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S L A N D 



From the collection of the 

z n m 

o Prelinger 
v JJibrary 

San Francisco, California 


Connecticut extends welcome to visitors on her Three 
Hundredth Anniversary. Here is a green and pleasant 
land, with fields and rugged hills, with forests where the 
dogwood and mountain laurel bloom, with rivers and 
lakes and rushing streams that still keep in their names the 
echoes of the long Indian past, with miles of fine beaches 
and friendly harbors along beautiful shores, with elm- 
shaded villages and modern cities, and with highways 
linking them to the quiet countryside. 

This book will help you to find these places of beauty 
and the many old houses that have come down from 
colonial days. It tells something of the State's history 
and of the Connecticut Yankee with inventive genius 
who became famous even at King Arthur's court. 

Every one of our towns has something of special historic 
interest. With this Connecticut Guide in hand and eyes 
alert for all that is worth seeing, your stay with us will 
give you in return rich and lasting rewards in remembered 






A Project of the State Planning Board 

Initiated under CWA and completed with FERA funds 

Compiled by Edgar L. Heermance 

Published by 


Hartford, Connecticut 


COPYRIGHT 1935 by 
Emergency Relief Commission 

Printed by 

Curtiss-Way Co., Inc. 
Meriden, Conn. 



ANDOVER. Journey XI. 4 253 

ANSONIA. III. 3 120 

ASHFORD. VII. 6 188 

AVON. IV. 7 150 



BERLIN. VI. 4 167 

BETHANY. III. 11 128 

BETHEL. II. 6 80 

BETHLEHEM. II. 22 104 


BOLTON. VII. 3 185 

BOZRAH. XL 1 249 

BRANFORD. 1.15 42 



BRISTOL. IV. 5 145 




CANAAN. II. 16 94 


CANTON. V. 2 156 

CHAPLIN. XII. 4 258 

CHESHIRE. IV. 2 141 


CLINTON. I. 19 49 



COLUMBIA. XI. 3 253 


COVENTRY. VII. 4. 186 


DANBURY. II. 5.. . 78 

DARIEN. 1.3 6 

DERBY. III. 2 118 

DURHAM. VIII. 6 202 

EASTFORD. VII. 10.. . 192 

EAST GRANBY. IV. 11 153 




EAST HAVEN. I. 14 41 

EAST LYME. I. 24 59 

EASTON. 11.30.. 115 





ENFIELD. VIII. 15 219 

ESSEX. VIII. 1 195 

FAIRFIELD. I. 7.. . . 13 




GOSHEN. II. 19 97 

GRANBY. IV. 10 153 



GROTON. I. 27 65 

GUILFORD. I. 17 44 

HADDAM. VIII. 4... 198 

HAMDEN. IV. 1 139 

HAMPTON. XII. 5 259 

HARTFORD. VI. 7 172 

HARTLAND. V. 5 159 


HEBRON. IX. 3 234 

KENT. II. 12.. . . 85 



LEBANON. XI. 2 250 

LEDYARD. X. 4 245 

LISBON. XIII. 1 263 


LYME. VIII. 22 228 

MADISON. 1.18... 48 




MERIDEN. VI. 3 164 




MILFORD. I. 10 21 

MONROE. II. 29 114 

MONTVILLE. X. 1 237 

MORRIS. 11.21 ... 103 

NAUGATUCK. III. 7. . . 123 





NEW HAVEN. 1.13... 25 




NEW LONDON. I. 26 61 


NEWTOWN. II. 28 112 

NORFOLK. II. 18 96 





NORWALK. 1.5 9 

NORWICH. X. 2 239 

OLD LYME. I. 23 55 


ORANGE. I. 11 24 

OXFORD. III. 5 122 



PLYMOUTH. III. 16 133 

POMFRET. VII. 11 193 


PRESTON. X. 3 244 

PROSPECT. III. 12 129 

PUTNAM. XIII. 10 271 

REDDING. II. 3. . . 75 



ROXBURY. II. 27 Ill 

SALEM. IX. 1.... 231 




SEYMOUR. III. 4 121 

SHARON. II. 14 89 

SHELTON. III. 1 117 

SHERMAN. II. 11 84 

SIMSBURY. IV. 8 150 

SOMERS. XIV. 1 275 

SOUTHBURY. II. 24 107 






STERLING. XIII. 7. . - 268 


STRATFORD. 1.9 19 


THOMASTON. III. 15. . 132 

THOMPSON. XIII. 11.. 272 



TOLLAND. VII. 8 190 


TRUMBULL. II. 31 116 

UNION. XIV. 4 278 

VERNON. VII. 7 189 


WALLINGFORD. VI. 2... 163 

WARREN. II. 25 109 



WATERFORD. I. 25 60 


WESTBROOK. I. 21 52 


WEST HAVEN. I. 12 24 

WESTON. II. 2 74 

WESTPORT. I. 6 11 



WILTON. II. 1 73 


WINDHAM. XII. 2 256 

WINDSOR. VIII. 12 212 


WOLCOTT. III. 13 130 

WOODBRIDGE. III. 10 .... 126 

WOODBURY. II. 23 105 

WOODSTOCK. XII. 6... 260 


Side Trips in Brackets. 
Towns covered in other Journeys in Italics. 

Journey I 

Greenwich to Stonington. 

U. S. 1. 




3. DARIEN 6 

4. (NEW CANAAN) 8 

5. NOR WALK 9 





10. MILFORD 21 

11. ORANGE 24 

12. WEST HAVEN 24 

13. NEW HAVEN 25 

14. EAST HAVEN 41 

15. BRANFORD 42 


17. GUILFORD 44 

18. MADISON 48 

19. CLINTON 49 




23. OLD LYME - 55 

24. EAST LYME 59 


26. NEW LONDON 61 

27. GROTON 65 

28. STONINGTON.. 68 


Journey II 

Norwalk to North Canaan; Norfolk to Bridgeport. 
U. S. 7 north; returning by various highways. 

II. 1. 
II. 2. 

k. See Journey I. 5. 


II. 3. 
II. 4. 
II. 5. 
II. 6. 
II. 7. 
II. 8. 
II 9 



II. 10. 
II. 11. 
II. 12 

KENT . . . 


II 13 



II 14 


. . 89 

II 15 


. . 92 

II 16 



II. 17. 
II 18 



II 19 



II. 20. 
II. 22. 
II 23 



II 24 



II 25 



II. 26. 
II. 27. 
II. 28. 
II. 29. 
II 30 






Bridgeport. See Journey I. 8. 


Journey III 

Stratford to Colebrook. 

U. S. 8 and Route 69. 

Stratford. See Journey I. 9. PAGE 

III. 1. SHELTON 117 

III. 2. DERBY ' 118 

III. 3. ANSONIA 120 

III. 4. SEYMOUR 121 

III. 5. (OXFORD.) 122 




III. 9. (MIDDELBURY.) 126 

III. 10. (WOODBRIDGE.) 126 

III. 11. (BETHANY.) 128 

III. 12. (PROSPECT.) 129 

III. 13. (WOLCOTT.) 130 

III. 14. (WATERTOWN.) 131 


III. 16. (PLYMOUTH.) , 133 





Journey IV 

New Haven to Granby. 

Route 10. 
New Haven. See Journey I. 13. PAGE 

IV. 1. HAMDEN 139 

IV. 2. CHESHIRE 141 


IV. 4. PLAINVILLE . 144 

IV. 5. (BRISTOL.) 145 


IV. 7. AVON 150 

IV. 8. SIMSBURY 150 

IV. 9. (BLOOMFIELD.) 152 

IV. 10. GRANBY 153 

IV. 11. (EAST GRANBY.) . . 153 


Journey V 

Farmington to Granby. 
Routes 4, 101, and 20. 

Farmington. See Journey IV. 6. 








V. 5. HARTLAND... 


Granby. See Journey IV. 10. 

Journey VI. 

New Haven to Hartford. 
U. S. 5. 

New Haven. See Journey I. 13. PAGE 



VI. 3. MERIDEN 164 

VI. 4. BERLIN 167 



VI. 7. HARTFORD.. 172 

Journey VII 

Hartford to Thompson. 
Route 101. 

Hartford. See Journey VI. 7. PAGE 



VII. 3. BOLTON 185 



VII. 6. ASHFORD.. 188 



VII. 7. (VERNON.) 189 

VII. 8. (TOLLAND.) 190 

VII. 9. (WILLINGTON.) 191 

VII. 10. EASTFORD.. . 192 

VII. 11. POMFRET 193 

Putnam. See Journey XIII. 10. 

Journey VIII 

Old Saybrook to Suffield; Enfield to Old Lyme. 
North on Route 9 and U. S. 5 A; returning by U. S. 5 and various highways. 

Old Saybrook. See Journey I. 22. PAGE 

VIII. 1. ESSEX 195 



VIII. 4. HADDAM 198 


VIII. 6. (DURHAM.) 202 






Hartford. See Journey VI. 7. 

VIII. 12. WINDSOR 212 



VIII. 15. ENFIELD 219 



East Hartford. See Journey VII. 1. 





VIII. 22. LYME 228 

Old Lyme. See Journey I. 23. 

xiv i m < ON M< in i i ,rn>i; 

Journey IX 

New London to Hartford. 
Routes 85 and 2. 

\cic I^nnlon. See Journey I. 26. 

Waterford. See Journey I. 25. P.M.K 

IX. L SALEM 231 


IX. 3. HEBRON 234 


Glastonbury. See Journey VIII. 18. 

Manchester. See Journey VII. 2. 
East Hartford. See Journey VII. 1. 
Hartford. See Journey VI. 7. 

Journey A 

Around Norwich. 

\'cu- London. See Journey I. 26. PA,K 

X. 1. MONTVILLE 237 

X. 2. NORWICH 239 

X. 3. PRESTON 244 

X. 4. LEDYARD 245 


Journey XI 

Norwich to Hartford. 

Route 87. 
XoriHch. See Journey X. 2. PA<;K 

XI. 1. (BOZRAH.) 249 

Franklin. See Journey XII. 1. 

XL 2. LEBANON 250 


XL 4. ANDOVER 253 

Bolton. See Journey VII. 3. 
Manchester. See Journey VII. 2. 
East Hartford. See Journey VII. 1. 
Hartford. See Journey VI. 7. 


Journey XII 

Norwich to Woodstock. 

Routes 32 and 91. 
Norwich. See Journey X. 2. PAGE 


XII. 2. WINDHAM 256 

XII. 3. (SCOTLAND.) 257 

XII. 4. CHAPLIN 258 

XII. 5. (HAMPTON.) 259 

Easlford. See Journey VII. 10. 

XII. 6. WOODSTOCK.. 260 

Journey XIII 

Norwich to Thompson. 
Route 12. 

Norwich. See Journey X. 2. PAGE 

XIII. 1. LISBON 263 

XIII. 2. (SPRAGUE.) 264 


XIII. 4. (VOLUNTOWN.) 265 



XIII. 7. (STERLING.) 268 


XIII. 9. (BROOKLYN.) 270 

XIII. 10. PUTNAM 271 

XIII. 11. THOMPSON.. 272 

Journey XIV 

Enfield to Union. 
Routes 20 and 15. 

Enfield. See Journey VIII. 15. PAGE 


XIV. 2. (ELLINGTON.) 276 


XIV. 4. UNION.. 278 









































Arranged by towns. 










How did this Guide come to be written? 

In the winter of 1934, under the Civil Works Administration of Connecticut, 
a Survey of Places of Scenic and Historic Interest was initiated by the State 
Planning Board, under the general supervision of the Director, George H. 
Gray, and Austin F. Hawes, State Forester. The project has been completed 
with F. E. R. A. funds. The work was done by a keen and enthusiastic field 
crew, who covered every town through interviews and personal exploration. 
The help of various specialists was enlisted. Altogether about a thousand 
persons cooperated in the Survey. This wealth of material has been worked 
up by the project supervisor into a Guide Book, as an aid to those traveling 
through Connecticut in connection with the Tercentenary. 

What is Connecticut? 

The gateway to New England and one of the original Thirteen States, a 
pioneer in industrial development, with a wide variety of scenery and rich 
exhibits from the Colonial era. 

When was it settled? 

In 1635, by Puritan congregations which trecked through the wilderness 
from eastern Massachusetts to found Wethersfield, Hartford and Windsor. 
Another congregation started the New Haven Colony in 1638. The settle- 
ment of Saybrook in 1635 was a direct attempt at colonization by English 
Puritan leaders. 

What were the main population movements? 

The first settlements were along the shore and on the rivers, which provided 
ready transportation and natural pasture land. Immigration from England 
practically ceased in 1640, with the outbreak of the English Parliamentary 
struggle, but during the next hundred years the native increase had settled 
much of the back country. Connecticut later overflowed to the north and 
west. During the 19th century, the development of industry checked this 
outward movement and attracted large immigration from Europe. The 
population of the State grew from 251,000 in 1800 to 908,000 in 1900, reaching 
over 1,600,000 by the time of the 300th anniversary. 

What did Connecticut contribute to national settlement? 

Newark, N. J., was founded by a congregation from Branford. Many of the 
towns in the Berkshires, New Hampshire, Vermont and central New York 
bear Connecticut names. In the Western Reserve of Ohio, at one time owned 
by Connecticut, the site of Cleveland was chosen and laid out by Moses 
Cleveland of Canterbury. Manasseh Cutler drafted the Ordinance of 1787, and 
organized the company, largely made up of Connecticut veterans, which sailed 
down the Ohio River to found Marietta. There was a considerable movement 


IHI. t ONNECTH I I <.lll)l-: 



Black indicates settlement within present town areas. 





Black indicates settlement within present town areas. 


to Georgia ; Lyman Hall, one of the signers of the Declaration from that Colony, 
was born in Wallingford. Austin, Texas, is named for Stephen Austin of 
Durham, who organized the settlement. Probably Connecticut contributed 
more human stock to the nation than any other State, and it was stock of the 
finest quality. According to the listings in a standard dictionary of biography, 
Connecticut supplied other States with 27 governors, and 48 college presidents. 

Wfiat was the outstanding feature of early Connecticut history? 

Among the 30 or more British colonies in North America, Connecticut was 
able to preserve self-government, with almost no control by the British 
Crown. In 1639 the towns on the River adopted the Fundamental Orders. 
The Connecticut and New Haven Colonies were united on the basis of the 
liberal Charter granted by Charles II in 1662. The hiding of the Charter in 
1687 symbolizes the resistance to the brief Andros tyranny. In 1776, the old 
Charter was adopted as "the Civil Constitution of this State, under the sole 
authority of the people thereof, independent of any King or Prince whatever." 
A new State Constitution was not adopted until 1818. 

What were the characteristics of tlie Connecticut town? 

Connecticut always has been made up of self-governing towns, now sub- 
divided to the number of 169. Town meeting government, by farmers who 
owned their own land, tended to make the people independent and conservative. 
The minister, the official and the man of means were accorded a position of 
leadership. In each town, the central institution was the church, of the 
democratic or Congregational order, and originally the town and parish were 
identical. This system was breaking down throughout the 18th century, and, 
from 1727 on, Episcopal and other separate churches were permitted. The 
church, under a well educated ministry, continued to exert a broad influence 
and helped to make Connecticut the "land of steady habits." 

What of the Connecticut village? 

Usually a considerable settlement grew up around the original church 
building. The elm-shaded village, with its white spires and central Green, is 
one of the striking features of Connecticut. After the shore and valley lands 
had been taken up, the agricultural village was likely to be located on high 
ground, which provided better drainage and less danger from frost. The 
coming of large-scale industry and the building of railroads after 1840 brought 
a shift of population to the river valleys. The hill villages, though they lost 
their early economic importance, were able to preserve their quiet charm. 

How were new towns started? 

At first, new towns were swarms sent out by the older settlements. Be- 
ginning about 1730, additional territory was being laid out by proprietors, or 
by promoters who sold rights to take up land, and the settlements were less 
homogeneous. From 1730 on, the frontier wilderness was auctioned off to 
prospective settlers, often from widely scattered quarters. There was a good 
deal of land speculation, especially in eastern Connecticut. But the driving 
force was land hunger, caused by the pressure of a growing population. For 
each town, as we come to it in the Guide Book, the date and method of settle- 
ment will be indicated. 



What is notable about Connecticut architecture? 

Solid construction, dignity of line, the craftsman's joy in expression, and 
the fact that so many examples have been preserved. Though the larger 
cities have swept away their early landmarks, thousands of charming old 
houses remain, and many of these will be located for the traveler. Windsor, 
Wethersfield, Guilford and Norwich have the largest exhibits; within the 
original limits of Wethersfield there are over a hundred houses built before 
the end of the 18th century. The first settlers brought from England a tradi- 
tion of good building, with oak as the principal medium, heavy framing, low 
ceilings, and a massive chimney, usually of stone. Another English feature 
was the overhanging second story on the front of the house, (the framed 
overhang) which was found in the Connecticut valley towns during the 17th 
century; Farmington has some particularly good examples. The slight 
projection of the upper stories, known as the hewn overhang, continued to be 
common everywhere until toward the end of the 18th century. The exterior 
walls were covered with clapboards or shingles, though some early houses 
were built wholly or partly of stone, and brick came to be used in certain 
localities. The original roof pitch of the Connecticut house was very steep, 
perhaps from the influence of the English thatched roof. This was soon chang- 
ed to a flatter pitch, 9 or 10 inches to the foot. The roof often took the gambrel 

What types of old houses are found? 

By 1700, the original end-chimney house (A. 1) had become, by a series 
of additions, the central chimney house (A. 2,) with a kitchen lean-to on 
the rear covered by an extension of the main roof, like an old-fashioned "salt- 
box" (A. 3.) Another type, the 1^ story cottage (B) was used as long as the 
central chimney lasted. During the first half of the 18th century, there was a 
tendency to change the lean-to into an ell with rooms above, usually placed at 



A- 3 


A. 1. End Chimney. A. 2. Central Chimney. A. 3. Salt-box. B. Cottage Type. C. 
Rear Ell. D. Central Hall. 

XX11 1111. < ONNE< IK I I ..I 11)1. 

right angles to the main building (C.) After 1750, the central hall type (D) 
became common, with a chimney for each half of the main house. By this 
period, the growing sea trade of the Colony, with its market for the livestock 
products of the farm, was bringing a rather widely distributed wealth, which is 
reflected both in the size of the houses and in the ornamentation of the exterior. 
The local carpenter always had been an artist in wood, as the blacksmith was 
an artist in iron. In the last half of the 18th century and the early 19th, 
house details, like the many beautiful churches, show growing familiarity 
with the models of the Palladian school. Many elaborate mansions were built 
in the period of commercial prosperity between the Revolution and the 
Embargo of 1807. 

What of the Indians in Connecticut? 

The Connecticut shore, with its rich food supply, was able to support a 
large Indian population of the Algonquin stock. Thousands of camp sites 
have been unearthed; one shell-heap near Milford covers 24 acres. A group 
of Indian authorities have selected some of the more important rock shelters 
and burial grounds. Some time before the coming of the whites, the native 
tribes appear to have been decimated by pestilence. Connecticut was long 
subject to raids from the Iroquois in New York. The Pequots, a branch of the 
Iroquois nation, had forced their way into the region between Groton and 
Stonington, and their tyranny led the local Indians to invite English settle- 
ment on the Connecticut River as a protection. Uncas, the warrior and 
politician who headed the Mohegan branch of the Pequots, threw in his lot 
with the settlers. Strong measures were soon necessary. In 1637 the colo- 
nists, under John Mason, stormed the Pequot fort at Mystic, and chased the 
rest of the tribe along the shore to Fairfield, where they were practically 
exterminated in the Great Swamp Fight. For a generation relations were 
fairly satisfactory and most of the lands were obtained from the Indians by 
purchase. The second crisis came with King Philip's War in 1675. Connec- 
ticut troops, shifting rapidly by horseback, guarded both the Rhode Island 
border and the upper Connecticut valley, and had a large part in the final 
victories. There still are several small Indian reservations in the State, and a 
Mohegan colony below Norwich. 

What icas Connecticut's early tear record? 

Before the Revolution, the Colony had taken part in seven wars, supplying 
both money and troops. Most of the officers who fought in 1775 had seen 
service in the French and Indian War, at Crown Point, Louisburg, Quebec 
or Havana. While Tory sentiment was strong in southwestern Connecticut, 
the Colony as a whole was intensely loyal to the Revolutionary cause and 
furnishes the only instance of a patriot governor. Under Jonathan Trumbull. 
Connecticut became the main supply base for the armies. Throughout the 
war the commissariat was centered in the War Office at his home town of 
Lebanon, and the blast furnace in Salisbury served as an arsenal. Among 
military leaders, the best known names are Benedict Arnold, Israel Putnam 
and Nathan Hale. Silas Deane of Wethersfield was instrumental in negotiat- 
ing help from France. The chief action on Connecticut soil was Tryon's raid 
from Westport to Danbury, which closely parallels Lexington-Concord. In 
later raids, Nonvalk and Fairfield were burned, New Haven looted, and New 


London partly destroyed after the massacre at Fort Griswold. During the 
War of 1812, the Sound was blockaded by a British fleet, with an abortive 
attack on Stonington and destruction of shipping at Essex. Connecticut 
coast and river towns supplied many of the privateers and warships, and 
Commodore Hull, the commander of the "Constitution," was a native of Derby. 

What part did the State play in later wars? 

During the Civil War, Wm. A. Buckingham proved one of the ablest of the 
war governors. The State contributed approximately 55,000 men from a total 
population of 461,000, with over 20,000 casualties. A Connecticut man 
sponsored the building of the "Monitor," and the first regular ironclad, the 
"Galena," was built at Mystic. In the World War, the State contributed 
nearly 60,000 men. The first troops to go overseas were largely from Connec- 
ticut, and the same Yankee Division took over the first sector in France. 
They made a notable record at Seichprey, Chateau Thierry and in the Argonne. 

What has been the geologic history of the State? 

The map of Connecticut may be divided vertically into three main areas: 
the Western Highlands, which begin a few miles west of the College Highway, 
the Central Lowland, and the Eastern Highlands, lying east of the Connecticut 
above Middletown; below that point the river cuts through them. Lofty 
mountain ranges were formed at an early era, and later eroded. Repeated 
upheaval, folding and pressure changed the original material into the types of 
metamorphic rock which we find in the rugged hill country to the west and 
east. There are frequent veins of pegmatite, containing quartz, feldspar, mica 
and many rare minerals. Inundation by the sea caused the deposits of 
limestone that have survived in the upper Housatonic valley. The Central 
Lowland is of special interest. It represents a depression which became 
filled with a deep layer of sandstone, formed of sedimentary material washed 
down from the adjacent hills. The dinosaur tracks uncovered at Middlefield 
and elsewhere were made when the sandstone was still river mud. Through 
fissures in this sandstone, during the Triassic period, came three distinct 
flows of lava or trap, in an area about 20 miles wide and extending north 
from New Haven into Massachusetts. New adjustments of the earth's crust 
brought extensive bending and faulting, and tilted the rock strata from west 
to east. In later periods the higher elevations were worn down by erosion to 
something of their present level, and the softer sandstones gouged out, leaving 
the harder trap rock standing in the sharp ridges now so characteristic of central 

What changes were brought about by glacial action? 

During a long period, the entire State was covered with an ice sheet, which 
probably began to disappear between 15,000 and 35,000 years ago. The slow 
movements of the ice and the gradual melting had important effects on the 
land surface. Boulders and stones were deposited on the lower levels; the 
fanner has been obliged to build stone walls in order to clear his land, a feature 
that adds to the attraction of the roadside. Much of the surface was cover- 
ed with glacial debris, which fortunately has enough clay mixed with the sand 
and stones to make good soil. We find irregular gravel ridges called eskers, 
deposited by streams beneath the ice; and drumlins, or long elliptical mounds 
of stony clay. Great plains of sand were built up in some of the valleys, as the 





ice sheet melted away, for example at North Haven, Plainville and Windsor. 
The present river terraces were formed, as the streams cut deeper. The clay 
that supplies the brickyards from New Haven north to Windsor was deposited 
in temporary lakes. There are numerous "kettles," or rounded cavities, and 
many of the present ponds were of glacial origin. Examples of special geologic 
interest, particularly from the glacial period, will be pointed out in the Guide. 

Has Connecticut any mineral wealth? 

The early settlers worked up bog iron in many localities. In the upper 
Housatonic valley, the combination of good ore, limestone and charcoal 
created a flourishing iron industry, which did not finally die out until after 
the World War. Copper and lead were mined with some success, as well as 
feldspar and mica. There were important granite and sandstone quarries, and 
the trap rock has supplied material for road making. The State is dotted 
with mine prospects, which produced no dividends for the promoters but a 
remarkably rich collection of minerals, that have found their way into muse- 
ums throughout the world. The book will call attention to the most interesting 
of these mines. 

What is Connecticut's place in industry? 

A comparatively dense population, abundant waterpower and native 
enterprise led to the development of household industries, which did enough 
exporting to worry English merchants before the 18th century was far under 
way. This early preeminence Connecticut has never lost. Necessity and a 
good home market made the local mechanic ingenious. In 1740, Edward 
Pattison began to manufacture tin ware at Berlin. The Connecticut peddler, 
with his wagon load of tin goods, or his pack of clocks or Yankee notions, 
became a familiar figure along the whole Atlantic seaboard. In firearms, Eli 
Whitney introduced into American industry in 1798 the method of inter- 
changeable parts, which made large-scale production possible; familiar later 
names are Sharps and Colt in Hartford and Winchester in New Haven. A 
succession of ingenious clock-makers Eli Terry, Seth Thomas, Chauncey 
Jerome made Connecticut time pieces familiar at home and abroad. The 
hat making of the country has centered for a hundred and fifty years in the 
Danbury region. The present silver industry of Meriden and Wallingford 
had its impetus in the britannia ware introduced by Charles and Hiram Yale 
in 1815. As long as people used carriages, New Haven made them. The 
development of the sewing machine, through Elias Howe, Isaac M. Singer and 
Allen B. Wilson, came to be focused at Bridgeport. The rubber industry 
started at Naugatuck, from Charles Goodyear's experiments. Eastern Connec- 
ticut always has played a prominent part in cotton textiles. Fifty per cent of 
the brass industry of the country is still to be found in Waterbury and the 
other towns of the Naugatuck valley. In the making of hardware, machinery 
and precision parts, the State has kept its early lead, with Bridgeport, New 
Britain, Hartford and New Haven as the principal centers. Other important 
local industries, historic or contemporary, will be noted in the Guide. In 
mentioning the "other" modern industries in a town, the editor generally 
has followed the official list of factories with the largest number of employees. 

What was Connecticut's part in shipping and shipbuilding? 

Ship building was carried on in every town where there was salt water 
enough to float a keel. The early trade with the Southern colonies and the 
West Indies was extended after the Revolution to Europe and the Orient, and 

XXVI 'I UK roNNia-TKTT i.tlDI. 

laid the foundation for many Connecticut fortunes Whaling developed in 
the early 19th century, and for a time New London and Stonington rivalled 
New Bedford. New Haven maintained a large sealing fleet off the coast of 
South America. Oyster growing later became an important industry. In 
the era of the clipper ships, eastern Connecticut supplied a large proportion 
of the crews and captains. Beginning about 1850, Mystic took the lead in 
shipbuilding, and developed a type of ship that held the record for fast sailing 
in all weathers. Most of the captains of the Atlantic packets came from the 
River towns, particularly Lyme. 

What is the history of Connecticut agriculture? 

The soil is good, where there is enough of it, and the rainfall abundant. The 
State has been well adapted to diversified farming on a small scale. The early 
settler cleared land to supply a living for his family. After about 1750, 
farmers began to fall into two general classes. The more prosperous, who had 
gotten hold of the better land and a considerable acreage, employed extra 
hands and depended on a commercial crop. This might be cheese in Goshen, 
or onions in Wethersfield, or beef and horses in Coventry, or the fattening of 
cattle in Litchfield county. Most of these farms, with their substantial houses, 
are still in use. The small farmer, on the other hand, secured subsistence from 
his farm, and a cash income through teaming, lumbering, fishing, peddling, 
work as an artisan, or as owner or helper in one of the small local industries. 
This type of farm has largely been abandoned, and is represented only by old 
cellar holes and the stone walls running through the brush. While grain and 
meat production fell before W^estern competition after the railways, and less 
than half as much land is under cultivation as at the time of the Civil War, 
intensive methods and the nearness to markets have again made Connecticut 
farming relatively prosperous. The State was a pioneer in scientific agricul- 
ture. Rev. Jared Eliot of Killingworth toward the end of the 18th century, 
and S. W. Johnson of Yale along with T. S. Gold of Cornwall, in the 19th 
century, were among the most influential agricultural leaders of their day. The 
first agricultural experiment station in the country was established in 1875. 
There is a large milk and poultry industry, with extensive cultivation of garden 
truck, small fruit and potatoes. Corn has been a staple since the early Indian 
days, and Connecticut leads all other States in the average per acre yield. The 
upper Connecticut valley is adapted to tobacco for cigar wrappers, and the 
lighter shades grown under cheesecloth canopies command a higher price. The 
State is a natural apple region, and peaches are grown in the lower altitudes. 
Between 50 and 60 per cent of the farms in Connecticut are now to be classed 
as part-time or residential rather than commercial, the percentage rising to 75 
in Fairfield County. 

What has been Connecticut's place in education? 

Tax supported schools were required of each town, and after the Revolution 
their work was supplemented by many flourishing Academies. Western 
emigrants from Connecticut carried with them this tradition of the democratic 
school, along with the church and the self-governing town. The modernization 
of the American public school system is due largely to Henry Barnard, con- 
nected with the State Board of Education from 1838 on. Emma Hart Willard 
and William T. Harris became national leaders. Yale College was founded 
in 1701 and located at New Haven in 1716. Other nationally known institu- 
tions are Trinity at Hartford, Wesleyan at Middletown, and the Connecticut 


College for women and U. S. Coast Guard Academy at New London. Connec- 
ticut State College is located at Storrs. In 1784, Tappan Reeve established 
at Litchfield the first law school in America. Many of the leading private 
schools of the country are located in Connecticut. 

What is the type of plant and forest growth? 

The flora of Connecticut is that of the lower Appalachian highlands, with 
interesting variations for shore, swamp and sand plain conditions, some of 
which will be pointed out in the text. About half of the total area is in timber, 
largely hardwood, with oaks predominating. There is a good deal of hickory, 
maple and birch. The chestnut, formerly a valuable tree, was killed off by the 
blight. Scattered pine is to be found throughout, and in the northern half of 
the State covers considerable areas. Red cedar grows on sandy slopes. The 
hemlock in brook ravines and on rocky ridges, with the ever-present laurel, 
gives a touch of green throughout the year. During the last century, Connec- 
ticut forests were butchered for charcoal, smelting, brick-making and fuel; 
abandoned farm-land tended to grow up to gray birch and other weed trees. 
Neglected for many years, these timbered areas are receiving new attention, 
because of their recreational and economic value. Considerable acreage has 
been planted to pine, a movement in which the water companies have taken 
the lead. The Yale School of Forestry, the oldest in this country, maintains a 
demonstration forest in Union. Connecticut was the earliest State to intro- 
duce scientific forestry, and now owns about 75,000 acres of public forests and 
parks. Many of the main highways pass through long stretches of attractive 
woodland. The Landscape Division of the Highway Department has planted 
banks and triangles with native shrubs, and its men are trained, when mowing 
the roadside, to spare the flowers and ferns. 

What is noteworthy about Connecticut scenery? 

The rugged character of the State, with its indented shore line and deep 
river valleys. You are never out of sight of the wooded hills. In spite of the 
dense population, the wilderness may be reached in a few miles from almost 
every manufacturing town. The open agricultural plateaus give wide vistas. 
Probably the finest scenery in the State is to be found in the northwest corner, 
where Bear Mountain rises to 2355 feet, but many other elevations offer 
superb views. There are brooks everywhere, and glacial action left many 
lakes and waterfalls. While Connecticut woodlands are beautiful at every 
season of the year, the nature lover should make four annual pilgrimages. In 
late April, the budding hardwoods show soft shades of red and green to be 
found at no other time. In mid-May, the woods are splashed with the white 
of the dogwood and wild cherry, and the apple and peach orchards are in their 
glory. Early June is the time of the mountain laurel, appropriately chosen as 
the State flower; one should travel the back roads of Killingworth or North 
Stonington or the northwestern towns from Barkhamsted and Hartland to 
Norfolk. In late October come the Autumn colors scarlet maples, the crim- 
son of the sumac and woodbine and certain of the oaks, the Turkish carpet of 
the hardwood hills. 

Are the woodlands accessible? 

The State Parks are open for camping, and public picnic spots have been 
located along many of the highways. The State Forests, well served by 
roads and trails, may be used for camping, hunting and fishing, and the State 
has leased other tracts as public hunting and trout-fishing grounds. The 


unusual system of hard-surfaced highways and the recent improvement in 
country roads have brought every part of the State within easy reach. A 
network of tramping trails has been laid out, with the cooperation of local 
landowners. Connecticut now has the largest trail mileage of any New 
England State except New Hampshire. These tramping routes, marked with 
light blue paint, are connected with one another and with the trails in adjoining 
States. For maps and description sheets, apply to the Connecticut Forest 
and Park Association, 215 Church St., New Haven. 

What is the scope of the Guide? 

The aim has been to prepare a guidebook of the Baedeker type, to supple- 
ment the information given in the annual automobile touring books. It has 
been necessary to restrain the enthusiasm of local historians, in order to 
develop a practical handbook. This is not a history of the Connecticut 
towns, though history is brought in by way of summary and wherever it is possi- 
ble to attach it to something which the traveler can see. The list of reputable 
hotels at the back has been supplied by the Connecticut Hotel Association. 

What about the map? 

The Guide is keyed to the accompanying Map. This was prepared as a 
parallel project by the State Planning Board, with the help of Federal funds 
and the cooperation of the State departments. By means of various symbols, 
as many places of special interest are indicated as could be crowded into the 
space. Most of the Map entries of this sort are described in the Guide, with 
directions as to how to reach them. Village and city items, for which there 
was not room on the Map, are located where necessary by means of diagra- 
matic charts. Particular attention is called to the Map notation for scenic 
stretches of highway. 

How is the material arranged? 

The book follows the Mattatuck tourist guide and Barber's classical work of 
1836 in treating each Connecticut town as a unit. The arrangement, however, 
is not alphabetical. Since the modern traveler goes by auto from one town to 
the next, it has seemed best to string them together in a series of imaginary 
Journeys. The towns first visited are those along the shore, from west to east. 
The Guide then takes the traveler back and forth across the State, with an 
occasional side trip, until every one of the 169 towns lias been covered. The 
routes chosen are based on certain of the main highways, where towns with 
somewhat similar local or historic features can be linked. In general, the 
routing is north and south, following the lines of the main river valleys. 
Frequent attention will be called to the east and west highways, which cut 
across the hills and give some of the most striking views. 

How have the items been selected? 

With 169 towns to cover, a good deal of selection has been necessary, and 
for this the editor takes full responsibility. The general policy has been to 
omit references to living persons, and to recent buildings unless they are of 
outstanding interest. The average user is not a specialist, but will wish to 
know what is most worth seeing in Connecticut, in the way of scenery, buildings 
and historic monuments. Assuming that his time is limited, the items which 


he will not want to miss have been starred. No absolute standard has been 
followed, and each town is treated by itself. An old house, for instance, that 
is starred in Hartford, might not be starred in Harwinton. Where there is a 
large selection, single and double stars have been used. In some towns, with 
a limited number of items fairly equal in interest, starring has been omitted. 

Is the material in this Guide complete and accurate? 

The editor does not claim omniscience. The information has been gathered 
with care, and every effort made to verify statements and dates. For churches, 
the date used is that when the building was framed. Town descriptions, in 
almost every case, have been checked by one or more correspondents on the 
ground. No doubt some errors have slipped past the local censors, and 
important items may have been omitted. Such shortcomings are inevitable 
in a pioneer work. 

How can the Guide be improved? 

By the same cooperation that has made the present production possible. 
With increasing leisure will come the habit of observing as we travel. Every 
guide book must be tested and developed through use. If the traveler will 
call attention to errors as he runs across them, future editions can be made 
more serviceable. The same is true of the Map. It is hoped that many per- 
sons will take notes as they follow the suggested routing through various 
towns, and give the State Planning Board the benefit of their experience. 
Pictures of the places described would also be of value. 

Are visitors welcome in Connecticut? 

We are proud of our State and its record, as the reader of this Introduction 
has already discovered. We hope that you will visit us on our 300th anni- 
versary and come to love Connecticut as we do. Much that is of beauty or 
historic value may be seen by driving by; the roads are open to anyone who 
will obey the traffic rules. However, many of the places of special interest are 
private property. The traveler will seldom be disappointed if he makes a 
courteous request to see some historic interior or walk to a particular view- 
point. With this understanding let us start our Journeys across Connecticut. 

Journey I 

Greenwich to Stonington. 
U. S. 1. 

The shore towns, on Long Island Sound, were among the earliest to be 
settled, and engaged extensively in shipping, fishing and whaling. The region 
is now occupied by suburban homes, manufacturing cities and shore resorts. 
The coast is broken by rivers and rocky inlets, which supply good harbors for 
yachts, and make this one of the finest yachting regions in the world. There 
is a continuous view of Long Island, formerly under the jurisdiction of Connec- 
ticut. Bathing beaches are numerous; three of the best Sherwood Island, 
Hammonasset and Rocky Neck are State Parks. This part of Connecticut 
is famous for its shore dinners, and there is an important oyster industry. 
The towns are reached by U. S. Route 1, (the old Boston Post Road or King's 
Highway; another branch went north from New Haven,) and by the main 
line and Shore Line Division of the New Haven Road. For through travel the 
railroad gives a better view of the shore than the highway, and the banks as 
far as New Haven have been planted with roses. 

I. 1 


Crossing the New York boundary at Byram River by the Boston Post Road 
(Putnam ave., Route U. S. 1) we enter the town of Greenwich, popularly 
known as the "Gateway to New England." The name of the town was taken 
from Greenwich near London. Land was purchased from the Indians by 
Capt. Daniel Patrick in 1640. Though considered a part of the New Haven 
Colony, Greenwich was under Dutch jurisdiction from 1642 to 1650. 

Greenwich has good yacht harbors and many shore and country estates. 
The principal industry is commuting to New York. The Conde Nast publish- 
ing plant in Old Greenwich, with its fine landscaping, is a bright spot on the 
Post Road. Electrolux vacuum cleaners are made in Old Greenwich. 

On our right, as we cross the border, the quaint Thomas Lyon Homestead 
(1 on Chart V) built in 1670, a "salt-box" with central chimney, is typical of 
many similar houses still standing in the town. The walls are covered with 
what are claimed to be the original hand-riven shingles of white pine, with 
semi-circular butts, laid about 16 inches to the weather. We climb a long hill 
to the business center of Greenwich proper, with fine views of Long Island 
Sound through the cross streets. Beyond the harbor are two islands granted 
by the English Crown to Capt. Daniel Patrick, the founder of Greenwich: 
Great Captain's Island, with a lighthouse, and Little Captain's Island, where 
the town maintains a public bathing beach. South on Field Point Rd., on 
the west side, we find two fine old houses in perfect condition: Homestead 


Hall (2) built by I. R. Mead in 1790, and the Oliver Mead House (3) of about 
the same date. Members of the Mead family have been prominent in the 
town from the beginning. Belle Haven (4) on the western side of the harbor, 
one of the fine residential sections, was a public horse pasture in early days, 



1. Thomas Lyon Homestead. 2. Homestead Hall. 3. Oliver Mead House. 4. Belle 
Haven. 5. Bruce Park. 6. Indian Harbor Yacht Club. 7. Benedict Estate. 8. Greenwich 
Hospital. 9. Second Congregational Church. 10. Christ Church. 11. Putnam Cottage. 
12. Put's Hill. 13. Theodore Mead House. 14. Millbrook. 15. The Boxwood. 

known as Horse Neck, the original name of this part of Greenwich. A salt 
works here, supplying the Revolutionary Army, was raided by the British in 

The Library and other public buildings are located on Greenwich Ave., the 
original business street, leading downhill to the railroad and harbor. We pass 
the entrance to Bruce Park (5) which spans Indian Harbor, a gift to the town 
from Robert M. Bruce. The old Bruce mansion is a now a museum, with 
paintings and natural history collections. At the end of Greenwich Ave. is 


the Indian Harbor Yacht Club (6.) The Benedict Estate (7) on the rocky 
point to the east, was built on the site of the old Americus Club, a famous 
rendezvous of Boss Tweed of New York. 

Opposite Greenwich Ave., *Lake Avenue starts north, passing Greenwich 
Hospital (8) in a fine hilltop setting. This road winds through woods and 
valleys and connects with many roads that lead to palatial estates, nestling 
among rocks, brooks and great trees. Some of these estates are best seen from 
bridle trails, of which there are about 300 miles in the town. Among the 
wooded hills are several well-known private schools, including the Edgewood 
School (Glenville rd.) a pioneer in progressive education, and Rosemary Hall 
(Ridgeway lane) a preparatory school for girls, started at Wallingford in 1890, 
One of the best inland drives is along the Byram River Gorge, north from 
Pemberwick. The chasm is of glacial origin; the blocking of the original 
western drainage of the stream caused it to cut the present channel. Round 
Hill, almost at the State line, a sequestered New England village 20 years 
ago, is rapidly becoming a woodland suburb. The village of Stanwich, farther 
east, has retained much of its rural character. An hour's motoring on both 
sides of the Post Road will be well spent, since few towns offer an equal combi- 
nation of shore and wildwood. 

The fine modern building of the Second Congregational Church (9) stands in 
an old burying ground. The tower is visible for many miles in the country 
and across the Sound. "Horse Neck Steeple" was used as a range point in 
the oldest oyster-bed deeds. A short distance to the east is Christ Church (10) 
the modern Episcopal building, one of the finest examples of pure Gothic 
architecture in the State. Almost opposite stands the * Putnam Cottage (11) 
originally Knapp's Tavern, built in 1731. According to tradition, Gen. 
Israel Putnam, in command of the American forces at the time of the British 
raid, was staying in this house, and was shaving when he saw in his mirror the 
gleam of a "Red Coat." He escaped capture by riding his horse down the 
stone steps that formerly led to the church at the top of the hill. The hill has 
since been graded, but on the former summit of Put's Hill (12) is a small 
enclosure, with a bronze tablet commemorating the incident. At the bottom 
of the hill stands the old Theodore Mead House (13) from which the occupants 
watched his spectacular ride. Putnam Cottage (11) is now maintained by 
the D. A. R., with an exhibit of Colonial furniture, portraits and relics. 

Passing on the right the residential development of Millbrook (14) we come 
to the village of Cos Cob on Mianus River, named for a friendly Indian chief, 
who rests in the old Indian Burial Ground (17; reached by Mead av.) North 
of this point, on Strickland Brook, there was a bloody battle between the 
Dutch and Indians, in 1646. There are many old houses in Cos Cob. On the 
Post Road, to our left, the Boxwood (15) a Revolutionary house, takes its 
name from the two century-old box trees in front. The Ray W. Mead House 
(16 on Chart VI; 33 Orchard st.) was built in 1700, and has a Revolutionary 
cannon ball embedded in the chimney. Other landmarks are the Frank 
Seymour House (18; Mead ave.) dating from 1700; and the Holley House 
(19; Strickland and River rds.) built by Capt. Bush about 1760. 

Crossing Mianus River, dammed at this point to form a large lake, a road 
leads south to the residential suburb of Riverside (20) with the Riverside Yacht 
Club. On the Post Road, we pass on the left the old Ferris House (21) built 
in 1765, and occupied by a direct descendant of the builder. Farther east is a 
sign "Old Greenwich 1640," and in the triangle the little old Huntington Adams 


House (22) built in 1721. Turning south- at this point on Sound Beach Ave., 
we skirt the attractive Binney Park (23) given by Edwin Binney. On our 
route are a number of old houses, the Library in Colonial style, and the early 
19th century building of the First Congregational Church of Greenwich, or- 


16. Ray W. Mead House. 17. Indian Burial Ground. 18. Frank Seymour House. 
19. H9lley House. 20. Riverside. 21. Ferris House. 22. Huntington Adams House. 
23. Binney Park. 24. First Congregational Church. 25. Agassiz Association. 26. 
Keofferam Lodge. 27. Ross Ferris House. 28. Old Cemetery 29. Laddin's Rock Farm. 

ganized in 1670. Beyond the R. R., the National Agassiz Association (25) 
has its headquarters on Arcadia Rd., with an exhibit of Connecticut wild 
flowers. Fine views of the shore are obtained from the Shore Road, open to 
the public as far west as the beginning of Tod's Point, the landing place of 
the first settlers. Two very old houses are still standing on the north side of 
this road: Keofferam Lodge (26) and the Ross Ferris House (27.) On Potomac 
Ave., we find an Old Cemetery (28) with stones dating back to 1716. South 
of the Post Road, on the Stamford line, is Laddin's Rock Farm (29) a pictur- 
esque region with a fine stand of hemlock and a high cliff. 


I. 2 

The next town to the east is Stamford, originally called Rippowam. from 
the river which forms a double harbor on the Sound. In 1640, the New Haven 
Colony sent Capt. Nathaniel Turner to negotiate a purchase from the Indians, 
and in 1641 the land was sold to a company of people from Wethersfield. The 
name was taken from Stamford in the English county of Lincoln. Some of 
the citizens withdrew later to found Hempstead, L. I. The town joined the 
Connecticut Colony in 1662. 

The interests of Stamford are about equally divided between suburban 
residence and manufacturing. There was considerable shipping in the early 
days, boats coming up by the Canal to the east of the present central square. 
An important iron industry developed in the first part of the 19th century. The 
railroad was opened in 1848. Good transportation facilities and the nearness 
to New York have caused rapid growth in recent years. The city of Stamford 
was incorporated in 1893 and has a population of 46,346. 

Entering the town by the Post Road (West Main st.) we cross the river at 
Rippowam Falls, which Washington greatly admired, according to a note in 
his diary. Beyond the river, we pass on our right the 18th century Frederick 
Webb House (Main st. and Clinton ave.). In the city, few early landmarks 
have survived. One of the oldest is the Barnum House, a short distance north 
of the center on Bedford St. 

In the center of the business section is Atlantic Square, with its gray stone 
Town Hall and shady park. This was the site of the first meeting house and 
its protecting fort. North of the Square is the attractive Ferguson Library, 
built of dull red brick in Colonial style. 

The best known residential section is on the beautiful Shippan Point to 
the east of the harbor, named from the old Indian village of Shippan. Of the 
two largest parks, Woodside Park along the river is reached by Summer St. 
Cummings Park, on the Sound (reached by Elm st.) is named for the present 
U. S. Attorney General, Homer S. Cummings. It includes recreation facilities, 
a Children's Museum of Natural History, and a harbor for small yachts, known 
as Halloween Basin. The Halloween Yacht Club is located here, and the 
Stamford Yacht Club on Shippan Point. 

Among well known boarding schools are the King School for boys 
(164 Colonial rd.) established in 1876, and two for girls: Grey Court (South 
Field Point) and Low and Heywood (873 Shippan ave.) established by Mrs. 
Richardson in 1865. 

The largest factory in the city is that of Yale and Towne, makers of house 
hardware and originators of the Yale lock, which occupies 25 acres south of 
the R. R. Station. The Luder Marine Construction Co. has a shipyard at the 
outlet of Stamford harbor. Other important products are leather cloth, 
canceling machines, septic tanks, bronze paint, motors, roller bearings and 
oil burning equipment. 

The outstanding scenic feature of inland Stamford is the gorge of the 
*Mianus River in the northwest corner. The lower end of the gorge is crossed 
by the Farms Road, which winds through rugged hills from Long Ridge on 


R.104 to Stanwich across the Greenwich line, and may also be reached by the 
beautiful Riverbank Road following the valley. In Woodlaw, on R. 104, about 
2 miles south of Long Ridge, we find the remains of an old Revolutionary 
Fort. A half mile east of this point is Bear Rock Cave, with an immense 
glacial boulder standing precariously on the neighboring ledge. Another good 
drive is High Ridge Road (R. 137) which follows the upper Rippowam River 
and along the shore of Laurel Reservoir. 

Besides beautiful scenery and fine modern homes, the northern section of 
the town offers many interesting landmarks. Close to the New York line is 
the present Dr. Me Kay House on East Middle Patent Rd. A little south of 
this, on Farms Rd., stands the Ingersoll House, of which the main part was 
built in 1721. A few hundred feet back of this house is an old ruin where six 
soldiers are said to have hidden after the battle of White Plains; the building 
was used as a machine shop by Simon Ingersoll, who invented the drills used 
by the Ingersoll Rand Co., and constructed an automobile which he drove into 
Stamford in 1858. At Long Ridge (R. 104) we have Lawrence. Farms: and 
the Geo. Lounsbury Homestead of 1775. On the comer beyond the North 
Stamford water supply (R. 137) is the porticoed building which at one time 
housed Betts Academy, a well known boys school in the late 19th century. 
Continuing north on R. 137, we find the Hoyt House at High Ridge, and the 
quaint *Davenport House, on Davenport Ridge Rd. The latter was built in 
1775 and the interior is practically unaltered; it is a 1^ story house, with an 
ell, and has a typical central chimney and three dormers in the roof. 

As we cross the Noroton River to Darien on U. S. 1, there is a pleasing view 
of an inlet of the Sound known as Cove Pond. 


Darien, formerly a part of Stamford, was settled in 1641 or soon after, and 
organized as the parish of Middlesex in 1737. In 1820 it was incorporated as a 
separate town, and named through some sailor's fancy from the Isthmus of 
Darien. The settlement was a busy port of entry in the sailing ship era. 

At Noroton, on the west of the town, is the Soldiers Home (Noroton 
ave.: 1 on Chart VII) given to the State in 1864 by Benjamin Fitch, who had 
used his farm during the Civil War as a home for soldiers' orphans. Among 
the old houses in this section are the Frank Fitch House (2) 1756, and the 
Wardicell House (3) of about the same date, both on the Post Road. Turning 
south on Ring's End Rd., we find a number of other landmarks. To our left 
is the Bassett Place (4: Guild House) built about 1690 and moved down from 
Stratford. On our right is the Old Custom House (5) a small white building 
with porches. Farther, on the waterfront, Ring's End House (6) about 1750, 
was used by ships' officers while their cargoes were unloading; the timbers 
were hewn by ship builders, and the stairs built on the outside and later covered 
with a roof. Beside the house is a pile of cobble stones brought from England 
as ballast. Gorham's mill was served by a dam at this point, and one of the 
old millstones forms part of the path in the yard. The present Gorham House 
(7) on our left, with the date 1789 in the chimney, has good ironwork, some of 



it brought direct from England. Overlooking Gorham Pond stands another 
migrant, built at Southbury in 1730 by Col. Benjamin Hickok (8; Swift House.) 
A little to the west, near Water Lane, the Weed House (9) with white shingles 
dates from 1749. There is an excellent view from Long Neck Point to the 


1. Soldiers' Home. 2. Frank Fitch House. 3. Wardwell House. 4. Bassett Place. 
5. Old Custom House. 6. Ring's End House. 7. Gorham House. 8. Benjamin Hickok 
House. 9. Weed House. 10. Meeting House. 11. Bates Homestead. 12. J. I ves Bradley 
House. 13. Landing Place. 14. Tones' Hole. 15. Tokeneke. 

At Darien proper is the dignified brick Meeting House (10; Post Rd. at 
Brookside ave.) near the site of the original church, where in 1781 Rev. Moses 
Mather and the men of his congregation were surprised during service by a 
company of British soldiers, largely made up of Tory refugees. They were 
carried to New York, where several of them died in a prison ship. A tablet 
on the church building commemorates this episode. The Bates Homestead 
(11; Raymond st., south of the old King's Highway) a large yellow house, has 
the date 1749 on stepping stones in the walk. The old /. I ves Bradley House 
(12; Hale House; Le Roy ave.) was built in 1743 and brought down bodily 


from Durham. In the northeast corner of the town is the M other Homestead 
(Brookside and Grand View ave's.) dating from 1778. 

At Rowayton. to the southeast, we find the old Landing Place (13; West 
Side rd.) on Five Mile River, where ships docked alongside the rock ledge at 
high tide. On Contentment Island, west of the river mouth, is the Williamson 
House, built about 1700 by a sailor who quit the sea and married an Indian 
girl. This island is the site of an old Indian village, and near the house is a 
pothole in the rock used for grinding corn. Tories' Hole (14) a cave with 
Revolutionary traditions, lies between Delafield Island and Tory Hill Rds.: 
the entrance was blocked by blasting a few years ago. The residential district 
of Tokeneke (15) has many beautiful gardens laid out in the English and 
Italian styles. 

I. 4 

To reach New Canaan it will be necessary to make a side trip, turning north 
from Darien on Route 29. The region was settled about 1700, and in 1731 the 
parish of Canaan was organized, for families in the northern parts of Stamford 
and Norwalk. The town was incorporated as New Canaan in 1801. 

New Canaan is crossed from north to south by a series of rocky ridges, 
giving it a semi-mountainous character. At one time there was a considerable 
shoe industry and a flourishing academy. The town, served by a branch 
railway, is now chiefly suburban, with an artists' colony. 

The village has the central Green so characteristic of Connecticut. South 
of this, at 49 Park St., is the Husted House, later known as the Old St. John 
House, built in 1752. The Samuel Carter House, built between 1722 and 
1724, is located on Carter St. about a mile and a half to the east. Further 
south, at Carter St. and Cemetery Rd., is the oldest house in town, at one time 
occupied by Rev. Samuel Eels, the first minister. 

Two mills with overshot wheels are still operating in the town: Jelleffe's 
Mill to the southwest on the Jelleffe Mill Rd. near Weed St., and Buttery's 
Mill on Silver Mine Rd. in the southeast. A little above the latter is the 
attractive ravine of Silver Mine Forge, with two old dams. 

There are many fine views in the town: Lone Tree or Prospect Hill to the 
east of the village, and the drives along three parallel ridges: the Ponus Ridge 
Road near the Stamford border, Weed Street nearer the village, and Oenoke 
Avenue (Route 29, which is scenic for its entire length.) East of Oenoke 
Ave., about two miles above the village, is Chief Ponus Cave, in the gorge of 
Five Mile River, and further north in the same valley the Indian Rocks, a 
precipitous granite ledge overlooking the New Canaan reservoir. 

On the Ponus Ridge Rd. is the Ponus Monument, an inscribed boulder 
erected to mark the path used by the Indians when going into New York 
State. It is opposite the Indian cemetery where Chief Ponus is buried. He 
was a leading sachem of the Siwanogs, who were members of the Wappinger 
confederacy in New York. 

I. 5 



Returning to the Post Road, we come to Norwalk, settled from Hartford in 
1649 and affiliated with the Connecticut Colony. The name is a corruption 
of the Indian "Norwaake." The village was burned by the British during the 
Revolution. Considerable manufacturing has developed, especially at South 


1. Flax Hill Memorial. 2. Henry Kellogg House. 3. Historical House. 4. Isaac Belden 
House. 5. Town House. 6. Burning of Norwalk, monument. 7. Yankee Doodle House. 
8. Old Red School House. 9. Founders Monument. 10. Roger Ludlow Monument. 

Norwalk, served by the harbor and the railway, and incorporated as a city 
in 1893; the present inclusive city of Norwalk dates from 1913 and has a 
population of 36,019. South Norwalk originally was an outlying settlement 


known as the Old Well, supposed to be named from the well used by West 
India ships to secure their supplies of water. 

Norwalk is well furnished with historical monuments. South of the Post 
Road, near Hillside Place, is the Flax Hill Memorial (1 on Chart VIII) a 
granite boulder with a tablet to commemorate the preliminary battle between 
the Americans and British on July 12, 1779: a large cannon ball is embedded 
in the surface of the rock. Across the river is the Town House (5; East ave.) 
a one-story brick building built in 1835, now used as a chapter house by the 
D. A. R.; beside it is the Nathan Hale Fountain, which formerly stood on 
the Post Road. Going south on East Ave., we come to the monument marking 
the burning of Norwalk (6) by General Tryon; the hill, since removed, was 
known as Tryon's Hill. At that time two churches, 80 dwellings and many 
other buildings were destroyed. The cellar of the Yankee Doodle House 
(7) home of Gov. Thomas Fitch, the author of the famous poem, is west of 
East Ave., near Hendricks Ave. Farther south is the Founders Monument 
(9; East ave. and Fitch st.) erected in 1895 to commemorate the settlement 
of Norwalk. Most of the original houses were in this vicinity. Below the 
R. R., at the intersection of Gregory Ave. and Fitch St., we find the imposing 
monument to * Roger Ludlow (10) deputy governor of the Connecticut Colony, 
who purchased land from the Indians in 1640. 

The pre-Revolutionary buildings in Norwalk went up in flames in 1779. 
Houses of some interest are the Henry Kellogg House (2; Belden ave. and 
Prospect st.;) the Historical House (3; West ave., back of Masonic Temple;) 
the Isaac Belden House (4; Butler st. ;) and east of the river the Old Red School 
House (8; 185 East ave.) skilfully remodeled as a home. 

At the end of Ludlow Parkway in East Norwalk is the Calf Pasture, asso- 
ciated with the early Indians, an attractive city park, with good views from 
Gregory Point. There are bathing beaches in this section and numerous 

North of the city, on the west side of Oakwood Ave., is the Outdoor Theatre, 
a natural amphitheatre where operettas are given during the summer. The 
Hillside School for girls is located on Prospect Hill Ave. Near the junction 
of the East Ave. extension and Lake St. are The Rocks, a mass of boulders 
where a battle was fought on Sunday morning during the burning of the 
village. The spot contains an old Indian cave. 

During the first part of the 19th century, Norwalk stoneware pottery 
achieved distinction and a rather wide distribution by sea. Debris from the 
early Asa Hoyt pottery can be found on the causeway below the Nash Engin- 
eering Co. in South Norwalk; four other potteries were located at various 
points in the town. Among widely known modern products are Dobbs hats. 
Cash woven name tapes. Church expansion bolts, Norwalk tires, and Binner 
corsets. Other factories are engaged in builders' hardware, handbags, and 
dress goods of various sorts. There is an important oyster industry. 




I. 6 

The town of Westport was incorporated in 1835, to include a portion of 
Norwalk west of the Saugatuck River and the West Parish of Fairfield. The 
first settlement was at Bankside, later known as Greens Farms, in 1648. Dur- 
ing the Revolution, considerable fighting took place here, during Gen. Tryon's 
raid on Danbury. 


1. Stringham House. 2. Denis Wright House. 3. Taylor House. 4. Old Ford. 5. 
Jessup Memorial Library. 6. Jessup Mansion. 7. Country Play House. 8. Hawthorne 
Inn. 9. Tar Rock. 10. Minute Man. 11. Compo Beach. 12. Daniel Sherwood, 3rd. 
13. Daniel Sherwood, 2nd. 14. Sherwood Island. 15. Machamux Boulder. 16. Old Bury- 
ing Ground. 17. Bedford Estate. 18. Gideon Couch House. 19. Capt. Thomas Nash. 
20. Zalmon Burr House. 21. The Burrow. 22. John and Joseph Hide houses. 23. Adams 

In Westport Village, along the Saugatuck, the original post road, still known 
as the King's Highway, went farther north, to a point where the river could 
be forded (4 on Chart IX.) Along this road we have the Stringham House 
(1 ; at Ludlow rd.) of which the rear portion goes back to the early 18th cen- 


tury; the Denis Wright House (2; at Wright st) built in 1733; and the Taylor 
House (3; west on Old Hill rd.) said to date from 1690. 

Westport has many estates, and an artists' colony, with an exhibition 
building north of the Post Road as one enters the town. East of the river is 
the Jessup Memorial Library (5) given in 1908 by Morris K. Jessup. On the 
same side of the Post Road, we have the Jessup Mansion (6) built in 1807 by 
Major Ebenezer Jessup, and now used as a parsonage by the Saugatuck 
Congregational church. The Country Play House (7; Powers st.) is a converted 
barn used during the summer to try out new plays for the New York stage. 

On April 25, 1777. General Tryon disembarked a force of 2000 regulars and 
Tories to destroy the American army stores at Danbury. The landing was 
made on the sandy spit |of Compo Beach (11) south of Compo Rd. (R. 136) 
marked by two old cannon with an inscription. There was a skirmish at this 
point, and another at the Bennet House (8; Hawthorne Inn) still standing 
though much altered; the S. A. R. have placed a marker. On the retreat from 
Danbury and Ridgefield, the British crossed by the old ford on the King's 
Highway (4; Ford rd., between Routes 33 and 57) now replaced by a bridge. 
Before reembarking, the British were obliged to fight off the swarms of Colonial 
militia gathered on Compo Hill. This action is commemorated by the statue 
of the * Minute Man (10) erected by the Sons of the American Revolution in 
1910, on Route 136 southwest of the hill. Tar Rock (9; Compo rd.) was used 
for signaling during the Revolution. 

Route 136, which follows the shore for much of the way, gives good views, 
in addition to its historical interest. As we turn north from Compo Beach, we 
pass on the left the house built in 1790 by Daniel Sherwood, 3rd (12; Hills- 
point rd.) Continuing east on Shore Rd., a lane to the southwest leads to 
Sherwood Island State Park (14) with a good beach. On the way we pass the 
house built by Daniel Sherwood, 2nd (13) in the middle of the 18th century. 
The section known as Greens Farms was burned by the British in the later 
raid of 1779. Beyond the R. R. Station, on a triangle of the old common, 
stands the Machamux Boulder (15) which records the history of Greens Farms 
Parish from the Indian Machamux through the Revolution. Farther east we 
pass the Old Burying Ground (16) and the gardens of the E. T. Bedford Estate 
(17) which are open to the public. 

Among the other interesting houses in the Greens Farms section, most of 
them covered with 24-inch shingles, two are on the west side of Parish rd. : 
the Gideon Couch House (18) and that built by Capt. Thomas Nash (19) in 
1740, sometimes known as the Old Burr House. On the south side of Long 
Lots Rd., which turns off above the Post Road, we find the Zalmon Burr 
House (20.) Farther on the same road are a house known as the Burrow 
(21) originally owned by E. Ward Burr, and the cluster of four old houses 
built by John and Joseph Hide (22) between 1735 and 1790. A little north of 
the Post Road, on Church St., is the building once used by the well known 
Adams Academy (23.) 



Fairfield, the Indian Unquowa, was settled from Windsor in 1639, on land 
purchased from the Indians by Roger Ludlow, who had seen its possibilities 
at the time of the Great Swamp Fight two years before. The name probably 
is descriptive. The village was looted and burned by the British during the 
Revolution, but the surviving and later houses and the elm-shaded streets 
are of great interest. The eastern part of the town has become a suburb of 

Entering the town by the Post Road, we come first to Southport, at one time 
a flourishing seaport for back country produce. On the right, at the crossing 
of the old King's Highway, is the Stephen Osborn House (1 on Chart X) built 
during the Revolution and practically unchanged. It is a typical "salt-box" 
house, with the long sloping roof covering the lean-to. In front is the mile- 
stone placed by Benjamin Franklin as postmaster general for the Colonies. 
On the parkway to the right we find the *Pequot Monument (2) erected by the 
Society of Colonial Wars to mark the Great Swamp Fight of July 13, 1637, 
which ended the Pequot W T ar. The stone was recently moved from its original 
location a short distance to the south, as the last of the old swamp has been 
filled and built over. Toward the shore, the Wakeman Meeker House (3; 
Harbor rd.) was built by Wm. Bulkley in 1767; it escaped the conflagration 
in 1779, and preserves most of the old lines and interior features. East of this 
is the contrasting Walter Perry Homestead (4; Harbor rd.) of 1812, with its 
tall Doric columns. The traveler should note also the quaint white cottage on 
the water's edge known as Set-a-Spell (5.) On Pequot Rd. is Trinity Church 
(6) one of the earliest Episcopal churches in Connecticut. Beyond the church 
is Pequot Library (Pequot rd. and Center st.) with valuable collections in 
American history and genealogy. A mile to the north on Hull's Highway 
stands the Hull Tavern, which goes back to John Goodsell and the year 1766. 
There are fine views from Sasco Hill rd., southeast of Southport. 

North of the Fairfield station, as we go east, is the old Powder House (7) 
used during the war of 1812, on an elevation above the game field of Roger 
Ludlow High School. North of the school is a Bird Sanctuary (8) of 10 acres, 
given to the National Audubon Society in honor of Mrs. Mabel Osgood Wright. 
At the junction of the Old Post Road, we pass the Memorial Library (9.) 
There is a Memorial Room, with map panels, and the names of men connected 
with the making of Fairfield from the first settlement to 1818. The Fairfield 
Historical Society occupies the east wing. 

Coming to Fairfield proper, the center of interest is the Green (10) on the 
Old Post Road, one block south from the present Post Road at Center St. 
The stone Congregational church on the north corner, built in 1891, is the 
sixth in succession from the log church of 1640 on the same site; the church has 
a valuable collection of silver plate. Opposite the Town Hall is the Old Whip- 
ping Post, used today only for posting legal notices. South of the Town Hall 
stands the old *Sun Tavern, with shingled walls and gambrel rood and its 
original kitchen equipment, built by Samuel Penfield in 1783. 

Going south on Beach Road, we pass four old houses on the left, saved at 
the time of the burning and used as quarters by the British: the Capt. Maltby 



House (11;) Hobart Homestead (12:) \athan Bulkley House (13:) and the 
second John Bulkley House (14.) On the west side of Beach Rd. is the *0ld 
Burying Ground (15.) There are over 600 inscriptions, and the earliest dated 
stone is from 1687. The Silliman Monument records many generations of this 
family from 1690 up to 1868. 



1. Stephen Osborn House. 2. Pequot Monument. 3. Wakeman Meeker House. 4 
Walter Perry Homestead. 5. Set-a-spell. 6. Trinity Church. 7. Powder House. 8. 
Bird Sanctuary. 9. Memorial Library. 10. Green. 11. Capt. Maltby House. 12. Hohart 
Homestead. 13. Nathan Bulkley House. 14. John Bulkley House. 15. Old Burying 
Ground. 16. Fairneld Academy. 17. Thaddeus Burr Mansion. 18. Sherman Parsonage. 
19. Benson House. 20. Osborn Homestead. 21. Gold Selleck Silliman House. 22. Older 
Silliman House. 23. Perry Mill. 

Turning west from the Green on the Old Post Road, we pass on the left the 
*Fairfield Academy building (16) erected in 1804, now the D. A. R. chapter 
house, with a pediment over the main portion of the front and three dignified 


doorways. Next to this is the *Thaddeus Burr Mansion (17) on the site of an 
earlier Burr house that was burned by the British. This stately house was 
erected about 1780 by a local carpenter-architect, Daniel Dimon, after the 
style of the Gov. Hancock house in Boston. In 1820, a later owner added the 
2-story portico across the front, supported by six Doric columns. There is still 
the old-fashioned garden in the rear. The second Burr mansion, like its 
predecessor, was the center of hospitality in Fairfield, entertaining all the 
distinguished visitors who passed through the town. John Hancock and 
Dorothy Quincy were married in 1775 in the older house, where the lady had 
been surreptitiously courted by young Aaron Burr, riding down from his law 
studies in Litchfield. The birthplace of Aaron's father, Rev. Aaron Burr, first 
president of Princeton, was in Fairfield, but not on this site. 

East on the Old Post Road we come to the home of the distinguished judge, 
Roger M. Sherman, known as the * Sherman Parsonage (18.) This house, 
completed in 1814, has a balustraded roof, four chimneys, and forty closets out 
of the original sixty. The story goes that the building plan was enlarged at 
the ends to accommodate the velvet carpets that had been ordered from Eng- 
land. In front of the wing added for Judge Sherman's library is a verandah 
with a large Ionic column holding up the roof. The house serves as the 
Congregational parsonage, and a succession of ministerial occupants have 
continued its reputation as a literary center. Beyond this is the Benson 
House (19) at one time used as a tavern. Up the hill on Benson Rd. stands 
the pre-Revolutionary Osborn Homestead (20.) 

The two Silliman houses are on Jennings Rd. on Holland Hill, three miles 
north of the Green. The first we come to is that of Gen. Gold Selleck Silliman 
(21) who was seized by the British in the first of the two raids of 1779. He 
was deacon in the church and had charge of the church silver already referred 
to, which was concealed by covering it with his wife's dress. His son Benjamin 
Silliman, the famous chemist, grew up here. The only reason he was not born 
here was because his mother, after the General was taken prisoner, had gone 
for safety to Trumbull. Unfortunately this house, now tenanted by aliens, 
has lost much of its character through alteration and abuse. The Older 
Silliman House (22) built about 1740 by Gen. Silliman's grandfather, has 
fared somewhat better. The house is 2 V-2 stories, with a wide attic overhang 
at the gables, central stone chimney, and shingle covering, a treatment rather 
common in this region. 

Greenfield Hill, about three miles northwest of Fairfield, was early set 
apart as a separate parish. It is on high ground and commands a wide pano- 
rama from the church tower or other observation points. Rev. Timothy 
Dwight, who was called to the pastorate in 1783, soon developed as a side line 
a flourishing school known as Dwight Academy, which drew students from 
far and near. When called to the presidency of Yale in 1795, his friends 
remonstrated, reminding him that already he was teaching half as many 
students as the 110 he would find at Yale, and that New Haven only had 400 
more people than Fairfield. All that remains of the Dwight home, a few rods 
south of the church, is a large copper beech. North of the Green, where the 
Academy formerly stood, is the Sheriff Baldwin House, built in 1749 by 
Zalmon Bradley. The Nichols House of 1822, with its beautiful gardens, lies 
west of the Green, and nearby, on Old Academy Rd., is another Bradley 
house, dating from 1758. The old Burying Ground has nearly 1000 grave 
stones, including 100 Revolutionary soldiers, the second largest number on 
record in Connecticut. 

16 THE CON\I i IK I 1 ,I ||)| 

Returning from Greenfield Hill to Fairfield by Bronson Rd.. we pass a 
gigantic oak west of Mill River, with a companion elm at the entrance of 
Oak Lawn Cemetery. The Perry Mill (23) is still grinding started by Og- 
dens in the 1690's and operated by Perrys since 1705. The stream at this 
point gives good scenery, and there are fine views from Mill Hill Rd. to the 

The Pine Creek Marshes, directly south of Fairfield village, are a good ex- 
ample of that type of shore scenery. Among the attractive inland drives are 
Easton Rd.. to the northwest, running through the Aspetuck River valley: 
and Brookside Drive on the upper reaches of Mill River, half a mile west of 
Route 58. where the road winds along the brook under overhanging old trees 
and vines in their unspoiled beauty. The town has many estates, and the 
Fairfield Hunt Club has developed a system of bridle trails through the back- 

I. s 

Bridgeport, the industrial capital of Connecticut, is situated on a harbor 
formed by the Pequonnock River. A second harbor. Black Rock to the south- 
west, is one of the best on the Sound. The first settlement probably dates 
from 1639. A parish of Stratfield. between Stratford and Fairfield both in 
name and distance, was organized in 1690: this was the first independent 
parish in the Colony to be set up within existing town areas. The town of 
Bridgeport was incorporated in 1821. 

In 1801. the turnpike laid out through Newtown diverted much of the inland 
trade which formerly went to Derby. The second quarter of the 19th century 
saw the beginning of a rapid industrial development, and the Housatonic 
Railroad was chartered in 1836. The city of Bridgeport was incorporated 
the same year, and in 1930 had a population of 146,716. As the largest 
producer of munitions during the World War. Bridgeport came to be known as 
the "Essen of America." 

Ash Creek, where we cross the line from Fairfield, was the route used by 
British boats in the raid which captured General Silliman. The attractive 
Black Rock Drive follows the shore to Black Rock harbor, an important 
shipbuilding center during the 18th century; the drive is maintained by the 
city, but no parking is allowed. There was a small fort on Grover's Hill, 
which kept its single gun busy during the second Fairfield raid. It was from 
the port of Black Rock that Capt. David Hawley organized a daring counter 
raid on Long Island, to secure a prisoner of equal rank to exchange for Gen. 

Passing through the city on State St., the old City Hall (10 on Chart XI) 
built in 1855, has a tablet commemorating Lincoln's speech here on March 
10, 1860. The main Public Library (11) stands on the south side of State St. 
The Golden Hills Indian Reservation, which once occupied 80 acres on the 
high ground traversed by Golden Hills St., west of Main St.. was purchased 
in 1763 from the few remaining Pequonnocks for 30 bushels of corn and a 




few blankets. The reservation was transferred to Nichols, now in the town of 
Trumbull (Route 45) where an acre still remains, as a happy hunting ground 
among passing tourists for the surviving Indians: Chieftess Rising Star and 
her father George Sherman. 


1. Nichols Tavern. 2. Stratfield Cemetery. 3. Brothwell Beach House. 4. Abijah 
Sterling house. 5. Charles S. Stratton home, 6. Beardsley Park. 7. Pixlee House. 
8. Barnum Museum. 9. Nathaniel Wheeler statue. 10. City Hall. 11. Public Library. 
12. Barnum house. 13. Seaside Park. 

The old lartdmarks in Bridgeport lie along the original King's Highway, 
represented by North and Boston Aves. A tablet reminds us that the first 


post rider made a trip from New York to Boston in January, 1673. At 2354 
North Ave., we find the Nichols Tavern (1) a salt-box built in 1726, with a 
Franklin milestone nearby. Clinton Park was used as a military training 
ground before 1694. North of this is the old Strat field Cemetery (2) with a 
tablet giving the names of Revolutionary soldiers. The Brothwell Beach 
House (3) farther east, at the corner of North and Park Aves., has kept its 
original lines. Just east of the jail is a house, with the original shingles remov- 
ed, supposed to have been built in the 18th century by Capt. Abijah Sterling 
(4.) East of the river, on Old Mill Green, stands the Pixlee House (7) which 
dates from 1700 but has been modernized by a coat of stucco. Washington 
is said to have stopped here, as well as at the Nichols Tavern. Opposite the 
Pixlee House, on the old Green, is a large elm, sometimes known as the Wash- 
ington Elm, probably between 250 and 300 years old. Another noble tree, 
the Johnson Oak, on Logan St. in East Bridgeport, just south of Stratford 
Ave., has a girth of 21 feet, and is one of the largest trees in Connecticut. 

P. T. Barnum, the great showman, made Bridgeport his home, and was 
closely connected with the life of the city until his death in 1891. Here for 
many years were the winter quarters for his circus, visible from passing rail- 
way trains. Sometimes an elephant would be ploughing the fields, in full 
view of travelers. The last of Barnum 's houses (12) in the late Victorian 
style, faces Seaside Park, which he was instrumental in founding. There is 
also a statue of Barnum overlooking the Sound, near the seawall of the Park. 
On the third floor at 804 Main St. is a small Museum (8) of articles having to 
do with Barnum 's life, now in charge of the Board of Education. The dwarf, 
Charles S. Stratton, whom he exhibited all over this country and Europe as 
General Tom Thumb, was born in 1838 and lived in the house at the corner of 
North Ave. and Main St. (5.) Tom Thumb was 28 inches high and weighed 
less than 16 pounds, but achieved world-wide celebrity, and a 40-foot shaft 
in the Mountain Grove Cemetery, surmounted by a life-sized statue of him- 

Bridgeport is well supplied with parks, and is sometimes called "Park 
City." *Seaside Park (13) already mentioned, reached by Park Ave. and 
entered through the Pern' Memorial Arch, contains about 210 acres. A 
boulevard extends for 2^ miles along the seawall, and there are facilities for 
bathing and recreation. Opposite Black Rock Drive, at the south end of 
Fayerweather Island, is the old white lighthouse, constructed in 1809 and 
rebuilt in 1823; the Government recently deeded this property to the city for 
park purposes. To the southeast, on the extension of Seaview Ave., is Pleasure 
Beach, owned by the city and leased as an amusement park. To the northeast, 
by way of Noble Ave., is *Beardsley Park (6) of 234 acres, with woodland 
drives and paths, a large lake, a zoo, an 18-hole golf course, a reproduction of 
the Anne Hathaway cottage, and a Shakespeare garden. Starting at the 
north end of this park is the Pomperaug Trail to the Housatonic River, one 
of the blue-marked trails of the Conn. Forest and Park Assn. 

The city has been closely identified with the Sewing Machine industry. 
Elias Howe, who secured the basic patents in 1845 and later established his 
own factory here, has a statue in Seaside Park. The Wheeler and Wilson Co. 
moved from Watertown in 1856; Nathaniel Wheeler is honored by a Gutzon 
Borglum fountain at the intersection of Fairfield and Park Aves. (9.) The 
present Singer Manufacturing Co.. which bought out Wheeler and Wilson in 
1907 and produces 2,000,000 machines a year, goes back to Isaac M. Singer, 
who patented his invention in 1851. 


Among other well known Bridgeport industries are the Remington Arms 
Co., which started as the Union Metallic Cartridge Co. in 1867; Bridgeport 
Brass Co., organized in 1865; Warner Brothers corset factory, which came to 
Bridgeport in 1876; Underwood Elliot Fisher typewriters; General Electric; 
Columbia Phonograph Co.; Bryant Electric; Bullard Co., machines; Harvey 
Hubbell, electric specialties; Dictaphone Corp.; and Crane valves. 


Stratford, settled in 1639, was first known as Cupheag, and named four 
years later from Stratford-le-Bow in Essex. It lies at the west mouth of the 
Housatonic River. Like Fairfield and Norwalk, Stratford was connected 
with the Connecticut rather than the New Haven Colony. The town has 
become a suburb of Bridgeport, but the village streets with their old houses 
have kept their charm in the midst of modern traffic. 

Turning north on Main St. from Stratford Ave., we pass on the right the 
*Judson House (Academy Hill rd; 1 on Chart XII) now the headquarters of 
the Stratford Historical Society, open to visitors for a 25 cent fee. This 
house was built for Capt. David Judson in 1723, and stands on the slope of 
Academy Hill. It is painted yellow with white trimming, with a high stone 
foundation on the lower side, and overhanging gables. The door, with its 
four original bulls-eye lights, is set off by pilasters and a handsome pediment. 
The central chimney supports 18 inch beams, and the fireplace in the living 
room measures nearly 7 by 10 feet, with two brick ovens. Much of the interior 
woodwork and ironwork is intact. Nearly opposite is the Walker Tavern 
(2; Main st.) built about 1800; and farther on the right the *Christ Church 
building (3; Harvey PI.) of 1858 which has kept the original chanticleer 
weathervane, still bearing the marks of target practice by British soldiers 
quartered here in 1757. This was the first Episcopal church in Connecticut, 
founded in 1723 largely through the work of Rev. Samuel Johnson. He shocked 
the established order by doubting his Congregational ordination and going to 
England to be ordained according to the Episcopal form; between his two 
pastorates at Stratford he was the first president of King's College in New 
York, now Columbia. The house of his equally distinguished son, William 
Samuel Johnson (4) one of the men who drafted the Federal Constitution, 
stands at the corner of Main St. and West Broad; it was built in 1799. 

On West Broad St. we find the Fair child House (5) built before 1750, a 
central chimney house of the "salt-box" type with shingle covering, a treat- 
ment rather common in this region. The shingles are of white pine, 6 to 10 
inches in width, nearly 3 feet long, and with about 10 inches exposure to the 
weather. On the same street is the Tuttle House (6; West Broad st., cor. 
Linden ave.) built in 1769. Back on Main St., the McEwen House (7) dates 
from 1780 and has a Palladian window over the doorway. The David Brooks 
House (8) goes back in its original form to about 1720. 

One block to the east is Elm Street, appropriately named. Walking south, 
we pass on the left the Russell House (9) built by Egur Tomlinson in 1773; 
the Dr. Daniel Shelton House (10) of 1760, another shingled house, with 



central chimney, overhanging gables, and a porch with slender columns 
supporting an open gable; and at Broad St. the Edward Curtis House (11) 
dating from 1788. Opposite this is the Walker House (12) built by Gen. 
Joseph Walker in 1740, originally standing on Main St. This house, painted 
red with white trim, has a second story overhanging in front and on the ends 


1. Judson House. 2. Walker Tavern. 3. Christ Church. 4. William Samuel Johnson. 
5. Fairchild House. 6. Tuttle House. 7. McEwen House. 8. David Brooks House. 9. 
Russell House. 10. Daniel Shelton House. 11. Edward Curtis House. 12. Walker House. 
13. Curtis Homestead. 14. Peck Houses. 15. Frost Homestead. 16. Freeman Curtis 
House. 17. Stephen Curtis Residence. 

and a corresponding overhang for the attic. A few blocks south, at South 
Ave., is the quaint 17th century house built by Nicholas Knell in 1664, com- 
monly known as the *Curtis Homestead (13.) Its walls are covered by what 
are said to be the original white pine shingles, still in good condition with no 
other protection than an occasional coat of whitewash. 

Returning to Main St. and going north, two Peck houses (14) stand on 
the right just before reaching Barnum Ave., dating from 1780 and 1770. 


Still further north, at the corner of North Ave., we find on the left the Frost 
Homestead (15) of 1745; the Freeman Curtis House (16; Garden st.) with 
overhanging gables, built by James Judson about 1713; and the Stephen 
Curtis Residence (17; Park st., facing Paradise Green) another central chimney 
house, which goes back to 1746. 

South of Stratford, at the end of Main St., is the Mollison Airport, named 
from the transatlantic fliers who landed with a crash in the summer of 1933. 
Continuing on the same route, we pass on the west some fine examples of 
salt meadow, and reach the bluff at Stratford Point, overlooking the Sound. 
The old white lighthouse on the Point was constructed in 1822. 

Going north from the village on Main St. we pass Lougbrook Park on the 
east, and continue by a scenic drive (Route 8) along the Housatonic River. 
In the western part of the town there is a good view of the shore from Success 
Hill, reached by Broadridge Rd. Stratford, now administered under a town 
manager system, is developing a town forest and park along a brook crossed 
by Cut Spring Rd., to the northwest. 

I. 10 

The settlement of Milford goes back to 1639. when the congregation 
of Rev. Peter Prudden, which had shared the first winter in New Haven, 
pushed farther into the wilderness. A church and commonwealth had been 
organized in 1639, before leaving New Haven. The name was taken from 
Milford in the English county of Surrey. In 1643 the town became one of the 
units of the New Haven Colony. It contributed to the united Connecticut 
Colony two able governors: Robert Treat and Jonathan Law. For more than 
three years the regicides Whalley and Goffe were concealed and cared for here 

There is a small harbor, which in the early days was active in shipbuilding 
and ocean trade. Manufacturing developed during the 19th century. Present 
products include brass andirons, rivet setting machines and women's garters. 
Milford has been a center for the seed industry. Oysters and clams have been 
harvested since Indian times. Many summer colonies have sprung up along 
the attractive shore, with its series of excellent beaches. 

We cross the stately Housatonic from Stratford by the Washington Bridge, 
which perpetuates the name given to the ferry by which George Washington 
crossed so often. East of the river is the village of Devon, a modern suburb 
of Bridgeport. Along the shore there are fine views from Milford Point at 
the mouth of the Housatonic, reached by Naugatuck Ave. and Laurel Beach 
Rd. The river side of the latter road is of special interest from the Indian 
shell heap, largest in Connecticut, covering 24 acres, the accumulation of 
aboriginal shore dinners through countless generations. Good views of the 
Housatonic are obtained from Plains Rd. and Baldwin Station Rd. to the 
north of Milford center. Wheelers Farm Rd., parallel to the river and less 
than a mile from it, is well worth taking, and a short distance northwest of 
this is Turkey Hill, a wild wooded area, partly in the town of Orange, which 
makes good tramping country. The Paugasuck Indian Reservation was 
located here from 1675 to 1861. 



On the north side of the Post Road, as we go east from Devon, is a boulder 
known as Liberty Rock. At the time of the Revolution, the Rock was used 
by the minute men to watch the movements of the British on Long Island 
Sound. One of the patriots cut the words: "Liberty, 1776", and the local 
D. A. R. keeps a flag flying at the spot. 

Avoiding the new cut-off and entering Milford center by the old Post 
Road, we pass on the right the Stockade House. (Post rd., at Seaside ave. ; 


1. Stockade House. 2. Esquire Dewitt House. 3. Eels-Stow House. 4. Taylor Library. 
5. First Church. 6. Plymouth Church. 7. Clark Tavern. 8. Ford House. 9. Thomas 
Buckingham House. 10. Old Burying Ground. 11. Memorial Bridge. 

1 on Chart XIII) built by Ensign George Clark about 1659, the first house 
in the settlement outside the stockade erected for protection against the In- 
dians. It retains many of its original features, including the shingles on the 
walls fastened in place by wooden pegs. Most of the original houses on the 
elm-shaded Green have given place to business buildings, but one fine land- 
mark survives, built by Esquire Dewitt (2) in 1742. On High St., a little 
south of the Green, is the *Eels-Stow House (3.) It was built originally by 
Col. Samuel Eels in 1689, and after 1754 became the home of Capt. Stephen 
Stow and his wife Freelove Baldwin. This house is now headquarters for the 
Milford Historical Society. Architecturally the building is of interest from 
the plastered cove which serves as a cornice at the top of the second story. On 

I. 10 MILFORD 23 

the stormy New Years night of 1777, a shipload of American prisoners from 
a British prison ship were landed at the neighboring wharf, half-clad and many 
of them sick with fever and scurvy. They were cared for by the Stow family, 
and the next day the town hall was made into a hospital, where Capt. Stow 
served as a voluntary nurse. Smallpox broke out, and 49 of the prisoners 
died, along with their benefactor. The house has been marked by a bronze 

Passing the Taylor Library (4) on our left, and following the Post Road 
north under the R. R., we come to the attractive civic center which lies 
on both sides of the Wepawaug River, whose pond and waterfall give the 
setting. The two Congregational churches, formerly rivals but now reunited, 
stand on opposite banks, both in the best style of Colonial architecture. The 
*First Church (5) to the west, built in 1823 from the plans of David Hoadley, 
whom we shall meet again in New Haven, is successor to the building erected 
in 1640 on the same general location. Plymouth Church (6) to the east, built 
in 1834, reflects the schism stirred up by George Whitefield's preaching at 
the time of the Great Awakening. On the west bank is the modern Town 
Hall, in Colonial style. South of the First Church we find the Clark Tavern 
(7; West River st.) built about 1660 for the second minister, Roger Newton; 
a field stone with bronze tablet commemorates Washington's visit in 1789. 
A short distance to the west is the Ford House (8; West Main st.) probably 
built early in the 18th century and practically unchanged. On the east bank, 
north of Plymouth Church, is the old red Thomas Buckingham House (9; 
North st.) of which the central chimney and much of the material go back 
to the time of the first settlement in 1640; the present house dates from about 
1750. Part of it is covered with sawn oak clapboards, which were planed and 
the lower edges finished with a bead. 

Turning south on Prospect St. ? we come to the *0ld Burying Ground (10) 
one of the most interesting in Connecticut, used continuously since 1675. 
Major Robert Treat is buried here; one of the first settlers, he not only became 
governor of the Colony, but commanded the Connecticut troops in King 
Philip's War, and organized the new settlement at Newark, N. J. The 49 
American prisoners already mentioned were buried in a common grave, and a 
brownstone monument to Capt. Stow, erected by the State, now marks the 
spot. Other memorable graves are those of Gov. Jonathan Law; and Rev. 
Samuel Andrew, pastor of the church for 50 years, and serving as rector of 
Yale College from 1707 to 1719. Some of the Yale classes were taught at 
Milford during that period. 

Going east from the Green on New Haven ave. (R. 122) we cross the Mem- 
orial Bridge (11) dedicated at the 250th anniversary, on the site of the original 
bridge. A tablet gives the names of the early settlers. The first grist mill in 
the New Haven Colony was built by Wm. Fowler in 1640, and one of the old 
millstones forms a seat on the bridge. To reach the east shore, follow Gulf 
St. to Welch Point, past the town park along the harbor and the public bathing 
beach on the cove, the site of an Indian cemetery. Or take Morningside Rd. 
south from Route 122 (New Haven ave.) to Pond Point, and work east to 
Woodmont through a succession of summer colonies. There are rewarding 
views from several of the hills between Route 122 and the shore. 


I. 11 

Continuing east on U. S. 1, here known as the Milford Turnpike, we cross 
a corner of Orange, made a town in 1822 by putting together the parishes of 
North Milford and West Haven ; the latter was cut off as a separate town in 
1921. The name was chosen because of the service rendered to Connecticut 
by William of Orange, King of England, in restoring the Charter after the 
Andros tyranny. Settlement of the present area dates from 1646 or earlier. 
Orange has an extensive seed-growing industry, and supplies large quantities 
of sweet-corn seed for the South and West. 

On R. 121 north of Milford, the first house beyond the Wepawaug River, 
on an old road to the right, was the home site of Edmond Tapp, one of the 
original purchasers of Milford, on the edge of a natural pasture land. The 
property was deeded in 1649 to his son-in-law Robert Treat, surveyor and 
afterward governor. The wing of the present building, with its dignified 
doorway, was the "new house" of the Treat family, erected before 1786. It is 
set with the compass, so that the shadow cast by the chimney would furnish 
the men working in the fields with a reliable noon-mark. Farther north, the 
slopes of Grassy Hill give good views of the Sound. Continuing to Derby Ave. 
(R. 34) and turning east l /i mile, we find the old Johnson House, where there 
is said to have been a hoop skirt factory 7 during the Civil War. 

On the north side of U. S. 1, l /2 mile beyond the Orange town line, a mass of 
rock with large beeches forms an oasis of beauty in the commercialized desert 
of the Turnpike. At the stop-light, near Wilson H. Lee printing plant, R. 152 
leads to Orange Center, with its dignified Congregational church, built in 
1810. A side road to the east below the center crosses in J/2 mile the sources 
of Indian River, where the junction of the streams makes an attractive picnic 
ground. Continuing north on R. 152, there is another charming spot on the 
Wepawaug River, above Cedarcrest, the overnight camp for boys and girls 
maintained by the service clubs of New Haven. The Sound can be seen from 
rising ground to the east, reached by parallel roads. 

I. 1* 


West Haven, originally a part of New Haven and later of Orange, was 
incorporated as a town in 1921. A parish had been organized in 1715, and the 
first settlement goes back to 1648. The town is a suburb of New Haven, with 
summer colonies and resorts along the shore. 

Approaching New Haven by the Milford Turnpike (U. S. 1) just before 
an advertising sign cuts off a view of the college towers, an observant traveler 
can find on the left a small park, with the monument to Lieut. Campbell, who 
lost his life resisting the British raid on New Haven in 1779. The British 
landed at Savin Rock, now the Coney Island of Connecticut, which takes its 
name from the characteristic red cedar or savin. To reach this point and the 
village of West Haven, the traveler should take the shore road from Milford 

I. 12 WEST HAVKN 25 

(Route 122) which passes close to the water and looks across the harbor 
mouth to the old white lighthouse. Wider horizons may be gained by climbing 
one of the hills to the left, just before reaching Savin Rock. On Jones Hill Rd., 
near Oyster River, is the Hubbard House, a salt-box farmhouse which sent 
out missionary sons and daughters around the world. 

Campbell Ave. leads north past the Green, with its Congregational Church, 
and the old burying ground on the south side, used since 1711. Adjacent to 
the Green is the historic Christ Church, one of the earliest Episcopal churches 
in Connecticut, organized in 1723. To the east, on Main St. at the head of 
Martin St., opposite the new High School, we find the *Collins House, the 
oldest house still standing, which, according to early records, was built by 
Peter Mallory in 1684 (the date 1695 on the chimney appears to be an error.) 

Continuing north on Campbell Ave., we cross Elm St., where to the east 
we pass the Public Library, and the Heitman House, 1682, remodeled but with 
the old lines still showing. A block and a half to the west on Elm St. is the 
Stevens Homestead, dating from 1735. The Richard Thomas House, built 
1750-60, stands at the corner of First Ave. and Spring St., east of Campbell 
Ave., just beyond Oak Grove Cemetery. Farther on, we pass on the left the 
grounds of the William Wirt Winchester branch of the New Haven Hospital, 
for tubercular patients. 

West Haven has developed parks and recreation grounds west of the village: 
at Shingle Hill, Lake Phipps, and the Painter Park of 34 acres along Cove 
River. In the north part of the town the Derby Turnpike (R. 34) reached by 
Forest Rd., leads west past the Maltby Lakes on the right, and Burwell Hill 
about half a mile to the left, a drumlin or rounded mass left by the glacier, 
with a superb view of New Haven and the Sound. 

I. 13 

New Haven was settled in 1638 by a company which had sailed from 
England under the leadership of Theophilus Eaton and Rev. John Davenport. 
Eaton and others of the group were well-to-do merchants. The aim was to 
found a commercial city, and a church-state with the Scriptures as their 
fundamental law. Landing at Boston the previous year, they sent out an 
exploring expedition and chose this site because of its harbor. Originally 
called Quinnipiac, the present name was given two years later, probably 
from Newhaven on the southern coast of England. The town became the 
center of the New Haven Colony, and in 1665 reluctantly united with the more 
liberal Colony of Connecticut, to avoid being absorbed by New York. New 
Haven was a joint capital with Hartford from 1701 until 1875. Three of the 
judges who had condemned Charles I found refuge here. Yale College was 
located at New Haven in 1716. The town was raided by the British in 1779 
after a spirited resistance, and blockaded during the War of 1812. 

New Haven combines the commercial and the university community, and 
appears from a distance as the city of towers. It is situated on a sandy plain, 
flanked by the red cliffs of East and West Rocks. The commodious but 
shallow harbor is formed by the confluence of the Quinnipiac, Mill and West 


Rivers. The slow development of the hinterland, because of the stoppage of 
immigration from England, blocked the hopes of the founders for an im- 
portant trading port. The great ship sent out as a last desperate venture in 
1647 never came back except as a phantom on the clouds. But a flourishing 
sea trade developed in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, followed by 
industrial activity on a large scale. The city of New Haven was chartered in 
1784, and in the 1930 Census had a population of 162,655. 

Crossing West River by U. S. 1 with a good view of West Rock across the 
meadows, the Defenders' Monument, at the street intersection on the right, 
commemorates the defense of the bridge at the start of the British raid. 
Continuing east on Davenport Ave., we pass on the right a group of outlying 
Yale Buildings: New Haven Hospital, affiliated with the University, covering 
an entire block, with entrance on Howard Ave. ; the Institute of Human Rela- 
tions for cooperative research in the social and biological sciences; and the 
School of Medicine, adjoining on Cedar St. The State Normal School lies a 
few blocks to the west at Howe and Oak Sts. On George St., as we turn into 
College St., a tablet reminds us that the first settlers landed on this spot (1 
on Chart XIV) from a creek formerly running up from the harbor. 


At the corner of College and Chapel Sts. we reach the Green, focus of the 
town's life from the earliest days. New Haven may be regarded as the first 
instance of city planning in America. It was laid out by the surveyor John 
Brockett as a half mile square, in the angle formed by the east and west 
creeks. This space was divided by intersecting streets into nine smaller squares 
of which the central square of 16 acres was reserved for public use. The 
Green is now intersected by Temple St., on which stand three churches, the 
only buildings remaining on the common land, which were built about 1814 to 
form a unified group. Powder House Day is celebrated on the Green on the 
Monday nearest the 24th of each April. The Second Company of the Gov- 
ernor's Footguard, in scarlet coats with white facings and bearskin caps, 
reenacts the drama of 1775. The acting commander takes the part of Capt. 
Benedict Arnold, about to start for Boston with some fifty of his company, on 
news of the Battle of Lexington, He proceeds with his officers to the city 
hall to demand the key of the powder house, which the mayor hands over, 
after proper demur. 

**Center Church (2) with its tall and graceful spire, was designed by Ithiel 
Town, an eminent architect and bridge builder, on the general model of the 
church of St. Martin 's-in-the-fields, London; Town's portrait hangs in the 
church vestibule. This is the fourth meeting house on the same general site. 
As stated in the inscription over the entrance: "The First Church, beginning 
with worship in the open air April 15, 1638, was the beginning of New Haven 
and was organized Aug. 22, 1638." The interior shows a great expanse of 
ceiling, hung on Town's skilful trusses. The Tiffany window back of the 
pulpit represents Davenport preaching under the oak tree near the landing; 
the seven columns and seven-branched candlestick at the base symbolize 
the "seven pillars" who were chosen as the original members of the church. 
Many of the wall tablets to former ministers are of interest: John Davenport; 
William Hooke, his coadjutor, who returned to England to become Cromwell's 
chaplain; James Pierpont, the moving spirit in the founding of Yale College; 
Leonard Bacon, whose anti-slavery pamphlets did much to shape Lincoln's 
thinking. On the exterior wall at the rear of the church is a tablet to Gov. 

I. 13 



Theophilus Eaton, the civil leader of the settlement, who died in 1657 and is 
buried near the spot. Davenport, bitterly disappointed over the union with 
Connecticut, which spoiled his dream of a theocratic state, left New Haven 


Center Church. 3. Trinity Church. 4. United Church. 5. 
Ingersoll House. 

1. First Settlers tablet. 

County Court House. 6. Public Library. 7. Ingersoll House. 8. Pierpont House. 9. 
Graduates Club. 10. Tory Tavern. 11. Roger Sherman tablet. 12. James Goodrich 
House. 13. Bowditch House. 14. Bacon House. 15. Noah Webster House. 16. Connec- 
ticut Motor Club. 17. Historical Society. 18. Weir House. 19. Benjamin Silliman House. 
20. Grove Street Cemetery. 

in 1668 and ended his days as pastor of the church in Boston; his body rests in 
in the King's Chapel burial ground. 

28 THK roNNlvCTKTT r,ril)K 

The * Crypt beneath Center Church is an unusual feature. The present 
building covers part of the town burial ground on the Green, used from 1638 
to 1821. In the latter year, the graves outside the walls were leveled and the 
stones removed to the Grove Street Cemetery (see below.) Those under the 
church were left in their original position, and a protective cement floor laid 
in 1879. The oldest of the 139 stones is that of Mrs. Sarah Trowbridge, 1687. 
Rev. James Pierpont and his three wives sleep here; Jared Ingersoll, who 
tried unsuccessfully to act as stamp-master under the Stamp Act, and later 
served in the Continental Congress; Margaret, the first wife of Benedict 
Arnold, who died in 1775 while her husband still counted as a patriot; Mrs. 
Hester Coster, who in 1691 gave the first land for the founding of a college. 

Back of Center Church, within an iron railing, is a small stone with the 
inscription: "J. D. Esqr. Deceased March ye 18th in ye 82d year of his age, 
1688-9." Known to his fellow citizens as James Davids, the assumed name 
concealed *John Dixwell, one of the Regicides, who lived here unmolested for 
many years. A marble monument erected by descendants in 1847 gives the 
main facts of his career. Tablets recently placed on the rear wall of the 
Church commemorate the two Regicides associated with Dixwell: Gen. 
Edward Whalley, a cousin of Cromwell, and Gen. William Goffe. 

Trinity Church (3) the southern companion of Center, was also built by 
Town, who designed for the Episcopalians an English Gothic building of 
seam-faced trap, an interesting early example of "Romantic architecture." 
By 1814, this Episcopal church, organized against great opposition in 1753, 
had won a place on the Green. Bishop Abraham Jarvis, prominent in the 
movement for its erection, is buried under the chancel. The walls of the 
building are draped with vines, and the city pigeons have found a happy 
home in the belfry. * United Church (4) formerly called North Church, is 
the second Congregational meeting house on the Green. The beautiful 
building, with its delicately proportioned lantern tower, is the work of David 
Hoadley. . A slate tablet in the vestibule commemorates this self-taught 
carpenter's apprentice, who rose to be one of the foremost architects of his 
day; he represented the artist type, where Town was more the engineer. To 
see the interior with its fine woodwork, apply at the Parish House, 302 Temple 
St. The glass chandelier of French make dates from the time of building. 
There are tablets to Roger Sherman the "Signer," and to the three distin- 
guished jurists in a related family: Simeon Baldwin, Gov. Roger Sherman 
Baldwin and Gov. Simeon E. Baldwin. It was in North Church that Henry 
Ward Beecher in 1855 preached to Capt. Lines' anti-slavery company of 
80 men starting out for Kansas, and secured pledges to arm them with Bibles 
and Sharps rifles. The nucleus of the present congregation was the Whitehaven 
Society, which seceded from the First Church in 1742. This and later schisms 
go back to the controversies stirred up by George Whitefield at the time of the 
Great Awakening. 

