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Full text of "Construction and Maintenance of Railway Roadbed and Track"

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CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE 

OF 

RAILWAY ROADBED 
AND TRACK 

Arranged and compiled from authoritative sources 
with an exhaustive description 

OF 

RAILWAY SURVEYS AND CONSTRUCTION 

PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED 



FREDERICK J. PRIOR 

Aa«oci«t0 Member Trarelinc Ensineers' Association 
Author of "Operation of Trains and Station Work" 




CHICAGO 
FKEDERICK J. DRAKE & CO., PUBLISHERS 

1908 



r 



OOPYRIGHI 1907 

BY 

FREDERICK J. DRAKE & CO. 



4a 



-'1 
I 

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v * ' 



TO THE MEMORY OF HIS LAMENTED SON, 

FREDERICK GEORGE PRIOR, 

WHO HAD BEGUN A PROMISING CAREER IN THE 

FIELD OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, 

y THIS BOOK IS AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED 



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x^ 



BY THE COMPILER AND EDITOR. 



19S041 



PREFACE. 



In railway operation one of the most important sub- 
jects is the construction and maintenance of roadbed 
and track. The problems presented owing to the dif- 
ferent conditions met are multiplex. The subject is too 
great to be exhausted in a single volume nor has the 
subject been exhausted in the many books by many men. 

It is, however, believed that the experience and tech- 
nical knowledge herein set forth may serve to help and 
stimulate those for whom it is primarily intended, and 
that it may, perhaps, supplement the experience and 
studies of more advanced students who have access to 
textbooks and who have specialized on the subject. 

Originality has not been attempted. To the labors 
of others the writer is indebted, therefore all claim to 
authorship is disavowed, the humble office of compiler 
and editor being all he aspires to. Credit is given in 
the text to those to whom it is due, but if, inadvertent- 
ly, the source is in some instances not given, he hopes 
his grateful acknowledgment will be accepted. 

Much of the great mass of relevant matter necessarily 
had to be rearranged and rewritten, and while it is im- 
possible to meet the exact needs of every reader, yet, 
imperfect as it is, it is hoped the -work may find a wel- 
come in the field of technical railway literature and prove 
intelligible, interesting and instructive. 

The Compiler. 

• • • 

111 



SECTION /. 

Railway Construction. 

The First, Second and Third Steps. 

In the extension of existing railway lines or the build- 
ing of new ones it is necessary to know first of all what 
will be the best route to take to render the most effective 
and profitable service to the population to be reached. 
The character of the road required, the probable cost 
of construction, and the expense of maintenance and 
operation after constructed have all to be taken into con- 
sideration. To determine this, the country through which 
the proposed line is to be built must be examined by en- 
gineers. This examination called a reconnoissance, is 
made under the immediate direction of a railway civil 
engineer. It is not, however, intended to give an accurate 
survey of the country examined. It is, instead, a report 
embodying the main features of the region through which 
the route is proposed to be taken. It should be of an 
area rather than a line, including as wide a belt on each 
side of an air line between two fixed termini as there is 
any possibility of the line reaching. The chief things to 
be shown in the reconnoissance report being, first: an 
approximate location ; second : the certainty of being able 
to mount up from a valley on a given grade and get over 
the summit of the divide ; (a "divide" is known by en- 
gineers as a line separating the water-sheds of two ad- 
jacent systems of drainage or rivers) ; third : the possi- 

1 



2 ROADBED AND TRACK 

bility of descending from that divide, and of crossing the 
summit of the next on a given grade ; fourth : the differ- 
ent elevations of the divide passes that are available ; and 

fifth : the probability of the cost of its construction being 
within certain fixed limits. 

Varying conditions make possible different methods of 
making a reconnoissance. In regions which have been 
settled and which are well known government surveys 
have usually been made, and accurate surveys and maps 
of them, may generally be obtained^ With such a map 
the engineer can accurately find the location of any de- 
sired point, as such maps give, as a rule, the township 
and section lines and the subdivision of sections by farm 
fences. A scale of one inch to a mile is considered best 
for the engineer's purpose in using such a map, but, where 
no government survey has been made it becomes neces- 
sary to make a map or plat on a larger scale, preferably 
two inches to a mile in ord^r to sihow clearly boundaries 
of farms and other properties. 

Provided with the necessary working equipment, con- 
sisting usually of the following: an aneroid barometer, 
field and note books, drawing paper, drawing instruments, 
steel tape, two or more tin map cases, a field glass, a hand 
level, and a prismatic compass, the engineer sets out, trav- 
ersing the country on foot for the most part, to locate the 
controlling points. The summit is the principal controll- 
ing point in mountainous locations, while in prairie, pla- 
teau or bench locations, commercial centers, stream cross- 
ings, and controlling elevations form the principal con- 
trolling points. If he has plats or maps they will furnish 
him with the distances and he will mark upon his map the 
location of section lines, boundaries of farm and other 
-operty, water courses, ravines, hills, highways, towns. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 3 

villages, etc. By the use of the aneroid barometer, along 
the summits of divides he will ascertain the low points 
or passes, the elevation of valleys, and will also give the 
elevations of spurs from the divides. (Spurs are ridges 
extending from a divide and separating the water-sheds 
of two branches of the same river.) The contours of the 
country must also be platted at difficult points when neces- 
sary. (Contour is shown by lines laid down on a map 
showing the location of points of the same elevation.) If, 
on the other hand, he has no maps or plats indicating dis- 
tances, etc., he must secure the elevation and distance of 
the controlling points. This necessitates the use of a 
pedometer and an odometer, also a good watch in addi- 
tion to the working instruments already mentioned. The 
problem of determining latitude and longitude having 
been already reduced to sections he will not require in- 
struments for that purpose. To illustrate : having made 
the summit of one divide, liis problem is to cross the next 
valley and reach the summit of the next divide, using the 
desired grade and curvature. Any errors of distance 
made from one divide to another will not affect those be- 
yond. 

