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Hosiecb, Google 

Hosiecb, Google 


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•.-S.^!Asi.t->il| -I*! -i 


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€l)rciiolo9kfll Kavrntioe of tlje Scternl States ; 






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iuf rpint Court ot \\t ffntttti ItaiM, 

W. niOKET, 

BDVBMignly M 1 
nnchaiigeabls n 

"Yiald Bway ft 

ruih. vid of good Fallh. Thi 

! subjeci 

'-■■\. TL 

more jusiiGed U 

I Conslitntion ana Ihe Union, si 

{lb. DaUaa in d^ma <^ Ih, 

Hosiecb, Google 

TuE provision imder whicli tbib booil ki' 

rsEB an FoBTAHB, hj peisons hBTing the privilege of franking pub- 
lic [iocuraentSi is contained in" A act to estai^i certain poiU'outes, 
and for otimr purposes;' approved 3d March, 1 847, in the fbilowing 
words : — 

"Such publications cr books aa have been or may be pub- 
lished, procured, or purchased by order of either House 
of Congress, or a joint resolution of the two Houses, shall 
be considered aa public documents, and entitled to be 
franked as such." 

Hosiecb, Google 

■Jn, ■^enafy of i4e ^c&ntiied iSn^^. 
Resolved, ?f(uii t£* i«>i*ta:nj. £» 5U*obeS to |i^g-™,'i* fob 

tlve 11*6 (* th« ootmte taio tfi,ourMUVO ciojvMW op tlve oittHeyiii* ooli.«. 

HUH/ q| 01V6 Jt-tEoA. (wkI t«i«iii|-.p"me uhlU Hsi- oolwv. 

liesolnsd, STfuit tell. til(>iBaHi.() n,3.5;iiiHvut oojil^ea of tfi* mv 
tfieiutLO oolvik ciE til* ™[>ii*titi,itio*, u>U£. ait rMMitijAu«cE wvieai, ete., 
Ua IvVomvtcO piU. tfi* MJt of tfi* ijciwit&, IvioijcJeS tftfiii. uiifi be 
Ui/.ii^Xci ojt n. 5«3-iiiik(ni. at tioeiitvt li**, ocii,!;. oil tfca IttEoa n.tooo 

Resolved, gTCiat tG* ^ecUttW^ of l^^ 9'««it« liiMcfKLie. fot, 
tfi.6 iM6 o| l£* tJiHiutB turn tfwiiW(i.yKl oolvLee at tS« TOoivstiiatuHi of 
tfi* ''ISnHteS fftatM o£ Qyfciite^icn/, luiliv (tn. (iJ|vfifl.E6Ucfl.E cumE^, 
h/iclmtci im,& ImB-CiaReS Eij. ^\]!j. vKiii,o6«ifr, IvtoutjEd the, intme 
WMt 6* |MiA*fMi46() Qt n. jiAwe |i*t col"}' imt eaaieeJuin. tliot jvoid 
fot, Uiv tli.oiuio.ii5 Eolvlei oS.iiw.3 to be- [iitVefuueS bij. oi teMtution. 
of tU 3'«L«ie, a^ol^teS «u tU l^lj; ^ of 9^t&U.«4Lj,, lUl, 

grf™/^<»j, Q%a",I 97, ■fS.ifl 
Resolved, STfi^ot (^b ieotetmil- of tfi.* ffawtte Ee n«t{i*siae5 
cuvS SJ^«otc<l to iHt'i^RjiM. on* Huit.iled oojii«* oj. otB ich*u- a eOiliMd 

of t£* ^®«,*i;fa^;.,. 4 ^vc ai,6),i;tc5 sLre,, ^^^ to u»^ ^ 

Hosiecb, Google 


kEJtiw,. Q4(!&Kttn^V WoUcmo^, of ?^u4l*, to &c JlitvltateS &ij. 
&<JH. (A (Jvojuce, nccoWmit to hil aiiitaiv of iittUiiimt c«c[HMi.q.ea 

4 UL. 

Resolved, ^TKaat tfi-e MusUtalil. &e ^U^ottiS to fLiVhilifi. cadi. 
rttcmi>£t' of tlvE liA*wnt i? emite^ umvo [l«* ii^cfc ol^EniLt taocujEd fch^eirv, 
oil* co)i*t op tK* Mflointi.tuJi.oiv Hiv3 otftc^ uoo-k* oW-f*«o to && pu.)-- 
imfi*3 to tfi« tJetwiolii &LV m« WioUitioiio of tJ'ciituarip 'iStft, 

WH1V6 imflvtci, oE tlK. ^©oinUtiititii 00 tnuiK Wii Uitlenuiv oAazn, to 
ot£*l iitcm&eu «f 1^1* S'e.nOe. 

Di(Wlia<..iJ., ffflvtaiik^ 23, ifcO. 

* Resolved, STEiit t^ wcwtoAu, EciliBrftS to [iVd-eu46 fvoni 

Ih* [vlii[vUel«l.| &rt, tE« iWE of tn* imtiite, tejv tli.OH*i«vd ™|it.c* 

op oSickoj. a ciituMH* bh* Mooiu^itiiitoiv, BHtfi.ttll.aE|i-&aE6t(«ttl(HHl~ 

'i™Vw)\taiit i>t(Lti>tifitit motisV vtliistiotiue. «| tfi* WHVUHi &p til* 
QKmtAviOiv q.[M>&lju>ient aii.fl tw* ieueloli^iiiciit of ita [i.lijicv|iEd4 : 
Provided, STLt tfi*«. £c [U,wlsft.ei nt ifi* bimii* [viloe oa tJUi^ 
!<wt (vUrtnticS fol tfie 1146 4 ^ o ( 

iieSO^Jieti, STtU e*ofl 4 tfi-i. i«^i. m^nie^ts of \U ffc^MoU L 
feujijiUEO UHntlv ttUn ^om^H luirtib&L aiw de4eti4iJk«ti' op tooi^^ v^ ibfXR' 
\tt^*vw}jw to ttuMi 4 ^'^ iiemWla oj. tli.& t7o[Mit& of tlveH tWt 

Hosiecb, Google 


The Constitution, aa tha fireside companion of the American 
citizen, preserves in full fresiiness and vigor the recollection of 
the patriotic virtues and persevering courage of tliose galknt spirits 
of the Revolution who achieved the national independence, and 
the intelligence and fidelity of those fathers of the republic who 
seciired, by this noble charter, the fruits and the blessings of inde- 
pendence. The judgment of the Senate of the United Slates has 
declared the importance of famitiariaing American citizens, more 
extensively, with this fundamental law of theii country, and haa 
approved its association with the examples of p bl can vtrt e and 
the patevnal advice of the " Father of his co t j J n d I e 

kindred matter, constituting the body of this I k To th h 
able body is due the credit of having provid d f th (i t n ral 
promulgation of the CoBStitution, ti e conti ed d n f 

whose wise injunctions and conservative p pi m g 1 e 
people, can alone preserve their fraternal u d h p ec a 

inheritance of freedom. 

That branch of the government wl loh is I ih d by th C n ti 
tution with legislative, executive and judi 1 p nd tiius 

invested with three separate authorities to pre erve protect, and 
defend this venerated instrument, his been pleased to take the initi- 
ative in a measure calculated so pow erf lly to support the Conati- 
turion, as that ofgioiiig it, in its simplicity and purity, to tiie peo- 
ple, who possess, tiiemselves, the sovereign power to judge of the 
manner in which it may be executed, to rebuke its infraction, and 
to delend its integrity, and who therefore require every legiUmato 

Hosiecb, Google 

■viii piiEfAcr;. 

aid to enalils tliem to perfoTm this vitally iniporlant duty in justice, 
truth, and good faitii, for " The Constitution in ita words is plain 
and intelligible, and U I'a meant for tlie homebred, uneophiatieated 
understandings of outfellow-citizenB," "It is addressed to the com- 
mon eenae of the people." 

Several distinguished authorities and individuals haring, in the 
plenitude of their liberality, honored the autJior and compiler with 
their eentimeula on the subjeot-matter of the worlt, he claims the 
indulgence of the friends of tiie Constitution in giving them placo 
IQ this edition, heiieving, that a salutary effect may be produced by 
n of their special approbation, and the expie^ion of theit 
IS of the importance of an extended dissemination of that 
These may impress, in terms more uneseeptionable, 
the ohligation incumbent on every intelligent citizen to make him- 
self acquainted with its provisions, restrictions, and iimilations, 
and of imparting, so far as the ability may extend, a knowledge 
of this paramount law of our country to the minds of the rising 

The length of Ijme required in the ordinary course of business, 
for obtaining a practical knowledge of the operations of govern- 
ment, by persons entering into public life, and their embarrassments 
for the want of a convenient mode of reference to the various 
sources of information, have suggested the utility of preparing, as a 
part of this work, and as germain to its design, a means of collect- 
ing and rendering available to the pablio interest the experience 
and information acquired in this respect, in the progress of time, 
by attention to the business of legislation in tlie public service. 
The fire new chapters in this edition may therefore be considered 
an essay, to be improved and extended hereaifer, with a view, not 
only to add to the intrinsic matter proper to be read and studied by 
the great body of American cilizenB, but to render it peculiarly a 
vade mecam to the statesman and legislator, the ministering to 
whose individual convenience must, necessarily, result in facilitat- 
ing the performance of arduous public duty, and in prom.oting, in 
no inconsideiable degree, the public ii 

Hosiecb, Google 


iuti.ioli. iiHjiv loci* fcui.c) etn.ii^X to icivd ni6, Oi K*i«6 cttS.Ejiitf* Meo/- 

MunJLUm^iLt ot lift deimatvoiv avvd fo^ tfi* o^d-imAflJjtC' &h<i^^o.cte*' ot 
iti omvteiita. aft i», luttttdnt ea!cejLtw>ii/, Hi* teit dMWiicO, fniEost, 
ttc<bt£^l wv^ ithoiA ocou'^te nuuuLoJ. a«ud ouiLde uv ^ekttMJiiH to Uia 

EU4I. &6 tm attcjiiujc, aivS tM QfWieUnali. K*<iAb too ieuptfiil, tk 

btulne' r^ LtujciuiitO' bo 1<W& o&ji4tY4iiAtii>& iVoiu>t{> : babj on th« H>RH>C&f 
lUt tH« i>4A^]fi4« mo^t Ckp Or LbtiU'U'O cDti^-cde^oted oov&Uiticfit, tb 
li^^ubbluaJ. bWur op »ie<kmf' »Whi' li'So^ ivok^ freeiii' to |vui«& itft iiha- 
demn a*to ejtKSLeti.cU' ueu-otvO oiA|iu4i& o^ i,umuW, QfetOj aJtltou-aJv 
it Ift nob luUi'MUblH to k«ci^ it AcuOj at m^rrvent^ ol' ltei\t o^d ^latlII'^ 
't/e^j Ivitixtj III trven mwotmenb OA. o^tiuttiMA^itum' op o-u^ pedelaC 
tlto. oHLq^UHi^ op btl& Mfroii^tibutLon. tt^ di4W^a/Vo^j oAh o&* 
kEVuotirfHt ii*vo cKlvc^^caiHceH ot fnol* tJvo*!' tTvi-Vt^i' ipEo^ at>nouf«e' nift 
li bfi* VEueUc ; aivd <S OFiv »otiJti.6d iJutb its (mo ulvoiv bHe 0lH^ 
■cuEima 1UI.5 th.6 cjiuMflii, cip tH* ooiHii^ip at laA,ac u, mtattatiUit 


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pi.tii.>&^& bo |vVcl^lu^& tJ]« L-Hi^JvDAU la^ w-lii^ it u>a3 dea^-^i^d — u.ii.khi', 
hifliU' IvetC Lb |iVactico.t D|veWU(nu ^iPtmoiuAe. iDibh' tJiC' Luui«m, 

come, tae toflltJ »ttt6itit[v o-E Ih* Mnoiutitukjiii.. 

ito fU^Lii. lut^ ttt ttie lui^i.tiL' m' I'ta text, allould be [ilO'oeo uhIIluv 

coiuujU*, Elfrla^vei, ati-3 ooECe^M, i»it o-Elo uv t^e oiMjiiw mtd 

to^l', <i^ ti'ieac^iVe'. Qrt :Jit/eiJut uAttt' t4f« ^jiduiLeiiW' l>ri«i'b tX 
QnOii«1,lccuv ttwHiiofo, £ii bEMto. made n h.«iJi«llwlt£u. re«tV).UT<v oKjecb 
op meniQ^f.. ^Ll-QitV ucdH' eiite^ uivoti/ tlie dUmiuh^Lt o-p th«a« 

oJtj) '^ Qn^KbUpu^ L^ h4i^iLnArUiH mtei^sAUtiOf an^ H^eUUH j uMufe it4 
taWuU, ^taJ^GtivejLbs iCtvd h.L»tri>4/t(^cLf' ^fcc^db cottfrtitLU^ m^>3t iMi'lj.i^le 
eaoTOjifea ot coflilvrcsaw-ji tuv3 liteci4i«». Oka aenote o£ tfie 
"LfeuteO Jtotes, pM»E.&tij. iUwifc Eij- Us mtWa, aium meiAi oc^aiL 
smujtJfln. to ita eitlen*iu6 3ia»«muuitiiitb j cwiSj umIm.3, ib inuttUl be- 
Ila4.3, if iwtt wuhotMbte, t« ieifue- or beJtM. mflde. of enijafiieruiva 

iiS **4tunKnbiUtUij op citt \XiiB fuimti-oii/flALeo ot tK* ^^tiviWat "^o- 
i)t*ji™ent, t&* linuU of fchulv on^^mij,, mi-o In-e .■mi.ciJiotoViv Mi-i'iit 
ot tS« Liiat sipiknt to lofmsh. Ifceii bcioivq.. 

^ oiilj Jeoi. Sifc, ive^i!. tYttftj-, 

Hosiecb, Google 

Qi futue to tfuutfc. u.r>ii. fat a u6l«- ivcattu- liutUjJiM oMi.u. iJ- tfi* 
'^Hiii.iJ^iiutio.i. of tfi* ''ISliutoS SPtatts, 9*0 fo^ a* (f H^-m-a tsKiuii-'wiaS 

nvDtt [vcH^tcot ot ctiLa ol Iviu;^ cue^ aeeti', cJ li^ i>aHUH>u^ a4Vd ooXu/* 

Q-uEt wi|oinuitnm- owitoin*!) m. iioiit boolt Dt&«t tfi*uv th*. ^o-iiatl-. 

Ui^Loiv la op q.'(«at u-aJu«. *J lt& wli^t* ii>o4U/ ia vu^ au/^in fwt- oha 

our... ^ci®L.ii.j, s«i,. </'"^- ^^- ■^''''^■ 

ttuuvG. lion. pol. VMih, fiitwHii o£ tA,a TOoiifltEtntioib ot tli* "IftliHieO 
fjtutei, iiJiiefc iMHt Lm>6 frcea. n.ooO tivotuvfi' to leiid t&«ni, mvd to 
Brcli^^^ bU&L^ d^i^i^obo^H^LiH op Ul^H nuiJVLi^V (4k uvtxi^ tH« H»y^& tui« 
VnTM eweoiitad. cX&« MW* uHtfi< lufilofc it fm* Kceiv eomJva^Bd u>Ulv 
tfi* ou™*™') mvd tfte eui^otvce u-mt Iwuie tKA.imti*3 of ite Jieipcct 

uAiinKv iijwHv tJi* oo4Wtt««ti,Diii i>f tR« '^>iiatiJiitton- J luvd, uv lylSc-ii 

Hi* nveHulUu oE tfi* oon^t, coiiS op tfi* bttt. bkum^S in- tlw. ivViiti" 
nieiLt., cy stwff iu^Kt Ml* ^tE-i<W.tafl. to lniAcfi,c«.e tuKiitq-poivV 
DoJLiiea Cot- tfi* sBma- ^i&Vn^iy. 


a4«<Lt iK^i*i 

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sti^uluHb, luiO umu) not, kcLeuUeb, oae lUiii' otli&b. Olu i>p ua (iA« 

'iOijWin.t me to hvqS* a siiftaejilflH,, oft is, tlwit iiflit UHHtt* 

(wlS to tTve. e^itHni, mteiiiiji) f-o-t diitutiitioii, Gii. tiU iJEivote, a itatf 
nwn.t ot tfi* Cuivco luh^it tJi* TEoii-sti tuiwuu umo ttd-o*ite5 tiv tfi* 
ataJ>f4j o^vd lun^tv n^tv- btatc^ PviMve' l>een' ctd-tiiil^&O j {iw'tiA^cM.tvU'y 

lUwJII/ WHMiUatioita PlrtJll*.0 frEtffl.6 tu*i* tiaO tocji. cuuj oUauKtE IM- 

b« u&^iit III niaiuiH ^1^011.^10114^ L14I/1I iWa ii'oJ^ UcC'ti' jiuihOc, »o po^t OS 

(^ oniL ClHl), i)U tuui- (H 

our. aaij, 


V q^Ool ICfLnrd, 

^« ^. <W"a^ 


7P!J,L>,^t^Su^, 33 ^a=^^oll, iUl. 

boivbtttulton', uHttv cu uT«Ur'^Liye4ted aiuiXii4i,4 mvO ^it«V mo^ev ajb- 

comjitEatlotv n, ivot ctHiv <t ooivueiKeiit took, o-j- 

• In compliance with this friendly anggeilioii of Judge Wayne, the nulho 
acrived much eniisraetlon in devoliiig u, it Ihe enlire lOlh chnpler oflhiB edi 

Hosiecb, Google 

b 1* hIe. ijtii- &t cuelii- num. t* bolw- 0. hoAt ui. tli* H.otiiKj«t motio. 
iwmUs of- fcti* ^}-j aii.5 tLs Euofi. mwiJit Hi«i.c|ol* to lie Hi- tfi* taitSa 

ttte inaAies, ; uv 9reiui4llfiKHmi/j it euqjit to G* oi toixi-Gock. ub 
CDHl'nioiiH &e^,<K)l«4 cJ h«& e>iHii4vufiV va Ive^^tuUuLH iul^uvouhv to 
aa, but <3) am fuMruf to wma nuy t&itunMi^ ui< hu»>h.^ o-p tH« 
iicUb o-p fil* hloiitotioii,, 

''mm* oG«OlCILt SttVUCHll, 

of fioyue Eo&kaS tM/iiiiX tK.6 EltUe IH-Emne luwJt Kflij Ecav IvVt ■ 
Eetn- iitUiA.i*€3 to tiivS, uv to oontlnifit n. Eo4iiv, so miuiui. uiilvoUa-itt 

^(ni'AtiJx^l.O'ii' 14 iu«U' d-ev-iaeo, 041.0, ao laX a^ O) Ikivq befrtco itb 
(KsoiiAiKilk, &eo,»a li^ooEa oE cttt*. atvO ifuSL. tThn tsudtnt (liKMt. 

nt£tl^ OAVO Ui^U^j UMl^V j-D^nn tfl.e' i^bt of tll« tKHHtj OA.e' J^J^tCUHl^t 

l^jftnu ui« P^Ht mou-DnveiLt bou>M4b ibb to^^ruiiioLi., la. 'f 7S6. 

& am o6uiK.3 to lj^lu. firt. th* oo|uv loK^lcli, fui* hcfiv icii 
oivd »R<J!E, iKi ooittt, Fmue ticOjiuitit iioe. Em. it. 

Hosiecb, Google 


ititutloit at tfi« HWii.ibe5 tftoi**, tutS (U niitat tie [i/Mjivu'tcS bo («. 
[View nuj a,l.|vi«,a£ ,.f tfu6 |vE«,., 041^ 4 tlU nvetiti. ff tlia .»oi.&.. 
(3 do ftfljia it miit R<iw6 a. iietiv 6«t6iMtu-6 deiiuMi'5 — tfwit wle ilats 
[WiUitiUea nnU liati*iW36 it, mvd tkct ih oi*8ut(iti,[Mv nmu- 6e oo. 
e«t«,.;« «,;. E, tf^ Ulb of «,A. %.i»,„. i/t U * UveiLtiifc fa*;, 
tfvot tHe ^tuiitliaijHV uf ifta ^vltaS SPtoUo— AoA molt UnM.^1) 

vt^>^M■ op tJi* li ottiots itiid ib(j«j ct th* ^JbcimiUiUwi Ikia iwt ifdi 

h«.d u oeivcVot clteLiEutimb. <0 lUlw it mO'ii' be. mtl^i Sliced uito 
ouA- iEhie-ls, tcod^cniH*, othtl att mi* freniiiioAie* ot tealivuuq-, oivo 
aUi^lchO to- be liii'di^'frtiKS-d. lf°U'i ^i^j ^i'^ eJltitf&u to qAneot oY«4t<b 

[o^ Ui« co^Ch a^Ld alnlitii' 4«ti/ [uoi>a ak^uMLn lil- li*e|KtU>t^ \Ma lil«&«>tt 
eJltioii.. S fiolv6 uou. aiiS Lite comitiu. umK jiAj'fit Eiv it. 
"^J'lS, 1*511- tiuflj-, 

t., J, .f tt <&«j> 'S.-ui 4 it* BtjiU .f <fttmil;. to <LU, 

lyoii, fo^ ■■'[■M' »t'Eiu- oil's (rfkW-eotcd e3-tti<]|i' ot ttte Msotiatitittwui- o-t 
tfi* "ifenteo kjtolt^, HWJoE- iwiU/ k™>6 fciiulliv leiit to tfvem,, CHW 

fo^ ttt* IHOUtlSlE »bati»tlO IHLtolmotUHl' (HUI/EK60 U lb ; OIVO 6^V6. 

ciaf&i- fo* tn* ttiEthUoii* 011.3 ifeliv li,a*tioii.°iit 11101011* u)iuoK. u«ii> 
U«> ,m.3s of ij;,e CgoiiititLai^l^, a,t:3 f=i tf... »w™tlt>«, of !^6 

Hosiecb, Google 

U> L« && tti« nunt cDYHV^et ci>|ui' e^c^Eui^, atvd- tli-fiii. Iku]« rur doiil>b ti 
m-Jv ■v.cot W|vc.t, -# am,, 3V ff^, 

OiL^ oE^Vb ^^„.'b, 

■JiiAlftuui- of bfi* eSltimw of tA* '^wUtva'i™. of iJVa *il&li.ll*5 
ataica, uv most ooiiwftoiv mlcuEottoiVj ate ae/M oaleleMfu. li^uitod, 

1 bo 1&6 tv»e conobitiottGtL of th* [wiAaaVc4.ti.fn>. Qftiv editwN 
Ekeiftoie, Eji^mutv to to isiiA.V*ot[ii- liutiiafiw, i* ct q^eut vaZiw. 

^nwA- oolvuiiis oiMiCiitiooC uiJex, h,oii>ei>6t., EoiulitiitcA bft* WimI 
iKiiiii^ of lyou^ b-oo^. q) £ stij/^iea fcuUvfuUii', tuvi) &ii' oil iui.&La»»ed 
in.iii,cl, it «yM UO'd it to la(K) th<c ^oti^tilu^ti' jvUtctistabii', ottd l« 
luid&Uttukd U oil it !«. %cfcAAiti^, iM bfvE oivntum du&3, eueiiy 
[lAjHi'Lsi.oit dii'd (^Lo'iA.^ to iba IvUboti^ot aHJi^LU-oabrfliiJ uv w^ cUfoM^a of 

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SciiJeji.011. IciMilOi ill at'cmt ooiufclivctloiv op fcfi* iiLi»l'<mii«tit iiv th* 

hoMt, piUsd to itotiac rLo«> laiqa a liAo|wrttniit o-p curt, stnteirnEti. 
a)v)iMul. iie.-6i. h Uiva i-Mil tU '^o.tUl.tuUiJ.v of tfl* ^^i-luS S'kJw 
uHtfi, 0/ wtifEvt i.cFe^«i.c6 to iti li^aoiae. Utnaiuin* oiio t/xaet lifo- 
c .H-Qibs, but Uit4ie^, a« docomoii Ivi^acik, tctiiv to eac4ctae. tlu:i,t 
uiqjuuiitij Lui.paltiui'iitclu too ufteb [uiue fil atvi ji^oiuei PuUip e«&Ue^j 
to ibLeUk' bobli' to tke ti i« Dp uAiat tiveu, a^ £ji« nirOnciit, ooii«td«^ 
.«|,^.i,«U^ <A*v6- to a. cnlefj;, |va f«,t, fui^ M tuia&jMi, 
of tfoit uLittiiliveiil:, IHVO op tfi* q. a lia of 1 cuoei eoAlp l^Huid uii 
it, CO, 1 «;t patC to OTL t 0. iUoivq- aii,0 wtuit i.Vip uifUj,cui06 iilLOit Hieh- 

Q)t LOj ^CHJ>C4>el'j lijIDI. tr£« mMI/U Op tjoe ^tl C^CIbt a4u1 tlLe ^l^tLA 

q^iLC (UeoiI' op OA^ Co t ilLU' iJle t 0/ a'i't''UrUiuJ''e' tli& u>-dfLi| ox^ucleO 

.«f J 4U,«. .f ]«J UL JTf .1 i,lt 6., „ <H tf. * 

ma u itLt Q^LK.eO ab o/ ala^i i> oEt Liu ou^ aotloDtaj it aaiuinob Ui^J' 
MKHl. to kVoilWE u/ iitoVa WnivS oivil oo^i tct iHi,5 mif-tni. uhSbU 
^,1 ,^ 4 tfL^<^§o.^.tat,o«, a* J> «, tf™. U UlbOo ].te«aXa 

oTt (u.^ Eoii^ tc™, a fouoW* mJv of m.i*, *o to tf. a atutc, tfiot 
otU [1.1.M1.0 Fojoo op iui.Hwl.ioE wtteifljat inaip l6, tip OiH/ ^ijeoijlu,., d-Lbb 4b-l.tC'0 to 011.^ O0lll'l»0ll' > ElO^^ L4V « UAfll to t>& mnEutfi Of 

aUx^rr b-HjEt UV tlv& »^i^>.& □^oD'ti.ocg Ai.rioU(^f tTutt tFte cu4A«itb EeiuA- 
XnJUoAi, of. tll^ atatfr ma;v <>& cohcIiI' a4ud tliOl^ T^ J' ^^*^^^^ ^t' 

A... ,X .^ b t. tl,. ^to . ,\ Ik, .tai. 

™poii,t Eoofc itq-q-CJli) tk« uSiitioiv op Hi« Tpotutititttoiv op tUe 
^ftatu, i4Htfb a. fiiCf uiJe-ij wX c» tfuit iMu. fww & |vW|i«4<J foi. tfi« 
cJcilaUiE ^oiwtUiJ^ioit, a* a Ev&ojiiHvcui uEdW tocft. to [lAcuedt tfi* 
itu^il oC <£^ oiiAAeiiit Uiiua , luvO, if u-oii^ ^initiivUiHt ati th« 
liwiv. fp *■( Ki-if^o (p (t aciLc jiE cko. nctct, un3 t hlbWjiE KiiOUo 
itO' te ooiuueetiJ) UH.lli & w, i J6 tf USj., J So H-ob 

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4 if.. 

iitrt n. to be.* [ 1 

fu»». U I Pt f 

(V ^ teili uW J- th««Mcl 
tvftv Mmf cT iHuucLl 

j J "* 4 c 1 &^ 

Ktal ouoo'vfttii' W* Vj* a lAi t I oaw 

til* to oimo^ iiHilv tTi* ociiu^voa o) do of til* lufvow- HH-iS-. tJ ll* 
nKirttcnV ivDU^ i«u>e ciHvu^cteO loitli' tli* JTublJ^caU^n' i>|' tii* HitfliX^titiif- 
tlotiH 14 |i&U44VCJi^j Q41.J Mii^ Ob tlif ii'Mtki^ j^\tdeii.t&p t4v& ULbtUun^i/t 
i>ii4'^ to && riLO'de' paiTVLUnAH w-kUt^ iwwJ* tiie le^o;^ frp uHfliuni- wcni» 

UU/lHi, tTi^ ielLGlitloib of flUI' tfi^iuXi Urb t^ eoHu- of thij> u>it^, 
ttUfllVE- ni.6, Weill. \ci|vMtEviJlii, WW tlMll., IUKl4a, 


(t* ewtntti'teo l^& ogIuv op *' ti h* ^(Hv&tmitLoii' lutii^i/ lioii; 
HHit to ma an, ita Eivit lui£fLEojioii(, ttii.3 tfieii. e»]i46iae3 to ij-Hir tfi* 
£itiM>lii&(!o ojiitiiiTO lufiififi/ Q) eiitE.ttti,UM,3 of tA-e- lu-t/ih-, Ewnv iia iHJot. 
iteM, Ua coDCLiAidvi]., oii^ Lt»,o«nUvtmeiK'U>e>iGM. M- tfve uii|LoUaji«« 
of iU ^wtii^utloiv (ortujn* oft oEciftata of ourt. oitiacji*, o) thJiX hio 
o<ic Giub iW^t. iSb u, 1^ UutOanvetLtat Una-, WMt/ inni^sn- eoiU^toU 
ojl otJleW — tft« oCj/iiM, op oiti, EiG*ll*rl, mfutfe. etwUv (uteECrt' IhUj 

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cv^BOt tflDelmtUo j it iixatM aioMe fi-uiv to tEOtLse. ntoi* eot5i.o,l[vj. 
tM utU(iicEt& 4«to{MHb III' lU'WO' tte frtottils to euctui otfbe4< cUiscii.; 
mi.S tlHi* lti> teiiJieiieii. u»uK) 6-6 to iunu- oCoia*. tlie EKi.telii<u£ toii^ 
luliicR. luiitei i» iw oil* [veolitc. tlbe uwiiW Gecoiite leivsitEa fmiO' 

^c of' LOnO^WbDe CULd OLCt J CUbd ULIA COkURcJ^Knl' U>OU[!d LCIl3^ 

lum' tli« o^looccite' op ali liAokfn^ nLea^al^if bo ciujiAq« tlte hiWli^ 
DoCFii- oaiDointet). 0% Lt«iv£ecla« op iLa ^oiiaUUition,, iDtuA^L (» 

pot tn^ llT«4t |KL4t I1I044I' OtVd- ^TVll'L^ UV it^ [l^«1)-LAEQIIl>f IU-DLiIhO OptctlH 

inisleao hint, cuvo mmj-fceii. buit to o- dtdtet »«iv46 o-p iv^at"itiit>e put 
ttLP. Ivtiuil-daco lufiioh' 11,6 I* ]i*lmitte3 to etw-uii,. 

ofb iixxll!^, lib nut aji'uiioih, b« ddrlui-tPe. tfvcib ui^fb oi oojiip op tfie 
MBtnLfltiUit^oiv a* Hwit ui-ki^ iwHi^ \i(u>e' hA^etia^cOj ait«Li,Ld to nt ji-oa- 
aebaixHt op e(i^i> pa^ieio^ tU^LtutL tli'WLi^ixmt th« IcuLd^ 04 ct atuitd- 
O'i'd to iivh'tcEL' Val&'icjLofi m-tub b-c hfl/O liH-liv LULd-tHiJKUL^ ooii|H-Ociioej 

UV Cf14eb Ll^l'Lcfl' llwKkUJ© tU,tC4t4K)ll4 Op M3oitAtltlltlo[wUi [<:tll^4 ^J3ilt (y 

iivoiiXd OciH-t* to see It uit^JjXmeS 114 » teat-feoofr ut owi/ 
scfcoola (Hvd cuItetyM, tlwit oirt. ijmutq. mai. m-aty £& UniiaRt to ftjwmt 

Ul^M^ ^Lollta, EUIhO tic become ttCfUbtUILted IV-Ltlb tJvOl')' dutL«b, Ob OltL- 

sciis, ficpji* tlwib «wvoq.6 lit til* «nvli.EoiMii«vts ot [bctuje u-te. 

(A a. eltl«cii. cf t^ ''ISiUtc'a S'toto, cS" tfunX ^Du- Etrt. tfi* 
l>pH>[«pL^ tv«i«4b ij<m' K'a4>C' e<HTi&V*«d uHoiv IJi/b comJiuiivttip wp tJi^ 
(■rjmjvituUciii,j oito ipou. fKM)6 imj. teat unih.6j Wiot ufl"^ EtttoU moil- 
Ge tuTvlblLp ^nutve'^'O. <y P«i', detL*' a-iA., oe^p tfiijin ip^ U)&. 

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'JiycLi.lkiKito,!,, H'Mcmi-^i., 1850. 

"l& IJmt iwiv uttcuS bo |iiiWjAK/ a. CcuWv eSitHjit of 
t£* uoEum*, ocmlMfEJ mvd|inA*.d tw- ifou., ectvtimvuiq. tft* 'wotv- 

iiitele^t'mq' matted, <^ ta»« hieH'MiAe ut eajiA^MiiO' IJi« iat'i«ki.Dti«ii' 
Q) lUuse- d&ln>ed lA^tnv on- cjctwuiiMi^uni. ot tu* uKkV^, ^U^hi. FLfl*& 
M«|v&u.ve3 (.iwWiEtit ill. tfi* mttteiMbfo lufivon. it enrtodLcij wab m tfi* 
o^oeV umIIi. uhvldIi' tlveU' Ucwc be«ii, o^^i^oiKi'e^ . ^lymi^ teJuoeH'Oe' at tlbc 
Biiu, ot '-'lUa4hMtottni., alio HI 011.6 ni tfi* |ntt[io o-j-GcBft, k(W at. 
fot^teo ijoii/ ofl. olilwriiwiiJ:^' oy Q«o«i» to tK* oiittuuM. teafc o-p ifi* 
^cm*tituti<Hi-, otvfl t* lfe« otft*), docuiiveiii* atui WooWii ooiikmvw) 
i* iMKvt- iHhUwive-j op iiili*«h- iKHi- oJvJLeo,*. to IKOu-e. oMi.Ju.oul-I.U' cUHHted 
iKMti*eS. "U^OHrS. wwrtfc, thfil«[o»«j dtietivEa li6l|6cb eoivj-tSeiiec. uii 
U» uiti.i« ouUveiiUcUU'. 

(J h.6^ t^t* *D ntttiui' <tn'0 aii^ oWlo-iw t^tt&oti* ui/ ptijo^ ot tii4* 
Ih>o^ be^i/O' efcteit^ti^euv m/t'CtuoJt&Oj atul uv tn£ tuui^ op au-f ^^ clU^ecil 
iu-fi.0 WW- ooiMjeMienffitj. afjWii to |ui.IoAji«6 it, thah 01 caiuvot (toD.W> 
t^ exubeAUia op a. coitstmit (uvS (at^* dEm^HVd toV it. Qnavo 
eiti^zeJL^ ivh.0 aA« ^^kuvq/ ubU'a'd, orttS |W«[^L&^ ii>ii/D ^ aA.& con^ui^ 
o^nofl^ uA} u>out^ oAt 00 umt l« outaui/ [vofra^^u.on' ot a vooltivluok' 
tofliiktMea , HMmuv a. iniJ<.U< oomjiaM, tlW ieooLd ot to iiutiuk iniltol" 
to^it Q^SVl^oti/iLt eu-Ckrl^ O/kid Onatiotui4'«UDiLA . 

Uki^ IKK4/ in'j^L' obtaitv a. li^oULt [Ktt^oitaac. U,oi>]/ ttie luitlLo, ao 
VujhXT| HitlitoS tot, ij^Hi/i, EafcoH. 

qJ am. ^e!ili.^<jLpn.i!u|/j 

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kitft to qnuje- m.ii' 0-lLUvt.on. op tivs i>aLu« ot, imiA wi.tu>*i/ &p tli* Htfoiv- 
4titiiiw>iv, tRo-A^b it la Or luodi. lufwch, 5oe» irot IKI61) aiiit- tfitinvo- 
ttiuJ/ ot nuit« tv ii« m&titiii ibGir wyM th« &x|i<^aai«iE. o-p iitU' |LA'clanmLt^ 
oftauiieivS it tu« miW* to |LUtE.o pauoi/. ait va oi m«iiumc<Lfc op tjsAa, 
mid laba'i.j tut^o- OjOco/uuh^j mid maw bo^etVi' dej!-&i.d uIloiI' ita ouhv 

iF^ltVUVAl^ olU'LIlia, LV-ltilfK^ OotlUia' to tbi Ojio OiUT' a'l>l>ejvtltu>Ll« P-bV,* 

CHtTUto^i^u u>li<L£ci>e^, cj h/b vai«e o-p tLi« ooiui^^ oivd tiva ie- 
jveotsd (Adal4 op tlU. OeiKtte. jW Its luiMifliitioiv cw.3 diitivbiitwut, 
oAfi Mwml&t ^iio-l^iMe l« tke ofittUwttl. of the, ni«vfi-, aivo to tfi* 
ab-iUt^i- iKtO ud-eutLv o-p Hi* oaMMii. Qlia frttjijmfoin aosuAadf, iU 
ajMoUituial uuMatiqiLtMHi*, aito th* cijm,|vleHKm. op t&« im.|wU«.iit 
h,i«to4ioa:t pacta luhioK, IvlcM^-eS awfl ciMeiidcd t(i,6 [iftocecduiA* »p 
III* T£om>eiitujit', oitS luRiofc moAJled th* [vW>ivte»a op tile (uSol^tioni 
«£ th* HjoiiaUtutmii., tfiAfliMfc all tHe itaipta o| AmU ttiii (Ui.ra«tw., 
IJli th* Ehi^o^ IHid Rrtijiliiv ODnsununntunv, K,inj« aEl.eci.&* *ecEuieO 
t«*>hV ot t6if6Ui£ Mvun-ent nwib, uXoac. Eetl^U oAt. ooit. 
toiii.M> iiv the poWuet eiltwui.. <*8i»t if eu-e*. l£*M- ii«n a. Iicri*3 
UV W* fcl4tot«. of DM* MUHlttip, U>hi<fo OColfoS Hivoit 114 to EoHjfc- l)n.i;fe 
Lijioiv t|]« l>le4Hdtq4 ii>liicJi> tli« HDortatitutLon' Iiii4 u-^o^i^^j (uid u^vMv 
tlvE' ^ilnplDutU^b it eti^QiuibeVed is-ep&l^ it- 4£v«Lv«^ tW aan/otinUii- o-p 
tfi* oicmtvUiaii, fftaiEl md [veii|i,t6, t&afc |i«t,'iflS U ii|i(«>. U4, (fp 
u» «>et« tumt i^uifLoUb, aA me. me/te, w '17^7, "« m*Vto.t liouw*/ 
iWEinwl W,uv«- lib toq-fitli*t, ^Ivlictfi*^, HUtlv nlL tIbC 6KlltVte*lO& (]p 
omAj dufu^'iii, oitO qilA' bveafruuibj we, ccitb be Keji^ tooetli'&Vf ni'iiat 
5c|i*jw) iiJioHi Ih* »|i*tit Hut^i Hjfi^oii. lit coin* utv E* lfv6 iiwifo, 
jU/n/etR*^ th* pcemi^ op ootvoaiM^V a»>v cot»LhA*»™4e ivIvkIl (Ubi,- 
tmiterf oiM fatfi*!* i&LK coiitwuiE. to muniot* tftout soiii, ofc awim-fii 

Hosiecb, Google 

of tftfim, to- |L^(MeVu& aiv<) |iE!.|ietu«ia tfiM [iVoioua fi.e),itu^6, n«- 
qjntet) biv scti>uica oivd snWcSittqa mfeioli. aA^ uvliitciv iit oiw, Ivu-st 
IwitoUi-, (HvO mail pm.o tOM/si e-xcunliteft ot iwittetKif oaliuiiitu- ifl. 
tR*- fiitiiVe, ihfli(.[& tfcU. ooivpdeiatioB. Eb t-iofcett iih., i« tfi* q^leot 
(WicBttoiv ftp w-e- oaiV) Mmiefc eueiit* o^ IoaA, bnitetiinq. to d/ soELitwi-iv, 

Olj™* tef^ieiu* to tf«. [vta*tl« of 5fe«.i6 (UvS to tGtJ> i.f tf>* 
niEduttuat (™m hv C.1iq-[an.d, uifi«i& tti* diffuswiv of tli* tiMwitetlja 
of Iftiell, Veiltaotuie TOOiiititiitloivi, €*lveolaUi|. aflmiia. om u-ouifc, 
luab one. of th<e on.)«3 of ttve «« fu^mXea an, LmlvMtiuii) 
IftftsxstVf lon^toHf ccutibot be bo« b^aiii^uv conktUGii^ed to ni/e [hlUaa 
otteiiJioiv. <J h* ^on*titutwiv t^ouJid Ec a. lokooE-took., m-oAti fn- 
intlla^ U an fuinb ou^ e[1A.[!U4t iv«i<U>. Cil ta IvUiLsl^iU^j U^ Ivt-D- 
uiaimu!), !fe> Cu™.taUoiift, »&oufd Ee »t«,Ji*.3 cui.5 mvieVBtood, aiid tK« 
rxA^ vLiUf a/ix^ atu^ie^ h^Ch betted a^AA/ Uwm, ^ a^Uv\£«io^ed atvd tlie 
^«b%«t th^eU' lU-iit Eeoom«. <3 »K«uid Ec qfoi^ to &ea iuu4/ edikon> 
of tE* 'Cwutitiitioiv HI- eu6i» icftwit-UmHe uv tft« "IttMoiVj cHvd mu. 
onfEcttttLi* mw iniMflf a»« lo milvleftscd loith. tfi* unlvo^loiioe ct 
ulia iL(<KKitioti/, tliat Hie iiktetbd to di.ttlifHlie' oXS, m^ colvtefr tue ie. 
ocuie., amftiio- tfto siih,Got CiKvoAica of i,©JMcicrHq(HV. 
ly am,, Sciit »W,, 

i%ea|iectpitLlWj U'QuA. oEed- 1 a^Vij t, 

Hosiecb, Google 



"Ll£ii.d6r»tiu«lni4. tftflt iiiHv cM.e a£mit to [iu*EUfi< a. fouAiti. QWittoit 
trt tfi*. CiOooK. o£ tfi.& %imvltUttiiicn,, <U take, [i.U(tsii4B uv ejjlilesiHKI- 
iiui- lUtiet thti* til* ckUjuuw- iiotutuJioiv o-P ttot uoliimE. la oE 
[vnttio tuvo (letvelalr wn4iM.ttui.Be. 

STfi* 'Sotiatlhitioiv oE tR« 'muteJ Cf tatea 'u> n ui^itten. 'SmM.u,. 
mail; i 1* tecoiS^ftS &uii)«™*ittti.£ iBa.i& ; it n. th* Sona, lubd tfi* 
wvC^ J5on<?, 4 tiU ;/«tOH of Xtu.^ S'tfltca , il L, o-tE tUt ^'uiea 

lit. ffl Niittonal cR«.uw>tfib 

OAll^klD^ eiT&^li' tTKlhl' Nt t^e COIUl4All' Ut Da4t'CUjte O-p ^/fio^l.q. it J 

(UvS rfmt ii>fn«hy 10 SecliUt. cwiee^in ntf, snaniS Ge HMwy& eoaiU. 0*- 
MlftiiEe. to nIE 0^wi4. juiEEUatUMi, of tLii^ !» beltEt e«fouI(tta3 
to a<icoBv|iUi&. tft-ij en.d, t&«)t ami lohtJl aofl [vteocJed it. 

Ulf...> .m li.» ..,..S, 

Hosiecb. Google 


James Midison, President of the United Slates, on eniETing 
npoQ tlie duties of tlie oiBce, declared, that "to support the Consti- 
tution, which is the cement of the Union, as well in its limitations 
as in its authorities, and to favor the advancement of sciente and the 
diffuHon of information, as tlie best aliment to true liberty," with 
other salutary sentiments and intentions, would be a resource which 
could not fail him ; and added, " but the source to which I look for 
tlie aid which alone can supply my deficiencies, is the well-tried 
inielUgeuee and virtue of my fellow-citizens, and in the counsels of 
those representing them in the other departments associated in the 
care of the national interests." 

"To suj^ori tlie Constitution" by his talents, by his best ser- 
vices, and with his life, if required, is the firm and irrevocable de- 
termination of every true patriot; but the " support" presupposes 
a hnoivkdge of that valued instrument; and the knowledge can 
alone he expected to follow a careful reading and study of its letter 
and its spirit. To afford an opportunity to every American citizen 
to do this, is the object in the publication of the present edition. 

If, as Cicero informs ns, in ancient Rome the very boys were 

obliged to learn the twelve tables by heart, as a cannen neceasariain, 

or indispensable lesson, to imprint on their tender minds an early 

knowledge of the laws and constitution of ^leir country, 

"Noeturno. veraatB manu, versate dhuna,'' 

If it was deemed important to the preservation of Bridsh liberty, 
In the earlier and better days of that country, tliat Magna Charta 

Hosiecb, Google 


should be auilioritatively promulgated and read to thfi people — It 
is no less important to tlia prasarvation of American liberty, that 
every intelligent citizen should, ly hia man wil/ and authoriii/, 
aided by the liberality of the Government, possess a copy of this 
great charier (f American liberty. 

There appears to have been no foinva! provision made by the 
GoTernment of the United States fox the promulgation of the Coit- 
s^tution, escept by a concurrent resolution of the two Houses of 
Congress, mads during the fiiat Congress, (6th July, 1799,) whereby 
it was " Resolved, that there be prefixed to tbe publication of the 
acts of the present session of Congress a correct copy of the Con- 
stitution of Government for the United States." This, however, 
was sufficient to show the intention and the judgment of the Paircs 
Fairiie upon die subject. 

Every good citizen, capable of reading and ouderstanding its 
meaning, is bound by duty to his country, if in his power, to pos- 
sess a copy of the Constitution. The compiler of this publication 
has added the Declaration of Independence, with invaluable matter 
claiming paternity of the " Father of his country," and other inte- 
resting information, and has bo limited the cost of tliis Consti' 
taHortal bouquet, as to enable the Government, should such be its 
pleasure, by a judioious and liberal investment in this provident 
stoclc — to lay up, for a time of need, a vast fund of available trea- 
sure in the minds and the liearta of the people, for the defence of 
their liberties and the perpetuity of their institutions — to sow the 
good seed in virgin soil, which might otherwise be occupied by 
noxious weeds. With diffidence it is submitted, that this national 
object may be practically effected by flie distribution of barely so 
many copies as may place one in each village or neighborhood, 
which would introduce it to the knowledge of the people, who 
would then seek by their own means to possess it; and thus as a 
mustard seed would it multiply, and its salutary principles be ex- 
tended. Nor could any means more convenient be proposed, than 
to intrust to the hands of the guardians of the Constitution ia Con- 
gress the distribution, or the sowing of this good seed. It would 
appear from the tables of the last census, that there are, in the 

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Uniled Slates, upwards of three and a half millions of men, over 
twenty years of age, capable of reading; and should tliera be only 
one copy furnished by the Gorernment to every hundred men, a 
lai^ portion of the other ninety-nine would, probably, by their own 
means, obtain it. 

Viewing the immense diffusion of printed political matter throag-h 
all the villages and hamlets of the Republic, as the abandaneo of 
material provided by the generosity of the Government and zeal of 
prirale enterprise, as political food for the mind, this compilation 
may be considered as salt for the preservation of such as may be 
wholesome, or as lime to neutralize and destroy sach as may ba 
carious. It would be a test by which to separate the wheat from 
the tares and cockle — a crucible by which to separate the gold 
from the dross and base metal, or the cupel by which to try the 
current coin of politics, and a text book by which lo judge tf the 
orilioin^ey of political disquisilioiK. 

By the British statute, " conjirmatio cariarum," the great .charter 
was directed "to be allowed as the common law; all jadgmenls 
contrary to it are declared void : copies of it arc ordered to he sent to 
all cathedral ekurchea, and read f wt'cs a year to the people ," whereby 
it was intended that the sanctity of tlie place should inspire a pecu- 
liar veneration for that noble structure of fundamental law — sacred 
to human liberty civil and religious 

According to PI to and Ansto le Lex est mens sine effedu, et 
qtiad Deua — (/ law ta nd w Ihout passion, and thei-efure Ulie 
God. Or, accord g to Grot s Cod approved and ratified the 
salutary co st tut o s of govern nent made by men ;" while De- 
mosthenes declares that the desigit and object of laws is to ascer- 
tain what is just honorable and e^p dientj and when that is dis- 
covered, it is proclaimed as a general ordinance, eq^ual and impartial 
to all. This is the oripn of law, which, for various reasons, all 
are under an obligation to obey, but especially because all law is 
the invention and gift of Heaven, the resolution of wise men, the 
correction of every oifenoe, and the genera! compact of the State, 
to live in conformity with which is the duty of every individual in 
society. " 

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Bossaet remarks, that "If ths Roman laws liavc appeared ao 
sacred, that their majesty still eubsists, notwithstmiling the ruin 
of the empire, it is because good sense, which controls human life, 
reigns througliout the whole, and that there ia nowhere to be found 
a finer application of the principles of natural equity." 

Algernon Sidney adds, that " The Israelites, Spartans, Romans, 
and others, who framed their governments according to their own 
will, did it not by any peculiar privilege, but by a universal right 
conferred upon tliero by God and nature. They were made of no 
better clay than others ; they had no right tliat does not as well 
belong to other nations ; that is to say, the Constitution of every 
government is referred to those who are concerned in it, and no 
other lias any tliing to do with it." — 

"Salus populi est les suprema." 

fudge Blaclistone remarks, that "every man, when ha enters 
into society, gives up a part of his natural liberty, as tl'e priee of 
E-j valuable a purchase ; and, in consideration of receiving the ad- 
vantages of mutual commerce, obligee himself to conform to those 
laws which the community has thought proper to estahlish. And 
this species of legal obedience and conformily is infinitely more 
desirahle than that wild and savage liberty which is sacrificed to 
ohtain it. For no man, that considers a moment, would wish to 
retain the absolute and uncontrolled power of doing whatever he 
pleases j (lie consequence of which is, that every other man would 
also have the same power, and then tliere would be no security to 
individuals in any. of the enjoyments of life. Political, therefore, 
or civU. liberty, which is that of a member of society, is no other 
Ihait natural liberty, so far restrained by hmnan laws (and no fer- 
ther) as is necessary and expedient for the general advantage of the 
public. Hence, we may collect fliat the law, which restrains a 
man from doing mischief to his fellow-citizens, though it dimi- 
nishes the natural, increases the civil liberty of mankind. And 
Locke has well observed, " where there ia no law there is no free- 

s made a promise, with himself, to observe the laws of 

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Jiis country; but tliia is nothing more than what every good man 
ought botii to promise ami to perform: and he ought to promiae 
Etill fiirtlier, that he will exert all his power, when constltutiotiiiliy 
cabled upon, to compel others to obey them. 

The compiler of this edition of our own venerated Constitution, 
lo which he has with anxious labor prefixed a copious, and, he trusts, 
a faithful analytical index, belieTea that there are among his fellow- 
cilizens many thousands of intelligent men capable of reading and 
understanding the great American charter of liberty, but wlio,witli- 
oat seeing and judging for themselves of " its limitations and its 
authorities," have, with a passive credulity, (which in other mat- 
ters of comparative insignificance, would have been indignantly 
spumed,) reposed their faith, their birthright, and their safety, on 
the opinions of others, whose impassioned, and sorhetimes vitupe- 
rative tones have appealed rather to the prejudices of the heart than 
to the integrity of tiie understanding. 

Mr. Dallas has well said, that "the Comiilution in its wards ia 
plain and iniettigihk, and it is meant /or ihi homebred, imsophidi' 
calsd umierslandings c^ ourfelbiO'citizena" To this sentiment, the 
compiler is indebted for suggesting to his mind the idea of pubiish- 
ing this edition of tlie Constitution, with its accompaniments ; and 
he theretote believed that there would be propriety and justice in 
the dedication of it to tliis distinguished statesman, ond tlirough 
hirii to the American people.* 

'fhe compiler, diffident of his own ability to do adequate justice 
to the subject, has called to his aid some of the most eminent 
authorities to sustain the inviolabie sanctity of the li^v, and to im- 
press upon Americans a reverential attachment to liie Conadtutjon, 
as in the high^t sense the palladium of American liberty; so tjiat 
their judgment, as well as their aflections, may be enlisted on tbe 
side of the Constitution, as the truest security of the Union, and 
the only solid basis on which to rest the private nglits, the public 
liberties, and the substanlkl prospenty of tliu people composing 
the American Republic. 

He will next have recourse to the authonty of the universally 
esteemed and lamented Justice Stor),as to the high responsibilities 
of the people, and the proper means of guarding the ine^litnablc 

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rights the5' now enjoy. In reference to the Constitution of govern- 
ment he says ; " It must perish, if there he not that vital spirit in 
the people, w5iioh alone can nourish, sustain, and direct all its 
moTements. It is in vain tliat statesmen sliall form plans of go- 
vernment, in which the beauty and harmony of a republic shall be 
embodied in visible order, shall be huilt up on solid substi'iietions, 
and adorned by every useful ornament, if tlie inhabitants sulTer the 
silent power of time to dilapidate its walls, or crumble its rnassy 
supporters into dust ; if the assaults from without are never resisted, 
i and mining from within are never guarded 

against. 'V 

7h p h i^hts d 1 1 erties of the people, 

when th y 

h 11 b b d d by th 1 ? Who shall keep 

watch i 

I tempi wh th t h leep at their posts 1 

Who Bh il 

11 p th p pi t dm their possessions, and 

revive th 

1 bl h th w 1 d have deliberately and 


1 d th m to tl pp and have built the 

prisons or dug the graves of their own inends 1 This dark pict\ire, 
it is ki be hoped, will never be applicable to the Republic of Ame- 
rica. And yet it affords a warning, which, like ail the lessons of 
past experience, we are not permitted to disregard. America, free, 
happy, and enlightened as she is, must rest the preserradon of her 
rights and liberties upon the virtue, independence, justice, and 
sagacity of the people. If either fail, the republic is gone. Its 
shadow may remain with all the pomp, and circumstance, and 
trickery of government, but its vital power will have departed. In 
America, the deniagogue may arise as well as elsewhere. He is 
the natural, though spurious growth of republics ; and, like the 
. courtier, he may, by his bland ishmenta, delude the ears and blind 
Hie eyes of the people to their own destruction. If ever the day 
eball arrive, in which the best talents and the best virtues shall be 
driven from offica by intrigue or corruption, by the ostracism of the 
press, or the still more unrelenting persecution of party, legislation 
will cease to be national. It will be wise by accident, and had by 

" In every human society," says the celebrated Beccaria, " there 
is an effort continually tending to confer on one part the height of 
power and happiness, and to reduce the other to tiie extreme of 

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weakness and misery. The intent of guod laws is to oppose this 
effort, and to diffuse their influence universally and equally ;" and 
Montesquieu declares that, " In a free state, every man, who is sap- 
posed a free agent, ought to be concerned in his own government ; 
therefore the legislalive power should reside in the whole body of 
the people, or their representativea. The political llberly of the 
citizen is a tranquillity of mind, arising from the opinion each per- 
son has of his safety. In order to have this liberty, it is requisite 
the government be so constitnled, as that one man need not be 
afend of another. The enjoymevi nf liberty, and enen tCs support 
and preaeruatian, constats in eeery ■nuiifs being allowed to speak his 
thoaghla, and lay open his seniimenU,'" 

The compiler will next propose to his fellow-citizens the advice 
of a profound philosopher, as to the proper mode of preserving tho 
independence cf the mind, which is alike applicable to every free- 
bom American citizen, and points out the means by which the na- 
tive talent, the integrity of heart, and the indomitable spirit of the 
people, guided by patfiotism, will be rendered available in the pre- 
servation of the. purity of the government, and of their own liber- 
ties. It is submitted, tliat a copy of this edition of the Constitu- 
tion be in the possession of every citizen capable of reading and 
nnderslanding themeaningof language, before whom tie following 
instructions of Locke would then be placed; 

" Reading is for the improvement of the anderstanding." 

" The improvement of the understanding is for two ends : first, 
for our own increase of knowledge ; secondly, to enable ua to de- 
liver and make out that knowledge to others." 

" I hope it will not be thought arrogance to say, that perhaps we 
sliould make greater progress in the discovery of rational and con- 
templative knowledge, if we sought it in the fountain — in the con- 
sideration of things themselves — and made use rather of our own 
thoughts than other men's to find it j for I think we may as ration- 
ally hope to see with other men's eyes, as to know by other men's 
understandings. So much as we ourselves consider and compre- 
hend of truth and reason, so much we possess of real and true 
knowledge. The floating of other men's opinions in our brains 
makes us not one jot the more knowing, though they happen to he 

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trne. What in them was science, is in ua but opiiuatrety ; whLlsl 
we give up our assfint only to reverend names, and do not, as they 
did, employ our own reason to understand those Irutlis which gave 
them reputation. Aristotle was certainly a knowing man, but no- 
body ever thought him so, because he blindly embiaced, or confi- 
dently vented, the opinions of another. And if the taking up ano- 
ther's principles, withoul examining' them, made not him a philoBo- 
pher, I suppose it will hardly make anybody else so. In the 
sciences, every one has so mach as he really knows and compre- 
hends ; what he believes only, and takes upon trust, are but shreds, 
which, however well in the whole piece, make no considerable 
addition to his stock who gathers them. Such borrowed wealth, 
like fairy money, tliough it were gold in the hand from which he 
received it, will be but leaves and dust when it comes to use." 

"How many men have no other ground for their tenets than the 
supposed honesty, or learning, or number, of those of the same pro- 
fession. As if honest or bookish men could not err, or truth were 
to be established by the vote of the multitude ; yet this, with most 
men, serves the turn." 

" All men are liable to error, and most men are, in many points, 
by passion or interest, under temptation to it. If we could hot see 
the secret motives that influenced the men of name and learning in 
the world, and the leaders of parties, we should not always find 
that it was the embracing of truth, for its own salie, that made 
them espouse the doctrines they owned and maintained. This at 
least is certain, there is not an opinion so ahsurd which a man may 
not receive upon this ground. There is no error to be named, 
which has not had its professors ; and a man shall never want 
crooked pa^s to walk in, if he thinks that he is in the right way 
wherever he has the footsteps of others to follow." 

It is not henee to be inferred, however, that the opinions and tho 
judgment of the wise and the good are to be disregarded, and more 
especially are we not pennitted to treat with irreverence the politi- 
cal loctrines and masims of the fathers of the republic, whose wis- 
dom and counsel, and devoted patriotism, gave being to the Decla- 
ration of our independence and the Constitution of our country. 
In the fundamental principles of our Government, on what can the 

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American mind and faith, repose witii as much oonfidance and 
safety as the esposi^ons contained in the "Federalist, an incom- 
parable commenlary of three of the greatest statesmen of their age," 
in tlie extraordinary jodgmenta of the eupreme judicial tiibunal, 
and tlie solid wisdom embodied in the constitutional commentaries 
of those who have imparled dignity and purity to the moral ermine 
which oinameots that august tribunal? 

Nor can the American people look to any source more entitled 
to their confidence, for an exposition of the essential principles of 
our Government, and, consequently, those which ought to shape its 
administration, than to the farewell address of the " Father of his 
country," (contained in this compilation,) and to the principles 
proclaimed by the "Fathers" of the memorable Declaration and of 
the immortal Constitution, when respectively "called upon to un- 
dertake the duties of the first executive office of oar country." 

Tliomas Jefferson declared those principles to be — "Equal and 
esact justice to all men, of whatever state or persuasion, religious 
or political ; for haying banished from oui land that religions intole- 
rance under which manliind so long hied and suffered, we have yet 
gained littie, if we coanteuance a political intolerance, as despotic, 
as wicked, and capable of as hitter and bloody persecutions ; peace, 
commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangling alli- 
ances with none; the support of the Slate governments in all tlieir 
rights, as the most competent adniinistrations for our domestic con- 
cerns, and the surest bulwarks agdnst anti-republican tendencies ; 
the preservation of the General Government in its whole constitu- 
tional vigor, as the sheet-anchor of our peace at home and safety 
abroad ; a Jealous care of the right of election by the people ; a 
mild and safe corrective of abuses which are lopped by the sword 
of revolution, where peaceful remedies are unprovided j absolute 
acquieeeenee in the decisions of tlie majority, tiie vital principle of 
republics, from which is no appeal but to force, the vita! principle 
and immediate parent of despotism ; a well-disciplined militia, our 
best reliance in peace and for the first moments of war, rill regulars 
may relieve them ; the supremacy of the civil over the military 
authority; economy in the public expense, that labor may be 
tiffhtly burthened ; tlie honast payment of our dehta, and sacrei? 

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preservatioQ of Iho public fiuthj encoarag;ement of agriculture, and 
of commerce as its handmaid ; the diffusion of information, and 
arraignment of all abuses at tlie bar of the public reason ! freedom 
of religion ; freedom of the press ; and freedom of person under the 
protection of the habeas corpus; and trial by juries impartially 
selected. These principles form tlie bright constellation which 
has gone before ae, and guided our steps through an age of revolu- 
lion and reformation. The wisdom of our sages, and blood of our 
heroes, have been devoted to their atlainment ; they should he the 
creed of our political feith ; the text of civic instruction ; the touch- 
stone by which to try the services of those we trust ; and should 
we wander from them in moments of error or of alarm, let us has- 
ten to retrace our steps, and to reg^n the road which alone leads 
to peace, liberty, and safety." 

' James Madison, equally pursuing the principles of the Constitu- 
ijon, declared the purposes of Government to be : 

"To cherish peace and friendly intarcoarse with all nations 
having correspondent dlsposittons ; to maintain si nceTe neutrality 
towards belligerent nations ; to prefer, in all cases, amicable discus- 
sion and reasonable accommodadon of differences, to a decision of 
them by an appeal to arms ; to exclude foreign intrigues, and for- 
eign partialities, so degrading to all countries, and so baneful to 
free ones ; to foster a spirit of independence, too jnst to invade the 
rights of others, too proud to surrender our own, too liberal to in- 
dulge unworthy prejudices ourselves, and too elevated not to look 
down upon them in others; to hold the union of the States as the 
basis of their peace and happiness; to support the Constilutton, 
which is the cement of tho Union, as well in its limitations as in 
its authorities ; to respect the rights and authorities reserved to the 
Slates, and to the people, as equally incorporated with, and essen- 
tial to the success of, the general system ; to avoid the slightest 
iiiterfarence with the rights of conscience, or the functions of reli- 
gion, so wisely exempted from civil Jurisdiction ; to preserve, in 
Aeir full energy, the other salutary provisions in behalf of private 
and persona) rights, and of the freedom of the press ; to observe 
economy ir, public expenditures ', to liberate the public resources 
ay an honorable dischai^ of the public debts ; to heep within the 

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requisite limits a standing military force, always rememljering that 
an armed and tjained militia is the firmest tulwaik of republics — 
that without standing armies their liberty can nerer he in danger, 
nor with large ones safe; to promote, by BulhoriEed means, ini- 
provements fHendly to agriculture, to manufactures, and to external 
as well as internal commerce; to favor, in like manner, the advance- 
ment of science and the diffusion of information, as the best ali- 
ment to true liberty ; to carry on the benevolent plans which have 
been so meritoriously applied to the conversion of our aboriginal 
neighbors from the degradation and wretchedness of savage life, to 
a participation of tlie improvements of which the human mind and 
'e susceptible in a civilized state. As far as sentiments 
IS such as these can aid the fulfilment of my duty, they 
will he a resource which cannot fail me. But tlie source to which 
I look for the aids which alone can supply my deficiencies, is in 
the well-tried intelligence and virtue of my fellow-citizens, and 
in thecoonsels of those representing them in the other departments 
associated in tiie care of thft national interests. In these, my confi- 
dence wDl, under every difficulty, be best placed, next to that which 
we have all been encouraged to feel in the guardianship and guid- 
ance of fliat Almighty Being whose power regulates the destiny of 
nations, whose blessings have been so conspicuously dispensed to 
this rising republic, and to whom we are hound to address our de- 
vout gratitude for the past, as well as our fervent supplications and 
best hopes for the future." 

The citizens of these United States were blessed with the virtue, 
Uie fortitude, and (he perseverance to achieve their independence 
as a nation; their patriotism and valor, both by sea and on land, 
brought them, with increased honor, through the "second vrar of 
independence," and through al! the trials and difficuldes by which 
they have, from time to time, been environed, both as respects tbeii 
foreign and domestic relations ; and it is only necessary for them 
to have " light" as regards the fundamental law, and the operations 
of the Government, to enable tiiem to judge of the fidelity of those 
whom tiiey periodically intrust with the power which alone belongs 
to themselves as a nation of freemen, the proper use and application 
of which powei is so vitally necessary to the preservation of thpi.- 

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XXXIV iNTaonucToitv i 

own liberties and best interests, and the perpetuity of our insti- 

" Ltglit, true ligit in the mind," says Locke, " la or can be no- 
thing else but the evidence of the trath of any proposition ; and if 
it be not a self-evident proposition, all the light it has, or caii bave, 
is from tlie clearness and validity of those proofs upon which it is 
received. To talk of any other light in the understanding, is to 
put ouTselTfis in the dark, or in the power of the Prince of Dark- 
ness, and by our own consent, to give ourselves up to delusion ; for, 
if strength of persuasion be the light which must guide us, I ask 
how shall any one distinguish between the delusions of Satan and 
the inspirations of the Holy Ghost V 

Subtleties and authoritative corruscations have been repndiat«d 
by pure and true-hearted sages and statesmen; the advice of some 
of the most profound of whom, has been characterized by the sim- 
plicity of manner and of language in which they have borne wit- 
ness to truth. Judge Story has remarked, that " upon subjects of 
Government it has always appeared to me, that metaphysical rellne- 
ments are out of place. A constitution, of government is addressed 
to the common sense of the people, and never was designed for 
trials of logical skill, or visionary speculation." 

Of a constitnfion so wisely contrived, so strongly raised, and so 
highly finished, it is hard to speak with that praise which is justly 
and severely its due : the thorough and attentive contemplation of 
it will famish its best panegyric. To sustain, to repair, to beau- 
tify this nobJe pile, is a chai^ intrusted principally to the people 
and their constitutional representatives, in aU the branches of the 

If honor and confidence, in a pre-eminent degree, are, with a 
portion of their power, confened by the people upon tiie Chief 
Executive Magistrate, the guardianship of the national honor is 
in no less a degree conferred upon their representatives in the two 
Houses of Congress, the intrinsic dignity of whose official cha- 
racter, in every moral point of view, transcends that of every other 
legislative assembly, in so much as our Constitution excels that 
of every other human government; and whilo the ConsUtution, 
practically animated by the people, thus confers honor and dignity 

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to them it is given to stand by the Constitution, 
in spirit and in truth, inflexibly maintaining its principles — the 
principles of union, of liberty, of justice, of domestic tranquillity, 
of common defence, and of the general welfare. The Constitution 
and the Government, thus reciprocally animating and being ani- 
mated, illustrates the beau idea! of good government — one of the 
choicest gifts of God to man. 

The protection of the liberty of the United States of America is 
a du^f which they owe to themselves, who enjoy it; to their ances- 
tors, who transmitted it down ; and to their posterity, who will 
claim at their hands this, the host birthright, the noblest inherit- 
ance of manltind. 

To conclude, in the language of Judge Story — 

"If, upon a closer survey of all the powers given by the Consti- 
tution, and aD the guards upon their exercise, we shall perceive 
still stronger inducements to fortify this conclusion, and to increase 
our confidence in the Constitution, may we not justly hope, that 
every honest American will concur in the dying espression of Fa- 
ther Paul, 'may it be perpetual !' " 


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4. TEi« veii^atioa of the CoDEtitDtion aiul amendmenli by Ilie Secretary of 
BiBie- — ■— ■- 3 

lion 3 





FEDERATION, oa Ihe obieelioni ofoas of the Slates to eonfer cermiu 
powers on Coagress wilb isgard lo ravenue and commerce. I6lh De- 

E. ADDRESS OF CONGRESS TO THE STATES, calling upon Ihefr Ins- 
April, IJSJ ~ 1! 


and the deatniotiTe effect of foreign policy, snd recontmending ttiet 
power for their proteolioQ be Teated in Coneress. 30th April, 1784-- ■ V. 
i. REPORT OP A COMMITTEIB OF CONGRESS, with a jlatemenl of the 
resaona why the Slates should confer uponCongreas the powers therein 

of tlie Stales lo comply wilh the rerjuisiliona of Congt 


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tinued tutu-compUanceDf Borne Dfllie SCDleE with the lequi^itions of Coi> 
greas, niid lecommendlng the iubject again to their conuderaUoD. 
3d Marcli, 1789 IS 

T. REPORT OF A COMfiUTTEE OF CONGRESS again earnEBlly recom- 
ineDding ihe subject to the consideialion of the Stales. S3d October, 
1786 IS 

which led 10 Ihe formaton gnd adoption oflheCojisIilLilioii of the UDiIed 
Smies ISI 

». EESOLUTION OP CONGHESa appoiminj oommitlsss to tepnir tollie 

Tequisitioos of Congresa into efleol with the greatest despolch. £Sd May, 

1789 Ul 


of Ihe Stales for Ihat purpose. SIsl July|17^ -..- IS 



giess eiTeotually lo pi-ovide for the same. aUt Januatr, 1788 IS 


Convention lo meet at Philnilelphia, with ample powers to adopt a CJon- 
stilulion udequate lo ihe exigencies of the Union. ll-14lh Beplemher, 


preseivation of the Union. Slat Febrnary, 1787 IM 


VIRGINIA. lOlh Ocloher, 17S8 ^ IBJ 

HEW JEESET. S3d November, 1JB6 170 

PENNSYLVANIA. 30th December, ITSa — ITS 

NORTH CAROLINA. 8ih Janoary, 17S7 •- 174 

DELAWARE. Sd February, 1787 177 

GEORGIA. lOlh FebioBiy, 173? 179 

SOUTH CAROLINA. Stli MaicL.lTS? 18» 

MASSAOHC SETTS. 10th March, IVOT -■ 18S 

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MABTLAND. 2Blh May, 1787 151 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. STlh Jane, I7B7 19 

a, LBTrBR OF GEORBB WASHINGTON, OiB PreBidont, wiih RbboIu- 
lions of llie ConTeiitioQ, laying: Ihe Oonatihitlon l>elbrfi CongresB, la lifl 
transmuted lo [he sereral S(sle> lo be snbmitled to Conventions thereof 
lot ralification. 17lh Soplembor, 1787 IS 

7. RESOLUTION OF CONGRESS, tranamitling Ihe some lo Ihe Slatea He- 
cordingly. ESth September, 1787 IS 

CONFEDERATION, in pnrauanoe of the lesolalion of Ihe Convention, 

Presideni and Vice FresldeQl, and the timo and place tbr commencing 

proceedings under llio Cons^tmloa Ill 






GRESS OF THE UNITED COLONrES, on the 161h June. 1776 SC 

a. ADDRESS OF GEORGE WASfflNGTON, scocpling [the appoinlmenl 
IBlh June, 1778 SI 


4. RESOLUTION OP CONGRESS that lliey wonld maintain and assist 
vBtion of American liberty, with iheir lives and fortunes, 17ih June, 


5. REPLY OP GEORGE WASHINGTON 10 the same. HClh August, 17S3 taH 


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if GEORGE WASHINGTON of ihfl offico of eom- 

mandcr-in-chiefoflhsarniy loCongross. asd DaMmber, 1783 SO 

9. ANSWER OF THOMAS MIFPUN,PreBid8nlofCDngre9s,to the some, 

10. ELECTION OF GEOEGB WASHINGTON, asPresidant of the TJnilea 

Stales, and hiainangUTal address. 30lh April, 17S9 21 


the people of Ibe United Slalea. ITlh Ssplember, 1796 SI 


aajiiiy,iT98 fia 

Ihe notional aullioritlea on Ihe dealt of Geoi^ WaahinKlon. 14lh De- 



a LiouBural addrebB of GEOaGE WASHINGTON. (Vifla Chanter 4, Arti- 
cle 9.) 3Uth April, Ueil SI 

a, Inai^ural address of JOHN ADAMS. 4lb March, l^T «' 

1 Inai^ural addiBM, first term of THOMAS JEFFERSON. 4th March, 

rni of THOMA& .lEFFERSON. 4th March, 
1 of JASLES MADISON. 4Ui March, laOB- ■ SB3 


•GENERAL LAWS relating Id Ihe conlinucLl orgMliation o 
and providing the aulliorilicE end means of executin 

I. AN ACT to regulate the lime and manner of adoiinistei 
This act prescribes lUe form of ihe oath lo supporl Ihi 
Ibe oBicere and persons by whom il shall be taken. 

!. AN ACTforlhepunishmentofcertaLncrimeB. Section 

biers and domealioe. SOlh April, 1799 

]. AN ACT 10 prescribe Ihe mode in which Ihe pnhlic 

1. AN ACT supplemenlal lo the act eslobliaUing the Treasury Deportment, 

BTcry oKcer and clech in the several Departmenls of the Umled Stales 
lo takeaaoalbloBupportlheConstilntion. 3il March, 1791 W 

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KM 2B1 

B. AH ACM proTming corapeneBtion tn the PcMident ana VIm Pre^ont of tha 

Unltecl Slaios. ISlh February, 1793. 
T. AH ACT to autliorize certda ofBceis nod otliei perWDS lo edidniBlei osOis. 

SflMBjjITOS 291 

S. AH ACT supplemeatgiy ta the sob, entitled Ad net to presenhe the mdde iD 

wbid) tha puljlic act% Tecorda, aJid jndii^al proceeding la ee^h St&le ebeU 

1304 Wi 

e. AH ACT to oitond Uie pTovinioiis of Uie iict to anthoiiie eeriftln ofBeers aul 

lei: 265 

for other purposes. fiOUi April, 1818 MB 

11. AN ACT in addition to Oib « Aot fer the pnniahment of certain orimoB eeinnst 

Ihe Triiltea Stales," snd to repeal the aols therein mentionfd. Oith April, 
1318 S9S 

12. AN ACT matins eompenMUon to the persons appointed hj the eleotora to 

13. AH ACT fbr tha ^iportioament of RepresentatlTes among the serersj Slsles 

Bcoordlng to the slxtli censDS. See. 2 provides Jhr the elecUon of Bepre- 
eentativea by DIattictB. 256Ii Jnne, 18*3 SOtt 

14. AH ACT to proTlde fartber lemsdlal josUce In. the courts of tlie Cnttod 

StateB. 29th Augnst^ 18*2 301 

15. AH ACT to estubllsli s unftbrm time tiif Loldioe elections tOt eleotors of 

PloBMentand VlcoPrceidentinaJltiieStatesoftheirnlon. 2MJanuarr, 
1346 302 

16. AN ACT to protfde Bff Uie diBtribniion of the edilioa of the taws and Tro»- 

Ues of the ITniled States, poblishod hj-IrittleA Brown, un^r the proriaions 
of the resolutions of CungrcBB, approred ManA 3, 1845, and fbr other piuv 

poaes. Stli August, 184fl... -....---.---.-.-.-- 302 

II. AH ACr for giving effect to certain treaty stipulations between this and ib- 

otfendera. 12 August; 184S. SOS 

18. AH ACT providing for the taking of the serenlh and Buhaeciuent oenanasa of 
the United Slotes, and to 9x the Dumber of members of the House of Bo- 
preaentatives, and to provide tor thi^ fatore apportionment among the 

several Stolefl. aSdBfaj, 1860 SOB 

10. An act to authorise Notaries Publiolota^e and certify oaths, a^rmatEons^ and 

aclCDOHlfdBmentfl In certain CBsea. IStli September, 1850 SOS 

20. A EBSOLOTION roUHng to llie publication of the laws of the ITniled Stales, 

26111 Beplemher, 18M SOT 

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PRESIDENT of the United Slalsa, from Maroh 4, 1768, lo Murcli 3, 

1S4B 3] 

DENTS PRO TEMPORE; and of llie ooromenoenient, IBrminolion, 

the SennlB, from Maroh 4, 1780, loMnroli 3,1851 3; 

STATES, from Motoh 4, 17S0, to March 3, 1861, with Iho commenco- 

OF THE UNITED STATES, from Mnrch 4, IV8B, with Ilie lenglli of . 

REPRESENTATIVES, from Maroh 4, 1768, lo Morcli 3, 1861, wiih tba 
conimeiTcem^nt nod lerminsUon of their seryice ee BBcb, ajid the SlateB 
of which Ihey were RepreaonmtiTBS 389 




STATES, ftom Mureh 4 1-S9 tiz. 589 








Match 4, 1769, vii. 306 




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fi. BEWTOEK m 



28. MAINE 

at snssonBi 

28. TE\AS 





CLASS No L THE COLONIAL BISTORT of the United Sta.tes, i 
Isiy lllSloiy of tha Bevolntion 

Cmfederstlmfroni the ooioiaoncrawniot tbs RcroluUoQ lo t 

1 United Stalsa, froin Mbj 
la Eonao of EcpmeantaliTi 

I of tlie UnitM St&teB, 

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CLASS Ho. T. THE JODUNAL orBecord of the Smute oa liiids of ImpeachineBt, 
from March 4, 1789, to Mmcb 3, 1851 - 

SKSOBIPTION of the LeglslaflTS Jonrmile of llie Senate imd House of Bepcesea- 
tatiTOB of Ui6 Hnited States 

CLASS No. S. DOCUMEHISoideiodtolHpriiited bjthetnoHaaBeBofCoBgEciEa 

Cl^aS No. fl. DOCUMENTS printed in octaTO form ty order of tlie Senato, duc- 

CUBS No. 10. DOCDMENIS printed m oetaio fona '>iy order of the Bouse 
of BepTesentatlTeBj during each Eoa^on, from Mar&h 4, 1739, to Ubtch 3, 
1851 41 

CLASS No. 11. SPEBCHBa AND DEBATES in tbs two Housbb of tho OongreM 
oftbe United Slates, aom March 4,1785, Id Msich 3,1861 it 

CLASS No, 12. THE LAWS of Ihs United SlalM, ineludlog Uie Treaties, ic, as 
embiaeed la ttio eereral editions hecetoDire ^oblielied, up to March 3, 
1861 * 

CLASS No. 13. ABEIDGMENTS and Digests of BiB Laws of tho United ^tale^ 

CLASS No. li. IKDEXES proparod in eantormity with orders or resolutions of 
tlia Saoate aud House of Itepresentatiies of the United Stately to Miroh 3, 
1851 41 

CLASS No. 15. RBFOKTS of the Decisions of Hie Supreme Court of tlio United 
Slates, to the January term, 1851 * 

CLASS Bo. 16. POBLI04TI0NS on the auhjeotof the PnhUe Lands and PrlTata 
Land Claims, nnder the anthorttf of the United States, to Meieh 3, 1851 ■ 41 

CLASS Ho. 17. BBVBNUB LAWS, Commensal Begnlations, Digests of Taria 
Laws, &C, to March 3. 18B1 41 

GLASS No. 13. MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS prluted oc published under the au- 
thoii^ or patraaige of tbe Uolled States and mit noticed under psi^oular 
heads, to March 3, 1851 — * 

CLASS No. 19. MISCELLANEOUS FUBLIOATIONB containing ueelUl political, 
statistical, and oIlieT lutirmaUoii, to Uareb 3, 1851 i; 

CLASS No. 20. THB BOOKS tontalnal in the CongrcBB or National Libvarj, to 

M8reh3,1851 4^ 

CLASS No. 21, THE BOOKS conluined in the library of lie Depavtment of 



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1 the pnnutuation. This oj 

n of copies, 


As here presentpd and airtheiiticated by the cortifiuute of the 
Secretary of State, after a continued correction of proof copies 
until every deviation from tbe original Constitution, however small, 
was completely lemovad, inay with confidence he used as a true cojjy. 
The necessity for a close and continued attention to the eseeution 
of a copy of this important instrument, became manifest by the use 
of a printed copy (considered as correct) to print from, which, on 
being compared with the ovig^nal, was found to contain seveml 
errors in tlie words, and sixty-five 
cumstance led to a further comparis 
of the laws, printed by different individuals, and 
one edition contained 204 and another 176 errors 
of the Constitution ! Many of these are material 
don of the sentences in which they occur. 

It was also discovered, that, in the original manuscript, capital 
lettera were used at the begimiing of substantives, or nouns, as is 
understood to have been the practice generally in writing and 
printing at the time the Constitution was written. These appear 
to have been altogether disregarded in the editions above referred 
to, except in words at the beginning of sentences. 

As the construction of important clauses may, sometimes, turn 
uDon the punctuation, or tho nature of a word, it is important tiiat 

several editions 
was found, that 
n tho punctuation 

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the former be of llic riglit measure, and that tho propBr value of the 
latter be manifest, before the mind can decide upon the tiue mean- 
ing, as intended ty the wise and learned frameis of that master- 
piece of composition, which bears the impress of the most minute 
and laborious attention to the construction of every particle of mat- 
ter constituting this noble fabric, the preservation of whose sim- 
piieity th ly 9 f gu td to its integrity. 

Thes f nd d tl e deteimination to produce a true ctypy of 

ike Const (u( n n test, orthography, letter, and punctuation, and 
the rig d examm ti n a d subsequent verification of the Depart- 
ment ha n ll ar a d custody of the venerated original, attest 
tho success of the undertaking in the production of the following 
authentic ConstitaCion. 

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We the People of the United States, in order to form 
a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domes- 
tic Tranquillity, provide for the common defence, 
promote the general Welfare, and secure the Bless- 
ings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do 
ordaiu and establish this Constitution for the United 
States of America. 


Section. 1. All legislative Powers herein granted 
shall be vested in a Congress of the United Slates, 
which shall consist of a Senate and House of Represen- 

Section. 2. 'The House of Representatives sliall 
be composed of Members chosen every second Year bv 
the People of tlie several States, and the Electors in each 
State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors 
of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature. 

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'No Person shall be a Representative who shaD not 
have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been 
seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall 
not,- when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which 
he shaD be chosen. 

^Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned 
among the several States which may be included within 
this Union, according to their respective Numbers, wliich 
shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of 
free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term 
of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths 
of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be 
made within three Years after the first Meeting of the 
Congress of the United States, and within every subse- 
quent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall 
by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall 
not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each 
State shall have at Least one Representative ; and 
until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New 
Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachu- 
setts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations 
one, Connecticut five. New- York six, New Jersey 
four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, 

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Vir^iiia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, 
and Georgia three, 

'When vacancies happen in the Representation fi-om 
any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue 
Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies. 

'The House of Representatives shall chuse their 
Speaker and other Officers ; and shall have the sole 
Power of Impeachment. 

Section. 3. 'The Senate of the United States shall 
be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by 
the Legislature thereof, for six Years ; and each Senator 
shall have one Vote. 

'Immediately after they shall be assembled in Conse- 
quence of the first Election, they shall be divided as 
equally as maybe into three Classes. The Seats oftlie 
Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Ex- 
piration of the second Year, of the second Class at the 
Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the 
Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one-third may be 
chosen every second Year ; and if Vacancies happen 
by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the 
Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may 
make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting 
of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies. 

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'No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have at- 
tained to the Age of thiiiy Years, and been nine Years a 
Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when 
elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall 
be chosen. 

'The Vice President of the United States shall be Pre- 
sident of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they 
be equally divided. 

'The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also 
a President pro tempore, in tlie Absence of the Vice Pre- 
sident, or -when he shall exercise the OfQce of President 
of the United States. 

"The Senate shall have the sole Power to'try all Im- 
peachments. When sitting for that Purpose, tiiey shall 
be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the 
United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside : 
And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence 
of two thirds of tlie Members present. 

'Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend 
further than to removal from Office, and Disqualification 
to bold and enjoy any Office of honour, Trust or Profit 
under the United States : but the Party convicted shall 
nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, 
Judgment and Punishment, according to Law. 

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Section. 4. 'The Times, Places and Manner of hold- 
ing Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be 
prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but 
tiie Congress may at any lime by Law make or alter such 
Regulations, except as to the places of chusing Senators. 

'The Congress shall assemble at least once in every 
Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday 
in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a differ- 
ent Day. 

Section. 5. 'Each House shall be the Judge of 
the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own 
Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a 
Quorum to do Business ; but a smaller Number may 
adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to 
compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such 
Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may 

' Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceed- 
ings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, 
with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member. 

"Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceed- 
ings, and fixjm time to time publish the same, excepting 
such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy ; 
and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House 

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on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those 
Present, be entered on the Journal. 

'Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, 
\vithout the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than 
three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the 
two Houses shall be sitting. 

Section. 6. 'The Senators and Representatives shall 
receive a Compensation for their Services, to be as- 
certained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of 
the United States. They shall in all Cases, except 
Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privi- 
leged fiwm Arrest during their Attendance at the Ses- 
sion of their respective Houses, and in going to and 
returning from the same ; and for any Speech or Debate 
in either House, they shall not be questioned in any 
other Place. 

^No Senator or Representative shall, during the 
Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any 
civil Office under the Authority of the United States, 
which shall have been created, or liie Emoluments 
whereof shall have been encreased during such time ; 
and no Person holding any Office under the United States, 
shall be a Member of either House during his Continu- 
ance in Office. 

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Section. 7. 'All Bills for raising Revenue shall ori- 
ginate in the House of Representatives ; but tlie Senate 
may propose or concur ■with Amendments as on other Bills, 

'Every Bill which shall have passed the House of 
Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become 
a Law, be presented to the President of the United 
States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he 
shall return it, with his Objections to that House in 
which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Ob- 
jections at large on their Journal, and proceed to recon- 
sider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that 
House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, to- 
gether with the Objections, to the other House, by which 
it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by 
two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But 
in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be de- 
termined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Per- 
sons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on 
tiie Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill 
shall not be returned by the President within ten Days 
(Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to 
him, the Same shall be a law, in like Manner as if he 
had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment 
prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law 

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'Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which tho Con- 
currence of the Senate and House of Representatives may 
be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) 
shpU be presented to tlie President of the United States ; 
and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved 
by him, or being disapproved by bim, shall be repassed 
by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, 
according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the 
Case of a Bill. 

Section. 8. The Congress shall have Power 

'To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Ex- 
cises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common De- 
fence and general Welfare of the United States ; but all 
Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout 
the United States ; 

^To borrow Money on the credit of the United States; 

'To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and 
among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes ; 

'To establish aii uniform Rwie of Naturalization, and 
uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout 
the United States ; 

'To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of 
foreign Coin, and fix tlie Standard of Weights and 
Measures ; 

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°To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the 
Securities and current Coin of the United States ; 

'To establish Post Offices and post Roads ; 

' To promote the progress of Science and useful Arts, by 
secuxii^ for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the ex- 
■■xlusive Eight to their respective Writings and Discoveries ; 

' To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court ; 

"To define and punish Piracies and Felonies com- 
mitted on the high Seas, and Offences the Law 
of Nations ; 

"To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Re- 
prisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land 
and Water ; 

"To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation 
of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than 
two Years ; 

"To provide and maintain a Navy ; 

"To make Rules for the Government and Regulation 
of the land and naval Forces ; 

"To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute 
the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel 
Invasions ; 

"To provide for organizing, arming, and disci- 
plining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of 

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them as may be employed in the Service of the Unitetl 
States, reserving to the States respectively, the Ap- 
pointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training 
die Militia according to tlie Discipline presi-riLed by 

"To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases 
■whatsoever, over such Distiict (not exceeding ten Miles 
square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and 
the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the 
Government of the United States, and to exercise 
like Authority over all Places purchased by the Con- 
sent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same 
shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arse- 
nals, Dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings ; — And 

I'To make all Laws which shall be necessary and 
proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, 
and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the 
Government of the United States, or in any Department 
or Officer thereof. 

Section. 9. 'The Migration or Importation of such 
Persons as any of the States now existing shall think 
proper to admit, shdl not be prohibited by the Con- 
gress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred 
and eight, but a Tax or Duty may be imposed on 

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such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each 

'Tiie Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus :;ha!l 
not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion 
or Invasion the public Safety may require it. 

^ No BiO of Attainder or ex postfacto Law shall be passed. 

No Capitation, or other direct. Tax shall be laid, 
unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration 
herein before directed to be taken. 

'No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported 
from any State, 

"No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of 
Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those 
of another : nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, 
be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another. 

'No Money shall be drawn from tlie Treasury, but 
in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law ; 
and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts 
and Expenditures of all public Money shall be pub- 
lished from time to time, 

'No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United 
States : And no Person holding any Office of Profit or 
Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the 
Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, 

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or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, 
or foreign State. 

Section. 10, 'No State sliall enter into any Treaty, 
Alliance, or Confederation ; grant Letters of Marque 
and Reprisal ; coin Money ; emit Bills of Credit ; 
make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender 
in Payment of Debts ; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex 
post facto Law, or Law impairing the Ohligation of 
Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility. 

^No State shall, witiont the consent of the Con- 
gress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, 
except what may be absolutely necessary for execut- 
ing it's inspection Laws : and the net Produce of ail 
Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or 
Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the 
United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to 
the Revision and Controul of the Congress. 

'No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, 
lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of 
War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or 
Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, 
or engage in War, unless actually Invaded, or in such 
imminent Danger as will not admit of Delay. 

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Section, 1. 'The executive Power shall be vested 
in a President of the United States of America, He 
shaJl hold his OfSce during tiie Term of four Years, 
and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the 
same Term, be elected, as follows 

'Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the 
Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Elec- 
tors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and 
Representatives to which the State may be entitled 
in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, 
or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under 
the United States, shall be appointed an Elector. 

[• The Electors aliall meot in their respecdve States, and vote by Ballot 
for Iwo Persons, of whom one at least shall not ha an Inhabitant of the 
Bame State with themselves. And they aSiall make aLUt of all the Per- 
sons Toled for, and of the Number of Voles for each ; which List they 
shall (dgn and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government 
of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The Pre- 
sident of the ISenate shall, in the Presence of the Senats and House 
of EBpresentatiTea, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be 
counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be tha 
President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Elce- 

end have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives 
shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President ; and if no 

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Person have a Majoritj, then from the fi^e highest on Ihe List the salJ 
Hou=e shall In ]iLo Miriiier chiwe the President. But iii chusicg the 
I'resident, the Votes shilt be taken by Stales, the Representation from 
each 8t3t« having one Vole, A Quorum for Hub Purpose shall consist 
of H Member or Members from tnolhinis of the Slates, and a Majority 
of all the States shall be nectsBary to a Choice. Ill every Case, after the 
Choice of the PresiJenl, (he Person having the greatest Number of Votes 
of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if theie should remain 
two or more who have equal Votes, the SGnate shall chuse from them by 
Ballot the Vice Prefjdcnt.] 

'The Congress may determine the Time of chusing 
the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give 
their Votes ; which Day shall be the same throughout the 
United States. 

