Skip to main content

Full text of "The connoisseur"

See other formats



The Connoisseur 

An Illustrated Magazine 
For Collectors 

Edited by J. T. Herbert Baily 

Vol. XIX. 



Published rv O'lTO I.IMITKD, Carmelite House, Carmelite Street, E.C. 
Editokiai. and Advertisement Offices: 95, Temple Chamhers, Temple Avenue, London, E.C. 






Answers to Corresuondcnts 


- • 65, 133. 201, 269 
f Heraldic) 66, 134, 202, 270 

Artici-Es and Notes. 

Bank Notes, Irish. By Mabcrly Pliillips, F.S.A. iii 
Benitiers. Flemisli Domestic. By Alfred E. 

Knight . . . . • . • • • ■ 78 

Butts, Mr., the Friend and Patron of Blake. By 

Ada E. Briggs 92 

Chesse. Ye Playe of. By Edgcumbe Staley . . 174 
Chinese and Japanese Paintings, Mr. Arthur 
Morrison's Collection. Bv Ste^vart Dick. 
Parts I. and II. .. ' .. .. 85, 156 

Doccia Porcelain. By M. E. .Steechnan. . .. 146 

Eaton Hall, the Cheshire Residence of His Grace 
the Duke of Westminster. Bv Leonard 
Willciighby. Parts I. and II. ' .. 69, 137 

English .Artist in Morocco, .\n. By Selwyn Brin- 

ton, M..^. . . 34 
,, A Correction by 

. . 122 

Hartley Beckles. Parts I. 

.' 151. 

Benitiers. Bv Alfred E. 

A. Duffy 
Fire-Dogs. By J. 

and II. 
Flemish Domestic 

Knight . . . . . . . . . • 78 

Furniture, Old Oak, Some Notes on a Collection 

of. By Christopher \V. Hughes . . . . 237 

Golden Fleece at Bru.ges. The Exhibition o( tiu-. 

By E. F. Strange 2S 

Green, Valentine, and his Work, with list of 

Auction 7'rices. By W. G. Menzies . . 24S 
Heraldry and Autographs, The Stammbuch. or 

Album Amicorum. By Martin Hardie .. 231 
Hermitage Collection of Pictures at St. Petersburg, 

The. Part III. By Dr. G. C. Williamson 205 
Indian Society of Oriental Art, The, and the 

Messrs. Larmour's Collections .. .. 255 

Larmour's, Messrs., Collections at the Indian 

Society of Oriental Art .. .. .. 255 

London Silversmith of the Eighteenth Century, A. 

By E. F". Strange . . '. 99 

Mechlin and Antwerp Lace. By M. Jourdain . . 103 
Morgan's. Mr. J. Piernont, I'ictures : the Foreign 

Miniatures. Part VII. 15y Dr. G. C. 

Williamson . . . . . . • . 3 

Nutmeg Graters, or Spice Bo.\es, Silver. By 

Guy Oswald Smith 169 

Relics of King Charles the First's K.xecution. 

By P. Berney Ficklin, F.S.A. . . . . 165 

Resist Silver Lustre ; ilr. Wm. Wanl's Collection. 

By H. C. Lawlor 218 

Rings, Some Notes on Three Classes or Types of : 

The Memorial, Ecclesiastical, and Wedding. 

By A. E. Cropper 183 

Silver Nutmeg Graters or Spice Bo.xes. By Ciuy 

Oswald Smith . . . . . . . . 169 

.■\RTICI.ES AND NoTES — continued. 
Silver Plate, Old, in the Irish Historical Loan 

Collection at the Dublin Exhibition. By 

F:. .Alfred Jones 240 

Smith, John Raphael, and his Work, with list of 

.Auction Prices. By W. G. Menzies .. 179 
Stamps : The Early I'ostage Stamps of Corea. 

By F. J. Melville 167 

Stirrups, \n Historical Pair of. Bv Guv Francis 

Laking. M.V.O., F.S.A. .'. .. .. 25 

Tapestry at Burley-on-the-Hill. By Pearl Fmch 42 
Wesley (John) Busts in Staffordshire Potterv. 

By C. S. Sargisson 1 1 

Wright, Patience, Modeller m Wax. By C. H. 

Hart, Philadelphia . . . . . . . . 18 


Armour, Suits of, at the Toison d'Or Exhibition. 

Bruges. . . . . . . . . . • . 25 

Bellarmine Jug, A Red .. .. .. .. 261 

Boxall's, Baron, " Sodoma " .. .. .. 119 

Byron Miniature. .\. By Sir J. G. Tollemache 

Sinclair, Bart. .. .. .. .. 54 

Carved Oak Pulpit at llolne Church, Dartmoor . . 50 
Catharine of .Aragon's House, Shrewsbury. By 

B. Kendell' 196 

Chalice and Cover, EUzabethan . . . . . . 52 

Chest and Leathern Buckets, Old, at St. Switliin's 

Church, Worcester . . . . . . . . 53 

Ciborium, An Enamelled, at Sens Cathedral. 

France. . . . . . . . . . . . 264 

Cromwell's, Ohver, Snuff-box. lOy A. 11. .. 123 

Dresden Figure of Minerva . . . . . . 51 

Group — Eros and Psyche . . . . 263 

Elizabethan Chalice and Cover . . . . . . 52 

Engineering Challenge Shield .. .. . 125 

Fan, Rare Specimen of a. By Lieut. -Col. Willrid 

H. Cummings .. .. .. .. 197 

Fenton Ironstone Vase, .\ . . . . . . . . 121 

Font-Cover in Shaugh Prior, Dartmoor.. .. 125 

Foster. Edward, the Centenarian Miniature 

Painter . . . . . . . . . . T 20 

(.lass Jug, Old linglish (Charles 1.) .. .. 121 

Hand-Bells. Some Old 19^ 

Lead Cistern . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 

Maces and Loving-Cup, OUeliampton Corpora- 
tion . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 

Lowestoft Teajjot, .\ Rare ; in Collection of 

Mr. .\. Merrington Smith .. .. .. 53 

Man Trap, A 261 

Manorial Society, The .. .. .. .. 125 

Mezzotint, A New. After Lawrence . . . . 263 

Ming Figure, A Rare . . . . . . . . 194 

Miniatures of Wedgwood antl Whieldon . . .. 261 

Napoleonic Relics in Musec Carnavalet . . 51 



Articles and Notes — Nolcs — conlinued. 

Notes and Queries .. •57. i^6, i88, 268 

., ,, References on tlie Colour Plates 

54, 124, 197. 2O7 
Picture by Picro di Cosimo at the National Gallery 

in Rome . . . . . . . . . . 49 

Scottish National riallery, Two New Acquisitions 

by the. By Olive Milne Rae . . . . 191 

Shield, Engineering Challenge .. .. .. 125 

Sodoma and Bcccafumi. By Roburl li. llobart 

Cust . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 

Staffordshire Jug, A. By Herbert R. H. Soutliam 262 
Statuette of Son of Paul Rubens, in the Cluny 

Museum . . . . . . . . . . 191 

United Arts Club Picture Defence I'lnul . . . . 198 

Violin, by Joseph Guarnorius .. .. .. 259 

Wood-Carvings, Early, in Christchurch Priory, 

Hants.. . . . . . . . . . . . 122 


Beckles, J. Hartley. Fire-Dogs. Parts I. & H. 

151, 227 
Briggs, Ada E. Mr. Butts, the pricnd and 
Patron of Blake 

M. A. An English Artist in 

Silver Nutmeg Graters or 

Brinton, Selwyn, 

Cropper, A. E. Notes on Three Classes or Types 
of Rings : Memorial, Ecclesiastical, Wed- 

Cummings, Lieut. -Col. Wilfrid 11. Rare Specimen 
of a Fan 

Cust, Robert H. Hobart. Sodoma and Bcccafumi 

Dick, Stewart. Mr. Arthur Morrison's Collection 
of Chinese and Japanese Paintings. Parts 
I. and 11 

Duffy, A. t^ Correction re .Article on 
English Artist in Morocco" 

Ficklin, P. Berney, F.S.A. Relics of King 
Charles the First's Execution 

Finch, Pearl. Tapestry at Burley-on-the-Hill . . 

H., A. Oliver Cromwell's Snuff-box 

Hardie, Martin. Heraldry and Autographs ; The 
Stammbuch, or Album .Amicoruni 

Hart, C. H.. of Philadelphia. Patience Wright, 
Modeller in Wax 

Hughes, Christopher W. Some Notes on a Collec- 
tion of Old Oak Furniture 

Jones, E. Alfred. Old Silver Plate in the Irish 
Historical Loan Collection at the Dublin 

Jourdain, M. Mechlin and Antwerp Lace 

Kendell. B. Catharine of Aragon's House, 

Knight, ."Vlfred E. Flemish Domestic Benitiers 

Laking, Guy Francis. M.V.O., F.S.A. An His- 
torical Pair of Stirrups 

Lawlor, H. C. Mr. Wm. Wards Collection of 
Resist Silver Lustre . . 

Melville, Fred J. The Jiarly Postage Stamps of 
Corea . . 

Mcnzies, W. G. 

John Raphael Smith and his Work, with list 

of Auction Prices 
Valentine Green and his Work, with list of 
Auction Prices 

Phillips, Maberly, F.S.A. Irish Bank Notes . . 

Rae, Olive Milne. Two New Acquisitions by 
the Scottish National Gallery 

Sargisson, C. S. John Wesley Busts in Stafford- 
shire Pottery 





85, 156 











Authors — continued. 

Sinclair, Sir J, B. Tollcmachc, Bart. A Byron 
Miniature . . . . . . .... 

Smith, Guy Oswald. 
Spice Boxes . 
Southam, Herbert R. H. .\ Statiordsliire Jug .. 
Staley, Edgcumbe. Ye Playe of Chesse . . 
Steedman, M. E. Doccia Porcelain 
Strange, E. F. 

A London Silversmith of the Eighteenth Century 
The Exhibition of the Golden Fleece at Bruges 
Williamson, Dr. G. C. 

Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan's Pictures : The 

Foreign -Miniatures. Part VIL 
The Hermitage Collection of Pictures at 

St. Petersburg. Part HI 

Willoughby, Leonard. Eaton Hall, the Cheshire 
Residence of His Grace the Duke of 
Westminster. Parts L and \\. .. 69, 

Articles and Notes Classified. 

Armorial China. [Sec Catalogue of CIniiese 
Porcelain under Books, also Heralory.) 

Stirrups, An Historical Pair of . . 

Suits at the Toison d'Or Exhibition, Bruges 


The Stammbuch, or 








Major R. il. C. 

The Stammbuch, or 

124, 198, 

IV. of ■• The 

I. By Selwyn 

' Bv W. A. 

Heraldry and 'Autographs : 
.•\lbura Amiconim 

Bank Notes — Irish 
Benitiers, Flemish Iiomestic ; 
Tufnell's Collection . 

Heraldry and Autographs ; 

.\lbuni Amicorum 
Ye Playe of Chesse 
Books Received 
Books Reviewed. 

Catalogue of Chinese Porcelain with Coats 

Arms . . 
" Humanism and Art." (Part 

Renaissance in Italian Art 

Brinton, M..A.. . 
" Land in the Mountains, The 

Brass and Bronze. 

Fire-Dogs. Parts I. and II. 
Shield. Engineering Challenge 

Catharine of Aragon's House, Shrewsbury . . 
Charles the First, Relics of . . 

Eaton Hall, the Cheshire Residence of His Grace 
the Duke of Westminster. {Items tinker 
their various licadiiios). Parts I. and II. (jg. 
Hermitage Collection of Pictures at St. Petersburg. 

The. Part III 

Larmour's. Messrs.. Collections of Oriental Porce- 
lain at the Indian Society of Oriental .\rt 
Morgan's, Mr. J. Pierpont. The Foreign Minia- 
tures. Part VII 

Morrison's, Mr. .\rthur. Collection of Chinese 
and Japanese Paintings. Parts I. and II. 

Tufnell's, Major R. H. C, Collection of Flemish 

Domestic Benitiers . . 
Ward's, Jlr. Wm., Collection of Resist Silver 















ENonAviN'GS. Etctungs. and Prints. 

Butts, Jlr., the Friend and Patron of Blake . . 92 

Colour Plates, Notes and References 54, 124, 197, 267 
Green, Valentine, and his Work, with list of 

Auction Prices . . . . . • ■ • 24S 

Smith, John Raphael, and his Work, with list 

of Auction Prices . . . . . . . . 1 79 

ExHiEiTiONS, Galleries. Musel'.ms. 

Exhibition of the Golden Fleece at Bruges . . 2S 
Scottish National Gallery, Two New Acquisition" 

by the. . . . ' 191 

Silver Plate, Old, in the Irish Historical Loan 

Collection at the Dublin Exhibition 

Fan, A Rare Specimen 


Chest at St. Swithin's Church, Worcester 
Fire-Dogs. Parts I. and 11. .. .. 151, 

Oak Furniture, Old 

Glass. Charles I. Jug 

Gold, Silver, and Plated Wake. 

Chalice and Cover, Ehzabethan. at Churchill 

Church, near Spetchlcy 
Coyte, George. A London Silversmitli of the 

Eighteenth Century 
Maces and Loving-Cup at Okehampton . . 
Nutmeg Graters or Spice Boxes, Silver . . 
Silver Plate, Old, in the Irish Historical Loan 

Collection at the Dubhn Exhibition 

Heraldry and Autographs. 

Catalogue of Chinese Porcelain with Coats of 
Arms. (A Review) . . . . . . 194. 

The Stammburh, or .Mbum .\miconim 

Iron and Metal Ware. 

Ciborium, An Enamelled, at Sens Catliedral. 
France . . 

Fire-Dogs. Parts I. and II 151, 

Hand-Bells, Some Old 

Man Trap, .A . . 

Jewels. Rings, Notes on Three Classes or Types 
of : Memorial, Ecclesiastical, Wedding . . 

Lace, Embroidery, and Needlework. 

Mechlin and .\ntwerp Lace 
Lead Cistern, Seventeenth Century . . 
Leathern Buckets at St. Swithin's Church, Worcester 


Byron. By Ernest Lloyd. From a Sketch by 

Count Ii'Orsay. (Colour Plate) . . 
Butts, the Friend and Patron of Blake.. 
Foster, Edward the Centenarian Miniature Painter 
Morgan's, Mr. J. I'ierpont, I'oreigu Minintures. 

Part Vll 

Wedgwood and Wliieldon . . 
Musical Instruments. Violin by Joseph Giiar- 

nerius . . 

Napoleonic Relics in the Musee Carnavalet . . 









2? I 







Pictures and Drawings. 

Bo.xall's, Baron. " Sodoma " .. .. .. 119 

Chinese and Japanese Paintings. Mr. .Arthur 

Morrison's Collection. Parts 1. and II... 

S5, 156 
Colour Plates, Notes and References 54, 124. 197, 267 
Eaton Hall, Cheshire. The Duke of Westminster's 

Pictures at . . . . . . . . . . 69 

English Artist in Morocco, An . . . . . . 34 

Hermitage Collection of Pictures at St. Petersburg, 

The. Part III 205 

Humanism and .-Vrt : Being Part IV. of " The 

Renaissance in Italian .\rt." [\ Review) 193 
Magdalen, The. Bv Piero di Cosimo. .\t the 

National Gallery, Rome . . . . . . 49 

Scottish National Gallen.', Two New .Acquisitions 

by the. . . . . . . . . . . . 191 

" A. Scene in Wales," bv John Crome ; 

" The Dismissal of Gil Bias." by W. E. 

Sodoma and Bcccafumi .. .. .. .. 194 

United Arts Club Picture Defence Fund . . . . 19S 

Pottery, Porcelain, .•vnd China. 

Bellarmine Jug, A Red . . . . . . . . 261 

Catalogue of Chinese Porcelain, with Coats of 

.Arms. (A Review) . . . . . . . . 194 

Doccia Porcelain . . . . . . . . . . 146 

Dresden. Figure of Minerva .. .. .. 51 

Group : Eros and Psyche . . . . 263 

Fenton Ironstone Vase, X .. .. ..121 

Larmour's, Messrs., Collections at the Indian 

Society of Oriental -Art . . . . . . 255 

Lowestoft Tea-pot. .A Rare .. .. .. 53 

Ming Figure, .A Rare . . . . . . . . 194 

Re.sist Silver Lustre. Mr. Wni. Ward's Collection 218 
Staffordshire Jug .. .. .. .. .. 262 

Wesley (John) Busts in Staffordshire Pottery . . n 


Napoleonic Relics in the Musee Carnavalet .. 51 

Of King Charles the First's E.'cecution . . . . 165 

Oliver Cromwell's Snulf-box .. .. .. 123 

Resist Silver Lustre, (^cc under heading -Vol tv.&\, 
PoRCEi.Ai.v, and China). 

Silver. {See utiiler heading — Gold, Silver, and 

Plated Ware). 
Snufi-bo.x, Oliver Cromwell's .. .. .. 123 

Stamps. Corea, The Early Postage Stamps of . . 167 
Statuette of Son of Paul Rubens, in the CUiny 

Museum .. .. .. .. .. 191 

Tapestry at Bin ley-on-the-llill .. .. .. 42 

Wax Modelling. Patience Wright, Modeller in Wix iS 
Wood Carvings. 

Choir Stalls and Miserere Scats at Christchnrch 

Priory . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 

Font-Cover at Shaugh Prior, Dartmoor .. .. 12; 

Pidpit, Carved Oak, at Holne Chinch. Dartmoor . . 50 



Legend of St. Lury 

92, 93, 


92, 93 
94. 95 



Roman Armour of Charles V. . . . . . . 26 

Stirru]!. By Antonio Bartolomoo Campi . . .. 24 

Suits at F.aton Hall .. .. .. ..14; 

„ in the Great Hall at the Golden Fleece Exhibi- 
tion, Bruges. . 2.8 
,, of Philip the Fair ,. ,, 29 
\ktists and Engravers. 
Aiken, H. The Dcvonport Mail near Amesbury, 

By R. Havell 
.-Mtichiero and D'Avanzo, 
Blake, W. 
Autograph Receipts signed by 
Butts, Mr. and Mrs., and Son 
Drawings by 
Botticelli, Sandro. 

.Adoration of the Kings, The 

Virgin and Child, St. John the Baptist, and an 

Angel, The . . . . . . . . . . 254 

Boucher (after). .\ Mother and 1 1 er Children .. 6 

Brescia, Andrea da. Countess Spanorclii and 

Family . . , . . . . . ..119 

Butts, T. 

Head . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 

Venus .\nadyomene . . . . . . . . pfS 


Empress Maria Theresa 
Mdlle. Laguerre 
Campi, Antonio Bartolomeo. A Slirruji . . . . 24 

CosiuiO, Piero di. The Ma,9,dalen . . . . . . 4S 

Cosway, Mrs. Fitzherbert . . . . . . . . 84 

Cuyp, .'F.lbert. Young Herdsman with Cows — 

Frontispiece : November 
Cyfr.6. Statuette, The Son of Rubens .. .. 191 

David, Gerard (ascribed to). Madonna and Child 

and Saints . . . . . . . . . . 32 

Densu, Cho. Shoki and Diinon .. .. .. So 

D'Orsay, Count. Lord Byron (a Sketch) . . 56 

Downman, J. Mrs. Wright, 1777. the Famous 

Wax Modeller . . . . . . . . 16 

Eyck, Jan Van. The Annunciation .. .. 32 

Fernelev, T. The Cheshire Hunt . . . . 73 

Foster, Edward. Miniature of Himself .. .. 120 


Georgina, Duchess of Devonshire. Hy H. Meyer 127 
Henrietta, Countess of Grosvenor . . . . 74 

Giorgione. Judith .. .. .. .. .. 20.S 

Green, Valentine. 

I lallidav. Lady Jane. After Sir Joshua Reynolds 252 
Harrington. Jane, Countess of 
Revnolds, Sir Joshua 
Grozer. J. Morning, or the Reflection, .\fter 

W. Ward 

Hals, Frans. Portrait of an .\dmiral 
Havell, R. 

The Devonport JIail near Amesburv. After 

H. Aiken 

The Last Hour of a Contested Election for M.P. 

After J. Pollard 

Hokusai. Ducks in a Strea^n 
Holbein. Hans (? Ambrose). Edward IV. of Eng- 
land 33 






Artists and Engravers — continued. 

Hoppner. Grosvenor, General Thomas . . . . 76 
Huet, J. B. La Toilette de Venus. By J. -\. 

L'Evcillc .. .. .. .. .. 236 

Kanoaka (ascribed to). Teujin Sauia .. .. 88 

Knight, C. Run Away Love. After T. Stothard 226 

Korin. Fukurukojiu, with Crane and Stag . . iCii 
L'Eveill6, J. A. La Toilette de Venus. After 

J. B. Huet 236 


Boileau . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 

La Marquise de Gauville . . . . . . 5 

Lavery, J., R.S.A. 

Alcazar, ^Morocco . . . . . . . . . . 38 

Camp outside Tetuan . . . . . . . . 34 

Camp on the V/ay to Fez . . . . . . 40 

Fez, City of . . . . . . . . . . 41 

Interior of a Moorish Harem .. .. .. 35 

Street in Arzila . . . . . . 39 

The Soko, Tetuan . . . . . . . . 37 

I.ionardo Da Vinci (ascribed to). La Madonna 

Litta . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 

Lloyd. Ernest. Lord Byron, from a Sketch by 

Count D'Orsay . . . . . . . . 56 

Maes, Nicolas. Young Girl Peeling an .Apple — 

Frontispiece : October 

Matabei, Iwasa. A Dancer .. .. .. 158 

Metsu, Gabriel. The Oyster Breakfast .. .. 3:4 

Meyer, H. Georgina, Duchess of Devonshire. 

After Gainsborough .. .. .. ..127 

Mierevelt, Michiel Jansz. Child with Parroquct 212 

Mieris, Frans. A Man and a Woman . . . . 2 

Montpetit. Mdme. Labillc-Guiard . . . . 8 

Montonobu, Kano. Landscape .. .. .. 159 

Moronobu. iJancers ., .. .. .. 160 

Muh-Ki. A Tiger 85 

Nattier. Madame Dupin . . . . . . . . 5 

Nobiizane The Poet Shitago . . . . . . S9 

Peters. Rev. W. M. Two Children with a Jay in 

a Cage . . . . . . . . . . i iS 

Pollard. L The Last Hour of a Contested Flection 

for M.P. By R. Havell 199 

Rembrandt. The Descent from the Cross .. 211 
Reynolds, Sir Joshua. 

Ilalliday, Lady Jane. By Val. Green . . 232 

Harrington. Jane, Countess of. By Val. Green 252 

I'ortrait of Himself. Mezzotint 24S 

Spencer, Countess. By Val. Green . . . . 245 
Romnev. Elizabeth, Duchess of Sutherland. Bv 

Watts '. 69 

Rowlandson. Tliomas. Coach and Six . . . . 98 

Ruliens. Helene Fourment .. .. .. 213 

Russell, J. Maria. By P. W. Tomkins . . . . 164 

Sesshui. Landscape .. .. .. .. 156 

Sevin. Louis XIV. . . . . . . . . 4 

Shinbun. Landscape . . . . . . . . 90 

Smith. J. R. 

A Lady Reading. By V.'. Ward . . . . 10 

Narcissa . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 78 

Soanii. The Sage Darunia .. .. .. 91 

Sodoma. S. Sebastian . . . . . . . . 195 





Artists and Engkavers — coniinned. 
Sosen. Jlonkej-s 
Sotatsu. Chrysanthemums 

Stothard, T. Run Away Love. By C. Knight 

Grosvenor Hunt, The 
Mares and Foals . . 
Tanyu, Kano. Moujin, God of Letters . . 
Tomkins, P. W. Maria. After J. Russell 
Turbidi, Francesco. A Knight with his Squire 
\'ermeer of Delft, Jan. Young Girl .\sleep — 

Frontispiece : December 
Wang-Lu-Kung. The Three Religions . . . . 86 

Ward, W. 

A Lady Reading. After J. R. Smith .. .. 10 

Horning, or the Reflection. By J. Grozer .. 150 
Watts. Ehzabeth, Duchess of Siithcrland. .\fter 

Romney . . . . . . . . . . 69 

^\'right, Patience. 

Chatham, Earl of.. .. .. .. .. 21 

Franklin (between 1772-1775) .. .. .. 22 

Washington . . . . . . . . . . 20 

Yukuhide. Taishaku Ten . . . . . . . . Sy 

Autograph Receipts, signed by W. Blake . . . . 93 

Autographs and Heraldry. The Stammbuch. or 

Album Amicorum. Seven illustrations 231-2^4 

Bank Notes, Irish. Seven examples .. 111-116 

Benitiers, Flemish Domestic. Twenty examples 78-S2 
Brass and Bronze. 

Bust in Bronze of Philip the Fair . . . . . . 31 

Engineering Challenge Shield .. .. .. 125 

Fire- Dogs. Parts I. and 11. Various examples 

151-155. 227-230 

Cameo. Philip IL .. .. .. .. .. 33 

Certificate by Alard, Vuillaume, Clapisson, and 

Turbri . . . . . . . . . . 259 

Chesse, Ye Playe of. Four illustrations . . 174-176 

Ciborium. .At Sens Cathedral, France . . . . 264 


Eaton Hall, The Cheshire Residence of His Grace 
the Duke of Westminster. Parts 1. and II. 
{Items under their various headings) 69, 137 

Larmour's, Messrs., Collections of Oriental Porce- 
lain at the Indian Society of Oriental Art . . 255 
Morgan's, Mr. J. Pierpont. The Foreign Mmia- 

ture.s. Part VII 3-8 

Morrison's, Mr. Arthur, Collection of Chinese and 

Japanese Paintings. Parts I. and II. 85, 156 
Tufnell's, Major R. H. C. Collection of Flemish 

■ -^ -84 

Domestic Benitiers . . . . . . 78 

Eaton Hall, Cheshire. 

Central Hall 


Engravings, Etchings, and Coi.orR Prints. 

Devonport Mail near Ameslniry, The. By R. 




Ha\ell. After H. Alkcn 
Devonshire. Gcorgina, Duchess of. By H. Meyer. 

.•\fter Gainsborough . . . . . . . . 1 27 

Engravings. By T. Butts . . . . 94, 96 

W. Blake 94, 96 

Halliday, Lady Jane. By Val. Green. After Sir 

Joshua Reynolds . . 252 
Harrington, Jane, Countess of ,, ,, 252 

Engr.wings. Etc. — continued. page 

Lady Readmg. A. By W. Ward. After J. R. 

Smith . . . . . . . . . . 10 

Last Hour of a Contested Election for M.P., The. 

By R. Havcll. After J. Pollard .. .. 199 

La Toilette de Venus. Bv J. .\. L'Eveille. .\fter 

J. B. Huet .. " 236 

Maria. By P. W. Tomkins. .\fter J. Russell . . 164 
Morning, or the Reflection. Bv J. Grozer. .\ftcr 

W. Ward .. .. ' 150 

Narcissa. By John R. Smith 178 

Reynolds, Sir Joshua. Portrait of Himself. 

Mezzotint by Val. Green . . . . . . 248 

Run Away Love. By C. Knir;ht. -After T. Stot- 
hard . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 

Sutherland, Elizabeth, Duchess of. By \\atts. 

After Romney . . . . . . . . 69 

E.XHiBiTioNS, Galleries. Museums. 

Golden Fleece, The Exhibition of the, at Bruges. 

{Items tinder their various headings) . . 28 

Silver Plate, Old, in the Irish Historical Loan 

Collection at the Dublin Exhibition 240-247 

Fan, A Rare, with Spanish Royal .Arms .. .. 19S 


Cabinet, Venetian Work. At Eaton Hal! . . 

Chairs, Indo-Portuguese. At Eaton Hall 

Louis XVI. .Aubusson Tapestrv. 
Eaton Hall 

Chest at St. Swithin's Church, Worcester . . 

Chests, Old Oak 

Clocks (various). At Eaton Hall.. 

Cofl[er, Jacobean Oak 

Console-Tables, Italian Carved and Gilt 

Eaton Hall . . . . . . . . 13^ 

Fire-Dogs. (See under heading — Iron and Metal 

Mantelpiece, Oak. in Catharine of .Aragon's, 

Settee, Louis XVI., covered in .Aulnisson Tapestry 
-At Eaton Hall 

Stool, Oak, with Carved Panels . . 

Table, Library. Louis XVI. At Eaton Hall . . 
Gate-leg Oak 

Glass Jug ; Period of Charles I. 
Gold, Silver, and Plated Wake, 

Caudle Cup, Irish 

Centre-piece and Cruet Stand (1707-8) . . 

Chalice and Cover, Elizabethan, at Churchill 
Church, near Spetchley 

Coyte, George. A London Silversmith of the 
Eigliteenth Century. Ten illustrations of 
-Arms (Heraldic) .. .. .. gg. 

Cup with Domed Cover . . . . . . 244 

Cups, Silver (four) . . 

Loving-Cup belonging to Okehampton Corporation 

Maces belonging to Okehampton Corporation 

Monteith ( 1 700) 

Nutmeg Graters or Spice Boxes, Silver. \'arious 
examples . . . . . . . . igg. 

Potato-Rings, Irish, in the Irish Historical Loan 
Collection at the Dublin Exhibition 

Rose-Water Dishes, Dutch Seventeenth Centurv 

Silver Plate, Old, in the Irish Historical Loaii 

Collection at the Dublin Exhibition 240- 

Spanish Ecclesiastical Plate 























Heraldry. Ten illustrations of Arms . . 99-103 

and Autographs : The Stammbuch, or 
Album Amicorum. Seven illustrations 231-234 

Iron and Metal Ware. 

Ciborium, .\n Enamelled, at Sens Cathedral, 

France. . . . . . . . ■ • • • 264 

Fire-Dogs. Various examples .. 151-155,227-330 

Hand -Bells, Old 192 

Man Trap, A 261 

Ivory Plaque in Library at Eaton Hall .. .. 142 


Rings : Ecclesiastical, Memorial. Wedding. Ten 

illustrations .. .. .. .. 183-187 

Lace, Embroidery, and Needlework. 

Mechlin and Antwerp Lace. Twelve specimens 103-108 

Lead Cistern, Seventeenth Century.. .. .. 52 

Leathern Buckets at St. Swithin's Cluircli, Worcester 53 


Butts, Mr. and Mrs. T., and Son. By W. Blake 92, 93 
BjTon, Lord. By Ernest Lloyd. From a Sketch 

by Count D'Orsay. (Colour Plate) . . 57 

Fitzherbert, Mrs. By Cosway. (Colour Plate) . . 84 

Foster, Edward. By the Artist . . . . . . 1 20 

La Duchesse de Chevreuse. (Colour Plate) . . no 
Morgan's, Mr. J. Pierpont. The Foreign Minia- 
tures. Part \TI. (Nine Portraits) . . 3-8 
Wedgwood and Whicldon .. .. .. ..261 

Musical Instruments. Violin by Joseph Guarnerius. 

The Rode . . . .' 260 

Napoleonic Relics in Musee Carnavalet . . . . 51 

Pictures and Drawings. 

Adoration of the Kings, The. By Sandio Botticelli 207 

Alcazar, Morocco. By J. Lavery . . . . . . 38 

Annunciation, The. By Jan Van Eyck . . . . 32 

.\rzila, A Street in. By J. Lavery .. .. 39 

Camp outsi<le Tetuan ,, ,, . . . . 34 

Camp near Fez ,, ,, .. .. 4(1 

Charles V., Various Portraits of, at the Golden 

Fleece E.xhibition, Bruges . . . . . . 29 

Cheshire Hunt, The. By T. Ferneley . . . . 73 

Child with Parroquet. By Michiel Jansz Mierevelt 212 

Chrysanthemums. By Sotatsu . . . . . . 1 59 

Coach and Six. Bv T. Rowlandson. (Colour 

Plate) . . .' 9S 

Dancer, A. By Iwasa Matabei . . . . . . 158 

Dancers. By Jloronobu . . . . . . . . 1 60 

Daruraa, The Sage. By Saomi .. .. .. 91 

Descent from the Cross, The. By Rembrandt .. 311 
Ducks in Stream. By Hokusai .. .. ..161 

Edward IV. of England. By Hans (? .Ambrose) 

Holbein 33 

Fez, Cit\' of. By J. Lavery 41 

Fourment. Helcne. By Rubens .. .. .. 313 

Fukurukojin, with Crane and Stag. By Korin . . 161 

Grosvenor Hunt, The. By Stubbs . . . . 73 

Thomas, General. By Hoppner . . 76 
Henrietta, Countess of Grosvenor. By Gains- 
borough . . . . . . . . . . 74 

Pictures and Drawings — continued. 
Judith. By Giorgione 
Knight with his Squire, A. .Ascribed to Francesco 

La Madonna Litta. By Lionardo Da Vinci (?) . . 
Landscape (Japanese). By Shinbun 

Kano Motonobu 
,, Scsshin 

Legend of St. Lury. By Altichiero and D'.Avanzo 
Madonna and Child, and Saints. .\scribed 
variously to the Master of the Half-Figures 
and to Gerard David 
Magdalen, The. By Piero di Cosimo. .^t the 

National Gallery in Rome . . 
Mares and Foals. By Stubbs 
Monkeys. By Sosen 

Moorish Harem, Interior of a. By J. Lavery . . 
Moujiii, God of Letters. By Kano Tanyu . . 
Oyster Breakfast, The. By Gabriel Metsu 
Portrait of an .\dmiral. By Frans Hals . . 
Religions, The Three. By Wang-Lu-Kung 
St. Sebastian. By Sodoma (I'ffizi Gallery) 
By Nobuzane 
By Cho Densu 
By J, Laverj- 
















Shitago, The Poet 
Shoki and Demon. 
Soko, The. Tetuan. 
Spanocchi, Countess and Family. By .Andrea 

da Brescia 
Spencer, Countess. Bv Sir Joshua Revnokls. 

(Colour Plate) ' ' 

Taishaku, Ten. By Yukuhide 

Teujin, Sama. .Ascribed to Kanoaka 

Tiger. By Muh-Ki .. 

Two Children with a Jav in a Cage. Bv Rev. 

W. M. Peters. (Colour Plate) 
Virgin and Child, St. John the Baptist, and an 

.\ngel. By Botticelli. (Colour Plate) . . 
Wright. Mrs., 1777. The Famous Wax Modeller. 

By John Downman 
Young Girl -Asleep. By Jan Vermcer of Delft — 

Frontispiece : December 
Young Girl Peeling an .Apple. By Nicolas JIaes — 

Frontispiece : October 
A'oung 1 Icrdsman with Cows. By .Elliert Cuyp — 

Frontispiece : November 


Byron, Lord. Bv Ernest Lloyd. From a Sketch 

by Count D'Orsay . . . . . . . . 57 

Coach and Six. By T. Rowlandson . . . . 98 

Devonport INIail near Amcsburv. The. Bv R. 

Havell. After H. Alkin ' . 
Fitzherbert, Mrs. By Cosway 
Georgina, Duchess of Devonshire. Bv 

.After Gainsborough . . 
La Duchesse de Chevreuse 
Lady Reading, .A. By W. Ward 

Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 

Last Hour of a Contested Election for M.P. Bv 

R. Havell. After J. Pollard .. .'. 199 

La Toilette de Venus. Bv J. .A. L'Eveille. .After 

J. B. Huet . . ■ 236 

Man and a Woman. By I'rans Mieris. In the 

possession of Mr. H. Oatway 

Frontispiece : September 
JIaria. By P. W. Tomkins. After J. Russell . . 164 
Ming Figure of the God of Learning . . . . 190 

Moorish Harem, Interior of a. By J. Lavcrv, 

RS..A ;. 35 



I- 11. Meyer. 



After J. R. 


Plates, including Engravings. Etc. — continnrcl. 
Morning, or the Reflection. By J. Crozier. .\£ter 

\V. Ward . . . . " 150 

Narcissa. By John Raphn el Smith .. .. 178 

Portrait of an Acimirah By Frans Hals . . . . 216 

Run Away Love. By C. Kni.sjht. After T. Stot- 

liarcl .. . . . . 226 

Spencer, Countess. By Sir Joshua Reynolds . . 245 
Stirrup. By Antonio Bartolomeo Campi . . . . 24 

Two Children with a Jav in a Cage. By Rev. 

W. M. Peters ' ' ..118 

X'irgin and Child, St. John the Baptist, and an 

.Angel. By Botticelli . . . . . . 254 

Young Girl Asleep. By Jan \ermeer of Delft — 

J-'iiintispiecc : December 
Young Girl Peeling an Apple. By X. Maes — 

Frontispiece : October 

Young Herdsman with Cows. By ."Elbert Cuyp — 

1-rontispiece : November 

I'oTTEKv, Porcelain, and China. 

Bellarmine Jug, A lied . . . . . . . . 261 


Enamelled Vase. Yung-Ching Period. At Eaton 

Hall ' 145 

Porcelain ; Messrs. Larmour's CuUectinn. 

\'arious examples .. .. .. 235-258 

Doccia Porcelain : Cups and Covers, Figures, 

Group, Statuette .. .. .. 146-14S 


Dish 14,1 

Figure of Minerva .. .. .. .. 51 

Group : Eros and Psyche . . . . . . 264 

Tureen . . . . . . . . • • . . 142 

Fenton Ironstone \'ase . . . . . . . • 121 

Larmour's, Messrs., Collection of Chinese Porce- 
lain. Various examples .. .. 255-258 

Lowestoft Tea-pot .. .. .. .. .. 53 

Resist Silver Lustre ; Mr. Win. Ward's Collection. 

Thirteen Groups .. .. .. 21S-224 

Staffordshire Busts of John Wesley, also Groups, 

Medallion, Caricatures, etc. .. .. 11-17 

Staffordshire Jug, Three Views of a . . . . 262 

Terra-Cotta Bust of Charles V., Fifteenth Cen- 
tury (Bruges Museum) .. .. .51 

Statuette: The Son of Rubens .. 191 


King Charles the First's Shirt and \'est worn on the 

Day of his Execution . . . . • • 165 

Napoleonic Relics in the Musee Carnavalet . . 51 

Oliver Cromwell's Snuff-box 123 

Resist Silver Lustre. (See under heading — Pottery, 
Porcelain, and China). 

Shirt and Vest worn by Charles the First on the Day 

of his Execution .. .. .• ..165 

Silver. (See under heading — Goi.n, Silver, and 

Plated Ware). 
Snuff-box. Oliver Cromwell's .. .. .. 123 

Staircase, with Arjnour from Horace Walpole's 

Collection. At Eaton Hall .. .. I44 

Staircase in Catharine of Aragon's House, Shrewsbury 19'> 
Stamps. Corea — Early Issues. Six specimens 167, 16S 


Tapestry from Notre-Dame du Sablon. .\t the 

Golden Fleece Exhibition, Bruges . . . . 30 

Tapestries at Burley-on-the-HiU. 

Death of Leander . . . . . . . . 43 

Death of Sapphira . . . . . • ■ . 4.> 

Leander Wooing Hero . . . . . . . . 42 

Pastoral Scene . . . . . . . • • • 4''' 

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes . . . . 45 

The Fish Market 47 

Tapestries at Eaton Hall: Benuvaisand .Xubusison 

Panels 1 38, 139 

Louis XVI. Chairs and Settee covered in 

Aubusson Tapestry .. .. ■■ 137. '4' 

Turning Lathe of Maximilian. At the Golden Fleece 
Exhibition, Bruges . . 



Wax Modelling. 

Chatham. Earl of . . 

Franklin — Period 1772-1775 

Washington . . 

Wright. Mrs., 1777 and 1775 .. .. iS, 

W'ooD Carving. 

Choir Stalls and Miserere Seats in Christcluirch 

Priory 122, 123 

Font-Cover at Shaugh Priory, Dartmoor .. .. 125 

Pulpit, Carved Oak, at Holne Church .. .. 50 


Books and Manuscripts. 

Ackermann's Colleges of Winelu'ster. Eton, ami 

Westminster . . . . . . . . . . 272 

j^Esop Fabula'. (Italian Edition). 1490 .. .. 61 

.\iry, Osmond. Charles the Second, 1901 . . .. 271 

.Mken's Sporting Repository, 1822 .. .. 272 

.MIot's England's Parnassus, 1600 . . . . . . 272 

.\ltemps, Duke of. Dispersal of Library .. .. 61 

Americana. A Letter from Dr. Moore, 1687 ; 

Preface by W. Penn . . . . . . . . 61 

.•\pperley's Life of a Sportsman, 1842 .. .. 62 

Books and Manuscripts — continued. 
Aristophanes, Comoedia> of, 1498 .. 
Aristotle. Works, 1495-8 .. 

The Ingoklsby Legends, 1840-42-47 
The Jackdaw of Rhcims (MS.) .. 
Bedford, Duke of. Salictuin Waburnense, 
Herlinghieri's Geographia in tcrza rima, i 

Bible, Ifi35 

Book of Common Prayer, 1549 

Booth's Rough Notes on Birds. 1S81-87 





• . • 



1829 . . 


481 .. 







Books ano Manuscripts— coh/i)imc(/. pace 

Bronte, Charlotte. 

Caroline Vernon (MS.) . . . . . . . . 62 

MS. of Poems 62 

Nine MS. Vols, of Juvenile TaL'S .. .. 62 

Bronte, Emily Jane. .MS. of Poems . . . . 62 

Bells and Pomegranates, 1841-46 .. .. 60 

Pauline, 1833 60 

Burns's The Poet's Progress (MS.) . . . . 60 
Byron. Lord. 

Childo Harold. (Proof Sheets) 60 

English Bards and Scotch Reviewers. 1S09 .. 60 

Manfred. 18 17 60 

Carroll, Lewis. 

Alice's ,\dventures in Wonderland, 1865 .. 60 

Through the Looking Glass, 1872 .. .. 60 

Clayton's Costumes of the First or Grenadier 

Regiment of Guards, 1854.. .. .. 272 

Coleridge's Sibylline Leaves, 1S17 .. .. 60 

Combe's Wars of Wellington. 18 19. . .. .. 272 

Congreve, Sir Wni. Rocket System .. .. 272 

Cook and Wedderburn. Library Edition of 

Ruskin's Works, 1903-6 . . . . . . 272 

Crcighton, Mandell, Bishop. Queen Elizabeth, 

1896 " 271 

Curtis's Botanical Magazine, 1793-19^3 .. .. Oi 


A Christmas Carol . . . . . . . . 60 

Bleak House, 1853 .. .. .. .. 60 

Pickwick Papers, 1837 . . . . . . . . 60 

The Cricket on the Hearth . . 60 

Didot's Greek Classics, 63 vols., 1845-20 . . .. 272 

Dryden's Eleonora (MS.) . . . . . . . . 60 

Edwards. Botanical Register, 1815-47 .. .. 61 

Fancy, or True Sportsman's Guide, The, 1826 . . 271 
Folk - I^ore Society's Publications: 60 vols., 

1878-1907 . . . . . . . . . . 272 

Frankau, Mrs. 

John Rapliael Siuith ; His Life ami Works, 

1902 . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 

William and JaiULS Ward, 1911 1 .. .. .. 272 

Gardiner, Dr. Oliver Cromwell, 1899 .. .. 271 

Gay's Fables, 1738 .. .. .. .. .. 272 

Gladstone, W. E. Home Rule for Irelau 1. .MS. 

and Proof Sheets . . . . . . . . 60 


Birds of Asia . . . . . . . . . . 272 

Europe, 1837 .. .. .. .. 61 

Great Britain .. .. .. ..61,62 

New Guinea, 1875-88 272 

Mammals of Australia, The, 1863 . . . . 272 

Trochilida;, 1861-87 .. .. .. .. 272 

Greenaway, Kate. .\ Day in a Child's Life. MS. 

with Sketches 60 

Henderson, T. F. James I. and VI., 1904 .. 271 

Higden's Polychronicon . . . . . . . . 62 

Homer's Ilias et Odyssea. Edited \>y .Majoraniis, 

154--5' <5i 

Hor.n 62 

Isocrates. Orationes, 1493 .. .. .. 61 

Jacquin's Selectarum Stirpium .\ineric;uKuum 

Icones, 1750 . . . . . . . . . . 61 

Johnson's Chrysal, or the Ailventures of a 

Guinea, 1821 272 

Books and Manuscripts — conliititei. pace 


Endvmion : Title-page, Preface, and Dedica- 
tion (MS.) 60,62 

Lamia, Isabella, the Eve of St. Agnes, 1820 . . 62 

Poems, 181 7 .. .. .. .. .. 62 

Kelmscott Press Publications .. .. ..61,62 

Kilkenny Archa;ological Society's Transactions, 

1849-91 272 

Lamb, Charles. 

Dream Children, A Reverie (MS.) . . . . 60 

Last Essays of Elia, 1833 . . . . . . 272 

Talcs from Shakespeare, 1807 .. .. .. 272 

Lambert's Genus Pinus, 1837 .. .. .. 61 

Lang, .Vndrew. Prince Charles Edward, 1900 .. 271 

I-e Rccueil des Hystoires de Troyes, 1490 . . . . 61 

Les Metamorphoses d'Ovide, 1767-71 .. .. 272 

Libellus de Natura Animalium, 1524 .. .. 61 

Lodge's Portraits, 1821-34 .. .. .. 272 

Maintenon, Mdme. de. La Caractfire de la Prin- 

cesse Reinc Silvaine (MS.) . . . . . . 60 

Malton's View of Dublin, 1794 . . . . .. 272 

Milton's " Pilgrim's Progress." ist Edition . . 62 

Mulliu. .Mr. W. Dispersal of Library . . . . 272 

Nolhac's La Reine Marie Antoinette .. 62, 271 

Notes and Queries. 92 vols., 1849-9S .. .. 272 

I^hilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 

80 vols., 1852-1896 .. .. .. .. 272 

Pluny's Historia Xaturalis, 1472 .. .. .. 272 

Poe's The Raven, 1845 •• •• •• •■ ^^o 


Essay on Man (MS.) . . . . . . . . 60 

Of Taste : .\n Epistle to the Earl of H.iilington 

(MS.) 60 

Redoute's Les Liliacees, 180.-16 .. .. .. 61 

Rossetti's Ballads and Sonnets, 1S81 .. .. 60 

P.owlandson's I,oyal Volunteers of London and 

Environs . . . . . . . . . - 272 

Samuel, Mr. Stuart, M. P. Disper.sal of Library . . 60 
Scott, Sir ^V. 

Guy Mannering, 1815 .. .. .. .. 62 

Waverley Novels, 48 vols. ; " Edinburgh " 

Edition, 1901-3 .. .. .. .. 272 

Scropc's Salmon Fishing in the Tweed . . . . 272 

Shakespeare's Second Folio, 1632 . . . . 62 


MS. Poem : " The Sun is Warm, the Sky is 

Clear " 62 

Proposal for Putting Reform to the Vote (.MS.) 60 

Queen Mab, 1813 .. .. .. •• 272 

Skelton, Sir John. 

Charles L, 1898 271 

Mary Stuart, 189S 271 

Smith, Andrew. Illustrations of the Zoology of 

S. Africa, 1849 61 

Smollett's Peregrine Pickle, 1751 272 

Sportsman's Guide, The Fancy or True . . . . 272 

Stevenson, R. L. Works, 20 vols., 190^-7. 

" Pentland " Edition .. .. .. 272 


Atalanta in Calydon .. .. .. .. 61 

Dead Love . . . . . . • • ■ ■ 61 

Devil's Due, The 61 

Laus Veneris . . . . • • • ■ • ■ 61 

Songs before Sunrise . . . . . . ■ . 61 

Under the Microscope .. .. ■• •■ 61 


Books and Manuscripts — continued. v 

Temple's ^^"alIace Collection at Hertford House. 

Tennyson, Lord. 

The Brook (MS.) 

Gareth and Lynette. (Corrected Proof Sheets) 

The Northern Farmer (MS.) 

Idylls of the Hearth, 1864 


Philip. 4th and 5th Chapters (MS.) . . 

The Virginians, iS 58 
Transactions of the London Entomological 

Society, 1836-1905 .. 
Tudor Translations. 40 vols., 1892-1905 . . 
Visscher's Map of New Belgium and New England 
WTiite's Natural History of Selborne 
Wilde, Oscar. Vera, or the Nihilists 
Willard, Mr. E. S. Dispersal of Library . . 
Xenophon's Opera. Queen Elizabeth's Copy, 

Coins, Decorations, Medals, and Tokens. 

Charles I. Pattern Farthing 

Derbyshire Tokens (27) 

James IL Gun Money 

Macfadycn, Mr. F. E. Dispersal of Collection . . 
Martinique and Guadaloupe 

Gold Cross 
Regimental. 12th Foot 
Star of the Order of the Bath 
Ticket (Silver) for Vauxhall Gardens 

Engr.wings and Prints. 

Green, Val. Lady Louisa Manners. After Rey- 
nolds . . 

Braddyl, Master. After Reynolds 
Scaforth, Mrs., and Child. After ReynokLs . . 
Knight. Mr. John. Dispersal of Collection of 

Morland Pi ints 
Reynolds, S. W. Mrs. .\rbuthnot. .\fte- Unpp- 
ner . . . . . . . . • . 

Say, W. Lady Mildmay and Child, .\fter Hopp- 

Smith, J. R. 

Delia in Town and Delia in tlie Country. 

After Morland 
Rural Amusement and Rural ICmployuicnt. 
After Morland 
Soiron, J. D. 

St. James's Park. After Morland 
Tea Garden, A 
Ward, J. Sunset. 

W. Daughters of Sir Thomas Frankkind. 
After Hoppncr 
Watson, J. Countess of Carlisle. After Rey- 
nolds . . 















Bookcase, Chippendale 



Settee „ 

Sideboard. Sheraton 

Side-Tables, Chippendale . . 

Spottiswoode, Mr. W. Hugh. Dispersal of Col- 

Table (Circular). Sheraton 

(Toilet). Satinwood 

Torcheres, Chippendale 
Wardrobe, Satinwood 

Gold, Silver, and Plated Ware. 
Beaker. Charles II. 

Bunbury, Sir Henry. Dispersal of Collection . . 
Cake-Basket . . 

Falkland, Viscount. Dispersal of Collection 
Forks (Dessert), Queen Anne 
Porringer. Charles II. 

James II. 
Sauce-Boats . . 

"Speaker's Plate, The." 12 pieces 
Tazzas. James II. . . 

Ticket (Silver) for Vauxliall Gardens ... 
Tumbler-Cup. William and Mary 

Handel's Score of " The Messiah " . . 

L.\CE and Needlework and Linen. 
Brussels Lappets 

Damask Table-Cloth of Drawn Thread . . 
Milanese Border 
Venetian ,, 

Persian Rug 

Pictures and Drawings. 

Beechey, Sir W. Portrait of a Lady 

Bol, F. Venus Detaining .\donis 

Bosschaert, T. \\'illeborts. Peace : Numerous 
Loves at Play at a War Piece 

Bruvn, B. de. Portrait of a Youth 

Cappelle. Van de (ascril)ed to). The Mouth of a 
River . . 

Cole, Vicat. The Alps at Rosenlaui 

Collins, W. The Skittle Players 

Cooper, T. S. I'ive Cows and Six Sheep 
,, Sidney. Cows in a Meadow 

Cosway, R. .Admiral Robert Montagu .. 

Cranach. Portrait of a Lady 

Cuyp. -\. .\. Landscape 

Dance, X. Robert Dashwood 

Dubbels, II. .V Town on a Frozen River . . 

Dutch School. The Mouth of a River 

I-"aed, T. The Poor, the Poor Man's Friend 

Fantin-Latour. H. 

Carnations in a Glass Vase 

Spring Wild Flowers in a Green Bowl . . 

Fildes, Sir Luke. Fair Quiet and Sweet Rest 

Flemish School, Early. St. Barbara 

Frere, Mr. J. Tudor. Dispersal of Collection 















Guardi, J. 

Three Albums with Pen and Ink Views of 

Venice . . . . . . . . . . 59 

View in the Piazza, Venice . . . . . . 59 

View in \'cnice . . . . . . . . . . 59 

View of a S()uarc in an ItaHan Town . . 59 

Hilliard, X. Sir Francis Drake .. .. .. 60 

Hodgson, Mr. George. Dispersal of Collection . . 59 

Holbein. Henry VIII 60 


Bunbury, Mrs. . . . . . . . . . . 58 

Frere, John Hookham . . . . . . . . 59 

Frere, John . . . . . . . • 59 

Gyll, Susanna . . . . . . . . • • 5S 

Jerningham, Mrs., as " Hebe " . . ■ • 59 

Manning, Jlrs. W., and Daughter . . . . 5S 

Hurt, Louis. Highland Cattle .. .. .. 64 

LawTence, Sir T. 

Mrs. Bradbourne . . . . . . . . . . 59 

Portrait of a Young I.ady . . . . . . 59 

., Lady 60 

Leader, B. \V. Capel Curig, X. Wales . . . . 59 

Le Brun, Mdme. Vigee. Melanie dc Rochechoiiart, 

Marquise D'Aumont, Duchesse de Picnnes 59 

Lcly, Sir P. Queen Mary, Wife of James II. .. 00 

I.innell, J., sen. 

Flight into Egypt, The . . . . . . ■ ■ 59 

Minding the Flock 59 

Maris, J. In the Woods .. .. .. -- 59 

,, W. Milking Time 59 

Memling. Hans. A Triptych with the Adoration 

of the Magi .. ' • 60 

Morland, G. Smugglers . . . . . . ■ • 59 

Nattier, J. M. Mademoiselle de Charolais Playing 

a Guitar 60 

Xeefs. A Cathedral Interior . . . . . . 64 

Pictures and Drawings — continued. 
Xicol, Erskine. 

Both Puzzled 59 

Dander after Rain, .\ . . .. .. •• 59 

Orchardson, W. Q. Thoughts Far .\way . . 59 

Palmedcs. .\ Garden Scene . . . . . . 64 

Pollajuolo, P. The .\ngel Raphael with the 

Youthful Tobit 59 

Reynolds, Sir Joshua. 

Blake, .\ndrew . . . . . . . . . . 59 

Bunbury, Master Charles John .. .. 58 

Earl St. Vincent 59 

Horneck, The Misses . . . . . . . . 5^ 

Roberts, D. Gate of the Zancarron . . . . 59 

Rubens. P. P. 

Portrait of a Gentleman . . . . . . . . 59 

Time Disclosing Religious Truth . . . . 59 

Shee, Sir M. k. Miss Blake, of .-Vrdfry . . . . 59 

Stortcnbecker. Cattle . . . . . . . . 64 

Sutherland, Duke of. Dispersal of Collection at 

Trentham Hall, Staffordshire . . . . 60 

Terburg. Portrait of a Youth . . . . 64 

Van der Xeer, A. A River Scene . . . . 59 

Verboeckhovcn, E. Ewes and Lambs . . . . 59 

Pottery, Porcelain, and China. 

Beakers (>i 

Bottles, Powdered-Blue . . . . . . • . 63 

Cup 63 

Figure of a Female Deity . . . . . . 63 

Statuette 63 

\'ases and Covers (various) . . . . . . 63 

Spcde Pot-pourri Jar .. .. .. .. 64 

Silk Cape with edging of Milanese Lace . . . . 64 

Silver Ticket for Vaiixhall Gardens . . . . . . 64 



III the possession of Mr. II. Oaticiiy 

September, 1907 

The Pierpont Morgan 
not only three Stuart portraits, 
Largilliere of 
more than or- 
dinary interest. 
One depicts 
the clever sa- 
tirical poet, 
Bo i leau, of 
whom there are 
very few por- 
traits in exist- 
ence. It is an 
extraordinari 1 y 
fine piece of 
work (No. 
xcvii.), repre- 
senting the 
poet in a hand- 
some costume 
of blue richly 
trimmed with 
gold lace, and 
having over his 
shoulders a 
green cloak 
decorated with 
gold lace simi- 
lar to that on 
the costume. 
It w^as Boileau 
who revealed 

Vol. XIX.— No. 73.— a 

Collection contains 
but two others by 


for the first time the poetic capabilities of the French 
language, and, although he can hardly be considered 

as a great poet, 
yet his verses, 
';• so flexible, so 
terse and so 
vigorous, ex- 
erted consider- 
able influence 
upon our own 
literature and 
upon French 
poesy of later 
date. The other 
portrait repre- 
sents a certain 
-Madame de 
Gauville, and 
so admirable is 
the likeness 
that some care- 
ful investiga- 
tion in the de 
(iauville family 
has enabled 
the author to 
identify be- 
yond question 
the Marquise 
(No. X c i X. ) 
re presented 
in the picture, 
and to trace a 
BY LARiiiLLii-.RE Efooddca! of her 

'J he Connoisseur 

No. XCVIII.— LOUIS xiv. 


history. She is shown in the"-.act of being served 
with some fruit and flowers by her,'favourite negro 

Several of the great French portrait painters are 
represented in this collection by miniatures, and 
many of them seem to have practised the fascinat- 
ing art of miniature painting at different periods of 
their career. Nattier, for example, commenced life 

(See Article VI. or description) 

as a miniaturist, and his mother was a distinguished 
painter of miniatures. When he had lost almost 
all his fortune in the wild schemes set on foot 
by John Law, the financier, he returned again to 
miniature painting, and having worked up afresh 
a distinguished circle of patrons, once more re- 
linquished miniature painting for work on a larger 
and grander scale. Drouais is also known to have 

.]/;'. /. Pierpont Morgan's Pictures 



painted a few miniatures ; Rigaud is said to have 
painted one or two ; and there is one famous 
miniature in the Wallace Collection signed by 
Boucher, and most probably his own work, and 
therefore it seems probable that this was not the 
only painting of that class from his hand. With 
regard to one miniature by Nattier in the I'ierpont 
Morgan Collection, it has been interesting to find 
a representation of the same lady, la Duchesse du 
C'haulnes, in the Wallace Collection ; and another 
delightful portrait, at one time said to represent 
Madame, has now been identified with more 
or less certainty as the Baronne Rigoley d'Ogny, 
whom Nattier painted in 1752 as Flora riding upon 
clouds, the magnificent oil painting being e.xhibiied 
in London in May, 1906. One of the most fasci- 
nating of his portraits is that of Madame Uupin 
(No. c). The lady is wearing a superb hat. The 
pleasing group, representing a mother and her chil- 
dren (No. ci.), which bears the name of Boucher, 
is evidently a copy of a much larger composition 
or else a brilliant sketch for such a picture. It is 
just possible that it may belong to the hand of 
Madame Boucher, who so cleverly copied, in little, 
many of her husband's large compositions : but the 

curious part is, that, although the compo- 
sition is so evidently the work of Boucher, 
we have not been able at present to find 
the picture from which it was taken, and 
are therefore led to surmise that it may 
have been a sketch by the master himself 
for a work he never executed. 

The very mention of Boucher leads one 
to think of Charlier, his great friend and 
a very notable painter. Charlier worked 
in oil, in gouache, and in pastel, but, for 
all that, was so clever at painting minia- 
tures that in the collection of the Comte 
de Caylus there were no fewer than ninety 
from his hand, and his name fre(|uently 
appears in the list of those persons who 
executed the portraits in miniature, for 
snuff-bo.xes and jewels given away by the 
K-ing, to ambassadors and notable per- 
sons. One of the little groups in this 
collection by Charlier, representing \'enus 
and Cupid under a tree, has been identi- 
fied as belonging to a series of twelve 
works executed in 1771 for the Prince 
de Conti, and sold from the collection of 
that Prince in 1777. Another is a very 
interesting copy of a picture by Fragonard, 
and one is a portrait of the Countess of 
Provence (No. cii.). 
From the possession of Queen Marie Antoinette 
came two portraits by Campana which possess more 
than ordinary interest. They represent the (lueen's 
mother and father, and as we know that Marie 
Antoinette sent Campana to Vienna to paint Maria 
Theresa and the Em])eror I'Vancis I., there seems 



The Coiiiioissci/i' 



little doubt that these two portraits are the very 
ones executed at that time. I'ortunately they still 
remain in their original silver frames set with dia- 
monds, and surmounted by imperial crowns (No. 
ciii.), and although, perchance, they are not quite 
such brilliant works as Campana was capable of 
e.xecuting, yet they possess a pathetic historical in- 
terest which gives them very special charm. They 
are evidently court portraits, representing each of 
the sovereigns in court array, with the full panoply 
of state. Crown, Order, and I'Lrmine, and are con- 
sequently rich effective pieces of colouring. Marie 
Antoinette was painted herself by Campana many 
times, and there is a fine portrait of her in the 
Imperial Collection at Vienna, which, very probably, 
was taken by the artist to Maria Theresa, when 
these two miniatures were executed ; by way of 
exchange. One of the very best pictures of the 

iHihap|)y Queen he ever painted 
was sent as a present to the 
Duchesse de Sudermanie, who 
represented Marie Antoinette at 
the baptism of the Due de Smo- 
land. Prince of Sweden, to whom 
she was godmother. It was set 
in a superb diamond medallion, 
and still remains a cherished pos- 
session in the hands of the de- 
scendants of the noble lady who 
acted on that occasion as the 
(,)ueen's proxy. 'I'hose of Maria 
Theresa and her husband are not 
the only miniatures by Campana 
in Mr. Morgan's collection. There 
are two of the singer Mademoiselle 
Laguerre (No. civ.), a person of 
very sumptuous taste, who, being 
for a long time under the pro- 
tection of the Due du Bouillon, 
acquired from him, and from 
other admirers, a very consider- 
able fortune, and filled her house 
with objects of beauty. It has 
been curious to turn up in Paris 
the catalogue of the sale of her 
effects, and to notice that she was 
a great admirer of |)aintings by 
Fragonard, and that her cabinets 
contained cups of rock crystal, 
jewels of enamel, objects wrought 
in all kinds of precious and semi- 
precious stones, and choice pieces 
of furniture by the great ebenistes 
of the period. A vast crowd filled 


Mr. /. Pierpouf Morgan's Pictures 

the rooms of this famous courtesan, after 
her decease, everyone being eager to see 
the luxurious way in which her rooms 
were furnished, and to admire the exquisite 
beauty of the trifles with which she sur- 
rounded herself. She came from a com- 
paratively poor family, her father having 
been a lutist, and hence when her will was 
opened the public were not surprised to find 
that she had bequeathed several hundred 
thousand francs, from her very considerable 
fortune, to alleviate distress among the poor 
at Paris. 

Perhaps, however, the most interesting 
miniature by Campana is that which repre- 
sents the person whom Voltaire called 
" the sublime Emilie." This Madame de 
Chatelet must have been an extraordinary 
person. One writer says she had "skin like 
a nutmeg grater," and that she resembled 
" an ugly grenadier." Another speaks ot her 
" shrewd smiling face " : and Voltaire of her 
" more than ordinary charm." The three 
<juotations show how differently the same 
lady may be regarded by various writers. 
Her learning was undoubtedly considerable, 
sepecially in the departments of geometry 






and algebra ; but she seems to have made every- 
one miserable who had to do with her, and 
after Voltaire had spent fifteen jealous, feverish 
years with her, she deserted him for St. Lam- 
bert ; and it was his portrait which, at her 
death, was found in the ring which Voltaire 
had given her, and not that of \oltaire him- 
self. Yet he said when she died, " The gods, 
in giving her their soul and genius, kept but 
for their own that imniortalitv which is for 
the gods alone.' 

An interesting miniature painter who has 
been very little regarded was Madame Labille- 
(iuiard, who was born Mademoiselle Labille, 
was afterwards wife of a certain Monsieur 
(niiard, and then after his decease married 
her art master, Frani^ois Andre \'inccnt, who 
also painted miniatures and worked in pastel. 
Madame Labille-Ciuiard's miniatures have often 
!)een ascribed to other artists ; some have been 
given to Hall the Swede, and some to other 
painters ; but in the Pierpont Morgan Col- 
lection are touchstones by which they may be 
identified, inasmuch as it possesses more than 
one signed portrait bv her. She must have 

The Coinioisseiir 

been a singularly attractive woman, and there is a 
beautiful miniature of her, set in a tortoiseshell box, 
and painted by that extraordinary and eccentric 
artist, Montpetit (No. cv.) ; while it may be inter- 
esting to note that another portrait of her, this 
time in pastel, was sold quite recently in London, 
and has passed into the author's own collection. 
There seems to be little doubt that this was the 
work of her second husband, Vincent. The eccen- 
tric Montpetit wasted a great deal of money upon 
all sorts of ideas, visionary and illusory, as to the 
new methods of painting, especially trying to force 
into public notice a kind of light enamel upon glass, 
about which he wrote a book. For a while it was 

very popular, and in 1760 he painted three portraits 
of the King in this peculiar method, one set in 
a diamond -decorated box intended for the King 
of Sardinia, and another equally richly mounted, 
presented to the Spanish ambassador, costing, it is 
declared, over 40,000 livres. There is an interesting 
example of his work remaining at the Little Trianon, 
but as soon as the novelty of his new method had 
worn off his reputation ceased, and eventually Mont- 
petit died in 1800 in great poverty. The portrait of 
Madame Labille-Guiard is signed by him, and was 
very likely given to the lady herself, as it has her 
monogram upon the reverse of it, and is therefore a 
painting of more than ordinary interest. 







John Wesley Busts in Staffordshire Pottery By C. S. Sargisson 

Representations of John Wesley in Staf- 
fordshire pottery are legion ; but the busts — especially 
those which will receive the principal attention in this 
article — are of the greatest interest from a collector's 
standpoint. The writer has been fortunate enough to 
gain access to the fine collection in the possession of 
Mr. James Bolteley, of Birmingham. For many years 
the owner has devoted himself to the discovery and 
acquisition of specimens, with the result that his 
collection is fully representative and well-nigh ex- 
haustive. To this collection of Staffordshire Wesley 
busts, which is believed to be the most complete in 
existence, free access for purposes of illustration has 
been allowed, and Mr. Botteley has imparted much 
valuable information concerning the several specimens. 

The potter — who was much more than a mere 
potter — whose name will always be associated with 
that of Wesley, was Enoch Wood, of Bursleni, who 
had full opportunity of studying and modelling his 
subject, and who did not allow artistic ambition to 
interfere with faithfulness of portraiture. Of him 
Ward says, in his History of the Staffordshire Pot- 
teries (edition printed at Hanley in 1829 — now a rare 
book), " There are still proofs of his skill in the more 
ingenious departments : and his ability as a Modeller 
and Sculptor has 
long been widely 
indicated in the 
very correct bust 
he produced of 
the late Rev. 
John Wesley." 

In the cata- 
logue of the 
Loan Collection 
of Pottery in the 
Edinburgh Mu- 
seum, Mr. R. H. 
Soden Smith, 
Museum Keeper 

, . X". 1. — OBVER^K AND 

and Librarian at from studv mad 

South Kensington (whose property the collection once 
was), thus describes one item : — " Bust of the Rev. 
John \\'esley. A copy from that modelled by Enoch 
Wood, of Burslem, at whose house Wesley used to 
stay when visiting the Potteries. He sat to him for 
his portrait which was produced in 1781, Wesley 
being then 78 years of age. Copies which were made 
later are commonly stamped with the date of his 
death, 1 791, at the age of 88." The latter statement 
is not fully correct, as will be seen. 

There is some doubt as to the date of the actual 
issue of the first bust, in the material and style in 
which it is most commonly known. The earliest 
known specimens in ordinary potter)- are stamped, 
■' Aged 81," which indicates that it was not until 17S4 
that the bust was given to the public : but there is 
reason to believe that an earlier — perhaps limited — 
edition was made in 1781. Mr. George Hammersley, 
who is himself a manufacturer, and who has had 
exceptional opportunities for research in the Potteries 
themselves, inclines to the opinion that an issue was 
made in 1 781, and that a further issue was held in 
abeyance, " perhaps," as he puts it, " awaiting some 
assent of John Wesley — or perhaps waiting favourable 
O[)[)ortiinity to make or get made. I am not quite 

clear whether 
Enoch Wood's 
father, Aaron 
Wood, was 
at these dates." 
.\s to the jieriod 
of the modelling 
for the bust, 
there is little or 
no doubt. Says 
Mr. II am mers- 
ley, "It is pretty 
certain that the 
modelling was 
done in 1781. 

REVERSE OF M I-. DA1.1. l,).'. 

Tlie Connoisseur 


That is till,' date n;iiiiL-d liy Dr. Adain Clarki-, hut it 
is also very clearly stated by Ward in his J/is/oiy of 
Stoke-on-Trent. Ward knew Enoch Wood personally, 
and would have his inform:vtion at first ha?id." 

There is a footnote in Ward's History which is of 
such great value in this connection that it must be 
quoted almost in full. It reads, '' We cannot refrain 
from introducing here an interesting anecdote respect- 
ing this bust, which we received from Mr. Wood some 
time ago. He was at Leeds when the Methodist 
Conference was held there in the summer of 17S1, 
and his busts, being then introduced, were in eager 
demand among the preachers and friends of John 
Wesley. Mr. Wood was pointed out as the artist, and 
much complimented on the occasion. On returning 
from the Chapel, where the busts had just been 

uxhiliited, he was accosted in the old Churchyard by 
a tall person of clerical ajipearance, ' Are you the 
young man who made the beautiful of Mr. 
Wesley?' l!eing answered in the affirmative, the 
stranger recjuested Mr. Wood to tell him how he had 
made so exact a resemblance of that great man. He 
was \ery niiiuitc in his enquiries, and having made 
himself master of the subject, he placed his hands on 
the young artist's shoulders, and, going through the 
whiilc process, from the first preparation of the soft 
and pliant materials, to the completion of the bust, 
he, in a most striking manner, applied his information 
for the purpose of illustrating the wonderful w-ork of 
Cod in the new creation of the human soul after His 
own image," etc. The homily delivered to Wood, and 
repeated, so it is said, in a public sermon at that 





loltii J Presley Busts 


Conference, displayed a full grasp of the subject of 
modelling and reproduction in clay, as gathered from 
the sculptor. The authenticity and circumstantial 
character of the story related by Wood himself, and 
recorded by his personal friend Ward, has considerable 
evidential value in the determination of the date of 
the first issue of the bust, though it does not clear up 
the mystery of the apparent cessation of issue between 
1 78 1 and 1784. 

It appears to be clear that the famous bust was 
introduced at the Conference of 1781, yet it is the 
fact that all the earliest ordinary pottery copies bear 
the stamp "Aged 81,'' which points to the issue three 
years later — for VV'esley was not eighty-one until 17S4. 
Mr. Joseph Wright, of Wolverhampton, a well-known 
expert in Wesley antiquities, is of opinion that the 
bust submitted in 1781 was in black basalt or " black 
Egyptian," as the material was then called, and that 
the more familiar glazed busts were not placed on 

the market until 1784. It appears to be certain that 
no glazed bust of an earlier date than 1784 has been 
preserved, even if such were issued. If a black 
basalt or other bust, bearing the date 1781, or 
stamped " Aged 78," could be discovered, it would 
clear up a difficulty. 

It has lately been contended that as no bust of 
\Vesley was issued publicly by Wood until 1784, 
and that as the bust then issued bore the inscription, 
" Aged 81," that therefore the modelling of the sub- 
ject did not take place until that year : and tliat ^^'ard 
mistook the Conference of 1781 for that of 1784, 
which was also held at Leeds ; and it has further been 
asserted that the entries in Wesley's Jourmxl in the 
year 1781 do not indicate that he paid a sufficiently 
long visit to Burslem in that year for the modelling 
to have taken place. liut an argument based on the 
silence of a journal is risky, to say the least of it, 
especially when the matter concerned is the modelling 



The Connoisseur 

or study of a face whicli would 
demand but little time. 
Against this view there is the 
very circumstantial story in 
Ward's History already quoted 
— and whidh was had by 
Ward at first hand from 
\\'ood himself; also a state- 
ment in Dr. Adam Clarke's 
writings, giving a detailed 
account of the making of the 
study by Wood, and Wesley's 
comment upon the result, at 
the earlier date; and, as 
quite decisive as to an earlier 
modelling than one in 1784 
— possibly one of several — 
there is in existence a 
medallion of Wesley, issued 
at his death, bearing his 
portrait (almost identical 
with that of the bust) on the 
face, and the inscription, 
" Enoch Wood, Sculpsit, 1 780 " 
(see No. i.). On the whole 
case, the balance of evidence, direct and [.'resumptive, 
is distinctly in favour of the view that Wood took 
his model for the famous bust at the time stated by 
him to Ward, viz., in 1781 — the "Aged 81 " of the 
1784 issue pointing to the age of the subject then, 
and not to his age at the actual time of modelling. 

It may be well to say in 
this place that not only are 
many of the busts, the original 
of which was modelled in 
1781, stamped "Aged 81," 
but many other copies are 
marked later still. In the 
busts illustrated in this article 
are three thus wrongly marked. 
They are the middle speci- 
men, and the two to the 
right of it in No. iii. One is 
marked " Aged 87," another 
"Aged 88,' and the third 
"Aged 50," which is, of 
course, absurd, seeing that 
Wesley died at 88. In each 
case the false figure is palp- 
ably stamped over the original 
figure, without quite obliterat- 
ing it — a clumsy attempt at 
falsification. All these busts 
were either cast in the original 




mould or in accurate copies 
thereof, the only variations 
being those given to their 
bases. It may be taken as 
certain that all the busts is- 
sued in 1784, and all the 
exact copies, really represent 
Wesley at 78 — at any rate as 
he was when modelled by 
Wood not later than 1781. 

Accurate classification of 
busts by or after Wood is 
difficult, there being so many 
overlapping features and 
characteristics ; but, for the 
reader's convenience, they 
have been grouped in sections, 
the selected representative 
members of each section [jos- 
sessing more or less clearly 
marked features in common. 
li will be .seen that a good 
ileal of variety has been im- 
parled in minor matters — in 
ways well known to potters ; 
suggesting, perhaps, a larger number of moulds than 
were actually used for the face. The backs vary con- 
siderably, as may be seen from the illustration. 

The group illustrated in No. iii. contains five speci- 
mens. Counting from the left, example No. i 
])Osse.sses special interest, as having been made by 
Enoch \Vood himself and 
given by him to his son. The 
second was for some time in 
the possession of I )r. Knowles. 
The third, fourth, and fifth are 
of those referred to above as 
having been wrongly marked 
— the incorrect mark having 
been stamped over that im- 
pres.sed by the mould used. 
They are all really "Aged 81 " 
busts (from the 1781 model- 
ling, be it remembered, and 
therefore showing Wesley as 
he was at 78). The left- 
hand one of the three backs 
illustrated shows the falsifi- 
cation of one of the members 
of this group, the super- 
position of the " 7 " over the 
" I '■ being apparent. In all 
these "81 " (original) busts — 
and in a few made later- — the 


JoJut JJ'cslcy Busts 


scar left on Wesley's forehead by a stone thrown at 
him by a persecutor is very plainly shown. This 
fact is mentioned as an indication of at least an 
honest attempt at faithful portraiture on the part of 

In group Xo. iv. four busts are shown, one being of 
white glazed pottery — without pedestal. The distin- 
guishing feature of this group is a little thing, but 
hel[)ful in identification and classification — being the 
button on the shoulder. In the case of members of 
the first group this button is quite plain, but in the 
group now under consideration it is ringed — being a 
circle within a circle, as it were. True, it is not much 
to go by as a distinguishing mark, particularly as it is 
found in other busts of a rather later period, but it is 
worthy of notice, and is so far an aid to classification. 
At the back of the second member of group No. iv. 
there are two peculiar cross-bars. 

Oroup No. V. (with the exception of the bronzed 
bust in the centre) consists of specimens bearing the 

well-known pottery mark of which an illustration is 
given on next page. 

It will be noticed that one bears the date 
"1824," and that here again the crossed drapery is 
in evidence. This is in Group ix. 

Individual interest attaches to some of the busts 
illustrated in this article. A black copy from the 
same mould as the famous " City Road Bust '' — 
so called because kept at the head centre of the 
Wesleyan denomination in London — may be in- 
stanced. It bears the inscription : — 

The Rev. John Wesley, M.A. 

Aged 81. 

Enoch Wood, Sculp. 


Mention has already been made of the bust which 
Enoch Wood made and gave to his son. Another (the 
bronzed specimen in Group v.) belonged to Dr. Adam 
Clarke, the noted commentator. It is in bronzed 


The Connoisseur 

pottery, and is labelled " Late the property of I )r. Adam 
Clarke." In Mr. Uotteley's collection it stands side by 

side with a bust 
of Dr. Clarke 
himself, whose 
jirevious owner- 
ship is fully 
The bust on the 
extreme right 
of this group 
bears an al- 
most square 
tablet, with the 
inscription : — 
The . Reverend . John Wesley, M.A. 
. Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford, . 
And Founder of Methodism. . He sat 
for this bust . 'i'o . .Mr. Enoch \\'o()d, 
Sculptor, . llurslcm, . 1781, . and 
died in . 1791, . .'\ged . 88 . Years. . 
Is not this a brand plucked out of the fire ? 

Speaking roughly, the main distinguish- 
ing feature of this group is to be found in 
the style of the vestment, which will be 
seen to be different from that of the two 
previous groups. 

Of grou[) No. viii. it may be said that tlnr 
specimens afford proof of tiie enormous 
variety in Wesley busts in such minor 
matters as pedestal, colouring, and the 
like. The third from the left possesses 
interest as having been the work of 
other than ^^'ood, though the latter's like- 

n e s s had 
been laid 
under con- 
tribution. The inscrip- 
tion reads : — 

The Revd. lohn 
Wesley, . M.A., . 
Horn at Kpworth, . 
March 17, . 1703, . 
Aged 88 . Dale, . 

The busts in No. 
ix. group are put in 
as being interesting 
in the way of variety. 

No. xi. contains 
two samples of 
monstrosities. It is 

a question whether or not some of the Wesley busts in 
existence were intended as caricatures.'' 

Another interesting bust is one by Wedgwood, a 
picture of which is given. It is in black basalt, and 
is admirably executed, though it is probably of greater 
value as a work of art than as a portrait of Wesley. 
The comparison between this bust and those by 
Wood is interesting in many respects. There can be 
no doubt that the work of Wood is by far the more 
accurate as a likeness. The black Wedgwood bust is 
evidently the work of an artist who was more con- 
cerned about producing a beautiful piece of work 
than about the faithfulness of the portrait. In 
moulding and finish it is much superior to the 
basalt and ordinary busts referred to above, but as 


a representation of the founder of Methodism it is 

.\ bust by Copeland is also worthy of mention, in 
the production of which Wood's work was largely laid 
under contril)iition. The famous " Roubillac " bust 
does not fall under the present discussion of Stafford- 
shire ware only. 

More interesting and valuable is a rough cast, of 
which a photograph is given, from the " original 
mould," as it is stated (evidently one of ^\'ood's), now 
in the possession of Mr. George Hammersley, who 
found it not long ago among a lot of moulds which 
he had purchased at a sale. Head and bust are cast 

No. X. — Wedgwood's bust 


* Since the alwve was written it has Iwen discovered that the 
bust No. vi. is intended for Charles Wesley, brother of John. 


John ll'cslcy Busts 

m one piece in this case, and 
it is a fine piece of work. 
The cast was photographed 
in the rough, exactly as it 
came from the mould, not 
having been sponged or 
smoothed in any way. 

After Wood's day the 
accuracy in detail which 
marked his work was de- 
parted from, and all kinds 
of vagaries were indulged 
in by painters and deco- 
rators of the busts; the 
colour of the hair, the com- 
plexion, the vestments, 
made fearful and wonderful 
in their hues, etc., affording 
scope for the wildest imagi- 
nation. But with it all there 
is close adherence to \\'ood's 
excellent modelling, and the preservation ot the 
striking profile. 

For the sake of would-be collectors, a word of 
warning should be added to this altogether inadequate 
discussion. Many spurious " Old .Staffordshire " 
busts of Wesley are about — most of them wretchedly 
poor forgeries, and not likely to deceive any one 
versed in the subject. Fortunately the makers 
these execrably poor 
samples of pottery seem 
to have made such an 
inadequate study of the 
works which they have 
sought to copv that 
they have failed to pro- 
duce a colourable imita- 
tion. ]5ut the inexperi- 
enced buyer is advised 
to secure expert advice 
before parting with his 

It must he emphasised 
that only one class ol 
Wesley busts is dealt 
with in this article : and 
when the large and 
practicallv complete 
collection which has 
been placed at the wri- 
ter's disposal is spoken 
of it is in this connec- 
tion onl v. 1 1 would 
be an casv matter to 

no. .\11. — rough c.^ist from the original 
mocld" l.atelv discovered 




get together a heterogeneous 
accumulation of hundreds of 
\\'esley busts, etc. (with 
scarcely any duplicates 
among them), if one were 
content to gather in all sorts 
and sizes, in any kind of 
material and manufacture. 
This article deals with Staf- 
fordshire pottery only. 

In contemplating Enoch 
Wood's modelling of Wes- 
ley, especially, great weight 
must be attached to the 
opinions of the contem- 
poraries of the sculptor. 
Ward's " very correct bust," 
and Fletcher's "beautiful 
likeness," previously ciuoted, 
count for a great deal. In 
the 1843 edition of Ward's 
History of Stoke-oii-Trcnf it is stated, "Mr. \\'ood, 
who was originally brought up to his father's business 
of a modeller, executed in his early days many excel- 
lent subjects in the plastic art, consisting of dwarf 
statues, groujis, bas-reliefs, cameos and intaglios of 
terracotta, specimens of which are still to be met 
with, and are highly prized. A bust of the venerable 
Wesley, modelled from his person at Burslem in the 

year 1781, was acknow- 
ledged to be the most 
faithful likeness of that 
eminent person ever 
produced, and has been 
the jirototvpe of numer- 
ous cojiies subsequently 
promulgated." Such 
opinions on the part of 
those who were either 
con tem|)orary with 
Wesley and Wood, or 
i ri (lose touch with 
those who were, are of 
great assistance in 
forming an estimate 
of the accuracy of 
Wood's modelling. 
.Modern collectors in 
this department are 
much indebted to the 
man who was the father 
iif representations of 
John Wesley in Staf- 
fordshire pottery. 




riie Comioisscnr 

Patience Wright. Modeller in Wax. By C. H. Hart, Philadelphia 

Fashion is a wheel of time lliat, revolving 
slowly, comes back again to its starting-place, so that 
what often seems new is but " Monsieur Tonsoii 
come again." Thus it is with wax portraits that are 
holding the attention of the fashionable world of 
London to-day, modelled in high relief, in coloured 
wax, similar to those that were so much in favour 
in the eighteenth and early part of the nineteenth 
centuries, and were the subject of an interesting 
article in The Connoisseur for March, 1904, in 
which I was surprised not to find mention made of 
Patience Wright, who a century and a quarter ago 
was the most prominent and best-known wax modeller 
in the kingdom, especially as the profile of King 
George III. reproduced on page 136, of that article, 
from the original in the British Museum is, in my 
opinion, her 
work. She, too, 
was of enough 
importance to 
win admittance 
to \k\e. Dictionary 
of National Bio- 
grap/iy, where 
she is spoken of 
as " a woman of 
remarkable intel- 
1 i g e n c e and 
powers," whose 
"life-sized figures 
and busts of con- 
temporary nota- 
bilities and his- 
torical groups 
were superior to 
anything of the 
kind previou.sly 

What makes 
Patience Wright 
of conspicuous 
interest is the 
fact that she was 
a native product 
of the New 
World, and while 
she was t h c 
second born 
American artist 

that we know, she was the first American to give 
sculptural expression to the artistic sense.* 'I'hat 
this has a significance beyond the mere fact that it 
records, will be recognised by every one familiar with 
the developenient of the imitative arts : modelling in 
the round being to the untrained mind a much more 
obvious method of delineating an object than by lines 
on a flat surface, so that sculpture has always preceded 
painting, and thus the evolution of art in the \ew World 
has followed the course of its evolution in the Old. 

Patience Lovell was born in 1725, of Quaker 
parentage, in Bordentown, New Jersey, not far across 
the Delaware river from Philadelphia, where the 
oldest building now standing is the Lovell house, and 
died in London, March 25th, 1786.1 When twenty- 
three she married Joseph Wright, who a score of 

years later died, 
leaving her a 
widow with three 
children. She 
early showed a 
decided aptitude 
for modelling, 
using dough, 
putty, or any 
other pliable 
material she 
could find, and 
being left by her 
husband with 
scant means, 
made herself 
known by her 
small portraits in 
wax. Her first 
attempts must 
have been made 
before she had 
ever seen anv 



* James Clay- 
poole, " face paint- 
er," born in Phila- 
delphia, January 
22nd, 1720, is the 
first n a li V e ■ b o rn 
.\merican artist. lie 
was agrand-ncphew 
nl Cromwell's son- 
in-law, John Clay- 

t Political Maga- 
-ijie, March, 1786, 
p. 241. 

Patience JVrigJit 

works of art in modelling or otherwise, which make 
the accomplishment all the more remarkable, con- 
sidering her uncongenial Quaker atmosphere and 
environment. She soon acquired a reputation for 
these clever specimens of portraiture which extended 
far beyond her local geographical limits, and she 
sought a wider field for her abilities by removing to 
London in 1772, where she soon became the rage, 
not only for her plastic work, but also for her extra- 
ordinary personal qualities, which drew to her rooms 
all the social and political leaders of the day. 

Horace W'alpole, admittedly the leading connoisseur 
and art critic of his time, writes to the Countess of 
Ossory, under date of February nth, 1773* : — 

" A propos to puppets, there is a Mrs. \\'right 
arrived from America to make figures in wax of 
Lord Chatham, Lord Lyttleton, and Mrs. Macaulay. 
Lady Aylesbury literally spoke to a waxen figure of 
a housemaid in the room, for the artistess has brought 
over a group, and Mrs. Fitzroy's aunt is one of them." 