Unless there be positive knowledge of insurmountable 
difficulties in the way, the most direct line should be first 
examined. But in case there be apparently insurmount- 
able difficulties, and after the territory to the right or 
left has been examined, the short route should not be 
too quickly abandoned. Experience has demonstrated that 
routes have been sometimes avoided because they gave 
the impression of difficult and expensive construction, 
which in the light of subsequent developments it was 
shown would have been, after all, not only the most de- 
sirable, but also the cheapest location. 



4 ROADBED AND TRACK 

The engineer, following the example of nature, usually 
works along the line of least resistance and in so doing 
uses nature's forces to overcome difficulties. Herein lies 
the wisdom and skill of the engineer, who thereby avoids 
long tunnels, heavy fills, deep rock cuts, and expensive 
bridging. As he proceeds he makes calculations and notes 
showing the probable nature of the component parts of 
the material which would have to be dealt with in con- 
struction, whether earth, sand, gravel, loose rock, hard- 
pan or solid rock, giving also the approximate percent- 
ages of each in different cuts, the probable quantities to 
be excavated ; the opportunities for obtaining a supply of 
fuel at points along the route ; the water supply ; the geo- 
logical formations ; the timber which would be available 
for ties, piling, trestles, etc. ; the amount of embankments 
and bridging necessary per mile ; the character of the 
rainfall and what effect it might have upon operation and 
the possibilities for business. 

These notes are valuable to the projectors and also af- 
ford a basis upon which to estimate the probable cost of 
construction, but in the nature of things, the examina- 
tion being merely preliminary, the estimates given in the 
notes are only approximated. 

A proper reconnoissance report conveys a graphic im- 
pression of the features of the region and route traversed, 
and contains the fundamental elements affecting opera- 
tion and construction cost. The engineer should sepa- 
rate the routes reported upon into natural divisions of 
similar characteristics, giving distances, grades and con- 
trolling points of each. He should describe, classify and 
approximately estimate the material to be moved and 
other work to be performed, giving averages per mile 
and totals for each section, and furnish an approximate 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 5 

estimate of the cost per mile and total cost of the com- 
pleted railway. Small scale maps and profiles showing 
general features, elevations, and distribution of ruling 
grades should accompany such reports, whenever neces- 
sary. 

After the reconnoissance has. been made, and the re- 
port duly considered, the results of which will have as- 
sisted in determining the maximum grades and degrees 
of curvature most acceptable, the next step is that of 
making the preliminary survey. 

If the line be an entirely new one it will most likely be 
made under the immediate direction of the chief engi- 
neer, but in the case of extensions of existing lines, the 
preliminary survey^ or second step, is made by a locating 
engineer. The data and other particulars derived from 
the reconnoissance are put into his hands, armed with 
which he takes the field with a corps of assistants. These 
are organized into parties, the character and size of each 
party being to a greater or lesser degree determined by 
such considerations as the character of the country, 
whetjher or not there are reasons for great haste, and 
also the amount it is expected shall be expended. The 
organization of the parties is generally as follows : 

( 1 ) A Transit party. 

(2) A Level party. 

(3) A Topographical party. 

(4) A Draughting party. 

(5) A Commissary or Camp. 

The transit man is generally in full charge of the work 
during the absence of the locating engineer. He is as- 
sisted usually by a head flagman or chainman, a rear 
chainman, an axeman or stake driver and a rear flagman. 



b ROADBED AND TRACK 

The transit man is held responsible for the accuracy of all 
measurements taken. 

The leveling party consists of a leveler and a rodman. 
The topographical party is a rather uncertain quantity 
in its composition or make-up. Sometimes it consists of 
a level man, a rodman, and an axeman, while at others 
it is represented only by notes made by the locating engi- 
neer and transitman. The draughting party is repre- 
sented by one or more draughtsmen to make the necessary 
drawings and record the results of the progress as made 
and to make such maps as are needed in the work. 

The commissary and camp party is a very important 
adjunct to the whole when the route lies through wild 
and sparsely settled regions, when it is important to make 
every provision possible to house and feed the forces en- 
gaged in the work and otherwise provide for their health 
and comfort. Not to make such provisions might result 
in serious delays through lack of subsistence or sickness, 
whereas to make as adequate provision as possible en- 
sures a better degree of efficiency in the work performed. 
In well settled jxDrtions of the country the commissary 
and camp is not, of course, so requisite. 

The locating engineer must, to successfully make the 
preliminary survey, be resourceful. He must be ready 
to adopt old methods to new conditions. Must know how 
to devise new methods to meet conditions which may not 
be new to other engineers, but are to him. Difficulties, 
problems, and obstacles present themselves continually, 
particularly in getting through rocky canons, marshy 
plains too soft for men to walk over, yet without water 
enough to float a boat, heavily timbered country with 
thick growth of underbrush, and scores of other things 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 7 

all involve obstacles that at times overtax the resources of 
the engineer, but all must be overcome. 

The preliminary survey should be thorough, and all 
improvements in the line and grade which appear possi- 
ble should be tried so that when the third step in con- 
struction is taken the work may proceed with but few 
if any changes, and with rapidity. 

The locating engineer is not only required to be skillful 
in his profession, but 'he must likewise be tactful. He 
is called upon frequently to use tact in dealing with peo- 
ple along the line of the survey, and in doing this, he 
must consider their prejudices, their local history and who 
among them are the leaders in forming public opinion ; 
all this he should make notes of for possible future use ; 
and in handling the men in the field parties in his charge 
he must be a born general, able to get the maximum 
amount of work done with the least possible amount of 
friction between the members. 

The third step in construction is known as the location. 
The particulars in detail of all the available routes hav- 
ing been furnished first, by the report of the preliminary 
examination, called the reconnoissance, and second, by 
the results of the more exact preliminary survey ; the se- 
lection of a definite route is next made. Of course, in 
arriving at a conclusion there will have been taken into 
consideration the various grades and curves possible ; the 
engineering obstacles to be overcome; and as the theory 
of location is said to be summed up in these words : "En- 
gineering is the art of making a dollar earn the most in- 
terest," the probable cost of operation and maintenance 
as well as that of construction will have been also care- 
fully considered. 

The organization of the parties to undertake the work 



8 ROADBED AND TRACK 

of final location differs but little from those engaged in 
making the preliminary survey. 