*No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen 
of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this 
Constitution, shall be eligible to the OtEce of President ; 
neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who 
shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, 
and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United 

'In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, 
or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to dis- 
charge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the 
same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Con- 
gress may by Law provide for the Case of Re- 

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moval, Deatii, Resignation, or Inability, both of the 
President and Vice President, declaring what Officer 
shaJI then act as President, and such Officer shall act 
accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a Pre- 
ident shall be elected, 

'The President shall, at stated Times, receive for 
his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be 
encreased nor diminished during the Period for vrhich 
he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive 
within that Period any other Emolument from the United 
States, or any of them. 

'Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall 
tate the following Oath or Affirmation : — 

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully 
" execute the Office of President of the United States, and 
" \nl\ to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and 
" defend the Constitution of the United States, 

Section. 2. 'The President shall be Commander 
in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, 
and of the Militia of the several States, when called 
into the actual Service of the United States ; he may 
require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Of 
ficer in each of the executive Departments, upon any 
Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offi- 

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ces, and lie shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Par- 
dons for Offences against the United States, except in 
Cases of Impeachment. 

'He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Con- 
sent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds 
of tlie Senators present concur ; and he shall nominate, and 
ty and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall 
appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Con- 
sids, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of 
llieUnited States, whose Appointments are not herein other- 
wise provided for, and which shall be established by Law : 
but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such 
inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, 
in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments, 

^The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacan- 
cies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, 
by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End 
of their next Session, 

yECTioK. 3. He shall from time to time give to the 
Congress Information of tie State of tlie Union, and 
recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he 
shall judge necessary and expedient ; he may, on ex- 
traordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either 
of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, 

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with Respect to tlie Time of Adjournment, he may ad- 
journ them to such Time as he shall think proper ; he 
shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers ;' 
he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, 
and shall Commission all the olficers of the United 

Section. 4. The President, Vice President and all 
civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from 
Office on Impeachment for, and' Conviction of, Treason, 
Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors. 


Section, 1. The judicial Power of the United 
States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in 
such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time fo 
time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of tlie 
supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices 
during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, re- 
ceive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not 
be diminished during their Continuance in Office. 

Section, 2, 'The judicial Power shall extend to all 
Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Consti- 
tution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties 
made, or which shall be made, under their Authori- 

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ty ; — to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public 
Ministers, and Consuls ; — to all Cases of admiralty and 
maritime Jurisdiction ;- — to Conti'oversies to which the 
United States shall be a Party ; — to Controversies be- 
tween two or more States ; — between a State and Citizens 
of another State; — between Citizens of different States, — 
between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under 
Grants of diiJercnt States, and between a State, or the 
Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects. 

= In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public 
Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State 
shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original 
Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, 
the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, 
both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and 
under such Regulations as the Congress shall make. 

'The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Im- 
peachment, shall be by Jury ; and such Trial shall 
be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have 
been committed ; but when not committed within any 
State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the 
Congress may by Law have directed. 

Section. 3. 'Treason against the United States, 
shall consist only in levj'ing War against them, or in 

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adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and 
Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason 
unless on tlie Testimony of Iwo "Witnesses to tie 
same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court. 

'The Congress sliall have Power to declare the 
Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Trea- 
son shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except 
during the Life of the Person attainted. 


Section. 1. Full' Faith and Credit shall be ^ven 
in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judi- 
cial Proceedings of every other State. And the Con- 
gress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in 
which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be 
proved, and the EfTect thereof. 

SiiCTioN. 2, 'The Citizens of each State shall be 
entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in 
the several States. 

"A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, 
or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found 
in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Au- 
tliority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to 
be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime. 

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'No Person held to Service or Labour in one Stafe, 
under the Laws tliereof, escaping into another, shall, 
in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be 
discharged from such Semce or Labour, hut shall be 
delivered up on Cl^m of the Party to whom such Service 
or Labour may be due. 

Section. 3. 'New States may be admitted by the Con- 
gress into this Union ; but no new State shall be formed or 
erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State ; nor any 
State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or 
Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures 
of the States concerned as well as of the Congress. 

'The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and 
make all needfiil Rules and Regulations respecting the 
Territory or other Property belonging to the United 
States ; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so 
construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United 
States, or of any particular State. 

Section. 4. The United States shall guarantee to 
every State in this Union a Republican Form of Go- 
vernment, and shall protect each of them against In- 
vasion , and on Application of the Legislature, or of 
tlie Executive (when the Legislature cannot be con- 
vened) against domestic Violence. 

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The Congresa, whenever two thirds ofboth Houses shall 
deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Con- 
stitution, or, on the Application of the Le^slatures of two 
thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for 
proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be 
valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Con- 
stitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths 
of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths 
thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be 
proposed by the Congress ; Provided that no Amendment 
which may be made prior to the Year one thousand eight 
hundred and eight shall in any Manner afiect the first 
and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article ; 
and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived 
of its equal Suffrage in the Senate. 

'All Debts contracted and Engagements entered 
into, before tlie Adoption of this Constitution, shall 
be as valid against the United States under this Con- 
stitution, as under the Confederation. 

'This Constitution, and the Laws of the United 
States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and 
all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the 

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authority of t!ie United States, shall be the supreme 
Law of the Land ; and the Judges in every State shall 
be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws 
of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding. 

'The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, 
and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and 
all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United 
States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath 
or Affirmation, to support this Constitution ; but no re- 
ligious Test sl'all ever be required as a Qualification to 
any Office or public Trust under the United States. 
The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, 
shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Consti- 
tution between the States so ratifying tlie Same. 

Do^fE in Convention by the Unanimous Consent 
of the States present the Seventeenth Day of Sep- 
tember in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven 
hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independance 
of the United States of America the Twelfth In 
'Witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed 
our Names, 

Presidt and deputy from Virginia 

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John Lanodon, Nicholas Gii 

Nathaniel Gorham, Hitkus Kinu. 

Wm. Saml. Johnson, Eogeb Suerhi 

Alexander Hamilton. 


B. Franklin, 
RoBT. Morris, 


James Wilson, 

DiviQ Beearlev, 
J ON A. Davton. 

Thomas Mifflin, 

Jahiid Inuersoll, 
Gouv: Morris. 

Gunning Beofoed, Jun'i, 
Rich ABB Bassett, 


Dan : or St. Thos. Jenifbh, 


John Blair, Jambs Madison, Jr., 

Wm. Blount, Rich'o DoBHa Spaight, 


J. RuTi.EDHE, Charles Ci 


William Few, Abr. Baldwin. 

Allest : 


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The CoJistjiution was adopted on the 17th Septeraler, 1787, by 
the Oonyention appointed in pursuance of the reanlutlon of the Con- 
gress of the Confedeiatioo, of the 21sf February, 1787, and was 
ratified by the Conventions of the several States, as follows, viz.: 

By Convention oi Delawa e on 

he 7th December 


P njlana 

' laUi December 


NwJ y 

' 18th December 



• 2d January, 


Co n u 

' 9th January, 


Mas h 3 

' 6th February, 


Majl d 

' 2Sth April, 


» " & u h C 1 na 

' 23d May, 


N vHampsl , 

' 31 St June, 


V a 

' 36th June, 


Nevf York, 

' 36th July, 


" " Nortli Carolina, 

' aist November 


Rhode Island, 

' 29th May, 


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Proposed hy Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures 
of the several Slates, pursuant to the jiftk article of the 
original Constitution. 

Congreiss shall make no law respecting an establish- 
ment of reli^on, or prohibiting the free exercise there- 
of; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of tlie 
press ; or the right of the people peaceably to assem- 
ble, and to petition the Government for a redress of 

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the se- 
curity of a free State, the right of the people to keep and 
bear Arms, shall not be infringed. 

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No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in 
Eny house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in 
time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. 
The right of the people to be secure in their per- 
sons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable 
searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no War- 
rants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by 
Oath or afRrmation, and particularly describing the place 
to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. 
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or 
otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or 
indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arbing in 
the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in ac- 
tual service in time of War or public danger ; nor 
shall any person be subject for the same offence to be 
twice put in jeopardy of life or limb ; nor shall be com- 
l)elled in any Criminal Case to be a witness against 
himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, 
without due process of law ; nor shall private proper- 
ty be taken for public use, without just compensation. 

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In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoj 
the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impar- 
tial jury of the State and district wherein the crime 
shall have been committed, which district shall hiive 
been previously ascertained by law, and to be in- 
formed of the nature and cause of the accusation; 
to be confronted with the witnesses against hira ; 
to have Compulsory process for obtaining Witnesses 
in his favour, and to have the Assistance of Counsel 
for his defence. 

In Suits at common law, where the value in con- 
troversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial 
by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury 
shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the 
United States, than according to the rules of the com- 
mon law. 

Excessive bail sJiaJl not be required, nor excessive 
fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punisliments in- 

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The enumeration in tJie Constitution, of certain 
rights, sliall not be construed to deny or disparage 
otliers retained by the people. 


The powers not delegated to the United States by 
the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, 
are reserved to the States respectively, or to the 


The Judicial power of the United States shall not 
be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, 
commenced or prosecuted against one of the United 
States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or 
Subjects of any Foreign State. 

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, 
and vote by ballot for President and Vice President, 
one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of 
ihe same state with tliemselves ; they shall name in 
liieir ballots the person voted for as President, and in 
ilistinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, 

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and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for 
as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-Presi- 
dent, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they 
shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat 
of the government of the United States, directed to 
the President of the iSenate;— The President of the 
Senate shall, in presence of the Senate and House 
of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes 
shall then be counted ; — The person having the great- 
est number of votes for President, shall be the Presi- 
dent, if such number be a majority of the whole numbei 
of Electors appointed ; and if no person have such 
majority, then from the persons having the highest 
numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted 
for as Preadent, the House of Representatives shall 
choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in 
choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, 
the representation from each state having one vote ; a 
quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or 
members fix>ra two-thirds of the states, and a majority 
of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And 
if the House of Representatives shall not choose a Pre- 
sident whenever the right of choice shall devolve 
upon them, before the fourth day of March next fol- 

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lowing, then the Vice-President shall act as President, 
as in the case of the death or other constitutional dis- 
ability of the President. The person having the great- 
est number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice- 
President, if such number be a majority of the whole 
number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a 
majority, tJien from the two highest numbers on the list, 
the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum 
for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole 
number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number 
shall be necessary to a choice. But no person consti- 
tutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be 
eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States. 

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77ie following is prefixed to the Jirst ten* of the pre- 
ceding amendments. 


The Conventions of a number of the States, having 
at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed 
a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of 
its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses 
should be added : And as extending the ground of public 
confidence in the Government, will best insure the bene- 
ficent ends of its institution ; 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatims 

' It may Ite proper here to state that IS articles of ameinlment were 
priiposed by the Srst Congress, of tvliich but 10 were ratified by the 
States — the first and fecoiiil in order net having been ratified by the re- 
quisite numlKr of States. 

These two were as follows: 

Article the firBl...,Attor the first enumeration required by the first Article 
of the Conslilutian, Cbere shall be one Representative lor every thirty thou- 
sand, until (he number shall amount to one hundred, oiler which, the pro- 
portion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall not he less than 
one hundred RepresentaUves, not less than one Kepresentative for every 
fiirty tiiousand persona, until the nnmhor of Representatives shall amount 
to two hundred, after which tho proportion shall be so regulated by Con- 
gress, that there shall not he less than two hundred Representatives, nor 
more than one Representative for every fifty thousand persons. 

Article gecaud....IVo law, varying the compensation ^?r the services 
of the Senators and Ropteaentalives, shall take efSect, until an election 

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of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, 
two thirds of botli Houses concurring, That the following 
Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several 
States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United 
States, all, or any ofwhicharticles,when ratified by three- 
fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents 
and purposes, as part of tbe said Constitution ; viz. 

Articles in addition to, and Amendment of the Consti- 
tution of the United States of America, proposed by Con- 
gress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States 
pursuant to the fifth article of the original Constitution. 

The first ten amendments of the Constitution were 
ratified by the States as follows, viz. : 

By New Jersey, 20th November, 1789. 

By Maryland, 19th December, 1789. 

By North Carolina, 22d December, 1789. 

By South Carolina, 19th January, 1790. 

By New Hampshire, 25th January, 1790. 

By Delaware, 28th January, 1790. 

By Pennsylvania, 10th March, 1790. 

By New York, 27th March, 1790. 

By Rhode Island, 15th June, 1790. 

By Vermont, 3 November, 1791. 

By Virginia, 15 December, 1791. 

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The following is prefixed to the eleventh of the preceding 
amendments : 

At the first session, begun and lield at the city of Phi- 
ladelphia, in the State of Pennsylvania, on Monday the 
second of December, one thousand seven hundred and 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives 
of tlte United States of America, in Congress assembled, 
two thirds of both Houses concurring, That the following 
Article be proposed to the Legislatures of the several 
States, as an amendment to the Constitution of the United 
States; which when ratified by three-fourths of the said 
Legislatures shall he valid as part of the said Consti- 

The following is prefixed to the twelfth of the preceding 
amendments : 
At the first session, begun and keld at the city of Wash- 
ington, in the Teiritory of Columbia, on Monday the 
seventeenth of October, one thousand ^ght hundred and 

Resolved by tlie Senate and House of Representatives 
of the United States of America, in Congress assembled. 
Two thirds of both Houses concurring, that in lieu of the 
third paragraph of the first section of the second article 

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of the Constitution of the United States, the following be 
proposed as an amendment to the Constitution of the 
United States, which, when ratified by three-fourths of 
the legislatures of the several states, shall be valid to all 
intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution, to 

The ten first of the preceding amendments were pro- 
posed at the first session of the first Congress, of the 
United States, 25 September, 1789, and were finally 
ratified by the constitutional number of States, on the l5th 
day of December, 1791. The eleventh amendment was 
proposed at the first session of the third Congress, 5 March, 
1794, and was declared in a message Irom the Presi- 
dent of the United States to both houses of Congress, 
dated Sth January, 1798, to have been adopted by the 
constitutional number of States, The twelfth amendment 
was proposed at the first session of the eighth Congress, 
12 December, 1803, and was adopted by the constitu- 
tional number of States in 1804, according to a public 
notice thereof by the Secretary of State, dated 25th Sep- 
tember, of the same year, 

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1. EvKRV substantive niattci, or point, contained in each article, 
section, or clause, embracing every subject, name and definition 
in tiie Constitution, has been arranged in alphabeticai order. The 
entire clause in which each n^ord so arranged occurs, being given. 

3. All similar words, names, or lerms used in the Constilution 
being thus brought togetiier, saves the time and trouble of reading 
over that instrument in search of supposed tenns or provisions, 
ivbioh. If they cannot be found in this Alphabetical Analysis, will 
not be found in the Constitution. Under the head of each branch 
of the Government, as Congress, Senate, House of Representatives, 
Executive or President, Judiciary, &c., wiU be found every power, 
duty, privilege, and restriction belonging to each, and joint or con- 
current power with the other branches. In lilse manner, all provi' 
sions, regarding Rtat«s, legislatures, persons, people, citizens, 
powers, offices, laws, elections, army, militia, navy, and every 
otiier subject contained in the Constitution, wili all respectively, 
be foand under one head. 

3. By this arrangement the entire instrument is resolved into its 
elements, while all clauses containing like terms or provisions are 
drawn together in close contact, by iJie strictly alphabetical posi- 
tion of the similar terms or words in each, which proximity brings 
the whole into one view, to be seen at a glance, and being ihus 
presented to the mind at once, the connection is more easily im- 
pressed upon and retained in Ibe memory. 

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The Confederation haling given place to the Amer'^an Union, 
under the Constitution of iho United States, it was considered un- 
neoeSBary to insert, in ike first ami second editions of this book, the 
Articles of Confederation, wliich were agreed to by the Delegates 
of the thirteen Original Slates, in Congress assembled, on the 15th 
November, 1777 } ratified by eight Slates, on the 9th July, 1773 ; 
and finally ratified by all the States, on the Ist March, 1781; 

but an further coimiiUraiion, those arlieha haoe been inserled a/page 
471, merely as matter of history, as it were out of place to mingle 
that inefficient form of govemmenl with the present approved 
and successful system, which has stood the test of more than half 
a century, and which is destined, under Divine Providence, not 
only to perpetuate the happiness and safety of the people 
of the United States, but to be the Great Exemplar of Nations, 
when governments shall, by the natural and just power of man, he 
brought to their le^tiraate purposes and uses — to establish justice, 
insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, pro- 
mote the general welfere, and secure the blessings of liberty to the 

The matter contained in this chapter exhibits the deplorable con- 
dition of the finances and credit of the government under the old 
form, and the incompetency of the Congress of the Confederation 
to raise a revenue, support the public credit, regulate trade or com- 
merce, or to provide for the wants and safety of the eonntry ; and 
it is intended thereby to show the immediate and prominent causes 
that led to the abandonment of that inefficient form, and the adop- 
tion of the present system of government ; and, also, to show the 
official proceedings by which the change was effected and the pre- 
sent Constitation established. 

These fiiots and proceedings may prove a warning against the 
treasonable suggestions of the evil spirit, whose insidious and 
alluring temptations are, not unfrequenlly, directed towards thu 

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most arii«nt and honest citizens, vhose zeal in the defence of the 
Buppoaed interests of a part of the Union might induee them even 
to g-o ao far aa to calculate the value of the Union itself, a.nd of tl>e 
Con«itiition By pxhibiting the impo y ftl m d p d 

b) the Old Confederation to provide 1 tl ta nd lo e 

the indLpei ^ noe and safety of the p pi 1 p sal t 1 
proceedings tvill induce a due app n th al f 

inestimable Union, so firmly bound g h by he 
and prolpclive principles ot our noble C n nd w 11 b 1 

from the mind the leait idea of id ngtpdy i 

rehp-jlvig into the enfeebled conditio f 1 ( 1 G mm 

bLforetheidiptioiiofthe Conbtitutio Tl d g f g 

from the edifice one particle of the m te al wh h s rv p 

port its magniRcent superstructure, is h p lly n d 

fast, and every true-hearted American ti n w 11 fin Ij re 1 
with heart and hand, and sleepless v gil g d I Un 

fortified by llie Constitution, as the 1 1 f lb — h 

object of our greatest care, and the um f hly 


It was early discovered by the patriots and EtnteBmen of the Rovohi- 
tion, that a bond of union, to connect the powers nnd means of the colo- 
nieH for the common defence, was a measure of absoluie necesEiijr; and 
nence the assemblage of a number of delegates, cliosen mid appoiiiled 
by ihe several colonies and provincea m North America, to meet and 
hold a Congress in Philadelphia, at the Carpenter's Hull, on Monday, 
fne 5th September, 1774. This Congress oonlimied to act under the 
powers sepnralely conferred upon the delegates by ihe respective colo- 
nies, until the time anived when, from their patriotic ardor, the delicacy 
of their position, and the force of circumstances, a total separation from 
the mother country became necessary, and (hey were obliged to assume 
a noble stand among the nations of the earth. Simultaneously with and 
consequent apon the Declnratiun of Independence, n provision for an 

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adcqunfe nnlional government became so manifesllf uidispenBnlile, tliat, 
on the 11th Juno, 1776, it was resolved thai a committee bo appointed 
to prepare »nd digest the form of a confederation to be entered into be- 
twiieii the coloniee. After due deUberation, the Artiolee of Confedera- 
tion were agreed to, in Congress, on 15th November, 1777, aubject to 
tlio ratification of the several Slates. The ratification by eight States 
was announced on the 9lh July, 1778 ;, but many objections were urged 
to theso articles, and so reluctantly did some of the Slates part with a 
portion of their powers, that it was not uitlii ihe let March, 17S1, that 
these articles were fully ratified ; and no sooner were they ratified ihsu 
(indeed before their final ratification) it was ibund that the powere euu- 
ferred by them upon Congress were totally inadeqaate to the mdispen- 
eable purposes of a national government. The defects first became ap- 
paronl in tiie want of the necessary means of raising a revenue, and 
Q6Kt ill the absence of power to regulate or control the foreign trade and 
commerce of the country ; and on the 3d Pebruarj', 1781, a member 
from New Jersey moved a recommendalion to the States that Congress 
be vested with additional powers to provide means for paying the public 
debt, and prosecuting the existing war, by laying duties on imporls and 
prina goods. One of the Slates having refused to comply with this re- 
commendalion, the subject was referred to a oomrailtcc, by whom the 


Monday, Decembek Ifi, 17S3. 

nsisting of Mr. Hamilton, Mr. Madison, and Mr. 

Fitzsimnions, to whom was referred the letter of 30th Noven 
the honorable WiUioni Biadford, speaker of the lower house of Assem- 
bly of the State of Rliode Island, containing, under three heads, the 
reasons of that State for refusing Iheir compliance with the recommenda- 
tion of Congress for a duty on imparts and prize goods ; report. 

That they (latter themselves the State, on a reconsiderB'ion of tlio 
objections they have ofTcred, with a candid attention to the ergumenla 
whidi stand in oppowtion to them, will be induced to retract their dis- 
sent, convinced ^al the measure is supported on the most solid grounds 
of equal justice, policy, and general utility. The following observa- 
tions, contrasted with each head of the objections, successively, will 
furniBh a satisfactory answer to the whole. 

First objection. "That the proposed duly would be nnequal m mi 
operation, bearing hardest upon the most comuiercinl States, and so 

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Ths most common experience, joined to tho concurrent opinions of 
the nblest commercial and political abservera, have eslablLslied beyond 
controversy this general principle, " that every duty oa importa ia incor- 
porated with the price of the commodity, and ultimately paid by the 
consumer, with a profit on the duty itself, as a compensation to tho mer- 
chant for the advance of hie money." 

The merchant eonsidcra the duty demanded by tlie State on tiie ini- 
ported arlicle, in tlie same light with freight, or any similar charge, and, 
adding it to the original cost, calculates his proUt on the aggregate sum. 
It may happen that at particukr conjunctures, where the markets are 
overstocked, and there is a competition among the sellers, thia may not 
be practicable ; but in the general course of trade the demand for con- 
sumption preponderates, and the merchant can with case indemnify him- 
self, and even obtain a profit on the advance. As a consumer, lis pays 
his share of the duty ; but it is no further a burden upon liim. The con- 
sequence of the principle laid down is, that every class of the commu- 
nity bears its share of the duty in proportion to its consumption, which 
last is regulated by Ihe comparative wealth of the respective classes, in 
conjonction with their habits of expense or frugality. The rich and 
luxurious pay in proportion to then: riches and luxury ; the poor and par- 
simonious, in proportion to their poverty and parsimony. A chief excel- 
lence of this mode of revenue is, that it preserves a just measure to the 
abilities (^ individuals, promotes frugality, and taxes extravagance. Ths 
same reasoning in our situation applies to the intercourse between two 
States ; if one imports and the other does not, the latter must he sup- 
plied by the former. The duty, being transferred to the price of the 
commodity, is no more a charge on the imporlmg State for what is con- 
sumed in the other, than it is a charge on the merchant for what is con- 
sumed by the farmer or artificer. Either State will only feel the burden 
in a ratio 10 its consumption, and this will be in a ratio to its population 
and wealth. What happens between the different classes of the same 
communit), internally, happens between the two Slates; and as the 
merchant, in the first case, so far Irom losing the duly himself, has a 
profit on the money he advances for that purpose, so the importing 
State, which, in the second case, is the merchant with respect to the 
other, is not only reimbursed by the non-imporlmg State, but has a like 
benefit on the duly advanced. It is, therefore, the reverse of a just po- 
sition, that the duty proposed wilt bear hardest on the most commercial 
States ! It will, if any thing, have a. contrary effect, though not in a auf- 

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I S3 

ficieni degree !o justify an objei^tion on the parr of the noti- imp ot ling 
Stales ; for ii ia as rensonable they should allow an advance on tlio duty 
paid as on the first cost, freight, or any incidental charge. They have 
also other sdvamages in the measure fully equivalent to this disadvan- 
tage. Over-nice and minute calculnliona in matters of this nature are 
inconsistenl with tiationai measures, and, in the impetiect stale of hu- 
man afrHira, would stagnole all the operations of government. Absolute 
equality ia not to be obtained : to aim al it. ie pureuins a shadow at the 
expense of lbs substance, and, in ilie event, we shouid find outselvea 
wider of the mark than if, in ihe firsl inalance, we were content to ap- 
proach it with moderation. 

Second objection. "That tlie recommendation proposes to introduce 
into that and the other Stales officers unltnown and unaccountable (a 
ihem, and so is against the constitution of the State." 

It is not to be presumed that the constitution of any State could mean 
to define and Hx the precise nuuibers and descriptions of all oHicers to 
be permitted in the State, excluding the creation of any new ones, what- 
aver might be the necessity derived from that variety of eircuinslances 
incident to all political institutions. The legislature must always have 
ft discretionary power of appointing officers not expressly known to (he 
constitution, and this power will include that of authorizing the federal 
government to malie the appointments, in cases where the general wel- 
fare may require it. The denial of this would prove too much ; to wit, 
that the poH-er given by the Confederation to Congress to appoint all 
officers in (he post-office was illegal and uneonstitutional. 

The doctrine advanced by Rhode Island would perhaps prove, also, 
that the Federal Government ought to have the appointment of no inter- 
nal officers whatever — a position that would defeat all the provisions ot 
the Confederation, and all the purposes of the Union. The truth is, 
that no federal constitution can exist without powers that in their eser- 
cise affect the mtcmal police of Ihe component members. It is equally 
(rue, that no government can exist without a right to appoint ofiicers for 
those purposes which proceed from and concentre in ilsetf; and there- 
f hCnf h pldldh Congress shall have 

h y pp ffi y be necessary for 

magigh afi hUd under their direc- 

All h b d hat h F leral Government 

fi pmn hasismpwdto make by the 

I n b b q f the parties; un- 

1 1 1 d be p sa « d oonstintiou of n 

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SlBlfi, Ihere eon be no reason to doubt thai il js wllliin ihe compass o! 
legislative diGoretioii to communicaio ihat authoiily. 

The propriety of doing it upon the present occasion is founded on sub- 
Btantinl reasons. 

The meaaurB proposed ia n measure of necessity. Repealed experi- 
ments have shown that the revenues to be raised within these States ia 
ollogBlhor inadequate to the public wants. The deficiency can only be 
supplied by loans. Our applications to the foreign powers on whoso 
friendship wa depend have had a success far short of our necossitiea. 
The next resource ia, to borrow from individuala. These will neither be 
actuated by generosity nor reasons of state. 'Tia to tlieir interest alone 
we must appeal. To conciliate ihia, we must not only sliputate a 
proper compensation for what they lend, but we must give security for 
the performance. We must pledge an aacertained liind, simple and pro- 
ductive in its nature, genera! in its principle, and at the disposal of a 
single will. There can be little confidence in a security under the con- 
slant revisel of thirteen different deliberatlves. It must, once for all. be 
defined and established on the ^ith of the States, solemnly pledged to 
each other, and not revocable by any without a breach of the general 

'Tis by such espedients that nations whose resources are understood, 
whose reputations and governments are erected on the fonndntion of 
ages, are enabled to obtain a solid and extensive credit. Would it be 
reasonable in us to hope for more easy terms, who have so recently 
assumed our rank among the nations ! Is it not lo be expected that in- 
dividuals will be cautious in lendii'g their money to a people in our cir- 
cumstances, and that they will at least require the best security we can 


Wa have an enemy vigilant, intriguing, well acquainted with our de- 
fects and embarrassments. We may expect that he will make every 
effort to instil diffidences into individuals ; and, in the present posture 
of oor internal afiairs, he will have too plausible ground on which 'o 
tread. Our necessities have obliged us to embrace measnrea with re- 
spect to otu' public credit calculated lo inspire distrust. The preposses- 
sions on this article must naturally be against us, and it is therefore in- 
dispensable we should endeavor to remove ihem, by such means as will 
be the most obvious and striking. 

It was with these views Congress determined on a general fund ; and 
llie one they have recommended must, upon a thorough eiamlnatiun, 
appear lo have fewer inconveniences than any other. 

It has been remarked, as an essential part of the plan, that the fund 

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ehouM depend on a single will. This will not bo the case unless tliB 
collection, Ha well as the appropriation, is under the control of Ihe United 
Stales ; for it is evident that, after the duty is agreed upon, it may, in a 
great measure, he defeated by an inefleetual mode of levying it. The 
United States have a common interest in an uniform and equally enor- 
{[etio collection ; and not only policy, but justice to all tho parts of tlia 
Union, designates the utility of lodging the power of making it whole 
the interest is common. Without this it might in reality operate as a 
very aneqaal tax. 

Third objection. " That by granting to Congress a power to collect 
moneys from the commerce of ihea S a nd h ly os to linie and 
quantity, and for the expenditure ot wl h I ey w Id not be account, 
able to the States, they would becom d i nd u f 1 cir constituents, 
and 80 the proposed impost is vep g h 1 b y ol the United 

Admitting the principle of this bj b still it ought to 

have no weight in the present case, 1 te h n analogy between 

the principle and the fact. 

First. The fund proposed Is sufficiently definite as to time, because it 
is only co-exlensive with the existence of the debt contracted and to be 
contracted in the course of the war. Congress are persuaded that it is 
as remote from the intention of their constituents to perpetuate that 
debt, as to extinguish it at once by a laithtess neglect of providing the 
means to fiilGl the public engagements. Their ability to discharge it in 
a moderate time can as little be doubted as their inclination; and the 
moment that debt ceases, tho duty, so far as respects the present pro- 

The resolution recommending the duly spociHes the object of it (o be 
the discharge of the principal and interest of the debts already contracted, 
or which may he contracted, on the faith of the United Slates for sup- 
porting the present war. 

Secondly. The rale per cent, is fixed, and it is not at the option of the 
United Stales to increase ii. Thougli the product will vary according 
to the variations in trade, yet, as there Is this limitation of the rate, il 
cannot be properly said to be Indefinite as to quantity. 

By the Confederation, Congress have an absolute discretion in deter- 
mining the quantum of reyenue requisile for the national c:LpenditurF. 
When this is done, nothing remains for tlie Slates, separately, but the 
mode of raising. No Stale can dispute the obligation to pay the sum 
demanded, without a breach of the Confederniion ; and when the inonei" 
comes into the treasury, the appropriation is the e.'ieiiiaive province -^f 

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the Federa! GovErnracnl. Tiiis provision of ihe Con fed era! ion (wilhoiil 
which it would be an empty form) compreliendB in it the principle, iti its 
t'ulleet latitude, which the objection under conaidarntion treala aa repug- 
nant to the liberty of the United States — to wit, an indeSnite power of 
prescribing the ^UDntity uf money to be laiised, and of appropriating tt 
when raised. 

If it be said that the Slates, individaally, having tlis collection in their 
own hands, may refuse a compliance with exorbitant demanda. the Con- 
fedflrotion will answer that ihia is a point of which they have no consti- 
tutional liberty to judge. Such a rclusHl would be an esertion of power, 
not of right; and Ihe same power which could disregard a requisition 
made on the authority of the Confederation, might at any time arrest 
the colleclion of the duty. 

The same kind of responsibility which exists with respect to the ex- 
penditure of Ihe money i'Dmlshed in the forma hitherto practised, would 
be equally applicable to the revenue from the imports. 

The truth is, the security intended to the general liberty in the Con- 
federation consists in the frequent election aud in the rotation of the 
membera of Congress, by which there is a constant and an eifectual 
check Hpon them. This is the security which the people in every State 
enjoy against the uauvpations of their internal govemmenta, imd it is the 
true source of security in o represent otive republic. The Government, 
so constituted, ought to have the means necessary to answer the end of 
ita institution. By weakening jta hands too much, it may be rendered 
incapable of providing for the interior harmony or the eaterior defence 
of the State. 

The measure in question, if not within the letter, b within the spirit, 
of the Confederation. Congress, by that, are empowered to borrow 
money for the use of the United Statea, and, by implication, to concert 
the means necessary to accompliah the end. But, without insisting upon 
this argument, if the Confederation has not made proper provision for 
Ihe exigencies of the States, it will he bi all times the duty of Congresa 
to suggest further provisions ; and, when their proposals are submitted 
to the unanimous consent of the Stales, Ihey can never be charged with 
exceeding the bounds of their trust. Such a consent is the basis and 
sanction of the Confederation, which expressly, in the 13th article, em- 
powers Congress to agree to and propose such additional proviaions. 

The remarks hitherto made have had reference principally to the fii- 
lure proseculion of the war. There still remains an interesting light in 
which the subject ought to be viewed. 

Ihe L'liilod Slates have already contracted a debt in Europe, and In 

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)h!s country, for which their Rihh is pledged. The copltal of this debt 
can only be discharged by degrees; bat a fund for this purpose, and 'or 
paying the inleresl nnnually, on every principle of policy and juatico, 
ought to be provided. The omission will ba the deepest ingratitude and 
eruchy to a. large number of meritorious indifidunls, who, in the most 
critical periods of the wnr, have adventured their fortunes in sappnvt of 
oitr independence. It would stamp the national character with indelible 

An annual provision for the purpose will be too precarious. If Its con- 
tinuance and application were certain, it would nut afford complete re- 
lief. With many, the regular payment of interest, by oecasional grants, 
would suffice ; but wiih many more it would not. These want the use 
of the principal itself, and they have a right to it ; hut, since it is not in 
our power to pay off the principal, the next expedient is to fitnd the debt 
and render the evidences of it negotiable. 

Besides the advantage to individuals from this anangemont, the aotiva 
stock of the nation would be increased by the whole amount of the do- 
mestic debt, and of course the abilities of the community to conlributa 
to the public wants ; the national credit would revive and stand hereafter 

This was another object of the proposed duly. 

If it be conceded that a similar fund is ueceasaiy, it can hardly be dis- 
puted that the one recommended is the most eligible. It has been 
already shown that it affects all parts of the community in proportion to 
their consumption, and has therefore the beat pretensions to equality. It 
Ib the most agreeable tax to the people that can be imposed, because it 
is paid insensibly, and seems to be voluntary. 

It may perhaps be imagined that it is unfavorable to commerce ; but 
the contrary can easily be demonstrated. It has been seen that it does 
not diminisli the profit of the merchant, and, of course, can be no dimi- 
nution of his inducements to trade. It is too moderate in its amount to 
discourage the consumption of imported goods, and cannot on that ac- 
count abridge the eiLtent of importations. If it even had this effect, it 
would be an advantage to commerce, by lessening the proportion of our 
imports to our exports, and inclining the balance in favor of this 

The principal thing to be consulted for the advancement of commerce 
is to promote exports. All impediments to those, either by way of pro- 
hibition or by increasing the prices of native commodities, decreasing by 
that means their sale and consumption at foreign markets, are injurious 
Duties on exports have this operation. For the same reason, taxes on 

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pOBECssinna and (ho atticles of ouv own growlli or iimiiufiicturB, -.vlieiher 
in the form of R land tax, exciae, ot any other, ate more Imrlful to irnde 
Ihan impoal duties. The tendency of all such laxea ie to inerease lUa 
prices of those articles which ore the objects of eiKporlalion, and to ena- 
ble othei^ to undetBell us abroad. The farmer, if he pays a heavy land 
(Qx, niuBt endeavor to get more for the jjroducts of his farm : tha me- 
chanic and laborer, if ihey liiid the necesaaries of life grow dearer by an 
excise, must endeavor to exact higlier wages ; and these causes will pro- 
duce an increase of prices within, and operate against foreign com- 

It is not, however, to be inferred that the whole revenue ought to be 
drawn from imports : all extremes are to be rejeeled. The chief thing 
to be a.ttendcd to is, tliat the weight of the taxes fall not too heavily, in 
tha first instance, upon particular parts of the community. A judicioua 
distribution to all kinds of taxable property is a first principle in taxa- 
tion. The tendency of these obeervatione is only to show that taxes on 
possessions — on articles of our own growth and manufacture — are more 
prejudicial to trade than duties on imports. 

Tha observations which conclude the letter on which these remarks 
are made, naturally lead to refleclions that deserve the serious attention 
of every member of the Union. There is a happy mean between loo 
much confidence and excessive jealolisy, in which the health and pros- 
perity of a Stale consist. Either extreme is a dangerous vice : the lirst 
is a temptation to men in power to oirogate mote than they have a right 
to ; the latter enervates government, prevents system in the administra- 
tion, defeats the most saluiary, breeds confusion in the Slate, 
diE^giiata and discontents among the people, and may eventually prove as 
(atai to liberty as ihe opposite temper. 

It is certainly pernicious to leave any government in a situation of re- 
sponsibility dispraportionod to its power. 

The conduct of the war is inlrusted to Congress, and the public ex- 
pectation turned upon them, without any competent means at their com- 
mand to satisfy the important trua.. After the most lull and solemn 
deliberHlion, under a collective view ot At the public dilficuttios, they 
recommend a measure which appears to theiu ihe corner-stane of the 
public safety ! they see this measure suspended for near two years ; par- 
tially complied with by some of the States ; rejected by one of them, 
and in danger 01 that account to be frustrated ; the public embarraas- 
ments every <'av i.T;reasing; the dissatislaction of Ihe army growing 
more ssriour. ; th^ other creditors of the public clamoring for justice ; 
both irritated bv I'l'' delay of measures for their present relief or titture 

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Bscu-ily ; the liopea of our enemies encouraged to protract tha war ; the 
lea] of our friends depressed by an appearance of rcmissneas and waiii 
oi exertion on our part; Congress hamased; tha national character auf- 
iering, and the national safety at tha morcy of events. 

Tliis state of things cannot but be exti 
appear to your committee to make it tliei 
tlie evils with which it is pregnant. 

£esolved, That Congress agree to the aaW report. 

FKiniv, Afbii, is, 1783. 

Resolutions were passed recommending to the seversl Stales to inveal 
the Congress with certain specified powara for raising revenue to restore 
and niwntain the public credit, &c These resolutions were traneniilted 
to the several States, with an address, prepared by a committee consist- 
ing of Mr. Madison, Mr. Eilswoi-th, and Mr. Hamilton, and adopted by 
Congress on tlie 26th April, 17S3. The reEolutione, ns well as the ad- 
dress, consist, for the most part, of propositions and recommendations 
concerning the fiscal measures necessary to be adopted ; from the latter, 
however, it is considered proper to make the following exiracle : 

" The plan thus communioated and explained by Congress must now 
receive its fate irom their constituents. All the objects comprised in it are 
conceived to be of great importance to the happiness of this confederated 
republic, are necessary to render the fruits of the Revolution a fall re- 
ward for the blood, the toils, the cares, and the calamities which huve 
purebased it. But the object of which the necessity will be peculiarly 
felt, and which it is peculiarly the duly of Congress to inculcate, is the 
provisiaii recommended for the national debt. Although this debt is 
greater than could have been wished, it is still less on the whole than 
could have been expecteij., and, when referred to the cause in which it 
has been incurred, and compared with the burdens which wars of ambi- 
tion and of vain-glory have entailed on other nations, ought to be borne, 
not only with cheerfulness, but with pride. But the magnitude ol the 
debt makes no part of the question. It is sufiieient that the debt has 
been fairly conti-acted, and that justice and good faith demand that it 
should be fully discharged. Congress had no option but between dif- 
ferent modes of discharging it. The same option is the only one that 
can exist with the Slates. The mode xvhicli has, after long and elabo- 
rate discussion, been preferred, is, we are persuaded, the least objection- 
able of any that would have been equal to the purpose. Under tnis i>e:- 

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BuaBinn, we call upon tha juatioo and pliglited faith of iho several States, 
to give it its ptopev effBci, to reflect on the coneequencea of rejecting it, 
and to remember that Congress will not be answerable for them. 

" Let it be remembered, finally, that it has ever been the pride and 
boast of America that the rights for which ahe contended were the rights 
of human nature. By the blessings of the Author of these rights on 
the means ejerled for their defence, ihey have prevailed against all op- 
position, and form tha basis of thifteen independent States. No instance 
has heretofore occurred, nor can any matance be expected hereafter to 
occur, in which the unadulterated forms of republican government can 
pretend to ao fair an opportunity of justifying ihemaelvea by their fruits. 
In this view, the citizens of the United Slalea are reaponsible for the 
greatest trust ever confided to s political aoeieiy. If justice, good faith, 
honor, gratitude, and all the other quafities which ennoble the character 
of a nation, nJid fulfil the ends of government, be the fruits of our esta- 
bliahmenta, the cause of liberty will acquire a dignity and lustre which it 
has never yet enjoyed, and an example will be set whicli cannot bu' 
have the most ^vorable influence on the rights of mankiud. II, on iht 

verse of Ihoae cardinal and essential virtues, the great caune which we 
liave engaged to vindicate will be dishonored and betrayed, the last and 
tairesi experiment in favor of the rights of human nature will he turned 
against ihem, and their patrons and friends exposed to be msulted and 
silenced by the votaries ol tyranny and uaurpalion. 

" By order ol the United Sinles in Congress assembled ' 


Wedsesmv, April 30. nH4 

Congress aaaembled. Pi-eaent ■ New Hampshire. Msssacnuseno 

Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey. Pennsylvania. 

JMaryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. 

Congress took into consideration the report of a committee, consisting 
of Mr. Geny, M-. Reed, Mr, Williamson, Mr. Ciiase, and Mr. Jefl"er. 
son, to whom were referred sundry letters and papers relative to com- 
mercial matters ; and the same, being amended, was agreed to as 
follows ; 

"The trust reposed in Congress renders it their duty to be attentive to 
the conduct of foreign nalions, and to prevent or restrain, as far as may 
be, all such proceedings as might prove injurious to the United Stales. 
It this lime claims the attention of the seve- 

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ral States ; and few objects of greater importance can preaettt ihem- 
eelvea to their notice. The IbrCuiie of every citizen is interested in the 
success thei-eof, lor it ia the constant source of wealth and incentive tc 
industry ; and (he value of our produce and our Und muat ever rise or 
fall in ptoporlion to the prospei-ous or adverse elate of trade. 

"Alreodyhas Great Britain adopted regulations destructive of ourcom- 
mcrcB with her West India Islands. There mas ccaaon to expect that 
« unequal and so little calpulaied to promote mercantile inter- 
ire growing into system. It would be the duty of Congress, 
aa it is their wish, to meet the attempts of Great Britain with similar 
restrictiona on her commerce : but their powers on this head are not ex- 
plicit, and the propositions made by the legislatures of the several Stales 
render It ncccsaary to take the general sense of the Union on ihle 

" Unless tlio United States in Congress assembled shall he vested with 
powers competent to the protection of commerce they can never com- 
mand reciprocal advantages in trade ; and, w ih ut thes" our f]reign 
commerce must decline, and eventually be annihilated Hence it la ne- 
cessary that the States should be explicit, and (i\ on some eiieclual 
mode by which foreign commerce not founded on ormc ple» o* eiualni 
may be restrained. 

"That the United States may he enabled to secure »uca lermfr iDo* 

•'Sesolved, Thai it be, and it hereby is, recommended to ine legisls 
lures of the several Stales to vest the Umted Stales in Congress assem 
bled, for the term of fifteen years, with power to prohibit any goods 
wares, or merchandise, from being imported into or exported from any 
of the Statee, in vessels belonging to or navigated by the subjects of ant 
power with whom these States shall not have formed treaties of com 

••Besalved, That it be, and it hereby is, reconiniended to the legisla 
tures of the several States to vest the United States m Congress assem 
bled, for the term of fifteen years, with the power of prohibiimg the sub 
jecls of any foreign state, kingdom, or empire, unless aulhoriaed b) 
treaty, from importing into the United States any goods, wares, or mer 
chandiae, which are not the produce or manufacture of the dominions ol 
the sovereign whose subjects they are. 

"Provided, That to all acts of the United States in Congress assem 
bled, in pursuance of the above powers, the assent of nine Stales slial' 
...eccssary.'' ^^ 

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Wednesday, Julv 13, 1735. 

Congress took into consideration the report of a coramiltee, consisting 
of Mr, Monroe, Mr. Spaighl, Mr. Houslouii, Mr. Johnson, and Mr. 
King, on a motion of Mr. Monroe, for vesting the United Slates in Con- 
gress assembled nith the power of regulating trade ; and, the same 
being read. 

Ordered, That It be referred to a oommillee of the whole. 

Congress waa then resolved into a commitiee of the whole. 

Mr. Holien was elected to the chair. 

The P.eaident resumed the chair ; and Mr. Holten reported ihm the 
committee of the whole have had under consideration the subject re- 

Sesi/lved, That leave be granted. 

The committee, consisting of Mr. Monroe. Mr. Spaight, Mr. Hous- 
toun, Mr. Johnson, and Mr. King, to whom was refened the motion of 
Mr. Monroe, submit the following report i 

That the first paragraph of the ninth of the Arlidea of Confederation 
be altered, bo as to read thus, vh : 

'■ The United Slates in Congress assembled shaJi have the sole and 
exclusive right and power of determining on peace aiwl war, ejccpt in 
(he cases mentioned in the sixth article — of sending and receiving em- 
bassadors — entering into treaties and alliances — of i-egulating the (rnde 
of the Slates, as well with foreign nations as with each other, and of 
laying such impost and duties upon imports and eiports as may be ne- 
cessary for the purpose; provided, that the cilinens oi^ the States shall 
in no case be subjected to pay higher impoHts and duties than those im- 
posed on tjie subjects of foreign powers ; provid d Is h h g 
lative power of the several Stales shall not be res 'u d m p 
iiig the importation or exportation of any species d d 

tics whatsoever ; provided, also, that all such du as d 

eliall be collected under the authority, and ace h 

Slate in which the same shall be payable; and d as 

every act of Congress for the above purpose shall h h 

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nine States in CotigresB assembled — of establishing rules for deeiding in 
all eases what eaptnres on land, or water shall be legal, and in what 
manner prizes token by land or naval forees in the service of the United 
Slares alioll be divided or appropriated — of granting letters of marque 
and reprisal in time of peace— apiiointing courts for the trial of piracies 
and felonies committed on the high seas, and estsbliahing courts far re- 
ceiving and detarmining finally appeals in all cases of captures ; providea 
lliLit no member of Congress shall be appointed judge of any of the aaid 

re of the several 

po5Ed : 

'I'hc United States having formed treaties of commerce with the most 
Christian king the King of Sweden, and the states-general of the United 
Netherlands ; and having appointed ministers with full authority to enter 
into treaties with other powers, upon aucli principles of reciprocity as 
may promote their peace, harmony, and respective interests, — it be- 
comes necessary that such internal arrongementa should be made na may 
strictly comport with the £iith of those treaties, and insure success to 
their future negotiations. But, in the pursuit of Ihe means necessary 
for the altainnient of these ends, considerable difficulties arise. If tna 
legislature of each State adopts its own measures, many and very emi- 
nent disadvantages must, in their opinion, necessarily result therefrom. 
They apprehend it will be difficult for thirteen different legislatures, act- 
ing separately and distinctly, to agree in the same interpretation of a 
treaty, to take the same measures for carrying it into effect, and to con- 
duct their several operations upon such principles as to satisfy those 
powers, and at the same time preserve the harmony and interests of the 
Union, or to concur in those measures which may be necessary to coun- 
teract the policy of those powers with whom they shnll not be able to 
form commercial treaties, and who avoid it merely from an opinion of 
their imbecility and indecision. And if the several States levy difierenl 
duties apon their particular produce exported lo (be ports of llmse 
powars, or upon the produce and manufactures of those powers imported 
into ench Slate, either in vessels navigated by and belonging to the citi- 
zens of these States or the subjects of those powers, it will, they appru- 
bend, induce on their part similar discriminations in the duties upon iho 
commercial intercourse with each Stale, and thereby defeat the object 
of those treaties, and promote the designs of those who wish to profit 
from their embarrassment. Unless the United Stales in Congress as 
sembled are authorized to make those arrangements which become ne 

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cessary under their ircatka, and are enabled lo carry lliein into efltei, 
lliey cannot ooiiiploiti of a violation of thiini on the pari of other powera. 
And unless tliey act in concerl in the system of policy which may he 
iieceasary to fruslrale the designs of those powers who lay iniurious te- 
Btrainis on iheir trade, Ihey mual necessarily become the viciima of 

I'he common principle upon which a friendly commercial intercourse ia 
conducted between independent naiions, lb that of teciprocal advantages ; 
and if this U not obtained, it becomes the duty of the losing party lo 
make such farther regiilalions, consistenlly with the faiih of Ireatiea, as 
will remedy the evil, and secure its interests. If, iliea, the commercial 
reaulations ol' any foreign power contravene the interests of any parlicu- 
Inr State — if they refuse admittance to its produce into its ports upon Ibe 
same terms that the State admits its manufactures bore. — what course 
will it take to remedy the evil ! If it mokes similar regidatlons to coun- 
teract those of that power, by reciprocating the diaadvantoges which it 
feels, by impost or otherwise, will it produce the desired eflecl J What 
operatioD will it have upon the neighboring Stales? Will they enter 
mto similar regulations, and make it a common cause! On the con- 
trary, will they not, in pursuit of the same local pobcy, avail themselves 
of this circumstance to turn it to their particular advantage f Thus, 
then, we behold the several Slates taking separate measures in pursuit 
of their particular interests in opposition lo the regulations of foreign 
powers, and separately aiding those powers to defeat the regulations of 
each other ; for, unless the States act together, there is no plan of policy 

into which they can separate'-- 


which they w-U nut be separately 

interested lo defeat, and of 

a m t prove vain 

and abortive. 
The policy of each nation 

powers, is lo obtain, if possi 

carriage of 

the materials of either parly 

be tr d by laying 

higher duties upon imports ai 

g avigatcd by 

the subjects of foreign pow. 

se g to and arB 

novigaled by those of its owi 

T IS revails, in a 

greater or less degree, m th 

IS d wisest com- 

jt produce the most mischievous effects. Unable 
s of those powers by similar reslrieiions 
here, or to support ihe interests of their citizens by discrintinations in 
their favor, their system will previul. Possessini! no advantages in ihe 

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ports of hie own country, and subjected to muc!i higher duties and re- 
Btrictiona in those of other powers, it will neceasarily become the inteiesl 
of tlie American merchiml to ship his produce in foreign bottoms i ol 
course thair prospects of nutional consequence must decline, their mer- 
chants become only the agents and retailers of those foreign powers, 
their extensive forests be hewn down and laid waste to add to their 
strength and national lesouices, and the American flag be rarely seen 
upon the face of the seas. 

But if ihey not as a nation, Ihe prospect is more favorable to them 
The particular interests of every Stale will then be brought forward, 
and receive a federal support. Happily for them, no measures can bo 
taken lo promote the interests of either which will not ecjualty promote 
that of the whole. If their commerce is Md under injmious restrictions 
ill foreign ports, by going hand in hand in confidence together, by wise 
mid equitable regnlations, they will the more easily sustain the inconvo- 
nience or remedy the evil. If they wish to cement the Union by tho 
strongest ties of interest and affection; if they wish to promote ila 
Btrengtii and e™i'leur, founded upon that of each individual Stale, — 
every consideration of local as well as of federal policy urge them to 
adopt the following raeommendation.* 

The situation of the commercial affairs of the Union requires that tlio 
several legislatmes should come to the earliest decision on the subject, 
which they now submit lo their consideration. They have weighed it 
with that profound attention which ia due to so important an object, and 
are fully convinced of its expedience. A further delay must be produc- 
tive of ineonvenience. The interests which will vest in every part of 
the Union must soon take root and have their influence. The produce 
raised upon the banks of those great rivers and lakes whicb have their 
sources high up in (he inferior ports of the continent will empty ileelf 
inlo the Atlantic in different directions; and, of course, as tiie Slates 
rearing to the westward attain maturity, and get admission into the Con- 
federation, will their government become moie compUcated. Whether 
tliis will be a source of sltenglh and wealth to the Union, must, there- 
fore, in a great degree, depend upon the measures which may be now 

A temporary power would not, in then- opimon, enable the United 
States lo establish the interests, nor atlam the salunry object, which 
they propose : the eipectation that it w ill revert lo the States, and re- 
main with ihem for the future, would lesson its weight with foreign 

•Ailuding to the aJleralion proposal. Sea p. 143. 

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powers ; and, while tlie interesls of each Siala and of the Federal Gov- 
eminent eontinno io be the same, the same evils will always require Iha 
same correelioo, nnd of course (be necessary powers should always ba 
longed in the same hands. They have therefore ibougbt proiier to pro- 
pose an efficient and perpetual remedy. 

pKiceedings iliereon ftiLLow Ihesa proceeduigj in Congress.] 


WeDNESBAY, FEDBUiKV 15, 1786. 


Tne committee, consisting of Mr. King, Mr. Pinckney, Mr, Kean, 
Mr. Monroe, and Mr. Petlit, to whom were referred sevetal reports and 
documents concerning the system of general revenue, recommended by 
Congress on the 18th of April. 17H3, report i 

"That, in pursuance of the above reference, they have carefully ex- 
amined Dbe acts of the several Stales, relative to the general system of 
riivenue recommended by Congress on the 18lh of April, 17S3, and find 
that the Slates of Delaware nnd North Carolina have passed acts in full 
conformity wi(h the several parts thereof; the former of which States 
has inserted a proviso in their act, reetrainitig the operation thereof nntil 
each of the other States shall hove made a like and equally ei 
grant; ihal the Slates of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Con 
New Jersey, Virginia, nnd South Carolina, have each passed acts com- 
plying with that part of the system which recommends a general im- 
post, but have come to no decision on the other part, which proposes the 
establishtnent of funds, supplementary to and in aid of the general im- 
post ; that the State of Pennsylvania baa passed an act complying with 
tlie recommendation of the general impost, and in the same act baa de- 
clared that their proportion or quota of the supplementary funds shall be 
raised and levied on the persons and estates of the inhabitants of that 
Stale, in snob manner as the legislature thereof shall from time to time 
ilirect; with this proviso, that if any of the annua! proportion of the 
supplementary funds shall be otherwise raised and paid to the United 
tjta>t;s, tiien such annual levy or tax shaU be discontiiined. The com - 
Liillee conceive Ihat this clause is rather an engagement that Pennsyl- 
vania will provide adequate supplementary ftmds, than an aclnal eet«- 

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blisliment Iliereof; neyerlheleaa, ^he bcI containE a proviso realraining 
ile operation untii oacli of ihe 'other States shall have iiasseil laws in liiU 
conformity with tha wholo of [he revenue syslem aforesaid. The com- 
mittee furtlier find, that the Stale of Rhode Island has passed an act on 
tliis subject, but so different from thb plan recommended, and so wholly 
mfenlTicient, that it cannot be considered as a compliance vrilh any part 
of the system submilled for their adoption ; that the Slate of Morylnnd 
passed an act in 1783, and a eupplement tliereto in 1781, complying with 
liie recommendation of Congress of the 3d of February, 178!, which re- 
commendation is not compatible with, and was relinquished by, the re- 
solves of Congress of the 18lh of April, 1783; but that neither tha 
State of Maryland, New York, nor Georgia, has passed any act in pur- 
suance of the system of the 18ih of April, 1783. 

"From this alateinenl it appears that seven States— via ! NewIIamp. 
eliire, MassachuaeHs, Connecticut, New Jersey, Virginia, North Caro- 
lina, and South Carolina — have granted the impost in such manner that, 
if the other six Slates had made similar grants, the plan of the general 
irapoHl might immeclialely begin to operale; that two olher Stales — ■ 
viz : Fennayivania and Delaware — have also granted the impost, but 
have connected their grants with provisoes, which will suspend their ops 
ration until all the other Slates shall have passed laws in full conformity 
with the whole of the revenue system aforesaid ; that two only of Ihesa 
nine Slates— vii : Delaware and North Carolina— have fully acceded to 
that system in all ils parts ; and that the four other States — via ; Rhode 
island. New York, Maryland, and Georgia— have nol decided m favor 
of any part of the system of revenue aforesaid, so long since and so re- 
peatedly presented by Congress for their adoption. 

" The committee have thought il their duty candidly to examine the 
principles of this system, and to discover, if possible, the reasons which 
have prevented Its adoption. They cannot learn that any member of the 
Confederacy has staled or brought f 
and the result of their impartial inquii 
of the plan, has been a clear and decii 
is more free from well-founded excej 
receive the approbation of the sever! 
wisdom of Congress can devise. 

■'In the course of this inquiry, il 
quisitions of Congress, for eight years past, nave i>een so irregular m 
their operation, so uncertain in their collection, and so evidently unpro- 
ductive, that a reliance on them in future, asa source from whence monevi 

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orp I15 be drawn to dischnrgG the engagements of the Confederacy, deli- 

llie dndeiviandiiigs of those who enlertaiti such confiijenee, than it WOHld 
be dangerous to the welfare and peace of Ibe Union. The eominittea 
sro therelbra serbnsly impreaeed willi the indispensable obligation that 
Congress are onder of leprcsenling to the immediate and impnrtinl con- 
sidnralion of the several Slates the utter impoBsibility of maintaining 
and presBi-ving the fiiiih of the Federal Government by temporary requi- 
sitions on the States, and the consequent necessity of an early and com- 
plete BccBBaion of all tha States to the revenue system of the 18lh of 
April, 1783. 

"Although, in a buaineaa of this magnitude and importance to the rc- 
BPLCtive Stales, it was natural to expect n due degree of cntition, and a 
thorough investigation of the system recoinniended, yet the committea 
canjiot forbear to remark that this plan hos been under reference for 
ncLily three yeors; that, during that period, numerous changes have 
takr.a place in the delegations of every State, but that this system has 
ree.;ived the repeated approbation of each Buccessive Congress, and that 
the urgency of the pnbhc engngements at thia lime renders it the on- 
quf.stionabia duty of the several Slates 10 adopt, without further delay, 
thoae meaaurea which alone, in the judgment of the committee, can pre 
eeive the sacred faith of the Confederacy." 

" Thus it is evident that the sum of 2,457,987 35-90llis dollars only 

in the moat forcible manner, pressed on the Stalea the payment of much 
larger sums, and for purposes of the highest national importance. It 
should be hero observed, (hat the receipts of the last fourteen months of 
the above period amount only to 432,397 Sl-SOtha dollars, which is at 
the rate of 371,053 dollars per annum— a sum short of what is essentially 
neceasary for iha bare maintenance of the Federal (iovernment on the 
most economical ealablishment, and in time of profound peace. 

" The committee observe, with great concern, that the security of the 
navigation and commerce of the citizens of theeo States from the Bar- 
bary powers, the protection of the frontier inhabitants from the savagea, 
the immediate establishment of military inogai^ines in different parts of 
the Union, rendered indispensable by the principles of public safety, the 
maintenance of the Federal Government at home, and the support of the 
public servants abroad, each and alt, depend upon the contributione of 
the States under the annual requisitions of Congress. The moneys 
esaentially necessary for these important objects wiil so far exceed the 
sums formerly collected from the Slates by taxes, thai no hope can ba 

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iiiduIgBd of being able, from (hnf source, to moke any rcmiltanoos for 
ihc discharge of foreign engageinen'LS. 

" Thus circumstonced, nfier ihe most solemn deliberation, nnd under 
^tle fullest conviction thnl ihe public embarriissments me Eiuch as above 
represented, gnd tbat tbey are daily increasing, the committee tire ot 
tlie opinion thai it has Ipecomo the duty of Congress to declare, moat ex- 
plicitly, thnt iho crisis bos arrived when the people of these United dtatej, 
by whose will and for whose benefit the Federal Government was insti. 
tuled, tnust decide whether they will support their rank as a nation, Dy 
maintBining the public fiiilh at home and abroad, or whether, for want 
of a timely exertion in establishing a genera! revenue, and ihereby giv- 
ing strength lo the Confederacy, they will hazard not oidy llie esigtenca 
of the Union, but of those great and invaluable privileges for which Ihejr 
have so arduously and so hotiorably contended." 
Resolved, That Congress agree lo the said report. 
Atid, to the end that Congress may remiun wholly acquitted from 
. every imputation of a want of attention to the ititeresl and welfare of 
those whom they represent, 

JBeiotved, That the requisitions of Congress of the 27th of April, 
1734, and the 37th of September, 1785, cannot be considered as the eala- 
blishment of ft system of general revenue, in opposition to that recom- 
mended to the several States by the resolves ot Congress of the IBlb of 
April, 1783. 

Besolvrd, Tliat Ihe resolves of Congress of the 18th of April, 1783, 
recommending a system of general revenue, be again presented to the 
cor.sideratiott of the legislatures of the several States which have not 
iiilly complied with the same. That it be earnestly recommended to 
the Legislatures of New Hampshire, MassachusettB, Connecticut, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and South Carolina, which have com- 
plied only in part with the said system, completely to adopt the same , 
and to the Legislatures of the Stales of Rhode Island, New York, Ma- 
ryland, aud Georgia, which have not adopted the said system, ehher in 
whole or in part, to pass laws, without fiirther delay, in full conformity 
with the same. But, as it is highly necessary that every possible aid 
should, in the most expeditious manner, be obtained to the revenue of 
the United States, it is therefore recommended to the several States, 
that, m adopting the said system, they enable the United States in Con- 
gress assembled, to carry into effect that part which relates to the im- 
post, so soon as it shall be acceded to. 

Beaolved, That, whilst Congress are denied the moans of satisiying 
those engagements which they have constitutionally entered into for tha 

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of public fai h 1 dg d by 1 co d I f I 

priiiciplcH f ] wti h are h ly sol d bas f 1 I d 

prosperity f ns 


Fbiday, Maecu 3. nee. 

Thp committee, consieting o[ Mr. Kean, Mi. Gorham, Mr. Fincltncy, 
Mr. Smith, and Mr. Grayson, to whom were recommitied eundiy papora 
■nd documeiite relative to commBroe, aiid the aete pnaaed by the Slntea 
in consequence of the recommendations of Coiigresa of the 30th April, 
1784, report- 
That, in eiamining tha laws passed by the Slotea in consequence 
of the act of 30tli April, 1784, they tind that four States — namely, Mas- 
aachusetts, New York, New Jersey, and Viigiuia — hove enacted laws 
conformable to the recommendations contained in the act, but have re- 
Btrained thoir operation until the other Statea shall have substantially 

That three States — namely, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and Mary- 
land — have passed laws cotiformlng to the same, but have determined 
(he time from which tlicy are to commence — the (iisl from the tima 
of passing their act, in May, 1735; and the two latter from the 30th 
April, 17B4. 

That New Hampshire, by an act passed the 33d June, 1785, has 
granted full powers lo regulate their trade, &y restrictions or dulies, for 
fifteen years, with a proviso that the law shall be Guspended until ihe 
Other Statea have substantially done the same. 

That Rhode Island, by acts passed in February and October, 1765, 
has granted power for the term of iwenly-fivB years lo regulate trade 
between the respective States, and of prohibiting, raatraimng, or regu- 
lating, the importation only of all foreign goods in any ships or v^sels 
other than those owned by citizens of the United States, and navigated 
by a certain proportion of citizens ; and also with a proviso restrictive 
of its operation until the other Stales shall have substatilially complied. 

That North Carolina, by an act passed the Sd June, 1784, has granted 
powors similar to those granted by Rhode Island, relative to foreign 
commerce, but unrestrained in duration, and clogged with a clause that 
whrn all the States shall have substantially complied therewith, it shall 
become an article of confederation and perpetual union. 

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That they cannot find thW the three other Slntes-^amely, Delaware, 
South Carolina, and Geoigia — have passed any lawa in conaequence of 
tho recommendations. 

The result is, that four Stales have fully complied ; three others have 
bIso complied, but havp determined the time of commencement, so that 
tliere will be a dissimilarity m the duration of the power granted ; that 
three other Slates have passed laws in pursuance of the recommcnda- 
liona, but so inoonaonant to them, both in letter and spirit, thst they 
cannot be deemed compliances , diid that three other States have passed 

That, althaugh the powers to be vested by the reeomraendations do 
not embrace every object which may be necessary in a well-formed aya- 
tem, yat, as many beneficial efTecis may be expected irom them, the 
committee think it the duty of Congress again to call the attention of 
llie States to this subiecl, the longer delay of which must be attended 
w t y g at evils. Whereupon, 

S I I That the recommendations of the 30th April, nfi4, be again 
p d the view of the Stales of Delaware, South Carolina, and 

G gi d thai they be most earnestly called upon to grant powtis 
conf m bl hereto. 

B I ed That the States of New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and 
U h C I na, be solicited to reconsider their acts, and to m,ike the:m 
g bl he recommendationa of the 30th April, 1784. 

S I ed That the lime for which the power under the recommeiida- 

ns f h 30lh April, 1784, is to continue, ought to commence on the 
d y h r grees shall begin to exercise it ; and that it be recommended 
1 of Pennsylvania, Connecticut, and Maryland, to amend 

I ordingly. 

Monday, October 33, 1786. 

The committee, consisting of Mr. Pinckney Mr '=!m Ih ad Mr 
Henry, to whom was referred an act of the Le^ 'a ure of he 'i a e of 
Georgia, passed in consequence of ihe resolu o s of tl e 30 h A[ 1 
1784, respecting commerce, and the subject ot he sa d eco n enda on 
having reported — 

"That it appears, by the said reaoliiaons, the United Rla -a .n oon 
gress assembled recommended to the legislatures of the several Stales 
to vesl them, for the term of fifte&u years, with powers to prohibit any 
goods, wares, or merchandise, ftom being imported inlo, or exported 

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from, Kny of l]ia Slates, in vessels belonging to, or nuvigaltd by, (ho 
subjccta of uny power with whom these Stales shall not have formed 
treaties of comiaerce; that they abo recommended tu the legislatures 
of the eaid States to vest the United States in Congress assembled, for 
tlie term of lifteen years, with the power of prohibiting the subjects of 
any foreign state, kingdom, or empire, unless authorized by treaty, Irom 
importing into the Uuited States any goods, wares, or merchandise, 
which are not the produce or manufacture of the dominions of the sove- 
reign whose flubjeeta they are ; provided, that to all acts of tha United 
States in Congresa assembled, in pursuance of the above powera, the 
assent of niue Stales shall be necessary. The committee have carefully 
examined he ac s passed by the aeveral Statea, in pursuance of the 
above lecon menda on and Und that the Slate of Delaware has pasaed 
an act in full compl a ce ^t h the same ; that the acts of the States of 
Maasachuae 3 Rl ode Island, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, and 
Georgia, are n conf m y o the said recommendation, but restrained 
in iheir opera on nn I he other Stales should have granted powers 
equally ei ens ve ha he '^tnlcs of Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and 
Maryland, have passed laws agreeable lo the said resolution, but have 
fixed the time at which the powera thereby invested shall begin lo ope- 
rate, and not left the same to commence at the time at which Congress 
shall begin to exercise it, which your committee conceive to have been 
the intention of the same; that South Carolina, by art act passed tha 
Ilth March, 1786. has invested the United States in Congress assem- 
bled with the power of regulating the trade of the United Stales with 
tha West Indies, and all other external or foreign trade of the said 
Stales, for the term of fifteen years from the passing of the said act ; 
that New Hampshire, by (heir act of the S3d of June, 1785, invested 
the United States in Congress assembled with the full power of regu- 
lating trade for fifteen yews, by testricliona or dalies, with a proviso 
euspending its operation ontil all the other Slates shall have done the 
same; that North Carolina, by their act of the ad of June. 1784, h.ts 
nuthoriKed their delegates to agree to and ratify an article or articles Ijy 
which Congrssa ahall be empowered to prohibit the importation of ull 
foreign goods, in any other than vessels owned by citizens of the United 
States,, 0' navigated by such a proportion of aeamen. citizena of the 
United Stales, as may be agreed to by Congresa, which, when agreed 
to by all the Stales, shall be considered as a part of the Articles of Con- 
federation and perpetual Union. From the above review of the acts 
passed by the several States in corsequenee of the said recommeiida- 
liuii, it appears ih^t. though, In order to make the duration of tha 

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jiowsi-g equal, it will bo necessary for the States of Connecticut, Penn- 
Bylvania, Maryland, and South Carolina, so far lo amend their acts aa 
to permit the nuthorities tlierein granted to commence their operation at 
the time Congress shall hegin to exercise them; yet still the powers 
gratilad by them and by tbe Sta.tBs of MaEsaohueetta, Rhode Island, 
New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Virginia, and Georgia, are other- 
wise in such compliance witli the recommendation, that, if the Stales 
of New Hampshire and North Carolina had conformed their acts to ihs 
eaid resolution, agreeable to the urgent recommendation of Congress of 
Che 3d of March last, the powers therein requested might immediately 
begin to operate. The committee, however, oia of opinion that the acts 
of the Slates of New Hampshu^ and North Carolina manifest so liberat 
a disposition to grant the necessary powers upon this subject, that their 
not having complied witli the recommendation of March last must be at- 
tributed io other reasons than a disincllnatiou in them lo adopt measures 
similar to those of their sister Slates, The committee, therefore, con- 
ceiye it unnecessary lo detail to them the aitnatiou of our commerce, 
languishing under ihe most ruinous restrictions in foreign ports, or the 
benefits wliicb mual arise liom the due and equal use of powers compe- 
tent to its protection and support, by that body which can alone bene- 
iicially, safely, and effectually esercise the same." Whereupon, 

liesalved. That it be again earnestly recommended to the Legislatures 
of the Slates of New Hampshire and North Carolina, a.t tlieir nest ses- 
sion, to reconsider their acts, and pass them in such conformity with the 
resolutions of the 30lh April, !784, as to enable, on Iheir pari, the 
United States in Congress assembled to exercise the powers thereby 
invested, as scon as possible. 

Eesalved, That, as the extent and duration of the powers to be exer- 
cised by the United States in Congress assembled, under the recom- 
mendation above mentioned, ought to be equal, it be recommended to 
the Legislatures of Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and South 
Carolina, so far to amend their acts as to vast the powers therein con- 
tained for the term of fifteen years from ihe day on which Congress shall 
begin to exercise the same. 


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appRrciit in llieae proceeJingB. These Bxertiona of tb« friends of liberty 
and Ihe Union bnving proved Tiiisuoccssful, and hnTing completely dis- 
closeii the incompeleiicy of the Confederation to provide for tiie credit 
and the wants of tbe country, ot to fulfil tlie duties and obligations of a 
general government, manilested the necessity tor that radical change in the 
Eystem, under whose powerful and benign influence the United States have 
arrived at tlieir present condition of strength, prosperity, and happiness. 

The nclive iiieasui«e which immediately led to the accomplishment of 
this momentous object, nppear to bave commenced under the lead of the 
Commonwealth of Virginia, and through the patriotic zeal and sagacity 
of her eminent stat^men : justice, however, to the great State of Nevr 
York, and to the distinguished indlTiduals who, at that day, guided her 
councils, demands the insertion of the proceedings, which, it will he per- 
ceived, took place more than three years before those in Virginia, and 
point more clearly and directly to the necesaty for adopting the preEsnt 
form of government than the resolutions of Virginia. The osten^ble 
object of the latter appearing to have been, to vest the CongreBS of the 
QonfederalioQ with the power of regulating the general trade and com- 
merce of the country. The net of Virginia, however, led to the meeting 
of the commissioners of several States at Annapolis, who, being thus as- 
sembled, availed ^emselves of the idea adopted by the State of New Jersey, 
and incorporated in the commissions to her deputies insetted in this chap- 
ter, " extending the powers of their detiuties to other objects than those 
of commerce," being " an improvement on the original plan, and will 
deserve to be incorporated into Uiat of a future convention," &c. 

These facts prove, that the credit of producing the vital change in the 
government, which gave being to our g^onous Constitution, does not 
belong lo any particular State or individual, but resulted from the wide- 
spread conviction of the wise and honest men, and true patriots with 
whom the countiy was blessed at that cri^cal and eventful period in its 
history, which will, no doubt, lieconie mora apparent on the completion 
of the lUlb and siith series of Colonel Force's documentary history of the 

The proceedings in New York, appearing to have been consequent 
upon the condition of ailaira as indicated in a previous resolution of Con- 
gress, and responsive to it, the inseition of that resolution previous to 
those proceedings, appears necessary to its proper understanding. 

Webnesdav, M*V 23, 1783. 
On the i-eport of a commitlee, coneisting of Mr. Madisoii, Mr. Root, 
Mr. Lowell, Mr. Euttedge, and Mr. Clymer, to whom was referred a 
letter of the 17th, from the euperintendent of finance, and who were in- 
structed, to con&r with the said superintendent : 

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Resolved, That Mr. Kutledge and Mr. Clymer be oppoinlKd to repair 
forthwith to the Beveral Stales southwatd of ihLi. and Mr. Muntgomery 
and Mr. Root lo the Statea enstmatd ; and that fhey be, nnd hereby are 
inslructed to make such representations lo the several States, as are best 
adapted to their respectivQ circnmslanceB and the present mtuation of 
pnblie aiTaJre, and as may induce them to caiTy the I'equiaitionB of Con- 
gress into effect with the greatest despatch! that they make the like 
TepreBBntations to the State of Pennsylvania, before they leave tliis city, 
(Philadelphia:) thai previous to their departure, they confer with the 
superintendent of finance, the secretary of war, and the secretary for 
foreign affairs, who are hereby directed lo communicate to ihem such 
(nformation from their respeelive departments as may be most conducive 
to the end proposed. 

SuBDiY, JuLV 21, 1783. 
George CUnton, esq.. Governor. 

A copy of certain resolntions of the honorable the Senate, delivered 
by Mr. Paine, were read, and committed lo a committee of ihc whole 
house, to be taken into consideration wilh the message of tJiB honorable 
the Senate, of the 19th inst., on the slate of the nation. 

The house then resolved itself into a committee of the whole House, 
on the said resolutions, and the subject of the said message ; and after 
some time spent thereon, Mr. Speaker resumed the ch^r, and Mr. Clark, 
irom the said committee, reported, that the committee had gone through 
the said msolutions without amendment, nhich he was directed to report 
to the House ; and he delivered tlie said resolutions in at the table, where 
the same were again read, and in the words foUowmg, to wit, viz i 

Saalved, That it appears to this Legislature, after full and solemn 
consideration of the several matters communicated by the hon. the com- 
mittee of Congress, relating to the present poslnre of our affairs, foreign 
and domestic, and contained in a letter from the secretary for foreign 
affairs respecting the former, as well as of the representations from lima 
to lime made by the superintendent of the finances of the United Stales, 
relative to hia particular department-^that the situation of these States 
IS in a pecnliar manner critical, and affords the strongest reason to appre- 
hond, from a continuance of the present Constitution of the Con^mental 
Government, a subversion of public credit, and consequences highly 
dangerous to the safety and independence of those States. 

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Sesolved, That while this LegiBklute are convinced by tlie before-men- 
tioned conimuiiicBtiona, lliat notwithstnnding the generous intentions of 
an ally from whom we liave experienced, and doubllese sliail still ex- 
perience, all possible support, eiigenciea may arise to prevent otir receiT- 
ing pecuniary succours hereafter, in any degree proportioned to out 
neceesilies. They are also convinced, irom facts within their own know- 
ledge, that the provisiona made l)y the respecliva States for carrying oq 
the war, are not only inadequate to the end, but must continue to be so, 
while there is an adherence lo the principles which now direct the opora- 
lion of public measures. 

Metehed, That it is also the opinion of this Legislature, that the preeent 
plan mstituted by Congress for the administration of their finances, is 
founded in wisdom and sound policy. That the BOiutary efTecta of it 
have already been felt in an exlensivi 
violent shocks sustained by the public 
want of the support which the States ore able to give, would be produc- 
tive of evils too pernicious to be hazarded. 

Eesolved, That it appears to this Legislature, that the present British 
ministry with a diapo 't'on not lee? ho tile than tlint of their predeces- 
sors, taigh byiJ ee dh rsdis g the appear- 
ance ofmdotnarp umaso alu d conciliate in 
Europe, d d n Am nca. Th h ra arriuigemenla 
they app a adpmaadpd ngg redit of (heir 
governm d m p n so ah sam une that they 
serve to nfirrn p p ss ns d niid h people ; and 
ihat the p d w hi h ey direct all 
their attention and resources to the augmentBtion of their navy, ia that 
which may be productive of oonfiequences ultimately dangerous to the 
United Slates. 

Seaolved, That it is the opinion of this Legislature, that the present 
system of these Slatea adiposes the common cause to a precarious issue ; 
and leaves na at the mercy of eventa over which we have no influence : 
u conduct extremely unwise in any nntion, and at dl limes, and lo a 
ihang:e of which we are impelled at this juncture, by reasons of peculiar 
9nd irresistible weight j and that it is the natural tendency of the weak- 
ness and disordera in our national measures, to spread diffidence and 
distrust among the people, and prepare their minds to receive the im- 
pressions the enflmy wish to make. 

Seaolved, That the general state of European alTairs, as far as they 
have come to the knowledge of this Legislature, affords, in their opinion, 
leaeonable ground of confidence, and assures us, that with judicious and 

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vigorona exerlioii on our pai1, we may rely on ihe final auainmcnt of our 
object ; but, far from jiisiifying indifference and security, calla upon ua by 
every motive of honor, good faiih, and patriotism, without delay, to unita 
ill some Byslem more effectual, for producing energy, harmony, and con- 
Bistency of measures, than that which now exists, and more capable of 
putting the common cause out of the reach of contingencies. 

Sesolved, That in the opinion of thie Legislature, the radical source of 
most of our embeirassments, is the want of auflicieut power in Congress, 
to effectuate that read; and perfect co-operation of the diilerent Stales, on 
■which their immediate safety and ftiture happiness depend. That ex- 
perience has deraonalrated the Confederation to he defective in several 
easenlial points, particularly innot veatuig the Federal Government either 
with fl power of providing revenue for itself, or with aacertained and pro- 
ductive funds, secured by a sanction so solemn and general, as would 
inspire the fullest confidence in them, and malne them a substantial basis 
of credit. That these defects ought to be without loss of lime repaired ; 
the powers of Congress estended, a solid security established for tJio 
payment of debts already included, and competent means provided for 
fiiture credit, and for supplying the tiiture demands of the war. 

Sesolved, That it appears evidently to this Legislature, that the annual 
income of these States, admitting the best means were adopted for draw- 
ing out their resources, would fiUI fiir short of the annual eipenditure ; 
and that there would be a large deficiency 10 be supplied on the credit 
of these Slates, which, if it ehould be inconvenient for those powers lo 
afford on whose friendshi]) we justly rely, must be sought for from indi- 
V duals to engage whom to lend, satisfiictory securities must be pledged 
for the punctual payment of interest, and tlia final redemption of the 

BeEotved That it appears lo this Legialature, that the aforegoing im- 
portant e ids can never be attained by partial deliberations of the States 
sepirately, but that it is essential lo the common welfiire, that there 
ehoold be as soon as possible, a conference of the whole on the subject ; 
and that it would be advisable for this purpose, to propose lo Congress 
to recommend, and to each State lo adopt the measure of assembling a 
general convention of the States, specially authorised to revise and amend 
the Confederation, reserving a right to the respective legislatures lo ratify 
their detormmatiouB. 

Jteiohied tmaniiamsls. That this Hotise do concur with the honorable 
the Senate, in the stud resolutions. 

[Introduced and passed in Senate, on Saturday morning, July 20, 


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State of New Yobk, ) 

I certify the preceding lo be true copies of tertnin coneiirrent reaoh 
tiona of the Senate and Assembly of this Stale, copied Iroiii the prints 
journal of the assembly in this office. 

ARCH'D. CAMPBELL, Vq,. Sec. of Slate. 

JiJonjF, July 30, 1S47, 

Wednesday, 30th Novemieh, 17S5. 

Mr. Alexander White reported, according to order, a resolution agreed 
to by the committee of the whole house on Monday last, reEpectiiig com- 
merce ; and he read the same in his plara, .and afterwards delivered it in 
at the clerk'a table, where the same was again read, and is aa fol- 
lowelh : 

Whereas the relative eilnalion of the United States has been fonnd on 
trial to require uniformity in their commercial regulations, as the only 
effectual policy for oblainiiig in the ports of foreign nations a stipulation 
of privileges reciprocal la those enjoyed by the subjects of such naliona 
in the porta of the United States, for preventing animosities which can- 
not foil to arise among tlie several States from the interterence of partial 
and separate regulations j and whoreaa auch uniformity can be best con- 
certed aiid cavried into effect by the federal councils, which, having been 
inatiluted for the purpose of managing tiie interests of the Slates in 
cases which cannot so well be provided for hy measures iiidivldualiy 
pursued, ought to be invested with anlhority in this case, as being within 
the reason and policy of their institution : 

Seaolved, That it is the opinion of this committee, that the delegates 
representing this Commonwealth in Congreaa ba instructed to propose 
in Congress a recommendalion lo tlie Stales in union to aiilhorize thai 
assembly to regulate their trade, on llie following principles, and unde: 
the following qualifications i 

1st. That the United Stales in Congress assembled be authorized lo 
prohibit vessels belonging to any foreign nation from entering any of the 
ports thareof, or to unpose any duties on such vessels and their cargoea 
which may be judged necessary ; all such prohibitions and duties lo be 
uniform throughout the United Stales, and the proceeds of the latter to 
DS carried into the treasury of the State within which they shall accrue. 
2d. Thai no State bo at liberly tu impose duties on any goods, wares. 

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or merchandise, imporled by land or by water from any olhet Stale, bat 
may oltogetiier prohibit tlie importnlion from any State of any particular 
epeciea or description of goods, wares, or merchandise, of whicli the 
impoilalion is at the same tira^ proliibiled Irom all other places whatao- 

3d. That no act of Congresa that may be authoriied, as hereby pro- 
posed, shall be entered into by leas than two-thirds of tlie confederated 
Stales, nor be in force longer than thirteen years. 

A motion was made, and, the question being put to amend the reso- 
lution, by adding to the end thereof the following words, to wit: "un- 
less eontinuHd by a like proportion of votcH within one year immediately 
preceding the expiration of the said period, or be revived in like manner 
after the expiration thereof," it passed In the negative ; ayes, 28; 
noes, 79. 

On a motion made by Mr. Turberville, and seconded by Mr, Wat- 
Ordered, That the names of the ayes and noes, on the question to 
agree to the said amendment, be inserted in the journal. 

And then the said resolution, being again read, was, on tlio question 
put thereupon, agreed to by the House. 

Ordered, That Mr. Alexander While do cany lie resolution to tJie 
Senate, and desire their concurrence. 

Thubsdav, 1st Deoembeh, 17S5. 

On a motion made to the following effect ; that the resolutions reported 
from B committee of tlie whole house, and agreed to by the House on 
yesterday, containing instructions to the delegates of this Common- 
wealth in Congress, respecting commerce, does not, from a mistake, 
contain the sense of the majority of thia House thai voted for the said 

Ordered, Ikerefare. That the direction (o send the said resolution to 
the Senate for their concurrence he rescinded, and that ihia House do 
immediately resolve itself into a committee of the whole house, to re- 
conaider the said resolution. 

It was resolved in the affirmative : ayes, 60 ; noes, 33. 

The House then accordingly resolved itself imo a committee of the 
whole house on ihe aaid resolution ; and, after some time spent therein, 
Mr. Speaker reaumed the chair, and Mr. Matthews reported that the said 
committee had, according to order, had the said resolution under their 
consideration, and had made several amendments thereto, which they 

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had directed hitu (o report when Uie House sliould ihiiik p 
eeivc the Bnrae. 

Ordered. That the said report do lie on the table. 



21sT JaKUAEY, nSfi. 

}leioleed. That Edmund Randolph, James Madison, junior, Walter 
lonea, Saint George Tuoker, Meriwether Smith, David Ross, William 
Ronald, and George Mason, esquires, be appointed commissioners, who, 
or any five of whom, ehall meet such commis'jionets as may be appointed 
oy the otbet Stales in the Union, at a time and place to be agreed on, to 
talie into consideration the trade of the United Slates ; to eaamine the 
relative aitualiona and trade of the said Slates ; to consider how hr an 
uniform system in their commercial regulations may be necessary to 
their common interest and their permanent liatmony ; and to report to 
the several States such an act relative to this great object, as, when 
unanimonaly ratified by them, will enable the United Stales in Congress 
assembled efTectuBlly to provide for the same: that the said commia- 
Bioners shall irnmediately transmit to the several Slates copies of the 
preceding resolution, with n circular letiej' requesting their concurrence 
therein, and proposing a lime and place for the meeting aforesaid. 

1786, January Slsi. 

Agreed to hy the Senate. 

n. BROOKE, C. S. 

By his eioellency, Patrick Ilonry, esquire, Governor of the Common- 
wealth of Virginia, it ia hereby certified that John Beckley, tho 
person aubscribing the above resolve, is clerk of the House of 
II. s.] Delegalea, and that due faith and credit is, and ought to be, 
paid to all things dona by him by virtue of his oflicB. Given 
under my hand as Governor, and under the seal of the Com- 
monwealth, at Richmond, the 6lh day of July, 1786. 


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. 11, 1786. 

□rk, Wev 

Alexander Hamilton, George Read, 

Egbert Benson. John Dickinson, 

HEW jEnsEY. Richard Basselt. 

Ahtahom Clarke, viehibia. 

William C. Houaloii, Edmund Randolph, 

James Schuveman. J omes Madison, jun., 

FEMHSyLTAHIA, St. George Tucker. 

Tencli Coxe. 
Mr. IMckinEon was nnaniraouBly elected chairman. 
The oommieaioners produced thab oredentiala from Iheir reapeciire 
Siates, which were read. 

After a full communication of sentiments, and deliberate considBTalion 
of what would he proper lo be done b^ the eommiseioners now assem- 
bled, il was unanimoualy agreed thai a commilteo be appointed to prs- 
paia a draught of a report to be made lo llie States having commlseion- 
era attending at this meeting. 

Adjourned till Wednesday morning. 

WEDHESDiY, Seetemeer 13, I78S. 
Met agreeable to adjournment. 

Tlie cominitlee appointed for that purpose reported the draught of the 
report; which being read, the meeting proceeded to tlie consideration 
thereof, and, after some time Bpenl therein, adjourned till to-monow 

Thursday, Septembee 14, 1786. 
Met agreeable to adjournmenl. 

The meeting resumed the consideration of the draught of the report, 

and, after some time spent therein, and amendments made, the samo 

was unanimously agreed to, and k! as follows, to wit i 

To the lionorable the Legislatures of Virginia, Delaware, Pennsylvania, 

New Jersey, and New York, the commissioners from the ssiid States, 

respectively, aasombled at Annapolis, humbly beg leave to report i 

That, pursuant to their several appointments, they met at Annapolis, 

in the State of Maryland, on the Utk day of September instant, and 

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having proceeded to a comniuniDation of their powers, they found that 
Ibe Stales of New YoiU, Pennaylvoiiia, and Virginia, had, in substance, 
and nearly in the eame terms, Buthorised their respective oominisBlonera 
" to meet such commiasionera as wars or might be appointed by the 
other States in the Union, at such time and place as should be agreed 
upoT) by tha aaid commiseioners, to take mto consideration the trade and 
commerce of the United Statea, to consider liow far an uniform system 
in their commercial intercourse and regulations might be necessary to 
Iheir common intereat and permanent harmony, and to report to the 
several States such an act relative to this great object, as, when unani- 
nioualy ratified by them, would enable the United States m Congress 
assembled effectually to provide for tlie same." 

That the State of Delaware had given sunilar powers to their com- 
missioners, with this difference only, that the act to he framed in virtue 
of these powers is required to be reported "to the United States in Con- 
gress assembled, to be agreed to by tliem, and confirmed by the legisla- 

That the State of New Jersey had enlarged the object of their ap- 
Doinlmeut, empowering their commissioners "to consider 
uniform system m their commercial regulations and ottei" imj 
ters miglit be necessary to the common interest and permaiit 
of tlie several States;" and to report such an act on the 
when ratified by them, "would anable the United Stales 
assembled effectually to provide for the exigencies of the Ur 
Tliat appointments of eommissionei-s have also been n 
States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, 
Carolina, none of whom, however, have attended j but that 

been made by the Slates of Connecticut, Maryland, South 

That, the express terms of the powers to your commissioners sup- 
posing a deputation from all the States, and having for object the trade 
and commerce of the United States, your commissioners did not con- 
ceive it advisable to proceed on the business of their mission under tho 
cu'eumstance of so partial and defective a representation. 

Deeply impressed, however, with the magnitude and importance of the 
object conGded to them on this occasion, your commissioners cannot for- 
:iear to indurgfl an eapression of tJieir, earnest and unnuimaus wish that 
npeedy measures may be taken to effect a general meeting of the States, 

ties of public af^irs may bo found to roquire. 

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If, in axprasaing this wish, or in intimalmg any otner senliment, yonr 
commisaiunere sliimld aeem to exceed llie atrict bounds of their appoint- 
ment, Ihey entertain a full confidence that a conduct dictated by an anx- 
iflty for the welferB of the United Statea will not fail to receive an in- 

In this persuasion, your commissioners submit an opinion, that ihn 
idea of extending the powera of their deputies to olher objeels than 

nae of commerce, wliich haa bonn adopted by the Stale of New Jersey, 
waa an improvement on the original plan, and will draerve to be incor- 
porated inlo that of a fiilure oonveiilion. They are the more naturally 
led to fbia ooneiueion, as, in the courao of their reflections on the sub- 
ject, they haTe been induced to think that the power of regulating trade 
is of such comprehensive exlent, and will enter so far into the genera- 
system of the Federal Government, that to give it effiooey, and to ob- 
viate questions and duubta concerning its precise luiture and limits, may 
requite a correapondent atljustment of other parts of llie federal system. 

That there are important defects in the system of the Federal Govern- 
ment, ia acknowledged by the acts of all ihoue Statea which have con- 
curred in the present meeting ; that the defects, upon a closer examina- 
tion, may be found greater and more numerous than even these acts im- 
ply, is at least so Qa pi-obable, from the embarraaaments which charac- 
■erixe the present state of our national affairs, foreign and domestic, as 
may reasonably be supposed to merit a deliberate and candid diacuasion, 
m aome mode which will anite the sentiments and couiicila of all the 
Slates. In the choice of the mode, your commissioners are of opinion 
that a convention of deptitiea from the different Slates, for the special 
and sole purpose of entering into thia invesligation, and digoaling a plan 
for supplying such defects as may be discovered to exist, will be entlllea 
to a preference, from considerations which will occur witliout being par- 

Your commissioners decline aji enumeration of (hose national circum- 
stances on which tiieir opinion respecting the propriety of a future con- 
vention, with more enlarged powers, ia founded, as it would be an uae- 
less intrusion of facts and obactvations, moat of which have been fre- 
quently the subject of public diacuasion, and none of which can have 
escaped the penetration of those to whom they would in thia instance be 
addresaed. They are, however, of a nature so serious, as, in the view 
of your commiaaionera, to rondet the aituatlon of the United Statea deli- 
cate and critical, calling for sn esattion of the united virtue and wiadom 
of a1! the members of the Confederacy. 