East of the Green on Church St. is the marble Post Office, with its Roman 
facade. To the north on Elm St., opposite the lower Green, we find the 
County Court House (5) in heavy classical marble, and the Public Library (6) 
designed by Cass Gilbert in a modified Georgian style, which harmonizes with 
the nearby churches. Elm Street, in the block west of Temple, contains some 
of the city's best landmarks. At the corner is the brick Ingersoll House (7) 
with its recessed entrance in the Greek Revival style, built in 1830 and now 
owned by the Yale University Press. Next to this stands the *Pierpont 
House (8) occupied by the Faculty Club. The main part was built in 1767 by 

I. 13 NJ;\V HAVEN 29 

John Pierpont, on land granted to his grandfather Rev. James Pierpont. It is 
an excellent example of the central chimney house, with the "porch" or 
entrance hall and narrow winding stairs in front of the chimney, and the 
great fireplace in the "keeping room." No. 155, the Graduates Club, (9) 
built originally in 1799, was the home of Eli Whitney Blake, nephew of Eli 
Whitney, and inventor of the stone crusher which has revolutionized road 
building throughout the world. The building has a graceful entrance porch. 
Passing the former Law School, we come to the Tory Tavern (10) now the 
undergraduate Elihu Club, which was built just before the Revolution and 
became so notorious as a Tory rendezvous that it was confiscated in 1781. 
The molded window heads are worth noting. 

Pushing farther afield in the search for landmarks, a tablet on the wall of 
1032 Chapel St. marks the home site of Roger Sherman (11) who lived in New 
Haven from 1761 until his death in 1793. He was the only man to sign the 
four fundamental documents of our Government: the Articles of Association 
in 1774, the Declaration of Independence, which he helped to draft, the 
Articles of Confederation in 1778, and the Federal Constitution of 1787. 

Going east from the Green, 35 Elm St. (12) occupied by the Visiting Nurse 
Association, was built by John Cook in 1807 and later bought by a retired 
sea captain, James Goodrich, who probably engaged David Hoadley to 
remodel the interior. The ballroom which still occupies the third story is 
exquisite in its details. The two Adam mantels in the bedrooms were imported 
from England. This house is the theme of Mrs. George P. Baker's "Porringer 
of Cockiney." Another of Hoadley 's creations, the Bowditch House (13) at 
275 Orange St., is open to visitors who wish to inspect the mantels and other 
woodwork. Eli Whitney the inventor died in this house in 1825, while his own 
house was building on Elm St. The main part of the Bacon House (14) at 
247 Church St. was built before the Revolution on the corner of Church and 
Court Sts., where it served as a coffee house, frequented by ardent patriots. 
It was moved to its present location in 1820 and bought by Rev. Leonard 
Bacon, who occupied it until his death in 1881. On the corner of 
Temple and Grove Sts., opposite the University's new Dwight College, 
stands the Noah Webster House (15) where he did much of the work on his 
famous dictionary. 

The A. A. A. Connecticut Motor Club (16) a valuable source of information, 
is at 32 Whitney Ave. A block farther north, the new home of the *New 
Haven Colony Historical Society (17) stands at 114 Whitney Ave.. where it 
joins Temple St. The building, in Georgian style by J. F. and H. S. Kelly, is 
particularly beautiful at night, when concealed lights bring out the white 
wall of the entrance portico with its pilastered brick pillars. The interesting 
collection of local antiques includes pieces of furniture scarred by the British 
invaders, Benedict Arnold's store sign, the original model of Whitney's 
cotton gin, and Webster's writing desk. There is a large exhibit of pewter 
plate, and a fine collection of old blue and white Staffordshire ware. The 
Society owns some notable prints and early American portraits, and has a 
valuable historical and genealogical library. The old urns in front of the 
building are an unusually fine example of wrought iron work. 

East of the Historical Society, at 58 Trumbull St., the Weir House (18) 
is a fine example of the early period, built by James L. Kingsley in 1811 and 
twice moved; it started on Temple St. at the corner of Trumbull, and for a 


time stood on Hillhouse Ave. as a select girls' school. The delicate porch and 
the windows with their pilasters supporting a curved window head, repay care- 
ful study. 


Half a block west of the Noah Porter House on Grove St. we come to 
** Hillhouse Avenue, only two blocks long but one of the most beautiful streets 
in America. It was laid out 105 rods wide in 1792 by James Hillhouse, the 
leading citizen of his day, who planted the elm saplings that now form a 
majestic arch. Senator Hillhouse was also instrumental in planting the trees 
along Temple St. and other streets, which gave New Haven the name "City 
of Elms," until they succumbed to storms and beetles. During Hillhouse's 
service in Congress he was known as the Sachem, because of his Indian com- 
plexion and features. The Avenue, rising to cross the railway cut which once 
served for the Farmington Canal and dipping again, slopes up toward the 
manor house on the hill. "Sachem's Wood" was built by the Senator's son 
James A. Hillhouse and here he spent his own declining days. Few of the 
houses on the Avenue are of architectural interest ; most of them are in New 
Haven's stucco version of the Classical Revival. Their charm lies in the 
general ensemble and in the distinguished men who have lived in them and 
offered hospitality to equally distinguished visitors. Yale buildings occupy 
much of the first block. No. 4, on the west, was built by Ithiel Town for his 
own use, and later remodeled by Joseph Earl Sheffield, the benefactor of the 
Scientific School bearing his name. Sheffield financed the connecting R. R. 
link between New Haven and New York, did the same between New York 
and Chicago and carried the Rock Island R. R. across the Mississippi. Be- 
yond the railway, behind the rhododendrons, was the home of James Dwiglit 
Dana, America's pioneer geologist. No. 34. built for Benjamin Silliman, Jr., 
was later occupied by the Greek scholar, Thomas D. Seymour. The second 
Pres. Timothy Dicight lived at the southwest corner of Sachem St. Coming 
down the east side, No. 47 is the home of the University president. The 
large red brick house next to it was built by Henry Farnam the engineer, 
associated with Sheffield in the construction of the Farmington Canal and later 
of the Rock Island Railroad; his scholarly and public spirited son Henry W. 
Farnam occupied it later. The wooden house at No. 31 was the home of 
\oah Porter, philosopher and Yale president. Next it, at the corner of Trum- 
bull St., is the house long occupied by George P. Fisher the church historian, 
whose discourse was a liberal education. The first house to be built on the 
Avenue by the Hillhouses was purchased in 1809 by Benjamin Silliman. one 
of the great leaders in American chemistry, and founder of scientific studies 
at Yale. To it Silliman brought his bride, daughter of the second Gov. Jona- 
than Trumbull. "Madam" Trumbull came to live with them, and was 
visited here by many who had known her in the strenuous day of the Revo- 
lution, including Lafayette on his last tour of America. Col. John Trumbull 
the painter also spent some of his last years in the house. What remains of it, 
painted a chemical purple, has been moved west to 87 Trumbull St. (19.) 

On Grove St., two blocks west of Hillhouse Ave., we come to the *Grove 
Street Cemetery (20) the first burial association in this country with family 
lots, developed in 1796 under the leadership of James Hillhouse. It is entered 
through a monumental brownstone gateway, in the style of an Egyptian 
pylon, designed by Henry Austin, Ithiel Town's apprentice, who built some 
of the houses on the Avenue. The register of the distinguished dead reads 

I. 13 



like a hall of fame. Turning left from the entrance, we see the monument 
to Jehudi Ashmun (1 on Chart XV; 1794-1828) first colonial agent to Liberia, 
a young martyr to a great ideal. Going north on Cedar Ave., we pass on the 
left the grave of Gen. David Humphreys (2; 1752-1818), diplomat and pioneer 
industrialist; on the right, Benjamin Silliman (3; 1779-1864), chemist; James 


1. Jehudi Ashmun. 2. David Humphreys. 3. Benjamin Silliman. 4. James D. Dana. 
5. Jedidiah Morse. 6. Theodore Winthrop. 7. Noah Porter. 8. Lyman Beecher. 9. Eli 
Whitney. 10. Noah Webster. 11. Stones from the Green. 12. Chauncey Jerome. 13. 
Charles Goodyear. 14. Theodore D. Woolsey. 15. Josiah Willard Gibbs. 16. Arthur T. 
Hadley. 17. Elias Loomis. 18. Timothy Dwight, 2nd. 19. Alfred Howe Terry. 20. Eli 
Whitney Blake. 21. Edward E. Salisbury. 22. William Dwight Whitney. 23. Theophilus 
Eaton. 24. Ezra Stiles. 25. Timothy Dwight. 26. Andrew H. Foote. 27. James Hill- 
house. 28. Roger Sherman. 29. Jeremiah Day. 30. Thomas Clap. 31. Naphtali Daggett. 

D. Dana (4; 1813-1895), geologist; Jedidiah Morse (5; 1761-1826), geographer; 
Theodore Winthrop (6; 1828-1861), novelist and one of the first officers killed 
in the Civil War; Pres. Noah Porter (7; 1811-1892;) Rev. Lyman Beecher (8; 
1775-1863;) Eli Whitney (9; 1765-1825;) Noah Webster (10; 1758-1843.) 
West on Myrtle path we come to the row of quaint brown grave stones (11) 



400 in number, taken from the Green and lining the wall on the northwest 
angle. Near the north end of Sycamore Ave: Chauncey Jerome (12; 1793- 
1868) pioneer clock maker; and Charles Goodyear (13; 1800-1860) discoverer 
of vulcanized rubber. Ivy path leads us past the grave of Pres. Theodore D. 


A. Phelps Gateway. B. Connecticut Hall. C. Vanderbilt. D. Battell Chapel. E. 
Old Library. F. Memorial Quadrangle: (F.I. Branford College; F. 2. Saybrook College. > 
G. Davenport College. H. Pierson College. I. University Theatre. J. Jonathan Edwards 
College. K. Gallery of Fine Arts. L. Weir Hall. M. Trumbull College. N Berkeley 
College. O. Calhoun College. P. Sterling Memorial Library. Q. Sterling Law Buildings. 
R. Graduate School. S. Payne Whitney Gymnasium. T. Administration Building. U. 
School 9f Music. V. Woolsey Hall. W. Memorial Hall. X. University Hall. Y. Sterling 
Memorial Tower. Z. Bureau of Appointments. 

Woolsey (14; 1801-1889.) South on Locust Ave: Josiah Willard Gibbs (15; 
1839-1903) founder of the science of physical chemistry; Pres. Arthur T. 
Hadley (16; 1856-1930;) Elias Loomis (17; 1811-1889) mathematician; the 
second Pres. Timothy Dwight (18; 1829-1916.) Turning eastward we circle 

I. 13 NEW HAVEN 33 

past the monuments to Gen. Alfred Howe Terry (19; 1827-1890) the hero of 
Fort Fisher; and Eli Whitney Blake (20; 1795-1886) inventor. South on 
Linden ave: Edward E. Salisbury (21; 1814-1901), orientalist; William Dwight 
Whitney (22; 1827-1894) linguist; and the poetical stone for Gov. Theophilus 
Eaton (23) who was buried on the Green. On Maple ave: Pres. Ezra Stiles 
(24; 1727-1795;) the first Pres. Timothy Dwight (25; 1752-1817;) Admiral 
Andrew H. Foote (26; 1806-1863;) Senator James Hillhouse (27; 1754-1832;) 
Roger Sherman (28; 1721-1793;) Pres. Jeremiah Day (29; 1773-1867.) On 
Cypress Ave two more college presidents: Thomas Clapp (30; 1703-1767;) 
and Naphtali Daggett (31; 1727-1780) who charged the enemy single handed 
at the time of the British invasion. 


Yale College, one of Davenport's postponed dreams, was established in 
1701, and after a peripatetic existence found a permanent home at New Haven 
in 1716. The name was given in gratitude for a gift by Elihu Yale, born in 
Boston and grandson of Mrs. Theophilus Eaton by her first marriage, who had 
amassed wealth as an East India trader. During the 19th century a group of 
important professional schools were organized around the original College, the 
term University being adopted in 1887. Recent gifts from Edward S. Hark- 
ness and the estate of John W. Sterling have made possible the rebuilding of 
the University plant, largely from the plans of James Gamble Rogers. The 
notable landscaping of the buildings has been under the supervision of Mrs. 
Beatrix Farrand. The system of residential colleges was introduced in the 
Fall of 1933, and each college has its dining hall, common room and library. 
The visitor may secure further information from the office of the Campus 
Patrol in Phelps Gateway (A on Chart XVI.) Free guide service is provided 
Sundays at 11 and 2; and on weekdays through the summer at 11, 2 and 3 
(D.S.T.) Arrangements for weekday trips during the term may be made at 
the Bureau of Appointments (Z; 144 Grove st.) usually half a day in advance. 

The best approach to Yale is through Phelps Gateway (A) at the west side 
of the Green on College St., which opens on the Old Campus. To the left is 
^Connecticut Hall (B; formerly South Middle) the oldest of the existing college 
buildings, the survivor as it was the pioneer of the Old Brick Row, that form- 
erly faced College St. and the Yale Fence between two rows of elms. The 
building, with its gambrel roof and dormer windows, erected in 1752 and 
restored in 1905, was well designed; one interesting feature is the watertable 
formed of brick molded in a reverse curve. In front is the bronze statue by 
Bela Lyon Pratt of the scholar-martyr Nathan Hale, who roomed here as an 
undergraduate. South of Connecticut Hall is Vanderbilt (C) a dormitory 
built to enclose a large elm, with the iron gate on Chapel St. that is opened 
only for the procession on Commencement Day. On the northeast corner 
of the Old Campus stands Batlell Chapel (D.) Facing Phelps Gateway we see 
the seated statue of Pres. Theodore Dwight Woolsey, by John F. Weir. 
Beyond this is the Old Library (E) built in 1842 in the Gothic Revival, from 
designs by Henry Austin, and now made into Dwight Memorial Chapel, with 
the addition of an unusually good stained glass window. North of this is a 
statue of Abraham Pierson, first "rector" of the college. 

Across High St. we come to the central jewel of the **Memorial Quadrangle 
(F) the gift of Mrs. Stephen V. Harkness in memory of her son, designed by 
James Gamble Rogers and completed in 192 1. The material, as in the adjacent 

34 i HI: c ONM-K ncrr 

buildings, is seam-faced granite with its rich color variations, and limestone 
trim. Above us soars the great Harkness Memorial Tower, with its double 
crown. The statues here, as elsewhere on the pinnacles, are too high to 
distinguish the different figures. At the foot of the Tower, a Memorial Room 
has elaborate fan-vaulting and an epitome of college history carved in wood 
around the walls. On the opposite or York St. side of the Quadrangle is the 
lower Wrexham Tower, inspired by the Church in Wrexham, Wales, where 
Elihu Yale is buried. The entire building is surrounded by a dry moat, 
permitting the growth of vines and shrubs. The Quadrangle has three large 
courts, named from the towns associated with Yale's early history: Branford, 
Saybrook and Killingworth, and an old millstone from each town is embedded 
in the pavement. The three smaller courts at the south end, with remarkable 
contrast in their color schemes, are named from early debating societies: 
Linonia, Calliope and Brothers in Unity. The entries bear the names of 
distinguished Yale graduates. The fine craftsmanship and the constant and 
sometimes whimsical variation in detail make each visit to the Quadrangle a 
voyage of discovery. In 1933 these buildings were remodeled to form two 
residential colleges: Branford (F.I) entered from the south, and Saybrook 
(F.2) entered from the north on Elm St. 

West of the Quadrangle, across High St., we come on a piece of architectural 
legerdemain. As we face * Davenport College (G) we see a building that con- 
tinues the English Collegiate Gothic. When we pass through the archway, we 
find ourselves in a court that is typically Georgian Colonial, refreshing from 
its simplicity and quiet charm. The same style is carried out in Pierson 
College (H) farther south on York St., named for Rev. Abraham Pierson of 
Killingworth, first rector of Yale. South of Pierson is the small but well 
equipped University Tlieatre (I.) A group of fraternity buildings in the style 
of the Memorial Quadrangle adjoins on the south. Opposite the Theatre and 
the Memorial Quadrangle is Jonathan Edwards College (J) named for the 
distinguished theologian of the class of 1720. In the court is the sundial which 
stood in Elihu Yale's garden at Wrexham. 

The first unit of the new **GALLERY OF FINE ARTS (K) on Chapel and 
High Sts., was designed by Egerton Swartout, and built in 1928 of Aquia 
sandstone in modified Italian Gothic style. It is connected by a bridge with 
the older Street Hall, inspired in 1864 by Ruskin's "Stones of Venice." In 
the floor, as we cross the lobby, is the tablet that has followed John Tnimbull's 
mortal remains and his collections from the original Trumbull Gallery to 
the old Art School building and now to the new: "Col. John Trumbull, patriot 
and artist, friend and aid of Washington, lies beside his wife beneath this 
Gallery of Art. Lebanon 1756 New York 1843." Trumbull gave his great 
collection of paintings to Yale in return for a small annuity, establishing, under 
the direction of Prof. Silliman, the earliest collegiate art gallery in America. 
The large Sculpture Hall on the first floor contains important examples of 
Assyrian, Babylonian and French Romasesque sculpture, besides tapestries 
formerly belonging to Elihu Yale, woven in London about 1700; others of 
the same series hang in the University Theatre and in the Memorial Tower. 
The 6th century Christian mosaics were excavated at Jerash in Transjordania. 
Public lectures are held throughout the academic year in the adjoining hall, 
which is hung with tapestries and pictures, including some of the larger 
Italian paintings from the Jarves Collection. Administrative offices and class 
rooms occupy the second or mezzanine floor. Here, among reproductions of 
medieval sculpture and goldsmith's work, is Hezekiah Augur's "Jephtha and 

I. 13 



his Daughter," 1833, one of the earliest pieces of American sculpture in marble. 
Augur, an inventive genius, was a business failure and at one time kept a 
fruit stand on the Green. 

In the hallway of the Third or Gallery Floor, we find carved baroque 
confessionals from a Ghent monastery of the 17th century, and an exhibit 
of early American glass from the Garvan Collection. In the rooms on this 
floor the collections are arranged chronologically. We start in Room 304, to 
the right, with exhibits of Egyptian, Babylonian and Assyrian art. The next 
room is devoted to Greek and Roman Art, principally Greek vases from the 
Stoddard Collection and antiquities excavated at Jerasli. The corner room 

Primitive /tat tan fainting Early 

CJarves Collection) American Silver 

r~ee/c Vases 
Dura I Antiquities from Jerasli 




aJicf arly 
/& publican 



rrumbull Fictut^s 


contains a remarkable series of frescoes Pagan, Jewish and Christian ex- 
cavated at Dura-Europos, an old Roman outpost on the Syrian caravan 
route. The Christian chapel, built during the Period of Persecution (before 
232 A.D.) is the earliest painted church in existence, and St. Peter walking on 
the water the earliest representation of that saint in art. 

We pass next to the large Italian Gallery. The *Jarves Collection of Italian 
primitives, one of the outstanding features of the museum, was acquired by 
the University in 1871 from the great art critic, James Jackson Jarves It is 
particularly rich in works of early Tuscan and Sienese masters. North of the 
Italian Gallery are rooms devoted to Far Eastern art; Renaissance and 
modern prints, principally from the Achelis Collection; and modern painting 
and drawing. 

The American Room across the hall contains Colonial and early Republican 
portraits, including "Bishop" Berkeley with his entourage, one of the earliest 
group portraits in North America; Roger Sherman; and James Fenimore 
Cooper. Earle, Copley, Stuart, Morse, Jarvis and other early portrait painters 
are represented. In the room to the left are the interiors from the Rose House, 
built in North Branford about 1710, with its fine paneling of whitewood; and 
above these the bedroom and sitting room from the Joel Clark House in East 
< iranby (1737) with the hinged partition by which they could be made into 
a ballroom. The * Trumbull Room contains a large number of the canvasses 
and miniatures by John Trumbull, son of Gov. Jonathan Trumbull, largely 
scenes or portraits from the Revolution, in which he had borne an active part. 


The most important is the "Declaration of Independence," in which 36 of the 
18 faces were done from life. Other famous pictures are his "Bunker Hill" and 
"Death of Gen. Montgomery." TrumbuH's own portrait hangs on the east 
wall. The * Mabel Brady Garvan Collection of American Arts and Crafts is 
the foremost of its kind in American silver. It is also rich in examples of prints, 
furniture, china, glass and pewter. A large portion of this collection, according 
to the deed of gift, is constantly on loan in other institutions, but representative 
pieces are always to be found in the American and Trumbull Rooms and 
elsewhere in the Gallery. 

Weir Hall (L) the architectural department of the School of the Fine Arts, is 
reached from High St. by an entrance just north of the Senior society of Skull 
and Bones. An eccentric Yale graduate started to build a castle. Some of it 
was made up of blank walls, but part of it was real and in excellent taste, a 
baronial hall with an elevated court shut off from the noisy street. When the 
eccentric's money gave out, the property was purchased and presented to Yale. 

Passing through High St. to Elm St., we find on the north side three more 
residential colleges. Trumbull College (M) to the left was named for the 
Revolutionary war governor Jonathan Trumbull, a Harvard graduate, who 
was given an LL.D by Yale in 1779. The bull decorations are from the Trum- 
bull coat of arms, and there is a particularly beautiful court, flanked by the 
Gothic windows of the Library. On our right is Berkeley College (N) honoring 
Bishop George Berkeley, an important benefactor of Yale; note the mitre on 
the weather vane. Beyond this is Calhoun College (O; designed by John Russell 
Pope) named for the statesman John C. Calhoun of the class of 1804. 

From College St., we approach through the beautiful cross campus the 
great ** Sterling Memorial Library (P) completed in 1931. The building is 
of seam-faced granite with limestone trim, Gothic in style, of simpler planes 
and more monumental character than the Memorial Quadrangle but with 
equal luxuriance and variety of decorative detail. The book stacks are in the 
massive tower with its 16 stories, best seen from York St. The main entrance 
on High St., in the form of a small tower with recessed Gothic window, gives 
above the double doorway a symbolic history of writing. The buttresses on 
this side of the building are surmounted by 15 figures representative of the 
fields of knowledge, from Moses in Religion to Vitruvius in Engineering. The 
main entrance hall was designed as a memorial to John W. Sterling. The high 
vaulted ceiling and clearstory remind one of a cathedral nave, and the walls 
are decorated with sculpture on the corbels and in the stone panels below the 
windows, illustrating the history of the Yale library. The window decorations 
tell the story of New Haven and Yale. To the right of the delivery desk, an 
exhibition corridor leads past a charming court, where undergraduates often 
take their books in warm weather, to the Rare Book Room on the Wall St. 
side, and to exhibition rooms with constantly changing exhibits. At the left 
of the entrance is the Yale Memorabilia Room, and near it a stairway leads 
to the secluded room representing as nearly as possible the Yale Library of 
1742. In the room are the front doors from Parson Russell's house in Branford, 
where the ministers in 1701 brought their books for the founding of a college. A 
gallery on this floor gives a view of the majestic Main Reading Room, with its 
high ceiling and Gothic windows to the south. The 1742 Library, the Main 
Reading Room, and other working rooms of the Library, with the many special 
collections, are necessarily closed to visitors except by special arrangement. 

North of the Library are the Sterling Law Buildings (Q) filling an entire 
block and built of brick and limestone, continuing the Collegiate Gothic 

I. 13 NEW HAVEN 37 

style and designed after the plan of the English Inns of Court. The main 
entrance is on Wall St. Climbing the stairs from the main corridor, past 
windows which reproduce classic caricatures of English judges, we reach the 
Library, perhaps the most beautiful room in the University. It fills practi- 
cally the entire High St. side of the building, with a high ceiling, heavy trusses 
and large Gothic windows. West of the Law School on York St., facing the 
end of Wall St., is the Graduate School (R) with interior courts and a not very 
successful brick tower behind an entrance facade. Aside from the tower, the 
building harmonizes well with the Law School. Passing from York St. through 
the Tower Parkway, with the University Heating Plant on our right, a notable 
modern adaptation of the Gothic style, we come to a towering structure, re- 
sembling a medieval castle, which houses the Payne Whitney Gymnasium (S.) 
This building, of Briar Hill sandstone, was designed by John Russell Pope. It 
is open to visitors during the summer vacation. The central portion contains 
the rowing tank, practice pool, trophy room, and rooms for various sports. 
The main amphitheatre is in the northern wing, and the exhibition pool in 
the southern. About 1000 sporting prints from the Garvan Collection are 
hung in the Gymnasium and in the adjoining Ray Tompkins House. 

Retracing our steps and walking east on Wall St., we pass the small but well 
proportioned Administration Building (T; Woodbridge Hall.) At Wall and 
College is the Senior Society of Scroll and Key with its Moorish touch. The 
brick School of Music (U) stands on the right hand corner. Northward on 
College St. we come to Woolsey Hall (V) the university auditorium, seating 
2,800, with a rather ornate interior, equipped with the great Newberry organ. 
The main entrance is through Memorial Hall (W) a circular building with a 
domed roof. On the west side of the vestibule stands the St. Gaudens bust of 
President Woolsey. Inscriptions on the further walls commemorate the Yale 
men who gave their lives in the Revolutionary, Civil, Spanish-American and 
World Wars, and undergraduates who happen to wear caps always doff them 
as they pass through. On the walls of the second floor corridor are pictures 
and autograph letters of eminent Yale graduates. On the third floor is the 
Steinert Collection of early keyboard and stringed instruments, illustrating 
their historical development; it is open Sundays or on application to the School 
of Music (U.) West of Memorial Hall along Grove St. is the dining hall known 
as University Hall (X.) The huge interior is finished in red brick, with roof 
trusses of Western fir. On the walls hang portraits of distinguished alumni and 
donors. This group of buildings, of Indiana limestone in French Renaissance 
style, was constructed at the time of the Bicentennial in 1901, and designed 
by Carrereand Hastings. On the south side of the dining hall, the Alumni 
War Memorial, dedicated in 1928, now forms a colonnade, with a large marble 
cenotaph below. 

The Sheffield Scientific School lies north of Grove St. The only building 
of any general interest is Sterling Memorial Tower (Y) facing Memorial Hall at 
the end of College St., built in 1932 of Indiana limestone in Gothic style, 
flanked by Strathcona Hall on the east for work in Transportation, and by 
Sheffield Hall on the north with administrative offices. This group, completed 
in 1932, was designed by Clarence C. Zantzinger. Going north on Prospect 
St., which continues College St., the Berkeley Divinity School, moved from 
Middletown in 1928, is at the left on Sachem St. On the right we pass in 
succession the Osborn Laboratories for Botany and Zoology, with a fine vista 
through the archway; Sage Hall of the School of Forestry; Sloane Physics 
Laboratory; and the Sterling Chemistry Laboratory, with a bronze statue of 


its patron saint Benjamin Silliman. Coming to the end of Sachem's Wood, now 
called Sage-Pierson Square, we find across Edwards St. the William W. Farnam 
Memorial Garden, open to visitors. Nearly opposite on the left is Marsh 
Hall, bequeathed to the University by Prof. Othniel C. Marsh, who was a 
wealthy bachelor with four hobbies: prehistoric fossils, meteorites, orchids and 
rare trees. The Peabody Museum collections are his monument. During 
Marsh's lifetime, the center of the triple window always displayed a vase of 
orchids or other flowers. The grounds have the trees and shrubs labeled. The 
Vale Botanical Garden, at the foot of the slope, has a large iris collection, a 
rock garden, and a collection of nearly 500 native American plants, growing 
under ordinary garden conditions. Farther out Prospect St., one of the city's 
finest residential streets, is the Divinity School group on the right, designed by 
Wm. Adams Delano, with porticoed Georgian buildings leading up to the 
Chapel with its lantern tower. While in this region, we note two institutions 
not connected with Yale. Albertus Magnus College for women, at 700 Prospect 
St., was founded by the Sisters of St. Dominic in 1925. Half a block east of 
Prospect, at 123 Huntington St., is the Conn. Agricultural Experiment Station, 
the first in the country, established at Middletown in 1875. 

**PEABODY MUSEUM, one of the great natural history museums of the 
world, is at the corner of Sachem St. and Whitney Ave., a continuation of 
Church St. The present building was completed as a first unit in 1925. The 
museum began with a small mineralogical exhibit gathered by Benjamin 
Silliman over a hundred years ago, and was greatly expanded by the collections 
of Prof. Othniel C. Marsh, who persuaded his uncle George Peabody to found 
the institution and provide a building. In the octagonal Entrance Hall is a large 
pendulum, whose changing line of oscillation throughout the day shows the 
rotation of the earth from west to east. The exhibits on the first floor are 
arranged in historical order, so as to demonstrate the progress of animal evo- 
lution. Directly in front of the entrance, we begin with the Hall of Inverte- 
brates. Earlier forms of life, largely represented by fossils, are arranged in two 
series: one representing the succeeding geological periods, beginning at the 
left as we enter the hall; and, from Case 16 on. a second series to illustrate 
the various classes into which these specimens fall. Three habitat cases make 
the story more vivid, and Case 47 on the right sums up the probable course of 
evolution. Passing to the Great Hall, we find ourselves in the world of Verte- 
brates fishes, amphibians, reptiles and birds. The outstanding feature is 
the exhibit of extinct dinosaur reptiles, of which Yale has one of the most 
complete collections, assembled originally by Prof. Marsh. In the center of 
the Hall we see the mounted skeleton of the great *Brontosaurus, 70 feet long, 
15 feet high at the hips, and weighing in the flesh more than 35 tons. Habitat 
cases along the wall show scenes with the various groups of dinosaurs in action. 
From the Great Hall we enter the First Hall of Mammals, with exhibits of 
many of the warm-blooded, breast-feeding vertebrates which made their 
appearance during the Age of Reptiles. One of the treasures of the Museum 
is the skeleton of the early ground sloth in Case 8, with patches of hide and 
hair still adhering to the skeleton after thousands of years of burial in a New 
Mexican cave. The exhibits at the east end of the Hall, showing the progres- 
sive evolution of the horse, are of special interest. The Second Hall of ^fam~ 
mats continues the story. The carnivora are notable here, with sea mammals. 
various game animals and the Whitney collection of champion dogs. The 
Hall of Man illustrates the evolution of the human species from earlier 
forms, and the stages of man's cultural history. Habitat cases give the setting 

I. 13 NEW HAVEN 39 

for existing races. The exhibits on the east of the hall throw light on the factors 
concerned in the evolution of life. 

On the Third Floor, we pass through the Hall of Meteorites, representing 
over 300 "falls," to the Hall of Minerals on the left, a very complete exhibit, 
arranged systematically. Immediately to the left of the entrance is a wall case 
devoted to the minerals occurring in Connecticut. North from the Hall of 
Meteorites, we pass through the Hall of Economic Zoology and Hall of Local 
Zoology, with specimens and habitat cases illustrating the birds and animals 
of the New England region. At the north end of the building is the Hall of 
Anthropology, devoted largely to the culture of the three Americas. The 
table cases in the center contain antiquities found in Connecticut. At the 
east end, set out against the schematic reproduction of part of a Mayan 
temple, is the Mexican exhibit, including a remarkable mask of black obsidian. 
Near this is the rare Aztec Calendar Stone. Against the west wall is an un- 
usual collection of pottery and metal work brought from a grave in Panama; 
on the opposite wall, rich finds made by the Yale Peruvian Expedition in 
1912. A Children's Department is maintained by the Museum at 51 Hillhouse 


To reach the Yale Bowl, drive west by Chapel St. and Derby Ave., noting 
at the intersection the Bushnell Monument, in honor of Cornelius Bushnell, who 
financed the construction of Ericson's Monitor in 1862. Crossing West River 
with its parkway developments, the Yale Field lies to the left. On the right 
is the imposing gateway colonnade erected in 1928 by Yale and 593 colleges 
and schools to honor Walter Camp, the father of modern American football. Of 
the 32 entrances to the *Bowl, Portal 10 is kept open, and the visitor, after 
passing through a tunnel on ground level, finds himself half way down a great 
amphitheatre, where earth excavated from the center was heaped up to form 
the banks and covered with concrete, on which rows of seats were built. The 
Bowl, designed by Charles A. Ferry and completed in 1914, covers 25 acres of 
ground and has a seating capacity of about 75,000. Adjacent on Derby Ave. 
are the Lapham Field House. Coxe Memorial indoor field gymnasium, and 
Yale Armory. 

Continuing on Derby Ave. and turning north on Forest Rd., we pass on 
the left the new buildings of the Hopkins Grammar Scliool, a preparatory 
school that traces back to 1660, the third oldest in the country, established 
through the bequest of Gov. Edward Hopkins. Farther on is Edgewood, built 
by the writer Donald G. Mitchell (Ik Marvel.) At Fountain St. (R. 114) one 
may turn off by Vista Terrace to the Ray Tompkins Memorial, a tract of about 
700 acres, partly in the town of Woodbridge, which includes the Yale golf 
course and a Natural Preserve. 

Near the point in Westville where Fountain St. veers off from Whalley 
Ave.. Blake St. and Springside Ave. lead to the summit of West Rock, one of 
the two trap rock masses which flank the city, and now a public park. A fine 
panorama is obtained from the parking space at the summit. A short distance 
along the ridge is * Judges Cave, a jumble of rocks split from a glacial erratic, 
where the Regicides Whalley and Goffe were concealed for a time in 1661. The 
tablet quotes the words: "Resistance to tyrants is obedience to God." The 
flora of the Park shows an interesting transition from the lichen and moss 
communities of exposed rocks, to inferior maple-beech-hemlock forests, and 


then to excellent stands of hickory and oak. The best way to study the 
tilting of the rock strata and the junction of the trap with the lower sandstone, 
is to climb West Rock by the footpath under the cliff. The lava forced its way 
from east to west between two sandstone layers, of which the upper layer has 
been worn off by erosion at the summit. The attractive Wintergreen Falls is 
reached by a drive turning north from the road up West Rock. The new 
Baldwin Drive, now under construction along the West Rock range, will be 
one of the most scenic in the country. 

East Rock, reached by Orange St., forms a city park of 647 acres. The 
Farnam Drive across the Mill River Bridge to the left is rewarding, but to 
motor to the summit one should take the English Drive on the right. The Rock 
overlooks the city at close range. From the base of the tall granite Monument, 
erected to the soldiers and sailors of the Civil W T ar, there is a good view of blue 
hills to the northward. 

To revive in imagination the early shipping industry of New Haven, one 
should walk out Long Wharf, reached by Water and Brewery St., completed 
in 1802 and stretching 3500 feet across the mud flats. New Haven had 
developed an extensive trade with the West Indies, and became the main 
distribution point for molasses, rum and sugar. At the time the wharf was 
built, a South Sea Fleet, sometimes comprising as many as 20 ships, was 
catching seals off the South American coast, drying the skins on a stretch of 
shore that they called the "New Haven Green," carrying them to China and 
coming back with rich cargoes in their holds. Between 1800 and the War of 
1812 an average of 100 ships cleared annually for foreign ports. The harbor 
is now used extensively for gasoline, oil and coal, for which New Haven is a 
distributing center. 

Among New Haven's older industries are the Winchester Repeating Arms 
Co., Sargent's hardware, the New Haven Clock Co., brought here by Chauncey 
Jerome in 1845, and the Southern New England Telephone Co., the oldest 
commercial telephone exchange in the world, started in 1870 with 40 sub- 
scribers. Among well known recent industries are National Folding Box, 
Connecticut Coke, Seamless Rubber, Kolynos toothpaste, Spencer corsets, 
and A. C. Gilbert toys. New Haven factories make an unusually wide variety 
of products. The city is a railway center and headquarters for the New Haven 

On the east of New Haven, the drives on either side of the Quinnipiac 
River (Front St. on the west and Quinnipiac Ave. on the east, both reached 
by Grand Ave., continuing Elm St.) have the charm of an early fishing village 
with reminders of the important oyster industry. Crossing the river and 
going south on Townsend Ave., we pass Beacon Hill on the left, with the 
redoubt later named Fort Wooster, where the militia made a determined 
stand during the British raid. The hill was once an Indian fort and burial 
ground. Farther south, along the shore, is Fort Hale, originally Black Rock 
Fort, which surrendered to the invaders only when its ammunition gave out. 
It had better luck in 1812. when its guns kept the British fleet from entering 
the harbor. 

At Morris Cove the traveler should not miss the old *Morris House, 325 
Lighthouse Rd., now maintained for the public by the New Haven Colony 
Historical Society. It is open from May to October on Monday, Wednesday, 
and Saturday afternoons. In 1671 the shipbuilder Thomas Morris built 
on "Solitary Cove" a house with two massive stone ends, in which fireplaces 

I. 13 NEW HAVEN 41 

were placed for two rooms, divided by a central hall. Wings were added 
a century afterward, and still later a long narrow ball room with vaulted 
ceiling over the west wing. The room under the ball room, which served as 
kitchen or "meeting room," has a large fireplace with Dutch oven, hewn oak 
beams, and a sink cut from the solid rock. The house was looted and partly 
burned by the British in 1779, and marks of fire can be seen on the oak timbers 
of the older section. In the coach house stands an old coach, which takes us 
back to one of the city's historic industries John Cook in 1794, James 
Brewster in 1809, and the other manufacturers who made New Haven 
carriages known throughout America and a good part of the world. This 
particular coach was made by Brewster's successor, Bradley and Pardee. 

Beyond Morris Cove is the old white Lighthouse, built in 1840, and near it 
has been developed a city park and bathing beach. One division of the British 
invaders landed at this spot. On the point near the shore is a grove of per- 
simmon, the only occurrence of this species in Connecticut, and practically 
its northernmost limit of distribution. 

I. 14 

Leaving New Haven by U. S. 1 (Forbes ave. and Main st.) we come to the 
suburban town of East Haven, now somewhat curtailed in its boundaries. 
The settlement of the present area goes back to the iron works established 
at the foot of Lake Saltonstall in 1657, under the leadership of John Winthrop, 
to work up the bog iron brought from North Haven. The parish was or- 
ganized in 1711, and the town in 1785. Jacob Hemingway, an East Haven boy, 
the first student at the new Yale College in Saybrook, graduated in 1704 
and came back to his native town as its first minister. 

Going east through the village, we pass on the left the *0ld Stone Church, 
built in 1772. The stone was quarried, dressed and laid almost entirely by 
the people themselves. The present steeple, which is not the original, is 196 
feet high. At the time of the British invasion in 1779, the church was entered 
by the enemy's scouts in search of the communion silver. At 214 Main St. is 
the Samuel Bradley House (John Tyler House) the oldest now standing in East 
Haven, built between 1715 and 1750. It still has the original chimney of 
stone and brick, passing through the roof just behind the ridge pole, as was 
then customary. The old Hemingway Tavern (Atwater House) is at 262 
Main St. 

Facing the Green, where Lafayette is said to have camped for several days 
with his regiment, are three old houses. The ^Stephen Thompson House, 298 
Hemingway Ave., dates from 1760. Stephen Thompson had four sons, and 
for each he built a house, two of which are still standing. This one, for his 
son Stephen, is of the \Y^ story type, with the south wall built of stone. The 
house built for Amos Thompson stands across the Green at 27 Park Place; it 
has a gambrel roof, with a chimney at each end. The Bradley House, two doors 
north of the Amos Thompson house, with its side wall on the Boston Post 
Road, was built by Stephen Bradley in 1791 for his son Leverett Bradley, the 
great-grandfather of the present owner. South of the Green is the Old Ceme- 
tery, part of wfrich has been used since 1707. 


To the left of the stone bridge, as we cross Farm River, is the site of the early 
forge. The old iron furnace was at the foot of Lake Saltonstall, near the 
Branford line. This was a blast furnace, making cast iron. Lake Saltonstall 
was at one time used by Yale students for their class regattas. It nestles under 
a long curving trap rock ridge. The lake and ridge (noted for its black snakes) 
are now held rather exclusively by the Water Co., but a rough road which 
crosses south of Foxon commands a fine view (reached from Branford by 
Lyd Hit's Hill rd.) There are a number of beautiful drives in the north part 
of the town, east of the New Haven city golf course. 

The shore line of East Haven is a series of summer beaches, including 
Momauguin, named from the sachem who sold to the New Haven colonists 
and for a time reserved the land east of the Quinnipiac. The rocky shore at 
Mansfield Grove, at the southeast corner (1 mile south from R. 142) is imvrrst 
ing to the botanist for its marine algae. 

I. 15 

Branford, which adjoins East Haven, was settled by a company from 
Wethersfield in 1644; the name is a corruption of Brentford near London. 
On the break-up of the New Haven Confederacy, some of the most prominent 
inhabitants followed their minister Abraham Pierson to Newark, N. J. After 
being for a time a part of New Haven, Branford was reinvested with town 
privileges in 1685. Gov. Saltonstall was for a time a resident, and the meeting 
that led to the founding of Yale College was held here. A large malleable iron 
plant and a wire mill are the principal industries. The shore line, with its 
bays and rocky promontories, attracts many summer colonists. 

Going east on U. S. 1, with good views from the top of the Branford hills, 
we avoid the new cut-off and pass on the left the * Nathaniel Harrison House, 
dating from 1690, with the old central chimney and a slight overhang. On the 
curve at the right as we enter the village is the Timothy Bradley House (12 
Bradley st.) built about 1726, and the pre-Revolutionary Rogers House (Main 
and Rogers sts.) Across Main St. an imposing marble building in pure Greek 
architecture faces us from a knoll beyond a small parkway: the * Black- 
stone Memorial Library, a gift of Timothy B. Blackstone in memory of his 
father, dedicated in 1896. On the right is the Green with its public buildings 
and monuments. There is an old Academy building on the south side, and 
at the southeast corner, near the site of Rev. Samuel Russell's house, a monu- 
ment commemorates the meeting of ministers in 1701, when books were given 
for the founding of "the Collegiate School," now Yale College. Pastor Russell 
is buried in the old graveyard south of the Green on Montowese St. 

Continuing on U. S. 1, about a mile east of the village, on the left, is the 
Tyler House, sometimes known as the Jimmie Palmer House, built about 1710. 
The entrance door is hooded by a small roof without columns or braces, a rare 
form which suggests Dutch influence. There are other old houses in this Mill 
Plain section, including one moved from North Guilford that stands opposite 
Route 139. 

I. 15 BRANFORD 43 

The northern part of the town has some interesting scenery. On the first 
road to the north from U. S. 1 after passing the lake, the foundations of Gov. 
Saltonstall's home can be found to the left. The rambling old house, on a com- 
manding hill, was burned in 1909. Rev. Gurdon Saltonstall minister of the 
church in New London, was elected governor in 1708 and served the com- 
monwealth for 17 years. He married Elizabeth Rosewell, the daughter of 
William Rosewell, who built the first sawmill in Branford and also the first 
frame house. Saltonstall lived at the Rosewell estate near Furnace Pond- 
giving his name to both. He was also interested in the bog ore iron works at the 
foot of the lake, in which he had acquired a controlling interest. This road 
parallels Lake Saltonstall and though rough is worth taking because of its 
views. One may drive via Lyd Hit's Hill to Foxon (East Haven) or return 
by the equally scenic Brushy Plain Rd. to Branford Village. 

To reach the western part of the attractive shore, long associated with the 
surviving Indians, turn at the East Haven Green, taking route 142 which 
passes through Slwt Beach. Here the poetess Ella Wheeler Wilcox lived in 
"the Bungalow." At Double Beach there stands, close to the water, a large 
and picturesque oak, often painted by artists, which was a landmark and 
council tree at the time of the first settlement. Branford Point may be reached 
from Harbor St., in Branford. The fine harbor, with the good pier and the 
Branford Yacht Club, combine to bring together yachts and boats in great 
number. Goodsell Point, reached by a road leading east from Harbor St., is a 
charming spot encircled on three sides by the Branford River. 

East of Branford River, we may take Route 148 south to Indian Neck, and 
continue east, partly along the shore, to Pine Orchard, often called the "New- 
port of Connecticut." There are two interesting old houses en route, the 
Blackstone Homestead and the "Red House." Route 146 leads to Stony 
Creek, where there is a Little Theatre maintained by the Parish Players, an 
amateur group who have from time to time used professionals. A boat trip 
should be made from this point through the * Thimble Islands, the beauty 
spot of the Connecticut shore, with legends of pirates and hidden treasure. 

About a mile north of Stony Creek, the old Norcross granite quarry, con- 
nected with the shore by an abandoned railway, is of interest to geologists. 
Along the right of way are large blocks of discarded quarry material, containing 
many minerals in granite gneiss. Half a mile south of Route 146, at the Guil- 
ford line, Hoadley's Point was another extensive source of granite, much of it 
being shipped to New York by water. The granite is pink in color, intruding 
into the ancient schist of the region, and angular fragments of schist are often 
found in the granite. From the top of the quarry one has a view of the Sound, 
with the Thimble Islands in the foreground. 

I. 16 

To reach North Branford it will be necessary to make a detour. The region 
was settled in 1680 and a separate town incorporated in 1831. There are two 
centers: Northford and North Branford, divided by Totoket Mt. 

To reach Northford, in the valley of the Farm River, we take Route 15 from 
New Haven. On the right, at the corner of the North Branford road, is the 



*Warham Williams House, built in 1750 by the first Congregational minister 
and now serving as the rectory for St. Andrews Episcopal church. It stands 
some distance back from the road, shaded by large maples, a central chimney 
house of 2 1/2 stories with the attic story overhanging. The gambrel-roofed 
ell is a later addition. In the doorway, one of our best examples from the 
Colonial period, pilasters support a pediment in the form of a broken scroll, 
terminating at each end in a carved rosette. The window heads are also 
pedimented, with the central portion recessed. A heavy cornice runs completely 
around the house and is carried into the rake of the gable. South on the 
same side road are the early Augur House, painted yellow and somewhat 
remodeled, and the red Beta Foote House, built by William Bartholomew in 
1720. About two miles farther east on Route 15 is Sol's Path, with the old 
Ailing or Lindsley House. In the early days, when this section was used as a 
pasture by the settlers at the shore, Solomon, a colored man with an Indian 
wife, made a path of convenience across Totoket Mt. The Ailing House has 
a hooded entrance porch without columns, of the Dutch type, like that on 
the Tyler House in Branford; there is another example of this two miles 
farther on the left. 

North Branford is reached by Route 80 from New Haven and the scenic 
Route 141 from Branford (also R. 139.) Continuing east on R. 80 beyond 
the turn, we come to North St., with a number of interesting houses. On the 
right at the corner is the present Beers House, probably built about 1765, with 
interior paneling similar to that of the Rose House in the Yale Gallery of 
Fine Arts. On the left is the Joseph Lindsley House, a \Y 2 story cottage built 
in 1762. Farther on the right we find the Old Eels Place, another example of 
the cottage type, erected by Rev. Samuel Eels about 1770. North St. leads 
in about a mile to the new North Branford Dam, open to visitors, with its 
artificial lake surrounded by wooded hills. Sea Hill, about 3 miles north of 
the village, approached by wood roads further east on R. 80, gives a com- 
manding view of the Sound. 

On Route 80, about a mile west of the trap rock quarry on Totoket Mt., we 
pass on the north side the small Greek Revival House with its classical columns, 
and the Timothy Stevens House, built in 1764. 

I. 17 

Guilford was settled in 1639 by the church that had followed Rev. Henry 
Whitfield from England. It was named from Guilford in Surrey. William 
Leete was governor of the New Haven and later of the Connecticut Colony. 
British troops raided the shore during the Revolution. The poet Fitz-Green 
Halleck was born in Guilford and spent his last years here; his friends erected 
an elaborate monument in Alderbrook Cemetary. Another distinguished son 
was Abraham Baldwin (1754-1807) founder of the University of Georgia. 
Guilford has preserved an unusual number of old houses, both in the village 
and on the inland roads. The shore has several striking promontories and 

I. 17 



We enter the town by U. S. 1, passing on the left just beyond the line the 
Col. Noah Fowler House, built about 1764 and at one time used as a tavern. 
The traveler with time to spare will do well to make a detour to the south past 
Moose Hill (worth climbing for its views) turning off opposite Moose Hill 
Inn by a road that is passable in summer. This brings us in about a mile to the 
Goldsmith House, built in 1700, with central chimney and an overhang in both 
stories. The doorway has a molded casing, flanked by narrow windows. 
Pedlars Rd. which continues east is worth taking for its view. 

In Guilford village the straight highway leads past two houses of interest: 
the Robinson House (River st; 1 on Chart XVIII) 1752, on the right; and the 


1. Robinson House. 2. Comfort Starr House. 3. Congregational Church. 4. Whitfield 
House. 5. Lot Benton House. 6. Hylanci House. 7. Burgis House. 8. Black House. 9. 
Caldwell House. 10. Acadian House. 11. Daniel Bowen House. 12. Isaac Stow House. 
13. Hubbard House. 14. Caleb Stone House. 15. Leete Place. 16. Nathaniel Johnson 
House. 17. Stephen Spencer House. 

*Comfort Starr House (2; State st.) This is the oldest of the wooden houses, 
built in 1645 by Henry Kingsnorth, one of the signers of the original planta- 
tion covenant drawn up on shipboard. Comfort Starr acquired it in 1694. The 
house is 2% stories, with central chimney and overhanging gables. 

To see the village and note its more outstanding landmarks, turn south to 
the Green, one of the best in Connecticut, surrounded by old houses, with the 
beautiful * Congregational Church (3) facing it on the north. The church or- 
ganization was identified with the founding of the town; the present building 
dates from 1829. It has a good collection of communion silver. Next the 
church is the new Public Library in Colonial style. 


Starting our explorations at the south end of the Green, Whitfield St. leads 
us to the * Whitfield House (4 : Old Stone House) now the property of the State 
and maintained as a historical museum. The house was built by Rev. Henry 
Whitfield in 1639-40, of stone quarried from a neighboring ledge, and served 
for a time as meeting place and fort. Of the original building, the oldest stone 
house in Connecticut, little remains except the foundations, main chimney 
and about half of the massive stone front wall. The restoration of 1903 was 
incorrect. Instead of the present lofty baronial hall, we should visualize two 
rooms below and two above, with a kitchen ell. The large fireplace, which is 
original, is the most notable feature over 10 feet wide, with two flues, so that 
two small fires could be used when heat was not required: each has its own 
trammel. The collection of antiquities is rather cluttered, but contains many 
interesting exhibits, including several examples of the famous Guilford chests. 
Henry Whitfield returned to England in 1650 and is buried in Winchester 
cathedral. Farther down Whitfield St. is the Lot Benton House (5) built in 
1740, and moved from its original site about 1829 to make room for the present 
Congregational church. Lyman Beecher visited in this house during his Yale 
vacations; he was a nephew of the Bentons, and had been brought up on their 
North Guilford farm before they moved to the village. 

We next go east from the Green on Boston St.. the old post road. After 
passing on the left the Capt. Nathaniel Bishop House (5 ; Landon House) we 
come to the ** Hyland House (6; Wildman House) perhaps the most interesting 
in Guilford. maintained by the Dorothy Whitfield Historical Society and open 
in summer for a small fee. The main house was built about 1660, and has been 
authentically restored and furnished so as to show how the fathers actually 
lived. The house has a slight overhang, and the posts on the front corners of 
the first story are cut in the form of supporting corbels. The exposed surface 
of the girts under the overhang is chamfered with a bold molding, an unusual 
feature in Connecticut. Ebenezer Parmelee, the first clock-maker in the Colony, 
is said to have plied his trade in this house. On the right side of Boston St. we 
pass the Burgis House (7; Munger House) 1736: Black House (8) 1781, now 
unfortunately repainted, which Nicholas Loysel, a refugee from the Island 
of Guadeloupe, painted black in 1793, on hearing of the execution of Louis 
XVI of France; and Caldwell House (9) about 1740, painted yellow and re- 
stored after a fire, but still showing the old lines and overhang. 

Swinging west through Union St., we come to the * Acadian House (10) 
on the left, built by Joseph Clay about 1670. Nearly a century later, according 
to tradition, the house was used to shelter Acadians from Nova Scotia, who had 
been cast ashore at this spot. There are two stories in front, and the rear 
roof slopes to the ground. The central stone chimney is built with a recessed 
angle. On the south side of the Market Place is the Daniel Bowen House 
(11; Evarts House) 1734, yellow, 1^ stories. 

Returning to the Green and walking west on Broad St.. we pass on the left 
the Isaac Stow House (12; Spencer House) 1743; and Hubbard House (13; 
No. 53 Broad st.) 1717, with pronounced overhang; on the right, the Caleb 
Stone House (14; 22 Broad st.) about 1749; and the Leete Place (15; River and 
Broad sts.) 1769. a later house built by Caleb Stone on the site of Gov. Leete 's 
homestead; the cellar where the Regicides Whalley and Goffe were hidden is 
preserved under the present garage. On Far St.. going north from Broad St., 
the Capt. Natlianiel Johnson House (16: 58 Far st.) built about 1746, stands 
at the left, built for the brother of the distinguished Episcopal leader Samuel 

I. 17 GUlLFORD 47 

Johnson, whom we met in Stratford. On the right is the Stephen Spencer 
House (17) of 1766. 

Crossing U. S. 1, we find at No. 1 North St., on the corner of State, the 
Captain Lee House, a 1763 salt-box. The classical porch is a later addition. A 
tablet records the firing of a cannon in the yard by Mrs. Agnes Lee to warn 
the countryside of the British raid. A short distance north on the right is the 
Richard Starr House, 1716. This Nut Plains Rd., which parallels R. 77 on 
the east, has preserved many typical old houses. There are several of them at 
Nut Plains (% mile east of R. 77) notably the Hall Homestead of 1740. The 
Caleb Dudley House on Clapboard Hill Rd. northeast of the village may go 
back to the 17th century. The Long Hill Rd. west of R. 77 and the neighbor- 
hood of North Guilford, six miles to the north, are equally rich in landmarks 
of the Colonial period. The North Guilford Church, built in 1813, is worth a 
visit; it lies a little northwest of North Guilford center. 

On Route 77 there are good views of the Sound from Prospect Hill on the 
right, about 1 % miles north of Guilford village, and from Hungry Hill, about 
a mile farther. On the latter, jolite is found in lavender and smoky blue 
crystals, and there is also a small outcrop of garnet. West Pond, a mile to the 
west, best reached from U. S. 1, is a station for several rare aquatic plant 
varieties. The scenic portion of this road begins about 7 miles north of 
Guilford. Sugar Loaf on the left is worth a climb, as is Quonnipaug Mt., above 
the lake of the same name along which the highway winds. To the botanist, 
Lake Quonnipaug offers an excellent development of aquatic plants. It is of 
interest to the geologist as marking the western edge of a great fault. Boulders 
carried over the cliff made by the fault became cemented into the conglomerate 
exposed west of the road; the conglomerate is overlaid by the main lava flow- 
that formed Quonnipaug Mt. The best view is from Bluff Head, where the 
fire-tower offers a complete horizon. It is reached by the blue-marked Mat- 
tabesett Trail, leading along the edge of the bluff. West of the tower, charcoal 
burning was carried on until about 1930, and old "pits" can be seen beside the 

To visit Guilford's particularly beautiful shore line, take Route 146 to 
Leete's Island, with the old Leete homestead of 1730; a monument to Simeon 
Leete, who lost his life in the British raid on this shore; and an abandoned 
granite quarry. On the hill east of the bay is an Indian rock shelter. A side 
road leads south from R. 146 to Sachem's Head. In the Indian war of 1637, a 
fleeing Pequot sachem was killed as he swam across the harbor, and his head 
placed in the fork of an oak, where Whitfield's company found it on their 
arrival two years later. There is a small ledge-lined harbor for yachts, and 
visitors are welcome to enjoy the view from the Yacht Club porch. Another 
side road runs to Mulberry Point, where there are good views of the Sound 
and Faulkner's Island with its old white lighthouse. One mulberry tree is 
left, from half an ounce of seed sent to each parish in 1760 to encourage the 
raising of silkworms. 


I. 18 

Madison, formerly part of Guilford, was settled about 1649. The parish 
of East Guilford was organized in 1707, and a separate town, named for ex- 
president Madison, incorporated in 1826. A considerable sea trade developed 
in the days of sailing ships. Among Madison's distinguished sons were 
George W. Scranton, the founder of Scranton, Pa., and Thomas Chittenden, 
the first governor of Vermont. There is a large summer colony, and a State 
Park at Hammonasset Beach. 

Entering the town from the west by U. S. 1, we pass two interesting houses 
at East River: the Capt. Shelley House on the right, probably dating from 
the 17th century; on the left, just beyond the turn, the Capt. Frederick Lee 
House, 1747, for many years the largest house between New Haven and New 

In the village, on the south side of the main street, there is a row of old land- 
marks: the Rev. John Elliot House (Thomas Stone Scranton House) built in 
1789; Abraham Scranton House (Joseph Scranton House) of 1750; Hart 
House, 1788; Dudley House, 1740; on the north side, the Talcott Bradley 
House, 1760. At the center on the left is the Green, with its Norway spruces 
and the old Lee's Academy. Near this stands Memorial (Town) Hall. The 
Congregational Church, 1838, faces the Green on the north, and its steeple was 
used by sea captains to guide them to Madison harbor. West of the church 
is the Dea. Benjamin Hart House (Old Coe Place) built about 1751. 

On the north side of the Post Road, just past the Green, beyond the 
school house, we come to the most interesting house in Madison, the 'Graves 
House, or Tuxis Farm, which began its long history in 1675 with John Graves 
who came from Guilford as one of the first settlers. It well illustrates the 
evolution of the Connecticut homestead. Originally an end-chimney house, a 
second room with chamber above was added beyond the chimney, but much 
larger than the first, which gives the house an unusual lack of symmetry. The 
lean-to was added early in the 18th century, and the rear roof reaches within 
six or eight feet of the ground, making it a typical "salt-box." The central 
chimney, 12 feet square, is of stone as far as the roof, laid in clay mortar. The 
second story shows an overhang. The house never has been painted, and the 
weather-stained clapboards give a proper appearance of age. 

To the north on Wall St. is another 17th century landmark, the Meigs 
House (Bishop House) a red salt-box, built in 1690, where Lafayette was at 
one time entertained. On the Post Road, to the left as we round the turn, is 
the Bushnell House, now headquarters of the Madison Historical Society. The 
house was built in 1739 by Jacob Richmond and later owned by the Scran tons. 
It was the home of Cornelius Scranton Bushnell, a large shipowner in Madison 
and New Haven, whose vessels were used by the Government during the 
Civil War and who financed the building of Ericson's Monitor. On the left, as 
we swing back into the Post Road from the new cut-off, near Hammonasset, is 
the Daniel Hand House of 1757, from which a later Daniel Hand went out to 
make a fortune and give a large fund for the education of colored people. A 
little farther, on the south of the highway, is another landmark from the 17th 
century, the Nathan Bradley House of 1680. A short detour to the north 
brings us to the Daniel Meigs House (Dr. Webb House) built in 1750. 

I. 18 MADISON 49 

As in Guilford, the back roads have preserved many typical old houses. 
Some of them are found along Route 79, and others on Green Hill Rd., which 
crosses this about 2 miles north of the village; Summer Hill Rd., paralleling 
R. 79 on the east; and in the vicinity of North Madison, 6 miles north, origin- 
ally North Bristol parish. 

For scenic inland drives we have Route 79 above North Madison, and 
Route 80 which crosses it at this point. R. 80 leads west to three hills with good 
views of the Sound: Walnut Hill on the left and Cranberry Hill on the right; a 
mile north is Race Hill, crossed by Race Hill Rd. In the southeastern part 
of the town, at the bridge over Hammonasset River above the railway, four 
roads come together at the picturesque Duck Hole, with an old mill dam; this 
spot may be reached from the village by Scotland Rd. 

Along the shore, a road that runs southwest from East River leads to 7/r;g.s- 
liead Point, with a good view of the Sound and the salt meadows. Below 
Madison village are East Wharf and West Wharf, whose long stone piers 
remind us of the town's early importance in shipping and shipbuilding. Island 
Ave., directly south from the center, is named from rugged Tuxis Island off 
the shore; one may drive along the beach past the Madison Yacht Club to 
East Wharf. Among the beautiful drives in the town is the shore road, 
paralleling the Boston Post Road for several miles. Hammonasset Beach, 
reached from U. S. 1, the largest public bathing beach in Connecticut, with 
over a million and a half visitors a year, was acquired as a State Park in 1919, 
and has an area of 954 acres. It is a good sample of sand dunes and sand 
dune vegetation as developed along the Connecticut coast. 

1. 19 

Clinton takes in the more important part of the old town of Killingworth, 
and was settled in 1663. A separate town was incorporated in 1838. It was 
named either from DeWitt Clinton of New York, or from Clinton Abbey in 
England, which forms a triangle with Kenilworth (Killingworth) and Warwick 
Castle, the home of Lord Brooke who gave his name to Saybrook. Abraham 
Pierson, an early minister, was the first rector of Yale College and taught some 
of the classes here. A later minister was Jared Eliot (1685-1763) son of John 
Eliot the Indian apostle, who was not only a faithful pastor, but a much-sought 
physician, an experimental farmer and the leading agricultural writer of his day. 

The Pond's Extract Co. is located at Clinton, successor of many small 
witch-hazel stills scattered through the back country. There is a natural 
harbor, at one time busy with shipbuilding and shipping, and Duck Island 
Roads is a favorite yachting center. The salt marshes are the feature of the shore. 

Entering from the west and crossing Indian River, which divides the 
town, we go through an elm-shaded street. The Green lies on our left, with 
the Congregational Church on Meeting House Hill at the farther corner. A 
monument in the center of the Green records the fact that the earliest classes 
of *Yale College were taught here, in what was then Killingworth, from 1701- 
1707. Rev. Abraham Pierson, chosen as the first rector of Yale, was not able 


to mnovr to Saybrook where the new college was officially established, so 
the handful of students were quartered in the parsonage. He was a son of 
the Rev. Abraham Pierson whom we say leaving Branford for New Jersey. 
'Hie monument consists of a granite shaft surmounted by a pile of books, 
ard the southeast corner is the Town Hall, associated with Abel Buell 
(1742-1H25) a versatile but unstable genius, who was arrested for counter- 
feiting on the wond floor of this building, but lived to make many useful 
invention. I'.uell coined the first regular Connecticut coppers, with a machine 
of his own contriving, cast the first font of type in the Colonies, and invented a 
lapidary machine and a corn-planter; he was also a silversmith and engraver of 
di .tine don. North of the church, beyond the railway, is the beautiful 'Indian 
River Cemetery, used continuously since the first settlement, where Pierson 
and Eliot are buried. 

Just beyond the Green on our left is the *Slanton House, built in 1789, and 
now a Colonial museum, open to the public on weekdays from 2 to 6. The 
main house is of two stories, with two attics; the gambrel-roofed ell is a later 
addition. In 1916, Hon. Lewis Stanton of Hartford bequeathed the property 
in a hoard of trustees, and the collection of old furniture and china was largely 
assembled by him. The most notable piece is the court cupboard from the 
la> 17th century, which was discovered in a bam on a neighboring farm. The 
rN,m-, with their paneling and furnishings are delightful, and there is a repro- 
duction of the old Stanton store. The east front room has the original wall- 
1 1 a i XT, made in Paris. Upstairs the Lafayette room and the Gov. Buckingham 
r<*>rn have been carefully preserved (the famous war governor was a connec- 
iion of the Stantons.) Back of the house is the old well of Rector Pierson's 
house, wliich stood near this spot. Across the street is a Franklin milestone, 
with the inscription "N. H. 25 miles." 

East of the Stanton house is the Morgan School, a private preparatory 
x>\ established in 1871, facing Morgan Park across the street. In front of 
the school are two statues: Abraham Pierson on the east side of the walk, and 
the donor Charles Morgan on the west. Still further east, at 95 E. Main St., 
n: Wright Homestead, birthplace of Horatio G. Wright, a general in the 
t nil War, for whom Fort Wright on Fisher's Island was named; he was in 
(ommand at the Battle of Winchester, when "Sheridan was twenty miles 
away." Opposite, at No. 95, is the Kelsey Homestead, built in 1770 but some- 
uhat remodeled, still in tlu- Kdsc.-y family, descendants of one of the original 
pioprictors On a small triangular green to our left is an old cannon, marked 
" 1H12," used by Gideon Kelsey in defending the coast against British ships. At 
the eastern end of the village, as the highway bends south, we are faced by the 
imj>osmg Dflxll //"/r.r, built of brick with 2-story columns, a good example of 
(he Classical Revival, but now painted an atrocious yellow. In front are two 
unusually large elms. 

Other points of interest around Clinton arc Leatherman's Cave, one of lh< 
haunts of this celebrated wanderer, about \ 1 A miles west of the railway 
station, between Nod Rd. and the track; and Cow Hill School House, an old 
red building of 1800, now preserved by former pupils: it lies 2 } A miles north- 
A<si of the village at the' junction of Swaintown and Cow Hill Rds On 
( ow Hill RH., about a mile further north. then- is a good view of the Sound 

Route HI offers 8 SCenic drive aloru: Indian Rive.i (., Killillgwoi I h Another 
hnr- vicw|Knnt is ridge running lor a mile oi m<>ie northeast of flu v 
reached by Liberty si and lng Hill Rd , it pays to leave the road and wall 
along the ridge. 

1. 19 CLINTON 51 

Along the shore, east of Clinton. Route 145 takes us across the salt meadows, 
with their color changing at each season, past the rocky Hammock Point 
overlooking Clinton harbor, and eastward along Grow Bear*. The anchorage 
formed by Duck Island breakwater, opposite this beach and partly in the town 
of Westbrook. is the largest rendezvous for yachts between Larchmont and 
New London. 



It now becomes necessary to make a side trip to the north by R. 81. The 
town organization of Kttlingworth. a corruption of the original name Kenil- 
worth. goes back to 1667 or perhaps earlier. The southern portion was cut 
off as the town of Clinton in 1838, and the present territory, organized in 
1735 as the parish of North Killingworth. appears to have been settled about 

The town is made up of rugged hill country, much of it now returning to 
forest The laurel display on the back country roads during early June should 
not be missed. There are many old houses, and abandoned sites marked by 
cellars and lilac bushes. The two main highways. Route 81 north and south 
and Route 80 running east and west make delightful drives. 

Following R. 81 north from Clinton, about H mite north of the town 
line the road cut has uncovered a remnant of old rock (gneiss) about 8 feet 
thick, which decayed before the glacial period and was protected by a covering 
of glacial till. This is a rare phenomenon for New England, where most of 
the rotten rock was carried away by the ice. Northeast of this spot is ftitcsf 
.\feat HiU, with a good view of the Sound. At Killingworth center, above 
R. 80 and about 6 miles from Clinton, is the beautiful Corffig*f Cfcm*. 
built in 1817. with a wide view in every direction from the tower, if it is possible 
to locate the janitor. This church organization, now sadly dwindled, was at 
one time the largest in Middlesex County. In the meeting house is a tablet to 
Titus Coan (1801-1882) the first missionary to the Sandwich Islands, who at 
one time baptized over 1700 persons, and served the communion to more than 
2000. Just south of the church is the Old Ely House, formerly the parsonage, a 
delightful New England homestead, where Ltm&fdtac is supposed to have 
written the "Birds of Killingworth'*; it is open to visitors. The "Preceptor" is 
said to have been another native son. Rev. Asahe) Nettleton the evangelist. 
About a mile north of the Church, on our right is the red Josiak Parmalet 
ftati*, built about 1740 and practically unchanged. Three mites above the 
Church, on R. 81. Parker Hill Rd.. to the east, leads in about K mite to the 
Mosts GrisuoU Ptorr. probably tte oldest house in Killingworth. built in 
1723 and recently restored. 

Route 80. taking it from west to east, starts at * .Y mow* Ftt$, a rocky 

tli a beautiful hem! By making a detour on the first road 

lo the *outh. we pass over two spurs of Otasfmf Hill with a fine southern 

Montauk Fbint can be seen on a clear day. About 2 mites east of the 

R. 80 crosses the attractive Ck*l*tM /falter Bv*ok. which is worth 

tallowing upstream for a mite or more. The C. C C. Camp is located here. 


There is an Indian cave about ^ mile up the brook, on the east bank. This 
land is an outlying portion of Cockaponset State Forest. On the Chatfield 
Hollow Rd., which runs north through the Forest, about 2 miles north of R. 
80, is the site of an old grist mill. A public camping ground, with fireplaces, has 
been laid out beside the mill pond, and the old undershot water wheel restored. 

East of Killingworth center, R. 80 passes (on Roast Meat Hill rd., a few 
hundred feet north) the interesting Lord Place, built in 1797. The next side 
road to the north leads past the Clinton-Chester Reservoir, a fair sized lake 
with a setting of pine. Half a mile east of Lord's Corner, a detour to the south 
brings us past the birthplace site of Titus Coan. Only the cellar is left, but 
the stone doorstep has been appropriately marked. To the south of R. 80, just 
before reaching the Saybrook town line, is Tower Hill, with another good 
southern view. 



Returning to the Post Road, we follow east to Westbrook, formerly a part 
of Saybrook. It was settled about 1664, organized as a parish in 1724, named 
Westbrook in 1810 in place of the original Pochaug, and in 1840 became a 
separate town. Westbrook was the birthplace of David Bushnell (1742-1824) 
inventor of the torpedo and submarine; we shall meet him again in Old Say- 
brook, where his experiments were carried on. In early days the town had an 
important shipbuilding industry. There are good beaches along the shore, with 
a large summer population. The old houses have been well marked by the 
"Descendants of Westport Settlers." 

To our left on U.S. 1, about } mile beyond the Clinton town line, Horse 
Hill Rd. leads north, with good scenery. On the right, the Lewis House com- 
mands a fine view of the Sound and Duck Island breakwater. The highway 
passes the attractive salt marshes along two small rivers which have a com- 
mon mouth. The traveler may make closer acquaintance with the marshes 
by risking Beach Plum Rd. t which turns off to the southwest, named from the 
abundant plum trees; there is a good variety of characteristic salt marsh and 
beach plants. This road runs south of the Pochaug River, and was the old 
route to Clinton along the shore by way of a ford. Farther east along the shore 
is the picturesque Hawks Nest, reached by a rougli track when the tide is out, 
a small island of cedars in the midst of the salt marsh and a favorite haunt of 
wild ducks. 

To our right, just before we enter the village, is the old red * Bushnell House, 
once owned by an uncle of David Bushnell, restored and maintained as a 
memorial museum. It contains parts of Bushnell 's submarine model. The 
house was built in 1678-9, and in front of the central chimney are the charac- 
teristic interior "porch" and stairs. The roof was rebuilt quite early at a 
lower pitch, and a lean-to added. The well in the yard has been supplied with 
a wellsweep. 

Proceeding toward the Church, the Major Jedediah Chapman House, dating 
from 1756, stands on our left. Turning left, we come to the old Cemetery, with 
the graves of the first ministers, Wm. Worthington and John Devotion; the 


two pastorates spanned over three-quarters of a century. Continuing north 
across the river on Old Clinton Rd., the Rev. John Devotion House, built in 
1750, is on our right, near the railway station. Nearly opposite, on our left, we 
find the Judge Jonatlwn Lay House. 1770. 

On the main street (U. S. 1) south of the small triangular Green, is Moore s 
Tavern (Kirtland House) now the Congregational parsonage, where Lafayette 
stopped to meet the local dignitaries, on his way to attend the laying of the 
corner-stone of Bunker Hill Monument. On our right, as we leave the village, 
is the Col. Worthington House, built about 1750, with a chimney 15 feet square. 
A little farther on, Salt Island Rd. leads south to the beach. Salt Island, 
accessible at low tide, has the remains of early salt works, oil works and ware- 
houses. Fishing smacks and trading ships discharged their cargoes here. 

On the Essex Rd. (R. 153) we pass a factory making belts and webbing. The 
site of David Bushnell's early home is about a mile from the village, on our 
right. A little beyond this spot, a road to the left leads to Toby's Hill, 2 miles 
north of the village, from which there is an excellent view of the Sound. The 
hill takes its name from Toby, a negro slave. It was the center of one of the 
town's early industries, getting out "shooks" for the West India trade, to be 
made into hogsheads. 

Another industry was the iron furnace at Pond Meadow in the north of the 
town, reached from the village by Pond Meadow Rd. It was started about 
1700 to smelt bog ore from the swamp below the pond. Slag heaps can still be 
seen. The refined iron was worked up into everything from a horse-shoe nail 
to a ship's anchor. During the Revolution, some of the Westbrook citizens 
were exempted from military duty to work as miners and blacksmiths. 

I. 22 


A company of Puritan gentlemen, led by Lord Saye and Sele and Lord 
Brooke, secured an extensive land patent from the Earl of Warwick, and 
appointed John Winthrop the younger as temporary governor. In 1635 
Winthrop sent the engineer Lion Gardiner to build a fort at the west mouth 
of the Connecticut River, in order to forestall the Dutch. The town grew up 
around this fort, which bore the brunt of the Pequot War. In 1639, on the 
arrival of one of the patentees, Col. George Fenwick, with his bride, the Lady 
Alice, the place was named Saybrook, from the leading English sponsors of the 
settlement. In 1644 the title was transferred to the Connecticut Colony. The 
present town of Old Saybrook was incorporated in 1854. Because of its 
location at the mouth of the river, it was an important center for the coasting 
trade and for transhipment from river boats to ocean ships. There are large 
summer colonies, particularly on the Fenwick peninsula. 

We enter Old Saybrook from the west on U. S. 1. The best way to see the 
town is to avoid the new cut-off and follow the beautiful shore road (R. 154) 
to the historic Saybrook Point. On the north of the road we find the granite 
monument erected by the Colonial Dames to mark the site of the old Saybrook 
Fort (1 on Chart XIX.) Just east of this is the statue of its heroic commander, 



*Lion Gardiner, with his spyglass. Gardiner had seen service under the 
Prince of Orange and brought a Dutch bride with him. In 1639, at the close 
of his four-year contract, he moved to the island he had purchased, which 
still bears his name, at the end of Long Island. South of the road is the 
Ancient Burying Ground, now known as *Cy/>rcss Cemetery (2) in a fine setting 


1. Saybrook Fort. 2. Cypress Cemetery. 3. Yale College. 4 Black Horse Tavern. 5. 
Tully Place. 6. Millstone. 7. Samuel Elliot House. 8. Congregational Church. 9. 
William Hart House 10. Pratt Tavern. 11. Richard Wm. Hart House. 12. Azariah 
Mather House. 

MIH! omlvnvcTcd with trees. Facing the gate, within an iron railing, is the tomb 
of La<1v FfHH'irk. who died in 1<U8 and was buried at first within the fort. 
Col. Fenwick returned to England, fought in the Parliamentary army, and 
was one of the judges who condemned Charles I. Nearer the water are other 
early graves, some of them marked with table stones. Among these is the 


grave of Nathaniel Lynde, remembered as the donor of a house and lot for the 
collegiate school. A little west of the Cemetery is the granite boulder, hedged 
by arbor vitae, which marks the first site of * Yale College (3.) Here com- 
mencements were held and some of the classes taught from 1701 to 1716, when 
the college removed to New Haven. 

Saybrook originally was laid out on an elaborate plan, with lots for the 
Puritan leaders who expected to locate here but were kept at home by the 
outbreak of the English Civil War. Following "Cromwell Place" to the 
north, two old houses lie on the shore side of North Cove Rd., near the old 
landing place: Black Horse Tavern (4) part of which is said to date from the 
17th century, and the old Tally Place (5; Dr. Neally House) built in 1750. On 
Main St., west of North Cove Rd., is an old Millstone (6) supposed to have been 
brought from the original windmill operating on the Point. Beyond this is the 
Dr. Samuel Elliot House (7) of 1737. The traveler should not miss the scenic 
drive (R. 154) across the salt meadows to Cornfield Point, along the shore 
of the Fenwick peninsula, with the old flat-sided white lighthouse to the east, 
and back to Saybrook Point by the causeway over South Cove. 

Going north on Main St., with its fine elms, the Congregational Church (8) 
lies on our right, organized in the hall at the fort in 1646. The present building 
dates from 1840. One of its early ministers was Thomas Buckingham, who 
took part in the founding of Yale College, and later in the Synod of 1708, which 
adopted the Saybrook Platform for closer government of the Congregational 
churches. Just north of the Church is the Gen. William Hart House (9) built 
in 1767 by a prosperous merchant and Revolutionary leader. On our left, at 
the southeast corner of the Post Road, is the celebrated * Pratt Tavern (10) 
with two chimneys, an overhang in both stories, and a gambrel-roofed ell. 
Lafayette was entertained here in 1824. Across the Post Road, we find the 
Richard William Hart House (11; Old Saybrook Inn) built for his son in 1800 
by Gen. Wm. Hart. It was afterward the home of Captain Morgan, a friend 
of Charles Dickens, who enshrined him as Captain Jorgen, the hero in "A 
Message from the Sea." On the east side of the street, a little farther on, is 
the Azariah Mather House, (12) built in 1728 by one of the early ministers. 

About a mile north of U. S. 1, as we leave the village, is Beacon Hill, worth 
climbing for its extensive view. Sheep laurel, a smaller variety than the 
mountain laurel, is to be found here. Turning north on Route 9 A, a right 
turn in about a mile brings us to the site of the old Sill House, near the river, 
where David Bushnell in 1775 constructed a boat called the "American Turtle," 
which could be rowed under water. On Sept. 6, 1776, this submarine was used 
in an attempt to blow up Admiral Howe's flagship in New York harbor. 

I. 23 

From Old Saybrook we cross the Connecticut River Bridge, with splendid 
views up and down the river. The coast plain which U. S. 1 has been following 
soon changes to granite hills. The town of Old Lyme was settled in 1666, and 
named from Lyme Regis on the south coast of England. In 1855 the southern 
part of the town was separately incorporated under the present name. 



Old Lyme was a center of shipbuilding and shipping. To quote an old 
inhabitant: "You should have seen the town when there was a sea-captain 
in every house"; over 60 have so far been discovered in the records. This 
great race of men manned the coastwise vessels, voyaged to the West Indies, 
and were commanders of clipper ships sailing to China and the Far East. Later 
they became identified with the regular lines of packets which plied between 
New York and Liverpool, London and Havre. Many of them shipped as 
cabin boys or before the mast, but in order to become officers they had to be 


1. Garden Roads. 2. House on the Hill. 3. Reuben Champion. 4. Bacon House. 5. 
Horace Sill House. 6. Congregational Church. 7. John MacCurdy House. 8. Parsons 
Tavern site. 9. Duck River Cemetery. 10. Samuel Mather House. 11. Richard Sill 
Griswold. 12. Daniel Chadwtck. 13. Library. 14. Moses Noyes. 2nd. 15. Capt. Deminx 
House. 16. John Sill. 17. Lyme Art Gallery. 18. Second William Noyes House. 

educated in navigation, naval astronomy, mathematics, French, and maritime 
law. In the days of the packet ships, foreign travel was confined to ministers 
to foreign courts, learned and distinguished men who were sent on important 
missions, and persons of wealth. The captains were surrounded by the 
greatest culture of the time. Lasting friendships were made, as shown by 
letters and gifts received from their passengers and passed down as treasured 
heirlooms. In Europe they were dubbed "The American Princes." To the 
town of Lyme they brought their broadening contact with foreign lands. 

I. 23 OLD LYME 57 

The same qualities of leadership appeared in Lyme's statesmen. The town 
was the birthplace of two governors, a Chief Justice of Connecticut, a Chief 
Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court, an American minister to Austria, and 
many lawyers who gained distinction. 

Old Lyme has preserved this tradition of a fine culture. There are unusually 
good houses along the elm-shaded village street and on the outskirts, many of 
them built by ship carpenters. The beauty of the salt meadows has drawn a 
considerable artist colony. 

Turning right beyond the Bridge on Neck Road, we pass several large estates. 
The highway passes through Garden Roads (1 on Chart XX) owned by Mrs. 
Elford P. Trowbridge. The wall on the east has been built inside the property 
line to provide space for a roadside garden, the first to be planted in the State: 
mostly evergreen shrubs and vines, with an effective use of the stately yucca. 
Ferry Road, to the right, leads across Mather's Neck. North of the road, 
overlooking the River, is the House on the Hill (2) built for Enoch Noyes in 
1820, and later owned by Charles Noyes Chadwick, who developed the idea of 
the Catskill Mountain water supply for New York. A fort was erected back of 
the house during the War of 1812. The elm tree to the south has a spread of 
150 feet. The traveler will note also the milestone on the old post road, which 
crossed at the ferry. South of the road is the house of Reuben Champion (3) 
who had a shipyard on the river. Three ships, called in succession the "Pana- 
ma," were built for the Griswold line and sent to China in the tea trade. Seven 
deep-sea captains lived in this house. The Bacon House (4; Ferry Tavern) was 
built by Almon Bacon, a partner of Cornelius Vanderbilt, in connection with 
their Hartford-New York steamship line. 

Going east on Ferry Rd., we cross Lieutenant River, lined with shipyards 
in early days. The Horace Sill House (5) is typical of those built by Lyme 
sea captains square with a flat roof, surmounted by a cupola from which to 
take observations. 

To our right on the corner of the Street is the beautiful * Congregational 
Church (6) a careful reproduction of the building which burned in 1909. The 
earlier church was built in 1817 by a local architect of distinction, Col. Samuel 
Belcher, who adapted drawings by Sir Christopher Wren. The church has 
been painted by Childe Hassam and other artists, and has been frequently 
copied in whole or in part, one of the latest reproductions being Cardinal 
Mundelheim's private chapel. The Green in front of the Church was the 
Revolutionary training ground, and Lafayette's troops, who had camped 
overnight in adjacent fields, were served their breakfast here from the tavern. 
The officers were entertained in neighboring houses. Lafayette spent the night 
at the John MacCurdy House (7) to the east, which had also sheltered Gen. 
Washington. The house was built in 1752: it was occupied in his later years 
by Judge Charles J. MacCurdy, U. S. Minister to Austria. South of the 
Church is the Luddington house on the site of the old Parsons Tavern (8) 
birthplace of Gen. Samuel H. Parsons, the Revolutionary leader. In the 
garden is a rock from which the evangelist George Whitefield preached during 
the Great Awakening. Continuing south we pass on our left the old burial 
ground, known as *Duck River Cemetery. (9) with its many distinguished dead. 
Five veterans of King Philip's War are buried here, including Capt. Joseph 
Sill, who died in 1696. Among the ministers, Rev. Moses Noyes served the 
church from 1666 until his death in 1729 and molded the character of the 


settlement; Stephen Johnson, who died in 1786 after 40 years of service, pub- 
lished letters which had much to do with the organization of the "Sons of 

Going on for another mile on R. 156, with Meeting House Hill, the original 
church site, as a good viewpoint on our left, we come to Black Hall. The 
group of Griswold houses lie on a lane to the west. The first Matthew Gris- 
wold moved from Windsor to Saybrook, became Col. Fenwick's executor, and 
was given land on the east side of the river, which at first was used as a cattle 
pasture. The earlier houses, including that of Gov. Matthew Griswold, have 
disappeared. The oldest remaining is the first house on the right of the lane, 
built in 1796 by the Governor's son * Judge Matthew Grisivold; it is supposed to 
be an exact reproduction of his grandfather's house on the same site. Judge 
Griswold became prominent in the law in spite of his stammering, and trained 
a number of distinguished lawyers. The house has a central chimney and a 
porch with Tuscan columns. On the Dutch door are the brass knocker and 
latch from the earlier house. At the end of the lane, which turns toward the 
south, overlooking the Sound, is the house of the Judge's brother, Gov. Roger 
Griswold. built in 1810. The long sand spit of Griswold Point, which stretches 
southwest, separating the river from the Sound, is interesting to the botanist 
for its luxuriant growth of beach grass, with other plants characteristic of 
sandy sea beaches. Going east from Black Hall. R. 156 follows the shore and 
makes an attractive drive; we pass several beach developments. 

Returning to the Green, and going north on Lyme Street, we take first the 
houses on the east side. The Capt. * Samuel Mather House (10) with its great 
trees and ample grounds, is now the Congregational parsonage. It was built 
about 1745, and has three stories with gambrel roof. An interesting feature is 
the clapboarding, which starts with an exposure of \Y% inches and increases 
with each course, until we reach 3^ inches just below the cornice. The house 
north of this was built by Richard Sill Griswold (11) who became a shipping 
merchant in New York and founded the Griswold Line. A building with 
flat roof and captain's walk is associated with Capt. Daniel Chadwick (12; 
1795-1855) known in New York and London as "the admiral of the packet-ship 
fleet." The Library (13) was presented to the town by Mr. and Mrs. Chas. H. 

On the west side of Lyme Street, going north, the 18th century house of 
Moses Noyes 2nd (14) brought down the street from its earlier location, was a 
station on the underground railway for runaway slaves before the Civil War. 
Morrison R. Waite, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, a native of Lyme, 
used it as a summer home. North of this stands the Memorial Town Hall, 
opposite the new School. As we approach the Post Road, we pass two houses 
associated with shipyards on Lieutenant River; the old gambrel-roofed 
Capt. Deming House (15) and the finely proportioned house built in 1817-18 
for Capt. John Sill (16) by Col. Belcher, the designer of the Church; the origi- 
nal porch with its stairway on either side has been replaced by a modern piazza. 

On the Post Road, which continues Lyme Street, we pass on the left the 
Lyme Art Gallery (17) open in summer with exhibits by the local artists' 
colony. Beyond this is the * Second William Noyes House (18; Florence 
Griswold House) another of Belcher's creations. It has a 2-story portico 
with Ionic columns across the front and a pediment gabled into the roof, and 
is shaded by lime trees. This house became the center for visiting artists, who 
decorated the lower rooms, each panel in the present dining room representing 

I. 23 OLD LYME 59 

the work of some distinguished painter. On our right, about \i mile beyond 
the corner, is the house built in 1814 by Dr. Richard Noyes (Judge W. C. 
Noyes House.) This house, now somewhat altered, has an entrance porch 
where slender columns support a gabled roof with richly molded cornice. 
It is on the site of the original house of the first minister, Moses Noyes, to 
whom the land was deeded by the Indians. No other deed has passed, for 
the property has been bequeathed from father to son to the present genera- 
tion. Beyond the house, along the stone wall east of the highway, Judge 
Noyes has planted a "mile of roses," worth taking a June drive to see. The 
Old Peck Tavern, in the fork on our left, goes back to the 17th century; there 
is a ballroom on the second floor with swinging partitions. Sill Lane leads 
north past other interesting houses. U. S. 1 goes east, with a left turn to 
Laysvtlle, where the Lay family at one time had woolen mills. About 3 miles 
from Old Lyme, Rogers Lake lies to our left, with interesting aquatic plants and 
an attractive drive along the east shore. To the right, reached by a cart 
track at the cemetery, is the smaller Black Hall Pond, wooded on three sides. 

North from the Connecticut River Bridge, on Neck Road (R. 86) we pass 
other old houses, many of them built by sea captains. Tamtummaheag Rd. 
turns west to Lord Cove, the early seat of the Lord family, with three hand- 
some old houses facing the River: the Enoch Lord House, with its gambrel 
roof, built in 1790; Richard Lord House of the same date; and Dr. William 
Lord House of 1829. 

I. 24 

East Lyme, probably first settled about 1660, was made a separate town in 
1839. It contains the Nehantic State Forest and Rocky Neck State Park, and 
at Niantic the State Farm for Women and State militia encampment. There 
are beach developments along the shore. 

The town is best approached by the scenic coast road, Route 156. Bride 
Brook was the former boundary between Saybrook and New London. A 
tablet records the story of a marriage where the couple stood on the west side 
of the brook and John Winthrop, the officiating magistrate, who had no 
jurisdiction outside of New London, on the east bank. Also the later story 
of the boundary dispute between Lyme and New London, settled by a pugi- 
listic encounter between respective champions; the Lyme man won and 
since then the boundary has been the Niantic River. Beyond Bride Brook, we 
pass the road to Rocky Neck State Park, with its bathing beach. A short 
distance to the east, on the left, is the Andrew Grisivold House, built in 1750. 
On the right is the charming * Thomas Lee House, dating from 1664, now 
maintained as a Colonial museum by the East Lyme Historical Society, with a 
25 cent admittance charge. The house has had an interesting history. It 
began as a single room with chamber above, facing south, with a great stone 
chimney at the western end. In 1690, the second Thomas Lee, to make 
space for his 15 children, added the second room beyond the chimney. The 
building of the present road in 1713 caused a reversal of front and rear, a 
Jean-to being built on the south across what; originally had been the front. 


The chimney was reconstructed at the same time to fit the new lay-out. There 
is a wellsweep in the yard, and on the same property is the Little Red School 
House, said to date from 1734. 

About a mile beyond the Lee house, a road to the south leads to Black Point, 
with a fine view of the Sound. On the eastern side of the Point is an old white 
farmhouse, the Christopher Christophers House (Gorton House) said to date 
from 1673. There is another good view of the Sound from the Niantic railway 
station. The State Military Encampment lies on the river above the village. 
There is an interesting Indian cave along the river about 1 J^ miles northeast 
of Niantic, reached by the road past the State Farm for criminal and mis- 
demeanant women. 

The traveler should not miss the picturesque Flanders road (Penn ave., 
Niantic) which runs north along the uninterrupted rocky woodland lying west 
of the Niantic River estuary. We pass Dodge Lake, interesting to botanists 
for its aquatic plants; and a half mile farther on the right the Joseph Smith 
House of 1760, with the old grist mill still standing across the road. At 
Flanders, where we rejoin U. S. 1, the traveler can continue north on the scenic 
Route 161, in the valley of Great Brook. Just before reaching the Montville 
town line is the Tinker Place, from the early 18th century. 

A mile west of Flanders (U. S. 1) is Pataganset Lake, with the plants charac- 
teristic of a coastal plain pond. The first road west of the lake leads north 
l]/2 miles to the Deacon Strickland House, early 18th century. Further on this 
road is Powers Lake, the site of the Yale Engineering Camp, with a hill com- 
manding a fine southern view. The Nehantic State Forest is just north of this 
property. Returning from Powers Lake by the road running southeast, 1 
mile north of U. S. 1 the old Davis House lies on our left, overlooking Pata- 
ganset Lake. 

At Flanders (East Lyme) are two interesting landmarks: the Justin Beckwith 
Place, on a side road leading south by the Baptist church; and Calkins Tan-rn. 
northeast of the highway crossing, early 18th century and a stopping place for 
Washington and Lafayette. 

I. 25 


Crossing the Niantic River on U. S. 1, with a superb view downstream 
from the bridge, we enter the wide-spreading town of Waterford, settled about 
1653, and set apart from New London as a separate town in 1801. There was 
shipbuilding on the Niantic River, and an important fishing industry. Along 
the shore are beaches and summer homes, and the eastern part of the town 
has come to be a suburb of New London. 

There is little of interest on the present Post Road, except Manaluck Hill, on 
the left, about half way to New London, from which there are good views in all 
directions. Near Gilead Rd., on the north, the original route from Flanders, 
there are several interesting old houses. The best of these (3 miles east of 
Flanders and 1 mile north) is tin* Morgan House, supposed to have been built 
about 1680. 


The road leading south from U. S. 1, along the east side of the Niantic 
River, is well worth taking. It continues to Millstone Point, \Y^ miles south 
of R. 156, where a dike of fine-grained granite rock, intruded into the gray 
schist in an almost vertical position, has been quarried for millstones and also 
for building. Millstones were taken from here as early as 1737. The property 
belonged to Gov. Winthrop, who gave it as a marriage portion to his daughter, 
the wife of Maj. Edward Palmes; for many years the Palmes family controlled 
the rope ferry across Niantic River. On the west side of the Point is Seaside, a 
state tuberculosis sanatorium for outdoor treatment, where we see the children 
playing in shorts at all seasons. The same road may be followed around the 
shore to New London, with a number of old houses along the way and on the 
back country roads, many of them connected with the Rogers family. At 
Goshen Point, the beautiful formal gardens of the Harkness estate are opened 
once a year for the benefit of a local charity. 

Route 85, about 2^ miles from New London, leads past Flatrock Quarry 
on the left, where the quartz veins and coarser portions of gneiss afford good 
specimens of many minerals, including the rare aeschynite, not reported else- 
where in the U. S. Three miles farther northwest on this route, we pass 
Konomoc Hill on our right, with the Old Holt Place, 1730, on the summit, and 
a view around the entire horizon. In Butlertown, a deserted district about 2 
miles west on an impassable road, are three very old houses. One of these, 
the David Phillips House, is said to date from the late 17th century; the others 
belonged to the Crocker and Daniels families. 

I. 2f> 

Our next town is New London, at the west mouth of the Thames River, 
whose deep water has made it the principal port in Connecticut since early 
days. John Winthrop the younger, whom we met at Saybrook, son of Gov. 
Winthrop of Massachusetts, laid out a settlement on this spot in 1646, and 
was commissioned by Connecticut as a magistrate two years later. Originally 
called Pequot, the present name was given by the General Court in 1658 
"in memory of the City of London." During the Revolution, New London 
was the principal rendezvous for privateers. It was attacked by Benedict 
Arnold in 1781 and partially burned, but fortunately some of the finest 
landmarks escaped. In the War of 1812, New London was blockaded by a 
British fleet. The Cedar Grove cemetery contains the graves of 127 veterans 
of that war, the largest number of any cemetery in the State. 

During the first half of the 19th century, New London, already an important 
seaport, developed a large whaling fleet, second to New Bedford and with 
Nantucket a close third. During the World War, the city was one of the 
Government's principal naval bases and tripled its population for the time 
being. It is the seat of Connecticut College and the U. S. Coast Guard Acade- 
my. The annual Yale-Harvard boat races are held here, and there is a large 
summer colony. The city of New London was incorporated in 1784, and in 
1930 had a population of 29,640. Industrial products include silk, bed com- 
fortables, c-ollapsible tubes, printing presses, and machinery. 



Entering the city from the west on U. S. 1, and following Bank St. east to 
Perkins Green (Bank and Blinman sts.) we come to the **Sfauv Mansion 
(1 on Chart XXI) headquarters of the New London County Historical Society 
and open to the public for a small fee. (10-12, 2-5; free on Wednesdays.) It 
was built in 1756 by a wealthy ship owner, Capt. Nathaniel Shaw, largely to 
give work to 35 Acadian peasants, who blasted the stone from the ledge on 


1. Shaw Mansion. 2. Shepherd's Tent. 3. Huguenot House. 4. Old Hempstead House. 
5. Court House. 6. Public Library. 7. Whaling Museum. 8. Union Bank. 9. Jedediah 
llunlington House. 10. St. James Episcopal Church. 11. Capt. Stevens Rogers House. 
12. John Winthrop statue. 13. Bulkeley School. 14. Ancientest Burial Ground. 15. 
Nathan Hale Statue. 16. Old Town Mill. 

which the house stands. The stone wing on the east was added later, taking 
the place of the wooden one where a fire was always kept burning for chance 
Indian guests. Shaw's son Nathaniel, the leading citizen of New London at 
that time, threw in his lot with the patriots and had charge of naval affairs 
under Congress, fitting out privateers and lending money to the government . 
The house was set on fire by Arnold, but extinguished by neighbors with 

I. 26 NEW LONDON 63 

vinegar from barrels stored in the attic. It was built on rising ground, over- 
looking New London and the harbor, and is reached by a broad flight of stone 
steps. In the garden are several rare trees brought from foreign lands. The 
fence is of handsome wrought iron. The main house has a porch across the 
front, supported by 7 square posts, with ornamental ironwork between. There 
is a balustrade on the roof above the cornice. The house has a central hall. 
Ceilings on the first floor are of paneled plaster, with bead and egg-and-dart 
moldings. The walls are plastered and covered with wall paper; part of the 
upper floor is paneled in wood. The black marble mantels probably replace 
original slabs of stone. Washington was entertained here in 1776 and the 
Washington chamber has been preserved in its original condition. Nathan 
Hale was a frequent visitor. The rooms display interesting collections and 
Revolutionary relics. The Mansion is now known as "Connecticut's Naval 
Ofiice at New London during the war of the American Revolution." 

Returning by Blinman St. to Truman St. (U. S. 1) the second house at the 
right, built by the father of Samuel Harris in 1713, is commonly known as the 
Shepherd's Tent (2; 77 Truman st.)a meeting place for the New Light Separa- 
tists who left the original church as a result of Whitefield's preaching It also 
served as a theological seminary. A block east, as we round the corner, the 
quaint stone * Huguenot House (3) with its gambrel roof, stands out on our 
left. It was built for Nathaniel Hempstead about 1751 by Huguenot refugees. 
A hundred feet north on Hempstead St., surrounded by a high board fence, is 
the *0ld Hempstead House (4) probably the oldest frame house in the State, 
built originally by Robert Hempstead, perhaps as early as 1645, and enlarged 
by his son Joshua. It began as an end-chimney house; a second room was 
added to the north, and later a lean-to, thus illustrating the evolution of the 
typical salt-box. The original pitch of the roof was very steep, 15 inches to 
the foot, as was probably true of the earliest houses, following the model of 
the English thatched roof; this was later changed to a lower pitch. The house 
originally had casement windows with leaded panes. The walls are shingled 
on vertical boarding and filled with seaweed. In the rear is a large apple 
tree, said to be one of those brought from Massachusetts by John Winthrop 
about 1650. Old houses in this section date both before and after the fire of 

On Huntington St., at the head of State St., is the *Comt House, (5) a fine 
example of Georgian Colonial design, built in 1784. The main entrance has a 
Palladian window above, in a slight recess formed by the side pilasters, with a 
pediment gabled into the roof. There is a heavily molded cornice around the 
pediment and across the front of the roof. The front corners continue the 
quoin treatment of the doorway through the first story, above which there are 
pilasters. The main window heads on the first story are formed of key blocks, 
imposed on angled blocks that give the appearance of supporting the second 
story. There is a graceful cupola on the gambrel roof, which has a slight 
upward curve. 

Across from the Court House stands the Public Library (6.) At 224 State 
St., in the Mariners Savings Bank, is the Whaling Museum (7) open to the 
public during banking hours. The interesting collection of implements and 
pictures brings back an imiv>rtant phase of New London's history. Begin- 
ning actively about 1819, ships were sent out into all the oceans. At the 
l>eak in 1846, the New London fleet consisted of 71 ships, em cloying about 
2,500 men. There was a constant demand from other ports for New London 
captains. The last survivor of the famous fleet came into port in 1909. Far- 


ther down State St., near the railway station, is the Union Bank (8) the first 
bank to be opened in Connecticut, in May, 1792; it had already organized 
by the time charters were granted to this and the Hartford Bank. Opposite 
the Court House, at the corner of Broad and Huntington Sts., is the Jedediah 
Huntington House (9) built in 1790. Huntington was a prominent general in 
the Revolution, and came from Norwich to take the post of collector of cus- 
toms. A block farther north on Huntington St., past a row of fine houses with 
2-story classical columns, is St. James Episcopal Church (10;) Rev. Samuel 
Seabury, the first Episcopal bishop in America, served as rector and is buried 
in the chancel. The house at 294 Main St. (11) some blocks to the east, was 
the home of Capt. Stevens Rogers, master of the steamship "Savannah" from 
Savannah to Liverpool, the first steam vessel to cross the Atlantic. 

On Bulkeley Square, facing Hempstead St., is the heroic statue of *John 
\Vinthrop (12: 1606-1676) the founder of New London, who served as governor 
of the Colony from 1657 on and procured the Connecticut Charter from 
Charles II. He was a physician, the first American chemist and member of 
the Royal Society, and an untiring promoter of mineral development. The 
statue, designed by Bela Lyon Pratt, was erected by the State in 1905. To 
the east on Huntington St! is Bulkeley School (13) founded in 1873 through 
money left by Leonard H. Bulkeley, and now the city High School for boys. 

North of Bulkeley Square is the **Ancientest Burial Ground (14) with the 
Xallian Hale SchooUwuse, moved to this position in 1901 and restored. Hale 
taught a private school in the building before he entered the army (May 
1774 to July 1775;) it was the first incorporated secondary school in Connec- 
ticut, with the exception of the Hopkins schools at New Haven and Hartford. 
It is cared for by the Daughters of the American Revolution, and open to 
visitors during the summer for a small fee. A replica of the Nathan Hale 
Statue (15) by MacMonnies in City Hall Park, New York, is being erected on 
Williams Park to the west. The Burial Ground, laid out in 1653, is of fascinat- 
ing interest. The grave of Capt. Richard Lord, 1662, is the oldest dated 
tombstone in the State east of the Connecticut River. There are Salton- 
stalls and Deshons, Christophers and Brewsters and Shaws. Madame Sarah 
Knight, school teacher and traveler, is buried here; John and Samuel Gray, the 
early silversmiths, with the most elaborate headstone in the cemetery; Thomas 
Short, who set up the first printing press in the Colony in 1709. Benedict 
Arnold is said to have stood on the high ground since occupied by Jonathan 
Brooks' tomb while he watched the burning of the city. A little farther north, 
to the right of Main St., is the *0ld Toicn Mill (16; 32 Mill st.) on Jordan's 
Brook, built by Winthrop in 1650 and rebuilt in 1712, with its gambrel roof 
and an overshot watenvheel still in place. The site of the Winthrop family 
residence is occupied by the Winthrop School, which can be seen through the 
trees. John Winthrop himself owned land here and on Fishers Island. He 
died at Boston in 1676 during a visit, and rests there in King's Chapel burial 
ground, beside his father. 