The transit party will, however, now lay out the spirals, 
curves, etc., in detail (unless the work of locating was 
carried on at the time of making the preliminary survey, 
which sometimes is done). The duties of each party are 
about the same as described in making the second step, al- 
though the notes made by the topographer will be more 
full and exact and will not cover as great an area to the 
right and left as before ; while, of course, the draughts- 
man will pay greater attention to detail and will finish his 
profiles and maps with more exactness and care. 



DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION. 

Having briefly outlined in general terms of an intro- 
ductory character the first, second and third steps in rail- 
way construction, the details and technical, expert, partic- 
ulars and instructions, covering the work of construction, 
from the commencement of the first step to the completed 
road, may be best described by Mr. J. R. Stephens, a 
Railway civil engineer of long experience and a writer 
of repute, who says: 

The reconnotssance should not be a line, but of an area, 
including as wide a belt on each side of an air-line be- 
tween two fixed termini as there is any possibility of the 
line reaching. Prepossessions in favor of the most ob- 
vious routes ougiht to be set aside, especially those lying 
close to highways or the open districts. 

Lines hard to traverse on foot, seem worse than they 
really are. Raggedness of detail, sharp rock points, steep 
bluffs and the like, extending over short distances exert 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 9 

-an undue influence when compared with long rolling 
slopes stretching for longer distances. 

Routes are compared on the bases of total cost and 
operating value. Short sections of expensive work may, 
when averaged with the balance of a line, show a less 
cost per mile than another line, of more uniform char- 
acter. 

The reconnoissance report should show the main fea- 
tures of the region traversed and contain the elements 
affecting operation and construction cost. The Engineer 
should separate the routes reported upon, into natural 
divisions; giving the distances, grades, and controlling 
points of each. He sihould describe and approximately 
classify and estimate the work to be done, giving aver- 
ages per mile and totals for each section, and furnish an 
approximate estimate of the cost per mile and total cost 
of the completed railway. 

The Engineer should keep a diary in which to enter all 
items of interest pertaining to the work. 

From this, reports with sketches, profiles, etc., are made 
up and transmitted to the Chief Engineer each week. 

A complete sketch map of the water courses and di- 
vides should be made as the reconnoissance proceeds — 
sufficiently exact to enable the Engineer to state positively 
whether and where the water of each stream crossed 
joins another, until both have passed off the limits of the 
area under examination. On this map the water sheds 
should be outlined with the location of all low divides. 

Engineers ought to make the preliminary reconnois- 
sance in person, using prismatic compass, odometer, 
pedometer, hand level and "Aneroid," as they may be 
required. When there are several routes this process will 
usually eliminate one or more of them from further con- 



7 



10 ROADBED AND TRACK 

sideration. The first step is to obtain the best available 
maps of the country, such as those of the Geological 
Survey. 

Where reliance is to be placed on barometric elevations, 
two well adjusted barometers should be used, one' of 
which is to be kept at a fixed elevation at some con- 
venient point; while the other is carried over the route. 
Observations of the fixed barometer should be made every 
half hour, and from them a daily curve platted. Obser- 
vations with the line barometer should always be timed 
so that its readings may be platted on the daily curve 
sheet and the true difference of elevation thus obtained. 

The exploration line should be run as rapidly as possi- 
ble over the entire route In case of very long lines, cir- 
cumstances may make it necessary to carry on and com- 
plete the surveys by sections, but this should, if possible, 
be avoided. 

The purpose of the first line should be merely to get 
the general idea of the topography of the country, and 
especially of the gradients, and it should be run over all 
feasible routes. No attempt to study the location in detail 
should be made, but the most favorable ground in the 
vicinity should be selected. 

A full-scale profile of the ordinary form may sometimes 
be necessary, but not usually for the entire distance. 

A small scale profile, 4000 feet to the inch horizontal 
scale and 100 or 200 feet per inch vertical scale, (depend- 
ing on the nature of the line) and showing elevations, 
ruling grades and general features should in all cases be 
made. 

Small scale maps should accompany and explain the pro- 
— file. As a rule, for all surveys, maps should not be made 



1 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 11 

• to a larger scale than will well show the smallest details 
of frequent occurrence. 

Occasional details may be shown enlarged on one side 
of the same map. It is not necessary to increase the scale 
expressly for them. Condensed maps and profiles enable 
one to get a better grasp of the problem in hand. 

Exploration lines, especially when in timber, should be 
run with compass bearings ; in open country stadia read- 
ings may be used to obtain both distance and elevation. 
This facilitates the immediate determination of controlling 
points within the area studied. 

In stadia lines, as elevations by vertical angles are of 
the greatest importance, the Engineer should see that he 
is provided with a good transit, having a full vertical 
circle, and reversion bubble on telescope, so that all verti- 
cal angles may be checked by reversing. 

Stadia tables and a lo-inch stadia slide rule are great 
conveniences. 

All points occupied by the transit should be marked by 
hubs, which are necessary as reference points in future 
work. Whenever possible locate hubs where they may 
be readily found and at the same time are not apt to be 
disturbed, as for instance, close to fences, walls or trees, 
which latter should be blazed. 

As general signals for moving the rodman into position, 
etc., in stadia work, the following may be used. (See 
diagrams.) They depend on two principles: 

First. The signal for each figure starts from a point 
directly in front of the eyes and returns to same point 
to complete the signal. 

Second, It is a matter of indifference with which hand 
the signal is made or whether the motion is direct or re- 
verse. 



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ROADBED AND TRACK 



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RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 13 

For considerable distances *a handkerchief may be held 
in the hand while signalling. 

Each number should represent a pre-arranged phrase as 
in telegraph codes: Thus, 47 might mean: — "Hold on 
creast immediately behind you'^ — 39 — "Hold in bottom of 
creek^' — ^24 — "Hold on fence corner/' etc. 

In the diagrams the mark "O" indicates the initial 
point, and the dotted lines, the return trip to the starting 
point. 

These signals are also useful for setting the target and 
recording the exact elevation of same in the usual method 
of levelling with Philadelphia Rod. 