3, with tho most respecifii) 

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ia£evf.iice, beg leave to suggest iheir unanimaxis conviction, that it niaj; 
essentially tend lo advance the imei'eele of Ihe Union, if the Statea, by 
whom they have heen respectively delegated, would themselves concur, 
und uae their endeavors to procure the concurrence of the other Slates in 
the appointment of commissioners, to meet at Philadelphia on the second 
Monday in May nezt, to toka mto cMmsideration the situation of the 
United States, to devise such further provisions as shall appear to them 
necessary to render tlie Conatitntion of the Federal Government adequate 
to the exigencies of the Union; and to report such an act for tliat purpose 
lo the United States in Congress assembled, as, when agreed to by them, 
and afterwards confirmed by the legislatures of every Slate, will effectu- 
ally provide for the same. 

Though your comniiaeioners could not with propriety address these 
observations and sentiments to any hul tlie States they have tlie honor 
10 represent, they have nevertheless concluded, from motives of respect, lo 
transmit copies of this report to the United Slates in Congress assemhted, 
and 10 the executives of the other States. 
By order of the commissioners. 

Dated at Annapolis, September 14, 17S6. 

Sesahed, That the chairman sign the olurr.goiiig icporl in behalf of 

Then adjourned without day. 

Egbert Benson. George Read, 

- Alexander Hamilton. Jolm Dickinson, 

NEW JERSEY. Rtchotd Bassctt. 
Alira. Ckrk, viKeinii. 

Wm. Ch, Houston, Edmund Randolph, 

James Schureman. James Madison, jun. 
■ St. George Tucker. 


WEDWESDiS, Febhwaey 31, 1787. 

Congress assembled; Present, Massacliusetls, Rhode Island, Con- 
necticut, New "York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, 
Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, 

The report of a Grand Committee, consisting of Mr. Dane, Mr. Var- 
num, Mr. S. M. Mitchell, Mr. Smith, Mr. Cadwallnder, Mr. Irvine, 
Mr. N, Mitchell. Mr. Foncst, Mr. Grny^^on, Mr, IHomit. Mr. Bui), and 

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Mr. Few, lo whom was teleiTed a letter of Kth Seplember, 1786, from 
J. DickinEon, written at the request of commisEionei's from tlie Stales of 
Virginia. Delaware, Pennsylvamn, New Jai-sey, and New York, as- 
Eembled at the city of Annapolis, together with a copy of the report of 
the Baid commiESionera to the legislatures of the Stutes by whom they 
were appointed, teing an order of the day, was called up, and which is 
conttdned in the following resolution, viz : 

" Congress having had under consideration the letter of John Dickin- 

during (he last year; olao the proceedings of the said commissioners ; 
and entirely coinciding with them, as to the inefficiency of the Federal 
Government, and the necessity of devising such farlher provisions as 
shall render the same adequate to the esigencies of the Union, do strongly 
recommend to the diflei-ent legialaturea to send forward delegates, lo meet 
the proposed convcniion, on the second Monday in May next, at the city 
of Philadelphia," 

The delegates for the State of New York thereupon laid before Con- 
gress instructions which they had received from their constituents, and, 
in pursuance of the said instruclions, moved to postpone the furlher con- 
sideration of the report, in order lotake up the following propositions, viz: 

" That it he recommended to the States composing the Union that a 
convention of representalivos from the said Stales respectively, be held 
at , on , for the purpose of icvising the Articles uf Con- 

federation and perpeluai union between the United States of America, 
and reporting to the United Slates in Congress assembled, tuid to the 
States respeclivaly, such alterations and amendments of the said Articles 
of Confederation, as the representatives met in such convention shall 
judge proper and necessary to render them adequate to the preservation 
and support of the Union.' ' 

On the question to postpone, for the purpose above mentioned, the yeas 
and nays being required by the delegates for New Yurk, 

Masiachiietts Mr. King, ay) 

Dane, ay ( "^ 

Connecticut Mr. Johnson, av) .. 

S, MitcheU, nop'"- 

NewYork Mr. Smith, ay) ^ 

New Jersey Mr. Cadwallader, ay 1 

Schureman, no)"" 

Fennsylmnia Mr. Irvine. no ) 

Meredith, ay > no 

Bingham, no) 

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Ddamare Mr. N. Mhchull, 

Marylaiid Mr. Forrest, 

Virginia Mr. Grayson, 


N. Carolina Mr. Blount, 


S.Caroli»a Mr. Bull, 


Georgia Mr. Fflw, ay) ..„ 

Pierce, nuj ''"^■ 

So ihe question was lost. 

A motion was then made by ihe delegales for MassoxcliiiEetts, to post, 
■pone ihe funher consideralion of the report, in order to take into con- 
Eideralion u motion which they read in their place ; this being ngreed to, 
the motion of the delegates for Maaeaeliusetts was taken up, and, being 
amended, waa agreed to, as follows : 

Whereas there is provision in Ihe Articles of Confederation and per- 
petual Union, for making alterations therein, by ths assent of a Congress 
of the Dniled States, and of the legislatures of the severai States ; and 
wiiereaa eiperiencB hath evinced that there are defects in the preseut 
Confederation, as a roeou to remedy which several of the States, and par- 
ticularly the Stale of New York, by express instructions to their delegatea 
in Congress, have suggested a convention for the purposes expieased in 
the following reeolulion ; and such convention appearing to be the moat 
probable mean of establishing in these States a firm National Govern- 

Sesoloed, That, in (he opinion of Congresa, it is expedienl, that, on 
the second Monday in May next, a convention of delegates, wlio shall 
have been appointed by the sever^ States, be held at Philadelpiiia, for 
I lie sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation, 
and reporting to Congress, and the several legislatures, such aherations 
and provisions therem as ehnii, when ngreed to in Congress, and con- 
firmed by the Stales, render the Federal Constitution adequate (o tJie 
exigencies of Government, and the prescivation of the Union. 

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15. Mil rf Ihe several Stales for Ihe apptrintment of Deputies to meet 
ia Coin)enii(m,for ihe purpose tf forming a Omslilution of Goiiern- 

Gen-era! AsseitiUy, legan arid Jield at t!te psEJic tmild'mgi in the city of 
Jikhmand, on Moiiday, tlie 16(A day of October, m the year of our 
Lord 1786. 
AN ACT for appointing Deputies from Ihis Commonwealth to a Conven- 
tion proposed to be lield in the city of Philadelphia, in May nasi, for 
the puiposB of reviaing the Fedaral Constitution. 
Whereas the coramiasionera who assembled at Ann^olis, on the 11th 
day of September last, for ths purpose of deviaiiig and reporting the 
means of enabling Congress to provide eflectnaily for the commercial 
interests of the United States, have reprasenled the necessity of extending 
the revision of the Federal system to all its defeota, and have recom- 
mended that deputies for that purpose be appointed by the several iegis- 
laturos, to meet in convention, in the city of Philadelphia, on the second 
day of May next, a provision which was preferable to a discussion of the 
subject in Congress, where it might bs too much interrupted by the ordi- 
nary buainese before them, and where it would, besides, be deprived of 
the vdunble counsels of sundry individuals who are disqualified by the 
CoustimtioE, or laws of parlicular Stntos, or realrained by peculiar oir- 
cumstanccs, from a seat in that assembly; And wliereae the General 
Assembly of this Commonweailh, taking into view the actual situation 
of the Confederacy, as well as reflecting on the alarming representations 
made, from time to time, by the United Stales in Congress, particularly 
in their act of tlie 15th day of February last, can no longer doubt that the 
crisis is arrived at which the good people of America are to decide the 
solemn question, whether tfiey wiH, by wise and magnanimous eifbrls. 
reap the just fruits of that independence which they have so gloriously 
acquired, and of that Union which they have cemented with so much of 
I their common blood, or whether, by giving way to unmanly jealousies 
and prejudices, or to partial and transitory interests, they will renoonca 
the auspicious blessings prepared for them by the Revolution, and ftimish 
to its enemies an eventual triumph over those hy whose virtue and valor 
it has been aecomplislied : And whereas the same noble and entended 
policy, and the same fraternal and affectionate sentimenta Whioli origin- 
ally determined the citizens of this CommonweBlth to unite with thelt 
brethren of the other Slates in establishing a Federal Government, can- 
not but be felt with equal force now as motives to lay aside every inierur 

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m in Buoh fiirlher eoncessiona iind provisions 
5cwe tlie gieat objecls for wbicli that Govorn- 
mont was instituted, and to render the United States aa happy in peace 
as tliay have been glorious in war : 

Sb it fkerefore enacted by the General Asssmbly of the Coaaaonwuilth 
of Virginia, That eeven commiBHionerH be Bppoiiiled by joint bnllol of 
both Houses of Aasembly, who, or any llitee of ihem, are hereby au- 
thorized, as deputies front this Common WHoIth, to meet such deputies 
as may be appointed and authorized by other States, to assemble in con- 
vention at Philadelphia, oa above recommended, and to join with ihem 
in devising and discussing all such alterations and farther provisions as 
may be necessary to render the Federal Constitution adequate to the exi- 
gencies of the Union, and, in reporting suoh an act for that purpose to 
the United States in Congress, aa, when agreed to by them, and duly eon- 
Srmed by the several States, will efiBctually provide for the same. 

And be -it farther enacted, Thai, in case of the death of any of the 
said deputies, or of (heir decluilng their appointments, the executive are 
hereby authorized to supply sucli vacancies; and the Governor is re- 
quested to transmit forthvvith a copy of this act to the United Slates in 
Congress, and to the executives of each of the States in the Union. 
[Signed) JOHH JONES, 

Spealcer of the Senate. 
Speaker of the House of Delegates. 

MonniY, THE 4ti! of December, 1766. 
The House, according to the order of the day, proceeded, by joint 
ballot with the Senate, to the appointment of seven deputies from this 
Commonwealth to a convention proposed to be held in the city of Phila- 
delphia in May next, for tlie purpose of revising the Federal Constitu- 
tion ; and, the members having prepared tickets with the names of the 
persons lo be appointed, and deposited tlie same in the ballot-boxes, Mr. 
Corhin, Mr. Matthews, Mr.'David Stewart, JMr. George Nicholas, Mr. 
5ichard Lee, Mr. Wills, Mr. Thomas Smith, Mr. Goodall, and Mr. 
Turberville, were nominated a committee to meet a committee irom the 
Senate, in the conference chamber, and jointly with them lo examine 
tne ballot-bosBB and report to the House on whom the majority of the 

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littoe tlioii wllhiJrow, anil after some lime 
roporled that the oommilteo had, aeeoriling 
e from the Senate in (he conference chamber, 
and jointly with them examined the ballot-bosea, and found a majority 
of votes in favor of George Waahingion, Palricli Henry, Edmund Ran- 
dolph, John Blfdr, James Madiaon, George Mason, and George Wythe, 
esqrs. Extract ffom the iournal. 


Clerk House Delegates. 
Attest! JoHH Becklby, Clerk H. D. 

Monday, the 4th of Decemeek, 1786. 

The Senate, according to tlie order of the day, proceeded, by joint 
ballot with tiie House of Delegates, to the appointment of seven depu- 
ties from this Commonwealth to a convention proposed lo he held in the 
city of Philadelphia in May neitt, for the purpose of revising tlie Federal 
Constitution ; and, the members having prepared ticliets with the names 
of the persons lo be appointed, and deposited the same in the ballot- 
hoxes, Mr. AndeiBon, Mr. Kelson, and Mr. Lee, were nominated a 
committee to meet a eommiilee from the House of Delegales. in the 
conference chamber, and jointly with lliom to examine the ballot-boies, 
and report lo the House on whom the majority of votes shotild fall. The 
committee then withdrew, and ailer some time returned into the House, 
Bud reported that the committee had, according to order, met a commit- 
tee from the House of Delegales, iti the conference chamber, and jointly 
with them examined the ballot-boxes, and found a majority of votes in 
favor of George Washington, Patrick Henry, Edmund Randolph, John 
Blair, James Madison, George Mason, and George Wythe, esqrs. Ex- 
tract from the journal. 


Attest! H. BaooK, Clerk. 

[L. s.] VIRGINIA, <o™<.- 

I do hereoy certify and make known, to all whom it may concern, 
that John Beoltley, esq., is clerk of the House of Delegates for ihia 
Commonwealth, and the proper officer for attesting the proceedings of 
the General Assembly of the said Commonwealth, and that full %ith 
and credit ought lo be given to all things attested by the said Jolm 
Eeckley, esq., by virtue of his office aforesaid. 
O IE" 

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Given unJer my hand, as Governor of ihe Commonweallb of Virginia, 
and under Ihe seal thereof, ot Kiuhmond, lliia fom-th day of May, 1787. 

p,.3.1 VIRGINIA, tomt! 

I do hereby certify, that Patrick Henry, esq., one of the seven com- 
miasionera appointed by joint ballot of both Houses of Assembly of the 
Commonwealth of Tirgiuia, nulhorized as a deputy therefrom, lo meet 
such deputies as miglit be appointed and authorized by other States, lo 
assemble in Ptiiladelphia, and lo join with them in devising and discuss- 
ing all such allecalions and further provisions as might be necessary to 
render the Federal Constitution adequate to the exigencies of the Union, 
and in reporting auch nn act ibt that paipoae to the Unilsd Slalea in Con- 
gress, OS, wlien agreed to by them, and duly conlii'med by the aevsral 
States, might efiectually provide for the same, did decline his appoint- 
ment aforesaid ; and thereupon, in pursuance of an act of the General 
Assembly of the said Commonweallh, entitled "An act for appointing 
depmiea ftom this Commonwealth to a convention proposed to be held 
in the city of Fhiladelphia in May next, for the purpose of revising tha 
Fedflral CDnatitution," I do hereby, with the adsice of the Conncil of 
Slate, supply the said vacancy by nominating James McClurg, esq., a 
deputy for the purpoaes aforesaid. 

Given under my hand, as Governor of fhe said Commonwenlth, and 
undor the seal thereof, this BBCOnd day of May, in the year of our 
Lord 1787. 


To Ihe honorable David Brearloy, William Churchill Houston, William 
Patersoj), and Johis Neilson, eaqra., greetingi 
The Council and Assembly, reposing eapecial Imat and confidence in 
your integrity, prudence, and ability, have, at a joint meeting, appointed 
you, the said David Brearley, William Chnrohill Houston, William Pater- 
Hon, and John Neilson, eaqra., or any three of you, commissioners, lo 
meet snch commissioners as have been or may be appointed by the other 
Btalca of the Union, at the city of Philadelphia, in the Commonwealth 
of Pennsylvania, on the second Monday in May nest, for the purpoaB 
of taking uito consideration the state of the Union, as to trade and other 
imporlanl obiects, and of devising Btich other provisions as shall appear 
to be necessary to render the Constitution of the Federal Government 
sdeijuaie lo the exigencies thereof, 

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111 lestiraony whereof, the great seal of the Stale is hereunto affixed. 
WituBsa WiiUam Livingston, esq., Governor, coptain general and 
commander-in-chief in and over the State of New Jersey, andtem- 
lories thereunto belonging, chancellor and oidinar; in the same, at 
Trenton, the 33d day of November, in the year of oxu Lord 1786, 
and of oar aovercignty and independence the eleventh. 

By liis excellency's command. 

BOWES RE'EiD, Secretary. 

To his eiceEenoy WilUam Livingston, and the honorable Abraham 
tL. s.] Clark, esqrs,, greeting: 

The Council and Assembly, reposing especial trust and confidence in 
your integrity, prudence, and ability, hare, at a joint meeting, appointed 
you, the said William Livingston and Abraham ClBtk, esqrs., in con- 
junction with the honorable David Brearley, WilUnm Chm'chill Houston, 
and William Palereon, esqre., or any three of yon, commissioners, to meet 
such commissioners as have been appointed by tlje other Slates in the 
Union, at the city of Philadelphia, in tlie Commonwealth of Pennsyl- 
vania, on the second Monday of this present month, for the purpose of 
taking into consideration the stale of the Union, as to trade and other 
important objects, and of devising such other provisions as shall appear 
to be necessary, to render the CouHtitution of the Federal Government 
adeqiiBte to the exigencies thereof. 
In testimony, whereof, the great seal of the Stale is hereunto afSxed. 
"Witness Wilham Livingston, eaq.. Governor, captain general and 
commander-in-chief in and over ihe State of New Jersey, and terri- 
tories thereunto belonging, chancellor and ordinary in the same, at 
Burlington, theeihdayofMay, in the year of our Lord 1737, and of 
our sovereignty jnd independence the eleventh, 

By his escellency's command, 

BOWES EEED, Secretary. 


To the honorable Jonathan Dayton, esq. 

The Council and Assembly, reposing especial trust and confidence in 

your integrity, pnidence, and ability, have, at a joint meeting, appointed 

yon, the siud Jonathan Dayton, esq,, in coi^^unction with his e^iccllency 

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Willimn Livingston, the hoiiornblo David Bremky, Williaro CliiirchiH 
Houston; William Palerson, and Abraham Clark, ssqra., or any three of 
you, comiuiasioners, to meet such commJBeionera as have been appoinled 
by the other Sialas in the Union, ot the city of Philadelphia, in the Com- 
monwealth of Pennsylvania, for the purpose of taking into consideration 
the state of (he Union, as to trade and other important objects, and of 
devising such other provision as shaU appear to bo neccaaary to render 
tiie Constitution of the Federal Government adequate to the eaigenciea 
In testimony whereof, the great seal of the State is hereunto affixed. 
Witnesa Kobert Lettice Hooper, esq., vice president, captain gene- 
ral and commander-in-chief Jn and over tie State of New Jersey, 
and territotiea thereimto belonging, chancellor and ordinary in the 
same, at Burlington, the fifth day of June, in the year of our Lord 
17S7, and of our sovereigirty and independence the eleventh. 

By hia honor's command. 

BOWES REED. Stcretar,. 


AN ACT appointing Deputiea to the Convention intended to be held in 

the oily of Philadelphia, foe tho parpose of revising tlie Federal Con- 

SEcrioN 1. Whereas the General Assembly of this Commonwealth, 
iaJting into their serious conaideration tJie representations heretofore 
made to the iBgislaturea of the aeveral States in tlie Union, by tlie United 
States in Congresa Easembled, and also weighing the difficulties under 
which the confederated States now labor, are fuliy convinced of the ne- 
cessity of revising the Federal Constilution, for the purpose of making 
such alterations and amendments as the exigencies of our public afiairs 
require. And whereas the Legislature of the Stale of Virginia have al- 
ready paased an act of that Commonwealth, ompoweiing certiun eom- 
. at the city of Philadelphia, in May next, a convention 
>r deputies from the dilferent States ; and the Legisla- 
ture of this State are fully sensible of the important advantages which 
may be derived to the United Slates, and every of them, Irom co-operat- 
ing with the Commonwealth of Virginia, and the other Slates of the 
Confederalion, in the said design. 

Sec. 2. fie it eTiacled, amd it if hereby enncted by the representatives 
oi tho freoraeu of the Coinmonwealth of Pennsylvania, in General An- 

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b[y m d I J 1 h nty of the snme, that Thomaa Mifflin, 

It b rt M C g Clym Jared IngersoU, Thomas Fitzaimoos, 

J m W Is d (i ur MoiTJs, esqre., are hereby appointed 

dp eaf hia S m in the convention of the deputies of the 

re p & f N h Am riea, to he heid at the city of Philadei- 

pl i Bs d d f h nth of Mcy next ; and the ssid Thomaa 

Mffl Rb MnaG g Clymer, Jared IngersoU, Thomas Fitz- 
simona, Jninea Wiison, and Gonverneur Morria, esqrB., or any four of 
them, are hereby constiiuted and appointed deputies from Ibis State, with 
powers to meet such deputies as may be appointed and authorized by the 
other Stales, to assemble in the said convention, at the city aforesaid, and 
to join with them in devising, deliberating on, and discussing all such 
itlteratioos, and ftnilier provisions, as may be necessFUry to render ' th^ 
Federal Constitution fully adequate to the exigencies of the Union, and 
in reporting such act or acts, for that purpose, to the United States in 
Congress assembled, aa, when agreed to by them, and duly cojilirmed by 
the several States, vrill effectually provide for the same. 

Sec. 3. And be it farlJier enaclrd hy the autUriiy afireaaid, That in 
case any of the said deputies hereby nominated shall happen to die, 0( 
10 resign bis or iheir said appointment or appointments, the supreme ex- 
ecutive council sliall bo, end hereby are, empowered and required to 
nominate and appoint other person or persons in lieu of him or ihem so 
deceased, or who has or have so resigned, which person or persons, from 
and after such nomination and appointment, shall be, and hereby are de. 
clared to be, vested witii the same powers respectively, as any of the 
deputies nominated and appointed by this act ia vested with by the same : 
Provided alwayc, That the council are not hereby authorized, nor shall 
they make any such nomination or appointment, except in vacav*n, and 
dvuing the recess of the General Assembly of this State. 
[I., s.] Signed by order of llio House. 


Enacted into a law at Philadelphia, on Saturday, December the 30th 
in the year of our Lord nSfi. PETER ZACHARY LLOYD, 

Cleri bS ae. General Aste^Q>ly. 

1, Mathew Irwine, esq., master of the rolls for the State of Pennsyl- 
vania, do certify llie preceding writing to be a true copy {or eiemplilica 
tion) of a certain act of Asaemblj lodged in my ofKce. 

In wilnesa whereof, I have hereunto set my band and seal of office, the 
[^. E.I 15th May, A. D. 1787. 


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A supplement to (lie act eniiilcd " An act appoinling deputies to Ihe con- 
veiilion inlended to be held in the city of Philadelphia, for the pur- 
pose of reviBing the Federal Constitution. " 

Sec. l8t. "Whereas by the act to which this act is a supplement, oer- 
Idn persons were appointed as deputies irom this State to sit in the said 
convention: And whereas it is the desire of the General Assembly, that 
his excellency Eeiyamin Franklin, esq., president of this State, should 
also sit in the swd convention as a deputy from this slate : Therefore, 

Ssa 2cl. Be it enacted, aiid it is hereby ertacted by the representatives 
of the freemen of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, In General As- 
sembly met, and by the authority of the same, that his excellency Ben- 
jamin Franklin, esq., be, and he is hereby appointed and authorized to 
sit in the said convention as a deputy from this State, in addition to the 
persons heretofore appointed ; and that he be, and he hereby ia invested 
with like powers and authorities as are invested in the said deputies or 
any of them. 
Signed by order of the House. 

Enacted into "a law at Philadelphia, on Wednesday, the aSlh day ol 
March, in the year of our Lord 1787. 


Clerk of the General AsaeTaMg. 
I, Mathew Irwine, esq., master of the rolls for the State of Pennsyl- 
vania, do certify the abovo to be a true copy (or exemplification) of a 
supplement to a certain act of Assembly, which supplement is lodged in 
my office. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal of office, 
[u s.] the 15fh May, A. D. 1787. 


To the honorable Alexander Martin, esq., greeting i 
Whereas our General Assembly, in their late session, holden at Pay 
etteviile, by adjournment, in the month of January last, d d by jo 
bailot of the Senate and House of Commons, elect Eicha d Casw ll 
Alexander Martin, William Richardson Davie, Richard Dobbs ''paij,! 
and Willie Jones, esqrs., deputies to attend a convention of dele at s 
from the several United States of America, proposed to be held a the 
city of Philadelphia in May ncit, for (he purpose of revising the Federal 

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Wa do, ihetefbre, by these preaenls, jiominate, eommissioiiale, and 
appoint you, the said Alexander Martin, one of the deputies for and in 
our behalf, to meet with our other deputies at Philadelphia, on the first 
day of May next, and with them, or any two of Ihem, to confer with 
such deputies as may have been, or ahall be appointed by the other 
States, for the purposea aforesaidi To hold, eaerciso, and enjoy the ap- 
pointment aforesaid, with all powers, authorities, and emoluments to Iha 
same belonging, or in any wise appertaining, you conforming, in every 
instance, to the act of our said Asnbyud nhhjuoieap 

Witness Richard Caswell, esq C n ap n g n a a d 

commander-in-chief, under his ha d and j, e s a Kg" 

the 3*th day of February, in tho e h y a of q md e 
A, D. 1787, 

By his excellency's command. 


A commission, precisfily similar to the above, was g^ven "to^e 
honorable William Richardson Davie, esq.," on iJie 34lh February, 

And also anoliier, " to the honorable Richard Dobbs Spaight, 
esq., on the Utii of A)iril, 1737. 

His eieelleiicy Richard Caawell, esq., Governor, captain general and 
commander-in-chief, in and over the Slate aforesaid. 
To all 10 whom these presents shall come, greeting : 
Whereas, by an act of the General Assembly of the said State, passed 
the aijith day of January last, entitled " An act for appointing depaties 
from this Slate to a convention propoaed to be held in tho city of Phila- 
delphia, in May neit, for the purpose of revising the Federal Constitu- 
tion," among other things it is enacted, " That five commissioners be 
appointed by joint ballot of both Houses of Assembly, who, or any three 
of them, are hereby authorized aa deputies from this State, to meet at 
Philadelphia, on the first day of May next, then and there to meet and 
confer with such deputies as may be appointed by the other Slates for 
similar purpoaea, and with them to discuss and decide upon the most 
effectual means to remove the defects of our Federal Union, and 1o pro- 
cure the enlarged purposes whieli it was intended to effect ; and that 

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tliey report eucTi an acl lo the General Assembly oF this State, as, whan 
Agreed to by them, will efTectually provide for the aamc." And it is by 
the said KCl further enacted, ' ' That in caae of the death or reaigiiatinn 
ol any of the deputies, or of their declining their appointments, his ex- 
cellency the Governor, for the lime being, ia hereby authorized to supply 
each vccancies." And whereas, in consequence of the said act, Richard 
Caswell, Alesander Martin, William Riehardaon Davie, RichardDobbs 
Spaight, and Willie Jones, esqre., were, by joint ballot of the two 
Houses of Aseembly, elected deputies for the purposes aforesaid: And 
whereas the said Richard Caswell has resigned his said appohitment as 
one of the deputies aforesaid ; 

NoTU, kaoiB ye, that I have appointed, and by these presents do appoint, 
the honorable William Blount, esq., one of the deputies to reprtsent this 
State in the convention aforesaid, in the room and stead of the aforesaid 
Richard Caswell, hereby giving and grantmg to the said William Blount, 
the same powers, privileges, and emoluments, which the said Richard 
Caswell would have been vested with, or entitled to, had he contmued 
in the appointment aforesaid. 

Given under my hand, and the groat seal of the State, at Xingetoti, 
the 20d day of April, A. D. 1787, and m the eleventh year of 
[r~ s.] American independence. 


Ey his excellency's command. 


His excellency, Eichai-d Caawel!, esq.. Governor, captain-genera!, and 
commander-in-chief, in and over the State aforesaid. 
To all to whom these presents shall come, greeting : 
Whereas, by tn act of the General Assembly of the said State, passed 
the sixth day of January last, entitled ' ' An act for appointing deputioB 
from Ibis State to a convention proposed to be held in the chy of Phila- 
delphia, in May next, foi the purpose of revising the Federal Constitu- 
tion," among other things it is enacted, " That five commissioners be 
appointed by joint ballot of both Houses of Assembly, who, or any three 
of ihem, are hereby authorised, as deputies from this State, to meet at 
f liiladelphin on the first day of May nest, then and there to meet and 
confer with such deputies as may he appointed by the other States for 
similar purposes, and with them to discuss and decide upon the most 
effeetual means to remove the defects of our Federal Union, and to pro- 
purc tliB enlarged purpoeea which it was intended to effect, and that they 

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report such an act to the General Asaeinbly of liiia Slate, as, when 
agreed to by them, wiU effectually provide for the same." And it is by 
the said act further enncled, " That in case of (he death or resignation 
4f an; of the deputies, or their declining their appointments, his excel- 
Sancy the Governor, for the time being, is hereby authorized to supply 
such Tacancies." Andwliereas, in conaequenee of the said act, Richard 
Caswell, Alexander Martin, William Richardson Davie, Richard Dobbs 
Spaight, and Willie Jones, esqrs., were, by joint bol lot of the two Houses 
of Assembly, elected deputies for the purposes aforssaid. And whereas 
the said Willie Jones hath declined hia eppoinlment as one of the depu- 

JVoiD, hnovi ye, that I have appointed, and by these presents do appoint, 
the honorable Hugh Williamson, esq., one of the deputies to repreaenl 
this State in the convention aforesaid, in the room and stead of ilie afore- 
said Willie Jones, hereby giving and granting to the said Hugh Wil- 
liamson the same powers, piivileges, and emoluments, whicli the saiiJ 
Willie Jones would have been vested with, and entitled to, had he acted 
under the appointment aforesaid. 

Given under my band, and the great seal of the State, at Kingston, tlio 
third day of April, A. D. 1787, and in the eleventh year of 
[t. s.] American Independence. 

By bis excellency's command. 



His excellency Thomas Collins, esq.. President, captain-general and 
commander-in-chief of the Delawara State, to all to whom 
these presents shall come, greeting i Know ye, that among the 
tL, s.J laws ol' the said State, passed by the General Assembly of tho 
same, on the 3d day of February, in the year of our Lord 1787, 
it is thus enrolled : 
In the eleventh year of the independence of the Delaware Stale ! 
AN ACT appointing deputies irom this State to the convention proposed 
to be held in the city of Philadelphia, for the purpose of revising the 
Federal Coitstitution. 

Whereas Uie General Assembly of this Stale are fully convinced ot 
Ilie necessity of revising the Federal ConstilutLon, and adding thereto 
auch further provisions as may lender 'bo same more adequate to thn 

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exigencies of the Union ; And wheveas the Legisklure of Virgmk hove 
already passed aji not of that Commonwealih, appointing and authorising 
corlain commiaaioners to meet, at the city of Philadelphia, in May iiejit, 
a convention of coinmisaionera or deputies from the different States; 
and, this State being wilHiig and desirous of eo-operaling with ths Com- 
monwealth of Virginia and the other Stales in the Confederation in ao 
useful n design : 

Be it theTqfoTC enacted by the General Aasemll]/ of DelaiDare, That 
George Read, Gunning Bedford, John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, and 
Jacob Broom, eaqra., are hereby appointed deputies from this Slate to 
meet in the convention of the deputies of other States, (o be held at the 
citj' of Fhiladelphia, on the 2d day of Majr next : And iJie said Geurge 
Read, Gunning BedfbrdI John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, and Jacob 
Broom, eaqra., or any three of them, are hereby constituted and ap- 
pointed deputies from this Stats, ^vith powers to meet such deputies as 
rna7 be appointed and authorised by the other States to assemble in the 
said convention at the city aforesaid, and to join with them in devising, 
deliberating on, and discussing, such alterations and htrlher provieiona 
OS may be necessary to render the Federal Constitution adequate to the 
exigencies of the Union, and in reporting such act or acts lor that pur- 
pose to the United States in Congress assembly, as, when agreed to by 
them, and duly confiimed by the several States, may effectually provide 
for the same. So, always, and provided, that such alterations or fur- 
ther provisions, or any of them, do not est«nd to that part of the fifth 
article of the Confederation of the said States, finaliy ratified on the first 
day of March, in the year 1781, which declares tliat, " In doiemiining 
questions in the United States in Congress assembled, each Stale shall 
have one vote." 

And he il enacted, That, m case any of the said deputies hereby nomi- 
nated dhall happen to die. or to resign his or tlieir appoinlment, the Pre- 
sident or commander-in-chief, with the advice of the privy council, in 
the recess of the General Assembly, is hereby authorized to supply 
such vacancies. 
Signed by order of the House of Assembly. 

JOHN COOK, Sptaief. 
Passed at Dover, February 3, 1787. 
Signed by order of the Council. 

GEO. CRAGHED, Spmker. 

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subsuribod my name, and caused the great seal of the said Stale to bo 
affixed to iheso prsBantB, at New Castle, the second day of Api-ii, in 
the year of our Lord 1737, and in the elevenlli year of the independence 
of tJie United States of America. 

Attest: James Boom, iSctrelory. 

a,.d over the State aforesaid. 

To sll to whom these preaenta shall come, gl-eeting : 

Kiiow ye, that John Milton, esq., who iialh certified the anneied copy 

of an ordinance, entitled "An ordinance for the appointment of deputies, 

from this Slate, for the purpose of tevising the Federal CoiiBtitution," 

IS aecretary of the said State, in whose ofRce the archives of the same 

are deposited; therefore, all dae faith, credit, and authority, are, and 

ought t« -e, haii and given the same. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto ael my hand, and caused the 

great soal of the Stats to be put and atliKed, at Augitsia, this 

[L s.] 34th day of April, in the year of our Lutd 1787, and of otir 

Bovefeignty and independence the eleventh. 

Ey his honor's command. 


iicnt of deputies from this State, for tha 
g the Fodeial Constitution. 

Be it vrdaiaed, by the representatives of the ii-eemeQ of the State of 
Georgia, in General Assembly met, and by the authority of the same, 
that William Few, Abraham Baldwin, William Pierce, George Walton, 
William Houston, and Nathaniel Pendleton, esqrs., be, and they are 
hereby, appointed eommissiouers, who, or any two or more of them, 
are hereby authorized, as deputies from this State, to meet such deputies 
as may be appointed and authorised by other States, to assemble in con- 
vention at Philadelphia, and to join with them m devising and discussing 
all Btieh alterations and ferther provisions as may be necessary to render 
iliB Federal Constitution adequate to the esigencies of the Union, and 
in reporting such an act for that purpose to the United States in Congrasa 

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Beaenibled, as, when agreetl to hy ihem, aitJ duly confirmed by the 
EOvBrnl StatoB, will effactually provide for the same. In esse of the 
death oF any of the said deputies, or of their declining their appomt 
ments, the executive are hereby authorised to supply such vacancies. 

By oi'der of the House. 

(Signed) WM. GIBBONS, Speaker 

Augusta, the 10th Fcbroary, 17S7. 

GEOKGii, Secrerary's Office. 
The above is a true copy from the original ordinance deposited in my 
office, J. MILTOH, Scmiai-j. 

Augusta, 34lli April, 1737. 

■eign, and inde- 

To the honorable Willinm Few, esq. 
Wbereas yon, the aaid William Few, are, in and by an ordinance of 
the General Assembly of our said State, nominated and appointed a 
deputy to represent the same in a eonventioH of the United Sli.tea, to be 
aassmhled at Philadelphia, for the purposes of devising and discussing 
all such alterations and ftither provisions as may be necessary to tender 
the Federal Constitution adoq.uate to the eiigencies o{ the Union : 

You are therefore hereby commissioned to proceed on the dulios re- 
((uired of you in vutua of the said ordinance. 
Witness our trusty and well-beloved George Mathews, esq,, our 
cap tain- general. Governor, end commander-in-chief, under his 
[L, s.] hand, and onr great seal, at Augusta, this 17th day of April, in 
the year of our Lord 1787, and of our sovereignty and inde- 
pendence the elevenlh. 


J. MILTON, Sec-et 

s precisely similar to the above w 
Raid 17th April, 1787, to— 
The honorable William Piercs, esq. 
The honoraHe William Houston, esq. 

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By his excellency George Cliiilon, esq., Governor of ihe State of New 
J . York, general and commander- ill -chief of al! ihe militia, and 
admiral of the navy of the same : 

To all to wliom these presents shall come, 
tt is by these presenta cartiSed, that John M'Kesson. who has eab- 
ecribed the annexed copies of resolutiona, is detk of the Assembly of 
(his Stats. 
In tKtimony whereof, I have caused the privy geal of the said State 
to be hereunto aHixed, this ninth day of May, m the eleventh 
year of the independence of Ihc said State. 


State of New Yoek, :h Assembly, Febhuaey 38, 17S7- 

A copy of resohition of the honorable the Senate, delivered by Mr. 
Williama, waa read, and is in the words following, vis. : 

Resolved, If ihe honorable the Aesembiy concur therein, that three 
delegates be appointed, on the part of this Stale, to meet such delegates 
as may be appointed on the part of the other States, respectively, on the 
spcond Monday in May next, at Philadelphia, for the sole and eipress 
purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation, and reporting to Con- 
gresa, and to the eevsral legislatures, Koch alterations and provisions 
[herein as shall, when agreed to in Congress, and confirmed by the 
several Stales, render the Federal Constitution adequate to the exigen- 
ciea of Government, and the preservation of the Union; and that, in 
case of sach concurrence, the two Houses of the legislature will, on 
Tuesday next, proceed to nominate and appoint Ihe said delegates, in 
like manner as is directed by the Constitution of this State for nomi- 
iialing and appointing delegates to Congress. 

Resolved, That this House do concur with the honorable the Senate in 
the said resolution. 

la Assemble, March 6, I7S7. 

Sesalved, That the honorable Robert Yates, eaq., and Alexander 
Hamilton and John Lansing, jnn., esqrs., be, and they are hereby nomj- 
iinied by this House, delegates on the part of this State, to meet such 
delegates as may be appointed on the part of the other States, respec- 
tively, on the second Monday in May next, at Philadelphia, pursuant 
to concurrent resoiulions of both Houaes of the legislature on the 38lh 

Sefolvcd, That this Honse will meet the honorable the Senate imme- 

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dialeiy, at auch ylane as lliey shall appoint, lo cotiijjare ihn Hala of per- 
sons nominated by the Senate and Assembly, respectively, aa delegates 
on the part of ihia State, lo meel auch delegates as may be appainled on 
the part of the other Slates, respectively, on tJie second Monday in May 
nest, at Philadelphia, pursuant to concurrent resolutions of both Houses 
of the legislature on the 2Bth ultimo. 

Ordered, That Mr. N. Smith deliver a copy of the last preceding 
resolution to the honorable the Senate. 

A copy of a resolution of the honorable the Senate was delivered by 
Mr. Vanderbelt, that the Senate will immediately meet this House in 
the Assembly chamber, to compare the lists of persons nominuied by 
the Senate and Assembly, respectively, as delegates, pursuant to the 
resolution before mentioned. 

The honorable the Senate accordingly attended in the Asaembly 
chamber, to compare the lists of persons nominated for delegates, as 

The list of persons nominated by the honorable the Senate, were the 
honorable Robert Yates, esq., and John Lansing, jun., and Alexander 
Hamilton, esqrs., and on comparing the lists of the persons nominated 
by the Senate and Assembly, respectively, it appeared tlial the sama 
persons were nominated in both lists ; thereupon, 

Eeiolued, That the honorable Robert Yates, John Lansing, jun., and 
Alexander Hamilton, esqrs., be, and they are hereby declared duly 
nommated and appointed delegates, on the part of this State, to meet 
such delegates as may be appointed on the part of the other Slates, 
respectively, on the second Monday in May next, at Philadelphia, for 
the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation, 
and reporting to Congress, and to the several legislatures, such altera- 
tions and provisions iherem as shall, when agreed to in Congress, and 
confirmed by the several States, render the Federal Constitution adequate 
lo the eiigenoies of Government, and the preservation of the Union. 

True extracts &om the journals of the Assembly. 



By his esoellency Thomas Pinckney, esq,, Governor, and commander 

in-chief, in and over the State aforesaid. 

To the honorable John Rulledge, esq., greeting : 

By virtue of the power and authority in me vested by the legislature 

of this State, in their act passed the eighth day of March last, I dn 

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herebf COmmiBBion you, tlio aoid John Rutledge, us one of the dcpiiliea 
appoiated from this State, to meet such deputies or commissioners as 
may be appointed and aulliorized by olher of the Uniled Slatea, to se- 
semble m convention at the city of PbiladBlphla, in the month of May 
nest, or as soon thereafter as may be, and to join with such deputies oc 
commisaianers (they being duly authoiized and empowered) in devising 
and discuselng all such alterations, clauses, articles, and provisions, as 
may be thought necessary to render the Federal Constitution entirely 
adequate to the aotnal situation and future good government of the con- 
federated Slates ! and thai you, together with the said deputies or com. 
niiesioners, or a majority of them who shall be present, (provided tha 
Stale be not represented by less than two,) do jom in reporting such an 
act to the United Slates m Congress assembled, as, when approved and 
Bgified to by them, and duly ratified and confirmed by the several Stales, 
will efTectually provide for the esigencies of the Union. 
Given under ray hand, and the great seai of the State, in the city of 
Charleston, Ihia 10th day of April, in the year of out Lord 1787, 
[L. S.] ana of the sovereignty and independence of the Uniled States 
of America the eleventh. 

By his eicellency's command. 

PETER FRENEAU, Seci-eturs- 

i precisely similaj: to the above were given, on the 
said lOthApril, 1787, to— 

The honorable Charles Pinckney, esq. 

The honorable Charles Coteaworth Pinckney, esq. 

The honorable Pierce Butler, esq^. 

By his cscelleiicy James Bowdoin, esq.. Governor of the Common- 
wealth of Maaaachusetta. 
To the honorable Frnncia Dana, Elbridge Gerry, Nathaniel Gorham, 
Rufus King, and Caleb Strong, esqrs., greeting -. 
Whereas CongreBS did, on the Slat day of February, A. D. 17S7, 
resolve, "That, in the opinion of Congress, it is expedient that, on the 
second Monday in May next, a convention of detegaies, who shall have 
been appointed by the several States, to be held at Philadelphia, for the 
sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation, and 

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reporting to Congress, and the several legislatures, such alferalioiis and 
provisions therein as shall, when agreed to in. Congress, and confirmed 
by the States, render the Federal CotiEtilution adequate to the exigencies 
of Government (Uid the ptesetvalion of the Union." And whei-eas the 
general court have eonstitnted and appointed you their delegates, to at- 
tend and represent this Comraonweahh in the said proposed convention, 
and have, by a resolution of theirs of the tenth of March last, requested 
me to commission yon for that pu 

Now, therefore, know ye, that m p i^ an he resolutions afore- 

said, I do, by these presents, co mis aid Francis Dana, 

Blliridge GeiTy, Nathaniel Govh m R is K. g and Caleb Strong, 
esqrs., or any three of you, to m h g s may be appointed 

hy the other, or any of the othe S h U n, to meet in con- 

vention at Philadelphia, at the tim d h oses aforesaid. 

Ill testimony whereof, I have caused the public seal of the Common- 
wealth aforesaid to bo hereunto BfHsed, Given at the council 
(t. s.] chamber, in Boston, the ninth day of April, A, D, 1787, and in 
the eleventh year of the independence of the United States of 

By hia excellency's command. 

JOHN AVERY, Jdk., Secretary. 


At a General Assenibly of the Stale of Connecticut, iit Amfrka, IwUen 
[I., s.] at Hartford, on the second Thursday of May, A. D. 1787, 
AN ACT for appointing delegates to meet in a convention of the Stales, 

to be hold at tliB city of Philadelphia, on the second Monday of May 

Whereas the Congress of the United Stales, by their act of the 31at 
of Febtaary, 1787, have recommended that, on the second Monday of 
May inatani, a convention of delegates, who shall have been appointed 
by tho several States, be held at Philadelphia, for the sole and egress 
purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation, 

Be it enacted by the Governor, cooncil, Mid representatives, in gene- 
ral court assembled, and by the authority of (he same. That the honor- 
able WilKam Samuel Johnson, Roger Sherman, and Oliver Ellsworth, 
esqrs,, be, and they hereby are, appointed delegates to attend the said 
and are requested to proceed to the city of Philadelphia for 
n-pose, without delay; and the said delegates, and, in case of sick- 
ir accident, such one Or more of them as shall actually attend the 

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said convention, is, anil are hereby aulhorijed and empowered to repre- 
senl Ihis State therein, and to confer with such delegates appointed by 
the sevaral States, for the pm-poses mentioned in the add act of Con- 
gress, that may be present and duly empowered to act in said conven 
tion, and to discuss upon such alterations and provisions, ngreeable to 
the general principles of republican government, os they shall Ihjnk pro- 
per to render the Federal Constitution adequate to the exigencies of 
Government and the preservation of the Union; and they are further 
dneeted, pursuant to the said act of Congress, to report such alterations 
and provisions as may be agreed to by a majority of the United States 
tepcesented in convention, to the Congress of the United Stales, and to 
the General Assembly ofthb State. 
A true copy of re 


AN ACT for the appointment of, and conferring powers in, deputies 

from this State to the Federal Convention, 

Be il enacted 5jr the General Assemhly of Maryland, That the honor- 
able James M'Houry, Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer, Daniel Carroll, John 
Francis Mercer, and Luther Martin, esqrs., be fq)pointed and authorised, 
00 behalf of this Slate, to meet euch depntiea as may be appointed and 
authorized by any other of the United Slates, to assemble in convention 
at Philadelphia, for the purpose of revising the Federal system, and to 
join with them in considering such alterations and further provisions as 
may be necessary to render the Federal Constitution adequate to the 
exigencies of the Union; and in reporting such an act for that purpose 
to the Dnieed States in Congress assembled, as. when agreed to by them 
and duly confirmed by the several States, will sffectuaily provide for the 
same ; and the said deputies, or such of them as shall attend the said 
convention, shall have fiill power to represent this State for the purposes 
aforesaid; and the sad deputies are hereby directed to report the pro 
ceedinga of the said convention, and any act agreed lo therein, to the 
DSKt session of the Genei'al Assembly oi this State. 

By the House of Delegates, May 26, 1787, read and assented lo. 

By order; WM. HARWOOD, Cleric 

True copy from the original. WM. HARWOOD, Ghrh H. D, 

By the Senate, May as, 17B7, read and assented to. 

Byorder; J. DORSEY, Clerk. 

True copy from the original. J. DORSEY, Clerk Senate. 


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In the year of our Lord 1787. 
AN ACT for sppointijig deputiea fiom this Stale to llie convention, pro- 
posed to be holden. in the city of Philadelphia, in May, 1767, for the 
purpose of revising the Federal Constitution. 

Whereas, in the formation of the Federal compact, which frames the 
bond of union of the American States, it was not possihie in the itirunt 
state of our republic to doTise a Bysteqi which, in the course of time and 
experience, would not manifest imperfections that it would be necessatjr 
lo reform. 

And whereas the limited powers, which by the Articles of Confedei'a- 
tlon are vested in the Congress of the United Slates, have been found 
far inadequate to the enlarged putposes which they were intended to 
produce. And whereas Congress hath, by repealed and most urgent 
representations, endeavored to awaken this and other Slates of the Union 
lo a sense of the truly critical and alai-ming situation in which they maf 
inevitably be involved, unless timely measures be taken to enlarge the 
powers of Congress, that they may be thereby enabled to avert the danger 
which threaten onr existence as a free and independent people. And 
whereas this Slate hath been ever desirous to act upon the liberal ayatem 
of the general good of the United Staiea, without circumscribing its viewa 
10 the narrow and sellish objects of partial convenience, and has been at 
all limes ready to make every concession to the safety and happiness of 
the whole, which justice and sound policy could vindicate. 

Be it tlierefore etiacted, by the Senate and House of Representatives in 
general court convened, that John Laiigdon, John Pickermg, Nicholas 
Oilman, and Benjamin West, esqrs., be, and hereby are appointed com- 
missioners ; they, or any two of them, are hereby authoriied and em- 
powered, as deputies from this State, lo meet at Philadelphia said 
convention, or any other place to which the convention may be ad- 
journed, for the purposes aforesaid, there to confer with sucli deputies as 
are, or may be, appointed liy the other States for similar purposes, and 
with them to discuss and decide upon the most effectual jneans to remedy 
the defects of our Federal Union, ond to procure and secure the enlarged 
purposes which it was intended to effect, and lo report such an act to the 
Unitfid States in Congress, as, when agreed to by them, and duly cou- 
lirmed by the sevetal Stales, will effoclually provide for the saino. 

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In the House of Repkesentatites, Jcke 37, 17S7. 
The foregoine bill having been read a third time — voted, that it pass 
[o be eaaj2led. Sent up fot concutrenee. 

In Senate, the sama dayi The bill having been read a third lime, 
voted, that the BOme be enacted, 

JOHN SULLIVAN, President. 
Cony csamined, per 

JOSEPH PEARSON. Secretary. [L. S.] 

16. In pursuance of the foregoing powers, the Delegates met in 
Conven^onat Philadelphia on the 14th day, being the second Mon- 
day in May, A. D. 1787, and on the I7th of September, 1787, 
agreed to the Cons^tution as contained in the preceding part of 
this compilation, [from page 1 to 33,] which they transmitted to 
the United States in Congress assembled, together witii the fol- 
lowing resoluliona and letter : 

In ConvENTioN, MoNUiv, Seftemekr 17, 1787. 
Present ; The SlBtes of New Hampshire, Maasachuselts, Connecticut, 
Mr. Hamilton from New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, 
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, 
jScsoineJ, That the preceding Constitution be laid before the United 
States in Congress assembled, and that it is the opinion of this conven- 
tion thai it should afterwMds be sitbmilled to a convention of delegates, 
chosen in each State by the people Ihereot under the recommendation 
of its legislature, for their nesecl and ratification ; and that each conven- 
tion, assenting to and ratifying the aame, shoidd give notice thereof, to 
the United States in Congress assembled. 

Eeiolved, That it ts the opinion of this convention, that as soon as the 
conventions of tune States shall have ratified this Constitution, the United 
States in Congress assembled should fbi a day on which electors should 
be appointed by the Slales which shall have ratified the same, and a day 
on which the electors should assemble to vote for the President, and the 
time and place for commencing proceedings under this Constitution, 
That a^er such publication the electors should be appointed, and the 
Senators and Repvesentativea elected ; that the electors should meet on 
the day fixed for the election of the President, and should transmit (heir 
voto^ cerliiied, signed, sealed, and directed, as the Constitution requires 

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to tUs SecretaT? of the United Slates in Congress assembled ; that tha 
Sfinalora and Reptesenttitives should convene at the time and place as- 
signed ; that the Senators should appoint a president of the Senate, fo( 
the sola putpoee of receiving, opening, and counting the votes for Presi- 
dent ; and that, after he shall be chosen, the Congtees, together with the 
Freeident, should without delay, proceed to esecute thia Con 

By the unanimouB order of the convention. 


William Jackson, Secretary. 

In Convention, Ssitekbes !7, 17B7. 

Smr We have now the honor to submit (o the oonsideration of tho 
United States in Congress asseiobled, tliat Constitution whidi has ap- 
peared to us the most advisable. 

The friends of oar connlry have long seen and desired that the power 
of making war, peace, and treaties, thatof levying money and regulating 
commsrce, and the correspondent executive and judicial authorities, 
slioiild be fully and etTectually vested in the General Government of the 
Union ; but the impropriety of delegating such esiensive trust to one 
body of men is evident ; hence results the necessity of a different 

It is obviously impracticable, in tha Padoral Government of ihese 
States, to secure ali riglits of independent sovereignty to each, and yet 
provide for the interest and safety of all. Individuals entering into bo- 
ciaty must give up a share of liberty to preserve the rest. The magiii- 
tude of the sacrifice must depend as well on situation and droumBtance 
as on the object to be obtained. It is at all times difficult to draw with 
precision tho line between those rights whicli must be surrendered and 
those which may be reserved ; and on the present occasion this diHiculty 
was increased by a difference among the several States as to their aitua- 

In all our deliberations on this subject, we kept steadily in our view 
that which appears to ua t!ie greatest inteteat of every true American — 
the consolidation of out Union — in which is involved our prosperity, 
lehcilj', aalsty, perhaps our notional eiistenee. This iniportoul oonside- 
ralion, aeriously and deeply impressed on onr minds, led each State in 
the convention to be less rigid on points of inferior magnitude th;m might 
have been otherwise expected; and thus the Constitution which we 
now present ia the result of a spirit of amity, and of that mutual defer- 
euco and concession which the poculiariiy of our political situation ren- 
dered indispensable. 

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That it will meet the full and entire approbation of every Stale, ia 
not, perhaps, to bo expected ; but each will doublleas consider that, had 
her interest been alone consulted, the consequences might have been 
particularly disagreeable or injutious to others i that it is liable to as few 
Bieeptions as could reasonablj' have been expected, we hops and be 
lieve ; that it may promote the lasting welfare of that country so dear to 
UB all, and eecare lier freedom and happiness, ia our most ardent wish. 

With great respect, we have the honor to be, sir, your excellency's 
most obedient humble servants. 

By unanimous order of the convention. 


His excellency the rBEsmEni os Conqhess. 

17. Whereupon Congress passed the following resolution: 

Fhtoay, Septembek 28, 1787. 

Present ! New Hompsliire, Masaaehuselts, Conneclient, New York, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, Norlh Carolina, South 
Caroluia, and Georgia, and from Maryland Mr. Ross, 

Congress having received the report of the convention lately assem- 
bled in Philadelphia— 

Seealved, uBontmoMBly, That the said report, with the resolutions and 
letter accompanying the same, be transmitted to the several legislatures, 
in order to be submitted to a convention of delegates chosen in each 
Stale by the people thereof, in conformity to the resolveB of the conven- 
tion made and provided in tiinl case. 

18. The Slates having accordingly passed acts for severally 
calling conventions, and the Constitution having been submitted 
to them, was ratified by the convenUons of the several Slates, at 
the dates respectively as stated on page 34 of this compilation. 

SiTCTRDAV, Septembek 13, 1783. 
Congress assembled. Present: New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Con 
neoticut. New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Caro- 
lina, South Carolina, and Georgia; and from Rhode Island Mr. Arnold, 
and from Dela^vure Mr, Kearny. 

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On (he quesUon 

agr-e lo tho pro 


lerday poet- 

poned b3 the Stal 

ofDelawaic the 

Mr Oilman— 


Mi ( ibian 



Mr Dinn" 





Mr Huntiiifelon 




Mr Hamilton 


Can eioorl 


IVeui Jeracy 

Mr Clarke, 



Ml-. Irwine, 



"y Lb 






Mr. Griffin, 






South Carolina . 

Mr. Purkpr, 



.y! ■' 




So it was resolved in the affirntative, as follows : 

Whereas ihe convention assembled in Philadelphia, pursuant to the 
reaolut.ion of Congress of the 21al of February, 1787, did, on the 17th 

of Septembei 
Bsscmbied a Consliti 
upon Congress, on tt 
inonely, "That the 
panying Ihe eame, ht 
be sab milled 

Doited States in Congi-ei 
ion for the people of the United States; when 
1 aaih of the Hame September, did resolve, unan 


e by the 

of delegates, chosen ii 
people thereof, in conformity to the resolves of thi 
and provided in that casei" And whereas the Constitution so lepotled 
by the convention, and by Congress transmitted to tho several legisla- 
tures, has been ratiiied in the manner therein declared to be sufficient 
fi>r the establishment of the same, and such ratifications, duly authenti- 
cated, have been received by Congress, and are filed in the office of the 
Secretary; therefore — 

Leselved, That the first Wednesday in January be the day for 
appointing electors in the sevoral States, which, before tho said day, 
sliall have ratified ihe said Constitution; that the first Wednesday in 

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Ffihruary next he the day for iho electora to assemble in their respectiva 
Stales, Bnd vote for a President ; and that the first Wednesday in Marcli 
neit be tlie time, and the present seat of Congress (New Yorli) the 
place, for commencing the proceedings under the said Conslitution. 

19. The elections were held in the seTeral slates for Electors, in 
conformity with tJie ahove resolution, and the Electors ao appointed 
met as therein required, and voted for President and Vice Presi- 
dent, (the result of whose votss will be seen in the first table of 
electoral votes contained in this volume,) and the several states 
having, in conformity with the Constitution, elected the Senators 
and Representatives to which they were respectively entitled, pro- 
ceedings commenced under the Constitution on tlie first Wednes- 
day, being the 4th day of March, 1789, by the meeting of the Sena- 
tors and Representatives in Congress on that day, from the eleven 
states which had then Tatilied. the Constitution ; but a quorum not 
appearing in either House, the House of Representatives adjourned 
from day to day until Wednesday, the lat of April, when a quo- 
rum, consisting of a majority of the whole number, appearing', they 
elected a speaker and clerk and proceeded to business; the Senate 
in like manner adjourned from day to day, until Monday, the 6th 
of April, when a quorum, consisting of a majority of the whole 
number of Senators, appearing, " the Senate proceeded, by ballot, 
to tiiB choice of a President, for tiie sole purpose of opening and 
counting the votes for President of the Unitsd States." The Elec- 
toral votes were accordingly opened and oonnted on the 6th of 
April, 1789, in the presence of the Senate and House of Represen- 
tatives, and it appeared that George Washington was unanimously 
elected President, and tiiat John Adams was duly elected Vice 
President of the Umted States, agreeably to the Constitution. The 
Senate then elected a President pro tempore, the Vice President 
not being present, and also a secretary, and proceeded to business; 
and having taken the proper measures to notify the individuals 
elected, John Adams, Vioa President, appeared and assumed the 
chair aa President of the Senate on Tuesday the 31st of April. 
George Washington was introduced into the Senate Chamber, by 
the committee appointed for the purpose, on Thursday, April 30, 

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nSS, and was attended to the gallery in front of ilie Senate Cham- 
ber by the Vice President and Senators, the Spealtcr and Repre- 
sentatives and otlier puhlic eharactera present. The oath tecjuired 
by the Constitution was then administered to him by the Chancel- 
lor of the State of New York, who proclaimed, " Long live George 
Washington, President of the United States," after which the Pre- 
sident returned to the Senate Chamber and delivered his inaugural 
address to the Senate and House of Representatives. 

Thus commenced the proceedings of the Constitati.onal Govern- 
ment of Che United States of Araeiica. The Executive and Legis- 
lative branches so installed, possessed from that time, under the 
Constitudon, the power to make laws and appoint all the ofBcera 
necessary to constitute the Judiciary Branch, aa well as all the Ex 
eeutive Departments and subordinate offices, both civil and military; 
all of which was effected in a convenient and proper time, and thf 
whole system, then for the first time put in modon, has continued 
to operate, improve, and mature, until it has acquired a capacity, 
stability, and power adequate to its own security and preservation, 
and to the protection of the rights, the honor, and interest of its 
eitiiens over the entire surface of the globe, as well as to the pre- 
servation of the lives, the liberty, and happiness of its people at 
home ; illustrating; all the attributes of a good government, and 
proving incoatestably the value and escellence ol our own Constl- 

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SATURDiT, Jdks 8, 1776. 

Eeeolved, That ihe resolutions respecting independency be referred lo 
a coniniitieB of iho whole Congi'ess. 

The Congreae then resolyed itself into ooommittee of llie whole ; anJ, 
after Eome time, the Prosident resumed the chair, and Mr. HEiniBon re- 
ported, that the committee have talien into consideration the matter to 
them referred, but not having come to any resolution thereon, directed 
him to move for leave to sit again on Monday. 

Beaolved, That thia Congress will, on Mondsy nexl, at 10 o'eloclt, re- 
soWe itself into a committee of the whole, to lake into theii- farther eon- 
Eideratioii the resolutiuas referred to them. 

MoKDiY, Juke 10, 1776. 
Agreeable to order, the Congress resolved itself into a eomroitlee of 
the whole, to lake into then- farther consideration iheresolutiona to Ihem 
referred ; and, after some time spent thereon, the President resumed the 
chair, and Mr. Harrison reported, that the committee have had under 
consideration the matters referred to Ihem, and have come to a resolu- 
tion thereon, which they directed him to report. 

The resolution agreed to in committee of the whole being read, 
Seaolved, That the consideration of the first resolution be postponed 
to Monday, the first day of July next; and in the meanwhile, that no 
time be lost, in case the Congress agree thereto, that a committee be 
appointed to prepare a declaration to the effect of the said first resolution, 
which is in these words ! " That these United Colonies are, and of right 
ought to be, free and independent States; that they are absolved from 
all allegiance to the British crown: and that all political connexion be- 
tween them and the State of (3teat Britain is, and ought to be, totally 


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TUilSDAY, JWEll, 1776. 
ffiesojiifj, Thai the committee, for preparing ihe Deelaralion, consial 
of five: — The members chosen, Mr. Jefferson, Mr. John Adams, Mr. 
Franklin, Mr. Shermnn, and Mr. R. R. Livingston. 

TuESPAr, JtiHE 35, 1776. 
A declaration of the deputies of Pennsylvania, met in Provincial Con- 
ference, was Said before Congraas, and read, expressing their willingness 
to concur in B vote of Congress, declaring the United Coloniea free and 
independent States. 

Fkidat, JmE 2S, 1776. 

*' Franda Hopfeinaon, one of the delegates from New Jersey, attended, 
and produced the credentiala of llieir appointment," eoiitaining the fol- 
lowing instructions : — "If you shall judge il necessary or expedient for 
tliia purpose, we empower yon to join in declaring the United Coloniea 
independenl of Great Britain, entering into a confederation for union and 
common defence," &e. 

Monday, July ], 1776. 
' A resolution of the convention of Maryland, paased ilio 3Sth of June, 
waa liud before Congress and read," conlauiing the following inatrue- 
tions (0 their deputies in Congress: — " That the deputies of said colony, 
or any three or more of them, be authorised and empowered to concur 
with the other United Coloniea, or ft majority of (hem, in declaring the 
United Colonies free and independent States; informing such further 
compact and confederation between them," &.o. 

The order of the day being read, 

Eeeolved, Thai this Congress will resolve itself into acommittee of ihe 
whole, to take into consideration ihe resolution respecting independency. 

Tliat the declaration be referred to aaid committee. 

The Congress resolved itself into a committee of the whole. After 
EOme time the President resumed the choir, and Mr- Harrison reported, 
(hat the committee had come to a resolution, which they desired him to 
report, and to move for leave to sit again. 

The resolution agreed to by the committee of the whole being read, 
the determination thereof was, at the request of a colony, postponed 

Sesalved, That this Congress will, 
committee of the whole, to 
apecting indepeiidenoo. 

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TUE5DAY, July 2, 177R. 
The Congress resumod the eonsidetntion of the resoliilion icpoiled 
from Ihc committee of ihe whole ( which was agreed to as foUowa : 

Resolved, ^Tfi^ dese 'Jl&iAtiiS '^iRmUa *U., o™S, of U^, 
ottiiAt to Ee, <3'le6 (W-S uulejieti^iit tJtateo j t&at t««u. tM* oA- 

IwiUtiEof Ei]n.n«»i.oiv betiu&Eiv tK«m., a«.3 tfi* ataie, ti '^Sictit cWiv- 

Agreeable lo the order of the dny, ths Congresa Tesolved itself into a 
oommitlee of the whole; and, after some time, the President resumed 
the chair, and Mr. Harrison reported, that the committee have had undar 
consideration the declaration lo them referred ; but, not having had time 
to go through the some, desired him to move for leave to sit again. 

Eetolvei, That this Congresa will, to-morrow, again resolve itself into 
a committee of the whole, to take into their further consideration the 
declaration respecting independence. 

WEDHESniT, July 3, 1776. 

Agreeable to the order of the day, the Congresa resolved itself into a 
committee of the whole, lo take into their farther consideration the de- 
claration; imd, after some time, the Preaident resumed the chair, and 
Mr. Harrison reponed, that the committee, not having yet gone throiigh 
it, desired leave to sit again. 

Seiolvi^, That this Congress will, to-morrow, again resolve itself into 
a committee of the whole, to take into their farther consideration the 
Declaration of Independence. 

Thubsdat, July 4, 1776. 

Agreeably to tlie order of the day, the Congress resolved itself inlo a 
committee of the whole, to take into their farther consideralion the 
Declaration ; and after some lime the Preaident reenmed the chair, and 
Mr. Harrison reported that the committee hod agreed lo a declaration, 
which (hey desired htm to report. 

The Declaration being read, was agreed to as follows : 

d Dedaration hy ihe Representatives of iTie United States of America, 

ill Congress assembled. 

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for 

one people to dissolve the Dolitical bands winch have connected 

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tiieill Willi anollier, and to assume, among the powers of the earth, 
the separate and equal station to ivliich the laws of nature and of 
nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of man- 
liind requires that they should declare the eausea which impel them 
to the separation. 

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created 
equal ; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain nnalien- 
able rights ; that among these, are life, liberty, and the pursuit of 
happiness. That, to secure these rights, governments are insti- 
tuted among men, deriving their just poweis from the consent of 
the governed ; that, whenever any form of government becomes de- 
Btructire of these ends, it is tlie rig^ht of the people to alter or to 
abolish it, and to institute a new government, laying its foundation 
on snch principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to 
them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness- 
Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long establishea, 
should not be changed for light and transient causes ; and, accord 
ingly, all experience hath shown, that mankind are more disposed 
to saffer, while evils are suiferahle, flian to right themselves by 
abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But, when a 
long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the sams 
object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, 
it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and 
to provide new guards for their future security. Such has heen 
the patient sufferance of these colonies, and such is now &e neces- 
sity which constrains them to alter their former systems of govern- 
ment; The history of the present king of Great Britain is a his- 
tory of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having, in direct 
object, the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these Stales. 
To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world ; 

He has refused his assent to laws the most wholesome and 
necessary for the public good. 

He has forbidden his Governors to pass laws of immediate and 
pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his 
assent should be obtained; and, when so suspended, he has utterly 
neglected 1 3 attend to them. 

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He has refusfid to pass other laws for the accommodation of 
large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the 
right of representation in the legislature; a riglit inestimable to 
them, and formidable to tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, un- 
comfortable, and distant from the depository of their public records, 
for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his 

He has disBolTed reprefienlative houses repeatedly, for opposing, 
■with manly firmness, his invasions on the rights of the people. 

He has refused, for a long time after such dissolutions, to cause 
olhei-s to be elected -, whereby the legislativo powers, incapable of 
annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise ; 
the State remaining, in the mean time, exposed to all the danger 
of invasion from without, and convulsions within. 

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these Slates; for 
that, purpose, obstructing the laws for naturalization of foreigners ; 
refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and 
raising- the conditions of new appropriations of lands. 

He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his 
assent to laws for establishing judiciary powers. 

He has made judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure 
of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries. 

He has erected a multitude of new offices, and seut hither 
swarms of officers to harass our people, and eat out their sub- 
He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies, with- 
out tiie consent of our legislature. 

He has affected t» render the military independent of, and supe- 
rior to, the civil power. 

He has combined, with others, to subject us to a jurisdiction 
foreign to our constimtion, and unacknowledged by our laws; 
^ving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation : 

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us ! 

For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punishment, for any 

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murders which, they sliould commit on the inhabitants of tliesa 
Slates : 

For cutting off our trade witli all parts of the world : 

For imposing taxes on us without our consent: 

For depriving us, in'many cases, of tlie benefits of trial by jury: 

For transporting us beyond soas to be tried for pretended of- 
fences ! 

For abolishing the free system of English kws in a neighboring 
province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarg- 
ing its boondaries, so as to render it at onca an example and fit in- 
strument for introducing the same absolute rule into these colonies : 

For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable 
laws, and altering, fundamentally, the powers of our governments : 

Fox suspending our own legislatures, and declaring themselves 
invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. 

He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of hts 
protection, and waging war against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, 
and destroyed the lives of our people. 

He is, at this time, transporting lai^ armies of foreign mer- 
cenaries to complete the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, 
already begun, with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely 
paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy tlie 
head of a civilized nation. 

He has constrained our fellow-citizens, taken captive on the high 
seas, to hear arms against their country, to become the executioners 
of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands. 

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has en- 
deavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless 
Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished 
destruction, of all ages, sexes, and conditions. 

In every stage of these oppressions, we have petitioned for 
redress, in the most humble terms ; onr repeated petitions have 
been answered only by repeated injury. A prince, whose character 
is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant, is unfit to 
be the ruler of a free people. 

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Nor haTe we been waittjng in attention to our Britisli tretiireii. 
We hare warned them, from time to time, of attempts made by 
their legislature to extend an unwarrantabJe jurisdiodon over us. 
We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration 
and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and 
magnanimity, and we have conjured them, by the ties of onr com- 
mon kindred, to disavow these usurpations, which would incTitably 
interrupt onr connections and correspondence. They, too, have 
been deaf to the voice of justice and consanguinity. We must, 
therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our separa- 
tion, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in 
war, in peace, friends. 

We, tiierefore, the representatives of the UNITED STATES 
OF AMERICA, in GENERAL CONGRESS assembled, appeal- 
ing to the Supreme Judge of the World for the rectitude of our in- 
tentions, do, in the name, and by the authority of the g'ood people 
of these colonies, solemnly publisli and declare. That tiiese United 
Colonies are, and of right ought to be, Jfree ana SiiDepcnlient 
States i that they are absolved from aU allegiance to the British 
crown, and that all political connexion between them and the stale 
of Great SriCain, is, and ought to be, totally dissolved ; and that, as 
FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES, they have full powei 
to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, eslabiisb comn 
and U> do all other acts and things which INDEPENDENT 
STATES may of right do. And, for the support of this declara- 
tion, with a firm reliance on the protection of SBKUKJiSS i^iSi®= 
1T133il3M»51S, we mutually pledge to each other, our lives, 
fortunes, and our sacred honor. 

The foregoing declaration was, by order of Congress, engros 
and signed by the following membern : 

Natl Hampsldre. Masaackusells Bay, 

Josiah Bartlett, Samael Adams, 

William Whipple, John Adams, 

Matthew Thornton. Robert Treat Paine, 

Elblidg-O G(;rry. 

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Caisar Rodney, 
George Read, 
Thomas M'Kean. 

Samuel Chase, 
William Paca, 
Tliomas Stone, 
Chaflea Carro 11 ,of Carroll Don 

George Wythe, 
Richard Henry Lee, 
Thomas Jefferson, 
Benjamin Harrison, 
ThomasNelson, jun. 
Francis Lighlfoot Lee, 
Carter Braxton. 

Mrih Cai-oHna. 
William Hooper, 
Joseph Hewes, 
John Penn. 

Soulh Carolina. 
Edward Rutledge, 
Thomas Hey ward, jun. 
Thomas Lynch, jun. 
Arthur Middieton. 

Button Gwinnett, 
Lyman Hall, 
George Walton, 

liesolned, That copies of the Declaration be sent to the sereral 
dssembltes, conventions, and committees, or councils of safety, and 
to the several commanding- officers of the eonlineiital troops; that 
it be proclaimed in each of the United States, and at the head 
the army. 

Rlwdc hland. 
Stephen Hopkins, 
William EUery. 

Roger Sherman, 
Samuel Huntington, 
William Williams, 
Oliver Wolcott. 

Neu! Yirrk, 
William Floyd, 
Philip Livingston, 
Francis Lewis, 
Lewis Morris. 

New Jersey. 
Richard Stockton, 
John Witherspoon, 
Francis Hopkinsooi 
John Hart, 
Abraham Clark. 

Robert Morris, 
Benjamin Rush, 
Benjamin Franklin, 
John Morton, 
George Clymer, 
James Smith, 
George Taylor, 
James Wilson, 
George Ross. 

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Appointment of George Washington to be commander-m-chief of 

Iha axmy, by the Congress of the Confederadon, on tho 15ili 

Jupe, 1775. 

Thubstiav, Juke 15, 1775. 

Agreeable to order, the Congress resolved itself into a Committee of 
t]is Whole, and, after some time, the President resumed the chair, and 
Mr. Ward reported that the committee had come lo some farther resolu- 
tions, which he was ordered to report. 

The report of tiis cominiiteB being read and considered, 

Sesalved, That a general be appoinled to command all tlie Conlinental 
forces raised, or to be raised, for the defence of American liberty. 

Thai five hundred dollars per month be allowed for the pay and ex- 
penses of the general. 

The Congress then proeeoded to the choice of a general, by ballot, and 
George Wasbinglon, esq., wos unanimously elected. 

FttiDAY, June 16, 1775. 

Met according fo adjournment. [The Delegates from the Colonies <rf 
New Hampshire, Massacliuaetta Bay, Connecticut, New York, New 
Jersey, Peimaylvania, Delaware ooitnliea, Maryland, Virgmia, Noilh 
Carolina, and South Carolina, being present.] 

The President informed Colonel Washington that the Congress had 
yaaterday unanimously made choice of him to be general and com- 
mander-in-chief of the American forces, and requested he would accept 
of that employment; to which Colonel Washington, standing in his 
place, answered: 

" Mr. Peesident! 

" Though I am truly sensible of the high Iionor done me, in thia ap- 
pointment, yet I feel great distress, from oonseiousneaa that my abilmes 
and military experience may not be equal to the estensive and important 
(rust I Howevei, as (he Congress desire it, I will enter upon the ino. 

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mentoua duly, and exert every power I possess in tneir service, and for 
supporl of the glorious cquso. I beg they will accept my oiOBt cordial 
tlianka for ihis dietinguishod testimony of Iheir approbation. 

"But, lest some unluclty evenl should happen, unfavorable to my 
reputation, I beg it may be remembered, by every gentleman in the 
room, that I, this day, declare with the utmost smcerity, I do not think 
myself equal to the command I am honored with. 

" As to pay, sir, I beg leave to assure the Congress, that, 03 no pe- 
cuniary consideration could have tempted me to accept ihis arduous 
employment, at the expense of my domestic ease and boppiiiesa, I do 
not wish to make any profit from it. I will keep an eaact oecounl of my 
expenses. Those, I doubt not, they will discharge, and that is all I 

Eesolved, That a committee be appointed to draught a commission and 

The persona chosen lo compose the committee, were Mr. Lee, Mr. E. 
Rutledge, and Mr. J. Adams. 

Satueeat, Juke IT, 1775. 
Met according lo adjournment. 

The delegates of the United Colonies of New Hampshire, Massaohu- 
setts Bay, Rhode Island, Cotmecticm, New York, Now Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, llie counties of Newcastle, Kent, and Susses, on Dela- 
ware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina: 
To Geoeoe Washinotoh, Esq. 

conduct, and fidelity, do, by these presents, constitute and appoint you 
to be general and commander-in-chief of the atmy of the United Colo- 
nies, and of all the forces now raised, or to be raised by them, and of all 
ethers who shall voluntarily offer their service, and join the said army foF 
the defence of American liberty, and for repelling every hostile invasion 
•hereof! And you are hereby vested with fill! power and authority to 
act as jruu shall think for the good and welfare of the service. 

And we do hereby strictly charge and require all officers and soldiers, 
nndor your command, to be obedient to your orders, and diligent in the 
esercisB of their seyeral duties. 

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And we do also enjoin and requite you, to 1)0 careful in executing the 
great trust reposed in you, by causing etrict discipline and order to b« 
obaenred in tiie army, and that the soldiers be duly aneroiEed, and pto- 
vided with oil convenient neceasaries. 

And you are to regulate your conduct in every reBpecl by the rulea 
and discipline of war, (as herewith given you,) and punctually to observa 
and follow such orders and directions, from time to time, ns you shall 
receive (rom this, or a future Congrees of these United Colonies, or 
committee of Congi'Cfs. 

This commiBsion to continue in force until revoked by this, or a future 

By order of the Cotigress, 

Ordered, That the same bo fairly transcribed, signed by the President, 
attested by the secretary, and delivered to tlie general. 

Eesfflved Bnaaimously, Wherefla, the delegates of al! the Colocies, 
from Nova Scotia to Georgia, in Congress assembled, have unaniimonsly 
chosen George Washington, esq., to be general and commander-in-chief 
of Buch forces as are, or shall be, raised for the maintenance and pre- 
Eetvation of Ameriuim liberty ; this Congress doth now declare, that they 
will maintain and assist him, and adhere to him, the said George Wash- 
ington, with their lives ^d fortunes in the same cause. 

Address of the Preaident of Congress to George Washington, 
and his reply, 3Gth August, 17S3: 

MOKDIV, AlTGCST 35, 1783. 

Congress being informed of the arrival of the cominander- in- chief in 
the neighborhood of Princeton: 

Ordered, Thai he have an audience in Congress to-morrow at twelve 

Tdesday, AuflirsT 26, 1783. 

According to order. General Washington attended, and lioing intro- 
dueed by two members, tlic President addressed him as follows : 

SiK : Congress feel particular pleasure in seeing your excellency, and 
in congratulating you on the success of a war, m which yon have acted 
so conspicuous a part. 

It hns been the singular happiness of the United States, that during a 
war BO long, so dongerons, and so important, Providence has been gm 
ciously pleaaed to preserve the life of a general, who lias merited and 
possessed the uninterrupted confidence and affection of his fellow-ehi- 
xens. In other nations many have performed servinee, forwhuh thoy 

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have deserved and received the thanlo of the iiublic. But lo you, sir, 
peculiar praise is due. Your services hiive been essential in acquiring 
and establishing the treedom and independence of your country. They 
deserve tlie grateful oeltnowledgmenta of a li«e and independent nation. 
Those acltnowledgments Congress have the satisfaction of expressing to 
your Bxoellenoy. 

Hostilities have now ceased, but your country still needs your ser- 
vices. She wishes to avail herself of your talents informing the arrange- 
ments which will be necessary tor her in the time of peace. For ihia 
reason your attendance at Congress has been requested. A commiitee 
is appointed to confer with your excellency, and to receive your Bssist- 
Buoe in preparing and digcstiiig plans relative to those Important ob- 

To which his excellency made the following reply : 
Mn. Fbesideni ! I am too sensible of the honorable reception I have 
now espeiienced, not lo be panolrated with the deepest feelings of gra- 

Notwithstanding Congress appear to estiniHle the value of my life 
beyond any services I have been able to render the United Stales, yet I 
must be permitted to consider the wisdom and unanimity of our national 
councils, the firmness of our citizens, and the patience and bravery of 
our troops, which have produced so happy a termiiialion of the war, aa 
the most conspicuous eHect of the divine interposition and the surest 
presage of our future happiness. 

Highly gratified by the favorable sentiments whicli Congress are 
pleased to express of my past conduct, and amply rewarded by the con- 
fidence and affection of my fellow-citizens, I cannot hesitate to contribute 
my best endeavors towards the establishment of the national security in 
whatever manner the sovereign power may think proper to direct, until 
the ratiiioalion ot the definitive treaty of peace, or the final evacuation 
of our country by the British forces; after either of which events, 1 shall 
ask permission lo retu^ to the peaceful shade of private life. 

Perhaps, sir, no occasion may offer more suitable than the present to 
express my humble thanks to God, and my grateful acknowledgments 
to my country, for the great and uniform support I have received In 
every vicissilude of fortune, and for the many distinguished honors 
which Congress have been plrascd to confer upon me in the coiiise of 
the war. 

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Resigiialion, by George Washington, of the office of oommander 
in-fihief, to Congress, and answer of the President of Con 
gr^s, 33d December, 1783. 

Satuecay, Deoembee 20, 17S3. 
Congress assembled! Present, New Harapahire, MBssnehusctta, Rhodi 

A letter, of this day, from the commander-in-chief, was read, inform- 
ing Congress of his uiiival in this city, witli the intention of asliing 
leave to resign the commission he has the honor of holding in their ser- 
vice, and desiring to know their pleasure m what manner it will be most 
proper to offer his resignation; whether ui writing or at an audience. 

Sesalved, That hia excellency, the commander-in-chief, be admitted 
to a public audience, on Tuesday next, at twelve o'clock. 

Eesolned, That a public ontertoinment he given to the cummandardn- 
diief on Monday next. 

Tuesday, Decemeeb 23, 1783. 

Congress assembled ; Present as before. 

According to order, his escellency the commander-in-chief was ad- 
mitted to a public audience, and being seated, the President, alter a 
pause, informed him, that the United States in Congress assembled were 
prepared to receive his communicationa ; Whereupon he arose, and ad- 
dressed as Lllowe J 

tTo revive the recollection of this scene, and to renew, in the breasts of 
the American people, the emotions of gratitude, affection, and veneration, 
(hot swelled the hearts of Statesmen, Legislators, Warriors, and other 
citiaens. On that ever-memorable occasion, much care has been taken to 
bring here to view the Kving Washington as he then appeared in the 
CongrcM Hall. Fortunately, the affectionate providence of hia native 
state secured, in the best manner, the means of iransmhting the sem- 
blance of those venerated features and form to posterity. The mnrblo 
sloiue by Hoiidon, in the state-house al Richmond, is the most authentic 
liUenesB of George Washington estant ; from this haa been liken all that 
could bo obtained from marble, ihe rest has been derived Irom the beat 
paintings, and both combined by the arlbl who has produced this copy. 

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Tha sword ia taken from Ihe original, now in the Fnteiil Offico nt Wash- 
ington. Washington ia here represented in tlie manner that he desired 
10 be, as will be seen by the following memoranda and correspondence ! 


Accorainitly Goyeraor Harrison applieil to Mr. JeRerson anil Dr. Prajiklin, ihen 
ter » ■^osliiiiffloii, from which Ihe foUowiiig ia an esitact : 

" P<x™,,10 July, IJS3 

cully lo withdraw himself froni an order of Ihe Empreas of Ruisia ; a diffi; ullf, 

a moment's heeitalion ahoul his present voyage, which he oonsiderl aa promiBing 

I can assure you also, that, m a man, lie ii disiDleresled, generODB, candid, aod 
panting for glory; in eYery eirounislance merilii^ yonr good opiiiiau. He will 

in,al'Sllad^pUa,'i"^m uiformld^of your i 

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" Paris, 4 JnnnofT, 1T30. 
"I have been honorea wiih yourleller of Soplsdiber the Sfllh, which was d*. 
jTeredmeby Mr. Houdon. who is safely iciuriieri. He hss brougjit wilh him Ihe 

K. coniE by BDcne oiher conveyBQQe. Dr. Frnuklin, who waa joined milli me ij! 
the superiiitendeiice of Ibia just monnmeat, having JeA ds befors whm is obIIs 
the coslums of Ihe elalue wbs decided an, I cannol so well Bating myiel^ and I 
em peiEunded I nhonld not bo well sslisfy Ihe woiR as by conauliine your own 
wish or inciinauon as id liilf arliale. Perniit me, Iherefora, lo ssk you wbslher 

not hBTing loffioient knowledge m Ihe art of souiplora lo oppose my jndgmenl lo 
Ihelasteof lOnnoiBaenri, 1 do not desire lo drclBlfluilhe mailer. On the oon- 
tiory, 1 shall be perfectly Baliafled with wbsleier may be judged decent and 
proper. I should ayen searoely hare venloreii to luggeil, that perliaps a servUa 
adherence to the garb of aniiqaity might not be altogether so eipBdient, ss some 

atand la received willi Bpplanse, anii prevails eitensively." 

isox laffFiBSOS 10 WAsmTioroH. 

" Pari!. 14 AogusL IfS!'. 
"I was happy lo anil, by the letter of August lal, ITSfl, which yoa did ms Iha 

lie™' I fonnd it slTOngiribe BMLtimoiil ™ Wesrctopley.Tmmball, aadBrown, ta 
London; adet whichil would bo ridioulaoa lo add, that it was my own." 

This wort, therefore, purports to be Bnexaci pwliYiil Ktatue ofW^ashington,— 
an authentic biatorjcal monument, — the eatume Sting thai mteftieh fuwat atxva- 
lottial to appear rtt Comwiandtr-in-elaef. No other statue wai aver ma6e from hiB 
person. This was modelled about two years after the chjBe of his mililary career, 
in the Blty-Diurlh year of hia age, a circumstance lo be borne In mind in compar- 
ing il wilh later portraits. How well, in point of lesemblEnce, il sniif Refl his 

tlio right hand of the stnlucj End taking a haif-i>onl rlew, " it riJiirf^eQleif the 

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Mh. Prl ibent The gi it eve tt, on wli h nij re 
signati n dept ilcJ 1 a i ^ at lungtl tal e i [ 1 ls II <ne 
now tbe honor of offering mj sincere (.ongratuUtions to 
Congress, anl of piesentmg mjself before tl em, to sur 
render into then hands the tru<it committed to me an 1 to 
claim tht indulgence of retiiing fiom the &er\ice of my 

Happy m the confirmation of our independence an 1 
sovereignty and pleased with the opportunity liloi led 
the United States of betoming a respectible nation I 
resign with <iatisfaction the ippointment I ■accepted will 
diffidence ; a diffidence m my abihties to accomplish so 
arduous a task ; which however was superseded by a con- 
fidence in the rectitude of our cause, the support of the 
supreme power of the Union, and the patronage of Heaven. 

The successful termination of the war has verified the 
most sanguine expectations ; and my gratitude for the 
interposition of Providence, and the assistance I have re- 
ceived from my countrymen, increases with eyery review 
of the momentous contest. 

While I repeat my obligations to the army in general, 
I should do injustice to my own feelings not to acknow- 
ledge, in this place, the peculiar services and distinguished 
merits of the gentlemen who have been attached to my 
person during the war. It was impossible the choice 
of confidential officers to compose my family should have 
been more fortunate. Permit me, sir, to recommend, in 
particular, those who have continued in the service to tbe 
present moment, as worthy of the favorable notice and 
patronage of Congress. 

] consider it an indispensable duty to close this last 
act of my official life by commending the interests of our 
(lenrest country to the pi-otection of Almighty God, and 

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y^ r 

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those who have the superintendence of them to his lioly 

Having now finished the work assigned me, I retire 
from the great tlieatre of action, and bidding an affec- 
tionate farewell to this august body, under whose orders 
I have so long acted, I here offer my commission, and 
take my leave of all the employments of public life. 

He then advanced and deliTered la iho Fiesident his commission, 'with 
s copy of his oddreas, and having reEiutied hia place, the President 
(Thomas Mifflih) returned hitn the following answer : 

Sir. : The United Slales in Congress ossemhiod receive, with emo- 
tions too afieeling for utterance, the solemn resignation of the autboritiea 
under which you have led their troops with sucoeas through a perilous 
and doublfiil war. Called upon by your country to defend its invaded 
rights, you accepted the sdcted cliarge, before it bad formed alliances, 
and whilst it was witlioat iunds or o. government to auppoH you. You 
have conducted the great military ccntcat with wisdom and fortitude, 
invariably regarding the rights of the civil power through alt disasters 
and changes. You have, by the love and confidence of your fellow- 
citizens, enabled them to display their martial genius, and transmit their 
iame to posterity. Yon have persevered till these United States, aided 
by a magnanimous king and nation, have been enabled, under a Just 
Providence, to close the war in freedom, safety, and independence ; on 
which happy event we sincerely join you in' congratulations. 

Having defended the standard of liberty in tliis new world ; having 
taught a lesson useful to those who inflict and to those who feel oppres- 
eion, you retire from the great theatre of action, with the bleaainga of 
your fellow- citizens ; but the glory of your virtues will not lei-minate 
with your military command ; it will continue to animate remotest ages. 

We feel with you our obligationa to the lu'my in general, and will 
particularly charge ourselves with tho interests of those confidential 
ofBcers, who have attended your person to this aiFecting moment. 

We join you in commending the interests of our deareat country to 
the protection of Almighty God, beseeching him lo dispose the hearts 
njid minds of its citizens to improve the opportunity afforded them ol 
becoming a happy and respectable nation. And for you we address to 
him our earnest prayers, that a life so beloved may be fostered with all 
his care ; that your days may be happy as they have been illustrious ; 
and that he will finally give you that reward wliicli ihia woild caiinnt five 

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MoND^y, Aprii. 6, 1789. 

The President of the Senate, elected for the purpose of counting 
the votes, declared to tlie Senate, that the Senate and House of 
Representatives had met, and that he, in their presence, had opened 
and counted the votes of tlie Electors for President and Vice Pre- 
sident of the United States i whereby it appears that 

Geohhb Washinoton was unanimously elected President. 

Whereupon the following certificate and letter, prepared by a 
committee, consisting of Messrs. Paterson, Johnson, Lee, and 
Ellsworth, were adopted by the Senate, and signed by their Pre- 

Sb it l-nototi. That the Senate and House of Rcpresenlativea of the 
United Slates of America, being convened in ihe cjiy ond Stale of New 
York, the sixlh day of April, in Ihe Year of our Lord one thousand seven 
hundred and eighty-nine, the nnderwritton, appointed President of tho 
Senate, for the sole purpose of receiving, opening, and counting the 
votes of the Electors, did. in the presence of the said Senale and Honse 
of Representatives, open all tlie certificates, and count all the votes of 
the Electors for a President and for a Vice President ; by which it ap- 
pears that George WisniNoioN, esq., was unanimously elected, 
agreeably lo the Conatilutioo, to the office of President of the United 
States of America. 

In testimonj' whereof, I have hereunto sat my hand and seal. 


New Yore, April 6, 1789. 

SiE : I have the honor to transmit to your Esoellency the information 
of your unanimous election to the ofEoe of President of the United States 
01 America. Suffer me, sir, to indulge tho hope, that so auapioioua a 
mark of public confidence will meet your approbation, and be considered 
as a sure pledge of the aifsction and support you ate to expect from a 
tree and enlightened people. 

I am, sir, with sentiments of respect, your obedient humble servant, 

To his Ex'cy Geokhe Washikgtoh, esq. 

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BiL ao, 1783. 

The oath ot office having heen administered by the Chancelloi 
of the State of New Yorlc, in the pTesence of the Senate and 
House of Representatives, to George Washington, President of the 
United Slates, he tlien made tlie following Inaugural address : 

Felhvi'CUiiena rfihe Senate, and 

of the House of Mepresenlaiives i 
Among the vicisaitudea incident to life, no event could have filled 
me with greater anitieties than that of which tiie notification was 
transmitted bj jonr order, and teoeived oo tlie 14th day of the pre- 
sent month. On the one hand, I was summoned by my country, 
whose voice I can never hear but witli veneration and lore, from a 
retreat which I liad chosen iritli tlie fondest predilection, and, in 
my flattering hopes, with an immulnble decision, as the asylum of 
my declining years ; a retreat which was rendered every day more 
necessary, as wel! as more dear to me, by the addition of habit to 
inclination, and of frequent intermptions in my health, to tlie gra- 
dual waste committed on it by time. On the other hand, the mag- 
nitude and difficulty of iJie trust to which the voice of my country 
called me, being sufficient to awaken in the wisest and most expe- 
rienced of her citizens a distrustful scrutiny into his quaiifications, 
could not but overwhelm with despondence one, who, inheriting 
inferior endowments from nature, and unpractised in the duties of 
civil administration, ought to be peculiarly conscious of his own 
deficiencies. In this conflict of emotions, all I dare aver, is, that 
it has been my feithfol study to collect my duty from a juet appre- 
ciation of every circumstance by which it might be affected. All 
I dare hope, is, that if, in executing this task, I have been too 
much swayed hy a grateful remembrance of former instances, or 
hy an affeetionale sensibility to this transcendent proof of the con- 
fidence of my fellowKiitizena, and have thence too littie consulted 
my incapacity as well as disinclination for the weighty and untried 
cares hefore me, my error will be palliated hy the motivas which 
misled me, and its consequences be judged by my country, with 
some share of the partiality in wltich they originated. 

