000 
78,700,000 
86,700,000 
96,400,000 
79,700,000 
75,200,000 
77,700,000 
79,900,000 
76,200,000 
79,600.000 
83,400,000 
86.000,000 
86,350,000 
92,870.000 

97,446,000 
99,282,866 
103,809,645 
108,691,565 
115,101,000 
113,531,000 
103,500,000 
118,661,000 
129,157,236 
127,000,172 
134,847,485 
141,860,026 
153,704,496 
150,054,500 
151,757,575 
143,797,760 



•86,000,000 
83,500,000 
33,400,000 
39,900,000 
46,900,000 
51,200,000 
38,900,000 
36,000,000 
34,700,000 
32,600,000 
30,000,000 
30,800,000 
31,800,000 
36,000,000 
83,000.000 
33,176,000 

32,800,000 
32,886,180 
32,845,000 
38,175,000 
83,000,000 
35,955,000 
39,500,000 
46,610,000 
58,088,000 
67,363,000 
64,463,000 
71,053,400 
79,171,000 
78,666,700 
80,000,000 
78,691,700 



•35,750,000 
37,300,000 
31,700,000 
38,800,000 
39,800,000 
45,200,000 
40,800,000 
39,200,000 
43,000,000 
46.800,000 
46,200,000 
48,800,000 
61,600,000 
51,000,000 
63,360,000 

'69,195,000 

64,646,000 
66,396,686 
70,464,646 
75,416,566 
82,101,000 
77,676,000 
64,000,000 
72,061,000 
76,069,286 
69,637,172 
70,384,485 
70,806,626 
74,533,495 
71,387,800 
71,757,675 
70,206,060 



The following table shows the production of gold in the United States 
in 1902 and 1903 and the increase or decrease in 1903, by States and 
Territories: 

Production of gold in the several States and Territories in 190fS and 190S, and the increase 
or decrease of the production of each in the latter year. 



8Ute or Territory. 


Value. 


1902. 


1908. 


Increaise. 


Decrease. 


AM>ima 


•2,600 
8,845,800 
4,112,300 
16,792,100 
28,468,700 
97,800 
1,475,000 


•4,400 

8,614,700 

4,357,600 

16,104,500 

22,540,100 

62,000 

1,570,400 

9.700 

500 

4,411,900 


•1,900 
268,900 
246,800 




Alofka , . . , 




Ariaooa.. 




Cililoaia 


1687,600 


Coiondo 




6,928,600 


Geonria. 




35,800 


^^■•*- 

Idftbo 


95.400 
9,700 




^UitU 




MAfYkiul 


2,600 
4,378,600 


2,000 


HoDtUM 


38,300 





Digitized by 



Google 



160 



HINEBAL RESOUBOES. 



Production of gold in the several Slates and Territories in 1902 and 190S, ric.— Continoed. 



state or Territory. 


Value. 


1902. 


1908. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


Nevada 


•2,895,800 

531,100 

90,700 

1,816,700 

121,900 

6,965,400 


•3,888,000 

244,600 

70,600 

1,290,200 

100,700 

6,826,700 

800 

' 8,697,400 

13,500 

279,900 

3,600 


•482,700 




New Mexico 


$286,600 


North Carolina 




20,200 


Oregon 




526,500 


South Carolina 




21,200 


South Dakota 




1S8,700 


Tenneasee 


800 

102,900 

10,400 

7,700 




Utah 


3,594,500 

3,100 

272,200 

38,800 




Virginia 




Wftflhinflrtrtn . . 




Wvomlnur .. 


35,200 








Total 


80,000,000 


73,591,700 


1.274,000 


7,682,300 


Net decrease 


6,408.300 













The following table shows the production of silver in the United 
States in 1902 and 1903, and the increase or decrease in 1903, by States 
and Territories: 

Production of silver in the several States and Territories in 1902 and 1903y and the increase 
or decrease of the production of each in the latter year. 



state or Territory. 


Weight. 


1902. 


1903. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


Alabama 


Fineovnces. 

100 

92,000 

3.043,100 

900,800 

15,676,000 

400 

5,854,800 


Pine ounces. 


Pine ounces. 


Pine ounces 
100 


Alaska 


143,600 

3,887,100 

981,500 

12,990,200 

400 

6,507,400 

97,400 

60,000 

12,642,800 

5,050,500 

180.700 

11,000 

118,000 

800 

221,200 

13,000 

454,400 

11,196,800 

9,500 

294.500 

200 


51,600 

344,000 

80,700 




Arizona 




California 




Colorado 


2,685,800 


Georgia 






Idaho 


652,600 
97,400 




Kansas 




Michigan 


U0,800 

13,243,800 

3,746,200 

457,200 

20,900 

93,800 

300 

840,200 

12,800 

446,200 

10,831,700 

5,900 

619,000 

5,000 


. 60,800 
601,500 


Montana 




Nevada 


1,304,300 


New Mexico 


276,500 
9,900 


North Carolina 




Oregon 


24,700 




South Carolina 




South Dakota 




119,000 


Tennessee 


700 

8.200 

365,100 

3,600 


Texas . . 




Utah . 




Virginia 




Washington 


324,500 


Wyoming 




4,800 








Total 


a 55, 500, 000 


b54,300,000 


2,882,900 


4,082,900 
1,200,009 


Net decrease 











aCommerclal value, 129,415,000; coining value, $71,757,575. 
(» Commercial value, $29,822,000; coining value, 170,206,060. 



Digitized by 



Google 



GOLD AND 8ILVEB. 



161 



The following table shows the approximate distribution of the pro- 
daction, by States and Territories, of gold and silver in the United 
States in 1908: 

ApprfminaU diairibuiion of the production of gold and silver in the United States 'for the 

calendar year 1903, by producing States and Territories. 

[Ab esttmated by the Director of the Mint.] 



State or Territory. 



Gold. 



Quantity. Value. 



SUver. 



Quantity. 



Coining Commercial 
value. value. 



Total value 

(silver at 

commercial 

value). 



Azlaooa ... 
Gilifaniia. 
ColotMlo.. 
Geixgia.... 
Uabo 



Mar^and 

Michigan 

Montana 

Nevada 

New Mexico.... 
North CftToHna. 

Otegoo 

South Carolina . 
Sooth DakoU... 

Tennenee 

Texts 

Vtah 

Vlifinia 

Washington 

Wyoming 



Fineounces. 

213 

416,788 

210,799 

779,067 

1,090,876 

8,000 

7S,909 

468 

24 



Fineounces. 



•4,400 

8,614,700 

4,857,600 

16,104,600 

22,640,100 

62,000 

1,670,400 

9,700 

600 



148,600 

8,387,100 

961,600 

12,990,200 

400 

6,607,400 

97,400 



$186,666 
4,879,281 
1,204,864 
16,796,410 
617 
8,418,608 
125.961 



177,644 

1,829,084 

608,010 

7,014,708 

216 

8,618,996 

62,696 



213,425 

168,892 

U,838 

8,411 

62,411 

4,872 

880,243 

88 



4,411,900 

8,888,000 

244,600 

70,600 

1,290,200 

100,700 

6,826,700 

800 



178,868 
664 

18,689 
175 



8,697,400 

18,600 

279,900 

8,600 



60,000 

12,642,800 

5,060,600 

180,700 

11,000 

118,000 

800 

221,200 

13,000 

464,400 

11,196,800 

9,600 

294,600 

200 



64,646 

16,846,600 

6,629,989 

288,632 

14,222 

162,666 

888 

286,996 

16,808 

687,607 

14,476,671 

12,283 ! 



880,768 



27,000 

6,826,842 

2,727,270 

97,678 

6,940 

63,720 

162 

119,448 

7,020 

245,876 

6,046,272 

6,180 

169,030 

108 



$4,400 

8,692,244 

6,186,684 

16,607,510 

29,664,808 

62.216 

6,064,896 

62,296 

500 

27,000 

11,288,742 

6,115,270 

842,178 

76,440 

1,358,920 

100,862 

6,946,148 

7,820 

245,876 

9,713,672 

18,680 

488,930 

3,708 



Total. 



3,660,000 



73,691,700 54,800,000 



70,206,060 29,822,000 



102,913,700 



The following table shows the distribution of the production of gold 
and silver in 1903 according to sources of production: 

Ditiribution cf the production of gold and silver in the United States for the calendaryear 
190S as to the sources of production. 
[As reported by mint offlcen and agents.] 



State or territory. 


Gold. 


SUver. 


Quarts. 


Placer. 


Quartz. 


Lead ores. 


Copper ores. 


AUtmma ..... 


Fineounces. 

222 

131,862 

216,584 

606,607 

1,060,864 

1,989 

47,606 

9 


Fineounces. 

15 

288.209 

4,800 

189,122 

29,025 

1.280 

86,281 

22 


Fineounces. 

49 

180,161 

1,911,451 

826,612 

2,917,826 

1,803 

872,811 

1 


Fine minces. 


Fineounces. 


A^tlra 






Ari.9m 


195,000 

144,482 

a 10. 343, 248 


1,800,000 


lUffnrnla 


496,927 


Gni^mto 


QaoiglA 




Maho 


6.042,226 




Marykod 




MhttBM 




40,991 



M s 1903 U 



a Lead and copper ores. 



Digitized by 



Google 



162 MINERAL BES0UBCE8. 

DisirUnUlon of the production of gold tmd dliver in the United States, cte.— Continued. 



state or territory. 



Gold. 



Quartz. 



Placer. 



Silver. 



Quartz. 



Lead ores. 



Ck>pperorea. 



Montana 

Nevada 

New Mexico — 
North Carolina . 

Oregon 

South Carolina . 
South Dakota . . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Virginia 

Washington 

Wyoming 



Fine ounces, 

198,776 

174,428 

7,499 

4,671 

65,447 

6,092 

389,803 



Fine ounces. 

23,290 

1,762 

6.644 

488 

10,000 

127 



Fineoufnces. 

4,091,168 

6,161,631 

12,349 



Fine ounces, 

460,903 

466 

104,242 



Fineouwxi. 
8,682,543 



13,076 



124,599 

271 

278,646 



1,000 



Total. 



192,094 

216 

20,598 



464,376 
861,622 



1,000 
401 



156,637 
826 



8,258,308 , 8,196.007 

i 17,078 

143,614 I 6,250 



8,062,762 



691,219 



16,886,628 



682,882 13,844,232 



The following table shows the production of gold in the famous 
Cripple Creek district of Colorado for the eleven years from 1893 to 
1903, inclusive: 

Production of gold in Cripple Creek digtrid, Colorado, 189S-190S. 

1893 $2,010,367 

1894 2,908,702 

1895 6,879,137 

1896 7,512,911 

1897 10,139,708 

1898 13,507,244 

1899 15,658,254 

1900 18,073,539 

1901 17,261,579 

1902 16,912,783 

1903 12,967.338 

Total 123,831,562 

The following table shows the production of gold in the United 
States in 1901 and 1902, and the increase or decrease in 1902, by States 
and Territories: 

Production of gold in the several States and Territories in 1901 and 190^, and the increase 
or decrease of the production of each in the latter year. 



State or Territory. 


Value. 


1901. 


1902. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


Alabama 


•3,100 
6,886,700 
4,068,000 
16,891,400 
27,698,600 
124,600 
1,869,300 


•2.500 

8,846,800 

4,112,800 

16,792,100 

28,468,700 

97,800 

1,476,000 




•600 


Alaska 


•1,460,100 
29,800 




Arizona 




California 


99,300 


Colorado 


776,200 




Georgia • 


26,700 
894,800 


Idaho 





Digitized by 



Google 



GOLD AND SILVBB. 



168 



Pfxdudion of gold in the deveral SUxUb and TerrUcries in 1901 and 190^^ etc, — Continued. 



State or Teiritoiy. 



Value. 



1901. 



1902, 



Increase. Decrease. 



XArykiid 

Michigan 

Montana 

Nevada 

New Mexico.... 
North Carolina . 

Oregon 

South Carolina . 
Sooth Dakota .. 

Texas 

rtah 

Virgmia 

Washington 

Wyckming 



12,500 



$2,500 



S30, 

4,744, 

2,963, 

688. 

56, 

1,818, 

46, 

6,479, 



5, 
580, 
12, 



878,600 
896,800 
581,100 
90,700 
816,700 
121,900 
965,400 



$30,800 
370,500 
68,600 
157,300 



85,200 



1,400 



75,200 
485,900 



1,594,500 

3,100 

272,200 

38,800 



600 

95,700 

2,200 

308,300 



26,100 



Total 

Xetincreaae.. 



78,666,700 



80,000,000 



2,889,500 
1.333,300 



1,656,200 



The following table shows the production of silver in the United 
States in 1901 and 1902, and the increase or decrease in 1902, by States 
and Territories: 

Production ofsUver in the several States and Territories in 1901 and 190^, and tJie increase 
or decrease of the production of each in the latter year. 



State or Territory. 


Weight. 


1901. 


1902. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


AlftNtma 


Fine ounces. 

100 

47,900 

2,812,400 

925,600 

18,437.800 

400 

5,642,900 

81,000 

13,131,700 

1,812,500 

563,400 

20,300 

160,100 

200 

78,000 


f^ne ounces. 

100 

92,000 

3,043,100 

900,800 

15,676,000 

400 

5,8M,800 

110,800 

13,243,800 

3,746,200 

457,200 

20,900 

93,300 

300 

^0,200 

12,300 

446,200 

10,831,700 

5,900 

619, 000 

5,tX)0 


fine ounces. 


Fine ounces. 


Alaska.... 


44,100 
230,700 




Ariz«>na 




ralLfornia 


24,800 


Colorado 




2,761,800 


Gt^irgia . 






Idaho 


311,900 

29,h00 

112.100 

1,933,700 




M ichiffan 




Montana . .'. 




Nevada 




N*«w Mfxiw 


106,200 


North Carolina 


fKKJ 




( frtgon . - 


<ki,>00 


S-jDih Carolina 


100 

262,200 

12, 300 




i^mth Dakota 




Tfonessee . 




T-xaa 


472, 400 

10,760,800 

700 

344,400 

21,400 


2r.,2(H> 


Utah . 


70.1MK) 

5. 2CK) 

271.r.0(i 




VinrinLa 




Wd>hintfton 




WToming 


1«"., 1(10 








Total 


^5, 214, 000 


ar>5,500,000 


:?,2V'^,2iiO 
2HsL¥X) 


3.0(>2.2(X) 


Net increa** ........................ 














aCommerclal value, 829,415,000; coining value, $71,757,575. 



Digitized by 



Google 



164 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



The following table shows the distribution of the production of gold 
and silver in the United States in 1901, by producing States and 
Territories: 



Approximate distribution of the production of gold and tUver in the United States for the 
calendar year 1901, by producing States and Territories, 

[As estimated by the Director of the Mint] 



State or Territory. 



Gold. 



Quantity. Value, 



Silver. 



Quantity. 



Coining 
yalue. 



Commer- 
cial value. 



Total value 
(silver at 

commercial 
value). 



Alabama 

Alaska a 

Arizona 

California 

Colorado 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Michigan 

Montana 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

North Carolina... 

Oregon 

South Carolina . . . 

South Dakota 

Texas 

Utah 

Virginia 

Washington 

Wyoming 

Total 



Fine ounces. 

160 

888,096 

1OT,615 

817,121 

1,889,673 

6,028 

90.427 

1,490 

229,496 

148,874 

88,802 

2,685 

87.960 

2,250 

818,446 

29 

178,518 

266 

28,082 

614 



$8,100 

6,886,700 

4,088,000 

16,891,400 

27,698,600 

124,600 

1.869,800 

80.800 

4,744,100 

2,968,800 

688,400 

66,500 

1.818,100 

46,700 

6,479,500 

600 

8,690,200 

6,300 

580,600 

12,700 



Ifne ounces. 

100 

47,900 

2,812,400 

ft26,600 

18,487,800 

400 

6,542,900 

81,000 

18,181,700 

1,812,600 

668,400 

20,800 

160,100 

200 

78,000 

472,400 

10,760,800 

700 

844,400 

21,400 



1129 

61,981 

8,686,284 

1,196,786 

28,888.772 

617 

7,166,678 

104,727 

16,978,860 

2,843,486 

728,436 

26,246 

206,996 

269 

100,849 

610,780 

18,912,964 

906 

44^285 

27,609 



160 

28,740 

1,687,440 

656,860 

11,062,680 

240 

8.826,740 

48.600 

7,879,020 

1,087,500 

888,040 

12,180 

96,060 

120 

46,800 

288,440 

6,466,480 

420 

206,640 

12.840 



IS,160 

6,914,440 

5,770,440 

17,446,760 

38,756,180 

124,740 

6,195,040 

79,400 

12,628,120 

4,061,800 

1,026,440 

67,680 

1.914,160 

46,820 

6,526,900 

284,040 

10,146,680 

6,720 

787,140 

25,640 



8,805,600 



78,666,700 



56,214,000 



71,887,800 



88,128,400 



111,795,100 



The following table shows the distribution of the production of 
gold and silver in the United States in 1902, by producing States and 
Territories: 



Approximate distribution of the production of gold and silver in the United States for the 
calendar year 190i, by producing States and Territories. 





[As estimated by the Director of the Mint] 








Gold. 


SUver. 


Total value 

(sUverat 

commercial 

value). 


state or Territory. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Coining 
value. 


Commercial 
value. 


AiahnmA 


Fine ounces. 

119 

406,780 

198,933 

812,819 

1,877,176 

4,730 

71,862 

121 


«2,600 

8,846,800 

4,112,800 

16,792,100 

28,468,700 

97,800 

1,475,000 

2,500 


Fine ounces, 

100 

92,000 

8,048,100 

900,800 

16,676,000 

400 

6,854,800 


$129 

118,960 

8,934,613 

1,164,671 

20,267,960 

617 

7,609,842 


968 

48,760 

1,612,848 

477,424 

8,808,280 

212 

8,108,044 


12,668 

8,894,560 

6,726,148 

17,269,624 

86,77(i,9e0 

98,012 

4,678,044 

2.800 

66,724 


Aliij»lr|^ 


Arizona 


California 


Colorado 


Georgia 


Idaho 


Maryland 


Michigan 


110,800 


! 148,267 


68,724 



Digitized by 



Google 



GOLD AITD SILVEB. 



165 



AppTOximaie dutribution of tJie production of gold and tilver, etc. — Continaed. 
[Ab estimated by the Director of the Mint] 



State or Tenltoiy. 



Gold. 



Quantity. Value. 



Buyer. 



Quantity. 



Coining 
Talne. 



Commercial 
value. 



Total yalue 

(silver at 

commercial 

value). 



Kefvada 

New Mexico 

Korth OaroUna . 
Olegou ......... 

Sooth Ofciolfna . 
aoatfa Dakota.. 



Fine ounces, 

211,671 

140.069 

25,086 

4,380 

87,881 

5,896 

836,952 



•4,878,600 

2,895,800 

581,100 

90,700 

1,816,700 

121,900 

6,965,400 



l^ezas 

Utah 

Yiigiiila 

Washington. 
Wyoming.... 



178,886 

148 

18,166 

1,879 



8,594,600 

8,100 

272,200 

88.800 



Fine ounces. 

18,243,800 

8,746,200 

457,200 

20,900 

98,800 

800 

840,200 

12,800 

446,200 

10,881,700 

5,900 

619,000 

6,000 



117,128,297 

4,843,572 

691,127 

27,022 

120,630 

888 

489,855 

15,903 

576,905 

14,004,622 

7,628 

800,828 

6,464 



17,019,214 

1,965.486 

242,316 

11,077 

49,449 

159 

180,306 

6,519 

236,486 

6,740,801 

3,127 

828,070 

2,660 



111,892,814 

4,880,786 

778,416 

101,777 

1,866,1^ 

122,069 

7,146,706 

6.519 

286,486 

9,835,801 

6,227 

600,270 

41,460 



Total. 



8,870,000 



80,000,000 



65,600,000 



71,767,576 



29,415,000 



109,415,000 



The following table shows the distribution of the production of gold 
and silver in 1902 according to sources of production: 

DuiribuHon of the production of gold and silver in the United ^atesfor the calendar year 

1909 as to sources of production. 

[As reported by mint officers and agents.] 



State or Territory. 



Ariaona ... 
Cklifomia. 



1 



Geotfia 

y^bc 

Maryland 

lOehJgan 

Montana 

SefwU 

Sew Mexico.... 
XothCuoUna. 

Oregon 

ioitli Carolina. 
Sootli Dakota.. 

TeBaeaee 

tnm 

rttb 

rtiyfa fff 

WmtingtoD 

rfosdag 



Total. 



Gold. 



Quartz. 



Fine ounces. 

117 

124,156 

199,140 

612,569 

1,348,046 

4,180 

88,500 

94 



191,229 

144,211 

12,297 

8,727 

77,086 

7,257 

345,716 



192,167 

181 

16,116 



8,816,717 



Placer. 



Fineounces, 

25 

276,554 

2,100 

205,478 

81,444 

1,036 

84,547 

87 



21,626 

757 

6,812 

808 

11,798 



27 
8,000 
2,188 



697,964 



SUver. 



Quartz. Lead ores. Copper ores. 



Fine ounces. 

95 

89,388 

1,887,000 

168,582 

8,476,192 

581 

718,786 

8 



4,160,284 

8,616,260 

178,890 



107,468 

680 

851,000 

1 

446,166 

1,668,227 



369,450 
5,200 



16,988,647 



Fine ounces. 



208,000 

285,917 

12,324,766 



5,228,928 



410,738 

482,124 

47,929 



2,000 



8,700,218 



360,000 



28,035,620 



Fine ounces. 



1,130,000 
22,267 



110,844 
9,058,716 



54,171 
23,368 



2,409,592 
1,344 
2,000 



12,812,291 



a Lead and copper ores. 



Digitized by V^OOQIC:! 



166 



MIN£BAL BESOUBOES. 



GOIiB AND SIIiVER IK 1903 BY IKDITTDUAIi STATES AND 

TERRITORIES. 

ALASKA. 
By Alfred H. Brooks. 

PBODUCTIOlf. 

The wide fluctuations of the annual production of precious metals 
in Alaska during the last five years, as shown in the accompanying 
table, demand explanation. From 1898 to 1900 there was an increase 
in value of over five and a half million dollars, followed by a falling 
off in the succeeding year of nearly one and a half millions, which was 
more than regained in 1902. The output of 1903 shows a still further 
increase of some $300,000. These facts are presented in greater detail 
in the following table: 

Production of gold and silver in Alaska, 1898-190S, 
[As estimated by the Director of the ftint.] 



Year. 



Quantity. Value. 



18d9 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 



Gold. 



Fine 
ounca. 

122,187 

264, 1(M 

396,271 

883,096 

403,730 

416,738 



Quantity. 



$2,624,800 
6,469,600 
8,171,000 
6,886,700 
8,846,800 
8,614,700 



Silver. 



Fine 
ounces. 

92,400 

140.100 

73,300 

47,900 

92,000 

143,600 



Coining 
value. 



1119,467 
181,140 
94,772 
61,981 
118,960 
186,665 



Commer^ 

cial 

value. 



$64,616 
84,060 
46,446 
28,740 
48,760 
77,644 



Total value 

(silver at 

commercial 

%'alue). 



$2,679,316 
6,643,560 
8,216,446 
6,914,440 
8,394,660 
8,692,244 



The production of the quartz mines during this period has not varied 
from year to year over 20 per cent, and the value of their silver output 
is so small that it can be disregarded. The fluctuatioh of the total 
production is, therefore, a reflection of the status of the placer-mining 
industry. Moreover, as nearly five-sixths of the gold derived from 
placers comes from the Seward Peninsula, it is patent that the produc- 
tion of this district is the governing factor in the entire output. 

The rapid exploitation of the rich placers at Nome, in 1899 and 1900, 
especially the easily mined auriferous beach gravels, brought up the 
total values with a bound, but this was, unfortunately, followed by a 
reaction; for two favorable seasons sufliced to almost exhaust the 
beach placers, and to make serious inroads on some of the bonanzas of 
the shallower creek deposits. This fact, combined with a rich harvest 
of legal complications which had arisen at Nome, together with a very 
short and unfavorable season, led to a discouraging falling oflP of the 
placers in 1901. Meanwhile, however, the more enterprising opera- 
tors had recognized the necessity of improving the mining methods, 
and consequently the building of ditches and the introduction of 



Digitized by 



Google 



GOLD AND SILVER. 167 

hydraulic methods had by 1902 gone far enough to bring the produc- 
tion up over the eight million dollar mark again. The same general 
conditions existed through 1903. Though^ many extensive plants are 
being installed and 100 miles or more of ditches are being constructed 
in the peninsula, but few of these are in operation. 

The development of the bed-rock mines is relatively slow, and much 
the larger part of the lode gold still comes from the famous Tread- 
well group. In the Juneau district* much activity was displayed in 
lode mining during 1903, and some large properties changed hands. 
A few small gold mines were in operation in the Ketchikan district 
and other properties were prospected, but it was on the copper deposits 
of this region, rather than on the auriferous veins, that the attention of 
the mining public was centered. Gold-bearing quartz veins have been 
found in other parts of Alaska, but few of these have been developed 
so far as to reach a productive stage. Perhaps the most significant 
feature of lode mining in 1903 was the establishment as a commercial 
success of the Big Hurrah quartz mine on the Seward Peninsula. 
This little property, with its ten stamps, represents the only effort 
at quartz mining in all northern Alaska. 

The production of the Seward Peninsula placers is estimated to be 
about $5,000,000, of which probably three-fifths was taken from the 
Nome district, one-fifth from Ophir Creek, and the balance from three 
or four less important camps. Outside of the general activity in ditch 
construction and the installment of machinery, a very interesting inci- 
dent of the year was the discovery of considerable gold-bearing gravel 
in the northeastern^ part of the peninsula, in the valley of the Inma- 
chuk River. 

The Yukon region, including Fortymile, Birch Creek, Rampart, 

Koyukuk, and the recently discovered Fairbanks district, had an 

aggregate output for its placers of probably $1,000,000. Most of the 

camps of this region are so isolated as to make the cost of mining a 

very large percentage of the production. In only a few instances 

have extensive mining plants been installed in this field, and most of 

the gold is taken out in small quantities by more or less primitive 

methods. The newly dbcovered Fairbanks^ district comprises a 

dozen creeks tributary to the Lower Tanana, from which they are 

only 15 to 20 miles distant. The auriferous gravels appear to occur 

in considerable thickness, and the values though not high are fa^irly 

uniformly distributed. 

■Brookii, Alfred H.. Placer mining In Alaaka In 1908: Bull. U. 8. Geol. Survey No. 225, 1904, pp. 
«^ 

*Spen«*r, Arthur C, The Juneau gold belt: Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey No. 226, 1904, pp. 28-42. 

'XoAt, F. H., The Kotzebue gold placer field of the Seward Peninsula: Bull. U. S. Oeol. Survey 
5a».l90t,pp.74-W. 

'Priodle. L. U^ Gold placers of the Fairbanks district: Bull. U. 8. Geol. Survey No. 225, 1904, 



Digitized by 



Google 



168 MINEBAL BESOUBGES. 

In the Cook Inlet region steady progress is being made in the instal- 
lation of hydraulic plants. The Christochina district, lying in the 
CJopper River Basin, in spite of its isolated position, is being developed, 
but only in a small way. With the settlement of the boundary dis- 
pute, the Porcupine^ district promises to take a new lease of life. 
The aggregate output of these three camps is probably less than half 
a million. The discovery of gold placers in the Kobuk Valley made 
in 1903, though yet of no importance from the standpoint of produc- 
tion, indicates a wider distribution of the gold-bearing areas than had 
pi-eviously been supposed. 

ARIZONA. 

By V. C. Heikes. 

The Territory of Arizona has during the year past held its own in 
the output of precious metals, and, in fact, shows a slight increase 
over the preceding year. When the Tombstone mines are unwatered 
and fully reopened there will be a notable increase and a probability 
of some return to the production which made Tombstone famous about 
twenty years ago. The increase will undoubtedly be in gold as well 
as in silver, as records show the ores produced higher values in gold 
at the water level, and assays taken lower down showed a considerable 
increase in the amount of yellow metal to the ton of ore. The tables 
appended to this chapter are those obtained from returns by producers 
to the Director of the United States Geological Surve}'^ in answer to 
interrogatories. According to these returns the yield of the Territory 
in precious metals for 1902 and 1903 was as follows: 

Production of gold and nilver in the Territory of Arizona in 190^ and 190S. 



' 1902. I 1903. 

I Quantity. 



Value. Quantity. 



Fine ounces, \ Fine ounces. 

Gold 131,453 I 82,717,133 | 132,067 

.Silver 1,610,564' JM0,070 2,109,456 



Value, 



$2,729,824 
1,126,661 



(iold increase •. $12, 691 

Silver ineretu'^e 286,591 

Average commercial value of silver in 1902, $0.5216 per ounce; in 
1903, $0.5341 per ounce. 

«i Wright. ('. W., The I'oreiii.iiie pliicer district. Alawka: Bull. V. S. <ieol. Sun'ey No. 236, 1904. 



Digitized by 



Google 



GOLD AKD SILVER. 



169 



The following table shows the distribation of the total gold produc- 
tion of the Territory of Arizona, by counties, in 1902 and 1903: 

Prodtu^um of gold in Arizona in 190f and 190S, by counties. 



Goonty. 



1902. 



Quantity. Value. 



1908. 



Quantity. | Value. 



CocblK _ 

Coconino, Gila, and Maricopa 

Graham 

Moh»Te 

Pimm 

Pinal 

SnntaCnu 

Yavapai 

Yuma 

Total 



Fine ounces. 

20,146 

887 

1,291 

2,526 

471 

160 

18 

81,931 

24,023 



$416,418 

18,334 

26,685 

52,212 

9,736 

3,307 

872 

1,693,514 

496,555 



Fine ounces. 

18,283 
130 
443 

15,859 
473 
238 
540 

77,843 

18,258 



a $377, 910 

62,687 

a 9, 167 

^327,806 

b9,777 

64,919 

611,162 

n 1,609,014 

"377,392 



131,453 



2,717,133 



132,067 2,729,824 



a Decrease. 



6 Increase. 



The following table gives the production of gold derived from the 
different kinds of ore treated: 

Production of gold in Arizona in 190£ and 190S, by kinds of ore. 





Milling ores. 


Smelting ores. 


Total. 


Year. 


Placer. 


Siliceous 
ores. 


Orescya- 
nlded. 


Lead 
ores. 


Copper 
ores. 


Fine 
ounces. 


Value. 


1902 


Fine 
ounce*. 

497 

568 


Fine 
ouncea. 

22,088 

22,404 


Fine 
ounces. 

74,316 

79,639 


Fine 
ounces. 

8,702 

3,600 


Fint 
ounces. 

25,905 


131 . 4.'« ' 


82,717.133 


1903 


25,856 132.0fi7 


2,729,824 











HCMHABT OF GOLD PBODUCED FBOM DIFFEBENT SOrUtES. 

Placer hidlton. — The production remains small, Pima County having 
the largest output, which came mainly from the Greaterville placers, 
with small amounts from the Horse Shoe Basin in the Quijotoa dis- 
trict. The placers are worked by the Mexicans and Papaj^o Indians 
during the season of rains affording water for washing operations. 
The gold is sold to storekeepers, who report yearly the output. 

(jold ill siliceous ores, — The output of gold is largely from the 
siliceous ores, and it is found free in quartz and in combination with 
various ores having small percentages of sulphides. The most notii- 
ble increase in gold from siliceous ores is found in Mohave County. 
The decrease in Yuma County was due to the idleness during part of 
the year of one of the largest gold properties. 

Gold ores cyanided. — Yuma, Yavapai, and Mohave counties produce 
the largest amount of cyanides, which are made mainly from ores 
directly treated by the cyanide process. The mills of st'venil ljir<^^e 



Digitized by 



Google 



170 



MINERAL RESOUBCES. 



properties have found the cyanide process advantageous in the treat- 
ment of tailings. 

Gold in lead ores, — The largest production of gold from this class of 
ore has been reported in Yavapai County. The decrease is probably 
due to the values of gold increasing in the ores carrying copper. 

Gold in copper ores. — Yavapai County is credited "with the largest 
output of gold from copper ores. Cochise County is next in impor- 
tance, and on account of increased smelter facilities in the new town of 
Douglas, it showed a notable increase over 1902. The other important 
copper districts report very little gold associated with copper ores. 

The following table shows the output of silver in the Territory of 
Arizona for the years 1902 and 1903, by counties, comparing the two 
years: 

Production of silver in Arizona in 1909 and 190S^ by counties. 



County. 


1902. 


1908. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


rnP.hiHA , 


Fine ounces. 
887,367 
4,242 
26,048 
90,494 
2,440 
18,490 
98,060 
466,874 
16,549 


M62,851 
2,212 
18,587 
47,202 
1,278 
9,644 
51,148 
243,521 
8,632 


Fine ounces. 

1,406,815 

5,265 

13,644 

54,169 

2,450 

8,461 

4,080 

602,087 

17,985 


1751, lis 


Coconino, Gila, and Maricopa 


2,812 




7,287 


Mohave 


28,931 


Pimft 


1,809 


Pinal 


1,849 


Santa Cruz 


2,179 


Yavapai 


321,575 


Yumft 


9,606 






Total 


1,610,564 


0840,070 


2,109,456 


M, 126, 661 







a Commercial value, 10.5216. 



2> Commercial value, 10.5341. 



The production of silver in Arizona in 1902 and 1903, by sources, is 
as follows: 

Production of silver in Arizona in 190$ and 190S, by kinds of ore. 





Milling ores. 


Smelting ores. 


Total. 


Year. 


Placer. 


Siliceous 
ores. 


Orescya- 
nided. 


Lead 
ores. 


Copper 
ores. 


Fine 
ounces. 


Value. 


1902 


Fine 
ounces. 


Fine 
ounces. 

723.025 

1,068,317 


Fine 
ounces. 

68,562 

50,158 


Fine 
ounces. 

177,158 

84,757 


Fine 
ounces. 

641,819 

906,204 


1,610,564 
2,109,456 


1840,070 


1903 


20 


1.126,661 





SUMMABT OF 8ILTEB PRODUCED FBOM DIFFEREUT SOURCES. 

Placer hdlion, — Only 20 ounces of silver was reported from all 
sources. 

Silver in siliceous ores. — The largest output of silver in this class of 
ore is credited to Cochise County, which had a greatly increased pro- 
duction over 1902. Reports from Yavapai and Mohave counties also 
show an increase. 



Digitized by 



Google 



GOLD AND SILVER. 171 

SUver in ores cycmided, — Yavapai County reports show that the 
largest amount of silver is won from ores and tailings treated by 
cyanide. Mohave and Yuma counties follow in order of production. 

Siher in lead ores. — The lead-bearing ores of Yavapai CJounty give 
up the most silver, with Cochise next, both being credited with an 
increase over 1902. Yuma County is placed third in the list of silver 
producers from lead ores. Mohave County shows a potable decrease 
in production, as do also Pima and Santa Cruz, as compared with the 
output in 1902. 

Silver in copper ores. — Yavapai Coupty has to its credit an increased 
number of ounces of silver won from copper-bearing ores, the figures 
showing an increase over 1902. Cochise County is second, and fully 
doubles its output. The next in importance in the production of 
silver from copper ores is Graham County. 

■IKES CHABACTEBIZBD BT THEIB MAIN PBODUCT. 

According to a tabulated list consisting of 183 mines known as pro- 
ducing properties in distinction to mere prospects, only 117 were 
actual producers in 1903. All the mines that have been idle for 
several years were excluded from this list. As characterised by their 
main product, these mines may be specified as follows: 38 copper, 7 
lead, 55 gold, and ] 7 silver. 

The mining of copper ore is the main industry in the several follow- 
ing counties: Graham, credited with 10 properties; Gila, 8; Yavapai, 
7; Cochise, 5; Coconino, 2; Pima, 2; Pinal, 2; Santa Cruz, 1; Yuma, 
1. The total quantity of copper reported from these counties is 
137,526,891 pounds. 

Mining for silver is practically at a standstill; hence it is that so few 
lead mines were heard from. 

Only 1,390,550 pounds of lead were reported, distributed accord- 
mg to productive mines, by counties, as follows: Cochise, 2 mines; 
Mohave, 2; Yuma, 2; Santa Cruz, 1. 

Gold is reported, by counties and mines, as follows: Yavapai County, 
24 mines; Mohave, 9; Cochise, 7; Pima, 4; Pinal, 4; Yuma, 4; Santa 
Cruz, 2; Maricopa, 1. 

The value of the gold and silver output in Arizona for 1903, as 
reported by the United States Mint and by the United States Geolog- 
ical Survey, differs considerably as to gold and to some extent as to 
silver. The cause of this discrepancy may be due to the shipping of 
gold in the form of placer dust, amalgam, or bullion in bars, from the 
State of Sonora, Mexico, into the Territory. Such gold would be 
disposed of to the banks and eventually be shipped to the mint at 
Denver, Colo., or to San Francisco, Cal., by express. It is possible 
that this bullion is credited to the output of Arizona. 



Digitized by 



Google 



172 MIKEBAL BES0UB0E8. 

CALIFORNIA. 

By Chas. G. Yale. 

PBODUCnOlf. 

Returns received by the United States Geological Survey show 
California to have produced in the calendar year 1903 gold .to the 
value of $16,300,653; silver (commercial value), $498,412; copper, 
$2,533,355; lead, $7,074, and platinum, $952, a total of $19,340,446. 

In ''Mineral Resources of the United States for 1902" the chapter 
on the "Production of gold and silver" was prepared by Mr. George E. 
Roberts, Director of the Mint. For that year he credited California 
with a gold production of $16,792,100, and with a silver production 
(commercial value) of $477,424. Comparing those figures with the 
returns for 1903, the State shows a decrease in gold product of 
$491,447, and an increase in silver product of $20,988, making a total 
decrease of $470,459. This loss in annual product may be attributed 
chiefly to labor strikes at various large producing gold mines and 
copper mines producing gold, which caused the enforced idleness of 
such mines for periods of from one to three months. These troubles 
were not confined to any one section, but occurred in the Mother Lode 
counties where many of the largest producers are situated, in Kern 
County to the south of San Francisco, and in Shasta County to the 
north. The mines ultimately resumed operations, though several 
have had to employ nonunion men and are not working the same force 
as formerly, work being thus more or less hampered. 

Conditions vary but slightly from year to year in California mining, 
much depending, however, on the winter rain and snowfall as to results 
of water supply for the following summer. This affects not only the 
gravel mines, but the quartz properties as well, the latter using the 
water for power, either direct or transformed to electricity. The 
winter of 1903-4 was an exceptionally favorable one as compared with 
three or four preceding ones, there having been abundance of rain and 
snow, giving plenty of flow in the streams in the spring. The result 
of this abundant water supply has more effect on the returns of bullion 
to come for 1904, however, than on the 1903 returns. The rainfall of 
the winter of 1902-3 was scant, and most of the gravel miners working 
their claims in the summer of 1903 had a very short water season in 
consequence; and in the fall of 1908, before the winter rains set in, a 
number of the larger quartz mills were compelled to ''hang up" all or 
part of their stamps for a time, owing to lack of water for power. 
These features, in addition to the labor troubles referred to, readily 
account for the reduction in bullion in 1903. 

The most noteworthy feature in connection with the gold production 
in California is the marked and rapid advance of the gold-dredging 



Digitized by 



Google 



GOLD AND 8ILVEB. 173 

\iA\istTy. In fact, the increase of gold from this source did much to 
make up for the deficiency in other classes of mines in 1903. The 
total returns from the dredgers operated in 1903 were $1,475,749, as 
compared with $867,665, an increase of $608,074. This result was 
obtained from 25 machines operating at Oroville, Butte County, 3 in 
Sacramento County, 1 in Siskiyou, 1 in Trinity, and 1 in Yuba. Of 
the total for 1903 the sum of $1,329,998 came from Butte County, the 
center of the dredging industry. The number of dredges in the first 
part of 1904 at Oroville was 27, and in the sunmier of that year 2 
of the largest dredges in the State were installed between Marysville 
and Smartsville, on the Yuba River. Others have been built in Cala- 
veras, Shasta, and Trinity counties, and more are bein^ constructed 
at different points. Ground suitable for dredging purposes is being 
prospected in many counties of the State, and is in great demand at 
prices ranging from $500 to $3,000 per acre, according to prospective 
value. 

For the first time in the history of the State the output of the dredg- 
ers has exceeded that of the hydraulic or the drift mines. This fact 
alone shows the rapid advance of this branch of gold mining. The 
hydraulic mines produced in 1903 the sum of $872,812, and the drift 
mines $905,679. The dredge output exceeded each of these and came 
within about $300,000 of equaling the product of hydraulic and drift 
mines combined. 

The principal section of hydraulic mining has changed of late years, 
and is now in Trinity and Siskiyou counties, though Nevada County 
shows a yield from this source of $124,439. Trinity produced $233,093 
and Siskiyou $173,337 from hydraulic mines. Placer County leads all 
others in drift mining, its output having been $331,002 from this 
source. Sacramento County comes next with an output of $213,867. 
Sierra, Butte, and Plumas counties have been eclipsed in this respect 
by Sacramento, where little or no drift mining was carried on until 
recent years. The operations in the Blue Ravine section above Fol- 
aom have brought about this result. The largest drift mining opera- 
tions, however, are still carried o"h in Placer County. 

The quartz mines, however, continue to be the main source of the 
California gold supply, the sum of $12,247,892 out of $16,300,653 
having come from quartz in 1903. This shows that fully 75 per cent 
of the California gold comes from the quartz properties, the other 25 
per cent being from hydraulic, drift, and surface placer mines. The 
largest amount of quartz came in 1903 from Nevada County, followed 
in relative rank by the counties of Tuolumne, Calaveras, Amador, and 
Kern, all of which show a yield in excess of a million dollars, Nevada 
County alone producing over two millions. Among these counties, 
Amador, Calaveras, and Tuolumne are mother lode counties; Nevada 
fod Kern are not. Considering total output of gold from all classes 



Digitized by 



Google 



174 



MINERAL RB80ITB0ES. 



of mining in 1908, the rank of the counties showing over a million 
dollars each is as follows: Nevada, Tuolumne, Calaveras. Butte, 
Amador, Kern. Of these, three are mother lode counties and three 
are not. 

The quartz-mining industry has been fairly prosperous during 1903, 
but, as already stated, has been more or less hampered by labor 
troubles. There has been increased development in both new and old 
mines, and a number of old mines have been reopened and suitably 
equipped. Some mines developed in previous years have had machin- 
ery installed and have become producers. There is a constantly 
increasing tendency to enlarge the capacity of the stamp mills at the 
older mines, and new mills now erected are given more stamps origi- 
nally than was formerly the practice. This is due to the possibility 
of working lower grade ore than in the past and to the recognition of 
the fact that such mines can be worked at a profit with extensive 
reduction facilities, while small mills do not bring satisfactory results. 
Some of the mines are yielding well at a depth of 2,500 feet, and 
shafts are being sunk to 2,800 feet. The experience of the few mines 
working at such depths has given greater confidence to those persons 
with smaller mines, as the ore bodies have held out well, and in some 
instances richer bodies have been discovered. Numbers of ''pros- 
pects" are found each year and in due time become more or less 
developed; but, as in all mining regions, the great difficulty with the 
prospector is to turn these prospects into mines without the assistance 
of capital. The capitalists desirous of investing, want ''going" mines, 
and prospects, until pretty well developed by their owners, are not in 
demand. 

The following table shows the source of California gold, by counties. 
It is possible that values in the column headed " Surface placer," which 
includes ordinary placers, ground sluice mining, riverbed and bar min- 
ing, ocean beach mining, etc., may be too high, as in some of the 
answers to inquiry the miners fail to make the distinction between 
surface and placer or deep, drift, or hydraulic mining, answering 
simply "placer." Some of the gold attributed to this source should 
probably be credited to the drift or hydraulic mining colunms. 



Sources of California gold, by counties, 190S, 




• 


County. 


Gold from 
quartz. 


Hydraulic 
mines. 


Drift 
mines. 


Dredging. 


Surface 
placer. 


Total gold. 


Alpine 


«2,726 
1,869,367 

66,614 
1,808,065 










$2,726 
1,884,506 
1,541,921 


Amador 


$1,800 
38,176 
48,804 

6,633 
12,849 

1,800 
37,839 


$1,060 
64,064 
26,927 


$1,329,998 


$12,791 
48,060 
20,219 
4,250 
48,496 
3,140 
3,850 


Butte 


Calaveras 


1,896,506 
10,888 


Del Norte 




Eldorado 


288,865 
17,809 


14,106 




364,316 
22,749 
41,6Si 


Fresno 




Humboldt 







Digitized by 



Google 



GOLD JlTSJ> 8ILVEB. 



175 



Source of Califorma gold, by counties, 190S — Continued. 



County. 



Gold from 
quartz. 



Hydraulic 
mines. 



Drift 
mines. 



Dredging. 



Surface 
placer. 



Total gold. 



In JO.. 



Los Angles 

Msden 

Mariposa 

Mono 

Monterey 

Nerida 

Onmge 

Placer 

PlDmas 

Riverside 

SacruDento 

aui Bernardino.. 

6an Diego 

San Lois Obispo . 



$101,104 

1,041,5U 

93,699 

8,965 

96,048 

666,803 

376,655 

1,699 

2,062.148 



16,750 



2,200 



$124,439 



122,570 



128,080 
137,154 
12,653 



67,185 
48,944 



831,002 

29,532 

800 

218,867 



$102,097 



378,294 
859,656 



Siena 

Siildjoa... 
Trinity.... 

Takre 

Tnolnmne. 
Ventma . . . 
Ynha 



712,888 

188,028 

832,754 

290,172 

7,215 

1,898,808 

87 

2,696 



1,143 

51,805 

178,337 

233.093 



300 
80,329 
11,328 
8,400 



7,318 
10,600 



5,000 



4,068 



1,500 

2,900 

9,720 

39,876 

150 

170,441 

58,549 



15,000 
8,880 

18,600 
1,084 

14,518 

42,751 
112,873 

76,746 



25,966 



2,606 



25,736 



Total. 



12,247,892 



872,812 



906,679 



1,476,749 



4,189 
71,079 



$101, 104 

1,048,261 

93,599 

6,165 

66,048 

567,038 

379,555 

11,419 

2,349,033 

150 

691,708 

274,179 

12,953 

330,964 

387,174 

878,156 

1,084 

728,299 

307,913 

637,610 

614,011 

7,215 

1,911,550 

87 

128,081 



798,521 



16,300,658 



The returns from California received by the survey were from 512 
producing quartz mines and 648 placer mines, including surface placers, 
hydraulic, and drift, or 1,160 producing mines in all. In addition 
returns were received from 1,098 quartz and 328 placer mines which 
were in course of development but were not productive. These active 
but nonproductive mines are therefore shown to number 1,426; and 
there are also many additional mines which are idle or on which assess- 
ment work only is done. 

The following table shows the production of gold, silver, copper, 
lead, and platinum in California in 1903, by counties, as per i-eturns 
received by the United States Geological Survey: 
iVoducfion of gold, silver, copper, lead, and platinum in California in 190S, by counties. 



County. 



Gold. 



Placer. Qoarts. 



SilTer.q 



«~«»j£S?. 



Copper. 



Lead. 



Plat- 
inmn. 



Total. 



Value. 



Inline. 



Calavcru. 
MSorte. 



$16,151 
tl, 475, 807 
96,460 
10,888 



Value. 

$2,726 
1,800,357 

66,614 
1,806,066 



Value, 



$4 

269 
10 



Value. 

$52 

6,892 

2,467 

73,949 



Pounds. Value. 



Pounds. Value Value. 



15,000 $1,660 



2,448,182 



821,882 



$210 



Value. 

$2,778 
1,391,564 
1,544,867 
2,294,346 

10,888 



a Commercial t alue. 



Digitized by 



Google 



176 MIKEBAL BB8OUB0E8. 

Production of gold^ silver^ coppfr, lead, and platinum, etc, — Continued. 





Gold. 


SUver.a 










Plat^ 
inum. 




County. 


Placer. 


Quartz. 


Placer. 


Deep 
mine. 


Copper. 


Lead. 


Total. 


KldoTado 


Value. 
$75,451 
4,940 
41,689 


Value. 
$288,865 
17,809 


Value. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Valw. 


Vabie. 
9364, 816 






$111 












22,860 


Humboldt .... 










$362 


42,051 


Inyo 


101,104 

1,041,511 

98,599 

8,965 

66,048 

565,808 

876,666 

1,699 

2,062,148 




23,850 

117,660 

1,807 


18,860 
4,800 


$2,600 
569 


161.188 


$6,830 


! 184,2M 


Kcm 


6,750 


1 


1, 166,47* 

94,906 

6,165 

70,742 

675,677 


Lasssu 








Los Angeles... 
Madera 


2,200 












$21 


14 

8,859 

23,710 

16 
5,675 


86,000 
39,645 
9,810 


4,680 
4,780 
1,800 








Mariposa 

Mono 


1,735 

2,900 

9,720 

286,886 

160 

668,628 

137,026 

800 

380,964 

8,880 
18,500 

1,084 

15,961 

174,885 

804,856 








4,720 


200 




404.765 


Monterey 

Nevada 


11,4S4 












2,3&1,62» 


Orange 

Placer 












160 


128,080 

137,164 

12,668 


76 


760 
865 


4,000 
1,900 


520 
247 






280 


603,344 


pi^ifpmi 






274,781 


Riverside 








12.968 


RA.pra.Tn An trt 


171 








1 




831,135 


San Bernar- 
dino 

San Diego 

San Luis Obis- 
no 


878,294 
869,656 


18,421 
1,462 


60,400 


7,852 


802 34 




406,481 
579,618 












1,084 


Shasta 


712,888 
188,028 
882.764 


38 


214,028 
271 
949 


16,458,409 
200 


2,171,497 
28 








3,113,824 


Sierra 








808,212 


Siskiyou 

Stanislaus 






688,507 


122,000 


15,860 






16,860 


Trinity 

Tulare . 


328,839 


290,172 

7,216 

1,898,808 

87 

2,695 


41 


184 






lOO 


614,336 










7,215 


TnoluniTie . 


13,242 




8,861 






286 


....... 




1,919,921 


Ventura 








87 


I'uba 


125,386 


41 












\ 128,122 














Total.... 


4,062,761 


12,247,892 


661 


497,751 


19,218,696 


2,638,355 


166,946 


7,074 


96a 


19,840,446 


Grand to- 
tal 




16,800,653 




498,412 




2,588,866 




7,074 


96fi 


19,340,446 











a Commercial value. 



COLORADO. 
CRIPPLE CBEKK. 

During 1903 the production of Cripple Creek suffered a considerable 
reduction, due to several causes. One of the most serious was a strike 
which interfered greatly with the work from August to the end of the 
year. Another was found in the drainage. Many mines were unable 
to sink their shafts deeper until relieved by drainage tunnels from the 
heavy influx of water. Finally, the payshoots in some mines undoubt- 
edly showed a tendency to contract. 

The El PasQ drainage tunnel, which was intended to unwater the 



Digitized by 



Google 



GOLD AND 8ILVEB. 177 

westeni half of the district to an elevation above sea level of 8,800 feet, 
was completed in the last months of 1903, and this great enterprise 
will be rewarded by an increased production in 1904. Two of the 
important producers in the district, the Elkton and the Mary McKinney , 
have already been enabled to continue operations to the level of the 
tunnel. The Portland mine, which is the largest property in the dis- 
trict, produced 90,000 tons of ore having a gross value of $2,609,000; 
dividends of $360,000 were declared during the year; extensive 
development continued and opened a large amount of ore reserves. 
Stratton's Independence continued its large production, and its divi- 
dends amounted to $260,000 during the year. Other important dividend 
payers were the Strong, the Grolden Cj^cle, and the Vindicator mines. 
Valuable ore bodies were developed in the El Paso, the C. K. & N., 
and many other mines, the working of which will swell the production 
of 1904. The extensive holdings of Stratton's estate were practically 
idle during the last half of the year. Dividends of less than $100,000 
were declared by the Mary McKinney, the El Paso, the Last Dollar, 
the C. K. & N., the United Gold Mines, the Practical, the Acacia, the 
Free Coinage, and the Modoc mines. Several beginnings were made 
to utilize the low-grade oxidized ores of the camp. A cyanide mill 
was built on the Fluorine at Copper Mountain by the Sioux Falls 
Company, and another by the Homestake Company on Ironclad Hill, 
and both were ready to begin operations at the close of 1903. The 
capacity of these mills is only 200 tons per day, but if successful they 
will be enlarged. The profits of mining and milling these ores are 
expected not to exceed $5 per ton; the telluride ores, on the other 
hand, can hardly be utilized unless they run at least $12 per ton. 

In June, 1903, the resurvey of the Cripple Creek district was begun 
by the United States Geologicftl Survey, with Messrs. W. Lindgren 
and F. L. Ransome in charge. This examination was undertaken 
jointly by the Survey and the State of Colorado, citizens of Cripple 
Creek, Colorado Springs, and Denver having contributed to the 
State's share of the expense. The resurvey was completed in April, 
1904, and the results will be published in an extensive monograph. 
A preliminary report of the principal results obtained will be pub- 
lished in a bulletin to be issued by the Survey in the last months of 
1904. 

IDAHO. 

By V. C. Hbikbb. 

pBoovenoif. 

The precious-metal industry of Idaho during 1903 shows a con- 
siderably increased yield in sulver, by reason of the extended mining 
operations in the Coeur d'Alene region, and a decrease in the yield of 
gold. This decrease has been due in great measure to the reduced 

M R 1903 12 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



178 



MINEBAL BESOUBOES. 



number of miners at many of the smaller placers, where operations in 
the primitive manner heretofore oondaeted are no longer found suffi- 
ciently remunerative. Nevertheless, the quantity of gold taken from 
the placers has not suffered any material reduction and represents a 
large percentage of the precious-metal value of the State. The work 
already begun with improved dredging machinery and hydraulic 
power will no doubt greatiy increase the future gold production. 
For each of the last two years the water season has been very short. 

Throughout this chapter silver is given in figures of commercial 
value or amount obtained for it by producers when sold. 

The following table shows the production of silver and gold for 
1902 and 1908: 

Production of gold and mlver in Idaho in'190£ and 190S. 





1W2. 


1908. 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Gold 


Flneonnces. 

72,182 

6,188,025 


•1,492,002 
a3, 225,066 


Fineoufuses. 

65,850 

7,398,970 


11,861,119 


Silver 


6 3,951,790 





a Silver at 10.5216, average commercial value. 
b Silver at 90.5341, average commercial value. 



From this table it appears that the decrease in the gold production 
in 1903 as compared with 1902 was $130,883, and that the increase in 
the silver production in the same period was $726,724. 

The following table shows the output of gold in Idaho for the years 
1902 and 1903 by counties: 

ProducHan of gold in Idaho in 190^ and, 1903, by counties. 



County. 



Ada, Bingham, Canyon, Elmore, and Fremont . 

Blaine 

Boise 

Cassia 

Custer 

Idaho 

Kootenai 

Latah, Kez Perces, Oneida, and Washington 

Lemhi 

Lincoln 

Owyhee 

Shoshone 

Undistributed 



Total . 



1902. 



Quantity. Value. 



Fineouwxs. 

4,047 

516 

12,750 

2,244 

8,342 

9,746 

863 

■ 722 

6,419 

386 

25,930 

5,717 



72,182 



$83,651 
10.666 

263, &i3 
46,383 
69,079 

201,450 
7,603 
14,924 

132,681 
7,979 

535,973 

118, 170 



1903. 



Quantity. Value. 



Fine ounces. 
1,656 
50 
7,533 
233 
5,949 
12,777 
624 
3,267 
8,819 
79 
19,665 
2,880 
2,419 



1.492,002 I 



132,142 

1,033 

155,707 

4,816 

122,965 

264,101 

12,898 

67,529 

182,289 

1,633 

406,476 

o9,590 

50.001 



66,850 1,. 361, 119 



Digitized by 



Google 



GOLD AND SILVER. 



179 



The table following gives the quantities of gold derived from differ- 
ent sources in 1902 and 1903: 

Jhroduction of gold in Idaho in 190S and 190S, by sources. 





Milling oresL 


Smelting ores. 


Year. 


Placer. 


Siliceous 
ores. 


Ores cya- 
nided. 


Lead ores. 


Copper 
ores. 


Total. 


1902 


FIneounca, 
17,694 
18,827 


Fine ounces, 
80,268 
21,425 


Ffneounces. 
28,916 
24,633 


Ftne ounces. 
60 
39 


Fine ounces. 

264 

1,426 


Fine ounces. 
72,182 
65,860 


Value. 
91,492,002 
1,361,119 


19(B 





SOMSAIIT OF eOLD PBODVCEB IN IIUHO IN 190S FROM DIFFBEBNT S0DB0B8. 

Gold in placer hvlUon. — Lemhi, Idaho, and Custer counties in the 
order named were the largest producers of placer gold in 1903. Sho- 
shone County, usually one of the largest producers of placer gold, has 
during the last year shown a marked decline in the yield of this metal. 

Gold in i^iliceoua ores. — Idaho County, owing to its increased pro- 
duction of gold-carrying siliceous ores, greatly exceeds all other 
counties in the gold output. 

Gold in ores cyanided. — Owyhee County stands first in its produc- 
tion of gold from ores treated by the cyanide method, with Custer 
and Washington counties not far behind. 

Gdd iih lead ores. — Very little gold is obtained from the lead ores 
of Idaho. 

Gold in copper ores. — Custer County is the only one whose copper 
ores carry a fair amount of gold. 

The following table shows the output of silver in Idaho for the 
years 1902 and 1903 by counties: 



Prod^tclion of silver in Idaho in 190£ and 1903^ bycounties. 



County. 


1902. 


1903. 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


A4*, Elmore, Fremont, Nez Pcrccs, Oneida, 
and WanhinKton 


Fine ounces, 

4,2&9 

200,900 

19,660 

76 

282,146 

8,618 

16,284 

2,902 

696,442 

6,001,881 


12,222 

104,789 

10,260 

39 

121,087 

4,443 

8,468 

1,614 

863,264 

2,608,981 


Fine ounces, 

60,951 

834,393 

8,482 

• 4 

130,660 

6,026 

14,448 

10,434 

762,601 

6,071,118 


$32,554 

178,599 

4,504 

2 


K«ine... 


Bo4w 


<i«ia 


^ner 


69,732 
3,218 
7,717 


14«b<> . 


Kuitcnai 


LwBhi 


6,578 
407,307 


ir«th^ 


S*****nnc , 


3,242,584 






T.»UI 


6,183.025 


3,225,066 


7,398,970 


3,951,790 







Digitized by V^OOQIC 



180 



MINEBAL BESOUBOES. 



The following table shows in detail the sources of silver in Idaho 
during 1902 and 1903: 

Production of silver in Idaho in 190^ and 190S, by sources. 





Milling ores. 


Smelting ores. 






Year. 


Placer. 


Siliceous 
ores. 


Ores 
cyanided. 


Lead ores. 


Copper 
ores. 


Total. 


1902 


Fine 
ounces. 

2,688 

6,058 


Fine 
ounces. 

681,981 

712,667 


Fine 
ounces. 

95,905 

157,960 


Fine 
ounces. 

5,890,548 

6,426,941 


Fine 
ounces. 

11,903 

95,854 


Fine 
ounces. 

6,183,025 

7,888,970 


•8,225,086 
8,961.790 


190S 





8UMHAET OF 8ILYEB PRODUCED IN IDAHO IN 190S FBOM DUTEBBNT SOUBCES. 

Silver in placer hullion, — ^The gold from placer and surface mines 
ranges from 630 to 950 fine. The silver production from this source 
does not materially affect the total output. 

Silver in silicemts ores, — Owyhee County yields largely from milling 
ores, with Idaho County following. 

Silver ores cyanided, — The yield in Custer County doubled in its 
production of silver from cyanided ores. Owyhee County remained 
the same as last year. 

Silver in lead ores, — The Coeur d'Alene region of Shoshone County 
is responsible for an increase of over 1,000,000 ounces in the silver 
output compared with last year. Blaine County increased 100,000 
ounces. Custer County decreased in its silver output. 

Silver in copper ores. — The increased amount of copper ores mined 
caused the silver output to be doubled in Washington, Custer, and 
Kootenai counties. 



MONTANA. 

By A. N. WiNCHBLL. 
PRODUCTION. 

The most important development in precious metal mining in Mon- 
tana during 1903 was the continued success and improvement in the 
cyanide treatment of gold ores in central Fergus County, resulting in 
still further increasing the gold production from that county, and, in 
fact, placing it in the lead among the counties of the State as a pro- 
ducer of the yellow metal. The Kendall, the Barnes-King, and the 
Gold Reef properties were in successful operation throughout the 
year. 

Silver Bow County produces over 20 per cent of the annual gold 
product of the Sta^ and more than three-fourths of the silver product 
The generally prosperous condition of precious-metal mining in the 
State is attested by the fact that in spite of two important interrup- 

Dlgitized by V^OOQIC:! 



GOLD AND SILVER, 181 

tions to the mining' operations in that county the total gold production 
of the State shows an increase, abd that the total silver production 
suffered only a slight decrease as compared with that of the preceding 
year. 

The first of these interruptions, which lasted about two months, 
affected all the properties of the Anaconda and the Washoe companies. 
It was caused by the closing of the Washoe smelter at Anaconda to 
permit of the completion and the connection of a new flue and stack 
erected on the hill back of the smelter. The object of this new 
arrangement is to render the fumes harmless by causing the injurious 
elements to settle in the long flue on the mountain side, and by carry- 
ing the lighter gases into the upper air currents.* The second inter- 
ruption affected all the properties of the Amalgamated Copper Com- 
pany, and lasted from October 22 to November 11, 1903. It was an 
outgrowth of the mining litigation which has been carried on in Butte 
for years. 

During the year the Pittsburg and Montana Company very nearly 
completed the building of a new smelter and concentrator at Butte, 
intended to treat custom ores as well as the gold-silver-copper ores 
from the mines of the company, which are located on the flat east of 
Anaconda hill. The same company purchased and partly developed 
some mines in Jefferson County, rich in iron pyrites, which it is planned 
to use in the smelting of the other ores. 

The matte furnace building at the Butte Reduction Works in Butte, 
which was destroyed by fire, was immediately rebuilt in an improved 
condition. Improvements, more or less extensive, were also made at 
the concentrator of the United Copper Company at Basin, and at the 
plant of the American Smelting and Refining Company at East Helena. 

During a few months of the year the affairs of the Granite-Bimetal- 
lic Company in Granite County were in the hands of a receiver, who 
was discharged near the close of the year. The company has been 
operating continuously since then. 

NEVADA. 

By Charles G. Yalb. 
PBOOUCTION. 

The returns received in answer to inquiries as to gold and silver 
production in Nevada for 1903, show that the gold amounted to 
$3,070,850, and the silver to $2,098,912 (conunercial value), a total of 
$5,169,262. Compared with the figures of the previous year there is 
shown an increase in gold of $175,050, and in silver of $113,426, a 
total increase of $288,476. It is proper to state that the total figures 
of the year's gold and silver production, as here given, are nearly 
1060,000 leas than those given in the report of the Director of the 



Digitized by 



Google 



182 MINERAL BE8OUB0ES. 

United States Mint for the same period. Yet all the known pro- 
ducers of the State have answered the inquiries made by the Survey, 
and given the figures of prckluction. 

In obtaining the exact facts, however, there are several diflSculties 
to overcome. A large amount of leasing is done in Nevada, and it is 
very hard to get at returns from these lessees. They only work dur- 
ing certain months of the year and then leave for parts unknown; so 
that letters sent them are returned ^' uncalled for." Many of the com- 
panies owning mines worked by lessees return but small values of pro- 
duction, amounting only to their royalties, and the sums obtained by 
the lessees is unknown. Sometimes a company returns as answer 
''no product," when its mine has been under lease to others, the com- 
pany itself having done no work on its own account. Another great 
hindrance in arriving at the true production of Nevada is the fact that 
in a great many cases mines are either owned or controlled by Utah 
and Colorado people, and the production is attributed by the smelters 
to those States instead of to Nevada, where it originated. The small 
individual owners or lessees in maR)*^ instances fail to make returns, 
the aggregate of which would make a considerable addition to the 
total. In view of these circumstances it is quite probable that the 
actual amount of gold and silver produced in Nevada in 1903 was 
somewhat higher than is indicated by the figures herein given. And 
this, notwithstanding the fact that every effort was made to ascertain 
the exact truth, many special letters having been written in addition 
to the sending out of the usual circulars and cards. 

About 600 mining operators responded to the inquiries of the Sur- 
vey. Of these 145 were producers and 454 were doing development 
or annual assessment work only, without any yield of bullion. Of the 
producers 132 had quartz and 13 had placer mines. Of the assessment 
or development claims 446 were quartz. The record of the respective 
counties is as follows: Churchill, 14 quartz mines being developed, 
with no producers; Douglas, 7 quartz and 2 placer mines, with 4 pro- 
ducers; Elko, 11 producing quartz mines and 2 placers, with 18 
quartz mines and 1 placer in development stage; Jlsmeralda, 16 
producers and 40 nonproducers; Eureka, 14 producers and 17 non- 
producers; Humboldt, 8 quartz and 2 placer-producing mines and 
48 nonproducers; Lander, 5 producing mines and 16 nonproducers; 
Lincoln, 12 ^producers and 48 mines in development stage; Lyon, 
12 producers and 21 nonproducers; Nye, 9 producers and 79 
nonproducers; Ormsby, 1 producer reported and 14 mines are being 
developed; Storey, 17 productive mines and 25 nonproductive; 
Washoe, 17 producers and 49 nonproducers; White Pine, 18 quaiiz 
mines and 6 placers which are productive, and 50 quartz mines and 6 
placers which are not. 

The largest aggregate output shown by any one county is in the case 



Digitized by 



Google 



GOLD AND SILVEB. 



183 



of Nye, where the Tonopab mines are Hituated. From this camp only 
the highest grade or^ were shipped out for treatment, as there were 
no reduction works of any kind at the place. Since the period of this 
inquiry a railroad has been completed to the camp (July, 1904), so 
that all ores may now be shipped and the yield will be very greatly 
increased. The largest producer in the State, the Tonapah Mining 
(Company, is in this county. 

Lincoln County also shows a yield of considerably over a million 
dollars. The Bamberger-Delamar mines at Delamar are in this county 
as are also the Quartette and the Duplex mines at Searchlight. Ac- 
cording to returns received, the^e two counties of Lincoln and Nye 
are the only ones in the State showing a yield of over a million dol- 
lars each^ and the figures for the latter amount to practically two 
millions. The new and exceptionally rich camp of Goldfields, in 
Esmeralda County, since very productive, was just commencing to 
show some yield at the end of 1903. Quantities of very high grade 
ore have si nee been shipped. The gross yield of the Comstock mines 
is practically shown by the figures for Storey County — $453,785, of 
which $329,656 was gold and the remainder was silver. Including the 
yield of copper and lead as well as of gold and silver, the total 
production of Nevada for 1903, as shown by returns received by the 
Survey, amounted to $5,8^,927, as is set forth in the following 
tables: 

ProducHcm afprtdom nuials in Ntvoda in IdOS, by counliei. 



Coonty. 



Gold. 



Placer. Deep. 



Silver. 



Copper. 



Lead. 



Total. 



DOQgkfl.... 

Uko 

EBDcralda. . 

Aireka 

Humboldt.. 

Under 

Lineoh) 

Lyon 

iiye 

Onwby 

Storey 

Waiboe 

White Pine. 



Vatme. 
18.897 
14,028 



40,000 



1,000 



6.761 



Total 

Gnnd total. 



66,186 



VMiue, 
$1,700 

187,826 

180,681 
88,051 
84,231 
88,820 
1,091, M5 

380,979 

646,163 
8,000 

829,656 
46,882 

118,690 



Vaiue. 

•2,000 

82,848 

174.630 

52.609 

6,562 

130,786 

101,602 

63,166 

1,804,872 

6,000 

124,182 

21,494 

78,727 



ViJilue, 


Vidue, 




114,150 
28,261 
16,176 


13.033 






391 
2.255 


399 
700 




6,018 















200 



86,192 



8,006,164 
8,070,360 



2,096,912 
2,006,912 



6,779 
6,779 



161,886 
151,886 



Value. 

248,847 
396,345 
151,886 

80,793 

169,896 

1,196.242 

1295.144 

1,956,543 

14,000 
463,788 

66,826 
290.570 



5,327.927 
5,327.927 



Digitized by 



Google 



184 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Sources of Nevada goldy 190S, by counties. 



Ck>uDty. 



Gold from 
quarU. 



Hydmolic 
mines. 



^^ kouigoid. 



Douglas 

Elko 

Esmeralda.. 

Eureka 

Humboldt.. 

Lander 

Lincoln — 

Lyon 

Nye 

Ormsby 

Storey 

Washoe 

White Pine. 

Total. 



11,700 

187,826 

189,681 

88,061 

84,231 

88,820 

1,091,595 

280,979 

646,158 

8,000 

829,656 

45,882 

118,690 



•897 
14,028 



82,600 



10,000 



80,000 



1,000 



6,761 



15.097 

201,854 

189, 6S1 

88,051 

74,251 

88,320 

1,091,595 

231,979 

646,153 

8,000 

829,656 

45,832 

125.451 



8,005,164 



24,925 



40,261 



8,070,850 



OREGON. 

By Chables G. Yale. 

PBODLCTION. 

According to the returns received from operators in Oregon, that 
State produced $1,412,208 in gold and $62,241 (commercial value) in 
silver in 1903. With the value of copper and platinum added, the 
total yield was $1,477,516. When these figures are compared with 
those for 1902 furnished the Survey by Director Roberts of the United 
States Mint, the gold yield shows a decrease of $404,492 and the silver 
an increase of $12,792, a total decrease of $391,700. The yield was 
made by 302 producing mines, 72 quartz mines and 230 placer, 
hydraulic, and surface mines. The quartz mines produced $941,188; 
the hydraulic mines, $356,969; and the placers, $114,051. In addition 
to these the returns show 477 quartz and 57 placer mines upon which 
development or annual assessment work was done. The largest yield 
was from Baker County, followed, in relative rank, by the counties of 
Josephine, Grant, Jackson, Douglas, Lane, Malheur, Wheeler, Curry, 
Coos, Lincoln, Crook, Wallowa, and Union. 

The following table shows the number of producing quartz and placer 
mines, and the number on which development or annual assessment 
work was done in 1903, in the respective counties of Oregon, as reported 
in the returns received by the survey: 



Producing and nonjyrodudng mines in 


Oregon in 


190Sf by hinds and by counties. 


County. 




Producing mines. 


Development or as- 
sessment mines. 




Quartz. 


Placer. 


Quartz. 


Placer. 


Baker 


19 
• l' 

1 


84 
2 

1 


126 
8 
11 


10 


COOB 




Crook : 





Digitized by 



Google 



GOLD AND 8ILVEB. 
Producing and norqtroducing mines in Oregon in 1903, etc — Continaed. 



185 



County. 


ProdociDg mines. 


Development or as* 
sessment mines. 




Quarts. 


Placer. 


Quarts. 


Placer. 


Cnny 


2 
7 
12 


10 
28 
8 


12 
40 
60 

5 
66 
70 

5 


8 


DouflM 


5 


Qant 


5 


Harney 




Jftckaon 


12 
11 
8 


56 
78 


8 


Jofepbine 


17 


Une 




Uncoln • 


1 
8 


2 


Malhenr 


8 

1 


64 
6 
11 




Unico 




WaUovm 


1 
8 




Wheeler 




2 










T^jtol.. 


72 


280 


477 


57 







This table shows that returns were received from more than 800 
mines in Oregon, but practically three-fifths of these were nonpro- 
dactiye, being* in the development stage only. The falling off in yield 
is due to the lowered production in 1903 of some of the large pro- 
ducers. The productive regions are in the Blue Mountain section in 
eastern Oregfon, the mountainous section of the southwest, and more 
or less in tl^e Cascades along their whole length in the State. The 
most extensive developments have been in Baker, Wallowa, Grant, 
tod Malheur counties, in eastern Oregon. Baker County is the center 
of this section and the scene of the largest operations. It is the most 
productive county in the State. 

The sources of the gold in the counties of Oregon is shown in the 
following statement: 

Sources of Oregon gold, 1908, by counties. 



County. 


Gold in 
quarts. 


Hydranlic 
mines. 


Surface 
placer. 


Total gold. 


Btkrr 


|609»097 

1,680 

441 

1,150 

19,962 

85,872 

20,421 

160,006 

81,125 


165,860 


$17,099 
6,830 
600 
9,118 
5,798 
4,035 
19,470 
40,179 


1691,546 


Coo* 


8,410 


Crook 




1,041 


Qmuj 


4,894 
16,566 
12,906 
88,068 
141,948 


14,657 


Dot^lm 


42,381 


Gant... 


102,818 


JackBOQ .. 


122,979 


Jonphlne 


842,183 


Lttr 


81,125 


UoCOtB 




8,000 
1,800 


8,000 


Malbcw 


12,000 
14 


15,927 


29,227 


rateQ 


14 


WaUova. 




860 
1.282 


850 


Wteder 




16,800 


18,062 








Totel 


•41,188 


866,969 


114,061 


1,412,206 







Digitized by V^OOQIC 



186 



MINEBAL BESOUBCES. 



ProdxuAion of gold, silver , coppery and platinum in Oregon in 190$^ by countiei. 



County. 


Gold. 


Silver. 






PlaU- 
num. 


Total. 


Quartz. 


Placer. 


Quartz. 


Placer. 


Copper. 


B&ker 


Value. 

1609,097 

1,580 

441 

1,150 

19,982 

85,372 

20.421 

160,006 

81,125 


Value. 

$82,449 

6,830 

600 

13,507 

22,349 

16, Wl 

102.568 

182,127 


Value. 

$12,609 

10 

1,000 


Value. 
$11 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 
|7(H,066 


COOB 






«640 


9,080 


Crook 








2,041 


Curry 








480 
8 


15, W7 


Doufrlaii 


686 

34,489 

11 

13,003 

535 








43,024 


Qrant 




4,000 


$376 


137.128 


Jackson 


2 
32 




122, «2 


Josephine 


14,S0O 


1,663 




856,731 


Lan4^ 




31,660 


Lincoln 


8,000 
17,227 










8,000 


Malheur 


12,000 
14 












29,227 


Union 


4 








IS 


Wallowa 


850 
18,082 










1 850 


Wheeler 














' 18.082 




941,188 
1,412,208 












Total 


471,020 


62,196 
62,241 


45 


18,000 


1,989 
1,939 


1,128 
1,128 


1,477,516 


Grand total . . . 


1,477,516 













NOTB.— The department of chemistry of the UniTcrslty of Oregon, at Eugene, has issued a bulletin 
on the " Mineral Resources and Mineral Industry of Oregon for 190;Y' which contains full descrip- 
tions of the various districts and mines, and to which those desiring details are referred* 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 

By E. P. Porter. 

PRODUCTION. 

During the year 1908 a vast amount of development work was accom- 
plished in South Dakota, which, while increasing somewhat the pro- 
duction of precious metals for that year, should mean a greatly increased 
production for 1904. Several new reduction plants were completed, 
aggregating a capacity of 1,200 tons, and work was begun and is in course 
of construction on many other plants. There were more companies 
formed in 1902 than in 1903, but many did not start active operations 
until 190H. This is especially noticeable in the district around Elk 
Creek, Rochford, and Keystone. In addition to the formation of new 
companies, several of the larger companies have consolidated, which 
will enable them to make a total production far greater than they 
could have done if operating individually. Much systematic develop- 
ment work has been done throughout the phonolite belt, west of Dead- 
wood, and encouraging reports come from along Deadwood and False 
Bottom gulches. 

Successful treatment of low-grade ores by the cyanide process, 
increased transportation facilities, and steadily increasing mill capacity 
all tended to increase South Dakota production for 1908, and had it 
not been for the closing down of the Golden Reward smelter and a 



Digitized by 



Google 



GOLD AND SILVEB, 187 

^ing off in three of South Dakota's steady producers, the increase 
irould certainly have occurred. The good results obtained in pros- 
pecting the free-milling ore veins of the Homestake system by local 
and Colorado companies have given an impetus to the development 
outside of the phonolite ore districts, and the year 1903 witnessed 
the transformation of many prospects into gold producers. No less 
than 10 companies are operating in the phonolite belt west of Dead- 
wood, and several veins are being developed to a considerable depth. 
The success obtained by the Penobscot Company has stimulated mining 
in the Garden City district Several deals have been consummated 
and several companies formed for the development of ore bodies of 
the same character as that found at the Penobscot. Among the com- 
panicH that made their initial production in 1908 are the Columbus 
Consolidated, the Golden Crest, the Lexington Hill, and the Golden 
Empire, all in Lawrence County. Those increasing their output for 
1903 were the Homestake, the Hidden Fortune, the Penobscot, the 
Spearfish, and the Wasp Number Two. Several new reduction plants 
have heen completed during the year 1903, which, with their daily 
capacity, are as follows: The Horseshoe, 500 tons; the Hidden Fortune, 
800 tons; the Penobscot, 200 tons; the Jupiter, 150 tons; the Golden 
Crest, 50 tons; the Extreme, 50 tons; Lundberg & Dorr, 100 tons; and 
the Branch Mint, 250 tons. 

Other companies that have mills in course of construction or that 
are contemplating the erection of reduction plants are: The Reliance, 
300 tons; the Columbus Consolidated, 1,000 tons; the Victoria, 300 
tons; the Phoenix, 300 tons; the Dead wood Standard, 125 tons; the 
Dakota, 120 tons; the Minnie May, 50 tons; the Gilt Edge, 125 tons; 
the Lexington Hill, 300 tons; the Ruby, 100 tons; the Tinton, 300 
tons; the Ohio Deadwood, 100 tons; and the Sunbeam, 100 tons. 

It is less than ten years since the first cyanide plant was built in the 
Black Hills, and the number of plants now in operation and under con- 
struction demonstrates the success of this mode of treatment. The 
following mills are at present treating ore by the cyanide process: 
Homestake, Horseshoe, Golden Reward, Penobscot, Spearfish, Dead- 
wood Standard, Wasp Number Two, Lexington Hill, Columbus Con- 
solidated, Jupiter, and Imperial. The Homestake Company still leads 
the list of producers in South Dakota, with the Golden Reward second, 
and with the Horseshoe, the Spearfish, and the Penobscot running 
close for third. Following these come many other properties pro- 
dudng from $5,000 to $100,000. 

Placer mining seems to be gradually dying out, and the production 
MDounted to but a little over $10,000 in 1903, obtained mainly in 
Lawrence County and in the southern part of Pennington County. 



Digitized by 



Google 



188 MINERAL HE80UECK.S. 

A brief summary of the principal work accomplished by some of 
the companies in various counties follows: 

Ouster County. — At the Clara Belle new machinery in the way of a 
hoist and pump has been installed. The shaft has been sunk to a 
depth of 180 feet, showing some fine specimens of free-milling gold. 
It is the intention of the owners to continue the shaft in order to 
explore the ore bodies thoroughly. The Copper Butte Mining Com- 
pany has been prospecting with diamond drills, and expects to start 
in 1904. 

A new steam hoist, compressor, drills, etc., have been installed at 
the Cuyahoga Company's property, and plans have been made to sink 
to a depth of 500 feet. The Extreme Mining Company has completed 
its 10-stamp mill and has considerable ore on hand for concentration. 
The concentrates will be shipped to outside smelters. 

The Gladiator Consolidated Company has been developing the Gold 
Fish Group, and has the main shaft down 100 feet. The company 
contemplates erecting a new reduction plant. The Grantz Mining 
Company, operating the Roosevelt Group, has sunk a shaft 280 feet, 
and the ore found justifies the prediction that this property will be 
one of the big mines of the Black Hills. A contract has been let to 
sink a shaft 100 feet at the Gold Standard Company. Active work 
was started at the Interstate Mining Company properties in January, 
and has continued throughout the year. A new hoisting plant was 
installed at the Ivanhoe, capable of attaining a depth of 500 feet. The 
shaft is at present 200 feet in depth and will be pushed rapidly to 400 
feet. At the Minnie May a contract has been let for a new mill, steam 
hoist, air drills, etc. At the North Star practically no ore was treated 
in 1903. Active work was carried on at the Saginaw by sinking shaft 
and following diamond drill hole. The mine has at present reached 
a depth of 300 feet. Among recent organizations are the Custer 
Mountain Mining Company and the White Cloud Mining and Milling 
Company. The latter is installing complete hoisting machinery. 

Louwrence County, — ^The mill at the Alder Creek Company's mine 
was active for a short time, but was closed down for several months. 
The ore from this mine is obtained chiefly through open cuts. At the 
Anaconda the shaft has been sunk to a depth of 200 feet and a crosscut 
has been started. A new hoisting pump has been installed at the Bear 
Gulch mine. At the Big Four Mining Company's mine new machinery 
was installed and preparations were made to sink to a depth of 500 
feet. The Black Hills Belt Development Company sunk a shaft to the 
depth of nearly 1,000 feet, but shut down last spring, not finding 
any ore. 

The Branch Mint Company completed their reduction plant and 
started work January, 1904. The Rossiter cyanide plant was running 
most of the year on ore from the Buxton and Bonanza mines, recently 



Digitized by 



Google 



GOLD AND 81LVBB. 189 

purchased by the lessees. In July the plant was shut down and the 
ore was treated at their 100-ton plant, located at the mine. At the 
Uncle Sam mine of the Clover Leaf Mining Company, extensive devel- 
opment work was carried on below the 700-f oot level, and drifts were 
run to a considerable distance. The mill was in operation the entire 
year, although not to its full capacity. 