LINE SURVEYS. 

Before the survey of any route is commenced the Lo- 
cating Engineer receives instructions from the Chief En- 
gineer as to the gradients and curves to be used on the 
survey, the bases for comparing the desirability and 
equating the operating value of different lines between 
common points and such other instructions as may be 
needed for his guidance. 

Engineers have immediate charge of surveying parties 
and are expected to see that their parties are well sup- 
plied with instruments, tents, stationery, provisions, and 
all the tools needed to the proper and vigorous prosecu- 
tion of their work. (See list in appendix.) 

First project the route of best grade and alignment, 
working back to the final and most economical route, with 
due consideration for side lines which avoid heavy work 
for short distances and which may serve temporary pur- 
poses. 

But all surveys should be made with regard to futur 



14 ROADBED AND TRACK 

permanent construction and every effort used to reduce 
the amount of temporary construction, which may be re- 
quired, to the least limits. 

Note that the really vital and dangerous errors of lo- 
cation, such as the selection of the general route, the sys- 
tem of gradients, the passing by of local towns, etc., are 
usually committed in running preliminary lines. 

Every effort must be made to maintain the lowest prac- 
ticable and economical fate of grade over the entire en- 
gine district. 

When sections of high grade are unavoidable try to 
concentrate the "rise and fall" into short sections for op- 
eration by assistant power. 

Adjust the ruling grades of each engine district with 
reference to those of the adjoining district, and to condi- 
tions of local traffic, and «thus avoid "breaking and mak- 
ing up of trains." 

On sections, to be worked by assistant power, produce 
the maximum and the minimum ruling grades to an in- 
tersection if possible. 

Note : To find the gross tons behind tender that a lo- 
comotive will haul on a given grade : Multiply the weight 
on drivers in tons by the per cent adhesion (usually 22), 
and divide by the rate of grade plus four- tenths. From 
the quotient deduct the total weight of engine and tender. 

Thus, given a locomotive with total weight (engine 
and tender) 100 tons, weight on drivers 60 tons. What 
load can be hauled behind the tender on 0.6 grade with 
the adhesion 22% of the weight on drivers? 

6oX22=i320-f-(o.6+o.4) = i32o — 100=1220 tons, ans. 

Engineers should keep a diary in which they will enter 
very evening a record of the day's work. This diary 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 15 

should contain everything of value noted during the day. 
It should be turned in, with the balance of the notes, when 
the survey is completed. It will form the basis of the 
weekly reports, which Engineers furnish, stating progress 
and giving all other items of general interest pertaining 
to their work, with reasons for running the various lines, 
etc., particularly noting traffic possibilities. 

These reports should be illustrated with small scale 
maps, sketches, and condensed profiles, etc. They should 
show number of days of delay or time lost with reason 
for same. They should be sent promptly to the Chief 
Engineer every week. 

The Engineer should note in his diary, and on the map, 
objects near the line that should be avoided; and will 
give his opinion in the reports as to how his line may 
be changed, shortened or otherwise improved, noting par- 
ticularly the physical differences between the two sides of 
the same valley and their effect on the cost of construc- 
tion and operation. And make full comparisons of the 
relative merits of the different lines. 

PRELIMINARY SURVEY. 

Preliminary surveys should be run with care and must 
be made to approximate closely to the line which would 
be adopted on final location, this more particularly when 
estimates are to be based upon them. 

The liurpose of the preliminary is to serve as a base 
for the topography and the located line, and it should fol- 
low closely the ground where the location will lie, using 
any convenient angles for this purpose. 

It is sometimes advisable to run in curves at critical 
places. This may be quickly done off-hand by measuring 



16 ROADBED AND TRACK 

the intersection angle with a prismatic compass. Then 
the external secant and tangent are determined by pacing. 
From this the degree and point of curve are determined 
usually from a table of functions of a i degree curve. 

The preliminary, to avoid clearing, etc., may be a com- 
pass line, if any time is thereby saved for more import- 
ant matters, remembering, however, that when the level 
limits the rate of progress, the time the transit has to 
spare should be occupied in carefully fitting the prelimi- 
nary to the ground. 

Whenever the country becomes quite rough and diffi- 
cult, and especially where a grade line is to be fitted to 
the ground, the preliminary line should from the begin- 
ning be divided into two by running a first and second 
preliminary. 

Note : — The use of stadia wires in running grade lines. 
Thus when telescope bubble is level, upper and lower 
wires give plus five-tenths and minus five-tenths grades. 
Then, after first noting distant objects covered by hori- 
zontal wires and moving telescope vertically until one 
wire covers an object previously covered by another, i% 
and 1.5% grades may be obtained and intermediate grades 
by estimation. 

LOCATION. 

The first location should be made approximately cor- 
rect as it goes along, by backing up, to correct the most 
serious and evident defects. Minor changes and modifi- 
cations should be noted but not re-run as the first location 
advances. After completing the first line and taking 
necessary cross-sections and topography the party should, 
if so instructed by the Chief Engineer, re-run the first 
line. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 17 

Velocity grades requiring speeds in excess of twenty- 
five miles per hour must not be used, nor should such 
grades be laid out for speeds in excess of that obtainable 
under ordinary working conditions. 

Exercise extreme care in fixing the locations for sta- 
tions, water-tanks, coaling plants and crossings, and in 
adjusting grades for same, to reduce the cost and disad- 
vantages of train stops to the minimum. 

Train stops on or near the foot of grades should al- 
ways be avoided if possible, and when not avoidable for 
any reason, the rate of grade should be compensated to 
facilitate the starting of trains, at least four feet vertical. 

Note for record the kind and quality of material to be 
moved, oibserving quarries, wells or other indications for 
the purpose ; the timber and rock in the country traversed, 
with a view to their use in construction. 

The usual classification of grading will be : Common 
Excavation, Solid Rock, Solid Rock Borrow and Loose 
Rock. If cemented gravel or soft rock in place or other 
distinctive material exists in considerable quantities, the 
fact must be reported to the Chief Engineer in order that 
it may have proper classification assigned to it. 