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Such being the impressions iiiiiJer which I have, in obedience to 
Ihe public summons, repaired to the present station, it would be 
peculiarly improper to omit, in this first official act, uiy ferrent sup- 
plications to that Almighty Being who rules over the universe— 
wlio presides in the councils of nations — and whose providential 
aids can supply every human defect, tliat his benediction may con- 
secrate to the liberties and happiness of the people of the United 
States, a government instituted by themselves for these essential 
purposes ; and may enable every instrument employed in its admin- 
istration to eseenle with success the functions allotted to his chaise. 
In tendering this homage to the Great Author of every public and 
private good, I assure myself that it expresses your sentiments not 
less than my own; nor those of my fellow-citizens at lai^, less 
than either. No people can be bound to acknowledge and adore 
the invisible hand which conducts the aiiairs of men, more than 
tlie people of the United States. Every step by which tiiey have 
advanced to the character of an independent nation, seems to have 
been distinguished by some token of providential agency ; and in 
the important revolution just accomplished in the system of their 
united government, the tranquil deliberations, and voluntary con- 
sent of ^0 many distinct communities, from which the event has 
resulted, cannot be compared with the means by which most gi>- 
vernments have been established, without some return of pious 
gratitude, along with an humble anticipationof the future blessings 
which the past seem to presage. These reflections, arising out of 
the present crisis, have forced themselves too strongly on my mind 
to be suppressed. You will Join with me, I trust, in thinking that 
there are none, under the influence of which the proceedings of a 
new and free government can more auspiciously commence. 

By the article establishing the executive department, it is made 
the duty of the President "to recommend to your -aonsideration 
such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient," The 
circumstances under which I now meet you will acquit me from 
entering into that subject, farther than to refer to the great consti- 
tutional charter under which you are assembled; and which, in de- 
fining your powers, designates the objects to which your attention 
is to be given. It will be mote consistentwith those circumstances. 

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and far mora congenial with the feelings which a;tuate ir 
alilute, in place of a recommendation of particular n 
tribute that is due \a tlie talents, the rectitude, and tiie patriotism, 
which adorn the characters selected ta devise and adopt them. In 
these honourable qualifications I behold ^e surest pledges that, as 
on one side, no local prejudices or attachments, no separate views, 
nor party animosities, will misdirect the comprehensive and equal 
eye which ought to watch over this great assemblage of communi- 
ties and interests ; so, on another, that the foundations of our na- 
tional policy will be laid in tha pure and immutable principles of 
private morality ; and the pre-eminence of free government be ex- 
emplified by all the attrihntea wliieh can win the affections of its 
citizens, and command the respect of the world. I dwell on this 
prospect with every satisfaction which an ardent love for my coun- 
try can inspire : since there is no truth more thoroughly established, 
than that there exists in the economy and course of nature an indis- 
soluble union between virtue and happiness — between duty and 
advantage — Ijetween the genuine maxims of an honest and magna- 
nimous policy, and the solid rewards of public prosperity and feli- 
city i since we ought to be no less persuaded that the propitious 
smiles of Heaven can never be expected on a nation that disregards 
the eternal rules of order and right, which Heaven itself has or- 
dained ; and since the preservation of the sacred fire of liberty, and 
the destiny of the republican model of government, axe justly con- 
sidered as deeply, perhaps as finally, staked, on the experiment en- 
trusted to the hands of tlie American people. 

Heaides tlie ordinary objects snbmitted to your care, it will re- 
main with your judgment lo decide, how far an exercise of the 
occasional power delegated by the fifth article of the Constitution 
is rendered expedient at the present juncture, by the nature ,of ob- 
jections which have been urged against the system, or by the 
degree of inquietude which has given birth to them. Instead of 
undertaking particular recommendations on this subject, in which 
I could he guided by no lights derived from official opportunities, 
I shiill again give way to my entire confidence in your discernment 
and patsuit of tlie public good; for, I assure myself, that whilst 
jou carefully avoid every alteration which might endanger tha 

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oenefita of an united and effective government, or wliich oaglit bo 
await the future lesaona of experience, a reverence for the uliiimc- 
terislie riglita of freemen, and a regard for the public liarmony, 
■will sufficiently influence your deliberations on the question, how 
fir tlie former can be more impregnably fortified, or the latter be 

safely and advaulageouBly promoted. 

To the preceding observations I have one to add, which will ba 
most properly addressed to the House of Representatives. It con- 
cerns myself, and will, therefore, be as brief as possible. When I 
was first honored with a call into the service of my country, then 
on the eve of an arduous struggle for its liberties, the light in which 
I contemplated my duty, required that I should renounce every 
pecuniary compensation. From this resolution I have in no in- 
stance departed; and being still under the impressions which pro- 
duced it, I must decline, as inapplicable to myself, any share in the 
personal emoluments which may be indispensably included in a 
permanent provision for the executive department; and must ac- 
cordingly pray that the pecuniary estimates for the station in which 
I am placed, may, during my continuance in it, be hmited to such 
actual expenditures as the public good may be thought to require. 

Having thus imparted to you my sentiments, as they have heen 
awakened by the occasion which brings us together, I shall lalie 
my present leave; but not without resorting once more to tiie benign 
Parent of the human race, in humble supplication, tiiat, since he 
has been pleased to favor the American people with opportunities 
for deliberating in perfect tranquillity, and dispositions for decid- 
ing, with unparalleled unanimity, on a form of government for the 
secutLty of their Union, and the advancement of tlieir happiness, 
so his Divine blessing may be equally conspicuous in the enlarged 
views, the temperate consultations, and the wise measures, on 
which the succeee of this government must depend, 


April 30, 17S?. 

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SEPTEMBER 17, 1736. 

Friends and Fdhw-ciUznm ; 

The period for a new eleclioii of a citiaen to administer the Ex- 
ecutive Government of the United Slates being not fer distant, and 
the time actually arrived when your thoughts must be employed in 
designating the person who ia lo be elotlied with that important 
trust, it appears to me proper, especially aa it may conduce to a 
moro distinct expression of the public voice, that I should now ap- 
prize you of the resolution I have formed, to decline being con- 
sidered among the number of those out of whom a choice is to be 

I beg' you, at tlie same time, to do me the jusrice to be aasnred 
that tliis resolution has not been taken without a sirict regard to all 
the considerations appertaining to the relation which hinds a dutiful 
citizen to his country; and that, in withdrawing the tender of ser- 
vioe, which silence, in my situation, might imply, I am influenced 
by no diminution of aeal for your future interest ; no deficiency of 
gratefal respect far your past kindness ; hut am supported by a full 
conviction ti iX the step -i compat ble with both. 

The accepta oe of a d oo nna ee hitherto in, the office to 
which your suffrages hive tw ce called me, have been a uniform 
sacrifice of inol n t on t the op on of duty, and to a deference 
for what appeared to be yo ir desire I constantly hoped that it 
would have been much earl er n my power, consistently with mo- 
tives which I was not at liberty to disregard, to return to tliat re- 
tirement from which I had been reluctantiy drawn. The strength 
of my inclination to do this, previous to the last election, had even 
led to the preparation of an address to declare it to yon; butmatuio 
reflection on the then perplexed and critical posture of our affairs 
with foreign nations, and the unanimous advice of persons entitled 
Ui my confidence, impelled me to abandon the idea. 

1 rejoice that the state of your concerns, external as well as in- 

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lernal, no longer renders the puisuit of inclination incompatible 
with the sentiment of duty or propriety ; and am persuaded, what- 
ever partiality loay be retained for my seiricee, that, in the present 
circumstaneea of our country, you will not disapprove my determi- 
nation to retire. 

The impressions with which I first undertook the arduous trust 
were explained on tlie proper occasion. In the discharge of this 
trust, I wiil only say, that I have with good inlenlicns contributed 
towards the organizadon and administration of the Government 
s of which a very feilible judgment was capable, 
le outset of the inferiority of mj qualifica- 
tions, experience, in my own eyes — perhaps still more in the eyes 
of others — has strengthened the motives to diffidence of myself; 
and every day the increasing weight of years admonishes me, 
more and more, tliat the shade of retirement is as necessary to me 
as it will be welcome. Satisfied that if any circumstances have 
given peculiar value to my services, they were temporary, I have 
the consolation to helieve that, while choice and prudence Invite 
me to quit the politicai scene, patriotism does not forbid it. 

In looking forward to the moment which is intended to terminals 
the career of my public life, my feelings do not permit me to sus- 
pend the deep acknowledgment of that debt of gratitude which I 
owe to mv beloved covmtrv for the manv honors it has conferred 
ce with which it has 
(e tlience enjoyed of 
ices faithful and per- 
ny zeal. If benefits 
ices, let it always be 
otive example in our 
le passions, agitated 
amidst appearances 
en discouraging; in 

nanced the spirit of criticism, — the constancy of your support was 
the essenfjal prop of the efforts, and a guarantee of the plans, bj 
which they were etFected. Profoundly penetrated with this idea, 

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J shall carry it with me to my grave, as a strong ii 
ceasing vows, that Heiiven may continue to you the choicest to- 
kens of its beneficence; that your union and hrotherly affection 
may be perpetual ; that the free Constitution, which is the work 
of your hands, may be sacredly maintained ; that its administra- 
tLoJi, in every department, may bo stamped with wisdom and vir- 
tue; that, in fine, the happiness of the people of these States, un- 
der the auspices of libet^, may be made complete, by so careful a 
preservation and so prudent a use of this blessing as will acquire 
to tliem the glory of recommending it to ibe applause, tiie affec- 
tion, and the adoption of every nation which is yet a stranger 

Here, perhaps, I ought to stop ; but a soliottude for your wel- 
fere, which cannot end but with my life, and the apprehension of 
danger natural to that solicitude, urge me, on an occasion iilta the 
present, to offer to your solemn contemplation, and to recommend 
to your frequent review, some sentiments, which are the result of 
much reflection, of no inconsiderable observation, and which ap- 
pear to me all-important to the permanency of your felicity aa a 
people. These will be afforded to you witli the more freedom, as 
you can only see in them the disinterested warnings of a parting 
friend, who can possibly have no personal motive to bias his 
counsel ; nor can I forget, as an encouragement to it, your indul- 
gent reception of my sentiments on a former and not dissimilar 

s the love of liberty with every ligament of your 
hciiria, no recommendation of mine is necessary to fortify or con- 
firm the attachment. 

The unity of government, which cons^tutea yoo one people, is 
nlso now dear to you. It is justly so ; for it is a main pillar in 
the edifice of your real independence — the support of your tran- 
quillity at home, your peace abroad, of your safety, of your pros- 
perity, of that very liberty which you so highly prize. But as it 
is eatiy to foresee Uiat, from different causes and from different 
quacturs, much pains will be taken, many artifices employed, to 
weaken in your minds tlie conviction of this truth : as this is 'Jio 

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poiat in yom political fortress agairist which the hatteries of in- 
ternal and external enemies will be most constandy and actively 
(though ofteB covertly and insidiously) directed, — it ia of infinite 
moment that you sliould properly estimate the immense *alue of 
your national union to your collective and individual happiness ; 
that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immovable aliach- 
meut to it; accustoming' yourselves to think and speak of it as of 
the palladiurn of your political safety and prosperity ; watching 
for its preservation with jealous ansiety ; discountenancing what- 
ever may suggest even a suspicion that it can, in any event, be 
abandoned ; and indignantly frowning upon the first dawning of 
every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest, 
or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various 

For this you hare every inducement of sympatliy and interest. 
Uitizens by hirth or choice, of a common country, that country has 
a right to concentrate your affections. The name of ^mmcran, 
which belongs to you in your national capacity, must always eitait 
the just pride of patriotism, more than any appellation derived from 
local discriminations. With slight shades of difference, you have 
the same religion, manners, habits, and political principles. You 
have, in a common cause, fought and triumphed together! 'li® '>i" 
dependence and liberty you possess are the work of joint counsels 
and joint efforts, of common dangers, sufferings, and successes. 

But these considerations, however powerfully they address them- 
selves to your sensibility, are greatiy outweighed by those which 
appiy more immediately to your interest ; here every portion of our 
country finds the most commanding motives for carefully guarding 
and preserving the union of the whole. 

The North, in an unrestrained intercourse with the South, pro- 
tected by the equal laws of a common government, finds, in the 
productions of the latter, great additional resources of maritime and 
commercial enterprise, and precious materials of manufacturing 
industry. The South, in the same intercourse, benefiting by the 
agency of the North, sees its agriculture grow, and its commerce 
expand. Turning partly into its own channels the seamen of the 

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North, it finds its particular navigation invigorateo ; and while it 
contributes, in different ways, to nourish and i;^rea3e the general 
mass of the national navigation, it looks forward to the protection 
jngth to which itself is unequally adapted. The 
e with the West, already finda, and in the 
progressive improvement of interior communication, by land and 
water, will more and more find, a valuable vent for the commodi- 
ties which it brings from abroad, or manufactures at home. 'ITie 
West derives from the East supplies requisite to its growth and 
comfort; and what is perhaps of still greater conaequenee, it must, 
of necessity, owe the secure enjoyment of indispensable outlets for 
its own productions, to the weight, influence, and the future mari- 
time strength of the Atlantic side of the Union, directed by an indis- 
BoSulile community of interest as one nation. Any other tenure by 
which the West can hold this essential advantage, whether derived 
from its own separate strength, or ftom an apostate and unnatural 
connexion with any foreign power, mast be intrinsically precarious. 

While, then, every part of our country tlius feels nn immediate 
and particular interest in union, all the parts combined cannot fail 
to find, in the united mass of means and efforts, greater strength, 
greater resource, proportionahlj greater security from external dan- 
ger, a less frequent interruption of their peace by foreign nations ; 
and what is of inestimable value, they must derive from union an 
exemption from those broils and wars between themselves, which 
so frequently afflict neighboring countries, not tied together by the 
same government i which their own rivalalfips alone wonld be suf- 
ficient to produce, but which opposite foreign alliances, attach- 
ments, and intrigues, would stimulate and imbitter. Hence, like- 
wise, they will avoid the necessity of those over-grown military 
establishments, which, under any form of government, are inaus 
picious to liberty, and which are to he regarded as particularly hos- 
tile to republican liberty ; in this sense it is that your union ought 
to be considered as a main prop of your liberty, and that the Jove 
of the one ought to endear to you tlie preservation of the other. 

These considerations spealc a persuasive language to every reflect- 
ing and virtuous mind, and exhibit the condnuance of the Union 
as a primary object of patriotic desire. Is there a doubt, whether 

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a common government can embrace so large a sphere 1 Let expe- 
tience solve it. To listen lo mere epecalatioc, in such a ease, 
were criminal. We are authoriKed to hope, that a proper oi^niaa- 
lion of tlie whole, wiili the auxiliary agency of govemmenla for 
the respective subdivisions, will afford 3 happy issue to the expe- 
riment. It is well worth a feir and full experiment. With such, 
powerful and obvious motives lo Union, affecting al! parts of our 
country, while experience shall not have demonstrated its imprac- 
ticability, there will always be reason to distrust the patriotism of 
those, who, in ariy quarter, may endeavor to wealten its bands. 

In contemplaUng the causes which may disturb our Union, it 
occurs, as a matter of serious concern, that any ground should have 
been furnished for characterizing; parties by geographical discrimi- 
nations — Northern and Southern — Atlantic and Western: whence 
designing men may endeavor to excite a belief that there is a real 
difference of iocal interests and views. One of the expedients of 
parly to acquire influence within particular districts, is to misre- 
present tJie opinions and aims of other districts. You cannot shield 
yourselves too much against tlie jealousies and heart-burnings 
which spring from these misrepresentations ; they tend to render 
alien to each other those who ought to be bound together by frater- 
nal affection. The inhabitants of our western country have lately 
had a useful lesson on this head; they have seen in the negotiation 
ly the Executive, and in the unanimous ratification by the Senate, 
of the treaty with Spain, and in the universal satisfaction at tiiat 
event throughout the United Slates, a decisive proof how unfounded 
were the suspicions propagated among them, of a policy in the 
Genera] Government, and in the Atlantic Slates, unfriendly to their 
interests in regard to flie Mississippi: they have been witnesses to 
the formation of two treaties — that with Great Brildn, and that 
with Spain, which secnre to them every thing they could desire in 
respect to our foreign relations, towards confirming their prospe- 
rity. Will it not be their wisdom to rely for the preservation of 
these advantages on the Union by wliich tliey were procured 1 
Will Ihey not henceforth he deaf to those advisers, if sach there 
are, who would sever them fiom their brethren, and connect them 
with aliens! 

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To the efficacy and peimanency of you U on, a Government 
for the whole is indispensable No all a ce ho vever strict lie- 
tween the parts can be an adeq ate s bfl it te tliey must inevi- 
tably expenence the infractions and interr iptions which all alli- 
ances m all time have experienced 'Sensible of this momenloua ■ 
trut jou lave improved upon your fi-at essa} by the adoption 
of a Constitution of Government better calculated than your former 
for an intimate Union, and for the efficacioi s immge nent of your 
common concerns. This Govemment, the offspring of our own 
choice, uninfluenced and unawed adopted ipon full i iveitigatioii 
and mature deliberation complelJ'ly free in Hi pri iciples, in the 
distribution of its powers uniung security with energy and con 
taining witliin itself a provision for its own nmendment has a jutl 
claim to your confidence and your support. Respect for its au- 
thority, compliance with its laws, acquiescence in its measures, 
are duties enjoined by the fundamental maxims of true liberty. 
The bases of our political systems, ia the right of the people to 
make and to alter their constitudons of Government: but the Con- 
stitution which at any time exists, till changed hy an explicit and 
authentic act of the whole people, is sacredly obligatory apon all. 
The very idea of the power, and the right of tlie people to establish 
Government, pre-supposes the duty of eveiy individual to obey the 
established Government. 

All obstractions to the execution of the laws, aO combinations 
and associations, under whatever plausible character, witli llie real 
design to direct, control, counteract, or awe the regular delibera- 
tiou and action of the constituted authorities, are destructive to this 
fundamental principle, and of latal tendency. They serve to or- 
ganize iacUon, to give it an artificial and extraordinary force, to put 
in the place of the delegated will of the nation, the will of a party, 
often a small but artful and enterprising minority of the commu- 
nity ; and, according to the alternate triumphs of different parties, 
to make the public administration the mirror of the ill-concerted 
and incongruous projects of faction, rather than the organ of con- 
sistent and wholesome plans, digested by common counsels, and 
modified hy mu 

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However combinations or associsitions of the above description 
may now and then answer popular ends, they are likely, in the 
course of time and tilings, to become potent engines, by wliieli 
cunning, ambitious, and unprincipled men, wil! be enabled to suh- 
vert tlie power of the people, and to usurp for themselves the reins 
of Government; destroying, alterwards, the very engines which 
had lifted them to unjust dominion. 

Towards the preservation of your Government, and the perma- 
nency of your present iiappy state, it is requlsitfl, not only that you 
Steadily discountenance irregula.r oppositions to its acknowledged 
authoiity, but aJao that you resist with care the spirit of innovation 
upon its principles, however specious the pretests. One method 
of assault may be to effect, in the forms of the Constitution, altera- 
tions vi'bich will impair the enei^y of the system, and thus ta 
undermine what cannot be directly overthrown. In all the changes 
to which you may be invited, remember that dme and habit are at 
least as necessary to fix the true eliaracter of gisvemments as of 
other human institutions ; that experience is the surest standard by 
which to test the real tendency of the existing constitution of a 
country ; that facility in changes, upon tlie credit of mere hypo- 
thesis and opinion, exposes to perj)etual change, from the endless 
variety of hypothesis and opinion; and remember, espeeialty, that 
for the efficient management of your common interests, in a coun- 
try BO extensive as ours, a Government of as much vigor as is 
consistent with the perfect security of libeity, is indispensable. 
Liberty itself will find in such a Government, with powers pro- 
perly distributed and adjusted, its surest guardian. It is, indeed, 
little else than s name, where the Government is too feeble to with- 
stand the enterprises of faction, to confine each member of the society 
within the limits prescribed by the laws, and to maintain all in tha 
secure and tranquil enjoyment of the rights of person and property. 

I have already intimated to you the danger of parties in the State, 
with particular reference to the founding of them on geographical 
discriminations. Let me now take a more comprehensive view, 
and warn you, in the most solemn manner, against the baneful 
effects of the spirit of party generally. 

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This spirit, unfortunately, is inseparabie from our nature, having 
its root in tha strongest passions of the human mind. It exlsta 
under differenl shapes, in all Governments, more or less stifled, 
controlled, or repressed ; but in those of the popular form it is seen 
in its greatest rankness, and is truly their worst eneniy. 

The alternate domination of one faction over anotlier, sharpened 
by the spirit of revenge, natural to party dissension, which, in dif- 
ferent ages and countries, has perpetrated the most horrid enormi- 
ties, is itself a frightful despotism. But this leads, at length, to a 
more formal and permanent despotism. The disorders and miseries 
which result, gradually incline the minds of men to seek security 
and repose in the absolute power of an individual ; and, sooner or 
later, the chief of some prevailing faction, more able or more fortu- 
Date than bis competitors, tains this disposition to the purposes of 
his own elevation on the ruins of public liberty. 

WithoQt looking forward to an extremity of this kind, (which, 
nevertheless, ought not to be entirely ont of sight,) the common and 
contintial mischiefs of the spirit of party are sufHcient to make it the 
interest and du^ of a wise people to discourage and restrain it. 

It serves always to distract tlie public councils, and enfeeble the 
public administration. It agitates the commnnity with ill-founded 
jealousies and false alarms ; kindles the animosity of one part 
against another; foments, occasionally, riot and insurrection. It 
opens the door to foreign influence and corruption, which find a 
faiililated access to the Government itself, through tha channels 
ol party pissions. Thus the policy and tlie will of one country 
are subjected to the policy and will of another. 

There is an opinion that parties, in free countries, are useful 
checks upon the administration of the Government, and serve to 
keep alive the spirit of liberty. This, within certain limits, is pro- 
bably true, and in Governments of a monarchical cast, patriotism 
may look with indulgence, if not with favor, upon the spirit of 
party But in those of tlie popular character, in Governments 
purely elective, it is a spirit not to be encouraged. From their 
natural tendency, it is certain tliere will always be enough of that 
spirit for every salutary purpose. And there heing constant danger 

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of excess, the effort oug-lit to be, by force of public opinion, to 
mi^gate and assuage it. A fire not to be quenched, it demands a 
uniform vigilance to prevent its bursting into a flame, lest, instead 
of warming, it should consume. 

. It is important, likewise, Ibat tlie habits of thinking, in a free 
country, shoald inspire caution in those intrusted with its adminis- 
tration, to conline themselves within their respective consUtotional 
spheres, avoiding, in the esercise of the powers of one department, 
to encroach upon another. The spirit of encroachment tends to 
consolidate the powers of all the departments in one, and tlios to 
create, whatever the form of Government, a real despotism. A 
just estimate of that love of power, and proneness to abuse it which 
predominates in the human heart, is sufBcient to satisfy us of tho 
truth of this position. The necessity of reciprocal checks in the 
exercise of political power, by dividing and distributing it into dif- 
ferent depositories, and constituting each the guiirdian of Ifae public 
weal, against invasions by the others, has been evinced by esperi- 
menls, ancient and modem i some of them in our own country, and 
tinder oar own eyes. To preserve them must he as necessary as to 
institute them. If, in the opinion of the people, the distribution 
or modiiieation of the constitutional powers be, in any particular, 
wrong-, let it be corrected by an amendment in the way which the 
Constitution designates. But let (here be no change by usurpa- 
tion i for though this, in one instance, may be the instrument of 
good, it is the customary weapon by which free Governments are 
destroyed. The precedent must always greatly overbalance, in 
pm t '1 yptilort lient benefit which the use can, 

t yum y Id 
Ot 11 h di p d h b t9 which lead to political pros- 

P J ^ S' dmtalty ndispensable supports. In vain 

w Id h m n 1 tl tnb te f patriotism, who should labor 
b rt hes g eat p II f human happiness, these firmest 
p p f h d i d citizens. The mere politician, 

q Uy w h h p m ht to respect and to cherish them. 

Aim Id t tra 11 th r connexions with private and 

plfltj Ltt mply b asked, where is the security for 

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properly, for repnlatinn, for life, if the sense of religious oliligation 
deaerl tlie oaths which are the instruiiieats of Lures tiga lion in courts 
of jusUce ! And let ns with caution indulge the supposition, thai 
morality can be maintained without religion. Whatever may be 
conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar 
structure, reason and experience both forbid us lo expect thai na- 
tional morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principles. 

It is substantially true, tliat virtue or morality is a necessary 
Kpring of popular Government. The role, indeed, extends with 
more or less force to every species of free Government. Who, thai 
is 3 sincere friend to it, can look with indifference upon attempts 
to shake the foundation of tlie fabric % 

Promote, then, as an object of primary importance, inelitutiona 
for the general diffusion of knowledge. In proportion as the struc- 
ture of a Government gives force to public opinion, it is essential 
that public opinion should be enlightened. 

As a very important source of strength and security, cherish 
public credit. One method of preserving it is Co use it as spar- 
ingly as possible ; avoiding occasions of expense by cultivating 
peace, but remembering also ttiat timely dishnrsements to prepare 
for danger, frequently prevent much greater disbursements to repel 
it; avoiding, likewise, the accumulation of debt, not only by shun- 
ning occasions of expense, but by rigorous exertions in time of 
peace to discharge Oie debts whicii unavoidable wars may have 
occasioned; not ungenerously tlirowing' upon posterity the burden 
which wo ourselves ought to bear. The execution of these masUns 
belongs to your representatives, but it is necessary that public 
opinion should co-operate. To facilitate to them the performance 
of their duty, it is essential that you should practically bear in 
mind, that towards the payment of debts there must he revenue; 
that to have revenue there must be taxes ; that no taxes can be d«- 
vised, which are not more or less inconvenient and unpleasant ■ 
that the intrinsic embarrassment inseparable from the selection 
of the proper objects, (which is always a cboiee of difficulties,) 
ought to be a decisive motive for a candid constrnction of tlie con- 
duct of 'ho fiovernmenl in making it, and for a spirit of acqiiies- 

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J for obtaining revenue, wliich the public 
exigencies may at any time dictate. 

Observe good faith and justice towards all nalions ; cultivate 
peace and harmony with all j religion and morality enjoin this con- 
duct; andean it be that good policy does not equally enjoin iti 
It will be wurlhy of a free, enlightened, and, at no distant period, 
a great nation, to give to mankind the magnanimous and too novel 
example of a people always guided by an exalted justice and be- 
nevolence. Who can doubt that, in the course of time and things, 
the fruits of such a plan would richly repay any temporary advan- 
tages which might be lost by a steady adherence to it 1 Can it be 
that Providence has not connected the permanent felicity of a na- 
tion with its virtoe f The experiment, at least, is recommended by 
every sentiment which ennobles human nature. Alas ! is it ren- 
dered impossible by its vices! 

In tiie execution of such a plan, nothing is more essential than 
that permanent inveterate antipathies against particular nations, 
and passionate allachmenls for others, should be excluded ; and 
that, in place of them, just and amicable feelings towards all should 
be culliraied. 1'he nation which indulges towards another an 
habitual hatred, or an habitual fondness, is, in some degree, a stave. 
It is a slave to its animosity or to its aflection ; either of which is 
sulHcient to lead it astray from its duty and its interest. Antipathy 
in one nation against another, disposes each more readily to olTer 
insult and injury, to lay hold of slight causes of umbmge, and to 
be haughty and intractable, when accidental or trifling oceasioris 
of dispute occur. Henee frequent collisions, obstinate, envenomed, 
and bloody contests. The nation, prompted by ilt will and re- 
sentment, sometimes impels to war the Govermnent, contrary to 
the beat calculations of policy. The Government sometimes par- 
ticipates in the national propensity, and adopts, through passion, 
what reason would reject; at other times it makes the animosity 
of the nation subservient to projects of hostility, instigated by 
pride, ambition, and other sinister and pernicious motives. The 
peace oflen, sometimes perhaps the liberty, of nations has been th» 

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So, likewisp, a passionatp attaehrapnt of oi 
produces a variaty of evils. Sympathy for tt 
cilitating the illusion of an imaginaiy ci 
where no real common interest exists, and infusing into one the 
enmities of the other, betrays the former into a participation in the 
tiuarrels and wars of the latter, without adequate inducement or 
justifieation. It leads also ta concessions to the favorite nation of 
pnyileges denied to others, which is apt doubly to injure the na- 
ticn making the concessions; by unnecessarily paring with what 
ought to have been retained, and by exciting jealousy, ill will, and 
a disposition to retaliate, in the parties from whom eqaal privileges 
are withheld ; and it gires to ambitious, corrupted, or deluded citi- 
zens (who devote themselves to the fiiTorile nation) facility to be- 
tray, or sacrifice the interest of their own counUy, without odium ; 
sometimes even with popularity ; gilding with the appearance of a 
virtuous sense of obligation, a commendable deference for public 
opinion, o ze p g e base or foolish 

uomplianct m rapti on. 

As aven to g ifi m le ways, such at- 

tachments '^ g y enlightened and 

independen p H m do they alford to 

tamper wit m ra th t of seduction, to' 

mislead pu public councils! 

Such an atta m a great and pow- 

erful nalio m to of the latter. 

Against th d fl noe (I conjure you 

to believe m w ) ea free people ought 

foreign infl ra of republican Go- 

vernment. But that jealousy, to be useful, must be impartial ; else 
it becomes tlie instrument of the very influence to be avoided, in- 
e foreign 

actuate to see danger only on one side, and serve to veil, and even 
second, the arts of influence on tlie other. Real patriots, ivho may 
legist the intrigues of the favorite, are liuhlc to biM>ome euspectud 

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and urJioHS ; while its tools and dupes iiaarp (lie applause and con- 
lidence of the people, to surrender their interests. 

The great rule of conduct for us, ia regard lo foreign nations, i&, 
in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little 
political connexion as possible. So far as we have already formed 
engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect g'ood faitli. Here 
lei us stop. 

Europe has a set of primary interests, which to na have none, or 
a very remote relation. Henee she must be engaged in frequent 
controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to oar 
concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in as to implicate 
ourselves, by artificial ties, in the ordinary vicissitudes of her poli- 
tics, or the ordinary combinationa and collisions of her friendships 

Our detached and distant situation invites and enables as to pur- 
sue a different course. If we remain one people, under an efiicient 
Government, the period is not far off when we may defy malBrial 
injijrj from external annoyance ; when we may take such an atti- 
tude as wil! cause the neatrality we may at any dme resolve upon, 
to he scrupulously respected ; when belligerent nations, under tho 
impossibility of making acquisitions upon us, will not lightly 
hazard the giving us provocation ; when we may choose peace oi 
war, as our interest, guided by joatice, shall counsel. 

Why forego the advantages of so peculiar a atuationl Why 
quit our own to stand npon foreign ground ) Why, by interweav- 
ing our destiny wilii that of any part of Europe, entengle our peace 
and prosperity in the toils of European ambition, rivalship, interest, 
humor, or caprice 1 

It is cur true policy lo ateer clear of permanent alliances with 
any portloti of the forpign world ; so far, I mean, as we are now at 
liberty lo do it ; for let me not be understood as capable of patron- 
ising infidelity to existing engagements. I hold tlie maxim no less 
applicable to public than to private affairs, that honesty is always 
wo best policy. 1 repeat it, therefore, let tliose engagements be 
observed in their genuine sense. But, in my opinion, it is lumii- 
eessary, and would be unwise to extend them. 

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Tailing oare always lo keep ourselves, by suitable cslablish- 
nientg, on a respectable defensive posfurp, we may safely trust to 
temporary alliances for extraordinary emergpncies. 

Hannony, and a liberal intercourse with all nations, ore recont- 
mended by policy, humanity, and interest. But even our com- 
mercial policy should hold an equal and impartial hand ; neiliier 
seeking nor granting exclusive fevora or preferences; consulting 
the natural course of things i diffusing and diversifying, by gentle 
means, the streams of commerce, but forcing nothing'; establish- 
ing, with powers so disposed, in order to give trade a stable course, 
to define tbe rights of our merchants, and to enable the Government 
to support them, conventional rules of intercourse, the best that 
present circumstances and mutual opinions will permit, but tempo- 
rary, and liable to be, from time to time, abandoned or varied, aa 
experience and circumstances shall dictate ; constantly keeping 
in view, that it is foUy in one nation to look for disinterested favors 
from another) that it must pay, with a portion of its independence, 
for whatever it may accept under that character! that by such ac- 
ceptance it may place itself in tiie condition of having given equiva- 
lents for nominal lavors, and yetofbeingreproached witii ingratitude 
for not giving more. There can be no greater error than to expect, 
or calculate upon, real favors from natioh to nation. It is an illu- 
sion which experience must cure, which a jusS pride ought to dis- 

In offering to yon, my countrymen, these counsels of an old and 
affectionate friend, I dare not hope they will make the strong and 
lasting impression I could wish ; that they will control the usual 
current of the passions, or prevent our nation from running tiie 
course which has hitherto marked the destiny of nations ; but if I 
may even flatter myself that they may he productive of some partial 
benefit, some occasional good ; that they may now and then recur 
to moderate the fury of party spirit, to warn against the mischiefs 
of foreign intrigues, to guard against the impostures of pretended 
patriotism ; this hope will be a full recompense for the solicitude 
for your welfare by which they have been dictated. 

How far, in tlie discharge of my ofiicial duties, 1 have beer. 

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(juiJad bj the principles which have been delineated, llie public 
records, and other evidences of my conduct, most witness to you 
and the woiid. To mysslf, the assurance of my own conscienca 
is, that I have at loasl believed myself to be guided by them. 

In relation to the still subsisting war in Europe, my proclama 
tion of tlie SSd of April, 1793, is the index to my plan. Sanctioned 
by your approving voice, and by that of your Reprasentativea in 
both Houses of Congress, ihe spirit of that meaaure has continually 
governed me, uninfluenced by any attempts to deter or divert me 
fioni it. 

After deliberate cjomination, with the aid of the best lights I 
could obtain, I was well satisfied that our country, under al! ^e 
circaaistancea of the case, had a right to take, and was bound in 
duty and interest to take, a neutral position. Having taken it I 
determined, as far as should depend upon me, to maintain it with 
moderation, perseverance, and firmness. 

The considerations which respect the right to hold tiiia conduct, 
it is not necessa!^ on this occasion to detail. I wili only observe, 
that, aocorditig to my understanding of the matter, that right, so 
far from being denied by any of the belligerent powers, has been 
virtually admitted by all. 

Tlie duty of holdbiga neutral conduct maybe inferred, without 
any thing more, from the obligation which justice anil humanity 

impose on every "" '' " ' ■ . ... ..--i. :. :_ r— _ ^ .■ 

tain invioble the j 

The induceme 
best be referred ti 
a. predominant m 
country to settle : 
gress, without ir 
sistency which i 
command of its o 

Though in re\ 
unconscious of i 
o'' my defects noi 
many errors, V. 

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Diighlj to avert or mitigate tlie evils to which they may land. 1 
shall also carry witti me the hope, tliat my country will nevEi 
cease to view iJiem with indulgence ; and that, after forty-five 
years of my life dedicated to its service with an upright zeal, the 
feuUs of incompetent ahililies will be consigned to oblivion, as my- 
Belf must soon be to the mansions of rest. 

Relying on its kindness in tliis, as in other things, and actuated 
by that fervent love towards it which is so natural to a man who 
views in il the native soil of himself and his progenitors for seve- 
ral generations, I anticipate, with pleasing expectation, that retreat 
in which I promise myself to realize, without alloy, the sweet en- 
joyment of partaking, in the midst of my fellow-oitiEGns, the benign 
influence of good laws under a free Government — the ever fevorite 
object of my heart — and the happy reward, as I trust, of our mutual 
cares, labors, and dangers. 


United Slates, 17lh September, 1796. 


SENATE,— July 3, 17l>a 

The calm and peaceful retreat which, the great Wash- 
ington promised himself beneath his own vine and fig-troe, 
in taking an affectionate leave of bis fellow- citizens in nis 
farewell address, was destined to be of short duration, for, 
difficulties having arisen with the then existing government 
of France, " the opinion was universally entertained, that 
Washington must be called on to take the command of 
the armies." The weight of his name and character was 

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of the utmost importance to produce unanimity in the 
leaders, anil to secure the confidence and support of the 
people. His extreme aversion to enter again into public 
life was known ; but it was likewise well understood, thb, 
it was a principle with him, from which he had never 
deviated, that when his services were demanded by the 
general voice of his fellow- citizens, he never refused to 
bestow Hiem ; under this impression, therefore, the Pre- 
sident, John Adams, had made up his mind to nominate 
him to the Senate in any event, both because he was the 
best man, and because the nation would not be satisfied 
with any other course, and he therefore declared to him 
in a letter of the 22d June, 1798, that "We must have 
your name, if yoia will in any case permit us to use it. 
There will be more efficacy in it tlian in many an army." 

And the Secretary of War, James McHenry, on the 
26th June, 1798, said to him — "You see how the storm 
thickens, and that our vessel will soon require its ancient 
pilot. Will you, — may we flatter ourselves, that, in a 
crisis so awful and important, you will accept the com- 
mand of all our armies -* I hope you will because yo" 
alo e cai uute aD ! ei-tsinl all lands — To tie P es 
dent Wislingtoi re] bed on the 4th J ly 1798 that 

At the epoch of nj retrene t an sion of the^e 

St tts by d J E ropein j o r or even the probab 1 ty 
cl such a t enthifpen gi ny lays was so fa fion 
b g CO te nplated by me that I 1 id i o concept o tl at 
tl at or II) other occurrence wo !1 aise m so short a 
per o 1 whic! co 1 1 t irn my eyes from the si a les of 
Mount \ ernon. But this seems to be the age of wonders ; 
and It IS reserved for intoxicated and lawless France (for 
ti'jrposes of Providence far beyond the reach of humaa 

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ken) to slaughter its own citizens, and to disturb the re- 
pose of all the world besides." 

" From a view of the past and the present, and h'om 
the prospect of that which seems to be expected, it is not 
easy for me to decide, satisfuctorily, on the part it migiit 
best become me to act. In case of actual inoasion by a 
formidable force, I certainly should not intrench myself 
under the cover of age (67) and retirement, if my ser- 
vices should be required by my country to assist in re- 
pelling it." 

To the Secretary of War, Washington replied also on 
the 4th July, 1798, — " The sentiments, which I mean to 
express to you in this letter on the subject of yours, shall 
be irank, undisguised and explicit ; for I see, as you do, 
that clouds are gathering, and that a storm may ensue ; 
and I find, too, from a variety of hints, that my quiet 
under these circumstances does not promise to be of long 

" It cannot be necessary for me to premise to you, or 
to others, who know my sentiments as well, that, to quit 
the tranquil walks of retirement, and enter a boundless 
field of responsibility and trouble, would be productive 
of sensations, which a better pen than I possess would 
find it difficult to describe. Nevertheless, the principles 
by which my conduct has been actuated through life 
■would not suffer me, in any great emergency, to withhold 
any services I could render, required by my country; 
especially in a case where its dearest rights are assailed 
by lawless ambition and intoxicated power, contrary to 
every principle of justice, and in violation of solemn com- 
pacts and laws, which govern all civilized nations ; and 
this, too, with the obvious intent to sow 'hick the seeds 

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of disunion, for the purpose of subjugating tJie govern- 
ment, and destroying our independence and happiness." 

"In circumstances like these, accompanied by an 
actual invasion of our territorial rights, it would be diffi- 
cult at any time for me to remain an idle spectator under 
tlie plea of age or retirement. With sorrow, it is true, I 
siiould quit the shades of my peaceful abode, and the 
ease and happiness I now enjoy, to encounter anew the 
turmoils of war, to which, possibly, my strength and 
powers might be found incompetent. These, however, 
should not be stumbling-blocks in my ovm way." 

" As my whole life has been dedicated to my country 
in one shape or anotiier, for the poor remains of it, it is 
not an object to contend for ease and quiet, when all that 
is valuable in it is at stake, further than to be satisfied 
that the sacrifice I should make of these is acceptable 
and desired by my country." 

ji Washington, llie 

MONEAV, JcLV 2, 17 93. 
The following wriiten megsnge was received from the Piesklent of tlis 
Ilniled States, by Mr. Maloom hia Beeretaty : — 

Gentlemen of the Senate : — 

I nominate George Washington, of Mount Vernon, to 
be Lieutenant-general and Commander-in-chief of all the 
armies raised, or to be raised, in tlie United States. 

ir^;„^n.„,„ i„iv!. T-roft John Adams. 

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Tuesday, July 3, 1798. 

Th2 Senaie took inio considerarion Ihe messaga of the President of 
llie United Slates, of the Sd instant, and the nominat ion cant ained. there- 
in, of George Washington, (o officB. Whereupon, 

On the queeiion to advise and coneeiil to the appointmonl, it was de- 
termined in the affirmative : Yeas, 24. 

The yeas and nays being required by one-iitlhof the Senators present.. 
Those who voted in tho affirmative, arc — Masars. Anderson, Bingham, 
Brown, Chipman, Claylon, Toster, Goodhue, Greene, Hiilhouso, Ifow- 
ard, Langdon, Latimer. Lauranee, Livermote, Martin, Mason. KorLli, 
Paine, Read, Rutherford, Sedgwick, Stockton, Taiewell and Tracy. 

So it was. 

Resolved, unanimously. That they do advise and con- 
seat to tlie appointment, agreeably to the nomination. 

The following correspondence then ensued : — 

'• FAiladelphia. 3uly 6, 1798. 

"Dear Sir, — It is my desire, that you embrace the 
first opportunity to set out on your journey to Mount 
Vernon, and wait on General Washington with the cora- 
mist,ion of lieutenant-general and commander-in-chief of 
the armies of the Unitetl States, which, by tlie advice 
and consent of the Senate, has been signed by me. 

" The reasons and motives, which prevailed with me 
to venture on such a step as the nomination of tliis great 
and illustrious character, whose voluntary resignation 
alone occasioned my introduction to the office I now 
hold, were too numerous to be detailed in this letter, and 
are too obvious and important to escape the observation 
of any part of America or Europe. But, as it is a move- 
ment of great delicacy, it will require all ymiF address to 
communicate the subject in a manner that shall be in.f 

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ft'nsive to his feelings, and consistent with all tlie respect 
that is dae iiwin me to him, 

"If the General should decline the appointment, all 
the world will be silent and respectfully acquiesce, if 
he should accept it, aU the world, except the enemies of 
this country, will rejoice. If he should come to no deci- 
sive (leterminalion, but take the subject into considera- 
tion, I shall not appoint any other lieutenant-general till 
his conclusion is known," 

" His advice in the formation of a list of officers would 
be extremely desirable to me." » Particularly I wish to 
have his opinion of the men most suitable for inspector- 
al, adjutant- genera], and quartermaster- general." 

■^ His opinion on all subjects would have great weight ; 
and I wish you to ohtdin from him as much of his reflec- 
tions upon tlie tinies and the service as you can." 

Fl,iladApl,ia, July 7, 179S. 

Deae Sir, — Mr. McHenry, the Secretary of War, will 
have the honor to wait on you, in my behalf, to impart 
to you a step I have ventured to take, and which I should 
have been happy to have communicated in person, if 
such a journey had been at this time in my power. As 
I said in a former letter, if it had been in my power to 
nominate you to be President of the United States, I 
should have done it with less hesitation and more plea- 
sure. My reasons for this measure will be too well 
known to need any explanation to the public. Every 
friend and every enemy of America will comprehend 
them at first bhish. To you, sir, I owe all the apolo^es 
I can make. The urgent necessity I am in of vo;u' 

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advice and assistance, indeed of your conduct and direc- 
tion of the war, is all I can nrge, and that is a sufficient 
justification to myself and the world. I hope it will be 
so considered by yourself. Mr. McHenry will have the 
honor to consult you upon the organization of the arm) , 
and upon every thing relating to it. 

With the highest respect, I have the honor to be, sir, 
your most obedient and most humble servant, 

John Adams, 

Mnuwi Vernon, July 13, 1798. 

Dear Sir, — I had the honor, on the evening of the 
11th instant, to receive from the hands of the Secretary 
of War your favor of the 7th, announcing that you had, 
with the advice and consent of the Senate, appointed me 
lieutenant-general and commander-in-chief of all the 
armies raised or to be raised for the service of the United 

I cannot express how greatly affected I am at this 
new proof of public confidence, and the highly flattering 
manner in which you have been pleased to make the 
communication ; at the same time I must not conceal 
from you my earnest wish, that the choice had fallea on 
a man less declined in years, and better qualified to en- 
counter the usual vieisatudes of war. 

You know, sir, what calculations I had made relative 
to the orobable course of events on my retiring from 
office, ana the determination I had consoled myself with, 
of closing the remnant of my days in my present peace- 
fiil abode. You will, therefore, be at no loss to conceive 
and appreciate the sensations I must have experienceo, 
to bring my mind to any conclusion that would pledge 

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mo, al so late a period of life, to leave scenes I sincerelj 
love, to enter upon the boundless field of public action, 
incessant trouble, and high responsibility. 

It was not possible for me to remain ignorant of,, or 
indifferent to, recent transactions. The conduct of the 
Directory of France towards our country, their insidious 
hostilities to its government, their various practices to 
withdraw the affections of the people fix)m it, the evident 
tendency of their arts and those of their agents to coun- 
tenance and invigorate opposition, their disregard of 
solemn treaties and the laws of nations, their war upon 
our defenceless commerce, their treatment of-our minister 
of peace, and their demands, amounting to tribute, could 
not fail to excite in me corresponding sentiments with 
those which my countrymen have so generally expressed 
in their affectionate addresses to yon. Believe me, sir, 
no one can more cordially approve of the wise and pru- 
dent measures of your administration. They ought to 
inspire universal confidence, and will, no doubt, combined 
with the state of things, call from Congress such laws 
and means as will enable you to meet the full force and 
extent of the crisis. 

Satisfied, therefore, that you have sincerely wished 
and endeavoured to avert war, and exhausted to the last 
drop the cup of reconciliation, we can with pure hearts 
appeal to Heaven for the justice of our canse, and may 
conhdently trust the final result to that kind Providence, 
which has heretofore and so often signally favored the 
people of these United States. 

Thinking in this manner, and feeling how incumbent 
it is upon every person of every description to contribute 
rtt all times to his coimtry's welfare, and especially in a 

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momenf like the piesent, wlien every thing we hnlJ dfar 
is so seiiously threatened, I have finailj deterromeit to 
accept the commission of commander-in-chief of the 
armies of the United States ; with the reserve only, that 
I shall not be called into the field until the army is in a 
situation to require my presence, or it becomes indis- 
pensable by the urgency of circumstances. 

In making this reservation, I beg to be understood, 
that I do not mean to withhold any assistance to arrange 
and organize the army, which you may tliink I can 
afford. I take the liberty also to mention, that I must 
decline having my acceptance considered as drawing 
after it any immediate charge upon the public, and that 
I cannot receive any emoluments annexed to the appoint- 
ment, before entering into a situation to incur expense. 

The Secretary of War being anxious to return to the 
seat of government, I have detained him no longer than 
was necessary to a full communication upon the several 
points he had in charge. 

With very great respect and consideration, I have the 
honor to be, Slc. 

George Washington. 

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The illustrious Washington having filled the measure 
(if his country's glory and exalted Ids own political and 
military fame and private character far above the standard 
of excellence attained by the greatest man of modem or 
ancient times ; and having, on every occasion, performed 
his duty to his country, not only with that fidelity and 
devotion which became a good citizen, but with that 
wisdom, affection, and paternal solicitude which have 
obtained for him, by tlie unanimous voice of mankind, 
the title of " Father of his Country," was called, on 
the 14th December, 1799, by the Ai-MiGiiTy Father of 
Heaves, we hope, to the enjoyment of that rich reward 
which is reserved for those wlio act well their part on 

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The universal gloom which pervaded the heaits of his 
countrymen on that solemn occasion, seems so far to 
have commingled with the veneiation for his character 
which has been transmitted to posterity, as to inspire in 
the patriot's heart an indescribable awe in approaching 
the mementos of his glory, around which there is a halo 
so brilliant and penetrating as to reach the inmost intel- 
ligence of man, and to purifj the moral and intellectual 
being, by the contemplation of every attribute that was 
excellent and noble in human nature. It is salutary to 
remember the outpourings of affection and sorrow on the 
departure of those whose virtues and goodness have en- 
deared them to our hearts, it elevates the finer feelings 
of our nature, as the presence of innocence promotes the 
contemplation of that angelical virtue. 

The sons and daughters of America mourned the loss 
their country had sustained in the death of their Wash- 
ington, witJi a cause of sorrow which no other people, in 
any case, to the same extent could plead ; their govern- 
ment, in unison with the feelings of the people, demon- 
strated that grief in measures of respect and veneration 
worthy of a nation's aifection and a nation's gratitude, 
and long — long — may the remembrance of those deep 
and sincere effut,ions of aiTection and gratitude continue 
to warm the hearts of the American people. There let 
the memorj- of Washington be enshrined, and his private 
virtues and patriotic ardor will continue to animate this 
people to the remotest generation. It is proposed to 
conclude this chapter by consecrating the proceedings snd 
measures of tlie Government on that memoiable occasion 



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TmjnsDiv, December 19, 1799. 

The Honse of Represetilatives of the United Sutos, having recBivcd 

hitolligenee of the death of their highly valued fellow- citizen, George 

WsehingTon, General of the armies of the United Smtcs, ond sharing 

tlie nniveraal grief this distressing event must produce, 

Unanimously resolve i 

1. Thai this House will wait on the President of tlie Uuited 
States, in condolence of this nallonai calamity. 

2. That tlie Speaker's eliair be shrouded with blacli, and that 
the members and officers of the House wear mourning, during the 

3. That a joint committee of both Houses be appointed to report 
suitable lo the occasion, and expressive of the profound 

with which Congress is penetrated on the loss of a citizen 

4. That when this House adjourns, it will adjourn until Mondaj 

Oi-dered, Thai Mr. Marijhall and Mr. Smith be nppointcd a comrailiee 
10 wait oa (he Piesident of the United Stales, to know when and where 
he will receive this House for the purpose expressed in the first resolu- 

Ordered, That Mr. Marshall, Mr. Craik, Mr. Henrj' Lee, Mr. Eggles- 
ton, Mr. Smith, Mr. Slone, Mr. Rutledge, Mr. Abiel Foster, Mr. Muh- 
lenberg, Mr. Van Cortlandt, Mr. Dwight Foster, Mr. Franklin Daven 
port, Mr. Ckibome, Mr. Morris, Mr. John Brown, and Mr. Taliaferro, 
bo a commitlee, jointly with such committee as may be appointed on 
the part of the Senate, for the purpose ejrptessi;d ic the third resolution. 

Ordered, That the oletk of this House do aequamt the Senate ihcro- 

A written message wss received from the President of I'le United 
Rtales, by Mr. Shaw, his secretary, which, together with the letter ac- 

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GerUlemen of the Senate, and 

Gentlemen of the House of Representatives : 

The letter herewith transmitted will inform you thai it 
has pleased Divine Providence to remove from !his life 
otir excellent fellow- citizen George Washington, by the 
purify of his character, and a long series of services to 
his country, rendered illustrious through the world. It 
remains for an affectionate and grateful people, in whose 
hearts he can never die, to pay suitable honors to his 


Vnikd Stalts, Dficember 19, 1799. 

''Mount Vernon, Dwember 15, 1799. 

"Sm: II is with inexpressible grief that I have to announce to 
you the death of the great and good General Washington. Ho 
died last evening, between ten and eleven o'clock, after a short ill- 
ness of about twenty hours. His disorder was an inflammatory 
sore throat, which proceeded from a cold, of which he made bat 
little complaint on Friday. On Saturday morning, about three 
o'clock, he became ill : Doctor Craik attended him in the morning, 
and Doctor Dick, of Aleitandria, and Doctor Brown, of Port To- 
bacco, were soon after called in. Everj medical assialance was 
offered, but without the desired effect. His last scene corresponded 
wilJi the whole tenor of bis life: not a groan nor a complaint 
escaped him in extreme distress. With perfect resignation, and in 
fuO possession of his reason, he closed his well-spent life. 

" I have the honor to be, with tlie highest respect, sir, your most 
obedient and very humble servant, 


" The Presidbkt of the Uhitkh States." 

the Presidenl 

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him to roceive lliis House, in condolence of ilie nalionsil calamity, re- 
limted iliBt ItiB committee liEid, according to order, performed that ser- 
vice, and tlial the Ptesidenl signified to them it would be convenient for 
him 10 receive this House at one o'clock this afternoon, at Ills own 
A message from the Senate, by Mr. Otia, their secretary : 
Mr. Speaker : The Senate have agreed to the resolution passed by tho 
House of Representatives for the appoint me ill of a joint committee of 
both Houses to report tneasures suitable to the occasion, and expressive 
of the profound sorrow with which Congress is penetrated on the loss 
of a ciliKen first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of liia 
countrymen ; and have appointed Mr. Dayton, Mr. Bingham, Mr. Dex- 
ter, Mr. Gunn, Mr. Lawrence, and Mr. Tracey, a committee on their 

And then he withdrew. 

The Speaker, attended by the House, then withdrew to the house of 
the President of the United Stales, when Mr. Speaker addressed the 
President as follows : 

Sir : The House of Representatives, penetrated with 
a sense of the irreparable loss sustained by the nation in 
the death of that great and good man, the illustrious and 
beloved Washington, wait on you, sir, to express their 
condolence on this melancholy and distressing event. 

To which the President replied as foilows: 
Gentlemen of the House of Representatives: 

I receive, with great respect and affection, the condo- 
lence of the House of Representatives, on the melan- 
choly and affecting event, in the death of the most illus- 
trious and beloved personage which this country ever 
produced. I sympathize with yon, with the nation, and 
with good men through the world, in this irreparable loss 
sustained by us all. 


United Slalu, December 19, 179D. 

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MoNDAV, Decckblb 23, 1799. 
Mr, Marshall, rvom Ihe joint oommittee appojuied to prepare and re- 
port measures euiioble to ihe occasion, and expressive of the profo-.uid 
sorrow with which Congress is penetrated on the loss of their highly 
. valued fellow-citiien, George Wosliington, General of the armies of the 
United States, made a report, in part; which he delivered in al the 
clerk's table, where the same was twice read and considered ; Where- 
It W13 resolved, thai the House do unanimously agree to llie following 

Jleaohed by the Senate and Bouse of Jteprssentativea of ilte United 
Stales of America in Congress assembled, That a mfirlile monumenl 
be erected by the United States, in the Capitol, at the city of 
Washinatm; and that the family of General Washing^ton he re- 
quested to permit his hody to be deposited under it ; and thai the 
monument be so designed as to commemordte tiie great events of 
his military and political life. 

^nd 6e it further resoled. That there be a funeral procession from 
Congress Hall to the German Lutheran Church, in honor of the 
memory of General George Washington, on Thoisday, the twenty- 
sixth instant, and thai an oration be prepared at Ihe request of Con- 
gress, to he delivered before both Hous s on I at d y and that 
the President of the Senate and Sp ke of he Ho e f Repre- 
Bentatives be desired to request one of he me nbe of Congress 
to prepare and deliver the Bams, 

Aitd be it fwlluT resolved, Tha be c mm nd d people 

of the United States to wear crape on he f a n as urning, 
for tliirty days. 

^iid be it further resohed. That t e P es dent of the United 
States be requested to direct a copy of hese esol ons to he trans- 
mitted to Mrs. Washington, assuring her of the profound respect 
Congress will ever bear to her person and character} of tlieir con 
dolenee on the late afflicting dispensation of Providence, and en- 
treating her assRnl to the interment of the remains of Gencal 
George Washington in the manner expressed in tiie first res<i 

Jiid be it further reeobed, That the President of tho Uiiited 

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States be requested to issue a proclamation, notifying to llie people 

throughout llie United Stutus the recommendatioa canlained ia the 

tliird lesolutiuii. 

Ordered, That the clerk of fhia House do cariy llie said resolutions to 
[he Senate, and desire Iheir concurrence. 

A rafiBsBEe from the Senate, by Mr.Otia, iheir BBorolarf ; 

Mr. Speaker : The Senate have agreed to the resolutions passed by the 
House of Representatives, diieeting certain measures to be taken suitable 
to the occasion, and expressive of the profound sorrow with which Con- 
grtiBS is penetrated on Lhe loss of iheir highly valued fellow- cili^en, 
Oeorge Washington, General of the armies ot the United Stales. 

Tuesday, Decehbee 34, 1799. 

Mr. Gray, from the joint committee for enrolled bills, reported that 
the committee had examined the enrolled resolutions directing certain 
measures to be taken in honor of the memory of General George Wash- 
ington, nnd had found the same to be truly enrolled: Whereupon, — 

Mr, Speaker signed the said enrolled resolutions. 

Oi'dei-ed, That the clerk of this House do acquaint the Senate there- 

Mr. Wadsworlh, from the joint committee for enrolled bills, reported 
tliat the committee did, this day, present to the Freeident of the United 
Slates, for his approbation, the enrolled resolutions directing certain 
measures to he talten in honor of the memory of General George Wash- 
ingl on. 

A message was received from the President of the Unhed States, by 
Mr. Sliaw, hia secretary, notifying that the President did, this day, ap- 
prove and sign the enrolled resotulions, which originated in this House, 
in honor of ihe memory of General George Washington. 

The Speaker informed the House, that, conformably to the resolution 
of Congress, the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House 
of Representatives had requested Major General Henry Lee, one of the 
Representatives from the Slate of Virginia, to prepare and deliver a 
funeiiil oration before both hooses, on Thursday, the Iwenty-siiih instant, 
in honor of the memory of George Waahi.jglon, late General of the 
armias of the United States ; and that Mr. Lee had been pleased to nc 
cepi of Ihe appointment. 

On motion, the House adjourned until Thursday morning, half-past ten 

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TavEsanY, December SG, 1799. 
This being the day appointed by ihe resolution of Congress fur the 
fvineral ptocesaion in honor of (he memory of George Wasliinglon. late 
General of ihe armies of the United Statea, the House proceeded to the 
German Lutheran Church, where ihey attended the funeral oration pre- 
pared and delivered on the occasion by Major General Lee, one of the 
members of this House for tlie Slate of Virginia; 


In obedience to yourwiH, I rise your humble organ, 
with the hope of executing a part of the system of public 
mourning whioh you have been pleased to adopt, com- 
memorative of the death of the most illustrious and most 
beloved personage this country has ever produced; and 
which, while it transmits to posterity your sense of the 
awful event, faintly represents your knowledge of the 
consummate excellence you so cordially honor. 

Desperate indeed is any attempt on earth to meet cor- 
respondingly this dispensation of Heaven ; for, while with 
pious resignation we submit to the will of an all-gracious 
Providence, we can never cease lamenting, in our finite 
view of Omnipotent Wisdom, the heart-rending privation 
for which our nation weeps. When the civilized world 
shakes to its centre ; when every moment gives birth to 
strange and momentous changes; when our peaceful 
quarter of the globe, exempt as it happily has been from 
any share in the slaughter of the human race, may yet be 
compelled to abandon her pacific policy, and to risk the 
doleful casualties of war: What limit is there to the 
extent of our loss ? — None within the reach of my words 
to express; none which your feelings will not disavow. 

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The foiinJer of our fcilerate repuLlir — our bulwaik in 
H ar, our guide in peace, is no more ! Oh that this were 
but questionable! Hope, the comforter of the wretched, 
would pour into our agonizing hearts its balmy dew. 
But, alas ! there is no hope for us ; our Washington is 
removed for ever ! Possessing the stoutest frame, and 
purest mind, he had passed nearly to his sixty-eighth 
year, in the enjoyment of high health, when, habituated 
by bis care of us to neglect himself, a slight cold, dis- 
regarded, became inconvenient on Friday, oppres&ive on 
Saturday, and, defying every medical Interposition, before 
the morning of Sunday, put an end to the best of men. 
An end did I say ? — his fame survives ! — bounded only 
by the limits of the earth, and by the extent of the human 
mind. He survives in our hearts, in the growing know- 
ledge of our children, in tlie affections of the good 
throughout the world; and when our monuments shall 
be done away ; when nations now existing shall be no 
more ; when even our yoimg and far-spreading empire 
shall have perishe<i, still will our Washington's glory un- 
faded shine, and die not, until love of virtue cease on 
earth, or earth itself sinks into chaos. 

How, my fellow- citizens, shall I single to your grateful 
hearts his pre-eminent worth! Where shall I begin in 
opening to your view a character throughout sublime ? 
Shall 1 speak of his warlike achievements, all springing 
from obedience to his country's will — ail directed to his 
country's good? 

Will you go with me to the banks of the Monongahela, 
to see your youthful Washington, supporting, in the dismal 
hour of Indian victory, the ill-fated Braddock, and saving, 
by his judgment and by his valor, the remains of a de- 

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feated army, pressed by the conquering savage foe ? Or, 
when oppressed America, nobiy resolving to. risk her all 
in defence of her violated rights, he was elevated by the 
unanimous voice of Congress to the command of her 
armies : — Will you follow him to the high grounds of 
BostoD, where to an undisciplined, courageous, and vir 
tuous yeomanry, his presence gave the stability of system, 
and infnsed the invincibility of love of country; or shall 
I carry yoa to the painful scenes of Long Island, York 
Island and New Jersey, when, combating superior and 
gallant armies, aided by powerful fleets, and led by chiefs 
nigh in the roll of fame, he stood, the bulwark of our safety ; 
undismayed by disaster ; unchanged by change of for 
tune. Or will you view him in the precarious fields of 
Trenton, where deep gloom unnerving every arm, reigned 
triumphant through our thinned, worn down, unaided 
ranks ; himself unmoved. Dreadful was the night. It 
was about this time of winter — the storm raged — the 
Delaware rolling fuiiously with floating ice, forbade the 
approach of man, Washington, self-collected, viewetl 
the tremendous scene — his country called; unappalled 
by surrounding dangers, he passed to the hostile shore ; 
he fought ; he conquered. The morning sun cheered the 
American world. Our country rose on the event; and 
her dauntless chief, pursuing his blow, completed in the 
lawns of Princeton, what his vast sou! had conceived on 
the shores of Delaware. 

Thence to the strong grounds of Morristown he led his 
small but gaflant band ; and through an eventful winter, 
by the high efforts of his genius, whose matchless force 
was measurable only by the growth of difficulties, he 
held in check formidable hostile legions, conducted by a 

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chief experience 1 n fad famed for hia 

valor on the eve n m ble 1 h s of Ab aham, where 
fell Wolfe, Mo aln ndsne umh lamented 
Montgomery — all d th 1 y I 1 fortunate 

interval, produc 1 by h s m 1 nd or fathers, 
oiirseives, aniro i by h e Is xample, rallied 
arotind our coii J s Id and con n d o follow 
her beioved chi f J hi o and j ns; scenes 

to which the des in e. of j ir Union led. 

Who is there that has forgotten the vales of Brandy- 
wine — the fields of Germantown — or the plains of Mon- 
mouth? Everywhere present, wants of every kind 
obstructing, numerous and valiant armies encountering, 
himself a host, he assuaged our sufferings, limited our 
privations, and upheld our tottering republic. Shall I 
display to you the spread of the fire of his soul, by 
rehearsing the praises of the Hero of Saratoga, and his 
much loved compeer of the Carolinas ? No ; our W^ash- 
ington wears no borrowed glory : to Gates — to Greene, 
he gave without reserve the applause due to their emi- 
nent merit; and long may the chiefs of Saratoga, and 
of Eutaws, receive the grateful respect of a grateful 

Moving in his own orbit, he imparted heat and light to 
his most distant satelhtes; and combining the physical 
and moral force of all within his sphere, with irresistible 
weight he took his course, commiserating foliy, disdaining 
vice, dismaying treason, and invigorating despondency; 
until the auspicious hour arrived, when, united with the 
intrepid forces of a potent and magnanimous ally, he 
brought to submission the since conqueror of India ; thus 
finishing his long career of military glory with a lustre 

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eorres ponding to his great name, and in tliis his last act 
of war affixing the seal of fate to our nation's birth. 

To the horrid din of battle sweet peace succeeded, 
and our virtuous chief, mindful only of the common good, 
in a moment tempting personal aggrandizement, hushed 
the discontents of growing sedition ; and, surrendering his 
power into the hands from which he bad received it, con- 
verted his sword info a ploughshare, teaching an admiring 
world that to be truly great, you must be truly good. 

Was I to stop here, the picture would be incomplete, 
and the task imposed unfinished. Great as was our 
Washington in war, and as much as did that greatness 
contribute to produce ihe American Republic, it is not in 
war alone his pre-eminence stands conspicuous. His 
various talents combining all the capacities of a states- 
man with those of a soldier, fitted him alike to guide the 
councils and the armies of our nation. Scarcely had lie 
rested from his maitial toils, while his invaluable parental 
advice was still sounding in our ears, when he who had 
been our shield and our sword, was called foi'th to act a 
loss splendid but more important part. 

Possessing a clear and penetrating mind, a strong and 
sound judgment, calmness and temper for deliberation, 
with invincible firmness, and perseverance in resolutions 
maturely formed, drawing information from all, acting 
from himself, wiih incorruptible integrity and unvarying 
patriotism ; his own superiority and the public confidence 
alike marked him as Ihe man designed by Heaven to lead 
in the great political as well as military events which 
have distinguished (he era of bis life. 

The linger of an overruling providence, pointing at 
Waishingfon, was neither mi-'Jlaken nor unobserved 

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when, to renlize llic va^t liopi's to \\hiL-h our rcyolutioTi 
had given biith, a change of political system became 

How novel, how grand the (spectacle! Independent 
states stretched over an immense territory, and known 
only by common difEcuUy, clinging to their union as the 
rock of their safety, deciding by frank compaiison oi 
their relative condition, to rear on that rock, under the 
guidance of reason, a common government, through 
whose commanding protection, liberty and order, wilh 
their long train of blessings, should be safe to them- 
selves, and the sure inheiiiance of their posterity. 

Tliis arduous task devolved on citizens selected hy the 
people, from knowledge of their wisdom and confidence 
in their virtue. In this august assembly of sages and 
patriots, Washington of course was found ; and, as if 
acknowledged to be most wise, where all were wise, with 
one voice he was declared their chief. How well he 
merited this rare distinction, how faithful were the labours 
of himself and his compatriots, the work of their hands 
and pur union, strength and prosperity, the fruits of that 
work, best attest. 

But to have essentially aided in presenting to his 
country this consummation of her hopes, neither satisfied 
the claims of his fellow- citizens on his talents, nor those 
duties which the possession of those talents imposed. 
Heaven had not infused into his mind such an uncommon 
share of its ethereal spirit to remain unemployed, nor 
bestowed on him his genius unaccompanied with the cor- 
responding duty of devoting it to the common good. To 
have framed a Constitution, was showing only, without 
ealizing, tlie general happiness. This great work re- 

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mained to Le done ; ai:ci America, steadfast in her prefer- 
ence, with one voice summoned her beloved Washington, 
unpractised as he was in the ditties of civil administra- 
tion, to execute this last act in the completion of the 
national felicity. Obedient to her call, he assumed the 
high office with that self-distnist peculiar to his innate 
modesty, the constant attendant of pre-eminent virtue. 
What was the burst of joy through our anxious land on 
this exhilarating event is known to us all. The aged, 
the young, tbe brave, the fair, rivaled each other in 
demonstrations of their gratitude ; and this high- wrought, 
delightful scene was heightened in its effect, by the sin- 
gular contest between the zeal of the bestowers and the 
avoidance of the receiver of the honors bestowed. Com- 
mencing his administration, what heart is not charmed 
wilh the recollection of the pure and wise principles an- 
nounced by himself, as the basis of his political life. He 
best understood the indissoluble union between virtue and 
happiness, between duty and advantage, between the 
genuine maxims of an honest and magnanimous policy, 
end the solid rewards of public prosperity and individual 
felicity ; watching with an equal and con;iprehensive eye 
over this great assemblage of communities and interests, 
he laid the foundations of our national policy in the un- 
erring, immutable principles of morality, based on reli- 
gion, exemplifying the pre-eminence of a free govern- 
ment; by all the attributes which win the affections of 
its citzens, or command the respect of the world. 

Leading through the complicated ditficulties produced 
by previous obligations and conflicting interests, seconued 

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by succeeding houses of Congvess, enlightened and pa- 
tjiotic, he surmounted all origiaal obstruction, and bright- 
ened the path of our national felicity. 

The presidential term expiiing, his solicitude to ex- 
rhange exaltation for humility returned with a force 
increased with increase of age ; and he had prepared his 
farewell address to his couDtrymen, proclaiming his inten- 
tion, when the united interposition of all around him, 
enforced by the eventful prospects of the epoch, produced 
a further sacrifice of inclination to duty. The election 
of President followed, and Washington, by the unani- 
mous vote of the nation, was called to resume the Chief 
Magistracy. What a wonderful fixture of confidence ! 
Which attracts most our admiration, a people so correct, 
or a citizen combining an assemblage of talents forbid- 
ding rivalry, and stiffing even envy ilself ? Such a nation 
ought to be happy, such a chief must be for ever revered. 

War, long menaced by the Indian tribes, now broke 
out; and the terrible conflict, deluging Europe with 
blood, began to shed its baneful influence over our 
happy land. To the first, outstretching his invincible 
arm, under the orders of the gallant Wayne, the Ameri- 
can eagle soared tiiumphant through distant forests. 
Peace followed victory ; and the melioration of the con- 
dition of the enemy followed peace. Godlike virtue, 
■Ji-hich uplifts even the subdued savage. 

To the second he opposed himself. New and delicate 
>vas the conjuncture, and great was the stake. Soon did 
bis penetrating mind discern and seize the only course, 
continuing to us all the felicity enjoyed. He issued his 
proclamation of neutrality. This index to his whole 
subsequent conduct was sanctioned by the approbation 

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of both houses of Congress, and by the approving voice 
of the people. 

To this sublime policy he inviolably adhered, unmoved 
by foreign intrusion, unshaken by domestic turbulence. 

" Juslum el tenacem propoeifi virum, 
Non civium ardor prava jubentium, 
Non yultus inslanlis lyranni, 
Menle quulit folida." 

Maintaining his pa"--^*-- system at the expense of no 
duty, Americii. I'dithful to herself, ami subtained in her 
hoQor, vontimied to enjoy the delights of peace, while 
atflicted Europe mourns in every quarter under the accii- 
muiated miseries of an unexampled war; miseries in 
which our happy country must have shared, had not our 
pre-eminent Washington been as firm in council as he 
was brave in the field. 

Pursuing steadfastly his course, he held safe the public 
happiness, preventing foreign war, and quelling internal 
discord, till the revolving period of a third elecfion 
approached, when he executed his interrupted but inex- 
tinguishable desire of retumiag to the humble walks of 
private life. 

The promulgation of his fixed resolution stopped the 
anxious wishes of an affectionate people, from adding a 
third unanimous testimonial of their unabated confidence 
in the man so long enthroned in their hearts. When be ■ 
fore was affection like this exhibited on earth ? Turn 
over the records of ancient Greece ! Review the annals 
of mighty Rome ! Examine the volumes of modern 
Europe ; you search in vain. America and her Wash- 
ington only afford the dignified exemplificafion. Tko 

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illustrious personage called by the nalional voice in suc- 
cession to the arduous office of guiding a fi'ee people, 
had new difficulties to encounter. The amicable effort 
of settling our difficulties with France, begun by Wash- 
ington, and pursued by his successor in virtue as in sta- 
tion, proving abortive, America took measures of self- 
dei, . „„_ jjq sooaer was the public mind roused by a 
pi'ospect oi j-no-er, than every eye was turned to the 
Mend of all, though sca.,ried from public view, and gray 
in public service. The virtuu-., veteran following his 
plough, received the unexpected sumiuovis with mingled 
emotions of indignation af the tinmejited ill-trectment of 
(lis country, and of a determination once more to rt&k 
his all in her defence. 

The annunciation of these feelings, in hia affecting 
letter to the President, accepting the command of the 
army, concludes his official conduct. 

First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his 
countrymen, he ivas second to none in the humble and 
endearing scenes of private life: pious, just, humane, 
temperate, and sincere, uniform, dignified, and com- 
manding, bis example was as edifying to all around him 
as were the effects of that example lasting. 

To his equals he was condescending ; to his inferiors 
kind ; and to the dear object of his affections exemplarily 
tender. Correct throughout, vice shuddered in his pre- 
sence, and virtue always felt his fostering hand ; the 
purity of his private character gave eS'ulgence to his 
public virtues. 

His last scene comported with the whole tenor of his 
life; although in extreme pain, not a sigh, not a groan 
escaped him; and with undisturbed serenity he closed 

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his well-spent life. Such was the inRii America has lost, 
such was the man for whom our nation mourns ! Metbinka 
I see his august image, and hear, falling from his vener- 
able lips, Ihese deep- sinking words : 

"Cease, sons of America, lamenting our separation: 
go on, and confirm by your wisdom the fruits of our joint 
councils, joint efforts, and common dangers. Reverence 
religion ; diiTuse knowledge Ihroiighout your land ; patron- 
ize fhe arts an<l sciences ; let liberty and order be in- 
separable companions; control party-spirit, the bane of 
free government ; observe good faith to, and cuhivate 
peace with all nations ; shut up every avenue to foreign 
influence ; contract rather than extend na:ional con- 
nexion; rely on yourselves only; be American in thought 
^nd deed. Thus will you give immortality to that union, 
which was the constant object of ray terrestrial labours. 
Thus will you preserve undisturbed to the latest posterity 
the felicity of a people to me most dear; and thus will 
you supply (if my happiness is now aught to you) the 
only vacancy in the round of pure bliss high Heaven 

FniDAT, Depembeb 27, 1799. 
On n motion made and seconded that the House do come to the fullow- 

The House of Representatives of the United States, highly 
gratified with the manner in which Mr. Lee has performed the ser- 
vice assigned to him, under the resolution desiring the President of 
the Senate and Speaker of the House of Representatives to reiiuesl 
one of the members of Congress to prepare and deliver a funeral 
oration on the death of George Washington ; and desirous of com- 
r lo their feiiow-citizens, through tlie meiiium of tho 

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prpss, those scntiinciils of resjieet for the cliaracter, of gratitudR 
for the services, and of grief for the death, of that illustrious per- 
sonage, which, felt by all, have, on this melancholy occasion, been 
BO well expressed : 

Rc^olsed, That tlie Speaker present the thanks of this House to 
Mr. Lee, for tlie oration delivered by him to both Houses of Con- 
gress on Thursday, the twenty-sixth instant; and request tliat he 
will permit a copy thereof to be taken for publication : 

MoHDAY, December 30, 1799. 

The Speaker informed the House that, in pursunnco of the rBsolulion 
of Friday last, he had addressed to Major Gerieral Henry Lee, one of 
the members for the State uf Virginia, the following letter ; 

" PMladelpMa, December 37, 1799. 

"DeahSir: The enclosed resolutions, which unanimously passed 
the House of Representatives thia day, will make known to you 
how highly they have been gratified with the manner in which you 
have performed tlie eervice assigned to you, in preparing and de- 
livering a funeral oration on the death of General Washington. 
Tliat our constituents may participate in the gratification we have 
received from your having so well expressed those sentiments of 
respect tor the character, of gratitude for the services, and of grief 
for the death, of that illustrious personage, I flatter myself you will 
not hesitate to comply with the request of the House, by furnishing 
a copy of your oration, to be talien for publication. 

"Allow me, while performing this pleasing (ask of ofRcia] duly 
in communicating an act of the representatives of the people, so 
just to you and so honorable to themselves, to embrace the oppor- 
tunity to declare that 

"I am, personally, with great esteem and sincere regard, deal 
sir, your friend and obedient servant, 


"The Honorable Maj. Gen. Lee." 

To vvliich Mr, Lee had replied as follows : 

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" Franklin Court, December 28, 1709. 

" Deah Sir : I owe lo the g-oodness of the House of Represeiita- 
tites the honor which their resolutions confer on my humble efforts 
lo execute their wish, 

"I can nerei disobey Iheir will, and therefore will furnish a 
copy* of the oradon delivered on the late afflicting occasion, much 
as 1 had flattered myself with a different disposition of it. 

" Sincerely reciprocating the personal consideration with which 
you honor me, I am, very respectfully, sir, your friend and obedient 

" The SpEAKKit of tlie House of Representatives." 

Mr. Marshall, from the joint comniitlee appoiuled lo prepare snA report 
measures in honor of the memory of General George Washington, made 
s further report, in part ; which was read and considered ; WUereupon, 

It was unanimoualy resolved that the House do agree lo ihe lollowing 

Resolved hy the Smatt and House if Hepresenlaiives of ihe United 
Slates of America in Congreae oasemhted. That it be recommenilad 
to the people of the United States to assemble, on the twent)'- 
second day of Febrnnry next, in such numbers and manner as may 
be convenient, publicly to testify tlieir grief for the death of Gene- 
ral George Washington, by suitable eulogies, orations, and dis- 
courses, or by public prayers. | 

And it is further resolved, That the President be requested lo 
i<isue a proclamation, for the purpose of carrying the f( 
liition into effect. 

Ordered, That Iho clerk of this House do carry the said 

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tTliaae resolutions were n 
1799, and appioved by llie 
Januaty, 1800.] 


A message was received from the President of ihe United Slatea, by 
Mr. Adams, notifying that the President did, this day, approve and sign 
certain enrolled resolutions, whith originated in this Ilouee. directing 
furlher measures in honor of the memory of General George Woahrngton. 

Oidered, Thai the clerk of this Hotise do acquaint tlie Senate there- 

A mc-iaige 1 1 « ntjng wa^ rei"eived from the President of the United 
States by Mr fehaw, hi" secretary, as follov/elh: 

Genlkmsn of Ike Snuile, aiid 

Gentlemen of Ike Uottse of Eeprcsentaltves! 

In eotnplunce inth the request in one of the resolu^ona of Con- 
gress of the twenty first of December last, I transmitted a copy of 
those resolutions, by my secretary, Mr. Shaw, to Mrs. Washing- 
ton, assur ng her of tiip prolound respect Congress will ever bear 
to her person and character, of thpir condolence in the late afflict- 
ing diapensition of Providence, and entreating her assent to the 
interment of the remains of Genera! George Washington, in tJie 
manner exjiressed in the first resolution. As the sentiments of 
that virtuous lidy, not less beloved by this nation than she is at 
present greatly afflicted, can never be so well expressed as in her 
own words, I transmit to Congress her original letter. 

ll would be an attempt of too mnch delicauy to make any com- 
ments upon it ; but there can be no doubt that the nation at largo, 
as well as ail tlie branches of the Government, will be highly 
gratified by any arrang-ement which may diminish the sacriiice slie 
makes of her individual feelings. 


Uniied Stales, January 6, 1800. 

The letter refortcd to in the said message is as follows: 

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"Mount Vernon, December 31, 1799. 

" Sir : Wliile I feel, with keenest anguish, the late dis- 
pensation of Divine Providence, I cannot be insensible to 
the mournful tributes of respect and veneration which are 
paid to the memory of my dear deceased husband ; and, 
as his best services and most anxious wishes were always 
devoted to the welfare and happiness of his country, to 
know that they were truly appreciated and gratefully re- 
membered affords no inconsiderable consolation. 

" Taught, by that great example which I have so long 
bad before me, never to oppose my private wishes to the 
public will, I must consent to the request made by Con- 
gress, which you have had the goodness to transmit to 
me ; and, in doing this, I need not, I cannot, say what a 
sacrifice of individual feeling I make to a sense of public 

" With grateful acknowledgments and unfeigned thanks 
for the personal respect and evidences of condolence ex- 
pressed by Congress and yourself, I remain, very respect- 
fully, sir, your most obedient humble servant, 


Tha said mEBHi5ge, and letter aoooropanying ihe same, were read, and 
ordered to be i-eferrod to the joint commillee sppoiiiTed the nineteenth 
ultimo, on receipt of the inlenigence of the death of General George 
Wasliington, to prepare and report meaaurea suitable to the occasion. 

Feidiy, March 28, 1800. 

Sesolved, That all letteta and packets to Mra. Martha Washington, 
relict of the late General George Washington, shall be received and con- 
veyed by post, free from poalage, for and during her life. 

Ordered, That a bill or bills be brought in pursuant to the said rcsolu 
tion ; and that Mr. Henry Lee, Mr. Kittera and Mr. Dennis, do nrepare 
and bring in tiie aame, 


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Mr. Henry Li!e, from Ihc cotnmittce appomted, presented, according 
lo order, a liill lo extend the privilege of franking letlare and paeiiagea 
lo Martha Washington ; which was received, and read the first time. 

On motion, the said bill was read the aecund lime, and ordered to bs 
engiossed, and read the third lime on Monday next. 

MoNDAT, March 31, 1800. 
An engroBsed billlo exlend the privilege of franking leiters and pack- 
ages to Martha Washington, was read the third time. 
Sesolved, That the said bill do pass ;— 

AN ACT to extend the privilege of franking letters and 
packages to Martha Washington. 

Beit enacted bi/ ike Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of the United Stales of America in Congress as- 
sembled. That »ll letters and packages to and from Martha 
Washington, shall be received and conveyed by post free 
of postage, for and during her life. 



is received from the President of the 

Gentlemen of (he Senate, and 

Gentlemen of the House of Representatives : 

The letter nerewith transmitted* vfill inform you that it 

lao pleased Bivine Providence to remove from this life 

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our excellent fellow- citizen George Washington ; by the 
purity of his character, and a long series of services to 
his country rendered illustrious through the world. It 
remains for an affectionate and grateful people, in whose 
hearts he can never die, to pay suitable honors to his 
memory. JOHN ADAMS. 

United Stoics, December 19, 1799. 

The mesaage and teller were rend. 
Ordered, That they lie for considerntion. 

A meBaage from ihe House of Represectaiives, by Mr. Oswald, in iJio 
absence of their clerk : 

Mr. Pretldent: The- House of RepreBenOtives haring received inielli- 
genre of the death of their highly -yalued fc How-cilia en, General George 
Washington, and sharing the universal grief this distresaing event must 
producfl, have Eeaolved, That a joint comtnillee be appointed, to reporl 
measures suitable to the occasion, and OLpi-eesive of the profound sorrow 
wilh which Congresa is penetrated on the loss of a citizen, first in war, 
lirsl in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen ; and having ap- 
pointed a committee on their part, desire the ooncurrenca of the Senate, 
And he withdvew. 

The Senate proceeded to consider the foregoing resolution of Ihe House 
of Representatives. Whereupon, 

Etsolved, That they do concur therein, and that Messrs, Dayton, Bing- 
ham, Dexter, Gunn, Ijaurance, Tracy, and Read, be the committee on 
the part of the Senate. 

Ordered, That the Secretary acquaint the House of Kepresentatiyes 
with the concurrence. 
On motion, 

Hesolved, That the Senate will wait on the Tresident of the Unitea 
States, to condole with him on the disti-essing event of the death of Gene- 
ral George Washington ; and that a committee ba appointed 10 prepare, 
for that occasion, an address lo the President of the United States, ex 
presaive of the deep regret of (he Senate ; and that this committee con- 
sist of Messrs. Dexter, Ross, and Read. 

Eeaalved, That the chairs in the Senate chamber be covered, and tiie 
room hung with black, and that each member, and the olRcers of Ih 

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Senato go Inlo mourning, by l]ie usual mode of wearing a craps round 

The Senile adjourned lo IJ o'clock on Monday morning. 

MoHDiT, December 33, 1799. 

Mr. Dcilcr, from ihe commillee, appointed for the purpoee on the 18th 

inst., reparlcd ilie draught of an addrcaa to Ihe Fregidenl of the United 

States, on the death of General George Washington j which being read 

in paragraphs, was adopted, as follows i 

To the President of the United States • 

The Senate of the Uiittd Stites respectfully take leave, 
sir, to ex[.reos to jou their deep regret f>r the loss their 
country sustains la the death ol Geneial George Wash- 

This event, so distressing to ill our fellow-citizens, 
must be pcculitrly heavy to yo i who hive long been as- 
sociated with him in deeds oi potiiolism Permit us, sir, 
to mingle our tears with jours on this occasion it is 
manly to weep To lose ouch a man, at such a crisis, is 
no common calamity to the world our country mourns 
her Father The Almighty Disposer of human events has 
taken from us our greatest benefactor and ornament. It 
becomes us to submit with reverence to him who " maketh 
darkness his paviHon." 

With pattiotic pride we review the life of our Wash- 
ington, and compare him with those of other countries, 
who have been pre-eminent in fame. Ancient and modern 
Udmes are diminished before him. Greatness and guilt 
have too often been allied ; but his fame is whiter than it 
is brilliant. The destroyers of nations stood abashed at 
the majesty of his virtue. It reproved the intemperance 
of their ambition, and darkened the splendor of victory. 
The scene is closed, and we are no longer anxious lest 

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misfortune should suCy his glory ; he has travelled to the 
end of his journey, and carried with him an increasing 
weight of honor; he has deposited it aafely, Mhere mis- 
fortune cannot tarnish it, where malite cannot blast it. 
Viivored of Heaven, he departed without exhibiting the 
weakness of humanity. Magnanimous m death, the dark- 
ness of fhe grave could not obscure his bnghtness 

Such was the man whom we deplore Thduks to God ! 
his glorj is consummated ; Washington yet Hves — on earth 
in his spotless example— his spirit is in heaven. 

Let his countrymen consecrate the memory of the he- 
roic general, the patriotic statesman, and the virtuous 
sage ; let them teach their children never to forget that the 
fridt of his labors and his example are their inheritance. 
President oftlte Senate, pro tempore. 

Ordered, Tliat tie commitlee who prepared the address, wait on the 
Presidera of ihe United Statea. and desire him to aoquiunt ihe Senate at 
what tima and place it will be moat convenient (or him that it should bo 

Mr. Deiler reported, from the commitlae, that they had waited on the 
President of the United States, and that he had acquainted iliem that he 
would receive the address of the Senate immediately, at hie own house. 

Whereupon, the Senate wailed on the President of the United Stales, 
and the President of the Senate, in their name, preaenied Ihe addreaa 
this day agreed to. 

To which the President of the United Stales was pleased to make tho 
following reply :— 

Gentlemen of tlie Senate ; 

I receive, with ihe most respectful and affectionate 
sentiments, in this impressive address, the obliging ex- 
pressions of jour regard for the loss our country has suff- 

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tamed in the death of her most esteemed, beloved, and 
admired citizen. 

In the multhude of my thoughts and recoHections on 
this melancholy event, jou will permit me only to say, 
that I have seen him in the days of adversity, in some of 
the scenes of his deepest distress and most frying per- 
plexities : I have also attended him in his highest eleva- 
lion, and most prosperous felicity, with uniform admiration 
of his wisdom, moderation, and constancy. 

Among all our original associates in that memorable 
league of the continent in 1774, which first expressed the 
sovereign will of a free nation in America, he was the 
only one remaining in the general government. 

Although, with a constitution more enfeebled than his, 
at an age when he thought it necessary to prepare for re- 
tirement, I feel myself alone, bereaved of my last brother; 
yet I derive a strong consolation from the unanimous dis- 
position which appears, in all ages and classes, to mingle 
their sorrows with mine, on this common calamity to the 

The life of our Washington cannot suffer by a com- 
parison with those of other countries who have been most 
celebrated and exalted by fame. The attributes and 
decorations of royalty could have only served to eclipse 
the majesty of those virtues which made him, from being 
fi modest citizen, a more resplendent luminary. Misfor- 
tune, had he lived, could hereafter have sullied his glory 
only with those superficial minds, who, believing that cha- 
racters and actionj are marked by success alone, rarely de- 
serve to enjoy it. Malice could never blast his honor, and 
envy made him a singidar exception to her universal rule. 
For himself, he had lived enough to life, and to glory. 

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Foi' his fellow-ciiizens, if their prayers could have been 
answered, he would have been iinmorlal. For me, his 
departure is at a most unfortunate moment. Trusting, 
however, in the wise and righteous dominion of Provi- 
dence over the passions of men, and the results of their 
councils and actions, as well as over their lives, nothing 
remains for me but humble resignation. 

His example is now complete, and it will teach ^visdom 
and virtue to magistrates, citizens, and men, not only in 
the present age, but in future generations, as long as our 
history shall be read. If a Trajan found a Pliny, a Mar- 
cus Aurelius can never want biographers, eulogists, or 
historians. JOHN ADAMS. 

United States, December 33, 1799. 

The Senale relumed to ilieir own cliamher. 

A nieasBgc from ilie Bouse of RepresentaiivcE. hy Mr, Coiidy, tlieir 

Mr. President ! The joint commitlee appoiuled on the pari of tha 
House of RepresBolatives, on the 19lli inslant, on the receipt of tlie in- 
telligence of the death of General George Washington, having mads 
report to that House, ihey have agreed !<( sundry tesolutiona tliereupon, 
in wliioh ihey desire the conourrence of the Senale. And he withdrew. 

Mr. Dayton, from the joint eommiltee, appointed the I9ih instant, on 
the part of the Senale, on the receipt of iha intelligence of the death of 
General George Washington, reported in piist, and the report was agreed 
to. Whereupon, 

Besalved, UBanimousfy, That the Senate do concur in the aforesaid 

TbubsdaT, DeceheeB 26, 1799. 

In conformity to the resolve of the 33d instant, the Senate want in 
procession to the German Lutheran Church, where was delivered an 
oration* in honor of the memory of General George Washington. Aflej 
whish, they relumed to their own chamber ; and 

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Fkiday, Decemeee 27, 1799. 



lated, ihrougb 

1 to the mmnorj' of General George Washington, which he pro- 
pored and doliyored al the request of Congress. 

Eesolveil, That the Secrolary be directed to apply to General Lcc for 
a copy of the same. 