A frothy eulogist in The I^otidon Magazine, for 
December, 1775, in a "Sketch of the Character of 
Mrs. Wright," which accompanied the portrait here 
reproduced,! says: — 

" Mrs. Wright who has been reserved by the hand 
of nature to produce a new style of picturing superior 
to statuary and peculiar to herself and the honour 
of America, for her compositions, in likeness to the 
originals, surpass paint 
or any other method of 
delineation ; they live 
with such a perfect ani- 
mation, that we are more 
surprised than charmed, 
for we see art perfect as 

Then follows a de- 
.scription of the figure of 

* Tony bee's Letters of 
Horace Waif ok, Vol. VIII., 

P- 237- 

t This portrait can hardly 
lie the one of " Mrs. Wright 
modelling a heati in wax," 
which was exliibitctl by licr 
son, Joseph Wright, at the 
Royal Academy in 17S0, and 
concerning which Horace 
W'alpole wrote to Uev. Wil- 
liam Mason in May of 1780: 
" Von know, I suppose, that 
the Royal Academy al 
Somerset House is opened. 
Hy what lethargy 
of loyalty it happened I <lo 
not know, but there is 
also a picture of Mrs. 
Wright modelling the head 
of Charles I., and their 
Majesties contemplating it." 

Mrs. Macaulay, a reference to busts of the King 
and Queen, which are " most capital for elegance 
of execution and representation of the living," and 
proceeds : — 

" She has been particularly honoured with the 
notice of Lords Chatham and Temple, and many of 
the most illustrious characters of this country visit 
her repository to converse with the Promethean 

We learn from \\'alpole that to model a bust of 
the elder Pitt was one of the purposes of her visiting 
England, and from the liages of the contemporary 
magazine that she was particularly favoured by his 
notice. Therefore we can understand that she was 
afforded exceptional opportunities to model from life 
the head of the great Chatham, and it is one of the few 
known creations of her facile hand that has survived, 
for after his decease it was honoured with a place 
in Westminster Abbey, erected upon a figure draped 
with the robes he wore when he made his last speech 
in the House of Lords, and there it can be viewed 
to-day, perfectly preserved, within a glass case in the 
Lslip Chapel, next to the monument to General 
\Volfe, and opposite to the tomb of Edward the 
Confessor. Dean Stanley, in his Memorials of West- 
minster Abbey (4th edition, p. 347), says, "In con- 
sideration of the interest attaching to the great 
statesman," the fee for showing his effigy was raised 

from 3d. to 6d. He 
then quotes from the 
Guide Book of 1783 : — 
"The eagerness of 
connoisseurs and artists 
to see this figure, and 
the satisfaction it af 
fords, justly places it 
among the first of the 
kind ever seen in this 
or any other country." 

'I'hat it was far su- 
perior to the ordinary 
wax work of the show- 
room, and that the face 
was life-like in its ani- 
mation a n d character, 
I the reproduction fully 


.Among Mrs. Wright's 
early works in luigland 
was a bust of Thomas 
Penn, one of the pro- 
] prietors of Pennsylvania, 

ivhich his wife, Lady 
Juliana, daughter of the 

IS'Rl (HIT. 


The Connoisseur 

first Earl of Pomfret, prcscnlcd to tlic Asscnibly of 
that State in August of 1773, when it was jjlaccd in 
the hbrary, where a contemporary saw it, and de- 
scribes it as " a most beautiful bust." " With Doctor 
Franklin shej was on terms of familiar intercourse, 
both while he was in London and after taking up his 
residence in France ; and as she was kept fully ad- 
vised as to the momentous events transjjiring relative 
to the colonies, 
she c o m ni u n i - 
cated her infor- 
mation regularly 
to him. She was 
an ardent and 
avowed rebel, 
which caused her 
to break witli the 
King, whom she 
roundly rated ft)r 
permitting and 
keeping up the 
war. Before this 
she had been so 
friendly with him 
and thu (^)ueeii 
as, following her 
Quaker tenets, to 
call them by their 
Christian names, 
(ieorge and Char- 
lotte. Before 
Franklin left Lon- 
don in May of 
1775, she model- 
led the bas-relief 
of him here repro- 
duced, from the 
original that he 
gave to Mary 
Hewson and from 
which Wedgwood 
made one of his 

basaltic medallions of the same size 
she writes March 29th, 1777 f: — 

" I meet with the greatest politeness and civility 
from the people of England. ... 1 now believe 
that all my romantick education joynd with my 
father's, old Lovell's courage, can be serviceable yet 
further to bring on the glorious cause of civil and 
religious liberty. Five years ago I drempt a Dream 



To Franklin 

• Pennsylvania Maga-ine of His/ory and Biography, \'oI. 
Will., p. 418. 

t MSS. Franklin Correspondence in the .-Vmeiican Philo- 
sophical Society, Philadelpliia. 

concerning Doct. Franklin. I wrote down said 
Dream. Half has now been realised, and I am sure 
the rest will be fulfilled." 

Two years later, March 14th, 1779, she writes to 
him from Lysle House, Lesterford : — 

" I have moved from Pall Mall with the full 
purpose of mind to settle my affairs, and get ready 
for my return to America. I shall take France in 

my way, and call 
at Paris, where I 
hope to have the 
[)leasure of seeing 
my old American 
friend, a n d take 
off some of your 
cappitall Bust OS 
in wax, as I intend 
to make good use 
of my time while 
I stay at Paris. I 
shall be happy to 
m e e t with the 
s a m e encourage- 
ment as I have 
:in-t with in Eng- 
land at my first 
coming before the 
unfortunate war." 
FrankI i n ad- 
vised her not to 
come, saying : — 

"As to the ex- 
ercise of your art 
hrre, I am in 
doubt whether it 
would answer your 
expectation. Here 
are two or three 
who profess it, and 
make a show of 
WAX OWNED BY R. H. HARTE, ,M.D.. their works On the 
'*• ^•^•'^- Boulevard ; but it 

is not the taste for persons of Fashion to sit to these 
persons for their portraits ; and both house rent and 
living at Paris are very expensive." 

She delayed her visit to France a year, but the 
following summer crossed the Channel, where, among 
others, she met Elkanah Watson, whose portrait 
painted by ("qpley, w-ith an American flag in the 
background, is said to have been the first raising of 
the American flag in Great Britain alter peace had 
been declared. Watson in his reminiscences '■' gives 

* Men and Times of the Rez'nlulion, New York, 1S56, 
pp. 137-143- 


II 'riirht 

a very droll account of their first meeting on his 
arrival in Paris. He was giving orders to his servant 
from a balcony of the hotel, when he heard a powerful 
female voice crying out from an upper window, "Who 
are you ? An American I hope." " Yes, Madame ; 
and who are you ? " he answered. Immediately she 
came blustering downstairs 
with the familiarity of an 
old acquaintance, and soon 
they were on most excel- 
lent terms. He thus de- 
scribes her appearance : — 

" She was a tall and 
athletic figure, and walked 
with a firm .step as erect 
as an Indian. Her com- 
plexion was somewhat sal- 
low ; hercheekbones high; 
her face furrowed, and her 
olive eyes keen, piercing, 
and expressive. Her sharp 
glance was appalling; it 
had almost the wildness of 
a maniac's. The vigour and 
originality of her conversa- 
tion corresponded with her 
manners and appearance. 
She would utter language, 
in her incessant volubility, 
as if unconscious to whom 
directed, that put her 
hearers to the blush. She 
apparently possessed the 
utmost simplicity of heart 
and character. With a 
head of wax upon her lap, 
she would mould the most 
accurate likenesses by the 
mere force of a retentive 
recollection of the traits and 
lines of the countenance. 
She would form her likeness 
by manipulating the wax 
with her thumb and finger." 

Watson then tells of his engaging .Mr.-,. \\ right to 
model a bust for him of Doctor Franklin, which, 
when almost completed, she carried to Passy to 
compare with the original. On returning in the 
evening, carrying it wrapped in a napkin, she was 
stopped at the barrier to be searched for contraband 
goods. She resisted the attempt to examine her 
bundle, and as she could not speak or understand 
a word of French and the officers could neither 
speak nor understand English, no explanation could 




take place. The bundle was opened, and, to the 
astonishment of the officers, exhibited what appeared 
to them to be the head of a dead man. They be- 
lieved she was an escaped lunatic who had committed 
murder and was about concealing the head of her 
victim. They were ready to convey her to the police 
station, when Watson ap- 
peared upon the scene, and 
an explanation ensued that 
amused all concerned, ex- 
cepting Mrs. Wright, whose 
rage was at fever heat. This 
bust, which Watson says was 
an admirable likeness, was 
sent to America, where, 
years afterwards, it was 
unfortunately broken into 

There are in France some 
admirable whole-length 
figurines of Franklin seated 
at a table, upon which are 
electrical and other appa- 
ratus, which I believe to be 
the work of Patience Wright 
from their exquisite model- 
ling.animation, life-likeness, 
and general character, but 
up to the present time I 
have not been able to de- 
monstrate it. They have 
been attributed by the 
Hon. John Bigelow, one of 
Franklin's biographers, to 
lean Baptiste Nini, without 
the slightest proof, or show 
of reason, to sustain the at- 
tribution to the modeller of 
the well-known bas-relief 
medallions of Franklin, 
who is not known ever to 
have worked in the round. 
In my judgment they 
are essentially the work of 
a woman, in conception, execution, and detail, even 
to the natural hair fixed in the head : just the 
kind of work that would be a drawing card in an 
exhibition of wax-work, with the subject's familiar 
daily articles about him — and the hair points strongly 
in this direction, heralded forth as " Franklin's own 

Mrs. Adams, wife of the first American minister 
to the court of St. James, gives an amusing account 
of a visit she paid to '"the celebrated Mrs. Wright'" 


The Coiiiioissciir 

a few days after she arrived in London in the sumnKr 
of 1784, in which she says"' : — 

" There was an old clergyman sitting reading a 
paper in the middle of the room, and although I 
went prepared to see strong representations of real 
life, I was effectually deceived in this figure for ten 
minutes, and was finally told it was only wax." 

But perhaps the most generally interesting of all 
the works of Patience Wright is her profile of General 
Washington, notwithstanding it has not the value and 
significance of a life-portrait ; it does show, however, 
the mental strength of the artist who was capable of 
making so fine a work as this profile from a bust 
modelled by another, into which she could infuse her 
own conception of the character of her subject, so as 
to greatly improve upon her model. She wrote to 
Washington ! from London, December 8th, 1783: 

" My Friends write to me from America that 
' Joseph Wright (my son) has painted a likeness and 
also modelled a clay bust of General Washington 
which will be a very great honor to my family.' I 
most heartily thank my God 
for sparing my life to see 
this happy day. 
Vou may have my most 
grateful thanks tor your 
kind attention to my son 
in taking him into your 
Family to encourage his 
genii and giving him the 
pleasing oportunity of tak- 
ing a Likeness that has I 
sincerely hope gave his 
country and your friends. 
Sir, satisfaction. I am im- 
patient to have a copy of 
what he has done that I 
may have the honor of mak- 
ing a model from it in wax 
work, as it has been (or 
some lime the wish and 
desire of my heart to 
model a likeness of General 

* Letters of Mn. Adams, wifi 
of John Adams, Koston, 1S40, 
p 228. 

t MSS. Correspondence of 
Washington in Libr.ary of Con- 
gress, Washington, 1). C. 




Washington's answer to this letter is given from the 
original holograph, preserved among the manuscripts 
in the British Museum : 

"Mount Ple.vsa.n t, yrt^n'. 30///, 1785. 
", — By what means it came to pass, I shall 
not undertake to devise, but the fact is that your letter 
of the 8th of December, 1783, never got to my hands 
until the i2ih of the same month in the year following. 
This will account for my not having acknowledged 
the receipt of it sooner, and for not thanking you, as 
1 now do, before, for the many flattering expressions 
contained in it. If the bust which your son has 
modelled of me should reach your hands and afford 
your celebrated genii any employment that can amuse 
Mrs. \\right, it must be an honor done me, and if 
your inclination to return 10 this country should over- 
come other considerations you will, no doubt, meet 
a welcome reception from your numerous friends, 
among whom I should be proud to see a person 
so universally celebrated and on whom nature has 
bestowed such rarest un- 
common gifts. 

"I am, Madam, 
'■ yr. most obedt. and very 
" Hble. Servant, 
"Go. Washix(;tox." 

This unusually gracious 
letter from the unbending 
Washington is addressed to 
"Mrs. Wright in England," 
and was enclosed in a 
letter to her son, to be for- 
warded. The profile of 
\\'ashington is gj ins. high 
bv 6 ins. wide, modelled in 
high relief, in wax, which 
may originally have been 
white, but is now yellow, 
and brings this article to a 
fitting close.* 

* John Hoppner, the eminent 
portrait painter, married I'hrebe, 
the younge-it <laiighler of Mrs. 
Wright, of whom lie painted 
many charming portraits, while 
F.lizabelh, the elder, married an 
."American, lilienezer I'lati, and 
inherited some of her mothei's 
cleverness in wax modelling. 

An Historical Pair of Stirrups By Guy Francis Laking, 

M.V.O., F.S.A., Keeper of the King's Armoury 

In 1S96 great astonishment was tvinced 
when at the sale of the Earl of Warwick's collection 
of sixteenth-century works of art, a pair of stirrups 
realised the sum of fourteen hundred and ninety-one 
pounds — a really good record, coming as it did when 
the art market had hardly recovered from the Baring 
crisis of 1S91-2. 

The stirrups were purchased at the Warwick sale 
by Mr. Charles Davis, who almost immediately ceded 
them to Mr. George Sailing. They appear described 
in the catalogue as follows : — 

"■ A pair of stirrups of russet iron, inlaid with gold 
and silver. The treads of the stirrups (3I in. long 
by 1 1 in. wide) are pierced with twenty-two circular 
holes, these being brought into the entwined tracery 
that ornaments the centres. Around ,ire borders of 
flowing vine foliage in gold and silver azzimine. Of 
the two pieces projecting below the tread, the front 
is raised one tenth of an inch, and on the left-hand 
stirrup is applied with a grotesque mark in chased 
silver and two silver rosettes. The bands of the stirrup 
form segments of circles, and terminate at the top, 
in front, in a trefoil-shaped ornament, enriched with 
an animal's skull in silver applique. Behind this is 
an oblong rectangular buckle i ,'„ in. long by Jo '■''• 
broad. The whole stirru[), both inside and out, being 
finely inlaid with gold and silver acanthus, and other 
conventional foliage and masks. On the back of 
the ornament at the top of the stirru[) is the letter 
" F," and above the monogram A. C, denoting the 
name of the maker — -Ambrosio Caradosso Foppa." 

The writer of this article was responsible for their 
catalogue description, also for their attribution to 
the hand of Caradosso, as it was known that artist 
had occasionally diverged from his usual medium 
of gold, silver, bronze, and the like to work in the 
more stubborn material of iron. It is also recorded 
that he had on occasions produced weapons and 

armour, though his works in that direction, if in 
existence to-day, pass unrecognised. 

Upon the Warwick stirrups, as described in the 
sale catalogue, are the initials that fitted most con- 
veniently with the name of Ambrosio Foppa, called 
Caradosso, A. C. — F. It also appeared that the 
armourer's work was more akin to that of the gold- 
smith, as appliques of silver and bronze gilt were 
[)lentilully used in their general decoration. 'I'he 
extreme simplicity of their outline, and ultra-classic 
iorm of their enrichment, made them universally 

Beyond the fact that the stirrups had been in 
\Varwick Castle for some generations, their past history 
and original ownership were unknown, or at least 

The stirrups have been exhibited at the Mctoria 
and Albert Museum, with Mr. Salting's loan col- 
lection, almost from the day he purch.ased them, 
though their attribution to Caradosso has not (as 
now proves correct) been widely accepted. 
♦ * * * 

For the first time on June 28th, at the private view 
of the Toison d'Or Exhibition, now being held at 
Bruges, the writer had the privilege of seeing many of 
the fine suits of armour lent from the world-famed 
Royal Armoury of Madrid by His Majesty of Spain. 
Reviewing each suit carefully, the magnificent harness 
of Roman fashion made by Antonio Bartolomeo 
Campi of Pesaro for Charles V., and intended as a 
gift to the Duke Guidoboldo II. of Urbino, especially 
attracted his attention. Its splendid proportions, its 
correctness ol classic form, and moreover its elaborate 
decoration of gold, silver, and bronze gilt, elicited a 
closer criticism than the other war harnesses. Though 
never having seen the suit itself, the last-named 
ornamentation seemed strangely familiar. A mental 
review of all suits or separate armaments he had 

TJie Connoisseur 



seen, wilh the similar very characteristic decoration, 
was made, resulting in the impossibility to liken its 
details to any he was accjiiainted with. I'or that day, 
at least, mental comparison proved useless. On the 
following day, after the opening ceremony, the writer 
again carefully examined this particular harness, still 
haunted the while by the memory of having seen the 
like to its ornamentation elsewhere. Suddenly the 
knowledge of this familiarity became apparent — 
the damascened portions of the suit exactly corre- 
sponded with the Warwick stirrups, also duplicating 
the design of the vine leaves and curiously arranged 
foliage. Then came the convincing proof of their 
similarity. As before stated, the stirrups are signed in 

large Roman characters A. C. — 1''., whilst on the back- 
plate above the shoulder-blades, in exactly similar 
characters, is the suit signed B. C— F. 

The suit, beyond being signed with these initials, 
is inscribed around the base of the breastplate with 
the name of the maker and the date in full in the 
following manner : — 

" Bartholomels Ca.mi'i aurifex totius opekis 
autifex guod anno integro indigebat principis 
sui nvtvi ohtemper.\us r.eminato menbe perfecit. 


Therefore we have the absolute proof that the 
Warwick stirrups were made by the armourer Campi 
in the vear 1546, en sui/e, and for use with this 

A )i Hisfoyiciil Pair of Sfimips 

classically fashioned armour of the Duke of Urbino, 
the only difference in the two signatures being that 
Campi has signed the stirrups with the initial A of his 
first Christian name, Antonio, in place of the more 
usual B, of Bartolomeo, as seen on the suit. 

Antonio Bartolomeo Campi was during the first 
part of his successful career in the service of the 
Venetian republic, afterwards joining the entourage 
of the Duke Guidoboldo II., of Urbino. On 
the occasion of the Duke's marriage, he executed, 
together with his brother Giacomo, and assisted by 
his son Scipio, many splendid war harnesses — these 
had almost universal fame at the time of their manu- 
facture, but are now lost, or at least unrecorded. The 
work of Campi to-day is alone represented by this 
one classic suit at Madrid. A few years before his 
death, circa 1577, he attached himself to the court 
of Henri II., there carrying on his craft with great 
success. That this armourer's works, together with 
his brother's and son's, should to-day be alone repre- 
sented by this one harness, is astonishing ; but possibly 
his work does exist, but is unrecognised. On this 
theory the writer hopes on some future date to record 
a few important discoveries. 

It would be interesting to know at what period 
this pair of stirrups passed into the possession of the 
Warwick family, and when they were originally 
separated from the harness to which they belong. 
It may have been in 1839, when many separate small 
armaments, a few suits, and very many swords, rapiers, 
and daggers were stolen from the Royal storehouse by 
an unscrupulous custodian, and shipped to England 
for sale. To this incident the writer has referred 
in greater detail in other articles dealing with the 
Spanish armoury ; but it is not out of place here 
to recall the theft. 

The armour and arms stolen in 1S3S were sent 
in the January of the following year by a firm of 
.Spanish solicitors to London for sale by auction. The 
sale was held by Messrs. Christie on January 23rd 
and following day. It was described in the sale 
catalogue as "a very important assemblage of ancient 
armour and arms recently received from Spain." But 
so little did the public then appreciate or understand 

the art of the armourer, the two days' sale of over 
270 items realised but the absurdly small sum of 
^983. Vet in that sale were some of the choicest 
examples of armour of the first half of the sixteenth 
century, more especially of the Colman and Wolf 
Landshut schools : for it must be remembered that 
the various objects sent were nothing less than many 
of the extra pieces and pieces de exchange of the famous 
suits of the Emperor Charles V. and Philip II. It is 
certainly no exaggeration to say that to-day those two 
days' sale of armour and arms would at the present 
ratio of prices have realised not less than _j{^8o,ooo 
to ^100,000. Referring to the catalogue, in many 
cases it is almost impossible to recognise any objects 
described owing to the baldness of its descriptions, 
yet many an historical piece in some now famous 
private or public collection can be traced to this 
sale. Some of the pieces have even found their way 
back to the actual armoury from which they were 
stolen. To us it seems guileless, but the theft of this 
two days' sale of armour and arms from the royal 
storehouse (it was before the armoury was arranged 
for public exhibition by Don Martinez de Romero) 
was covered by a serious outbreak of fire — one, we 
fear, hardly accidental in its origin. 

On looking through the 1839 sale catalogue, many 
pairs of stirrups are recorded, but it is quite impossible 
to now say if any of them could have been those after- 
wards in the Warwick collection, as no description 
of them is given. 

It is now Mr. George Salting that is happy in the 
possession of the Warwick stirrups. Though formally 
the name of the maker was unrecognised and the 
title of the original owner was lost, they were ever 
splendid works of art, but their new historical associa- 
tion lends to them a greatly additional interest and 
enhanced sentimental value. 

The photograph of the Campi suit, taken on horse- 
back, is as the suit appeared some thirty-five years 
ago, before its careful restoration and new arrange- 
ment on foot was made by the late Count N'alencia 
de Don J uan. 

The plate of Mr. Salting's stirruj) is from a drawing 
made bv the writer at the time of the Warwick sale. 

I B^ _: -^ __ — — — j -fc - — ^^ — I : 


The Exhibition of the Golden Fleece at Bruges 
By Edward F. Strange 

The famous Order uf the Golden Fleece 
was founded at Bruges on the loth January, 1429, 
by Philip the Good, Uuke of Burgundy and Count 
of Flanders ; and the citizens of that ancient and 
beautiful town, though they, indeed, have never had 
much direct interest in an institution devised for the 
honour and glory of their feudal lords, have now 
thought it good to gather up into an exhibition all 
the available memorials of its ancient splendour. 
This act of beneficence — for so indeed it is — to 
students of the arts, and especially of the heraldry, 
of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was conceived, 
not improbably, with an eye to the indirect benefits 

thereby accruing to the business-like Brugeois, who 
are also just inaugurating a ship canal, which they 
expect to restore their former commercial greatness. 
But we may take the exhibition for what it is worth 
on its artistic merits, and it may be said at once 
that those merits are very considerable. 

There is little doubt that the most satisfactory 
exhibit, on the whole, is that of the armour. No 
exhibition of recent times has been able to offer to 
its visitors so splendid a series of complete suits 
as that lent to Bruges by the Emperor of Austria 
and the King of Spain — the Sovereigns of the two 
branches into which the Order of the (iolden Fleece 

\Pholo. Ceccll 


The Ex/iihifioii of flic Golden Fleece 

is now divided. Of these, 
perhaps, the first place must 
be given to the magnificent 
suit of armour, in the 
Roman style, made in 1546 
by B. Campi, of Milan, for 
Maximilian. 'I'his is a 
veritable triumph of the 
armourer's art, not only in 
its fine forging and the 
articulation — if the term 
may be allowed — of the 
jointed portions, but in the 
magnificence of its model- 
ling and other golden en- 
richments. It is fitted with 
a complete mask — a human 
face, bearded — a fashion to 
be found also in the armour 
of the Japanese : though in 
that under notice there are 
none of the grotesque quali- 
ties characteristic of the lat- 
ter."' Another beautiful suit 
was made for Philip le Beau 
when a boy, a n d is ex- 
quisitely proportioned, with 
curious wide - spreading 
skirts. It is lent by the 
Emperor of Austria. A 
point of some importance is 

♦ See Mr. G. F. 
article on page 25. 


[rhoio. Gccell- 


that all the armour was actu- 
ally made for Knights of the 
Order, and each suit bears, 
in one form or another, the 
collar and device of the 
(') olden Fleece. 

One might reasonably 
have expected this latter 
item to have furnished one 
of the strongest sections of 
the exhibition. Certain col- 
lars and jewels are indeed 
shown, zealously guarded by 
live halberdiers in the pic- 
turesque uniform of the 
eighteenth century; but, 
apart from their mere glitter 
of gold and gems, they are of 
small value, and altogether 
inferior workmanship. The 
most important relic of the 
Golden Fleece known to 
exist is a collar of Tvison 
ifOr, king-at-arms, in the 
Imperial Treasury at Vienna; 
but this has not been spared, 
unfortunately. On the other 
hand, an extremely fine piece 
of heraldry is the richly em- 
broidered tabard of a king- 
at-arms, gaining addi- 
tional interest from the com- 
[)arison now possible with a 

Charles V. CharUs V. 

Lent bv J /Anthony Lent by 
White, Esq. King Edward 

Charles I', 
Lent by the 
Earl 0/ Northbroolc 

[I'hoto. Cecell 



The Connoisseur 

precisely similar arti- 
cle, painted on canvas, 
which is said to be the 
original design for it, 
though another not 
unreasonable view is 
that the latter was only 
a temporary makeshift 
for the garment used 
on more important 
occasions. The room 
in which these things 
are shown contains 
also some choice 
pieces of armour leiii 
by King Edward \ 1 1 . 
and by Mr. (luy 
Laking, M.V'.O., and 
some interesting 
heraldic MSS. Its 
walls are hung w i t li 
a set of superb Flem- 
ish tapestries from the 
Prado, the original 
designs for which, 
by Jan Verm ay en, 
are at Vienna. These 



perfect preservation- 

represent the Siege of Tunis by Charles W, and 

wrought in such care- 
ful and curious detail 
as to give them a 
high value as his- 
torical documents, as 
well as on account 
of their decorative 
qualities. Another 
interesting piece of 
tapestry is the panel 
from the Musee du 
Cinquantenaire at 
Brussels, which was 
formerly at the church 
of Notre-Dame du 
Sablon. On the left, 
Beatrice is seen hand- 
ing to Maximilian the 
statue of the Virgin, 
which she has brought 
from Antwerp to 
Brussels. In the 
centre, Charles V., 
with the Castilian 
crown on his head, 
and his brother 
Ferdinand c^irry the miraculous image ; on the right 
are the figures of Margaret of Austria, her nephew 




Tlie Exhibition of tlie Golden Fleece 


{Photo. Gecell 

Ferdinand, and her three nieces, the daughters of 
Charles V., kneehng before the image. Adjoining 
the central hall is a small gallery in which the coins 
and medals are shown ; and this section is especially 
remarkable for the beauty and rare condition of the 
contributions of the British Committee. Mr. Max 
Rosenheim, who, we believe, especially undertook 
this part of the work, has been able to get together a 
series of medals which has excited the unstinted ap- 
probation of foreign critics. That of Philip the Fair, 
the Founder of the Order, lent by Mr. Rosenheim 
himself, is only one among many 
pieces which claim close study and 
attention. The foreign exhibits in 
this class include many notable ex- 
amples ; but also some of doubtful 
authenticity, and not a few repro- 
ductions. In this room is a very 
interesting lathe of carved and 
painted wood, with heraldic and 
grotesque decoration, and chiselled 
iron fittings. It is dated 1506, and 
was once the property of Maxi- 
milian I. ; the present owner being 
Count Wilczek. 

Naturally there is a fine array of 
portraits of .Sovereigns, in what has 
been named for the purposes of the 
exhibition, the "Kings' Room." 
Among the busts one would remark 
a striking bronze of Philip the Fair, 
lent by the Stuttgart Museum ; and 

the finely modelled portrait, in coloured plaster, with 
moveable cap, of Charles V., which M. Henri 
Hymans only just saved from the untimely fate to 
which certain ignorant persons had condemned it. 
Here, too, is the well-known portrait of Maximilian, 
by .Ambrogio de Predis, from the Vienna Gallery ; 
though those by Diirer, Lucas van Leyden, and 
Strigel are wanting : and we have also, among many 
other representations of Philip le Bon and Charles V., 
one of the best of each from the collections of our 
own King. 

A large number of portraits of Knights are interest- 
ing, as a rule, on that account and for the sake of the 
costume, rather than for their artistic qualities ; but 
particular interest attaches to the two representations 
of Johann van Wassenaer, the presence of one of 
which has enabled the other to be identified : as well 
as bv a picture of that Count of Egmont who made 
the scar which forms Van Wassenaer's most distin- 
guishing feature. The family of Croy, which furnished 
a continual succession of Knights to the Order, is re- 
presented bv no fewer than twenty-four panel portraits 
of individuals who received the honour, and the 
lower hall contains also some scores of heraldic 
achievements, painted on panel, which should have 
their value for the expert in heraldry. Their decorative 
effect, as a collection, is very considerable. 

The scope of the exhibition was, somewhat subtly, 
enlarged by a modest inclusion in its programme of 
the paintings of Netherlandish or Burgundian artists 
working under the patronage of the Chiefs of the 
Order. How far this may justify the admission of 
some of the paintings shown, it might be a little 



{I'iwto, Ui\cU 



The Connoisseur 

difficult to say ; but at all events it has been made 
the excuse for the exhibition of one work, which 
alone will draw many visitors to Bruges. This is the 
Annunciation, by the " Maitre de Klemalle," which 
for forty years was so jealously hidden by the late 
Comtesse de Merode, that her actual possession of it 
was not unreasonably doubted. It is now shown in 
public for the first time, and will at once take its 
place among the finest of the group of paintings now 
attributed to that dim and shadowy personality. It 
is a wonderful example of its school. The colours 
are pure and perfect, and the detail marvellously and 
simply expressed. The Virgin, in the central panel 

/ -*•! 



"THE annunciation' 


\Photo. Ctcell 

of the triptych, is robed in red — not blue, as is more 
usual — and reclines on a carved Gothic bench exactly 
similar to that in one of the best of the paintings 
shown in the exhibition of French Primitives. She 
is quaintly unconscious of the presence of the angel, 
vested in white with blue stole, as she reads from a 
book of devotions. On the table are an earthenware 
jug, painted with blue, with arabesque ornament and 
false lettering, and holding the lily ; and a brass 
candlestick with guttering candle. The window has 
two coats of arms, which should soon be identified. 
The right-hand panel has St. Joseph plying his trade 
of carpenter, in a little shop, opening by a falling 
shutter on a typically Flemish street. He is drilling 
holes in a piece of wood, and on his bench are some 
finished mouse-traps. In the left panel the donor — in 
secular costume — and his wife kneel within a garden, 
on the walls of which are goldfinches, and, in the 
background, a man walks, dressed in unusual costume, 
with a collar of what looks remarkably like point lace. 
The whole picture is wonderfully well preserved, and 
should add greatly to our knowledge of this mysterious 
master, most of whose work used to be attributed to 
the Van Eycks. A copy of the centre panel is at 
the Cassel Gallery. Of Jan van Eyck himself there 
is the exquisite Annunciation from the Hermitage 
Collection in St. f'etersburg. 

Space forbids detailed examination of other paint- 
ings shown, but mention must be made of three, all 
attributed, badly enough, to the Master of the Half- 
Figures. This may be good for that on the right, 


The Exhibifion of flic Golden Fleece 

but the others 
are certainly by 
different hands, 
and one of 
them has small 
claims to be 
ill an exhibi- 
tion of Flemish 
and Burgun- 
dian art. The 
Madonna and 
C h lid here 
appears to 
have more in 
common with 
the school of 
Gerard David 
than with the 
Master of the 
A large Christ 
giving the Bene- 
diction is put 
d own, so m e- 
what absurdly, 
to Van Eyck. 
It is an interest- 
ing work, but 
some other 
provenance will 
be easily found 
for it before 
the exhibition 
closes. Its 
frame is quite a 
fine specimen. 

With a few exceptions, the other pictures are unim- 
portant and, having nothing to do with the subject of 
the exhibition, might well have been spared. 


.•\t the time 
of writing no 
catalogue had 
been issued; 
but it was un- 
derstood that 
the preparation 
of this most 
necessary ad- 
junct to the 
success of the 
exhibition was 
in hand. The 
British Com- 
mittee had sup- 
plied the whole 
material for 
their share of 
this work before 
the opening; 
and no notice 
would be com- 
plete which did 
not recognise 
the value of 
the labours in 
this and other 
directions of 
its secretary, 
Mr. .M . 11. 
S p i e 1 m a n n . 
The President 
of the Organis- 
ing Committee, 
Baron Kervyn 
de Lettenhove, 
has worked 
splendidly, and to hi.s initiative and persistence the 
success of this very interesting collection must be 

yPhoto. Gecell 

PHILI1> 11. 






An English Artist in Morocco 

Just ten years ago, towards the middle of 
March, I found myself at Gibraltar. I had left 
England still looking wintry, grey, and cold, and 
had crossed the Bay in half a gale of wind : the 
Lascar sailors on the P. and O. liner looked like 
frozen beetles as we steamed down Channel into 
the storm, but seemed to revive and awake to life 
when the sunshine came to us in still weather off 
the Spanish coast, and a day later the great rock 

By Selwyn Brinton, M.A. 

fortress loomed out in the distance with the coast 
of Africa upon our right. 

One seemed to pass at one step out of winter into 
summer. In the gardens at Gibraltar white and red 
camellias were blooming. The wind blew soft upon 
our faces as we raced our ponies along the coast 
between Algeciras and Tarifa ; and the idea formed 
itself within my mind to visit the Moorish cities 
of Southern Spain, making my beginning with the 







An Eng/ish Artist in Morocco 

modern Moors themselves across that narrow strip 
of sea, beyond which I could just see faintly outlined 
the headland of Ceuta. 

My first impression was certainly not favourable. 
Never had I seen a more piratical-looking gang of 
ruffians than those who tilled the boats which 
swarmed around our little steamer as it came to 
anchor without the city of Tangier, which climbed 
up the hillside before us somewhat in the shape of 
an amphitheatre, but white, irregular, mysterious, 
with guarding walls and soaring minarets. All shades 
of complexion — from ebon-black through brick-red 
to dirtv white — and every variety of rags were 

Balearic porter dropped my luggage on its floor, 
I went to the window and threw wide open the 
closed shutters. 

It was the hour of sunset, after a brilliant day. 
The sky of pale tender rose was fading through saffron 
and green into dark blue, just where a star began to 
glimmer. Before me rose a vista of flat white roofs, 
tier after tier crowding one upon another, to where in 
the distance a graceful minaret soared up into the sky : 
and all these roofs were absolutely alive with figures ; 
women unveiled and robed in brilliant silks, children 
plaving and running around them, black slaves busied 
in service, pets of every kind — dogs, cats, monkeys. 



represented among these Moroccan boatmen, who in 
a trice were upon the deck, and, amid a babel of 
confusion, had laid violent hands upon our luggage. 

It was necessary then to land in boats, to enter this 
untouched city of Eastern magic through a gateway 
where two wonderful figures of bearded Moors sat 
(or squatted) mute, impassive, deigning a scarcely 
perceptible nod to the invading infidel, looking, in 
fact, more like viziers from the days of the good 
Caliph Haroun than what they actually were — Custom 
House ofhrials. Here from the narrow, unpaved, 
tortuous streets we suddenly found ourselves within a 
luxurious and well-ap[)ointed modern hotel. 'I'angier 
abounds in these strange contrasts, these abrupt 
transitions from the tenth century to the twentieth, 
from the unchanged East to our changing restless 
West, or Tice versa : for, in fact, at that moment, as a 
Spanish housemaid showed me to my room, and a 

])arrots — all visihlv enjoying that <ool, delicious hour 
of sunset. It was the whole interior of Moorish life 
which suddenly unfolded itself to me in a wonderful 
moving panorama of life and colour — a vision which 
scarcely the most i)rivileged iuiropean may hojie to 
behold, though Mr. Lavery has been able to depict 
something of it in the charming painting which is 
here re])roduce<l in colour. 

The impression which 1 received so vividly and 
unexpectedly then has never been effaced from my 
mind, though I was able to continue and develop 
it further as I came to exjilore the secrets of this 
fascinating city — its labyrinthian, tortuous streets, 
whence, through some dark uninviting portal, one 
might dive into a store of marvellous silks and leather 
work (the one surviving modern art industry) and 
gold embroidery — its S6ko, the great open market 
whither the tribesmen enter each morning, througii 


The Connoisseur 

the Bab-al-Sok, from the hills and country without, 
to sell their wares, their women squatting for the 
whole day, impassive and observant, with their faces 
closely veiled and their nether limbs very much the 
reverse : while to a group not far away the story-teller 
recounts some legend of marvel, which may date its 
origin from the " Thousand and One Nights," and 
may tell of Camaralzaman and the Lady Badoura, of 
Aziz and Azizah, and the Islands of Camphor and 
the Castle of Crystal, and near the outer gate a 
snake-charmer has gathered a watchful circle around 
his unattractive pets. 

Or one might visit on the other side of the city 

Barb steeds, which are so intelligent and quick- and, 
passing without the city gate, ride across the sands 
past where Mr. Harris — who, perhaps, knows as nuicli 
about the interior of this country as any living 
European — has made his home in what seemed to 
me rather a lonely spot ; or, skirting the city, pass 
to the beautiful suburbs on the other side, where 
are some of the best European residences. 

A guide or dragoman is in Tangier practically a 
necessity, and it is not too safe to venture far into 
the country after dark. Roads are yet unknown, 
and a camel track was our guide across the stretching 
l)lains inland, where that ricli red African soil renders 





the white palace of the Sultan, where at the end of 
a long, narrow hall, beneath a canopy of e.xquisite 
tracery, a seated .solemn figure was dispensing such 
justice as may be obtained in modern Morocco ; 
while in another part of this vast rambling citadel 
the unha[)py prisoners crowded to the bars of their 
cage like wild beasts, clamouring for food or for 
money to buy food from their gaolers. For in 
.Morocco it is (or was then) considered unnecessary 
to [)rovide a prisoner with regular rations. Any 
citizen may find himself in that horrible cage on 
some trumped-up accusation, and, unless he has 
friends to help from outside, may perish there of 
neglect and starvation ; and, indeed, the recollection 
of those eyes behind the bars — .staring, imploring, 
woltish, desperate — has never faded from my memory. 
It was pleasanter to mount our horses — those little 

its annual crop to the Arab tiller, though upturned 
with the rudest of ploughs. Plenty of sport is to 
be found with the red-legged partridge ; and riding 
out one evening with my guide, Absalom, we met a 
ijuaint procession of camels laden with the carcases 
of wild boars, the spoil of the great annual hunt. 

It is time now to turn to the special subject of 
this article, which is the visit of Mr. John Lavery to 
this country in the spring of last year (igo6), when 
he penetrated inland as far as Fez, and made the 
sketches and studies which illustrate this article. 
The party consisted, besides the well-known portrait 
painter, of Mr. W. Harris, to whom I have just 
alluded, and who has been for many years the Times 
correspondent in Morocco, and of Mr. R. B. Cunning- 
ham Graham, who gave some account of their 
adventures and experiences in a series of brilliantly 


All English .'lyfisf in Morocco 

written letters, published t 

in the Glasgow Herald 
last year. 

They had started from 
Tangier with a guard of 
thirteen men armed 
with rifles supplied 
them by Raisuli, who 
was at that time in full i 

enjoyment of his jiovver. • 

Mr. Graham relates that 
the successful chief 
then ruled right up to 
the gates of Tangier, 
and maintained a force 
of eighty to a hundred 
well-armed men, who 
were answerable for 
most of the misrule 
and disorder in the 
town, the guard of the 
Sultan's nominal 
governor being badly 
armed and disciplined, 
"about five hundred 
starveling, ragged, red- 
coated, bare-footed sol- 
diers, who sleep about 
the gates of the town." 
On this occasion our 
party, finding their guard 
— who were on foot, while they themselves were 
mounted— of little help and a considerable delay, 
gave a dollar to the chief of the thirteen, and told 
him to return home with his friends. 

But the day's journey was not to pass without 
incident and real danger. Mr. Lavery tells me that, 
as he was cantering forward over the brow of a slope, 
he came upon Mr. Harris, who was in front of the 
l)arty, surrounded by an angry band of hostile tribes- 
nten. " Nearly a hundred well-armed men were 
standing on the hill, who, as we rode along, luul 
opened up like a fan and quietly blocked the road. 
The horsemen .sat with their long guns held sticking 
up like si)ears. .Some lounged half-sideways on their 
horses' backs, their rifies in their hands. Footmen in 
knots sat on the ground holding spare horses, which 
neighed shrilly as we rode into their midst, while 
others stood in order in the ranks and ga/ed expec- 
tantly. Right in the middle of the band their leader 
sat upon his horse, tall, sinewy, and brown, with .a 
grey beard descending to his chest and mingling wiih 
his clothes. Men hurried up along the road behind, 
or galloped on the hills. Some hurried up on foot. 


carrying a flint-lock 
musket or a sword, rusty 
and scabbardless, and 
some came riding, two 
upon a horse, without 
a saddle, and a cord 
tied underneath his jaw- 
to serve them for a bit." 
The position looked 
ugly, but Mr. Lavery 
remembered the advice 
of his friend in front 
to never show any sign 
of turning back from 
natives, and, putting his 
horse at the gallo]), he 
was in a moment more 
beside Mr. Harris. .A 
long altercation was 
going forward, of which 
he could not under- 
stand a word, but which 
he subse(iuently learned 
to have been as follow.^. 
The tribe had been 
raided the very night 
preceding by a hostile 
tribe of Moors, their 
houses burnt, their 
cattle and some of their 

BY J. LAVERY . . ^. . 

women earned off, ar.d 
three of their men killed. They were staiting out 
" on the warpath," and, finding this band of infidels 
entering their country, demanded tribiue ; but Mr. 
Harris's long e.xperience of the natives did not fail 
him at this crisis, and he replied that, so far from 
paying them tribute, he had come to levy tribute 
on tlieui. 

A howl of derision and fury greeted this bold 
counter-move : but, nothing daunted, the diplomaiist 
went on to say that his heart had been touched by 
their late mishajis, and that he was disposed, not 
merely to forego his tribute on this occasion, but 
evvn to hel|) them — in this wav. To get at their 
tribal foes the shoit cut lay through a portion of 
Kaisuli's territory, but the hitter's men held the 
p.isses. Mr. Harris offered to use his personal in- 
fluence with Raisuli to annnge matters, and the 
conclave broke up with both the tribesmen and the 
ICnglish travellers (whom Mr. Cunningham Graham 
had now j,)ined) becoming excellent friends. 

Our ])arty were able to continue, unmolested, their 
journey towards l''ez, and one of my illustrations le- 
produces a sketch by Mr. Lavery of their liitle camp 


The Connoisseur 

outside Alcazar-el-Kebir. "The tents were pitched," 
wrote Mr. Cunningham Graham, "close to an orange 
garden, from which came puffs of scented air, malcing 
one think, after a hard day's ride, that he had entered 
a terrestrial paradise. Frogs croaked, a water-wheel 
kept up a drowsy singing as it turned, the recent rains 
had clad the country all in flowers, myriads of mari- 
golds, vetches — pink, white, and yellow — and bird- 
weed that turns its bells toward the sun, with butter- 
cups and hawkweed and rank-growing fennel with 
hard shrubby mignonette, starred and enamelled like 
the grass. No needlework the hand of woman ever 
wrought, no blue beflounced crewel from either 
China or Japan, could equal them. Even that master- 
piece of birds and llnwers, Piero di Cosimo's Death 

The people cry out for food — says Mr. Graham — and 
the Powers of Europe offer them — a police force ; 
and in a brilliant letter written from Fez itself, where, 
he says, Juvenal or Persius might have written his 
Satires, he shows us the Sultan filling his Palace with 
Circassian beauties, or the contents of the great 
European stores — " red hansom cabs upholstered in 
green silk, cooking stoves, lightning conductors, china, 
and dinner services for men who eat with their 
fingers from a pipkin, all thrown in a heap with 
broken looking-glasses and imitation Em|)ire furnituru 
— the whole mass left to rot undefended from the 
sun, or in a store-room that lets in the water like a 
shower-bath upon the costly pile," while the few sound 
men have been driven from office bv intrigue, and 



of Procris, faded befi)rc their beautv of design and 

" Knee-deep the horses stood in the lush grass, 
munching their corn. The green Hat ])lain sjjread 
out on every side but one, there a rocky hill set here 
and there shut up the view, but added interest. 
From every housetop storks sat and chattered in full 
parliament, (|uite as noisy, and perhaps as wise, as 
those who sit in Westminster and legislate on things 
as transitory as those which occupy a stork. I'rom 
the square mosi|ue towers came the call to prayer, 
calling upon the faithful to assemble and give praise 
to Him Who breathed upon the dust and called up 
man. Who put a bridle on the sea, ordained the 
seasons, and to ^Vhom mankind owes praise for life, 
for food, for raiment, and for death, whirh makes life 

The note of pessimism at the close of this beautiful 
description seems inspired by the horrible beggars, 
starving, diseased, and deformed — who broke in upon 
the spell of the quiet evening and invaded the camp. 

Higli Chamberlains and Ministers ol War fill their 
pockets from a starving countrv. 

But I must devote now my remaining sjjace to 
the illustrations here, whirh have been reproduced 
in every case from Mr. Lavery's original sketches. 
These represent successively the following scenes of 
his journey : — 

{ I ) Our cam/} outride Tetuan, with tents pitched 
and horses tethered. The larger oblong tent I take 
to have been the sleeping tent of the English party. 

(2) The Shko, Tetuaii. Like that of Tangier, this 
is a large open space within the walls. Fruit and 
garments are being sold here. We see a group of 
Moors in the middle distance, and behind rise the 
hills which are a background to this city. 

(3) Alc:iznr. Morocco. This is a brilliant bit of 
colour, showing a Moorish street with arcades. It 
is a grey day, but the picture is full of light. 

(4) A street in Arzila. The sunlight strikes above 
a delightful Moorish gateway and tower, which forms 
a patch of clear white against the sky. To be noted 


An English Artist in Morocco 

is the' perfect Moorish arch, on the left, beneath the 
green tiled roof. 

(5) Our camp on the 'way to Fez. It is sunrise 
or sunset, and a rosy radiance fills the sky. The 
Barb horses are tethered together ; between the great 
bell-shaped tents white-robed Moors are moving. 

(6) The city of Fez. This is a delicious little 
panel. It gives us a panoramic view looking across 
the city. The sky is grey. In the distance over a 
vista of white roofs rise the purple mountains. This 
panel suggests something of the fertility of this 
wonderful country, which is as rich in minerals as 
in its soil. 

Lastly, I am able to give my readers a reproduction 
in colour of Mr. Lavery's Interior of a Moorish 
Harem. According to the Koran, the Mussulman 
is allowed four wives, but the Sultan has the privilege 
of an increase on that number. The picture here 
is of exceptional interest, since most of the paintings 
of such subjects in the " salons " and other exhibitions 

are devised in the studio out of the artist's imagina- 
tion, whereas this interior was painted by our 
privileged artist on the spot from the scene before 
him ; though we may observe here that he is 
separated by a river from the ladies, who look very 
cool and peaceful, seated on cushions beneath their 
beautiful portico, while a fountain plashes at the 
side, and negro attendants are busied satisfying 
their wants. The frame itself of this picture was 
made in Morocco, and is a ver)' finished piece of 
Moorish art. 

In spite of the war between the .Sultan and 
Raisuli and the unsettled state of the country — which 
suffers from a weak and incompetent central authority, 
brigandage and tribal wars, and the shadow of an 
impending European occupation — Mr. Lavery has 
been unable this winter to resist the fascination of 
this land of the Moor, and at the moment I write 
these lines is busy there gathering yet further im- 
pressions of " An English Artist in Morocco." 




— '^r^ 




The Connoisseur 

The Tapestry at Burley=on=the=Hill 

By Pearl Finch 

In nearly every great house in England is 
to be found some tapestry, or hangings, as the old 
term has it. At Burley-on-the-Hill the collection is 
unusually large and excellent ; it comprises in all 
twenty-two pieces, filling seven rooms. The bulk of 
the collection was formed by Daniel Finch, second 
Earl of Nottingham, and later Earl of Winchelsea, 
the builder of Burleyon-the-Hill. The rooms of 
the house (which is of the date of \\'illiam III.) are 
particularly adapted to tapestry, for they are large and 
of great height. To cover the walls was a necessity, 
and Lord Nottingham, who was probably an admirer 
of tapestry, wisely bethought him of this style of 
decoration for his newly-built house. 

Much discussion has arisen as to where these 
tapestries were woven. The pieces made for the 
house are unmarked, and it does not appear from 
e.xamination of the panels that the mark has been cut 
off, as is often the case ; rather it would seem they 
never were 
marked. This 
is a decided 
misfortune, for 
without the 
mark it is 
almost impos- 
sible to state 
with accuracy 
the place re- 
sponsible for 
their manufac- 
ture. In a cata- 
logue dated 
1 805, it is stated 
they were made 
at Brussels. 
They can 
hardly be Mort- 
lake work, for 
the factory is 
said not to have 
survived the 
Revolution of 
1688, and the 
bills and corre- 
spondence for 
the tapestry 
date from 
1700 to 1708 ; 
secondly, they 
appear superior liandir wooinc 

both in colour and design to most Mortlake tapestry. 
From the correspondence and accounts concerning 
them, it would seem they were made in London by 
a man called Stephen Demay, who is termed " ye 
Tapestry maker." Demay also speaks of the men 
he employs, which looks as if he had a workshop 
for tapestry. It is possible that the name Demay 
is a corruption of the French Dumee, a name well 
known in connection with designers of tapestry. In 
that case Stephen Demay may have been a descen- 
dant of one of the tapestry weavers who emigrated 
in great numbers to England on the promulgation 
of the Edict of Nantes. It has also been asserted 
that the name Demay is Dutch. At present, though 
researches have been made, no new light has been 
thrown upon the matter. 

The tapestries made for Burley-on-the-Hill, by 
Lord Nottingham's orders, were the following: four 
pieces of " The History of Hero and Leander," namely, 

(i) " Leander 
bidding farewell 
to his parents 
before setting 
sail for Sestus "; 

(2) " Leander 
telling Hero of 
his love for her"; 

(3) " Leander 
swimming the 
Hellespont to 
see Hero"; 

(4) " Leander 
lying dead upon 
the shore, and 
Hero kneeling 
weeping beside 
him." The 
figures are life 
size, the draw- 
ing and colour- 
i ng good, 
though not so 
brilliant as the 
rest of the 
tapestry in the 
house. It has 
probably been 
exposed to the 
sun at some 
time. This 
series has 


The Tapestry at Bur ley-on-t he-Hill 


been recently restored in a most satisfactory manner. 
The story of Hero and Leander is so well known 
that it need not here be retold. 

At the top and bottom of the panels are borders of 
festoons of fruit, the top border having in the centre 
the Nottingham Arms. The side borders are com- 
posed of a small medallion of the subject of the panel, 
bows and arrows, mermaids, and musical instruments, 
doubtless intended to be symbolical of the story. 

In the original MSS. at Burley-on-the-Hill are the 
following particulars (sic): "The Great Sweemer, 
9 ft. 9 in. : The Temple, a great piece reduced con- 
veniently to the dimensions, 9 ft. 9 in. : Hero and 
Leander, both dead, 15 ft. 10 in. : Father, Son, and 
Ship, 15 ft. 10 in. ; The Depth — the first peece to 
have both borders — the second only ye right hand 
border, the third only ye left hand border, the fourth 
to have both borders.' With the directions is given 
a small pen and ink sketch. (Memorandum in Lord 
Nottingham's writing, dated 1704.) 

Again, 1708: "The peece of the Ship contaigning 
twenty-two ells, a quarter & half a quarter, the peece 
of the Sweemer, twenty-one ells, three-quarters & a 
half. The peece of the Dead contaigning thirty-five ells. 
The Ship, 35. The Temple, 2 2i. The Sweemer, 21 J. 
The Dead, 35. Total, 114!. The goeing, ;^o 1/ 06. 

The Canvas, p{^ I 08 00. Total, ;^2 05 06. For box 
iS: Carriche backward iv: forward, ^^o 09 00. Total 
^2 14 06." And from accounts :" Paid Mr. Demay 
ye Tapestry Maker more on account of ye Leandre 
Hangings, ^50 " ; and later, " Paid Mr. Demay in 
full for the Hero & Leandre, ^30." 

From the first entry, " more on account," it would 
seem that a sum had been recently paid. Many 
entries occur, but it is not always stated to which 
piece they refer, such as " Mr. Demay ye Tapestry 
maker on account, ;^ioo.'' It is possible this series 
cost from three to four hundred pounds. A series of 
the same is in the possession of Lord Newton, at 

Besides the Hero and Leander tapestry, Lord 
Nottingham had eight pieces after the Raphael 
cartoons, and one extra panel made for his "Great 
House," as the old letters term it. The colouring 
and design of this series is exceptionally fine, and 
they have magnificent borders. They are precisely 
the same as the cartoons in the South Kensington 
Museum, but reversed, as they are in the tapestry at 
the Vatican. The e.xtra panel, which is not from the 
cartoons, is of the following subject, namely, .Sapphira 
struck down dead. She lies prone at the foot of 
some steps, several people stand round horror-struck 


The Connoisseur 

at the sight, one man counts out the portion of the 
money which was kept back ; the apostles stand at 
the top of the steps, St. Peter in the centre ; in the 
distance the body of Ananias is being carried away. 
It would be of interest to know if there is another piece 
of this subject anywhere. The panel repre.senting the 
charge to Peter is also somewhat different, in that in 
the cartoon it is all one piece, whilst in the ta])estry 
.at Burley the figure of the "Good Shepherd'' is given 
alone, and it is certainly very impressive given thus. 
There is a complete set of tapestry after the cartoons 
at the Vatican. By the order of Pope Pius X. 
Raphael designed a set of ten cartoons to be copied 
into tapestry, representative of the Acts of the 
Apostles and the founding of Christ's Kingdom 
upon earth. The weaving of the tapestry was en- 
trusted to Peter van Aelet at Brussels in 1515. 
They are said to have been woven in four years, 
and to have cost fifteen thousand gold ducats. The 
cartoons remained in lirussels till 1620, when they 
were [jurchascd by King Charles I. Three of them 
were lost, and the remaining seven are still in England. 
They are the following subjects : "St. Paul Preaching 
at Athens," "St. Paul at Lystra," "The Death of 
Ananias," "At the Beautiful Gate of the Temple," 
"The Charge to Peter," "The Miraculous Draught 
of Fishes," and " Elymas Smitten with Blindness." 
Those missing are : "The Stoning of Stephen," "The 
Massacre of the Innocents," and "The Conversion of 
St. Paul." As the cartoons are so well known, it is 
unnecessary to describe the tapestry taken from them. 
They were e.xtensively reproduced at Mortlake, and 
probably at smaller factories, which accounts for numer- 
ous tapestries of this subject to be found in England. 

Workshops for tapestry existed at various times in 
Norwich, Sandwich, Colchester, Maidstone, Mortlake, 
Soho, Fulham, Exeter, and Stamford ; and in the 
eighteenth century they were very numerous, so it is 
quite possible to draw the conclusion that the tapestry 
at Burley is of English make. In support of this 
theory see the original MSS. 

"The number of feet and inches in ye nine pieces : 
Paul preaching is in compass, 10 ft. 10 in.; The 
fishing piece is in compass, 15 ft. 11 in. ; the Sacir- 
fice is in comi)ass, 18 ft. 15 in. ; Elymas the Blind is 
in compass, 15 ft. 11 in. : the piece of the sheep is in 
compass, 10 ft. 2 in. ; the piece of our Saviour is in 
compass, 5 ft. 4 in. : the Temple is in compass, 20 ft. 
10 in. ; Saphira is in compass, 20 ft. 6 in.; Annias is 
in compass, 25 ft. 6 in. 

" Ihe number of feet in ye nine pieces amounts 
to 142 ft. 7 ins." And again in Lord Nottingham's 
writing — " Measure from St. Paul's sleeve and ye 
head inclusively . . . and from ye hinder parts 

of St. Paul's garments to ye end, but leave out ye 
first breadth next to St. Paul, and note that ye border 
is to be on ye left hand as you look upon ye tapestry 
when hung up. And let ye Coat of Arms be in 
ye middle of ye piece, viz., ye part of it which would 
be ye middle if ye other border were added. And 
the foot of ye green man carrying Saphira and the 
black man must be made whole . . ." 

Unsigned letter from Lord Nottingham to Demay : 

" August 2 2,rd, 1700. 

"These three pieces following must be enlarged 
in which care must be taken first that the Coat of 
Arms in ye upper border and ye blank space in ye 
bottom border be placed in ye middle of each piece 
when enlarged to ye following dimensions, herein- 
after directed, and in this case either add all yt is 
wanting to make up, the dimensions to one side of 
ye piece of hangings, or part of one side and ye 
rest on ye other, according as you find best, taking 
ye border part of ye cartoon, which is not yet in 
ye hangings to ye dimensions required, choose out 
of ye other cartoons such figures as will best quit 
with ye piece which is to be enlarged, and to the 
piece of the Sacrifice sow on a piece of girt web 
one half loose hanging to ye middle in ye corner of 
ye room at ye distance from ye left hand." 

Two letters from I )emay to Lord Nottingham : — 

" My Lord, — According to your Lordship's order 
I went on Thursday last to ye Inn to fetch ye Hang- 
ings for fear they should receive any damage by ye 
weate, but the carrier did not come till Saturday. 
I went again this Saturday and had them brought 
home. I found they were damaged, and put them 
upon the looms, and had them thoroughly dry. They 
are now very well come to themselves. If your 
Lordship would be pleased to send me the dimensions 
of ' The Months ' (no longer at Burley) for I have 
several men that play for want of work, which is a 
charge to me. 

" My Lord, your Lordship's most humble servant, 
London, 5c//<'w/'cr, 1701. "Stethen De.m.w." 

" My Lord, — I make bold to acquaint your Lord- 
ship that ye cartoons are done according to your 
Lordship's dimensions. If his Lordship would be 
pleased to send me how I must start them down, 
and shall follow your Lordship's order accordingly. 
I have got ye scratches of ye fine French roles, and 
if your Ldsp. will be pleased to have them sent 
down with ye hangings it shall be done. The piece 
of ye Blind, three additions to four ells and half a 
quarter, the adition of Paul preaching comes to 
eleven ells a quarter and half a quarter, the adition 
of ye piece of sacirfice comes to thirteen ells and 



l'^ ," 




1 i: /,i, 'i-je.?- ■• 

1- ■ 

>> < 

;^^^;^]E[| j[i : ' ' g/J 


■' it 1 


1 < 


^ w^l 








The Connoisseur 



three-quarters, in all twenty-nine ells one quarter, at 
two pounds per ell comes to fifty-eight pounds ten 
shillings for fourteen days of three men's labour, or 
joining them at two shillings a day per man four 
pounds, wch in all conies to sixty-two pounds 
fourteen which with ye fore bill, comes to jQi,z 14s., 
wch I beg ye favour of your Lordship to be so 
kind as to send it to me, I being in soe great want 
of it that I am forced to send mans away for want 
of money, therefore I hope your Lordship will have 
pitty upon me. ... I am with great respect to 
your Lordship. 

" \"our most humble and most obedient servant to 
command, "Steeven Dem.w." 

Extracts from Accounts: "Paid Mr. Demay in full 
for nine pieces of Apostle Hangings, ^^700 ; paid 
Mr. Demay for twenty-nine ells added to the Apostle 
Hangings in full of all demands, ^58. Total, £ti?>." 

The remaining nine panels of the collection leave 
no doubt as to their identity. Each piece has the 
Brussels mark, two B's and a shield, and six pieces 
have the maker's name, "Johanus de Vos." The 
De Vos were famous tapestry makers in the seven- 
teenth century. 

These tapestries are a series known as " Les 
Tennieres." The colouring is quiet and restful, the 
figures and details small— a pleasing contrast to the 
colossal figures of the Apostle series. 

They are the following subjects: (i) "A Pastoral 
Scene," a shepherd, several women, some cows, sheep, 
pigs, a house, and distant scene. {2) "The Bowl 
Players," from the picture of the .same name. A 
group of men stand in the foreground, one is in the 
act of throwing the ball : the interior of an Inn is 
seen near. (3) A piece which has been cut and 
joined with two odd pieces, representing a woman 
dancing in a very clumsy manner to a pipe which 
a man is seated playing. (4) " A Winter Scene," 
from the picture of the same name. Men arc .skating 
on a pond, a pig is about to be killed, various 
persons are standing about, to the right are two 
houses. (5) "The Palmist." A man with a little 
boy holding his hand having his fortune told by 
a man in a flat hat. (6) "The Musicians." Two 
men playing, the one on a pipe, the other on a drum, 
outside a house, several women stand listening to 
the music. (7) A group of beggars. A man, woman, 
and children seated by the wayside. (8) " The Sports- 
man's Return." Two men are seated at a table 


The Tapestry at Bttrlcy-oii-thc-Hill 

drinking out of long glasses, near is a gun, and on 
the floor two pheasants and a hare ; in the distance 
two women are standing. (9) "The Fish Market," 
from the picture of the same name. A boat is ap- 
proaching, two men are bargaining on the quay, a 
man is emptying a basket of fish, and near by a 
fishwife is selling fish from a stall with a pink awning. 
Each panel has a border representing a frame, and 
six pieces have a coat of arms and coronet. The 
arms are foreign. It is probable that William Finch, 
second son of Lord Nottingham, purchased these 
tapestries when he went to the Hague as Envoy 
Extraordinary in 1726. They formerly hung in his 
house in Savile Row until his death, when they were 
sold with the rest of his goods. In the catalogue 
dated 1767 occur these two entries: ''Five large 
pieces of curious tapestry hangings, with landscapes 
and figures from the designs of Teniers, £^^ 8s. ; 
four large pieces of curious Brussels tapestry, finely 
executed from the designs of D. Teniers, j[^\^ 19s." 
This tapestry was bought in by his wife. Lady 
Charlotte, for Henrietta Finch, the daughter, writes 
in her diary, " The sale of goods was over that day. 
It is a torment to think how ill some of the goods 
went. The fine tapestry in the bed chamber was 
going for forty shillings. Mr. Barton bid it up to 

^4, and got it. Mamma finding the tapestry went 
so ill bought in that that used to be in the room 
herself. The sale took place at ' Mr. Longford's, 
in the Great Piazza, Covent Gardens,' " doubtless the 
" Christie " of the day. 

Lady Charlotte probably either gave, or left, this 
tapestry to her .son, the ninth Lord Winchelsea for 
Burley. The time when " Les Tennieres " were 
manufactured does not seem to have been the best 
period of Brussels work. In reference to this we 
read, " Since the formation of the gobelins, Brussels 
has adopted a sober brown style for the flesh colours, 
and has frequently employed bad dyes." And again 
Charles Blanc says, "My companion and I were 
shocked on visiting the Escurial at the Flemish hang- 
ings exhibited in the apartments of the Queen and the 
Infantas. The peasant scenes of Teniers, the point 
of which lies in the touch so exquisitely delicate of 
the artist who painted them in miniature, appear 
revoltingly vulgar when reproduced on a large scale 
in tapestry." These sentiments are perhaps rather 
sweeping, for the tapestries are pleasant to the eye, 
and certainly more decorative than the colossal figures 
of the Raphael cartoons ; still they cannot, of course, 
compare with the beautiful work of Gobelins or 






The Corporation of the moorland town of Oke- 
hampton. on the northern borders of Dartmoor, 
owns some interesting plate, of which 


Maces and 

T n cup, photo- 

Loving-Cup ^"F' F" ^ 

graphed by 
their courteous permission. 
The silver maces, which are 
3 ft. I in. long, and bear 
hall-marks of i76r/62, were 
presented by John, fourth 
Duke of Bedford, and bear 
his arms, together with the 
Royal Arms of George III. 
and the arms of the 
Borough. The massive 
loving-cup, with its simple 
but effective decoration ot 
the base and cover, is dated 
1672/73, and has the initials 
T.K., and a shield with 
three crescents incised. 

Another recent acquisi- 
tion by the Italian Govern- 

, _. , ment, which 

A Picture by . 

Piero di '« of ^'"g"''^"' 

Cosimo at importance, 

the National esjiecially for 
Gallery in this gallery, 

^"""^ which is not 

particularly rich in valuable 
works of the 15th and early 
1 6th centuries, is the Ma;:;- 
dakn by Piero di Cosimo, 
from the collection of 
Senator Baron Baracco. 

we reproduce two maces and a loving- 

Morelli was 
painting, which, 
at the Monte 
suitable name 

the first to attribute to Piero this 
when it was bought by Baron Baracco 
di Pieta * in Rome, bore the un- 
of Mantegna; and the attribution to 
Piero was well received by 
the critics and accepted, 
first by \'enturi. who pub- 
lished the ])icture in his 
Tesori d'arie inediti a Roma, 
and then by Fritz Knapp 
(Pitro di Cosimo, Halle, 

i899> P- 59)- 

The Saint is represented 
before a window, with an 
oi)en book on the window- 
sill ; but, with her eyes 
rather veiled in a shadow 
of sadness than intent upon 
the reading, she seems to 
follow a vision which illu- 
mines her face with a ray 
o f g 1 a d n e s s and super- 
human sweetness. \"enturi 
observed that probably this 
beautiful figure is a portrait 
of a Florentine lady repre- 
sented as Magdalen — nor 
would this be the first case 
of a gentlewoman having 
herself painted in the cha- 
racter of the saint of whom 
she bore the name. It 
would be easy to enumer- 
ate several instances. But 
even if we do not accept 
the theorv that the sitter 


* Public fKWvnbrokiiii; oflicc. 


The Co)uioisseiir 


wished to lie represented as Magdalen, is it not more 
likely that, the lady having changed her mind and 
refused to accept the picture, either because it did 
not please her or because the price was too high, the 
painter altered it into a Magdalen to make it more 
saleable? At any rate, this hy[)othesis would account 
for the vase in the corner being subsequently added, 
as was also apparently the inscribed piece of ])aper 
which occupies its place to fill the void between the 
hand and the vase. 

The picture belongs imdoubtedly to the first years 
of the sixteenth century. Morelli would see in it the 
influence of the art of Filippino Lippi, but we cannot 
discover any trace of it in this picture, whereas this 
influence does appear in other works by I'iero, as, for 
instance, in the admirable Death of Procris at the 
National Gallery in London. It seems to us, on the 
other hand, that it shows to a very marked degree 
the influence of Lionardo and of some of his followers, 
especially Marco d'Oggione, of whom we are reminded 
by the type of the face, by the form of the folds, and 
by the treatment of the hair — that influence of the 
Lionardes(iue school under which Piero worked for 
a considerable time, and which reached its climax in 
the Madonna with the putto and St. John of the 
Liechtenstein Gallery in \'ienna. It certainly is one 
of the master's finest works as regards subtlety of 
chiaroscuro and delicacy of touch, notably in the 
beautiful and superbly modelled hand. And if the 
artist is not ])articularly happy in the design of the 
folds, which repeat too much the same formula and 

have a hardness not proper to the material, this defect 
is atoned for by the splendid sense of colour which 
he reveals in the deep red tone of the cloak and in 
the brilliant yellow of the sleeve. 

The picture was ac(|uired by the State for the sum 
of ^io-°- 

Thk little church of Holne, on Dartmoor, in which 
Charles Kingsley was baptized on 19th June, 1819, 
relieves its sturdy moorland plainness 
by an admirable carved screen and 
pulpit. The former, though well 
|jreserved in essentials, has lost its vaulting and loft ; 
and the date of both pulpit (which we illustrate) 
and screen is probably fixed approximately by the 
painted shields in the pulpit-panels. These, though 
the victims of age and varnish, have been identified 
as bearing the arms of \arious jiatrons and others 
connected with the church : the clearest of the eight 
shields showing the arms of Hugh Oldham, Bishop 
of Exeter 1504 — 1519, viz.. Sable, a chevron or 
between three owls proper : on a chief of the second 
three roses gules. 

Carved Oak 



The exception- 
ally finely modelled 

D^"^=" figure 
rigure " 

here re- 
produced is the 
property of M. J. 
A. Oltramare, At- 
tache to the Swiss 
Legation in Great 
Britain. It dates 
to about 1780, 

s t a n d ^ 



high, and repre- 
sents Minerva with 
a child. The dress 
is of pale lilac 
colour, with violet 
and gold flowers, 
and vellow lining. 

The most interesting of the Napoleonic relics are 
those which were associated with the intimate life 
of the great little man — his spy-glass, 
which for the first time we are able to 
show, with its dainty blue enamel case 
pique with gold : some of his table 
service used when campaigning; the 
carving knife and fork, with ivory handles, have the 
Napoleonic cypher engraved on the silver shield. 

Relics in 




which is surrounded with 
a wheat-ear design. The 
shaving dish is in silver gilt. 
Reminiscent also of his 
campaigns is the unique 
travelling equipment, where 
every article necessary for 
Napoleon's use is fitted 
into a splendid velvet-lined 
brass-bound box. Cases, 
pots, pans, strainers, kettles, 
hot-water jugs, funnels, even 
gimlet and teajjot, all are 
packed with neatness and 
precision in this Imperial 
hold-all. The articles are 
plain and solid, but of the 
finest workmanship ; the 
Royal arms are engraved 
on every piece, and some 
fine Empire design is to 
be found on most of the 
fittings. — E. T. 

The Connoisseur 

Lead Cistern 


This beautiful lead cistern was a fixture in the old 
Brew House of Send, Surrey. It is a rare specimen 
of such work and in an excellent state 
of preservation. Tlie female figure on 
the right bears a sheaf of wheat ; the one on the left 
holds a mirror towards her face. The 
same design is repeated on the sides 
of the tank. The date engraved 
is 1675. 

The Brew House, with a dairv, 
formed part of an old inn. Tlu- 
dairy is still in The photograph 
shows two niches on which were 
placed the pint mugs of customers. 
What remains of this old world 
hostelry is in the grounds of the 
Dower House, belonging to the 
Misses Onslow, of Send. 

Another old lead tank was di.s- 
covered recently in Somerset, and 
sup])Osed to date from the thirteenth 

The Elizabethan chalice and 
cover, although having no romantic 
history known to be 
Elizabethan attached, is interest- 
Chalice . , r ■ 

, „ mg by reason 01 its 

and Cover o ^ 

undoubted antiquUy, 

simplicity of design, and evidences 
of beaten workmanship easily dis- 
cernible even in the photo print. 
Authorities on church plate are 
of opinion that when the Royal 

injunction of 
\\ 1 i z a b e t h 
" decent com- 
munion cups," 
in many cases 
ornate mass 
cups were 
melted down. 
It would be 
interesting, i f 
possible, to 
settle whether 
this cup was 
originally a 
m a s s cup, 
sa\ed from the 
melting by its 
simplicity. It 
belongs to the 
Parish Church of (!hurchill, near Spetchley, \\'orcester- 
shire, which is but a short distance from Spetchley 
Court, formerly the country seat of the very old Roman 
Catholic family of the Berkeleys. The burial ground 
of Churchill contains the graves of some nuns. 

ei.izai'.i:tiian ceiaiick and lovkk 


Old Chest 
and Leathern 

The old chest and leathern buck- 
ets are from St. Swithin's Church, 
Worcester. Unfor- 
tunately the maker's 
name of the former is 
not preserved.nor the 
cost of it ; the present churchwarden, 
who has held office for sixteen 
years, says he has never come across 
any record of it. It, however, tells 
a very old story in its own peculiar 
way. The buckets are remains of 
the arrangements for fire extinction, 
whether for exclusive use of the 
church or generally for the city of a 
byegone day maybe questioned ; one 
of them bears the number 26, so that 
manv must at this day be missing. 


A Rare Lowes 
toft Teapot 


\\'hat is, and what is not, Lowestoft has 
pu/./led many collectors until the unearthing 

of the fragments and moulds 

on the site of the old factory a 

few years back settled a good 
many disputed points, and set local collectors 
to work to scour the East Anglian villages for 
specimens of undoubted ware, which can be 
verified from the new facts brought to light. 
The teapot illustrated is Lowestoft, de- 
corated in colours in imitation of Oriental 
style. The particular design was not at all 
exclusive to Lowestoft, as it is found in 
New Hall, and it is commonly and er- 
roneously described when of that ware as 
"cottage china," or sometimes as "cottage 
Worcester." Hut it is exceediiiglv rare to 


find this particular design in Lowes- 
toft china, and the owner has had 
exceptional opportunities of com- 
paring the paste and glaze with all 
the well known and authenticated 
pieces of Lowestoft. Blue and white 
Lowestoft has come to be fairly 
well recognised by frequenters of the 
auction-room, and some big prices 
have been realised under the ham- 
mer for this ware, which not infre- 
quently has a strong family resem- 
blance to Worcester, and is notgreatly 
removed from Bow. But whether 
Lowestoft copied Worccsterand Bow, 
or copied the same models that the 
Worcester and Bow potters obtained 
from the East, is a point that will 
never be cleared up. 

LOU L>ioi 1 1 l.ArO] 



71ic Connoisseur 

Fkw better examples of the work of lliat great Dutch 
ijenre painter, Frans Mieris, could be fournl than the 
_ picture of A Man and a Woman which 

Frontispiece '^°''"" "^^ frontispiece to the present 
number. A pupil of Gerard Dou, who 
called him the prince of his scholars, his attention to 
detail almost equalled that of his master, whilst the 
ele),'ance of his poses and the arrangement of his figures 
are singularly happy. Cheerfulness, too, is a distinguish- 
ing feature of his work. In his pictures gloom is un- 
known, his whole aim being to pourtray good humour 
and happiness. 

Horn at Delft in 1635, he was apprenticed to the glass- 
painter Torenvliet in his early youth, leaving his studio 
to enter that of Gerard Dou. Later he studied historical 
painting under .Xbraham Tempel. He died at Leyden 
in 1681. 

E.xamples of his work can be found in most of the 
Continental galleries, the Munich and Dresden galleries 
each containing over a dozen works, whilst the National 
Gallery and the collection at Buckingham I'alace also 
contain e.xamples. 

The picture reproduced formed part of the recently 
dispersed Massey-Mainwaring collection, and is now in 
the possession of Mr. H. Oatway, 4, Old Burlington 
Street, W. .-Vt one time it was in the Van Slingclandt 
collection, and is fully described in Smith's Catalogue 

1 HAVE the very greatest pleasure in presenting" to 

readers of The Connoisseur what seems to me to be 

. _, by far the best and most speaking like- 

A tiyron ^ , ,, , ,, 

... . ^ ness of that unequalled poet Byron, 

Miniature ^ r 1 1 

whom Shelley called "The Pdgrim of 

Eternity," and of who;n St. Beuve, by far the greatest 

of all French critics, said, "There are only three great 

poets — Byron, Milton, and Pindar." 

This miniature is exactly similar to the pencil drawing 
of Byron by the late Count D'Orsay, who, I think, had 
a greater talent for taking accurate and unmistakeable 
likenesses in pencil than any of his contemporaries, 
though, of course, very many greatly surpassed him in 
painting in oils ; nevertheless, the great Duke of Welling- 
ton sat to him for his portrait in oils, and several other 
persons of note. 

When I was a young man one constantly saw in the 
windows of Mitchell's well-known library in Bond Street 
pencil drawings of nearly every well-known society man 
of the day, and it was impossible not to recognise every 
one of them at a glance, so that they sold rapidly in 
considerable numbers. 

I had the pleasure of knowing Count D'Orsay. who 
was a handsome man, with a magnificent figure, and the 
best dressed man in London. Unfortunately at the close 
of his long residence in London he was head over ears in 
debt, and had to shut himself up in Gore House except 
on Sundays. When he returned to Paris, Napoleon IIL, 
who was a life-long friend of his, gave him the post of 
" Directeur des Beaux Arts." 

The portrait of Byron by Count D'Orsay was taken 

when the poet was at Genoa, during the last year of his 
short life of thirty-six years, where he saw and conversed 
with Lord and Lady Blessington and Count D'Orsay for 
several hours every day for some months, and these 
extremely interesting conversations were written out by 
Lady Blessington every night after Byron left, and are 
embodied in that charming work of hers, Conversations 
with Lord Byron. 

The reproduction of Count D'Orsay's likeness of Byron 
appears in Murray's last complete and admirable edition 
of Byron's Works, which is profusely illustrated, and is, I 
believe, the only full-length portrait in his maturity and 
in the exact costume which he actually wore, which exists. 
In it not only is the face, figure and dress accurately and 
admirably pourtrayed, but the expression is absolutely 
perfect, depicting the poet with such intense earnestness 
as I never saw in any other portrait in my life, and such 
as does not exist in any portraits of him by any sculptor 
or any other painter. 

If anyone looks at the engravings of the various 
portraits of Byron which appear in the ordinary one 
volume editions of his works published by Murray, he 
will see facsimiles of the portraits painted by Kay, 
Westall, Marlow, Saunders and Phillips, and of the 
celebrated bust by Thorwaldsen which Byron himself 
gave to Murray, his publisher. 

We all recognise portraits of Byron not only by the 
features but by the height of the forehead and the 
peculiar way in which he dressed his hair on the fore- 
head, just as we also recognise Mary Queen of Scots by 
the way in which her hair is arranged on her forehead 
in all her portraits. 

A medallion of Byron which is strikingly like him may 
be seen on the outside wall of 8, St. James's Street, where 
he once resided, and it is in statuary marble of life size 
under glass ; and there is also a similar medallion over the 
door of Byron House in Fleet Street, and also inside 
and on the front of the house in Holies Street, where 
he was born. 

In the inside of the entrance passage at Byron House 
may be seen engraved on statuary marble tablets some 
hundreds of lines of Byron's poetry in the original, and 
also in French and German translations, and there are 
medallions of him at Harrow School, Trinity College, 
Cambridge, and at Hucknall Torkard, where he is 

I enclose a few lines in Byron's handwriting from 
perhaps the most sympathetic passage he ever wrote, 
which begins with — 

" He who hath lient him o'er the dc,^c^," 

which the late Mr. Murray gave my father, who was 
Byron's schoolfellow, friend, and correspondent, and 
whom he called " The Harrow Prodigy." I send you 
besides a note which Byron's Teresa Countess Guiccoli 
wrote to my father when she was Marquise du Boissy, 
which you may like to reproduce in The Connois- 
seur, especially for the benefit of those who judge 
of character from handwriting. — J. G. Toli.emache 



es a; T^ORD RY 

The Connoisseur 

Notes and Queries 

\The Editor invites the assistance of readers of The 
Connoisseur 'who may l>e able to impart the informa- 
tion rei/uired l>y Correspondents.^ 

The Keepsake \'ase. 
To the Editor of The Connoisseur. 
Dear Sir, — I send you the enclosed with hope 
that you will consider that it possesses sufficient 
interest to collectors and others as to merit insertion 
in The Connoisseur. I suggest that it may prob- 
ably induce a vigorous search for this historical vase, 
for if it could be found it would command a very 
high price. I may .say that I am a con- 
stant sub.scriber to The Connoisseur, 
and that I have not the slightest interest 
in the search, other than a desire to 
see it in one of our local museums or 
the British Museum. 

I am, .Sir, yours sincerely, 

Elisha Walton. 

P.S. — The accompanying photograph 
of the "Keepsake Vase" is an enlarge- 
ment of a small print of the vase in Miss 
Meteyard's Life of Josiah Wedgwood 
(Vol. II., page 515) which I have taken. 

[Note. — Miss Meteyard, in her Life 
of Josiah Wedgwood., F.S.A. (Vol. II., 
page 515), and subsequently G. W. and 
F. Rhead in their Staffordshire l^ots and 
Potters (page 233), mention that Josiah 
Wedgwood, while on his deathbed, pre- 
sented a Jasper vase, as a keepsake, to 
William Adams, of Greengates Pottery, 
Tunstall. " William " had been the favourite pupil 
of the " master-potter," and this identical vase had 
been treasured by Wedgwood as the one William 
Adams and he "had arranged together for the last 
time at Etruria." The Adams family and others 
interested in this historical have made vain 
efforts to discover its whereabouts ; but its location 
is still unknown — its present owner evidently being 
unaware of its great value as a memento of the two 
great potters.] 

Fourteenth Century Ivory Casket. 

To the Editor of The Connoisseur. 

Ue.\r Sir, — The illustration is a reproduction of 

one end panel of an ivory casket, now in the British 

Museum, representing episodes in the story of the 

Chatelaine Vergi. 

I may refer your correspondent to an edition of 


the story published by David Niitt in 1903, which 
also contains reproduc-tions of all the panels of the 

Yours faithfully, 

A. T. L. 

The Diary or Mary Beai.e. 
To the Editor of The Connoisseur. 
Sir, — In connection with the portrait of Lucy 
\\alters, it might be of some interest to B. P. to 
know that lately I was in possession of a portrait of 
the Duke of Monmouth (James Fitzroy), by Mary 
Beale, also a portrait of Dryden by her son, Charles 
Beale. I no longer possess either 
of these portraits. I do not think 
they are mentioned in W'alpole's 
A necdotes. 

Faithfully yours, 

Fredk. H. North. 

Portraits of the Duchess of 


To the Editor of The Connoisseur. 

Dear Sir, — In reference to the 
above query, I beg to say I have a 
portrait of the Duchess of Portsmouth, 
by Mignard. It is in fine condition. 
I have pleasure in lending L. H. L. M. 
a photogra[)h of it, and if he wishes 
to reproduce it he is at liberty to 
do so. 

I am. Sir, 
Vour obedient Servant. 

W. H. Wayne. 

L. H. L. M. send his address? — Eimtor.] 


Pewter Maces. 
To the Editor t;/ The Connoi.sseur. 
Sir, — In reply to " B. P. J." in the August Number 
re pewter maces, I have studied and collected all 
kinds of maces and batons for some years, but have 
only once seen a peivter mace, and that was incom- 
plete and damaged, and in a curio shop. I have met 
with references to pewter macx-s, but could not .say 
where off-hand. 

I have bought a small pocket constable's mace or 
tipstaff which has brass handle surmounted by silver 
pewter crown. Total length about seven inches. I 
could give more information, but it would take up 
loo much space. 

Yours faithfully, 

" Mace." 


OxLV one of the July picture sales calls for lengthy 
notice, but several of the smaller ones contained works 

which were in one way 
or another interesting, 
whilst others may be 
described as endowed 
with speculative possi- 
bilities. The two days' 
sale at Christie's of 
ancient and modern 
drawings, pictures by 
old masters, and en- 
gravings (July 1st and 
2nd), " the property of a gentleman," contained only one 
lot of note — a picture catalogued as Dutch School, and 
by some thought to be by Van de Cappelle, The Mouth 
of a River, with a party landing from a y.iclit, 30 in. 
by 42 in., 520 gns. 

The chief sale of the month, and the last important 
one of the season, was held by Messrs. Christie on 
July 5th, and comprised a collection of portraits, the 
property of Mr. J. Tudor Frere, of Royden Hall, three 
important works of the Early English School, sold by 
order of Sir Henry Bunbury, and pictures by old masters 
from numerous private collections — a total of about 
^35,000 being realised. The Bunbury pictures may 
be described first. The famous Reynolds Portrait of 
Master Bunbury (Charles John, son of Henry William 
Bunbury, born 1772, died 1798), three-quarter figure of 
a boy in a crimson coat open at neck, seated facing the 
spectator, in a landscape, resting his hands on his thighs 
(canvas 29 in. by 24 in.), was painted in 17S0, and 
exhibited in the same year at the Royal Academy ; in 
the year following it was engraved by F. Haward, and 
was bequeathed by the artist to the boy's mother. It 
has occasionally been e.xhibited in recent years, appear- 
ing at the Old Masters in 1891, and at the Grafton Gal- 
lery " Fair Children" in 1895. It now realised 5,600 gns. 
The second Reynolds was a group of the Misses 
Horneck (Catherine, afterwards Mrs. H. \V. Bunbury, 
and Mary, afterwards Mrs. Gwyn), famous in literary 

history as "Little Comedy" and '"The Jessamy Bride" 
of Oliver Goldsmith. The picture was painted in 
1764-6, the elder sister being in light dress shaded with 
blue, and is seen in profile ; her younger sister, looking 
down, is resting her right hand upon her sister's shoulder 
(canvas 265 in. by 22 in.), 2,500 gns. A finished replica of 
this picture is stated to be in Lord Normanton's gallery. 
The third picture in this property was Hoppner's Por- 
trait of Mrs. Bunbury, wife of the famous caricaturist, 
and mother of the Master Bunbury in the above- 
mentioned Reynolds picture. The Hoppner portrait 
(29 in. by 24 in.) was exhibited at the Royal Academy 
of 1790, and was engraved in the year following by 
John Young ; it shows her in dark dress and white 
fichu, with black ribands round her neck and in her 
powdered hair ; it sold for the surprisingly low figure 
of 500 gns. The portrait was in obvious want of careful 
attention, and since it has changed hands its new owners 
have had it put into order, and an undoubted master- 
piece of this artist has been revealed. It may be 
mentioned that the companion portrait of Mrs. Gwyn, 
also engraved by Young in 1791, was sold at Christie's 
eighteen years ago for 2,250 gns., and passed into Sir 
Charles Tennant's collection. 