Trestling unless required for water ways, should not 
be considered unless the cost of embankments will ex- 
ceed both the first cost of such bridges and the subse- 
quent cost of filling the same by train or otherwise. 

Note that stream diversions, even when of considera- 
ble magnitude, usually prove much cheaper both in first 
cost and in maintenance than bridging, particularly when 
the excavated material is used in embankments. 

The maximum gradient belongs to tangents only, and 
the rate of ascent upon all curves must be sufficiently less 
than the maximum to compensate for curvature. 



18 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Curves on maximum gradients having much curvature 
must be compensated at a rate of .04 feet per degree. On 
grade lines having but little curvature .05 feet per degree 
may be used. 

In compensating for curvature it is usually convenient 
to multiply the total angle of the curve in degrees by the 
rate of compensation per degree, and then lighten the 
grade by this product between the full or half stations, 
within which the curve lies, regardless of the exact posi- 
tion of the point of curvature, or the point of tangency. 

A grade of at least 0.2 per station is required for drain- 
age cuts. 

A rate of curvature less than i degree per 100 feet, 
should not be used, except in cases where the intersection 
angle is less than three degrees. As curves less than 300 
feet in length are objectionable, a rate of curvature should 
be used to give that length. Curves lighter than i degree 
should not be made longer than 300 feet. 

DRAINAGE. 

Locating Engineers should give special attention to the 
determination of the necessary length of bridges and size 
of culverts, and should keep a note book in which are 
entered an estimate of the extent and a general description 
of the character of the area drained by each water-way ; 
cross-sections of stream at flood height, and any other 
items of importance bearing upon the question of drain- 
age. These notes should be full and explicit, and should 
give the local names of creeks and small streams, as well 
as the names of rivers, and should refer to the number of 
the nearest survey stake in describing all water-ways. 

On all located lines, detail profiles on plate "A" profile 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 19 

paper, scale 20 feet to an inch, should be made of ravine 
sections, where bridges are required. This should show 
the center line for a greater distance than the length of 
the proposed bridge, and also, a parallel line on each 
side 25 feet from center line. Also the high water mark, 
surface indications of rock, as well as grade line with ele- 
vations of stations and rate. 

Thorough drainage is a maxim to be impressed on the 
mind, and Engineers should be aware of being misled 
in so called "rainless districts." 

A tidal estuary may generally be narrowed consider- 
ably from the extreme water lines if stone revetments are 
used to protect the banks from wash. In sections where 
the current is sluggish, it is usually safe to encroach a 
little on the general width of the stream, but in rapid 
streams among the hills, the width that the stream has 
cut for itself through the soil should not be lessened, but 
in ravines carrying mountain torrents the openings must 
be left much larger than the ordinary appearance of the 
banks of the stream would seem to make necessary. 

Culverts and water-ways of perishable material should 
have ample allowance for future permanent construction. 

DRAINAGE AREAS. 

Drainage Areas should be measured while the location 
survey is in progress, for the purpose of determining the 
size of bridge openings. 

The areas of streams more than 12 or 15 miles long 
may usually be taken from maps; areas for smaller 
streams, however, should be taken by the topographer or 
a competent assistant. This may be done most rapidly and 
with sufficient accuracy by stadia methods (see Explora- 



20 ROADBED AND TRACK 

tion Surveys) or where the country has been surveyed in 
the rectangular system, and where the land lines are 
marked on the ground, by sketching the divides between 
water-sheds on a map, and measuring the included areas. 

For this purpose the larger squares of a topography 
book are numbered to correspond to the sections of a 
township, the smaller squares . representing one-hun- 
dredths of a square mile. 

The located line is then plotted on the map and the di- 
vides and water-ways as well as the 25 station points 
marked on this line. 

Starting from the summits on the located line, the 
ridges are sketched orienting the map by a pocket com- 
pass. Distances are paced and the position of the ridge 
line corrected at each land line crossed by pacing to the 
nearest land corner. 

The drainage areas in square miles and hundredths are 
found by counting the squares included in each drainage 
area. 

Where the drainage areas are large, the work may be 
done much more rapidly on horse-back, the distances be- 
ing measured by counting the paces of the saddle animal. 
For this purpose a tally-register is found convenient. 

In addition to sketching the ridge lines the Topog- 
rapher should take notes of the character of slopes and 
surface of watersheds, from which the Locating Engineer 
may determine how to modify the tabular areas of water- 
ways in each particular case. 

All lines sketched in the field should be traced in ink 
and a table made in the back of the book giving stations 
of water-ways with those of the divides between them 
and the corresponding drainage areas. Drainage areas 
should also be marked on the profile. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 21 

The Topographer should make large scale sketches of 
all streams near the crossings, from which the proper po- 
sition of bridges as well as changes of channel may be de- 
termined. He should also note where waterways can be 
consolidated. 

WATER SUPPLY. 

Locating Engineers should be particular to note suita- 
ble and well situated sources of water supply for tanks, 
etc. 

In case of doubt as to the suitability of the water for 
locomotives, samples should be sent, properly sealed, to 
the Chief Engineer for analysis. 

GENERAL. 

If the beginning of a line is at a junction with any con- 
structed line or railroad, full notes of the connection must 
be taken ; and such measurement from depots, switches or 
other important land marks as will give full identification. 
The initial point of all branches will be the junction with 
the constructed line, and should be referred to the nearest 
head block or other fixed point in the vicinity. 

In running lines through agricultural lands care 
should be taken to avoid destruction of crops, orchards or 
other property. Where such property is destroyed, a rea- 
sonable and proper damage should be paid for the same. 

Stations are usually uniformly one hundred feet long 
each, and numbered consecutively. It is not necessary 
to set stakes at each station in all cases on preliminary 
lines; this is left to the discretion of the chief of the 
party. Mark stakes on alternative lines with distinguish- 
ing letters. A. B. C, reserve L. M. N., for located lines. 



22 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Mark points of curvature 'T. C' Point of tangency 
"P. T." on stakes at the beginning and end of all curves. 
Mark stakes "P. C." with the degree and direction of the 
curve. 

Intersection points on location are unnecessary when 
much time is required to put them in. Their real use is for 
connecting lines run in opposite directions. 