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I. In seeking, among the great mass of erary ma at has 

emanated from the able and intelligent mil ds h n arts of 

the statestaen of the Revolution, for compo o s o p d tbns 
which imbody more completely than any othe s and w h n the 
smallest compass, the true principles, objects and d s gns duties 
and responsibilities, of the American Gov n n unde he Con- 
BtitQtion, none can be found comparable to he nangura add esses 
of those wise and true patriots who brough w h hen he pre- 
sidential office, not only the experience Ihej had a qu ed those 
times when ihe energies and resources of the stoutest hearts and 
ablest minds were constantly in requisition, but the advantages of 
the highest intelligence, resulting from that investigation of causes, 
and deliberation upon elfects, constituting the prominent character- 
istics of truly great minds. These worthy spirits had witnessed 
and felt the oppression of the colonial system of bondage ; tha 
want of a general government for the United Colonies in the com 
mencementand progress of the Revolution; the total Ineificiency 
of the old form of government under Sie Confederation ; and soma 
had taken part in, while all had been eye-witnesses of, the eSicient 
and paternal administration of government under the Constitution 
by the great and good Washington, '['he sentiments and princi- 
ples emanating from such sources, upon a sabject so momentous, 
cannot fail to be highly interesting and instructive to the young 
statesmen and patriots of our country; while, to every American 
citizen capable of reading and understanding, they will be an in 
valuable means of judging properly of the views and orincip'M 

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of the public men wlio may be candidalfis for thmt suffugfl and 
fevor; for, if liieir declarations and sentiments contradict those 
contained in tliese inaugural addresses, doubts may well be enter- 
tained of their soundness or sincerity, and every man will be jus- 
tified, in the exercise of his birthright as an American citizen, in 
supporting tlie Constitution as understood and executed by its 
framers and best friends. 

(Will be found with his political acts in Chapter 4, p. 211.) 

MiKCH 4, 1797. 
When it was first perceived, in early times, Ihat no middle 
course for America remained between unlimited submission to a 
foreign legislature and a total independence of its claims, men of 
rellection were less sppreheasive of danger froni tlie fonnidabla 
power of fleets and armies they must determine to resist, than from 
those contests and dissensions which would certainly arise con- 
cerning tjie forms of government to be instituted over the whole 
and over the parts of liiis extensive country. Relying, however, 
on the purity of their iiileotions, the justice of their cause, and the 
integrity and intaliigence of the people, under an ovenuling Pro- 

, which ha<r so signally protfict«d this country from the 
I tne represenlatives of this nation, then consisting of llll'" 
a than half its present number, not only bmke to pieces tl 

e foro^ng, and the rod of iron tiiat was lifted up, 
but frankly cut asunder the ties which bad bound them, and 
launched into an ocean of uncertainty. 

The zeal and ardor of the people, during the revolutionary war, 
supplying the place of government, commanded a degree ol order, 
sufficient at least for tlie tfimiiorary preservation of society The 
Confederation, which was early felt te be necessary, was prepared 
from the models of ihe Batavian and Heivetie contederaciei — the 
only examples which remain, with any detail and precision, in 
history, and certainly the only ones which tlie people at lai^ had 
ever considered. But, reflecting on the ■itiiLmg diflerence, in so 
uuiny particulars, between tJiis ooui tij and il jsc \\l ere a c;uner 

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may go from the seat of government to Ihe frontier in a single day, 
It was Chen cerlainly foreseen, by some who assisted in Oongxess 
at the formation of it, that it oonld not be durabie. 

Negligenee of iia regnlatione, inattention to its recommenda- 
tions, if not disobedience to ils autlaority, not only in individuals, 
but ia Statea, soon appeared, with their melancholy consequences; 
universal liinguoi; jealousies and rivalries of StaMs; decline of 
navigation and commerce; discouragement of necessary manufao- 
tnrea; universal fall in the value of lands and their pioduce; con- 
tempt of public and private faith ; loss of consideration and credit 
with foreign nations ; and, at length, in diseontenta, animosities, 
combinations, partial conventions, and insurrection, tiireatening 
some great national calamity. 

In this dangerous crisis, the people of America were not aban- 
doned by tlieir usual good sense, presence of mind, resolution, or 
integrity. Measures were pursued to concert a plan to form a 
more perfect union, establish justice, ensure domestic tranquillity, 
provide for the common defence, promote the ffenoral welfare, and 
secure the blessings of liberty. The public disquisitions, diecus- 
eions, and deliberations, issued in the present happy constitution 
af government. 

Employed in the service of my country abroad during the whole 
lourse of these transactions, I first saw the Constitotion of the 
ITiiitod States in a foreign country. Irritated by no literary alter- 
cation, animated by no public debate, heated by no party animo- 
sity, I read it with great satisfection, as the result of good heads, 
prompted by good hearts — as an experiment, better adapted to tlie 
genius, character, situation, and relations, of tills nation and coun- 
try, tiian any which had ever been proposed or suggested. In its 
general principles and great outlines, it was conformable to such a 
system of govornment as I had ever moat esteemed, and in some 
States, my own native State in particular, had contributed to esta- 
blish. Claiming a right of suffrage, in common with my fellow- 
citizens, in the adoption or rejection of a Constitution which wa.^ 
to rule me and my posterity, as well as them and theirs, I did not 
hesitate to express my approbation of it, on all occasions, in polilio 
and in private. It was not then, nor has been since, any objection 
to it, in my mind, that the Executive and Senate were not more 
piTmanent. Nor have 1 ever entertained a thought of promoting 
any alteration in it, but such as the people themselves, in the 
course of their experience, should see and feel to be necessary or 
expedient, and, by iheir w presents tives in Congress and the State 
legislatures, according to the Constituljon itself^ adopt and ordain. 

Returning to the bosom of my country, after a painful separation 
from it, for ten years, I had the honor to be elected to a station 
under the new order of things, and 1 have repeatedly laid myself 

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under the most, serious obligations to support tlie Conalitiition. 
The operation of it has equalled the most sanguine expectations 
of ila friends; and, from an habitual attention to it, satisfaction in 
its adrainistratinn, and delight in its effects upon the peace, order, 
prosperity and happiness of the nation, 1 have acquired an habitual 
attacntnent to it and veneration for it. 

What other form of government, indeed, can so well deserve 
our esteem and love? 

There may be littie solidity in an ancient idea, that congrega- 
tions of men into cities and nations are the most pleasing objects 
in the sight of superior intelligences ; but this is very eerlain, that, 
to a benevolent human mind, there can be no spectacle presented 
by any nadon more pleasing, more noble, majestic, or august, than 
an assHmbly like that which has so often been seen in this and the 
other chamber of Congress, of a government in which the execu- 
tive authority, as well as that of all the branches of the legisla- 
ture, are exercised by citizens selected, at regular periods, by their 
neighbors, to mate and execute laws for the general good. Can 
any thing essential, any thing more than mere ornament and deco- 
mtion, be added to this by robes and diamonds 1 Can authority be 
more amiable and respectable wlien it descends from accidents, or 
institutions established in remote antiquity, *an when it anringa 
fresh from the hearts and jndgmentn of an honest and enlightened 
people 1 For it is the people only that are repreaenied i it is tlieir 
power and majesty that is reflected, and only for ilieir good, in 
every legitimate government, under whatever form it may appear. 
The existence of such a government as ours, for any length of 

time, is a full proof of a general dissemination of knowledge and 
TirtuB throughout the whole body of the people. And what object 
or consideration more pleasing than this can be presented to l\\e 
human mindl If national pride is ever justifiable, or excusable, 
it is when it springs, not from power or riches, grandeur or glory, 
bu' from oonvicUon of national innocence, inlormation, and be- 

In the midst of these pleasing ideas, we should be nnfaithful to 
ourselves if we should ever lose sight of the danger to our liber- 
ties — if any thing partial or extraneous sliould infect the purity of 
our free, ^ir, virtuous, and independent elections. If an election 
is lo he determined by a majoritj" of a single vole, and tJiat can be 
procured by a |>arly, through artifice or corruption, the government 
may be the choice of a party, for its own ends — not ol the nation, 
for the national good. If that solitary suffrage can be obtained by 
foreign nations oy flattery or menaces, by traud or violence, by 
terror, intrigue, or venality, the government may not be the choice 
of the American people, but of foreign nations. It may be foreign 
nations who govern us, and not we the people w!io gH"ern ou> 

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selves. And candid men will aeknowled^, that, in snch eases, 
choice would have little advantage to boast of, over lot or chance. 

Sueli is the amiahle and interealing- system of government (and 
such are some of the ahuses to which it mav be exposed) which 
the people of America have exhibited to tlie admiration and anxiety 
of the wise and virtuous of all nations, for eight years, under the 
administration of a citizen, who, by a long couree of great actions, 
regalated by prudence, justice, temperance, a.nd fortitude, conduct- 
ing a people inspired with the same virtues, and animated with the 
same ardent patriotism and love of liberty, to independence and 
peace, to increasing wealth and unexampled prosperity, has merited 
the gratitude of his fellow-citizens, commanded the highest praises 
of foreign uBtions, and secured iminorta! glory with posterity. 

In tliat retirement which is his voluntary choice, may he long 
live to enjoy the delicious recollection of his services, the gmti- 
tude of mankind, the happy fruits of them to himself and the 
world, which are daily increasing, and that splendid prospect of 
the future fortunes of tliis country which is opening from year to 
year. His name may be still a rampart, and the knowledge that 
he lives a bulwark, .against all open or secret enemies of his coun- 
try's peace. This example has been recommended to tlie iuiitatior 
of his successors, by botii housos of Congress, and by the voice 
of the legislatures and the people throughout tlie naljon. 

On this subject it might become me better to be silent, or to 
speaJi with dimdence; but, as something may be expected, tiie 
occasion, I hope, will be adiuitled as an apology, if I venture to 
say, 'ITiat — 

If a preference, upon piinciple, of a free republican government, 
formed upon long and serious reflection, after a diligent and im- 
partial inquiry after truth ; if an attachment to the Constitution of 
the United States, and a conscientious determination to support it, 
until it shall be altered by the judgments and wishes of '^e people, 
expressed in tlie mode prescribed in it; if a respectful atteotion to 
tlie constitutions of the individual Stales, and a constant caution 
and ilelicaoy towards the State govornmeuts; If an equal and tm- 
]>artial regard to the rights, interest, honor, and happiness, of all 
tlie Slates in the Union, without preference or regard to a northern 
or southern, an eastern or western poslUon, their various political 
opinions on unessential points, or their personal attachments ; if a 
love of virtuous men, of all parties antt deno mi nations ; if a love 
of science and letters, and a wish to patronize every rational effort 
to encourage schools, colleges, universities, academies, and every 
institution for propagating knowledge, virtue, and religion, among 
all classes of the people, not only for their benign iuAuence on the 
happiness of life in all its stages and classes, and of society in all 
its forms, but as the only means of preserving oor Constitution 

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t'xom its natural enemies, tlie spirit of sophistry. Hie spirit of part;?, 
tlie spirit of intrigue, the profligacj' of corruption, and the pesti 
lence of foreign influence, wliieli is the ange] of destrucfjon to 
elective governments ; if a love of equal laws, of justice, and hu 
manity, in the interior administration ; if an inclination to improve 
agriculture, commerce, and manufaelnres for necessity, conve- 
nience, and defence; if a spirit of equity and humanity Cowards 
the aboriginal nations of America, and a disposition to meliorate 
their condition, by inclining them to be more friendly to us, and 
DOT citizens to be more friendly to them ; if an inflexible determi- 
nation to maintain peace and inviolable faith with all nations, and 
tliat system of neutrality and impartiality among the belligen 

io solemnly sanctioned by both houses of Congress, and up- 
plauded by the legislatures of the States and the public opinion, 
until it snail be otherwise ordained by Congress; if a personal 
esteem for the French nation, formed in a residence of seven years 
chiefly among them, and a sincere desire to preserve She friendsliip 
which has been so mnchi for the honor and interest of both nations ; 
if, while the conscious honor and integrity of the people of 
America, and the internal sentiment of their own power and eneiv 
gies, must be preserved, an earnest endeavor to investigate every 
just cause, and remove every colorable pretence of complaint; if 
an intention to pursue, by amicable negotiation, a reparation for 
the injuries that have been committed on the commerce of our fel- 
low-citizens, by whatever nation, and, if success cannot he ob- 
tained, to lay the tacts before the legislature, that they may con- 
sider what further measures the honor and interest of the Govern- 
ment and its constituents demand ; if a resolution to do justice, us 
iar as may depend upon me, at all times and to ail nations, and 
maintain peace, fiiendship, aiid benevolence, with all the world ; 
if an unsnahen coniidence in the honor, spirit, and reeonices of 
the American people, on which I have so oflen hazarded my all, 
and never been deceived; if elevated ideas of the higli destinies 
of this country, and of my own duties towards it, founded on a 
knowledge of the moral principles and intellectuai improvements 
of the people, deeply engraven on my mind in early iifu, and not 
obscured, but exalted, by experience and age; and, with liumble 
reverence, 1 feet it to be my duty to add, if a veneradon for the re- 
ligion of a people who profess and call themselves Christians, and 
a lixed resolution to consider a decent respect for Christianity 
among the best recommendations for the public service, — can en- 
able me, in any degree, to comply with your wishes, it shall be 
my strenuous endeavor that this sagacious injunction of the two 
liouses shall not be \vithout effect. 

With this great example before me — with the sense and spirit^ 

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tlie faith and hone 

people, pledged to support tl 

I euteitam no doubt of its continuance in all its energy, and my 

mind is prepared, without hesitation, to lay myself nnder the most 

eolemti obligations to support it to the utmost of my power. 

And may that Being who is snpieme over all, the Patron of or- 
der, the Fountain of justice, and tiie Protector, in all ages of ths 
world, of virtuous liberty, continue His blessing upon this nation 
and its Government, and give it all possible suucess and duration; 
' It with the ends of his Providence ! 


MiBOH i, 1801. 
Friends and felhw-citizens i 

Called upon to undertake th d f h fi. ve ofllce 

of our countiy, I avail myself f I p ' P ^'^"'^ °^ 

my fellow-citizens which is he as hi d Jtp grateful 

thanks for the favor with whi h I y i hce pi d to look 
towards me, lo declare a sine re ac II task is 

above my talents, aod that I pp h w J th ous and 

awful presentiments which th gre f h h and the 

weakness of my powers so jus !y n p A , spread 

over a wide and fruitful land i rs 11 h w h the rich 

productions of their industry; gag d n nm w h nations 
who feel power and forget righ dva g p dly to destinies 
beyond the reach of mortal ey — wh I ] 1 le b ee trana- 

cendant objects, and see tlie I h h pp d he hopes 

of this beloved country comm ted to h nd h pices of 

this day, I shrink from the contenpl o a d humb! yself be- 
fore the magnitude of the undertaking. Utterly, indeed, should I 
despair, did not the presence of many whom I here see remind me 
that in the other high authorities provided by our Constitution 1 
shall find resources of wisdom, of virtue, and of lea!, on which to 
rely under all difSeulties. To you, then, gentlemen, who ara 
charged with the sovereign functions of legislation, and to those 
associated with you, I look with encouragement for that guidance 
and support which may enable us to steer with safety the vessel in 
which we are all embarked, amidst the conAictiiig elements of a 
troubled world. 

During tJie contest of opinion through which we have passed, 
the animation of discussions and of esertions has sometimns worn 
an aspect which mi^jht im.po3e on strangers, unused to think 

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freely, and to sprsk and to write wbat they thinlc ; but, this being 
)!ow decided by thi' voice of the nation, announced, according to 
Uie ralee of the C\ nstitution, all will, of course, arrange them- 
selves under the will of the law, and unite in common efforts for 
the common good. aU, too, nill bear in mind this sacred prin- 
ciple, that, though the viil of the majority is in all cases to pre- 
Tuil, that will, to be right "ill, must be reasonable ; that tbe minority 

Eossesa their equal rights, Y'hich equal laws mnat protect, and to vio- 
ite would be oppression. Iiet db, then, fellow-citizens, unite with 
one heart and one mind ; let, us rcHtore to social intercourse that 
harmony and affection without which liberty and even life itself are 
but dreary things. And let us .'eflect, that, having banished from 
our land that reli^oas intolerance under which manliind so long 
bled and suffered, we have jet gained little, if we countenance a 
polilieal intolerance as despotic, as wickeJ, and capable of as bitter 
and hloody persecutions. During the throes ana convulsions of 
the ancient world; during the agoniziiig spasms of infuriated man, 
seeking, through blood and slaughter, his long-lost liberty, it was 
not wonderful that the agitation of the billows should reach even 
this distant and peaceful sboxe ; that tiiis should be more felt and 
feared by some, and less by others, and should divide opinions as 
to measures of safety : but every difference of opinion is not a dif- 
ference of principle. We have called by different names brethren 
of tlie same principle. We are all republicans: we are all federalists. 
If there be any among us who would wish to dissolve this Union, 
or to change its republican form, let them stand, undisturbed, as 
monuments of the safety with which error of opinion may he lols- 
raled, tv/iere reason is Uft free to consul it. 1 know, indeed, that 
some honest men fear tbat a republican government cannot be 
strong — that this Government is not strong enough. But would 
^e honest patriot, in the full tide of successful experiment, aban- 
don a Government which has so far kept us free and Urm, on the 
theoretic and visionary fear that this Government, the world's best 
hope, may, by possibility, want energy to preserve itself! I trust 
not. 1 believe this, on the contrary, tbe strongest Government on 
earth. I believe It the only one where every man, at the call of the 
law, would fly to the standard of tbe law, and would meet inva- 
sions of the public order as his own personal concern. Sometimes 
It is said that man cannot be trusted with the government of him- 
self. Can he then be trusted with the ^OTernment of others 1 Or 
have we found angels, in tlie form of kings, to govern him! Let 
history answer this question. 

Let us, then, with courage and confidence, pursue our own fede- 
ral and republican principles — our attachment to union and repre* 
ecntativH gnvernment. Kindly separated by nature and a wide 
ocean from the exterminating havne of one ciuaTtBT of the globe; 

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t«o high-minded to endure the degradations of the others ; possess- 
ing a chosen country, widi room enough for our descendunta to the 
thousandth and thousandth generation ; entertaining a due sense 
of our equal right to the use of our own Inoulties, to the acquisi- 
Qons of our own Industivi to honor and confldenoe from our fellow* 
citizens, resulting, not ftoni hittia, but from our actions, and their 
sense of them; enlightened by a benign reli^on, professed, iri- 
deed, and practised, in various forms, yet all of them inculooling 
honesty, truth, temperance, gratitude, and the love of mnn ; ac- 
knowledging and adoring an overruling Providence, which, liy all 
its dis[)ensatioiis, proves that it deiiglils in the iiapniness of man 
li(>re, and his greater happiness hereatter,— with all these blessings, 
what more is necessary to malie us a happy and prosperous people i 
Sfiil one thing more, fellow-citizens : a wise and frugal Govern- 
ment, which Shalt restrain men from Injuring one another, Ehall 
leave them otlierwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry 
and improvement, and shall ]iot lake from the mouth of labor the 
bread it has earned. This is the sum of good government, and 
this is necessary to close the circJe of our felicities. 

About to enter, fellow-citiiens, on the exercise of duties which 
comprehend every thing dear and valuable to yon, it is proper you 
should understand what I deem the essential principles of our Go- 
vernment, and, consequently, those which ought to shape its ad- 
ministration. I will compress them within the narrowest compass 
they will bear — stating the general principle, but not all its limita- 
tions. Eijual and exact justice to all men, of whatever state or 
persuasion, religious ot political ; peace, commerce, and honest 
friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none; the 
support of the State governments in all their rights, as the most 
competent administrations for our domestic concerns, and the 
surest bulwarks against anti-republican tendencies ; the preserva 
tion of the General Government in its whole constitutional vigor, 
as the sheet-anchor of our peace at home and safety abroad ; a 
l^ous care of the right of election by the people ; a mild and safe 
corrective of abuses which are lopped by the sword of revolution, 
where peaeed)le remedies are unprovided ; absolute acquiescence 
in the decisions of tiie majority, the vital principle of republics, 
from which is no appeal but to force, the vital principle ana imme- 
diate parent of despotism ; a well-disciplined militia, our best re' 
iianoe in peace, and for the first moments of war, till regulars may 
relieve them ; the supremacy of the civil over the military authority ; 
economy in the public expense, that labor maybe lightly bur- 
dened ; the honest payment of our debts, and sacred preservation 
cf the public fiiith ; encouragement of agriculture, and of com- 
merce as its handmaid ; the diffusion of information, and arraign- 
ment of all abuses at the bar of the public reason; freedom of r«- 

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, froeclom of the press, and freedom of paraon, under the 
tlon of the habeas corpus ; and trial by juries impartially se- 
lected. Tliese principles form the bright eonstellation which has 
gone before us, and guided our steps through an age of revolution 
and leformation. The wisdom of our sages and blood of our he- 
roes have been devoted to their attainment. They should he the 
creed of our political feith, the text of civic instruction, the touch- 
stone by which to try the services of those we trast ; and should 
we wander &om them in moments of error or of alarm, let us 
hasten to retrace our steps, and to regain the road which alone 
leads to peace, liberty, and safety. 

I repair, then, fellow-citizene, to the post you have assigned me. 
With experience enongh in subordinate offices lo have seen the 
difficulties of this, the greatest of all, I have learnt lo expect that 
it will rarely fell to the Tot of imperfect man to retire from this sta- 
tion with the reputation and the &vor which hronght him into it. 
Without pretensions to that high confidence yon reposed in our 
first and greatest revolutionary character, whose pre-eminent ser- 
vices had entitled him to the first place in his country's love, and 
destined for him tlie fairest page in the volume of faithful history, 
I ask so much confidence only as may give firmness and effect to 
the legal administration of your afTairs. I shall often go wrong, 
through defect of judgment. When right, I shall often he thought 
■wrong hy those whose positions will not command a view of the 
■whole ground. I ask your indulgence for my own errors, which 
will never he intentional, and your support against the errors of 
others, who may condemn what they would not if seen in all its 
parts. The approbation implied by your suffrage is a great conso- 
lation to me for the past; and my future solicitude Will be, to re- 
tain the good opinion of those who have hestowed it in advance, 
to conciliate that of others by doing them all the good in my 
power, and to be instrumental to the liappiness and freedom of all. 

Relying, then, on the patronage of your good will, I advance 
with obedience to the work, ready to retire from it whenever you 
become sensible how much better choices it is in your power to 
make. And may that Infinite power which rules the destinies of 
the universe, lead our councits to what is best, and give them a 
favorable issue for your peace and prosperity. 

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Mahch 4, 1805. 
ProoeedLng, fellow-citizens, to tliat qualification which tlie Con- 
stitution requires before my entrance on the charge agnin conferred 
on me, it ia my duty to express the deep sense I entertiiin of this 
new proof of confidence from my fellow-citizens at large, and the 
aeal with which it inspires me so to conduct myself as may best 
saUsfj their just especlations. 

On taliine this station, on a former occasion, I declared the prin- 
ciples on which I believed it my doty to administer the affairs of 
our commonwealth. My eonscienoe lells me 1 have, on every oc- 
casion, acted up to that declaration, according to its obvious im- 
port, and to the understanding of every candid mind. 

In the transaction of your foreign affairs, we have endearored 
to cultivate the friendship of all nations, and especially of those 
witii which we have tiie most important relations. We have done 
them justice on ail occasiona, favor where fevor was lawful, and 
cherished mutual interests and intercourse od lair and equal terms. 
We are firmly convinced, and we act on that conviction, that with 
nations, as with individuals, onr inl«rest3, soundly calculated, will 
ever be found inseparable from our moral duties ; and history bears 
witness to the fiiet, that a just nation is trusted on its word, when 
recouiiae is had to armaments and wars to bridle others. 

At home, fellow-citizens, you best know whether we have done 
well or ill. The suppression of unnecessary ofiices, of useless 
establishments and expenses, enabled us to discontinue our inter- 
nal taxes. These, covering our land with officers, and opening 
OUT doors to their intrusions, had already begun that process of 
domiciliary vexetion, which, once entered, is scarcely to be re- 
Btrained from reaching, successively, every article of property and 
produce. If, among these taxes, some minor ones fell, which had 
not been inconvenient, it was because tiieir amount would not 
have paid the officers who collected them, and because, if they 
had any merit, the State authorities might adopt them instead of 
otiiers less approved. 

The remaining revenue, on the consumption of foreign articles, is 
paid chiefly by those who canaffotd to add foreign lusunes to domes- 
tic comforts. Being collected on our seaboard and frontiers only, and 
incorporated with the transactions of our mercantile citizens, it 
may be the pleasure and the pride of an American to ask, what 
former, what mechanic, what laborer, ever sees a tax-gatherer of 
the United Slates 1 These contributions enable us to support tha 
current expenses of tlie GovurnLnejit j to fulfil contracts with fo- 

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reign nations ; to extin^isli tlie native right of soil within our 
iimils ; lo extend those limits ; and to apply such a surplus lo our 
public debts 33 places at a stiort day their final ledeinption: and, 
that redeinpdon once efTected, the lerenue thereby liherated in<iy, 
by a just repartition of it amotig the States, and a correspond ing 
amendment of the Constitution, be applied, in time of peace, to 
rtTers, canals, roads, arts, manufectures, educatioii,and other great 
objects, within each Stat«. In time # war, if injustice by car- 
selves or others must someUmes procfoce war, .'ncreased, as iha 
same rerenne will be, by increas^ population and conBampdon, 
and aided by other resources reserved for that crisis, it may meat, 
witliin the year, all die expenses of the year, without encroaciing 
on the rights of future generations, by burdening them with the 
debts of 3ie past. War will then be but a suspension of useful 
works; and a return to a state of peace, a return to the pregresa 
of improvement. 

1 have said, fellow- citizens, that the income reserved had ena- 
bled us \o extend our limits; but that extension may possibly pay 
for itself before we are called on, and, in the mean time, may 
keep down the accruing interest; in all events, it will replace the 
advunces we shall have made. I linow chat the acquisition of Loo- 
isiana has been disapproved by some, from a candid apprehension 
that die enlargement of our territory would endanger its union. 
But who can liniit tiie extent to which tine federative principle may 
operate effectively 1 The larger our associaiion, the less will it be 
shaken hj local passions ; and, in any view, is it not better that 
the apposite bank of the Mississippi should be settled by our own 
brethren and children, than by strangers of another fiiinilyl With 
which should we be most liliely to live in harmony and friendly 
intercourse 1 

In matters of religion, I have considered that its free exercise is 
placed by the Constitution independent of the powers of the Gene- 
ral Government. I have therefore undertaken, on no occasion, to 
prescribe the religious exercises suited to it, but have left them, as 
the Constitution found them, under the direction and discipline of 
tlie church or State authorities acknowledged by the several reli- 

The aboriginal inhabitants of these countries I have reg;aTded 
with tlie commiseration their history inspires. Endowed witli the 
faculties and the rights of men, breatiiing an ardent love of liberty 
and independence, and occupying a country which lefl them no 
desire but to be undisturbed, the stream of overflowin? population 
from other regions directed itself on these abores. "Without power 
to divert, or habits to contend against it, thfy have been over- 
whelmed by the current, or driven before it. Now (educed within 
jiiiiilii too narrow for the hunter stiite, humanity enjoins us to teach 

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n to thai it 

their plac 
, . , « of society wliich 

to bodily nomforts adds the improvement of ths mind and morals. 
We hafe, Hereford, libemilj Airniehed them witli the implements 
of husbandry and household use : we have placed among' them in- 
structors in the arts of first necessity ; and Ihey are covered with 
tJie !egis of the law against Hggreseora from among ourselves. 

But the endeavors to enlighten them on the fate which awaits 
their present course of life, to induce them to exercise their reason, 
follow its dictates, and change their pursuits witii the chan^ of 
circumstances, have powerful obstticles t« eocoonier. The^f are 
combated by the habits of their bodies, prejudices of their minds, 
ignorance, pride, and the influence of interested and crafty indi- 
viduals among tliem, who feel themselves something in the present 
order of things, and fear to become nothing in any other. These 
persons inculcate a sanctimonious reverence for the customs of 
their ancestors; that whatsoever they did must he done through all 
time; that reason is a false guide, and to advance under its counsel 
in Uieir physical, moral, or political condition, is perilous innova- 
tion ; that their duty is to remain as the Creator made thein — igno- 
rance being safety, and knowledge full of danger. In short, my 
fnends, among iJiem, also, is seen the action and counteraction of 
good sense and of bigotry. They, too, have tlieir anli-philoso- 
phists, who find an interest in keeping things in their present atsfe, 
who dread reformation, and exert all their feculties to maintain the 
ascendency of habit over the duty of improving our reason and 

In giving these outlines, I do not mean, fellow-citiaens, to arro- 
gate to myself the merit of the measures : that is due, in tho first 
place, to the reflecting character of our citiaens at large, who, by 
the weight of public opinion, influence and strengthen the public 
measures. It is due tu the sound discretion with which they select 
from among themselves those to whom they confide the legislative 
duties. It is due to the aeal and wisdom of the characters thus 
selected, who lay the foundations of public happiness in whole- 
some laws, the execution of which alone remains for others And 
it is due to the able and faithful auxiliaries whose patriotism has 
associated fiiem with roe in the eieculive func^ons 

Daring this course of administration, and in order to disturb it, 
the artillery of the press has been levelled Against us, charged with 
whatsoever its licentiousness conld devise or dare. Fhese abusea 
of an institution so important to freedom and science are deeply to 
be regretted, inasmuch as they lend to lessen its usefulness and tc 
Siip its safety. 'I'hey might, indeed, have been corrected by the 
wholesome punishments reserved to and provided by the laws ol 

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ihe several Slates against falsehooil and Jofamallon ; but publio 
duties, more urgent, press on the time of public servants, and tlie 
offenders bave tlierefoie been left b> find their punishment in tliQ 
public indimiation. 

NorWBSitunin re h w d tl i experiment should 

be Mrly and fully dub reed m discussion, unaided 
by power, is not ffi h paga n and protection of 

truth 'i Whether a g t, nd lelf in the true spirit 

of its constitution v/ d p ty d doing no act wliich 

it would be unwi g h wh w d h Id witness, can be 
written down by h d d d an The esperiment has 
been tried. You h w d h sc n Out fellow-itizens 

looked on cool and collected. They saw the latent source from 
which these outrages proceeded. They gathered around their pub- 
lic functionaries; and, when the Constitution called them to the 
dBcision by suffrage, they pronounced their verdict honorable to 
those who had served them, and consolatory to the friend of man, 
who heiieves tliat he may be trusted with the control of his own 

No inference ia here intended that the laws provided by the 
States agiiinst ^se and delamatory puhlicutions snould not be en- 
forced. He who has time, renders a service to publio morals and 
public tranquillity in refonning these abuses by the salutary coer- 
cions of the law. But the experiment is noted to prove that, since 
truth and reason have maintained tlieir ground agiunst false opi- 
nions, in league with fiilse 6ctB, the press, confined to truth, needs 
no otiier legal restraint. The public judgment will correct false 
reasonings and opinions, on a full bearing of all parties ; and no 
other definite line can be drawn between the inestimable liberty of 
the press and its demoralizing licentiousness. If there be still 
improprieties which this rule would not restrain, its supplement 
must ue sought in the censorship of public opinion. 

Contemplating the union of sentiment now manifested so gen- 
erally, as auguring harmony and happiness to our future course, I 
offer to our country sincere congTatulations. With those, too, not 
yet rallied to the same point, the disposition to do so is gaining 
strengtii. Facts are piercing tlirough the veil drawn over them ; 
and our doubting bretliren will at length see that tiie mass of their 
fellow-citizens, with whom they cannot yet resolve to act, as to 
principles and measures, tliink as tiiey think, and desire what they 
>lestre; that our wish, as well as theirs, is, that the public efforts 
may be directed honestly to tlie public good, that peace be culti- 
vated, civil and religious liberty miaasailed, law and order pre- 
lerved, equality of rights maintained, and t^at state of property, 
equal or unequal, which results to every man from bis own indns- 
UV or that of hia father's. When satisHed of these views, it ia 

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not in hum iii n^turp tlial tliey should not approve and support 
them. In the mean time, let us cherish them with patient affec- 
tion ; let ua do them justice, and more than justice, in all oompe- 
tilions of Interest, — and we need not doubt that truth, reason, and 
their own interests, will at length prevail — will gather them into 
tbe fold of their country, and will complete tiiat entire union of 
opinion which gives to a nation the blessing of harmony, and the 
benelit of all its strength. 

I shall now enter on the duties to which my fellow-citiBons have 
again called me, and shall proceed in the spirit of those principles 
which they have approved. 1 fear not that anjj motives of interest 
may lead me astray. I am sensible of no passion which could se- 
duce me, knowingly, from the patii of justice ; but the weEitnessea 
of human nature, and the limits of my own understanding:, will 
produce errors of judgment sometimes injurious to your interests. 
I shall need, therefore, all the indulgence which I have heretofore 
experienced from my constituents. The want of it will certainly 
not lessen with inoreasing years. I shall need, too, tbe favor of 
tiiat Being in whose hands we are ; who led our fethers, as Israel 
of old, from their native land, and planted them in a country flow- 
ing with all the necessaries and comforts of life; who has covered 
our infenoy wiiJi His providence, and our riper years with His 
wisdom and power; and to whose goodness I ask you to join in 
supplications with me, that He will so enlighten the minds of your 
servants, guide their councils, and prosper their measures, that 
whatsoever they do shall result in your good, and shall secure to 
you the peace, friendship, and approbation of all nations. 


MiEOH 4, 1809. 

Genlkmeti of the Senate, and of the House of Bepresentalives i 
IJnwilling to depart from examples of the most revered authority, 
1 avail myself of tlie occasion now presented, to express the pro- 
found impression made on me, by tlie call of my country, to the 
station, to the duties of which I am about to pledge myself, by tiia 
most solemn of sanctions. So distinguished a mark of confidence, 
proceeding from tbe deliberate and tranquil suffrage of a free and 
virtuous nation, would, under any circumstances, have commanded 
my gratitude and devotion, as well as tilled me with an awful sense 
of the trust to be assumed. Under the various circumstances which 
give peculiar solemnity to the existing period, I feel that boUi tlie 

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honor and the resiionaibllity alloUcd to nio, are inexpressibly en- 

Tlie present situation of the world is, indeed, williout a paraliei; 
and that of our country fuli of difEculties. The presaare of thess 
two is tlie more severely felt, because they have fallen upon us at 
a moment when national prosperity, being at a height not before 
attained, the contrast resulting from this change has been rendered 
the more striking. Under the benign influence of our republican 
institutions, and the maintenance of peace with ail nations, whilst 
eo many of them were engaged in bloody and wasteful wars, the 
fruits of a juat policy were enjoyed in an unrivalled growth of our 
faeultiea and resources. Proofs of this were seen in the improve- 
ments of agriculture; in the successful enterprises of commerce; 
in the progress of raanu&ctures and useful arts; in the increase of 
the public revenue, and the use made of it in reducing the public 
debt; and in the valuable works and eatabiishiuents everywhere 
multiplying over the face of our land. 

It is a precious reflection, that the transition from this prosperous 
condition of our country, to the scene which has for some time 
been distressing us, is not chargeable on any unwarrantable views, 
her, as I trust, on any involuntary errors in the public councils. 
Indulging no passions which trespass on the rights or the respose 
of other nations, it has been the true gloiT' of the United States to 
cultivate peace, by observing justice, and to entitle theniselves to 
the respect of the nations at war, by fulfilling tlieit neutral oblJM- 
tioQS with the most scrupulous impartiality. If there be candor 
in the world, the trii^i of these assertions will not he questioned. 
Posterity, at least, will do justice to them. 

This uneseeptionable course could not avail against the injustice 
nnd violence of the belligerent powers. In their rage against each 
otiier, or impelled by more direct motives, principles of retaliation 
have been introduced, equally contrary to universal reason and ac- 
knowledged law. How long their arbitrary edicts will be con- 
tinued, in spile of the demonstrations that not even a pretext fur 
tliem has been given by tlie United States, and of the fa a d 
liberal attempts to induce a revocation of tliem, cannot be a t 
paled. Assuring myself that, under every vicissitude, the dete 
mined spirit and united councils of the nation will be safeg a Is 
to its honor and its essential inlBrests, I rep^r to the post ass g ed 
me, with n(i other discouragement than wliat springs from ny ow i 
madeqnacy to its high duties. If I do not sink under the ve ^i t 
of this deep conviction, it is because 1 lind some support in a con 
aciousness of the purposes, and a coufldeoce la the principles 
which I bring with me into this arduous service. 

To cherish peace and friendly intercourse with all nations, having 
correspondent dispositions ; to maiutiln sincere neutralitj' towards 

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es, amicable discussioD anil 

_ !3, to a decision of Uiem by 

an appeal to arms; lo exclude foreign intrigues and foreign par- 
liaJities, so degrading to all countries, and eo banefal to free ones ; 
to foster a spint of independence ; too just to invade the rights of 
otliera; too proud to surrender our own ; too liberal to imjulge un- 
worthy prejudices ourselves, and too elevated not to look down 
upon them in otliers ; to hold the union of the States as the basis 
of their peace and happiness } to support the Constitution, which 
is the cement of die Union, as wejl in its limitations as in its au- 
thorities ; to respect the rig'hts and authorities reserved to the 
States and to the people, as equally incorporated with, and essen- 
tial to the success of the general system ; to avoid the slightest 
interference with the rights of conscience, or the functions of reli- 
gion, so wisely exempted from civil jurisdicdon; to preserve, to 
their full enei^y, the other salutary proviaLons in behalf of private 
and personal rights, and of the freedom of the press; to observe 
economy in public expenditures; to liberate the public resources 
by an honorable dischai^ of the public debts; to keep within the 
requisite limits a standing military force, always remembering, that 
an armed and trained ruBltia is the firmest bulwark of repubiica ; 
that without standing armies their liberty can never be in danger, 
nor, with lar^ ones, safe; to promote, by authorized means, im- 
provements friendly to agriculture, to maoufectures, and to external 
as well as internal commerce; to favor, in like manner, the ad- 
vancement of science and tlie diffusion of information, as the best 
aliment to true liberty ; to carry on the benevolent plans which 
have been so meritoriously applied to the conversion of our abori- 
ginal neighbors, from the degradation and wretchedness of savage 
life, to a participation of the improvements of which the human 
mind and manners are susceptible in a civilized slate : As far as 
' ' ' ' ■ ■' s such as these can aid the fulfilment of 

my duty, tliey will be a resource which c: 

It is my good fortune, moreover, to have the path in which I am 
to tread, lighted by examples of illustrious services, sucoesafully 
rendered in the most trying difficulties, by tiiose who have marched 
before me. Of iJiose of my immediate predecessor, it might least 
become me here to speak — I may, however, be pardoned for not 
suppressing the sympathy, witit which my heart Is fall, in the rich 
reward he enjoys in the benedictions of a beloved country, grate- 
fully bestowed for exalted talents, zealously devoted, tiirough a 
long career, to the advancement of its highest interest and happi 
uess. But tlie source to which I look for the aids, wliioh alone 

a supply my deficiencies, is in tie well-tried intelligence and 


virtue of my fellow-citizens, and in die councils of those rejire 
aenting tbem in tiie otlier departments associated in the care of th« 

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na^onal inWrests. In these my contirtenco will, under every diffl- 
culty, be best placed; nest to that which we have all been en- 
couraged to feel in the guardianship and guidance of that Almighty 
Being, whose power regnlates the destiny of nations, whose bless- 
ings have been so conspicuously dispensed to this rising Republic, 
and to whom we are bound to address our devout gratitude for the 
past, as well as our fervent supplications and best hopes for the 

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These acts and parts of acts, forming a peculiar class of general 
Import, being spread through the raass of laws, a copy of wliieh is 
not always accessible, are inserted here for public c 
They prescribe the forms of oaths to support tlie Cor 
aiithoiize oaths to be administered by the presiding officers of the 
two Hoases, and chairmen of the committees of Congress ; relate 
to the election of President and Vice President ; declare the officer 
who shall act as President in case of vacancies in ofiices, both of 
President and Vice President ; provide compensation to the Presi- 
dent and Vice President; to messengers to deliver electoral rofes ; 
apportion the Representatives in Congress according to the last 
census, and prescribe the district election of Representatives ; esta- 
blish a uniform time for holding elections for Electors, and pre- 
scribe the mode in which the public acts, records, and judicial pro- 
ceedings, in each Slate, shall be authenticated so as to take effect 
in every other State ; provide for the protection of Ambassadors and 
other public ministers ; for tlie preservation of the neutrality of the 
United Stales, and establish Little & Brown's edition of the laws 
and treaties of the United States competent evidence in alt thecoorts 
and offices of the United Slates and of the several Slates, &c. 

Sec. 1. Be il €>tnetid by tfiC Senate and Rouse of Bepi-esentaUvf! of tut 
Un-iled Slates oj America in Cmgresi asiemlihd. Thai the oolh or afEr 

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molion required by Iha sixth article ot the Constitudon of the United 
Slates, fihaU he adminiateced in the form following, lo win "/.J-Jf., 
da loUmalT/ swear or affirm t,as the case may be) tiiat I viill support tte 
ConalitittiaTt of Ihe United States," The said OHth or affirmation elioll 
be admiaistered within three days after the passing of this act, by any 
one member of the Senate, to tlie President of the Senale, and by him 
to all the members, and to the Secretary ; and by the speaker of the 
ifouaa of Repreaentativsa to all the members who have not taken a 
aimilar oath, by virtue of a particular reeolution of the eald House, and 
(0 the clerk : And in case of the absence of any member from the ser- 
vice of either House at the time prescribed for taking the said oath or 
afFirmation, the same shall be administered to such member when he 

Sec. 2. And be il/Mthet exacted, That at the first session of Congress 
after every general election of representatives, the oath or affirmation 
aforesaid shall be administered by any one member of the House of 
Representatives to the speaker ; and by him to all the members prBsent, 
and to the clerk, previous to entering on any other business; and to the 
members who shall afterwards appear, previous lo taking their seals. 
The President of the Senale for the time being, shall also administer the 
said oath or affirmation to each Senator who shall hereafter be elected, 
previous to his taking his seat! And in any future case of a President of 
the Senate, who shall not have taken the said oa h ffi m ' n h 
same shall be administered to him by any one of h b f h 


Sec. 3. And be it fitrther enacled, That the memb f h I 

State legislatures, at the next aessiona of the said I g I p 

ively, and all esecutive and judicial officers of the ral ea wh 

have been heretofore chosen or appointed, or who si II b h n p 
pointed before the first day of August next, and wh h II h n b n 
office, shall, within one month thereailer, lake the same oath Or affirma- 
tion, except where they shall have taken it before i which may be ad- 
ministered by any parson anthoriued by the law of the State, in which 
such ofKee shall be holden, to administer oaths. And the members of 
llie several State legislatarea, and all eiecutiva and judicial officers of 
the several Stales, who shall be chosen or appointed after the said Eirst 
day of August, shall, before they proceed to execute the duties of their 
respective oliicea, talte the foregoing oath or affirmation, which shall hfl 
administered by the person or persons, who, by ilie law of the Stale, 
Hball be authorized to administer the oath of office ; and the person or 
jii'rsons so administering the oath hereby requited to be taken, shall 
caiiso a rec:ord or certihtato thereof to be itiade, in the same manner aa, 

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by the law of tlie State, he or tlicy sliall be directed (0 record or cenify 
the onlh of office. 

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted. Thai all officers Bppointed, or here- 
attet to be appointed, uader the authority of the United States, shall, 
before they act in iheir respective offices, lake the same onlh or gfTirma- 
tion, which ehall be administered by the person or persona who shall be 
suihorized by law to administer to such officers their respective oaths of 
office ; and such officeva shall incur the same penalties in case of failure, 
as Ehall be imposed by law in case of fniliue m taking their respective 
oaths of oHice. 

Sec. 5. And be U furtlter enacted, That the Secretary of the Senate, 
and the Clerk of the House of Representatives, for the time being, shall, 
at (he time of Caking the oath or affirmation aforesiud. each take an oatli 
or affirmation in the words following, to wit: "I, A. S., Secretary of the 
Senate, or Clerk of the Home of Mepretentativea (as the case may be) of 
the United Smtea 1^ America, do aole?iailil sviear or aJiTm. that I wiUtruls 
and faithfully discharge the daliei iffnty taidoSice, to the best ofmylaiBW- 
ledge and oiilities," 

Approved, June 1, 1789 

3. AN ACT for the puiiisliment of certain crimes agoinat the United 

Sec. 35. And he il further enacted. That if any writ or process sbali at 
any time hereafter be sued forth or prosecuted by any person or persons, 
in any of the courts of the United Slates, or in any of the courts of a 
particular State, or by any judge or justice therein respectively, whereby 
the person of any ambassador or other public minister of any foreign 
prince or Stale, authorized and received as sucii by the President of the 
United States, or any domestic or domestic servant of any such ambas- 
Bodor or other public minister, may be arrested or imprisoned, or his or 
their goods or chattels be distrained, seized or attached, such writ or 
process shall be deemed and adjudged to be utterly null ajid void to all 
intents, construction and purposes whatsoever. 

Sec. 36. And be U further exacted. That in case any person or persons 

sons, and all attorneys or solicitors prosecuting or soliciting in sueli case, 
and all officers esacuting any such writ or process, being thereof con- 
victed, shall be deemed violators of the laws of nations, and diAturbers 
of the public repose, and imprisoned not eiceediug three years, and fined 
at the discretion of the court. 

Sec. 37. Provided neveriheleit, That no citizen or inhabitant of iha 

United States, who shall haue contracted debts prior to his entering inio 


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the service of aiiysmbasEiidur or otlier public minister, wliicli deblssliall 
be still due and unpaid, shall have, talie, or receivu any benefit of tliia act, 
nor shall any person be proceeded against by virtue of this act, for having 
arrested or sued any other domestic servant of any ambassador or ocn«r 
public minister, unless the name of such servant be first registered in the 
office of the Secretary of State, and by such secretary transmitted to the 
mardial of Ihe district in which Congress slinll reside, who shall, upon 
receipt thereof, bjSh tbs siuiie in soma public place in his office, whereto 
all persons may I'esort and take copies wilh<iut fee or reward. 

Sec. 28. Awl be it farlher enacted. That if any person shall vblate any 
eafa.conduct or passport duly obtained and issued under the authority of 
the United States, or shall assault, strike, wound, imprison, or in ony 
other manner infract the law of nations, by ofTering violence to the per- 
son of an ambassador or other public minister, such person so oifending, 
on conviction, shall be imprisoned not exceeding three years, and lined at 
Ihe discretion of the court. 

Approved, Ap-d 30, 1790. 

3. AN ACT to prescribe the mode in which the pubUc acta, records, 
and judicial proceedings, in each State, shall be authenticated so as to 
take effect in every otbcr State. 

Be it enacted ly the Settale and Hmise of Beprescniatives of the United 
States of America in Cangreta assen^led. That the acts of the legislatures 
of the several States shall be authenticated by having the seal of their 
respective Stwes affixed thereto: — That the records and judicial pro- 
ceedings of Ihe courts of any Stale shall be proved or admitted in any 
other court within the United States, by the attestation of the clerk, and 
the seal of the court annexed, if there be a seal, together with a certifi- 
cate of the judge, chief justice, or presiding magistrate, as the case may 
he, that the said attestation is in due form. And the said records and 
judicial proceedings, authenticated as aforesaid, shall have such faith 
dnd credit given to them in every court within the United Stales, as they 
liave by law or usage in the courts of the State from whence the said 
records arc, or sliall be token. 

Approved, iWuj26, 1790. 

*. AN ACT supplemental to the act " eslablishing the Treasury De- 
partment," and for a farther compensation to certain officers, 
''ec. 2. And be it fuTlher enacted, That eacn and every clerk, and other 
officer alre^idy appointed in any of ihe deportments of the United Stales, 
and who have not, since their appointment, token llic oath or aliiriiia- 

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lion hereafter mcnlioneci,) ahiill, wilhiii lifteen dnys after Ihs pBBsiug of 
this act, and those who shall herenfter be appointed, ahall, before ihcy 
enter npon the dutiea of Buth appoinlmenl, lake an ualli or afHrmaiioiu 
before one of the justices of Ihe Supremo Court, or one of the judges of 
a district court of the United Stales, to eapjmrt ths Canetitalion of Ihe 
United States, and also an oath or affinnation, well and f aithf ally to exe- 
cute the trust committed to him, which oaths or affirmations, subscribed 
by such clerli, and certified by the person administering the aame, shuil 
be iiled in the office of Ihe person employing such clerk. 

Afproiietl, 3 March, 1791. 

aion of n Treaident and Vice Preaidenl 
ifing the officer who almll act aa Presi- 
dent in cases of vacancies in the olHcea both of President ami Vice 

Sec. 1. Beil enacted by the Senate and House of Eepreaetilatives of lie 
United Statet of Asierica in Congress assembled. That excepi in case ol 
an election of a President and Vice President of the United States, prior 
to the ordinary period, aa hereinafter specified, electors shall be appointed 
in each State for the election of a President and Vice President of the 
United Slates, wilhin thirty-four days preceding the first Wednesday in 
December, one Ihousand seven hundred and ninety-two, and within 
(hirty-four days preceding the firat Wednesday in December in every 
Ibarth year succeeding ihe last election, which electors shall be equal to 
the number of Senators and Representalives to which the several States 
may, by law, be entitled at the lima when the Preaident and Vice Proai- 
denl, thus to he chosen, should come into office. Pioinded alicays. That 
where no apportionment of Representatives shall have been made after 
any ennmeration, at the time of choosing electors, then the number of 
electors shall be ajicording to the enisling apporttonmenl of Senatoi's and 

Sec. 2. Atvl be ilfuHher enacted. That the electora shall meet and give 
iheir votes on the said first Wednesday in December, at such p'ace, hi 
eaoii Slate, as shall be directed by the legialatnre thereof; and the eloe 
tors in each State ehall make and sign three certfficatea of all iJie yolea 
by them given, and ahall seal up the same, certifying, on each, that a list 
of the votes of such State, for President and Vice President, is contained 
therein, and shall, by wriling, under their hands, or under the hands of a 
majority of them, appoint a person to take charge of, and deliver to the 
Preaident of the Senale, at the seat of Government, before the iitsl 
Wednesday in January then next ensuing, one of the said certificaLCs 

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ritid ihB said electors sliall forlhwith forward, by tlie pOBl-oHice, lo llie 
Preeidenl of the Snuate, at lUe seat of Government, one other of the said 
ceriificatea ; and shall, forthwith, cause the other of the said eertifieales 
to be delivered lo the judge of that district in which the aaid eleclora 
ehall assemble. 

Sec. 3. And be it farther enacted, That the executive Qitlhority of each 
Stale ehall causa three lista oi the names of the eleciora of such State to 
be mode, and certified, and to be delivered to the electoru on or before 
the said first Wednesday in December ; and the said electors shall annex 
one of the Enid lists to each of the lists of their votes. 

Sec 4. And be it further enacted, That if a list of voles from any 
State shall not hare been received at the seat of government, on the said 
first Wednesday in January, that then the Secretary of Stole shall send 
a special messenger to the district judge in whoso custody such list shall 
have been lodged, who snail forthwith transmit the same to the seat of 

Sec. 5. And he it farther enacted. That Congress shall be in session 
on the second Wednesday in February, one thousand seven hundred 
and ninety-three, and on the second Wednesday in February succeeding 
every meeting of the electors, and the said certitioBtes, or so many of 
them BB shall have been received, shall then be opened, the votes 
counted, and the persons wlio shall fill the offices of President and Vice 
President ascertained and declared, agreeably (o (he Constitntion. 

Sec. 6. And be it farther enacted. That, in case there shall be no 
President of the Senate at the seal of Government on the arrival of the 
persons intrusted with the lists of the votes of the electors, then such 
persons shall deliver the lists of votes in their custody into the office of 
(be Secretary of State, to be safely kept and delivered over, as soon as 
may be, to the President of the Senate. 

Sec. 7. And be it fvrther enacted. That the persons appointed by the 
electors to deliver the lists of votes to the President of the Sanate, ahoU 
be allowed, on the delivery of the said Usts, twenty^five cents for every 
mile of the estimated distance, by the most usual road, from the place of 
meeting of the electors to the seal of Government of the United Stales. 

Sec. 8. And be it farther enacted. That if any person, appointed to 
deliver the votes of the electors to the President of the Senate, shall, 
aJier accepting of his appointment, neglect to perform the services 
reqnirca of him by this act, he shall forfeit the sum of one thousand 

Sec. 9. And le tt further rnacted. That in ease of a removal, death, 
resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice President of ths 

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Onitud Slales, the Ptesidenl of the Senate pro tempore, and, in cnae 
ihero shall bo no Frcaident of the Senate, tlien the Speaker of the 
House of Representatives, for tlie time being, ehall act ae President of 
tha United Statea, until the disahility be removed, or a President shall 
be elected. 

Sec. 10. And be it farther enacled, That whenever the offices of Pro- 
aident and Vice President eliall both become vacant, iha Secretary ol 
State shall forthwith cause a notification thereof to be made to the exe- 
cutive of evety State, and ahall also cauae the eame to be published in, 
at least, one of the newspapera primed in each State, specilying that 
aleetots of (he President of the United States shall be appointed oi 
chosen, in (he several States, wtthin ihirCy-four days preceding (he firs( 
Wednesday in Deceraber, then next ensiling! Provided, There shall be 
the apace of two months between the date of such notification and the 
Baid first Wednesday in December ; bnt if there shall not be the space 
of two months between the date of Huch notification and the first Wed- 
nesday in December, and if the term for which the President and Vice 
President last in ofHce were elected shall not expu^ on the third day of 
March nezt ensuing, then the Secretary of State shall specify in the 
notification, that the electors shall be appointed or chosen within thirty- 
four days preceding the first Wednesday in December in the year next 
ensuing, within which lime the electors shall accordingly be appointed 
or chosen, and the electors shall meet and give their votes on the said 
first Wednesday in December, and the proceedings and duties of the 
said electors, and others, shall be porsuant to the direcliona prescribed 

Sec 11. And he it further enacted, That the only evidence of a refusal 
to accept, or of a resignation of, the office of President or Vice Presi- 
dent, shall be an instrument in writing, declaring the same, and sub- 
scribed by the person refusing to accept, or resigning, as (he case may 
be, and delivered into the office of the Secretary of Slate. 

Sec. 13. And be it fvHher enacted. That the term of four years for 
which a President and Vice President shall be elected, shall, m all 
eases, commence on the fourth day of March neit succeedine the day on 
which the voles of the electors shall have been given. 

Ayprinied, Marchl, 1793. 

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ihird dny of March, in llie prcseni year, the compensation of llie Presi- 
dent of Ihe United Stales ahall be at the rale of twenty-five tbouaand 
dollara per nnnuni, with the use of the furniture and other effects belong- 
ing to the United States, and now in possession of the President: And 
that of the Vice President, at the rate of five thousand dollars per 
annum ; in full for their respeelive setviees ; to be paid quarter yearly, 
at the Treasury. 

Approtied, Petruffi-y 18, 1793. 

7. AN ACT to authorize certain officers and other persons to admi- 

nister oaths. 

Be it enacted bi/ ihe Senate and House tf Representative! of the United 
Stales qf AmfTica in Congress assembled. Thai Ihe President of the 
SennlB, the Speaker of the House of Repreeemalives, a chairman of a 
committee of the whole, or a chairman of a select committee of either 
House, shall be empowered to administer oaths or allirmations to wit- 
nesses, in any case under their examination- 

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted. That if any person shall wilfnlly, 
absolutely, and falsely swear or sfBrm, touching any matter or thing 
material to the point in question, whereto he or she sliall he thus exa- 
mined, every person ho offending, and being thereof duly convicted, shall 
bo subjected to the pains, penalties, and disabihties, which by law avB 
proscribed for the punishment of the crime of wilful and corrupt per- 
jury. Approved, May 3, 1798, 

8. AN ACT Bupplemenlary lo the act, entitled " An Act to prescribe 
the mode in which ihe public acts, recorda, and judicial proceedings 
in each Slate shall be auih^micated so as lo take effect in every other 

Be it eiiacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
Slates of America in Congress aisembled. That from and after the pas- 
ESgo of this act, all records and exemplifications of office books, which 
are or may be kept in any public office of any Stale, not appertaining lo 
a court, shall be approved or admilled in any other court or office in any 
other State, by the attestation of the keeper of llie said records or books, 
and the seal of his office thereto annexed, if there be a seal, together 
wiih a cerlificale of the presidmg jualice of the court of the county or 
distnol, as the ease may be, in which such office is or may be kept ; or 
of the Governor, the Secretary of State, the Chancellor or the keeper 
of the gi-eat seal of the Stale, that the said alteslation is in duo form and 
ov thepruiiCtolTicer; and ihe said certificate, if given by the presiding 

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juelice of a court, shall be fiirlher Buthenticnted by the clerk or prolUo- 
nolary of llie said court, who shall certify under his hand and the seal of 
his oiHce, that the said preaidmg justice is duly commissioned and quak> 
fiod ; or if the said certificate be given by the Governor, the See]'elary 
of State, the Chancellor or keeper of tlie great seal, it shall be under tha 
great sea! of the State in which the said certificate is made. And tha 
Eaid records and exemplifications, autlienticated as aforesaid, shall have 
Buch liiilh and credit given to them in every court oiid office wiihiii ilio 
United States, as they have by law or usage in the courts or offices ol 
the Stale front whence the eaine are or shall be taken. 

Sec. 2. And be itfurlker enacted, That all the provisions of this act, 
and the act to which this is a supplement, shall apply an well to the 
public acts, records, oiEce books, judicial proceedings, oourta and olhces 
of the respectivo territories of the United States, and countries subject 
10 the jurisdiction of the United States, as to the public acta, records, 
offices' hooks, judicial proceedings, courts and offices of the several 

Approved, March 27, 1S04. 

9. AN ACT to extend the provisions of the act to authorize certain 
ofliccrs and other persons to administer oaths, approved May the 3d, 

Se it enarfetJiy the Senate and House of Sepreseatafivee of the Uniiei 
Stales of .America in Congress assemiled. That the chairman of any 
standing committee, either of the House of Bepresentattvea, or of the 
SenalH of the United States, shall be empowered to administer oaths or 
ufiirmations to witnesses in any case under their examination; and any 
person who shall be guilty of peijury before such committee shall be 
liable to the pains, penalties, and disabilities, prescribed for the punish- 
ment of the crime of wilful and corrupt perjury. 

Appraved, February 8, 1817. 

10. AN ACT to provide for the Publication of the Laws of the Utiitca 

States, and for other purposes. 
Sic 2. Avid he it farther enacted, That, whenever official notice Ghall 
have been received, at the Department of State, that any amendment 
which heretofore has been, or lieroaftcr may be, proposed to the Con 
Blitution of the United States, has been adopted, according lo the provi- 
sions of the Constitution, it shall be tlie duty of the said Secretary of 
Slate, forthwith to cause the said amendment to be published in tne said 
newspapers authcrii^ed to promulgate the laws, with his cerlifKfito, s|i« 

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riTying (he Slates by which ihe i 
the Bume has become valid, lo al 
Constitudoii oi" the Uuiled Suie 

U. AN ACT in addition to the "Act for the punishment of ocrtnio 
erimaa againal tiie United States," and to rcpeai the acts therein men- 

Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the Seriate and House <if Ecpresentatives of the 
United Slates of America in Congress assaaliled, That if any citizen of 
the United States shall, within the territory or jurisdiciion thereof, uc- 
cept and exercise a commission toserve a foreign prince, State, colony, 
diBttiot, or people, in wm, by land or by eea. againal any ptinca. Stale, 
colony, district, or people, with whom the United States are at peace, 
the person so oftending shall be deemed guilty of a high misdemeanor, 
and shall be fined not more than two thousand dollars, and shall be im- 
prisoned not exceeding three yeara. 

Sec 2. And it it fartker enacted. That if any person sliall, within the 
territory or jurisdiction of the United Statefl, enlist or enter himself, or 
hire or retain another person to enlist or enter himself, or to go beyond 
the limits or jurisdiction of the United States with intent to be enlisted 
or entered in the service of any foreign prince. State, colony, disfricl, or 
people, as asoldier, or as a marine or seaman, on board of any vessel of 
war, letter of marque, or privateer, every person, so ofiending, shall be 
deemed guilty of a high misdemeanor, and shall be fined not exceeding 
one thousand dollars, and be imprisoned not eiceeding three years; 
Freijided, That this act shall not be construed to extend to any aubjeet 
or citizen of any foreign prince. State, colony, district, or people, who 
shall transiently be within the United States, and shall, on board of any 
Tessel of war, letter of marque, or privateer, which, at tho timo of its 
arriviJ within the United Stales, was fitted and equipped as such, enlist 
or enter himself, or hire or retain another subject or citizen of the same 
foreign prince, State, colony, district, or people, who is transiently 
within the United States, to enlist or enter himself to serve such foreign 
prince. State, colony, district, or people, on board such vessel of war, 
letter of marque, or privateer, if the United States shall then be at peace 
with such foreign prince, State, colony, district, or people. 

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted. That if any person shall, within the 
limits of ine United Slates, fit out and arm, or attompt to fit out and arm, 
or procute to be fitted out and armed, or shall knowingly be concerned 
ic the furnishing, fittuig out, or arming, of any ship or vessel, with intent 

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tliat sucli sliip or vessel shall be omplaycd in the service of any foreign 
pi'mce or Stale, or of any colony, diairicl, or people, to cruiae or coramit 
hoslililiea against the Eubjecls, citizens, or property, of any foreign piinoe 
or State, or of an? colony, dislrict, or people, with whom (he United 
StalBB are at peace, or ahall issue or deliver a commission within the ter- 
ritory or jurisdiction of the United Stales, for any ship or vessel, to the 
intent that she may be employed as aforesaid, every person so offending 
shall be deemed guilty of a high misdemeanor, and eliall be Uned not 
more than ten thousand dollars, and imprisoned not more than three 
years [ and every such sbip or vessel, with her tackle, apparel, and fur- 
niture, together with all materials, arme, ammuiiitioil and Stores, which 
may have been procured for the building and equipment thereof, shall be 
forfeited, one half to the use of the informer, and the other half to the use 
of the United States. 

Seo. 4. Atidhe it/arlher eiiaaed. That if any citizen or citizens of the 
United States shall, without the limits thereof, fit out and arm, or attempt 
to St out and arm, or procure to be fitted out and armed, or shall know- 
ingly aid or be concerned in the furnishing, fitting out, or arming, any 
private ship or vessel of war, or priiateer, with intent thai such ship or 
vessel shall be employed to cruise, or coimnit hoatlhties, npon the citi- 
zens of the United States, or their property, or shall take the command 
of, or enter on board of, any such ship or vessel, for the intent aforesaid, 
or shall parchss© any interest in any such ship or vessel, with a view lo 
share in the profits thereof, such person, so offending, shall be deemed 
guilty of a high misdemeanor, and fined not more than ten thousand dol- 
lars, and imprisoned not more than ten years; and the trial for such 
ofience, if committed without the limits of the United States, shall be iii 
the district in which the offender shall be apprehended or first brought. 

Sec. 5. And be U/urlhcr enacted. That if any person shall, within iho 
territory or jurisdiction of the United States, increase or augment, or 
procure to be increased or augmented, or shall knowingly be concerned 
in increasing or augmenting, tbo (brce of any ship of war, cruiser, or oilier 
armed vessel, which, at the time of her arrival wilhin the United States, 
was a ship of war, or cruiser, or armed vessel, in the service of any 
foreign prince or Stale, or of any colony, district, or people, or belong- 
ing to the subjects or citizens of any such prince or State, colony, dis- 
lrict, or people, the same being at war with any foreign prince or state, 
or of any colony, dislrict. or people, with whom the United Stales are at 
peace, by adding to the number of the guns of such vessel, or by changing 
those on hoard of her for guns of a larger calibre, or by the addition 
thereto of any solely applicable to ivar, every psraon, so ot 


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Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That if eny pei-son shall, within tlie 
tertitoty or jurisdielioiiof the United Slates, begin or set on foot, or pro- 
vide or prepare the means for, any military expedition or enterprise, to 
bo carried on from thence Bgoinet the territory or dominions of any foreign 
prince or State, or of any colony, district, or people, with whom the 
United States are [at] peace, every person, so offending, shall be deemed 
guiity of a high misdemeanor, and shall be fined not esceeding three 
thousand dollars, and imprisoned not more thEin three years. 

Seo, 7. And be it fuHiet enacted. That the district court shall take 

mode within the waters of the United States, or within a marine league 
of the coasts or shores thereof. 

Skh. 8, And be it further enacted, That m every case m which a ves- 
sel shall be litted out and anned, or attempted to be fitted out and aimed, 
or in which the force of any vessel of war, cruiser, or other armed vessel, 
shall be increased or augmented, or in which any military expedition or 
enterprise shall be begun or set on foot, contrary to the provisions and 
prohibitions of this aotj and in every ease of the capture of a ship or ves- 
sel within the jurisdiction or protection of the United States as beforo 
defined, and in every case in which any process issuing out of any court 
of the United States shall be disobeyed or resisted by any person or per- 
sons having the custody of any vessel of war, cruiser, or other armed 
vessel, of any foreign prince ot State, or of any colony, district, or peo- 
ple, or of any subjects or citizens of any foreign prince or State, or of any 
colony, district, or people, in every such case it shall be lawfai for the 
President of the United States, or such other person as he shall have 
empowered for thai purpose, to employ such part of the land or mval 
forces of the United States, or of the militia the pos 

taking possession of and detaining any such s ss 

prize or prizes, if any, in order to the execution ns 

penalties of this act, and to the restoring the prii m 

m which restoration shall have been aii^'udged, a 
of preventing the carryuig on of any such exped m 

the territories or jurisdiction of the United States 
or dominions of any foreign prince or State, or o 
people, with whom the United States are at pea 

Sec. 9. And be it farther enacted, That it shall 
uent of the United States, or such person as he n po> or or 

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purpose, to employ such pari of the land or naval forces of the United 
Slates, or of tlio mililin thereof, aa Bhal! be necessary to compel any 
foreign ship or vessel to depart the United Stales, in nil cases in which, 
by the lawB of nntions or the treaties of tha United States, they ought 
hot to remuu within the United Stales. 

Sec. 10. And be it further enabled. That the owners or consigiteca of 
every armed ship or vessel sailing out of the porta of the United States, 
belonging wholly or In part to citizens thereof, shall enter into a hond to 
the United States with sufficient sureties, prior to clearing oat the same, 
in double the amount of the valus of the Tessel and cargo on board, in- 
cluding her armament, that the said ship or vessel shall not be employed 
by such owners lo cruise or commit hostilities against the subjects, citi- 
zens, or properly, of any foreign prince or State, or of ony colony, dis- 
trict, or people, with whom the United Stales are at peace. 

Seo. II. And be it further atoeUd, That the collectors of the customs 
be, and they are hereby, respectively authorized and required lo detain 
any vessel manifestly built foe warlike purposes, and about to depart the 
United States, of which the cargo shall principally consist of arms and 
munitions of war, when the number of men shipped on board, or other 
circumstances, shall render it probable that such vessel is intended lo be 
employed by the owner or owners to cruise or commit hostilities upon 
tlie subjects, citizens, or properly, of any foreign prince or State, or of 
any colony, district, or people, with whom the United States are at 
peace, imtil the decision of the President be had thereon, or until the 
owner or owners shall give such bond and security as is required of the 
owners of armed ships by the preceding section of this act. 

Sec. 13. And ftp it farther enacted, That the act passed on the fifth 
jay of June, one lliousand seven hundred and ninety-four, entitled " Aii 
act m addition lo the act for the punishment of certain crimes against the 
United Stales," continued in force, for a limited time, by the act of the 
second of March, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-seven, and 
perpetuated by the act passed on the 24th of April, one thousand eight 
hundred, and the act, passed on the fourteenth day of June, one thou- 
sand seven hundred and ninety-seven, entitled " An act to prevent citi- 
Eens of the United Stales from privateering against nations in amity 
with, or agniast the citizens of the United Slates," and the act, passed 
be third day of March, one thousand eight hundred and seventeen, enti- 
tled ' ' An act more effectually to preserve the neutral relations of th« 
United Stales," be, and the same are hereby, severally, repealed : I'ra- 
Billed nevertheless. That pei^ons having hd'etofore offended agdnst any 
of the acts aforesaid, may be prosecuted, convicted, and punished, as if 

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the same were not repealed ; and no I'orfeiture lierelofore inourted by a 
violation of any of tlie acts aforesaid shall be affected by such repeal. 

Sec. 13. And be il further enacted. That nothing in the foregoing act 
ahall be constroed to prevent tbo prosecution or punishment of treaeon, 
or any piracy deiined by Ihe laws of the United States. 

Approved, April 30, 1818. 

IS. AN ACT mailing compensation to the pereonB sppointad by ihe 
Electors to deliver the votes for President and Vice Presidciit. 

Sec. 1. Be il enacted hy the SmaU and House of S^iresmitatives of 
Oe United States of America in Congress assembled. That the person 
appointed by the electors to deliver to the Pi-esidenl of the Senate a list 
of tlie votes for President and Vice President, shall be allowed, on deli- 
very of said list, twenty-five cents for every mile of the aatimated dis- 
tance, hy the most usual route, from the place of meeting of Ihe electors 
to the Beat of Government of the United States, going and returning. 

Sec. 3. And le it further enacted. That this act shall take effect from 
the first of November, eighteen hundred and twenty-four. 

Approted, F^raari/ 11, 1835. 

13. AN ACT iot the opporlionmenl of Representatives among the 
several States according to the Sixth Census. 
Seg. 1. Be it enacted hyllie Senate and House of Sepresenlatices of 
the United States of America in Congress aasesMed, That from and atler 
the third day of March, one thousand eight hundred and foi-ty-lhreo, the 
House of Representatives shall be composed of luembera elected agree- 
ably to a ratio of one Representative for every seventy thousand sii 
hundred and eighty persons in each Slate, and of one additional Eepre- 
Ecntalive for each State having a fraction greater than one moiety of the 
said ratio, computed according to the rule prescribed by the Constilutioii 
of the United States ; that is to say : Within the State of Maine, seven ; 
within the State of New Hampshire, four ; within tlie State of Massa- 
chusetts, ten; within the State of Rhode Island, two; within the State 
of Connecticut, four; within the State of Vermont, four; within the 
State of New York, thirty-four ; within the State of New Jersey, five ; 
within the Slate of Pennsylvania, twenty-four ; within the State of Dela- 
ware, one; within the Stats of Maryland, aij: j within the Stats of Vir- 
ginia, fifteen; within the State of North Carolina, nine; within the 
Slate of South Carolina, seven; within the Slate of Georgia, eight; 
within the State of Alabatna, Eeveii; within the State of Louisiana, four; 
"ilbin the State of Miaaissippi, four ; within the Slate of Tennessee, 

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n w iiin Clie Stale o! Kentucky, ten ; within llie State of Ohio, 

n 1 within the State of Indiana, ten ; within tha Stats of Illt- 

n n; within the State of Missouri, five; within the Slate of 

Ar ne ; and within the Slate of Michigan, three. 

S 2 And he it Juriher enacted. That in every case whore a SlatB ig 

d O more than one Repreaantalive, the number to wliich encU 

'' h 11 be omitled under this apportionment ahnll be elected by dis- 

iriets composed of contiguous territory equal in number to tho number 

of Representatives to which eiud State may bo entitled, no one district 

elooting more than one Representative. 

Appromd, June 25, 1843. 

H. AN ACT 10 provide further remedial justice in the cotirts of Iho 
United StalCB. 
Sec. I. Be U enacted ly flie Senate and Hnuse ijf Eepresenlalives of the 
United Slates of America in Congress aisenJiled, That either of tiie jus- 
tiess of the Supreme Coiu't of the United States, or a judge of any dis- 
trict court of the United States, in which a prisoner is confined, in 
addition to the authority already conferred by Jaw, shall have power to 
grant irrits of habe^ corpus in ail cases of any prisoner or prisoners in 
jail or coniinemenl, where lie, she. or ihoy, being subjects or citizens of 
a foreign State, and domiciled therein, shall be committed or confined, 
or in custody, under or by any authority or law, or process fbonded 
thereon, of the United Slates, or of any one of them, for or on account 
of any act done or comtnittad under any alleged right, title, authority, 
privilege, protection, or exemplion, set up or claimed under the commis- 
sion, or order, or sanction, of any foreign State or Sovereignly ihe vali- 
dity and effect whereof depend upon the law of nations, or under color 
thereof. And upon the return of the said writ, and due proof of lliH 
service of notice of the said proceedings to the Attorney- (Scuerol or other 
officer prosecuting the pleas of tho State, under whose authority the pe 
titioner has been arrested, committed, or is held in custody, to be pre- 
scribed by the said justice or judge at the time of granting said writ, the 
said justice or judge shall proceed to hear the said cause ; and if, upon 
hearing the same, it shall appear that the prisoner or prisoners is or ate 
entitled to be discharged from such confinement, commitment, custody, 
or arrest, lor or by reason of such alleged right, title, authority, privi- 
leges, protection or exemption, so set up and claimed, and the law of 
nations applicable thereto, and that the snmo exists in fact, and has been 
duly proved to the said justice or judge, then it shall be the duty of the 
Biud justice or judge forthwith to discharge such prisoner er priaonors 

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Bccordingly. And if it aliall appear to Ihe sniJ jualice or judge that such 
iudgmoiil of disehorge ought not to be rendered, then the said prisoner 
or prisoiieta shall be forthwith remanded : Prnvidcd almaj/s, That from 
any decision of such justice or judge an appeal may he lalten to tbo Cir- 
cuit Court of the United Stales lor the district m which fho aaid cause ia 
hoard ; and fi-om the judgment of the said Circuit Court lo the Supreme 
Court of the United States, on such terms and under snoh regulation!! 
Diid orders os well for the custody and appearance of th p is p - 

soners as for sending up lo the appellate tribunal a p f tl p - 

lion, writ of habeas corpus retunied thereto, and ll p oc d a 

ihe judge hearing the said cause may prescribe J an I p d g I p - 
:»cdinga or appeal, and until final judgment be r d d th d 

ailer final judgment of discharge in the same, an; p cs d g g nat 
said prisoner or prisoners, in any State court, 1 y d ho 

Butliority of any Stale, for any matter or thing so 1 d a: d d t m I, 
or in process of being heard and determined, undar and by virtue of such 
writ of habeas corpus, shall be deemed null and void. 

Approved, Aiigaat 39, 1843. 

Sec. 1. Be it eimctediy the Senate and House of SepreseMatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled, That the eleclers of 
President and Vice President shall be appointed in each State on the 
Tuesday next after the first Monday in the month of November of the 
year in which they ara to be appointed. Provided, That each state may 
by law provide for the filling of any vacancy or vacancies which may 
occur in its college of electors when such college meets to give its elec- 
toral vole. Aiul pravided, also, whan any State shall ha?e held an elec- 
tion for the purpose of choosing electors, and shall fail to make a choice 
on the day aforesaid, then the electors may be appointed on a subsequent 
day in such manner as the Stale shall by law provide. 

Approved, January 33, 1S45. 

K,. AN ACT to provide for the distribution of tho edilion of the laws 
and treaties of the United States, published by Little and Brown, under 
I lie piDvisions of the resolutions of Congress, approved March 3, 1845, 
and for other piuposes. 
Sec. 2. And whereas, s^d edhion of tie said Laws and Treaties of the 

tJniied States has been carefully collated and compared with the original 

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rolls in tho nroliiras of the government, under tho inEpBotion and swper- 
T ision of 'the AttorQoj Oeneral of Uio Uiiitad Stfttes, na dvtly ceitified by 
that officer; Therefore, Sb it further esaeted, That aaid edition of tlie 
Lbwb and Treaties of the United States, publiebed by Little and Brown, 
is hnreliy deolarad to ba competent evident^ of the ESTSral publie and 
pcirate acts of CongreBS, and of the eevenJ treaties therein contained, in 
all the oonrta of lai7 and equity, and of mariljnifl jnrisdieUon, and in all 
the tribunals and pablio offices of the United Stales, and of the several 
Statea> mthout any further proof or aubhentioatiun thereof. 

Approved, Aitgast 3, 1S46. 

17. AN ACT for giving effect to ewlaia treaty EKpnlations between this 
and foreign govemnients, for the appiehension and delivering up of 
oectain offenders- 
Be it enoelerf by the Senate and Some of Bcpreientativa of the United 
State! of America in Cougreas assembled. That in all cases in vrhich there 
DOIT exists, or heraafler may exis^ any treaty oc convention for exl^a- 
dllion betneen iba government of the United Slates and any foreign go- 
Tamment, it shall and may lio lawful for any of the jnalioas of the snpremo 
court or jndges of the several disttiot oourts of the United States — and 8ie 
judges of the several State eourfs, and the commiaaioners authorised ao to 
do by any of the courts of the United States, are hereby sevetoBy vested 
with power, jurisdiction, and aathority, npou complaint made under oath 
or affirmation, charging any person found within the iimilfl ef ^uy state, 
district^ or territoiy, with having committed within the juriadiclioD of any 
aaeh foreign governroent, any of the crimes enumerated or provided for by 
any such treaty or oonvontlon — to issue his warrant for the apprehoHsioa 
of the person so charged, that he may be brought before sach judge oc 
comuissioner, to the end that the evidence of criminality may be heard 
and considered; and if, on such bearing, the evidence be deemed sufSoienb 
by him to siurtain the charge under the provisions of tha proper treaty or 
oonvention, it shall be his du^ to certify the same, together with a copy 
of all the testimony taken before him, \a the Beoietary of State, that a 
warrant may issue upon the requiatJon of tha proper authoritlea of such 
foreign govemmcn'^ for the surrender of such person, acoording to the 
Etipalattons of aiud treaty or oonvention ; and it ahall be the duty of the 
said judge or oommlaaiouar to iasne his warrant for the commitment of the 
person so charged to the proper gaol, there to remiun unHl such surrender 
shaU be made. 

Sec. 2, Awl U itfurilier enacted, That in every case of complaint as 
aforesaid, and of a hearing upon llw rctnrn of the warrant nf arrest^ copies 

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of the flepositions upon wliiol) an original wariout in nnj sucli toroign 
oountjy mnj liave been gi-aiitei3, cerliflad nnder the liand of the peraon or 
persons issuing Buoh warranii and attested upon tlie oath of tte party pro- 
ducing them to bo true copies of the original depositions, may be received 
in BTidonoe of the otiminality of the person so apprelianded. 

Ssc. 3. And 6e it /iirllier manted. That it shall be hiwful foe the Secretary 
of State, under his hand and seal of office, to order the person so oommittod 
to be delirered to sneh person or persons aa shall be authorlied, in the 
name and on behalf of such foreign goTernment, to be tried for the crime 
of whioh Bach person shall be so accused, aail such persoa slinU be delivered 
up accoi-dinElji and it shall be lawfnl for the person ox parsons authorieed, 
as Bforeaaid, to hold swoh person in custody, and to tate him or her to the 

person so Bccnsed shall escape ont of aaj cnstody to nhich he or she shall 
he committed, or to which he or she shall be delivered, as afoi'essid, it shall 
be lawM to cetaie Eueh person, in the same mimnor as anj person, accused 
ot uny crime against the lan-s in force in that part of the United Stales 
to which ho or she shall so escape, may he retaken on an escape. 

Sec. 4. And be it /artier tmaded, That when any person who ahaD have 
been committed under this act or any such trsnty as aforesaid, to remain 
until delwered up in pmsnaooe of a requisiUon aa aforesaid, shall not be 
delivered op puranant hereto and conveyed out of the United States 
nithin two calendar months aRer such commitment over and above the 
time actually required to oonvey tJie prisoner from the gaol to whioh he ot 
Bho may have been committed by the readiest tray oat of the United States, 
it shall in every such case be lawful for any judge of the United States or 
of any State, apon applieaUon made to him by or on behalf of the person 
so committed, and npon proof made to him, that reasonable notice of the 
intention to make such application has been given to the Secreiary of State, 
to order the person so committed to be discharged ont of custody, unless 
Bullioient cause shall be shown to such jndgo why such discharge ought not 
to be ordered. 

Seo. fi. And ie it/nrt&Br eaaeted, That this att shall eontinne in force 
daring the esistence of any treaty of estraditiun with any foreign govern- 
ment, and no longer. 

Sec. 6. And he it further masted, That it shall be lawful for the courts 
of the United States, ot any of them, to authorise any person or persona to 
act aa a eommis^oner or commissioners nnder the provisions of this act ; and 
(he doings of suoh person or persons so autliotiied, in pursuance of ony of 
the provlaons aforesaid, shall be good and available to all intents and pur. 
poses v(!int?oever. Appnied, Aiir,<iii 12, 1848. 

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18. AN ACT providing for tie takin; 

Buses of the United States, and to 

House of Keprasantativea, and to provide for tiieit fmnre appoi'tiooinenl 

omong tlie several States. 

Seo. 23. Aad he it/ariher ertactcd, That if no other law to passed provi- 
ding for the inking of the eighth, or any subsequent oenaus of the Onileii 
States, on or before the first day of January, of any year, when, by the 

tanla thereof is required to be taken, such oeneus aliall, in all things, ba 
token and oomplated according to the provisions of this net 

Sec. 2i. And le ii/nnJier macled, That from End after tha 3d day of 
March, 1853, the House of Representatives ohal! be composed of two kundred 
and thir^-three members, to be apporHoned among the several States in 
ttie nuumec directed in the next seation of this act. 

Sbc 26. And ie ttfiiHlitr eaacted, That so soon as the next and each 
subsequent enumeratioa of th« inhabitants of Sue several SUtes dii'eetod 
by 'Cae Constitution of the Tlnited gtaiflS to be taken, shall be completed 
and relnmed to &e office of the Pepartment of the Interior, it Eball ba the 
duty of the Secretary of the Interior to ascertEun the aggregate representa- 
tive population of the United States, by adding to the whole nwmbec of 
free persons in all the States, including those bound to service for a term 
of years, and eieluding Indians act tased, three-fifths of all other per. 
sons; nhich aggregate population he shall divide by &iB iiamber tna 
hundred and tbirty-tbree, and the product of such division, rejecting any 
fraction of an unit, if any sucli happen to lemain, sbnll be the ratio, or rule 
of apportionment of Representatives among the several States nndar such 
enttraeratlon : and the said Secretary of the Department of the Interioi 
shall then proceed, in the same manner, to aaeertoin the representative 
population of each State, and to divide the whole number of the representa- 
tive populal^on of each State, by the ratio already determined by him, as 
above direoledj and the product of this last division shall he the number 
of Eepresentaljves apportioned to such State under the then last enumer^ 
tJon ; Provided, That the loss in the number of members caused by the 
fractions remaining in the sevend States, on the division of the population 
thereof, shall be eompensated for by assigning to so many States having 
the largest fraotions, one additional member for eaoh for ita ftaotion, as 
may be necessary to make the whole number of Representatives tiro hundred 
and thirty-three. And provided, alto, l^baA it, ^Sen ihe apportionment of 
the Representatives under the next, or anj subser^uent census, a new State 
or States shall be admitted into the Union, the Representative or Eopre- 
Bentatjves asrfgned to such new State or States, shall be in addition to tiie 
nnmber of Representfltives herein above limited; which excess of Bepro- 
fontativos overtwo hundred andthh%-airee shall only continue until the 

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noxt sueceeding aiiportioiiment tf Eej.ri-entatnia ut Asr t!io next sucoeed- 

Sed. 26. And be it Jmther enacted. That whon th) Depaitment of flio 

directed muDng tbe Bevcinl Stales under tlie next, or na; eabseqneat 
enumeration of the inhabitants of tha United Slates, he shall, as floon ae 
praetioahle, mate out and lianamit, under the seal of his office, to the House 
of BepresentativeE, a certificate of the number of mcrnbers apportioned to 
each State under the then last ecameration ; and shall Irkevtise make out 
and transmit nithout delay to the Executive of each Stote, a carlitcata 
under lis aoal of offioo, of the nnmbar of members apportioned to snob State, 
under saoh last enumeration. Approved, 23 May, 1350. 

[The preceding saeUona fall uoder the class of genei'al Laws intended 
to be inserted in fliis compilatjoni the residua of this aet, relating solely lo 
the manner of taking and returning the census, nill be found in Ihe stdttutee 
of tha Unilad States.] 

19. AH ACT hi anthoriae Notaries Pabljo to Cake and oeclify oaths, atfirma. 

dons, and aeknonledgmauls in certain cases. 

Be it enacted bg tJie Senate and House of R^preteatativee of the Uiiited 
States of Ameriea in Oongresi assemileil, That in aU oases in which, nndec 
the laws of the ITnlled States, oaths or affirmations, or aeknowledgraents, 
may now be taken or made before any jnaliee or justices of the peace of 
any State or Xerritoiy, eiuih oaths, afllrmations, or aoknoffledgmenta may 
be hereafter also taken or made by or before any Notary public duly ap. 
pointed in any State or Territory, and, when cerlafled under the land and 
official seal of such Notary, shall haie tbe same force and eCaot as if la^on 
or made by or befora such justiaa or justices of Ihe peace. And all lans 
and parts of laws for punishing paijuiy, or suboraation of peijm-y, com- 
mitted in any such oatba or afOrmations when li^en or made before any 
Bucb. justice of the peace, shall apply lo any snck oHenea committed in any 
oaths or affirmations which may he taken under this aet before a Notary 
public, or commissioner, as hereinafter named : Frovideii aliaaye, Tbat on 
trial for either of these offences, the soal ttJid signature of the Kotary 
shall not be deemed snfficient iq themselves to establish the oflioial ohara^ter 
of such Notary, bat the same shall bo shown by otlier and proper ayidenoo. 

SeO. 2. And he it furrier enacted, That all the powers and authority 
conferred in and by (he preceding section of this act upon Nolodea public, 
be, and the same are hereby vested in, and may be eserciscd by, any com- 
misBionor appointed, or bareafter to be appointed, by any Circuit Com't of 
the United States, under any act of Congress authorising the appointment 
of commis^oners to talie bail, aflidavits, or depositions, in causes pending 
in the oourts of the United States. Apxirocad, JG Sepiembei; 1850. 

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20 A RESOI.UTrON relating to the putlioation of Uia Laws of tha 
United .stalos, 

Seiahcd, ly lite Scnaie a„ct House af HepfeBcHlalivss 0/ lk« United 
Statei of America in Goagyess ateembled, Thnt the Seoretiti? of Stale ho 
anthorixed and directed to oontrnot itith Little and Broirn to funiis}i theic 
annual Btatntes at laigo, printed in confonnity wiHi Wie plan adopted by 
Cgngiess m eiglitaen hundred and fort^-fire, instead of the edilion usuiJly 
issued by his order, under the act of Oongreas of April 20, 1818, and wliieh 
conforms to an edition of the Laws now out of use. 

Ap^Jovfd, 28 Septembei-, 1850. 

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1. The tables of Electoral votes for President and 
Vice President of the United States, commencing with 
page 315, present an historical synopsis of the lead- 
ing political sentiments of the American people, from the 
adoption of the Constitution to the present time, as in- 
dicated by the votes given for the distinguished indi- 
viduals whose opinions were supposed to imbody, from 
time to time, those sentiments, and a biographical notice 
of the individuals themselves ; the statement of whose 
names alone will recall to memory their meritorious public 
services and exalted characters. 

2. The table commencing with page 336, of the terms 
of office and length of service, in the Senate, of the Vice 
Presidents and Presidents pro tempore, may be supposed, 
generally, to show, from time to lime, the leading poli- 
tical sentiments of the majority of that honorable body, 
as indicated by the choice of Senators to occupy the 
station of President pro tempore, whose political senti- 
ments were, at the time, well known. This table also 
shows the commencement and termination of, aswell as the 
immber of days in, each Session of Congress and special 

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session of the Senate, fix)ra the 4l.h Marcli, 1789, to the 
termination of the second session of the thirty-first 
Congress, being the 3d March, 1851, 

3. The table commencing with page 346 shows the 
names, and the commencement and termination of the 
service, of every Senator of tie United States, Irom the 
4th March, 1789, to the 3d March, 1851, being tke 
termination of the second session, thirty-first Congress. 
A geographical, rather than an alphabetical, arrange- 
ment was preferred, for the reason that a regular succes- 
sion may be traced in the service of the several classes 
of Senators of each State, from the commencement of the 
Government, or the admission of such State into the Union, 
to the present time. 

This table practically illustrates fJiat provision of the 
Constitution which directs the arrangement of the Senators 
into three classes, whose tenns of service expire alter- 
nately every two years, exhibiting the progressive appli- 
cation of the principle to the Senators from new States 
as they become qualified, by which the three classes are 
preserved equal in number, or as nearly so as practicable 
—one-third being elected biennially, and two-thirds being, 
at all times, prepared to attend the call of their country 
for the transaction of Legislative, Executive, or Judicial 
business ; or, indeed, by a provident arrangement of the 
State Legislatures (as is the prevading practice) in re- 
electing tlie Senators whose terms of service are about 

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to expire, or electing otliers in anticipation of vacancies, 
lie Senate may preserve a continued existence in f\iU 

4. The fourth table, page 386, contains the names and 
the commencement and termination of service of the 
secretaries of the Senate of the United States, there 
having hsEn only four individuals in the occupancy of 
that responsible office from the commencement of the 
Government under the Constitution to the present time, 
a circumstance ■which has preserved to this Honorable 
Body file advantages of accumulated experience in the 
Officers in their service. 

5. The table commencing with page 386, exhibits the 
names and terms of service of the Representatives in 
Congress who have been elected to, and have occupied, 
the distinguished station of Speaker of the House of Re- 
presentatives of the United States, from the 4th March, 
1789, to the 3d March, 1851, and the names of the States 
of which they were Representatives. 

6. The sixth table, page 388, contains the names, and 
ihe commencement andterminationof service of the Clerks 
of the House of Representatives of the United States, from 
which it appears that thirteen changes have taken place 
in the occupancy of this office since the 4th March, 
1789 ; making an average of less than five years' service 
to each individual, a circumstance which has sometimes 
deprived that Honorable House of much of the advan- 

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tage of accumulated experience, which tiie business of 
legislation aad the public interest so constantly require 
in the service of Legislative Bodies. 

The second and fourth tables embrace the names of all 
those individuals who have occupied the stations of Vice 
President, President pro tempore, and Speaker of the 
House of Representatives ; the occupants of which olEcea 
have been constituted a reserve corps by the provisions 
of the Constitution, and of the act of Congress of the 1st 
March, 1792, in the order in which they are here men- 
tioned, to fdl the office of President of the United States, 
in the event of its becoming vacant by any of the casu- 
alties enumerated in the Constitution. Hence has arisen 
the practice of the Vice President's retiring from the 
Chair of the Senate a short time previous to the adjourn- 
ment of each session, with the view of affording the 
Senate an opportunity of choosing a President pro 
tempore, who, according to the prevailing practice, would 
hold that office until the reappearance of the Vice Presi- 
dent in the Senate ; and, should any casualty deprive 
the country of the services of the President and Vice Pre- 
sident acting as President, during the recess of Congress, 
the President pro tempore so chosen, according to thepre- 
vailing understanding, would be prepared to occupy that 
office until a President could be elected ; which office 
would otherwise, however, devolve on the Speaker of the 
House of Representatives, should the vacancy happen 

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during the existence of a Congress ; but should tliere be 
no President pro tempore, and the vacancy occur during 
a recess, after the expiration of one Congress and pre- 
vious to the assembling of another, while there was no 
Speaker, there would then be no officer to fill that high 
and responsible station. 