The main shaft in the property of the Columbus Consolidated 
reached a depth of 600 feet. Crosscuts were driven at the 200-foot 
and 500- foot levels, cutting large bodies of ore. The capacity of the 
plant was increased to 70 tons per day, and the plant was operated for 
a short time daring the year. New machinery was installed at the 
Caster Peak mine. The cyanide plant of the Dakota Mining and Mill- 
bg Company was closed down most of the year for the purpose of 
enlar^ng. The mill will probably be remov^ from Deadwood to the 
mine before the capacity is increased, l^e mill of the Deadwood 
Standard ran steadily during the year, and paid its first dividend. It 
18 stated that this company treats by cyanide cheaper than any com- 
pany in the Black Hills, as ore running as low as $3 per ton has been 
treated at a profit. Plans are on foot to double the mill capacity. The 
property of the Galena S. and S. Company, embracing some 2,000 
acres, has been purchased by eastern capitalists, and work is to be 
resumed. The Garden City group was also sold to outsiders. The 
Golden Crest plant was enlarged and placed in conunission. The com- 
pany claims to save 85 per cent of the values. The first clean-up was 
made in December. The Golden Beward cyanide plant was operated 
contmuously during the year. The smelter was closed down in Feb- 
ruary, and the smelting ore was shipped to outside smelters. It is 
expected that the smelter will resume operations early in 1904, after 
the several damage suits are settled. 

The Hercules Gold Mining Company has its new 4-compartment shaft 
down 300 feet The ore body is widen mg and work is progressing. 
The Hidden Fortune Mining Company carried on extensive develop- 
ment work and completed its 800-ton cyanide plant. Some ore was 
shipped to Omaha smelters. A trial of the mill was made, and the 
mill was afterwards closed; then amalgamation plates were installed 
tod the mill started in November. 

Many improvements were made at the Homestake during the year, 
among which were an increase of a hundred stamps to the Amicus mill 
and a new 200-drill compressor. 

The Horseshoe Company's plant was closed down for some time 
daring 1908. Work was resumed in May and shipments made to the 
Imperial cyanide plant and to Denver, pending the completion of the 
MO-ton cyanide plant This was accomplished in September, since 
which time the company has been operating steadily. 
Coosiderable ore was treated at the Imperial before it closed down, 



Digitized by 



Google 



190 MnnsBAL besouboes. 

the capacity of the plant was increased, and operations were resumed 
in January, 1904. 

The Lexington Hill Grold Mining Company, a new company, made 
its initial production, operating an old mill on Spruce Gulch, which 
was included in the sale of ground to them. Nearly 100 tons a day 
were treated while the mill was in operation. At the Lucky Strike 
mine the shaft is being continued to a depth of 200 feet, following the 
vein from the surface. The triple-compartment shaft on the Oro 
Hondo was sunk 500 feet lower during 1903, and a drift was starts at 
the 600-foot level. A new hoist was erected at the Pennsylvania and 
sinking was resumed. The Penobscot increased its production quite 
materially, operating a 125-ton cyanide plant continuously, and ship- 
ping between 50 and 100 tons per day to the smelter. At the Pluma 
mine development work was carried on extensively during the time 
that work on the new mill was stopped, pending settlement of litiga- 
tion. The company is at present cross-cutting at the 300-foot and the 
500-foot levels. The former cross-cut has been run 630 feet and the 
latter 100 feet. A considerable amount of ore has been brought down 
awaiting completion of the cyanide plant for treatment. 

The Reliance Mining and Milling Company, a consolidation of sev- 
eral other large companies, started active operations, and was engaged 
in erecting a 300-ton plant. At the Ruby Gold Mining and Milling 
Company's property the new mill is about completed. The Spearfish 
Company operated steadily during the year, making regular clean ups. 
At one time during the year the company held an option on the Dead- 
wood Standard group, but finally gave it up. A new 12-drill com- 
pressor was purchased, and preparations were made to increase the 
capacity of the mill. Plans were completed for erecting a new plant 
at the Tinton Mining Company's property. The Two Johns Company 
started to unwater its shaft, preparatory to resuming operations. The 
Wasp Number Two operated steadily during 1903, with the exception 
of four days. This was the longest shut down since the company 
started, and was caused T>y needed repairs. The Wasp was one of the 
mines that quarried the quartzite. 

Among the new organizations formed in 1903 the following have 
carried on continuous development: The Aurizone Mining Company, 
Columbia Commercial Gold Mining and Milling Company, Gilt Ekige 
Maid Mining Company, Gold Copper Mining and Development Com- 
pany, Gold Eagle Mining Company, Gt)ld Stake Mining Company, 
Leo Mining Company, and the United Ruby Gold Mining Company. 

Among companies installing new machinery and not mentioned 
previously are: the Elliptic, the Rex, the Gladiator Consolidated, the 
Tintanic, and the Wanconda. 

Pennington County, — The Black Hills and Duluth Copper Company, 
after prospecting the greater part of the year with a diamond drill, 



Digitized by 



Google 



GOLD AND SILVER. 191 

has purchased machinery, and will sink to a considerable depth 
before attempting any lateral work. A new plant will be bought to 
replace that of the Castle Creek Gold Mining Company, recently 
destroyed by fire. The new leaching plant of the Central Black Hills 
Copper Company was completed, but not in time to operate in 1903. 
The capacity is 100 tons; the process, lixiviation. After the copper 
has been extracted the ore will be treated by cyanide process. Work 
on the Cochran Mining Company, abandoned by the lessees, was 
resumed by the owners. 

At the Colombia Gold Mining and Milling Company 's properties the 
shaft was sunk to 200 feet and cross-cutting was commenced. At this 
time work was stopped, pending a settlement with the miners. A 
plant is contemplated. Work at the J. B. shaft of the Cumberland 
Mming Company was suspended for a short time during the year 
while a new air compressor was being installed. The shaft is now 
down 500 feet, and drifting has been started. Considerable work was 
accomplished at the Dakota and Calumet Copper Mining Company's 
properties. An aerial tram was erected, pumps were installed, and a 
small smelter was built. Drifting on the Golden Slipper was continued 
from the 450-foot level by the Empire State Mining Company. The 
Golden West 10-ton mill was operated several months, and cross-cut- 
ting' was started at the 150-foot level in the main shaft on the Yellow 
Bird group. The company expects to enlarge mill to 100-ton capacity. 
Work was resumed on the Gopher property after an idleness of several 
years. The property is well equipped with two shafts, 110 feet and 
105 feet deep, respectively. 

The Holy Terror operated but a short time during the early part of 
the year and then suspended work on account of several damage suits. 
The mine was allowed to fill with water, submerging a $7,000 pump 
which was left in the bottom of the shaft. The Lakota Gold Mining 
and Reduction Company has cleaned out the Grizzly Bear mine and 
is erecting a 20-stamp mill and an aerial tram. Following the pur- 
chase of the Ida Florence group and the Bismarck mill, the Mainstay 
Mining Company inaugurated a new era of development, and has 
since opened a large body of good ore which is to be treated in the 
old Bismarck mill. The l^ational Smelting Company started opera- 
tions on ore from the Horseshoe, the Penobscot, and other mines in 
Lawrence County. Flux for the smelter is obtained from the Monte- 
zuma group at Deadwood. 

The success of the cyanide process, operating on the black sands 
found in Rapid Creek, near Pactola, has been so far successful that 4 
niore plants are to be erected at once. The plant operated in 1903 
handled about 300 cubic yards daily, and the new plants will be of 
the same capacity. 

Work has commenced on the new shaft at the Redf ern Gold Mining 



Digitized by 



Google 



192 



MINEBAL HESOUBOES. 



Company. At the Sunbeam Mining Company's properties the shaft 
has attained a depth of 450 feet, and drifting has been carried on from 
the bottom. Enough ore has been shown to warrant a new 20-8tamp 
mill. This mill was completed late in December. The Tycoon Mining 
Company has opened large bodies of ore and has decided to combine 
cyaniding with amalgamation. The 10-stamp mill is to be enlarged. 
Two new companies started operation in 1903, namely: The Burling- 
ton Mining Company and the Yellow Jacket Gold Milling Company. 
Mention should be made of many other properties in South Dakota 
which are doing meritorious work toward making this State foremost 
among the gold-mining States. 



UTAH. 
By V. 0. Hbikbb. 

PBOOUCTIOH. 

In the production of gold and silver, Utah's output for 1903 was 
much greater than for 1902, making, indeed, a very satisfactory 
showing, the increase being due to greater smelting facilities, better 
transportation rates, and the improved processes of treatment. The 
statement of production is as follows: 

Production of gold and silver in Utah in 190£ and 190S, 





1902. 


1906. 


Increase 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


(value). 


Gold 


Fineowuxi. 

174,547 

11,842,016 


93,007,686 
6,176,7% 


Fineounoet, 

210,162 

12,204,011 


W. 844, 069 
6,618,161 


«786,88S 
196,829 


SUver 





The following table shows the production of gold in Utah in 1903 
and 1903, by counties: 

Produ/cHon of gold in Utah in 1909 and 190S, by covmUes. 



County. 


1902. 


1903. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Beaver, Iron, and Piute 


Fine ounces. 
28,741 
29,909 
26,806 
15,068 
76,826 
8,682 


1490,726 

618,219 

654,080 

811,766 

1,656,788 

76,107 


Fineomuxe. 
28,686 
66,009 
48,656 
16,817 
66,660 
5,086 


9488,566 

1,364,406 
900,282 
816,602 

1,169,075 
106,148 


Juab and Utah 


Salt Lake 


SnniTnlt and WiMwtch t - - - r r - 


Tooele 


Washington, Sevier, Grand, and Boxelder . . . 


Total 


174,647 


3,607,686 


210,162 


4,344,009 





Digitized by 



Google 



GOLD AND 8ILVEB. 



193 



The following tables give the quantities of precious metals derived 
from the different kinds of ore treated: 



Production of gold in Utah in 190^ and IGOSy by kinds of ore. 



Year. 


SUiceous 
ores. 


Ores cyan- 
Ided.a 


Lead ores. 


Ctopper 
ores. 


Total. 


1SQ2 


Fine ounces. 
6,056 
6,884 


Fine ounces. 
98,631 
79,166 


Fine ounces. 
83,434 
83.035 


Fine ounces. 
87,426 
92,078 


Fine ounces. 
174,647 
210,162 


UQg 





a Produced in Iron, Piute, and Tooele counties. 

The gain in gold is accounted for by the greatly increased produc- 
tion of gold-bearing copper ores in Juab and Salt Lake counties, 
especially in the latter, owing to more extended mining operations in 
the West Mountain (Bingham) district, as is shown in the following 
tables: 

Production of gold in Juab County, Utah, in 190S and 190S, by hinds of ore. 



Year. 


SiUceous 
ores. 


Lead ores. 


Copper 
ores.o 


Total. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Wtt. 


Fine ounces. 

1,348 

762 


Fine ounces. 
16,081 
15,622 


Fine ounces. 
11,246 
49,603 


Fineounces. 
28,625 
65,987 


$691,679 
1,363,951 


UQI 





a The decreue ia doe to tiie closing of the Centennial Eureka mines in the Tintic district. 
ProduOion of gold in Salt Lake Oounty, Utah, in 190S and 190S, by kinds of ore. 



Year. 


SiUceous 
ores. 


Lead ores. 


Copper 
ores. 


Total. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


yarn 


Fineounces. 

22 

4 


Fineounces. 

606 

1,076 


Fineounces. 
26,179 
42,476 


Fineounces. 
26,806 
43,656 


$564,060 


UOI 


900,282 







The yield of gold from the lead ores of the Tintic district, in Juab 
County, and of Park City district, in Summit County, is about the 
wne for 1903 that it was for 1902, as is shown in the following table: 

ProdMdwn of gold contained in lead ores in Juab and Summit counties, Utah, in 1902 

andlOOS. 



Year. 


Juab County. 


Summit County. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


lan 


Fineounces, 
16,031 
16,622 


$881,361 
822,907 


Fineounces. 
16,026 
14,744 


$810,567 


lam 


804,758 







M B 1903 13 



Digitized by V^OOQIC:! 



194 



MINERAL BESOUBOES. 



Regarding the production of silver in Utah the large argentiferous 
lead mines at Park City continue to be great shippers and to hold their 
own in ore reserves, to which facts the increased mineral output of 
the district is chiefly owing. West Mountain (Bingham) and Tintic 
districts have also contributed large amounts of silver derived from 
the copper ores. 

Utah as a producer of metals is undoubtedly showing notable devel- 
opment, especially in the production of copper-carrying gold and 
silver. The silver is derived from the following kinds of oi*es: 



Production of silver in VUtk in 190^ and J90S, by kinds of ore. 



Year. 


Siliceous 
ores. 


Orescya- 
nided. 


Lead ores. 


Copper 
ores. 


TWal 
value. 


1902 


Fineouneet, 
80,704 
66,681 


Fine ounces. 
184,823 
116,141 


Fine ounces. 
10,648,489 
9,317,074 


Fineounces. 
1,033,549 
2,714.165 


86,176.796 


1903 


6,518.151 







Production of silver in Utah in 1909 and 1903^ by counties. 





1902. 


1908. 


Connty. 


Quantity. 


Value, a 


Quantity. 


Valae.0 


Beaver, Iron, and Pinte 


Fineounces. 

247,258 
2,813,818 

509,988 
7.990,200 

264,870 

15,986 


$128,970 
1,467,688 

265,981 
4,167,688 

188,156 

8,812 


Fineounces. 

188,548 
8,622,596 

969,849 
7,109,209 

268,682 

55,127 


188,06$ 


Juab and Utah 


1.984,818 


Salt Lake 


517.996 


Summit and Wasatch 


8,797,028 


Tooele 


140. 8S8 


Washington, Sevier. Millard. Grand, and Box- 
elder 


29,448 






Total 


11,842,016 


6.176,795 


12,204,011 


6,518,151 







a Commercial value. 



WASHINGTON. 



By Charles G. Yale. 

PBOOUCTIOII. 

The returns received from the State of Washington indicate an 
increase in gold production over that of the year 1902 amounting to 
$225,665, or nearly double; the silver production shows a decrease of 
$126,281; and the total increase for the year of the value of the com- 
bined gold and silver production is 1109,384, or about 16.5 per cent, 
when the figures of 1902 and 1903 are compared. The gold and silver 
comes almost entirely from quartz mines, the total placer operations 
of the State, in both hydraulic and drift, only amounting in value to 
about $5,000, from Asotin, Kittitas, Lincoln, and Okanogan counties. 

Digitized by ^OOQ K:^ 



GOLD AND SILVER. 195 

The principal increase in gold came from the counties of Chelan, Ferry, 
Okanogan, and Whatcom. Ferry County was the largest producer 
of gold as well as of silver. The rank of the counties in relative pro- 
duction of gold is as follows: Ferry, Chelan, Snohomish, Whatcom, 
Okanogan, Kittitas, Stevens, King, Asotin, and Lincoln. Their rank 
in silver production is: Ferry, Stevens, Snohomish, Okanogan, What- 
com, Skagit, and King. The greatest production of copper was in 
Snohomish County, and the most lead came from Stevens County. 

A very large proportion of the known mining claims in the State of 
Washington are in the development stage and nonproductive. Many 
are held by annual asse^ment only. This may be seen by the follow- 
ing statement of the proportion of productive and development or 
assessment mines in the different counties, based on returns received 
in reply to inquiries: In Asotin County there were 1 quartz producer 
and 1 small placer, and 4 claims in which assessment or development 
work was done in 1903. There were 5 unproductive claims in Cowlitz 
County and 2 in Clarke County. In Chelan County 3 producers made 
returns and 51 mines reported as being in development or assessment 
stage. In Ferry County 11 quartz mines reported as having produced 
in 1903 and 72 reported as being in development stage. In King 
County only 1 producer reported, but there were 68 in the develop- 
ment or assessment stage. In Kittitas there were 5 productive quartz 
mines and 48 doing development work, and 2 productive placers and 
♦) in course of development In Lincoln County there were 1 small 
producer and 20 other mines in process of development. In Okanogan 
7 quartz mines reported as producers and 125 as in the develop- 
ment stage, and 5 placers, with 8 others doing assessment work. Pierce 
County haxi 1 quartz producer and 9 claims in course of development; 
and Skagit had 1 producer and 17 worked but unproductive mines. 
In Skamania County 5 claims were being developed. Snohomish 
County had 6 productive mines and 130 unproductive ones. Stevens 
had 12 productive mines and 130 in development or assessment stage. 
In Whatcom County there were 3 producers and §3 nonproducers. 

It thus appears that out of 808 mines in Washington from which 
reports were received in 1903, only 60 were productive and 748 were 
in the development or assessment stage. This statement shows that 
the Washington mining industry is badly in need of the investment of 
capital to bring the majority of the claims to a productive stage. It 
»howH also why there is a comparatively small annual production 
when the number of known mines is considered. 

In the report of the Director of the United States Mint on the pro- 
duction of precious metals for 1902 only 25 producing mines are 
reported from Washington. More than double this number reported 
to the United States Geological Survey in 1903. This accounts for 
the increase shown in the product. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



196 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



The following table shows the production of precious metals in 
Washington in 1903, by counties: 

Production of precious metals in Washington in 190S, by counties. 



County. 


Gold. 


Silv 
Deep. 


er. 


Copper. 


Lead. 


Total 


Deep. 1 Placer. 


Placer. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds.! Value. 


value. 


Asotin 


990 : Hfion 




S6 








1096 


Chelan . . . 


80,090 

275,897 

1,584 

2,636 












80.090 


Ferry 


1,798 

36 

2,472 


•83,464 
20 




75,471 


110,000 


! 


368,861 


King 


! 


1,004 


Kittitas 


7 






1 


4,441 


Lincoln . 








i 


36 


Okanogan 


83,537 


20,656 




118,207 


16,000 


6,800 


1292 


71,917 


Pierce 


50 
44 




50 


Skagit 







865 
29,876 
54,865 
12,030 








8,400 

1,200 

889,512 


252 

48 

15,628 


1.161 


Snohomish 


70,661 ' 

2,502 I 

36,888 1- 




292,863 
19,038 


38,720 
2,622 


139,806 


Stevens 


75,412 


Whatcom 


48.418 






4.906 














Total 


502,979 


201,776 
201,789 


13 


500,579 


66,242 
66,242 


406,412 


16,075 
16,075 


791,991 


Grand total 


507,885 --- 


791,991 

















WYOMING. 



By E. P. Porter. 



PBODuerioN. 



The mining in Wyoming in 1903 as compared with 1902 has been 
marked mainly by two features, the resumption of the production of 
copper and the amount of dead or development work accomplished. 
Several changes in the management of different companies have 
occurred, and in most cases for the better, as renewed activity has 
resulted and development work of a permanent character has been 
effected. 

The mining sections of Wyoming are as a rule situated in districts 
far from good railroad transportation, hence it is hard to secure the 
capital necessary for thorough prospecting and development, but in 
sevei*al cases in which ore has been shown preparations are being made 
to build railroads. 

Though copper is at present the paramount mineral included under 
the head of the precious metals of Wyoming, yet the gold sections are 
not to be overlooked. 

Wyoming has heretofore produced its quota of gold, but the year 
1903 fell short of former years, owing to leases being made pending 
sales, and to the prosecution of nothing but development work when 
sales were made. Again, several free-milling properties showed, with 
depth, changes in the character of the ore, and experiments were 
carried on for the proper treatment of the resulting refractory ore». 



Digitized by 



Google 



GOLD AND SILVER. 197 

The copper production increased from practically nothing in 1902 
to nearly $150,000 in 1903, and the year 1904 opened with a brighter 
future than ever before in the history of Wyoming. It is safe to say 
that within the next five years Wyoming will take high rank among 
the mineral-producmg States of the country. 

.The two deepest mines in the State are the Ferris-Haggerty copper 
mine in Carbon County and the Carissa gold mine in Fremont County. 
The Ferris-Haggerty has attained a depth of some 700 feet, and has 
several thousand feet of drifts, crosscuts, raises, etc., showing in all 
cases the permanent character of the veins. Estimates made place the 
ore blocked out in the mine at 250,000 tons, principally copper, with 
slight traces of gold and silver. In addition to the underground work 
considerable surface work has been done; notably, one of the longest 
aerial trams has been built, conveying the ore 16 miles from the mine 
to the smelter; in addition the company has a concentrator capable of 
treating 300 tons a day and a smelter with a capacity of 500 tons, pro- 
ducing blister copper. This is hauled 40 miles to the railroad and is 
shipped to the east for refining. 
The Carissa mine has attained a depth of 450 feet 
Albany County. — Foremost among the properties of Albany County 
is the New Rambler mine located on Douglas Creek, which company in 
1903 shipped considerable copper ore to Denver and Chicago smelters, 
although at a considerable disadvantage on account of the long haul 
over difficult roads. One of the principal features in the ore from 
this mine is the platinum contained, which was successfully extracted 
this year from the electrolytic slimes. Development work was carried 
on the entire year, and shipping will be again resumed as soon as the 
roads become passable. The gold production in this county comes 
principally from placers. The largest operator, the Douglas Creek 
Placer Mining Company, was idle in 1903, being under bond and lease 
to foreign parties who contemplate erecting a large dredge capable of 
handling 2,000 cubic yards of gravel per day. The Acme Gold and 
Copper Mining Company, successors to the Wyoming Mining and 
Transportation Company, with a large acreage in the Gold Hill dis- 
trict carried on development work during the year and is prepared 
for an active campaign for 1904. The American Copper Company 
has recently installed a new steam hoist, pumps, compressor, and 
drills, and is engaged in sinking a 2-compartment shaft. It has pre- 
pared to go to a considerable depth to strike the vein. 

Other prominent properties which are advancing regularly in devel- 
ofMnent are the Wyoming Queen, the New Lincoln, the Michigan and 
Wyoming, the Strong, the. Medicine Bow, and many others in the 
MQthem part of the county. Some work was done at Laramie Peak, 
in the northern part of the county, on the Three Cripples, the Tender- 
loot, and the Esterbrook. 



Digitized by 



Google 



198 MINERAL BESOUBOES. 

Among the new discoveries is the Antlers property, an immense 
body of siliceous ore which is adapted to the cyanide process. Steps 
are being taken toward the erection of a cyanide plant. 

Big Horn County. — ^Active work was carried on during the year in 
Sunlight Basin near Cody, at Kirwin, and on Copper Mountain near 
Thermopolis. 

The ore is principally copper, and oc/curs in andesite. Considerable 
machinery was shipped in for the purpose of the further development 
and determination of the ore bodies. 

Carbon CoimPy: — ^The whole county of Carbon seems to be impreg- 
nated with mineral veins, from the line of the Union Pacific Railroad 
on the north to the Colorado line on the south; and though few of the 
properties shipped any ore in 1903, the new policy of the North 
American Company, which has agreed to accept custom ore, will 
cause many of the properties to ship in 1904. 

Development work was carried on very extensively in the several 
camps around Encampment, Saratoga, Battle, and Rambler. Mention 
has been made of the Ferris-Haggerty mine, which is the foremost 
property in Carbon County. At the Doane-Rambler, in Battle Lake 
district, a new drainage tunnel has been run, and a crosscut driven 
from this tunnel to the main shaft. A new hoist has been installed, and 
sinking has been continued. There are, in addition, air compressors 
and machine drills. Several shipments were made from this property 
during the year 1903. 

Upward of 50 steam hoists have been installed in this county during 
the year, which shows that permanent work is to be carried on. 

At Pearl, Colo., on the Wyoming and Colorado line, such develop- 
ment work has been done that it has been deemed advisable to erect a 
large smelter, and preparations are rapidly advancing toward the com- 
pletion of this work. 

Fremont County. — For years this county has produced most of the 
gold in Wyoming, but in 1903 no ore was treated, although in devel- 
opment work the properties have been more active than for some 
time. The principal work was carried on by the Dexter Mining and 
Development Company, which is running a big operating tunnel to 
cut the veins of the Rose, the Tabor-Grand, and several other old-time 
producers. This company also owns about 600 acres of placer ground, 
with a very complete hydraulic plant, which was idle in 1903. The 
old Tabor-Grand mill was also purchased by them, and will be used 
for the present for test runs and the determination of treatment, until 
the new and larger plant can be erected. 

The Wyoming Central Gold Mining and Milling Company has 
installed a new steam hoist, and is engaged in sinking a 2-compart- 
ment shaft. A reduction plant, capable of treating both its own and 
custom ores, is to be erected'in the near future. At the Carissa mine, 



Digitized by 



Google 



GOLD AKD SILVER. 199 

one of the oldest mines in the State, the main shaft is down 460 feet. 
The vein has been crosscut, showing a width of 125 feet, and a drift 
on the vein to a distance of 800 feet has been run. California parties 
have recently examined this property, with an idea of purchasing it 
and erecting a new reduction plant. 

Laramie Ccninty. — In the Silver Crown district work has been carried 
on steadily, although the leaching plant, owned by the Hecla Mining 
and Smelting Company, treated no ore. The values in this district 
are mainly copper. 

Much more could be written on the possibilities of mining in Wyo- 
ming, but the only attempt made here is to give a brief summary of 
the work accomplished and in course of completion during 1903. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



COPPER. 



By CHAia.ES Kirghhoff. 



GENERAIi TRADE CONDITIONS. . 

The copper-mining industry of the United States has had a prosper- 
ous year in 1903. Consumption took care of nearly the whole of the 
product, considerably increased as it was, and when the home markets 
were adversely affected by the general industrial and financial depres- 
sion of the latter half of the year heavy purchases for foreign con- 
sumers, at fair prices, checked any serious decline. The good prices 
obtained daring the spring and early summer, copper rising to 15 
cents a pound, carried the average for the year fairly above 13 cents, 
which is naoderately remunerative to the majority of producers. 
There has been a good deal of activity in the development of new 
mines, and a good deal of capital has been judiciously spent in placing 
many of the older mines on a sounder basis, as to equipment and as to 
ability to cope with increasing depth and, in many instances, with 
declining grade of ore. A moderate increase in the production is 
probable during the current year, notably in Arizona, in Utah, and on 
Lake Superior. 

It may be doubted, however, whether consumption during 1904 will 
equal that of 1903, since the financial situation does not encourage the 
proKpect of even normal activity in the development of new enter- 
prises in electrical lines, in railroad construction, in shipbuilding, or 
in general manufacturing. 

PRODUCTION. 

The following table shows the production of copper in the United 
States since its rise to the dignity of an industry. For the earlier 
Tears the best available sources have been drawn upon for the esti- 
niates given. Since 1882 the figures are those collected by this office. 

201 



Digitized by 



Google 



202 



MINEBAL BKSOUB0E8. 



Production of copper in the United J^cUeSy 184S-190S. 
[Long tons.] 



Year. 



production. Superior. 



Id45. 
1846. 
1847. 
1848. 
1849., 
1850.. 
1851.. 
1862.. 
1858.. 
1854. 
1855.. 
1856.. 
1857.. 
1858.. 
1859.. 
1860. 
1861.. 
1862.. 
1863.. 
1864.. 
1865.. 
1866.. 
1867., 
1868.. 



Total 



Lake 



1870. 
1871.. 
1872. 
1878.. 
1874.. 
1876. 
1876. 
1877.. 
1878. , 
1879. 
1880., 



100 

160 

800 

600 

700 

660 

900 

1,100 

2,000 

2,260 

8,000 

4.000 

4,800 

6,600 

6,800 

7,200 

7,600 

9,000 

8.600 

8,000 

8,600 

8,900 

10,000 

11,600 

12,600 

12,600 

13,000 

12,600 

15,600 

17,600 

18,000 

19,000 

21,000 

21,600 

28.000 

27,000 



Percentage 
of Lake 
Superior 
of total 
prodQc- 
tion. 



12 

26 

213 

461 

672 

672 

779 

792 

1,297 

1,819 

2,598 

8,666 

4,255 

4,068 

8,985 

6,888 

6.718 

6.065 

6,797 

6,576 

6,410 

6,138 

7,824 

9.346 

11,886 

10.992 

11,942 

10.961 

13,433 

15.827 

16,089 

17,086 

17,422 

17,719 

19,129 

22,204 



12 

17.8 

71 

92.2 

96 

88 

86.6 

72 

6i9 

80.8 

86.4 

9L7 

88.6 

74.8 

63.8 

?i8 

89.5 

67.4 

68.2 

69.7 

76.4 

69 

78.2 

8a6 

96.1 

87.2 

9L9 

87.7 

86.7 

87.6 

89.4 

89.9 

88 

82.4 

83.2 

82,2 



Year. 



Totalpro- 
duction. 
United 
States. 



1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 



82,000 
40,467 
61,674 
64,708 

1886 1 74,062 

1886 70,430 

1887 ' 81,017 

1888 1 101,054 

1889 1 101,239 



Lake 
Superior. 



24,363 
25,489 
26,653 
80,961 
32,209 
86,124 
38,941 
38,604 
89,Sfri 



Percent- 
age of 

Lake Su- 
perior 

of total 

produc- 
tion. 



76.1 
62.9 
61.6 
47.8 
43.6 
51.3 
4L9 
38.2 
88.7 



Montana. 



11,011 
19,256 
80,267 
26,362 
35,138 
43,704 
48,849 



Percent- 
age of 

Montana 
of total 

produc- 
tion. 



21.3 

29.8 

40.9 

86 

43.4 

48.2 

48.8 



Arizona. 



10,668 
11,935 
10,187 
6,990 
7,910 
14,196 
13,654 



Percent- 
age of 
Arizona 
of total 
produc- 
Uon. 



20.7 
18.4 
13.7 
9.9 
».7 
14 



Digitized by 



Google 



OOPPEB. 



203 



ProdactUm of copper in ike UnUed Slates^ 184S-190S—Coniiaaed, 



Year. 


Fotalpro- 

duction, 

United 

States. 


Lake 
Superior 


age Of 
Lake Su- 
perior 
of total 
produc- 
tion. 


Montana. 


Percent- 
age of 
Montana 
of total 
produc- 
tion. 


Arizona. 


Percent- 
age of 

Anzona 
of total 

produc- 
tion. 


ueo 


U5,966 
126.839 
154,018 
147,083 
158,120 
169,917 
205,884 
220,571 
285,060 
258,870 
270,588 
268.782 
294,428 
8U,627 


45,273 
60,992 
54,999 
60,270 
51,081 
57,787 
64,078 
64,858 
66,291 
65,808 
64,988 
69,772 
76,165 
85,898 


88.9 

40.2 

85.7 

34. -x 

82.3 

84 

8L2 

29.4 

28.2 

25.9 

24 

25.9 

25.9 

27.5 


60,487 
60,028 
72,860 
69,290 
81,729 
84,900 
99,071 
102,807 
92,041 
100,508 
120,865 
102,621 
128,975 
121,677 


48.5 

89.5 

47.3 

47.1 

5L6 

60 

48.2 

46.6 

39.2 

39.6 

44.7 

88.2 

43.8 

88.9 


15,584 
17,800 
17,160 
19,200 
19,878 
21.408 
32,660 
86,398 
49,624 
60,399 
52,820 
68.883 
53.547 
65,914 


13.4 


1891 


14 


1892. 


11.1 


mi 


13 1 


18M 


12.6 


195 


12.6 


189S 


15.8 


1M7 


16.5 


18W 


21.1 


1BB9 


23.4 


1900 


19.5 


WOl 


21.7 


UQ2 


18.2 


UOB 


21.1 







Previous volumes of Mineral Resources contain a detailed statement 
of the copper production of the United States, territorially, from 1883, 
when the statistics were first collected by this office, to 1893. Since 
then the production has been as follows: 

Total copper production in the United StateSf 1899-1903, 
[Pounds.] 



Source. 


1896. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


Lakcf Superior 


112,605,078 

48,902,824 

155.209,188 

280,742 

289,682 

1,135.880 

7,695,826 
20,000 
36,367 


114,308,870 

44,514,894 

188,072,756 

31,884 

120,000 

1,147,570 

6,481,413 


129,880,749 

47,958,553 

190,172,150 

143,719 

218.832 

2,184.708 

6,079,243 


143,824,069 

72,934,927 

221,918,179 

2,701,664 

690.287 

8,602,012 

6,022,176 


145,282,060 


Aiixona 


81,680,735 




230,288,141 


New Mexico 


701,892 


o^ifhmta 


11,987,772 


Utah 


3.919,010 


Ootocado, Incladin^ co|^>er imel- 
ten« 


11,873,083 


irp*v4i 


Ukho. 




1,425,914 




188,277 


Booth Dakota 






2,440,338 


WMhlngiofi 


39,785 

782,798 

7,456,888 








limine and N^w Hammhire . . r - r . r . . 


2,874,514 
2,186,473 


3,105,086 


4,704,998 
4,063,178 




v*maot 




Tfuntwec and Southern States 

MWdle States 


4,472,017 


Lesd deaUrerlsers, etc fr 


1,400,000 






Total domestic capper. ........ 


329,354,896 
10,431,574 


854,188,374 
10,678,484 


380,613,404 
05,300,000 


460,061,480 
05,900,000 


494,078,274 
12. 000. 000 


^nm imparted pTrites and ores and 
watte 






Total (inclading copper from 
*^ipofted pTrltes) 


839,785,972 


864,866,808 


385,913,404 


465,961,430 


606,078,274 





•Cof«» 

Ht. 10010 

tetseted. 



., tlteci In Colorado, purchasing argentiferous copper ores and mattes in the open mar- 

Kt. tooiees not knovn. The quantity of Montana matte which goes to one of these works has been 



^ for 18M tbe quantity stated corers only that part of the Incidental copper product the source of 
vu^ eoQld not be ascertained. 

/Google 



Digitized by' 



204 MINEBAL RE80UBCE8. 

Total copper production in the Thiied States, 1893-1903— Con^vned. 



Source. 


1898. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1908. 


Lftke SuDerior 


158,491,703 
111,158,246 
206,173.157 

1,592,871 
16,926,634 

8,750,000 

16,274,561 


147,400,338 
133,054,860 
226,126,855 

8,965,441 
26,221,897 

9,584,746 

11,648,608 


145,461,496 
118,317,764 
270,788,489 
4,169,400 
28,511,225 
18,854,726 

7,826,949 


156,289,481 
130,778.611 
229,870.415 
9,629,884 
88,667,456 
20.116,979 

9.801,783 


170,609,228 
119,944,944 
288,903,820 
6,614,961 
25,088,724 
28,980,901 

8,422,080 


192,400.577 


Arizona 


147,648,271 


MontaDa 


272,5S6,854 


New Mexico 


7,800,832 


California 


17.776,756 


Utah 


88,802.602 


Colorado, Including 
copper smeltersa 

Alaska 


4.168,868 
1.839,500 


Wyoming, ..^,^-^,,,--^- 


233,044 

487,896 

1,266,920 

1,261,898 


3,104,827 

556,775 

110,000 

17,020 


4,208,776 

407,635 

290,162 

16,147 


2,696,712 
698,608 
480,511 
768,610 


889,228 
164.801 
227,500 
445,663 
209.297 

18.609.047 

600,000 


1,023,189 


Nevada 


160.000 


Idaho 


778,906 


South Dakota 


173,202 


Washington 


80,756 


Maine and NewHamp- 
ghire 


5,396,226 
8,553,336 


4,410,564 
3,600,000 


4.880,496 
8.000,000 


6,860,089 
531,630 




Vermont 




Tennessee and South- 
ern States 


18, 855,612 


Middle States 




Lead desilverizere, etc.«» 


500,000 


Total domestic 
copper 


526,512,987 
19,750,000 


568,666,921 
023,800,000 


606,117.166 
86.880.000 


602,072,519 
c64,000,000 


669,608,644 
040,000.000 


698,044,517 


From imported pyrites 
and ores and matte. . . 


•82,000,000 


Total (including 
copper from im- 
ported pyrites) . 


616,262,987 


602,466,921 


642.497,166 


666,072,519 


699,608.644 


730,044,617 



a Copper smelters in Colorado, purchasing argentiferous copper ores and mattes in the open mar- 
ket, sources not known. The quantity of Montana matte which goes to one of these works has been 
deducted. 

b Since 1901 the quantity stated covers only that part of the incidental copper product the sooroe 
of which could not be ascertained. 

Estimated. 

LAKE SUPERIOR DISTRICT. 

In previous volumes of the Mineral Resources tiie production of the 
individual mines has been tabulated from 1884 to 1891, both inclusive. 
Since that time some of the producers have reported to this office only 
with the understanding that the returns be regarded as confidential. 
The production of the majority of the mines is, however, given accu- 
rately in the published annual reports to stockholders. From these 
the following table has been compiled: 



Digitized by 



Google 



COPPER. 

Productwn of some of the leading Lake Superior copper mineSf 1S97-190S. 

[Pounds.] 



205 



Mine. 


1^97. 


1898. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1908. 


Tunanurk 

Qirincy 


20.222,529 
16,924,618 
11,201.103 
2.906,284 
5,109,663 
611,172 
2,816,296 


19,660,480 
16,354,061 
12,682.297 
2,623,702 
4,377,399 
291,339 
4.688,114 
42,766 


18,565,602 
14,301,182 
11,858,049 
1,280,000 
4,675,882 


19,181,605 
14.116,551 
12,667,181 
8,663.710 
4,980,149 


18,000,852 
20,540,720 
13,723,487 
3,757,419 
4,666,889 


16,961,628 
18,988,691 
18,416,396 
5,269.140 
4,949,366 


15,286,098 
18,498,288 
16,069,636 
5,309,080 
6,505,598 


Oh*coU 


FiinkUn 

AtUntic 


Centna 


WolreriDe 

Baltic 


4,766,646 
621,336 


4,778,829 
1,785,060 


4,946,126 
2,641,482 


6,478,181 
6,285,819 
4,165,784 
5,730,807 
8,569,748 
908,479 
2,845,805 


9,024,084 
10,580,997 
10,564,147 
9,237,051 
8,184,601 
6,284,327 
2,576,447 


ChABipion 




TrimooDtAin .... 












UeR07»]e 










2,171,955 
677,146 
873,297 


Hofaftwk 










Van 







42,800 


122,239 









Cdumet and Hecla. — The annual report of the Calumet and Hecla 
Mining Company for the fiscal year ending April 30, 1904, shows a 
production of 76,620,145 pounds of refined copper as compared with 
76,632,912 pounds in the fiscal year 1902-3. The balance sheet for 
the last three fiscal years compares as follows: 

Balance sheet of the Calumei and Hecla Company for the fiscal years ending April SO^ 

1902, 190S, and 1904* 





1904. 


1908. 


1902. 


AflBITS. 

C^fh. Viana rpcelTablc copper, and mlner&l 


16,070,918 

757,691 

461,621 

6,206 


$6,118,436 

600,276 

609,584 

6,583 


$3, 960, 576 
149,937 
866,668 


Inmoee fond » 


BlUireceiTable 


Employees aid fond 






ToCal 


7,286,338 


7,234,879 


4,467,171 




LLiBILITin. 

Bnftii in tranffft ...,, - 


67,682 

• 


M,397 


165,686 

17,629 

819, 661 


AMfond 


BiUiimrable 


805,617 
880,000 


819,284 
804,174 




871,576 




Total 


703,299 
6,583,039 


677,856 
6,667,024 


874,891 
8,692,780 


Ikkoce 





President Agassiz, in his annual report, states that the new openings 
on the conglomerate belt in the vicinity of the Red Jacket shaft have 
continued unsatisfactory, and that rock mined in that district shows 
» decrease of about 15 per cent in copper from former years. The 
marked cutting out of the southern extension of the copper-bearing 
gruund has continued. Last fall the opening of the Kearsarge amyg- 
daloid was started and three shafts have been located on the lode. 



Digitized by 



Google 



206 



MINERAL BES0UBGE8. 



The quality of the rock encountered is fair. During 1903 five of tie 
heads of the Calumet mill have been remodeled and the work on the 
six remaining heads has been started. It should be completed by 
May, 1905. The remodeling of the Hecla mill should be completed 
in the spring of 1907. 

Quincy. — ^The Quincy Mining Company did not, in 1903, reach the 
product of 1 902. There were mined 1,024,164 tons, of which 1,006,173 
tons were hoisted, while 958,935 tons were stamped. The product was 
21,159,785 pounds of mineral from the stamp mill and 4,060,435 
pounds of barrel copper from the rock houses, which produced 
18,498,288 pounds of refined copper, against 18,988,491 pounds in 
1902. In spite of the increased quantity of rock handled, the total 
hoisted in 1902 having been 984,594 tons, the yield was smaller. 
There was realized from copper, $2,447,361.82; from interest, |11,- 
457.18; and from Hancock real estate account, 16,347.12. The working 
expenses at the mine were $1,573,863.46, the taxes in Michigan, |59,- 
406.10, and the cost of smelting, transportation, and other expenses, 
$175, 184. 82. The construction cost was $117,775. 38, leaving as the net 
income $538,926.36, out of which dividends aggregating $550,000 were 
paid. 

Tamarack. — ^The Tamarack Mining Company made a slightly smaller 
output in 1903 than in 1902, but through the opening up of ground 
tributary to No. 5 shaft, which is better than the average in yield, has 
improved its position. 

In 1903 there were mined 803,262 tons, while there were stamped 
657,920 tons, yielding 24,055,512 pounds of mineral, and 15,286,093 
pounds of refined copper, an average of 23.2 pounds of refined copper 
per ton of rock stamped as compared with 24.2 pounds in 1902, when 
the product was 15,961,528 pounds. The cost of mining and stamping 
was $2.32 per ton of rock stamped in 1903 as compared with $2.30 in 
1902, the cost of stamping alone being 26.24 cents and 23.30 cents, re- 
spectively. Principally through the fact that the amount expended for 
construction was less, the cost per pound of refined copper declined. 
The figures were for 1903 and 1902, respectively: Cost per pound at 
mine, 9.97 cents and 9.51 cents; cost of construction, 0.15 cent and 
0.97 cent, and cost for smelting, freights, selling expenses, etc., 1.38 
and 1.42 cents; the totals being 11.50 cents for 1903 and 11.90 cents 
for 1902. 

The gross value of the copper at an average of 13.02 cents per 
pound was $1,990,045.53, to which must be added $52,177.67 for 
interest receipts and other income. The running expenses at the mine 
were $1,524,119.29, and the smelting and other expenses $210,390.72, 
leaving a gross profit of $307,713.19. After deducting construction 
expenses of $22,647.64 there was a net profit of $285,065.55, out of 



Digitized by 



Google 



COPPER. 207 

which a dividend of $90,000 was declared, making the total dividends 
since 1888, $8,580,000. 

(hccola. — During 1903 the output of the Osceola company was 
increased over 1902. There were stamped 924,400 tons of rock, as 
compared with 836,400 tons in 1902, the quantity of mineral produced 
increasing from 18,430,012 pounds to 21,904,243 pounds, yielding 
respectively 13,416,396 pounds and 16,059,636 pounds of tine copper. 
The Osceola branch is producing from 25,000 to 30,000 tons of rock 
per month, containing from 16 to 17 pounds of refined copper per ton, 
and this it is expected can be maintained for an extended period. The 
principal developments of the year have been in the Kearsarge branch, 
the South Kearsarge having averaged a monthly shipment of rock of 
over 27,000 tons during the last half of 1903, an increase of over 
11,000 tons per month over the best month of 1902. At the North 
Kearsarge branch the shipments of rock from No. 1 shaft, it is hoped, 
will reach a total of 20,000 tons per month, while Na 3 shaft has pro- 
duced an average of 23,000 tons of rock per month. All work on the 
Tamarack Junior branch has been stopped. 

A very considerable reduction in costs has been effected, the cost of 
mining and stamping per ton of rock having fallen from $1.59 in 1902 
to $1.43 in 1903, while the cost pf stamping has declined from 21.74 
cents per ton to 17.44 cents per ton. The costs per pound of refined 
copper were 11.77 cents in 1902 and 10.29 cents in 1903, distributed 
as follows, respectively: Cost per pound at mine, 9.91 cente and 8.23 
cents; construction, 0.64 cents and 0.81 cents; and smelting, freights, 
eastern expenses, commissions, and all other charges, 1.22 cents and 
1.25 cents. 

The results of the fiscal year were : Gross value of copper pro- 
duced, $2,087,692.48, and Imlance of interest, receipts, and other 
income, $18,231.62. The running expenses at the mine were 
$1,321,193.47, and the cost of smelting, transportation, commissions, 
and all other charges, $201,576.59, leaving a gross profit of $583,154.04. 
From this must be deducted construction expenses aggregating 
^29,418.59, leaving as the net profit for the year $453,735.45, out of 
which a diridend of $96,150 was paid. Deducting from the surplus 
thas left of $357,585.45 the balance of liabilities at the end of the 
previous fiscal year of $226,025.82 leaves a balance of assets of 
$131,559.63. The Osceola is producing now at the rate of over 
^,000,000 pounds of copper per annum. 

Atlantic. — The yield of the rock of the Atlantic mine, which was 
0.5547 per cent of copper in 1902, increased to 0.638 per cent in 1903. 
TTiis is accounted for mainly by the smaller proportion of rock treated 
from "A" shaft, which was found to be very much poorer than the 
•verage. In one week's run the actual yield of mineral ran as low as 
0.327 per cent During 1903 there were stamped 431,397 tons of rock, 



Digitized by 



Google 



208 MINERAL EESOUKCES. 

which produced 7,670,660 pounds of mineral, or 5,505,598 pounds of 
refined copper, as compared with 4,949,366 pounds in 1902. The costs 
per ton of rock treated were: 91.91 cents for mining and surface 
expenses, 5.63 cents for transportation to mill, 22.39 cents for stamp- 
ing and separating, 14.97 cents for smelting, freight, and marketing, 
a total of $1,349. Including the cost of construction, the cost per ton 
of rock treated was $1,384. The copper, which sold for an average of 
13.12 cents, realized $722,386.47- The working expenses at the mine 
were $517,384.05; smelting and freight, $64,567.87, and interest on 
loans, $4,199.70; thus leavmg a mming profit of $136,234.85. There 
were received $25,000 for the sale of land; and on the other hand, 
there were expended in construction and in exploration $10,893.19, 
showing a net gain for the year of $150,341.66. 

Franklin. — The Franklin Mining Company produced 5,309,030 
pounds of copper in 1903, as compared with 5,237,460 pounds in 1902. 
About 10,000 tons per month of stamp rock comes from the old 
Franklin mine, the remainder of the tonnage coming from the Penin- 
sula conglomerate of the Franklin Junior. There were hoisted 349,263 
tons of rock, of which 347,458 were stamped, yielding 8,132,310 
pounds at the mill, and 766,077 pounds of mass and barrel work. The 
total receipts were $685,840.95, including $49,694.62 of cash on hand, 
there having been sold 4,712,388 pounds at an aggregate of $634,391.74. 
The running expenses at the mine were $535,811.28 and the smelting, 
freight, and insui-ance amounted to $75,640.46. The outlays for con- 
struction including the cost of installing a fourth head at the mill were 
$41,803.68. 

Copper Range Consolidated Compway. — The Copper Range Consoli- 
dated Company controls the Baltic, Champion, and Trimountain mines 
and the Copper Range Railroad Company, and is interested largely in 
the Michigan Smelting Company. During 1903 the Copper Range 
Company acquired 95,532 shares of stock, out of a total of 100,000 
shares, of the Trimountain Mining Company through an exchange of 
shares. One of the terms of the agreement was that the parties own- 
ing the majority interest of the Trimountain Mining Company should 
pay to the Copper Range Consolidated Company a sum equal to the 
entire amount of the net indebtedness, which on examination of the 
books on September 1, 1903, showed to be about $840,000. In pursu- 
ance of this agreement there has been paid on the principal to Decem- 
ber 31, 1903, the sum of $133,031.63. The Copper Range Company 
owns 50,000 shares of the Champion Copper Company, the other half 
being owned by the St. Mary's Mineral Land Company. 

The Copper Range Consolidated Company is the second largest pro- 
ducer of the Lake district, there being produced during the year 1903 
30,382,446 pounds of copper, which, sold at an average of 13.3453 
cents, yielded $4,054,634. The. mining, smelting, and marketing 



Digitized by 



Google 



OOPPEB. 209 

expenses were $2,700,647, and taxes and interest $167,931, leaving a 
net income of $1,186,055. Out of this dividends of $300,000 each to 
the Champion Copper Company and to the Trimountain Copper Com- 
pany were paid, leaving $586,055. The earnings of the Copper Bange 
Railroad Company were $116,584, and the receipts under the Tri- 
mountain agreement and other earnings carried the total to $1,015,908, 
frona which must be deducted $133,763, being one-half the undivided 
profits of the Champion, which belongs to the St. Mary's Mineral 
Land Company, leaving as the balance of net income for 1903 $882,145. 
The Baltic mine which began production on a moderate scale in 
1899 reached nearly full output in 1903; with an equipment of four 
Nordberg stamps. There were stamped 490,237 tons of rock, which 
yielded an average of 21.58 pounds of copper per ton, as compared 
with an average of 22.842 pounds in 1902. The total production was 
10,580,91^7 pounds in 1903, as compared with 6,285,819 pounds in 1902. 
The average selling price being 13.431 cents, the receipts were 
$1,421,211. Since the mining and smelting expenses were $897,562, 
and taxes and interest were $42,202, the net profit was $481,447. The 
improvement and construction expenses amounted to $83,818, which 
left a surplus of $397,629. A previous deficit was $216,831, so that 
the year ended with a surplus of $180,798. 

The Champion mine increased its production from 4,165,784 pounds 
in 1902 to 10,564,147 pounds in 1903, and since its new 4-stamp mill was 
not in full operation during the whole of the year, it is likely to make 
an even larger output in 1904. The company stamped 389,082 tons of 
rock, which yielded 14,710,245 pounds of mineral, the yield in fine 
copper having been 27.15 pounds per ton of rock. The copper sold 
at an average of 13.37 cents, the gross receipts being $1,412,711, 
while the expenses at the mine were $646,959; the smelting, freight, 
and selling expenses were $156,745, taxes and interest were $41,480, 
and construction cost $274,669, leaving a surplus of $292,858, divi- 
dends aggregating $300,000 being paid. 

The Trimountain, which lies between the Baltic on the north and the 

Champion on the south, also increased its production from 5,732,160 

pounds in 1902 to 9,237,051 pounds in 1903. Since the full capacity 

of the 4-stamp mill was not available during the whole of the year, a 

further moderate increase is expected. The Trimountain stamped 

5<>7,377 tons of rock, which produced 11,558,048 pounds of mineral 

and 9,237,051 pounds of fine copper, the average contents of the rock 

rnmhed being 18.20 pounds per ton, as compared with 27.55 pounds 

in 1902. The receipts, copper having averaged 13.428 cents, were 

$KuT7,364, and the value of the copper on hand was $143,347, a total 

of $1,220,711. The expenses at the mine were $867,103; smelting, 

freight, and commissions $132,277, taxes and interest $82,788, and 

oonrtruction $274,913, leaving a deficit of $136,370. Dividends of 

M R 1903 14 



Digitized by 



Google 



210 MINERAL BESOUBOES. 

jSOOjOOO were paid, which increased the deficit to $436,370, which, 
added to a previous deficit of $291,063, made the total deficit at the 
end of the fiscal year $727,433. 

Woloerine, — During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904, the Wol- 
verine Copper Mining Company hoisted 328,412 tons of rock and 
stamped 314,091 tons. The production of mineral was 12,152,690 
pounds, which yielded 9,300,695 pounds of copper. This was sold at 
an average of 12.75 cents per pound, the total receipts, including 
$6,680 for interest, being $1,192,425. The total expenses were 
$600,688, leaving a mining profit of $591,737. The outlays for con- 
struction were $34,496, so that the net profit was $557,241. Dividends 
to the amount of $390,000 were paid. 

Mohawk, — The Mohawk, which is working on the Kearsarge lode, 
began regular work in January, 1903, with two stamps, but the third 
stamp, owing to delays, did not go into conmiission until February, 
1904. When, in addition, the 60-drill compressor is in operation the 
capacity of the mill is expected to be increased by 50 per cent. Ulti- 
mately, therefore, a production of about 9,000,000 pounds of copper is 
indicated. In 1903 the company hoisted 346,365 tons of rock and 
stamped 288,441 tons, which yielded 8,825,500 pounds of mineral, or 
6,284,327 pounds of fine copper, an average of 21.79 pounds per ton. 
The cost per ton of rock hoisted was $1.37 and per ton of rock stamped 
$1.65. The cost of copper per pound at the mine was 7.55 cents, and 
the" cost of smelting and freight was 1.23 cents, making the total 8.78 
cents. Including the outlays for construction the cost per pound of 
copper was 11.02 cents. 

The total receipts were $839,631, including $823,940 for the sale of 
6,284,327 pounds of copper, at an average of 13.11 cents. The 
expenses at the mine were $474,503; for smelting and freight, $69,680; 
for general expenses, $7,965, and for construction, $218,075, leaving 
a surplus of $69,408. There were received from assessments $202,825, 
and taking into account a previous deficit of $18,766, there was a sur- 
plus at the end of the year of $253,467. 

hie Royale. — For the first six months of 1903 the Isle Royale Cop- 
per Company had in operation only one head of stamps, the rock being 
obtained from territory tributary to No. 2 shaft. In July, it was 
decided to reopen No. 1 shaft and start a second head, which carried 
the shipments to about 22,000 tons of rock per month. In December, 
however, shaft No. 1 was destroyed by fire, and the mine was thrown 
back on the operation of shaft No. 2. During 1903 there were stamped 
199,493 tons of rock out of 232,851 tons hoisted, as compared with 
203,672 tons stamped in 1902. The production of mineral in 1903 was 
4,408,615 pounds, as compared with 5,219,305 pounds in 1902, the 
production of fine copper l>eing, respectively, 3,134,601 pounds and 
3,569,948 pounds. The costs compare as follows for 1903 and 1902: 



Digitized by 



Google 



OOPPEE. 211 

At mine, 9.81 cents and 11.23 cents, respectively; construction and 
exploration, 0.23 cent and 0.53 cent; smelting, freight, etc., 1.81 
centsand 1 . 69 cents; the totals being 11.85 cents in 1903 and 13.45 cents 
in 1902 per pound of refined copper. 

The total income was $444,594.52, of which $441,313.56 was for 
copper sold at an average of 13.12 cents per pound. The running 
expenses at the mine were $307,437.32; the smelting, freights, and 
setting expenses were $56,617.61, and the exploration expenses, 
W,258.79, leaving a net profit of $73,280.80. 

Mas8. — ^Tbe Mass Mining CJompany produced in 1903 2,576,447 
pounds of fine copper. The receipts from copper, assessments, etc., 
aggregated $345,813, while the expenditures were $434,225. 

Wino^ia. — ^The Winona Copper Company is still engaged in a sys- 
tematic development of the mine, which is operating on the Winona 
amygdaloid, using one head of the Atlantic mill for stamping. Dur- 
ing the year 1903 there were crushed 51,434 tons of rock, from which 
there was produced 1,687,331 pounds of mineral, yielding 1,036,944 
pounds of refined copper, or 20.16 pounds per ton stamped. The 
receipts for copper at the rate of 13.489 cents per pound, assessments 
which yielded $105,124, and interest $2,254, aggregated $247,252, 
while the expenses were $192,858. , 

Adventure. — ^The Adventure mine, which produced 2,182,608 pounds 
of refined copper in 1903, received from sales $301,134. The mining 
expenses were $337,413; the smelting, freights, etc., $29,949; taxes, 
^14^,051, and construction account, $61,611, leaving a deficit of $141,890. 
Michigan. — ^An effort is being made to determine whether the Mich- 
igan Copper Mining Company possesses a paying mine. A good deal 
of ground has been opened, arrangements have been perfected to 
extend the tracks of the Mineml Range Railroad to the mine, and to 
transport the rock to Keweenaw Bay where the use has been obtained 
from the Mass Company of one head capable of crushing 500 tons of 
rock per day of twenty-four hours. Shipments of rock began in Novem - 
ber at the rate of 250 tons per day, which were doubled in the spring 
of 1904. The mine produces a considerable quantity of mass copper, 
and the stamp rock has yielded an average of 13.8 pounds of ingot 
copper. 

Ahmeek, — The Ahmeek Mining Company will appear for the first 
time this year as a moderate producer of copper. The company is 
opening up the Kearsarge lode, on the old Seneca property, and adjoins 
the Mohawk. The company has secured one head at the Tamarack 
mill, where the rock broken in development work will be stamped. 

Cmtennial, — The Centennial Mining Company, which has concen- 
trated its efforts on the development of the Kearsarge lode on its 
property, has leased two stamps of the Arcadian mill, which will bo 
<mpible of handling 1,000 tons of rock per day. 



Digitized by 



Google 



212 MINERAL BESOUBGES. 



MONTANA. 



The copper production of Montana was hampered during 1903 by 
the continuance of the litigation in Butte, which has held back this 
great district for some years. With the exception of the product of 
the Indian Queen mine, and of some copper produced by the American 
Smelting and Refining Company and the National Smelting Company, 
of Rapid City, S. Dak., the total product of Montana is from the Butte 
district. The Amalgamated Copper Company controls the Anaconda, 
Colorado, Parrot, Butte and Boston, Boston and Montana, and Washoe 
properties, the ores of the Anaconda, Colorado, and Parrot companies 
being reduced at the Washoe smelter. The Butte Reduction Works 
treat the ores from the mines owned by Senator W. A. Clark, and 
the United Copper Company smelts the ores of the Minnie Healey, 
Cori*a-Rock Island, and Rarus mines. The Pittsburg and Montana 
Mining Company has been developing its mines during 1903 and has 
been erecting a smelting plant. The Speculator mine ships its ores to 
the smelters of the district. None of the companies of the district pub- 
lish annual reports, so that statistics relating to the yield of the ores, 
to costs, or to financial results are not available. Statements are annu- 
ally filed with the tax commissioner of Montana, which cover a fiscal 
year, but since they do not embrace figures as to the output of copper, 
silver, and gold, they permit only of approximations as to the capacity 
of the district to meet the world's competition in the copper market 

ARIZONA. 

Arizona has resumed its growth, checked in 1902 by the falling off 
in the output of a few of its leading mines through temporary causes. 
With the newer mines, like the Calumet and Arizona, and the Shan- 
non, reaching their full production in 1904, and with the enlarged 
operations of a few of its older producers, a further increase is very 
probable. 

The Warren district, of which Bisbee is the center, and which has 
been famous for the old Copper Queen mine, has been the scene of an 
extraordinary activity in mining development. Conspicuous among 
the properties which have already developed large ore bodies are the 
Calumet and Pittsburg Company, which lies to the easi of the Calu- 
met and Arizona and is separated from it by the Lowell mine of the 
Copper Queen, and the Lake Superior and Pittsburg, which lies south 
and southeast of the Calumet and Arizona and joins both the Lowell 
and the Calumet and Pittsburg properties. 

During 1904 there will be completed the new Douglas smelting 
plant of the Copper Queen Company, whose suppi}' of ore will be 
drawn not only from the Copper Queen itself but also from the mines 
controlled by Phelps, Dodge & Company, the Moctezuma and- the 



Digitized by 



Google 



COPPEB. 213 

Sierra de CoHro in Socorro, the Globe, and others. The plant will 
also be used, an custom works for the smelting of copper ores and dry 
gold and silver ores. The works have 6 smelting furnaces of 2,000 
tons aggregate daily capacity, one furnace being in reserve. 

The Calumet and Arizona Mining Company has rushed into promi- 
nence as a copper producer in 1903. Having produced in 1902 only a 
little over 2,000,000 pounds, the company made 10,272,427 pounds 
during the first six months of 1903, and 15,263,430 pounds during the 
second half of the year. During 1903 the company mined 150,070 
tons of ore, shipped 148,584 tons, and smelted 145,916 tons, from 
which there was recovered an average of 8.88 per cent of copper. 
The value of the gold and silver in the metal was $144,862.39, or an 
average per ton of refined copper of $11.35. During the year the 
highest price obtained for copper was 14.48 cents, and the lowest 
11.50 cents, the average for the refined copper sold being 13.088 cents, 
or, deducting refining charges and commissions, 12.013 cents, and less 
freight, insurance, assaying, sampling, and weighing 11.558 cents. 
The smelting works are now treating an average of 600 tons per 
day of 24 hours, which, with a small outlay, can be brought up to 
900 tons per day, equal to a capacity of 35,000,000 pounds per annum. 
The United Verde Company produced somewhat more copper in 

1903 than it did in 1902, although it has not yet returned to the 
normal output of former years. During 1903 the smelting plant was 
remodeled and enlarged, so that the production may be considerably 
increased. 

In the Verde district a new producer of importance will appear in 

1904 in the Equator Mining and Smelting Company, in which Senator 
W. A. Clark is largely .interested. The property consists of the Iron 
King mine and a smelting plant with 250 tons weekly capacity. Con- 
siderable quantities of ore were in the roast yards at the close of 1903. 

The George A. Treadwell Mining Company did not produce any 
copper worth mentioning during the trial runs of its smelter in 1903, 
but is expected to become a steady producer during 1904. 

The Imperial Copper Company does not expect to begin production 
until the middle of the current year. 

In the Clifton district progress is being made. The operations of 
the largest producer, the Arizona Copper Company (Limited), are indi- 
cated by the latest report for the six months ending March 31, 1904. 
At the mines electric haulage has been introduced with success. In 
the concentrating plants there were treated during the six months 
281,552 tons of ores, which yielded 35,093 tons of concentrates. The 
leading plant treated 43,049 tons of tailings and produced 1,488,246 
pounds of copper, the acid plant making 1,826 tons of sulphuric acid. 
In the smelter 49,646 tons of copper ore and concentrates and 1,491,441 



Digitized by 



Google 



214 MINERAL RESOURCES. 

pounds of copper from the leaching works were smelted, which pro- 
duced 14,756,742 pounds of copper. The mine proiSts were £119,379, 
after deducting general expenses and taxes. The net earnings of the 
Arizona and New Mexico Railroad, owned by the company, were 
£89,842, making a total of £159,221. There were paid £10,505 for 
interest, £12,265 for dividends on preferred stock, and £107,659 on the 
share capital. 

The Detroit Company did not produce quite as much copper in 1903 
as it did in 1902, the figures being 18,917,158 pounds in 1902 and 
16,558,232 pounds in 1903. No enlargement is contemplated at the 
present time. 

The Shannon Copper Company, which first entered the ranks of pro- 
ducers in 1902 with a product of about 2,340,000 pounds, increased its 
output to 6,588,720 pounds in 1903, and in 1904 will probably exceed 
12,000,000 pounds, a second section of the concentrating plant having 
been completed during the current year. The company has closed a 
contract for treating the ores of the Standard Consolidated Copper 
Company, of the Clifton district. The latter company is an amalga- 
mation of the Coronado Mining Company, which has been a producer 
of ore on a moderate scale; the Standard copper mines, which have 
marketed some high grade ore, and the San Jose mines, now in course 
of development. 

In the Globe district the most interesting event has been the amal- 
gamation of the Old Dominion and the United Globe properties, fol- 
lowed by comprehensive improvements which will lead to a greatly 
increased output. The Old Diminion Copper Mining and Smelting 
Company has been an active producer for many years, but its opera- 
tions were based on the smelting of its oxidized ores, with the object 
of making black copper in one fusion. Metallurgically, much better 
results can be obtained by smelting to a matte and Bessemerizing the 
latter. The United Globe mines in the same district can advanta- 
geously furnish sulphur ores, the siliceous ores of the property going 
to the Douglas smelter, owned by the same interest. As soon as the 
amalgamation had taken place suitable ores from the Copper Queen 
mines had been shipped to the Old Dominion smelter and delivered at 
a cost varying from $1 to $3 per ton after taking into account the 
values of the copper contained, an arrangement which will cease when 
the company begins concentrating its own sulphides. Under the new 
management a new well-equipped shaft has been sunk on the Old 
Dominion, and a new smelter is being built, with three furnaces, 44 
inches by 180 inches, at the tuyeres. The matte is to be Bessemerized 
in a 2-stand plant. There is also being built a concentrator, with a 
capacity of 250 to 300 tons per day, which will be completed in 1904. 
In the meantime the company, which produced 7,479,721 pounds of 
copper in 1903, has reached during the spring of 1904 a production of 



Digitized by 



Google 



OOPPEB. 215 

1,300,000 to 1,500,000 pounds per month by operating the old smelter, 
with two furnaces. It is estimated that with the new equipment a 
considerably larger output, approximately 2,000,000 pounds per month, 
will be maintained. 

UTAH. 

Dtah has been the scene of great activity, the problem of treating 
the lead ores of the Bingham district in particular having been fully 
solved. Since 1900, when this development began seriously, the pro- 
duction has more than doubled, and a further increase is assured. 

The Utah Consolidated Mining Company, which has succeeded the 
Highland Boy Gold Mining Company, an English company, is the largest 
copper producer in Utah. During the 3^ear 1903 there were mined 
1^,899 toDS of sulphide ore, 6,276 tons of oxidized ore, and 81 tons of 
lead ore; a total of 190,256 tons, of which 6,390 tons were sold. The 
smelter at Murray treated 176,125 tons of sulphide ore and 6,015 tons 
of oxidized ore, an average of 482.5 tons per day of sulphide ore. The 
product was 13,023,633 pounds of bullion, which, when refined yielded 
12,715,693 pounds of fine copper, 198,811 ounces of silver, and 20,028 
ounces of gold, as compared with 11,840,431 pounds of copper, 160,915 
ounces of silver, and 19,078 ounces of gold in 1902. The company is 
increasing the capacity of the smelter by 40 per cent, so that it will 
enter the second half of 1904 with a productive capacity of 18,000^000 
pounds per annum. The company received from sales of copper, 
silver, and gold, $2,028,934, and expended for mining $338,524; for 
exportation and mine development, $6,263; for smelting and ore trans- 
portation, $515,202; and for refining charges, freight, and selling, 
$235,246. Taking into account miscellaneous and other outlays and a 
reduction in the stock of bullion on hand and of copper in process, 
there remained a profit of $1,038,637. 

The United States Mining Company works the Telegraph, Old Jor- 
dan, and Commercial mines at Bingham, and the Centennial, Eureka, 
and Tintic mines in the Tintic district, and has a smelting plant of four 
furnaces to which a fifth has been added, with a sixth to follow. In 
11^03 the company produced about 8,500,000 pounds of copper, so that 
the output is likely to be considerably increased during the current 
jear. The company has also begun the building of a lead-smelting 
plant 

I The Bingham Mining Company, which operates mines both in the 

I Tintic and in the Bingham district, has considerably increased its 

! operations during 1903 and early in 1904. The company has issued 

J $1,000,000 of convertible 6 per cent bonds to pay for properties 

acquired, and to take up $300,000 of debenture bonds. The company 
haH a Hmelting plant of four furnaces, which handled in 1903 at the rate 
of 13,500 tons, and with a fifth stack early in 1904 were smelting 20,000 



Digitized by 



Google 



216 MINERAL RESOURCES. 

tons per month, of which about 45 per cent was custom ore. The com- 
pany has entered into contracts for the smelting of the copper concen- 
ti-ates of the Utah Copper Company for seven and one-half years. It 
is estimated that a production of about 14,000,000 pounds per annum 
will be attained. 

The Tintic Mining and Development Company, in the neighborhood 
of the Highland Boy and Boston properties has been developing it'* 
Yampa mines, and during the year completed a smelting plant with a 
capacity of 250 tons per day, which it is estimated will produce from 
6,000,000 to 7,000,000 pounds of fine copper in the form of matte. 

The Utah Copper Company has been developing a large body of low- 
grade ore in the Bingham district and is completing a concentrating 
plant of 500 tons daily capacity. If the results are satisfactory, a very 
much larger plant is to be built. 

Similar ore is being treated by the Ohio Copper Company^ which 
has acquired the Columbia mine. 

The Boston Consolidated Copper and Gold Mining Company, Limited, 
is a Bingham property which is shipping ore to the Bingham company's 
smelter under a 2-year contract, which provides that there be fur- 
nished 200 tons per day of ore carrying not less than 3 per cent of 
copper. 

There is being developed on a very comprehensive scale the Cactus 
group of mines at Newhouse, near Frisco, in Beaver County, by the 
Newhouse Mines and Smelters, an undertaking carried out by Mr. 
Samuel Newhouse. The Frisco branch of the San Pedro, Los Angeles 
and Salt Lake Railroad is being extended to Newhouse, and conti*act8 
have been let for the first 800-ton unit of a concentrating plant, the 
property including the Wah-Wah springs, from which the water has 
been piped and which will furnish a supply for a very large plant 
The ore is pyritic, easily concentrated, and contains about 5 per cent 
in copper, and some silver and gold. A contract has been closed with 
the American Smelting and Refining Company for smelting the product 
for a series of years. 

The Majestic Mining and Smelting Company, which operates mines 
in the vicinity of Milford, built a smelter at Lewisville which produced 
a small quantity of matte during a trial run. The company has been 
in financial difiiculties, and the plant is now idle. 

A little more than 1,500,000 pounds of copper was made in 1903 by 
the Utah and Eastern Copper Company, with mines and smelting works 
in Washington County. It is expected that a larger production will 
be attained during 1904. 

As a smelter of custom ores the Utah plant of the American Smelt- 
ing and Refining Company is an important factor in the utilization of 
its copper resources. 



Digitized by 



Google 



OOPPEB. 217 

CALIFORNIA. 

Owing chiefly to the decline in the production of the Mountain Cop- 
per Company the output of copper from California has shown a fur- 
ther decline. Because of a fire and labor troubles, the Mountain 
Company made only 13,189,714: pounds of copper as compared with 
19,500,000 in 1902. During 1903 the Keswick smelting works smelted 
124,678 tons of ore, 118,978 tons being mined in that year. The 
Bullj Hill Company, also in Shasta County, yielded a little over 
2,300,000 pounds. The Balaklala in the same district is developing 
its mines and is about to build a smelting plant. The Trinity has not 
yet made plans for work on a large scale. The Great Western Gold 
Company, another Shasta County property, has completed a smelting 
works. The Fresno Copper Company is an English Company which 
hafi) just ordered a large smelting and bessemerizing plant. At Campo 
Seco the Penn Mining Company has been producing matte in 1903 
containing 2,210,000 pounds of copper. Besides this only small 
quantities of cement copper have been marketed by several of the 
old mines. 

TENNESSEE AND THE SOUTH. 

The Tennessee Copper Company is forging ahead, having in 1903 
produced 10,690,389 pounds of fine copper, as compared with 8,108,534 
pounds in 1902. A third furnace and a new blowing engine were in 
coarse of construction, which according to the estimate of Mr. J. Parke 
Channing, the president, will carry the output to about 14,000,000 
pounds. It has been determined to increase the smelting capacity from 
300,000 tons per annum to 600,000 tons by enlarging the smelter from 
three to six furnaces. The production of ore could be made by operat- 
ing the nunes double shift. The new construction will extend over 
eighteen months, so that the enlarged output will not come into play 
until well into 1906. The company is carrying out the plan of smelt- 
ing unroasted or green ore, which will not only reduce the operating 
costs but will increase the extraction, and will make a net saving of not 
kais than 1 cent per pound on the copper. 

Mr. Randolph Adams, the general manager, in his annual report, 
states that there were raised and shipped from the Polk County mine 
75,153 tons, from the Burra Burra 120,046 tons, and from the London 
92.366 tons, a total of 287,465 tons, the ore reserves standing at the 
^ of the year at 2,775,000 tons, an increase of 725,000 tons during the 
vflir. The charge smelted during the year consisted of 248,067 tons 
<rf roasted ore, the equivalent of 275,630 tons of green ore; 8,859 tons 
of faliceous ore, 218 tons of green ore, 25,336 tons of converter slag, 
2,2h2 tons of blast-furnace by-products, 27,232 tons of quartz flux, and 
5,977 tons of matte resmelted— a total of 317,466 tons, which required 



Digitized by 



Google 



218 MINERAL RESOURCES. 

the consumption of 39,606 tons of coke. The production amounted 
to 1,922,772 pounds of fine copper in Bessemer pig, 8,736,117 pounds 
of refined copper, and 31,500 pounds suspended in refining, the yield 
calculated on the green ore being 37,615 pounds per ton of ore. 
The detailed operating costs, free on board Tennessee, are as follows: 

Operating costs of Tennessee copper ore^ free an board. 

I Cost. 



^^™- j Per ton of iPerpound 



ore. 



o! copper. 



Mine development i 80.1^8 

Mining, hoisting, etc ' .6696 

Crushing and sorting 

Railway 

Roasting 

Credit to ore in process in roast yards 

Blastfurnace 

Engineering and laboratory 

General 

Converting 



Ctnti. 
1.78 



Cost of fine copper in pig. 
Refining 



Cost of fine copper as ingot. 



.0761 


.20 


.1454 


.38 


.8300 


.88 


.0442 


.12 


1.1437 


S.04 


.0324 


.09 


.1443 


.38 


.2692 


.72 


2.9892 


7.96 


.0971 


.25 



3.0863 8.20 



The treasurer, Mr. J. H. Susmann, reports that sales were made of 
3,023,544 pounds of pig copper, at an avemge selling price of 12.17 
cents, the approximate cost being 7.95 cents at works, 0.66 cent for 
freights, insurance, and selling expenses, and 0.30 cent for taxes, 
legal, and administrative expenses, a total of 8.91 cents. The sales of 
refined copper were 9,655,545 pounds, at an average price of 12.98 
cents, the approximate costs being 8.20 cents at works and 0.96 cent 
as above for other costs, a total of 9.16 cents. There were inventoried 
at the beginning of the year 2,450,077 pounds of copper, and at the 
end the stock at works and on dock was 912,354 pounds. 

The profit and loss account shows profits aggregating $500,419.52, 
which includes $74,326.57 for ro^^alties on iron ore mined, tolls on 
converting outside copper matte, and on merchandise, while the 
expenditures include $7,500 to bond-issue account, $25,000 interest 
on $500,000 bonds, and $50,354.52 for depreciation. The sum of 
$61,785.74 was expended on construction. Two dividends aggregat- 
ing $437,500 were paid. The capital stock is $5,000,000, of which 
$625,000 is in the treasury. 

The second producer in Tennessee is the Ducktown Sulphur, Copper 
and Iron Company (Limited), with a production of about 3,000,000 
pounds. Mr. W. H. Freeland, the general manager, reports that 
prior to August, 1902, the company roasted all its ore in open heaps 



Digitized by 



Google 



COPPEB. 219 

before smelting. As the result of successful experiments in the smelt- 
ing of green ore, roasting was abolished and the mines were shut down 
until the large stock of ore in the roast yards was exhausted in Sep- 
tember, 1903, when mining operations were resumed. Since then the 
ore has been smelted without preliminary roasting. The practice con- 
skts of two operations, viz, the smelting of the green ore to a low- 
^rade matte, carrying in the neighborhood of 20 per cent of copper, 
followed by a second smelting or concentration of the first product to 
a 50 per cent matte. In the first operation 3 per cent of coke is at 
present used in the charge, but it is expected that even this small 
amount will be dispensed with in the future. The second operation 
coDsomes a quantity of coke equivalent to 1 per cent of the original 
ore. Early in the current year a daily tonnage of over 400 tons of 
ore was being treated in this manner, which indicates an annual output 
of about 4,600,000 pounds of copper. 

ALASKA. 

Through shipments of ore to Pacific coast smelters, and to the T^oma 
Smelting Company in particular, Alaska has for the first time entered 
the ranks of producers with the prospect that important additions to 
the output will be made during the current year, when several local 
smelting plants will render more extensive operations possible. The 
greatest progi'ess has been made with the opening up of the deposits 
on Prince of Wales Island. The Alaska Copper Company, of Copper- 
mount, shipped some rich ore in 1903 and is building a smelting plant. 
A 400-ton plant is under erection also for the Brown-Alaska Copper 
Company. 

WYOMING. 

There has been only a moderate amount of copper produced in 
Wyoming, the bulk of it coming from the Encampment district, in 
Houthern Wyoming. The principal interest is the North American 
Copper Company, which owns the Ferris- Haggerty mine and the 16- 
mile aerial tramway from that mine to the Encampment smelter. A 
good deal of underground work has been done, and the smelter has 
been enlarged to a capacity of 500 tons per day and a converting plant 
has been added, so that the current year will witness a considerable 
increase in the output. A considerable number of other mines in the 
dbitrict are being developed. The Rambler Mining and Smelting 
Company has shipped a small quantity of matte, but was closed down 
at the end of the year. 

IDAHO. 

A soudl quantity of copper was produced during 1903, during a 
*>rief period of operation of the smelting plant of the White Knob 
Copper Company at Mackay. The company will probably produce 



Digitized by 



Google 



220 MINERAL BESOUROES. 

more regularly in 1904. At Mineral City the Ladd Metab Company 
has erected a furnace and ha8 shipped some matte. Small quantities 
of Idaho ores reach some of the larger smelting works. 

CANADA. 

According to official returns, the production of Canada amounted in 
1903 to 43,281,158 pounds of copper, valued at $5,728,261. The sta- 
tistics of the Minister of Mines of British Columbia show a production 
in 1903 of 34,359,921 pounds as compared with 29,636,057 pounds in 

1902. The Bureau of Mines of Ontario reports a production, during 

1903, of 10,662,000 pounds, the greater part thereof being obtained 
as an incidental product in working the Sudbury nickel deposits. 

The most important copper-producing section in British Columbia 
is the Boundary district, which produced, approximately, 625,000 tons 
of ore in 1903, the greater part of which was smelted in the local 
plants of the Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting, and Power 
Company at Grand Forks, the British Columbia Copper Company, 
and thd Montreal and Boston Company. Air of them work large 
bodies of low grade ores, carrying some silver and gold. The largest 
of them is the Granby Company, which increased its smelting plant in 
1903 to 6 furnaces with a capacity of 2,100 tons of ore per day, and is 
now working on the plans for an addition of 8 furnaces, which will 
bring the capacity up to 4,800 tons per day. The company has com- 
pleted a Bessemer plant and has introduced the use of the steam shovel 
in its mining operations. It is estimated that when the proposed 
enlargements are completed the plant will produce 4,000,000 pounds 
per month. 

The Montreal and Boston Copper Company has been consolidated 
with the Dominion Copper Company, the Morrison Mines (Limited), 
the Athalstan or Jackpot Gold Mining Company, and a three-quarters 
interest in the Emma mine, the new company being known as the 
Montreal and Boston Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company. 
The company proposes to increase the smelting capacity to about 1,200 
tons per day, and to add a converter plant. The last annual report of 
the Montreal and Boston Company for 1903 shows that there were 
smelted during the year 112,246 tons of ore, producing 2,551,142 
pounds of copper, 7,705 ounces of gold, and 58,725 oundes of silver, 
jfor which there was received, in the form of matte, $403,602. The 
smelting plant ran only intermittently, owing to shortage of coke dur- 
ing the spring and early sununer. The cost, including purchases of 
ore, were $453,882. 

The British Columbia Copper Company, which controls the Mother- 
lode mine, produced close upon 4,000,000 pounds of copper, 50,000 
ounces of silver, and 13,500 ounces of gold during 1903. The smelt- 
ing plant is to be enlarged, and a converting plant is to be added. The 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



COPPEB. 221 

works are to be operated by electricity from the power plant of the 
Cascade Water Power and Light Company, at Cascade, on the Kettle 
RiTer. 

TheRossland district has increased its product, the shipments having 
been about 377,000 tons of ore. The greater part of this ore is treated 
at the Lie Roi smelting works at Northport, Washington, while the 
Trail smelters handle the bulk of the remainder. The siliceous ores of 
the district are being successfully concentrated in mills built and build- 
ing which employ the Elmore process. The Velvet Mine (Limited) 
is erecting a pyritic smelter. 

As indicating the character of the ores, it may be noted that the 
Le Roi Mining Company mined and shipped to the Northport smelter 
155,765 tons of dry ore, which carried 1.526 per cent of copper, 0.709 
ounce silver, and 0.373 ounce gold. 

In the coast district development has been favored by the operation 
of the Crof ton smelter of the Northwestern Smelting and Refining 
Company, at Crof ton, Vancouver Island, and of the Tyee Copper Com- 
pany (Limited) at Ladysmith. The annual report of the latter com- 
pany for the fiscal year ending April 30, 1904, shows that there were 
mined 48,624 tons of ore at a cost of $2.21 per ton. The smelting plant 
handled, besides, 7,126 tons of custom ore, and 1,176 tons of ore from 
stock. There were produced 5,554 tons of matte, containing 4,446,987 
pounds of fine copper, 143,303 ounces of silver, and 8,778 ounces of 
^rold, the total value, less refining charges, being $678,837. The ore 
yielded 3.96 per cent of copper, 2.55 ounces of silver, and 0.156 ounce 
goId« The total receipts were -€128,632, and the expenses were £103,- 
242, including X45,954 for mine expenses and -€39,886 for smelter 
expenses. The profits for the year were £25,390 on a capital of 
£180,000. 

MEXICO. 