On location assume that there will be an off-set of 3 
feet inwards for maximum curve to allow for spirals, 
lighten curves accordingly, and run lines at critical places 
with this in view. 

Put in good solid hubs with witness stakes at all transit 
points, and stakes at plusses that come under fences. A 
record of these plusses should be kept in the transit book. 
This is important. 

Always begin long grade lines at the summit, and work 
down. For such service carry a slip of profile paper, say 
six inches wide and two feet long. Rule the proposed 
grade line on it, assume a summit cut, mark the stations, 
and start down. When at fault, the elevation can be spot- 
ted on the profile, which will show at a glance the relation 
to grade. 

All courses of the line, both true and magnetic, should 
be given, and, for the former, an observation must be 
taken upon starting the survey and the true course re- 
corded in the field book as the work progresses. An ad- 
ditional observation should be taken for the correction of 
meridianal convergency whenever the extent of the sur- 
vey shall attain a departure of one-half degree of longi- 
tude. See the following two examples, notes and re- 
marks : 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 23 

TO DETERMINE THE MERIDIAN FROM ALT. — AZIMUTH OB- 
SERVATION OF SUN. 



Example i. 

(L) Latitude 42*' 44' Arith. complement log. cos. 0.133996 

(A) Altitude W \W '' *• " " 0.063422 

(P) Polar Distance 85^ 29^ 

2 )157<> 86^ 

S 79«13Mog,cos 9.272064 

P-S 6^16' log. cos. 9.997397 

2 )19.466879 

9.733440 
Which is log. cos. of 57<^ 14' 

2 



Azimuth 114^28' 



which is the required horizontal angle at the instrument 
between the sun and the true north point. 



Example 2, 

(L) Latitude 42<> 16^' Arith. complement log. cos. 0.130819 

(A) Altitude 37«> 16>^' *' ♦' •» " 0.099229 

(P) Polar Distance 71** 47' 

2)150« 80' 



S 75«» 40^ log, cos 9.393685 

S-P 3« 53' log. cos 9.999002 

2 )19.622735 

9811367 
Which is log. cos. of 49^ 38' 

2 



Azimuth 99^16' 



Note : — The polar distance is obtained by adding the 
sun's apparent declination as obtained from the Nautical 



24 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Almanac to 90° when the sun is south of the Equator, 
and subtracting the same when the sun is north of the 
Equator. 

The latitude is similarly computed from an altitude 
observation of the sun at noon, corrected for refraction, 
or from maps. 

The altitude (A) is also to be corrected for refraction. 

The refraction equals the natural contangent of the 
altitude expressed in minutes. Thus for an observed an- 
gle of elevation of 33° 41' the natural contangent being 
1.5, the corrected altitude would be 33° 41' — 1.5'=:33° 

39/2'. 

The correction for refraction ' must always be sub- 
tracted from the observed altitude. 

In taking out the arithmetical complement of the log. 
cosine subtract from 9.999999, beginning at the left and 
passing to the right. 

When taking the observation for Azimuth the sun 
should be at least two hours from the meridian. 

Note that the cosines are used throughout and that 
the word L. A. P. S. gives the order of procedure. 

Remarks : — This method cannot be used when the sun 
is near the meridian. The necessary observation may be 
taken by fastening a card with thumb tack on the end of 
a long lead pencil, so that the plane of the card is at right 
angles to the axis of the pencil. The pencil is then fas- 
tened to the eye end of telescope by rubber bands around 
the tube, so that a sharp image of sun and cross wires 
can be projected on card. 

The card should be colored to prevent dazzling the eye. 
An instrument with telescope level and vertical arc is es- 
sential. At least two observations should be taken and 
calculated as a check, and if sun's circumferf'nce be ob- 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 25 

served an observation should also be taken on center to 
make sure that the corrections for sun's semi-diameter are 
properly applied. 

It is necessary to re-adjust the focusing of the cross 
wires in order to make them show on the card and with 
an inverting eye-piece the aperture of the objective should 
be cut down to the fraction of an inch. 

To illuminate the cross wires when observing the North 
Star wrap a piece of tracing cloth around the object end 
of the telescope, so that one half the object glass is 
loosely covered. The cloth may be secured by a rubber 
band. Then illuminate with lantern from one side. A 
good night foresight may be a suitable "X" marked on 
tracing cloth tacked over a box with a candle or lantern 
inside the box. 

Check all change angles by reversing and with needle 
reading. 

In order to secure accuracy of alignment upon the 
straight lines, the transitman must take double sights 
when establishing instrument points, reversing the teles- 
cope to correct errors of adjustment. 

In running curves, a tangential ^ngle of fifteen degrees 
from one point should rarely be exceeded ; twenty degrees 
is to be regarded as a maximum. 

LEVELS. 

Levels on preliminary lines, where speed is an object, 
and the progress of the level limits that of the party, may 
be run with the self-reading rod without target. For 
checks on turning points the rodman will invert the rod. 
The sum of the direct and reverse readings will be equal 
to the length of the rod. 



26 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Levels on located lines will generally be run with the 
Philadelphia Rod with target, and the rodman must carry 
a level book in which to record all turning points and 
benches, calculating the elevation of same and also each 
height of instrument ; checking with the leveler each time 
they pass each other. 

The level rod on turning points and benches should be 
read to hundredths. On ordinary line points to the near- 
est tenth. 

On all turning points and benches, the greatest care 
must be taken to get the vertical rod reading by using a 
rod level, by balancing the rod, or by waving it when 
there is a wind. 

Always establish a substantial and permanent bench 
at the initial point of surveys, and at 2,000 feet intervals 
along the line where they will be protected. Until a line 
is put under construction it is unnecessary to go off the 
center line to establish bench marks, if a good point can 
be found close to the center line. For this, a good hub 
on the center line, close to a fence or wall may be used. 
Use the sea level datum, and if one has to be assumed, 
ascertain its relation with the standard datum at the 
first opportunity and make proper note of the same. 

The elevation of benches must be plainly marked upon 
a "blazed" spot upon trees, or upon a stout guard stake 
driven a foot from the bench mark. 