At the north end of the city. Riverside Park, reached from Williams St. 
(R. 32) by Adelaide St., is a favorite position for watching the Yale-Harvard 
boat races during the third week in June, and can be used for an auto camp. 
Above this, on the river bank, are the beautiful Colonial buildings of the 
* U. S. Coast Guard Academy, established at New Bedford in 1876 and moved 
to its present site in 1932. This is the officers' training school for the Coast 
Guard, corresponding with Annapolis for the Navy. Visitors to the buildings 
and the Coast Guard vessels are welcome during the afternoon; apply to the 

I, 26 NEW LONDON 65 

Gate Watch for guides. Of special interest is the Perham collection of small 
arms and other weapons. A battalion review is held at 3:30 on Thursday 
during April, May, October and November. Across Mohegan Ave. from the 
Academy is the Lyman Allyn Museum and Park, a memorial to one of New 
London's whaling captains. The Museum, a modern building in Classical 
style, built of native granite and Vermont marble, is devoted to the fine 
arts, with special exhibits from time to time. (Hours: 10-5, except Monday; 
Sunday 2-5.) 

North of the Museum, between Mohegan Ave. and Williams St., lies the 
325-acre campus of Connecticut College, a privately endowed college of arts 
for women. The original funds were raised by a statewide campaign of public 
spirited citizens. The College was opened in 1915, and today has a student 
body of over 600. Its buildings, of native granite, occupy a hilltop com- 
manding a view of the Thames, New London and Long Island Sound. The 
* Connecticut Arboretum, maintained by the College, covers a 70-acre tract. 
The Washington Memorial Entrance, a gift of the D. A. R., is across Williams 
St. (R. 32) from the west gate of the Campus. We pass down grass steps, 
bordered by laurel and red cedar, to a small lake, with an outdoor theatre. In 
the western portion of the area is Bolleswood hemlock forest, practically un- 
touched since Indian days; some of the trees are probably 450 years old. The 
Arboretum is being developed as a collection of all trees and shrubs native to 
Connecticut, of which 300 varieties are already represented. Though pri- 
marily an outdoor botanical laboratory and a recreation spot for students, it 
is open to the nature loving public. 

To the south of the city, Fort Trumbull (Bank st. to Howard to Trumbull) 
with its granite walls, was built in 1849 on the site of the fort captured during 
Arnold's raid. The original powder house of 1776 has been preserved. The 
reservation is headquarters for certain units of the Coast Guard service and 
for the patrol boats of its Base Four. A little below the Fort is the Yacht 
Landing, the largest rendezvous for yachts in Connecticut. Ocean Ave. (south 
from Bank st.) leads to Gardner Cemetery, where the actor Richard Mansfield 
is buried. 

Pequot Avenue (south from Bank st. by Howard st., the old "Long Bridge") 
leads past many handsome residences. On our left is the Thames River, where 
U. S. naval vessels of various types lie at anchor. We pass the white Light- 
house, one of the oldest in the country, built in 1760 and rebuilt in 1801. Ocean 
Beach is maintained by the city as a public bathing beach and amusement 

I. 27 

The town of Groton, at the eastern mouth of the Thames River, was settled 
about 1650 and set off from New London as a separate town in 1705. The name 
was taken from Gov. Winthrop's home town in England. There are two main 
centers. On the west, the village of Groton, opposite New London, is asso- 
ciated with the capture of Fort Griswold by Benedict Arnold in 1781. It was 
active in shipping and shipbuilding, and is now the sdat of a U. S. Submarine 
Base. There are large summer colonies at Eastern Point and along the shore. 


The eastern side of the town, on Mystic River, was the scene of the decisive 
fighting in the Pequot War. The village of Mystic, partly in Groton and 
partly in Stonington, became famous for its shipbuilding in the era of clipper 

Turning south from the New London bridge, with its fine view up the river, 
on the left of Thames St. (U. S. 1) we pass the Mother Bailey House (cor. 
Broad st.) home of the patriotic woman who contributed her red flannel 
petticoat to Decatur's fleet for gun wadding, in the War of 1812; and Ensign 
Awry's House (cor. Latham st.) built by Ebenezer Avery in 1775. where the 
wounded were brought after the battle at Groton Heights. Fort St. leads up 
the hill to the ruins of *Fort Griswold, built in 1775 and named for Lieut Gov. 
Matthew Griswold. On Sept. 6, 1781, the garrison of 150 men, under Col. 
William Ledyard, put up a gallant defense against Benedict Arnold's troops. 
When the fort finally surrendered, some of the survivors, including Ledyard, 
were cruelly butchered. A stone marker, enclosed by an iron fence, marks the 
spot where Col. Ledyard fell, and there is also a monument to Major Mont- 
gomery of the British forces, who was killed while leading the attack. The 
water battery of the fort was built in 1812. 

Just north of the Fort is the *GROTON MONUMENT, a granite obelisk 
22 feet square and 135 feet high, erected by a lottery under State patronage 
in 1830. The fort and the grounds around the monument form a State 
reservation. A 15 cent fee and 166 circular steps bring us to the top of the 
monument, from which there is a superb view. From the north window, we 
see the Thames River with its bridges, Odd Fellows Home, Navy Yard, and 
the hills of the upper river. East window: Fort Hill, Mystic and Stonington, 
Lantern Hill, Mystic Island and lightship, Wicopesset Island, Watch Hill, 
Block Island, Point Judith, Gay Head. South window: Ledyard Cemetery, 
Fort Griswold, Fishers Island, Gardiner's Island, Plum Island Montauk 
Point, Bartletts Reef lightship, and lighthouses at Race Rock, North Dumpling 
and Gull Island. West window: New London and harbor, Fort Trumbull, and 
the shore as far as the Connecticut River. At the foot is the Monument House, 
maintained by the D. A. R., with relics of the battle, and some old furniture 
and whaling implements. On the grounds are Civil and Spanish War memo- 
rials. In the shadow of the monument is the Bill Memorial Library, given to 
the town in 1890 by Frederick Bill, a handsome building of granite and free- 
stone; there are large collections of butterflies and birds, also the sword of 
Col. Ledyard. A few blocks to the southeast is the Col. Wm. Ledyard Cemetery 
(Mitchell st., reached from U. S. 1 by Ledyard ave.) Ten of the men killed in 
the battle are buried here, including Col. Leydard, with a slate headstone and 
a shaft erected by the State in 1854. 

Just below the point where U. S. 1 turns east is the Electric Boat Co., 
probably the leading builders of submarines in the world. Below this is the 
large fish-packing plant of the Atlantic Coast Fisheries Co. Farther south is 
Eastern Point with its summer hotels and a fine view of the river and Sound. 

Following U. S. 1, the botanist will wish to turn off southeast, before reach- 
ing the R. R., to Poquonock Plains, a stretch of glacial sand with several 
small ponds and interesting aquatics and coastal plain plants. Beyond the 
R. R. underpass is the Arcry Memorial, erected by the descendants on the site 
of Capt. James Avery 's homestead of 1656 The shaft within the wall of stone 
was given by John D. Rockefeller and designed by Bela L. Pratt, both of them 
descendants. The old well has been provided with a wellsweep. At Poquo- 

I. 27 GROTON 67 

nock Bridge, in another mile, we pass an old landmark, probably from the 17th 
century: the 1^ story Smith House, with an overhang. North of the Bridge, 
on Buddington Rd M is the new Indian Cemetery, for reburial of bodies dug up 
in scattered places, to be dedicated as part of the Tercentenary celebration. 
On Bluff Point, 2 miles south of U. S. 1, a rocky shore with large boulders and 
a long sandy beach adjoining, there is a considerable area of mixed hardwoods, 
with many interesting species of native hawthorne. There is an attractive 
view from the Point. This land is associated with the Winthrop family, 
having been granted to John Winthrop for a farm in 1648. Four miles from 
Groton is *Fort Hill, the site of Sassacus' fort, abandoned after the capture 
of the fort at Mystic by Capt. Mason. The hill gives a wonderful view, and 
the tower of Chasanba Lodge, used by the State as a fire lookout, may be 
climbed. Just east of this is the old Fanning House, a \Y 2 story cottage, 
probably built before 1700 

From Fort Hill, Route 215 runs southeast, over Prospect Hill with its fine 
view, to the seaport of Noank (note the old lighthouse on the point,) and then 
follows the picturesque shore line to Mystic, where we rejoin U. S. 1. 

The village of Mystic lies partly in Groton and partly in Stonington, and its 
place in clipper ship building will be considered under Stonington, as the princi- 
pal yards lay east of the river. On the Groton side are a number of interesting 
old houses, associated with sea captains. The Packer Keeler House on Water 
St., opposite the coal yard, was built by Daniel Packer in 1777. (A later 
Daniel F. Packer started the pine-tar soap industry. There are other factories 
in Mystic making broad silk and velvet.) Near the end of Gravel St., north 
from Main St., is the Capt. George Eldredge House of about the same date. 
The Corner Cupboard House at 15 Grove St. (via Pearl and Avery sts.) a 
little back from the road, dates from 1729, with John Burrows as the early 
owner. The Packer Homestead, Irving Ave. (via West Mystic ave.) com- 
mands a fine view of the shore; it was built by Capt. James Packer in the early 
18th century. On Pequot Hill (West Main st. and north from Elm st.) is 
the *Mason Monument, commemorating the capture of the Pequot fort by 
Capt. John Mason and his company of 77 men, on May 26, 1637. This 
action broke the Pequot power and made Connecticut safe for settlement. In 
recognition of his service, Mason was granted the island off Mystic harbor 
which still bears his name. The spot where the fight took place is said to be 
a field 200 yards north of the monument. 

From Mystic to Old Mystic, west of the river, an attractive road runs close 
to the water. A turn to the left leads to the Mystic Oral School for the deaf 
and dumb, established at Ledyard by Jonathan Whipple in 1869 and moved 
to this spot in 1874. The school, which commands a view of the Sound, is 
now maintained by the State. About % mile before reaching Old Mystic, 
Porter's Rocks lie on our left, a jumble of ledges and boulders where Capt. 
Mason and his Indian allies spent the night before attacking the Pequot fort. 
It is a picturesque spot, especially in the Fall, and there is a good view up and 
down the river. Just north of this on the right is Eldredge Museum, a collection 
of over 7000 curios, many of them arranged as an educational exhibit, and open 
to visitors. 

Going back to the Bridge at Groton, Route 12 leads north along the bank of 
the river. Starr Hill on our right, north of the R. R. and located by the water 
tower of the Odd Fellows Home, commands a fine view of the river and 
harbor. The Edward Stallion House, of 1 \i stories, north of the Starr burial 


ground, goes back to about 1684. About a mile north of this is Bailey Hill, a 
drumlin, or elliptical hill shaped like half an egg, consisting of bedrock and 
stony clay, and showing the direction of ice movements during glacial times. 
About 2^2 miles from Groton is the * U. S. Submarine Base and Training 
School. Special permission may be secured from the duty officer to visit 
submarines that are in port. The tall steel tower, holding a 110 foot column 
of water, makes it possible to duplicate sea conditions when a submarine rests 
on the bottom, and is used for instruction in the use of the Monson Lung. 

Route 84 is the more scenic highway east from Groton. This was the route 
of the old Pequot Trail and is soon to be developed as the main traffic artery. 
Just beyond Center Groton is the Daboll Homestead, a 1 % story cottage with 
central chimney, where Nathan Daboll 's famous almanac is still issued and 
Daboll's School of Navigation was conducted for three generations. South 
of this point are the Candlewood Hills, a wild wooded section covered with 
ledges, where ship's masts were cut for His Majesty and others, and where 
copperheads still abound. 3 miles from Groton, a short turn to the right leads 
to the site of theirs/ Baptist church in Connecticut, organized by Rev. Valen- 
tine Wightman in 1705. Nothing is left except the burying ground, where there 
is a Wightman Memorial dedicated in 1890. A short distance farther east, on 
the right, a walk and climb lead to the Horse Pound, a chasm of great rocks 
surrounding a level space, supposed to have been used by Indians for keeping 
stolen horses. At Burnetts Corner, on the left, a short distance from the 
road junction, is an early milestone, this being the route of the old post road 
and later of the New London-Providence turnpike. In Old Mystic, on the 
west side of the river, is the Woodbridge Tavern, built by Dr. Dudley Wood- 
bridge in 1750. Highways run on all sides of the house, which was built against 
a bank, so that the uoper windows on the rear are on a level with the road. The 
stone building on our left as we approach the bridge was used as a straw hat 

I. 28 

Crossing the Mystic River, we enter the town of Stonington, settled by a 
company from the Plymouth Colony, under the leadership of William Chese- 
brough, who arrived in 1649. After some boundary disputes with Massa- 
chusetts, it was incorporated as a Connecticut town in 1662. The present 
name was given four years later. The two centers of Mystic and Stonington 
were active in shipping and shipbuilding, the former becoming noted for its 
clipper ships and the latter for its whaling fleet. Stonington village was 
bombarded by a British fleet in 1775, and another sea attack warded off in 
1814. Both villages were a base for privateers and the home of many famous 
sea captains. The borough of Stonington, the first in the State, was incorporat- 
ed in 1801. 

At Mystic, the street running north along the river leads in about a mile to 
the * Marine Historical Museum, housed in the buildings of an old woolen 
mill, maintained by the Marine Historical Assn. and open during July and 
August for a 25 cent fee. The museum contains one of the largest collections 
of original ship models in the country, with objects and pictures illustrating 

I. 28 StONtNGTON 69 

the wooden ship era. Toward the close of the clipper ship period, Mystic 
took the lead in shipbuilding, developing a type of vessel that combined cargo 
space with speed. In 1860, the medium clipper ship Andrew Jackson, Capt. 
John E. Williams, established the record of 89 days, 4 hours, from New York 
to San Francisco, breaking by 9 hours the record made by the extreme clipper 
Flying Cloud in 1851. Three other passages, of 100, 103 and 102 days, es- 
tablished the best average ever made by a sailing ship on this run. The 
Andrew Jackson was built by Irons and Grinnell in 1854. Charles Mallory, 
Greenman and other builders were equally famous in their day, and Mystic 
captains and crews supplied much of the driving force for the clippers built 
elsewhere that were straining masts and rigging around the Horn. In 1861, the 
Maxson Fish yard was building the first regular ironclad, the "Galena," at 
the time the Monitor was launched. The yachts built at a later period, 1870- 
80, by D. 0. Richmond held all records until the keel yachts came in. The 
hull of the famous "Annie" is now on the museum grounds. Going back in 
history, a British officer in the War of 1812 described Mystic as "a cursed 
little hornets' nest." The town was active in the whaling industry between 
1830 and 1850; Mallory controlled 19 whalers either as owner or agent. A 
little above the Museum, on the bank of the river, is Elm Grove Cemetery, 
noted for its rhododendrons; the shrub on Dr. Cowle's lot is said to be the 
largest in the State. The entrance gate was erected in 1892 to the memory 
of Charles Mallory, whose home formerly stood on this site. Half a mile 
farther north, on the right, is the Dudley Woodbridge House, known as White 
Hall, built around 1710. About 1^ miles northeast of Mystic (via Deans 
Mills rd.) is the Capt. George Dennison House, said to date from 1717. The 
house, which has been restored, is still occupied by descendants, full of family 
heirlooms and open to visitors. 

U. S. 1, passing the road to Wamphassuc Point, leads us to Ston- 
ington. Entering the borough on Water St., we pass Wadawanuck Park 
(1 on Chart XXII) on our left, with the Public Library. East of the Park is 
the large Zebulos Slanton House (2 ; Main and Temple sts.) In the ell, with its 
show windows of small panes, Stanton worked at his trade of silversmith; his 
brother Daniel was killed at Fort Griswold. In the Dudley Palmer House at 
14 Elm St., Dr. J. H. Weeks maintains a Whaling Museum (3) with imple- 
ments and logbooks, open to visitors. Going south on Main St., we pass on 
the left the beautiful Congregational Church (4) built in 1829. At Grand St., 
the Eels House (5) late 18th century, stands on the northeast corner. On the 
southeast corner is the Col. * Joseph Smith House (6) a fine square mansion of 
1760, with hip roof and a good doorway; one of the shells fired by the British 
fleet in 1814 is set on a post at the street corner. Up the hill on Grand St., to 
the east, is the Samuel Dennison Home (7) built in 1789. Around the chimney 
is a "whale walk," where one could go to watch for incoming whale and seal 

Continuing south on Main St., we pass the house built in 1761 by Col. 
Oliver Smith (8; 25 Main st.) a shipbuilder. On our right, at the corner of 
Wall St., is the Amos Palmer House (9) of 1787, heavily damaged during the 
bombardment. The artist Whistler spent his boyhood days here. After 
passing Cannon Square (10) with a monument and two of the old 18-pound 
guns, which successfully repelled the heavily armed British fleet of five ships, 
we come to the *0ld Lighthouse (11) now headquarters of the Stonington 
Historical Society, open in summer without charge. In the museum are some 
early American portraits, old pewter, spinning and weaving implements, and 



vH(f/S ( 

I #J ^ 

/' 1 W' ^ J 

/ / /O I , / / 



1. Wadawanuck Park 2. Zebulos Stanton House. 3. Whaling Museum. 4. 
tional Church. 5. Eels House. 6. Joseph Smith House. 7. Samuel Dennison House. S. 
Oliver Smith House. 9. Amos Palmer House. 10. Cannon Square. 11. Old Lighthouse. 
12. Atwood Machine Co. 13. Captain Nat. B. Palmer. 14. John Rathbone House. 15. 
Polly Breed House. 


many marine exhibits, including the figurehead of the "Great Republic." 
There is also one of the Liverpool Pitchers, made to order in England to 
commemorate the gallant defense of Stonington. There is a good view from 
Stonington Point below the Lighthouse. 

West on Water St. is the plant of the Atwood Machine Co. (12) whose silk 
and rayon throwing machinery goes all over the world. The battery used in 
the War of 1812 stood on this site, and running westward is the Old Break- 
water, with the stone posts where whaling ships tied up. Continuing north 
on Water St., at No. 94 is the Peleg Brown House (13) better known as the 
home of *"Captain Nat" B. Palmer (1799-1877) probably the most famous of 
the clipper ship captains, and also explorer, shipbuilder and owner. His 
furniture and personal effects are still in the house, which is open to visitors. 
Opposite on the right is the house built by Rev. John Rathbone (14: Water and 
Harmony sts.) the first Baptist minister in Stonington, in 1775. On Water 
St. nearby is the Polly Breed House (15) with its gambrel roof, one of the oldest 
in the borough. 

East of Stonington on U. S. 1, below the hamlet of Wequetequonock (2 right 
turns) we come to the oldest graveyard in Stonington, near the homes of the 
first settlers. A number of so-called "wolf stones" are to be found here, flat 
stones supposed to protect bodies from wolves. Half a mile southeast of the 
cemetery is the Nehemiah Palmer House, built in 1700. This road continues 
east and south to Oshbrook Point, a scenic spot opposite Watch Hill, with a 
pine grove and a good bathing beach that is open to the public. On the next 
road north from U. S. 1 beyond Wequetequonock there are several landmark 
houses. At the Pawcatuck River, in Westerly, we cross from Connecticut to 
Rhode Island. 

On Route 84 to Westerly, Old Mystic, at the head of navigation, has a 
number of interesting houses in the village and its environs. Some of the 
best of these are on the road running northeast, within the first mile. The 
oldest is the Nathaniel Williams House, on the west of the road, said to date 
from about 1685. A piazza has been added. A daughter of this house was 
married to Col. William Ledyard shortly before the battle at Groton. On 
our left, as we cross the Bridge by R. 84, is the Amos Williams House, which 
served as one of the inns where the stage changed horses between New London 
and Providence. A block farther on we pass the Enoch Burrows House, 1790, 
with its three tiers of bay windows and the marble steps brought by water 
from the Burrows marble quarry in western Massachusetts. On our right is 
the Christopher Leeds House, late 18th century, with gambrel roof and over- 
hang, above one of the early shipyards. To reach the substantial Nehemiah 
Williams House, dating from 1719, take the first country road leading to the 
north and follow a lane on the east of the road. 

Continuing on R. 84, in about a mile we cross Quoketaug Hill, one of the 
best views in this region. This highway, originally the Pequot Trail and later 
the post road, has many old houses. The crossroads are also worth exploring 
for landmarks. About 3 miles from Old Mystic we pass on the right the Road 
Congregational Church, the first church in Stonington, organized in 1674. In 
the present building, erected in 1829, the lower part is owned by the town 
and formerly served as the town hall. In the church proper the entrance 
faces the pews. The carriage stalls are still standing in the yard. The Edward 
I) f unison House (Joseph Noyes House) on our left before Stony Brook, dates 
from 1708 and was at one time used as a tavern. A mile beyond the church, 


just below Putnam Corners, is the Col. Amos Chesebrough Homestead, built 
about 1729. In another mile, on our left, near Anguilla Brook, stands the 
interesting Robert Stanton House (Davis Homestead) of 1700. The Capt. 
Thomas Noyes House, east of the brook on the right, is of about the same date. 
We enter Westerly over Hinckley Hill, with another glorious view, particularly 
to the north. 

Journey II 

Norwalk to Canaan; Norfolk to Bridgeport. 
U. S. 7 north ; returning by various highways. 

The region covered by upper Fairneld and Litchfield Counties is a geological 
unit. The convulsions and erosions of earlier ages have left a series of plateaus 
and rugged hills, cut by the Housatonic River and other streams, running in 
general from north to south. This section, in many ways the most scenic part 
of Connecticut and with the highest elevations, has rivaled the Shore as a place 
for summer homes. Settlement was comparatively late, especially on the 
Litchfield County frontier. In agriculture, it has been mainly a grazing area. 
There was an important iron industry, centering at Salisbury; Danbury has 
led the country in the making of hats. Historically, Tryon's raid on Danbury 
was the principal military action on Connecticut soil. The main R. R. artery 
of the region is the Berkshire Division of the New Haven Road (completed in 
1842) with supplementary bus service. We shall go north on U. S. 7, the 
Ethan Allen Highway, and return by a series of highways leading down from 
Norfolk to Bridgeport. Many side trips will be necessary to cover the terri- 

NORWALK. See Journey T. .5. 

II. 1 

Going north from Norwalk on U. S. 7, we enter the town of Wilton, settled 
about 1705, organized as a parish in 1726, and incorporated from Norwalk as a 
separate town in 1801. The name was taken from Wilton in the English 
Wiltshire. The town consists of a main north and south ridge between two 
valleys, through which the highways run. Tryon's force passed through 
Wilton on its retreat from the Danbury raid. The present town has many 
large estates. 

Route U. S. 7, which follows the Norwalk River, is attractive for its entire 
length. At the junction with R. 33, we pass on the right the David Lambert 
House, an early tavern, dating from 1725, pictured in Wallace Nutting's 
"Connecticut Beautiful." The old house opposite was built by the Church 
family. A mile north of the Wilton R. R. station, on the brow of Drum Hill 
overlooking the Norwalk reservoir, is the birthplace of the theologian Moses 
Stuart (1780-1852) a pioneer in Oriental studies. Two miles from the station 
we find the Capt. Azm Be Men House (Split Rock Inn) built in 1740; Capt 


Belden fought at Bunker Hill and served until the end of the war. At Cannon, 
on the corner of the road to Hurlburt St., is Sharp's Hill Burying Ground, on 
the site of the old meeting house, where most of the 109 Wilton men who fought 
in the Revolution are buried. 

At Wilton Center, where we turn northwest on R. 33, the old Town Hall, 
opposite the Congregational Church, has been restored, and is now called 
Garden Center, in charge of the Wilton Garden Club. It was used for the old 
Academy, taught by Hawley Olmstead and widely known in its day. North 
on Lovers Lane we have the Olmstead Homestead on the left, and on the stream 
the ruins of an old mill, built in 1748. The waterfall in the ravine is worth a 
visit, especially after a heavy rain. The Dea. Daniel Gregory House, on the 
left at the corner of Belden Hill Rd., was standing during the British raid, and 
is the scene of the poem "Grandmother Gregory." Belden Hill Rd. may be 
followed 2 miles southwest (2nd right turn) to Cave Woods, a beautiful wooded 
area on a small pond, open to the public. R. 33 makes a good drive, with a 
number of old landmarks. At North Wilton, on the left, is the Maj. Samuel 
Comstock House of 1760. About 2 miles from Wilton Center we pass over 
Bald Hill, with a fine view to the south. This road was used on Tryon's 
retreat, constantly harassed by the militia, and the Scott Homestead, on our 
right just before reaching the Ridgefield town line, has a cannon ball em- 
bedded in the wall of the house. 

II. 2 


It will now be necessary to make a side trip, to cover the town of Weston. 
The first settlement was made about 1670 by a family named Godfrey. The 
parish of Norfield (North Fairfield) was organized in 1757, and a town incor- 
porated in 1787 as the "west town" of Fairfield; it originally included the pres- 
ent Easton. 

The town is a rough but attractive hill country, watered by the Saugatuck 
River and its tributaries, with the Aspetuck River along the eastern border. 
After the Revolution, the water power on these streams was used for many 
small factories: axes, tools, springs, and many kinds of woolen goods. 

From Wilton, R. 33 may be followed southeast to Westport, where we con- 
nect with R. 57. At the village of Weston was located the well-known Weston 
Military Academy, established in 1855, which flourished until the late 80's. 
About 2 miles from W'estport on R. 57 is Music Hill, a natural amphitheatre 
seating 3000 people, used by Nikolai Sokoloff, conductor of the New York 
Symphony Orchestra, for concerts three times a week during the summer. 
Sometimes whippoorwills add a woodland accompaniment. In the northwest 
of the town, the wild Devil's Den, best reached from the crossroad between R. 
57 and R. 58, takes its name from the imprint of a foot on one of the rocks too 
large for a human being. This spot is on the proposed west loop of the Pom- 
peraug Trail for trampers. 

R. 105 turns off from R. 57 to the right along the Aspetuck River, and then 
follows the Saugatuck \tx>ut 2 miles north of the town line is the 

II. 2 WESTON 75 

House, built as a tavern in 1760. Beyond this is the beautiful pass of Devil 1 s 
Gorge, where the river rushes down between high cliffs, with many waterfalls. 
The improved highway ends at the settlement of Lyon Plain, but its continu- 
ation (Davis Hill rd.) to the north, through a brook ravine, is worth following. 
At Valley Forge is a waterfall on the site of an early hoe factory. Polypody 
ferns drape the rocky hillside, with a background of hemlock. Gen. Tryon, in 
his march on Danbury, had given orders to make prisoners of the boys, who 
would soon grow into rebels. At his approach, the women of the region 
gathered all the boys of 13 and under the older ones were under arms with 
the men and took them to a secluded spot near Valley Forge, where food was 
cooked and sent to them daily until the danger had passed. 

II. 3 

In 1714, John Read, one of the ablest lawyers in New England and a chronic 
land speculator, secured from the local Indian sachem Chicken a large grant 
of land. With a keen sense of humor, Read drew up a formal patent, with 
Chicken as lord of the manor and himself as tenant. Lonetown Manor or the 
Manor of Chicken, as it was variously called, did not last long, for the General 
Assembly proceeded to have the land sold at public auction, a method later 
used for all the northwestern towns. Actual settlement probably began as 
early as 1711. A parish of Reading was organized in 1729, and the name 
changed to Redding when the town was incorporated in 1767. Tryon's 
force marched through the town in 1777, and two years later Gen. Putnam 
was in charge of a Revolutionary camp here. 

Redding consists of beautiful hill country, and is rich in mineral specimens. 
From Wilton, U. S. 7 goes through a corner of the town, passing on the right, 
just over the line, the Branchville Quarry, from which rare minerals have found 
their way to all the large museums. Good specimens are still available, and 
in 1926 Schairer located 31 different minerals. Continuing northeast on the 
dirt road to Bethel along the R. R., on our right y$ mile below West Redding 
station, is Garnet Rock, a hill composed of massive brown garnet, with small 
crystals in cavities. In the R. R. cut there is also green pyroxene rock. The 
Redding Garnet Mine, which has supplied some of our best specimens, is located 
on the west bank of the Saugatuck River, between R. 57 and R. 53. Most of 
the product was crushed for use as an abrasive. 

Redding is crossed by two scenic highways: R. 53, which at Georgetown takes 
off northeast from U S. 7 and is continued by R. 107; and R. 58, along the 
eastern side of the town. On Route 53, in about 3 miles, by looking closely, we 
see to the right a beautiful cascade, which drops about 50 feet through a gorge. 
A little beyond this a dirt road on the right leads along * Redding Glen, a 
secluded valley through which the Saugatuck River flows, between densely 
wooded hills. There are large hemlocks, and the botanist finds many unique 
plants. The garnet mine is lower down the stream on this road. 

On R. 53, half a mile north of the junction with R. 107, on the left, is the 
Mark Twain Library, built by Samuel L. Clemens and endowed by Andrew 
Carnegie. A mile up the hill to the westward is Stormfield, where the author 


passed his last years. The house burned some years ago, but the view which 
he loved is imperishable. Diagonally opposite to the Library is the Capt. 
Lemuel Adams House, built about 1822. 

Continuing up the valley about 3 miles on R. 53, a short turn to the left 
brings us to what is perhaps the oldest house in town, built in 1736 or earlier. 
It was occupied during the Revolution by Col. Aaron Barlow, an intimate 
friend of Gen. Putnam. In this house, it is said that Aaron Barlow's brother 
Joel, poet and diplomatist, one of the "Hartford Wits" and leading figure in 
his day, wrote a portion of the "Columbiad." Opposite the house, across the 
Saugatuck, towers the eminence known as Gallows Hill, so named because of 
the spies executed there by Gen. Putnam. The mill-dam north of the house 
was built for a mill to dry-kiln corn for export to the West Indies. Some of 
the Continental troops were quartered in this section during the winter of 
1779. Just below the Bethel town line, a road to the right leads in y 2 mile to 
the old lime kiln opened by John Read, probably the first in the State. 

On R. 107, at Redding Center, is the house of Rev. Nathaniel Bartlett, 
dating from 1753; he was pastor of the Congregational Church for more than 
half a century, and an ardent patriot during the Revolutionary period. Nearly 
opposite the Bartlett house is a large elm, one of the finest in Connecticut. On 
the northwest corner of the beautiful village Green, with its fine elms, is the 
little Town House, built in 1834. Note also the graceful Colonial porch on 
the opposite corner. The Methodist Church, organized as a class in 1789, was 
the second in New England, following by a few weeks the society in Stratfield 
(Easton.) The present building dates from 1837. On the road leading across 
the hills to Redding Ridge is the * Aaron Sanford House, dating from about 
1750, called the "cradle of Methodism," because the first converts used this 
as their place of meeting. Rings in the ceiling show how the swinging partition 
was hoisted up, when Jesse Lee, the first circuit rider, gathered his flock. The 
house, recently restored, is one of our best examples of the salt-box type. 

Continuing north on R. 107, a hill to our right about a mile above the Center, 
the highest in town, commands a fine view in all directions. 

Route 58, the main highway from Bridgeport to Danbury, crosses Redding 
Ridge. It formed part of the route used by Gen. Tryon and his Tory allies, 
some of them from this neighborhood, in their advance on Danbury. Several 
patriots were seized here, including Jeremiah Sanford, a lad of 10, who was 
carried to New York and died in the prison ship. A British soldier put a 
bullet through the gilded weathercock of the Episcopal Church (not the present 
building, which dates from 1833;) the aged chanticleer still perches on the 
west gable. In the church is shown the bullet fired at the rector, Rev. John 
Beach, who persisted in praying for King George, also the letter of protest and 
warning sent him by the town fathers. The loyalist rector, like the patriot 
Parson Bartlett, had the courage of his convictions during his pastorate of 
50 years. 

From Redding Ridge, a good road leads east to Poverty Hollow, and then 
turns south along the Aspetuck River, which widens into several picturesque 
ponds. At * Aspetuck Falls the stream hurls itself over a cliff into a deep 
gorge. Several of Redding's most attractive residences, old houses that have 
been restored, are on the banks of the Aspetuck. 

On both sides of R. 58, just below the Bethel town line, is the *Ptttnum 
Memorial Camp Ground, the "Valley Forge" of Connecticut, where l.rn 
Israel Putna.o and a force of Connecticut and New Hampshire troops were 


encamped during the hard winter of 1778-9. The property is now a State 
Reservation of 203 acres. Passing through the gateway, in the form of two 
blockhouses, extended in a palisade, we face the Monument, erected by the 
State in 1889. The rows of stones nearby, running toward the north, mark 
the chimneys of the former barracks. Further, on our left, is the stone Colonial 
Museum, with its Revolutionary relics. On the grounds, which have been left 
as far as possible in their native state, are attractive drives and paths, with a 
lake on the east side of the highway. To the west is Phillips Cave, associated 
with an old soldier who returned here after the war and was killed for thieving. 

II. 4 

The next town on our Journey is Ridgefield, along the New York border, 
settled from Norwalk and Milford in 1708, and recognized by the General 
Assembly the following year. As the name implies, the town is made up of 
high ridges, from which it is often possible to see Long Island Sound. Ridge- 
field has been a favorite spot for summer homes, and contains a large number 
of private estates with charming gardens and extensive views. The town 
supplied Connecticut with two governors: Phineas C. and George E. Louns- 

Ridgefield is one of the main gateways from New York to Connecticut, 
Routes 35 A, 102 and 33.) Another attractive approach is from Wilton by 
R. 33. In order to follow Tryon's retreat and the Revolutionary battles, we 
shall take the town from north to south. 

U. S. 7 continues north through the eastern side of the town, with good 
scenery. R. 35, the main route between Danbury and Ridgefield, turns off 
southwest, and one follows for several miles the beautiful plantings of the 
Outpost Nurseries. About 2 miles west of U. S. 7, Pine Mountain, 1060 feet 
elevation, approached by a wood road, commands a good view to the north and 
west. Three miles beyond the junction with R. 35, we turn west to Ridgebury. 

After the burning of Danbury, on April 26, 1777, Gen. Tryon's force, 
harassed by the gathering militia, retreated to Ridgebury, in the north section 
of Ridgefield. Part of the British troops marched through Ridgebury Street, 
and part by the old Bogus road, now a wood road, cutting across country 
farther east. Near the cemetery at Ridgebury is the Ensign Samuel Keeler 
Tavern, built in 1730, a stopping place for Washington in 1780. One of the 
main roads from Boston to New York turned south at this point. Rocham- 
beau also had headquarters at the Tavern ; the French troop were encamped 
just east of here in 1781. A quarter of a mile north is the house built by Capt. 
Nehemiah Keeler in 1735. 

As we go south, the Isaac Keeler grist mill, burned by the British, stood at 
the outlet of Lake Mamanasco. Here R. 33 turns west to North Salem, N. Y., 
through delightful country; Cyrus Northrup (1834-1922) president of the 
University of Minnesota, was born in a house near the N. Y. line. A little 
below this point, Gen. David Wooster, with a force of 200 men, made a dashing 
attack on the British rearguard, capturing 40 prisoners. We pass on the east 


an old Salt-box House, said to have been built by the Scott family in 1756. 
from which the British requisitioned food. Half a mile farther, a dirt road 
forks to the west, passing Ridgefield School for boys, established in 1907. and 
winding through an extensive private park, open to the public. There are 
12 miles of road, which lead to the Port of Missing Men tea house, and make 
a very beautiful drive, especially in laurel season. Beyond this turn is the 
place where a second charge was made by the American troops, and Wooster 
fell mortally wounded. A tablet on the west side of the highway marks the 
spot, which has been made into a roadside park. 

The British were obliged to force a barricade erected by the patriots, a 
little south of the junction with R. 35 from Danbury. A marker in the stone- 
wall on the east of the highway indicates the burial place of 8 Americans and 
1 1 British who died in this engagement. The old Abner Gilbert House (Steb- 
bins House) is still standing here. Fighting kept up along Ridgefield Street 
throughout the day. Gen. Benedict Arnold, who had succeeded Gen. Wooster 
in command, had his horse struck by nine bullets, in an engagement with a 
British flanking party, but escaped uninjured. 

Passing on our left the home of Capt. Philip B. Bradley, one of the leaders in 
the battle, and the old Elms Inn, 1799, we enter the main street of Ridgefield, 
one of the most beautiful in New England. It stretches for nearly a mile, shaded 
with elms, sycamores and maples, and bordered by well kept lawns. On our 
left is the Public Library. Katonah St. (R. 102) turning west to South Salem, 
leads to an attractive drive over West Mountain. On the east side of the street, 
opposite the Soldiers Monument, is the oldest house in Ridgefield, built in 
1713 by the first minister, Rev. * Thomas Haivley; 1>2 stories, with a gambrel 
roof and 3 dormers. There are other old houses on Branchville Rd., which 
turns east at this corner. On the west side, at the junction of R. 33 and R. 
35A. is the charming old * Keeler Tavern, built by Timothy Keeler in 1760. A 
Revolutionary cannon ball, embedded in the frame at the northeast corner, 
may still be seen by raising a sliding shingle. This house was the home of the 
architect Cass Gilbert: in the small parkway at the highway junction (R. 35A) 
is the marble Cass Gilbert Fountain, inspired by one in the Alhambra, which he 
designed and presented to the town. The writer Samuel G. Goodrich (1793- 
1860) widely known in his day as Peter Parley, was born a short distance to 
the west, at the entrance to High Ridge; he was a son of the third minister. 

ii. .> 


Danbury was settled in 1684 or 1685 by eight pioneer families from Norwalk, 
many of the names persisting to the present day. It was incorporated in 1687 
and named from Danbury in Essex, England. The village was burned by 
Gen. Tryon in 1777. Danbury is a half shire town with Bridgeport, and has a 
county court house and jail. One of the four State Normal Schools is located 
here, and Wooster School for boys. There is a widely known annual Fair, the 
last of the old fashioned county fairs in Connecticut, where carnival features 
are now added to the agricultural exhibits. 

11.5 DANBURY 79 

The city of Danbury was chartered in 1889, and in the last census had a 
population of 22,261. Industry centers largely around the Manufacture of 
Hats, for which Danbury has long been famous. Hat making began at an 
early date as a domestic trade. In 1780, Zadok Benedict opened the first 
"shop," on the site of the present Post Office, employing three men and finish- 
ing three hats a day. Now Danbury counts its hatters by the thousands and 
its output by the million of dozens. The Mallory Hat Co., with its up-to-date 
plant, was started in 1823 by Ezra Mallory. The Frank H. Lee Co. is one of 
the largest in the country. Beginning with felted "beavers" made of native 
furs, the business has expanded until today all types of head gear are made in 
Danbury, and more than 30 branches are recognized by the trade. 

We enter the town from the south by U. S. 7, which continues its scenic 
quality for several miles. The highway passes through the picturesque 
Sugar Hollow, flanked on the east by Moses or Wooster ML; on the slope 
toward the highway is located Wooster Mountain State Park. Gen. Wooster's 
force, in its pursuit of Tryon, followed an old road which crossed the east 
shoulder. From the summit, 1000 feet elevation, there are fine views in all 
directions. The climb must be made on foot, or by a circuitous private road 
past the charming Lake Waubeeka, a mile to the south. At the northern exit 
from Sugar Hollow, the former highway swings west, passing the ancient 
Miry Brook Cemetery, and the *Bennet Hawley House, built in 1765, opposite 
the Jewish cemetery. 

U. S. 7 enters the city by West Wooster St., with a glimpse of the Fair 
Grounds to the left. The Old Brookfield Inn (105 W. Wooster st.) probably 
early 18th century, was moved to its present site from Brookfield Iron Works. 
On the opposite side of the street is a large Sycamore, estimated to be between 
300 and 400 years old. As we approach Main St., the old Town Cemetery 
lies on our left, with a monument to the many Revolutionary soldiers. Another 
interesting grave is that of Robert Sandeman, founder of the Sandemanian 
sect, who died in 1771. North on Main St., opposite the Post Office, we pass the 
Public Library, with its reference room on history and genealogy. Another 
block north is the Danbury News Building, where the Danbury News Man, 
James Montgomery Bailey, made his reputation as editor and humorist. 

At the southern end of Main St., on the corner of South St. (R. 58) stands 
the former Taylor Tavern built in 1779. once the half-way house on a New 
York-Hartford stage-line. The old milestone in front reads "68 miles to Hart- 
ford; 67 miles to New York." On South St. is the site of the original Episcopal 
Church, with an old burying ground. Opposite the church yard stands what has 
been known as the Dea. Joshua Knapp House, dating from about 1765 but some- 
what remodeled. Of the old buildings which have escaped the British con- 
flagration and the enroachments of a modern city, the best is the * Isaac 
Jones House of 1749, on Chapel Place, a few rods to the west of Main St. 

During the Revolution, Danbury was connected with Hartford by a mili- 
tary road. There was an army hospital, and Continental troops were mobil- 
ized here by the thousand. The streets echoed to the marching feet of Roch- 
ambeau's army, as they passed through on their way to Yorktown in 1781. 
Early in the War, Danbury was chosen as a place of deposit for military 
stores, whose destruction was the object of Tryon' s Raid. His troops entered 
the village from Bethel on the afternoon of Apr. 26, 1777. Tryon took up his 
headquarters in the Dibble house on South St. (R. 58; corner Stone st.) where 
Gen. Wooster died a few days later. The site has been marked by the D. A. R. 


Anotlier marker (Main and Boughton sts.) locates the liouse from which the 
first reckless shots were fired in defense. The British artillery went into 
action near the present Court House, raking the main street. The military 
stores found in the Episcopal Church and other places were destroyed and three 
of the buildings burned. After a night of looting and drunken riot, the British 
troops, learning of the approach of American forces, set fires in various parts 
of the village and beat a hasty retreat. The total loss was 19 houses, a church, 
and 22 stores and barns ; the owners were later compensated by the distribu- 
tion of the "Fire lands" in northern Ohio. The body of Gen. David Woosler, 
who was brought here mortally wounded after the battle on Ridgebury Rd., was 
removed in 1852 from the town cemetery to the beautiful Wooster Cemetery 
on Ellsworth Ave. (3 blocks east of Main st.) where a monument was erected 
to his memory. 

U. S. 7 leads north to Brookfield along the fertile Still River valley. U. S. 
6, which passes through the town from west to east, gives a fine view from 
the crest of Stony Hill on the way to Newtown. Northwest of the city, the 
Clapboard Ridge Rd. (R. 37A) makes an attractive drive, with a good view 
to the east. On R. 37, about a mile from Danbury, are rocks containing 
graphite in commercial quantities, which was mined for use in pencils. 



Making a side trip southeast from Danbury on R. 58 (South st.) we come to 
Bethel, probably settled before 1700. The East parish of Danbury was or- 
ganized in 1759, and a separate town incorporated in 1855. The name is 
Biblical. Tryon's force marched through here in 1777, coming from Redding 
over Hoyt's hill. Bethel is another hatmaking center, but still a typical New 
England village, with elm-shaded streets and homes surrounded by lawns and 

As we enter the village from the west, the old Peter Barnum Place stands 
at 21 Grassy Plain St. A little farther, on our left, is the Capt. Benjamin 
Hickok House (45 Greenwood ave.) A later member of this family, Lauren s 
P. Hickok, became a distinguished theologian and president of Union College. 
The Seth Seelye House (14 Center st.) presented to the town by the family 
and remodeled to serve as the Public Library, sent out two other college 
presidents: Julius H. Seelye of Amherst and L. Clark Seelye of Smith. On 
the north side of Center St. we find the pre-Revolutionary Barnum Tavern. 
A little farther east, on our right, is what remains of the birthplace of the 
famous showman, Phineas T. Barnum (28 Elm st.) 

On Main St., a block to the north, between the Congregational Church and 
the Town Hall, is the Old Cemetery of 1760, where Revolutionary soldiers were 
buried. Farther east along R. 58 stands the Capt. Eli Thayer House (51 
Milwaukee ave.) 

U. S. 6, which runs across the north of the town, makes a scenic drive. In 
the Stony Hill district in the northeast corner, through which this highway 
passes, are a number of interesting houses, dating from the late 18th century. 
Other old landmarks can be found on outlying roads. 

It. 7 BfcOOKFlELl) R1 

II. 7 

Continuing our Journey north from Danbury, we come to the town of 
Brookfield, settled about 1700. A parish of Newbury (between New Milford 
and Danbury) was organized in 1754, and the present town incorporated in 
1788. It derived its name from the first minister, Rev. Thomas Brooks. 

Entering the town at the southwest corner by U. S. 7, Candlewood Lake 
Rd., the first crossroad to the west, skirts the eastern shore of the lake, and 
rejoins U. S. 7 at Lanesville in New Milford. Huckleberry Hill to the left 
gives a good northeastern view. There are a number of old houses along the 
highway. On our right, just beyond the dirt crossroad to Brookfield Center, 
we pass the John P. Wildman House, a salt-box with attic overhang. A half 
mile east on this crossroad is an old Lead Mine, where galena, sphalerite and 
other minerals are found in the limestone. Brookfield village is usually known 
as the Iron Works, from its early industry, said to go back to 1732. On the 
crossroad running west from the School is a very old landmark, the Timothy 
Foster House. U. S. 7 becomes scenic after leaving the village. 

R. 133, running south from Brookfield Iron Works, gives a pastoral view of 
the Still River valley, and climbs to Brookfield Center, the original village. We 
pass on the west side of the street the Curtis School for young boys, established 
in 1875. On the east side, opposite St. Paul's Church, is an old house of Dutch 
Colonial type, now known as the Bungalow, built in 1740 and at one time used 
as a tavern. Beyond this we have the old Fairchild House, and the Chamber- 
lain Inn, early 18th century. On the Town Hall, at the junction with R. 25, 
is a tablet with the names of Brookfield's pioneer families. Other interesting 
houses will be found on the outlying roads. 

Route 25 makes an attractive drive. Going east from Brookfield Center 
to Bridgewater. we cross Obtuse Hill, where the roadside park gives a good 
view of the village and of the distant mountain ranges to the north, with 
glimpses of the Housatonic. Taking R. 25 south from the center toward 
Newtown, we go over Whisconier Hill, with a fine view in all directions. At 
the foot of this hill is the old Land's End Cemetery, with the graves of many 
early families, including the first minister, Thomas Brooks. 

II. 8 

New Milford, where we cross from Fairfield to Litchfield county, was a 
swarm sent out by the parent hive of Milford. A land company was or- 
ganized at Milford, which bought from the Indians and sold rights to take 
up land. The first white settlement began in 1707, when John Noble arrived 
from Westfield, Mass., with his 8-year old daughter Sarah. New Milford was 
granted town privileges in 1712. Roger Sherman lived here during his early 
manhood. The town consists of a beautiful hill country, and on the west the 
Housatonic has cut a deep valley through the limestone. Lime making is an 
important industry, and tobacco is grown in the river valley. 


Entering the town from the south, U. S. 7, which here follows Still River, 
makes an attractive drive. The first road to the west after crossing the line 
is worth taking for the view of Candlewood Lake. The village of New Milford, 
an industrial and trading center, was built up by the Housatonic R. R. and 
the cigar making which flourished after the Civil War. Present industries 
consist of tobacco packing, hatters' fur, and a bleachery and dye works. 

The older section of the village is built along a narrow Green. Starting at 
the lower end. where R. 25 comes in, we pass on the right the Canfield House, 
built in 1793. A. little above this is the Town Hall, with a bronze tablet 
marking this as the Roger Sherman home site. Sherman, who later was to 
become famous as co-author of the Declaration of Independence and our 
other great national documents, came to New Milford in 1743, where he worked 
as shoemaker, county surveyor, merchant and lawyer, until he removed to 
New Haven in 1761. The Public Library stands at the end of the next block. 
Continuing north, we pass the Congregational Church, built in 1833. with its 
fine Greek Revival portico and "Christopher Wren" spire. The Wm. Taylor 
House of 1784, at the end of the street, was built on good Colonial lines. 
Facing the Green at the north end is the Lincoln Bust by Paul Morris, the 
gift of the late Edward Marsh. Canterbury School, a Roman Catholic prepara- 
tory school for boys, established in 1915, will be found a block above this on 
Aspetuck Ave. An earlier school of note was the Adelphic Institute. On 
the west side of the upper Green, the second building as we go south is the 
New Milford Historical Society, with portraits by Ralph Earle and other 
interesting exhibits, (open Mon., Tues., Fri., and Sat., 2:30-5:00.) Below 
this is the Senator Boardman House, another fine Colonial mansion, built 
about 1793. 

South from the village are two beautiful drives: R. 25 to Bridgewater, with 
its magnificent views of the Housatonic valley; and R. 133 following the river. 
On the latter, about 2% miles below New MUford, we come to the Housatonic 
Gorge, where the river leaves the limestone and cuts through the quartz, mica 
and hornblande of the Hartland Schist formation. The falls near the bridge 
are known as the "Great Falls" and the "Eel Rocks"; formerly lampreys and 
shad were caught here in large numbers. This was a favorite camping and 
fishing ground for the Indians, long after the white settlement. Chief Wara- 
maug is said to have been buried nearby. The early proprietors organized 
the Cove Fishing Co., which lasted until the building of the great dam at 
Derby in 1877. At the lower end of the Gorge, about % mile up the rise at 
the left of the bridge, is * Lovers Leap, where tradition has it that Chief Wara- 
maug's only daughter Lilinoah and her white lover plunged to a watery grave. 
The best view of this wonderful spot is from a particular point on the south of 
the highway, for which one must watch closely. The cliff faces the beautiful 
Cove, and Goodyear's Island, named from an early Indian trader, with its 
fine view down the river. There are picnic grounds in the center of the ledge, 
and others on the opposite side of the Gorge, where we find Indian Spring. 

Above New Milford, U. S. 7 follows the Housatonic River and makes 
a scenic drive. About 1^ miles from the bridge, after passing the old Isaac 
Hine House on the left, we come to the power house and pipelines of the Conn. 
Light and Power Co.'s Rocky River plant. During slack hours, water is pumped 
from the river into the immense storage reservoir on top of the hill created 
by Candlewood Lake, and run down again as required. About ^ mile be- 
yond this point a foot trail leads west to Candlewood Mt. The path climbs to 
Candlewood Cave, with a good easterly view, continues to another viewpoint 


on the northwest of the mountain, and then drops down to R. 37, just above 
the highway junction. Across the river from the main highway we see the 
extensive Limestone Quarries at Boardman's Bridge. Route 37 to Sherman 
makes a good drive, which we shall follow later. On the left of U. S. 7, about 
2i/6 miles beyond R. 37, is Tory's Hole, a large natural cave in the limestone, 
with its appropriate Revolutionary legend. There is another cave in the 
ledge along the highway at Strait's Rocks, On the right, just before reaching 
Gaylordsville, is the George Washington Oak, with a marker, where Wash- 
ington and Lafayette rested, on the road which forded the river at this point. 
After crossing the Housatonic, Long Mountain, lying to the east, gives fine 
views of the river. One shoulder is crossed by a rough country road, and it 
pays to walk south along the ridge from that point. 

North from New Milford, R. 129, improved for part of the distance, leads 
in about 5 miles to the Mica Quarry, northwest of Merryall and south of 
Peet Hill. The quarry has been abandoned, but interesting minerals are 
still to be found in the dumps. It has produced some very fine cut aqua- 
marines and helidor, a small amount of gem garnet, and good specimens of 
beryl, tourmaline garnet, columbite and uraninite. Bear Hill, about a mile 
northeast of Merryall, is worth climbing for its views to the west and south. 

II. 9 

From New Milford, we make a side trip to its daughter town of Bridgewater, 
settled about 1734, and made a separate town in 1856. The name is probably 
descriptive. It occupies a high plateau broken by brook valleys, which rises 
in the north to 950 feet. The Housatonic River forms the western and south- 
ern boundary. Bridgewater has attracted many summer homes. 

We enter the town from the northwest by R. 25, with superb views of the 
Housatonic valley below us as we climb the hill. From the village Green, 
which stands at an elevation of over 600 feet, there is a distant suggestion 
of the same view. The Congregational Church was built in 1807; there is 
fine carving on the old pulpit, which is stored in the front gallery. We find a 
number of good Colonial houses in the village and surrounding country, built 
in the late 18th or early 19th century. 

For scenic drives, R. 67 should be followed east to Roxbury; and R. 25 
south to Brookfield, with beautiful views of the Berkshire foothills, and two 
interesting houses beyond the South Cemetery, 2 miles below the village. 
Taking Hut Hill Rd., about \Yi miles south of the village, we come to Hut 
Hill, one of the high points in the town, with a complete horizon. The first 
side road to the west on R. 25 crosses the lower end of the attractive Plait 
Ravine; beyond this, a half mile climb to the right brings one to Rocky Hill, 
overlooking the river bend and the hills beyond.' There is a somewhat similar 
view from Wolf Pit Mt, above the Housatonic Gorge; it is reached by the 
road running due west from Bridgewater village, with a short climb to the 
north just before we descend to the river road. 


II. 10 

'I\> reach the towns of New Fairfield and Sherman, we go back to Danbury 
for a side trip. New Fairfield was granted by the General Assembly to families 
from Fairfield. and apparently settled about 1730. The cutting off of ''the 
Oblong," in settlement of the boundary dispute between Connecticut and New 
York, had contracted the original area. A town was incorporated in 1740. The 
feature of New Fairfield today is Candlewood Lake, the largest lake in the 
State, created by the Conn. Light and Power Co. in 1927, on which many 
summer homes have been built; it lies partly in the adjoining towns of New 
Milford and Sherman. 

Leaving Danbury by R. 37, which makes an attractive drive, we pass 
through the village of New Fairfield, with a number of old houses, and others 
on Balls Pond Rd. to the west. Balls Pond, nestling among wooded hills, may 
be reached by R. 39, or by R. 37A from Danbury. R. 37 continues north to 
Sherman through the hills. 

From New Fairfield village, R. 39 runs west of the Lake, with occasional 
views. At the former Squantz Pond is a State Park of 133 acres, with facilities 
for camping. A path has been laid out along the lake shore, on the adjacent 
Pootatuck State Forest. West of Squantz Pond, on the summit of Pond Mt., is 
Pootatuck Council Cave, supposed to have been used by the Indians. 


The town of Sherman, lying north of New Fairfield and originally a part 
of it, was settled about 1736. A parish of North New Fairfield was organized 
in 1744. It was made a separate town in 1802, and named for Roger Sherman, 
who as a young man, living with his brother, plied his shoemaker's trade on 
R. 55. One of the town's distinguished sons was Rev. Philo P. Stewart 
(1798-1868) who became a Western missionary and the founder of Oberlin 

The town is long and narrow, having suffered contraction from the cutting 
off of the Oblong; the interesting settlement of Quaker Hill should have been 
in Connecticut, but finds itself in New York State. Sherman consists of a 
central valley and two parallel ridges. Rocky River flows south into Candle- 
wood Lake, and the upper valley drains north by a brook with the Indian 
name Naromiyocknowhusunkatankshunk. There is much beautiful scenery 
in the outlying parts of the town and along the shores of the Lake. 

At the south end of the town, about Y mile above the New Fairfield line 
on R. 37, a tramping trail marked by axe blazes leads east to Wanzer ML, with 
an exceptional -view of Candlewood Lake from the southern Pine Ledges. A 
connecting trail descends a steep brook ravine, with fine views, to the path 
already mentioned along the shore of the Lake from Squantz Pond. About 
3 miles north of the line on R. 37, a country road leads east over Briggs Hill, 


witli a line view in all directions, including glimpses of the Lake. Green Ml., 
another fine viewpoint, can be reached by boat from Candiewood Lake. It 
lies east of the northwestern arm of the Lake, and below it is the attractive 
Green Pond, surrounded by wooded hills. The most complete and accessible 
view of Candiewood Lake is from Great Ml., above the northwestern arm; go 
south for 2 miles on Green Pond Rd., just east of the village of Sherman, and 
climb y$ mile north to the summit. 

On Spring Lake Rd., running northwest from the village, in about lj-<j 
miles, a trail leads west ^ mile to Turner Ml. Camp, from which there is a 
brook trail down to Great Falls, and a mountain trail to ledges with an ex- 
tensive view north and east. Arrangements for use of the overnight camp 
may be made with the Housatonic Trail Club at Sherman. 

R. 39 runs north to join R. 55, west of Gaylordsville. R. 37 crosses the 
ridges to U. S. 7, just above Boardman's Bridge, with a good view from a hill 

ii. 12 

Continuing our Journey on U. S. 7, which gains added beauty as it goes 
north, we enter the town of Kent. As in the other northwestern towns, shares 
were sold at auction, entitling the purchasers to take up land under certain 
conditions. The sale for Kent took place at Windham in March, 1738, the 
bids to start at 50 per share. The majority of the purchasers were from Col- 
chester, with others from Norwalk and Fairfield. Actual settlement began 
the same year, and the town was incorporated in 1739. The name was taken 
from the English county of Kent. 

Kent may be described as a mountain country, some of it still farmed, cut 
by a deep river valley with broad bottom lands, adapted to corn and tobacco. 
There was an important iron industry, and the present town has attracted 
schools and summer homes, with an artists' colony. Kent is one of the best 
centers for tramping in Connecticut. In contains two State Parks: Mace- 
donia Brook and Kent Falls. 

At the south end of the town, the Housatonic has cut a gorge through the 
limestone, with fine potholes and characteristic limestone flora. This is a 
good place to study the relations of the limestone and schist. For a view of 
the rapids, especially fine in high water, walk west 100 yards, just before 
crossing the power canal. Bulls Bridge, above this point, is one of the few 
covered bridges surviving in Connecticut. The unimproved R. 130 leads 
east to South Kent, passing on the right Pickett Rock, with a fine west view, and 
on the left South Kent School, established in 1923 as an offshoot of Kent School. 
About a mile east of South Kent (1st left turn) is the location of the Kent 
Iron Mines, an important source of ore. Exploitation began soon after the 
settlement. Of the early furnaces, one was located on Forge Brook, at the 
entrance to Macedonia Park, where the oak timbers can still be seen under 
the water. There was a forge at East Kent, ore being transported up the 
mountain on horseback. By 1845 there were three blast furnaces in operation, 


employing 280 hands and turning out 3,000 tons a year. The picturesque 
ruin of one of the furnaces stands just north of Kent village, across the R. R. 
opposite Gilbert's store. 

In Kent Village there is a Community House, an annual art exhibit, and a 
World War Memorial Library, in Colonial style, designed by Heathcote 
M. Woolsey. Crossing the river to the west on R. 341, we come to Kent School 
with its attractive buildings, an Episcopal preparatory school for boys on the 
self-help system, established in 1906 by Father F. H. Sill. Going 1^ miles 
farther a road turns north to ^Macedonia Brook State Park, the gift of the 
White Memorial Foundation in 1918, a tract of 1830 acres along the beautiful 
Nodine Hollow Brook and on the slopes of the adjacent hills. The park has 
facilities for picnicking and camping. 

On the west bank of the Housatonic, just behind Kent School, a country 
road leads in 1 y 2 miles to the Sckaghticoke Indian Reservation. There was at 
one time a large Indian settlement, which contributed 100 scouts to the 
Revolutionary armies. The Moravians maintained a mission. The Reserva- 
tion is now reduced to about a hundred acres, where a dozen half-breed Indians 
still reside as wards of the State. 

East of the village. R. 341 to Warren gives a delightful drive over the hills 
After passing a good lookout hill about 1 mile to the south, we reach in : '^ 
miles the two Spectacle Ponds. Above North Spectacle Pond is a representa- 
tive spruce-tamarack bog. North of this is an outlying portion of Mohawk 
State Forest ; a hill about a mile above the Pond gives a good view to the south- 

The original Kent settlement, a mile north of the village, is known as 
Flanders, and it is here that we find our exhibit of old houses. Several of them 
have entrance porches of a charming local variety: slender columns supporting 
an open gable, usually with a molded cornice. The best is the *Mills House 
(Mary Bacon House) 1 mile on U. S. 7. and '2 mile east. The older portion, 
now the kitchen ell. probably dates from the middle of the 18th century, and 
decorations were added to match the later house. The main house, early 19th 
century, designed and largely built by John Mills, great-grandfather of the 
present owner, is one of the finest examples of Colonial decoration in the State. 
A cornice molding of unusual beauty follows the entire line of the roof, and 
there is similar treatment above all the windows. The main entrance porch 
shows the local type at its best; the east porch in the same style is a modern 

On U. S. 7, opposite Flanders Arms, with one of the graceful porches, stands 
a house, less pretentious than the Bacon house but of fine proportions and 
about the same period, now known as Seven Hearths. Above one of the fire- 
places is a panel of great beauty, made of a single piece of pine 41 % inches wide. 
The planks around the lower part of the walls are 3 feet wide and 2>2 inches 
thick. The next house to the north, still older, with long sloping roof, was once 
the Congregational parsonage; the earlier Kent church stood at the fork of 
the road. 

North of Flanders, the highway is particularly fine, with the gray cliff of 
St. John Ledges across the river. About a mile below the Cornwall line we 
come to * Kent Falls State Park, another gift of the White Memorial Founda- 
tion, a popular picnic ground with ample parking space. The brook drops 
about 200 feet in a quarter of a mile, over ledges of white marble with many 
potholes, amid a setting of hemlock and hardwood. The lovely upper cascade, 

II. 12 KENT 87 

which must be reached on foot, has a fall of about 89 feet. There are several 
acres of old hemlock in the Park, with characteristic ravine vegetation. 

The long Appalachian Trail for trampers, running from Georgia to Maine, 
enters the town from New York State on the eastern slope of Schaghticoke 
Mt., with extensive views of the Housatonic valley. It then crosses the 
beautiful Thayer Brook ravine, climbs over Pine Ledge with its moss-covered 
boulders, and descends by the Grand Staircase to Kent School. North 
from R. 341, the trail climbs Kent Rock, with its memorial cross as well as 
school class numerals, which commands a fine view of the valley. From 
Macedonia Brook, we climb west to Cobble Mt., with a very extensive view, 
and cross to Pine Mt., where we look down the Macedonia valley, framed by 
wooded hills. The trail then leads east to the viewpoint at Caleb's Peak, and 
descends to the Housatonic over the spectacular St. John Ledges. Crossing 
the river at North Kent, we follow the river bank to Kent Falls, ascend the 
brook and head east for Mohawk Mt. This trail, which gives some of the 
finest tramping in the State, is marked with the standard light blue paint. 
The best approach is to go west from Kent % mile on R. 341, where the trail 
may be taken either north or south. A descriptive leaflet and map should be 
secured from the Conn. Forest and Park Assn. 

II. 13 

The town of Cornwall, named for one of the counties of England, was 
auctioned off at Fairfield in 1738, and settlement began the same year, largely 
from eastern Connecticut. A town was not incorporated until 1740, and for 
some years there continued to be trouble from non-resident proprietorship. 
Cornwall consists of mountains and upland farms surrounding a small central 
valley, avoided by the first settlers because of its heavy stand of pine, which 
made land clearing difficult. The town is characterized by pine groves, stone 
walls and wide offlooks. During the 19th century, Cornwall was known for its 
schools, and iron was smelted at Cornwall Bridge and West Cornwall, utilizing 
local charcoal. There are considerable summer colonies. The town contains 
Mohawk Mt. State Park, Housatonic Meadows State Park (headquarters in 
the town of Sharon) and parts of Mohawk and Housatonic State Forests. 

Coming from Kent along the Housatonic River, U. S. 7 crosses to the town 
of Sharon by a lofty concrete bridge with a fine arch, beneath which one can 
see the old Covered Bridge, preserved as a landmark. Before reaching Cornwall 
Bridge, R. 45 comes down from Warren, with a splendid view of the Valley 
and the blue mountains. A little beyond this, a tramping trail leads off to the 
right up the beautiful Dark Entry Brook, well worth the climb, eventually 
reaching Mohawk Mt. There is a side trail to Colts Foot Cave. 

At Cornwall Bridge we turn northeast on R. 4, along the hemlock -shaded 
Furnace Brook, reminiscent of the early iron works. Cornwall Village, just 
off the highway, has a white Colonial church, and the Calhoim Memorial 
Library and Town Hall of gray granite, given by John E. Calhoun in 1908. 
Rumsey Hall, a school for younger boys, wa>s established in 1901, There has 


been a succession of schools on this site, beginning with Alger Institute in 1847. 
Still earlier, the Cornwall Mission School (1817-1827) was located here. It 
began with Henry Obookiah, a Hawaiian stowaway, and other youths from 
the Islands, who were to be trained as missionaries to their people. Later on, 
students were brought from various Indian tribes, including Elias Boudinot, 
son of a Cherokee chief, who married a Cornwall girl, to the consternation of 
the neighborhood; their son achieved distinction as a colonel in the Civil War. 
Southeast of the village are the *Calhoun Pines of unusal height, sometimes 
called the Cathedral Pines. This is one of the finest stands in Connecticut, 
probably representing field pine rather than primeval forest, with an under- 
story of hemlock and hardwood. They may be seen from the roads below the 
slope, or by the blue-marked trail that climbs through the Pines toward 
Mohawk Mt. 

Route 4 continues eastward and upward, passing the Cemetery, with the 
flat slab which marks the grave of Henry Obookiah, who died in 1818 while a 
student at the Mission School, after giving the impetus for missionary work 
in the Sandwich Islands. A turn to the south leads us through Mohaick 
Stale Forest, where the paper birch of the north mixes with oak and other 
hardwoods of the Appalachian type. From the picnic ground on Clarke Hill, 
a short climb to the *Pinnacle gives a superb panorama of the mountains to 
the northwest. A mounted bronze plate indicates the various peaks. A little 
east of this is a Black Spruce Bog, rather a rare phenomenon in Connecticut. 
The road continues to the Fire Tower on the 1661 foot summit, with a com- 
plete horizon. This Forest, comprising over 3,000 acres, partly in the town of 
Goshen, was given to the State by Alain C. White through the White Memorial 
Foundation. The name is supposed to derive from a lookout maintained on 
the mountain by the local Indians to guard against the dreaded Mohawks. 
The summit, with the Pond to the south, are administered as Mohawk Mt. 
State Park. To reach Mohawk Pond, with its Y. M. C. A. camp, take East 
St. south from R. 4. 

Route 43 leads north from R. 4 through Cornwall Hollow, where we pass 
the Sedgivick Monument, with a Mexican War cannon, erected in honor of 
Major General John Sedgwick, killed in 1864, whose home was in this neigh- 
borhood. The highway follows the valley to Canaan. Route 128 passes 
through * Cornwall Center, with one of the finest views in the State. It is here 
we begin to appreciate Cornwall Village. Barber in 1836 described ' 'the church 
and the little cluster of white painted buildings surrounding it, at the bottom 
of a deep valley," and "the mountains and lofty hills which rise immediately 
on almost every side." R. 128 continues to West Cornwall, where there is 
another old Covered Bridge. About a mile short of this, by climbing to the 
south a short distance, we find another notable stand of field pine, known as 
the Gold Pines. There are good northwest views from the slopes of Green Mt.. 
south of the highway. 

A State aid road which turns north from R. 128 takes us along an attractive 
brook and up to Cream Hill, with rewarding outlooks, particularly from the 
northern slopes. Cream Hill Agricultural Scliool, one of the first in the U. S., 
was established in 1845 by Dr. Samuel Gold and his son T. S. Gold, and con- 
tinued until 1869. Theodore S. Gold (1818-1906) became the father of modern 
agriculture in Connecticut, starting the Agricultural College at Storrs, the 
Experiment Station, the State Board of Agriculture, for which he served as 
secretary, and editing the New England Homestead. The school building 
with its long south porch is still standing; the first or east unit of the present 


house was built in 1775 and is practically unchanged. An earlier house, the 
oldest in Cornwall, was built by James Douglas in 1750, and stands a few 
hundred yards to the north. The sash and shingle covering are new, but the 
porch is original, and the old sash and red clapboards can be seen in the west 
gable. A mile east from Cream Hill Rd. is the * North Cornwall Church of 1826, 
with pilasters on the front pediment and an octagonal belfry below the spire. 
There is good woodwork on the interior. 

The Appalachian Trail of the Conn. Forest and Park Assn. comes from 
Kent Falls to Mohawk Pond, and climbs Mohawk Mt. to take in the views 
from the Fire Tower and the Pinnacle. The feeder trails from Calhoun Pines 
and Dark Entry Brook come in here from the west. The Appalachian Trail, 
which is part of the through tramping route from Georgia to Maine, then works 
north. Along the east slope of Yelping Hill there are fine views of the Hollen- 
beck Valley and the mountains to the northwest, and we continue west through 
Housatonic State Forest. 

II. 14 


The town of Sharon was sold at New Haven in 1738. Of the 49 purchasers 
of rights, 16 became settlers, largely from Colchester and Lebanon, and a town 
was incorporated in 1739. Sharon is made up of mountains on the east and 
a rolling plain to the west, along the New York line. The name was taken 
from the Biblical Plain of Sharon. There was an extensive iron industry, with 
related manufactures. The village street is one of the most beautiful in Connec- 
ticut, and there is a large summer colony. The town contains portions of the 
Housatonic State Forest. 

U. S. 7, crossing the line at Cornwall Bridge, follows the west bank of the 
Housatonic through the narrow valley, with steep wooded hills on either 
bank. Housatonic Meadows State Park, just beyond the Bridge, is a popular 
recreation ground. In about 2 miles, a picturesque brook ravine opens on the 
west. About 1^2 miles beyond West Cornwall, a road leads west to a Kaolin 
Quarry, operated during the 19th century. From the hills west of the highway 
there are good views, but they must be climbed on foot without a path. Sharon 
Mt. can be reached by a new road through the Housatonic State Forest. 

Route 4, still under construction at the date of writing, climbs west from 
Cornwall Bridge through an attractive ravine to the village of Ellsworth. A 
short distance before reaching the village, a millstone with a bronze tablet 
marks the site of the early grist mill, where wheat and corn were ground for 
the army during the Revolution. About l l /% miles beyond Ellsworth, a steep 
western pitch gives a commanding view of Sharon plain, with the Catskills 
to the northwest. The only view in Sharon to compare with it is that from a 
hill in the southwest corner, on an old road going down to Macedonia Brook. 
(Take R. 41 and turn south 2 miles.) 

Sharon village consists largely of an elm-bordered street, 2 miles long, with a 
narrow central Green, which adds two more rows of trees. Entering the village 
on R. 4, we pass on our right, next to the school house, the old brick Pardee 



House (1 on Chart XXIII) dating from 1782. At the south end of the Green 
is the Clock Tower (2) built of granite with brownstone trim. Going south 
from the Clock Tower, we pass the Sterling Elm (3) planted in 1757 by Rev. 
Cotton Mather Smith, who served the church for 51 years. The tree is the 
fourth largest in the State, with a circumference of 25 feet, height 90 feet, and 


1. Pardee House. 2. Clock Tower. 3. Sterling Elm. 4. John Penoyer House. 5. Gov. 
Smith Mansion. 6. Apollos Smith House. 7. Asher Shepherd House. 8. Hotchkiss Library. 
9. Whitefield Tablet. 10. Phineas Smith House. 11. Congregational Church. 12. Nathaniel 
Skinner House. 13. Abner Burnham House. 14. King House. 

branch spread of 123 feet. Continuing south for about a block, we come to the 
John Penoyer House (4; Tiffany House) of which the original brick portion 
was built in 1757, and the stone ell is said to go back to the year of settlement. 
The bulls-eye glass in the front doors is of special interest. Above the door, 
built into the wall, is a tablet of native stone, with interesting scroll work and 

II. 14 SHARON 91 

the builder's name and date. Next to this is the *Gov. Smith Mansion (5) 
built at various times between 1760 and 1775 by Dr. Simeon Smith, brother of 
the minister, and later occupied by his nephew, Gov. John Cotton Smith. It 
is constructed of stone, and tradition says that the main house was the 
work of Genoese masons brought here for the work. There is a hip roof, with 
parapet and dormers, and a pediment in front with a round "spider web" 
window. Noah Webster is said to have worked on his spelling book while a 
guest of the family. At the south end of the street is the Apollos Smith House 
(6; Schley House) built in 1776 from brick manufactured on the premises. 
Above this, on the west side, is the Asher Shepherd House (7; Sewell House) 
dating from 1774, but enlarged and altered. 

On the east of the Green is the Hotchkiss Library (8) given to the village 
by the widow of Benjamin B. Hotchkiss (1826-1885) inventor of the Hotchkiss 
machine gun, the leading ordnance engineer of his day. He was born in 
Watertown, and came to Sharon in childhood; his early experiments were 
made in his father's hardware factory. Opposite the Library is the Whitefield 
Tablet (9) commemorating the fact that the church originally stood on this 
spot, and the minister (Cotton Mather Smith) more liberal or more wise than 
some of his fellows, invited the great evangelist to the pulpit, where he preached 
to an immense congregation. That was in 1770. Farther up the east side, we 
have the Dr. Phineas Smith House (10) of 1780. On the west side of the street 
stands the Congregational Church (11) built of brick in 1824, with a good spire. 
Facing the upper Green is the Nathaniel Skinner House (12; Dr. Chaff ee 
House) probably built about 1739, at the time of the first settlement. North 
of this is the Abner Burnham House (13; Bouton Cottage) late 18th century, 
residence of an early clock maker, and later used as tavern and school. It has 
a graceful Colonial porch, with a green fanlight over the door. At the north 
end of the street, looking down the Green, is the King House (14) built of 
brick and completed in 1801. 

R. 4, continuing through the village to the northwest, passes Sharon Falls 
on the right, with the Hollow below it, where early iron works were located, 
There was a hardware industry in this section in the 19th century. On the 
right is Mudge Pond, nestling under Indian Ml., where a half mile climb is 
repaid by a view in all directions. Just before reaching the New York line, we 
pass the picturesque Indian Pond, with a monument recalling the Moravian 
Mission to the Indians, conducted by a Scotsman, David Bruce, before the 
white settlement. On the east of the Pond there was an important iron mine, 
which supplied a furnace at the Hollow into the present century. 

R. 41, another scenic highway, running northeast to Lakeville and Salis- 
bury, passes the small Beardsley Pond, and north of this are several old houses. 
The John Williams House stands on the right. 

Farther, on the left, is an old house of red brick, built in 1775 by Amos 
Marchant, later acquired by the Gay family and still owned by their des- 
cendants. Directly across the road, a clump of trees on a mound indicates 
the site of the original John Gay house. About % mile back of this, on a dirt 
road, is a charming old building of rough stone, with gambrel roof, known as 
the *0ld Stone House, probably built by John Gay for his son Perez Gay and 
his bride Margaret. A date stone in the west wall reads "M. G. 1765." 
Prisoners were kept here during the Revolution, and it was used as a store- 
house for ammunition. Nearby is a large tree known as the Sentinel Elm. The 
country roads through Sharon Plain are worth exploring for other landmarks 
from the late 18th century and early 19th. 


II. 15 

The town of Salisbury, in the northwest corner of the State, originally 
known as Weatogue, was first settled about 1720 by Dutch families from New 
York. Other grants were made to citizens of distinction by the General 
Assembly, as was its custom. The remaining lands were sold at auction in 
1738. A town was incorporated in 1741, taking its name from Salisbury in 
the English Wiltshire. The town was closely connected with the settlement 
of Vermont, to which it contributed Ethan and Ira Allen, and three early 

Salisbury is surrounded by mountains and contains the highest elevation 
in the State. There are beautiful lakes in the center and north. Abundant 
ore of high quality brought an important iron industry, and there are large 
deposits of lime. The town has attracted schools, artists and summer homes. 
There are four centers: Lime Rock, Lakeville, Salisbury, and Taconic. 

U. S. 7 crosses the southeast corner of the town. Turning west on R. 112, 
with extensive limestone quarries % mile to the northeast, we pass through 
Lime Rock, formerly known as the Hollow, the seat of the earliest iron forge 
in the town, built by Thomas Lamb between 1732 and 1734. A large iron 
industry was carried on here by Barnum Richardson during the 19th cen- 
tury. The village was later discovered by artists, who converted deserted 
mill buildings and workmen's houses into studios and modern homes. Annual 
exhibitions are held in the converted postoffice. Besides individual crafts, 
there is an establishment for handmade rag paper, the only one in America. On 
Salmon Fell Kill, at the north of the village, below an old mill dam, is an 
attractive waterfall. 

West of Lime Rock, we join R. 41 coming north from Sharon and pass the 
buildings of Hotchkiss School, above Lake Wononscopomuc, an endowed 
preparatory school, established in 1892. The village of Lakeville, formerly 
Furnace Village, was the seat of the most important early blast furnace in 
Connecticut. The site, at the outlet of the Lake near the Bank, has been 
marked. A small forge was erected here in 1748. In 1768 the property was 
purchased and remodeled into a blast furnace by John Haseltine, Ethan Allen 
and Samuel Forbes, in order to produce cast rather than wrought iron. Before 
the Revolution, it had been acquired by Richard Smith of Boston, whom we 
shall meet again in Colebrook. When the war broke out, Congress took over 
the plant and it became one of the principal arsenals for the Continental 
armies. About 60 workmen were employed. Cannon up to 32-pounders were 
cast here, as well as cannon-balls and shells. 

Ethan Allen, born at Litchfield and brought up in Cornwall, acted as 
bookkeeper in Squire Forbes' iron forge at Canaan. He became agent for the 
land company organized at Salisbury for colonizing western Vermont. Ethan 
Allen moved to Vermont about 1769, with his brother Ira and other Salisbury 
men who became prominent in the early history of that State. He was leader 
of the Green Moutnain Boys, organized to resist the New York claims, and 
in 1775 returned to Salisbury to recruit a force for the capture of Ticonderoga. 

In Lakeville village, to our right as we cross the R. R., is the Sterling HOHS? 
(R. 199, south side) built by Gen. Elisha Sterling about 1795. On the north 


side of the main street, the Farnham Tavern is of about the same date, and 
west of this is the John M. Holley House, built about 1808. 

Route 199 climbs westward above the Lake to the principal sources of iron 
ore, classed as limonite, a hydrated iron oxide. The old mines are now largely 
filled with water. Ore Hill, to the north of the highway, was opened about 
1732 and operated until 1921. The later Chatfield Mine lies to the south, on 
the unimproved portion of R. 112. North of R. 199 are two fine outlooks: 
Beecher Hill, reached by a town road 1 mile west of Lakeville; and Bird Peak, 
close to the New York line, by the same road and a half mile climb to the north. 
Northeast of Lakeville by R. 199, the Davis Ore Bed lies about 1 mile from the 
village and }/% mile west of the highway. 

On the elm-shaded street of Salisbury Village, we have the attractive 
Congregational Church built in 1798, with a Palladian window above the 
pedimented doorway, and another in the tower; there are quoins and heavy 
dentils. The Town Hall with its white columns was remodeled from the earlier 
church building of 1749. The granite Scoville Library has a fireplace mantel 
with a piece of bas-relief from the cathedral in Salisbury, England. The old 
Bushnell Tavern (Warner House) opposite the Library, dates from about 1800. 
The Stiles House, farther south on the same side of the street, built in 1772, has 
a slight overhang and is practically unchanged. Salisbury has an annual 
Ski Tournament, the sport having been introduced by some Norwegian 

From the south end of Salisbury Village, the Mt. Riga Rd. runs northwest 
through a beautiful ravine, with Lion's Head on our right. Just south of 
Mt. Riga is another important furnace site, the ore having been hauled up the 
hill to take advantage of the water power and charcoal. According to tradi- 
tion, the anchors of the frigate "Constitution" were forged here. The traveler 
who does not mind rough going should continue north to Massachusetts, with 
mountains to the right and lakes to the left. We pass Bingliam Pond, the 
highest pond in the State, with a quaking bog, characteristic bog plants, and 
fine specimens of black spruce, tamarack, cassandra and mountain ash. 

R. 41 runs north from Salisbury to Massachusetts, under the Mt. Riga 
range, passing on the left in about 2J^ miles the Camp-Ball House, built 
about 1745. R. 199 goes northeast to Canaan. We pass on the right in a 
sightly location the Salisbury School, a preparatory school for boys, established 
in 1901. A little beyond this, the highway gives a fine view over Twin Lakes. 
Many summer homes have been built on the shores, and for the botanist the 
lakes have an unusually fine development of aquatic plants. The Limestone 
Caves are reached by taking the road between the lakes, 1 mile north from 
R. 199, and walking west on an old road about l /i mile. The acid of the rain 
water, draining through the porous rock, has eaten holes, as in the Kentucky 
caves. By crawling on one's stomach, one can penetrate several chambers of 
considerable size, with stalactites hanging from the roof. 

The Appalachian Trail with its blue marking crosses from Canaan at Falls 
Village. Passing through the earlier industrial settlement of Amesville, we 
climb Prospect Hill, passing an attractive waterfall; there is a side trail east 
to the summit, which commands a fine northern view. Here and along the 
main trail we see for many miles up the Housatonic Valley, with the Taconic 
range on the west and the Berkshires on the east. The fine Colonial house a 
little north of the trail, with a superb outlook, was built about 1765 by Thomas 
( 'hitttnden, who became the first governor of Vermont. Descending Barrack 


Matiff Hill through one of the finest hemlock groves in the State, and crossing 
the valley north of Salisbury, the Trail climbs * Lion's Head, with the same 
remarkable northern view. A side trail leads to Bald Peak (Mt. Riga) with 
a complete horizon. We follow old coal roads north to Bear Mt., 2355 feet, the 
highest point in Connecticut, and descend to *Sage's Ravine on the Massa- 
chusetts line, a wild wooded gorge with a succession of waterfalls. There is 
luxuriant moss and other characteristic ravine vegetation, with essentially 
primitive hemlock and northern hardwoods. The Ravine is privately owned 
and must be approached from above, but a convenient feeder trail climbs 
west from R. 41 to the Appalachian Trail. The Trail continues north to 
Mt. Everett, and eventually Mt. Katahdin in Maine. 

II. 16 


Our next town, named for the Biblical land of Canaan, was auctioned at 
New London in 1738, bids starting at 60 per right, the high rate for Litch- 
field County. Settlers flocked in the same year, and a town was incorporated 
in 1739. The present Canaan, which does not include the village of that name, 
is made up of mountains on the south and east, with a plain along the Housa- 
tonic, from which eultivated valleys reach back into the hills. It contains 
portions of the Housatonic State Forest. 

U. S. 7 crosses from Salisbury at Lime Rock Station, and continues north 
under the cliffs of Canaan Mt. At South Canaan there is an attractive 
Congregational Church, erected in 1802, with pedimented doorway and Pal- 
ladian window; the tower is rather heavy for the building. R. 43 leads west 
to Falls Village, where the Housatonic Gorge shows fine specimens of folded 
limestone below the dam, with many characteristic limestone plants. 

To our right, R. 43 runs southeast up the beautiful Hollenbeck Valley to 
Cornwall. About \\2 miles from South Canaan, a road climbs south 1 mile to 
Afttsic Mountain, where the Gordon Musical Foundation has established a 
summer school, and concerts are given weekly during the season. Farther 
east on R. 43 we pass the hamlet of Huntsville, seat of an early iron forge. One 
can cross at this point to the Undermountain Rd., along the south slope of 
Canaan Mt., with remarkable views of the mountains to the northwest. Steep 
Rd., worthy of its name, climbs north through an attractive ravine to a 
cultivated plateau, and past Wangum Lake to Norfolk. The abondoned 
Crissy Rd., which forks to the right about 1 mile before the Lake, may be 
followed to Norfolk on foot. About a mile northwest of Wangum Lake by an 
old wood road, is a Red Spruce Sivamp, with trees 30 inches in diameter. On 
Canaan Mt. one should guard against rattlesnakes. From the Meekerstown 
Rd., which leaves the Undermountain Rd. farther east, a half mile climb 
leads west to Ojibway Tower, with a good horizon, on the site of an old Indian 

The Appalachian Trail comes down from Cornwall through the Housatonic 
State Forest and *Deane's Ravine, a cascade brook of great beauty, reached 
by road !!> miles southeast from Lime Rock Sta., with a short walk up the 
stream. The Trail then climbs over rock ledges to Barrack Mt., with good 
\ iev\b of the Housatonic Valley, and down to the crossing at 

11.17 NORTH CAN A AN 95 

II. 17 


The town of North Canaan, which includes Canaan village, was settled in 
1738, and cut off from the town of Canaan in 1858. It consists of a plain 
along the Housatonic, with the valley of Blackberry River coming in from the 
east, bordered by picturesque hills. There are extensive limestone deposits, 
left by the sea, which have been quarried for lime and marble. The manu- 
facture of pig iron was for many years the most important industry. One of 
the largest of the Borden condensed milk plants is located here. 

North Canaan is dominated by the sharp peak of Canaan Mountain, which 
thrusts out northwest into the valley, towering above it about a thousand 
feet. The trail up to the top of the cliffs may be reached by climbing from U. 
S. 7 over Church Hill, or by taking Blackberry River Rd. and cutting through 
the fields just west of a grove of pine. There is a remarkable view up and down 
the Housatonic Valley, and across to Bear Mt. and the Taconics. The valley 
below is floored by limestone, and dotted with schist and quartzite ridges. 

As we approach Canaan Village on U. S. 7, the Old Douglas Place lies % 
mile to the west across the R. R. The most interesting of the landmarks in 
the village is the Lawrence House, on the west side of Elm St. (U. S. 7) built 
by Capt. Isaac Lawrence in 1751 and originally used as a tavern. The traveler 
should also note the fine Gothic Clock Tower recently built for Christ Episcopal 
Church. The pre-Revolutionary Gillette Place lies % mile northwest of the 
village. The site of the Barnes Lime Kilns, from which, in early days, lime 
was hauled by team as far as Hartford, is 1 1 A miles northeast on R. 124, near 
the Massachusetts line. 

Going east from the village by R. 101, we pass on the north one of the plants 
of the New England Lime Corporation. Blackberry River supplied power for 
the former iron industry. By taking the older road south of the stream, we 
come in about 2 miles to the house of Squire Samuel Forbes, one of the pioneer 
ironmasters, built in 1770 or a few years later. Nearby is the site of his forge 
and slitting mill. Ethan Allen acted as bookkeeper in this plant for several 
years, before going to Vermont. In East Canaan, where we join R. 101, we 
have a good Colonial church, built in 1822, and the Nathaniel Stevens House, 
dating from 1786. The Allyndale Quarry, which supplied the marble for the 
State Capital at Hartford, lies % mile north of East Canaan, on the right. 

Campbell Falls, though 100 yards over the Massachusetts line, is protected 
by an Interstate Park. The brook plunges about 30 feet through a cleft it 
has worn in the tilted rock strata, and is at its best in high water. In the picnic 
grounds below the Falls, on the Connecticut side (Norfolk,) there is a fine 
stand of old pine and hemlock. To reach Campbell Falls, take the road from 
East Canaan to Canaan Valley and drive northeast on a rather poor road, which 
continues to Norfolk. 

96 THfc CONN-ECTfCUt r.i B>1 

II. 18 

We continue east on R. 101 to Norfolk, the last town in Litchfield County to 
be auctioned off by the General Assembly. Two families located in 1744, but 
the main settlement did not come until ten years later. A town was incorpo- 
rated in 1758. The name was taken from the English county of Norfolk. The 
town is mountainous, and the scenery and elevation have drawn a large 
summer colony. It has been widely known as a musical center, and for many- 
years the Litchfield County Choral Union of 700 voices gave annual concerts. 
During the winter, the village has an annual ski tournament. 

R. 101 follows Blackberry River, a famous trout stream, now all State 
leased water. In earlier days it turned the wheels for many small textile 
mills. The second house on the left, after passing the town line, is the Capt. 
Titus Ives House, built about 1785. Haystack All. looms up ahead. It is 
reached by turning north on R. 49 for a few rods and following the park road- 
way. The last 200 feet must be made on foot. Many years ago, Robbins 
Battell built a carriage road to the summit and had a tower erected. The 
present stone tower, with the surrounding State Park, were the gift of his 
daughter, Ellen Battell Stoeckel, in 1929. There are tablets to Carl Stoeckel 
and to Mr. Battell, with the motto which he composed for the original tower: 
"To thy country, state and town be thou ever faithful." 

In Norfolk Village, the beautiful Congregational Church, built in 1813, 
stands to the west of the Green. The chime was a gift from Robbins Battell, 
who was an expert on bells and had rare musical ability. The first minister 
was Rev. Ammi R. Robbins, who came to the church at 21 and served until his 
death 52 years later. Next the Church is the stone Battell Memorial Chapel, 
with Tiffany windows representing the Seasons. On the north side of the 
Green stands the Public Library, presented to the town by Isabella Eldridge; 
there is a collection of autographed letters of famous people. At the south 
corner of the Green we find the Memorial Fountain, given by Mary Eldridge 
in honor of Joseph Battell. A short distance to the west are the picturesque 
Buttermilk Falls. The Town Hall, on the west side of Maple Ave., originally 
planned as a gymnasium and play house for the town, was the gift of Mrs. 
Henry H. Bridgman. 

On Greenwoods Rd. (R. 182) the third house north of the Norfolk Inn was 
the birthplace of Dr. William H. Welch, dean of scientific medicine in America, 
with a memorial tablet placed in 1930 on his 80th birthday. Dr. Welch came 
of a distinguished family of doctors, both his father and grandfather having 
practised in Norfolk, and numerous uncles and cousins entering the same 
profession. At the street intersection is a fine watering trough, erected as a 
memorial to Welch's father, Dr. Wm. W. Welch. 

There are a number of 18th century houses in and near the village. The 
Shepard House, to the left, at the top of the hill, was built in 1794 by Giles 
Pettibone, Jr., and at one time used as a tavern; it has been in the Shepard 
family for many generations. The Battell Homestead, known as the White- 
house, was the home of Joseph Battell, who had his store nearby. In his day 
he was the best known merchant in Litchfield county, and in this store laid 
the foundations for the family fortune. Goods were brought from the Hudson 
River, mostly by ox-cart, over the old turnpike still known as Greenwoods Rd. 

It. 18 NORFOLK 97 

Other landmarks can be found on outlying roads. To the east are the 
Atnasa Cowles House, on the north side of R. 182, about 2 miles from the 
center, and the Joel Phelps House (Wilson Tavern) of 1775, on the east side 
of R. 101, about % mile beyond the junction. On Mountain Rd., about a 
mile west of the village, we have the Parrel Place to the right, and Curtis 
Farm to the left. 

Norfolk is a horseback country, with much riding and an annual horse 
show. There are still many country roads where it is possible to go on horse- 
back or in a carriage, without meeting motor vehicles, One of the attractive 
trips is the Nine-Mile Drive to the southeast past Beckley Pond, taking the 
first right turn on R. 101, about 2 miles from the village. 

Norfolk is famous for its mountain laurel, and the roads are particularly 
beautiful in laurel time. There are wonderful clumps of it on the two golf 
courses. The Norfolk Downs Golf Club, on high ground adjoining the beauti- 
ful Tobey Pond, gives fine views from almost every hole. 

Going south from the village by R. 49, Dulton Ml. lies to our left, with a 
good western outlook. About 2 miles south of the village, on our left, is 
* Dennis Hill, a State Park, bequeathed in 1934 by Dr. F. S. Dennis, a dis- 
tinguished surgeon, largely responsible for introducing the use of anaesthetics 
in this country. The hill, 1610 feet elevation, has a fire tower with a remark- 
able view; Long Island can be seen on a clear day. In the ravine to the east 
of the house is an unusually fine stand of laurel. 

Meekerlown Rd. which turns off to the west, must be traveled on foot. 
About 2^/2 miles from R. 49 and % mile south by a wood road, is a large 
stand of first-growth hemlock, on the land of Frederick C. Walcott and 
Sterling Childs. This region will repay anyone who loves to walk in the woods, 
but it is easy to get lost. 

II. 19 

Goshen, the next town to the south, best reached from Norfolk by way of 
Torrington, was auctioned at New Haven in 1737, bids starting at the high 
mark of 60 per right. The land was considered desirable, and the settlers 
who arrived in 1739 were largely the original purchasers. They came for the 
most part from New Haven, Wethersfield and Farmington. Town privileges 
were granted the same year. The name of the town was taken from the Biblical 
land of Goshen. It is a high hill country, most of it well above 1000 feet 

Goshen was famous as a grazing country. In 1792, Alexander Norton 
bought local cheese to sell in the South, whither he had been ordered for his 
health. He continued in the business, packing first in hogsheads and later in 
round boxes which held two cheeses. His second cousin, Lewis M. Norton, 
invented the pineappple cheese, securing a patent for the form in 1810; he 
made cheese from his own herd of 50 cows until 1844, when he began buying 
milk from other farmers and established what is believed to be the first 
cheese factory in the country. Before the middle of the century, Litchfield 


County was making nearly 3 million jx>unds of cheese a year. From Connec- 
ticut the industry spread to the West, especially Wisconsin. "The Connec- 
ticut Yankee brought a cheese hoop with him and wherever he went he made 

R. 49 crosses a corner of Goshen, along the attractive Hall Meadow Brook. 
The first road to the right leads in y 2 mile to a Rock House, or Indian cave 
(a short distance north of the road.) 

While the traveler ordinarily will prefer to go to Goshen by way of Torring- 
ton. East Street, which runs from South Norfolk through North Goshen makes 
a scenic drive. The first house on the west side was the birthplace of Asaph 
Hall (1829-1907) the distinguished astronomer, who discovered the satellites 
of Mars. About M mile northwest of North Goshen is Tipping Rock, a glacial 
boulder weighing 80 tons which can be slowly moved back and forth. It lies 
about 100 yards north of a small reservoir. About a mile before reaching R. 4. 
a rough road runs east from East St. to Whist Pond. Much of this section of 
Goshen is controlled by the Torrington Water Board. 

On Hast St., just north of R. 4 from Torrington, we pass the fine brick 
mansion on the hill, built by *Birdseye Norton between 1804 and 1810. There 
are 4 chimneys in the main house, heavy marble caps over the windows, with a 
Palladian window in the gable, and the wing has a porch with slender 2-story 
columns. As we go west toward the village, we see on the right a contrasting 
type, a Salt-box built in 1760, the oldest house in town. 

Goshen Village, built along a main street, is on a commanding site, and the 
white Church is a landmark for many miles. The old Academy, known as 
Eagle Hall, the third building south of the church, is now used for the Public 
Library. Still farther south is the handsome stone house built by Myron 
Norton in 1840, with 2-story columns. West of the village, a side road turns 
south to the attractive Dog Pond, where there are summer camps for boys. In 
West Goshen is an interesting hipped-roof house, built in 1777, of alternate 
dark and light brick : there is another of the same type in the southern part 
of the town. Continuing west on R. 4, we have fine views over Tyler Pond to 
the distant hills, and again toward Mohawk Mt. 

Going north from Goshen village on R. 61, in ]4 mile a side road, not 
passable for cars, leads northeast to the foot of Ivy Mountain, 1642 feet eleva- 
tion, standing out above the surrounding plateau. (Reached by auto on a road 
2% miles farther north, or from East st.) On a clear day it is possible to see 
the Catskills on the west, the Bolton mountains beyond the Connecticut on 
the east, and the Meriden hills to the southeast. The summit is now a State 
Park, and famed for its low-bush blueberries. In another half mile, R. 61 
passes on the left a Balsam Fir Swamp, practically the only area in the State 
where this tree is abundant and of fairly good growth. The highway is im- 
proved for only part of the distance to the north, but is worth taking for its 
views, especially the panorama before the descent to Cornwall Hollow. 

From the village, R. 61 leads south to Litchfield along the 1200-foot ridge, 
with fine views, particularly toward the east. 


II. 20 


Litchfield was purchased from the Colony of Connecticut in 1719 by a 
company from Hartford, Windsor and Lebanon, and given town privileges. 
Settlement -began the following year. The name was taken from Litchfield in 
the English Staffordshire. The town is a high hill country, broken by stream 
valleys. It has four centers: Litchfield village, which was made a borough in 
1817 (originally an incorporated "village," the only instance in Connecticut;) 
the borough of Bantam (1915) where at one time there was considerable 
manufacturing; Milton; and Northfield. There are large summer colonies. 

The borough of Litchfield, one of the most attractive villages in Connec- 
ticut, was the outpost and trading center for the northwestern frontier, and 
for many years the county seat of Litchfield County. Wealth accumulated, 
and by the end of the 18th century Litchfield had become one of the main 
seats of culture in the State. There were several iron foundries here, one 
of them specializing in ship anchors and chains. 

The east and west street of Litchfield (R. 25) expands into a long central 
Green, from which two other main streets go off at right angles, all lined with 
beautiful elms. Entering from Goshen by R. 61, after passing on the left the 
buildings of George Junior Republic, we find ourselves on North St. Going 
down the west side of the street, a covered well and large elm mark the home 
site of Rev. Lyman Beecher (1 on Chart XXIV) minister of the church from 
1810-1826, and one of the great preachers and reformers of his day. His two 
most distinguished children were born here: Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-1896) 
and Henry Ward Beecher (1813-1887.) In the next block, the Lynde Lord 
House (2; Wm. Deming House) built in 1771, has 2 chimneys and gambrel 
roof, with dormer windows. Beyond this is the site of Miss Pierce' s Academy 
(3) opened by Sarah Pierce in 1792, probably the first female seminary in 
America. During the next 40 years, about 3,000 young women from all parts 
of the country attended here. Farther south we pass *Sheldon's Tavern (4) 
a square house with mansard roof, built by Elisha Sheldon in 1760. His son 
Samuel used it as a tavern, and Gen. Washington slept in the northeast bed- 
room. A later owner, Senator Uriah Tracy, engaged the architect-builder 
Wm. Spratt to remodel the house. Four Ionic columns support an entabla- 
ture, which in turn supports a 2nd-story projection, with a beautiful Palladian 
window surmounted by a bold pediment. The entablature as well as the main 
cornice are richly molded. There is a 3rd story with dormer windows, and the 
roof has an ornamental railing at the change of pitch. Sen. Tracy's daughter 
married Judge James Gould, one of the proprietors of the Law School, and 
some of the classes were taught here. The Tallmadge House (5) with gambrel 
roof and 2-story porticos on the wings, was built by Thomas Sheldon in 1775, 
and owned later by Col. Benjamin Tallmadge. He had been a classmate of 
Nathan Hale, and during the Revolution became chief of the Intelligence 
Service; he was the first to discover the identity of Major Andre, of whom he 
had charge until the execution. Tallmadge had studied at the Law School, and 
settled in Litchfield in 1782, becoming one of the leading merchants. 

On the east side of North St., opposite the Tallmadge house, is the * Julius 
Deming House (6) known as The Lindens, from the trees planted by his 
daughter Lucretia in 1838. It is the most pretentious house in Litchfield. In 
the pediment with its Palladian window and the refinement of architectural 


THK co.NXiicnrri 


1. Lyman Beecher site. 2. Lynde Lord House. 3. Miss Pierce's Academy site. 4. 
Sheldon's Tavern. 5. Tallmadge House. 6. Julius Deming House. 7. Whipping Post Elm. 
8. Corner House. 9. Collins House. 10. Old Curiosity Shop. 11. Phelps' Tavern. 12. 
Congregational Church. 13. Beecher Memorial. 14. Historical Society. 15. Benjamin 
Hanks. 16. Connecticut Sycamore. 17. Older Oliver Wolcott House. 18. Ephraim Kirby. 
19. Second Oliver Wolcott House. 20. Law School. 21. Tapping Reeve. 22. Samuel 
Seymour House. 


detail, we see the genius of Wm. Spratt, whom we shall meet again in the 
Cowles house in Farmington and Champion house in East Haddam. Deming 
secured his services through Zenas Cowles, who was a business acquaintance, 
and in turn recommended Spratt to his father-in-law, Col. Henry Champion. 
(The south pediment and the east end are later additions.) The house, com- 
pleted in 1793, took two years to build. The tremendous stones in the founda- 
tion were gotten out by professional stone-splitters; one of them is 22 by 2 
feet, and 14 inches thick. Shingles for the roof were hauled by oxen from 
Pittsfield, Mass. The owner brought fireplace marbles, glass, etc. from Eng- 
land in his own vessels. Julius Deming was born in North Lyme in 1755, and, 
after service in the Revolution, moved to Litchfield in 1781, where he became 
its leading merchant. He owned ships trading with England and the West 
Indies. New Haven was used as a port, and strings of freight wagons, loaded 
with molasses and other goods, were a familiar sight on the inland road. With 
Col. Tallmadge and Oliver Wolcott, Jr., Deming organized the Litchfield 
China Trading Co. One of their ships, the "Trident," made voyages to 
China for 14 years. Deming and Tallmadge had branch stores in the neigh- 
boring towns. 