The oldest of the larger copper enterprises in Mexico is the Boleo 
Company « operating in the Santa Rosalia district in Lower California. 
It is known as a Roths<»hild enterprise, and its stock is held in France. 
During 1903 the company mined 230,490 tons of ore, which yielded 
10,480 metric tons of copper, the aveitige yield being 4.56 per cent. 
The net profits were 5,829,449 francs, of which 2,500,008 francs were 

paid out in dividends to stockholders, and 460,002 francs were paid on 

founders' shares. 
The Boleo Company is interested in the Inguamn Company, another 

Mexican copper enterprise under Rothschild management. It is a low- 

gnde proposition in the State of Michoacan, which has been prospected 

for a number of 3'ears, and which it is now proposed to develop fully. 
The Greene Consolidated Copj^M* Company, of Cananea, has con- 

tinwHl its exceedingly rapid development, having produced during the 



Digitized by 



Google 



222 MINERAL BE80UB0BS. 

calendar year 1908 about 45,000,000 pounds of copper. During the 
year 1904, however, the company has been producing at a rate of over 
5,000,000 pounds per month, and there has been a further develop- 
ment of its capacity. An eighth furnace has been completed, a sixth 
stand of converters has been installed, and a very large new conceD- 
trating plant has been added. 

The Moctezuma Company, at Nacosari, Sonora, produced in 1903 
about 8,900,000 pounds of copper. Its ore will, upon the completion 
of the Douglas smelter, go to that plant for reduction. 

In southern Mexico the most important producer is the Teziutlan 
Copper Company, in the State of Puebla. The plant consists of two 
Herreshoff furnaces, the matte being bessemerized. The production 
is about 400 tons of copper monthly. 

CUBA. 

The famous old El Cobre mines near Santiago are being developed 
by an American company, which has been un watering the old work- 
ings and is now building a smelting plant at Punta Sal, on Santiago 
Harbor, 9 miles from the mines. 

GERMANY. 

The only great copper producer in Germany is the Mansfelder 
Kupferschieferbauende Gewerkschaft, whose cost of production is 
such that the. profits and losses alternate as the prices of copper 
and of silver rise or fall. In 1903 there were mined 686,838 tons 
of cupriferous slate, at a cost of 28.09 marks per ton. The four 
smelting plants handled 685,880 tons of ore, and 474 tons of sandy 
ore were added in the matte smelting, so that the total was 686,354 
tons. The total production of copper was 19,258 metric tons, an 
increase of 509 tons over 1902. This included 17,266 tons of refined 
copper, 1,883 tons of electrolytic, and 109 tons of refined obtained 
from foreign products. The desilverizing plant yielded 97,358 kilo- 
grams of fine silver. There were also made 20,785 tons of chamber 
acid. The average price obtained for refined copper in 1903 was 
122.81 marks, as compared with 112.57 marks in 1902. The total 
receipts for 1903 were 30,900,828 marks, as compared with 29,044,079 
marks in 1902. The expenditures were 29,117,745 marks and 
29,634,971 marks, respectively, so that there was a surplus of 
1,723,083 marks in 1903, as compared with a loss of 590,908 marks 
in 1902. The corporation carries on a number of other operations, 
which carried the total profit in 1903 to 6,037,853 marks, as compared 
with 108,110 marks in 1902. 



Digitized by 



Google 



COPPER. 223 

SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. 

The min<^ of the Peninsula are not showing any notable growth, but 
they continvie to be an important factor in the copper trade of the 
world. 

The Rio Tinto Company (Limited) produced, in 1903, 35,810 long 
tons of copper, 21,565 tons being refined copper and 14,245 tons being 
metal in pyrites shipped. The sales for the year were 36,361 long 
tons, consisting of 22,208 tons of refined copper, 1,484 tons in sul- 
phate, and 12,669 tons in pyrites. There were mined for shipment, 
during 1903, 688,919 tons, as compared with 627,967 tons in 1902, and 
there were mined for local treatment 1,229,619 tons in 1903 and 
1,237,322 tons in 1902. The average content of copper, however, 
declined from 2.517 per cent in 1902 to 2.390 per cent in 1903. The 
actual shipments were 667,748 tons of pyrites and 118,171 tons of sul- 
phur ore. Of the pyrites shipped, the United States took 163,245 
tons. The net profit on the sale of produce was £1,648,110, and there 
were received from interest and rents £43,613. There were paid in 
dividends £1,214,688. 

The Tharsis Sulphur and Copper Company shipped, in 1903, 4,548 
long- tons of precipitate and 421,226 tons of pyrites. The net profit 
for the year was £218,960. 

The mines of the company are approaching exhaustion and the effoiis 
to acquire other profitable copper properties have not been successful 
thus far. Mines in Norway, purchased some time since, did not come 
up to expectations and have been disposed of. 

Ifason and Barry (Limited), who work the San Domingos mines in 
Portugal, had a fairly prosperous year, making a profit of £85,056. 
The copper production of the company is decreasing. 

Among the more recent Spanish pyrites mines are the Pena Copper 

Mines (Limited), which are just beginning to produce. In 1903 the 

output was 179,160 tons of ore, of which 155,887 tons were put down on 

the heaps for leaching, the balance being reserved for export without 

treatment There are now on the heaps 433,623 tons, from which 

there were produced, in 1902, 624 tons fine copper in precipitate, and 

in 1903, 924 tons. The average contents of the ore mined in 1902 was 

47.^ per cent of sulphur and 1.36 per cent of copper, the percentages 

in 1903 being, respectively, 46.11 per cent and 1.25 per cent. The 

net profit in 1903 was £21,599. 

THE WORIiI>'8 PRODUCTION. 

Messrs. Henry R. Merton & Co., of London, have compiled the fol- 
lowing statement of the world's production, the figures being modified 
bj thiK office when^ official statistics are available. 



Digitized by 



Google 



224 



MINEBAL BB80UBCE8. 

The capper pwducticm of the world, 1896-1903. 
[Long tons.] 



Ccmntiy. 



■UBOPK. 



Qreat Britain 

Spain and Portogal: 

RioTinto 

Thanis 

Mason and Barry 

Sevilla 

Tinto and Santa Rosa . 

Other mines 

Germany: 

Mansfeld 

Other German 

Austria 

Hungary 

Sweden 

Norway 

Italy 

Russia 

Turkey 



1896. 



1887. 



I 



656 

84.501 

12,000 

08,900 

1,026 



556 

83,923 

a 11, 000 

a4,800 

810 



1896. 



Total. 



KOBTH AMKRICA. 



United States 

Canada 

Newfoundland 

Mexico: 

Boleo 

Other Mexican . 



18,265 , 
1,800 
1,066 ' 
206 
600 
2,500 * 
8,400 
5,882 



500 ' 
2,560 I 

17.960 

2,185 I 

1.210 

446 

545 

8,450 

8,480 

6,941 

975 



88,M8 90,829 



206,884 
4,190 
1,800 

9,940 
1,210 



Total 222,524 

SOUTH AMERICA. 



ChUe 

Bolivia: 
Ooroooro. 

Peru 

Ar§rentina.... 



Total. 



AFRICA. 

Algiers 

Cape of Good Hope: 

Cape Company 

Namaqua Company . 



Total . 



Japan 

AUSTRALASIA. 

New South Wales 

South Australia 

Tasmania 

Queensland 



Total . 



23,500 

2,000 
740 
100 



220,571 
5,988 
1,800 

10,170 
ci4,200 



242,679 



26,840 



5,470 
1,960 



7,450 



21,000 



4,467 
4,877 
1,928 



11,272 



21,900 

2,200 

1,000 

200 



25,800 



5,290 
2,160 



7,440 



23,000 

6,922 
4,705 
4,956 



640 

83,705 

all, 160 

8,600 

800 

815 

2,805 

18,045 

2,040 

1,110 

480 

480 

8,615 

2,965 

7,291 

470 



1899. 



89,461 



285.060 
8,040 
2,100 

9,485 
07,000 



261,625 



24,850 

2,060 

3,040 

125 



80.066 



50 

4,660 
2,400 



7,110 



25,175 



5,743 
6,000 
5,200 



16,583 15,943 



685 

34,370 
9,448 
8,600 
1,200 
1,000 
2,660 

20.785 

2,676 

915 

590 

520 

3,610 

3,082 

7,588 

920 



253,870 
6,731 
2,700 

10,885 
a9,000 



1900. 



777 



1901 



682 



35,782 I 35,348 



7,966 
8,460 
1,460 
1,580 
2,676 



7,427 
3,729 
1,292 
1,640 
4,186 



282,636 



25,000 

2,500 
5,166 



82,780 



4,140 
2,350 



6,490 



27,560 



5,394 
a6.600 
(19,000 



20,894 



18,890 


18,780 


2,020 


2,940 


865 


1,015 


490 


886 


450 


820 


3,985 


3,875 


2,797 


a 3, 000 


7,898 


6,263 


520 


980 



480 I a500 

84,480 1 8^810 

6,710 { 6.SH) 

3,390 2.430 

1,545 1,106 

1,285 j 1,4N 

2,440 2.645 

18,730 18,975 



2,855 
1,027 
485 
455 
4,565 
3,370 
8,675 
1,100 



2,280 
1,0% 
810 
4» 
5,915 
3,100 
10,S» 
1,400 



91.089 91,841 



270,568 
8,446 
2,700 



268,782 
18,496 
2,836 



11,050 I 10,796 
all, 000 al9.685 



303,784 I 820,044 866,280 



91,552 I H<K» 



294,423 


811,«r7 


17.486 


19,321 


2,586 


2,710 


10,785 


10,480 


a30,000 


040.000 



25,700 30,780 28,960 



2,100 

8,220 

75 



86,096 



4,420 
2,800 



02,000 

9,520 

730 



02,000 

7,850 

240 



43,060 89,020 



5,072 
2,400 



2,750 
1,700 



6,720 , 7,472 4,450 



28,121 



27,475 29,776 



_l_ 



05,600 6,802 

a5,386 6,770 

010,000 1 012,000 

dM 3,061 



21,270 I 28,633 



8,796 

6,847 

a9,650 

8,784 



29,076 



884, 1» 

30.930 

02,000 

7.800 
185 



40,865 



4,630 
600 

5,230 
31,360 



08,000 
«7.000 
a9.N52 

4.916 



29,468 



a Estimated. 



Digitized by 



Google 



OOPPEB. 



225 



IMPORTS. 

In former volumes of Mineral Resources tables have been published 
showing the imports from 1867 to 1894, inclusive, of fine copper con- 
tained in ores. From 1895 to 1903 only the gross weight of the ore 
and of the regnlus (matte) are given. These are presented in the fol- 
lo¥ring table: 

Otpper ore and reguhut or matte imported and entered for consumption in the United States, 

1895-1908, 



Ore. 



Tear ending December 31— 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 

IW 8,921,920 

im 2,620,800 

^m 43,919,680 

IMS 107,283,440 

\m : 120,934,616 

1300 109,123,840 

1»1 131,790,400 

1902 834,010,800 

19tt 607,407,860 



Matte. 



Value. Quantity. 



! 

^13,689 ' 
126,580 I ' 
683,497 I 
565,245 I 
1,141,180 j 
2,164.386 
3,084,306 ! 
1,706,245 
1,357.248 



Pounds. 

3,104,640 

3,427,200 

2,974,720 

1,583,680 

7,763,885 

27,534,080 i 

75,913,600 I 

52,978,240 

30,461,760 



Value. 



$125,853 

210,725 

'226,704 

92,135 

784,232 

2,966,449 

11,310,357 

6,215,396 

1,932,526 



Total value. 



9339,542 

837,805 

910,201 

657,380 

1,925,412 

5,130,835 

14,394,663 

7,921,641 

8,289,774 



The fine copper content of the copper ore and matte imported has 
always been a diflBcult matter to estimate, since it varies from very low- 
jrrade ores to high-grade mattes. The country from which the mate- 
rial has been imported, and the valuation, has always served as a guide, 
bnt the chief reliance has been the reports of smelters and refiners in 
this country of the copper content of the material handled by them. 
The greater p»rt of the tonnage from British North America is ore, 
including as it does the Le Roi ores smelted at Northport, Wash., the 
cusUrni ores treated at the Tacoma and other smelters, and the copper 
content of the Ontario mines going to Atlantic tide-water works. 
Besides this there are the nickel-copper mattes of the Sudbury district, 
the copper content of which is reported to this oflBce. 

The imports of ore and of matte are shown in the following table for 
the calendar years 1901, 1902, and 1903: 

h^nrts of copper ore and matte, by countries, in the calendar years 1901, 1902, and 1908, 



Country. 



Ottmaaj 

C^iilrf n^idom 

AAMi 5ofth America . 
Xotfeo 



^ ^hcr eoontrics . 
TMy 



1901. 



Quantity. 



Long tons. 

153 

1,011 

55,641 

80,469 

8,470 

303 



Value. 



1902. 



1903. 



Quantity. 



145,219 

53,498 j 

3,060,815 ' 

9,378,197 [ 

2,130,305 

26.611 



lAmg ion$. 
169 

l.'>4,787 

22. 2M 

3W 

43 



Value. Quantity. ' Value. 



~l 



S43,232 

139,281 

2,318,616 

6,127,894 

62,463 

4.294 



Loug tons. 

175 

686 

243,918 

39,261 

77 

7*.M 



$47,383 

1(M,396 

1,758,013 

l,2M,3(i8 

2,N'> 

10,207 



96, 017 I 14, 692, &I5 181, 566 8, 69.1. 780 284, 911 3, 177, '232 

I ' I I 



H s 1903 15 



Digitized by 



Google 



226. 



MINERAL BESOUBGES. 



Since July, 19()3, the Bureau of Statistics has collected figures show- 
ing the fine copper content of this material. The following table 
presents the figures for the six months ending December 31, 1903: 

Import of copper orCj matter and reguLus into Hie United States for six monUis ending 

December Sly 190S. 



Country. 



July. 



AufTust. 



QuanU- y , QuanU- 

ties. ^^^^- lies. 



Value. 



September. 



«S»". y^^ 



October. 



V' '^'^-'' 



10 
17,076 

18,996 



United Kingdom: 

Long tons — 

Pounds 

Germany: 

Long tons — 

Pounds 

British North America: 

Long tons. . 

Pounds 1,035,665 

Mexico: | 

Long tons j 5,949 

Pounds 1,461,994 

Cuba: I 

Long tons. . 

Pounds 

Soutli America: 

Long tons. . 

Pounds 



! iu.:::h- 



j 



|«2,5 
I 95,8 



177,387 



Total: 

Long tons 24, 955 

Pounds 2,504,625 



1275,315 



11,294, 



}l28,l 



2,457 
702,760 



1 ,. 



12,292, 



85,621 



).... 



I 54,980 

I 85,664 
12,561,836 

I 323 

I 143,816 

I "" 

I 5,040 



K 



200 



158,331 



17,8 



504 



f 20.856 1 
11,041,671 r 

f V 

I 656,: 

[: 



|UO,e88 



2,542 
S,162 



918 



W,301 



■256,501 



{ 86. 
12,765, 



|l84,887 



f 23,897 b 
11,697,823 Ij 



19i9» 



November. 



Country. 



Quantities. 



Value. 



December. 



Quantities. 



Value. 



Total, fdx months. 



Quantities. Value. 



United Kingdom: 

Long tons 

Pounds 

Germany: 

Long tons 

Pounds 

British North America:^ 

Long tons 

Pounds 

Mexico: 

Long tons 

Pounds 

Cuba: 

Long tons 

Pounds 

South America: 

Long tons 

Pounds 



Total: 

Long tons. 
Pounds ... 



16,791 
1,878,879 

8,883 
746,851 

701 
212,848 



$144,564 



96,976 



8,476 



1,314 



I: 
I 

\ 1,652, 

I '• 

I 1,685, 

1::::::::: 
1 



1 
2,205 



•860 



122,967 



197,288 



49 



20,882 
2,341,488 



251,329 



f 32, 

1 8,246, 



821,178 



306 
287,954 



42.1 
4,211 j 



142, T23 
8,858,908 I 

19,810 j 
5,887,580 I 

786 
217,888 

77 
22,061 



163,745 
14,848,822 



$41,780 



11, 0» 



760,121 



668,870 



8,979 



2,865 



1,488,709 



NOTS.— The pounds given in this table are the estimated copper content of the ore, etc. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



COPPER. 



227 



A study of these returns and of the reports from smelters and 
refiners justifies the estimate of 32,000,000 pounds for the fine copper 
content of the ore and matte imported during 1903. 

The growth of the Bessemerizing plants at the smelting centers 
tends to restrict more and more the shipment of matte, so that foreign 
copper reaches us more and more in the form of converter bars, which 
appear with ingots in the import returns. This source of uncertainty 
in the international movement of copper material tends, therefore, to 
disappear. 

The sources of the imports of copper in the form of pigs, bars, old 
materiaL, etc., are shown in the following table for the calendar years 
1901, 1902, and 1903: 

Imports of copper pigs, bars, ingots, plates, old and other unmanufactured, in the calendar 
years 1901, 190^, and 190S, 



Country. 



KOI. 



Quantity. Value. 



I Pounds. 

Prince j 1,0:2,178 

Gennany ' 8,117,961 

rniu-d K I ngdom 48, ^88, 699 

British North America . . . 953, 576 

Cuba 1,013,460 

'Hber Went Indies 890,206 

Mexico ' 23,024,876 

J«pan 224,880 

AU other countries ' 241,115 



Total 78,826,410 



$159,344 

;>37,409 

7,589,801 

100,460 

125,255 

43,685 

8,245,664 

83,185 

27,663 



1902. 



Quantity. Value. 



Poundg. 
848,623 
l,2i5,864 

27,762,888 
386,861 
801,016 
190,972 

68,665,175 

2,643,913 

690,416 



U, 812, 216 I 103,129,568 



$106,645 

169,202 

4,008,936 

40,873 

82,921 

15,397 

8,245,926 

816,662 

71,197 



18,061,169 



1903. 



Quantity. Value. 



Pminrl^. 
1,426,279 
1,600,766 

18,788,558 

15,923,700 
467,882 
317,112 

89,361,100 
3.604,643 
4,717,945 



186,707,995 



$214,297 

218, 000 

2,994,404 

1,840,604 

60,687 

81,555 

10,978,497 

422,756 

511,348 



17,262,148 



A considerable part of the imports from the United Kingdom is 
Mister copper originating in other countries, notably the Australian 
colonies, which comes to this country for refining. The Mexican cop- 
per is almost entirely in the form of converter bars, some American 
matte going to Mexican works for conversion to be returned to this 
country for refining. 



Digitized by 



Google 



228 MINERAL BE80UBCE8. 

Copper imported and entered for conmmipHon in the United States^ 1890-190S. 



Year ending December 31— 



1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901. 
1902. 
1903. 



Bars, ingotii, and pigs. 



Quantity. 1 Value. 



Pounds. 

6,189 

2.566 

22,097 

554,348 

606,415 

7,»79,822 

9,074,879 

12,646,652 

86,892,944 

64,282,583 

62,404,489 

71,001,718 

112,420,258 

132,762,834 



$859 

389 

2,588 

58,480 

42,688 

726,347 

750,976 

1,142,626 

3.094,541 

9,350.582 

9.981.060 

11,478.422 

12.615,708 

16,784,082 



Old, fit only for re- 
manufacture. 



Quantity. Value. 



Pound8. ' 

284,789 

184,407 

71,485 

69,875 

160.692 

1,336.901 

2.422.654 

1,780,390 

1,986.183 

6,678.146 

8.864,756 

2,818,767 

2,119,081 

3,285,597 



«26,473 

9.686 

6,114 

6,M6 

15,726 

109.840 

196.419 

158.829 

168,405 

758.010 

878.967 

825,850 

219,267 

389.614 



Old, taken from bot- 
toms of American 
ships abroad. 



Quantity. 



Pound*, 



Value, 



16,826 
1,14S 



Year ending December 81— 



Plates rolled, 
sheets, pipes, etc. 



Manufac- 

Sheathing metal, in tures not 

part copper. j otherwise 

specified. 



Total valne. 



Quantity. Value. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Value, 



1890, 
1891 
1892, 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896, 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1908 



Pounds. 

4,209 
122.219 

1,788 

7,066 , 
12,681 
27,156 I 
34,481 ' 

3,116 
11,793 
827 ' 

5,821 
19,248 
83,798 , 
34,973 I 



•917 

23,291 

600 

1,065 

1,821 

2,586 

4,834 

430 

2,193 

331 

3,416 

6,761 

22,089 

17,899 



Pounds. 

87,468 
228,486 
417,134 
1,670 
8,422 
6,698 
3,183 

16,282 
5,801 

13,763 

22,783 
5,237 
8,912 
8,071 



S4,467 

29,112 

51,880 

167 

1,470 

389 

306 

1,929 

979 

6,810 

2,367 

807 

491 

373 



924,752 
12,926 
49,764 
16,166 
8.851 
13,166 
20,963 ! 
80.729 
20,071 
13,629 
8,145 
8,610 
6,521 
10.836 



$67,468 

75,40S 

110.446 

89.149 

66.699 

851,828 

973.485 

1,834,443 

8,286,889 

10,128,862 

10,818,944 

11,820.459 

12,864,021 

17,163.208 



Digitized by 



Google 



OOPPEB. 



229 



EXPORTS. 

The exports of copper in different forms have been printed in former 
volumes of Mineral Resources for the period beginning June 30, 1863. 
Below, the figures are submitted from 1890: 

Qjpper and copper ore of domestic production exporUdfrom the United States, 1890-190S, 
[Cwts. are long hundred weights of 112 pounds.] 



Ore and matte. 



Year ending De- 
cember n— 



t 



Q.Tiantity. 



Vm ' 431,411 

UW I 672,120 

IW 948.010 

MB ; 836,040 

UN. 87,040 

W» ' 276,480 

law 414.286 

Vm 1 181,280 

M» 186,860 

vm 1 74,540 

WW .....j 200,140 

IW 219,666 

!« 201.992 

\m ' 137,659 

I 



Value. 



$4,413,067 
6,565,620 
6,479,758 
4,267,128 

440,129 
1,681,261 
2,893,914 
1,199,029 

755.448 

442,868 
1,832,829 
2,586.549 
1,826,131 

855,867 



Pigs, bars, sheets, and old. 



Quantity. 



Powndt. 
10,971.809 
69,279,024 
80,515,736 
138,964,128 
162.393,000 
121,328,390 
259,223,924 
277,255,742 
291,955,905 
246,826,881 
837,978,761 
194,249,828 
854,668,849 
810,729,524 



Value. 



11,865,879 
8,844,804 
3.488,048 
14,213,378 
15,824,925 
12,222,769 
27,822,280 
80,597,645 
88.508,869 
41,190.287 
55,285.047 
81,692,563 
48,892,800 
41,170,059 



Value of 
manufac- 
tured 
product. 



$139,949 

298,619 

245,064 

464,991 

878,040 

1.084,289 

819,017 

958,879 

1.190,989 

1,852,409 

2,257,563 

1,842,886 

2,092,798 

2,889,729 



Total value. 



15,918,896 
16.703,543 
10,162,870 
18,935.497 
16,148.094 
14,988,809 
81,035,211 
32.755,058 
86.545,251 
48,485,654 
58,875.439 
36.071,448 
46,811,729 
44,865,165 



The destination of the exports of copper for a series of years is 
shown by the foUowing table, the data having been furnished by the 
Bureau of Statisties: 

£iporia of capper ban and ingots for 1898. 1899, 1900, 1901, 190S, and 190S, and coun- 
tries to wfddi exported, 

[Pounds.] 



CoDittiy. 



1896. 



1899. 



1900. 



1901. 



1902. 



1908. 



ntted Kingdom . 

ftSMOt 



Sct&etlmMli. 
hi^ 



Xexi© 

MtUi north 
VcilliMUes.. 



88,448,870 

18.613.183 

63.900,506 

42,801,846 

72,418.688 

8,788,672 

7.840,276 

7,478.730 

268.976 

1.628,606 

6.143 

843.066 



50.676,849 

6.069.466 

68.450,866 

49,286.189 

69,804.699 

8.449,666 

2.680,610 

6,854,287 

285,222 

965,626 

5,509 

270.614 



63.622.445 

12,564,191 

67,725,969 

67,848,848 

101,898.894 

6.650.285 

6,660,423 

11,258,115 

296,684 

1,616.778 

1,817 

1,060,282 



86.819.100 

4.661.406 

84,607,042 

87,487,180 

61,762,002 

6,046,776 

2,880,270 

8,616,964 

217.437 

1,282,577 

3,082 

1,018,044 



88.972,029 
8,431,560 
63,519.881 
56,604,758 
96,868,472 
9,108,904 

a28.589,742 

251.812 

2,811,885 

97 

69,764 



47,140,717 
4,207,720 
53,746,221 
71,130,077 
96,927,346 
7,774,016 
10,411,679 
b 16. 516, 663 
165,283 
2,644,831 



68,971 



Total 291,966,906 



246,826,881 



837.973,761 



194,249,828 



354,668,849 810,729.524 



•Other Suqype, inclnding Austria and Russia. 



mother Europe. 



Digitized by 



Google 



230 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



The recovery of the export trade, which followed the collapse of 
the effort to hold prices up to a high level in 1901, is well shpwn in 
these figui'es. Practically all of the metal which goes to the Nether- 
lands is in transit to Germany, and a considerable part of the copper 
shipped to England finds lodgment ultimately in other countries. 

Besides the exports of copper shown in the above table, largely of 
domestic origin, some foreign copper is reexported directly. The 
Bureau of Statistics reports that there were exported of foreign cop- 
per in 1899, 2,560,149 pounds; in 1900, 1,281,782 pounds; in 1901, 
12,888,083 pounds; in 1902, 11,629,877 pounds; and in 1903,2,093,103 
pounds. In addition, 14,446 long tons of foreign copper ore, matte, 
and regulus were exported in 1902, and 6,150 long tons in 1903. 

The following table shows the ports from which copper was exported: 

Domegiic exports of ingots^ bars, and old copper in 1898, 1899, 1900, 1901, 190$, and 

190S, by ports, 
[Pounds.] 



District. 



Baltimore, Md 

Boston and Charlestown, Mass. 

Newark, N.J 

Newport News, Va 

Norfolk, Va 

NewYork,N. Y 

Philadelphia, Pa 

New Orleans, La 

Galveston, Tex 

Detroit, Mich 

Huron, Mich 

Burlington, Vt 

All other districts 



18d8. 



Total. 



87,027,133 

439,368 

673,180 

2,638,868 

6,249,820 

178,400,314 

68,624 

15,508,831 

444,920 

728,689 

118,827 

410,410 

246,921 



291,955,905 



1899. 



90,786,853 
1,568,197 



4,085,580 

4,707,267 

134,412,540 

2,733,692 

7,469,628 

8,700 

820,121 

107.662 

434,840 

206,856 



216,826,331 



1900. 



86,2B4,2S1 
1,496,387 



2,016,000 



280,178,643 
12,468,680 
3,937,850 



469,819 
149,.^ 
678,589 
314,527 



837,978,751 



District. 



1901. 



1902. 



1903. 



Baltimore, Md , 

Boston and Charlestown, Mass., 

Newport News, Va , 

Norfolk, Va 

New York, N.Y 

Philadelphia, Pa 

New Orleans, La , 

Detroit, Mich 

Huron, Mich 

Burlington, Vt 

AU other districts 



54.877,865 

27,917 

1,668,567 



133,540.150 

8,526,130 

1,806 

387,923 

92,062 

434,692 

293,226 



103,607,256 

426,069 

5,070,026 

598,339 

236,622,515 

5,804,743 

1,819 

812,828 

208,849 



1,516,405 



88,296,071 

512,053 

1.969,177 

1,771,9« 

211, 879. OK. 

8,-845,307 

3,0!4 

611,327 

261,820 

491,921 

1,087,786 



Total. 



194,249,828 354,668,849 



310,729,624 



The exports of copper from New Orleans in 1898 and 1899 were 
Mexican bars, which were shipped through that port, and were merely 
in transit 



Digitized by 



Google 



COPPER. 



231 



The data submitted permit of the following summary showing the 
available supply of copper for the years 1894 to 1903, both inclusive: 

Supply of copper for the United States, 1894^1903, 
[Poundii.] 



Source. 


1884. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


Production of domestic copper 

Imports: 

Fine copper in ore and matte, 
entereil for consomption 

Ban aim) f iicrot" -- 


854,188,874 

10,C78,434 
606,415 
160,592 


380,613,404 

a5, 800, 000 
7,979,822 
1,336,901 


460,061,430 

05,900,000 
I 11,897,272 


494,078,274 

012,000,000 
16,578,420 


526,612,987 
019,750,000 


Old coDDer 


54,166,467 






Total 


365,633,815 


395,229,627 


477,358,702 


522,666,694 


600,429,454 




EzportB: 

Tngotnand ban* 


162,898,000 
5,750,000 


121,328,390 
16,200,000 


259,223,924 
22,881,936 


6277,255,742 

c406,598 

011,000,000 


291,955,905 


Fine copper content of matte... 


23, 647, 968 
5,420,000 


Total 


168,143,000 


186,528,390 


282,105,860 


288,662,340 | 321,023,873 




Available suddIt 


197,490,815 


258,701,237 


195,252,842 


283,994,354 | 279,405,581 




Sooroe. 


1899. 


190O. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


Prodoctton of domestic copper 

lBport«: 

Fine copper in ore and matte, 
enteref for oonaomption 


568,666,921 

a28,800,000 
71,922,340 


606,117,166 

086,380,000 
68,796,808 


602,072,519 

064,000,000 
78,826,406 


659,506,644 

d 40, 000, 000 
103,129,568 


698,044,517 

32,000,000 
136,707,995 


Total 


664,889,261 


711,298,974 


789,898,925 


802,688,212 


866,752,612 




Ingots and bass- 
Domestic 


246,82C,831 

2,650,149 

a8, 500, 000 


388,121,071 

1,281,782 

09,000,000 


1 

194,249,828 354,668,849 

12,888,088 11,629,877 

015,000,000 011,000,000 


810, 729, 624 


FoRism 


2,093,103 




07,500,000 


Total 


252,876,480 


848,402,853 


222,137,911 1377,298,726 


820,822,627 




Available snnDlv 


411,512,781 


862,891,121 


517,761,014 


426,889,486 


546,429,886 





«&timated. 
(> Domestic. 



<? Foreign. 

d Deducting estimated content of foreign matte exported. 



STOCKS. 

All the large producers of copper, with the exception of one leading 
producer of the Lake district, have submitted a statement of the stock 
of metal, the blanks calling for stock at works, in transit, or in agents' 
hand», exclusive of material in course of conversion at the works, but 
inclosive of converter bars, matte, etc. , which must be shipped for 
farther treatment. The stocks do not include the amounts on hand at 
the refining works nor those carried by merchants, bankers, or specu- 
Ittoru, nor does the statement deal with the copper in stock at works 
of consomerB. 



Digitized by 



Google 



232 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



In the aggregate, the reporting mines, which represent a total pro- 
duction in 1903 of 537,570,584f pounds of copper out of a total of 
698,000,000 pounds, had a stock of 157,215,138 pounds on January 1, 
1903, and a stock of 177,117,166 pounds on January 1, 1904, thus 
showing an increase of about 20,000,000 pounds. 

CONSUMPTION. 

The data submitted, subject as they are in a number of respects to 
the limitations which the estimates impose, still justify some conclu- 
sions as to the consumption of copper in the United States, the esti- 
mate for the years 1900, 1901, 1902, and 1903 being aj3^ follows: 

Estimated consumption of copper in the United States in 1900, 1901, 1902, and 190S. 

[Pounds.] 





1900. 


1901. 


• 1902, 


1908. 


Available suddIv 


862,891,121 
6,000,000 


517,761,014 
135,000,000 


42.5,339,486 


546,429,885 


Deduct increase in producers' stocks 


20,000,000 


Add decrease in nroducers' stocks 


126,848,646 












Estimated consumption 


866,891,121 


882,761,014 


651,688,131 


666,429,885 







This indicates a practically stationary consumption as compared with 
1902, which harmonizes well with the known developments in iron 
and in other metals. 

PRICES. 

The following table summarizes the highest and lowest prices 
obtained for Lake copper, yearly, in the New York markets from 1860 
to 1895: 

Highest and lowest prices of Lake Superior ingot copper, by years, 1860-1895. 

[Cents per pound.] 



Year. 



1861 
1862. 
1863 
1864 
1866, 
1866, 
1867. 
1868, 
1869, 
1870, 
1871, 
1872, 
1873, 
1874, 
1875 
1876, 
1877. 



Highest. Lowest. 



24 

27 

32J 

38i 

25 

60i 

42 

29J 

24i 

26i 

231 

27 

44 

86 

25 

23} 

23} 

20i 



191 

17* 

201 

29 

89 

28 

26* 

2U 

211 

2U 

19 

21| 

27i: 

21 ! 
19 I 

2u : 

181 
17i 



Year. 



Highest. Lowe««t. 



1878.. 
1879.. 
1880.. 
1881.. 
1882., 
1883.. 
1884.. 
1885.. 
1886., 
1887., 
1888., 
1889., 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 



17* 

211 

25 

201 

201 

18| 

15 

lU 

12i 

171 

17A 

17* 

17* 

15 

121 

12* 

10* 

121 



16J 
15J 
18* 
16 
17{ 
141 
11 

10 

m 
11 

14 
lOi 
104 

91 

9 

9* 



Digitized by 



Google 



COPPER. 



238 



The following table shows the highest and lowest prices, monthly, 
during the last eight years: 

Highest and lowest prices of Lake Superior ingot copper, by moitihs, J896-190S, 

[Cents per pound.] 





January. 


Febmary. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


Ye*r. 


1 


! 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 1 


1 


1 


i 

1 


1 


1896 


lOi 

11 

17 
16* 
17 
18 
12* 


91 

u* 
lOA 

13* 
16* 
16* 
101 
12 


11* 
12 
111 
18 
16* 
17 
18* 
18* 


10 

11* 

11 

17 

16 

16* 

12 

12* 


11* 

11* 

12 

18 

17 

17 

12* 

14* 


10* 

11* 

11* 

17 

16* 

16* 

12* 

18* 


. '1 
11 101 

11* 11 

12*1 11* 

19*' 18 

17* 17 

17 I 17 

12* 12 

16 14* 


11* 
11* 
12* 
19* 
17* 
17 
121 
14* 


10* 
10* 
12 
18* 
16* 
16* 
12 
14* 


111 
11* 
11* 

18* 
16* 
17 
121 
141 


11* 


1887 


10* 
11* 


1806 


1809 


18 


1900 


16* 
16* 
12* 
14* 


1«1 


1902 


MOJ 






July. 


August. 


Septe 


mber. October. 


November. 


December. 


Year. 


n 


1 




1 


» 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


i 
1 


1 


1896 


Hi 

UI 

18* 

16* 

17 

12* 

14* 


11 

11 

11* 

18* 

16* 

161 

12 

13 


11* 
11* 

12* 
18* 
16* 
16* 
12* 
13* 


10* 

11 

11* 

18* 

16* 

16* 

111 

18 


10* 
11* 
12* 
18* 
16* 
161 
12 
18* 


10* 

11* 

12* 
18* 
161 
16* 
11* 
18* 


10* 
11* 
12* 
18* 
16* 
16* 
12* 
14 


10* 

11 

12* 

17 

161 

16* 

11* 

12* 


11* 
11 
121 
17* 
17 
161 
12 
14 


10* 
10* 
12* 
17 
16* 
16* 
11* 
12* 


11* 
11 

12* 

17 

17 

16* 

12* 

12* 


11* 
10* 
12* 
16* 
161 


1«7 


vm 


l>«9 


1900 


UOI 


12* 


MOB 


11* 


1906 


111 









From the annual reports of some of the Lake Superior companies 
it is possible to obtain a close estimate of the average selling price of 
Lake copper. The following table gives the results for 1902 and 1908: 

Average selling prices of Lake copper in 1909 and 190S, 





1902. 


1908. 


Mine. 


Quantity 
sold. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


Quantity 
sold. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


Tviutnck X 


Povmds, 
16,961,628 
18,416,396 
4.940,866 
8,669,748 
6,286,819 


OmU. 
11.87 
11.78 
li.88 
11.91 
11.87 


Poundi. 
16,286.098 
16,060,636 
6,506,678 
3,134,601 
10,680,997 
10,664,147 
9,237,061 
1,039,944 
18,498,288 
4,712,888 


Cent*. 
18.02 


O««ola 


18.00 


AtUntk 


13.12 


UeBoyal 


13.12 


Bftltic 


13.43 


CUaploD 


13.87 


Trt^mntafn 






18.43 


Wtaooa 






13.49 


Qmaey 






13.24 


FiwkMn „ 






18.72 










Qtiifial aT^ni^ 




U.86 




18.26 











Digitized by 



Google 



284 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



The following table shows the fluctuations in prices in the English 
market: 

Average vidtw of copper ijt Englandf 1898-190S, 
[Per long ton.] 



Year. 



1897 • 

1898 1 

1899 ! 

1900 1 

1901 \ 

1902 

1903 



Standard 


Best selected 


copper. 


copper. 


£ «. d. 


£ s. d. 


49 2 61 


52 5 2 


61 16 7i 


55 810 


73 13 81 


78 2 


73 12 Ci 


78 8 9 


66 19 8i 


73 8 8 


52 11 5i 


56 12 7 


58 3 2 


62 14 71 



In detail the fluctuations, monthly, of good merchant copper in the 
linglish market were as follows, from 1897 to 1903, inclusive: 



Fluctuations in good mercharU copper in England^ 1897-190S. 
[Per long ton.] 



Month. 



£ 8. 

50 10 

61 6 

50 4 

48 16 

May 48 10 



January . . 
February , 
March . . . . 
April 



1897. 



June 

July 

August 

September. . 

October 

November . . 
December 48 



48 12 

49 8 
48 10 
48 



d. 

8i 

6 

Oi 

9 
Hi 

14 

OJ 
101 

6 

8 
lU 



£ 8. 
48 19 



d. 
2 
8i 
24 
24 
91 

1 
74 
81 
2 
8i 

Hi 



1900. 



8, d, 

18 14 



10 Of 

5 11 

2 04 

19 3i 

15 7 

8 lOi 

8 54 

19 8 



£ «. 

70 14 



71 14 

72 11 
78 12 



1901. 



£ f. d, 

71 17 

71 5 4 

69 13 2 

69 14 10 

69 15 7 

68 18 

67 14 

66 9 



114 66 2 

71 64 4 

3|j 65 12 

3i\ 52 9 



1902. 



£ 8. 

48 10 
55 5 

53 10 
52 18 

54 8 
54 
52 19 
52 1 
52 16 
52 6 
51 3. 
51 1 



1908. 



£ 8. ft 

53 13 7^ 

67 10 H 

64 74 

61 19 14 

61 18 5 

57 11 3i 
56 16 lOi 

58 12 
56 19 81 

55 15 0} 

56 11 2| 
56 10 



THE COPPER MARKET IN 1903, 

The year opened with copper fairly active on both sides of the 
Atlantic, and the market, which was 12 cents for Lake copper and 111 
cents for electrolytic copper, gradually hardened until at the end of 
January 12^ and 12f cents was paid for Lake and 12^ cents for electro- 
lytic copper. The metal developed further strength in February, 
closing at 13f cents for Lake and 13^ cents for electrolytic. During 
March the demand continued unabated, the price being carried up 



Digitized by 



Google 



COPPER. 235 

from 13i cents to 14f cents for Lake in the la«t few da} .s. The move- 
ment culminated in the latter part of April with 15 and J5i cents for 
I^ke and l-tf cents for electrolytic copper. An uneasy feeling in finan- 
cial circles in this country and a weakness in the London speculative 
market caused consumers to hold aloof, and Lake copper receded to 
14r} cents and electrolytic to 14i cents. May was dull, with Lake cop- 
j>er hovering close to 141 cents. In June the range was a narrow one, 
although some good sales were eflfected. The month closed with Lake 
down to 14i cents and electrolytic to 14 cente. The financial outlook 
being increasmgly uncertain, the copper market yielded rapidly in 
July, coming down to 13 cents for Lake and 12f cents for electrolytic. 
This brought out buyers, and in the middle of August a somewhat bet- 
ter feeling in financial circles was reflected by a rise to 13| cents. 
The niarkets were dull and somewhat irregular in September, closing 
at 13f and 13i cents. October brought sagging prices, and the decline 
had reached 12i cents for Lake and 12i cents for electrol^^tic, when 
suddenly the announcement came on the 23d of October that all the 
mines and smelting works of the Amalgamated Copper Company had 
been closed down. This brought a rush of buyers on both sides of the 
Atlantic, our market rising to 13f and 14 cents for Lake copper, to 
which the market settled down, until, as suddenly as they had ceased, 
operations at the Amalgamated properties were resumed on Novem- 
ber 11. There was an immediate decline, aided by the general stagna- 
tion in all industrial activities, and November closed dull at 12i cents for 
Lake and 12f cents for electrolytic copper. Heavy selling pressure 
on the part of the large producing interests caused a further decline 
in the early part of December to llf and 12 cents for Lake and 11^ to 
Hi cents for electrolytic copper. At these prices very large pur- 
chases were made for European account, and the year closed with the 
market tending upward, at 12i and 12i cents for Lake and 12 to 12^ 
cents for electrolytic copper. 



Digitized by 



Google 



236 



MINERAL BES0UBCE8. 



THE KNOr^lHII COPPER TRADE. 

Since England is one of the leading copper markets of the worhl 
the following tables, showing the import and export movement, are 
of great interest: 

British imports and exports of copper. 
[f^ng tons.] 



Year. 


Impor 

Bars, cakes, 
and ingots. 


tsof— 1 

Copper In | 
ores and 
furnace | 

products. 1 

91,788 

94,403 

99,356 

88,003 

68,851 ! 

77,80<1 

75.398 

76,127 

71,726 

82.730 

84,69^1 

82.814 

70. 179 

70,047 


Total 
Imports. ' 

1 


Export.i. 


Apparent 

English 

eonsrump- 

tion. 


1890 


a 49, 461 
44, 213 

ft 35. 015 
41,829 
56,157 
42,135 
60, 458 
60,428 
67,978 
58.880 
70, 247 
66,764 
90,022 
«V_>, 879 


141,249 

138.616 

ia4.371 

129,832 

1-25,008 

119,941 

ia5.856 ' 

136,555 

139,704 

141,610 I 

1M,941 

149,578 i 

160,201 

i:«.926 1 


89, 747 

76,056 

82,542 

70,986 

i>l,689 

65,990 

59,334 

56,542 

<;3. 370 

75,271 

.56,997 

70,396 \ 

69, 156 

76,:^05 1 


66,170 


1,891 


59.223 


1892 


c 48, 367 


1893 


66,817 


1894 


rf50,3:» 


1895 


d 50, 692 


1896 


d 76. 036 


1897 


rf69,787 


1898 


rf69,2>4 


1899 


rf60,877 

d81,S96 


1900 


1901 


d70,17H 

rf80,22:^ 


1902 


1903 


d 56. 621 



n Including 3,501 tons of Chilo bars transforrod fn>iii France to England. 

ft Including 3.585 tons of (^hile bars transforrcHl from France to England. 

<• Add 4.001 tons for comparison with foniu-r years, the difference arising from the new method of 
making up stock. 

d DcHlucting copper content of sulphate ex]>orted (13,078 tons in 1898, 10,045 tons in 1899, 10,728 tons 
in 1900, 9,001 tons in 1901. and 10.^22 tons in 1W2). 

The following figures for the years from 181)0 to 1903, both inclusive, 
taken from tlie board of trade returns, supplemented 1)V Messrs. James 
Lewis Sc Son, of Liverpool, show in detail the form in which the 
copper is brought into (xroat Britain: 

Imports of (-(tppcr into Great Britalt), 1896-190S. 
[Long tons.] 



Character. 


l.s^xi. 


1MJ7. 


1S1»^. 


1S99. 1 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1901. 


run* in pyrilcs 


ll,7'_'t-. 


i.-..:.7(; 


ir..r.26 


17.529 • 


IS. 519 


16,:«9 


15. 279 


ls.:>^ 


I'lirc in pncipitate . 


•i:\, \a\ 


■j:.. \r.\'l 


21 . :v.\s 


2t,;is7 


23, 462 


-0:^7 


17.874 


IS. 216 


I Ml re in ore . . 


\'> t*>'t 


II '.»H) 


1 1 -uu 


l'> M 1 


17 .ss<> 


I6,<>.s:^ 

27, 7:»5 


15 OCls 


14 'Vl<» 


I'nre in matte 


■l\uv.'. 




1^. in'.r, 


2l.:^(.N) 


24,827 


21,988 


22. 7^1 


Uiirv. cakes, et<' 


60, |.')S 

i:r>. s.-x; 


60. 12> 

l;^>r...-,v. 


67.978 


5.^,sS) ' 


70,217 


m, ICA 


90. 022 
ir.0. 2t)l 


«k2. S79 


Total 


l:-.*.), 7<ii 


111. mo 


151,941 


149,578 


i:ifl.92i> 



M('ssrs. Jjinios L(»\vis tSc Son. of Liverpool, estimate as follows the 
imports of copper products into Liverpool, Swansea, London, and 



Digitized by 



Google 



COPPER. 



237 



outport^ (except Newcastle and Cardiff, estimated in recent years at 
about 6,CMM) tons): 

Import* of cojfper into Liverpool^ Swansea, and London, 1896-1903. 
[Long tons.] 



Coontiy. 



1896. 



(Tiile 

I'nited Stated 

Spain and Portugal 

^paln and Portugal (precipi- 
tate) 

Spain and Portugal (pyrites) . 

▲u'itialasia 

Cape of Good Hope 

Venesnela 

Japan 

IteUy 

Norway 

Canada 

S**wf4>undland 

Mtxico 

rVni 

Wata River 

< »ther countries 



15,923 
89,676 I 
6,298 

11,474 

14,726 

10,635 

5,905 

107 

8,492 

418 

628 



Total tons fine . 



2,467 

7,792 

741 

»i 

797 



1897. 



14,982 

82,792 

7,697 

17,386 j 
15,676 I 
10,218 I 
7,676 I 
21 ! 
8,664 I 
100 I 
180 
127 
2,484 
6,217 
998 
190 ' 
1,613 



1900. 



17,784 ! 19,752 
88,979 I 20,773 
7,298 , 7,084 



16,664 < 
16,626 ; 
18,409 i 

9.881 I 



19,875 
82,256 
9,721 

17,028 
18,519 



16,847 
17,529 
17,086 I 19,977 
7,076 ; 8,927 



1901. 



24,624 ; 

21,426 I 

7,780 

16, 3M 
16,339 I 
20,586 
8,2W 



1902. 

23,789 

43,632 

7.860 

13,592 
15,279 
26,261 
6,060 



2,086 
177 



1,859 ' 

4,888 , 
8,011 

124 ; 

1,807 I 



7,812 


6,763 


167 


119 


182 


679 


10 


25 


2,044 


1,589 


5,679 


8,781 


5.163 


8,220 


63 


73 


8. 232 


3,633 



7,820 
20 

?28 

1,669 
8,268 
9.512 
84 
4. 75e; 



6,331 



523 
431 
1,100 
7,945 
7,580 
212 
1,289 



1908. 



20,968 
19,255 
8,189 

12.998 

18,398 

21,848 

7,891 



121,073 121,760 I 132,568 I 136,488 1.56, 1H6 148,250 l 160,9(V4 



5,748 
110 

622 



1,286 

9,681 

7,797 

131 

2, 850 

137,775 



The qiiantitien of copper in different forms imported into Great Britain 
and France from the United States are given in the foUowin^^ table: 

ImjMjrU of copper into EngUind and France from the United States, ISUO-IOOS, 

[Long tons.] 



Country. 


1890. 


1891. 

4 
19,109 

7.007 


1892. 


1893. 


1894. 
5 

2. i;w 
2>. ;v>7 

'MK \\*'^ 
9, 2 IS 


1895. 1 

1 


18%. 


England: 

(In* 




5 

18,897 
1,269 

20.171 , 
1,733 ' 


18 

24.<ki8 
1,^27 

26.113 
4,340 

30, 453 

1899. 


•20. 700 
_n.92^ 

12. ISi 
4.K,130 
19^K). 


1 

1 


Matte 

Ban- and ingot«. 




8,:i37 1 
12,2:)0 

2<V .'»S7 
n.MOfi 

32, 393 
1902. 


10.016 
29. 7.S0 


T<»tjil 


•2t;. 120 
8,329 


39, 79«; 


Fr»noe 




21,998 




England 




I'nitfi! SlaH"« Into 
and France 


21,904 ' 
1897. j 


34,449 
lh98. 


39, 7 JS 
IWl. 


f.l , 79 J 








Country. 




loai. 


Eni^land: 

Sfatte 


5. i')? 
27, .^1 

32,S.'iO 

26, ityj 

59,015 


2.181 

36, 7W 

22. 7.->:i 
61,724 


3M 

211, 739 

2i,it'»:; 
2i.6«r> 

45, 7NS 


2, 7»~ 
2'.». 2»" 

32.0;; J 

2'.>. 1(X> 

61,1:! I 


l.\112 

21. \\\ 
1 l.<»<t^ 

:i-i. n9 


2. "*'.»'.• 
111,7:'.:; 

2«>. tV> 
/3, Os7 


118 


Brm and inirots. -- 


I'.t.OMl 


Total 

Fr»nc<* 




V.».2-2S 

2:{.%1 


rnit«^l .*;taU'« into 
and France 


England 


i;-i, 1^9 












Digitized b 


yGoO^ 


7le 



238 



MINERAL EE80UBCE8. 



The exports of copper from Great Britain, estimating the fine con 
tents of alloys, have been as follows: 



Exports of copper from Great Brilain, 1897-1908, 
[Long tons.] 



Character. 


1897. 


1896. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902, 


1908. 


English, wrought and un- 
wrought, and sheete 

Yellow metal, at 60 per cent. . . 

Bras8, at 70 per cent 


35,951 
6,609 
3,936 

14,844 


40,223 
6,172 
3,733 

13,078 


42,992 
4,156 
8,994 

10,045 


28,632 
5,279 

4,2:m 

10,728 


37,763 
5,497 
4,072 
9,004 


35,379 
7,901 
4,462 

10,822 


40,081 
8,519 
5,210 


Sulphate of copi>er 


13, Ml 






Total 


61,340 
10,046 


63,206 
13,242 


61,187 
24,129 


48,863 
18,862 


56,326 
23,074 


58,564 
21,414 


1 67,171 


Fine foreign 


1 9,m 




1 


Total 


71,386 


76,448 


85,816 


67,726 


79,400 


79,978 


1 76,905 







TITE GERMAN COPPER TRADE. 

Gennany is an increasingly important factor as a consumer and 
manufacturer in the copper ti-ade of the world. As will be obscr>cd 
from the following estimate of the consumption, by Aron Ilirsch & 
Sohn, of Halberstadt, Germany, has quite recovered from the depres- 
sion of the years 1901 and 1902: 

Copper conmimption of Germany y 1896-1903, 
[Metric tons.] 





1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


1899. 


1900. 

66,264 
38,856 


1901. 


1902. 


190a. 


ImiX)rtation8, except ores: 

From the United States 


42,504 
26,619 


50,420 
28,983 


62,473 
33,299 


47,742 
37,504 


42,422 
80,616 


60,274 
31 475 


64, OW 
JK 715 


From other countries 






Total 


68,123 
12,462 


79,403 
12,568 


86,772 
14,957 


85,246 
20,304 


100,120 
15,618 


73,038 
14,825 


91 749 1^ '^i 


Less reexports 


13,571 


14,618 




Production Inclusive of content of 


65,671 
29,489 


66,885 
29,468 


70,816 
30,704 


64,942 
87,676 


84,602 
82,428 


58,218 
81,572 


78,178 
30,728 


86.1« 
80,149 




Home consumption 


85,160 
38,889 


96,303 
33,091 


101,519 
36,724 


102,618 
40,176 


116,925 
46,939 


89,785 
42,240 


108,906 
45,261 


116,818 
61,272 


Exports of manufactures 







Digitized by 



Google 



COPPER. 



239 



Aron Hirsch & Sohn have for some years estimated the sources of 
copper consumption, and have reached the following figures: 

Consumption by manufaduren* requiremerUSf 1900-190S. 
[Metric toDfl.] 



Use specified. 



Electrical works 

Copper ronin^ mills (rods and sheets) 

BruB rolling mills and wire works 

Chemical works and bine yitriol 

Shipyards, railroads, for castings, alloys, German silver, etc 

Total 



1900. 



43,000 
18,000 
35,000 
2,000 
19,000 



117,000 



1901. 



26,000 
16,000 
29,000 
2,000 
17,000 



90,000 



1902. 



37,000 
18,000 
32,000 
2,000 
19,000 



106,000 



1903. 



46,000 
18,000 
32,500 
2,000 
18,500 



117,000 



It is of interest to observe that the chief cause. of the fluctuations 
io the consumption lies with the electrical industry. 

Aron Hirsch & Sohn estimate that about 15,000 to 20,000 tons of 
old copper pass back annually into consumption. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



By Chables Kirchhofi!\ 



INTRODUCTION. 

Taken as a whole, the year 1903 was a prosperous one for the lead 
miDing and smelting interests of the United States. Consumption, 
titbough not as heavy as it was in 1902, was large enough to absorb 
easily the increased production of our mines and to call for a consider- 
able quantity of the metal drawn from foreign sources. Prices aver- 
aged higher than they did in 1902. 

A farther step in the concentration of the lead interests was taken 
during 1903, the United Lead Company having secured control of 
nearly ail the manufacturing plants making sheet lead, pipe, and shot 
to the number of 21. It has been estimated that the annual consump- 
tion of metal by the enlarged company, which has hitherto been a pro- 
ducer of white lead only, is 85,000 tons. The older consolidation of 
white-lead plants — the National Lead Company — is estimated to require 
t like amount. During 1904 negotiations were carried very far toward 
the fusion of these two companies, which would bring a very large 
production of the lead manufa(*turing capacity of the country under 
one control. 

PRODUCTION. 

The following table presents the figures of the total gross production 
of lead in the United States from 1825. Up to the year 1882 the 
figures have been compiled from the best data available. Since 1882 
ibc sUtistics are those collected by this OflSce, with the exception of 
tlie year 1889, when they were gathered by the Census Office. 

M K 1903 16 241 



Digitized by 



Google 



242 



MINERAL BBSOUBOE8. 



Production of lead in the United Slates^ 1S^5-190S, 



Year. 


Quantity. ' 
Short tons. 


. Year. 


QuanUty. 
Short (OM. 


Year. 


QuanUty. 
Short tOM. 


Year. 


' Quantity. 








ShoritoM. 


1825 


1,500 


1848 


25,000 


1867 


16,200 ' 


1886 


180,629 


1X30 


8.000 


1849 


28,600 < 


1868 


16,400 


1887 


145, 7TO 


1H31 


7,500 


1850 


22,000 


1869 


17,600 1 


1888 


151, 9W 


1832 


10,000 


1851 


18,600 


1870 


17,880 


1889 


156,897 


1838 


11,000 


1892 


16,700 


1871 


20,000 1 1890 


143,6» 


18*1 


12,000 


1863 


16,800 


1872 


25,880 


1891 


..1 178,664 


1835 '... 


18,000 


1854 


16,800 


1873 


42,540 


1892 


.J 173,305 


1836 


16,000 


1865 


15,800 


1874 


62,080 1 


1893 


..1 168,«2 


1837 


18,600 


1856 


16,000 


1875 


59,640 1 


1894 


..( 162,686 


1838 


16,000 


1857 


15,800 


1876 


64,070 


1896 


170,000 


1839 


17,600 


1 1858 


16,300 ; 


1877 


81,900 , 1896 


..| 188,000 


IMO 


17,000 


1859 


16,400 , 


1878 


91,060 1 1897 


212,000 


1841 


20,500 


1860 


15,600 


1879 


92,780 J 1898 


222,000 


1W2 


24,000 


1801 


14,100 


1880 


97,825 


1899 


...| 210.500 


1843 


25,000 


1862 


14,200 


1881 


117,085 


1900 


270,824 


1844 


26,000 


1863 


14,800 


1882 


132,890 , 1901 


...1 270,700 


1845 


30,000 


1864 


15,300 


1883 


143,957 1902 


270,000 


1846 


28,000 


1866 


14,700 


im 


139,897 1903 


280,000 


1847 


28,000 


, 1866 


16,100 


1885 


129,412 |j 


, 



For many years the onl}' method for arriving closely at the lead 
product of the mines of the United States has been to depend upon 
the smelting works to furnish statistics showing the source of the 
material worked by them. These statistics of production do not 
necessarily agree with the commercial statistics, which include the 
lead obtained by smelting foreign ores and by desilverizing foreign 
base bullion in bond. To avoid misapprehension, these must 
be clearly and sharply separated. The figures given in the table of 
production are arrived at by making an allowance for loss in smelting 
the ores and in refining the base bullion derived from that smelting. 

The returns of the smelters in the United States agg'regate as 
follows: 

Lead content of ores smelted by the work* in the United States, 1894-1908, by States. 



State or Territory. 



Colorado 

Idaho 

Utah 

Montana 

New Mexico 

Nevada 

Arizona 

California 

Washington 

Oregon, Alaslia, South Dakota, Texas 

Missouri, Kansas, Wisconsin, Illinois, 
Iowa, Virginia, and Kentucky 



Total lead content American ores 

smelted 

Content Mexican ores 

Content Canadian ores 

Content miscellaneous or unknown 



1894. 


1895. 


Short tons. 


Short tons. 


60,613 


46,984 


33,308 


31,638 


23,190 


31,305 


9.637 


9,802 


2,978 


8,040 


2,264 


2,683 


1,480 


2,053 


478 


949 


150 


381 



1897. 



1896. 



Short tons. Short tons. Short tons. 



46,300 

170,383 
« 21, 000 



53,596 ■ 



44,808 

46,662 

35,678 

11,070 

3,461 

1,178 

1,166 

691 

1.006 

51,887 



182,331 
16,437 
5,040 



197,496 
16,403 
10,100 
2,118 



40,676 
68,627 
40.637 
12.980 

9,128 
969 

2,184 



638 



66,642 



222,499 

18,480 

19,616 

844 



67, 8K 

59,142 

39.299 

10.745 

6,797 

4,714 

2.224 

482 

1,849 
64,409 



285,578 
10,630 
17.877 



a Estimated. 



Digitized by 



Google 



LEAD. 243 

Lead conierU of ores Hmelted by the works in the United States, 189jhl90S, by Stales — Con. 

State or Territoiy. | 1899. 



I Short tofU. 

fokmdo 70.308 

Idaho 52,1M 

I'toh 29,987 

¥<ntao« ' 10,227 

New Mexico 4,856 

Xeridt 8,888 

Ariiona 3,877 

CaWomia | 487 

Waafaingion 

Onfoo, Alaska, South Dakota, Texas. . . 

Mlnoari. Kansas, Wisconsin, Illinois, 

Iowa, VHrginia, and Kentucky 54,444 

Total lead content American ores ' 

■melted j 280,090 

Content Mexican ores ! 10,298 

Ontent Canadian ores | 6, 1 10 

Content ffiiKellaneons or unknown 772 

I 



1900. 



1901. 



Short tons. \ Short tons. 

82,187 I 78,265 

85,444 79,664 

48,044 ' 49,870 

I 6,791 

1,124 

1,873 

4,045 

520 I 881 

1,029 

I 

67,172 

I 

284,204 

11,841 

I 9,615 

804 



1902. 

Short tons. 

51,838 

84,742 

53,914 

4,438 

741 

1,269 

599 

176 



1908. 



Short tons. 
45,564 

51,129 

3,808 

618 

2,237 

1,498 

55 



1,457 


538 


2,184 


1,765 


79,445 


86,507 



280,797 
8,765 
2.164 
8,975 



292,874 



2,881 



The production of soft lead was 83,444 short tons, this being the 
lead obtained directly by smelting nonargentiferous ores in the works 
of Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, and Iowa. The balance of the 86,597 
tons credited to these Staters, or 3,153 tons, was derived from Missouri 
and Kansas nonargentiferous ores by the smelting furnaces connected 
with desilverizing plants, which must, therefore, undergo the same 
allowances for loss in smelting and desilverizing that are taken into 
account when dealing with the argentiferous ores in the above table. 
The total lead content of ores which passed through both the processes 
<*f smelting and desilverizing was, therefore, 209,430 short tons. 
.Wuming the yield to be 94 per cent, a total of 196,864 tons of com- 
mercial lead is reached. To this must be added the 83,444 tons of soft 
lead, and the resulting total is 280,308 short tons as the production of 
the United States in 1903. In order to indicate the fact that it is an 
^j^Umate, this figure is rounded off to 280,000 short tons of lead. 

PRODUCTION OF DESILVERIZERS AND SMELTERS. 

It was first in 188<; that the treatment of foreign material in Ameri- 
can works attained some importance. At first it was foreign ores 
that were smelted. Subsequently growing quantities of foreign base 
huUion were imported to be desilverized in bond, the greater part of 
the refined lead thus made being expoi'ted. In the beginning it was 
possible to arrive at the net American production by deducting from 
the total pig lead production of the works the lead content of the for- 
"fn base bullion and ores. The commercial statistics and the domes- 
tic production statistics were identical. Later on the supply to the 
Remarkets included, besides the product of our own mines, vary- 



Digitized by 



Google 



244 



MINERAL RBSOUBGES. 



ing quantities of "exempt" lead, being a certain tonnage of lead 
obtained from foreign material which did not pay a duty. 

The following table shows the total production of refined lead in the 
United States, irrespective of the source from which it was drawn, the 
production of desilverized lead, and of soft lead. A column is also 
added showing the amount of lead reported by the works as having 
been obtained from foreign base bullion and foreign ores. 

Production of refitted lead in the United Stales, 188S-190S. 



Year. 



1883. 



1886. 
1887. 



1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1H97. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901. 
1902. 
1908. 



Total pro- 
duction.a 


Desilver- 
ized 
lead.«' 


Soft 
lead.i> 


From for- 
eign ores 
and base 
bullion. 


Short tons. 


Short toHS, 


Shorttons. 


Shorttau, 


143,967 


122,167 


21,800 




139,897 


119,965 


19,982 




129,412 


107,437 


21,975 




135,629 


114,829 


20.8U0 


c5,000 


160,700 


186,562 


25,148 


r 15,000 


180.556 


161,466 


29,090 


1 «.« 


182,967 


158,709 


29,268 


26,670 


161,764 


180,403 


31,851 


18,124 


202,406 


171,009 


81,397 


! 28.858 


218,262 


181,684 


81,678 


8J.967 


229,338 


196.820 


32,518 


65,»1 


219,090 


181,404 


37,686 


o9,739 


241,882 


201,992 


39,890 


76.173 


264,994 


221,457 


48,687 


77. 7» 


291,036 


247,488 


43,558 


8s,e;i 


310,621 


267,842 


42,779 


99, WS 


304.892 


263,826 


40,566 


95,«6 


377,679 


829,658 


48.021 


106,856 


381,688 


323,790 


57.898 


112,422 


377,061 


808,011 


74.060 


i 100.606 


878,618 


296,074 


83.444 


88,a4 



a Including loreigu base bullion refined in bond. 

b Including a small quantity of lead produced in the Southern States. 

e Estimated. 

Hard lead. — Since 1891 special returns from desilverizers have been 
made on the quantity of antimonial or hard lead produced. The quan- 
tity was 4,043 tons in 1891, 5,039 tons in 1892, and 5,013 tons in 1893. 
In 1896 the production of hard lead was 7,507 tons, rising to 8,867 tons 
in 1897, and declining again to 8,473 tons in 1898. It amounted to 
6,345 tons in 1899, to 9,906 tons in 1900, to 10,656 tons in 1901, to 
9,169 tons in 1902, and to 9,579 tons in 1903. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCERS. 

The principal increase in the production of lead during 1903 has 
taken place in southeastern Missouri, although in the Rocky Mountain 
region the rapid development of the Coeur d'Alene mines in Idaho has 
more than compensated for the steady decline in the lead product of 
Coloi*ado. Utah has held its own fairly well in recent years. 



Digitized by 



Google 



LEAD. 245 

In southeastern Missouri steady propfress has been made in spite of 
domewhat adverse labor conditions. The principal older producers 
have increased their output. Thus the St. Joe, Doe Run, Desloge, 
Central, and Mine la Motte companies produced 44,545 short tons of 
lead in 1903, as compared with 41,192 tons in 1902 and with 35,132 tons 
in 1901. In the case of the Desloge company this includes some lead 
smelted on contract by custom smelters. The St. Joe Lead Company 
has been making extensive improvements in its mines and in its smelt- 
mg plant at Herculaneum, and is completing a large new concentrating 
plant at the Hoffman shaft which will considerably increase the pro- 
duction of lead. 

The Desloge C!onsolidated Lead Company is also building a new mill 
which will add materially to its capacity. The Central Lead Company, 
in the Flat River district, is not expected to make quite so much lead in 
1904 as was produced in 1903. The Mine la Motte property is being 
developed to enlarge the output under new management. The National 
Lead Company has prepared for an increased production. This com- 
pany is completing a large and modern smelting plant at Collinsville, 
111., for the reduction of the ores and concentrates from their own 
mines and from other properties. Hitherto the entire production of 
the mines of the company in St. Francois County was sold to the 
Federal Lead Company, the Pennsylvania Smelting Company, and the 
Markle Lead Works. The latter were sold to the United Lead Com- 
pany on June 1, 1903, and have since been shut down. The Federal 
Lead Company, which owns the Derby property, did not produce 
heavily, nor did the Commercial Lead Company, which has leased the 
Columbia lead property, make its normal product. In the Fred- 
ericktown district the North American Lead Company started its mill 
and entered the ranks of producers. 

The Joplin-Gralena district, in southwest Missouri and southeast 
Kansas, has shown a further falling off. According to local statis- 
tkians the sales of lead ores during 1903 were 28,656 tons, as compared 
with 31,625 tons in 1902 and with the maximum of 35,177 tons in 1901. 
The principal producing camps were Webb City and Carterville, with 
9,830 short tons, valued at $547,060; Joplin, with 8,084 tons, valued at 
^1,130; Ehienw^, with 3,010 tons, valued at $161,695; and Galena- 
Empire, with 2,842 tons, valued at $156,535. The local smelters, the 
Picber Lead Company, the Galena Smelting and Manufacturing Com- 
pany, successors to C. V. Petraeus & Co., and the Granby Mining and 
Smelting Company, produced 17,343 tons of pig lead in 1903, as com- 
pared with 18,628 tons in 1902 and 15,464 tons in 1901. A certain 
quantity of the lead ore of the district is, however, converted directly 
into a pigment 

The Coeur d'Alene district, in Idaho, has become by far the most 
important producer of lead in the United States, the returas showing 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



246 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



that the lead content of the Idaho ores treated l)v the .smelters of the 
country amounted to nearly 100,000 short tons. The principal event 
of the year has been the formation of the Federal Mining and Smelt- 
ing Company, which acquired the Mammoth and Standard properties, 
now known as the Mace mines, the Tiger-Poorman mines, at Burke, 
and the Empire State and Idaho properties. The company also acquired 
the Everett smelter, which was subsequently sold to the American 
Smelting and Refining Company. Among the large mines of the 
Coeur d'Alene which did not go into the consolidation are the Bunker 
Hill and Sullivan, the Hercules, and the Morning. An important 
undertaking which was completed during the year was the transmis- 
sion of electric power from Spokane to Burke by the Washington 
Power Company. The line is 101 miles long and is expected to con- 
fer important advantages upon the mining and dressing plants of the 
district. 

Colorado is declining as a producer of lead, but Leadville continiles 
to send out a very large tonnage of low grade smelting ores. During 
the year the Western Mining Company was formed as a subsidiary 
company to the Guggenheim Exploration Company, closely identified 
with the American Smelting and Refining Company. It acquired the 
A. Y. and Minnie, the A. M. W., and the Mahala mines, of Leadville, 
and the Ute and Ulay mines, of Lake City. 

In Utah the Park City district continues to lead, among the princi- 
pal shippers of lead-silver ores and concentrates being the Daly -West 
and the Silver King, the former having marketed 9,086 tons of lead. 
A large tonnage has also come from the Bingham and Tintic districts. 

SMELTING AND REPINING IN BOND. 

The records of the Bureau of Statistics of the Department of Com- 
merce and Labor make the following exhibit, the monthly details 
]>eing given in the table published elsewhere: 

Official returns of tmrehouHf tranmctio-M in lead during 1901 , 190S, and 190S. 



In warehouse at beginning of year. . 
Direct importation 

Deduct in warehoutie at end of year 

Addition by liquidation 

ToUl 



1901. 



1902. 



1908. 



Pounds. 

42,379,270 

221,030,779 



263,410,049 
83,225,677 



280,184,372 
692,977 



280.777,849 



Pmtndt. 

83,225,677 

200,571,818 


47,817,806 
197, 818, OW 


233,796,995 
47,817.806 


246,630,814 
21.887,901 


185,979.189 
253,875 

186,233,064 | 


224,242,913 
1.771.740 

226,014.668 



Digitized by 



Google 



LEAD. 



247 



The disposition of this was as follows: 

Dispositiim of lead hi imrehoxuies m 1901^ liH^^y and 1903, 



Exported 

Withdimwn for consumption 
Deducted by liquidation 

Total 



1901. 



Pounds. 
194,199,419 
16,035,929 
28,373,644 

133,6687892^ 



1902. 


1903. 


Pimnds. 
167,834,807 
14,084,741 
60,246,184 


Pounds. 

163,774.605 
40,074,163 
82,164,625 


2:«, 164, 682 


236,013,283 



IMPOBT8 AND T5XPOBT8. 

In previous volumes of the Mineral Resources tables of imports and 
exports of lead have been presented which go back to the year 1867, 
the figures being supplied by the Bureau of Statistics. The following 
tables supply the data since 1890: 

Lec^ imported and erderedfor consumption in the United States, 1890-190S. 



Oreanddrom. 



Year ending December 31 - 



Quantity. | Value. 



Pigs and bars. 



Quantity. | Value. 



Pounds. 

ymo I 11,065,865 

Ifm. ' 40,692,478 

MB2 1 54,249,291 

ins 58,487,319 

\mi , 33,020,250 



\m.. 

1W9.. 
I»0.. 
1901.. 
1«RZ.. 



46,050,674 
87,829,683 
81,036,882 
16,610,607 
6,824,556 
10.209,742 
10.324,119 
14,499,839 
4^,156,180 



$504,067 

1,120,067 

1,278,114 

1,004,295 

437,999 

687,222 

631.381 

536,094 

331,116 

125,344 

623,802 

272,396 

316,005 

716,128 



Pounds. 

19,336,233 
3,392,562 
1,549,771 
3,969,781 

39,168,629 
109,651,082 

10,551,148 

16,050,987 
311,502 
3,473,262 
3,673,616 
3,604,167 

12,443,616 
8,972,636 



•593,671 

104,184 

110,953 

129,290 

896,496 

2,052,209 

191,479 

314,649 

8,787 

78,062 

76,141 

88,056 

319,036 

256,136 



Year ending December 81— 



vm.. 

1891. 
IMU. 
U«t. 

vm. 
vm. 
vm. 

MR. 

vm. 
vm. 
iw 



Sheets, pipe, and 
shot. 



Quantity. Value. 



Pounds. 
91,660 

334,179 
90,136 
69,798 . 
44,080 I 

128,008 I 
96,010 I 
96,891 

242,769 I 

110,37? , 
27,946 I 
56,735 

224,209 
17,008 , 



95,691 
12,406 
6,207 
2,965 
2,050 
6,030 
3,818 
4,042 
9,889 
4.402 
1,393 
2,773 
7,765 
810 



Not other- 
wise speci- 
fied. 



SI, 136 

604 

2,063 

1,691 

536 

1,277 

644 

513 

312 

8,626 

877 

1,234 

6,268 

1.689 



Total 
■ value. 



11,104,466 

1,287,261 

1,397,837 

1,138,231 

1,336.081 

2,746,738 

827,322 

854,198 

349,604 

216,484 

702,218 

364.469 

648.068 

978,266 



Digitized by 



Google 



248 MINERAL RESOUBCB8. 

Lead, and manufactures of lead, of damesHr produdum, exported, 1890-190S. 



Tear ending Deoember 81— 



1890. 
18»1. 
1892. 
1898. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 



MannlACtures of lead. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 



18W I -«»•'"» 



Pigs, bars, and old. 



1806. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901. 
1902. 
190B. 



f c266,0 



,062 
'^ 814, 348 
368,600 

490.460 
c464,428 

364,220 



Value. 

$181,080 
178,887 
154,876 
506,090 
466,758 
164,088 
164,877 
rf49,816 1 
« 160, 466 J 
d97.862 \ 

• 112,927 J 
<* 115, 137 1 
« 154, 496 J 
«« 180, 768 'l 

• 240,149 I J 
178,762 
280,940 

<t 158, 809 
« 256, 163 
d 127, 530 
« 867, 622 



Quantity. Value. 



Total 
value. 



PountU, 



1,696,879 
M6, 360. 462 

57,725,624 

118,960 

98,115 

1,998,778 

4,787,107 

6,642,760 

112,644 



a $41, 240 
60,773 
442,496 I 

223,037 

4,460 

4,286 

88.664 

214,842 

286,548 

6,210 



$181,090 
173.887 
154. S75 
508,080 
^,99S 
214,856 
607. S7S 

433,319 
215,» 
273,919 
450.571 
624, S4 
696.010 
491,362 



a Not enumerated between 1868 and July 1, 1894. 

b Part of this is foreign lead returned by collectors of customs by mistake as domestic 



lead. 



dValueof type. 

Value of all other manufactures. 



According to the returns of the Bureau of Statistics the sources of 
imports of lead in the calendar years 1895, 1896, 1897, 1898^ 1899, 
1900, 1901, 1902, and 1903 were as follows: 

Sources of imports of lead. 



Country. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


1896. 


1899. 


United Kingdom 


Pounds. 
8,161,411 
1,113,148 

36,618,228 


Pounds. 
1,365,182 


Pounds. 
1,120,628 


Pounds. ' Pounds. 
2,326.987 117,821 


Germany 


Other Europe 


1,235,961 


1,101,151 




lll,96e 






Total refined pig lead 


45,892,787 


2,601,118 


2,221,679 


2,826,987 


429.273 


British North America 


15,860,906 
188,312,146 


25,672,883 
130,888,178 


44,171,421 
137,364,677 


84,453,299 
142,030,670 


17,871,875 
173,482,976 


Mexico 




Total ore and base bullion. 
Other countries 


154,173,052 
981,116 


156,061,006 
1,656,898 


181,536,098 
1.560.635 

185,818,412 


176,483,969 
480,384 


191.804,851 
1,142.960 






Total imports 


200,996,955 


160,818,517 


179,291,290 


192,877,074 







Digitized by 



Google 



LEAD. 

Sources of importtf of lead — Continued. 



249 



Country. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


rnited Kingdom 


Pound*. 
567,482 
225,222 
111,905 


Pounds. 
402,552 
671,294 
2,453 


Pounds. 
792,607 
962.878 
1,342,193 


Pounds. 
1,552,772 
1,409,926 
461, 331 


ft^fmiinjr 


Other Enrope 






Total refined pig lead 


904,609 


1,076,299 


3,087,678 


3, 414, 029 






BritHi NATth Amerl<*A 


42,189,262 
178,602,486 


52,130,002 
163.453,S26 


19,464,937 
187,484,666 


19,200,806 
186,136,779 


Mexico 




ToUU ore and base bullion 


220,741,748 
7,147,092 


215,588,528 
8,282,502 


206,949,603 
5,196,174 


206,387,585 
4,061,872 


Other countries 


Total importfl 


228,793,449 


224,942,829 


215,232,465 


212,813,486 





The subdivision by groups representing refined pig lead and lead in 
ore and base bullion is made by this office. 

WABEHOIT8K TRANSACTIONS. 

The following table, furnished by the Bureau of Statistics, shows 
the warehous<e transactions of lead in ore and in base bullion monthly 
daring 1903, and the corresponding totals for the years 1902, 1901, 
1900, 1899, 1898, and 1897: 

ImpcrU of lead in ore and hose bullion during the calendar year 190S, shomng warehouse 

transactions by months. 



Month. 



Jmxmry.... 
ffltmrnxj ... 

M«rh 

April 

JUy 

June 

Joly 

AHfttsl 

8e|4ember. 



Remaining 

in warehouse 

first day of 

each month. 



KoTcmber. 



(1904). 



Total. 1W8. 



Total, i«s. 
T*tl,MOO. 



Pounds. 
47,817,«)6 
44,088,434 
43,468,390 
37,031,992 
29,319,386 
32,177,140 
29,641.027 
31,490,807 
26,971,689 
18,736,106 
19,666,226 
20,216,388 
21,887,901 



Entered warehouse. 



Of direct Im- 
portation. 



Pounds. 
13,416,662 
18,201,734 
16,923,276 
13,896,297 
11,476,274 
22,906,571 
17,948,698 
20.707,629 
11,699,200 
17,118,432 
19.228,653 
15,296,869 



From other 
districts. 



197,813,975 



200,671,318 
221,030,779 
226,644,190 
188,612,454 
170,017,006 
168,865,627 



Pounds. 

14,660,800 

6,882,416 

9,280,918 

7,860,288 

10,912,397 

10,266,396 

10,756,421 

8,998,412 

7,732,888 

7,286,913 

4,923,218 

5,710,699 



105,270,665 

142,620,006 
204,702,170 
249,674,008 
216,031,498 
177,837.309 
167,963,678 



Additions by 
liquidation. 



Pounds. 
27,481 
26,806 
25.603 
24,634 
1,165,027 
41,903 
63,758 
10,041 
69,014 
47,475 
217.426 
63,6?2 



1,771,740 

253,876 

592,997 

1,676,397 

l,lu6,682 

1.326,934 

906,862 



Digitized by V^OOQIC 



250 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Imports of lead in ore and Ixtse bullion during the calendar year 190Sj etc. — Continuwi. 



Month. 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May...; 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January (19M)... 
ToUl, 1903. 

Total, 1902 

Total, 1901 

Total, 1900 

Total, 1899 

Total, 1898 

Total, 1897 



Withdrawn from warehouse. 



For exporta- 
tion. 



I For transpor- 
tation. 



Pounds. 
8.575,189 
11,634,877 
12,961,813 
12,569,471 
11,131,729 
20,224,499 
17,680,476 
15,426,271 
13,765,658 
13,871,260 
15,846,277 
10,088,210 



163,774,605 



157,834,807 
194,199,419 
195,917,622 
151,202,762 
147,978.988 
109,847,156 



For consump- 
tion. 



Pounds. 
6,Vn,22i 
8,447,096 
6,345,108 
8,419,020 
7,802,960 
13,209,419 
6,229,444 
9,354,996 
7,511,246 
6,385,469 
7,155,324 
7,486,695 



96,273,002 



96,588,390 
201,870,647 
217,565,289 
204,545,816 
163,405,296 
183,006,461 



Poundt. 

2,184,375 

2,448,218 

9,574,288 

5,995,227 

517,589 

831,650 

1,897,490 

8,915.275 

5,909,628 

1,647.117 

321,866 

331,430 



40,074,153 



DeductiofDs by 
liquidation. 



Poundi. 
14,097,437 

2,784,966 
2.51O,0(r7 
1,24S,666 
1,964,414 
1,110,587 



540, 2S9 
1,668, 8M 

490,658 
1,994.292 



32,164,fifi5 



14,084,741 
16,085,929 
15,829,631 
14,408,027 
7,844,184 
28,929,569 



60,245,133 
23,373,644 
28,842,770 
27,691,976 
28,650,885 
7, 769,583 



CONSUMPTION. 



The consumption figured for 1901, 1902, and 1903, when a complete 
statement of stocks was first available, may be compared with estimates 
of previous years, which were made on a somewhat different basis, in 
some cases with partial data as to stocks, and in others without any 
reliable figures relating to them. 

Estimate of the consumption of lead in the United StaieSy 1S94-190S. 



1894. 



Supply- 
Total production desUverized lead. . 

Soft lead 

Importu, foreign refined , 

Stock, domestic, beginning of year 

stock, foreign in bond, beginning of 
yearu 

Total supply 

Deduct— 

Foreign base bullion and ores refined 
in bond and exported 

Lead in manufactures exported 
under drawback 

Stock, domestic, close of year 

Stock, foreign in bonda 

Total , 

Apparent home consumption 



Short tons. 

181,404 

37,686 

8,200 

7,496 

8,302 I 
^,088 I 



1895. 



29,000 

950 
8,586 I 
7,181 



45,717 I 
192,371 



Short tons. 

201,992 

39,890 

22,947 

8,586 

7,181 
280,5% 



18,130 

2,000 

9,567 

9,865 

39,652 

241,044" 



Short tons. 
221,457 
43,637 
2,020 I 
9,557 ' 

9,865 



57,612 

1,500 
9,299 
4,124 



1897. 



1898. 



I 



Short tons. .*v*oi< tow. 

247,483 267,827 

43,653 * 42,779 

2,000 437 



72,635 
213,901 



9,299 ' 

4,124 I 
~866,"469 



62,409 

500 

17,606 

6,694 

"87^2ir 



17,608 



6.691 



335,842 



84,686 



219,248 




227,452 



Digitized by V^OOQIC:! 



LEAD. 



251 



EstimaU of tlie consumption of lead in tlie United States, 1894-1903 — Continued. 



1899. 



Supply- 
Total pruducUon desilverized lead. . . 

Soft lead 

Imports, foreign refined 

Stock, domeetic, beginning of year. . . 

Stock, foreign in bond, beginning of 
yeara 

fotal supply 

Deduct— 

Foreign base bullion and ores refined 
in bond and Exported 

Lead in manufactures exported 
onder drawback 

Stock, domestic, close of year 

Htock, foreign in bonda 

Total 



Short Urns. 