All bench marks must be fully described in the level 
notes and both elevation and description noted on profile 
as they are established, and at the back of each level book 
a few blank pages should be left, on which should be en- 
tered a list of the benches upon that part of the line cov- 
ered by the book, and a table of the alignment of the sur- 
vey within the same limit. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 27 

The Leveler will note the surface elevations, the depths 
and the flood heights of all considerable streams crossed, 
take elevations in the beds of small streams, and, at suit- 
able intervals, the high water marks, of streams parallel 
to the line. 

He will keep a note of occasional turning-pegs, describ- 
ing them with reference to the nearest stake, so that the 
levels may be taken up speedily in case of a revision of 
the line. 

All level notes must be checked at the end of each day's 
work by adding the back-sights and foresights, and ascer- 
taining the difference. Doubtful sections must be re-run. 

Six hundred feet each way should be regarded as the 
maximum sweep of the level. 

The Leveler should use a hand level to peg into nar- 
row hollows, or over heights which can be turned with 
the instrument. He must record his work and make up 
his profile daily. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

On preliminary wherever helpful to location, and on lo- 
cation wherever helpful to revision, topography must be 
carefully taken. 

Since the amount of topography actually needed and 
used is small, no attempt should be made to cover the 
whole map with accurate topography. On the other hand, 
accurate contour lines for a reasonable distance on each 
side of a line are a great aid in projecting location, and, 
at critical places must not be omitted. Enough sketched 
topography should be used to show that no other and 
better alignment might have been adopted. 

The topography should be carefully taken by actual 
measurements to important points; and must correctly 



28 ROADBED AND TRACK 

show by contour lines where the surface of the ground 
is intersected by horizontal planes at each even lo feet 
of height ; taken on the datum of the survey. Every fifth 
contour line should be heavy and have its elevation 
marked upon it. These contours need be shown only on 
long grade lines or at places where the surface is consid- 
erably broken or sloped. On grade lines, the grade con- 
tour, or line where the plane of grade intersects the sur- 
face of the ground should be dotted in. 

Topography is neither to be used as a safe-guard 
against the larger errors of location, nor for giving the 
last degree of perfection to details of alignment. The fin- 
ishing work must be done on the ground. 



LAND LINES. 

Connect with all township or sub-division lines of land 
surveys in the vicinity of the line of the railroad survey. 
These measurements should include the angle made by the 
railroad line with each township, section or other land 
line; the station of the railroad survey at which the line 
intersects any land line; and the distance along the land 
line to the nearest section or quarter corner, or other 
fixed point. A correct plat properly oriented must be 
drawn in the topography book, showing plainly all the 
above information. 

When the line is located through villages or towns, 
all measurements necessary to tie the center line to the 
plat should be taken. Tracings of the town plats should 
be secured as contained in the Registrar's OiSice, with the 
dates and certificates contained in the original, and copies 
sent to the office of the Chief Engineer. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 29 

All the above land connections should be made com- 
plete on final lines. On preliminaries as much should be 
taken as can conveniently be obtained. 

MAPS. 

Every map and tracing should have a title, giving the 
corporate name of the Railroad Company, the name and 
date of the survey, and the names of the Locating Engi- 
neer, Transitman, Topographer and Draftsman. 

The scale should be distinctly marked, and also the true 
and magnetic meridians. When the former is not other- 
wise known, draw it from the magnetic variation. 

Maps and profiles should follow the same general di- 
rection, South and West to the left and North and East 
to the right. 

Preliminary maps should, in general, be on a scale of 
2,000 feet per inch. General maps comparing prelimi- 
naries may be drawn to a scale of 4,000 feet per inch, and 
should be accompanied by a condensed profile on plate 
*'A" paper, horizontal scale 4,000 feet per .inch and ver- 
tical 100 or 200 feet per inch, (depending on the nature of 
the line). 

Location maps should be drawn from 600 to 200 feet 
per inch (usually 400), depending on the nature of the 
line. 

To avoid cumiulative errors in platting, all angles must 
be laid off from some standard bearing, using the calcu- 
lated course for this purpose. This can best be done by 
laying off any convenient bearing in the general direction 
of the survey and transferrin;^ all angles turned from this 
line by parallel rules or triangles, to the last point scaled. 
This will, on located lines, require all tangents to be'cal- 



r 



30 ROADBED AND TRACK 

culated from intersection to intersection. The use of ta- 
bles of latitudes and departures to single minutes is of 
great assistance. 

On sloping ground, on grade lines, and at all critical 
places even ten foot contours, based on the profile datum, 
must be shown. Every full fifty foot contour must be 
drawn heavier. At suitable intervals leave short spaces 
in which mark the contour elevation. 

On grade lines the grade contour must be shown. 

Draw enough general topography to give a true con- 
ception of the character of the adjacent ground. And 
the position and direction of all water courses near the 
line should be shown. 

MAPS MUST SHOW 

The Station and plus of every "P. C./' "P. C. C." and 
"P. T." Central angles of curves and true bearings of 
tangents. On preliminaries give all angle points. 

The mile posts from the initial point and the full sta- 
tions at suitable intervals. 

The position and name of any village or farm house 
near the line, and the course and direction with arrows of 
all streams. 

Property lines, names of owners, section lines, political 
boundaries and roads. 

On location maps the width of right of way required 
with the extra amount necessary for stations, side-tracks, 
Y's, borrow pits, waste banks, etc. 

Details of junctions, stations, etc., should be shown on 
a larger scale and if convenient may be put to one side 
on the general map. 

The use of colored inks is discouraged. It should be 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 31 

the object of the Draftsman to make his map clear with- 
out this aid ; and so that it will not lose any of its utility 
by being traced and blue printed. 

Tracings of maps should be sent to the office of the 
Qiief Engineer, as the same are completed. They should 
invariably be made on the unglazed side of the paper. 

All maps, plats and profiles should have about nine 
inches clear at each end, so that handling will not make 
the marking indistinct. 

PROFILES. 

Profiles may be made in ordinary country on a sheet 
one-third of the width of ordinary profile paper. In 
rough country it will be advisable to use the width of one- 
half the ordinary profile paper. 