At the corner of West St., in front of the dignified brick Jail, erected in 1812, 
is the Whipping Post Elm (7) the largest tree in Litchfield, with a circumfer- 
ence of over 150 inches, to which malefactors were tied in the early days for 
their lashings. Across North St. stands the attractive Corner House (8) 
built by Charles Butler in 1792. It is of 2 l / 2 stories with central chimney, and 
has quoins, and a good doorway at the corner, opening on East St. The north 
wing has a 2-story portico. Continuing on the north side of East St., opposite 
the Green, we have the Collins House (9) built as an inn by John Collins, son 
of the first minister, in 1781-2. Next to this is the small building put up by 
Dr. Reuben Smith in 1781 as an apothecary shop, and known as Old Curiosity 
Shop (10;) it has the gable end to the street, with two bowed windows supported 
by brackets, the whole first story being protected by a shingled hood. P helps' 
Tavern (11) built by David Buel in 1787 and probably the oldest hotel in the 
State in continuous service, is of 3^ stories; at a fater period the building 
broke out with porches, which conceal its really fine lines. The Congregational 
Church (12) the third meeting house, built in 1829, was replaced for a time 
by a Gothic experiment, but has been restored to its original place of service 
and beauty. It has a Doric portico, graceful spire, and fine interior woodwork. 
At the foot of the hill on East St., along Bantam River, lies the old East 
Cemetery, where most of the prominent leaders in Litchfield are buried. 

On the Green, opposite South St., is the Beecher Memorial (13) on the site 
of the second meeting house, where Lyman Beecher preached ; there is a medal- 
lion of Harriet Beecher Stowe and Henry Ward Beecher. At the southeast 
corner, in the east wing of the Library, we find the Historical Society (14) with 
an interesting collection of portraits and local antiquities. There is an Indian 
collection, with material from an 11-grave burial ground near Litchfield. 
Going down the east side of South St., we pass the large double house, at one 
time used as an inn, built in 1780 by Benjamin Hanks (15) one of Connecticut's 
famous clockmakers. Farther south, in front of St. Anthony's R. C. Church, is 
the Connecticut Sycamore (16) the last of the 13 trees set out by Oliver Wolcott, 
Jr., after the Revolution to represent the original States. The *0lder Oliver 
Wolcott House (17) the oldest in the borough, dates from 1753. Oliver Wolcott 
(1726-1797) was born at Windsor. His father, Gov. Roger Wolcott, was one 
of the original proprietors of Litchfield. Oliver, after serving in the French 
war, where he reached the rank of major general, studied medicine under his 

102 1HK ( ONNKt IK I I (.1 IDI 

brother Alexander, and began practice in Goshen. He was appointed 
sheriff of the new Litchfield county in 1751 and moved to Litchfield. He was a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence, took a leading part in the Revolu- 
tion, and served as Governor from 1786 until his death. The house has a 
central chimney, a slight overhang in the attic story, and a graceful porch 
with 2 slender columns supporting an open gable. There are pediments over 
the Ist-story windows. The wing and the bay window on the north are later 
additions. Washington and Lafayette were entertained here. In the orchard 
to the rear, the leaden statue of King George III, torn down from Bowling 
Green in New York in 1776 and brought to Litchfield in a cart, was melted 
into bullets. The house to the south, built in 1773, was the home of Ephraim 
Kirby (18) who compiled the first Law Reports published in America. The 
original manuscript is in the Historical Society, along with the bullet mold 
from the Wolcott orchard. 

On the east side of High St., which continues South St., a small house with 
gambrel roof is the traditional birthplace of Ethan Allen (1739-1789.) The 
family soon removed to Cornwall, and we have already met him in Salisbury 
and North Canaan. On the west side of South St. we find the Second Oliver 
Wolcott House (19.) It was built in 1799 by Elijah Wadsworth, but soon sold 
to Oliver Wolcott, Jr., who enlarged it. Modern additions include the out- 
side porch, the south wing and the dormers in the roof. Oliver Wolcott, Jr. 
(1760-1833) succeeded Alexander Hamilton as Secretary of the Treasury, was 
the first President of the Bank of America, and served as Governor of Connec- 
ticut from 1817 to 1827, the period of the new constitution. He was a partner 
with Julius Deming and Col. Tallmadge in some of their trading enterprises, 
and started large woolen mills in Torrington. Our next landmarks are the 
tiny *Law School (20) built in 1784, and the house erected in 1773 by its 
founder, Tapping Reeve (21.) His wife was a sister of Aaron Burr, who was 
one of his first pupils. In 1782. he began the law lectures that drew students 
from far and near. This was the first regular law school in the country, and 
was carried on by Reeve and later by his associate Judge Gould until 1833. It 
was attended by over a thousand students, from every State in the Union. Of 
this number, 26 became U. S. Senators, 90 Congressmen, many judges in 
high courts, and 3 Supreme Court justices. The House and Law School are 
open to visitors for a small fee. Next the Reeve house is the Samuel Seymour 
House (22) built in 1784, now the Episcopal Rectory, a fine example of the 
central hall type, with a slight overhang in both stories. The borough is 
full of houses from the late 18th and early 19th centuries, many of them still 
un spoiled. Some of the oldest houses in the town are to the west, in the 
vicinity of Milton. 

About lli miles southeast of Litchfield center, on Chestnut Hill, is the 
old Camp Ground of the 1st Conn. Heavy Artillery in the Civil War, marked 
by a monument. There is a fine west view from the road along the ridge. The 
old road southeast to Thomaston crosses a branch of the beautiful Wigwam 
Brook (followed by the Mattatuck Trail for a mile north of the reservoir,) 
passes Guernsey Hill on the right, with a good view in all directions, and goes 
over Northfield Hill, a drumlin made by the advancing ice. About % mile 
east of Northfield village, is the small State Park of Humiston Brook, in a 
gorge with old hemlock. 

The Mattatuck Trail of the Conn. Forest and Park Assn. enters Litdiiield 
from the east through Whites Woods, an extensive game sanctuary, given by 
Alain C. White and maintained for the public by the White Memorial Founda- 

II. 20 L1TCHFIELD 103 

tion. There are many beautiful foot and bridle paths. Automobiles are not 
allowed, but one may motor through it on R. 61. Beyond Bantam River, the 
Trail passes north of Windmill Hill, another glacial relic, with a fine view of 
Bantam Lake. It then runs west of R. 25 to Prospect Mt., 1365 feet, with 
unusually good views from the east and west peaks. On a clear day one can 
see the Catskills and the peaks in lower Massachusetts. The slopes of the 
mountain have many old mine shafts. Nickel was found here, and some 
copper, but never in paying quantities. The Trail continues west along the 
rough but passable Dugway Rd., overlooking the beautiful Marshepaug 
Brook. There are other tramping trails in Litchfield: above the center, east 
of R. 61, along both the east and west branches of Bantam River; and along 
the west branch of Shepaug River, south of Milton. The Litchfield Bridle 
Path Assn. has laid out many bridle trails. 

Leaving Litchfield borough to the southwest on the attractive R. 25, we 
pass on the right the marble milestone erected by Jedediah Strong in 1787: 
"33 miles to Hartford. 102 miles to New York." The highway goes through 
the borough of Bantam, with connection by R. 109 for Bantam Lake. Just 
before reaching the boundary of the town, we pass Mt. Tom Pond, a State 
Park; the mountain itself is in the town of Morris. 


From Litchfield, our main Journey continues south to the town of Morris, 
settled about 1723, and organized in 1767 as South Farms parish of Litchfield. 
A separate town was incorporated in 1859 and named for Capt. James Morris 
(1752-1820, later appointed major) a Revolutionary soldier, who in 1790 
opened a widely known Academy. The town consists of rolling hill country 
surrounding Bantam Lake, where there is a large summer colony. 

Taking the partly improved R. 61 from Litchfield, we pass through the 
attractive game sanctuary of White's Woods, covering many acres in the. 
northern section of the town. The foot and bridle trails are worth exploring. 
The blue-marked Mattatuck Trail crosses it, with specially fine scenery at 
Beaver Pond. White's Woods are also traversed by a dirt road from the head 
of Bantam Lake to Morris, passing Lone Pine Hill, about y mile to the west, 
with an excellent view of the Lake and surrounding hills. 

In the Village of Morris, the modern Community House and Morris School 
are built in a good Colonial style. West of the school is the site of James 
Morris' Academy. The new school was dedicated in 1932 to the founder's 
memory and has the old Academy bell. Among the students who became 
distinguished were John Pierpont, poet and reformer, who was born in Morris, 
and Samuel J. Mills of Torrington, the father of foreign mission work in 
America. The oldest house is that owned by Mrs. Nathan, the third from the 
northwest corner, originally built in 1742. 

To the east of the village, on the north side of R. 109 just before entering 
East Morris, are the remains of the Daley and Treat factory, the first to make 
horse hayrakes with the hand lever. West on R. 109, after a fine view as we 


descend the hill, we pass on our right in about ? 4 mile a cellar that marks the 
birthplace of John Mason Peck (1789-1857) the pioneer of Baptist home 
mission work in the West. There are two good viewpoints: a hill % mile to 
our right above the shore, and another hill on our left under which we pass 
after rounding the corner of the Lake. 

* Bantam Lake, the outstanding feature of the town, is the largest natural 
lake in the State, covering about 1200 acres. It lies at an elevation of 900 
feet. The game sanctuary along the northern shore has brought an unusual 
variety of birds. The Lake was a favorite camping ground of the Pootatuck 
Indians. The number of arrow heads found at the north end suggest frequent 
skirmishes with the invading Mohawks. 

Ml. Tom, a State Park on the western edge of the town, reached by R. 25, is 
interesting to geologists as an intrusion of hornblende gneiss within the 
surrounding Hartland schist. The stone tower on the summit, with a com- 
manding long range view, is named for Charles H. Senff, the first donor of 
land to the State (1911) for the preservation of natural beauty. 

ii. ->-.> 


Bethlehem, formerly a part of Woodbury, was probably settled before 
1700, and in 1739 organized as a parish with a Biblical name, originally spelled 
Bethlem. A separate town was incorporated in 1787. The town is rolling, 
with a high elevation. It is characteristic of this part of Connecticut that the 
farms are on the uplands and the woods in the stream valleys. 

Going south from Morris on R. 61, we travel along an 1100- foot ridge, with 
a fine view in both directions. To the west is the attractive Long Meadow 
Pond. Below the pond, a road running at right angles to the highway leads 
in both directions to a number of old houses, of which the best is the Col. John 
Steele House, built about 1740, on Munger Lane, 1 mile west (\^ mile north.) 
Beyond this the next road to the north crosses Todd Hill, with a good view of 
the surrounding country. 

On our right as we enter Bethlehem village, facing down the Green, is the 
house, considerably altered, occupied by Rev. Joseph Bellamy, the first 
minister of the church, who served for 51 years from 1738 until his death in 
1789. During that time he had become noted as a preacher and theologian, 
and taught in his home a succession of young men preparing for the ministry. 
This counts as the first theological seminary in America. The old pulpit from 
which Bellamy preached stands in a corner of the present meeting house. A 
monument on the north end of the Green marks the site of the original church. 

About \\ 2 miles east of the center is a picturesque ravine, extending fora 
mile below the hill known as Devil's Backbone. Half a mile west of the village 
is Bird Pond. There are several interesting houses in the Crane Hollow section, 
2 miles west of R. 61 near the Woodbury town line. 

II. 23 \vooi))!iiKY 105 

II. 23 

Woodbury, the next town on our Journey, was settled in 1672 by a congrega- 
tion that left Stratford under Rev. Zechariah Walker, as the result of a division 
in the church. Originally known as Pomperaug, it was recognized as a town 
in 1674, and given the descriptive name Woodbury. The settlement served 
as an outpost for the Colony in the Indian wars. 

Woodbury consists of the Pomperaug River valley and its branches, sur- 
rounded by rugged hills. These hills are of trap rock, like those in the Central 
Lowland ; though now isolated, the lava flows probably were once continuous, 
and connected with the similar outcrops in New York and New Jersey. 
Woodbury has an interesting village street, with ancestral homes and a con- 
siderable summer colony. 

Soon after crossing the line from Bethlehem on R. 61, a ^ mile walk east 
from a tea house brings us to the attractive * Nonnewaug Falls. The brook 
drops 100 feet in three cascades, with a broad basin under each, surrounded 
by high cliffs, virgin hemlock and large oaks. A short distance below the falls 
is a bronze tablet to Chief Nonnewaug, who is said to be buried here. Joining 
U. S. 6 and passing through Minortown, with some old houses along the way, 
East Meadow Brook Falls lies ^ mile to the west, about 3 miles beyond the 
junction. In North Woodbury, we have the first of the three fine Colonial 
churches, erected in 1814; the interior woodwork is worth studying. From 
this point, R. 47 runs northwest to Washington, with good scenery after 
Hotchkissville, a former manufacturing center, where there was a large shear 
and knife factory. About 1^ miles north of Hotchkissville, on the west side 
of the road, is the Willis Lambert House, built about 200 years ago, a sample 
of the Colonial types to be found on many of the country roads in Woodbury. 

On the west side of the street, as we enter Woodbury village from the north, 
is the First Congregational Church, (1 on Chart XXV) organized in 1670, the 
oldest in Litchfield county, from which churches were set off in six neighboring 
towns. The present building dates from 1817. Farther down the street 
stands St. Paul's Episcopal Church (2) an interesting Colonial building, erected 
in 1785. In the old Burial Ground (3) the tall granite shaft of the Fathers' 
Monument commemorates the first three pastors of the First Congregational 
Church, whose united ministry covered a period of 143 years. Near this 
monument rest the ancestors of Pres. U. S. Grant and Gen. Wm. T. Sherman. 
In the Marshall House (4) on the same side of the street, the roof curves up- 
ward to cover a 2-story porch with Tuscan columns ; the oldest portion is the 
wing, which probably goes back to 1771. 

Turning west on Hollow Rd., we pass on the right the *Jabez Bacon House 
(5) built about 1762. It is a large gambrel-roof mansion, with central chimney 
and a 6-inch overhang in both stories. Jabez Bacon was the great merchant 
in this section, and influential even in the New York market; New Haven 
merchants sometimes came here to buy goods. He owned ships and ware- 
houses at Derby, kept slaves, profiteered more or less during the Revolution, 
and left an estate of over $500,000. After Bacon's death in 1806, the house 
was owned by Daniel Curtiss, one of the first manufacturers of so-called Ger- 
man silver, which he made in the Hollow and distributed through peddlers. 
He sold this business to Waterbury parties in 1840, and began making woolen 



and silk goods. Next door is the Jabez Bacon S'tore (6) built about 1750 and 
since remodeled. 

The prize of Woodbury is the **Glebe House (7) on the west side of Hollow 
Rd.. maintained as a memorial to the beginning of an independent Episcopal 
Church in America. The house was built about 1750 and later enlarged; it 


1. First Congregational Church. 2. St. Paul's Episcopal Church. 3. Burial Ground. 4. 
Marshall House. 5. Jabez Bacon House. 6. Jabez Bacon Store. 7. Glebe House. 8. 
Soldiers Monument. 9. Dr. Webb House. 10. Orenaug Park. 11. King Solomon's Temple. 
12. Chief Pomperaug. 13. Curtis House. 

has a central chimney, with gambrel roof ar " lean-to. It is open to visitors, 
and the interior arrangements are those of a typical central chimney house. 
The building was occupied as a parsonage by Rev. John Rutgers Marshall, 
minister of the Episcopal Church, who had studied under Rev. Joseph Bellamy 
in Bethlehem, and later came under the influence of Rev. Samuel Johnson, 

II. 23 WOODBURY 107 

whom we met in Stratford. Marshall settled in Woodbury as a missionary 
in 1771, and during the Revolution was under suspician, like others outside 
the Congregational order, probably being confined at times to his home lot 
by the authorities. In March, 1783, after the preliminary Treaty of peace and 
independence was signed, a secret meeting was held in the Glebe House, 
attended by 10 out of 14 Episcopal clergy in Connecticut. Samuel Seabury 
(see under Ledyard) was selected for bishop of the Episcopal Church in the 
U. S., and was consecrated the next year at Aberdeen, Scotland. 

Turning off southeast at the Soldiers' Monument (8) on the site of the second 
church building, we pass on the left the charming landmark usually known as 
the *Dr. Webb House (9) built originally in 1721, with a gambrel roof at an 
unusually low pitch, giving one of the most beautiful roof lines in Connecticut. 
Farther east is *0renaug Park (10) a striking cluster of trap rock cliffs, with 
drives and a steel tower, from which six surrounding towns can be seen. On 
the east side of the Park is a natural stone pulpit, known as Bethel Rock, where, 
according to tradition, the first religious services were held. 

Returning to the Monument (8) and going south along the street, we see 
King Solomon's Temple (11) to the left, on a 50-foot bluff of trap rock. This 
was one of the earliest Masonic lodge buildings in America, built in the Greek 
Revival style in 1839. The lodge was established in 1765. On the west side 
of the main street is a large boulder and tablet in honor of Chief Pomperaug 
(12) from whom the lands in this region were purchased; he was buried at this 
spot in 1650. Farther south is the Curtis House (13) of 3% stories, built 
originally in 1754 and used as an inn. Pomperaug Falls lie % mile southwest 
by Pomperaug Ave., which passes through a rocky gorge, beautified by rare 
specimens of laurel. 

R. 14, which turns east to Waterbury, makes an attractive drive, with a 
remarkable view of the valley as we climb the hill. To the south of the high- 
way, just before the ascent of the new Sherman Hill Rd., we find the old 
*Sherman Homestead. It was built in 1672, at the time of the first settlement, 
by the ancestors of Gen. Wm. Tecumseh Sherman. The house is a typical 
salt-box, and remarkably well preserved. There is a rather unique front door. 
The chimney is 12 x 14 feet, and the long kitchen measures 22 feet. In front of 
the house are the two maples, always planted by the Colonial groom and 

A mile north of R. 14 is Great Hill, with a fine view of the surrounding 
country, including Lake Quassapaug. Just before reaching the Middlebury 
town line, we cross a beautiful wooded ravine. 

II. 24 

Southbury, or the south part of Woodbury, was settled about the same 
time (1673) organized as a parish in 1731, and incorporated as a separate 
town in 1787. The Pomperaug River flows through the center of the town, 
which is bounded by the Housatonic on the south and on the west by the 

108 TIIK o>NNi-:tTie i T cnm: 

Shepaug. The hills which divide the stream valleys are rugged, particularly 
in the western half of t he town. Many old houses have been bought as country 

As we enter the town from the north on I'. S. 6, we pass two good houses: 
the Stiles Homestead, 1710, on the right, and the David Stiles House, dating 
from 1780, on the left. In another }:{. mile we come to a long narrow common, 
known as King's Land, because the title is still supposed to vest in the king of 
England. On the east side of the road, just before the cross road, is a brick 
house, with unusually good architectural lines and a beautiful doorway, built 
by Sherman Hinman in 1777. It was the home of the writer Samuel G. 
Goodrich, and is sometimes called from his pen name the Peter Parley House. 
It is now the German Lutheran Home for the Aged. Opposite, across the 
common, is the M. S. Mitchell House, built as an inn about 1830, with a gable- 
end like a Greek temple. The Roxbury road (R. 67) turns off to the west, with 
some old houses along the way ; in about a mile we pass Bates Rock on the left. 
Facing R. 67 is the fine house built by Col. * Increase Moseley in 1775. 

Continuing south on U. S. 6, we pass on the left the Col. Benjamin Hinman 
House, built in 1740 and practically unaltered. The Memorial Tower, com- 
memorating the first settlement, faces the site of the first church. The 
cross road to the west at this point leads to the Bullei Hill Cemetery, dating 
from about 1740. Below the cross road is the small 18th century house named 
Old Hundred, said to have been the slave quarters for the Harry Brown 
house, burned a few years ago. Brown was the leading drover of the region 
in the early 19th century, taking cattle to the metropolitan market; P. T. 
Barnum is said to have made his first trip to New York with him. Farther 
down the street, on the right, we find the dignified * Bullet Hill School, built 
in 1778 of brick made on the premises, said to be the oldest school-house in 
New England still in use. The brick work is remarkably fine. 

On the stream below R. 67 is the site of the Wakeley plough works, whose 
product was widely known. Below Southford, a hamlet to the east on the 
Oxford town line, is the attractive ravine of the Southford Falls State Park. 
An old Feldspar Quarry lies a mile to the southwest. Pale rose quartz was 
found, and many other minerals. One beryl crystal was 2 feet long and 18 
inches in diameter. About 1 ^ miles south from Southford, below the brook 
crossing, is the interesting Plaster House, an old stone house covered with 
plaster, which is original. This was the birthplace of Col. Benjamin Hinman, 
an orphan farmer boy, who acquired such skill at the anvil that he made darn- 
ing needles for his soldiers in the Revolution. 

From the highway junction at the lower end of the street, a road leads ^ 
mile west and Y^ mile north to the attractive Colonial house known as Ellens- 
brook Farm, built by Truman Wheeler in 1806, and at one time owned by 
Wallace Nutting, who has given many pictures from this region in his "Connec- 
ticut Beautiful." A mile below the junction, a road turns west to South 
Britain, along a picturesque bluff above the Pomperaug River (there is a 
better but less scenic road farther south.) This village, where at one time 
there was a considerable carpet and hat industry, lies under overhanging 
hills. The South Britain * Congregational Church, built in 1825, is a fine 
example of Colonial architecture, with pilasters supporting a pediment. Two 
doors north is an interesting salt-box house, one of the oldest in the South 
Britain section. About \Y 2 miles north, on Transylvania Rd., we find on the 
right the attractive Pierce House, 1819, brick with gambrel roof. 

M>inm:i KY lOi) 

Farther southwest on U. S. 6, George's Hill Rd. leads south to the Roswell- 
Wakeley House, near the R. R., dating from the early 18th century. About 
J 2 mile south of this, across the track, is a Glacial Erratic, a large boulder 
brought down by the ice. The rock is trap, and probably came from Wood- 
bury. A dirt road which comes up along the Housatonic River to join U. S. 
6, is worth following. The blue-marked Pomperaug Trail covers the same 
route along the hills, with good views. Where U. S. 6 crosses Pomperaug 
River, a road turns north to Churaevka, a colony of Russian refugees, started 
by the late Count Ilya Tolstoi. The highway crosses the Housatonic to 
Newtown, but the partly improved road which continues along the river 
makes an attractive drive, with other old houses along the route, and in what is 
known as the Purchase section, the northwestern part of Southbury. 

II. 25 

At this point we return to Litchfield, for a side trip through some of the towns 
farther west. Warren, formerly a part of Kent, was settled about 1737. The 
parish of East Greenwich was organized in 1750. In 1786, a town was in- 
corporated and named for a Massachusetts man, Gen. Joseph Warren, the 
Revolutionary hero, who lost his life at Bunker Hill. The town consists of a 
high plateau, bordered on the south by Lake Waramaug. 

Leaving Litchfield on R. 25, the traveler may enter Warren by R. 341, or 
take the more scenic Route 45, along the eastern shore of Waramaug and 
across the hills to Cornwall Bridge. On R. 45, about a mile above the Lake, 
a dirt road leads northwest to Above All State Park, 1456 feet elevation, with 
a fine view to the west. About } mile south of the highway junction, we 
cross an attractive hemlock ravine. The tiny village of Warren has an interest- 
ing Congregational Church, with pilastered pediment, a good tower, and fine 
interior woodwork. It was built in 1818, during the pastorate of Rev. Peter 
Starr, who served for 57 years. The church sent 16 young men into the 
ministry, including Charles G. Finney (1792-1875) the famous evangelist, 
associated with the early history of Oberlin College; and Julian M. Sturtevant 
(1805-1886) a member of the Illinois Band that went out from Yale, and foun- 
der of Illinois College. About l}^ miles north of the village, a road turns 
west 1 A mile to a brick school house, built around 1793, one of the oldest in 
New England in continuous use. 

The blue-marked Mattatuck Trail runs from Prospect Mt. along abandoned 
roads to Flat Rock, where connection is made with the Appalachian Trail 
coming east from Kent Falls along the northern boundary of the town. (Flat 
Rock may be reached at some seasons by car, on road to east just beyond 
Cornwall line.) The signboard reads: "New Haven, 62 miles; Mt. Katahdin, 
Maine, 619 miles; Mt. Oglethorpe, Georgia, 1439 miles." 


II. 26 

The town of Washington was settled in 1734. In 1741, Judea Society 
of Woodbury was organized, and in 1753 another parish at New Preston. A 
town was incorporated in 1779, the first in the country to be named for George 

Washington is a mountain region, cut by the deep gorge of the Shepaug 
River, and is noted for its scenery. There is a large summer colony on Lake 
Waramaug, and many country estates in the vicinity of Washington center. 

Leaving the junction of R. 25 and R 341 by a dirt road south along Shepaug 
River, we pass on the left in about 1^ miles a Quartz Vein, where the rock 
contains rare minerals: blue blades of cyanite, black elemite crystals, andalu- 
site and tourmaline. To our right is Mt. Rat, with an interesting view of the 
valley below. The lower end of the ravine with its hemlocks is attractive. One 
may return to R. 25 by Whittlesey Valley Rd., with a good view to the south. 

Entering the town from Warren, R. 45, with the connecting Lake Rd., 
encircles *Lake Waramaug, one of the most beautiful in the State. The 
State Park lies at the head of the Lake, in the town of Kent. There is another 
State Park on Mt. Bushnell, to the south, with a fine view of the lake from the 
lower slopes. About 1 A mile from the south end of the lake is the attractive 
Tinker Hill Gorge. Another fine viewpoint is Pinnacle Rock to the east, 
reached by a path from R. 45. 

In the village of New Preston, about 1 A mile east on R. 25, we find the 
* Cogswell Tavern, built about 1762, with hip roof, a stopping place for Wash- 
ington on two occasions. The Maple Tree in front is said to be the largest in 
Connecticut. At the west end of the village, on a commanding site, is the 
Congregational Church, a fine architectural landmark, built in 1824 of native 
stone. About a mile west, on New Preston Hill Rd., is the boyhood home of 
Horace Bushnell. (His birthplace was at Bantam in Litchfield.) At Marble - 
dale, southwest on R. 25, where there were quarries in an earlier day, is the 
attractive St. Andrews Episcopal Church, built of brick in 1822. On the 
country roads between New Preston and Shepaug River are good views and 
interesting houses, of which the best is the Averill Homestead, on Baldwin 
Hill Rd., about 1 1 A miles from New Preston; the land has been in the family 
ever since it was purchased from the Indians in 1746. 

Taking R. 47 through Washington Depot, passing on the left the beautiful 
gorge of Mallory Brook, and Cobble Hill on the left, with a roadway and bridle 
paths, we climb the hill to Washington village. Half way up the hill to the left, 
a tablet on a boulder marks a favorite study spot of the naturalist, W. Hamilton 
Gibson, who spent his summers here. On the Green is the Congregational 
Church of 1801. The building has quoins on the corners and a Palladian 
window below the pediment, somewhat marred by the later entrance porch. 
Northwest of the Green is the attractive stone building of St. John's Episcopal 
Church. On the south we have the Old Red House, built in 1772 by two brothers 
Leman and Joel Stone, a Whig and a Tory ; one of the Whig rooms has stenciled 
decorations with patriotic symbols. To the southwest, Kirby Corner was the 
residence of Sen. Orville H. Platt, and the birthplace site of Ephraim Kirby, 
whom we met in Litchfield, author of Kirby 's Reports. South from the Green 
on R. 47 is Gunnery School, a preparatory school for boys, established in 1850 


by a remarkable teacher, Frederick W. Gunn (1816-1881.) After graduating 
from Yale, Gunn opened a school in his native town, though obliged to leave 
for a time on account of his abolitionist views. The Gunn Memorial Library 
east of the Green has mural decorations by H. Siddons Mowbray. There are 
bronze tablets to Mr. and Mrs. Gunn; Mary Brinsmade Brown, a sister of 
Mrs. Gunn, founder of Judea Seminary; and Senator Platt. The Library has 
a collection of Indian relics. About % mile northeast of the village is Wykekam 
Rise, a preparatory school for girls, established in 1902. 

On R. 47, which runs southeast from Washington to Woodbury, we pass to 
the left in about }4 mile the original Judea Cemetery, where 30 Revolutionary 
soldiers are buried, including Jeff Liberty, the leader of a negro band. Below 
the highway on our right is an attractive wooded ravine. To the left again 
is Plumb Hill, with a fine view in all directions. 

Among the many attractive drives in Washington are Nettleton Valley Rd. 
on the east of the town, with a fine laurel display, reached by crossroads 
east from R. 47; Two Rod Highway, south from R. 47 across Painters Ridge, 
with a view extending from the Meriden Hills to the Catskills ; Fenn Hill above 
R. 134, west from Washington Depot, from which the Housatonic and Shepaug 
valleys can be seen for many miles; and Church Hill Rd. to Walker Brook 
Valley, reached by going down the river from Washington Depot, passing about 
a mile from the river the Titus Homestead, built in 1760. The dirt road which 
continues down the river passes under * Steep Rock, a beautiful cliff overlooking 
a "clam shell" bend in the Shepaug. From the summit there is a remarkable 
view down the valley. This region, served by trails and bridle paths, is 
maintained by Trustees for use of the townspeople of Washington. It is noted 
for its laurel display. 

There are many good Colonial houses in the town. The oldest, moved 
down from Windsor, is the Seth Young House, built in 1748, about 1 mile 
south of the center, to the left of R. 131 to Roxbury. 

II. 27 

Roxbury was settled about 1713, as a part of Woodbury. A parish was 
organized in 1743, and a town incorporated in 1796. The name, which we 
find also in Massachusetts, probably comes from the shire of Roxburgh in 
Scotland. The town is mountainous, with the gorge of the Shepaug River to 
the west. 

Entering the town from Washington by R. 131, Roxbury Fire Tower on 
Painters Hill lies about 2 miles to the east, with a fine view in all directions. 
Turning west to Judd's Bridge, and going south along the Shepaug. we reach 
a ravine in about a mile; on the hillside to the south of it is Gamaliel's Den, 
with a tradition of counterfeiters. At Roxbury Station, near the barn of C. W. 
Hodge, on the east side of the river, we find a large boulder known as Pulpit 
Rock, from which John Eliot is said to have preached to the Indians. Mine 
Hill lies to the west of the river, reached by a dirt road north from the Station. 
A silver mine was opened here in early days. Ethan Allen had an interest in it 

112 Tllli CONN&I III I I 

at one time, and Jabez Bacon of Southbury bought up the various titles, which 
were subject to endless litigation. Later, the mine was found to contain 
spathic iron, specially adapted to steel making, and a small smelting furnace 
was built. No commercial mining has been done since 1871, but it is used for 
demonstration purposes by the School of Mines of Columbia University. The 
ore vein is along a fault zone, and is a source of many interesting mineral 
specimens. Ruins of the old smelting furnace can be seen on the west side of 
the river near the Station. Mine Hill also has granite quarries, and many 
churches and other buildings in surrounding towns have been built of this stone. 

Roxbury Center is reached by R. 67, or by R. 131 from Washington. On 
the triangular village Green is a monument to Seth Warner (1743-1784) who 
moved to Vermont and was associated with Ethan Allen. He was one of the 
leaders of the Green Mountain Boys and captured Crown Point, later returning 
to Roxbury. The original gravestone is in the burial ground at the old center, 
2U miles farther east. The third of the famous Vermont leaders, Remember 
Baker (1737-1775) lived about 1 mile west of the village, in the old house on 
the north side of the road. Christ Church, west of the Green, has a lectern and 
pulpit of Mine Hill stone. The ironwork in the church, made by a farmer 
parishioner, includes two small crosses of the local spathic iron. The original 
part of the Episcopal Rectory, north of the Church, was built as a tavern 
before 1740. Southwest of the Green are two good Colonial houses, built 
about 1784: the Asahel Bacon House on the west of the street, and the Gen. 
Ephraim Hinman House on the east. To the southeast, where R. 67 turns 
the corner, is the Preston House of about the same date. 

R. 131, only partly improved, leads south to *Roxbury Falls. The beautiful 
rapids, where the Shepaug flows, between high cliffs, are ] _> mile north, reached 
by a dirt road. Keeping south, beyond the turn to Roxbury Falls, almost to 
the Southbury line, we come to the Roxbury Garnet Mine. It is an open pit 
mine, where material was obtained for use in abrasives. One can find beauti- 
fully shaped crystals of brown garnet. 

Following R. 67 southeast to Southbury, Tophet Ravine lies } > mile to the 
east, in about 2 miles. The highway makes an attractive drive, and there are 
some old houses along the way. 

II. 4S 


Resuming our Journey through Southbury, we come to Newtown, settled in 
1708 and given town privileges in 1711. It is roughly triangular in shape, and 
consists of rolling hill country, with the Housatonic River flowing along the 
northeastern border. The borough of Newtown was incorporated in 1824. 
There is some manufacturing at Sandy Hook, with summer colonies on Lake 
Zoar and through northern Newtown. 

Crossing the Housatonic from Southbury on I". S. 6, \ve pass on the right a 
fine old red house from the 18th century. To the north lies Eagle Rock, an 
outlook point with an old gold mine back of it. The highway winds through 
* Rocky Glen, one of the finest hemlock ravines in the State, to the village of 

II. 28 NEWTOWN 113 

Sandy Hook, at the base of a steep bluff, where the Pootatuck River supplies 
good waterpower. An early cotton mill was succeeded by rubber factories. 
Nelson Goodyear, a brother of Charles, had a factory here and discovered the 
process of making hard rubber. Fabric rubber is still manufactured, and 
there are various minor industries. 

R. 34, running southeast from Sandy Hook to Stevenson Dam on the 
Housatonic, makes a scenic drive. We pass through Berkshire, typical of the 
small manufacturing centers scattered through the town in the days before the 
railroad; the Curtis factory, now making paper boxes, has been in the family 
for three generations. In about 2 miles we pass several interesting houses. 
Snake Rock Farm on the left, the former Ezekiel Beers house, dating from 
about 1738, was the summer home of the late President Hadley of Yale. The 
low-roofed Netlleton House opposite is also worth noting. The Morris Home- 
stead on the left, birthplace of Gov. Luzon B. Morris, is the scene of the 
"Jonathan Papers" by Elizabeth Woodbridge (Mrs. Chas. G. Morris.) The 
highway passes Chestnut Tree Hill to the right, with a good horizon, and the 
lower end of Half Way River Gorge, a beautiful ravine running back for 
2 miles from the junction with R. 111. Stevenson Dam, where the highway 
crosses, has set back the river for 10 miles to form the attractive *Lake Zoar, 
which offers the best canoeing in the State. The steep western bank, which 
must be traversed on foot, gives fine views of the Lake. 

U. S. 6 continues west to the borough of Newtown, which attained its 
greatest commercial importance between the opening of the Bridgeport 
turnpike after 1801 and the coming of the railroad in 1840. During that 
period, a heavy stream of wagon traffic from points farther inland passed 
through Newtown on the way to tidewater. The main street, shaded by elms, 
runs north and south along a ridge. The present borough owes much to its 
benefactress, Miss Elizabeth Hawley. 

As we climb to Newtown Street on U. S. 6, we pass on the right the Hawley 
School, given to the town by Miss Hawley, with an endowment, in memory 
of her parents. At the corner by the flagpole, facing the highway from 
Sandy Hook, stands the Congregational Church, erected in 1808. It has in- 
herited from the earlier building the bell and weathercock, the latter showing 
marks of target practice by French soldiers. Rochambeau camped twice in 
Newtown, in 1781 southwest of the Church, and on the return trip in 1782 back 
of Hawley School. On the southeast corner is Trinity Episcopal Church, built 
of gray stone in 1870, replacing the older Colonial structure. Going south 
from the flagpole, the first house beyond the hotel was erected in 1787 by Judge 
Wm. Edmond, who built up a large law practice in spite of a permanent injury 
received in the Revolution. Next to this is the Dr. Cyrenius H. Booth Library, 
the gift of Miss Hawley in honor of her doctor grandfather, who built the house 
to the south, now the Hawley Manor inn. The Library is well endowed, and 
has interesting historical rooms. North from the center, on the left, we pass 
the Beers House next the savings bank, built in 1785. Beyond this is the 
Edmond Town Hall, with its fine theatre, given by Miss Hawley as a memorial 
to her great-grandfather. The oldest house in the borough is the Belden House, 
an 18th century salt-box, with front porch added, the fourth on the right as we 
go north from the center. 

West of Newtown Street, U. S. 6 goes through attractive country, with 
fine views. The same is true of R. 25, running northwest to Brookfield. 
Colonial houses of various types which have preserved their original lines 

1 1 1 THE CONNECTK I I (,[ IOI. 

may be found on almost any road. Narrow double doors are one of the 
characteristic features of the region. 

South from the center, R. 25 passes on the right in \% mile the old Cemetery 
going back to 1711, which Miss Hawley has beautified and endowed. Here 
lie Thomas Toucey, the first minister, and his great-grandson, Hon. Isaac 
Toucey (1796-1869) governor of Connecticut, U. S. Attorney General and 
Secretary of the Navy. Among the graves is that of Rev. John Beach, called 
in 1728 as the second minister of the Congregational church. He became an 
Episcopalian four years later, went to England for ordination, and served the 
Episcopal church in Newtown for 50 years until his death in 1782. In 1 mile, 
an improved road leads east to Fairfield State Hospital for mental patients, 
opened in 1932. At the Monroe town line we find the remains of a Toll Gate 
on the old turnpike. 

II. 2S> 

Monroe was settled in 1755 as a part of Huntington (Shelton,) and the 
parish of New Stratford organized in 1762. In 1823 a town was incorporated 
and named for President Monroe. The eastern part of the town is rather rich 
in minerals. There are two centers, Monroe on the east, and Stepney to the 
west along the R. R. 

To reach the eastern part of the town, we take R. Ill south from Stevenson 
Dam. Parallel with this, a little to the east, is the blue-marked Pomperaug 
Trail from Lake Zoar to Bridgeport. The Trail climbs the attractive ravine 
of Boys Halfway River, reaching in about 1 mile an abandoned lime quarry 
known as Devil's Den. From R. 1 1 1, a road turns east in about 2 miles through 
East Village to Booth's Bismuth Mine, recently reopened, where bismuth 
occurs in a free state in the quartz. Barylium ore is also found. South from 
East Village, a road goes over Barn Hill with one of the finest views in this 
section. With glasses it is possible to pick out East Rock in New Haven and 
hills across the New York line, as well as a long sweep of the Sound and Long 
Island. Just before reaching R. 110, we find to the west the * Cyrus Hawley 
House, probably built about 1740. There is a 6-panel door with rectangular 
transom, leaded with applied festoons. The porch, with pilasters, detached 
columns (not original.) pediment and molding, is simple and not at all classical, 
but peculiarly rich in its effect. Turning west on R. 110, we pass on the right, 
about 1 mile from Monroe village, a Feldspar Quarry, with many minerals in 
the pegmatite veins. Some good semi-precious gem stones have been cut 
from the rose quartz. 

The two highways, R. Ill and R. 110, climb a ridge to Monroe Village, with 
its small central Green. St. Peter's Church, erected in 1802, has a Palladian 
window; the walls are shingled. The * Episcopal Rectory is of brick, with a 
fine doorway: slender columns supporting a porch with rounded ceiling and 
delicate molding. On the interior woodwork, applied moldings were used. 
There are other good Colonial houses in the village and surrounding country. 
About s 4 mile southeast, we have a fine view from the hill over which the 
Pomperaug Trail passes. 

11.29 MONROE 115 

In the vicinity of Stepney are a number of interesting houses. Approaching 
the village by R. 25, the Thomas Hawley House, a little to the northeast, dates 
from 1756. Farther east, across the R. R., is the 18th century Purdee House. 

II. 30 

We now make a side trip to cover the town of Easton, settled about 1757 
by people from Fairfield. A parish of North Fairfield was organized in 1763. 
In 1845, a new town was incorporated under the name Easton, or the eastern 
part of Weston. Tryon's forces crossed the town in 1777 in the raid on Dan- 
bury. Easton is a rough hill country, through which the Aspetuck River has 
cut a deep north and south gorge. 

Leaving R. 25 in Monroe by R. 59, we cross to Easton, with interesting old 
houses on the crossroads to the west. The highway goes east of Round Hill, 
which gives a good view in all directions. This hill is a drumlin, an elliptical 
mound shaped like half an egg, representing deposits of stony clay beneath 
the ice sheet. About % mile east of this point, a parallel road runs for several 
miles along Hemlock Reservoir, a beautiful body of water with densely wooded 
shores. Farther south on R. 59, near boundary, there is a good south- 
ern view from Sport Hill. A short distance east, on a crossroad, is the Jesse 
I^ee Memorial church, the oldest Methodist society in New England, organized 
Sept. 26, 1789. A tablet to the southeast, on Park Ave., marks the site of the 
original meeting house of 1790, the first Methodist building in New England. 

R. 58 from Danbury follows the beautiful Aspetuck River, and is the 
most scenic route through the town. West of the highway, about l l /2 miles 
below the Redding town line, in a narrow rocky gorge, we find a group of old 
walls and cellar holes, with interesting "crows-nests" made of dry stone. The 
meaning of these strange ruins is still unexplained. A mile farther south. Flirt 
Hill lies to our right, with a complete horizon. The first crossroad to the west 
beyond this takes one through the attractive Bedford estate, with good views. 
About a mile below the junction with R. 106, ^ mile west up the hill, is 
Samp Mortar Rock, a natural mortar scoured out by the glacier. The Indians 
used it for grinding corn, and their pestle is in Peabody Museum at Yale. 
There is a cave below, and the spot evidently was an Indian camp ground. 
The summit of the hill above the Rock commands a fine view in all directions. 

The old road used by Gen. Tryon left the present R. 58 about opposite 
Samp Mortar Rock, and went through Easton village, and thence northward 
along the higher ground. We reach Easton Village today by the cross highway 
R. 106, connecting R. 58 and R. 59. The most interesting building is the old 
Staples Academy, erected in 1797, and now used as a Community Center. The 
Academy started in 1781, one of the earliest secondary schools in Connecticut 
and among the forerunners of a remarkable educational movement. The 
academies drew promising boys and girls from the neighborhood, and, as their 
reputations grew, from an ever widening radius. They flourished until High 
Schools began to be generally established in the latter half of the 19th century. 
Funds provided by Samuel Staples made the academy at Easton a free school. 

IK) THi: (.ONNKCTKl I (.1 II>K 


Returning to Monroe, we continue our Journey to the town of Trumbull. 
settled about 1690. A parish of Unity in North Stratford was organized in 
1725, and a separate town incorporated in 1797, named for the second Gov. 
Jonathan Trumbull. The town consists of hilly country, divided by the deep 
valley of the Pequonnock River. The southern portion of Trumbull is now a 
suburb of Bridgeport. 

Entering Trumbull from Monroe on R. 25 and passing a number of old 
houses, a road to the east leads to Long Hill. About } mile north of Long 
Hill R. R. station, near the summit of the river bluff, is a Tungsten Mine, with 
tungsten and copper ores, worked into the present century. Some of the 
minerals discovered here have made their way into museums all over the world. 
The blue-marked Pomperaug Trail, after crossing a good northward viewpoint 
on the town line, comes south along an old road on high ground ; it takes in an 
attractive picnic spot about % mile north of the mine, and then works south- 
east to its terminus at the upper end of Beardsley Park. 

R. 25 continues south along the high land west of the river, with more 18th 
century houses. The house belonging to Chas. Kaechele, 1 mile west by Mod- 
esty Ave. (west side of Park ave.) claims a date of 1653. The same crossroad 
continues west to *Tashua Hill, 620 feet, with a remarkable view; the hill is a 
landmark for sailors on this part of the coast. During the Revolution, this 
was the most important observation point along the Sound. Men with 
Spyglasses were constantly stationed here to watch for British ships, and any 
intelligence was spread rapidly by post riders. A mile west of R. 25, on the 
north side of Madison Rd., is the John Edwards House (Waller House) built 
in 1719 and recently restored. 

R. 127, which follows the river bank to Bridgeport, passes through Trumbull 
Village, on high ground, like most of the Connecticut villages in the early 
days. Christ Episcopal Church was built in 1760. There is an attractive 
Library building, given by the Nichols family. 

BRIDGEPORT. See Journey 1.8. 

Journey III 

Stratford to Colebrook. 
U. S. 8 and Route 69. 

Our next Journey takes us up the Housatonic and Naugatuck Rivers, 
through a chain of manufacturing towns and cities. The brass industry 
had its start here, with the aid of the abundant waterpower, and about 50 
per cent of the country's brass products still come from this region. The 
Naugatuck with its deep gorge gives a scenic background, and the hills are 
part of the Western Highlands. Our main highway link will be Route U. S. 8. 
A second approach to the Valley will be made from New Haven. 

STRATFORD. See Journey I. 9. 

III. 1 

From Stratford, we enter the town of Shelton, settled as a part of Stratford 
about 1697. A parish of Ripton was organized in 1724. In 1789 the town of 
Huntington was incorporated, taking its name from Gov. Samuel Huntington 
of Norwich, one of the signers of the Declaration. In 1919, with the shift 
in the town's center of gravity, the name was changed to Shelton, from the 
city of Shelton, named from one of its leading families. The city, chartered 
in 1915, has an unusually wide area and a population of 10,113. 

Entering the town by the scenic U. S. 8 along the Housatonic River, we 
pass Long Hill on our left, with a fine view up the river, and about a mile 
farther Coram Hill, with Laurel Heights, a State tuberculosis sanatorium, on a 
commanding site. As an alternative, R. 65 from Bridgeport keeps on high 
ground, crossing the attractive valley of Farmill River, which supplied 
power for early industries. 

A third route is to turn north from R. 65 on Huntington St., soon after 
crossing the town line. We pass on the left the beautiful Trap Falls Reservoir, 
and come to the old village of Huntington, worth visiting for its 18th century 
houses of various types. Of the two churches on the Green, St. Paul's Church, a 
Colonial building with a pedimented doorway, was erected in 1812; the or- 
ganization goes back to 1740. Around it is the Episcopal burial ground, the 
oldest stone dating from 1743. The Congregational parsonage is a reproduc- 
tion of the house built in 1766 by the first minister, Rev. Jedidiah Mills, 
toward the end of his ministry of 52 years. Across the Green, on the northeast 


corner, we note the Buckingham House, built about 1773. A little to the south- 
east is an interesting salt-box known as the Thompson House. R. 108 leads 
from Huntingdon to Shelton. 

The City of SkeUon is laid out along the steep river bluff. There are two 
surviving old houses on the south side of Brewsters Lane, between U. S. 8 and 
the river, and two more to the west of R. 65: the Perry Homestead (west side 
of Perry Hill rd.) probably built before 1758. and David Skelton House (north 
side of White Hills rd.) The Plumb Memorial Library is located at 65 Wooster 
St., at the foot of Coram Ave. The largest industry is the velvet factory of 
Sidney Blumenthal Co., and there are plants making pins and silver plated 
ware, as well as many smaller industries. 

Above the city. R. 1 10 passes through Skelton Park, a favorite spot for watch- 
ing the Yale boat races, with good canoeing on the river. The highway 
follows the Housatonic for 2 miles, and then turns west to Monroe, passing 
through the Lower White Hills district, where there are good north views 
and many old houses. The most interesting are the Beordsley House, just 
west of the White Hills church, and Skelton House, 3 4 mile south on the west 
side of Birdseye Rd.. which still has the old wellsweep in the yard. Where 
R. 110 leaves the river, we find * Indian WeU State Park. A brook, cascading 
through a hemlock ravine, falls into a broad pothole below overhanging cliffs. 
It is one of the most charming spots in Connecticut. North from this point, 
the blue-marked Paugusset Trail is being laid out along the river bluffs, to 
join the Pomperaug Trail at Stevenson Dam. 

in. * 


From Shelton we cross to Derby, where the Naugatuck River flows into 
the Housatonic. at the head of tidewater. The original name was Paugasuck. 
A trading post was established as early as 1642, and the first settlement 
probably dates from 1651. A town was incorporated in 1675, and named 
from Derby in England. 

During the 18th century. Derby developed into an important seaport the 
outlet to the West Indies for a large inland territory. Jabez Bacon of Wood- 
bury had his warehouses here. In the general trade expansion following the 
Revolution, it was a common sight to see a string of wagons half a mile long, 
loaded with country produce, waiting their turn at the docks. Teamsters 
were delayed for hours before they could unload, and receive their return 
freight. The Derby Fishing Co. was carrying on an extensive commerce with 
the north shore of the Mediterranean. In 1798 a turnpike to New Haven was 
promoted by local business men, but instead of helping Derby it diverted 
much of the country trade to New Haven, where the harbor was larger and 
more free from ice. The turnpike opened in 1801 from Bridgeport through 
Newtown cut off produce that had been coming to Derby from towns on the 

In the 19th century, extensive manufacturing developed in the district 
between the two rivers, which came to be known as Birmingham. Derby 
was a starting point for the metal industries of the lower Naugatuck valley. In 

III. 2 DERBY 119 

1836, Anson G. Phelps, a New York importer, built a mill for making copper 
sheets and wire, later moved to Ansonia, and an iron foundry was opened the 
same year. In 1838, the Howe Manufacturing Co. was organized, to utilize 
two inventions of Dr. John I. Howe of New York: a machine to make a pin by 
one operation, and another for sticking pins in papers. This pioneer pin 
company continued until 1908. Present industries range from shirts and 
corsets to safety pins, dairy machinery, filing cabinets, keys, and sponge 
rubber. The city of Derby was chartered in 1893, and has a population of 
10,788. Derby and Shelton are closely connected and sometimes called the 
"twin cities." 

Crossing the Housatonic by U. S. 8, which goes north to Ansonia and Sey- 
mour, the large power dam lies upstream to our left. It has created a long 
reach of still water, admirably adapted to boating, and utilized by the Yale 
crews for their annual Spring Regatta. R. 34 continues up the Housatonic 
along the attractive river bank, passing on the right in about \Y miles a 
fine stand of hemlock and hardwood on a steep slope. The next crossroad 
leads north in % mile to a good view of the river. The first hundred yards 
beyond this turn is interesting to geologists for the rock exposures, which show 
an unusual mixture of gneiss, schist and granite. 

In the other direction, R. 34 follows Main St. to New Haven Ave., passing 
above the site of the old boat landing and shipyards. The small ell on the 
coal-yard building with an elevated track is probably the birthplace of Com- 
modore Isaac Hull (1775-1843) commander of the "Constitution" in its famous 
victory over the "Guerriere." Gen. Joseph Wheeler, the noted Confederate 
commander, lived in this house from 1838 to 1851. Farther south, on our right, 
is the Henry Whitney House (113 New Haven ave.) dating from 1760. To our 
left, as we climb out of the valley, Sentinel Hill gives a fine view down the 
river. This highway is still known as Derby Turnpike; there was a tollgate 
as late as 1895. The sign with a schedule of charges (hogs and sheep could 
go through for half a cent) is in the N. H. Colony Historical Society. 

Retracing our steps and going up the east bank of the Naugatuck (R. 115) 
through the older section of Derby, the Mansion House, at the corner of Gilbert 
and Bank Sts., was built in 1783, and used as a tavern from 1807 on by Capt. 
Joseph Hull, father of the Commodore; the brick basement is a later addition. 
Some distance to the north, on our right, is the attractive First Congregational 
Church, with its Ionic portico and recessed porch, erected in 1821; the organi- 
zation dates back to 1677. To our left around the turn, on the river bank, we 
find the old Colonial Cemetery, used since 1678. Among the stones are Edward 
Wooster, the first settler, who died in 1689; and Rev. John Bowers, the first 
minister, with a date of 1687. In the space between the old and new ceme- 
teries, the Daughters of 1812 have erected a monument to Commodore Hull. 
To our right is the Old Town Common, with a monument to the early settlers 
erected in 1904, and the Town Well, dating from 1673. Across the highway, 
opposite the Town Well, is the Francis French House (Curtis House) built in 
1700. Farther, on our left, is the birthplace of Gen. William Hull (1753-1825) 
uncle of the Commodore, who was governor of Michigan Territory and the 
ill-starred commander at Detroit in the War of 1812. The house was built 
about 1750. Half a mile south on Academy Hill Rd., opposite the Reservoir, is 
the quaint house known as * Brownie Castle, built in 1686 by Samuel Bowers, 
who married Ruth Wooster, daughter of the first settler. 

IL'O mi i IINM-.I m t i i.i im. 


North of Derby is the daughter town of Ansonia, settled in 1651. In 
1844, Anson G. Phelps, looking for a factory site with cheaper land, started 
brass works here, in a village which he named Ansonia. The Parrels began to 
manufacture heavy machinery in 1848. A separate town was incorporated in 

The city of Ansonia was chartered in 1893, and has a population of 19,898. 
In addition to machinery, and brass goods of various kinds, there is an im- 
portant cotton braid industry. 

Continuing north on R. 115 (Main st.) we veer to the right on Elm St. 
passing a small triangular park with a monument erected by the D. A. R. to 
the first settlers. The Hodge House, built about 1768, lies to our left, just 
beyond the park. There are other rather fine houses along Elm Street, from 
the late 18th century, though some of them are badly altered. They reflect 
the commercial prosperity of Derby after the Revolution. On our left is 
Elm St. Cemetery, dating from 1737, with a monument to the Deerfield Indians, 
and the grave of Rev. Richard Mansfield. Opposite the Cemetery is the old 
Colonial house known as the * Humphreys House (37} 2 Elm St.) In 1698, a 
salt-box house was built by the town for John James, one of the early Derby 
ministers. Later, the lean-to was raised to two full stories and an ell built on 
the rear. About 1733 the house was acquired by another pastor, Rev. Daniel 
Humphreys, and his youngest son, Gen. David Humphreys (1752-1818) was 
born here. He was one of Washington's aides, with some reputation as a poet, 
and had a distinguished career as a foreign diplomat. Humphreys interested 
himself in the manufacture of fine woolens, and in 1802 sent to Spain for a 
flock of 100 merino sheep, in order to improve the American breed. His 
factory was located in 1806 at " Humphrey sville," the present Seymour, which 
he made a model village, with a paternal attitude toward his employees, some 
of them orphan boys from New York. Humphreys built a fine mansion in 
Boston, and died at New Haven. The birthplace house is maintained by a 
board of trustees. 

The good houses continue on Jewett St., into which Elm St. runs on the 
north. On the east side of Jewett St., after the turn, is the Rev. * Richard 
Mansfield House, a typical salt-box, built in 1748 for the first minister of the 
Episcopal Church, who served for 72 years until his death in 1820, living down 
the charge of disloyalty during the Revolution. The house, which originally 
stood across the street, has a central chimney, and overhangs in both stories; 
there is a two-leaved door with iron latch. 

The Ansonia Library, with a collection of D. A. R. relics, is located at 53 
S. Cliff St. Another old house in Ansonia is the Moulthrop House on the north 
side of Moulthrop St. (via Prospect st.) In the northern part of the city, on 
the right of Main St., is the Ebenezer Kinney House (Hotchkiss Homestead; 
cor. Colony st.) built in 1750. The Capt. Nathaniel Johnson House (Gale 
House) on the left, almost at the town line, dates from 1779. From the slopes 
east of the city there are a number of good viewpoints. 

On the west side of the River, the Baldwin Homestead, about 1768, is on 
the west side of U. S. 8 (Wakelee st., cor. Division st.) just beyond the Derby 


line. A few blocks farther north, on the right, a D. A. R. marker points up 
Pork Hollow St., where pork belonging to the American army was buried for 
safety at one time during the Revolution. 

III. 4 


North of Ansonia is the town of Seymour, settled about 1680 as a part of 
Derby. The settlement was originally known as Chusetown. Before the end 
of the 18th century, a number of small mills were operating on the Naugatuck 
and on Bladen's Brook. The manufacture of paper was started as early as 
1805. In 1806, as we have noted, Gen. David Humphreys developed the 
village of Humphreysville, for the workmen in his woolen factory. Other 
industries followed, including cotton mills and augur factories. The town of 
Seymour was incorporated in 1850, and named for Gov. Thomas H. Seymour 
of Hartford. 

Of present industries, the more important products are German silver, 
brass, insulated cables, augurs, hard rubber goods, and mohair plush, in which 
the town was a pioneer. 

The Naugatuck River flows between steep banks, with U. S. 8 on the west 
of the river and R. 115 on the east. By taking the Old Ansonia Rd. still 
farther east, on high ground, we pass a granite quarry on the right, and in 
about lj/2 miles, at the junction with Maple St., reach a fine view up and down 
the valley. About % mile northeast of the road crossing is an old Silver Mine. 
A continuation of Maple St. leads southeast past the attractive Peat Swamp 
Lake, with an aerating fountain below the reservoir dam. Entering the village 
by Maple St., there are several old houses on the south side of Pearl St. To the 
right, we note the Beach Parsonage, built in 1789, and the Deacon Lum House 
(Hezekiah Johnson House) probably of about the same date. To the left, the 
best is the red 1% story cottage known as the Sheldon Tucker Place. A few 
blocks south, on the east side of R. 115, stands the Wooster Moss House 
(S. Main St., cor. Moss ave.) said to go back before 1700. Opposite is the old 
Turel Whittemore Tavern. 

On the west side of the river, ^ mile west of U. S. 8, just after crossing the 
Ansonia line, is Wildcat Gorge, where the steep climb is rewarded by garnets 
and other minerals and a fine view from the summit. Great Hill, with a 
complete horizon, lies still farther west, about half way from U. S. 8 to Route 
34, which makes a scenic drive along the Housatonic. About a mile farther 
north on U. S. 8, an old Nickel Mine lies ^ mile to the left, with good samples 
of arsenical pyrites. As we enter the village, the Lum-Holloway House 
(Derby ave. and Rose st.) of 1747 stands to our left. From Broad St. there is 
a good view of the Falls. To the west on Cedar St., on a rocky ledge overlook- 
in the Falls, is a 1^ story house, said to have been built by Bradford Steele 
before the Revolution. At the corner of West and Church Sts., stands Trinity 
Episcopal Church, built originally in 1797, with a graceful entrance tower and 
pedimented doorway. A block farther west, on the south side of West St., we 
find an 18th century cottage which was the birthplace of the writer Mrs. Ann 
S. Stephens (1810-1886) who originated the dime novel. On Bank St., where 
U. S. 8 and R. 67 cross to the east bank of the river, there is a fine example of 
the old Covered Bridge. 


III. 5 

From Seymour, we make a side trip to the west to the town of Oxford, 
settled about 1680 as a part of Derby. In 1741 a parish of Oxford was or- 
ganized, named for Oxford in England. A separate town was incorporated in 

Oxford consists of a series of broad stream valleys, divided by rugged hills- 
As in most of the Connecticut towns, there were important early industries. 
During the Civil War period, Oxford was one of the main sources for daguer- 
rotype cases, the business centering in Red City a mile north of the center. 

R. 67, which we follow through the town, was an old turnpike, chartered in 
1795, the second oldest in Connecticut. About a mile beyond the Seymour 
to\vn line, we pass, on an elevation to our right, the Josiah Washband House, 
built probably about 1767, and later enlarged for use as a tavern. Park Rd. 
leads southwest, past a left turn, to the attractive Swan Reservoir, where 
bathing is allowed; the 1 1 ,4 story Shelton Homestead, with central chimney and 
overhang; and Oxford Fire Tower to the right, which gives a long-distance 
view over wild country. Just before reaching the center, Chestnut Tree Hill 
Rd. leads to the right, with good views. 

In Oxford Village, the * Hudson House on our right has a central chimney, 
good doorway, and a fine ornamental frieze of applied molding. The Abel 
Wheeler House (S. P. Sanford House) just west of the Congregational church, 
dates from 1786; though changed by porches, it is redeemed by the original 
entrance, with Palladian window above. A block to the east, at the corner of 
Riggs St., is a good example of an older Colonial type, known in early days as 
the Moody Brown House. 

Riggs St. leads north to Middlebury, with a fine view from Woodruff Hill to 
our right, at the town line. This road takes its name from Samuel Riggs, who 
lived about a mile from the corner, in the fourth house from the top of the 
hill, and built other houses for his sons. About \i mile farther, on the right, 
stands the old Osborn Homestead, remodeled by Samuel Wheeler in 1795. It is 
shaded by beautiful trees and is a typical Colonial house, with central chimney, 
front porch, and small windows. 

On Christian St., about 1 l i miles farther along the highway, the Twitchel 
House, built about 1760, with central chimney and shingled walls, lies on 
the east of the road, with a good view from the hill above. 

About 2 miles southwest of Oxford village is the Quaker Farms section, with 
many interesting buildings. The *Episcopal Church, erected in 1812, has a 
pilastered doorway and fine interior woodwork. A mile south of the Church, 
on the east side of the old road from Southford, is the Sanford Homestead, 1 l - 2 
stories, with central chimney and overhang, probably built about 1760. Two 
miles farther south, this road passes Rockhouse Hill on the right, with a fine 
view in all directions. 

R. 34 follows along the east bank of the Housatonic to Stevenson Dam, with 
a good parking space below from which to see the waterfall. On Eight Mile 
Brook, just above the Dam, is an attractive ravine. Continuing along the 
river, the second crossroad to the right leads in 1 mile to Stevenson Mine, where 
copper was extracted during the middle of the 19th century. 

III. 5 OXFORD 123 

The blue marked Pomperaug Trail from Bridgeport crosses at Stevenson 
Dam and continues west above the river, crossing Good Hill, another fine 
viewpoint. The Paugusset Trail, now being constructed from Stratford, will 
run northeast from the Dam to High Rock in Beacon Falls, passing the 
Oxford Fire Tower already mentioned. 

III. 6 

North of Seymour is the town of Beacon Falls, consisting of the valleys 
of Naugatuck River and Hockanum Brook, surrounded by rugged hills. The 
first settler probably came in 1678. The waterpower led to the development of 
a considerable rubber industry, and a town was incorporated in 1871. Beacon 
Falls contains part of the Naugatuck State Forest. 

Going beneath Rock Rimmon on U. S. 8, we pass on the right, beyond Pines 
Bridge, the Noe House, site of an early sulphur match shop, where the owner 
has a collection of old clocks and guns. At the village, a Covered Bridge 
leads \y^ miles north to * Spruce Brook, one of the most beautiful ravines in 
Connecticut. Hemlock often was called "spruce" by the early settlers. An 
amusement park was at one time maintained here by the New Haven R. R. 
The State Forest Commission has provided ample parking space, and a blue 
marked Trail leads up the brook to join the new Paugusset Trail. This was 
the route of the old road from Derby to Litchfield. Another path climbs to 
High Rock, with an unusual view. Under the cliff is a large boulder, and 
the remains of an Indian chipping ground for making arrow heads. 

Returning to the village, and continuing north 1 mile, the Naugatuck 
Trail to New Haven climbs Beacon Hill on our right. Across the river, at 
close range, are High Rock and the adjacent cliffs. There is a good view from 
the Fire Tower. The Naugatuck Forest was given to the State by the Whit- 
temore family in 1931, after making extensive pine plantings. 

in. 7 


The town of Naugatuck was first settled in 1702, and incorporated in 1844. 
Salem parish of Waterbury had been organized in 1781. The borough of 
Naugatuck was chartered in 1893, and has a population of 14,315. 

There were early woolen mills and metal working factories. Naugatuck is 
closely associated with Charles Goodyear and the development of the rubber 
industry. His father Amasa Goodyear manufactured buttons, hardware and 
farm implements, and invented the fork with tines of steel rather than wrought 
iron. Charles was associated with his father until 1831. Though his heroic 
attack on the vulcanization of rubber was made elsewhere, a brother Henry 

1'Jl TIIK CONNR4 I l I 1 i.l 1UI. 

began making rubber goods here in 1843, and the Naugatuck factory was the 
first to be licensed under the patent of 1844. During the Civil War Naugatuck 
supplied rubber blankets for the Union Army. The footwear division of the 
I'. S. Rubber Co. is now concentrated in the borough, turning out 85,000 
pair of boots and shoes in a day. There is a large rubber glove factory, as 
well as a rubber reclaiming plant. Other industries include chemicals, candy, 
malleable iron, and sheet metal goods. 

U. S. 8 continues north through a scenic gorge, with Beacon Hill on our 
right, where the Naugatuck Trail gives a good view from the northern summit. 
Route 63 leads eastward to New Haven, by the old Litchfield turnpike. In 
about 1 mile, on our right, is the attractive Osborn's Glen, open to picnic parties 
for a small fee. About l l /z miles farther, on the left in Straitsville, we find 
Collins Tavern, built in 1811, probably from designs by David Hoadley. The 
overhanging front roof is supported by 6 slender 2-story columns. The door- 
way, with square pillars, pilasters and plain gabled pediment, intervenes 
between the 5th and 6th columns. North of R. 63 are two good western 

Southwest of the borough, there is an eastern view from Andrews Hill, back 
of High Rock. The finest view is from Huntington Hill, 850 feet, reached by 
West Mountain St., about 23 2 miles west; Long Island Sound can be seen. 
R. 63 to Middlebury passes through a beautiful hemlock ravine. 

The distinctive feature of Naugatuck Borough is the series of public build- 
ings designed by McKim, Mead and White. Crossing the River by Maple 
St. Bridge, the Howard Whittemore Memorial Library and the Children's 
Library lie to our right on Church St., with the Congregational Church opposite. 
West of the Green, we find Salem School; and Naugatuck High School on the 
hillside, with each of the 3 floors entered from the street level. 

On North Main St. (U. S. 8) in the district known as Union City, the 
boyhood home of diaries Goodyear is on our left, opposite City Hill St., in the 
rear of the present Grossman building. On the north side of Woodbine St., to 
our left, the fourth building from N. Main St. is the old Porter Tavern, built 
about 1765, on the road between New Haven and Litchfield; Washington is 
said to have stopped here. 

III. 8 

The town of Waterbury, originally known as Mattatuck, was purchased 
from the Indians in 1674 by people from Farmington and Hartford. Settle- 
ment came in 1678, after the close of King Philip's War, and a town was in- 
corporated in 1686. Waterbury was a wilderness outpost, and danger from 
Indians continued well into the 18th century. Among the town's distinguished 
sons were the theologian Samuel Hopkins, 1721; Dr. Lemuel Hopkins, poet, 
1750; and David Hoadley, the greatest of Connecticut's architects, 1774. The 
development of the brass industry during the 19th century led to the incorpora- 
tion of the city of Waterbury in 1853; the population in 1930 was 99,902. 

Waterbury is one of the leading manufacturing cities in the State, and the 
Brass center of the world. This position has been due to the enterprise of her 

III. 8 wATicunukv 125 

industrial leaders rather than to natural advantages. John Allen was making 
brass buttons and buckles as early as 1750. Henry Grilley began making 
pewter buttons in his home about 1790. In 1802, Grilley joined with Abel and 
Levi Porter to manufacture brass buttons from sheet brass. Copper was 
obtained by purchasing old kettles, ship sheathing, etc. They fused their 
own brass, and sent it to an iron forge in the town of Litchfield to be rolled 
between steel rollers, driven by horse power. Experts and better machinery 
were secured from England, and the product constantly improved. Water 
power was used after 1808, and by 1829 they were rolling their own brass. 
This firm was the parent of the present Scovill Mfg. Co. Aaron Benedict 
(ancestor of the American Brass Co.) turned from ivory to brass buttons 
in 1823, and the next year was rolling brass with imported machinery, said 
to have been smuggled out of England. This was long before the railroad. 
The heavy rollers like the raw material had to be hauled by wagon from the 
coast. Other pioneers were Brown and Elton, the first in the U. S. to draw 
brass wire and tubing, in 1831; and Israel Holmes, the earliest maker of hooks 
and eyes (1836) and founder of the Waterbury Brass Co., which became the 
leading manufacturer of brass kettles. The three largest corporations in this 
industry are American Brass, Chase, and Scovill. Pin making on a large 
scale started in 1846, and in 1853 the Farrell Foundry and Machine Co. of 
Ansonia opened a rolling mill here. The Waterbury Clock Co. started in 
1857, and later took over the Ingersoll dollar watches. There are many other 
important concerns making electrical and plumbing supplies and metal 

Entering the city by South Main St. (U. S. 8) and turning left on Grand 
St., we pass on the left an impressive series of buildings: Buckingham Hall, 
designed by McKim, Mead and White; the modernistic Post Office; and three 
by Cass Gilbert: Waterbury National Bank, the beautiful Municipal Building, 
and the Chase Company office opposite. Beyond this is Library Park, with 
the Silas Branson Library and the Benjamin Franklin Statue by Paul W. 
Bartlett. The tall tower of the Railway Station, by McKim, Mead and White, 
is an adaptation of the Palazzo Vecchio at Sienna. Crossing the River on 
Freight St., just beyond the Station, we enter the attractive Chase Park, with 
the Pilgrim Memorial designed by Herman McNeil. There are fine views as 
we leave the city by Chase Parkway and R. 14 to Middlebury, passing St. 
Margaret's School for girls, established in 1875. 

Continuing on S. Main St. to the narrow central Green, around which 
the homes of the original settlers were built, we see on the north side the 
Church of the Immaculate Conception, in Italian Renaissance style, by Maginnis 
and Walsh. South of the Green is the *Mattatuck Historical Society (119 W. 
Main st.) with good collections of old furniture, silver, pewter and brass. The 
Society also has the Terry Collection of Liverpool and Staffordshire pottery, 
and a fine exhibit of Indian relics from the vicinity of Waterbury, including an 
effigy pipe. 

North of the Green, on Cooke St. we have Fulton Park, with its bird sanctu- 
ary and rock garden. On East Main St. (routes 14 and 70) we pass Hamilton 
Park, with an old Water Wheel, 30 feet in diameter, built in 1845 to supply 
power for one of the first brass mills. 

Continuing north of the city by U. S. 8, the *Grey stone Trail leads up an 
attractive glen to our right, just beyond the center of Waterville, with a return 
path along the ridge past an Indian Cave. The Waterville Cliffs, with a fine 


view and another cave formation in a jumble of rocks, are reached from the 
highway by a path to the east above Chase Metal Works. This area is in- 
cluded in Mattatuck State Forest. 

III. 9 

We return to Naugatuck for a side trip to the town of Middlebury, settled 
in 1702. A parish of Middlebury was organized in 1790, named from the 
fact that it lay between Waterbury, Woodbury and Southbury, and a town 
incorporated in 1807. Middlebury is a high hill country, and has many 
summer estates. 

Route 63 makes an attractive approach, through the fine stone arch of 
the New England R. R., with the ravine of * Hop Brook to our right, a near 
virgin stand of hemlock. This highway is the old Straits Turnpike, a link 
in the road from New Haven to Albany. After crossing R. 14 from Water- 
bury, which makes another good approach to the town, a short turn to the 
left brings us to the Nathaniel Richardson Tavern, built before 1750, on the 
old road from Waterbury to Woodbury. Farther north, we pass some old 
houses on the right, including a salt-box known as the Thompson House. 

Turning west from R. 63 on R. 135 (or R. 14) we climb to Middlebury 
Village, which lies on a plateau, with good views. Southwest of the Green is 
Westover School for girls, established in 1909. On South St., 2 miles below the 
Green, is the house where Chauncey Judd was held prisoner over night, in 
the celebrated Revolutionary kidnapping case, before being taken to a cave 
near Naugatuck. R. 14 runs west to Woodbury, passing the beautiful Quas- 
sapaug Lake, surrounded by wooded hills. 

North St. leads from the village past Breakneck Hill, with a fine view of the 
surrounding country. Rochambeau's troops camped at the foot of the hill, and 
marched over the dirt road which runs north and then west. The camping 
ground is marked by a stone monument. There is an old house half way up 
the hill on our right, and another a mile farther west. This road runs along 
the north shore of Lake Quassapaug, with a fine stretch of laurel. The Bog to 
our right, above the Lake, is of interest to botanists from the unusual variety of 
aquatic plants. 

We return to Waterbury by R. 14, which makes a scenic drive, like prac- 
tically all the roads in the town. To our right, on the west side of Porter 
Ave., is the interesting Bissell Rock. 

III. 10 

We now make a second approach to the Naugatuck Valley, through certain 
bordering towns on the edge of the Western Highlands. Starting at New 
Haven, we enter its daughter town of Woodbridge, organized as the parish 
of Amity in 1737. The first settler was Richard Sperry, who by 1660, and 


probably earlier, was operating a farm for Stephen Goodyear, to which he 
was later given the deed. A separate town was incorporated in 1784, taking 
its name from the first minister, Rev. Benjamin Woodbridge. The town is a 
high hill country, which has attracted suburban residents from New Haven. 

Taking Fountain St. (R. 114) west from New Haven and climbing a long 
hill, we pass on the left the Yale Natural Preserve. The 200 acres of woodland 
contain a wide variety of native plants, and planted specimens of many trees 
and shrubs native to various parts of N. America. Along some of the main 
paths, the species have been labeled. In the center is a wild life sanctuary. 
At the top of the hill we cross Buttress Dike, which extends through West Rock 
to form the dam for Wintergreen Lake; the narrow belt of trap within the older 
rocks can be seen in the highway cut. On Baldwin Rd., Y^. mile south on the 
east side, is the Dea. Richard Baldwin House, from about 1740. R. 114, 
improved only for part of the distance, makes an attractive drive to Ansonia, 
cutting across the hills with some excellent views. There are other good views 
from Rimmon Rd., which forks northwest to Seymour. On Peck Hill Rd., 
running north from Rimmon Rd., on the left in 1*^ miles, we find the Nathan 
Clark House, of the central hall type, built about 1780. East of the next 
house, about M mile through the woods, is the Lodge, a cliff under which the 
Regicides Whalley and Goffe are supposed to have had shelter in the summer 
of 1661, after leaving Judge's Cave; unfortunately it is not open to the public. 

On Amity Road (R. 67) which bears the name of the early parish, a barn 
on the right, part way up the hill, with a large paint sign, is the home site of 
Richard Sperry, who provided for the Regicides during their concealment. At 
that time, Woodbridge was a wilderness, with only one other house. On the 
corner of Center St., we pass an old Tan Bark Crusher, brought from North 
Branford and probably in use as early as 1700: a notched stone wheel designed 
to be drawn by oxen around the circular stone track. Center St. leads west to 
the Community house, church and central school, with the Town Park ad- 

On the right of R. 67, beyond Clark Rd., is the large red Dr. Goodsell House 
of 1738. The Hotchkiss Tavern (Dr. Cheney House) built about 1772, is of 
interest as the scene of the last installation of a negro governor in Connecticut, 
a ceremony that had come down from slavery days. The charming \\i story 
Toivnsend House on Payne Corner, where R. 67 turns off to Seymour, goes back 
to about 1733. This section is important in the history of friction matches. 
Before 1834, Thomas Sanford was making sulphur matches by hand, and the 
business continued for some time in this region as a domestic industry. Around 
1835, Wm. A. Clark opened the first match factory, about 2 miles beyond the 
junction, on R. 67. He employed 15 hands, besides 75 women making the 
paper boxes in their homes, and turned out 20,000 gross a year. This business 
was acquired later by the Diamond Match Co. To reach Naugatuck, we 
follow R. 63 through Bethany. The fine old Salt-box on our left, just beyond 
the junction with R. 67, probably dates from about 1730. 

R. 69, the old Litchfield turnpike, continues up the West River valley. On 
our right, >2 mile beyond the junction, is the Elionai Clark Tavern, of which 
the older !}- story house with central chimney is said to date from 1780. In 
another % mile, we pass the earlier *Darling Tavern, built before 1765, with 
2 chimneys, and a gambrel roof that has an unusually low and graceful pitch. 
Before the turnpike days and the laying out of the present Amity Rd., team- 
sters from the interior with their ox-carts would put up at these taverns, and 
the next day go in to the docks and warehouses at New Haven. Dillon Rd., 

128 1111 ( MNM-.i IK I I (.1 11)1. 

with an old cement kiln on the hill at the corner, leads west (1st right turn) 
to the attractive *Sperry Pool, now a town park, where the brook falls into 
a large pothole, under a gray cliff. The rock exposed is the lustrous form of 
slate, known as phyllite, characteristic of this section, tilted nearly vertical, 
and with veins of quartz parallel to the plates. One of the early gristmills was 
located here, and a huge broken millstone lies near the old foundation. R. 69 
continues past the reservoir and climbs Carrington Hill, with a good eastern 
view. This highway is particularly attractive in the Autumn, when the Turk- 
ish carpet of West Rock range is in sight for several miles. 

The blue-marked Naugatuck Trail, coming north from Derby Ave., crosses 
the Yale Preserve, and goes north from R. 114 to the Big Boulder, one of the 
largest glacial erratics in the State. Beyond this, from a section of Buttress 
Dike, there is a wonderful view to the north. The Trail skirts the edge of the 
bluff opposite West Rock, with good outlooks, and works northwest through 
the Town Forest at Woodbridge center. Connecting trails are being laid out 
across Round Hill, just west of R. 63, with a remarkable view in all direc- 
tions from its clear summit; and along the bluff bordering R. 69 on the west, 
where a pasture just south of Clark Rd. offers a fine vista of blue hills at the 
head of the valley. 

III. 11 


From Woodbridge, we continue north to Bethany, probably settled about 
1700; it formed part of New Haven and later of Woodbridge. A parish with 
Biblical name was organized in 1762. and a separate town in 1832. Bethany 
consists of a high plateau on the west, with the valleys and reservoirs of the 
West River watershed on the east. The town is beginning to attract sub- 
urban and summer residents. 

Continuing north on Amity Rd. (R. 63) about 1 mile beyond the town line, 
the loop of the old highway to the east brings us past the Peter Perkins House 
(Judge Clark House) built in 1762 and practically unchanged. The hills on 
the highway beyond this point give good southern views. On our right, 
opposite Dayton Rd., is the old Dayton House, associated with the bold Tory 
robbery in 1780. which led up to the kidnapping of Chauncey Judd; the story 
has been written by Israel P. Warren. At the center, the Congregational 
Church, built in the Greek Revival period (1833) stands on the left, and 
*Christ Episcopal Church, designed by David Hoadley and erected in 1809, on 
the right, with a Palladian window, and a doorway with fine molding. The 
Congregational minister, Rev. Isaac Jones, became an Episcopalian, and 
carried a large part of the congregation with him. At the next corner, the 
vine-covered Lysias Beeclier House is on the left, and diagonally opposite 
stands the *Darius Beecher House (Gale Electric Co.) 1805, one of David 
Hoadley 's masterpieces. Above the open gable of the entrance porch, sup- 
ported by square pillars, is a Palladian window of simple but extremely pleasing 
form, with a pediment forming a gable in the main roof. There is a foundation 
of cut stone, and the windows have molded caps. In the interior, which is 
open to visitors, we find a central hall with handsome arches, rooms of unusual 
height, and a ballroom 17 x 36 feet. 

III. 11 BETHANY 129 

Continuing north, the Bethany Airport lies on the highest part of the plateau, 
with good views. Beyond Lebanon Rd., on our left, is an unusually fine 
example of Quaking Bog, showing all stages of development and many rare 
plants; it is open at the center, but elsewhere wooded with coast white cedar 
and a few black spruce. About 1 Y^ miles west, on Beacon Rd. , the blue-marked 
Naugatuck Trail climbs Beacon Hill through wild country. On the summit 
is a large boulder, dropped by the glacier, known as Beacon Cap, with a remark- 
able view from the top. R. 63 continues to Naugatuck. 

R. 69, now extended to Prospect, makes an attractive drive. Another 
good trip, especially in the Autumn foliage, is to keep on Downs Rd. to Mt. 
Carmel through Bethany Gap, a spillway notch which served as the outlet for a 
glacial lake to the north. From R. 69, Hatfield Hill Rd. turns east along the 
dam of Bethany Lake; on the right at the further end of the dam, inside the 
Water Co. fence, we see a good sample of Glaciated Bed Rock surface, scratched 
and polished by loose rocks and sand that were carried in the base of the ice ; 
the scratches indicate the direction of ice movement. A half mile to the right 
of R. 69, on the north side of Hoadley Rd., is the Wm. Wooding House (Hewins 
House) built about 1740. A little beyond this, a hill to the left gives a fine 
view in all directions. On our right, a short distance beyond Gaillard Mt. Rd., 
we pass the Uri Tuttle House, built early in the 18th century and very little 
changed. The hill opposite is another good viewpoint. The country roads in 
this section are worth exploring, and offer many beauty spots as well as old 

III. 12 


North of Bethany is the town of Prospect. A parish of Columbia was 
organized in 1798, and the town of Prospect incorporated in 1827. The 
name is descriptive. The town consists of a broken table land, at the edge of 
the Western Highlands, ranging from 600 to 800 feet elevation. There were 
early industries of some importance: pins, needles, hoes, matches, britannia 
ware, umbrella trimmings. At one time Prospect was larger than Waterbury, 
and people used to come here from Waterbury to work. 

R. 69 goes through a rather wild country, with a good tramping section 
on the west, to Prospect Center, at the top of the world, with a remarkable 
view across the valley to the Meriden range. The present Church and Public 
Library are built of field stone. The Civil War Monument on the Green 
was erected by the State in recognition of the fact that Prospect contributed 
a larger proportion of soldiers than any other town in Connecticut, and more 
than the number of registered voters. 

A still better approach is by R. 68 from Cheshire. As we climb the hill past 
the reservoir, the trees bordering the highway frame a picture of the Hanging 
Hills of Meriden. From this point west to the center, almost all the houses are 
old, with plain but good doorways, no two of them alike. 

The Quinnipiac Trail of the Conn. Forest and Park Assn. crosses the north- 
eastern corner of the town. The best view is from the pasture just south of 
the old trolley track. 


From Prospect center, the traveler may go down to Naugatuck (Union 
City) by R. 68. One of the best of the old houses is the 1 \ - 2 story Clark Home- 
stead on Clark Hill, turning north about IJj miles west of the center. An 
alternative is to continue on R. 69 over the hills to Waterbury. 

III. 13 

From Waterbury, we make a side trip to the town of Wolcott, which occupies 
another rough tableland, north of Prospect, with the Mad River valley 
running through the center. Wolcott was settled in 1731, and in 1770 or- 
ganized as the parish of Farmingbury, lying between Farmington and Water- 
bury. A town was incorporated in 1796, and named for the first Gov. Oliver 
Wolcott. The high elevation and fine views are beginning to attract summer 

Leaving Waterbury by E. Main St. and R. 69, we pass the attractive 
Mad River Reservoir, open to the public with certain restrictions. A road 
turns right } $ mile to a hamlet with the Indian name Woodtick, where there is 
an interesting Stone Schoolhouse, erected in 1825. The Wilcox House, nearby, 
built soon after the Revolution, is one of the best of the old houses, though 
altered by the later verandah. About 2 miles farther on R. 69, to the right, is 
a large pothole below a mill dam, with cascades in an attractive gorge. A 
mile west of this point, on Spindle Hill, we find a 1^2 story house, probably 
built in 1805 and considerably altered, which was the boyhood home (not 
birthplace) of Amos Bronson Alcott (1799-1888) the famous teacher and 
philosopher. He started his career as a Yankee peddler. The property has 
been in the family for 200 years; the name originally being spelled Alcox or 
Alcock. There are other interesting houses in the Spindle Hill section, in- 
cluding the James Alcott House, a salt-box built in 1774 and little changed. 

About 3 4 mile east of R. 69 lies the Village of Wolcott, in a commanding 
location, over 850 feet above sea level. Across the Green from the Con- 
gregational Church is the Daniel Ti<ttle House, built in 1796. There are several 
other houses from the 18th century. Returning to the highway, the finest 
view comes a mile north, at the crossing of the Mattatuck Trail, where we 
look down the Mad River valley with the bordering hills shading into blue. 
R. 69 continues north to Bristol. 

R. 14 runs along the southern border of the town. On Todd Rd., to our 
left, and K mile east by the first crossroad, the traveler may visit the Delia 
Bella Mushroom Plant, the largest in New England, with a daily capacity of 
1500 to 3000 pounds. East of this is Hitcficock Lake, with a considerable 
summer colony. The crest of Southington Mt. gives a remarkable view to the 

A mile northeast of Wolcott village is the "Grand Junction" of the Forest 
and Park Association trails. The Quinnipiac Trail comes up from New Haven 
over Southington Mt., past the Southington reservoirs, using a country road 
for part of the distance. The Mattatuck Trail runs northwest from the 
Junction to Reynolds Bridge and the connection with the Appalachian Trail 

III. 13 WOLCOTT 131 

south of Mohawk Mt. The Tunxis Trail goes east, with several connecting 
loops, across the dam of Roaring Brook Reservoir, and along the scenic dike, 
which is over the Southington line; this Trail cuts across the northeast corner 
of Wolcott on its way to Johnnycake Mt. and Massachusetts. 

III. 14 

We make another side trip from Waterbury to cover Watertown, settled 
about 1701. A parish of Westbury in Waterbury was organized in 1738, and 
the present town incorporated in 1780. Watertown is a high hill country, 
famous in early days for its breed of "Connecticut Red" oxen and Gen. 
Humphreys' merino sheep. In addition to local manufacturing and school 
interests, there is a considerable suburban and summer colony. 

Leaving Waterbury by R. 73 along Steel Brook, we pass through the man- 
ufacturing village of Oakville, with a large pin factory and other concerns 
making wire goods and pruning shears. In Watertown, the Hemenway Silk 
Co. has been making silk thread since 1849, and there are rayon and shellac 
plants. Nathaniel Wheeler, one of the pioneers in the development of the 
sewing machine, was born here, and organized the Wheeler and Wilson firm 
in 1851, moving to Bridgeport five years later. Another early industry was 
the making of palm leaf hats. 

As we enter the village, the Belden House stands on our right, dating from 
1715. A little east of Main St. is the * Bishop Tavern, originally standing on 
Academy Hill, a large Colonial house with gambrel roof and an overhang in 
both stories, said to have been built in 1800 though it appears much older. 
Other old landmarks are the Gen. Garrett Smith House (Dailey House) of 
1778, on the left side of Main St., a small gambrel-roof building with 2 chim- 
neys and a modern porch; Younglove Cutler House 1793, on the left of U. S. 6 
at the center; and Rev. John Trumbull House (Woodward Tavern) next the 
Library, built in 1772, and later enlarged to serve as an inn. Beyond the 
Green, on U. S. 6, is the Taft School, founded by Horace D. Taft in 1890 in 
Pelham Manor and moved to Watertown in 1893. The main building, of 
brick and limestone, was designed by Goodhue. 

Lake Winnemaug lies 2 miles southwest of the village, by Cherry Hill Rd. 
West of R. 63 to Litchfield, in the Guernseytown district near the town line, 
on the old road to Bethlehem, we find an attractive wooded ravine. About 
a mile east of R. 63 on Linkfield Rd., is the charming Smith Pond. 

The most beautiful drive is by U. S. 6 to Thomaston, which follows down 
Purgatory Brook through Maltatuck State Forest. In about 3 miles, a path on 
our right, turning off by an old gravestone, leads in % mile to Leather-man's 
Cave, under a cliff in the intervale, one of the stopping places of the celebrated 
Leatherman, whom we have met elsewhere. This hermit wore clothing of 
leather scraps, and made periodic trips through western Connecticut and New 
York, until his death in 1889. A little farther, on our left, is the Roberts 
Memorial, a natural monolith with a tablet to Harley F. Roberts of Taft 
School, who was the leader in securing through gifts the present State Forest, 


established in 1926. The portion of the Forest most used by the public has 
been organized as * Black Rock State Park, which lies at the foot of the slope, 
with the beautiful Sand Dam Pond below the cliff. 

The blue-marked Mattatuek Trail, coming down from Mohawk Mt.. 
skirts the west shore of the Lower Waterbury Reservoir, in the northwest 
corner of the town. After following down the West Branch of the Naugatuck 
on the Thomaston side (R. 109 which is in Watertown, makes a beautiful drive) 
the Trail climbs over Black Rock, with a good view of the lake below, and 
crosses the Park and Forest to Reynolds Bridge, passing the fine Crane Lookout 
and through Rock House Cave. A loop trail leads south 2 miles to caves 
overlooking the river, with a good view. There are other attractive paths 
through the Forest, some of them marked with blue paint. 

III. lo 


Resuming our regular Journey, we enter Thomaston, one of the youngest of 
the Connecticut towns, incorporated in 1875. Before that it was a part of 
Plymouth, and known as Plymouth Hollow. The first settler was Henry 
Cook in 1728. 

This locality, with its valuable waterpower, became an important link in 
the development of the clock industry. Eli Terry opened a factory in 1810 
(there were small clock shops here before that date) and in 1814 brought out a 
clock known as the "patented wood shelf clock," which was produced by the 
hundreds of thousands and "made Terry famous, and many others rich." He 
retired from active business about 1833. In 1812, Selh Thomas (1785-1859) 
formerly associated with Terry, set up a factory on the present site. His 
clocks came to have a world-wide market, and the village began to be known 
as Thomas Town. Besides the Seth Thomas Clock Co., there is a large brass 
plant, with a number of minor industries. 

We go north from Waterbury on U. S. 8, which makes a scenic drive, the 
rugged hills on both sides of the Naugatuck being part of Mattatuek State 
Forest. Another attractive trip is by R. 109 to Litchfield, along the ravine 
of the East Branch and the Lower Waterbury Reservoir; part of the highway 
and the parallel Mattatuek Trail are on the Thomaston side of the line. The 
most picturesque section of the gorge is the Devil's Kitchen, below the Reser- 
voir, about 2^2 miles from U. S. 8. About } 2 mile north of the dam is the 
beautiful Staghorn Brook. 

Lattin Hill, 3 miles west of Thomaston village by Hickory Hill Rd., rises 
to 1022 feet and gives a good view of the surrounding country, especially 
toward the south. 


III. 16 

From Thomaston, we make a side trip to the mother town of Plymouth, 
closely identified with Eli Terry and the development of the clock industry. 
Settlement dates back to 1728, or soon after, and in 1739 the Northbury parish 
of Waterbury was organized. After being for a time a part of Watertown, a 
separate town was incorporated in 1795. The grandfather of Henry Cook, the 
first settler, (in the present town of Thomaston) was one of the Pilgrims, and 
the town was named for Plymouth, Mass. A rough hill country forms the 
watershed of the Pequabuck River flowing east to Bristol. Plymouth im- 
presses the traveler as being all hill. 

Leaving Thomaston on U. S. 6, we climb to Plymouth Center. The Cleve- 
land House, at the northwest corner of the Green, was built before 1800. At 
the southeast corner, the fine Colonial house now serving as the Episcopal 
Rectory dates from 1780. There are other 18th century houses a block farther 

Directly south of the center, over 3 miles of fine country road which follows 
the hill top, we come to Ml. Toby, with a fine southern outlook. The Govern- 
ment has laid out an airport on the level summit. 

Half a mile east of the center, a road turns south through the rural beauty 
of Todd Hollow and the wilder scenery of Greystone. In 3 miles, we turn 
east to the attractive * Buttermilk Falls, near Tolles, where the owner has 
provided a picnic ground for the public. The Mattatuck Trail, running from 
Reynolds Bridge to the Grand Junction in Wolcott, passes this point. Farther 
east is the region known as Indian Heaven. Jack's Cave lies about % mile 
from Buttermilk Falls, a little south of the Trail and % mile east of the Tolles- 
Wolcott road. The cave has a passage 10 feet wide and 20 feet long, leading 
into a solid rock room which was used as a sleeping room. It was inhabited as 
late as 1830 by three old Indians, and named after their leader Jack. The cave 
is said to have been on the route of an old Indian trail from Farmington to the 
Naugatuck River. There is another not far away, known as Indian Jack's 
East Cave. 

Eli Terry (1772-1852) was born in what was then East Windsor, where he 
learned the clock-making trade as an apprentice of Daniel Burnap. In 1793 
he set up a shop of his own in Plymouth. At that time and for many years 
after, clocks were generally made with wooden works, which were cheaper 
than imported brass. Terry began using waterpower at the turn of the 
century, and with a few men and boys to help him was commencing 10 to 20 
clocks at a time. In 1807 he sold out to one of his apprentices, and bought an 
old mill at Greystone, in the southwest corner of the present town, going into 
partnership with Seth Thomas and Silas Hoadley, They started 4000 clocks, 
500 at a time, and peddled the works as they were finished, Terry often going 
out himself on horseback. These were wooden works for grandfather clocks. 
Local cabinet makers would provide the cases. In 3 years, the 4000 clocks were 
completed, and all disposed of, to people's astonishment, and at a good profit. 
In 1810, as we have noted, Terry sold out to his partners and started a new 
factory at the present Thomaston (Q. V.) where he developed the epoch-mak- 
ing shelf clock. Eli Terry was the mechanical genius of the clock industry, and 
continued until the end of his life to devise improved mechanisms and methods. 

134 i HI; (oNNKCTKUT (..i im. 

He shares with Eli Whitney the introduction of interchangeable parts. 
And mass production created the institution of the Connecticut clock peddler. 

Two miles east of Plymouth Center on U. S. 6, we descend to Terryville, 
the industrial center of the town, on the Pequabuck River. It was named for 
Eli Terry, Jr., who established a clock factory here in 1824. His son, in turn. 
James Terry, turned from clocks to locks, after pioneering in silk manufacture, 
and developed the cabinet lock, of which the Eagle Lock Co. for a time had a 
monopoly. Another son, Andrew, started one of the first malleable iron 
foundries. These two concerns are still the principal industries of the village. 
Eli Terry, Sr., moved to Terryville in 1838, and two houses built by him are 
still standing next the Congregational Church, for which he made one of his 
steeple clocks. The old wooden wheels are now driven by electricity, but 
otherwise the clock is in its original condition. (For permission to visit the 
belfry, apply at the parsonage next door.) East of the center is the attractive 
Baldwin Park, with a monument to Dorence Atwater, a Civil War prisoner in 
a Confederate prison camp, whose secret record of 13,000 dead Union soldiers 
proved invaluable to the War Department. 

III. 17 

U. S. 8 goes along the western edge of Harwinton, in the part of Litchfield 
county acquired by Hartford and Wmdsor. In this case, shares were divided, 
and the new town, incorporated in 1737, was given the combination name 
Har- win-ton. The first settler arrived in 1730. The area filled up rapidly, as 
it was on the road from Hartford to Litchfield. 

On the old road from East Litchfield (R. 116) the second crossroad to the 
right, which must be traveled on foot, goes over Campville Hill, in $4 mile, 
with a fine view in all directions. A mile farther east, on the right, is an old 
Soapstone Quarry, used by the Indians for making utensils. R. 1 16 continues 
through Harwinton village to Burlington. 

The best approach to the town is by R. 117 from Torrington, and south to 
Terryville, giving a good sample of the beautiful hill country- To our right, a 
crossroad just before reaching the town line leads over a hill with an elevation 
of over 1000 feet and a good long range view. A mile beyond the line, we 
pass the attractive Collins Pond, a short distance to our right. 

In Harwinton Village, the Congregational Church was built in 1806. The 
design is simple but pleasing, with the heavily molded cornice of pediment 
and roof. The 3 front doorways have rounded fanlights and pedimented 
hoods. Above the central doorway is a Palladian window, repeated in the tower. 
On the north of the Church is the stone Memorial Chapel, beautiful but in- 
congruous, given by Collis P. Huntington, the financier of the Southern 
Pacific R. R., in memory of his mother. Huntington was born in the town in 
1821, and worked on a farm here until the age of 14, when he went to New 
York to seek his fortune. The fine Dr. Dennett House on our right, across the 
Green, was built in 1795, and most of the other houses at the center date 
back to the 18th century. On the hilltop is the Hungerford Memorial Library, 


a bequest from another native son, Theodore A. Hungerford, a New York 
publisher, in 1903. From the children's library, boxes of books are sent every 
two months to the 10 schools in the town. About 1 mile south of the Church, 
on the left, is the dignified building of the old Harwinton Academy, erected 
about 1793, moved from its original location to a private estate. 

East from the center, at the Four Corners, the Hayes House (Post Road 
Inn) on the northwest was built in 1745 and became a well known tavern. 
The Catlin House opposite, 1799, is exceptionally fine. The crossroad running 
north at this point passes over Fenn Hill, another 1000 foot elevation, with a 
fine view to the south and west. Northwest of the center is the attractive 
wooded ravine of Leadmine Brook. 

III. 18 

The town of Torrington, which lay in Windsor's portion of eastern Litch- 
field county, was settled in 1737 and incorporated in 1740. It was named from 
Great Torrington in the English Devonshire. A high hill country is cut by 
various branches of the Naugatuck River. Torrington contains the Paugnut 
State Forest, named for the last Indian chief in this region. 

The city of Torrington was chartered in 1923, and has a population of 
26,040. The area originally was a swamp covered with dense pine forest, 
and avoided by the early settlers. In 1813, Oliver Wolcott, Jr., of Litchfield 
established a large woolen mill on the Naugatuck, and the name of Orleans 
village was changed to Wolcottville. The brass industry was established by 
Israel Coe in 1834, with machinery and workmen brought from England and 
transported by team from the coast. He was the first in the U. S. to make 
brass kettles by machine. The railroad up the valley was opened in 1849. 
Among present industries, some of them of long standing, are brass goods, 

P machine tools, needles, hardware, sporting goods, and cloth for uniforms. 
In the center of the city is the triangular Coe Memorial Park, given in mem- 
ory of Lyman W. Coe, who in 1863 purchased and developed the brass in- 
dustry started by his father, which became the nucleus of the great American 
Brass Co. Across from the Park is the marble Library, a gift to the city 
from Elisha Turner. Southwest of the center, by Litchfield St., on a com- 
manding site, stands Charlotte Hungerford Hospital, one of the finest in the 
State, given in memory of his mother by Uri T. Hungerford, a native of 
Torrington, who became a wealthy brass merchant in New York. Charlotte 
Hungerford typifies the sturdy Litchfield County stock which has trained so 
many famous sons. On our way to the Hospital, to the left before crossing 
the R. R., is the Brooker Memorial, in memory of another mother. The group 
of buildings with endowment for visiting nurse service were the gift of Charles 
F. Brooker, organizer of the American Brass Co. The large boulder, brought 

tdown from Torringford, bears the inscription: "Her children shall rise up and 
:all her blessed." 
West of the city limits, on the south side of Highland Ave., is the old Ives 
House, built in 1761. The Jacob Strong House (Fowler Homestead) lies 2 
miles west on the same road, to our left. This section was the site of the first 


t, and a mound on the left side of Allen St., on the brow of the hill, 
marks the site of the Fort erected as a protection against Mohawk raids. 

Northwest of the city, R. 4 to Goshen and R. 49 to Norfolk make scenic 
drives. As we climb the hill from West Torrington on R. 4, the site of an old 
Indian Fort lies to our left, about ; 3 4 mile from the junction. Turning north 
from R. 4 on Pothier Rd., we reach in 1 mile on the left the birthplace of John 
Brown (1800-1859) the famous abolitionist; only the cellar remains. John 
Brown's parents moved from here to Ohio when he was 5 years old. On R. 49, 
we pass the new Still Water Pond. 

To the east, R. 4 climbs a steep hill and goes through attractive country. 
About 2} 2 miles from the center we reach Torringford Street. Turning north, 
Cary Aviation Field lies to our right, and on our left we pass a stone marking 
the site of the first church in Torrington in 1746. North of the Torringford 
Congregational Church, the present parsonage is on the site of the house 
occupied by Rev. Samuel J. Mills, a man of unusual stature and Yankee wit, 
who served for 64 years. His son, Samuel J. Mills, Jr. (1783-1818) was a 
member of the famous Haystack Band at Williams College, and a leading 
spirit in starting the foreign mission movement in America and the American 
Bible Society; he himself served as a missionary in the Southwest. 

U. S. 8 goes north to Winsted. At Burrville, we turn west to the attractive 
Burr Pond in Paugnut State Forest, the road climbing through a fine ravine. 
There are facilities for bathing, and a path has been laid out along the pond. 
We pass on our left the factory building where Gail Borden made the first 
condensed milk, in 1857. On Starks Hill Rd., 1^2 miles from Burrville, there 
is a good view to the south. 

III. 19 

From Torrington we enter the town of Winchester, which was laid out by 
Hartford in 1732. The name was taken from Winchester in England. The 
region was remote, and the first settler did not arrive until 1750; town privi- 
leges were granted in 1771. Winchester is a broken hill country, the eleva- 
tions ranging from 700 to over 1500 feet. It is in the Greenwoods section of 
the State, with abundant hemlock and pine. The town is noted for its laurel 
display, and an annual Laurel Drive is marked out in June. 

Winsted was chartered as a borough in 1856 and as a city in 1915, and in 
1930 had a population of 7,883. The name was a combination of Winchester 
and the neighboring town of Barkhamsted. It lies in a pocket of the hills, at 
the junction of the Mad and Still Rivers, which supply good waterpower. The 
Winsted Mfg. Co. has been making scythes since 1792, probably the oldest 
manufacturing concern in the State. The forerunner of the Wm. L. Gilbert 
Clock Co. started in 1807, making it the oldest of the present clock-making 
establishments in Connecticut. Among other important products are electric 
appliances, hardware, edge tools, silk thread, hosiery and underwear. 