These tables may afford a useful suggestion of the im- 
portance of preserving the biography of distinguished 
citizens who may have been, or may be called to im- 
portant public stations, with a view of extending the 
practical political history of the country, which, perhaps, 
could not be more effectually developed than by a 
faithful delineation of the characters, principles, and 
acts of the American statesmen, whose wisdom and 
patriotism have elevated the character of the Republic, 
and wdl continue to guide its destinies, as it is fervently 
hoped, through the long vista of ages to the consummation 
of time. 

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n4lh March, 1793. 

John Adema, elected Vice Preaident, took the oath 
illcnded in Senate on 5d Decemter, 1793, 

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Whole No ofEleotore 
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le elecloral vole for Thomas Jelftrsoo and Aaron Burr ieini equal, no choics 
mads by the people, and ihe House of Bepresenlatives pfoc«e<le(l on Wed- 
Isy, February 11, ISOl, in the manner prescribed by the Coiistilulioii lo ttaa 
CE of 1 Pnsiuliml i^lhc ITRJlai Slals. On Ihc fiTBt liallol eisbt Stales voled for 
nioa JaaeiBon, of Virginia, sii Slalei voted for Aarcm Buti, of New York, 
ths votes of two BlKtsa wen dlTlded. The ballotiDe contiaucd omil Tuesday, 
February, 1801, wbeu tbs tbiny-fflli ballot, as hul all the pievioua ballots, 
Llleg the Bams as Iho hrst. Ttie HODse then proceeded to the thirty-sixth 
Ql, and it baving been conDluded, the Speaker deeiared that the votes of ten 
es had been given ibr Thomas Jeaerson, of Virgini - ■ " " "- 

o States in blank ; and tlisl, 

bgoa Ibe 41h day of March. liWl. 

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Thomas Jefferson, elecled Preaident, took the oath of office for i 
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George Clinton, elecied Vioa Preeident, look the oath of office ii 
Senate t;haniber on 4th March, 1805. 

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gilJi March, 18( 


















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Mnjoriiy 88 

James Madison, elected President, look the oalh of oIHce, and entered 
upon itH duties on 4th March, 1809. 

George Clinton, elected Vice President, took the oath of office in 
Sena'e Chamber on 4lh March, 1809. 

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Whole No. of eleclors 




James Madison, elected PrcEidenl for a second term. [There is no 
notice on the Journala of Congress of his having taken the oath.) 

Elbridge Gerry, elected Vice President, attended in the Senate SitS 
May, 1B13, and exhibited a certificate of his having taken the oath ol 
office prescribed by law, which was read. 

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Electio'i for the Eigklli U 


























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Whole No. of Electors. 
Majority 109 








James Monroe, elected Presidcnl, took the onth of office 
upon its duties on 4th March, 1817. 

Daniel D. Tompitins, elected Vice President, took the ( 
and attended in Senate on 4lh M;^ch, 1817. 

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New York 




North Carolina 
South Carohna 

























Wh„[eNo of Electors 
Maiorii) 118 







James Monroe, elected President for a second term. (There is no 
notice on the Journals of Congress of hie having taken the oath.) 

Daniel D. Tompkins, elected Vice President for a second term. 
(There is no notice oa the Journals of Congress of his having taken the 

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Whole No of Llcctors 

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1 1 



Andrew Jockaon, elecled President, took the oath of office, t 
tered upon its duties the 4th of March, 1829. 

John C. Calhoun, elected Vice President, took the oath of ofli 
attended in Senate the 4th of March, 1829. 

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™. ......... 

















Maasaohusella . 
Rhoda Island.. 


New York.... 

PennsylvoniB . . 




Nonh Carolina 
Sooth CnrolinB. 
























No. of electors. 
Mujorily . . 145 










Andrew Jackson, elected President, look Ihe oath of office, and con- 
tinued the duties 4th March, 1833. 

Martin Van Buren, elected Vice President, took the oalh of office 
end entered upon its duiiea 4lh March, 1833. 

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Mkdioit for the Thirteenth term, emmiendng ith March, 1837, and te 










































Maseachusetis . 
Rhode Island . . 


New York.... 
New Jersey ... 
Pennsylvania ■ . 



South Carolina. 













No. of electors. 










Martin Van Buren, elected President, took the oath of office, and 
Dntcred upon its dutloa 4th March, 1837. 

Richard M. Johnaon, elected Vice President, look the oath of oifice, 
ird attended in Senate 4th March, 1837. ' Elected by the Senate. 

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If ' 

. lacliusetts ' ■ ■ > 

Rhode laland 



New York 

New Jereej^ 





Norlh Carolina ■■■ 
South Carolina ■ ■ ■ 







Indians. <■■ 



William H. Harrison, elected Presidenl, took the oath of office, anri 
entered upon its duties on 4th March, 1841. 
John Tyler, elected Vice Ptesident, took the onth of office, and eiiter- 

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Tuesday, April 6, 1341. 
Immediale.,' after (he decease of the Presidenl, Mr. Webaler, jr., 
Chief Clerk in ine Deparlment of State, accompanied b; Mr. Beall, an 
officer of the Senate, set out for the residence of the Vice President, in 
Virginia, beariiig to liiin tlie fallowing letter : 

WflSHifluTON, ApHl i, len. 


Vice Frcsidenlaf the United Slates. ' 

Sis ; It has become our most painful duty to inform yon that William 
Henry Harrison, lato President of the United Slates, has departed this 

This distressing event toolt place this day, at (he President's Mansion 
in this city, at thirty minutes before one in the morning. 

We lose no time in despatching the Chief Clerlt in the State Depart- 

We have the honor to be, iviih the highest regard, your obedi 


Secretary of Stale. 

Secretary of the Treasury 

Secretary of War. 

Attorney General. 

PcstmasleT General. 

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City of Washl-igton, D. C. 

Wednesday AprU 7, 1841. 

By the exli'Bordinnry despalch. usad in sending the ofEdal intelHgenc* 
to the Vice Fi'esident, at Williamsburg, and Eimilar despatch hj hini in 
repairing to the seat of Government, John Tyler, now President of the 
United States, arrived in this ciiy yesterdar morning, at 5 o'ulook, and 
look lodgings at Brown'a Hotel. 

At 13 o'clock, all the Heada of Departments, ejtoept the Secretnry of 
the Navy, (who has not yet returned to the city from his visit lo hia 
familyj wailed upon him, to pay him their official and personal respecta 
They were received with all the politeness and kindness wliich chstoc 
teriiB the new President. He signified his deep feeling of the public 
calamity sustained by the death of President Harrison, and expressed 
his profound sensibility lo the heavy reaponsibihties so suddenly de- 
■solved upon himself. He spoke of the prflsent state of things wiih 
great concern and seriousness, and made known his wishes that the 
several Heads oi Departmenla would continue to fill ihe places which 
Ihay now respectively occupy, and his confidence that they would afford 
all the aid in their power lo enable him to carry on the administration 
of the Government successfully. 

The Prewdent then took and subscribed the following oalh of office ; 

I do Holemnly swear, that I will fiiithfiilly execute the office of Presi- 
dent of the United States, and will, lo Ihe best of my ability, preseiTO, 
protect, and defend the Conatilution of the Uniled Slates. 


Afeil 6, 1S41. 

DisTEicT or Cor.l7SlJlIA, 

City and County of Washington, ss, 

I, "William Cranch, Chief Judge of the Circuit Court of the District 
of Columbia, certify, that the above-named John Tyler personally ap- 
peared before me this day, and, although he deems himself tiualified lo 
perform the duties, and exercise the powers and office of President on 
the deatli of William Henry Harrison, late President of the United 
States, without any other oath than that which he haa taken as Vice 
President, yet, as doubts may arise, and for greater caution, look, and 
subscribed ihe foregoing oath before me. 


ApEri.6, 1841. 

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N"rt Hamj shire 




Rhode laUnd and P PlantBtiona 






New York 



Now Jersey 










S ulh Carolina 




























■ftholENo tfel cto^i 

Majouly 1„8 





James K. Polk, elected President, took the oath of office, and entered 
upon its duties on 4th March, 1645. 

George Mifflin Dallaa, elected Vice PresidenI, atleiided in Senate, and 
look the oath of ofiice on 4lh March, 181"). 

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EliMionfor the Sixk^ith Ten. 








































Whole nnmber of electors 





Zaohary Taylor, elected Preeident, took the oath of office, an( 
entered upon ita dnties, 4th March, 1849. 

Millard Fillmore, electBd Viee Preaident, took the oath of office 
and entered upou its duties, 4th March, 1849. 

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■WEJlSEEDiY, Juhj 10, 186(1, 

The following communiQation, teeeived by tho Seoretarj of tbo Senate, 
was read : 

To the Senats of tlie United Stntes:— 

In eonseqHenoe of file lEuuentefl deatli of Zachaiy Taylor, lata President 
of tlie United States, I shall co longer occupy the chair of tha Senate ; and 
I tare thouglit that a, formal communicalion to Eae Senate, to that cfTuet, 
throngh jonr Secretary, might enohle yoa the more pioiEptly to proceed lo 
the choice of a presiding officer. Millaro Filluorh. 

WiSHniaTON, Jtiiy 10, 1S50. 

The folloning meaaage was recaired from the President of the TJnilfld 
States, hy Mr. Fiator:— 

Pellow-citizens of tha Senate and Houao of Representatives .- — 

I hare to perform the melancholy duty of announcing to yon that it has 
pleasetl Almighty God to remove from this life Znctsry Taylor, late Presl. 
dent of the United Statfls. He deceased last eTening, at the hour of half 
paat ten o'clock, in the midst of hia family and surrounded hy affectionate 
friends, calmly and in the full poaaeaaion of all Ms faoiUtiea. Among his 
last words ware ihoBe, which he ottered with emphatic diatinctneaa ; "I 
have always done my duty — I aro ready to die — mj only regret is for the 
ftionda I leave behind me." 

Having announced to you, fellow-islUzenB, this most afflioting bereave- 
ment and assuring you that It has penetrated no heart with deeper grief 
than mine, it remains for me to say, that I propose this day, at 12 o'clock, 
in the Hall of the Uonae of Eepresentatives, in tha presence of both Houses 
of Congress, to take tlie oath prescrihed by the OonsdtuUon, to enable ma 
to enter on tho esecntion of the olHce which this event haa devolved on me. 

WiSHIHGTOH, Jnly 10, 1850. MlLLAKD FniMORE. 

A similar message having been communicated to tho House of Repre- 
tentatives sod tlie necessary arrangements made between the two Houses; — 

At 12 o'clock meridian— 

The President of the United Statea, the Heads of DeparlmentiS, the 
Chief Judge of the Circuit Court of the District of Columbia, and the Sanata 
of the United States, having entered the Hall o£the Honae of Representatives— 

Tha oath of office was administered to the Pi'esidont by the Hononrable 
WiUiam Cranch, Chisf Judge of the Circuit Conrt of the United States for 
tho Dislriet of Columbia, 

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Sea. Sea. 

4 Van. ITM 
6K(.t. 1792 

IS Not. ItV 
17 Jul)- 1J9| 

3 May 1793 

26' June 1795 

10 Julj 17B7 
18 Jnly 17'a3 

Is'lDly 1793 
3 Mar. 1799 

It'May IMO 

SMir. 1801 


John Ad™3 . ' . ■ 
JoiiB Adams . . 
John Adams . . 

JohnASams' . ' . 

THomaB Jelfersoa ' . 

Tkonias JoiteraoQ . " 
Tliomaa JeflereoD . 

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f the Uhiled States aii4 FTesidenis of the Senate, 










Mm. I 


John i.»Edoii 

John LsDEdon 

Kalph \kri ' 
Kalph Izard . 



WiUiMi Eliiglia 

Theoaor; Sad'gn 

James Koaa 
Driali Tracy. 


a April 17S9 

Jal.' 1790 
Dee. 1790 

24CKr' 1791 
1 April 179S 

d"' 17 »a 

Uu. 1T93 

31 May HM 

aOFrt' 1796 

7 Dm. 17B5 
9Dea 1794 
6 Ma; 1796 

4 M=T. 1797 

"iff a 

S7Bec 788 

a Deo.' 79» 
30 Dec 799 


28 bX aoi 

■21 April 1789 

lUr nsl 

1 April 1792 
aSPeb' 1193 



1 Mir. 1797 
6 Jul J 79T 
lOJulj 79T 

BO June 798 
IBjBly 798 
17 July 798 
26 Dec. 799 
28 Feb. 7S9 
a Mar. 799 
SSDao, 17B9 

13 Miff IBOO 

14 M^ S 
aSPeb." 1801 

3 Mar. 1801 

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deuts nf Ihs United 



7 Dec* im 

3 May 161B 
siviitr. IS03 



flaion Burr . . 


6 Nov, mi 

ai leoii 


AaroiiCuir. ' . ' . 


irec- 1B00 

a Mar. 1801 


Qaoreo ClipBl. f. 


2so«. isw 

as April iao3 


Qeorse Clinton . 


7 Nqv, ISdS 

3M... IW 


Geore.C.l..on . 


B2Hay leOS 

ikay leio 


Oenrse Clinton . . 

Qcoifie eiliton . 


3 Dec, 181(1 

3 Mat. 1811 


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TAB LE— Continued. 


Kamea of ProBidcnta 

■■™ """'■■■' 


Expire J. 




'-■ '•■ 



SJan! 1801 
7 April \m 

2 Mai. 1803 

S3 Jan. 1804 
10 Mar. 1B04 

OMat 1801 
HJan 180a 

Abraham Baldwin , 
Sicplioii K. Bradley . 

8 May 1802 
SJan l%v 

6 Dec ie03 
S3 Jan IBOl 

eieplien R. Bjadlej . 

Slephon n. Bradlay . 

3:i" FraZm- : 

Jose,* Anderson . 

Joseph Anderson . 

26 Feb. 1805 
SMar. 1805 
SMar. 180S 

3 Dec 1805 

1 Disc,' leoa 

IB April 1806 

SMar 1.0J 



Josepli An demon . 
eamiieisiullh' . . 

3 Ma.. 1805 

15 Dec. 1805 
ai April ISOIJ 


Samuel Smith . . 

10 April leos 

Sleph™ R. Bradley . 



John M ill c dee , . 

JohnMllledge. . 

Andrew Gregg ' . ' 
Andrew Gresg . . 

John Galliard . . 

as May 180i 
19 Bee.' 1801 

■JSJuna 1809 

27 Feb! 1810 

16 Apnl 181 

IM=y 1610 
llDee. 1810 

Jolin Galliard . " . ' 

17 April 1910 
SDe,:. 1810 

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Names of Vice Presl- 





Ses. Sen. 

INov. 1911 
la'sepl. 1814 

fl'cec !81fl 
sbec. 18^ 

SMur. 1813 
IB Apiil 1814 

: : . 

8 Mai. 1816 
30 April IBie 

0M3.r. 1817 
W iprtl 1318 

8 Mai. 1SI9 

15 May 1830 

SHar. ISSl 

8 May 1822 

Qeotge 0li,iBn . ■ . 

Elbridgo Qerry 
Elbriiise Gerry ' . 

Daniel D. Tpinpkins ' 

Daniel D.TonipkinB ' 
Daniel D.TompkinB 




4 Mat 1825 

37 May leai 


Daniel D. Tom pklbi . 

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Tab LE— Continued. 

L^ndad. Itmiied. 

Mat. 1B21 3 M! 

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" S 





■ 1 

■ i 


Kauies of Vice Tred- 


a Dae. 1835 

S2Miy ISM 


JohnC.OalL^a. . 


4Da6. IBM 

3 Ma,. 168T 


jahn'c. tolhoiin. ' , 


aD.c. ikT 

saMay 1829 


JoUnCCaihoun. ■ . 


1 Dec. 1928 

3 M.t. 1S39 

.„;,.c:c.ii;™.-.- i 


Ses. Sen. 

4M«,. 1959 

17 - 

Joh„C,C.lho„„. . 


I Dee. I8ae 

31 May 1830 


jQhnc'calhQun' . ■ 


6W 1930 

3Mar. 1831 


i»h;c.CaIbo«„. ■ . 


5D... 1831 

ICJuly 183a 


j.b.c.'cam™n' .■ 


3 Dec. 1832 

2 Ma. 1933 



30 J^e 1934 


Martin Van Wre'n. ' 


iW. 1834 

3'M.r. 1835 


Ha.lln Van Buren . 


TDea. 1835 1930 


Marin Van Bu,e„. 


5 Deo. 1930 

Olar. 18K 


Martin Van Buren. 


Ses. Sen 

i Mar. 1337 



Riehatci M. Johnspn . 


4 Sept. 1837 

18 0«, 1S37 




4 Dec ISSr 

fl July 1839 1 aia 

Richara M. Johnson . 


3 Dec 1938 

3 M.t. 1839 

1 ei 

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T AE L E— Continued. 


Kamea of Prfiaideols 
pru tempore of ihe 






5 Dec. 1855 
4 Dec. 1626 

14Fel>: 1837 

mil 1828 
4 Mat. JBaa 

%dZ ikS 

SDec! 1831 
flJnly 1832 

3 Dec. 1833 

7 Dec! JB35 
IJuly 1831 

4 Sc-pt. 1B3! 
4 Dec, 1937 

20 M :m 

Kathatifel Macon . 

M " 

Nathaniel MacDO . 

Vm; Z 

Naltanfel Macon . 

3 " 

silZeIa»!"h . ■ . 

aiDeo. 1829 

iMEir. 1639 


Samuel Snillh 
aamuel Smllh . . 

89 May ISSO 
31 " 
a Jan. 1831 

Samuel Smim ' . ' 

IteElenei) SB 

t^^l^2 . ■ . 

llDea. 1831 

3M.r. 183 

Hiigh LawHOn While . 
Hugh LaivBon While. 

a Mat. 1833 

John Tyler . . . 

8 " 


wmiara B.King . 

4 July I83S 



William a. King . 

3 Mat. 18?- 


William K. King . 

10 ■■ 


wmtam R.King . 

IJulj 1838 
18 Dec. 1839 


Wllliain R.King 
Willia,n E. Klog . 

Hosieob, Google 







NBmeB of Vies l-resi- 



3'dcc. 133B 

1 X^. 1846 
iW 1345 

3 Deo. 1S49 
IDeo! 1361 

21JulJ 1540 
SMac. 1841 


14 Aug. 1848 

ao Sapt, 1850 
31 Aug! 1862 


RJclinil M-'johDEon' 
John iyler' . ■ . ■ 

QemsB M. BaJlas , 

Q'corB^M.i)a,llai . ' 
Oeorge M. b^liu . ' 

Qeiige 31. Bajlss ' . 

Millard KlInH,™ . 
'Mlllailt RUmore . ' 

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TABLE— Continued. 

Atteikikd, K«t]red. 

Willioitt B.'KiDE 


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signed ; suec or app'd June S, 1818. 

By Legislature, in room of E. P. 
Ashmun, resigned ; successor ap- 
pointed June 13, 1830. 

By Legislature, in room of P- Md- 



4 If'ls*^ 


1 i : 



Mar. 3, 1821 

Mar- 3, 1837 
Mar. 3, 3833 
Mar. 3, 1839 

Mar. 3, 1845 

Mor. 3, 1851 
Mar- 3, 1793 


Mar. 3, 1799 




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Elijah H. Mill 

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The Senate met 4th March; formed 
a nuormn 6th April ; and did not 
elect a Secretary until the 8th; 
messages to the House having 

a member of the Senate. Served 
upwards of 25 years. 

The Chief Clerk acted aa Secretary 
from decease of Mr. Otis until 
tlie election of Mr. Cntta. 

Resigned. The Chief Clerk acted 
as Secretary &om the resignation 
of W. Lowrie to the appointment 


18 April 1814* 

12 Dee. 1S35 
5 Dec. 1836 

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8 April 1789 

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JOHN JAY, of New York, appointed by the President with the ad- 
vice aiid conaont of the Senate, S6th September, 1789. Nomi- 
nated 16th, and con£nnedl9lh April, 1794, Envoy Exlrnordinarji to 
England. Rcsigntd as Chief Justice. Succesaot appointed let 
July, 1795. 

JOHN RUTLEDGE, of South Carolina, appointed iHt July, 1795, in 
recess of Senate, m place of John Joy resigned, and presided on 
the Bench at August term, 1795. Nominated 10th, and rejected 
by the Senate 15lh December, 1795. 

WILLIAM GUSHING, of Maasaohuaelts. Nomination confirmed and 
appointed, &.c., 27lh Janitary, 1796, in place of John Jay, re- 
signed. Declined llie oppointmenl. He was then an Associate 

OLIVER ELLSWORTH, of Connecticut. Nomination confirmed 
ond appointed, &c., 4lh March, 1796, m place of W. Gushing, de- 
clined. Appomted Envoy Ek'raordinary raid Minister Pienipo 
tentiaty to France, 37th Fobrtmry, 1799. He presided on the 
Bench at the August terra, 1799. Proceeded on hie mission to 

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France. 3d Nnvomljer. 1799. Resigned as Chief JuaticB. Suc- 
cessor Bppointed 19lli December, 1800. 

JOHN JAY, Governor of New York. Nommation confirmed and op- 
pointed, &c., IStli Decembar, ISOO, in place of Oliver Ellsworth, 
resigned. Declmed the appointment. 

JOHN MARSHALL, Secretary of State.- Nomination confirmed 37th, 
and appointed, &c., 31sl January, 1801, in place of John Jay, de- 
clined. Died in 1835. 

ROGER B. TANEY, of Maryland. Nomination confirmed and ap- 
pointed, St.a., 15th March, 1836, in the place of John Marshall, 


WILLIAM CUSHING, of Masaaeliuaetls. Wominatioti conSrmed 
36lh, and appointed 37th September, 1789. Died, and Levi Lin- 
coln appointed. 

JAMES WILSON.ofPeimsylvania. Nomination conGrmed 26th, and 
appointed aSth September, 1789. Died, and Buahrod Washing- 
ton appointed. 

JOHN BLAIR, of Virginia. Nomination confirmed 26th, and ap- 
pointed SOth Septcmhor, 1789. Resigned, and Samuel Chaso ap- 

ROBERT H. HARRISON, of Maryland. Nominatioti confirmed a6th 
Sepiemlior, 1789. Resigned, and James Iredell appointed. 

JAMES IREDELL, of North Carolina. Appointed in recess of Senate, 

lice the BOiL Junnory, 1801, was confirmed on the i(7th, commlasioned SUl Jannary, 
ana presifled on the Bench of the Supreme Courl from the 4lh to the Bill February, 

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in place of Robert H. Hanison, resigned. Nomination confirmed 
and appointed 10th February, 1790. Died, and Alfred Moore ap- 

THOMAS JOHNSON, of Maryland. Appoinlod 5tli August, 1731, in 
recess of Senate, in place of John Rutledgo, resigned. Nomina- 
tion confirmed and appointed 7lli November, 1791. Reaigned, and 
■William Palorson appointed. 

WILLIAM PATERSON, Governor of New Jersey. Nomination 
confirmed and appointed 4th March, 1793, in place of Thomas 
Johnson, resigned. Died, and Brockhotst Livingston appomted. 

SAMUEL CHASE, of Maryland. Nominationconfirmedandappointed 
37lh Januai'y, 179G, in place of John Blaic, resigned. Died, and 
Gabriel Duval appoiuted. 

BUSHROD WASHINGTON, of Vrgi App m d 39 1 S p m 

ber, 1798, in recess of Senate, in pi f J W is d d 

Nomination confirmed and appo d20hD mb I 98 D d 
and Henry Baldwin appointed. 

ALFRED MOOEE, of North Carol N nfi m d and 

appointed 10th December, 1799 m place t J m I d 11 d 
ceased. Reaigned, and William J h pp d 

WILLIAM JOHNSON, of South C 1 N n nfirmed 

and appointed 36th March, 1804 pi f Alfr d M re 

signed. (Confirmed and appoii d C 11 f h Cus m 33d 

Feb. 1819, and declined the appo m ) D d 1834 and 
James M. Wayne appointed. 

THOMAS TODD, of Kentucky. N nfi d ^ d p 

pointed 3d Miiich,1807. 

vember, 1B06, In recess of Sen 1 f W 11 m P n 

deceassd. Nomination contirmed and appointed 17th Docember, 
1806. Died, and Smith Thompson appointed. 

LEVI LINCOLN, of Massachusetts. Nomination confirmed and ap 
pointed 3d January, 1811, in place of William Gushing, deceased. 
Declined the appointment, and John Qumoy Adams appointed. 

JOHN QUINCY ADAMS, of MassBchnseKs. Nomination confirmed 
and appointed 2ad February, 1811, in place of Levi Lincoln, de- 
clined. Declined the appointmont, and Joseph Story appointed. 
GABRIEL DUVAL, of Maryland. Nomination confirmed and »p 
pointed 18th November, 1811, in the place of Samuel Chase, de 
ceased. Resigned, and Philip P. Barbour appointed. 

JOSEPH STORY, of Maasaclmsetis. Nomination confimied and ap. 

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pojntcil IBlh November, 1811, in place of Jolm Quincy AdamE, 
declined. Diod and Levi Wocxlbury nppoinlcd. 

6MITH THOMPSON, of New York. Appoiiiled Isl Seplemher, 
1823, in recesa of the Senate, in place of Brocltholst Livingston, 
deceaaed. Kominolion confirmed and appointed 9th December, 
1623. Died, and Samuel Nelson appointed. 

ROBERT TRIMBLE, of Kentuclty. Homination confirmed and ap- 
pointed 9th May, 1826, in the place of Tliomaa Todd, deceased. 
Died, and John McLean appointed. 

JOHN McLEAN, of Ohio. Nomination coniirmed and appointed 71h 
March, 1839, in the place of Robert Trimble, deceased. 

HENRY BALDWIN, of Pennaylvania. Nomination confirmed and 
Eppoinlcd 6th January, 1830, in place of Bushrod Washington, de- 
ceased. Died, and R. C. Grier appoinled. 

JAMES M. WAYNE, of Georgia. Nomination confirmed and ap- 
poinled 9lh January, 1835, in place of William JohuEOn, deceased. 

PHILIP P, BARBOUR, ofVirginia. Nomination confirmed and ap- 
poinled 15th March, 1836, in place of Gabriel Daval, resigned. 
Died, and P. V. Daniel appoinled. 

JOHN CATRON, of Tennessee. Nombalion confirmed and ap- 
pointed ath March, 1837. 

WILLIAM SMITH, of Alabama. Nomination conRimed and ap- 
pointed 8th March, 1837. Declined the appointment, and John 
McKinley appointed. 

JOHN McKINLEY, of Alabama. Appointed 22d April, 1S37, in re- 
cess of the Senate, in place of William Smith, declined. Nomina- 
tioned confirmed and appointed 25th September, 1837. 

PETER V. DANIEL, of Virginia. Nomination confirmed and ap- 
pointed 3d March, 1841, in place of Philip P. Barbour, deceased. 

SAMUEL NELSON, of New York. Nomination confirmed and ap- 
pointed, 14Lh February, 1845, in place of Smith Thompson, de 

LEVI WOODBURY, of New Hampshu^. Appointed SOlh Sepfem 
ber, 1845, m recees of the Senate, in place of Joseph Story, de 
ceased. Nomination confirmed and appointed 3d January, 1846. 

ROBERT C. GRIER, of Pennsylvania. Nomination confirmed ana 
appoinled 4th August, 1846, in place of Henry Baldwin, deceased. 
EENJAMIH ROBSmS CURTIS, of Massacbuaetts. Appoinled during 
the recess of the Senate, in place of Levi 'Woodbiiry, deooaseS. No- 
mination confirmed and appointed SOth December, 1S51. 

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JoHM TnecEK, of MassachuaeliE, 
Samuel Bayard, of Delnware, 
Elias B. Caldwell, of N. J. 
William GniFFirn, of N. J. 
William T. Caeeoll, of D. C. 

rlFeb. 3 1 90 Rea^ned 
Aug. 1 I 91 R-s^nod 
Aug. 15 ibOO D ed 
Feb, 9 1836 D ed 
Jan. 20 IR"? P es t inc I 


Alexakdek J. Dallas, 

leported from 1789 

ISOO, inclus 

William Cbanch, 

do. " 1801 

1815. " 

He.vKY Wbeaton, 

do. '■ 18i6 

1827, " 

Richard Peters, jun'r, 

o 1843, " 

Benjamim C. Howard, 

do. " JEI3. 

Present inc 


Under tbe conatruotion of Ihe judiciary act of 17S9, the Marshals of nil 
the Ditiricts were raqiiired to attend the sessions of the Supreme Court, 
iirilil, by the act of 9tli June, 1794, the Marshd of (ha district alone in 
which ths court eliall sit was requited to attend its sessions. 
David LeboX, MnlBhal Diat. of Pa.,nttonded Jan. 28, 179* to Feb. 1 



. Carroll Bee 

i,Mar.D. C, 

Aug.3,!B01, to Aug. 1808. 
Feb. 1,1808, to Aug. 1818, 
NoY.30, 1818, to Aug. 1831, 
Feb. 4, ia31,toFek 1834. 
March 9, 1S34, fo Dec. 1S48, 
Dee, 5, 1348, to Deo. 1849, 
Dec 4, 1849. Present Incu'i. 

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THOMAS JEFFERSON, of Virginia. Nominalion confirmed and 
appoiiWed aSth Seplomber, 17^9. Eeaigned. 

EDMUND RANDOLPH.ofVirginia. Nomination coniirmcd bdJ np- 
pointed 2d January, 1794. Resigned. 

TIMOTHY" PICKERING, of Pennsylvania, Kominatioti oonlirmed 
and appointed lOlh December, 1795. Removed. 

JOHN MARSHALL, of Virgiiiia. Nomination confirmed and np- 
pointed ]3Ih May. 1600. Appointed Chief Justice Supreme Court 
31st January, 1801. Presided as such at February term, 1801. 
Continued to act as Secretary of State to 3d March, 1801. 

JAMES MADISON, of Virginia. Nomination confirmed and ap- 
pointed 5tli Marob, 1801. Became President *th March, 1809. 

ROUERT SMITH, of Maryland. (Seerelaryof the Navy.) Nomination 
confirmed and appointed 6th Mnrch, 1809. Resigned, and James 
Monroe appointed. 

JAMES MONROE, of Virginia. Appoinled 3d April, 1811, in recess 
of Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed 25[ti November, 
181i. Appoinled Secretary of War, 37th September, 1814. 

JAMES MONROE, ofVirginia. {Socioli^ry otVJiir.) Nominalion con- 
^'" 305 

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firmed and oppolnted aStli Ttbruary, 1815. Beoume Prcsidem of 
the United States 4th March, 1817. 
JOHN QUIKCY ADAMS, of MassachuseltB. Nomination confirmed 
and appointed 5th March, 1817. Became President of the United 

States 4lh March, 1B35. 
HEHRY CLAY, of Kenluckf. Nomination confirmed and appointed 

7(h Match, 1835, Resigned. 
MARTIN VAN BUREN, of New York. Nomination oonfitmed and 

appointed 6th March, 1839. Resigned, and Edward LivinEsion 

EDWARD LIVINGSTON, of Louisiana, sppointea 24th May, 1831, 

in recess of Senate. Nominntion conlinned and appointed laih 

January, 1S33. 
LOUIS MoLANE, of Delaware. Appointed 39th May, 1S33, in recess 

of Senate. Reaigned. 
JOHN FORSYTH, of Georgia. Nomination confirmed and appointed 

37th June, 1834, in place of Lonis McLane, resigned, 
DANIEL WEBSTER, of Massachusetts. Nomination confirmed and 

appointed 5th March, IS4I. Resigned. 
ABEL P. UPSHUR, of Virginia, appoinled 34lh July, 1843, in recess 

of Ihe Senate, in place of Daniel Webster, resigned. Nomination 

CGii&iiied and appointed 2d January, 1844. (Abel P. Upshur was 

killed on S8lh February, 1844, by the bursting of a large cannon 

on board of the United States steam frigate the Princeton.) 
JOHN C. CALHOUN, of South Carolina, Nomination confirmed and 

appoinled filh March, 1844, in room of Abel P. Upshur, deceased. 
JAMES BUCHANAN, of Peimsylvania. Nomination confinned and 

appointed 5th March, 1845. 

[Qmlmmd impale 403] 


ALEXANDER HAMILTON, of New York. Nomination confirmed 

and appoinled lllh Seplember, 1789. Resigned. 
OLIVER ■\VOLCOTT,jun'r,ofConneciicut. Nomination confirmed 

and appointed 3d February, 1795. Resigned, to take effect 31st 

Deoeniber, ISOO. 
SAMUEL DEXTER, of Massachusetts. (Secretary of War,) Nomina 

lion confirmed and onpoinicJ 3l3t Doccmbfir 1800. 

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ALBERT GALLATIN, of PennBylvania. Appointed 11th Miiy, ISOl, 
in leceas of Senote. Hominaiion confirmed and appointed a6ili 
Januarj', 1803. Superseded by appointmenl of George W. Camp- 
bell, owing to his p ra B P M 
of tlie United Stale 


nnd appointed 9lh F R 

James Dallas appo 


confirmed «nd appo O 


1S16, in rscesfl of N 

poinied 5 111 Mardi 


pointed 7ih March 


and appointed Gth M on 

Dppoi tiled. 


cesa of the Senal N 
January, 1832. 


in recess of the Sen m R B 


recess of Senate, and continued until 31th June, 1834. 
LEVI WOODBURY, of New Hampshire. Nomination confirmed and 

appointed STth June, 1834. 
THOMAS EWING, of Ohio. Nomination confirmed a d appo nted 

5th March, 1841. Resigned, and W. Forward appo ted 
WALTER FORWARD,ofPennsylva[iia. Nomination confim dand 

appointed 13th September, 1841, ju place of Thon as E g e 

lOHN C. SPENCER, of New York. Nomination co fi n d and 
appointed 3d March, 1843, in place of Walter Forward res ned 

GEORGE M. BIBB, of Kentucky. Nominotioo confirmed and ap 
pointed ISih June, 1844, in place of John C. Spencer re " ed 

JtOBERT J. WALKER, of Mississippi Nominalicn co U a an! 
appoint cd 5th March, 1845. 

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HENRY KNOX, of MosBachxiseris Nomination conhrmed and 07 
poimed 12ih September, 178!) Resigned 

TIMOTHY PICKERING, of Fennsjlvama. Nominalion confirmed 
and appointed, Sd January, 1715 Appointed faecrelary of Stato 
101 h December, 1795. 

JOHN McHENRY, of Maryland Nomination confirmed end up 
pointed S7lh Jannary, 179S Resigned, to take cHecl Ist June, 

JOHN MARSHALL, of Viteinia. Nominated 7th May, 1800. Post- 
poned 9th May, ISOO. Appointed 13ih May, 1800, SeoceiBvy of 

SAMUEL DEXTER, of MaasHOhusetta. Noramalinn confirmed and 

appoinlad 13lh May, 1800. Appointed Secretary of the Treasury 

3l3t December, 1800. 
ROGER GRISWOLD, Member of House of Reproscntatii-es from 

Connecticut. Nominalion conHimed and oppointed 3d February, 

IBOl. Vacated. 
HENRY DEARBORN,ofMa8sachu3Btt3. Nomination confirmed and 

appointed 5th March, ISOl. 
WILLIAM EUSTIS, of Massachusetts. Nominatjon confirmed and 

appointed 7lh March, 1809. Resigned, and John Armstrong ap- 

JOHN ARMSTRONG, of New York. Nomination confirmed and 
appointed 131h January, 1813. Resigned, and James Monroe ap- 

JAMES MONROE, of Virginia. (Secretary of State.) Nomination 
confirmed and appointed 37th September, 1814. Appointed Secre- 
tary of Stale aSlh February, 1815. 

WILLIAM H. CRAWFORD, of Georgia. Nomination eonfirmedand 
appointed 3d March, 1815. Appointed Socretai-y of the Treasury 

GEORGE GRAHAM, of Virginia. Appointed 7th April, 1817, in te- 

tees of the Senate. 
ISAAC SHELBY, of Kemwcliy. Nomination confirmed and appoimcd 

5lh March, 1817. Deciined the appoinlineiil. 
JOHN C. CALHOUN, of South Carolina. Appointed 8(h October, 

1617, in recess of the Senate. Nomination confirmed and ap- 

DoiiUed 15th December, 1817. 

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JAMES BARBOUR, of Virginia. NommntLoji confirmed and ap- 

poinlsd 7lli March, 1625. 
PETER B. PORTER, of Hew York. Nomination confirmed and ap- 

pointed 26tli May, 1823. 
JOHN H. EATON, of Tennessee. Nomination confirmed and op- 
pointed Sib MBTch, ies9. Resigned, and Lewis Cass appointed. 
LEWIS CASS, of Oliio. Appointed Isl August, 1831, in recess of the 

Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed 30tli December, 

1S31. Appointed Minister to France. 
BENJAMIN F. BUTLER, of New York. Nomination confirmed 

and appointed 3A March, 1837. 
JOEL K. POINSETT, of Soutli Carolina. Nomination confirmed and 

appobted 7tli March, 1837. 
JOHN BELL, of Tennessee. Nomination conHrmed and appointed 

Stii Mai'ch, 1841. Resigned. 
JOHN McLEAN, of Oiiio. Nomination confirmed and appointed 13tli 

September, 1841, in place of Jolin Bell, resigned. Declined the 

JOHN C. SPENCER, of New York. Appointed 12tli October. 1841, 

in llie recess of tlie Senate, in place of John McLean, declined. 

Nomination confirmed and appointed SOth December, 1341, 
JAMES M. PORTER, of Pennsylvania. Appointed 8th March, 1843, 

in recess of the Senate, in place of John C. Spencer, resigned, and 

conlinvted to serve until 30lh January, 1844. 
WILLIAM WILKINS, of Pennsylvsma. Nomination confirmed and 

appointed 15th February, 1844, 
WILLIAM L. MARCY, of New York. Nomination confirmed and 

appointed Sih March, 1845. 


GEORGE CABOT, of Massacliueetts. Nomination confirmed end ap 

pointed 3d May, 1793. 
BENJAMIN STODDERT, ofMaryland. Nommation confirmed ami 

appointed 21et May, 1793. Resigned. 
ROBERT SMITH, of Maryland. Appointed 15th July, 1801, in re 

cess of the Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed SEth 

January, 1803. Appointed Attorney General 3d March, 1805. 

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lACOB CROWNINSHIELD, of Moa^HchusottE. Nommation con- 

firmed and appointed 2d March, 1B05. 
PAUL HAMILTON, of South Csrolina. nomination conflniied and 

appointed 7lli March, 1809. Resigned, and William Jones ap- 

WILLIAM JONES, of Pennsylvania. Hominatioii confimed and ap. 
pointed I2lh Janaaiy, 1813. Resigned, and BotijamiQ W. Crown- 
inshield appointed. 

BENJAMIN W. CROWNINSHIELD, of MaaBachuaetts. Nomina- 
tion confirmed and appointed 17th December, 1814. 

SMITH THOMPSON, of New York. Appointed 9lh November, 
1818, in recess of ihe Senate. Nomination coijfirmEd and ap- 
pointed 30[h November, 1818. Resigned. 

JOHN R0DGER8. (President of the Board of Navy CommJEsioners.) 
Appointed Isl September, 1823, in reoeas of the Senate. 

SAMUEL L. SOUTHARD, of New Jersey. Appointed 16th Septem- 
ber, 1823, in receesof the Senate. Nomination confirmed and ap- 
pointed 9lh December, 1^3. 

JOHN BRANCH, of North Carolina. Nomination confirmed and ap- 
pointed 9lh Mareh, 1829. Resigned. 

LEVI WOODBURY, of New Hampshire, appointed 33d May, 1831, 
ill recess of the Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed 
27th December, 1831, Resigned, to take effect after SOlh June, 

MAHLON DICKERSON, of New Jersey. Nomination confirmed and 
appoxnled 30th June, 1834. Resigned. 

JAMES K. PAULDING, of New York. Nomination confirmed and 
appointed 20lh June 1838, to lake effect from 30lh June, 1838, 
when M. Diokeraon's resignation look effect. 

GEORGE E. BADGER, of North Carolina. Nomination confirmed 
atid appointed 5th March, 1841. Resigned. 

ABEL P. UPSHUR, of Virginia. Nomination confirmed and appointed 
13tli September, 1841. 

DAVID HENSHAW, of MasaaohusettB. Appointed 24th July, 1843, 
in receea of Senate, and served until ISlIi January, 1344. 

THOMAS W. GILMER, of Virginia. Nomination confirmed and ap- 
pointed 15th February, 1844, in the place of David Henshaw, re- 
jected by the Senate. (Thomas W. Gilmer, killed SBth February, 
1844, by the buretingof a targe camion on board the United States 
st'-am-fiigKle Princeton.) 

JOHN Y. MASON, of Virginia. Nomination confirmed and ap- 

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pointed Mill March, 1S14, in place of T. W. Giliucr, iccEaaeil, 
Appointed Allorney General 5lh March, 1845. 
GEORGE BANCROFT, of MasBaehasetls. Nominalioii confirmed 
and appointed lOth March, 1845. Resigned. 
OHN Y. MASON, of Virginia. Appoinfed 9lli Seplembcr, 1846, in 
recess of the Senate, in the place of George Bancroft, resigned. 
Nominalion confirmed and appointed nth December, 1S4S. 
lOiiraiitual on paae iHi] 


SAMUEL OSGOOD, of Moasachuaetts. Nomination confirmed and 
appointed 26th September, 1789. Resigned. 

TIMOTHY PICKERING, of Pennsylvania. Appointed lath Augtiai, 
179!, in the recess of the Senate. Nomination confirmed and ap- 
pointed 7lh November, 1791. Appointed 1st June, 1794, in the 
recQ^ of the Senate, under the act of eth Itlay, 1794. Nomina- 
tion confirmed and appointed Ilth Decamber, 1734. [Appointed 
(esT officio) Commissioner to Battla efFairs with the Indiana, lat 
March, 1793.] Appointed Secretary of War 2d January, 1795. 

JOSEPH HABERSHAM, of Georgia. Nomination confirmed and ap- 
pointed 25th February, 1795. Resigned. 

GIDEON GRANGER, of Connecticut. Appointed 28th November, 
1801, in recess of the Senate, in place of J. Habersham, resigned. 
Nomination confirmed and appointed 36th January, 1802. 

RETURN JONATHAN MEIGS, jun'r. (Governor of Ohio.) Nomi- 
nation confirmed and appointed 17th March, 1814. Resigned. 

JOHN McLEAN,ofOhio. Appomted 26th June, !B23,m recess of thf 
Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed 9[h December 

WILLIAM T. BARRY, of Kentucky. Nommation confirmed and 
appointed 9th March, 1829. 

AMOS KENDALL, of Kentucky. Appointed 1st May, 1835, in the 
recess of the Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed ISIh 
March, 1836. 

J OHN M. NILES, of Connecticut. Nomination confirmed and ap- 
pointed on 18tb, to take effect from 25th May, 1840. 

FRANCIS GRANGER, of New York, Nomination confirmed and 
appointed 6tli Marcli, IStl. Resigned, 

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CHARLES ^. WICKLIFFE, of Kentucky. Nomination coiifirin. 

and appointed 13lh September, 1641. Resigned. 
CAVE JOHNSON, of Tennessee, Nomination confirmed aiid a 

pointed 5th March, 1645. 


EDMUND RANDOLPH, of Virginia. Nomination confirmedand ap- 
pointed SGtli September, 1789. Appointed Secretary of State ad 
January, ITS*. 

WILLIAM BRADFORD, of Pennsylvania. Nomination confirmed 
37th January, and appointed 28th January, 1794. Died. 

CHARLES LEE, of Virginia. Noniination confirmed and appoiniad 
10th December, 1795. Appointed [ex officio) Commissioner lo ad- 
just claims of Georgia, lath February, 1800. Appointed Chief 
Judge of tho Fourth Circuit, 4.O., SOth February, IBHl. 

THEOPHILUS PARSONS, of lHaasaehusells. Nomination con- 
firmed and appointed 30tli Febraarf, 1801. Declined the appoml 

LEVI LINCOLN, of Ma^acbuaetts. Nomination confirmed and ap- 
pointed 5th March, 1801 V gn d m ISC') 
ROBERT SMITH, of Maryl d Nm fi d d tp d 


nh dand 

appointed aSd Uecemb 1805 

CJESAR A. RODNEY, of P nn yl N 

ntirm d and 

appointed 30th January 1B07 R g d 

WILLIAM PINKNEY, ot M yl d N tm 

nfim d nd 

appointed lllhDecemb 1611 

RICHARD RUSH, of Pen jl N t 

fi m d dp- 

pomled lOlh February 18U 

WILLIAM WIRT, of Vitg a. App t d n h N 

fa 1817 in 

recess of the Senate. N m t t m d 

d PI d 15 h 

December, 1617. 


N mm > 

firmed and appointed 9 h M b IS 9 R ig 

Dnfl^P TJT^AriTrf TAMPV P TU" ....f .1 A.... 


fLUuiJ!i±t ltts.\j'ji\.Ci lAlNJlji I In ryl a -"-pp 

1831, inthereceaaofth S N 

fi d d p- 

pomted 37th Decembe 1831 

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BEKJAMm F. BUTLER, of New York. Appointed iSlh Novem- 
ber, 1833, in the recess of the Senate. Nominalion confirmed and 
appointad a4th Juno, 1834. Resigned. 

FELIX GRUNDY, of Tennessee. Nomination confirmed and ap- 
pointed 7rh July, 1838, to take effect let September, 1838, when 
leaignation of B. F. Butler took efTecl. Resigned. 

lIENRY D. GILPIN, of PennaylvEiuiii. Nominalion confitmed and 
appointed IDlli January, 1840. 

JOHN J. CRITTENDEN, of Kentucky. Nomination confirmed and 
appointed 5lh March, 1841, Resigned. 

HUGH S. LEGARE, of 8ouib Carolina. Nomination oonfiimed and 
appointed 13th September, 1841. Died. 

JpHN NELSON, of Maryland. Appointed lat July, 1843, in the re- 
cess of tliB Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed 2d Janu- 
ary, 1844. Resigned. 

JOHN Y. MASON, of Virginia. Nomination confirmed and appointed 
5lh March, 1845. Resigned. Appointed Secretary of the Navy 

NATHAN CLIFFORD, of Maine, Appobtcd 17th October, 1846, in 
the recess of (he Senate. Nomination confirmed and appointed 
S3d December, 1S46. Resigned. 

ISAAC TOUCET, of Connectient. Nomination confliined and appointed 
21et June, JSiS. 

[aHft>^He J on page 40*.] 


JOHN M. CLAYTOK, of Delaware. Nomination oonflrmed and appointed 
71h March, 1S49. BesigQed. 

DANIEL WEBSTER, of MaBsaobnaettB, NommatJon oonflrmed and ap- 
pointed 20th July, laSO. Died. 

ED^yARD EVERETT, of Maasacbusetts. Nominalion confirmed and ai>- 
pointed 9th December, 1852. 


WILLIAM MORItlB MEREDITH, of Pennsylvania. Kominaiion con- 
firmed and appointad !tlj Maroli, 1849. Resigned. 

THOJIAS CORWJH, of Ohio. Nomination confirmed and appointed m,]i 
Juno, 1350. 

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THOMAS EWINQ, of Oliio. Nm td d fUmdlKM !■ 1849. 

JAME8 A. PEARCE, of Mfltylii d N mm ti flm lanl ip t»d 

20th July, 1650. Dcdin d it g 
THOMAS M. 1. MoKEKNAN fPnjl Nmmtin nfirad 

and appoinled 15tli Aug t 1850 R g I 
ALEXANDER H. H. BTXIART fVir a.Nmti fimdd 

appointed 12tli Scptemb 1S50 


GEORGE Vf. CRAWFORD, offlga-Hmt nBmd dp 

pointed Itli March, 1849 11 g 1 
EDWARD BATES, of Misso N nun i n nfirm d d app Id 

20l;h July, 1850, DaoKn d ao pU g 
CHARLES M. CONEAD, ofLmaan Nm t flml Ip 

pointed 15tli Anguat, 1850 



7th Maroh, 1S49. - Ecsig d 
WILLIAM A, GRAHAM, of K th C li ^ mm t fiim d I 

appointed 20th Jnly, 18 E gn 1 
JOHN P. KENNEDY, of Manl 1 N m t n nfi to d 1 pp t 1 

a2d July, 18S3. 


REVERDY JOHNSON, of Marylimd. Kominated nnd eonfirmod fth 
March, 1849. Reaignad, 

JOHN J. CRITTENDEN, of Kentaolj. NominEition confirmed and up- 
pointed aoth July, 1850. 


JACOB COLLAMEE, of Vermont. Nominnted nnd confirmed ith Mju-i;1i. 

1849. Reaignad. 
NATHAN K. HALL, of New York. Koininationeonfirmediuidappointcd 

20th Jnly, 1850. Resigned. 
SAMUEL D. HUBBAED, of Couneetjcut. Nomination eonfirmed and 

appointed 31st August, 1862. 

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Chronological statement of the formation of the govern- 
m.ents of the several States; of their becoming members 
of the Union by their adoption or ratification of the Con- 
stitution of the United States, or by their admission as 
States since the establishment of the Constitution ; with 
a particular account of the progress of each of the lat- 
ter, either from the condition of territorial dependencies, 
or independent governments, to the rank of Statbs. 

MoNDiY, Septemeee 5, 1774, 

A number of Delegates, chosen and appointed by the aevoral Colonies 
and Provinces in Nortli America, met to hold a Congress at Philadel- 
pliia, and assembled in Carpenter's Hall. 

TtTESOAY, September 6, 1774, 

Resolved, That in determining questions in this Congress, each Co- 
lony or Province shall have one vote— The Congress not being pos- 
sessed of, or at present able to procure proper materials for ascertaining 
the importance of each Colony. 

IThis principle was confirmed by the Articles of Confederatbn which 
deckred that, "In determining questions in the United States, iu Con- 
gress assembled, each State shall have one vote." And they further 
declared that certain enumerated powers should never be determined 
by Congreas, "unless nine States assant to the same: nor shall a ques 
tion on any other point, except for adjoaming from day to day, be deter- 
mined, «n tees bytho votes of a majotily of the United States in Congress 
assembled."— These extracts show the relative authority or importance 
of the several States in the escrcise of the sovereign power under the 

TiTESBAY, Jdlt 3, 1776. 

Resolved, That these United Colonies are, and, of 

right, ought to be, Free and Independent States ; that 

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(hey are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, 
and that all political connexion between them, and the 
State of Great Bntain, is, and ought to be, totally dis- 

Thdhsdav, July 4, 1776. 
The Corgreaa Bgroed 10 A DeolakAtiok of IbdePSNeENCE it the 


A?SEMELED, lo be sigTicd by (he monibera fi-om the several States, which 
will be foand in thia Tolume. 

MoKDAY, Settembeb 9, 177B. 
Eeaolved, That in all continental commissions, and other instrumenla, 
where, heretofore, the words "Unitod Colonies" hnve been used, the 
style be altered, for the future, lo the Umiied States, 


The Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union of the ITnited 
(States of America were agreed to by the Delegates cf Ihe thirteen 
ori^nal States in Congress asaembled, subject to the rdtilicottion 
of the Legislatures of the several Slates. 

These articles were ratified by 8 Stales on the 0th July, 1778. 
Ditto. . ■ . . . I Slate . . 21st July, 1778. 

Ditto t State . , . 34th July, 1778. 

Ditto 1 State . . Sfith Nov. 1778. 

Ditto 1 State . . . sad Feb., 1779. 

Ditto 1 Slate . . 1st March, 1781. 

The ratification waa therefore completed on the 1st March, 1781,* 
the articles being dated the 9th July, 1778, and this completed the 
bond if union of the thirte^in original States, whose delegates as- 
semhled in Congress continued to legislate and execute the powers 
of the United States under the Articles of Confederation until the 
4th March, 1789, when, by their resolution of tlie I3th September, 
1788, the Constitution of the United States, also adopted and rati- 
fied by the people of the said original States, went into operation, 

*Vido Iho nolfsunaet "OliiQ" for Ihe canse of llie deJny on lh« parlof Mary- 
land lo laiify Ihe AtlielBS of CoiifMlcialion unlU March 1, 1781. 

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The thirteen original States that formed and confirmed 
the Union by the adoption of the Constitution, are as fol- 
lows : — 


Embraoea under Ihe chatxetp of MoMBohuseus, and continued under iho sann; 

juiiBdielion until Beplerater IB, IS7S, when a separate charter and governmenl 

This Slate ratiaed tha Gonslilutioa of (ha Unilad Slates, June 31, 1763. 

Seuled under tonipaots of the emigranU of Novemiier 3, 1630, and chartered on 

iialjiicd llio Com 


I of the United Slates, February 


uued in force untd a Con 

irlera of MassacliuBellB, anii co 

leUtulioo was lormed in Septeml 
L of the United Slates, May 33, 1 

as granled, whi 

jer, ma. 




irisrtiction until 

■ the charters of MaBsachuaetlB, and eoj 
April as, 1662, when a separate chart 
oatU a Ccnstitation was fiirnied on Sepi 
ilHalion of the United Stales, Janaary ■ 







It, March 30, 1004 ; April SO, 1604 

'April 31^ 1777 

.0, 1 





1 of die United States, July 28, 1768. 


Held under aami 
1. Mareh 3, 1677. 

i granli 

s OS New York; separated intt 
mverntnanl surrendered to the 

1 East and Wesi 
Crown in 1703, 


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to., on Scplonibi 

!, 16(!f; formed aCoiislil 
3r 3, 1790. 





i'* i," T ^^Z*^ 

















d April ID, IGOB, 
jly 8,1770; Bine 

May 93, 1009, and Marc 
vuleU JnnuHry36,193a 






J 8,1738; formed 1 Constilul 

lUitified lbs Constilulion of ths Ulliled Stales, Janoary B, 1788. 

The privilege of beconung' members of the American Union by 
Ihe mere ratification of the C 1 1 was d to those 

Slates alone that were part to h p n f d rati.on and 

the compact or convention by wh h ti C n aa formed. 

The ratiiication of nine Stit b fh t i th eslabliah- 

inent of the Constitution; adth bnratlidby eleven 

States, it was determined by C n th 1 h "September, 

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1788, under llie resolutions of the convention, tliat the Constitu- 
tion had been established, and tliat it shonld go into operation on 
the first Wednesday (4th day) of March, 17S9.— It therefore ap- 
puats that two of Ihe Slates did not ratify the Constilution until 
after its establishment, yet they were not treated as new States, 
requiring particular forms of admission, but their Senators and 
Representatives, as provided for in the 2d sect. 1st art. of the 
Constitution, were admitted in Congress npon the presentation of 
their aothenticated forma of ratification. It was considered neces- 
sary, however, that Uie laws of the United Stales passed previous 
to their accession should be extended to them by special acts 

The Union having been thus completed, and its Constitution 
and government established, the United States under the 3d section 
of the 4th article of the Constitution reserved to themselves in 
Congress assembled, tiie right and the power to admit new States, 
by declaring that *' Now States may he admitted by tiie Congress 
into this Union;" and, as the 4th section of the same article re- 
quires, that " The United Stales shall guarantee to every State in 
this Union a Repablican form of government," it has in practice 
been deemed a pre-requisite that the people proposing to form a new 
Slate be authorized by law to form a Constitution, to be submitted 
to Congress, to enable that body to judge of its Republican cha- 
racter, before proceeding to oiercise that high and sovereign power 
of admitting a distinct community of people to the inestimable 
rights, privileges, and immunities, secured by the organization of a 
State government, — and upon an equal footing, in all respects 
whatsoever, with those States that jointly achieved tiie independ- 
ence of the country, and which, together vrith thosejthav have be- 
come members of tiie Union since that eventful period, have home 
the hardsliips, trials, and difficullie*, both internal and external, 
through which the nation has passed, and which have secured the 
stdbiiity, power, and happiness of the country. 

The Constitution of tiie United Slates declares, that " new Stales 
may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new 
Stale shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other 
Slate, nor any Slate he formed by the junction of two or more 

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States, or parla of States, withotit the ootiseiit of the legislatures of 
the States concerned as well as of the Congress." 

Upon this clause, James Madison, in the " Federalist," makes 
the following remarks : — 

"In the nrticlBB of Confedei'alion, no prorision ia found on this im- 
portant Buliject. Canada was to be admitted of right, on her joining in 
the measures of the United Slaies ; and the other colonies, by which were 
evidently meant, tlie other British Colonies, at the discretion of nine 
Stales. The eventual establishment of new Slates seems to have been 
overlooked by the compilers of that instrument. We have seen the in- 
convenience of this omission, and the assumption of power into which 
Congress have been led by it. With great propriety, therefore, has the 
new system supplied the defect. The general precaution, that no new 
State shall be formed without the concurrence of the Federal authority, 
and that of the States concerned, ia consonant to the principles which 
ought to govern auch transactions. The particular precaution agtdnat 
the erection of new Slates, by the partition of a Stale without its con- 
sent, quiets the jealousy of the larger States ; as that of the smaller is 
quieted by a like precaution, against a junction of States without their 

The ConatJtution also declares that " the Congress shall have 
power to dispose of, and make all needful rules and regulations re- 
specting the territory or other property belonging to the United 
States ; and nothing in this Constitution shall he so construed as 
to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any pai'dculai 

Under this clause, Congress exercises the power of creating 
territorial governments, which in process of time, by the increase 
of population and other concurrent causes, apply, on behalf of the 
people, for authority to form constitutions and state governments, 
with a view to adiniesion into the Union, at a future period, and it 
is for the Congress of the United States in the exercise of their high 
constitutional powers, and under the solemn responsibilities imposed 
upon them as guardians of the rights and the welfare of the whole 
Union, to Judge of theespediency andthe time of admitting the yen- 
pie who may have become inhabitants of such territories, to all the 
peculiar and inestimable rights, privileges, and i 

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citizens of one of tho United SlatiS of America. Mr. Madison le- 
marka upon this point that, 

" This is a power of very great importance, and required by considera- 
tions similar lo those which show tho propriety of the former. The 
proviso annescd is very proper in itself, and was probably rendered 
absolutely necessary by jealousies and questions concerning the western 
territory sufficiently known lo the public." 

But the Constitution requires that *' Tho United Stales shall 
guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Go- 
vernment, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on 
Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive, {when the 
Legislature cannot be convened,) against doniBStic Violence." And, 
upon this clause, Mr. Madison has expressed in tho " Federalist" 
the following wise and just sentiments ; 

" In a Confederacy founded on republican principles, and composed of 
republican members, the superintending government ought clearly to 
possess authority to defend the system against aristocratic or monarchicid 
innovations. The more intimate the nature of such a Union may bo, 
the greater mleresl have the members in the political institutions of Bach 
other i and the greater right to insist, that the forma of government under 
which the compact was entered into, should be substanliaJly maintained. 

"But a right implies a remedy; and whore else could the remedy 
be deposited, than where it is deposited by the Constitution! Govern- 
ments of dissimiiai principles and forms have been found less adapted to 
a federal coalition of any sort than those of a liindred nature, ' As the 
confederate republic of Germany,' saya Montesquieu, 'consists of free 
cilies and petty Stales, subject to diiferenl princes, experience shows us, 
that it is more imperfect than that of Holland and Switserland.' ' Greece 
was undone,' he adds, ' Ds soon as the king of Macedon obtained a seat 
among the Amphictyons.' In t!ie latter case, no doubt, the digpropor- 
lionate force, as well aa the monarchical form of the new confederate, 
hud its share of influence on the events. 

"It may possibly ba asked,, what need there could be of such a pie- 
caution, and whether it may not become a preteil for alterations in the 
State governments, without the concurrence of the States themselves. 
Thesa questions admit of ready answers. If the interposition of the 
General Government should not be needed, the provision for SHoh an 
event will be a harmless superfluity only in the Conatitmion. But who 
can say what experiments may be produced by the caprice of particular 

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States, by tlie ambition of enterprising icadors, or by tlie intrigues and 
inlluoncB offoieigii powers? 

"To lEie second quealion it may bo answered, ihiit if llio General Go- 
vernment Hhould interpose by virtue of tliis Constitutional authoriljr, ' 
will be of course bound to pursue the authority. But the authority e 
lends no farther thnn to n suaraatee of a I'epublican form of govemraent, 
which supposes a pre-existing government of the form which is to be 
guarantied. As long therefore as the existing repnblica 
tinued by the Slates, they are gaaraiitied by the Federal Cr 
Whenever the States may choose lo Bubstitute other ropubhcan forms, 
ihey have a right to do so, and to clium the Federal guarantee for the 
hitter. The only reetriotion imposed on them is, that they shall not ex- 
change republioati fa anti-tepu-blican constitutions; a restriction which, 
it is presumed, will hardly be considered as a grievance." 


Fomed IVom part of the lertitory of New York, with llie conscnl of ha Legis- 
lature, by act of March B, iT90, (ViOe JoDrnal Seaate of the United Stales, Feh, B, 
1791, ond appcndis to Jonraal House of Rcpresanlalivea, ral. 1, p. 413.) Applies- 

was reneived at FhiJadelphia, Feb. S, 17B1, a conslitntian iiaving been tanned 
JJeo. as, 1777. Vermont adoiitled by act of (^idgresH approved Feb. IS, 1701, lo 
take sITect, I.e.," sball be received and sdmhled," on Morelil, 1991. 
Entitled to two TtepreaeDlnllves by set of Congress Fob, as, 17D1, 

1701, approved March S, 1791. 
A constilolion adopted by Vermont, July 9, 1703, 


of Deo. 18,1789. (Vide JournaL Senate of the United Stales, Dec. 9, 1790, an^ Bioren 
tDLSce's edition Laws of Ibe United States, vol. 1, page 673 ; and message oi 
speech of Pieaident to Congress, Dec. 8, 1790,| AppUealion of the convention of 
Kentnekj rcooiisd, Dec. 0, 17M. (See Journal House of Represenlalives, vol 1, 
p. 411, appendii.) pu conslitation noi then formed.) Act of (tongress for its re- 

Kniitlad lo two RepresentativcB, by act of Congres. Feb. ao, i7»l. 

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■J art of December, 11S9, coayeici! Id tho TJnitofl States tj tlis Seoal 
Jjii'oliiia) Feb. 26, 1T6D, and accepted by act of Gon^resa of April 2, 17 
La gorerDineut of tbo territorj of tba United Slates sontb of Ite 

iL> Ihat State, ana 

it nas sUowed oi 


■e« again ^tcn 


Ih^ Stale into Eaa 
Formed out of 

a part of tHe U 

a DiBteiel!.) 


■ii'ilory nortH-west of Uie river C 

IWe, >v; 


178B, and accepted by the CongreBB of the TTniled 1 


Vlrgliua waa m 

80, 178B, 


Fided into not more than five, nor 

States. An act t 


river Ohio, was i 

pprorefl on Aog 

UBt 7, 1789, Ibis territary vsb divldcH 

ents bj act of Conneas of May 7, ISOO, 

petitions ftom the people tbeccDf, 


Bljvoh 4, 1802, fblio State P^ew, ' 


tlie people of the 

eaatern diii^on ' 

government ma 

paeeed-ud WI 

iroTod AprU 30, 1802, hy wHich 

that S 

tate va> 

The saii people bavlug, on November ao, 1.803,<«mplled with me set of 

&n act waa passed fend approved on February 19, 1808, for the due cKectitioQ of the 

An feet in addition to, and In modification o^ Che propositions contalneil In the act 
of ApiH 30, 1802, was passed and approved on March M, 1803, 

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OHIO being the first State formed out of the temtory 
north-west of the river Ohio, and admitted into the Union, 
it is deemed proper to insert here the circumstances and 
facts -which led to the cession of that territory, and the 
principles agreed upon and established for the rule of its 
future government, which will apply equally to the other 
States formed out of this territory. 

Preliminary to tlie " Ordinance for the government of the Terri- 
tory of the United States norlli-weBt of the river Ohio, it may be 
proper to refer to tlie acts and proceedings which led to the ceEsion 
of this and other terrifcDry to the United States by individual States; 
to the acta of cession themselves, and to other acts having a direct 
bearing npoo this interesting suhject. 

The attention of the whole eoantry appears to have been first 
drawn to the subject, in a forcible manner, by the decided stand 
taken by the State of Maryland, during the discussion in the Ooii- 
gtess upon the objections of certain States to the articles of Con- 
federa^on, in June, 1778. That Slafe proposed, on the 22d June, 
1778, and afterwards insisted, that the boundaries of each of Uie 
States, 33 claimed to extend to the river Mississippi, or South Sea, 
shonld he ascertained and restricted, and that the property in the 
soil of the western territories bo held for the common benefit of all 
the States. From that time until Sd February, 1781, the Slate of 
Maryland refused to accede <t> theardcles of Confederation, incon- 
sequence of having failed to obtain an amendment upon that point, 
against which course Virginia had remonstrated. 

On the 25th November, 1778, the act of New Jersey for ratify- 
ing the articles of Confederation was presented, in which this and 
other difficulties were referred to ; hut their delegates were directed 
to aign those articles, "in the firm reliance that the candour and 
justice of the several States will, in due time, remove as far as 
possible the inequality which now subsists." 

The delegate from Delaware liaving signed the articles of Cou- 
federation on the 23d February, 1770, presented on the 33d sundry 

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resolutions pasaptl by Ihe Legislature of tliat Slate, among wbioll 
were the following : 

"Unsolved, That this State tliinljs it necessary, for the peace and 
safety of the States to be included in the Union, Ihat a moderate 
extent of limits should be assigned for such of those Stales as 
claim to the Mississippi or South Sea ; and that the United States 
in Congress assembled, should, and ought to have the power of 
fixing their western limits," 

''Resolved, That this State consider themselves justly entitled to 
a right, in common with tJie members of the Union, to thai exten- 
eive tract of country which lies westward of the frontiers of the 
United States, the property of which was not vested in, or granted 
to, individuals at the commencement of the present wax : — That the 
sam.e hath been, or may be, gained from the King of Great Britain, 
or the native Indians, by the blood and treasure of all, and ought 
thei'efore to be a common estate, to be gra.nted out on t«rms bene- 
ficial to the United States." 

Upon which Congress passed tlie following resolution on the 
snid S3d February, 1779, eight States voting in favor, and three 
against the same, vis. : 

" Mesohed, That the paper laid before Congress by the delegEta 
from Delaware, and read, be filed ; provided, that it shall never be 
considered as admitting any claim by the same set up or intended 

On the 31st May, 1779, tlie delegates from Maryland laid before 
Congress the following instructions received by them : 
Inatmctiona of ihe General Assembly of Maryland, to Geoi'ge Plater, 

Wilham Paoa, William Carmichael, John Henry, James Forbes, and 

Daniel o( St. Thi rains Jenifer, esquires. 

Hnving conferred upon you a trust of the higheet nature, it ia evident 
WB jjlace great confidence in your integrity, abilities, and leal to promote 
the general welfare of the United Slates, and the particular interest ot 
ibis State, where the latter is not incompatible with the former ; but, xu 
add greater weight to your proceedings in Congresa, and take away aii 
suspicion that llie opinions you there deliver, and the votes you 
^ive, may be the mere opinions of individuals, and not resulting 

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from your knowled m e 

Slate you rEpresei ni i 

on the Eubject of h — 

nately, a eupposed d ff as ! 

division of eeDlimej is m g 

We say a HuppoBBd iff lo d 

prejudices, and ihe y 

10 the diclates of a sound policy, founded on the principles of juslicB. 
(and no oiher policy but what is founded on tliose immutable principles 
deserves to be called sound,) we flatter ourselves this apparent diversity 
of interests would soon vanish, and all the Slates would iMnfederate on 
terms mutually advantageous to all ; for they would then perceive that 
no other eontedetatian than one ea formed can be lasting, Alihougli the 
pressure of immediate calamities, the dread of their continuance from 
the appearance of disunion, and some other peculiar circumstances, may 
have mdueed some States to accedo to the present Confederation, con- 
trary lo their own interests and judgments, it requires no great share of 
foresight to predict, that, when those causes cease lo operate, the Slstes 
which have thus acceded to Ihe Confederation will consider it as no 
longer binding, and will eagerlj' embrace the first occasion of asserting 
their just rights, and securing their independence. Is it possible thai 
those States who are ambiliously grasping at territories lo which, in our 
judgment, they have not the least shadow of esclusive right, will use 
with greater moderation the increase of wealth and power derived from 
ihose territories, when acquired, than what they have displayed in their 
endeavors to acquire them? We think not. We are convinced iha 
same spirit which hath prompted them to insist on a claim so extrava- 
gant, so repugnant to every principle of justice, so incompatible with the 
general welfare of all Ihe States, will urge them on to add oppression to 
injustice. If they should not be ijicited by a superiority of wealth and 
Htrength to oppress by open force theu^ less wealthy and less powerful 
neighbors, yet depopulalion, and consequently the impoverishment of 
those States, will necessarily follow, which, by an unfair constniction of 
the Confederation, may be stripped of a common interest, and the com- 
mon benefits derivable from the western coantry. Suppose, for instance, 
Virginia indisputably possessed of the extensive and fenile country to 
which she has sat np a claim : what would be the prebable consequences 
to Maryland of such an undisturbed and undisputed possession J They 
cannot escape the least discerning. 

Virginia, by selling on the most moderate terms a small proporlion ol 
the lands in question, would draw into her treasury vast sums of money. 

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and, ill propoi'lioii to Ihs sums orisiiig Ironi sucli aales, wuuld be enabled 
lo leasen her taxes. Lands comparatively cheap, and lasea compavs- 
lively low, with the lands and Ihsbs of nn adjacanl Slate, would quickly 
drain the State thus disadvaiilageousty circumstanced of its most useful 
inhabilanls : its weallli, and its consequence in the scale of the confeds' 
rated Slales, would sink, of courae. A claim so injurious to moi-e than 
onu-half. if not to the whole of the United States, ought to be supported by 
the dearest evidence of the right. Yet what evidences of that right have 
been produced ! Wliat aiguments aJlogedin support either of the evidence 
or liie right I None that we have heard of deserving a serious refulalion. 
It has been said, that some of the delegates of a neighboring Stat* 
have declared their opinion of the impraetioabilily of governing the ex- 
tcnslva dominion claimed by that Stale. Hence also the necessity was 
ndrnilted of dividing its territory, and erecting a new State, under tha 
auspices and direction of the elder, from whom, no doubt, it would re 
ccivB its form of government, lo whom it would be bound by some alii 
anco or confederacy, and by whose councils il would be influenced. Such 
a incasm-e, if ever attempted, wojld certainly be opposed by the other 
States as inconsistent with the letter and spirit of the proposed Conlede- 
ration. Should it take place by establishing a sub-confederacy, inipc- 
riuni in imperio, the Stale possessed of this extensive dominion must 
then either submit to all the inconveniences of an overgrown and un- 
wieldy government, or suffer the authority of Congresa to interpose, nta 
fului'e time, and to lop off" a port of its territory, to be erected into a new 
and free Stale, and admitted into a confederation on such condiliona as 
shall be settled by nine States. If it is necessary, for the hsppincss and 
tranquillity of a. Slate thus overgrown, that Congress should heteafler 
inlerfere and divide its territory, why is ihe claim to that territory now 
made, and HO pertinaciously insisted on? We can suggest to ourselves 
but two motives: either the declaration of relinquishing, at some future 
period, a proportion of the country now contended for, was made lo lull 
suspicion asleep, and lo cover the designs of a secret ambition, or, If the 
thought was seriously entertained, the lands are now claimed to reap an 
immediate profit from the sale. We are convinced, pohcy and justice re. 
quire that a country unsettled al the commencement of this war, 
claimed by the British crown, and ceded to it by the treaty of Paris, if 
wrested from the common enemy by the blood and treasure of Ihe thir- 
teen Slates, should be considered as a common property, subject to ba 
parcelled out by Congress into free, conrenient, and independent govern- 
ments, in such manner and at such times as the wisdom of thai assembly 
shall hcrnafter diroct. 

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Thus convinced, ive aLouId iMltuy ilie Irust reposed in ub by our con- 
Biituciils, were we to aulhorize you to ralify on tlieir behalf llie Confede- 
ration, unless il be farther asplained. We liave coolly auil liispossion- 
atel7 considered the subject ; we iiave weighed probnhle inconveiiiencoa 
nnd hordshipe, ogainsl the sacrifice of just and esaential rights; and do 
iuatract you not to agree to ihs Confederation, unless an article or articles 
be added thereto in conformity with our declaration. Shonld we Bucceed 
iu obtaining eucl> aiticle or articles ihfn you are hereby fully empoweied 
to accede to the Confederation 

That these our sentunents renpectmg our Confederation may be moi-e 
publicly known, and more B\plic lly and concisely declared, we have 
drawn up the anneted declaration which we instruct you to lay before 

the other States in Congress assembled, copies thereof, signed by your- 
selves, or by Buch ot you as may be present at the lima of dehvery ; to 
the intent and purpose that the copies afureesid may be communicated to 
our brethren of the United States, and the contents of the said declara- 
lion taken into their serious and candid consideration. 

Also we desire and instruct you to move, at a proper time, that ihess 
instrtictions be read to Congress by their secretary, and entered on the 
journals of Congrees. 

We have spoken whh freedom, as becomes freemen ; and we sin- 
cerely wish thai these our representations may make such an impression 
on that assembly as to induce them to make such addition to the Arliclea 
of Confoderaiion as may bring about a permanent union. 

A true copy from the proceeding of December 15, 1778. 

Test: T, DUCIiETT, C. H. D. 

On the 30th October, 1779, Congress, by a rote of eight Stales 
lo three, and one being divided, passed the following ; 

Whereaa the appropriation of vacant lands fay the several Slates, 
duiing the continuance of the war, will, in the opinion of Con- 
gress, be attended with great mischiefs : therefore, 

Sesohed, That it be earnestly recommended to the Stale of Vir- 
ginia to reconsider their late act of Assembly for opening their land 
oflice ; and that it be recommended to the said Slate, and all other 
Slates similarly circumstanced, to forbear settling or issuing war- 
rants for unappropriated lands, or granting the same during the eon 
linuance of the present war. 

On tiie 7^ March, 1780, the delegates from New York presented 

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the following' act, (whicd was tally carried into etTect by said dele- 
gates in Congress on 1st March, 1781 ;) 

AN ACT to facilitate the completion of the Articlea of Confederation 
and perpetual Union among the United States of America. 

Whereas nothing under divine Providence can more effectually con- 
liibute to the tranquillity and safely of the United States of America 
llmn a federal alliance, on such liberal principles as will give satisfaction 
to its respective members : And whereas the Articles of Confederation 
and perpetual Union tecommended by the honorable the Congress of tha 
United States of America have not proved acceptable to all the Slates, 
it having been conceived thai a portion of the waste and uncultivated 
lerritary within the limits or cliums of certain States ought to be appro- 
Iirialed as a common fund for the expenses of the war i And the people 
of the Slate of New York being on all occasions disposed to manifest 
their regard for their sister States, and theii earnest desire to promote 
the general intereat and security, and more especially to accelerate the 
federal alliance, by removiig, ae far as it depends upon them, the before- 
mentioned impediment to »I8 final accomplishment : 

Be it therefore enacted, hj the people of the Stale of New York, re- 
ptesenled in Senate and Assembly, and it is hereby enacted, by the au- 
thority of the some, That it shjll and may be lawful to and for the dele- 
gales of (his State in the honorable Congress of the United Stales of 
America, or the major part of such of them aa shall he assembled in 
Congress, and they, the said delegates, or a major part of them, so os- 
scmblcd. ate hereby fully authorized and enipowerad, for and on behalf 
of this State, and by propel and anthentic acts oi instruments, to limit 
and restrict the boundaries of this Stale, in the western parts thereof, 
by such line or lines, and in such manner and form, as they shall judge 
to be expedient, either with respect to the juriadicfion, as well aa the 
right or pre-emption of soil, or reserving the jurisdiction in part, or ui 
the whole, over ihe lands which may be ceded, or relinqnishad, with ve- 
epeot only to the right or pre-emption of the soil. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That the terri- 
loiy which may be ceded or relinquished by virtue of this act, either 
with respect to the jurisdiction, as well as the right or pre-emption of 
soil, or the right or pre-emption of soil only, shall be and enure for tha 
use and benefit of such of the United States aa shall become members 
<il the federal alliance of the said Slates, and for no other use or purpose 

And be it further enacted by Ihe authority aforesaid, That all the 

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lends to be ceded STid re|jni|uished by virtwe of liiis act, foi ihe benefit 
of the United Stalea, with reepeol to property, but which ahall naverthe. 
lesa remain under the jurisdiction of this Slate, shall he disposed of and 
appropriated in such msnner only as the Congress of the said Slatea 
shall direct ; and that a warrant under the authority of Congress for sur- 
veying and laying out any pait thereof, shall entitle the party in whose 
laver it shall issue to cause the same to be surveyed and kid out and re- 
lumed, aecordlng to the directions of such warrant ; and thereupon let- 
lors patent, under the great seal of thia State, shall pass to (he grantee 
for the estate specified m the said wan'ant ; for which no other fee or re- 
ward shall he demanded or received than such as shall be allowed by 

Provided always, and be it flmher enacted by ihe authority aforesaid, 
Thai the trust reposed by virtue ef this act shall not be executed by the 
delegates of this State, unless at least three of the said delegates shall 
be present iu Congress. 


I do hereby certify thnt the aforegoing is a true copy of the original 

Bet passed ths 191h of February, 1780, and lodged in the aecrelary's 

ROBERT HARPUR, Deputy See's of Slate. 

In view of the premises, the following proceedings 
took place : 

WednesdaV, Sette^ieeb 6, 1780. 
Congress took into consideration the report ofn.the committee to 
whom were referred the inatructions of the General Assembly of Mary- 
land to their delegates in Congress, respecting the Articles of Confede- 
ra'ion, and the declaration therein referred to; the act of tSie Legielaiura 
of New York on the same subject, and the remonstrance of the General 
Assembly of Virginia ; which report was agreed to, and is in the words 
following ! 

That haying duly considered the several matters to them submitted, 
they conceive it unnecessary to examine into the merits or policy of the 
ir declarations of ihe General Assembly of Maryland, or of 
if tLfl General Assembly of Virginia, as they Involve 
questions, a diaeuesion of which was deelined, on mature consideration, 
when the Articles of Confederation were debated ; nor in the opinion 

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of tlie commillee, can anch quesfiona be now revived wiili any prospect 
of conciliation ; that it ^peara more advisable lo preea apon ihose states 
whicli can remove the embarraasmenla respecting the western country, 
a liberal surrender of a portion of their territorial claims, since they can- 
not be preeerved entire fvithout endangering the slabihiy of the general 
confederacy; to remind them how indispensably necessary it is lo 
establish the Federal Union on a fixed and permanent basis, and on 
principles acceptable to all its leapectivo members; how easential to 
public credit and confidence, to the supporl of our army, to the vigor of 
our councils, and success of our measures ; to our tranquillity at home, 
our reputation abrqad, to our very existence as a iree, sovereign, and 
independent people ; that Ihey are fully porauaded the wisdom of the 
reapectice legislatures will lead them to a Hill and impartial considera- 
tion of aeubjeel so interesting lo tha United States, and so necessary lo 
the happy establishment of the Federal Union ; that tboy are confirmed 
in these expectationa by a review of the before -mentioned act of the 
Legislature of New York, submitted to their consideration; that this 
act is eipressly calculated to accelerate the Federal Alliance, by remov- 
ing, as £ir as depends on that State, the impediment arising fromths 
western country, and for that purpose to yield up a porlion of territorial 
claim for Ihe genBtal beneSt ; Whereupon, 

Resolved, That copies of the several papers referred 
to the comraittee be transniitted, with a copy of die 
report, to the legislatures of the several States, and that 
it be earnestly recommended to those States, who have 
claims to the western country, to pass such laws, and give 
their delegates in Congress such power's as may effectually 
remove ihe only obstacle to a final ratification of the arti- 
cks of Confederation ; and that the Legislature of Mary- 
land be earnestly requested to authorize the delegates in 
Congress to subscribe the said articles. 


Resolved, That the unappropriated lands that may be 
ceded or relinquished to the United States, by any paiti- 
cular State, pursuant to the recommendation of Congress 

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of Ihe 6th (lay of September last, shall be disposed of for 
Uie common benefit of the United States, and be settled 
and formed into distinct republican States, which shall 
become members of the Federal Union, and have the 
same rights of sovereignty, freedom, and independence, 
as the other States : that each State which shall be so 
formed shall contain a suitable extent of territory, not 
less than one hundred nor more than one hundred and 
fifty miles square, or as near thereto as circumstances 
will admit: that the necessary and reasonable expenses 
■which any particular State shall have incurred since the 
commencement of the present war, in subduing any 
British posts, or in maintaining forts or garrisons within 
and for the defence, or in acquiring any part of the terri- 
tory that may be ceded or relinquished to the United 
States, shall be reimbursed. 

That the said lands shall be granted or settled at such 
times, and under such regulations, as shall hereafter be 
agreed on by the United States, in Congress assembled, 
or any nine or more of them. 

In pursuance of the recommendation contained in the resolution of 
Congress of the 6th September, 1780, the following States made cessiona 
ol' territory to the United States at the dates respectively stated i — 
Thu Slato or New York, on March 1, 1781. 
VirKlBla '■ Mareli 1, 178*. 
" do. " Boo. 30, 1783. By tJilo act Vli^Inte agreed to cliange 

page 430. 
" MaaancIiaBotts, on April 19, 1185. 

" OonnootSout " September 14, ITSB, (Ooflnnea Sdj 30, ISOO. 

" Boutl. Oirolina « August B, 1737. 

" North Carulran " Teftruaty 25, 1790. 

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For Ihese ccasiona, &c., ojid for Ihe convention between Sou'li Cnro- 
liiia aiid Geoi-giu, of 281li April, 1787, seo Bioren and Dunne's edition of 
the Lhwb of llie United States, Vol. 1. 

In relation to the government of the territory thus acquired by tiiB 
United States, it may be sufficient to say, that [be territory ceded by 
eai;h state, except Virginia, was the subject of separate legialatioD by 
Congress, (as inentioned under the head of each of sdd States,] first as 
a dependant territory, and afterwarda by beuig admitted iiilo the Union 
as an independent member thereof. 

The North-wefltern Territory, ceded by the Commonwealth of Vir- 
ginia, was the subject of special legislation by the Congress of the Con- 
ffidetation ; first, by the passage of a resolution for its government, on 
the 23(1 April, 1784, aud then by the adoption of an ordinance, whoss 
importance rendets its insertion here necessary ; — 

AN ORDINANCE for the Government of the Territory of the 

Uniled States, north-west of the river Oliio. 

Be it ordained by the Uuiied Stales in Congress assembled, Tiiill the 
Eiiid territory, for tha purposes of temporary government, be one dis- 
trict; subject, however, to be divided into two districts, as future cir- 
cumstances may, in the opinion of Congress, make it expedient. 

Se il ordained by the authority aforesaid, That the estates both of 
resident and non-resident proprietors m the said territory, dying intes- 
tate, shall descend to and be distributed among their children and the 
descendants of a deceased child in equal parts ! the descendants of a 
deceased child or grandchild to take the share of their deceased parent 
in equal parte among them ; and where there shall be no children or 
descendants, then in equal parts to the next of kin, in equal degree ; and 
among collaterals, the children of a deceased brother or sister of ths 
integrate shall have in equal parts among them their deceased parent's 
share ; and there shall in no case be a distinction between kindred of 
the whole and half blood ; saving in all cases to the widow of the intes- 
tate lier third part of (he real estate for life, and one-tiiird part of the 
personal estate ; and this law relative to descents and dower shall re- 
main in full force until altered by the legislature of the dislrict. And 
until the governor and judges shall adopt taws as hereinafter mentioned, 
estates in the said territory may be devised or bequeathed by wills in 
writing, signed and sealed by Mm or her in whom the estate may be, 
(being of full age,) imd attested by three witnesses i and real estates may 
bo conveyed by lease and release, or bargiain and sale, signed, sealed, 
and delivered by the person, being of full age, in whom the estate may 

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be, and altested by two witnesses, proviJeJ such wills be duly proved, 
nnd Buch conveyances be acknowledged, or the execution thereof duly 
pi-oved, and be recorded within one year afler proper magistratea, courts, 
and regiatera shall he appointed for thnt purpose ; and pergonal proper'y 
moy be trauBferred hy delivery, aaving, Ijowever, to the French and Ca- 
nadian inhabitants, and other settlers of the Kaskaskies, Saint Vincent's, 
and the Doighhoring villages, who have heretofore profeHsed ihemaelvea 
citizens of Virgmia, their laws and customs now in force among them 
relative to the descent and conveyance of property. 

Be it ordamed Sy the aulhorify aforesaid. That there shall be appointed 
iroin time to time, by Congress, a governor, whose commis^on shall 
continue in force for the term of three yeai's, unless sooner revoked by 
Congress J he shall reside in the district, and have a freehold estate 
therein, in one thousand acres of land, while in the exercise of his office. 

There shall be appointed from lime to time, by Congraas, a secretary, 
whose commission shall continue in force for four years, unless sooner 
revoked; he shall reside in the district, and have a freehold estate 
therein, in five hundred acres of land, while in the exercise of his office. 
It shall be his duty to keep and preserve the acta and laws passed by the 
legislature, and the public records of the district, and the proceedings of 
the governor in his executive deportment, and transmit authentic copies 
of each acts and proceedings every six months lo the secretary of Con- 
gress. There shall also be appointed a court, lo consist of tbree jndges, 
any two of whom to form a court, who shall have a common-law juris- 
diction, and reside in tha district, and have each therein a freehold 
aatate in five hundred acresof land, while in the exercise of their offices ; 
and their commissions shall continue in force during good behavior. 

The governor and judges, or a majority of tlism, shall adopt and pub- 
lish in the district such laws of the original States, criminal and civil, as 
may be necessary and best suited to tha circumstances of the district, 
and report them to Congress from time to lime, which laws shall be m 
force in the district until the organisation of the General Asaembly 
therein, unless disapproved of by Congress ; but afterwards, the legisla- 
ture shall have authority to alter them as they shall thintt fit. 

The governor, for the time being, shall be commander-in-chief of tha 
militia, appoint and commission all officers in the same below the rank 
of general officers; all general officers shall be appointed and commis- 
sioned by Congress. 

Previous to the organization of the General Assembly, the governor 
shall appoint such magistrates and other civil officers, in each county or 
township, OS ho shall find necessary for the preservation of the peace and 

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goad order in ibc same. After the General Assembly shall be orgnn- 
hed, ihe powers and duties of magislrates and other civil officers shall 
be rcguUted and defined by the said Assembly { but all magistrates and 
other civil oflicera, not lierein otherwise directed, ehall, during the eou- 
tiniiance of this temporary government, be appointed by the governor. 

For the prevention of crimes and injuriea, the laws to be edopted or 
made shall have force in oil parla of the district, and for the eiiecution 
of pi'ocesa. criminal and civil, the governor shall make proper divisions 
thereof; and he shall proceed from time to time, as circumstatices may 
rcciuire, to lay out tbe porta of the diBtrict in which the Indian titles 
shull have been extinguished into counties and townships, subject, how- 
ever, to such alterations as may thereafter be made by the legislature. 

So soon as there shall be five thousand free male inhabitants, of fitll 
age, in the district, upon giving proof thereof to the governor, they shall 
receive authority, with time ojid place, to elect representatives ftom 
their counties or townships, to represent them iu the General Assembly ; 
provided that, for every five hundred fi'ec male inhabitaats, there shall 
be one representative, and so on progressively with (he number of froa 
male inhabitants shall the right of representation increase, until llie 
number of representatives shall amoant to twenty-five, after which the 
number and proportion of representatives shall be regulated by the legis- 
lature ; provided that no person be eligible or quafified to act as a repre- 
sentative unless he shall have been a citizen of one of the United States 
three years, and be a resident iu tlie district, or unless he shall have 
resided in the district three years, ajid in either case shall likewise hold 
in bis own right, in fee-eimple, two hundred acres of land within the 
same: Provided also, that a freehold in fifty acres of land in the district, 
having been a eili«en of one of the States, and being resident in the dis- 
trict, or the like freehold and two years' residence in the district, shall 
be necessary to qualify a man as an elector of a representative. 

The tepresentalives thus elected shall serve for the term of two years, 
and, in case of the death of a representative, or removal from office, 
the governor shall issue a writ to ihe county or township for which he 
Has a member to elect another in his stead, to serve for the residue ol 

The General Assembly, or Legislature, shall consist of tne governor, 
legislative oouneil, and a house of representatives. The legislative 
council shnll consist of five members, to continue in office five yeara, 
unless sooner removed by Congress, any tliree of whom to be a quorum, 
and the members of the council shall be nominated and ^pomted in the 
following manner, to wit : As soon as lepresentativos shall be elected, 

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(he governor shall appoint a lime nncl place for ihem to meet together, 
Olid, when met, they shall nominato tan persona, reaidenla in the diatricl, 
and each possessed of a ti-oehold in five hundred acres of land, and ratutn 
their names to Congresa ; five of whom Congress sliall appoint and com- 
mission 10 serve as aforesaid ; and wlienever a vacancy shall happen in 
tlie council, by dealh or removal from office, the house of representatives 
shall nominate two persons, quahfied as aforesaid, for each vacancy, and 
return thoir namee to Congress ; one of wtiom Congress shall appoint 
and commission for the residue of the term j and every five years, four 
months at least before the expiration of the time of service of the mem- 
bers of council, the said house shall nominate ten persons, qualified as 
aforesaid, and return their na C g fi f h C oress 

shall appoint and commiasio se m live 

years, unless sooner remov A g gis cil, 

aiid'house of representatives m k all 

caaea, for the good governm is g an tiia 

principles and articles in this m es h b i And 

all bills, having passed by a in h in 

the council, shall be referred to the governor for his assei . but no bill 
or legislative act whatever, shall be of any force without tils assent. 
The governor shall have power to convene, prorogue, and dissolve (he 
Gcnerni Assembly, when in his opinion it shall be espedient. 