A fine group by Hoppner of Mrs. W. Manning 
(mother of Cardinal Manning) and her daughter, after- 
wards Mrs. Austen, of Kippington Park, Sussex, ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy of 1805 (canvas 50 in. 
by 40 in.), realised 4,000 gns. This exceedingly im- 
portant picture shows Mrs. Manning (who died in May, 
1847) in black dress with red riband round her waist, 
seated, looking at her young child, who, dressed in 
white frock and red shoes, stands on the seat by her 
side ; the background is formed of a landscape and red 
curtain. The child lived until January 1st, 1894, or 
eighty-nine years after the picture was painted. The 
work remained in the family until the day of the sale. 
A much smaller picture by Hoppner also fetched 4,000 
gns. : a half-figure portrait of Susanna, third daughter 
of William Gyll, of Wraysbury House, Bucks., the wife 
first of T. Chudleigh Sanders, of Charlwood, and secondly 


In the Sale Room 

of William Bailey, of Tonbridge Castle. She is re- 
presented in blue dress with white fichu and large blue 
hat with feathers (canvas 30 in. by 25 in.). Another 
Hoppner, a study for the large picture of Mrs. Jerning- 
ham as " Hebe," 24 in. by 173 in., painted in 1800, sold 
for 250 gns. ; an exceptionally fine portrait by Madame 
Vigee Le Brun of Melanie de Rochechoiiart, Marquise 
D'Aumonf, Diichesse de Piennes, in white dress trimmed 
with gold braid, a green and yellow sash round her 
waist, her hair bound with a white and gold kerchief, 
signed and dated 1789 (canvas 28 in. by 22 j in.), sold 
for the record price of 2,400 gns. ; and Sir Thomas 
Law rence's Portrait of Mrs. Bradbourne, in white dress 
cut low at neck, with short sleeves, a pink sash round 
her waist, lace shawl over right arm, which rests upon 
a pedestal, 30 in. by 25 in., 2,450 gns. ; a portrait of a 
young lady by this artist, in white dress and bonnet 
with blue ribbons, 21J in. by 18 in., 1,800 gns. 

The foregoing constituted the chief features of the sale. 
Mr. Frere's collection of portraits contained many of 
interest. Three were by Hoppner, and among these was 
the well-known engraved Portrait of folin Hookham 
Frere (1769-1846), the politician and ambassador, a half- 
figure standing, in red dress, which is hardly visible 
beneath the folds of a large black cloak which he holds 
up with his right hand ; this picture was exhibited at the 
Royal Academy of 1806, and was engraved by Barney 
in iSio; it is on canvas, 50 in. by 40 in., and realised 
200 gns. Hoppner's Portrait of fokii Frere, father ot 
the above, in brown coat with white stock, 29 in. by 
24 in., sold for 145 gns. ; and Sir M. A. Shee's Portrait 
of Miss Blake, of .Ardfry, wife of John Hookham Frere, 
three-quarter figure, standing in a landscape, in red 
dress, large black hat with white plume, holding a whip 
in her right hand, 56 in. by 40 in., 280 gns. 

The miscellaneous properties included three albums 
containing twenty-five pen and ink views by F. Guardi, 
of buildings, etc., in the neighbourhood of Venice, 
300 gns. ; a drawing signed by Guardi, A Vie^u in the 
Piazza, Venice, looking towards the Cathedral of St. 
.Mark, with the Campanile on the left, 10 in. by 144' in., 
igo gns. ; a picture by the same, A View of a Square in 
an Italian Toion, with numerous figures, 1 1 in. by 17 in., 
320 gns. ; X. Dance, Portrait of Robert Dashwood, in 
red coat and green vest, 29 in. by 24 in., no gns.; 
G. Morland, Smugglers, with a while horse at the door 
of a shed, river and boats in the background, 24 in. by 
29 in., 105 gns. ; H. Dubbels, A Town on a Frozen Ri'<'e>; 
with numerous skaters and figures, 18 in. by 2i|t in., 
130 gns. ; Sir J. Reynolds, Portrait of the Earl St. 
Vincent, in uniform, with powdered hair, 30 in. by 25 in., 
480 gns. ; two by A. Van Der Neer, A River Scene, witli 
buildings, boats and fishermen, moonlight, 15J in. by 
21 in., 170 gns. ; and A River Scene, with a village, boats 
and figures, moonlight, on panel, 21 J in. by 34 J in., 
700 gns. ; Early Flemish School, Saint Barbara, re:ul'mg, 
on panel, lU in. by 9i in., 550 gns. ; P. Pollajuolo, The 
Angel Raphael with the i 'ouihful Tobit, walking, in a 
landscape, St. Francis of .Vssisi standing on the right, 
holding a cross and book, the Almighty with four angels 

in a lunette above, on panel, 64 in. by 54 in., 440 gns. ; 
and R. Cosway, Portrait of Admiral Robert Montagu, 
in naval uniform, 30 in. by 25 in., 90 gns. 

The sale on the following Monday (July 8th) was chiefly 
remarkable on account of its extensive series of pictures 
and drawings by Verboeckhoven and Rosa Bonheur. 
That of the succeeding Friday (July 19th) comprised the 
modern pictures and statuary from the collection of the 
late Mr. George Hodgson, of Xocton Hall, Lincolnshire, 
and other properties. The Hodgson collection included 
the following pictures : — W. Collins, The Skittle Players, 
34 in. by 44 in., exhibited at the Royal Academy of 1832, 
510 gns.— it was sold by the artist in 1844 to George 
Young for ^^450, and afterwards appeared in the following 
sales:— G. Young, 1S56, 1,150 gns.; S. Mendel, 1S75, 
2,300 gns., and Bolckow, 1888, 1,510 gns. ; T. S. Cooper, 
Five Cows and Si.x Sheep, on the bank of a river, 30 in. 
by 42 in., 1863, 165 gns. ; T. Faed, The Poor, The Poor 
Man's Friend, 30 in. by 44 in., 370 gns. ; Sir Luke Fildes, 
Fair Quiet and Sweet Rest, 57 in. by 94 in., exhibited 
at the Roynl Academy, 1S72, 155 gns. — this realised 
820 gns. at the J. Lewis sale in 1876; two by J. Linnell, 
sen., Mindi7ig the Flock, 28 in. by 38 in., 1S62, 410 gns. ; 
and The Flight into Egypt, 39 in. by 54 in., 1 841, 
130 gns. ; Erskine Nicol, Both Puzzled, 38 in. by 28 in., 
exhibited at the Royal Academy of 1866, and engraved 
by W. H. Simmons, 620 gns. — this realised 670 gns. at 
the Bolckow sale in 18S7 ; and E. \'erboeckhoven. Ewes 
and Lambs near the Coast, on panel, 26 in. by 40 in., 
1 868, 240 gns. The other properties included the follow- 
ing pictures: — J. Maris, //; the Woods, 13 in. by iiJ in., 
145 gns.; B. W. Leader, Capel Curig, North Wales, 
30 in. by 55 in., 1880, 205 gns. ; D. Roberts, Gate of the 
Zancarron, or Sanctuary of the Koran, Mosque at Cor- 
dova, 53 in. by 35 in., 1838, 145 gns. ; Erskine Nicol, 
A Dander after Rain, 43 in. by 33 in., 370 gns. ; and Sir 
\V. Q. Orchardson, 'Thoughts far Away, 29 in. by 38 in., 
1872, 125 gns. 

On July I5lh llie modern pictures and drawings of the 
late Mrs. L. IL Michell, of the late Mrs. Blomfield, 
of the late Mrs. Edwin Edwards, the lifelong friend 
of Fantin-Latour, and others, included the following 
pictures : — Vicat Cole, The Alps at Rosenlaui, 52 in. by 
77 in., exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1878, 120 gns. ; 
H. Fantin-Latour, Carnations in a Glass Vase, 17 in. by 
14 in., 190 gns. ; and Spring Wild Flowers in a Green 
Bowl, yh in. by 8i in., 80 gns. ; W. Maris, Milking Time, 
on panel, 14 in. by 9?f in., 290 gns. 

The two remaining Fridays of the season (July 19th 
and 26th) were devoted to pictures by Old Masters, 
chiefly from various unnamed sources ; the earlier date 
included: — P. P. Rubens, Time Disclosing Religious 
Truth : a design to be worked in tapestry, on panel, 
26 in. by 36 in., 170 gns. ; and a Portrait of a Gentleman, 
in black dress with large white ruff and gold chain, 
28 in. by 22 in., 490 gns.; F. Bol, Venus Detaining 
Adonis, 65 in. by 90 in., signed, 120 gns.; F. Guardi, 
View in Venice, with church, bridge and gondolas, 10 in. 
by 17J in., 130 gns. ; Sir J. Reynolds, Portrait of Andrew 
Blake, of St. Christopher and Montserrat, in scarlet coat, 


The Connoisseur 

hurt" vest and brceclies, lioUling his sword in his right 
hand, 49 in. by 39 in., 540 gns. ; and Hans Meniling, 
A Triptych with the Adomlioti of the Ma^i, St. John 
and a donor, and female saints on the wings, 140 gns. 
The last picture sale of the season included : A. Cuyp, 
A Landscape^ with six cows, a peasant, and a milkmaid, 
on panel, 17 in. by 23 in., 95 gns. ; ha.\\x(ir\ce. Portrait 
of a Lady in white dress holding a guitar, 36 in. by 
27 in., I ID gns. ; Sir W. Bcechey, Portrait of a Lady in 
white dress, on panel, 29 in. by 25 in., 150 gns.; B. 
de Hruyn, Portrait of a Youth in black dress and cap, 
on panel, 23 in. by 17 in., 120 gns.; and Cranach, 
Portrait of a Lady in brown dress holding a cup, on 
l)anel, 14.^ in. by 13 in., igo gns. 

The sale by Messrs. Trollope of the contents of the 
Duke of Sutherland's residence, Trentham Hall, .Stafford- 
shire (on July 17th to 19th), included a few pictures, 
amongst which were : Holbein, Portrait of Henry V/II., 
on panel, 30 in. diam., 340 gns. ; T. Willeborts 
Bosschacrt, Peace— numerous Loves at Play at a War 
Piece, 96 in. by 66 in., 140 gns. ; J. M. Nattier, 
Mademoiselle de Charolais playing a Guitar, with a 
cupid holding a music-book, 56 in. by 42 in., 200 gns. 
— this is a version of a picture in a well-known London 
collection ; Sir Peter Lely, three-quarter length Portrait 
of (2uceii Mary, second wife of James 1 1., 48 in. by 39 in., 
1 10 gns. ; and N. Hilliard, whole-length Portrait of 
Sir Francis IJrake, on the seashore, a ship seen in the 
distance, 16 in. by 12 in., 210 gns. 

The library of Mr. Stuart Samuel, M.P., sold by 
Messrs. Sotheby on the first day of July, was essentially of 

a national character, 
])ractically all the 
books consisting of 
Knglish classics of the 
last century. Though 
the catalogue com- 
prised but 199 entries, 
the total sum realised 
was ^8,364, an aver- 
age of quite excep- 
tional magnitude, ac- 
counted for by the fact that this library was itself of 
a very exceptional character. Mr. Samuel has for long 
been known as a collector of books containing auto- 
graph inscriptions, of proof sheets, and of manuscripts, 
all classic — English in character, and the library now- 
sold consisted almost entirely of works of this class. 
Hence the enormous prices realised, for the value of 
books of this special kind has increased by leaps and 
bounds during recent years. For instance, the original 
autograph manuscript of White's Natural History of 
Selborne, bought by Mr. Samuel in 1895 fo'' .£294, now 
realised ^750 ; the original MS. of Lord Tennyson's The 
Brook, on eight octavo pages, which now sold for £yx>, 
went for as little as ^51 in 18S9, and the proof sheets 
of Lord Byron's Childe Harold, nine stanzas only, and 
other works, increased in value from ^108 in 1S92 to 

^174 at this sale — not a very great accretion in pi ice 
certainly, but sufficient, with the other evidence, to show 
what a wide demand there is for these memorials of 
writers of the first rank. 

That the manuscript of Barham's The fackdaw of 
Rheims (from the Ingoldsby Legends) should realise 
^loi need, therefore, occasion no surprise, and the 
same remark applies to the MS. of Burns's Tlie J'oet's 
Progress, on four folio pages, which realised ;^I32, to 
the MS. of Dryden's Elconora, on six quarto leaves, 
sold for ;£i98, to Charles Lamb's MS. of Dream Children, 
a Reverie, ^108, and to the MS. of Pope's Essay on 
Man, for which ^895 was paid. There were also other 
manuscripts, some of which also sold for large sums, the 
most noticeable being Shelley's Proposal for Putting 
Reform to the Vote, ;t390 ; W. E. Gladstone's Home 
Rule for Ireland, with the corrected proof sheets, ^52 ; 
Kate Greenaway's A Day in a Childs Life, with sketches 
for the work, ^86; the title-page, preface, and dedication 
to Keats's Endymion, ^93 ; Mdme. de Maintcnon's Za 
Caractlre de la Princesse reine Silvaine, written for 
Louis XIV., ^150; Pope's Of Taste: An Epistle to 
the Earl of Burlington, £i<)g ; the corrected proof sheets 
of Tennyson's Gareth and Lynette, ^80; the MS. of 
the same author's The Northern Farmer, ^155; and 
the fourth and fifth chapters of Thackeray's Philip, with 
many corrections, £'2.i,o. Sums of this magnitude would 
have been regarded as impossible twenty years ago. 

The printed books in this valuable and choice library 
were almost all fortified, so to speak, with manuscript in 
the handwriting of the various authors, so that they had 
become something more than books, a fact emphasised 
by the very high prices realised. Sometimes other cir- 
cumstances contributed to the same result, as in the case 
of Visscher's Map of New Belgium a?id New E?igland, 
which had belonged to William Penn, and bore his 
endorsement to the effect that this was the map by which 
the bounds between Lord Baltimore and himself had 
been settled. This map realised /,I22, while Browning's 
Pauline, 1S33, sold for no less than/225 on the strength 
of a long note on the fly-leaf in the handwriting of the 
poet. The same author's Bells and Pomegranates, the 
eight parts complete, 1841-46, brought ^120, being pre- 
sentation copies, and therefore most important. Other 
presentation copies or books containing alterations in 
the handwriting of their authors, which realised large 
amounts, were as follows: — Barham's The Ingoldsby 
Legends, the three series, 1S40-42-47, £^o; Byron's 
F?iglish Bards and Scotch Reviewers, 1809, ^46; and 
Manf/ed, 1817, £$^ ; Lewis Ca.rro\\'s Alice's Adventures 
in Wonderland, 1 865, ^70 ; and Through the Looking- 
Glass, 1872, £^^0 ; Coleridge's Sibylline Leaves, 1817, 
^45; Dickens's Bleak House, 1853, £cj'); The Cricket 
on the Hearth, £t^o; The Pickwick Papers, 1837, £s'i ; 
A Christmas Carol, £4?! ; Poe's The Raven, 1845,^39; 
Rossetti's Ballads and Sonnets, 1881, ^105 ; Tennyson's 
Idylls of the Hearth, 1S64, /50; Thackeray's The Vir- 
ginians, 1858, ,{'91 ; and others too numerous to mention. 

The sales held on July 2nd and 3rd at Sotheby's and 
Christie's respectively comprised a large number of 


/// the Sale Room 

valuable works on Natural History, a few books of quite 
a different class realising, however, substantial amounts. 
Thus, a very imperfect copy of an Italian edition of the 
Fabiihc of .-Esop, printed without name or date (but about 
1490), realised as much as ^70, chiefly by reason of the 
woodcuts contained in it. This seems to have been the 
translation made by Zucchio, but the book was not 
easy to identify. Among the works on Natural History 
we notice the Duke of Bedford's rarely seen Salictum 
Waburiiense, 2 vols., 8vo, 1829, £\i los. (morocco extra), 
which ought to have realised more, as only fifty copies 
were privately printed. Curtis's Botanical Magazhtc, 
complete from the commencement in 1793 to 1903, in all 
III vols, in 90 and the Indexes in 2 vols., realised £%b 
(half calf gilt); Sydenham Edwards's Botanical Register, 
33 vols., 1815-47, 8vo, ^28 (russia super extra) ; Gould's 
Birds of Great Britain, 5 vols., 1862-73, ^54 (morocco 
extra), the same work in the original twenty-five parts 
as issued, £1^ ; and The Birds of Europe, 5 vols., 
"^^yii .£53 (morocco extra). Lambert's Genus Pinus, 
3 vols., folio, 1837, sold for ^68 (morocco super extra) ; 
Jacquin's Selectarum Stirpium Ainericanarum Icones, 
1750, folio, /17 (morocco extra) ; Redoute's Les Liliacees, 
8 vols., 1802-16, folio, ^90 (russia super extra) ; another 
set in half morocco, uncut, on large coluriibier folio paper, 
with the coloured plates retouched by the author, ^70 ; 
and Andrew Smith's Illustrations of the Zoology of South 
Africa, 5 vols, in 3, 1849, 4to, £20 105. (morocco extra). 
The library of the Dukes of Altemps, removed from 
Rome, consisted almost entirely of very early printed 
books of a severely classical nature, and though works 
of this kind are more sought after on the Continent than 
in this country, some of the prices realised were very 
high, probably higher than would have been securetl 
in any rooms other than those in Wellington Street. 
A fine vellum copy of the first edition of Homer's Ilias 
et Odyssea,a.% edited by Majoranus, 4 vols., folio, 1542-51, 
realised as much as ^245 (original Venetian boards), 
but tlien not more than three copies on vellum are 
known. The editio princeps of the Comoedia of Aristo- 
phanes, Aldus, 1498, folio, made £zi (oaken boards); 
the first, second, fourth, and fifth volumes of the editio 
princeps of the Opera of .Aristotle, Aldus, 1495-98, folio, 
/41 (old Venetian morocco); Berlinghieri's Geograpliia 
in terza rima, 1481, folio, the first edition, containing the 
earliest specimens of maps graven on metal in Italy, 
/Si (original oak boards); the editio princeps of the 
Orationes of Isocrates, 1493, folio, ;^32 los. (vellum); 
and the Lihcllus de Natura Animalium, 1524, small 410, 
/90 (vellum). This work was first printed in Monte 
Regale in 1508 by Vincentius Berruerius, and is noted 
for its woodcuts, fifty-two in number. Many other books 
of a similar austere character realised large amounts ; 
but it is hardly necessary to mention more than one of 
them here. This was Le Rccueil des Hystoires de Troycs, 
printed at Lyons in 1490, folio, which, though miiuis the 
title-page and several leaves, realised £\^b (oaken 
boards). This was probably the second edition in 
French, and the text of the earlier edition is certainly 
that used by Caxton when translating his Recuyell of 

the Historycs of Troy, printed by him at Westminster 
about the year 1471. 

Messrs. Puttick & Simpson's sale of the loth and 
nth of July, and that held by Messrs. Hodgson on the 
1 2th, were both of a miscellaneous character, but good, 
the latter especially. Nearly all the higher priced 
volumes have, however, been referred to on previous 
occasions, and it is not until we come to the sale of 
Mr. E. S. Willard's library on the 17th that anything 
really distinctive occurs. Before dealing with this col- 
lection it is necessary, however, to refer to an extremely 
scarce work sold by Messrs. Hodgson earlier in the 
month. This was A Letter from /??-. yJ/oorf, printed in 
1687, small 4to, noticeable chiefly from the fact that 
the preface was written by William Penn. In it he 
states that he is publishing the "Letter" to show the 
condition of the Colony of Pennsylvania, founded only 
some six or seven years previously, and " to serve for 
answer to the idle and unjust stories that the malice 
of some invent, and the credulity of others prepare them 
to receive against it, which is all the part I take in this 
present publication." This pamphlet of twelve pages 
realised as much as ^^155, aftbrding further evidence, 
if any were needed, of the high prices now realised for 
Americana of the scarcer and more important kind. 

Mr. Willard's library referred to above consisted 
chiefly of works issued by modern presses, such as the 
Caradoc, Doves, Eragny, Essex House, Kelmscott, and 
Vale, and with regard to these it may be said that prices 
ruled lower than at the beginning of the season. There 
were exceptions, though few in number. The Kelmscott 
Earthly Paradise, 8 vols., has, for example, fallen to 
£<:> 5S. (^24 los. in July, 1899), The Wood Beyond the 
World to ^3 {£y in July, 1S99), and Christabel and 
other Poems to £1 los. (^7 15s. in July, 1899). These 
quotations will give some idea of the very great de- 
preciation wliich has taken place with regard to nearly 
all these " modern press books " during the last few 
years ; and the worst of the matter is that it shows no 
signs of coming to an end, though present prices are 
certainly low enough. Mr. Willard was also a noted 
collector of the works of .Mr. Swinburne ; but it is only 
necessary to mention the following: Dead Love, 1864, 
£1 15s. (calf e.xtra) ; Laus Veneris, 1866, /6 5s. (partly 
unopened); Atalanta in Calydon, 1865, £1 12s. 6d. 
(original white cloth) ; Songs Before Sunrise, on large 
paper, 1871,^10 los. (original cloth) ; Under the Micro- 
scope, 1S72, with the very rare cancelled leaf, /12 los. 
(calf extra) ; and The DcviPs Due, a letter to the Editor 
of the Examiner, 1875, £^- >os. (calf extra). This last 
is a very rare piece, which, so far as we know, has never 
been sold by auction before. .\o more than two or 
three copies can be traced. 

Before dealing with the final sale of the season it is 
necessary to mention a number of important works sold 
by different auctioneers between the i8lh and the 25th of 
July. These comprise, inter alia. Oscar Wilde's Vera, 
or the Nihilists, the original privately printed first draft of 
the play, interleaved, and having numerous MS. erasions, 
alterations, and additions in the author's handwriting, 


7 lie C ^ouiwisseitr 

1882, 8vo, ^26 ; Apperley's Life of a Sportsman, 1842, in 
blue cloth (only copies of the very earliest issue were so 
bound), ^29 los., as against ^35 10s. in 1903 ; Nolhac's 
La Reine Marie Antoinette, one of fifty copies on Japanese 
paper, with the portraits and plates in two states, Paris, 
1890, ^31 (morocco extra), and a number of autograph 
musical scores, the property of the late Mr. Otto Gokl- 
sclimidt, the husband of Jenny Lind, the celebrated 
soprano vocalist. The chief of these was Handel's score of 
The Messiali, in the handwriting of J. Christopher Smith, 
the composer's friend and amanuensis. This realised 
/^loo, not a very large amount, for this MS., written in 
three oblong folio volumes, was of great importance. It 
was annotated by Mr. Gokischmidt from a careful com- 
parison with the two manuscript scores in Smith's hand- 
writing known as the "Dublin" and the " Hamburgh," 
and was accompanied by many interesting papers and 
letters bearing on the Oratorio. From these it would 
seem that Handel himself had used the volumes at many 
performances. In addition to the above, Scott's Guy 
Maiinering, 3 vols., 8vo, 181 5, realised ^51 (original 
boards, uncut) ; a manuscript Poem in the autograph of 
Shelley, consisting of five verses of nine lines each, com- 
mencing, "The sun is warm, the sky is clear," ^100; 
Keats's Endymion, 1818, ^51 (boards) ; and the Kelmscott 
Works o/C/uiucer, £60 (sliim'ped pigskin). Another copy 
of this work, in boards, realised £^,<) the day following. 

We now come to the last sale of the season, which 
it is necessary to deal with in detail. This was held 
by Messrs. Sotheby on July 26th and following day, 
and was in many respects e.tceedingly interesting, as 
it contained, inter alia, a considerable number of Brontii 
books, manuscripts, and relics, and a copy of the first 
edition of the Pilgrim's Proj^ress. This latter, tliough 
wanting the frontispiece and a number of leaves, was 
bought for £s~o- Not more than three perfect 
copies of this scarce book are known, even assuming 
that it was not published with a portrait. If it was, 
then but one perfect copy can be traced, viz., that 
which realised £i,-i7i in May, 1901. The Bronte relics, 
though important in themselves, did not sell for very 
large amounts, but one realising as much as .^100. This 
was a manuscript volume of poems signed " Emily Jane 
Bronte," and dated February, 1844. The authenticity 
of some of the MSS. ascribed to Charlotte Bronte 
seems to have been questioned, but as all these, as 
well as the other relics, were the property of Mrs. 
NichoUs, widow of the Rev. A. B. Nicholls, who first 
married Charlotte Bronte, it would probably be hard 
to sustain the objection. The theory was that some of 
them might have been written by Branwell Bronte. 
However this may be, there was no question that the 
nine small manuscript volumes of juvenile tales which 
realised £yo were in the handwriting of Charlotte Bronte, 
as also the manuscript of fifty pages, containing a number 
of poems, some of which are unpublished. This realised 
^45, while Caroline Vernon, a MS. story in three books 
(106 pages, 8vo), apparently complete and unpublished, 
sold for ^44. The Brontii portion of tlie catalogue 
occupied fifty-eight lots, occupying six pages of closely 

printed matter, so that it is unpracticable 10 deal with 
it here as fully as it deserves. 

Among the works of a general character we notice 
the following in addition to the Pilgrim's Progress heforc 
named: Keats's Poems, 18 17, once the property of 
Richard Woodhouse, containing numerous manuscript 
notes by him, realised ^31 (original half binding), and 
the same author's Lamia, Isabella, the Eve of St. Agnes, 
1820, ^48 (original boards, with the label); Gould's 
Pirtis of Great Britain, in the twenty-five parts, as 
issued, with a MS. Index to the work, in 4to, sold for 
^45, a very usual price ; the Book of Common Prayer, 
printed by VVhitchurche in 1549, for ^61 (slightly defec- 
tive, morocco extra); Shakespeare's Second Folio, 1632, 
for ^^250 (soiled and stained and slightly defective); 
and Queen Elizabeth's copy of the Opera of Xenophon, 
printed at Frankfort in 1594, folio, for ^175. This was 
a very fine example bound in contemporary English calf, 
with gilt ornaments and borders, and the crowned Royal 
arms within the Garter. Many other most important 
works were sold at this concluding sale, such, for example, 
as a number of rare Horic, printed on vellum, a very 
fine and perfect original copy of Higden's Polychronicon 
{£40), and some Shakespeariajia and Manuscripts. 
These will take their place in the summary of the season's 
sale, which, according to custom, will appear in the next 
number of The Connoisskuu. At the moment it is 
only necessary to say that the season, which at the time 
of writing has just closed, has been one of the most 
noteworthy of which we have any record. Not only 
have important books and manuscripts been unusually 
numerous, but the prices realised for them have frequently 
been enormous, record after record being broken, owing 
to the close competition which has lately arisen for the 
English classics more particularly, but f^r all classics, 
whither in print or in manuscript, 'i he-.e, when sufifi- 
ciiMitly tempting, have frequently been bought up at 
prices for which there is no precedent. 

Christie's sales of engravings for this season were 
brought to a close with two dispersals on the 9th and 

22nd of July respec- 
tively, in each of which 
some remarkably fine 
examples of the eight- 
eenth century English 
school were included. 

The first sale proved 
to be the most notable, 
consisting as it did of 
some very fine Morland 
prints, the property of 
Mr. John Knight, and a few excellent impressions of 
portraits after Reynolds and Hoppner, from an anony- 
mous source. 

Two prints after Morland, Rural Amusement and 
Rural Employment, by J. R. Smith, proved to be the 
gems of the collection, realising /!357 — a sum far in 
excess of the previous record. Next in importance was 

In the Sale Room 

a fine first state impression of J. Watson's rare mezzo- 
tint of the Countess of Carlisle, after Reynolds, which 
made ^262 los., while a similar state of Lady Louisa 
Manners, by Green, after the same master, went for 
Z231 105. 

Other Morland prints were St. James's Park?i\\A A Tea 
Garden, by F. D. Soiron, which together made ^iSg; 
Delia in Town and Delia in the Country, by J. R. Smith, 
sold for ^96 I2S., and Sunset, by J. Ward, realised ^84. 

The Hoppner prints included a first state of I\Irs. 
Arbuttuwt, by S. W. Reynolds, which made ^i6S, and a 
fine impression oi I^dj Mildniay and Cliild, by W. Sa\-, 
which sold for £\\o 5s. 

There still remains to be mentioned Master Braddyl 
and Mrs. Seaforth and Cliild, both by Grozer, after 
Reynolds, each of which made ^99 i 5s. 

The other sale was only notable for two lots, one a 
fine first published state, with the title in open etched 
letters, of W. Ward's famous print the Daughters of Sir 
Thomas Frankland, which made ^^462, and an open 
letter proof of Lady Mildmay and Child, by Say, after 
Hoppner, for which ^199 los. was given. 

But for the important collection of old English 
furniture of Mr. W. Hugh Spottiswoode which appeared 

,it Christie's on the 17th 


.'ind 1 8th, July would 

have been a dull month 

as regards furniture 

sales. This collection, 

which was originally 

formed by the late Mr. 

William Spottiswoode, 

was especially rich in 

examples of the work of 

Chippendale, as well as 

some nice i)ieces by .Sheraton and his school, and as a 

consequence high prices were the order throughout the 


Chippendale held the field on the first day, two of his 
chairs with finely-carved riband backs making ^388 los., 
one of the highest prices in the sale. .A. pair of torcheres 
with square tops bordered by key pattern, fifty inches 
high, went for £2>^^ ; a cabinet carved with rosettes, key 
pattern and flowers, realised ^204 1 5s. ; a bookcase 
carved with flowers and ribands sold for .^136 los., and 
two side-tables, each most elaborately decorated, made 
;£i57 los. and .£136 los. respectively. 

Sheraton was re])resented by a large variety of objects, 
the chief being a sideboard, beautifully inlaid and 
decorated with a carved ivory panel at the top, and a 
circular table, each of which went for ^126. 

Two satinwood pieces must be mentioned. One a 
winged wardrobe aljout nine feet square, finely inlaid 
with marciuctcrie, which reached ^399, and the other 
a toilet table with panels in grisaille by Angelica Kaufif- 
man, for which .^294 was given. 

Few other notable pieces came up for sale during the 
month, amongst the more interesting being a Chippendale 

^ POX?^AY J 

settee and si.\ chairs with slightly carved interlaced 
backs, which on the 23rd made .£199 los., and an 
.Vdani's mahogany sideboard, which on the I ith realised 
^■83 15s. 

One of the most important dispersals of old Chinese 
porcelain held during the season just closed was that 

which took place at 
Christie's on the nth 
Inly, when a remark- 
able collection from an 
anonymous source 
c a m e u n d e r the 
hammer. Its import- 
ance can be judged 
from the fact that of 
the 45 lots sold over 
half reached three 
figures, while three items alone accounted for over 
^3,000. The clou of the sale was a su])erb beaker- 
shaped vase of the Kang-hi dynasty, enamelled with 
flowers in green, aubergine and white, on a black ground, 
which, after some spirited bidding, sold for ;{^I,I55. 
Another piece which reached four figures was a Ming 
st.ituette of Kwan-yin, richly enamelled with flow-ers, 
butterflies, and trellis work, which went for a thousand 
guineas ; while .^840 was given for a pair of Kien-Lung 
famille-rose vases and covers mounted with ormolu 
mounts of Louis XV. design. 

Other notable pieces included a small sacrificial 
Kang-hi cup, which, though only 4i inches high, realised 
£s,},o los. ; a pair of powdered-blue bottles of the same 
period made .£588, and a pair of Kang-hi famille-verte 
cylindrical vases sold for ^^399. 

On the 4th an important Ming figure of a female deity, 
finely decorated in famille-verte on a yellow ground, 
realised .^1,312 los., w'hile on the 17th a set of three 
Kien-Lung hexagonal famille-rose vases and covers 
and a pair of beakers, enamelled on a pink marbled- 
pattern ground, made ^630. 

The sales of silver plate held during July at Christie's 
were little above the ordinary, and few prices of any note 

were made at any of 
the three sales held. 

At the first, which 
took place on the 5th, 
and consisted of a col- 
lection sold by direction 
of Sir Henry lUmbury, 
Bart., six interesting 
lots known as " The 
Speaker's I'late," 
originally the property 
of Sir Thomas Hanmer, Hart., Speaker in 1713-15, 
consisting of two iccpails, a large dish, two octagonal 
casters and seven candlesticks, all of the Queen /Vnne 
period, sold at prices varying from 160s. to 37s. an ounce ; 


The Connoisseur 

a pair of James II. large tazze, engraved with the arms of 
the Duke of <'.rafton, 124.J ounces in weight, made i6os. 
an ounce ; and twelve Queen Anne silver-gilt dessert 
forks sold at iocs, an ounce. The second sale, which 
took place on the 9th, and included some items sold by 
order of Viscount Falkland, a William and Mary plain 
tumbler cup and a Charles II. plain beaker made 230s. 
and 200s. an ounce respectively ; and at the third sale, 
whicli occurred on the 19th, the chief items were a 
Charles II. porringer, by T. Mangy, York, 300s. an ounce ; 
another with cover, of a rather earlier period, 200s. an 
ounce ; and one of the James II. period 165s. an ounce. 

QUITK a number of coin and medal sales were held 
during July, but with the exception of that held by 

Messrs. Glendining 
and Co. on the 23rd, 
and one held by 
Christie's on the i6th, 
none contained items 
of any great import- 
ance. The chief item 
in the first-named sale 
was a Military General 
Service Medal with 
eleven bars for the 
l^eninsular, which realised ^17 after some keen bidding. 
Another with ten bars made £<) los., one with bars for 
Martinique and Guadaloupe went, for ^8 los., and a 
Naval General Service Medal with bar for Pasley, one 
of only three issued, realised ^15. 

Of the Indian and Afghan medals put up the most 
notable was one with the Laswarec bar, which made 
£p los. One pound less was given for a Jellalabad 
medal, a Candahar medal sold for /6, and a Hyderabad 
1843 Naval Medal realised £() 10s. 

Other interesting lots included a Sultan's s^old Egyp- 
tian medal £~ los., and a regimental medal of the 12th 
Foot ^10 los. 

Christie's sale deserves mention owing to one lot, con- 
sisting of a group of officers' decorations, which realised 

.£200. ThesL- included a Peninsular Gold Cross for 
services at Barrosa and elsewhere, a field officer's gold 
medal for Barrosa, and a knight commander's Star of 
the Order of the Bath, all granted to Lieutenant-Colonel 
K. D. Jackson, Assistant Quarter-Master General. 

At Sotheby's rooms on July 1 jih and 16th the dispersal 
of the coin collection of Mr. F. K. .Macfadyen, F.K.X.S., 
of Xewcastle-on-Tyne, who is relinquishing the pursuit, 
attracted considerable attention, the two days' sale pro- 
ducing just short oX £\,OQo. It was composed of English 
and Irish copper coins, seventeenth century tokens, 
medals, passes, and badges relating to theatres, parks, 
gardens, gaming-houses, race-courses, etc., as well as 
some interesting numismatic literature. 

A Charles I. pattern farthing in copper, not in the 
Montagu or Murdoch collections, made £& 12s. 6d. ; 
a collection of 250 pieces of James II. gun money, every 
piece of which is believed to be from a different die, 
totalled ^32 5s. 6d. ; twenty-seven Derbyshire tokens, 
many of extreme rarity, went for ^15 los. ; and a silver 
ticket for V'auxhall Gardens, of which no other specimen 
is known, sold for 10 gns. 

H.wiNC, let the well-known mansion, " Frogmore 

Hall," Knebworth, Herts, for a term of years, Messrs. 

Knight, P'rank .S: Rutley during July 
Miscellaneous ,■ , ,.1 . r .1 j 

o . disposed of the contents of the residence. 

.A. painting by Stortenbecker of Cattle 
sold for 50 gns. ; A Garden Scene, by Palamedes, 25 gns. ; 
a small Portrait of a Youth, by Terburg, iji gns. ; Cows 
in a Meadow, by Sidney Cooper, 100 gns. ; A Cathedral 
Interior, by Neefs, 21 gns.; Highland Cattle, by Louis 
Hurt, 1892, yi gns. 

The same firm, at their rooms in Conduit Street at the 
end of the month, sold an interesting collection of lace, 
linen, etc. A da:iiask table-cloth of drawn thread sold 
for £\\ ; .1 small Persian rug, 24 gns.; a border of 
.Milanese lace, 8 gns. ; a pair of Brussels lace lappets, 
9 gns. ; a flat \'enetian border, 60 gns. ; a silk cape with 
edging of old Milanese lace, I2i gns.; four silver sauce- 
boats, j{|38 ; a silver cake basket (1776), ^29; a Spode 
two-handled pot-pourri jar, £11. 




Readers of The Connoisseur are entitled 
to the privilege of an answer gratis in these columns 
on any subject of interest to the collector of antique 
curios and works of art ; and an enquiry coupon for 
this purpose will be found placed in the advertisement 
pages of every issue. Objects of this nature may also 
be sent to us for authentication and appraisement, in 
which case, however, a small fee is charged, and the 
information given privately by letter. Valuable objects 
will be insured by us against all risks whilst on our 
premises, and it is therefore desirable to make all 
arrangements with us before forwarding. (See coupon 
for full particulars.) 


"Books. — Leigh's " New Picture of London," 

1841. — 9,6i)S (I!n5.liil). — If your copy llie coloured 
co.sluuies, you should ol>lnm ;il)i)ul £1 lOi. for il. Wilhout 
iheni il is of liule value. 

Cooke's Editions.— 9,693 (Uristol).— Your hooks aie of 
very siimll value. Chas. CooUe was a imblislier of cheap 
editions of pojudar woiks. 

Cardboard Covered Book.— 9,398 (Bromley, Kent).— 
The woik you desciilje is a seveiUeentli cenUiry satii ical tract, 
woith 10,. or so. 

Lives of the Princesses, 6 vols., 1849 = 55. 9.73- 
(E.Kiii.uiiln. -Tlie vahu- ofilii, work is alxiiit £1. 

Bible and New Testament, 1058.-9,694 (limswoith). 
— The d.ile ol your I'.iMe i^ piolMbly Ib^S. The two works are 
worth together alioul £l los. 

Shakespeare's Comedies (Illustrated), 1791.-9,599 
(New liarnet). — This book is not worth more than 5s. Vou do 
not say the date of your Bible. If it is imperfect, however, 
its value is small. 

Thos. Barker's " Book of Lithograph Rustic 
Figures," 1801.- 9,400 (.Vewport). — 1 he value ol your 
book is about £2 2s. 

"Pottery and "Porcelain — Black Ware Tea- 
pot, o.yoo (t'lapham). — ^ oui te.ijiot is not Wedgwocjd, but 
proliably Leeds. lis value is about 25s. to 30s. 

Chinese Bowl.- 9,790 (Reigate).^\'our bowl is worth a 
few pnuniU il ohl. 

Chamberlain Worcester Toilet Service. — 9,693 

(Nuneaton). — Vour toilet seivice is ol no interest from a 

collector's point of view. To anyone purchasing for use il is 
worth ^'4 or /, 5. 

Biscuit Figure. — 9,379 (Ventnor). — If your figure is old 
Sevres it is ol the rare date 1753, and exceedingly valuable. 
As far as we can tell from your photograph, il is a modern 
l\aris copy, of comparatively small value. 

Spode.— 9,429 (I^edcai).— The value of your dessert service 
of Spode porcelain is about .^18. 

Dessert Service. — 9,007 (Heme Hill). — Your dessert 
plates and dishes are probably early Minion. Being only portion 
of a service, the value is not more than £1 10s. 

Worcester. — 9,773 (Torquay). — As far as we can tell 
without inspection, your set of old \Yorcester china is worth 
from /eo to ^70. It is too late to send it to Christie's this 
season. Try an advertisement in Thk Coxnoisseok Kegistek. 
Your siher spoon would realise about £g. 

Satsuma.— 9,749 (Halifa.\). — The piece of which you senil 
us photographs, is modern Japanese Satsuma ware, worth less 
than £1. 

Dish.— 9,691 (Halifax). — Your photograph represents a 
similar dish to that illustrated in the April issue of The Con- 
.NOISSEUIt. There is some diflerence of opinion as to where 
these dishes were made. The writer of the article attributeil 
them to a factory at Loughor, .South Wales, but many collectors 
consider them to be early Leeds, about 1750. They are worth 
about 30s. each. Similar copies of Oriental designs are on 
Bristol' I )l-1Ii. 

Chinese Kylins. -9,682 (Chelmsford). — Judging from your 
photographs, your old Chinese figures of Kylins appear to be 
good specimens of the Ming ])eriod. The value depends upon 
the size. Several pairs have been sold at Christie's for high 
prices this season. 

China Figures. — 9,699 (Abbey Wood). — Your china 
figures cannot be valued Irom description. They must be sent 
for inspection. 

Rockingham Vase.— 9,772 (Swanage).— Your vase, judging 
hoiii sketch, i^ Knckingham about 1830-40. The mark on the 
bottom is a decorator's mark. We cannol identify the mark of 
your tea service from your reproduction. It is certainly not old 

Chinese Vase.— 9,755 (Canonbury). — As far as we can 
judge from the rough photographs and tracings sent, your viises 
are evidently of the Kia King period (17961S21). They .ire 
worth about £\2 to /14. 

Stone Quern.— 9,887 (Whitby).— The qHem, of 
which you send us photograph, is evidently of the period called 
" Late Celtic," that is of the Iron Age, preceding the arrival 
of the Romans in Britain (say 100-200 11. c). It is very similar 
to many found at the late Celtic settlement, llunsbury Hill 
(Northamptonshire), and other places. The first probably 
of wood. The holes on the side of the upper slonc were for 
pegs or handles, by which il turned in the [irocess of grinding 
corn. It should be of interest for a local museum. The value 
may be put roughly at between £ji and ^"4, but il depends on 
ihe amount of local interest in Yorkshire antiquities. 




Special Notice 

Readers of The Connoisseur who desire to have 
pedigrees traced, the accuracy of armorial bearings 
enquired into, paintings of arms made, book plates 
designed, or otherwise to make use of the depart- 
ment, will be charged fees according to the amount 
of work involved. Particulars will be supplied on 

\Vhen asking information respecting genealogy or 
heraldry, it is desirable that the fullest details, so far 
as they may be already known to the applicant, 
should be set fortli. 

Only replies that may be considered to be of 
general interest will be published in these columns. 
Those of a personal character, or in cases where the 
applicant may prefer a private answer, will be dealt 
with by post. 

Readers who desire to take advantage of the 
opportunities offered herein should address all letters 
on the subject to the Manager of the Heraldic 
Department, at the Offices of the Magazine, 95, 
Temple Chambers, Temple Avenue, E.C. 

Answers to Correspondents 
Heraldic Department 

1,106 (Paris).— The "'49 Officers" were the officers of 
Charles the First's Irish Protestant army, to whom, on the 
Restoration, grants of land and houses were made in saiisfaclion 
of the arrears of pay due to them before 5th June, 1649, when 
the old Royalist army was dissolved. These officers are also 
sometimes referred to as the " '49 Protestant Officers." 

1,112 (London). — Sir Philip Sidney married Frances, the 
only child of Sir Francis Walsingham, the Elizabethan states- 
man, but he left no male issue, and his only surviving daughter 
and heir Frances, who married in 1598-9 Roger, 5th Earl of 
Rutland, died without issue in August, l6l2. 

1,118 (Exeter). — The children of Sir Ralph Sadler by Mrs. 
Karre (whose husband, Matthew Barre, appears to have been 
living at the lime of her marriage as a *' widow " to Sir Rnlphj, 
were legitimised by Act of Parliament dated gih December, 
1545. Sir Ralph Sadler was Iwrn at Hackney, 1507, and died 
30th March, 1587. He was buried at .Standon, Herts. 

1,123 (Dublin). — The baronetcy conferred nth January, 
1664-5, ^^ S^"^ John Jacob, of Uromlcy-by-Bow, and Gamlingay, 
Cambridgeshire, certainly became extinct on the death of his 
great-great-grandson, the 4th Baronet, Sir Hildebrand Jacob, 
immarried, 4th November, 1790. The title, however, was 
assumed by a distant cousin, Clement Brydges Jacob, who was 
the eldest son of the Reverent! Alexander Jacob, Chaplain to 
the King (and author of Jacob's /'eeni'c), by his wife Mary, 
daughter of Robert Clement, of Bletchingly, Surrey. The 
Rev. Alexander Jacob was grandson of Alexander Jacob, of 
London, Turkey Merchanl, who married Elizabeth, sister of 
James, 1st Duke of Chandos ; and great-grandson of Robert 
Jacob, a younger brol/iir of the first baronet. On the death of 
Clement, 30th March, 1804, the assumption was continued by 
his only brother Charles, who is supposed to have had no male 
issue, and since whose death no further claim seems to have been 
made to the title. 

1,128 (Chicago). — There are comparatively few parish regis- 
ters in Ireland which commence as early as the seventeenth 
century, and of those that do, fewer still are found outside 
Dublin. The earliest in that city are those of .St. John's Church, 
commencing in l6ig, and which have recently been published. 

1,134 (Philadelphia). — The .-Vrms of Sir James Wright, Bt. 
(t-iovernor of Georgia), so created 1772, were Sable a cknjton 
engrailed at gent between three fleurs-de-lis or on a chief of the 
last three spearheads erect proper all within a bordiire waz'y 
ermine. He was son of Robert Wright, Chief Justice of .South 
Carolina, who was said to have lieen of Sedgcfield, Co. Durham. 
The Arms of Wright of Seilgefield were Sable a cheiron 
engrailed between thrte fleurs-de-lis argent on a chief of the 
second as many spearheads gules. Sir James Alexander Wright, 
the third baronet, died unmarried in 1S37, when the title may 
have become extinct ; but as his uncle, John Izard Wright (who 
died in 1S21), married and left male issue, it is possible the title 
Hid not cease until a later period ; indeed, if John, son of John 
Izard Wright, living in lS6l (as is said), he would have 
been the fourth baronet, and his brother Alexander, who was 
apparently living aiiout 187S, is supposed to have succeeded as 
fifth baronet. 

1,137 (Wimbledon). — In Heraldry the Champaign is a parti- 
tion in base by a horizontal line of a third part of the fieM ; it is, 
however, seldom met with except in some Spanish Coats. 




/iv I'cniiissioii of Messrs, Dtivecii Hrothcrs 

October, 1907. 

u ' u u u u ' 

^A ^^^-^ r! Jf:r - fen « '--.^Jtii /' ■ 


The Cheshire Residence of 

His Grace the Duke of Westminster 

By Leonard Willoughby. Part I. 

When the late Duke of Westminster deter- 
mined upon the reconstruction of Eaton Hall in 
1867, it was to Mr. Waterhouse, R.A., that he 
intrusted the great task. Whether it was then the 
intention of the duke to create such a building as 
Eaton Hall now is, or to spend the enormous sum 
which eventually was e.xpended upon its lavish in- 
terior decoration, I, of course, am quite unable to 
say. For thirteen years 
the work unceasingly 
continued, and during 
that time considerably 
over a million sterling 
was expended upon it 
— at least, so I am in- 
formed — with the result 
that it is unquestionably 
one of the most gor- 
geously fitted up palaces 
existing in the United 
Kingdom. The exterior 
of the house is familiar 
to most people, for illus- 
trations of it have so 
frequently appeared in 
various journals anil 
elsewhere. The slate 
rooms and their con- 
tents are also pretty 
well known, as, thanks 
to the duke's kindness, 
the public are admitted 
on certain days to view 
them on payment of a 

I-l.I/. ABKTU Ul t lll-S-. 01 SUTMKKLANU 

nominal sum. The money so derived, and it swells 
to quite a big amount in the course of a year, goes 
— every farthing of it — to benefit local charities. The 
sum collected only shows how popular a visit of 
inspection to Eaton Hall is, for many thousands of 
people of many nationalities must pass through its 
stately corridors and apartments annually. 

As to whether the architectural design of the 
exterior of Eaton is to 
everyone's taste, is open 
to doubt. It is true the 
appearance is very im- 
posing, en account of its 
size and massiveness, yet 
somehow it is a style 
that does not quite ap- 
peal to my fancy, and 
is more .suitable for a 
public building. It is 
cold, and wanting in 
that homely inhabitable 
look, which is the real 
charm of our old Eng- 
lish country homes. Per- 
sonally, I greatly prefer 
the style in which the 
outbuildings and stables 
are constructed — red 
brick with half-timbered 
upper stories, a style so 
characteristic of Cheshire 
houses. Had this style 
been adopted through- 
bv WATTS, .\i ILK Kj.MNEY out, how Very different 

Vol. XIX.— No. 74. 


The Connoisseur 

would Eaton have been in appcanince to-day, and 
how greatly improved. 

Internally the decorations are very beautiful, 
especially so the wonderful marbles which cover the 
walls and floors of the entrance hall and saloon. 
The ceilings of the various state rooms are also 
remarkable, elaborate, and profuse to a degree in 
gilding, while the beautiful Gobelin and Brussels 
tapestries and the Chinese silk wall hangings are 
incomparably beautiful. The chimney-pieces are 

at Grosvenor House than they would do in Eaton 
Hall, for I think the style of decoration of the walls 
at Eaton does not lend itself to enhance the appear- 
ance and effect of the pictures. However, wherever 
it has been possible to hang one it has been done, 
and with good effect. This huge building is naturally 
only used when the duke and duchess are entertain- 
ing, for at other times they occupy a small building 
attached to the larger one, which is out of the 
question, sim|)ly owing to its enormous size. 


magnificent, and are chiefly of alabaster, the sub- 
jects carved on each being historic or family inci- 
dents. The workmanship throughout the house is 
an example of what work ought to be. It is quite 
perfect and unsurpassable, especially the woodwork, 
which is superb. 

The furniture also is remarkably line, especially so 
that portion of it which is covered in tapestry in the 
saloon and drawing-room. Then also such objects 
of art as there are, are well worthy of this great ducal 
residence. Of pictures there are, comparatively speak- 
ing, few, the great bulk of them being at Grosvenor 
House, Park Lane. It is probable that these look 
to better advantage in their splendidly lighted gallery 


Having so far spoken in general terms of Eaton 
Hall, I will for a moment say a word as to the 
various Grosvenors who for many centuries have 
resided here — though naturally not in the present 
modern-looking building, but in two jirevious pic- 
turesque-looking halls which stood at Eaton. The 
Grosvenor family, of which the Duke of Westminster 
is the representative, though one of the oldest, if not 
the very oldest, family in the United Kingdom, has 
only comparatively recently been ennobled, and this 
some 146 years ago. This, compared with titles 
which go back to the thirteenth century, is therefore, 
comparatively speaking, almost modern. 

Tracing the family backwards from the |)rcsent 

Eaton Hall 

duke, the history is briefly this : Hugh Richard 
Arthur, the present and second holder of the duke- 
dom, is a son of the late Earl Grosvenor, the eldest son 
of the late and first duke. The present duke married 
a daughter of Col. Cornwallis West, Lord-Lieutenant 
of the County of Denbigh. The grandfather of the 
present duke therefore was Hugh Lupus, first Duke, who 
was also third Marquis of Westminster, fourth Earl, 
Viscount and Baron Grosvenor. The first duke was 
the eldest surviving of four sons of the second Marquis 

as Viscount Belgrave and Earl Grosvenor. This, 
therefore, was the commencement of the ennoble- 
ment of the family, a family which had flourished in 
Normandy a century and a half prior to the Con- 
quest. Sir Richard's father was M.P. for Chester, 
as was also his grandfather, the third Baronet, wlio 
represented the County in Parliament in the reigns 
of Charles H., James H., and William HL He 
was also Mayor of the City of Chester in 16S5. It 
will be found in the history of Chester that since 


by Elizabeth .Mary, daughter of first Duke of Suther- 
land, K.G., while his younger brother was created 
Baron Stalbridge. Richard, second Marquis, was 
the eldest of three brothers, sons of Robert, second 
Earl, created first Marcjuis in 1831. Robert, first 
Martinis, married, in 1794, Eleanor, only daughter 
of Thomas, first Earl of Wilton. Of their three 
children the eldest, Richard, inherited his father's 
Marquisate, while Thomas, the second son, inherited 
his maternal grandfather's Earldom of Wilton, and 
Robert, the third son, was created Baron I'^bury. 
Robert, the first Martinis, was the son of Sir Richard 
Grosvenor, seventh Baronet, elevated to thf peerage 
in 1 76 1 as Baron Grosvenor of Eaton, and in 1784 

the days of the Conqueror's nejihew, the Grosvenors 
have been closely allied with all that concerned that 
city officially and otherwise. This gentleman married 
Mary Davis, heiress of Alexander Davis, of ICbury, 
in Middlesex, by which alliance the Grosvenor family- 
acquired their great London property and con- 
sequent wealth. His three sons became succes- 
sively fourth, fifth, and sixth Baronets, the eldest 
acting as grand cupbearer at the Coronation of 
George \\., by presenting to His Majesty the first 
cup of wine after he had been crowned, and had the 
cup as his fee. The second Baronet was High ShcrifT 
of County Chester in 1644, at which time he raised 
the posse comikilus to oppose the Parliamentarians 

The Coiuioisscitr 



commanded by Ferdinaiul, Lord Fairfax. He con- 
tinued firm in his loyalty during the whole of the 
Civil \Vars, whereby he suffered considerably, having 
had his landed property sequestered. Sir Richard, 
the first Haronet, was so created in 162 1, he having 
previously been knighted. He also was, like his 
son. High Sheriff for the County of Chester in the 
twenty-second year of James I. He was also Mayor 
of the city and one of the Knights of the shire in 1625. 
Son had succeeded son in the possession of Eaton 
back to the year 1454, when Kaufe Le Grosvenor, Lord 
of Hume, married Joan, only daughter and heiress 
of lohn Eton, of Eton (now spelt Eaton). It was 
through this alliance that Eaton came to the 
Grosvenor family. This Raufe Le Grosvenor was 
the second of four sons of Sir Thomas Le Grosvenor, 
Lord of Hume. The eldest son Robert had si.x 
daughters, but no son ; Raufe had three sons and 
one daughter ; Thomas became ancestor of the 
Grosvenors of Hungorsheath, Co. Stafford; while 
Rodolphus became ancestor of Grosvenor of Bus- 
bury, Co. Stafford, and Sutton Coldfield, Co. Warwick. 
Sir Thomas, the father of these four sons, was him- 
self son of Sir Robert Le Grosvenor, the defendant 
in the celebrated Scrope and Grosvenor controversy, 
of which I shall have something to say anon. Prior 
to Sir Robert there was his father Raufe, who was 
son of Sir Robert, Escheator of Chester, and this 
"entleman was sixth in descent from Gilbert Le 

Grosvenor, nephew of Hugh Lupus, Karl of Chester. 
Thus have the family descended from father to son, 
the estates descending in the same way, and in four 
instances from brother to brother. 

Three times have the eldest sons predeceased their 
fathers, and so the estates and titles devolved on 
the grandsons. The first of the family who received 
the honour of knighthood was in 1334, some 573 
years back,, while the first baronet was created 
286 years ago, and, as I stated previously, the first 
peerage has now been conferred 146 years : but since 
then the various stages in the elevation from baron 
to duke have been extraordinarily rapid. Tw-enty- 
three years after the first peerage was conferred in 
1 761, a viscounty and earldom were granted. Then 
again, in 1831, or forty-seven years after the first 
earldom, the marquisate was added, while thirty three 
years later the dukedom was created. During the 
800 and odd years which have elapsed since Hugh 
Lupus — the Concjueror's nephew — lived, there have 
been some thirty-three generations, of which the 
present duke is the thirty-third. 

There has been no mixing up of the female line 
with the succession : no taking of the name by per- 
sons outside the family through marriage with the 
Grosvenors ; but only strictly through the male line 
proper has it come down, a descent which is to a 
certain extent rare, unfortunately, in this way in 
some of our very old families. I may add that the 


Eaton Hall 

present duke has a son and heir, who is now, of 
course, known as Earl Grosvenor. The late Earl 
Grosvenor, father of the present duke, predeceased 
his father, and so never came into the dukedom, and 
his widow married in 1889 the Rt. Hon. George 
Wyndhani. This, then, is the simple and straight- 
forward descent of a family who took their name 
from the official position held by Gilbert the Con- 
queror's nephew, as de Gros Veneur, from the Norman 
days to the twentieth century. 

In writing my description of Eaton, I have to 
acknowledge my indebtedness to Dr. Rupert Morris, 
Vicar of St. Gabriel's, Warwick Square, Hon. Canon 
of St. David's, and Chaplain to the late Duke of 
Westminster, K.G., for perusing his excellent Guide 
to Eafon Hall. As Chaplain this gentleman had so 
many facilities for collecting the interesting facts 
contained in his book, that it is not to be wondered 
at that a visit to Eaton Hall to inspect the treasures 
is not complete without this valuable "guide" as a 
companion. Copies are purchaseable at the estate 
office, where tickets to view the hall are obtained, 
and the modest 6d. charged for this goes to swell 
that excellent fund which is devoted entirely to the 
good cause of charity. 

Eaton Hall is about four miles distant from pictur- 
esque Chester, though the entrance gates to the park 
are at the very threshold of the city. The river Dee 
divides the city from the entrance, and is crossed just 
here by the Grosvenor bridge, erected by the late 
duke, and opened by Queen Victoria in 1S3J. This 
river winds its way round past Eaton, and continues 
its course in front of the house, adding a delightful 
touch to a panorama, conspicuous in which is the 
familiar landmark of Beeston Hill, the property of 

Lord Tollemache. The main front of Eaton Hall 
faces west, and the Belgrave Drive, which approach 
is flanked by a very fine avenue. The grounds 
immediately around the house are entered through 
the " golden gates," admitting to the quadrangle 
formed by the building and chapel. These magnifi- 
cent and very large old gates have existed since 1690, 
and were in front of the original house. 

Immediately on passing through these gates we are 
faced by the colossal bronze statue of Hugh Lupus, 
the Conqueror's nephew, from which the family 
descend. It stands on great blocks of granite in 
the centre of a large stone basin. The statue is 
by Watts, and represents Hugh Lupus riding with a 
falcon, which he is about to cast off. His nickname 
appears to have been Hugh Vras — Hugh the Fat — 
by the Welsh people, by whom he was not by any 
means loved. He is represented as being a very 
large unwieldy man, bestriding an enormous Flemish 
horse, with a neck and loins such as I, and I should 
imagine no one else, have ever seen in real life. But 
1 )r. Morris tells us it was not the artist's intention 
to depict a real man on a real horse, but rather to 
give the impression of a rough age and rude vigour 
of character. The whole statue weighs 7 J tons, the 
horse weighing 4 tons, the head alone being 15 cwt. 
and the tail 6i cwt., but the whole effect of this 
bold scheme is very effective. It is directly in front 
of the principal entrance, but it is only on rare 
occasions that this entrance is used. The one chiefly 
in use is to the north of this, beyond the chapel. 
Here a courtyard formed by the house and stables 
is entered through an archway from a covered-in 
coach- house yard — the coach-house itself being faced 
by the riding-school and some hunters' boxes. A 




The Connoisseur 

curious approach alto- 
gether. In the centre 
of the paved courtyard 
is the equestrian group 
in bronze by Sir J. E. 
Boehm, representing a 
magnificent specimen 
of the entire horse, 
rearing up and held 
by a groom. It is 
effective and well 
executed, showing the 
artist's perfect know- 
ledge of the anatomy 
and graceful and life- 
like movement of a 

Within the doors, a 
passage leads off to the 
left, and down this 
we will proceed in a 
moment. Facing us as 
we enter is what appears 
to be a short passage, 
but is in reality a portion 
of the east end of the 
chapel, which is curtained 
with its enormous clock 


off. This beautiful chapel, 
tower, wherein are hung 

twenty-eight bells, which 
|)lay a carillon of thirty- 
one tunes, is a most 
interesting portion of 
the house. It contains 
an an tec hap el, nave, 
and chancel, with a 
western apse. There is 
a groined roof of stone 
to the nave ; the nave 
and choir benches are 
beautifully carved in 
walnut, the dwarf screen 
to the choir being of 
alabaster, divided into 
square panels with 
pierced foliage. The 
reredos and font are of 
alabaster, and there is 
much stained glass in 
the windows, represent- 
ing, with the mosaics, 
Paradise, The Nativity, 
The Crucifixion, The 
Ascension, Pentecost, 
Judgement. The pave- 
ment of the chancel is " Opus Alexandrinum," and 
the e.\quisitely worked recumbent figure of the first 





'I'lic i'oi/i/oissciir 

duchess, by Sir J. \\. 15oelim, is said to be an 
excellent likeness. 

Leaving the chapel, the passage leads down to the 
main building, and sonic little way down turns on 
the right into the great corridor, which runs the entire 
length of the great building. Leaving this for the 
moment, and continuing straight on through glass 
doors, the duke's private portion of the building is 
entered. As this part of the house is private, I will 
not attempt to de- 
scribe it, but only 
mention two pic- 
tures which hang 
in the private din- 
ing-room. These 
are interesting, and 
especially to sports- 
men, as showi ng 
portraits of various 
prominent mem- 
bers of the dros- 
venor Hunt and 
the Cheshire Hunt. 
The former, by 
Stubbs, is dated 
1762, and depicts 
a stag-hunl, the 
stag at bay in a 
small stream, while 
the pack apparently 
are rushing in. 
Surrounding them 
are the members 
of the hunt and 
the servants in 
green coats, with 
enormous French 
horns round their 
bodies. The horses 
are drawn in the 
usual stiff style of the period, very much on the leggy 
side, and arc altogether very quaint. In the distance 
is the well-known landmark Beeston Hill, while among 
the figures mounted are Lord Grosvcnor, Mr. Thomas 
Grosvenor, and Sir Roger Mostyn. Facing this very 
delightful old picture is the large one of the Cheshire 
Hunt, painted some 65 years later by T. Fcrneley. 
It represents the pack well together in full cry, and 
the following well-known followers. On the left, 
nearest to the hounds, is the Earl of Wilton on 
" Windmill," Lord C. Manners on " Featherlegs," 
Hon. R. Grosvenor on " Kingfi.sher," General Gros- 
venor on " Columbus." Then comes Rev. R. Gros- 
venor, Lord R. Manners looking through his eyeglass 


at the end of his stock on " Benefit," and Thomas 
Goosey, huntsman, on " I'lorin." The jiicture from 
every point of view is charming : there is life and 
movement in the hounds and horses, while the por- 
traits are, I believe, excellent. This was jiainted in 

There are other interesting pictures of s[)ort and 
horses in this portion of the building, but I must 
reluctantly pass them by, and begin with the Hoppner 

of General Gros- 
venor, which faces 
the long corridor of 
the main building. 
This very good- 
looking soldier is 
in his ])icturesque 
uniform, and is 
shown carrying a 
military ritle over 
his arm — a some- 
what unusual thing 
for an officer of 
his day to do. His 
scarlet coat, white 
cross-belts, gold 
epaulets, buckskin 
breeches, leather 
gloves, blue cuffs 
edged with gold 
lace, and busby, 
make a very strik- 
ing picture. Born 
in 1764, he became 
Colonel of the 65th 
Regiment, and sub- 
sequently was made 
a Field-Marshal. 
He died in 1851. 
Along the corri- 
iiv HOPPNER dor, which is lined 

with many glass cupboards containing rare specimens 
of cliina and pottery, there are many beautiful cabinets, 
tables, and chairs, the latter principally of carved 
ebony made in Ceylon for the Portuguese. These came 
from the sale of Horace Walpole's effects at Straw- 
berry Hill. Some way down the corridor, and facing 
the entrance passage to the smoking and billiard rooms, 
is a large full-length painting of a lady, by Bronzino, 
151 1-1580. The inscription in Italian tells us that 
Dianora Salviati, wife of Bartolomeo Frescobaldi, was 
the mother of fifty-two children — three at a birth : 
This picture was bought by the first duke from one 
of this lady's heirs. Hut the story as to her mother- 
hood is true. The smoking-room and billiard-room, 


Eaton Hall 

comfortable, though by no means large rooms, open 
one from the other, and contain several works by 
Stubbs. These rooms face the front approach, having 
the chapel on the right, and the statue in front of the 
golden gates on the left front. There is no necessity 
to enter into a detailed description of either room. 
Nearly opposite to the entrance to the smoking- 
room is the dining-room, which measures 45 ft. by 
36 ft. This fine room has its walls coloured in a 
rich warm red, and harmonises well with the panel- 
ling, which is in walnut. The pattern on the red 
shows the portcullis badge (for Westminster) and the 
wheatsheaf (for Grosvenor). The fine chimney-piece 
was brought from a Genoese palace. The pictures 
either side of the fireplace are one by Snyders of a 
Lion Hunt, and one of a Bear Hunt by Rubens. 
The most striking picture, however, is the one of the 
present duchess, which hangs over the fireplace, and 
is in a good light. Another picture here is of the 
first duke, presented by friends in and about Chester. 
This is by Millais. The curtains over the windows 
which overlook the sloping grounds down to the 
river and the country far away beyond, consist of 
two hundred yards of Utrecht velvet, the fringe on 
the bottom alone weighing one cwt. The velvets. 

both in the dining-room and library, and the cover- 
ing to the chairs here and in the ante dining-room, 
were from the looms in Bethnal Green, though it was 
supposed at one time that such fabrics could only 
be produced in France. The ante dining-room, a 
charming room which adjoins, contains the pictures in 
panels of the Grosvenors, as well as some by Millais 
of Sibell Countess Grosvenor, daughter of the Earl 
of .Scarbrough : Elizabeth Marchioness of Ormonde ; 
and Beatrice Lady Chesham. There is also the large 
picture of the Grosvenor family by Leslie, R.A., 1833, 
comprising the three generations. The chairs are 
of pearwood, and the ottomans covered in Genoese 
embroidery, while the window shutters are decorated 
to represent the wild flowers that grow round Eaton 
Hall. Passing through this, the saloon is entered, but 
this I hope to describe, as well as the ante drawing- 
room, drawing-room, library, hall, and state rooms, 
in next month's issue. All that I can now do is 
to give illustrations of a fine Venetian cabinet, an 
Empire clock, and some large chairs in applique 
work, some of the beautiful pieces of furniture in 
this extraordinan,- apartment, which, together with 
the hall, divided only by pillars of " Vert de Mer," 
measures 76 ft. by 32 ft. 





On a Collection of Flemish Domestic Benitiers 
By Alfred E. Knight 

In an age of collectors ami collecting, when 
every corner of the earth is being industriously 
searched for antiquities and objets d'art of what- 
ever kind, it is surprising that so little notice has 
been taken of benitiers. Vet of things artistic, hav- 
ing both the charm of age and old-world religious 
association, what objects could be found more 
deserving of the collector's attention ? Occasionally 
one meets with a stray specimen in a private museum 
— stowed away, of course, on the dustiest shelf and 
in the darkest corner — but so rarely has this been 
our experience that we are almost inclined to think 
that the collection here in part figured and described 
is uni(]ue of its kind in England. 

The owner, ^[ajor R. H. C. Tufnell, is a collector 
of many years' standing, not of benitiers merely, but 
of old arms and pewter, and, above all, of Indian 
coins. On one branch of Indian numismatics he 
is, indeed, a recognised authoritv : his works on the 

coinage of South India, carried out under the auspices 

of the Madras and Mysore Government, being well 
known, and said to be fairly exhaustive. The beni- 
tiers contained in his collection were all found in 
Flanders, to which interesting country he has paid 
many visits, and it com[)rises examples of all periods 
in wood, bone, pewter, copper, brass, silver, stone, 
plaster, delft, and porcelain. 

Flanders is, jjerhaps, the most priest-ridden country 
on the face of the earth ; but if any collector of an- 
tiquities is in search of benitiers, he will fmd it a 
most happy hunting-ground, the few difficulties to 
be encountered giving zest to the search. Italy may 
be known to connoisseurs for its crucifixes, Spain 
for its reliquaries, France for its rosaries; but for 
benitiers — especially of tin.' domestic type — Flanders 
will safely bear the palm. 

Most of the specimens in Major Tufnell's col- 
lection were obtained from the houses of the poorer 




No. II. — 1!K.\SS 



Flemish Do/iiesfic Benitiei's 

classes in the West- 
ern provinces of 
the country, or 
from small village 
churches ; while a 
few of the more in- 
trinsically valuable 
came from the pri- 
vate chapels of the 
wealthier Flamands. 
Precious to the 
simple-minded Flam- 
and is his benitier, 


be it only of pewter or the 
homeliest delft : still more 
precious is the dirty and 
insanitary liquid in its shal- 
low well — the Holy Water 
blessed by the priest. W' ith 
this the happy father may 
perform the rite of baptism 
over his own children, and 
wage victorious warfare with 
the powers of evil that be- 
set his dwelling. The folk- 
lore of the people abounds 
with instances of its won- 
derful efficacy ; the following 
will serve for illustration. 

A poor man who possessed 
not even a straw mattress on 
which to lay his children, found, one winter's night, 
a truss of straw. Wild with joy, he took it home ; 
but scarcely had he laid it on the ground than the 
truss stood up on one end and began to dance. 
It was bewitched. Fortunately, the man"s wife had 
that morning replenished their benitier with Holy 
Water, and she was quite equal to the occasion. 
.Sprinkling some of the water on the truss and utter- 
ing a suitable adjuration, the truss disappeared, 
making a great noise as it vanished up the chimney. 

Among the earliest benitiers in the collection are 
Nos. i. and ii., very simiile forms in brass, with wells 
to hold the Holy Water shaped like the "dippers" 
used by water-colour painters of to-day. I'^^specially 
interesting is the second of these, in which the earlv 

No. \'. — BONE 

type of cross is formed by five pellets, a similar 
row. impressed from the back, appearing round the 
heart-shaped specimen figured as No. iii., which is 
of copper. These three specimens may all belong 
to the fifteenth century, though not improbably they 
are of a still earlier date : certainly they are not 

A scarcer if not quite so early an example is 
No. iv., which is of bone. Bone benitiers are among 
the rarest of all, and the one here figured is in very 
fine condition. The disposition of the feet of the 
Christ, which are placed one over the other and 
pierced by a single nail, is noteworthy, and may be 
some indication of the period to which it 
belongs, but the cross itself is almost cer- 
tainly of a later date. No. v., also of bone, 
shows the same placing of the feet, and is 
of the same character. It is inserted only 
for comparison, however, as it is a crucifix 
merely — the kind not infrequently hung 
above benitiers which do not themselves 
bear the image of the cross, e.g. Nos. vi. 
and vii., which are of metal. 

The earlv carved wood benitiers are hardly 
less rare than those of bone, and, owing to 
the more perishable 
nature of the material, 
very early ones are 
almost unknown. The 
example No. viii., 
which is of oak, be- 
longs to this category. 
The well is curiously 
similar in form and 
ornamentation to the 
bowls of the carved 
wood cups made to 

XO. VI. — MET.^L 

this day in Switzerland, 
but the piece is of un- 
doubted antiquity. The 
rest of the carving has 
a most primitive appear- 
ance : the feet are crossed 
and the head is almost 
erect, as in the very early 
figures of Christ. 

Nos. ix. to xiii., in- 
clusive, are typical of a 
large and remarkable 
series. All are of pewter, 
and they mostly bear 
the hall-mark of the rose, 

No. Vll. — METAL 


The Connoisseur 

or rose and crown ; of which latter type two speci- 
mens were figured in the second volume of this 
magazine. The evolution — or, rather, devolution — 
of the symbolic figures occurring at the foot of the 
Cross in each example is extremely curious, and in 
some ways instructive. Looking only at No. ix., 
one might speculate for a long time on the mean- 
ing of the apparently bent rods issuing from nothing 
definite and, though inclining towards each other, 
stopping short in a blob of pewter, which might be 
merely accidental. Various and somewhat fantastic 
theories have at times been woven round this ([uaint 
design, hut No. x. or xi. at once solves the mystery. 
The rods are two arms — the left and right respectively 
of two cherubs — and the blob of pewter represents 
the sacred heart grasped in their hands, a repre- 
sentation quite common in the Flemish Church. 
It may be noted that the wing of one cherub can 
still be seen to the left in No. xi., and there are 
traces of them also on other specimens in the col- 
lection not figured here. No. ix., however, should 
be specially studied, as 
it offers the quaintest 
variation of this em- 
blematic base in the 
whole collection, and, 
moreover, shows the 
fiames issuing from the 
centre of the heart. 
Above it is the image 
of the Virgin with 
Child enthroned on 

Other pewter ex- 
amples are Nos. xii. 
and xiii. The cup-like 
well of the former has 

No. X. — PEWTER 

a cover of the same 
m e t a 1 w o r k i n g on a 
/.inc wire hinge. 'I'he 
embossed group above 
is presumably the Virgin 
and Child, but the 
Virgin's head is miss- 
ing. The Child is triple- 
crowned, and bears in 
His left hand what ap- 
pears to be the orb of 
the world. Both are 
clad in rich vestments, 
the embroiderv of which 


is represented in high 
and sharp relief. 
The latter is note- 
worthy as bearing 
below the bound 
and thorn-crowned 
Christ the legend 
"E.C. HOMO," and 
is without hall-mark. 
1 n .N o. xi V. we 
h a \- e a s i 1 v e r - g i 1 1 
triptych, procured in 
the neighbourhood 


No. .\1.— pEwi 


of Bruges. The central 
plaque shows the Virgin 
and Child enthroned, 
with Saints attendant, 
while the apex contains 
a minute representation 
of the Crucifixion. The two wings of the triptych 
contain figures of Saints, with Angels worshipping 
above. The work is very choice, and probably of 
the early seventeenth century. Curiously enough, 
the collection also contains a benitier without wings, 
which exactly corresponds with the centre placjue 
of this, and, from close examination, would seem 
to have been cast from the same mould, but an 
amethyst has been set in the front of the bowl 
where the Angel's head and wings are here rejjre- 
sented. This was obtained at Antwerp, and, what 
is equally curious, both bear entirely different hall- 
marks. Specimens of this type are extremely rare. 
Benitiers of delft and porcelain offer by far the 
greatest and quaintest variety, and of these there 
are some thirty or forty in Major Tufnell's collection ; 
a few of them are here figured. An early form is 
No. XV. The blue glaze in this specimen has run 
into the gray, the colouration recalling that on 
eighteenth-century Lambeth delft apothecaries' jars. 
The triangle in the centre, symbolizing the Trinity, 
bears a curious device, the meaning of which we 


FlciiiisJi Domestic Boii tiers 




have been unable to ascertain, though it mav not 
improbably be a corrupted abbreviation of the 
Hebrew name Jehovah, «i^ri^ ' ^° often found 
in this connection. The quaint forms 

of the Virgin and Christ and the Angelic attendants 
on many of these are of extreme interest, but to 
illustrate even a small percentage of them would 
take up far more room than we have at our disposal. 
We may notice No. xvi., however, which represents 
a benitier of very earlv type. Here the figure of 
the Christ is, by means of lines diverging from the 
base, transformed into an anchor, the drops of 
blood from the pierced hands doubtless being in- 
tended to represent the anchor's chain — a touchingly 
([uaint conception in which the old Flemish artist, 
in the true spirit of mediieval symbolism, combines 
the anchor of his hope with the Crucifixion of his 

And now if one glances at No. xvii., and contrasts 

its aggressive modernness with the art of the dead 
past, one may well feel ashamed. The cheap-looking 
white glaze, disfigured by the gilt and red lines intro- 
duced to emphasize the foliate pattern, the tawdrv 
colouring of the oval plaque, in fact, the tout 
enst'iiibk, "damn the base copy of the modern day"; 
yet this example marks a type, and degeneracy in 
Christian art of necessity goes hand in hand with 
decay of faith and religious earnestness. 

The composite forms of many modern benitiers 
are not as a rule artistically pleasing. One specimen, 
not here figured, has a well of semi-translucent stone 
and a support of brass, a design which could hardly 
help lacking unity. The parts are joined by a rivet, 
and the clumsiness of the fastenings suggest late and 
degenerate work, though the figure of the Christ, 
which is distinct from the Cross, is doubtless of some 
antiquity. In another the well is of porcelain and 
the back of alabaster, but the oval placiue is merely 

No. .W. — UELFT 


The Connoisseur 

plaster-of-Paris, and the studs are orass ; while a 
thiid, with porcelain well, has an oval plaque of some 

say, they serve the same i)ur[)ose as those already 
alluded to, and are of equal interest. Many early 

No. X\1U. — rOKCELAIN 

dark composition on a wood foundation. Nos. xviii., 
xi.x., and xx. are other examples of porcelain benitiers. 
Thus far we have spoken only of a few specimens 
in the collection which are purely for domestic use, 
the kind one sees hanging on the cottage walls of 
devout Flamands ; but in addition to these there is 
another type exclusively of brass, copper, or pewter, 
which are suspended from any convenient point, of 
which Nos. vi. and vii. are examples. Needless to 


and graceful forms of these occur, though they do 
not offer the same variety of form or decoration as 
those to which we have alluded. 

The evolution of Christian art which may be traced 
in these objects, as in so many other objets d'art, is 
profoundly interesting, and deserves to be more 
widely studied. We have lately seen some silver 
crucifixes in Messrs. Spink \- Son's Galleries, belong- 
ing to different periods, in which the changing ideas 
on one of the subjects here referred to may be traced 
step by step in a most instructive manner. 





Mr, Arthur Morrison's Collection of Chinese and Japanese 
Paintings Part I. By Stewart DicK 


The paintings of the far East are little 
known in the West, even among those who are lovers 
of art. Such knowledge as most Europeans possess 
regarding the pictorial arts of Japan is based chiefly 
on the studv of its later 
developments in the 
colour prints, which, a few 
years ago, came to us as 
such a revelation of deco- 
rative beauty and charm. 
The products of a de- 
spised art, the art of the 
common people, these 
prints were little valued 
in Japan, and so were ex- 
ported in large numbers 
to exercise a far-reaching 
influence on European 
schools of design. Rut 
it has been far otherwise 
with the art of painting. 
The most aristocratic of 
all the arts, its products 
have always been highlv 
valued in fa]Kin. Its 
greatest treasures, stored 
in the old Ijuddhist tem- 
ples, and the collections 
of the Daimios, are rarely 
seen by the traveller, and 
more rarely still ever 
come into the market. 
Such paintings as do 
are naturally of the more 
recent schools, and the 
old masters, who are in 
Japan looked upon with 





liY MLll-KI U'M' .MUK-Ktl) 

the same veneration as we accord to the great masters 
of European art, are, for the most part, represented 
only by more or less ingenious forgeries. 
During the fiftv vears which have elapsed since lapan 
began to relax her policy 
of isolation, comjiaratively 
few of her finest paintings 
have ever reached this 
country. The British 
Museum possesses a fine 
though mi.xed collection ; 
the rest are distributed 
among a few private col- 

]iut besides the mere 
rarity of the paintings 
there are other difficulties 
in the path of the student 
and the collector. Chinese 
and Japanese pictorial art 
differs widely both in point 
of view and in manner of 
expression from the works 
of our European schools, 
and for this reason is 
often, even by the cul- 
tured amateur, unappre- 
ciated and misunderstood. 
Also the text-books deal- 
ing with the subject, by 
those who have had ex- 
ceptional opportunities of 
studying the finest exam- 
ples, are too often written 
from an alien and un- 
sy m pathetic standpoint, 
their writers not havint; 


The Connoisseur 

learnt the language of the art they criticise. For rare 
as are the old Japanese paintings, the European critic 
who understands and fully appreciates their merits is 
rarer still. 

Perhaps the most distinctive feature of Mr. Arthur 
Morrison's collection is, not its extent and complete- 
ness, astonishing though that is, or the many rarities 
which it contains, some of them almost unknown even 
in Japan, but the fact that 
it has been brought to- 
gether with a unique 
knowledge and under- 
standing of the principles 
of Japanese and Chinese 
art ; that the keenest criti- 
cal insight has rejected 
everything of doubtful 
authenticity, so that it in- 
cludes nothing but what is 
worthy of its place. 

For the pitfalls that 
surround the unwary col- 
lector are many and ob- 
scure. In the case of 
most of the better known 
artists the forgeries largely 
outnumber the genuine 
examples, and few col- 
lections really contain the 
treasures indicated by 
their catalogues. The 
signature on a painting of 
itself is little guide, for to 
render that in such a way 
as to satisfy the European 
eye is the easiest task of 
the forger. Then many 
a genuine painting is un- 
signed. Others again, 
originally left unsigned, 
have had the signature 
added subsequently by 
another hand, often in perfectly good faith, .so that a 
forged signature does not necessarily mean a forged 
picture. The certificates also, by well-known artists 
and critics, so often found in the box containing a 
valuable jiainting, are themselves frequently forgeries ; 
or, again, a genuine certificate may be used not to 
substantiate the original, which probably needs no 
such guarantee, but to bolster up a forgery. 

The only true test, in fact, is to judge the painting 
by the work alone. In China and Japan painting 
was originally regarded as a " branch of calligraphy." 
With Indian ink, on silk or absorbent paper, the artist 


worked with a full brush. Each stroke was indelible, 
there could be no alteration or modification, but with 
a bold and firm hand he set down his thought once 
and for all with inimitable directness and force. 
Chiaroscuro was only suggested ; colour, when used, 
applied in flat washes. Line, flowing and swelling 
and marvellously expressive, was the chief means by 
which he expressed himself. Thus, even more than 

in Western art, for the 
~\ means of expression are 
so much more simplified 
and direct, the hand of 
the artist may be recog- 
' nised in his technicjue. 
To the eye of the exjiert 
a Tanyu or a Naonobu 
is " signed all over," but 
to attain to this know- 
ledge is required not only 
insight and sympathy of 
the highest degree, but 
years of patient study. 

For the forger is often 
marvellously dexterous, 
and in his methods spares 
no pains. A valuable 
painting will be covered 
with a thin sheet of 
transparent oiled paper, 
which is waterproof ; on 
this again is laid the 
sheet of thin silk, also 
almost transparent, and 
then, with the original 
visible underneath, the 
I forger duplicates it stroke 
for stroke. It is only an 
indescribable quality in 
the line that distinguishes 
the work of the master 
from the copy, the one 
alive and full of a subtle 
beauty, the other lacking just the touch of inspiration 
that gives life. 

To deal thoroughly with such a collection as Mr. 
Morrison's would be to trace the history of art in 
Japan from the immigration of the Buddhist priests 
from Korea in the sixth century down to the present 
day, but in this short article it is only possible to 
treat briefly of its salient features and to reproduce a 
few characteristic examples. 

The older art of China was the fountain head of 
Japanese art. Not only did it there receive its birth, 
but its growth was stimulated by successive waves of 



Mr. Arfhuy Morrison's Collectio)i 

Chinese influence. It will be well, therefore, to deal 
first with the examples of the art of the parent country. 

But though the parallel schools of China and Japan 
are so closely linked together, there is still visible 
a distinct national quality in each. A Japanese writer 
of the eighteenth century modestly and poetically 
expresses this difference in the 
phrase that " our painting is 
the flower, that of China is 
the fruit in its maturity," and 
though this hardly does justice 
to the power and dignity of the 
greatest Japanese works, yet it 
hits off well the distinctive 
qualities of the two stvles. The 
Chinese work possesses more 
sobriety than the Japanese ; it 
is marked by a steady serious- 
ness, which pervades even its 
lighter and more delicate mani- 
festations. The Japanese spirit 
seems more spontaneous, more 
volatile, and sometimes runs 
riot in a wealth of gay and 
irresponsible fancy. 

Chinese paintings, especially 
of the older schools, are even 
more rare in European col- 
lections than Japanese paint- 
ings : almost the only known 
specimens being those treasured 
in the temples and private col- 
lections of Ja])an. No one 
knows what wealth of art, de- 
sjiite the wanton and barbarous 
<lestruction of the summer 
palace of Pekin, may yet lie 
hidden in (_"hina ; but this has 
hitherto not been revealed to 
European eyes. 

Of the many examples in the 
collection, first of all is a fine 
painting by Ching So Wang, an 
artist of the Tang dynasty (a.d. 618-906). The sub- 
ject is the favourite one of an angry storm-dragon 
bursting out from a thundercloud, and though the 
colours have dimmed and faded, a thousand years 
have not les.sened the terrible restrained strength of 
the picture. 

One of the greatest masters of the Sung dynasty 
was Mok-kei, who lived in the eleventh century, 
famous as a painter of tigers, dragons, and birds. 
The example here reproduced, which is in wonder- 
fully good preservation, is full of tremendous power. 


the lithe, sinewy form of the tiger seeming the very 
embodiment of sinister and murderous ferocity. 

Of this early period the collection also possesses 
a very fine example, attributed to Cho Tai-nen, of 
a hunter riding home in the dusk on an ox. It is 
unsigned, hut the chief argument against its attribution 
is its wonderfully perfect preser- 

The Ming period is repre- 
sented first by two beautiful 
flower and bird paintings dating, 
from the fourteenth century, by 
^Vang-jo-sui. The background 
has darkened to a rich golden 
brown, and the colours are full 
and harmonious, and though 
the petals of the flowers are 
painted with extreme delicacy, 
yet the paintings are full of a 
grave dignity. 

Then follow two very fine 
specimens dating from the six- 
teenth century, probably the 
only examples of the respective 
artists in Europe. The one, by 
Shiu- sh i - ben, is a delightful 
study II f birds and white 
blossom, strong and simple in 
line, and of rich full colour. 
The other, a landscape by 
Bun-cho- me i, the poet and 
calligraphist, is what is known 
as a "literary man's picture." 
It is a noble and dignified 
composition of ui a s s y 
mountain, cloud and stream ; 
the colour soft rich greens 
and sombre browns, with here 
and there a touch of red. 
'I'hc rarity of this artist's work 
uiav he judged from the tact 
that no other specimen exists 
in luirope, very few are known 
in Japan, and nothing is known of ,ni exam[)le in 

Although the works of the Ising period, which 
followed the Ming, are often hastily set down as 
inferior to the older schools, the period produced 
many great painters, and tlieir works are much sought 
after in Ja])an. From some of the examples here, 
one may see to what heights they attain. 

An artist whose work is much \alued in Japan 
is Wang-Hui, a landscapist of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, who painted in the softer Southern style, and 



Tlie Coiiiioisscitr 

Mr. Morrison is fortunate in the possession of an 
album containing twelve of those delicate drawings. 
Also of the seventeenth century is a beautiful paint- 
ing of white blos.som by Hosonoku. 