The Gilbert School, an endowed high school, lies to our right as we enter the 
city, at North Main St. and Park Place. Wm. L. Gilbert, who ran $300 in 


debt to start business, at his death left to the town over $1,000,000 in well- 
planned philanthropies. He was identified with Winsted from 1841 to 1890. 
Turning west on Main St., we pass the County Court House, Town Hall, and 
four fine modern churches. An old Mile Stone lies in the yard of the Methodist 
Church on our right. This was on the route of the old stage road from Hartford 
to Albany. A block west, on Lake St. at the corner of Meadow St., is the 
imposing *Solomon Rockwell House, built in 1813, now headquarters of the 
Winchester Historical Society, with an exhibit of antiques. A projecting 
pediment is supported by 4 columns. The Barn in the rear is one of the gems 
of late Colonial architecture: a pedimented gable with semi-elliptical window, 
and heavy molding below the pediment and around the entire roof. There is 
also a small Cabin with somewhat similar treatment, except for square pillars 
on the corners, with Corinthian capitals. The Old Mill House, on the east 
side of Lake St., was built originally in 1771. The Beardsley Library, founded 
in 1874, stands at Main and Munro Sts., on our right. 

Southwest of Winsted is the beautiful Highland Lake, with 9 miles of shore 
front, encircled by Wakefield Memorial Boulevard. About 3 miles from the 
center and l / mile west from the lake shore is an old Indian Chipping Ground, 
or arrow factory. Climbing above the Lake by Boyd St. and Platt Hill Rd., 
with good views and the attractive Crystal Lake to our right, we reach * Platt 
Mi. and Far View picnic ground (open for a small charge) one of the points on 
the annual Laurel Drive, with a remarkable view in almost all directions. We 
look down on Highland and Crystal Lakes, and on a clear day can see the 
Catskills, Mt. Greylock in Massachusetts, and Long Island Sound. 

The small village of Winchester Center, with its elm-shaded Green, lies about 
4 miles southwest of Winsted. Northwest of the village, on the Norfolk road, 
is the new Lake Winchester. To the southwest, we find Owleout Hill, best 
reached from R. 49, with a fine view and the remains of an Indian lookout. 
Chief Owleout was buried here. Going south on R. 49, and taking Hall Meadow 
Rd. in the southwest corner of the town, an old chimney marks the home 
of the first settler, Caleb Beach, in 1750. 

West of the city on R. 101, we pass on the right the foundations of an old 
Tollgate house, on the route of the Greenwoods Turnpike, completed in 1799. 
It ran from New Hartford to the Sheffield line, passing through Winsted and 
thus diverting travel that formerly went by Winchester Center. This highway 
continues to Norfolk. R. 183, which turns north to Colebrook, makes a scenic 
drive, passing on the right in about 1 mile the Jonathan Coe House, built in 
1791, a station on the "underground railway." 

Going north from Winsted, Spencer Hill Rd. passes a good viewpoint in 1 
mile, and nearby on the left is Second Cobble, 1200 feet, from which one can see 
the dome of the Capitol in Hartford. Continuing on Spencer Hill Rd., we 
reach the picturesque Rowley Pond. 

There are scenic drives on U. S. 8 up Still River, and by the fork on R. 20 
to Riverton. The traveler should note the old Grist Mill on the River, as he 
leaves the city, still doing business with millstones and waterwheel. 


ITT. 20 

We end this Journey with Colebrook, on the Massachusetts border. Pro- 
prietors' rights were sold by Hartford, under the joint agreement with Windsor. 
The name was taken from Colebrook in Devonshire. Settlement began in 
1765, and the town was incorporated in 1779. The town is a mountainous 
region of great natural beauty, with a considerable summer colony. 

Going north on the attractive R. 183, we pass through Colebrook Village, 
where there are a number of 18th century houses. The Timothy Rockwell 
House opposite the Congregational Church was built in 1793, and the Samuel 
Rockwell House, a little farther on our left, in 1767. The Parsonage on our 
right beyond the turn is of interest. Sandy Brook Rd. to our right leads in % 
mile to the picturesque Beulah Falls. On our left, as we leave the village, are 
the remains of an old iron furnace. About 1 mile north, Mi. Pisgah lies to the 
right, with a good view of the surrounding country. On the west is the Jona- 
than Edwards House, built about 1767, and occupied by Jonathan Edwards, 
Jr., son of the famous divine, who the first minister of the church (1795-99) 
leaving to become president of Union College. At North Colebrook there are 
two good houses: The Carrington P helps House on our left, and the Dr. Jesse 
Carrington House of 1804 a little farther on our right. R. 183 continues north 
to Sandisfield, Mass. 

On U. S. 8, a side road to Robertsville takes us east to the picturesque 
Tunxis Falls, in Sandy Brook, near its junction with Still River. At the 
union of the streams are the foundations of Richard Smith's Iron Furnace, 
erected about 1770 by a Boston merchant and shipbuilder, the "iron prince" of 
that day. He had acquired the blast furnace at Lakeville, but opened another 
plant here, probably because of the large charcoal supply. Permission was 
given by the authorities to raise the level of Highland Lake, to supply more 
power, and a convenient road laid out by the Colony up the Farmington River 
to the Furnace. Ore was brought from Salisbury in saddle-bags or by ox- 
team, and the pig iron transported to Boston. Though the owner was detained 
in England by business during the Revolution, the Furnace rendered great 
service, and continued in operation until 1810. 

The rough road which turns northwest from U. S. 8 up * Sandy Brook is one 
of the most beautiful in Connecticut. The hemlock-draped ravine is often 
deep below the road. The original spelling was Sandys Brook, named like 
Sandisfield at the headwaters from Samuel Sandys of Boston. U. S. 8 con- 
tinues its scenic course to the Farmington and through the village of Cole- 
brook River to Massachusetts. 

Journey 1 V 

New Haven to Granby. 
Route JO. 

The College Highway connects Yale with Smith College at Northampton. 
It takes us along the western side of the Central Lowland, through the broad 
valley formed by the Mill, Quinnipiac and Farmington Rivers, with a series 
of striking trap rock ridges on the east. Other ranges, mostly of an earlier 
rock formation, lie to the west. The towns were settled early, and have 
many interesting landmarks. The building of the Farmington Canal in 1828, 
and the later railroad, caused the development of local industries, some of them 
still important. Traces of the old Canal can be seen along the route. As we go 
north, there is a good deal of pine, and in the Autumn the dark green makes a 
color contrast with the scarlet of the oaks. 

NEW HAVEN. See Journey 1. 13. 

IV. 1 

The town of Hamden was incorporated in 1786 from New Haven, for which 
it still serves as a residential and manufacturing suburb. The first settlement 
seems to have been Matthew Gilbert's sheep farm in 1664. The town is 
bounded on the west by the West Rock range. Mill river on the east has a 
series of charming ponds, ending in Lake Whitney. The most striking feature 
of Hamden, as we go north, is the trap rock range of Mt. Carmel, which lies 
across the valley in the form of a Sleeping Giant. 

The town is dotted with early mill sites. Other industries were brought in 
by the Farmington Canal, and by the later railroad, which for years ran down 
the main street. Today there are important factories in the Dixwell Ave. 
section, making insulated wire and car lighting equipment, and Centerville 
manufactures elastic webbing. 

Entering Hamden by Route 10A (Whitney ave.) we see to the right, on the 
Lake Whitney dam, a tablet to Eli Whitney (1765-1825) the mechanical genius 
who transformed the old craftsman's shop into a factory for mass production. 
His arms factory, built of trap rock, lies across the stream to the east. On 
the west side of the street is the classical barn which he erected in 1816. After 
graduating from Yale, Whitney went to Georgia, expecting to secure a teaching 
position, and invented the cotton gin, which made it profitable for the South 

140 Till-: I ONM-XTICIT (illDK 

to produce cotton. The machines were manufactured in a shop he had es- 
tablished in New Haven. Infringements of his patent and constant litigation 
led Whitney to seek a new venture. In 1798, through Oliver Wolcott, Jr., 
then Secretary of the Treasury, lie secured a contract with the Government 
for 10,000 muskets. A plant was constructed at the Mill River falls, on the 
site of New Haven's first grist mill (1642.) Eli Whitney introduced into his 
new factory the revolutionary principle of standardized parts and division of 
labor, in place of the earlier method by which a skilled gunsmith made an 
entire gun. He devised his own machinery and tools, and his plant was 
considered a model of efficiency. 

From Mill Rock to the west there is a good view over New Haven. Davis 
St., which crosses Lake Whitney on the east, leads to East Rock Park, and 
State St., where we find an old house known as Appledore, the former home 
of William J. Linton, the engraver. Much of East Rock Park, including the 
beautiful Rose Garden (reached from State st.) is in the town of Hamden. 
To the east of State St. are the Quinnipiac Marshes, ranging from salt to 
fresh, with characteristic coastal marsh vegetation. In the pit of the Davis 
Brickyard, at the foot of Benton St., is a deposit of Tidal Marsh Peat, where 
organic material was formed by the rise of sea level following the melting of 
the ice sheet. Tree stumps are occasionally found underneath the peat. On 
the east side of State St., IJ-^ miles north of the stop-light, is a well preserved 
Salt-box House, with central chimney. 

Continuing north on R. 10A, a side trip to the left on Mather St. gives 
good examples of Glacial Kettles, depressions formed by isolated masses of 
ice, where sand was deposited around the mass as the ice melted. The Moses 
Ford House of 1769 lies a block east of Whitney Ave., at the northeast corner 
of Waite and Ford Sts. The Justice Humiston House (1715 Whitney ave.) on 
our right, dates from about 1784, and has a good doorway. 

In Centerville, west of the Memorial Town Hall, the *Episcopal Church 
has unusually fine woodwork on the doorway and interior; there is a tradition 
that it was the work of David Hoadley. About a mile southwest of the 
center, opposite the new cut-off on Dixwell Ave. (R. 10) is the *Bassett House, 
rather late (1819) and moved from its original location, but a fine example of 
Georgian architecture. The house is of 2 l /2 stories, with central chimney, and 
roof of unusually low pitch. There are quoins on the corners, and heavy 
molding on the cornice and under the window heads. The porch has slender 
Doric columns, supporting an elaborately molded gable with upward curving 

North of the Town Hall, on or near Whitney Ave., are a number of old 
houses. Among these, the Allen Dickerman House (2921 Whitney ave.) on 
our right, built in 1801, has a pronounced overhang. The shingled Sherman 
House to the left, just below the Mt. Carmel Church, was built in 1772 by 
Rev. Nathaniel Sherman, a brother of Roger Sherman. The red Jonathan 
Dickerman House on Mt. Carmel Ave., near the Park headquarters, dates from 
1770, and is used by the Hamden Historical Society; the Dutch porch is a 
modern addition. North of the Mountain, on the west side of Whitney Ave., 
is the charming iy 2 story cottage, with central chimney, built by Amasa 
Bradley about 1769. A short distance north of this, on the same side of the 
street, we find the Simeon Bristol House, 1782, with one story in front and 2}-> 
stories at the peak, giving a very fine roofline. Bristol was the first town clerk. 

Mt. Carmel Ponds, 1 mile east of R. 10 by a road opposite the Church, have 
an attractive hemlock grove and are open to the public. The *Sleephi Giant 

IV. 1 HAMDKN 141 

State Park of about a thousand acres is equipped with fireplaces and parking 
ground. A Nature Trail has been laid out along the river to the old Quarry 
floor, beneath the impressive rock cut. (For cars, take first right turn on 
Tuttle ave.) From the abandoned quarry, bought out by generous public 
subscription, one may climb the Head, with a good view of the Meriden Hills 
from the eastern cliffs. 

The Quinnipiac Trail of the Conn. Forest and Park Assn. comes west 
across the Mt. Carmel range, with fine southern views from the various 
peaks. Across Whitney Ave., the Trail continues west over York Hill, with 
an alternative path past the Church to Rocky Top, where there is an ob- 
servation tower. The Trail then goes over York Mountain, a continuation of 
the West Rock range, crosses Bethany Gap to Mad Mare's Hill, and follows 
north to Mt. San ford. There are superb views from various outlook points 
along the route. On Shepard Ave., west of York Hill, we pass the fragments 
of a large glacial erratic, known as the Brethren Rocks, dropped here by the 
ice. About % mile south of the Brethren, a wood road leads east to a brook, 
which may be followed down to the small but beautiful Shepherd's Brook 

IV. 2 

From Hamden we enter Cheshire, settled as a part of Wallingford in 1694" 
In 1723 a parish of New Cheshire was organized, taking its name from a county 
in England. The incorporation of the present town came in 1780. Cheshire 
consists of rolling hill country, with a trap rock range on the western border. 

At the Town Line Rd., a traditional Indian path, a blue-marked feeder 
trail leads west from R. 10 to Mt. Sanford, where the Quinnipiac Trail follows 
north along the range, crossing the beautiful ravine of Roaring Brook. Another 
feeder trail runs west from Higgins Corner. 

At Ives Corner a road leads to Brooksvale; by walking % mile up the R. R. 
we come to an arch built over the Farmington Canal to permit the R. R. to 
cross. This is of interest to engineers, who describe it as a "multicentered 
helicoidal skew arch," with barrel vaults normal to the pressure lines. 

About l}-'2 miles north of the town line, a road leads 1 mile east to the 
principal Barite Mine (north of the road) operated from 1840 to 1878. Large 
transparent crystals, noted for their size and perfection, have found their 
way to all the large museums of the world. Ground barite is used to give 
weight to paper and cloth. Another Barite Mine was above West Cheshire, 
west of the R. R., where the trolley formerly crossed. The Copper Valley 
Mine, worked extensively for copper at one time, lies 2 miles east of Cheshire 
village, to the north of R. 150, near the Wallingford line. 

As we enter Cheshire Village, on the west side of the street we have the 
Rev. John Foot House, with gambrel roof, built about 1769 and later occupied 
by Gov. Samuel A. Foot. Across Cornwall Ave. is the house erected in 1816 
by Dr. Thomas T. Cornwall, an early cancer specialist, with a fine doorway 
built into the house wall. Next to this is a \y> story cottage, with gambrel 


nx)f. and delicate molding beside the door and above the windows. The 
third house in this row. all of them with the gable end on the street, is the 
Beach Tarern (Ben Franklin Tavern) 1814, which has the original ballroom 
in the third story. The * 'Congregational Church. opposite the small triangular 
Green, is of unusual beauty, with its tall spire and Ionic portico: it was built 
in 1826. Permission should be secured to examine the fine interior woodwork. 
North of the Green, the Col. Rufus Hitchcock House (A. W. Phillips House) 
with central chimney, dates from 1785. 

On the east side of the street is Roxbury School. There has been a succession 
of schools on this site. Seabury College, the first Episcopal academy in the 
State, changed to Washington College (Trinity) in 1823 and moved to Hart- 
ford ; it was succeeded by the Episcopal Academy of Connecticut. The original 
building with the cupola dates from 1796. A short distance around the turn, 
on the left, is the house built by Bishop Abraham Jarvis about 1790, with good 
porch and doorway. 

Route 70 makes attractive drives: west to Waterbury, crossing the Quin- 
nipiac Trail about 3 miles beyond West Cheshire; east to Meriden, with a 
good view of the Hanging Hills on the way. 

On R. 10, north of the village, the Cheshire Reformatory for boys, opened by 
the State in 1913, stands on an elevated plateau to the west. There are good 
views as we approach the Southington Line. 

IV. 3 

The town of Southington, where we enter Hartford County, was first settled 
in 1696. A South Society of Farmington was organized in 1724, and the present 
town incorporated in 1779. Southington consists of a terraced sand plain, with 
mountain ranges on the east and west. 

A cement industry flourished in Southington during the second quarter of 
the 19th century. The building of the Farmington Canal started extensive 
metal industries. In the three centers through which we pass Milldale, Plants- 
ville and Southington there is considerable manufacturing, chiefly hardware ; 
the largest concern is Peck, Stow and Wilcox, which dates back to about 1819. 
Southington was incorporated as a borough in 1889. 

Just after entering the town, we cross Route 14. from Meriden to Waterbury. 
To the west we make a spectacular climb over Southington Mountain. The best 
view is to the left, at the top of the cut, on the Quinnipiac Trail. The highway 
passes south of the hamlet of Marion, where Rugg and Barnes in 1840 were 
the first in America to make Bolts commercially; the business has been con- 
tinued by Clark Bros, at Milldale since 1851. About Y mile north of Marion, 
on the Plantsville Rd., is a monument to Rochambeau, who camped here in 
June 1781, and again in November 1782. Nearly opposite, among a group of 
old houses, is the Barnes Tavern, where the French officers were entertained. 

Going east on R. 14, with the Meriden hills in front of us, we cross the 
Quinnipiac River. South on South End Rd. is a row of fine old houses. 


Continuing north on R. 10, Mulberry St. leads east lj^ miles, past South 
End Cemetery, with a fine view of the Hanging Hills, to a tamarack and 
Spruce Swamp (R. 120) the southern limit of black spruce in Connecticut. 

In Plantsville, on our right, is the Dr. Henry Skilton House (889 S. Main st.) 
of 1780, whose old lines are partly obscured by the modern verandah. The 
Frisbie House (697 S. Main st.) has a good porch, with open pediment. An- 
other landmark in Plantsville is the Selah Barnes Place, built in 1780, on the 
south side of Prospect St., 1 mile northwest of the center. Martha Barnes and 
Charles Goodrich, who were among the first missionaries to the Sandwich 
Islands, were married in this house. 

In Southington proper, at the corner of Meriden Ave., is the Public Library, 
with the Sylvia Bradley Memorial, added in 1931. The latter houses a col- 
lection of period furniture, the door of the Indian fort of 1700, a part of the 
church pulpit of 1752, and other historic objects. Facing the Green is the 
Congregational Church, erected in 1828, with Ionic portico and graceful spire. 
West of the Green, at No. 98, is a fine doorway. To our left, at 142 Main St., 
we can make out the original lines of the Jonathan Root Tavern, a salt-box with 
a slight overhang in the attic story. The best known landmark is the Parson 
*Wm Robinson House, farther on the right, around the turn, built by the 
third minister of the church about 1780. His son Edward Robinson, the Ori- 
ental scholar, also lived here. The house has a very striking doorway: pilasters 
supporting an ox-bow cap, with rosettes for ornaments (white on a black 
ground.) There are pediments over the windows. The Samuel Curtiss House, 
the third on the north, was built by a son of the first minister. A boulder in 
the adjacent Oak Hill Cemetery, the first burying ground, marks the site of 
the original church building. As we continue north, two good doorways 
survive on houses to the left. 

Among the attractive drives on the east of Southington are those to Ken- 
sington (Berlin st.) and past the Shuttle Meadows reservoir to New Britain 
(Flanders st.) Between these roads, a mile from the center, we have a good 
sample of Constructional Terraces, a feature of glaciation in Connecticut. They 
were formed as the deposit of lakes or streams at the margin of the glacier, show- 
ing clear-cut patterns of the ice edge, and with arms running into the former 
crevasses. The blue-marked Metacomet Trail, along the fine trap rock range 
to the east, is partly in Southington, and may be reached by roads crossing the 
ridge. Along Andrews St., on the western slope of the range, the quarries 
and buildings of the early Cement Industry can still be made out. Natural 
cement rock already had been discovered in New York State. The discovery 
here came in 1825, in time for the building of the Farmington Canal. It is 
associated with the Andrews, Barnes and Moore families. The first product 
from the kilns was taken to Berlin and ground in a grist mill, but cement mills 
were soon built near the quarries. The product was widely distributed, and 
business continued active until about 1860. 

West Street, running from Plantsville to Bristol, particularly beautiful in 
the Fall, gives fine views of the mountain to the west. Mt. Vernon St., north 
from Marion under the mountain, brings us in touch with the Tunxis Trail 
along the reservoir dike on the summit, with a superb view. The feeder 
trails leading from the road are indicated by blue arrows. The most inter- 
esting is the steep path climbing the ravine of Roaring Brook. This spot is 
known to geologists as the Great Unconformity. Triassic sandstone, tilted 
toward the east, is resting on upturned granite and schist, showing unusual 

Ill THE CONM.i IK 1 I (.U1DK 

erosion, probably the remains of a former mountain. Between the two rock 
formations, of schist and sandstone, approximately 325 million years elapsed. 
Mt. Vernon St. continues north to *Lake Compounce, a beautiful body of 
water under the mountain cliffs, with an amusement resort. A loop of the 
Tunxis Trail runs along the west shore of the lake, passing interesting boulders 
and caves. The climb up the mountain by either the north or the south loop 
is rewarding. 

IV. 4 

Plainville, another of the daughter towns of Farmington, was first settled 
about 1657, and incorporated as a separate town in 1869. It was known 
until 1830 as the Great Plain of Farmington. and reminds one of a Western 
prairie town. There is a mountain range on the east, and a view of the Western 
Highlands to the west. When the Farmington Canal was opened in 1828, the 
village entered on a premature industrial boom, of which some of the sites may- 
be seen along the old Bristol Basin, now the business section. During the 
present century, Plainville has developed as a considerable manufacturing 
center, chiefly for electrical and automotive products. The largest concerns 
are Trumbull Electric, and Standard Steel and Bearings. 

To the right of the new cut-off on R. 10, the low sand ridge represents a 
Natural Dam of glacial origin. In pre-glacial times, the Pequabuck and 
Farmington Rivers drained south into the Quinnipiac. With the melting of 
the ice, a great quantity of sand was brought down by these streams and 
deposited here. Though this dam was only a few feet in height, it was enough 
to divert the channel to the north, so that the Farmington River now flows 
into the Connecticut through the Taritfville Gorge, instead of into Long 
Island Sound. 

In Plainville Village, on East Main St., we pass on the south side the at- 
tractive Public Library, of seam-faced granite. Farther east, just before 
reaching the traffic rotary, is a good 1} 2 story cottage from the 18th century. 
On New Britain Ave. (R. 72) at the left jusc before the next highway junction, is 
the *John Cook Tavern, built about 1750, with barn attached, a good example 
of Colonial architecture for that period. It has one of the finest ballrooms in 
New England, which is open to visitors. Farther east are two other land- 
marks, on the north side of R. 72 beyond the brook: the Allen Merrill House, 
with its long sloping roof, built in 1771 ; beyond this, the Wm. Lewis House of 

R. 72 continues to New Britain through a pre-glacial river bed, now known 
as Cooke's Gap. Here we cross the blue-marked Metacomet Trail, which 
follows the trap rock range. A mile north of the Gap, there is a good view 
both east and west from the lower ridge of Rattlesnake Mt. South from the 
Gap, along a newly developed highway known as Crooked Street, we cross 
Stag Brook and the R. R. Just beyond this, on the right, stands a large brown 
house built by John Hamblin in 1784. Crossing the trolley track, we climb 
Bradley Mt. to the hemlock-shaded Sunset Rock State Park. There is a fine 
view of the mountains to the west, and below us is the ancient river bed, with 

IV. 4 PLAIN V1LLE 145 

Great Pond, of glacial origin. Crooked St. continues south along the lower 
slopes of Bradley Mt., and makes a scenic drive, with good parking places 
from which to enjoy the view. 

R. 10 continues north to Farmington. 

IV. 5 

We now make a side trip to the west by U. S. 6, in order to cover the town 
of Bristol, formerly the parish of New Cambridge in Farmington, organized 
in 1744. The first settlement was in 1727 and 1728. The town was incorporat- 
ed in 1785, and named probably from Bristol, England. During the Revolu- 
tionary War there was a considerable Tory minority, and Moses Dunbar, who 
had joined the British forces on Long Island and been given a captain's 
commission, was hung in 1777 for persuading other young men to enlist in the 
King's army. 

The town is watered by the Pequabuck River. It consists of an eastern 
plain, on which is located the manufacturing village of Forestville, and a hilly 
western section. The city of Bristol, now coterminous with the town, was 
chartered in 1911, and has a population of 28,451. Though a busy industrial 
region, Bristol has developed into one of the best hiking centers in Connecticut. 

Clock Making is Bristol's historic industry. By 1790, Gideon Roberts was 
making clocks with wooden works in a small shop on Fall Mt., and peddling 
his product on horseback. Within the next 20 years he and his sons had built 
up a considerable business (400 movements in process at one time) with a 
market largely in the Southern States. The Connecticut clock peddler was 
soon to become as familiar a figure as the peddler with tinware or Yankee 
notions. Roberts became fairly prosperous, and built a substantial house, 
still standing on the north side of the Wolcott Rd. (R. 69) about 1 mile south 
from U. S. 6; it has been moved across the street from the original location. 
Joseph Ives, another early clock maker, who started in 1811, was a prolific 
inventor. In 1832 he placed on the market the first clocks made of rolled 
brass, in place of the usual wooden works; these were 8-day clocks. Later he 
patented the improved cantilever clock spring. The Henry Ford of the 
industry was Chauncey Jerome (1793-1868) who had worked for Eli Terry. 
(See under Plymouth and Thomaston.) He began at Bristol in a small way 
about 1822. In 1825, he made a hit with his "bronze looking glass clock." In 
1837, in the midst of the panic which ruined so many clock makers and other 
manufacturers, Jerome devised a 30-hour shelf clock with rolled brass move- 
ments, which could be produced at a remarkably low price. This at once 
superseded Terry's patent shelf clock with wooden works. He built up the 
largest clock business in the country, and in 1842 began exporting American 
clocks to England. After 1845, when his Bristol factory burned, Jerome 
moved to New Haven, where he had already established a warehouse. 

Of the present clock makers in Bristol, the Ingraham Co. goes back to 
1824, and the Sessions firm is successor to J. C. Brown, who started in 1833. 
The Wallace Barnes Co. is the largest manufacturer of clock springs in the 


U. S. The outstanding concern in the city today is the New Departure, a 
division of General Motors, widely known from its coaster brakes for bicycles 
and ball bearings for automobiles. The Horton Mfg. Co. makes steel fishing 
rods and golf shafts. Other Bristol products include silverware, shears, hard- 
ware and counting devices. 

Approaching the city by the attractive Memorial Boulevard (U. S. 6) past 
the white shaft of the World War Memorial and the new High School, we turn 
north on Main St. through the business center. The Public Library is on our 
right (cor. High st.) In the basement is an unusually fine collection of Indian 
relics, gathered by the late Frederick H. Williams. In contains nearly 3000 
pieces from various places in Connecticut, chiefly the Farmington Valley. 
Special interest attaches to the rude pottery made by local Indians from 
foliated talc, of which there are outcrops on the hills around Bristol. Climbing 
a steep grade, we reach Federal Hill Green, and the Congregational Church, 
erected in 1832. Across Maple St. from the Church, in the rear of Patterson 
School, is a remnant of the old Tory Burying Ground, originally the church- 
yard of the early Episcopal church. Going north from the Green on Maple 
St., we pass on the right the Miles Leicis Place (100 Maple st.) built in 1801, a 
good example of the central hall type of Colonial house. Page Park, opened in 
1934, occupies the east slope of Federal Hill, and is reached from Maple St. by 
Woodland and Greene Sts. 

Following Farmington Ave. (U. S. 6A) to the east, and turning north on 
Jerome Ave., we find a number of surviving landmarks. Among these, the 
Wm. Jerome House (367 Jerome ave.) was built in 1750, though its lines are 
somewhat obscured by the modern porch. The Benjamin Jerome House 
(441 Jerome ave.) has an overhang in both stories. 

West of the city is the beautiful * Rockwell Park, with a lagoon for bathing 
and skating, and one of the finest children's playgrounds in New England. 
Mountain laurel has been planted in profusion along the drives. 

About \$ mile west of the Park, U. S. 6 crosses the Tunxis Trail of the Conn. 
Forest and Park Assn. Southward the Trail climbs to the fine outlooks on 
Fall and South Mts. *South Mountain, which may also be climbed in a car 
or on foot by Willis St. from the High School, gives a remarkable view of the 
mountains and valley to the north and east. North of U. S. 6, the Tunxis 
Trail leads to Johnnycake Mt., Tories' Den, and the network of side trails in 
the town of Burlington. There are fine walks or drives northwest of Bristol, 
especially over Chippens Hill, with a good view in all directions. This was 
the center of the Tory settlement, described in Pond's "Tories of Chippeny 

IV. 6 

Farmington, mother of towns, was itself an overflow from the settlements 
of Hartford, Windsor and Wethersfield. In 1640 bold spirits began to cross 
the Talcott range into the fertile river valley to the west, and in 1645 Tunxis 
Plantation was laid out and recognized as Farmingtown, soon shortened to 
Farmington. The village became the trading center for a large territory in 


northwestern Connecticut, and Massachusetts. The Farmington Canal, later 
extended to Northampton, was completed in 1828 and continued in operation 
until 1847, with benefit to the community if not to the stockholders. 

In Farmington village, the long main street, one of the most beautiful in 
Connecticut, is laid out on a river terrace, looking westward to distant hills. It 
is lined with houses distinguished for their age or design. These landmarks, of 
which only a few can be mentioned in our Guide, fall into three classes. The 
first group includes some of our finest survivals from the early Colonial period. 
Others are typical of the better class of homes in the pre-Revolutionary era. A 
third group, from the late 18th and early 19th centuries, show the combination 
of wealth, pride and good taste which characterized the more prosperous 
Connecticut towns during the heyday of foreign trade. Other towns have 
illustrated one or other of these architectural phases; Farmington is rich in all 

Farmington is divided by a trap rock range, with a river plain to the west and 
a wild hill country to the east. As we enter the town from the south on R. 10, 
Rattlesnake Ml. lies to our right. It is served by the Metacomet Trail ; there 
are good views to the south and east from the main peak, and later toward the 
north. Just south of the main peak is a cave of boulders known as Will 
Warren's Den; said Warren, according to tradition, after being flogged for 
not going to church, tried to burn the town, and was pursued into the moun- 
tains, where some Indian squaws hid him in this spot. U. S. 6A. coming east 
from Bristol, passes Shade Swamp on the left, about % mile before reaching 
the R. R., a State bird sanctuary of over 2000 acres, well worth a visit. The 
new highway, after bridging R. 10, works north of Rattlesnake Mt., with good 
offlooks. The older U. S. 6, which cuts through the range from Farmington 
to Hartford, also makes an attractive drive. 

On our right, as we approach the village from the south, is the * Egbert 
Cowles House, built 1650-60. The house has the framed overhang, of which 
Farmington has a number of examples. This method of construction probably 
was brought by Yorkshire carpenters, and is not found in the State outside 
of the original Connecticut Colony. The overhang here shows the character- 
istic pendants or drops, hewn out of the ends of the second story posts; they 
are supplemented by ornamental brackets. 

At our left on the village street stands the house known as *0ldga1e (1 on 
Chart XXVI.) Part of it is believed to have been built in 1660 by the second 
minister, Rev. Samuel Hooker, son of Thomas Hooker of Hartford. Samuel 
Cowles, member of a wealthy family of merchants and West India traders, 
rebuilt the house during the Revolution, employing according to tradition an 
architect-prisoner from Burgoyne's army, Wm. Spratt. It shows the intro- 
duction of a Classical style hitherto unknown in the Colonies. The main house 
is of 2J^ stories, with gambrel roof, and the handsome doorway is surmounted 
by a Palladian window. The gateway which gives the house its name has a 
distinctly Chinese style of ornament. Oldgate was owned by Admiral W. S. 
Cowles, whose wife was a sister of the first Pres. Roosevelt. Farther north 
on the left, on top of the hill, is the Gen. *George Cowles House (2) built of brick 
in 1803. The doorway is ornamented by a fine semi-circular fanlight. On 
the south side is an imposing portico with 2-story columns. The Porter House 
(3) was built by Rev. Noah Porter in 1808; he served the Farmington church 
for 60 years. Here his distinguished children were born: Pres. Noah Porter 
of Yale; Samuel Porter, a pioneer in deaf-mute education; and Sarah Porter, 



who founded the school for girls in Farmington. The oldest foreign missionary 
organization in this country, the American Board, was formed at this house 
in 1810. 

On our right is the Old Cemetery (4) entered through a small Egyptian 
pylon. The oldest dated stone goes back to 1685. In the newer Riverside 


1. Oldgate. 2. George Cowles House. 3. Porter House. 4. Old Cemetery. 5. River- 
side Cemetery. 6. Timothy Cowles House. 7. Congregational Church. 8. Gad Cowles 
House. 9. Chauncey Deming House. 10. Samuel Deming House. 11. Miss Porter's 
School. 12. Gleason House. 13. Rochamheau Monument. 14. Whitman Tavern. 15. 
Whitman House. 

(5) a block to the writ on Maple St., a large monument of red sand- 
stone was erected in 1840 "In memory of the Indian Race; Especially of the 
Tunxis Tribe, the ancient tenants of these grounds;" many of whose remains 
were discovered here. And opposite the soldiers' monument is a stone recalling 
the famous Amistad trial in the days before the Civil War. The Mendi Cap- 


lives were brought to Farmington under bonds, and kept at school for a year 
before being sent back to Africa. The inscription reads: "Foone. A native 
African who was drowned while bathing in the Center Basin Aug. 1841. He 
was one of the Company of Slaves under Cinque on board the schooner 
Amistad who asserted their rights and took possession of the vessel after 
having put the Captain, Mate and others to death, sparing their Masters 
Ruez, and Mantez." 

Another Cowles house, the most pretentious in Farmington, lies on our right, 
built by Major * Timothy Cowles (6) in 1815. It has a gable on the street, with 
2-story columns, and there are similar porticos on the north and south sides. 
The front doorway has side lights and a rounded fanlight, and the doorway 
on the wing is more elaborate, with pilasters and a pediment. The *Con- 
gregational Church (7) was built in 1771 by a local carpenter-architect, Capt. 
Judah Woodruff. In place of the Greek portico of the later Colonial churches, 
we have a well-proportioned square tower on the north end, surmounted by a 
belfrey and a slender spire. There is a fine doorway on the south porch. The 
village Library in Classical style stands back of the Church. To the north is 
the Gad Cowles House (8) 1799, with a portico of 2-story columns on the north 

On the west side of the street, the doorway of the red Chauncey Denting 
House (9) about 1753, is worth noting. The Samuel Deming House (10) on 
the other side of the postoffice, one of Judah Woodruff's creations, dates from 
1768 and has a slight overhang on both ends. Beyond this is the brick building, 
built as a hotel on the opening of the Farmington Canal, now the main building 
of Miss Porter's School (11) founded in 1843 by Miss Sarah Porter (1813-1900.) 
The Parish House of the Congregational Church was erected in her honor by 
former pupils, and there is a commemorative tablet on the Memorial Studio 
of the School on New Britain Ave. 

Continuing north, we pass several good houses from the late 18th century. 
The shingled Gleason House (12) which sets back from the street on the right, 
behind other houses, was built 1650-60, another example of the rare framed 
overhang. The drops are missing, but we see the bases of the pendants, and 
there are ornamental brackets at the corners. In the small parkway at the 
highway junction, is the Rochambeau Monument (13.) The actual site of the 
French camp in 1781 was a mile farther south, on the west side of R. 10 below 
the village. 

The old houses continue for some distance to the east on U. S. 6. On our 
right, at the corner of High St., is the fine old Whitman Tavern (14.) The most 
interesting landmark in the village is the ** Whitman House (15; Henry Far- 
nam House) which lies on the east side of High St. It is an unpainted 2J-j 
story salt-box, with great central chimney of stone, a 6-inch overhang in the 
attic story, and a framed overhang of 20 inches on the front, with four "drops" 
hewn out of the lower ends of the posts. The house was built about 1660, and 
bought in 1735 by Rev. Samuel Whitman for his son Solomon, whose great- 
granddaughter married Henry Farnam, the engineer of the Canal. 

Going north on R. 10, just before reaching the Avon town line, the Canal 
Aqueduct lies % mile to our left. Here the Canal crossed the Farmington 
River by seven spans of 40 feet each. Three of the six piers are still standing 
in fair condition. On R. 4 to Unionville, about 1 mile west of R. 10, we pass 
on the left an Alluvial Fan, one of the largest in Connecticut, formed by de- 


posits of the Farmington River which were spread out on the flat. The deposits 
spread farther and farther across the lowland, and were later cut into terraces 
by the river. 

IV. 7 

The town of Avon, formerly Northington or the north parish of Farmington, 
probably was settled about the same date as the mother town (1645.) In 
1830, after the opening of the Farmington Canal, a separate town was in- 
corporated. The name was taken from the river that flows through Stratford, 
England. Avon consists of a river plain, bordered by mountain ranges on the 
west and east. 

R. 10 runs along a river terrace, on the lower slope of Talcott Mt., where 
one looks across to the Western Highlands. There is an attractive public 
road (Booth rd.) north from Farmington along the summit of the mountain as 
far as R. 101 ; above this the road is private. On R. 101 (Albany ave.) coming 
west from Hartford, there is a remarkable view as we descend the mountain 
slope. McDonald Park provides good parking facilities at this point. 

Turning west from R. 10, about a mile beyond the Farmington town line, we 
cross the Farmington River and find to the south, below a small brook, a 
typical Esker, or glacial deposit made by a stream under the ice. On the same 
road, about 1 ' 2 miles from R. 10, is *Avon Old Farms, a preparatory school for 
boys, established in 1918. The buildings, of sandstone quarried on the premises, 
were designed by the donor, Mrs. Theodate Pope Riddle, on the lines of an 
old English village. The school is one of the outstanding achievements in 
recent Connecticut architecture, and may be visited during certain hours. The 
tall round water tower near the entrance is a conspicuous landmark. About 
2 miles northwest of Avon Old Farms is the interesting West Avon Congrega- 
tional Church, built in 1818. 

At the junction of R. 10 with R. 101, on the northwest corner, is Phelps 
Tavern, a large red building where horses were changed in the old days on 
the Hart ford- Albany turnpike. In Avon village, formerly known as East 
Avon, where R. 10 turns north again, we find another good example of Colonial 
architecture, the Avon Congregational Church, built in 1818. There is a factory 
here making blasting fuse. 

IV. 8 


Simsbury was settled as a part of Windsor in 1660. On the incorporation 
of the town in 1670, the earlier name Massacoe was changed to Simsbury, 
apparently a contraction of Simondsbury in the English county of Dorset. 
The village was burned by King Philip in 1676, after the inhabitants had 
withdrawn to Hartford on the outbreak of the Indian War. 


Simsbury lies on the western edge of the Central Lowland. A river plain is 
bounded on the east by Talcott Mt., through which the Farmington River cuts 
its way to the Connecticut by the Tariffville Gorge. It contains part of the 
McLean Game Refuge. Tobacco is extensively grown. 

As we enter the town from Avon by R. 10, the Heublein Tower on Talcott 
Mt. makes a conspicuous landmark to our right. This is a private summer 
residence, inspired by the German castles on the Rhine. It was built originally 
by Richard M. Hoe, the perfecter of the printing press. At the junction with 
R. 185, we pass the old Pettibone Tavern at Weatogue. Across the street is the 
White Memorial Fountain, and just north of this an old Colonial house, at 
one time the home of Lucius W. Bigelow, "the last of the Yankee tin peddlers. " 
The Ethel Walker School for girls, established in 191 1, lies a mile west of Weat- 
ogue by the road to West Simsbury (turn south on R. 167.) 

Going east from Weatogue on R. 185, we pass a very large Sycamore. As 
the highway climbs Talcott Mt., there is a fine view to the northwest. On 
the crest of the hill, to our right, is a gorge formerly known as Hell Hole, 
where Capt. Wadsworth is said to have found concealment on the day after 
the hiding of the Charter in the Charter Oak. Farther to the south, on the 
precipitous cliffs of the western slope, lies King. Philip's Cave. According to 
tradition, King Philip directed the destruction of Simsbury from this point, on 
March 26, 1676. 

On our right, as we approach Simsbury Village, after passing a fine stand of 
pine, we see the attractive red sandstone buildings of the Ensign- Bickf or d 
Co., the earliest and largest manufacturers of safety fuse for blasting. The 
company began as Bacon, Bickford and Eales in 1836 (moved from Granby 
in 1839.) Safety fuse was of great assistance in building the Panama Canal, 
and the time fuses produced during the World War earned a citation from the 
War Department. The buildings were designed and built by the company's 
craftsmen, from native stone. 

The beautiful village street is known as Hopmeadow St. On our left, before 
the R. R., is the Congregational Church, erected in 1830, with Ionic pilasters 
supporting a pediment. Just south of this is an old Milestone on the Boston 
post road. Across the track on the left stands Eaglewood, a rather pretentious 
mansion dating from 1830. This was the birthplace of Gifford Pinchot, father 
of scientific forestry in America and governor of Pennsylvania. On the east 
side of the street, south of the traffic light, in the rear of the Ellsworth House, 
are the remains of the Minister's Well, which was within the stockade and used 
by the garrison and townspeople during Indian raids. Farther north, on the 
right, is Eno Memorial Hall, a fine building in Colonial style, dedicated in 
1932. The rooms of the Historical Society contain interesting furniture and 
utensils from the Colonial period. There is also a large collection of Indian 
arrowheads and other stone implements, about half of them from Connecticut. 
North of the postoffice we find the house huilt in 1771 by David Phelps for 
his son *Capt. Elisha Phelps, who lost his life in the Revolution, and whose 
nephew of the same name was the builder of Eaglewood. The house has a 
gambrel roof, with central chimney. In the doorway, pilasters support a 
cornice, and there are 6 small arched panes above the door. It was partly 
remodeled in 1879, but some of the original hand-riven clapboards may be 
seen in the gable. Farther up the street, beyond the attractive modern school 
buildings, we pass on our right the 17th century Titus Barber House and 
the house built in 1762 by Rev. Benijiah Root, later owned by Major Elihu 
Humphrey and Lucius I. Barber. 

152 Till, t < >\M'V IU I 1 (,l IDli 

Returning to the Congregational Church, West St. turns off to West Sims- 
bury. A left fork (R. 167) leads to a- public picnic area and swimming pool on 
the Simsbury State Forest. On Hop Brook to the north, a short distance 
upstream from the present Grist Mill, Joseph H igley in 1744 produced the half 
ton of steel required under a charter granted by the General Assembly, the 
first successful attempt at steel making in America. This neighborhood was 
known as Hanover, from the German workmen brought here to assist in smelt- 
ing the copper ore hauled down from the East Granby mine. 

We continue north from the village on R. 10, with another fine stand of pine 
a little to the west. About a mile from the center a road leads west to West- 
minster School, a preparatory school for boys established in 1888, on a hill over- 
looking the Farmington valley. Beyond this point the highway enters a nar- 
row cut in the sandbank which was known in early days as the Dugway, and 
was kept open only by constant digging. On a knoll to the right, at Hoskins 
Station, is the John Gates House (Jonathan Eno House) dating back to about 
1756. A side road to the right leads to Tariffville, where the Farmington 
River turns east. (The Gorge will be described under East Granby.) Connec- 
ticut's earliest carpet factory was located here in 1827. On the hill south of 
Tariffville (by road south from R. R. trestle) are the remains of another con- 
spicuous landmark, the Bartlett Tower. Though the tower is no longer safe to 
climb, there is a fine view to the northwest from the hill itself. 

IV. 9 

From Simsbury, it is convenient to cover by a side trip the town of Bloom- 
field, which lies east of Talcott Mt. The first settlement was about 1660, as a 
part of Windsor, and in 1736 a parish of Wintonbury was organized, named 
from Windsor, Farmington and Simsbury. In 1835, a town was incorporated 
from these three other towns. The new descriptive name was suggested at the 
town meeting by Sen. Francis G. Gillette, father of the playwright. Bloom- 
field is rolling hill country, and the southern part is now a suburb of Hartford 

Leaving R. 10 in Simsbury by R. 185, with a scenic climb over the range, 
we turn east on R. 184 to Bloomfield Center. We pass on the way a number of 
old houses, with others on the road that runs north under the mountain. North 
of the Congregational Church is the old Wintonbury Cemetery, with Filley 
Park opposite. About 1 mile northeast of the center is a typical Drumlin, an 
elliptical hill shaped like half an egg, made up of stony clay and useful in 
determining the direction of the ice movement. 

South of the center, on R. 9, the Hubbard House of 1750 stands on our right 
in ' > mile. Near the West Hartford town line is St. Thomas Seminary, a 
preparatory school for boys, founded in 1897 and moved from Hartford to the 
present site in 1930. 

The Matthew Morse House, on the east side of R. 184, 2^ miles southeast 
of Bloomfield Center, is worth a visit. It was built between 1642 and 1 64(>, and 
the present family has owned it for 200 years. 


We return to Simsbury by R. 9, through North Bloomfield and the Tariffville 
Gorge. There are other old houses in this section. St. Stephens Church was 
one of the early Episcopal churches in Connecticut, and lias the original pewter 
communion set, and the organ which was brought from England. In the 
present building, erected in 1806, there is a porch with a recessed arch. 

IV. 10 

The town of Granby, formerly a part of Windsor and later of Simsbury, was 
settled about 1664, and made a separate town in 1786. It appears to have been 
named from the Marquis of Granby, who led the British forces on the Con- 
tinent in the Seven Years War. The jig taken out of Granby and Suffield 
on the northern border represents the final compromise of the long boundary 
dispute with Massachusetts, settled in 1804. The town consists of rolling 
hill country, with Manitic Mt. to the northeast, and other mountains on the 
south and west. The original safety fuses for blasting were made here by 
Bickford, Bacon and Eales in 1836, the company later moving to Simsbury. 

Going north from Simsbury on R. 10, we pass on the left, at Salmon Brook, 
the entrance to the * Me Lean Game Refuge. This is a tract of 2500 acres or 
more, mostly in Granby and Simsbury, bequeathed by Sen. George P. McLean 
of Simsbury in 1929. Hunting and fishing, smoking, and the picking of 
flowers are prohibited, as a matter of protection, but during the Summer and 
Fall the public are free to follow the many beautiful drives. Special picnic 
grounds are provided. The third house beyond Salmon Brook on the left is 
the present Maltbie House, built in 1752. There are other interesting 18th 
century houses in Granby village and on the side roads. 

On R. 20 to Hartland, a mile beyond West Granby, is the notable Huggins 
Gorge, where one branch of Salmon Brook comes down through the hills. 
(Permission should be secured from Myron L. Huggins, West Granby, just 
north of store.) Half way from Granby to West Granby, a road turns south 
and goes through the cleft in the interesting Barn Door Hills. From the 
western peak there is a good view to the south. 

Like R. 10, Route 189, which runs northwest to Granville, Mass., makes a 
scenic drive. About % mile beyond North Granby, we come to the picturesque 
Crag Mill Falls, with an old red mill building and a pine-shaded chasm below. 
There is another good ravine a mile west of North Granby by a country road. 

IV. 11 

East Granby was settled about 1710. The region originally was known as 
Turkey Hills, and a parish of that name, in what was then Simsbury, was 
organized in 1736. The town was separated from Granby in 1858. East 
Granby is divided by a beautiful mountain range of trap rock, running north 
and south. 


Taking R. 20 east from Granby, and going 1 mile north on the western 
slope of the mountain, we come to the famous * Newgate Prison (admission 
.S5 cents.) This was originally a copper mine, the first in America, worked 
intermittently from 1707 on. In 1737 a Simsbury blacksmith, Joseph Higley, 
began making copper coins, which long circulated in Connecticut as "Granby 
coppers." The old mine shaft served as a State Prison from 1773 until 1827, 
when the Wethersfield prison was completed. It was named for the old New- 
gate prison in London. Washington sent a batch of Tory prisoners here after 
the Boston campaign, and it was used in this way throughout the War, though 
the prisoners usually managed to make their escape. Attempts to work the 
mine with prison labor, and later through a private company, were unsuccess- 
ful, as the ore is refractory in smelting. The ruins of the castle-like prison, 
built in 1790, are still standing, and the traveler may descend to some of the 
gruesome dungeons underground. Opposite the prison is the Old Newgate 
House, built in 1763 and at one time used as a tavern. 

Returning to R. 20, and passing through a notch in the mountain, we come 
to East Granby Village, with the Congregational Church, built of native stone. 
The Joel Clark House, erected in 1737, now in the Yale Gallery of Fine Arts, 
stood on the main street, at the highway junction. Of the old Colonial houses 
in the town, some of the best are to the north on R. 187. 

R. 187 leads south to the junction with R. 9 at Spoonville bridge. The name 
perpetuates the first silver plating in this country, by Cowles Mfg. Co. in 
1846. Asa Rogers, who had been connected with this firm, removed to Hartford 
to start business under the trade mark "Rogers Brothers 1847." 

Route 9 goes through the attractive Tariffville Gorge. Glacial debris dam- 
med the old Farmington-Quinnipiac valley, and the stream found an outlet 
at this point through a fault in the trap rock. The Farmington River continued 
to use this channel. Returning to Granby by R. 9, below Granby Sta. and 
about H mile to the west, is an interesting 40-foot arch, the third and success- 
ful attempt, built for the Canal over Salmon Brook and now used by the R. R. 

The blue-marked Metacomet Trail, coming south from Suffield along the 
range, crosses Peak Mt., just above Newgate Prison, with a good western 
view, and continues to the Tariffville Gorge. 

Journey V 

Farmington to Granby. 
Routes 4, 101 and 20. 

The Farmington River region was inhabited by the powerful Tunxis tribe 
of Indians, from whom the whites purchased their land. It is a rough hill 
country, one of the natural playgrounds of the State, with manufacturing 
villages along the river valley. There are large reservoirs and extensive 
State Forests. The region is served by improved highways, country roads and 
the Tunxis Trail. It is particularly attractive in June when the laurel is in 

FARMINGTON. See Journey IV. C. 

V. 1 

Taking R. 4 west from Farmington, we enter the town of Burlington, 
settled in 1740, and organized in 1774 as the parish of West Britain. It formed 
part of Farmington and later of Bristol, and was made a separate town in 
1806. The name chosen, already used by other towns in America, probably 
was derived from Bridlington in Yorkshire. Much of the town is a wild hill 
country, now covered by a network of tramping trails. 

From R. 4, which follows up the attractive Farmington River on the west 
bank, R. 1 16 leads to the village of Burlington, passing the road running south 
to the State Fish Hatchery, where trout are raised by the million for stocking 
the various streams in Connecticut. The Hatchery, the largest in the State 
for trout, is located on a beautiful moss-bound brook. In the village, the 
Congregational Church, with its Doric portico, stands north of the small 
triangular Green; it was erected in 1802. On the south is the Elton House 
(Brown Inn) formerly a tavern on the Hartford-Litchfield turnpike, which was 
laid out in 1798. In Center Cemetery on the northeast is the grave of Mrs. 
Katherine Cole Gaylord, an early settler of the Wyoming Valley in Pennsyl- 
vania. After her husband was killed in the massacre of 1778, she escaped with 
her children and made her way back through the forests to her father's home 
in Burlington, where she died in 1840. The earlier settlement lies about a 
mile to the southeast, where there are a number of 18th century houses along 
the road, including that built about 1783 by the first minister, Rev. Jonathan 
Miller, on the east side. 

156 i in'. ONM-.C i u r i (,i mi: 

The blue-marked Tunxis Trail comes north from Bristol to Jolninycak< 
Mt. where the fire tower gives a complete horizon. (Reached by road northwest 
from Bristol.) South of this is a series of high ledges, with the interesting cave 
known as Tories Den, a traditional refuge of the Tories from Chippens Hill. 
From Johnnycake Mt. the Trail works northeast to the Fish Hatchery, and 
then follows up *Burlington Brook past two attractive falls, about a mile 
apart. The falls may also be reached by a road along the brook which runs 
west from R. 116. Many side trails have been opened in the southern part of 
Burlington, some following abandoned roads which are reverting to forest. 
One of the most interesting spots is the rock-lined gully known as the Devil's 
Kitchen, about a mile north of Whigville. 

South of Whigville, near the Bristol town line, best reached by road north 
from U. S. 6A through Edgewood (formerly Polkville) is the Whigville Copper 
Mine, the largest ever worked in Connecticut. It was opened in 1839, and 
operated by various owners, who sunk at least 8 shafts and developed a large 
plant. The last attempt was abandoned in 1895. From 1847-1854 it yielded 
$200,000 worth of low-grade copper ore. Traces of silver were found and many 
other minerals. The mine is chiefly famous for its fine chalcocite crystals, 
which have found their way into all the large museums of the world. 

v. 2 

The town of Canton, reached by R. 4 or by R. 101 from Avon, was settled 
in 1737, organized in 1750 as the parish of West Simsbury, and made a sepa- 
rate town in 1806. The name adopted suggests the growing interest of Connec- 
ticut in the China trade. Canton forms the eastern boundary of the Western 
Highlands at this point, with elevations rising to over 1000 feet. 

R. 4 swings northwest through good scenery to the Nepaug Reservoir. At 
Collinsville, which lies chiefly on the east bank of the Farmington River, is 
the Collins Co., which has been manufacturing axes and edged tools here 
since 1826. Before that date, all axes had been made in blacksmiths' shops 
or were imported from England. An old grist mill was purchased, and iron 
brought from Salisbury. They were the first edge-tool makers in the world to 
use coal in their forges (1829.) John Brown ordered 1000 pikes in 1857, and 
bayonets were made here during the Civil War. Since 1840, the company 
has made a large proportion of the machetes used in Central and South 
America. Collins Co. tools were used almost exclusively in building the 
Trans-Siberian Railway. 

Going northeast from Collinsville, we pass on the right in about a mile the 
Dowd Place, dating from 1747, with another house on the left built in 1756. In 
Canton Village, farther to the east, the Congregational Church, erected in 1814, 
has a good pilastered pediment. At the end of the Green is an Elm nearly as 
large as the great elm at Wethersfield. On the northwest corner, the Moses 
Dyer House, 1784, was a tavern on the Hartford-Albany stage route. This 
highway was laid out in 1764, and became a turnpike in 1799. There are other 
houses in the village and on the back country roads dating from the late 18th 

CAM o\ 157 

In the northeast corner of the town, by taking the rather poor road from 
West Simsbury and turning right instead of going to North Canton, we climb 
a mountain slope and obtain a remarkable view to the east and south. 

As we go west from Canton Village on R. 101, a road turns north through 
Canton Center; following this about 2 miles farther and turning west ^ mile, 
we pass on the right the house built in 1756 by Capt. John Brown. He was the 
grandfather of John Brown of Harper's Ferry; the abolitionist's father moved 
from here to Torrington and later to Ohio. 

v. 3 


Going west from Canton on R. 101, we enter the town of New Hartford in 
Litchfield County. This was part of the territory acquired and laid out by 
Hartford, settlers coming from the mother town in 1733 and town government 
being granted in 1740. Manufacturing is still carried on in the village, along 
the Farmington River. The town is mountainous, and we enter the pine area 
of the State formerly known as the Greenwoods. 

R. 101 crosses just above the wild Farmington River Gorge, a spot of scenic 
beauty, and interesting to geologists because of the outcrops of pegmatites and 
schists. The highway then passes on the left the region known as Satan's 
Kingdom, from the lawless settlement of Indians, negroes and renegade whites 
toward the end of the 18th century. 

After going through Pine Meadow, an earlier woolen center, we reach 
New Hartford Village, situated in a deep valley, surrounded by wooded hills. 
The white spire of the Congregational Church stands out from Town Hill, west 
of the river; the Church was built of brick in 1828, and has a plain pediment, 
with rounded doorways and windows. The vacuum cleaner factory of Landers, 
Frary and Clark has taken the place of a former cotton mill. In 1845, Elias 
Howe, a cotton mill mechanic, invented the sewing machine. His shop was in 
the basement of the brick building still standing to the west of the village 
center, the old New Hartford House. Though the principle of the sewing 
machine was discovered 12 years earlier by Walter Hunt of New York, Howe 
came on the idea independently and was the first to patent and exploit it. The 
first woman in the world to operate a practical sewing machine was a New 
Hartford school teacher. 

Route 4 makes an attractive drive through the southern part of the town. 
It crosses the dam of Nepaug Reservoir, with a beautiful ravine below, and 
skirts the shore of the lake. This is the principal water supply for Hartford, 
485 feet above sea level, with a yield of 25 million gallons a day. North of 
R. 4 is Nepaug State Forest, and about a mile west of the lake a Forest road 
leads north \Y^ miles to a Soapstone Quarry, used by the Indians for making 
pots. A half mile north of the highway, not far from Bakersville, is a Sulphur 
Spring. There are good views from various points in the northwest of the 
town. West Hill Pond, an attractive body of water, formerly an Indian camp 
ground and now headquarters for the New Haven, Hartford and Torrington 
boy scouts, is best reached from U. S. 8 above Burrville. 


The blue-marked Tunxis Trail enters New Hartford west of the Nepaug 
Reservoir, and 1 ] > miles north of R. 4 passes Tipping Rock, a glacial boulder, 
easily moved although 28 feet in circumference and weighing about 12 tons. 
From this point there are good views to the south and east. About ' ._, mile 
farther is Table Rock, 35 feet long and resting on a broad leg; a dozen people 
can find shelter under it. The Trail crosses the Farmington River by the 
highway bridge (R. 101) above the Gorge, and works along the hills above the 
East Branch, with good views of the Compensating Reservoir. 

v. 4 


The town of Barkhamsted was part of Windsor's share in the settlement of 
Litchfleld County, and the first settler came from Windsor about 1746. Before 
that date, some of the best pine timber had been logged and floated down the 
Farmington River. A town was not incorporated until 1779. The name is 
taken from Barkhamsted in the English county of Hertford. 

Barkhamsted is mountainous, and cut into deep valleys by the East and 
West Branches of the Farmington. There is a large reservoir of the Metro- 
politan Water Board on the East Branch, and another 9 mile lake is under 
construction, which will flood the former village of Barkhamsted. The town 
contains three State Forests: Peoples, American Legion, and a part of the 
Tunxis. There is some manufacturing at Riverton, at one time famous for 
its chairs. John Brown's mother, Ruth Mills, was born in Barkhamsted. 

In the State report for 1845, Barkhamsted is credited with $60,751 of manu- 
factured goods. The list is worth reproducing, because so characteristic of 
the Connecticut town at that period: axes, shovels, spades, saddles, harness, 
trunks, coaches, wagons, chairs, furniture, flour, tanned leather, boots, palm- 
leaf hats, bricks, quarried stone, wooden ware, timber (a million feet per year, 
much of it shipped to the West Indies) shingles, staves for barrels, kegs, 
clothespins, charcoal, calico, oak-acid used for calico dye, foot rules, hoe 
handles, woolen goods, and 41 barrels of liquor. 

R. 179, north from New Hartford, follows the East Branch, above the reser- 
voirs. Another scenic approach to this section is by the unimproved R. 181, 
which comes across from West Granby and descends through a fine ravine. 
About 3 i mile north of the former Barkhamsted postoffice is an attractive 
brook with many potholes. The Tunxis Trail follows the height of land, with 
fine views over the lower reservoir from the Pinnacle. Northeast of Bark- 
hamsted postoffice the Trail passes Indian Council Cave, and in another 
mile reaches Pine Mountain, with fine views in all directions. 

R. 101 makes a scenic drive to Winsted. There is a good view to the east 
from the Rural Art Museum on West Hill, I, 1 2 miles to the south, turning off 
opposite the Old North Road Inn. 

R. 181 runs north to Pleasant Valley. From this point a road goes up the 
West Branch of the Farmington through the American Legion Forest, with a 
camp ground and trails. 


Crossing at Pleasant Valley, another road to Riverton follows the east 
bank, with attractive scenery, passing under a hill to the right with a fine 
southern view. In 1 mile we reach the Peoples Forest. Back of the forest 
ranger's headquarters is a new stone Administration Building, which will 
serve as a Forest Museum. Greenwoods Road, recently opened from this 
point, leads north through fine hemlock, hardwood and laurel, eventually 
reaching R. 20 in Hartland ; along the road is a lean-to for overnight camping. 
Continuing up the West Branch, we reach Matthies Grove, the principal picnic 
ground on the Peoples Forest, with facilities for camping and bathing. In 
another mile, a bronze tablet marks the old Indian settlement known as 
Barkhamsted Lighthouse. Its nucleus was the high spirited Molly Barber of 
Wethersfield, who, when crossed by her father in a love affair, eloped with the 
Indian Chaugham. Stage drivers, pointing to the light from the Chaugham 
homestead, would shout to their passengers: "There's Barkhamsted lighthouse; 
only five miles more to New Hartford." Southwest of the Lighthouse, on an 
island in the river, is the Whittemore Camp Ground, another attractive spot 
with bathing equipment. *Chaugham Lookout, with a fire tower and a remark- 
able view, is reached by the beautiful Jessie Gerard Trail, named for the woman 
chiefly responsible for securing donations to the Peoples Forest. Other roads 
and trails make this public forest area a delightful playground. The laurel 
displays in June are particularly fine. 

As we enter the village of Riverton, the old Ives Tavern (Riverton Inn) of 
1800 lies to our right, half hidden by modern porches. To our left, as we cross 
the bridge, a baby nipple factory occupies the building where the famous 
Hitchcock Chairs were made. Lambert Hitchcock located here in 1818, and at 
first made chair parts for the Southern market. He was soon manufacturing 
entire chairs and rockers, of a sturdy but graceful type, often with painted 
decorations on the back. The village which grew up around the factory was 
called Hitchcock ville (until 1866.) After Hitchcock moved his business to 
Union ville in 1840, the old factory was operated by his partner and brother- 
in-law Arba Alford until 1864, when it changed to pocket rulers. The large 
brick house built by the two partners, and divided by a solid brick wall, stands 
across the street. In the next block to the west, on our left, is the stone 
Episcopal Church, built in 1829, and beyond this another of the five early 
hostelries, Pinney's Hotel, of about the same date. The Congregational 
Church, with its Doric portico, was erected in 1842. 

V. 5 

The town of Hartland, which we shall cover by R. 20 from Riverton, fell to 
Hartford in the division of western lands between Windsor and Hartford, 
which accounts for the name. It was not settled until 1753, and town govern- 
ment came in 1761. Hartland is made up of two high ranges, rising at one 
point to over 1400 feet, with a north and south valley in the center. It con- 
tains the Tunxis State Forest, and large areas are controlled by the Metro- 
politan Water Board. 

R. 20, one of the most attractive drives in the State, climbs over West Mt., 
which separates the West and East Branches of the Farmington River. A 


side road north through West Hartland leads to the Hartland Fire Tower, with 
a complete horizon. On the road which follows up the East Branch, we pass 
on the left a Forest trail leading up the beautiful *Falls Brook, cascading down 
several hundred feet over moss-covered ledges. Near the northern boundary, 
where Hubbard Brook comes down from Massachusetts, is the pool known as 
Black Hole, with the ruins of early mills. Almost on the State line we find 
the old Red Lion Inn, an important stopping place on the early freight road 
from Blanford, Mass., to Farmington and Hartford. 

All of Hartland Hollow, along the East Branch, is to be flooded by the new 
reservoir. A road running southeast from West Granville, Mass., to East 
Hartland takes us on the right past the entrance to Bragg Pond, on the State 
Forest, with facilities for bathing; Balanced Rock (200 yards by side road;) 
and the approach to the east block of Tunxis Slate Forest, famous for its blue- 
berries, which may be picked for a small fee. 

In East Hartland, on R. 20, we find the old Holmes Hotel, built by Uriel 
Holmes in 1764, and the Congregational Church, with a good pedimented door- 
way, dating from 1801. From the church tower, there is a remarkable view, 
and it is possible to make out 53 church spires in Connecticut and Massa- 
chusetts. The Cemetery here has the graves of 81 Revolutionary soldiers. 
All of the 11 cemeteries in Hartland are kept up through a special monumental 
fund. There are many old houses in this section, of which the most interesting 
is the Giddings Homsestead, dating from the early settlement, 1754. It lies 
about a mile south of East Hartland, to the right of the road to Barkhamsted. 
Salmon Giddings, a noted missionary to the Southwest, was born here in 1782. 
A cousin, Joshua R. Giddings, who became famous as an anti-slavery leader, 
was born after his family moved to the West. The Giddings family took part 
in the Ohio migration, which started in 1802, and is said to have taken 117 
persons from the town. The population of Hartland, however, did not begin 
to decline until the decade between 1830 and 1840. In the East Hartland 
Community House, on the Green, are portraits of Salmon Giddings, and of 
Chauncey Loomis, one of the earliest medical missionaries sent out from 
America to foreign lands. 

Route 20 continues east to GRANBY. See Journey IV. 10. 

Journey VI 

New Haven to Hartford. 
U. S. 5. 

The main seat of government in Connecticut has been located at Hartford 
since the earliest days. New Haven was the center of the New Haven Colony, 
and served as joint capital of the united Colony and State from 1701 to 1875. 
The route followed by an early road, by the turnpike of 1798, and afterward 
by the railroad, cuts across the Central Lowland. We shall pass through some 
of the most important manufacturing towns, specializing on silver, hardware 
and tools. The striking features of the landscape are the red trap rock ridges 
running from north to south, formed by lava flows of the Triassic period, and 
exposed by the erosion of the softer sandstone. 

NEW HAVEN. See Journey 1. 13. 

VI. 1 

North Haven, formerly a part of New Haven, was made a parish in 1716 
and a separate town in 1786. The first settler was William Bradley, an officer 
in Cromwell's army, who located about 1650 on land held by Gov. Theophilus 
Eaton. Brick making has been the principal industry. In the last half of the 
18th century, there was considerable shipbuilding on the Quinnipiac River. 

Entering the town of North Haven by U. S. 5 (Middletown ave.) east of 
the river, we pass Peter's Rock (Rabbit Rock) on our right, named after Peter 
Brockett, a Revolutionary soldier, who lived there as a hermit. It is reached 
by turning off on R. 15 and taking the first crossroad to the south. The view 
across the meadows is well worth the climb. The hill is a good exhibit of 
columnar structure in the trap rock, caused by contraction as the lava cooled. 
The columns, about 4 feet in diameter and usually six-sided, form a precipitous 
cliff on the west. 

Continuing on R. 15 and turning east, I 1 2 miles beyond the highway 
junction, we come in 1 mile to the Pardee House, built about 1725, with central 
chimney and attic overhang. The cornice is unique: a plaster cove extending 
across the front and one end of the house. In 3 miles on R. 15, the Rising 
Sun Tavern to our right, built in 1732, is practically unchanged. An old toll- 
gate was located at this inn. Turning south on Warner Rd., we reach the fine 
white W. H. Warner House, said to date from 1700. 


Returning to U. S. 5, we go through Monlowese, named for the sachem of 
the Quinnipiac tribe from whom the land was purchased. On our left we pass 
the old Old Dutch House, said to have been built by Jedediah Button in 1759 
and rather out of repair. In this 1 } story cottage, with central chimney, the 
front roof is carried beyond the house line about 4 feet in a gentle sweep , 
affording protection for the simple "stoop" of the front door. This treatment, 
which is typically Dutch, is very unusual in Connecticut. About 1 mile farther, 
on the left, is the Eaton Homestead, a fine old yellow house, dating from 1757. 

North Haven Center is laid out around the Green, called Pierpont's Park, 
given to the town in 1714 by Rev. James Pierpont of New Haven. Facing the 
Green on the east, the third house south of the Episcopal church was built 
about 1761 by Rev. Benjamin Trumbull (1785-1820) who served the Congrega- 
tional church for 60 years. He had been a chaplain in the Revolutionary 
army, and wrote a history of Connecticut and also a history of the U. S. The 
house is of 2}/% stories, with gambrel roof and central chimney. There is a 
pedimented doorway, and somewhat similar treatment for the 1st story 
windows. Trumbull is buried in the Cemetery on the Green, with his pre- 
decessor, Rev. Isaac Stiles, whose son Ezra Stiles (1727-1795) became presi- 
dent of Yale. In the Town Hall, on the west of the Green, the Bradley Library 
was given by Silas Bradley, who began life as a peddler, and later amassed a 
fortune. At the highway junction, the old Dr. Foote House, lies on the south- 
west corner. On the northwest corner is the Andrews Tavern, one of the 
scheduled stopping places of the stage coach, built in 1780 but somewhat 
marred by modern porches. From this corner, Pool Rd. runs east % mile to 
an Iron Spring, barrelled in early days for curative purposes. The bog ex- 
tending south from this point, east of U. S. 5, was the source of the Bog Iron 
carried to East Haven for smelting, in 1657. 

U. S. 5A, which runs west of the river, is lined with Brickyards. North 
Haven has three of the four largest yards in the State. Turning south just 
beyond the R. R. crossing, a side road leads to a good exhibit of the varved 
clays utilized by this industry. They were deposited in a glacial lake, and show 
alternate light and dark layers, each double layer representing one year of 
deposit. The clay is from 10 to 30 feet in depth. Many of the old houses in 
the village and outlying country are built of local brick. 

Another approach to North Haven is by the Old Hartford Turnpike, which 
forks right from the Ridge Rd. Just beyond the town line there is a superb 
view of the blue hills across the Quinnipiac River valley. A mile farther, on 
our left, is the old Samuel Mix House, a brown I 1 2 story cottage, with a well- 
sweep in the yard. In front of the house is a huge black walnut, said to be the 
largest east of the Rockies, brought down from Middletown by the original 
owner in his saddle-bag. The present owner of the farm is the eighth in direct 

Continuing toward Wallingford from North Haven Center on U. S. 5, the 
En Bradley House, 1715, the oldest house in town, lies a little to the east in 
1 ' -2 miles. We have been crossing a flat plain of sand, spread over the valley 
at a time when the river was choked by glacial material. The Farmington 
River originally flowed into the Quinnipiac, making it a much larger stream. 
In places the wind has reworked this sand into dunes. East of the highway, 
before reaching the State Park, are Pine Barrens, of interest to the botanist. 
About 12 acres of thin woodland, mostly pitch pine, show various develop- 
mental stages between prairie-like grass land and oak-hickory forest. Wharton 

VI. 1 NORTH HAVliN 163 

Brook State Park has a charming stream below an overhanging bank, par- 
ticularly beautiful in Spring and Fall. A blue-marked tramping trail comes 
over the Mt. Carmel range and continues east, partly by road, to Trimountain 
on the Mattabesett Trail. 

VI. 2 

The town of Wallingford was settled from New Haven in 1667 and organized 
as a town in 1673. The name was taken from Wallingford in the English 
Berkshire. The borough of Wallingford was incorporated in 1853 and has a 
population of 11,170. 

Wallingford is one of the centers of the silver industry. About 1815, Charles 
and Hiram Yale, who had been making pewter, began the manufacture of 
britannia ware, and t,heir success led to the starting of factories along similar 
lines in this general locality. R. Wallace and Sons have been operating here 
since 1836, and there are several plants controlled by the International Silver 
Co. Among the other industries is a large factory making house furnishings. 

Entering the borough on U. S. 5 and forking east on Main St., we pass on 
the right, beyond Sylvan Ave., the house built by the first minister, Rev. 
Samuel Street, in 1674. In the next block is the Samuel Parsons House (180 
S. Main st.) built in 1759 and now headquarters for the Wallingford Historical 
Society, with interesting exhibits. The Old Noyes Place (104 S. Main st.) 
dates from 1776. On North Main St., above North St. on the left, formerly 
standing across the street, is a 17th century house, built by Nehemiah Royce 
in 1672. This is sometimes known as the Washington Elm House. The ex- 
hibit of antique furniture is open to the public during the summer. 

On Elm St., a block east of Main St., just below the Giles Hall House 
(337 S. Elm st.) of 1760 is the birthplace site of Lyman Hall (1724-1790) 
marked by a memorial boulder. Graduating from Yale in 1747, Lyman Hall 
located in Georgia as a physician. He took a leading part in the movement 
for Independence, and was one of the signers of the Declaration. The State 
of Georgia has placed a memorial tablet in Center St. Cemetery (Center and 
Colony sts., on U. S. 5.) Farther north on Elm St. is the group of buildings 
used by Choate School, a preparatory school for boys established in 1896. Elm 
St. leads to Harriet Wallace Park, whose vine-covered fence is attractive 
during rose time. 

Passing across the Quinnipiac River, the Oakdale Tavern of 1769 lies 2 miles 
southwest on the Old Hartford Turnpike. Two miles farther west, by Cook 
Hill Rd., in the southwest corner of the town, is the Col. *Thaddeus Cook 
House, built in 1758 and one of the most interesting Colonial houses in Connec- 
ticut. The woodwork is very good and there is a large ballroom. The old 
stone sink is now used as a bird bath. West from Wallingford by R. 150 is 
Gaylord Farm Sanatorium for tubercular patients, with a fine view to the north- 

In the southeast, Wharton Brook Park lies partly in Wallingford. The blue- 
marked tramping trail which comes across from Mt. Carmel (with a fine view 


from the northeast shoulder, above the hamlet of Quinnipiac,) uses a road 
east of the Park that is worth taking for its western outlook. The trail crosses 
the isolated trap rock crag of Moss Rock, above a charming brook, and with a 
view of Trimountain to the northeast, framed by the trees. East of Walling- 
ford the trail follows the early road, largely abondoned. from Wallingford to 
Durham, used by Washington in 1775 and 1789; memorial markers have been 
placed at the turns. There are fine views to the west, and then to the east as 
we approach the mountain range on the Durham town line. The Mattabesett 
Trail follows this range: to the north, part of Beseck Mt. lies in Wallingford 
township; to the south there is a charming view across Pistapaug Pond. 

On Williams Rd.. about 2 miles north of East Wallingford, just across 
the R. R., is the stone house built by Deacon Eliakim Hall in 1833, with the 
four aces placed as a joke by the workmen, high up on the south wall, while 
the owner was at church. Spruce Glen, a beautiful wooded ravine, partly in 
Meriden, is reached by Yale Ave., about a mile northeast from U. S. 5. 

VI. 3 

Meriden, originally a part of Wallingford, was settled in 1661. It was made 
a separate parish in 1728 and incorporated as a town in 1806. The name was 
taken from Meriden Farm in Dorking, in the English county of Surrey. The 
city of Meriden was chartered in 1867 and consolidated with the town in 1922, 
with a population in the last census of 38,481. 

Meriden is dominated by two trap rock ranges: the Hanging Hills on the 
west, and Mt. Lamentation on the east. The city, however, is built on the 
underlying red sandstone. 

Because of its principal industry, Meriden is known as the Silver City. The 
industry began, as in Wallingford, with small shops making pewter and 
britannia ware. In 1852 the Meriden Britannia Co. was formed, consolidating 
half a dozen small manufacturers, and soon after took over the silver-plating 
process invented by Rogers Bros, at Hartford in 1847. Its successor, the 
International Silver Co., is the largest manufacturer of solid and plated silver- 
ware in the world, with 6 factories in Meriden, 3 in Wallingford, and 5 else- 
where. Other important industries are art metal goods, electrical appliances, 
and ball bearings. The city contains one of the State tuberculosis sanatoria 
(Undercliff,) and the Connecticut School for Boys, an institution for juvenile 
offenders opened in 1854. 

Meriden has preserved a number of old landmarks, largely on the outskirts. 
West of the center on R. 14, the Moses Andrews Homestead (424 West Main 
St.; 1 on Chart XXVII) dating from 1760, was the first Episcopal place of wor- 
ship, which brought the owner under suspicion during the Revolution. It is 
now used by the Board of Education as a center for school clubs. The house 
has central chimney and an overhang on both stories, with good interior 
paneling. Half a mile to the south, on the north side of Coe Ave. (via Bradley 
and Hamilton ave's) is the large fine Ezekiel or Oliver Rice House (2) erected 
in 1781. 

VI. 3 



To the east of Broad St. (U. S. 5A) on the left side of Ann St., we have the 
Ephraim Berry Place (3; Aaron Higbey House) with its long sloping roof, 
dating from about 1743 but with a modern porch. At the end of Ann St. is the 
site of the old Meeting House (4) on Buckwheat Hill, marked by a memorial 
boulder; and the original Burial Ground (5,) with a monument to the first 
settlers, erected by the town in 1857. The Benjamin Curtis House (6; 54 


1. Moses Andrews Homestead. 2. Rice House. 3. Ephraim Berry Place. 4. Meeting 
House site. 5. Burial Ground. 6. Benjamin Curtis House. 7. Broad Street Cemetery. 
8. Center Congregational Church. 9. Birdsey Mansion. 10. James Hough Place. 11. 
Curtis Library. 12. Solomon Goffe House. 13. John Dennie House. 

Curtis st.) built in 1795 or earlier, is practically unchanged. This is the oldest 
section of the present city, although the first settlement in Meriden was made 
in the north part of the town. 

On Broad St., extending south from the intersection with East Main St., is 
the Memorial Boulevard, with its World War Monument, and at the south 
end the memorial erected in 1934 to Count Pulaski, the gallant Polish noble- 

16(5 1111 < "\M ( I |( I I (,I 1DI, 

man who lost his life fighting for the Colonies in the Revolution. Opposite this 
monument, on the west side of the street, is Broad Street Cemetery (7) with the 
graves of more than 100 Revolutionary soldiers; a trap boulder with tablet 
has been placed by the S. A. R. Two Colonial churches stand west of the 
Boulevard: the First Baptist Church, built in 1847, and the Center Congrega- 
tional Church (8) of 1831, with its Doric portico. A foundation stone and tablet 
at the corner mark the site of the Hough Tavern, stopping place of the stages 
in turnpike days. On the southeast corner is the stately Birdsey Mansion 
(9) built by Eli C. Birdsey in 1830. A mile to the northeast, on the left of 
Westfield Rd. (via Britannia St.) stands the James Hough Place (10) which 
probably goes back to 1740. The central chimney, made of large stone 
blocks, is approximately 12 feet square at the base. 

Going west on East Main St., we come to Meriden's civic center, with the 
City Hall in Georgian Style, and on the left the marble Curtis Library (11.) 
Continuing west to the traffic tower, and going north about 1 ^ miles on Colony 
St. (U. S. 5) we find on the right the oldest house in Meriden, the *Solomon 
Goffe House (12; 677 N. Colony st.) built originally in 1711; the gambrel roof 
with dormers is probably a later addition. A little farther, on the left, is the 
John Dennt'e House (13; Stephen Bailey Place) built by a wealthy merchant 
from Boston in 1734. The exterior has been refinished, but without altering 
the old lines. 

The most striking feature of Meriden is the Hanging Hills range, formed by 
two successive lava flows. The region is now maintained as a park by the 
city and State. * Hubbard Park, the gift of the late Walter Hubbard, lies to 
the west on R. 14 (West Main st.) about 2 miles from the center of the city. It 
contains more than 1000 acres, mostly of woodland, with beautiful roads and 
paths, a nature trail, and facilities for recreation on the lower levels. The 
annual meeting of the Conn. Federation of Bird and Nature Clubs is usually 
held here. * West Peak, with an elevation of 1007 feet, may be reached from 
R. 14 by car or on foot. Climbing is better, because there is a chance to com- 
pare the "pillow structure" of the first layer of lava, on the terrace, with the 
closer texture of the second or main flow, which forms the upper 500 feet. 
From the summit there is a remarkable view, extending from Long Island to 
the Massachusetts hills. The surface of the rock has been polished by glacial 
action, and it is easy to distinguish the hexagonal form taken by the trap rock 
columns, as a result of cooling. The narrow ridges between the columns are 
veins of quartz, which was harder than the trap and so wore down more slowly. 
The West Peak State Park includes the summit and the western slope. The 
flora passes from mosses and lichens to inferior woods of the regional climax 
type, and then to oaks and hickories. The blue-marked Metacomet Trail, 
coming from the east, turns north at West Peak and follows along the range. 

The central peak gives a complete horizon from its stone tower, Castle 
Craig. Here, as at West Peak, there are facilities for parking and picnicking. 
East of this, nestling among wooded hills, is Lake Merimere, with a picturesque 
wooded island at the lower end. Another beauty spot is Cathole Pass, reached 
by Capitol Ave., where the road to Kensington and New Britain climbs 
between jagged cliffs. Near Undercliff Sanatorium, on Capitol Ave., is a 
Natural Ice House, where ice is found though practically the entire year, and 
the historic Cold Spring, noted as a landmark in early documents. 

East of Meriden, R. 14 climbs over the eastern trap rock range, most of which 
is in the town of Middlefield. The Mattabesett Trail, which follows the range 

VI. 3 MERIDEN 167 

over Mt. Beseck, crosses to Mt. Higby. Thence it runs northward over 
Chauncey Peak and Mt. Lamentation, connecting with the Metacomet 
Trail on U. S. 5, about a mile north of the Meriden-Berlin line. The path 
along *Chauncey Peak is specially attractive, with Crescent Lake seen below a 
succession of cliffs, and not a house in sight to break the spell. 

North of Meriden are two spots of geological interest. A short distance to 
the left of U. S. 5, about 3 miles north of the city center, an old Trap Rock 
Quarry shows the pillow structure of the first lava flow unusually well. There 
are many different minerals in the small almond-shaped cavities. The rather 
unique Ash Bed, on the west side of Mt. Lamentation, may be reached from 
U. S. 5A. About J4 mile south of the junction with U. S. 5, we see a brick 
house with stone outbuildings opposite. Turning east at this point, a short 
climb brings us to the bench formed by the first lava flow. The material is 
greenish gray, resembling solidified ashes, with ovate bodies of dense trap 
embedded in it, from 5 inches to several feet in length. These bodies probably 
were formed by local explosions, when the hot rock came in contact with water 
or gas. The "ashes" may be volcanic. 

VI. 4 

The town of Berlin, incorporated in 1785, was named for Berlin, Prussia, the 
capital of Frederick the Great, who had been an ally of England and the Colo- 
nies in the Seven Year War. The first settlement was at the Great Swamp in 
1686. About 1712 a church was organized at Kensington as the second parish 
of Farmington; in 1772 this was divided, the families who lived to the east 
organizing the parish of Worthington. The town consists of a series of north 
and south ridges, bordered by mountain ranges on the west and south. 

Berlin was a pioneer in industrial development, and later gave birth to the 
manufacturing center of New Britain. The tinware industry was started in 
1740 by Edward Pattison and his brother William, who had come from Ireland 
two years before. They imported sheet tin from England, and worked it up 
into various kitchen utensils. Through apprentices the trade spread to other 
towns, and became the most important industry in Connecticut during the 18th 
century. Pattison began by peddling his own wares in a basket, and out of this 
grew the institution of the Connecticut peddler. On foot or horseback or in 
a wagon, itinerant merchants carried tinware and Yankee notions through the 
Colonies. After the Revolution, as roads developed, their radius increased. 
Before the days of railroads, peddlers were making trips of 1200-1500 miles, and 
the tin manufacturers established supply depots in the port cities. Simeon 
North (1765-1852) started a scythe shop as an adjunct to his sawmill and farm. 
In 1799 he secured a pistol contract from the Government, and shares with 
Eli Whitney the introduction of standard parts, which changed the old craft 
shop into a factory. This step appears to have been taken by North in 1808. 
He built a second factory at Middletown, and until 1823 was the exclusive 
civilian pistol-maker for the Government. The remains of the original Simeon 
North factory can be seen 1 mile east of U. S. 5 on Spruce Brook Rd. (1% miles 
north of Meriden line.) Present industries in Berlin include structural steel 



work, paper goods, brick-making, and metal buckles. The American Paper 
Goods Co. plant on Mill River occupies the site of R. Moore and Sons' grist 
mill, which was turned into a cement mill, probably the second in the U. S., and 
constructed one of the earliest stone and cement dams. 

Both Worthington and Kensington are old settlements and have preserved 
many landmarks. Entering the village by U. S. 5, along Worthington Ridge, 
we pass on the left the Sage Homestead ( Ion [Chart XXVIII) built 1 in 1720, and 
on the right the Fuller Tavern (2) dating from 1769 though much altered, one 
of Washington's stopping places and marked by a tablet. There are other old 
buildings on the Ridge, including the brick structure used by the Worthington 
Academy (3) on the left just before R. 72 turns off to New Britain. On U. S. 5, 


1. Sage Homestead. 2. Fuller Tavern. 3. Worthington Academy. 4. Zachariah Hart 
House. 5. Emma Hart Willard. 6. Hubbard House. 7. Setn Stanley House. 8. Kensing- 
ton Congregational Church. 9. James G. Percival. 10. Gen. Selah Hart. 11. Samuel 
Clark. 12. Root House. 

the valley which we cross a mile north of Berlin represents the channel used by 
the Connecticut River when the present channel was blocked by glacial 

Paterson Way, which runs west from the War Memorial at the highway 
intersection, was part of the New Haven-Hartford Path, opened in 1687, and 
a commemorative boulder has been placed by the D. A. R. Turning south 
into another old street, now known as Lower Lane, we pass on the left the 
Zachariah Hart House (4) built in 1772. Edward Pattison (or Paterson) 
lived next door, with his tin-shop across the street; the small gambrel-roofed 

VI. 4 



house on the west side was the home of his brother William. Farther on our 
right is another Hart house, the birthplace of *Emma Hart Willard (5; 1787- 
1870) one of Samuel Hart's 17 children. Emma Hart married Dr. John Willard 
of Middlebury, Vt., where she opened a boarding school for girls in 1814. In 
1821 she started Emma Willard Seminary in Troy, a pioneer educational 
enterprise. She was also the author of text-books and poems, of which the 
best known is "Rocked in the Cradle of the Deep." A memorial boulder has 
been placed by the D. A. R. Just below, at the corner of Hudson St., is 
the Hubbard House (6) built in 1754; the old Pattison shop is said to form a 
part of it. 

Passing west beyond the R. R. and going north on Kensington Rd., two 
Cowles houses on the left date just before the Revolution. West on Robbins 
St., we pass on the right the Seth Stanley House (7; Robbins House) of 1750; 
and the Congregational Church (8) built in 1773, with its pilastered doorway. 
The huge oak on the grounds is said to go back before the first settlement. 
Nearby is the Soldiers Monument, dedicated July 28, 1863, the first in the coun- 
try for Civil War soldiers. A little below the church, on the road leading to 
Cathole Pass (R. 71,) which is well worth following, the third house on the 
left is the birthplace of the poet and geologist, James G. Percival (9; 1795- 
1856.) Returning to Kensington Rd. and recrossing the R. R., we come to 
Four Rod Rd., with the two houses of Gen. Selah Hart (10) on the west side. 
He was born in 1732 in the house to the north, marked by a tablet, and later 
built that to the south. On Burnham St., at the end of Four Rod Rd., is the 
brick house built in 1759 by Rev. Samuel Clark (11) later the home of Rev. 
Benoni Upsbn, and still occupied by Upson descendants. It is in its original 
condition, and sets back from the road behind terraces and a formal Colonial 

To the east, across R. 72 on Christian Lane, is the Root House (12) built 
1712, with a barn that goes back to 1705. This street leads, about a mile 

)rth of Berlin Junction, to Christian Lane Cemetery, opened in 1710. A 
large boulder records the names of about 80 early settlers of the town. To our 
right, on the hillside just south of the cemetery, a marble slab marks the site 
of the first church building. The original Stockade was a little farther north, 

id the old well is still in use; there is a tablet at the entrance to the brickyard. 

About l l /i miles north of the Meriden line, U. S. 5 passes the junction 
of two tramping trails. The Mattabesett Trail comes down from Mt. Lamen- 
tation, with a good view both west and east from its northern summit. The 
Metacomet Trail runs southwest over Cathole Mt; South Peak (which lies 
in the town of Berlin) with a short side trail south to Dog Head Rock ; West 
Peak; and north along the range. Ragged Mt., on the line between Berlin and 
Southington, gives a fine horizon. Wigwam Lane, running west of Harts 
Ponds and continuing under the peak of Ragged Mt., makes an attractive 
drive, particularly in the Fall. Another good viewpoint in the town is Turkey 
Hill, to the east of R. 71, about a mile south of Kensington; the entrance has 
been marked. South of this, on the left, is a State Fish Hatchery, for trout and 
pond fish. 


VI. 5 

Leaving U. S. 5, we take R. 71 from Berlin to its daughter town of New 
Britain, settled about 1690, organized as a parish of Farmington in 1754, and 
cut off from Berlin as a separate town in 1850. The city of New Britain was 
chartered in 1870 and by 1930 the population had grown to 68,128. It is the 
highest city in the State, and three river systems have their source in its hills. 

New Britain is known as the Hardware City, being the leading production 
center of the country for builders hardware and carpenters tools. The early 
settlers were attracted by the natural pasture land. Local mills were set up 
on the streams, and toward the end of the 18th century some tin shops spread 
from Berlin. In 1800, James North and Joseph Shipman started making brass 
sleigh-bells in a farmhouse. The two men separated soon after, and added 
various lines, which were marketed by peddlers in Connecticut and neighboring 
States. Helpers in these early establishments started small shops of their own. 
The first steam power was introduced in 1832, in the pioneer lock factory of 
F. T. Stanley. The disastrous panic of 1837 was followed by rapid recovery, 
and rail connection was established in 1844. Some of the largest of the present 
concerns date from the period between 1839 and 1850: Corbin, and Russell and 
Envin, builders hardware; Stanley, carpenters tools and accessories; and 
Landers, Frary and Clark, household utensils. Among other important 
industries are ball bearings, automatic screw machines and saddlery hardware. 

Entering the city from the south by S. Main St. (R. 71) the Spanish War 
Memorial stands on our left, at the main entrance of Willow Brook Park. At 
Franklin Square Park, facing the High School, is the *Elihu Burritt Monument, 
designed by Robert Aitken and erected in 1917. Elihu Burritt (1810-1879) was 
New Britain's most distinguished son. As a blacksmith's apprentice, he found 
time to master Greek and Hebrew, and by the age of 30 could read nearly 50 
languages. He became a popular lecturer and a crusader for peace and human 
brotherhood, organizing the annual International Peace Congress, and carrying 
on a campaign for ocean penny postage. He was a voluminous writer, and 
active in his philanthropy. Burritt moved to Worcester, Mass., in 1837. 
Between 1865 and 1870 he served as U. S. consul at Birmingham, returning 
to New Britain to end his days. 

Of the surviving landmarks in the city, the stone Ellis House, 1820, stands 
to the east, at 377 S. Stanley St. Farther east is the Holmes House (319 
Rocky Hill ave.) which has some of the timbers and hand-made nails of the 
house built in 1719. In the southwestern part of the city we have the Jehudi 
Hart House (Corbin and Shuttle Meadow aves.) built about 1767; and the 
Elijah Hart House (665 Lincoln rd.) about 1758. 

A few minutes walk west from Central Park, where the Civil War monu- 
ment is located, we come to Walnut Hill Park of 90 acres, with a good view of 
the city and the surrounding towns. At the high point is the beautiful * World 
War Memorial, designed by H. Van B. Magonigle and dedicated in 1928. 
The 97-foot shaft is reflected in the adjacent wading pool, and is a landmark 
for many miles. 

New Britain has a good Civic Center on West Main St., with the four corners 
occupied by the enlarged Post Office, the new Baptist Church, the New Britain 
Institute, and a handsome private residence. 


As we leave the city by R. 71 (Stanley st.) we pass on our right the attractive 
Colonial buildings of the Teachers College of Connecticut, the first normal 
school in the State and one of the earliest in the country, established in 1850. 
Beyond this on the left is Stanley Park, with a small lake, and the handsome 
headquarters built of native stone for the municipal golf links. There are 
several fine old houses in this section, including the Gad Stanley House (N. 
Stanley st.) erected about 1799. 

VI. 6 

From New Britain we pass to West Hartford, settled in 1679, organized as a 
parish in 1711, and made a separate town in 1854. West Hartford is a resi- 
dential suburb of Hartford, and one of the fastest growing towns in the State. 

Entering the town by New Britain Ave., we pass on the right, at S. Main 
St., the Sarah Whitman Hooker House (1237 New Britain ave.) said to have 
been built by 1739. Several British officers captured at Ticonderoga were 
quartered here on parole. Later Capt. Jedediah W. Mills operated a tavern 
known as the Sheaf of Wheat. The house is shaded by a large elm, with a 
circumference of over 23 feet. On our left is the Samuel Talcott House (1130 
New Britain ave.) with central chimney and a slight overhang. Continuing 
east to New Park Ave., and going north, we reach Charter Oak Park, where the 
annual State Fair was formerly held. North of this, between Oakwood and 
Prospect Aves., the Kane brick yard gives a good example of the varved clays 
deposited in a glacial lake, and used here and elsewhere for brick making. 
They differ from ordinary clays in having alternate light and dark layers. 
Each pair of layers represents one year of deposit. 

Turning north from New Britain Ave. on S. Main St., we pass on the left 
the birthplace of * Noah Webster (215 S. Main st; 1758-1843.) The famous 
lexicographer lived here until he entered Yale College. In 1785 he published at 
Hartford his spelling book, of which over a million copies were sold; the book 
contributed to uniformity of pronunciation in the U. S., and secured a simpler 
system of spelling than was current in England. Webster removed to New 
Haven in 1798. The house, a typical salt-box, was built about 1676. It is 
painted red, with white casings and corner boards, and the rear wall is largely 
of brick. 

On our left, just before reaching Farmington Ave., is the building used as 
St. James Rectory; the house was built in 1758, but has been remodeled and 
moved from its original location. To the east is Goodman Park, given by 
Timothy Goodman in 1747 to the First Ecclestiasical Society, to be used as 
a military training ground, and now leased as a town park. Across the Park 
we see the present gray granite building of the First Church, organized in 1713. 
An earlier building of the First Church, erected in 1834, and now serving as the 
Town Hall, stands on the northwest corner of Main St. and Farmington Ave. 
West of this we see the trim white spire of the Baptist Church, built in 1858. 

Continuing north on Main St., we find on the right the Noah Webster Library 
(7 N. Main st.) opened in 1917 to house the library of which Noah Webster 


had given the nucleus in 1837. Farther, on the right, is the old Cemetery, with 
stones dating from 1725. Noah Webster's parents are buried here. There is a 
boulder for our French allies, Rochambeau's troops having camped on the 
slopes of Talcott Mt. on their return from Yorktown. A few blocks farther 
north, on the left, is the present site of the American School for the Deaf 
(139 N. Main st.) the oldest institution of its kind in the country, founded at 
Hartford in 1817 by Rev. Thomas H. Gallaudet. (Its original name and site 
gave the name to Asylum ave., Hartford.) Four of the New England States 
send their deaf mutes here to be trained. Trout Brook, just north of this, was 
the location of the first settlement: the house and sawmill of Stephen Hosmer 
in 1679. On our right, just beyond the brook, is the fine Colonial house built 
by John Whitman, Jr., in 1764. 

Returning to Farmington Ave. and going east, we pass to the left, in a 
commanding location on Hamilton Heights, the buildings of St. Joseph's College 
and Academy for girls. The Academy was started at Hartford in 1902, and the 
College, affiliated with the Catholic University of Am., was opened in 1932. 
Elizabeth Park, with its famous rose garden, is reached at 915 Prospect Ave., 
on the Hartford city line. 

Several of the reservoirs of the Metropolitan Water Board lie in West 
Hartford, and provide attractive drives: Reservoir No. 6, north of Albany Ave. ; 
and others between Albany and Farmington Aves. These lakes are under the 
slope of Talcott Mt., the trap rock range which forms the western boundary of 
the town. The two main highways to the west (R. 101 and U. S. 6) pass over 
or through this range, which adds to their scenic character. 

VI. 7 

Hartford is the State capital, the insurance center of the country, and one 
of the important manufacturing cities of Connecticut. The city was 
chartered in 1784, and has a population of 164,172, the largest in the State. It 
is the seat of Trinity College and the Hartford Seminary Foundation. Hart- 
ford is notable for its attractive avenues, the center on Capitol Hill, and the 
beauty of many of the public and business buildings. Four landmarks domi- 
nate the skyline as we approach the city from a distance: the Travelers Tower, 
the Capitol dome, the cupola of the Aetna building, and Trinity College 

The Connecticut River is navigable for vessels of light draft. Soon after 
its discovery by Adrian Block in 1614, the Dutch began to trade, building a 
fort here in 1633, which they held until 1654. Permanent settlement was made 
in 1635-6 by the church organized at Newtown (now Cambridge) Mass., with 
Thomas Hooker preacher and Samuel Stone teacher, according to the custom 
of that day. They came by Indian trail, probably crossing to the west bank 
of the Connecticut at Windsor. Originally called Newtown, the present name 
was given in 1637, from "Hertford," Stone's birthplace in England. Due to its 
central location and the influence of Hooker and John Haynes, Hartford at 
once assumed a position of leadership in the Connecticut Colony. 

VI. 7 



MORGAN ST. fflfU.3._-3) 


1. Old State House. 2. Zachary Sanford Tavern site. 3. First Church. 4. Connec- 
ticut Historical Society. 5. Morgan Memorial. 6. Avery Memorial. 7. Hartford Times. 
8. Palisado. 9. First School. 10. Dutch Fort. 11. Charter Oak monument. 12. Butler 
McCook House. 13. South Church. 14. Henry Barnard. 15. Hartford Courant. 16. 
Horace Wells tablet. 17. Society for Savings. 18. Christ Church. 19. Federal Building. 


After a period of lucrative commerce on the River, Hartford turned in the 
19th century to manufacturing and insurance. For a few years following the 
Revolution, the city became perhaps the leading literary center of the country, 
through the presence of a group of men known as the "Hartford Wits," 
composed of John Tmmbull, cousin of the artist, Dr. Lemuel Hopkins, Joel 
Barlow, David Humphreys, Theodore Dwight and Richard Alsop. During 
the 19th century, Hartford was the residence of Mrs. Sigourney, Harriet 
Beecher Stowe, Henry Barnard, Mark Twain, Charles Dudley Warner and 
Horace Bushnell. 


We take as our starting point the State House Square, originally the Meeting 
House Yard, at the junction of Main and Asylum Sts. Facing us is the **0ld 
State House (1 on Chart XXIX) erected in 1796 from designs by Charles 
Bulfinch of Boston, one of the finest examples of his work and recently restored. 
It is built of Portland brownstone below and brick above. The removal of 
the old postoffice has opened up the original main front toward the east, with 
its charming portico above the ground floor. The interior, particularly the 
Representatives' Hall, is of great beauty. An earlier State House stood on 
this spot from 1719 to 1796. The present building served as the State Capitol 
until 1878, and then as the City Hall until 1915. The notorious Hartford 
Convention of 1814 was held here. A tablet at the west entrance summarizes 
the story of Hartford's settlement and gives the history of the building. In 
the block to the south, a tablet on the wall of the Travelers Insurance Co. 
building marks the site of the *Zachary Sanford Tavern (2; 700 Main st.) 
where the General Assembly met from 1661 on. According to tradition, this 
was the scene of the session on Oct. 31, 1687, when the lights were suddenly 
extinguished and the Charter spirited away, to avoid surrendering it to Gov. 
Andros. While at this point, the Travelers' Tower, 527 feet high, should be 
ascended (9:00 to 1:30; 2:30 to sunset.) There is a very extensive view, and 
the Tower is a landmark for many miles. 

Across Main St., is the beautiful Colonial building of the * First Church (3) 
usually known as Center Church. This is the fourth meeting house, built of 
brick in 1806; the first and second buildings were on Meeting House Yard. 
The church was organized in 1632 at Cambridge, Mass., before removing to 
Connecticut. Rev. Thomas Hooker (1586-1647) the first minister, around whom 
the settlement was organized, was one of the outstanding figures in English and 
American Puritanism. He represented a more liberal attitude toward church 
and civil government than prevailed in Massachusetts. In the new Colony, 
with its nucleus of three towns, Hooker was responsible for the ideas of self- 
government embodied in the Fundamental Orders of 1639, and restated in 
the Charter of 1662. Among the memorials in the meeting house are windows 
to Thomas Hooker; Horace Wells, the discoverer of anaesthesia; and Thomas 
H. Gallaudet, the founder of deaf-mute education in America, the subject of 
the latter window being the Healing of the Dumb Demoniac. The * Bury ing 
Ground, in the rear of the Church, used from 1640 to 1803, is of special interest. 
Near the center is a monument to the Founders of Hartford, giving the names 
of 100 early leaders who are buried here. Among the notable graves are those 
of Thomas Hooker; his colleague Samuel Stone; John Haynes, the civil leader 
of the settlement, who served as governor for 8 annual terms, after holding a 
similar position in Massachusetts; David Gardiner, son of the Lion Gardiner 
whom we met in Saybrook, the first white child born in Connecticut (1636) 


who died here on a visit in 1689; Joseph Wadsworth, who hid the Charter; and 
Jeremiah Wadsworth, one of the mainstays of the Revolution. 

In the block between Main and Prospect St's, nearly opposite the First 
Church, is the cultural center known as the Wadsworth Atheneum. This 
institution is on the site of the old family homestead donated by Daniel 
Wadsworth in 1841. A tablet at the corner (4) commemorates the residence 
here of Col. Jeremiah Wadsworth, a close friend of Gov. Jonathan Trumbull, 
who became commissary general for the American forces. Washington was 
entertained in this home on his way to Cambridge, and again in 1781 when he 
met Rochambeau to consider plans for the final campaign. The Wadsworth 
barn, built on classical lines in 1764, still stands on the north side of Atheneum 
Square North. The Atheneum now comprises the following: Hartford Public 
Library, Watkinson Reference Library, and Connecticut Historical Society, 
entered through 624 Main St; Morgan and Colt Memorial Museums at 590 
Main St; and Avery Memorial Art Museum and Hartford Art School, with 
main entrance at 25 Atheneum Square North. 