263.826 

40,566 

216 



1900. 



Short tons. 

829,658 

48,021 

452 



7,341 



11,820 



311,948 I 389,451 



73,813 
1,000 



Apparent borne consumption . 



11,820 

85^6^ 

^26,315^ 



1901. 

Short toil*. 

323,790 

57,898 

538 

39,050 

21,190 



442,466 



97,959 



1,000 



21, 190 I 
~120Tl49^| 



97,100 

1,000 
53,733 
16,613 
168,446 



269,302 I 274,020 



1902. 

Short tong. 

303,011 

74,050 

1,544 

53,738 

16,613 
448.^1 



76,962 

1,000 
11,506 
28,909 



113,466 
33M85 



1903. 

Short tons. 

296,074 

88,444 

1,707 

11,595 

23,909 



415,729 



90,363 

1,000 
9,199 
10,094 



111,246 
304,483 



a Lead in ore and bullion. 



The exports of lead from foreign base bullion and ores given in the 
above table are from the direct returns of the refiners themselves. 

The returns show clearly that the United States, with its production 
of 280,000 tons of lead from its own mines, does not yield enough lead 
for its own consumption in normal years. The returns of the Bureau 
of Statistics indicate that the bulk of this is supplied from the lead 
obtained from refining foreign, and chiefly Mexican, base bullion. 

PRICES. 

In previous volumes of the Mineral Resources the highest and the 
lowest prices of lead at New York were given for each month since 
1870, the figures being compiled from market quotations. The fol- 
lowing table shows the fluctuations since 1890: 

Highefi and lowest prices of Imd at Neu^ York CUtfy monthly, 1890-1903. 
[Cents per pound.] 



Y«»r. 


January. 


February. 


March. 


April. 


Highest 


Lowest 


Highest 


Lowest. 


Highest 1 Lowest. | Highest. 


1-K)we8t 


\m 


3.85 


3.80 


8.85 


8.75 


3.95 


3.85 4.071 


3.85 


m 


4.50 


4.05 


4.50 


4.25 


4.371 


4.25 


4.824 


4.10 


ME 


4.30 1 


4.10 


4.25 


4.05 


4.22l' 


4.10 


4.80 


4.20 


WW 


8.90 


8.85 


8.96 


3.90 


4.06 


3.85 4.124 


4.06 


\m 


3.25 


3.15 


8.35 


. 3.20 


3.45 , 


3.25 1 8.45 


3.371 


\m..t- 


3.124 


3.06 


3.12i 


3.071 


3.10 


3.071' 3.121 


3.06 


im 


3.15 


8 


8.20 


3.071 


3.224 


8.07l' 3.071 


3.024 


im 


3.121 


3.02i 
3.55 


3.371 
3.80 


3.121 
3.65 


3.40 1 
3.70 


3.35 3.40 
3.60 3.624 


8.25 


\m 


3.70 


3.56 


um 


4.26 


3.90 
4.70 
4.871 


4.60 
4.76 
4.871 


4.25 
4.70 
4.871 


4.45 
4.76 
4.871 


4.30 4.85 
4.70 4.75 
4.374 4.374 


4.274 


mn 


4.75 


4.66 


iw 


4.87i 


4.874 


»c 


4.10 


4 


4.10 


4.06 


4.10 1 


4.05 4.10 


4.06 


m 


4.10 


4.06 


4.10 


4.06 


4.65 I 


4.10 4.65 

Digitized by Vj( 


4.36 












)OQle 



252 



MINERAL RB80UK0E8. 



IRgheM and loiveM jfrires of lead at New York City, monthly y J890-19aS—Con\iQXied. 



Year. 



1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
189S. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901. 
1902. 
1903. 



Year. 



May. 
Highest. Lowest. 



4.35 

4.871 

4.25 

4 

3.40 

3.25 

3.05 

8.871 

3.80 j 

4.50 

4.70 

4.371 

4.10 

4.35 ; 



4 

4.20 

4.20 

3.75 

3.30 

3.071 

3 

3.22i 

8.60 

4.37* 

4 

4.37i 

4.05 

4.30 



June. 



July. 



August 



Highest. Lowest I Highest. Lowest Highest Lowest. 



4.50 

4.60 

4.20 : 

3.90 

3.871 

3.30 

3.05 j 

8.60 I 

3.90 

4.60 

4.25 

4.87i 

4.10 

4.35 



4.25 

4.35 I 

4.06 

8.45 

8.25 

3.26 \ 

3 

3.25 

3.75 

4.45 , 

8.75 

4.371 

4.05 I 

4.10 



4.60 


4.40 


4.724 


4.85 


4.45 


4.30 


4.63 


4.40 


4.25 


4 


4.15 


4 


3.60 


3.80 


8.76 


125 


3.65 


3.87i 


3.70 


S.SO 


8.60 


3.80 


3.65 


150 


3 


2.90 


2.90 


2.66 


3.90 


3.65 


4.10 


170 


4 


3.80 


4.10 


190 


4.60 


4.50 


4.60 


4.50 


4.25 


4 


4.371 


4.25 


4.374 


i.m 


4.374 


4.37J 


4.10 


4.06 


4.10 


4.06 


4.10 


4.06 


4.10 


4.05 



1891. 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1908 



September. 



Highest Lowest. 



5 

4.55 

4.15 

3.95 

3.30 

3.45 

2.80 

4.35 

4.05 

4.60 

4.374 

4.374 

4.10 

4.40 



4.674 

4.40 

4 

3.75 

3.10 

3.324 

2.724 

4.25 

3.90 

4.55 

4.35 

4.374 

4.06 

4.10 



October. 



Highest. Lowest 



5.26 
4.55 
3.95 
3.75 
8.15 
3.35 
2.924 
4.25 
3.90 



5 

4.10 

3.85 

3.25 

3.05 

3.30 

2.724 

3.85 

3. GO 



November. 



December. 



Highest. Lowest Highest. I Lowest 



5.25 
4.35 
3.85 
3.374 
3.124 
3.274 
3.05 
3.85 
3.70 



4.60 


4.574 


4.60 


4.374 


4.3-> 


4.374 


4.374 


4.374 


4.374 


4.10 


4.05 


4.10 


4.40 


4.85 


4.40 



4.60 

4.10 I 

3.70 I 

3.30 

3.10 

3.15 

2.85 , 

3.75 

3.65 

4.574; 

4.35 I 

4.374; 

4.05 
4.10 



4.60 I 

4.25 

3.85 I 

3.30 . 

8.124] 

3.30 I 

3.05 I 

3.75 

3.80 

4.75 I 

4.874, 

4.874| 

4.10 

4.25 



4.06 

4.25 

170 

120 

lOIi 

120 

2.96 

165 

160 

4.571 

4.S5 

4 

4.05 

4.10 



Pi'ices have been under the almost complete control of the American 
Smelting and Refining Company, which advanced the market from 
4.10 cents a pound during the early months of 1903 to 4.35 cents, New 
York, on March 10, and to 4.65 cents on March 13. Toward the end 
of April the price was restored to 4.35 cents, and in the middle of 
June to 4.10 cents. In September 4.40 cents was established as the 
price, but it was reduced to 4.10 cents again in November. In Decem- 
ber the price was fixed at 4.25 cents. During the year, therefore, the 
price for lead was considerably higher than it had been in 1902. 



Digitized by 



Google 



zi:n"o 



By Charles Kibcuhoff. 



PRODUCTION. 

The lar^e production of spelter in 1902 was only slightly exceeded 
in 1903. 
The development of the industry is shown by the following figures: 
Production of npdUr in the United States, 1S7 3-1903, 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


1835.... 


ShoHtoM, 
7,848 
15,888 
28,289 
88,765 
86,872 
88,544 
40,688 
42,641 
50,840 
55,908 
66,860 
63,688 
80,878 


1892 


Short tmu. 
87,260 
78,832 
76,328 
89 686 


1875 


1898 


18n 


1804 


MS 


1896 


uai 


1896 


81,499 
99,980 
115,899 
129,061 
128,886 
140,822 
166,927 
169,219 


1884 


1897 


180 


1898 


IflH 


1899 


1887 


1900 


un 


1901 


1989 


1902 


ygn 


1908 


mi 1 











Iq the different States the production has been as follows: 
Ptoduriion of spelter in the UniUd States, by Slates, 188S-1903. 



IWQ. 



Eastern 
and South- 
ern States. 



8hoHUm$. 
5.696 
6,840 
7,861 
8,062 
6,762 
7,446 
9,661 
10,265 
9,114 



Illinois. 



ShoHtons. 
18,201 
16,792 
17,694 
19,427 
21,077 
22,279 
22,445 
28,860 
26,248 



Kansas. 



Short tons. 

7,866 

9,010 

7,850 

8,602 

8,982 

11,955 

10,482 

13,668 

15,199 



Missouri. 



Short tons. 
2,600 
6,780 
6,230 
4.677 
6,870 
8,660 
18.465 
11,077 
18,127 



Colorado. 



Short tons. 



Total. 



Short tons. 
88,766 
86,872 
88,644 
40,688 
42,641 
60,840 
55,908 
58,860 
68,683 

253 



Digitized by 



Google 



254 MIKEBAL RE80UBCE8. 

Production of speller in the United States^ by SUUes, i«S:f-/S05— Continued. 



Year. 



Eastern 
and South- 
ern States. 



1892. 



1894. 
1896. 
1896. 

1897. 

1898. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901. 
1902.. 
1908.. 



Sfu)rt tons. 
a8,945 
t4,217 
<i9,582 
ft 4, 918 
a8,802 
ft8.882 
a7,400 
«» 1,876 
a 9, 484 
t8,697 
a8,ld9 
ft2,427 
a 7, 218 
fr8,866 
8,681 
8,805 
8,259 
8,603 
12,180 
12,301 I 



Illinois. 



ShoH tons. 
28,711 

081,888 
029,596 
028,972 
036,732 
036,173 

87,876 

047,103 
050,118 
38,750 
44,896 
47,096 
047,659 



Kansas. 



Short tofu. 
22,747 

24,716 
22,815 
25,588 
26,776 
20,769 



40,132 
52,021 
62,136 
74,240 
86,564 



Missouri. Colorado. Total 



Short tont. 
16,258 

16,667 
18,787 
11,992 
14.998 
14,001 

18,125 

19,533 
18,107 
14,741 
18,068 
11,087 
9,994 



Short tons. Short Urns. 
! 80,873 



877 ; 



87.260 
78,8S2 
75, %» 
89,786 
81.499 

99,980 

115.399 

129,061 

123.886 

dl40.822 

< 156, 927 

/159,219 



a Eastern. 

bSontbem. 

Including Indiana. 



(< Including 2,716 short tons dross spelter. 
Including 2.675 short tons dross spelter. 
/Including 8,802 short tons dross spelter. 



Returns have not been received from the Sandoval Zinc Company, 
whose output has been estimated, with the reports of former years as 
a guide. 

CONDITION OF THE INDUSTRY. 

Colorado appears for the first time as a producer of spelter, the 
plant of the United States Zinc Company at Pueblo, Colo., controlled 
by the American Smelting and Refining Company, having started 
during the year. 

There have been quite important additions to the productive capacity 
during 1903. The Illinois Zinc Company, at Peru, III., constructed a 
new furnace of 800 retorts, dismantling one of the older pattern, of a 
capacity of 168 retorts, which would make a net increase during the 
year of 632 retorts. The Granby Mining and Smelting Company took 
over the works of Lanyon Brothers Spelter Company at Neodesha, 
Eans., on March 1, 1903. The La Harpe Smelting Company began to 
smelt ore on September 19. A second block was started on November 
13, making four furnaces running from that date to the end of the 
year. A third block was put in operation early in the current year. 
The Cherry vale plant of the Edgar Zinc Company, owned by the United 
States Steel Corporation, was increased by 33^^ per cent during 1903, 
making the capacity of the works 22,800 tons annually. 



Digitized by 



Google 



ZINC. 



255 



The Cockerill Zinc Comimny, of which Mr. A. B. Cockerill is presi- 
dent, was building a large new plant at Altoona, Kans., in 1903, which 
will be in operation during the second half of 1904. Mr. William 
Lanyon, long connected with the zinc industry, was building works at 
Caney, Kans., which are to be in operation in the summer of 1904. 
The Cherokee-Lanyon Zinc Company erected a new block at Gas, 
Kan8.« and the United Zinc and Chemical Company enlarged the plant 
at lola, Kans. The two older plants at Girard, Kans., operating 
under the names of the Girard Zinc Company and the Kansas Zinc 
Mining and Smelting Company, were moved to Chanute, Kans., in 
1903 and rebuilt. They began operating in January, 1904, under the 
name of the Chanute Zinc Company. Mr. A. B. Cockerill has pur- 
chased the works of the Nevada Spelter Company, at Nevada, Mo., 
which were partly dismantled after they had been sold to the Prime 
Western Spelter Company. Mr. Cockerill has repaired the plant and 
it is being operated in his name individually. The Gi'aselli Chemical 
Company has built works at Clarksville, W. Va. The New Jersey 
Zinc Company is planning a large new plant in the Chicago district. 

Zinc oxide. — The production of zinc oxide for 1903 is estimated at 
119,124,160 pounds, exclusive of the lead-zinc pigment made directly 
from the ores by the United States Reduction and Refining Company, 
of Canyon City, Colo., which amounted to 4,950,000 pounds. This 
plant was increased about 50 cent during the year, but was in opera- 
tion only about two-thirds of the time on account of a fire at the works. 

The capacity of the oxide plant of the New Jersey Zinc Company at 
Pkimerton was increased about one-third by the addition of 96 furnaces, 
completed in the latter part of 1902. These were all in operation 
daring 1903. 

THE ZINC MINES. 



The production of southwest Missouri and Kansas declined quite 
diarply during 1903. Mr. Jesse A. Zook, of Joplin, has compiled for 
the Diiily Globe the following statement of ore sales for 1901, 1902, 
and 1903, by camps: 

SaU$ of zinc and lead ore in the JopHn-Galena dittrid in 1901 ^ 1902, and 190 J. 



Oftmp. 



iflftai 

OakntUMl Empiie. 

<^rtmine 

»rtfcnty 

***•'« 

Aiit»» 



Zinc ore. 



Quantity. 



1901. 

Short 
Um§. 

67,232 

33,990 

44,348 

13,741 

4,235 

20,436 



1902. 

Short 
totu. 

73,090 

80,839 



h 



,693 



13,679 
19,395 
10,929 



1903. 



Value. 



ShoH ' 
tons, j 

63,870 12,436,465 

23,402 I 769,095 

44,917 < 1,539,545 

I 

17,600 ; 612,515 

18,785 j 4(M,225 

5,720 I 201,965 





Lead ore. 


QuanUty. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 
Short 


Short 


Short 


tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


12,227 


10,206 


8,(m 


5,270 


3,096 


2,892 1 


(8,772 
1 840 


I 9,118 9,880 i 


1,479 1,&10 3,010 1 


566 


261 238 1 




1,182 


735 1 



Value. 



$431, 130 
156.585 

547,060 

161,695 
12,696 
89.856 



Digitized by 



Google 



256 MIKEEAL BBSOUB0£8. 

Sales of zinc and lead are in the Joplin-Oalena dMrid in 1901, 1902, and i505— Conf d. 



G&mp. 



Oronogro 

Zincite 

AlbA*nd Neck City 

Granby 

Carthage 

Cave Spring 

Spurgeon and Spring City 

Central City and Roaring 
Springs 

StottHCity 

Carl Junction 

Miscellaneous 



Total 1903 . 
Total 1902. 
Total 1901 - 
Total 1900. 
Total 1899. 



Zinc ore. 



Quantity. 



1901. 



SAort 
tons. 

16,480 

9,462 

7,638 

7,941 

4,283 

8,804 

4,512 

[3,470 

[ 8,614 

1,124 

6,723 

8,963 



1902. 



ShoH 
toru. 

9,225 

7,508 

7,048 

8,459 

5,958 

4,594 

4,883 

8,680 

1,481 
7,051 
4,336 



1903. 



Short 
tons. 

7,607 

6,408 

9,454 

8,067 

6,458 

2,410 

2,751 

2,813 



5,592 
6,602 



227,689 
256,338 
256,920 
244,629 
255,088 



Value. 



Lead ore. 



Quantity. 



1901. 1902. 



1257,996 
219,230 
874,895 
198,286 
180,075 
87,280 
75,760 

88,185 

11,710 
201,380 
232,090 



7,835,145 
7,863,603 
6,318,249 
6,688,944 



ShoH 
taw. 

877 

176 

26 

1,075 

10 

364 

1,883 

292 

189 

46 

177 



ShoH 
Urns. 

477 

205 

288 

1,060 

28 

242 

1,169 

234 



972 



1908. 



ShoH 
ton*. 

221 

128 

158 

809 

199 

296 

916 

263 



11 
696 



Value. 



$11,100 
6,915 
8,075 
44,140 
10,390 
15,830 
47,680 

14,465 



S7.990 



28,530 1,546,005 
80,142 I 1,4&4,81S 
84,908 1,610,981 
29,176 1,402,678 



The smaller product of 1903 is principally due to the fact that the 
majority of operators declined to operate their concentrating milk 
during the night shift. Prospecting was not active in 1901, and since 
it takes about two years for development after the ore has been located 
by the drill, comparatively few mines entered the productive stage in 
1903. 

For previous years the ore sales have been as follows: 

Ore sales in the Joplin-Oalena district, 1894-190S, 



Year. 


Zinc ore. 


Lead ore. 


Total value 
both ores. 


1894 


ShoH tons. 
147,310 
144,487 
155.383 
177,976 
234,455 
255,088 
244,629 
256,920 
266,838 
227,689 


ShoH tons. 
32,199 
81,294 
27,721 
80,105 
26,687 
23,888 
29,176 
84,988 
90,142 
28,620 


$8,535,736 


1895 


3,775,929 


1896 . .. . 


3,857,355 


1897 


4,726,302 


3898 


7, 119, 867 


1899 


10,715,307 


1900 


7,996,622 


1901 


7,929, 23D 


1902 


9,318,<^1 


1908 


9,381,150 







Digitized by 



Google 



ZINO. 



257 



The average base prices, from month to month, for the ores of the 
district have been as follows in 1900, 1901, 1902, and 1903: 

Average base prices of tmc and lead ores in the JopUn-Oalena distriet in 1900, 1901, 190£, 

and 190S, by months. 



Month. 




Zinc, per 


Bhort ton. 




Lead, per 1,000 pounds. 


1906. 


1902. 


1901. 


1900. 


1908. 


1902. 


1901. 


1900. 


JaoiMiy 


180.60 
31.07 
SS.88 
82.48 
86.22 
36.64 
34.78 
85.28 
85.16 
82.47 
80.10 
30.18 


$26.76 
27.00 
28.00 
28.86 
29.23 
84.10 
84.87 
82.60 
33.00 
88.68 
82.10 
29.25 


•28.78 
23.96 
23.70 
24.68 
24.88 
24.22 
24.38 
23.88 
22.^ 
24.63 
26.16 
28.24 


830.23 
29.36 
28.46 
28.42 
26.92 
26.00 
24.23 
26.67 
24.66 
24.26 
24.46 
26.40 


126.38 
26.11 
29.27 
29.66 
26.43 
26.20 
26.28 
26.60 
27.66 
27.94 
26.86 
26.63 


821.00 
21.61 
21.66 
21.76 
22.00 
22.80 
24.00 
24.10 
24.60 
24.76 
24.96 
26.00 


«22.80 
22.60 
28.10 
22.76 
28.69 
28.62 
28.49 
22.90 
23.16 
28.15 
23.14 
22.86 


128.00 


PebniaiT 


27.60 


March. 


26.60 


ADfil 


26.86 


Vav 


24.60 


JOXK 


22.80 


July 


21.85 


Aognst 


23.00 


Ffp^fmb^ 


23.00 


October 


22.71 


KovHntwr 


22.80 


December 


22.19 






Year 


88.72 


80.88 


24.21 


26.60 


27.06 


28.06 


22.99 


24.16 







There has been a good deal of activity in the development of the 
old zinc ore districts of southwestern Wisconsin. A considerable num- 
ber of new concentrating mills of the Joplin type have been erected, 
and it is probable that a considerably larger output will follow. 

iDcreasiog quantities of zinc ores and concentrates are coming from 
a number of camps in the Rocky Mountain region. Leadville has 
continued its shipments, a goodly share even going to the zinc smelting 
pbiot at Pueblo. Kokomo, Rico, and Creede contribute to Colorado's 
total. Material is also sent from the Magdalene district in New Mex- 
ico, and from Park City and Frisco, in Utah. For the first time ship- 
ments to United States smelters have been made from the Slocan 
district in British Columbia. 
u B 1903 17 



Digitized by 



Google 



258 



MINERAL BE80UBOE8. 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 



The imports of zinc in its different forms liave ceased to be of any 
consequence. For a series of years they were as follows: 

Zinc imported and entered for consumption in the United States^ 1S67-190S, 



Year ending- 



June 3(^ 

1867 

1868 

1869 

1870 

1871 

1872 

187S 

1874 

1875 

1876 

1877 

1878 

1879 

1880 

1881 

1882 

1883 

1884 

1886 

December 81- 

1886 

1887 



1889.. 
1880.. 
1891.. 
1892., 
1898.. 
1894.. 
1895.. 
1896.. 
1897.. 
1898.. 
1899.. 
1900.. 
1901.. 
1902.. 
1903.. 



Block or pigs. 
Quantity. 



Sheets. 



Pounds. 

6,762,611 

9,327,968 

13,211,675 

9,221,121 

11,169,040 

11,802,247 

6,839,897 

3,598,570 

2,034,262 

947,822 

1,266,894 

1,270,184 

1,419,791 

8,092,620 

2,860,216 

18,406,391 

17,067,211 

6,869,788 

3,516,840 

4,800,830 

8,387,647 

3,826,947 

2.052,559 

1,997.624 

808,094 

297,969 

425.183 

387,788 

744,301 

1,040,719 

2,905,451 

2,605,028 

2,783,329 

1,767,766 

666,434 

895,064 

403,355 



Value. 



«256,866 
417,278 
690,832 
416,497 
608,355 
522,624 
831,399 
203,479 
101,766 
56,082 
63,260 
57,753 
68,294 
371,920 
125,457 
736,964 
656,606 
208,852 
113,268 

136,188 

276,122 

146,156 

77,845 

101,385 

41,199 

16,520 

22,790 

13,788 

26,782 

82,096 

109,520 

104,669 

143,567 

86,653 

22,766 

36,636 

19. 161 



Quantity. 



Pmtndt. 
8,142,417 
3,557,448 
8,306.728 
9,542,687 
7,646,821 
10,704,944 
11,122,143 
6,016,836 
7.320,718 
4,611,360 
1,341,833 
1,265,620 
1,111,226 
4,069,810 
2,727,324 
4,413,042 
3,309,239 
962,253 
1,889,860 

1,092,400 
926,150 
295,287 
1,014,878 
781,366 
21,948 
27,272 
28,913 
89,947 
42,513 
27,821 
15,971 
39,712 
86,878 
155,144 
157,787 
136,587 
258,770 



Value. 



•3U,767 
203,883 
478,646 
609,860 
409,243 
698,886 
716,706 
424,604 
444,589 
296,808 
81,816 
69,381 
68,060 
210,280 
129,158 
207,082 
141,828 
86,120 
64,781 

40,820 

82,626 

12,658 

43,356 

48,495 

1,460 

2,216 

1,985 

2,061 

2,773 

1,358 

786 

2,724 

6,364 

10,801 

10,467 

8,839 

8,537 



Old. 



Quantity. 



Founds, 



115,203 

266 

27,764 

64,398 

14,855 

41,643 

96,899 

167.954 

165,670 

150,168 

818,537- 

326,331 



Value. 



I Value of i 
-imanuiac-t 



TMal 
Tftlne. 



f6,556 

21 

580 

899 

267 

886 

3,417 

6,932 

6,379 

3,277 

8,299 

11,772 



11.835 

1,623 

2,083 

21,696 

26,866 

58,668 

66,813 

48,304 

26.830 

18,427 

2,496 

4,892 

8,874 

8,571 

7,603 

4,940 

6,606 

4,795 

2,064 

9,162 
11,329 
12,060 
19,580 

9,740 



20,677 

16,479 

11.816 

9,953 

9,800 

11,459 

11,211 

8,824 

21,257 

89,549 

32,706 

10,376 



1509,968 
622,779 • 

1,071,081 
947,0U 
948,964 

1,178,077 

1,108,918 
676.297 
572. 63S 
872,817 
147.661 
132, OS 
109,718 
565,721 
262,218 
948,986 
802,ff2 
249,767 
180, lOS 

186,620 
319,977 
170,794 
140,781 
154,570 
42,659 
45,969 
41,275 
28,196 
40.407 
43,521 
122,661 
122,021 
165,667 
128,090 
76,069 
76,882 
49.846 



Digitized by 



Google 



ZINC. 



259 



Imports of zinc oxide f 1886-190S, 



Year ending — 



Dr>-. 



Pound*. 

JanelO,U«6 2,288,128 

December SI — 

U8S 8,626,289 

1887 \ 4,961,080 

1888, 1,401,842 

1889 ' 2,686,861 

1890 2,681,468 

1891 1 2,889,351 

1802 1 2,442,014 

1886 1 8,900,749 



In oil. 



Pound*. 
98,666 

79,788 
128,216 
51,985 
66,240 
102,298 
'128,140 
111,190 
254,807 



Year ending- 



Dry. 



December 81- 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 , 

1898 , 

1899 

1900 

1901 

1902 

1908 



Pound*. 

3,871,292 

4,546,049 

4,572,781 

5,564,768 

8,842,235 

8,012,709 

2,618,806 

8,199,778 

8,271,885 

8,487,042 



In oil. 



Pound*. 
59,291 
129,843 
811,028 
602,357 
27,060 
41,699 
88,706 
128,198 
168,061 
166,084 



ELcporU of zinc and zinc ore of domegtic productianj 1864-190S, 



Year ending — 



June 80- 
18M. 
1865.. 
IMS. 
1867. 



1809 

1870 

M71 

1872 

M7J 

1874.: 

1875 

1876 

1877 

1«7» 

1879 

1880 

1881 

1882 

1881 

18M 

1885 

December SI — 

1888 

MB7 



18Bi. 

vm. 



18K. 



18M. 



M7. 



I 



Ore or oxide. 



Quantity. Value. 



CwL 
14,810 
99.871 
4,485 
8,676 
8,844 



16,286 
9,621 
8,686 
284 
2,660 
8,088 
10,178 
6,428 
16,060 
10,660 
18,024 
11,890 
10,904 
3,045 
4,780 
6,840 

26,620 
4,700 
4,560 
26,760 
77,860 
115,820 
18,880 
980 



480 
41,600 
165,200 
210,400 
506,940 
751, 100 
788,600 
995,240 
708,760 



1116,481 
U4,149 
25,091 
82,041 
74,706 
65,411 
81,487 
48,292 
20,880 
2,804 
20,037 
20,659 
66,259 
34,468 
88,831 
40,899 
42,086 
16,405 
13,786 
11,609 
16,685 
22,824 

49,455 

17,286 

18,034 

73,802 

195,118 

149,435 

41,186 

1,271 

5 

1,008 

47,408 

211,850 

299,870 

726,944 

1,133,663 

1,167,684 

1,449,104 

987,000 



Plates, sheets, pigs, or 



Quantity. Value. 



Pound*. 
95,788 
184,188 
140,798 
312,227 
1,022,699 



U0,167 

76,880 

62,919 

78,958 

43,566 

38,090 

134,542 

1,419,922 

2,545,820 

2,182,949 

1,868,302 

1,491,786 

1,489,562 

852,333 

126,043 

101,685 

917,229 

186,670 

62,284 

879,785 

8,295,684 

4,294,656 

12,494,335 

7,446,984 

3,607,060 

3,060,805 

20,260,169 

28,490,662 

20,998.413 

13,509,316 

44,802,677 

6,780,221 

6,473,135 

3,041,911 



112,209 
22,740 
13,290 
80,587 
68,214 



10,672 

7,823 

5,726 

4,656 

3,612 

4,245 

11,651 

115,122 

216,680 

170,654 

119,264 

132,805 

124,688 

70,961 

9,576 

7,270 

75,192 

9,017 

4,270 

44,049 

126,291 

278,182 

609,549 

418,678 

144,074 

158,175 

1,013,620 

1.356.538 

1.088.950 

742,521 

2,217,693 

288,906 

300,557 

163,879 



Value of 
manufac- 
tures. 



Total yaluc. 



11,000 

4,388 

1,118 

667 



168 



734 
4,666 
4,991 

13,626 
16,789 
19,096 
85,782 
28,587 
88,921 
166,794 
224,787 
99,406 
60,061 
51,001 
71,021 
188,165 
118,282 
99,288 
82,046 
114,197 
71,854 



1128,700 
186,889 
88,881 
62^628 
142,920 
65,411 
92,159 
56,115 
26,606 
6,960 
28,649 
25,904 
82,248 
150,708 
800.978 
211,068 
161,800 
149,878 
138,374 
83,224 
30,927 
36,085 

188,178 

43,092 

41,402 

168,588 

844,991 

466,588 

877,629 

639,781 

243,485 

204.234 

1,U2,029 

1.638,909 

1,471,994 

1,6U,697 

8,450.644 

1,538,636 

1,868,858 

1,221,788 



Digitized by 



Google 



260 



MINERAL RE8OUB0B8. 



During 1903 there was exported a' fair quantity of New Jersey ore 
via New York, and Colorado shipped a larger quantity via Gralveston. 

Exports of zinc ore^ by customs ditirictSj during 1901, 1902 , and 190S. 



Customs district. 


1901. 


1902. 


1908. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 1 Value. 


New York 


Long tons. 

24,092 

2,039 

291 

13,003 


1694,995 

62,145 

8.512 

402,032 


Long tons. 
20,883 


$582,229 


Longtan». 

28,722 1 1649,970 


PhiladelDhia 




Galveston 


27,817 
290 
687 
186 


831,620 
8.600 
17,610 
6,145 


11,227 ' 331,880 


Npw Orleans 




NpwDort News 




All other districts 






239 1 5,680 









Total 


39,425 


1,167,684 


49,762 


1,449,104 


35,188 I 967,000 







The following table shows the destination of the ore exports: 
Exports of zinc ore, by countries, during 1901, 1902, and 190S, 



Country. 



Austria-Hungary . 

Belgium 

Netherlands 

Germany 

United Kingdom . 



1901. 



Quantity. Value. 



lAjng tons. 



18,167 

26,187 

1 

120 



Total. 



39,425 



$406,734 

767,296 

40 

8,616 



1902. 



Quantity. 



Lmig tons. 

90 

30,138 

19,244 



290 



Value. 



92,700 
896,824 
611,980 



8,600 



1,167,684 



49,762 ' 1,449,104 



1903. 



Quantity. Value. 



Long tons. 

80 

11,813 

28,168 

116 

17 



36,188 



•2.400 
346,380 
634,200 

8,4fi0 
600 



987.000 



The exports of spelter, by customs districts and by countries of 
destination, are exhibited in the following tables: 

Exports of zinc, by customs districts, during 1901, 1902, and 190S. 



Customs district. 



New York 

Philadelphia 

Norfolk and Newport News. 

Bal timore 

New Orleans 

Detroit 

Huron 

All other districts 



Total. 



1901. 



Quantity. Value. 



Pounds. 

3,827,740 I $169,832 



710,200 I 80,631 
1,171,068 53,074 



936,227 
134.986 



38,607 
6,862 



6,780,221 I 288,906 



1902. 



Quantity. Value. 



Pounds. 
1,456,101 



4,277,241 

16,626 

1,844 

8,838 

196,649 

622,537 



6,478,135 



863,731 



196,156 

900 

78 

229 

9,361 1 



1908. 



Quantity, i Value. 



28,132 



Pounds. 

698,836 

689 

1,704,491 

62,900 

6,567 

179,840 

183,188 

305,910 



300.557 3,041,911 



$86,884 
49 

86.068 
3,897 
468 
10,607 
10.592 
15,300 



163,879 



Practically all the spelter shipped from Atlantic coast ports is the 
high-grade spelt(*r made from New Jersey and Virginia ores. 

The destination of the exports of zinc is shown in the following 
table: 



Digitized by 



Google 



ZING. 



261 



ExporU of zinc, by countries^ during the calendar years 1901, 1909, and 1908. 



1901. 



Country. 



I Quantity. 



Poui^. 
83.545 
1,000 



Belgiam 

Germany 

Netherlands 

United Kingdom I 5. 167,274 

Ouiada ' 1,085,020 

An other countries ! 498,382 



Value. 



$8,770 
50 



Total 6,780,221 



218,841 
43,758 
22.492 



288.906 



1902. 



1903. 



Quantity. Value. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 



Pounds. 



162,351 
68,851 I 
5,256,329 I 
234,390 
751,214 ' 



97,394 
3,197 
237,345 
12,256 
40,865 



Value. 



1,767,391 
401,584 
872,986 



6,478,135 



300,557 



3,041,911 



S89.985 
23,305 . 
60,089 



168,879 



CONSUMPTION. 

The consumption of spelter was satisfactory in 1903, the require- 
ments of the galvanizing and brass industries being good until the 
closing months of the year. The reports of stocks are more complete 
than they have been in the past. Producers who in 1903 made 
99,224 short tons of spelter, reported their stocks to be 9,926 short 
tons on January 1, 1904, as compared with 6,407 short tons on Jan- 
uary 1, 1903. The following table gives an estimate based on the 
data available: 

Ettimaied coTimmpiion of spelter, 1896-1903. 





1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


1899. 1 1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1908. 


PiodoctioD 


Short 
tons. 

81,499 

428 


ShoH 
tons. 

99,960 

1.279 

1.768 


ShoH 
tons. 

115,399 

1,308 

2,014 


Short j Short 
tons. \ tons. 

129,051 123.886 

1.892 1 961 

897 


Short 
tons. 

140,822 

857 

3.908 


ShoH 
tans. 

156,927 

448 


Short 
tons. 

159,219 




202 












124.847 


157;375 




Total Kupply 


81,927 

4 
10,130 
1,675 


108,027 


118,716 


181.840 


145,087 


169,421 








D«laei- 

ExDOfta of forpiffii 




14.245 


18 
10.499 


I 23 

6, 756 22. 410 








ExDorta of domestte 


8,890 


3,237 
1.466 


1,521 


Inefeaae of stock during year. . . 




8,016 


3,519 












Total 


11,809 
70,118 


14.245 


10,517 


6,755 


25.448 


8,390 
141^697 


4,698 
162.682 


5,040 






ipfarent home consumption 


88,782 


108.199 


124,585 


99.399 


154,381 



Consumption, therefore, was very well maintained in 1903. 

PRICKS. 

Tlie spelter market early in the year displayed a hardening tendency, 
»fter opening with prices as low as 4.56 to 4.57i cents at New York. 
Month after month prices advanced steadily until 5.75 cents was 
latched as a minimum in May and June, and as high as 6.25 cents 
was paid. Six cents as a minimum was paid in September and Octo- 
^T. November, however, brought the general uneasiness in the 
BKtal trades, and with it the market declined quite rapidly in that 
iBonth and in December, the market closing at 4.62i cents. 



Digitized by 



Google 



262 



MINERAL RE80UTM3E8. 



The following table summarizes the prices of spelter since 1875: 

l*ricen of common Weatem »pdter in Neiv York CUy^ 1875-189''*. 
[C^ntfl per pound.] 





Year. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


1875 -. -- 


7.35 
8.00 
6.50 
5.75 
6.25 
6.75 
6.00 
6.00 
4.75 
4.65 
4.62 


6.20 
6.37 


1876.... 




1877.... 




1 
5.50 


1878 




4.25 


1879 




4.12 


1880 




4.62 1 


1881 




4.75 


1882 




4.50 
4.80 
4.00 
4.00 


1883 




1884 







1885 










Year. 



Highest, Lowest 



1886 


4.60 


1887 


5.87 


1888 


5.87 


1889 


5 35 


1890 


6.10 


1891 


6.00 


1892 


4.90 


1888 


4.50 


1894 


4.00 


1895 


4.35 



4.25 
4.40 
4.d0 
4.62 
4.20 
4.3 
4.86 
S.55 
S.2S 
S.10 



Price of common Western spelter in New York City, 1896-190Sy by vumths. 
[GeDts per pound.] 



Year. 


January. 


Febniar>-. 


March. 


April. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Highest. 


Lowest 


Highest 


Low^t. 


1896 


4.05 
4.10 
4.00 
5.70 
4.75 
4.15 
4.80 
4.90 


4.00 
3.90 
3.90 
5.15 
4.50 
4.02 
4.25 
4.55 


4.15 
4.10 
4.10 
6.50 
4.75 
4.02 
4.25 
5.05 


4.00 
4.00 
8.90 
5.70 
4.55 
3.92 
4.00 
4.97 


4.15 
4.15 
4.25 
6.50 
4.70 
8.95 
4.85 
6.76 


4.10 
4.10 
4.15 
6.26 
4.50 
3.87 
4.20 
6.06 


4.20 
4.15 
4.30 
6.80 
4.76 
4.05 
4.46 
5.75 


4.05* 


1897 


4.10 


1898 


4 15 


1899 


6.20 


1900 


4.66 


1901 

1«« 

1908 


8.92 

4.40 
&50 


Year. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Angnst 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Highest 


Lowest 


Highest 1 Lowest 


1896 


4.15 
4.20 
4.80 
7.00 
4.55 
4.02 
4.65 
5.80 


4.00 
4.10 
4.10 
6.75 
4.60 
3.92 
4.40 
5.75 


4.15 
4.25 
5.15 
6.75 
4.40 
4.00 
4.85 
6.25 


4.00 
4.16 
4.30 
6.16 
4.15 
3.95 
4.80 
6.76 


4.10 
4.80 
4.80 
6.26 
4.28 
3/92 
5.36 
6.26 


8.90 
4.20 
4.46 
6.00 
4.15 
3.90 
5.00 
5.87 


3.90 
4.35 
4.75 
6.00 
4.16 
4.00 
5.60 
6.00 


3.66 


1887 


4.25 


1896 


4 45 


1899 


5.30 


1900 


4.10 


1901 


8.92 


1902 


5.35 


1903 


5.80 






Year. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


Highest. 


Lowest 


Highest. 


Lowest 


Highest 


Lowest 


Hlghert. 


Lowest 


1896 


3.70 
4.85 
4.824 
5.76 
4.10 
4.10 
6.50 
6.10 


3.60 
4.25 
4.70 
5.20 
4.05 
4.00 
5.80 
6.00 


8.75 
4.80 
5.15 
5.50 
4.15 
4.85 
6.60 
6.12 


8.65 
4.15 
4.82J 
6.15 
4.05 
4.07 
6.40 
6.00 


4.26 
4.26 
6.25 
5.00 
4.80 
4.87 
6.86 
6.00 


3.75 
3.90 
5.15 
4.60 
4.10 
4.30 
6.10 
5.26 


4.25 
8.90 
5.80 
4.70 
4.25 
4.60 
6.00 
6.26 


4 15 


1897 


Sl75 


1896 


4.90 


1899 


4.56 


1900 


4.05 


1901 


4.80 


1902 


4.60 


1908 


4.66 







Digitized by 



Google 



ZINC. 



263 



THE WORIiB'S PRODUCTION. 

Me88r8. Henry B. Merton & Co. (Limited), of Liondon, on the basis 
of detailed reports, make the production of spelter in Europe as 
follows: 

Production of zinc in Europe, 1896-190S, 
[Long tons.] 



Coantr7 or district. 



Rhine. Belgium, and Hol- 
land 

sawda 

Great Britain 

ADitria and Italy 

Prance and Spain 

Pioland 

Total 

United flutes 

Total world's prodao- 
tkm , 

rnited States percentage of 
woild's prodnctkm 



1896. 



179,780 
96,876 
24,880 

9,256 
28,460 

6,166 



1807. 



184,466 
94,046 
23,660 

8,186 
82,120 

6,760 



844,856 
72,767 

417,122 



17.4 



348,115 



487,883 



20.4 



1808. 



188,815 
97,670 
27,940 

7,115 
82,136 

5,575 



1899. 



189,965 
98.590 
81,715 

7,190 
32,965 

6,225 



859,250 
108,061 



462,811 



22.8 



366,630 
115,224 



1900. 



186.820 
100,706 
29,830 
6,975 
80,620 
5,876 



360,325 
110,612 



481,864 470,937 



28.9 



28.6 



199,285 
106,385 
29,190 
7,700 
27,265 
5,935 



375,760 
125,734 



601,494 



26.1 



200,140 

115,280 

89,610 

8,460 

27,080 

8,150 



898,670 
140,114 



1908. 



216,690 
116.835 
43,415 
9,026 
27,920 
9,746 



422,630 
142,169 



638,784 564,789 



26.0 



26.2 



The leading producers are Vieille Montague, with 76,905 long tons; 
Hoheolohe, with 28,575 tons; Schlesische Actien-Gesellschaft, with 
27,445 tons; the Lanyon Zinc Company; G. von Giesche's Erben, with 
26,160 tons; and the Edgar Zinc Company, followed by the Stolberg 
Company, with 20,750 tons, and the Soci^t^ Asturienne, with 20,330 
ton5i. 

According to the annual report of the Vieille Montague Company, 
the production of spelter was 84,906 metric tons, the rolling mills 
having produced 68,313 tons of sheet zinc, and the zinc-white works 
10,450 tons. The gross profit was 7,505,704.99 francs and the net 
profit 6,256,017.81 francs. There were placed to reserve 2,145,203.56 
fnmcs; 457,601.78 francs went to the administration, 114,400.44 
francs to the directors, and 3,600,000 francs were distributed as 
dividends. 

The Soci^t^ Anonyme M^tallurgique de Prayon produced 13,352 
metric tons of spelter and made a gross profit of 767,990 francs. 
After writing off, there were left 449,137.36 francs net profit, out of 
which dividends aggregating 325,000 francs were paid, while 81,075.28 
francs went to the administration. 

The zinc mines of Upper Silesia in 1903 produced 208,785 metric tons 
of cahunine, valued at 1,774,792 marks; 343,968 tons of blende, valued 
tt 18,676,294 marks; 7,643 tons of pyrites, valued at 8.14 marks per 
ton; and 5.470 tons of lead ore, valued at 76.70 marks per ton. There 



Digitized by 



Google 



264 MINEBAL RESOUBOES. 

were employed 8,597 men, those over 16 years of age earning 830.8() 
marks per annum and those under 16 years earning 227.45 marks per 
annum, and 2,640 women, who earned an aveiuge of 285 marks per 
annum. 

The number of zinc works was 23, and they employed 6,792 men 
and 1,275 women, whose wages were 6,959,638 marks. The men over 
16 earned 982.61 marks per annum; the boys under 16 years 277.47 
marks, and the women 338.57 marks per annum. The consumption of 
materials was 103,669 tons of calamine, 281,289 tons of zincblende, 
1,707 tons of furnace accretions, and 4,545 tons of zinc ashes. There 
were also consumed 1,225,007 tons of fuel and 48,085 tons of fire clay. 
The production was 118,522 tons of spelter, valued at 46,753,863 marks; 
16,745 tons of cadmium, valued at 81,649 marks; and 1,318 tons of 
lead, valued at 285,634 marks. 

The rolling mills emplo^^ed 792 workers, to whom 645,089 marks 
were paid in wages. The consumption of spelter was 39,080 tons, and 
the product was 38,039 tons of sheet zinc, 377 tons of lead, and 454 
tons of by-products, with a total value of 17,545,177 marks. 

One zinc-white plant produced 1,107 tons of zinc white. 



Digitized by 



Google 



ALUMINUM AND BAUXITE. 



By Joseph Stbuthers. 



AliUMINirM. 
PRODUCTION. 



The production of aluminum in the United States during 1903 is 
estimated at 7,500,000 pounds, aa compared with 7,300,000 pounds in 
1902, and 7,150,000 pounds in 1901. It has not been possible to obtain 
exact statistics of the production of aluminum, but judging from 
the extension of the uses of the metal and its alloys for such construc- 
tional and decorative work a^ requires lightness and no great strength, 
together with the increased quantity of aluminum, in the form of 
wires and bars, used to replace copper for conducting the electric 
current, it is fair to assume that the production of the light metal in 
the United States is steadily on the increase. This assumption is 
strengthened by the fact that the quantity of bauxite (the crude min- 
eral from which aluminum is extracted) consumed during the last 
few years has been successively larger and larger, the consumption 
being based on the domestic production plus the quantity imported. 

The following table shows the production of aluminum in the United 
States for each year since the inception of the industry in 1883: 

ProdtutUm of aluminum in the United States, 1883-1903. 



Year. 



tm. 

UK. 

I*t7. 





Quantity. 


• 


Year. 






PoundB. 

83 

150 

283 

3,000 

18,000 

19,000 


1 18»5 1 




!l896 ! 




1897 ! 




!l898 ' 




1899 




' 1900 



01,281 
150,000 
259, 88& 
333. G29 
550,000 



1902. 
1903. 



ToUl . 



Quantity. 

Pounds. 

920.000 
1.300,000 
4,000,000 
5,200,000 
6,500,000 
7,150,000 
7.150,000 
7,300,000 
7,500,000 

48,462,779 



265 



Digitized by 



Google 



266 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



It is to be rejrretted that the secretive policy concerning the devel- 
opment of the industry continues to be pursued by the various com- 
panies manufacturing aluminum. Doubtless a free interchange of 
ideas on the reduction, refining, and working of the light metal, 
as well as on the special practice followed in making its various alloys, 
would help to develop this branch of the metal industry, and in con- 
sequence benefit each and every contributor to the general fund of 
knowledge. The rapid and phenomenal progress in the iron and steel 
industry in the United States is largely attributable to the willingness 
of each individual manufacturer to describe and discuss his own 
practice, and thus, by cooperation, help the others, and in turn be 
helped by them. 

At the present time five companies having 10 plants at different 
localities are engaged in producing metallic aluminum by the electrolytic 
process. Metallic aluminum is the sole product of the works operated 
by the Pittsburg Reduction Company; all of the foreign companies 
manufacture other electrolytic products as well. 

Aluminum works in America and Europe^ 190S. 



Name of company. 



The Plttuburg Reduction Co. 

The PittsbuiK Reduction Co. 

The Pittsburg Reduction Co. 

The Pittuburg Reduction Co. 
(Royal Aluminium Co.) 

The British Aluminium Co. . 

Soci^t^ Electro - Metallur- 
gique Fran^^ise. 

Compa^rniedes ProduitMChi- 
miques d* Alais. 

Aluminium - Industrie - A k - 
tien-Gesellschaft. 

Aluminium - Industrie • A k - 
t ien-Oesellschaf t. 

Aluminium - Industrie- Ak- I 
tien-Oesellschaft. 



Location of works. 



Horsepower. 



Avail- 
able. 



I 



Nia^ra Falls, New York. 

Niagara Falls, New York , 

Massena Springs, New York . 1 , 200 

Shawenegan Falls, Quebec, 6, 000 
Canada. 



Foyers, Scotland 

Le Pras, Savoy, France. 



In use. 



I 14,000 



ProoeM. 



Hall !S1,600,000 



Capital. 



Hall. 

5,000 , Hall. 



5,000 I Heroult 3,S6O,00D 

5,000 Heroult 1 2.880,000 



8t. Michel, Savoy, France .. 

Neuhausen, Switzerland 

Rheinfelden,- Baden, Ger- 
many. 

Lend Gastein, near Salz- 
burg, Austria. 



14,000 
12,600 , 

6,000 

4,000 

5,000 

15,000 I 15.000 I Heroult . 



2,000 ; Hall& Minet. 

4,000 ' Heroult 

5,000 Heroult 



3,077,000 



The chief point of interest affecting the aluminum industry in the 
United States during the year 1903 was the final adjudication of the 
many lawsuits and counter lawsuits which from time to time have 
been instituted in behalf of the Electric Smelting and Aluminum Com- 
pany, of Cleveland, Ohio, and the Pittsburg Reduction Company, of 
Pittsburg, Pa. In October, 1903, the United States court of appeals 
rendered a decision against the Pittsburg Reduction Company (oper- 
ating the Hall patents) for infringement, since 1892, of the rights of 
the Electric Smelting and Aluminum Company, operating the Bradley 
patents. The sum involved was approximately $3,000,000. On Octo- 



Digitized by 



Google 



f 

f 
A 

\ 
1 

11 



ALUMINUM AND BAUXITK. 267 

ber 13, 1903, a friendly agreement was entered into by the two compa- 
nies to the effect that the Pittsburg Reduction Company should pay a 
given 8um for the quantity of aluminum made by it up to the date of 
the agreement, and should continue the manufacture of aluminiun 
under license of the Bradley patents untjl the time of their expiration, 
in February, 1909, paying a royalty for all metal produced in the 
future; the operation of the Electric Smelting and Aluminum Com- 
pany is to be restricted to the manufacture of aluminum alloys, 
atthon^ it may handle and sell aluminum in all forms at the works of 
tJie company at Lockport, N. Y. The settlement involved also an 
agreement by the Electric Smelting and Aluminum Company not to 
appeal the old case of the Pittsburg Reduction Company v. the Cowles 
E^lectric Smelting and Aluminum Company, wherein the latter com- 
pany was enjoined by the United States circuit court from manufac- 
turing aluminum metal. By the terms of this agreement there will 
be no future litigation between the two companies. 

The patent of C. M. Hall, covering the cryolite-alumina electrolyte, 
was applied for July 9, 1886, and was granted April 2, 1889; but in 
its specifications externally heated crucibles were described. The 
patent of C. S. Bradley (No. 468,148), which was applied for on Feb- 
ruary 23, 1883, and granted only on February 2, 1892, covers the 
invention of dispensing with external heating in such electrolytic pro- 
060866 by the use of a sufficient electric current to keep the electrolyte 
in a fused condition. The Bradley patent was proved, by a suit decided 
in 1897, to belong to the Electric Smelting and Aluminum Company. 
In the early days of aluminum manufacture. Hall, at the works of the 
Pittsburg Reduction Company, dispensed with the external heating of 
the crucible, and it was decided that by so doing he infringed the 
Bradley patent. The case is somewhat complicated for the reason that 
in 1893, as a result of an action brought by the Pittsburg Reduction 
Company against the Cowles Electric Smelting and Aluminum Com- 
pany, it was decided by the court that the latter company had infringed 
the Hall patent. It now appears that neither company can manufac- 
ture alnminum by its present methods without infringing a patent 
wiuch is the property of the other. However, the agreement of both 
eompanies, mentioned above, removes any possible conflict and places 
the manufacture of the metal on a proper business basis. 

The Electric Smelting and Aluminum Company apparently now con- 
trok tiie electric smelting industry in the United States, as, in addition 
to the electric smelting of aluminum, the following companies are more 
w leas subsidiary to it: The Co\^les Smelting Company, the Union 
Ourlnde Company, the British Aluminium Company, the Electric Gas 
Company, the Acetylene Illuminating Company, the Wilson Aluminium 
Company, and the Acetylene Company. 



Digitized by 



Google 



268 MINERAL RE8OUB0E8. 

PROGRESS OF THE INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES DURING 

1903. 

The new plant of the Pittbburg Reduction Company at Massena 
Springs, N. Y., was put into operation in September, 1903. The 
equipment includes four SOO-horsepower sets generating current at 500 
volts, and provision is made to extend the works up to a consumption 
of 12,000 horsepower should the increasing demand warrant the out- 
lay. The St. Lawrence Water Power Company at present supplies 
the electric current used in the extraction of the metal. In addition 
to the manufacture of aluminum, this company has installed a plant 
for the manufacture of carbon electrodes used in the reduction furnace, 
and has also a wire mill under construction. 

The Pittsburg Reduction Companj^ now has the large capacity of 
17,200 horsepower, which is equivalent to 4,850 tons of metal yearly, 
a quantity that almost equals the combined output of the European 
producers. 

The Pittsburg Reduction Company has two plants at Niagara Falls, 
N. Y., the upper one using 4,000 horsepower, near the grounds of the 
Niagara Falls Power Company above the Falls, and the lower one on the 
edge of the gorge, using 6,500 horsepower, supplied by the Hydraulic 
Power and Manufacturing Company. The Pittsburg Reduction Com- 
pany was the tirst manufacturing plant to use the power of the Niagara 
Falls Power Company in 1893, and, as an inducement, it is understood 
that a contract was entered into for the supply of electric current at a 
cost not exceeding $18 per horsepower per j^ear, including the installa- 
tion by the power company of transforming machinery at the aluminum 
plant. 

At the upper plant the alternating current is first passed through 
12 air-cooled stationary transformers, which reduce the potential of the 
current to 115 volts, and raise its amperage correspondingly with a con- 
version loss of 3 per cent. The current then passes to six 800 horse- 
power rotary transformers, giving a direct current of 160 volts, with an 
accompanying loss of another 3 per cent. Five of these rotary tran.^- 
formei's, running at a full capacity, furnish two currents, each approxi- 
mately of 10,000 amperes and 160 volts. These currents ma3^ also be 
produced by running all six transformers at five-sixths of their full 
capacity. 

The details of equipment and working of the plants at Niagara Falls, 
as given by Prof. Joseph Richards," is briefly sunmoarized as follows: 

At the upper works there are two lines of crucible fomaces, technically termed 
** re<liicing pots,** each being supplied with current by uninsulated aluminum bars, 
each 12 inches by 1 inch in cross section, which can carry 800 amperes per square 
inch of section. 

Each pot absorbs 65 volts and has a voltage drop of 5 volts. The electrodes are of 
carbon, 3 inches in diameter and 18 inches long, each carrying 250 amperes. About 

a Electrochemlft And MetaUuivist, October, 1902, p. 49. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ALUMINUM AND BAUXITE. 269 

OD^Iydf the enei^ of the carrent is consamed in the chemical work of decompoe- 
ing the alumina and half in maintaining the proper temperature and fluidity of the 
mohen bath for the electrolysis — from 850*" to 900® C. The efficiency of the furnace, 
bned on the amperage, is stated to he hetween 80 and 90 per cent. 

The bath in the cmcible consists of cryolite, to which is added aluminum fluoride 
18 the solvent, and purified alumina. The action of the current sets free metallic 
tfaminum, which settles to the hottom of the crucible and is there collected in a 
molten condition; and oxygen, which combines with the carbon of the electrode and 
forms carbon monoxide, finally escaping to the upper surface of the material in the 
cmcible, where it is burned to carbon dioxide, with its characteristic blue flame. 
Altiioagh 4,000 horsepower are used, there is no odor of chlorine in the furnace 
room, except daring the casting of the metal or when a pot is being trimmed. 

The alominum metal produced is more than 99 per cent pure and contains on the 
ftTerige 0.1 per cent of iron, 0.3 per cent of silicon, and smaller quantities of copper, 
titanium, carbon, and sodium. The metal is cast into rough ingots, each weighing 
about 20 pounds, which are shipped to New Kensington, Pa., for remelting and con- 
venion into merchant shapes. 

Daring 1903 a furnace plant has been added, similar to the one at Massena Springs, 
in which to make the carbon electrodes for the electric furnaces. The company has 
also installed an electric furnace for refining bauxite, in order to obtain a purer prod- 
Oct from the alnminum furnaces. 

At the lower works the current, produced at the power-house by nine 750 horse- 
power Westinghonse dynamos, coupled direct to turbmes with horizontal shafts, is 
carried 250 feet distant to the reduction room of the aluminum plant by means of 
alominum cables having a cross-sectional area of 28 inches. Each dynamo gives a 
'lirect carrent of 2,000 amperes at a potential of 280 volts, the full nine supplying 
the 6,500 horsepower required to operate the three lines of fumacee. 

The daily output of the lower plant, which is operated exactly in 
the same manner as the upper one, is about 11,000 pounds of metallic 
alaminum, which ji^ives a total daily output from both plants of the 
company approximating 19,000 pounds. Bkirly in the year 1903 the 
company employed 150 men at the lower works and 200 men at 
the upper works. The fewer number of men at the larger works is 
doe to the fact that crude metal only from refined material is made 
ther^. 

During the year 1903 H. Meissonier, of Paris, France, published his 
important book, L' Aluminum, Se^ Propri^t^s, Ses Applications, 222 
pigeH, Gauthier-Villars, Paris and New York, $2.50. The work sum- 
marizes the knowledge of aluminum acquired up to date, from the 
trettment of the crude ore tq the refining of the metal, and its manu- 
fiwture into various alloys. 

PRICES OP ALUMINUM AND ITS CHIEF ALLOYS. 

Despite the increasing demand for aluminum, due to the extension 
of its uses both as metal and as alloys, the price per pound has con- 
tinned practically stationary throughout the years 1901, 1902, and 
1W8. The prices in the United States during the years mentioned 
are given in detail in the following table: 



Digitized by 



Google 



270 



MINEBAL BESOUB0E8. 



Prices per pound of aluminum and its alloys during 1901, 190^^ and 1903. 



No. 1 (aluminum, 99.75 per cent) 

No. 2 (aluminum, 90 per cent) 

Nickel-aluminum casting metal (10 per cent nickel) 
Special casting alloy (80 per cent aluminum) 



Small 
lots. 



OaiU, 
87 
34 
89 
35 



100-pound 
lots. 



Oent«. 



30 



1,000 pound 2,000-poaiul 
lots. I lots. 



OmU. 



CatU. 



34 
82 
34 I 
29 ; 



» 
3S 

J7 



The price of in^i^ot aluminum during 1903 was adjusted by an agree- 
ment between all of the aluminum producers in the world. 

IMPORTS. 

In the first table below are given the quantities and valuei< of the 
aluminum imported into the United States from 1870 to 1890, and 
in the second table are given the quantities and values of crude and 
manufactured aluminum imported from 1891 to 1902. 

Aluminum imported and entered for consumption in ttie United SteUes, lif70-lS90. 



Year ending- 



June 80— 
1870. . . 
1871... 
1872... 
1878... 
1874... 
1875... 
1876... 
1877... 
1878... 
1879... 
1880... 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 



Value. 



198 
341 



2 


2 


683 


2,126 


434 


1.356 


189 


1,412 


181 


1,551 


261 


2,978 


284 


3,423 


341 


4,042 



Year ending- 



Quantity. 



June 30— 

1881.. 

1882.. 

1883.. 

1884.. 

1885.. 
Dec. 81— 

1886.. 

1887.. 

1888.. 

1889.. 

1890.. 



I 



Pounds. 
517 
557 
425 
595 
4S9 

45e2 
1.260 
1,849 

2.061 



Value. 



•6.071 
6,450 
5,070 
8,416 
4,786 

5,8» 
12,119 
14,0K6 
4. MO 
7,062 



Imports of crude and manufactured aluminum, 1891-190S. 



Calendar year. 



Crude. 
jQuantity. Value. 



1891, 
1892, 
1893 
1891 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898, 
1899 
1900 
1901. 
1902, 
1908 



Potmds. 

8,922 

43 

7,816 

5,806 

25,294 

698 

1,822 i 

60 

53,622 

256,559 

564,803 

745,217 

496,655 



96,266 

51 

4,688 

2,514 

7,814 

591 

1,082 

30 

9,425 

44,455 

104,168 

215,082 

189,298 



Leaf. 



^^IW.""^ Value. 



10,088 
11,540 
18,700 
10,780 
6,610 
4,657 
4,260 
2,000 
693 
1,103 



210 



Quantity. Value. 



SI, 135 

1,202 

1,908 

1,210 

646 

528 

368 

174 i 

112 

102 



Platea, sheets, 
bars, and rods. 



Pounds. 



82 



4,424 


«3.068 


L8,442 


8,991 


4,254 


2,418 


4,264 


2,776 


7,764 


5,319 


4,652 


2,548 


4,276 


2,818 



Manufao- 
tures. 



Total 
Talue. 



SI. 161 
1,036 
1,679 

886 
1,841 
2,866 

221 
4.676 
5,808 
3,111 

261 
1,289 
1,856 



•8,565 

2.289 

8,265 

4,U0 

10,801 

8,479 

4,729 

18,870 

17,288 

50,444 

109,748 

218,851 

148,471 



Digitized by V^OOQIC:! 



ALUMINUM AND BAUXITE. 



271 



The import duty on aluminum in the United States is 8 cents per 
pound for ingot metal and 13 cents per sheet for manufactured metal. 

PROGRESS OF THE INDUSTRY IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES DURING 

1903. 

In Canada, the Royal Aluminium Company, which is controlled by 
the Pittsburg Reduction Company, utilizes 5,000 of its 6,000 horse- 
power capacity in the manufacture of aluminum by the electric-furnace 
process. The power is supplied by the Shawenegan Water and Power 
Company, which has expended more than $3,000,000 in developing 
the power plant at Shawenegan Falls, on the St. Maurice River. The 
power available at the falls ranges from a minimum, during low water, 
of 150,000 horsepower, to a maximum, at high water, of 600,000 horse- 
power; of this power the company has increased its capacity so as to 
utilize 100,000 horsepower at the first of the year 1904. 

The works of the Soci^t^ Electro-M^tallurgique Franyaise, at Le 
Praz in Savoy, are mainly used for the manufacture of metallic 
aluminum, although ferrochromium and other iron alloys are also 
made. Among the dynamos used to generate electric power are two 
worthy of special note. These are of unipolar type and furnish a 
direct continuous current of 7,500 amperes at 35 volts when operated 
at 300 revolutions per minute. No commutating device is used, con- 
sequently losses by hystereses and Foucault currents are avoided. 
Although these dynamos are very heavy and expensive, this disad- 
vantage is more than offset by reliability and high eflSciency of work- 
ing. The total water power available at the works amounts to 14,000 
horsepower, from which electrical energy exceeding 7,000 horsepower 
is obtained by various dynamos numbering 32 in all. The current 
used for the electro-metallurgical work is generated by seven 6-pole 
Thury dynamos, giving a normal continuous current of 3,000 amperes 
at 110 volts, when run at a speed of 250 revolutions per minute. 
These dynamos, grouped in two sets of three each, holding the seventh 
*me in reserve, generate a current of 9,000 amperes at from 110 to 130 
volte (the voltage varying with the resistance of the electrolytic baths); 
and the work has been so satisfactory that the company contemplates 
the installation of an additional group of 14 machines of this same 
type. Aluminum is used in place of copper for conducting the electric 
mrrent 

The plant of the Compagnie des Produits Chimiques d'Alais, at 
Calypso, near St. Michel, Savoy, France, uses a current of a potential 
energy of 4,000 amperes. The crucibles of the electric furnace are 
1 meter long, 0.55 meter wide, and 0.20 meter deep. Copper bars 
are u^ed to conduct the electric current from the dynamos to the 
farnaceH and along the furnace sides; the carbon anodes are attached 
thereto by means of stirrup-shaped connections, which allow a vertical 
movement of any or all of the anodes as may be desired. The bath of 



Digitized by 



Google 



272 MINERAL BESOUBOB8. 

fused material is covered with a layer of charcoal, which diminishes 
the loss of heat by radiation. The proper alumina content of the bath 
is maintained by spreading a fresh layer of the material on the top of 
the charcoal, and from time to time pushing small quantities of it into 
the molten bath. The condition of the electrolyte in each furnace is 
continuously indicated by the brightness of a 10-volt incandescent 
lamp. The molten aluminum, containing from 99.5 to 99.6 per cent 
of metal, is removed from the bottom of the bath every hour by tilt- 
ing the furnace, which is supported on trunnions for this purpose. 

During the year 1903 the works of the Aluminium-Industrie- Aktien- 
Gesellschaft, at Neuhausen, have been considerably extended. The 
second plant, situated at Lend Gastein, near Salzburg, Austria, for- 
merly using 9,000 horsepower, has been augmented by the erection of 
a new power plant at Rauris, 8 kilometers distant; the height of the 
fall of water is 130 meters, and at present three turbines furnish 6,000 
horsepower, which gives a total capacity of 15,000 horsepower at the 
Lend reduction works. The third plant of this company, at Rheinfel- 
den, in Baden; Germany, has been greatly improved by the installation 
of apparatus for regulating the head of water. The company now has 
at its three plants a total of 24,000 hoi*sepower, and a further exten- 
sion of its hydraulic power is in contemplation. The chief product is 
aluminum, but high-grade carbide is also made, and experimental 
work is now being carried on in other electrolytical and electric 
furnace processes. 

The capacity of the works of the British Aluminium Company at 
Foyers, Scotland, is being increased by the addition of two 520-kilo- 
watt Dick-Kerr dynamos, with attached turbines to operate them. 
The manufacturing works of the company, also, are being increased 
in order to handle the future increased output. These factories are 
situated at Larne, Ireland, and at Greenock and Milton, Staflfordf^hire, 
England. Toward the end of the year 1903 it was reported that the 
financial affairs of the company had been greatly strengthened by the 
repayment of the entire £10,000, which it was empowered to borrow 
in priority to the debenture stock. 

TECHNOLOGY. 

Uaes. — ^The metal aluminum is used mainly for the transmission of 
electric currents, in place of copper, although a large proportion of 
the output is manufactured into articles for domestic and culinary use. 
Other uses of growing importance are, — for the construction of parts 
of machines and apparatus which require lightness rather than great 
strength; in the manufacture of special alloys; as a substitute for 
stone and zinc in lithographic work; and for the production of intense 
heat by the combustion of the metal in the powder called thermit 
(which is the basis of three important branches of metallurgical work). 



Digitized by 



Google 



ALUlCtNUM AND BAUXITE. 273 

Alominum is also used in the manafacture of a special explosive 
called ammonal; in the rubber industry for making lasts and boot 
trees upon which rubber shoes and boots are made; in cast-iron 
foandry practice as a substitute for the ordinary wooden patterns; 
as a substitute for wood in making bobbins for spinning and weaving 
machines treating silk fiber; and in powdered form for the manu- 
facture of white metallic paints, a use to which it is particularly 
suited on account of its nonsusceptibility to atmospheric influences. 
Among the proposed new uses of aluminum is its substitution for the 
glass carboys or earthenware vessels employed for the transportation 
of nitric acid, and also as a substitute for zinc in lining cisterns and 
other receptacles for storing water. 

Electrical canditctors. — ^The use of aluminum as a substitute for 
uncovered overhead transmission lines is still expanding in the United 
States, and is one of the most important outlets for the domestic prod- 
uct Despite the severe criticism of this use of the light metal, chiefly 
on account of corrosion, a number of electric light and railway com- 
panies have purchased very large quantities for transmission purposes 
during 1903, as is shown by two reported contracts, among many 
others, for 500,000 pounds and 298,245 pounds of aluminum wire, 
respectively. Drawn wires seem to be more suceptible to corrosion 
by atmospheric influence than rods, and to counteract this disadvan- 
tage the manufacturers, it is reported^ are now putting on the market 
a so-called "weatherproof wire," which is coated with a preparation 
that forms a through protection for the metal. In order to overcome 
the difficulty encountered in soldering aluminum conducting wire, a 
patent was granted on March 24, 1903 (No. 723,717), to J. D. Nicholson, 
by which a compound ingot of copper and aluminum is drawn into a 
wire having a copper core and an aluminum covering. The core of 
copper can be readily soldered without raising the resistance of the 
joint 

Ammonal. — ^A company has been formed to manufacture, on a com- 
mercial scale, the new explosive, ammonal, which is composed of 
powdered aluminum and ammonium nitrate, in respective proportions 
depending upon the explosive strength desired. Ammonal is reported 
to be extremely safe to handle, impervious to water, and of great 
explosive strength. 

Alloys. — Apart from those alloys which contain a small proportion 
of aluminum with other metal or metals, as, for instance, aluminum 
brcmze, the principal metals forming useful binary alloys with alumi- 
mun are magnesium, tungsten, and zinc. Other metals forming useful 
ternary idloys^with aluminum are copper, nickel, and zinc. A very 
iater«flting sununary of the progress that has been made in the manu- 
factnre and uses of aluminum alloys is given by Prof. Joseph W. 
Uchards in a paper read before the American Society for Testing 
m B 1908 ^18 



Digitized by 



Google 



274 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Materials, at Delaware Water Grap, July 3, 1903, a brief abstract of 
which was published in the Engineering and Mining Journal, October 
3, 1903. Of the numerous alloys mentioned, those with zinc are the 
cheapest and most efficient. Zinc-aluminum alloys containing ap to 
15 per cent of zinc are malleable and ductile, and castings containing 
as high as 33 per cent of zinc, when formed in sand molds possess a 
tensile strength of 25,000 pounds per square inch, and when chilled, 
of 40,000 pounds per square inch. A full description of the recent 
alloys, magnalium. Wolf rammm, McAdamite, aluminum-silver, albra- 
dium, and aluminum-zinc, are given in the report of this OflSce on 
aluminum and bauxite for 1902. 

TJiermit. — One of the most promising fields for the consumption of 
aluminum is the so-called thermit process, invented by Doctor Gold- 
schmidt, which produces an intense heat by the oxidation of metallic 
aluminum in intimate contact with metallic oxides. The utilization of 
the heat so produced is of great value for welding in place steel rails 
and broken iron or steel castings; for reducing refractory oxides of 
the rare metals tungsten, chromium, and molybdenum, yielding a 
metallic product free from carbon; and for preventing the formation 
of large pipes in the tops of steel ingots. A considerable advancement 
in these specialties has been made abroad, but so far but little has 
been done in the United States. For the conduction of the electric 
current, especially in trolley lines, the great advantage of welding 
both the track and the third rail is obvious, for the reason that the 
ends of adjacent rails may be welded together without removal from 
the track at a cost stated to bo less than the usual connection by means 
of fish plates and copper binding wires, and when the rails of a track 
are welded in this manner, they are practically continous and the con- 
nections are permanent, which avoids the frequent and costly repairs 
so necessary to maintain a perfectly good conductor for the electric 
current. During 1903 no less than 20,000 track joints were made by 
the thermit welding process. The system has been introduced into the 
cities of Leeds, Glasgow, and Nottingham, and an English company is 
using the process for welding 25 miles of rails in Singapore. 

For the welding of wrought-iron pipes the thermit process has been 
largely used, between 30,000 and 40,000 joints having been made by 
it. This method is cheaper than the usual flange joint, and is of spe- 
cial value for pipes or tubes to be used under high pressure, or for 
the transportation of liquids, such as alkalies or petrolemn, which 
attack the materials commonly used for packing. 

Electroplating. — Much work has been done both in electrolytically 
depositing other metals on aluminum and in depositing aluminum on 
other metals. Various processes have been described and various 
patents obtained during the last year, but usually they were of little 
value. In many cases it is a difficult matter to obtain a sound and 



Digitized by 



Google 



ALUMINUM AND BAUXITE. 



275 



adherent film of metal on aluminum by electro-deposition, due in part 
to the porosity and irregular degree of purity possessed by commer- 
cial aluminum. The following summary of the work of Mr. A. 
Fischer presents^ the chief point of aluminum progress: 

Coatmgs of copper, silver, nickel, zinc, and tin may be obtained directly upon 
alamintiin; but films of gold, brass, and arsenic are best applied upon a primary 
layer of copper, nickel, or silver. Aluminum coated with copper or silver can be 
'oxidized" with no attendant danger of the deposit coming off, but the use of hot 
iH)lutions of alkali sulphides must be avoided, else the deposit will become blistered. 

Details of the methods of treatment to be followed with the various 
metals are given in Mr. Fischer's paper. 

WORLD'S PRODUCTION. 

The following table shows the world's production of aluminum in 
1900, I'JOl, and 1902. 

WarlcTa prodticUon of aluminum in 1900, 1901, and 190£, 



Goantiy. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


QoADtity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


United States 


Metric tons. 
3,244 


r2, 238, 000 

526,600 

364,000 

1,225,000 


Metric Urns. 

3,244 

1,200 

560 

2,500 


r2, 238, 000 
560,000 


Metric tons. 

3,311 

1.855 

600 

2,500 


12,284,900 
638,830 


Pranof 


1,026 


Tnited Kingdom 


669 
2,600 




.■^wltzerlAnd 


1,225,000 


1, 201, 425 






Total 


7,339 


4,352,600 


7,504 




7,766 











BAUXITE. 

PRODUCTION. 

There was a large increase in the production of bauxite in the United 
States during the year 1903, due mainly to the development of the 
industry in Arkansas, the total quantity shipped amounting to 48,087 
long tons, valued at $171,306, as compared with 29,222 long tons, 
valued at $128,206, in 1902. These figures show an increase in quan- 
tity of 18,865 tons, or about 65 per cent, and in value of $43,100, or 
;^ per cent. At the present time, Georgia, Alabama, and Arkansas, 
in the order of their outputs, furnish the total supply of bauxite in 
the United States. The mineral occurs in other States, notably 
North Carolina and South Carolina, but the deposits are not of suffi- 
'Tent extent or purity to be of commercial value. 

The chief factor of interest during 1903 was the completion and the 
putting into of)eration of the mining plant of the Pittsburg Ecductio?! 

« Electro-ChemI(»l Industry, vol. 1, No. 16, December, 1908. 



Digitized by 



Google 



276 MINERAL BE80UBCE8. 

Company at Bauxite, Ark. The plant has been carefully designed 
with the view of replacing hand labor by machinery, wherever possi- 
ble. Mechanical conveyors and elevators transport the crude ore 
from the cars through the mill and finally store the finished product 
in bins ready for shipment. A description of the mine and mill 
equipment is given in the Mineral Resources for 1902 under the sec- 
tion devoted to Aluminum and Bauxite.* 

A second point of interest to the industry is the new refining plant 
of the Pittsburg Reduction Company at East St. Louis, which was put 
in operation during the latter part of the sununer. The plant is simi- 
lar in detail to the refining plant of the company at New Kensington, 
Pa. The crude ore, which was formerly shipped from Arkansas to 
New Kensington, is now refined at East St. Louis, by the soda process, 
which removes the impurities, iron oxide and silica. The equipment 
includes a bank of coke ovens for coking Illinois coal, which, so far, 
have given very satisfactory results. 

Prior to 1890 the consumption of bauxite in the United States was 
mainly of ores imported from France, but the discovery and working 
of deposits in the United States has very appreciably reduced the pro- 
portion of the foreign ore now imported. During the last two years, 
however, the low ocean freight rates have rendered it commercially 
advantageous to import ore from France, where it is mined and placed 
free on board at a comparatively small expense. In fact, French ore 
could be laid down at New York, Philadelphia, or Baltimore, includ- 
ing the import duty of $1 per ton, cheaper than the crude ore could 
be delivered by freight from the mines in the South or West. The 
French ores, which contain a high percentage of iron oxide, can not 
be used advantageously for the manufacture of aluminum sulphate, 
but are utilized chiefly for making aluminum hydrate, which is used in 
the manufacture of the metal. Although a large part of the quantity 
of bauxite consumed in the United States is used for the manufacture 
of aluminum, a fair proportion, stated variously at from one-quarter to 
one-half of the total, is used in the manufacture of chemical salts of 
aluminum, and during the last year or so, in making artifical corun- 
dum, of which abi-asive wheels are constructed. Another important 
use for bauxite ore that has been made abroad, but to a minor extent 
only in the United States, is as a refracting material for lining fur- 
naces in which the corrosive action of the basic slag must be resisted. 

The deposits of bauxite in Arkansas are situated on the hillsides, 
and the ore is very easily mined by first stripping the slight over- 
burden and then blasting, which breaks down the ore and renders it 
easily movable by pick and shovel into wagons, and thence by tram- 
way to the railroad. In general, nearly all of the bauxite mines con- 

a Almnlnmn and Bauxite: Mineral Reaouroes U. S. for 1902, tJ. S. Geol. Sturey, 1901, pp. 236>23S. . 



Digitized by 



Google 



ALUHmUM AND BAUXITE. 



277 



tain ores of different grades, which are first sorted by hand or by 
screen and then dried in the air naturally or in kilns or furnaces 
before it is in proper form for the market. Recently, for the purpose 
of drying the ore, a revolving cylindrical type of furnace has been 
used with very satisfactory results. The sorting by screens is prefer- 
able to hand sortings when the ore will admit of this method of classi- 
fication; and occasionally when clay occurs associated with the bauxite, 
a common log washer is used to remove the sterile clay. 

If tiie bauxite is to be used for the manufactur^of alum, it is merely 
crashed, dried, and shipped in bulk in box cars, but if for the manu- 
Aicture of aluminum metal or artifical corundum, which requires a low 
silicon content, the crushed ore is first passed through a log washer in 
order to remove the sterile siliceous gangue. 

The subjoined table gives the production and value of bauxite for 
each year since. 1889: 

Production ofbauxUem the United States, 1889-190S, by States. 



GalendAT year. 


Oeoigia. 


Alabama. 


Arkansas. 


Total. 


Value. 


lgg§ 


Long tons. 
ITS 
1,844 
8,801 
5,110 
2,415 
2,060 
8,756 
7,818 
7,607 


LongtoM. 


Long tons. 


Long tons. 
728 
1,844 
8,598 
10,518 
9,179 
11,066 
17,069 
18,864 
20,590 
25,149 
35.280 
23,184 
18,905 
27,322 
48,087 


12,866 
6,012 


ino 






un 


292 
5,406 
6,764 
9,016 
18,818 
11,051 
13,068 




11,675 
84,188 
29,507 
35,818 
44,000 
47,838 
57,662 
75,487 
125,596 
89,676 
79,914 
120,366 
171,806 


laga. 




laii 




ijfM 




UB5 




uw 


iaf7. 




un, 






15,736 
19, 


14,499 
789 


5,045 
8.445 
867 
4,645 
25,718 


WW 


nn .- - 


18,068 
22,677 
22,874 


1182 


Mi 









The figures showing the output and value of the production of bauxite 
during 1908 have been received directly from the individual producers, 
tad have also been approximately confirmed by Mr. William G. Neilson, 
of the Bepabtic Mining and Milling Company. 



CONSUMPTION. 



In order to show the annual consumption of bauxite and its value in 
the United States during the last five years, the following table has 
been compiled, which includes the annual production, imports, exports, 
•ad consumption, together with the value of each, respectively. 



Digitized by 



Google 



278 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



l^'oductiotiy imports^ exportSj and congamption of bcmrite in the United Stales, 1898-190S, 



Year. 


Total production. | Importe. 


Exports. 


Consumption. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1898 


Long tons. 
25,149 
35,280 
23,184 


$76,437 
126,698 
89,676 
79,914 
121.465 
171,806 


Long tons. 
1,201 
6,666 
8,656 
18,313 
15,790 
14,889 


$4,238 
23,768 
32,967 
67,107 
54,410 
49,684 


LoTigtonti. 
1,000 
2,0G0 
1,000 
1,000 
Nil. 


$2,000 
4,567 
5,000 
3,000 


Long tons. 
25,390 
39,916 
30, MO 
36,218 
43,112 
62,976 


$77,675 


1899 


144,799 


1900 


119,643 


1901 

1902 


18,905 
27-322 


144,021 
175,875 


1903. . ! 48.0R7 




230,990 




' 







WORLD'S PRODUCTION. 



The following table shows the world's production of bauxite in 1900, 
1901, 1902, and 1903: 

WorUr 8 proditction of bauxite^ 1900-1 90S, 



Country, 


1900. 


1901. j 1902. 


1903. 


Quantity. 


Value. 

$89,676 

92,596 

6,750 


Quantity. 


Value. 1 Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. Value. 


United States 

France 


Metric 
Urns. 

23,556 

58,580 

6,873 


Metric 
tons. 

19,207 

76,620 

10,857 


$79,914 

124,168 

14,515 


Metric 
tons. 

29,785 

%,900 

9,192 


$128,206 

174,686 

13,396 


Metric 
tons, 

48,859 


$171,306 


United Kingdom... 


6,226 




Total 


87,959 


189,022 


106,184 


218,697 


135,877 


816,286 













ALUMINUM SALTS. 

The principal salts of aluminum are aluminum sulphate and crystal- 
lized alum, for the manufacture of which bauxite and Greenland cryo- 
lite are consumed. The Pennsylvania Salt Company possesses the 
exclusive privilege of importing cryolite into North and South 
America. In 1903 the production of aluminum sulphate was 80,726 
short tons, valued at $1,614,520, as compared with 80,076 short tons, 
valued at $1,938,671, in 1902, and that of crystallized alum was 7,574 
short tons, valued at $210,910, as compared with 8,539 short tons, 
valued at $299,600, in 1902. These statistics do not include the pro- 
duction of sodium aluminate. The companies producing one or both 
of these salts during 1903, in the order of output, are: The Gen- 
eral Chemical Company, the Pennsylvania Salt Company, Harrison 
Brothers, the Cochrane Chemical Company, Charles Lennig & Co., the 
P>ie Chemical Company, the Detroit Chemical Company, the Merrimac 
Chemical Company, and the Jarecki Chemical Company. 

The production and imports of alum and aluminum sulphate into 
tlie United States from 1898 to 1903, inclusive, are given in the fol- 
lowing table: 



Digitized by 



Google 



aliimindm: and bauxite. 



279 



Production and imports of alum and cUuminum mdphaie into the United States, 1898-1903, 





Production. 


Import8.a 


Year. 


Alum. 


Aluminum sulphate. 


Short 
tons. 


Value. 


Per 
ton. 




Short 
tons. 


Value. 


Per 

tOD. 


Short 
tons. 


Value. 