Few European religious paintings could compare 
in elevation and dignity with the example by 
W'ang-Lu-Kung, who lived at 
the end of the Ming and the 
beginning of the Tsing 
dynasties. The subject is 
the favourite one of the three 
religions: Buddha, Confucius, 
and Lao Tse (the last repre- 
sented as a babe) meet har- 
moniously in the realms of 
the ideal. In a.n Eitar/opiedia 
^/'rt/«//«.5'published inChina 
in the eighteenth century, the 
painter was described as "the 
greatest figure-painter of his 
time, surpassing all his con- 
temporaries as the seven stars 
of Heaven surpass the lesser 

Dated 1722, nearly a hun- 
dred years later, is an 
example of Chin-nan-pin, 
an artist from whom the 
naturalistic painter Maru- 
yama Okio derived much 
of his inspiration. The 
subject is a group of white 
rabbits under a tree covered 
with blossom. The animals 
are absolutely life-like, the 
quality of the transparent 
petals of the blossom is ex- 
quisitely rendered, and the 
whole picture is a wonderful 
combination of grave solidity 
in style, with an extreme 
delicacy in handling. 

The first painters in japan 
were the Buddhist ])riests who crossed over from 
Korea in the sixth century, and for a long time 
their art was confined to the productions of Butsu- 
gwa, the sacred pictures wliich adorned the temple 

For many centuries the work was carried on 
on strictly traditional lines, and in those formal 
paintings are found some of the most noble monu- 
ments of Japanese art. The temples were the safest 
storehouses of art relics in Japan, and a fair number 
of the old Butsu-gwa survive ; but in most of them 


the former sjilendour of the colour is sadly dulled 
and tarnished by age and incense fumes. 

Very few fine examples have found their way to 

luirojie, and the Japanese Government is even now 

making a survey of all such temple pictures, which 

are being catalogued as national treasures, and their 

export forbidden. One of 

the most surjirising features, 

therefore, of Mr. Morrison's 

collection is the number of 

really fine Butsu-gwa which 

it contains. 

First of these may be 
mentioned a beautiful and 
impressive representation ot 
the male Kwannon (it is the 
female form that is usually 
painted), with a small adoring 
figure at the foot of the pic- 
ture. It dates from the ninth 
century, and at such a dis- 
tance of time, in the absence 
of any other evidence, it is 
impossible to attribute it 
more particularly than to one 
of t h e great Kosd painters 
of that time. Age and in- 
cense fumes have turned the 
background to a dark brown, 
but they have failed to de- 
stroy the extreme nobility of 
the [)ainter's conception and 
the delicacy and firmness of 
his workmanshi[). It was a 
difficult problem that such a 
picture set for the artist. The 
figure to be represented was 
not human, but supernatural : 
it contained, too, such ah- 
ncunial features as several 
pairs of arms, yet the impres- 
sion produced must be noble 
and elevated, not grotesque. 

To us accustomed to the earthliness and poverty of 
insi)iration which distinguish almost invariably the 
works of Christian art, the extreme loftiness of con- 
ception of such works is absolutely a revelation. 

Another work of much the .same period, also a 
picture of great dignity and beauty, bears a certificate 
attributing it to no a painter than the great 
Kanaoka himself: but Mr. Morrison himself prefers 
to regard it as a fine work of the twelfth or tliirteenth 

But the finest of all .Mr. Morrison's llutsu-gwa is 


Mr. Arthu}' Morrison's Collection 





^ 4 ? 




'^.i ^ 







. 1 








probably the great picture by Eshin Sodzu-CJenshin, 
who lived in the end of the tenth and the early part 
of the eleventh centuries. 

The care taken in storing the picture is evidence of 
the high estimation in which it was held. The bo.x 
containing the roll has a lock and key, to insure its 
onlv being opened by the chief priest of the temple in 
which it so long reposed, and the rollers of the kake- 
mono are mounted with beautiful jikii of hammered 

The picture itself is of tremendous power. The 
Buddha is represented as standing in a lotus and 
descending upon a cloud to the earth ; before him 
descend two angels. The figures are gilded all over, 
and on the surface of the gold appear in most 
exquisite drawing the features and other details. A 
halo surrounds the head of each figure, and from 
that of the Buddha great rays in gold strike off to 
the edge of the painting. The background is of 
gunjo (the famous lapis lazuli blue), but this has 
cracked off and faded to something nearer a rich 
black with a strange bloom of blue over it, so that 
the picture only burns with some part of its former 
splendour. The gold of the halos, the radiating 
rays, and the outlines of the lotus leaves were all 
executed, too, in the famous kiri-kane or cut gold 
(now almost a lost art) ; but where the ginijo has 
cracked away, it has also carrictl with it the gold, 
.so that only traces here and there are lelt. 

Indirect evidence makes the more certain the 
authenticity of this picture. The silk on which it 
is painted is not of one piece, but of three narrow 
strips sewn together — a characteristic of the work 
of some 900 years ago, when silk was not to be 
obtained in broader widths. Then, again, gunjo is 
a colour of such extreme permanence that for 500 
vears it remains untouched by time, and the further 
changes here visible are only possible in at least 200 
years more. 

Of the thirteenth century is an exquisite example 
by Takuma Choga, another great painter, whose works 
are so rare that he is to most little more than a name. 
It represents Jizo, the protector of children, and is 
characterised by a wonderful sweetness and dignity 
combined with great power. 

The collection contains also two very fine ex- 
amples of the work of Kasuga Yukuhide, a painter 
of the early fifteenth century, with the colour still 
clear, bright, and unclouded. Two out of a set of 
the twelve Deva Kings, they probably belonged to 
a small temple, where, owing to limited space, the 
whole twelve could not be hung up together, and 
so escaped with little use. One especially, repre- 
senting Taishaku Ten, which is here reproduced— 
unfortunately not in colour — is a fine example of the 


BY CU3 i>i;nm 


The Connoisseur 

splendour and dignity of the old Buddliist work, with 
its rich tints and copious use of gold. The halo with 
other parts of the painting was gilded under the silk, 
but owing to the remounting of the picture the gold 
in these cases has disappeared. 

Of a slightly later date are two fine specimens 
of Shiba kin ken, who 
flourished in tlie be- 
ginning of the sixteenth 

Some of the painters 
of the old Buddhist 
schools also painted in 
an alternative secular 
manner, but these paint- 
ings are even rarer than 
those of sacred sub- 

And her e w e h a \- e , 
perhaps, the most sensa- 
tional of all the treasures 
of the collection. 

The most famous of all 
Japanese painters is the 
great Kose' no Kanaoka, 
and he was one of the 
first of those who, in ad 
d i t i o n to B u t s u - g \v a, 
devoted his attention to 
secular subjects. But the 
last absolutely authenti- 
cated works of Kanaoka 
was in tin- royal palace 
at Kioto, and these were 
destroyed by fire in the 
seventeenth century. 
Since that time, then, 
though various pictures 
have been attributed to 
the master, it has been 
impossible to absolutely 
c o n fi r m a n y such a t - 
tribution, as there is no 


undoubted example of his work with which com- 
parison may be made. 

But Mr. Morrison possesses a portrait which is 
ascribed to Kanaoka, and which represents the famous 
philosopher, Tenjin Sama, a personal friend of the 
artist, and above the figure is inscribed by the hand 
of the Emperor Uda, a poem in praise of Tenjin 
Sama. Formerly there existed a certificate by 
Kohitsu Rioyei, a contemporary of Kano Tanyu, 
who would therefore have seen undoubted examples 
of Kanaoka's work, liut the box containing the picture 

was destroyed by fire in the eigliteenth century, and 
the certificate perished with it. To preserve a record, 
however, of its contents, it was re-written on gold 
liaper and attached to the inside of the roller at the 
bottom of the mount, so that imtil the whole picture 
was destroyed the record in the inside of the roll 

would remain ; and there 
indeed it remains to this 

This [jicture remained 
in the hands of descend- 
ants of Tenjin Sama till 
quite recently, and a few- 
years ago was shown at 
an exhibition of relics of 
the great philosopher. 
The history of its trans- 
ference to Mr. Morrison's 
collection is interesting, 
though too long for re- 
production here. 

.\s matters are, it is 
ini[)ossible to say with 
absolute certainty that 
any painting is by Kana- 
oka. But there is no 
reason why one should 
disbelieve the record 
given ; and among com- 
petent native judges the 
least favourable possibil- 
ity admitted is that the 
work might be a pro- 
duction of the greatest 
Takuma, a little later 
th.ui Kanaoka. On its 
own merits, the ])ortrait 
in its quiet and serene 
calmness is worthy of the 
greatest artist. 

A unicjue example also 
is the small secular 
painting by Fujiwara no 
who died in 1265. It is a portrait of 
the poet .Minamoto no Shitago, being a section cut 
from what was originally a makimono of the thirty- 
six poets. It belonged to an old Japanese temple, 
wherein the artist Shokwado was chief priest, as 
shown by the picture being stamped as the property 
of the temple, with the artist's .seal. 

.Another fine example of secular work by an old 
Buddhist painter is by Cho Densu, one of the greatest 
of all Japanese painters, who died early in the fifteenth 
century. It re|)resents Shoki, the demon-destroyer. 




Mr. ArfJiiir Morrison's Collection 

carrying off a little demon, which howls and struggles 
in desperation. The drawing is of astonishing force, 
and the colour a wonderful harmony of soft quiet 

From the Buddhistic school there gradually arose 
the secular Yamato or Tosa school. In the fourteenth 
century a famous master in this manner was Kose no 
Korehisa, the painter of a 
series of makimono illus- 
trating one of the civil wars 
of the eleventh century. 
This roll, originally in the 
possession of the Japanese 
Empress, and said to con- 
tain the finest of all 
Japanese war pictures, 
was carefully copied in the 
seventeenth century, and 
the copy has now a resting- 
place in Mr. Morrison's 
collection. It is a start- 
ling piece of work, the 
grim horrors of war being 
set down without softening 
or mitigation. The draw- 
ing of the horses especially 
is superb, and the long 
roll is full of scenes of 
grand dramatic quality. 

One of the leading court 
painters of the sixteenth 
century was Tosa Mitsu- 
shige, whose daughter 
married the Kano painter, 
Motonobu, and of his 
work the collection has a 
valuable example. It con- 
sists of three panels of a 
sliding screen, and is a 
typical example of the old 
Tosa manner. The whole 
surface is covered with gold, above which the colours 
have been laid, and the effect is rich and jewel-like. 
The centre panels repre.sent nobles playing the stately 
football game, which was once reckoned as one of the 
higher accomplishments. 

Of the later Tosa artists the collection contains 
some fine examples, and also a book of illustrations 
in the Tosa style, by Toshun, a Kano painter, who 
lived in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, of 


the old romance, "The Genji Monogatari." The book 
originally belonged to the Shogun's family, bearing 
his crest in needlework on the cover, and the backs 
of the pages are covered with the amateur drawings, 
some of them very clever, of the members of his 

When the Chinese renaissance in the beginning 
of the fifteenth century 
gave a new impetus to 
' " Japanese art, Shiubun 

was the leading figure, 
and the example which 
Mr. Morrison possesses 
shows all the poetry and 
mystery of his work. 
For the old Chinese and 
Japanese landscape paint- 
ers did not seek realism ; 
it was the spirit of nature 
which they sought to 
portray. They dwelt in 
the realms of the ideal, 
and their cool streams 
and towering mountains 
swathed in mist, with 
here and there the sug- 
gestion of a temple roof, 
or a fisherman's boat, 
have all the peaceful 
serenity of the world of 

Of the workof Shiubun's 
famous pupils Oguri Sotan 
and Noami, practically un- 
known out of Japan, there 
are two fine examples : the 
first, a delightful study of 
birds and flowers, full of 
soft harmonious colour, 
which marks Sotan as one 
of the finest of Japanese 
flower painters ; the other, by Noami, a striking and 
powerful study of a tiger, which almost rivals that of 
.\Iok-kei himself. 

Noami's grandson, Soami, was famous for his soft 
misty landscapes, painted in the Chinese manner ; 
but that he could turn his powers to quite another 
class of subject is shown by the exceedingly powerful 
head of the sage Daruma, a masterpiece of concen- 
trated force. (7'o be contiiiiud.) 




Mr, Butts, the Friend and Patron of BlaKe By Ada E. Briggs 

Therk are many titles to immortality, as 
there are to that lesser honour, a right to be remem- 
bered by one's fellow-men : and to be known to 
posterity as having been the friend and helper of as 
yet unrecognised genius is certainly not one of the 
least. Blake was a force that it would have been 
difficult for circumstances to conquer in any case, 
but that pathetic, empty plate, which Mrs. Blake used 
to place before her husband as a silent reminder that 
even prophets and seers must eat to live, and as an 
entreaty that he would forthwith depict some of 
those visions with pen or pencil that starvation might 
not overtake them, must, without Mr. Butts, have 
appeared far oftener than it actually did. And if 
these wonderful imaginings had never been given a 
concrete form, what a loss this would have been to 
the world ! 

We do not know what it was that in the beginning 
drew these two, at first sight, most divergent per- 
sonalities together, but materials fortunately exist from 
which we can gather a good idea of the relations 
which subsisted between them. This friendship forms 
one of the most pleasing aspects of Blake's strenuous 
career; the most perfect of all, perhaps, being his 
relations to his wife : for unlike the majority of men 
of genius, hr wa^- furtunate in the woman he married : 

they understood 
and loved each 
other to the end ; 
and the friendship, 
too, was never 

Mr. Butts, at the 
time when he first 
began to buy the 
works of the prac- 
tically unknown 
artist, held a post 
under Govern- 
ment, and must 
have been some- 
what of a dandy 


{ Hy fit-rmission of the Owner) 

to judge from the smart embroidered coats, waistcoats, 
and lace ruffles preserved by his descendants and 
kept in a chest standing near the pictures, which he 
perhaps bought whilst he was wearing them. A slight 
sketch of the most prominent among his forbears 
may be interesting before we pass on to consider his 
relations to the poet-artist. 

Wc find, then, that the family was of considerable 
importance in the reigns of Richard and John : and 
there is still in existence a deed dated October nth, 
1 1 70, in which the King large estates in the 
counties of Suffolk and Essex to his " Well-beloved 
John and .Mary Butts." 

The next member of the family who has left a 
record in history was a Sir William Butts living in 
the time of Edward III., who was slain, Camden says, 
at the Battle of Poictiers, .\.d. 1356. During the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the family seems to 
have resided only at Shouldham Thorpe and Thornage, 
in Norfolk. The manor of Thornage was long in the 
possession of the Butts family, and on the ancient 
communion plate of the church there is inscribed : 
"Was the gyfte of John Butes " (often so spelt) "and 
Margaret his wife, 1456," and then, apparently added 
later, "which dyed in 1479." This John was the 
father of Sir William Butts, the celebrated physician 
to Henry VIII., men- 
tioned by Shakes- 
peare. Aitken, in his 
Biography of Medi- 
cine^ says that this 
Sir AVilliam was edu- 
cated at Gonville 
College, Cambridge, 
of which he was 
elected a Fellow. 
He became B..\. in 
1506, M..\. in 1509, 
and .M.|). in 1518. 
He was the friend of 
Wolsey, Cranmer, 
and Hugh I-atimer, 


(By permission of the Owner) 


Mr. Buffs, flic Friend of B/a/ce 

and the patron of Cheke and Thirlhv. 

In 1529 he was admitted a mendjer of 

the College of Physicians. Hut it is 

strange how history repeats itself, and 

Thomas Butts was not the first of his 

line to be the friend and patron of a 

great artist, for Dr. Butts' chief title to 

remembrance now lies in the facts that 

he .stood in this same relationship to 

Holbein, who painted him more than 

once, as well as several members of his 

family : and also that he was for a time 

a living entity in Shakespeare's mind, 

who singled him out from the crowd 

of courtiers and noblemen to stand for a moment 

beside his protagonists, in the play of Henry V'HI. 

Shakespeare probably never saw 1 )r. Butts, who died 

'" 1 5455 before the capital had yet received in humble 

guise the greatest of England's sons : but no doubt 

he had often heard of him. Sir William married 

Margaret Bacon, and their daughter married her 

cousin. Sir Nicholas Bacon, elder brother of the great 

Lord Bacon, and this daughter carried the greater ])art 

of the Norfolk estates and many of the pictures out of 

the family. Her brother Edmund's portrait by Bettes, 

a pupil of Holbein, is now in the National Gallery. 

Early in the eighteenth century we find a Robert 
Butts (born 1685, died 1747), the son of a William 
Butts, rector of Hartest, Suffolk, as Bishop of Ely ; 
he was great-uncle to the man who is the subject of 
this sketch, and left to his great-nephew some beautiful 
china, which still e.\ists. 

Thomas Butts, like Blake himself, was happy in his 
married life, and profound love and sympathy existed 
between him 
and his wife. 

This Elizabeth , 1^,, / 

B u 1 1 s ( H e e 
( "oo])er) drew 
<|uaint pictures 

in needle- v'tP 6 

work : groups 
of rabbi t s, 
hares, part- 
ridges, and 
the like — one 
wonders what 
Blake thought 
of them, and 
whether he 
was ever called 
upon to express 
his opinion 
on their merits 


{By peririission o/ llu On'ncr) 


as artistic productions. The colours 
are a little faded now, but otherwise 
they are as well preserved as when 
" Betsy," as she was called, first finished 
them and sent them to be framed — 
with no little pride we may be sure ! 
The eldest son of this Thomas and 
ILlizabeth Butts, Joseph Edward, ran 
through a very considerable fortune 
during his father's life-time, and was 
disinherited. He died before his 
father and his family migrated to 
America. There were several other 
children, who all died young, with the 
exception ot the subject of the third miniature repro- 
duced here, also a Thomas, who was born in 1788, 
and died in 1862. He was the son whom Blake was 
engaged to teach drawing at a yearly salary of ^^26 ; 
but the father seems to have profited far more by the 
lessons than the son did, and though it is difficult, 
when father and son both have the same name, to 
be sure in every case, the drawings and engravings 
reproduced here are all lielieved to be by the father. 
The son did not share the elder Thomas Butts' 
enthusiasm for Blake, and after his father's death 
either gave away or sold for a mere trifle a great 
many of the pictures, and notably the Inventions to 
the Book of Job, which was sold by Lord Crewe at 
Sotheby's on March 30th, 1904, for ^5,600, the 
highest price, it is believed, ever paid for any com- 
paratively motlern book. 

It was about the year 1793 that Blake made the 
acquaintance of Mr. Butts. What, one wonders, was 
the bond between the two? Was .Mr. Butts so far 

seeing that he 
alone of the 
general public 
of his day 
recognised the 
interest and 
value that these 
works w o u 1 d 
have for a later 
ge n e ration ? 
Was it the 
personality of 
the poet - artist 
that attracted 
him ? Or was 
it kin d n e s s 
of heart and 
sympathy with 
the struggles 
and difficulties 

(/>y kimi ptrirission 0/ Messrs. Caf/a.r *V Co ) 


Ihc Connoisscitr 

of a |)oor and unknown genius that 
induced him to expend the money 
he gave for pictures hy living artists 
— and he for some time bought 
one a week — on the works of Hlake 
alone, instead of also on those of 
men esteemed in his day, many 
of them still esteemed in ours ; 
Bartolozzi, Flaxman, Stothard. not 
to mention Sir Joshua, who hail 
just died (1792), (iainsborough, 
and Romney ? The only works 
by an artist of his own day, other 
than Blake, tliat he l)ouglu were 
three interesting pencil sketches of 
the Royal Dukes, by Laurence. Did he feel that Blake 
possessed some special quality that attracted him more 
than anything that these others had done ? One 
cannot but think so, especially when we see from the 
reproductions of some of the work that he executed 
under Blake's tuition, how much he has caught of 
the master's manner and feeling. Kven if the 
floating figure was copied from one of Blake's, as 
seems likely, the N'enus Anadyomene that bears 
the legend " T. Butts, Inv. et pinx., 1807'' cannot 
be. The three others are probably engraved from 
Blake's designs. The plates are still in existence. 
The pleasantest relations marked their long friend- 
ship, and Blake, who with the irritability natural to 
a man of his ardent, imaginative character (juarrelled 
with almost everyone, never had a serious dis- 
agreement with Mr. lUitts. He says himself that 
his friend always left him free to exercise his own 
judgement, and that he would never cease to honour 
and respect him on this account. Thus we fuid that 
generosity, confidence, and admiring recognition of 
great powers on the one hand, and love and gratitude 
on the other, seem to have marked their intercourse 
throughout. l-'or though the ])rice that Mr. Butts 
paid for the [lictures, one guinea each, now seems 
to us ridiculously inadecjuate, yet it was far more 
than Blake could obtain for them elsewhere, and, 
indeed, at one time there was 
no one else who would buy them 
at any price ; but Blake, as we 
know, valued far more than money 
the recognition of his genius and 
the being left free to follow his 
own strong inward bent. .\s long 
as he had the wherewithal to pur- 
chase the materials of his art, 
and to provide himself and his 
Catherine with the humble neces- 
saries of daily life, he was more than 

( By perntission o/ tin: Owner) 

(Hy /•erittission o/ the Owner) 

content. Mr. Butts was not, then, 
like poor I' laxman, " a sublime 
archangel " in Blake's phraseology 
when things in general were running 
smoothly, and "an odious demon" 
when they were not. Kven when 
he writes to excuse his long delay 
in executing some commissions, he 
writes temperately, as if Mr. Butts 
had never other than a calming 
effect upon him, as the following 
extract from a letter will show : — 
" Be assured, my dear friend, 
that there is not one touch in these 
drawings and pictures but what 
came from my head and my heart in unison : that 
1 am proud of l)eing their author, and grateful to 
you my employer ; and that 1 look upon you as 
the chief of my friends whom I would endeavour 
to please, because you, among all men, have enabled 
me to produce these things. I would not send you 
a drawing or a picture till I had again rei'onsidered 
mv notions of art, and had put nivself back as if 
I was a learner. I have proved that I am right, 
and shall now go on with the vigour I was in my 
childhood famous for. I!ut I do not pretend to 
be perfect : yet, if my works have faults, Carraci's, 
Correggio's, and Raphael's have faults also. . . . 
Let me also notice that Carraci's pictures are not 
like Correggio'.s, nor Correggio's like Raphael's ; and, 
if neither of them was to be encouraged till he did 
like any of the others, he must die without en- 
couragement. My pictures are unlike anv of these 
painters, and I would have them be so. I think 
the manner I adopt more jjcrfect than any other. 
No doubt they thought the same of theirs. Vou 
will be tempted to think that as I improve, the 
pictures, etc., that I did for you are not what I 
now wish them to be. On this I beg to sav that 
they are what 1 inleriiled them, and that 1 know I 
never shall do better ; for, if I were to do them 
over again, they would lose as much as they gained, 
because they were done in the heat 
of my spirit.'' 

-Vnd again from another letter : 
" Accept of my thanks for your kind 
and heartening letter. Vou have 
faith in the endeavours of me, your 
weak brother and fellow-disciple. 
How great must be your faith in 
our Divine .Master.' Vou are to 
me a lesson in humility, while 
you e.xalt me by such distinguish- 
ing commendations. I know that 


Mr. Butts, the Friend of Blake 

you see certain merits in me, which, by God's 
grace, shall be made fully apparent and perfect in 
Eternity. In the meantime I must not bury my 
talents in the earth, but do mv endeavour to live 
to the glory of our Lord and Saviour : and I am 
also grateful to the kind hand that endeavours to 
lift me out of despondency, even if it lifts me 
too high." 

And again : " I send seven drawings, which I hope 
will please you. This, I believe, about balances our 
account. Our return to London draws on apace. Our 
expectation of meeting again with 
you is one of our greatest pleasures. 
Pray tell me how your eyes do. 
I never sit down to work but I 
think of you, and feel anxious for 
the sight of that friend whose eyes 
have done me so much good. I 
omitted, very unaccountably, to copy 
out in my last letter that passage in ' 

my rough sketch which related to 
your kindness in offering to exhibit 
my two last pictures in the Gallery 
in Berner Street. It was in these 
words : ' I sincerely thank you for 
your kind offer of exhibiting my 
two pictures. The trouble you take 
on my account, I trust, will be 
recompensed you by Him who sees 
in secret. If you should find it 
convenient to do so, it will be grate- 
fully remembered by me among the 
other numerous kindnesses I have 
received from you.' " 

Mr. Butts .seems, indeed, to have 
had sufficient insight and greatness 
of mind to have uniformly treated 
his inferior in mere worldlv station, 
at a time, too, when classes were far more shar|)ly 
divided than they are now, in such a manner that 
Blake should feel that he was acknowledged as his 
.superior in force of character and intellect, in all 
things pertaining to the mind ; and this, no doubt, 
was balm to the often vexed and distracted man, 
so little understood or valued, as a rule, by his 

One or two slight errors have crept into all the lives 
of Blake, the writers often, no doubt, in many cases 
following each other. Mr. Butts was not a merchant, 
as Gilchrist expressly .states in vol. i., page 282, but 
held a j)ost under Government and became Muster- 
Master General to the Forces, a post now merged in 
that of Secretary for War. It is true that he owned 
a coal-mine in Wales, whicli did not pay and was 

DR.^\VI.\(; BV W. lil.AKE 
Ihy ftcrniission of the Owner) 

later given away, and from the account given in 
(Gilchrist's book and still in the possession of the 
Butts family, it appears that he once paid for 
some of the pictures in coal instead of money: "By 
coals, to Oct. 5th, i8o5,_^j2 r9s.,''and it is probably 
this that is responsible for the mistake. There are 
still preserved 29 receipts for sums paid for the 
pictures, varying from 4 to 28 gns., two of which are 
re[)roduced here for the sake of those who are inter- 
ested in autographs. This is the only one that is in 
Blake's handwriting throughout ; all the others are 
drawn up by Mr. Butts and signed 
by Blake. 

.\nother error connected with 
Mr. Butts is in Ellis and Veats' 
book, where he is spoken of 
throughout as "Captain Butts," 
they having confused him with 
his grandson. 'I hen again, where 
do the people who so constantly 
ascribe what is called the "Adam 
and Eve " story to Mr. Butts' 
authority, obtain any evidence for 
so doing? On page 115, vol. i., 
Gilchrist states that Mr. Butts was 
" fond of telling the story which 
has since been pretty extensively 
retailed about town." But he does 
not say who heard him repeat 
it, or give any authority for the 
statement, and the late ("aptain 
Butts said that he distinctly re- 
members hearing his grandfather 
declare that there was no truth in 
it. Probably it had occurred to 
some wit that it was not impossible 
that a man such as " men about 
town ' would consider Blake to 
be should do such a thing ; his hearers found the 
anecdote boi /roTa/o, if not true, and gossip soon 
did the rest. 

Let us now turn to consider for a moment the three 
miniatures illustrati'd in this article. At the time that 
the elder Mr. Butts was painted, he was Muster- .Master 
General to the Forces, and it is doubtless in the uniform 
of this office that he is here dejiicted. In the repro- 
duction it scarcely looks like a uniform, but is plainly 
so in the original, the one epaulet being clearly visible. 
The miniature is well executed, but here, as always 
when Blake worked from life, his own peculiar man- 
ner is entirely absent. It is ])robably a good portrait, 
but there is no inspiration about it. Mr. Butts is 
represented as a refined, intelligent-looking man, with 
good features and a serene and pleasing expression. 


The Connoisseur 

Blake says in one place, " natural 

objects always did and do, weaken, 

(leaden, and obliterate iniatiination 

in me " ; but later on we fmd an 

illustration of his favourite maxim 

that " the man who never alters his 

opinion is like standing water, and 

breeds reptiles of the mind." For 

in a letter of July 6th, 1803, writing 

of these very miniatures, he says : 

"Then I am determined that Mrs. 

Butts shall have a good likeness of 

you, if I have hands and eyes left : 

for I am become a likeness-taker, 

and succeed admirably well. Hut 

this is not to be achieved without 

the original sitting before you for 

every touch, all likenesses from 

memory being necessarily very, very defective : but 

Nature and Fancy are two things, and can never be 

joined, neither ought anyone to attempt it, for it is 

idolatry, and destroys the Soul." 

And again in a previous letter ; " .Xnd why have I 
not before now finished the miniature 1 promised to 
Mrs. Butts ? I answer I have not till now in any 
degree pleased myself, and now I must entreat you 
to excuse faults, for portrait painting is the direct 
contrary to designing and historical painting in 
every respect. If you have not nature before you for 
every touch, you cannot paint portrait ; ami il 
you have nature before you at all, you cannot paint 
history. It was Michael Angelo's opinion, and is 
mine. Pray give my wife's love, with mine, to Mrs. 
Butts. Assure her that it cannot be long before I 
have the pleasure of painting from you in person, 
and then that she may expect a likeness. But now 
I have done all I could, and know she will for- 
give any failure in consideration of the endeavour." 

The portraits of .Mrs. Butts and of 
the son were painted some years later. 
She is a somewhat mature, handsome, 
and dignified woman, a little in the 
grand style, and it has been thought 
that a distinct resemblance to her may 
be traced in many of Blake's female 
figures. The son, who is represented 
as a good-looking young man of about 
one and-twenty, is believed to have hated 
Blake ; at any rate he disposed of as 
many of the drawings as he could as 
soon as they became his own property. 

(/»^' ptrniission o/ tht Owner) 

( Hy ficriiiissioH 0/ the Owner) 

His own Strong bent was towards 
music. In an old pocket diary of 
1800, when he was between eleven 
and twelve years of age, anil some 
years before the lessons from Blake 
began, we find the following entries : 
— "September loth, Mr. and .Mrs. 
Blake, his brother, and .Mr. Birch 
came to tea " : and, again, " Sep- 
tember i6th, Mr. Blake had break- 
fast with mama." 

Blake died in 1827, and .Mr. Butt.^ 
not till 1844, and the last pictures 
known to have been bought by him 
were The Inventions to the Book of 
Job in 1822, to which we have 
already referred, while the last 
transaction between them seems 
to have been in 1823, when .Mr. Butts lent these 
designs to the artist that he might show them 
to possible purchasers of engravings to be taken 
from them. There is no record of any intercourse 
between the two men during the last four or 
five years of Blake's life. It was not that there 
was an estrangement, but both were growing on in 
years, and there had gathered round Blake a band 
of young and ardent disciples who no doubt pushed 
the older friends a little on one side. The Lin- 
nells, .Mr. Crabb Robinson, Mr. Haviland Burke, 
.Mr. Tatham, .Mr. Cumberland, and John Varley — 
these, with some few others, seem to have filled 
the place of Mr. Butts in those last declining 
years. Hut an unbroken friendship of thirty years 
fills a large space in the brief life of man, and 
theirs certainly reflects equal credit upon both 
of them. That Mr. lUitts was in the end in 
every way the gainer does not detract from the 
value of the qualities that enabled him to act a.s 
he did before he could possibly have 
known this. And one is glad to think 
that he who contributed so largely to 
the peace and happiness of a great 
genius such as Blake, should himself, 
on the whole, have led a happy life ; 
and as long as the name of the one 
is held in honour by mankind, so 
long will the other be remembered 
as the man without whom Blake's 
arduous struggle to live would at one 
time have been, not a struggle, but an 


A London Silversmith of the Eighteenth Century 
By Edward F. Strange 

The importance of exploring old books of 
account — and especially those relating to the crafts — 
is by now pretty generally admitted. The difficulty 
lies in tinding documents of this nature ; for the old 
craftsmen hardly seem to have been sufficiently con- 
siderate of our needs or, at all events, our curiosity. 
They have left few records ; possibly because, how- 
ever able they were at their callings, the cramped arts 
of writing and book-keeping did not greatly appeal to 
them. Once in a way such a one does, nevertheless, 
come to the surface, and it is my good fortune to be 
able to draw attention to a case. 

for a number of years there has been, in the 
section of Prints and Drawings of the Victoria and 
Albert Museum, an old volume containing a large 
number of prints, obviously taken from engraved 
silver plate ; and this has been in general use, for the 
sake of its heraldrv. But, upon examining it lately 

in connection with some necessary repairs to the 
binding, I was struck with the nature of one or two 
fragmentarv entries, in faded ink, which could be 
seen, here and there, between the prints. It became 
evident that the latter ought, for their own sakes, to 
be removed and properly mounted. This was done 
carefully, so as to preserve as much as possible of the 
book itself ; and when the operation had been com- 
pleted, it became possible, for the first time for a 
century and a quarter, again to decipher the entries 
on the pages. 

A short inspection of the contents showed it to 
have been a note-book of a working silversmith named 
George Coyte. His address, curiously enough, does 
not appear. There are few dates — the earliest, Septem- 
ber 1 2th, 1 77 1, and the latest, 9th August, 1777 ; 
the entries in the book having been undoubtedly, 
however, begun before the former and finished after 


(D. 1754) 


The Coiiiioisseity 

llic latter 
year. Tlie 
hasa some- 
what tragic 
It is that 
of a legal 
h i b i t e d 
to us un- 
der the 
C o m m"' 
ag'- (jcorge 
C o V t e . 
No. '3. T. 
H a r r e 1 1 , 




Rich' Calvert, li. Hassell." Mr. Coyte 
had got into financial trouble, and had 
been obliged to jjroduce this utterly un- 
businesslike and casual record of his 
dealings in the course of the proceed- 
ings. An entry on another page prob- 
ably refers to this period of difficulty ; 
" Bartlett imployed for his Lawyer a 
Mr. Copper in Hatton garden : note now 
he imployes a Mr. Hobbs a Lawyer." 

But the real interest of the volume lies, 
not in the troubles of Mr. Coyte, but in the memoranda 
of details of his very miscellaneous business. He both 
bought, sold, made and repaired — as fortune brought 
him trade. One of the earliest entries in the book 
— undated, of course— is to the following effect: 
" Bought of a french Man a gold showlder knoot at 
3s. 6d. j)r. ounce weight, 4 oz. 6d. weight note it 
burnt very well." For his guidance in similar op[)or- 
tunities of acquiring gold and silver lace for the sake 
of the metal, he adds below : " Note a silver shoulder 
lace and tasills comes to 21s." Here is a recipe for 
cleaning ])late : " 'lake burn Hart horn hoyl it in 
water a Hour and put in a bitt of ragg boyl it with 
it rub your plat well with it ; and after clean it with 
a bitt of clean cloath." The idea of boiling the rag 
— to ensure perfect softness and freedom from grit- 
seems thoroughly sound. Then we get addresses, 
and prices, of people with whom he dealt. Thus, 
" Mr. Const's price for Braceletts— Setting in gold. 

j£,'i 15s. ; plating (i.e. plaiting) hair, 4s. : lettering in 
gold Letters, 7s. 6d." And, "John .Maitland at Mr. 
Yates's ne.\t door to y" Brown Bear in How Street 
Covent garden setts and mends all kinds of Jewells 
and Stone work." There are many such notes of 
craftsmen's addresses. Here are others : " Mr. Take, 
y" man that makes Marquists Locketts and made 
.Mrs. Ward's pins lives in Sallsburry Court no'"- 35." 
"Mrs. I'ollard, Jeweller, of all kinds Hoop rings of 
all Coulers Lives at the Corner of portigal row the 
Corner of Lincolns inn fields — sells very good garnett 
earrings at 5s. a pr. sett in gold, and garnett Hoop 
rings at 6s. a pre. I think very neat, gold small 
seals at 7s. a pice." " George Smith Basketm.nker in 
Chymisters Ally St. Martins Lane, wickers handels 
of all sorts & sells s° finest quadrill lio.xes at is. 3d. 
a sett." 

Of his own prices there are, naturally, a large 
nimiber ; and the nature of them varies in a very 
interesting manner. Some are a little 
crvptic in character; for instance, 
" niidle lansci])e u])on ivery, 8s.; 
upon velim or white satten workin, 
7s." can hardly refer to miniature 
painting. As it continues with a de- 
scending scale of cost for lockets, 
rings, and buttons, the allusion is 
rather difficult to understand. But 
a good trade was done in the fitting 


of miniatures, 
and the prices 
paid for this 
work are not 
the least in- 
teresting in 
the volume. 
Thus "a glass 
to a picture " 
costs IS. 6d. 
or 2 s . ; the 
s a m e , with 
the addition 
of "setting 
in met tell,'' 
is 13s. 6 d . 
" Taken out a 

picture in a 
gold fram " is 




A London Silveysiiiith 

3s. 6d. For setting " pictures " in gold we have five 
guineas charged for two, and three guineas at one time, 
and a guinea and a half at another, for one. There 
is an entry for a case to a picture ; but the price 
is illegible. of these items are to the account 
of a " Mr. \Vebster,'' who was a regular customer, 
for a memorandum is inserted at the head of one 
page to " note the old account." His requirements 
in the way of glasses, settings, and the like are so 
numerous that it is reasonable to suppose that our 
silversmith was dealing with a miniaturist, and not 
with a private person who would be likely to possess 
few miniatures in uncompleted settings. If so, it 
is a fair presumption that the artist referred to 
was Simon Webster, F.S.A., who, as Mr. Algernon 
Graves has recorded, exhibited miniatures with the 
Society of Artists, and with the 
Free Society, during the period 
1762 to 1780. Mr. ^^'ebster 
did not pay very well : there 
are one or two balances car- 
ried forward against him. Per- 
haps this may be taken as 
some evidence that he was a 
practitioner rather than a patron 
of arts. He may, moreover, be 
referred to by a later entry as 
the "gentell man that Mr. 
Cotye sets y" picturs for " who 
had a seal made from a ring. 
There are one or two entries 
relating to watches. Miss Butt 
bought one for six guineas, as 
well as a ring for a guinea, a 
bottle of Lavender water (is.), 


.\k.MS OF SIR WM. VOU.S'G, B.AKT., M.I-. 



a pair of blue gloves — "Mrs. 
Carby had them" (doubtless 
the maid) — and many other 
pretty trifles. When her watch 
lost one of its gold hands, it 
cost 4s. 6d. to have it replaced. 
.Miss Hutt was evidently a good 
and a trusted customer. She 
borrowed a guinea in ^[arch, 
paid it back, and borrowed 
another in May. Later on 
-Mr. Coyte lent her is. ^d., 
" payed for her .Mama's Let- 
ter," which was also duly re- 
funded. There is no mention 
of interest having been 
charged. Miss Dawson was 
another client — could sl;e 
ha\ e been the famous Nancy ? 
Nancy died in 1767. At what date before 1771 
this most casual set of memoranda was made one 
cannot tell. There is more than a bare chance that 
Mr. ("oyte's customer was the nimble-toed dancer 
who had turned all the heads of the town a few 
years before. The first entry against her name is 
" A pr. of Bu(-kelis, £,2 <Ss." — a high price, com- 
paratively. Miss Dawson also borrowed guineas, and 
paid them back, more or less, though at the bottom 
of the page there is a balance of _^3 ics. against 
her. Her fans needed much mending, and she pur- 
chased " a pr. of sisers, 6d.," and a silver bodkin 
for one shilling. Hut one of the most curious and 
unexpected charges is for " a Bottell of Daffee's 
ellix' "^that famous old |)atent medicine of the 
seventeenth century — the price of which was is. 3d. 
The next line explains the Eli.xir, and throws a 
plea.sant light on Miss Dawson's personality, who- 
ever she was : " Lent to Miss, Old Marv had it 

The Coiiiioisseiiy 


when sick, los. 6d." If this 
were verily the deed of Nancy, 
she deserved better things 
than the National Biographer 
says of her. Perhaps, after 
all, it was not. And yet 
Nancy Dawson's great rival 
conies strangely into the 
book — he of whom the bal- 
lad relates : — 

" Though Garrick he has had liis 

And forced ihe town his law i' 

Now Johnny Rich is coine in play. 

With help of Nancy Dawson. " 

For, on ■'.lully y'' 27" — 
year not set down — "Mr. 
Garrick " bought a pair of silver buckles for 8s. 6d. : 
a price very different from that given by Miss Dawson. 
On Nov. the 8th he had a tea-spoon mended, for 
which he paid 6d. And on the 19th May in quite 
another year (and handwriting) wc have " Mr. Gar- 
rack " debited with "a nutmeagrater, los. fid.," and 
"a Bottell of Burgamot, is. fid." That these entries 
relate to the great actor there is no reasonable doubt; 
and one begins more clearly to realise the human 
interest that has lain hidden for so long in this waif 
of a document from the early years of the reign of 
George III. 

This was the period when hair 
were in the fashion; and, 
among his various activities, 
Mr. Coyte ministered thereto 
also. For "a Hair ring with a 
urn of hanging willows " he 
charges ^i 5s., and gave satis- 
faction so great that two friends 
of his customer proni])tly bought 
similar articles. This was on 
the i2th May, 1773. About the 
same date a " milk pale," of 
silver, doubtless, fetched two 
and a half guineas; and a 
" glass for a Salt, Blew," 2s. 
Here is a tragedy : " Mr. Clark, 
Mr. Foster's nephew, a pr. of 
gloves — note Doge eat one 
... IS. 6d. ' .\ punch ladle 


SHE DIED 1770 

and lockets 


costs a sovereign to make ; 
two "gravey spouns or 
Initter Ladles " and a dozen 
of tea-spoons are entered 
at £.2 8s. fid. on the 19th 
M.inh. 1772 ; "quite plain 
sparagrass Toungs" are lis. ; 
the same but "fashon," 12s.; 
and in open-work, 18s. 
One branch of his trade I 
have left for the last, and it 
is the one that fortunately 
can to some extent be illus- 
trated. He did a consider- 
able business in engraving 
plate, and when his memo- 
randum book was filled, he 
used it as an album in which 
to paste the impressions. \Ve reproduce a repre- 
sentative series of these prints — all being heraldic 
in character. They are also, of course, all rever- 
sals, and though roughly printed, have a vigour 
which makes them not unattractive. The engraving, 
as such, is respectable, but uninspired — obviously 
derived from contemporary [jattern-books. This 
branch of Mr. Coyte's business had begun before 
the volume was used to store these prints. It is 
interesting to record some of his prices. Thus the 
note, " 2 Crest of Cyfering, Large " occurs at 3s. ; 
" Egraving and Cyfering " a sugar basket is the 
.same price. For engraving eight crests he charged 
4s. fid. only, and one shilling 
for engraving and cyphering 
a pair of sugar tongs. Th.e 
whole series of his prints 
is very large and instructive : 
and one cannot but help feel- 
ing a little satisfaction in 
having been able to associate 
it with a definite personality, 
whose own associations were 
so interesting. George Coyte, 
it may be said, in conclusicn, 
is mentioned in Mr. Jackson's 
List of London Goldsmiths, 
under the year 1773 only. 
His period can now be ex- 
tended beyond that with abso- 
lute certainty. 

Mechlin and Antwerp Lace 

By M. Jourdain 

The hypothesis that lace was made in the 
time of Charles V., towards 1500, '•' because the Low 
Countries then attained their " greatest intellectual 
expansion," is, of course, absurdly and entirely fan- 
tastic, and the political troubles of Mechlin in the 

Charles \'., even // lace had been made there as 
early as the fifteenth century.' 

Prior to 1665 nearly all Flanders laces were known 
under the name of Mechlin to the French commercial 
world. "The common people here," writes Regnard, 



fifteenth and si.xteenth centuries would have entirely 
counterbalanced the initial prosperity of the reign of 

* " Peut-on conclure, comme Mine. Bury Palliser semble le 
faire, ijue les vraics Malines ne fiirent faites tiiie vers 1665 ? 
Nous ne le pensons pas, el croyons qu'il n'est nullenient 
temeraire <le les croire du tem|K de Charles Quint vers t^oo 
car ce fut sous le icgne de ce grand Empereur que le I'ays-Bays 
eurent leur plus grande expansion intellecuiale." — Collection 
ifaiuiennes Deiilelles flaiiiaiida di Jen Madame Aiigiisia, 
lUirotine Liedts^ dotjtu'e ii la ville de Bruges {AJusee de 
GniiffhuKSt), iSSq. 

who visited Flanders in 1681, "as throughout all 
Flanders, occupy themselves in making the white 
lace known as Malines." The laces of Vpres, Bruges, 
Dunkirk and Courtrai, according to Savary, passed 
under the name of Mechlin at Paris. Peuchet J 

+ An important corporation of weavers of Mechlin were 
scattered by llie political troubles of the fifteenth and sixteenth 

X Dictionitairc Vniversel de la Geographie comfnercanU. — 
/. Pciiihct, 1 790. 






The Connoisseur 



writes that a great deal of " Malines " was made in 
.\nt\verp,''' Mechlin, and Brussels, and that the in- 
dustry was an important one at Antwerp. He adds 
that an excellent quality of thread is made in the 
town and neighbourhood. 

In England Mechlin is not mentioned hy name 
until Queen Anne's reign.' 

In 1699 the Act prohibiting foreign lace was 
repealed in so far as it touched the S[)anish Low 
Countries, and Anne, while prohibiting lace made 
'■in the dominions of the French king," admits the 
imijort of Manders lace, so that from the first years 
of the eighteenth century Mechlin was without rival 
in England among light laces. According to Peuchet 
Mechlin laces are " les plus belles, apres celles de 
Bruxelles, et elles ont uti peu plus de duree." It was 
eminently suited to the less severe modern costume 
which came in with the eighteenth century, and by 

* .Specimens of Mechlin lace arc preserved in the Slocn 
Museum at Antwerp. 

t " l-'landois lace " is the only term used for Flemish laces 
in ihe Great Wardrobe Accounts until l^ueen .\imc, when 
" M.acklin '* and liiiis^els arc lii si noled .lnun. 

its open a jours and trans|)arent appearance, to be 
worn as a trimming lace. It thus remained in fashion 
through the eighteenth century, when references like 
" Mechlin the tiueen of lace," " Mechlin the finest 
lace of all," bear witness to a vogue in England little 
short of extraordinary. The disappearance of lace 
ruflles before 1780 from women's sleeves, and the 
disappearance of the cravat and men's ruffles, put 
an end to lace as a fashionable adjunct to dress. In 
1834 there were but eight houses where it was fabri- 
cated. J Unfortunately, also, for the prosperity of the 
industry, Mechlin is of all laces the easiest to copy in 
machine-made lace. 

Historically, Mechlin developed, like Valenciennes, 
from the straight-edged laces of indefinite pattern, and 
an irregular ground j which has the appearance of 
being pierced at intervals with round holes.| 

+ Mecldin lace was also made at Antwerp, Lierre, and 
Turnlioui. "There was a fine collection of Mechlin lace in 
the I'.iris Exhibition of 1867 from Turnhout, and some other 
localities."— J//-.f. Pallistr, Hisloiy of Lace. 

§ See Valenciennes. 

" In the Gruuthuus rollerlion, lares of this lype which have 



Mechlin and Antiverp Lace 



and light, and a 
Much of this lace, 

The earliest ex- 
amples of what we 
can recognise as 
Mechlin show a de- 
sign consisting of 
groupings of heavily 
d r aw n flowers, 
clumsily designed 
rococo devices, 
cornucopias, etc. (see 
No. iii.). 

Later, with the 
adoption of the 
characteristic Mech- 
lin reseau, the floral 
design becomes more delicate 
French influence is apparent.* 
worn in France dur- 
ing the Regency and 
later, was made up in 
the style of modern 
insertion, with an 
edging on both 
sides,' cainpane or 
scalloped, and used 
for the gathered 
trimmings called 
qiii/ks, like the Ar- 
gentan sleeve - trim- 
mings of Madame 
Louise de France 
])ainted by Nattier 
in 1748. 

The attempt to 
imitate Alencon extended not only to the motifs of 
its design — the characteristic winding riband and 
scattered sprays of flowers, \ 
but to the but ton- hole 




No. VL 

" points d'esprit " (small solid 
portions lil;e the millet seed of 
Genoese lace) are invariably 
auribuied to Mechlin, while 
in the Cinqiiantenaire .Museimi 
at Brussels ihey are attributed 
to Antwerp. 

* " La France et la Hollande 
en consommaient beaucouj) 
autrefois. " — Pciichet. 

t 1741. '■ Une coilfure de 
nuit de Malines a raizeau cani- 
panee de deux pieces."—///?'. 
de Mademoiselle de Clermont. 

1761. '• Une paire de man- 
ches de Malines bridee en cam- 
panees." — Inv. de la Duchesse 
iie Modene. 

X The sprigs in Mechlin are, 
however, clumsier in drawing. 

stitched cordonnet. 
In Mechlin a coarse 
thread was applied to 
the edges of the 
design, which gives 
higher relief than 
the flat cordonnet. 5 
The fillings are 
often, like .Mencjon, 
of the trellis type 
(No. viii.). 

The open fancy 

fillings II render the 

lace very effective 

when worn over 

colour. The late eighteenth century Mechlin has 

pieces quite undistinguishable in design from Alencon 

of the Louis XVL 
|)eriod. no doubt 
owing to its large 
c o n s u m [) t i o n i n 
France as a summer 
1 a c e . The v e r y 
characteristic pattern 
of a flower (sun- 
flower?) in full blos- 
som and with closing 
petals is often met 
with in Mechlin 
laces of the end of 
the eighteenth cen- 
turv. This lace has 
a border with a very 
shallow scallop or 
jattern of repeated sprigs of 
leaf follows the edge. The 
remaining ground is 
covered with small square 
spots, minute q u a t r e- 
foils, or leaflets. The 
flower is Flemish U in 
treatment, while tiie 
.semifs upon the reseau 


slightly waved, 
flowers with a 




No. VIL 


S No. l297-'72 in the Vic- 
toria and Albert Museum shows 
this thick twisted thread 
stretched to the gimp of the 
flower or pattern. 

i .•^ veiy coniinon filling is 
a series or combination of linked 

" Some of the designs of 
Mechlin show very careful 
naturalistic presentment of 


The Coiuioisseiiy 



show the French influence of the late eighteenth 

Design in Mechhn is in giiieral lloral in character. 
But a curious figured design is illustrated in Seguin 
(La Dentelle, Plate XIV., Fig. i), and characterised 
by him as " une niaserie enfantine.' This piece, 
which dates from the last years of Louis X\'.. re- 
presents two men in a carriage driving a horse. The 
men wear three-cornered hats, long coats, ruffles ; 
two birds are flying in the air, and the group is 
separated from its repeat by an ill-drawn tree. A 
piece in the Victoria and Albert Museum'- has a 
pattern of trees, buds, and scrolls, with cu])ids 
blowing horns and shooting at winged and burning 

hearts. .\ fragment of an altar cloth in the Gruuthuus 
Museum I shows a medallion containing figures re- 
presenting some scriptural scene. A similar piece, 
including several similar medallions, is in the <"in- 
quantenaire Museum at Brussels. 

The ground and ornament of Mechlin, like 
\'alenciennes, are made in one piece on the pillow ; 
and many and various e.\perimental fancy ground- 
ings were tried before adopting the he.xagon-meshed 
reseau made of two threads twisted twice on four 
sides, and four threads plaited three times on the 
two other sides, producing a shorter plait and a 
smaller mesh than that of the Brussels reseau. 

The early grounds are varieties of the " fond de 

• i40o-'74- 

t Litt. B., No. 6. 




Mechlin and AtitiK'crp Lace 

iieige," and the fond-chanf or six-pointed star mesh 
is met with. A reseau of interlaced double 
threads is also of frequent occurrence, and a 
reseau of four threads plaited to form a verj- large 
mc^sh having the effect of an enlarged fond-chant 

The most common form of ornamental tilling is an 
arrangement of linked quatrefoils. 

The toile is finer and less close in texture than 
\'alenciennes, and appears to be now dense and 

Mrs. I'alliser considered the motif to be a survival 
fr(mi an earlier design, including the figure of the 
Virgin and the Annunciation, though it does fnot 
appear that any such composition has been met 
with.t The motif of a vase of flowers is a common 
one among Flemish and Belgian laces ; and the 
flowers are not restricted to the Annunciation lilies 
— roses, pinks, sunflowers, and other flowers being 
met with. 

The ground varies from a coarse fond-chant to 



cloudy, now thin and almost transparent. This 
unevenness of (|uality, together with the presence 
of the cordonnet (which gives precision to the 
ornament), is responsible for the old name of 
broderie de Malines. 

Antwkri' L.\ck. 

Antwerp, though an old lace-making centre,* is 

remarkable for only one type of peasant lace, the 

I'otten Kant, so-called from the representation of a 

pot of flowers with which it is always decorated. 

* See Mechlin. 

various large meshed coarse and fancy grounds. The 
laces are usually straight-edged. The pot, or vase, 
or basket is not always part of the design : a 
stiff group of flowers, throwing out branches to right 
and left, is almost invariable. Sometimes |)endant 
festoons or garlands, or bunches of flowers are met 

t "The flower-pot wa-s a symbol of the .Anminciation. In 
ihe early representations of the appearance of the Angel (iabriel 
to the Virgin Mary, lilies are placed either in his hand, or set 
as an accessory in a vase. As Romanism declared, the angel 
disappeared, and the lily-pot became a vase of flowers; sidi- 
seipiently the Virgin was omitted, and there only remained the 
vase of flowers." — Mrs. Palliser. 


The Conuoissetir 




with.* The cordonnet of strong untwisted thread 

* l570-'72, Victoria ami AUiert 'Museum, is a lx)rder of 
Antwerp lace with a loosely twisted sort of oeil de perdiex 
ground, and pattern of Howers and leaves. The outline to the 
pattern and the gimp of the leaves and Howers are like those 
seen in some of the early eighteenth century Mechlin laces. 

often appears too coarse for the toiie, and outlines 
it with .short loops. Antwerp lace appears in a portrait 
of .\nna Goos (1627 to 1691) in the Plantin Museum 
at Antwerp. The date of the portrait is between 
1665-70, and the lace, which is straight-edged, has 
a thin formal scroll pattern upon a reseau ground. 



In the collection of Sljf J. G. TolUm.vche Sinclair, Bart. 


ja AJ 

Irish Notes 

In my former articles on this subject 
(January, ^lay, and August, 1903) I endeavoured 
to bring out some of the sahent points in the 
obsolete note-issues of English bankers and traders. 
I now hope to introduce to the notice of the 
collector some of the leading features in the issues 
of the Irish bankers. Their notes are rare, but 
are obtainable by the diligent collector. I have 
succeeded in gathering about eighty examples. 

The Emerald Isle has had her fair share of paper 
money, though when and by whom notes were 
first issued in Ireland is a mystery of the dim past. 
Her note-issue was not confined to paper, as in 
the early years of the eighteenth century trades- 
men issued promissory notes on copper for a half- 
penny, penn}^ and twopence, and on silver for 

threepence. One issued by James Jlaculla, of 
Dublin, in 1729, has on the face, " I promise to 
pay the bearer on demand twenty pence a pound 
for these," and on the obverse, " Cash notes, 
value received. Dublin, 1729, James ;Maculla." 
Simple as such instruments were, paper money 
was still more easily produced, and apparently 
as freely accepted. The term banker was soon 
added to the names of those persons or firms 
who stood out prominently in monetarj' transac- 
tions. One of the earliest was John Demar. 
He is said to have served as a trooper in one of 
Cromwell's regiments of horse, and after the Res- 
toration to have sold his property in the West of 
England and retired to Dublin, where he carried 
on an e.xtensive usury business. He died in 1720, 




'.- r\ 


'-^^^x \^'//JJi'/i<^'^^^r^^^. 




'flic i'oi/i/oissci!/' 






at tlic advanced age of 92. Swift and some of his 
friends wrote an elegy upon him which concUides : 

" Alas ! ihe sexton is thy banker now ! 
A dismal banker must that banker be, 
Who gives no bills but of mortality." 

As time went on, many very substantial bankers 
flourished, Init down to the end of the last century 
pajier money was most profusely issued by the 
mongrel tradesmen bankers. A return made to 
the Committee of the House of Commons in 1804 
on Irish Exchanges by the collectors of the Inland 
Revenue gives an insight into the matter. It says 
that " the number of banks, in their several districts, 
issuing bank-notes, silver notes, ami I O U's were 

as follows ; City of Dublin, si.x ; 
W'aterford, one ; gold and silver 
notes, 28 ; silver notes, 62 ; 
I C) U's, 128. Some idea may be 
formed of the general character of 
the parties i.ssuing these I O U's 
by taking the district of Youghal, 
\\ Ir re I O U's from si.x shillings 
down to threepence halfjjenny 
were the principal currency. 

" In Youghal : ten grocers, 
two general shopkeepers, one 
stationer, one hardware shop- 
keeper, two bakers, two corn- 
---•-'■-' factors, one cabinet-maker, one 

shoemaker, one linen-draper, one 
" In Castlemarty : two grocers, one apothecary. 
" In Cloyne : three grocers, one chandler, four 
spirit dealers, one linen-draper, one baker, one 
strong-water dealer." 

Many other places are enumerated with much 
the same result. 

In a work entitled Clnhs of London, the writer 
gives an amusing account of his interview with 
a Killarney banker. During a residence of a few 
weeks in the district he had become possessed 
of sixteen notes ujjon the KiUarney Bank, which 
in the aggregate amounted to fifteen shillings 
and ninejience. The banker was the saddler of 
the district, who, when asked for cash for his 


.'•■;' y .■ cd*' ^y ■.'■ T ^^ 

-^ '- - ^""-^iim 

t .- 

^ '^'^^////:u:J>/^^^^^ 



Bank Note Collecting 

notes, looked in utter amazement, replying, 
" Cash, plase yer honour, what is that ? Is it 
anything in the leather line ? I have a beautiful 
saddle here as was ever put across a horse, good 
and cheap. I should be sorry, most noble, to 
waste any more of your lordship's time or of those 
sweet beautiful ladies and gentlemen with you : 
but I have an illegant bridle here as isn't to be 
matched in Yoorup. Aishy. Afrikay, or Merikay, 
its lowest price is 15s. 6id. — will say 15s. 6d. to 
your lordship. If ve'ell be pleased to accept of 
it, then there will be two pence halfpenny or a 
three-penny note coming to your lordship, and 
that will clear the business at once." Doubtless 
the account is highly coloured, but gives an idea 
of some of the country bankers of that day. 

man had sent out invitations for a large dinner 
party the week in which the banks smashed. 
He considered himself fortunate in finding amongst 
his stock of ready money one note of the Bank 
of Ireland for £10. " No one doubted the goodness 
of the note, but no one could give change for it. 
Ten pounds, in gold or silver, were not in the county ; 
and as for credit, there was none to be had. In 
this extremity, with money — which was not 
money — and without credit, having tried butcher, 
baker and confectioner, in vain, the gentleman 
gave up the idea of his dinner party in despair, 
and wrote to his friends to keep the engagement 
standing until he could procure cash or credit 
for a ten-pound note." 

The Irish bankers issued notes for various 

SIX .SHILLINGS^.)] J^<^^. W. 

Newport's "silver note" for six shillings 

The wild growth of Irish banks is shown in 
the Commons' Report for 1804, already referred 
to. Every conceivable expedient was adopted 
to extend the note issue. Small tradesmen were 
given a premium to launch them into circulation. 
Bankers themselves attended the markets and 
fairs, and pushed their notes. Panic followed 
panic until 1820, when the issue of the Bank of 
Ireland stood at £5,000,000, and those of other 
banks in proportion. Then came the storm. 
In one month eleven banks went under. In the 
south of Ireland only two v\-ere left — Messrs. 
Delacour. at Mallow, and Redmond, at Wexford. 
Terrible distress followed. 

There was a humorous side to the picture, 
too. At Cork a gentleman wanted a leg of mutton, 
but had only £5 notes to pay for it, which all the 
butchers declined. At Limerick a very wealthy 

amounts. Some adopted even pounds, others 
used multi])lcs of 5s., while the Irish guinea 
and various multiples of it were the figures chosen 
by still others. Notes were issued for one pound, 
twenty-five shillings, thirty shillings, and two 
pounds. Silver coin being very scarce, the odd 
amounts for which tiie notes were issued would 
greatly facilitate trade. Nearly every old note 
has several endorsements both back and front, 
as it was then the general custom for each holder 
to i)Ut his name upon it before he parted with it. 
The celebrated bankers, Stejihen and James 
Roche, of Cork, issued notes payable to bearer 
on demand, in Cork only, for one pound, one guinea 
(value £i 2s. gd.), twenty-five shillings, thirty 
shillings, one guinea and a half (value £1 14s. lid.), 
three guineas (value £3 8s. 3d.), four guineas 
(value £'4 IIS.), etc., etc. Each note has a 

The Coi/i/i'issnir 

declaration upon it as to the In mis during which 
it is payable, namely, " Payable from ten o'clock 
in the morning till two in the afternoon." The 
calculations required for such numerous and 
varying denominations must have taxed tlie 
patience of the unfortunate " teller " of that day. 
The vahu' of the guinea note (£i is curious. 
It dates as far back as 1737, when the Govern- 
ment made some attempt to settle the currcncj' 
question. A new coinage was minted, and a 
scheme of exchange settled, whereby the English 
shilling was to circulate in Ireland for thirteen 
pence, hence the expression " thirteens," locally 
called " hogs " (" pigs " or " testers " were 
worth sevenpence Irish each). Upon this basis 




fairs for the sole jiurpose of issuing their notes. 
" These adventurers resorted to expedients of 
all kinds for the purpose of forcing a trade. They 
supplied small traders with their notes, and used 
to pay a premium to get them into circulation. 
They attended markets and fairs like so many 
hucksters. Their favourite issue was — not promis- 
sory notes — but post bills at ten days' sight, 
which being generally unaccepted, were paid, 
if at all, at convenience." 

Strange stories are told of Irishisms upon every 
conceivable subject, and the bank note can render 
its quota. At one time Dublin possessed a 
firm of bankers — Messrs. Beresford, Woodmason, 
and Farrell. Tiic senior partner was an alderman, 

-Y — — *-.>.--»— 



|pfNiN&siirn.iN-^>. A' ^r 


the guinea was worth £1 2s. gd., and the guinea 
and a half the awkward amount for all ready 
reckoning of £1 14s. ijd. 

Another Cork banker was Denis Moylan. who 
had a considerable note-issue. An amusing story 
is told of him. It is said that his w-ill contained 
a clause ordering " certain Masses to be said for 
the repose of his soul, and which his executor, 
a thrifty man, procured to be said in Lisbon, 
finding he could obtain them there cheaper than 
in Cork, much to the disgust of the local clergy." 

Messrs. Joyce and Blake, Galvvay Bank, also 
issued a note for one guinea and a half. They 
commenced business in 1802, and failed in 1814. 
In one year they forced into circulation over 
68,000 notes of sums under three guineas. The 
partners used to attend the great Ballinasloe 

and had been Lord Mayor of Dublin, and took 
a very active part in all municipal and political 
matters. During the Rebellion in 1798 he 
personally attended the public executions of the 
so-called rebels. In this way he made himself 
most unpopular with the low'er classes, who re- 
garded the sufferers as martyrs. They therefore 
hit upon the following ingenious plan of revenge : 
they collected a large quantity of the notes of 
Beresford & Co., and amidst great jubilation 
publicly burnt them, " crying out with enthusiasm, 
w^hile the promises to pay on demand were con- 
suming, ' What will he do now ? His bank will 
surely break ! ' " 

One other custom showing the native simplicity 
of the Irishman may be here recorded, namely, 
the practice of pawning bank-notes, not when the 

I 14 

Bank Note Collecting 




bank was in difficulties and the notes might be 
at a discount, or for a time unredeemable in cash, 
but notes pawned when the owner was in want 
ol a little ready money, in preference to their 
being cashed in lull by the banker by whom they 
were issued. A letter to the Times only sixty 
years ago, October 25th, 1845, gives an account 
of this practice. The writer states that on a 
recent visit to Galway he was told that the people 
had so little idea of the true nature of bank-notes 
that pawning them was no uncommon event. 
He says : — " I was so incredulous of this that 
the gentleman who informed me wished me to go 
with him to anv pawn-broker to assure myself 
of the fact. I went with Inm and another gentle- 
man to a pawn-tnoker's shop, kept by Mr. Murray, 
in Galway. On asking the question, the shopman 
said it was a common thing to have money pawned, 
and he produced a drawer containing a /lo Bank 
of Ireland note pawned six months ago for los. ; 
a 30S. note of the National Bank pawned for los. ; 
a 30s. Bank of Ireland note pawned for is. ; a 
£1 Provincial l)ank-note pawned for 6s. ; and 
a guinea in gold of the reign of George III. jiawned 
for 15s. two months ago. The /lo note would 
produce 6s. 6d. interest in the year if put into the 
savings bank, whilst the owner who pledged it for 
los. will have to pay 2s. 6d. a year for the ids. 
and lose the interest on his /lo. in other words 
he will pay 90 per cent, through ignorance for the 
use of los. which he might have had for nothing. 
Mr. Murray said that often money was sold as 
a forfeited pledge— that a man would pawn a 

guinea for 15s., keep it in pledge till the interest 
amounted to 3s. or 4s., and then refuse to redeem 

Apparently such customs are not unknown 
even in England in the present day. A local 
pa])er before me has an article headed " All left 
with ' Uncle,' " and after enumerating various 
extraordinary things that have been pawned, says : 
" The most curious customer I have is an old 
lady, who for years has regarded me in the light 
of her banker. She has a fortune— Government 
stocks, securities and all that, and cash besides. 
The latter she entrusts to me, pawns it in fact, 
and all because she has a lively horror of banks, 
believing that if she deposited her money with 
any of them, they would immediately smash. 
She comes here every Monday morning, redeems 
her strong box, takes out enough money for 
the week's expenses, pays the interest for the 
week upon the transaction, re-pawns the money, 
pays for the ticket, and goes away happy and 

In Ireland the note-issue of the private banker 
has entirely passed away, and to-day the paper 
money that may be afloat is all issued by the 
joint stock banks. 

In addition to their ordinary notes, many Irish 
bankers indulged in a unique issue known as 
" Silver Notes." These rarely fall into the hands 
of the collector in good condition. They are very 
seldom to be met with ; I think myself most for- 
tunate to be able to show a few examples. During 
the closing years of the eighteenth century silver 

The Coiii/oissr/fy 

i\..QyJ^^dx^^'svA\A.:s bank ^ 




Injm: tknci: half peJ 

ZV//"^ ,^^^/^ 


jnjis ii'NKIM ■, Norl-; FOK rilKKK -Min IINCS AMI MNEPENCE HAI.FI'ENNV, 3S. gil). 

coin became very scarce in Ireland. In some dis- 
tricts, as I have shown, it was not to be procured 
at all. " Silver Notes " were to meet this difficulty, 
all being under the value of a guinea. Messrs. 
Newport, of Waterford, issued notes for 6s. and 
9s. : one for the former amount in a very dilapi- 
dated condition is here illustrated. Messrs. 
Kellett, of Cork, issued a note for gs., and probably 
for other amounts ; why such sums were selected 
I cannot understand ! Most of these notes were 
not redeemable for cc/.sA, but were accepted in 
sums of a gtiinea and upwards in exchange for 
the notes of some Dublin or Cork banker. Messrs. 
Leslie & Co. adopted as their standard a fractional 
])art of the Irish guinea. I have their notes 
for3s.9Jd., being one-sixth of the guinea (£1 2s. ()d.). 
They also issued for 7s. 7d. 

A few particulars of one other firm who had a 
very extensive issue of silver notes, namely, 
John O'Neill, may be given as a specimen of the 
reckless note-issue of the bankers of that time. 
O'Neill commenced business May 24th, 1799, 
and failed in 1801. During this brief period he 
did not allow the greiss to grow under his feet. 
The assignee to his estate says :— " I found the 
full extent of the paper he ever had issued amoimted 

to upwards of £168,000, of which there was a sum 
amounting to upwards of £'80.000 in a private 
closet in the house, which had been issued and 
returned." In addition to these bank-notes, 
O'Neill issued silver notes to an amount equal to 
one-fifth of his note-issue, " and these he forced 
very much into circulation." In one year he 
paid £59 13s. gd. for duty, which was one farthing 
on notes of nine shillings, one-sixth of a penny on 
notes of 6s.. and one-twelfth of a penny on 
notes of 3s. gid. " The £80,000 of returned notes 
in the closet show how O'Neill came to grief. 
The public apparently wished for some better 
medium, and the banker broke down when he 
had redeemed £80,000 out of £168,000. He, 
therefore, exclusive of the ' Silver Notes,' ap- 
parently bainboozled the community out of 

Much of my information is gathered from 
Lawson's History of liiniking, Dillon's History of 
Banking in Ireland, and from the pages of the 
Journal of the Cork Historical and Archceological 
Society, i8g2-g4, where there will be found a most 
interesting series of articles upon the old Irish 
Private Bankers, by C. M. Tenison, B.L., 
Hobart, Tasmania. 



BY UK\'. \V. M. 1>ETI-:KS 


By kind piiiiiisxion or Ilia Clicicc tin- Diikc of Rutland 

SHAW " »» 

Among the pictures attributed to Sodoma — or 

rather to " Razzi,'" as he is there styled — chronicled 

in the index to Messrs. Christie's 

Baron Boxall's ^^^^ Catalo'rues, under the date 1847 


occurs the entry : — 

Countess of Spenocchi and Family. Polygonal panel. 

Imported by Irving. 

(Bought by) N.N. £i(^9 ros. 

Again in 1859 we find : — 

Countess of .Spenocchi and Familly, &c., <3^c. : called 

" Charity." N'ortlnvick Collection. 

(Bought by) /. W. Brett. £67 4s. 

From this latter date traces of the picture vanished, 
although it was advertised for by Mr. Robert H. 
Hobart Cust when preparing his Life of Sodoma, 
until an accident, after the publication of that work, 
revealed its whereabouts — namely, in the collection 
of Baron Boxall (14, Cambridge Square, Hyde 
Park). On further enquiry, certain other links in 
the history of the painting transpired. It appears 
to have passed into the Gurney Collection, whence 
in 1866-1867 it was bought by Mr. Lhermitte, from 
whom it passed again into the possession of his 
son-in-law. the present owner. 



[PAcla. //. Bun. 

The Connoisseur 

The picture is painted on a |)anel of polyiioiial shape. 
A coat of arms (?) is depicted — perhaps by a later 
hand — below the group of figures, and it is enclosed 
in a remarkable late-Renaissance frame, which bears 
upon it the following inscriptions : above, " Contessa 
Spiinnocclii e figli" and below, '• Razzi da Siena." 
These indications, while of assistance in tracing the 
lost picture, in point of artistic fact have proved 
most misleading. In the first place, that there is no 
such person as " Razzi da Siena " has been so fully 
proved that it is unnecessary to enter upon the 
discussion again. 

Next, a first glance shows at once that the work, 
though very fine, is none of his. It is hy a later 
and much more eclectic 
artist, namely, Andrea de' 
Piccine/li, known generally 
as Andrea da Brescia or 

Thirdly, careful enquiry 
in Siena elicits the fact 
that the coat of arms is 
not that of the Spannocchi 
family at all, nor of any 
family allied to them. In 
fact, it is most ])rol)ably 
merely emblematic. That 
Brescianino, who lived in 
Siena during the first half of 
the sixteenth century, may 
have painted to order some 
lady of the Spannocchi 
family with her children in 
a sort of (|uasi-allegori(:al 
guise, is conceivably pos- 
sible ; but there is nothing 
to prove even that fact. 

Nevertheless, the value and inti'rest of this fine 
and well-preserved painting remains undiminished by 
the collapse of the fictions that have hitherto hung 
around it, and its owners may well pride themselves 
on the possession of an admirable example of the 
work of a delightful and somewhat rare master, con- 
cerning whom, till recently, very little was definitely 

Thk following details concerning Edward Foster, 
who was recently referred to in an article on sil- 
houettes, may be of some interest. 
Edward Foster Edward Foster, son of a gentleman 

the Centenarian r u • I^ i 

... . of means, was born in Derby on 

Miniature , , ^ ,, , , , 

p •„,„ November 8th, 1762. He held a 

rainier ' ' 

commission in the Army in early 
life, but soon forsook the profession of arms for that 


of an artist. Me was of the same family as the John 
Thomas Foster whose widow {nee Lady Elizabeth 
Harvey) afterwards became the second wife of the 
fifth Duke of Devonshire. His mother was related 
to the ducal house of Norfolk. Great talent, ability, 
and good connections soon placed him in the position 
of miniature painter to (^ueen Charlotte and the 
Princess Amelia, with apartments at Windsor. After 
the death of his Royal patrons his star waned, and 
he returned to Derby, where he practised his art 
for many years. In his old age he commenced to 
make silhouettes, which, however, were not cut, 
but nearly all jjainted in a deep brown, and em- 
bellished with gold. He also compiled a series of 
educational charts — his- 
torical and biblical — which 
were at one time to be 
found in most schools in 
England, and the MSS. 
of which are in the Derby 
Museum. Strangely, hardly 
any of his miniature work 
can be found, which is 
regrettable, as it was of a 
\ ery high order, and worthy 
to rank with that of his 
great contemporaries. A 
portrait of himself as 
a young man is here repro- 
duced. This is by his own 
hand, and a Liverpool col- 
lector has one or two of 
his daughter's portraits. 
Here the list ends so far 
as is known. Possibly 
some examples might be 
found at Windsor. His 
silhouettes are occasionally met with : they are beauti- 
fully done, and are generally signed. An American 
collector in St. Louis has a few of them of fine 

Foster was five times married, and outlived all his 
family save one daughter, who is now living in a 
suburb of Liverpool, in poor circumstances, and from 
whom these details were gathered and authenticated. 
This lady was present at a dinner on her father's 
hundredth birthday, when a present of ;^6o was 
handed to Foster from Her late Majesty, (,)ueen 
Victoria. He died on March 12th, 1865, aged 102 
years and 124 days. As before stated, though his 
miniature work is hardly ever heard of, it is of great 
excellence, and his decadencre and subsequent com- 
parative poverty can only be^attributed to his having 
outlived every one of his early friends and patrons. 



'1"his most interesting and unique specimen ot old 
English glass, now the property of Mrs. Anderson, 
of Bedhanipton Rectory, Havant, was 
U d ng IS recently discovered in a far - away 
corner of Wales, and has been pro- 
nounced to be of the period of Charles I., and date 
of 1625 to 1630. It is i\ inches in height, and 
22i inches in circumference, and is of a dark trans- 
parent olive green colour, with six shields of armorial 

From about 1616 to 1653 Sir Robert Mansel had 
the control of the glass making in England, and the 
above specimen was most possibly made under the 
patent guaranteed to Sir Robert on May 22nd, 
1623, for fifteen years. At that time James Howell, 
the accomplished traveller, then in the service of 
Mansel, sent over some Venetians to Sir Robert to 
England to improve the English glass making, and 
it is due to their work that the colour of the glass 
is olive green, as that was not the colour then made 
in England. 

Neither the British nor South Kensington ■Museums 
have any specimen at all approaching the jug, and 
one understands that even in the time of Charles I. 
few jugs were made, which makes the specimen of 
greater interest. The onlv historv obtainable of it 
was that it had been in the family of a yeoman 
farmer for many years, whose ancestor had bought 
it at the sale of the effects of a family of position, 
who doubtless had treasured it as a valuable Stuart 

A Fenton 
Ironstone Vase I. GLASS JUG 



The remarkable activitv of Miles Mason and his 
successors in producing both excellent colouns and 
designs in their celebrated Patent 
Ironstone \\are has attracted a crowd 
of collectors of recent years. Mason 
Ware, which at one time was not held in very great 
estimation, has found a place in the collector's cabinet. 
Similarly Davenport, of I.ongport, and other makers 
of pottery after the fashion of Ma.son, have received 
con.siderable attention from those who have found 
that the older wares with more fashionable reputation 
have demanded too long a purse to procure anything 
like a representative collection. 

The vase we illustrate is 2 ft. in height, and is 
exceptionally Oriental in style for Staffordshire to 
have emulated. The rich blue base and top of vase 
are heavily gilded. The two dragons are a salmon 
[)ink, and the body of the vase is a grass green, upon 
which the panels are painted in the Japanese style of 
Imari ware. It is quite an unusual piece, and indicates 
how the Fenton Potteries, which were established as 
early as 1780, vied with J^ison, of Lane Delph, whose 
patent for ironstone ware was taken out in 1813 ; and 
a close examination of the Staffordshire wares of the 
first (]uarter of the nineteenth century will show how 
strongly they came under the influence of Japan, 

The Connoisseur 

'I'hk jjliotographs reproduced below are taken from the carved choir 

stalls and miserere seats in the Priory Church of Christchurch, Hants. 

They date from the thirteenth to the sixteenth cen- 

" ^ lury. A full description will be found under each 

Wood-carvings ' ^ . „, , . , ... , 

reproduction. The author of these descriptions does 

not hold himself responsible for their accuracy, although to the best 

of his belief thev are correct. 


This panel is of exceptional interest. It sliows the controversy over 
the cup. which Henry V'lII. wished to be administered to the laity. 

This is beHeved to lio the oldc-it known cx.imple in the world. 


This scat is carved out of the solid, and is said to be the finest of 
its kind in England. 


Britain and Ireland, in which law and 
order are represented by two falcons, have 
their grip upon Scotland, typified by its 
bagpipes; on Ireland, by its harp; on 
Wales, by its willow and feathers ; and 
on France, bv the cock. 

A CorriCtion 

\\"k have received the toUowing letter 
regarding Mr. Selwyn Krinton's article, 
" .An English Artist in 
Morocco," which ap- 
peared in the September number of 
The CoNNOissEfK : — 
To the Editor of 'Iwv. Connoisseuk. 

SiK, — Permit me to draw your atten- 
tion to a serious error in the September 
number of The CoxNOissErR. 

In an article entitled "An English 
Artist in Morocco " you refer to Mr. 
J. Lavery. Mr. Lavery, R.S.A., K.H.A., 
is an Irishman, and a distinguished 
member of the Royal Hibernian 

Kindly see this corrected in your 

next number. 

Yours, etc., A. Uuffv, 
Royal IlU'ernian Academy, Dublin. 

[Editor's Note. — The error referred 
to in Mr. Duffy's letter is, indeed, of a 



The King of Scotland and Lord Kildare arguing with Henry VIII. 
One has a piece of thistle and the other a piece of shamrock issuing 
from their mouths. The two figures on the right are united by a 
tape, showing that Ireland was at this time united to England, but 
not Scotland. 


This is supposed to represent Richard III. 

very seriou.s nature, and the Editor of The Con- 
noisseur tenders sincere apologies to Irishmen in 
general, and Mr. Duffy in particular, for thus having 
outraged their sense of patriotism.] 

There is always a peculiar interest attaching to 

objects that have been in the possession of great 

men. There is (|uite a special class 

Oliver pC collectors who devote themselves 

Cromwell's . i r r i • ■. ■ 

.. _ to i)rocurmg personal relics or historic 

bnuti-Box 1 D I 

celebrities. More often than not these 

articles are of less than ordinary artistic interest, 

but by reason of their associations they have an 

enhanced value to hero worshippers. Mary (Jueen 

of Scots has quite a crowd of adherents who treasure 

small trinkets that were once hers. At the Stuart 

Exhibition a great number of Stuart relics were 

unearthed from the jealously guarded treasure caskets 

of their owners. 

In the illustrations we give of a snulT-bo.x it 

will be seen that it is not of great sumptuousness. 

It, as befitted its owner, is a sobersides among 

snuff-boxes which grace the cabinets of celebrated 

Banqueting House 
with a crape mask 
in 1649. — A. H. 

collections. No jewels decor- 
ate its sombre metal surface, 
and it is innocent of the 
pomps and vanities with 
which French artists decorated 
similar objects. But it bears 
on its ivory tablet the magic 
name, " O. Cromwel,'" and is 
dated 1655. It was turned 
up on the land by an an- 
cestor of the present owner 
a hundred years ago when 
he was ploughing one of his 
fields. It has never been 
exhibited, and has never 
faced the camera before. It 
is interesting to think that 
it was in everyday use by 
(Jld Noll, the stern and 
rugged leader of the Revo- 
lution which began in the 
sleepy hollow at the foot of 
the Chiltern Hills in Buck- 
inghamshire, and ended with 
the tragedy in Whitehall, 
when King Charles stepjied 
out of the window at the 
and was beheaded by the man 
on that eventful dav in January 




The Connoisseur 

The delightful little picture of A Young Girl 

Feeling an Apple, the work of Nicolas Maes, which 

we reproduce as a plate in the present 

Young Girl luiniber, is one of the imposing array 

Peeling an ^^^ ^^.^^j.^ ^^, masters of the Dutch 

Nkolas Maes School in the recently sold Kann 
collection. The dark red of the dress, 
the intense black of the bodice, the white apron, and 
the red, yellow, and black tints of the Oriental rug 
on the table by the young girl, are of a vigorous 
tonality, accentuated by a strong effect of chiaroscuro. 
The whole scene gives an impression of comfort and 

In 1S24 this picture formed a part of the famous 
Hcrnal collection, four years later it entered the 
M. Zachary collection, and finally became a treasured 
item in the John \\'alter collection. 

Nicolas Maes, one of the best of the Dutch genre 
painters, modelled his style on the pictures of 
Rembrandt of about the year 1650. He studied 
under Rembrandt up to about 1665, when he left 
his great master's studio at Amsterdam and went to 
Antwerp. Little else is known of his life. His early 
pictures are extremely rare, and it is believed that 
more than two-thirds of them are in England. Three 
of the highest ([uality are in the National Gallery, 
whilst others are at .'\])sley House and Bridgewater 

The interesting Coaching Scene, by Thomas Row- 

landson, which we reproduce as a plate, is a typical 

example of the work of that celebrated 

Coaching designer and etcher of caricatures and 

Scene By 

humorous subjects. He was born in 
London in 1756, about the same time 
as Isaac Cruikshank and ("lillray, and some six years 
before liunbury. At a very early period he gave 
indications of a remarkable talent for caricature, 
which he developed in Paris and at the Royal 
Academy Schools. Before he was twenty-five he 
found a ready market for his works with Fores, 
Tegg, Ackermann, and other print-sellers, and so 
prolific was his brush that he frequently drew and 
saw publisiied two fresh caricatures a day. 

A large number of his plates appear in works 
published by Ackermann, amongst the more im- 
portant being T/te Microcosm oj London, Tour of 
Dr. Syntax, The Adventures of Johnny A'e'wcome, The 
Vicar of Wakefield, and The '''History of Johnny Quae 

Child Subject By Peters 

Bv the kind permission of His Grace the Duke 
of Rutland we are enabled to reproduce the charming 

picture. Two Children with a Jay in a Cage, from 
the collection at Belvoir Castle. It is the work of 
the Rev. Matthew William Peters, who was born in 
the first half of the eighteenth century. He painted 
many fancy subjects, and also portraits, with much 
taste and elegance. Many have been engraved by 
Bartolozzi, Marcuard, Dickinson, and J. R. Smith. 

The two colour-plates of .Mrs. Fitzherhert and The 

Fuchesse de Chevreuse are from miniatures in the 

possession of Sir J. G. Tollemache 

Miniatures of Sinclair, Bart. That of Mrs. Fit/- 

herbert, who, it will be remembered, 

thiDuchesse secretly married King George IV. 

de Chevreuse ^^'^s" Prince of Wales, is by that 

king of eighteenth century miniaturists, 

Richard Cosway. The painter of the other miniature 

is unknown. 

Of the many portraits of the beautiful Georgina 
Duchess of Devonshire few can surpass the charming 
picture by Henry Meyer, after Gainsborough, which 
we reproduce in the present number. 

E.^RLV in October will be published by Messrs. 

Macniillan Leaves from the Note Books of Lady Dorothy 

Nevill, edited by Mr. Ralph Nevill. 

Leaves from ^^^^ ^^^j. ^^.|„ j-Q^t^in many notes on 

^ ° ? , , art and collecting, and it is believed 
Books of Lady , , , .,, j • • . . 

T^ . »T ... that the volume will exceed in interest 
Dorothy Nevill , , „ .,_ x^ -n; r> ■ • 

Lady Dorothy NeviHs Reminiscences, 

of which five editions were called for. 

BooKs Received 

.Van.x Crosses, by I'. M. C. Kermode, 63s. net ; Some Dorset 
Manor Houses, by Sidney Heath and W. de C. Prideaux, 
30s. net ; Old English Gold Plate, by E. Alfred Jones, 
21S. net. (Bemrose & Sons Ltd.) 

Oriental Embroideries and Carpels, Reproductions of, by E. 
\V. Albrecht. 

I'iitures in Colour 0.tford : Colour Pictures of Noi-wi, /:. 
(Jarrold & Sons, Ltd.) 

/iook of Book- plates, by Chas. E. Dawson. 

The Skirts of the Great City, by Mrs. Arthur G. Bell, 6s, ; 
The Antiquary's Books: English Church l-urniture, by 
J. Charles Cox, LL.D., F.S.A., and Alfred Harvey, M.B., 
7s. 6d. net ; Goldsmiths' and Silversmiths' Work, by 
Nelson Dawson. (Methuen & Co.) 

Notes of an Art Collector, by Maurice Jonas. (Geo. Routledge 
and Sons.) 

E.\position de la 'Poison d'Or a Bruges, Catalogue. (G. Van 
Oesl & Co., Bruxelles.) 

Old Sheffield Plate, 31 d Ed. (W. Sissons, Sheffield.) 

Book-Prices Current, 1907, Vol. XXI. (Elliot Stock.) 