The Gothic Revival building on the northwest of the square houses the 
Public Library, and on the second floor the * Connecticut Historical Society 
(4) rich in books relating to early Connecticut history and one of the best 
genealogical libraries in New England. Among the Society's treasures are 
the chest brought over on the Mayflower by Wm. Brewster, the salvaged 
portion of one of the two copies of the Connecticut Charter, and the first 
telegraph message ever sent. We also find Mark Twain's bicycle. There are 
portraits of a number of the early governors, including one of Gov. Trumbull 
painted by his son; also several of the famous New England carved chests, 
some noted swords and uniforms, and a collection of stone implements used 
by Connecticut Indians. In front of the building is a bronze statue of Nathan 
Hale by E. J. Woods. 

To the south, extending through the block, is the imposing *Morgan Memo- 
rial (5) of pink granite. The building was given in 1906 by J. Pierpont 
Morgan, a native of Hartford, in honor of his father, Junius Spencer Morgan, 
the founder of the Morgan firm. Among the collections housed in this building 
is that of Meissen porcelain made by J. P. Morgan, probably the finest in the 
country and containing many specimens of great rarity. The collection of 
Sevres porcelain given by Mr. Morgan is also unique. Another important 
Morgan collection covers antique bronzes, mainly Greek, Roman or Egyptian; 
it includes one or two rare objects, such as the bronze Egyptian cat. Among 
the other treasures of the Morgan Memorial are the Pitkin, Fuller and Terry 
collections of antique pottery and porcelain, both American and European; 
the J. Coolidge Hills collection of medals and decorations; the Silas Chapman 
stamp collection; a collection of miscellaneous costumes, jewelry, laces and 
fans; and a varied collection of paintings, largely 19th century French. 

The **AVERY MEMORIAL (6) was completed in 1934, through funds 
provided by Samuel P. Avery, and is said to be the most modern museum in 
America. It is built around a spacious central court with glass roof, where 
special exhibits of painting and sculpture are shown from time to time. In 
the center of the court stands a Baroque statue of marble, "Venus attended by 
Nymph and Satyr," the work of Pietro Francavilla in 1600. Opening to the 
left of the court are the Print Galleries, and the three galleries in which the 
Avery Collection is displayed. This consists of European and Oriental objects 
of art, including bronzes (24 by Barye,) sculptures, Chinese porcelain, Japanese 
lacquerware, and wood carvings. 


Going up the winding stairs on the south side, we come to the Mezzanine 
floor. The visitor first arrives at the gallery of Early American Paintings, 
which includes Copley's portrait of Mrs. Seymour Fort. Left of this is the 
Marine Room, with paintings of ships and a number of ship models. To the 
right of the entrance hangs the portrait of Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth and 
his wife, painted by Ralph Earle about 1780, with a representation of the 
Ellsworth mansion at Windsor in the background. The rest of the Mezzanine 
floor is devoted to the * Wallace Nutting Collection of early American furniture. 
probably the most outstanding in the country. There are five court cup- 
boards of oak, besides one primitive specimen of pine; with two Brewster and 
many Carver chairs. One of the large early tables has very unusual carving. 
Of particular interest is the room in the northeast corner containing a period 
fireplace, complete with pothooks, blowers, andirons and spits. There is a 
collection of utensils, wooden plates and pewter dishes used by the early set- 
tlers. Around the walls of the main gallery are tavern signs from old Connec- 
ticut inns, collected by Morgan B. Brainard. The portrait of the Duke of 
Cumberland, from the inn of that name at Rocky Hill, served as a target for 
angry patriots, and shows five bullet holes. In cases below the signs are 
examples of early American pottery and bottles, including the Pitkin collec- 

The third floor of the Avery Memorial is chiefly devoted to paintings, 
arranged by periods. The Medieval Gallery includes Fra Angelico's "Head of 
an Angel." In the gallery to the left of the corridor, we find a fine work of 
the Venetian artist Pietro Longhi, and Goya's "Gossiping Women." In the 
next or Baroque Gallery the large paintings are hung against a beautiful 
figured damask. Among the notable exhibits are "St. Catharine" by Strozzi, 
the 17th century Venetian, and Tintoretto's "Hercules and Antaeus." To the 
right of the corridor leading from the circular staircase is a gallery covered with 
red damask, where we find "Hylas and the Nymphs" by the Italian Renais- 
sance artist * Pietro di Cosimo, probably the most notable piece in the museum. 
The walls of the next gallery, containing works from the 19th and 20th cen- 
turies, are covered with brown corduroy. Whistler's "Alone with the Tide" is 
especially noteworthy. Mention should also be made of Mary Cassatt's 
"Mother and Child," with two others by the same artist. 

On the east of Prospect St., nearly opposite the Atheneum, is the handsome 
building of the Hartford Times (7.) The loggia of 6 Ionic columns once formed 
part of the Madison Ave. Presbyterian church in New York. A tablet on 
the basement wall of the building commemorates the fact that it occupies part 
of Thomas Hooker's home lot. The handsome new Municipal Building 
stands at 550 Main St., south of the Atheneum group. 

Continuing 'south on Main St., a number of early sites in this section have 
been marked by tablets. The Palisado (8) erected as a protection during the 
winter of 1635, was at the corner of Wells and Hudson Sts., and here at the 
falls of the Little River (Park River) stood the Grist Mill of 1640. The markers 
are on the northeast end of the stone bridge. The First School (9) of 1643 was 
at the southwest corner of Governor and Sheldon Sts. Farther east, on the 
north side of Van Dyke Ave., stood the Dutch Fort (10; near Charter Oak ave.) 
known as the "House of Hope." and at the mouth of Park River was the 
Dutch Landing Place. The *Charler Oak (11) where the Charter is supposed 
to have been hidden, flourished on Charter Oak Ave., a little east of Main St., 
in front of the house of Hon. Samuel W T yllys. A granite monument, placed 

VI. 7 



by the Society of Colonial Wars, marks the spot. The tree was 33 feet in 
circumference at the time it was blown down in 1856. 

At 3% Main St. is the Butler McCook House (12) from the late 18th century, 
one of the few old houses remaining in the city. The *South Church (13; 
Second Congregational) at the corner of Buckingham St., is another beautiful 
Colonial building, built of brick in 1825. The home of Henry Barnard (14; 
1811-1900) stands at 118 Main St. Barnard is one of the great names in 
American education. As the first school commissioner in Connecticut and 
Rhode Island and first U. S. Commissioner of Education, and as editor of 
educational magazines, he had a leading part in modernizing the public school 
system of the country. A marker was placed on the building in 1933 by the 
Hartford Grade Teachers Club. Farther south, on Washington St., is the 
Hartford Retreat, a private institution for the insane, opened in 1824, the third 
oldest in America, now broadened into the Neuro-Psychiatric Institute and 
Hospital. Near Webster St., we find the old Campfield of the militia, where 
7 of the Connecticut regiments were mustered in during the Civil War. On 
the ground is a statue of Gen. Griffin A. Stedman, born at Hartford in 1838 
and killed in action in 1864. Maple Ave. leads past Goodwin Park of nearly 
200 acres, with its fine groves of trees and municipal golf course. Turning to 
the east on Wethersfield Ave., we reach Colt Park, bordering on the Connec- 
ticut River, an estate of 104 acres bequeathed by Mrs. Samuel Colt in 1905 in 
memory of her husband. Col. Samuel Colt (1814-62) a native of Hartford, 
invented the revolver while a sailor before the mast, secured patents, and in 
1848 moved his factory to the city, where it had immense influence in im- 
proving machine methods. There is a statue of Col. Colt on the grounds. 


Returning to State House Square and working north, the Hartford Courant 
(15) at 64 State St., founded in 1764, is the oldest newspaper in America with 
a continuous name and circulation. George Washington was a subscriber, and 
Israel Putnam the paper's war correspondent. Near the southwest corner of 
Main and Asylum Sts. is a bas relief tablet commemorating the discovery of 
anaesthesia by Dr. Horace Wells (16; 1815-1848) a dentist, in 1844. His 
discovery was recognized by the medical leaders in Paris, who conferred on 
him an honorary M.D. At 55 Pratt St., just west of Main, the Society for 
Savings (17) incorporated in 1819, was the first savings bank in Connecticut 
and one of the earliest in the U. S. A block farther north on the left we pass 
Christ Church (18) the cathedral of the Episcopal Diocese of Connecticut. 

At the intersection of Main St. and Albany Ave., we see the graceful 
Keney Clock Tower, built by a Hartford merchant, Henry Keney, in honor of 
his mother, on the site of the old family homestead. At 604 Albany Ave., 
between Garden and Vine Sts., is the Goodwin Homestead, one of the few 
remaining landmarks, built prior to 1783 in what was then a wilderness. It 
was bought by Jonathan Goodwin, and used as a tavern for many years. 
Though moved a short distance to the north, the house is practically unchanged 
and is still owned and preserved by the Goodwin family. On the northern 
edge of the city, Main St. takes us to Keney Park of nearly 700 acres, the 
second largest municipal park in New England. (Other entrances from Al- 
bany ave. and from Barbour, Woodland and Vine sts.) The Park covers a 
beautiful tract of farm and woodland, with streams and ponds, many miles of 
drives and a public golf course and tennis courts. 

178 IIIK ( ONM-XI K r i <,i ij)i-; 

(ioing west from State House Sq. by Asylum Ave.. the new Post Ofice and 
Federal Building (19) stands 2 blocks to the right, at the corner of High and 
Church Sts. On the parapet is a sculptured representation of post riders, by 
Evelyn Beatrice Longman (Mrs. N. H. Batchelder.) To our left, just beyond 
the R. R., on the west side of Hurlburt St., is the *Charles Sigourney House. 
with its fine semi-circular portico, now cramped by business buildings and 
sadly out of repair. It was built in 1820 from the designs of the owner, a 
wealthy hardware merchant with cultivated tastes. His wife, Lydia Huntley 
Sigourney (1791-1865) teacher, poetess and writer, published many poems 
which had immense popularity at that period. In the next block the new 
High School incorporates the Hopkins Grammar School, one of the first secon- 
dary schools in the country, established in 1664 by a bequest from Gov. 
Edward Hopkins. Here Asylum and Farmington Ave's meet at a sharp angle. 
both leading into residential sections. Following Farmington Ave., we pass on 
the right St. Joseph's Cathedral, the center of the Roman Catholic Diocese of 
Connecticut. Opposite the cathedral is the new Aetna Insurance building, 650 
feet long, said to the largest structure of Georgian design in the world. It 
appears at its best from the R. R., as we enter Hartford from the south. In 
the stonework at the main entrance is incorporated an old milestone, indicating 
a mile's distance from the Old State House. 

The block at the corner of Farmington Ave. and Forest St. was Hartford's 
later literary center. Facing Farmington Ave. is the Mark Twain House. 
Samuel L. Clemens (1835-1910) built the house in 1873, and most of his 
literar> r work was done here. The house was recently purchased by the Friends 
of Hartford as a memorial, and is used for a branch of the Public Library. 
Around the corner, at 73 Forest St., is the house where Harriet Beecher Stotce 
died in 1896. Mrs. Stowe attended the school conducted in Hartford by her 
famous sister Catherine, and after a residence elsewhere she returned in 1864. 
The house at 57 Forest St., which has kept many of the old forest trees, was 
occupied by Charles Dudley Warner (1829-1900) editor and author, and an 
intimate friend of Mark Twain. The grounds of these houses slope back to the 
beautiful ravine of Park River. 

Farther west, at 609 Farmington Ave., is the Children's Museum, opened 
in 1927. At 55 Elizabeth St., a block south of Asylum Ave., we find the 
attractive modern plant of the Hartford Seminary Foundation, moved to its 
present site in 1926. There are three units: Hartford Theological Seminary, 
founded at East Windsor Hill in 1834; Hartford School of Religious Education; 
and Kennedy School of Missions. Elizabeth Park lies across the West Hartford 
line, but is maintained by the City of Hartford. The main entrance is at 915 
Prospect Ave. The park was given by Charles M. Pond in 1894 in memory 
of his wife. Its best known feature is the *Rose. Garden, the first in the country 
and perhaps the most beautiful, visited by thousands of people during the 
month of June. 


Southwest from the center, across Park River, we enter Bushnell Park, 
acquired and laid out in 1853, largely through the efforts of Horace Bushnell. 
Much of the landscaping was done by Frederick Law Olmsted, a native of 
Hartford. Horace Bushnell (1802-1876) came to Hartford in 1833 as pastor 
of the North Congregational Church. He was a powerful preacher, a theolog- 
ian of great influence in modifying the traditional Calvinism, and is equally 

VI. 7 



remembered as a leader in the civic development of Hartford. We cross from 
Wells St., by the Jeremy Hoadley Memorial Bridge (A on Chart XXX) opposite 
the headquarters of the Hartford Automobile Club, a convenient source of 
information for travelers. On our right is the monument to Dr. Horace Wells 
(B) with the Washington Elm (C) to our right and the Spanish War Memorial 


A. Jeremy Hoadley Memorial Bridge. B. Horace Wells statue. C. Washington Elm. 
D. Spanish War Memorial. E. Memorial Arch. F. Israel Putnam Statue. G. Corning 
Fountain. H. Farragut Cannon. I. Andersonville Monument. J. State Capitol. K. 
Thomas Knowlton. L. Richard D. Hubbard. M. Petersburg Express. N. State Armory. 
O. Horace Bushnell Memorial. P. State Library. Q. Lafayette statue. R. State Office 
Building. S. Columbus Memorial. 

(D) near the southwest corner. On Trinity St., the Park is entered through the 
Memorial Arch (E) erected in 1885 in memory of the soldiers and sailors of 
the Civil War. To our right is the Israel Putnam Statue (F) and farther north 
the Corning Fountain (G.) Beside the steps on the slope we find two Farragut 
Cannon (H) from the Flagship "Hartford." On the Capitol Grounds, the 


so-called Andersomille Monument (I) by Bela Lyon Pratt, in memory of 
soldiers who suffered in Southern prisons, lies to the west. To the southeast 
are three other monuments: Col. Tlwmas Knowlton (K) a noted leader in the 
Revolution; Richard D. Hubbard (L) of Hartford, governor at the time the 
Capitol was built; and the Petersburg Express (M) a mortar used by the 1st 
Conn. Heavy Artillery'. 

The *State Capitol (J) of Connecticut marble, erected in 1872, is redeemed 
by its commanding site and the outlines of the structure when seen from a 
distance. On the East Front are medallions to Joel Barlow, George Berkeley, 
Horace Bushnell, Jonathan Edwards, Thomas Hooker and Roger Sherman. 
Over the entrance are three bas reliefs: the Charter Oak in the center, flanked 
by Davenport Preaching at New Haven, and Hooker's March to Hartford, 
with his wife carried in a litter. On the North Front are later reliefs by Paul 
W. Bartlett: Attack on the Pequot Stronghold, Joseph Wadsworth hiding the 
Charter, Putnam leaving the plow, and Wm. Holmes passing the Dutch fort 
on his way to Windsor. The statues on the north side represent Governor 
Haynes; Capt. Joseph Wadsworth; Gov. John Winthrop, who secured the Char- 
ter; Theophilus Eaton, the leader of the New Haven settlement; and Capt. 
John Mason of the Pequot War. On the West Front, the niches have been 
filled by statues of Gov. Oliver Wolcott, Gen. David Humphreys, Gen. David 
Wooster, and Oliver Ellsworth. Gideon W T elles, Secretary of War under 
Lincoln, occupies a niche on the south front. In the interior we find a bronze 
statue by Olin Warner of the Civil War governor Wm. A. Buckingham, a 
bronze statue of Nathan Hale by Karl Gerhardt. Israel Putnam's tombstone, 
the figurehead of Admiral Farragut's Flagship "Hartford," Lafayette's camp 
bed, and the battle flags used by Connecticut regiments in the Civil War. The 
Dome.with its commanding view, is open to the public at certain hours. The 
State Armory (N) and Arsenal, dedicated in 1909, lies to the west of the Capitol. 

East of the Capitol, across Trinity St., is Hartford's great civic auditorium, 
the * Horace Bushnell Memorial (O.) This beautiful structure, in Colonial style, 
was given by Bushnell's daughter, Mrs. Appleton R. Hillyer, in 1930, and is 
administered by a board of trustees. The building is noteworthy for its unique 
lighting system, and for the complete stage equipment, permitting annual 
performances by the Metropolitan Opera Company. The series of concerts 
given each year by the nationally known orchestras have become a feature of 
the musical life of southern New England. The hall seats 3,300, and the Colon- 
ial Room, for chamber music, about 300. 

Facing the Capitol on the south, we have the handsome building of the 
**State Library (P) and Supreme Court, designed by Donn Barber and opened 
in 1910. The plan is T-shaped, the three wings serving the three different 
functions of the building. Passing through the monumental entrance hall of 
marble, the Main Reading Room lies to the left. The Library contains 
260,000 volumes, 800,000 pamphlets and 1,600,000 manuscripts. It is rich in 
books and documents on Connecticut history, and has been made a repository 
for many early church and town records. On the right is the Supreme Court 
Room, with the mural, "Signing of the Colonial Orders," by Albert Herter. In 
the south wing, opposite the main entrance, is Memorial Hall, a large room 
housing some of the State's most cherished possessions. At the far end of the 
room hangs Gilbert Stuart's full-length portrait of Washington. Below this is 
the vault in which is kept the original Charter of 1662, signed by Charles 
II. On the walls hang the portraits of the Connecticut governors, many of 
them originals. Here also are the Mitchelson Collection of coins and medals, 


the table on which Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, and the 
silver service used in the battleship "Connecticut." 

At the junction of Capitol and Washington Ave's, is the equestrian statue 
of Lafayette (Q) by Paul W. Bartlett, a replica of the one presented to France 
by the school children of America on July 4, 1900, and standing in the Place 
du Carrousel, Paris. The State Office Building (R) completed in 1932, lies to 
the east. In the small triangle to the south is the Columbus Memorial (S) 
given in 1926 by citizens of Italian origin. Continuing south on Washington 
Ave., we pass the handsome County Building on the right, and on the left 
the Stale Trade School. In front of the building is a bronze figure representing 
the workman inventor, by Evelyn Beatrice Longman. The entrance hall has 
bas relief portraits of eight men who made outstanding contributions to the 
development of Hartford industries, including Elisha K. Root, the great ma- 
chine designer of the Colt plant. Farther south, at 172 Washington St., is 
the city's finest Colonial landmark, an old *Salt-box House, with central 
chimney and overhangs on both stories, probably dating from about 1730. 

Southwest of Capitol Hill, via Broad St., is Trinity College, founded in 1823 
as Washington College, which formerly stood on the site of the State Capitol. 
The main portion of the present buildings, in a commanding location, were 
constructed in 1875, the earliest example in America of the Collegiate Gothic 
style. The beautiful **Memorial Chapel, with its cloister, designed by Froh- 
man, Robb and Little, was dedicated in 1932. The details of the interior 
should be studied, particularly the carvings of historical subjects on pew-ends 
in the choir. In the tower is a Carillon of unusual quality. The grounds of 
the College and the adjacent Rock Ridge Park give a striking view to the west, 
and are a geological museum in miniature. The trap rock ridge was formed 
by the third of the three lava flows. At the south end, near the corner of 
New Britain Ave. and Summit St., we find a sandstone layer, tilted eastward 
at an angle of 15 to 20 degrees, which has preserved raindrop imprints and 
ripple marks; there are baked edges where the sandstone came into contact 
with the hot lava. A fault zone south of the steps leading to Vernon St. is 
filled with barite and traces of copper ore. Near the intersection of Summit 
and Vernon Sts., an outcrop of porous rock was formed by escaping steam and 
gas. The bedrock near the dormitory has been smoothed and scratched by 
glacial action. Near the corner of Summit St. and College Terrace is an erratic 
boulder of red sandstone, probably brought by the glacier from Massachusetts. 


Hartford is known as the Insurance City. The Hartford Fire Insurance 
Co., though not chartered until 1810, had been writing fire and marine policies 
since 1794. Other companies were organized, and met successfully the test 
of the great fires in New York and Chicago. The field was gradually extended 
to life and casualty insurance. Over 40 companies are represented, either by 
home offices or as the American headquarters for foreign companies. Their 
combined assets total over 2 billion dollars, with more than a billion and a 
half in annual premium income. Among the largest are the Aetna, Fire and 
Life; Hartford Fire; National Fire; Phoenix Fire; Phoenix Life; and Travelers 
Life. The latter, whose Tower we have already noted, is the largest insurance 
company in the world, with assets of over 660 million, and was the first com- 
pany to write automobile policies. Beautiful modern buildings have been 
erected by the Hartford Fire Ins. Co., 690 Asylum Ave.; the Conn. Mutual 


Life Ins. Co., 140 Garden St.; and the Aetna Life Ins. Co., 151 Farmington 
Ave., previously mentioned. 

The forerunner of Hartford's industrial development was Col. Jeremiah 
Wadsworth's pioneer American woolen mill in 1788. By the time of the State 
census in 1837, the city had become an active manufacturing center. Sharps 
rifles, the first practical breech-loading guns, were made here from 1851 to 
1875, and since 1848 Colts Patent Fire Arms Co. has been making revolvers 
and machine guns. The Pope Manufacturing Co. made Columbia bicycles 
and some of the earliest automobiles. Pratt and Whitney started in 1866, and 
were pioneers in the manufacture of precision instruments: they produce a 
variety of machine tools, and in the aeroplane field have developed the Wasp 
and Hornet motors. The Underwood Elliott Fisher Co. is the largest type- 
writer manufacturer in the world, with the Royal Typewriter Co. a close 
second. Other well known products are Fuller brushes, Veeder cyclometers. 
Austin organs and Terry steam turbines. There is extensive manufacture of 
power transmission chains, ball bearings, telephone pay stations, electric 
switches, and special machines and tools. Hartford is also a center for the 
tobacco industry of the upper Connecticut valley. The Hartford Electric 
Light Co. was a pioneer in long-distance power transmission, opening an 1 1 -mile 
transmission line in 1890. installing the first steam turbine in America in 1901, 
and in 1923 the first mercury turbine unit in the world. 

Journey VII 

Hartford to Thompson. 
Route 101. 

The early colonists used a cross country trail between eastern Massachusetts 
and the Connecticut, which came to be known as the Connecticut Path. There 
is some evidence that the first settlers of the River Towns followed this route, 
rather than the Old Bay Path to Springfield. Starting as an Indian trail, it 
became a primitive road and then a highway, the present Route 101. One 
branch of the Boston Post Road went this way, and a turnpike was laid out 
in 1797. The New England R. R. followed the same line, with a dip south to 
Willimantic. After the first few miles, our Journey will take us across the hills 
of the Eastern Highlands, with many broad offiooks. Pine forests become 
increasingly common as we work into the northeastern part of the State. There 
is striking scenery at Bolton Notch, and again in the region around Pomfret, 
where we find many summer homes. 

HARTFORD. See Journey VI. 7. 

VII. 1 

Crossing the Connecticut River by the beautiful stone arched bridge, we 
enter East Hartford, first settled about 1640, organized as a parish in 1746 
and made a separate town in 1783. Rochambeau's army camped here in 

East Hartford consists of a plain extending back from the river flats. Two 
low hills, above R. 101, command good views of the Connecticut valley. The 
Hockanum River, which flows west through the town, supplied power for 
early industries. Manufacture of paper began about 1783, and the town 
continued to be an important paper-making center until late in the 19th 
century. The Pitkin family, descendants of William Pitkin, one of the first 
settlers of Hartford and East Hartford, were leading industrialists. In 1747 
they started an iron works; in 1775 turned it into a powder mill, which made 
much of the gunpowder for the Revolutionary army, and in 1834 were making 
watches, the second attempt in America. The present town is a suburb of 
Hartford. There is a large aviation field, and two aeroplane companies Pratt 
and Whitney and Chance, Vought have established adjacent factories; the 


parked lawn makes an attractive center on Main St. (R.2) toward the southern 
end of the town. 

East Hartford has preserved a number of landmarks. We drive 1 mile 
east of the River to Church Corners, where highways turn north and south. To 
our left, on the east side of Main St., the Town Hall (1112 Main st.) was used 
for the famous Academy, started by Theodore L. Dwight in 1833. In the 
Center Burying Ground (946 Main st.) the graves of 95 Revolutionary soldiers 
have been located. The cemetery dates back to 1711, and to the rear, near 
Elm St., is the site of Fort Hill, a stronghold of the Podunk Indians, the domi- 
nant tribe in Connecticut before the coming of the Pequots. 

Turning south at Church Corners, on our right, near Pitkin St., a memorial 
boulder marks the site of the first two meeting houses, the second having 
been used as a hospital for the French army in 1781-2. A half block to the 
west is the Squire Elisha Pitkin House (Pitkin st. and Roberts lane) with two 
chimneys and a gambrel roof, built 1740-50. This once was a charming 
Colonial house, and still shows fine paneling in the halls. Negro slaves were 
used by the family for many years. Rochambeau stayed here twice when he 
came to Hartford for conferences with Washington. The French troops were 
quartered along what came to be known as Silver Lane, because they were 
paid in silver, which was then a rarity. The silver was stored in the Forbes 
House, still standing on Forbes St. near the Hockanum River. The Rochambeau 
Boulder, placed by the Sons of the American Revolution, is in the small park 
on the right side of Silver Lane (cor. Lawrence st.) Continuing east 2 miles on 
R. 101, the Timothy Spencer House (33 Kennedy st.) lies to our left. This 
house, built in 1735 and recently restored, has three fireplaces and very wide 
pine paneling, with much Colonial furniture. 

VII. 2 

Our next town to the east is Manchester, settled as a part of Hartford 
some time after 1672. A parish of Orford was organized in 1772, and a town 
incorporated in 1823, named from Manchester, England, because of its manu- 
facturing interests. The Pitkin family whom we met in East Hartford were 
in evidence here. Some members of this clan began the manufacture of glass- 
ware in 1783, and in 1794 Samuel Pitkin started to make corduroys and 
fustians, the first cotton cloth mill in Connecticut, with machinery made by 
an English mechanic who was familiar with the new methods. Paper-making 
was an important early industry. In 1838, four Cheney brothers, who for a 
number of years had been interested in the growing of silkworms, opened a 
silk factory, one of the first in the U. S., still in operation at South Manchester 
under the name of Cheney Bros. Bon Ami is made in Manchester by the 
Orford Soap Co. 

There are at least a dozen 18th century houses left in Manchester. We 
note only those that are on or near our direct route. Entering the town by 
R. 101, we pass on our left the Thomas Spencer House (229 Spencer st. ;) and 
Samuel Olcutt Tavern (Spencer and Olcutt sts.) A few blocks to our left, on 
the north side of Center St., the route followed by U. S. 6, is the Daniel 


Grisu'old Place (opposite Victoria rd.) and a little west of this is the /. Ince 
House, with gambrel roof, built about 1775. The town has an attractive 
civic center, with buildings in Colonial style. Farther east we pass on the 
left the Timothy Cheney House (175 E. Center st.) and on the right in Manches- 
ter Green the Woodbridge Tavern (East Center st. and Middle Turnpike) 
where Washington stopped in 1781. 

Before reaching Manchester Green, we turn one block south to the site of the 
*Pitkin Glass Works, between Parker and Pitman Sts. In 1783, the proprietors 
were given the exclusive right to manufacture glassware in Connecticut for 25 
years, and their product is still prized by collectors. Only the walls remain, but 
they are a fine example of early stonework, and remind one of the ruins of an 
English abbey. The pre-Revolutionary Pitkin House stands at 54 Pitkin St. 
About a mile southeast of this point (via Porter st.) we come to Highland 
Park, with a pond and waterfall, and a drive to the summit of the hill, from 
which there is a good view in all directions. The park is private property, but 
open to the public. At the west entrance to the Park, near the waterfall, is a 
mineral spring, well known to the early Indians. 

VII. 3 

Going east from Manchester to Bolton on R. 101, we enter Tolland County, 
and pass from the Central Lowland to the Eastern Highlands. Bolton was not 
opened for general settlement until 1718, but filled up rapidly, so that a town 
was incorporated in 1720. The name was taken from Bolton in the English 

Bolton Notch, through which the highway and the R. R. force their way, 
probably was a preglacial stream channel, later used as the outlet for a glacial 
stream to the east, at a time when the natural drainage was blocked by ice or 
glacial debris. The rock is known as the Bolton schist, whose variations and 
foldings can best be seen along the railway cut. Immediately west of the 
gorge, we drop down across a fault plane to the Connecticut Valley sandstone. 
This scenic spot is now a State Park of 70 acres. The best view is obtained by 
making a short climb to the hill on the north. The region has many Indian 
associations. In the Park is Squaw Cave, where Wunneeneetmah's Dutch 
husband was shot. The old spring of the tribe has been preserved. On Box 
Mt. to the west is Black Sal's Cave, the home of a Mohegan family. An 
Indian workshop has been found on the east side of Middle Lake. East of 
Bolton Notch are the old Quarries, which were one of the principal sources for 

Route 101 makes a scenic drive, which may be continued southeast on R. 87. 
There is a fine west view on the road that leaves R. 101 for Bolton Center, soon 
after crossing the line, and another on the attractive Birch Mt. Rd., which runs 
from Manchester across the southwest corner of the town. The Hebron Rd. 
south from Bolton village gives a good view to the south. East of the Notch, 
the road north to Vernon Center and Rockville passes an attractive lake, 
and reaches a very beautiful northern view, with the white spire of the Vernon 
Center church in the middle distance. 


At Ballon Center, or a short distance to the east. Rochambeau's troops 
camped in 1781, while en route from Newport to the Hudson. Several 18th 
century houses have preserved their old lines and their fine interior woodwork. 
In the Asa White Place, built 1741-43 and in somewhat poor repair, an up- 
stairs room still shows bayonet and bullet holes made by French soldiers during 
a drunken brawl. To the southeast, on Brandy St., is the Thomas Loomis 
Place. About K mile south of the center we find the Daniel Darte House 
(Alvord House) built around 1725. Directly opposite, the house built by 
Jared Cone in 1800 and later owned by Loomises and Alvords, is a fine type of its 
period, with a beautiful doorway. 

VII. 4 

Our next town on R. 101 is Coventry, opened on the basis of somewhat 
conflicting Indian grants, and first settled about 1700. Ten years later a 
considerable number of people moved in, largely from Northampton and 
Hartford. A town was incorporated in 1711, the name probably being taken 
from Coventry in the English Warwickshire. It is known as the birthplace of 
Nathan Hale, the patriot spy. Among other distinguished sons were Jesse 
Root (1736-1822) Chief Justice of Connecticut; Samuel Huntington (1765- 
1818) one of the early governors of Ohio; and Lorenzo Dow (1777-1834) the 
itinerant evangelist. 

Coventry is a rolling hill country, where the farmers in early days raised 
livestock products for the West India trade. Nathan Hale's father put two 
sons through college on dressed beef and pork, besides building a substantial 
house. In the first half of the 19th century, horses and later mules were raised 
extensively for the West Indies. A type of pacing horse was developed, of 
medium size and great endurance, which could make the 72 miles to Boston 
in one day, and back the next. At South Coventry there is some survival of 
earlier manufacturing industries. 

On R. 101, we pass through Coventry village, usually known as North 
Coventry, with a Greek Revival Church, erected in 1847. Two miles farther 
on the left is the old Brigham Tavern, where Washington and his suite once 
had breakfast. Most of the places of interest are reached by U. S. 6, which 
forks to the southeast. About 2 miles from North Coventry, just before 
reaching the beautiful Wamgumbaug Lake, we turn southwest for 2 miles 
(1st left turn) to the * Nathan Hale Birthplace. Dea. Richard and Elizabeth 
Strong Hale sent six sons to the Continental army. Nathan Hale was born 
June 6, 1755. After graduating from Yale in 1773 and teaching school for 
about 2 years, he entered Knowl ton's Rangers, where he rose to the rank of 
Captain. He gave his life for his country at New York, Sept. 22, 1776. The 
present house, a large simple dignified building of the central hall type, with an 
extensive view, was built in 1776, while Hale was at the front. It has been 
restored by the present owner, George Dudley Seymour. Hale was born in an 
earlier house built by his father, probably in 1746, which forms part of the 
present ell ; a statue of Nathan Hale, a replica of the Bela Lyon Pratt statue 
in New Haven, stands not far from the original site. 


Returning to U. S. 6, another mile brings us on the right to a gambrel- 
roofed house which was the birthplace of Hon. Jesse Root. A short distance to 
the left, on the crossroad, is the fine Ripley House, dating from 1792. In 
South Coventry, we turn south on Lake St. to the Green. There is a more 
elaborate church of the Greek Revival period, erected in 1849. The handsome 
brick building of the Booth and Dimock Memorial Library, a gift of Henry F. 
Dimock, was built in 1911. The old burial ground, now known as the * Nathan 
Hale Cemetery, is of great interest. We find here a cenotaph, with a beauti- 
fully worded inscription, put up by Deacon Hale as a memorial to his sons 
Nathan and Richard. Nathan's dust lies in an unknown grave on Manhattan 
Island, while Richard died and was buried on the island of St. Eustatius in the 
West Indies. A large granite monument to the patriot was erected in 1857, and 
is now cared for by the State. 

About % mile from the Green, on South St. (1st right turn) is the Hunting- 
ton House, where Nathan Hale and his brother Enoch were prepared for college 
by the minister. Rev. Joseph Huntington for a time maintained a boys' 
school in his house; Hon. Simeon Baldwin was one of his pupils. Gov. Samuel 
Huntington of Ohio was born here. 

VII. 5 

Crossing the Willimantic River, we enter the town of Mansfield, set off 
from Windham in 1703 and named for Major Moses Mansfield of New Haven, 
one of the largest landowners. The territory was part of Sachem Joshua's 
bequest to 14 Norwich men. Mansfield, originally known as Ponde-place, was 
the western part of this tract. The first settlement came about 1692. 

Mansfield is a succession of hills and valleys, with abundant waterpower. 
The town was a pioneer in many industrial enterprises. Dr. Nathaniel 
Aspinwall introduced silk culture in Connecticut about 1755; the first silk 
mill in the country was opened in his native town, and Mansfield was at one 
time the center of the industry. Local mechanics invented the buzz saw and 
the screw augur. Col. Benjamin Hanks cast church bells, the business being 
continued by the Meneely bell foundry. Joseph M. Merrow in 1838 built the 
first knitting mill and began the manufacture of knitting machinery. 

As we enter the town on R. 101, just beyond Mansfield Depot and R. 32 
we pass through the grounds of the Mansfield State Training School and 
Hospital for epileptics and feeble-minded. South on R. 32 and east of Eagle- 
ville, is Ball Hill, an excellent example of the glacial drumlin, with a good view 
in all directions. 

At Mansfield Four Corners, about 2}/ 2 miles farther on R. 101, we turn 
south on R. 195 to Connecticut State College at Storrs, formerly Connecticut 
Agricultural College. This institution was founded in 1881 by Charles and 
Augustus Storrs, descendants of one of the early settlers, who gave land, 
buildings and a considerable endowment. The College is open to both men 
and women, and offers courses in agriculture and home economics. One of the 
water stand-pipes on the hill back of the college is used by the State as a fire 


tower, and gives a fine view in all directions. Near the Church, a road leads 
east to Gurleyville. ancestral home of the Gurleys of Troy, N. Y., makers of 
well known scientific instruments. Here Ephraim Gurley made the first screw 
augur in his blacksmith shop. 

A mile south of Storrs, a trip should be made east to Hanks Hill, where 
Horatio Hanks in 1800 invented the double wheel-head for spinning silk, and 
in 1810 joined with his brother Rodney in establishing the first silk mill in 
America. The original building, 13 by 12 feet, has been moved by Henry Ford 
to his industrial museum at Dearborn, but the site has been marked. Nearby 
was the foundry where the Hanks family cast brass cannon during the Revo- 
lution, probably the first in the country, and later cast church bells. Two 
miles south of the College on R. 195, there is a fine view to the south as we 
descend Spring Hill. As we approach the center, a pond on the right supplied 
power for the mill of Daniel Hartson, where the rotary saw was first developed. 
At Mansfield Center, on the left as we enter the village, is the Eleazer Williams 
House, built by the first minister, who was ordained in 1710. 

Some of the best scenery in Mansfield is reached by the blue-marked Nip- 
muck Trail of the Conn. Forest and Park Assn., which enters the town from 
the south near the southeastern corner. The trail takes in a fine viewpoint 
west of Mansfield Center and the best of the views from Spring Hill, and then 
turns east over Fifty Foot Rock and follows up the right bank of the beautiful 
Fenton River. Other paths have been laid out around Storrs, where the Col- 
lege owns extensive forests. 

On R. 101, before it leaves the town and crosses a corner of Willington into 
Ashford, is an Old Saw Mill on the Fenton River, with a single up-and-down 
saw. Only three of this type are left in the State, and this is the only one still 

VII. 6 

The town of Ashford, probably named from an English town in Kent and 
originally known as New Scituate, passed through serious difficulties with 
land speculation and overlapping claims before it was given town status in 
1714. The first settlers located here in 1710. 

Ashford has much wild country, and includes outlying portions of the Nip- 
muck and Natchaug State Forests. The Nipmuck Trail for trampers crosses 
from Knowlton Brook on R. 74 to a State Forest camp ground about % mile 
west of R. 89. Route 101 makes a scenic drive, as does R. 74, the old Tolland 
turnpike, coming east from Willington. 

Entering the town from the west on R. 101, the old Hartford-Boston 
turnpike, on the first crossroad to the left is the Ashford Oak, the largest oak 
in Connecticut, a red oak with a circumference of 32 ft., height 95 ft., and 
spread 135 ft. A mile to the south is Knowlton Hill, with a good east and west 
view; the best of the two Knowlton homesteads has gone. The birthplace site 
of Eliphalet Nott (1773-1866) north from West Ashford, on the corner of the 
new Eliphalet Nott Highway (R. 74) is marked with a boulder and tablet. 

VII. 6 ASHFORl) 189 

This remarkable man, born in obscure poverty, was president of Union College 
for 62 years, and left the college $600,000 of his own honestly earned money. 
Among his other inventions was a stove for burning hard coal. 

In Warrenville, we pass on the right the Memorial Town Hall given by 
Charles Knowlton, and the yellow Durkee House (John Warren House) 
built early in the 18th century, with an old Colonial ballroom. This was the 
first house built in the village, which originally was known as Pompey Hollow. 
On the left is the Palmer Tavern, erected about 1750. Beyond Warrenville 
on our left is the Byles Homestead, built around 1760, with an addition in 
1800. The * Thomas Knowlton home is on the first crossroad, about % mile 
north of R. 101, a 1^ story house at the end of a lane to the right. Thomas 
Knowlton (1740-1776) saw service in the French war, had charge of the com- 
pany of Connecticut men that held the rail fence at Bunker Hill, organized 
the select corps known as Knowlton's Rangers, in which Nathan Hale was an 
officer, and was killed at the battle of Harlem Heights. Ashford Village, near 
the Eastford town line, has a number of old houses. 

R. 89 leads north from Warrenville to Westford, with a good view to the 
south from Grass Hill on our right, just below the village. The Capt. John 
Dean House, at the highway crossing, was built early in the 19th century and 
has a fine entrance with Palladian window. The glassworks established here 
by Michael Richmond about 1850 became widely known for the quality of its 
product. For a beautiful drive, go northwest from Westford across Snow 
Hill (over which the State Forest has laid out a new scenic road,) turn east 
past the Airway Beacon, and return by the road down Bigelow Brook and 
R. 197. About a mile west of R. 197 and a mile south, (on the crossroad which 
leads from the Ashford Oak on R. 101) we come to Westford Hill, with a 
fine view from the old cemetery, where there is a monument to Thomas 
Knowlton. The hill itself, to the northwest, commands a still finer outlook 
toward the south. The small gray Whiton Homestead, built by Joseph Whiton, 
one of the early settlers, stands opposite the church, and its grounds are 
laid out as an old-fashioned garden. 

VII. 7 


From Manchester, to go back on our course a little, we start a side trip to 
the north on R. 83 (Main st.) in order to take in Vernon, Tolland and Willing- 
ton. The town of Vernon was settled from East Windsor about 1726, and the 
parish of North Bolton organized in 1760. The present town was incorporated 
in 1808, and is supposed to have been named for Edward Vernon, the famous 
English admiral. 

The town was among the pioneers in both cotton and wool. An Englishman, 
Peter Dobson, a close associate of Samuel Slater of Rhode Island, began 
cotton spinning in 1811, and the Warburtons appear to have brought over 
English methods as early as 1790. Satinet, a combination of cotton and wool, is 
said to have been invented in Vernon. Woolen mills, which began equally 
early, are still the main industry in Rockville and Talcottville, supplied with 


power by the Hockanum and Tankerhoosan Rivers. In 1846. John Brown, out 
in Ohio, was buying wool for one of the early "Rock" mills. Rockville was 
chartered as a city in 1889, and is the present county seat of Tolland County. 

In Talcottville, south of the bridge as we leave the cut-off, is the *Four 
Corner Chimney House, built by John Warburton in 1800. This charming 
exotic, now in poor repair, has whitewashed brick walls, a hip roof, and a 
chimney on each corner, which gives architectural symmetry. 

Turning northeast on R. 15, we come to Vernon Center. The Congrega- 
tional Church, on a slight elevation, built in 1826 and later remodeled, is in its 
present form a fine example of the Classical Revival. It has a Doric portico, 
and a graceful octagonal spire, which is a landmark for many miles. On our 
left, in front of the Tolland County Home, is an old Milestone, on the route of 
the early turnpike. 

West St., which runs from Vernon Center to Rockville, makes an interesting 
drive, part of the way through woods, and at other times affording fine westerly 
views. Fox Hill, southeast of Rockville, 693 feet elevation, gives a fine view 
of the city and surrounding country; it has been developed as Henry Park. To 
the northwest lies the beautiful *Lake Snipsic, partly in the town of Tolland. 

On the east of the town is the range of hills that forms the boundary of the 
Connecticut valley and the beginning of the Eastern Highlands. It is worth 
making a train trip from Hartford to Willimantic to enjoy the wild brook 
valley through which the Highland Division climbs to Bolton Notch. The 
valley may also be explored on foot by a wood road. The wonderful northern 
view on the improved road from Vernon Center to the Notch, has been 
described under Bolton. On the slope of the range there is another good view 
to the north, beyond the R. R., on a road about l}4 miles south from Vernon 

Continuing on R. 15, we pass two old houses to the left, on the southern 
edge of Rockville: the Waffle Tavern (Grove and South sts.;) and King Stage 
House, where Lafayette once stopped on his way to Hartford. 

VII. 8 

We continue east by R. 15 and R. 74 through the town of Tolland, a swarm 
from the older town of Windsor, by permission of the General Assembly, 
though it was later necessary to buy out some claimants under an Indian 
title. The town was recognized in 1715, the name being taken from Tolland 
in the English county of Somerset. 

Tolland is a rolling hill country, with a north and south range that rises to 
900 feet or more. The highway climbs over this range, with fine westerly views. 
Route 15 to the north and R. 74 to the east are both scenic drives. On the west 
of the town, partly in Vernon, is Lake Snipsic, one of the most beautiful in 
the State, and a feature of the western views already mentioned. 

In Tolland Village on R. 74. the street runs on both sides of the Green. This 
was formerly the county seat of Tolland County. The dignified Court House is 


still standing, and distances on the Tolland turnpike were reckoned from it. In 
the Old Howard Place, a short distance north on Upper Tolland St., was held 
in 1793 the first Methodist Conference in Connecticut and the second in New 
England. Nearly opposite is an old house now used as the Congregational 
parsonage. The Obed Waldo House, facing the Green, with its shingled walls 
and gambrel roof, is worth noting as we pass. 

One of the best of the old landmarks is the Chapin House, a red \y% story 
cottage, probably dating from 1730-40, about 1 1 A miles south of R. 74; Hes- 
sian prisoners were kept in the cellar during the Revolution. This is in what is 
known as Grants Hill District, the earliest settlement, where most of the houses 
date back before the Revolution. Ancestors of Gen. Grant lived in the old 
white Grant House. A ramble through the country roads of southern Tolland 
is well worth while. 

R. 74 passes through the Nye-Holman State Forest. On the south side of 
the road, just before reaching Tolland Sta., a Forest Museum is maintained in 
an old homsetead. There are specimens of various woods, and demonstrations 
of tree diseases, forestry tools, and fire fighting equipment. 

VII. 9 

At the Willimantic River, on the eastern border of Tolland, we cross by 
R. 74 to the town of Willington. The land was sold by the Colony in 1720 
to certain men in the older towns, who sold to others, and settlers flocked in 
from various parts of Connecticut and Massachusetts. Town status was 
granted in 1727, the original name being taken from Wellington in the English 
Somersetshire, from which the Duke of Wellington was later to derive his 
title. The town is an attractive hill country, with some manufacturing in 
the early days. Willington was the birthplace of Jared Sparks (1789-1866) 
author, and president of Harvard College; and of the mathematician Elias 
Loomis (1811-1899.) In the southern part of the town there is a considerable 
pearl button industry. 

At Willington Hill, as we enter the village, is the old Glazier Tavern, which 
for a century was the focus of the town's social life. Here also is the Rev. 
Hubbell Loomis House, white, l l /2 stories, built about 1760 and largely un- 
altered. In the school-room wing, the minister prepared boys for college, 
including Jared Sparks, who was born about 2 miles farther north. 

At East Willington is the Deacon Abiel Holt House, 2 l /% stories, dating from 
1760, unpainted and in its original condition. The same description holds of 
the gambrel-roofed Topliff House of 1740, near Daleville school, about 1^ 
miles south. Other old landmarks are hard to find but worth the search, 
especially the David Lillibridge House in the north part of the town. It is a 
big house, not in good condition, but with large fireplaces and very beautiful 
paneling. The attic is reached by stone steps which are part of the chimney, 
and a brick smoke-house connects with the main chimney flue. 

The blue-marked Nipmuck Trail of the Conn. Forest and Park Assn. enters 
the town near the southeast corner, running north to Daleville and then east. 

192 I 111! t ONWH I ILL I GUIDE 

Route 74 continues its scenic course across the town to Ash ford, where we 
resume our regular Journey. 

VII. 10 

Resuming our regular Journey on R. 101, we pass from Ashford to its 
daughter town of Eastford, settled in 1710. An ecclesiastical society of East- 
ford was formed in 1777, and a separate town created in 1847. The north and 
south ends of the town have tended to revert to timber. The two main high- 
ways, R. 101 east and west, and R. 91 north and south, both make attractive 

Less than a mile from the town line, after passing on our left the 18th 
century Erastus Spalding House, we come to Bigelow Brook, which is beauti- 
ful for several miles upstream. In Phoenixville, on Still River, are a number of 
old houses, a monument to Gen. Lyon cared for by the State, and an old stone 
twine mill. The primitive Post Office, purchased by Henry Ford and moved 
to his Dearborn Museum, stood on the property of the old Latham House at 
the highway crossing. 

Just south of Phoenixville, avoiding the new cut-off on R. 91, we come to 
the town cemetery, with the grave of Gen. Lyon. The bridge just opposite 
crosses shallow rapids with overhanging trees. About 3 miles south, on our 
left, we enter the extensive Natchaug State Forest. By driving 2 miles north- 
east, we come to the cellar and chimney that mark the birthplace of Gen. 
* Nathaniel Lyon; the old farm is now a State Park. Nathaniel Lyon, the 
first Northern general to fall in the Civil War, was born in 1818. Graduating 
from West Point, he saw service in the Mexican war and on the Western 
frontier, was appointed Brigadier General of the First Missouri Volunteers, 
and was killed at the battle of Wilson's Creek, Mo., Aug. 10, 1861. He is 
given credit for saving Missouri to the Union. In the city of St. Louis, there 
are two equestrian statues to Gen. Lyon, and a school has been named for him. 
In Natchaug Forest, attractive spots along Natchaug River and on Beaverdam 
Brook may be reached from R. 91. A trail has been laid out along the east 
bank of the River, which is being left in its natural state. The old trail is on 
the west bank, and stepping stones have been provided at intervals for the 
benefit of picnic parties. 

About 2 miles north of Phoenixville is the older settlement of Eastford. It 
is an attractive Colonial village, in a color scheme of white and green. The 
best general views are from the church grounds and from the hilltop to the 
east. Just north of the Congregational Church on the knoll, with its white 
spire, is the quaint Castle, built in 1802 by Squire Benjamin Bosworth. The 
third floor was fitted out as a Masonic Hall, which is still in its original con- 
dition. It is said that one man worked an entire winter on the woodwork in the 
parlor. A short distance east of the village is the Capt. John Newman Sumner 
House, gray with white trim, dating from 1806. Continuing for about ]^ 
mile and following up a small brook on our right, we come to cascades and a 
shelter rock known as Indian Hut. Two miles east of the village, on Sumner 
Hill Rd., is the Capt. Benjamin Sumner House of 1789, with a good view 


northwest across Horseshoe Brook. Crystal Lake lies about 2 miles west of 
Eastford village. 

From North Ashford, in the northeast corner of the town (R. 198 from 
Kenyonville) the old center turnpike runs to Westford through the scenic 
Boston Hollow, once well settled but with only one house left. Most of the 
land in this section belongs to the Yale School of Forestry. 

VII. 11 

The town of Pomfret takes its name from Pontefract in Yorkshire, near the 
ancestral home of Gov. Saltonstall; the original name was Mashamoquet. 
Uncas, the Mogehan sachem, claimed most of eastern Connecticut as a 
Pequot conquest. The eastern half of this tract descended to his son Oweneco, 
from whom Capt. James Fitch secured a deed for nearly all of WindhamCounty . 
Fitch sold part of it to men from Roxbury, Mass., and part to one of Cromwell's 
old officers, Capt. John Blackwell, who laid out the "Manor of Mortlake." 
Israel Putnam purchased 500 acres of this in 1739. The first settler was the 
frontierman, Capt. John Sabin, who in 1696 built a house which served as an 
outpost against the Indians. Parish and town privileges were granted by the 
General Assembly in 1713. 

The town, a series of hills and valleys, became known in early days for its 
farm products, and for its wealth and culture, establishing a subscription 
library in 1740. Recently it has become a region of summer homes. Pomfret 
has so much scenery that almost any road makes an attractive drive, with a 
chance for good views. 

Going east on R. 101, we pass on the left, in about 13/2 miles, the Samuel 
Sumner Tavern, built originally in 1795, and soon come to the charming village 
of Abington, built largely along a north and south street. This was part of the 
old King's Highway from Norwich to Massachusetts. On the east side of the 
street is the attractive * Congregational Church, the oldest church building in 
the State, built in 1751, with plain pilasters supporting a pediment. Continu- 
ing south, we pass the Library building, which houses probably the oldest 
public library in Connecticut, begun in 1793; Walter Lyon Homestead, about 
1770, with pilastered cornice and doorway; and the rather pretentious Hutchins 
Homestead, with its pilasters and hip roof. A mile below the highway 
crossing, on the east side, is the John Holbrook Tavern (Abel Clark Tavern; 
the south end is later but still old.) On the west side of the street is the Rev. 
David Ripley House, built by the first Dr. James Hutchins about 1760, and 
somewhat marred by piazza and other additions. Nearly opposite the Hol- 
brook Tavern we find the Elisha Lord House, where Washington stopped. 
South from Abington, near the Hampton town line, is a beautiful ravine on 
Blackwell Brook. 

North from Abington on R. 97, we climb a slope with a good west view. The 
first crossroad to the left takes us northwest across a charming brook to the 
Pomfret Fire Tower on the town line, with its rewarding horizon. On the 
highway we pass some old Grosvenor houses. The Nathaniel Sessions House, 


built in 1750, lies \ % mile to the south. On the left, just before reaching the 
road to Pomfret Station, is the Joseph Cliandler House (Trowbridge-Pike 
Homestead) of 1702, 2^ stories, unpainted, with central chimney. 

Somewhat east of Abington on our right is the State Park of Mashanwquet 
Brook, with some of the finest hemlocks in the State. The adjoining Park of 
Saptree Run has several acres of fine old hardwoods, especially sugar maples. 
To reach the *Putnam Wolf Den, another State Park, drive to the junction 
with R. 93 and turn southwest 2 miles on a country road. Here Israel Putnam 
is supposed to have crawled in and pulled a wolf from its lair. The tract was 
purchased by the D. A. R. and the cave is marked with a bronze tablet. At 
this point the gray Devonian granite overlies the sedimentary schist. The 
schist has weathered away, leaving a cliff of the harder granite. Angular 
blocks of granite broke off to form rock shelters, of which the wolf den is one. 

R. 101 turns north past the station through Pomfret Center, and then 
works east through Pomfret Street to Putnam. There are many beautiful 
estates along the route. On our left as we go north, Pomfret School, a prepara- 
tory school for boys, stands on a conspicuous hill, with its group of red brick 
buildings in Colonial style. On the right is the Ben Grosvenor Inn, of which 
the older part was built in 1738 as the Congregational parsonage, with some 
unusually good interior woodwork and ironwork. A little above this is the 
Congregational Church, with its white spire, built in 1832. Farther, on our left, 
is the Col. Grosvenor Mansion, built about 1792, used since 1920 as the Rectory 
School for younger boys. As we round the corner of Pomfret Street, many of 
the old houses reflect a somewhat later date and run to elaborate porticos. 

West of Pomfret Street, on the route of the old Boston-Hartford turnpike, 
we pass on the left the Col. Horace Sabin House, late 18th century; and Mrs. 
Esther Grosvenor House (rear early 18th century, main house by Ralph Sabin 
about 1785.) These two families of early settlers from Roxbury, Mass., were 
closely related. About 1 ! 2 miles west on our right is the Old Grosvenor Tavern, 
another stopping place for Washington, a large house, yellow with white trim, 
built in 1765 and recently restored. 

PUTNAM. See Journey XIII. 10. 

THOMPSON. See Journev XIII. 11 

Journey VIII 

Old Saybrook to Suffield; Enfield to Old Lyme. 
North on Route 9 and U. S. 5 A ; returning by U. S. 5 and various highways. 

The Connecticut is one of the great river highways of the country, from the 
standpoint both of scenery and history. The river follows the Central Low- 
land as far as Middletown, where it cuts through the Eastern Highlands to 
the Sound, winding along a gorge of remarkable beauty. It is navigable as 
far as the Enfield Rapids, the limit of tide water, and above this to Springfield. 
The first settlements in Connecticut were on its banks. The river towns 
became important seaports. There was extensive shipbuilding, and most of 
the famous captains of the Atlantic packets came from "the River." The 
spring run of shad was another notable feature. The ideal way to make the 
Journey would be by boat, if any boat line were available. We shall follow up 
the west bank by R. 9 and U. S. 5A, coming down the east bank on U. S. 5 and 
various supplementary highways. 

OLD SAYBROOK. See Journey I. 

VIII. 1 


Leaving Old Saybrook, we enter the daughter town of Essex, originally 
known as Potopaug, probably settled about 1675. A parish was organized in 
1722, and the present town incorporated in 1852. The name comes from one 
of the English counties. Essex was a famous shipbuilding center, raided by 
the British during the War of 1812. The town supplied at least 70 captains 
for deep-sea service. Several boat yards are still in operation, and there is a 
considerable summer colony. 

Entering the town by R. 9, South Cove lies to our right. Shipyards were 
located here, and turned out many large vessels. The Mack yards built 
several for Civil War service. To reach Essex Village, we turn right from 
the main highway, and follow the narrow Main St. down to the Dock. The 
rows of small old houses make it one of the quaintest streets in Connecticut. On 
our right is the Griswold Inn, built in the middle of the 18th century, and very 
little changed, except for the addition of an old schoolhouse as a tap room. 
Opposite stands the Col. Lewis House, with its graceful porch and Palladian 
window; and next to this the Capt. Timothy Star key House, \\i stories and 

196 IHi: CONNECTICUT lil IDi: 

two dormers in the gambrel roof. Near the Dock, on the right, we find the 
*0td Ship Tavern, built by Uriah Hay den and now occupied by the Dauntless 
Club. A replica of the old sign hangs over the entrance: a ship in full sail with 
the words "Entertainment. 1766." The initials "U. H. A." above stand for 
Uriah and Ann Hay den. The last house on the north side of the street is the 
Samuel Lay House, probably the oldest in Essex, but remodeled and in poor 
repair. Lay and Hayden were partners in the West India trade. Along the 
Dock, which gives an attractive view of the River, is the Warehouse of Abner 
Parker, another trader, built in 1753. At the left of the Dock, a marker 
calls attention to the fact the Oliver Cromwell, the first U. S. warship, a 24-gun 
man of war, was built here in 1775. In 1812, a British force landed and destroy- 
ed 22 ships with the dock yards. 

Back Street, which parallels Main St. to the north, is equally quaint, with 
some good Colonial houses. Above Essex village, about 1} 2 miles by North 
Main St. (take side road beyond concrete bridge,) we reach North Cove, where 
there were other shipyards. We see the remains of the "Osage, " burned by the 
British. The vessel was made of heavy chestnut timbers, blackened by water 
and age but still solid. 

Going west on Main St., over a steep hill, we pass on the right PratCs 
Village Smithy, a vine-covered brick building. The blacksmith's trade has 
been handed down from father to eldest son for eight generations since 1678, 
the oldest business in the United States operated by one family. The older 
portion of the * Pratt Homestead next door has \ 1 A stories with central chim- 
ney, and dormers in the gambrel roof, which curves upward at the eaves. 
Farther on the right is the Long Yellow House, of the same type. The Old 
Parker Homestead in the next block, built in 1790, has central chimney, and 
the roof somewhat longer in front, with an upward swing ending in a balus- 

Rejoining R. 9, we continue west through the village of Centerbrook, where 
there is a good Congregational Church, built in 1790. The Second Ecclesiasti- 
cal Society of Saybrook was organized here in 1722. The Dickinson witch 
hazel plant goes back to 1855. Ivoryton, a mile farther west (R. 144) takes its 
name from the piano-key factory of Comstock, Cheney. The company 
started in 1847, and the working of ivory began in Essex as early as 1802. 
There is a Summer Repertory Theatre in Ivoryton, with plays by New York 

VIII. 2 

From Essex we go north to the town of Saybrook (Deep River) to be dis- 
tinguished from the town of Old Saybrook, of which is was once a part. Settle- 
ment goes back to about 1670. The present town organization dates from 1899. 

The leisurely traveler will make a circuit from Essex village by the river 
road, recently improved, with its four miles of scenic beauty. We rejoin 
R. 9 before entering Deep River. Another good approach is by R. 80, which 
comes down from the hills through the village of Winthrop. A mile south of 


Winthrop, on R. 144, we cross Bushy Hill; a side road leads to the childrens' 
camp maintained by the Church of the Incarnation in N. Y. There is a fine 
view from the verandah of the cottage, and below is the attractive Bushy 
Pond. R. 80 passes Rogers' Ponds, with pond lilies and several picturesque 
falls, and an old Southworth Homestead. 

Entering the village of Deep River on R. 9, we pass two other Southworth 
houses on our right, the first of wood and the second of stone, probably early 
19th century. A turn to the right leads to Fountain Hill Cemetery, one of the 
best viewpoints on the river. A circuit by River and Kirtland Sts. gives 
views of the river and Eustatia Island, taking us past a number of old houses, 
including the Phelps House, 1799, at the end of Kirtland St. Another good 
outlook is St. John's School for boys on the river bank, above the R. R. station. 
The principal industry in Deep River is ivory keys and actions for pianos, the 
firm of Pratt, Read and Co. tracing back to an ivory comb business started in 

VIII. 3 

The town of Chester, named from Chester in England, was settled in 1692, 
organized as a parish of Old Saybrook in 1740, and made a separate town in 
1836. Chester is a rough hill country, and contains part of the Cockaponset 
State Forest. 

R. 148 leads west from R. 9 through Chester Village, which has been a 
manufacturing center since early days, drawing power from Pattaconk River. 
The most important products today are augurs, bright wire goods, and mani- 
cure sets. At the center is an old store building of native granite, probably 
dating back to 1809. The quarries at one time so important are further repre- 
sented by the old Chester Hotel, with its granite pillars supporting a simple 
pediment. The traveler should note the two millstones used as stepping 
stones in front of the Chester Savings Bank. West of the village and % mile 
south is the Clark Homestead (Leete House) one of the oldest in Chester. R. 148 
continues to the attractive Cedar Lake, with wooded shores; a road follows 
along the west bank. The State Y. M. C. A. Camp is located here. About a 
mile east of the Lake, a road leads north over Whig Hill, with a fine southern 

Goose Hill Rd. runs north from the center, passing on the right the \Yi 
story house known as the Maria Hough Place, built before 1746 but consider- 
ably remodeled. The next right turn takes us over Story's Hill, with a fine 
view of the river and the hills beyond. Continuing north beyond the turn, we 
have other good views, especially near the Haddam town line. 

Skirting the village on R. 9, we pass two Colonial houses of unusual beauty. 
On the west side, opposite the Roman Catholic Church, is the *Abram Mitchell 
House (Dr. Ambrose Pratt House) built in 1820. We have a porch with 2- 
story columns, a graceful doorway, Palladian window above, corner pilasters, 
and heavy molding along the cornice. A little farther, on our right, is the 
* Jonathan Warner Homestead, of earlier date (1798) but similar design. These 
houses are said to have been built by the same carpenter-architect, Samuel 

198 TFHi CONNliCTK'l"! (,III>I. 

Silliman. They no doubt reflect the prosperity brought by the shipyard and 
seaport at Chester Cove. At the corner by the Warner house, a lane turns 
east to the Cove and * Hadlyme Ferry, the only ferry left on the Connecticut, 
worth taking for views of the river. 

VIII. 4 

Continuing our Journey, we enter the town of Haddam. In 1662, a group 
of young married men from the older towns up the river were given permission 
to make a settlement opposite Thirty Mile Island. A town was incorporated 
in 1668, and named from Hadham in the English Hertfordshire, associated 
with the family of the first governor. John Haynes. The town is made up of 
rugged hills, with a good deal of wild country, and includes a considerable 
portion of Cockaponset State Forest. 

R. 9 from Chester makes a scenic drive, with frequent views of the river. At 
Tylerville, where there is an Adventist camp ground, R. 82 crosses the Bridge 
to East Haddam, with a fine vista up and down stream. At Shailerville, 2}4 
miles farther north, we pass on our left an old Gneiss Quarry, with a wide variety 
of minerals. We cross the attractive ravine of Mill Creek, and a little beyond 
Arnold Sta. take a road % mile up hill to the old Granite Quarry, first operated 
in 1794. The product was shipped all over the East for paving blocks, and as 
far as Savannah and New Orleans. There is a fine view of the river from this 
point, and also from the old road back of the Quarry which goes down to the 

Haddam \ 'illage formerly was a joint county seat of Middlesex County, and 
the granite County Jail is still located here. North of the Jail stands the Rev. 
Jeremiah Hobart House, built by the town in 1691 for the first settled minister, 
and still in a good state of preservation. Another building of native granite. 
Brainerd Academy, has been remodeled as the Town Hall. Rev. David D. 
Field was pastor of the Congregational Church, and several of his distinguished 
children were born in Haddam. The earliest Field home, near the site of the 
present Brainerd Memorial Library, was the birthplace of Darid Dudley 
Field (1805-1894) whose reform of the legal system in New York was in- 
fluential in other States and in the British Empire; also of a daughter who 
became the mother of Justice Brewer of the U. S. Supreme Court. Stephen 
J. Field (1816-1899) Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court, was born in a later 
Field home, where the Hazen Foundation now stands. Justice Field and his 
nephew Justice Brewer were fellow members of the same Court. Two other 
sons of this famous family, Henry M. and Cyrus W. Field, were born in 
Stockbridge, Mass. 

About 2 miles north of Haddam center, a boulder tablet on the left of the 
highway commemorates the birthplace site (to the east, on the river bank) of 
David Brainerd (1718-1747) the heroic missionary to the Indians, whose bio- 
graphy, written by Jonathan Edwards, became one of the classics of the 
evangelical movement. The work among the Indians was continued by his 
younger brother John. The village of Higganum is a manufacturing center, 
producing braids and agricultural implements. The most interesting factory 


is D. and H. Scovil, which has been making hoes for the Southern trade since 
1844. The original Scovil, a farmer-blacksmith, operated a trip hammer on a 
brook 4 miles west, forging the gun barrels for Eli Whitney; he would take a 
load of gun barrels to New Haven by ox-team and bring back a new supply of 
the steel shapes. 

Route 81, south from Higganum to Clinton, most of the way through the 
woods, passes the hamlet of Ponset, an abbreviation of the Indian name for 
the region, which has been given to Cockaponset State Forest. The little 
Episcopal Church in Ponset was built in 1877 by Rev. Mr. Knowles, out of 
timber donated by neighboring farmers. The road from Higganum to Durham 
goes through even wilder country. 

A dirt road turns east to Higganum Sta., with a fine view of the river. The 
Landing was the scene of early mills and shipyards, and great quantities of 
cordwood were shipped to New York, before coal began to be used for heating. 
North on R. 9, % mile on our right, is Shopboard Rock, a huge boulder with a 
flat top, where an early tailor is supposed to have cut out a suit for a customer. 
Close to the Middletown line, on the east of the highway, we find Seven Falls, in 
a roadside park. Directly opposite, about 50 feet west of the old highway, is 
Bible Rock, several layers of stone standing on end and giving the appearance of 
an open book. 

VIII. 5 

Middletown was settled in 1650, largely from Hartford, and recognized as 
a town the following year. The original name Mattabeseck was changed in 
1653, because of its central position between Saybrook and the upper river 
towns. By 1750 Middletown had developed into an important trading port, 
and for the next half century was the largest and wealthiest town in Connec- 
ticut. It was one of the first five cities in the State to be chartered in 1784. 
Wesleyan University is located here, and two State institutions: the Hospital 
for the Insane and Long Lane Farm for Girls. 

The Forest City, as it is sometimes called, from the luxuriance of its street 
trees, had a population in the 1930 census of 24,554. Middletown became 
an important manufacturing city during the 19th century, when large woolen 
and gun industries were established. The first metal pumps were made here. 
Of present factories, the Russell Mfg. Co., which was one of the first to make 
elastic webbing, started in 1834, and the marine hardware plant of Wilcox 
Crittenden in 1847. The Remington Noiseless Typewriter has the largest 
number of employees. Other important products are silk, dress shields, 
rubber goods and silverware. 

R. 9 from Haddam is an attractive drive, and as we approach the city we 
make the transition from the Eastern Highlands to the Central Lowland, with 
rewarding views. To see the River, in one of its most beautiful stretches, the 
traveler should take the River Rd., which starts at Higganum. We pass 
Dart Island, now a State Park. To our left is the striking hill known as White 
Rocks, with a fine view of the river and an old Quarry, where there are many 




1. Return Jonathan Meigs House. 2. John Kent House. 3. Henry Clay Work statue. 
4. Wesleyan University. 5. Joseph Hyde House. 6. Hezekiah Hurlburt House. 7. 
Benjamin Henshaw House. 8. Jonathan Yeomans House. 9. Benjamin Williams House. 
10. Alsop House. 11. Riverside Cemetery. 12. Jehosaphat Starr House. 13. George 
Phillips House. 14. Russell House. 15. Chauncey Whittlesey Store. 


varieties of minerals. West of this we cross a small stream on which is located 
the old Middletown Lead Mine. Lead for bullets was secured here during the 
Revolution. On the hill above is the Conn. State Hospital for the Insane, 
opened in 1868. 

Rejoining R. 9 and entering the city from the south, the Col. *Return 
Jonathan Meigs House, moved from its original site, stands at 64 Crescent 
St. (1 on Chart XXXI.) The old homestead, now an ell, has central chimney 
and gambrel roof. The main house with its hip roof was built in 1785. Col. 
Meigs was active in the Revolution, serving as a major at Bunker Hill, and 
organizing the whale-boat raid on Sag Harbor. Later be became acting gov- 
ernor of the Northwest Territory. The house was sold to Elisha Hubbard, 
West India trader and Commissary of the Connecticut troops during the 
Revolution. Facing Crescent St. on S. Main St., is the John Kent House 
(2; Jonathan Kilbourne House) built in 1733. A statue to Henry Clay Work 
(3; 1832-1884) the author of "Marching through Georgia," stands in a small 
parkway at S. Main and Mill Sts., near the site of his birthplace. 

Going west on Church St., we reach the Campus of * Wesley an University 
(4) founded in 1831. The handsome Olin Memorial Library, erected in 1928 
and named for Stephen Olin, second president of the University, faces south 
on Church St. The oldest building is South College, the third from the north 
in the old brownstone row; it was built in 1825 for Capt. Partridge's Military 
Academy on this site, which removed to Norwich, Vt., in 1829. The Museum 
is located on the 3rd and 4th floors of Judd Hall, at the south end of the row. 
It contains many slabs of prehistoric footprints from the sedimentary sandstone 
in the vicinity of Middletown, and other specimens illustrating the natural 
history of the region. There is a fine exhibit of Indian relics. The coin 
collection is also notable. 

On College St., we have a number of good houses from the 18th century. 
The Joseph Hall House (5; 206 College st.) with its overhangs, was built 
about 1765, and has been moved from its original location. The Hezekiah 
Hurlburt House (6; 158 College st.) about 1772, is of brick, now painted yellow. 
The west part of the Benjamin Henshaw House (7; 124 College st.) beyond 
Broad St., goes back to 1753; and the Jonathan Yeomans House (8; 114 College 
st.) to about 1749. 

On Washington St., to the east of the generously wide Main St., we find the 
* Benjamin Williams House (9; De Koven House; 27 Washington st.) built of 
brick about 1791, a very fine example of Colonial architecture. The Alsop 
House (10; 54 Washington st.) on the north side of this block, whose lines are 
partly hidden by modern porches, dates from the early 19th century; it is 
connected with Capt. Joseph W. Alsop, a sea captain in the West India and 
China trade. Turning east at the end of Main St., *Riverside Cemetery (11) 
lies to our right on St. John's Square, the old Meeting House Green. It was 
opened at the time of the first settlement, and one stone dates back to 1689. A 
large boulder commemorates the founding of Middletown. Near this is the 
grave of Commodore Thomas Macdonough, hero of the battle on Lake Cham- 
plain in the War of 1812, who made his home in Middletown. There is a 
boulder monument to Macdonough on the square, just before reaching the 

Continuing west on Washington St., the Jehosaphat Starr House (12; 
110 Washington st.) goes back to the early 18th century; the west side is the 
oldest. The Gen. George Phillips House (13; Glover House; 148 Washington 


st.) was built in 1750. of brick probably brought over from England as ballast. 
The * Russell House (14: 350 High st.) facing on High St.. long the show place 
of Middletown, was built about 1828 for Samuel Russell, a merchant prince 
in the China trade. It was designed by David Hoadley. whose work we have 
admired in New Haven and other towns. The tall Corinthian columns are 
said to have been brought up by ox-team from the unfinished Eagle Bank at 
New Haven. In the next block, the wings of the house at 202 Washington 
once belonged to the Chaimcey Whittlesey Store (15) which held the supplies 
for the Revolutionary army. 

R. 72 (Newfield st. via Berlin st.) which runs north from Washington St. 
(R. 14) is on a bench above the Connecticut, and gives good views for about 2 
miles. Other crossroads farther to the west make attractive drives. On 
Washington St., just beyond West River, is the house built for Judge *Seth 
Wetmore in 1746. It is one of the earliest examples of the central hall type. 
The roof, now a plain pitch, was originally a gambrel. The beaded clapboard - 
ing on the north side is supposed to be original. To the south, on Boston Rd., 
three generations of the Starr family made swords for the U. S. government 

R. 14 continues west through beautiful scenery to Meriden, crossing the 
Mattabesett Trail (Middlefield) which runs north over Mt. Higby. In 2 miles, 
the Trail crosses the line into Middletown and goes by a Natural Bridge, where 
one can pass under a rock wedged between two other rocks. Mt. Higby 
offers fine views to the west. To reach the attractive Westfield Falls, turn 
north from R. 14 on East St. for 3 miles, and go 1 mile west on Falls Rd. 

Leaving the center by S. Main St. (R. 15) the John Hall House (57 Highland 
ave.) stands one block west, just beyond Pamecha Pond. The front portion 
is said to be the oldest building in Middletown, possibly dating back to 1668. 
A half mile northwest is Long Lane Farm for delinquent girls, opened in 1870 
and taken over by the State in 1921. South of the Farm, Wadsworth St. 
leads west to Laurel Grove Rd. (reached from R. 15 by Randolph or Bush 
Hill rds.) Here, on the west side, we find the Nehemiah Hubbard House of 
1745. He had five sons in the Revolution, and when it was proposed to move 
a door the daughter said: "Five good men have gone through that door to the 
Revolution, and it should never be changed." R. 15 continues to Durham 
and New Haven. 

VIII. (i 

It is now necessary to make a side trip to take in the towns of Durham and 
Middlefield. The town of Durham was settled in 1698 by Guilford men, who 
had discovered the value of its natural pasture lands. The original name 
Coginchaug was changed to Durham, from the town of that name in the north 
of England, the original home of the Wadsworth family. Town privileges 
were granted in 1708. Durham was famous for its cattle, and two fat oxen, 
sent to Washington at Valley Forge, supplied a dinner for all the officers of 
the American army and their servants. The town is made up of extensive 
meadows, in the center of a rising tier of hills. 


Leaving Middletown by R. 15, we have a good view of Durham village and 
the surrounding country as we cross the town line. A still finer view is obtained 
from Swathel Top, the hill to our right. At the junction of R. 147 to Middle- 
field stands the Swathel Tavern, built by Azariah Beach in 1730, and at a later 
period used by John Swathel as a tavern, on what was then the New York- 
Boston mail route. The third house to the right on R. 147 is the Frederick 
Lyman House, built in rather elaborate style about 1759 by a Lyman who 
had gone south and made money. Gen. Phineas Lyman, whom we shall meet 
in Suffield, was born in Durham but in an earlier house. 

The village of Durham is chiefly a long main street, on a bench to the east 
of the meadows. On the west side of the street (sixth building north of the 
church) is what remains of the Austin Homestead, built about 1759. Moses 
Austin (1761-1821) organized American colonization in Texas, and after his 
death the plan was carried out by his son Stephen, for whom Austin, Texas, 
was named. To the east, opposite the Congregational church, the John 
Johnson House of 1745 is the fourth on the south side of Maiden Lane, which 
took its name from the five spinster daughters, who lived to be 80 or over. 
The Burial Ground lies to our left, beyond the next cross street, the oldest 
stone being dated 1712. 

Crossing Allyn Brook, which formerly divided Durham from Durham 
Center, we pass on the east the house of *Gen. James Wads worth (1730-1817) 
who was major general of the Connecticut militia from 1777-79, and held many 
other important offices. The James Wadsworth who migrated to New York 
in 1790 was his nephew. The house, built in 1760, is still covered with the 
original hand-riven pine shingles, and the interior has been carefully restored. 
Just east of the Methodist church is the Chauncey Homestead, a rambling 
Colonial house built by a son of the town's first minister, Rev. Nathaniel 
Chauncey, who was the first graduate of Yale College. The present owner, a 
direct descendant, has many relics of the Colonial period, including Yale's 
first diploma, and 200 volumes from the earliest public library in the State, 
established at Durham in 1733. Opposite the south end of the Green, on our 
left, is the house built by the second minister, Rev. Elizur Goodrich, in 1763. 
Some of his descendants became distinguished in law and letters, and he pre- 
pared many young men for Yale college, including Eli Whitney. The house, 
with its massive stone chimney and fine workmanship, is practically un- 

At the highway junction south of the village, the Col. James Wadstvorth 
House, the oldest house in the town, stands at our left, on a knoll which gives 
a fine western view. It is a 2]/ story house, with two ells, built originally 
in 1706. The central chimney has been removed, but most of the interior is well 
preserved. This original James Wadsworth (1675-1776) grandfather of the 
General, came to Durham from Farmington and was a leader in town and 

Two scenic highways lead off toward the south: R. 77 to Guilford and R. 
79 to Madison. About l /i mile west of the latter is Ml. Pisgah, crossed by the 
Mattabesett Trail as it swings up from Bluff Head. The bare granite summit 
gives a complete horizon, and to the north one can see the State Capitol and 
Mt. Tom in Massachusetts. 

About l /2 mile farther west on R. 15, a road which forks to the right is the 
route of the original highway between Durham and Wallingford, used twice 
by Washington. It gives delightful views of the rolling hill country. The latter 


part of this road, where it crosses the range, is now abandoned, but is used as a 
tramping trail, intersecting the Mattabesett Trail just south of Trimountain, 
and continuing west to Wharton Brook. In addition to the blue paint, bronze 
markers set in cement posts were placed at the time of the Washington bi- 

About 3 miles farther, R. 15 crosses the main Mattabesett Trail, which runs 
east to Bluff Head. North of the highway, we go over Pistapaug Mt., with a 
beautiful view of the lake below its northern cliffs. Later the trail climbs over 
* Trimountain, close to the Wallingford line. The southern peak, with its 
sharp summit and extensive view, is one of the most charming outlooks in the 
State; it is now a State Park. Farther north, the top of the Reed's Gap 
Quarry provides a remarkable view along the Beseck range and across to the 
Meriden Hills. The quarry gives a good chance to study the contact of the 
lava with the underlying sandstone, and a little south of it on the trail we have 
a fine exhibit of the columnar structure of the trap rock. 

Another fine viewpoint in Durham is Bear Rock, a lonely crag standing out 
in the wild eastern section of the town. Take the Haddam Rd. east for !}<> 
miles, and follow wood roads northeast to the cliff, which is clearly visible. We 
find ourselves in a broken country, suggesting the convulsions which pro- 
duced the Eastern Highlands. Few spots in the State give such an impression 
of solitude, or of the majesty of Nature's forces. 

VIII. 7 

Middlefield, originally a part of Middletown, was settled about 1700, made a 
parish in 1744, and became a separate town in 1866. A swampy area in the 
center, drained by the Coginchaug River, is surrounded by terraced hills, with 
a mountain range to the west. On account of the terrain, almost all the roads 
give rewarding views. 

There have been local industries of importance, whose history is rather 
typical of Connecticut. At Rockfall, a factory that made a popular type of 
revolver during the Civil War is now making automobile tools. In the ravine 
below there used to be a powder mill. Another factory has passed from 
cotton thread to suspender webbing and now brake linings. At Baileyville, 
suspenders gave place to old fashioned washing machines. Then the factory 
turned to clothes wringers, bringing that article to perfection and consoli- 
dating with the American Wringer Co. in 1890. There were button factories, 
and a mill that made bone and gypsum fertilizer for 25 years. Another factory 
continues to make artificial ivory for knife blades. William Lyman developed 
the metallic aperture rifle sight, still manufactured here, and used in all expert 
rifle contests. 

Entering the town from Durham by R. 147, we pass en the left in about a 
mile the * David Lyman House, built in 1785, and removed later to its present 
site. The interior is particularly beautiful, eight carpenters brought in for 
the purpose from Cromwell having spent many months on the paneling. The 
engaged columns on the mantel in the dining room are noted for their perfect 


proportions. Next on the north is the fine old Isaac Miller House (Lyman A. 
Mills House) of 1787. To the south stretches the Lyman Farm, with one of 
the largest orchards in the State, worth seeing when the apple and peach trees 
are in bloom. A crossroad to the east leads in about a mile to the Hiram Miller 
House of 1741, remodeled but with the old features preserved. Beyond this is 
R. 159 with its attractive views, and still farther east the beautiful Laurel 
Brook Reservoir. 

Turning south from R. 147 on the Powder Hill Rd., west of the R. R., we 
come in about % mile on the right to the Ellas, Coe House, belonging to the 
Coe family, like all the houses on this road at one period. This house, built in 
1723 by one of the early settlers, probably is the oldest house in Middlefield, 
and has preserved much of its original interior. A little below this, 100 feet 
back from the road, are the interesting * Dinosaur Tracks, found in a small 
abandoned sandstone quarry. The quarry is now maintained as an outdoor 
exhibit by the Peabody Museum of Yale, having been presented to the Uni- 
versity by Prof. Wesley R. Coe. 

Continuing north on R. 147, Lake Beseck lies to our left. R. 14 goes west 
to Meriden, through the gap between Mi. Beseck to the south and Ml. Higby 
to the north. Both have remarkable western views along the trap rock 
cliffs, and are reached by the blue-marked Mattabesett Trail, which we cross 
half way down the slope. From the northern peak of Higby, the view extends 
to the north and east. On Beseck, straight below to the west we look down on 
the attractive Black Pond, which we pass as we descend R. 14 to Meriden; 
part of the shore is now a State Park, and the location under the cliffs makes it 
an attractive picnic spot. 

To the east, R. 14 takes us back to Middletown, with many fine offlooks. 

VIII. 8 



Resuming our regular Journey, we enter the town of Cromwell, the "Upper 
Houses" of the Middletown settlement (1650.) It was organized as a parish in 
1703, and incorporated as a separate town in 1851. The name commemorates 
Oliver Cromwell. There was considerable shipbuilding in the early days. In 
1823, Wm. C. Redfield constructed a Connecticut River steamer, the "Oliver 
Cromwell." Redfield later developed the idea of using barges on the Hudson 
drawn by tug-boats, and was the first to visualize the possiblity of railroad 
connection with the west. 

From Middletown, R. 9 crosses the lowlands along the Mattabesett or 
Seebethe River, which flows into the Connecticut at this point, with Willow 
Island on our right. We then climb a long hill to Cromwell Village. About 2 
miles from the Portland bridge, South St. turns east one block to Pleasant St., 
part of the original Hartford-Saybrook turnpike, which followed the river 
bank from Middletown. The street was laid out by the first settlers, and some 
of the houses are occupied by descendants. At the southwest corner is the 
charming old salt-box known as the * Thomas Hubbard House (Ranney- 
Adams House) said to date back to 1661 . The fourth house north of this is the 


former Nathaniel Chauncey Tavern, from about 1746. On the east side of 
Pleasant St.. with a large elm in front, we have the Rev. Joseph Smith House. 
built by the town in 1717 for the first minister of the parish, who was to 
furnish nails and glass. 

Crossing the main highway to West St., the Dea. Thomas Stow House, built 
in 1713, stands on our right, just beyond the Baptist Church, which was its 
original location. The first left turn leads to the interesting old Burying. 
Ground; the earliest grave is that of Thomas Ranney, 1713. A little west of this 
is a ridge known as Timber Hill, with a remarkable view, which takes in both 
the Connecticut River, and the Mattabesett valley with the bordering trap 
rock range. Farther on West St., the Nathaniel White School commemorates 
the original donor of land for school purposes. Nathaniel White came to 
Hartford as a child with Thomas Hooker's company, and was the most promi- 
nent leader in the Middletown settlement, which he represented in the General 
Court from 1661 to 1710. Across from the School and a little farther west is the 
Sage Homestead, with central chimney and overhangs, from which Russell 
Sage's parents moved to New York City. 

Returning to R. 9, which at this point follows the original road laid out in 
1650, the Isaac Gridley House on the west side was the home of Nathan Hale's 
roommate at Yale, in the class of 1773. Next to this, the second house south 
of New Lane, is the Spencer House; Sally Spencer became the mother of 
Junius Spencer Morgan of Hartford, father of J. P. Morgan. 

Continuing north on R. 9 another % mile, the Pierson Nurseries lie to our 
left, with 16 acres under glass, producing 9 million roses a year. Turning 
right at the small triangular Green, we pass Cromwell Hall Sanatorium for 
nervous diseases, with another rewarding view. Shadow Lane, which parallels 
the highway on the east, takes us through an attractive ravine. 

Wolf's Pit Hill, used for the Air Beacon, ^ mile west of R. 9 by Evergreen 
Rd., gives a good view in all directions. The Blow Hole, a small cove in the 
River, with a fine outlook from the bluff above, is reached by a rough road east 
from the highway, just before the Rocky Hill line. 

VIII. 9 

Rocky Hill, formerly a part of Wethersfield, was settled in 1650, and or- 
ganized as the parish of Stepney in 1722. Due to the changing course of 
the River, Rocky Hill became the chief port of Wethersfield, with ship building 
and auxiliary industries. A separate town was incorporated in 1843. Present 
industries include a rayon plant and iron foundry. 

Entering the town from the south on R. 9, we pass on the right the old 
Samuel Wright House, said to have been built in 1671, later used as a tollgate 
house. A crossroad to the right, which must be negotiated on foot, leads down 
the attractive Dividend Brook. A hard climb to the bluff south of the outlet 
is rewarded by good views of the River, with the Glastonbury hills in the 
distance. Above this point, the layers of glacial sand and gravel along the 
river bank represent a dam which made a glacial lake extending back into 


Massachusetts. During that period the Connecticut River was discharging 
through the New Britain Channel, represented by the Mattabesett River, The 
clay beds utilized by the brickyards in Hartford and Windsor were deposited 
by this glacial lake. 

Avoiding the new cut-off (Silas Deane Highway) we turn right through the 
village of Rocky Hill, which is full of good 18th century houses, most of them 
labeled with original owner and date. On our right lies the Old Cemetery. To 
our left, at 28 Elm St., is the house built in 1783 by Rev. John Lewis, but 
usually known by the later ministerial occupant, Calvin Chapin, at one time a 
fifer in the Revolutionary army, who served the church from 1794 to 1847; he 
was prominent in church circles throughout the State and Nation and an early 
temperance leader. The house has dentils on the cornice. The house opposite 
built by Eliel Williams (Merriam Williams House; 25 Elm st.) about 1770, 
has a 6-inch overhang on both stories, and a double door with the original 
latch. Glastonbury Ave. leads east to the old ferry, and below this on River 
Rd. we find the Capt. Asa Deming House of 1785, approached by a long flight 
of brownstone steps. It is notable for the oval bulls-eye glass in the panels 
of the door, and above the entrance is a large window with rounded head. 

The * Congregational Church, at the fork, erected in 1805, is a fine example of 
the earlier type. Under the well-proportioned pediment, with heavy cornice 
molding, is a pedimented central doorway surmounted by a Palladian window. 
The interior woodwork is worth studying. The house opposite, at 225 Main St., 
was built by Thomas Danforth, the great trader of his day. He manufactured 
pewter, tinware and a wide variety of hardware, and had a well-stocked store 
in the village, from which peddlers covered all the surrounding towns. Before 
he turned over the business to his son in 1818, he had opened branch stores in 
Philadelphia, Atlanta and Savannah. The house has central chimney, an 
overhang in both stories, and good molding under the cornice. Probably the 
most pretentious house in Rocky Hill is that built in 1808 by * James Standish, 
at 12 Washington St., which turns off to the east. Slender jointed columns 
support a graceful entrance porch with plastered cove ceiling, and the doorway 
has a broad semi-elliptical fanlight. Above the porch is a triple window, with 
a pediment above in the rather flat roof. The ceiling of the lower hall has very 
unusual groined vaulting. 

As we go north on Main St., the trap rock ridge (Shipman's Hill) which 
gives the town its name, lies east of the houses. A short steep road, passable 
for cars, leads to the summit, from which there is a remarkable view of the 
River and the country to the north and east. Care should be taken to avoid 
the blasting hours of the quarry, at noon and 4:30. Just beyond this turn, we 
pass on our right the Capt. Riley House of 1742, a large building with central 
chimney and dormers. It has a double door with four long strap hinges. There 
is fine dentil work above the windows and doorways. 

The gem of the old Colonial houses in Rocky Hill is the **Duke of 
Cumberland Inn (69 Main st.) built in 1767 by John Robbins, on land purchased 
from the Duke, to whom his father George II had granted 2000 acres. It 
was one of the first houses in Connecticut to be built of native brick. Every 
4th course is made up of headers and stretchers. There are 3 stories and attic, 
all with a slight overhang, gambrel roof with dormers, and 4 chimneys. Above 
the simple doorway is a Palladian window, arched with brick. The other 
windows, like the doorway, have brownstone caps with an outward flare. The 
original inn sign is in the collection of the Wadsworth Atheneum at Hartford. 


The oldest house in Rocky Hill, said to date from 1655, stands on the east side 
of Main St., a little farther north. It is known as the * Philip Goffe House. 
One story in front with gambrel roof, 2 ! 2 stories at the eaves, and the long 
rear roof slopes to one story again. Goffe was the first town crier in Wethers- 

There are good views from various hills to the west and northwest of the 
village. R. 9 continues north to Wethersfield. 

VIII. 10 

Wethersfield is the oldest regular settlement in the State. It was one of the 
three towns on the River which started the Connecticut Colony. The area 
was scouted in 1633 by John Oldham, who followed Indian trails from Massa- 
chusetts Bay. In the spring of 1634, he brought a in company of "Adven- 
turers" from Watertown, vanguard of the principal migration, which came 
the following year. In 1636, the original name Watertown was changed to 
Wethersfield, from a town in the English county of Essex. The Indian mas- 
sacre of 1637 led up to the Pequot War. Church controversies and a growing 
population brought about a constant exodus, major groups going out to found 
Milford, Stamford, Branford, and Hadley, Mass. At least five other Connect- 
icut towns have been carved out of the original Wethersfield territory. 

The town lies on a rich alluvial plain, with ridges parallel to the Connecticut 
River which command good views. It has been noted for its onions since 
early days, and was a pioneer in the seed industry, which started about the 
time of the Revolution. Wethersfield became an important seaport, exporting 
country produce from a wide area, and bringing back West India products and 
later goods from China. Many Hartford people have made their residence in 
Wethersfield. An unusual number of Colonial houses have been preserved. 

Entering the town by R. 9, Mill St. which crosses at South Wethersfield 
leads west to the stream that supplied power for early industries. Here was 
located the pioneer plow factory of Theodore Havens, opened in 1820, which 
at one time was sending 1000 plows a year to the Carolina plantations. Gris- 
woldville, farther up the stream to the southwest, is named for Jacob Griswold, 
who in 1680 started the first carding and fulling mill in New England, operated 
until 1839. Turning north from Mill St. on Maple St., which was part of the 
old New Haven-Boston post road, we pass on the right, at the top of the hill, 
the oldest house standing in Wethersfield, built by Moses Goffe in 1672. North 
of the hill, we turn east across the new cut-off of the Silas Deane highway, and 
enter the village by Broad St. 

Our introduction to Wethersfield is the Broad Street Green, around which 
the home lots of some of the first settlers were laid out in 1636. The old houses 
in the town have been labeled with name and date. A stroll through the streets 
is well repaid, as the houses represent various types, and many of them are 
substantial homes from the prosperous second half of the 18th century. 

At the south end of the Green, we pass the monument to \athaniel Foote 
the settler (1593-1644; 1 on Chart XXXII.) He was the town surveyor, and 

VIII. 10 




1. Nathaniel Foote monument. 2. Wethersfield Elm. 3. Elisha Williams site. 4. Oliver 
Williams house. 5. Congregational Church. 6. Burial Place. 7. Webb House. 8. Silas 
Deane house. 9. Academy. 10. Historical Society. 11. Wethersfield Bank. 12. Fort 
site. 13. Warehouse. 14. State Prison. 15. Peter Deming House. 


lines in Wethersfield started at a tree marked "N.F." On our right is the 
*Wetliersfield Elm (2) the largest tree in Connecticut and the largest elm in 
America. It was planted as a sapling about 1758. and has a circumference of 
4 1 ft., height 102 ft., and branch spread 146 ft. West of the Green is the home 
site (marked) of Rev. Elishah Williams (3) who was chosen a tutor of Yale 
College in 1716, and taught some of the classes in Wethersfield during the 
period of transition. He was rector of Yale from 1726-39, and later practised 
law here. He also served as an officer during King George's War. North 
from the Green, on our left, stands the second in age of the many old houses 
along the elm-shaded streets, built in 1680 by Oliver Williams (4; 249 Broad 
st.) It is of 2 l /2 stories with central chimney. Ferry Lane, to the east, opened 
in 1640, was the crossing place of the first post road in America, from New 
York to Boston, operated from 1673 to 1795. 

At the corner of Main St., the * Congregational Church (5) the first brick 
church building in Connecticut, was erected in 1761. There is a square tower, 
surmounted by a belfry with graceful spire. The building has quoins on the 
corners and heavy stone caps over doorway and windows. The church 
organization goes back to 1635, and a boulder on the lawn marks the site of 
the first meeting house. Behind the Church is the ancient * Burial Place (6) 
with the graves of many early worthies. The oldest stone is that of Leonard 
Chester, 1648, bearing the coat-of-arms of the Chester family. 

Turning south on Main St., we come to the **Webb House (7) now main- 
tained as a museum by the Colonial Dames (25 cent fee.) This mansion, of 
the central hall type, with gambrel roof and a graceful entrance porch, was 
built in 1752 by Joseph Webb, a wealthy merchant and West India trader. It 
came to be known as Hospitality Hall. Silas Deane married Webb's widow, 
and occupied the house until he built his own next door. A meeting was 
arranged here between Washington and Rochambeau, and in 1781 the 
five-day conference which planned the York town campaign. The "Yorktown 
Room," and Washington's chamber, with the four-poster bed and original 
wallpaper, are of great interest. The interior has fine paneling, and there is a 
beautiful shell-top cupboard. South of the W T ebb House is the house built by 
Silas Deane (8) in 1776. The piazza was added by later owners. The house 
has the unusual feature of a large square hall at the righthand corner, bringing 
the main doorway to the right of the front. Silas Deane (1737-1789) a rich 
importer, who had connected himself with prominent Connecticut families 
by his marriages, devoted his fortune to the Revolutionary cause. In 1776 
he was sent on a secret mission to France, where he interested Lafayette in 
America's struggle, and later secured the aid of the French Government. 
Calumniated for many years, but afterward vindicated, he died while returning 
from exile. On the opposite side of the street, a little farther south, is the 
dignified building of the old Academy (9; 150 Main st.) built in 1801. Going 
north on Main St., we pass the Wethersfield Historical Society (10) occupying 
four rooms in the Welles School, with interesting records and exhibits (open to 
visitors for a small fee.) Beyond this is the * Wet hers field Bank (11; Standish 
House) purchased by the town in 1927 to preserve the ancient appearance of a 
New England village. This house, a fine example of its period, was built by 
Henry A. Deming about 1790. There are heavily molded caps over the win- 
dows, and above the pilastered doorway a somewhat more elaborate cornice, 
surmounted by a triple window. 

Continuing north on Main St., we pass on the right the site of the old Fort 
(12) at the south end of Hammer Park, and reach the Cove, at one time the 



main channel of the Connecticut, and the seat of Wethersfield's extensive 
shipping and shipbuilding. The first ship launched in the Connecticut Colony 
was the "Tryall," built by Thomas Deming in 1649, and the last ship built 
in this yard (1877) was commanded by a Capt. Oliver Deming. The old 
Warehouse (13) which held West India goods, goes back to 1661, the survivor 
of six which were built in the early period. The road to the Cove, known as the 
Commons, is lined with the homes of former sea captains, many of them 
dating from the early 18th century. 

Turning west on State St., we pass the Slate Prison (14) with its beautiful 
lawn. The prison was moved here from the East Granby copper mine in 1827, 
and occupies about 50 acres. Jordan Lane, which crosses Route 9 (the Silas 
Deane Highway) was the original road to Farmington, and has a row of good 
houses on the north side. The Peter Deming House (15) of the salt-box type, 
probably was built soon after 1712. The *Ichabod Welles House a mile farther 
west, at the corner of Ridge Rd., was built in 1715, on the site of the original 
home located here by Wyllys Welles in 1684. Welles Corner, where the road 
from Hartford joined the Wethersfield-Farmington road, was an important 
landmark on the route to the Hudson River, used by Washington and by 
Rochambeau's army. The barn in the rear of the present house is an interest- 
ing example of primitive construction. 

vm. 11 


From Wethersfield, we make a side trip to the daughter town of Newington, 
settled about 1678. A parish was organized in 1713, probably taking its name 
from Stoke Newington near London, the residence of the Puritan hymn 
writer, Isaac Watts. The versatile Elisha Williams served as the first minister, 
until he was called to be rector of Yale in 1726. A separate town was incorpo- 
rated in 1871. Newington is now a suburb of Hartford, with a rapidly growing 

Taking Welles Rd. (R. 175) west from Wethersfield, we cross U. S. 5 and 
the trap rock ridge of Cedar Mountain, with fine views to the west. To our 
right on the ridge is Cedar crest, one of the State tuberculosis sanatoria. On 
the left, as we descend the hill, we pass the Newington Home for Crippled 
Children, founded in 1896. In the Cemetery at the center, one of the interesting 
graves is that of Capt. Martin Kellogg (1686-1753.) As a young man he was 
captured by the Indians at Deerfield, with his family, and taken to Canada. 
The sister married an Indian chief, but Martin made his escape, although 
twice recaptured. In later life, his knowledge of Indian language and ways 
enabled him to serve the Colony as interpreter and special emissary. Some 
Indian boys were sent down from Stockbridge to be taught at his home. 
Among later monuments, we have Rear Admiral Roger Welles (1862-1932.) 
A beautiful boulder of quartz and flint was set up in 1925 to honor the New- 
ington soldiers of every war who rest in unknown graves. 

The town has preserved a number of old landmarks. The John Whaples 
House, on the east side of the Green, was built in 1723 and has been well 


preserved. On Willard Ave., west of the center by Cedar St. (R. 175) we 
note on the west side of the street the house known as Wellesden Farm, built 
by Gen. Martin Kellogg in 1808. Beyond this is the U. S. Veteran's Hospital, 
dedicated in 1931. On the east side of Willard Ave. stands the Major Justus 
Francis House of 1770. South of Cedar St. we find the historic Mill Pond, with 
a natural rock dam. Around this pond, according to tradition, the Wangunk 
Indians had their wigwams, "near as thick as the houses in a city." Their 
sachem, from whom the land was purchased, was named Sequin. The oldest 
house in Newington is the Eliphalet Whittlesey House, farther to the west on 
Maple Hill Ave., dating from 1710 and keeping its old lines. Continuing on 
R. 175, a high viaduct crosses the dry channel, now used by the R. R., which 
was occupied by the Connecticut River, when its regular course was blocked 
by the glacial dam at Rocky Hill. 

South of the center, on Main St., is Churchill Park of over 22 acres, given 
to the town in 1931 by George Dudley Seymour, in memory of his Churchill 
forebears. On this land stood the mansion of Capt. Charles Churchill, with 
five ovens to prepare food for its guests. The Captain saw active service in 
the Revolution, and as member of a committee was untiring in securing food 
and clothing for the soldiers in the field. It is said that he papered one of the 
rooms in his house with the depreciated bills received in payment. Some dis- 
tance to the extreme southwest of the town, on Kelsey St., we find the Enoch 
Kelsey House, built before 1750. 

HARTFORD. See Journey VI. 7. 

VIII. 12 

In 1633, the Plymouth Colony, acting on an invitation from the local 
Indians and an earlier suggestion by the Dutch, established a trading post at 
the mouth of the Farmington River. They set up a ready-made house, the 
first to be erected in Connecticut. The main settlement began with a Puritan 
congregation which had organized in England, with Rev. John Warham as 
minister, and settled at Dorchester, Mass., in 1630. After scouting the Connect- 
icut River territory, the Dorchester people began their migration in 1635. 
The colonists took the overland route, and arrived so late that they barely 
survived the first winter. In 1637, during the Pequot War, a "palisado" was 
erected on a rise of ground just north of the Farmington. The Plymouth men 
were finally forced to sell out. Windsor, as the new town was called, from 
the town of that name near London, formed one of the original units of the 
Connecticut Colony. Among the leaders was the forceful but tempestuous 
Roger Ludlow, whom we have met in the Fairfield County settlements. 

As the head of tidewater navigation and the natural outlet for the upper 
Connecticut valley, Windsor became an important shipping and shipbuilding 

VIII. 12 



center. The town consists of a sandy river plain. The soil proved adapted to 
tobacco, which has been cultivated since 1640. Connecticut tobacco is used 
for cigar wrappers, and much of it is now grown under cheesecloth canopies 
to secure a lighter color. The town has been a residence for Hartford business 


1. Horace H. Hayden monument. 2. Loomis Institute. 3. John Moore House. 4. 
Old Moore House. 5. Oliver Mather House. 6. Alexander Wolcott house. 7. Warham 
Mill. 8. First Church. 9. Palisado Green. 10. Wm. Russell House. 11. Walter Fyler 
house. 12. Chaffee House. 13. James Hooker House. 14. Bissell's Ferry. 15. Stough- 
ton's Fort. 16. Oliver Ellsworth house. 

men; Oliver Ellsworth used to walk the 9 miles to his Hartford law office and 
back. Clay deposits have supplied an important brick industry, and "Har- 
vard Struck" brick is made here. Windsor has preserved an unusual number of 
Colonial houses. 