The governor, judges, legislative council, seccetary, and such other 
oflicers as Congress sball appoint in the district, shall take an oath or 
olHrmal ion of fidelity, and of office; the governor before the president 
oi Congress, and all other officers before the governor. As soon aa a 
legislature shall be farmed in the district, the council and house asseni- 
blod, m one room, shall have authority, by joint ballot, to elect a de[f- 
gate to Congresa, who sliall have a seat in Congress, with a right of de- 
bating, but not of voting during this temporary government. 

And for extending the fundamental principles of civil and religious 
liberty, which form the baius whereon these republics, their laws, and 
constitutions are erected { to fix and establish those principles as the 
basis of all laws, constitutions, and governments, whicli for ever here- 
after shall be formed in the said territory j to provide, also, for tlia eata- 
bhsbment of States, and permanent government therein, and for their 
admission to a share in the federal councils on an equal footing with 
tlie original States, at as early periods as may be consistent with 
the general interest! 

It is fterflSy ordained ani declared, by the aatliority aforesaiil. That the 
billowing articles shall be considered as articlea of compact, between the 

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original Slates and the people and Smloa in the aaid lenilory, and for 
ever remain unalterable, unless by common consent, lu ivil : 

Am. 1. No person, demeaning himself in a pencaabie end oidcrly 
manner, eIibJI ever be molested on account of bis mode of worsiiip or 
religious sentiments, in the said territory. 

Abt. 2. The inJiabilanls of tho said terrilorj' shall always 'be entitled 
to the benefits of the writ of habeas corpus, and of the trial by jury ! 
of a proportionate representation of the people in the legislature, and 
of judicial proceedings according to the course of tliB common law. All 
peisons shall be bailable, unless for capital offenceE, where the proof shall 
be evident, or iha presumption great. All fines shall be moderate, and no 
cinel or unusual punishments shall be infficlod. No man shall be do- 
prived of his liberty or property, but by the judgment of hia peers, or 
the law of the land, and should the public exigenciea make it necessary, 
lor the common preservation, to taka any person's property, or to de- 
mand hia particular services, full compensation shall be made for the 
aame. And, in the just preaervalion of rights wid property, it is under- 
stood and declared, that no law ought ever to ba made, or have force in 
the said territory, that shall, in any manner whatever, mterfete with, or 
BHect private contracts or engagements, bona fide, and wiiliout fraud 
previously formed. 

Aht. 3. Religion, raornlity, and knowledge, being necessary to good 
government, and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of 
cdneation shall for ever be encouraged. The utmost good fiuth shall 
alwaya be observed towards the Indians ; their lands and property shall 
never be taken from them without their consent ; and in their property, 
lights, and hberty, they never shall be invaded or disturbed, unless in 
just and lawful wars autliorixsd by Congrcas ; bat laws foimded in jus- 
tice and humanity shall, fram lime (o time, be made, for preventing 
wrongs being done to them, and for preserving peace and fiiflndsliip with 

Art. 4. The said territory, and the Slates which may be formed 
therein, shall for ever remiun a part of this confederacy of the United 
States of America, aubjeot to tlio Articles of Confederation, and to such 
alterations therein as shall be constitutionally made ; and (o al! the acts 
and ordinances of the United Slates, in Congress assembled, conformable 
thereto. The inhabitants and settlers in the said 'erritory shall be sub- 
ject to pay a part of the federal debts, contracted or'obe contracted, and 
a proportional part of the expenses of government, to be iq>portioned on 
tliem by Congi-eas, according to the same common rule and meaaure bv 
which apportionments thereof shall be made on the oilier States; and 

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the loses for paying their proporlion shall be Inid and levied by the au- 
ihorily and direolion of the legislatures of the disliict or dialriclB, or new 
States, as in the original States, within the time agreed npon Uy the 
United States, in Congress assembled. The legialatures of those dis- 
tricts, or new Stales, shall never interfere wiih the primory disposoi of 
llie soil by the United States, in Congress assembled, nor with any regu- 
laiions Congress may find necessary, for securing tlie title in such soil, 
lo the bona fido purchaeets. No tax shall be imposed on lands, the pio- 
perty of the United Stales; and in no case shall non-resident proprietors 
he taxed higher than residents. The navigable waters leading into the 
Mississippi and St. Lawrence, and the carrying places between the 
same, shall be common highways, and for ever free, as well to the mha- 
bitants of the esld territory as to the citizens of the United States, and 
those of any other Stales that may be admitted into the Confederacy, 
wilhoul any tax, impost, or daty therefor. 

Aht. 5. There shall be formed in the said territory, not less than 
three, nor more than five States ; and the botmdaries of the States, as 
soon as Virginia shall alter her act of cession, aiid consent to the same, 
shall become fixed and established as follows, to wit : the western Slate 
n ihe said territory, shall be bounded by tlie Mississippi, the Ohio, and 
Wabash rivers ; a direct line drawn from the Wabash and Post Vincents, 
due north, to the territorial lino between the United Stales and Canada; 
mdliy the said territorial line to the Lake of the Woods ajid Mississippi. 
The middle States shall bo bounded by the said direct line, the Wabash, 
nom Post Vincents lo the Ohio, by the Ohio, by a direct line drawn 
due north from the mouth of the Great Miami lo the said territorial line, 
and by the said teiTiiorial line. The eMtetn Slate shall be bounded by 
Ihe last-menlioned direct line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the said 
Icrritorial line ! provided, however, and it is further nnderBtood and de- 
clared, that the boundaries of these three States shall be subject so far 
to be altered, that, if Congress shall hereafter find it expedient, they 
shall have authority to form one or two States in thai part of the said 
territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn through the 
southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan. And whenever any of the 
said Stales shall have sixty tliousand free inhabitants therein, such Slate 
shall be admitted, by its delegates, into the Congroas of ihe United 
Slates, on an equal footing with the original States, in all respects what- 
ever i and shall be at liberty to form a permanent constitution and Stale 
government ; provided the constitution and government, so to be form- 
ed, shall be republican, and in conformity to the principles contained in 
these ailicles ■ and, so far as can be consistent with the general interest 

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of llic Confederaciy, gudl iiijinissioil shxil be allowed at an earlier period, 
and when ihete mny be o less number of free inliabiiaiiie in ihe Stale 
llian sisty thousand. 

Art. 6. There sliall be neither slaverj' nor involuntary servitude in 
tiie said leriitoiy, olherwiac than in the punishment of crimes, whereof 
the pMty shall have been duly convicted ; provided, always, that any 
person escaping into llie same, from whom labor or sei-vioo is lawfully 
cloimcd in any one of the original States, aucji fugitive may be lawfully 
reclaimed, and eonveyed to the person claiming his or her labor or ser- 

Be it ordained hy Oie aKtlwHty aforesaid, That the resolutions of ihe 

esd of April, 1784, relative to the subject of this ordinance, be, and the 

Banie are hereby, repealed, and declared nuU and void. 

Done by the United .Stales, in Congress assembled, the 13lh day of 

July, in the year of our Lord 1787, and of Iheir sovereignty and 

independence the laih. CHARLES THOIUSON, Sec'y. 

niesioaoflhe State of Louiiiana inlo the U-<on, and to extend tb 
ited Stales 1o Ibe said Stats, was passed and approved, April S 
flay 22, 1912, an act aapplemental to Ito act of Apill 8, 1312, 

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n Qf ihe Noi 

rth-w=31etl. T, 






10 ih 

United Stains by Virg] 


The lerritory eslabli 

shed by act ( 


The lerrilDpy dtrlde 


f Mi 


Cfonled by liol of Jau 


Tho lerriuny sgaiii 

501 e 

ere Bled by ocl of Febi 


The lie^stalurs of t 



lorormiiconsltlntion,&i:. (Seejou 

r oa] of House c 




18; also folio 

Stain Papers, 






piovefl, Deoiimber 11, 1816. 

The Inws of the Uuiled Stales eilcnded lo the SlUe of rndiana, by acl ofMarch 
3, 1817. 

Farmed 0111 of a pan of tba Ivrrilory reiei to Ihe Unileii Slates by the coniD,.<i- 

Corolino of Haroh 8, 173T, and by those of the Slate of Georgia, April 94, ISI)2, 
vhich was ratified hy Ihe LegiEialure of Georgia, on Jnae Ifl, 1303. (For Ihess 
cessions, &c,, ejid for the convetitioii between South Carolina and Georgia of 
April as, 1787, see Bioren anfl Dnane'! ediL Laws, vol. 1, pp. 4aa,46T, 493 to 431.) 
The governineol of the territory Established by acl of Congress of April 7, 1798. 

Territory on Ihe north added 10 the Mississippi territory, by act of Cougress of 
March 37, law. 
The boundarlBB «nlarg>!d on the south, by ocl of Congress of May U, 1813. 
A Joint rssolutioii of Congress "requesting the Stale of Georgia to aasenl to the 

Jane 17, 1813. 

A tnolion was made In House of Bepresenlaliyes of the United Stales lo inquire 
mto the eipedieney of sdmilling Mississippi inlo the Union, December 28,1810. 
Reported on by comndllee, January 9, 1811. (Vide folio State Papers, " Miscella- 

seiiled in House of BepreseuttUives, November 13, 1 811. Beported on by com- 
mittee of House of BepcesenlaliTes, Secemljer IT, ISll. (Vide folio Stale Papers, 
" HIseellaneous," vol, 9, p. 183.) 

Bill passed Honse of Beprescnlotives. Report adrerse in Senate, April 17, 
1813, and bill postponed. (VideBaine book, p.l63.) 

ported on February S3, ISiS, (Vule same bcok, p. 874.) 

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orial pt 

eso.i«<l ill House 

of Repro! 


ea, Bi^cenibot B, 1 


esenled in House 
lerSa, ISIB. (Vid 

of Reprea 

=k, p. 4 


es, December 9. 1 

07.) Iteporled of 

(VidB 6 

ams book, p. 41B-) 

Maicb 1, 1817, by w 

Formed onl of a pari of Ihe Noclh-weslera Terrilory whioh was ceded to Ihe 
UiillfldSlaleibylheSlateof Vitginia. (Sea (emnrlis unaei " Oliio.") (For pro. 

nn, see Bioien and Duane's eflit, Laws, voL I, p. B06.) 

An act to unuiid tJie acl of April 10, 1814, eiteiidins Ibe western baundar; of 
[llinois 10 the middJeof the Mississippi, to inclnde the Islands bemeen llie middle 
and eaBtern marsui of that river, was passed and api^rored, February 37, ISIS. 

A memorial of the le^slative coancil, to be allowed to fomi a Stale govertt- 
mont, ito., presented in House of KepreaBiHaliyeB, January 16, 1818. 

All act to enable tliB people of the Iliiuoia territory to form a constitution and 
State goveinmenl, and autliorlzing: one HepresenltttiTa tn Congress, &o, was 
passed and approved AprU 18, 1318. (By this act a part of the territory of Illi- 
nnis was attached to the tetcitory of MicbiBan.) 

The said people haTing, on August 28, 1813, formed a constitution, Sc, a joint 
resolution dooiaring tlie admission of the Stale of lUinoifl into the Union was 

An act to provide for the due execmio.i of the laws of Ihe United Slates wHliiu 

: allowed la Ibrm a constitution, tec., presented in the House of Bepte- 
. to enahla the people of the AlabnTua territory to Ibrni s conBtilutioa anil 

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and approted, Matcli % ISIS. 
Tlia SBifl people baving, ou AugnsI 3, ISIB, fotined a consliimion, he, a joinl 

passed and approvefl, DecemlieE 14, I8I0, 

The Laws of Ihe Uuiled Slales were exienderl le Ike Slsle of Alabuna b; net 
DfApiiiai, IS^ la eslalilisha District Court, &c. 

111 ofa Coiivenrioii on behalf of the people ofilie disi 
lermilled to form a eeparalc Stale, wag pteaeiiled L 
.ves of the IlaitEd States, l>eoeml>er 8, 1K19. 

uved Marcb 3, 1580, in the ftllowii 
" Wheruii, by an act of llie State of 
me, in the year iS19, enliUed, 'An ai 

IhB distriol of MaJije, did, willi tiie coQaetil of the Lcgialature of said Stmo of 
MoEEaahusalls, fbtm tliemcelres into an iiidependeiit State, and did eslabUsh a 

BBid act: Therefore, 

*' Bb it enaeieil by the Scttato and Hitusi qf Brpresentatka qf tbe ITnU/d States qf 
America in Congrea KHflnWdJ, Tlial, from and after Ihe 15th day or Marcli, 
In tUe year 1880, Ibe State of Maine is hereby ileclaied to be ot.e of the 
United States of America, aod admiUeil into the Union on au equal foolutg with 
the Drig:lnal Statea, iti all regpeet^ whatever.'* 

On tlie 71h April, IS^, the £>1!owtns act was passed and approved: 

be elected in the Stale ofMBSsncliuselts anfl Maine, aad for other piirpoaes. 

" B< i( inuclAi by Hit Stnall and Heuir i^ Rrpresnaalires qf Ihe United Sli-la 

qf Amaim in Cengrea BsitmbUd, Tbal, in Ibe election of RepreBenlatlrea in llie 

iccn UeprcsentaiLves only; and Iho Stale of Mabie shall be calilled lo choose 
seven Eepresenlatifes, according; lo Ibe eonseul of the Legislslitre of stuil Stole 
of Mnaaaehosetli, for Ibis purpoao given, by their reaolve paeaed on the astli day 
of January laat, end prior to the arLnission of Ihe Slate of Maine into the Union. 

'-Sro. 2. Ami ie il/i>rlAer cnai/nj, That, If the seal of any of the Representatives 
)i Ihe present Congress, who were eleolod in and under the authority of ihe Slate 

vacated by dcalh, resienoiioii, or othetivisa, anch vacancy »ha[l bes-^plied by a 
aaccessor who shall, ai the lime of bis elcclioii, be an inhabitant a ihe State of 

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Waa (brmed gat of part of Ibe terrilory cedal by Fronoe ty Irenly of April »> 

mi:iit Ihereof," whicli was Hpptovsd Motoh M, 1604. By Uii» acl the governinEnl 
of tliia disltict W88 plnoed under the djtection of Ihe Go-ernor and judges of Ihs 

On liie 3d MBrch, IS03, on net furlhei providing for the goyemmenl of liiB dis 
Irici of Looiaiana was approved. By IhisooIB sepatole government was fotmeil, 
under tlie tills of tiie lerrilory of Ijiuiaiaiw. 

An Oct proTiding for ibe governmeni of ihe territory of Missouri waa passed 
and approved Jane 4, 1813, by wMoh it was provideil " Tiiai ihs lerriioir haraio- 
fure called Lonisiaua shall hersaftei bs caUed MiaBouri," Ice. 

All acl lo Hller cerlain pant of the net pioridiiig for the governmeni of the ler- 
^iiory of Missouri was passed and approved Apiil 20, ISIS. 

lerrilory of Missouri, to be culled Arkcjisas territory, was passed llie Sd Morcb, 

A memorial of liie legiBlallve council and House of Representatives oflbe ter- 
ritory of Missonti, in the name and on behalf of the people, for adniisaion into Iba 

ised Morcb 6, 1830. 

, "MlscellB- 

Missouri into the Union," on Deceinlier IS, liBO, which was referred to u seicct 
commitlee in the House of Representatives, mid on Febiuafy 10, 1S31, Mr. Clay 

resolution of the Senate, on February 14, leai. Oa Fehrnary sa, onmolion of Mr. 
Clay, a eommittee on the pari of ike House was appointed, lo join a commitlee oa 
Ihe part of the Senule, on the subject of Uia admission of Miasouri. 
On February 28, Mr. Clay, from the joint committe*, reported a " Resolnlion 

condition," wliieh resolution was paasefl and approved March a, isai. The ssJd 

I of the Slate of Misnonri into Ihe Union, on a certain CDndilion, whic 
roved by Ibe Governor on June 3fi, IM. 

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Bt 10, IS21, Ihe I'rcBiJenl of Ite U 

rinj Iho aiiiniseion of Missouri comple 


Ou Msrth 

10, IKa, an act lo provide for llio ilu 

United Swie 

s wilhin Ihe SiDle of Miwiuii, ice, v/n 


terriloiy of Missouri, was passed March 9, IBJB, by which il was named Arkaiwas 
An act Mialive lo Ihe AtkoDSas terriWty, declaring Uiat llie aot of June 4,1819, 
for Ihe gQVeriiment of MiESOUti, as modifted by iha am of April 99, ISIO, sliould he 

Dlhec purposes, was passed May Si3, 1S94. 

An ac[ to run and mark a line dividing Aiiauaas bom Louisiana was passed 
and approved May IS, 1893. 

A memorial of Ihe inhobiloiilB, by a conTemion, praying ihat Arkansas may ba 
admilled inlo tha Union, accompanied by a conetilotion formed by said eonven- 
lion, was presented in the House of Representalives on Maieh i, 1938. (Sea 

the House of RepreaenlaUves Ihtoush ihe Presidem of ihe linited Stales ou 
March 10, 18S8. (See said primed doenmeuis, vol. 4, No. 104.) 

"AnactferlLeadmiisionof the Slate of Arkansas inlo llie Union, and lo pre- 
fer other purposes," was passed Jnne IS, 1836, conlaining Ihe following pre- 
amble, Til. : 

Ibrmed, is republican: And whej 


iss ; and Ihe said convemiou have, in their behali; ai 


iled Slates to admit Ihe said lerrilory inlo Ihe Union i 





Formed oui of pan o 

f the lerriiory ceded lo li.e United Stales by Ihe Slal 


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By lUe HOI of ApiU 13, 1818, 10 enillile ths peopls of Illim 
lioii oud Sime gofernmenl, &o,, a part gf Ihol lerritory wa 

Honse of Reptesentaiives, on Febrnary 3fl, ] 833. 

A memorial for Bdmissioii was presenlcil in House of RepjEsentnlivea, DEcem- 
ber H, law, and iu Senale, Peliinary SB, 1834. (See aocmneiilB House of Ropta- 
BQiitadves, isl session, 33d Congress, vol. 3, No, 16S, vol. 4, Nos. US, 30S.) 

A report wee matle by a select committee of tlie House of Representatives on 

House orRepresenlalives, Isl session, 33d Congress, vol. 3, No. 334.) This report 
inhabitauis of the easletn division of the territory of MicliigBii, and of the terri- 

Lorial government of Huron, 

anil north of the Slate of Missouri, to me lerrilory of Michigan, was passed and 
approved June S8, 1834. 

A memotigl was ptesenlod in tlie Senale, Deeeiaher 23d, and House of Reprs- 
senlatives, December 2B, 1834, for tbe erection of "Wisconsin" into a separaw 
government. (See documents House of Representatives, Sd session, :»d Congress, 
vol. a, Nos. 3-1, 47.) 

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were received on Deeeinber 10, 1635. (See Seiiale agcatnenta, Isl seB5ioi4 Sltk 
CongrcM, vol. 1, Nos. 5 and 0.) 

llie bQundBry lielweeii Ohio mid Michigan, was feoeijed January 12, ISSa. (See 
Sensle docntuenls aa idiove, vo]. 2, No. 51.) 

line, Bccotnpaniad by a map, on Mareli 1, 1338. (See Senale docnmenlB as above, 

■ to Ihe said aol w 
J provide for Ibe d 

with Ilie original Stales, was passed January SS, 1S37, cantaiaing: Ike tbl. 
lowing preamlile, Tiz. : 
"Wheteaa, in pursi-ance of Ihe act of Congress of Jnna 15, ISM, eulidod, 'An 

pressed,' a coavenlion of Selegalea, eleoled by llie people of the said State of 
Michigan, for tha sole purpose of giving- Iheir aueni to the boundaries of the said 

did, on December 15, IfiOB, assent to Uia provisions of siud ael, Therefore, 

"£.a™a««I,&o,,Th»itJ.,Si.i. of Michigan .hidlbB one, and is hereby ds- 

ory ceded by Spain lo the United States, by IrentJ 

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13, ISU, Laws Uuile. 

Anaci, Pebranry IS, IBIS, do. do. sflS. 

Aq ncl lo authorize the President of tJ.e Unlled Sinles to lake poMesnion of Easl 
omi Wssl Flotifia, and eslablish t temporarj gDvernment Ihersiii, was pa.sed 
March 3, 1S13. 

An Bot for csiiylng into eseculion the Irealy between Ihe Uniled Stales anfl 
Spain, concluded at Washington, on Febfuary S3, 1819, was pajsed March S, 1S31. 

(Laws United Slates, vol. e, p. d31.) 

(Same vol. p. 638.) 
Article of Eurtender of Welt Florida lo Ihe United States on July 17, ISSL 

An aol 10 amend the act nf Matph 3, leaS, was passed and approved May SB, 

dividing tJia letrilory of Florida frooi the State of Georgia, was passed aud ap- 
proved May 1, 1530. 

An act lo amend Ihe Beveial acts for the establlalnnenl of Ihe territorial scvern- 
menl in Florida, was passed and approved May IS, 132H. 

&c,, presented to House ofRepresentativcisFebraBry 20, 1839. (See clocu 
House of ReptesenlaUves, 3d seasioa, E5th Congress, voL 4, No. SOa) 

entetl in Senate, February IS, 1S40. 

bill to aulbofize the people oFMiddla and Weal 1 

Slate Boveminent, nnd to proride fbr the odmi 

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wute prosented in Ihe Seuala of the Uniled Slales, on March fl, 1840. 

Reaolailona of die Legislalnre of Florida Or admisaion and agmna division, 
were preeenled in Bsnalo of [luiled Slates, Moich 11, and in Koose of Repce- 

A Oiil tor the admiBsion of Florida (nlo the Union on certain condiuons, and 
a bill Tor Ibo division of Plorida, and Ibe iii^pre admission of Ihe Slates of East 
nnd WesI Florida, on cerlnin conflilionB, were reported in Seiiste, Julf 2, 1B40. 

The meinotiBl for admiBaiou and the conBlHulion again presentefl iu House of 

seesion, S7t>i Congress, vol. 4, No, SOU.) 

Memorials of oiiizens of Florida for tke otimlesion of Ihat lerrilor^ into ilia 
Union, presenled in the Senate, July 15 aaid 21, Augoat 10, 13, 18, 17, and 3D, 13J2. 

Resolutions of Ihe lesisloUve council of Florida for a division of that Territory 

On June 17, 1644, the followi.^ reaolnUon was lepoilea in the Senate; Bo- 
on same day, a report aHverse to a division of the Terrilory was made. (3se 

reporls of commiltee, House of Repcasenlatives, Isl session, mh Congress, voL 

3, p. S7J.} 

Keaolmlons of the legislative council of Florida, for tlie nilmission of Florida at 
Ihe same time with Iowa, were presented in House of Bepreaemativea, Febrnary 

id on Maroli 3, 1 B15, o 

(brnifoitbeinBelves a constituiion and Siate government; andwherea; 
of the Territory of Florida did, in iiko manner, by their delegates g 

bulb of which said conslitntions are republican; and said eonvenlii 

■aacua, f-e,. Thai Ilie Stales of Iowa and Florida be, and the same are 
leclared to be Stales of Ibe United Slates of America, and are hereby 
into Ihe Union on equal footmg with tlie original Slates, in all respects 
fcr, &c. 
y And ii it JunhiTtnacUd, That the said Staleof Florida sliall embiace 

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Cnjffli, and for olhet purpOBee, was paased March S, 181S. 

ByiKiB eel. grains of Land WFie uiaile lo Florida, unci the laws oflhe Uniici 
Sales were exiendedlo llial Stale 

ResDluliods of the Legislslnre ofFkirida, in relatioR Id the dispmed boundarie. 

ruaty 2, ISiS. (See Senala doeumeiHB, 1st session, asih Congress, vol. 4, Nos 
91! and 133.) 

On March 4, 1846, a bLU rsspscling the selllfmpnt of the honnflary line between 
Ilia State of Florida and the State of Georgia, was reported from the pominLtlcu 


A Joinl resolution for anneiing Teias to the United Stales, approved Marol 

ig Texas to the United Stales. 

Hsok'id by t^ Senate and Houxe of Repteseittaeioet of the UnUed States ofAnwi'^ 

in Cmigrejj OEembled, That Consreas doth consent that (he territory properly in 

eluded wilbin and righlfully belonging to the Republic of Texas may he erecle. 

Into a BOW State, lo be called the Stale of Teiae, wilh a republican form of go 

assembled, witli the consent of the eiisling government, in order Ihal the sum. 

Second. Said Stale, when admitted into the Union, alter ceding lo the Unil 
Stales ell public edifices, lortifications, barraclis, pons, mid harbors, navy a 
imvy-yflfdB, docks, magazines, ariDS, armamenls, and all other property a 
means pertaining la Uic .public defence belongii^ to aaid Republic of Tex: 

belong loot bo due end owing said repablioi and shall also relajn all the vaof 
and unappropriated lands lying wilbin its linuls, lo be applied lo Ihe payineal 
the debls and liabilities of said Republic of Texas ; and the residue of said luu< 
after discharging said debts and liabilities, lo be disposed of a* said Stale m 

Oovernmeni of ihe Uniied Slates. 

Theed. New States, of eouvenienl size, not exceeding four in number, m ad 
Hon lo SBlil SlalB of Toms, aud having snflicieni populalion, may hereailer. 

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^e consent of said SiaTe, be fotmed oul of Ihe lertiloiy Ilisroof, which bHbI? U 

Simca hb may be formed oul of ihul porUon ofBaifl lortilory lying so'ulh of ll.irty 
eii degrees ihliiy miDnles notlli Latitude, commonly known at Ihe Misiosri corn 
promise line, shall bo adniilled into Ihe Union willi or without slasery, us llii 
people of each Slate asking admissioQ mny desire. And in such State oi Statei 
as shall he fbrmad out of said territory noith of said Miseouii oompromise line 

Bed. 3. And te il /uTlfitr raolctd. That if Iha Fresideal of Ihe United State: 

ing to submit the foregoing resolution to the Kepohlic of Texas, as an ovenuto 01 
Ibe part of the United Stales, for adiuisiion, 10 negotiate with thsl republic ; then 
St a fniohiia, That a Suite, m he formed oat of tlie present Repnblie of Texei 
with snitoble client mid boimdarieB, and with two Eepreaentativea in Consreaf 
until the next apportionment of repiesentation, ahall be admitted into the Union 

teriQE and conditions of such admiseion, and the cession of Ihe famainmg Texni 
a of Taia 

A joint resolution foi the admission of the Slate of Texas into Ihe Union, ap- 
proved December 29, 1345. 
JOINT RESOLUTION for the aiimission of Ihe Slale of Texas into Ihe Union. 

Whereas Ihe Congress of the United States, by a join! resolution approved 
March the firsl, eigliteen hundred and forly-five, Aid consent that Ihe territory 
properly incinded within and rightfully belonging lo the Bepnblio of Texas might 
be erected into e new giate, to be cattiHl the State of Texas, with a republieuH 
form of goverumerit, to be aitapted by the people of said republic, hy deputies in 

Congress was given upon certain conditions apeoiAed in Ihe Qrsi and second see- 

by the people of Ihe Hepublic of Texas, have been Iransmilled lo Ihe PreeidonI 
of the Uuitiid States, and laid before Congress, in conformity 10 the provisions of 
nald joint rosaiulion : Tharelbre, 
Ktio/iai 6y !fli .■jenoi* and Mousi of Hifrismmiivnijf lla United Sialic q^ Amaica 

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SBC. 3. And bs fl fiatier risolced, Tbal until llie Bep; 
Unlied Siawa, ihe Slate of Texas 

.ijijniiieii December 9S, IS4S. 
An sel lo esleiid the laws of the United Stales over llie Stale of Tcias, and for 
otlier porpoaes, appealed Deeember 29, 1S4!3, viz. : 

AN ACT to eilend the la.wa of the United 3lalcB over the Slate of Texas, and 
for oUier purposea. 
Be a ennOaJ by Ihe Small and Ho«» qf Repramvuiva rif ll\! Viiiled Smta qf 
Amaiea iit Cimgre« asiimliUd, Tlial all the laws of ihe United Btrnes ate heieby 
d-clared to exiond to and ovar, and to have full (brre and effect within, llie Stite 
of Teioa, adinitted at Hie pteaenl seasbn of Congtesa into the tMnfederacy and 
Vnion of tlis Unitfld Slalfls. Jppiiard DcdemW S9, 1815. 

[By aet a91.h May, 1848, the etaSeof WiBconelniras admlttefl into the Dnloo. 

mem for WiaeonBinont ofpanof Thiichigiiui. 

On December 6,1S]3, the coinmltlce made a report accompanied by a bill, 
(See repotlB of committee* House of Reptssentaliveii, Isl session, asd Coneroji, 
vol. 1. No. 14S.> 

liloTf, and that the teiritary of Wisconsin b« established, was presented in Se- 
nate of tlie United States, December 23,1^34. ISee Senate doonnunls Sd session. 
Bid Consiess. vol. S, No. 24.) 
On February li, ie36, a bill ealabllshinE Ihe lerrltoTlnl e;overnnienl of 'Wiscon- 

On March 1, 183B, a memorial of legislative couneil of Michigan fbr same, pre- 
sented in House of Repiesentaliies. (See docamenls 1 louse of RopreseulaliTes, 
1ls1 session 34lh CongieBa, vol. 4, No. 153.) 

dieney of authorizing ihe teiritoiy of Wisconsin to take a census and adopt a 
constitution, preparatory to being admilled into Ihe Union, was passed. 
On May U, ISSS, ihe said committee reported a bill to enable the people of East 

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On June 13,1333, 
Ih« State of MJchigt 
On Januiiry 28, 1 

ritoty of the United Slaiea, tiorlli-weBt of the riTot Ohio," p8»«ii by the CongieBJ 
r.f Ihe Confedetallon, July 13, Itff!. (See the esow, under the head "Ohio.") 

und WiBconaln. (See Senate docuiuBnls, M session, 36th Omgress, to], 4, No. 161.} 

On February 8, 1841, a meRisrial of the LegisJetive Assembly of Wisconsin, 
inal a law defining the western boundary liue of said lerritoiy be passed, was 
uresenled In Senate. (Bee Senate docmnenls as above, vol. 4, No. IJl.) 

On February IS, 1841, resDlutions of tlte General As^mbly of Miciiigan in re- 
lalion to the boundary line between that State and the territory of Wisconsin, 
were presented in the Senate. (See Senate documents, M session, Slltli Co^ress, 
>ul. 4, No. lee.) 

On March 19, 1841, resolutions of the Legislative Assembly of Wisconsin ter- 
ritory in relation to the boundary between laiehigan and Wisconsin, were pre- 
senled in House of Bepresentalives. (See documents House of Bepreseiuatives, 
Sd session, Sflh Congress, vol, 3, No. 147.) 

On March 30, IMS, a Tesolution of the legislative council of Wisconsin asfcins 

On January 21, ISl!, the constituiion adopteil by the people of Wisconiin, I 

cumentsHoBseofRepresentatives, 3d session, Sillh Congress, vol. 3, No. 40.; 
On March 3, 18^7, an act for the admission of the State of Wisconsin into i 
jjon, was passed and approved. To be admitted on condition that the coosli 

the State, and as Boon as such assent shall lie given, the President of (he Unit 

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iwniim, passed Iba House of Representatives. 
On December 14, I83r, a refolnlion of aonio lenor passed House of Represanla 

On February 0, ISIS, a repon was made by commliiee of Honse af R 

acconipBiued by a bill. 
On June IS, 1633, an aol 10 alvifle the territory of ■Wisoonam, and li 

On Jooe 18, 1838, 6n sctlo authotiie the President of llie United Slnli 

tion lo iheBoalheru boundary of the territory of Iowa, were received. (See dodii- 
mentsHouaeofRepi'esentallveD, 3d session, 95tti Congress, vol. 4, No. 188.) 

On Marcli 3, 1839, sn appropriation was made for the survey of the soutbaru 
bonndary of the territory of Iowa, of «B6fl 05. 

the territory of Jown, was passed and approved. 
On Marob 3, 1839, an act to alter and emend Ilie organic lew of the territoriec 

On Itecember 34, 1839, a message ftom the President, with doeumenls relating 
to the disputed boundary between Missouri and Iowa, waj reeeived in Senate, 
and in the House of RepresentativeB on December 87. (Sea Senate documents, 
lei ecsEion, SGth f^ngress, vol. 1, No. 1. House of Representatires, vol. 1,- No. e.| 

OuSecember3l),lS3», additional documents on same subject communicated to 
House of Representatites, nnd to the Senate on January 3, 1840. {See Senate 
documents, 1st session, SClh Congress, vol. 2, No. 3S. House of Kepresonlalives, 
vol. 2, No. 36.) 

the Senate, 

On January 31, 1840, additional dOBnniems on same anbjeol were oommuniculcd 
lo the Senate, in compliance with two resolutions of tlie Senate of December So. 
1SS9. (See Sonale documents, 1st session, Sfilh Congress, vol. 4, No. 13S.) 

Hosiecb, Google 

II by detegale from Iowa on sain 
}lo. of RepSr, by B ccmmillfe on T 

es., aoib Ccpiig., vol. 1, Nq. 

raeul, and for lbs Bilmiesion of Buch Stale into the Union." 

On February 11, 1S41, b bill for BiceilaiDing ami Beltling the BOH thern boundary 
line oElhe territory oflowa, reporled in Senate. 

On Meich 8,1841, a reBolnlion of legislative oounci! oflowa rehuive to souilietn 
boundaiy iine of said territory, was preaeuted in Ho. of Repa. 

On Marob 19, leil. a measage from the Presifleill, relative to bonndary line ha- 

sea., mh Cong,, vol. 3, No. 141.) 

On May 28, 1S41, the committee on Leirilories of the Ho, of Reps, made a report, 
with a bill, fixing the boundary line between iMiaaouri and Iowa, which paaaed 
IhB Ho. of Reps. only. (For report, see reirarls Ho. of Reps, ad sea,, S7th Cong,, 
vol, 4, Wo,™.) 

On January 21, IBtl, a lepon mstle in tlo, of Etepa, from commille.: on lerrito- 
lies, accompanied by a bill fixing the bound.iry between Missouri and lotva. (For 
report, see Reps. Coiamltiecs, Ho, or Repe., Sd sea,, 27i1l Coag., voL I, No. sa.) 

On December 31, 1813, a reeoinlion, that report of Albert H. Lea, in Teference lo 
the northern bonnaary of Missonri ; the report of Gapt, Guion and Lieut Fremont, 
in lefeieneB b> Ibe Ilea Moinee river, and the evidence in refeience lo the north- 
ern boundary of Mlsaouri, be referred and pruited, vi'aa paaaed. (See does. llo. 
of Repa, 3d BBS,, 37th Cons., 'Ol, 3. No, 38,) 

On December V3, 1843, an act of the Legialature of Miaaoori respecting the 
boundery line with Iowa lercitory, was presenled in llo, of Repa. (See docs. 
Ho, of Reps,, Isl eei,, 3glb Cong;., vol. 1, Mo, SB.) 

On February 12, 1344, a message from the Preatdenl, with a memorial from tha 
Legislative Aaaembly oflowafcr admission into the Union, was receivedin Senate. 

On April 2, 1944, the committee on teiiiloriee of Ho, of Reps, reported a bill lo 

admission of such Stale into the Union. 

Senate, and on laih December in Ho, of Heps. [See Senate docs,, 3d fos,, £Slh 
Cong, vol. 1, \-o. 3, and docs. Ho, of Rciis., vol, I, No, 5, and vol. 3, No, 77,1 

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inw Hie Union, wm tepotlcil in Ho. oflteps. 

Ou February 19, 1S45, a memorial of Iho Oenerol Assembly of Misaouli, pray- 
ing Dial ihe Bouihern bonndsry line of lowo be msde \o eoniorm to Uie notthetii 
houndsiy lins of Mieeouii, &c,, wse pieaeuled in Sejisla. (3«e Senate docs., Sii 

On June 17, 1344, an acl rEspeoUng Uie northern touadaiy of (ha Slate of Mis- 

On March 3, 1646, an act for Ihe admiaaion of the Siatea of Iowa and Florida 
inlD the Union, was paaaed and approved. To this act llie aaaem of Die people of 
Iowa la 10 be given, lo be announced by proclamation by the PreaLienl, and Ike 

Slale lo be eatilled to one Represenlalive until the next cenane. 

of Iowa and Florida into the Union, wu passed and approved. TlUa act eiteuds 
the laws of the U. S. to the Slate of Iowa. 

On Deoember IS, IMS, a bill lo define the boundorjes of [ha Slate of Iowa, and 
lo repeal so much of the act of March 3d, lSi5, aa relates to the boundaries of said 

On March 27, 1S46, an amendatory liill reported by laid coinmillee. 

On January 9, 1S4S, a joint resolation of tlie legislalive council of (lie lerritoiy 

On Pebtaary 5, IBiB, a memorial of a Convention of the people of Missouri on 
sobjeclofthennrtbernboundary of that Slate, and the admission of Iowa into tha 
Union, was presented in Ho. of Kepa. (See docs. Ho. of Reps., let ses., 89ih Cong., 
vol. 4, Mo. 1U4.) 

(See aame docs., vol. 1, No. m.j 

On Jane 10, in Senate, and July a, 1849, In Ho. of Hops., copies of Ihe consUtu- 
lian of Iowa were presented. (See does. Ho. of Reps., Lst ses., SSlhCking., voL 7, 
No. 317, and docs, of Seiiale, vol. i. No. SSi.) 

On Augnsl 4, 1840, an acl to define the boundaries of Ihc Slale of Iowa, and to 


,11 (8. 3IM) reixaliid IQ Sunalu by II 

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1848; Tlite gemlfi Journal, 1 Sees. SO CongreSE, pngttB 477, 499, 492, 496, MS—pimsel 
EvnaW 603— SB July. Lildon tliHtaljle nouae of RQiii™eBtjiavM,iS July, 1818. 

BUi (S. 360) inlroanoal ijj Uon. Stephua A. Douglass, " for tte udmianiou of Caiifar- 
Bla, Intu the nulon a^ a eCtils," II Use., 1848, and lelMtitd. KeportEd Aom comiulttea 

HUl (IL U, ase) reportad in OoDse of tti?pre!>entatlies b; Hon. C&leb B. Smilli, •• to 
eelabliah tUa torrilorial eovurnmoat of Uppi't CaliroiniB,-' 2i) Daa. 1348, par*^ 27 Feb. 
1319. In SuoBte EBferred 28 Foil.! mminilt«B dischnrged 3 Meiiili, 1846, anil Senato 

Tbe "Bin («. K. 69!) making app: 

coprlatlonB f, 

t Uia jncl 

diplonullo expanses 

of lliB goyernmeatibrtlieyoMenilingeheaoJu 

B^ 1350, and 1 

or other purposaa," 

.nita, tlie lloi 

kcr of Wisoinab, on 



toniloij ac^Bfrtd ftom tha Mesican 

Kspubllo by 

tHe of 2d Feb. 1848 ; fer pro- 

Doodinga DO vbicb, Tide Senate Joui 

™al,2 8e«.s. 

11 Congrass, pss 

las Ml, 266. 267, 202, 

IIau«: of Kepri 

:ei^lo.1^Tes agreed to 

t. The Sana 

to dlaagiTied to 

Wallier, 3 March, 1849, page 331. » 

jc ptoccertlngB of HonsB of 

itativaa, Sd Sas! 

eOO, 601, 837—847, nnJ 870. 

The " BiU (S. es) to provide fbr Ov 

1 orgaulzatioi: 

Ciliforaia, Daaeret, and New M«im 

.10 tJie paoplB 1 

)f Jacinto, with Iha 

r»n«int Of the State of lexas, to form a constltutli 

the admission of sach slate into the 

Onion npon 

.g nith the original 

States In all toBptcta vrtulvTei," tm 

on lenTe, by Hon. HenrJ 6. Eoote, 

18 Jaji, and on 33 Jan.. I860, re&rre 

d to tlie Committee on Tei-ill Not reported. 


in, *o, 39 Jan, 1360, 

vido ftjnalB Jonmal, pages 118, 299. 


vidu Senate Jonmal, pages 184, 299. 

bomaa H. Da 

nlon, ralaUve i 


April, 18M, Tiao Sanate Journal, pagea 293, 299. 

" A Bill {A. 326) to admit OaJifornia a: a slate Into tbo Union, to aslaUlah tarrlto- 

establiehuient o£ har western and northern boundarlee,^ tf^tbor with a spe^al 
report from the select eoaimiUee, was submltttd is Hon. tienrj Ola;, 8tli Hay, 1850, 
Tide Senate Journal, 1 SeH.31 Ckingrass, pagee SSH, 374, 379, 332, 392, 396, 406, 403, 410, 
414, 428, 449, 466, 460, 462, 468, 471, 474, 479, 486, 4S1, 494, (Amendment of Mr 
Fearse,496J5IS; pused Senate as amended, 1 Angngt, 1 SS 0, being reduced to 
" An set to eetabllHh a terrllotial gOTemment tOr TJlah," {See Utah.) 

"A Uitl (S. 109) for tbe adnUs^on of tba State of Calllbrnla into the Union," waa 
reporlodby Hon. Stephen i.Donglasa from Committee on Territories, 26 iMnrch, 1360, 
Tide Senals Jouma!, 1 Sess. 31 Oongrcsa, pages 234, 292, 301, 517, 620, 622, 630, 633, 
64fl. 663, ES7, whii*. bill passed Senate UAugustilS50; conadai-etj i^ Houneof Rep- 
rose. taHvea, yide Jouraal, 1 SesB. 81 Congress, pagea 1416 tfl 1421; passed Housa 
of i(,>i..'iaenl!itlvea 7 Sept, and became a taw, B Septemhei-, 1S50. 

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3. Tiealj of liioils westwarfl of Uw Kocky Mountains, ivllliQi-eat Britain, of Jona 
A Bill (a. R. laSj "toentsblishatorritDIialgm'Friinientln Oifgon," was reported 
;,, IMS, with sf«cl&I ID- 

A Bill (S. 41) "to orgsnise a (erritorJal goTecnmeiit In the Oregon Tuiritoir, and tbr 
otlioc pnrposes," vnm introduced on leaTO in Senate li; Hod. SIduer Breeee, ^ Deo, 
]$4e, and Kt^ired to Committee on tbe Jndldarr, but not reported tbereiVom. 

A Bill (H. E, 67!) " to sstablleh tlw territorial gorernment of Oregon," was reported 
by [ion. Stephen A, Douglass, House of EepreBentativwi, Si Vee., ISH, passed that 

ported with amendineuts 2^ JaUp ; riHiDmiqitted 29 Jan.; reported with ameDduiunts 
11} ?eb. ; ordered, That 1( lie ou the table, 3d Uarcb, 1S4T. 
ABill(3. M)"tOMta1ili8h thelorritorial govornnMnt of Oregon," was introduced 

tlon bj the Ssnats nnW la Julj, 1918, was, on motion of Hon. John M. Clayton, referrPd 
to a select commHtoa. On IB July, Mr. Oajton flMiQ sidd committee reported it with- 
out aniBudmenti and reported Bill (g. 321) " to estoblisb the lerritorijil govornmenla 
of Oregon, Callfornii and Now Mesico," whiidi bill passed the Senate 2fl July, 1348, 
unil was laid on the tuble la the House of BepreseataUves 29 July, 134S. Mot further 

A Bill (H. R. 201) " in eataWlsh the territorial government of Oregon," was rsportod 
from Committee on Tetrltories, Honse of Bepresentativea, 8 FeU, 184S, by Hon. Caleb 

amendments 10 Aug, 1813, sni became a Ian on the 14(]i Angnst, 1S4;8. 


A Bill (&. 152) " lo establish the territorial goremment of Minesota,' 
onlea-ieby Hon. Stephen A. Douglasn, 23 Feb.,lE43. Itepoiied and re 
Du S Aug., 1349, reported with amendmeula. Kot furthei' acted on a 

Resumed 20 Dec, 1848, 2 Seas. 30 Congress ; passed (he Senate 19 Je 
Ilouee of BepreBcntatlres with ameuduieutB, £8 Feb, and became a lai 

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pnblfc by Treatj^ ooDclndijd at Gimilgliip^ HMfllgo, tJie 2d Tobcuary* 1818. 

[For atattiment of ptopodtCtonfl Ibr £jrmlug a temton&l goreinnienl for New MesleO} 
eee under bend of " CaUfoin!^"] 

A Bill (S. 170) "to Bslnblish the Kovfmments of Utah and New MeiIco, and tot 

tlifi S-inole 16 Ang, 1860, amended to " An act to f stablLeh a terrilm^al gorerninent 
Ibr New Mcjico." (This bill, with the aaflltlon of a new sectiOD, was engmflua on 
Bill (S. BOI) tn House of Kepresentatlves. See tbllowln); statemeul.] 

Id Ilouae ot Sepresenlotiyeii, 28 Ang., 1860, tbc Bill (3. SOI) entitled " An set pTO- 
pnalng lo tbe State of Teias the esCabllelunenC of her northern and western bounda- 
riee, the relinquishmenl bj the said etato of alt territory olalmea by het estetlot to 
EHid boBodarteB, nnd of all her clajms npon the Uollod Slnte^" havinE been under 
conaklpraljon until 6th Sept, 1S60, waa then amended by providing a territorial go. 
Tcrnnient foe New Ueiico, and on tbe 6 Sept. was pEtssed, and the title uncndeS by 
addlDg—Jnd Id eileili^i a tcnUmiiil 

the territory exiled to the Onlted States by Hie Uexlmu Re- 

The BUI (S. S26) "to admit Oallttirnla aa a state inlo the Union, to eetalitlah territn- 
lial go»eminent3 tbr Utah anfl New Mesico, and malilni? ptopoaala to Tesas far the 
eitabllEliment ot her weBtem and northern bonndarloV' "aa repeated hy Hon. Henry 
Clay, 8 May, and was amenfled and pasaed the Senate 1 August; being reduoad to s 

goy-i-nmimt ftir Utah," whieh till PBBWS the House of liepreaentalivea 7 &ipt,, uud 
|jec:auiealawoiitluj9tli geptembei-, 1S50. 

Formed out of part of the territory coded lo Tnitod States by France by Treaty of 

A Bill (H. R. i44)"toeBtftbUBh the territory of NehrBBkaj*'wa8 Introduced on lenTe 
by Hon. Stephen A.Donglsss, 17 Dec, 1844, and referred. An amendatDry bill reporltd 
I Jan, 1846, bnt no further acUon thereon. 

A Btll (S. 170) "to eslabUah the territory of Nebraska," was Introflncod on leaye )iy 
Han, Qtephen A. DougloBe, 16 Maroh, and referred. B«ported v^tbo^t aEnendmeiLt 

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i;aliul>UBfaed under Ibe ITUi clnuSF, Sth section, ]3t attkle of the Constitution nCIhe 
Tml4!Ll Bbitca : ^^Oongruss shall hava ponor to oxercJso oxclu^lra 1«]^3inVjcin In ell 
iBWe nho^tsoever, or^ ancb district (not oxcwdiof ton milos sgitar«) ne ninj, h; nt-s- 
lon of partlonlar StateSrand the awoptangoof CongreaH* bacQiae thfl wyilof thpQo- 

Uarjlnnd, ffa Becemljor 2% 17SB, psseefl " An aot to cede to CongreBB it tlinEricb of ten 

And the State of Vii^ula. on Decsniber 3, 1789, posjod " An net for tha rasslon of 
en milen e^aan, or my lesser quantity of terrltor; within tills atatK, to the tJulted 

lermiment seat of government tatabllshed bjtbe -Axt toi eatabiittbing tlio tvmpornry 

LDd Uie net to lunund the Esme, approved Uarcli S, IT91. 

The dletiict of ten mllM equaie waa acoordinglj locutcd, and ita lines ami bounda/- 
rfes paiUcularly Mtabllshtd by a proclamation of Qoa^ Waahington, President of 

lumbla," spproied February 27, 1801, Congregt sEenmcd complete jnrlsdlcUon over 

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Im the course of experience in public husiness, it lias teen 
found that great embarrassment arises to persons entering into 
public life in obtaining a practical knowledge of the operations of 
the Government from its foundation to the period of their entering 
upon the arena — which knowledge cannot well be dispensed with 
by nnbeiJBVers in the doctrine lliat sMesmanskip comes by infuilion 
or inspiration. They modestly approach the highly important and 
responsible stations in the legislative or execuliTe branches of the 
Government to which the partiality of their fellow-citizens has 
called them, and prepare with diligence, however well acquainted, 
with the general history of the country, to qualify tliemselvBs for 
a consistent, intelligent, and ftiithful discharge of duty, by a revi- 
sion of the acts and proceedings of their predecessors tending to 
or terminating in measures of state policy, which have either been 
confirmed by repeated legislation, or remain open questions for in- 
vestigation and discussion, and by an examination of the foreign 
and domestic relations, the matter and form of legislative business 
generally, and the faols and minulife of cases requiring, by ap- 
pointment and a proper discharge of duty, particular attention. 

It may, tiierefore, not be unacceptable to citizens entering into 
public life, or to those who may expect at some future period to 
taice part in public afeira, or to those who may desire to extend 
their information concerning the measures, policy, and b 

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IS of the go vera in put, to he fisniished willi references to mme 
of ike sourees and meana of acquiring such information. 

To the nniniljated, the accumulated mass of boolis, records, and 
documents, contained in the public archives, is calculated to dampen 
the ardor, if not to repulse the ordiimrj scholar or man of businaEs 
from the attempt to fathom the depths of the arcana; and the pre- 
sent effort of the author and compiler to atd in this undertaking 13 
more with the view of essaying a treatise which by extension and 
improvement may hereafter become a vade jntcum to the atatcsmiii 
and legislator, and subserving the public inleiest and convenience, 
tlian with the hope of effecting such object in the presert edition 

The design of this undertaking is simply to refer to lai. briefly 
describe the books, records, and documents of a publit, character, 
to be found in the public archives at the Seat of Government, con- 
stituting the principal sources of political and slatistictl inlorma- 
tion. With a view of preserving perspicuity m the sjstc n 11 e 
whole will be arranged into classes and sections as ltil!o«s iii 



f public aflkirfl: Uifl whole (btming A DOCUMENTARY HJSTORy of 

final rnlilicaiion i 

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zed by die "Acl moliiog; proviBion for the publicBtion of 
' of IhB Anuricaa Revolulion," npproved Maicli % 1S33, 
lietributed in the same msansr as Ihe Ameiican Stale 
lion of July 10. 1833. ll was fiirlhet dislribuleS by Ihe 

CLASS No. 2. 
Ses. 1. THE PUBUC JOURNAL OF CONGRESS, containea in 4 volumei 

Urilain, and olber doeumenla preceding oad succeeding Ihe eommencsmenl of 
licles of CanfEdermion aie conlained in vol. 3. And Ihe Journal of Ibe Committee 
Ifl,17M! Ibe powers to Ihe Board of Treasury to comraci lor the Bale of the 

Slales,— are oonlainEd in vol. 4. 

FEDERATION, in four rolumes : 

Vol. 1. On Domeslic Affairs, from 1774 to IMS; Hisloiy of Iho Confederation. 

Vol. 3, On Foreign Affdis, from July, 17SI , lo May IS, 1780. 

Vol. 1. On Foteign Aflairs, from May 11, 1786, lo Seplombet 16, 17S8. 

CLASS No. 3. 



STATES, FROM MAY 14 TO SEPTEMBER 17, 1787: Jn one volume, pub 

Lshed under a teeolntion of Congress of March 27, 1618. 

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< Ihe Debsles in Mosaachtisell 
I Ihe Debnles in Moilh Curolir 

on Ibol fotmed lbs 
inal of Ihe CoiiTe 

n Yales, John Lan 

lion; Luther Mailifl'3 imbrniGlIi 
in.f and Edmund Randoiph foi' a 


of able . 

b^ AieXBjider Hamiltan^ Joba Jay, and Jainea Madison, all over Ihe signalure of 

of Ihal parainoiLUI law. 

CLASS No. 4. 



This Journal as le-prlntefl by order of ihe House of Representativea, ftom the 

cnmmencemeHl ID Mnrcb 3, 181S, is conlained in toIuqicg oclavo ; each haviug 

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Vol. G. From Mny 16, 170J, lo MbtqIi 3, 181)1. 
Vol. 4. From December 7, 1801, lo March 87, IBM. 
Vol. 5. From Novembet 5, 18Q4, lo Matcli 3, 1807. 

CLASS No. 5. 


STATiS, FROM MARCH 4, 17S9, TO MARCH 3, 1861, 

This JODtntJ as re-ptmtefl by order of Ihe Senale. from the cDdimsi.ccn.ciil to 

Vol. a From March 4. 1793. lo Maicli 3, 17 
Vol. 4. From March 4,' ISOS,' Ig March 3, 11 

CLASS No. 6. 

Sic. 1. Vol. 1. Prom March 4, 17SB, lo Mn: 

roh 3,1805. 

Yq]. a. From March 4, 1805, to Ma 

VoL a From March 4, 1816, to Ma 


fisc. S. Those pans of the EsecBtive Jou 

rnal from which the injunction of >o- 

ISK). lo March 3, 1S61. will he foaad 

rinlea as an appeodii xo the LegislaUve J 

Sec. 3. The Bjecutive Jonrnal of the Sei 

lale ftcm March 4, I82B, to March 3, 

PM, from which to injunclion of sccreo 

lone ill mangacript record-hooks, ani is i 

iccessible oaly 10 the Presidcni, to Iho 

Icmbers, Ihe Secretary and cerluill officer 

« of the Senale. No cittact ftomlhi. 

Older of Ihe Sciialc 

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CLASS No. 7. 

Sk. 1. On the lila] of WUliam Elonnl, a Seiiolor of Ihe Umisd Smies, ftom D8- 
ceinber 17, 1738, id Jnanary 14, 1J3B. 

Sfc. 9. On Ihe Irial of John Pickering, Judse of Ihe New HampsMre Dialiicl, 
IVddi March 3, 1803, lo March 13, I6D3. 

S«. 3. On (he trial of Somusl Chose, one of Ihe Associala JualLcea of the Sa- 
prBDiaCouilorihoUfliledSiates, from November 30, lg04, 10 March l,tsas. 

The preceiling cases wUl be found Be aii appendix lo Uis iliird volunie of Ills 
L^islntiye Joumol of Ihe Sensle. 

Sk. 4. On the trial of James H. Peck, Judga of the MissoDri Dietriol, from May 
11, 1830. to May 93, 1830 i and IVom Deeemher, 13, 1330, lo January 31, 1S31. 

Joarual of the Sennle of 1S30, 1831. 

The LeoistATiTE Journals of the Senate abd Hoose or Repce- 
SENiATivEB, exhibit the action of Congress from the establiehnient of tlie 
Government under the Constitution, in the introduction, progreas and 
enaotmenl of the Laws of the United Stataa ; they contain a tecord of 
ihe introduction by individual membars of petitions, motions or resolu- 
tiona, and bills ; notices of ihe reports of all committees, the names of 
the members voting on all Eubjeots where the yeas and nays are de- 
manded; bU the messages from the President of the United Stales lo 
either House of Codgresa, and the inaugural nddreases, from the com- 
mencement of the Government, will be found at length upon the jour- 
nals ; a biief statement of the subject of every report or commuiiieation 
from the several Executive Departments and Bureaus is entered upon 
the Jomnnl of the House to which it may "be directed ; acla and resolu- 
tions of tho State Legislatures are entered upon the Journals; schedules 
of the electoral votes for President and Vice President are placed upon 
the Journals of both Houses, and the names of the membeie with those 
of the Slates which ihey represent are entered on the Journals of iha 
respective Houses on the days of their first attendance at each session. 

The volnmes of Jonmala have indexes referring to the names of peti 
lioners, members, Stales, Executive Departments, Presidents' messages, 
committees, motions, resolutions and bills with references to all the pro- 
coedinga thereon, and generally to all the snbjecta treated of in the body 
of tlie Journal. 

But with the exception of the cases above stated, the reasons for or 
grounds of Logislalion, from their voluminous nature and their number, 
could not be embodied within ihe narrow compass of tho Journals. 

These are contained in the manuscript files and records, the printed 

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docunienls, and. the reported epeechea of the members of the two IIousgb 
lo be sought for from various aonrcca. 

The manuscript files and records are preserved m the office of the 
House in which they may have been presented, or lo which they muy 
have been communicated. The printed documents and speeches, how- 
ever, requite a more particular description and reference, ivliicb will be 
given as concisely as practieabla. 

CLASS No. 8. 


m ssair ft h P dent, reports from the seve 

D p m d B ports of committees of the 

uses h d m d communicated therewith, as 

s m m Is p us State Leglslatm'ea, and all 

p p p d d h ler House. These will be 
d n ns 

3 vols. FiiumceB, Vol. 1, ftom H 

Vol. a, frQIQ A 

S vols. ComtnercB ejiil Nsvlgaut 

S vola. Military Aflaita. Vol. I, ( 

Vol. a, 1 

1 vol. NhvsI Affair!. Vol. 1, froi 

io Land!. Vol. 1, ftom MarnL 4, 1789, lo Feb, S7, 1S09. 

VqL 2, ftom Fab. 37, 18*9, ta Feb. 14, 181S. 

Vol. 3, fiojq Feb. 14, 1816. Io May 2«, 1934. 
5. Vol. 1, fiom March 4, 1789, Io Matcli 3, 1333. 

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There will also lie included in lliia BeclLoii ll,o Iwo addiMoiial volumes on Publio 
Lands Ihal wete printed by I>uffQteeii, by order of liie Senale, vii. :— 

of proceeding iu the eiecuiion of Ihe work, will be found filmed at the beginning 

principles in IhaslLowaiice or rejeolion of private pecuniarjr claims sgainsl Uia 
Governnienl, or in Ihe senlement of private land oloima. 

CLASS No. 9. 

FOKIM BY ORDER OF THK SENATE, during each session, from Marcli 1, 
1769, to March 3, 1861. These ai'e numbered as Ihay are sani to ihe primer; 
loose copies are iiirnished to Ihe members of both Houaea of Congress and olher 
public funclionaries, and eomelimes exlra cnpies for distribution, as Ihey are 
prinled ; and other copies are relsinBd and bound, in as many volumes as necea. 
Biiry, with copious indexes, for picBervation, wlien the priming of each session is 
completed. The more important of these prinled docBmenia wili be found re- 
primed, nnder their cppioprialc heads, in the fclio state papers, wiare they wjil 

comulaled from March 4, irSfl, to the time to whicii the class Ihcy belong to was 
had to these bound doenments of each session— eveiy seasiou having a separaie 

printed in foiio form, and dislribuled neariy as Ihe octavo documenls. Several 

Hosiecb, Google 

««,) tor p,«=tvmion, when ILel 



Embracing the speesliea made in Ilie two Houses orCongreee, from March 4, 

irea, to Match 3, 1B51. 

When it ia desii'sd to find the discussion in eitlier House upon any par- 

licular subject, il is necessary first lo asceviain from the journal of the 

House in wliicli tlie discussion Jiob talien place, when, or on what days, 

euch subject whs under consideration in the nause, and then seek for the 

publication of the proceedings of those days in the public newspapers 

thut published such debates, or in the various compilations of debates, as 

either may be found to embrace the time at which the discussion may 

have taken place. 

d House of Rflpreeenlalives, from March 4, 17S9, id March 3, 1703. 
MC3 ill (he CongresB of the United Slaxeaon the biU tor repealing Iha 
mote eonvenieni organiiation of the courts of the United Stales ;" 

ales in iLe House of Rspresenlalives of Ihe United Stales on qnsi- 
d in the British treaty of 1704, (Jay's treaty ;) Philadelphia, IBOE. 

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■5. B. Debate! In the Hon™ of Rflpremntattyes of Hia TTofteil Slalsa On tha 

ioolB BBT, in January aafl Cubrnniry, 1819. (Slate DapBitnisnt.) 

X. 7. Dunlap'8 American Daily AdveriLsor, from ITUl lo 17B3. ICongresi 

m e. Ihinlnp & Claypolo's AdTerliser, ftoni 1794 lo 1795. [Cong. Lib.) 

t. 9. Brown's Philadelphia Gazelle, from 1734 to 1600. (Cong. l,ib,) 

•c 10. Bache's General Advertiser, fiom 1795 to 1797. (Cong, Lib.) 

s. II. Eaehe & Cuane's Aurora, fl-oni 17«S lo 1SI4. |Cnng. Lib.) 

tc.lS. Carey's United SlBIH ReoordsT, fioni I79e to ISDO. (Cong. Lib.) 

!c. la Delaware Gaielle, Political Mirror, from 1738 to 1801). (Cons. Lib.) 

X. 14. DenniBon'a Hfipuliliean Waloh Towet, from 1800 tol809. (Cong.Lib.) 

«. 15. J)uan6's Weekly Aurora, from 1810 lo ISai. (Cong. Lib.) 

K. 18. Fenno'B GaiellB of Ihe Uniled Slalea, from I78B lo 1798. (Cong. Lib.) 

K. ir. National Intelligencer, (til-waekly,) from 1809 to 1813. (Cong. Lib.) 

National Litelligeueer, (Onil)',) from 1814 lo 18B1. (Coi^. Lib.) 
sc. IS. Universal Gazelle, (by Samuel Hsrriean Snillli,) from 1798 lo 189a 
•t. 19. Philadeiphia Gazelle, from 1705 lo 1787. (Cong. Lib.) 
«. 20. Virginia Argna, from 1797 lo 1303. (Cong. Lib.) 



M. (Co 

ng. Lib 


zetle, from 181 





Uniled Stalee Teleg 

aph, ftom 





Globe, iron, 183E10 

S4S. (Co 



tig. Lib. 

Kegisler of Itebalea 

in l^ngr 

mprising the 


f each session, wilh 





on, l»h Congress, 1834-^ in 

onal Globe and Apjieni 

Hosiecb, Google 

- ad S™. 21111 Cfcn 

. 1S42-3, 12Ui TOL 

let Sbm. Mm Can 

. isas-B, sa yoL 

2.1 " 2SHi " 

lMt-5, 14Hi yoL 

let " 29tb " 


1st " asai « 



ai " 25Ui « 

1S37-B, ett vol. 

sa " ssui " 

1838-9, 7«i ™i. 
18S9-W, 8Ul .0! 

M ' M^ " 

184T-S, " 

2a ■' 26th " 

1940-1, sit TOI. 

lat 11 8l8t ^'1 

13M-S0, " 

M " %t " 

mU, lltJi ycL 

24 " SUt 


CLASS No. 12. 

TLB firsl of \Wa aeries was pnljliahed in 1 Jflr, Id 3 volnmCB, by Richard PoIweIJ, 
embracing Ihe laws, leaolulions, and tientiee, from Msrch 4, 176», to Match 3, 

Mai'ch 3, 1790 1 by William Duane to laoluile the Sth and 6th volumes, lo Uarcb 3, 
1603; by Roger C. Weightman, to include the 7tK, SUi,fitb,ana 10th volumns. to 
March 3,1811; and weie conlmued by various individuals, "Bir authority ," in 
pBmphlel form at Ilia te tmiustion of e^esj sesuon of Congress, down to March 3, 

Sec. a An edition of the lavra was pnfalished in 181S hy Bioren & Duane and 
B. C, Weislilnmn. TliLs edition was compiled by J. B, Colvin, upon the basis of 
K pion prepared by Rjohard Rush, then Allorney-Genoiai of the United Stales, 
end adopted by James Monioe, Seorelary of State, in contbrutity with the act of 
Coi^ess of the ISth April, 1.814. It consists of Hve volumes, and smbraces Ilia 
laws of the United Stales l^om March 4, 17S9, to March 3, IGIS, with Ihe 
escDpllon of "the iocul judiciary acta, and all acts conBdinj power to corpo- 
rate bodies m the District of Columbia, or wliicli have been oiberwiae passed by 

Vol. 1 contaiji^The Deilaralion of Independence, Articles of Con federation. 
Treaties "ith tbreigii nations and Indian iribcs, from 1778 to 1B14. 

Hosiecb, Google 


lioiisofland by several Slal?s to lheUnileJSuil«9. 
: of the Un[led Stales la LonlsianiL—Qraiil lo Ciozi 
lenoe lespf f iLug Yaioo and oDier land claims, 
ily of PnriB, of lOlh Fflbtnsty, 1763, belween O 

OtdiuHiioe for the goveinmenl of Ihe terril 

^snish legdjslions for Ihe ellolnieiit of Inods. 
Ctaai Maison'B claim on Washita. 

strop's, 3t Vrain, now John Smilh, T. 

neat's, Sabnque'a, and Choutesn's claims to Tnnds and lead minee. 

weis of Iha boaid of Treasury lo eoiilracl for the sale ofwoslcrn Icrr 

Ohibin, ke^ OF the TuEAaoBV Dkp*htmekt. 
Ohiqib, fco., OFTBsMiKToflhe United States. 

Hosiecb, Google 

The sedes of Laws contained in the precBding volumes of the edition 
oJ' Bioren and Duatie, have been continued to MeitcIi 3, 1845, by a 6th, 
7th, 8th, 9lli, and 10th volumes : 

Sec. 3. The Public oad General Statutes of Iha United States, from 
1789 to 1827 iucluflive, whether expired, repealed, or in force : aiTatiged 
hi chronological order, with marginal referenees, and a coijious index ; to 
which IB added the Conetitutiou and an Appendix : published under lliB 
inspeotioQ of Judge Story. Boston, 1827. 

Ssc. 4. An edition of tha Slalutea at hirge was edited by Ricltatd 
Peters, and pnblished by Little & Brown, in 1846.» 

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. of Coiigreaa fton 

rch 3, ITflB, tc 

115 do. da from March 3, 1813, lo March 3. 1333. 

Pioceedings ami Charier of Poiomac Company relating to 
Chesapsake aijd Ohio canal. 

Ael of AlabaniB lo incorporate Ihe Cahawba Navigalion Com- 
FrocUmatians by the President of the United Stoics on Com- 

ns Iho Public Ada of Congress from March 3, 1835, to March 3, 
Al50 a ProolBmolion of the Freaident DO eilinguiEhmi?nl of In- 

iljsn tide to land in Miswari. 
An act of Virginia relating to Clieaapeaks ana Oliio Cnnal Corn- 
to Mareh 3, 1346. 

Vol. e conldna the Ttealie 

wUh Foreign Nations, from 


Bach of the preceding volu 

nos eontaiiis an indei lo the 

1. Table showing reJailve 

laplersoflhia and other edit 

2. TablcB of Acla of Congri 

aa, ftom 1789, 10 IS4S inelos 

3. Table of Acts of do. rela 

ng to Imports and Tonnage. 

S. Table of Acts of do. tela 

ng to Ihe Post-OiEea. 

8. Indei to the five volume 

of Public Statutes 

Hosiecb, Google 

CLASS No. 13. 



See. 3. DIGEST of the LaxvB of the Uniled Slates, includins au obslrnti of Iho 
Jndicla) Decisions leloling lo Ihe Ck>nEtltutiona] aad Slalulory Law, nilli Noles 

Sic. 3. AIT ABR1SGMFJ4T of lbs Acts of Con^BBi now in force, fxceplUig 
those of B private end locsl sppllcution, v/ilh notes of Declsiont), giving conBinic- 
tion 10 the same, in Uia Supreme Court of llie Uuiiad Slates, by Edward In- 

Set. i. DIGEST of Iba Laws of Ihe United Slates iucinctli^ the Treati 

.es with 

Foreign Powers, and an ahauact of the Judicial Decisious relating; lo I 


slilulisnsl and Slalulory Lew. By Thomas F. Garflon, priniea in 1844. 

CLASS No. 14. 





Bee, 1. GENERAL INDEX lo the Laws of the Uniled Slates of Amerii 

Uaieh 4, I7Se, to Matolt 3, 1SS7, including eii Treaties entered into lielwe< 

periods ; in which Ihe principles involved in ocls for the relief of indivic 


of a private or local nature, are arranged under general heads, lo which sn 


ciries approptislely belong: artanged to the edilion commenced hy Bioi 

ren, Da- 

ane * Weiglilman, in 181S, and snbBequenlly continued by Davis i Fo 

William A. Davis. [This is the most complete and usefnl index of Ihe 1 

aws, op 

to March 3, I^?, eitanl ; and it wonld add to the public convenience if » 

SB, 2. INDEX to the EJtecuUve Communicalious made to Ihe House of Ee- 

ptesenlalives, from March 4, 1789, lo March 8, 1817: >sl, hj a referent 

pbabelical order, to Ihe primed and also lo the raannscripl reports, acec 


the iubject-matter i seeond, by a reference lo the same matter, arranged n 

head of the deparlmenl whence it eame. Also, an 

ally e.r- 

ranged, from March 4, 17S9, to March 3, 1817 : primed in 1824. 

Diade la Ihe House of Eepreaenlalives, ftom December 3, 1817, lo Marcli 


Hosiecb, Google 

CLASS No. 15. 
1. By AI.HXANDTJB JAMES DALLAS, fiom Feliruaiy torta, 1700, lo An- 

3. By WILLIAM CRANCH, ft-omAugual term, 1801, to Fsbruory term, 1S15, 

3. By HEMRY IVHEATON, from February term, 18:8, lo Januory lerm, 
S7, iiioloaiYe. 

4. By ItJOHARD PUTERS, ]iin., from Janunry term, 1828, lo Janoary term, 

6. By BENJAMIN C. HOWARD, from Janusry term, 1843,10 January lorin, 

e and Circuit Courts of the United glstes. 
CLASS No, 16. 


1. LAWS OF THK UNITF.D STATES, Resolntionis of CongteiB 
Con fecleialion, Treaties, Proclamalions, and oilier documenIB, having 

UiB not ot Coiigreaa, Hppro?Bfl April 27, 1810. by Albert Gallatin, Socre 

Hosiecb, Google 


B. LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES, Reeolulbna of Congics^ uudertlia 

(he Mouse afKepTesenlBtives of the Unilea Slates of Moieh 1, 1S30, liy M. Si. C. 
Clarke, and primed by order of iKe House of Reptesealaiives of Febnisry IS, 
18S7 : in one Tolume. 

3. LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES, Tiealiej, Eegulalions, and olher docn- 
menl3,respeelmg Ihe Fublio Landsi wift the Opiniona of Ihe Couvisof ilie Uniled 
Stales in relalion Ibereio, from 1326 lo 1S33 ; by M. St, C. Gierke, under a reaolu. 
lion of Ihe House of RepreBenlaliveB of March 1, 1833. 

Die Untied Slales, in relation to Ihe Pablic Lands, ft-om March 4, ne», lo Jaue 
19, 16S4, in five volomas ; compiled under Ihe resolutions of Ihe Senate of Febru- 
ary Sa, IS33, and January 3, 1834. Printed by DulT Green. 

S. GENERAL PUBLIC ACTS OP CONGRESS reapeoling iUe !»le Diid ai>- 
poEilion of Ihe Public Lands; with Inslructioiis issued fcam lime lo Utne by Ihs 
Se.:retaiy of the Treasury and CommissionF r of tbe General Land Ofllee, and 
Official Opinions of Ihe Allorney-Qeneial i ji queslions arising under the land 

Prepared and printed under the cesol iliou of the : 
CLA?S No. 17. 


classed under separate heads, viz.: Acts Ibr eolleelion of duties on Imports luid 
lonnagej Table of lonnagu duty and fees of office: Regislering, recording, en- 
rolling, and licensing of ships or vessels j Medilerraneaii passjiorts; Quarantine 
and heallhi Remission of fines, penalties, and farfeilures; Fisheries; Naturali- 
zajton; Reelriclion of trade with an eoemy^ Letters ofinatque and Tepiisnl; 
Salragei Slave trade; Consuls and viee-coiiauls ; Seamen in the merchants' scr- 
vico; Ssa leiters; British licenses; and ibt regulating foreign coins, (to.; by 
JohiiBrioe: 1314. 

with which the United Stales haTe commercial inlereonrse : coUecled, digested, 
and printed, nnder the direction of Ibe President of Ihe United States, conforma- 
bly to B resolution of the Senate of March 3, 181T. 

FERErJT FOREIGN NATIONS with which the Uaitcd States have uitorcoorse : 

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larative tarllTs of Uie United Slal» and olher noIionB ; Inbnlar elslemams 

or principsl produetiom ol 

■ the Uniled Slates 

fnlo fore 

jgn c 

ountries; navig 

;sljan i 

bbA Biilish mriir, cam-lawn, Ice.: prepaipd 

^wilh Ibe resol 


«. TAEJFFS, from nm 

h House of Co 

ig to Slates. 



to rsT«nu«, flgyi^lion, en 

a commerce and : 



irluding treatie 

foreign powers, np W Mar 


ed fcr U 

le Tr. 

Eaeury Depar'i. 

UiB United SlBtea, by Thoi 

a A DIGEST of the aii 

a! of 

rs Willi 



Secreiaiy of tho Treasury 


of Ihe House ■ 

of Re. 

preiBMaliTes of MateU 3, 


e, A STATiaTicAL VIEW ov tiie 



res; and an a. 

flSialES; wilhi 

review of llie trada, agrii 

,ollore, Bnd mann 

. table illattrative. 


es and objects 



iraciieal, IheoreUc. 

ll, and h 

■.e and 

.avolomes: by J. 

R McCi 



CLASS No. 18. 



Hosiecb, Google 


ftom 1799 to 1S3^, Inclusive, tomplled by M. Bt. Clair Clarke siid Bovia A. Hali, 
und primed by ctder of Ihe House of RopreaenlotiYCB. 
4. RGPORT OF THE THIAL OF JAMES H, PECK, Jadge of the U.iiled 

TUB UNITED STATES, includips tbs origintJ Bunk of Norlli Ametiea. Cy M. 
Si. Clair Clarke and David A. Hal]. 

6, HEPOET OF COMMITTEE of the Homo of Eepresenmiives, wilh 
.locumeniB relnlivo lo Ihe conduct of Gesebal James Wilkiksos, Feliruary 

compiled nnder the direction oftlie CommisEionei of Indian AITsirs, 1S37. 

REPORT ON THE FINANCES of the United Stales IJoni 1700 id 1830 ; 
po U of AleJBDder Hnmilton on Public Credit, a Naiional Bank, 


the Attorneys »«nertil of tbe United Slalee. and Hie niles ond 

MARINE CORPS to Murcli 3, 1341 ; with acts and resolutions, franting medals, 

pcnditures for the Nsval Service from 1791 to 1340 iuFliialve; also a synopsis of 
Legislation of Congress on NavBl Affairs daring the Kevolationnry war ; 1841, 
AND OTHER PROMISES made by Congiess to Iho olRcors and soldiers of the 

UNITED 8TATFS Ibr tSlO, by Teiicb Coxb, under iljreclion of Albert Gallaiio, 
Secretary of (he Treasury, in obedience to a resolution of Congress of March 1», 

34. COMPENDIUM OF THE Dili CENSUS tor I34D. sihibiting (he population, 
wealth, and resources of Ihe country, the aggregate valua and produce, and qudi- 
ber of pfirsonfl employed in Mines, Agriculture, Commerce, Manufactures, Ac, 

STATES, FROM 1790 TO ItCO. Inclusive, pnblished in accordance with tlie 
resolutions of tka Senate of the United States of Fetiruary SO, 1533, and March 

Hosiecb, Google 


Ifl. A CENSUS OF PENSIONERS for BevoluUonory or Military servicoa; 

17. MILITARY I^WS OP THE UNITED STATES, inoluiling Ihgae reliuling 


ingB in criminal cesee; a. code of Prison BlGciplinc; and a book of Befijiilions. 

Edward I.ivingslon: lESa 


J>Ly, Arllinr Lee, WiUlam Lf e, Ralpli Iiaid, Fraasia Daim, William CarmichBel, 
Henry LsuienE, John Laurens, M. Dumes and olhera, concerning Uie Poielga 
Relations of Ihe United Slates during the whole Revolulioni with replies from 
Ihe Secret Commillee of Congreaa, and the Secrelary of Foreign Affalts ; also cm- 
respoiidencs witli Ihe French Minisleis Gerard and Lnierne. By Jsred Sparlis, 
under reaolution of CougreeB of March Z!, 1S18, in IS voluniea, from Msrch 3 
177U to 1784. 

Treaty of Peace of 1783 to March 4, 1789 ; being letters of the Presidents of Con- 
giesB, Secielary of Foreign Aflaira, American Minislers of foreign conrls, foreign 
Ministers near Congress, Reports of Committees of Congress, Reports of Secreiary 
fiir Foreign ABiirs, and tVom individoalB on Pobho Aflaits. By Jared SpaitB, 
under direction ofthB Secretary of Slate, oonibrmably lo act of Congress of May 


23. THE MADISON PAPKBS; beingJamea Madison's correspondence and 

debates in the Federal Convention, from the ori^nal manuscripts purchased by 
order of Congress. Published in Svoiamea by direction of Ute Joint Library 
Conmiittee of Congress, under the superintendence of Henry D. Gilpin i 181L. 

alpliabclicat order. Exhibiting the Slates, Territories and Conuties; Names of 
Postmasters; tbe Distancca from Washington city to the Capitals of the several 

Puhliahed under oniliority of tie PosimasiBr-Geiierul from time lo time. 


Hosiecb, Google 


CLASS No. 19. 

I. NILES' WEEKLY REGISTER; compiling voVi'l- 

eDlsdf the limeB, rrom September, 1811, lo MB^(^h, 1847. 
1. lIAZARQiS "Regislec of Peniiiylvania : devoled I 

fi. THE TRIAL OP COL, AARON BURR, gn on incliclmenl for ttcason, be- 
foro ilie Circuit Cimrl of Ihe Uniled Slales, ol Riohmood, Virginia, 18OT, incluaiiig 
cheBrgumemsanddaoisioiis; in Uiree volmnes : by T. Corpenler. 

COTT, Judge of Ihe Probalo of Wills, before llie Senale of MassaclmsBllB, in 

CLARATION OF WAR, in 1812, lo January I, 1814; in 4 voluinesi 1819. Re- 
view of the polillcal iuslitulions of Ihe United Stales; official documents of liig 


lTISTICAL ANNALS: embraoingTiews of the popolalion, oon 
HI, fiBlieries, pnhlic Jajiils, posmlBce eBtabiiBbmenl, revenaea, mil 
naral ostablistameDlB, expendilucos, public debt, and sinking fum 

Hosiecb, Google 

Tlie library provided fur CongreEH, alUr the removal of ihe Govern- 
ment to Wnshinglon, having been deairoyed in the burning of the Caoi- 
lol by the enomy, in 1814, the Taluable library of Thomas Jefferson, 
nliich, with the beat opportunities and hia well-known ability, it had 

purchased for Congress, nnder a joint resolution of October 31 181* 
and an act of January 30, IS15, and w na t Ih bas f Ih 
Congressional or National Library, tp 1 f d C igr 

have, by a moderate but regular proce b dd g th 1 m f 

literature, science, and (he fine aria wj i 1 q sil f h 

library of that repubhcan patriarch, had I ady d d tl C p t 1 f 
the republic ; and by the operation It) g 1 I p 

managed, as it has been, and will cant tbbyh mtdjdmt 
of the joint committee of llie two H f C g d d m h 

active rneasures by their literary agent d ty tl i d t n co 

of the worthy librarion and his asaialants d d b com mpl 

source of usetiil knowledge, which, throU5,h the able minds and eloquent 
voices of the distinguiehed representatives of the States and of the peo- 
ple, as well aa of those of other citizens who have free access to this pe- 
rennial source, will be diffused through the country for the public benefit, 
elevating its literary taste and character, purifying its moral sentiment, 
and increasing its power ; for true knowledge, communicated through 
pure chsmiels, ia the solid source of these and other national bleasings. 

The limited space to which wo are here necessarily confined will only 
admii of a reference to the general heads or chapters embraced in 
this collection, and to a few particulars which the political history and 
public transactions of our own country may render more immediately in- 

Hosiecb, Google 

so. Eqully— Trci 
SI. Law.EcQlesi 

»E Df Repocls. 


Hosiecb, Google 

33. Poetry— I'HslorulE, Odss, liUsgio 

Flue A.rts — Arcbitticluie. 42, CrlLLcisin — Bibliography 

Fine Aria — GurdcniDg, FaJnltng, 43. Criliciam — Langaagoa. 
Scaliiiure, &o. 44. Polygjaphical. 

Allen, Paul. Hlslorj of Ibe American Revolalion. Prmlsaiiil82! 

Uaiicroll, George. HlBlory of llie United Slalee fiom discovery of 

ilie AmerioBi. 

Blounl, JoBcpli. Hialorical Skelcli of Ibe Ibimalion of Iho Confedi 

;tMy, Provio- 

. 07et Indian 

Tribee and Public Territory: !6as. 

Uuiled Scale- 

) li IB lain; wiUiafullAccaunlor every Balileljy See 

> Slid l>y Land. 

mil Jh LifcofAlexundet Hamilton: 1834. 

'ISO M » Cor reEpoudenee, aud Miscellanies, Irom Iha Papers of Thomai 
J IC m 4 volumes. By ThoRiae Jeaerson Randolph : 11^9. 

dso Tl M d son Papers ; being Jbuice IVIndison's Correspondence and 
R po Debales during Ihe Congress of tho Confaderalion, and bia Ke- 

p f D b es in the Federal Couvenlion from Ibe Original Manuscript 

purcliased by ordei of Congress. Publisbed by diisclion of die Joint Li- 

rsbal. Jolin. XJfe of George Wasbingloni wilh ail Atlas: IS33. 

cl»r, Oeorga. Life of Tbomas Jeflerson i with parts of hu Correapondcnca 
never bsfbre published, and Nolieei of bis OpuiionB on Qnesiiona of Civi: 
Government, National Policy, end Constilutional Law : 1S3;. 

ishingion. Wtiluigs of George Waablnglon i beiug his Correspondenoo, Ad- 

Hosiecb, Google 


Brown's PliilatlelphiB Gazette, from 17M iq 1600. 
Cnrey'a Unileil Slates RecordeT, ftpm 17B0 lo IBM, 
Delaware Gaiella, PoLlianl Mirror, &o., from 1JB8 lo 1310. 
Denniilon'i Repnblicsn Watch Tower, from ISOD to ISUB. 

Ihinlap'E Amsrioon Daily Adrertiser, fioTO 1761 lo 1703. 
Duillsp & Claypola'a American Daily Ad?erliser, IfM-J. 
Dunlap & Ciaj-pole'a Pennsylvania Pacliel, ka^ fram 1785 to 17S0 
Fenoo'E Gazctle nf Ihe Uniled Stalea, from ITSD lo 1793. 
Globe, Daily, Oily of VVoshinglon, from ISSS to 1846. 
MadiBonian, do, 1837-8. 

Nalional Imelligencer, do. ftom 1300 lo 1S13. 

Do. Daily, from 1314 lo 1347. 

National Journal, D^ly, from 1^8 lo i83L 
riiiloiidplila Gaselte, Ae., 17B5 to 17B7. 

Uuiled Siales Telegraph, Daily, 1838 to 1837. 

UniverBsl Gaielli-, by Samuel Harriaon Braiih, Pliilaiielphia ai 

ADAMS, JOHN. Defence of Ihe ConatilulionB ofGovernmeiil oflhe Uniled Slalea ! 

ADAMS, JOHN. History of llie DLspule witli Araprioa, from its Origin in 1751, 

ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY, Duplicale Lellers; The Pisl)eticB aiiil the Miasia- 

ADAMS & SEWALL. NovangrJus and Masaaehuaetlenaia, or Polillcfl! Haaaya: 

AMERICAN REMEMBRANCER; or, an ImtiBrtlDl Collection of F«i)aya, Re- 

AMEGIOAN GUIDE. Conatllutions of the aevera) Staiea : 1883. 
AMES, FISHER. Works; with hia Ufe and Choraoler; 1S09. 
ARISTOTLE. TrealiseooGovernmBut. Tranalaled from the Greek. Lond.1778. 
BECCARIA, B.C.,MBrqni8. MedilszionieullaEiionomiaFollliaii. Genoa, 1771. 
CARPENTER, THOMAS. Amerleau Senator i or, Reporl oflhe Debatea in Ilia 

CongresB of the United Stales in 1700-7. 
DEBATES in Em Honse of Reiireaenlnllyes of (he Uniled Slates Com 178» id 

1701 ; by Thonjaa Lloyd. 
DEBATES and Proceedings in Congress of llie Unileil Stales, from Match t, 

17S9, to March 3, 17M : by Joseph Galas, sen. 
DEBATES in Ihe Hoaso of Rcpresemallves of Ihe United Stales, on "Jay>a 

Hosiecb, Google 

CECATES iu Congress of IheUnileaaales 

DF.BATE in HouEe o( R^preBentulives on Ih 
DEBATES In CdnsrMS an passngs of Bill foi 
UCKINBON, JOHN. PolilicalWrllipgs; 1 
17S3, lQMorch4,17f«; by Jared Spark 
PUER, WILLIAM A. Oucliiies of Ihe ConsI 


FJiDERAUST, on tUe New 

GALl'^S&SEATOPJ. RegJslerofDebelMtaConsreaa from 1834 10 
GALLATIN, ALBERT. ConsWeralions on Ibe Carrcucy and Ban 

ofllieUnilKiSmiei: 163L 
GALLATIN, ALBERT. Sketcli of the Finances of the United Stan 
HAMILTON, ALEXANDER. Worki; oorapriBiiig his moai Jni|ia 

Heporta; The Federalist; Peoiieoa, Ac. : 1810. 


Annuol Me 

Eagee, Veto Me> 

i^s, Proola 




f the United 

Blales, with the Roles of the 


of Ihe Uiiiled B 


f the United 

for rating same: 17^ 


of Virginia fiom 


die Hook o 


of Virginia ftoio 


alion of M 

on of the p 



ion of New 





at Congre 


of Repre» 



f Ihe Senate 

8» to 1847. 

KEY to l;olb 

Houses of P 


d Commons 

Ihe Regal 

lion, ana Stand 


. London: 1833. 

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to Ihe MisBiasippi Hiver, by CoiiolanaB Boil Can.illus. Addtesses on IhB 
laid MBsign Qf Loutoltgja to the Uniied SlaloB. 
LOUISIANA. Measnge from Ihs Piesident cominunicBIing Diecoveiies in Ei- 
ploringlhe Missouri, Red Itiver, nodWaBliilB, by [^wis, Clark, Sibley.ond 

Mcculloch, J.K. IKciJoiinry,PracUetiLTI,eomio8l,8iid]Hiswric8l,ofCoin- ' 

MADrSOM, JAME3. Lettera Id Mt. Monroa on InipreBsmenl, Colonial trnde, 

So., OIlTBClB from and enclosures m Iha lellera of Mr, Monroe. 1SI>3. 
MADISON, JAiURS. liners to Messrs. Monroe sad PinT^ktie)', with their eom- 
muiiiciuions tollieSeci'elaryarsiale.relaate lo Iha liealy of IBM. l^S. 
MALTHUS,T. R, DeBnitions in Poiillcal Economy. London, 1SS8. 

Essay on the Prineiptes of Fopnlalion. Lond. ISOd. 
Additions thsveto. Lond. 1331. 

Inquiry Into the NaDiie and Progress of Rent. Lond. ISIS, 
Frineiples of Folidosi Eoonomy eontidered, with a view lo 
their practical application. Lond. 133G. 
MANUAL of the Practice of Parliaraent, in passing Public and Privaio Bills, 

with Standing Orders of both Honses, ftom laes lo ISSS. Lond. 18M. 
MARYLAND. Proeeedings of Ihe ConTenliooB of the Province of Maryland, 

held at Annapolis in mi, 1773, 1776. 
MONROE, JAMBS. Viewof the conduct of tbeEiaculiye in tlio Foreign Af- 
faiiB of Ihe United Slates, as connacted wilh the mission to the French 
Republic in 17M. 
MONROE, JAMES, Correspondence relative to the British Ttealy ofliSIO. 
MONTESQUIEU, C. de Secondal, Rsron de. (Eutibs; 17G7. 

Spirit of Laws, translated by Thomas Nugaiii : 18J3. 
MOSES, MYER. Commeroial Directory »nd a Digest of the Lavra of the United 
Slates roialing to Commercei including a Torid-.or Rales of Duties and 
Tables of Calcnlstion, applicable to all manu^luies Df wool or cotton im- 
parled into the United Stales : 1830. 
NEW JERSEY. Journal of Provinoi^ Congress; of the Convention ; Commiilea 

NEW YORK. Journals and Docnmentsofihe Senate and Assembly of Ihe Slate 

of New York, ftom 1820 to 1839. 
NORTH CAROLINA. Declaration of Indapendenee by the ciHiens of Mecfclcn- 

burg county, on May HO, 1775, with accompanying documems and ptoceed- 

mgs of the Cumberland ABSociation, and of the PrBvineial 

CongreBBofNorlhCaroiinaat Hnlifar, AptiM, ITja. 
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Ihe Constitution in 1635. 

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OnDERS, Esscmlal onfl flinfloraental anles, Ac, of Ihe House of CoinnionB, ru- 
laiing B iheit Forms of Prgceediiiga, Ptlvilugoe, &c. : 1?SB. 

ORDERS oil Coiilrovcrled EleclionB oiid Rclurns ; 1741. 

rAMPHI.ETS, POLITICAL, in relmion to Ihe Revolulianarj war of Ihe Unitei 
Slates of AmerlQa, froni 1.70S lo ITai. 