A Challenge Shield, latel)* presented to the the panels in 
ist Devon & Somerset R.E.V., by Alderman J. Ci. the upper stage 
Commin, is of interest both for the were once filled 
richness of effect and colour obtained in with painted 
by relatively simple means, and as figures, such as 
being based on the Scotch " Target " occur common- 
and other historic circular models. Six silver discs, ly on Devonian 
pierced in trefoils and repousse, surround a central rood screens. 
disc of the same metal, and are connected by a silver 
band bearing a rei^imental motto, forming a broken The Manorial 
hexagonal pattern round a central boss. These discs °^'^ ^ 
are super-imposed on plain hammered brass and All those 
copper, and framed by an inscribed brass rim. The interested in 
shield, which is 28 in. in diameter (and the design the preserva- 
and work of T. A. Falcon, R.B.A.), is of a flat oval tion of local 
in section, the rim being entirely flat. Manorial Re- 
cords will wel- 
We illustrate a somewhat exceptional carved font- come the 
cover, now in the church of Shaugh Prior, Dartmoor. newly - formed 
It is of oak, and between eight and Manorial So- 
Font-cover nine feet high, and is built up in three ciety. The ex- 
stages on an octagonal base, with an pediency of es- 
episcopal statuette surmounting the whole. Previous tablishing such 
to 1S78, when it was re-discovered, it suffered a an association 
vicissitude in those days not infrequent in the case of to give separate 
ecclesiastical heirlooms, having been removed from organised at- 
the church during a " restoration " and lodged in a tention to Man- 
farni-loft for a decade. It has been suggested that orial records 



antl institutions was urged in a recent 
report of the Parliamentary Local Re- 
cords Committee, and it was recognised 
liy a number of arch;v.'ologists and anti- 
i|uaries interested in such subjects. A 
Provisional Council, comprising the 
Lords, Ladies, and chief ofi!icials of about 
,^40 Manors throughout England and 
\\'ales, was formed, with the result that 
towards the end of the year 1906 the 
society was u[)on a firm and com[)rehen- 
sive basis. 

The aims and objects of the society are 
lucidly set out in a pamphlet, which can 
be obtained from the office of the society 
at I. .Mitre Court Buildings, Temple, 
London, I'].C. 


TJie Counoisseur 

Notes and Queries 

\^T/ie Editor invites the assistance of readers of '\'\\v. 
Connoisseur 'icho may be able to impart the informa- 
tion required by Correspondents^ 

Fourteenth Century Ivory Casket. 
To the Editor of Thk Connoisseur. 

De.\r Sir, — In reply to J. j.'s letter with illustra- 
tion attached on page 188 of the July Number of 
your Magazine, may I venture to point out that the 
object referred to is a replica or copy, with slight 
variations, and apparently coarser in treatment, of a 
very well-known Cothic ivory tablet preserved in 
the Hargello. An illustration of this ivory will be 
found on page 147 of 7'he Ivory Workers of the 
Middle Ages, by Anna Maria Oust (Bell iv Sons, 
1902), and no doubt also in Molinier or any of the 
standard works on ivories. It has also been photo- 
graphed by Messrs. Alinari, of Morence. The Bar- 
gello ivory is apparently more graceful in treatment. 
The figures are eight ladies, instead of nine, with 
smaller and more delicately modelled heads bound 
by fillets. None of them wear crowns. There are 
the same two tnmipeters, but it is to be observed 
lluit in this cxani])lc the designer has introduced 
small circles at the points where the pins to attach 
the tablet — probably to a casket — would occur in 
such a manner as not to destroy the harmony of the 
whole composition. 

The design may, of course, alludt- to some legend, 
such as that of St. Ursula and her, virgins, but as the 
casket was not improbably a bridal gift, such a group 
of ladies would be almost obviously characteristic. 
Yours very faithfully, 

R. H. H. C. 

N.\P0i.EON Portrait. 
To the Editor of The Connoisseur. 
Dear Sir, — Among my pictures I have a sepia 
portrait of Napoleon I. as first consul drawn from 
life by John James Masi[uerier in 1800. This picture 
was the first authenticated portrait of the Emperor 
exhibited in 1800 in England, and was the cause of 
bringing the painter into eminence. Could any of 
your readers inform me of any other existing ? This 
picture was engraved afterwards by Turner. 
\'ours faithfully, 

W. S. E. 

Landscape Chin.'. 

7o the Editor of The Connoisseur. 

Dear Sir,— Can any correspondent of yours tell 
me where, when, and by whom was made the pencil 
(or landscape) china one frequently finds in the South 
of Ireland ? Breakfast and tea cu|)s and saucers, 
coffee mugs and plates, muffui dishes, bowls, egg- 
cups, etc. — some with gilding, some without — classical 
figures, landscapes, game, dogs, finely printed in black 
on white ground. 

Yours truly, 


Ar.morial Badge. 

To the Editor of The Connoisseur. 

Sir, — In The ("onnoisseur for July appears an 
illustration of the above. Replying to Mr. Patter- 
son's query, I should say that its |)urpose was to 
serve as a centre embellishment to the hamniercloth 
of the family coach, and perhaps for badges on the 
bridle arm of the postilions. Instances of these uses 
are familiar to me. 

Yours faithfully. 
Author ok Annals of the Road. 

Works by James Bogdani. 
To the Editor o/"The Connoisseur. 

Dear Sir, — I am engaged on a book giving the 
life of James Bogdani, who was a Hungarian painter 
of still life, ilowers, and animal subjects (principally 
birds). He was employed 1694 by Queen Mary, 
wife of William IK., Prince of Orange, at Hampton 
Court Palace, where some of his pictures exLst to-day. 
He died 1724. 

Believing that there are other works by him in 
English private houses, I should be grateful for any 
information which your readers might give me, if 
you are good enough to this letter. 
I am, dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 
Dr. Gahriei. de Tkv.c\, Director of the Picture 
Gallery of Old Masters at the Musie des Beaux-Arts, 
vi. Arina-i'it 41 Budapest {Hungary). 



(',i:()Rc;iNA, DLCllICSS OF I)I-:\()NSIIIK'I-; 

The Year's BooR Sales 

The season 1906-7, which, it will be remcnibered, 
commenced in October last year, and concluded with 
the final days of July in this, proved itself the most 
remarkable on record in one paramount respect. No 
series of current sales has ever before yielded such 
an extraordinary list of extremely expensive books and 
manuscripts. We gave in last October's CoNNOlSSKUR 
analyses of Shakespeariana and works of a general 
character which had realised /loo and upwards during 
the season which ended with July, 1906, and these, all 
told, numbered no more than sixty-two. At the time, 
this was thought a very notable record ; and so it was, 
for it is only recently that competition for works of 
certain special kinds has reached the acute stage where 
a hundred pounds, more or less, is regarded with almost 
complete indifference. Now, as always, certain classes 
of books, and those only, supply the aristocrats of the 
book-shelf — those works which, either owing to special 
circumstances surrounding them, or to the great demand 
which has sprung up for them, have become practically 
unique, or at any rate so excessively scarce that the 
richest collectors have become aware that money cannot 
accomplish all things when material is deficient. It may 
be stated at once that books of this highly s])fcial 
character are classed as Shakespeariana, Americana, 
English classics generally, manuscripts of English and 
other classics, a few editio7ies principcs of the Greek and 
Latin classics, and books of every kind containing in- 
scriptions or autograph signatures of notable men or 
which were bound by celebrated craftsmen of past ages. 
To this list may be added all books which afford the 
best examples of ancient typography. In judging books 
coming within one or more of these divisions, and so 
gauging their relative degrees of importance, it is 
customary to look primarily to the author, or to the 
person whose autograph inscription is in evidence, or 
to the printer or binder, as the case may be. It need 
hardly be said that it is but seldom that a combination 
of these peculiarities centres in one and the same 
volume, though occasionally even that consensus has to 
be acknowledged and reckoned with to the extent, it 
may be, of thousands of pounds. Owing, no doubt, to 
publicity, coupled with extremely high prices, which are 

the gist of it, and the great advance in the exoteric 
knowledge of books which has recently taken place, 
volumes made important by the widespread demand 
there is for them, or which are more than usually 
interesting from their very nature, have been unearthed 
by the score. The sixty-two books of last season but 
one have now become almost two hundred, and it must 
be remembered that, although this computation is made 
upon the i^ioo basis, there are very many instances 
where that amount has been almost reached. Were 
these also included in a general list, it would assume 
proportions much too unwieldy to be handled in the 
columns of any journal which did not devote itself exclu- 
sively to the book market and all that pertains to it. 

The extraordinary number of literary manuscripts 
which have come into the market, and the high prices 
realised for them, constitute a sign of the limes which 
cannot be overlooked. By "literary manuscripts" is 
meant original manuscripts of classic works, generally 
but not invariably printed afterwards in book-form. 
Media-val manuscripts, written on vellum, decorated 
and illuminated, are not included in the term, for they are 
primarily works of art. Nor are autograph letters included, 
for another but equally valid reason. The manuscripts 
referred to arc in reality " books" of far more import- 
ance than the printed copies made from them, for they 
mirror, as in a glass, the trend of the author's thoughts 
as originally evolved, and the modifications which a 
maturer consideration urged him to make, while the 
printed books show the fulfilment of the scheme. 
Manuscript plus printed book, and we have the mind 
of the author laid bare, so far as it is possible to achieve 
such a result, and time and the horn- cannot prevail 
against it. This is the reason why such manuscripts are 
sought for almost regardless of expense, and why they 
are never likely to be relegated to the background by 
the passing of a craze. For puiposcs of convenience, 
no less than to point a moral incident to the remarks 
we have been impelled to make, the following table will 
have its uses. It gives details of all the " literary 
manuscripts" realising ^100 and upwards which have 
been sold since October 9th, igo6, and the end of July 
in this present year : — 


The Connoisseur 





Date of Salk. 


.Shelley (P. B.) 

Three Note Books, containing poems and other 

circa 1S20 



Vincent de Beauvais .. 

Le Miroir Ilisloriale, folio, half bound 

.Sa;c. xiv. 

Dec. I4lh, 1906 


Pope (Alex.) 

Essay on Man, and others, folio, in a case 


Stuart Samuel 


Burns (R.) 

Various Poems 

.March 15th, 1907 


White (Gilbert) 

Natural History of Selborne, folio, morocco 


Stuart Samuel 


Speculum Humanje Salvationis, on vellum, 4I0 

S.-cc. XV. 

Bromley-Davenjwrt .. 


(precursor of the Block Book) 

Scott (Sir W.) 

History of .Scotland, 3 vols., hf. bd., 4to, and folio 


June 1st, 1907 


Swift (J.) 

Collection of Letters, Poems, and Essays, mostly 

S:ec. xviii. 

Dec. 14th, 1906 



Decrelales, on vellum, 354 leaves, folio 

Saec. xiv. 

L. W. Ilodson 


Morris (W.) 

The Earlhley Paradise, 1,619 leaves, 7 vols., 
morocco extra 

Sa;c. xix. 

L. W. Ilodson 


Shelley (P. B.) 

Proposal for Putting Reform to the \'ote, 17 leaves, 
4to, morocco super extra 


Stuart Samuel 


Burns (R.) 

Scots wdia hae 


March 15th, 1907 


Tennyson (Lord) 

The Brook, 8 pages, 8vo, morocco super extra ... 


Stuart Samuel 


Keats (Jolin) 

Cap and Bells 


Dec. I4lh, 1906 



Cirurgicale Parte of Medicine, old calf, folio 

Sa;c. xiv. 

L. W. Hodson 


Catherine of Siena 

Legenda, modern russia, on vellum, folio 

SffiC. XV. 

L. W. Hodson 


Thackeray (\V. M.) ... 

Original Draft of Chapters IV. and V. of " Pliilip," 
4to, morocco super extra 


Stuart Samuel 



Les Fables d'Ovide, on vellum, modern, 

Of Taste, 8 leaves inlaid, folio, morocco extra ... 

Srec. xiv. 

June 17th, 1907 


I'ope (.'Mex.) 

n. d. 

.Stuart Samuel . . 


Dryden (John) ... 

Eleonora, 6 leaves, 410, morocco super extra 


Stuart .Samuel 



Epistolce, on vellum, 284 leaves, folio, morocco ... 

Siec. XV. 

L. W. Ilodson 


Lorris (Guil.) ... 

Roman de la Rose, on vellum, folio, old morocco 

Saec. xiv. 

June 17th, 1907 


Chaucer (G.) . . 

Canterbury Tales, on vellum, 214 leaves, folio ... 

circa 1420 

L. W. Hodson 


Byron (Lord) 

Proof Sheets of Various Poems, morocco extra 


Stuart Samuel 


Tennyson (Lord) 

The Northern Farmer, 4 leaves, 4to, morocco 
super extra 


Stuart Samuel 


Burns (R.) 

The Poet's Progress, 4 pp. in a gilt frame .. 


Stuart Samuel 


Chaucer (G.) 

Canterbury Tales, on paper, 350 leaves, folio 

Sa;c. XV. 

L. W. Ilodson 


Maintenon (Mdme. de) 

La Caracti-re de la Princesse reine Silvaine, 8vo, 
old morocco 


Stuart Samuel 



Speculum Vilit, on vellum, old morocco 

Siec. xiv. 

Duke of Sutherland ... 


Lorris (Guil.) 

Roman de la Rose, Svo, old morocco 

S:ec. XV. 

Sir H. Mildmay . . 


Lamb(C.) Children, 2 pp., folio 

.Stuart Samuel 


Cromer (\V.) ... 

Treatise of Medicine and Chirurgery, old calf 

circa 1550 

Duke of Sutherland ... 


Florus (L. .A.) 

p'asti, on vellum, folio, contemporary oak bds. 

S;ec. XV. 

Duke of .'Mtemps 


Brontii (Emily) 

Volume of Poems, 68 pp., 8vo 


July 26th, 1907 


Barham (R. H.) 

The Jackdaw of Rheims, Svo, mor. super extra ... 


Stuart Samuel 


Chaucer (G.) 

Canterbury Tales, on vellum, 276 leaves, folio ... 

Ssc. XV. 

L. W. Hodson 


Chrysostom, St. 

Homilix, on vellum, 274 leaves, half morocco ... 

S:ec. xii.-xiii. 

L. \V. Hodson 


Early English Metrical Romances, on vellum 

Saec. xiv. 

Duke of Sutherland ... 


Handel (G. F.) 

Score of " The Messiah " in 3 vols., oblong folio, 
original calf. In the handwriting of J. Christo- 
pher Smith 

July 19th, 1907 


Schubert (Franz) 

Miriam's Siegesgesang, op. 136, vocal score 


Stuart Samuel 


Shelley (P. B.) 

Poem in his Autograph, 5 verses of 9 lines each ... 


July 25th, 1907 


Morris (W.) 

The Well at the World's End, 629 leaves, 2 vols., 

Siec. xix. 

L. W. Hoilson 



It will be understood that this list, formidable though 
it be, does not take any account of ancient illuminated 
manuscripts, which it is impossible to describe in a 
few words. The value of these depends upon their age 
and the character and quality of the painted miniatures, 
initial letters, and borders which they invariably contain. 
They consist for the most part of Horcr and other ser- 
vice books, and of Bibles, and are essentially monastic. 
Many of these have been sold for large sums during the 
past season. These apart, the ne.xt point of interest 
centres in Shakcspeariana^ which have lately become very 

numerous. It was said at one time that works of this 
class were fast becoming improcurable at any price, the 
fact being that, although the price is increasing, many 
more copies are coming into the market than was 
formerly the case. The law of supply and demand 
evidently rules, so far as they are concerned, with its 
accustomed force, and many years will no doubt elapse 
before the country is entirely denuded of these old-time 
works, or, what is more probable, they cease to remain 
in private hands. The following extensive list spe.aks 
for itself: — 


/// the Sale Room 

Library or 



Printer or Pcblishf-r. 


Date of Sale. 

First Folio, 13 in. liy SJ in., morocco extra 

Isaac laggard 


Van Antwerp 


First P'olio, 13 in. Ijy SJ in., old morocco extra 

Isaac laggard 


June 1st, 1907 


Contention betwixt the Houses of York and Lancaster, 

Thomas Creed 


June 1st, 1907 


the Foundation Play, unbound, 4to 

Third Folio, 13J in. by 84 in., calf 

Printed for P. C 


June 1st, 1907 


Arden of Faversham, unbound, 4to ... 

Edward White 


June 1st, 1907 


Sonnets, old morocco, small 4to ... 

G. Eld 


Sir H. Mildmay 


First Folio, 12 in. by ^\ in., verses missing, morocco ... 

Isaac laggard 


Sir H. Mildmay 


Third Folio, 12J in. by"S^ in., modern calf 

Printed for P. C 


Van .\ntwerp ... 


The Merchant of Venice, unbound, 410 ... 

Thomas Heves 


June 1st, 1907 


Third Folio, sound, morocco extra 

Printed for P. C. 


Duke of Sutherland , , . 


The Merchant of Venice, 4to, unbound 

James Roberts 


Dec. I4ih, 1906 


The Rape of Lucrece, i2mo, new vellum 

Roger Jackson 


Van Antwerp ... 


First Folio, imperfect, old calf, the Brocket copy 

Isaac laggard 


May I4lh, 1907 


Third Folio, 13I in. by Sj in., wanted last leaf, orig. cf. 

Printed for P. C 


July 27th, 1907 


King Lear, 4to, morocco extra 

Nathaniel Butter , . 

1 60S 

Dec. 14th, 1906 


King Lear, unbound, 4to .. 

Nathaniel Butter 

1 60S 

June 1st, 1907 


Midsommer Night's Dreame, 4to, unbound 

James Roberts 


Dec. 14th, 1906 


Second Folio, 13 in. by 8} in., slightly stained, orig. cf. 

Thomas Coles 


July 26th, 1907 


Second Folio, 13J in. by 8J in., morocco 

Thomas Cotes 


Sir H. Mildmay 


Second Folio, 13 in. by 8i in., mended, old russia 

Thomas Cotes 

■ 632 

March 15th, 1907 


Poems, slightly imperfect, modern morocco 

Thomas Cotes 


Nov. 29th, 1906 


Poems, slightly mended, morocco extra ... 

Thomas Coles 


Van Antwerp ... 


Second Folio, \l\ in. by S| in., modern morocco 

Thomas Cotes 


Van Antwerp ... 


Third Folio, \l\\x\. by 8| in., modern morocco, mended 

Printed for P. C 


June 1st, 1907 


King Lear, 4to, morocco ... 

Nathaniel Butter ... 


Van Antwerp 


Hamlet, unbound, 4to 

John Smelhwicke ... 

n. d. 

June lit, 1907 


A Midsommer Night's Dreame, 4to, nmrocco extra 

James Roberts 


Van Antwerp 


Hamlet, damaged, 410, unbound 

John Smethwicke ... 


H. C. Harford 


Second F'olio, 13 in. by %\ in., morocco extra 

Thomas Cotes 


June 1st, 1907 


First p'olio, partly in facsimile, calf gilt . . 

Isaac Jaggard 


Percy Fitzgerald 


Third Folio, 13^ in. by 8i in., old morocco, imperfect . 

Printed for 1". C. ... 


Sir H. Mildmay 


Poems, Portrait loosely inserted, 5J in. by 3y'5 in., mod. cf. 

Thomas Cotes 


July 27th, 1907 


Merry Wives of Windsor, 4to, morocco extra ... 

Arthur Johnson 


Van .Antwerp 


Hamlet, clean and perfect, unbound 

John Smethwicke 


Nov. 29lh, 1906 


Othello, unbound, 410 

Richard Hawkins ... 


June 1st, 1907 


Merry Wives of Windsor, unbound, 410 

Arthur Johnson 


June, 1907 


A Yorkshire Tragedy, 4to, morocco gilt 

Printed'for T. P 


Dec. 14th, 1906 


In addition to these, many works by or attributed to 
Shakespeare were sold for less than ..£100, chiefly by 
reason of their imperfections or becavise they belonged 
to late and comparatively unimportant editions. 

.So far as books other than Sluikcspcariana are con- 
cerned, they might be divided into many distinct head- 
ings, and that course would be necessary had a sufticient 
number of them in each department sold for the sub- 
stantial amounts we have indicated. Such, however, is 
not the case, and it will therefore be better to deal with 
them in one list. It may be remarked that, speaking 
generally, and given books of rarity and substantial 
value, the tendency is towards a great increase in market 
price, but that, on the contrary, unimportant books, or 
rather, let us say, those for which there is no great 
competition, have distinctly declined in value, not only 
during the past season, but of late years. In this way 
is the balance restored, and the adjustment is in favour 
of the book-lover of average means. Caring nothing for 
extremely valuable works, possibly because they are 

hopelessly beyond his reach, or because they do not enter 
into his life, he turns his attention to the inexhaustible 
majority which he finds ever ready at hand, and learns 
to recognise the truth of the maxim, that the best 
books are always the cheapest. Not every rare book 
is expensive : rarity is not necessarily associated with 
cost, though the terms are often loosely used to mean 
the same thing, and there is even now an immense and 
important hold for the collector who is debarred, for one 
reason or another, from competing for what, after all, 
are curiosities, of immense importance truly in public 
libraries, or in the hands of a few specialists, when in 
either case they occupy their true position, but of very 
little when bought casually in a spirit of emulation, or 
for no reason except that they are costly. The follow- 
ing list will give a good idea of the kind of books for 
which there is at present, and perhaps always will 
be, a very great demand, and which may be expected, 
therefore, to become more and more difficult to acquire 
as time goes on : — 

The Coi/j/oissciir 



I'liiMKR OR Publisher. 

Da 1 1:. 


Date of Sale. 



Wallim (Isaac) 

The Complcal Angler, orig. sheep, 8vo... 

Richard Marriol 


Van Antwerp ... 


Frobisher (M.) 

First Voyage, new calf, i2mo, cut 

Andrew Maunsell 

1 57s 

March 15th, 1907 


Krobisher (M.) 

Third Voyage, new calf, i2mo, cut 

Thos. Dawson ... 


.March I5lh, 1907 


Frobisher (M.) 

.Second Voyage, new calf, i2mo, cut 

H. Middleton ... 


March IJlh, 1907 


Burns (K.) ... 

Poems, original wrappers, imcut, 8vo ... 

John Wilson 


Van Antwerp ... 


Le Roy (Leys) 

Le Politicpies d'Aristote. and another worU, 
old nior., dedication copies to Henri HI. 





Hawkins (J.) 

Voyages, new calf extra, i2nio, cut and 
blank leaf missing 

Thos. Purfoote 


March Ijlh, 1907 


Caxlon (\V.) 

Cicero in Old Age, and other pieces, 
loj in. by 7 J in , morocco 



Van Antwerp ... 


Bunyan (John) 

The Pilgrim's Progress, imperfect, orig. 
calf, Svo 

Nath. Ponder ... 


July 26th, 1907 


Voragine (I. dc) 

The Golden Lcgenda, fol., mod. oak bds. 

W. Caxlon 


June 1st, 1907 ... 


Caxlon (\V.) 

The Ryal Booke, and other works, by 
Caxlon, much mutiiatefl, original 
stamped leather 

Caxton ... 


Nov. 23rd, 1906 


Hubbard (W.) 

Troubles with the Indians, orig. cf., 410, 
" White Hills" map 

John l-'osler 


Van .Antwerp ... 


Journal of the Expedition to La Ciuira, 
and six other .-Vmerican tracts, in a 
volume, half calf 

1744 5,i 

11. '■. Harford... 


.\ Relation of Maryland, blank leaf miss- 
ing, 4I0, unbound 

William Peasley 


March 15th, 1907 


Nieremberg (Jo.) 

Hisloria Naturx, and another work, 
Charles Ist's copies, old English nior. 






Opera Omnia, first ed., fob, old russia ... 



July 27th, 1907 


Sidney (Sir P.) 

Countesse of Penrbroke's Arcadia, sm.4to, 
mended, old boards 

William Ponsonbie 


Van .Antwerp ... 


Gower (Jno.) 

Confessio Amantis, nearly perlect, mod. 
morocco, folio 

William Caxton 


Sir H. Mildmay 


Scott (Sir \V.) 

Waverley Novels, full set, original editions, 
mostly in boards 


Van Antwerp ... 


Burns (R.) 

Poems, mor. ex., .some leaves rcpaire<l, Svo 

John W'ilson ... 


George Gray ... 


Common Conditions, a comedy, unbd., 410 

William I low ... 


June 1st, 1937 ... 


PhilHp (Jno.) 

Pacienl and Meeke Grissill, unbound, 410 

Thomas Cohvell 

n. d. 

June 1st, 1907 ... 



I lias el Odyssea, 4 vols., printed on vellum, 
folio, original morocco 

.\nt Bladus 


Duke of Altemps 


Ames (Jos.) ... 

Typographical .■\ntiquities, 4 vols., speci- 
mens of ancient typography added, 
old calf, 4to 

17S5 90 

Van .\nlwerp ... 


Stranynnge (\V.) 

Ilislorie of Mary Queen of Scots, extra 
illustrated and inlaid to folio size 

Jolm I laviland . , 


Dec. 5tli, 1906.,. 


Browning (K.) 

Pauline, Svo, morocco super extra, auto- 
graph inscription by author 

Saunders <.^- Otle)" 


Stuart Sanniel ... 


Goldsmith (O.) 

The Traveller, morocco extra, small 4I0 

J. Newbery 


Van Antwerp ... 


Chapman (Geo.) 

Seavcn liookes of the Iliades of Ilonrcre, 

John Windet 




llakluyl (1^.) 

Voy.ages( with gen\iine" Voyage to Cadiz"), 
3 vols., fol., slightly defective, russia 

( 1. Bishnji and others .. 

(59S I 60c 

July 27111, 1907... 



Klegy, morocco extra, 4to 

R. Dodsley 


Van .Vntwerp 


Haden (F. Seymour) 

Etudes .a I'eau Forte, proof etchings 
momited, imperial folio 


JuneOth, 1907 ... 


Jesse (J. H.) 

Memoirs of the Pretenders, extra illus- 


Dec. 5th, 1906... 


trated and inlaid to 2 vols., folio 

We have touched but the fringe of the stibject in this 
short summary of the season's sales. Hundreds of other 
volumes have realised large amounts, but little advantage 
would be gained by naming llicm seriatim, while a great 
deal of space would be necessary if an attempt were 
made to complete the list, so as to include books which 
realised more than, say, ^50 01/60. These, and indeed 
all books of any importance, will be found chronicled 
in the pages of AUCTION S.\LE Prices. It may be 
mentioned that, in consequence of the unusual number 

of very rare volumes sold during the past season, and 
the high prices realised for them, the average has 
jumped up to £\ 4s. 2d., the next highest being in 
1901, when it stood at ^3 7s. lod. Taking last season's 
book sales in the mass, and including those only of a 
high class, we find that some 31,800 lots of books, as 
catalogued by the auctioneers, were disposed of, and 
that they realised a total sum of nearly /i 34,000. 
This discloses an average of ^4 4s. 2d., as previously 


Readers of The Connoisseur are entitled 
to the privilege of an answer gratis in these columns 
on any subject of interest to the collector of antique 
curios and works of art ; and an enquiry coupon for 
this purpose will be found placed in the advertisement 
pages of every issue. Objects of this nature may also 
be sent to us for authentication and appraisement, in 
which case, however, a small fee is charged, and the 
information given privately by letter. Valuable objects 
will be insured by us against all risks whilst on our 
premises, and it is therefore desirable to make all 
arrangements with us before forwarding. (See coupon 
for full particulars.) 


'Books. — " Don Quixote."— 9,826 (.Sallbum-by-lhe- 
.Sc.u- — IjL-ing an odd volume, ymir hook is of no value. 

Works of Scott. — 9,^45 (King's Lynn). — Your twenty-five 
volumes are not worth more than 2 or 3 gns. 

"Works of William Hoji;arth."—9.S47 (Leicester).— 
This I) )ok i> not in dejuand witli colleclors at the present time. 
Its value, at the outside, does not exceed £l. I'ln Museum of 
Natural History, being an obsolete work, is practically valueless. 

Coins and Medals. — Armada ISronze Medal, 

1588. -9,iii^ lLdinbuij;h). — This counter is tairly common, 
and its value is about 4s. to 5s., according to condition. The 
figures on the obverse do not represent .Spaniards, but the 
devotional gratitude of the Knglish people for their deliverance, 
which they ascribe to God, as shown by the legend in Latin 
arovnid the figures, viz., " Man i)ro])oses, God dis]ioses." 

Engravings. — " Foxhunting," after J. F. 
Herring, senr. — g.SoS (Leamington .Spa). — The value of 

your coloured sporting prinl>, if in good condition, is about 

^i or /,v 

"Lucy of Leinster," by William Ward. 9,800 
(Iladdon Road). — The original engravuig was m ^tlpple. If 
your print is oft' the original plate, it is worth several pounds, 
.according to state, but we must see it to give a definite opinion. 
To dispose of it privately, advertise in Till': CoNNOlsstiUR 

"Soliciting a Vote," after Buss, by Lupton.— 9,799 
(Porthcawl). — The market value of this me//.otint is not more 
than 4s. or 5s. Vour coloured print of Wcsiall's .It the Cottage 
Door, is worth about 25s. 

" The Vicar of Parish receiving Tithes," and "The 
Curate of Parish returned from Duty," after 
H. Singleton, by T. Burke.— 9,844 (New Brighton).— 
The value of youi two coliured prints, if they are in fine 
condition, is about ;^S to ^10. 

" Le Buveur Flamand." — 9,840 (Kensington). — The 
print vou describe is worth onlv about los. 

"Trial of Earl Strafford," etc.-9,84i (Stre.atham).— 
The various prints you mention are unfortunately of very small 

Royal Academy Diplomas.— 9. S36 (Baitersea).— These 

are worth iinU" a few ^liillinL;^. 

"Marquis of Rockingham," after Sir. I. Reynolds, 
by E. Fisher.— 9,837 (Hull).— Your engi.aving, if a good 
impression, is worth /,!. 

"Death of Epaminondas," by B. West. — 9,821 

(Cauiberwell), — Tiiis (.rint is not worth more than a few 

ObjetS d' Art. — Paintings on Glass. — 9,809 

(Southport).— If perfect, the pair of transfer paintings on gl.ass 
you describe would fetch from £2 to ^3, according to the tpialily 
of the work. 

"Pottery and "Porcelain. — Dessert Dish, etc. 

— 9,829 (Thiapston).— The style of decoration shown in your 
sketch was common to a number of factories. To give a definite 
opinion regarding your china, therefore, we should have to 
examine the paste. 

Spode Plate, etc. —9,807 (Saffron \Yalden). — Wc are 
inclineil to iliink that your vegetable <lish and six plates are 
Spode, as well as the plate so marked. The mark you have 
photographed simply indicates a particular class of china made 
by one maker, and does not necessarily afford a clue to the 
factory. The pieces are of only slight interest to collectors, and 
their total value does not exceed 35s. 

Rockingham.— 9,831 (Carli>le).— Rockingham china varies 
considerably m ipiality. To value your tea service, wc must see 
a specimen^ and know the exact number of cups and saucers. 

Jug.— 9,830 (Bishop's Castle).— The jug, of which you send 
us sketch, was probably m.ade by Kidgway, alwut the year 1S30. 
It is worth alK)Ut 20s. 

Worcester Tea Service.- 9.931 (Cirforih).— It isdifiicult 
to give an opinion upon your tea service without inspection. 
Judging from the photograph it may lie early nineteenth century 
Worcester ; but as it is incomplete, it is not worth more than 
about j^3 lOs. 

Turner Plate. — 10,134 (Wateringlntry).— Judging from 
your sketch we are of opinion that your plate is one ol llio»e 
made bv Turner ai Lane End, Stafibrdshire, and afterwards 
decorated in Its value is alxjut 155. 

Wedgwood Jug. — 10,113 (Kltham).— It is really necessary 
to see your jug to value it, as it depends so much upon the ilate 
and tiuality. The subject, however, leads us to Irelieve that it 
was not made during the lime of Jo-iab \Yedgwood, and it is, 
therefore, not worth more than C'^ '" £i 





Special Notice 

Rkaijers of The Connoisseur who desire to have 
pedigrees traced, the accuracy of armorial bearings 
enquired into, paintings of arms made, book plates 
designed, or otherwise to make use of the depart- 
ment, will be charged fees according to the amount 
of work involved. Particulars will be supplied on 

When asking information respecting genealogy or 
heraldry, it is desirable that the fullest details, so far 
as they may be already known to the applicant, 
should be set forth. 

Only replies that may be considered to be of 
general interest will be jjublished in these columns. 
Those of a personal character, or in cases where the 
applicant may prefer a private answer, will be dealt 
with by post. 

Readers who desire to take advantage of the 
opportunities offered herein should address all letters 
on the subject to the Manager of the Heraldic 
Department, at the Offices of the Magazine, 95, 
Temple Chambers, Temple Avenue, E.C. 

Answers to Correspondents 

Heraldic Department 

1,140 (Philadelphia).— Cli.-irles Jarvis. ihe translator of Z)o« 
Quixote, and su(ccssi>r lo Sir Godfrey Kneller as portrait 
painter to George I., signed his Will, CM&\\es Jarvis, and the 
account of him in 'J'/u Dictionary of National Biography can 
be supplemented b) some jiatticulars of his parentage. His 
father was John Jervas, of ("knlisUe, in the paiish of Shinroan, 
King's Co., who had married Kli/;ibelh, daughter of John 
Baldwin, of Shinroan. Letters of Adnunistralion were granted 
by the Prerogative Court of Dublin on 7th Feb., 1697S, of the 
goods of " John ytv7'<7j, late of Clonliske, King's Co., genl., 
who died at Cape M:iy in America, to Charlesyivz'ai, of the 
City of Dublin, gent., son of said deceased, to use of Lujj', 
Martin, Mary, Matthew, John and Trevor Jervas, children of 
said deceased." The Will of John Baldwin, .sen., of Shinroan, 
King's Co., was proved in the same Court, i Feb., 169S-9, 
and in it the testator mentions his son-in-law, )o\mJii-^is, of 
Clonliske, his daughter, Klizabeth ytv-z'/V, their four younger 
sons, Martin, Matthew, John and Trevor, and their two 
daughters, Lucy and Mary. Charles Jarvis docs not appear 
to have been at Trinity College, Dublin, but his younger 

brother, John, matriculated at that University 21 March, 1697-S, 
being then aged 19, and the entry in the College register 
describes him as having been educated "by Mr. Archbald at 
Shinrone, King's Co.," where possibly Charles, also, received his 
education. The latter, in his Will, which was proved in the 
P.C.C., 3 Dec, 1739, by his widow and executrix, mentions 
the children of his late brother, Martin Jarvis, of Pennsylvania, 
and the children of John Jarvis, of Clonliske. Who the " rich 
widow " was, whom he married, is not known, but her name 
was Penelojie, and in her Will (proved 1746) she refers to her 
.\unt Penelope Hume, and makes John Hampden, of Hampden, 
Bucks., her executor and residuary legatee. 

1,145 (Cromer). — Heny Killigrew, whose distinguished 
daugliter, .-Vniie Killigrew, was the subject of Dryden's well- 
known Ode, was the" fifth son of Sir Robert Killigrew, Knt., 
and a younger brother of Sir William Killigrew, the dramatist. 
I lis sister, Elizabeth, was the celebrated Lady Shannon, 
mistress of Charles H. 

1,152 (London). — Walter Langdon, of Keverel (referred to 
in Ciil. Vivian's Visitations of Cornwall ViS, £sc/.), was knighted 
at Whitehall, June, 1628, arid although he had, according to 
the Visitation of 1620, eight sons, only two are referred to 
in his Will, which was d.ited 4th Feb., 1625-6, and proved 
13th May, 1637, viz., " my Sonne T'francis Langdon," and 
" my Sonne and heire Walter Langdon," the last-named being 
exor. and residuary legatee ; the remaining six probably having 
died young. Walter, the eldest son, left an only son, also 
named Walter, who died in 1676, leaving a daughter and 
heiress, who became the second wife of John BuUer, of Morval. 
On his monument this Walter is said to have been " the last 
of the male line of that loyal and ancient and honourable 
family." Francis Langdon died, without issue, in 165S, and 
left ^£'200 to his " niece Klizat)eth Lee, she and her husband 
Richard Lee to give the executrix a general release of all 
further demands." Richard Lee is said to have been the 
founder ot the family of Lee of Virginia. 

1,159 (Plymouth). — There are few- Imjuisitions Post Mortem 
of a later date than 1644, as the series of these records 
terminates with the alxilition of the Court of Wards and 
Liveries, which took place soon after the Restoration. 

1,165 (London).— The Coat of Anns on the beaker -.■//;?<;«/ 
a (hevron hctu'ceii three escallops or — was borne by the Wenyeves, 
of Brettenham Hall, Co. Suflolk. The family of H'enyeve 
seems to have entirely disappeared, but their name in another 
and perhaps older form may possibly still survive, as we find 
a " George Wyiitiyffc, of Brettenham, .Suffolk, son of Thomas," 
matriculated at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, 
3rd March, 1562-3. 

1,172 (Sydney). — Inigo Jones was the son of Ignatius (or 
Inigo) Jones, Citizen and Clothworker of London, who w.-is said 
to have been descended from the family of Jones, of Garlhkenan, 
Co. Denbigh, and whose Arms were : Per henii sinister ermine 
and ermines a lion rampant -vithin a hordiire engrailed or. 
These Anns appear on the Houghton Hall portrait of the 
great architect. 

November, 1907. 



The Cheshire Residence of 

His Grace the Duke of Westminster 

Part II. By Leonard Willoughby 

Dr. Rupert Morris, in his excellent little 
Guide to Eaton Hall, says that the name " Eaton " 
contains an allusion to its position near the Dee and 
neighbouring streams. He contends that " the first 
part of the word having doubtless a connection with 
'eye' or 'ey,' which appears in English local names 
as Battersea, Anglesey, Ostrey, and in the term 
' Eyot,' or 'Ait,' a little island." In my previous 
article I referred to some of the ancestors of the Duke 
of Westminster, but only in the sense of tracing the 
direct descent of the Duke from Hugh Lupus, the 
Conqueror's nephew. One Grosvenor I mentioned 
was Raufe, who was an adherent of the Empress 
Maud, and who, with his cousin the Earl of Chester, 
was present at the battle of Lincoln in 1141. It was 

here that King Stephen, forsaken by his followers, 
showed such marvellous bravery and prowess. 

Fighting on foot, with his sword till it was broken, 
and then with his axe, he succeeded in bringing 
many to the ground, and amongst them the Earl of 
Chester. It was only after he himself had been 
struck by a huge stone that he was captured and 
carried off to Bristol Castle. There is preserved at 
Eaton Hall a M.S., a copy of Henry of Huntingdon's 
Chronicle, containing a contemporary drawing of 
King Ste|)lien making arrangements for the battle of 
Lincoln. Richard Cieur de Lion had with him 
Raufe's son Robert in the Crusade, and he was 
present with him in Sicily in 1190, when he took 
Messina in revenge of 'I'ancred's expelling the English 


Vol. XI.\.— No. 

The Connoisseur 

soldiers. Yet another Roliert Cirosvenor, Lord of of certain goods of ^the Welsh rebels which had been 

Hume, accompanied King Edward III. to France, 
and witnessed the passage of the river Somme and 
the battle of Cressy in 1346. 

I mentioned that Eaton came to the Grosvenors 
through the alliance of Ralph, second son of Sir 

seized at Eton Boat after the battle of Shrewsbury 
"by his faithful but too zealous subject, John de 
Eton." Loyalty has ever been the marked character- 
istic of the Grosvenor family, though their loyalty at 
times has cost them much. I'or instance. Sir Richard 

vU, j 


Thomas Grosvenor, of Holme — or Hume — to Joan, 
heiress of John Eton de E^ton, /em/). Henry VL 
Eaton was then spelt without the " a," and the house 
which belonged to the estate was called Eton Boat. 
This curious name for a house arose through the 
proprietor having the Grand Sergeancy of the Dee, 
which gave him great powers. 

There is another MS. at Eaton, a letter from 
Henry, Prince of Wales, commanding the restoration 

Grosvenor in 1644 came in contact with the Parlia- 
mentary forces under Lord Fairfax, and through all 
these troublous times continued firm in his adherence 
to his King. This cost him his home at Eaton and 
forced him to take shelter in a neighbouring cottage 
for many a long year, until the King came to his 
own again. His son Roger likewise was loyal, and in 
1659, when the Royalists had planned a general rising 
in favour of their exiled king, he held himself ready 

Eaton Flail 

with Sir Thomas Myddleton of Chirk Castle, his 
father-in-law, and his wife's brother-in-law, Lord 
Herbert of Cherbury, and Sir Richard Wynne of 
Gwydyr, to raise the King's standard on the Welsh 
marshes. He was rewarded for his services by being 
selected as one of the thirteen gentlemen of Cheshire 
to be Knights of the Royal Oak. He was killed 
in a duel in 1661, whilst his father was still living. 

But, to return to Eaton Hall, it may be of some 
small interest to mention a word as to the previous 
houses which existed on this spot, but which differed 
entirely in appearance from the present great cold- 
looking building. The first Grosvenor to build a 
house at Eaton was Sir Thomas, in 1690. His 
architect was Sir John Vanbrugh, who also designed 
those wonderful buildings, Blenheim and Castle 
Howard, the respective homes of the Dukes of 
Marlborough and Earls of Carlisle. The Eaton 
House he designed was of brick, "with a frontage 



of 157 feet. It was in five divisions, the centre 
and extreme members advancing from the rest ; 
the whole covered with a flat heavy roof, having 
windows and surmounted by an immense lantern 
rising from the middle of a platform enclosed by 
balustrades and surmounted by chimneys in ponderous 
clusters. In front was a spacious courtyard flanked 
by two detached wings and surrounded bv iron rail- 
ings, with entrance gates of iron superbly wrought 
and elaborately ornamented." In 1803 this house 
was greatly altered by Robert, I'-arl Grosvenor, the 
work occupying thirteen years 10 finish. Two wings 
were at this time added, which now brought up 
the length of the house to 450 feet. Instead 
now of the plain-looking building of Sir John 
Vanbrugh's design, i\Ir. William I'ordon converted 
it into one which may be described as of florid 
Ecclesiastical Gothic. Again later on alterations were 
made to the east front by Richard, 2nd Marquis, 
who reconstructed the turrets either side of the 
drawing and dining rooms. .And so Eaton Hall 
remained until 1867, when the late Duke entrusted 
Mr. Waterhouse with the task of creating the 
present enormous structure. 

In continuing my description of the interior, I will 
commence with the saloon which forms part of the 


The Connoisseur 

hall, and is the feature of the house. I suppose it is 
quite unique in every respect, both in design and 
in decoration. Divided by pillars alone from the 
entrance hall, the two form one large room measuring 
76 feet by 32 feet. The .saloon faces east, over- 
looking the sloping grounds wherein are some ponds 
in stone enclosures or basins. There is also the 
broad walk which runs down from the steps leading 
out of the saloon direct to the lake at the bottom 
of the grounds. The apartment is lighted by three 
enormous windows, which show up well the wonder- 
ful marbles which surround the room, and the great 

Laura; (4) Dante and Beatrice; (5) King Henry II. 
and Fair Rosamond ; (6) Claudia and Pudens : 
(7) Cassivelaunus and Flor; (8) Mark Antony and 
Cleopatra. Above this fine chimney-piece and 
running the entire length of the wall is the 
frieze painted by H. Stacey Marks, R.A., representing 
Chaucer's " Canterbury Pilgrims." The effect of this 
extraordinary painting in vivid colours is remarkable, 
for the figures are drawn nearly life size. It is 
continued on the opposite wall, the figures repre- 
senting the Miller riding at the head of the 
Pilgrims, and blowing his bagpipes, with which he 


painted frieze. The three large Gothic stone arches 
which divide the saloon from the hall are supported 
by clustered pillars of "Vert de Mer." 

The high alabaster dado runs along the north and 
south walls. The fireplace is in the north wall, and 
has a very large and heavy stone mantel, supported by 
double pillars of the beautiful "Vert de Mer" marble. 
The panels of the frieze are of alabaster, and the carvings 
in high relief represent the Court of Love. Thus in 
the four outer panels are, ( i ) Eros or Cupid winged, 
with his bows and arrows; {2) Love, holding in her 
arms two turtle doves; (3) Hymen, the God of 
Marriage, with his torch ; (4) Constancy. In the 
centre of the frieze eight pairs of lovers famed in 
history, (i) Raphael and La Fornarina ; (2) P"ra 
Filippo Lippi and Lucrezia Buti ; (3) Petrarch and 

" brought the company out of town. ' Following him 
are the Physician, the Parson, and the Knight : 
then come the Veoman and the Cook, the Nun and 
the gentle Prioress — " mighty pains she took to 
counterfeit court manners and be stately and discreet. 
So charitable and piteous that she could weep but 
did she see a mouse caught in a trap, if it were dead 
or bled." .\nd then come the Voung Squire, and 
the Man of Law, which is the last figure on the south 
wall. On the chimney side the picture commences 
with the .Merchant and the Franklin, with "com- 
plexion sanguine," for "he loved in morning a sop of 
wine." Then comes the Wife of Bath, the whilom 
wife of five husbands. She is depicted as " bold of 
face, red of hue, well wimpled with fine kerchiefs, 
showy in dress." By her is the " Wanton and merry 


Eaton Hall 

Friar," and Chaucer himself with rose in hand rides 
between the Manciple and the Shipnian. The rear is 
brought up by Mine Host, a " large stout man, merry 
and full of witty jests," and the Reeve, a "slender 
choleric fellow with long legs, lean like a staff, who 
ever rode the hynderest of the route." 

The vellum tint of the walls helps to throw up this 
bright scene, which is truly an extraordinary and bold 
conception for decoration. The ceiling is vaulted, 
and follows the design of the tomb of Mahomet at 
Beejopore. The centre is in the form of an inverted 

The room leading from the saloon on the south 
side is the ante drawing room, and, like the saloon, is 
remarkable for its decorations — also by H. Stacey 
Marks, R.A. These consist of a series of twelve bird 
pictures set in panels and placed in sets of three, 
one set flanking each side of the chimney-piece, and 
the remainder occupying the side walls. The birds 
are all painted in vivid colours, but with the most 
extraordinary accuracy. The colours, form, and 
texture of the feathers all show that the artist must 
have deeply studied each subject. Curiously enough 


saucer, and is painted to represent the firmament in 
graduated blue, with a gold sun in the centre surrounded 
by stars. Most of the furniture here is covered in 
priceless tapestry, while the heavier seats and chairs 
are covered in finely worked Genoese stuff trimmed 
with richly embroidered Venetian applique. Two 
enormous vases on either side of the central window- 
are good specimens of fluted work in Oriental granite, 
and the large Venetian cabinet, the supports of which 
are negro boys, is a beautifully wrought piece of 
Renaissance workmanship. A large screen is formed 
by the top of a table placed on end, and consists 
of a huge slab of marble, inlaid in different colours. 
The chairs and settees are Louis XVI., in white 
and gold, while a tall clock of curious design is of 
the I'^mpire period. 

they are mostly birds with long legs and necks, 
such as the flamingo or the secretary bird, .^s Dr. 
Morris remarks, " We have called this series of ])anels 
an idealised zoo." Plumed anglers from Europe, 
Africa and America : gorgeous macaws and solemn 
cockatoos from the tropics : birds from all i:limes 
have been brought together to live harmoniously with 
the English robin and the homely sparrow. Nowhere 
can such a gathering be seen save in the Zoological 
(iardens, and a right "happy thought" it was to 
invoke Mr. Marks's unrivalled skill to make them 
breathe and live upon the walls of the sumptuous 
room at Eaton. The frieze above depicts birds and 
primroses, while the roof is groined in flat low arches 
on which are painted swallows, butterflies, and stars. 
The chimney-piece, of Derbyshire alabaster, with slabs 


The Coiiiioissc/ir 

of porphyry and iridescent labra- 
dorite is quite beautiful, as, in fact, 
are all the marble chimney-pieces 
in the house. The glass cupboards 
between the windows contain some 
fine specimens of old Worcester and 
old Dresden. The general tone of 
the room is green, which makes a 
good setting for tlie ])anels of birds. 
From this room llie drawing 
room is entered, a room, like the 
dining room, measuring 45 ft. by 
36 ft. The great windows, reach- 
ing from floor to ceiling, give one 
of the best views from the house 
of distant hill, vale, and river, with 
the land-mark Beeston Hill promi- 
nent. The features of this noble 
room are the tapestries, the con- 
sole tables, the fire-place, and, of 
course, the furniture. The tapestries are hung in 
panels both sides of the fire-place, and on the north 
and south walls and each side of the windows. 
These fill thu space from dado to frieze. Several 



of the pieces are Beauvais, and the rest Aubusson. 
Illustrations of both kinds will, perhaps, give the 
best idea of what they are like. Beneath these 
panels are Florentine i)icr or console tables, the 

slabs being of the 
much - prized matrix of 
amethyst. These were 
bought at the Duke of 
Hamilton's sale. The 
chimney-piece is of Car- 
rara marble, and consists 
of two tiers of double 
colunms. It was made 
at Rome in 1869, and is 
ornamented with glass 
mosaics and large-sized 
agates with mosaics 
radiating from them. 
The columns are copied 
irom the cloisters of St. 
John Lateran in Rome. 
They have a twisted 
pattern, and are inlaid 
with glass mosaics. The 
white marble generally 
is relieved by slabs of 
Rosso Antico and red 
and green porphyry. The 
fire-place faces the great 
windows. The furniture, 
covered in old Aubusson 
tapestry, is of great 
value, and belongs to 
the Louis XVI. period. 


Eaton Hall 


At the south side of the room is a large archway 
and recess beyond, from which the Hbrary can be 
entered, while there are also steps leading down to a 
lobby and a door opening to the garden. Either side 
of this archway are enormous Oriental vases on 
stands, and in the recess is the group by Dalou of 
a mother rocking her child to sleep. In the narrow 
way leading from here into the library is a large 
wall case containing some very valuable miniatures 
which came from the Magniac collection. These 
consist of Lady Arabella Stuart : FranCjOis Due 
D'Alenron (Jean Clouet) ; Jeanne D'Albert, mother 
of Henri (J^uatre ; Martin Luther (Cranach) : Catarina, 
Luther's wife (Cranach); Melanchthon (Cranach); 
Child, unnamed (Pourbus) ; Mary Queen of Scots, 
Dauphine of France ; Ernestina Sophia, (irafin 
zu Solius ; Emperor Charles V. (Cornelisz) ; Lord 
Seymour of Sudeley, Lord High Admiral ; and 
Elizabeth de Valois, wife of Philip IL of Spain. 
These highly interesting miniatures are unfortunately 
so placed that it is utterly impossible to obtain a 
photograph of them. 

If the saloon is the chief feature of the interior 
of Eaton, assuredly the library is the most 
charming of all the grand apartments of this great 
building. It measures 92 feet long by 30 feet wide, 
and is 23 feet high, and this, not including the two 
large bays and the lower recess on the south side, 
nor yet the two octagonal bays at the south-west and 
north-west corners. The ceiling is most effective, 
and is divided into live bays, divided by great beams 
ol walnut. 'l"he frieze is of walnut, and is inlaid with 
roses of mother-of-pearl and leaves of boxwood, 
executed by Braugan. The same ornamentation is on 
the panelling of tlie cu[)board and organ case. 

The two chimney-pieces consist of moulded black 
marble frames, surrounded by elaborate walnut 
panelling 10 feet wide with groined soffits, causing 
the friezes of the chimney-pieces to project two feet 

over the fire itself. The frieze 
contains a long central and two 
side panels, and supports a cor- 
nice which rests upon caryatids, 
representing the connection of 
all ranks with literature — royalty, 
the Church, chivalry, minstrelsy, 
husbandry, etc. 

The organ case is of walnut, and 
is inlaid and decorated with gold 
chevrons and delicate foliage, each 
panel showing a different type. 
This organ was given to Eleanor, 
Marchioness of Westminster, by 
her father, Thomas, first Earl of 
Wilton. The bookcases to the height of 1 1 feet are 
of walnut, and contain some 10,000 volumes and 
valuable manuscripts, several of which are bound in 
velvet with silver mountings. The pick of the collec- 
tion is Tlie Vision of J'ii'rs P/o-ii'inan, a folio volume 
written in the early part of the fifteenth century. 



TJie Connoisseur 


There is a fine copy, also in vellum, of Henry of 
Buntingdoiis Chronicle, an illuminated copy of the 
evidence in the celebrated " Bend Or " trial in 
Richard II. 's reign. There is also a large collection 
of pamphlets and works bearing on the political and 
religious controversies of the times of James I., 
Charles I., and Charles II., and some interesting 
proclamations in Black Letter of the same period. 
The five pictures above the bookcases were painted 
for the first Earl Grosvenor by Benjamin West, the 
Quaker painter from Pennsylvania, who became 
President of the Royal Academy in 1792. The 
subjects are — (i) Oliver Cromwell dissolving the 
Long Parliament, where, pointing to the Speaker's 
Mace, he orders a soldier to " Take away that bauble." 
(2) The landing of Charles II. at Dover in May, 
1660, attended by the Dukes of York and Gloucester. 
He is raising up General Monk, who kneels to receive 
him. (3) The Battle of the Boyne, July ist, i6<)o, 
where William III., mounted on a white charger, has 
arrived in time to decide the fate of the day with 
the left wing of his army. As William had had his 
right arm disabled early in the battle, he should have 
been painted using his left hand — if any. (4) The 

Battle flj La Hogtie, in which Sir George Rooke (who 
with Sir Cloudesley Shovel afterwards took Gibraltar) 
destroys with his flotilla of ships and boats the thirteen 
large ships of war and twenty transports, part of 
Louis XIV.'s fleet, fitted out to support James II. 's 
attempt to recover the throne. James, depicted stand- 
ing on the distant heights, exclaims as he sees this bril- 
liant deed, "None but my brave English tars could 
have performed so gallant a feat'' — and this despite his 
hopes of recovering the throne had now gone. (5) 77/1? 
Death of General Wolfe on the Heights of Abraham, 
ijth Sef'temher, ij^g. Wolfe is dying, struck down by 
a musket ball in the breast. Sir William Howe, point- 
ing to the enemy's colours which have just been taken, 
e,\claims, "Sir I they run ! " The Indian standing by 
watches to see whether the white braves can bear pain. 

Dr. Morris says that this picture is of the highest 
interest as being the first in which any painter of 
" high art " ventured to dress his character in the 
modern garb of European warriors. George III. 
wished to purchase this picture, over which there was 
so much criticism, but he eventually had a copy made, 
which is now at Hampton Court. 

Amongst the objects here are some carvings in 


Eaton Hnll 

ivory of the heads of Sir Francis Drake, Sir John 
Hawkins, Queen EH/.abeth, and the Destruction 
of the Armada, with Drake (taking astronomical 
sights), F. Walsingham and W. Cecil (holding the 
Scale of Justice). A huge scene at the entrance, 
composed of three panels of pieira dura, is inlaid in 
lapis lazuli, verde antico, jasper, chalcedony, serpen- 
tine, and porphyry, the lower compartments being a 
marvellous representation of a landscape. Some 
charming old tables, an old clock in a curious old 
lacquered case, and an exquisitely carved ivory of 
Wolfe's head, are hut a few of the many beautiful 
and interesting objects in this noble room. 

Outside the library doors to the grand corridor 
is the staircase, on the walls of which hang some fine 
suits of armour and swords, used in the early part of 
the sixteenth century. These came from Strawberry 
Hill at Horace Walpole's sale in 1844. One of the 
helmets has a "beaver" in three pieces, which moved 
over each other, and when covering the face were 
held up by as many little catches. Several of the 
breastplates are of the globose pattern, one with a 
raised edge down the centre called the " tapul " ; and 
attached to them by buckles are the "traces" or 

" tassels," which are over-lapping bands of steel 
forming a skirt, held together by sliding rivets. The 
columns on the staircase are fine specimens of English 
and Scotch granite, and the balustrade is of alaba.'.ter. 
Two immense pictures which hangin thegrand corridor 
here. The Adoration or the MciK' and The Fathers of 
the Church, are by Rubens. 'l"he former, measuring 
10 ft. 9 in. by 8 ft. i in., was painted in eleven days 
for the Church of White Sisters, Louvain, for £,-i2. 
It w;is sold at the suppression of convents in 1786 
for ^^756, and was purchased from Lord Lansdowne, 
who had paid ^^840, by Earl Grosvenor in 1806. 
The second picture is 14 ft. by 14 ft. 6 in., and 
was painted in 1629 by order of Philip \\ . (and 
forms one of nine), who presented them to his 
minister, the Duke of Olivarez, to decorate a 
Convent of Carmelites near Madrid. Seven of them 
were taken away by the French in 1808. The 
wagon that held them broke down in a muddy ditch, 
and some of them rolled out into the water. One 
was seriously injured, and four were purchased by 
M. de Bourke, the Danish Minister at Madrid, who 
brought them to England, and sold them in 181S 
for ^10,000 to the first Marquess of Westminster. 




Doccia Porcelain 

By M. E. Steedman 

TiiK first porcelain laclury at 1 )()ccia was 
established in 1735 by the Marchese Carlo (linori, 
who, being desirous of imitating Chinese porcelain, 
sent a vessel to the East Indies to obtain the different 
kinds of material employed in its composition. Ik- 
began to make experiments at a villa belonging to 
him in the neighbourhood of Sesto, not far from 
Florence, and was so successful that he decided to 
start a porcelain factory. A chemist named Carlo 
W'andhelien was appointed director of the works in 
17:57, and the production found a ready sale, while 
the Tuscan Ciovernment granted it the privilege of 

factory passed into ])ossession of his son, the Senator 
Lorenzo, who greatly ini])ro\ed and enlarged it. 
More workmen were emi)loyed, and superior furnaces 
were built, which enabled the owner to manufacture 
important ]3ieces, such as vases and statues, which 
had hitherto been impossible. The works were still 
further enlarged and improved when his son, Carlo 
Leopoldo, succeeded him, and a museum was built 
for the accommodation of the models of the most 
famous sculptors, whether ancient or modern. The 
porcelain, too, was highly finished at this period, 
and the decorations beautifully executed, which was 


being the only establishment of its kind in the State, 
though this special mark of favour was withdrawn in 


The Marchese Carlo (linori died in 1757, and the 


principally due to the teaching given at the school of 
design established by Carlo Leopoldo. 

The Doccia factory lias always been noted for the 
variety of its ijroductions, and both hard and soft 


Doccia Porcelain 


No. II. 



paste were manufactured there. 'I he ("apo di Monti 
moulds were transferred thence in 1S21; consequently 
large quantities of spurious Neapolitan china bearing 
the original mark have since been manufactured at 
Doccia and distributed throughout Europe. Of com- 
paratively late years the factory has been remark- 
ably successful in imitating Japanese and Chinese 
porcelain, Delia Robbia ware, and the sixteenth 
century .Maiolica of Xante and Maestro Ciorgio. 
The metallic lustres employed in the colouring of the 
latter were invented and brought to perfection by 
(".iusto (;iusti, who learnt his art at the Doccia school, 
and was accorded honourable mention at the London 
and Paris Exhibitions of 185 1 and 1855 respectively. 
The decorations found on Doccia porcelain are 
numerous and varied, and among the principal artists 
employed from 1770 to 1800 were : — FanciuUacci, a 
painter of miniatures ; Carlo Rislori (landscapes) ; 
Antonio Valleresi (flowers); Antonio Smeraldi (figures 
and landscapes); Angiolo Fiaschi (figures); while the 
modellers included Bruschi, Lici, and Ettel. Tea 
and dejeuner services were extensively made, and 
most of the cups had covers, like that shewn in N'o. i., 
with acorn shaped or twisted handles; the decorations 
consisted of landscapes and figures, such as nymphs. 

satyrs, etc., or flowers, the latter sometimes in relief 
like those on the cup in Xo. i. Statuettes, groups, 
and figures were also manufactured, and the group 
illustrated in No. ii. represents the finding of Moses, 
while No. iii. shows the figure of a satyr. 

Carnival and garden scenes sometimes occur, and 
fishing groups, as on the stand in No. iv., also 
festoons, scroll-work and basket-work borders. Some 
of the ecuelles are beautifully painted with a shield 
on a cross of the order of St. Stephen, bearing the 
arms of the Ginori family, held by an eagle on each 
side, and further decorated with elaborate festoons of 
flowers and a floral monogram. There are one or 
two fan-shaped jardinieres in oval stands extant having 
exquisitely painted panels of soldiers and ladies, 
divided by richly gilt blue pilasters, and it seems 
almost certain that Wedgwood's celebrated jasper 
ware was imitated to a slight extent at the Doccia 
works, principally in the form of white oval medallion 



Tlic Connoisseur 


portraits on a blue ground. The principal mark 
found on Doccia porcelain is a star, which forms part 
of the (linori arms. It is found in gold upon tlu' 
richest pieces, and also in red. The mark of a double 
triangle, also in gold on the best specimens, is another 
mark recognised as l)elont;ing to the 1 )occia factory, 


and the name " Ginori " is sometimes found impressed 
in the paste. The initials N.S. are attributed to 
Nicolo Sebastiano, and P.F. to Pietro Fanciullacci, 
who was a chemist as well as a painter, while the 
letters C..'\. and P.G. are also occasionally though 
rarelv met willi. 





. i.,^-' ^■■'-;*v.-^^ 



Part I. 

By J. Hartley Beckles 

(With Illustrations of the Chief Examples to be met with in the Kingdom) 

Fire-dogs (or andirons) are to-day almost 
an anachronism. Occasionally in some old baronial 
hall or stately mansion, as at Chatsworth, I have seen 
the great log of oak or beech borne in and placed 
lovingly athwart the iron or bronze shoulders of 
the " ancient twin servitors of the hearth," as Tenny- 
son called them. P.ut the doom of the blazing log 
was sounded nearly two centuries ago, when the 
sea-coal lire {" noxious and health-destroying," they 
called it) uprose in half the households of the country- 
side. Newcastle began to pour forth her stores of 
fuel into the lap of England, and manufacturers of 
iron grates could not keep pace with the demand. 
It was then that the moulding and the fashioning 
of fire-dogs quite suddenly 
ceased, and the close of the 
seventeenth century marks the 
decline of an industry which 
had given e m [) 1 o y m e n t to 
numerous founders, ingenious 
artisans, and silversmiths since 
Roman times. 

There are scattered here and 
there in ])rovincial museums, 
such as Norwich and Chester, 
a few surviving examples of 
Roman firedogs, and these, 
while of a simple character, 
have yet a certain feature 
which marks them out from 
the later rude English at- 
tempts. This is not the 
double vertical bars, but the 
fact that these terminate in a i6th ce.stcrv CAST-nicv 

representation of a deer's head with antlers. These 
latter, resembling large nails, were doubtless employed 
in holding a cross-bar or spit in place. An excellent 
specimen has been found at Hartlip, Kent, and also 
at Colchester, answering to this description. 

The very oldest English fire-dogs I have seen are 
quite simple bars of unmixed iron, with vertical fronts 
or faces, two feet high, the tops bent into a scroll 
or crozier-shape. In the Middle Ages the fire-place 
usually occupied the centre of the large hall. There 
was there a low platform of stone, such as may yet be 
seen at Penshurst, Kent, with the fire-dogs that of 
old su|3ported the logs. Doubtless all the early fire- 
dogs were of this description, but with the growth of 
interior ornament and luxury 
in the Middle Ages, more 
elaborate forms came into 
use. Log fires were no longer 
built in the middle of an 
apartment, and richly designed 
chimney-pieces very naturally 
suggested graceful shapes and 
patterns in the a[)i)ointments 
of the hearth. In the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries we 
observe the front upright 
not merely terminating in 
the head of a man, woman, 
child, dog, or animal, but 
the whole face, as well as 
the legs, have a strongly 
marked design in relief. In 
the case of fire dogs in use 
in abbeys, monasteries, and 






p 1 



w 1 

'^/"v-^ •■• 

i-A|»y ^H 










religious houses, the head is omitted, and the whole 
presents a sculpturesque effect, combined with Gothic 
and Renaissance architectural features. One example 
of this sort may be seen in the pair now at Smardon 
in Kent, with the initials " I. H. S." at the base of 
the body. 

But while in England the fire-dog throughout 

continued to be made of iron or other metal, while 
the surmounting figure was of silver. There are 
several fine examples of silver dogs at Knole, one 
at Hatfield, and two at Windsor. The Duke of 
Portland also possesses a pair of urn pattern more 
severe than those at Knole. They were made by 
Philip Rolls in 1704, and deviate but slightly from 


Elizabeth's reign continued to retain a certain fitting 
relationship to the older forms of heartli irons, on 
the Continent it altogether outgrew its original 
simplicity and its original material. Silver, brass, 
and bronze came to be extensively used in Italy. 
The finest artists were employed in the designing of 
exquisite specimens of the sculptor's art. Exactly 
when and where the first silver fire-dogs were fashioned 
cannot be ascertained : but it is clear that they were 
known to Shakespeare from a passage in his play 
of "Cymbeline." lachimo describes the andirons 
of Imogen's chamber as "two winking cupids of 
silver, each on one foot standing, nicely depending 
on their brands." It is probable that the body long 

the traditional form of such fire-place furniture. They 
are twenty-six inches high. 

The Windsor specimen shown in this article has 
been mutilated with the crown and cyjiher of 
William IV. The story is told of the little George IV. 
and his drawing-master at Windsor, probably of this 
very pair of andirons. The prince had been sketch- 
ing a variety of objects set before him, with more or 
less painstaking seriousness, for the task was to him 
most irksome, and the drawings were ultimately 
submitted to his royal father. " Wooden ! " was the 
King's exclamation. " All wooden 1 A table, a chair, 
a box, a stool \ Heavens, Mr. ICIIiott," turning to the 
|)erturbed drawing-master, " have you nothing the 


The Connoisseur 

child can exercise his 
talent upon but these 
things of wood ? Come, 
sirrah, let me see you 
draw one of those silver 
andirons yonder, and 
if you make a good 
job of it you shall 
have a day's holiday 
with me in AX'indsor 
Forest." But either 
the prospect held out 
to the lad jjossessed 
few charms, or his 
pictorial genius was 
unequal to the strain 
put upon it, for the 
drawing ol the andiron, 
although it consumed 
a whole morning, was 
so bad that George III. 
declared, with much 
humour and good 
sense, that whatever 
role his son was 
destined for in this 
world, he would never 


make an artist. His 
majesty ordered the 
drawing lessons dis- 
continued forthwith as 
an utter waste of time. 
'I'he tutor contrived to 
keep the unha])py 
drawing, which caused 
his professional transfer 
to the youthful Duke 
of Gloucester, and it 
long continued in his 

Cupids seem a 
favourite design at the 
beginning of the seven- 
teenth century. One 
finds no reference to 
silver andirons in 
France earlier than the 
time of Cardinal Maza- 
rin. In 1654 one pair 
was valued at 2,925 
livres in an inventory 
of the effects of Mar- 
shal de la Milleraye. 
No fewer than forty 









pairs are described in different in- 
ventories of the reign of Louis XIV. ; 
but nearly all of these have dis- 
appeared long ago into the melting 
pot, although a few found their 
way into England at the time of 
the Revolution. It has been 
doubted whether in this country 
there were any fire-dogs wholly of 
silver before the latter part of the 
reign of Charles II. Although what 
Mr. Starkie Gardner calls "the 
great age for massive silver furni- 
ture " came to an end with the 
death of Louis XI\'., yet silver 
fire-dogs continued occasionally to 
be produced. Rococo became the 
vogue, and a most e.vaggerated 
form of German rococo is dis- 
played in a pair of dogs owned 
by Earl Cowley — "an asymmetrical 
mass of swirling waves, clams and 
rushes, with incidents such as a 
cornucopia and flowers." Each 
stands nearly three feet high, and 
was made in Augsberg in 1745. 
It bears for device the closed 
crown of a Prince-Bishop over the 
monogram C. P. I may as well, lor the benefit of 
those seeking to acquire these brilliant mementos 
of the hearth, add that the sole remaining English 
po.ssessors of silver andirons, beside.s those already 


enumerated, are the Duke of Buc- 
cleuch, whose pair represents female 
figures with lions' claws ; the Duke 
of Manchester, a cherub on dol- 
phin ; and a pair at Belvoir Castle. 
In an inventory of Hargrave 
Hall, Suffolk, dated 1603, there 
is entered : " Item, two payer of 
Andyrons wth. heads and foreparts 
of copper : one payer being less 
than the other." ^^'hat fate over- 
took these cannot now be deter- 
mined ; but it is certain that copper 
and brass specimens are to-day 
e.xceedingly rare. Enamel came 
to be used about the same time 
as silver, but is now seldom met 
with, examples fetching easily from 
_/'3oo to a ;^i,ooo whenever they 
come into the market. 

There is a fine pair in the 
possession of Earl Cowley, be- 
lieved to have been made for 
James II., and comprising the 
royal arms, supported by two nude 
male figures. The pair at 1 )rayton 
House is precisely the same as the 
ones at Haddon Hall, save that the 
colours of the former are purple, while, ami turquoise, 
while the latter are green and white. A curious 
pointed shape with a very intricate pattern is shown 
in the pair owned by General I'itt-Rivers at Rushmore. 

{ To he i'i>iilinut:d.) 



Mr. Arthur Morrison's Collection of Chinese and Japanese 
Paintings Part II. By Stewart DicK 

The most famous of all the masters of the 
Chinese renaissance is Sesshiu, born 1420, died 1506, 
who is one of the greatest of all Japanese painters. 
Of his work Mr. Morrison possesses two specimens: 
one a large six-panelled screen in the artist's early 
manner, probably painted before his visit to China ; 
the other a masterly little landscape of the broadest 
and most summary description. There is also another 
large landscape 
screen, by a 
])ainter of the 
u n k n o w n 
school, w h i c h 
is perhaps even 
finer than that 
of Sesshiu him- 

In the works 
of the K a n o 
school, which 
sprang from 
the Chinese 
are some of 
the greatest 
treasures of the 
collection. An 
fine example of 
the work of 
Kano Moto- 
n ob u is the 
painting of 
ducks, the landscape by sesshiu 

emblems of conjugal fidelity. The whole range of 
the wonderful Kano brush work may be seen here : 
the broad flat treatment of the distant mountains, 
the bold dashing strokes of the reeds and grasses, 
and the firm and delicate detail in the plumage of 
the birds. 

Even finer in its way is the landscape of mountain 
and stream, and picturescjue trees, and there is also 

an extremely 
example, a fan 
mount with the 
figure of an old 
man riding on 
an ass, which 
belongs to the 
youth of the 
painter when 
he travelled 
over Japan on 
foot, paying his 
way by means 
of such rough 

Fan mounts 
were favourite 
subjects for or- 
namentation by 
the J a panese 
masters, and 
Mr. Morrison 
possesses a set 
of thirteen 
examples by 
Sanraku — fish, 


Mr. Arfhiir Morrison's Collection 

landscapes, birds, figures, all brimful of movement 
and life. 

Of the paintings of the painter priest Shokwado, 
who was a pupil of Sanraku, examples are exceedingly 
rare, the only known painting in Europe being that 
possessed by Mr. Morrison — a drawing of a bird 
watching a fly. It is sealed with the same seal as 
that stamped on the Nobuzane painting formerly 
referred to. 

About a hundred years later, in the seventeenth 
century, we come to the three famous brothers, 
Tanyu, Naonobu, and Yasunobu, who carried the 
development of the Kano school to its furthest 
extent. Tanyu, the eldest, is in Japan the favourite 
painter of the Kano school. His style was looser 
and freer than that of his predecessors, and full of 
a superb recklessness and : but the unique 
specimens of his work in this collection show him 
to have been not merelv a magnificent virtuoso, but 
a great and serious artist. First of all is a pair of 
large si.yfold landscape screens, undoubtedly the 
most important specimens of Tanyu's work out of 
Japan. It is impossible to express in words the 
dignity and grandeur of these landscapes of moun- 
tain and lake, executed in delicate washes of Chinese 
ink, and they would sufler sadly in any attempt at 
reproduction. The two screens are designed in 
harmony and form one large composition, but each 
part taken separately is a perfectly composed picture. 
Almost of equal interest with these is a book of 
eight landscapes, the famous Shosho Hakkei, or 
eight beauties of Shosho, which have been depicted 
by so many Chinese and Japanese artists. Then 
there is a large kakemono of Benten, a very early 
work, and an extraordinarily impressive painting of 
Monjiu, the god of literature ; a painting of a 
philosopher and a boy, which is an excellent ex- 
ample of the easy and heedless' of his brush 
work ; and, quite as a surprise, a dainty little study 
of birds and convolvulus, a marvel of lightness and 
delicacy. A very unusual specimen in the Tosa style 
completes the list. 

Naonobu, the .second brother, died at an early 
age, and from this cause and the fact that he 
seemed to spend much of his time hunting out 
and destroying his earlier \vork, his paintings are 
even rarer tlian Tanyu's. There could not be a 
greater contrast than the style of the two brothers 
— the one exulting in its strength, the other re- 
strained and quiet, and full of a soft liquid quality. 
The .set of three kakemonos are very beautiful 
examples of the work of Naonobu : Fukurukojiii 
in the centre, on the right a sparrow and wil- 
low, on the left a crow on a broken pine branch. 

the three combined form a wonderfully perfect com- 

The youngest brother, Yasunobu, is represented 
by a strong drawing of a dragon, and among half 
a dozen others by a painting of a stem of bamboo. 
Nothing could be slighter, but it is a beautiful picture 
and a fine piece of technique. 

A most interesting set of three kakemonos gives 
the work of all the brothers. In the centre is a 
figure of Hotei, with bag over his shoulder, by 
Tanyu, touched in with a few bold strokes. On the 
left is a representation of a cock poised on one 
foot, by Yasunobu, while another cock, by Naonobu, 
in this case seated, completes the set. 

Of Naonobu's son and pupil, Tsunenobu, there are 
a number of excellent examples, one a landscape that 
might almost be a Tanyu, another a charming study 
of white herons and lotus in mist. 

Then of the fine Kano painter, Hanabusa Itcho, a 
pupil of Yasunobu, there are no less than three very 
fine examples, and of lesser men many more, but to 
deal fully with the Kano school alone would fill the 
space allotted to this paper. 

Sotatsu, also a pupil of Yasunobu, was one of 
the most famous flower painters of Japan ; but the 
examples here — there are no fewer than eight — show 
him also in other aspects. First is a life-like repre- 
sentation of a deer, with dainty mincing step ; then 
there is an equally vigorous representation of a cock. 
One of the finest of all is a large picture of 
chrysanthemums, which is painted with astonishing 
breadth and freedom. The colour is gorgeous, 
especially in the soft dusky reds, and is not put 
on minutely petal by petal, but dashed in with 
careless ease in great blotches. This looseness of 
technique is peculiarly characteristic of Sotatsu, and 
imparts to his work a distinctive charm. 

Then there is a huge six-fold screen painted on 
a rich gold background in the style that Korin 
adopted so largely some years later. It is a 
sumptuous piece of decoration. A great limb of 
pine strikes up across it, throwing off branches which 
bear great masses of green pine needles. A fence 
of plaited rushes stands out in pale greenish gold 
against the orange gold of the background, and gold, 
too, is u.sed continually as a pigment, mingling in 
washes with the other colours. The stream which 
passes under the tree is of lapis lazuli, with the 
conventional lines of running water freely traced on 
it in white, and below in the foreground grow some 
ex(iuisite flowers. The whole piece forms a marvellous 
tour de forte of decoration. 

Korin, one of the most individual of Japanese 
artists, and perlia[)s the greatest decorator of them 


The Connoisseur 

all, owes mucii to Sotatsu, especially in his (lower 
paintings. Mr. Morrison possesses a number ol line 
Korins. First are two of a triptych, the third being 
unfortunately missing. The centre piece, a figure 
of Fukuriikojiu, with stag and crane, the emblems 
of longevity, is an extraordinary piece of work. It 
is almost bizarre in conception ; it is dashed off in 
a few strokes in what seL-nis tlir mu^t primiti\-c 
fashion, but the result 
is perfect. Kach line 
seems inevitable, as 
if it could not have 
been otherwise by a 
ha ir's- bread t h. The 
second nl the pair 
represents a crow- 
seated on a branch, 
suggested with a tew 
bold touches. 

Another fine e.\ample 
is an evening scene 
with a pair of geese 
silting among tlie reeds 
at the edge of a stream. 
One of the birds is 
white, and is hardly 
[lainted at all, the deli- 
cate gray of the back- 
ground being carried 
round in one wash and 
defining its form. 
Against the body of the 
white goose the other is 
relieved in dark plum- 
age, and it is painted 
with ec]ual breadth and 
simplicity. The moon, 
which overhangs the 
stream, is of silver, but 
time has darkened it 
to a dull leaden tint. 

A very interesting exam|5le is the little Cha-no-yu, 
or tea ceremony, picture. In such pictures every- 
thing was in keeping with the cult of elaborate 
sini])licity. The subject in this case is formed of 
two little stones and a few sprays of green leaves. 
lUit it would be difficult to TiikI a richer colour 
harmony. The stones flash and sjsarkle with lapis 
blue, which in this case seems to have an almost 
crystalline lustre : rich greens and reds, and gold 
ap[)lied both solidly and in delicate washes, all go 
to produce the dazzling effect of this fascinating 
little picture. 

Korin's brother, Kenzan the potter, painted with 


a slightly heavier hand in much the same style, and 
there is here a fine example of his work in the 
little kakemono of two cranes. It is so simple you 
could aliBost count the lines on your fingers ; but 
slight as it is, it is decoratively complete. 

A contemporary of Korin's, and like him a lamous 
lac(iuerer, was Ritsuo. His merits as a jjainter are 
shown bv a spring picture of birds and blossom, 

the latter an exquisite 
cherry red, in the midst 
of falling snow. 

Also a famous painter 
of the Korin school 
was Watanabe Shiko, 
first a pujiil of Vasu- 
nobu, and afterwards 
of Korin. Mr. Mor- 
rison is fortunate 
enough to possess 
three examples of his 
work, which is ex- 
iremely rare and much 
valued in Japan. Be- 
sides a little kakemono 
of mandarin ducks, 
which might almost 
|)ass for the work of 
Korin himself, there is 
also a pair of magnifi- 
cent six-fold screens 
representing the four 
seasons. The one, Sum- 
mer and Autumn, rivals 
that of Sotatsu in its 
splendour, and is some- 
what similar in subject. 
Across the background 
of pure gold strikes the 
great limb of a pine 
tree, and flowers and 
argus-eyed pheasants 
make up the picture. The other. Winter and Spring, 
is something quite unique — a harmony in white 
and gold. Against the pure gold background is 
a snowy landscape, bare and austere in the winter 
portion, softened in the other half with the eady 
blossoms and fresh greens of spring. Snow-white 
herons perch on a branch of willow, itself a won- 
derful harmony of white and dull green, and one 
with outstretched wings sails across the golden 
panels. When these two great screens are opened, 
they stand over five feet high. The efi'ect is gor- 
geous in the extreme— the whole room is filled with 
a subdued splendour. 


O > 


Q < 

O H 



o > 
2 n 



The Connoisseur 

In tlu- later schools, the Ukioye or Pictures of 
Passing Life school, and the Shijo or Naturalistic 
school, a similar wealth of material awaits us. 

The paintings of Matabei, the founder of the 
former, who lived in the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, are excessively rare, but the two specimens 
in the collection show how great an artist he was. 
Both are dancing figures, and one especially, just 
poised in the momentary arrest of rapid motion, is 
of exquisite grace, and a piece of masterly draughts- 

Of the work of llishigawa Mdronohii, the next 

these, painted at the age of sixty-seven, is a fine 
figure of a .seller of New \'ear ])oems, painted on a 
soft absorbent pa[)er and slightly tinted witli colour — 
an excellent example of Hokusai's brush-work at its 
best. Another, a portrait of a seated youth, has all 
the grandiose quality of a Velas(|uez, and it is full of 
rich colour and exquisite detail. It was painted at 
the age of eighty-one. Another still — a picture of a 
duck and drake, swimming and diving, curious in 
this respect that it is [jainted from a point of view 
looking almost perpendicularly down on the birds — 
is very rich in colour, and though painted at the 




great painter of the Ukioye school, the collection 
has a wonderful series of no than six examples. 
Moronobu was originally a designer of embroideries, 
and the inexhaustible fancy with which he adorns the 
varied costumes adds a special charm to his paintings. 
His drawing of the figure was characterised by a 
wonderful lightness and grace. Finest of all the 
examples, and one of the gems of the collection, is a 
screen of two folds re])resenting a picnic party come 
to view the masses of cherry blossom. One group 
especially, seated musicians and a dainty ring of light- 
footed dancing figures, is inexpressibly charming — a 
happy melody of line. 

Many names must be passed over, but reference 
must be made to an example of the exceedingly rare 
work of Kaigetsudo, the only specimen in Europe, 
a very strong piece of work with rich full colour, and 
gold used boldly in large masses. 

To European ears the most familiar name among 
Japanese artists is that of Hokusai, and of his paint- 
ings there are several fine examples. The first of 

advanced age of eighty-eight, shows hardly a sign 
of abating power. 

Hiroshige, so well known for his landscape colour 
prints, was also a painter of great charm. Mr. 
Morrison has obtained a most interesting relic of 
this artist in a number of his sketch books. Most 
interesting these are, full of drawings from the 
slightest sketch down to careful studies ready for 
the block-cutter to engrave. Of paintings there is, 
among others, a pair of very beautiful kakemono. 
These represent two scenes of the thirty-six views 
of Fuji, a set of colour-prints executed by the artist. 
In all probability some patron, liking the prints, 
ordered from the artist replicas painted on silk ; 
and here we have them altered and improved in 
many details of composition, embodying the painter's 
final revised view of his subjects. On looking 
through the sketch books, too, Mr. Morrison was 
able to trace the evolution of the pictures further 
back still, for there he found the rough drawings 
on which they were based. -So that the whole series, 

1 60 

a V 


a H 

« 3 

5 5 


< « 

yi t/i 

a; 3 

o :<: 

3 o 

Q X 

3 OS 
K O 

:^ >• 


The Connoisseur 

I'lrst the rough sketch, then the colour-print, finally 
the kakemono, find their resting place in the same 

We now come to the last in order of development, 
the more recent naturalistic schools. The founder 
of a style of his own is Maruyama Okio, who is 
represented by two fine flower studies, and a very 
fine jiainting of Tokiwa and her children in the snow. 
Okio's work has been e.xtensively forged, and a copy 
of this very picture is in the Museum col- 

The equal of Okio, possibly the greatest ])ainter 
of the Maruyama school, and one of the great 
animal painters of the world, is Mori Sosen, especially 
famous as a painter of monkeys. For months he 
used to live in the woods, studying their habits, till 
he seems to have penetrated the very secrets of 
monkey psychology. A fine screen gives two life- 
like studies, one an autumn, the other a spring scene. 
But finer still is a kakemono in the artist's most 
delicate style, a study of a mother and little one ; 
it is so full of dignity and pathos that one hardly 
realises its e.xtraordinary technical merits. A Japanese 
critic pronounced this painting to be the finest Sosen 
which has ever left Japan. 

Another example yet remains, almost equally fine. 
Two monkeys seated at the foot of a tree, the parent 
meditative, while the younger has caught a flv, and 
is looking at it curiously before he pulls it to pieces. 
Sosen never makes the mistake of so many inferior 
artists, that of giving his animals human expressions : 
they are animals all the time. 
Quite a unique example is a combination picture, 

painted for the amusement of some social gathering, 
by Sosen, his son Vu.sen, and pupil Tessan. The 
subject is a man carrying a monkey, while a dog 
gambols at his feet ; the monkey is painted by Sosen, 
the man by Yusen, and the dog by Tessan. 

Another artist who, like Okio, founded a school 
of his own was Ganku, who lived during the latter 
part of the eighteenth century. 

He was especially noted as a painter of tigers, three 
such examples of his work being in Mr. Morrison's 
collection. There is also a beautiful little picture 
of a bird seated on a snow-covered branch, while 
the snow falls all round in tiny flakes. Technically 
this is an astonishing piece of work, for the back- 
ground has been painted in one wash of gray, leaving 
the falling snow represented by the uncovered patches 
of the silk. 

Of Tani Buncho's masterly work, of Hoyen's birds 
and flowers, of Ippo's landscapes, and the fine 
examples of the more recent men, Imao Keinen, 
Yosai, Zeshin, Kiosai, and many others, I have no 
space to treat. Nor yet of the interesting group of 
living Japanese painters, who, rejecting the sinister 
Western influences, which have turned so many native 
artists into ordinary second-rate water-colourists, still 
work with ever fresh inspiration on the old classic 

But in the small selection that was possible amid 
the wealth of the collection, an effort has been made 
to make it as representative as possible of all the 
various schools and periods, for the collection is a 
synopsis, wonderfully complete, of the whole history 
and development of Japanese painting. 


,;tC:"iI.>;WN\i''KW<- ■■■.'■. ;?^;4' :*'.>»'-iV-. 



AFTl:i< .1. HL'SSKLL 

The Connoisseur 

Relics of King Charles the First's Execution 
By P. Berney FicKlin, F.S.A. 

Although over two centuries and a half 
have passed away since the execution of King 
C'harles I., the interest in everything connected with 
him in the shape of reHcs shows no sign of abating, 
but is rather on the increase, and these are much 
more eagerly competed for when they occur at 
auction or elsewhere than those of any other king 
from \\'illiam I. to his present Majesty. Perhaps 
those mementos which most appeal to sympathizers 
with the " Martyr King " are the actual garments 
which he wore on the fateful day. One of these 
was the scarlet cloak, which was divided between 
his two pages, Walcot and Herbert. The descendant 
of the latter sold or presented his half to Queen 
Caroline, Consort of King George II. (whether this 
relic still exists in the Ro\al Collection I know not, 
and perhaps some of your readers may be able to in- 
form me), while the other half descended to the late 
Rev. John Walcot, and 
was sold by his executors 
at Christie's in 1899 for 
jC,T^1 to a dealer, who 
shortly afterwards dis- 
posed of it to Sir Offley 
\\'akeman, Bart., who re- 
stored it to the Walcots, 
and it is now in the 
possession of Mr. John 
Owen Halliwell Walcot, 
the present head of the 
family. There are well- 
defined blood-stains on it, 
described to me as " now 
(lark purple, one patch 
several inches long, and 
splashes beyond." 