Route U. S. 5A. after entering Windsor from Hartford, becomes a continu- 
ous village street, parallel with the Connecticut River, known first as Windsor 
Ave.. then Broad St., and above the Farmington as Palisado Ave. The old 
houses are labeled and dated, so that only the more outstanding items will be 

The reader of John W. Barber's "Historical Collections" will be glad to 
note the historian's birthplace, on our left after crossing the town line: the 
house built in 1790 by Elisha Barber, Jr. (227 Windsor ave.) The Capt. Thomas 
Allyn House (573 Windsor ave.) built before 1690. is the oldest brick house 
in Windsor, and in the State. Farther north, on the east side of the street, we 
pass a monument to Horace H. Hayden (1769-1844: 1 on Chart XXXIII) a 
pioneer in scientific dentistry. He organized the first dental society in the 
world in 1834, and in 1840 established at Baltimore the first dental college. 

Turning east on Island Rd., we reach Loomis Institute, (2) a private school 
for boys endowed by the Loomis family in 1874 and opened for students in 
1914. The * Loomis Homestead is still standing: the south ell. with a rear porch 
enclosed on three sides, built by Joseph Loomis, probably before 1652, and the 
larger portion added by his son, Dea. John Loomis. about 1688. The chimneys 
are brick, of local manufacture. The lead of the older diamond paned windows 
was melted for bullets during the W f ar of 1812. The paneled wainscoting should 
be noted, and the wall cupboard in the living room is probably the oldest in 
the country. An iron fireback, brought from England by one of the first 
settlers, with the royal coat of arms and "M. R." for Queen Mary, is now in 
Founders Hall, the next building to the Homestead. A boulder on the grounds, 
at the mouth of the Farmington, marks the Landing Place of the Plymoutn 
trading company in 1633. The land between here and the center is still known 
as Plymouth Meadow. 

As we approach the center, the John Moore House (3: 390 Broad st.) goes 
back to 1675, and around the corner, at 35 Elm St., is the *0ld Moore House (4) 
of 1664, moved from its original site and remodeled, but retaining the framed 
overhang and "drops." To our right, the Col. Oliver Mather House (5) 
of 1777, facing the Broad Street Green, is now used by the Public Library, 
with an exhibit of old furniture, and household and farm utensils (Tues., 
Thurs., and Sat.) At the north end of the Green is the house built by Dr. 
Alexander Wolcott (6) in 1745. He was a son of Gov. Roger Wolcott (1679- 
1767) who started in poverty, without a chance to attend school, but became 
one of the most prominent and cultured citizens of Connecticut; his home, 
while governor, was across the river in South Windsor. Alexander, the owner 
of this house, was a prominent physician. Another son. Gov. Oliver Wolcott. 
father of Gov. Oliver Colcott, Jr., studied medicine with his brother before 
moving to Goshen and Litchfield. The sister Ursula married Matthew Gris- 
wold of Lyme. so that Roger Wolcott became father-in-law of another governor 
and grandfather of a fourth. 

Turning northwest on Poquonnock Ave., we find at the corner of East St. 
the * War ham Mill (7) built according to tradition in 1640 for Rev. John 
Warham, the first minister. There are several 17th century houses on East 
St. Poquonnock Ave. (R. 75) with its branches offers other landmarks, and 
leads to the manufacturing villages of Poquonnock and Rainbow. At the 
latter, in 1890, the Hartford Electric Light Co. built a pioneer hydro-electric 
generating station, and installed in 1893 one of the earliest transmission lines. 
A 3-phase alternating current, at between 4000 and 5000 volts, was transmitted 
to Hartford. About ?4 mile northwest of Rainbow are some experimental pine 


plantations, now over 30 years old. West of Windsor center, about 1 Y miles 
by Bloomfield Ave., there is an unusual stand of pine. 

Crossing the Farmington River, we pass on the left, on the river bank, the 
present building of the First Church (8) with its Doric portico, erected in 1794. 
North of the Church is the old * Burial Ground, of great beauty and interest. 
Among those buried here are John Warham, Roger Wolcott and Oliver Ells- 
worth. The tombstone of Rev. Ephraim Huit, dated Sep. 4th, 1644, is the 
oldest in the State. The original stockade covered this section of the town. 
On the small Palisado Green (9) is the Ship Monument, commemorating the 
organization of the church in England in 1630; it was designed by a dis- 
tinguished local artist, Evelyn Beatrice Longman (Mrs. N. H. Batchelder.) 
The Rev. Wm. Russell House (10; 101 Palisado ave.) west of the Green, dates 
from 1753 and is a fine sample of its period. The house just north of it, built 
by Oliver Ellsworth for his son in 1807, has a charming doorway. To our right 
is the oldest house in Windsor, built in 1640 by Lieut. Walter Fyler (11; 96 
Palisado ave.) and now occupied by the Windsor Historical Society; the oldest 
section is the gable toward the street. The James Hooker House (13; 118 
Palisado ave.) was the birthplace of the poet Edward Rowland Sill (1841-87.) 
This and the large brick Chaff ee House (12; 1765) next on the south, are 
occupied by the Chaff ee School for Girls, a branch of Loomis Institute. There 
are some interesting houses on Meadow Rd. The long tongue of land at the 
mouth of the Farmington is an excellent example of the Flood Plain and flood 
plain vegetation. 

Going north on Palisado Ave., we pass on the right the markers which tell 
the story of Bissell's Ferry (14) and Stoughton's Fort (15) and come to **Elm- 
wood (16; 778 Palisado ave.) built in 1740 by David Ellsworth, and the home 
of his distinguished son. Oliver Ellsworth (1845-1807) one of Connecticut's 
greatest legal minds, took a leading part in the framing of the Federal Con- 
stitution, served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and was Envoy 
Extraordinary to France. The house is now maintained as a museum by the 
Daughters of the American Revolution (25 cent fee.) It is one of our earliest 
examples of the central hall type. Oliver added a large drawing room on the 
south, with a 2-story porch under an extension of the main roof. He also 
planted the elms in front, named for the 13 States. The plaster of the rooms 
is covered with wallpaper, some of it hand-made. The house is still filled with 
the furniture, books and tapestries gathered by the Envoy on his travels. In 
the kitchen is a sink hollowed out of a sandstone slab. 

Farther north, a granite boulder a few rods south of 924 Palisado Ave. 
marks the birthplace of Daniel Bissell, the famous patriot spy of the Revo- 
lution. There are other good houses on Pink St., which turns northwest a 
little below the Windsor I^ocks line. 


VIII. 13 

Windsor Locks, originally known as Pine Meadow, lies on the west side of 
the Enfield Rapids. A fording place on the Connecticut at this point, the only 
one in the Colony, probably was used by the companies which went to Hart- 
ford and Windsor. Windsor Locks was settled as a part of Windsor in 1663. 
At the outbreak of the Revolution, there were 9 heads of families here, and 8 
of them enlisted in the army. 

Commercial development began in 1829, with the completion of the Canal, 
built by Hartford business men to meet the competition of the canal from New 
Haven to Northampton. It is said that a committee sent to England to in- 
vestigate the new railroads, had decided that they were not practical. W T hen 
water transportation fell off in the railroad era, the Canal proved a valuable 
source of power, and several 999-year leases were made to industries established 
on its banks. Windsor Locks became noted for its paper mills. Among other 
industries today are yarn and knitting factories and large tobacco packing 
establishments. A separate town was incorporated in 1854. 

To the right of U. S. 5A, as we go north, are good examples of Stream Terraces, 
where the Connecticut has cut through glacial drift. Each terrace represents 
a former level of the river. The highway runs along the railway and canal. The 
Dexter paper mill was established in 1836. On the hill southwest of the lower 
lock, nearly opposite the R. R. crossing, a flint boulder marks the home site of 
the first settler, Henry Denslow, who was killed by the Indians during King 
Philip's War. The granite Memorial Hall, west of the highway, a short dis- 
tance south of the village center, was given to the G. A. R. in 1891 by Chas. 
E. Chaffee, and is now managed as a community house by the Congregational 
church. On the northwest of the village, the clay beds utilized for brick making 
were deposied in the glacial lake formed by the damming of the river channel 
at Rocky Hill. On R. 20 to Granby, a State Fish Hatchery for trout will be 
found on the left in 1 mile, just beyond the cemetery. U. S. 5A continues 
north through the town of Sumeld. 

VIII. 14 

About 1670, settlers from Springfield laid out a town at Stony Brook which 
they called Suffield, originally spelled Southfield. Though under Massachusetts 
jurisdiction, Suffield and Enfield were found to lie within the limits of the 
Connecticut Charter. Taxes were lower in Connecticut, the Charter gave 
the towns more freedom, and many of the people had come from that Colony. 
A secession movement began, in which they were joined by Woodstock. In 
1749, the Connecticut General Assembly voted to receive these border towns. 
When the long boundary dispute was finally settled in 1804, Massachusetts 
was given the small area that makes a dent in the northern line of Suffield and 

VIII. 14 



Gen. Phineas Lyman made his home here in 1743, became noted as a lawyer, 
and established what amounted to a law school. He gave distinguished 
service in the French and Indian War, and died in 1775 while attempting the 
colonization of Mississippi. Gideon Granger (1767-1822) was postmaster 
general under Jefferson and Madison, and later moved to Canandaigua, N. Y. 
With his sons and other Suffield business men, he was interested in land specu- 
lation in central New York and the Western Reserve of Ohio. Another 


1. Timothy Phelps House. 2. Luther Loomis Place. 3. Abraham Burbank House. 4. 
Green. 5. Harvey Bissell House. 6. Second Baptist Church. 7. Gay Manse. 8. Gay 
Mansion. 9. Kent Memorial Library. 10. Suffield School. 

interesting name is Dr. Sylvester Graham, born at West Suffield in 1794, a 
dietary reformer to whom we owe the name "graham bread." 

Suffield consists of a fertile river plain, with a trap rock range on the western 
border. The town has been a leader in the Tobacco industry. Cigar making 
was introduced in 1810 by Simeon Viets, who hired a Cuban derelict to teach 
the local women how to roll them. The product was sold by peddlers, some 
of whom went into the cigar-making business for themselves and acquired 
wealth. Shortly before the Civil War, improved methods of curing tobacco 


were introduced, and cigar factories took the place of the older domestic 
industry. Tobacco continues to be grown extensively for cigar wrappers, 
and there are large sorting and packing establishments at Suffield and West 
Suffield. Much of the crop is now grown under shade, and the cheesecloth 
canopies, when seen at a distance, give the impression of lakes. 

U. S. 5A continues north along the Connecticut River, with good views. 
Taking R. 75 north from Windsor, we pass through Suffield Village, which lies 
along the old road from Hartford to Springfield. High Street has many good 
Colonial houses. The Capt. * Timothy Phelps House (1 on Chart XXXIV) 
on our left, has a good porch, Palladian window and heavily molded cornice. 
The Luther Lootnis Place (2) on the right, at the corner of Bridge St., was 
built in 1790 by a wealthy merchant and land promoter. It is now used as a 
Masonic Club. The house has fine interior woodwork. The main part of the 
Capt. * Abraham Burbank House (3; Hatheway Place) with its gambrel roof, 
was built in 1736. There are quoins on the corners and elaborate moldings on 
the window heads and cornice. The north wing, which follows the earlier 
treatment rather closely, was added by Asahel Hatheway, Jr., in 1815. A 
notable feature is the Barn, with its arched openings and pediment, built about 
1790 by Burbank's son Shem, one of the few Tories in Suffield. 

On the Green (4) above R. 190, a boulder has been placed by the D. A. R. to 
mark the site of the First Meeting House. Going up the east side of the street, 
the Harvey Bissell House (5) of 1815 has tried the experiment of a second and 
somewhat smaller porch of Colonial design above the first. Next to this is the 
Second Baptist Church (6) erected in 1840, with a dignified Ionic portico. The 
charming *Gay Manse (7) with central chimney and gambrel roof, was built by 
Rev. Ebenezer Gay in 1742. The doorway has a broken-scroll pediment of 
great beauty, and there are key blocks over the windows. Beyond the next 
cross street is the most pretentious house in Suffield, the so-called *Gay Man- 
sion (8.) It was built in 1795 by Ebenezer King, Jr., a wealthy land owner, 
interested in the colonization of the W T estern Reserve. He sold the place to 
William Gay, a prominent lawyer. The two doorways have open gables 
supported by columns. Above the main entrance is a Palladian window, 
repeated on a smaller scale in the broad pediment of the hip roof. There are 
2-story pilasters beside the entrance and on the corners. 

On the west side of the street, the beautiful Kent Memorial Library (9) 
given by Sidney A. Kent in 1897, stands on the lot assigned to the first Kent 
settler in Suffield. It houses the Sheldon Collection, rich in books and manu- 
scripts relating to Suffield and New England history. Suffield School (10) an 
endowed school for boys, is beyond the Library. It began in 1833 as the Con- 
necticut Baptist Literary Institution. The "Middle Building" occupies the 
site of the Gideon Granger house, and has been appropriately marked. 

The country roads, particularly in the western part of the town, are worth 
exploring for their old houses, some of them going back to the first half of the 
18th century. West on R. 190, at the corner of Sheldon St., is the Benajah 
Kent Place of 1800. A mile southwest of this, on the south side of Sheldon St., 
we find the oldest inhabited house in Suffield, built by Capt. Jonathan 
Sheldon in 1723. R. 190 passes through West Suffield, with a superb panorama 
of the Connecticut and Massachusetts hills from the summit of Suffield Moun- 
tain. At this point the highway intersects the blue-marked Metacomet Trail, 
which comes up from East Granby, and follows north along the trap rock 
range to the Massachusetts line. The Trail gives fine views to west and east. 

VIII. 14 



The highway continues north and west to Lake Congamond; the sphagnum 
bogs along the shore are of interest to botanists for their black spruce and a 
variety of typical bog plants. 

R. 190 follows High St. through Suffield village, and turns east to the 
Thompsonville bridge. Continuing on the highway to the north, the King 
House on the left, with its beautiful doorway, was built by Wm. King about 
1750. The door is an interesting example of vertical boards, backed by board- 
ing on the inside at right angles. The interior has a fine shell-top corner 
cupboard. By turning off northwest on Russell Ave., we reach the First 
Baptist Church, organized in 1769, the first in Hartford county. The present 
building was erected in 1846. A bronze tablet on the porch commemorates 
the first three pastors, who are buried in the cemetery west of the Church. 
The old Gad Lane Tavern, built by Samuel Lane in 1726, can be reached by 
the next crossroad north of Russell Ave., running from Sufneld to Westfield. 
Farther north on the highway, Buck Hill, on our left, about 2> miles from 
the center, gives a good view of the surrounding country. 

VIII. 15 

From Suffield we cross the River to the town of Enfield, originally a part of 
Springfield. The town was first settled in 1680 by families from Salem, Mass., 
and named from Enfield in the English county of Middlesex. For the river 
traffic to Springfield, flat-bottomed boats were poled up the rapids and then 
reloaded; expert pole men made a good living at this until the Canal was 
constructed in 1829. Enfield, with Suffield and Woodstock, seceeded from 
Massachusetts, and was admitted by the Connecticut General Assembly 
in 1749. 

East of the Connecticut, we pass through the village of Thompsonville, 
where Orin Thompson in 1828 established an important carpet industry, with 
workmen brought over from Scotland. This business, continued by the 
Bigelow Sanford Carpet Co., was made possible by the protective tariff of 
1828. Among other industries in the village are casket hardware and tobacco 

Going east of Thompsonville on Elm St. and Shaker Rd., we come to the old 
*Shaker Village. Members of this sect, followers of Mother Ann Lee, estab- 
lished a celibate communistic settlement here in 1787, under Joseph Meacham. 
It lasted until 1915, when the property was sold to the State for a Prison Farm. 
Most of the buildings are still standing. On the hill above is a memorial 
constructed out of the united grave stones. There is a good view from the 
hill on the Somers town line a mile to the northeast. A mile north of the settle- 
ment is an interesting Pine Plantation, set out by the Shakers 70 years ago. 
About l l /2 miles northwest, near the Massachusetts border, we have a good 
example of Active Sand Dunes, where sand has been blown up on an old glacial 
flat and is constantly shifting its form. 

East of Thompsonville on R. 20, we pass through Hazardville. In 1835 
a small powder mill was built here, and a few years later a large powder industry 


was developed by Col. Augustus G. Hazard. The factory was closed down in 
1913. Powder Hollow on the south of the village, along the Scantic River, 
makes an attractive drive. 

Going south on U. S. 5, with good views of the River at intervals, we pass 
along Enfield Street, laid out 12 rods wide at the time of the first settlement. 
On the east side, we find the old Cemetery, with one stone going back to 1696, 
and a boulder marking the site of the first meeting house. Beyond this is the 
large brownstone mansion built by Col. Augustus G. Hazard. Farther, on 
the west, stands the old *Town Hall with its portico, erected in 1775 as the 
third building of the Church; it was moved across the street, and is now used 
as a community house. It was around this building that Capt. Thomas Abbey 
beat a drum during church service, on news of the Battle of Lexington. Across 
the street stands the present Congregational Church, built in 1848, with a chaste 
Ionic portico and an octagonal belfry under the spire. In front of the Church, 
on the former church site, is the beautiful * Thomas Abbey Monument, surround- 
ed by marble seats, and with a small park as setting. The large brick building 
south of the Church, with the porticoed wings, was the home of Orin Thompson, 
the pioneer carpet manufacturer. A little farther south, on the Green opposite 
the Post Office, a boulder marks the site of the Second Church Building 
(1704-1775) where Jonathan Edwards in 1741 preached his celebrated sermon 
on "Sinners in the hands of an angry God," which played an important part 
in the Great Awakening. 

There are many fine old houses along Enfield Street, as well as on the outly- 
ing roads. The Capt. Ephraim Pease Homestead, dating from 1702, stands just 
below the Jonathan Edwards boulder. Continuing south, we note on the right 
the Benjamin Pease House of 1700, and not far beyond it the Capt. Dennis 
Bement House of 1711. Opposite the latter, on the east side, is the Holkins 
Bement House of a later type, built in 1831. Up the side road to the east, on 
the left hand side, stands the old Terry Homestead, with its gambrel roof. 
Farther, on the left side of the Street, at the angle, we find the Nathaniel 
Parsons House, dating from 1753. 

VIII. 16 

The eastern bank of the Connecticut was used as summer pasturage by 
families from Windsor, but was not safe for permanent settlement until the 
end of King Philip's War in 1676. A parish was organized in 1695, and a 
separate town incorporated in 1768. Much of the original territory now falls 
within the bounds of South Windsor. 

Going south from Enfield on U. S. 5, Warehouse Point lies to our right, at 
the head of tidewater navigation. The village takes its name from the ware- 
house established by Wm. Pynchon of Springfield, probably about 1636, for 
use in the transfer of river freight around the rapids. The highway passes 
through another tobacco region, and during the growing season many of the 
fields are covered with cheesecloth canopies to provide shade. Shade-grown 
tobacco is a special variety. 


To the east, R. 140 passes through the village of Scantic to Broad Brook, on 
the Scantic River, where there is a woolen mill and a large tobacco sorting and 
packing industry. Scantic was the seat of an early Scotch-Irish settlement. 

VIII. 17 

South Windsor, formerly a part of East Windsor, was settled about the same 
time (1676, after King Philip's war) and organized as a separate town in 1845. 
Gov. Roger Wolcott made his home here. Daniel Burnap had a clock shop from 
about 1780 to 1800, with Eli Terry as one of his apprentices. The growing and 
packing of tobacco for cigar wrappers is an important industry. 

U. S. 5 is a continuous village street, known as South Windsor Street. Places 
of interest can best be indicated by Bus Station numbers. Since we are 
traveling from north to south, the numbers will be in reverse order. 

As we climb what is still known as East Windsor Hill, the first house on the 
east of the highway is the Samuel Webster House (Asa Borne House) built of 
brick in 1787, with a central chimney and three dormers. At Station 59, on 
the northeast corner, is the imposing * Watson- Bancroft House, built by John 
Watson in 1781, with the desire to have the finest residence at East Windsor 
Hill. To the east on R. 194, the third house on the left was built by Captain 
May about 1780. Continuing south on the highway, we pass the buildings 
erected in 1834 for the Theological Institute of Connecticut (S. 56) which later 
became Hartford Seminary; the old chapel, now sadly deteriorated, has a 
2-story portico. Opposite, on the east side of the street, is the fine President's 
House, built in 1835 for the first president of the institution,; Rev. Bennet 
Tyler. South of the Seminary is the Capt. *Ebenezer Grant House (S. 54) 
dating from 1750. The wide doorway, with double doors, is flanked by pilas- 
ters and surmounted by a broken-scroll pediment with central support. 
Hessian prisoners were once confined in this house. It is said that many of the 
elms which line the village street were planted by these soldiers. 

At the *0ld Cemetery (S. 52^) a memorial gateway has been erected by 
the Colonial Dames. The right-hand post commemorates Rev. and Mrs, 
Timothy Edwards, who lie buried here under a table monument. The left- 
hand post notes the birthplace site (1200 feet to the south, on the east side) 
of their distinguished son, Rev. Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) a leader in 
the Great Awakening, and probably the greatest metaphysician America has 
produced. This cemetery contains the graves of 21 veterans of King George's 
War of 1745, more than any burial ground in the State. After this we pass the 
Jacob Strong House (S. 513^; Nathaniel Strong House) on the east, which may 
go back to 1698. The site of the Gov. Roger Wolcott home is at S. 49, on the 
west side of the highway and the south side of Pelton Rd., the old road to 
Gov. Wolcott's ferry; all that remains is the old well. The Samuel Moore 
House (S. 48) on the west, was built about 1700. At S. 44, midway between 
the north and south boundaries of the town, is the attractive First Congrega- 
tional Church, with its Doric portico. This is the third building, erected in 
1802. The organization dates back to 1694. The first minister was Rev. 
Timothy Edwards, a man of great ability but somewhat despotic, who ruled 


the church for 63 years. The church still has the silver communion beakers 
given by Gov. Wolcott. At S. 42 is another very old house. The Wood Memo- 
rial Library (S. 39) was given to the town by William Wood in memory of 
his mother. 

The meadow land along the Connecticut, west of U. S. 5. between the Scan- 
tic and Podunk Rivers, was the ancient camping and burial ground of the 
Podunk Indians, and many relics have been found here. This section, on 
both sides of the Connecticut, is probably the most notable Indian camp- 
ground site in the State. 

The John Fitch Monument is on King St., which parallels U. S. 5, a little 
to the east. It is on the east side of the road, just above the East Hartford 
town line, and marks approximately the site of his birthplace. John Fitch 
(1743-1798) was the roving Yankee genius who invented the Steamboat. In 
1787, he constructed at Philadelphia a boat with side paddle-wheels, operated 
by steam, which made 8 miles an hour, and 80 miles on an all-day run. A 
U. S. patent was secured in 1791. An endeavor to introduce the invention in 
France proved fruitless. Meeting nothing but disappointment and poverty, 
Fitch took his own life, but his invention paved the way for the later achieve- 
ment of Fulton and Livingston. 

R. 15 runs northeast to the village of Wapping, passing an Active Sand Dime, 
one of the largest in the State, visible to the west of the highway about 2 miles 
after R. 15 leaves U. S. 5. 

EAST HARTFORD. See Journey VII. 1. 

VIII. 18 

Glastonbury, formerly a part of Wethersfield, was settled about 1650. A 
separate town was incorporated in 1690, the first instance where a town was 
divided, and named from Glastonbury in the English county of Somerset. 
Except for a small strip along the River, the town lies in the rugged Eastern 

The J. B. Williams soap factory is located here, and Williams Bros, silver 
plated ware. At South Glastonbury, on Roaring Brook, earlier industries have 
been succeeded by a factory for woolen dress goods. 

Entering the town from East Hartford, in 1 \ miles we reach Welles Corner, 
where Hebron Ave. (R. 94) turns off to the east, and the New London turnpike 
(R. 2) to the southeast. On our right is the old Welles Tavern. The house on 
the east, built by Samuel Welles in 1780, was the birthplace of *Gideon Welles 
(1802-1878) Secretary of the Navy in Lincoln's cabinet. In another half mile, 
at Hubbard St., is a small Green, and a Cemetery, the oldest in the town. Three 
table gravestones commemorate the first minister, Rev. Timothy Stevens, and 
his two wives. 


The unusual number of Colonial houses along the highway makes the trip 
through Glastonbury on R. 15 a constant delight. A majority of them are 
substantial buildings of the later type of central chimney house, with graceful 
roofline. The * Wm. Miller House, a gambrel-roof cottage % mile south of 
the Green, built early in the 18th century, is notable for beauty of proportion 
and setting. The earlier salt-box type is represented by two houses along the 
highway below S. Glastonbury. Of the fine old houses south of Hebron Ave., 
eight were built by members of the Hale family. All are of the central 
chimney type, with the exception of the so-called Welles-Turner House at 
Sta. 45, with 2 chimneys, built by a Hale who removed to Ohio and erected its 

The Kimberly House, on the west side, about % mile beyond the Green, is 
associated with the Smith Sisters. Built by the Kimberly family before 1740, 
the house was sold to Zephaniah Smith, who had five daughters as remarkable 
as their names: Hancy Zephina, a mechanical genius; Cyrinthia Sacretia; 
Laurilla Aleroyla, an artist; Julia Evelina, a classical scholar; and Abby 
Hadassah. The two surviving spinsters, who were early advocates of equal 
suffrage, refused to pay taxes to an unequal government, and the seizure of their 
cows by the authorities became a national incident. Farther south, the 
traveller should watch for the great Oak on the west of the highway. 

At Station 57, in South Glastonbury, the *Welles-Shipman House, on the 
east side, was built by the Welles family about 1750. It is of 2 l / 2 stories with 
central chimney. The doorway has pilasters and frieze, and there is simple but 
attractive molding over the windows. The fireplace in the kitchen is 9 ft. 
5 in. wide, 4 ft. 6 in. high, and 3 ft. deep, with two brick ovens. On the left 
side of Tryon St. (R. 160) % mile to the west, we find the Hollister House, 
built about 1680 by John Hollister, one of the first settlers. It appears to have 
started with four rooms and central chimney, a lean-to being added later. 
There is a pronounced overhang on both stories. For the second story, the 
front corners have supporting corbels, hewn out of the corner posts, now 
partly obscured by an additional covering of clapboards. The house has been 
a good deal remodeled. A few roads west is another salt-box which retains its 
original lines. One of the later Hollisters had an important shipyard at the 
neighboring ferry. Tryon St. continues south along the river bank and makes 
an attractive drive. There are two other salt-box houses at East Glastonbury, 
four miles east. 

There is much fine scenery in the town of Glastonbury. Going over our 
route again and noting the crossroads, Hebron Ave. (R. 94) runs east from 
Glastonbury center through the hamlet of Buckingham. It continues as a 
rough road (turn left on Gay City rd.) over John Tom Hill, the highest point 
in Glastonbury, 920 feet, with a complete horizon. About 1 ]/2 miles southwest 
of this point is the attractive Diamond Lake. 

Route 2, the New London turnpike, makes a good drive, with a fine offlook 
where we climb out of the Central Lowland. We pass Eight Mile Hill to our 
left, with a good western view. In about 4 miles, at the junction of Manches- 
ter Rd. (R. 83) is a large White Oak, nearly 20 feet in circumference, under 
which Asbury, the father of American Methodism, preached about the time of 
the Revolution. Soldiers on the march in the War of 1812 used the tree for 
target practice. About 3 miles farther, the highway goes through Ten Curve 
Pass, the eastward channel temporarily occupied by a glacial stream, when its 
normal flow to the south was blocked by ice or glacial debris. Nipsic Pool, 


whose medicinal properties were known to the Indians, may be reached by 
going 2 miles north on R. 83 and 1 mile east on Nipsic Rd. ; the Pool lies to the 
north, back of a white farmhouse. 

One of the most scenic drives over dirt roads is to take Chestnut Hill Rd., 
about 2 miles south of the Green, and turn south on Hale St., The southerly 
views are rewarding. By continuing south on Woodland St. to Hollister St., 
we reach another fine southern outlook. 

At South Glastonbury, the picturesque glen of Roaring Brook to the east 
is worth following. A powder mill was started here before the Revolution. 
From the cotton mills established early in the 19th century, it received the 
name of Cotton Hollow. 

Farther south, R. 15 crosses Still Hill, where there is another old cemetery. 
One can sit here and look up the Connecticut valley as far as Mt. Tom, 45 
miles away. A mile southeast on Belltown Rd. there is a good view to the 
east and south. The old Husband Quarry, with a variety of minerals, lies to 
the east of R. 15, about \ > mile before reaching the Portland line. 

VIII. 19 

Portland, formerly East Middletown, was settled about 1690. It was made 
a parish in 1714, and a separate town in 1841. Portland became noted for its 
shipyards and quarries; the name was taken from Portland in the English 
county of Dorset, where there is extensive quarrying. 

As we enter the town from Glastonbury by R. 15, the old Andrews Quarry, 
with a variety of minerals, lies to our right. In 2 4 mile we have a fine view of 
the River. Cotton Hill Rd. leads east to Meshomasic State Forest, the oldest 
state forest in New England, the first purchases going back to 1903. Mulford 
Road, the main north and south road through the Forest, which makes an 
attractive drive, is named for Walter Mulford, the first State Forester. 
Meshomasic Ml. in the northeast corner is famous for its rattlesnakes, and 
commands fine views of the Connecticut valley. 

After about 2 ! 2 miles on the highway, Cox's Rd. turns east 1} 2 miles to the 
Pclton Quarry, another source of minerals. In another mile, at the village of 
Gildersleeve, we pass to the right the old Gildersleeve Shipyard, one of the most 
active on the River. The first vessel to be built here was a schooner of 90 
tons in 1741. During the Revolution, a number of warships were launched, 
including the "Bourbon" of 900 tons, and others during the War of 1812. 
There were also yards farther down the river. The ships of the line between 
New York and Galveston, established in 1836, were all built in Portland. 
Turning east on Summer St. I 1 2 miles, a cart track leads up Collins Hill to 
the famous ^Strickland Quarry, the "mineralogist's paradise," visited by 
mineral collectors from many States. It is a deep quarry, cut in a dike of 
pegmatite, and a location of great beauty. The commercial products have 
been feldspar for pottery and white mica for electrical insulation. About 25 
varieties of minerals have been found, the largest assortment from any Connect- 
icut mine. 

VIII. 19 



In Portland Village, which stretches along a shaded street, the *Brownstone 
Quarries lie between R. 15 and the River. The fine-grained sandstone was 
used from earliest days for gravestones and building purposes. It supplied 
most of the brownstone fronts for New York City. The rock strata are rela- 
tively flat, with a slight dip to the south. Some of the layers show well de- 
veloped sun-cracks, indicating that the sand was laid down in a semi-arid 
climate. Many dinosaur footprints have been found here, and there are traces 
of them on some of the slabs scattered over the fields at the northern end of 
the quarry area. Other industries in the village include rubber thread, engine 
governors and tobacco packing. 

At the Middletown bridge, we change to R. 14, which makes a scenic drive 
above the Connecticut River gorge. In 3 miles we reach the interesting 
geological region of Jobs Pond, % mile north of the highway. The series of 
glacial kettles, among the most perfect in the State, were formed by isolated 
blocks of ice, buried in glacial sand and gravel as the ice melted. The chain 
extends about l l / 2 miles. Jobs Pond, itself a large kettle, has no outlet, and is 
fed by distant springs; the level rises and falls, sometimes as much as 15 feet, 
without reference to the immediate rainfall. In the fields on both sides of the 
highway are eskers, irregular gravel ridges deposited by streams beneath the 
ice sheet. 

Near the East Hampton line, a road turns north and east about % mile to 
the attractive Great Hill Pond, where there is a State Park and facilities for 
bathing. One of the best views of it is from the old Hebert House, early 18th 
century, a few hundred feet north of the turn. Overlooking the Pond on the 
east is Great Hill, another region noted for rattlesnakes and copperheads, with 
a fine view of the lower Connecticut River. Long Island Sound can be seen 
on a clear day. 

VIII. 20 

The town of East Hampton, at one time included in Middletown, was settled 
about 1710. A parish was organized in 1746. In 1767, the town of Chatham 
was incorporated, named from William Pitt, Earl of Chatham. The name was 
changed in 1915 to conform to that of the principal village. The name 
East Hampton is said to be derived from Eastham, Mass., where some of the 
inhabitants had previously lived. 

The town is rich in mineral specimens. As we cross the line from Portland 
on R. 14, we enter the village of Cobalt. A mile north and y% mile east is 
*Cobalt Mine, a public picnic area of great beauty, at the foot of Great Hill. It 
lies in the Meshomasic State Forest. The mine has been worked at intervals 
since 1762. Some cobalt was found, in connection with mica, as well as nickel 
and traces of other metals. Below the main shaft, about l / mile down the 
beautiful ravine, a long horizontal tunnel was excavated on the west bank. 
About 1 } 2 miles to the northeast on the same road, to the left, is the old Nathan 
Hall Quarry, where many minerals are found, including rose quartz. The 
second left turn leads north to Bald Hill Fire Tower, with a commanding 


R. 14 continues east through attractive country to the village of East Hamp- 
ton, the "bell town." the center of that industry for the country, with a number 
of bell factories. The oldest is Bevin Bros., which traces back to 1830. Other 
industries in the village include fish lines, thread and toys. The old Bevin 
House, to our right on Maple Ave. as we approach the village center, dates 
from the middle of the 18th century. 

Skirting the village, we pass the beautiful *Pocolopaug Lake, with its twin 
islands. Sears Park, a gift to the town from the Sears family, lies on the west 
side of the lake. The Ledges in Markham's Bay have the legend of an Indian 
maiden, who sacrificed herself to appease the Great Spirit, and check the 
frequent drownings which were a mark of his anger. On the shore, to the left 
of the highway, is the Deacon West Place, early 18th century, with its long 
sloping roof. East of the Lake, Baker Hill to our right gives a fine view in all 
directions. R. 14 continues to Marlborough and Willimantic. 

At Cobalt, R. 151 forks to the south, with fine views of the Connecticut. 
The highway passes through Middle Haddam, once an important shipping 
and shipbuilding center. It served as the outlet for a large territory to the 
east. One of the master shipbuilders, Thomas Child, is said to have turned out 
237 vessels. About ^ mile east of Middle Haddam, on a side hill to our left, is 
an old Garnet Mine. Continuing south on the highway, we reach Hurd Park 
along the River, a State Park of 548 acres, acquired in 1915. In the northern 
portion is an attractive hemlock gorge. The area is of interest to geologists 
from the gray gneisses which intrude still older sedimentary rocks, transformed 
into schists. The breakwater at the boat landing was built of sandstone from 
the Portland quarry, and on some of the slabs we find dinosaur footprints. A 
half mile southeast of R. 151, near the East Haddam town line, is the Old 
Lithia Mine (Swanson Quarry) the source of many minerals. Another good 
hunting ground for collectors is the Skokum Quarry on Salmon River, best 
reached by a road running south from East Hampton. Beautiful gem heliodor 
and clear crystals of deep golden beryl have been found here. 

VIII. 21 

East Haddam was settled as a part of Haddam about 1670, organized as a 
separate parish in 1700, and incorporated as a town in 1734. It was an im- 
portant center of shipping and shipbuilding. The town extends east from 
the Connecticut River across many miles of attractive scenery. 

On R. 151 from East Hampton, we cross a corner of Haddam on the east 
side of the River, and the road to Haddam Neck, where there is an annual 
country fair. Opposite Haddam village is the old Gillette Quarry, with many 
minerals. It was at one time operated as a gem quarry by a N. Y. jewelry 
firm. The last blast yielded $700 worth of gem tourmalines. 

The highway enters East Haddam at Leesville, the head of tidewater on 
Salmon River. Below the power dam is a spawning ground for Connecticut 
River shad, with a State Fish Hatchery operating during May and June. 
Sloops were built here, and a pioneer oil mill established in 1765, followed by a 


cotton mill. * Salmon River, which forms the boundary with East Hampton, 
gives still water for many miles above Leesville. It is one of the best streams 
for boating in the State, and there is a considerable summer colony. About 
\y% miles beyond Leesville, a cart track leads ^ mile north to the Moodus 
Cave, associated with subterranean noises which alarmed both Indians and 
whites. They may be due to readjustments of the earth's crust. R. 149 
turns off northeast to the village of Moodus, which has been for over a hundred 
years a center of the twine industry. The Brownell mill traces back to 1825. 
East of Moodus, R. 149 leads past the attractive Moodus Reservoir, surrounded 
by wooded hills. East of the Reservoir, about 1 1 A miles from the highway, is a 
typical glacial drumlin, a long rounded hill of stony clay, which marks the 
direction of the ice movement. It is possible by country roads to reach 
Shaw Lake (Lake Hayward) in the northeastern corner of the town, best 
visited from Colchester. 

Continuing south toward East Haddam village, we pass good examples of 
Constructional Terraces, a characteristic feature of glacial Connecticut. They 
are deposits made in streams or lakes at the margins of the wasting glacier 
ice, and their form gives the pattern of the ice edge. Fingerlike terraces 
represent arms reaching into crevasses. About 1^ miles from the junction 
with R.149, the old Cove Burying Ground lies to our right, by a wood road. The 
oldest dated stone reads 1723, though the cemetery probably was in use for a 
considerable time before that. 

In another mile, the Gen. * Epaphroditus Champion House, known as the 
Terraces, crowns a low bluff above the River. Gen. Champion, a prosperous 
West India trader, was a son of Col. Henry Champion of Westchester (Col- 
chester) deputy commissary during the Revolution, and helped to drive a 
relief train of cattle to Washington at Valley Forge. He moved to East Had- 
dam after the war, and built this house in 1794, at a cost of $10,000. The 
architect was William Spratt, whose fine creative work we have seen in Farm- 
ington and Litchfield. The house has a hip roof, surmounted by a balustrade, 
heavily molded cornice and window heads, quoins, and handsome porches on 
three sides. On the south door is a knocker in Adam style, covered with water 
gilding, said to be a lost art. Nearer the village is a memorial park, with a 
monument to Gen. Joseph Spencer, an able leader in the Revolution, who went 
to Ohio and was appointed as the first judge for the Northwest Territory. On 
the hill in the rear of the park is the * Nathan Hale Schoolhouse, preserved by 
the Sons of the American Revolution. Hale taught here for a year after gradu- 
ation from Yale, before going to New London. The building was moved from 
the crossroads near the Landing; the original location is marked by a Nathan 
Hale Bust. On the way to the village we pass on the east the attractive 
Rathbun Memorial Library, dedicated in 1935. 

From East Haddam landing, where the bridge with its fine view crosses 
from Haddam, we turn sharp left from the village street. A climb of Y 
mile brings us to the old Brainard Homestead, with one of the finest views 
of the Connecticut River, given as a State Park in 1929. Something of the 
same view is obtained from a higher hill to the south of the highway. Con- 
tinuing northeast for another mile, we pass on our left the fine old Vroome 
House. Across Town St. (which comes from Moodus) we pass on our right the 
handsome Congregational Church, built in 1792. Another 2 miles to the east 
brings us to the attractive Bashan Lake. 

Below East Haddam, reached by boat, is Lord Island, an excellent example 
of flood plain development and vegetation. Starting east from the village by 

228 THK CONNECT1CI 1 i.l II>K 

the scenic R. 82, and continuing straight east by Mt. Parnassus Rd., we come 
to Mt. Parnassus, with a fine view from the State Fire Tower. The road 
continues east to the village of Millington, where once there was a flourishing 
settlement around the central Green. The State Park is a mile southeast of 
this, but best reached by a road going north from R. 82. The * Devil's Hopyard, 
a State Park of 860 acres, traversed by Eight Mile River, is one of the wildest 
ravines in Connecticut. There are picnic spots at intervals and rustic foot 
bridges across the stream, with trails to various lookouts. The Oven Trail 
climbs up 150 feet over a series of picturesque ledges. The Park has a re- 
markably fine stand of hemlock, several acres in extent. Farther up the 
ravine is the beautiful Chapman Falls, where a chasm was cut by the stream 
when its old course was blocked by glacial debris. 

VIII. 22 

The town of Lyme forms the northwestern part of the former large town of 
that name. East Lyme was cut off in 1839, and South or Old Lyme in 1855. 
The first settler in the present area probably arrived soon after 1652, though 
the main settlement did not begin until about 1665. A parish of North 
Lyme was organized in 1724. The Connecticut River and its coves were the 
seat of active shipbuilding. In recent years the beauty of the region has 
attracted artists, and brought many summer and permanent residents. One 
of the best ways to see the town would be by motor boat; we shall be obliged 
to route the traveler by car. 

As we enter the town from the north on R. 82, a side road leads west to 
the old shipbuilding village of Hadlyme, so named because the parish estab- 
lished in 1742 included parts of both (East) Haddam and Lyme." The road 
continues past several old houses to the Lyme-Chester steam ferry, which 
affords a remarkable view of the River, especially on the trip across. To the 
north, on a high crag, stands the Gillette Castle, built by Wm. Gillette, the 
actor and playwright. 

Southwest of Hadlyme is *Selden's Cove and creek, with deep water and 
beautiful scenery. There is an unusually interesting aquatic vegetation, 
including the American lotus. Part of the island formed by the creek is now 
the State Park of Selden Neck. The northern end has high cliffs, old hemlock 
extending to the water's edge, and good views of the river. The Park must be 
reached by boat. Three Selden Homesteads stand on the north bank of the 
Cove. The Seldens were shipbuilders. The original grant of this land was 
in 1652, later confirmed by an Indian deed to the Selden family. A road run- 
ning southeast from Hadlyme passes Selden Rd., with its interesting family 
burial ground, and follows the river bluff. The Brockway Homestead, from 
the early 18th century, stands at the next fork, where a dirt road leads down 
to Brockway's Landing, once a ferry, with fine views down the Connecticut. 

About I 1 2 miles farther along the river bank, a little north of Eight Mile 

Cove, is Joshua s Rock, from which an Indian sachem of that name used to 

JL hurl defiance at his enemies in canoes below. This spot must be reached by 

VIII. 22 LYME 229 

boat. Nearby occurred the massacre by the Pequots of Capt. John Stone and 
most of his crew, in 1634. On Brockway's Island opposite, in the days of 
seine hauling, a thousand shad were frequently taken at one time. Hamburg 
or Eight Mile Cove offers picturesque shores, with wooded hills and an under- 
growth of laurel. There is fine anchorage for boats, and it is navigable at 
high water as far as Old Hamburg Bridge. On the channel opening into the 
Connecticut stands the Nathan Tiffany House of 1722. 

Proceeding east by car from Brockway's Corner, we cross the hill^and de- 
scend to the much-painted long wooden bridge, past charming views of Ham- 
burg village across the cove. We go by a number of fine old houses, including 
one built by Capt. Johnson in 1790, which contains one of the earliest Masonic 
halls in Connecticut. Turning south we reach the old shipbuilding village of 
* Hamburg, the delight of artists. It lies along the east bank of Eight Mile 
River, near the head of tidewater. In the days before hard roads and motor 
trucks made water transportation unprofitable, Hamburg dock was the ship- 
ping point for a large territory. As many as 80 schooners a year would load 
with railroad ties and other native lumber. In winter it was a common thing 
to see over a hundred yoke of oxen on the dock in one day. 

From Hamburg, the traveler should go north on the attractive R. 86, which 
follows Eight Mile River. Of the old houses along the way, two of the most 
interesting are the Capt. Elisha Marvin House, on our right about a mile 
beyond the village, built in 1738 and still in the family; and the Capt. Timothy 
Marvin House, a half mile farther, dating from 1765. To the east towers 
Nickerson Hill, with good views to the north and south. At North Lyme, the 
old Salem turnpike, which runs through Pleasant Valley up the east branch 
of Eight Mile River, makes a fine drive. 

Returning to Hamburg and going south on R. 86, the Sterling City Rd. 
forks to the east, passing a number of old houses, including the Tiffany House 
near the fork, one of Lyme's best examples from the late 18th century. The 
last mile to the east on a branch of this road, which must be made on foot, 
leads to a fine southern outlook, while the main fork takes us back to Hamburg 

The Cove Rd. from Hamburg leads west past two large pre-Revolutionary 
houses, built by members of the Ely family; the Samuel Ely House has a 
beautiful Palladian window. A good road takes us back to R. 86, passing 
on a slight detour to the south the well kept Ely Burial Ground, and the ex- 
ceptionally fine Dea. * Richard Ely House, built in 1715. On the main highway 
we pass the Capt. William Ely House of 1710, shaded by veteran elms and 
sycamores, and the Joseph Lord House, built about 1800. 

Bill Hill Rd. leads east from R. 86 through another interesting section, with 
many old landmarks. We may continue by Blood St. along the north shore of 
Rogers Lake, a picturesque body of water with a considerable summer colony, 
interesting to the botanist for its aquatic plants. A road runs north from Rog- 
ers Lake along the eastern border of the town, passing over Grassy Hill, with 
many fine viewpoints, and one can drive through to Salem by the wild Gungy 

R. 86 continues south to Old Lyme, with a good western view from Lord's 

OLD LYME. See Journey I. 23. 

Journey IX 

New London to Hartford. 
Routes 85 and 2. 

Gov. Gurdon Saltonstall used to travel so often between his home in New 
London and the seat of government at Hartford, that the highway was called 
the Governor's Road. In 1800 it became a turnpike and stage-coach route, one 
of the main arteries of traffic. Our Journey will take us through some old hill 
towns, with striking scenery as we penetrate the fringe of the Eastern High- 

NEW LONDON. See Journey I. 26. 

WATERFORD. See Journey 1. 25. 

IX. 1 

Leaving Waterford on R. 85 and crossing a corner of Montville, we enter 
the town of Salem. Land in the northern portion was part of the Colchester 
tract purchased by Nathaniel P'oote of Wethersfield from the Indian chief 
Oweneco. The southern portion was deeded in 1669 to William Lord of Lyme 
by Chapeto, a kinsman of Uncas. Actual settlement appears to date from 
about 1700, and it was known as Paugwonk, the Indian name for Fairy Lake. 
When a parish was organized in 1725, the name New Salem was given by Col. 
Brown, a large landowner whose former home was in Salem, Mass. The present 
town was incorporated in 1819. It is a sparsely settled farming region, with 
many summer estates. 

There is a good view to the south as we cross the town line. A mile farther, 
we pass through a gorge, with the attractive Mountain Lake on our left, and 
the cliff of Lovers Leap to the right. The scenic region east of this point, 
containing Fairy Lake, is not open to the public. 

At Salem Four Corners, we cross R. 82, the highway from Norwich to Lyme 
and East Haddam, known as the Essex Turnpike. An old landmark, the 


Dolbeare Tavern, lies % mile east, on our right. Another old inn, the Bland 
Tavern, is 2 miles further, at the junction of the Old New London Rd. R. 82 
continues east past the beautiful Gardner Lake on the town boundary. In the 
center of the Lake is the wooded Minnie Island, now a State Park, partly in 
Salem and partly in Montville. The remarkable view from Gates Hill, or 
Round Hill, a mile northwest of Gardner Lake, can be reached by turning off 
west of the lake on the Old New London Rd., and going north beyond the first 
four corners. It is possible to see Long Island Sound, the distant blue hills 
of Rhode Island, and high points in Massachusetts. 

West of the Four Corners on R. 82 we enter the country associated with the 
writer Donald G. Mitchell (Ik Marvel.) In about 2^ miles we come to the 
Old Bailey House, where he wrote part of "Dream Life." Returning along the 
highway toward the east, the Mumford House was built in 1769 by Mitchell's 
great-grandfather, and he often refers to it in "Reveries of a Bachelor;" it 
stands about Y^ mile from the Bailey House, some distance back from the road. 
In another mile we pass the somewhat modernized Woodbridge Homestead, 
built by his grandfather. All three houses are on the north side of the road. 
About 1 A mile west of the Four Corners and the same distance south is the 
Old Shingle Mill House, early 18th century, with a mill-dam of massive stone. 
This house stands in a valley known as Elfin Glen. 

Continuing north on R. 85, we reach Salem Village. On our left, opposit e 
the first cross highway, an old cellar marks the site of Music Vale Seminary, 
the first normal school of music in this country. It was founded in 1833 by 
Oramel Whittlesey, a local piano manufacturer, attracted young ladies from 
all over the U. S., and continued to flourish until after the Civil War. The 
buildings burned in 1869, were rebuilt, and burned again in the early 90s. A 
lane back of the barn leads to the private burial place of the Whittlesey family, 
where we find a shaft surmounted by a harp in memory of Oramel Whittlesey. 
Just above, on the opposite side of the street, stands the so-called Nathaniel 
Foote House, built some time before 1728, when Foote sold it to Pelathiah 
Bliss. The house was later owned by Rev. John Whittlesey, the father of 

Farther down the street, on the east, the Town Hall with its portico was 
moved from Norwich, where it was built in 1749 as an Episcopal church. Just 
above the next crossroad, on the west, is the former Toll Gate House on the 
Governor's Road. Beyond this, on the east, is the 2% story building known as 
the Strickland Tavern, built toward the end of the 18th century and at first 
used as a tin shop ; it came to be a regular stopping place for the New London- 
Hartford stage. A mile beyond the center, a crossroad to the east leads 
through a wild region to the rough Rattlesnake Ledge. The bold traveler may 
reach Gates Hill by this route. Along the main highway, on our left, just 
before reaching the Colchester line, is the gambrel -roofed Joseph Smith 
Homestead, with its great central chimney. 


IX. 2 

The town of Colchester was settled in 1699 and named from Colchester in 
the English County of Essex. Its development has been rather typical. By 
the time of the Revolution, this fertile farming region, of pure English stock, 
had reached a population of about 2,000, if we count out the territory later 
cut off for new towns; it kept substantially the same level up to 1840. Factory 
development brought an influx of Irish, and in 1870 there were 3,383 inhabi- 
tants. Industry slackened toward the end of the century, the population fell 
below the 2,000 mark, and large numbers of Jewish immigrants were colonized 
on the old farms. During the present century, the Jewish people have turned 
to commercial pursuits, and their farms have been taken by Poles and other 
eastern European stock. By 1930, good roads and the development of summer 
resorts had brought the population to 2,134. 

R. 85, after passing a good viewpoint on the first crossroad to the west, 
continues north to Colchester borough, chartered in 1824, which suggests the 
early importance of the village. Nathaniel Hayward, who had worked with 
Charles Goodyear on the vulcanization of rubber, established one of the 
earliest rubber shoe factories in 1847. The plant, later owned by the U. S. 
Rubber Co., was burned in 1908. On our left, beyond the Baptist Church, is 
Breed Tavern, built in 1710. The Morgan Homestead (44 S. Main st.) with its 
2-story portico, dates from the early 19th century. On our left, near the corner 
of the Green, is Bacon Academy, established in 1803 by the bequest of Pierpont 
Bacon, a wealthy landowner, and still used as the High School. The Academy 
drew students from distant States. The first preceptor was John Adams, one 
of the great schoolmasters of his day, later head of Phillips Academy, Andover. 
Facing the Green on the west is the Congregational Church, built in 1840, with a 
good portico. It was organized in 1703, with the very able John Bulkley as its 
first minister. There was at one time a school for negro children next to the 
church. To our fight, on the south side of Norwich Ave. (R. 2) we find the 
Nathaniel Foote House, rebuilt from material in the house erected at the north 
end of the town in 1702 by the leader of the settlement. It is maintained as a 
museum by the D. A. R. The Rochambeau Encampment in 1781 was on the 
knolls west of Bacon Academy. North of the Church is Cragin Memorial 
Library, and opposite Lebanon Ave. the Major Jonathan Deming House 
with its gambrel roof, built in 1771. 

Taking the road southwest to Westchester, Colchester Falls lies about a mile 
up the first stream which we cross. A mile west of the borough, on our left, is 
the red Michael Taintor House, built in 1750 of materials brought up by oxen 
from New London. In 2^ miles we have a fine view to the north. In the 
village of Westchester, west of the Green, is the fine old house owned by Col. 
Henry Champion, deputy commissary during the Revolution. On receiving 
news of the distress at Valley Forge, the Council of Safety, appointed by the 
General Assembly, put $200,000 in the hands of Col. Champion and Peter Colt 
for the purchase of live cattle. The droves were taken 300 miles in midwinter 
under the personal supervision of the Colonel and his son Gen. Epaphroditus 
Champion, who later built the house we have seen at East Haddam. 

Continuing southwest from Westchester, we pass Pickerel Lake. Half a 
mile beyond this, there is a good view to the north. We soon reach R. 171, 


which runs north to Salmon River, where we cross within sight of the old 
Comstock Covered Bridge, one of the few left in Connecticut. From this point 
there is a picturesque drive up the west bank of Salmon River. 

About 1^2 miles north of Westchester on R. 149, on the hill to the east, are 
the Indian Steps, an unusual tier of rock ledges; the spot is not easy to find 
without a guide. Farther north, as we approach Westchester Sta., there is an 
attractive Ravine to our left. 

IX. 3 

Hebron, to the north of Colchester, was settled in 1704, largely by families 
from Windsor, and incorporated as a town in 1708. The name is Biblical. 
Hebron is associated with Samuel Peters of "blue law" fame, and Gov. John 
S. Peters, and supplied Vermont with Gov. William A. Palmer. 

On R. 85 we go through the village of Amston. There was a silk mill here 
before the Civil War, and the old Waterwheel, said to be the largest of its kind 
in the U. S., is still standing. Amston Lake, locally known as North Pond, lies 
}4 mile to the east. In another mile on the highway, we pass on the right a 
glacial erratic, a large boulder of gneiss rock brought here by the slowly moving 

As we enter Hebron village, the present St. Peter's Episcopal Church lies 
on our left, built of brick in 1826. In the churchyard a descendant has erected 
a monument to Rev. Samuel Peters (1735-1826.) He was a man of considerable 
means, and kept a large number of slaves, 30 according to local tradition, 
though we only have the names of 8. At the time of the Revolution, Peters 
was rector of the church and a strong Tory, and was harshly handled by local 
patriots. He sought refuge in England, and to get even published a fictitious 
"General History of Connecticut, by a Gentleman of the Province," the source 
of the ever green lies about the Colony's early blue laws. (The old church 
building where he preached stood 2 miles on the Bolton road, and back of the 
site is the original Church of England burying ground, where the rector's 
body once rested, beside his two wives.) North of the present Church is the 
large mansion erected by a nephew, John S. Peters in 1806. He was a physician 
by training and a large landowner, and served as governor of Connecticut 
from 1831-33. The Green at the center of the village is divided by the main 
highways. Around the corner, to our left, is the Squire Dullon House, built in 
1790, where the Missionary Society of Connecticut was formed in 1798, the 
first organization of its kind in the country. On the northwest of the center 
is the old Meeting House Green, where Rector Peters was forced by the Sons 
of Liberty to read a public confession of his misdeeds. 

R. 85 continues northwest through good scenery and the quaint village of 
Gilead, built along a ridge, with far views in both directions. Most of the 
houses date from the late 18th and early 19th century. 

On R. 14, about % mile west of Hebron village, Porter's Grist Mill, though 
no longer in use, preserves its millstones and waterwheel. In another mile, 

IX. 3 HEBRON 235 

Burrows Hill Rd. to the south gives excellent views. About % mile down this 
road, Prophet Rock lies to the west, with legends of the first settlement and 
a good outlook. R. 14, which continues west to Marlborough, makes a scenic 
drive through the town. 

IX. 4 

Marlborough, settled about 1715, was organized as a parish in 1747; named 
apparently for the Duke of Marlborough. The town was incorporated in 
1803. It is a wild and sparsely settled hill country, with much woodland. 

R. 2 from Colchester climbs a hill, with exposures of the old Hebron Schist 
characteristic of this region, of interest to geologists, and fine views to the east. 
At the Four Corners, we meet R. 14 from Hebron, a highway which makes a 
scenic drive across the town and connects Middletown with Willimantic. The 
village center consists chiefly of a Church with fluted columns, a schoolhouse, 
and the Marlborough Tavern on the corner, built by Col. Elisha Buell in the 
middle of the 18th century. It was a famous stopping place on the New 
London-Hartford highway. Col. Buell owned a gun shop, and repaired muskets 
for the soldiers during the Revolution. He and his son also bought horses, 
which were sent to New London for export, and shipped wood to the New York 
market. The house has a central chimney, and gambrel roof with dormers ; 
the ell was added early. It contains one of the swinging partitions in the 
chambers, which could be raised to form a ballroom. From the Tavern, there 
is a good view across the hills to Hebron, somewhat marred by a modern 
advertising sign. 

About \ 1 A miles west of the Four Corners, R. 14 crosses Dickinson Creek, 
which is worth following south to Salmon River, 4 miles away. 

North from the center, R. 2 goes through attractive country, passing 
Marlborough Pond. Below at one time were cotton mills making blue slave- 
cloth for the Southern market. The highway continues to the town of Glaston- 

(iLASTONBURY. See Journey VIII. 18. 

MANCHESTER. See Journey VII. 2. 

EAST HARTFORD. See Journey VII. 1. 

HARTFORD. See Journey VI. 7. 

Journey X 

. Around Norwich. 

In this Journey, we shall group together some of the towns associated with 
the Pequots, the most powerful Indian tribe in Connecticut. The success of 
the English in the critical Pequot War was due partly to the aid of Uncas, the 
brave and wily leader of the Mohegan branch of that tribe, who had been 
cheated out of the general sachemship and threw in his lot with the whites. 
Uncas is buried in Norwich, within the tract which he sold to Major John Mason 
for a townsite. His forts and the present Mohegan settlement lie to the south 
in Montville. Pequot reservations are still maintained in Ledyard and North 
Stonington. The Pequot strongholds in Groton have been covered in a previ- 
ous Journey. 

NEW LONDON. See Journey I. 26. 

X. 1 

Leaving New London by R. 32 and crossing the border of Water ford, we 
enter the town of Montville, originally an Indian reservation. The first settler 
was Samuel Rogers from New London in 1670. A north parish of New London 
was organized in 1714, and a separate town incorporated in 1786. The region 
is hilly, and its name probably is a French descriptive. Montville was the 
seat of Uncas and the Mohegan branch of the Pequots. Gov. Winthrop 
opened a bog-iron mine at an early date. 

Route 32 was made a turnpike in 1792, the second in America. We pass 
through the manufacturing village of Uncasville, named for a later chief 
Uncas. Gov. Winthrop set up a sawmill at this point, and in 1801 two English- 
men, John and Arthur Schofield, started a pioneer woolen mill. Today there 
is a factory making mohair plush, and on the Thames River the large box- 
board plant of the Robert Gair Co. There are other paper mills to the west 
at Montville village. Uncasville is dominated by Haughton Mt., reached by a 
path back of the Library, with a fine view of the River and the hills beyond. 

Two miles farther north, we enter the village of Mohegan, the home of 31 
descendants of the Mohegan Nation. To our right, about 200 yards from the 
highway, is the Mohegan Congregational Church, erected in 1831 for continu- 
ance of religious instruction among the Indians. An annual brush arbor 


ceremony is held in August. A path leads south from the Church Y mile to 
Uncas Hill, with an extensive view, and the cellar of Uncas' cabin; the two 
springs nearby were supposed to have medicinal properties. On the north 
side of the road to the Church is a small Museum, with a collection of local 
Indian relics and reproductions, maintained by the family of John Tanta- 
quidgeon. In the yard are the frames of Indian houses, in both the round and 
the long type, made of bent saplings. They remind the traveler that the 
Connecticut Indians did not use the traditional conical tepee. 

West of the highway, opposite the Museum and reached by a State Park 
driveway a few hundred yards to the north, is Fort Hill, the site of the fort of 
Uncas. Only the stones which were part of the old stockade remain. The 
blue-marked Mohegan Trail, which eventually will be continued to New 
London, crosses this point, and continues west to *Cochegan Rock, a mass of 
granite brought down by the glacier, probably the largest glacial erratic in 
Connecticut, approximately 50 feet square and 60 high, and weighing 6,000 
tons. Uncas used it as a retreat, and in Colonial times a Mohegan Indian 
named^Caleb Cochegan lived in a cavity under the rock. 

On the east side of R. 32, about l /i mile beyond the Church, is the home site 
of Samson Occum (1723-1792.) He attended Dr. Wheelock's Indian School at 
Columbia, which was later moved to New Hampshire, and was sent to Eng- 
land to help raise funds. The $60,000 secured became the nucleus of the 
Dartmouth College endowment. Occum was the first Indian minister to be 
ordained in New England, and served as missionary to his own people and 
among the Oneidas in New York. 

Fort Shantok State Park along the Thames may be reached by the Mohegan 
Trail or by driving in from the highway. We come first to the * Shantok 
Burying Ground, with the graves of earlier Mohegans marked by rough stones. 
It is now enclosed by a wooden stockade. On the river side is the Leffingwell 
Monument, in the form of a cairn, erected by the Colonial Dames; it honors 
Thomas Leffingwell, who carried food to Uncas in 1645, when he was beseiged 
by the Narragansetts. There are good views of the river. Shantok Fort lay 
to the northwest across a small valley, and the outlines of the trenches are 
visible. More Indian battles were fought here, during historic times, than in 
any other spot in Connecticut. The river bluff to the north is worth following. 
Below Trading Cove is a miniature Sahara known as Sandy Desert, supposed 
by the Indians to rest under a curse. 

R. 163, which runs northwest from Uncasville, makes an attractive drive. 
There are fine views from Raymond Hill, and to our left lies Oxoboxo Lake. 
About Yi mile north of the Lake, on the right of the road, is the homestead of 
Lorenzo Dow, (1777-1834) the famous itinerant evangelist. He was born in 
Coventry, and spent much of his active life on preaching tours through the 
U. S. and Great Britain, but seems to have made his headquarters here. 

The earliest settlement in Montville was along Raymond Hill Rd., as it 
extends east from R. 163. The first minister of the Congregational Church, now 
standing a mile west of the original site, was Rev. James Hillhouse, father of 
Sen. James Hillhouse of New Haven. The house of the second minister, Rev. 
David Jewett, who served as chaplain in the French and Revolutionary wars, is 
still standing on Jewett Hill, some distance north of the road. 

X. 2 NORWICH 239 

X. 2 

Norwich lies at the head of tidewater, where the Yantic and Shetucket, with 
valuable water power, unite to form the River Thames. There are three parts: 
the original Norwich Town, a museum of the past; the business section, which 
grew up around the Landing, and rises on tiers up a steep hill ; and between 
them a residential section with 19th century mansions and elm-shaded streets. 

The settlement was begun in 1659-60 by a company from Saybrook, under 
the leadership of Major John Mason and Rev. James Fitch, on land purchased 
from Uncas. The name was taken from Norwich in the English county of 
Norfolk. The town played a prominent part in opening up the lands in eastern 
Connecticut. Later it engaged in shipbuilding and the West India trade, 
gathering wealth and leadership which it lavished on the Revolutionary cause. 

Norwich was a pioneer in industrial development. Christopher Leffingwell 
opened the Colony's first paper mill in 1766, and started many other enter- 
prises. The first cut nails in America were manufactured at Bean Hill in 1772. 
By 1790, the versatile Dr. Joshua Lathrop was spinning cotton as early as 
anyone in America. An English mechanic, Thomas Harland, settled at 
Norwich in 1773, and opened Connecticut's first large shop for making clocks, 
watches and jewelry; among his apprentices were Seril Dodge, who started the 
silverware and jewelry industry at Providence, R. I., and Daniel Burnap, the 
famous clockmaker of East Windsor, who in turn trained Eli Terry. 

The city of Norwich was one of the first five to be chartered, in 1784, and in 
the 1930 census had a population of 23,001. The more important of the present 
industries are cotton, woolen and velvet textiles, a bleachery, clothing, shoes, 
leather, thermos bottles, and table cutlery. 

As we cross the town line from Montville on R. 32, we pass the Solomon 
Lucas Memorial Woods on Trading Cove, and one of the State tuberculosis 
sanatoria (Uncas on Thames) and enter the city by Thames St., along the old 
wharves and shipyards. In order to take things in their historical order, how- 
ever, we shall continue north to Norwich Town by the old New London- 
Norwich Turnpike. A tollgate was authorized by the General Assembly in 
May, 1792, making this the second turnpike in America. The Philadelphia 
and Lancaster Turnpike Co. had been incorporated a month or two earlier, but 
the Norwich Turnpike was the first to be completed. It ran from Trading Cove 
to the deep-water docks at New London, and developed a heavy traffic in 
cattle and produce. An earlier road had been laid out in 1670 by Joshua 
Raymond, on the line of an old Indian trail. The new road shortened the 
distance, and the return trip could be made in four hours where before it took 
a day or more. In 1806 the turnpike was extended to Norwich Landing, and in 
1812 to the courthouse in Norwich Town. The tollgate was abolished in 1852, 
after the building of the railroad. About 1 mile beyond the turn, a boulder on 
the right commemorates the Great Plain Battle in 1643, where the Mohegans 
defeated their old enemies the Narragansetts, in one of the fiercest aboriginal 
engagements of which we have knowledge. 


Norwich is peculiarly rich in historical associations. The old houses have 
been labeled and dated, and only the more important landmarks will be noted. 



Crossing the Yantic River on the New London Turnpike, we come to Norwich- 
town Green (1 on Chart XXXV) the center of the early settlement, where the 
first meeting-house was built in 1660. The second church, erected in 1675, 
stood on Meeting House Rocks, the overhanging cliff to the west, where the 
tower would serve as a lookout against Indian raids. The beautiful Norwich- 
town Congregational Church (2) the fifth meeting house, erected in 1801, stands 
opposite the southwest corner. 


1. Norwichtown Green. 2. Norwich town Congregational Church. 3. Joseph Carpenter 

shop. 4. French Soldiers graves. 5. Simon Huntington house. 6. Samuel Huntington. 

7. Burying Ground. 8. Jedediah Huntington. 9. Jabez Huntington. 10. Daniel Lathrop. 

11. Thomas Harland. 12. Thomas Leffingwell. 13. Leffingwell Inn. 14. Reynolds Home- 

Among the old landmarks around the Green is the little old shop to the west, 
built by * Joseph Carpenter (3) a silversmith, in 1772, and restored by subscrip- 
tion in the present century. His brother Gardner used half of it for a mercan- 
tile business. The Shop retains its gambrel roof and old fashioned shutters, 
and the interior arrangements of a silversmith's shop of that period. On the 
east side, shaded by a large elm, is the house built by Simon Huntington (5; 
8 Elm ave.) and later known as Peck's Tavern. There are other interesting 
houses on Town St., coming west from Washington St., and on Mediterranean 

X. 2 NORWICH 241 

Lane, northwest from the Green. At the southeast corner of the Green is 
the site of the old Court House. One of its early tenants was the Mutual 
Assurance Company, organized in 1794 and still doing business, the oldest 
insurance organization in New England, and the second in the U. S. Cemetery 
Lane leads east to a plot, with memorial boulder, containing the graves of 20 
French Soldiers (4) or possibly refugees who died while in camp in Norwich 
during the Revolution. A further memorial has been placed by the French 

On East Town St., we pass on the north side the house built in 1765 by Gen. 
*Jedediah Huntington (8; 23 East Town st.) We have already noted his house 
at New London, where he was for a time collector of customs. He married the 
daughter of Jonathan Trumbull, and served in the Revolution from Bunker 
Hill on. Washington was entertained here. The house has a central hall and 
gambrel roof; it stands on a rise of ground, surrounded by a heavy masonry 
wall. Other members of this famous family are to be found on the cross street 
known as Huntington Lane. His father, Gen. *Jabez Huntington (9; 16 Hun- 
tington lane) lived in a house on the left; he was a wealthy West India Trader, 
who threw in his lot with the Revolutionary cause, and became an active 
member of the Committee of Safety. The original house was built in 1719 
by Jabez' father, a descendant of Wm. Bradford of Plymouth. There is a 
gambrel roof, and an overhang in the attic gable. The porch has a pitch roof, 
supported by slender columns. Across East Town st. is the mansion, now 
greatly altered, built about 1783 by a relative, Samuel Huntington (6; 34 
East Town st.) who moved here from the present town of Scotland, and be- 
came a signer of the Declaration and governor of the State. The old * Burying 
Ground (7) is reached by a lane just west of the Samuel Huntington House, 
through the Hubbard Gates, inscribed with the names of Revolutionary 
soldiers. It was laid out in 1699 and shows the gravestones of many men and 
women who made Norwich great. There is an imposing brick tomb for Gov. 
Samuel Huntington. 

Rounding the corner and going south on Washington St., which leads to the 
later Norwich, we find on the west side the home of Dr. Daniel Lathrop (10; 
1712-1782.) He and his brother Joshua opened the first drug store in Connect- 
icut, and Benedict Arnold served as one of their apprentices. The site of the 
old drug store across the street has been marked. This house was the birth- 
place of the teacher and author Lydia Huntley, whom we found in Hartford 
as Mrs. Sigourney (1791-1865;) also of the educator Daniel Coil Oilman 
(1831-1908.) At 357 Washington St. is the home of Thomas Harland (11) the 
famous clockmaker, now in rather poor condition. A little farther on the east 
stands the house built in 1701 by Thomas Leffingwell (12; 335 Washington st.) 
who as a young ensign at Saybrook had carried supplies to Uncas, closely 
beleaguered at Fort Shantok. This had much to do with the sachem's later 
deed of land. Nearly opposite is the quaint old * Leffingwell Inn (13; 344 
Washington st.) probably of an earlier date, standing due north and south, 
at an angle with the present street. This was later the residence of Col. 
Christopher Leffingwell, who started many industrial enterprises: paper mill, 
grist mill, pottery, fulling mill and dye house, chocolate mill and stocking 
factory. Still farther south is the rambling red Reynolds Homestead (14; 
328 Washington st.) with its central chimney, which claims a date of 1659. 

Going west from the Green on West Town St. (R. 32) we pass to the left 
in Yi mile the house now known as Adams Tavern. It once stood across the 
street and served as a hat shop for Aaron Cleveland (122 West Town st.) 


I Hfc ( i IN NK I U I I (,l 

great-grandfather of Pres. Grover Cleveland. The street beside it leads south 
to the Post-Gager Burial Ground, laid out as a common graveyard in 1661. 
Many of the early settlers were buried here, but there are no stones remaining 


1. Benedict Arnold birthplace. 2. Chelsea Parade. 3. Teel House. 4. Uncas Monu- 
ment. 5. Indian Leap. 6. Jail Hill. 7. Old Chelsea Landing. 8. Norwich Free Academy. 
9. Rockwell House. 10. Nathaniel Backus House. 11. Buckingham Memorial. 12. Glebe 

to mark their graves. The Mason Monument, however, has been erected 
within the enclosure to commemorate Major John Mason and the 38 original 


Plain Hill Rd., which runs north from R. 32 at the old settlement of Bean 
Hill, makes a scenic drive, leading past the Norwich Fire Tower, with a com- 
manding view. 


Going south from Norwich Town on Washington St., a marker on the east 
side near No. 299 recalls the birthplace site of Benedict Arnold (1 on Chart 
XXXVI; 1741-1801.) Mohegan Rd. leads east to *Mohegan Park, a beautiful 
woodland tract of 400 acres, surrounding a small lake. There are many roads 
and drives, and Ox Hill gives a remarkable view to the east. At the fork of 
Washington St. and Broadway is Chelsea Parade (2) a triangular Green with a 
number of monuments, including a boulder to Capt. Samuel C. Reid, designer 
of the present American flag. To the south is the Teel House (3; "Sign of Gen. 
Washington") with its four corner chimneys, built as a hotel in 1789 by Joseph 
Teel of Preston. West of the Parade, on the south side of Sachem St., we find 
the * Uncas Monument (4) in the royal Indian burial ground, where only 
reigning sachems and their descendants were interred. Pres. Andrew Jackson 
laid the cornerstone of the monument in 1833. This section was a favorite 
Indian encampment. Uncas Ravine slopes down to the Falls, where the 
Yantic River sweeps over a ledge. The cliff and chasm below the Falls are 
known as * Indian Leap (5; footbridge; the best approach is from Yantic St.) 
The spot is impressive, in spite of nearby factories, as the river flows through a 
deep gorge, cut by the stream when its former channel was blocked by ice or 
glacial debris. Washington St., the natural approach to the city from New 
London, passes Jail Hill (6; by School and Fountain sts.) to the east, the 
site of an Indian fort, with a fine view of the city and harbor. Water and Mar- 
ket Sts. lead to the Old Chelsea Landing (7) formerly used by whalers and ships 
from foreign ports. 

Returning to Chelsea Parade (2) and going south on Broadway, Norwich 
Free Academy (8) lies to the east. It was established in 1854, and later en- 
dowed by John F. Slater, nephew of Samuel Slater, the pioneer cotton manu- 
facturer. A wooden marker on a tree near the Commercial building recalls 
the birthplace of the writer Ik Marvel (Donald G. Mitchell, 1822-1908.) 
The Academy group includes the Slater Memorial, with a valuable collection 
of casts and photographs. Also the ^Converse Art Gallery, founded by the 
bequest of Chas. A. Converse in 1906. Besides paintings, the Gallery has a 
large collection of Indian relics, including several unique pieces of art work. 
Connected with it is the Norwich Art School, established in 1890. 

On the left of Rockwell St., running east from Broadway, the Gen. Rockwell 
House (9; 42 Rockwell st.) is now maintained as a museum by the D. A. R., 
with a collection of relics and antiques. In the Oak St. Cemetery, reached by 
McKinley Ave. and Franklin St., a tablet has been dedicated to Capt. Ephraim 
Bill and Lydia Huntington Bill, ancestors of Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt. 
Here lie also many of the old sea captains and their families. At the lower end 
of Broadway, on the east, is the Nathaniel Backus House (10; 49 Broadway) 
built in 1750. Near this is the Otis Library, opposite the City Hall. Going 
up the hill on Church St., we find the Glebe House (12; 62 Church st.) built in 
1768, the home of Rev. John Tyler, rector of Christ Episcopal Church for 
54 years. He had been ordained by the Bishop of London. During the Revo- 
lution, services were held in the house. John Tyler took part in the historic 


meeting at the Glebe House in Woodbury, which selected Samuel Seabury as 
the first American bishop. There are other old houses in this section of Norwich 
and west of the river, but they are hard to find. 

R. 12 turns south from Main St. across the Shetucket, and makes a scenic 
drive to Groton, passing the Norwich State Hospital for mental defectives, in 
the town of Preston. 

Going east on Main St., the Buckingham Memorial (11; 307 Main st.) 
maintained by the G. A. R., was the home of Wm. A. Buckingham, the great 
Civil War governor of Connecticut. R. 12 continues north along the She- 
tucket. About 3 miles from the city, the Miantonomo Monument lies to our right, 
near St. Mary's Cemetery. It was erected in 1841, and relocated by the Society 
of Colonial Wars. Miantonomo, sachem of the Narragansetts, was taken 
prisoner by the Mohegans in the Great Plain battle. His old enemy Uncas 
is supposed to have had him killed at this spot. We pass through the industrial 
village of Taftville, noted for its cotton and rayon piece goods ; there is also a 
factory making velvet. On the north side of Providence St. is a large Glacial 
Boulder, perched on a ledge. 

x. 3 

Preston, across the Shetucket River, was first settled in 1648, and made a 
town in 1687. The name was taken from Preston in the English Lancashire. 
Much of the town was occupied by the Indians until a fairly late period. 

R. 165 leads east from Norwich, with a number of interesting houses along 
the way and on the crossroads to the north. On the scenic Quinebaug River, 
opposite the Boy Scout camp, are the remains of old Indian Fish Weirs 
(reached by Old Jewett City and Zion Hill rds.) The stone dams in the river 
bed were originally banked with boughs. In Preston City, the late 18th 
century Tavern on the east side of the center has overhanging gables and a 
good doorway. The Treat House across the street retains its central chimney, 
as does the Calvin Barstow Homestead, 1785, on the corner to the south. A 
mile east of the village, on R. 165, is the 1*4 story Hopewell Tyler House, 
built before 1768. About }4 mile south of the village is Amos Lake, called by 
the Indians Anchemesnconnuc, or "left hand water." Two miles north, on 
the road to Pachaug, and a mile east across country, we find Rattlesnake 
Rocks, a series of jagged twisting ledges. In the extreme east angle of the 
town, about 2 miles southeast of R. 165, there is an Indian village site on 
Rixtown Mi., with some old mortars. 

R. 2, southeast from Norwich, passes south of the attractive Averts Pond, 
known to the natives as Anchemaunnackaunack, "little left hand water." On 
R. 164, which leads north beyond the Pond, we pass on the left in a short 
distance the John Avery Homestead, from the 18th century. 

A side road leads south from R. 2 to the manufacturing villages of Hallville 
and Poquetanock. In the latter there is a good Episcopal Church from the 
Classical Revival period, built on the lines of a Greek Temple. 

X. 3 PRESTON 245 

The most scenic drive in Preston is R. 12, which follows the Thames River, 
part of the way through a pine forest. As we cross the town line from Norwich, 
we enter the grounds of the Norwich State Hospital for mental defectives, 
opened in 1904. Beyond this on the right is the old Brewster's Neck Cemetery, 
which supplies an interesting link with the Pilgrim Fathers. We find the graves 
of Jonathan Brewsler and his wife Lucretia. Jonathan, who was a son of Elder 
Brewster of the Mayflower, came to Plymouth in the "Fortune" a year later. 
He was in charge of the Plymouth Colony's trading post which we noted at 
Windsor. About 1648 Jonathan Brewster located in this section and estab- 
lished an Indian trading post; his death occurred in 1659. 

x. 4 


The town of Ledyard, to the south of Preston, was first settled about 1653. 
A parish of North Groton was organized in 1725, and a town incorporated in 
1836, named from Col. Wm. Ledyard, the commander at Fort Griswold. The 
town contains a good deal of wild country, and there is an Indian reservation. 

R. 12 continues south across the picturesque Poquetanock Cove, passing 
Stoddard Hill to the right, with a fine view of the Thames. There are two slave 
burial grounds at the foot of the hill. At Gales Ferry are the quarters of the 
Yale crews during the rowing season, with another good view; the Harvard 
crew quarters are a little farther south, at Round Top. Shipyards were located 
at Gales Ferry in the early days. North of the cove is the site of Fort Decatur, 
marked by a tablet; a path leads to the top of the hill with its fine outlook. 
During the War of 1812, Admiral Decatur's fleet was bottled up in the Thames. 

Turning east from Gales Ferry at the cemetery, Hulbert's Rd. leads east 1 K 
miles to the Larrabee farm, within walking distance of the Larrabee Oak, the 
third largest tree in Connecticut, surpassed only by the Wethersfield Elm and 
the Ashford Oak. It has a circumference of 26 ft., height 85 ft., and branch 
spread 132 ft. Continuing another 1^ miles on the highway, Long Cove Rd. 
leads east to the interesting Gungywamp Hills, where the early colonists cut 
masts for their ships. Between the rugged ridges is a valley filled with trees 
and laurel. There are a number of paths which may be followed, and the 
region is worth exploring. 

There is an attractive drive over country roads through Ledyard Center to 
Old Mystic, leaving R. 12 just south of Stoddard Hill. In about 2 miles we 
pass on the left the Avery Homestead, built by Dea. Wm. Morgan in 1700. The 
crossroads to the north give good views. Morgan Pond, about 2 miles south from 
the Avery homestead, is said to be a habitat of the southern water moccasin, 
brought from the South in cypress logs. In Ledyard Center, just west of the 
present Bill parsonage, is the birthplace site of Rev. Samuel Seabury (1729- 
1796) the first Episcopal bishop in America. (See under Woodbury.) His 
father, of the same name, was pastor of the Congregational church and be- 
came an Episcopalian. About 2 miles north of Ledyard Center (2 miles south 
of R. 2) on the east side of the road, a cellar marks the birthplace of Silas 
Deane, who located at Wethersfield and played such an important part in the 
Revolution. Several hundred Indian graves have been found on the property. 

246 THK (ONNH.rriri i <;i nn 

There is a good outlook from the hill east of this point. About 3 miles beyond 
Ledyard Center, the road crosses Gallup Hill, with an unusual view of the 
Mystic valley, Fishers Island and Long Island Sound. 

Taking R. 2 through the town of Preston, we cross Ayer Hill. West of this 
is Cedar Swamp, of the type found in Southern white cedar swamps. There is 
an unusual growth of evergreen species, sometimes reaching 100 feet or more, 
with an undergrowth of rhododendron. Passing a highway parking place 
known as the Rockery, the first road to the south leads in I 1 4 miles (1st right 
turn) to the Ledyard Pequot Reservation. After the Pequot War, some mem- 
bers of that tribe drifted back to Connecticut, and Gov. Winthrop established 
a reservation for them, of which 129 acres of rough land remain at this point. 
Nine Indian descendants are left, of what is known as the Ledyard Tribe. The 
old council rocks are found on the summit of Indian Town Hill, a half mile to 
the west. The left turn on this road, partly in the town of North Stonington. 
makes a scenic drive from R. 2 to R. 84 at Old Mystic. We pass Lantern Hill 
Pond and Long Pond. A half mile west of the latter is Cider Hill, rather 
difficult of access but with an excellent view of the surrounding country. 

x. .> 


The town of North Stonington, on the Rhode Island border, was first settled 
about 1680. A parish was organized in 1720, and a separate town incorporated 
in 1807. It is rugged country with many attractive drives. 

North Stonington illustrates the use of local burial plots by the early settlers, 
as a matter of necessity; there are 95 cemeteries, the largest number of any 
town in the State, many of them now overgrown with brush, since the original 
families have moved away. 

Route 2, from Norwich to Westerly, forms the main east and west artery 
through the town. To our right, as we cross the town line, is *Lantern Hill, a 
rugged mass of quartz rock rising to a height of 580 feet. This shining summit 
was a landmark for sailors, as they approached Connecticut ports from the 
sea. Sassacus, the Pequot sachem, maintained a lookout here, and the 
colonists used it as a signal hill during the Revolution. Cars can drive to the 
base, from which there is a path to the summit. The view extends over 5 
States: Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, Massachusetts and Vermont. 
The quartz intrudes the granite and gneisses of this region, and represents the 
last phase of the gaseous disturbances which forced up the characteristic pink 
Sterling granite. There is a large quarry on the south of the ridge, known as 
the Silex Mine, where quartz has long been quarried for commercial purposes. 
The Pequot Reservation lies south of Lantern Hill. It comprises 220 acres, and 
17 Indian descendants of the Eastern Tribe are reported living on the reserva- 
tion, out of a total of 40 listed. 

In 2 miles, Swantown Hill Rd. leads north over Prentice Ml., with a complete 
horizon; the last part of the trip must be on foot. Cossaduck Hill, reached by a 
road of the same name turning north a mile farther, gives good views to the 
east and west. To the south, the Old Mystic Rd. takes us over Jeremy Hill, 


with a left turn over Tar Barrel Hill, where there is a good southern view; a 
beacon was lighted here on Aug. 11, 1814, to warn the militia of the British 
attack on Stonington. In the village of North Stonington, formerly known as 
Milltown, we find the Wheeler School and Library, endowed in 1889 by the 
Dudley Wheeler family. On the south of the center is the William Avery 
House (Stanton Hewitt House) built in 1790. 

North from the center, Wyassup Rd. leads through fine scenery with 
abundant laurel, over Stewart Hill, and past the beautiful * Wyassup Lake. 
There are ledges on the east side of the lake, and a wild ravine to the north, 
with Bears Den Cave. The main dirt road can be followed northeast to 
Pendleton Hill on R. 95 (see below.) 

Continuing past the center on R. 2, we find on our right, near the Stonington 
town line, the Dea. Gershom Palmer House (Col. Wm. Randall House) from 
the early 18th century. Some distance beyond this we connect with Route 
95 and go north. The region between this highway and the Rhode Island 
border is noted for its rhododendron and laurel. A mile to the east on the 
Hopkinton Rd., at Clark's Falls, is an old stone-grinding Grist Mill. Following 
R. 95 north through scenic country, we cross * Pendleton Hill, formerly known 
as Pauchunganuc, with a fine view of the ocean to the south, and to the north 
an even more impressive sweep of hills and valleys. A tablet in a small park 
marks the site of the second Baptist church in Connecticut (1743.) The new 
church was built on top of the hill, and opposite stands Pauchunganuc Rock, a 
huge boulder brought down by the glacier. As we descend the hill, the old 
Bullit Ledge Rd., reopened by the Forest Service but best taken on foot, makes 
a beautiful trip, with cliffs, and Billings Lake lying among wooded hills. The 
return to Norwich may be made by the picturesque route through Voluntown 
(R. 95 and R. 165.) 

Journey XI 

Norwich to Hartford. 
Route 87. 

Route 87 takes us along another chain of old hill towns. It passes through 
historic Lebanon, the home of Jonathan Trumbull, and has been named the 
Governor Trumbull Highway. The turnpike was chartered in 1795. We shall 
find good scenery for almost the entire distance. Mountain laurel is being 
planted along the route. 

NORWICH. See Journey X. 2. 

XI. 1 

From Norwich, we make a side trip to cover the daughter town of Bozrah, 
settled between 1680 and 1700. A parish of New Concord was organized in 
1733, and a separate town incorporated in 1786. The name is taken from the 
Biblical Bozrah. The region is a succession of valleys and wooded hills. Cot- 
ton mills and other industries were located here at an early day, and there is 
still some manufacturing. 

Turning off from R. 87 on R. 2, we pass through Fitchville, where there is a 
bed quilt factory. The Asa Fitch Homestead, built by the early industrial 
magnate from whom the village was named, stands on the north side of the 
highway. Fitchville Pond lies south of the village. 

Turning south from Fitchville on Bozrah Street, the Bargy Ledge Rd. 
leads off to the left to Bear Hill, with a good view to the east. This road has 
been discontinued after passing the summit, but we may take the parallel 
Bishop Rd. south to R. 82, passing under the west side of Bear Hill and along a 
series of unusual rock formations known as Bargy Ledges. A half mile east of 
the road is Tadmor Pond. 

R. 82 passes through Bozrahville, where there is a factory making mattress 
shoddy, and continues west to Salem. There are attractive drives on country 
roads from Bozrahville to Goshen, from Bozrahville to Lebanon, and on 
Brush Hill Road from Fitchville to Lebanon, with a good view to the east. 


FRANKLIN. See Journey XII. 2. 

XI. 2 

Leaving Franklin by R. 87, we enter the town of Lebanon, associated with 
Jonathan Trumbull and the Revolutionary War Office. As in some of the 
adjoining towns, land titles originated in rather loose grants made by Uncas' 
son Oweneco, and gave rise to a good deal of litigation. The first settlement 
was in 1695, and a town incorporated in 1700, taking a Biblical name. 

As we cross the town line, there is a good view to the south, and in another 
\Yi miles a view to the east through Ayer Gap. On our right is an early 18th 
century landmark, known as the House of the Old Stone Chimney, though the 
present stone top is modern. Goshen Rd., the next left turn, leads in % mile 
to the Clark Homestead, probably the oldest house in Lebanon, built in 1708, 
and the residence of Col. James Clark, one of the heroes of Bunker Hill. 

To our left as we enter Lebanon Center is the * Welles House (1 on Chart 
XXXVII) built in 1712 by Rev. Samuel Welles. On the front and north 
end we see the original clapboards. This was the birthplace of William 
Williams (1721-1811) a signer of the Declaration. The able Civil War gov- 
ernor of Connecticut, * William A. Buckingham (2; 1804-1875) was born in 
the house opposite, later entering business in Norwich. The original Bucking- 
ham Homestead (3) an early 18th century landmark, has been moved two 
doors to the north, opposite the small triangular Green. The later residence 
of Hon. William Williams (4) where Washington and Lafayette were guests, 
stands at the corner of the Windham Rd. The * Trumbull Homestead (5) the 
birthplace of Gov. Trumbull, was occupied by his son David, and a grandson, 
Gov. Joseph Trumbull, was born here. The house, known as Redwoods, was 
built originally in the early 18th century but entirely remodeled. A legion of 
Rochambeau's Army, consisting of 500 mounted hussars commanded by the 
Due de Lauzun, were quartered in Lebanon in 1780-81, and the officers were 
guests of the Trumbulls in this house. Their barracks were to the west, on 
both sides of the Colchester Rd., and it is possible to make out the line of some 
of the earthworks. The grave of an " Unktmvn Soldier" (6) from this corps 
lies on the left of Colchester Rd., across Pease Brook. The old town * Burial 
Ground (7) is % mile east on Windham Rd. The central object is the Trumbull 
Family Tomb, supporting a broken column. Rev. James Fitch, the Norwich 
leader, is buried here, having spent his last days in Lebanon with some of his 
children; the inscription is in Latin and dates from 1702. 

Beyond the Green, to our left, is the * Congregational Church (8) built of 
brick in 1804, with pediment and recessed porch, and a fine contrast between 
the brick and the white woodwork. In this building, surplus food supplies 
were deposited, for distribution among the French soldiers or to Washington's 
army at Valley Forge. On the corner west of the Church is the original site 
of the Trumbull Dwelling, and the country store which had served as head- 
quarters for his large shipping business and was turned into the War Office. 
The **Gorernor Trumbull Home (9) now stands a little farther north, but 

XL 2 



practically unchanged; it is owned by the D. A. R. The house was built by 
Jonathan Trumbull in 1740. His father Joseph Trumbull, a planter on a large 
scale, carried produce to Boston by wagon, and later sent ship cargoes from 
Connecticut to the West Indies, London, Bristol and Hamburg. Jonathan 


1. Welles House. 2. William A. Buckingham birthplace. 3. Buckingham Homestead. 
4. William Williams house. 5. Trumbull Homestead. 6. Unknown Soldier grave. 7. 
Burial Ground. 8. Congregational Church. 9. Governor Trumbull Home. 10. War Office. 
11. Commons. 12. French Bake Oven site. 13. Second Jonathan Trumbull. 14. Wm. 
Beaumont memorial. 

Trumbull (1710-1785) who had planned to enter the ministry, took charge of 
the family business on his brother's death. He served as governor of Connect- 
icut in the critical period from 1769-1784, giving invaluable leadership in the 
Revolutionary cause. The commissary department of the army was located 
at Lebanon throughout the War. The Trumbull Homestead has a central 


hall, with 3 stone chimneys, which are merged into one in the attic, and fluted 
pilasters in the doorway, supporting a pediment. There is a small upper 
chamber where the Governor did much of his work during the Revolution, with 
an adjoining room for a sentry, as he had a price on his head. A succession of 
distinguished American and French officers were entertained in the house. 
Most of Trumbuirs children were born here: Joseph Trumbull, the first com- 
missary general; Jonthan Trumbull, Jr., afterward governor; Faith, who 
married Gen. Jedediah Huntington of Norwich; Mary, who married Wm. 
Williams the "Signer"; David, his father's right hand man, and father of 
another governor; and Col. John Trumbull (1756-1843) the painter, whose 
work we have seen in New Haven. The **War Office (10) a 2-room building 
with gambrel roof, restored to its original condition by the Sons of the American 
Revolution, now stands north of the Trumbull Homestead. Provisions and 
ammunition were packed and distributed in this old store building, and the 
Colony's Council of Safety held 1200 meetings. 

Lebanon Center has a narrow Commons (11) about a mile long, between two 
highways. Here Lauzun's hussars were daily drawn up on parade. A boulder 
marks the site of the French Bake Oven (12.) The residence of the Second 
Jonathan Trumbull (13) lies east of the Commons; he took an active part in 
the Revolution, and served as governor of the State from 1797 to 1809. At 
the north end is a memorial to Dr. Wm. Beaumont (14; 1785-1853) born 3 
miles north, a pioneer investigator of the physiology of digestion. 

Turning to points of interest in the outlying sections of the town, Cedar 
Swamp Pond lies a mile south of R. 82, near the Colchester line. There is a 
fine east view on Mack Rd., 2 miles west of the center. GosJien Hill, 3 miles 
southwest of the village, gives a wide view, from Mt. Tom in Massachusetts 
to the Sound. (The best view is from the back of Goshen cemetery.) This 
road continues west through Exeter to Brewster Pond, with William's Pond 
1 14 miles farther north. There is a fine view to the northeast, back of Exeter 
Community House, a mile northeast of Brewsters Pond. About 2 miles 
southwest of the Pond, an old foundation on the south of the road is the birth- 
place of Peletiah Webster (1725-1795) minister, merchant, and the leading 
political economist of America in his day. His essay, published at Phila- 
delphia on Feb. 10, 1783, put forth a plan of Federal Government, which is 
reflected in the existing Constitution. These points are best reached from Col- 

East of the village on Windham Rd., taking the second right turn beyond 
the Burial Ground, we reach Babcock Hill, with a good view in all directions. 
On R. 89, which continues north to Willimantic beyond the Commons, RocMle 
Hill Rd. leads northeast to another fine viewpoint, with Winnegunser Hill a 
little farther to the left. Sweet Hill lies to the left of R. 89, 641 feet with a 
complete horizon. We pass through the settlement known as Village Hill, with 
other viewpoints on the roads to the east. On the right, just beyond the 
Village Hill School, is Dr. Wm. Beaumont's Birthplace. R. 87 turns off north- 
west to Columbia, passing on the left the Old Bailey Place, near the town 


XI. 3 

Columbia was originally a part of Lebanon, and probably settled about the 
same time (1695.) Because of its shape, this section was known as Lebanon 
Crank. A parish was organized in 1716. In 1804, it was made a separate 
town, and given a patriotic name. Columbia is a hill region, with good scenery, 
and there is a summer colony at the Lake. 

As we enter the town from Lebanon on R. 87, we climb a hill which gives a 
fine view to the south and east. Passing Balanced Rock on the left, we enter 
Columbia Village, on a hilltop with an outlook in practically all directions. 
The narrow Green runs parallel to the highway, and is intersected by R. 14, 
which crosses at this point; there is an 18th century Tavern to the southwest. 
The first house on the right beyond the crossing was the home of Dr. *Eleazer 
Wheelock, who was pastor of the church from 1735 to 1770, and established the 
Indian school, later becoming the first president of Dartmouth College. At 
the north end of and partly hidden by the Congregational Church is the building 
used for Moor's Charity School, moved from its original site and rebuilt, but 
with the original timbers. Wheelock had been doing some preaching to the 
Indians, and in 1745 Samson Occum, the Mohegan from Montville, who had 
been converted in the Great Awakening, came to him as a pupil. In 1754 
Joshua Moor left a house and 2 acres of land for a school. At one time there 
were as many as 20 Indians in attendance: a Mohegan, 6 Mohawks and the 
rest Delawares. On our Journey through Montville we have noted the 
campaign for funds in England, in which Occum took a prominent part. The 
largest contributor was the Earl of Dartmouth. In 1770 the school was 
removed to Hanover, N. H., and the name changed to Dartmouth College. 

R. 14 leads southwest to Hebron and Middletown, passing over Post Hill 
near the town line, 837 feet, with views which reach as far as Mt. Tom in 

R. 87 continues northwest to Andover. Columbia Lake, formerly a reservoir, 
covers 375 acres. The road along the south shore leads over Utley Hill, with 
a fine view of the Lake and the surrounding country. Near the Andover line, 
the highway goes over Woodward Hill, another good outlook. 

XI. 4 

Andover comprises part of the tract of land granted to Major John Mason 
for his services in the Pequot War. It was settled in 1718, largely by families 
from Windsor and Enfield. A parish of Andover was organized in 1747, 
probably named from the English town in the county of Hants. The present 
town, made up of parts of Coventry and Hebron, was incorporated in 1848. It 
is a rather wild hill region. The highway and railroad follow Hop River, which 
cuts diagonally across the town. 

On R. 87, there are good views on various country roads leading east and 
west from the valley. About 1 }/ miles beyond the Columbia line, a road to 


the left leads to the beautiful Andorer Lake, a private recreation spot construct- 
ed and maintained as a summer colony. In Andover Village, the Bitmap 
Skinner Library lies on the right. A little beyond the center, the Case Mfg. 
Co. has been in operation for 75 years; it makes leather board for use in the 
high heels of ladies' shoes. About 1 % miles from the center, on the right, is 
the home of Daniel Burnap (1759-1838) who was born in this section, learned 
clock-making from Thomas Harland of Norwich, and opened a famous clock 
shop in East Windsor, where Eli Terry was one of his apprentices. He returned 
here in 1800, bought a farm, and erected a sawmill and shop. In Andover he 
gave most of his time to watch repairing, and making buckles, jewelry and 
silverware. Bitmap Brook, which come from the south at this point, flows 
through a pine gorge, and makes an attractive walk; it has been a favorite 
spot for artists. A road to the north leads to Almada Lodge, a fresh-air camp 
maintained by the Hartford Times. 

BOLTON. See Journey VII. 3. 

MANCHESTER. See Journey VII. 2. 

EAST HARTFORD. See Journey VII. 1 

HARTFORD. Se<- Journey VI. 7. 

Journey XII 

Norwich to Woodstock. 
Routes 32 and 91. 

The Nipmuck Indians, who lived in southern Massachusetts and north- 
eastern Connecticut, used to make trips to the shore to enjoy the sea food, 
using a path down the Little River and the Shetucket, which came to be known 
as the Nipmuck Trail. A tramping trail with the same name is now under 
construction from Norwich to the Massachusetts line. We shall follow this 
general route, with a number of side trips. There are factory towns along the 
way, including Willimantic. 

NORWICH. See Journey X. 2. 

XII. 1 

The town of Franklin was settled as a part of Norwich in 1663. A parish of 
Norwich West Farms was organized here in 1716, and a separate town in- 
corporated in 1786, named for Benjamin Franklin. It consists of a main north 
and south ridge, flanked by valleys and other ridges. 

Yanlic Falls lies just across the Norwich line on R. 32. Here the Yantic 
River drops into the valley of the Thames. The scenic gorge has been cut 
through ancient sedimentary rock. Monazite crystals have been found near 
this locality. After the battle of Great Plain in 1643, many of the retreating 
Narragansetts were driven by the Mohegans over this cliff to their death. 

About \Y miles from Yantic, we pass a Toll House on the old turnpike, and 
the highway goes over Franklin Hill, with a good view up the valley. In 3 
miles, a path climbs south from the schoolhouse to an interesting rock forma- 
tion known as Rachel's Hut. To our right we have an example of Constructional 
Terraces, built in temporary glacial streams and lakes. The form of the ter- 
race gives a pattern of the ice edge, with fingerlike terraces reaching into 
the old crevasses. Hearthstone Hill, which gives a good western view, lies a 
mile to the east. 

The village of Franklin is notable for the 70-year pastorate of Rev. Samuel 
Nott, from 1782 to 1852. He prepared many young men for college, including 
his younger brother Eliphalet Nott, whom we noted in Ashford. The site of 

256 THE C i iNM.t I K I 1 (.IIIH-; 

the old church lies *- 2 mile west of R. 42, on the top of Meeting House Hill, with 
its commanding views. The Samuel Nott House, built in 1782, is still standing. 
An early highway known as Waterman Road ran north and south over this 
ridge. The road has been discontinued, but it may be followed on foot, with 
grooves still visible that were worn in the rock by the carts. From Meeting 
House Hill, a road goes west to Franklin Sta., in the valley of Susquetonscut 
Brook, which is worth following in both directions. This is known as Peck's 
Hollow. A little south of the station, the stream flows through a picturesque 
ravine, with potholes and a small cascade; the botanist finds interesting 
northern vegetation. 

Beyond Franklin Village, the Jonathan Trumbull Highway passes several 
very old houses. From North Franklin, R. 207 runs east to Baltic through 
Ayer Gap. By turning right under the trolley bridge beyond the Gap and 
going south 1 A mile, a steep footpath leads west to Dragon's Hole. There is a 
cavern with a series of chambers, which may be explored by crawling from one 
to the other. Returning to R. 207, we pass on the right the Ayer Farm, 
which has been handed down from father to son from the first John Ayer, who 
settled here in 1663. It has never been sold or mortgaged, and is said to be the 
second oldest farm holding in the male line of descent in the U. S. Just west of 
this, a road turns north through a picturesque region, passing on the left the 
beautiful Bailey's Ravine. A mile farther on R. 207, another road leads north 
to a Waterfall, in the wild northeast corner of the town. 

R. 32 continues north to the town of Windham. As we climb the hill beyond 
North Franklin, the exposures of Hebron gneiss rock change to the overlying 
Scotland schist. 

XII. 2 

Windham was a bequest from Joshua, Uncas' son, to 14 prominent men of 
Norwich and vicinity. Most of them sold their shares, though a few sent their 
sons into the wilderness to improve the claims. The first settler probably 
arrived in 1688. A town was incorporated in 1692, and named form Wymond- 
ham in the English county of Norfolk. The Shetucket River flows through 
the western part of the town, supplying power to the mills at Willimantic. 

R. 32 follows a scenic course along the Shetucket from Franklin. In South 
Windham we find the Smith and Winchester Mfg. Co., successor of Phelps 
and Stafford, who in 1829 produced the first Fourdrinier paper machine to 
be made in the U. S. Before this, paper making was largely a hand process. 
The first two machines went to mills at Norwich and East Hartford. A road 
to the west at this point makes an approach to Oicebetuck Hill, with a fine 
northern view. 