PAMPHLETS, POLITICAL. The sBineby A.Hamillon, J. Maflisonond olheraj 
also, Flea fbr Ihepoor BoldieCB who luolly anil aolually supported Ihe buiden 
of die nar.— [With a luge eoUsclion made by Mr, JcSerEOa of Political 

Rgilaled llie irnblic mind, ftom 17Ba lo jeia, Beveral of which we™ wriiwn 
by liinifeir, J. Aladison, A. HunilUm, E. Randolph, A. Gallatin, R. O. tlni- 
per, He Will Clinton, W. C. Nichols, C. Plnekney, R H. Lee, Oliver Wnl- 
ootl, John Adams, Samuel Adams, T. Pickering, S. Slnilll, W. Giles, Ear! 
of Buehnn, Mr. Leigh, of Dinwiddie, Jmnea Monroe, and many oiher dis- 

pnblic Journals.] 
PITKIN, TIMOTHY. Smlifltical view of the Commerce of the Uniled StalcBi 

and Eapei.dJIUTes of Ihe General Govetiunonl ! ISa. 
POLITICAL CLASSICS, Tii. : Algernon Sidney's Discouraea on Governnien!, 

with his letters and memoirs of his life, &c. : 179S. 
PRESIDENTS' ADDRESSl'S and Messages, from ITSS lo 1S37. 
EAWLE, WILLIAM. View oflheConatilnlionoflheOniled Slates: ieS!>. 
REGISTER OF OFFlCGltS end Agents, Civil, Mililacy and Naval, in Ibe ser 

vice of the United Slates in ISOa, the same from 1316 to 1846. 
KEPORTS of the Secretaiy of the Treasury on Hie Finances, from ITBO lo 

SAY, J.B. CaleehiBinofFolitlGatEcDuoiny,lellerslDMalihus,Tiaii^d'Econonile 

Politique, Treatise on PoUtieal Economy; tranilaled from Ihe Fieneh, with 

notes : isai, 
SECRET JOUKNAI^ 0/ the Acls and Proceedings of Congress, from llie llrsl 

meeting iu 1774, la Ihe dissolution of Ihe Confederation, ia Vm. 
8EYDERT, ADAM. Slatistlcal Annals; enibrsclng views of Ihe Popnltuion, 

Conimetee, Fisheries, Publio Lands, Revenues, Mint, &c. : 18ia 
STORY, JOSEPH. Commentaries on the Constitution of the United Slates, with 

a Prallnihisry Review of the Constitutional History of the Cokmles and 

STORY, JOSEPH. Conaiimtional Class Booi, being a brief expoaflion of the 

trkmstilDIion: 1334. 
TEXAS, Constitution of Iho Bepublio of Mexico and of the Stale of CoaSniia 

and Texas: ISS. 
TENNESSEE. Description of this Stale and its constimiion : 1790, 
TRACTS, IJonsideralionsontheSocletyorOrderofClnoinnatl: IJSS, 
■/INDICATION ofEdmund Randolpli's Resignation; 1V05. 
VIRGINIA Slid Kenuicfcy resolnlions of 176S and IT^O, with T. Jefferson's ori. 

guisl diauglii tliereol; also Midisoh's tepott ; Calhoun's aildtesB : ItBS. 

Hosiecb, Google 

CorporuliDiis m Ihc Colony of Virginia, lield m Riohmnii. 
WAIT'S SlBle Papers ond Public DocnmeQls of Uie ITnllefl 3 
WATTEHSTON AND VAN ZANDT. TnliolBr aaimicsl 1 

Ibrmed Ihe Conslituliou of Ihe Uiilled Stales: 1^1. 


The eminent alaiesmen who have from time to time occupied the 
highly impotlanl and reeponsibie station of Secfelary of Stnte, have not 
been unmindiiil of the utility of providing for themselves and their buo- 
ceaEora in office, a choice and valuable colieclion of books, maps, charts, 
and atlases approprinta to the pecniiar huaine^ of the Department, and 
indiapensahie in the performance of their extensive and varied duties, as 
well as others in various branches of the liheral aria, literature and 
science. The limited design of this volume will not admit of the inser- 
tion of mora than the general heads, and a reference to a few volumes 
of general public utility of this collection ; — ■ 

B d M m B— N 

M e— Oc p of Man, Teeholcal Aria, Education, Roads and Canals, 

M T »— » 1 Philosopbj and Blhios— Religion— Law of Naiure and 

N as— w United Sloles— Laws of Ihe severBl Slales and Terriioriea 

Eqnily, the Conuaoa Law, CoNSIilntinnol Lew, ihe Law Merchant atid Msrilinie, 
IIibLbw Military and Iho Lew BcolcBiaslJcal-jHBiaPKoriKKOKj ffomprohondinf^ 
EngliEli and American ReporU of Cases— Foreign Law— Poutics; comprehend- 

SlB^slics, CommeroB, Finance, Political Emnoniy, JonrnalB and histoties of 
LegiBlalite Bodies, FordBn Stale Papers, Political Pamphlet, and General 
TrentiacB— Pourios ; comprehendii^ American Slaia Papers and Political 
Pamphlelt— Maihemaiics— Arts and Sciences— GEOOHAPni ; eomprehonding, 
Oeas™l Geogiaphy, Voyages and 'Fravcls-GBOGHArav i comprehending. At- 
lases, Mops ana Charls-pBiLOLOGI ; comprehending, Diolionaries, Ltiicons, 

and Political Journals—Miscellaneous, 
or these, partioulac refcience will he made only ut the following:-- 

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ARNOULD. SyBtome ATniLiimc 6l I'oliliauR (lea 
huiii&ue aifioJe, Ibadi «ur Ibui. TrailoE da Pi 

BOUCI]ER. CoiuulnldelaMer.ouFBndecteadniC 

1494. Priul«d, leva 
BOUCHER. losliluUon su Dcail Maiilime : 1S03. 
BURX.AMA.CHIL Fruicipea dn Droil da la Nalute i 

lalBd iuia nnglish, by Nugsal ; 18^ 
BURLAMAQUI. ElSiaeus du Droit Malursl, psi 

Lmomme el Aa Choyen, leli qu'ili lui u»l pi 

ItnduJlB du Lalin de Pnfendotf par Barbeyra 

leur el 1o judgeineiil de Leibnilz : 1^0. 
CORNELU Van Bynlcetalioek, Opera: IMS. 
COUIQO ie laa Coalainbren Marilimai da Batoel 

Llamada Ubro del Coneuladc^ : por D. Aiito 

polan. Madrid : 1?91. 

besi polUieaJ and Legal writers— [In 
HEINBCCIUS, Sciiplores de Jura Maritim 
JACOBSEN'S Laws of the Sea, wilh refi 

peace and war ; 18ia.~IIti German a 
LEBRUN. IJbemddeloaMarea: ISO. 
LENDUVEAU VA1.1N, ou Cgde Comin 

ublie de L'Europe lon&( to 
ary o/lhe I,bw of Naiiona, i 
a 1748 down lo Ihe prese 

PEUCHET, Du Cpinmerce des Neulies en lemps d 

de Lampredi : m& 
PUFENDORFII (to Jure Nnlnr» el Genlimn. lAbi 

SYSTEMB UniveraeL dea prinqlpeB de Droil Mari 
Aiuni, traduil dliaLiau par M. Digeon i ITSa 

concurrii patB baoerae legilimainenle el C 
Jnaeph de Abieu, y Berloduno. Cndi^^ i;4e. 

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coniluct and affairs of Necioiu KJiil SoveEcigiis 

WAllD'S Iiiguiiy into Ihe foundELilDnB and hislory ofthi 

WENCKI[ Code): Jniiageniinia. 

WHIIA.TON'S Digeal of Ihe Law of Murilime Capiutes 

ElemeniBoflmernalioiiBll.Bw: 13111. 
WIUQUBFORT'S AmbusBsdoT sud Jiis funciions: lo 

ELLIOT'S Diploniati 

HALL'S ObseiFntious on Ibe W^mehouitng Syslem and Navigmiou Lsw3,Jm:.1 

HAMILTON'S (A1e;toiider) Worts, piinMid in 1810. 

HATSELL'S Precedenis of FroceediHga in llie House of Comraonfl i wilh obser- 

LOBD'SPtiqoiplesofCnrrenoyaiiaBiinklns. New York: ISaS. 
McARTHUR'S PiilBTiciBl and Polilicol Fools of llie ISlli Cenluty ; ISOL 
MALTHUS'S Principles ofPoliUesI Beonomy : isai. 

p^siay on the Principle ofPapnlslian: IS09. 
rKILUPB'SManuta of PoUticBl Economy: 18S8. 
RAYMOND'S ElemenlB of Polilical Economy: 18S3. 
SAY'S Treatise ou Political Economy, iraaslaled from Iha Fiencli i ISS7. 

SKIDMORE'S BishlsofManloPtopetly: 1E2». 

SMITH'S Inquiry Into Ihe Nature and Causes of the Woallli of Nolioiis, wilh 

Noles and Snpplemenlary Chapieis, by William PlBjfnit: iSlS. 
TAYLOR'S CoiislTOEtion Copsirned, and Conatilutions Vindiealed; 1S!0. 
THE SlPLOitf ACY of Ihe United Slalea: being an aeeouiil of the Foreign Rela^ 

tions of Ihe colinlry, from 17Ja to 1S14. Printed in 1826. 
A DIGEST of Ihe Commerciul Regulations of the dilferenl Foreign Nations with 

which Uie United Slates bave Intercourse : IS^. 
A GENERAL Outline of Ihe United StalesofNortb America, her Resources and 

NOVANGLUS AND HA3SACHUSETTENS1S, or Political Essays, published 

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FOI.TTrCAI, MISCELLANIES, compiled by W. D, Giles : ISSS. 
BELECT FAMFtlL£.'rS,coiieiiungar!inexpDsiiionofilie tauseaand jharoctcr 
of (he war ; and an eXHiainalioii of the Frillsh Doclrine which aubjecu 10 

SEYKER-PS Slalislical Annalaoflhe United Slslee of Amsiica: ISIS. 

TUE AMERICAN REI^EMBRATJCER, or an Impoillal coLLeclion of E3Ea;a, Kb. 

solves, Speeches, So., rElatile lo Ihe Treaty (Jay's) wilh Greal Brilala i 1 J95. 
THE DIPLOMATIC Correspondence of the AmericBn ReTDlution, By Jnred 

THE rUPIJCATB LETTERS; Ihe Fislierjes, and Iho Mississippi: floeumenls 

WAFT^ Slaie Papers, and public documents of liie United Slates ; IBlfl. 
WATTEI^TON AND VAN ZANDT'S TaJialar Slalislica! Views of Ihe Unilefl 

States: leSO. 
BLOUNT'S Hislorical Skelch of ihe InrmBIion of Ihe Conftderaliom parlicolarly 

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■.B 129 10 131, and residue of llmt Chapler, 
es 397, 398, aud 406 lo 431.) 

ul t mail- thftlcfoW- to VlUS iijHtti- 0» o. tine colui., 

Dclogales of ihe United Slales of America in Congress Bssembled did on 
the 15th day of NoTember in (lie Year of our Lord 1777. and in tho 
Second Year of ihe Independence of America agree to certain articles 
of Confederation and perpetual Union between the States of Now Hamp- 
shire, Maesachusetts-bBy, Rhode-istand and Providence Planlalioiis, 
CDUnecticm, New- York, New-Jeraey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Mary- 
land, Virginia, North- Carolina, South- Carolina, and Georgia, in the 
words following, viz. 


ARTICLE n. Each state retains its Bovereignly, freedom and indo- 
pendence, and every Power, Jurisdiction and tight, wliioh is not by tliis 
eonft deration expressly delegated to the united stfttes. in congress 

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ARTICLE III. The snid slates hereby sereially enter InW a flrni 
league of frienJsbip with each other, for their eomnion defimee, the 
fiseurity of tlieit Liberties, and their mutual and general welfiue, bind- 
ing tlieraselves lo assist each other, against all force oiTered to, or attacks 
tnade Mpan them, ot any of them, on aceount of religion, sovereignty, 
trade, ot Wiy other pretence whatever. 

ARTlCt.E IV. The belter to secure and perpetuate mntiial friend- 
Hhip and intercourse among the people of tfie different states in this 
union, die free inhabitants of each of these slates, paupers, Tagaboncis, 
and fi^tives from Justice excepted, shall be entitled lo all privileges 
and immtinitiasof free ciliaens in the several states; and the peopla of 
eacli state shall have free ingress and r^resa lo and from any other 
Elate, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade and commeroe, 
subject to the earns duties, impoailions end restrictions as the inhabininto 
thereof ceapeotively, provided that aonU restriction shall not extend so 
fer as to prevent the removal of property imported into any stale, lo any 
other stale of which tlie Owner is an inhabitant ; provided also that no 
imposition, duties or restriction shall be laid by any slate, on the pro- 
petty of the united stales, or either of them. 

If any person guilQ' ol] Or charged with treason, felony, or other higQ 
misdemeanor in any state, sliaQ flee from Justice, and be found in any 
of the united states, he shall upon demand of the Governor or eiecutivo 
power, of the slate from which he fled, be delivered up and removed 
lo the stale having jurisdiction of his offanOB. 

Full Ciifb and credit shall be given in each of these stales to the re- 
cords, acts and judicial proceedings of the courts and magistrates of 
every other slate. 

ARTICLE T.. For the more convenient management of ihe general 
interest of the united states, delegates shall be annually appointed in 
such manner as the legislature of each slate shall direct, to meet in con 
gress on the first Monday in November, in every year, with a power 
reserved lo each stale, lo reoal its delegates, or any of them, at any time 
within the year, and to send others in their stead, Jbr the remainder of 
the Tear. 

No slBla sliall be represented in congress by less than two, nor by 
more than seven members; and no person shall be capable of being a 
delegate for mote than three years in any term of six years; nor slinit 
any person, being a delegate, be capable of holding any office iiniler the 
united states, fcr which he, ot another for bis benefit receives any salary, 
fees or emolument of any kind. 

■" ' e shall maintain its own delegales in any meeting of the 

BWles, and while they a 

t as members of the commitloe of the slates. 

ans in tlie united states, in congress assembled, 

each state shall have on 

Freedom of speech a 

d debate in congress shall not be impeaclied or 

quesdoned in any Cour 

or place out of congress, and the members of 

congress shall be jiroiec 

etl in dieir persons ftom arrests and imprison- 

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menlB, during the time of their going to and from, and attendance on 
congress, except for treason, felony, or bteaoh of the peace. 

ARTICLE VI. No slate without the Consent of tlia united states in 
confess aBsembled, sliali send any embassy to, or ceoeive any embassy 
from, at enter into any conference, agreement, alliance or treaty witli 
any King prinea of state; not shall any person holding any office of 
pvofit or crust under the united states, or any of them, accept of any pre- 
sent, emolument, office or title of any Mnd whatever irom any king, 

or any of them, grant any title of nobility. 

No two or more statea shall enter into any weity, confederation ot 
alUance wiialever between tliem, without the consent of the unitfid statea 
in oongreBS assembled, speoi^iog aoourately the purpcsea Ibr wbioh tins 
eame is to be entered into, stid how long it shall continue. 

No state shall lay any imposts oi duties, wbich may interfere with 
any stipulations in treaties, entered into by the united states in congress 
assembled, with any king, prince Or state, in pursuance of any treaties 
already proposed hy congress, to the courts of France and Spain. 

No vessels of war shall be kept up in time of peace by any state, ex- 
cept such rnimber only, as shall be deemed necessary by the united 
states in congress assembled, for the defence of such elate, or its trade ; 
DOr shall any body of foiTjes be kept up by any stale, in time of peace, 
except such number only, as in the judgment of the united states, in 
congress assembled, shall be deemeit requisite to garrison the forts ne- 
oessary for the defence of such stale ; but every state shall always keep 
up a well regulated and disciplined, militia, sufliciently armed and ac- 
coutred, and shall provide and have constantly ready for use, in public 
Stores, a due number of field pieces and tents, and a proper quantity of 
arms, ammunition and camp equipage, 

Ko state shall engage in any war without the consent of the united 
statea in eoi^resa assembled, unless such state be actually invaded by 
enemies, or shall have received certain advice of a resolution being 
Ibrmed by some nation of Indians to invade stuih state, and the danger 
is BO imminent as not to admit of a delay, till the united states in con- 
gress assembled can be consulted; nor shall any stale grant commissions 
to any ships or vessels of war, nor letters of marque or reprisal, except 
it be after a deolamtion of war by the united stales in congress assembled, 
and then otJy against the kingdom or state and the subjects thereof, 
against which war has been so declared, and under such regulations as 
shall be established by lire united states in congress assembled, unless 
Buch state be infested by pirates, in which case vessels of war may be 
fitted out for that occasion, aiid kept so long as Che danger shall con- 
tinue, or until the united states in congress assembled sliall determine 

ARTICLE Yn. When land-forces are raised by any state for tlie 
common defence, all officers of or under the rank of colonel, shall bi> 
appointed by the legislature of each state respectively by whom aiuih 

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ARTICLE VIII. All clmrges of war, mid all olher expensea that 
Bhall be incurred Ibttlieoommniidefenceor general welfare, and allowed 
by the united Btatea in ootgreas assemMed, sliail be defrayed out of a 
ooramon treasury, wliioh shall be eiippljed by the several states, in pro- 
portion to the yalue of all land witliin eaoh stnte, grnnted to or eorveyed 
for any Person, hs auoh land and the buildings and improvements 
tliereon shall be estimated according to such mode as the united states 
in oongresa asBembled, shall from limeto and appoint The 
taxes for paying that proportion shall belaid and levied by the authority 
and direction, of the legislatures of the several statea within the time 
agreed upon by the united stalea in ooi^eBB assembled. 

ARTICLE IX. The tinited statea in congress assembled, aholl have 
the sole and exclusive right and power of determining on peace and 
war, except m the oases mentioned in the 6th artiole— of sending and 
receiving Eimbaaaadora — entering into treaties and alliances, provided 
Ihat no treaty of eommeroe sliall be made whereby the legislative power 
of the respective sates shall be restrained from imposing such impoats 
and duties on Ibreigneis, as their own people are subjected to, or from 
probibitmg tlie esporlauon or importation of any speoies of goods or 
commodities whatsoever — of establishing rulea for deciding in aO oases, 
what capturea on land or water shall be legal, and in what manner 
prizes t^en by land of naval tbrces in Uie service of the united stales 
shall be divided or appropriated — of grantinB I etters of marque and 
reprisal in timea of peace—appohiljng courH for tlie trial of piracies and 
felonies committed on the high seas and establishing courta for receiving 
and determining Anally appeals in all cases of captures, provided that 
no member of congress sliall be appointed a judge of any of the said 

after may arise between two or more states concerning boundary, juris- 
diction or BJiy Other cause whatever; which authority shall always be 
exercised in the manner following. Whenever the legislative or esecu- 
tivB authority or lawful agent of any slate in controversy with another 
shall present a petition to congress, stating the matter in qnestion and 
praying lor a hearing, nodee thereof shall be given by order of congress 
to the legislative or executive authority of the other state in controversy, 
and a day assigned for the appearance of the parties by their lawful 
agents, who aholl then be directed to appoint by joint conaent, commis- 
sioners or judges to constitute a court for hearing and determining the 
flatter in question ; but if they cannot agree, congress shall name three 
persons out of each of the united states, and ftom the list of such per. 
sons each parly shall alternately strike out one, the petitioners beginning, 
until the number shall be reduced to thirteen ; and from that numbei 

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Bhsll in the presence of congress be drawn om by lot, and the persons 
whoae nttnies sliall be so drawn or any Ave of them, shall be oommis- 
Bioners or judges, to heai and finally delerniine tiie eonlrOTeray, so 
always as a major part of the judges who sbaU hear the cause shall 
agree in Itie delarmination ; and if either parly shall neglect to attend 
at the day appointed, without showing reii.sons, which congress shall 
luclge sufficient, or being present shall refuse to strike, the congress sliall 
proceed to nominate three persons out of each state, and the sectetocy 
of congress shall strike in behalf or such party absent or refusing ; and 
the judgment and sentence of the court to be appointed, in the manner 
before prescribed, shall be final and conoliisive; and if any of the par- 
ties shall refuse to submit to the authority of such court, or fo appear or 
defend tlieir claim oi cause, the court shall nevertheleSB proceed to pro- 
nounce sentence, or Judgment^ which sliall in hke manner be final and 
deeisive, the judgment or sentence and other proceedings being in either 
case transmitted to congress, a d lodged among the acts of oongcoss for 
the securitj of the patties concerned i provided that every commissioner, 
before he sita in judgment, eball lake an oath to be administered by one 
of the judges of the supreme or superior court of the state, where the 
cause shall be tried, "well and truly to hear and determine the matter 
in question, according to the best of his judgment, without £ivo»r, aifec- 
lion or hope of reward ;" provided also that no state shall be deprived 
of territory for the benefit of the united states. 

All controversies ooncernii^ the private right of soil claimed under 
diflerent grants of two or more states, whose jurisdictions as they may 
respect such lands, and the states which passed such grants are ad- 
justed, the said grants or either of thera being at the same time claimed 
to have originated anteoedeut to such settlement of jurisdiction, shall on 
the petition of either party to the congress of the united states, be finally 
determined as near as may be in the same manner as is before pre- 
scribed fbr deciding disputes respecting territorial jurisdiction between 
different slates. 

The united states in congress assembled shall also have the sole and 
enclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin 
struck by their own authority, or by that of the respective slates — fixing 
the standard of weights and measures throughout the United States — 
regulating the trade and managing all afiairawith the Indians, not mem- 
bers of any of the states, provMed that the legislative right of any stale 
within its own limits be not in&inged or violated — estabhshmg or rega 
tatii^ post-offices ftora one state to another, throughout all Ihe united 
stales, and eiaoting such postage on the papers passing thro' the same 
as may be requisite to defray lire expenses of the said offloe— appointing 
all olflcers of the kind forces, in the service of the united states, except- 
ing regim.enlal officers — appointing all the officers of the naval forces, 
and commissioning all offioers whatever in the service of the united 
states — making rules for tlie government and regulation of the said land 
and navaJ Ibrees, and directing Ihsir operations. 

Hosiecb, Google 

" A Conunittae of llie Statta," and lo consist of one delegate from eacli 
state; and to appoint suoh other comminees and civil oiEoejs as may- 
be necessary for managing the general affairs of the united Btates under 
their direction — to Hppoint ona of their number to preside, provided that 
no parson be allowed to serve in tlie office of president more than one 
year in any terra of three years ; to ascertain the neoessary sums of 
Money to be raised for the eervioe of die united statee, and lo appropri- 
ate and apply tlie same Ibr deftaying the public expensee — to borrow 
money, or emit bills on the credit of the united states, transmitting every 
half year to the respective slates an account of the Eunia of money so 
borrowed or emitted, — to bnild and equip a navy — to agree upon the 
nomber of land ibrees, and to make requiaitions &om each state ibr its 
quota, in propoilion to the number of white inhabitanta in such state ; 
whioli requiailion shall be bindii^, and Ihereupon the legislature of each 
state eball appoint the regimental o£icers, raise the men and cloath, ann 
and equip them in a soldier like manner, at the expense of the united 
states ; and the ofScers and men ao cloathed, armed and equipped sliall 
march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the 
imiled states in congress assembled: But if the united states in congrees 
assembled shall, on coneidetation of circumstances judge proper that 
any stale should not raiae men, or should raise a smaller number tbau 
its quota, and lliat niiy other state shooM raise a greater number of men 
than the quota thereof, suoh extra number shall be raised, officered, 
cloathed, armed and equipped in the same manner as the quota of such 
Btate, tuiless the legislature of siioli stale shall judge that BuiJi estro num- 
ber cannot be safely spared out of the same, in wbioh case they shall 
raise officer, cloath, arm and equip as many of such extra number as 
theyjui^e can be safely spared. And the officers and men so cloathed, 
armed and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within 
the time agreed on by the nnited slates in congre^ assembled. 

The united states in congress assembled shall never engage in a war, 
not grant leltei's of mai-que and reprisal in time of peace, nor enter into 
any treaties or alljanoea, nor coin money, nor regulate the value thereof) 
nor ascertain the soma and expenses neoessary ibr the defence and 
■wel&re of the united stales, or any of ihem, nor emit bJHs, nor borrow 
money on ihe credit of the united slates, nor approipiate money, nor 
agree upon the number of vessela of war, to be built or purchased, or 
the nnmbBr of land or aea forces lo be raised, nor appoint a commander 
in chief of Ihe army or navy, unless nine states assent to the same ; not 
shall a question on any other poml, eicept for adjourning from day to 
day be determined, nnless by die votes of a majority of the united states 
in congress assembled. 

The Congress of the united states shall have power to adjourn to any 
lime within the year, and to any place within the united states, so tliat 
no period of adjournment be ibr a longer duration than the space of six 
months, and shall publish the Journal of their proceedings monthly, ex- 

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oept suoh parts tlioreof relating to IreaKes, alliances or militaiy opera, 
lions, as in their judgment lequire secrecy; and tlia yaaa and nays of 
the delegates of each state ou any queatioii sliall be entered on the Jour- 
nal, when it U dBsired by any delegate; and the delegates of a state, or 
any of them, at his or their request shall be furnished with a transcript 
of th* Siud Journal, except mnch parts as are abOT9 esoepted, to lay be- 
fore the legislatures of the several states. 

ARTICLE X. TtiB committee of the states, or any nine of them,shaU 
be authorized to execute, in the reoess of congress, suoh of the powers 
of congress as Ate united states in congress assembled, by the consent 
of nine states, shall from time to time think expedient to vest tham 
with ; provided that no power be delegated to the said committee, Ibc 
the exercise of which, by the articles of oonfederalion, the voice of nine 
elates in the congress of the onited slates assembled is requisite. 

ARTICLE XI. Canada aceeding to this confederation, and joining in 
die measures of the united stales, shall he admitted into, and entitled to 
all the advantages of this union : but no other colony shall be admitted 
into tiie same, unless such admission be agreed to by nine states. 

ARTICLE XII. All bills of credit emitted, monies borrowed and 
debts contracted by, or under the audiorily of congress, beibre the assem- 
bling of tiie united states, irk pursuance of the present confederation, 
shall bo deemed and considered as a. oiaige against rfia united states, 
for payment and satiB&ctioa whereof the said united states, and the 
public fidlh aro hereby solemnly pledged. 

ARTICLE Xm. Every state shall abide by flie determinations of 
the united states in coi^ess assembled, on all questionB which by this 
ooafederation is submitted to them. And the Artioles of this confedera- 
tion shall be inviolably observed by every state, and the union shall be 
perpetual; nor shall any alteration at any time hereafter be made in 
any of lliem; unless such alteration be agreed to in a congress of the 
united states, and be afterwards oonflrmed by the legialatures of every 

.ind Whereas it hath pleased the Great Governor of the World to in- 
cline the hearts of the legislatures we respeotively represent in congress, 
to approve of; and to authorize us to ratify the bbkI articles of confedera- 
tion and perpetual union. Know Ye that we the undersigned delegates, 
by virtue of toe power and authority to us given for that purpose; do by 
these presents, in the name and in behalf of our respective constituents, 
fully ana entu'ely ratiiy and confirm each and every of the said articles 
of confederation and perpetual union, and all and singular the matters 
and things therein contained; And we do further solemnly pl^ht and 
engage the faith of our respective constituents, that they shall abide by 
the determinations of the united statefl in coi^tess assembled, tin all 
questiona, which bytlie said confederation ace submitted to tliem. And 
tiiat the articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the statBa we 
respectively represenl, and that the union shall be perpetual. In wil 
ness whereof we have hereimto set our hands in Cong/esa, Done at 

Hosiecb, Google 

Philadelphia in the state of Pennsylvaniii iIib 8lh Day of July ill the 
Year of out Lord, 1778, and in tlie 3d year of iha Iiidepenilenoe of 

Joaiali Bnillelt, John Wentamth, jun.)Oo thcpart aadbeiBlf of tlio 

August Sth, ms, J state of Hoir Hampshire. 

prirt mid tehttlf of Uta 

^laS, |'^*^ftE 



Jul MMtbeiie, 

Bith, aid July. 1778, ) 

?eb. 12, inn, Nicholas Van Dyke, 1 Oil lie part ana Iwhalf of tba 

1, MKy 6, 1!JB, ; stale of BolawarE. 

■ ^ C"liUiKrf Lee, 1°" "'°J'S' T?.S^''f/ "f "=' 

i, J w ■ 

Corna llarnetti ) On tbc pnrt nnd I*liivlf of the 

IS. JmwUUgmB, j Eljte of NotthOarolion. 

llinil LBni!wMthy, 



Charles Snini 
Charles T. Jo. 

RodiTBll, Pittsfieia. 

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eward, Autum, O^uea co 

John E. Iliomsoa, Priuiston. William Wright, Newark. 

Jojoes Coqpor, Potlaville. JUohanl Brcdhesa, EflBlon. 

Sbjdbb a. Enjard, WlImb^D. John AL Olayton, Chippewa. 

JninoB A. Eeaica, CheHlarltrmi. Thomns Q. Pratt, AnnipoHs 

Jam™ M. Moam, WindisBter. Boberb M. T. Hunter, LlojcV 

ffbrt/i Omjitatt. 

SniiS OavUna. 
AnSrew P. BuUcr, Eageflatd C. U, J. I, KvsHfl, Sotfetj HIU. 


gnhnim P. Chase, Qu^deU. fieojamin Wade, JeD^rson, 

J. P. Benjimhi, New Ocleans. Johu Slldell, New Orleaiu, 

Jbibs B. Bi^ht, Madison. Jolia Pettll, Lalhjethj. 

Sttphen Adams, Ahcraeen, '^ aEi O. Brown, Newtown, Hinai 

Benjamin ritipattli:k,Wotiimpka. C, C, CIbj, Jr., ItmitsviUs. 


Daiid B, AichboK, Plstt City. II. S. Geyer, St. Loula. 

Lewis Cass, Detroit. '° 'S'i^! E. Btuarl, Kalamaioo. 

Jackson Morion, PoiiEacolB. B. K. Mallory, JadtaoniiUe. 

Henry Dodge, Do^erLUe. laaac P. Walker, Mllnaukle. 

Angustiu 0. Dodge, Bnrlinglou. Georgo W. Joueo, Dabn^ne. 


WlUlam H. Owin, San rranclew, John B. Wellar, San FranclEei;. 

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8. 3. vmes EtHnwiaB,' NswloD Comer. 

9. AlessllflerD6Witt,.0sford. 

4. Samnel H. Walley, Koxbuiy. 

10. Edward Dickinnim Auihsi'st, 


11. Jolm Z. GoQarich, StopkHi^tlge. 


k lOand. 

1. jBDies T. Pratt, Bocliy Hill. 

3. HsUum Itelrher, New London. 

a Colin M. IngetEOU, New Hayen. 


S. AlYBh Sahin, Seoigia. 

3. 4ii4reii Tracy, Womlatodl. 

l.Jam« Maori™, MMnetb, 

a. Thomaa W. Cominlng, Brookiin. 

8. Himm WiUbrWge, New York. 

4. ftlilM Walsi, New York. 

SL Henri Bennett, New Berlin. 

6. WBlJmn M. TwmiI, Nea Yott. 

«. John Wheeler, New York. 

24. Daniel I. Jones. BaldwlnaTllle. 

S. ftaads B.'Cntllng,'Kffr Yfffk.' 

2B. Ed"in B. Morgan, Aurora) Caji^ i 

». Jned T. Sed, Portehester. 

0. WUmm Unir^, Qoshcn. 

27. John J. Taylor, Owego. 

28. George IlHslJu^ Mooot Uotrls. 

a. GUbert Dean, PoBgbtwpde. 

20. SuvIb Carpenter, BroclEport. 

13. Rustell 8i«e, Troj-. 

31. Thomaa T, najer, Lodtpi^ 

4. Enfns W. PecMiam, Aliiany. 

16. Chnrlra Huihes, Sanay Hiil. 
H. Georce A. 8!mniona, KecsevUle. 

82. BolomoaG. Hives, BnffaJo. 
38. Eeaben E. BentoB, TrewEbui^. 

4. OeorgaTaiLMorriatown. 

e. Alexandsr C. M. FeuuiDgloo, JSewu 

S. carries Skelton, Trenton. 

1. Thomas B. Florenee, PhilodelphUi. 

U. CaluEha A. Oiow, aienwood. 

a. Joseph B. Chandler, PhfladelpUs, 

It,. Janua (lamble, Jeriey Shore. 

S. John Kobthia, Jr, Ksialngtoa. 
4. won™ B. -vrtttB, Ktobmona. 

16. WilliDm II. Knrta, York. 

n. Samuel LRnseell. Bedford. 

S. Jehu McNdr, Horrislown. 


Hosiecb, Google 

1. John B. PronWln, Sdou UDl. 4. Henry Waj, BalOniore. 

2. Jacob ShovHT, blaui^^Ur. G- WiUtuui T, HamUton, HsgerEitovii. 

3. jo^ua Vans^nt. Ibiltlmore. C Adgafltiie IL SoOera, Prmoe Fredericks' 


£. John S- Millsnii, Naribrfr, ft. John L^teheTf Lflxii^toD- 

3, John 8. Caakie, Kkhnsona. 10. ZfidokiBh KidweD, Pilrmont. 

13. Fayette McMnllan, nje CoreJ {cu. 

„_ a Hiehsrda'PniTear, HontsrlllB. 

mlngton. T- HartoTi Or^^e, Salubnrj. 

9. iMuu u- j.k/fiDiD, u^ipigb. S. Thomas L. CIlugniAU, Aeh«T}Ue- 

L John McQmen, Mnrlboroagli C. H. 4. Preston S. Brooks, Nliioty-Bli. 

2. WillLiiin ALken. Gluurlegtoa. H. JamaE L. Orr, Andersoa. 

S. LanronceM. EmttjOuugobni^hCH. 6. WHIlnia W. Boyco^ WlnuKboronglL 

1. Jamex L. Eeirard, THomasvllle. 6. £|[j»U W. dustali, Ta«0Bli. 

S. AJfrea H. OoJiinitt, Nsnton. 6. Jaalus Iimyer, Monroe, Wslton co. 

. .i — ■>__! >._i___.. .. 'olin H. Elliott, PreBtonBlrarg. 

oho 0. Bredwnbridge, Lexington, 
leaader M. Cni, eiemlagshorg. 

Br. Taylor, Hsppy VjtHey. 6. George W. Jotjes, FajstleTlllB. 

frederick P. Stanton, Mempbls. 

y, CJndnnnli. 12. Bdson B. Olds, tSreleyltla. 

" — ■" B. Llndsley, SanduBfcy City. 

0. jS^^V^i^'wihi^tbe. V^. i^dron Stniirt,^iilenTffi 

i rph.n...... iji[..iijg^ Somerset. 

Itfir, New Orleg 

Hosiecb, Google 

i. Wilej P. Harris, MontleeUQ, Law 
am Baikedsle, Colnmbns. 

1. PMUp PdUipe, Mobile. 

2. JBiaes AbermYimliie, Qii'acd. 

S. Sprnpaon W. HsrriB, WBtnmnka. 
i. wmiam R. Smith, Fayette C. H. 

1. Mosea McDomM, Porllani 

£. Samuel Mavall, Say. 

S. 1. WiUer f arley, NewcasUa. 

S. WHlfinnson R. W. Cobb. BelleEmfe. 
- - 5 r. BowdeU, dambera 0. II. 

1. a: 

^ JGd^vard A Waireii, CAntddn. 

a David A. Nobis, Monroe. 

1. Angnstus E. Mnxnell, TallaliaiMee. 

1. Geoige "W. Bmythe, Jasper. 

1. BernlinFt Kenn, rdtfleld. 

^cXrougal. Sod Franciei 


1. JosS Maiinal Oall^os, Dclogale, Albnqoerque 
1. John M. BenibiB«i, Sele^tate, Bait Lslis atj. 

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THE ANALYTICAL INDKX cr -ens CnssKTurio:) ni 


ABRIDGMENTS nnd Kgesls of llie I.nws of Ihe U. 3. E=soriplion of 

boots of 4eS 

ACTS, Recorda, nnd JiidicinL Proceedings of one Slalo io eTety oUier Slate, 

formlhaConBlHuIionof IhaU. S. 107 

ADAMS, Pissidanl of lbs U. S., March 4, ITOT. Insugural Addcesa of Jolm 27l> 

ADAMS, Vice Preiiflciil of Uia U.S. First eleoUon of John 3IS 

ADAMS, Vies FteBident of lh« U.S. Second eleclion of Jolm 316 

ADAMS, saPresidemoflheU. S. Eleclion of John 31T 

ADAMS, ssPiesidem of die U.S. Elecdonorjolin ((oinoy 384,825 

ADAMS, Vice President, in Senaio of Ibe U.S. Atlenrianco of John 336 

ADDRESS of Georgs Wsaliingtoii, nccaiiljog coniniieeioii ns commoader-in- 

ohisfoniiearmy, June 10.1775 !!01 

e PreBideat of CongrcaB lo George WaalLinglon, Augast 30, 

ADDRESS of Goocga WnabingloQ to Congress, on resigning liis commisuon 

as contmandec-ia-obiGroflbe army, December 83, 17ES SO 

ADDRESS of Thomus Mifflin, President of CongreBS, m nuewer lo Ibe same 1» 
ADDRESS of George Wisliiugloii, se President of liie U. S., April 30, 1780. 

ADDRESS of George Wasbiiigloa lo Ibe jwopie of lbs U. 8., September 17, 

IJBG. Farewell 81 

ALABAMA. Cbroiiologicol smtenienl of llie Ibrmalion of the goTCrnmenl of 4B 
AMBASSADORS nnd Iheir liomesUcs. An net for llie (iroteclion of foreign SB 

AMENDMlSNTSofllieOonslilulionoffheU. a E 

AMENDMENTS of the ConBlituUon of the U. & by lUe Slalea. Baiei of rali- 

fioationof firBlleu 3 

AMENDMENTS of Ibe Canelilalion of tlie U, S. Some of IbB eleventh and 

twellUi a 

AIOENDHGNTS of Iba Constimiioti, vheit rsllAuI by lbs Slslei, lo lie pub- 

llebodliylheSeBrsisryofSlBle SO 

ANALYTICAL Indes of llie ConBlilution and nniendmeiila. -Vn 3 

ANNAPOLIS, in 17BU, lecommenamg tlia Coii^eution to Torn, die ConBljtn. 
gao 1 a cornmissioncs at ^.^^.... 

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APPOINTMENT of George Waahlnglon to be eommander-m-oliiof of lh« 

APPOINTMENT of George Wosliington lo be lieulensnl-geneial and com- 
rannaer-m-chlefofolllheiirinieaoflheU. 9., Ju]y3,179S 231-339 

APFOKTIONMEMT of KepreseutalirEa smong Uie several States according 
to the SiiUi Cenaus 300 

ARKANSAS. Chioiiol<^ca! slaleraent of the fotmallon of iLe gOTernment of 48* 

ABMAMENTS beii^ pfcpated in the U. S. t^ginsl foieign powers with 

ARMrF.3 of the V. S. Appointment of GeorgB Waeliinglon lo be lieutenant- 

Seneralandoommonaet-in-oliiefofilie 231-^839 

ARMY of the United CoLonief, Jane 15, IJM. George WaBhinglon elected 

commandet-in-cluefoftlio SOI 

ARMY of tlie United Colonies filed at B500 pet month. Pay and eipensea 

of the General to command 1)19 aol 

AEMYof theU. S.,DeeBml)6r 83,ire3. Heaisualjon by George W^aahinglon 

of Ilia cominisBioD as oommander-in-ehief of Ilie 909 

ATTORNEY GENERALS .of tHH U. S., ftom 1739 to 1S61. Nantes, Slatei, 

service, Sio., of the 402 

AUDEBNCB in CongresB granted 10 George WaBlunKlon,comm8naor-ln-ohie5 

AtigoBi ao, irea K8 

AUDIENCE in Cougtesf^ Deoembei SO, 17Si. Gaoi^ Woshioglon, eom- 
mandet-iii-cliiet; adniitlcd lo apnblio SOfi 

AUTHENTICATION of Acts, Records, mid Jndioial Proceedings of one 
Slate in every other Stale, Territory, &c. «0O-2M 

BERRIEN, Senator of Ills U.S. Leltsr of approbal[on from John Macp-., i,ji 

BOOKS and other sources of historical, politica!, statisUcsl, and other iuror- 

malioit telativs to the aclion of the Goverpment, in possession of the pub- 

BOOK5, pnbliBhed onder tlie patronage of Congress and otherwise, contain- 
ing usetbl political, statistical, and other intbrmntion. SescriptloHof mis- 
eellaneous 4eS.4ri 

BOOKS in Congress Library. Description of selection of certain 47S 

BREESE, Senator of the U. S. Letter of approbation ftora Sidney Jdl 

BUKR, as Vies Presidcnl of the U. 8. Election of Aaron 818 

BURR, Vice President, in the Senate of the U. S. Attendance of Aaron 338 

BURR, as Senator of the U. 3. Term of service of Aaron aM 

CALHOUN, Vice President of the U.S, First election of John C 324 

CALHOUN, Vice Presiileot of Hie U.S. Second election of J. C 320 

CALHOUN, Vica President, in Senate of the U. S. Attendance of J. C-.310-34S 

CALHOUN resigned 83 Vice President, December as, 1833. John C 342, 843 

CALHOUN, as Senator of the U. S. Terms of service of John C 367 

Cr.AT, Senator of the TJ. S. Jjettev of approbation from Henry ili 

Hosiecb, Google 

INDEX. 497 

loBtotliesaverBlStBMslo---. iai 

OliDED by tlie States, BhDuM be OispDSikl of fbr tba common boaeflt of the V. S., 

CEDES to tHe V. S, aoS OaIsi of eee^oD. Hamen of Ststea by vbtcb W^tem 
laudanoie 42S 

CENSUS. Appoi'Uonmsnt of Repreeen([illve3 smoiiE tbs serenil States oo- 
MirfmBWtbeaisUi 800 

States. Proce&ilnga which leH toUie--- 414 

CESSION of ifa Wealoto or VBcmt LsdiIb to tha U. B. Act of New York for the 41fl 

CIIKONOLOQICAL alatsmeat of the Cbsrteis sjid farrnntkio of the OaFemDionts 

of tboEoverid States ImJIercJlorJCB of then. S. 405-iia 

CLERK of the Houaa of KepicaantaliTOH of tha U. S. Oaths to ba taken by 

ths 23,288,386 

CI.EKES in oU the Sepactmoats of OoTemmeal. Oattaa to Iw takes by Uio 390, 3Q1 
CLERKS of thti IloueoofBepraBentatlTfSof theU. S. fromlTSBto 1S51. Hemah 
Slates, serrioes, Jte. of tho 3S8 

OUH'ION,Vi™Preaidenl,lnBoBat9of Ilia U.S. Atlenaaoce of Georga SSB-340 

COLLBCIORS of tha Onstome authorizwl to dot^D Tesa-lB bnUt ibr wailike 

COLONXAI. smJ fieToliitlonsiy Socumeutacj History. Eeoks relating to Uio. . 462 
COLUMBIA establiBhed tha ponnaneni aeat of aorernmcnt. The Bisfcioi of- . . .4*9 
COiUfEKCK BesDliitlon of Vlr^ula for a unltbrm ejstem of trade, commerca, 

*o, Jmuary 21, 1786 160 

COMMBltCB. Proeeedlnga of Convenlion Bt Annapolis appointed (Op said pnr- 

pose, Saptambar M, 1788 IBl 

COMMBRCB. Resolution of Congreas, of Pebmary 21, 1787, railing tha OoiiVPn- 

UonitWcttoruieaUiBOooBKtution Iflfl 

COJIMBECB. Acta of Bie Bereral States for the appointment of deputies to said 

CoaTeution, to revise and report the means of enabling Oongiesa to prorlde 

aiB defects of the IMersI^tem, Sc. 16T 

CDMMEKCB. She tionstituUon declares that "Tlie Congress sliall liaTe power 

Hosiecb, Google 

498 INDEX. 

COMMERCIAI. Kegublions. DEscripiion of bi^tika ooiiIaj.Mns TarllT nnd 

Revenue Laws, &c. 407 

COMMITTEES of Congreii lo Hciiqinister Oaihs. Auftorily for ll.e Chnir- 

COMMUKICATlOIf S 10 the s.nIhDr and sompilfi' in lelolion to Ibig work li-iii 
COMPENSAITON lo Ihe PreeiiJent and Vloo President of Hie U. S.^ An aci 

momiie - -■■■■■ W3 

COMPENSATION lo psTsona appoinled lo deliver the Eleotoml votes of Pre- 

aidem, &c„ ITOa aoa 

COMPENSATrONlodo. do. do.,iea3 ■ 300 

C0~«FEDEIIAT1OI«, showing the ineHcieney of tbot ewemmant, and lead- 
ing lo tho adoption of the Conslitntion. Proceedinga of the Congress of the ISO 
COMF£D1':B.AT10N. The Ibrnialion of a Convention lo frame the ConMitn- 
tion, recommended in VtSB, as a mesni 10 Temedy the defects In the Ai- 

CONPEDBRATIOS. The Articles of- 183 

CONFEDERATION, until Mareh 1, 1731. Dates of Tntification by lbs States, 

nndeauseofthe delay of Maryland lo talify the Attioles of 408-«W 

CONGRESS of the ConTederalion, whieh led to the adoption of Iha Constitu- 
tion. Proceedings of the ISB 

impotency of Uie GoYernment lo provide a revenue for its wants and ne- 

8of 131-139,140-143-140-150,151 

IS to the aoveral Stales, May S^ 1.7^ 

1787, leooniniending ibe ConrenUon 

lion of ie» 

CONGRESS of Ihe Confederation of September 13, ITSB, proridlng for eom- 
lacDCingproceediiigannder the Constitution of the U.S. Resolution of the 190 
)f July 8, 1770, that Tan UsirKo CoLotnKS ahk, and or biqht 
BE Fnas ABB iBDEraSDKKT SliTlM. Kesolution of 105 

for proDiulgaling the Declatadon of Indejienilence. ttcBoln- 

CONQRESS, on Aogusl 26, 1763, lo George Washington, on the lermini 

oftbe war, and his reply. Address of the President of- 

Jeceiaber SO, 1783, Bdmitling George 'Washmglon, t 

Hosiecb, Google 

INDEX. 499 

CON0BBS9, of Deosmbet 90, 1783, that a pnblio enleilainment be given to 

CONCfRESS, SecomhBr 23, 1783, anil suswer ofTliomaa Mifflin, PresidenL 

ReBigna^on, by Geoigs 'WiisLinglon, of liis coimnissioii to 808 

CONGRESS on the deolhof George WBShiiiElDnbl70». Proceedings of iMI>-aoa 
CONGKEHS BbaiJ be in Beaaion ou the sacond Weflnesday in Febrnarj-, suo- 
ceeding every meelinE o! EIoqIocb of Fresidenl and Vice President of 

the U.S. asa 

CONGRESS. PtoTiiion tot divifling States into dialricls for Iha election of 
KeprBseniatiTea in 159-301 

CONGKEBS, from MBioh4,I78»,to Match 3, 1851. Commencement and ter- 
mination of, and number of dayg in each session of S3e-34S 

CONGRESS, ftom 1789 10 1851. Names of Senatora in 84S-JSi 

CONGIU3BS, alected Speaker of House of Represenlalives, from 1789 lo 1361. 

NsmosofHepEeaenlativesin 330 

CONGRESS to admit " New Stales" into Ibe Union. Remarks on the right 
and disore^onary power of -■ 408 

CONGRESSoftbe Confederation. Books rclatinn loUiHproocodingsofths-. 463 

CONGRESS ftom 17S9 to 1S61. Deseripnon of the Books, Newspapers, Sea., 

CONNECTICUT, in 1737, appointing deputies !o Convention to ftrm the Con- 
Btitnlion. Act of. 18 

CONNECTICUT. Chronoli^ool Btalementof the Chorlers.sna ConstitntioiiB 
of- lU 

CONNECTICUT ceiled western lands to II. S., September 14, 1780, and May 

CONSTITUTION. Introductory remarks, on duty of every citizen to under- 
stand the Hi 

CONSTITUTION of tbe United Slates of AmcrioB. Tbe 

CONSTITUTION iiy the Stoles. Dates of raUScationofthe 9 

CONSTITUTION of the U. S. Articles in addition to, end gimendnienU o^ 

the a 

CONSTITUTION by the States. Dates of iBtmcatiou of the flrst ten amend- 

CONSTITUTION by liia States. Dales of raTification of eleventh and twelfth 
amcndmanla of the E 

CONSTITUTION and amendments. An analylicalindeioftlie ! 

CONSTITUTION of ths U. S. Official proceedings and proiimale causes 
which led to the adoption and ratiEcationofthe li 

CONSTITUTION of the U S. Bemarke relative to the Slates that were pro- 

CONSTITUTION fhrtheU. 5. Rasolutionsof IheGencral AssemblyofNew 
York, passed July 31, 1'^, recommending a Conven^n to tbrm a II 

CONSTITUTION ofihe U.S. was formed. Proceedings of Commissbners at 
Annapolis, in 1786, recommending the appointment of deputies to meet si 
Philadelphia, Tjy whom the.- --■..»- u 

Hosiecb, Google 

500 INDEX. 

CONSm'UTION. Recommendatioii of Congrejs of Ibe Confeieri 

1T87, for appoimmeol of depulieH to Ihe Convemion whicb formed 

CONSTITUTION of Ihs U. S. Ab\b of the seveiiU Stales for the 

Of New JeiBsy, on November 33, 1786 

syivnnia, oiii)eeemljet30,1783 

DfNorIhC8rolma,on JannatyG, 1737 

Of Mary land, on May SB, 1187 

Of New Hampsliire, on B71h June, 
CONSTITUTION of Ibe U. S. to Congri 

iBtlieresC ResDlulion of Con, 

CONSlTrUTEON oftheU.a Beeolmion ofCongreBBof Ihe Confederation, 
Seplembw 13, 17S8, rbr commcooing proceedings under the 

CONSTITUTION in oerlfflu contingencies, and fiir other pnTpoaes. Gcnei 
laws providing the moons of clecating Ibe 

CONSTlTUTIOMoftliBU. S-istobelEdien. {SesOolA.) By wliom the on 

CONSTITUTION, when ralified by Ihe Stales, to be pablisliefl by the 8eci 

tary of Stale, AmendmontB lo Ihe 

CONVENTION al AnnapnUB, September, IJSB, Prooeedings of llie 

CONVENTION at Piiiladelphia to form a ConBlilulion, teoommeudad by Cc 

CONVENTION which formed the Cknislilution reoommended by Congress, 
iver?, as a meaoB 10 remedy tbe defects in the Arlidea of Confederaliot 

CONVENTION to form tbe Conalitulion. Acts of tlie seTcral Stales for i 
pointing depnlies 10 the 

CONVENTION, in 17S7, transmitting Hie ConsUtution lo ConBiBas of I 
Confederation, and Bi^goaling measures for commencing proceedii 
under the Conslilulfon. Letter of George Washington, and resolulionf 

CONVENTIONS of the States. Bcsolnlion of Coogress, of September 

CONVENTION that fbrmed Ihe Constilntion. BoooliarelatinstD tbe proce 


COUKT. i&s6 Sa/prrmB Coutt itf the U. 8.) 

COURTS of the U. a, or Slate conrM againat a foreign Ambassador or 

Hosiecb, Google 

INDEX. 501 

COURTS of Iho TJ. S. An bci to provide fiirlher rfineilial ji 
[Thia acl empowers tlie U. S. juitgeB lo grant the wril of hi 

COURTS of Ihe V. S. and of Ite eetetBl Stataa. Litlle i Brown's ediiinn of 

and 302, M 

COURT of IhB U. S. from 178S lo 1861. DeBoriplion of books of Reports of 

deoiaiona of lh= Bupteme 46 

CRANCH, Chief Juatica of llie Circuit Court of Ihe U. S. tor Ihs Djstriol of 

Colnmbia. Letler of approbation from Wiilium li 

CRIMES ogsinsl the U. S., T^iQridiiig for the protection of foreign Axnljaasa^ 

le V. S., &e., for preserving their nenttaliiy. Aji acl in 

DALLAS, Vice President of the U. S-, and President of the Seuale. Beaica- 

lionlo, and lettef of npprobalJou from George M. ii 

DALLAS, as Vloa President of Hie U, S. Election of Qeorge JU. MO 

DALLAS, Vice President, in Ihe Senate of Ihe V. S. Allendaiice of Georga M. 832 

DALLAS, as Senator of Ihe U.S. Term of servioe of George M. SS8 

DAVIS, Speaker of Iho Hous* of Eepresenlattvos of the U. B. Letter of ap- 
probation from John W. iti 

DEATH of Georgs Washington. Ptoccedings of liie GoremnieBl end fune- 
ral oration of Henry Lee on the 810-247 

DEBATES in the two Houbcb of Congress from 17SD to 1861. Deseriptioa of 

DECLARA'noN of IndopenaencB, from Jane 8 to July 4, 1770. Proceedings 
inCongiessoftheUnited Colonies respecting the JSS 

DBCLARATiON of Indepenflenoe, by the Represent aUves of the U. 9. in 
Congress naaemhled, Jaiy 4, 1776 198 

DECLARATION of Independence. Eesohilion of Congrsis ibr promulgat- 
ing the 900 

and fcrtunos acs 

DELAWAEB, in IJW, appointing ilepnlies lo Convention lo form llie Consti- 
tution. Act of- - 157 

DELAWARE, Chronological slBlenieut of ths charters and constitutionsof IDS 
DEaJAWARB, declaring the rommon right of all the Stales lo Uia western , 

lerritory,&o. Resolutions of the Stole of. 416 

DEPUTlESIo the Ckmvention who signed the Conalitution. Nstnes of- 83 

DIGESTS ofihe laws of the U.S. Deso 

Hosiecb, Google 

502 INDEX. 

DISTRICT of ColuniWo, eslablislioil Ihe peimBiiciil seal of ilic GaveintDenl 
oflhsU. S. 4A 

DISTRICTS for election of RepiEaemstiTea in CkingreBB. Frtmslon for di- 
vidii^ihe SmiBjimo 3[ 

DOCUMENTS, Journals, anil other souroBS of historiooi, poUtical, ststistl- 

DOCUMENl'S ordered Id be printed hy the Senale and lloiue c 

ELECTIONS under and by virtue of tlis Constilution, (anal)1icolinflex)---61, 63 

ira of a Preaident and Vioa President, in case of Tncaa- 

ELECnONS (or Electors of Fresiaenl and Vice Preaident in ail Ihe Stales. 

ELECTORAL voles ibr President and Vice Prosidenl of the U. S. Provi- 
sions of the Conslilnlion legnrdms the 38 

ELECTORAL votes Ibr Presideiit and Vice President of llie U. S. Regnla- 
llons, by law, for ilia givinj, maltiiig lists of, Iranamilting to the Seal of 

Gorernrneiit, opening, andcountmg the B»t 

ELECTORAL voles. Compensotion 10, and penalliea of, jiaraons appoiuled 

to deliver Iho SB! 

ELECTORAL votes. Compcnsmioo of persons appointed to deliver Ilie 3(ffl 

ELECTORAL votea fbr Presidenl and Vice President of the P. S., vii. : 
First term, George Washijigtoa aud John Adaras, cormnencing March 4, 

IIS9 816 

Second term, George Washington and John Adems, eomraencing March 4, 

1793 ■'■ 318 

Third lerm, John Adams and Thomas JcirerBon,coninienolng March 4,1707 aiT 
Fonrlh lerm, Tliomas Jefferson and Aaron Bun, elected by the House of 

BeptesenlBlivta, commencing March 4, ISOl SIS 

Finh term, Thomas J eOerson and GeorEe Clmton, cDmrnancingMarcbJ, 1S05 SIS 
Si£th lerm, James Madlaon and George Clinton, commencing March 4, 1309 820 
Seventh lerm, James Madison and Elbrldge Gerry, eommenclng Match 4, 

1813 sai 

E^Ui term, James Monroa end Daniel D, Tomplcins, commencing March 4, 
1817 323 

Ninth term, James Monroe and Daniel D. Tdmpkine, commencing March 4, 

1831 123 

in Qaincy Adams and John C Calhonn, commencing iVlarch 


Hosiecb, Google 

IHDB2. 608 

BLEOTOBAL votes for Ptfaiiflot and Tics PrcalQent of «is U. S.— tsmKnuei 
JileFenth term, Andrew Jiw^mn and JdLd 0. CaJhannj comrasncing Nsich 
4.1B2B M 

ifteenllk Isnii, James K. Folk t>na Qeorge M. BbIIu, Mmmendng HdatCh 4, 
liteanth t^rni Zichary Taylor and M. rUlmoro, commencii^ MircH i, 1819 3i 

anBinbetof ] 

KLECI0B3 shall 1» og.ual to the number of Seaaiore and RepnseDtaUies to 
Hhkh tbo Stilfii may te onOtled at tlia tlpi9 wtao tlio Praddont and Vfco 

Pteiident should come Inlo oIBm. Tho a 

ELEOTOrs of President anl Vic* President of tho TJ. B. Bnnctmente of the law 


EVXPBMCE In all tribunals and oflices of the United BIsleg, and of the indlildua] 
Stntee Little I Bnnvn'a edition of tlie laws of the V. S. declared to be 
competent S02, it 

BX2CDTIVB offlcers of tlia Qoreroiasnt from 1189 to 1861. Names, Slates, 
serviee,*o, of sll the high 38 

E\TB\DmON Troatli-B. Act glTing effect to SC 

FAllBWaiiL AflSroEB of George Wastingtnn, Prosidont of the D, B, Eoplsmljcr 

<' FIR3T in War, Tltst in Pesie, and Rrst in the heaiti of his Goautryiaen," u 
applicable to Qeor^ "Wiiflhlngton. Originof the words-"'---"--"--- 2i 

EOKEION Powers. An act to preserve the neutiiUty of the U. S., "la 2a 

FOREISN NaUon with whom the U, S. are at peace. An act (o pteveut aoy 
armament by land or waler being fitted out In the 11. S. against any- ------- 29 

FOP.BIGiN' ntate oonRned In any state pilaon in certain cases. The Ju^es of tho 
U. S. Conrt^ empowered to grant the writ of Habeas Corpus, and to dlsehaj^ 
tbeidaaeosofany SO 

BUHEBAL Procession and Orsljon of llenry Lee, fn honor of Gen. George Wiisb- 

Hosiecb, Google 

504 INDEX. 

GEOIUjIA,In 17S7, appolnling depulleg id Conveiilion lororni Ihe Conslitn- 
tion. Aolof 17B 

GEORGIA. ChioDoloELoalatatemenlofthBChailetsandCooalilationBof.-. 40S 

GEORGIA cefleilweBIernlanilsIo the U.S. April 21, 1803 iM 

GEBKY, VioePresiiloDloflheU. 3. Election of ElbriflB" sal 

GERRY, VicB Preaiflenl, in Ihe Benate ot tlia V. 9, Anendanoe of Eftiridge 340 
GIBSON, Chief Jnsliee of Iha SupreniB Courl of PennsylTania. Lellor of ap- 

iroviclB for its snpport, defence, Jkj. 
3 of CoQgreEB ethibitlT^ the iuel^ 

efenoyoflhe .lSl-I39,14D-14a-l 46-150,151 

GOVERNMl^T under ihe Couilitnlion of the U. S. Resolnlions of Con- 
gress of the Confederotian of September 13, IJSS, proriding for the eom- 

tnenoementoflhB 100 

GOVERNMENT under the Canstltatlon. Brief stUement of the manner of 

GOVEENMUNT. George Washington's opinions of Hie principles and po- 
licy of our Sll-itS 

GOVERNMErrr, lohuAaams', do. do. 370 

GOVERNMENT. Tbomas Jefferaon'B. -- do. do. xxsi. OTS-^avO 

GOVERNMENT. James MadiBon'a. do. cio miiSSS 

mem ofths Charters and formaUon of the 405-449 

GOVERNMENT of Die territory of the U. S, iKMth-weat of tha river Ohio. 

An ordinnnee for the 423 

GOVERNMEtJT of tlio U. 8. in possession of the public offices. Description 

UOU DON'S stauie 

HOUSE of Reprei 


&c., of tlie Cleri 

HOUSE of Beptesenlativei of the U. 8, Deaoription of the Joornals of the 452-46B 
1 lOirSE of Reprosenlatiies of Ihe U. S., ftom 178S to 1S61. Remarka desorip. 

live oflhedocnmcnla printed by oriieroftho 457,468,469 

hington « aiohmond, Virginia. 



ssoftheU.a. OalhaofofflMt, 


Jieu by the 

<,froral7S0.olS51. Names of S] 


B of Ihe SSe-i 
es, service, 

Hosiecb, Google 

IMPOST dmiea of AprU 18, 1753, waa li. 
BiBlf ly led lo the mJoplion of Ilia Conol 
CongtoM of ConfcderBlion, showing iJ 

ilulion. ReporlofOommilloaoflhB 

Ccmmerce.) ResoluOons of Congraas 

of Cougress, April IB, 1783. Sea 

iNAUGURAI. address of George Watla. 

.gtan^PraaidaQtaflheU-B. April 

INAUGURAL addteBBofJolmAdninB,PreBident of the U.S. 
INAUGUnAL addresB of Tiiomss Jefferson, PresidenI of iha 
INAUQURAI. addresa of ThoiuBs JefferBoii, PreBidsot of iho 
INAUGUHAL address of Jamea Madifon, Ptesidenl of tte U 

INDEPENDENCE. Proceoduigs in Coagreas of llie Uniled Coloi 
June 8, lo July 4, 17TO, rcBpeolIng a daolarBIion of- 

INDEPENDENCE by the KeprsseiHoliyes of the United Slates in 
aaacmblBd, Jnly 4, irw. The Declaration of- 

INDEPENDENCE. Resolution of Congtes* fot pKimulgaling the 

INDEPENDENT STATES. Eeeolulion of Congress of July 2, 


INDEX to [be ConBlitntion and aineDdmenls, An Analytical < 

INDBXF^ prepartd by order of the two Hoaaes of CkmgreBB. DcBi 
INDIANA. ClironolosicalaLalemeiit of Iha rormalion of the Govern 
INTRODUCTORY rcmarkB id llie woflt and lo lIiB BevortU ehapL 

IOWA. Chronological stalcmciu of Uie foniiaiiou of llio Govetnmc 


addieas of Thorn 


senlBIives of Thor 
lEFFEBSOff, as President of Ihe U, 


laof. Firat ina„garB! 

ent of llie U. S., on Maroh 4, 1( 

WS. Second inaogniBl 

e Praaidenl of Ihs U. 9. Eiectit 
sident of llie U. 9. First elccli. 

DnbyHoaseof Rcpie- 

Hosiecb, Google 


JEFPEE90N, Vice Presidenl, in Senate of the B.S, AllsndanoeofThomB! 838 
JOHNSON, as Vice Presideut of Ihe U. B. Election by Ibe Senate of Kich- 

(Tlie number of elECtotsJ yoU9 leqoiiea for an eleelion beiDg 14S, and 
E. M. Johnson haying teceiueil only 147, ilie election ilien devolved 
upon Ihe Senste, and R. M, Johnion was eleo»d.) 
JOHNSON, Vice President, in Senalo of Ihe U. a Attendance of Eich- 

ardM. M2-344 

JOHNSON, as Senator of tha U.S. Ternsof lervlceofBlchard IVL SIO 

JOURNALS of Ibe Congress of the ConfedeiaUon, 1774 lo 1789. Description 

of the 46» 

JOURNAL of the Convenlion thai formed the Conslitntion in lisr. DeBorip- 

lion of die 153 

JOURNAL of Ihe House of RepresanlsUves of the U. S. from 17S9 la 1361. 

Desciipdonot 464-460 

JOURNAL of (he Senate of the U. 8. front 17S9 lo 1S51. Sesciipllon of LC' 

JOURNAL of the Senate of Ibe U. S. from 1789 to 13EI1 (in part). Dosoiip- 
tion of Ihe Eleootive Ut 

JOURNAL or record ofUia Senate on impeschmenls.tyomlTSO to ISSt De- 
scription of 458 

JOURNALS of the Senate and House of Representatives of the U. 8. Re- 
marks descriptive of the contents of the Jjegjslallve 1B8 

JUDGES of Courls of the U. S. aulboriMd lo grant writs of Habeas Corpus 
in oU cases of foreigners confined in Ihe United Slatea, and lo discliarge 
Ihera. The 391 

JUDGES of the Supreme Court of the V. 3., from 1739 lo 1351. Names, stales, 
length of Bervice,&c., of Iha 389 

JUDICIAL proceedings of one Slate in every other State, terriloxy, &c. Au- 
IhenUcBlion of 20O-SM 

JUSTICE in the Cmirls of Ihe U. S. An act to provide farliict reniodial 301 

KANE, Judge of the Diairiol Court of the U. S. for the Eastern D 

Pennsylvania. Letter of approbation from J, K. 

KENTUCKY. Chronological statement of the formadon of the Qover 
KNOWLEDGE Remarks on the proper mode of aeijuirins and in 

LAND in the north-western and weatorn territory of the U. S. Proceed 


LANDS ID the U. S. Act of New York lor Ihe eesaion of its weslen 

LANDS to llie U. S. Besolgtion of Congless cecommendbig lo the Slate 

Hosiecb, Google 

LANDS ceded by Ihe 
Ihe V. a., and a™ 

UlNDS wers oeded 1 


epublioan SlslB 

of for Uie oomrr 
s. Resolution 


ion benefit of 
Coi^ess of 




«. K^e 



LANDS of their, a, B 

LAW. Definilionand 

LAWS, relating 10 Hie 





s land ol^ms to Mar 

relating Id 



d orgoniialion 



ULWS of llie IT, e., including the Trenties. Deseiip 

LAWS of Ilia U. S. Desciiplion of Books of Alirid 

LBB, ontliBdeDlhofGeoreB 

LIBERTY Definition ot tn 
IJBERTY and mdependenc 
LIBERTY, &o on June 17, 

einff filled oiilir 


oration of Henry 

. against foreign powers. 

ir-S Decior 

ion of 

Congteaslbr theinainle- 




LIGUTENANT-anSNERAL and oommanaer-m-oliief of the Armies of I 

U. a, July 3, 1108. Appointmenl of George Wailiinglon to be i 

LIGHT e» regardH the llinilamBntal law. Ruinarks on neceBoily of the p. 

videnee in aU tribunalG and offiees of Ibe U. S., and of I 
ESIANA. Chronological ElalemanloflhelbrmalioB of the Gov 

^sldeniofihaU.S. First clee' 
?BldenIDf1heU. 8. Second el 
nologlcal statemeiil of the forr 

Hosiecb, Google 


MAESHALB sileiHionl on Ihe SnprBme Conn of iLe V. S., from 1789 to ISSJ. 

MARYLAND, m I7S7, sppoinling deputies to convention lo fotin Ihe ConsU- 
lulkia. Act of It 

MARYLAND to ralify Ihe Artidos of ConfederaiLon, nntil March X, 1581. 
Dales of raUfloalion by the Slates and caase of Ihe delay of 406-4] 

HABYLAND. Chronoli^icHl slaletneol ofllie Charlers and CoDsUtuliona of 4( 

KARYLAND to ratify Ihe Anlcles of Confederatioa antil the States possess' 
mg Iha North-Weslern and Western Territory ahoald cede the Eaine to 
tlieU.S.lbi Ihe eonnQoa benefit of all the Smtea. SlUeiuent of the causes 
of delay by 41 

MARYLAND on said sabjeot. InstruciionB to tlie Delegwes in Oongress 

MARYLAND to ratify the Arlicies of ConfedeiatioD. Resolution of Coogrfss 

FiIASSACHUSETTS, Jn I73J, appolntmg deputies to ConTentlon 10 (brni the 
Conslllulion. Act of IS 

MASSACHUSETTS. ChronologlcaJ statement of Ibe ChatlerB and Comtilu- 
lionsof. « 

MASSACHUSETTS ceded ^VeEtetll lands to the U.S. April 19, 1785 4e 

MEMBERS of Ihe SeiialB and House of KepresenlallTea to take an Oalb to 

MICHIGAN. Chronological slalement of the fcrmallon of Ihe Government of 43 
MIFFLIN, President of Congress, to Georgs Washington, in answer to resig- 
nation of his comniisslon. Address of Thonms aoi 

MINESOTA Territory. Proceedlnga In Coj^ress relatlTe to the U 

MINISTERS and tlieir fiomesllca. An act for Ihe protection of Foreign 28 

MISSISSIPPI. Chronol(^loal81aleraentoftliBfcraiallonofibeGovernnientof« 
MISSOURI. Clironologlenl slalement of Ihe Swmallon of Iho Governmenl of 4S 

MONROE, President of Die U.S. Firel election of James 82 

M0NEOE,PreBidentoflhaU.9. Second election of James S2 

MONUMENT be erected to General Washinglo" in Ibe Capllol at Wasblnp. 

ton. ResolationofCongicfslhatamarbie Si 

MOURNING of Ibe Government on the Death of George Washlnglnn. Pro- 

NAVY Horn 1189 to 18EI. Names, Slntea, services, &. 

NEBEASKA Territory. Ptoceeflingn in Congress rcl 

NEUTRALITY of the U. S. by prohibiting lis liUiena 

pireparing any offensive means against a foreign r 

Hosiecb, Google 

IKDEX. 509 

MEW HAMPSHIRE, In 1737, appointii^ depuUea to Comenilnn (o form tta 

CoOfldtDlJDIL Act Of--"-'-- '....' '." -»■ ISG 

tjonsof 407 

KBW JEBSBY, at «je meeUng st AanBpolis, in 1I8S, haviug more enlarged 

ftir colling the Conventifm whlcli fcnaed the Consljlation. The Commla- 

Bionorsof. laa 

KBW JEKBBT, In 17Se, appointing deputies bt ConvenUon to foim Out Oonetitit- 

Uon. Aclaof. ITO 

NEW JGK3G7. Chronological statement of the Chaileca and Constitutions ot tOT 

the" Western Territory nould ti« ceded \/j tbe States iu pOEaesuDO to the 

U. S., &0. 4M 

MEW MEXICO TBBMTOKY. Proceedings in Coogress relatlTB t« t]M M8 

mending a ConTentlon to Hmn a CousUtDUliD. KeEolutionB of the Qenersl 
AesemMjof 155 

NSW TOBS, in 173T, sppoinUng deputies to the CoDrenUon to tbrm the OousU- 
tntlon. Act of- ISl 

KEW YORK. ChnmolDgical statement of the Charteta and ConstltuUons of ■ ■ - 40T 

NEW TOKK. Spedal apjrot&tion of Congrcsa Kit this act of ■ - 
NOBTH CAROLINA, in 1737, appDlntlng deputies to Coniend 

NORTH OAROLIHA. Cbronolo^cal statemeat of tlie Charters aud ConsUtu- 


NORTH CAROLINA ceded Wcstam landa to thB U. S., Pebruniy 25, 1700 

KORTH-WBSIBRN and Western Territory to the U. S. Proceedings irhioh led 

NORTH-WBSTERK TerritoTy ■xiii to tho T7. S. by Vir^nla, Maccli 1, 17M 

NORTH-WESTERN Tenitcrj. An ordinam^e ft 

OATH of ofScc, BB PreaMent, admimfltored to Geoi^ Waahii^on, by llie Chan 

cellot of the State of (few Yort, April 30, 1789 ■ 

OATH of John Tjler, Tica President, to qnalifj iim as President ot the U. a - - ■ 

OATHa to Bnpport tbe ConslitnUon. of the United States, and for pertijrmance o 

offlrial duty, to be taten by the follow Ing ofBcots and persons, tIs. : 

S. Tbe Senators of the D. 3 S^ S88 

i. Tbe Secretary of tbe Sonnta 2% 288, 289 

fl. TheSpeoher of the Hoosoof RepreBeuta.tlTes- ,..,.,..,...... flSS 

7, ThomemberaDf thcHouseof RepresentatiTuof theU. S. SS, 383 

Hosiecb, Google 

a The Clerk of the Honse of RepteBenlaln-ei S% SFIS, SPO 

8, The meintierBof Iho seretol SIMe LEgiBlBhires S2, SSS 

10. The eieeulive and jadicinl officcva both of Iha U S. and of Ibe sevEral 

StBlea SB, 288 

U. All offioers appoimed unfler the anlliorjly of Ihe U 8 JSS 

IB. Eneh and every clerk ond other officBtin any of Iha fleparimenls of Ihe 

U.S. ass 

"OATHSofoffice"BrelobeUken. B> whom 32, asS, S£8, BOO. S9l 

OATH9. The preaidhiK ofBeeis of the Iwo Houees, end oLoirmen of mm 

loiueee of Got^cees, aulboilzed lo Hdmimslec 301, W5 

OATHS, prtwnriblng Ihe Ibims, &c. An act 10 legalate IhB time and mannec 

of aflmlnisteriiig oermai 287 

OFFIOEHS required lo lake an oalh to support the ConsUluiion of iha Uniiad 

BiMes • a2,33s,aSB 900, 891 

OFFICE of President and Vice President to commence March 4, Ac The 

ORATION by Henry Lee on the dealli of Gcjtge Washington Funet^ 21' 
ORDINANCE for Ihe soveinraent of the lerrixory of Ihe U S uorlh wist of 
the river Ohio. An 43 

PASSPORT issued nnder authority of the U. 8. PenaUy for violsling a.-- SS 
FAY and expenses oflhe General to command nil the continentHt Ibtcei fixed 

attaOOpermonth, by resolution of Congress BO 

PENALTY foe neglect to delitor the electoral votes by the messeneerB, *c 20 
PENALTY for violaihis the laws of nenlralily m the U. a (gainst a foreign 

PENNSYLVANIA, in 1781, appoinl. 

inff depw 

ies ,oCon.endo. 

■ tofomth. 


of the charters. 

ind oonsiiin- 

PEOPI.E to support the CoDsiilutlon. Responeibilities of the xx 

POUTICAL and o«ier inforioaiion in the public offices at the Seat of Govern- 
ment. DescriplLon of the soutces of d 

POLKaaPreaidenloftheU.S. Election ot Tame. I^. S 

POSTMASTER GENERALS, from 1789 lo 1861. Names, Slates, service, 

&c.,ofihB i 

PREFACE lo thb edition, and to the chapters. (See Bmuaka.) 

PRESIDENT of the U. B. CerUllcaio of the election of Geoige WaslunKton as E 

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PRESIDENT ana vice P 
lis Preside! ill case [ 
deiil, approTed Maiel 

.^asnalty. Pravttion 

Becrelary of Stale. . 

Term of office of the. 

11,1709, Am 
President, in 
for Ibe eleclloi 
resident of Uie 

President of ■ 

V. S., and declannj the ofScer w act 


case of vacancies in those offic. 


U.S. lobe delivered into the offi 


the U. S. 10 comnienca Match 4. 

, io. 


B U. S. An act providing compi 




'resiaeul of thi 

! U. S. Corapeinalion to, and pa 


FBESIDENT and Vice i 
lo deliver elecurolT. 

lime [or holding elesl 

PEESIDENT and Vice! 
iwairolffl.) Eloclori 

PRESIDENT of the Seni 
PHESlpENT pro tempt 

PREStDEaHTS pro temp. 

and attendance in Sc 
PKINTEDliy order of tl 

marks desoriptiTB of 
PRIVATEERS being fil 




President of U 
il votes, &o., ft 

John Tylct 10 
lie anlhoriied 

oSiae of Presii 
ore, (mm Mar 

le two Houses 

eU.S. An not to establish aim 


lell. S,firomn8»lol849. (See 





of Wm, H. Harrison, Preaiflent. 


,ate to aot as President of IheU. 
cb 4, 17SB, ID March 3, 186L N 


of Congress, Itora 1768 to 1351. 





.1 ten amendm 





RECORDS of oae Slate 1 

n every other 

Slate, tertitory, &c. Anthenticat 

ion of 

REMARKS on the propi 

REMARKS on the d=«K 
REMARKS on the officii 


n of Uie Alpha 
il piooeedings. 


, Dnd the causes which led to lbs adop- 



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nuder the 


meial i 



ngs of the GoTeramenl 




s token liom Bondon's 




mieagfUieU-a JuiyS, 



in relslion « 

.rniKg and 

Bolenuiitieson the death 


a inauBural Bddi 

esses of the 

mpon i 


■ lo the Gen«Bt Laws, (bra 

,ii« B peeullur olaxs of 


tight and power of CongreES lo adrail " New SlBtes" 


id Judiei 

REMARKS descripliTS of the contents of the Le^ElntivB Jon 
Senate ond House of HeptesenlaliveBofths U. S. ^... 

REMARKS deacriptiTfi of the regular docniuents ordered lo be p 
Senate and House of Rep tesentativea, from 17S0 lo 1S51 ■ ~ . . 

REMARKS in relation to Ihe boohs procured for the Cong 

eeof Ih 
t of Stele 

REPORTS of decisions of Ihe Eupreme Conrl of the U. S. from t}£9 to 13S1. 

Description of the boolts of • 46T 

REPRESENTATIVES In Congress eieeted Speakers, froni March 4, 17S9, to 

March 3. 1B51, showing Ihe congmeneement and termination of their ser- 

Tioe, ana Ihe Slates repreaenled by Ihem —..—..-..,„ 386,387 

REPRESENTATIVES tn Congress among the several Btaten, aeeording to 

the si jlh eensuB. An act for the apportionment of. (See Siotn.) SOtt 

B£PBESENTAT1VES in Confess. Provision Ibi dividing Slates into d!s- 

iricls for elecUon of - — 301 

REPRESENTATIVES of the U. S. in CongresB aasembled, on July 4, liTO. 

Declnralionoflndependcnceby the -" 195 

RESIGNATION or refusul lo ocoepl the ofBoB of President or Vice Presidenl 

of the U, S. 10 be delivered into the office of the Secielnry of Stats W 

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INDEX. 513 

ILESIOKATIOJI to CongreBB, ty Gem^ Waahlngtmi, of bk coinmlasi™ as Com- 

BiantlorJn-CMef of the Amcrinan army, on DcmmtGC 23, 1188 208 

EBVBNUB ftom impost duties as rcmuimcndel by Congreffl in. 1JS3, maa tbs 
c&nse of ptocfledinga wbicli led to the adopUon of the ConsUtutioa. Beport 
of Committee of Congress of Confsderatioo, shonlug that tbe lUiuro of the 
Stfttes to curry Dot Uis eenariil syeUm of 131-IS9, li0-142-l«-160, IBl 

KETENHB from impost, ea prorided by iMolutioQ of ConBrera of April 18, 
was. (Sea Ommti-ix.) BflBolnWonB of Cengtesa of Febroair IS. "Sfl, rs- 

ESTENDIS ana Tariff laws, Sm. DescrlpHoo of boots relating to 487 

REVOLU'nON. Books relating to tlie history of tie AmoriOEin Colonics and the iii 
RHODE ISLAiSD. ChiBnolojifcal Btat*meut of the cIiaj;teiB and coostitutjous of ior 

eATB-CONDUCI isaned uuder the ftutliorlty of tbo U. S. Penalty fb 


HBAT of Oovernment of tlia U. S. Tho District of Colombia ertablishf 

tionaoftho T 

8BNATG, of the ViiK PreEndents tmd Presidents pro tempore, from March 1, 

BEN ATE of tie V. 8, Table of the names, aenJce, 4c, of the Secretaries of the 38$ 
EEHATE of the U. B. Begcrlption of the LeglslatlTe and Bsecutiie loumitle 

nnd Becoida of InipeachmentB of the 406,458 

BENATE of Uie U. S., from 173» to 1851. Kemarhs descriplive of tbo Docu- 

mcnlB printed by order of the 457,468,469 

SBNATOKS of the U. S. in ofQce, ftom March i, 1J89 lo March 8, 1351, abow- 

- G from PeonBjl™nia- 
2 - 'Fiom Dalaware 

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[o SDuth Oarolina- ■ - 


of Congrera fcom Matdi 4, 1739 to Matcli 8, 1861. Oi 
bppoibUTif depnttca to Ooay^DUo' 
if ILe Chaiisis 

BOriH CiKOLINi, in 

SOUTH OASOUNA. ChroDoIogldl etati 

SOniH CAROMNA CHled Westfirn lands to tie TT. 9. AuKuaJO.irSI 12 

SPEAKER of tliD Houee of RfpieaeutativeB eliiill act us FresMeDt ot tlie U. S. 

In oass of raami?, to PtoTlsioDS tliat the 2! 

8PBAKEK of ttie Houfla of ReptesenlaHTM anthorfMa to sdininislor oaths. 

to 1851. IMcriptioDofthe 

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STATE, in Ease DfVBCgucIeB in Ibe office of FceaideDlniitl Vice Presidenlor 

UibU.S. DnliesofllieSecrelatyor 383 

STATK A r«signatiDU or ietaaa\ to sooepl of the office of President or Vice 

STATE, cegsrdins Hie publication of smendmeata to tha Coaslitution of tho 
U.S. DuliesoftMSeerelarjof. 39Ii 

ncBof "■ MS 

STATE Department, Description of selection of cerlain books in the Library 
oftha - 479 

BTATS DC Terrilorr, ke. An acl tbr tbe BnthenlioalioD of Acts, Records, mid 
Jndioifll prooeeiiiiiea of one Stale ot Tet riioty in every oilier Mfr-aM 

STATE iu certain cases— the proceedings in Slate Courts in sucti cages lobe 
null and Toid. The V. S. JudjcB smpowered to granl the writ of Habeas 

prison of any 301 

STATES. Dates ofratificationofihe Constitution by the — £4 

STATES. Batea of ratification of first ten ajnendments of the Constitnlion 
by the M 

STATES. Katification of UieelBvonUioJia twelfth amendmanlB by the 30 

eTAl^SS in providing revenue fbr the support of the Federal Oovemiaent, 
■s recommendea by Oongiees on April IB, 1783. Reports of committees 
ahowing mo failure of the scyeral - 131-139, 140-14B-148-160, 131 

STATES that were prominent in the proceeding! wbicli immediately led to 
lliaadoplionoftbeConstltutlonoflbeU.a KomarkainielBlionlD Ihe-- 153 

BTAT^ Resolution of Coi^ess of tlie Confederaiioa of Ma; BS, 1J3S, ap- 
pointing a commitlee to represent lbs financial and commercial diffionl- 
lies to the several — 154 

STATES to form a Constitution of the U. S. Beaolnlions of (he General As- 
eembiy of New York, July 31, 1783, reccnuncnding a Convention of the. ■ Hi 

STATES to leroedy the diJBcnllies, Beaolnlion of Ihe Confederation of Vir- 
ginia, of January B1,1JS6, for a Convention of Ibo WO 

STATES, at AunapoUs, in 17Se, teoo nnie dmg ttie spp;^ men of deputies 
lo ibrm Iha Constitution. Frooeed i^ of comnuas o e s f om several 
oflhe lei 

STATES, (bi tbe appoinlment ofdepn es o Con n on o fo m the Conati n 
lionoftheU.S. Acts of the aeve a vz 167 

OfVirg^nia, passed October 16 1783 J67 

Of New Jersey, passed November S3, 1783 

Of Delaware, pasaed February 3 rr 17 

OfGeoi^ia, passed February 10 1 87 "T( 

Ot New York, passed February 9 7^7 11 

Of Sontii Carolina, passed March 8, 7 183 

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516 INDEX. 

OfMojBocUuseKa, pSBSBd March in, 1 H7 If 

Of ConnccUQUt, passsd Moy, 17S7 l'>4 

OfMatyland, pnssedMoylM, 173J 1(15 

O f New Hampsliire, passed June 37, ITBT la6 

STATES by which it wai ralLBed. Keaolution of CpngtEBa of Bcptember S3, 

STATES. Oalhs lo eupporl ihe Consliluuon of Ihe U S to bo lot™ by Ibo 
membsTS of Iha Legielalures and by all Eieculiye and Judicial officerg 
oftaeseTSTal !%288 

STATES, ec ord n" lo the aiith census Appom ment of Represenlat ves 
BDio g the se erol— v z. 300 


6 iDOiaiiD II 

Cfalym a 




e iOnbacis " 1 

"16 Blina ~ - I 


tiTca Pro. 

1643, for dv din 

g he 

BTATE9 may by law provide for filling yaca: 

Each of the - 30 

STATES and TerrilorisB of Ibe U. S, Chronological slatemeni of the Cbarlcra 

STATES. The time of ralificalion of the Articles of Confederalioa by Ihe- • 40 

8TATfS'> iniD the Unbn. Rcmai-lis on the latificalion of Ihe Ccaatllution by 
the original Slates, and the right and diacrelionnry powci of Congteas to 
admit "New .- 40 

STATES in posscesilin Ibereof: Prooeediuge which led to tbe cession of the 
Norlh-Weslern and WeBtetn Territory lo Ibe U. S. by the 41. 

STATES to cede their western landH to Ibe U. 8 Besolutkin of Congress of 
Beplemher fl, 17S0, reeoiomenaiag to the 42- 

STATES ehoitld be dispoeed offer Ihe common benefit of the U. S, and fbrm- 
ed Into Republican States. Kesolution of Congress of October 10, ITEO, 
that the Laadi eedefl by the 42 

STATES by wbioh Itae weslein lands were ceded lo Ihe II. S. and dales b( 

STATES out of the North- Western Territory. Provision in the Ordinance 
ofJalyl3,1737, RrfijrrabiB ^ -— - 42 

STATISTICAL and other infoimaUon in the public offices at the seat of Go- 

Hosiecb, Google 

isDEx. 517 

STATUE of George WosMiiglontynoudoii. DescripsioQof Ihe -.-SOS-EOT 

SUPEEME BQd oUier Conrtt of Ihe U. S. cmpowerea to grant wiilB of Kateas 

tain cases. The Juii^os of the ,,.-„ 301 

SUPREME COURT of ihe U. S., from 1789 lo 1351. NnmcB, Stales, com- 

mencemenl and teiminBliou of Becvice of the Oliief and Associate Juslices 

of the 88^-392 

SUPREME COURT of the U. S., from 178B lo IS61. Names, serviea, &c of 

Iho Clark!, Reporters of deciBJons and Mniahala of the 893 

SUPREME COURT of !hs U, B., from !789 lo 1861. Description of Books of 

TABLES of electoral Totes for Ptesideni and Vice President of the U. S., 
from March 1, 17BD, 10 Mereh 4, iaS3 — 316-38 

TABLE of tenns of office end length of service in the Seimle, of the Vice 
Presitlents and Fresidenls pro tempore i and of the commeneemenl, and 
lecniination, and nnmber of in each session of Congress, and special 
session of Iks Senaie, from March 4, 178a, to Msioh 3, 1861 33B-3* 

TABLE of ±e names, clesses, length of serriea of, and Slates represented by 
all the Senators ofike U.S., from March 4, 1788, to Maioh 3, 1S61-'- 34e-^ 

TABLE of tlie names, places of nalivily oi residence, lime of appointmenl, 

ersofthe Houes ofRepTesenlativea of the U. S. 383, 38 

TABLEofihonames, residence, when appointed, and lime of service of, itie 

Clerks oflliB House ofRepieaenladves of di8 U.S. 38 

TANEY, Chief Jnslice oflhe Supreme Coud of Iha U. S. Leiter of approbe- 

of-... - 4] 

TERM of office of four years, of PrafJdent and Vioa PreindeBl, lo commenco 

onMnrcli4,&o. The - W 

TERRITORIES. An act for Ibe aulhentication of acts, records, and Judicial 

proceedings of Slates and -- 390-39 

TEBHITOKYioihB U.S. Piooeedingswhichledlolhe eeesbnofihe Nonli- 

Weslem and Western — 41 

TERRITORY of Ihfl U. S. iiorlh-weit of Ihe river Ohio. An ordinanoe fijr 

Ihe Government of Ihe - 4S 

TEXAS was aflmiltod into the Union. Joint roaolulion and act of Congress 

by which - ^ 

TOMPKINS, Vice Prssidentofihe U.S. First election of Daniel D 3S 

TOMPKINS, Vice Presidenl of the U. 8. Second eleodon ofDanlel D. 32 

TOMPKINS, Tine Piatident, in Senaie of the U. B. Altenoance of Daniel D. Si 

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518 INDEX. 

TRADE and eomni=rca foT U.E V. S. Eesolulioo of Virginia, in I76S, lo pvo- 

vidaageiieralEyetemof 160 

TREASURY, from 1789 10 185L Names, Slates, service, &c., oi the SeiteW- 

riesoftha 39B 

TKEATO^ of ths U. S. Daaoription of Ihe books coalsinins the Lawa mid 401 

TYLER, as Vice Ftesidenloflhe U.S. Eiection of John ' 3I19-S31 

TYLER to office ai Boling Prssideiil of Uie U. S., on Ihe daalb of W. H. Hat- 

UHIOIM of UiB people for lliB government of the U. S. of America. The Coo- 
sUlution adoplcd for the purpose of forming Hmoreperfeol — 

UNION supporiBd by ihe Constilntlon. Brief remarlts on Ihe importancs of 
llie 1! 

UNION bsEsided by Ihe inefficiency of the OoTernmenl under Ihe old Con- 
federation. The existence of tha IM-li 

UNION. Declaration in tcBolodon of February 13, 1730, that the Congieas 
of [he Coufederetton were denied Ibemeaof of satisfying ej^agemenlefbr 
Hie common benafil of the 

UNION. Deciarulion by Ibe convention at Annapolis, September 11, 1780, 

tollie eiigenciesoftiie - 

UNION. Declaialion, by resolnliou of Congress, February Bl, I?37, Ibi 

render the Federal Constitution adequate to Ihe exigencies of llieGoveri 

UTAH TBiritary. ProoeediDgs in COBEresa relative to the ~,.^ 

TACAJSOIBS in rsprcaentaUon of CraiKross-b™ filled 

TAOANOIES m seats ot Senators ta Oongresa— how fllM - 

TAOANCIES Jn offices of tlie TT. S. Oiat may happen daring recess of the S 

ntlieofflcesbothof President and Vice Preddent. Anactde 

in UiQ college of electors, £& £acb Btate may provide by law 

Hosiecb, Google 

INDEX. 519 

TESSELS being: tilled ont or armed, in whole or In par!, in Ihe U. 3., Bgaiiul 

any Ibtdga power wilb which Ihe U. S. a d1 pesos. An acl to prevent' ■ SBB 
VERMONT. Chronological BWlemenl of the thrmation of the Government of «E 
V10BPKESn>ENToriheU.S.froml7e»tol86B. {&sa Etselata! Vaia.) Elec- 

loTBl votes for "~ -£15-333 

VICE PRESIDENT of the U. S. by the Semite, he not having a majoriiy of. 

electoral Totes. Richard M. JohnBon eleelefl ~ — 828 

VICE PRESIDENTS and Preaidanls piQ tempore ftom March 4, 1769, to 

Maroh3,lSSl. Atteiidance in Iho Senate of Ihe 336-346 

VICE PRESIDENT, Act telalive lo election of Preadent and Vice Preai- 

deot, and declarii^ Tvhat ofiioer shall act ss President in case of voesn- 

eiea hi olficeB of President and — Sfll 

VICE PRESIDENT in case of vacancies in those officea. Provision fer the 

elcelion of K FreBidenl and ~— 3B3 

VICE PRESIDENT to be delivered into the office of Secieteiy of State. A 

i4, 3ui. Tormof office of the-.- 21)3 

VICE PRESIDENT in all the Stales. An act to establish u uniform time ibt 

eleeliona of electors of President and 3€ 

VICE PRESIDENT, to quality htm as President of the U. 3. Oath of John 

VIRGINIA, in 1786, tor s 


VOTES for Fresidenl and Vice President of the U. S. from 1739 to 1S63. 

Electoral SlC-SSi 

VOTES for President and Vine Prcaident of the U. S. Enactineoia of law 

, setvicBS, &c., of the Secteianes of 3 
imimder-in-chief of the array of the 
)lnlinent by Congress of tbe Confede- 

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