The blue satin blood- 
stained waistcoat, now the 
property of the Marquis 
of Bath, and preserved 
at Longlcat, the white 
quilted and padded cap 
now in the South Ken- 
sington Museum, and 
the lace collar in the 
possession of Mr. (".. 
Somes (inherited from an 
ancestor, and shown in the 
Stuart Exhibition, 1885); 
also some lace from the 

ONE Ul THE IWU LIILK illliaa \\Ll..N LV 



King's cravat (at Carisbrooke Castle), which is also 
stained with his blood, may also be cited. Mr. 
Bennett Stanford possesses a glove (Stuart Exhibition, 
No. 374), and there exists another pair of black vel- 
vet gloves supposed to have been given by the King 
to Bishop Juxon, one of which belongs to Mr. Park 
Nelson, and the other to Mrs. Clay Ker- Seymour. 
Several pieces of his Ribbon of the Clarter exist, one 
belonging to Mr. R. Berens, enclosed in a piece of 
paper, on which appears, in the hand-writing of the 
period, " ye enclosed is a piece of ye old King's 
ribbon yt he had on when he was beheaded by his 

Dr. lohn Abercrombie possesses another piece, 
together with a purse, and the old description runs : 
" King Charles ye first purs that was maid of his 
great chare and blue ribing when he was beheaded." 
And I also have a small piece, accompanied by a 
letter from Sir Charles 
Styles, dated August 20th, 
1823, addressed to Arch- 
deacon \\"ranghani, pre- 
senting it to the latter, 
and guaranteeing it to be 
a portion of the ribbon 
given by the King to 
Colonel Tomlinson, who 
was constantly in attend- 
ance on him. 

Charles on that day 
wore three shirts, which I 
proceed to describe, and 
two of which are here 
depicted. The first is of 
white linen, and belongs 
to the Earl of Ashburn- 
ham, who also possesses 
the King's drawers and 
garters, and the sheet 
which covered his body. 
Formerly these were pre- 
served in the church at 
Ashburnham, and as re- 
cently as i860 people 
used to journey thither 
and touch them for the 
cure of the king's-evil. 

The second shirt is 
made of fine holland, em- 
broidered with open-work 


TJic Connoisseur 

round the neck and 
sleeves, and has several 
little bows of red and 
blue ribbon attached. It 
belongs to Mr. Bewicke 
Blackburn, and came to 
him through his descent 
from Elizabeth Coventry, 
eldest daughter of the 
Lord Keeper, Thomas 
Coventry. This is prob- 
ably the shirt referred to 
by the King, when he 
said to Herbert on the 
morning of his execution : 
" This is my second mar- 
riage day. I would be 
as trim to-day as may be, 
for to-night I hope to be 
espoused to my Blessed 
Jesus." He then, point- 
ing to the clothes he 
would wear, "Let me 
have a shirt on more 
than ordinary," said the 
King, "by reason the 
season is so sharp as 
probably may make mc shake, which some observers 
will imagine proceeds from fear. Lwould have no 
such imputation ; I fear not Death. Death is not 
terrible to me. I bless my God I am prcpar'd." Both 
these shirts were exhibited in the Stuart Exhibition. 

We now come to the sky-blue " singlet " or 
undervest belonging to me, which is of silk worked 
in various patterns, and is a beautiful specimen of 
the weaver's art of the period. It closely resembles 
a fisherman's jersey, and is the one mentioned in 
the Secret History of Whitehall, page 302. " The 
Bishop (Juxon) put on his (the King's) nightcap, 
and unclothed him to his sky-coloured vest." It is 
stained in several places with blood, as will be seen 
in the illustration, and is in perfect preservation. 

The written guarantee which goes with it reads 
as follows : " This waistcoat was worn by King 
Charles I. on the day he was beheaded, and from 
the scaffold came into the hands of Dr. Hobbs, 
his Physician, who attended him on that occasion. 
The doctor preserved this relic of his Royal Master, 
and from him it came into the pos.session of Susannah 
Hobbs, his daughter, who married Temple Stanger, 
of Rawlins, in the County of Oxfordshire. The 
above account of this waistcoat was taken from the 
testimony of Dame Grace Stanger, second wife and 
relict of the said Temple Stanger, in the year 1767." 

Then follows,, in the 
handwriting of a late 
owner: "It descended 
from them to Temple 
Hardy, Esq. (Here the 
exact details are incom- 
plete, but, no doubt, 
through a daughter of 
Susannah Stanger, nie 
Hobbs.) The relic was 
left by Temple Hardy at 
his death to his cousin, 
.\(lmiral Hughes D'Aeth, 
of Knoulton Court, in 
the County of Kent, who 
died in 1873, thence to 
his son Narborough, and 
at the present time is the 
property of Captain L. 
.V. Hughes D'Aeth, of 

The last-named gentle- 
man sold it by auction at 
Stevens's Rooms, Covent 
Garden, on November 
8th, 1898, when it was 
purchased, after a spirited 
competition, by Mr. Ernest A. Brocklehurst for two 
hundred guineas. He died in 1901, when it again 
found its way into the same auction - room on 
March nth, 1902, and was purchased by nie for 
exactly the same sum. It was for some considerable 
period, and until (juite recently, exhibited at the 
Whitehall Museum with several other Stuart mementos 
belonging to me, including two lockets and a ring, 
all containing small portions of the " martyr's " hair ; 
and these, together with nearly the whole collection 
of my Stuart relics, are now being shown at The 
licclesiastical Art Exhibition at Great Yarmouth. 

The personal relics I have described have a 
peculiarly pathetic interest for all those who feel 
a sympathy for the unfortunate House of Stuart. 
There is a sort of glamour which attaches to that 
unhappy race which will never be dispersed, and 
the unjust execution of Charles I. will always stand 
out as a landmark in English history. Whatever 
his faults and failings were as a King, his heroic 
conduct during the closing period of his life, his 
gentleness and forbearance towards his enemies, 
and his courage and Christian fortitude after his 
condemnation and on the scaffold, have left an 
impression on the mind of posterity that will never 
be effaced, and an indelible stain on the memory of 
those who compassed his death. 


The Early Postage Stamps of Corea 

By Fred J. Melville 

Corea is a country which has been very 
much in the forefront of public interest during the 
present year, and the preceding ten years. The 
influence of Japan has successfully brought about 
developments in Corea's political and commercial 
progress which the Coreans themselves had been 
striving to attain for several decades without success. 

In regard to postal development in Corea, an 
initial step taken by the Coreans in 18S4 ended in 
a terrible failure. Now the postal administration is 
amalgamated with that of Japan, a step which was 
completed only in 1Q05. 

The author of a little work entitled Co/ra of To-dav 
tells the story of an emeiite which followed on the 
first native attempt to establish a postal administration 
under the rules laid down by the conventions of the 
Universal Postal Union. 

"In 1884, under the administration of a radical 
government, preparations had been made to enter 
the postal union. The stamps had been printed, 
and all arrangements completed ; a banquet was held 
at the Foreign Office to rejoice over and celebrate 
the consummation of this work. While the banquet 
was in progress, Min V'ong Ik, the confidential agent 
of the king, staggered into the banqueting-hali covered 

with blood flowing from numerous wounds. An 
attempt had been made by the radicals to assassinate 
him, because he was supposed to have drawn back 
from the policy of advance. An cmeule followed. 
The radicals fled because of the revulsion of feeling 
caused by their action. The feeling of hatred to 
the foreigners was fanned by the conservative or 
Chinese party. For a few days there was danger 
of a rising, which would sweep away every foreigner 
from the country." 

The riot subsided, however, but the affair com- 
pletely upset the plans for the postal administration, 
and no attempt at a re-organisation of a postal 
department was successful until ten years later. 

For this initial move on the part of the Coreans 
for a postal service of their own, a series of stamps 
of five denominations had been ordered from Tokio. 
The face values and colours were : — 







blue ;ind rose 

The currency of Corea may approximately be given 
as 2 re=i mon (or poon), 5 mons (or poons) = 

5 MON 


The Connoisseur 

I chcun, loo cliciiiis - i 
woon = 2S. 

liach stamp had a dis- 
tinctive design, but the most 
prominent figure on each 
design is the yin-yan symbol 
in a form shghtly varied from 
that described in my article 
50 Mo^ on Chinese postage stamps. 

The perforations vary from 8 to \\\. 
Owing to the emeuie to which I have referred only 
two of the stamps appear to have been put into use, 
the others arriving after all need for them had been 
dispelled by the disturbance. 'I'hey are, nevertheless, 
of considerable interest to the collector of Corean 
stamps, and are quite inexpensive. 

When, in 1895, another step was taken to establish 
a postal service, a series of four stani[)s was ordered 
through the United States Consul. They were 
lithographed in Washington by A. B. Graham. The 
values and colours were as follows : — 

.1 poon 
10 .. 
2,i „ 
,50 .. 

yellow jireen 




The design is uniform for all four values. In 
the centre is the yin-yan symbol in a form in 
which it is known to us in the watermark on the 
stamps of China. In the four corners of the 
white rectangle in the centre of the design are the 
Pakona, ancient characters which, aci:ording to Jules 
Bouvez in the American Journal of Philately, were 
used by their inventor, the philosopher Fou-Hi, 
to write the " V-king, or Ikiok of Changes," which 

at the lower 

may be considered as the 
most ancient manuscript of 

These four characters re- 
present : the first, at the 

upper right corner. Heaven ; 

the second, — -, at the 

upper left corner. Fire : the 

third, ^^, at the lower right 

corner. Water ; and the fourth, 5 E, 

left corner, the Earth. 

The flower design in the four corners of the stam[) 
is the plum blossom, the emblem of the reigning 
dynasty of (!orea. 

The perforation of these stamps gauges 11-13. 

Subsequent to the issue just described a number 
of stam])S have been sent out by the jiostal depart- 
ment, but we have only to deal with the early issues 
in the present article. Sufifice it to say that in 1897, 
when the "King" became "Emperor," and his 
dominions were styled the Empire of Corea, the 
stamps were overprinted with a native inscription, 
signifying "Empire of Corea." In 1900 the country 
joined the postal union, in 1902 the Emperor cele- 
brated the "fortieth" year of his reign by issuing a 
commemorative stamp, showing a picture of the 
" Ming bonnet " which he wore on state occasions, 
and in 1905 Japan issued a stamp of the face value 
(in Japanese) 3 sen, to commemorate the amalgama- 
tion of the Japanese and Corean postal services. 
Distinctive issues are, however, still maintained, 
though what may follow upon the recent dejiosition 
of the EmiJeror it is perhaps beyond the province 
of a philatelist to prophesy. 


Silver Nutmeg Graters or Spice Boxes By Guy Oswald Smith 

The custom of drinking mulled wine or 
" negus," so common in the early part of the last 
century has, to a great extent, died out, and therefore 
the necessity of having a nutmeg grater or spice box 
ready to hand no longer exists. 

The late Dr. Dicker, of Vigo Street, once told me 
that, when a boy, he perfectly remembered people 
carrying nutmeg graters in their pockets or having 
one upon the table at home. This habit would quite 
account for the great variety of shapes and sizes in 
which these boxes are found. The first which came 
into my possession was given me by a friend over 
twenty years ago, and since then I have been fortunate 
enough to secure a number of interesting specimens. 
The hall-marks, in certain instances, are not easy to 
decipher, and Messrs. Garrard have afforded me most 
kind assistance in this respect. The majority of the 
boxes in my collection are English, but there are 

some of foreign make — though I have never actually 
bought one abroad. 

A gives examples of the conventional-shaped nut- 
meg grater : these open at the bottom, as in the one 
on the right. The one in the centre measures gi in. 
bv 4A- in., and is in itself quite a handsome piece 
of plate. The one on the left has a sliding front. 
The frames are silver and the graters iron. 

In B is found much the same type, some, however, 
being cylindrical in shape. These are all hall-marked, 
with the exception of one which has its weight en- 
graved on the back — this one also has a fine shagreen 
case. The oblong box next it comes more under the 
head of a spice box, as the perforations in the outer 
case, which is all silver, are quite smooth. 

C shows some of the larger " box-shaped," three 
of them being plain silver arid the others ftnely 
engraved — the chasing on the lower one on the right 



1 8(^7 







! ■•■....1. 



LONDON 1762 


LONDON 1799 





180-1 1631 IS-tS CHARLES M 


UON DON l«23 

CI RCA 1730 






LONDON 1804 



■ _^ 


YORK 182 1- 



Silver iVitf/iivg Graters, or Spice Boxes 

of the plate being especially good. These boxes open 
at both sides in much the same manner as the one 
with the coat of arms on it. 

In D we have another variety. In some instances 
one side falls down on raising the lid, showing the 
iron grater underneath ; in others the graters are 
quite independent. In this group are my earliest 
specimens, as can be seen by the engraving on them, 
but their e.xact dates are almost impossible to deter- 
mine, as they only bear a maker's mark. The graters 
of these latter are of silver, and I have one example 
of this class, not figured here, with the London hall- 
mark of 1698. 

In E we find another shape : these disclose the 
iron grater on opening the lid. Of the three " urn- 
shaped '' specimens one is quite plain, while the two 
others are most delicately engraved. 

In F are two of English and two of foreign make. 
The large one on the left has 167S engraved on its 
base. In this case the grater lifts ria;ht out, also the 

top comes oft", showing a compartment, about one 
inch deep, below to hold the grated spice. 

In G two specimens have corkscrews fixed to 
them, one being shown taken to pieces to make this 
clear. The very small bo.xes are prettily engraved, 
and have their graters at the base. Those in the 
form of an acorn are uncommon in design, but " egg- 
shaped " specimens in various sizes are often met 

Those in H are all presumably foreign. Two are 
silver-mounted shells, w'hich should, perhaps, be de- 
scribed as snuff or tobacco graters, the grater in the 
one on the left being inside the lid. One is shaped 
just like a walnut, and another has a detachable grater 
fitting into a slot, and a compartment for holding the 
nutmeg at the base. 

In conclusion, I feel sure that the accompanving 
illustrations will convey a far better idea of the 
interest attaching to old silver nutmeg graters than 
any further notes of mine on the subject. 


LONDON 1796 






The Playe of Chesse 

By Edgcumbe Staley 

In the British Museum, among " Rare 
Books " is an English translation from the I'Venih 
of the history and meaning of the game of chess, 
jjrinted by William Caxton in 1474. The black- 
letter type is splendidly impressed, deep and sharp, 
upon a well-milled thickish creamy paper, which has 
for watermark the famous BuU's-head — a mark 
specially used for the finer kinds of printing. 

The volume, which unhappily has lost its title-page, 
is dedicated to George, Duke of Clarence, next 
brother to King Edward, and contains four tractates : 
(i) "The Invencion of y'' Playe of Chesse"; (2) 
" V' Chesse men " ; (3) " Y' Ofifices of y' peple " ; 
and (4) " \'' meaninge and use of them." 

" He who runs may read " as follows : " The Playe 
of Chesse" was invented at Babylon in the reign 
of King Emsmerodach, by the learned philosopher 
E.xcrees, or Phismetos. Its purpose was "to correcte 
and to reprove y"" 
Kinge," and " to 
make hym toler- 
ante and wyse in 
human affairs." 

The "forme 
and facion of y" 
chequer was made 
after y" forme of 
y"" cytie of Baby- 
ioyn " — the si.xty- 
four squares repre- 
senting so many 
square miles, the 
area of that fam- 
ous city. 

The "pieces" 
— sixteen in num- 
ber on each side a "kocco." or kinc's lieutenant 


— are called Kmg, Queen, two Alphyns, two Knights, 
two Rooks, and eight Pawnes. The word "Alphyns" 
clearly is from the Italian alfieri. Standard-bearers, 
who administered the King's laws. Catholic players 
made them cross-bearing Bishops — their places were 
each side the King and Queen, as the immediate 
supporters of royal law and order. 

The " Rooks " — evidently from the Italian rocchi, 
rocks or towers, castles — were the lieutenants of the 
King to maintain his peaceful authority in distant 
parts of the kingdom. The Knights were the King's 
champions, and the leaders of his forces in war. The 
Pawns — " pawnes," the old English form of pioit or 
peon, old French for picton, people on foot — workers 
generally — Scaahi popolari in Italian. 

Each of these pieces had precise and strict rules 
of precedence and procedure, and fixed limits of 
power : but all fought for, .and served, their King, by 

whose side was the 

Queen to grace 
and screen her 
lord, and to adorn 
his kingdom. 

The " Playe of 
Chesse " had from 
an early date 
given moralists 
and writers many 
and various in- 
spirations. Shake- 
speare's aphor- 
ism, "All the 
world's a stage, 
and the men and 
women merely 
players," perhaps 
had its origin in 

The Playe of Chesse 

jjp«c :? ;€•;«•>:;« v;>c-;:;r .k-^«-5c-5« ;? x 



of the 

the chequered board in its setting forth 
chequered fortunes of human hfe. 

The various " treatises," which appeared from time 
to time upon this theme, were essays upon the moral 
virtues which the different " pieces " are made to 
symbohze. The " moves " were illustrations of the 
powers and duties of all sorts and conditions of men. 
William Caxton's luiglish version of 1474, by the 
way, is a translation of the " moralisation " of the 
French Abbe Jean de Vignays. 

The reason why it is allowable in playing the 
game to exchange a pawn which has traversed the 
board for a piece of higher power is ([uaintly set 
forth in the seventh chapter of the 
fourth book : "Ye common people 
may advance, but may not return. 
If any such obtain y" assistance 
and probacion of a piece of 
honour, happy are they. They 
acquyre the dignyte that y" quene 
hath graunted her by grace . . . 
if any of them may come to this 
said sygne they retayne such 

In i49> a famous Florentine 
publisher, Antonio .Miscomini, put 
forth an edition of Jacopo de' 
("essoli's " // Lihro di Giuoclio 
ihllc Scacdii — intito Into de 
Cos/iiiiii de,i;/i ho mini e delU 
Ojfilie (/(■' iioliilir It was 
l)rinte(l in clear well-cut type on 
milled paper, and contains fourteen 

woodcuts. The frontispiece shows 
a King presiding at a game of 
Chess, wherein two players seated 
at a round table are supported by 
friends standing behind. A copy of 
this book is in the British Museum, 
in an excellent state of preserva- 
tion, a masterpiece of early printing 
and a treasury of art combined. 

The frontispiece is strikingly like 
Botticelli's work — the slenderness 
of the figures, their graceful atti- 
tudes, and the pleasing animation 
of the whole composition with the 
elegantly flowing draperies. The 
fourteen plates are marked by 
a more robust style, their deep 
shadows and well worked up de- 
tails being as bold as anything in 
the whole range of fifteenth and 
sixteenth century wood cutting. 
The treatment and finish of the figures are topical 
allusions to the dress, the manners, and the per- 
sonaUties of the period in Florence, with the exception 
of the King and Queen, who are treated almost 
allegorically. The " Alphyns," seated, are habited 
as judges in cloth and fur, and are poring over their 
books of law. The Knights, in full armour, are 
mounted upon their chargers with vizors raised, but 
tilting spears in position — they are guarding the 
King's Castle. The Rooks, also mounted, but on 
peaceful steeds, are in civilian dress with their staffs 
of office in their hands. Under their cloaks are big 
wicker baskets full of marketable conmiodities for 

SMI 1 H-CAKlli.N lliU-MASON 



The Connoisseur 

llie encouragement of trade. The background reveals 
a fertile country. 

The " Pawnes " are varied in their attributes, but 
each .sets forth a useful industry. The King's pawn 
represents a banker-merchant — indispensable for the 
administration of the affairs of the kingdom. Before 
the Queen is a physician-apothecary, characteristically 
indicated for the varied requirements of the toilet. 

Before the " Alphyns " are placed on the right, a 
notary, who, in addition to his clerkly equiiiment, 
holds a spear and a knife for dealing Justly in the 
staple commodity of Florence — woollen cloth, and 
on the left an innkeeper-provision dealer, welcomes 
strangers to good cheer and peaceful pursuits. 

The Knight's Pawns represent, one, workers in 
stone, iron, and wood, with a dolabre or plane, and 
a hammer in his hand, and a trowel in his girdle : 
the other stands for keepers of the King's highway 
and farmers of his customs, with keys of the city 
gates, and the measuring caiina or yard. 

The Rooks have pawns representative respectively 
of farm-labourers with spade, axe, and knife wending 
their way to work in the fields ; and of country 
messengers bearing the King's posts for worthy folks, 
and three dice in the left hand — a warning to 
" riybaulders and neare-doe-weels." 

Each of these woodcuts, which measure four ins. 
by three ins., is an original and ingenious rendi- 
tion of personal characteristics among the different 
grades of Florentine society. The unknown artist 
has here furnished Miscomini with an illustrated 
epitome of the story of the famous arii — Craft 
("luilds, whose members through four centuries 
were the true " makers of Florence." By cun- 
ningness of cutting, the wood has yielded all the 
effects of atmosphere, colour, expression, and 
movement, and the cuts display verj' convincingly 
the technical knowledge and delicate manipulation 
which mark all the work of the Florentines of the 

Another " Rare Book " in the British Museum is 
catalogued, "A Book of Chess moralised." It was 
printed in 1476, in black letter, by William Caxton, 
and is specially interesting to lovers of early wood- 
cuts, from the fact that the illustrations are of a 
purely English type— broader, bolder, and, be it 
said, rougher than their Florentine compeers. The 
features of the figures are expressionless and con- 
ventional, and the individuals lack animation and 
ease of posture. There is also an absence of colour, 
so to speak, and none of the beautiful Florentine 
finish and decorative adjuncts. 

gr ^ T A. ' ^ ? ^ ^ .^i^^L-»^^]^R^Mi ^aag 





judge's or bishop's P.\WN 





John Raphael Smith and his WorK 

By W. G. Menzies 

In the history of eighteenth-century en- 
graving the name of John Raphael Smith stands out 
in sharp rehef. A master of the art of mezzotint, 
his prints have attained a remarkable vogue, whilst 
his efforts in the more recent art of stipple, though 
scarcely so successful, are nevertheless highly esteemed. 

The youngest son of Thomas Smith, the landscape 
painter, usually known as " Smith of Derby," he was 
born in Derby in the year 1752. It was his father's 
wish that he should become an artist, but displaying 
little or no desire to follow in the [larental footsteps, 
he was, at the age of ten, apprenticed to a linen- 
draper in his native town. For five years he faithfully 
fulfilled his duties behind the counter, only leaving 
Derby on the death of his father. During his ap- 
prenticeship he had dabbled in the arts in his 
leisure hours, and though by no means lacking iii 
artistic skill, he came to London fully determined 
to follow his trade of linen-draper. For two years 
he remained a shopman, but during this period he 
somehow managed to pick up the technique of the 
popular art of mezzotint. By whom he was taught 
history does not record ; but at the age of seventeen 
his first mezzotint, a portrait of Paoli, the Corsican 
patriot, appeared, and apparently met with consider- 
able success. At least its reception was sufficiently 
good to induce him to abandon commerce and take 
up art as a profession. 

At the age of seventeen we find him married and 
a father, his wife being Hannah Croome, the daughter 
of a print-seller. By painting miniatures and executing 
further mezzotint plates he managed to make a bare 
living, and that was all. Consequently, we find him 
at twenty returning to his old trade, having opened 
a shop in the neiglibourhood of the Strand, the 
money necessary being advanced by various friends. 

He did not, however, entirely forsake art, and 
when fortune attain smiled on him he was sufficienllv 

enterprising to open a print-shop near by. In the 
draper's shop his wife, always a great help to him, 
took charge of affairs, leaving Smith free to attend 
to the steadily increasing How of orders for portraits 
in miniature and impressions from his mezzotint 

Smith's life at this period became a strange mixture 
of business and pleasure, and, like many another 
artistic genius, he interlarded his periods of work 
with far longer bouts of pleasure. Reynolds was his 
inspiration, and many of the plates which he executed 
after Sir Joshua's famous portraits are so superb that 
one feels ready to forgive him for his occasional 
lapses from the paths of respectability. 

He also achieved great success with the works of 
poor George Morland. Not only did he engrave 
many of them himself, but engaged others to do so 
as well, publishing them with astonishing rapidity. 

.-\s Mr. Salaman says in his charming book, T/ie 
Old Engravers of England, "the public was crazy 
for Morland, and Smith, who had made over his 
drapery business to his brother-in-law — on advantage- 
ous terms, we may be sure — now started, so to speak, 
a factory for supplying the market chiefly with prints 
after Morland." 

Many were printed in colours, whilst others were 
coloured by hand, the great J. M. W. Turner being 
amongst the artists who assisted in this part of the 

The constant companionship of such a man as 
Morland at last began to have its effect on Smith's 
work. He abandoned mezzotint before any per- 
ceptible depreciation in his skill became apparent, 
but lie continued his painting and drawing, in much 
of which the effects of his dissipation is noticeable. 

Towards the close of his life he left London, his 
wife being dead, and travelled as an itinerant portrait 
painter, eventually settling at Doncaster. For three 


The Connoisseur 

years hu resided there, dying in 1S12 in his 601I1 

His effect on the artistic world did not cease with 
his death, for he left behind him such apt pupils 
as James and \\'illiam Ward, John Young, Charles 
Howard Hodges, and S. W . Reynolds, all of whom 
u])held the tradition of their famous master. 

In considering the work of thi^ remarkable man, 
we find, as we have said, that it is to his mezzotints 
that he owes most of his fame. That he must have 
learnt the art in a good school is evidenced by 
the strength and vigour which distinguishes all his 

As an interpreter of the works of Reynolds he 
has certainly never been surpassed, while his plates 
after Romney, Lawrence, Peters, and Gainsborough 
are scarcely less successful. His training as a painter 
enabled him to imbue his scraper with the feeling 
of an artist, giving the soft tones just the requisite 
amount of softness, and pervading the dark spaces 
with a remarkable depth and richness. 

His portrait of Mrs. Carnac after Reynolds, which 
up to the eventful Huth sale held the honour of 
being the most valuable mezzotint, which, too, he 
engraved when barely twenty-six years of age, is 
perha[)s one of his highest achievements. Every 
stroke from Reynolds's brush in the picture in the 
Wallace collection is faithfully reproduced without 
any undue exaggeration, and when Sir Joshua, while 
considering the engraved work of McArdell and 
others, said those all too tlattcring words, " By these 
I shall be inmiortalisud," he must surely have had 
in his mind the work of John Raphael Smith. 

Mrs. Carnac, too, is not alone, for she has as fitting 
companions — the beautiful plate of Mrs. Musters, 
the equally charming one of Mrs. Payne-dalwey 
and her child, and the stately portrait of the Hon. 
Mrs. Stanhope. 

With Reynolds's child-portraits Smith was no less 
successful. Few more charming pictures of childish 
innocence could be found than his rendering of 
the portrait of the little Lady Catherine Pelham 

Clinton feeding her chickens, while Master Crewe, 
as Henry \'HL, laughs at you with all the heartiness 
of the bluff old king he impersonates. 

To Smith also we owe much for perpetuating so 
many of Reynolds's portraits of famous men. His 
plate of Colonel Tarleton rightly ranks as one of 
the finest examples of male portraiture in mezzotint, 
and his portraits of the Duke of Devonshire and 
the Archbisho[)s of \'ork and Armagh are almost 
as highly considered. 

Portraits by other artists than Reynolds were also 
transferred by .Smith to the copper [jlate, amongst 
them being .Miss Coghlan and Ceorge IV., both after 
Gainsborough ; Mrs. Siddons, as the Grecian daughter, 
after Lawrence ; Vice-Admiral Parker, after North- 
cote ; and the Duke of Portland, after West. 

When we consider his fancy prints, many are found 
to be in stipple — a method which Smith, ever a 
business man, adapted himself to follow the popular 
taste. Even in this sphere he far outshone many 
of his fellows, and, once a master of the stipple graver, 
he displayed almost as much artistic skill with it as 
with the scraper. Many of Morland's most charming 
subjects were produced by Smith in this method, 
whilst others of his stipple plates were after designs 
executed by himself. 

That charming pair Rustic Einployindit and Rural 
Amusement are especially notable examples of Smith's 
work in stipple. Delia in Town and Delia in the 
Country are another pair, while the (juartette, .•/ 
^^aid. A Wife, A U'i,{o7v, and U'luit you Will, show 
Smith's success in rendering plates after his own 

In fact, whether you consider John Raphael Smith 
from the point of view of mezzotint or that of stipple, 
one finds that his work is all of such a fine quality 
that there is little wonder that collectors at the 
liresent time are so eager to acquire examiiles at 
almost any cost. 

We append a list of some of his more notable 
prints with the prices they have realised by auction 
during the past six years : — 


A Loisir 

Amanthis and Kelicia . . 

Armsirong, Mrs. 

Hacelli, Signor 

Heaumont, Lady 

Beaumont, I,ady 

Bmivcric, lion. Mrs. ... 

Carlini, ISarlolozzi and Cipriani 

Carnac, Mrs. ... 

Carnac, Mrs 


Smith, J. R. 

Smith, J. R. 

Smith, J. R. 





Rigaud ... 





190 1 


C. P. 

C. P. pair 


m. 1st St., p. b. 1. 

ni. 1st St. 

m. 2nd St. 


m. 1st St. 

ni. 1st pub. state 

m. 2nd pub. state 
























[oh II Raphael Smith and fn's II 'ork 


Carnac, Mrs. ... 

Carter, Miss 

Carwardine, Mrs., and Child... 

Cavendish, Lord Richard 

Chambers, Mrs. 

Child Looking after Piys 

Clarmont, Mademoiselle 

Clavering Children, The 

Clavering Children, The 

Clavering Chiklren, The 

Coghlan, Miss ... 

Compton, Lady Klirabelh 
Compton, Lad)' Elizabeth 
Contemplating the Miniature... ... ~\ 

.Society in .Solitude ... ... ... ) 

Contemplating the Miniature... 
Conversation, A ... ... ... ) 

Peasants and Pigs ... ... ... j 

The same pair ... 

Cottage Family ... ... ... "| 

Shepherd's Meal, The ... ... j" 

Crewe, Master, as " Henry \TIL" ... 

Crewe, Master, as " Henry \TH." ... 

Crewe, Master, as " Henry Vin." ... 

Cumberland, Miss 

Cumberland, Miss 

Curran, John Philip ... 

Delia in the Country ... 

Delia in Town ... 

Devonshire (William, Duke of) 

Dog and Cat ... ... ... • 

Dressing for the Masquerade ... 
Duncan, .Admiral Lord 
p;idon, Lord John 

Fair Penitent, The 

Feeding the Pigs ... ... ... ) 

Return from Market ... ... ... s 

Fortune Tellers, The ... ... ... ) 

Gamesters, The ... ... ... j 

Frederick, Mrs. 

Fruit Barrow, The (The Walton Family) ... 

Galwey, Mrs. Payne, and Child 

Gandilers, The... 

George, Prince of Wales 

George, Prince of Wales 

Gower Family, The ... 

Gower Family, The ... 

Hamilton, Lady, as " ,\ Bacchante " 

Hamilton, Lady, as " A Bacchante " 

Hamilton, Lady, as "A Bacchante " 
Hamilton, Lady, as "A Bacchante" 
Hamilton, Lady, as " A Bacchante " 
Hamilton, La<ly, as " Nature " 

Harliord, Sir Harbord 


"Hebe" "i. "'. 

Herbert, Master, as " Bacchus " 

Ho]ipner, Mrs. (Sojihia Western) 

Horse-Feeders, The ... "i 

Corn-Bin, The ... ... / 

Ingram, Hon. Frances 

Innocence .Alarmed 

Jupiter, The Infant 

kew Gardens ... 

Lady Haymaking, ."V ... 

Lady Haymaking, A 

Lartitia, Story of 

Lariitia, Story of 

Love Vanquished bv Avarice 

Maid, A ... ' 

Milkmaid and Cowherd •) 

Breaking the Ice ... / 


.Smith, J. R. 
Romney ... 
Russell ... 
Morland ... 
Smith, J. R. 
Romney ... 
Roinney ... 
Romney ... 

Peters ... 

Smith, J. R. 

Smith, J. R. 

Morland ... 

Morland ... 

Morland ... 

Romney ... 
Morland ... 
Morland ... 
Morland ... 
Morland ... 
Danloux ... 
Bunbury ... 
Morland ... 

Morland ... 

Morland ... 

Smith, J. R. 





Smith, J. R. 

Romney ... 

Romney ... 




Romney ... 
Hoppner ... 

1 Morland ... 

Morland ... 
Smith, J. R. 
Morland ... 
Morland ... 
Morland ... 
Smith, J. R. 

Morland ... 





1 901 











1 90s 



1 90 1 

J 903 

m. I St state 
m. 1st St. 
in. 1st St. 


m. p. b. 1. 

m. proof 


m. 1st St. 

m. isl St. 

m. 2ntl St. 

m. before the address of 

H. Parker 


m. no margin top and sides 

C. P. pair 

C. P. wide margin 

m. |)air 

m. o, I. p. 


m. 1st St. 

m. 2nd St. 

m. 3rd St. 

m. 2nd St. 

1. with Sutith's addres; 


C. P. 

C. P. 

m. 1st St. 

m. o. 1. p. 

m. 1st St. 

m. o. 1. p. 

C. P. 

m. pair 

C. P. pair 
m. c. 1. p. 

C. P. 


m. 2nd St. 

m. fine proof, title in open 
etched letters 
m. 3rd state 

C. P. 
m. o. I. p. 
m. o. 1. p. 
m. 1st St. 

m. e. 1. p. 
C. P. 

m. pair 

m. 1st St. 

m. ]). b. 1. 

m. 2nd stale 


m. 1st St. 

C. P. 

C. P., set of six 

In bistre, set of sl.\ 

ni. o. 1. p. 

C. P. 

m. pair 

£ s. 

1,218 o 

67 4 

278 5 

I o 

7 10 

28 7 

3 12 

173 5 

162 o 

73 10 

10 10 













3' 10 o 
89 o o 

92 8 o 





















1 1 















141 15 

79 16 




367 10 

I "5 

10 10 

21 o 

no o 

57 5 
252 o 

215 5 

























1 1 

1 1 
















The Connoisseur 






£ s. d. 

Mills, Mrs 




22 I 

Mills, Mrs. ... 



m. e. 1. p. 


Miini,i(;iic-, Miss 

Smith, j. K 


m. e. 1. p. 


Montagu, Lady C. ... 




18 18 

Montagu, Lady C, as " Winter " 



]11. 1st St. 


Mordaunt, Mrs. 




14 14 

Morl.Tnd, (leorfic 

Smith, I. K 




Morland, ticoryc, in his 41st Year 

Smith, J. R 



12 I 6 

Morris, Mrs 



m. 2nd St., full margins 

19 19 

Musters, Mrs 



m. 1st state 


Musters, Mrs. ... 



m. 1st stale 



Smith, J. R 



37 16 

Narcissa and Flirlilla ... 

Smith, J. K 


C. P. pair 

194 5 

Norlli, Mrs. 



m. 1st state 

115 10 

O'Neill, The Hon. Mrs 





Orleans, Louis Philippe, Duke of 




5 5 

Palmer, Miss T. 




96 12 

Pelham-Clinlon, Lndy Catherine 



m. 1st St., wide margin 


Pclhani-Clinton, Lady Catherine 



m. 2nd St. 

44 2 

Powlet, Lady Catherine 



m. 1st St. 

90 6 

I'ronienade at Carlton Mouse 

Smith, I. R 



75 12 c 

Proverb No. IX. 

Smith, J. K 



10 10 

Public House Door 




26 5 

Return from Market 



m. 0. 1. p. 

117 12 

Robinson, Archbishop... 



m. p. b. 1., with portrait 
by Houston 

16 10 

Robinson, Mr.s 

Romney ... 


ni. 1st state 


Robinson, Mrs. ... 



m. full margins 

115 10 

Rubbing Down the Post-horse ... / 
Watering the Cart-horse ) 



m. pair 

33 12 

Rustic luiiployment ... | 



s. ])air 

136 10 

Rural Amusement ... ... ... 1 

Schiiiderlin, Madame 



m. e. 1. p. 


Schinderlin, Madame ... 



m. 1st stale 

46 4 

Sriavonian Lady, A 





Selling Kish \ 

Fisherman's Hut, The... j 



m. pair 

58 16 

Sheep-I'en, The 



m. p. b. 1. 

14 14 

Siddons, Mrs., as " Zara " 



m. before re-touch 


Snake in the Grass 




37 16 

Sncyd, Miss Serena ... 



c. p. 


Stables, Mrs., and Daughters 

Romney ... 


m. 2nd St. 

89 5 

Stanhope, Hon. Mrs. ... 



m. I St St. 

456 10 

Stanhope, Hon. Mr.s 



m. 2nd St. 

19 19 

Slourmonl, Lady Louisa 




173 5 

Slrawljerry Girl, The ... 




15 15 






Synot Children, The 

Wright ... 

1 90 1 



Synot ('hildren. The 



m. etched letter proof 

472 10 

Tarleton, Lt.-Col 


1 90s 

m. 1st St. 

65 2 

Tarleton, I.t.-Col 




iS 18 

Tavern Door, The ... 



C. P. proof 

47 5 

Thoughts on a Single Life 

Smith, J. R 


C. P. 

26 5 

Thoughts on a Single Life ... ... [ 

Thoughts on Matrimony, by W. Ward ) 

Smith, J. R 


in bistre, pair 

17 16 6 

Wallenstein, Count 

Dow, G. ... 




Wallis, Miss 

Smith, J. U 


m. engraver's proof 

16 5 6 

178 10 

39 iS 

Warwick, Countess of 

Romney ... 



Watercress Girl, The ... ... 



m. proof 

Weston, Miss Sophia 




3 10 

What Vou Will? 

Smith, J. R 


C. P. 

194 5 

Widow, A 

Smith, 1. K 


C. P. 

3' '° 

Wife, A 

Smith,]. K 


c. p.- 

31 10 


Some Notes on Three Classes or Types of Rings : 

(1) The Memorial; (2) The Ecclesiastical ; (3) The Wedding 

By A. E. Cropper 

(Illustrated with Photographs of some Specimens from the Author's Collection) 

The limits of the present article will only 
allow of my dealing with three classes of rings out 
of the multitudinous types and forms which exist, 
although representative specimens of all these diverse 
examples are now only to be seen in our large 
museums and in a few private collections. Rings, it 
will be readily conceded, are interesting not alone by 
reason of the symbolism which has grown up around 
them, but are in a sense invaluable studies for the 
antiquarian and archffiologist, as they enable us to 
measure the progress of Art in distant eras. \o 
doubt we have to depend very largely upon tradition 
for circumstances and facts connected with ring-lore, 
but we cannot easily estimate the debt we owe to 
poetry and romance for the aid given in rendering 
rings objects of the highest interest and significance. 

I will now, after these few introductory remarks, 
proceed to consider that type of ring known as 
Memorial. If we search the tomes of history we 
shall find that 
in very early 
days the be- 
quest of rings 
figured very 
largely in the 
various forms 
which testa- 
mentary re- 
take. As early 
as the reign 
of Henry III. 

two rings, We 


I 8-, 

learn, were becjueathed to that monarch by a bishop 
of Chii:hester. one adorned with an emerald, the other 
with a ruby. At this time it is well to observe that 
many rings were supposed to possess some healing 
or talismanic properties, such rings being termed in 
mediajval Latin, virtuosus. Certain stones also re- 
presented virtues, while others were famed for their 
magical value. 

Anne of Cleves, who survived Henry \'III., left by 
her will several mourning rings of various values for 
distribution among her friends and dependents. Our 
great dramatist, Shakespeare, in his will mentions 
certain moneys for the purchase of rings by several of 
his friends. The varieties of mourning rings left by 
bequest in former days are exceedingly numerous 
and of very varied design. No. i. shows three 
entirely representative eighteenth-century memorial 
rings, selected from my own collection. The first of 
them exhibits a gold and enamel ring, having a long 

oval bezel 
with minia- 
ture of full- 
length figure 
of female 
standing by 
pedestal, on 
which is in- 
scribed the 
words, "In 
memory of a 
friend." On 
rim is the 
name Mary 

riic Connoisseur 


Goodrich, 1792. The 

other two rings shown 

in the group are 

Nimilar in form and 


Miss Strickland, in 

her Lives of the 

Four I'ri nct'sses of 

the Royal House 

0/ Stuart, mentions 

an incident in the 

life of the Princess 

Henrietta Anne (1820), that "as Bossuet was kneeling 

by her bedside, she suddenly turned to one of her 

ladies, and spoke to her in English, which the bishop 

did not understand, to tell her that when she should 

have entered into her rest, she was to give Bossuet 

the emerald ring which had been ordered to be 

made for him as a memorial of her." Rings, by 

the way, were formerly given to attendants at funerals. 

This fashion, I need hardly say, has long been 


Among the many touching episodes connected with 
memorial rings, perhaps none surpasses in pathos the 

story of the unfortunate Mary (^)ueen of Scots. Just 
[jrevious to her execution she distributed, we read, 
the jewels that remained to her among her faithful 
attendants as tokens of her affectionate regard. 
Among other sad memorials, she desired that a 
sapphire ring, which she took from her finger, might 
be conveyed as a mark of grateful acknowledgement 
to her brave kinsman. Lord C. Hamilton. Concern- 
ing this ring. Bishop Burnet says, " It is carefully 
preserved as one of the most precious heirlooms of 
that most illustrious family." A memorial ring to 
which special historical interest attaches, is the one 
which is stated to have been given to Bishop Juxon 
by Charles I. on the scaffold, since which period it 
has been preserved as an heirloom in the family of 
the present owner. The ring appears to resemble 
those of the period of Henry VHI. It is described 
in the Ge»t/eman's Magazine (or October, 1797. The 
bezel is hexagonal, with death's-head in white enamel 
on black ground, surrounded by the legend, " ]5eholde 
the Ende " ; round the edge is the motto, " Rather 
Death than 
Fals Faith." 

Rings e n - 
graved with 
such grue- 
some subjects 
as skulls and 
were not of 


necessity mourning 
rings, but in many 
cases were worn by 
persons who affected 
gravity of demean- 
our, and by others, 
again, who desired 
to be constantly re- 
minded of the brevity 
of human life. 
Luther wore a gold 
ring with a small 
death's-head in enamel, which is now preserved in 

In early times it seems to have been customary to 
t)ury sovereigns with their rings. During some re- 
pairs at Winchester Cathedral in 1768 a monument 
was discovered containing the body of King Canute. 
On his forefinger was a ring containing a very fine 
stone. Memorial rings were sometimes made to 
exhibit a small portrait, and on some occasions to 
conceal one beneath a stone. The illustration, 
No. iii., shows a set of three old memorial rings 
which are worthy of notice. The one on the right 
is especially interesting as having belonged to the 
poet Southey. The ring itself is made of gold, while 
a lock of the poet's hair has been ingeniously plaited 
and inserted round the rim. The centre one repre- 
sents a curious octagonal memorial ring showing 
scroll work on enamel. 

As I have now touched, as fully as space will 
allow, on some of the different uses of memorial 
rings, I shall proceed to tender some general remarks 
with regard to the second class of rings which are 
comprised in the scope of this paper. At the outset, 
may I explain that in the general term "Ecclesiasti- 
cal " I desire to include all types of rings to which 
any religious significance attaches. 1 shall hope, in 
the course of my paper, to demonstrate that in the 
past rings have played a somewhat important part as 
regards the symbolical side of ecclesiastical authority. 
It seems abundantly clear, from what we read in 
contemporary records, that the ring has for many 
ages occupied a distinctive place in ecclesiastical 
insignia. It appears to have possessed a twofold 

s i g n i f i c a n ce. 
Firstly, it im- 
plied a mark 
of dignity and 
and then, 
secondly, it 
was supposed 
to typify the 


Some Notes oil Rings 



my.stical union be- 
tween the priesthood 
and the Church. 

Perhaps the most 
interesting ecclesi- 
astical ring in the 
world is that known as 
the Fisherman's Ring, 
called the An n u 1 u s 
Piscatoris, which is 
the Pope's lesser seal 
or signet ring used for documents of lesser import- 
ance. The origin of this ring is somewhat obscure, 
but it derives its name from a representation of 
St. Peter in a fisher- 
man's boat of ancient 
form which is en- 
graved on it, and not 
from any tradition 
that it ever belonged 
to St. Peter, as 
some have assumed 
from its English 
name. An interesting 

circumstance connected with the ring is that it never 
leaves the custody of the Grand Papal Chamberlain. 
During the time that elapses between the death 
of a Pope and the selection of his successor, the 
name of the deceased Pontiff is erased, to be 
succeeded after the election has taken place by the 
fresh name. 

In the early days of Christianity the bishops 
sealed with their rings the profession of P'aith which 
the neophytes made in writing. They likewise 
sealed their pastoral letters. With regard to other 
dignitaries of the Church who are made recipients 
of a ring, the office of cardinal claims notice here. 
For we read that cardinals on their creation receive 
a ring, which usually holds a sapphire. Wolsey 
was raised to this dignity in 15 15, the Pope having 
sent with the hat a ring of more than ordinary 

The year 1191 is significant in the history ot ring- 
lore as marking a change in the fashion of the 
episcopal ring, for we learn that it was ordained by 
the then Pope Innocent III. that the form of ring 
should be of solid gold, set with a precious stone, on 
which nothing was to be cut. Previous to this a 
large measure of licence was permitted both as 
regards material and ilesign. In the thirteenth 
century we read that " many of the episcopal rings 
were of very rude fashion," displaying little or no 
elegance either in design or workmanship, the stone 
often being set just as it was found, merely having 

the surface polished. There are proofs that cameos 
were at one time much worn on episcopal rings. 
With regard to the finger on which the episcopal 
ring is worn, it has been stated that " all who wear 
rings ex officio wear them on the third finger of the 
right hand." Cardinals and bishops do this because 
it is the first vacant finger ; the thumb and first two 
fingers have always been reserved as symbols of the 
first three Persons of the Trinity. When a bishop 
gives a blessing he does so with the thumb and the 
first two fingers. 

During the latter part of the thirteenth century the 
larger episcopal rings were enriched by the addition 
of precious stones which were set around the principal 
one. The sapphire seems to have been the stone 
most generally used for episcopal rings, owing prob- 
ably to the common belief that this gem had the 
power of cooling love, due perhaps to the coldness 
of its touch. 

Legacies and gifts of rings for religious purposes 
were by no means uncommon in former times : thus 
among other rich gifts to the Cathedral of Canter- 
bury, we note that Archbishop Herbert in 1205 
presented four gold rings adorned with precious 
stones. I would here remark upon the practice that 
prevailed much at one time of burying the Popes in 
their pontifical habits and ornaments. The body of 
the prelate was arrayed in the richest cloth of gold, 
and his fingers were covered with rings of the greatest 

value. The custom 
in course of time was 
adopted by lesser 
dignitaries, for in 
describing the finger 
rings found in the 
grave of the Vener- 
able Bede, the writer 
of a brief account of 
Durham Cathedral 
adds : "No priest 
during the reign of Catholicity was buried or enshrined 
without his ring." The practice may have prevailed 
generally, as many rings recovered from the graves 
of ecclesiastics show, but it was more particularly 
the usage of prelates. 
In No. iv. is shown a 
curious ecclesiastical 
ring of uncommon 
design. The ring is of 
silver ; on the be/el is a 
(juaint rebus, symbolical, 
no doubt, of the Trinity. 

On each side of the bezel ^.^ vII.-earlv Norwegian 
are two full length figures betrothal ring 

No. VI.— early NOKWEGIA.S 

betrothal ring 


The Connoisseur 

(male and female). These possibly represent Adam 
and Eve and Cain and Abel respectively. 

Among what may appropriately be included as 
religious rings strictly so-called, I would here notice 
very briefly three special types, which are termed 

number of the Ardueological Journal. It is made 
after the pattern of interlaced plaited work, resembling 
some ornaments of the .Saxon period, but is especially 
remarkable for having the impress of two feet, which 
may probably be regarded as one of the emblems 


respectively "decade," "reliquary," and, lastly, "pil- 
grim," some of which are highly interesting for many 
reasons, but principally as witnessing to the extreme 
credulity and superstition which at one time existed, 
and which was exemplified in such trifling ornaments 
as rings. As regards the first-mentioned class, viz., 
" decade," we find they derive their name from 
having ten projections at intervals all round the 
hoop (see No. v.). These knobs were used much 
in the same way as the beads of a rosary. Some- 
times in these rings each of the knobs is separated 
by three small beaded dots across the hoop from 
its neighbour. This is intended in all probability 
to symbolise the Trinity. 

The next class of ring to which 1 have to refer is 
that known as the " reliquary " ring, their peculiarity 
being that they contain a relic of a saint, or sometimes 

of the " Pa.ssion," or as a memorial of the pilgrimage 
to the Mount of Olives, when the print of the feet 
of the Saviour, which miraculously marked the scene 
of His Ascension, was visited by the pilgrims with 
the greatest veneration. 

The most remarkable example of the religious 
ring in the British Museum is that known as the 
" Coventry Ring." It is sometimes called " The 
Ring of the Five Wounds," by reason of the subject 
of its inscription. It is of gold, and in all likelihood 
of fifteenth-century workmanship. On the outside 
of the hoop there is a centre device depicting Christ 
rising from the sepulchre ; on the left is the wound 
in the side, and opposite it the words, " The Well 
of Everlasting Lyffe " ; next, two smaller wounds are 
depicted, with. the words opposite to them of "The 
Well of Comfort, and the Well of Grace." Then 

No. I.\. 


a reputed piece of the true Cross or some other 
religious emblem. These rings are by no means 
numerous, but are regarded as objects of extreme 

There is but little to be said regarding the 
"pilgrim " ring, which is very similar to the "reli(|uary," 
so much so that the two classes may be considered 
as almost identical. A curious specimen of the 
pilgrim type of ring is thus described in an early 


toUow two other wounds with the words, " The \\'ell 
of Pitie, and the Well of Merci." 

We now come, lastly, to consider the subject of 
the wedding-ring. We are all well aware of the 
many tender and romantic associations that centre 
round the wedding-ring ; in fact, it is by no means 
easy to conceive of any subject more generally in- 
teresting in all its associations than the wedding-ring. 
From the earliest times it has possessed a mystical 

1 86 

Some Notes on Rings 

significance appealing directly to our most cherislied 
feelings. It is significant to observe that the circular 
form of the ring was accepted in days gone by as 
a symbol of Eternity. We find many divines who 
love to dilate and enlarge upon the figurative virtues 
of the ring. A well-known Dean thus speaks : " The 
matter of which this ring is made is gold, signifying 
how noble and durable our affection is ; the form 
is round to imply that our respect shall never have 
an end : the place of it is on the fourth finger of 
the left hand, where the ancients thought there was 
a vein that came directly from the heart, and where 
it may always be in view, and being on the finger 
least used, where it may be least subject to be worn 
out ; but the main end is to be a visible and lasting 
token of the covenant which must never be forgotten." 
We have Jeremy Taylor, in his sermon on a wedding- 
ring, conveying in (|uaint and forcible language the 
duties and responsibilities of married life. 

With the bridal-ring formerly were delivered the 
keys of the house. This is of ancient origin, since 
it seems to have existed among the Romans. We 
read in Photius that Theosebrius says to his wife, 
" I formerly gave to thee the ring of union ; now of 
temperance to aid thee in the seemly custody of my 
house." The plain gold rings which are the pledge 
or sign of matrimony have altered little in design from 
the earliest times. They appear to have come down 
by the law of traditional practice from Saxon time with 
little or no impulse from legal authority. 

When we come to examine the records of later 
times, we find that during the sixteenth century it 
became customary to give plain gold rings away at 
weddings in quite large numbers, the practice con- 
tinuing till recent times, for we read that the Prince 
Regent, on the celebration of his marriage with 
Caroline of Brunswick, presented a number of rings 
to members of his family and friends. Also at the 

marriage of Queen \'ictoria rings were distributed 
having the royal likeness in profile in gold. 

As pledges of betrothal or wedding gifts rings 
are of very ancient origin. They were worn by the 
Jews prior to Christian times, and mark even at 
the present day an important feature in their marriage 
rites. These Jewish betrothal rings were in past 
ages generally of large size and elaborate workman- 
ship. Some curious examples are mentioned in the 
Londesborough collection catalogue. One ring is 
of German or Flemish work of the seventeenth 
century. It is of brass, with three points or bosses, 
and belongs to a class of ring called " gemmal," or, 
freely translated, " Joy be with you." In the same 
collection is a Jewish "tower " betrothal ring, enamelled 
blue, of the sixteenth century. Another betrothal 
ring belongs to the same class and date, and called 
Temple or Tower, from the figure of the sacred 
temple placed on its summit. The marriage rings 
of the German-Jews of the sixteenth century are 
very fine specimens of art, and are truly superb 
specimens of the goldsmith's craft. 

The ring was used in marriage among Christians as 
early as 860. Pronubal or pledge rings pass between 
the contracting parties among the Romans. \\'hen 
the marriage settlement had been duly executed and 
sealed, rings bearing the name of the newly married 
couple were handed round to the guests. By the 
way, I may here mention that the marriage ring of 
the Romans was generally of iron — this metal being 
chosen apparently in order to symbolise the lasting 
character of the engagement. 

In early times betrothal rings sometimes bore the 
name and title of the Saviour in full, but examples 
of this of ring are now excessively rare. It 
is interesting to observe that during the Middle 
Ages solemn betrothal by means of the ring often 
preceded matrimony. 



riie Connoisseur 

Notes and Queries 

\The Editor inviles the assistance of readers oj The 
Connoisseur who may be able to impart tite informa- 
tion required by Correspondents^ 

Ckltic Interlacing. 

To the Editor of The Connoisseur. 

Sir, — I shall be very much obliged if some of 
your readers could inform me where I could obtain 

Extract from Messrs. Adams's letter of 28th 
February, 1906 : — 

" We thank you very much for the phoioyraph 
received. The specimen, as far as we can see, is 
an Adams piece. The figures were produced at this 
factory 120 years ago, and the subject is the offering 
to the ' Apollo of Belvedere,' and the subject, but not 
the shape, is illustrated in William Adams, an old 
English /'otter, on a very fine jug in one of the 
provincial museums. . . . We were interested to 


photographs or sketches of Celtic interlaced work, 
or a book on the subject. 

Vours truly, 

D. F. 

The Keepsake Vase. 

To the Editor of The Connoisseur. 

Sir, — In connection with the enquiry in this 

month's Connoisseur relating to the Keepsake Vase, 

perhaps your readers might be interested to see 

another of William Adams's works, so I enclose a 

photo, of our Hooket Vase, with copies of extracts 

from letters of Messrs. Adams to me on the subject. 

The shade of blue is most beautiful, quite difTercnt 

to any blue — ancient or modern — I have ever seen 

of either Wedgwood or Adams ware. 

Yours truly, 

(Miss) E. F. Wmj.iams. 

see this ware, as the shape is quite new to us, and 
we think there cannot have been many made, so this 
will make the vase all the more rare, 'i'he colour, 
we can imagine, is a very beautiful one. 

" Yes, we also know the subject the other side 
the vase very well indeed ; it is the ' Sacrifice to 
Diana,' and we are reproducing the design at our 

Napoleon'.s Bee. 
To the Editor of 'I'he Connoisseur. 
Dear Sir, — As a subscriber to The Connoisseur, 
I am writing to ask if you could kindly inform me 
why Napoleon chose the bee as his imperial emblem ? 
I have not been able to find the reason in any life of 
Napoleon, and nobody seems to know '. Thanking 
you in anticipation. 

Vours, etc., S. N. 


liy pcriiiissioii of Messrs. S. Gorer & Son 

Son of 

Paul Rubens 

The accompanying illustration represents the son 
of Paul Rubens taken from his picture. It is in 
terracotta, enamelled white, is about 
7 2 inches high, and may be seen in 
the Cluny Museum. One is not sur- 
prised to find that this charming life-like little statuette 
is attributed to the celebrated sculptor Cyffle, who, 
under the Bayards, 
father and son, did 
such beautiful work 
at Bellevue, Toul, 
and Luneville. 

Two New 
by the Scottish 
National Gallery 
By Olive 
Milne Rae 

Two interesting 
pictures of the British 
School have recently 
been purchased and 
hung by the Scottish 
National Gallery at 
I-^dinburgh. Within 
the last few years 
the directors have 
been steadily adding 
fine examples of 
British art to their 
already fine, though 
comparatively small, 
collection of Old 
Masters. The two 
latest additions may 


be said to be fairly representative of what was best 
in eighteenth and nineteenth century English art, 
both as to landscape and figure painting. 

The first is a grand and sombre canvas by John 
Crome, entitled, A Scene in JFa/es. It was probably 
painted about 1802, and belonged at one time to 
Mr. (lurney, the Norwich banker, to whose apprecia- 
tive encouragement 
and patronage the 
poverty - stricken 
Norwich school owed 
a considerable debt 
of gratitude. Unlike 
most of Crome's pic- 
tures its subject is 
of wild and rugged 
mountain scenery, 
absolutely unrelieved 
by vegetation or light 
of any kind. To the 
right of it, against a 
background of lower- 
ing thunderclouds, a 
huge and solitary jut 
of crag rises sheer 
out of the dark pool 
below in the fore- 
ground, while to the 
left are great boulders 
and horizontal masses 
of rock, which cast 
dark shadows into the 
water. A few goats 
straggling among 
the i n ii o s ]i i t a b 1 e 
rocks, are tiie only 



The Cotnioisseitr 

signs of life in llic- iiicUirc, and c-vcn llicy scum 
almost out ot place amid the awesomeness of the 
scene, to which the lowness of the tone gives a 
deeply meditative character. No shaft of light 
or gleam i)f bright colour penetrate the gloom of 
its mantling shadows, but there is a depth and 
grandeur about the whole picture, a suggestion of 
vastness of space, and a sort of aerial horror in the 
unfathomable dark- 
ness of the ravine, 
w ii i c h s h () w s the 
master hand. 

The other [)icture 
— a great contrast in 
every way, but also 
full of strength and 
vigour — is one by 
\V. E. I.ockhart, who 
was undoubtedly one 
of the ablest of the 
Scottish school of 
painters. The sub- 
ject is The Dis- 
tnissal of Gil Bias 
(who was at that 
time his secretary) 
l)v the Archbishop 
of ( ; r a n a d a , for 
candidly telling that 
worthy (in answer 
to a request for 
candour) that his 
preaching had some- 
what fallen off since 
his recent stroke of 
paralysis. This was 
one of the early 

episodes in the varied career of that fascinating rogue, 
and one which might well ap|)eal to the imagination 
of an artist. 

At the portals of the episcopal palace stands the 
irate archbishop, clad in his gorgeous scarlet robes 
and lace ruffles, his face purple with anger, ga/ing 
wrathfuUy down at the retreating figure of the young 
Ciil Bias, slowly and reluctantly descending the long 
flight of stone steps, and biting his nails with vexa- 
tion. The rueful expression on the ex-secretary's 
face is excellently portrayed, and every detail of his 
costume thoughtfully detailed. He is dressed in a 
tunic and knickerbockers of citron-coloured velvet, 
having sleeves of deep orange — a clever conceit in 
the way of colouring. His long hair falls over the 
wide collar of fine muslin bordered with lace, which 
was the correct finish to the habiliments of a young 


gentleman of his day. Over his arm he carries 
his cloak of snuff-coloured cloth, and in his hand 
is a soft " wide-awake " hat of dark brown felt. 
Among the minor accessories of the picture are a 
mediaeval swinging lamp of brass, which hangs 
just above the archbishop's head, and the rich 
dark tapestry behind him, which throws up the 
magnificent scarlet and lace of his robes. 

This picture is con- 
sidered Lockhart's 
best, and is certainly 
eminently character- 
istic of his style and 
colour. It is some- 
what reminiscent of 
John Philips, by 
whom Lockhart was 
clearly much inllu- 
enced. It was painted 
in 1878, when the 
artist was at the prime 
and maturity of his 
art, as the richness 
and mellowness of 
the colouring, and its 
admirable arrange- 
ment and grouping, 
amply show. The 
Hoard of Directors 
are to be congratu- 
lated on these two 
recent purchases, and 
the nation on the 
acfiuisition of two 
noble productions 
of purely British 
The accompanying illustration reproduces a set of 
engraved designs for the hand-bells which were once 
in general use upon the table. They 
date from the first few years of last 
century : and though they lack the 
grace and purity of design which mark those of an 
earlier period, particularly those made in France, 
there is a quaintness and homeliness about their 
appearance that endears them to the collector of such 
trilles. The full-length figures, among them a nun, 
and what might be a Chinese mandarin, recall the 
drinking vessels of a similar shape and idea which the 
German goldsmiths of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries designed so well. Special interest attaches 
to these engravings in that they come from a maker's 
pattern book : and below each is written in ink the 
wholesale price. 

Some Old 



" Humanism and Art : Being Part IV. of the 
Renaissance in Italian Art" By Selwyn Brinton, M.A. 
2nd Edition (Arnold Fairbairns, 2s. 6d. neti 

In this work on the Schools of Padua and Verona, 
when it was first pubHshed in 1898, Mr. Brinton 
approached a subject which, especially in the latter 
case, had been very slightly treated by English writers. 
Messrs. Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle had, of 
course, included the art 
of Padua and Verona 
in their jYor//i Italian 
Painters ; but there 
still remained a good 
field for individual 
research, and in 
the second edition ot 
his work the author 
gives the result of 
later studies in the 
churches and galleries 
of Verona. 

After a very attrac- 
tive prologue on 
Humanism a n d Art, 
that is, upon the in- 
fluence of the scholar- 
ship of the time, and 
especially of the revival 
of classic literature, 
upon the fine arts in 
Italy, Mr. Selwyn 
Brinton passes on to 
the " School of Squar- 
cione " ; and here, of 
course, the great Man- 
tegna comes to occupy 
his chief attention. 

"For it is his genius," 
says the author here, 
" that dominates and 
overmasters the whole. 
Ansuino, Bono, Zoppo, are thrown into the shade by 
this young eagle that had sprung out of their nest. 
Pizzolo might, had he lived, have reached a certain 
success, and Vasari tells us that his work was no 
less esteemed than that of .'\ndrea : but that, being 
even fonder of arms than of painting, and enemies 
muny around him, one night he was set upon and 
treacherously slain. 

" And tiiese ([ualities of Andrea's genius, which 
appear fully formed even in his early work . . . are 
essentially strong, earnest, virile. In his splendid 
science he disdains mere prettiness : he seems to 



US sometimes cold (like those antique marbles he 
so loved), sometimes even hard and stern ; yet those 
who have ever felt his fascination will not willingly, 
I believe, turn from him to any other master of 
any time." 

From Andrea Mantegna, the |)ainttr of the frescoes 
of the Eremitani Chapel at Padua, Mr. Brinton turns 

to the art of Verona 
— "Verona the Worthy 
{I'erona la dci^na), as 
she was called, lying 
against the mountains, 
with her bridges and 
towers and quaint old 
churches, within a land 
that is full of fruit 
and flowers, whose 
clear climate gave its 
natives and its art a 
?iatural serenity and 

Pisanello, that most 
fascinating craftsman 
of the early Renais- 
sance, had already 
been done justice to 
in his first edition by 
this writer, who had 
also taken his bio- 
graphy for Bryan's 
Dictionary of Artists : 
but in this later edi- 
tion the lesser-known 
\'eronese artists, such 
as Stefano da Zevio 
(Pisanello's probable 
pupil), Giovanni 
iiadile, Girolamo and 
Francesco Benaglio — 
the latter of whom 
the writer compares, 
in the freshness of his 
sentiment, to the Umbrians, Fiorenzo di Lorenzo 
and liuonfigli — as well as Falconetto, the two 
brothers (iiolfino, and Paolo Farinato, whose work 
we see in SS. Nazzaro e Celso at N'erona, all 
claim some place beside such accepted Veronese 
masters as Liberale, Francesco Morone, Caroto, 
Cavazzuola, or that most fascinating of the Veronese, 
(Hrolamo dai Libri, who is well represented in our 
National Gallery. ICven .Antonio Badile, the uncle 
and forerunner of the great Paolo Veronese, and an 
artist who is scarcely yet appreciated as he deserves, 
finds some place here, though not a large one. It is 



The Connoisseur 

in such a work as this, which explores llic less-known 
fields of Italian art, that there is still room for 
individual research and useful results; and in this 
book, which falls into its place as the fourth volume 
of the series, and which, we are glad to note, is more 
richly illustrated than the earlier edition (two of the 
plates we here reproduce for our readers), there are 



to be found some facts of value and some pages of 
interesting criticism. 

Mr. Frederick Arthur Oish, of 2 70, Walworth Road, 
S.E., has issued a beautiful Catalogue oj Chinese Porce- 
lain u'ith Coats of Arms. The Cata- 
Armorial logue has been privately printed at the 

^'""■^ Grove Park Press ; type, the paper, and 

binding are excellent, the colour printing being also 
of a very high order, and the full descriptions of the 
Heraldic designs should prove most useful to those 
desiring to decipher the numerous Coats of Arms. 

Sodoma and 

I.v my researches into The Life and Works of 
Gim'anni Antonio Hazzi (il Sodoina), publisheti last 
year (London : John .Murray), I had 
occasion (on p. 173) to draw attention 
to the fact that according to Romagnoli 
(M.SS.), the artist, with his accustomed waywardness, 
did not complete the celebrated S. Sebastian banner 
(now in the Ufifi/.i Gallery, Florence, Xo. 
1,279) to the satisfaction of the Compagnia 
who commissioned it, but that Domenico 
Beccafumi was further employed to finish 
the work. I suggested then that I3eccafumi's 
additions 7vere prnhahly to be found in the 
painting of the Madonna and Child on the 
back of the banner, and of the clouds 
whereon they are seated. I'urther examina- 
tion by chance, however, revealed to me 
further traces of the hand of the " commen- 
tator" on the face of this sjilendid work. To 
anyone familiar with Heccafumi's style, the 
curious shapes of his heads, and certain 
tyi)es of attitude by no means unpleasing 
but most characteristic, and the groups of 
small figures on either side of the principal 
subject — particularly that on the right — 
betray at once his peculiar methods. A 
glance at the accompanying illustration, if 
compared with other work by Beccafumi, 
will show this at once and must prove of 
considerable interest, since the whole com- 
position has so world-wide a celebrity. — 
Roukkt H. Hoh.xrt Cust. 

About the middle of November Messrs. 
S. Gorer & Son will open, at their Bond 
Street Galleries, an exhibition 
of choice specimens of Ming 
porcelain, of which the figure 
reproduced in this number as a colour plate 
will be the most important feature. \\'hilst 
practically unique in size— the figure stands 
20 inches in height, and is thus considerably 
bii'i'er than Mr. Salting's famous specimens — this 
representation of the God of Learning is of rare 
perfection as regards modelling and workmanshi|). 
Especially remarkable is the extraordinary realism in 
the delineation of the features, which have a very 
unusual vivacity of expression, and are modelled with 
"real delicacy. 'I'he transparent and almost lustrous 
quality of the mottled light apple-green of the robe 
is impossible to render either in the drawing or the 
reproduction. On this green ground is a design of 
conventional clouds in yellow, aubergine, and white, 
which colours are repeated in the border of the 

Rare Ming 



The Confioisscttr 

garment wiili tlie ncklition of a darker green. 'I'he 
embroidery of the jwriel in the centre of the robe 
represents a flying ho-ho bird in rouge-de-fer on 
wliite. The figiiie had been buried for many years, 
and when found was covered, for protection, with 
a curious glutinous substance which gave it an ap- 
pearance of decay and com|)lctely hid the splendour 
of the colour glazes. Indeed, it is extremely unlikely 
that without this disguise it could have been taken 
out of the country of its origin. All efforts to 
remove the covering substance proved fruitless, until 
a Chinese expert applied a special preparation which 
made the film peel off like gelatine. 

iMk. liAU.i.iii-CiKOHMAN, wlio ill his new book, 
T/ie La/id in the Mountains, sets before us the 
_. . , . romantic history and the old-world 

the Mountains '-"'i^";'" «*" '1^'" "1""' delightful of all 
By W. A. Alpine countries, Tyrol, is himself 

Baillie-Grohman the lucky owner of one of the most 
(Simpkin, picturesquely situated old castles 

Marshall & Co.) j,^ jj^^ j,.,,., ^.^^n^y j^^ jj^.^^ ^^^^ 

surroundings which are bound to awaken a deeper 
interest in the land and its people than is felt by 
the literary tourist who " does " the country in a 
month or two, and then hastens home to commit his 
superficial observations 
to print. It is the ob- 
vious that generally fills 
the pages of such books, 
whilst the obvious is 
just what Mr. Grohman 
has tried to avoid. In 
no sense of the word 
can his book be classed 
as a guide-book. There 
are whole districts of 
Tyrol which are barely 
mentioned in The Land 
in the Mountains ; and 
the reader is not hustled 
systematically from 
place to place in search 
of sights and relics 
and panoramas. Hut 
when he has worked his 
way through this fasci- 
nating account of this 
far too little frequented 
Austrian province, he 
will have learnt all 
that is to be learnt of 
its tangled and event- 
ful history ; he will be 

Catharine of 


seized with a longing personally to explore the 
wonders that nature has heaped into this compara- 
tively small area ; and he will have learnt to 
love the simple, manly, kind hearted race of pea- 
sant-folk, who, in the purity of their mountain air, 
have retained through the centuries the spirit 
of patriotism, of loyalty, of religious faith, and 
of hospitality, for which they have ever been 
noted. 'J'he connoisseur will be particularly at- 
tracted by the chapter on " Life and Art in Ancient 

Fac'INi; a quiet side street at the top o( the Kop 
stands the gabled two-storied house, its steep roof 
bearing the lovely clustered chimneys 
that arc a distinctive mark of Tudor 
architecture. The house now belongs 
to Messrs. Peele, solicitors, who have 
preserved it in much of its original 
state. The square hall is panelled in beautifully 
carved oak, and the oak mantelpiece bears a design 
in which the Tudor rose is coupled with the pome- 
granate of Spain. The hall is lighted by a fine old 
window, in which the rich blue and yellow tints repeat 
the legend of and pomegranate. In the living 
room, panelled throughout, Mr. Peele discovered 

one day a sliding panel 
over the fireplace, 
which disclosed a small 
fresco, unfortunately so 
obliterated that the 
subject was unrecog- 
nisable. A staircase 
with carved balusters 
leads to the upper 
storey, and Catharine 
of Aragon's bedchamber 
and dressing closet, 
with a fine view from 
the casements over the 
Severn and the hills in 
the distance. Below 
lies the terraced garden, 
which the queen is said 
to have rarely left dur- 
ing the weary months 
of her stay in Shrews- 
bury, while Henry was 
endeavouring vainly to 
obtain the annulment 
of their union, which 
was to legalize his 
marriage with Anne 
Boleyn. — B. Kendeli.. 



Amongst the several 

fine examples of the 

work o t 

with Cows 
By A. Cuyp 


the great 
of ani- 

landscape contained in 

the famous Kann Col- 
lection few betray a 

higher level of excellence 

than the charming scene, 

\ 'oiiitg Herdsmen ivith 

Cows, by A. Cuyp, which 

forms the frontispiece to 

the present number. 

.•l-;ibert Cuyp, landscape 

and animal painter, as 

well as an excellent 

portraitist, is equally 

esteemed in all his 

genres. His work was 

appreciated in England 

when in Holland it was 

almost neglected, and as 

a consequence nearly all 

his best works found their 

way here. Continental dealers and collectors visiting 

London sale-rooms at last commenced to acquire 

examples, and gradually many have again crossed the 
water, a number going to Paris. 

We reproduce as a plate in the present number 
another of the interesting series of prints by well- 
known sporting artists, which have 
appeared in our pages from time to 
time. Unlike the majority of those 
[)receding it, it is more political than 
sporting, depicting a scene in the 
days when a member contesting a 
Parliamentary seat had to rely on the 
now almost neglected horse and coach to convey 
himself and his adherents to the poll. 

On the 27th September, Messrs. Hodgson and 

Company, whose auction rooms in Chancery Lane 

have been a favourite resort of many 

generations of book lovers, celebrated 

their Centenary by a dinner, at which 

many well-known literary persons were 

present. The chair was taken by 

Mr. H. H. Hodgson, J. P., Master of the Stationers' 

Company, who retired from the firm in 1900, after 

The Last 
Hour of a 
for MP. 
By Havell, 
after Pollard 

and Co.'s 

an occupancy of the 
rostrum extending over 
thirty years, and some 
very interesting speeches 
were made in connec- 
tion with the toasts of 
the Firm, the Trade, 
and Literature. In 
proposing that of the 
Firm, Mr. Charles 
Burney, Master of the 
Supreme Court, made 
some amusing allusions 
to the fluctuating for- 
tunes of large numbers 
of books, while in their 
response, Messrs. J. E. 
and S. Hodgson, the 
present directors of the 
firm, mentioned some 
of the difficulties that 
they had to encounter, 
and promised that they 
would always pursue 
an open and straight- 
forward policy in deal- 
ing with all customers, 
as had been the tradition of their firm in the past. 
The toast of the Trade was advocated by the Chair- 
man, and responded to by Mr. Edward Bell, ^LA., 
President of the Publishers' Association, and Mr. 
H. C. Sotheran, one of the leading dealers in rare 
books, while Mr. G. Thorn Drury replied to Mr. ('.. A. 
.\itken in that of Literature. 

The rare specimen of a fan here reproduced is in 
the possession of Lt.-Colonel Wilfrid H. Cummings, 
to whom we are indebted for the 
^^"■^ following description : — 

of tortoiseshell ; the mount is made of 
very fine lawn manufactured from the thread of aloe 
leaves, on which the design is embroidered, the back- 
ground being entirely "drawn" work. The panel 
on the right indicates that it was made in the 
Philippine Islands or some other tropical colony ; 
the Royal Arms of Spain seem to suggest that it 
was a gift to a Spanish Queen. It is to be noted 
that the centre shield in the Royal Arms is composed 
of three casdes instead of three fleur-de-lys, which 
apparently fixes the date as being a period prior to 
the quartering of the French insignia on the Spanish 
Royal Arms. The photograph is by Mr. F. Simpson, 
of Chester. 


The Connoissciii' 



United Arts Club Picture Defence Fund. 

To the luiilor of Thk Connoisseur. 

Ukar Sir,— Will you kindly grant us space in your 
columns to appeal to the public, and especially to all 
lovers of art, for help in supporting the action against 
Messrs. Robinson & Fisher, the auctioneers of King 
Street, St. James's, for distraining the pictures exhiljited 
at the United Arts Club. 

Whilst this Club was holding an K.xhibilion of its 
Members' work on premises, the rent of which it had 
paid in advance to the landlord, Willis' Restaurant, 
Ltd., the latter Company failed, leaving about ^2,000 
due to the superior landlords, Messrs. Robinson and 
Fisher, and that firm distrained and seized all the 195 
artists' pictures exhibited in the Club. An injunction 
was applied for in Chancery, but Mr. Justice Nevile 
reluctantly declined to grant the injunction, stating, 
"That it should be possible in a country which boasts 
of making a law which jiurports to protect the property 
of the law-abiding citizen, to raise such a question seems 
to me an extraordinary state of things," but " monstrous 
though I hold it to be, 1 have to deal with the law as 1 
find it." 

The Club has appealed against this decision, and if 
need be in the interests of the artists primarily, and the 
public generally, it is intended to lake the matter up 
to the House of Lords, if possible. Hut to do this the 
Club, which is a new institution, requires financial 
support, and we therefore confidently ask all friends of 
Art and Justice to help by kindly forwarding their 
subscriptions for this purpose to the Club's Bankers, 
Messrs. IJrown, Shipley & Co., 123, Tall Mall, S.W., 

for the credit of thr United .'\rts Club Picture Defence 


Yours faithfully, 

(Signed) Carlisle, Kilmorey, J. T. Herbert Baily, 
T. Austen Brown (A.R.S.A.), A. S. Cope (A.R.A.), 
Walter J. James, John Lavery (Vice-Prest. LA.), Edward 
Poynter (Prest. R.A.), Geo. Wyatt Truscott. 

P. S.— Unless otherwise desired the names of sub- 
scribers, together with amounts, will be acknowledged 
in the leading newspapers, a copy of one of which will 
be sent to each su\)scriber. 

Books Received 

Velas<]uez, l>y S. 1.. Ik-nsu^nii, I^. (»i. : Keyiwuii, by .S. I.. 
Bensvisan, is. 6cl. ; Nursery Song, arranged by Joseph 
Moorat and pictured liy Paul Woodroffe. (T. C. & K. C. 
Adveit/iires oil Ike High Mountains, by Richard .Stead, 15. A., 
K.K.Hist.S., 5s. ; Heroes of Missionary Enterprise, by 
Claude Field, M.A., 5s. ; The Komance of the World's 
Fisheries, by Sidney Wright, 5s. (Seeley & Co.) 

Miniatures, Ancient and MoJern, by Cyril Davenport, 2S. 6d. 
net ; An Artist's Keminisceiues, by Walter Crane, iSs. 
net ; Trees in Nature, Myth and Art, by J. ]-;rncst 
Phythian, 6s. (Mcthuen & Co.) 

The Silver Treasure-Trove of Hildesheim, by T. Blunie Gold- 
smith, Ilildesheim. 

The Cathedrals and Churches of Northern Italy, by T. Francis 
Bumpus, i6s. net. (T. Werner Laurie.) 

The Madoniiadi Vico, by L. Melano Rossi, 21s. net. (Macmillan 
and Co.) 

Mantua, by Selwyn lirinlon, 4 marks. (E. A. Sceman, 


The Connoisseur 


U\.D.-All enquiries must be accompanied by coupon, zvhich 7vill he found in the advertisement pages of each number. 

"Books. — Breeches Bible. 1611 — 10,038 (Donc3>ter). 

Vour Bible would not realise more than £i at a London 

auction sale. 

"Adventures of Ulysses," by Charles Lamb, 1808. 

10,035 (Windsor).— Your book, if a first edition, Ixjund in 

old calf, is worth a considerable amount. We cannot tell from 
your description, however, as both the first and second editions 
of this work are dated iSoS. 

"Illustrated London News."— 10,217 (Osiersund).— 
Your volumes are worth about two shillings each. 

Coin5 and MedaZs.— Charles II. Crown, 1682. 

— 9,872 (Sittingbourne).— Unless your coin is in mint state, it 
has only face value. Patch boxes vary in value. Could you 
not send yours for our expert's inspection? 

Engravings and Etchings. — Removing 

damp stains from vellum.— 10,300 (SouthamptMi). — It 
the damp spots have not taken firm hold of the material, the 
part affected may first of all be touched with a slight wash of 
spirits of wine, and, when dry, with a weak solution of oxalic 
acid. You describe your etchings as being on vellum, but in 
all probability they are on " vellum paper," which is quite a 
difterent substance. In any case, however, you might try the 
remedy suggested, taking care 10 operate first of all on some 
fox mark in the margin. Benzine applied with a sponge will 
remove almost all marks from vellum, but should not be used 
in the case of vellum paper. 

"The Four Penitents," after Rubens, by V. Green, 
etc. — 9,898 Tottenham). — The two enyravings you describe 
are of verv small value. 

"The Times," by W. Hogarth.— 9,875 (Sherl)orne).— 
Your prints are of ver\" small value. 

"Swarming in the Bees "and "Returning from 
the Fair," after H. Dayes, by Hellyer.— 9,^69 (Temple, 
E.C.) — This is a well-known pair of colour prints, for which 
there is considerable demand. If yours ate good impressions, 
you should obtain about ;/^20 for them. 

"The Ten Virgins," by V. Green.— 9,967 (Hereford). 
— Your print is of very little value. 

Furniture. — Corner Cupboard.— 9,848 (Kochford). 
— The iiainting on your corner cupboard appears to be nearly 
obliterated, and in its present state the cupboard would not 
fetch a very big price. Send it to a good restorer. 

M/niafure5.— Painting on Copper. — 9,956 — 

Your miniature painting on copper is intcroiing, but there is 
no demand for this class of thing at the present lime. 

"The Countess of Fife," by R. Cosway, R.A., 
1797. — 9,960 (Worthing).- If your miniature is a genuine 
Cosway, it is worth a large sum ; but there are hundreds ol 
worthless copies about signed as yours. Cosway's miniature of 
M.adame du Barry realiscil ;^I,05o at Christie's in 1892, but 
few imiiottant examples have apiieared in the sale-room (or 
some time. 

"Oliver Cromwell," by Sir Peter Lely.— 9.9^2 
(Hampstead). — Your miniature has some historic interest. If 
you will send it as you suggest, we shall be glad to obtain our 
expert's opinion as to its value. 

ObjetS d'Art. — Empire Timepiece. —9.S25 

("T. L.," Westminster).— The lypc of clock you descrilw is 
almost unsaleable at the present time. Although the original 
cost must have been very great, it would probably not fetch 
more than ;^Io if offered at auction to-day. 

Glass Vases. —9,990 (Birmingham). — Your vases are 
probably 1 nglish glass, but they are not old enough to be 
vahialilr from a collector's ))oint of view. 

"Pictures. — J. D. De Heem.— 0,971 (Walmer).— A 
signed (jainling by this artist of a bowl of llowers, and fruit on 
a table, with birds and butlerHies, 44 in. by 35 in., realised 
;^357 at Christie's last season. Your picture, therefore, may 
l)c of very considerable value, and we should advise you to 
submit it for our expert's inspection. 

Portrait, signed " T. Lawrence." — 9-939 (Money 
Tracey). — The signature " T. Lawrence" on your picture 
doubtless refers to" .Sir Thomas Lawrence ; but in this case it 
would not have been painted early in the eighteenth century, as 
.Sir Thomas Lawrence was not born until 1769. Genuine 
portraits by this artist have realised remarkable prices during 
the past season. At Messrs. Robinson & Fisher's, £8,400 was 
paid for his famous work, CliildhooiTs /iiiiociiie— a. \iox\n\l oi 
the Countess of Jersey as a child — whilst at Christie's a portrait 
of Mrs. Bradburne sold for ;^2,572 los., and that of a young 
lady made ^1,890. If your picture were sent to our offices for 
insjieciion, we could give you an opinion. 

"Beggar Boys," by Murillo.— 9, 9.i4 ("arrogate).— If 
your picture is an original work of MuriUo, its value is, of 
course, very great ; but so many ordinary paintings of the 
Spanish school are nowadays attributed to the great master, 
that we could not attempt to advise you without seeing it. 

George Morland.— 9,915 (Weasie).— If your picture is 
a genuine Morland, the sum you mention seems a very low 
price to get for it, and it would pay you, we think, to forward 
the work for an expert opinion. 

Rembrandt.— 9,824 (Cat ford).— From the photograph you 
enclose your picture does not appear to us to be of much account. 
The name at the foot of frame would, no doubt, enable you 
to sell it for a few pounds if a private purchaser were found 
locally, but in a London auction-room we are afraid the picture 
would realise a very small sum, as the subject is very un- 

"Head of St. John the Baptist in a Charger."— 
9,957 (Sheffield). — The subject of your picture would render 
it very unsaleable, unless it is absolutely of the highest quality. 
Without inspection, of course, we cannot give a definite opinion. 
"Cupids," by Cipriani.— 9, 976 (Brighton).— No example 
of this artist appears to have lieen sold at auction recently. He 
did not execute many large paintings, though he left an infinite 
number of drawings. Your pictures .-tre certainly interesting, 
and, if in good condition, they should realise a good price. 
Could you not send them (or our expert's inspection ? 

Identification, etc., of Pictures. - 9,882 (Padiham).— 
The photograph- ol your j aintings are too indistinct to enable 
us to judge what they are. 

Picture by T. Luke, 1817.-9,814 (Preston).— The 
painter of your picture is not an artist of any reputation, and 
he does not appear to have contributed to any exhibitions of 
])ictures in London. Perhajis it is the work of a Scottish 
amateur of the jieriod, but in any case we do not suppose it 
is of any special value. 

" Duke of Wellington's Charger," by S. Spode, 
Copenhagen.— 0,063 (BlikcnlKa.l .- The v.nhieof your paint- 
ing of the Duke nf il'clliii^toifs Cfuiiger depends upon its 
artistic merits. We do not know the artist. Could you send 
the work for our expert to see ? 

Landscape.— 9, 93o(Whitefield).— To judge from the photo- 
graph you have sent us, we should say that your landscai>e is 
not a picture of any consecpicnce. 

Picture on Panel.— 9,985 (Darlington). — Your picture is 
certainly very interesting ; but it is impossible to identify the 
painter froiu a photograph. Could you send it for our expert's 
inspection ? We are afraid you will find it very difficult to 
discover who the portrait repiesents, as the type ol face is very 

Painting of a Woman.— 9,916 (Plymouth).- It would 
certainly 1k> more satisfactory to have your picture examined 
by an expert. An opinion Irom a photograph could only lie 
tentative, and might prove unreliable. 

Portrait of a Man. -9,871 (IIiinstanton).-From the 
photograph you send us, your portrait appears to lie a very fine 
picture, and we should certainly advise you to send it for our 
expert's inspection. The subject bears some resembl.ancc to 
("harles, the Young Pretender, and if it should prove to be a 
likeness of him, the value of the work would be greatly enhanced. 

"The Print Collector," by J. L. E. Meissonier.— 

9,Si2 (Hull).— This is a well-known picture in the Wallace 
Collection, of which yours is prob.ibly a copy. 

The Connoisseur 

Water-Colour Subject by Edward Corbould, i«5S. 

— 9,904 (Hrimuli). -It i> iiuiKissihlc lij lurni any idea uf wliat 
a piclurc will realise at auction wilhout seeing it. lidwarti 
Henry Corlwulil, K.I., exhil)iled 241 works at the New Walcr- 
Coloiir Society, and 17 al the Koyal Academy from 1835, and 
he also contributed to various other exhibitions during that time. 

Pottery and Porcelain, i-rench Vases. 