The city of Willimantic, chartered in 1893 (population 12,102) is known as 
the Thread City. Saw and grist mills were located at the falls as early as 
1706, followed by an iron works. A Revolutionary powder mill was succeeded 
by paper and cotton mills. In 1854 the Willimantic Linen Co. started to 
make linen thread, gradually shifting to cotton. The city also has a number 


of important silk mills. Willimantic is the county seat of Windham County, 
and one of the four State Normal Schools is located here. In the northern 
part of the city is an old Quarry, with many interesting minerals. There is a 
fine view of the city and surrounding country from Blake Hill (Hosmer Mt.) 
reached by Mountain St., turning right on a road to the Reservoir. 

Going east from Willimantic on R. 14, we have a good western view from 
Brick Top Hill as we climb out of the valley. Approaching Windham Center, 
we pass on the right two interesting 18th century houses, built by Col. Jedidiah 
Elder kin and by Col. Eliphalet Dyer. The latter served on the Council of 
Safety during the Revolution, and Col. Elderkin, among his many avocations, 
raised mulberry trees, and was spinning silk thread as early as 1773. At 
Windham Center, there is a triangular Green, with a larger Green adjoining 
on the south, around which are a number of stately mansions, for at the 
end of the 18th century this was an important commercial center and the 
county seat. The Windham Inn, at the northeast corner, dates from 1783. 
The old Windham Bank building, now the Public Library, stands on the west. 
Among its treasures is a wooden statue of the god Bacchus, carved by British 
prisoners during the Revolution. 

Southeast of the Green, on the west of the road to South Windham, is the 
Webb House, with the Frink Homestead opposite. The old Burying Ground 
lies farther south on this road. It contains the grave of the traditional first 
settler, Lieut. John Cates, a mysterious character who is supposed to have 
been an officer under Cromwell, who first sought safety in Virginia and then 
retired to this wilderness. Going south by Jerusalem Rd., a left turn leads 
east to Indian Hollow, where a large boulder known as Indian Rock stands 
on the left. Beyond this is Indian Hollow Pond. 

R. 14 runs east to Scotland. After passing the old Brooklyn turnpike, which 
turns off to the northeast, we find on the left in % mile the famous Frog Pond, 
with a bronze tablet commemorating the Battle of the Frogs. One night in 
1758, during the French and Indian War, a frightful din was heard. A savage 
army seemed to be calling for the blood of the two local magnates and military 
leaders: "Col. Dyer and Elderkin too." The inhabitants stood under arms 
through the night. According to one version of the legend, morning revealed 
a terrific battle of bullfrogs for the water remaining in a pond that was being 
dried up by the drought. Farther east on R. 14, we pass on the left, at the 
foot of Zion Hill, the old brick Jail, where prisoners and dangerous Tories 
were confined in the Revolution. 

XII. 3 

We make a side trip to Scotland, settled about 1700 by a Scotsman, Isaac 
Magoon; hence the name. It was formerly a part of Windham. A parish was 
organized in 1732, and a town incorporated in 1857. 

R. 14 crosses the town from Windham, with attractive scenery and a number 
of good views. On our left as we approach the village is an early 18th century 
house, the birthplace of Samuel Huntington (1731-1796) a signer of the Dec- 

258 '1HK CONNBC ll< i I t.i un. 

laration and governor of the State; his active life was spent in Norwich. 
There are other 18th century houses in the village, including that of the first 
minister. Rev. Ebenezer Devotion, l / mile on our left, as we go south. Rocham- 
beau's army, in 1781, camped on the hill southeast of the village center. 

At Scotland Sla., 3, 1 2 miles south on the Shetucket River, is the Edward 
}\ aldo House, dating from 1715. Hilly Land Farms gives a fine view of the 
valley. The attractive route along the river to Willimantic is followed by 
the Nipmuck Trail of the Conn. Forest and Park Assn. 

As we go east from the village by R. 14, Brenn's Hill gives a good western 
view. There is another fine outlook from Pudding Hill, 2 miles north on R. 97. 

North of the village, we pass the old Fuller Homestead on the left, In the 
northwest corner of the town, by Pinch St., is Parish Hill, with a fine view to 
the north. 

XII. 4 

The town of Chaplin took its name from the first settler, Benjamin Chaplin, 
who as a young man opened a clearing on the Natchaug River, in 1740. Seven 
years later he married a widow from the town of Brooklyn. He gradually 
increased his holdings, and saw new settlers come in. A town was incorporated 
in 1822. 

Entering the town from Windham on U. S. 6, just beyond the junction with 
R. 91 we pass through Buttonball Brook State Park, of 135 acres. On R. 91, 
north of the junction, a road turns west to Bedlam Corners, passing on the 
right in Yi mile the Abel Ross Homestead, late 18th century, with central 
chimney and overhanging gable. The road north from Bedlam Corners makes 
a scenic drive. We pass on the right in % mile the Origen Bennett House, 
built about 1780, with a first story of stone, and wood superstructure, painted 
red. In another mile the road crosses Tower Hill, with a fine view to the east. 

R. 91 follows the beautiful Natchaug River through heavy timber. As we 
enter Chaplin Village, two good houses on our right Goodell House and Major 
Edward Eaton House are a foretaste of the unusual exhibit from the first 
third of the 19th century. The main street should be followed to the left, as 
the highway by-passes the village. On our left is the Donance House, with its 
elaborate doorway and cornice. The Congregational Church, erected in 1814, 
has a high stone basement and a pedimented front, with quoins on the corners. 
Near the front of the Burying Ground are two pillars, with marble slabs for 
Dea. Benjamin Chaplin and his spouse, describing at some length the founder's 
views on life. Across from the Church, the Gurley Tavern, 1822, has pilasters, 
recessed porch, and a Palladian window. North of the Church the Griggs 
House shows corner pilasters and a good doorway; and the Witter House of 
red brick, a little farther north, a hip roof and heavily molded cornice. Even 
the School House boasts a portico with Doric columns. 

About 2 miles north of the village, the traveler will do well to keep to the 
right on the old highway, and stop at the bridge over the Natchaug, with its 
wide shallow rapids. R. 91 continues to the town of Eastford. 


XII. 5 

From Chaplin, we turn east to the town of Hampton, settled in 1709. A 
parish was organized in 1717, as Canada, the second society of Windham, and 
a town incorporated in 1786. The name was taken from Hampton in the 
English county of Middlesex. The town is hilly, with good scenery. 

Leaving Chaplin on U. S. 6, we pass on the right the Jonathan Clark Tavern, 
built in 1825, with corner pilasters, recessed porch and hip roof. Hampton 
Village is built on a hill, like so many Connecticut towns; the main street runs 
north and south along the ridge, with fine views to the east, across the deep 
gorge of Little River. At the center, the Gov. Chauncey F. Cleveland Mansion, 
on our right, with its elaborate classical treatment, dates from about 1840. The 
* Congregational Church, removed from its original site, was erected in 1754, the 
second oldest in the State; it has a dignified spire and Doric portico. Facing 
the north end of the street is the Moseley Homestead, built originally in 1786. 

South of the village, R. 97 leads in 23/ miles past Shaw Hill to the right, with 
a complete horizon. In another mile we reach Howard Valley School, where 
a path goes west Y^ mile to Cowantic Rock Ledges, about 40 feet high and l /i 
mile long, with a fine eastern view. Joining the old Windham-Brooklyn Rd. 
and traveling northeast, we pass on the right in 1^ miles the Curtis Tavern, 
said to have been built in 1763. On both the main house and the ell we find 
elaborate porches and a series of Ionic pilasters. 

About Y mile east of the village on U. S. 6, the Little River Rd. turns 
south, parallel with R. 97. This was the route of the original Nipmuck Trail 
used by the Indians, and became one of the first highways. We pass a 
number of interesting old houses, and just below the town cemetery there is an 
attractive Ravine. 

On the scenic road which runs northeast from the village, the Kimball 
Tavern, 1764, stands on our right in 1^ miles. Kimball Hill, with a good 
southern view, is on the first crossroad to our right. There are other good 
houses as we continue northeast to Abington. 

A mile north of the village on R. 97, the House that the Women Built stands 
on our right. The bride Sally Bowers, when her husband and all the able- 
bodied men of the community had entered the Revolutionary army, solicited 
the help of the women in raising her house. It is said to have been framed by a 
lame carpenter. A mile to the west is Robinson Hill, with a good view in all 
directions. R. 97 joins R. 91 in Chaplin. 

EASTFORD. See Journey VII. 10. 

260 T1U-: CONNKCniTT 


Going north from Eastford on R. 91, we enter the town of Woodstock, 
originally belonging to Massachusetts. A company from Roxbury, Mass., 
purchased from Capt. James Fitch a tract in the Nipmuck country 7 miles 
square. Settlement was made in 1686, and in 1690 a town was incorporated 
by the Massachusetts General Court, which changed the name from New 
Roxbury to Woodstock, after the English town in Oxfordshire. When Wor- 
cester County in Massachusetts was organized in 1731, Woodstock was one 
of the original towns. Later on the territory was found to fall within the 
limits of the Connecticut Charter, and Woodstock joined with Suffield and 
Enfield in a secession movement. In 1749 it was received by the Connecticut 
General Assembly. 

Woodstock is a rolling hill country-, and the fertile soil was an attraction to 
the Roxbury settlers. There is a good deal of pine forest. We find many 
summer estates, especially in the eastern section. 

After crossing the town line, a side road turns west through Kenyonville 
to the attractive Crystal Lake, partly in the town of Eastford. R. 91 continues 
with good scenery through Woodstock Valley and West Woodstock, which lay 
on the route of the old King's Highway, and has a number of early houses. 
Two miles beyond West Woodstock, a road leads north past Coatney Hill, one 
of the highest points in the town, with a fine view in all directions. This hill 
is a drumlin, one of a large group in this vicinity. The drumlin is a rounded 
mass of stony clay, formed along the line of ice movement. Farther north on 
this road, on the left beyond the crossroad, is the birthplace of Rev. Jedidiah 
Morse (1761-1826) whose school geographies were almost as important as 
Webster's spelling-book. He was the father of Samuel F. B. Morse, inventor 
of the telegraph. Four miles east of West Woodstock on R. 91, Fort Hill lies 
to our left, where a fort was built by the settlers as a refuge for the women 
during Indian troubles. A mile, farther, the Bacon Homestead, opposite the 
State Garage, is one of the oldest houses in the town, and occupies the site of 
one of the last Indian encampments. 

At South Woodstock, known to the early settlers as Eastward Vale and later 
called Arnoldtown, old buildings surround an elm-shaded Common. Accord- 
ing to tradition, the three large elms on the north side were brought on horse- 
back by Mrs. McClellan from her old home in W T indham, and planted after 
the battle of Lexington. North of the Common is the house built in 1769 
by Gen. *Samuel McClellan, on land purchased from Dr. David Holmes, 
grandfather of Oliver Wendell Holmes. Gen. McClellan served in the French 
and Indian War, and during the early part of the Revolution was in charge of 
supplies for the army from this region, which were kept in a storehouse erected 
on the Common. The house was later sold to Rhodes Arnold and used as an 
inn. There is an old wellsweep in the yard. The road running north from 
South Woodstock was the Norwich- Worcester turnpike, and we find many old 
houses of interest. On our right is beautiful *Roseland Park, on the west 
shore of Woodstock Lake, maintained by the Roseland Park Associates, and 
open to the public under certain conditions. The park was laid out by the 
late Henry C. Bowen, and was the scene of large Fourth of July gatherings 
with noted speakers, including Presidents Grant, Harrison and McKinley. 
The road east of the Lake through pine woods makes an attractive drive. 


From South Woodstock, R. 93 goes northwest through the village now known 
as Woodstock Hill, with a fine outlook toward the east. This was the site of 
the first settlement, known as Plaine Hill. The beautiful * Congregational 
Church, erected in 1821, has a pediment with corner pilasters, a Palladian 
window above the three rounded doorways, and a graceful tower. The organi- 
zation goes back to 1690, and the Burial Ground just beyond it was laid out a 
year earlier. Northeast of the Common stands the Woodstock Academy. The 
original building of 1802 has been moved to the south end of the street and 
converted into a dwelling. Beyond the Academy is the Wm. Bowen House, 
built in 1782. The John Flynn House, north of the Common, goes back to 
1778. Probably the oldest house is the John May Homestead on the northwest, 
from the first half of the 18th century. Other mansions and estates show the 
early prosperity of the village, or its attraction as a summer residence. 

From the upper end of the Common, the Old Hall Road leads west. This was 
one of the first roads laid out by the settlers, and took its name from the original 
meeting house, near the fork in the road. The right fork leads past Pulpit 
Rock, marked by a tablet, where religious services were held in 1686, before 
a building was erected. On the left fork, in a field a short distance from the 
road, is *Eliot Rock, where John Eliot preached to the Indians in 1674, with a 
commemorative tablet. There were several villages of "Praying Indians" in 
this general region. 

From Woodstock Hill, R. 93 continues north to Southbridge, Mass., with 
good views. East Woodstock, another old village, lies to our right. In North 
Woodstock, on our right at the junction of the highway to East Woodstock, is 
the house of a well known clockmaker, Peregrine White, built before the Revo- 

An old highway (R. 197) which in 1826 became one of the Hartford-Boston 
turnpikes, takes us back through the center of the town to North Ashford. In 
Woodstock this was known as the Upper Turnpike, and Boston called it the 
Central Turnpike. The highway passes Black Pond, with Camp Woodstock 
(on the south shore) maintained by the Y. M. C. A. for Hartford, Tolland 
and Windham counties. An early iron mine was located here. At the crossing 
of the road from Woodstock Valley is the old Green s Tavern. This road makes 
a scenic drive to the north. In another 2/ 4 mile we pass on the left the Sessions 
Tavern. In the northwest corner of the town, Hatchet Pond, best reached 
through Union, was an early Indian reservation, and many relics have been 
found. Here may be seen an undisturbed Indian cemetery. 

Journey XIII 

Norwich to Thompson. 
Route 12. 

Before the Civil War, cotton mills were to be found in a large number of 
the Connecticut towns. But the industry always has seen its main concentra- 
tion in the Quinebaug valley, along the Rhode Island line. By 1790, the War- 
burtons were experimenting at Vernon, and Joshua Lathrop at Norwich. In 
the same year, Samuel Slater, who had learned Arkwright's methods in 
England, opened for Almy and Brown, at Pawtucket, R. I., a waterpower mill 
for spinning cotton yarn. The new industry, which utilized children from 
neighboring farms, soon spread across the Connecticut border. Slater and his 
associates were interested in some of these mills; other were started by men 
whom he had trained. Spinning was followed 25 years later by the weaving 
of cotton cloth, with larger establishments, where entire families were em- 
ployed. Native stock, supplemented by English and Scotch weavers, supplied 
the labor until about 1850. After that date, Irish and other immigrant 
families began to be used. Most of the older mills in the Quinebaug valley 
were built of local stone; these century-old industrial castles dominate the 
villages along the route. Our Journey will include side trips to historic hill 
towns west of the Quinebaug. 

NORWICH. See Journey X. 2. 

XIII. 1 

Lisbon, originally a part of Norwich, probably was settled toward the end 
of the 18th century. A parish of Newent was organized in 1718 and a town 
incorporated in 1786, named from Lisbon, Portugal. 

R. 12 follows the picturesque Quinebaug Gorge. The late uplift of this part of 
Connecticut probably caused the stream to seek a new course after the ice age. 
There are superb views from the highway. Permission may be secured to walk 
over the suspension footbridge near Taft Sta., above the dam of the Conn. 
Light and Power Co., which gives the best sight of Quinebaug Falls. The old 
turnpike, known as Bundo Hill Rd., which cuts across the bend in the river, is 
also worth taking for its southern views. 


R. 93 crosses the Shetucket at Taftville. By taking a right fork in 2 miles 
and turning east, we cross Lisbon Heights, from which 9 towns can be seen. 
Another good outlook is Branch Hill, % mile east on R. 138, overlooking the 
Quinebaug valley. At the fork, next the Congregational Church, is the house 
built in 1795 by Rev. David Hale, a younger brother of Nathan Hale, who 
served as minister from 1790 to 1803. 

XIII. 2 


We make a side trip to the town of Sprague, incorporated from Lisbon and 
Franklin in 1861. It lies along the Shetucket River, and probably was settled 
before 1700. The town was named for Wm. Sprague of Cranston, R. I., later 
the Civil War governor of Rhode Island, who laid out the manufacturing 
village in its center. 

Going up the river on R. 97 from Taftville in the town of Norwich, we reach 
the village of Baltic, where there is a worsted factory, and a large cotton 
mill, built in 1856, making fine cotton goods. At the time of its erection, this 
was considered the largest cotton mill on the continent, employing 900 hands. 
Following R. 97 northeast to the village of Hanover, the left turn at the 
Congregational Church leads in ^ mile past Salt Rock, a large boulder which 
gives a taste of salt. 

Going west from Baltic on R. 207 and turning north on Pautipaug Hill Rd., 
we pass to the left, on a crossroad, an old house at one time used as a Tavern. 
In about 1 mile, the Coughlin Homestead stands on our left, and beyond this, 
on the east of the road, the birthplace of Hon. Lafayette S. Foster, senator from 
Connecticut, who served as vice president of the U. S. after Lincoln's assassi- 
nation. The road crosses Pautipaug Hill, with a fine eastern view. 

In the southeast corner, reached from R. 97, is the manufacturing village of 
Versailles, where there are mills making paperboard and cotton sanitary goods. 
Farther north, at Versailles Sta., on the road from Baltic to Jewett City, we 
find on the south of the road the Perkins House, late 18th century, which 
served as a slave depot between the Connecticut ports and Canada. In the 
cellar of one of the ells the old dungeons can still be seen, and two whipping 
posts stand in the yard. 

XIII. 3 

Resuming our regular Journey, we enter the town of Griswold, settled about 
1690 as a part of Preston. A parish of North Preston was organized in 1716, 
and a separate town incorporated in 1815, named for Gov. Roger Griswold. A 
part of the eastern border is included in Pachaug State Forest. 


R. 12 enters the town from Lisbon at Jewell City. Eliezer Jewett settled on 
a farm at this point in 1771, and built small saw, grist and fulling mills on the 
Pachaug River. His descendants are still living in this locality. In 1804, an 
Englishman named John Schofield achieved a wool-carding machine, after a 
dozen years of experiment, and his son built a small mill here. Cotton mills 
followed, and the Slaters took over the old Schofield site. This is now the 
Ashland rayon mill. There are two establishments for printing and dyeing, 
besides various smaller industries. A borough was chartered in 1895. The 
Slater Library on Main St. was founded in 1888 by John F. Slater. An ad- 
dition was provided in 1930 by David Hale Fanning, who also donated the 
Civil War memorial in the small park at the junction of N. Main St. 

R. 12 continues north to Plainfield. There are many good Colonial houses 
on the back country roads, most of them built about 1800. 

R. 138 goes east from Jewett City, passing north of Pachaug Pond, with 
good views across the water to Ray ML (R. 165; gives good outlook to the 
north.) About IK miles east of the village of Pachaug, we pass Pachaug 
Cemetery; on the adjacent land, trees planted in the cemetery have brought 
copious reproduction of balsam fir, black spruce and arbor vitae, underneath 
the native oak and pitch pine. North of this point is a typical Esker, an 
irregular ridge formed by the deposits of a stream under the glacial ice. The 
road which turns south beyond the Pond passes through Sand Plains, with 
interesting sand vegetation, to the village of Glasgo, where there is a factory 
for dyeing, bleaching and printing. 

xm. 4 


A side trip takes us to Voluntown, on the Rhode Island border, set aside for 
"volunteers" in King Philip's War. Most of the soldiers found better land to 
the north and sold their claims. The first settlers came in 1708. There were 
boundary disputes with Rhode Island, and a town was not incorporated 
until 1721. Voluntown contains a good deal of timber land, and includes the 
main portion of Pachaug State Forest. A large acreage of unprofitable farm 
land is now being added to the Forest area. 

Leaving Griswold on R. 138, we enter Voluntown Village, with some small 
factories making braid and broad silk. In early days there were cotton mills 
here. On the east of the village, on our left at the highway crossing, is the 
pre-Revolutionary Robbins Tavern, with handsome doorway and cornice, one 
of Washington's stopping places. The village was on the route of the old 
Shetucket Turnpike between Norwich and Providence, which runs northeast 
from this point and recently has been improved. From the village a new road 
leads north through Pachaug State Forest, with attractive picnic places. On 
Ml. Misery, a mile to the northwest, there is a State Fire Tower and a com- 
manding view. Mt. Misery Brook provides excellent fishing. 

Continuing east on R. 138, we reach Beech Pond, where part of the north 
shore has been made a State Park. A cotton yarn mill was built at the outlet 
as early as 1792. 


R. 95 runs south from the village to North Stonington, through good scenery 
and past several interesting houses. In 4 miles a road leads east to Rhode 
Island, with a fine display of rhododendron, for which this section is noted. 
The beautiful *Green Falls Pond, >2 mile to the north, by the second left turn, 
shows an unusually fine development of aquatic plants. There is an attractive 
ravine below the Pond. Access will be improved when a new road is completed 
by the Forest Service. 

Going north on R. 95, through a forested region, Great Cedar Swamp to our 
right has one of the largest stands of southern white cedar in the State. Camp- 
bell's Mill Rd., the first right turn, crosses the boulder-floored Great Meadow 
Brook, and the road is paved like a pilgrim way with large flat stones. At 
Ekonk, where we enter the town of Sterling, we find the Line Meeting House, 
which stands in two towns and two counties. When Sterling was cut off jfrom 
Voluntown, the dividing line ran through the meeting house. A couple 
cannot legally be married in front of the pulpit, for the groom would be stand- 
ing in one town and the bride in another. 

XIII. 5 

Plainfield, to the north of Griswold, was claimed both by James Fitch and 
by the Winthrops of Massachusetts, on the basis of Indian grants. Both 
parties tried to sell land, with resulting confusion. The settlement of Quine- 
baug Plantation, as it was called, may be said to date from about 1690. A 
town was incorporated in 1699. The name is descriptive, as the western 
portion is a sandy plain. The eastern part of Plainfield is hilly, and drained by 
the Moosup River and its tributaries. 

R. 12 runs along the edge of the hill country, with some old houses along the 
route and on the crossroads to the east. In Plainfield Village the Lawton 
cotton and rayon mill lies to the west, with an attractive Community House. 
The highway passes through the elm-shaded village street, which gives an 
impression of age. On our right, as we near the center, is the Aunt Mary 
Avery House, built in 1764, and beyond this the Eaton Tavern (Lafayette Inn) 
of about the same date, built by Capt. Joseph Eaton a few years before the 
stage coach line started. A lane to the east leads to the granite building of 
the old * Plainfield Academy, on a rise of ground, erected in 1825; the Academy 
itself, one of the first in the State, was started in 1778. The * 'Congregational 
Church stands on the west side of the street, a beautiful granite structure with 
Doric portico, built in 1816. About y mile north, on our right, is the Capt. 
Eleazer Cady House, a red \y> story cottage which probably goes back to at 
least 1720. 

About 2 miles west of the village and 1 mile north we come to Black Hill, 
where the first meeting house was located. There are good views. On the 
highway to the west, with its rows of large maples, is the elaborate David 
Kinne House, built originally in 1780 and enlarged in 1815. 

North on R. 12, there is an attractive stretch of highway between Plainfield 
and Central Village on the Moosup River, with factories making worsted 


goods. The manufacturing community was founded about 1825. Some of the 
houses are of a much earlier date, like the 18th century Daniel Wheeler House, 
with its central chimney, on our right as we approach the center. The highway 
continues to Wauregan, another manufacturing village, with a large factory 
making lawns and fancy cotton goods. There is a cyclopean dam in the Quine- 
baug River, built in 1853. 

Going east from Central Village on R. 14, the second crossroad on the left 
leads past Moosup Pond, and a mile north of this is Squaw Rock, with interest- 
ing caves. The highway passes through Moosup, where we find the large Aid- 
rich mill making fine cotton goods, and other factories for woolen and cotton 
yarn. R. 14 continues to Sterling through the abandoned mill settlement of 

XIII. 6 

We make a side trip to the town of Canterbury, the portion of the old 
Quinebaug Plantation lying west of the river. Settlement dates from about 
1690. A dispute with Plainfield over the location of the church led to the 
organization of a separate town in 1703. The name is taken from Canterbury 
in the English county of Kent. The town is a rolling hill country, with a good 
deal of scenic beauty. 

Going west from Plainfield on R. 14, we cross the Quinebaug and climb a hill 
to Canterbury Village. At the center, on the southwest corner, is the *Pru- 
dence Crandall House, built in 1815 by Elisha Payne. The house, which is of 
great architectural beauty, has end chimneys and a hip roof with two pitches. 
Above the fine doorway is a Palladian window, surmounted by a pediment. 
Miss Crandall opened a young ladies' seminary in 1831. The following year a 
respectable colored girl, a member of the church, who wished to qualify, as a 
teacher, applied for admission. This caused a storm, whereupon Miss Crandall 
dismissed her white pupils and started a school for colored girls. The ex- 
periment was soon defeated by mob violence and act of legislature. The 
attractive Congregational Church, built in 1804 stands just south of the center. 
Pilasters support a heavily molded pediment, and there is a recessed porch 
with a good doorway. To the north is the old ^Cemetery, with the grave of 
Gen. Moses Cleveland (1754-1806) the surveyor who went to the Western 
Reserve in Ohio as agent for the Connecticut Land Co. He selected the site 
later named Cleveland, and laid out the plan of the future town. The city of 
Cleveland has erected a large boulder in his honor, at the cemetery gate. 
Another notable grave is that of Capt. James Fitch (1647-1727) the land king 
of eastern Connecticut, son of Rev. James Fitch, one of the founders of Norwich. 

R. 93, the old Norwich- Worcester turnpike, runs along the bluff above the 
Quinebaug River, with good views. There are many old houses, particularly 
in South Canterbury. The Moses Cleveland Birthplace is 2 miles north on the 
east side of the highway. Two miles south, on a small peninsula formed by a 
bend in the river, a depression in the ground marks the site of the James 
Fitch Home. He located here in 1697, and built a large house, which served as 
a stopping place for travelers and a center for land sales, military arrange- 


ments and Indian councils. Fitch exercised jurisdiction over the Mohegans, 
and the place was visited by hordes of idle Indians. During his lifetime, 
Peagscomsuck Farm, or "Kent" as he preferred to call it, was the capital 
of eastern Connecticut. 

From Canterbury village, R. 14 runs west to the old village of Westminster 
on high ground, with another good Church, built in 1769; it has a Doric 
portico and a flat tower. The King's Highway from Norwich to Worcester 
intersected the Windham-Providence highway (R. 14) at this point. The old 
road crossed Mullen Hill north of the village, with an imposing view to the 
east. The Quinebaug River follows a depression worn in the softer rock of the 
Putnam schists. The hill is composed of the old gray gneisses which form the 
upland west of the valley, and one looks across to another upland, of Sterling 
pink granite, along the Rhode Island border. There is a scenic drive from R. 
14 to R. 97 on a road which turns south about \y miles west of the village, 
following a brook with a small pond. 

XIII. 7 

East of Plainfield is the town of Sterling, originally a part of Voluntown. 
Settlement probably dates from about 1710. The town was incorporated in 
1794, and named for Dr. John Sterling, who had promised to give a public 
library. It consists of a range of granite hills (the pink Sterling granite) with 
some pine plains. 

Leaving Plainfield on R. 14, we pass through Sterling Village, where we 
find an old stone mill building dating back to 1800, now used for finishing and 
dyeing cotton goods. There is a good drive to the north and east along Quan- 
dock Brook. A mile farther, at the highway fork, is Sterling Pound, laid out 
in 1722 and rediscovered by the Highway Department, which has converted it 
into a picnic area. Two old millstones from a neighboring mill have been used 
as table tops. 

Turning back at the Rhode Island line on R. 95, the village of Oneco (an 
abbreviation of Oweneco) began with a cotton mill, which changed to chemicals, 
and is now making press-board paper. A mile west and % mile south we come 
to the Marriott Granite Quarries, with what remains of the ledge known as 
Devil's Den. 

At Sterling Hill, farther west on R. 95, there is a dignified Baptist Church, 
built in 1797, and west of this the Robert Dixon Tavern, late 18th century. The 
Capt. Putnam House, 1825, on the south side of the street, has central chim- 
ney and a good doorway. There are other old houses of interest in the village. 
The country road running south and east make a scenic drive. On R. 95, 
south from the village, we pass Sterling Fire Tower on Ekonk Hill, with its 
complete horizon. 


XIII. 8 

North of Plainfield is the town of Killingly, which has played a leading part 
among the cotton towns. The territory belonged to the Colony of Connect- 
icut, which granted portions of it as a reward to various military and civil 
leaders. The first settlement was about 1700. Pine forests were a valuable 
source of turpentine. Though remote from other settlements and a region of 
sand plains and rough hills, it filled up rapidly. In 1708 a town was incorpor- 
ated under the name of Killingly, from the manor near Pontefract (Pom fret) 
in Yorkshire, associated with Gov. Saltonstall's family. Route 12 follows for 
the most part the old "Killingly Gangway," opened in 1709. Killingly has been 
called the Curtain Town, as five mills, which formerly made cotton and woolen 
goods, are now producing more curtains than any other place in the country. 

The borough of Danielson, chartered in 1854, is located on the Quinebaug 
River, with a fine waterpower. In 1807 one of the earliest cotton yarn mills 
in Connecticut was started by Comfort and Ebenezer Tiffany from Rhode 
Island; the former was the father of Charles L. Tiffany, the New York jeweler, 
born here in 1812. The Tiffanys built a weaving mill about 1820, and later 
sold to the present Quinebaug Co., who erected the first unit of their stone 
mill in 1852. The other large company is Powdrell and Alexander. The old 
Wm. Danielson House, built in 1786, with central chimney, stands opposite 
the Quinebaug mill (U. S. 6) and is still in the family from which the borough 
takes its name. There is a fine park in the center, given by Edwin W. Davis. 
The Bugbee Memorial Library was presented by Hon. Edwin Bugbee. 

East of Danielson, U. S. 6 goes by an attractive route through the beautiful 
village of South Killingly. There is a dignified Congregational meeting house, 
built in 1837. The late 18th century house of Dr. Alexander Gaston, on the 
northeast corner, was the birthplace of Gov. Wm. Gaston of Massachusetts. 
The road which turns south, a little east of the village, makes a good drive to 
Sterling through the woods, over the crest of a long hill. The road north to 
Elliotville is also worth taking. 

Three miles north of Danielson, we pass a chain of old cotton towns, some 
of them no longer active. To the west by R. 202 are Dayville and Williams- 
ville. Following up Whetstone Brook on the east, we pass through Elmville, 
with a worsted mill, to Killingly Center. On our left is the Jeremiah Fields 
Tavern, built about 1800, on the route of the old highway from Providence to 
Woodstock. Continuing east on R. 202, we pass through Elliotville, and 
East Killingly, on the rim of a deep hollow through which Whetstone Brook 
cascades. There are mills making absorbent cotton and men's woolens. A 
road running north from this point gives good views. 

Continuing north on R. 12 , we pass through Attawaugan, with another 
cotton mill. Ballouville, making cotton yarn, lies to the northeast, and be- 
yond this is Pineville, with an old stone shoddy mill. A mile west of Atta- 
waugan is the attractive Alexander Lake, where Wild wood Park is located. 
According to an old legend, the Lake was once a mountain, submerged by the 
Great Spirit as a punishment for the Indians who were engaged in drunken 
dances on the summit. R. 12 continues north to Putnam. 


XIII. 9 

West of Killingly is the town of Brooklyn, incorporated from Pomfret and 
Canterbury in 1786. The name, often spelled Brookline in early days, may 
be descriptive. The first settler appears to have come in 1703. A parish, 
organized in 1732, went by the name of Mortlake, and thereby hangs a tale. 
Capt. James Fitch, the original owner of the land, had sold a large tract to 
John Black well, an officer under Cromwell, who opened the "Manor of Mort- 
lake" as a refuge for Irish dissenters, who never came; his name persists in 
Blackwell Brook, southwest of the village. Blackwell sold to Jonathan 
Belcher, afterward governor of Massachusetts, who had the tract divided into 
two large farms, known as the manors of Wiltshire and Kingswood. In 1739, 
Israel Putnam bought part of the manor of Wiltshire. The rest, with the manor 
of Kingswood, was purchased by Col. Godfrey Mai bone of Newport, R. I.; 
his son Godfrey, at one time the richest merchant in Newport, suffered re- 
verses and came to live on this estate, with a large force of slaves to work the 
land. The present step in our Journey will revolve largely around these two 
characters: Putnam and Malbone. 

Going west from Danielson for 2 miles on U. S. 6, with good views, the old 
*Malbone Episcopal Church lies l /s mile to the north, on the old highway 
route. The Congregationalists, under the lead of Israel Putnam, were prepar- 
ing to build a new church in the village. Godfrey Malbone, rather than pay a 
tax for a church which he did not want, built this Episcopal Church, the first 
in Windham county, in 1771. Though the organization has long since moved to 
the village, the charming old building, with its hip roof and simple pedimented 
doorway, is still standing, and services are held each year on All Saints Day. 
The Godfrey Malbone Homestead is on the next crossroad to the north, which is 
lined with fine old elms, % mile on our left. He built the first of three present 
units about 1750. Though Malbone and Putnam were always quarreling, 
Israel Putnam's son Daniel married Malbone's daughter and became heir to 
his estate. The road running south of U. S. 6 takes one over Allen Hill, with 
a fine view; the approach to the village may be made by R. 205, where we look 
across Tatnic Meadow to Tatnic Hill. 

In Brooklyn Village, at one time the county seat, U. S. 6 passes diagonally 
through the central Green, shaded by large elms. The Town Hall, on our 
right, was erected in 1820 as the Windham County Court House, and north 
of this is the long white Burdick Tavern, built about 1800. To our left, op- 
jx)site the northeast corner of the Green, a memorial boulder marks the site 
of the General \Volfe Tavern, built by Putnam when he moved from his farm 
to the village; the old well and the outlines of the foundation can still be seen, 
(ien. Israel Putnam (1718-1790) was born in Danvers, Mass., located in the 
town of Brooklyn at the age of 22, achieved distinction in the Indian wars, and 
was a prominent member of the Sons of Liberty. He was one of the command- 
ers at Bunker Hill, and played a leading part in the Revolution until December, 
1779, when he was incapacitated by an attack of paralysis. On the Green, 
facing Church St., is the attractive * Meeting House, built in 1770. Putnam 
acted as sexton. The church became Unitarian about 1819; it is now used as a 
Community House. Continuing south on Church St. (R. 93) we pass the 
Congregational Church, built after the Unitarian schism; there is a classical 
portico, as contrasted with the entrance tower of the older Meeting House. 


Beyond this is the equestrian * Putnam Statue, by Karl Gerhardt, erected in 
1888; it stands over a sarcophagus containing Putnam's remains, removed 
from the local cemetery. South of this is the old Brooklyn Hotel, built by 
Daniel Tyler in 1767. The Public Library, on the east side of Church St., 
occupies the old Windham County Bank. Northwest of the Green we have 
the Capt. Eleazer Mather Tavern to our left, late 18th century, and on our right 
the John Searles House, from about the same period. West of the latter is 
the old Thayer Place, dating back to 1747. 

About 3 miles north of the village on R. 93, near the Pomfret town line and 
] /i mile east of the highway, is the * Putnam Farm, a large house with shingled 
walls, where Israel Putnam spent his last days. It was on this farm that he 
left his plow in the furrow on news of the battle of Lexington. The present 
house, built by Putnam or his son, replaced the original homestead. 

South on R. 93, we pass on the right in 2 miles a series of precipitous Rock 
Ledges. They are the beginning of the steep eastern slope of Tatnic Hill, 
whose summit lies a mile to the west by a side road. There is a good view in 
all directions. The 1^ story Litchfield House on the summit was built origin- 
ally in 1745, but the central chimney has been removed. 

Bush Hill Rd., running northwest from the village, makes a good drive. 
U. S. 6 goes west to Hampton; in 3 miles we cross the old King's Highway 
from Norwich to Worcester. The early Brooklyn-Windham turnpike, which 
turns southwest from U. S. 6 a little beyond the village, takes one through 
fine rugged country. 

XIII. 10 


Returning to Killingly, we go north to the daughter town of Putnam. The 
first settler was Richard Evans, from Rehoboth, Mass., who in 1693 purchased 
200 acres to the east of the Quinebaug. A separate town was incorporated in 
1855, and named for Gen. Israel Putnam. 

As we enter the town on R. 12, a crossroad to our right leads to Putnam 
Heights, formerly Killingly Hill, the site of the first regular settlement and 
meeting house in Killingly. There is a long street, the old Killingly Gangway, 
running north along the ridge, with fine views. On our right is the beautiful 
Congregational Church, erected in 1818, a little north of the original site. A 
pediment, with quoins on the corners and 3 rounded doorways, is surmounted 
by a square tower and belfry. The architect was Elias Carter. Opposite 
stands the Sampson Howe Tavern of 1788. North of the Church stretches the 
Common, a fine piece of level land bought by subscription in 1775 as a training 
ground, in the military fever before the Revolutionary War. 

On a private lane northeast of the Common stands the red gambrel-roofed 
house, sometimes known as the *Copp House, built in 1744 by Justice Joseph 
Cady for his daughter Damaris, wife of Rev. Perley Howe, the second minister 
of the Church; their brilliant son, Rev. Joseph Howe, was pastor of the Old 
South Church in Boston. After Howe's death, this little house was occupied 
by his successor, Rev. Aaron Brown, who was noted as a teacher. He took 


young men into his household to prepare them for college. The most famous 
of the pupils tutored in the parsonage was Rev. Manasseh Cutler (1742-1823) 
who graduated from Yale in 1765. He was one of the most versatile men whom 
America has produced schoolteacher, merchant, lawyer, minister, physician, 
botanist, astronomer. He served as pastor of the Congregational church in 
Ipswich, Mass., for 52 years. Cutler was a chaplain during the Revolution. 
He helped to organize the Ohio Company, secured a contract from Congress 
for a large tract of land in southern Ohio, as payment to Revolutionary soldiers 
for their services, and sent down the Ohio River the company of veterans who 
settled Marietta in 1788. Among them was Gen. Putnam's brother; the 
boat they built for their pilgrimage was christened the "Mayflower." For the 
government of the new territory, Cutler had drafted the famous Ordinance 
of 1787. The Manasseh Cutler birthplace was 2^ miles east. 

A little distance north of the Common, on the east side of the street, we find 
the Cemetery, with a monument to another distinguished son, William T. 
Harris (1835-1909) philosopher and educator, a pioneer in kindergarten work 
and the first U. S. Commissioner of Education. (An earlier burying ground is 
located on R. 12, about 1 } - 2 miles south of the city of Putnam.) On the west 
side of the Putnam Heights street is the Dr. Robert Grosvenor House, late 18th 
century. At the fork of the paved road to Putnam stands the Squire Warren 
Tavern of about the same date, near the probable site of an earlier tavern kept 
by Capt. John Felshaw about 1740. 

The City of Putnam was chartered in 1895 and has a population, according 
to the 1930 census, of 7,318. It is located at the Great Falls of the Quinebaug 
River. In 1806, Osias Wilkinson and Sons established here one of the first 
cotton yarn mills in Connecticut; Wilkinson was Samuel Slater's father-in- 
law. Until 1855 the place was known as Pom fret Factory. There are now 
large silk mills. Other products include phonograph pins, boilers, rhea yarn, 
and woolen goods. 

R. 101. which passes through the town, makes a scenic drive, especially- 
southwest of the city, where there is a good view of the valley. Two miles 
below the city, on the west bank of the river, we find the Quinebaug Pines, one 
of the finest stands of white pine in the State, with excellent reproduction of all 
ages. It is now a State Park of 36 acres. 

From Putnam City, R. 12 continues north to Thompson. 

XIII. 11 


The town of Thompson, formerly a part of Killingly, was settled from 1707 
on, largely by families from Massachusetts. The region had been a favorite 
residence of the Nipmuck Indians. It is hilly country, with a good deal of 
pine, crossed by the Quinebaug and French Rivers, which supply waterpower. 
A parish was organized in 1728. The present town was incorporated in 1785, 
taking its name from Sir Robert Thompson of England, who was the largest 

XIII. 11 THOMl'SOX 273 

Crossing the line from Putnam on R. 12, which follows French River, with 
good scenery beyond Mechanicsville, we pass through Grosvenordale, originally 
Fisherville. It was named for Dr. Wm. Grosvenor, who acquired the cotton 
mill here in 1863. A mile above the village, on our left as we cross the river, is an 
interesting stone Grotto, a pilgrim devotion maintained by the adjoining St. 
Joseph's Church. At North Grosvenordale (Masonville) there is a large factory 
making fine cotton goods. Wilsonville has a mill for men's woolens. From 
this point, there is a good drive over the hills to the east. R. 12 continues 
north to Webster, Mass. 

West of R. 12, above Mechanicsville, we reach West Thompson. There are 
a number of old houses, and the Methodist Church, dedicated in 1800, has 
Ionic pilasters, a fine recessed portico, and a good spire. Above this point, west 
of the Quinebaug, is a range of wild hills, rising to over 600 feet. 

Turning off to the northeast on R. 193, the old Hartford-Boston turnpike, we 
reach Thompson Village, the intersection of the Providence-Springfield pike 
(R. 200.) The present Green was the site of an Indian settlement. As we 
enter the village, the Howe Marot School for girls, established in 1905, stands 
on our right, and on the hill to the left is Marianopolis, a Roman Catholic 
seminary, occupying another old estate. On the first street to the right, there 
are some interesting houses from the early 19th century. At the northeast 
corner of the Green we find the Vernon Stiles Inn, a long yellow building, built 
in 1814 but with verandah added. Beyond this, to our left, the Samuel Watson 
House, dating from 1767, was rebuilt somewhat later with a classical portico. 
A mile east of the village is Fort Hill, an old Indian fort, which gives a fine 
view in all directions. 

Half a mile beyond the village, a country road turns north, known as Sunset 
Trail, a picturesque winding lane, only passable in good weather; it crosses 
Sunset Hill, with a fine northern view. 

About \Y^ miles northeast of Thompson village on R. 193, we pass through 
the village of Brandy Hill, with a good eastern outlook. On our left stands the 
rather pretentious Shumway Tavern, early 19th century. From Brandy Hill, 
R. 193 goes north to Massachusetts. The old highway continues northeast 
through East Thompson to Rhode Island, passing on the left in 1 mile the 
John Tourtellotte House, built about 1770, with the front slope of the gambrel 
roof undercut to cover a Doric portico. From Brandy Hill a road goes south- 
east across the attractive Quaddick Reservoir, with a pine covered island. The 
road through pine woods east of the Reservoir, along the lower slopes of Buck 
Hill range, makes a good drive. 

Journey XIV 

Enfield to Union. 
Routes 20 and 15. 

Our last Journey takes us through a mountainous region near the Massa- 
chusetts line. Two of the State Forests: the Shenipsit and Nipmuck, are 
located here. The scattered manufacturing villages are engaged in the woolen 

ENFIELD. See Journey VIII. 15. 

XIV. 1 

Somers, originally a part of Enfield, was incorporated as a town by Massa- 
chusetts in 1734, and probably named for John Somers, an English lord chan- 
cellor. It was found to lie within the bounds of the Connecticut Charter, and 
joined the secession movement. Somers was received by the Connecticut 
General Assembly in 1749. 

Leaving Enfield on R. 20, we pass through Somersville, where there is a 
mill manufacturing woolen goods. On Shaker Rd. to the north, the first house 
on the right is the Wm. Chaff ee Homestead, built in 1780. 

The village of Somers stretches out on a long east and west street, with 
many old houses. A century ago there was a factory here making ladies' 
straw bonnets. On our right, about % mile before reaching the center, the 
oldest house now standing in the town was built by Benjamin Jones about 1710. 
The red Kibbe House, nearly opposite the Congregational Church, dates 
from around 1740. Rev. Chas. Backus, who was minister of the Church from 
1774 to 1803, conducted an embryo theological seminary, like that of Joseph 
Bellamy at Bethlehem; he trained over 80 young ministers, some of whom 
became distinguished. He is buried in the old cemetery ' mile north on R. 
83, the site of the original church. 

R. 83, the old highway to Springfield, leads through North Somers. Opposite 
the store is the Amariah Kibbe Inn, built about 1785. It remained in the 
family for 150 years, and one member, as justice of the peace, performed over 
100 marriages. A half mile farther north, on the left, we find a Salt-box House 
which dates back to 1730. 


East of Somers village, we climb from the Central Lowland to the Eastern 
Highland. The country takes on a scenic character. Battle Street, northeast 
of the village, winds through the mountains along a beautiful brook, past a 
lake where the Hartford Y. W. C. A. camp is located. A right turn brings us 
down to West Stafford. Rattlesnake Hill, on the Massachusetts line, rises to 
over 1000 feet. 

A mile north of R. 20, near the Stafford line, is Bald Mt., 1200 feet, with a 
fine view in all directions. This spot is of interest to botanists because of the 
rare trailing evergreen known as Arctostaphylos ura-ursi, or bear-berry, used 
by the Indians as an astringent. 

A mile east of the village on R. 20, we find the entrance to a new scenic 
highway, which runs for 7 miles through Slienipsit State Forest. We pass the 
Fire Tower on *Soapstone Mt., 1061 feet elevation, below which there is a fine 
spring. The views on the highway extend from southern Connecticut to the 
mountains of southern New Hampshire and Vermont. This drive comes out 
on R. 83, a mile south of the village. On the east slope of the mountain, soap- 
stone was quarried by the Indians and the early white settlers. 

XIV. 2 

From Somers we make a side trip to the town of Ellington, originally a part 
of East Windsor. It was settled about 1720, organized as a parish in 1730, and 
became a town in 1786. The name probably was taken from a town in the 
English county of Huntington. 

R. 83 makes a scenic drive from Somers, passing under the edge of the East- 
ern Highland. Ellington Village lies north of what was known as the Great 
Swamp, much of it now drained. The Congregational Church stands opposite the 
Park, and its white spire can be seen for a long distance through the valley. On 
the Park, east of the Hall Memorial Library, and near the site of the original 
church, is an Indian mortar, brought from the eastern part of the town. Three 
houses east of the Church stands the old Morgan Tavern. The oldest house 
in the village, moved from its original location, is on Maple St., two doors east 
of the parsonage. 

On R. 140 to the west, which follows down Broad Brook, on our right about 
3 4 miles beyond Sadd's Mills, we find Constructional Terraces. They were 
formed as the deposits of streams and lakes at the margin of the wasting ice 
sheet, with terraces reaching into the old crevasses in the ice. This is one of 
the most characteristic features of glaciation in Connecticut. 

East of Ellington village is the attractive Snipsic Lake, as it is now called, 
reached by Snipsic Lake Rd. It covers 625 acres, partly in the towns of Tol- 
land and Vernon. This was a favorite fishing ground of the Indians. The 
name originally was spelled Shenipsit. 

Leaving the village on Maple St. and Crystal Lake Rd., we join R. 15 at 
Crystal Lake. The Mohegans, who acquired this region by conquest, called 
it Wabbequasset, and it was later known as Square Pond. The scenery here 
is very fine. North of the lake is a portion of Shenipsit State Forest. The 


village of Crystal Lake was an early center of Methodism. Bishop Asbury and 
Jesse Lee stopped here frequently. The Methodist Parsonage, erected in 1795 
and believed to be the first in New England, stands a short distance east of the 
Methodist Church, which dates from 1792. In its hilltop setting, the Church 
can be seen for many miles. Half a mile south of the village is the old Lewis 
House, built before the middle of the 18th century and well preserved. There 
is a good view from this spot. 

From Crystal Lake, R. 15 runs north to West Stafford. 

XIV. 3 

Stafford, to the east of Somers, was sold to prospective settlers by the 
Colony, largely to raise funds for Yale College. A town was incorporated in 
1719, the year of settlement. It was named from a town in central England. 

R. 20, joining R. 15, one of the main highways from Hartford to Boston, 
makes a scenic drive across the town. At West Stafford there are small fac- 
tories making turbines and pearl buttons, and a number of old houses. Myron 
Kemp Rd., to the north, leads in 3 miles past a hill to the right over 1100 feet 
high, where gold was prospected in early days. On leaving the village, a sandy 
road turns north at the schoolhouse about % mile to Diamond Ledge (it is 
best to make the trip on foot.) The ledge is on the bank of a beautiful ravine, 
with a fine stand of pine. There is an interesting vein of quartz crystals, which 
gives the ledge its name. 

Stafford Springs, chartered as a borough in 1873, takes its name from the 
mineral springs known to the Indians, and developed as a resort after the 
Revolution. Two presidents came here to drink the waters, and visitors from 
as far away as Charleston and New Orleans. The old hotel has been replaced 
by a later building. The iron spring is on Spring St., about 500 feet south of 
Main St., between the Church and the Public Library. Near the Spring is 
Hyde Park of 87 acres, a gift to the town. There is a fine Civil War Memorial 
in the form of a bronze statue of Remembrance, by Frederick Ruckstall. 
Stafford Springs has a number of mills making woolen and worsted goods. 

From Stafford Springs, R. 19 makes an atractive drive to the north, above 
Furnace Brook; the name perpetuates a Revolutionary iron furnace working 
up bog iron. We pass through the village of Stafford, where there are more 
woolen mills, and Staffordville, making men's woolens and pearl buttons. At 
the crossroads to the east of Staffordville is a glacial Esker, an irregular ridge 
deposited by a stream under the ice or in a crevasse. R. 19 follows the shore 
of Lake Stafford (Moulton Pond) where there are many summer residences, to 
the Massachusetts line. 

R. 15 continues east from Stafford Springs to Union. In about a mile we 
pass the old Stafford Street running northeast. It is here that the old houses 
are to be found, though most of them are now in poor condition. 


XIV. 4 

The town of Union was opened to settlement as "Union Lands," made up 
of East Stafford together with the other territory which came to the Colony on 
the running of the Massachusetts line in 1713. It was first settled in 1727 by 
families from northern Ireland, and incorporated in 1734. Union is a region of 
forested hills, with only 196 people according to the last census, the most 
sparsely settled town in the State. It contains a large portion of the Nipmuck 
State Forest, and a demonstration forest of the Yale School of Forestry. 

Leaving Stafford on the scenic R. 15, we pass Ochepetuck Hill (Bald Hill) 
to our left, with a private fire tower, which gives a fine view. The next road 
north, over Stickney Hill, makes an attractive drive. Taking the same road 
south from R. 15, we pass several old Corbin houses, and Lead Mine Hill, on 
our left, where lead was mined as early as 1660. 

Morey Pond, to the east of R. 15 on the Nipmuck Forest, has facilities for 
bathing. At the little village of Union, the Dea. Ezra Horton House, about 
1815, stands on our right, below the School. The Yale Forest lies southeast of 
the village. An old road to the east, not passable for cars, takes us past 
Coye Hill, another fine viewpoint. 

Beyond the village, R. 198 leads through the hills and woods to North 
Ashford. In 1 mile we reach the attractive Bigeloiv Pond, surrounded by a 
fine stand of white pine. Just west of this point there are exposures of Pre- 
Cambrian Schists, among the oldest rocks in Connecticut. In the blasted road 
cut, iolite has been found bluish semi-transparent crystals, which have been 
cut as gems. There are some good Colonial houses along this highway and on 
other roads through southern Union. 

R. 15 continues north to Massachusetts. There are some old houses on the 
left of the highway, and on the right the attractive Marshapaug Pond, with the 
extensive pine forest of the American Optical Co. A road north of the Pond 
leads in 13-2 miles to Cat Rock, on the State line, with a fine view in all direc- 
tions. South of this is Breakneck Pond, with Indian burial grounds, and caves 
on the east bank. 


Arranged by towns. 



Esker, page 150. 


Tipping Rock, 158. 


Glaciated bed rock, 129. 
Glacial spillway notch, 129. 


Drumlin, 152. 


Folding of Bolton schist, 185. 
Glacial stream outlet, 185. 


Granite quarries, 43. 


Lead mine, 81. 


Whigville copper mine, 156. 


Folded limestone, Housatonic gorge, 94. 


Granite gneiss, Mullen Hill, 268. 

Barite mines, 141. 
Copper Valley mine, 141. 


Graphite, 80. 


Rock exposures, 119. 



Trap quarry, Reed's Gap, 204. 


Copper mine, Newgate, 154. 
Tariffville Gorge, 154. 


Constructional terraces, 227. 

Drumlin, 227. 

Glacial chasm, Chapman Falls, 228. 


Cobalt mine, 225. 

Garnet mine, 226. 

Hall Quarry, minerals, 225. 

Intrusive gneiss, Hurd Park, 226. 

Skokum Quarry, minerals, 226. 

Swanson Lithia mine, minerals, 226. 


Drumlin, 115. 


Constructional terraces, 276. 


Active sand dunes, 219. 


Alluvial fan, 149. 


Constructional terraces, 255. 
Contact of gneiss and schist, 256. 
Yantic Falls, 255. 


Glacial stream outlet, 223. 
Husband Quarry, minerals, 224. 

Tipping Rock, 98. 


Glacial chasm, Byram River, 3. 



Esker, 265. 


Drumlin, 68. 


Hungry Hill, minerals, 47. 
Quonnipaug fault, 47. 


Gillette Quarry, minerals, 226. 
Gneiss quarry, minerals, 198. 


Glacial kettles, 140. 
Tidal marsh peat, 140. 


Trinity College campus, 181. 


Glacial erratic, 234. 


Iron mine, 85. 

Limestone, Housa tonic gorge, 85. 


Decayed rock, 51. 

Quinebaug Gorge, 263. 


Drumlin, 102. 

Prospect Mt. nickel mines, 103. 


Drumlin, 187. 


Hebron schist, 235. 

284 THE roNNECTicrr c;ru>E 


Ash bed, 167. 
Glaciated bed rock, 166. 
Lava flows, Hubbard Park, 166. 
Trap quarry, with minerals, 167. 


Dinosaur tracks, 205. 


Lead mine, 201. 

Wesleyan University museum, 201. 

White Rocks quarry, minerals, 199. 


Bismuth mine, 114. 
Feldspar quarry, 114. 


Cochegan Rock, 238. 


Mt. Tom, hornblende gneiss, 104. 


Schists, Farmington River gorge, 157. 


Peabody Museum. 39. 
West Rock, 39f. 


Glacial stream cut, 212. 


Housa tonic gorge, 82. 

Limestone quarries, 83. 

Merryall mica quarry, minerals, 83. 


Canaan Mt., view of valley floor, 95. 
Limestone quarries, 95. 


Glacial sand fill, 162. 
Iron bog, 162. 
Lava, Peter's Rock, 161. 
Varved clays. 162. 



Glacial erratic, 247. 

Intrusive quartz, Lantern Hill, 246. 


Glacial chasm, 243. 
Glacial erratic, Taftville, 244. 


Stevenson copper mine, 122, 


Glacial stream dam, 144. 


Granite over schist, 194. 


Andrews Quarry, minerals, 224. 

Eskers, 225. 

Glacial kettles, 225. 

Pelton Quarry, minerals, 224. 

Sandstone quarries, 225. 

Strickland Quarry, minerals, 224. 


Branchville Quarry, minerals, 75. 
Garnet mine, 75. 
Garnet Rock, 75. 


Glacial dam, 207. 


Garnet mine, 112. 
Mine Hill, minerals, 111. 


Iron mines, 93. 
Limestone caves, 93. 
Limestone quarries, 92. 


Nickel mine, 121. 


Iron mine, 91. 



Southford feldspar quarry, 108. 
Glacial erratic, 109. 


Constructional terraces, 143. 
Great Unconformity, 145. 


Active sand dune, 222. 


Esker, 277. 


Tungsten mine, 1 16. 


Gneiss outcrop, minerals. 278. 
Pre-Cambrian schist, 278. 


Quartz vein, with minerals, 1 10. 


Flatrock Quarry, minerals, 61. 
Granite, Millstone Point, 61. 


Varved clays, 171. 


Drumlin, 25. 


I'Yldspar quarry, minerals, 257. 


Stream terraces, 216. 
Varved clays, 216. 


Buttress Dike, 127, 128. 
Glacial erratic, 128. 
Phyllite, Sperry Pool, 128. 


Drumlin, 260. 



Ashford Oak. page 188. 


Quaking bog, 129. 


Limestone flora, Housatonic gorge, 94. 
Red spruce swamp, 94. 


Black spruce bog, 88. 

Calhoun Pines, 88. 

Gold Pines, 88. 

Paper birch, Mohawk Forest, 88. 


Sycamore, 79. 


Flood plain vegetation, Lord Island, 227. 
Hemlock, Devil's Hopyard, 228. 


Marine algae, Mansfield Grove, 42. 


Coastal plain aquatics, Dodge Lake, 60. 
Same, Pataganset Lake, 60. 


Pine Plantation, 219. 


Flora, Peck's Hollow, 255. 


Balsam fir swamp, 98. 


Agassiz Assn., wildflower collection, 4. 

288 INK (ONM-XTici i (,nm; 


Cemetery woods reproduction, 265. 
Sand plain vegetation, 265. 


Flora. Poquonock Plains. 66. 
Hawthorne, Bluff Point, 67. 


Aquatics, Lake Quonnipaug. 17. 
Same. West Pond, 47. 


Coastal marsh vegetation, 140. 

KKN r 

Hemlock and ravine vegetation, Kent Falls, 87 
Spruce-tamarack bog. Spectacle Ponds, 86. 


Coast white cedar swamp. 1246. 
Gales Ferry oak, 245. 


Aquatic vegetation, Selden's Cove, 


Sand dune flora, Hammonasset Beach. 49. 


Flora, Hanging Hills, 167. 


Hemlock, Hop Brook, 126. 
Aquatics. Quassapaug bog, 126. 


Flora, West Rock, 39. 
Persimmon, Lighthouse Point, 11. 
Yale Botanical Garden, 38. 


Connecticut Arboretum, 65. 
Bolleswood hemlock forest. 65. 


Hemlock, Rocky Glen, 112. 



Laurel, Dennis Hill, 97. 


Pine barrens, 162. 


Aquatics, Rogers Lake, 59. 

Sand beach flora, Griswold Point, 58. 


Sheep laurel, Beacon Hill, 55. 


Hemlock and hardwood, Mashamoquet Brook, 194. 
Maple and mixed hardwoods, Saptree Run, 194. 

Quinebaug Pines, 272. 


Hemlock and unique plants, Redding Glen, 75. 


Aquatics, Twin Lakes, 93. 

Bog plants and trees, Bingham Pond, 93. 

Hemlock, Barrack Matiff, 94. 

Ravine vegetation, primitive forest, Sage's Ravine, 94. 

Sterling Elm, 90. 


Pine stands, 151, 152. 


Arctostaphylos ura-ursi, 276. 


Spruce swamp, 143. 


Bogs, Congamond Lakes, 219. 



Rhododendron. 266. 
White Cedar swamp, 266. 

Salt marshes, 52. 


\\ cthersfield Elm, 210. 


Pine stands, 215. 

Flood plain vegetation, 215. 


Yale Natural Preserve, 127. 



Barkhamsted Lighthouse, page 159. 
Council Rock cave, 158. 


Chipping ground, High Rock, 123. 


Caves, Bolton Notch, 185. 


Frederick H. Williams collection, 146. 


Ojibway Tower, 94. 


Capt. James Fitch home site, 267. 


Lookout, Mohawk Mt., 88. 


Podunk fort site, 184. 


Public Library, Russell and Borrman collections. 


Niantic cave, 61. 


Samp Mortar Rock, 115. 


Great Swamp Fight, 13. 


Tunxis monument, 148. 

'- I Ml < >\\M IK I I 1,1'lliK 


Yantic Falls, 255. 


Mineral spring, 224. 


Rock house, 98. 


Burial ground, Cos Cob, 3. 
Site of Dutch massacre, 3. 

Fort Hill, 67. 
New Indian cemetery, 67. 
Pequot Hill, 67. 


Rock shelter, Leete's Island, 47. 


Old Nipmuck Trail, 259. 


Soapstone quarry, 134. 


Schaghticoke Reservation, 86. 


Cave, Chatfield Hollow, 52. 


Burial ground, 245. 
Pequot Reservation, 246. 


Historical Society collection, 101. 


Joshua's Rock, 228. 


Mineral spring, 185. 



Burial ground, 23. 
Shell heap, 21. 


Cochegan Rock, 238. 
Mohegan church, 237. 
Samson Occum house site, 238. 
Sandy Desert, 238. 
Shantock Burying Ground, 238. 
Shantock Fort, 238. 
Tantaquidgeon museum, 238. 
Uncas Fort, 238. 
Uncas Hill, 238. 


Camping ground, Bantam Lake, 104. 


Ponus Cave, 8. 
Ponus monument, 8. 


Pootatuck Council Cave, 84. 


Camp ground, West Hill Pond, 157. 
Soapstone quarry, 157. 


Peabody Museum, 39. 


Wangunk village site, 212. 


Camp site, Housa tonic gorge, 82. 


Pequot Reservation, 246. 


Great Plain battle, 239. 
Miantonomo Monument, 244. 
Converse Art Gallery collection, 243. 
Uncas Monument, 243. 




Squaw Rock caves, 267. 


Jack's Cave, 133. 


Fish weirs, 244. 

Village site, Rixtown Mt., 244. 


Moravian Mission, 71. 


King Philip's Cave, 151. 

Soapstone quarry, 276. 


Camping and burial ground, 222. 


Fort site, 136. 


Golden Hills Reservation, 17. 


Burial ground, Breakneck Pond, 278. 


Mattatuck Historical Society collection, 125. 
Waterville caves, 125. 


Chipping ground, Highland Lake, 137. 
Owleout's grave, and lookout, 137. 


Pomperaug's grave, 107. 


Eliot Rock, 261. 

Camp and burial ground, Hatchet Pond, 261. 



American Legion Forest, page 158. 
Peoples Forest, 159. 


Naugatuck Forest, 123. 


Fish Hatchery, 169. 


Bolton Notch (State Park) 185. 


Trout Hatchery, 155. 


Buttonball Brook (State Park) 258. 


Connecticut Reformatory, 142. 


Cockaponset Forest, 197. 


Housatonic Forest, 89. 

Mohawk Forest, 88. 

Mohawk Mountain (State Park) 88. 


Normal School. 

Wooster Mountain (State Park) 79. 


Soldiers Home, Noroton, 6. 


Trimountain (State Park) 204. 



Natchaug Forest, 192. 

Nathaniel Lyon Memorial (State Park) 192. 


Brainard Homestead (State Park) 227. 
Devil's Hopyard (State Park) 228. 
Shad Hatchery, 226. 


Hurd Park, 226. 


Connecticut Farm for Women, 60. 
Militia Encampment, 60. 
Nehantic Forest, 60. 
Rocky Neck (State Park) 59. 


Shenipsit Forest, 276. 


Prison Farm, 219. 


Shade Swamp game sanctuary, 147. 

Ivy Mountain (State Park) 98. 


Fort Griswold and Groton Monument, 66. 
lobster and flatfish Hatchery, Noank. 
Mystic Oral School for the Deaf, 67. 


Cockaponset Forest, 199. 


Sleeping Giant (State Park) 141. 


State Armory and arsenal, 180. 
State Capitol and offices, 180. 
State Library, 180, 



Tunxis Forest, 160. 


Kent Falls (State Park) 86. 
Lake Waramaug (State Park) 110. 
Macedonia Brook (State Park) 86. 


Cockaponset Forest, 52. 


Humaston (State Park) 102. 
Mount Tom (State Park) 103, 104. 


Selden Neck (State Park) 228. 


Hammonasset Beach (State Park) 49. 


Connecticut State College, 187. 

Mansfield Training School and Hospital, 187. 


Connecticut School for Boys, 164. 
Undercliff tuberculosis sanatorium, 166. 
West Peak (State Park) 166. 


Black Pond (State Park) 205. 


Connecticut State Hospital, 201. 
Dart Island (State Park) 199. 
Long Lane Farm, 202. 


Fort Shantock (State Park) 238. 


Teachers College of Connecticut, 171. 


Pootatuck Forest, 84. 
Squantz Pond (State Park) 84. 

Mil, ( QNNE< I !( I I (.1 IDI-. 

Nepaug Forest, 157. 


Agricultural Experiment Station, 38. 
Normal School, 26. 


Cedarcrest tuberculosis sanatorium, 211. 

Fair-field State Hospital, 114. 


Campbell Falls (State Park) 95. 
Dennis Hill (State Park) 97. 
Haystack (State Park) 96. 


Wharton Brook (State Park) 162. 


Uncas on Thames tuberculosis sanatorium, 239. 


Sunset Rock (State Park) 144. 


Mashamoquet Brook (State Park) 194. 
Saptree Run (State Park) 194. 
Wolf Den (State Park) 194. 


Great Hill (State Park) 225. 
Meshomasic Forest, 224. 

Norwich State Hospital, 245. 


Quinebaug Pines (State Park) 272. 


Israel Putnam Memorial Camp Ground, 76. 



Minnie Island (State Park) 232. 


Housatonic Forest, 89. 

Housatonic Meadows (State Park) 89. 


Indian Well (State Park) 118. 

Laurel Heights tuberculosis sanatorium, 117. 


Simsbury Forest, 152. 


Shenipsit Forest, 276. 


Southford Falls (State Park) 108. 


Nye-Holman Forest, 191. 


Paugnut Forest, 136. 


Nipmuck Forest, 278. 


Beach Pond (State Park) 265. 
Pachaug Forest, 265. 


Above All (State Park) 109. 


Mount Bushnell (State Park) 1 10. 


Mattatuck Forest, 126. 


Seaside tuberculosis sanatorium, 61. 



Black Rock (State Park) 131. 
Mattatuck Forest, 132. 


Sherwood Island (State Park) 12. 
Smelt Hatchery, Lee's Mills. 


Connecticut State Prison, 211. 


Normal School, Willimantic. 


Trout Hatchery, 216. 


For individual Towns, consult the local libraries. 


George L. Clark, HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT, 1914. 

The best general history, unfortunately out of print. 

Norris G. Osborn, ed., HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT, 5 vol's, 1925. 
A series of monographs, of varying quality. 

1789, 2 vol's, Houghton Mifflin, 1890. Valuable for background. 

Lois K. M. Rosenberry, THE EXPANSION OF NEW ENGLAND, Houghton 
Mifflin, 1909. Covers migrations from Connecticut. 

U. Press, 1924. 


History and description of each town at that period. 

Richard J. Purcell, CONNECTICUT IN TRANSITION, 1775-1818, Am. Hist. 
Assn., Washington, 1918. 

Jarvis M. Morse, A NEGLECTED PERIOD OF CONN. HISTORY, 1818-1850, 
Yale U. Press, 1933. 

Ellen D. Larned, HISTORY OF WINDHAM COUNTY, 1880. 

Isabel M. Calder, THE NEW HAVEN COLONY, Yale U. Press, 1934. 

CONN. Daughters of Am. Revolution. In preparation. 


Edward H. Jenkins, A HISTORY OF CONN. AGRICULTURE, Agric. Experi- 
ment Sta., New Haven, 1926. 

Mead, 1930. 

Wm. G. Lathrop, THE BRASS INDUSTRY IN THE U. S., revised ed., Mt. 
Carmel, 1926. 

Houghton Mifflin, 1931. 


Wm. T. Davis, ed., THE NEW ENGLAND STATES, vol. 2. D. H. Hurd, 
Boston, 1897. History of industries and individual companies in Conn. 


John W. De Forest, HIST. OF THE INDIANS IN CONN., 1851. 


Froelich G. Rainey, THE INDIANS OF CONNECTICUT, Archaeological Soc' 
of Conn., Peabody Museum, New Haven. 




Colonial Dames, OLD HOUSES OF CONNKI ' i HIT, Yale U. Press, 1923. 

Press, 1924. 

Id., COLONIAL CHURCHES OF CONN. In preparation. 


(G) refers to bulletins of State Geological and 
Natural History Survey. 

Thomas A. Clark, GEOLOGY OF CONNECTICUT, Hartford, 1933. 
A brief popular treatment. 

Chester R. Longwell and Edward S. Dana, WALKS AND RIDES IN CENTRAL 

Wm. N. Rice and Herbert E. Gregory, MANUAL OF THE GEOLOGY OF 
CONN., G. 6, 1906. 

Wm. N. Rice and Wilbur G. Foye, GUIDE TO THE GEOLOGY OF MIDDLE- 
TOWN, CONN., AND VICINITY, G. 41, 1930. 

Richard F. Flint, GLACIAL GEOLOGY OF CONN., G. 47, 1930. 
John F. Schairer, MINERALS OF CONNECTICUT, G. 51, 1931. 


Wallace Nutting, CONNECTICUT BEAUTIFUL, 1923. 

Photographs and sketches, of both landscapes and old houses; text 
discursive, but writes as an authority. 

Katharine Matthies, TREES OF NOTE IN CONN., published for D. A. R. 
New Haven, 1935. 

Marguerite Allis, CONNECTICUT TKILIH.V, Putnam, 1934. 

Charming drawings and text, but full of historical errors. 

Odell Shepard. HARVEST OF A QUIET EYB, Houghton Mifflin, 1927. 
A walking trip along old roads in northern Conn. 


Published through Yale Univ. Press. 



3. THE CHARTER OF CONNECTICUT, 1662, C. M. Andrews and A. C. Bates. 

4. THOMAS HOOKER, W. S. Archibald. 







10. CONNECTICUT TAXATION, 1750-1775, L. H. Gipson. 




LAND RECORDS, L. W. Labaree. 


15. HITCHCOCK CHAIRS, Mabel R. Moore. 





20. THE FUNDAMENTAL ORDERS OF CONN., G. M. Dutcher and A. C. Bates. 

21. THE LITCHFIELD LAW SCHOOL, 1775-1833, Samuel H. Fisher. 

22. THE HARTFORD CHEST, H. W. Erving. 


24. THE HARTFORD CONVENTION, William E. Buckley. 

25. THE SPANISH SHIP CASE, 1752-1758, R. M. Hooker. 


27. Music VALE SEMINARY, 1835-1876, Frances H. Johnson. 

28. MIGRATIONS FROM CONN. PRIOR TO 1800, Lois M. Rosenberry. 




31. Tut-: LOYALISTS OF CONNECTICUT, Epaphroditus Peck. 

32. THE BEGINNINGS OF CONNECTICUT, 1632-1662, C. M. Andrews. 




List of Members supplied by Connecticut Hotel Association. 
A American Plan. E European Plan. 

Arlington Hotel, 40 Rooms (E) $1.50 up. 


Riverton Inn. 


Sheldon House Club, Pine Orchard (Summer.) 60 Rooms (A) $6.00 up. 


Arcade Hotel, 60 Rooms (E) $1.50 up. 
Barnum Hotel, 200 Rooms (E) $2.50 up. 
Hotel Howard, 50 Rooms (E) $ 1.50 up. 
Stratfield Hotel, 400 Rooms (E) $2.50 up. 


Prospect Hotel, (E) $1.00 up. 


Burlington Inn. 


Colebrook River Inn. 


Green Hotel, 200 Rooms (E) $2.00 up. 


Clark Hotel, 75 Rooms (E) $2.00 up. 


Riverside Hotel. 


Hathaway Inne. 

Hillside Hall (Summer.) (A) $3.00 up. (E) $2.00 up. 

Kayrock Inn. 

Camp Wopowog (Summer.) (A). 



Church Corners Inn, 35 Rooms (E) -$1.50 up. 


Morton Hotel, Niantic, 75 Rooms (E) $2.00 up. (A) $4.00 up. 


Crystal Lake Hotel. 


Enfield Inn. 
Thompsonville Hotel. 

Griswold Hotel. 


Worthy Hotel, Unionville. 


Kent House (Summer.) 100 Rooms (A) $8.00 up. 
The Maples, 50 Rooms (A) $6.00 up. (E) $2.50 up. 
Pickwick Arms, 110 Rooms (E) $4.00 up. 


Jewett City Hotel. 
Maleks Hotel, Jewett City. 


The Griswold. 
Nelesco Hotel. 


Centerville Inn, (E) $2.50 up. 


Allyn House, 100 Rooms (E) $ 1.50 up. 
Hotel Bond, 450 Rooms (E) $2.50 up. 
Hotel Bond Annex, 275 Rooms (E) -$1.50 up. 
Hotel Bondmore, 200 Rooms -(E) -$1.50 up. 
Garde Hotel, 200 Rooms (E) $2.00 up. 
Hamilton Hostelry, (A) $3.00 up. (E) $1.50 up. 
Heublein Hotel, 100 Rooms (E) $2.50 up. 
Highland Court Hotel, 300 Rooms (E) $2.00 up. 
Lenox Hotel. 

New Dom Hotel. 130 Rooms (E) SI. 50 up. 
Oxford Hotel, 125 Rooms (E) $ 1.00 up. 
Trumbull Hotel, 75 Rooms (E) $1.00 up. 


1 1 ADD AM 

Higganum Inn. 


Attawaugan Hotel, Danielson, 50 Rooms (E). 

Danielson Inn, (E). 

Kingswood Hotel, Danielson, (E). 


Phelps Tavern, 40 Rooms (E) $2.00 up. (A) $6.00 up. 


Dolly Madison Inn. 


Winthrop Hotel, 100 Rooms (E)-$l. 50 up. 


Arrigoni Hotel, 60 Rooms (E) $1.50 up. 
Middlesex Hotel, 26 Rooms (E) $ 1.50 up. 


Elsmere Hotel. 
Idylwood Hotel. 


Beloin Hotel, (E) $1.50 up. 

Burritt Hotel, 130 Rooms (E) $2.00 up. 

Stanley Hotel, 100 Rooms (E) $1.50 up. 


Bishop Hotel, 50 Rooms (E) 
Duncan Hotel, 125 Rooms (E) 
Garde Hotel, 250 Rooms (E) $1.75 up. 
Royal Hotel, 130 Rooms (E) $1.50 up. 
Taft Hotel, 400 Rooms (E) $3.00 up. 
Taft Hotel Annex, (E) $2.50 up. 
Travelers Hotel. 
Y. W. C. A. 


Crocker House, 150 Rooms (E) $ 1.50 up. 

Faire Harbour Hotel. 

The Inn. 

Lighthouse Inn, (A) $6.00 to $12.00. 

Mohican Hotel, 250 Rooms (E) $2.50 up. 

Neptune Hotel. 

Royal Hotel, 30 Rooms (E) $2.00 up. 

Winthrop Hotel. 




Berkshire Hotel, Canaan, (E) $1.00 up. 

Canfield Hotel, Canaan, 40 Rooms (E) $1.50 up. 


Auditorium Hotel, 30 Rooms (E) $1.50 up. 

New Del Hoff, (E) 

Norwich Inn, 75 Rooms (E) $2.00 up. (A) -$5.00 up. 

Wauregan Hotel, 110 Rooms (E) $1.50 up. 


Ferry Tavern. 

Old Lyme Inn, 60 Rooms (E) $2.00 up. (A) $4.50 up. 


Pease House, Saybrook Point, 37 Rooms (E) $2.00 up. (A) $4.00 up. 

Shoreline Hotel, (E) 

Ye Castle Inn, 25 Rooms (E) $3.00 up. (A) $25.00 per wk. up. 


Austin Hotel, Terryville, (A) $2.50 up. 


Putnam Inn, 100 Rooms (E) $1.50 up. 


Stafford Springs Hotel, 50 Rooms (E) $ 1.50 up. 


Davenport Hotel, 100 Rooms (E) $2.00 up. 

The Lindenhurst. 

Roger Smith Hotel, 135 Rooms (E) $2.00 up. 


Stonington Manor. 


Conley Inn, 65 Rooms (E) $1.50 up. 


Rockville House, Rockyille, 75 Rooms (E) (A) 


Belmont Hotel. 



Elton Hotel, 175 Rooms (E) $2.50 up. 
Kingsbury Hotel, 176 Rooms (E) $1.50 up. 


Hooker House, (E) -$1.50 up. 

Nathan Hale Hotel, 75 Rooms - (K) -$2.00 up. 


Winchester Hotel, Winsted, 75 Rooms (E) $1.50 up. 



Abbey, Thomas 220 

Abington 193 

Academies, 12, 14, 15, 42, 48, 64, 

98, 99, 103, 115, 184, 198, 210, 

233, 261, 266. 

Acadian House, Guilford 46 

Aetna Insurance Co. 178 

Agassiz Assn., National 4 

Agriculture xxvi, 49, 88 

Albertus Magnus College 38 

Alcott, Amos Bronson 130 

Alexander Lake 269 

Allen, Ethan 92, 95, 111 

Allyn Museum, Lyman 65 

American Board 148 

American School for the Deaf 177 
Amston 234 



Architecture xxi, 147 

Arnold, Benedict, 28, 64, 66, 78, 

241, 243. 


Aspetuck Falls 76 

Attawaugan 269 

Austin, Moses 203 

A very Memorial, Groton 66 

Avery Memorial, Hartford 175 

Avon Old Farms school 150 

Ayer Gap 256 


Backus, Charles 275 

Bacon Academy 233 

Bacon, Jabez 105, 1 18 

Bacon, Leonard 26, 29 

Baileyville 204 

Baker, Remember 112 

Balls Pond, New Fairfield 84 

Baltic 264 

Banks 64, 117 

Bantam Lake 104 

Baptist churches, early, 68, 219, 

247, 268. 


Barlow, Joel 76, 174 

Barnard, Henry xxvi, 177 

Barn Door Hills 153 

Barnum, Phineas T., 18, 80. 108 

Bassett House, Hamden 140 

Battell, Joseph 96 

Battle of the Frogs 257 


Bean Hill 239, 243 

Beardsley Park 18 

Bear Mt., Salisbury 94 

Bear Rock, Durham 204 

Beaumont, William 252 

Beecher House, Darius 128 
Beecher, Henry Ward, 28, 99, 101 

Beecher, Lyman, 31, 46, 99, 101 

Bellamy, Joseph 104 

Bell industry 187, 226 


Beseck Mt. 205 




Bigelow Brook 189, 192 

Bird sanctuaries, 13, 102, 127, 147 

Bissell, Daniel 215 

Black Hall 58 

Black Rock harbor 16, 18 

Blake, Eli Whitney 29, 33 


Blueberries 98, 160 

Bluff Head 47 
Boating and canoeing, 113, 119, 227 
Boat races 64, 118, 119, 245 


Borden, Gail 136 

Bosworth Castle 192 

Botany xxvii 


Brainerd, David 198 



Brandy Hill 273 


Brass industry. 117, 119, 120, 124, 

135, 170, 188. 

Brewster, Jonathan 245 

Brickyards. 140, 162, 171, 213, 216 

Bride Brook 59 



Bridle trail* 3, 16, 103 


Broad Brook 221 



Brown. John, 136, 156, 157, 158, 190 

Brownie Castle 119 

Buckingham, Wm. A., 50, 244, 250 

Buell, Abel 50 

Buell, Elisha 235 

Bullet Hill School 108 

Bulls Bridge 85 

Burbank House, Abraham 218 


Burnap, Daniel 221, 239, 254 

Burritt, Elihu 170 

Burr Mansion, Fairfield 15 

Burrville 136 

Burying grounds. 4, 12. 14, 23, 25, 

41, 50, 52, 54, 57, 64, 71, 74, 79, 80, 

88. 101, 105, 108, 111. 114, 119, 

143, 146, 148, 152, 155, 160, 165, 

169, 172, 174, 184, 201, 203, 206, 

207, 210, 211, 215, 220, 221, 222, 

227, 234, 241, 243, 246, 250, 257, 

261, 267. 

Bushnell, Cornelius S. 39, 48 

Bushnell, David 52, 53, 55 

Bushnell, Horace 110, 178, 180 
Bushnell House, Westbrook 52 
Bushnell Memorial 180 

Buttermilk Falls 133 


Candlewood Lake 
Candle wood Mt. 
Canterbury School 
Carpet industry 
Carriage industry 


81, 82, 84f 





152, 219 

' Cedar Lake, Chester 197 

Cement industry 142f, 168 

Centerbrook 196 

Central Village 266 

Chad wick, Daniel 58 

Champion, Epaphroditus 227, 233 

Champion, Henry 233 

Charter xx. 175, 176, 180 

Charter Oak 176 

Chatfield Hollow 51 

Chauncey Peak 167 

Cheese industry 97 



Chester-Hadlyme Ferry, 198, 228 

Chippens Hill 146 

Choate School 163 

Churaevka 109 

Churchill, Charles 212 
Civil War, xxiii, 102, 129, 134, 169, 

177, 180, 244. 

Cleveland, Aaron 241 

Cleveland, Moses 267 


Clock industry, 46, 101, 132, 133, 

136, 145, 221, 239, 254, 261. 

Coan, Titus 51, 52 

Cobalt 225 

Cogswell Tavern 110 



Collins Tavern 124 

Collinsville 156 

Colt, Samuel 177, 182 


Compo Beach 12 

Compounce. Lake 144 

Comstock Covered Bridge 234 

Condensed milk 95, 136 

Connecticut College 65 
Connecticut Historical Society 175 

Converse Art Gallery 243 

Cook House, Thaddeus 163 
Copp House, Putnam Heights 271 

Cos Cob 
Cotton industry. 184, 189. 224, 235 

239, 263ff. 

Covered bridges, 85, 87, 88, 121, 

123, 234. 

Cow Hill School House 50 



Cowles houses, Farmington 142, 


Crandall, Prudence 267 

Cream Hill Agric. School 88 


Cromwell Hall Sanatorium 206 

Crystal Lake 276 

Curtis Homestead, Stratford 20 

Cutler, Manasseh 272 


Daboll Homestead 



Danforth, Thomas 








Darling Tavern, Woodbridge 127 

Dartmouth College 238, 253 

Davenport House, Stamford 6 

Davenport, John 25, 27 

Deane, Silas 210, 245 

Deane's Ravine 94 

Decatur, Admiral 66, 245 
Declaration of Independence, 29, 

102, 163, 241, 250. 

Deep River 197 

Deming House, Julius 99 

DERBY 118 

Devil's Den, Weston 74 

Devon 21 

Dow, Lorenzo 186, 238 

Drug store, first 241 

Duck Island breakwater 51 

Duke of Cumberland Inn 176, 207 

Dunbar, Moses 145 


Dutch Fort, Hartford 172, 176 

Dwight, Timothy 15, 33 

Dyer, Eliphalet 257 

East Canaan 
Eastern Point 





East River 48 

East Rock Park 40, 140 


Eaton, Theophilus 25, 27, 33 

Edgewood School 3 

Education xxvi 

Edwards, Jonathan 198, 220, 221 

Eels-Stowe House, Mil ford 22 

Elderkin, Jedidiah 257 

Eldredge Museum 67 


Eliot, Jared xxvi, 49 

Eliot, John 111, 261 

Elizabeth Park 172, 178 

Ellsworth, Oliver 176, 213, 215 

Ellsworth village 89 

Ely family 229 


Ensign-Bickford Co. 151 
Episcopal Church, 13, 19, 25, 28, 

64, 76, 106, 117, 120, 153, 164, 

177, 243, 245. 

ESSEX 195 

Exeter 252 



Farmington Canal, 30, 139, 141, 

142, 144, 147, 149, 150, 154. 
Farnam, Henry 30, 149 

Fenwick, George 53, 54 

Field family, Haddam 198 

Firearms industry, 40, 139, 167, 177 
Fitch, Capt. James, 193, 260, 266, 

267, 270. 

Fitch, Rev. James 239, 250 

Fitch, John 222 

Fitchville 249 

Flanders, East Lyme (>0 

Flanders, Kent 80 

Flat Rock, Warren 109 

Foote, Nathaniel, Wethersfield 208 
Foote, Nathaniel 2nd 23 If, 233 
Foster, Lafayette S. 264 


French and Indian War, xxii, 217, 

Fundamental Orders xx 



Gales Ferry '2 15 

Gallaudet, Thomas H. 172, 174 
Gardiner, Lion 53, 54, 174 

Gardner Lake 232 
Gay lord Farm Sanatorium 163 

Gay House, Sharon 91 

Gay Manse 218 

Gay Mansion 218 
Geology xxiiif, 105 

George Junior Republic 99 

Georgia 44, 163 

Giddings, Salmon 160 

Gildersleeve 224 

Gilead 234 

Gillette Castle 228 

Glasgo 265 

Glass industry 185, 189 


Glebe House, Woodbury 106 

Goffe House, Rocky Hill 208 

Gold. Theodore S. 88 

Goodrich House, James, New 

Haven 29 

Goodyear, Charles 32, 123f 

Goodyear, Nelson 113 


Goshen, Lebanon 252 


Granger, Gideon 217f 

Grant House, Ebenezer 221 

Grant. U. S. 105, 191 

Graves House, Madison 48 
Great Awakening, 23, 28, 57, 91, 

220, 253. 

Greenfield Hill 15 

Green Mountain Boys 92, 112 

Green Pond, Sherman 85 

Green's Falls Pond 266 

Greens Farms 12 


Grey Court School 5 

Greystone 125, 133 

Grist mills, 8, 16, 64, 137, 152, 214, 

234, 247. 

GR is WOLD 264 

Griswold family 58 

Griswoldville 208 

Grosvenordale 273 



Gungywamp Hills 245 

Gunnery School 



HADDAM 198, 226 

Hadlyme 228 

Hale, Nathan. 33, 63, 64, 186f, 206, 

227, 264. 

Halleck, Fitz-Green 44 

Hall, Lyman 163 

Hamburg 229 


H AMP i MX 259 

Hanging Hills 166 

Hanks Hill 188 
Hardware industry, 142, 170, 207 

Harland, Thomas 239, 241 

Harris, William T. 272 


Hartford Courant 177 
Hartford Electric Light Co. 182, 


Hartford Retreat 177 
Hartford Seminary Foundation 

178, 221. 

Hartford Wits 174 



Hat industry 79, 80 

Hawley House, Cyrus 114 

Ha y den, Horace H . 214 

Haynes, John 172, 174 

Hayward, Nathaniel 233 

Hazard ville 219 

Hempstead House, New London, 63 

Heublein Tower 151 

Higby Mt. 205 

Higganum 198 

Highland Lake 137 

Higley, Joseph 152, 154 

Hillhouse, James 30, 33, 238 

Hillside School 10 

Hinman, Benjamin 108 

Hitchcock chairs 159 

Hoadley, David, 23, 28, 29, 124, 

128, 202. 

Hollister House 223 

Hooker. Thomas 172. 174, 176 
Hopkins Grammar Schools 39, 178 



Horse Neck 2 

Horse Pound, Groton 68 

Hotchkiss, Benjamin B. 91 

Hotchkiss School 92 

Hotchkissville 105 
House that the Women Built 259 

Howe, Elias 18, 157 

Howe Marot School 273 

Hubbard Park 166 
Huguenot House, New London 63 

Hull, Isaac 119 

Hull, William 119 

Humphreys, David, 31, 120, 121, 

131, 174. 
Hungerford Hospital, Charlotte 


Huntington 117 

Huntington, Collis P. 134 

Huntington, Jabez 241 

Huntington, Jedediah 64, 241 

Huntington, Samuel 241, 257 

Hyland House, Guilford 46 

Indian Leap, Norwich 243 

Indian Mt. 91 

Indians xxii, 237ff 

Industry, xxv, 118, 158, 187, 239, 


Insurance 181, 241 

Iron industry, 41f, 53, 81, 85, 87, 

91, 92, 94, 95, 99, 112, 138, 162, 

237, 256, 277. 

Ivory industry 196, 197 

Ivoryton 196 

Jerome, Chauncey 32, 145 

Jewett City 265 

Johnnycake Mt. 156 

Johnson, Samuel 19, 46 

Joshua, Sachem 193 

Judd, Chauncey 126, 128 

Judson House, Stratford 19 

Keeler Tavern 78 

Kellogg, Martin 211 

Kensington 167, 169 

KENT 85 

Kent School 86 

KILLINGLY 269, 271 

Killingly Gangway 269, 271 


Kimberly sisters 223 

King George's War 210, 221 

King Philip's War, xxii, 23, 57, 

150f, 220, 265. 

King School 5 

King's Highway, 1, 7, 11, 17, 193, 


King Solomon's Temple 107 

Kirby, Ephraim 102, 110 

Knowlton, Thomas 180, 189 

Laddin's Rock Farm 4 
Lafayette, 50, 53, 55, 57, 83, 102 

Lakeville 92 

Lamentation Mt. 167 

Lantern Hill 246 

Lathrop, Joshua 239, 241 
Laurel display, xxvii, 51, 97, 136f, 

155, 159, 247. 

Lauzun, Due de 250, 252 

Law School, first 102 

Laysville 59 

Leatherman 50, 131 



Ledyard, William 66, 71 

Lee House, Thomas 59 

Lee, Jesse 76, 277 

Leesville 226 

Leete's Island 47 
Leffingwell, Christopher 239, 241 

Leffingwell, Thomas 238, 241 

Liberty Rock 22 
Lighthouses 18, 41, 47, 65, 67, 69 
Lime industry 76, 83, 92, 95 

Lime Rock 92 

Line Meeting House 266 

Lion's Head 94 



Longfellow 51 

Long Ridge 6 

Loomis, Elias 32, 191 

Loomis Institute 214 

Lord Cove 59 

'NIK (ONNKCTH I I .l ll'l 

Lovers Leap, New Milford 82 

Low and Hey wood School 5 

Ludlow, Roger 10, 13, 212 

Lyman House, David 204 

Lyman, Phineas 203, 217 

LYMK 228 

Lyon Homestead, Thomas, 

Greenwich 1 

Lyon, Nathaniel 192 

Lyon Plain 75 


Macdonough, Thomas 


Malbone, Godfrey 

Mallory, Charles 



Mansfield, Rev. Richard 


Marine Historical Museum 


Mark Twain 


Marshall, John Rutgers 

Marshapaug Pond 

Mason, John 

Masonic lodges 


75, 178 

67, 239, 242, 253 
107, 192, 229 

Match industry 123, 127 

Mather House, Samuel, Lyme 58 
McClellan, Samuel 260 

McLean Game Refuge 153 

Meigs, Return Jonathan 201 

Mendi Captives 148 


Merryall 83 

Methodism, 76, 115, 191, 223, 273, 

Mianus River gorge 5 



Middle Haddam 226 


Migrations from Conn., xvii, 42, 

92, 160, 203, 217, 227, 267, 272. 
Milestones, 13, 18, 57, 68, 79, 103, 

178, 190. 


Milldale 142 

Millington 228 

Mills House, Kent 86 

Mills, Samuel J. 103, 136 

Millstone Point lil 

Milton 103 
Missionary Society of Conn. 234 
Mitchell, Donald G., 39, 232, 243 

Mitchell House, Abram 197 

Mohegan Park, Norwich 243 

Mohegan settlement 237 

Monitor 39, 48 


Montowese 162 


Moodus 227 

Moor's Charity School 253 

Moosup 267 

Morgan Memorial 175 

Morgan School 50 


Morris House, New Haven 40 

Morse, Jedidiah 31, 260 
Mortlake Manor 193, 270 

Mulberry Point 47 

Munitions industry 16 

Music Hill, Weston 74 

Music Mountain, Canaan 94 

Music Vale Seminary 232 

Mystic 67, 68 




Negroes, 44, 105, 111, 127, 

184, 233, 

234, 264, 267. 

Nepaug Reservoir 

156, 157 







Newgate Prison 












New Preston 






Niniveh Falls 




Nonnewaug Falls 














Northford 43 


North, Simeon 167 


Norton House, Birdseye 98 



Norwich Free Academy 243 

Norwich Town 239 

Nott, Eliphalet 188, 255 

Nott, Samuel 255 
Noyes House, Second William, 

Lyme 58 


Oblong 84 

Obookiah, Henry 88 

Occum, Samson 238, 253 
Old Dutch House, North Haven 162 

Phoenixville 192 

Pierpont House, New Haven 29 

Oldham, John 






Old Mystic 


"Oliver Cromwell" 






Orenaug Park 


Oshbrook Point 




Overhang, framed, xxi, 

147, 149, 



231. 250 

Oyster industry 

10, 21, 40 



Pierson, Abraham 
Pierson Nurseries 
Pine Orchard 
Pin industry 
Pitkin family 
Plainfield Academy 
Pleasant Valley 
Plymouth Colony, 

241, 245. 
Pocotopaug Lake 


Poquetanock village 
Porter, Rev. Noah 
Porter's School, Miss 
Pottery industry 


119, 125 
183, 184f 
133, 212, 214, 


xvii, 233, 263 
10, 241 

Powder mills 183, 219, 224, 256 

Pratt Homestead, Essex 196 



Prospect Mt., Litchfield 103 


Putnam city 272 

Putnam Heights 271 

Putnam, Israel, 3, 76, 179f, 193, 
194, 270f. 


Pachaug 265 

Palmer, Capt. Nat. 71 

Paper industry. 121, 183, 239, 256 
Patrick, Daniel 1 

Pattison, Edward 167ff 

Peabody Museum 38 

Peck, John Mason 104 

Peddlers, xxv, 105, 130, 134, 145, 

151, 162, 167, 170, 207, 217. 
Pendleton Hill 247 

Pequot War, xxii, 13, 54, 67, 208, 

212, 246. 

Peter Parley 78, 108 

Peters, Samuel 234 

Phelps House, Timothy 218 


Quaddick Reservoir 
Quaker Farms 


Ragged Mt. 
Rainbow village 
Rattlesnake Mt. 
Read, John 
Redfield, Wm. C. 
Reeve, Tapping 



144, 147 






21, 28, 39, 46, 127 



Revolution, xxii, 2f, 7, 9f, 12, 15, 
16, 24, 25, 28, 30, 40. 47, 61ff, 
66, 74, 75, 76, 77f. 79, 91, 92, 102, 
154, 184, 201f, 210, 216, 227, 
233, 241, 246, 250ff, 257, 259, 

Ridgebury 77 


Riga, Mt. 93 

Riverside 3 

Riverton 159 

Roberts, Gideon 145 

Robertsville 138 

Robinson House. Wm. 143 

Rochambeau, 77, 113, 126, 142, 

149, 172, 184, 186, 210, 211, 233, 

250, 258. 

Rockfall 204 

Rockville 189f 

Rockwell House, Solomon 137 

Rock well Park 146 


Roseland Park' 260 

Rosemary Hall 3 

Round Hill village 3 

Rowayton 8 


Roxbury Falls 112 

Roxbury School 142 
Rubber industry 113, 123, 233 

Russell House, Middletown 202 

Sabin, John 193 

Sachem's Head 47 

Sage's Ravine 94 

St. Joseph's College 172 
St. Margaret's School. Waterbury, 


St. Thomas Seminary 152 

SALEM 231 


Salisbury School 93 

Salmon River 227. 234 

Saltonstall, Gurdon, 43, 193, 231, 


Sandeman, Robert 79 

Sandy Brook 138 

Sandy Hook 113 

Sanford Tavern, Zachary 174 

Satan's Kingdom 157 

Savin Rock 24 


Saybrook Platform 55 

Saybrook Point 53f 

Scantic 221 

Scenery xxvii 

Schofield, John 237, 265 


Seabury, Samuel 64, 107, 245 

Sealing fleet 40 

Seaside Park 18 

Sedgwick Monument 88 

Seed industry 21, 24, 208 

Selden family 228 

Sewing machine 18, 131, 157 


Shaker village 219 


Shaw Mansion 62 

Sheffield, Joseph E. 30 

Sheldon's Tavern, Litchfield 99 


Sherman Parsonage, Fairfield 15 
Sherman. Roger 29, 33, 82. 84 
Sherman. Wm. Tecumseh 105, 107 
Shipbuilding, xxv, 57, 68, 195, 211, 

224, 226. 

Shippan Point 5 

Short Beach 43 

Sigourney, Lydia Huntley, 178, 241 
Silk industry, 184, 187f, 234, 257 
Silliman, Benjamin 15, 30, 31, 38 
Silliman. Gen. Gold Selleck 15, 16 
Silverware industry, 154, 163. 16-4 

Skiing 93, 96 

Slater family 243, 263, 265, 272 
Smitli Mansion, Sharon 91 

Smith, Richard 92, 138 

Snipsic Lake 190, 276 

Sol's Path 44 


Sons of Liberty 58, 234, 270 

South Britain 108 




Spencer, Joseph 227 

Sperry. Richard 126f 

Spoonville 154 


Spratt, William 101, 147, 227 




Stafford Springs 


Standish House, Rocky 

Stanton House, Clinton 


Staples Academy 

Starr House, Comfort 

State House, Hartford 

Steel making 

Steep Rock 


Stevenson Dam 

Stiles, Ezra 


Stony Creek 


Stowe, Harriet Beecher. 




Suffield School 

Sun Tavern, Fairfield 





113, 122 

33, 162 




99, 101, 178 






Taft School 


Talcott Mt. 


Tallmadge, Benjamin 


Tashua Hill 

Tatnic Hill 


Terry, Eli 


Thimble Islands 

Thomas, Seth 




Thread industry 

Tinware industry 


150, 151, 172 



152, 154 




132, 133f, 221 

Tobacco industry, 82, 213, 217, 220, 


Tokeneke 8 


Tom Thumb 18 

Tories' Den, Burlington 156 

Torringford 136 


Town, Ithiel 26, 30 

Tramping trails, 18, 47, 87, 89, 93, 

94, 102, 109, 114, 116, 123, 129, 

130, 132, 141, 143, 144, 146, 154, 

156, 158, 163, 166, 169, 188, 191, 

202, 203f, 205, 218, 238, 258. 

Travelers Insurance Co. 174, 181 

Treat, Robert 23, 24 

Trinity College 142, 181 


Trumbull, Benjamin 162 

Trumbull, Jonathan 36, 250ff 

Trumbull, Jonathan, Jr. 252 

Trumbull, John 30, 35, 252 

Tryon, General 10, 12, 74, 77f 

Turnpikes, 16, 113, 118f, 122, 124, 

126, 127, 137, 150, 155, 156, 161, 

183, 190, 191, 193, 205, 229, 231, 

239, 257, 260, 261, 265. 

Twine industry 227 

Twin Lakes 93 


Uncas xxii, 193, 237f, 243, 244 
Uncasville 237 

UNION 278 

Unitarian church, Brooklyn 270 
U. S. Coast Guard Academy 64 
U. S. Submarine Base 68 

Underground railway 58, 137 

Valley Forge, Weston 75 

Vermont 92 




Wadsworth family, Durham 203 
Wadsworth, Jeremiah 175, 182 
Wadsworth, Joseph 151, 175 

Walker School, Ethel 151 


Waramaug, Lake 110 

Warburton, John 189f 

Warehouse Point 220 

Warner, Charles Dudley 178 

Warner, Seth 112 

War of 1812, xxiii, 13, 40, 50, 61, 

66, 68ff, 119, 120,1195, 201, 

223, 245, 247. 



War Office, Lebanon 250, 252 


Warrenville 189 


Washington, George, 5, 18, 23, 57, 

63, 77, 83, 99, 102, 110, 164, 168, 

175, 180, 186, 193, 194, 210, 211, 

241, 265. 




Waterville Cliffs 125 

Wauregan 267 

Webb House 210 
Webster, Noah 29, 31, 171f 

Webster, Peletiah 252 

Welch, William H. 96 

Welles, Gideon 222 

Welles-Shipman House 223 

Wells, Horace 177, 179 

W T esleyan University 201 


Westchester 233 
Western Reserve xvii, 217f, 267 

Westfield Falls 202 

Westford 189 



W T estminster 268 

Westminster School 152 


Westover School 126 



Wetmore House, Seth 202 

Whaling 63, 69, 71 

Wheelock, Eleazer 238. 253 

Whigville 156 
Whitefield, George, 23, 28, 57, 63, 91 

White Hills 118 

White, Nathaniel 206 

White's Woods 102,103 

Whitfield House 46 

Whitman House 149 
Whitney, Eli 29, 31, 139, 199 203 

Whittlesey, Oramel 232 

Wightman Memorial 68 

Willard, Emma Hart 169 

Williams, Elisha 210, 211 

Williams House, Warham 44 

Williams, William 250, 252 

Willimantic 256 


Wilsonville 273 






Winsted 136 
Winthrop, John, Jr., 41, 61, 64, 67, 


Winthrop village 196 

Witch-hazel industry 49, 196 


Wolcott, Oliver 101, 214 

Wolcott, Oliver, Jr. 102, 135 
Wolcott, Roger 101, 214f, 221f 




Woodtick 130 

Woolen industry, 59, 120, 121, 135, 

182, 189, 237, 265. 275ff. 
Wooster, David 77f, 79 

Work, Henry Clay 201 

World War xxiii, 16, 61 

Worthington Ridge 168 

Wyassup Lake 247 

Wykeham Rise school 1 1 1 

Yachting 1, 5, 43, 51, 65 

Yale College, 23, 33, 41, 42, 49, 55, 

203, 210, 277. 

Yale Forest 193, 278 

Yale University 33ff 

Yankee Doodle 10 

Zoar Lake 



11-11-54518-9 ICERfHL : ::A :