Per 
ton. 


im 


18,791 
27,276 
20,531 
7.775 
8,539 
7,574 


$568,730 
845.556 
615,980 
233,260 
299,500 
210,910 


$30.00 
31.00 
30.00 
30.00 
27.00 
27.86 


56,663 
81,805 
61,678 
74,721 
80,075 
80,726 


$1,416,676 
2,106,479 
1,480,272 
1,798,304 
1,938,671 
1,614,520 


$25.00 
25.76 
24.00 
24.00^ 
24.25 
20.00 


^898 
I>858 
M,169 
b 1,091 
fr928 
ft 776 


$16,187 
14,963 
22,283 
20,781 
16,808 
14,463 


$18. 18 


1^ 


17.49 


i«o 


19.07 


isoi 


19.05 


1$0B 


18.11 




18.64 



• Includes alumina, alum, alum cake, aluminum sulphate, aluminous cake, and alum in crystals 
or ground. 
VTbere was also imported in 1898, 1.205 short tons ($76,884) of aluminum hydrate, or refined 
abort tons ($119,202) ; in 1900, 2,207 short tons ($148^) ; in 1901, 1 986 short tons 



bauxite: in 1899. 1,926 

(1146,462); in 1902, 339 short tons ($21,235); and in 1903, 1,886 short tons 



),465). 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



QUICKSILVER. 



PRODUCTION. 

The production of quicksilver in the United States during 1903 
amounted to 35,620' flasks of 76i pounds each, valued at $1,544,934, 
a.s compared with 34,291 flasks, valued at $1,467,848, in 1902. an 
increase in quantity of 1,329 flasks, and in value of $77,086. 

TEXAS. 

The production of quicksilver decreased in Texas from 5,319 flasks; 
valued at $239,350, in 1902, to 5,029 flasks, valued at $211,218, in 
1903. During the year Prof. William B. Phillips, director of the 
University of Texas mineral survey, published a carefully prepared 
statement in regard to considerable extensions of the quicksilver-bear- 
ing area in Texas. It is evident that quicksilver mining in Texas 
should increase for several years before reaching the maximum. 

CALIFORNIA. 

The product from the mines, which has been carefully described in 

previous reports, amounted to 30,526 flasks, worth $1,330,916. The 

following table gives the production of quicksilver in California 

suicel850: 

Tbfo/ produCtum of guichilver in CaUfornia, 1860- 190S. 

[Flaaks of 76| pounds net] 



Yc«r. 


Qoantity. 


Tear. 


Qnantity. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


UN. . 


7,728 
27.779 
20.000 
22,284 
80,004 
88.000 
80,000 
26,204 
81,000 
18,000 
10,000 
8S,000 
42,000 
40,581 
47,489 
68,000 
46.&60 
47,000 
I 47,728 


1800 


88,811 
80,077 
81,686 
81,621 
27,642 
27,766 
60,250 
72,716 
79,396 
68,880 
78,684 
59,926 
60,851 
62,782 
46,725 
81.913 
82,078 
29,961 
^88,825 


1888 


83,260 


m 


1870 


1889 


26,464 


tttt. 


1871.. 


1890 

1891 

1892 

1883 


22,926 




1872 


22,904 


UM 


1878 


27,993 


vm 


1874 


30,164 


UK 


1876 


1894 

1896 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 

1900 

1901 

1902 

1906 

Total 


30,416 


vm 


1876 


86,067 


UM 


1877 


30,765 


UB9 


1878 


26,691 


\m 


1879 


31,09? 


i«i 


1880 


29,451 


lie.. 


1881 


26.317 


uo... . 


1982 - 


26,720 


ISM 


1888 


28,972 




1884 


80.526 


IM.. 


1885 


1,948.557 


ttC 


1886 


UB 


1887 











■InrtikHng 65 flaiks from Merada. 



5 Indudee 65 flaskg from Oregon. 



Digitized by 



881 

Google 



282 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



The production of quicksilver in California, by counties, for 1902 
and 1903, is given in the following table: 

ProdiicUon of quicksilver in California^ by counties^ during 1909 and 190S, 
[Flasks of 76i pounds net.] 



County. 



Colusa 

Lake 

Napa 

San Benito 

San Luis Obispo., 

Santa Clara 

Sonoma 

Trinity 

Total 



1902. 



Quantity. 



5CM 
3,797 
7,300 
7,289 
2,546 
5,779 
1,519 

238 



28,974 



Value. 



121,748 
161,406 
311,339 
306,096 
107,686 
243,599 
66,373 
10,251 



1,228,498 



1903. 



Quantity. Value. 



510 
2,130 
7,859 
8,160 
4,692 
4,658 
2,361 

266 



30,526 



$21,708 
85,520 
359,006 
370,000 
185,430 
200,830 
97,766 
11,156 



1,330.916 



PRICES. 



The variation in average prices for quicksilver, per flask, in San 
Francisco during the years 1902 and 1903, by months, is shown in the 
following table: 

Average price of quickgHver, per flask, at San Francisco during 190IB and 1903, by month. 



Month. 



Price. 
January $46.30 



February. 

March 

April 

May 

Tune 

July 



1902. 



44.29 
45.66 
46.00 
44.83 
45.77 
48.89 



1908. 



Price. 

946.00 
46.00 
45.63 
45.25 
45.25 
45.25 
45.25 



Month. 



August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Average 



1902. 



Price. 

S42.71 
42.85 
42.37 
42.64 
45.00 



44.10 



190S. 



Price. 
$45.25 
45.33 
45.25 
44.60 
44.50 



45.29 



Digitized by 



Google 



QUICKSILVER. 



283 



IMPOKT8. 



The following table shows only slight changes in the imports of 
quicksilver, which have been merely nominal for the last ten years: 

QuickgUvfr imported and entered for consumption in tJie United StaieSy 1867-190$, 



Year ending— 


Quantity. 


Value. 

$15,248 

68 

11 

107,646 

187,832 

189,943 

74, 146 

52,098 

20,957 

50,164 

19,558 

135,178 

217,707 

48,463 

57,738 

288,057 

593,867 

44,085 

90,416 


Year ending- 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1«7 


Pound*. 


December 31— 
1886 


Pounds. 
629,888 

410 Q<U 


1249,411 
171,431 
56,997 
162,064 
445,807 


1868 


152 


1887 


18$9 




1888 182,850 

1889 841,514 

1890 1 802,871 

1891 123.9fi6 


1870 


239,223 
304,965 
370,853 
99,898 
51,202 
6,870 
78,902 


wn 


1«72 


61,355 


1873 


1892 


96,318 
41,772 


40,133 


1874 


1898 


17,400 


1875 


1894 


7 

15,001 

805 

45,539 

81 

181 

2,616 

1,441 

(«) 

(«) 


6 


1876 


1895 


7,008 


1877 


88,250 


1896 


118 


1878 


294,207 
519, 125 
116,700 
138,517 
597,898 
1,552,738 


1897 


20,147 


1879. 


1898 


51 


isso.. . ... 


1899 


83 


Iffll 


1900 


1,051 


188B 


1901 


789 


ISSS 


1902 


2,166 


1884 


136,615 
257,659 


1908 


1,065 


1885 











a Not stated. 
EXPORTS. 

The following table gives the exports of quicksilver from San Fran- 
cisco only during the year 1903, amounting to 10,722 flasks, valued at 
>W6,845: 

Exports of domeHic Quicksilver from San Francisco during 1903 ^ by countries, 
[Flasks of 761 pounds.] « 



Country. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


I'hioa fHfinalrfintf^'i 


5,250 

3,826 

1,870 

671 

47 

25 

10 

7 

6 

5 

3 

2 


1213, 125 


Mfxico 


143,474 


I»f«n... 


56,476 


:I ilHlaiU 




29,181 


•tr.U^ Columbia. 


2,074 


\"Tf% 


1,092 


0.tARV« --.- - - 


449 


Ci*«BWa. 


263 


fmlTidor 


263 


ItM^*, Aitatlc 


225 


tminiCMmi. 




185 


ncuifua - 


89 








I^lil 


10,722 


446,845 







Digitized by V^OOQIC 



284 



MINERAL BBSOUROES. 



In the following table the quantity and value of quicksilver exported 
from the United States from 1880 to 1903, inclusive, are given: 

ExporU of quickgilver from the United SUites, 1880-1903, 
[Flasks of 76i pounds net.] 



Year. 



Quantity. 


Valoe. 


87,210 


fl,U9,952 


86,107 


1,025,299 


38,875 


988,454 


80,072 


806,858 


7,870 


199,685 


6,802 


209,758 


8,091 


204,956 


11,894 


441,112 


10,684 


406,899 


5,111 


213,717 


2,069 


98,192 


8,714 


145,502 



Year. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884. 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888. 
1889 
1890 
1891. 



1892 ' 8,618 

1898 16,631 

1894 14,408 

1895 15,542 

1896 19,944 

1897 18,178 

1598 ' 12,880 

1809 ' 16,517 

1900 10,172 

1901 11,219 

1902 j 18,247 

1908 : 17,677 



S13S,«26 
512,410 
397.608 
482,085 
618.437 
894. MO 
440,687 
609,686 
425.812 
475,009 
575.009 
719,119 



WOKIiD'S PRODUCTION AND VAIiUB. 

The following table gives the production in metric tons and the 
value of quicksilver in various countries in 1899, 1900, 1901, and 1902: 

WotWb production and value of quickgilver m 1899^ 1900, 1901, and 190B.<^ 

[Metric tons.] 



Country. 


1899. 


1900. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


United States 


1.067 
586 
206 
862 

1,861 


11,462.746 

492,021 

246,000 

821,814 

1,481,229 


9S8 
510 
260 
804 
1.005 


11,802,686 


Austria 


490,068 


Italy 


812,000 


I^iimI^ 


270,266 


ppRin „ , , , . 


1.1«.560 




Total 


3,521 


8.993,809 


3.152 


3,577.444 






Country. 


1901. 


1902. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


QuanUty. 


Value. 


United States 


1,081 
526 
278 

754 


11.882,305 
547,513 
861,400 

(*) 
1,106,890 


1.190 
511 
260 

1,425 


11.467.848 
568.929 


Austria 


Italy 


310,000 


Russia 


(tf) 


Spain 


1,911,387 


Total 


2,588 


3,897,108 


3,886 


4,288,244 







a Mezioo exported 824 tons of quicksilyer in 1899. 885 tons in 1900. and 886 toni In 190L 
5 Statistics not yet available. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE STEEL-HARDENING METALS. 



By Joseph Hyde Pratt. 



rNTRODUCTION. 

There are included under the head of steel-hardening metals, nickel 
and cobalt, chromium, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, titanium, and 
uranium, which are named in the order of the importance of their 
production and use for steel-hardening purposes. In this list manga- 
nese would naturally be included, but on account of its very extensive 
production and very large use in the purification of steel it is treated 
separately. 

These metals are not added to the steel to cause chemical reactions 
to take place, by which harmful ingredients are made to go into the 
slag or to pass off as gases, as is the case in the use of ferrosilicon or 
ferromanganese (spiegeleisen), which are added to the furnace in the 
original manufacture of the steel. These other f erro alloys are not 
added until after the steel has been manufactured, and their use is as a 
physical addition to the manufactured steel for the physical benefits that 
they confer upon it, and hence they accomplish their purpose in a man- 
ner entirely different from that of the ferrosilicon or ferromanganese. 

The special steels resulting from these additions vary among them- 
selves, having individual properties of tensile strength and elastic limit, 
of conductivity, heat, and electricity, of magnetic capacity, and of 
resistance to impact, whether as shell or as armor plate. It was only 
about twenty years ago that the first of these metals, nickel, began to 
be used to any extent for the purpose of hardening steel, but since 
their introduction their use for this purpose has continued to increase 
steadily. Experiments are still being carried on with some of these 
metals in order to determine their actual conmiercial value with 
re^rd to the qualities that they impart to steel. In the arts it is 
the ferro alloy of these various metals that is first prepared and is then 
introduced in the required quantity into the manufactured steel, but 
thiD ferro alloy is never added to the molten mass during the manu- 
facture of the steel. All these metals give characteristic and distinct 
properties to steel, but in all cases the principal quality is the increase 

in the hardness and the toughness of the resulting steel. Some of the 

1:86 



Digitized by 



Google 



286 MINERAL RESOURCES. 

metals — as nickel, chromium, and tungsten — are now entirely beyond 
the experimental stage and are well established in the commercial 
world as definite steel -hardening metals, and new uses are being con- 
stantly devised for the diiferent steels, which are causing a constant 
increase in their production. Others, as molybdenum and vanadium, 
though they have been proved to give certain positive values to steel, 
have not been utilized to any large extent as yet in the manufacture of 
molybdenum or vanadium steel, partly on account of the high cost of 
the ores containing these metals. Titanium and ui-anium are still in 
the experimental stage; and, although a good deal has been written as 
to the value of titanium as an alloy with steel, there is at the present 
time very little if any of it used in the manufacture of a commercial 
steel. 

Since the introduction of the electric furnace and the consequent 
methods that have been devised for reducing ores, it has become pos- 
sible to obtain these ferro alloys directly from the ores by reducing 
them in the electric furnace, and hence experiments have been con- 
ducted on a much larger scale than formerly. 

The prices of the various ferro alloys vary considerably. Ferro- 
chrome in December, 1903, was quoted at $120 to $225 per long ton 
of 2,240 pounds, cost, insurance, and freight. New York, on the basib 
of 60 per cent, with variations up and down at $1.75 per unit. Ferro- 
tungsten was quoted at 40 cents per pound, or $896 per ton, onlOOinr 
cent, cost, insurance, and freight. New York. Ferromolybdenum wa.^ 
quoted from $1.50 to $2.50 per pound, or $3,360 to $5,600 per ton, on 
100 per cent, cost, insurance, and freight. New York; in May, 1004, 
this had dropped to $1.25 per pound on 100 per cent, cost, insurance, 
and freight. New York. Ferrovanadium was quoted at $7.50 per 
pound, or $16,800 per ton, on 100 per cent, in the English market, and 
$6.40 per pound in the French market; for ton lots the price has been 
(juoted as low as $4.50 per pound. Ferromanganese has, during the 
last two or three years, been very steady, and on contract, 100-ton lots 
and over, was quoted at $50 per ton, duty paid, with freight paid cast 
of the Mississippi River. In May, 1904, this price had dropped to ^ 
per ton. Ferronickel allo}'^ and metallic nickel vary from 50 to 50 
cents per pound for the nickel content. 

The minerals which form the source of these metals are as follows: 
Nickel and cobalt are obtained from nickeliferous pyrrhotite, genthite, 
garnierite, and a nickeliferous lead ore such as is found at Mine La- 
motte. Mo. Chromium is obtained exclusively from the mineral 
chromite. Tungsten is obtained from the three minerals, wolfram- 
ite, hubnerite, and scheelite. Molj'bdenum is obtained chiefly from 
molybdenite, with smaller amounts from wulfenite. Vanadium is 
usually found associated with uranium, and is obtained from c^rnot- 
ite and in smaller quantity from vanadiuite. Uranium is obtained 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE STEEL-HARDENING METALS. 287 

chiefly from the two minerals carnotite and uraninite (pitchblende). 
Titanium is found chiefly as ilmenite (ferrous titanate) and rutile 
(titanium oxide). 

MANGANESE STEEIi. 

Besides the use of ferromanganese for the chemical effect which it 
[iroduces in the manufacture of steel in eliminating injurious sub- 
ijtances, it is also used in the production of a special steel which pos- 
sesses to a considerable degree combined hardness and toughness. 
Such steel contains from 0.8 to li per cent of carbon and about 12 
per cent of manganese and is known as "Hadfield manganese steel." 
If only 1.5 per cent of manganese is added, the steel is very brittle, 
and the further addition increases this brittleness until the quantity of 
manganese has reached 4 to 6.6 per cent, when the steel can be pul- 
verized under the hammer. With a further increase, however, of the 
quantity of manganese, the steel becomes ductile and very hard, reach- 
ing its maximum degree of these qualities with 12 per cent of manga- 
nese. The ductility of the steel is brought out by sudden cooling, a 
process the opposite of that used for carbon steel. These properties 
of manganese steel make it especially adapted for use in the manu- 
facture of rock-crushing machinery, safes, and mine car wheels. 

NICKEL. AND COBAIiT. 

The two metals, nickel and cobalt, are treated together for the 
reason that nearly all of the ores that contain one of these metals con 
tain also a small percentage of the other, and in the reduction of the 
ores lK)th nickel and cobalt go into the matte which is afterwards 
refined. 

NICKEL STEEL. 

Nickel finds its largCvSt use in the manufacture of special nickel and 
nickel-chromium steels, and the use of these steels for various pur- 
poses in the arts is constantly increasing. The greatest quantity of 
nickel steel is used in the manufacture of armor plate, either with or 
without the addition of chromium. There is probably no armor or 
protective-deck plate made which does not contain from 3 up to 5 per 
<*ent of nickel. Nickel steel is also used for the manufacture of 
ammunition hoists, communication tubes, and turrets on battle ships, 
and for gun shields and armor. 

The properties of nickel steel or nickel-chromium steel that make it 
^»pecially adapted for these purposes are its hardness and great tensile 
<rength, combined with great ductility and a very high limit of elas- 
ticity. One of the strongest points in favor of a nickel-steel armor 
plite is that when it is perforated by a projectile it does not crack. 
The Krupp steel, which represents in composition about the universal 



Digitized by 



Google 



288 



MINEBAL BE8OUB0E8. 



armor-plate steel, contains, approximately, 3.5 per cent of nickel, 1.5 
per cent of chromium, and 0.25 per cent of carbon. 

Another use for nickel steel that is gradually increasing is the 
manufa<;ture of nickel-steel rails. During 1908 there were over 11,000 
tons of these rails manufactured, which were used by the Pennsylva- 
nia, the Baltimore and Ohio, the New York Central, the Bessemer 
and Lake Erie, the Erie, and the Chesapeake and Ohio railroads. 
These orders for nickel-steel rails resulted from the comparison of 
nickel-steel and carl)on-steel rails in their resistance to wear during 
the five months' trial of the nickel-steel rails that were used on the 
horseshoe curve of the Pennsylvania Railroad. The advantages that 
are claimed for the nickel-steel rail are its increased resistance to 
abrasion and its higher elastic limit, which increases the value of the 
rail as a girder. On sharp curves it has been estimated that a nickel- 
steel rail will outlast four ordinary rails. 

In regard to the comparative cost of nickel-steel and carbon-steel 
i*ails an interesting comparison has been made by Mr. John McLeod,'' 
which may be summarized as follows: 

Comparative cost of nickelrsUd and oarbonsUel raila. 





Nickel-steel 
rails. 


Carbon-Steel 
rails. 


Coet of the tonnage of rails neoesbary to maintain a certain cuire for 
a given period 


0956.00 


A8M.00 






One ton of rails made of 8| per cent nickel steel contains 78.4 ponnds 
of nickel which, at 20 cents per pound, equals a credit of 


15.68 
a 16. 00 




Credit for scrap rails 


648.00 






Total credit 


81.68 


48.00 






Gross cost (as above) 


56.00 
81.68 


8100 


Total credit (as above) 


48.00 






Net cost 


24.82 


86.00 


• 





al ton. 



l>8tons. 



Nickel steel has also been largely adopted for forgings in large 
engines, particularly marine engines, and it is undei'stood that this is 
now the standard material for this purpose in the United States Navy. 
There is a very great variety of these forgings and drop forgings, 
which include the axles and certain other parts of automobiles, shaft- 
ing and crank shafts for Government and merchant-marine engines 
and stationery engines, for locomotive forgings, the last including 
axles, connecting rods, piston rods, crank pins, link pins, and pedestal 
cap bolts, and for sea- water pumps. 

Another important application that is being tried with nickel steel 
is in the manufacture of wire cables, and during the last year such 
cables have been made by the American Steel and Wire Company, but 

a Proc. Am. Soc for testing materials, vol. 3, 1903. Reprint, p. 26. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE STEEL-HARDENING METALS. 289 

no comparison can as yet be made between them and the ordinary 
carboD-steel cables with respect to their wearing qualities. 

In the manufacture of electrical apparatus nickel steel is beginning 
to be used in considerable quantity. The properties of this steel 
which make it especially valuable for such uses are, first, its high ten- 
>dle strength and elastic limit, and, second, its high permeability at 
high inductions. Thus steel containing from 3 to 4 per cent of nickel 
has a lower permeability at low inductions than a steel without the 
nickel, but at the higher inductions the permeability is higher. A nota- 
ble instance of the use of this material is in the field rings of the 5,000- 
boreepower generators built by the Westinghouse Electric and Manu- 
facturing Company for the Niagara Falls Power Company. These 
field rings require very high tensile strength and elastic limit, and in 
order to reduce the quantity of material it is desirable that they have 
high permeabUity at high inductions. This result was secured by using 
a nickel steel containing approximately 3.75 per cent of nickel. Steel 
containing approximately 25 per cent of nickel is nonmagnetic and has 
a very low resistance temperature coefficient. This property is occa- 
sionally of value where a nonmagnetic material of very high tensile 
strength is required. The high electrical resistance of nickel steel of 
this quality, together with its low temperature coefficient, makes it 
valuable for electrical resistance work where a small change in the 
resistance due to change in temperature is desirable. The main objection 
to using nickel steel for this purpose is the mechanical defects that 
are often found in wire that is drawn from this quality of nickel steel. 

For rock drills and other rock- working machinery nickel steel is 
used in the manufacture of the f orgings which are subjected to repeated 
and violent shocks. The nickel content of the steel used in these f org- 
ings is approximately 3 per cent, with about 0.40 per cent of carbon. 
The rock drills or bits are made for the most part of ordinary crucible 
cast steel which has been hardened and tempered. There is a field 
for investigation here in respect to the value of some of the special 
steels in the manufacture of rock-drill steels or bits. 

A nickel-chrome steel is now being made which is used to some extent 
in the manufacture of tools. 

Nickel steel in the form of wire has been used quite extensively and 
for many purposes — for wet mines, torpedo-defense netting, electric- 
lamp wire, umbrella wire, corset wire, etc. — where a noncorrosive wire 
is especially desired. When a low coefficient of expansion is desired — 
u in the manufacture of armored glass, in the mounting of lenses, 
mirrors, lever tubes, balances for clocks, weighing machines, etc. — 
nickel steel gives good satisfaction. For special springs, both in the 
form of wire and flats,- a high carbon nickel steel has been introduced 
to a considerable extent Nickel steel is also being used in the manu- 

M B 1908 19 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



290 MINEBAL RE80UB0ES. 

facture of dies and shoes for stamp mills, for cutlery, tableware, 
harness mountings, etc. 

Nickel steels containing from 25 to 30 per cent nickel are used abroad 
to some considerable extent for boiler and condenser tubes and are now 
being introduced into this country. The striking characteristic of 
these steels is their resistance to corrosion either by fresh, salt, or acid 
waters, by heat, and by superheated steam. The first commercial 
manufacture of high nickel-steel tubes began in France in 1898, and 
was followed in Germany in 1899; but it was not until February, 1903, 
that these tubes were made in the United States. Since then, however, 
Mr. Albert Ladd C!olby« states— 

The difficulties of their manafacture have been so thoroughly bvercome that the 30 
per cent nickel steel, seamless, cold-drawn marine boiler tubes, now a commercial 
proposition, are made in practically the same number of operations and with bat a 
slightly greater percentage of discard than customary in the manufacture of ordinary 
seamless tubes, and, furthermore, the finished 30 per cent nickel-steel tube will stand 
all the manipulating tests contained in the specifications of the Bureau of Steam 
Engineering, United States Navy Department, for the acceptance of the carbon-steel 
seamless cold-drawn marine boiler tubes now in use. In addition, the nickel-steel 
tubes have a much greater tensile strength. 

Although the first cost of the nickel-steel tubes for marine boilers 
is considerably in excess of the carbon-steel tubes, yet, on account of 
the longer life of the nickel-steel tubes, they are in the end cheaper than 
the others. At the present time 30 per cent nickel-steel tubes cost 
from 36 cents to 40 cents per pound, as compared with 12 cents to 15 
cents per pound for the corresponding mild carbon-steel tubes. Thus 
their initial cost, when used in the boilers of torpedo-boat destroyers, 
is 2.13 times as great as the other kind and 2.43 times as great when 
used in the boilers of battle ships, but the nickel-steel tubes will last 
two and one-third times longer than those made of the carbon steel, 
and when finally taken from, the boilers they can be sold not only 
for the market price of steel-tubing scrap, but also at an additional 
price of 20 cents per pound for their nickel content. Thus it is seen 
that 30 per cent nickel-steel boiler tubes are really more economical 
to purchase than carbon-steel boiler tubes. 

In addition to marine boilei"s, high nickel-steel tubes can be used to 
advantage for stationary boilers, automobile boilers, and locomotive 
safe ends. It is the higher elastic limit of the 30 per cent nickel-steel 
boiler tubing that will prevent the leaks which are constantly being 
formed where the mild carbon-steel tube is used. The leaks are due 
to the expansion of the flue sheets when heated, which compress the 
tubes at the points where they pass through the flue sheets and cause 
in the case of the mild carbon-steel tube a permanent deformation: 
this results in the leakage and necessitates the frequent expanding of 
the tubes. In the high nickel-steel tubes this difficulty is overcome 

a Proc. 11th G werftl Meeting Soc. Naval Arch, and Marine Eng., Nov. 19, 1908. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE STEEL-HARDENING METALS. 291 

by their higher elastic limit. This deformation and the resulting 
leakage are especially true of locomotive boilers. For automobile 
tabular boilers a 23 to 25 per cent nickel-steel tubing is used, each 
coiled section being made from one long piece of nickel-steel tubing, 
which, by a special heat treatment, is enabled to withstand this bend- 
ing without cracking. 

Nickel-steel tubing containing 12 per cent of nickel has been used by 
the French since 1898 in the manufacture of axles, brake beams, and 
carriage transoms for field artillery wagons, and the desired result in 
the reduction of weight has been obtained without loss of strength 
and without stiffness of the wagons. A 5 per cent nickel-steel tubing 
has been used in the manufacture of bicycles since 1896. 

Much work and experimenting have been done on nickel steel; yet, 
on account of the wide range in physical properties of steels which con- 
tain from 2 to 45 per cent of nickel and oi the variations which occur 
in each grade with varying quantities of carbon and with the addition 
of small quantities of chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, etc., the 
further study of the alloys of nickel with iron is of great importance 
to the metallurgist who may be in search of a steel which will be 
adapted for certain particular purposes. One of the foremost men 
who has studied the ferro alloys and their application in the manufac- 
ture of steel is Mr. R. A. Hadfield, manager of the Hecla Works, 
Sheffield, England. The results of his investigations have been 
embodied in a series of very valuable publications. 

COBALT STEEL. 

Some experiments « have been made with cobalt in the manufacture 
of a ferrocobalt which was used in making a cobalt steel. The pres- 
ence of cobalt in the steel considerably increased its elastic limit and 
itts breaking load, but thus far no commercial use has been made of 
this steel. On account of its high price it is impossible for a cobalt 
steel to enter into competition vnth nickel steel, as the properties which 
cobalt gives to steel are not distinct enough to make it of more value 
than the corresponding nickel steel. 

The main use of cobalt, which is in the form of the oxide, is in manu- 
facturing pigments, the principal one being known as cobalt blue. 
As the demand for cobalt oxide is small, there could easily be an over- 
production of this compound. 

SOURCES OF SUPPLY. 

There is still but little nickel or cobalt mined in the United States, 
and the chief sources of supply of these metals are the large mines in 
the Sudbury district, Canada, and the mines of New Caledonia, an 

• Badfleld. R. A., Iron and Steel Metallnigist and Metallographlst, January, 1904, p. 10. 



Digitized by 



Google 



292 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



island belonging to France, in the Pacific Ocean off the east coast of 
Australia. 

An interesting occurrence of a cobalt-nickel ore has recently been 
discovered in Canada during the building of the Temiscaming and 
Northern Ontario Railroad. The deposits were found about 5 miles 
south of the village of Heileybury on the Ontario side of the northern 
part of Lake Temiscaming. They are about 90 miles northeast of the 
town of Sudbury, near which are situated the nickel mines referred to 
above. The ore of these new deposits is distinct from that of the Sud- 
bury district, and consists principally of the minerals smalltite, nic- 
colite, and safflorite. 

The International Nickel Company, which controls the largest 
deposits of nickel ore at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, has recently remod- 
eled its entire plant at Copper Cliff and now has a-most modern nickel- 
copper smelter. The ore which they are treating contains from 2 to 
5 per cent of nickel and from 1^ to 8 per cent of copper, and is a 
nickeliferous pyrrhotite. The general composition of the ores fw)m 
the various mines of the company is shown by the following analyses: 



Analyses of nickel ore from mines of the International Nickel Company, {<^) 


Constituent. 


Cliff mine. 


No. 2 mine. 


CretehtoD 
mine. 


Copper 


8.06 
2.97 
26.21 
26.06 
19.08 


2.23 

3.36 

46.47 

11.87 

26.18 


1.69 


Nickel 


5. IS 


Iron 


46.70 


silica 


9.65 


Sulphur .' 


27.79 






Total 


82.36 


90.10 


89.96 









a Chemist of Canadian Copper Company, Copper Cliff, Ontario, analyst. 

This ore is crushed at the mine and roasted in heaps, where it 
remains for about one hundred days, during which time the sulphur 
is reduced to about 10 per cent. At the end of this time the ore is in 
fine shape for the blast furnace, being in large lumps and very porous 
and free from water. It is conveyed from these roast heaps to the 
top of the pocket trestle in dump cars, where it is dumped down 
through the bottom of the pockets into 2-ton side-dump-charge cars 
and hauled to the furnaces by electric locomotives. In dumping the 
ore into the furnaces care is taken to keep the bright spots covered 
with charges of ore. In charging the furnaces 10 per cent of icoke is 
used, and during the operation the metal content is raised from 7 to 
30 per cent. This could easily be increased to 40 or 60 per cent, but 
it seems more advantageous to produce a 30 per cent matte, adding 
enough green ore to the charges to keep the tenor down to that point. 
By keeping the proportion of metal in the matte down to 30 per cent, 
a higher per cent of iron is retained in the matte, with a correspond- 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE STEEL-HARDENING METALS. 293 

ingly less quantity of oxidized iron for the slag, but, therefore, with 
higher percentage of silica in the slag. In order to obtain this reac- 
tion the proper adjustment of fuel and blast is an important governing 
factor. The composition of the ore is such that without any outside 
additions or flux a slag is obtained having a general composition as 
follows: 

Composition of slag from nickel smeUing. 



Constituent. 


Per cent. 


Sffla 


29 


Iron 


41 


Uqw and ma^esla , 


10 








Total 


80 







Occasionally it is necessary to add a little pure quartz in order to 
keep the silica up to 29 per cent, which has been found to be the lowest 
safe economical quantity of silica to run. 

As the slag and matte run from the furnaces into the settlers the 
specific gravity of the slag is 3.78 and that of the 30 per cent matte is 
5.20, and consequently they can be separated very readily. 

The matte is tapped from the settler as needed, poured into a con- 
verter which has a siliceous lining, and blown. By this operation the 
sulphur goes oflf as sulphur dioxide, freeing the iron first, which unites 
with the silica of the lining and forms a slag. The danger point ap- 
proaches with the diminishing quantity of iron; for when the iron is 
exhausted, the nickel will be the next metal to go into the slag. The 
operation is therefore stopped while there is still from 1 to 2 per cent 
of iron in the matte and the tenor is 80 per cent nickel and copper, 
called " white metal.'' The matte formerly shipped from the Copper 
Cliffs smelter contained from 73 to 75 per cent metal. The new plant 
b producing an 80 per cent or better matte. It was for this pui^pose 
that the new plant was designed, namely, to reduce the cost of handling 
and smelting with the production of a higher grade matte rather than 
to increase the production itself. 

PRODUCTION. 

The main supply of nickel and cobalt produced in the United States 
H from Mine La Motte, Mo., where it is obtained as a by-product in 
i«d smelting by the Mine La Motte Lead and Smelting Company. 
The production amounted in 1903 to 661 tons of matte. The nickel 
content of this matte was 114,200 pounds, valued at $45,900, and the 
cobalt oxide content was 120,000 pounds, valued at $228,000. This 
i»tn increase in production of 108,452 pounds of nickel and of 116,270 
poonds of cobalt oxide, as compared with 5,748 pounds of nickel and 
3,730 pounds of cobalt oxide produced in 1902. 



Digitized by 



Google 



294 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



The production of nickel and cobalt ores in the United States during 
1903 amounted to 135 tons, which were obtained from Oregon arid 
Idaho during development work, and only 21 tons, valued at $1,900, 
were shipped. 

In the following table are shown the production and value of nickel 
obtained from domestic ores from 1887 to 1903, inclusive: 

Production of nickel from domestic ores in the United StateSy 1887-190S. 

[Pounds.] 



\ear. 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1887 


205,566 
204,328 
252,663 
228,488 
118,498 
92,252 
49,899 
9,616 
10,302 


9133,200 
127,632 
151,598 
134,093 
71,099 
50,739 
22,197 
8,269 
8,091 


1888 


1889 


1890 


1391 


1892 


1898 


1891 


1896 





1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 



QoanUty. 


Value. 


17,170 


»4,4M 


28.707 


7,8B 


11,145 


3,966 


22,541 


8,566 


9.715 


8,888 


6,700 


8,561 


5.748 


2,701 


U4,200 


45,900 



In the table below is given the production of cobalt oxide in United 
States from domestic ores from 1869 to 1903, inclusive: 

Production of cobalt oxide in the United States, 1869-1903. 
[Pounds.] 



Year. 


Quantity. 


I 

Year. 


Quantity. 


Year. 


Qnautitr. 


1869 


811 
3,854 
5,086 
5,749 
5,128 
4,145 
3.441 
5,162 
7,828 
4,508 
4,876 
7,251 


1881 


8,280 
11,653 
1,096 
2,000 
8,423 
8,689 
a 18, 340 
8,491 
13,955 
6.788 
7,200 
7,869 


1898 


8.«2 

6,768 
14.45S 
10,700 
19,620 

6,247 
10,230 

6,471 
13,360 

3,730 
120,000 


1870 


1882 


1894 


1871 


1888 


1896 


1872 


1884 


1896 


1873 


1885 -. 

1886 


1897 


1874 


1898 


1875 


1887 


1899 


1876 


1888 


1900. 


1877 


1889 


1901 


1878 


1890 


1902 


1879 


1891 


1903 


1880 


1892 


1 



a Including cobalt oxide in ore and matte. 
CANADIAN PRODUCTION. 

As nearly all of the nickel used in the United States is obtained 
from Canada, with only a small amount from New Caledonia, a table 
is given below showing the quantity of nickel ore mined and smelted 
in Canada, together with the quantity of matte obtained from it, for 
the years 1896 to 1903, inclusive: 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE 8TEEL-HABDENING METALS. 



295 



ProducUon of tdchd in Canada, 1896-190S,{a) 



Year. 


Ore 
produced. 


Ore 
smelted. 


Matte 
obtained. 


Nickel In 
matte. 


VM 


Long tons. 
109,097 
98.156 
123,920 
203,118 
216,696 
326,945 
269,588 
136,633 


Long Urns. 
73,506 
96,093 
121,924 
171,230 
211,960 
270,380 
233,338 
209,030 


Long Urns. 
9,783 
14,034 
21,101 
19,215 
23,448 
45,134 
24,691 
13,832 


Pounds. 
3,897,000 


vm •... 


3,998.000 
5,567,000 


189B 


1S99 


5,744,000 
7,060,000 
8,882,000 


1900 


1901 


1902 


10,693,410 
12,506,510 


19(0 





a Aa reported by the director of the bureau of mines, Ontario, Canada. 
IMPORTS. 

In the following tables are given the quantity and value of cobalt 
oxide and nickel imported into the United States, the larger part of the 
nickel being obtained from the Canadian mines. The quantity of nickel 
matte, etc., imported into the United States in 1903 was over 2,000,000 
pounds less than in 1902, but with an increase of over $50,000 in value. 
As compared with the imports of 1901, this is a decrease of over 
81,000,000 pounds in quantity but of only $355,000 in value. This 
decrease in quantity and relative increase in value is due to the high- 
grade matte that was shipped from the smelters to the refiners located 
in the United States. 

Cobalt oxide imported and entered for conmmptUm in the United States, 1868- J 90S. 



Year ending — 


Oxide. 


Year ending- 


Oxide. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


June SO— 

wa. 


Pounds. 


17,208 

2,330 

6,019 

2,766 

4,920 

4.714 

6,500 

2,604 

U,180 

11,066 

8,698 

15,208 

18,467 

13,887 

12,764 

22,828 

43,611 

28,138 


Dec. 31— 

1886 


Pounds. 
19,366 
26,882 
27,446 
41,466 
33,388 
23,643 
32,883 
28.884 
24,020 
36,165 
27,180 
24,771 
33,781 
46,791 
64,073 
71.969 
79,964 
73,350 


829.643 


U0t 




1887 


39,396 


1870 




1888 


46,211 
82.332 


1871 ' 


1889 


1872. 




1890 


63,202 


187^ 


1,480 

1,404 

678 

4,440 

19,762 

2,860 

7,681 

9,819 

21,844 

17,768 

13,067 

25.968 

16,162 


1891 


43,188 


1874 


1892 


60,067 


1876 


1898 


42,694 


1875 


1894 


29,857 


1877 


1896 


39,839 


187S 


1896 


36,212 


1879 


1897 


34,773 


\9ti^ 


1898 


49,245 


1991 


1899 


68,817 


vm 


1900 


8S,65l 


UB 


1901 


184,208 


UM 


1902 


151,115 


W^ 


1903 


145,264 









Digitized by 



Google 



296 



MINERAL RESOtJBOES. 



Nickel imported and entered for conmmpiion in the United States, J86S-190S. 



Year ending- 


Nickel. 


Nickel oxide, alloy of 
nickel with copper, 
and nickel matte. 


Ty)tal 
value. 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




June 30— 

1868 


Poundi. 


8118,058 

134,827 

99,111 

48,183 

27,144 

4,717 

5,883 

3,167 


Pounds. 




$118,066 


1869 








134,327 


1870 








99,111 


1871 


17,701 
26,140 
2.842 
3.172 
1,255 


4,438 


13,911 


62,044 


1872 


27,144 


1873 






4,717 


1874. . 






6.88S 


1876 


12 

156 

716 

8,518 

8,814 

61,869 

185,744 

177,822 

161,169 

a 194, 711 

105,603 

277,112 

439,087 

316,895 

867,288 

247,299 

910,245,200 

ft4, 487,890 

ftl2, 427,986 

ft9,286,733 

ft 20, 355, 749 

ft 23, 718, 411 

ft27,821,232 

ft60, 090,240 

ft 44, 479, 841 

< 57, 600, 800 

yU7,364,337 

it 33, 942, 710 

136,217,985 


86 

10 

824 

7,847 

5,570 

40,311 

107,627 

125,736 

119,386 

129,738 

64,166 

141,546 

206,232 

188,290 

156,331 

116,614 

148,687 

428,062 

886,740 

810,581 

629,910 

620,425 

781,488 

1,584,262 

1,216,258 

1,188,884 

i 1,849, 620 

1^1,437,649 

11,498,889 


8,1« 


1876 


10 


1877 


5,978 
7,486 
10,496 
38,276 
17,933 
22,906 
19,015 


9,522 
8,887 
7,829 
25,768 
14,606 
17,924 
13,098 


10,346 


1878 


16.684 


1879 


13,399 


1880 


66,069 


1881 


122,130 


1882 


148,660 


1888 


182,484 


1884 


129,733 


1885 






64,166 


December 81— 

1886 






6141,546 


1887 






c206,2K 


1888 






tf 138, 290 


1889 






« 156, 331 


1890 


/ 666, 571 
855.465 


260,665 
172,476 


876,279 


1891 


8:a,i63 


1892 


428.062 


1893 






386,740 


1894 






310,581 


1895.- 






629.910 


1896 






620,425 


1897 




781,483 


1898 


j 


1,534,262 


1899 




1, 216,263 


1900 




1.183,884 


1901 


1 


1,849.620 


1902 


1 ' * ' 


1,437.649 


1903 ! 


1.498,889 


1 1 





<i Including metallic nickel. 

b Including $465 worth of manufactured nickel. 

c Including $879 worth of manufactured nickel. 

d Including $2,281 worth of manufactured nickel. 

t Including $131 worth of manufactured nickel. 

/ Classified as nickel, nickel oxide, alloy of any kind in which nickel is the element or material of 
chief value. 

Classified as nickel and nickel matte. 

ft Includes all nickel Imports except manufactures; nearly all of this is nickel in matte from Canada, 
containing about 20 per cent nickel. 

i Ore and matte. In addition 456,188 pounds of nickel, nickel oxide, etc., were imported, valued at 
$139,786. 

J including $209,956, the value of imports of 685,697 pounds of nickel, nickel oxide, alloy, etc. and 
S2,4^. the value of imported manufactures of nickel not specially provided for. 

fc Besides nickel ore and nickel matte, these figures include 762.030 pounds, valued at $251,149, oi 
nickel, nickel oxide, and alloys in which nickel is the chief constituent of value, and $30,128, the 
value of manufactures of nickel not specially provided for. 

' Besides nickel ore and nickel matte, these figures include 521,345 pounds, valued at $170,670, of 
nickel, nickel oxide, alloy in which nickel is the material of chief value, and $37,284, the value of 
manufactures of nickel not specially provided for. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE STEEL-HARDENING METALS. 



297 



EXPORTS. 

As a very large part of the Canadian production of nickel matte is 
refined in this country, it would naturally be expected that there would 
be considerable nickel exported from the United States, and in 1903 
this amounted to 2,414,499 pounds, valued at $703,550. The quantity 
and value of nickel exported in the United States since 1894 are given 
in the following table: 

Exports of nickel oxide and matUfrom the UniUd States^ 1894-190S, 



Tear. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


UMa 


Pounds. 
1,235,588 
1,061,285 
2,756,604 
4,255,568 
5,657,620 


1247,568 

239,897 

600,833 

997,891 

1,859,609 


1899 


Pounds. 
5,004,877 
5,869,906 
5,869,655 
3,228,607 
2,414,499 


n, 151, 454 

1,882,727 

1,521,291 

924,579 

703,560 


195 


1900 . . 


tm 


1901 


in? 


1902 

1908 


vm, 





a Latter six monthii; not separately classified prior to July 1, 1894. 
FOREIGN PRODUCTION. 

There is given in the following table the production of nickel in 
Canada, France, and Germany from 1889 to 1903 as far as the statis- 
tics could be obtained. The French production is from the New Cale- 
donia mines and the German from the New Caledonia and the 
Norw^pan mines. In comparing this table with that of the nickel 
imported into the United States it must be borne in mind that the 
imports represent nickel matte, ore, etc., and not the metallic nickel, 
as is given in the table below. 

Production of nickel in Canada^ France, and Germany , 1889-190S. 



Y«r. 


Canada. 


France. 


Germany. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Ifll 


Pounds. 

1,436,742 
4,G»,G27 
2,418,717 
8,982,962 
4,907,480 
8,888,626 
8,897,118 
8,997,746 
6,617,690 
5,744,000 
7,080,000 
9,189,M7 
10,688,410 
12,606,510 


S496,2d6 
988,282 
2,776,976 
1,399,966 
2,076,861 
2,061,120 
1,860,984 
1,188,990 
1,899,187 
1,820,838 
2,067,840 
8,827,707 
4.604,628 
6,025,908 
6.002,204 


MetrUstans. 

880 

880 

880 

1,244 

2,046 

1,646 

1,646 

1,646 

1,246 

1,540 

1,740 

1,700 

1,800 

1,600 


$824,900 

817,800 

819,200 

1,174,680 

1,176.720 

1,175,720 

1,063,220 

876,880 

704,425 

887,800 

1,003,600 

1,020,000 

1,440,000 

1,080,800 


Metric tons. 

282 

434 

694 

747 

893 

622 

698 

822 

898 

1,108 

1,116 

1,876 

1,659 

1,605 


•279,680 
436,480 
644,480 
696,630 
774,680 
449,860 
675,890 
666,900 
710,980 
670,482 
669,517 
946,884 
1,184,263 
1,122,271 


vm 


vm 


MB. 


vm.. 


UH. 


1« 


IW 


iw 


UK 


vm 


m 


na.. 


ne 


i«i 




*■ 











Digitized by 



Google 



298 MINERAL RESOURCES. 

CHROMIUM. 

The only mineral that is being mined as an ore of chromium is 
chromite, whose chemi(*4il composition is represented by the formula 
FeCrjO^. At the present time nearly all of this mineral that is used 
in the United States is imported, being obtained from Asiatic Turkey, 
New Caledonia, and Canada. The only State in the United States that 
is now producing any chromite is California. The North Carolina 
deposits, located near Burnsville, Yancey County, have recently been 
sold and are now being thoroughly developed. These deposits were 
formerly 20 miles from railroad transportation, which was prohibitory 
to their being worked; now, however, the railroad passes within 3 
miles of them. 

CHROMIUM STEEL. 

The largest use of chromium is in the manufacture of a ferro- 
chromium alloy which is used in the manufacture of chrome steel. 
In the manufacture of armor plate ferrochrome plays a very im 
portant part, and, although it is sometimes used alone for giving 
hardness and toughness to the armor plate, it is more commonly used in 
combination with nickel, making a nickel-chromium steel armor plate. 
Other uses of chrome steel are in connection with five-ply welded 
chrome steel and iron plates for burglar-proof vaults, safes, etc., and 
for castings that are to be subjected to unusually severe service, such 
as battery shoes and dies, wearing plates for stone crushers, etc. A 
higher chromium steel which is free from manganese will resist oxida- 
tion and the corrosive action of steam, fire, water, etc., to a considerable 
extent, and these properties make it valuable in the manufacture of 
boiler tubes. Chromium steel is also used to some extent as a tool 
steel, but for high-speed tools it is being largely replaced by tungsten 
steel, which seems to be especially adapted to this purpose. 

In the manufacture of chromium steel it has been found to be 
much more advantageous to use the ferrochromium alloy instead of 
the pure chromium metal, for the main reason that it is diflScult to 
introduce chromium into a steel bath by using the metal, especially if 
it is free from carbon, as the pieces of chromium melt with great dif- 
ficulty, and they are apt to float on the bath. On the other hand, a 
ferrochromium alloy with low carbon is very fusible and becomes 
evenly distributed through the steel bath, thus making a purer and 
more homogeneous chromium steel. 

Ferrochromium is made in an electric furnace and is produced 
directly from the ore. In the United States the company producing 
the largest quantity of ferrochromium is the Wilson Aluminum Com- 
pany, whose electric furnaces are located at Kanawha Falls, W. Va. 
Besides the manufacture of ferrochromium this company also makers 
ferrotungsten, ferromolybdenum, fi^rrosilicon, ferrovanadium, and 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE STEEL-HARDENING METALS. 



299 



ferrotitanium. The company obtains its chief supply of chrome ores 
from the Daghardi mines, in Asia Minor, and the Thiebargi mines, in 
New Caledonia. 

Typical analyses of the Turkish and New Caledonian ores which are 
imported by the Wilson Aluminum Company are as follows: 
Analyses of chromite ores.(o) 



Constituent 


Turkish 
ore. 


New Cale- 
donian ore. 


Chromic oxide r, r •.,... ^ ^„,,,,^,, , 


Percent. 
60.30 
15.50 
13.10 
7.00 

14.10 


Percent. 
54.50 


Ferrous oxide 


17.70 


Alumina r ,,, 


11 00 


gilica 


8.10 


lime 


1.60 
8.00 


M»n«*iA 






Total 


100.00 


95.90 







a Chemist of Wilson Aluminum Company, analyst. 

There are two grades of ferrochromium made from these ores, 
which are known as crystalline and solid. The crystalline ferro- 
chromium can be broken into very small pieces, and is often preferred 
by those who use it in small quantities and under comparatively low 
temperatures. The following tables of analyses illustrate the chem- 
ical composition of crystalline and solid ferrochromium: 

Analyses of crystalline ferrochromium alloys. {<*) 



Constituent. 



Chranium. 
Iron 



Silicon 

Sulphur 

Pboiphorus. 
Carbon 



Total . 



Percent. 

67.000 

24.380 

.490 

.007 

.005 

8.050 



Percent. 

68.000 

20.000 

1.250 

.199 

.007 

10.500 



99.966 



o Chemist of Wilson Aluminum Company, analyst. 
Analyses of solid ferrochromium alloy. («) 



Constituent. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


Chiuminm 


Percent. 

71.980 

22.610 

.550 

.061 

.008 

4.789 

99.998 


Percent. 

70.070 

22.770 

.480 

.089 

.009 

6.601 


Percent. 
69.880 


lion . 


24.010 


flnk-m 


.540 


f^>vhnT 


.078 


Pluiphoras 


.008 


Ckrbun .. 


5.464 






Totsl . . , , , 


99.969 


99.960 







a Chemist of Wilson Aluminum Company, analyst. 



Digitized by 



Google 



300 MINERAL RESOURCES. 

FeiTochromium has also been made by the Wilson Aluminum Com^ 
pany from the chromium ores from the Black Lake district, Quebec 
Province, Canada. 

The analysis of the ore used was as follows: 

Partial analysis of chromium ore from Black Lake district , Quebec f Omada.(a) 



Constitaeot. 


Percent. 


Chromic oxide 


5a 00 


FerrouB oxide 


: 


19.50 


Silica 


4. no 


Ma^esia 


ILOO 








Total 


ffi.40 







a Chemist of Wilson Aiumlnam Company, analyst. 

From this ore there was obtained a f erro-chromium alloy having the 
following chemical composition: 

Analysis of ferrochromium alloy obtained from Black Lake ore,{<') 



ConsUtuent. 


Percent 


Chrominm ..., r, ,--^--..^,.-^,,,, ,,-,^,.^, . ^--, .,-,,,.,. 


66.00 


Iron 


28.60 


Silicon 


.50 


Carbon -- - - 


4.90 








Total 


100.00 







a Chemist of Wilson Alnminom Company, analyst 

The Wilson Aluminum Company has been supplying the ferro- 
chromium used by the Bethlehem and the Carnegie steel companies 
for the armor plates, which these companies have manufactured for 
the Governments of the United States, Russia, and Japan. 

In connection with the chemical composition of the ferrochromium 
alloy it may be of interest to give analyses of some of the ferrochro- 
miums made by the George G. Blackwell, Sons & Co., of Liverpool, 
England. This company makes two distinct grades of ferrochro- 
mium, one of which is very low in carbon. The two following 
analyses, which were made by Dr. George Tate, of London, represent 
their standard ferrochromium. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE STEEL-HARDENING METALS. 
Analyses of BlackweU ferrochromium, « 



301 



Constftuent 


1. 


2. 


Chromiam 


Percent. 

64.050 

26.460 

1.880 

.046 

.026 

8.560 

Trace. 


Percent. 
63 600 


Iron 


21.190 


Silicon 


1 600 


SalDbur - 


005 


Phofphoros 


030 


Ctrbon 


9 830 


M*f>e*iww 


.216 


Hiuiet^rininfid 


.621 











IVrtal 


100.001 


100 262 







This company is also making what it calls a refined f errochromium 

which is low in carbon and contains from 62 to 68 per cent of chromium; 

it is of two qualities, known as No. 1 and No. 2. The No. 2 quality 

contains a higher percentage of carbon than the No. 1, but it is still 

considerably lower in carbon than the ordinary ferrochromium, and 

can be sold at a cheaper rate than the No. 1. The general composition 

of these two ferrochromiums is represented by the analyses given 

below: 

Pariicd analyses of BlackweU ferrochromiufns.<* 



Constitaent. 



riimniiizii . 

Cwboa 

Sfllcoo 

Salpbor 

PbcKpliomi. 



Per cetU. 
62. 00 to 68. 00 
.60to 1.00 
.20to .26 
.06 to .08 
.01 to .05 
Trace. 



Total i 62.76 to 69.38 



Ptr cent. 

62. 000 to 68. 000 

1.600 to 2.600 

.200to .300 

.080 to .150 

.015 to .020 

Trace. 



63. 796 to 70. 970 



Another ferrochromfe alloy that is manufactured by the George G. 
BlackweU, Sons & Co., contains 74.5 per cent of chromium, 23.8 per 
cent of iron, 1 to 3 per cent of carbon, and 0.2 of silicon. This ferro- 
^•hrome alloy has been made especially for use in the manufacture of 
chromium steel to be used in the manufacture of tools. 

The percentage of chromium that is used in the chromiuna steels 
varies from 2.5 to about 5 per cent and the carbon from 0.8 to 2 per 
('ent As a chromium steel free from carbon does not harden, it would 
f^eem that a certain per cent of carbon is essential in order for the 
cfarcHnium to give the desired hardening action to the steel, which is 
very energetic when this small amount of carbon is present. It may 
be that the chromium causes the formation of a very hard iron carbide, 
or doable carbides of iron and chromium. The hardness, toughness, 
iod stiffness which are obtained in chromium steel are very essential 



aChemJst of Qeorsre O. BlackweU Sons & Co., analyst. 



Digitized by 



Google 



302 



MINERAL BBSOURGB8. 



qualities, and are what make this steel especially beneficial for the 
manufacture of armor-piercing projectiles as well as of armor plate. 
For projectiles chromium steel has thus far given better satisfaction 
than any of the other special steels, and is practically the only steel 
that is used for this purpose. The value of chromium steel for this 
purpose is well brought out by Mr. R. A. Hadfield, manager of the 
Hecla Works, Sheffield, England, who states^ that a 6-inch armor- 
piercing shot made by his firm was fired at a 9-inch compound plate, 
which it perforated unbroken. It was then fired again from the same 
gun and perforated a second plate of the same thickness, the shot still 
remaining unbroken. 

OTHER USES OF CHROMITE. 

Chromite is used quite extensivelv in the manufacture of chromimn 
salts for pigments, and also to some extent in the manufacture of 
chrome bricks. These chrome bricks are used in smelting furnaces and 
open- hearth steel furnaces, and in the lower parts of soaking pits. In 
the construction of steel furnaces and smelters a chromium brick, 
being a neutral one, is used to separate the magnesia brick, which is 
a base, and the silica brick, which is acid. They are also used in the 
back part of the uptakes of the port ends in order to neutralize or 
prevent the eating action of the slag that comes over in the form of 
cinders. In the soaking pits their use is to counteract the eating 
effect of the scales that drop off the steel billets when they are heated. 
These bricks are manufactured by the Harbison- Walker Refractories 
Company, of Pittsburg, Pa., which makes them in all shapes desired. 

PRODUCTION. 

There is only one State — California — that produced any chromite 
during 1903, the quantity being 150 long tons, valued at $2,250, as 
against the production of 315 long tons, valued at $4,567, in 1902. 
This is a decrease of 165 tons in quantity and of $2,317 in value. In 
the following table is given the production of chromite in the United 
States since 1885: 

Production of chromite^ 1885-190S. 



Year. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



1886. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 



Ijmgiom. 




2,700 


$40,0^0 


2,000 


30,000 


8,000 


40,000 


1,500 


20,000 


2,000 


30,000 


3,699 


63,986 


1,872 


20,580 


1,600 


25,000 


1,460 


21,760 


8,680 


58,231 





140 


1,400 


868 


5,790 


816 


4.567 


160 


2.250 



a The Iron and Steel Metallurgist and Metallographist, January, 1904, p. 8. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE STEEL-HARDENING METALS. 



303 



IMPORTS. 

The largest quantity of chromite used in the United States is 
imported from Turkey, with smaller quantities from New Caledonia 
and Canada. Be.sides the chrome ore, there is also considerable chro- 
mate and bichromate of potash and chromic acid imported. Prior to 
1884 there was little or no chromite imported, and the supply was 
obtained from Maryland and Pennsylvania. Since then, however, the 
importation of this ore has been steadily increasing. In the following 
table are showu the quantity and value of chrome ore and chromate 
and bichromate of potash and chromic acid imported and entered for 
consumption in the United States since 1867: 

CkromaU and hichr&mcUe of potash j chromic acid, and chrome ore imported and entered 
for consumption in the United States, 1867-190S, 



Year ending — 



Chromate and bichro- 
mate of potash. 



Quantity. Value. 



Jane SO— Poundt. 

1«7 876.206 

l«m 777,855 

laee 877,432 

WTO I 1,236,946 

Vm I 2,170,473 

1872 1,174,274 

1578 1 l,m,357 

1874 ; 1,387,061 

187?» 1,417,812 

VSn , 1,665,011 

1877 2,471,669 

1878 1,929,670 

I§79 i 2,624,408 

1880 ' 3,606,740 

1881 4,4(M,237 

1882. ; 2,449,876 

UBS * , 1,990,140 



Chromic acid. 



Chrome ore. 



Quantity. Value. | Quantity. Value, 



Pounds. 



mi. 



I 



2,693,115 

1886 1 1,448,689 

December 31— 

nm 1,986,809 

1887 !* 1,722,465 

UM 1.766, 489 

1889 1 1,680,385 

UW I 1,304,186 



IWl.. 

M6.. 
UK.. 

urn, 
um. 

mo. 



.1 



756,254 

496,972 

976,706 

1,483,762 

2,046,910 

962, 7»l 

1,829,473 

1,160,710 

1,130,966 

111,761 

430,996 



a 227, 216 



188,787 I 
68,634 
78,288 
127,388 
223,629 
220,111 
178,472 
218,517 
183,424 
175,796 
264,392 
211,136 
221,161 
850,279 
402,088 
261,006 
208,681 
210,677 
92,666 

139, 117 
120,306 
143,312 
137,263 
113,613 
56,897 
94,066 
78,981 
125.796 
181,242 
80,638 
108,497 
86,134 
73,510 
7,768 
29,224 



Long tons. 



82,174 



Total 
value. 



514 
922 
41 
45 
120 
13 
32 



6 

124 

62 

290 



$3 
8 
5 
49 
276 
13 
22 
45 
10 
36 



634 

772 

3,708 

6,680 

2,083 

2,429 

71,220 

6,829 

83,134 

35,452 

63,462 

90,817 



3 
89 
42 
338 
120 



101 

6,671 

281 

2,974 

634 

203 

201 

611 

837 

414 

387 

6,467 

1,768 

6,860 

7,282 

10,861 

11,116 



2,677 
12 

3,356 
1,404 
4,440 
6,474 
4,363 
4,459 
4,930 
6,364 
3,470 
5,230 
8,669 
11,670 
16.301 
15,793 
17,642 
20,112 
89,670 
22,982 



$73,586 
289 

43,721 
20,812 
46,735 
60,782 
57,111 
108,764 
66,579 
58,629 
38,3&1 
82,845 
187,400 
187,439 
272,234 
284,826 
806,001 
863,108 
682,697 
292,025 



$88,787 
68,634 
78,291 
127,341 
223,534 
220,160 
178,748 
218,530 
183,446 
176,840 
264,402 
211,171 
221,161 
860,282 
402,177 
261,048 
209,019 
284,388 
92,834 

182,939 
146.688 
190,328 
191,019 
171,358 
164,864 
149,838 
138.261 
164,997 
264,601 
268,326 
301,393 
360,126 
3&1,696 
319,991 
403.193 
693,712 
824,199 



A Inelodes a anuUl amount of chromic acid, not reported separately. 



Digitized by 



Google 



304 MINEBAL RESOURCES. 

As is seen from this table, there was a large falling oflf in the quan- 
tity of chrome ore imported during 1903 as compared with 1902. 

CANADIAN PRODUCTION. 

The Canadian chromite deposits which are located in the vicinity of 
Black Lake and Colraine, Quebec Province, again became producers 
of this mineral in 1902, when the production amounted to 900 short 
tons, valued at $13,000, which in 1903 had increased to 3,383 tons, 
valued at $33,830. Most of this chromite was shipped to the United 
States. 

TUNGSTEN. 

Owing to the many inquiries that have been made for tungsten ores 
there has been an unusual amount of prospecting for them during 1903, 
with the result that many new localities have been discovered where 
these ores are found in greater or less quantity. Thus far, however, 
none of the new deposits have been developed sufficiently to determine 
the actual amount of ore that they contain. It was found impossible 
during the latter part of 1903 to fill orders for 100 tons per month of 
tungsten ore, and none of the producers of these ores were willing to 
contract to furnish this quantity at the price quoted of $180 to $200 
per ton for a 60 to 65 per cent ore. 

The principal mining for tungsten ores during 1903 was in Colorado 
and in the vicinity of Dragoon, Ariz. These latter deposits have been 
developed quite extensively by the Primos Chemical Company. The 
ore consists principally of hiibnerite, with very small quantities of 
scheelite, and is easily concentrated, giving a product containing from 
70 to 72 per cent of tungstic acid. The deepest work done on the 
property is 100 feet below the surface, and to this deptl^ the ledges 
continue firm. Nearly all of the ore that has been taken out during 
the development work has been concentrated and used in the manu- 
facture of f errotungsten or of metallic tungsten. An average analysis 
of the concentrates from this ore is as follows: 

Analysis of tungsten ore from Dragoon^ -4m. (a) 



Constituent. 


Per cent 


Tungstic acid 


70.22 


Silica , 


.30 


Iron 


1.90 


Man^new ... . , . . . . . . . ... . x . . ... 


19.82 


Lime 


4.87 


Magnesia - - - 


S.40 








Total 


100. SI 







aPiimos Chemical Company, Piimos, Pa. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE STEEL-HARDENING METALS. 



805 



The tungsten property, located near Osceola, White Pine County, 
Nev., was bonded during 1903, and development work was carried on 
to determine what production per month could be made from these 



TUNGSTEN STEEL. 

The demand for tungsten ores for use in the manufacture of f erro- 
tuDgsten to be used in the manufacture of tungsten steel continues to 
bcrease, especially from abroad. Tungsten steel is used to some extent 
more generally abroad than in the United States, in the manufacture 
of armor plate and' armor-piercing projectiles. For this purpose it is 
used in combination either with nickel or chromium, or with both of 
these metals. 

The use for which tungsten steel seems to be best adapted is in the 
manufacture of high-speed tools and magnet steels. The property 
that tungsten imparts to the steel is that of hardening in the air after 
forging and without recourse to the usual methods of tempering, such 
as immersion in oil, water, or some special solution. For high-speed 
toob tungsten steel is especially adapted, as it retains its hardness and 
catting edge even at the temperature developed in the use of these 
high-speed tools. The value of tungsten steel for permanent magnets 
is on account of it retaining comparatively strong magnetism and of 
the permanence of this magnetism in the steel. This property makes 
the tungsten steel particularly desirable in instrument work where the 
calibration of the instrument depends upon the permanence of the 
magnet used. For compass needles tungsten steel has been used by 
W. and L. E. Gurley with entire satisfaction. 

Ferrotungsten is manufactured like ferrochrome by reducing the 
ores directly in an electric furnace. These alloys vary in their tungsten 
content from 30 to 80 per cent, according to the purpose for which the 
ferrotungsten is to be used. The composition of some of these ferro- 
tongstens on the market are shown in the table of analyses below. 
No. 1 being a ferrotungsten naanufactured by the Wilson Aluminimi 
C(Hnpany, of Kanawha Falls, W. Va., and No. 2, by George G. Black- 
well, Sons & Co., of Liverpool, England. 

Analyses of ferrotungsten. 





CoDftitaeiit 


1. 


2. 


TBf^rtn 


PercaU. 

83.90 

12.10 

8.80 

.50 


Percent. 
78.80 


bn. .. 


10.90 


Oiteo 


8.20 


■Hnn . 


1.87 


iVapitutUB 


.10 






.11 






99.80 




Total 


94.98 







MB 1903 20 



Digitized by 



Google 



806 



MINEKAL BBSOUBOES. 



The Blackwell Company also manufactares a tungsten-nickel alloy 
containing 73 to 75 per cent tungsten, 23 to 25 per cent nickel, 2 to 2.5 
per cent iron, 0.75 to 1 per cent carbon, and 0.25 to 0.50 per cent 
silicon. 

The quantity of tungsten that is used in tungsten steel varies from 
3 to 10 per cent, and is occasionally as much as 24 per cent; but the 
percentage is usually nearer the lower figure. The carbon varies from 
0.4 to 2 per cent. The Taylor- White tungsten-steel contains from 3 
to 4 per cent of chromium, and is made in two grades, one for cutting 
soft steel and gray cast iron and the other for cutting hard steel. 
The tungsten content in both grades remains constant, but there is 3 
per cent of chromium in the grade use for cutting soft steel and 4 per 
cent in that used for cutting hard steel. The following analysis rep- 
resents the composition of these two grades of tungsten steel: 





ChmpoiiUon of the grades of Taylor- WkUe tunggten sUeL 




Constitaent. 


For cutting 
hard steel. 


For catting soft 
rt eL 


Ttuunten 


PereenL 
8.60 
4.00 
1.25 


PfTcad, 

8.» 


Chnfinlmn. ^ ». . , 


S.QO 


Carbon 


0.76 to too 








Total... 


13.75 


12. 26 to 12.50 







Tools made from these steels retain their cutting power even when 
the friction is so great that the edge of the tool becomes red-hot 

Prof. Henry M. Howe,*» gives the composition of many of the self- 
hardening tungsten steels as lying within the following limits: 

General con^f>09Uion oftungtten tied. 



Constitaent. 


Percent 


Tav^givten , - - - , , . , , , . 


8.44 to 21 00 


Chromlnm .... , 


00 to 8.00 


Carbon 


.40to 2.U 


giUcon 


21 to S.00 








Total 


4. 06 to 86. 19 







There is considerable variation in the opinion of the various steel 
makers as to the value of tungsten in the manufacture of armor plate. 
As is well known, it is used to some extent at the present time by the 
European steel manufacturers for armor plate. In combination with 
nickel and chromium, it will undoubtedly give results equal to the 
nickel and chromium steels. Some of the manufacturers go as far as 
to say that a tungsten steel will make better armor plate than either 

alron, Steel, and Other Alloys, 1908, p. 824. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE STESL-HABDSNINQ MBTALS. 807 

nickel or chromium steel. Two of the mam objections to the use of 
toogsten steel at the present time for this purpose are the scarcity of 
the supply and its higher cost. 

PRODUCTION. 

The production of crude tungsten ores in the United States during 
1903 was 2,451 short tons. 

Most of this ore was concentrated, and there were sold 292 short 
tons of concentrates, valued at $43,689, which is approximately $149 
per ton. The prices varied from $110 to $250 per ton, according to 
the percentage of tungstic acid. This production was obtained 
from Colorado, Arizona, and Connecticut, given in the order of the 
importance of their output. 

IMPORT'S. 

During the last two years there have been imported into the United 
States small quantities of tungsten ores and tungsten alloys. In 1903 
the imports of ferro-tungsten-chrome alloy amounted to $18,136 in 
value, and in 1902 the value of the imports of tungsten ore and alloys 
was $7,046. Tungsten ores are admitted free of duty. 

MOIiYBDENTJM. 

The use of molybdenum steel continues to increase, and hence there 
is an increasing demand for the ores of this metal. The main use of 
ferromolybdenum is in the manufacture of a tool steel. The proper- 
ties which molybdenum gives to steel are very similar to those given by 
tungsten, the main difference being that it requires a smaller quantity 
of molybdenum than of tungsten to obtain the same results. Ferro- 
molybdenum is produced, like ferrotungsten, by reducing it from the 
ore in an electric furnace. There are now two molybdenum-nickel alloys 
being produced, one of which contains 75 per cent molybdenum and 25 
per cent nickel, and the other 50 pei* cent molybdenum and 50 per cent 
nickel. Besides these constituents the alloy contains from 2 to 2.5 per 
cent iron, 1 to 1.5 per cent carbon, and 0.25 to 0.50 per cent silicon. 
The molybdenum steel which is made from these alloys is recommended 
for large cranks and propeller-shaft forgings, for large guns, rifle 
barrels, and for wiring and for boiler plates. The molybdenum 
increases the elongation of steel very considerably, and for wire draw- 
ing such an increase at a comparatively small cost is important. 

There are many localities where molybdenum ores occur in quan- 
fty, but, owing to the uncertainty of the value of the concentrates, 
many of these properties still remain undeveloped. The year 1903, 
^ever, saw a great deal of prospecting for these ores, with the 
'^sult that a number of new localities were discovered that give prom- 
ise of developing into large deposits. Wulfenite was discovered on 



Digitized by 



Google 



308 MINEBAL RESOURCES 

the property of the Troy-Manhattan Copper Company, at Troy, Ariz., 
and after the deposit was opened and developed the company erected 
a 40-ton concentrating mill and is now preparing the concentrates for 
market. 

The deposit of molybdenum at Cooper, Me., has been developed 
very extensively by the American Molybdenum Company, and during 
the last year the company has erected a cleaning and concentrating 
plant for treating this ore. Other properties that were partly devel- 
oped in 1903 are as follows: 

One mile east of Climax, Sunmiit County, Colo., on the north side 
of Bartlett Mountain, a deposit of moybdenum has been developed by 
Mr. H. Leal, of Cresco, Nebr. Mr. T. L. Quigley, of Ophir, Mont, 
has located a deposit of molybdenum about 2 miles east of Orphir, in 
Carpenters Gulch. Another deposit near Dillon, Mont., has been 
developed by Mr. L. D. Graeter. The molybdenum mines of the 
Crown Point Mining Company, in Chelan County, Wash., produced 
some very large clusters of crystals of molybdenum during 1903, which 
were sold. One large crystal, or cluster of crystals, weighed 300 
pounds. 

At the Mammoth mine. Mammoth, Ariz., work was continued by 
Mr. Charles Eudall, 6i Tucson, in separating the wulf enite from the 
old tailings of this mine. 

PRODUCTION. 

The production of molybdenite. ore during 1903 amounted to about 
6,200 tons of crude ore, very little of which was treated and most of 
which is still lying on the dumps. Most of the wulf enite ore that was 
mined was concentrated, and these concentrates, together with the con- 
centrates of the molybdenite, amounted to about 795 short tons, valued 
at $60,865. There is still wide variation reported in the prices of 
molybdenite ore, which range from $100 to $3,000 per ton. It is 
more than probable that the actual value of molybdenum concentrates 
at New York will be in the neighborhood of $200 per ton. 

URAXIUM AKI> VAl^AMUM. 

VANADIUM STEEL. 

On account of the extremely high price and scarcity of vanadium 
ores, the metal has thus far been employed very little in the manufac- 
ture of ferrovanadium for use in the production of vanadium steel. 
It is claimed by many that the beneficial properties imparted to steel 
by vanadium exceed those of any of the other steel-hardening metals. 
These are exaggerated statements, but it may be found that smaller 
quantities of vanadium will give in some cases the same results that 
are obtained by comparatively large quantities of the other metals. 
One property claimed for vanadium steel is that it acquires ita maxi- 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE STEEL-HARDENING METALS. 309 

mom of hardness not by sudden cooling, but by annealing at a tem- 
perature of from 700^ to 800^ C. This property would be particularly 
adrantageous for high-speed tool steel and for points of projectiles. 
There is, however, at the present time little or no vanadium steel on 
the market and no special production of ferro vanadium alloys. Since 
the discovery of the deposits of vanadium in Colorado and Utah they 
have been thoroughly developed, largely through the efforts of Mr. 
A. B. Frenzel, of Denver, Colo. He has also made experiments in 
the reduction of these ores, and now claims that a process has been 
perfected by which vanadium can be obtained at such prices that the 
ferrovanadlum alloy can be manufactured so as to enter into compe- 
tition with the other ferro alloys. The main source of supply of 
vanadium is Montrose County, Colo. These ores also contain more or 
ksB uranium and are mined for both metals. 

URANIUM. 

Experiments have been made with f errouranium as to the value of 
the qualities that it gives to steel. Although it increases the stiffness 
and the toughness of steel to a considerable degree, these qualities are 
not distinct enough from the like qualities imparted to steel by other 
metals to warrant the use of f errouranium for this purpose when its 
much higher cost is considered. The principal use of this compound 
is as a pigment in the manufacture of porcelain and glass. 

PRODUCTION. 

During 1903 there was considerable development work done upon 
Qimnium and vanadium deposits, which resulted in the production of 
432 short tons of crude ore. Of this amount 30 tons of partially con- 
centrated ore, valued at $5,625, were sold. In 1902 the production of 
oranium and vanadium minerals, as reported to the Survey, amounted 
to 3,810 tons, valued at $48,125. The 1903 production consists prin- 
opally of the mineral camotite, with a small amount of uranium. 

IMPORTS. 

Nearly all of the uranium and vanadium ores mined in the United 
States are exported. On the other hand, there is imported each year 
a considerable quantity of uranium and vanadium salts, which in 1903 
were valued at $13,498, as against imports to the value of $12,491 in 
1908. 

TTTANTUM. 

The actual commercial value of titanium as a steel-hardening metal 
has not been thoroughly demonstrated. Experiments have shown that 
from 0.5 to 3 per cent of titanium increases the transverse strength 
•nd the tensile strength of steel to a very considerable degree. 



Digitized by V^OOQIC 



310 MnTEBALBEBOUBOES^ 

Until the development of the electric furnace it was practically impos- 
sible to produce either titanium or an alloy of iron and titanium, but 
since the introduction of this furnace ferrotitanium can be produced 
directly from the ores. The fusing point of ferrotitanium is materially 
affected by its titanium content, and it is impracticable to fuse an alloy 
containing over 12 per cent of titanium in connection with cast iron in 
a cupola. Up to this point, however, no difficulty arises in fusing the 
alloy and incorporating the titanium in the iron. It is to the manu- 
facture of a special cast iron that ferrotitanium seems to be especially 
adapted. The titanium in the iron gives greater density to the metal, 
greatly increases its transverse strength, and gives a harder chiU or 
wearing quality to a wheel made from such an iron. For the manu- 
facture of car wheels it would seem that the titanium iron would be 
especially useful. 

A ferrotitanium has been manufactured by the Wilson Aluminum 
Company from a titanic iron ore from Caldwell County, N. C, which 
has the following composition: 

Analysis of North Carolina titanic iron ore. 





Constituent. 


Percent 


Titanitim oxide 




12.00 


Ferrous oxide 




38.00 


Alumina 


ILfiO 


Silica .-- 


7^ 








Total 


99.00 







This company has also made ferrotitanium from rutile concentrates 
mined in Nelson County, Va*, and containing from 96 to 99 per cent 
of titanium oxide. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PLATINUM. 



PRODUCTION. 

The center of interest in platinum mining in the United States has 
shifted from Shasta and Trinity counties, Cal. , to southern Oregon, 
where, in the neighborhood of Grants Pass and Kerby, considerable 
platinum and iridosmium are found in the placer gold. In collecting 
this material another heavy mineral has proved commercially profit- 
ible— that is, the natural alloy of iron and nickel called josephinite, 
which is found associated with the platinum and gold. The production 
of platinum increased slightly from the year 1902. The quantity of 
pure platinum contained in the platinum sand amounted to 110 ounces 
of refined metal, worth $2,080. 

In addition to the above supplies of platinimi sand, it is interesting 
to note that the platinum contained in the copper ores of the Rambler 
mine, Wyoming*, has come definitely on the market, being obtained in 
the form of slimes in the treatment of the copper ore and matte from 
this mine. Detailed descriptions of this property were given in the 
preceding report of this series. 

The following table shows the production of platinum in the United 
States since 1880: 



Produc^on of crude pUOmum m the United States^ 1880-1900, and of refined metal from 

domestic ores in 1901-1908, 



Ye^r. 


Quaotfty. 


Value, a 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Value, a 


Ml. 


Ovneet. 
100 
100 
200 
200 
IfiO 
260 
50 
448 
600 
600 

eoo 

100 


$400 

400 

600 

600 

450 

187 

100 

1.888 

2,000 

^000 

2,500 

500 


1892 


Ounces. 

80 

76 

100 

150 

168 

150 

225 

800 

400 

1,408 

94 

110 


$550 


ML 


18W 


617 


Mtt 


1804 


600 


UK. 


1896 


900 


UN. 


1896 


944 


vm 


1897 


900 


UM. 


1898 


8,875 
1,800 
2,500 

27,526 
1,874 

fe2,080 


ma 


1899 


UK. 


1900 




1901 


UK. 


1902 


UU. 


1908 







•Tht ditef TariatSoDs in price haye been due to the quality of the crude grains. In 1901 and 1902, 
ko*tT«r, the aTeiage price for the refined metal has been given. 
^Sot Indodinc 96,000 worth of platinum reported as contained in Bllmea from copper ore from the 
, Wyoming. 

811 



Digitized by 



Google 



312 MINEBAL BESOUBOES. 



IMPORTS. 



The imports of platinum during 1903 were valued at $2,055,933, dis- 
tributed as follows: Unmanufactured, 1,426 pounds ($328,103); ingots, 
bars, sheets, and wire, 6,308 pounds ($1,591,941); vases, retorts, and 
other apparatus, vessels and parts thereof for chemical uses, $128,890; 
manufactures of, not specially provided for, $6,999. The imports 
during 1902 were valued at $1,987,980, distributed as follows: Un- 
manufactured, 632 pounds ($171,967); ingots, bars, sheets, and wire, 
6,713 pounds ($1,778,395); vases, retorts, and other apparatus, vessels 
and parts thereof for chemical uses, $34,913; manufactures of, not 
specially provided for, $2,705. 

PRICE. 

The price for pure platinum in wholesale quantities at New York 
continued during the whole of 1903, as during the last seven months 
of 1902, at $19 per ounce. 



Digitized by 



Google 



LITHIUM. 



By Joseph Hyde Pratt. 



SOURCES OF SUPPIiY. 

The only localities where lithium materials were produced in 1903 
were at Pala, San Diego County, Cal., and at the Etta and Bob Inger- 
80II mines in the Black Hills, S. Dak. There are three different 
minerals that are mined at these localities for their lithium contents, 
lepidolite and spodumene, both lithium silicates, and amblygonite, a 
lithium phosphate. Of these i;hree, the latter contains the highest 
percentage of lithia. For comparison, analyses of these three minerals 
are here given, the first two of amblygonite and lepidolite from Pala, 
CaL, and the third and fourth of spodumene from Goshen, Mass., 
and Branchville, Conn. 



Analyses of amblygonite and 


lepidolite from Palay San Diego 


County, Cal 


., 190e. 


Constitnent 


Amblygo- 
nite. « 


LepidoIite.a 


TltK^ (Ifthlntn rtvMA) . 


Percent. 
8.26 
1.99 
45.47 
33.09 
Trace. 
1.86 

6.28 
3.56 


Percent. 

4.91 


flOk* 


48.61 


PbMpbontB pentoxide 




Alnmiiui . , . 


22 36 


IWB oxide 


Trace. 


Uam 


.64 


PMMh 


16.16 


Soda 


.88 


t^a* on Ignition (water, etc.) 


4.65 


l^adeieimined (chiefly fluorine) 




ridcinmlnMf (^hfl^fly ?ni^nff^np«^) . 


2.05 












100.00 


99.66 



a Rudolph L. Scldner, Brooklyn, N. Y., analyst. 



h Small amount. 



313 



Digitized by 



Google 



814 



MINERAL BE8OUB0E8. 





Analyses of spodumetie. 






Constituent. 


BpodmneQe. 






810, : 


63.27 Gi25 


AltO, 


23.73 27.20 



PeO.. 
MgO. 
CaO.. 
MnO. 

Na,0. 
Li«0.. 
HsO... 
P 



1.17 
2.02' 

.11 ' 

1.45 
.99 

6.89 
.36 , 



Tnoe. 
.» 
7.B 
.9i 



Total 

Specific giayity . 



loaas 

3.19 , 



99.90 



a Annals New York Acad. Sci., vol. 1, 1879, p. 822. 
l» Am. Jour. Sci., 8d eeriee, vol. 20, 1880, p. 259. 

Amblygonite occurs in the same locality as the lepidolite at Pala, 
San Diego County, Cal., but the deposit of this mineral was only 
discovered in 1902. Since then it has been thoroughly developed and 
the American Lithia and Chemical Conjpany of New York City reports 
that a lens of amblygonite 33 feet wide and exposed to a depth of 11 
feet has been brought to view. It has been estimated that over 400 
tons of this mineral are now exposed. The production of lithiam 
minerals from this locality in 1903 was restricted on account of 
litigation. 

Besides the Pala locality of lepidolite, two new localities have 
recently been discovered, one 7 miles east of Julian, San Di^ 
County, Cal., which is being developed by Mr. F. F. Griffith, of Los 
Angeles, Cal., and the other near Banner, San Diego County, Cal., 
which was located by Mr. E. H. Davis, of Mesa Grande, Cal. The 
former locality also contains some amblygonite. 

All of the spodumene is obtained from the mines in Custer and 
Pennington counties. Black Hills^ S. Dak., and principally from the 
Etta mine. 

The lithium minerals that are mined are all shipped to New York, 
where a part is exported and the remainder is reduced by chemical 
companies. 

PRODUCTION. 

In 1903 the quantity of lithium minerals produced in the United 
States amounted to 1,155 short tons, valued at $23,425 at the railroad. 
This is a decrease of 90 tons in quantity and of $2,325 in value, as 
compared with the production of 1,245 short tons, valued at $25,750, 



Digitized by 



Google 



LiTmuM. 315 

in 1902. In the early part of 1903 there was a small demand for the 
lithium minerals, but toward the close of the year there was more call 
for these minerals, and, if this demand continues, the production of 
1904 should be considerably greater than that of 1903. A number of 
individuals who produced no lithium in 1903 began mining in 1904, 
owing to orders received from abroad. As the uses of lithia are 
limited, there could readily be an overproduction of the crude min- 
erals; but if the cost of these could be reduced, so that they might be 
used in the manufacture of lithium carbonate or nitrate for red fire in 
pyrotechnics, there would be an increased demand for these lithium 
minerals. 