- 10,154 iChantry). — U is diliicult to give an opinion about 
your vases, as the photographs you have sent us are so indistinct. 
The incised mark atTords no clue to the maker, though, judging 
from the form, we should say they were of Paris make early last 
century. They are worth probably from £S lo jC^°- 

Alinton Cup and Saucer.— 9,952 (Ticehurst).— Your cup 
and saucer, stauipc! Minion, are not worth more than 5s. or 6s. 
A good many collectors now give place in their cabinets to the 
more ornamental pieces of Minton ; but it will be a long lime 
yet l)efore this make becomes really valuable. 

Dessert Dishes, marked " Amherst, Japan."- 9,123 

(Kingston-on-Thames). — Your two dessert dishes, marked 
"Amherst, Japan," are not Spode, but Minton. They are 
worth a few shillings each. 

Willow-Pattern Plates, etc.— 9,928 (Caversham). - 
Your willow-paltL-rn plates, m.^rked "J. T., Longton," may 
have l)een made by John Turner, of Longton. The other mark 
you give is doubtless that of a Staffordshire maker of last 
century, though we ate unable to trace it in our books of 
reference. The pieces are worth a few shillings each. 

Tea Services. — 9,832 (Edinburgh).— The absence of any 
marks upon either of your tea services makes it impossible for us 

to form any opinion as to values from your description. If you 
will forward a specimen saucer of each set, we can advise you. 

" Flaxman " Jugs.— 9,992 (Brackley).— Hot-water jugs 
do not fetch big prices. Your specimen would not have been 
in.ade by Klaxman, and the probability is that it is one of a 
certain pattern manufactured by one of the late Staffordshire 
lirms, to which the name ** Klaxman *' was given. H so, it 
is worth c>nly ;i Irw shillings. 

Crown Derby Jugs. — 9,866 (Hawick, N.B.). — Being 
imperfect, your jugs would not be of great value. 

ij'l/fer.— Paul Lamerie. — 9,827 (Ballywilliam).— 
Objects by this maker usually fetch good prices. Some chased 
table candlesticks, dated 1737, were sold at ^'3 17s. per oz. at 
Christie's last season. As stated in our letter, however, we 
cannot put a dehnite value on your candlesticks, etc., without 
seeing them. 

Cup by John (iangland, of Newcastle.— 9,938 (Hull). 
— Unmarked silver is usually regarded with suspicion by 
collectors, and it is difficult to sell, whilst its value, as a rule, 
is greatly dc|Heciated, as compared with proper hall-marked 
pieces of the same period. In view of the fact that the maker's 
initials on the cup you have l)een offered are T. L., the statement 
that it was made by John Gangland Iwfore 1778 should, in our 
opinion, \k accepted with reserve. If, however, the dealer is 
willing to give you a written guarantee, you are, of course, 

Plain Mugs, 1734.-9,886 (Harrow).— Without seeing 
your mugs, we should judge their value to be roughly about 
20s. an ounce. 


Conducted hv A. Meredyth Burke 

1,172 (London). — Sir John Bourne, Knt., Queen Mary's 
minister, had a grant from the Crown of the manor of Batten- 
hall, Worcester, in 1544, and was knighted 2nd October, 
1553, in which year he had been elected .\I.I'. for the city of 
Worcester. He married Dorothy, daughter of John Hornyohi, 
and died at his seat. Holt Cas'tle, 13th May, 1575, leaving 
issue: (l) Anthony, his son and heir, who married Elizabeth, 
daughter and heiress of Edward Home, of Sarsden, in Oxford- 
shire ; (2) Charles ; (3) Elizabeth, wife of Cleorge Winter, of 
Hoddington, Co. Worcester; (4) Margaret, who married William 
Clark ; (5) Parsyda ; and (6) Anne. Sir John is said to have 
left large estates in Worcestershire, which were eventually sold 
by his eldest son to the family of Lord Chancellor Bromley. 
.■\lthough he had a grant of Arms in 1553, no jiedigree of him, 
or of his descendants, appears in the Heralil's Visihitioiis, but 
the Viiilation of 1663 contains a pedigree of Bourne, of Acton 
Hall, in the parish of Ombersley, to which is ajjpended this 
note: "These Artns were granted to Sir John Bourne, of 
Battenhall, ao I. Mary, from whom it doth not appear this 
gentleman descends." A grant referred to in the State Pai>ers, 
however, |X)ints to a connection between Sir John Bourne and 
Onil)crsley. Philip Bourne, brother of the Secretary, father 
of Dr. Gillx.rt liourne. Bishop of Bath and Wells, who died 
loth Septemlier, 1569. 

1,179 (Nottingham). — .Anne Rutherford, who married Waller 
Scott, W.S., and was the mother of the author of Waverlcy, 
W.1S a daughter of John Rutherford, Professor of Chemistry 
in the UniVersily of Edinburgh (who was lx)rn in 1695, and 
died in 1779), by his first wife, Jean, daughter of Sir John 
Swinton, of Swinton, whom he married 12th April, 1731. 
John Rutherford was the son of the Rev. Jn!m Rutherford, 
minister of Yarrow, whose lather, John Rutherford, is supposed 
to have l>een descended from the llundalee family, but the 
connection does not appear to have l«en established. 

1,184 (Dublin).— The bookplate is evidently that of William 
Basil, of Wilton Park, Bucks., who inherile.l a large fortune 
from his kinsman, Martin Caulfeild Basil. The latter died 

in 1735, aged 84, having been treasurer to James II., and 
was the only son of William Basil (died 1694), Cromwellian 
Attorney-General of Ireland, by his wife Anne, daughter of 
Toby Caulfeild, 1st Lord Chnrlemont. The Attorney-General 
was younger son of Martin Basil, alderman of Colchester, and 
brother to Martin Basil, who died 1636. The last-mentioned 
Martin by his Will, which was proved 28lh May, 1636, made 
the following interesting bequest : " the fourth of Aprill 1635 
more I give my King of Spaines Bible to the library at 
Colchester as my guift there to be kept for ever." 

1,193 (London).— Not much is known of Augustine Briggs, 
father of William Briggs, the eminent physician, l)eyond the 
fact that he represented the city of Norwich in four parliaments, 
and that he is supposed to have been the son of Richard 
Briggs, head-master of Norwich School in 1598. Dr. William 
Briggs married Hannah only d.iughler and heir of I'Mmund 
Hobart, grandson of Sir Henry Hobart, Lord Chief Justice 
of the Common Pleas in the reign of James I., by whom 
he left three children, Henry, Mary, and Hannah. His 
son Henry became rector of Holt, Norfolk, and chaplain to 
George II. 

1,198 (London). — The Arms on the piece of plate are ap- 
parently intended for those of the family of Russell, of Hereford- 
shire and Little Malvern, Co. Worcester, whose coat was: 
Ay^eiil a chevron between three crosses crosslet fitchce sahk 
within a borduie eiiffrailed gules bezanlee. Crest : ./ demi lion 
rani/'aiit argent holding a cross crosslet fitchee sable. The .yrms 
impaled with the above might be either those of the families 
of larvis or Benson, but in the absence of any information as 
to the tinctures the impalement cannot be identified with 

1,205 (London).— Blanche Parry, Chief Gentlewoman of the 
Privy Chamber and Keeper of the Jewels to Queen Elizabeth, 
was a daughter of Henry Parry, of Newcourt, Co. Ilerefonl, 
and died unm.arried in 1590, aged 82. She was buried in 
St. Margaret's Church, Westminster. 


uv JAN vei{.mi;i:n op nEi-FX 


By permission of Messrs. Diiveen Brothers 


Part III. 

By Dr. G. C. Williamson 

In the last article I gave special attention 
to the most notable pictures of the Italian school, 
and it may be well before passing to the works of 
the Flemish, Dutch, and Spanish schools, in which 
the Hermitage is so particularly rich, to refer briefly 
to a few more Italian pictures which merit careful 
attention. Most visitors make some special effort to 
see the work called the Madonna Lit/a, attributed to 
Lionardo da \'inci. A great deal of controversy has 
ranged round this little picture ; it was discovered in 
1543, in Venice, in the Contarini (lallery, and in the 
eighteenth century belonged to the family of the 
Counts Litta, from which it derived its name. It 
was bought for the Hermitage in 1865, and at once 
attributed to Lionardo. Since then other artists 
have had the credit of this lovely work : it has been 
attributed to I.uini, Ambrogio da I'redi.s, liernardino 
De Conti, and Boltraffio, in turn. ICugene Miint/. was 
the first to draw attention to the fact that there is 
a beautiful study in profile of the Virgin's head in 
this picture in the Vallardi collection at the Louvre, 
and that it is on greenish paper of exactly the same 
character as that used by Lionardo himself for his 
study of the Virgin of the rocks. 

The same critic also discovered in the Windsor 
library a genuine pen drawing showing the Child at 
the Mother's breast, and his decision was that the 
picture so closely a[)proximates in sincerity to the 

Vol. XIX.— No. 76.— n 2 

work of the master himself, that there is souie possi- 
bility that the title given to it is correct. Since the 
time of Miintz it has been taken out of its frame and 
more closely examined, and it is now quite certain 
that it is a contemporary work, while the general 
opinion amongst art critics is that it was composed 
and commenced by Da N'inci himself, although in all 
probability completed by one of his pupils. The 
specially close examination which I had the oppor- 
tunity of giving to this picture leads me to accept 
this opinion without hesitation, for the composition 
most certainly belongs to Lionardo, and I should 
attribute verv much ot the work to the same hand, 
but there are portions of it that are quite as evidently 
not from his brush, and those I am disposed to 
give to Boltraffio. I'he Portrait of a IVoiiian, from 
the Walpole Gallery, which also bears the name of 
Lionardo, cannot be accepted as a genuine work. 
It was clearly executed by one of his pupils, after 
a design by the master, which still exists in black 
chalk in the collection at Chantilly. 

By Luini, who owed so much during jiart of his 
career to the influence of Lionardo, there is a very 
lovely picture of St. Catherine between tsvo angels. 
It is very similar to a representation of the same 
scene belonging to Dr. Ludwig Mond, and to be 
seen in his collection at Regent's Park ; but the 
two pictures are not copies of one another, as they 

The Connoisseur 

differ in several details, and both are undoubtedly 
genuine works. The one in Russia originally be- 
longed to the Due de Medina, and was afterwards 
at Malmaison in the possession of the Empress 
Josephine, in whose time it was attributed to Lion- 
ardo da Vinci. A study of the head of the Saint 
]iainted in oils is in the Ambrosiana in Milan. 
In the picture the Saint is wreathed with jasmine, 
h o 1 d i n g a book 
in her hand, and 
gazing down 
upon it; on either 
side of her are 
the angels, one 
of whom bears a 
palm, and the 
other the wheel. 
Another i m - 
portant painting 
given to the same 
master represents 
St. Sebastian. It 
is a most puzzling 
work, as in so 
many ways it dif- 
fers from other 
pictures by the 
same artist, and 
yet upon careful 
consideration 1 
cannot suggest 
that the attribu- 
tion is wrong, 
partly because 
several of its clia- 
racteristics are 
distinctly those 
oi Luini, and 
partly because 
it differs even 
more strongly 
from the works of any other master of the Milanese 
school whose name could be suggested in connection 
with it. 

It is believed that the artist, under the guise of 
St. Sebastian (patron of the town of Milan), has in 
this picture represented Maximilian Sforza, son of 
Ludovico Moro, Duke of Milan (1512 to 15 15), who 
died in Paris 1530. The picture originally belonged 
to M. Dubois, a dealer in Turin, who sold it to an 
Italian prince who died very soon after acquiring 
the work. When his collection was sold, his work 
went to Signor Bistoli, of Rome, and on his death 
it was sold to the Hermitage in i860 for 60,000 francs. 


An important article on this picture appeared in 
La Gazelle des lieanx Arts, vol. i.\., 1861, by 
M. Charles Blanc. 

There is a very striking picture, by Botticelli, 
at the Hermitage representing the Adoration of the 
Afai^i, which is probably the work the artist painted 
when in Rome, as in many respects it resembles 
his frescoes in the Sistine Chapel, both in colouring 

and in the atti- 
tude and distri- 
hut i on of the 
figures, while the 
landscape back- 
ground is clearly 
Rome, the trees 
being such as can 
be seen at the 
present day in 
tile outskirts of 
the City, and the 
ruined archway 
"hasits prototype 
in the Roman 
Campagna." It 
is a remarkable 
jjicture, albeit a 
little more hard 
in detail than was 
usually the case 
with the work of 
this master, and 
it has many af- 
finities to tlie far 
finer painting of 
the same subject 
in the Uffizi Gal- 
lery. Both are 
distinguished by 
that wonderful 
melody of line 
that even in the 
early days of Botticelli was so notable a feature 
of his works. This particular panel at one time 
bore the name of Mantegna, but all critics are now- 
agreed that it is undoubtedly the work of Sandro 

Perhaps one of the most delightful Italian pictures 
in the gallery is the charming figure of Judith now 
generally accepted as a fine example of the work of 
that mysterious painter Giorgione. There is a solemn 
stateliness and grandeur about this painting, which 
can hardly fail to impress the student. The picture 
has been bandied about by critics from name to 
name ; it has been given to Moretto, to Raphael, 

\rhoto. tian/statngl. 


Collection of Pictures in the Hermitage Palace 

to Titian, and to half-a do/.en other men, and certainly 
when it is studied by photographic representations 
alone, the problem of its origin is not an easy one 
to solve. In its presence, however, all doubts pass 
away, and I am inclined to think that no more 
tlioroughly genuine work by the master exists in 
any European Gallery, and that to no picture, save 
perhaps the Castelfranco Madonna, has so little 
been done by any other artist— the Hermitage picture 
revealing Giorgione's original colouring in all its 

was destroyed, the picture was carried to Rome by 
Cardinal Ludovisi, a member of the Calcina family, 
but afterwards went back by heritage to Bologna to 
the family of the Ercolani, and in 1843 was bought 
for the Hermitage. On either side of the Virgin 
are St. Laurence and St. Jerome, the former saint 
having reference to the name of the church, while 
the latter was the special patron of Ludovico, who 
commissioned the picture. At the foot of the throne 
are two exquisite child angels, playing vipon musical 



\Photo. Han/staengt 

wonderful subtlety and opalescence. The figure is 
exquisitely feminine, modest, and gentle ; the draw- 
ing of the drapery has all the curious qualities 
of roughly broken and crumpled folds, eminently 
representative of Giorgione, and the glow of colour 
is of very remarkable beauty. 

By Francia, the metal worker who became a 
painter, there is a s])lendid altar piece, dated 1500. 
It was commissioned by Ludovico de Calcina, Canon 
of the Church of San Fetronio, Bologna, and was 
erected in that church until the Calcina family 
chapel in the Church of San Lorenzo Delle Grotte, 
then rebuilding, had been completed ; and when 
this chapel was finished, the picture took its right 
place in it. When the Church of San Lorenzo 

instruments. The jiicture is characterised by the 
somewhat hard outline and curious absence of 
atmosphere, notable features in the early works of 
Francia, but special attention should be drawn to the 
exquisite gold work on the vestments of St. Laurence, 
the decoration on the throne of the Virgin, and all 
the smaller details on the two musical instruments 
wrought with the delicate manipulation that bespeaks 
the goldsmith-artist. 

The Hermitage Gallery is extraordinarily rich in 
works attributed to Titian, ten at least genuine, 
one or two of them being amongst his very finest 
portraits. The repentant Magdalene is perhaps 
the be>t known, a painting executed in 1561, and 
acquired from the Barbarigo family in 1850. It is 


The Connoisseur 

a signed work of the most glorious quality and rich 
colouring ; and perhaps the two finest portraits 
are those of Pope Paul III. and Cardinal Antonio 
Pallavicini, the latter having come from the Crozat 
collection, and at one time attributed to Vandyck, 
until closer investigation revealed the unmistakeable 
qualities of the Venetian master. A portrait which 
has some special 
interest to English- 
men is the one of 
Cardinal Pole, the 
work of Sebastiano 
del Piombo. This 
was the great 
cardinal who was 
Apostolic Legate to 
England, one of the 
three Presidents oi 
the Council of 
Trent, and the last 
Catholic Archbishop 
of Canterbury, and 
it was painted during 
the lifetime of Pope 
Paul III., who sent 
Cardinal Pole to 
England. Like 
many other works 
by Piombo, it has 
been attributed to 
Raphael, but in its 
present position in 
the Hermitage (Jal- 
lery, hanging as it 
does between the two 
Crucifi.xion pictures 
signed by the artist, 
there is every oppor- 
t unity for a full 
acceptance of the 
portrait as the work 
of Piombo, who was 
a pupil of Bellini, 
G i o r g i o n e and 
Michael Angelo, and 
whose colouring and 
composition, once 
recognised, are im- 
possible to mistake 
for those of any 
other painter. Many 
other Italian artists 
are well represented 
in this noble Gallery. 



There is a delightful picture by Era Bartolommeo, 
several by Canaletto, and perhaps The Feast of 
Cho/'atra, by Tiepolo, the last of the Venetians, 
may be taken to conclude the Italian series, as no 
grander example of the composition of this great 
ceiling [lainter can be found even in Venice or S|)ain, 
where so many of his finest works remain. 

When we come tu 
consider the Dutch 
and Flemish schools, 
we find ourselves in 
the presence of some 
of the greatest riches 
of the Russian col- 
lection. There are 
no less than thirty- 
three pictures attri- 
buted to Sir Anthony 
Vandyck, and al- 
though many of them 
cannot be accepted 
as entirely the work 
of the master, yet 
amongst this number 
there are several of 
extraordinary inter- 
est, and one at least 
of the highest pos- 
sible importance. 
The large canvases 
by Vandyck and 
Rubens have suffered 
by the heat of the 
Hermitage galleries 
more than most of 
the oil portraits, the 
greatest damage 
caused by this heat 
having, of course, 
h a p [) e n e d to the 
tempera pictures 
belonging to the 
Italian school, but 
several of the Van- 
dyck s have been 
injured almost as 
much. It is most 
unfortunate that the 
extreme cold of the 
climate, and the 
necessity for using 
these great picture 
galleries as State 

\Plwto. Hati/slatngl FOOmS ill whlcll tO 


Collection of Pictures in the Hermitage Palace 

hold concerts and balls, necessitate so high a tempera- 
ture being constantly kept up. Other pictures by 
Vandyck have suffered perhaps in even a more serious 
way, by restoration, but fortunately the two best 
pictures in the Gallery are in fairly good order. The 
portrait of Philip, Lord Wharton, represented as a 
shepherd, is one of the few Russian pictures fairly 
familiar to English critics, inasmuch as, by special 
permission of the Emperor, it was lent to the Royal 
Academy in 1900, where it created a great sensation, 
and was pronounced to be perhaps the most attractive 
portrait in the entire exhibition. 

It is not one of Vandyck's boldest or strongest 
works, but as an exquisite model of graceful con- 
ception and sensitive colouring, it is one of the 
noblest pictures he ever painted. The face of the 
young man in its fresh youthful beauty is without 
parallel. Another almost equally attractive picture 
is emphatically pronounced by the authorities of 
the Gallery to be a work of Vandyck, and to 
represent William II. of Orange as a boy. There 
seems to be, however, very little doubt that this 
picture was painted by Adriaen Hanneman, the 
great friend and admirer of Vandyck, and an artist 
who based his portraits upon the work of the great 
master. There is a good example of the work of 
this artist at Hampton Court, a signed and dated 
picture, representing William III. as a boy, and if 
the two could only be put side by side, it would 
probably become a matter of certainty that they were 
by the same hand, and represented the same person. 
Vandyck is, however, very well represented, even if 
we take this portrait away, and in the paintings of 
Charles I. and Hejirietta Maria, in the portraits of 
Sir Thomas Wharton, Sir Thomas Cha loner. The 
Earl of Danby, Rubens and his Wife, Snyders and 
his Family, and in various religious subjects, we 
have plenty of examples of the work of Sir Anthony, 
from which a good understanding of his special 
capabilities can be obtained. 

His master, Rubens, is perhaps even better re- 
presented, especially in religious subjects. Christ 
in the House of Simon the Pharisee is a magnificent 
composition, while Tfie Descent from the Cross, The 
Adoration of the Magi, and Abraham and Hagar 
can hardly be too highly praised for the grandeur 
of their conception and the magnificence of their 
colouring. There are also several fine examples of 
semi-historical pictures, such, for instance, as The 
Apotheosis of Henry IV., I'he Crowning of Marie 
de Medicis, The Victories of Cardinal Ferdinand, and 
The Marriage of Henry IV. with Marie of Medicis : 
but as fine examples of the work of Rubens at his 
best, attention should be directed to some portraits. 

Isabel/a Brant, the first wife of the artist, Helene 
Fuitrment, the second wife, .Susannah Fourment, her 
sister, with her little girl Catherine, and Philip IV., 
King of Spain. Inasmuch, however, as there are 
forty works by Rubens to be seen in the long gallery 
of the Flemish school, there is every opportunity for 
the careful study of this master of composition and 
colouring in all his magnificent breadth and gorgeously 
decorative effect. 

Snyders, who came so much under the influence 
of Vandyck, and who represents the department of 
still life in the Flemish school, becomes a little 
overpowering at the Hermitage, a dozen or more 
of his enormous canvases representing fruit and 
vegetables, birds, animals, fish, and flowers all hung 
side by side down the entire length of that enormous 
room, producing an effect of magnificence, it is true, 
but certainly of wearisomeness to the eye. There 
are no finer examples of Snyders anywhere to be 
found in Europe, and his decorative genius exerts 
itself very completely, but the whole effect is 
monotonous and bewildering, and where one or two 
of the finest pictures if hung by themselves might 
be highly appreciated, the effect of the entire series 
is lost, and the student is apt to give the artist a 
lower place in the hierarchy of art than he deserves, 
by reason of the overwhelming effect of this gallery 
full of his pictures. 

The earliest artists of the l-'lemish school, \'an 
Eyck and Rogier Van der Weyden, are well repre- 
sented in Russia, the exquisite little picture of The 
Annunciation being certainly by Jan Van Eyck, painted 
about 1436, while the picture of St. Luke painting 
the Portraits uf Our Lady and the Holy Child, now 
claimed for the great Tournay artist, was painted about 
1440, it is believed for a member of the De Clugny 
family. Another work at one time attributed to 
the same artist must now be given to Hugo \'an 
der Goes. 

Of the Dutch pictures, two portraits by Sir Antonio 
Mor have a peculiar interest to English students, as 
they represent Sir Thomas and Lady Gresham. Sir 
Thomas was, of course, the well-known merchant and 
financial agent who acted for Edward \T., Queen 
Mary and Elizabeth, and founded the Royal I'-xchange 
and Gresham College. He materially assisted the 
great Lord Burleigh by his advice relating to com- 
mercial agents abroad and by borrowing money for 
the .service of the State, and he entertained Queen 
Elizabeth at his mansion of Osterley, now the resi- 
dence of the Earl of Jersey. The portraits belonged 
to the Walpole collection, and are believed to have 
been painted in 1570, probably at .Antwerp, wiiere 
Sir Thomas Gresham frequently resided, and where 


The Connoisseur 

Sir Antonio Mor settled down after lie had left Spain 
somewhat in disgrace with I'hilip II., in order to 
sojourn for the rest of his Hfe in the Netherlands. 
The portrait in Russia is certainly one of the artist's 
noblest efiforts. 

By the great Rembrandt there is a most wonderful 
series of paintings, over forty in number, affording an 
opportunity for studying the works of that noble 
I)ainter unequalled by any other gallery in Europe. 
Among the religious scenes there are pictures repre- 
senting The Descent from the Cross, The Holy 
Family, The Iiiirediility of St. Thomas, The Parable 
of the Master of the Vineyard, The Reconciliation of 
David and Absalom, Abraham Rfceiving the Angels, 
The Sons of Jacob showing Joseph 's Coat to their 
Father, and The Disgrace of Haman, Hannah and 
Samuel, St. Peter's Denial, Joseph Accused by Poti- 
phar's Wife, and The Prodigal Son ; whilst amongst 
the portraits there are superb representations of 
Rembrandt's father and mother, and very many re- 
markable ones depicting anonymous persons, as, for 
example, an old Jew, an old woman, a girl with 
a broom, an old man, a young man, and a rabbi. 
Perhaps two of the finest portraits are those which 
represent Rembrandt's mother and John III., King 
of Poland; both of them magnificent works, grandly 

There are four pictures attributed to Frans Hals, 
but it is only safe to accept two of them as absolutely 
genuine works by this artist, inasmuch as the portrait 
commonly considered to be one of the artist by 
himself, was probably painted by Frans Hals the 
younger. It is from the evidence of style to be 
given to a period between 1650 and 1660, when 
Hals was between seventy and eighty years old, 
whereas the man in the portrait is between thirty 
and forty. The portrait of a young man may, 
however, be safely accepted ; it is a signed work, 
and was probably executed in about 1635 : but the 
grandest representation of the work of this remark- 
able painter is a portrait of a sailor or an admiral, 
which belongs to about the same period, and repre- 
sents a middle-aged man with long brown hair, in a 
broad-brimmed hat, white collar, the cuirass of an 
ofificer, with a yellow jerkin, and wearing a large silk 
scarf instead of a girdle. It is painted in the 
brilliant, sweeping style characteristic of this great 
artist at his best. 

Of that group of Flemish portrait painters generally 
known as the lesser figure painters of Holland, there 
are several excellent examples : Dou is splendidly 
represented by a portrait of a violinist, a replica of 
the picture at Dresden, with the same signature and 
date, and equally genuine as that portrait. The 

violin player is often considered to represent Dou 
himself ; but this is not the case. There are fourteen 
other works by Dou, several of which are of the very 
highest excellence : The Rabbi, The Doctor, The Old 
Woman Reading, The Woman Selling Herrings, 'I he 
Girl Bathing, and The Woman Winding Yarn, all 
of them signed works, exquisite in rich colour, and 
remarkable for the delicate treatment of detail in 
which this painter delighted. By Pieter de Hooch 
there are three pictures, two of which are first class 
examples of this great Dutchman. A picture of a 
l.ady in her Kitchen examining a fish is perhaps the 
finer of the two, and was bought in 1808 from a 
dealer in Paris named La Fontaine, who had acquired 
it from the Mont de Piete, where it had been pledged 
for 1,000 francs. The effect of light, in which De 
Hooch so rejoiced, is very remarkable in this picture ; 
the scene takes place in the open air, and the light 
floods the serious colouring of the courtyard with 
very fine effect. The other important picture is 
called The Concert, and represents a lady in white 
satin playing the lute, while near by her is a young 
cavalier singing to her accompaniment. Here again 
both window and door are open, and a l)urst of 
sunlight kindles the somewhat cold colouring with 
brilliant and vivacious effect. 

This picture did not come into the gallery by 
purchase, but was a gift to the Emperor of Russia 
by some unknown benefactor, who desired that his 
much cherished picture should find a resting-place 
in the great Russian Gallery, and should hang near 
to the picture of the Lady in her Kitchen, which he 
had for years past so much admired. Nothing what- 
ever is known of the history of this picture, nor can 
the name of any persons through whose possession 
it has passed be identified. It resembles examples 
by the same artist in the Galleries of Sweden and 
Denmark, but the unknown benefactor is believed 
to have been an Englishman, and to have acquired 
this picture direct from some descendants of the 
artist's, and he is said to have persistently refused 
to allow it to be seen or exhibited until one fine 
day he left it wrapped up in paper at the Hermitage 
Gallery, accompanied by an unsigned request for 
its acceptance, and from that moment he has never 
been traced. It is from his handwriting, and from the 
manner in which he expressed himself in Russian, 
that he is believed to have been an Englishman ; but 
this is only surmise, and no one had even known of 
the existence of the picture until it was sprung upon 
the critics of Europe by its exhibition at the gallery 
of the Hermitage., the pupil of Dou, is also well represented 
in the gallery ; there are five signed pictures, all of 




[Photo. I/aiifslaeiigt 

The Connoisseur 



[Photo. Han/stacngi 

them of the finest quality, representing The Clever 
Child, The Illness, The Concert, The Breakfast, and 
The Dressmaker, all delightful little works, very rich 
in colouring, and finished with great elaboration and 
skill. The best picture by Mierevelt is the portrait 
of a little girl about five years old, wearing a red 
bonnet bordered with lace, a white dress with lace cuffs, 
and having upon her several rich chains of gold. 
She carries on the finger of her left hand a green 
parroquet, and the portrait is believed to represent 

one of the Princesses of the House of Orange, 
probably one of the daughters of Prince Frederick 
Henry. By Teniers, the younger, there is a very 
long series of his usual festival Dutch scenes— village 
fetes, village dances, scenes outside a village inn, 
village musicians, smokers, drinkers, players, lovers, 
and so on. No fewer than forty pictures are attributed 
to this artist, and the bulk of them are genuine works, 
painted with all that rich colouring and wonderful 
sense of atmosphere that mark the somewhat trivial 

Collection of Picfiires iu the Hermitage Palace 


representations of Dutch life which appealed to him. 
Tcrborch is also well represented by four important, 
and some other less important, works, but the Dutch- 
man who appears to have most captivated the founders 
of the Hermitage Gallery is the lands(api>t \\'ouHer- 
nian. There is a room entirely full of his pictures, 
over fifty in number, the eternal White Horse appear- 
ing in almost all of them, and the effect of so 

many landscapes by one artist is rather to cause 
the observer to undervalue the wonderful technique, 
admirable composition and extraordinarily brilliant 
colouring of the artist, and to become wearied in 
the contemplation of what are, after all, somewhat 
monotonous productions. 

In this somewhat rapid survey of the Dutch 
painters, Paul Potter must not be overlooked, his 




[Pho/o. Hanfilaen^l 


i'iii.'io. l-j;in:^i.vnei. 


By FRANS HALS (Hermitage Collection). 

Collection of Pictures in the Hermitage Palace 

great Wolf Hound \i^mg a far finer piece of painting 
than the overpraised Bull at The Hague. It is 
associated with half-a-dozen other works by the same 
man ; and then, finally, attention should be directed 
to the splendid series of landscapes by Ruisdael, 
some of them, especially the Waterfall in Nonvay, 
of incomparable beauty. The roaring, raging water 
is painted most wonderfully, and comes tearing down 
the torrent and scattering the spray in all directions 
upon the foliage close at hand, while the forest, with 
its dim, dark greens and exquisitely sensitive shades 
of brown, affords just such a fitting background as 
the foaming creamy water requires. To those who 
revel in the superb technique of Ruisdael, and 
appreciate his masterly representations of nature, the 
gallery at St. Petersburg offers a very rare treat. 

In the French school space will not do more than 
allow us to refer to some exquisite works by Claude, 
one of which appears to be a companion picture to 
the landscape in the Bridgwater House collection. 
Several charming works by Watteau, especially The 
Mandoline Player, The Savoyard, and The Minuet, 
must not be overlooked. Their equals in graceful 
work can only be found in the pictures at Hertford 
House presented to this country by Lady Wallace. 
By his pupils, Lancret and I'ater, there are good 
examples, notably Spring and The Concert, both so 
closely allied with the work of Watteau that at one 
time they were given to that artist. We ought to 
have referred to the four special great pictures by 
Claude, which were chief among the treasures at 
Malmaison, and represent Morning, Mid-day, Even- 
ing, and Night. Perhaps the great imaginative French 
artist never produced any works more exquisite in 
quality than these four paintings done in Rome in 
1666, and highly trea.sured by the Empress Josephine. 
The earliest French master, Jean Clouet, is repre- 
sented by a portrait of the Due d' Alenc^on, and 
there are examples of the later men — Poussin, Vernet, 
Boucher, Greuze, and Chardin. 

\\'<i have now only a short space left in which to 
speak of the Spanish pictures. Of the works of 
Velazquez, that which attracts the greatest attention 
is the masterly study of Pope Innocent X., made 
by the artist in view of the life-size portrait painted 
in 1649, and preserved at the Doria Palace in 
Rome. This was one of the greatest treasures of 
the Walpole collection, and is a magnificent work. 
It is almost worth the whole journey to Russia to 

inspect this wonderful study, and to realise, as one 
does from it, far better than from the finished picture, 
the extraordinarily bold technique of the great 
Spaniard. There are two portraits of the Count 
Olivares, and two of Philip W ., one a full length, 
and the other a bust portrait ; and there is one 
remarkable early work of the fiodegone type repre- 
senting a breakfast, which should be compared with 
some similar works belonging to the Duke of 
Wellington and Sir Frederick Cook. 

By his great rival, Murillo, there are twenty-two 
paintings, perhaps the most beautiful being The 
Vision of St. Anthony of Padua, in which the Infant 
Christ is represented descending from Heaven upon 
the rock in front of the kneeling saint. There are 
two pictures of The Adoration of the Shepherds, a 
superb painting of Isaac Blessing Jacob, a wonderful 
luminous An?iunciaiion, an impressive Crucifixion, 
and two or three superb portraits, showing this deeply 
religious, but over sentimental, artist at his best. 

By Zurbaran, most Spanish of all the Spaniards, 
there is a fine representation of St. Laurence, painted 
in 1636, and bearing the bold and remarkable signa- 
ture of the artist, which attracts the attention of a 
visitor as soon as he enters the Gallery. The Saint 
is wearing richly decorated sacerdotal garments, and 
is in an ecstasy of fervour. No better example can 
be desired to exhibit the religious artists of Spain, 
with their stately dignity and overpowering emotion. 

There are half-a dozen by Ribera full of rich, 
gorgeous colouring. Pareja, who was Velazquez's 
servant, and whose work is so rare even in Spain, 
is represented by a fine exarirple of a Capuchin, and 
there is an extraordinary portrait by the Cretan who 
became more Spanish than the Spaniards themselves, 
and whose nickname was El Greco, representing the 
poet Alonzo— a fine example of the best productions 
of this sombre and extraordinary artist. 

It has only been possible in these articles to glance 
at a few of the notable works in the gallery : but there 
is hardly any collection in Europe offering more 
entertaining problems to the art student than the 
Hermitage, and it is most unfortunate that so few 
persons take the trouble to visit a gallery not really 
so inaccessible as people are apt to think, for the 
contents of it are well worth the long and somewhat 
tiring journey, and will well repay the lover of 
pictures who desires a very rich treat, and the sight of 
a gallery containing a splendid series of masterpieces. 


Mr. William Ward's Collection of Resist Silver Lustre at 
The Kennels, Mellor, near BlacKburn By H. C. Lawlor 

The name of Mr. William Ward, now the 
possessor of probaljly the finest collection of Resist 
Silver Lustre in the world, has until comparatively 
recently been better known as that of a good all- 
round sportsman than as a collector of articles of 

To one visiting his residence at Mellor, there is 
ample evidence that the excellent taste and judgment 
with which he is naturally endowed, and for whicli 
he is so well known in sporting circles, has also 
extended to the compilation of his magnificent col- 
lection of Resist Silver Lustre ware. Cabinet after 
cabinet, lining the walls of several rooms, is filled 

with all that the heart of a collector of tliis ware 
could desire. 

With every specimen in practically mint condition, 
it was somewhat difficult to make a selection for these 
illustrations. To overcrowd the groups would have 
been a mistake, necessitating the individual pieces 
being shown in too small a scale, while the avoidance 
of this compelled the omission of many specimens 
quite as interesting as those included. 

In Nos. i. and ii. are displayed some e.\quisitc 
e.xamples of the vine pattern. In the collection are 
several full sets of cups and saucers, part of which 
only are shown in these groups : those in No. i. 

No. I. 

No. II. 

No. III. 

No. IV. 


Ihe Connoisseur 

and those in bottom row in No. ii. are of most 
brilliant and clear lustre, and of almost eggshell 
lightness. The inscribed plates with the vine borders 
are evidently part of a set made to commemorate a 
wedding, probably as a wedding present. Many of 
the pieces in these two groups are the productions 
of the old V'orkshire potteries, though it would be 
dangerous to ascribe them too dogmatically either 
to Leeds, Doncaster, or Castleford. Others are of 
Staffordshire origin, two pieces being of peculiar 
interest, namely, the plate in bottom row in No. ii., 
which is marked " Warburton," impressed, and 

resist, the masonic jug in No. vi. being perhaps the 
most notable. 

In No. viii. is shown one of the most remarkable 
pieces in the whole collection — a three-gallon jug, 
fifteen inches high, in absolutely mint state, and 
bearing the incised cross used by the old Leeds 
pottery. It is a curious fact that of the many 
hundreds of specimens in this collection undoubtedly 
Leeds ware, this is the only specimen bearing the 
mark of the Leeds pottery. 

No. ix. shows a group of drinking vessels, mugs, 
goblets, and tankards of various patterns. Of these 

No. V. 

the dainty little teapot in No. i., marked " W.," 

Another favourite decoration in resist ware is the 
exotic bird design exemplified in Nos. iii. and iv. 
On the jugs in the top row. No. iii., the birds are 
painted in vivid colours over transfers on white 
ground in circular panels, round which are worked 
elaborate resist floral designs in white and silver. 
These jugs are exceedingly rare. The bottom row 
displays the more frequently met with bird design in 
plain white and silver, while in some pieces in No. iv. 
the pattern is shaded with colouring. 

Animals as a subject of decoration are rarely met 
with, but this collection includes a number of in- 
teresting examples, some of which are shown in 
No. v., the lion jug (gallon), standing nine inches 
high, in plain resist, being the most striking. Others 
show hunting or farmyard scenes, and some have the 
pictures enriched by colouring. 

Nos. vi. and vii. display various other designs in 

the large mug with Japanese decoration is of par- 
ticular interest, being most uncommon, while the 
large communion chalice is also a very rare piece. 

A few very handsome vases are shewn in No. x. 
The centre urn, standing fourteen inches high, and 
the vases on either side of it, are of a most unusual 
pattern, very striking, and probably unique. The 
three small vases with panels of very finely painted 
little pictures of a mother amusing a child, are most 
probably Derby, as is also a very quaint inkstand not 
shewn in the illustration. 

Mr. Ward has been most fortunate in securing a 
number of very fine specimens of jugs with names or 
mottoes and dates, worked in the resist pattern. 
Some of these appear in No. xi. .These are doubly 
interesting, not only on account of their individual 
beauty and rarity, but from the fact that most of the 
dates on the resist jugs, and the subjects of coloured 
transfer pictures where these are found combined 
with resist decoration, unite to assist us in arriving at 



Tltc Cointoisseiir 

.rff?*" ' ' 









No. Vlll. 

the exact date when resist ware was first made. Of 
actually dated pieces, the earliest in this collection is 
the fourth on top row in No. xi., 1S12. Several are 
dated 18 13, one 18 14. Of pieces where transfer 
pictures of topical or historical events are combined 
with resist pattern, the majority refer to the same 
period. For example, in Xo. xii., five jugs have 
pictures relating to the wars of 1812 to 1814, one 
being an example of the now much-prized jug shewing 
" Boney escaping through a window." One jug in 
No. xii. bears the inscription " Richard Bacchus, 
1810," but this jug, though decorated with silver 
lustre, is not resist pattern. Another jug, tliat to the 
extreme right in No. xi., bottom row, bears dates 
28th July, 1804, and 29th July, 1806, as the birthdays 

of Thomas and Samuel Japson, but these dates 
evidently do not indicate the period when the jug 
was made. 

All the resist pattern illustrated, with the exception 
of No. xiii., is on white or ivory ground — i)robably 
ninety-nine per cent, of the specimens coming into 
the hands of collectors are ; a few specimens turn 
up on canary ground. Rarer still are those dis- 
playing silver resist on a turquoise blue ground, 
while rarest of all is silver resist on pink or apricot. 
No. xiii. shews fourteen pieces on canary, three on 
blue, and only one on pink ground. 

It is perfectly safe to say that Mr. Ward is the 
happy possessor of by far the finest collection of 
this ware in the world. He has for many years 

.'..>' . ftp -^-^ ^-'^■- ^^ 

No. IX. 

Res is f Silver Lustre 

No. X. 

availed himself of every possible opportunity of 
securing rare and beautiful specimens as they came 
upon the market. To secure a few particularly fine 
specimens he has several times bought out whole 
collections, from time to time weeding out the more 
or less inferior pieces thus accumulated. It would 
be equally safe to say that no amount of money 
could now bring together another collection even 
remotely approaching in merit that of Mr. Ward. 
This fact, however, need not in any way discourage 
other collectors, who, if they cannot hope to gather 
together a collection as good as this one, may still 
occasionally pick up an odd specimen of great beauty 

and rarity. The very scarcity of such pieces but adds 
to the delight of the collector fortunate enough to 
secure them. It may be of interest to collectors to 
note that while few good pieces of resist ware are now 
to be found in dealer's shops in this country at any- 
thing like a reasonable price, quite a number may 
still be picked up on the continent, where it does not 
seem to be appreciated to the same extent as at home. 
Those who have tried to photograph silver lustre 
ware, and understand the difficulties of overcoming 
the effects of reflection and cross lights, will appreciate 
the illustrations in this article. They are from photo- 
graphs by Mr. B. \\'ard Thompson, of Wilpshire, 

No. XI. 


The Connoisseur 

No. XII. 

Blackburn, an amateur whose exhibit at the Royal 
Photographic Society's exhibition in the New Gallery 
in Regent Street some time ago included several 
groups of silver lustre from Mr. Ward's collection, 
which were much admired and thoroughly appreciated 

by those who have tried this peculiar branch of 
photographic art. The groups for the photographs 
were selected only from Mr. Ward's collection at 
Mellor. He has an almost ecjual collection at his 
London residence. 

No. XIII. 


rSulianl hn,' 


tJ-iT/fiZ' nr \//i4iC /7/yiM^ /ti/^f /<^ /n^ fi^rr/.t 


Part II. 

The Connoisseur 

By J. Hartley BecKles 

(With Illustrations of the Chief Examples to be met with in the Kingdom) 

Allusions to andirons are often met with 
in seventeenth-century books, plays, and pamphlets. 
One of the most curious I have seen occurs in a tract 
entitled " A Threefold Discourse between Three 
Neighbours" (London, 1642). "How," it says, 
" our Bishops are like andirons of State, standing in 
a chimney but for show ; but if a heavy block or red 
billets are brought to the fire there are poor little 
creepers or cobirons underneath that must bear all the 
weight. And there you resemble to the inferior clergy." 

In a play of the Restoration period, " The Maid's 
Lament," one of the characters exclaims : " Your 
Houses of Lords and Commons ! Why they stand 
there still like a pair of fire-dogs, while all the sub- 
stance above them which they support is burning — 
burning. And what would you have them do, sirrah. 
Were they not made for that ? " 

" Do you see yonder fire-dogs?" cries ^L^rtin Merry- 
man in another play. "They have in their time borne 
a whole forest on their backs, oak and beech and 
pine and cedar, and yet they are none the worse for 
it, as ye may see, sir, by their faces. And they have 
seen and smelt, aye, and suffered ten thousand of the 
squire's fires, which an' they were rolled into one 
would make a conflagration far bigger than that 
which burnt St. Paul, his church, and turned a 
thousand families out of doors." 

We find numerous instances of andirons being left 
by will during the seventeenth century, which may 
be regarded as 
the century /ar 
excellence for 
costly, curious, 
and elaborate 
fire-dogs. Al- 
though the 
manufacture of 
bronze e .\ - 
amples does 
not seem to 
have been car- 
ried on in Eng- 
land, yet bronze 
tire -dogs were 
brought to 

A very fine 
pair of bronze 
dogs may be 


seen at South Kensington. At the summit of one is 
a statue of Jupiter, and of the other is Venus, with the 
following inscription: "Josepha di Levi in \'crona 
me fece." They are of si.xteenth-century Italian work- 
manship, and were acquired by the authorities for 
_;^75 10s., although I am informed that a well-known 
collector, who was too late to bid at the sale, would 
gladly have acquired them for ;i^2oo. 

Another pair in bronze is of even more e.vquisite 
design and finish. The base is of masks and strap- 
work, above which are cupids supporting a vase 
surrounded by a statuette of a cupid. These, like- 
wise, are Italian, about 1760, and were until lately in 
the Soulages Collection. 

Most of the finest came from Italy, and were often 
of the most sumptuous workmanship, as may be seen 
by the photographs of two or three which accompany 
this article. But there is a Cerman pair — an Adam 
and Eve supported by mermaids and tritons — which 
earned the high commendation of Mr. Alfred Gil- 
bert, R.A., who pronounced it " a masterpiece.'" 

Indeed, the Florentine and Flemish sculptors put 
as much labour and skill into the composition of one 
of these bronze tire-dogs as would have sufficed for a 
far more pretentious work — a staircase, a fountain, or 
a statue. The growing refinement of the age, the 
home-keeping habit as compared with the perpetual 
life out-of-doors, warring, hunting, and hawking, made 
the decoration of the hearth of greater consequence 

than formerly. 
The family, 
guests, and de- 
pendants of 
the nobles sat 
around the 
cheerful blaze, 
and, listening 
to music and 
doubtless cen- 
tred much of 
their attention 
u[)on the eciuip- 
m e n t of the 
fireplace. In 
such case the 
tribute of ad- 
miration could 
not have been 
withheld from 


The Connoisseur 



these ornate pieces of metal work, of which it is to 
be regretted that so few have survived to our own 
era of grates, stoves, and gas, steam, and electric 
heating. There are two noteworthy pairs of bronze 
andirons in the National Collection at South Ken- 
sington. In the Soulages Collection is a bronze pair 
of Italian alare of Queen Elizabeth's time. 

One Johann MuUer set up in Dresden a manu- 
facture of andirons exclusively, issuing the following 
notice or pros[)ectus to the nobility, gentry, and 
burghers: — "I, Johann MuUer, observing the rude 
and simple designs in fire-dogs wrought by the Dres- 
den workmen, and perceiving how much more delight 


a man hath, especially in winter, in contemplating 
the beauty of his hearth and its accessories than of 
other parts of his house which it hath been the 
custom more to adorn than was necessary, will here- 
after strive to rectify this, and by an originality of 
design and careful workmanship, strive to excel the 
best productions of the Italian and Flemish workmen 
in bronze and iron and brass." 

Although, even in the best country mansions, silver, 





ITALIAN i6tH century BRONZE 


bronze, brass, and enamel fire-dogs 
were rarities in England, yet, as we 
may see, a great deal of care and 
ingenuity were expended upon the 
iron variety during the fifteenth, six- 
teenth, and seventeenth centuries. 
They particularly flourished in the 
South of England, and the Sussex 
foundries turned out many quaint 
and, to-day, greatly prized specimens. 
There are several at Lewes Castle, 
Chichester, and Horsham. A notable 
pair may still be seen at the Sergisom 
Arms Inn, Haywards Heath. Other 
specimens which I have come across 
are at Penshurst, Hever Castle, 
Northiam, Burwash, Smardon in 
Kent. A fine one at Chichester 
bears the date 1630 and the initials 
" H. I. K." At Leeds Castle is one 
dating back nearly a century before, 
and 1 am told that at Lamberhurst 
Vicarage is a pair bearing 
the Ashburnham arms and 
the date 1591, and another 
of about the same date at 
Warbleton Priory. Nor 
must we omit to mention 
the pair still, I believe, at 
the Crystal Palace. 

Inscriptions are common 
on old furniture, plate, and 
china, but so far 1 have met with no 
remarks on the legends, sometimes 
of considerable length, found on old 
lire-dogs. It is suggested that these 
niav (have been engraved on the 
plaque or scroll by some later pos- 
sessor, whose protracted meditations 
before the fireplace took this form ; 

Here I sitte within the hearth 

With my husliand (wife) to share my mirth 

Heap llie logs onn good mortals all 

To warm the folks in master's hall 

Heap them onn and do not sjiare 

l-'ull many a billet we can bear 

We wish you warmth and right good cheer 

Good inortals all for many a yeare. 

Another, formerly at Leasowes, in 
Cheshire, bore an inscription on a 

brass plate, thus : 

Of fire and flame, good sir and dame, 

We are the Servants ready 

Come toast your toes and drown 

your woes 
In jugs of warm ale sturdy. 






The Connoisseur 



these quaint 
most of 
which, albeit, 
are of a much 
briefer cha- 
racter than 
those we 
have quoted, 
there is at 
least one set 
of verses 
e X t a n t, b y 
William Dale, 
of Guildford, 
supposed to 
set forth the 
sentiments of 
an old and- 
iron, rescued 

from a mansion destroyed in a conflagration, July, 


Vc who behold me here into tliis dark corner flung 
Haply care naught for all my flowing past 
When, with my fellow, both the old and young 
The first lord of the manor and the last 
Clustered before me as before holy clerke 
Whilst I expounde<l from a wondrous text 
Shewing them hell and heaven in light and dark 
The splendours of this world and of the next 
The leaping fires. Two centuries we stood 
And watched them build their fortunes . . . 

And in this strain the articulate andiron continues 
for nearly two hundred lines. 
The theme, at any rate, 
is not unworthy of Cowper, 
who might well have in- 
cluded it in his " The Task," 
when he can find inspiration 
in such objects as a sofa and a 

Truly there is a peculiar fas- 
cination about these "sturdy 
mementos of bj'gone days " 
which is not possessed by 
other classes of metal work, 
however intricate the design 
or superior in intrinsic worth ; 
for they seem to conjure up 

as they now 
stand, grim 
and cold in 
hearth or in 
ni u s e u m 
cabinet, the 
ghosts of an- 
cient scenes 
of fireside 
revelry, of 
giant logs 
leaping with 
lurid flame, 
of happy 
faces, of lusty 
choruses, of 
the wine and 
wassail which 
we cannot 
well associ- 
ate with our 



Straitened hearths and flimsy fire-irons of to-day. 

Good examples of fire-dogs have considerable value 
to collectors, a value which is growing greater with the 
increased interest in metal work. Since the South 
Kensington authorities were induced to add a collec- 
tion of ironwork to their manifold treasures, one has 
now by no means an ill criterion whereby to judge 
such specimens as occasionally come into the auction 
room and are met with in various places and at dealers. 
Ladv Dorothy Xevill possesses several interesting iron 
examples having the spit adjustment (this variety was 
called cob-irons). A large collection was exhibited 
some years ago, the property 
of Messrs. Feltham. There are 
many copies of old fire-dogs 
now made, as well as some 
really beautiful designs in the 
spirit of the old, for which the 
rare craftsmanship of that 
" man of iron," Mr. Starkie 
Gardner, is responsible. Even 
in the modern small iron and 
brass andirons for the grate 
one notices, in the pattern and 
workmanship, how much the 
revived interest has influenced 
the Birmingham and Sheffield 
contemporary manufacture. 


Heraldry and Autographs The Stammbuch, or Album 

Amicorum By Martin Hardie 

The collector at times finds in his hands 
a small, dumpy volume, neatly and strongly bound in 
leather or morocco, containing coloured coats of arms, 
with inscriptions in Latin or (Jerman script of the 
sixteenth or seventeenth centuries, often hard to 
decipher, and, when deciphered, often hard to under- 
stand. The ordinary connoisseur is not as a rule 
inclined to devote overmuch time to the intricacies 
of the heraldic science. Art is long, he will say, and 

life too short for this " silly science of silly old men," 
and he will lay aside the book after a casual glance. 
Vet the volume to which we refer, the Stammbuch, oi 
Album Amicorum, to give it its various names, is of 
considerable sociological as well as antiquarian and 
artistic interest, and our purpose now is to show 
something of its origin, its history, and its nature. 

The Stammbuch has its origin at the beginning of 
the sixteenth century, at earliest at the end of the 

a> J 


mi^r. ntj-im cctlltmUs rfsc bbesifa 


, ^/(;,<fc'«^.''c»if. 

/j^) fi 



The Co/nioisseitr 

fifteenth. li hcloiiL;s to the 
borderland of old romance, 
to the days when ladies rode 
with hawk on wrist, when 
minnesingers gathered in 
princely courts, when tourney 
and joust, with the sweet 
influence rained from ladies' 
eyes, drew together all that 
was knightly and noble in 
the land. At the tourna- 
ment it was only those who 
could prove their knightly 
origin who could [iresume 
to enter the lists. As the 
knight arrived with his 
esquires he was met by 
marshals, heralds, and pur- 
suivants -at -arms, to whom 
he must prove his noble de- 
scent. At a large gathering 
of knights and sijuires it was 
e.s.sential that these ex[)lana- 
tions should be made with 
all possible speed, especially 
in the case of a combatant 
who arrived late in the field. 
Naturally, then, it became the 
custom to possess a tourney book (Tiirnierhuck) con- 
taining a copy of the family tree, its letters of nobility, 
and pictured coats of arms. 

But by the end of the fifteenth century the great 
days of tourney and joust were ending. The sweet 
reasonableness of the Renaissance was penetrating 
social and political life, and the spirit of the 
was beginning 
to shed its 
influence over 
religion. The 
love of the fray 
was yielding to 
the love of 
learning and 

By the six- 
teenth century 
the "gentle 
science " of 
heraldry had 
taken strong 
root. With its 
laws and lan- 
guage every 

I '.<■•,'"/ "'./'/in 

I,-.' i U' ^i;*" !«■'••» 


man who el aimed to be 
"gentle" was expected to 
l)e familiar; to be ignorant 
of them was to confess him- 
self a " churl." In England 
the Liher Armorum of Dame 
Juliana Berners (St. Albans, 
i486), wherein "is deter- 
myned lynage of Coote 
armiris," and " folowyth the 
Blasyng of all maner armys 
in latyn, french and Eng- 
lish " ; or Sir John Feme's 
Blazon of Gentrie (London, 
1586) : Reuxner's Thiiriiier 
Buck (]''ranckfurt-am-Mayn, 
1566) and Jost Amman's 
Il'a/^t'ri mid Stambnch 
( I'ranckfurt-ani-Mayn, 1589) 
in (Icrmany ; Le Blazon des 
Artnoires (Lyons, 1581) in 
]•' ranee — all bear evidence to 
the widespread interest taken 
in the heraldic science by 
knight and dame of the six- 
teenth (XMitury. By the end 
of the century also a splendid 
tradition of heraldic design 
had descended from Diirer and the Little Masters. 
Under all these influences, then, the Turnierbuch 
developed into the more peaceful Stammbuch, a sort 
of heraldic autograph album, wherein a man persuaded 
his comrades, at friendly joust, or banquet, or singing 
match, to inscribe their names and arms. 

It may be asked whence the facilities came for 

painting these 

coats of arms, 
many of them 
beautiful pieces 
of illumination. 
But it must be 
1' iiiembered 
:tKit there was 
no royal festi- 
val, banquet, 
coronation, or 
noble m a r - 
riage at which 
a painter, 
especially a 
painter of her- 
a 1 d i c orna- 
ment, was not 
present. During 




Heraldry a)ui .-1 iitograplis 

the sixteenth century 
many a painter, as many 
a poet-singer, found his 
livelihood in wandering 
from court to court, 
from festival to festival. 
Such a painter would 
illuminate the required 
arms, and their bearer 
would inscribe his name, 
a note of friendly greet- 
ing or remembrance, and 
frequently a motto. 

From the world of 
knighthood and the 
court the Stammbuch 
passed into homely use, 
and took the place of 
the modern autograph album. Becoming simply an 
autograph book, or Album Amicorum, it is found in 
common use among students. The German student 
of those days visited, as a rule, two or three difler- 
ent universities, often travelling for a Wanderjahr 
into foreign lands to sit at the feet of the famous 
teachers in France or the Netherlands, or in Bologna, 
Padua, and other great schools of Italy. On his 
travels the student carried with him this .Album 
Amicorum, in which he col- 
lected the arms and auto- 
graphs of teachers and 
fellow -students. In most 
cases the short motto that 
was attached to the coat of 
arms has given place in 
students' books to wise or 
witty sentiments of greater 
length, and, instead of the 
arms themselves, we find 
various illustrations of scenes 
or places, actual or imagin- 
ary. One calls to mind for 
an e.xample of this type of 
book the scene in Goethe's 
Faust, where Mephistopheles 
takes the student's Stamm- 
buch and inscribes therein 
the ominous words : '^ Eritis 
sicut Deus, scienter bonum et 

Our illustrations are 
selected in the first place 
from two of these albums in 
the National Art Library 
at South Kensington, dating 


from 1570 to 1590. 
Unfortunately, some 
reckless owner in the 
past has broken up the 
original albums, and only 
the loose leaves reniain; 
but these are of quite 
unique interest, being 
within a few years of the 
earliest known Stamm- 
buch. These pages are 
from the albums of Sigis- 
niund. Baron Wolcken- 
stein, and of Jan Van 
Gameren. To give typi- 
cal examples of inscrip- 
tions, we find on one 
page above the arms 
U/>i messis, ibi sicut Semen 
Generoso Dno. Sigismundo 



the motto : Constauter. 
Si/ia/is ; and below : 
Baroiii in Wolckenstein e-" Rodetiegg, Consiantiniis, 
Georgius et A'udolphus, fratres germani, Barones in 
Foliveijsser d^ Weijiserthal, perpetuae amicitiae et 
suavissimae familiaritatis caff. Fataviis, vii,Aprilis, 
Anno ijji. On another is the brief inscription : 
Domino Joanni Gameren, Contetnporaneo sua inleger- 
rimo, in perpetuum necessitudinis vinculum scribebat 
[oannes van den Kieboom, 
.Indouerp. Anno ijjr, 28. 

These two inscriptions are 
typical of the earlier and more 
conventional class of Stamm- 
buch, but another album in 
the Art Library is one of a 
later type, in which the her- 
aldic shields have given place 
in many cases to a purely 
pictorial drawing, still with 
name and motto attached. 
The album in question be- 
longed to Wolfgang Leut- 
kauff, and contains dates 
from 1616 to 1632. It is 
of peculiar interest and value 
in that the leaves afford ex- 
amples of every manner of 
marbled and coloured paper 
of the period. Wolfgang 
LeutkaulT appears to have 
been a considerable traveller 
for those early days, and from 
internal evidence we find that 
he lived at Constantinople for 


The Connoisseur 

the greater part of the years 1616 to 1624. In 1623 
he seems to have made a grand tour of Italy, visiting 
Verona, Venice, I'arma, Bologna, Florence, Rome,and 
other places, and bringing away from each a record 
in his album of friendships made or renewed. The 
wording of the entries is of the same type as in the 
earlier books, and is usually in Latin, though some- 
times in German or Italian. One entry, for instance, is 
made at Rome : Spes mea Cristiis. — Ad perpetuam sui 
memoriam fcripsi ego infra scriplus carissimo siio aiiiico 
Leutkauff, Roniae, 15 Aprilis, 1623, Jacobus Groll. 
Another is headed with the distich, Omnia si perdas 
/ama?n servare menienio, Qua seme/ aiiiissa, postea 
nittlus eris, and below the arms bears the inscription : 
Hoe memoriae ergo scribebat Jo : Rainardus a Schaiven- 
burg Dno. Wolffgatigo Leutkauff in ilinere Constanti- 
nopolitano, Adrianopoli in Tracia, die 26 Junii Anno 

The mottoes are of a similar nature to those in the 
earlier book: Per dura et ardua : Si tiou Arte,/orte 
quondam Marie, and so on. Texts also occur fre- 
quently, a favourite one being. In hoc signo glorior, or, 
Absi/ autem a 7iobis gloriari nisi in cruce et resurrectione 
doini. nost. Jesu Chrisli. 

One of the most interesting pages in the book faces 
a coat of arms dated at Constantinople, 161 6, and 
represents an Eastern fair. The original is a piece of 
bright colouring, with a vivid green on the centre 
swing, and costumes of blue and vermilion. On the 

left you see the walls of a town with mosque and 
minaret, and outside in the open is every kind of 
swing, merry-go-round, and ocean wave — everything 
that is symbolic of 'Appy 'Ampstead on a modern Bank 
Holiday, even to the "ladies' tormentors" in the fore- 
ground. Surely there is nothing new beneath the sun. 

The next illustration shows a good example of 
Turkish costume of the period, and a typical page 
containing a coloured coat of arms with a motto 
and inscription, written at Constantinople in 16 19. 
Another is a pleasing example of Turkish script and 
ornament, the original being beautifully illuminated 
in blue, red, and gold. The last, dated Vienna, 
1632, is a neat piece of design, though a little 
amateurish in execution, and shows a typical example 
of coloured paper, extremely simple, and looking 
almost as though the effect had been produced by 
the impression of natural flowers. On many of the 
|)ages is a cross, and the sad note, Requiescat in 
Pace, written by the owner when he heard of the 
death of an old friend. 

These books fretjuently appear in the market, 
especially in the catalogues of German booksellers, 
and are always a pleasing acquisition. There is a 
large collection of them in the manuscript depart- 
ment of the British Museum. For history, costume, 
design, and heraldry they are of value and interest, 
and above all they are instinct with that personal 
element that is wanting in the printed book. 



bo.nisrE vias -xx 


f -J 


>-- -:- 


- -r*'. 



I. A TOII.HTTH 1)1-; vi-;\us 


Some Notes on a Collection of Old Oak Furniture 
By Christopher W. Hughes 

The Cotswolds, once the abode of rich 
woolstaplers and leather merchants, now a poor 
agricultural district, have 
been the home of much 
of England's best oak 
furniture ; but the mi- 
gration of the labourers 
to the towns, the de- 
pression of the last few 
years in farming dis- 
tricts, the consequent 
break up of many old 
homes, and, above all, 
the rage for collecting 
old oak, have left com- 
paratively little good 
furniture in the cottages. 
I'hose who know the 
Cotswolds will remem- 
ber how many splendid 
mansions are now cot- 
tages, and many inter- 
esting fireplaces and 
panelled rooms may be 
seen in the dwellings of 

These illustrations are 
of pieces collected in 
the district during the 
last few years. The 
first is an oak stool ; it 
has three carved panels. 
On those shown in the 

No. 1. — OAK STOOl. wmi CARVIU) 

photogra])h are carved bowls ; one contains pome- 
granates, the other mythical monsters. The third is a 

plain "linen" panel. The 
old man from whom it 
was purchased believed 
the panels to be from 
pew-ends out of Ful- 
brook Church, Oxon. 

In the same photo- 
graph is a curious 
cast-iron picture, repre- 
senting St. John. The 
picture and frame are 
separate. There is no- 
thing to indicate the 
date ; it was bought at 
an auction in Burford, 
and il is impossible to 
discover its history, but 
it gives one the idea of 
being foreign. 

The churches have 
been terribly ransacked, 
and it is not uncommon 
to find com munion tables 
used for dining upon, 
and it is the exception 
to find coffin-stools any- 
where but in private 
houses. The church- 
wardens must have 
been singularly unscru- 
[)ulous some years back. 



TJie Connoisseur 


Nos. ii. and iii. are without doubt from churches. 
No. ii. is very interesting, and it comes from a 
village on the borders of Oxon. and Warwick. Tlic 
old lady from whom it was purchased knew it to 
have been in their family for many years. The top, 
panels and centre are the oldest parts. I am not 
sure about the end strips, and the bottom is Jacobean, 
evidently inserted when the old part was broken 
away. I had to add a piece in place of the lock, 
which was gone. The oldest part appears to be 
fifteenth century. 

No. iii. is an elm chest of good and bold design ; 
it has a curved keyhole. The date would be, I 
think, late sixteenth century. 

The next chest (No. iv.) is a fine example of 
Jacobean coffer, 4 ft. 6 in. by 4 ft. 4 in. This was 
a lucky purchase at an auction, when it passed un- 
noticed beneath heaps of other furniture, and sold 
for fifty shillings. 

The last is a gate-leg table from Forest Hill, near 
Oxford, bought at a farmhouse sale. I like to 
imagine Milton and his young wife, Mary Powell, 
who were married there, dining at it. This, though 
it requires a strong imagination, is just possible. 
How charaiing the old villages must have been 
before the advent of corrugated iron, blue slate, and, 
within, bamboo ! Happily the Cotswolds have been 
kept free, for lack of a railway, of one horror— />., red 



Collection of Old Oak F/iniitiire 


liiick. Long may it stay away, so that the charm of 
the- old grey cottages shall be preserved even if the 
old furniture has gone into the hands of collectors. 
They, after all, appreciate it much more than (for 

example) the ignorant cottager who cut a foot off the 
bottom of a magnificent grandfather clock-case be- 
cause it was too tall for the room in which he wished 
to have it. 

No. V. 

:; table 


Old Silver Plate in the Irish Historical Loan Collection at 
the Dublin Exhibition By E. Alfred Jones 

Though an unique opportunity has been 
allowed to pass without collecting together a really 
representative array of old Irish plate at the Inter- 
national Exhibition at Dublin, many of the specimens 
on view there are of the utmost value and interest to 
lovers and collectors of old silver. 

" Potato rings," as was to be expected in their place 
of origin — Dublin — form one of the chief exhibits in 
point of numbers, Colonel Claude Cane sending his 

important collection of this exclusively Irish article 
of domestic plate. This collection comprises fifteen 
examples, all of which are different in size or design, 
as will be seen from the illustration (No. i.). Some 
are pierced with scroll and lattice work, with medal- 
lions and festoons in repoussd ; others are pierced 
and decorated with foliage, fruit, animals and birds, 
while another is decorated with architectural pieces, 
human figures, etc. It is a comprehensive display of 



Old Silver Plate 



these rings, made at Dublin by different silversmiths : 
Charles Townsend, William Hughes, Stephen Walsh, 
Geo. Hill, Joseph Jackson, Thos. Kinsela, John 
Locker and Wni. Homer, between 1770 and the year 
1781, when this short-lived fashion came to an end. 
Mr. Henry King also sent two specimens, of different 
designs, with his collection of plate (No. vii.). The 
promoters of this section have done well in showing 
three potato rings, which had been seized with forged 
hall-marks, as a warning to purchasers of old plate. 

A very interesting small old Irish caudle cup, 44 in. 
high (No. ii.), was also exhibited by Colonel Cane. 
The orthodo.x shape of the bowl, which is fixed with 
two plain scroll handles, calls for no comment : but 
the unusual repousse work, con- 
sisting of monkeys in the act of 
drinking and smoking, with a 
drinking mug and a candlestick 
before them, with squirrels in 

trees, deserves more than ordi- 
nary notice. Above the short 

moulded foot, wliich has a cable 

band, is a low row of upright 

acanthus leaves. According to 

the marks stamped on it, the cup 

was wrought, about 1690, by 

Caleb Webb, of Cork. It is to 

be regretted that the superb 

caudle cup and cover, made at 

Coik about the same date by 

the Flemish immigrant, Charles 

IJckegle, in Mr. C. J. Jackson's 

collection, was not exhibited at 

the same time, and thus afford 

the throngs of Irish visitors an 

opportunity of seeing, if not 
appreciating, the excellence 
of some of the Cork silver- 
smiths" work. True, the 
chance of examining 
another highly important 
piece of Cork plate occurs 
in the celebrated silver 
mace of the Cork Guilds, 
from the South Kensing- 
ton Museum, which was 
fashioned in the reign of 
William III. by Robert 
Goble, with the assistance, 
it is confidently supposed, 
of the Fleming, Bekegle, 
just mentioned. 

The next piece of plate 
— exhibited by Colonel 
Hutcheson-Poe — is a large monteith bowl, 6s in. 
high, of the usual type, with a fixed scalloped edge, 
adorned withcupids' masks at intervals, and with two 
stirrup-shaped handles attached to lions' masks. The 
body is decorated with hollow flutings and a large 
scrolled and scaled panel, engraved with the Santry 
arms in the centre, and it rests on a low gadrooned 
foot (No. iii.). It has the London date-letter for 
1700, and the mark of the maker, Anthony Nelme, 
who produced a good number of these bowls. The 
main interest in this bowl lies in the fact that it 
belonged to the last Lord Santry, and was frequently 
used for punch in the orgies of the " Hell Fire Club," 
of which that peer was a prominent member. The 









The Coii/ioisseii)' 

ruins of the club 
are still visible 
on the Dublin 
mountains, and 
this actual bowl 
is represented in 
the portrait group 
of members of 
the club, now 
in the National 
Gallery in the 
Irish capital. 
The original sil- 
ver corkscrew of 
this club, fashion- 
ed at Dublin, 
has also been 
sent to the Ex- 
hibition. This 
recalls the pres- 
ence of a similar 
monteith, belong 
ing to Magdalen 
College, Oxford, 
in the well-known 
picture, May 
Morning:;, by Hol- 
man Hunt. The 
owner of this bowl also sent several other excellent 
pieces of old domestic plate, mostly of the eighteenth 

Civic plate, exclusive of some maces exhibited, is 
represented by the four massive silver cups, all of 
Irish make, the property of the Corporation of 
Drogheda (No. iv.). The earliest is the tall plain 
cup on a baluster stem, lyi in. high, made in the 
last half of the seventeenth century, with the curious 
and unsuitable addition of a scrolled handle with 
bead finial on the cover. The other three cups, 
8i in. and 7};'; in. high, are of early eighteenth century 
date, and of the ordinary bell-shape with harp-like 

The Archbishop of Tuam has lent some most 
interesting ecclesiastical plate of S|)anish work, dating 
from the first half of the seventeenth century. It 
comprises a silver-gilt chalice with a shallow bowl on 
a high baluster stem with a circular moulded base, 
decorated with enamelled bosses, 10^' in. high ; two 
short, jug-shape cruets ; two dishes with similar 
enamelled bosses ; and two candlesticks on slender 
baluster stems, on tripod bases, cji in. high. They 
are engraved with the arms of the Archbishopric of 
Tuam. These vessels have an interesting history : they 
belonged to an Irish ecclesia.stic who achieved some 


distinction, Mal- 
achy 0'<,)ueely, 
liurn in Tho- 
niond, completed 
his studies in 
I'aris, and ap- 
])ointed Arch- 
bishop of Tuam 
by I'ope Urban 
Vni. In 1645 
he became ad- 
viser to General 
Taafe, and was 
captured by the 
Scots near Sligo, 
and put to death. 
This plate was 
stolen, but was, 
happily, dis- 
covered at Lis- 
bon, where it was 
purchased, and 
presented to the 
church of St. 
Joseph, Bally- 
glass, where it is 
now preserved 
(No. v.). The 
two exhibited by Sir T. 
J. Blumenthal at the 

chalice is very like the 

(jibson Carmichael and Mr. 

Burlington Kine Arts Club in 1901, and the ewer is 

not unlike one belonging to Mr. Percy Macquoid. 

In the same illustration are two rose-water dishes, 

embossed with flowers, Dutch work of the middle of 

the seventeenth century. 

A large and uncommon piece of plate, exhibited by 
Mrs. L. Harris, is the silver centre-piece and cruet 
stand combined (No. vi.). The tray is of octagonal 
form, on four feet, with upright sides, pierced with a 
.scroll ornament and a band of vertically-pierced work. 
The octagonal boat-shape dish in the centre is sup- 
ported on a frame, decorated with pierced foliage, 
resting on four legs with satyrs' masks joined by 
festoons. Four smaller baskets of the same shape 
are fitted in small brackets at the sides of the tray, 
and it contains no fewer than fourteen silver-mounted 
bottles of various sizes. It was made at Dublin in 
1796-97 by Robert Breading. 

Mr. Henr)' King's collection of plate includes many 
articles for domestic purposes, beginning with a plain 
tankard with domed cover of the usual shape ; a large 
salver on foot ; a nice pair of octagonal candlesticks 
with baluster stems ; and an oval snuffer tray with a 
single handle, all of which were made in 1707-8 by 


Bj kiiiil periiiissinn of His Griicc the Dtikc of Devonshire 

Old Silver PI ah 

the well-known Dublin silversmith, David King. 
Then come two small plain mugs, dated 1730; and 
a large plain bowl on foot, the latter by Thomas 
Williamson, of Dublin, 1732. The collection includes 
among other pieces of old Irish silver, illustrated on 
No. vii., a good specimen of the plain cups with 
high domed covers and harp-shape handles, which 
was wrought by David King in 1716-17. It is very 
like the cup of two years later by the same Dublin 
silversmith, exhibited by Lord Castletown (No. viii.), 
and the smaller one of the same date belonging to 
Lord Castlemaine (No. ix.). 

Though not of Irish make, two pieces of plate of 
historical importance are shewn, namely, an octagon 
silver jug, and two small tankards, of German work, 
which were presented by the Irish Parliament to 
Captain \V. Weldon in 1641. 

The exigencies of space forbid more than a cursory 

reference to many other choice examples of old plate, 
as well as swords, snuff-bo.xes, and other Irish historical 
relics, such as the silver collar and box conferred by 
Queen Elizabeth on Maurice Roche, Mayor of Cork, 
in 157 1 ; the Regalia of the Corporation of Skinner's 
Alley, Dublin, consisting of a chair, mace, two-handled 
silver cup and two swords : and the old silver mace, 
of eighteenth century date, of the Irish House of 

Admirers of early Celtic metal work could study 
the celebrated Lismore crosier of the twelfth century, 
lent by the Duke of Devonshire, who also sent the 
famous Book of Lismore, written about the middle 
of the fifteenth century. 

I desire to express my thanks for the assistance 
accorded to me by the Honorary Secretary of this 
section. Colonel A. Courtenay, C.B. The photographs 
were taken by Mr. W. Lawrence, of Dublin. 




Valentine Green and his WorR 

Amongst tlic many niaj;nitkcnt mezzolints 
produced during the latter half of the eighteenth 
century few are more highly prized than those 
executed by Valentine Green. They are, in fact, 
regarded as amongst the best examples of the art of 
mezzotint ever executed, his wonderful interpretations 
of Reynolds's portraits of the grand dames of the 
period being especially prized. 

Valentine Green was born in Worcestershire in 
1739, but the exact locality of his birthplace is un- 
known. Both Halesowen, near ISirmingham, and 
the little village of Salford, near Evesham, claim the 
honour, but up to 
the present the 
question has never 
been satisfactorily 
decided. The son 
of a dancing master, 
he was, when about 
fifteen years of age, 
placed in the office 
of a lawyer at 
Eve.sham, where for 
some time he ap- 
plied himself with 
no special diligence 
to the study of law. 

His artistic inclina- 
tions, however, 

eventually became 

too strong to be 

suppressed, and, 

though much 

against his father's 

wish, he abandoned 

the law and became 

the pupil of a small 

,line-engraver at 

Worcester. During 

ithis period he was sir joshua Reynolds, from t 

By W. G. Menzies 

taught the art ol mezzotint, soon acquiring a remark- 
able skill with the scraper. Feeling that his chances 
of success would be restricted in a provincial town, 
he came to London in 1765, where he soon became 
known as an engraver of great promise. In fact, 
his engravings were considered worthy of inclusion 
in the exhibitions at Spring Gardens held by " The 
Society of Artists of Great Britain," of which society 
he was elected a member in 1766. 

Fortune did indeed smile on Green at this period. 
Rapidly becoming recognised as one of the greatest 
engravers of the period, we find him in 176S an 

exhibitor at the first 
exhibition of the 
Royal Academy, 
which had been 
lOunded by Sir 
Joshua Reynolds 
and others who had 
ceased to contribute 
to the exhibitions 
of " The Society of 
.■\rtists of Great 
Britain, " owing to 
the quarrels and 
dissensions which 
distinguished its 
management. Ben- 
jamin West, who suc- 
ceeded Reynolds 
as President of the 
Royal Academy, 
had painted a large 
canvas depicting the 
return of Regulus 
to Carthage, and 
this Green made 
the subject of his 
plate for exhibition 
at the newly-formed 


Valentine Green and his Work 

institution in Pall Mall. Its success was immediate, 
and it will ever rank as one of his finest efforts 
with the scraper. ~~ ~ 

It might here be mentioned that in 1775 Green 
was elected one of the six Associate Engravers of 
the Royal Academy. 

The Regulus plate was followed by a large number 
of other plates after West, whilst the works of such 
masters as Romney, Gainsborough and Cotes, as well 
as Van Dyck, Rubens, and many of the early Italian 
masters, were often made subjects for his plates. 

When onlv thirty-four, Green became mezzotint 
engraver to King George III., and in 1775 was 
honoured with the appointment of engraver in 
mezzotint to Charles Theodore, Elector Palatine. 

By this time his success was assured, and few 
engravers of his time could surpass him either in 
excellence of work or popularity. His large prints, 
after West, illustrating scenes in classical history, 
though now^ somewhat neglected, were at this period 
most keenly appreciated. 

Like many another of his craft, Green was not 
lacking in business enterprise. He saw the readiness 
with which the portraits by Sir Joshua Reynolds lent 
themselves to interpretation by the scraper, and com- 
menced a series of full-length standing portraits after 
Sir Joshua's paintings of some of the most beautiful 
women of the period. The idea was excellent, and 
that it proved a success is scarcely to be wondered at 
when we learn that the published price of each plate 
was only fifteen shillings, and even less if the whole 
series was subscribed for. 

Green had already engraved several plates after 
works by Reynolds with considerable success, but 
none could compare with the plates he now executed. 
They were literally masterpieces, and included por- 
traits of such famous beauties as Jane Countess of 
Harrington, the Countess of Salisbury, and the Duchess 
of Rutland, all of which now realise, when fine im- 
pressions, sums ranging from ^200 to over ;^i,ooo. 

Having been appointed in 1775 engraver to the 
Elector Palatine of the Rhine, Green formulated 
the bold idea of engraving the best pictures in the 
Dusseldorf Gallery, but unfortunately it was not to be 
attended with the success which characterised his earlier 
enterprise. He obtained a patent from the Duke of 
Bavaria in 1789, giving him the exclusive permission 
to engrave and publish the plates, and in about six 
years published no fewer than twenty-two prints. .\t 
first everything pointed to the venture being a success, 
but the French besieging the city in 179S, the castle 
and gallery were destroyed, and with them the result 
of many years' work and the expenditure of a large 
sum of money on the part of Green. 

This did not end (Jreen's troubles. Other under- 
takings were ruined by the disturbances caused by the 
French Revolution, and a greater part of the money 
he had earned by nearly forty years' engraving was 
thus lost. 

In 1805 the British Institution was founded, and 
Green was fortunate enough to secure the position of 
Keeper, which post he occupied for about eight years. 
He died on June 29th, 1813, in his 74th year. 

One of the greatest engravers of his time, Green 
engraved in about forty years nearly four hundred 
plates, and when one considers his work as a whole, 
it is then that the greatness of the man becomes 
apparent. One is especially struck by its variety, 
while its general excellence is also a distinguishing 
feature. No matter whether one examines a portrait 
after one of his contemporaries or a plate after 
some Italian master, the same masterly execution 
is evident. 

Like so many of his contemporaries. Green found 
his inspiration in the works of Reynolds, but a 
collector of prints will find that the works of Van 
Dyck, Rubens, and many other old masters were 
also made the subject of his skill. His plates after 
Reynolds, more especially the full-length female 
portraits, are those most keenly sought for at present, 
and the majority are rapidly becoming forbidden 
game to the ordinary collector. 

In 1780 he engraved the portrait of Afary Isabella 
Duchess of Rutland, from the picture painted by 
Pvcynolds when a guest of the Duke of Rutland at 
Belvoir, which perished in the disastrous fire in 1816. 
Reynolds's wonderful canvas is gone, but we still have 
Green's superb mezzotint, in which the masterly brush- 
work of Sir Joshua lives again, and which is now so 
highly esteemed that a fine impression has realised 
the remarkable sum of one thousand guineas. Lady 
Betty Delme and Children is another highly-prized 
print by (ireen, after Reynolds, whilst another is 
that charming group of the Ladies Jl'aldegrave, the 
three beautiful grand-nieces of Horace Walpole. For 
the first over ;^95o has been given, whilst the other 
has realised nearly j{^6oo. In fact, Green's Reynolds 
prints make a truly wonderful gallery. Amongst them 
we find, in addition to already mentioned, por- 
traits of the ill-fated Countess of Salisbury, Viscountess 
Toivnshend, Countess Talbot, and Lady Jane Halliday, 
whilst the male portraits include those of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, alter the picture by himself at the Royal 
Academy, Lord Dalkeith, and the Duke of Bedford, 
with Lords Henry and William Russell, and Miss 

Of his portraits after other masters his portrait of 
Lord Nelson, after Abbott, is held in considerable 


The CoHNoisseiir 

esteem, as, too, are liis plates of Richard Cumher- 
tand and Mrs. Va/ts, both after Romney, certain of 
his \'an Dyck portraits, George U'as/iingion, after 
Trumball, and Garrick, after Gainsborough. 

His historical subjects, after West, include The 

Stoning of Stephen, Hannibal vowing eternal hatred 
to the Romans, and Mark Antony's Oration on the 
Death of Ccesar, whilst his plates after other masters 
include subjects after Domenichino, Murillo, and the 

List oi thk Principal Mezzotints hy Valentine Green sold hv Alction lyoi 1907. 









Ablwn, Samuel Francis 



m. 1st St. 



Air-Pump, The 



m. 1st St. 




Air-Pump, The 



m. p. b. 1. 



Aiicnmi, Countess of 



m. p. b. 1. 



Aylesford, Countess of 



m. 2nd St. 



•Aylesford, Countess of 



m. 2nd St. 


Aylesford, Countess of 



m. scratched letters 


Bedford, Krancis Duke of 






Bedford Kamily, The 



m. 1st St. 


Blackheath Golfers 





tBr.adshaw, Master, and Sisters 



m. 1st St. 



Bridport, Lord 



m. ]). b. 1. 




British Naval Victors 






Campbell, Miss Sarah 



m. p. liefore name of personage, 
name of artist, etc., in etched letters 


Campbell, Miss Sarah 



m. 1st St. 



Campbell, Miss Sarah 


1 90 1 

m. slightly damaged 


Campbell, Miss Sarah 



m. 2nd slate 


Compton, Lady E 



m. 1st St. 


JCompton, Lady E 



ni. 1st state, etched letters 


Compton, Lady E 



m. 2nd St. 



Cosway, Mrs. 

.M. Cosway 


m. 1st St. 


Cosway, Mrs. 

R. Cosway 

1 901 



Cumberland, Duchess of 

Gainstorough . 


m. 1st St. 



" Cynthia " (The Duchess of Devonshire) ... 

M. Cosway 





Danby, Henry Earl of 

Van Dyck 


m. 1st SI. b. 1. 



Delmc', Lady Betty, and Children 



m. 1st St. 


Delme, Lady Betty, and Children 



m. 2nd St. 



Devonshire, Duchess of 



m. 1st St. 



Devonshire, Duchess of 



m. 2nd St. 



Education . 

Child of Sorrow ... I 



m. pair 



Fordyce, Henrietta 

A. Kauffnian ... 


m. proof 



Garrick, David 

Gainsborough ... 


m. 1st St. 



(larrick, David 

Gainsborough ... 


m. e. I. p. 


Georgiana Duchess of Devonshire ... 

M. Cosway 


m. 1st St., wide margin 



Georgiana Duchess of Devonshire ... 

^L Cosway 

1 901 

m. 2nd St. 



Green, Valentine 







Green, General 



m. 1st St. 



Green, Mr.s., and Child 



m. 1st St. 



Gulston, Joseph and John 





Gwyn, Eleanor 






Halliday, Lady Jane 



in. 1st St. 



Hallid.ay, Lady Jane 



m. p. before name of personage, 
name of artist, etc., in etched letters 


Harrington, Countess of 



m. 1st St. 


§Harrington, Countess of 



m. 1st St. 



Harrington, Countess of 


'903 , 

ni. 3rtl >t. 



Sold in 1 90 1 for 6o guineas. 

Purchased by the owner for 217 guineas a few years ago. 

t Sometimes catalogued as the Wright Family. 
§ Purchased by the owner for 420 guineas. 

° X 

The ( omioisseur 



Head of a Young Man 

Herlwrt, Lady H 

Hcrlwrt, Lady H 

Ilerlierl, Lady II 

Herbert, Lady H 

Howard, Lady C. ... 

Howard, Lady C. 

Hunter, Catherine (afterwards Mrs. Clarke) 

Jones, Miss Tolly 

Laurens, Henry 

Lunardi's Balloon 

Manners, Lady Louisa 

Manners, Lady Louisa 

Manners, Lady Louisa 

Manners, Lady Louisa 

Nelson, Lord... 

Newbatlle, Lord, and his Sister 

Nuneham, Lady E. ... 
Pamela and Phyloclea 

Ray, Miss Martha ... 

Reynolds as President 

Rutland, Duchess of 

Rutland, Duchess of 

Rutland, Duchess of 

Rutland, Duchess of 

Rutland, Duchess of 

Salisbury, Countess of 

Salisbury, Countess of 

Salisbury, Countess of 

Salisbury, Countess of 

Stuart, Miss ... 
Talbot, Countess 

Talbot, Countess 

Thelluson, Miss 

Townshend, Viscountess 

Townshend, Viscountess 

Townshend, Viscountess 


Waldegrave, The Ladies 

Waldcgrave, The Ladies 

Waldegrave, The Ladies 

Waldegrave, The Ladies 

Washington, (Jeneral 

Washington, General 

Winter's Tale, A 

Winter's Tale, A ) 

School, A ) 

The same pair 

West, Elizabeth, and Child 

Wharlon, Sir Thomas 

Yates, Mrs., "Melpomene" 
Yorke, Mrs. Agneta ... 

Yorke, Mrs. Agneta 

Vorke, Mrs. .Xgucla,.. 








Copley ... 
Byron . . . 





Leiy ... 

Dance ... 



























Van Dyck 
Cotes ... 
Cotes ... 

Da IK. 




s. d. 


m. 1st St. 


19 6 


m. 1st St. 




m. 1st pub. St. 




m. 2nd St. 




m. e. 1. p. 




m. I St St. 



m. 2nd St. 




m. proof 




m. 1st St. 






.5 6 






m. 1st St. 




m. 1st St. 



m. p. before name of personage, 
name of artist, etc., etched 



m. 2nd St. 










19 6 


\\\. ])roof 




ni. e. 1. ]). 






m. 1st St. 



m. 1st St. 



m. ist St. 




m. 1st St. 



m. 1st St. 



m. 2nd St. 




m. 1st St. 




m. 1st St. 



m. ist St. 



m. 2nd St. 



m. ]). b. I. 