IMPORTS. 

It has been estimated that there are about 55,000 pounds of lithium 
salts used in the United States each year, of which usually about one- 
third are imported. In 1903 these imports amounted to 5,596 pounds, 
valued at $3,669. 

In 1902 the imports were 5,530 pounds of lithium carbonate, valued 
at $8,038, and 15,686 pounds of other lithium salts, valued at $14,913. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



ANTIMONY. 



By Joseph Struthers. 



INTRODUCrnON. 

Tie outlook for the production of metallic antimony from domestic 
tntimony ores in the United States is very unpromising, since the 
smelting process for the extraction of the metal is complex and costly, 
and but few metallurgists are conversant with all the details necessary 
for successful treatment. Moreover, the large production of antimony 
ores and metal in foreign countries, together with the low rate of ocean 
freights, and the removal, in April, 1902, of the import tax on crude 
antiniony (which, in reality, is partly refined antimony sulphide ore), 
leave no opportunity for competition by the domestic product. 

There are many deposits of antimony minerals, chiefly the sulphide, 
in the Western States, but even prior to the removal of the import tax 
on crude antimony in 1902, the production of metal from domestic 
intiinony ores has never reached any prominence, the largest quantity 
80 produced in a year being 296 tons in a total of 4,000, or approxi- 
mately 7.4 per cent of the total annual production from ores. These 
statistics are of the year 1896. There has been no conmiercial produc- 
tion of metallic antimony from domestic antimony ores since 1901, in 
which year 60 tons were made by the Chapman Smelting Company, of 
Sin Francisco, Cal.^ Small quantities of metal have been produced 
experimentally from time to time, but as they do not reach the mar- 
ket they are not included in the statistics of production. Prior to 
1902 the Chapman Smelting Company smelted a relatively small quan- 
tity of domestic antimony ores, but due chiefly to the removal of the 
duty on crude antimony in April, 1902, these works have since made 
DO output of antimony metal from domestic ores. 

Although many deposits of antimony minerals are located in the 
Western States, the outlook for their development is very discour- 
aging. The low rates of ocean freight from foreign countries, where 
tke cost of mining is extremely cheap, permit the delivery of ores 
Bttr the market at a cost so small that the western ores, being in 
repons where the costs of fuel and labor are high, can not be profit- 
*Wy smelted at the mines, nor can they be shipped to refineries on 
account of the high railroad freight rates, hence there is no competi- 
tion against the foreign product A large part of the supply of 

317 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



818 MIKEBAL BESOUBOES. 

antimony in the United States is in the form of hard lead, obtained as 
a by-product in the smelting and refining of lead-silver ores, and this 
branch of the antimony industry will naturally develop concurrently 
with the advance in lead smelting. 

The control of the production and trade of antimony in the United 
States continues in the hands of Messrs. Mathison & Co., of London. 
operating the smelting plant at Chelsea, Staten Island, New York, and 
afiBliated with the Chapman Smelting Company, of San Francisco, Cal. 

USES. 

The chief use of antimony metal is in the manufacture of alloys of 
lead, tin, zinc, and other metals. The addition of antimony to lead 
increases its hardness up to twelvefold, and the addition of a small 
quantity of bismuth (from 0.5 to 2 per cent) to the lead-antimony alloy 
(type metal) causes it to expand at the moment of solidification and to 
yield a casting with clean, sharp faces, which is of special value in the 
manufacture of type. 

The most important alloys of antimony are: Type metal^ composed 
of lead and antimony, with or without the addition of tin and bismuth; 
ha/rd lead^ produced in refining antimonial lead, containing various pro- 
portions of antimony (the commercial product has an antimony content 
of from 16.5 to 27 per cent, and generally averages about 25 per cent); 
hritannia metal H,nd pewter , used extensively for tableware, the former 
being an alloy of tin with from 10 to 16 per cent of antimony and 3 
per cent of copper, and the latter an alloy of tin with a smaller con- 
tent of antimony; antifriction fnetal^ also called white metal and babbitt 
m^tal, which consists of antimony and tin with the addition of small 
quantities of lead, copper, zinc, bismuth, and nickel. 

The principal salts of antimony are, tartar emetic^ an antimony- 
potassium tartrate, used in medicine and as a mordant in dyeing vege- 
table fiber; antimmiy cinnabar^ a fiery red-colored pigment, consisting 
of antimony trisulphide with a small amount of antimony trioxide, 
used in oil painting; and antimony petitamlphide^ used as a red pig- 
ment in vulcanizing and coloring rubber. 

PRobuCTION. 

There are four sources of supply of antimony in the United States, 
in the following order of importance: 

1. Hard lead, or antimonial lead, obtained as a by-product in smelt- 
ing both foreign and domestic lead-silver ores, which contain a small 
percentage of antimony. 

2. Antimony regulus, or metal, from foreign countries. 

3. Antimony ores (including the so-called "crude" antimony) from 
foreign countries. 

4. Antimony ores from domestic deposits. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AwnMomr. 319 

The quantity of hard lead (antimonial lead) produced in the United 
States daring 1903, as a by-product in smelting impure lead-silver ores, 
UDounted to 21,237,440 pounds, containing approximately 5,115,319 
pounds of metallic antimony (equivalent to an average content of 24.1 
per cent of antimony in the hard lead), as compared with 20,970,000 
pounds of hard lead, containing 5,808,000 pounds of antimony metal, 
in 1902, an increase for the year 1903 of 267,440 pounds of hard lead, 
bot a decrease of 692,681 pounds in the actual amount of antimony con- 
tained therein. The reason for this decrease in the total quantity of 
antimony was due to the fact that, in 1902, one concern produced 
hard lead averaging 25.5 per cent of antimony, while in 1903 its per- 
centage dropped to from 16.5 to 17. The average antimony content of 
hard lead ranges from 16.5 to 27 per cent. 

Hard lead is used largely in the manufacture of antifriction and 
otheralloys, and this alloy is obviously an important source of antimony 
supply in the United States. 

Hie net imports into the United States of foreign antimony, in the 
form of regulos or antimony metal, amounted during 1903 to 4,694,309 
pounds, valued at $260,144, as compared with 5,388,739 pounds, valued 
at $333,601, in 1902, a decrease in quantity of 694,430 pounds, and in 
value of $73,457 for the year 1903. 

Imported antimony ores contain from 35 to 65 per cent of antimony, 
and for all commercial purposes the average metal content may be 
tak^ as 52.5 i>er cent. Ores containing a low percentage of antimony 
are not of sufficient value to stand the cost of transportation, although 
sometimes they are mixed with higher-grade ores in order to have 
their metal content and value increased to an amount at which they 
can be shipped with profit The smelting loss on the treatment of 
antimony sulphide ores for the production of the refined metal approxi- 
mates 20 per cent of the metal content, so that the average extraction 
of metal from imported ores may be taken at 42 per cent. On this 
basis the quantity of metal derivable from the net imports of foreign 
ores during 1903 is 1,140,100 pounds, as compared with 1,314,000 
pounds in 1902, showing a decrease of 173,900 pounds for the year 1903. 

There was no antimony metal produced from domestic antimony 
ores in the United States during the years 1902 and 1903. The latest 
recorded production was in 1901, when 50 tons of metal was produced 
from this source at the works of the Chapman Smelting Company, 
^ Francisco, Cal. As elsewhere mentioned in this report, the pro- 
duetion of antimony metal from domestic ores in the United States has 
Krer attained any prominence when compared with the total con- 
sumption of antimony metal and alloys in the United States. 

^^ ^^ggi^g&te quantity of antimony available as metal or alloy in 
tbe hard lead produced from foreign and domestic lead-silver ores and 
imported for consumption as regulus or antimony ores during the 



Digitized by 



Google 



320 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



year 1903 amounted to 6,115,319 pounds, as compared with 5,808,000 
pounds in 1902, showing a decrease of 692,681 pounds for the year 
1903. 

The annual production of metallic antimony in the United States 
derivable from foreign ores and contained in the hard lead produced 
from 1880 to 1903, inclusive, is shown in the following table: 

Production of metallic antimony from domestic and foreign ores and thai contained in hard 
lead in the United States, 1880-1903. 



Year. 



1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1888. 
1884. 



1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 

1892. 

1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 



1900. 
1901., 
1902., 
1903., 



Contained in hard 
lead.a 



Quantity. 



f>hoTt tons. 
(«») 
{*>) 

C) 
(«») 
('') 
(«») 

809 
1,011 

1,260 

1,263 
1,187 
1,563 
1,877 
2,217 
2,118 
1,586 
2,476 
2,235 
2,904 
2,558 



Value. 



$136,752 
170,950 



219, 

225,540 
213,706 
236,169 
268,249 
320,856 
348,051 
307,314 
490,916 
457, 150 
505,340 
445,092 



Produced from forei^ 
and domestic ores. 



Quantity. Value. 



Short toM. 
50 
50 



50 
35 
75 
100 
115 
129 
278 
metallicl50 
ore 380 j. 
250 
200 I 
©460 
«601 , 
«844 I 
ol,120 I 
c 1,275 
<? 1,750 
4403 
d657 
d570 



910,000 
10,000 
12,000 
12,000 
12,000 
10,000 
7,000 
15,000 
20,000 
28,000 
40,756 
47,007 

56,466 

45,000 
36,000 
68,000 
84,290 
121,944 
184,050 
251,875 
846,980 
82,752 
129.166 
103,841 



Total. 



Quantity. Value 



Short toM, 



1.289 ' 

1,790 I 

1.508 I 

1,387 I 

2,013 ' 

2,478 

3,061 

3.238 

2,861 

4,226 

2,639 

3,561 

3,128 



$177,508 
217,957 

275,416 

270, MO 
249.706 
304,169 
S47,5» 

442. aoo 

682,101 
569,1» 
837,896 
5t9.«2 
6S4,50S 
548,433 



a Estimated at 25 per cent of the total quantity of hard lead produced from both foreign and 
domestic ores, except for tlie year 1902, when an average of 27 per cent was taken, and in 1908, when 
the reported quantity averaged 24.1 per cent. 

feNo statistics available. 

c Principally from imported ores. 

d Exclusive of foreign ores imported and reexported. 

IMPORTS. 

The subjoined table gives the aggregate quantity and value of anti 
mony ore (including crude antimony) and metallic antimony (regulus) 
imported into the United States from 1867 to 1903, as reported by the 
Bureau of Statistics of the Department of Commerce and Labor. An 
inspection of the table shows that the quantity of ore imported has 
increased from 116,495 pounds in 1893 to the maximum quantity of 
6,089,134 pounds in 1900, a year in which there was a marked over- 
importation of both ore and metal. 



Digitized by 



Google 



ANTIMONY. 



821 



In 1903 the importation of antimony ore entered for consumption 
was 2,714,617 pounds, valued at $54,316. In 1902 the net importa- 
tion of antimony ore was 3,129,069 pounds, valued at $62,968. The 
fltitistics of net importation for 1903, as compared with 1902, show a 
decrease in quantity of 414,452 pounds, and in value of $8,652. 

The annual imports of antimony metal, or regulus, and crude anti- 
mony or ore, which have been entered for consumption in the United 
States during the period 1867 to 1903, inclusive, are given in the 
subjoined table: 

Anl&Kwny and antimony ore imported and entered for consumption in the United States, 

1867-1908. 



Year endin^^ 



Metal and reguluB. 



Grade antimony and ore. 



Quantity. Valne. 



Quantity. Value, 



Total 
yalue. 



Joneao— 
1«7... 



1870.. 
1871.. 

vm,. 

vsn.. 

W4.. 
187S.. 
187».. 
1877.. 
1878.. 
1879.. 



un.. 

1882.. 



1884.. 



PMjam bcr Sl- 

1886 

1887 



18B0. 

lan.. 
un.. 

1888. 
18M. 



18V7. 



PouruU. 



Pounds. 



1,038.886 
1,845,821 
1,227.429 
1,015,039 
1,968,806 
1,166,821 
1,253,814 
1,288,228 
946.809 
1,115,124 
1,256,624 
1,880,212 
2,019,889 
1,806,945 
2,525.838 
8,064,050 
1,779,887 
2,579,840 

2,997,965 
2,668,284 
2,814,044 
2,676.130 
8,815,659 
2,618,941 
8,960,864 
2,780,482 
2,668,487 
8,490,901 
2,576,871 
2,282,245 
2,108,599 
2,990,915 
3,654,822 
8,640,605 
5.388,789 
4.694,809 



168,919 
83,822 
129,918 
164,179 
148,264 
287,586 
184,498 
148,409 
181,860 
119,441 
135.817 
130,950 
143,099 
265,773 
253,054 
294,234 
286,892 
150,435 
207,215 

202,563 
169,747 
248,015 
804,711 
411,960 
327,307 
892,761 
243,341 
193,988 
228,968 
158,975 
143,870 
148,671 
241,685 
287,987 
254,529 
883,601 
260,144 



6,460 

8,821 

20,001 

20,851 

84,542 

. 25,150 

841,730 

1,114,699 

697,244 

281,860 

215,918 

218,866 

862,761 

68,040 

146,809 

611,140 

1,483,581 

192,344 

116,495 

375,468 

668,610 

1,180,828 

3.719,186 

8,749,222 

8,968,654 

6,089,134 

M, 682, 801 

63,129,069 

2,714,617 



82,364 

3,081 

2,941 

203 

609 

700 

2,314 

1,259 

2,341 

2,349 

18,199 

18,019 

11,254 

6,489 

7,497 

9,761 
8,785 
2,178 
5,568 
29,878 
36,232 
7,388 
5,253 
a 18, 805 
14,718 
21,402 
55,400 
50,256 
47,427 
75,866 
22,720 
62,968 
54,316 



868,919 
83,822 
129,918 
164,179 
150.628 
240,567 
187,489 
148,612 
181,969 
120,141 
187.631 
182,209 
145,440 
268,122 
271,258 
812,253 
296,146 
156,924 
214,712 

212,824 
178,682 
250,198 
310,279 
441,888 



400,099 
248,594 
212,793 



180,377 
198,770 
196,927 
289,112 
363,808 
278,066 
896,669 
814,460 



1 8787, Talae of gnnind antimony for which no quantity was given. 
»Kxeludefl exports. 
M R 1903 21 

Digitized by 



Google 



822 



MINEBAL BESOUBCES. 



The large increase in the quantities of antimony regulus and ore 
imported and exported during 1902 was due to a peculiar condition of 
the freight rates from China, which were about 10 shillings per ton 
from China to New York and 80 shillings from China to England. 
The freight rate from New York to England being about 10 shillings 
per ton, shipments were made first to New York, whence the mefaJ 
was transshipped to England, and thus practically one-third of the 
cost of direct transportation was saved. According to the report of 
one of the principal importers, there has been no radical change in the 
freight conditions during the year 1903. 

CONSUMPTION. 

The consumption of antimony in the United States from 1880 to 1903 
is given in the subjoined table, the imported ore being estimated to 
contain an average of 62i per cent antimony, and to yield 42 per cent 
of refined metal by smelting operations. Crude antimony, which is 
refined or concentrated ore and not metal, is included in the quantity 
of ore impoi'ted. Antimony regulus is taken as equivalent to the 
metal. The antimony contained in hard lead is calculated at 25 per 
cent, except for 1902, when an average of 27 per cent was taken, and 
in 1903, when the reported average was 24.1 per cent. 

EaimcUed consumption of antimony in the United States^ 18S0-190S. 



Year. 



Contained 

in hard 

lead. 



From do- 
mestic ores. 



From im- 
ported ores 
and crude 
antimony. 



Imported 
metal or 
regulos. 



Total 



1880 


Short loM. 


1881 




1882 




1888 




1884 




1885 




1886 




1887 




1888 




1889 




18«0 




1891 


1,011 
1,260 
1,258 


1892 


1893 


1894 


1895 




1896 


1,877 
2,217 
2,118 
1,666 
2,476 
2,286 
2,904 
2,668 


1897 


1898 


1899 


1900 


1901 


1902 


1908 



Short tons. 

50 

60 

60 

60 

60 

50 

86 

75 

100 

115 

129 

278 

150 

260 

200 

5276 

5291 

5246 

5260 

284 

151 

50 

Nil. 

Nil. 



Short toHt. 

7 

221 

292 

188 

61 

57 

58 

95 

18 

38 

160 

877 

60 

80 

100 

M76 

5810 

5699 

5870 

1,041 

1,699 

363 

667 

670 



ShoHtOM, 
1,010 
904 
1,268 
1,532 
890 
1,290 
1,499 
1,277 
1,407 
1,388 
1,658 
1,809 
1.976 
1.890 
1,827 
1,760 
1,288 

i,ia 

1,062 
1.496 
1,827 
1,887 
2,694 
2,347 1 



Skoftiim. 
«1,06? 
ol,17J 
al,(15 

• 1,776 

• 1,011 
al,S97 
al,502 
al,4l7 
al,U5 
al,491 
«1,9I7 

2,9^5 

3,415 

2,92S 

<il,627 

a2,200 

8,76« 

4,203 

4,290 

4,866 

6.068 

" <476 

6,266 

6,475 



a Not including antimony contained in hard lead, for which statistics are not available. 
5 Separation estimated. All antimony smelted, whether from domestic or foreign ores, was reported 
as of domestic productton. 



Digitized by 



Google 



ANTIMONY. 



328 



The decrease in the total quantity of antimony estimated to have 
been consumed in the United States in 1901, as compared with 1900, 
was due to the very large overimportation of antimony ore and, to a 
less extent, of antimony re^us in 1900. The above table" shows the 
constantly increasing quantity of antimony obtained from foreign ores 
from 1893 to 1903, inclusive, which has been due mainly to the cheap 
ocean-freight rates from foreign countries where the ores are mined 
and partly refined at a low cost. 

WOBIiD'S PRODUCTION. 

The following table, showing the output and value of antimony metal 
of the world in 1901 and 1902, has been compiled from the official gov- 
ernmental reports of the respective countries: 

Worlds 8 production of cmtimony metal in 1901 and 190S, 



Country. 



1901. 



Quantity. Value, 



1902. 



Quantity. Valoe. 



rnltodStateea. 

Aoitria 

Prancefr 

Qtmukj^ 

Hongaryd 

lUly 

/apan 



Short tons. 

408 

126 

1,969 

2,788 

7n 

1,898 
474 



S61.820 
10,434 

240,000 

268,250 
82,920 

195,660 
68,787 
40,824 



Short tOM. 

687 

26 

1,901 

8,858 

758 

1,202 



$129,166 
1,787 
207,475 
881,188 
81,200 
91,286 



844 



42,492 



Total. 



8,698 



968,585 



8,741 



884,494 



a Does not include the antimony contained in hard lead. 

^ Tnclndes product of Algeria. 

« Includes quickfdlyer. 

tf Grade antimony and regulus. 



PRICES. 

From 1893 to July, 1897, there was a steady decline in the price of 
antimony, which dropped from 16 cents per pound for Cookson's brand 
to 7 cente. Beginning with August, 1897, the price began to advance, 
and in May, 1899, it reached 12 cents per pound, and then remained 
Mmrly constant throughout the rest of the year. During 1902 there 
WMB a slight falling off in price, and the year closed with Cookson's at 
1<>4 cents per pound. The following tables show, by months and years, 
the ruling prices of the several brands of antimony, as reported to 
The Iron Age and the Engineering and Mining Journal, from 1895 to 
1903, inclnsiye. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



824 



MINEBAL BESOUB0E8. 



Prices of antimony at New York, 1896-1908^ by months. 
[Gents per poand.] 



Month. 



1895. 



Oook- 
Bon's. 



Hallett's. 



Japanese. 



1896. 



^,^" Hallett'8.papaneee, 



1897. 



Cook- 



Hallelf 8. J^Moeie. 



January . . . 
February . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August .... 
September. 
October... 
NoTember . 
December , 



8ito8| 
8ito8i 

7}to8i 
7} to 8 
7(to8 
8 to8i 
8 
8 
7|to8 
71 to 7 J 
71 to 71 



7tto7i 
7tto7i 
7tto71 
7 to7i 
7 
7 to7t 
7tto7i 

n 
n 

7 to7i 

7 

6Jto7 



6Jto7 
61 
6} 
7 
7 

6{to7 
6} 

61 to 6} 

61 to6i 



8i 

8i 

8i 

8i 

8 to8i 

8 

8 

8 

8 

7ito7t 

7tto7t 

7ito7t 



7ito7t 
7* 
7* 
7* 

7ito74 
7* 
7i 

n 

U 

ek 

61 to 61 
6i 



7 

7 

7 

7 

6Jto7 

6{to7 

6}to7 

6ito7 

6ito7 

6t 

6ito6| 

61 



7Jto7i 
71 to 7* 
71to7i 
71 to 71 
71 to 71 
71 to 74 
7 to 71 

7 to8i 

8 to81 
8 to81 
8 to81 
8 to8i 



61to6f 
61 to 61 
6|to7i 
7 to7i 
7 to7i 
61to7 
6|to71 
7|to71 
71 to 71 
71 to 71 
71 to 71 
71 to 71 



61 to 6) 
6|to6i 
6|to7 
7 to7l 
6} to 7} 
6|to6i 
61 
6tto7 
7 to7J 
7 to7i 
7 to7i 
7 to7i 



Month. 



Cookson's. Hallett's. Japanese. 



1898. 



Cookson's. Hallett's. 



1899. 



United 
States. 



Cookson's. Hallett'& 



January.. 
February . 

March 

April 

May 

June — .-., 

July 

August .... 
September 
October... 
November 
December 



8 to81 
8 to81 
8 to8i 
8it09 
9ito9i 
9ito9| 
91 to 91 
9|to9| 
9|to9| 
91 to 91 
91 to 91 
9|to9| 



7ito71 

71 to 71 

71 to 71 

71 to 8 

8|to8f 

8|to9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

81 to 9 



7tto7i 



81 

8}to9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

81 to 9 

81 to 81 



10 to 101 

101 to 10) 

111 to 12 

111 to 12 

111 to 12 

111 

11* 

111 

111 

111 

lli to 111 

111 to 111 



91to 91 

91 to 101 

101 to 101 

101 to 10) 

101 to 10) 

101 

101 

101 

104 

104 

101 to 101 

101 to 101 



94 

94 to 9) 

10* to 10} 

10* to 10) 

10* to 104 

10* 

10* 
10) to 11 
10)toU 

10* 
10 to 104 
10 tolO* 



10*toU 
10* to 11 
104 to U 
11 
11 
11 
104 to U 
104 
104 
104 
10* 
10* 



9) to n 

91 to 10 

9) to 10 

9) 

91 
91 
94 

94 
91 
91 
94 



9* to 



Month. 



1901. 



^,^; Hallett's. Others. 



1902. 



Cook- 
son's. 



Hallett's. Others. 



1908. 



Cook- 



HaUettfs. Othen. 



January 

February... 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September.. 

October 

November . . 
December .. 



10* to 10* 
lOi 
101 
10* 
104 
101 
lOi 
101 
101 
10* 
10* 
101 



9* 

n 

8* to 91 

8) to 9 

8|to9 

8) 

8) 

84 to 8} 

8* to 8) 

8) to 84 

8* 

8*to8| 



8|to9 
8) to 9 
84 to 9 
84 to 8) 
84 to 8) 



8* to 8* 
8* to 8* 
8 to8* 
8 to81 
8 to 8* 



10 

10 

9) to 10 

9) to 10 

9} to 10 

9) to 10 

91 

9) 

94 to 9) 

9 to 9) 

9 to 94 

9 to 94 



8 to8* 
8 to8* 
8 to8* 
8 to8* 
8 to 8* 
8 to8* 
8* 
8 to8* 
7) to 8 
74 to 7) 
7| to 7| 
7*to7| 



7) to 8 

7) 

7) 

7) 

7)to8 

8 

8 

7)to8 

7* to 7) 

7* to 7* 

7* to 71 

6)to7 



8* to 8* 
8*to8| 

8*. 

8* 
7* to 8 
74to8 
7* to 7* 
7 to 7* 
7 to7* 
7 to 7* 
6) to 7* 
6* to 7* 



7 to7* 
7 to 7* 
6)to7 
6) to 6} 
6) to 6* 
6|to6| 
6) to 61 
6|to6* 
6* to 61 
6*to6| 
6* to 61 
6* to 61 



61 to 64 
6|to6i 
64 to 61 
64 
64 
6|to64 
6*to6i 
61 to 61 
6)to6i 
61 to 6} 
54 to 61 
61 to 61 



Digitized by 



Google 



AimHOKY. 826 

THE TBEATMENT OF ANTIMONY ORBS IN JAPAN. 

Antimony metal has been produced from its ores in Japan for 
centuries. The chief mine is in the island of Shikoku, from which 
high-^rade stibnite is obtained and shipped to Sanchobar on the coast, 
where it is smelted and refined to metal. The smelting operation is 
executed in a very simple manner. A clay crucible, having a small 
hole bored through its bottom, is placed upon a second one. The 
upper crucible is filled with powdered antimony ores (stibnite, anti- 
mony sulphide) and tightly closed with a clay cover; coal is then 
heaped around the upper crucible and ignited. The heat serves to 
melt the stibnite, which separates or liquates from the gangue of the 
ore and flows through the hole in the bottom of the upper crucible 
into the lower one, from which it is ladled into molds and cooled. 
The concentrated antimony sulphide thus obtained is subsequently 
reduced to metallic antimony, which is shipped in boxes to various 
markets. 

PATENTS. 

In France M. H. L. Herrenschmidt obtained a patent (No. 333340, 
June 24, 1903) to treat antimony sulphide ore in a blown converter. 
The process is canried out as follows: The hearth of the converter is 
first covered with a layer of wood, which is then lighted. As soon as it 
is well ignited a layer of coke is added, followed by a layer of antimony 
suli^ide ore containing from 40 to 60 per cent of antimony. Above the 
ore charge is a final layer of coke, and of antimony oxysulphide pro- 
duced as a by-product in a former smelting in the converter. Air is 
then blown through the tuyeres and in connection with the heat of the 
burning fuel it transforms the antimony sulphide into volatile oxysul- 
{riiide, which passes off with the furnace gases, and is condensed and 
ooDected in a suitable receiver. During the smelting operation a cer- 
tain pn^)ortion of metallic antimony is reduced and tapped off. The 
oxysuliriiide is subsequently distilled with a proper reducing agent, 
forming metallic antimony and a poor oxysulphide residue, which 
is returned to the converter as a part of a later charge. 

Mr. T. Crisp Sanderson, of Chelsea, Staten Island, New York, has 
patented a method for the continuous smelting of antimony ores 
(United States patent No. 714040, November, 1902), for which is 
claimed advantages in fuel consumption, labor, volatilization losses, 
and other Actors of cost The method is briefly described as follows: 
A bath of ferrous sulphide is formed in the hearth of a reverberatory 
furnace, and after closing the chimney damper the charge of anti- 
mony ore is shoveled into the furnace and quickly rabbled into the 
molten ferrous sulphide. As soon as it has become thoroughly mixed, 
•etip iron sufficient to decompose the antimony sulphide is introduced, 
and the temperature of the furnace raised to the proper degree. The 



Digitized by 



Google 



836 MIKEBAL BE8OUB0B8. 

bath is then thoroughly rabbled and the iron decomposes the antimony 
sulphide, forming metallic antimony and ferrous sulphide. When the 
reaction is completed the metallic antimony is tapped from a sump in 
the furnace until iron sulphide appears; the tap hole is then closed 
and the slag which floats on the surface of the bath of iron sulphide is 
removed by skimming. Owing to the formation in the furnace of 
iron sulphide from the reaction between the scrap iron and the sul- 
phur of the ore, a certain quantity must be removed in order to lower 
the bath to its original level. Before tapping off the excess of iron 
sulphide an additional quantity of scrap iron is sometimes added to 
the bath and rabbled, so that some of the antimony remaining in the 
slag will be reduced; any metallic antimony so formed, however, will 
contain too much iron, and it is therefore left in the furnace for the 
succeeding charge,, which removes the iron from it. Oxidized anti- 
mony ores may be treated in a similar way, using iron or carbon, or 
both, for the reducing agent. The Sanderson continuous process has 
been in successful operation at Chelsea, Staten Island, N. Y., for a year 
or more. 



Digitized by 



Google 



A-R8e:n^io. 



By Joseph Struthebs. 



INTROBUCnON. 

OCCURRENCE. 

Arsenic ores and, to a lesser extent, metallic arsenic occur widely 
distributed in many countries, but in very few places are the deposits 
of sufficient extent to be of commercial value. 

The most common mineral (mainly used for the manufacture of 
arsenic compounds) is arsenopyrite, the double sulphide of iron and 
arsenic (FeAsS), commonly called *' mispickel " or " arsenical pyrites." 
Other important minerals are the two sulphides, realgar (As^Sg) and 
orpiment (As,S,), and the two forms of the sesquioxide (As^O,), arseno- 
lite and claudetite. Arsenic also occurs in combination widi nickel and 
cobalt, both as a sulphide and as an arseno-sulphide, and, to a minor 
extent, as an impurity in several other metallic minerals. 

USES. 

The chief use for arsenious oxide is in the manufacture of Paris 
^reen, although it is used to a minor extent to make Scheele's green, 
London purple, lead arsenate, sodium arsenate, potassium arsenate, 
and other arsenic salts. In the arts or trades, Paris green is used to 
exterminate the potato beetle and other insects injurious to vegetables. 
Paris green has a peculiar light-green shade possessed by no other 
pigment; but, owing to its pois5nous character, its use as a dyestuff is 
very restricted. Arsenic, as a vermicide, is used in various ways; either 
in the form of the oxide or of an arsenate salt (called " sheep dip") for 
parasites affecting sheep and cattle; also as a weed killer. The oxide 
is used in the manufacture of fine-grade glassware and special enamels; 
18 a fixing and conveying substance for aniline dyes; as a preservative 
for raw hides, both in taxidermy and in storage for manufacture into 
leather, and to a minor extent in the preparation of certain medicinal 
eompoondfl and embalming fluids. 

887 



Digitized by 



Google 



838 lONEBAL BXSOUBCES. 

PROBUCTION IN THE UNITEB STATES. 

The production of arsenious oxide (technically known as *' white 
arsenic,'' and sometimes ^^ arsenic'') in the United States during 1903 
amounted to 611 short tons, valued at $36,691, as compared with 1,353 
tons in 1902, and 300 tons in 1901, the last-named year being the date 
of the inception of the white ai*senic industry in the United States. 
The entire domestic product has been made solely at the plant of the 
Puget Sound Reduction Company, Everett, Wash., and the large 
increase in the domestic production during 1902 promised success to 
the undertaking. Owing to various conunercial reasons, however, the 
by-product plant was operated at its full capacity only during the first 
quarter of the year 1903. It was shut down from March 1 until Sep- 
tember 1, 1903, when, at the latter time, the works came under the 
control of the American Smelting and Refining Company. During 
the last three months of the year the by-product plant was used only 
for roasting small quantities of arsenical lead ores, and no white 
arsenic was shipped to the market. 

The arsenic ores treated at this plant consist mainly of arsenopyrite, 
containing on the average about 14 per cent of arsenic and 0.7 ounce 
of gold and 3 ounces of silver per ton. A part of the ore treated 
contained only 2 per cent of sulphur, the ai'senic being present chiefly 
in an oxidized form. 

The by-product plant for the condensation and collection of the 
white arsenic is quite simple in construction and efficient in operation. 
There is a long brick flue, 20 feet high, connecting the Wethey mechan- 
ical 6-hearth 60-ton roasting furnace with the dust chamber, which 
latter is 5 feet high, and covers an area of about 125 by 150 feet 
This chamber is built of 4-inch brick walls, and is divided into four 
equal parts, so arranged that by the use of valves or dampers any one 
section can be cut out from the other, and the condensation may thus 
be carried on continuously. 

The arsenical compounds in the ore are decomposed during the 
roasting, and are ti*ansformed chiefly into volatile arsenious oxide, 
which passes out with the waste gases of the furnace, and is subse- 
quently condensed by their cooling and lessened velocity, and settles 
on the floor of the dust chamber, or becomes attached to the sides and 
roof in beautiful festoons of pure white crystals resembling snow. 

At stated intervals each section is cut out from the system and the 
accumulated deposit of white arsenic is shoveled into hand barrows 
and carried to storage-bins until needed for subsequent refining in a 
small reverberatory furnace. 

After the arsenic has been expelled by the roasting, the ore is dis- 
charged from the furnace and treated with lead ore in a shaft furnace 
for the extraction of the gold and silver contents. 



Digitized by 



Google 



ABSENIO. ^ 829 

Despite the fact that the domestic output of arsenical compounds is 
not sufficient to supply more than one-quarter of the total consump- 
tion in the United States (large quantities being annually imported 
from Canada, Germany, and Spain), the development of this impor- 
tant industry is of exceedingly slow growth. 

The manufacture in the United States of arsenic compounds from 
domestic ores should be developed, in order to supplant the large 
quantities which are annually imported from Europe and Canada. A 
^nee at the table of imports given on page 10 of this report shows 
the growing importance of this branch of the arsenic industry. 
Daring 1903 there were imported from Canada, England, Germany, 
and Spain 1,211,299 pounds of arsenious acid, valued at $38,505, and 
7,146,362 pounds of arsenic sulphide and orpiment, valued at $256,097, 
18 compared with 1,385,700 pounds of arsenious oxide, valued at 
$12,424, and 6,725,198 pounds of arsenic sulphide and orpiment, 
valued at $237,631, in 1902. 

Hie white arsenic trade is peculiar, in that its consumption depends 
on a number of variable conditions. Much of the product is used by 
sheep raisers to kill the ^' sheep tick," which lives in the wool of the 
animal. In the latter part of 1902 the demand in Australia for this 
porpose became greatly diminished, possibly due either to the exter- 
mination of the tick or to the accumulation of stocks by the sheep 
raisers; and as a result there was an increase in the quantity exported 
from Germany and England to the United States during 1903, at 
prices which hindered to some extent the development of the industry 
in the last-named country. 

Prior to the year 1899 the world's demand for arsenic and its com- 
pounds was met by the output of the arsenic mines of Cornwall and 
Devon, in England, and of the by-products from the metallurgical 
worits at Freiberg, Germany, at which arsenious oxide is made, not 
only from arsenic ores, but also from arsenical ores of other metals, 
thereby rendering the latter more amenable Jor subsequent treatment 
and consequently more valuable. 

It is probable that the future of the arsenic industry in the United 
States depends more upon the beneficiation of arsenical ores of other 
metals (chiefly those containing gold and silver) than upon the direct 
treatment of ai*senic ores for the extraction of the metal itself. 

A recently discovered deposit of arsenic is being exploited by the 
United States Arsenic Mineral Company of Pittsburg, Pa., at Pilot 
Mountain, 17 miles from Christ iansburg, Montgomery County, Va. 
Astatement from this concern outlining its work up to January 1, 1904, 
reports tiie driving of a 215-foot adit into the hillside, supplemented 
with a 55-foot drift extending to an 8-foot vein of ai'senic ore of 25 per 
cent arsenic content, which can be mined at a cost of 70 cents per ton. 
A baikUng 300 by 70 feet has been erected for the mills and furnaces. 



Digitized by 



Google 



880 KOnSBAL BXSOUBOBS. 

and dwelling houses, store, office, laboiutory, and other buildings have 
been built. The plant is equipped with a 125-horsepower Westing- 
house engine; two 75-horsepower return-tubular boilers; four dynamos, 
one of 75-horsepower and three of small power; a 13 by 20 inch 
Blake crusher; a 27-foot Howell-White calcining furnace; rolls, pumps, 
pulverizers, etc. The capacity of the plant, when completed, is placed 
at 140 tons of refined arsenic per month. The region is wild and 
mountainous. 

The white-arsenic plant at the Washoe copper smelter, Anaconda, 
Mont. , was nearly completed by January 1, 1904. Large brick settlinpf 
chambers have been erected alongside of the flue of the Brunton 
roasting furnaces, in order to condense and collect the arsenical fumes 
f <L rmed during the roasting. The arsenic-refining department has be^ 
equipped with suitable reverberatory furnaces, in which the crude flue 
deposit will be refined and the purified product subsequently ground 
and packed for the market in air-tight barrels, each of a capacity of 
400 pounds. The daily capacity of the by-product plant is reported to 
be several tons of flake arsenic. 

An unconfirmed report went the rounds of the technical press during 
1903 to the effect that the Mineral Creek Mining Company, owning 
an arsenic property at Mineral Creek, Washington, had mined and 
accumulated a stock of 1,000 tons of realgar (a sulphide ore of arsenic), 
which is awaiting the completion of a smelting plant at that place. 
Mineral Creek is situated near Elba, on the line surveyed for the 
Tacoma Eastern Railway. 

An interesting discovery of metallic arsenic was made during 1903 
at Washington Camp, Santa Cruz County, Ariz. The deposit is in 
masses attached to the walls of small pockets in dolomitic limestone. 
The size of the masses is generally small, although in one instance a 
piece weighing 20 pounds was found. This specimen is now in the 
National Museum at Washington, D. C. It is quite probable that 
other pockets containing arsenic would be found if the deposit were 
exploited, but, owing to the distance from the market and the high 
cost of fuel and labor, there appears to be no inunediate prospect of 
developing the property. 



Digitized by 



Google 



AB8BNI0. 



881 



WORIiD'S PKOBUCTION OF ARSENIC. 

The statistics of the world's production of arsenic and its compounds 
from 1895 to 1903, inclusive, are given in the following table: 

The worlds s annual production of arsenic, 1896-190S,<^ 
[Metric tons,] 





Canada. 


Germany.l* 


Italy.«» 


Japan. 


Portugal. 


Year. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Value. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Value. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Value. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Value. 


1 Tom. 
18K NIL 




«4,842 
22,725 
41,676 
48,000 
15,420 


Tons. 
3,^ 
2,682 
2,987 
2,677 
2,423 
2,414 
2.649 
2,827 
2,768 


«207.187 
221,165 
295,897 
253,528 
267,250 
268,250 
256,750 
260,000 
258,500 


Tons. 
100 
320 
200 
215 
304 
126 
6 


$8,000 
24,400 
18,600 
15,700 
26,483 
12,098 
120 
iP) 


Tons. 
7 
6 
13 
7 
5 
5 
10 
(«) 


Tans. 




1806 


Nil. 






1897 


NU. 

Nil. 
52 
275 
6S0 
726 
288 


524 
751 
1,068 
1,081 
527 
786 


•20,369 


IMB 


44,764 


18l» 


61,856 


isoo 


62,522 


im 


85,277 


mL 

1908 


88,068 

(0) 










8pain.d 


United Kingdom. « ' Tiurkey . / 


United States. « 


Year. 


Quan- 
Uty. 


Value. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Value. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Value. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Value. 


MH,.. 


184 
271 
244 
111 
101 
150 
120 

1,068 


«18,890 
27,100 
29,256 
13.320 
12,156 
18,086 
14,400 

87,040 


Tons. 
4,875 
3,674 
4,282 
4,241 
8,890 
4,146 
8,416 
2,165 
917 


•260,990 
227,415 
873,975 
268,935 
271,180 
835,140 
197,270 
96,910 


Tons, 




Tons. 




MH.. 











im 










vm 










uit 










uoo 


274 
(a*) 

(Qh) 


821,600 

iph) 






1901 


272 

1,226 

554 


tl8,000 


1908 


81,180 


19Qi 


86.001 
















' 















« Fhn offlciAl reports of the respective countries. 

* MelalUe anenlo and arsenious oxide. 
«6tatistks not available at time of publication. 

'Amnlc sulphide; in addition to these quantities, during 1908 there were produced 22 tons of 
cfpiBMQt. valued at •8,837. 
« Amnions oxide. 
/BxportB. 

# Hoi reported. 

A la 1901, 1902, and 1908 the quantity exported is reported at about 500 tons per year. 



Digitized by 



Google 



882 



lOKXRAL BESOUBOSB. 



IMPORTS. 

The significance of the importation of arsenic and its compotrndsfor 
the manufacturing industries of the United States may be appreciated 
from the statistics given in the following table for the period 1898 to 
1903, inclusive: 

ImporU of metaUic aneniCy wkUe arMnic {arsmious acid) , and anenie 8ulphide$ (orpmad 
and realgar) in the United StateSy 189S-190S. 



Vea,. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Year. 


Qoantity. Yaloe. 


1898 


Pmindt. 

6,092,377 

7,063,442 

6,984,278 

5,813,387 

7,242,004 

8,686,681 


«180,883 
218,636 
237,747 
215,281 
852,284 
870,847 


1899 


PomOM. 

9,0*0,871 

5.765,569 

6,989,668 

8,110,898 

8,867,661 


fW.711 


1894 


1900 


36(.800 


1895 


1901 


S6,HS 


1896 


1908 


«.» 


1897 


1908 


29t,«B 


1898 











PRICES. 

The average monthly price per pound of standard^ English brands of 
white arsenic during the year 1903 was as follows: January, February, 
and March, 3 cents; April, May, and June, 3i cents; July, 3 cents; 
August and September, 3i cents; October, November, and December, 
3f cents. 

Spanish white arsenic ruled lower than the English brands, due not 
to inferiority but tp the comparative newness of the brand, whidi 
required a concession in price in order to establish its introduction in 
the New York market. It was reported that in October, 1903, a 
consolidation, having for its object an advance of prices, had been 
effected among the largest European manufacturers. That there was 
good authority for the unconfirmed rumor is attested by the fact that 
prices for arsenic white (including the Spanish brand) were firmly 
maintained at 3i cents per pound during the closing quarter of the 
year. The European combination, however, did not have sufficient 
control of the situation in the American market to continue the high 
price after the close of the year, mainly for the reason that American 
competitors promptly took advantage of the higher standard of price 
and placed a considerable quantity of the domestic product on the 
market. As a natural result the price declined early in the year 19(H. 

THE ARSENIC rNT>U8TRT IN FOREIGN COUNTREBS. 

Canada. — ^The output of white arsenic in Canada during the year 
1903 was 514,000 pounds, valued at $15,420, produced at the works of 
the Canadian Gold Fields Company (Limited), Deloro, Ontario. These 
works were closed early in the year for the reason that the changed 



Digitized by 



Google 



ABSENIC. 833 

duuracter of the ore obtained from the lower levels of the mine neces- 
sitated a remodeling of the plant, and at the same time it was deemed 
desirable to enlarge the works also, so that an increased output could 
be made at a smaller cost per ton of product. It was also reported 
that the proposed consolidation of the interests of several companies 
in tiiat district was an additional factor in shutting down the works. 

The manufacture of white arsenic as a by-product in the treatment 
of arsenical gold ore has been carried on very successfully in recent 
years by the Canadian Gold Fields Company (Limited), the production 
being 113,474 pounds in 1899, 606,523 pounds in 1900, 1,346,983 
pounds in 1901, 1,600,933 pounds in 1902, and 514,000 pounds in 1903, 
the works being operated only during the first three months of the 
last-named year. At the end of this time the deposits of arsenical 
goki ore above the water line, containing only a small per cent of 
anenic, had become exhausted, and the remaining ore was essentially 
an arsenic ore carrying a small quantity of gold. A description of 
the Canadian arsenical gold ores and their metallurgical treatment is 
given in Mineral Resources for 1902. 

Id Hastings County, Ontario, there are many extensive deposits of 
arsenopyrite, generally containing gold to the extent of from 2 to 6 
pennyweights per ton. In most cases these ores are free from zinc and 
lead, and Uieref ore are exceptionally well suited to the production of 
white arsenic. The Canadian Gold Fields Company (Limited), at Deloro, 
has developed a cheap process for the direct extraction of gold from * 
this class of ore in the raw state — i. e., without previous roasting, the 
reported cost being less than $1.50 per ton of ore treated. This fact 
natorally makes the field for arsenic a very promising one, and it is 
within Uie range of possibility that in the future Canada will become 
the source of arsenic supply not only for the United States but for 
Europe as well. In the latter country most of the old works have 
been closed down on account of the high cost of production. The 
white arsenic produced from the Deloro ore is of exceptional purity, 
analysb showing from 99.6 to 100 per cent of arsenious oxide. Fur- 
thermore, its freedom from sulphur has gained for it a world-wide 
reputation for excellence.. It is stated on good authority that at 
Deloro die cost of making white arsenic is about one-third of the 
cost at Cornwall, England. This economy has resulted largely from 
the application of modern methods of treatment. 

Arsenical ores also occur at other places in Canada, notably metallic 
usenic and mispickel in Nova Scotia, and other ores in British 
Colombia, in Western Ontario, and in the Sudbury district. The 
litest reported discovery of arsenical ore is a deposit of smaltite 
(aidttl arsenide) on the line of the Simis Kaming Bailroad, now being 
hmh by the Ontario government. 

fyam. — Daring 1903 the firm of Girones y Henrich completed the 



Digitized by 



Google 



884 MINERAL BE8OUB0B8. 

construction of a smelting plant at Badalona, 6 miles north of Barce- 
lona, and began to produce white arsenic. At this plant auriferous 
arsenical py rite, argentiferous galena, and cupriferous py rite, obtained 
from the numerous small mines in the province of Gerona, are treated, 
and in the year 1903 the company treated 5,737 metric tons of mis- 
pickel, from which 1,088 tons of white arsenic, valued at 435,200 
pesetas ($82,994), were produced. 

United Kingdom. — According to the Fortieth Annual Report on 
Alkali Works, etc., by the chief inspector (published in 1904), a fur- 
ther reduction took place in the number of works registered for the 
manufacture of white arsenic in the United Kingdom. Ten years ago, 
in 1893, more than 35 works, situated in Cornwall, Devon, and South 
Wales, were engaged in the manufacture of white arsenic and an out- 
put exceeding 5,000 tons of refined material was made, but during the 
year 1903 only 22 works were in operation, yielding less than 1,000 
tons of product. 

The decline in the English white arsenic industry has been due 
largely to the competition of foreign manufacturers. In 1899 the 
Great Devon Consol arsenic mine, one of the most important in England, 
was shut down; and recently the entire metallurgical plant was dis- 
mantled and the mine shafts were allowed to become flooded by dram- 
age water. During 1903 a small output of arsenic was produced by 
this company from the waste arsenical pyrite of the duifip heaps, but 
the work was conducted on a small scale during a very limited period 
only. At the close of the year 1903 there were probably not more 
than 500 tons of '^Drayton" arsenic in stock. 



Digitized by 



Google 



TIN. 

By Joseph Stbuthebs and Joseph Hyde Pratt. 



rNTBOBUCTION. 

As in former years, there was no commercial production of tin from 
domestic ores in the United States daring the year 1903, although 
many hundred tons of metallic tin and chemical salts of tin, chiefly 
the chlorides, have been obtained by the chemical or electrolytic 
treatment of new tin scrap from tin can and fruit tin factories. But 
as tin from these sources is manifestly of secondary origin the 
quantity so produced can not be properly classified as a first mineral or 
metal product in the sense that these terms are used in the statistics 
presented by the United States Geological Survey. 

The treatment of new tin scrap, known as "detinning," has become 
of considerable importance in the United States, and at least ten com- 
panies were actively engaged in this special branch of the industry 
during the year 1903. The average yield from tin scrap is approxi- 
mately 2 per cent of metallic tin. In addition, a large number of 
smaU concerns in the principal cities recover the tin from old tin cans 
and similar material by a smelting treatment in a furnace, the tin 
being obtained in the form of solder, which is either used as a basis 
for making new solder or is treated chemically to yield metallic tin or 
tin salts. The residue of scrap iron is generally utilized in the manu- 
facture of sash weights and other castings of inferior quality of iron. 

A smelting plant for the furnace treatment of tin ores was erected 
atBayonne, N. J., during 1908. The works included four reverber- 
•tory furnaces of a combined capacity of 50 tons of oi'e a day. The 
I^ant was designed to treat tin-ore concentrates from the Malay 
Peninsula, but before the completion of the works a prohibitory tax 
was placed on the export of tin ore from the Malay Peninsula, which 
destroyed the inmiediate prospects of the company operating the plant. 

SOUTH DAKOTA AKI> WYOMING. 

Hie mineral cassiterite, tin dioxide (SnO,), containing 78.6 per cent 
of metallic tin, has been found in no less than 17 States and Territories 
of the United States, yet in only two or three places have attempts on 
A large scale been made to place the industry in this country on a pro- 
ductive footing. Notable among the discoveries of domestic tin ore 

386 



Digitized by 



Google 



386 MINEBAL RESOUBOBS. 

are the deposits at Harney Peak, in the Black Hills of South Dakota, 
and the deposits in North and South Carolina, and in Alaska. The 
development of these deposits, however, has not as yet been carried 
forward to a commercially productive stage. 

The Harney Peak Tin Mining, Milling, and Manufacturing Company 
reports, through its receiver, that during 1903 there has been no 
development of the properties beyond the regular amount of work 
required for the annual assessment. The court having jurisdiction 
would not permit the company to make any extended test of the prop- 
erties or expend any money except in connection with a part of the 
placer ground, concerning which it was necessary to satisfy the Land 
Office that tin ore was present in the gravels. There was abundant 
proof of the presenc>e of tin ore, but the experiments were on too small 
a scale to determine accurately the average quantity of tin that the 
gravels would yield. 

Although there has been no appreciable development of the Harney 
Peak properties, the Tinton Tin Company, controlled by Chicago inte^ 
ests, has been working during the last two years on its claims located 
in what is known as the "Nigger Hill" and "Bear Gulch" district 
west of Dead wood and Lead, S. Dak., and 75 miles northwest of Bar- 
ney Peak. This new district is partly in Lawrence County, S. Dak., 
and partly in Crook County, Wyo., being on the border line of the 
two States. The Tinton Tin Company has been operating a small con- 
centrating plant, but owing to the lack of proper smelting facilities m 
the United States it has shipped to European ports for treatment a 
carload of concentrates said to contain an average of 62.5 per cent of 
metallic tin. 

A thorough sampling of the deposit, subsequently confirmed by 
mill runs of several hundred tons of ore, has proved the existence of 
large blocks of ground that contain workable quantities of tin ore. 
One parcel of property, 140 by 50 feet, and another 90 by 6 feet, 
yielded an average mill return of 1.16 per cent of metallic tin, which 
was 0.16 per cent greater than the assays of hand samples made in the 
laboratory. The cassiterite in the properties of the Tinton Tin Com- 
pany occurs in pegmatite greisen or altered granite, and is generally in 
the form of coarse granules, although at times large masses of fine 
grains of the mineral are found between the strata of the schist and 
the porphyry. The concentrating mill of the company is equipped 
with crushers, rolls, and a Bartlett table. 

The quantity of ore so far treated has averaged 1 per cent of 
metallic tin and the concentrates therefrom have ranged from 62.5 to 
65 per cent of metallic tin. The metalliferous impurities present con- 
sist of a very small quantity of pyrite and iron sesquioxide. 



Digitized by 



Google 



TIN. 337 



AliASKA. 



The tin deposits of the York region, Seward Peninsular, Alaska, 
have been fully described by Arthur J. Collier,^ in Bulletin No. 229, . 
of the United States Geological Survey, published in 1904. 

In the year 1900 Mr. Alfred H. Brooks, of the United States Geo- 
logical Survey, discovered tin ore in the placers of the Anikovik 
River and its tributary, Buhner Creek. It was not until 1902, how- 
ever, that the occurrence of tin-bearing gravels was discovered on 
Buck Creek, 20 miles north of the town of York. During 1903 Mr. 
Collier reported upon the tin-ore deposits of Lost River, Buck Creek, 
and Cape Mountain, the results of his investigations being embodied 
in the bulletin referred to. Mr. Collier concludes his report for the 
Survey with a brief description of tin ores and associated minerals, 
the methods of assaying tin ore, the occurrences of tin ores in the 
United States, the production of tin in foreign countries, and a list of 
the more important papers relating to tin deposits that have been 
published in recent years. 

Several tons of tin ore have been shipped from the deposits of Buck 
Creek, and several companies have been operating their claims during 
1903. In one instance an average of 27 pounds of concentrates con- 
taining 60 per cent of metallic tin were obtained from a cubic yard of 
gravel. 

Cassiterite is found irregularly distributed over an area of 450 
square miles of the Seward peninsula, and though many discoveries 
of lode tin other than those referred to in the preceding paragraph 
have been prospected none has yet been proved of workable value. 

CAEOIilNA TIN BEIiT. 

By Joseph Hyde Pratt. 
GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION. 

What may be called the Carolina tin belt extends from Graffney, 
Cherokee County, S. C, in a general northeasterly direction across this 
county, across the southeastern corner of Cleveland County, N; C, and 
across Gaston and Lincoln counties, N. C. The tin deposits found in 
Rockbridge County, Va., may be a continuation of the Carolina tin 
belt across Catawba, Iredell, Yadkin, and Surry counties, N. C. The 
general direction of the rocks carrying the tin ore is the same as that 
of the rocks in Virginia, and the continuation of this direction from the 
Qirolina deposits would approximately cross those places in Rockbridge 
County, Va,, where tin ore has been found. The rocks that outcrop 
in Surry County, N. C, Are also in this same line and have the 

•Comer, Arthnr J.. The Tin deporita of the York Region, Alaska: Bull. U. S. Oeol. Survey, No. 229^ 

an 

M s 1903 22 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



388 KHTERAL BB8OUB0E8. 

same general direction. The principal locality in South Carolina wiiere 
tin ore has been found is about 1 mile north of Gaffney, on land 
belonging to Capt. S. S. Boss. For a distance of 13 miles from a point 
' about a mile northeast of the Ross mine no tin minerals have as yet 
been found. The next place in the belt where tin is known to occur is 
a short distance northeast of Grover, S. C, a station on the Southern 
Railroad. From this point tin ore has been found almost continuously 
for over 14 miles to within a few miles of Lincolnton, Lincoln County, 
N. C, and it is reported to have been found a few miles northeast of 
Lincolnton, but no authenticated record of this discovery can be 
obtained. No tin has thus far been found in North Carolina northeast 
of the Lincolnton locality nor in Virginia until the Rockbridge County 
deposits are reached. 

The principal deposits that have thus far been located are the Bo88 
mine at Gaffney, S. C. ; the deposits in the vicinity of the town of 
Kings Mountain, N. C; on the southern end of Chestnut Ridge, about 
2i miles northeast of Kings Mountain; and on the John E. Jones plan- 
tation, 7 miles northeast of Kings Mountain. 

The Southern Railroad passes over a considerable portion of the tin 
belt, following almost the general direction of the formation from 
Kings Mountain to Gaffney. At the former place the railroad turns 
sharply to the east, crossing the tin belt, which continues toward the 
northeast. Thus, any commercial deposits that may be developed will 
have good railroad facilities, not being more than a few miles from the 
railroad. Those on Chestnut Ridge are not over 2 miles from the rail- 
road, and the ore mined could easily be hauled to the railroad at small 
expense. If the Jones deposit proves to contain tin in any large quan- 
tity it would still be profitable to haul the ore to the railroad at Bes- 
semer City, a distance of about 4 miles, if it did not prove feasible to 
build the railroad to the deposits. 

GEOLOGY. 

The section of North Carolina and South Carolina in which the tin 
belt occurs is close to the border of the large area of Archean gneisses, 
which extend over a large portion of the western part of North Caro- 
lina and the northwestern part of South Carolina. Bordering these 
gneisses on the east there is a series of granites and other igneous 
rocks extending from Cherokee County, S. C, across Mecklenburg, 
Cabarrus, Rowan, Davidson, Guilford, Oewwell, and Person counties, 
N. C, which have a general north to northeast direction. At the 
extreme southern portion of North Carolina and extending into South 
Carolina there is between these granites and gneisses a band of meta- 
morphic rocks, consisting of slates, schists, limestones, quartzites, and 
conglomerates, whose age is unknown. These occur quite extensively 
developed in Cherokee County, S. C, and in Gaston, Lincoln, and 



Digitized by 



Google 



TIN. 339 

Gfttawba counties, N. C, and extend for a very short distance into 
Iredell County, N. C. No more of these rocks are observed in this 
northeast direction until they again outcrop in the northeastern por- 
tion of Yadkin County, whence they extend nearly across Stokes 
County and almost to the Virginia line. They are in every way iden- 
tical with those found farther south, and represent the same geological 
formation. Penetrating these rocks in Gaston and Lincoln counties, 
N. C, there is a mass of granite which is from 5 to 10 miles wide. 

The general strike of these metamorphic rocks is northeast. It is 
in this belt of metamorphic rocks in North Carolina that the tin ore is 
found. The veins carrying the tin have approximately the same strike 
as the metamorphic rocks, but near the South Carolina line there is a 
rather sharp bend to the westward, so that from there to Gaffney, 
S. C, the direction of the tin belt is about N. 55° E., and it leaves the 
schists to the east and passes through the Archean gneisses. The 
rocks in the vicinity of Gaffney, S. C, are almost entirely gneisses, 
dmilar to those found in North Carolina to the west of the metamor- 
phic rocks. These gneisses have been referred to the Archean rocks. 
There are, then, rocks of two distinct geological periods in which the 
tin veins have been found: (1) Those associated with the Archean 
gneisses, which are found in the vicinity of Gaffney, S. C, and (2) 
those associated with the schists, which are of a later period and with 
which all the North Carolina tin is found. 

As has been stated above, the main country rocks are for the most 
part crystalline schists and gneisses, the former being micaceous, 
chloritic, and argillaceous, and the latter micaceous and homblendic. 
The strike of the schistosity of these rocks is usually in a general 
northeast direction and they dip for the most part at very steep angles 
to the westward. The veins in the gneisses dip toward the east at very 
steep angles. 

The King8 Mountain region of North Carolina is geologically situ- 
ated in a band of metamorphic rocks composed of slates, schists, lime- 
stones, qoartzites, and conglomerates, whose age up to the present 
time has not been definitely determined. The width of this belt near 
Kings Mountain is about 10 miles, and it extends in a direction about 
N. 10^ to 20^ E. Just east of Lincolnton, Lincoln County, it joins 
another band of similar rock, the two being separated east of Kings 
Mountain by a mass of granite. To the west of these metamorphic 
nxdu are the Archean gneisses, with which the tin veins of Gaffney, 
S. C, are associated. The strata of these metamorphic rocks are tilted 
at very high angles to nearly vertical, and, in the resultant alteration 
and erosion to which they have been subjected, the quartzites have 
Ksisied these influences the most, so that they now form the tops of 
the peaks and ridges, such as Kings, Crowders, and Anderson moun- 



Digitized by 



Google 



840 MINERAL BESOUBCES. 

tains, which rise 500 to 1,000 feet above the average elevation. It is 
undoubtedly the mass of granite to the east that has tilted these meta- 
morphic rocks and thrown them into their present position. 

There are several amphibolite dikes that have been observed cutting 
these schists, but they have made very little change in the position 
of the schists through which they penetrated beyond a metamorphic 
action. These sedimentary rocks were tilted into their present posi- 
tion before the intrusion of these dikes, which follow partly the lami- 
nation of the schists and their general trend, but in a few instances 
cut across the schist. In two or three instances, where these dikes cut , 
across the schists, there are approximately parallel to them veins of 
tin ore. Pegmatitic dikes are also conunon throughout this belt of 
metamorphic rocks in North Carolina and in the gneisses farther to the 
west in South Carolina. They may be followed almost continuously 
from 3 miles above Grover, S. C, to the Jones mine, 7 miles northeast 
of Kings Mountain, N. C. In one place a short distance below Kings 
Mountain the pegmatitic dike is fully 200 feet wide. They follow in 
many cases the planes of the lamination of the schist, which represent 
lines of least resistance. Where the pegmatitic dikes cut across the 
schists they may be following old fractures that were produced at the 
time of the intrusion of the amphibolite dikes. 

About one-half mile below Kings Mountain the pegmatitic rocks 
begin to outcrop very boldl}' and continue in this way nearly to Grover, 
S. C, a distance of 7 miles. This mass of pegmatite varies a good 
deal in width in this distance— from 25 to 600 feet. Just in the north- 
ern edge of the town of Kings Mountain there is another strong out- 
crop of the pegmatite, but from this point there is but little seen of 
it to the northeast until Kansom's mill is reached. Here the pegmati^ 
has a width of about 200 feet. 

A cross section of the tin belt in the vicinity of Kings Mountain 
would show the following sequence: Hornblende gneiss on the western 
boundary, followed on the east by schists which are in many places 
very badly decomposed; then a narrow bed of limestone which is more 
or less siliceous; then quartzite; another bed of limestone; quartzite; 
schist; and then the granite on the extreme eastern portion of the belt, 
the cross section having a total width of about 10 miles. 

The term greisen is given to a granitoid rock composed essentially 
of quartz and muscovite or some related mica rich in fluorine, and it is 
associated with this type of rock that the cassiterite, when occurring 
as an ore of tin, is nearly always found. 

The tin ore of the Carolina belt occurs in greisen veins in the main 
mass of mica schist adjoining the gneiss on the west and extending 
in almost a continuous belt from the South Carolina line to a few 
miles northeast of Lincolnton, N. C. The width of this schist forma- 
tion is approximately 1 mile, and it is bordered on the east by the 



Digitized by 



Google 



TIN. 



341 



limestone. In South Carolina, where the belt has made a bend toward 
the west, the tin ore occurs in the greisen veins that are in gneiss. 

Where the tin occurs in the large pegmatitic dikes, it is on their 
boundaries where the fumarole action would be the greatest. It has 
been observed, however, for the most part, in lens-shaped masses of 
greisen, which are commonly found in laminated metamorphic rocks, 
especially schists, when pegmatitic dikes are intruded into these rocks, 
and are often called " augen." In these lenses in the schist that carry 
tin there is usually no feldspar present, but similar lenses are observed 
m the schist that do contain considerable feldspar. These, however, 
contain little or no tin. 

In the vicinity of Gaffney, S. C, the greisen veins carrying tin, 
which are in gneiss, all contain more or less feldspar which has been 
nearly or completely altered to kaolin. 

MINERALOQICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTER OP THE ORE. 

Oftssiterite, the tin-bearing mineral of the veins, is an oxide of this 
metal, whose formula is SnO, and which contains theoretically 78.6 per 
cent of metallic tin. When chemically pure this mineral is nearly 
white in color, but it usually contains more or less ferric oxide, and 
its color varies from reddish to brown or black, varying with the per- 
centage of iron. Arsenic is also found in this mineral, and an arsenical 
cassiterite is usually yellowish in color. 

The minei*al is tetragonal in its crystallization, and though in certain 
localities it is sometimes crj^stallized, it more often is granular and in 
rough masses, especially where it is found in commercial quantity. 
The crystals are usually prismatic and are often twinned, both as con- 
tact and penetration twins. It is a brittle mineral, having an imperfect 
cleavage, and breaking usually with a subconchoidal fracture. 

Its hardness is from 6 to 7 and its specific gravity varies from 6.16 
to 7.1, according to the amount of impurity in the mineral. When 
the percentage of iron is low the crystals are nearly transparent, but 
they become nearly opaque with the increasing percentage of iron 
oxide. Its luster is adamantine, but the crystals are usually splendent. 

There are three varieties of cassiterite, recognized as follows: 

1. Ordinary or tin-stone, which is the crystalline and massive variety 
obtained directly from the vein or from the broken-down material just 
below the vein. 

2. Wood tin, which is in botryoidal and reniform shapes, with a 
concentric structure which internally is fibrous, but very compact. 
Its color is brownish, but of mixed shades, with the resulting appear- 
tnce and color of dried wood. 

3. Stream tin is the mineral in the form of sand, as it is found con- 
centrated along the beds of streams and in the gravels below the veins. 

None of the wood tin has been found in the Carolina belt, but the 



Digitized by 



Google 



342 KINEBAL BESOUBOEB. 

ordinary or tin-stone and stream tin occur abundantly. Crystallized 
cassiterite, though not common, has been found, the better crystals 
having been obtained thus far from the Jones mine, in North Carolina. 
The only face that has been observed on any of these crystals is the 
pyramidal face, «, 111. The crystals occur both simple and twinned 
with ^, 101, as the twinning plane. The crystals are smaU, from a 
quarter to half an inch in length, and are usually of a black color. 
They are fairly well developed, with most of the edges sharp and dis- 
tinct. Some, however, are considerably elongated. All the faces are 
more or less corroded and striated. Rough, partially crystallized 
cassiterite is found at many places throughout the belt, and from the 
Faires property just south of Kings Mountain one rough crystallized 
fragment was found which weighed nearly one-half pound. The color 
of the cassiterite found in the Carolina belt varies from black to almost 
colorless, the common color being a dark brownish black, and more 
rarely a light grayish. 

Partial analyses have been made of two varieties of the cassiterite 
found in and about the town of Kings Mountain, N. C, one a light 
grayish and the other a dark brown. The results of these analyses by 
Prof. C. W. Dabney are given in the table below: 

Partial analyses of cassiterite from Kings Mountain, N. C,^ 



Constituent. 



Daric 
brown. 




Stannic oxide . . 
Tungstic oxide . 

Sulphnr .,. 

Arsenic 



a Qenth, F. A., The Minerals of North Carolina; Bull. U. S. Qeol. Survey No. 74, 1891, p. 86. 

As is seen from these partial analyses, the percentage of stannic oxide 
in the light grayish variety is much higher than that in the dark brown, 
and this is due probably to the larger per cent of iron that was in the 
latter sample. These percentages of stannic oxide would correspond 
to 74.41 per cent of metallic tin in the light gray sample and to 65.21 
per cent in the dark brown. 

There is a noticeable difference in the occurrence of the cassiterite in 
the veins of the southern portion of the belt from the occurrence toward 
the north. At the Ross mine, near Graffney, S. C, the cassiterite is 
associated with more or less feldspar (which has been partially kaolin- 
ized and in some cases completely altered to kaolin), with musoovite 
mica, and with but little quartz. Consequently at the present stage of 
the development work but little solid ore is obtained, the cassiterite being 
readily separated from the vein material or gangue minerals without the 
need of any crushing. As the belt is followed north, however, quartz 



Digitized by 



Google 



TIN. 848 

becomes more abundant, and the veins are composed principally of 
qaartz with mica and cassiterite, thus making a firm, compact ore. Thb 
latter occurrence would make a true, typical greisen. In this section of 
the belt it is conunon to find, scattered over the surface, bowlders weigh- 
ing from a few pounds to 150 or more pounds and composed of quartz, 
mica, and cassiterite. The tin, as a rule, is embedded more in the mica 
than in the quartz, and the mica in the greisen veins containing tin has 
a pale apple-green color and is fluoric. There is a small amount of 
partially altered feldspar occasionally found associated with these veins 
m the schist. This variation in the occurrence of the tin is due to the 
country rocks in which the veins occur, those to the north being in the 
mica schist, while those at the Boss mine cut a hornblende gneiss. 

A small quantity of jet black tourmaline in rough, prismatic crys- 
tals and minute needles has been found directly associated with tin 
both in the quartz and in the feldspar veins; but it is rare to find it 
directly associated with the tin. It is, however, very conmionly found 
just to one side of the vein in the schist or gneiss, and in some instances 
it represents a tourmalinization of the wall rock. A little magnetite 
is also occasionally found. Thus far no fluorite nor any of the tung- 
sten minerals have been identified in these veins, although a fraction 
of a per cent of tungstic oxide was obtained in the analysis of the 
cassiterite. 

Pyrite, an iron sulphide, is found to some extent in the schists, but 
thos far it has been observed only very sparingly directly associated 
with the tin in the greisen veins. Chalcopyrite, a copper-iron sul- 
phide, has been reported by Mr. John H. Furman,'' as occurring in 
some of the deeper tin workings. 

In the concentrates of cassiterite obtained from the washing of soil 
and gravel at various places along this belt there is a greater variety of 
associated minerals found with the tin. The associated minerals of the 
stream tin are magnetite, ilmenite (or menaccanite), garnet, monazite, 
toonnaline, quartz, a little pyrite, and chalcopyrite very sparingly. 
Of these minerals, monazite and garnet are confined principally to the 
concentrates obtained from the breaking down of the tin veins occur- 
ring in gneiss. The monazite was observed in considerable quantity 
m the fine concentrates from the stream tin obtained from the gravels 
in the vicinity of the Boss mine. Occasionally there is a considerable 
percentage of monazite found, and one lot of concentrates obtained 
from the Boss mine that was tested contained 55 per cent of tin oxide 
tnd 90 per cent of monazite, besides considerable garnet. It is in these 
aame gneisses, in Cleveland, Burke, Lincoln, Butherford, and McDowell 
coonties, N. C, that the monazite, which is mined commercially, 
originates. 

aTnng. N. Y. Actd. Sd.. YOl. 8, 188S-«9, p. 141 



Digitized by 



Google 



344 MINERAL BB80UB0ES. 

Regarding the ilmenite, which is found so abundantly associated with 
the tin in the gravels, it is to be noted that little or none of this min- 
eral has been observed associated with the tin in the veins. There are, 
however, pegmatitic veins which carry a considerable amount of ilme- 
nite, but such veins carry little or no cassiterite. 

The position of the cassiterite in the vein varies considerably. In 
some instances, as in a 2i-foot dike at the Jones mine, the tin is rather 
evenly distributed throughout the vein, while in others, as at the Boss 
mine, the tin is concentrated in seams, which are for the most part close 
to the eastern hanging wall. It is also to be noted that most of the 
tourmalinization that was observed was to the east of the tin-bearing 
veins. 

Many of the lenses of greisen, as they were followed downward, 
pinched out or narrowed to a thin seam, but usually before one gave 
out another would be encountered. 

In order to obtain some idea of the percentage of cassiterite the 
veins contained, a sample was taken across the 2i-foot vein at the Jones 
mine, which gave, on crushing and panning, a concentrate of prac- 
tically pure cassiterite, representing 5 to 6 per cent of the vein. This 
would be equal to about 3^ per cent metallic tin. An ore carrying 
such a percentage of tin would, if in quantity, make a profitable prop- 
osition. Favorably located deposits have been worked that did not 
carry over 1^ per cent of metal. 

It is to be noted, however, that (with the exception of the CJomish 
tin mines) most of the world's production of tin is obtained from 
alluvial deposits and not from vein formations. The alluvial deposits 
at the Ross mine, GrafTney, S. C, have been estimated, from the work 
that has been done, to carry about 25 pounds of metallic tin per cubic 
yard. 

PRODUCTION OF TIN FROM THE CAROLINA BELT. 

The first production of tin ore from the Carolina belt was during the 
summer and fall of 1903 and was from the Boss mine, the shipment 
consisting of 38,471 pounds of tin concentrates, which were sent to 
England for treatment. There has also been a small production at the 
Jones mine during the development work, but none of this has as yet 
been shipped. 

WORIiD'8 PRODUCTION OF TTN^. 

At the present time none of the tin used in the United States is pro- 
duced in this country, but it is all obtained from foreign sources. 
The fact that about 43 per cent of the world's production of tin is 
consumed in the United States emphasizes the importance of discover- 
ing a source of supply of this metal that can be controlled by this 



Digitized by 



Google 



TIN. 



345 



coimtrj. It is hard to obtain accurate figures regarding the total 
production of tin in the world, for the reason that in some countries 
there is little or none exported, and no reliable statistics of their min- 
eral production are collected in these countries. For instance, in 
China there is at the present time practically no exportation of tin, 
aithoagh occasionally exports have been made of Yunan tin. The 
production of tin in China has been variously estimated and has been 
put as high as 20,000 tons per annum; but although these figures are 
undoubtedly too high, no figures can be given which would more 
accurately represent the production. There is also a certain quan- 
tity of tin produced each year in Mexico, a very small part of 
which is exported to the United States; but as no accurate record is 
kept of the quantity obtained, the total can only be approximately 
represented in the world's total production. Then, again, the statistics 
r^rding the Bolivian production of the tin that is used in that coun- 
try are difficult to obtain, although accurate statistics are available of 
the quantity exported. In the following table there is given an 
approximate idea of the production of tin by countries during the last 
seven years, which shows the growth of the tin industry as well as the 
yearly production of each of the countries named: 

Production of tin in the world, 1897-190S,<^ 

V 

[Long tons.] 



Coontry. 


1897. 


1898. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1908. 


M«k7 mates 


44,914 


46,901 
14,880 
4,464 
4,648 
2,420 
656 


45,944 
14,123 
4,768 
4,018 
3,837 
970 


47,865 
16,640 
6.987 
4,268 
8,178 
760 


62,989 
19,366 
9,670 
4,125 
8,276 
450 


58,756 
18,765 
10,150 
3,950 
8,206 
350 


54,797 


BankAUkdBilllton 


14,800 


20,060 


BoUrfe 


5,506 

4,458 

8.466 

860 


9,600 


f^mv^n. Rnvlftn^l ....... T - 


4,150 

4,991 

396 


AiHbmliA 


MtacetUneoas h 






Totale 


78,499 


72,468 


73,140 


79,688 


89,875 


90,177 


98,893 







■ Minecal Industry, 1902, p. 686; Eng. & Mln. Jour., Jan. 7. 1904. p. 18. 

^Inclodes production in Austria, Qermany, Japan, Mexico; and in 1903 from South Carolina. 

« Tbto does not indode the production of China. 

As is seen from this table, there has been an increase in the total 
qaantity of tin produced each j^ear, but this is still short of the demand 
for this metal as indicated by the great decrease in the stocks of tin 
that have been kept on hand in the various countries. The production 
of the Iflalay Peninsula, the largest producer, has increased about 22 
per cent during the last seven years; that of the islands of Banka and 
Billiton, the second largest producers, has increased about 35 per cent; 
tod Bolivia, the third largest producer, has increased its production 
about 80 per cent. England's production has declined slightly, and 
the Australian production, which is fifth, has increased about 44 per 
cent 



Digitized by 



Google 



846 



MINEBAL BB8OUB0E8. 



CONSUMPTION AND IMPORTS, 

The production of tin during 1903 was consumed approximately as 
follows: Forty-three per cent by the United States, 28 per cent by 
Great Britain, 22 per cent by other European countries, and 7 per 
cent by India and China. This of course does not include the small 
quantities produced and used in Mexico, Japan, Bolivia, etc 

The tin consumed in the United States for the year ending June 30, 
1903, was obtained, according to the report of the Bureau of Statistics 
of the Department of Commerce and Labor, from the countries named 
in the following table, which also gives the quantity and value obtained 
from each: 

Imports of tin into the United States for the year ending June SO, 190S. 



Country. 



Tin in bars, blocks, {ri 
or grain or granuUU 



Quantity. Value. 



Malay Peninsula 

England 

Netherlands 

other European countries 

Australia 

Japan a 

Total 



SkoriUnu. 

23,692 

17,5«1 

1,726 

85S 

224 

424 



$12,715,875 
9,874,53 
944,304 
441,114 
U9,861 
2S,095 



44,0284 



23.615,802 



a Includes a very small amount from China and Mexico. 

It will be noticed in this table that the quantity quoted as having been 
imported from Great Britain is nearly four times that produced in 
England. This is due to the fact that a considerable portion of the tin 
produced in the Malay Peninsula is shipped from Singapore to Great 
Britain and is in turn imported from there into the United States. 
Thus it will be seen that the greater part of the tin consumed in the 
United States is mined in the Malay Peninsula. That imported from 
the Netherlands represents tin that was obtained from the islands of 
Banka and Billiton. Some of the tin imported from other European 
countries was obtained from Bolivia. 



Digitized by 



Google 



TIN. 



347 



llie following table shows the imports of tin into the United States 
in 1903 by countries: 

Imports of tin into the United States in 190S by countries. 





Coxmtrj. 


Tin In bars, block8,pIg8, 
or grain or granulated. 




Quantity. 


Value. 


United Eingdom 


Pounds. 

87,477,428 

2.867,055 

859,828 

41,750,451 

676,060 

108,080 


$10,161,067 
618,482 
226,748 
11,061,947 
152,504 
24,624 


?ifttffrf«n<1ip 


Othw Europe . . ... . .............. 


ItatttJnAlfM 


<W*^ Afdn and Occ«nlft 


^ 


OUwr foootrieii 






Total 


83,188,8*7 


22,265,867 





The following table shows the imports of tin into the United States 
from 1898 to 1903, inclusive: 

Imports of tin into the United States, 1898-1903. 



Year. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Year. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


vm 


62,748,899 
71,248,407 
60,989,502 


$8,770,221 
16,748.107 
19,456,586 


1901 


74,560,487 
85.043,353 
83.133.847 


$19,024,761 
21,263,837 
22,265,367 


im 


1902 


u» 


1908 







SOURCES OF SUPPIiY OF TIN. 

Tlie main source of supply of tin is from the Malay States, which 
famish over one-half of the total quantity consumed in the world. To 
increase this supply to any great extent is almost out of the question, 
at least for the present, on account of the necessity of making very 
decided changes in the methods of mining, which is well-nigh impos- 
sible, as most of this mining is in the hands of the Chinese. The same 
is true of the islands of Banka and Billiton, which produce one-tifth 
of all the tin used in the world. The deposits of the Chinese Empire 
are in so remote a part of the country that little is known of their 
extent or of their yearly production. This production is, however, at 
the present time, practically all consumed in China. The Bolivian 
mines, which now furnish about one-tenth of the world's supply of tin, 
btve been constantly increasing their production during the last ten 
rears, and during this time they have nearly doubled their annual out- 
pat On the other hand, the production from Tasmania and England 
bas been decreasing. 



Digitized by 



Google 



348 



MINERAL BBSOUBOES. 



STOCKS. 

Although there has been a slight increase in the total quantity of tin 
produced each year, the supply does not equal the demand. In order 
to illustrate the increase in the demand for this metal, there is shown 
in the following table the accumulated stocks of tin that were on hand 
at the end of each of the last seven years: 

Stocks of tin in England^ America^ and Holland, 189S-1902.<^ 
[Long tons.] 



Stock of foreign in London 

Foreign landing in London 

Malay Peninsula aBoat for Londpn, includ- 
ing wire advices 

Australian afloat for London, including 
wire ad vices 

Banka on warrants in Holland 

Billiton In Holland 

Billiton afloat for Holland 

Malay Peninsula stock in Holland 

Malay Peninsula afloat for Holland 

Malay Peninsula afloat for Continent 

Bolivian in Liverpool 

Total stocks 

Estimated stock in America and quantity 
afloat 

Grand total 

Trading Company's reserves of unsold 
Banka stock in Holland 



1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


1809. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


18,097 


15.146 


8,110 


5.486 


4,286 


5,114 


4.5S7 


1,174 


678 


165 


1,212 


1,297 


689 


712 


2,792 


2.500 


1,050 


2,900 


3,835 


2,780 


2,845 


525 


600 


400 


450 


350 


522 


618 


1,616 


2,877 


2,228 


1,160 


837 


696 


644 


1,688 


1,828 


1,086 


478 


880 


829 


60 


1,742 


1,193 


1,822 


1,050 


350 


440 


33S 


789 


377 


454 


100 


60 


30 




950 


100 
600 


215 
660 










650 


450 


590 




873 


650 


250 


710 


300 


550 


495 


846 


184 


90,223 


26,104 


15,840 


18,828 


12,480 


12,319 


10,508 


8,925 


4,500 


4,300 


2,500 


2,600 


6,060 


4,460 


34,148 


80,604 


20,140 


16,828 


15,030 


18,369 


14,965 


5,953 


4,833 


8,218 


4,363 


5,847 


7,251 


1,4GS 



a From the annual metal circulars of William Saigant <& Company and A. Strauss it Company: Min. 
Industry, 1903, p, 587. 

It appears from this table that there was only one year, 1901, that 
showed any increase in the accumulated stock of tin at the end of the 
year over that of the previous year. In 1901 there was an increase of 
3,339 tons of tin in the accumulated stock, but at the end of 1902 the 
stock on hand had decreased to 14,953 tons of accumulated tin, and at 
the end of 1903 the stock was still smaller. The accumulated stocks 
of tin in Holland, which had ranged from about 3,500 to 7,200 tons 
during the years 1896 to 1901, were reduced during 1902 to less than 
1,500 tons. 

These figures illu^strate emphatically the need of new sources of 
supply of tin, and show why new deposits like those in the Carolinas 
and Alaska should be thoroughly investigated. 

One result of this scarcity in the suppl}^ of tin and consequently the 
high valuation of this metal has been the utilization of old tin cans 
and other scrap tin as a source of the metal. The amount of tin that 
is recovered each year in this way, while not large, is steadily increas- 



Digitized by 



Google 



TIN. 



349 



ing, and it is becoming an industry of some considerable importance. 
There are now a number of companies that have been organized for 
this purpose, of which the more important ones are the Vulcan Detin- 
ning Company, whose plants are at Sewaren, N. J., and Streator, 111.; 
the Ammonia Company, of Philadelphia, and the Johnson and Jennings 
Company, of Cleveland and Chicago. In recovering the tin the scrap 
is digested in an alkaline solution and the tin electrolytically precipi- 
tated therefrom in the form of a powder which averages 80 per cent 
metal. 

PRICES.o 

The following table shows the average monthly prices of tin per 
pound in New York from 1899 to 1903, inclusive: 

Average monthly prices of tin per pound in New York. 



JaDoary . . 
February . 
March.... 

April 

May 

June 

July 

Aupusl 

September. 
<k'tober..., 
Xovember 
December , 

Year 



1900. 



Cents. 
22.48 
24.20 
23.82 
24.98 
25.76 
25.86 
29.63 
31. 53 
32.74 
31.99 
28.51 
25.88 



Cents. 
27.07 
30.58 
32.90 
30.90 
29.37 
30.50 
33.10 
31.28 
29.42 
2.H.M 
28. 25 
26.94 



25.12 I 29.90 

I 



1901. 
Cents. 


1902. 


Cents. 


26. 51 


23.54 


26.68 


24.07 


26. 03 


26.32 


25.93 


27.77 


27.12 


29.85 


28.60 


29.36 


27. S5 


28.38 


26.78 


28.23 


25.31 


26.60 


'26. 62 


26. 07 


26. 67 


25. e>H 


24. 3i; 


25.68 
26.79 


26. 54 



1903. 



Cents. 
28.33 
29.43 
30.15 
29.81 
29.51 
28.34 
27.68 
28.29 
26.77 
25.92 
25.42 
27.41 

28.09 



a Mill. Industry, 1904. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



By Edwabd W. Parkbb. 



INTBODUCnON. 

So far as those directly connected with the production of coal in the 
United States are concerned the record of the industry for 1903 was 
the most satisfactory one in recent years. Not only was the produc- 
tion the largest ever known, exceeding that of 1902 by over 55,000,000 
short tons, but prices for both anthracite and bituminous coal reached 
the highest point recorded in a period of twenty-four years or during 
the entire time that the statistics of coal production and value have 
been collected by the Geological Survey. Labor employed in the pro- 
docdon of coal received the highest wages known for many years, per 
unit of work performed, while in general the number of working hours 
was shortened, the average number of hours to the day being usually 
reported as eight or nine in the returns to the Survey. 

Time lost by strikes was unusually little. The principal exceptions 
to a year of general industrial peace were experienced in Alabama and 
Colorado, nearly one-half of the total time lost by strikes being borne 
by those States. The terms of settlement of the anthracite strike car- 
ried with them an agreement to abide by the awards of the Commis- 
non for a period of three years, and although there have been some 
local disafTections growing out of differences of opinion in the inter- 
pretation of the awards, a conscientious determination on the part of 
both sides to carry out the agreement in good faith has been evident. 
Such differences as have arisen have usually been settled by the board 
of conciliation, or on appeal to the umpire, Hon. Carroll D. Wright. 

There was also observed an improved condition in the transporta- 
tion facilities, and the much larger tonnage of 1903 was handled to 
better satisfaction than was that of the preceding year. This was no 
doubt in part due to tiie resumption of anthracite mining and the 
supplying of that commodity to its natural markets and the doing 
tway of the necessity for the longer hauls which were required to 
bring bituminous coals to the anthracite consumers during the strike 
period of 1902. 

Except in the anthracite region, the shorter hours and higher wages 
did not q>parently develop any greater intensity in the labor employed. 

851 



Digitized by 



Google 



352 MINERAL RESOURCES. 

In the anthracite region there was a natural desire to make up for lost 
time, and the average daily production per man inci-eased from 2.40 
to 2.41. The average number of days worked in 1903 (206) was the 
largest recorded in the fourteen years that the Survey has collected 
such data, and the total tonnage per man for the year (496 short tons) 
was also the banner record. In bituminous production, notwithstand- 
ing a continued increase in the use of mining machines and a gain m 
the percentage of machine-mined coal, the average efficiency per man 
shows a decline. In daily production per man the statistics for 1903 
show an average of 3.02 short tons as compared with 3.06 tons in 
1902, and the 3'early production per man shows a decrease from 703 
short tons to 680 tons. 

The United States retains its position as first among the coal- 
producing countries of the world, a position taken in 1899 and 
strengthened each year since that date. This country now produces 
about one-third the entire world's supply of coal, and consumes from 
97 to 98 per cent of it within its own borders. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

The completeness of the statistics contained in these reports could 
not be secured without the good will and disinterested cooperation of 
the individual coal-mine operators and the officials of corporations 
engaged in the industry. The writer desires to express his sincere 
appreciation of the assistance received from this source. Acknowledg- 
ments are also due to the secretaries of boards of trade and other local 
authorities for contributions to the portion of this report included 
under the caption of Coal Trade Review. Recognition of these by 
name is given in connection with their contributions. The report on 
the production of Pennsylvania anthracite has been, as for several 
years past, prepared by Mr. William W. Ruley, Chief of the Bureau 
of Anthracite Statistics in Philadelphia. 

UNIT OF MEASUREMENT. 

The standard unit of measurement adopted for this report is the 
short ton of 2,000 pounds, although it is necessary in a few instances 
to use the long ton. All of the anthracite product is mined and sold 
upon the basis of the long ton of 2,240 pounds, and the laws of Mary- 
land require the use of the long ton in that State. Hence, when con- 
sidering the production of Pennsylvania anthracite the long ton is 
used, and this unit is also employed in the table showing the shipments 
of bitunfinous coal from the Cumberland region. The long ton is also 
used in the statistics of imports and exports. In all other cases where 
the production is reported in long tons the figures have been reduced 
to short tons, and unless otherwise expressly stated the short ton is 
meant when any quantity is expressed in the text. 



Digitized by 



Google 



COAL. 353' 

CO All FTEIiDS OF THE UNTTBD STATES, 

The coal areas of the United States are divided, for the sake of con- 
yenience, into two great divisions, anthracite and bituminous. 

The areas in which anthracite is produced are confined almost exclu- 
sively to the eastern part of Pennsylvania, and as a usual thing, when 
the anthracite fields of the United States are referred to, those of east- 
em Pennsylvania are considered. This region is included in the 
counties of Susquehanna, Lackawanna, Luzerne, Carbon, Schuylkill, 
Columbia, Northumberland, Dauphin, and Sullivan, and underlies an 
area of about 484 square miles. In addition to these well-known 
anthracite fields of Pennsylvania there are two small areas in the 
Rocky Mountain region where the coal has been locally anthracited, 
although the production from these districts has never amounted to 
as much as 100,000 tons in any one year. One of these localities is in 
Gunnison County, Colo., and the other in Santa Fe County, N. Mex. 
The coal, although only locally metamorphosed, is a true anthracite, 
and of a good quality. In previous years some coal which was classed 
as anthracite was mined and sold in New England. The productive 
area was confined to the eastern part of Rhode Island and the counties 
of Bristol and Plymouth, in Massachusetts. This product, however, 
is in reality a graphitic and not an anthracite coal, and is no longer 
mined for fuel purposes. The production in the last few years has 
been included with the graphite production. 

The bituminous areas are scattered widely over the United States, 
and include altogether an area of something over 335,000 square miles. 
They are divided into the following subdivisions: 

(1) The Triassic field, embracing the coal beds of the Triassic or 
New Bed Sandstone formation in the Richmond Basin, in Virginia, 
and in the coal basins along the Deep and Dan rivers in North Caro- 
lina; (2) the Appalachian field, which extends from the State of New 
York on the north to the State of Alabama on the south, having a 
length northeast and southwest of over 900 miles and a width ranging 
from 30 to 180 miles; (3) the Northern field, which is confined exclu- 
sively to the central part of Michigan; (4) the Central field, embrac- 
ing the coal areas in Indiana, Illinois, and western Kentucky; (5) the 
Western field, including the coal areas west of the Mississippi River, 
south of the forty -third parallel of north latitude and east of the Rocky 
Mountains; (6) the Rocky Mountain field, containing the coal areas in 
the States and Territories lying along the Rocky Mountains; (7) the 
Pacific Coast field, embracing the coal districts of Washington, Ore- 
goo, and California. 

By far the most important of these, from a productive standpoint, 
is the Appalachian system, which includes the areas contained in west- 
ern Pennsylvania and in Ohio, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, 
M K 1903 ^23 



Digitized by 



Google 



3*54 



MINEBAL BE80UR0ES. 



eastern Tennessee and Kentucky, Greorgia, and Alabama. This r^on 
contains an area underlain by coal of 70,807 square miles, wid it pro- 
duced in 1903 185,600,161 short tons, or 65.6 per cent of the total 
bituminous product of the United States. Next in importance is the 
Central tield, which contains 58,000 square miles and produced in 1903 
52,130,856 short tons, or 18.43 per cent of the total. The Western coal 
field, the third in productive importance, contains 94,076 square miles, 
and produced in 1903 23,171,692 short tons, or 8.2 per cent of the 
total. The Rocky Mountain region is the largest in point of size, 
having a little over 100,000 square miles of area, and produced in 1903 
16,981,059 short tons, or 6.01 per cent of the total. 

For a more extended description of the coal-producing areas of the 
United States the reader is referred to the Twenty-second Annual 
Report of the Survey, Part III. 

The following table shows the approximate areas of the coal fields 
in the various States, grouped according to the divisions mentioned 
above, with the total output from each, from 1898 to 1903: 



Coalfields of the United SUUes and their produdum, 1898-190S, 



Anthracite. 

Pennsylvania 

Colorado and New Mex 
ico 

BituminouB.a 

Trianic: 

Virginia 

North Carolina 

Appalachian: 

Pennsylvania 

Ohio 

Maryland 

Vli^nia 

West Virginia 

Eastern Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Georgia 

Alabama 

Northern: 
Michigan 

Central: 

Indiana 

Western Kentucky ... 
llUnote 



a Includes brown ooal 
anthracite. 



Area. 



Sq.mila. 
484 

16 



600 



1896. 



Short Urns. 
58.882,644 

47,095 



58,429,789 60,514,201 



270 
800 



15,800 

12,000 

510 

1,850 

17,280 

10,800 

4,400 

167 

8,600 



70,807 



9,800 

5.800 
42,900 



58,000 



88,938 



65,165,183 
14,516,867 
4,674,884 
1,787,831 
16,700,999 
1,601,076 
3.022,896 
244,187 
6,585,288 



114,289,156 



U,800 815,722 



4,920,743 
2,296,832 
18,599,299 



25,816,874 



1899. 



Short tOM. 
60,418,005 

96,196 



28,858 



74,160,175 
16,500,270 
4,807,896 
2,104,834 
19,262,995 
1,871,550 
8,880,669 
288,111 
7,608,416 



624,706 



6,006.523 
2,785,706 
24,439,019 



33.181.247 



1900. 



Short tons. 
57,867,915 

98,404 



67,466,819 



57,912 12,000 



79,842,326 
18,988,160 
4,024,688 
2,368,576 
22,647,207 
2.222,867 
8,509,562 
816,657 
8,894,275 



129,848,906142,296,208 



849,475 



6,484,086 

8,106,097 

25,767,981 



1901. 



Short tons, 
67,4n,667 

66,869 



67,638,686 41,467,532 74,679.799 



82,805,946 
20,943,807 
5,118,127 
2,726,878 
24,068,402 
2,268,882 
8,638,290 
842,825 
9,099,062 



150,601.214 



1,241,241 



6,918,226 

8,201,094 

27,331,662 



35,358,164 37,460,8n 



1902. 



Short tons. 
41,878,595 

98,987 



16,206 
28,000 



98,574,367 

23,519,894 
6,2n,609 
8,166,787 

24,570, 

8,019,767 

4,382,968 

414,068 

10,854,570 



173,274,861 



964,718 



9,446,424 
8,747,227 
82,989,878 



46,183,024 



190S. 



ShorttOM. 
74,607,068 

72,781 



18,064 
17,809 



108,117,178 

24,888,101 

4,846,166 

8,488,228 

29,8S7,2«1 

8,168,972 

4.796,004 

416,961 

11,664,3M 



185,000,161 



1.867,619 



10.794,692 
4,879,060 
86.957.104 



52.180,856 



or lignite, semianthractte, semibitomlnous, etc., and scattering lots of 



Digitized by 



Google 



GOAL. 



855 



CM fields of the United States and their production, 1898-1903— Continued. 



B iwmim t m$ Continued. 
Wotern: 

Iowa 

Mtaouri...... 

N^iuka 



Arkanau 

iDdian Ten1lof7 . 
Texas 



Bodcy Mountain, etc.: 

North Dakota 

Montana : 

Wyoming 

Clah 

Oolaiado 

New Mexico 

Idaho 

Netada 



PadiSc coast: 
WadiJngton . 

Oregoo 

Caliibmia... 



Total production, in- 
ehKun^ colliery 
consumption 



Area. 



Sq.mik9. 
20,000 
23,000 

3,200 
20,000 

1,728 
14, M8 
11,300 



1808. 



Short tons. 
4,618,842 
2,688,821 



3,406,5&5 

1,206,479 

1,381.466 

686,734 



94.076 13,987,397 



28,620 
32,000 
16,500 

2,000 
18,100 

2,890 



100,110 



450 
320 
280 



1,050 



83,895 

1,479,803 

2,868,812 

503,709 

4.053,210 

968,830 

1,' 



10,043,798 



1,884,671 

58,184 

160,288 

1,600 



2,104,648 



219,976.267 



1899. 



ShorttOM. 
6,177,479 
3,025,814 



3,852,267 
843.554 

1,537,427 
883,832 



1900. 



Short tons. 
6,202,939 
3,540,108 



4,467,870 

1,447,945 

1,922,298 

968,373 



15,320.373 17.549,528 



98,809 
1,496,451 
3,837,892 
786,049 
4,718,590 
1,012,152 
20 



129,883 
1,661,775 
4,014,602 
1,147,027 
5,182,176 
1,263,083 
10 



11,949,463 13.396,556 



2,029,881 

86,888 

160,972 

1,200 



2,278,941 



2,474,098 

68,864 

171,708 

1,200 



2,705,865 



253,741,192269,684,027 



1901. 



Short tons. 
5,617,499 
3,8U2,088 



1902. 



Short tons. 
5,904,766 
3,890,154 



4,900,628 5,266,066 

1,816,136 1,943,932 

2,421,781 2,820,666 

1,107,963 901,912 



19,665,985, 20,727,495 



166, 601 ; 

1,396,081 
4,485,374j 
1.322,614 
6,668,8861 
1,050,806 



14,090,362 



2,678,217 

69,011 

161,079 

1,300 



2,799,607 



226.511 
1,560,823 
4,429,491 
1,574.521 
7,848,732 
1,007,437 
2,030 



16,149,545 



2,681,214 
66,648 
84,984 
2,212 



2,834,058 



293, 299, 816 301, 590, 439 857, 866, 416 



1908. 



Short tons. 
6,419,811 
4,238,686 



5,839,976 

2,229,172 

3,517,388 

926,759 



23,171,692 



278,645 
1,488,810 
4,635,293 
1,681,409 
7,381,463 
1,611,189 
4,250 



16,981,059 



8,193,273 

91,144 

104,673 

747 



3,889,887 



Total production of each field, 1887-1908. 



Area square miles. 

rear. 

IW 

1»8 

im 

\m 

WM 

MK. 

vm 

vm 

i» 

vm 

vm 



Anthracite. 



600 



Short Urns. 
39,648,266 
43,971,688 
46,600,487 
46,468,641 
50,666,931 
52,687,467 
54,061,121 
61,992,671 
58,066,616 
64,425,573 
62,680.756 
63,429,789 
60,514,201 
57,466,819 
67.638,636 
41,467,632 
74,679.799 



Bituminous. 



TriaflBic. Appalachian. Northern, 



1,070 



Short tons. 
80,000 
83,000 
49,633 
29,608 
87,646 
48,889 
86,878 
68,979 
82,682 
103,488 
116,950 
88,938 
28,353 
57,912 
12,000 
39,206 
36,393 



70,807 



Short tons. 
56,888,088 
60,966,245 
62,972,222 
73.008,102 
77,984,563 
83,122,190 
81,207,168 
76,278,748 
90,167,596 
90,748,306 
97,128,220 
114,239,156 
129,843,906 
142,298,208 
150,501,214 
173,274,861 
185,600,161 



11,300 



Short tons. 

71,461 

81,407 

67,481 

74,977 

80,807 

77,990 

45.979 

70,002 

112,322 

92,882 

223,592 

816,722 

624,708 

849,475 

1,241,241 

964,718 

1,367,619 



Digitized by 



Google 



356 



MINERAL BESOUB0E8. 



Toted production of each field, 1887-190S — Continued. 



Bitomlnons. 



Central. 



Western ^<***y ^^^' ^^"^^ 



Area square miles. . 

Year. 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1896 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 

1900 

1901 

1902 

1903 



68,000 



94,076 



43,610 



1,0M 



Short tons. 
14,478,883 
19,173,167 
16,240,314 
20,075,840 
20,327,323 
23,001.653 
25,502,809 
22.430,617 
23,599,469 
26,539,867 
26,414,127 
25,816,874 
33,181,247 
35,358,164 
37,450,871 
46.133,024 
52,180,856 



Short toM. 
10,172,634 
11,&42,764 
10,036,356 
10,470.439 
11.023,817 
11,636,185 
U, 651. 296 
11,503,623 
11,749,803 
11,769,966 
13,164.059 
13,988,436 
15,320,373 
17,549,528 
19,665,965 
20,727,495 
23,171.692 



ShorttOM, 
3,646,280 
4,583.719 
5,048.413 
6,205,782 
7,245,707 
7,577.422 
8.468,360 
7,176,628 
7,998,5M 
7,925,280 
8,8^1,182 
10,042.759 
11,^9,463 
13,388,556 
14,090,962 
16,149,&15 
16,981.069 



Short foM. 
854,308 
1,88s. 750 
1.214,757 
1.435,914 
1,201,376 
1,338, !» 
l,S79,m 
1,221,238 
1, 340.518 
1,8^1,001 
1,641.779 
2,104,613 
2,278,941 
2,705,«5 
2,799,607 
2.884,068 
3,389,837 



In order to show the development of the six principal bituminous 
areas since 1887, the following table has been prepared which gives the 
quantity produced in each field in that year and also in 1900, 1901, 1902, 
and 1903, with the percentages of the total contributed by each, and 
with the increases in 1903 as compared with 1902 and with 1887: 
Production of the «ir principal bituminous coalfields in 1887, 1900, 1901, 1902, and 19GS 

compared. 



Field. 



Appalachian — 

Central 

Western 

Northern 

Rocky Mounudn 
Pacific coast 



1887. 



Quantity. 



Per 
cent of 
total. 



Short tons. 

55,888,088 

14,478,883 

10.172,634 

71,461 

3,646,280 

854,808 



63.11 

16.5 

11.49 

.08 

4.15 

1 



1900. 



Quantity. 



Per 
cent of 
total. 



Short Urns. 

142,298,208 

85,358,164 

17,649,628 

849,475 

13,398,556 

2,705,865 



67 

16.6 

8.8 

.4 

6.8 

1.27 



1901. 



Quantity. 



Per 
cent of 
total. 



Short torn. 
150,601,214 
37,450,871 
19,666,985 
1,241,241 
14,090,862 
2,799,607 



66.7 
16.6 

8.7 
.5 

6.2 



1902. 



Quantity. 



ShoHtoM, 
173.274.881 
46.133.024 
20.727,496 
964.718 
16.149,545 



Per 

cent of 
total 



1.2 I 2.834,058 



66.60 
17.78 
7.97 
.37 
6.21 
1.07 



Field. 


1903. 


Increase in 1903 over 

1887. 


Increase in 1908 over 
1902. 


Quantity. 


Per cent 
of total. 


Quantity. 


Percent 


Quantity. 


Percent 


Appalachian 


ShoHtons. 
185.600,161 

62,180,856 

23,171,692 

1,367,619 
16,981,059 

8,889,837 


65.64 
18.43 
8.20 
.48 
6.01 
1.20 


Short Urns. 
129,712,073 

87,655,662 

12,999,068 

1,296,158 
13,334,779 

2,535,629 


232.09 
260.04 
127.78 
1,813.79 
866.70 
296.79 


ShoHtons. 
12.325,800 

6.001.411 

2.444.197 

402.901 

881,514 

565,779 


7.U 


Central 


13 


Western 


U.79 


Northern 


4L7S 


Rocky Mountain. 


5.14 


Pacific coast 


19.61 







Digitized by V^OOQIC:! 



COAL. 357 

PBODUCnON. 

Total production in 1903, 357,356,416 short tons; spot value, 
$603,724,381. 

Pennsylvania anthracite. — Total production in 1903, 66,613,454 long 
tons (equivalent to 74,607,068 short tons); spot value, 1152,036,448. 

Bituminous and lignite. — ^Total production, 282,749,348 short tons; 
spot value, $351,687,933. 

Compared with 1902 the total output of all kinds of coal in the 
United States during 1903 exhibits an increase of 55,765,977 short tons 
in quantity and of $136,692,312 in value. Three fifths of this total 
.increase in quantity, 29,672,744 long tons (or 33,233,473 short tons) 
was in the production of Pennsylvania anthracite, and two-fifths, or 
22,532,504 short tons, was made up by the increased output of bitu- 
nunous coal and lignite. Of the increase in value, Pennsylvania 
anthracite contributed $75,862,862, and bituminous coal and lignite 
$60,829,450. Owing to the great strike which prevailed in 1902 the 
production in that year does not present a fair standing for compari- 
son. As compared with 1901, when more normal conditions prevailed 
in the anthracite region, the production in 1903 shows an increase of 
6,370,894 long tons, or a little over 10 per cent, while as compared 
with the average yearly production of the previous five years from 
1896 to 1900, inclusive, the average production for the last three years, 
notwithstanding the restricted output in 1902, showed an increase of 
4,933,582 long tons. The value of the anthracite production in 
1903 was almost exactly double that of 1902, and showed an increase 
of $39,532,428, or 35 per cent, over 1901. The average price per ton 
for the marketed sizes of anthracite coal at the mines in 1903 was 
$2.50, as compared with $2.35 in 1902 and $2.05 in 1901. The coal 
nsed at the mines in the anthracite region being composed of culm, on 
which no value was placed, this factor is not considered in the placing 
of the value on the total production. 

The value of the bituminous product in 1903 exceeds that of 1902 
by $60,829,450, or 21 per cent, and that of 1901 by $115,265,884, or 
nearly 50 per cent. The quantity of bituminous coal produced in 1903 
exceeded that of 1901 by 56,921,199 short tons, or 25 per cent. As 
haw been previously stated, in amount of production, and particu- 
larly in the greatly enhanced values, the coal mining industry was 
highly satisfactory to everybody concerned except consumers. In the 
nine years from 1894 to 1903 the production of coal in the United 
States has almost exactly doubled, while in eighteen years since 1886 
it has more than trebled. The total coal production of the United 
States amounted to 100,000,000 short tons for the first time in 1882. 
h 1890, or eight years later, it exceeded a total production of 150,- 
W0,000 tons. Seven years later, in 1897, it had increased another 
50,000,000, and reached a total of a little over 300,000,000 in 1902. 



Digitized by 



Google 



358 mXEBAL BESOHBOES. 

The gain of over 50,000,000 tons in 1903 is thus shown to have been 
equal to the total increase in the five years from 1887 to 1892, in the 
seven years from 1890 to 1897, and in the eight years from 1882 
to 1890. 

This great increase in the production of coal illustrates strikingly 
the industrial development of the United States. Groing back for a 
period of a little over fifty years, or to the middle of the last century, 
and comparing the statistics of coal production with the increased 
population, it is found that in 1850, according to the United States 
census for that year, the production of coal amounted to 6,445,681 tons 
when the population of the country amounted to 23,191,876 persons. 
The per capita production of coal in that year is thus seen to have been 
0.278 ton. In 1860, or ten years later, the population was 31,443,321 
persons and the coal production amounted to 14,333,922 tons, or an 
average of 0.514 ton per person. 

At the census of 1870 the population of the United States amounted 
to 38,558,371; the coal production in that year amounted to 36,806,560 
short tons, a per capita average of 0.955 ton. Ten years later, when 
the population was 50,155,783, the coal output amounted to 76,157,945 
short tons, or 1.52 tons per capita. In 1890 the population had grown 
to 62,622,250, an increase of 25 per cent over 1880, while the coal pro- 
duction had grown to 157,770,963 short tons, or a per capita output of 
2.05 tons. At the taking of the Twelfth Census in 1900 the increase 
in population amounted to 21 per cent, the total number of persons 
reported being 76,303,387, while more than 70 per cent had been 
added to the coal production, with a total of 269,684,027 short tons, 
or an average of 3.53 for each inhabitant. In other words, while the 
population from 1850 to 1900 has shown an increase of 230 per cent, 
the production of coal has increased 4,084 per cent. Estimating tie 
population of the United States in 1903 to be 81,000,000 people, the 
per capita production for that year is found to be 4.4 tons. 

Of the thirty States and Territories in which coal was produced in 
1903 there were twenty-seven in which the coal production increased, 
and three in which a decrease was shown. The most notable increase 
outside of that made in the production of Pennsylvania anthracite, was 
the gain shown by West Virginia, whose production increased 4,766,415 
tons. The Pennsylvania bituminous production increased 4,542,811 
tons and Illinois showed an increase of 4,017,731 tons. The three 
States in which decreases were shown were North Carolina, Mary- 
land, and Montana. 

Since 1889 the United States has stood at the head of the coal-pro- 
ducing countries of the world, the output in 1903 being equal to 37 
per cent of the entire world's production. It exceeds that of Great 
Britain, which stands second, by 99,381,811 short tons, or 38.6 per 
cent, and was almost double that of Germany, which stands tiiird as a 
coal producer. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



COAL. 859 

The production of bituminous coal by the use of undercutting 
machines continued to show an increase in somewhat greater propor- 
tion than the increase in the total bituminous tonnage. The statistics 
for 1903 show tliat during that year there were 6,658 undercutting 
machines in use, as compared with 5,418 machines in 1902, 4,341 in 

1901, and 3,907 in 1900. The total production by the use of machines 
in 1903 amounted to 77,974,894 short tons, against 69,611,582 tons in 

1902, and 57,843,335 tons in 1901, and 52,784,523 tons in 1900. The 
percentage of the machine-mined product to the total in the States in 
which mining machines were used, has increased from 25.15 in 1900 to 
25.68 in 1901, to 27.09 in 1902, and to 28.18 in 1903. Of the total 
Dumber of machines in use in 1903, 3,887 were of the pick or 
"puncher" type, 2,717 were chain breast, and 54 were long wall. 
The largest number of both pick and chain machines were in use in 
Pennsylvania, while more than 50 per cent of the total number of long- 
waU machines in use were employed in the mines of Missouri. 

The statistics of labor employed in 1903 show that the total number 
of employees in the coal mines of the United States of that year were 
566,260 men and boys, who worked an average of 220 days. In 1902 
there were 518,200 men employed for an average of 197 days, while in 
1901 the numl>er of men employed was 485,544 and the average work- 
ing time was 216 days. The number of men employed in the anthra- 
cite mines in 1903 was 150,483, and in the bituminous mines the num- 
ber of employees amounted to 415,777. The average working time 
in the anthracite mines was 206 and in the bituminous mines 225 days. 
In 1902 the number of men employed in the anthracite mines was 
148,141, and the average working time was 116 days. The number of 
men employed in the bituminous mines in 1902 was 370,059; the aver- 
age working time was 230 days. The average working time in the 
anthracite coal mines of Pennsylvania is considerably less than that 
made by the bituminous miners. During the last six years the aver- 
age working time among the anthracite mines has been less than 180 
days, while in the bituminous mines the average has been something 
more than 225. The best records made in the anthracite mines during 
the last ten years were in 1895 and 1901, when the men averaged 196 
days, and in 1903 when an average of 206 days was made. In the 
bituminous mines the best records were made in 1899 and 1900, in each 
of which years the average was 234 days. 

Nearly the entire output of both anthracite and bituminous coal of 
the United States is consumed within the country. The total exports 
in 1903 amounted to 9,309,550 short tons, which, deducted from the 
production of 357,356,416 tons, shows the domestic consumption to 
have amounted to 348,046,866 short tons. If to this are added the 
imports, which in 1903 amounted to 3,885,650 short tons, the total 
oonsumption of coal in the United States, eliminating the stocks on 
hand, is shown to have been 351,982,516 short tons. 



Digitized by 



Google 



360 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



Id considering the coal product of the United States these reports 
include not only the coal marketed either by shipment to distant points 
or sold locally, but that consumed by mine employees and by the mine 
owners in the operation of the collieries. The latter factor is usually 
considered and reported as colliery consumption. There are occa- 
sional exceptions in the bituminous fields where operators, who use 
only slack, an otherwise waste product, do not report this item in their 
statement of production, and do not consider it of any value; it is 
not considered as a portion of the mine product nor is the miner paid 
for it in wages. Such exceptions are few and the amount is negligible. 
The amount of coal consumed in the manufacture of coke is also con- 
sidered in this report. This amounted in 1903 to 33,801,418 short 
tons, a slight decrease compared with 1902, when the amount made into 
coke was 34,169,730 short tons. The coal shipped to market, used in 
the manufacture of coke, and sold locally, which are considered as the 
marketable product, amounted in 1903 to 344,722,763 short tons, 
as compared with 291,594,578 in 1902. The colliery consumption 
in the anthracite region, which is not considered in the value of the 
anthracite product, ranges from 8 to 10 per cent of the total anthra- 
cite output. In 1902 the proportion was somewhat larger than usual 
on account of the amount of coal used in keeping the fans and pumps 
in operation during the strike while the mines were idle. About 
12 per cent of the anthracite total product in 1902 was used for this 
purpose. In the bituminous mines the amount used for colliery con- 
sumption averaged between 1^^ and 2 per cent of the total product 

The statistics of the production of coal in the United States in 1902 
and 1903, by States, with the distribution of the product for consump- 
tion, the total value, and the statistics of the labor employed, are 
shown in the following tables: 

Chal production of the United States in 1902 ^ by States, 



State. 



Arkansas 

California and 
Alaska 

Colorado 



Georgia and North 
Carolina 



Idaho 

nUnolfl 

Indiana 

Indian Territory 



Loaded at 
mines for 
shipment. 



Sold to 
local 
trade 
and used 
by em- 
ployees. 



Short tons. 
7,271,146 
1,864,912 

79,765 
5,875,215 

299,247 



29,299,187 
8,649,144 
2,587,100 



ShoH 
tons. 

78,908 

13,639 

8,563 
282,027 

1,800 
2,080 
2,691,770 
586,899 
25,996 



Used at 
mines for 

steam 
and heat 



Made 
Into coke, 



Short 
tons. 

244,228 

65,881 

8,878 
181,546 

5,580 



1.048,381 
259,681 
96,017 



Short 
tons. 

2,760,296 



1,562,555 
130,456 



85 

700 

111,551 



Total 
quantity. 



87,196 
7,401,348 

487,088 

2,080 

82,939,378 

9,446,424 

2,820,666 



Total 
value. 



Short tons. 
10, 354, 570 $12, 419, 666 
1.943,932 2,539,214 



273,398 
8,397,812 

628,518 

5,180 

33,945,910 

10,399,660 

4,265,106 



Aver- 
age 

price 
per 

ton. 



Aver- 
age 
num 
berof 
day» 
ac- 
tive. 



fl.20 
1.81 

3.14 
1.13 

1.42 
2.50 
1.03 
1.10 
1.51 



256 

188 



802 
261 



8U 
74 



205 
282 



Aver 
age 
num- 
ber of 
em- 
ploy- 
ees. 



16.489 
8,595 

217 
8.966 

795 

20 

47, 4U 

15,467 

6^6i74 



Digitized by 



Google 



COAL. 



361 



Cbal production of the United States in 1902, by l^ates — Ck)ntmaed. 



State. 



Iowa . 



Kentucky 

MAryland 

ICichigui 

MiMoari 

Montan* 

New Mexico 

North Dakota ... 

OUo 

Oregon 

PeniuylTania ... 

T«iuieaee 

Texas , 

rtah 

Virginia 

Waddngton , 

West Virginia... 
Wyoming 



Loaded at 
mincB for 
shipment 



Total bitu- 
minous .. 

Pennsylvania an- 
thracite 



Qxand total. 



Short tons. 

5,089,688 

4,941,286 

6,141,886 

6,187,175 

818,687 

3.608,998 

1,385,100 

978,600 

182,002 

22,282,404 

42,591 

72,938,204 

8,417,409 

887,167 

1,277,343 

1,444,560 

2,498,177 

19,847,821 

4,144,460 



Sold to 
local 
trade 
and used 
by em- 
ployees. 



Used at 
mines for 

steam 
and heat 



Short 
tons. 

678,740 

227,826 

888,584 

48,631 

117,978 

318,992 

40,719 

19,614 

86,689 

,041,112 

11,232 

,429,668 

88,369 

6,691 

21,531 

20,916 

29,287 

623,903 

87,101 



'212,878,3988,666,862 
85,254,4541,116,184 



247,642,852.9,781,996 



Short 
tons. 

136,488 
95,287 

132,812 
35,808 
28,063 
67,169 
39,023 
33,180 
8,870 

242,594 
11,825 
1,541,454 
63,283 
9,154 
45,432 
82,447 
97,003 

267,886 

209,456 



6,001,864 
4,994,007 



9,996,861 



Made 
into coke. 



Short 
tons. 



1, 
168,702 



95,981 
22,569 



8,784 



22,665,141 
813,907 



230,216 
1,685,071 

56,747 
3,831,717 

88,486 



Total 
quantity. 



Short tons. 

5,904,766 

6,266,066 

6,766,964 

5,271,609 

964.718 

3,890,154 

1,560,823 

1,048,763 

226.511 

23,619,894 

65,648 

98,574,367 

4,382,968 

901,912 

1,674,521 

3,182,998 

2.681,214 

24,670,826 

4.429,491 



34, 160, 730|260, 216, 844 290, 
41,378,606 



84,169,780301,590,439 



Total 
value. 



18,660,287 
6,862,787 
6,666,967 
5,679,869 
1,653,192 
5,374,642 
2,443,447 
1.600,230 
325,967 

26,958,789 
160,075 
106.082,460 
5,399,721 
1,477,245 
1,797,454 
2,543,595 
4,572,295 

24,748,668 
5,286,339 



1,858,483 
76,173,686 



367,082,069 



Aver- 
age 
price 
per 
ton. 



fl.47 
1.30 

.98 
1.06 
1.71 
1 

1.57 
1.43 
1.44 
1.16 
2.44 
1. 

1.23 
1.64 
1.14 

.80 
1.72 
1.00 
1.18 



1.12 
1.84 



1.22 



Aver- 
age 
num- 
ber of 
days 
ac- 
tive. 



227 
220 
209 
242 
171 
202 
270 
217 
213 
200 
234 
248 
230 
267 
259 
298 
275 
205 
248 



280 
116 



197 



Aver- 
age 
num- 
ber of 
em- 
ploy- 



12,434 
9,461 

13.727 
5,827 
2,844 
9,789 
1,938 
1,849 
402 

38,965 
265 
112,680 
8,760 
2,369 
1,826 
3,912 
4,404 

35,500 
6,250 



870,069 
148,141 



518,200 



Cbal production of the Untied States in 190S, by States. 



State. 



Loaded at 
mines for 
shipment 



Sold to local 
trade and 
used by em- 
ployees. 



Used at 

mines for 

steam and 

heat 



Made into 
coke. 



Total 
quantity. 



ArkansM 

CUifomia and Alaska 

Colorado 

G<ocgia and NOTth Carolina 

Mabo 

Illinois 

IttUaiM 

Indian Territory 

Iowa 

EaDMB 

CeotDcky 

Xarylaod 

MVli^n 

yOmsmA 

Xontana 

KevMczioo 

Bonh Dakota 



Short tons. 

8,847,607 

2,142.988 

83.889 

6,618,833 

281,798 

3,000 

82,911,291 

9,827,874 

8,329,610 

6,879,261 

6,609,846 

6,806,828 

4,762,716 

1,208,166 

8,814,688 

1,287,322 

1,414,188 

214,671 



Short tons. 

138,201 

20,408 

7,565 

243,312 

1,150 
2,785,473 
689.925 
82.610 
887,745 
229,686 
880,449 
58.022 
128,677 
800,101 
60,904 
24,609 
W,918 



Short tons. 

805,269 

66,776 

14,526 

188,566 

6,011 

100 

1,232,204 

324,138 

78,995 

162,815 

96,834 

169,589 

40,427 

40,776 

128,797 

68,428 

40,276 

4,061 



Short tons. 
2,863,347 



1,372,892 
146,652 



28,136 
3.255 
76,173 



8,711 
192,671 



87,166 
62,718 



Short ions. 

11,654,324 

2,229,172 

105,420 

7,423,602 

484,260 

4,260 

86.967,104 

10,794,692 

8,617,388 

6,419,811 

6,839.976 

7,688,032 

4.846,166 

1,867.619 

4,238,586 

1,488,810 

1,641,781 

278,646 



Digitized by 



Google 



362 



MIKEBAL BESOUBOES. 



Cbal production of the United States in 1903, by States— Conimned. 



state. 



Short Urns. 

Ohio 23,098.792 

Oregon 67,192 

Pennsylvania 77,967,851 

Tennessee 8,763,428 

Texas 880,256 

Utah 1.801,766 

Virginia 1,623,077 

Washington 2,978,819 

WestVirginia 24,056,649 

Wyoming 4,371,611 



Loaded at 
mines for 
shipment. 



Total bituminous. . . 
Pennsylvania anthracite. 



Qrand total. 



283,060,886 
66,762,592 



299,818,428 



Sold to local 
trade and 
osed by em- 
ployees. 



Short Ions. 

1,867,494 

9,848 

1,572,156 

67,388 

34,021 

26,354 

30,153 

38,541 

584,927 

47,761 



9,758,181 
1,349,736 



11,107,917 



Used at 

mines for 

steam and 

heat. 



Made into I Total 
coke. quantit;. 



Shoritons. 

375,742 

14,104 

1,863,363 

65,371 

12,482 

46,204 

56,611 

100,748 

473.780 

193,921 



Short toH». 
1,075 



21,694,308 
901,817 



307,096 
1.741,466 

75,165 
4.221,885 

22,000 



6,138,913 33.801,418 | 
6,494,740 

12,638,663 I 83,801,418 i 357,856,416 



24,8S8,10 
91,141 

108,117.178 
4,79S,004 
926, 7M 
1.6»,40l 
3,451,»f7 
3,193,278 

29,S37.«1 
4,635,20 

282,749,548 
74,607,066 



State. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California and Alaska 

Colorado 

Qeorgia and North Carolina 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Indian Territory 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Maryland 

Michigan 

Missouri 

Montana 

New Mexico 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Virginia 

Washington 

Wert Virginia 

Wyoming 

Total bituminous 

Pennsylvania anthracite . . . 

Qrand total 



Total value. 



114,246,796 

8,960.831 

801,818 

9,150,943 

646,759 

13,250 

43,196.809 

13,244,817 

6,886,468 

10,563,910 

8.871.968 

7,979,842 

7,189,784 

2.707,527 

6,884,297 

2.440,846 

2,105,786 

418,006 

81,982,827 

221,081 

121,752,769 

5,979,830 

1,606,888 

2,026,088 

8,802,149 

6,880,679 

84,297,019 

6,781,281 



861,687,988 
162,036,448 



608,724,881 



Average 

price per 

ton. 



$1.22 
1.61 
2.86 
1.23 
1.26 
3.10 
1.17 
1.23 
1.82 
1.65 
1.62 
1.06 
1.48 
1.97 
1.61 
1.64 
1.87 
1.60 
1.29 
2.43 
1.18 
1.25 
1.62 
1.20 
.96 
1.69 
1.17 
1.24 



Average 



Average 






1.24 
2.04 



1.41 



228 
228 
301 
245 
296 
197 
228 
197 
247 
226 
215 
207 
219 
222 
215 
254 
260 
196 
194 
258 
235 
227 
242 
248 
267 
286 
210 



226 
206 



220 



21,49 

4.167 
206 

9,229 
730 

n 

50, M6 
17,017 
7,70i 
14.16! 
10,914 
liSU 
5,859 
2,768 
9.544 
2,U6 
1,7» 
486 

41. e6 

2S 

129,266 

9,961 

2, SO 

1,915 

4,768 
41.554 
4.99S 



415,777 
160,483 



666,200 



Digitized by 



Google 



OOAL. 



868 



In the following tables are shown the quantity and value of the ooal 
produced in the United States during the last five years, with the 
increases and decreases in 1903 as compared with 1902: 

Quantity and value of coal produced in the United States^ 1899-190S. 



State or Territory. 



I Quantity. 



Value. 



1900. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



1901. 



Quantity. | Value. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California and Alaska . 

Colorado 

Georgia and 
Carolina 



North 



Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Indian Territor>*. 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Maryland 

Michigan 

Mi3BOuri 

Montana 

New Mexico 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania: 

Anthracite... 

Bituminous . . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Virginia 

Washington 

Wfe5i Virginia 

Wyoming 



Short tonM. 

7,508.416 

843,554 

162,172 

4,776,224 

260,007 

20 

24,439,019 

6,006,523 

1,537,427 

5.177,479 

3,852,267 

4,607,255 

4,807.396 

624,708 

3.025,814 

1,496,451 

1,050,714 

98.809 

16,600,270 



60,418,006 

74,150,175 

3,330,659 

883.832 

786,049 

2.105.791 

2.029,881 

19,252,995 

3,837,392 



$8,266,462 

989,383 

447,436 

5,863,667 

268,809 

100 

20,744,553 

5,285,018 

2,199,785 

6,397,338 

4,478,112 

3,618.222 

3,667,a56 

870,152 

3,591,945 

2,347.757 

1,461,865 

117,500 

14,361,903 

260,917 

88, 142, 130 
56,247,791 
2,940,644 
1.334,895 
997,271 
1,301.241 
3,603.989 
12.053,268 
4.742,525 



Short tons. 

8,394,275 

1,447,945 

172,908 

5,244,364 

833,291 
10 
25,767,981 
6,484,086 
1,922,298 
5,202,939 
4.467.870 
5,328,964 
4,024,688 

849,475 
3,540,103 
1,661,775 
1,299,299 

129,88:J 

18,988,150 

58,864 

57,367,915 

79.^12,326 

3,509,562 

968,373 

1,147,027 

2.393,751 

2.474,093 

22,647,207 

4.014,602 



$9,793,786 

1,663,618 

540,031 

6,858,036 

393,469 
50 
26,927,186 
6,687,137 
2,788,124 
7, 155, 341 
5,454,691 
4,881,577 
3,927,381 
1,259,683 
4,280,328 
2.713,707 
1,776.170 

l.'iS, 348 
19,292,246 

220,001 

85,757,851 
77,438,545 
4,003,082 
1.581,914 
1,447.750 
2,123,222 
4,700,068 
,18,416,871 
5.457,953 



Short tons. 

9,099,052 

1,816,136 

152,379 

5,700,015 

854,825 



Total 2:>3,741,19'2 I 256,094,234 



28,103,937 
7,017,148 
3,915,268 
7,822,805 
5,991,599 
5,213,076 
5,046,491 
1,753,064 
4,707,164 
2,009,316 
1,546,652 
214, 151 

20,928,158 
173,646 

112,504,020 
81,397,586 
4,067,389 
1.907,024 
1,666,082 
2.353,989 
4,271,076 
20, 848, 184 
6. Oa). 402 

269, 684, 027 306, iji^, 1 64 I 293, 299, 816 ' ;UH, 920, 009 



27,331,552 
6,918,225 
2,421,781 
5,617,499 
4,900,528 
5,469,986 
5,113,127 
1,241,241 
3,802,088 
1,396,081 
1,086,546 
166,601 

20,913,807 
69,011 

67,471,667 
82, 306, 946 
3,633,290 
1.107,953 
1.3^2,614 
2,725.873 
2,578.217 
24,068.402 
4,485,374 



$10,000,892 

2,068,618 

409,706 

6,441,891 

426,686 



10627—04- 



Digitized by 



Google 



864 



MIKERAL RESOURCES. 



QuarUUy and value of coal produced in tJie United Slatea, i^P^l^O^— Continned. 



state or Territory. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California and Alas- 
ka 

Colorado , 



1902. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Short tons. 
10,354,670112,419,666 
1,943,932 2,589,214 



Georgia and North 
Carolina 



Idaho 

Illinola 

Indiana 

Indian Territory . . . 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Maryland 

Michigan 

Missouri 

Montana 

New Mexico 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania: 

Anthracite 

Bituminous 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wyoming 



Total 301,590,439 



87,196 
7,401,348 

437,083 

2,030 

82,989,373 

9,446,424 

2,820,666 

5,904,766 

6,266,066 

6,766,984 

5,271,609 

964,718 

8,890,154 

1.660,828 

1,048,763 

226,511 

23,619,894 

65,648 

41,373,595 

98,574,367 

4,382,968 

901,912 

1,574,621 

3,182,993 

2,681,214 

24,670,826 

4,429,491 



1908. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Quantity. 



Sfiort tons. 
11.654,824114,246,798 
2,229,172 3,860,881 



273,898 106,420 
8,897,812 7,428,602 



623,618 

6,180 

83,946,910 

10,899,660 

4,266,106 

8,660,287 

6,862,787 

6,666,967 

5,579,809 

1,653,192 

6,374,642 

2,443,447 

1,600,230 

325, %7 

26,953,789 

160,076 



434,260 

4,250 

86,967,104 

10,794,692 

8,617,888 

6,419,811 

5,889,976 

7,688,032 

4,846,165 

1,367,619 

4,238,586 

1,488,810 

1,541,781 

278,645 

24,888,103 

91,144 



Increase, 1908. 



76,173.586 74.607,068 
106,032,460103,117,178 



5,399,721 
1,477,246 
1,797,454 
2,643,595 
4,672,295 
24,748,658 
6,236.839 



867,082,069 



4,798,004 
926,759 
1,681,409 
3,451,307 
3,193,278 
29,837,241 
4.635,293 



357,866,416 



801,318 
9,150,913 

646,759 

18,250 

48,196,8091 

13,244,817 

6,886,463 

10,563,910 

8,871,958 

7,979,342 

7,189,784 

2,707,527 

6,834,297 

2,440,846 

2,105,785 

418,005 

31,932,827 

221,031 



Shorttons. 

1,299,754 

285,240 

18,224 
22,259 

a2,823 
2,220 

4.017,731 

1.848,268 
696,722 
615,045 
573,911 
771,048 

a 425, 444 
402,901 
848,482 
a 72, 013 
498,018 
62,134 

1,318,209 
25,496 



152,036,448 
121,752,759 
5.979,830 
1,505,888 
2,026,038 
8,802,149 
5.880,679 
84,297,019 
5,731,281 



508,724,881 



», 233, 478 
4,642,811 
416,086 
24,847 
106,888 
268,314 
512,059 
4,766,416 
206,802 



56,766,977 



Value. 



Per cent ol 
IncretM. 



Qnan- 
Uty. 



Value. 



11,827,132 
821,617 

27,920 
758,131 

a 76. 759 
8.070 
9,250,^9 
2,845,157 
2,121,357 
1,903,623 
2.009,166 
1,312,375 
1,609,915 
1,064,335 
1,459,655 
a 2, 601 



606,555 

92,038 

4,978,538 

60,956 

76.862,862 
15,720,299 
580,109 
28,138 
228,584 
758,554 
808,384 
9,648,861 
494,942 



186,692,312 



12.6 
14.7 

20.9 
.3 

a. 6. 
109.3 
12,2 
14.3 
24.7 

8.7 
10.9 
11.4 
08.07 
41.8 

9.0 
a4-6 
47.0 
23.0 

5.6 
38.8 

80.3 
4.6 
9.5 
2.8 
6.8 
8.4 
19.1 
19.3 
4.6 



18.5 



117 
S2.4 

10.2 
9.0 

al2.$ 

156.8 
27.S 
27.4 
49.7 

iio 

29.3 
19.7 
29.0 
^8 
27. J 
a.l 
4a 4 
212 
18.5 
8S.1 

99.€ 
14.8 

la? 

1-9 
12,7 
29.8 
17.7 
S8.6 

9.5 



87.2 



a Decrease. 



In the followiDg table is presented a statement of the annual pro- 
duction of anthracite and bituminous coal from 1880 to the close of 
1903, a period of twenty-four years. It is interesting to note, in thuj 
table, the comparatively rapid growth of the bituminous or soft coal 
production beside that of anthracite. It is seen that while the produc- 
tion of anthracite has increased from 25,580,189 long tons in 1880 to 
66,613,454 long tons in 1903, a gain of 41,033,265 long tons, or 160 
per cent, the bituminous production has grown from 47,508,133 short 
tons in 1880 to 282,749,348 tons in 1903, an increase of 245,241,215 short 
tons, or a little over 495 per cent. Notwithstanding the abnormally 
large production of 1903, it does not appear that the anthracite pro- 
duction will exhibit any pronounced increase in the future. The con- 
ditions under which the mines are operated and the increasing cost of 



Digitized by 



Google 



GOAL. 



365 



labor are making the use of anthracite slowly but surely more and 
more of a luxury. As prices have necessarily advanced, and as any 
permanent decline in price is not anticipated to occur, the use of other 
fuels as a substitute for anthracite coal will naturally increase. At 
one time an important factor in blast furnace use and other manufac- 
turing industries, the use of anthi*acite coal for such purposes has now 
almost entirely ceased. The preparation of what are known as the 
domestic sizes — that is, egg, stove, and chestnut — results in the produc- 
tion of a greater proportion of the small or undesirable sizes, which 
are usually sold at less than the cost of production. The profits must 
therefore all be obtained from the prepared domestic sizes, and no 
encouragement can be offered to the consumers of anthracite that their 
fuel bills in the future will be decreased. A policy of the anthracite 
operators, adopted during recent years, of making an allowance of 50 
cents per ton from circular prices for coal purchased in April of each 
year, with an advance of 10 cents per ton for each succeeding month 
until the schedule price is reached in September, has had a better 
influence in steadying the anthracite trade than almost any other action 
taken in the past. It encourages the storage of coal in the cellars of 
consumers and causes the mines to be operated more regularly and 
gives more steady employment to employees throughout the year. 

Annual production of coal in the United StateSy 1880-1903. 



Year. 



UBO. 

1882.. 

im. 

19M.. 
18».. 

\m.. 

UBS.. 

vm.. 
vm.. 
law.. 

i*«.. 
\m.. 

^m. 
vm., 

i«. 
mo. 
vm. 



Pennsylyania anthracite. 



Quantity. 



Long Ions, 
25,680,189 
28,600,016 
81,358,264 
84,336.469 
83,175,756 
34,228.548 
34,853,077 
87,578,747 
41,624,611 
40,665,152 
41,489,858 
45, 236, 992 
46.8:A450 
4«.1>»5,306 
46,358,144 
51,7»:>,122 
4i<,523,287 
46,974,714 
47.663,076 
63.944,647 
51,221,358 
60,212,560 
36,^10,710 
66.613,454 



ShorlUnu. 
28,649,811 
31,920,018 
85,121,256 
38,456,845 
87,156,847 
38,335,974 
39,035,446 
42.068,197 
46.619,564 
45,544,970 
46,468,641 
50.665,431 
52,472,504 
53,967,543 
51,921,121 
57,999,337 
54,316,081 
52,611,680 
53,882,644 
60.418.005 
57,367,915 
67,471.667 
41,373,595 
74,607,068 



Value. 



$42,196,678 
64,125,036 
70,556.094 
77,257,055 
66,351,512 
76,671,948 
76,119,120 
84,552,181 
89,020,483 
65,721,678 
66,888,772 
73.944,735 
82.442,000 
85,687,078 
78,488,068 
82,019,272 
81,748,651 
79,301,954 
75,414,537 
88,142,130 
85,757,851 

112,504,020 
76,173,586 

152.036,448 



Bituminous coal. 



Quantity. 



Long tons. 

42.417,976 

48,179,475 

60,861,190 

68,531,500 

78,780,589 

65,021,269 

66,646,947 

79,073,227 

91,107,002 

85,432,717 

99,377,073 

105,268,962 

113,264,792 

114,629,671 

106,089,647 

120,611,214 

122,898,104 

131,801,356 

148,744,806 

172,609,968 

189,567,967 

201,632,276 

232,836,468 

252,464,775 



SJiorttons. 

47,508,183 

53,961,012 

68,164,533 

76,755,280 

82.578,204 

72,823,821 

74,644,581 

88,562,014 

102,030,843 

95,684,643 

111,302,822 

117,901,237 

126,856,567 

128,385,231 

118,820,405 

135,118,193 

137,640,270 

147,617,519 

166,593,623 

193,328,187 

212,316,112 

225,828,149 

260,216,844 

282,749,348 



Value. 



$58,448,718 

60,224,344 

76,076,487 

82,237,800 

77,417,066 

82,347,648 

78,481,056 

98,004,656 

101,860,529 

94,504,745 

110,420,801 

117,188,400 

125,124,381 

122,751,618 

107,653,501 

115,779,771 

114,891,515 

119,595,224 

132,608,718 

167,952,104 

220.930,313 

236,422,049 

290,858,488 

851,687,988 



Digitized by 



Google 



366 



MINERAL RES0UE0E8. 



Annual production of coal in the United Slates, 1880-190S — Contintied. 



Year. 



67,998,165 
76,679,491 
92.219,454 
102,867,969 
106,906,295 

1885 i 99,249,817 

1H86 101,500,024 

1887 116,651,974 

1888 132,731,613 

1889 126,097,869 



1880. 
1881. 
1882. 

1883. 
1884. 



Total. 



Quantity. 



1890 140,866,931 

1891 ; 150,505,954 



1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896., 
1897. 
1898.. 
1899. 
1900., 
1901. 
1902. 
1903. 



160,115,242 
162,814,977 
152,447,791 
172,426,366 
171,416,390 
178,776,070 
196,407,382 
226, 554, 635 
240,789.310 
261,874,836 
269,277,178 
319,068,229 



Short tons. 
76,157,M5 
85,881,030 
103,285,789 
115,212,125 
119,735,051 
111,159,795 
113,680,027 
180,650,211 
148,659,407 
141,229,613 
157,770,963 
168, 566, 669 
179,329,071 
182,352,774 
170,741,526 
193,117,530 
191,986,357 
200,229,199 
219,970,267 
253,741,192 
269,6H4,027 
293,299,816 
301.690,439 
357,356,416 



Value. 



»95,640,396 
124,349,380 
146,632,581 
159,494,855 
143,768,578 
159,019,596 
154,600,176 
182,498,737 
190,881,012 
160,226,823 
176,804,573 
191,133,135 
207,566,381 
208,438,696 
186,141,564 
197,799,013 
196.640,166 
19S,897.178 
208.023,250 
256,094,234 
306,688,161 
348,926,069 
367,032,069 
503,724,381 



The statistics regarding" the distribution of the coal production of 
the United States for consumption have been obtained only since 1889. 
These are shown in the following table, together with the value of the 
product, the statistics of labor employed, and the average working 
time made by mine employees. 

DUlrihntion of the coal product of the United States, 1SS[>-J90S. 



Year. 



1889, 
1890, 
1M91. 
1S'.»2, 
1893 
1894, 
l>i»5 
1S96 

i^y", 

1S*.K, 

I'.HH) 
V.H\] 
VXVl 
1VH)3 



Loaded at 
mines for 
shipment. 


Sold to local 
trade and used 
by employees. 


Used at mines 

for sleam and 

heat. 


Made into 
coke. 


Short tons. 


Short tons. 


ShoH tons. 


Short tons. 


113,776,701 


8, 508, 699 


5,382,265 


13,561,848 


12.s,3r.5.9f)5 


9,009,285 


5,063,953 


15,331,760 


137,920,34«) 


8,871,882 


6,056,001 


15,718,440 


1 16. 372, ()98 


9, 701, 678 


6,210,767 


17,041,528 


152,941,890 


9,728,815 


6,712,284 


12,969,785 


142.83:3,319 


8,764,538 


6,807,296 


12,836,373 


158, 3.80. 289 


9,655,505 


6,677.539 


18. 40t, 197 


159,176,155 


9,502,927 


7,184,832 


16,122.443 


165, G03, 626 


9,922,276 


6,011,419 


17,761,878 


180.900,111 


8,927,514 


7,921,2X9 


22,167,353 


208,751,710 


9,075,756 


8.062,8^4 


27,247.826 


•i2;^.7S2,(VS^ 


9,077,242 


9,189,746 


27,634,951 


215,0U),,srj 


9, 595. 308 


10,379,546 


28,314.150 


247, (14 J. S5J 


9,781,996 


9,995,861 


34,1^.^ 


•JW,M3, rj8 


11,107.917 


12,fte,653 


33,801.418 



Digitized by 



Google 



GOAL. 



367 



DidnbuHon of the coal product of the United States^ J889-190S—ConUnued. 



Year. 



Total product. 



1^1. 

I»96. 

1900. 
19'!. 
1902. 
1*3. 



STiort tons. 
141,229,513 
157,770,963 
168,566,669 
179,829,071 
182,352,774 
170,741,626 
193,117,530 
191,986,367 
200,229,199 
219,976,267 
263,741,192 
269.684,027 
293,299,816 
301.590,439 
357,356,416 



Total value. 



$160, 
176, 
191, 
207, 
208, 
186, 
197, 
196, 
198, 
208, 
256, 
306, 
348, 
867, 
503, 



226,323 
804,673 
133,135 
566.381 
438,696 
141,664 
799,043 
WO, 166 
897,178 
023,250 
0M,234 
688,164 
926,069 
032,069 
724,381 



Average 

price per 

ton. 



$1.13 
1.12 
1.13 
1.16 
1.14 
1.09 
1.02 
1.02 
.99 
.95 
1.01 
l.M 
1.19 
1.22 
1.41 



Average 
number 
of days 
active. 



216 
223 

212 
201 
178 
195 
185 
179 
190 
214 
212 
216 
197 
220 



Average 
number of 
employees. 



318,204 
2ft5,803 
341,943 
363,309 
376,206 
382,879 
386,656 
397,701 
401.221 
410,635 
448,681 
485. {>44 
518, 197 
566,250 



RANK OF COAIi-PRODUCING STATES. 

In the following tables the coal-producing States are arranged 
according to the rank in 1902 and 1903, first in the amount of produc- 
tion, and then in the value of the product, with the amount and per- 
centage of both quantity and value contributed by each State. The 
first six States, so far as the amount of production is concerned, retain 
the same relative positions in 1903 as in 1902. Kentucky succeeds 
Colorado as seventh in rank, while Kansas has supplanted Maryland 
in tenth place. West Virginia, which for several years has outranked 
Ohio in the quantity of coal production, exceeded the value of Ohio's 
production for the first time in 1903, and takes third place in this 
regard. The other ten leading States retain the same position in 1903 
as in 1902: 



Digitized by 



Google 



868 



MINEBAL BESOUBOES. 



Bank of <X)al^pToducing Suites in 190iS, wUh quantity and value of product <md percentage 

of each. 



Production. 



Rank. 



State or Territory. 



fPennsylyania: 

\ Anthracite 

[ Bitumlnons ... 

lUinolfl 

West Virginia 

Ohio 

Alabama — , 

Indiana 

Colorado 

Kentucky 

Iowa 

Maryland 

Kansas 

Wyoming 

Tennessee 

Missouri 

Virginia 

Indian Territory ... 

Wasliington 

Arlcansas 

Utah 

Montana 

New Mexico 

Michigan 

Texas 



Qeorgiaand North 
Carolina. 

North Dakota 



California and 
Alaska. 

Oregon 

Idaho 



Total. 



Quantity. 



Short Urns. 
41,873,595 
98,574,367 
32,939,873 
24,570,826 
23,619,894 
10,354,570 
9,446,424 
7,401,843 
6,766,984 
5,904,766 
6,271,609 
5,266,065 
4,429,491 
4,382,968 
8,890,154 
8,182,993 
2,820,666 
2,681,214 
1,943,982 
1,574,621 
1,560,823 
1,048,763 
964,718 
901,912 
437,083 

226,511 
87,196 

65,648 
2,030 



801.690,489 



Per 
cent of 
total 
produc- 
tion. 



13.7 
82.7 
10.9 
8.2 
7.8 
8.4 
3.1 
2.5 
2.2 
2.0 
1.8 
1.7 
1.5 
1.5 
1.3 
1.1 



100.0 



Value. 



Rank. 



2 

8 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

U 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 
26 

27 
28 



State or Territory. 



Pennsylvania: 

I Anthracite 

I Bituminous . . . 

Illinois 

Ohio 

West Virginia 

Alabama 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Colorado 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Maryland 

Tennessee 

Missouri 

Wyoming 

Washington 

Indian Territory . . 

Virginia 

Arkansas 

Montana 

Utah 

Michigan 

New Mexico 

Texas , 

Georgia and North 
Carolina. 

North Dakota 

California and 
Alaska. 

Oregon 

Idaho 

Total 



Value. 



Per 
cent of 
total 
value. 



$76,173,586 

106,032,460 

33,945,910 

26,963,789 

24,748,658 

12,419,666 

10.399.660 

8,660,287 

8,897,812 

6,862,787 

6,666,967 

5,579,869 

5,899,721 

5,374,642 

5,236,839 

4,572,295 

4,265,106 

2,513.595 

2,539,214 

2,443,417 

1.797,454 

1,653,192 

1,600,280 

1,477,245 

628,518 

825,967 
273,898 

100,075 
5,180 



867.082,069 



20.8 

28.) 
9.2 
7.S 
8.7 
S.4 
18 
13 
13 
L» 
L8 

1.8 

1.8 
L5 
1.4 
1.2 
1.2 

.7 
.7 
.5 
.5 
A 
.4 
.2 



100.0 



Digitized by 



Google 



COAL. 



869 



Rank of ood-proikicing SUUes in 190S, wUh quantity and value of prodiui and percentage 

of each. 



Productioii. 



Value. 



State or Territory. 



Quantity. 



Per 
cent of 

toUl 
produc- 
tion. 



Bank 



State or Territory. 



Value. 



Per 
cent of 

total 
value. 



Pennaylvania: 

Anthracite 

Bituminous .... 

Illinois 

West Virginia 

Ohio 



Indiana ... 
Kentucky. 
Colorado . . 
Iowa 



Maryland 

Tennessee 

Wyoming 

MisBoori 

j Indian Territory . 

I Vliginia 

' Washington 

»' Arkansas 

If I Utah 

» New Mexico 

21 Montana 

a Michigan 

28 Texas 



U ^ Georgia, and North 
' GaroUna 



» North Dakota 

K California and 



27 Oregm. 

28 Idaho.. 



Short toM. 

71,607,068 

108,117,178 

36,957,104 

29,8^,241 

24,888,106 

11.654,824 

10,794,692 

7,688,062 

7,423,602 

6,419,811 

5,889,976 

4,846,165 

4,796,004 

4,685,298 

4,238,586 

8,517,888 

3,451,307 

3,193,278 

2,229,172 

1,681,409 

1,541,781 

1,488.810 

1,367,619 

926,759 

434,260 
278,646 

105.420 

91,144 

4,250 



20.9 

28.9 

10.8 

8.2 

7.0 

8.8 

8.0 

2.1 

2.1 

1.8 

1.6 

1.4 

1.8 

1.8 

1.2 

1.0 

.9 

.9 

.6 

.5 

.4 

.4 

.4 

.3 



Total. 



857,866,416 



100.0 



{Pennsylvania: 
Anthracite 
Bituminous 

Illinois 

West Virginia 

Ohio 

Alabama 

TTM^ iftT ^ft 

Iowa 

Colorado 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Maryland 

Missouri 

Indian Territory 

Tennessee 

Wyoming 

Washington 

Arkansas 

ViiginU 

Michigan 

Montana 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Texas 

Georgia and North 
Carolina 

North Dakota 

California and 
Alaska 

Oregon 

Idaho 

Total 



S152, 

121, 

48, 

84, 

81, 

14, 

18, 

10, 

9, 

8, 

7, 

7, 

0> 

6, 

5, 

5, 

5, 

8, 

8, 

2, 

2. 

2, 

2, 

1. 



036,448 
752,750 
196,809 
297,019 
932,827 
246,796 
244,817 
568,910 
160,948 
871,958 
979,842 
189,784 
834,297 
886, i68 
979,830 
781,281 
880,679 
860,881 
302,149 
707,627 
440,846 
105,785 
026,088 
505,888 

546,750 
418,005 

301,818 

221,081 

18,250 



80.2 

24.2 

8.6 

6.8 

6.8 

2.8 

2.6 

2.1 

1.8 

1.8 

1.6 

1.4 

1.8 

1.8 

1.2 

1.1 

LI 

.7 

.7 

.5 

.6 

.4 

.4 

.3 



506,724,881 



100.0 



KINDS OF COAli PRODUCED ENT THE UNITED STATES. 

In the general discussion of the coal production of the United 
Stites only two divisions are considered, anthracite and bituminous, 
the latter product including the small anthracite output of Colo- 
ndo and New Mexico. In the bituminous production, however, in 
addition to the small Bocky Mountain output of anthracite is also 
induded the production of coals generally classed as semianthracite, 
ttmibituminoas, cannel, block, splint, and lignite. In the following 
t»Mc the production of these various varieties of coal in 1902 and 
1908 b reported as prepared from the schedules returned to the Sur- 
▼e7« It should be stated, however, that this classification makes no 
to tedmical exactness. It has been compiled from the replies 

MM 1903 24 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



370 



MnnCRAL RBSOUBOES. 



of the producers to the inquiry "Kind of coal produced" on the 
schedules, and such replies are in some minor cases based on quite 
uncertain knowledge. In fact, the varieties of the different coals 
grade so imperceptibly from one to another that no exact separation 
is possible. It is believed, however, that in this classification the 
quantity of each kind of coal produced is approximate!}'^ indicated. It 
is sufficiently correct for practical purposes, and shows that in addi- 
tion to the anthracite production of Pennsylvania there were 42,139 
short tons mined in Coloi*ado and that 30,592 short tons were produced 
in New Mexico. Semianthracite coal was produced in Pennsylvania, 
Colorado, Tennessee, Indian Territory, Virginia, and Arkansas, the 
latter State being credited with nearly 80 per cent of the total. There 
were sixteen States in which semibituminous coal was produced, West 
Virginia leading, Pennsylvania second, and Maryland third. These 
three States contributed 90 per cent of this variety. Wyoming leads 
in the production of lignite, with Colorado second and New Mexico 
third. West Virginia is credited with nearly the entire product of 
splint coal, and Indiana with that of block. The production of cannel 
coal is largely limited to West Virginia and.Kentucky, each producing 
about the same quantity, the total for the two States amounting to 80 
per cent of the total of this variety. 



GasHficalion of the coal product of the United States in 1902^ by States and T^erritories. 



state or Territory. 



Bituminous. 



Anthracite. 



Semibitumi- 
nous. 



Lignite. 



Pennsylvania 

nilnois 

West Virginia.... 

Ohio 

Alabama 

Indiana 

Colorado 

Kentucky 

Iowa 

Maryland 

Kansas 

Wyoming 

Tennessee 

Missouri 

VIrginU 

Indian Territory . 

Washington 

Arkansas 

Utah 

Montana 

New Mexico 

Michigan 

Texas 

Georgia 

North Dakota.... 



I Short tons. 
I 94,625,584 
I 82,716,677 
I 18,440,226 
28,498,857 
10,854,570 
8,818,880 
6,073,962 
6.692,868 
5,871,766 
8,872,528 
5,253,885 
1,448,684 
4,882,968 
3,889,558 
2,496,283 
2,282,042 
2,055,203 
511,676 
1,573,453 
1,550,.876 
837,389 
964,718 
696,005 
414,068 



ShorttoM, 
41,873,595 



Short ton$. 
4,017,878 
222,696 
5,057,645 



58,611 



41,326 



120,847 



1,899,086 

2,149 

207,642 



664,898 



488,675 

128,768 

1,068 



Short totu. 



1,100,061 



10,081 
2,772,015 



187, S» 



9,917 
170,018 



206.907 
221,01 



Digitized by 



Google 



GOAL. 371 

CkmfioaiMn of the coal product of (he United States in 1909^ by States and Territories— 

Continaed. 



SUte or Territory. 


Blttuninonfl. 


Anthracite. 


Semibitumi- 
nous. 


Lignite. 


Cililbmla 


Short tons. 
2,920 


Short tons. 


Short ions. 


ShoHtons. 
82,064 
66,648 


OltfOD 






North CtroIlnA 


23,000 






Alaska 






2,212 


Idaho 


2,080 
















Tbtal 


288,697,631 


41,467,532 


12,255,342 


4,831,770 






State or Territory. 


Semi- 
anthracite. 


BlocJc. 


Splint. 


Cannel. 


Total. 


P«»»n^liTftnte , T 


Short tont. 


Short tons. 


Short tons. 


Short tons. 
80,905 


Sioriions. 
139,947,962 


miDoiB 








32,939,373 
24,570,826 


WcatViTginIa 






938,254 


a 184, 701 
8,007 


Ohio 




18,080 


28,619,894 


Aif^ma 






10,854,670 
9,446,424 


TiM^inna 




M, 101, 544 


1,000 


30,000 


CalfnAo 


64,872 


7,401,348 
6,766,984 
5, 904, 766 


Eentocky 


8,804 
18,000 




66,817 
16,000 


Iowa 






Maryland 






5,271,609 


Ktnm 










5,266,065 
4,429,491 
4,382,968 


Wjoraing 


1,200 








Ti?f»Kf i» 













160 




446 


8,890.164 


\lTl^nJft 


20,817 
588,624 




8,182,993 


Indian Territory 








2,820,666 










2,681,214 


Arkarnan 


1,806,493 








1.943,982 


Ciah 








1,574,621 


Montana 










1,660,823 


Xew Mexico 










1,048,763 


irirhlipiT , 










964,718 


ffm 










901,912 


flMwria. 










414,083 


Korth Dakota 










226,511 


ratHnf^ifft 










84,984 


Owuii - 










65,648 


'Sflftti Carolina ... - 










28,000 


^iMka , 










2,212 


Maho 










2,080 














ToUl 


1,978,006 


1,146.628 


969,264 


279,876 


301,590,439 















a Inclades 124.701 tons of semicannel coal. 
t> Inclades 27,482 tons of semiblock coal. 
« Includes 1,600 tons of semicannel coal. 



Digitized by 



Google 



372 JONEBAL BE80UB0E8. 

Ckunficaiion of the coed prodtAct of the United States in 19GS, by States and TarHoriet. 



state or Territory. 



Bituminous. 



Anthracite. 



Semibitumi- 
nouft. 



lignite. 



Pennsylvania .... 

imnois 

West Virginia.... 

Ohio 

Alabama 

Indiana 

Kentucky 

Colorado 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Maryland 

Tennessee 

Wyoming 

Missouri 

Indian Territory . 

Virginia 

Washington 

Arkansas 

Utah 

New Mexico 

Montana 

Michigan 

Texas 

Georffia 

North Dakota . . . . 

California 

Oregon 

North Carolina... 

Idaho 

Alaska 



Total. 



Short toru. 

99,734,819 

86,855.262 

22,321,486 

24,808,064 

11,600,486 

9,569,958 

7,850,994 

5,981,394 

6,341,487 

5,809,828 

2,982,533 

4,749,587 

1,257,917 

4,237,886 

3,2n,298 

2,657,709 

2,727,246 

853,972 

1,680,681 

940,067 

1,480,285 

1,331,570 

659,154 

416,951 

28,315 

1,000 



17,309 
500 
700 



Sharttona, 
74,607,068 



250,622,417 



Short torn. 
3,832,564 
94,746 
4,582,454 



ShorltOM. 



42,139 



30,502 



9,794 
296,158 



4,281 
1.863,682 



l,l(n,S13 
1,017 



261,068 



3,116, S18 



764,066 

7,107 

27,204 

728 

1,700 



458,921 
8.000 



569.883 



367,606 



2,600 
660 



250,230 
101,07) 
a90,66l 



8,750 
47 



74,670,799 



11,264,684 



N977.J 



a Includes 60,791 tons of semilignite coal. 



Digitized by 



Google 



GOAL. 



878 



Qaut^ieaiion of the coat pfodud of the tMted States in 1903, by Staies and TerriUniee-^ 

Oontinaed. 



state or Terrritory. 


Semi- 
anthiaoite. 


Block. 


Splint 


C&nnel. 


Total. 


Pi^nfylyajiin 


Short tons. 
48,641 


Short tons. 


Short tons. 


ShoHioM. 
1,154 


Short tons. 
177,724,246 
36,957,104 
29,337,241 


lllinob 


7,096 




WM4VtTjfnl* 




2,847.238 
26,040 


a 136, 063 


Ohio 




8,979 


24,838,108 
11,654,324 


Aitbunu . . ... 






Tiu1i«f>A , 




b 1,179, 045 
85,082 




35,900 
c 138, 006 


10,794,692 
7,538,032 


Kentucky 




5,000 


Ookmdo . ... 


44,406 


7,423,602 
6,419,811 


Iowa 


58,708 
24,860 




19,621 


^»nmn , 






5,839,976 
4,846,165 


MftrykiHl 








Twmtwco 


48,417 








4,798,004 

4,635,298 

4,238,586 

3,517,388 

8,451,307 

3,193,278 

2,229,172 

1,681,409 

1,541,781 

1,488,810 

1,367,619 

926,759 

416,951 

278,645 

104,678 

91,144 

17,809 

4,260 

747 


Wyoming 








Mtewiri 








700 


fiMliui Territory . . . . .... 


246,096 
29,543 






Vlnplnl* 








Wiataf ngton 








Artaznu , 


1,844,996 








Utah 








Sew Mexico 










M<mtana 








650 


vi«^h^ri 




36,049 




Tnaa , „. 








GmkU 










Knrth Pakota 










f^ifnmiA 










Oiegon 










Nfvtti CaroMiM 










Mahi> 










Alatka 






















Total 


1,^762,095 


1,849,754 


2,878,278 


332,094 


857,356,416 







a Includes 122,049 tons of semicannel coal. 
b Inclades 177,357 tons of semiblock coal. 
« Includes 19,890 tons of semicannel coal. 



Digitized by 



Google 



874 



I 

liABOR STATISTICS. 



The following tables show the number of men employed and the 
average number of days made by each for the last five years, by States, 
and the total number of men employed in the anthracite and bitumi- 
nous coal mines of the United States, with the average working time 
since 1890: 

Statistics of labor employed in coal mines of the United i^tes, 1899-1903 ^ by Staies. 



State or Territory. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Indian Territory 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Maryland 

Michigan 

Missouri 

Montana 

New Mexico 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania bituminous . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wyoming 



1899. 



Number Average 
of days . number 
active, employed. 



288 
156 

a287 
246 

6291 



18,481 
2,8W 

369 
7,166 

637 



1900. 



1901. 



Number 
of days 
active. 



257 
219 
309 
264 
6262 



Average | Number Average 

number of da>*s number 

employed, active, employed. 



13,967 
2.800 

378 
7,459 

681 



236 
223 



253 
6291 



17,370 
3,144 

42S 

8,870 

791 



Total 

Pennsylvania anthracite . 



Grand total . 



228 
218 
212 i 



229 
226 
•224 
275 
232 
212 
238 
267 
154 
200 
238 
245 
252 
256 
265 
252 
259 
242 
261 



234 
173 



214 



36,756 
9,712 
4,084 

10,971 
8,000 
7,461 
4,621 
1,291 
7,136 
2,878 
1,750 
210 

26,038 
124 

82,812 
6,949 
2,410 
743 
1,960 
3,330 

28,625 
4,697 



226 
199 
228 
228 
232 
227 
203 
261 
214 
252 
261 
142 
215 
273 
242 
242 
246 
246 
239 
289 
231 



89,101 

11,720 
4,625 

11,608 
8,469 
9,680 
5,319 
1,709 
8,180 
2,876 
2,037 
326 

27,628 
141 

92,692 
7,646 
2,844 
1,308 
3,631 
8,670 

29,163 
5,332 



-.20 
194 
208 
218 
224 
213 
262 
247 
223 
231 
224 
196 
198 
228 
230 
228 
264 
259 
279 
276 
219 
218 



271,027 
139.608 



234 
166 



804,880 
144,206 



225 
196 



410,635 



212 



448,581 



216 



41,880 

12,96S 

6,706 

12.663 

9,928 

10,307 

5,8» 

2,276 

9,8n 

2,156 

2,478 

280 

32, Ul 

187 

101.904 

9,0<6 

3,061 

1,712 

4,1SS 

4.545 

30,936 

5.151 



S40,236 
146,309 



486,614 



a Includes Alaska. 



Mncludes North Carolina. 



Digitized by 



Google 



GOAL. 



375 



Hatittiei of labor employed in coal mines of the Vmied SUUes^ 1899-190S—ConimvLGd. 



State or Territory. 



1902. 



Nmnber 
of days 
active. 



Average 

number 

employed. 



1903. 



Number 
of days 
active. 



Average 

number 

employed. 



Arkaims 

OilUbniia 

GoloiBdo 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illioote 

lodiaoa 

Indian Territory . 
Iowa 



Kentucky 

Maryland 

Michigan 

Mteoori 

Montana 

New Mexico 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania bituminous . 

Ten ncjwt 

Texas 

rtah 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wy<Hning 



256 
188 

a302 
261 

ft 812 
74 
226 
205 
232 
227 
220 
209 
242 
171 
202 
270 
217 
218 
200 
284 
248 
280 
267 
259 
293 

.276 
205 
248 



16,489 
8,595 
"217 
8,956 
6795 
20 

47,411 

15,457 
5,574 

12,434 
9,461 

18,727 
6,827 
2,844 
9,742 
1,938 
1,849 
402 

38,965 
265 
112,630 
8,750 
2,369 
1,826 
3,912 
4,404 

35,500 
5,250 



228 
223 

a 301 
246 

6296 
197 
228 
197 
247 
226 
215 
207 
219 
222 
215 
264 
260 
198 
1»1 
268 
235 
227 
242 
248 
267 
285 
210 
252 



21,438 

4,167 

0206 

9,229 

6780 

82 

60.596 

17,017 

7,704 

14,162 

10,924 

14,354 

6,859 

2,768 

9,644 

2,155 

1,789 

486 

41,936 

236 

129,266 

9,961 

2,380 

1,926 

6,606 

4,768 

41,554 

4,993 



Total 

PHittsylTanta anthracite. . 

Grand total 



230 
116 



370,069 
148, 141 



225 
206 



415,777 
150,483 



197 



518,200 



220 



566,260 



« Includes Alaska. 



Mncludes North Carolina. 



By the terms of the award of the Anthracite Coal Strike Commis- 
sion the anthracite coal mines of Pennsylvania were placed upon a 
9-hour hsLsis for all company men or those working by the day, with 
the exception of hoisting engineers, other engineers, and pump men, 
who were allotted 8 hours for a day's work. The returns from the 
bituminouji coal producing States in 1903 show that in the majority of 
ca^es 9 hours constitutes the average day's work. There were 14 
bituminous coal producing States in which 9 hours was reported as 
the averaii^ day. These were: Alabama, California, Colorado, Idaho, 
Kansas, Kentucky, New Mexico, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, 
Texas, Utah, Washington, and West Virginia. There were 9 States 
in which 8 hours was reported as the average working time. These 
States were: Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Indian Territory, Iowa, 
Michigan, Missouri, Montana, and Ohio. The 10-hour days prevailed 
in 6 States, viz: Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, North Dakota, 
Virginia, and Wyoming. 



Digitized by 



Google 



876 



imrXIUL BBSOUBOXS. 



8Uaiiliosoflaboren^l)l(^incoalmme8of^ UnUedSUOes, 1S90-190S, by yem. 




PennsylYuiia 
ftnthiacite. 


BitnminoQt. 


Year. 


Number 
of days 
active. 


Average 

number 

employed. 


Number 
of days 
acUve. 


ATeiage 

number 

employed. 


1890 


200 
208 
198 
197 
190 
196 
174 
150 
152 
178 
166 
196 
U6 
206 


126,000 
126,860 
129,050 
182,944 
181,608 
142,917 
148,991 
149,884 
145,504 
139,606 
144,206 
145,809 
148,141 
150,488 


226 
223 
219 
204 
171 
194 
192 
196 
2U 
284 
284 
225 
230 
225 


192,904 


1891 


206,805 


1892 


212,80 


1898 


230. 866 


1894 


244,606 


1896 


289,962 


1896 • 


244,171 


1897 


217,817 


1898 


255,717 


1899 


271, 0S7 


1900 


304. 33S 


1901 • 


840^236 
870,066 


1902 


1906 


415,777 







From the statistics contained in the preceding tables, and the totabof 
production in the earlier pages of this report, the following statement 
showing the average annual and daily tonnage per man since 1890 has 
been compiled. This table shows that in 1890 the average annual pro- 
duction per man employed in the anthracite region was 369 short tons. 
The average tonnage per man per day was 1.85 tons. In the bitumin- 
ous and lignite regions the average production per man for the year 
was 579 short tons, and 2.56 short tons per man per day. In 1903 the 
average production per man in the anthracite region was 496 tons for 
the year and 2.41 short tons per day, while the bituminous production 
shows an average of 680 tons per man for the year, and 3.02 short tons 
per day. This table is further interesting in showing that, whereas 
since 1897 the average tonnage per man per day in the anthracite 
region has varied between 2.34 and 2.50, from 1890 to 1896, inclusive, 
the average daily tonnage per man was between 1.86 and 2.10. The 
average tonnage per man per year during the later period has not 
shown any increase over the earlier period. In the bituminous pro- 
duction on the other hand the statistics show an increase both in daily 
and annual production per m^n in the latter half of the period as com- 
pared with the earlier half. 



Digitized by 



Google 



OOAl. 



m 



ProducUon of coat according to number of persona employed, 1890-190S, 





Anthracite. 


Bituminous. 


Year. 


Men em- 
ployed. 


Days 
worked. 


Average 
tonnage 
per man 
per day. 


Average 
tonnage 
per man 
per year. 


Men em- 
ployed. 


Days 
worked. 


Average 
tonnage 
per man 
per day. 


Average 
tonnage 
per man 
per year. 