1 901 





m. 2nd St. 




m. 1st St. 




m. 1st St. 




m. 1st St., etched letters 



m. 2nd St. 






19 6 


m. 1st St. 



ni. 1st St. 



m. 2nd St. 




m. 3rd St. 











m. e. 1. p. 



coloured, pair 



m. proofs 


1 1 


in. proof 




m. 1st St. b. 1. 




ni. proof 




m. 1st St. 



m. small plate, p. b. 1. 




ni. large plate 








BY BOTTICELLI (National Gallery) 

From a copy br Ulss Agaes Rupert Jones 

The Indian Society of Oriental Art and the Messrs. 
Larmour's Collections 

A MOVE in the right direction has been 
made by earnest advocates of art in the capital of 
our great Eastern dependency. Calcutta boasts of 
several collectors, and to some of them it occurred 
a short while ago to form a society by the medium 
of which views and opinions could be exchanged, 
and collections of members could be inspected, to 
mutual advantage and instruction, such collections 

being by no means confined to any one special branch 
of Oriental art, whether ancient or modern. But it 
was at once recognised that to make such a society 
of real use, it was necessary that it should have for 
its objective a far wider range of usefulness than 
forming itself merely into a collectors' club. Thus 
from a comparatively small beginning came into 
existence the Indian Society of Oriental Art, having 


The Coiiiioissenr 


for its object the broad design of promoting and 
encouraging Oriental art — ancient or modern — in all 
its legitimate and varied branches. The society being 
once formed, and its objects properly understood, it 
rapidly gained the favour of many interested in its 
objects, and promises to do good work in a country 
in which it has often been said that art has vanished. 
His Excellency Lord Kitchener, himself a keen col- 
lector, is the President of the newly-formed society, 
and takes great interest in its 
work. Its Vice-President is 
the Honble. Mr. Justice 
Rampini, one of the Judges 
of the High Court of Bengal, 
and it has now some 75 or 
80 members on its rolls. 

Part of the scheme of the 
founders of the society, 
namely, that of holding meet- 
ings at the houses of various 
of its members, has been 
carried out with conspicuous 
success, and has had the effect 
of attracting many members. 
The first of these meetings, or 

.No. ll.J. - I.MERIOR or BOWL I .S 

"At Homes," was held at the residence of the 
brothers C. F. and F. A. Larmour, whose reputation 
as collectors is not confined to India alone. At 
one time the Messrs. Larmour were in possession 
of a collection of stamps which had no rival in India, 
and which was excelled by few collections in Europe. 
While this collection was in process of building up, 
the third person in the partnership, without assistance 
or advice from the other two, was quietly and un- 
ostentatiously getting together 
for herself a choice little col- 
lection of Chinese porcelain 
in the days when this par- 
ticular form of collecting was 
not verv much patronised in 
Calcutta, and was thus en- 
abled to procure some fine 
pieces, which subsequently 
formed, when stamps waned, 
the nucleus of the beautiful 
collection with which the 
names of the brothers (and 
of the third partner) are now 
associated. And it was this 
collection to inspect which the 



No. IV.— Sl'KCIMlC.NS Ol- 1 AMll.l.i; \ I'.lv I 1-: 


The Connoisseur 

members of the society were invited, and of which, by 
the courtesy of Messrs. Larmour, we are enabled 
to present illustrations of a few specimens. Due, 
perhaps, to a feeling of modesty and a reluctance 
to bepraise their own possessions, we have not been 
favoured with any lengthy or detailed description of the 
pieces illustrated, but we hope at some future date to be 
in a position to present our readers with more minute 
descriptions of this fine collection. Meanwhile, we learn 
that on Nos. i. and ii. are represented a few choice 
examples from the blue and white section of the col- 
lection. A very curious and, we believe, unique piece 
is the bowl in the centre of No. ii. The reliefs in this 
bowl are highly glazed and decorated with dragons 
and foliage alternately, while the ground of the out- 
side is in dull glazed swastika work in a sort of Greek 
key pattern. No. iirt. shows the interior of the bowl. 
This bowl was found in a native state in Southern 
India, where it had been buried underground for 
years, and was discovered by accident. It is in 
perfect preservation, the colour and glaze being in 
splendid condition. Next to it on the left is another 
interesting piece. The landscape is in brilliant blue. 

touched here and there with green, the glaze being 
dull. The ground is shagreen, with raised reliefs 
highly glazed and beautifully decorated in blue. 
Most of the pieces represented in Nos. i. and ii. are 
of the Khang'he period. In Nos. iii. and iv. are 
represented some fine specimens of the famille-verte 
section of the collection, most of the pieces being of 
the Khang'he period, with the exception of the two 
arrow holders and the centre vase in No. iii., which 
are Kienlung, as well as the two large jars which 
flank the top row in No. iv. In No. v. are shown 
a few specimens from the famille-rose section, and 
some fine and valuable pieces are illustrated, notably 
the two powdered rose bowls at each end of the top 
row, and the reticulated plate in the centre, which 
was once in the de Goncourt collection. 

What we have illustrated will give some idea of 
this very fine collection; but the Messrs. Larmour 
do not confine themselves to one form of collecting 
alone. Rare Oriental bronzes and brasses, pictures, 
and Shefifield plate all combine to make up an inter- 
esting and varied collection which it would take hours 
to inspect and describe. 



A Violin 
by Joseph 


The violins of Joseph Guarnerius, by general con- 
sent, rank next to those of Antonius Stradivarius. 
The earlier writers on the violin refer to 
Guarnerius as a pupil of Stradivarius ; 
but this opinion is no longer held, being 
unsupported by any direct evidence, 

and a comparison of the works of these makers 

leading to the conclusion that they derived their 

inspiration from different sources. 

Guarnerius commenced his career at about the 

time when Stradivarius 

had entered upon his 

middle or golden 

period. The capabili- 
ties of the violin as 

a solo instrument had 

already begun to be 

recognised, resulting 

in a demand for 

instruments of a more 

powerful tone ; and the 

success of Stradivarius 

in producing violins 

which combined power 

with a beautiful quality 

of tone was so com- 
plete, that it seems 

reasonable to conclude 

that Guarnerius, con- 
scious of his own 

powers, and feeling 

how hopeless would be 

any atteni])ted rivalry 

of Stradivarius, deter- 
mined to mark out for 

himself an L-ntirely 

new line; and M r. 

Hart, in his work on 

the violin, says : " His 

chief desire was evidently to make instruments 
capable of producing a quality of tone hitherto 
unknown, and that he succeeded is universally 

To accomplish this end he appears to have turned 
to the earlier ISrescian makers, whose instruments 
were noted for power and volume of tone, and to 
have made these his starting point : and many of his 
violins bear considerable resemblance to those of 
Maggini, the best of the Brescian makers. The 

finest instruments of 






Guarnerius possess a 
tone of remarkable 
power, more demons- 
t r a t i \- e than that 
of Stradivarius, of 
splendid sonority, 
and contralto in 
character; and with 
such qualities it is 
not surprising to find 
that many of the lead- 
ing violinists, with 
I'aganini amongst the 
number, have given the 
jireference to this 

The violin here illus- 
trated is known as the 
"Rode" Guarnerius, 
having belonged to the 
celebrated violinist 
and composer of that 
name : and was used 
by him at all his con- 
certs, although he also 
possessed a fine in- 
laid Stradivarius, illus- 
trations of which are 


The Connoisseur 


given by Rev. H. R. Haweis in his work on OM 
Violins. This beautiful and characteristic instrument 
is dated 1737, and belongs to the middle period, 
when the violins of (juarnerius were considered to 
rival those of Stradivarius both in workmanship and 
varnish. The style resembles somewhat that of 
Maggini, and there is something pleasing in the 
primitive simplicity of outline which characterises the 
instruments of some of the earlier makers. There 
is here no attem|)t to draw attention to the corners, 
so skilfully elaborated by Aniati, and modified by 
Stradivarius ; but the artist has left us to be satisfied, 
as indeed we are, with simplicity of design and a just 
proportion of the various parts. The workmanship 
is of the first order, and the wood of the choicest 
quality, the two pieces of which the back is composed 
being remarkably handsome. The sound holes are 
longer and less graceful than those of Stradivarius or 
Amati, but are characteristic of the maker, and well 
suited to the instrument. The tone is rich and 


powerful, and of extjuisite quality, being entirely free 
from false notes, a liability to which is a weak point 
ill the instruments of this maker. The well-known 
composer, Ferdinand David, in a letter referring to 
this violin, says : " Nothing better can be wished for 
as regards the strength, nobleness, and pliancy of its 
tone, ajid you will with difficulty find one now that 
would surpass it." Much of the varnish has been 
lost by wear, but what remains is exceptionally fine, 
being of that brilliant red so much admired by 
connoisseurs. Underneath the red is a substratum 
of limpid vellow. as shown at the edges where the 
exterior varnish has been worn off. But no descrip- 
tion can give an adequate idea of the finest specimens 
of the Cremona varnish, which must be seen to 
be fully appreciated. We pos.sess no information 
regarding either its preparation or the mode of its 
application, and it is remarkable that some of its 
finer qualities are wanting in the works of the later 
makers of the Cremona school. 



The scroll is perhaps that part of the violin 
which more than anv other tests the artistic 
skill of the maker. The scrolls of Guarnerius 
are very varied, some of the later ones being 
almost grotesque in style. His best efforts, 
however, fall but little short of those of Stradi- 
varius, and the scroll of the Rode instrument, 
though lacking the delicacy of Stradivarius, is 
perfect in proportion and bold and massive in 

The " Signalement " which accompanies this 
violin is of exceptional interest, the names by 
which it is attested, viz., Alard, \"uillaume, 
Clapisson, and Turbri, being those of the 
leading experts of the day. 

This beautiful example of one of the best 
of the Cremona makers is in the collection of a 
Yorkshire amateur. 




of Wedgwood 
and Whieldon 

The two miniatures which we reproduce are the 
property of Mrs. Henrietta Whieldon, widow of John 
Bull Whieldon, a grandson of Thomas 
Whieldon, the eminent potter, with 
whom Josiah Wedgwood was in 
partnership. Wedgwood and ^Vhiel- 
don became partners in 1752, and the partnership 
lasted for five years, during which period, it is 
believed, the miniatures were painted. The miniatures 
have always up to recently been in the possession 
of the Whieldon family at Hales Hall, near Cheadle, 
Staffs.^the home of Thomas Whieldon after his 
retirement. They are shortly to be sold at Messrs. 
Puttick iV Simpson's rooms in Leicester Square. 

" M.\N traps and spring guns set here " is a sign 
that may still be seen in some parts of the country. 
, ,, -^ ISui it is an idle threat, for man traps 

A IVlan Irap •,, > 

are now illegal (the offence being 

punishable with penal servitude for five years), unless 

laid in a dwelling house between and sunset. 

The photo illustrates a terrible specimen which has 

doubtless caught more than one unlucky trespasser. 

It is about 5 ft. 9 in. long, with a set of fourteen teeth 

and two springs. A slight touch on the plate brings 
the jaws together with a vicious snap, which makes the 
blood run cold, and which would unduubtedlv break 
one's leg. It now reposes in Leicester Museum. 

The accompanying illustration is of a Bellarmine 
jug, height oi in., of unusually slim and elegant pro- 
portions. It differs in body from any 
Bellarmine jug that I have seen, and 
from any in our London museums, 
being made of an exceedingly hard, 
dense red clay. It is glazed with salt, and though 

A Red 





71ie Co)i)ioisscitr 

the granular salt-glazing has darkened the appearance 
of the red body, it yet remains positively and 
definitely red, like a salt-glazed piece of Elers ware, 
if such a thing were possible ! The salt-glazing on 
such an unusual body has a startling and paradoxical 

It appears to me likely to have been the work of 
Dwight. It is certain that Dwight made Bellarmine 
jugs ; for in 1866, some workmen, who were pulling 
down some old buildings on the site of the Fulhani 
works, came upon a number of them in a vaulted 
chamber there. It is ecjually cerUiin that Dwit^hl 
used a red body for some of his wares. On June 1 2th, 
1684, he made application for a renewal of a patent 
to make " fine stone gorges and vessels, never before 
made in England, or elsewhere 
. . . and spacious redd and darke 
coloured porcellane or china 
. . . and the mystery of the 
Cologne wares." This patent 
was granted for fourteen years. 
There is nothing unusual in the 
term " red porcellane " ; such 
was the name given by the Elers 
to their ware. To call it so was 
but to follow the custom of the 
time. For this red body Dwight 
used Staffordshire clay, as is 
known from his notebooks, and 
he once made a geological survey 
of Cheshire and Staffordshire. 

After all, in ceramics, as in 
every other branch of art, excel- 
lence is the highest test. The 


elegance of the lines of this little Bellarmine is in its 
favour ; the salt-glazing is well and evenly distributed. 
The base of the jug is quite plain, and withcjul that 
ribbing caused by having been cut with a wire, so 
olten seen on foreign specimens. The body is so that, in spite of its small size, the jug weighs 
2i lbs. 

TiiK three photographs of a very interesting Stafford- 
shire jug show clearly the picture. The colours are 
bright and clear, and, as far as I can 
ascertain, are correct with regard to 
the uniforms. The two troopers wear 
blue jackets and white breeches and black boots, 
one having spurs. The one marked 2 has red, 
edged with white, collar and 
braiding across chest, and red 
cuffs and band, round beaver 
hat or helmet, and a white 
feather. The other one marked 
3 has white collar, cuffs, and 
braiding, edged with blue, red 
band on helmet, with red and 
white feather. The drummer 
bov, who is marked i, and who 
is, unfortunately, not well shown 
in photograpli, wears a yellow 
coat with red collar and red 
lapel, both with white braiding, 
frilled shirt, black hat edged 
with white, red feather, blue 
breeches, and black gaiters. The 
horse, "Mercury," is of a brown 
colour with a white saddle cloth. 



edged with blue, upon which are red circles or rosettes. 
The landlady, or servant, wears a white mob cap tied 
with red, a blue dress with white apron, and a red 
scarf. The two birds are of a wonderful variety of 
colour — pink, yellow, green, and tints of everything 
that have been used in the colouring of the jug. The 
three men on the sign have black hats, blue coats, 
red waistcoats, white breeches and stockings. 

I inserted a notice in " Notes and Queries," 
November 2nd, 1901, with reference to this Jug, to 
try and find out if there is still a family of this name 
which can claim relationship to the three soldiers, 
but without result. 

Elden is, no doubt, the town of that name in 
Holland. The 7th Dragoons Regiment was made 
Light Dragoons in 1 783, and given blue uniform, 
and, in 1793, was in Flanders and took part in various 
battles. Again, in the autumn of 1799 the 7th Light 
L)ragoons were with the allied forces of Britain and 
Russia, under the command of the Duke of York, 
in the short campaign in Holland. At Wyck-op-Zee, 
Lord Paget, with a single squadron of his regiment 
(7th flight Dragoons), attacked a force six or seven 
times greater, and re-took guns lost by the allies, 
and also captured several of the enemy's. 

It would be about this time that the brothers met : 
the uniforms are of this date. James (No. 3) was 
certainly in the above regiment, which in 1807 was 
equipped as Hussars, and is now styled the 7th 
(Queen's Own) Hussars, having been the " Queen's 
Own" since 1727. Joseph and Samuel (see in- 
scription) were in other regiments. Drummers wore 
coats of the colours of the regimental facings — hence 
the yellow. 

It is probable that Samuel was in the 15th Light 
Dragoons (now 15th Hussars), as in 1799 they were 
engaged in the same battles, although the i8th 
Dragoons (now i8th Hussars) had a part of their 
regiment employed. 

The words on the jug, starting from the light-liand 
side of the handle, are as follows : — 

" Fairwell my Loving Brothers 
I'"or I hear the C.innons rattle 
You see the French have form'd 
The bloody line of battle 
And when that you attack them 
Your broad swords let them sway 
.\nd I hope our British Soldiers 
Will allways win the day" 

Helow this — 

Good Entertainment for 
Man and Horse 

Above the Inn Sign, below spout of jug^ 
" the three Jolly Boosers " 

And on the left of handle — 

Dissingtons, three loving 
Brothers, mett in Holland, 
At the three Jolly Boosers, 
At Elden and drank 
There Old Fathers 


Mr. R. P. Price, of Shrewsbury, gave me the jug 
in 1901. 

The historical information has been obtained from 
Major Archer's The British Army, Grant's British 
Battles on Land ami Sea, and from the Royal United 
Service Institution. — HERiiERT R. H. South.^m. 

Th.\t modern master of mezzotint engraving, Mr. 

H. Scott Bridgwater, has completed a magnificent 

. ,, plate, after Sir Thomas Lawrence's 

A New ' . . . 

Mezzotint portrait of Miss Thornton, which is 

After being published by Messrs. Yicars 

Lawrence Brothers, the Bond Street art dealers. 

Mr. Bridgwater's name is .sufficient guarantee for the 

quality of the work, which in velvety richness of 

texture bears comparison with the best mezzotints 

of the golden days of this craft ; whilst nothing of 

the master's spirit of brushwork has been lost in the 

])rocess of translation into black and white. The size 

of the plate, which is published at eight guineas, is 

i7i in. by 14 in., and the edition is strictly limited 

to three hundred artist's proofs. No other state will 

be issued, and the plate is to be destroyed. 

The group illustrated on p. 264 was bought a few 

years ago at a country sale of household furniture, 

where there was absolutelv nothing else 
Old Dresden 



Punch Bowl 

with ladle. 

Crossed pipes below. 

lo look at, and one wonders greatly 
at the history which stranded it there. 
There was quite a buzz of excitement when it was 
knocked down for the extraordinary (!) price of 

The subject is the marriage of Imos and Psyche. 
Hera is slK)wn in a cloud with her peacock, and 
l)earing a torch with which she has lighted the lire 
on the hymeneal altar. 'I'he cupids and doves of 
Aphrodite, now idle, are taking a back seat. 

It stands fully 12 inches high without the stand, 
and is cast in three jiieces, one of whicii has the 
number of the mould (2449) impressed. As the 
|)hotograph shows, the grouping and pose of the 
figures is exceptionally line, and the modelling very 

The Connoisseur 






delicate, proving it to belong to one of the best 
periods. It was in the owner's [jossession a con- 
siderable time before he discovered the " cross 
swords " mark, which is very faint^a discovery that 
is always a great joy to a collector. 

Amongst the many fine examples of tile work of 
the masters of the Dutch school contained in the 
famous Kann Collection, the charming 
subject, Young Girl Asleep, by Jan 
Vermeer, of Delft, whicli we reproduce 
as a frontispiece to the present number, is especially 
notable. Vermeer was a master of the art of render- 
ing light, and of showing it entering and diffusing 
itself in interiors, of revealing its slightest reflections 
in the darkest corners. He achieved supreme 
perfection in the treatment of small subjects, and 
his works are now most eagerly coveted and highly 

The example which we reproduce is one of the 
rare examples of Vermeer of Delft, in which the 
figures are relatively large in size. 'I'hanks to a 
minute observation of the effect of light entering the 

two rooms, and to a piquant combination of colours, 
notably in the Persian rug of the foreground, the 
artist has evolved a niiistirpirce of colour from this 
simple motive. 

The picture, which has iieen engraved by Courtry, 
a[)peared in the Vermeer sale at Amsterdam in 1696, 
and again in the dispersal of the John W. Wilson 
collection in Paris in 1881. 

The little circular metal boxes with conical tops, 

known as "ciboria" or "custodes," are still to be 

found in some numbers in the treasuries 

" of l'"rench and German churches: but 

Enamelled ^ , . , , , , 

^., . from their sacred use have seldom, 

although occasionally, drifted into 
museums or private collections. They were very 
common during the twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth 
centuries, but fell into desuetude after then, from a 
change of ritual arrangements. They are generally 
of the shape of our specimen, standing about 4 inches 
in height, executed in Champleve enamel on a copper 
base. The exam[)le we give is now in the Treasury 
of Sens Cathedral, No. 78 in the long list of works 
of art deposited there. It is of Limoges manufactuie 
of the thirteenth century: the background is of blue, 
with llowers of a deejjer blue, white, pink and yellow, 
and the portions of the copper not covered by the 
enamel are gilt. 

=i I .< 



§ i 

s 1 

o ^ 


The Virgin and Child, Si. John ihe Baptist, and 

an Angel, which we reproduce in colours in the 

present number, is from a copy of the 

Our Plates painting by Botticelli in the National 

(jallery by Miss Agnes Rupert Jones. 

This picture appears to have originally belonged to 
the celebrated architect Guiliano da San Gallo ; his 
name, in the manner and orthography of the sixteenth 
century, is written on the back — M. Guiliano da San 
Gallo. In the last century it was the property of the 
Abate Carlo Bianconi, Secretary of the Academy of 
Arts at Milan, who died in 1802, when the picture 
passed into the possession of Professor Gio. Giuseppe 
Bianconi, of Bologna, from whom it was purchased 
for the National Collection in October, 1S55. 

Amongst the many pupils who studied the ait of 
stipple engraving under Bartolozzi, few achieved 
greater fame than Charles Knight, the engraver of 
the plate Run A'way Lo-ie, after Stothard, reproduced 
in the present number. 

Many of the plates which bear Bartolozzi's signature 
are, there is little doubt, the work of Knight, and the 
famous Miss Farren plate published by Jeffreys, and 
signed by Bartolozzi, undoubtedly contains a consider- 
able amount of Knight's work. He engraved after 
Bunbury, Kauffman, Wheatley, Stothard, Hoppner, 
and Reynolds, to mention only a few, and for many 
of his plates high prices are now realised. He was, 
perhaps, most successful with the works of Stothard, 
his plates after this master showing how well he 
understood .Stothard's moods. 

Thomas Stothard, the painter, who was born in 
1755, at an early age made drawings for the To-wn 
and Country Magazine, and becoming known was 
soon employed on the British Poets, the Novelist's 
Magazine, etc. While on this work he met Flaxman, 
who became one of his closest friends. A student 
of the Royal Academy in 1778, he became Associate 
in 1785, and full Academician in 1794. It is said 
that Stothard made over five thousand designs for 
books, of which over three thousand were used. He 
died in 1834. There are several examples of his 
work at the National Gallery and South Kensington. 

We also reproduce Sir Joshua Reynolds's portrait 
of Countess Spencer from the collection at Chatsworth, 
by permission of the Duke of Devonshire ; La Toilette 
de Venus, by J. A. L'Rveille, after Huet ; and another 
of our series of sporting prints, The Devmiport Mail 
7uar Aniesbury, by R. Havell, after H. Aiken. 

The Catalogue of Chinese Porcelain with Coats of 

Arms we noticed in our November issue is a catalogue 

of the Collection of Mr. Frederick Arthur 

rmona Crisp, of Broadhurst, Godalming, and 

the Coats of Arms are of British families 

only. The book has been printed at Mr. Crisp's own 

press, the Grove Park Press, 270, Walworth Road, S.E. 

Books Received 

;/'// ami Imaginalion of Benjamin Disraeli : Vignetles from 
Oliver Goldsmith : The. Fancy and Humour of Charles 
Lamh, by George Sampson, Is. 6d. net each ; Josiah 
Wedftwood, by A^ H. Cluiicli, F.S.A. ; 7he Ruined Abbeys 
of Yojkshire, by W. C. Lefroy, F.S.A., 2s. net each; 
Of the Ivtilaliou of Christ, by Thomas a Kcmpis ; Caiu- 
bridge, by J. W. Clark, M.A., es. nel each ; English 
Society of the \%lh Cenluiy in Contemporary Art, by 
Randall Davie.s, F.S.A. , 7s. nel. (Seeley & Co.) 
Leonardo da Vinci, by Eilwaid McCuidy, M.A. ; Giorgione, 
by Herbert Cook, M.A., F.S.A. ; Hans Memlinc, by W. 
H. Tames Weale ; Jacopo Kobusti, called Tintoretto, by 
I. B. Sloughton Holhorn, B.A., F.R.G.S., 3?. <d. net 
each ; The Peter Pan Picture Book, by Alice B. Woodward 
and Daniel O'Connor, 5s. net ; How to Collect Postage Stamps, 
by Bertram T. K. Smith, Cs. net ; George Morland, by G. C. 
Williamson, 7s. 6d. net ; Charles Turner, Ew^raver, by 
Alfred Whitman, 315. 6d. net; Kuheus (Bell's Miniature 
Series of Painters), by Hope Rea, Is. nel. (G. Bell & Sons.) 

Every Child's Libiary : One for Wod and One for Lot: The 
Old Old Myths of Greece and Home ; Sigurd, the Dragon- 
Slayer : The Seven Chautpions of Christendom, by The. 
Carlwright, is. 6d. net each. (W'. Meinemann.) 

Greuze, by Alys Eyre Macklin, Is. 6d. nel : Botticelli, by 
Henry B. Binns, is. 6d. nel ; Komney : Turner, by C. Lewis 
Hind, IS. 6d. nel each; Knights of Art : Stories of the 
Italian L'ain/eis, by Amy Sleedman, illustrated by Mary 
Steeilman, 6s. nel. (T. C. & E. C. Jack.) 

The Christ Face in Art, by James ISiirns, 6s. nel ; Pre- 
ICaphaelite Brotherhood, by Ford Maddox Ihieffer, 7s. 6d. ; 
Eugene Delacroix, by D. Bussy, 5s. nel ; Kemhandt, by 
G. Baldwin Brown, M.A., 7s. 6d. net. (Duckworth & Co.) 

The Bumhelloes, by M. and G. Sowerby, is. 61I. nel ; Childhood, 
by M. and G. Soweiby, 3s. 6d. net ; ]Vomen of Florence, 
by Isiiloro del Lungo, 7s. 6d. net. (Chatto & Windus.) 

Venice: The Ccldcn Age. 2 vols., by Pompeo Molmenti, 
translated by Horatio F. Brown, 21s. nel : I'HIo-m Lace, by 
Elizabeth MincolT, Ph.D., and Margaret S. Marriage, M.A., 
illustrated by Ernest Marriage, 15s. net ; The Fres:oes in 
the Sixtine Chapel, by Evelj'n Maich Phillips, 2s. 6d. net. 
(John Murray.) 

Constable, by Herlwrt W. Tompkins, 2s. 6d. net ; Trees in Nature, 
Myth and Art, by ]. Ernest Phythian, 6s. (Melhuen & Co.) 

The Nature Poems of George Meredith, illustrated bv Wm. 
Hyde, 12s. net ; The Story of a Beautiful Duchess, by 
Horace Bleackley, 21s. net. (A. Constable & Co.) 

Gleanings after Time, by (j. L. Apperson, I.S.O. ; Cremonte 
anil tiie later London Gardens, by Warwick Wroth, 
6s. net each. (Elliot .Stock.) 

The House Beautiful and Useful, by J. Elder-Duncan, 5s. net. 
(Cassell & Co.) 

Random Recollections of ILampstead, by G. W. Potter, 2s. 6d. 
(Eyre & Spolliswoodc. ) 

The Keramic Gallery, by Wm. Chaffers, revised by H. M. 
Cundall, I.S.O., F.S.A., 355. net. (Gibbings & Co.) 

The Postage Stamps of Sarawak, by F. J. Melville, is. nel. 
(Chas. Nissen & Co.) 

lllnslrated History of Furniluie, by F'icd. Litchfield, 15s. nel. 
(Truslove & Hanson, Lid.) 

Napoleon and the Invasion of England, 1 vols., by A. M. 
Broadley, 32s. nel. (John Lane.) 

Old Spanish Masters, engraved by Timothy Cole and notes 
by Charles H. C.aflin, 31s. 6d. nel. (Macmillan & Co.) 

The Book op Fair Women, by Federigo Luigino of Udino, 
6s. net. (T. W'erner Laurie.) 

The Reliquary and Illustrated Archicologist, Oclolwr, edited 
by Rev. T. Charles Cox, LL.D., F.S.A., 2s. 6<l. (Bemrose 
& Sons.) 

Art and Architecture, Jidy and August. (W. Brooks & Co.) 

7'he In^oldsby Legends, illustrated by Arthur Kackliam. 
A.R.W.S., 15^. net. (J. M. Dent & Co.) 

The Collector's Manual, by N. Hudson Moore, 25s. nel. 
(Chapman & Hall.) 

Pictorial Post Cards of Banners of Knights of the Garter. 
(Sutton, Sharpc &"Co.) 

./ Liachelor Girl in Burmah, by G. \i. MilMn. 6s. nel. 
(A. & C. Black.) 

Enamelling, by Lewis F. Day, 7s. 6d. nel. (H. T. Balsford.) 


TJic Coinioisseur 

Notes and Queries 

\The Editor invilei the assistance of readers 0/ The 
Connoisseur 7i'/w may be able to impart the informa- 
tion required by Correspondents^ 

"Oliver Cromwell's Snuff-Box." 
To the Editor (j/The Connoisseur. 

Sir, — Seeing in the October Connoisseur that 
you give an illustration of Oliver Cromwell's snuff- 
box, I have had a photograph taken of one which 
has been in the possession of my family for generations. 
We derived it from George Betties, who was born 
in the Kastern Counties in 1742. Until last year 
we had no knowledge of Nath. Kinderly's personality, 
but then heard that the anti- 
quarians of Chester had searched 
in likely and unlikely places for 
some trace of his history, and 
nothing was discovered relating 
to him until this snuff-box. It 
appears that he was the engineer 
who altered the course of the 
river Dee, and to him, his heirs 
and assigns for ever, was granted 
the sole right to all lands re- 
claimed from the Dee. How a 
man who played such an import- 
ant part in the City of Chester 
in 1732-40 could have disap- 
peared in this manner is astonish- 
ing I I have been told that he also 
was concerned in draining the 
Fens, and as the above George 
Betties was descended from 
Oliver Cromwell, "The Lord of the Fens," it points 
to a possible clue in that direction. If you would 
kindly make room for the enclosed photo and this 
query, some of your readers might give the information 
so much desired by the antiquarians of Chester. 

The snufif-box is ivory, with silver hinges and silver 

rim round the base with inscription. It is nearly 

2* inches high. ,,, , ,, ,, ... 

" (Miss) L. !•. W illi.\ms. 

A Missing Raphael. 
To t/ie Editor of The Connoisseur. 
Dear Sir, — Could you by the aid of your Magazine 
find out for me where Raphael's picture entitled 
The Madonna 'with a Fink or Carnation is ? 

In the Art Journal oi ]\i\y, i860, a small woodcut 


of it is given. At that time it was known to be in 
a small private collection at Rome. 

On consulting one of Bell's handbooks of art on 
Raphael it is given as missing. I should be very 
pleased if any of your contributors could inform me 
of its whereabouts at the present time. 
Yours faithfully, 

1'rank G. Chai'I'LE. 

Napoleon's Bee. 
To the Editor of The Connoisseur. 
Sir, — Although the bee wa.s seldom, perhaps 
never, actually an object of adoration, it finds its 
place in the symbolism, and amongst the super- 
stitions, of all times and 

Bees are found amongst the 
hieroglyphs of Egypt, the symbol 
of Royalty being, according to 
Horapallo, a sceptre followed 
by a bee, denoting the puoi)le 
obedient to a king. 

It may have been in the same 
sense that it was adopted as a 
badge by the ancient Kings of 
France, as, for instance, by Chil- 
deric, at the opening of whose 
tomb in St. Denis over 300 
golden bees, which had formed 
the decoration of his robe, were 
found, whilst it is known that 
Louis XII. and Henri IV. 
sometimes used these emblems 
instead of fleursde-lys. Upon 
this it is conjectured that the fleur-de-lys was a 
corruption of the figure of a bee. 

The great Napoleon, who, while changing the 
established order of things, never missed an op- 
portunity of .showing that he knew full well the 
value attaching to the prestige of antiquity, replaced 
the dishonoured fleur-de-lys by the imperial and 
more ancient badge of the bee, and his coronation 
robe, probably in imitation of that of Childeric, was 
5«/// with golden bees. j a. Unett. 

The Hookah Vase. 
Miss Williams calls our attention to the fact that 
we misread her handwriting in the note on the vase 
which appeared in the last number. It should read 
" Hookah," not " Hooket." 


TJie Coinioisse/ir 



Readers of The Connoisseur are entitled 
to the privilege of an answer gratis in these columns 
on any subject of interest to the collector of antique 
curios and works of art ; and an enquiry coupon for 
this purpose will be found placed in the advertisement 
pages of every issue. Objects of this nature may also 
be sent to us for authentication and appraisement, in 
which case, however, a small fee is charged, and the 
information given privately by letter. Valuable objects 
will be insured by us against all risks whilst on our 
premises, and it is therefore desirable to make all 
arrangements with us before forwarding. (See coupon 
for full particulars.) 

"Bank Note. — 10,426 (Enfield).— Your note is of no 
conimcicial value. It is simply a suggested form for Messrs. 
Simpson, Chapman & Co., Whitby, who slarted business a 
little before the year 1783. A full account of the bank, and 
copies of the notes they issued, will be found in Maberly Phillips' 
Hisloiy of Banks, Bankers, and Banking in North Durham 
and North Yorkshire. 

'Books. — "Master Humphrey's Clock," by 
Charles Dickens, 1840.-9,959 (Shooters' Ilill).— If your 
copy (if Master Jiuiiiphreys Cioek is in a single bound volume, 
its value is not more than £\ or 30s. In the original parts 
it would fetch £2 or ^^3. 

Books on European Arms.— 9,987 (Budge Row).— Anns 
and Armour, both English and European, are generally treated 
in the same work, and we are afraid we cannot refer you to any 
se])arate book on European arms. Any of the following works 
would contain information on the subject : Boutell's Anns and 
Armour, Demmin's Arms and Armour, Sir K. Binton's Book 
of the S-u'ord, Egerton Castle's Schools and Masters of Fenee, 
V. C. Laking's Cata/oxiie of the Armoury at Malta. 

"Antiquities of England and Wales," by Francis 
Urose, 1784, 7 vols— 9,895 (Cardill). — If your volumes 
are in good binding, the complete work should realise about 
£2 2S. 

"Shakespeare's Works and Plays."— 9,896 (Ton- 
bridge). — \'oui edition is not likely to be ol great value. We 
must know the! dale to give a definite opinicjn. 

Quide Book to (jiastonbury, 1810. g, Sob (Weston- 
su|ier-Mare).- N'our book is only ol trilling value. 

" II Pastor Hido del Cavalier Battista (iuarini," 
1659. — 9,908 (Dalslon). — The work you describe would letch 
a very small stnn in a London saleroom. 

Cruikshank's Engravings, 2 vols. 9,981 (.Midhurst). 
— V'ou do not say whether the engravings in your volumes are 
coloured. About /,'2 2s. would be an average value. 

" Don Quixote," 1819, 4 vols., cajf. — 9,907 (Becken- 
haiu). — Vmir co|iy is worth about £t, ;s. 

Dickens' Works. — 9,997 (Melton Mowbray). — Eirst 
editions of Dickens' works, unless in the original parts, are 
not in great demand just now. Martin Chmzlewit, 1844, in 
calf, and Domliey and .Son, 1848, half calf, would bring aliout 
15s. each ; Nicholas Nickleby, 1S39, and Da-,nd Copferfield, 
1850, half calf, 20s. e.ich ; and Our Mutual Friend, 1S65, 
half cloth, and Oliver Twist, 1839, cloth, ics. 6d. each. With 
regard to the other books : Thackeray's Newcomcs, 1854, 2 vols., 
half calf, is worth about 2ls., and Anthony Trollope's Can you 
Forgive Her! 1S65, 2 vols., red cloth, 15s., while Boswell's 
lohnson, 1839, being imperfect would not have greater value 
than lOs. 

Book of Designs, by Michael Angelo Pergolesi.— 
9,0'ii (High Wycombe). — This is a valuable book, but we 
must know the nuudier ol plates to give a definite opinion. 

" Hunting Sketches," by S. Bowers.— 9,975 (Birch- 
ington). — Your Iwok is only worth a few shillings. 

" Cours D'Architecture," par Pierre Jean Mariette, 
1750. — 9,906 (I'.ayswater). — This work has no great selling 

Engravings.—'' Sancho," after Beuf, by C. 
Turner. — 9,881 (Kedlington).- — If a good impression, your 
colour-print of Sir John Shellev's pointer should be worth ;^5 
to £6. 

" Mrs. Siddons and Son in the Tragedy of Isa= 
bella." — 9,927 (Heiton-le-Hole). — Your |irint is not ot much 
intert^t. ami its value does not exceed IDs. or 15s. 

Etchings by Guido Reni. — 9,851 (Bromley). — The 
etchings )'ou ile^cribe are of little value. 

" Fox Hunting," by J. Seymour.— 9,981 (Bidduiph 
Moor). — If your prints are old impressions, about 14 in. by 
TO in., they are worth abotit £i each. 

"The Expulsion," by F. K. Sexton, after J. Sant. 
— 10,000 (.*\U)any, N.Y.). — This is one of the jirints (or which 
there is no demand at the i>resent time, and its counuercial 
\alue is, therefore, not more than a lew shillings. 

" Oeorge IV." after Sir T. Lawrence, by W. 
Finden. — 10,114 (Margate). — The value of your engraving 
is not more than 8s. or los. 

"Delia in Town" and "Delia in the Country," 
after (i. Morland, by J. R. Smith. 10,059 (Nmihead). 

— It is im|-iossibIe i.o value your colouied piints without seeing 
them. If they are fine old impressions, they might realise as 
much as £200 under the hammer ; but there are many facsimile 
reprodiictirtns about which are almost worthless. 

" Fighting Temeraire," by Turner. — 10,098 (Ipswich). 
— The value of this print is approximately between £\o and 
;^I2, according to state. Ancient and Modern Italy is worth 
roughly about £a, to £i,. The present is a very good liirie 
for sale. 

"The Neophyte," by Dore. — 10,057 (Old Cumnock). — 
The value of your engraving does not exceed a few shillings. 

" The Best Shelter," etc. — 10,300 (Lewisham). — Vour 
prints aie worth only a few shiUiTigs apiece. 

"London Cries." — 10,009 (Leeds). — The prints you 
describe are not the valuable London Cries after Wheatley, and 
they aie worth but a few shillings. 

" Rebekah sees the Approach of Abraham," after 
A. Elmore, by F. Holl.— 10,022 (East Twickenham). — 
Engiavings til this class have very little \alue at the present 
time, llieie being no deinaTnl loi them. 

"Hibernia in a .lig," and " Un Minuet a L'Ang- 
laise," after Adam Buck.— 10,050 (Sherborne).— Your 
l^rinls, having the lilies cut off, are not worth more than from 
15s. to 25s. each. Without this ilefect, their value would be 
at least double this sum. 

ObjetS d'Art. — Wax Miniature.— 9,947 (Truro). 

— As a general ride, wax miniatuies do not fetch any l)ig sum. 
They must have a s])ecial interest to make them valuable. 

(iold Ring, etc. — 9,815 (Bury St. Edmunds). — If yon do 
not wish to send the articles you mention lor a written valuation, 
send us sketches and full ])articulars, and we will endeavour to 
reply in these columns. 

Cloisonne Jars. — 9,972 (Chestei). — As far as we can judge 
from the photographs you send, we should say your Cloisonne- 
jars were modern Japanese, of no collector's interest. The value 
of a jiair of these modern jars is about 50s. 

Bronze Bowl. — 9,933 (Brighton). — The bowl, inscribed 
Wolverhamfton, and date 1671, is probably bronze. Though 
not of very great monetary value, it should be of local interest. 
You might offer it to Mr. \. C. C. Jahn, the Curator of the 
Municipal Art Gallery and Museum, Wolverhampton. The 
bowl is worth about £\ or ^^5. 

Coffee Urn.— o,S68 (Bedford). — Wc cannot tell from a 
lihotograjih whether your coffee urn is Sheffield plate or eleclro- 
plated. Even if the former, however, its style proclaims it to 
lie of late jieriod, and its value woulil not exceed £2. The 
silver medal, mounted as a brooch, of which you send rulibing, 
is a fairly common priv.ite medal, issued by the well-known 
antiquary, I'eter Miilman. In bronze it is worth alxiul Is., 
in silver about 6s. Kirby Hall is in Essex. 

Marble Statue. — 9,900 (Willesden). — From tile style, your 
statue is apparently the work of an English scul]itor of the last 
fifty years. It must be seen to be valued. 


The Connoissettr 

Bnamel 80x68.-9,968 (Mcrwatn). — Vuiir i)liot(^raph 
shows alioul si\(y enamel Imjxcs, bul I licy art- not <if sufficient 
size and detail to enable lis 10 judge inilividual values. Tliey 
seem lo be mostly of Bilslon and fialleisea enamel, with vary- 
ing values from 15s. to;^4 t^t £,f, each. The iwo plaques appear 
to be I'ersian, of the 171I1 century, and, although damaged, they 
should be worth from £\2 lo /■15. 

PeWter. — 9,804 (He<lfoed I'ark). — The plates and 
ili.slK^, oi MJiich you send rubbings, arc by makers of about the 
year 1740. lioih Smith .nnd Withers were members of the 
Pcwterers' Comjiany at alxiul that date, so thai your plates and 
dishes cannot have any connection with James II., who died 
fifiy years before. The giving of hallmarked pewler in ex- 
change for contiscaled silver is a fable entirely without founda- 
tion. See reply lo No. 5,594 (Ilighgate) in TllK Connoisskuk, 
July, 1905. Your plales are worth about 5s. ench, and dishes 
from IDS. to 30s. each, according to design. The best text 
I»oks on pewter are Masse's Pc-u>/er Plate, 15s. (Bell) ; and 
Bell's OI<i Pewter, los. 6d. (Newnes). 

Pictures. — " The Holy Family, with St. John." 

9,91 1 (Creiliton). — \'our painting is cvidcnlly not 1 lie work of 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, and from the photograph you send wc 
should think it of liule importance. 

Spots on Drawing.— 9,986 (liirmingham).— The spots 
appearing upon your water-colour drawing are undoubtedly 
caused by dampness. Thai they have not appeared before is of 
no consequence whatever. Under certain conditions, such spots 
are likely to come upon quite modern drawings, ahhough they 
are more often found upon drawings which have been mounted 

an<l framed for many years. They are produced by certain 
chemical changes, and considerable skill is necessary to remove 
them. The best plan would be to send the drawing lo a good 

Kathhone. — 11. H. 1). (Malvern). — We do not know of any 
book on Kalhlione, and we do not think one has been issueil. 
lie w:i^ quiu- an unintporlanl painter. 

Jan Van Eyck.— 9,922 (Ted<lington). — It is impissible 10 
gauge llic value of your six paintings, even approximately, unless 
we see lliem. If they are genuine, they are certainly of very 
considerable interesl, and we should ailvise ytiu to send them. 
Packed between boards, with plenty of tissue pa|)er Ixitween 
e.ich, they should come quite safely by registered (msl, as they 
are quite small. 

Pottery and Porcelain. — Crown Derby 

AlujCS. o.Sj; |I lil'iii. liii-'.i.l). — 'I'lir nuigs you describe are 
i.vl'ii iiily old I lown Uciby. II pcrlcd, they should realise 
jC^ or ^3 each al a London auction sale. 

Chelsea Figure. — 9,863 (Churchdown). — Your figure of 
Britannia and the lion is probably not Bristol, but Chelsea. If 
so, and it is in good condition, il is worth about ;^I2 to £1$- 

Chelsea Figures. — 9,849 (Gravesend). — If your figures of 
a tailor and his wife aie genuine Chelsea, their value is alx)ut 

Posset Cup.— 9,969 (Paddington). — In the photograph you 
send your cup has all the appearance of a modern Italian or 
Spanish j)icce of no value beyond a few shillings. 

Minton Vase and Figures.— 9,941 (Market Harl»rough). 
— Karly Minton of line quality is Ijeginning 10 be collected, but 
it has not yet acquired a special value. Your vase and figures 
arc worth, at present prices, about £<) or ^10. 


Conducted uv A. .Mkkkdyiii IIlkkk 

1,218 (Newliaven, Conn.). — It is probably Alice, daughter 
of Sir 1-Mward Apsley, of Thakeham, Co. Sussex, and widow 
of Sir John Boteler, of Teston in Kent, who is referred to as 
" Lady Fenwick, the wife of the first Governor of Connecticut,'" 
and whose remains are said lo have been recovered at Old 
Saybrook in 1870. Lady Bolder married secondly George 
Kenwick (son of George Fenwick, of Brinkburn, Norlhumbcr- 
land), whom she accomiianieil lo New England. Fenwick look 
an active part in the colonization of Conneciicul, as representative 
of the ])alentees, and, settling there with his wife and family 
in 1639, became Governor of the Fort of Saybrook. Returning 
to England after her death, he in the Long Parliament 
for Morpeth, and in 1648 was appointed one of the com- 
missioners for the trial of Charles I., but refused lo act. He 
married secondly, Catherine, eldest daughter of .Sir Arthur 
Hesilrigg, and died 15 March, 1656/7. 

1,225 (London). — Elizabeth, eldest surviving daughter of Sir 
John Danvers, the regicide, appears to h.ave styled herself 
Viscountess Purbeck after the death of her first husband, Robert 
Villiers, whose right to the Viscountcy was the subject of much 
controversy in the reign of Charles II. Sir John Villiers, elder 
brother of George, Duke of Buckingham, was in 1619 created 
Baron Stoke in the Co. of Bucks, and Viscount Purljeck of 
the Co. Dorset. He married as bis first wife in 1617 Frances, 
daughter of Sir Edward Coke, Lord Chief Justice of England ; 
but in 1621 this lady eloped with Sir Robert Howard, and, 
having given birth to a son in 1624, was fined and imprisoned. 
The srm, Robert, married 23 Nov., 1648, Elizabeth, second 
d.aughter and co-heiress of .Sir John Uanvers, one of the 
regicides. .After the death of his father-in-law in 1655, Robert 
Villiers assumed the name of Danvers, and, allhough he had 
been associated with Lord Purbeck as son and heir apparent 
in the sale of some lands, on the Viscount's death he disclaimed 
ihe lillc, and, having Ix-en elected member for Westbury in 
1659, the following year levied a fine of all his peerage dignities 
wilh a view to their extinction. His death took pl.ace about 
167s, and his widow, who married secondly Colonel John 

Duvall. died in 1 709. The son and heir, Robert Villiers, 
alias Danvers, assumed the title of Mscoiinl Purbeck, and his 
petition was referred to the House of Lords, but it was opposed 
because of the fine levied by his father, and also on .account 
of the latler's illegitimacy. In 1678 a decision was given 
against the validity of the fine, and as to illegitimacy it was 
|iroposed ihat a bill should be brought in lo debar the claim 
10 ihe title. No further slejis, however, seem to have been 
taken, and no summons was ever issued lo him or his 
descendants, though the titles continued to be assumed (or 
claimed) until the extinction of this family in 1774. 

1,232 (London). — There does not appear lo be any authori- 
tative explanation on record for Napoleon's .adoption of the bees 
as his emblem. The late William Ewarl, however, replying 
to an inquiry on this subject in " Notes and (^)ucries," in 1S53, 
asserted, on the personal authority of Augustin Thierry, the 
celebrated hislorian, lliat "the small ornaments resembling bees 
found in the tomb of Childeric, were only what in French are 
called ' fleurons,' supposed to have been altacheil lo the harness 
of his war-horse. Handfuls of them were found when the tomb 
was opened at Tournay, and sent lo Louis XIV. They were 
deposited on a green ground at Versailles. Napoleon, wishing 
to have some regal emblem more ancient than Ihe (leur-de-lys, 
adopted the fleurons as Ijees, and the green ground as the 
original Merovingian colour." 

1,239 (Guernsey). — The .-Vrms on the sketch are not English, 
and probably represent those of a French Archbishop, who was also 
a Primate or Legate, of Ihe seventeenth or eighteenth century. 

1,245 (Middlesborough). — The drawing is a copy of the .Arms 
borne by Sir Rolwrt Peel, whose baronetcy was created in iSoo ; 
the description of them is : " Argent three sheaves of as many 
arrows proper two and one b.inded gules, on a chief azure a Iwe 
volant or." The CresI (omitted in the sketch) is : " A demi-lion 
rampant argent gorged with a collar azure charged with three 
bezants holding between the paws a shuttle or." Mollo: Industria. 


JuiiuiNi; from all accounts, the new season which 
commenced on October 3icl, and, following the ordinary 

course, will close with 
the last days of July 
next year, promises to 
be both busy and im- 
portant. Several very 
large libraries of ex- 
ceptional interest are 
likely to come into the 
sale rooms, and should 
they do so, some 
more records will un- 
questionably be broken, since they are known to contain 
many books which are all the rage just now. These 
collections may, as sometimes happens, be sold in the 
interim by private contract, and therefore it is not wise 
to be sure about anything ; but as matters at present 
stand the outlook is distinctly encouraging from the 
point of view of the well-to-do collector, whose loudest 
complaint generally is that though money be plentiful 
and ready, the opportunity of spending it on the books he 
craves for is too frequently wanting. These consist for 
the most part of Shakespeareana, .Americana, the early 
English classics generally, and examples of antique 
typography. All these classes, amongst others, have 
lately "triumphed," as it is said, exceedingly, thanks to 
the unlimited commissions which have arrived from the 
United States, nor is there the slightest sign of their 
being less esteemed in the future. 

The ordinary bookman, however, fails to see much 
" triumph," or, indeed, matter for congratulation at all, 
in record prices which are themselves likely to be broken 
at any moment, lie prefers to frequent the quieter paths 
of enterprise, and is happy in the knowledge that books, 
and good books too, have not been so chea]) for ten 
years past as they are now. \'ery high prices lavished 
in one department of literature have the effect of reducing 
prices correspondingly in another. This has been 
noticed for years past, and every sale which takes 
place is, in one of its aspects, but an incident in a 
never-ending game of see-saw, in which the player at 
the lower level has an excellent chance of bettering 
himself. It is hardly fair, perhaps, to select the first 

sale of the season for such an illustrative |nirpose as 
this, but, generally speaking, it is useful as emphasising 
the position we have taken up. It was held by Messrs. 
Puttick & Simpson on the 3rd and 4th of October, 
and was essentially a collector's sale. A very little 
money went a long way. Some 650 lots of books 
realised less than .£500, and many of these books were 
really good of their kind, though not in much favour 
at the present time. Furthermore, this and several later 
sales show the probable trend of events, and are worth 
considering in that respect, provided the conclusions 
derived from them are not pushed too far. 

.Vt Messrs. Puttick & Simpson's a number of the 
Historiial Monographs published by Goupil were dis- 
posed of at prices which show a decline all through 
the list. We do not speak now of copies upon Japanese 
vellum, but of the ordinary issue ; each with its 
coloured frontispiece and photogravure plates, in a 
paper wrapper as published. This time last year Bishop 
Mandell Creighton's Oiieeii Elizabeth, 1896, stood at 
£^\i, 15s. ; this price has now fallen to £.\ i,and, speaking 
generally, the rest of the biographies in this scries 
show a proportionate decline, which, though not very 
jjronounced, is yet noticeable. Sir John Skelton's Alary 
Stuarl, 1898, now stands at 38s., and the same author's 
Charles the I-'irst, 189S, at 21s. ; Dr. Gardiner's Olh'cr 
Croiii'well, 1899, also stands at a guinea, and so do 
Mr. Osmund Airy's Charles the Secoml, 1901 ; Mr. T. 
F. Henderson's _/«///« /. ami VI., 1904; and Pierre de 
Nolhac's Marie Antoinette la Rcine, 1898. A similar 
copy of Mr. Andrew Lang's Prince Charles Edward, 
1900, realised 23s. Many other books of which these 
are representative will probably be found in a similar 
])osition when we come across them. Their tendency 
just now is to decline in value, and that is a pity, for 
their artistic interest is great. On the other hand, rare 
and curious specimens of binding are far more expensive 
than they used to be. A small 8vo Bible, dated 1635, 
in an old needlework binding worked in silver wire with 
Tudor roses and birds, sold for .^18. \Vc are glad to 
see that the cataloguer did not describe this as being 
by " The Xuns of Little Gidding," for there is no 
authority whatever for the belief that these ascetics 
ever worked embroidered bindings. The Fancy, or True 

The Cotiiioissciir 

Sporlsmaifs Giiiik, 2 \ols., 8vo, 1826, coiilaining .1 
coloured title and poiliaits of puyilisls, belongs to a 
class of books about which no fears need be entertained. 
The copy sold on this occasion realised ^5 1 5s. (calQ, 
and would have brought more had not the question 
arisen whether it should or should not contain a portrait 
of Daniel Mcndoza. The better opinion is that one was 
never issued, and it was certainly not to be found in 
this copy. Other books of a desirable kind sold by 
Messrs. Puttick & -Simpson about this time, though nut 
at this sale, included Sir William Congreve's Rocket 
System, n.d., oblong folio, £^ 7s. (old calQ, and Clayton's 
Costumes of the First or Grenadier Regiment of Guards, 
1854, oblong folio, ^15 los. (calO- 

Messrs. Hodgson's sale of October Slli and three 
following days was also of a miscellaneous character, 
but the catalogue was much more extensive, and the 
prices realised rather higher, all things considered. The 
first seven series and eight volumes of the eighth series 
of Notes and Queries, in all 92 vols, in 46, with inde.xes 
to the eight series, together 54 vols., 1849-98, sold for 
£ib (half calf) ; the " Edinburgh edition" of the Wavcrley 
Novels, 48 vols., 1901-3, for £•; 15s. (buckram, uncut); 
the " Pentland edition " of R. L. Stevenson's works, 
20 vols., 1906-7, for £7 I2s. 6d. (buckram, uncut); and 
the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society from 
1852 to i8g6, not consecutive, in all 80 vols., for £ib 
(half calf and publisher's cloth). Many other works 
often met with, and therefore worthy of passing attention 
if only for purposes of comparison, realised satisfactory 

The following may be specially noted : Metamor- 
phoses (PO'iiide, illustrated by Eisen, Moreau, and others, 
4 vols., Paris, 1767-71, 4to, ^15 10s. (old French calf) ; 
Mrs. Frankau's fohn Raphael Smith, His Life a>id 
Works, 50 plates in colours and monochrome, with 
the 8vo volume of te.xt, 1902, ^13 (buckram, t.e.g.) ; 
the same author's William and fames Ward, plates in 
colours and monochrome, with the 8vo volume of te.\t, 
1904,^8 los. (original cloth) ; Malton's View of Dublin, 
1794, oblong folio, £^ 15s. (half calQ ; the first edition 
of Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare, containing 20 plates 
by Blake, 2 vols., small 8vo, 1807, £\<) (half calf); and 
the same author's Last Essays of Elia, fust edition, 1833, 
£■] los. (cloth, uncut). It may also be observed that 
Pliny's Historia Naturalis, printed by Jenson at Venice 
in 1472, folio, realised ;^i6 (old vellum). 

Messrs. Hodgson's sale commencing on the i6th of 
October contained a number of works on natural history, 
e.g., a complete set of the Transactions of the London 
Entomological Society from the commencement in 1836 
to 1905, together 25 volumes in half calf and boards, 
and 141 parts. This set, which was clean, and had all 
the title pages, realised ^33. Gould's Trochilida;b vols., 
morocco extra, 1861 -87, sold for /40 ; The Birds of Asia, 

7 vols , for /36 (half morocco, gilt) ; The Mammals of 
Australia, 3 vols., 1863, for ^32 (morocco extra); The 
/Hills of A'ew Guinea, 5 vols, in 25 ])arts, 1875-88, for 
£2^ I OS. ; and Booth's Rough Notes on Jiirds, 3 vols., 
1881-87, atlas 4to, for ^iS los. (half morocco). A com- 
plete set of The Folk-Lore Society's Publications in 
60 vols., 8vo, 1878-1907, sold for ^25 los. (original 
cloth), and a complete set of the Tudor Translations, 
40 vols., 1892-1905, for £z^ (half buckram, uncut). 
It may also be mentioned for future reference, if needs 
be, that vols. I to 29 of the Library Edition of Ruskin's 
Works, as edited by Cook and Wedderburn, 1903-6, 
royal 8vo, realised ^20 los. ; Rowlandson's Loyal 
Volunteers of London and Environs, with 87 jjlates 
coloured and heightened with gold and silver, n.d. 
( 1 799), £-° 'OS- (old russia) ; Temple's Wallace Collection 
at Hertford House, 2 vols, in 10 parts, on Japanese paper, 
1902, folio, £14 5s. ; the original subscription edition 
of Lodge's Portraits, 4 vols., folio, 1821-34, ;^2i los. 
(morocco extra) ; and Didot's Greek Classics, 63 vols., 
Paris, 1845-80, ;^2i (half morocco). This was in every 
respect an excellent sale, really well catalogued, but 
few mistakes being observable, and those of a trifling 
character. The amount realised e.xcecded ;^ 1,600. 

Few book sales take place during October, the season 
really not commencing till the month following, and as 
tliis year proved no exception to the rule, not much 
jnore remains to be said. On October 9th, and seven 
subsequent days, a collection of books belonging to 
Mr. W. Mullin was sold at Liverpool by Messrs. 
George R. Pollard & Co. The catalogue comprised 
rather more than 2,000 lots, and the prices realised were, 
on the whole, good, though the books themselves were ot 
a useful rather than an unusual character. Other works 
which may be specially noted as having sold during the 
month of October at different rooms include Shelley's 
(2ueen Mab, the first edition of 1813, with the subsequently 
suppressed title-page and imprint on the last leaf, /loo 
(original boards, uncut, with label) ; Keats's Lamia, 
Isabella, and other Poems, 1820, ^40 (original boards, 
uncut, with the half title); that very rare work known 
as Aiken's Sporting Repository, 1S22, 8\o, containing 
19 coloured plates, £i>o (half morocco, Gosden's copy) ; 
Combe's Wars of Wellington, 1819, 4to, £b (original 
half morocco) ; another copy of the Loyal Volunteers 
(1799), £-i los. (old calf, rcbacked); the second volume 
of Gay's Fables, 1738, 4to, £1 1 5s. (half calQ ; Smollett's 
Peregrine Pickle, f^\■si cA\\\ox\, 4 vols., i~ii, £•, 5S- (old 
calf) ; Ackermann's Colleges of Winchester, Eton, and 
Westminster, 1816, royal 4to, ^28 los. (half morocco 
extra); and a collection of 23 volumes ot J. H. Jesse's 
various works, all belonging to the original editions, and 
in cloth as issued, ^42. Many of these books were 
sold by Messrs. Puttick & Simpson on October 24th 
and following day. 


Modern Ceramic 

Some Phases of Ceramic Art 

One of the most flagrant symptoms of our 
insularity which strikes the Enghshman who has 
spent some years on the Continent, long enough, 


I mean, to see something of the home life of his 
fellow-men either in France, Germany, or Austria, is 
the indifference manifested by his average fellow- 
countryman for ceramic art. We have, of course, 
our great collectors, whose cabinets enshrine priceless 
treasures which few other private collections in the 
world can rival. But the collector inevitably tends 
to specialise. He digs his own groove and stays 
there. It may lead him to a state of mind in which 
he is in some sort hypnotised in the belief that 
his Crown Derby or his Dresden sums up all the 
possibilities of the cunning of the potter's thumb, 
or, involved beyond recall in the partizanship of long- 
standing feud between the greater families rose and 
verte, he may come to regard all contemporary 

By a Dilettante. 

development of ceramic art with the apathetic toler- 
ance of a Rip van Winkle. The sympathies of the 
connoisseur are in any case very rarely catholic, and 
in the country the tastes of the collector of china 
who is genuinely a connoisseur are usually hedged 
by and confined to at most half a dozen historic 

There are, as well, our public collections, the 
Wallace Gallery and the South Kensington Museum, 
for e.xample, which for their educational range are 
hardly to be surpassed by any country in the world. 
The average Englishman is content to gape at them 
open-mouthed, more especially when the value of some 
of the specimens is expressed in terms of hard cash. 
But he regards them as treasures in which he himself 
as a conscientious ratepayer can never afford to have 
more than an academic interest. The hypnotic spell 



of the " mark " holds him. Unless a piece of china 
is authoritatively hall marked by text-books and selt- 
cducators, it has no meaning for him. It may be 

The Coiii/oissni?' 


(8 IN. BY 4J IN.). 

4. — PANEL, ' ' CALYPSO " 
(12^^ IN. BY 9 IN.). 

lir,,T~*--«- J. 

5. — SIREN 

(8J IN. BY 4J^ IN.). 


beautiful in lorm, ex- 
quisite in colouring, and 
perfect in techni(|uc and 
finish, but until sonic 
recognised or self-con- 
stituted authority has 
given it his imprimatur 
of approval — by which 
time it has ceased to be 
" modern," and is con- 
sequently invested with 
the vague magnificence 
popularly associated with 
any object of art that is 
no longer new — it does 
not interest him. 

The taboo is a matter 
for regret if only be- 
cause in no other 
medium in which the 

6. — PLAQUE, "aphrodite" {\},\ IN. DIAM. 

artist expresses himself 
within the reach of the 
average wayfaring man 
are the ;i;.sthetic ideals 
and prejudices of con- 
temporary life more 
faithfully and accurately 
reflected than in china 
or pottery. Take a Dres- 
den china figure, and you 
have a chapter in the 
artistic taste of a genera- 
tion and very often a good 
many pages of social his- 
tory crj'stallised in six 
inches of modelled and 
painted clay. There are 
pieces of ^\'edgwood — 
_they are becoming valu- 
able to-day — which to 

7. — DIASA 

(7 IN. BY l\ IN.). 


^. M.-\ONIFICh.S 1 Kt'L K tK'iilAL 

ROSE HOWL (8 IN. BY loj IN.). 


(9J IN. BY 4J IN.). 

Modern Ceramic A rt 

lo. — "SEA foam" (io in. by 


my mind, both in their strength 
and in their Umitations, sum- 
marise a good deal of the early 
Victorian era. Similarly, the 
story of the twentieth century is 
now leaving its impress on the 
clay on the potter's wheel — and 
it will be, no doubt, curious and 
tangled reading — but the pre- 
judice of fetish-worship blinds us 
alike to the meaning and artistic 
value of it. 

In the average British home one or two specimens 
of, say, stereotyped Worcester, or of something 
vaguely Oriental, stand for its occupants' appreciation 
of ceramic art, endorsed perhaps by a few outrages 
in majolica of sorts in the dining-room. Every- 
thing else is crockery, acquired with a sole eye to 
its utility. In very few houses on 
the Continent whose tenants have 
reached a certain well-defined grade 
of education and culture does the 
visitor fail to find a few specimehs 
of beautiful or interesting china, 
replicas often enough, but hardly ihc 




less beautiful or interesting for 
that, one or two quaint terra- 
cottas or bits of earthenware, scat- 
tered among the more cherished 
household gods. Their owners 
will confess without circumlo- 
cution that they are modern, and 
take delight unashamed in their 
greater or less degree of artistic merit. They are 
always significant in that they go to show that ceramic 
art has entered into and become an integral factor 
in domestic life. To take an example nearer home. 
Go to one of the (Jerman or Austrian hostelries 
which are opening their doors all over London 
now. The probabilities are, that 
looking all round the room, you 
will see a bracket above the wains- 
cote and on the shelf certain quaint 
effective bits of pottery and earthen- 
ware. They are not, as a rule, 
of any very outstanding value, but 

13. — "-THE chase" (Ol IN. BY 
4! IN.). ■ BY GEO. WOODALL. 

14. — " iris" (10} IN. BY 

15. — "THE captive" ((>} IN. BV 

The Cou)ioisscHr 






they .seem to attract the eye ami to interest the 
brain. In a native caravanserai of similar stand- 
ing the only decorative relief attempted would prob- 
ably be some plated hardware ' goods, severely 
utilitarian in purpose, and more or less ordinary in 

If in this country we have coin]>aratively few 
opportunities of studying the phases and development 
in contemporary ceramic art, the writer need plead 
no justification for calling attention to the exhibition 
now on view in the U'ahliss galleries at 88, O.xford 
Street, because nowhere in London is a more 
representative collection to be seen under one roof and 
within four walls. That the galleries are an establish- 
ment conducted on straightforward lines by their 
])roprietors for commercial ends does not to his mind 
detract either from their interest to the student or from 
their artistic value to the collector. There is nothing 
derogatory in visiting these galleries, not necessarily 
as a customer, but as a visitor who accepts the 

courteous invitation of Messrs. Wahliss to inspect 
their showrooms as an exposition of ceramic art. 
He will accept the invitation in excellent coni])any. 
On the Continent, at any rate, they have outgrown 
the foolish snobbishness which underlies any feeling 
of self-consciousness of this kind. When last I visited 
Messrs.'s famous galleries in Vienna, the 
King of Greece had spent several hours there the 
week before, and in the following week the King of 
Roumania and Carmen Sylva paid them a long visit. 
In fact, hardly a week passes without some member 
of the Imperial House of Austria spending an hour 
or so in looking over the latest additions to Messrs. 
Wahliss's exhibits. Even the venerable Emperor 
makes a point of paying them a visit at least once 
a year. In Vienna, as in most other great cities 
of the Continent, galleries of this kind are the 
rendcz7!<nts of people interested in the art or craft 
of whic h they are the most convenient repository. If 
you are mindc il lo make a purchase, you have every 



BASALT WARE (17 IN. BY I jj IN.). 


Modern Ceraiitic A yf 




(i;i IN. BY I4j in.). JOSIAH WEDGWOOD. 

opportunity to do so : if you do not see anything 
you feel moved to buy, no obligation expressed or 
implied, not to speak of importunity, from the part of 
the staff forces any of the goods exhibited upon you. 
You are made welcome to inspect these galleries as 
you would visit any other art collection or museum 
to which you have the entree. 

The value of the Wahliss galleries to everyone 
interested in ceramic art is the remarkably representa- 
tive and catholic character of the exhibition they 
present, more especially, perhaps, in the sphere of 
contemporary art. In the utinds of most people 
the Wahliss galleries are, of course, associated with 
Imperial Vienna porcelain and some fine specimens 
of Dresden, and one or two other famous German 
factories. These, no doubt, still furnish a prominent 
feature of the exhibition, but by no means the 

principal raison (fctre of the galleries. Within the 
last few years their scope has been widened far 
beyond that. A new spirit of enterprise and of 
artistic ambition seems to have inspired the manage- 
ment in enlarging its borders. When I first knew the 
galleries British china and glass were entirely unre- 
presented. But for the last two years they have 
had the finest show of Crown Derb)', notably of 
the work of Leroy, I have seen anywhere outside ol 
the Crown Derby works themselves, and remarkably 
fine collections of Wedgwood, Minton, Worcester, 
and of other famous ware, every specimen 
chosen with the discrimination and judgment of an 
expert to illustrate the best characteristics of the 
genre it represents. This year the hospitality of 
the handsome galleries has again been extended to 
include specimens of the finest work of pretty well 
every country in Europe, which adds to the world's 
store of ceramic wealth, and the interpretation of their 
province has been liberal enough to include .some very 

GOLD (9i IN. BY 6 IN.). 


(l \\ IN. BY 6 IN.). 

(12 IN. BY -{ IN.). 

The Connoisseur 

strikinj; and interesting ex- 
hibits of glass and statuary. 
France, Germany, Hungary, 
Hohemia, and Denmark 
have all paid toll to the 
great house in Oxford 
Street, and it is therefore 
hardly surprising that from 
basement to attic the large 


(5J IN. BY 

4} in) bv 
leroy. royal 
crown derby. 

1- . — CKOWN DERP.V 
((> IN. BY l\ IN.) 

five-Storeyed building is 
full to overflowing, be- 
cause, apart from objects 
of artistic interest, it is, 
of course, the business 
of the management to 
keep also a very large 
stock of goods of prim- 
arily utilitarian purposes, 
though — and this, per- 
haps, is where the col- 
lector of ceramic art has the advantage 
of his brother enthusiast — there is no 
reason why even the most commonplace 
article should be divorced from some 
measure of artistic interest and signifi- 
cance. Crockery, simply because it is 
crockery — though, to judge from most 
British households, the statement may 
sound heretical — need not of necessity be all that 
is ugly and banal. For a few pence it is possible to 
buy a pannikin or a bowl, which for its beauty of form 
and design is pleasant to the eye, or at any rate until 
someone breaks it, and still subserve the purpose 
for which it is designed no less efficiently than a 
vessel which is a gratuitous eyesore. 

But it seems to be the further ambition of the 
management to make the ^\■ahliss galleries a place 
where every notable product of contemporary ceramic 
art is represented by well - chosen characteristic 
specimens, so that anyone interested in any particular 
make need only go as far as Oxford Street to study 
and to satisfy his curiosity. If at the present moment 
they have not yet achieved this ambition in its 
entirety, the exhibition they have arranged this year 
marks a long step towards it. 

Where the embarrassment of riches is so great, it 

would, of course, be impossible within the limits of 
my allotted space to deal with every interesting 
exhibit adequately. The catalogue raisoiini- of the 
Wahliss galleries would make a substantial voIuihl-. 
I shall therefore only draw attention to one or two 
striking novelties of this year's exhibition, and refer 
in passing to its more notable features. A visit to 
the galleries themselves will alone give the reader a 
just idea of the wealth of material they offer. 

The contents of one section alone repay a visit, 
for there Messrs. Wahliss display some truly magnifi- 
cent specimens of glass, manufactured by Messrs. 
Thomas Webb & Sons, of Stourbridge, the famous firm 
of English glass-cutters, including the most repre.senta- 
tive collection of glass .sculptures by George Woodall 
which has ever been placed before the British public. 
-Mr. Woodall is one of the few master craftsmen of 
today who are inspired by the aims and aspiration 
of an artist, and consequently his 
work, apart from the rarity of the 
material in which he executes it, 
has a value of its own. When one 
remembers that the excjuisitely 
clear-cut cameos on his vases and 
his plaques, that every detail of 
their rich ornamentation, are cut 
out on a material of the brittleness 
and intractability of glass, admira- 
tion gives way to amazement. 

A sheet of white 
is annealed to one 
of dark- — either 
deep blue or choco- 
late in tone — glass. 
From this material 
M r. W (, .. d a 1 1 

(5J IN. BY jt IN.) 

achieves his 
effects of 
light a n tl 
shade, of 
soft 11 e r - 
spective and 
bold relief, 
of rounded 
limb, o f 

marble, or of gossamer 
drapery, with astonishing 
fidelity and resourceful- 
ness. In his "Aphrodite," 
for example, the effect 
of one limb of the 
figure, floating lightly in 

30.^ — CROWN 
DU KOI (7 IN. 
BY 3 IN.). 



(5 IN. BY 2} IN.) 


Modern Ceramic Art 

(6 IN. BY 4 IN.). 


"cameo" CHINA PLATES (9 IN. DIAM.). 


(f)J IN. BY 3J IN.). 

exquisitely careless pose over a stormy sea, submerged 
beneath the water, is expressed in a veiled trans- 
parency such as would be impossible in any other 
medium. Classic models have inspired all Mr. 
Woodall's female figures, and the effect he achieves 
of beautifully modelled forms, half revealed, half 
hidden by diaphanous draperies (as, for example, in 
his "Dancing Hours"), is always marvellous. In all 
the details of his rich ornamentation his cunning 
never seems to fail him. Note, for example, the 
striking regularity of the scallop border and the 
graceful lightness of the amorini in the "Aphrodite," 
or the life and movement in the amorini round the 
" Diana and Endymion " plaque. When one bears 
in mind that any morning the artist may come to 
his studio to find the work of months, it may be 
of a year and more, shattered by some flaw in the 
glass, it is obvious that Woodall's work must always 
be rare, and that the glass sculptors worthy of 
mention in the same breath with him can be counted 
on the fingers of one hand. .\ future generation may 

well see a fight of millionaires for the possession 
of a Woodall plaque. 

The same case contains a crystal glass decanter, 
figured with a frieze after the Elgin marbles, by Kny, 
which in itself is worth a visit to the galleries to see. 
The figures seen in reverse through the thickness 
of the glass are as clearly cut and sharply defined 
as those in relief. Even the microscopic figures 
on the stopper are outlined and elaborated in every 
detail. The piece is, of course, as unique of its 
kind as was, for example, the famous Barbarini 
vase. It will never be repeated, because it can never 
be repeated. In the same case a rose-bowl of 
rock crystal glass is a superb sjiecimen of the glass- 
worker's art. Throughout the line collection of glass 
in the galleries it is satisfactory to find that the 
British glass-cutter still holds his own against all 

Some interesting specimens of mediiuval Clerman 
glass, very richly ornamented and emblazoned with 
figures and coats of aruLs in strikingly rich colouriiii; 

35. — "CRINOLINE group" (8J IN. BY 



(Oj IN. 

The Connoisseur 


are quaint and unconventional, 
and complete a very brilliant 
show of 

Another new departure has 
also gone beyond the strict 
borders of ceramic art, by the 
inclusion of some very grace- 
ful pieces of marble statuary 
by well-known foreign artists. 
" The Spirit of Gracefulness," 
designed to hold an electric 
lamp, well expresses the 
lightness and delicacy of the 
ethereal figure, and the "Idyll" 
is a very daring and effective 
bit of modelling. In quite 
another vein is the dainty 
little face of the " Biedermeyer " era (which led 
straight into "Q)uality Street"), as is the strong 
and dramatic " Despair," by Professor Eberlein, of 
Berlin. Musicians will welcome the striking portrait 
busts of Mozart and Wagner against a rough-hewn 
background. As a side show of modern plastic 
art, the group of statuary in the Wahliss galleries 
is not one of the least attractive features of this 
year's exhibition. 

Turning to ceramic art proper, a very interesting 
novelty is a representative collection of very choice 
specimens of Copenhagen china by the famous firm 
of Messrs. Bing & Groendahl, which, now that the 
Royal factory, though it still retains its name, has 
passed into private hands, has given Denmark her 
place in the foremost rank of countries cultivated 
enough to appreciate the artistic possibilities of 
porcelain. The firm made its name in London by 
its life-size reproduction of Thorvaldsen's " Hebe," 
which stands in South Kensington Museum to-day, 
but the firm has since emancipated itself from its 

purely cla.ssical traditions by 
adventuring into a series of 
successful experiments which 
at the \Vorld's Exhibition of 
I goo set both technical ex- 
perts and connoisseurs agog. 
Even Japan now comes to 
Copenhagen to glean wrinkles 
and inspiration by the study 
of the work of the Vesterbro 
factory. The characteristic 
of this china is that the sub- 
ject is painted on the biscuit 
before glazing, and 
(juently blends with the glaze 
with singularly soft and har- 
monious effect. It lends the 
atmosphere of the picture that soft, dreamy tone, 
characteristic, even in midsummer, of Danish land- 
scape, which softens and tones even the brightest 
colours. This soft, delicate note is shown particu- 
larly well in a vase by Petersen illustrating the 
descent of a flight of wild ducks. The distant shore 
has all the softness of a Whistler nocturne. It veils 
the ripe, rich colours of the fruit on another graceful 
vase and lends it a tone altogether peculiar to itself. 
The Danish artists, by the way, pride themselves on 
their careful study of animal life. Note, for example, 
the wonderful drawing in the picture of the drake 
descending in flight, and the splendid modelling of 
the prowling jaguar. At times this careful study of 
nature lends itself a quaint touch of the grote.sque, 
as in the very human group quaintly entitled " Marital 
Bliss." Copenhagen china is not exactly cheap to- 
day, but in a few years' time pieces by artists like 
Hegemann and Petersen will probably become very 

To my mind, howe\er, the clou of this year's 

39.— " ARCADIA " (II IN. 




Modern Cera in ic .1 ri 

42. — "fortuna" (14J1N. 


exhibition is the interest- 
ing collection of terra- 
cottas, reproductions of 
wood -carvings taken for 
the most part from the 
cathedral in Schleswig, 
dating from the 
fifteenth century. They 
are frankly sensational. 
At first sight you say 
they are of wood, and 
can be nothing else 
except wood carving. 
In the curiously tearful 
face of "The Madonna" 
you note the dull, polished glaze characteristic of 
very old wood carvings ; in the grim features of the 

" Executioner," in the wadded 
coat of his office, you can 

clearly trace the grain of the 

wood. Even when you hold 

them in your hand you are 

not much the wiser — they 

might be made of anything 

rather than a preparation of 

clay. Equally effective are 

the magnificent reproductions 

of the bronze bust of Dante 

and the striking statuette of 

the Florentine lute-player. In 

colouring, in tone, and in 

execution, no reproductions 

could be more faithful to the 

originals. And when it is 

stated that their price is only 

a few shillings, it will he 

agreed that their possibilities 

are almost revolutionary. 

They bring the rarest treasures 

of the Renaissance within the 

reach of the most modest 

means in replicas that arc 

close enough to 

make even an 

expert rub his 


On a some- 
what larger 

scale is the bust 

of Niccol da 

Uzzano, Dona- 

tellii's master- 

i)iece, which 


has stirred l,^^.^^ (5* ,n. high). 
("lermanv to royal Dresden. 

43. " THE L Alll\ 




(24 IN. ItV 12* IN.). UOYAI. DRESDEN. 

(7 IN. high). 

10 IN.). 

genuine enthusiasm. Look at 
the lined face, the steady eyes, 
the firm relentless mouth, and 
you begin to understand the 
brain and the statescraft which 
some generations later made 
a Macchiavelli possible. The 
face haunts and dominates 
you. The original itself could 
hardly do more. 

Glancing at the departments 
for which the galleries have 
already made their name, one 
is struck by the number of 
new and exquisite specimens 
of Leroy's work in the col- 
lection of Crown Derby. There 
is reason to fear that this 
great artist is in a state of 
health which before very long 
must lessen the output of his 
work, and thereby enhance 
the value of what he has 
already given us. For his 
painting he may have his 
rivals ; as deco- 
rator, I cannot 
hel)) thinking 
he staiuls alone. 
One beautiful 
little vase is a 
gem of Leroy at 
his best. Every 
bead of the 
rich elabora 
t i o n of the 
cover is nicely 


(c;} IN. HU.II). 

The Connoisseur 

(original) (17 IN. BY loJiN.). COPENHAGEN. 

and exquisitely finished. In the same case a pretty 
pastille burner by Harris is in the artist's best manner. 
British china is somewhat poor in figures, and there- 
fore two good specimens of the famous Derby dwarfs 
are also worth noting. 

A very marked enlargement of the Wedgwood 
collection no doubt reflects accurately the return of the 
swing of the pendulum in favour of the ware of the 


famous Etrurian potteries. Among German collectors, 
more particularly, there has of late been a very urgent 
demand for Wedgwood vases of the early Victorian 
era, when the white ground was bespotted with little 
decorations in gold. In this style the collection shows 
a very handsome example of a vase with Flaxman's 
Dance of the Hours. To my mind these urns, pos- 
sibly by force of association, alwavs savour somewhat 

50. ~ WILD DLCKS. 
(VASE, II IN. BY 6 IN.). 


(13 IN. BY l6i IN.). 


(VASE, lO IN. BY 7 


Modern Ceramic Art 

of meditations among the tombs, but the revival 
of interest in the severely classical black basalt is 
almost equally marked, and very satisfactory, as it 
includes some of Flaxman's best work. A vase, sup- 
ported by two Sphinxes and a Dolphin candlestick, 
are particularly handsome specimens. Finally, the 
beautiful jasper ware is strongly in evidence at present. 

Of Minton a beautiful service of twelve dessert 
plates with glass cameo centres and pierced borders 
are a striking feature of a collection that includes 
many characteristic pieces. 

From the first these galleries have been notable for 
their collection of Dresden, and this year its cases seem 
even better filled than usual. For my own part, I 

never tire of Dresden figures, because a deal of history 
and of folk-lore has gone to their making. There are 
always points one would like to have explained, and 
no little difificulty in finding anyone competent to 
assuage one's curiosity. For example, on what occasion 
did the Empress Eli.sabeth of Russia (the lady is 
usually mistaken for Frederick the Great) appear in 
male garb, and why? Why is the famous Dresden 
tailor depicted as riding a goat, with a couple of kids 
in the tub he is carrying ? Because eighteenth- 
century folk-lore always brackets a tailor and a goat, 
I know. But why a goat ? 

There are \ery few Dresden figures that have not a 
story somewhere, if you only knew where to find it. 

53. "haughty" (guillemot) (/i 


IN. BY 3! IN.). 

54. — "JOHN" (O.t IN. BY 9i IN. 

55. "precocity" (3J IN. BY },\ IN.). 


56. "MARITAL bliss" (ij IN. BY 4A IN.). 

copfnha(;en china. 


The Cofiiioissenr 

jS. — " THIi UVl.Nli ACHILLES 
(19 IN. BY 22 IN.). 

59. — " NAPOLEON " (14 IN. BV 5^ IN.) 

60. — " DESPAIR " 
(6i IN. BY 10 IN.). 

Thus a very handsome clock surmounted by a crowned 
eagle and displaying the arms of Poland, obviously 
records the attempt of Augustus the Strong to win a 
throne, while the Alchemist he had retained to dis- 
cover the philosopher's stone for him was engaged in 
the more useful task of firing the first pieces of Dresden 
china at home. There is also a large group of grot- 
esques, most of which are still waiting for explanation. 
A very famous group, " The Capture of a Triton," well 
illustrates the marvellous technique of the school. 
How the water-baby was ever introduced into the net, 

61. — "quality street' 
(6j in. by 6j in.), 
(by blasche.) 


(52. " LIBERTY " 

(12 IN. BY 14 IN.). 

63. — RELIEF, " MOZART' 
(7i IN. BY 6 IN.). 

64. — RELIEF, " WAGNER ' 
(7 IN. BY 6S IN.). 

and his tail and all the other common objects of the 
seashore allowed to escape through its meshes, and 
yet, despite everything, to stand firing, is a mystery 
that is always new to me. 

Yet there are still people who, when called upon 
to give a complimentary wedding gift, still proffer 
the Nelundand fish-slice, when for a few shillings 
they might give at least an imitation Dresden 
group, near enough to the original to be a joy for 
ever. For little more, handsome reproductions of 
the famous pieces in the Wallace Collection and 
the South Kensington Museum are obtainable. For 
example, the jardiniere illustrated in these columns 
costs less than two pounds. Modest means, indeed, 
need never be a deterrent to keep anyone in search of 
a gift away from the \\'ahliss galleries. In one of the 

65. " THE DANCL " 

(19 IN. BY 8J IN.). 
(prof. FUNCKE). 

00. — ' THE bl'lRlT 01 
ig\ IS. BY 8J IN.). 

Modern Cera /i lie Art 

Cl-] . — "nymph" {24 IN. BY 13 IN.), (prof. EBERLEIN.) 

68. "idyll" (27 IN. BV 21 IN.). 


rooms there is a bargain department where rare and 
beautiful china or graceful terra-cotta, slightly flawed 
or damaged — so slightly that it would tax an expert to 
discover the mischief — are on sale at prices which 
seem hardly credible. 

On the other hand, there are people with money, 
but lacking in ideas, who fail to realise that a 
dinner service or a tea set of good china is one of 
the most welcome gifts a young couple can hope 

to receive. At the Wahliss galleries they will find 
no lack of ideas, for most European sovereigns 
have at one time or another ordered a set ot 
china to their own design, and specimens of the 
exclusive pattern.s and finish are on view. A mem- 
ber of our own Royal family recently ordered a 
\'ienna coffee set of dead white of severely in- 
ornate design with a heavy gold border, which has 
a cachet of its own. When all is said and done, 

by. — "THE days labour uone 

(lEHMANN), (17J IN. BV 7 IN.). 

70. " THE CATCH " (l8j IN. 


RENI. 25 IN. BY 14 IN. 


The Connoisseur 

Vienna china, from the poiiii of view of vakie for 
money, holds its own, and has, perhaps, no reason 
to fear the competition of formidable rivals even 
under its own roof. Not a single one of the great 
pieces, with their glowinj: pictures, rich with the 
lavish wealth bequeathed by Hans Makart's genius. 

depicted in these columns last year, remains unsold 
to-day, though, of course, other and equally inter- 
esting pieces have taken their place. Most of the 
collection of old Vienna china has already been 
dispersed among collectors. But replicas, from the 
original moulds of the defunct Imperial State Factory, 

(9J IN. BY 5i IN.). 

73. — "THE M.-iDONN.V 
(9^ IN. BY 5J IN.). 

74. — APOSTLE " ST. 

Paul" (9i IN. BY 5* in.). 

75. — " THE PUBLIC 
(Ili IN. BY 5J IN.). 





(7 IN. BY 6i IN.). 

79. — "A PHARISEE" 
(8 IN. BY 4 IN.). 


(i;J IN. BY 6J IN.) 


(■j\ IN. BY 6i IN.). 


Modern Cerauiic Art 

82. — GOBLET 
(\2\ IN. BY 54 IN.). 


(I2i IN. BY 5^ IN.). 


COVER (15 IN. BY IN.). 


(1 I IN. BY 7 IN.). 

unsurpassed for excellence 
of modelling and of finish, 
are still obtainable, and at 
very moderate prices. 

At the Wahliss galleries 
there is enough and to 
spare to match every taste 
and every purse, and no 
one wishing to buy a 
really handsome and artis- 
tic piece of china or glass, 
or terra-cotta, marble statu- 
ary, etc. — whether it is to 
cost hundreds of pounds, 

86. " NICCOLO DA UZZANO" (jj IN. BY 1/ IN.). 


or a few shillings only — • 
should fail to pay a visit 
before buying elsewhere 
Only too frequently new 
customers can be heard to 
remark, " Oh, what a pity ! 
I have just bought such 
and such a thing at so 
and so's ! I wish I had 
known before wiiat an 
enormous stock and 
variety you oft'er, and 1 
would certainly have come 
to you." 

87. — "PRINCESS OF URBINO " (lO.^ IN. HY lo IN.). 

88.—" DANTE " (7* IN. BY 9 IN.). 



The Connoisseur 













The Connoisseur