1890 


126,000 
126,350 
129,050 
132,944 
131,603 
142,917 
148,991 
149,884 
145,504 
139,608 
144,206 
145,809 
148,141 
;60,483 


200 
208 
198 
197 
190 
196 
174 
150 
152 
173 
166 
196 
116 
206 


1.85 
1.98 
2.06 
2.06 
2.08 
2.07 
2.10 
2.31 
2.41 
2.50 
2.40 
2.37 
2.40 
2.41 


860 
401 
407 
406 
396 
406 
365 
351 
367 
433 
398 
464 
279 
496 


192,204 
205,803 
212,893 
230,365 
244,603 
239,962 
244,171 
247,817 
255,717 
271,027 
304,375 
340,285 
370,056 
415,777 


226 
223 
219 
204 
171 
194 
192 
196 
211 
234 
284 
225 
230 
225 


2.56 
2.67 
2.72 
2.73 
2.84 
2.90 
2.94 
3.04 
3.09 
3.05 
2.98 
2.94 
3.06 
3.02 


679 


isn 


573 


1892 


596 


1896 


657 


18M 


486 


18B5 


563 


1»3 


5&i 


1897 


596 


1898 


651 


1899 


713 


mo 


697 


noi 


664 


1902 


703 


1908 


680 







While there are a few exceptions to the rule, it generally appears 
that there has been an increased production, both per day and per 
year, for each man employed where there has been an increase in the 
machine-mined tonnage. In Colorado, for instance, on account of 
labor troubles the total tonnage per man for the year decreased from 
826 tons in 1902 to 804.4 tons in 1903. The daily tonnage per man 
increased from 3.16 tons to 3.28 tons, and the quantity produced 
increased from 857,279 tons to 1,270,221 tons, and the percentage of 
machine-mined tonnage increased from 11.58 to 17.11. In Indiana 
the yearly tonnage per man increased from 611.1 tons to 634.3 tons. 
The daily tonnage per man increased from 2.98 to 3.22 tons, and the 
machine-mined output increased from 2,421,342 short tons to 3,334,961 
short tons. The percentage of the machine-mined product to the total 
iiuH'eased from 25.63 to 30.9. In the Indian Territory, on the other 
hand, there was a decrease from 506 tons to 457 tons in the yearly 
tonnage per man, and from 2.18 to 1.85 tons in the average daily out- 
pat; while the machine-mined production declined from 119,195 tons 
to 73,304 tons, and the percentage of machine-mined production to 
the total fell oflf from 4.23 to 2.08. Similar decreases were shown in 
the yearly and daily tonnage per man in Iowa and Kansas, while the 
machine-mined production and the percentage of machine-mined coal 
to the total production also decreased. An exception is noted in Ken- 
tucky, where the average tonnage per year per man increased from 
493 tons to 525.2 tons, and the daily tonnage per man from 2.35 to 
2.54 tons, while the tonnage mined by machines decreased from 
3,091,626 short tons to 2,843,805 short tons, the percentage of 
machine-mined product to the total being 45.69 in 1902 and 37.73 in 



Digitized by 



Google 



378 



MmERAL RESOtTBCES. 



1908. In Michigan the total production per man for the yeftr 
increased, while the daily production decreased, the machine-mined 
production falling off from 196,248 short tons in 1902 to 180,943 tons 
in 1903. Missouri's production shows an increase in the average 
daily production per man, in the tonnage obtained by the use of 
machines and the percentage of machine-mined product to the total. 
Montana, on the contrary, with a slightly increased machine-mined 
tonnage, shows a falling off in both the yearly and daily tonnage per 
man. Ohio, because of a decrease in the average working time made 
during the year, shows a falling off in the average production per 
man per year, but an increase in the average production per man 
per day. The machine-mined tonnage of this State increased nearly 
2,000,000 tons in 1903 over 1902, and the percentage of machine- 
mined product to the total increased from 51.42 to 56.39. Pennsyl- 
vania's machine-mined production also increased about 2,000,000 tons, 
but both the daily and yearly production per man decreased. Li West 
Virginia there was a marked increase in the output of Amchine-mined 
coal and in the average yearly production per man, but a slight falling 
off in the productive efficiency per man per day. A most striking 
exception to the general rule was in the production of Alabama, where 
the machine-mined tonnage nearly doubled, while the average tonnage 
per man per year fell off from 630 tons in 1902 to 543 tons in 1903, 
and the daily production per man decreased from 2.46 to 2.38 tons. 
This apparent inconsistency was, without doubt, due to the labor 
troubles which affected the mining industry in that State during the 
early part of the year. 

In the following table is presented a statement of the average yearly 
and daily production per man employed in each State during 1902 and 
1903, together with the total tonnage mined by the use of machines in 
each State and the percentage of machine-mined tonnage to the total 
production. 

Average produdion per man compared with production by machines m 190S and 190S by 

States, 

[Short tons.] 





Average tonnage. 


Production by machines. 


State. 


Per year. 


Per day. 


Total tonnage by 
machines. 


Per cent of ma- 
chine coal to 
total. 




1902. 


1908. 


1902. 


1903. 


1902. 


1903. 


1902. 


1908. 


Alabama 


690 

540.7 

826 

696 

611.1 

506 

476 

606.6 


54S.6 

536.2 

804.4 

781 

684.8 

457 

453.3 

634.6 


2.46 
2.88 
3.16 
8.08 
2.98 
2,18 
2.09 
2.53 


2.88 

2.40 

3.28 

3.21 

3.22 

1.85 

2 

2.49 


800,670 

8,989 

857,279 

7,112,039 

2,421,342 

119,195 

110,489 

48.000 


577,317 


2.90 
.46 
11.68 
21.60 
25.63 
4.23 
1.87 
.91 


4.95 


Arkansas 




Colorado 


1,270,221 

7.881,027 

3,834,961 

78,304 

55,085 

9,876 


17.11 


Illinois 


19.97 


Indiana 


90. 90 


Indian Territory 


2.06 


Iowa 


.86 


Kansas 


.17 



Digitized by 



Google 



OdAt. 



079 



Average production per man compeared Vfith producHonby machine$ in 190e and 190S by 

States — Continued. 



state. 



Average toniiAge. 



Production by machines. 



Per year. 



1902. 1906. 



Per day. 



Total tonnage by 
machines. 



1902. 1908. 



1902. 



1903. 



Per cent of ma- 
chine coal to 
total. 



1902. 1903. 



KentQcky 

Maryland 

Michigan 

MiMHiri 

Montana 

Nev Mexico.... 
North Dakota .. 

Ohio 

Penn^lTania: 

Anthracite . 

Bitnminoufl 

l^eaneanee 

TiezM 

Utah 

Vfaginia 

WMhington 

W«rt Virginia".. 
Wyoming 



498 

904.6 

411.6 

899.6 

806 

567 

568.6 

604 

278.7 

875 

501 

881 

862 

814 

609 

602 

848.7 



625.2 

827.1 

494.1 

444.1 

691 

862 

678.8 

692 

496.8 

796 

482 

889 

878 

616 

670 

706 

928.4 



2.86 
8.74 
2.4CL 
1.98 
2.96 
2.61 
2.66 
8.02 

2.04 
8.62 
2.18 
1.48 
3.88 
2.78 
2.22 
3.88 
8.40 



2.64 
3.78 
2.28 
2.07 
2.72 
8.31 
2.90 
8.06 

2.41 
8.40 
2.12 
1.61 
8.62 
2.80 
2.36 
8.86 
8.68 



8,091,626 

252,768 

196,248 

228,969 

691,669 

71,744 

89,888 

12,094,641 



2,848,806 
401,144 
180,948 
8U,602 
698,504 
105,000 
115,222 
14,007,826 



45.69 
4.28 

20.84 
5.76 

44.81 
6.84 

61.42 



86,058,088 

808,996 

25,500 

74,502 

182,709 



87,146,258 

804,602 

29,000 

75,000 

82,040 



86.67 
6.94 
2.88 
4.81 
4.17 



5,733,045 
688,802 



8,198,840 
783,822 



23.85 
18.10 



37.78 
8.28 

13.23 
7.85 

46.68 
9.40 

41.86 

56.89 



86.02 
6.36 
8.18 
4.46 
2.88 



27.98 
16.91 



PRICES. 

The following tables show the fluctuations in the average prices 
prevailing in each State since 1899, and also the average prices for 
anthracite and bituminous coal in the Dnited States since 1880. These 
averages are obtained by dividing the total product, including colliery 
consumption, into the total value. 



Average prices for coal at the mines since 1899, 
[Per short ton.] 



State or Territory! 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1908. 


Alatiama 


$1.09 

1.17 

a 2. 76 

1.12 

1.00 

5.00 

.86 

.88 

1.43 

1.24 

1.16 

.79 


•1.17 
1.14 

a8.12 
1.12 
1.17 
6.00 
1.04 
1.03 
1.46 
1.88 
1.22 
.92 


$1.10 
1.14 

a2.66 
1.13 
1.20 

1.03 
1.01 
1.62 
1.39 
1.22 
.95 


$1.20 
1.81 

a 3. 14 
1.18 

M.42 

C2.50 
1.03 
1.10 
1.61 
1.47 
1.80 
.99 


$1.22 


ArkaiMMs 


1.51 


Oriilofnla -* 

Oriondo 


a2.86 
1.23 


Geonia 


bl.26 


I^kko 


8.10 


nUaoii 


1.17 


v«yfiana 


1.23 


Indian Tf^rritorr 


1.82 


lova. 


1.66 




1.62 


Knta^T 


1.06 



« Inelndes Alaska. 



h Inclades North Carolina. 



e Includes Nebraska. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Average prices for coed at the mine$ tince 1899 — ContinaedL 



state or Territory. 



1899. 



1900. 



1901. 1902. 



19IK. 



Maryland..*. — 

Michigan 

Missouri 

Montana 

New Mexico 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania bituminous. 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wyoming 



10.76 
1.S9 
1.20 
1.67 
1.89 
1.80 
1.19 

.87 
3.00 

.76 

.88 
1.51 
1.27 

.62 
V78 

.63 
1.24 



10.98 
1.48 
1.21 
1.68 
1.87 
1.82 
1.22 
1.02 
3.74 

.97 
1.14 
1.63 
1.26 

.89 
1.90 

.81 
1.36 



90.99 
1.41 
1.24 
1.44 
1.42 
1.25 
1.29 
1.00 
2.62 

.99 
1.12 
1.72 
1.26 

.86 
1.66 

.87 
1.35 



11.06 
1.71 
1.38 
1.66 
1.43 
(«) 
1.44 
1.14 
2.44 
1.08 
1.23 
1.64 
1.14 
.80 
1.72 
1.01 
1.18 



Total bituminous. . . 
Pennsylvania anthracite . 



.87 
1.46 



1.04 
1.49 



1.04 
1.67 



1.12 
1.84 



General average. 



1.01 



1.14 



1.19 I 



1.22 



11.48 

1.97 

L61 

1.64 

\.V 
(«) ' 

LSD 

1.29 

2.« 

LIS 

l.S 

1.62 

L20 
.96 

LC9 

1.17 

1.24 



1.21 
2.04 



1.41 



a Included in Georgia. 
Average price per short ton of coal in United States for S4 yearn. 



Year. 


Anthracite. 


Bituminous. 


Vcr. . 


Anthracite. 


Bituminous. 


1880 


$1.47 
2.01 
2.01 
2.01 
1.79 
2.00 
1.95 
2.01 
1.91 
1.44 
1.43 
1.46 


$1.25 
1.12 
1.12 
1.07 
.94 
1.13 
1.06 
1.11 
1.00 
.99 
.99 
.99 


1892 


$1.67 
1.69 
1.51 
1.41 
1.60 
1.51 
1.41 
1.46 
1.49 
1.67 
1.84 
2.04 


$0.99 
.96 


1881 


1893 


1882 


1894 


.91 


1883 


1896 


.8S 


1884 


1896 


.8S 


1885 


1897 


.81 


18S6 


1898 


80 


1887 


1899 


87 


1888 


1900 


1.04 


1889 


1901 


L05 


1890 


1902 •. 


1 12 


1891 


1903 


1 24 









COAL MINED BY MACHINES. 

The machine-mined production of bituminous coal continues to show 
a decidedly increasing tendency, and the percentage of the total prod- 
uct produced by machines has also increased. The total production of 
machine-mined coal in 1903 amounted to 77,974,894 short tons, as 
compared with 69,611,582 short tons in 1902, an increase of 8,363,312 
short tons, or 12 per cent, in 1902, 27.09 per cent of the bituminous 
product in States where machines are installed was mined by machines, 
while in 1903 the machine-mined product amounted to 28.18 per cent 



Digitized by 



Google 



COAL. 



381 



of the total. The total number of machines reported as in use in 1903 
was 6,658, as compared with 6,418 in 1902, an increase of 1,240, or 
22.9 per cent, as compared with the increase of 12 per cent in the 
machine-mined product. This would indicate that a number of 
machines were installed dui'ing the latter pai*t of the year, and did not 
add materially to the production. Of the 6,658 machines in use in 
1903, 3,887 were of the pick, or "puncher," type, 2,717 were of the 
chain-breast variety, and 54 were long-wall machines. Nearly 50 per 
cent of the total machine-mined product was reported from Pennsyl- 
vania, the number of machines in use in this State being 3,310, and 
the machine-mined product 37,146,253 short tons. West Virginia 
reported 788 machines in use and a machine-mined product of 
8.193,840 short tons, while Ohio, with 724 machines, produced 
14,007,326 short tons of machine coal. Illinois, with 553 machines in 
use, reported a total machine-mined product of 7,381,027 tons, and 
Kentucky, with 308 machines, produced 2,843,805 short tons. Ohio 
enjoys the distinction of the largest proportionate production by the 
use of machines, this State having in 1903 produced by machines 56.39 
per cent of the total product mined, against 51.42 per cent in 1902. 
Montana reported 46.58 per cent mined by machines in 1903, and 
44.31 per cent in 1902. Kentucky's machine-mined product decreased 
from 45.69 per cent in 1902 to 37.73 per cent in 1903, and the Illinois 
percentage decreased from 21.59 in 1902 to 19.97 in 1903. The per- 
centage of machine-mined product to the total in Pennsylvania 
increased from 35.57 to 36.02, and West Virginia from 23.35 to 27.93. 
The statistics in regard to the coal mined by machines in the last five 
years are presented in the following tables, and show the number of 
machines in use in each State, the number of tons mined by machines, 
the total pixxiuction of the States in which machines were used, and 
the percentage of the machine-mined product to the total: 

Bttamtnota coo/ mined by nuuhmes in the United States in 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, and 190S, 



SUte. 


Number of machines in use. 


1899. 


1900. 1 1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


4%bwiM 


53 

16 

63 

440 

247 

74 

41 

8 

189 

8 

25 

9 

75 


M 82 
20 20 
90 62 
430 464 
254 256 
58 47 
40 5.^ 


66 

7 

96 

506 

269 

28 

31 

6 

318 

25 

58 

20 

65 


96 


AzfcmiMU 

(V4(n4o . 


157 


ntfnoil , 


553 


MtafM 


829 


iBdlm TtirtiUtrw , 


86 


lOVft 


10 




3 
239 
10 
88 
15 
81 


4 
237 
15 
31 
24 
70 


5 


EcBtarky 


808 


iffrrlHMl., - - 


36 


lOciteiQ - - -- -- 


46 




83 


lfa^*■^ 


68 



Digitized by 



Google 



882 



MINERAL BBSOUBCBS. 



Bituminous coal mined by machines in the United States in 1899, 1900, 1901, 190ft, and 

i^O^— Continued. 



sute. 



Number of machines in oae. 



18W. 



1900. 



1901. 



1902. 1«B. 



New Mexico... 
North Dakota . 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Virginia 

Washington . . . 
WestVliginU. 
Wyoming 



Total . 



14 

5 

278 

,M8 

22 



21 

7 

841 

1,786 

18 



2 
154 
66 



9 

2 

327 

69 



7 

876 

2,068 

^^ 

IS 
6 

4 
403 

74 



17 

10 

560 

2,620 

88 

8 

18 

11 



12 
9 
7M 
S,S10 
U 
8 
IS 
10 



579 



788 



8.125 



8,907 



4,841 j 5,418 



6.6G6 



State. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

€k>lorado 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Indian Territory . 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Maryland 

Michigan 

Missouri 

Montana 

New Mexico 

North Dakota.... 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vifginia 

Washington 

West Virginia.... 
Wyoming 



Total , 



Number of tons mined by machines. 



1809. 



260.444 

146,809 

527,115 

6,0^,812 

1,718,125 

276,180 

124,721 

40,271 

1,625,800 

16,545 

64,065 

55,154 

848,710 

280,778 

88,066 

6,822,524 

22,000.722 

208,088 



265,000 

14,640 

1,881,125 

698,712 



43,968,985 



1900. 



870,150 
219,085 
756,025 

5,088,504 

1,774,045 

289,424 

182,757 

46,164 

2,889,044 
188,014 
191,577 
110,066 

1,045,115 
112,000 
88,965 

8,885,748 

26,867,068 

176,872 



261,260 

10,000 

8,418,877 

663,814 



52,784,528 



1901. 



289,051 

102,220 

819,678 

5,774,689 

1,862,058 

177,288 

U0,960 

87,979 

2,254,711 

177,724 

177,969 

168,879 

748,961 

2,700 

43,574 

9,908,816 

29,591,868 

220,578 

22,420 

14,788 

288,275 

6,500 

4,817,943 

804,826 



1902. 



300.670 

8,989 

«57,279 

7.112,089 

2,421,842 

119.196 

110,489 

48,000 

8,091,626 

252,753 

196,248 



691,660 

71,744 

89,888 

12,094,641 

35,068,068 

806.995 

25.500 

74,502 

182,709 



190B. 



677,817 



5,788,045 
588,802 



57,848,885 , 69,6U,582 



1,270.221 

7.381,027 

8.884.90 

73.304 

66,065 

9.878 

2.843.806 

401,144 

180, »a 

311,602 

698,604 

105,000 

115,222 

14,007,826 

37,146,253 

804,602 

29,000 

75,000 

82,0tt 



8,198,840 
788,822 



77,974,804 



Digitized by 



Google 



COAL. 383 

Bitwnmou8 coal mined by machine$ in the United Stales in 1899, etc, — Continued. 



state. 



Ari^tnfHf 

Colondo 

Ulioob 

iDdkna 

Indian Territory . 
Iowa 



Kcotocky 

Marrland 

Michigan 

Miaoari 

Montana 

Xew Mexico... 
North DalLota . 

Ohio 

PennfylTania . 

Tenneaee 

Texas 

Utah 

ViiKlnia 

Washington... 
WcatViiginia. 
Wyoming: 



Total. 



Total tonnage of States using mining machinery. 



1899. 



7,593,41« 

848,664 

4,776,224 

24,489,010 

6,006.623 

1,637,427 

5.177,479 

3,862,267 

4,607,265 

4,807,896 

624,706 

8,025,814 

1,496,451 

1,060,714 

98,809 

16,500,270 

74,150,175 

8,330,650 



2,106,791 
2,029,881 
19,262,996 
8,837,892 



191,144.219 



1900. 



8,394,275 

1,477,945 

5.244,364 

25,767,981 

6,484,086 

1,922,298 

^,202,989 

4,467,870 

5.328,964 

4,024,688 

849,475 

3,540,103 

1,661,775 

1,299,299 

129,883 

18,988,150 

79,842,326 

3,706,562 



2.398,754 

2.474,093 

22,647,207 

4,014,602 



209,864,639 



1901. 



9,099,052 
1,816,136 
5.700,015 

27.381,552 
6.918,225 
2,421,781 
5,617,499 
4,900,528 
6,469,986 
6,113.127 
1,241,241 
3,802.088 
1,396.081 
1,086,546 
166,601 

20.948,807 

82,805,946 
8,633,290 
1,107,953 
1,822,614 
2,725,878 
2,578,217 

24,068,402 
4,485,374 



225,261,934 



1902. 



10,354,570 
1,943,932 
7,401,343 

32,939,373 
9,446,424 
2.820,666 
5,904,766 
5,266,065 
6,766,984 
5,271,609 
964,718 
3.890.154 
1.560,823 
1,048,763 
226,511 

23,519.894 

98.574,367 

4,382.968 

901,912 

1,674.521 

8,182,993 



24,570,826 
4,429,491 



256,943,673 



11,654,324 



7,423,602 

36,957,104 

10,794,692 

3,517,388 

6,419,811 

6,839,976 

7,538,082 

4,846,165 

1,367.619 

4,238,586 

1,488,810 

1,541,781 

278,645 

24,838,108 

103,117,178 

4,798,004 

926,759 

1,681,409 

8,461,807 



29,337,241 
4,635,293 



276,691,829 



State. 



ArfcansH. 
Colofado. 



Indian Territory . 
Iowa 

Kcntoeky 

MarykDd 

Michigan 

Wmmi 



BewMexko... 
KorthDakoU. 

Ohio 

PfenuylTania . 



TexM 

Utah 

TliglBia 

WsAii^ltoo... 
WfltViiginia. 
WjOBtog 



1809. 



Percentage of total product mined by machines. 
1900. 



3.43 
17.41 
11.03 
24.90 
28.62 
17.96 

2.21 

1.04 

85.29 

.84 

10.20 

1.80 
66.88 
24.81 
88.62 
41.86 
29.67 

6.04 



28.06 

.72 

9.27 

18.07 



28.00 



4.41 
14.82 
14.42 
19.78 
27.86 
12.46 

2.65 

1.08 
48.91 

8.48 
22.56 

8.11 
62.89 

8.62 
26.15 
46.68 
38.66 

4.77 



9.66 

.40 

15.09 

16.27 



26.15 



1901. 



3.17 

5.62 

5.60 

21,12 

26.77 

7.81 

1.97 

.77 

41.21 

3,47 

14.88 

4.04 

58.64 

.24 

26.15 

47.26 

86.96 

6.07 

2.02 

1.11 

8.66 

.25 

20.01 

17.94 



1902. 



2.90 

.46 

11.58 

21.59 

25.68 

4.28 

1.87 

.91 

45.69 

4.28 

20.34 

5.76 

44.31 

6.84 

89.66 

51.42 

85.57 

6.94 

2.88 

4.81 

4.17 



28.35 
18.10 



25.68 



27.09 



1903. 



4.95 



17.11 

19.97 

80.90 

2.06 

.86 

.17 

87.78 

8.28 

13.23 

7.36 

46.58 

9.40 

41.86 

66.89 

86.02 

6.85 

8.18 

4.46 

2.88 



27.96 
16.91 



28.18 



Digitized by V^OOQIC 



884 



IQNEBAL BESOUBOES. 



The different kinds of machines in use in 1903, by States, are shown 
in the following table: 

Number and kinds of machines in use in 190S, 



State. 



Pick. 



Chain- 
breast. 



ucmg- 
Wal, 



1V)taL 



Alabama 

Colorado 

IlUnolfl 

Indiana 

Indian Territory. 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Maryland 

Michigan 

Missouri 

Montana 

New Mexico 

North Dakota ... 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Virginia 

West Virginia... 
Wyoming 



Total . 



451 
110 
16 



202 
86 
46 
4 
61 



2 

51 

2,267 

45 

6 
18 



42 



9 
65 

100 

219 

18 



8 
106 



2 

12 
7 
678 
,089 
6 
2 



8,887 



10 
430 ' 



2,717 



M 



157 
553 
329 

36 

10 

5 
806 

K . 

46 

S8 

65 

12 

9 

72t 

S,SU 

51 
8 

13 

10 

■m 



6,6SS 



liABOR TEOUBUES, 

The year 1903 was one of comparative industrial peace in the coal 
mining regions of the United States. Two exceptions to the rule were 
noted, however, one in the east, Alabama, and one in the west, Colo- 
rado. There were occasional cessations from work in the anthracite 
region of Pennsylvania, but they were not of long duration, and the 
time lost had no appreciable effect upon the production. The strikes 
in Alabama affected 7,319 out of a total of 21,438 men, and the average 
time lost was 32 days per man, a total of 231,112 working days. In 
Colorado there were 7,103 men out of a total of 9,229 who were idle 
for an average of 57 days, or a total loss in working time of 407,909 
days. In the bituminous region of Pennsylvania there were 12,805 
men idle at one time or another during the year, the average time lost 
being 25 days per man. Considering the great importance of the 
bituminous coal mining industry of western Pennsylvania, this loss 
was insignificant, the total idle time lost by strike representing little 
more than 1 per cent of the total working days, and diid not affect the 
production. Seventy per cent of the entire time lost by strikes in 1908 
was borne by these tiiree States. The total number of men idle at any 



Digitized by 



Google 



COAL. 



885 



time during the year, not including the unimportant disaffections in 
the anthracite region of Pennsylvania, were 47,481, and the average 
time lost for each man was 28 days. The total time idle was equal to 
1,341,031 days, or about 1.5 per cent of the total working time. The 
statistics of labor troubles in the United States during 1902 and 1908 
are shown in the following tables: 

Statigtics of labor strikes in the coal mines of the United States in 1902, 



State or Territory. 


Number of 
men on 
rtrike. 


Total days 
lost 


Average 
number of 
days lost 
per man. 


At«btinii 


6,069 
14 
444 

3.916 

1,824 
150 
363 
884 

1,248 


189,788 
140 
20,845 
65,231 
23,698 
9,000 
6,480 
17,256 
22,184 


83 


ArkAiuan 


10 


Cblormdo 


47 


Dlinoiii 


17 


InditriA . 


18 


Indlftfi Teni t^rv 


60 


Iowa 


18 


Ktn<»«p 


52 


Kentacky 


18 


Mtryliind . . 




Michigan 


1,935 

1.864 

686 

470 

8 

3,769 

12,580 

1,904 

50 

205 


239,146 

61,273 

7,636 

9,820 

8 

70,534 

264,862 

136,347 

50 

5,875 


124 


MiMnnii , , . _ 


45 


Montana 


u 


New Mexico 


21 


North Dakota 


1 


Ohio 


19 


Pi»nn!iyl vania biti»minoiis ^ , , ^ ^ . , ^ ,.,.,,, 


21 




72 


Tf^xan. a 


1 


Virginia 


29 


WMhingl^n T T - - - - - - 




Wttt Virginia 


18,129 

55,452 
145,000 


1,362,064 


76 






Total 


2,462,217 
14,210,000 


44 


PennajlYania antbiraclte (approximate) 


06 






Statigtics of labor strikes in the coal mines of the 


United Sta 


tes in 190S. 




State or Territory. 


Number of 
men on 
strike. 

7,319 
7, 103 


Total days 
lost. 


Averajfe 
number of 
days lost 
per man. 


Alabama 


231,112 
2,078 


32 


Arkanns 


5 


Colorado . .. 


407_9<K» i WJ 


niinoii 


3,77'2 ( 70,731 ' 19 


Indiana 


2,680 t 46,566 
448 1 1,928 

1,143 ' :i :^'> 

328 1 2.M6 
590 18,717 
120 1 6,(M5 

7.') I 82.1 
1,3(V. 13,8l»2 

54 1 710 


17 


Indian TfTritorv 


4 


Iowa 


99 


Kanns ^ ^.x....... 


8 


Kentocky 


22 


Maryland 


5 


Michigan 


11 


Mtowori 


11 


New Mexico 


13 


M B 1903 25 


Digitized by VjOOQU 



386 



MINERAL BESOUB0B8. 



Statiaica of labor strikes in the coal mines of the United Slates in 1905— Gontinoed. 



state or Territory. 



Number of 
men on 
strike. 



Total days 

lOit 



Average 
number of 
dayslofit 
permuL 



North Dakota 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Washington . . 
WestViiginia 
Wyoming 

Total... 



35 

4,115 

12,806 

l,e39 

1,055 

350 

200 

1,524 

418 



340 

65,14» 

821,925 

36,021 

2^460 

9,800 

6,000 

63,212 

4,130 



47,481 



1,311,031 



16 
S5 
23 
23 
28 
S 
41 
10 



IMPORTS AND EXPOBT8. 

The following tables have been compiled from official returns to the 
Bureau of Statistics of the Department of Commerce and Labor, and 
show the imports and exports of coal from 1867 to 1903, inclusive. 
The values given in both cases are considerably higher than the aver- 
age " spot " rates by which the values of the domestic production have 
been computed. 

The tariff from 1824 to 1843 was 6 cents per bushel, or $1.68 per 
long ton; from 1843 to 1846, $1.75 per ton; 1846 to 1857, 30 percent 
ad valorem; 1857 to 1861, 24 per cent ad valorem; 1861, bituminous 
and shale, $1 per ton; all other, 50 cents per ton; 1862 to 1864, bitu- 
minous and shale, $1.10 per ton; all other, 60 cents per ton; 1864 to 
1872, bituminous and shale, $1.25 per ton; all other, 40 cents per ton. 
By the act of 1872 the tariff on bituminous coal and shale was made 75 
cents per ton, and so continued until the act of August, 1894, changed 
it to 40 cents per ton. On slack or culm the tariff was made 40 cents 
per ton by the act of 1872; was changed to 30 cents per ton by the act 
of March, 1883, and so continued until the act of August, 1894, chan^ 
it to 15 cents per ton. The tariff act of 1897 provides that all coals 
which contain less than 92 per cent fixed carbon, and which will pass 
over a half -inch screen, shall pay a duty of 67 cents per ton. Slack or 
culm was not changed by the act of 1897. Tons are all 2,240 pounds. 
Anthracite coal has been free of duty since 1870. During the period 
from June, 1854, to March, 1866, the reciprocity treaty was in force, 
and coal from the British possessions in North America was admitted 
into the United States duty free. A special act of Congress placed all 
coal on the free list for one year from January 1, 1903, in order to 
relieve the shortage caused by the anthracite strike of 1902, 

The exports consist both of anthracite and bituminous coal, the 
amount of bituminous being the greater in the last few years. They 



Digitized by 



Google 



COAL. 



387 



are made principally by rail over the international bridges and by lake 
and sea to the Canadian provinces. Exports are also made by sea to 
the West Indies, to Centml and South America, and elsewhere. 

The imports are principally from Australia and British Columbia to 
San Francisco, from Great Britain to the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, 
and from Nova Scotia to Atlantic coast points. 

The total exports of coal from the United States during 1903 amounted 
to 8,312,098 long tons, valued at $27,190,429, of which 2,008,867 long 
tons, valued at $9,780,044, were anthracite, and 6,303,241 long tons, 
valued at $17,410,385, were bituminous coal. The imports of anthracite 
were equal to about 0.0005 per cent of the total production, and those 
of bituminous to 0.01 per cent. The imports of anthracite coal into 
the United States were relatively of no importance; they are princi- 
pally to San Francisco. A considerable increase has been noted in the 
imports of bituminous coal in the last three or four years, which has 
been due to receipts of Nova Scotian coal at Everett, Mass., the fuel 
being used in the manufacture of retort ovens at the plant of the New 
England Coal and Coke Company at that place. Compared with the 
domestic production, however, the total amount of coal imported is 
of little consequence, having averaged for years less than 1 per cent 
of the production. 

Coal imported and entered for consumption in the United States f 1867-1 90S, 



Ye*r endin^r^ 


Anthracite. 


BitnminoQii and shale. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


QuanUty. | Value, 


Jnneao— 1M7 


Longton$, 




Longtont. 
609,802 
894,021 
487.228 
415.729 
480.606 
485.068 
460.028 
492,068 
486,714 
400,632 
495.816 
672,846 
486,501 
471,818 
652.968 
795.722 
645,924 
748,995 
788,477 
811.657 
819.242 
1,085,647 
1,001,374 
819.971 
1,863,818 


$1,412,507 


USB 






1.260,518 


vm 






1,222,U9 
1,106,966 
1.121,914 
1,279,686 
1.548,208 
1,937.274 
1.791,601 
1,592,846 


U7D.. . 






vm 


978 

890 

2,221 

471 

188 

1,428 

680 

1&8 

488 

8 

1,207 

86 

607 

1,448 

4,976 

2,089 

14,181 

24,096 

20,668 

16,146 

87,607 


$4,177' 

1,822 

10,764 

8,224 

968 

8,560 

2,220 

618 

721 

40 

2,628 

148 

1,172 

4,404 

15,848 

4.920 

42,988 

68,710 

U7,484 

46,695 

112,722 


1872 


im 


B74. 


187S 


M3« 


UT7 


1,782,941 


uro 


1,929,660 


WTf 


1,716.209 
1,588,812 
1.988,199 
2,141,878 
3,018,566 
2,494.228 
2,548.482 
2,501.158 


vm 


vm 


i« 


\m 


UM 


vm 


liweabcrJi— 1886 


vm 


2,609,8U 
8,728,060 
8.425.847 


ma 


Mi 


MO 


2,822.216 
4.661,106 


vm^ 



Digitized by V^OOQIC 



388 



MINEBAL BESOUBCES. 



Coed imported and entered for conmmption in the United tStcUes, i5»7-i505— Continiied. 



Year ending— 


Anthracite. 


Bituminous and shale. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


QuanUty. | Value. 


DecemberSl — 1892 . . . 


Longtoni, 

65,068 

53,768 

90,068 

141,837 

101,689 

24,534 

3,149 

61 

118 

286 

a 170, 211 

a 176, 747 


$197,683 

148,112 

234,024 

328.706 

1237,717 

59,222 

8,609 

245 

549 

1,844 

792,469 

792,667 


LongtoM. 
1,143,304 
1,082,998 
1,242,714 
1,212,023 
1,211,448 
1,276,185 
1,277,070 
1,400,461 
1,909,258 
1,919,962 
62,470,902 
68.298,688 


t3,74i8G2 


1893 


3,623,893 


1894 


8,785,513 


1896 


8.626,023 


1896 


18,463,742 


1897 


8,424,833 


1898 '. 


8,569.7i3 


1899 


3,882.430 


1900 


5.019,563 


1901 


5,291,429 


1902 


6,984,668 


1903 


9,819,667 







a Includes 93,571 tons of anthracite containing less than 92 per cent fixed carbon, duty bee onder 
the special act of 1902. imported in 1902, and 28,041 tons imported in 1903. 

6 Includes 767,582 tons of slack or culm passing i-inch screen imported in 1902, and 577,274 tons 
imported in 1903. 

Coal of domestic production exported from the United States, 1867-190S, 



Year ending-' 



Anthracite.. 



Quantity. Value, 



Bituminous and shale. 



Quantity. Value. 



June 80,1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879, 

1880. 

1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

1885. 
Dec. 81,1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 

1896. 

1896. 



Long tons. 
192,912 
192,291 
283,783 
121,098 
134,571 
259,567 
842,180 
401,912 
316,167 
337,934 
418,791 
319,477 
386,916 
392,626 
462,208 
653,742 
567,818 
649,040 
688,461 
667,076 
826,486 
969,642 
857,632 
794,335 
861,251 
851,639 
1,333,287 
1,440,626 
1.470,710 
1,360,000 



$1,838,467 
1,082.745 
1,558,116 
803,185 
805,169 
1,375,342 
1,827,822 
2,236.084 
1.791.626 
1,869,484 
1,891,861 
1,006,848 
1,427,886 
1,362.901 
2,091,928 
2,589,887 
2,648,033 
3,058,660 
2,686,421 
2,718,148 
8,469.166 
4,325,126 
3,636,347 
3,272,697 
8,677,610 
8,722,903 
6,241,007 
6,850,021 
5,987,180 
5,026,606 



LongUm*. 
92,189 
86,867 



106.820 

133.380 

141, 3U 

242,458 

861.490 

208.189 

280,144 

821.666 

840,661 

276.000 

222.634 

191,088 

814.820 

463.061 

646.265 

683,481 

544,768 

706,864 

860,462 

936,151 

1,280,930 

1,616,869 

1,645,869 

2,324,591 

2,196,716 

2,2U,983 

2.276,202 



8512.742 
433,41^ 



502.223 

564,067 

586,364 

1,086,253 

1,587,666 

828,943 

S0,711 

1,084,711 

i,852.eai 

891.512 
695.179 
788,582 
1,102,898 
1.568.214 
1,977.9M 
1,980. Nl 
1.440,631 
2,001,966 
2,689,472 
2,788,582 
4.004,995 
5,104,850 
4,999.289 
6,009,801 
4.9TO,CT) 
4.816,847 
5,072,08 



Digitized by 



Google 



COAL, 



389 



Oxd of domestic production expo/tied from the United States, 1867-1903— ConivaxSLeA. 



Year ending — 


Anthracite. 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Dec n,1897 


LongtoM. 
1,298,768 
1,350,948 
1,707.796 
1,654,610 
1,998,807 
907,977 
2,008,857 


$5,886,730 
5,712,985 
7,140,100 
7,092,489 
8,937,147 
4,301,946 
9,780,044 


Long tout. 
2.399,263 
3.152,459 
4,044,3M 
6,262.909 
5,390,086 
5,218,969 
6,803,241 


$5,326,761 
6,699,248 
8,578,276 
14,481,690 
13,065,768 
13,927,063 
17,410,885 


1896 


1899 ; 


1900 


1901 


1902 


1908 





WOBIiD'S PRODUCTION OF COAIi. 

In the following table is given the coal production of the principal 
countries for the years nearest the one under review for which figures 
could be obtained. For the sake of convenience the quantities are 
expressed in the unit of measurement adopted in each country and 
reduced for comparison to short tons of 2,000 pounds. In each case 
the year is named for which the production is given. 

The worUVs production of coal. 



Country. 



United States (1908) long tons. 

Great Britain (1903) do... 

Gcfmukj (1908) metric tons. 

Anrtria^Hungary (1902) do... 

ftMiec(1906) do... 

Belfimn (190S) do... 

RiibU(1902) long tons. 

J«pfta(1901) metric tons. 

0»aada(1908) , short tons. 

India (19(18) long tons. 

Kctt Booth Wale8( 1902) do... 

8|i«in(llW) metric tons. 

Sooth African Repablic (1902) long tons. 

5«w Zealand (1902) do... 

Xexfeo(19Q2) metric tons. 

Sweden (1902) do... 

ltriy(1902) do... 

HoIknd(1902) do... 

Qtteeoiland (1902) long tons. 

Vlrtoriaa«2) do... 

S»U1(W02) do... 

On* Colony (1902) do... 

T«BMiia(1902) do... 

<}<hereoQntrIesa do... 



Total. 



of the United States. 



Usual unit in 

producing 

country. 



819,068,229 

230,334,409 

162,312,076 

39,479,560 

35.002,992 

23,870,820 

15,259,674 

8,946,988 

7,996,634 

7,424,480 

6,942,011 

2,798,118 

1,590,830 

1,862,702 

710,000 

804,733 

418,810 

399,133 

601,581 

225,164 

592,821 

165,557 

48,863 

4,600,861 



Equivalent in 
snort tons. 



857,866,416 

257,974,605 

178,916,600 

43,518,319 

38,583,798 

26,812,805 

17,090,885 

9,861,107 

7,996,634 

8,315,418 

6,655,052 

8,084,860 

1,781,170 

1,526,226 

782,683 

335,907 

456,143 

439,964 

561,716 

252,184 

663,960 

186,424 

54,727 

6,152,404 



967,858,406 
87 



"laelodes China, Torkey, Seryla, Portugal, United States of Colombia, Chile, Borneo and Labuan, 
nni, Greece, etc 



Digitized by 



Google 



390 



MINERAL REdOUROES. 



As shown in the preceding table, the United States in 1903 produced 
37 per cent of the entire world's supply. In 1902 the United States 
produced 34 per cent of the total, and in 1901, 33.7 per i^nt The 
lead which the United States assumed over Great Britain in 1899 has 
been increased each year, our production in 1903 exceeding that of 
Great Britain by nearly 100,000,000 tons, or almost 40 per cent Great 
Britain's production last year exceeded her output in 1902 by 3,628,158 
short tons, or about li per cent, while the production of the United 
States increased 55,766,977 short tons, or 18.5 per cent The aggre- 
gate production of Great Britain and all of her colonies in 1903 
amounted to 285,967,115 short tons, an amount exceeded by the pro- 
duction of the United States by 71,389,301 short tons, or 25 per cent. 

The steps by which the United States has attained its present rank 
among the coal-producing countries of the world are exhibited in the 
following table, which shows the production of each country for each 
year for which the figures are obtainable since 1868. At the beginning 
of that period the United States held third place, with Great Britain 
first and Germany second. The latter country was permanently dis- 
placed in 1877, although in four years previous to that date, in 1871, 
1872, 1873, and 1874, our production had exceeded that of Germany. 

In 1902 the United States produced 80 per cent more coal than Ger- 
many, and in 1903 our production was almost exactly double that of 
the German Empire. 

World's production of coaly by countries^ 1868-1903, 



Year. 


United States. 


Great Britain. 




Long tons. 


Short tons. 


Long tons. 


Short tons. 


Metric tons. 


Short tons. 


1868 


28,258,000 
28,268,000 
82,863,000 
41,884,000 
46,416,000 
51,004,000 
46,916,000 
46,686.000 
47,500,000 
63,948,000 
61,665,000 
60,893,570 
67,998,164 
76,865.357 
92,219,454 
102,867,969 
106.906,296 
99,249,817 
101,500,024 
116,661,974 
132,731,613 
126,097.869 
140,866,931 


31,648,960 
31,660,160 
36.806,560 
46,350,080 
60,865,920 
57,124,480 
62,646,920 
62,288,320 
63,200,000 
60,421,760 
67,858,600 
68,200,799 
76,157,944 
85,881,030 
108,285,789 
115,212,126 
119,736.051 
111,159,795 
118,680,027 
180,650,211 
148,659,407 
141,229,618 
157,770,963 


103,141,157 
107,427,657 
110,431,192 
117,352,028 
123,497,316 
128,680,131 
126,590,108 
133,806,486 
184,126,166 
134,179,968 
132,612,063 
133,720,393 
146,969,409 
164,184,300 
156,499,977 
163.737,827 
160,757,779 
159,361,418 
167,518.482 
162,119,812 
169,986,219 
176,916,724 
181,614.288 


116,518,096 
120.318,864 


82,879,123 


36,«9,2» 
37,864,164 
37.488,312 

41, 796, an 

46,662,725 
50,875,036 
51,440,605 
62.708.970 
54,629.383 
53,173.445 
65,698,188 
68,961,461 
66,177.684 
67,848.385 
72,079,478 
77,«63.01« 
79,505,487 
81.227,255 
81.285.0© 
84,046,40 
90,860,982 
98,610,600 
96.888,600 


1869 


1870 


123,682,936 j 84,003,0(M 
131,434,271 * 37,856,110 
138,316,994 ', 42,324,467 
144,121,747 46,145,194 
141 780 921 > ^ Af«R 1^*^ 


1871 


1872 


1873 


1874 


1875 


149,303,263 
150,220,186 
150,281,664 
148,625,611 
149,766,840 
164,605,738 
172,686,416 
176,279,974 
183,385,806 
180,048,712 
178,473,688 
176,420,700 
181,674,189 
190,327,445 
198,146,731 
208,406,006 


47,804,064 
49,550,461 
48,229,882 
50,619,899 
63,470,716 
69.118,085 
61,540,485 
65,378,2U 
70.442,648 
72,113,820 
73,675,515 
78,682,584 
76,232,618 
81,960,063 
84,978,280 
89,290,834 


1876 


1877, 


1878 


1879 


1880 


1881 


1882 


1883 


1884 


1886 


1886 


1887 


1888 


1889 


1890 



Digitized by 



Google 



COAL. 



391 



WorUTs production of coal, by countries, 1S68-190S — Continned. 



Year. 



United States. 



Long tons. Short tons. 



18B2.. 
I»3.. 

vm.. 
vm.. 

1S86.. 

yon., 
vm.. 



1900.. 

mn.. 



isoi.. 



150,505,964 
160.116, 242 
162,814,977 
162,447,791 
172,426,366 
171,416,990 
178,766,071 
196,407,382 
226,664,686 
240,789,900 
261,874,886 
269,277,178 
819,068,229 



168,666,668 
179,329,071 
182,852,774 
170,741,626 
198,117,680 
191,986,857 
200,229,199 
219,976,267 
253,741,192 
269,684,027 
296,299,816 
801,500,489 
857,856,416 



Great Britain. 



Long tons. Short tons. 



185,479,126 
181,786,871 
167,826,795 
188,277,626 
189,661,362 
195,361,260 
202,129,961 
202,064,516 
220,094.781 
226,181,300 
219,046,945 
227,096,042 
230,884,469 



207,736,621 
203,601,296 
184,044,890 
210,870,828 
212,820,725 
218, 804, 6U 
226,385,523 
226,801,068 
246,506,155 
252,208,056 
245,882,578 
254,346,447 
257,974,605 



Germany. 



Long tons. Short tons. 



94,252,278 
92,544,050 
95,426,153 
98,805,702 
103,957,639 
112,471,106 
120,474,485 
130,928,490 
135,824,427 
149,551,000 
152,628,931 
150,486,810 
162,812,075 



103,918,136 
102,029,815 
106,207,384 
108,888,884 
114,561,818 
123,943,169 
182,762,882 
144,288,196 
149,719,766 
164,805,202 
168,217,062 
165,826,496 
178,916,600 



Year. 



laes.. 

1809.. 
1S70.. 
1871.. 
1872.. 
1871.. 
1874.. 
1836.. 
1876.. 
UB7... 

vm.. 

1879... 



Austria-Hungary. 



Metric tons. Short tons. 



IBM... 



MB.. 



in. 



UN.. 
UK.. 



U97.. 



7,021,766 
7,663,048 
8,856,945 
8,487,401 
8,826.896. 
10,104,769 
12,631,864 
13,062,738 
13,000,000 
18,600,000 
18,900,000 
14,500,000 
14.800,000 
16,804,818 
15,566,292 
17,047,961 
18,000,000 
20,486,468 
20,779,441 
21,879,172 
28,859,606 
26,328,417 
27,604,062 
28,828,240 
29,087,978 
40,449,804 
81.490,000 
82,664,777 
88,676,411 
86,866,000 
87,786,968 
88,799,000 
89,029,729 
41,202,902 
80,479.660 



7.741,486 
8,448,506 
9,212,429 
9,802,285 
9,780,550 
11,140,608 
13,926,079 
14,895,137 
14,827,800 
14,883,750 
15,324,760 
15,966,260 
16,817,000 
16,878,566 
17,149,709 
18,796,377 
19,845,000 
22,580,098 
22,909,884 
24,121,787 
26,806,218 
27,924,680 
80,828,196 
81,777,622 
82,014,871 
88,670,358 
84,704,184 
86,986,564 
87,111,406 
89,615,616 
41,662,669 
42,690,878 
48,010,761 
46,417,969 
48,518,819 



France. 



Metric tons. Short tons. 



13,380,826 
13,509,745 
18,179,788 
13,240,135 
16,100,773 
17,479,341 
16,907,913 
16,966.840 
17,101,448 
16,804,529 
16,960,916 
17,110,979 
19,861,564 
19,766,983 
20,603,704 
21,383,884 
20,028,614 
19,510,680 
19,909,804 
21,287,680 
22,602,894 
24,808,609 
26,068,U8 
26,024,896- 
26,178,701 
25,660,961 
27,469,187 
28,019,896 
29,189,900 
80,797,629 
82,866,104 
82,868,000 
88,404,296 
32,801,757 
80,196,994 
86,002,992 



14,697,236 
14,894,494 
14,580,716 
14,597,249 
17,751,102 
19,270,973 
18,640,974 
18,094,916 
18,854,346 
18.526,998 
18,699,410 
18,864,854 
21,346,124 
21,791,996 
22,715,584 
23,520,607 
22,075,924 
21,510,869 
21,950,658 
28,460,567 
24,919,691 
26,794,619 
28,756,688 
28,692,444 
28,862,018 
28,280.207 
80,278,699 
80,877,922 
82,167,270 
88,988,967 
85,656.426 
86,215,026 
36,811,586 
85,596,586 
88,286,146 
88,588,796 



Belgium. 



Metric tons. Short ton^. 



12,298,589 
12,943,994 
18,697,118 
18,783,176 
15,658,948 
15,778,401 
14,669,029 
15,011,381 
14,329,578 
18,669,077 
14,899,175 
15,447,292 
16,886,698 
16,873,951 
17,500,989 
18,177,754 
18,051,499 
17,487,608 
17,285,548 
18,878,624 
19,218,481 
19,869,980 
20,865,960 
19,675,644 
19,583,178 
19,410,519 
20,458,827 
20,450.604 
21,252,370 
21,534,629 
22,075,093 
21,917,740 
28,462,817 
22.213,410 
22.877.470 
23,870,820 



18,559,194 
14,270,758 
15,101,073 
15,140,827 
17,263,990 
17,396,687 
16,172,604 
16,549,992 
15,796,360 
15,070,167 
16,426^840 
17,030,640 
18,617,585 
18,608,581 
19,394,065 
20,040,974 
19,901,778 
19,224,957 
19,057,311 
20,262,438 
21,188,875 
21,906,658 
22,458,471 
21,692,898 
21,590,448 
21,400,097 
22,565,857 
22,536,566 
23,420,112 
28,731,161 
24,326,752 
24,159,926 
25.856,024 
24,485,842 
25,217,836 
26,312,805 



Digitized by 



Google 



892 



HIKEKAL BESOUBOES. 



WorUPsproductUm ofcoal^ by countries, 1868-1903 — Continaed. 



Tear. 



Russia. 



Metric tons. Short tons. 



Japan. 



Metric tons. Short tons. 



Other conn- 
tries. 



Short tons. 



Total. 



Short tons. 



Percent 

of United 

States. 



IMS. 
1860. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1878. 
1874. 
1876. 
1876. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 



1884. 
1886., 
1886.. 
1887.. 
1888., 
1889.. 
1890.. 
1891.. 
1892.. 
1898.. 
1894.. 
1896.. 
1896.. 
1897.. 
1896. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901., 
1902. 
1908.. 



430,082 

679,419 

667,806 

772,871 

1,087,611 

1,164,618 

1,270,889 

1,673,768 

1,796,146 

1,760,276 

2,483,576 

2,874,790 

8,288,470 

8,439,787 

8,672,782 

3,916,106 

8,869,689 

4,207,906 

4,606,027 

4,464,174 

6,187,312 

6,215,677 

6,016,626 

6,238,020 

6,816,323 

7,586,000 

8,629,000 

9,079,188 

9,229,000 

11.207,475 

12,807,450 

13,662,810 

16,151,667 

16,269,800 

15,259,674 



473,896 

688,610 

735,922 

861,168 

1,143,447 

1,272,389 

1,400,520 

1,844,475 

1,968,251 

1,989,824 

2,738,141 

8,169,456 

3,670,413 

3,792,365 

4,049,242 

4,317,606 

4,266,332 

4,689,215 

4,967,895 

4,921,752 

5,719,011 

6,852,674 

6,638,219 

6,871,905 

7,514,996 

8,307,387 

9,609,168 

10,005,210 

10,170,358 

12,350,638 

13,562,810 

15,730,346 

17,799,016 

17,934,201 

17,090,835 



1,021,000 
1,150,000 
1,314,000 
1,402,000 
1,786,000 
2,044,000 
2,435,000 
2,653,000 
3,230,000 
3,228,000 
3.350,000 
4,311,000 
4,849,000 
5,019,690 
5,647,751 
6,761,301 
6,716,831 
7,429,457 
8,945,938 



1,125,142 
1,277,218 
1,448,028 
1,645,004 
1,967,070 
2,252,488 
2,683,870 
2,923,606 
3,569,460 
3,657,256 
3,691,700 
4,750,722 
5,843,598 
5,581,698 
6,225,516 
7,572,657 
7,401,948 
8,187,262 
9,861,107 



1.147,330 

1,104,568 

1,063,121 

1,114,248 

1,268,U5 

1,502,616 

2,708,756 

2,639,104 

2,597,148 

2,821,155 

8,176,050 

8,362,605 

3,621,342 

6,185,974 

6,128,631 

6,929,841 

7,367,309 

7,670,507 

9,082,815 

10,399,273 

11,493,176 

12,618,299 

13,025,637 

14,744,329 

14,998,633 

15,783,599 

18,197,510 

19,428,643 

20,866,748 

22,074,098 

24,797,873 

25,811,285 

27,684,964 

30,565,923 

fc 37, 907, 163 



221,085.430 
229,200,013 
238,621,068 
260,526,424 
283,002,848 
302,703,376 
298,616,379 
808,419,177 
811,594,969 
317,11^,648 
818,441,990 
336,832,906 
369,413,780 
392,663,253 
420,082,472 
450,990,397 
454,022,811 
447,783,802 
450,848,793 
481,412,748 
521,225,803 
681,797.089 
563,693,282 
687,564,688 
693,497,904 
682,688,296 
610,487,368 
644,177,076 
664,001,718 
697,213,615 
738,129,606 
801,976,021 
846,041,848 
870,711,044 
888,644,787 



14.32 

13.81 

16.42 

17.^ 

17.97 

18.87 

17.60 

16.96 

17.07 

19.01 

18.17 

20. S4 

20.62 

2L87 

24.58 

25.55 

26.37 

24.82 

25.22 

27.14 

2&S2 

26. S6 

27.99 

28.69 

30.22 

3L90 

27.97 

29.96 

28.92 

28.72 

29.80 

SL6S 

31.88 

33.60 

33.94 



*» Latest available figures are used In making up totals for 1902. 

ft This includes, in addition to the countries named in the following pages, the output of Holland, 
439,964 tons; Natal. 663,960 tons; Cape Colony. 185,424 tons: Tasmania, 64,727 tons; Mexico, 7S2,6S3 
tons; China, Turkey, Servia, Portugal, etc. (estimated), 6,162,404 tons; total, 7,278,730 tons (1902). 



Digitized by 



Google 



COAL. 393 

Produdum of minor coal-producing countries^ 1868-lOOS, 



Tetr. 



un.. 

U89.. 
1870.. 
W7I.. 

xsn.. 
\m., 
m\.. 

1875.. 
1878.. 
M77.. 
1878.. 
1871.. 



UBl.. 
1882.. 
1881.. 
18M.. 
1886.. 
1866.. 
1887.. 
1888.. 
1888.. 
1880.. 
1881.. 

ue.. 
un.. 

28N. 

1886.. 
1886.. 

vm.. 



Ml.. 
Itt... 



New Boath Wales. 



Long tons. Short tons. 



954.231 
919,774 
868,564 
898,784 
1,012,426 
1,192.862 
1,304,667 
1,329,729 
1,319,918 
1,444,271 
1,676,497 
1,663,381 
1,466,180 
1,769,697 
2,109,282 
2,821,457 
2,749,109 
2,878,868 
2,830,175 
2,922,497 
3,203,444 
8,666,632 
8,060,876 
4,087,929 
3,780,968 
8,278,328 
8,672,076 
8,787,636 
8,909,517 
4,883.591 
4,736,000 
4,697,028 
5,607,497 
5,938,426 
5,942,011 



1,068,789 
1,030,147 
972,791 
1,006,638 
1,183,917 
1,336,005 
1.461,115 
1,489,296 
1,478,306 
1,617,584 
1,764,556 
1,773,387 
1,642,122 
1,961,949 
2,362,896 
2,824,032 
8,079,002 
3,224,327 
8,109,796 
8,273,197 
8,587,857 
4,094,308 
8,428,181 
4,522,480 
4,284,684 
8,671,727 
4,112,725 
4,186.040 
4,878,659 
4,909,622 
5,804,820 
5,148,671 
6.168,397 
6,684,637 
6,655,052 



Queensland. 



Long tons. Short tons. 



19,611 

11,120 

22,689 

17,000 

27,727 

33,613 

48,448 

82,107 

60,627 

60,918 

52,560 

55,012 

58,062 

65,612 

74,436 

104,750 

120,727 

209,698 

228,666 

238,818 

311,412 

265,507 

888,344 

271,603 

265,086 

264,408 

270,705 

822,977 

871,000 

858,407 

407,819 

494,009 

497,132 

639,472 

601,531 



21,964 

12,454 

25,866 

19,040 

31,054 

87,647 

48,656 

35,960 

56,702 

68,228 

58,890 

61,613 

65,018 

73,485 

83,368 

117,320 

185,214 

234,862 

256,094 

267,470 

348,781 

297,868 

878, W5 

804.195 

296,896 

296,181 

803,190 

361,734 

415,520 

401,416 

466,757 

568,290 

556.788 

604,209 

561,715 



New 2Sealand. 



Long tons. Short tons. 



162,218 
231,218 
299,623 
337,262 
378,272 
421,764 
480,831 
511,063 
534,353 
568,620 
613,895 
586,446 
637,397 
668,794 
673,315 
691,548 
719,546 
727,000 
793,000 
840,713 
906,778 
975,234 
1,093,990 
1,227,638 
1,862,702 



181,681 
258,964 
335,913 
377,733 
423,665 
472,376 
538,531 
572,390 
596,475 
625,654 
687,562 
656,818 
713,885 
749,049 
754,113 
774,534 
805,892 
814,240 
888,160 
941,600 
1,015,591 
1,092,262 
1,225,269 
1,374,955 
1,526,226 



Digitized by 



Google 



394 MINEBAL RBSOtntOBd. 

Production of minor coaJrprodwAng countries f Ises-lSOS-^Coniinued, 



Year. 


Victoria. 


Canada. 


India. 


Spain. 


Long tons. 


Short tons. 


Short tons. 


Long tons. 


Short tons. 


Metrictons. 


Short Um 


1868 
















I860 
















1870 












. . ! 


1871 












1 


1872 


1 








1 


1878 


1 








1 


1874 






1,068,446 
964,905 
983,806 
1,002,395 
1,034,081 
1.128,863 
1,424,685 
1.487,182 
1,811,708 
1,806,259 
1.950,080 
1,879,470 
2,091,976 
2,418,494 
2,658,184 
2,719,478 
8,117,661 
3,623,076 
3,292,547 
3,201,742 
8.903,913 
3,612,504 
3,748.284 
8,786,107 
4,172,665 
4,925,061 
6,322,197 
6,186,286 
7,689,225 
7,996,684 






1 


1876 














1876 












1877 






1 






1878 










1 


1879 














1880 














1881 






997,548 
1,180,242 
1,815,978 
1,266,812 
1,294,221 
1,401,295 
1.660,898 
1,802,876 
2,046,860 
2,168,521 
2,328,577 
2,587,696 
2,529,866 
2,810,029 
3,538,000 
3,848,000 
4,068,127 
4,208,199 
6,098,260 
6.118,692 
6,685.727 
7,483,972 


1,117,248 
1.266,871 
1,473,898 
1,418.269 
1,449,628 
1,509,450 
1,747,640 
2,019,221 
2,290,802 
2,488,744 
2,608.006 
2,842,220 
2.888,488 
8.158,240 
8,962,660 
4,809,760 
4,650,702 
4,707,582 
6,704,451 
6,862,986 
7,482,014 
8,826,049 




1882 








1888 








1884 








1885. 






1 


1886 






1,001,482 1 iM on 


1887 






1.038,805 
1,006,665 
1,1S8,755 
1,212,D69 
1,287,968 
1,461,196 
1,484,794 
1,667,010 
1,788,788 
1,878,889 
1,989,400 
2,626.600 
2.742,889 
2,674,105 
2,747,724 
2,807,660 
2,798,118 


l,144,m 


1888 






1,142,81s 


1889 


14,421 
20,750 
22,884 
28,868 
91,726 
175,175 
194,171 
227,000 
236,277 
245,659 
262,380 
211,596 
209.829 
225,164 


16,162 

23,240 

25,574 

26,166 

102,788 

196,196 

217,472 

265,240 

264,680 

276,138 

298,866 

236,968 

284,448 

252,184 


1,272,015 


1890 


1,336,328 


1891 


1,420,007 


1892 


1,610,90 


1898 


1,686. «6 


1894 


1,830,858 


1896 


1,966,729 


1896 


2,0e9,«6 


1897 


2,137,219 


1898 


2,784.813 


1899 


8.022,113 


1900 


2,946.864 


1901 


8,027,918 


1902 


8,094,782 
8,064,300 


1903 















A* > 1 



Digitized by 



Googk • * 



COAL. 
Production of minor coairproducmg octtirUries, lS6S~190S—Conimued. 



895 



Yotf. 


Italy. 


Sweden. 


South African Republic. 


Metric tons. 


Short tons. 


Metric tons. 


Short tons. 


Long tons. 


Short tons. 


1886. 


51,886 
56,201 
68,770 
80,336 
98,566 
116,884 
127,473 
116,956 
116,399 
120,688 
124,117 
131,318 
180,369 
184,582 
164,737 
.214.121 
223,322 
190,418 
248,326 
827,666 
866,794 
380,820 
876,326 
288,286 
296,718 
817,249 
271,395 


66,627 
61,962 
64,794 
88,670 
106,144 
128,864 
140,539 
128,948 
128,830 
182,948 
186,839 
144,778 
158,664 
148,877 
181,628 
285,961 
246,218 
209,960 
268,266 
861,251 
404,890 
482.588 
416,500 
818,988 
826,024 
3«,767 
299,108 
886,568 
804,869 
346,273 
376,245 
428,164 
529,907 
469,154 
456,148 








• 


i8e» 










1830 










1871 










1872 










1873 










1874 










1875 










1876 








• 


1837 










1878 










1879 










1880 










WBl.r. 










1882 










188S 










1881 










1886 










Ml 










1«7 










z 


















1880 


187,512 
198,088 
199,880 
199,933 
218,633 
228,652 
226,000 
224,348 
236,277 
289,844 
262,320 
271,509 
804,783 


206.132 
218.881 
219,816 
220,426 
286,682 
246,464 
249,062 
251,264 
260,448 
268,757 
278,067 
299,284 
836,907 






191 






WK 

UBS 






648,634 

791,368 

1,183,466 

1,487,297 

1,600,212 

1,907,271 

1,464,317 

433,948 

671,682 

1,600,830 


614,368 
886 821 


UM 


U85 


806.321 
276,197 
314,222 
841,327 
888,684 
480,859 
426,614 
413,810 


1,209.482 
1,609.772 
1,792,287 
2,186,148 
1,640,085 
486,022 
752,116 
1,781,170 


1888 


1897 


1888 


1888 


1108 


1981 


19QL 


19BB. 















COAIi TRADE REVIEW. 

The most marked feature in connection with the coal-mining indus- 
try in 1903 was the comparative peace which reigned throughout the 
coalmining regions, a period of calm after the stormy scenes of 1902. 
There were only two States in which the production was seriously dis- 
turbed by general strikes, these being Alabama and Colorado. In 
oeitber of these States, however, was the disturbance of sufficient 
l»^l^ or general character to cause a decrease in the production of 
cotL The year 1903, in addition to the general peace, was one of 
unprecedented activity throughout most of the coal-producing States. 
The car supply, while not up to all that was desired in some of the coal' 



Digitized by 



Google 



396 MINEBAL RESOURCES. 

mining regions, was in much better condition than that which prevailed 
in 1902, and the railroads were better equipped for the transportation 
of coal from the mines to the consuming and distributing centers. 
Pripes at the mines rul^d higher than at any time within the last fif- 
teen years, and while in some instances an oversupply was created in 
some of the principal cities, with the natural result of reduced prices, 
the general situation was one of satisfaction to producing, transport- 
ing, and selling interests. Consumers were naturally disposed to com- 
plain of the high prices which they were obliged to pay for fuel, but 
as there was no decided setback to the prevailing satisfactory trade 
conditions, the consumers were able to meet this increased expense. 

A comprehensive idea of the conditions which prevailed throughout 
the United States may be obtained from the following reviews of the 
coal trade in the principal cities. These reviews have been prepared 
by secretaries of boards of trade or other local authorities familiar with 
the coal-trade conditions. 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 

The following review of the coal trade of New York City has been 
prepared for this report by Mr. Samuel Sanford, associate editor of 
the Engineering and Mining Journal: 

The year 1903 was the most satisfactory in the history of the New 
York coal trade for the large anthracite sales agencies, but was unsatis- 
factory for sellers of some grades of bituminous. A large amount of 
coal consigned to New York firms is transshipped by them to points 
on Ijong Island Sound, and detailed statements of such transshipments 
have not been compiled, but the tonnage of anthracite sold was 
undoubtedly the largest on record, while prices averaged higher than 
in any year since 1876. 

Concerning the financial control of the great mining and transporta- 
tion companies, the most noteworthy event reported was the transfer 
of a large block of Philadelphia and Readii^ Railroad stock to the Bal- 
timore and Ohio and the Lake Shore railroads; the transfer increased 
the Pennsylvania and Vanderbilt Interest in the anthracite industry 
and lessened that of J. P. Morgan & Co. Another event was the 
retirement of Mr. Olyphant from the presidency of the Delaware and 
Hudson Company, followed by a general reorganization of several 
departments of the road. Still another happening of some interest 
was the suit brought before the Interstate Commerce Commission by 
a certain newspaper owner against the anthracite railroads, alleging 
discriminations in freight rates, excessive rates, and a combination to 
maintain prices of coal. The hearings before the Interstate Commerce 
Coriimission brought out very little that was not already a matter of 
record, and were cut short by a decision of Judge Lacombe denying 



Digitized by 



Google 



COAL. 397 

the Commission's power to take certain evidence. The Commission 
appealed to the United States Supreme Court. 

Anthracite was in short supply at the opening of 1903, prepared 
sizes selling at retail for $13 per ton in New York. Wholesale prices 
varied widely. The largest companies had refused to take advantage- 
of public need, and after the miners resumed work in 1902 sold coal at 
a stated price of $5 per ton for egg, stove, and chestnut sizes. Some 
so-called independent operators, however, who sold to larger concerns 
under contracts calling for 65 per cent of the average tidewater price, 
objected to receiving 65 per cent of $5, claiming that the actual price 
was around $10. To avoid damage suits the large companies volun- 
tarily abrogated these contracts for three months, buying the coal at 
the breaker and selling it back to the operator at tidewater, leaving 
him free to get any price he could. Before February, owing to extra- 
ordinary activity at the mines and heavy shipments, prices broke, 
coal selling at retail in New York for $7.50, while the speculative prices 
free on board for stove size was $6.50. By March retail prices at 
New York had fallen to $6.25 for egg, stove, and chestnut sizes, and 
wholesale prices went down to the $6 mark previously named by the 
lar^ concerns, and the independent operators found some diflBculty in 
collecting money due for $10 coal from speculators, who were selling 
at a loss. Early in April the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron 
Company announced basis prices of $4.75 for broken and $5 for egg, 
stove, and chestnut sizes, with graded discounts for certain months. 
Other companies made similar announcements, and a great rush of 
orders resulted, householders who had never sought to take advantage 
of spring discounts before remembering their experiences since the 
previous June, and buying liberally. This retail demand remained 
unusually brisk until well into July, with resulting activity in the 
wholesale trade, as New York dealers, having limited storage capacity, 
normally buy but little during the late spring and the whole summer. 
By August the effects of the previous year's strike had about passed, 
and conditions were nearly normal. The email steam sizes, owing to 
the great decline in the prices of bitimiinous and to the short-sighted 
policy of many anthracite producers, who during the winter had sold 
as coal stuff that was little better than culm, the market for steam 
sizes was dull. It continued to decline until November. The demand 
for prepared sizes did not decline so soon, but buying during Sep- 
tember and October was light. The coming of cold weather late in 
November put the trade on a winter basis. 

New York Harbor prices, free on board, asked by the principal 
ecmipanies for free-burning white ash coal was as follows: January, 
February, and March^ broken, $4.75; egg, stove, and chestnut, $5; 
April, broken, $4.25; eggy stove, and chestnut, $4.50; May, $4.35 and 



Digitized by 



Google 



398 MINERAL BESOUBOES. 

$4:.60; June, $4.45 and $4.70; July, $4.66 and $4.80; August, $4.65 
and $4.90; September, October, November, and December, $4.75 and 
$6. The prices obtained on sales, as reported to the commissioner 
appointed by the Anthracite Strike Commission, for the montiis of 
May to December, inclusive, were a little below the prices asked, the 
difference being due to concessions made on large and long-time con- 
tracts or on special lots. 

The two most important consolidations affecting the New York bitu- 
minous trade in 1903 were the bringing under one control of the Con- 
solidation Coal Company of Maryland, the Fairmont Coal Company of 
West Virginia, and the Somerset Coal Company of Pennsylvania, 
through Baltimore and Ohio Railroad interests, and the formation of 
the Pennsylvania Coed and Coke Company, which ships from mines in 
the Clearfield region of Pennsylvania over the Pennsylvania and the 
New York Central railroads. The year opened with demand heavy, and 
bituminous prices equaling those of the prepared sizes of anthracite, 
but soon declined, and by January 10 ordinary grades of Clearfield 
were selling for $7, free on board. New York shipping ports. By Feb- 
ruary 1 prices were down to $5.25 and by February 20 to $3.25. The 
break was chiefly due to large offerings of British coal at $4.50 to $6, 
alongside, North Atlantic ports. Contract prices for the new year 
beginning April 1 were, however, fixed at $3.35 for average grades of 
Clearfield, free on board, New York Harbor ports, with special grades 
in proportion. This large advance over the previous year's prices 
was made by influential producers against the advice of the most 
experienced men in the trade. Consumers did not come forward at 
these prices, and concessions were made by producers of the poorer 
grades. Car supply at the mines, which had been about 25 per cent 
of producers demands early in February, increased to 50 per cent by 
May 1, while transportation was prompt. A further increase in car 
supply and no improvement in demand caused the market to sag, and 
by May 15 ordinary grades of Clearfield sold at $2.50, free on board. 
New York Harbor shipping ports, while some lots on which demurrage 
was accumulating sold as low as $2.40. During the last half of the 
year strikes in many industries, and abundant waterpower for those 
concerns using it, reduced consumption, while the market had suffered 
from heavy arrivals of foreign coal. From July 15 until into October 
ordinary grades of Clearfield sold at $2.50 to $2.86, free on board, 
New York Harbor shipping ports. 

In October producers of certain special grades, who found it 
impossible to maintain contract prices in the face of price cutting that 
had continued for months, virtually abrogated their contracts, prices 
of poorer grades suffered in sympathy, and the market was tempo- 
rarily demoralized, ordinary grades of Clearfield selling at $2.40 to 



Digitized by 



Google 



COAL. 399 

$3.50, free on board, New York Harbor shipping ports into December. 
The year closed with these prices prevailing: Georges Creek, $3 to 
$3.50; best Clearfield, $2.60 to $2.80; fair Clearfield, $2.50 to $2.60; 
best gas coal, $3.05 to $3.15. 

Daring the last half of the year the railroads, owing to lessened 
industrial activity, gave prompt transportation to tidewater and fur- 
nished cars enough for the urgent needs of operators. Coastwise 
freight rates showed wide fluctuations during the year, owing to the 
variation in the demand for coal. Ektrly in January some vessels got 
the remarkable rate of $2.50 from New York to Boston and $1.50 to 
Long Island Sound ports. By January 10 rates from New York were 
$1.50 to Boston and $1 to Providence, New Bedford, and Long Island 
Sound, and by March 5 were 65 to 75 cents to Long Island Sound, and 
$1.05 to $1.15 to Boston, Salem, and Portland. Barge rates to near-by 
Sound ports fell from 35 to 40 cents in January to 20 cents in March. 
Bates during the spring and summer fell slightly. In September the 
following rates prevailed: Providence, New Bedford, and Long Island 
Soondy 65 to 75 cents; Boston, Salem, and Portland, 75 to 80 cents. 
In November the rates were: Providence, New Bedford, and Long 
Island Sound, 60 cents; Boston, Salem, and Portland, 70 cents. In 
December they were: Providence, New Bedford, and Long Island 
Sound, 50 cents; Boston, Salem, and Portland, 60 to 65 cents. 

BOSTON, MASS. 

The coal trade of Boston is reviewed by Mr. Elwyn G. Preston, 
secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, as follows: 

The coal trade of Boston during spring of 1903 witnessed a return 
to normal conditions from the extraordinary conditions that prevailed 
during 1902, followed by a reaction during the summer and fall months, 
which appeared to be in the nature of a legacy of exhaustion from the 
excitement of the previous year. The settlement of the strike in the 
fall of 1902 was followed by increased receipts of both anthracite and 
bituminous coal, but not in sufficient amount to take care of the late 
winter requirements. As a result, prices remained for some months 
at tbe high level reached at the close of 1902. 

The table following shows the receipts of both anthracite and bitu- 
minous coal for the past year as compared with previous years. 



Digitized by 



Google 



400 



MINERAL BE80URCE8. 

Receipts of coal at Boston, Mass. , for twenty years, 
[Long tons.] 





Domestic. 


Vmv. 


.„ 1 




\'ear. 


By water. 


All rail. 




Total. 




Anthracite. 


Bituminous. 


Anthracite. 


Bituminous. 


Anthracite. 


Bituminous. 




1884 








1 




2,225,740 


1885 








1 




2,221,220 


1886 








1 


44,464 

13.966 
10,061 
5.538 
14,072 
5,842 
1,416 
17,097 
41,779 
21,009 

61, on 

50,235 
17.122 

201, en 

551,817 

538,031 

1,001,520 

1,226.134 


2,500,000 


1887 












2.400,000 


1888 


2,057,279 
1,647,348 
1,740,564 
2,089,443 
2,163,984 
2,227,086 
2,237,599 
2,518,441 
2,092,798 

1 048 985t 


1,004,195 

914,966 

964,857 

1,070,088 

919,815 

1,100,384 

958,701 

977,762 

1,391,949 

1.591,246 

1,706,929 

1,746,780 

2,086,260 

2,063,691 

2,103,696 

2,078,499 








3,071,566 


1889 








2,567,851 


1890 








2,719,496 


1891 ... 








3,115,373 


1892 








3,065,215 


1893 




a50,000 

a71,803 

a90,999 

a 104, 080 

65,674 

62.143 

94,614 

64,291 

47,139 

120,812 

185,330 




3,394,5C7 


1894 






3,309,382 
3,608,ni 
3.649,896 


1895.... 






1896.... 






1897 


32,836 
31,071 
47,303 
32,146 
23,569 
40,755 
109,033 




3,688,271 
3.693,071 
4.269.ia 


1898 i 1- 885-806 




1899 


2,178,791 
1.973,733 
2,139,989 
974,649 
2,042,512 




1900.... 




4,706,247 


1901.... 




4,812,419 


1902.... 
1903.... 


41,766 
22,432 


4,283,198 
6.668.940 



a Total anthracite and bituminous. 

The receipts of domestic bituminous coal were slightly in excess of 
the previous year, the falling off by water being more than counter- 
balanced by the all-rail receipts. The receipts of foreign bituminous 
coal exceeded those of the previous year by 225,000 long tons, aggre- 
gating 1,226,134 long tons, and constituting 54 per cent of the total 
bituminous receipts. Of the foreign bituminous coal 644,462 long tons 
came from Nova Scotia and Cape Breton, the balance coming from 
various ports of Great Britain. The British coal was received prin- 
cipally during the first four months of the year. 

The receipts of domestic anthracite coal were 2,151,545 long tons, as 
compared with 1,015,404 tons in 1902 and 2,163,558 tons in 1901. 
Only 22,432 tons of foreign anthracite were received during 1903, 
practically all coming from Hull and Swansea. 

The table following shows the amount of coal received at Boston and 
forwarded to interior New England points and the net receipts at Bos- 
ton, which represents coal entering into local consumptioQ. 



Digitized by 



Google 



COAL. 

MarUhly receipU of coal at BosUnif Mass., for 190S, wUk comparisans. 
[Long tons.] 



401 



Mootb. 


Receipts, all routes. 


Amount forwarded to New 
England points. 


Net receipts (for local 
consumption). 




Anthracite. 


Bitumlnoos. 


Anthracite. 


Bituminous. 


Anthracite. 


Bituminous. 


JAQoary 


L4)ngton8. 
230,218 
182,911 
120,093 
160,024 
211,937 
163,673 
240,011 
198,952 
226,699 
176,719 
185,577 
127,163 


LongUma, 
364,110 
462,004 
342,326 
816,829 
289,288 
218,564 
298,883 
242,929 
268,090 
216,467 
238,836 
242,642 


Long tons. 
16,915 
27,968 
18,515 
26,414 
19,042 
17,876 
81.851 
42,847 
85,492 
17,686 
7,852 
15,641 


Long tons. 
97,412 
87,469 
102,707 
84.509 
74,087 
92,665 
78,874 
58,144 
44,852 
60,888 
69,157 
65,848 


Long tons. 
218,808 
154,948 
101,578 
188,610 
192,895 
146,298 
208,160 
156,605 
191,207 
150,088 
127,725 
111,522 


Long tons. 
266,698 


February 

March 


874,686 
289,619 
282,280 
216,196 
120,809 
219,600 
184,786 


April 


May 


June 


July 


At^QSt 


September 

October 


228,288 
166,064 


Korember 

December 


164,179 
177,294 


Total. 1908 . 
Total, 1902 . 
Total, 1901 . 
Total. 1900 . 
ToUl. 1890 . 
Total. 1896 . 
Total, 1897. 


2,173.977 
1,057,170 
2,163.558 
2,005,879 
2,226,094 
1,866,877 
1.961,119 


8,489.963 
3,226,028 
2,648,861 
2,702,368 
2,048,065 
1,786,194 
1,707,154 


277,098 
106,209 
333,178 
397,417 
461,827 
868,960 
418,171 


915,607 
762,598 
792,226 
851,882 
647,533 
663,008 
734,541 


1,806,884 
948,961 
1,880,880 
1,608,462 
1,764,267 
1,497,917 
1,^62,948 


2,674,266 
2,463.485 
1,856.686 
1,851,066 
1,896,582 
1,128,186 
972,618 



From this table it will be observed that the receipts of anthracite coal 
which entered into local consumption were almost Exactly double the 
quantity of th0 previous year. It is impossible to determine with any 
accuracy the stocks on hand at the beginning of the year but it is 
quite safe to assume that these figures do not represent the relative 
consumption, but that the consumption of 1902 was considerably more 
than one-half that of 1903 — probably about three-fourths. 

Coal freights covered a wide range, the year opening at high fig- 
ures, owing to the great demand for tonnage to move the coal then 
offering. Contrary to the usual conditions, the low prices were reached 
during the fall and winter months instead of during the ordinary mid- 
summer dullness. The following statement shows the range and the 
months during which the extreme prices were obtained: 

Ooal fmghi$ to Botton during 190S, 



FlDB— 


Minimum. 


Maximum. 


Rate. 


Date. 


Rate. 


Date. 


VvTork 


Ia56to90.65 
.75to .80 

.85 
.80 


December 

do 


$2.00 

2. 00 to 2. 25 

2.50 

2.00 


January. 


Ptekdelphia 

teitlaofe 


Do. 


do 


Do. 


S vfolk and Newport 
Sewi. 


do 


Do. 



X B 1903 26 



Digitized by 



Google 



402 MINERAL BESOUBOES. 

The extraordinary prices quoted in December of 1902 and January, 
1903, caused additions to be made to the coal-carrying fleet of vessels 
ordinarily employed in other trades, which in part accounted for the 
long continuance of low-vessel freights. 

The prices for anthracite coal in the local market covered a wide 
range, the year opening with stove coal quoted at retail in the Boston 
market at $12, and pea grades at $10, these prices being maintained 
by the large dealers for transactions with their old customers. Iso- 
lated transactions were had at much higher prices, one cargo of anthra- 
cite being reported as bringing $12.75 per ton alongside the wharf at 
Boston. 

' The price fell early in Februaiy to $10 for stove coal, and by gradual 
reductions during the month to $7.50 in March. The low price of the 
year was quoted in April, viz, $6.50 per ton. In May the price was 
advanced to $6.75 and in September to $7, at which figure it remained 
during the balance of the year. There was little, if any, cutting of 
prices, practically all the dealers having agreed upon uniform rates 
and maintaining them. 

Prices of bitiuninous coal showed less firmness and stability. At 
the opening of the year Georges Creek Cumberland coal was quoted at 
$10- in retail lots to regular customers, although not a few sales in 
cargo lots, alongside, were made at this figure. 

English coals sold at the same time from $8 to $8.35 per ton, and 
later for $5.75 to*$7.50, the low figure being a sacrifice price to avoid 
heavy demurrage charges, and also representing to some extent the 
wide variations in quality which characterized the receipts of En^ish 
coal in this market. 

In the latter half of January the price of Greorges Creek was reduced 
to $9 and later to $8, alongside, and early in February to $6. Later 
in the month, owing to heavy receipts and a very slow demand, the 
market broke to a range of $4 to $5 for Georges Creek, Clearfield 
selling at the same time for about $3.60. From April 1 the price of 
Georges Creek was maintained firmly at about $4.25 to $4.75, depend- 
ing entirely upon vessel freights, the price at tide water at shipping 
point being $3.35. Cheaper coals sold at a substantial discount, the 
price reaching $3 at times for individual lots in order to secure quick 
discharge. 

Not in recent years has there been such long continued dullness in 
the soft coal market as was experienced during the summer and fall 
months. The light consumption by cotton and woolen mills, owing to 
restricted production, was responsible in part for this condition; but 
there appeared to be a widely prevalent feeling that lower prices were 
inevitable and consumers delayed putting in stocks. As a result, in 
^ order to move the coal, some concessions were made in prices, Georges 
Creek in September being quoted at about $4.15 and New Biver as 



Digitized by 



Google 



COAL. 403 

low as $3.50 to S3. 60. Later these prices were still further shaded, 
New River selling as low as $3.25 in October and November, and Georges 
Creek from $3.50 to $3.60. Clearfield coal was freely offered at $3 
and some sales were effected as low as $2.75, these figures constituting 
the low prices for the year. 

At the close of the year the stocks in consumers' hands were smaller 
than for some years, which would indicate the likelihood of a better 
demand during the coming year. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Mr. Samuel R. Kirkpatrick, railroad editor of the Press, has pre- 
pared the following review of the coal trade of Philadelphia in 1903: 
In the early part of 1903 there was a decided rush for all sizes of 
co