Any profile made upon transparent profile paper or 
profile muslin should, if it is to be made within the width 
of one-third of a sheet, begin in the middle third of the 
sheet; the next part upon the lower third and the paper 
then reversed and the remaining third constructed from 
the other edge. This will facilitate its reproduction, and 
the prints can be separated by scissors and then joined 
at the ends. In this case, care should be taken that the 
profile is so placed on the one-third sheets, that it will 
match when thus cut and joined. 

Breaking is sometimes facilitated by ruling in the in- 
termediate 25 foot elevation lines and using them as 50 
foot lines. 

The line will be divided into sections, averaging about 
one mile in length, and breaking at the nearest full sta- 
tion. Each section should be separately estimated. 

This will not prevent the removal of material required 



32 ROADBED AND TRACK 

for the roadbed or structures from one section to another, 
whenever in the opinion of the Engineer this may be 
expedient. 

Profiles should break where practicable, in the same 
sections as the maps, and have a corresponding title. 

They should be made to read in the same direction with 
the maps, West and South being at the left hand, and 
North and East at the right hand. 

The Engineer should try to put all information in re- 
gard to the line, such as camping places, springs, water 
supply for tanks, etc., on the profile as it is then in a con- 
venient and accessible form. 

When right of way is to be obtained the land lines and 
boundaries of right of way should be marked on the pro- 
file, with reference to the center line, assuming the latter 
to be a continuous tangent — Scales 400 feet per inch lon- 
gitudinal and 200 feet per inch transverse. 

Profiles must show, as far as possible : 

Near the top of the profile the "P. S.," "P. C," "P. 
C. C," and "P. T. ;'' angle points, all angles between con- 
secutive tangents with direction right or left, degree of 
curve and true bearings of tangents. 

The Surface of the ground, grade line, rate of grade, 
elevation of every angle in the grade in figures directly 
below it. 

The location, description and elevation of all benches. 

The position of mile posts, and the elevation of every 
100 feet line at frequent intervals. 

If the profile is made to an assumed datum, a note to 
that effect adding "To reduce to true elevation above the 
sea add — • — feet." "To reduce to any contiguous datum 

add feet ;" leaving out the figures if not known, but 

^ ALWAYS adding note. 



it 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 33 

The elevation of both high and low water for streams 
crossed ; and, at intervals, of all streams with which the 
line runs closely parallel. 

Distinguishing marks in all cuts other than earth. 

The estimated and actual structures, including bridges, 
buildings, culverts, etc., required at all points where they 
are known, with notations of all proposed special work, 
such as changing channels of water courses, protection of 
embankments, etc. 

The estimated or actual quantity in each cut or fill; 
with the yards and direction of overhaul, with a summary 
by sections as follows : 

Right of way Acres. 

Clearing 

Grubbing 

Common Exc Yds. 

Loose Rock " 

Solid Rock 

" Borrow 

Embankment borrowed " 

Rip rap " 

Trestle bridging, pile and frame. Lin. ft. 
Culverts '* each kind. 

Any unusual work, such as viaducts, trusses, girders, 
arches or stone culverts. Common Exc. and Emb. should 
include all extra ditches, channels, highway crossings, 
etc. 

All road crossings and points of water supply, names 
of all towns, and of property and other boundary lines 
as far as known. 

All breaks in stationing to be indicated as follows : 
When the difference is less than one station the profile 



^ 



34 ROADBED AND TRACK 

will be made continuously and the discrepancy indicated 
by two heavy black lines, and the words "long" and "short 
station'' with its length. 

When the error is for more than one station, if there be 
a gap in the stationing, an equal space will be left on the 
profile. When there is a duplication of stations the pro- 
file will be broken and lapped over, so as to leave the 
stations at the bottom of the profile in all cases uniform 
arid continuous. Every ten stations must be marked in 
tens, and every fifty stations marked in full. 

At each end and on the back of the profile a title show- 
ing the character of the survey, whether preliminary or 
final; the corporate name of the Railroad G^mpany for 
which the survey is made, the opening and closing station 
numbers, the proposed beginning and ending points of the 
survey and the name of the Locating Engineer, and Lev- 
eler. The Engineer must see that this title is marked in 
ink upon all profiles sent from his office or camp. 

Tracing's shall be made in suitable sections from the 
original profile and sent to the Chief Engineer, from 
which the necessary blue prints will be made for con- 
tractors. 

RECORDS. 

The note books used will be the transit book, level book, 
memorandum book and topography book. Memorandum 
books are the same size as transit and level books, but 
have blue rulings forming small squares The latter are 
to be used for keeping notes of water-ways and for en- 
tering general items of information in regard to the line. 

Field books should indicate each day's work, giving 
date. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 35 

All subjects contained therein ought to be indexed and 
notes of adopted or abandoned lines marked as such. 
Notes must be made so plain that they may be understood 
by any one. 

Notes of preliminary surveys must be kept with as 
great care as if for the final location. The work of each 
day should be compiled and recorded in the evening, that 
no delay may result from the loss or defacement of a field 
book. 

All notes should be paged in pencil. 

The original transit, level and other notes should be 
sent to the general office when the survey is completed. 
They must also be consolidated, as far as possible, in a 
new book ; giving a revised and complete record of align- 
ment, levels, topography, right of way notes, and other 
data pertaining to the line. 

Note books must not be marked on the outside of the 
cover, but upon the first ruled page of the book, the title 
must be written in ink in the following form : 

Corporate name of the Railroad. 

Name and number of line. 

Name and number of book. 

Character of survey. 

Stations and dates of beginning and ending the 

notes. 
Names of note-taker and Engineer. 

Original notes should be preserved as they are the only 
ones admissible in a court of law. 




36 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



ESTIMATES. 

Estimates should be kept up with location and recorded 
on the profiles. They ought to show the cost of the work 
by sections. 

The prices to be put on the work are usually furnished 
by the Chief Engineer, together with copies of form No. 
, which should be closely followed. 

Care should be taken to include everything necessary 
to complete the work ready for operation and use. 

Estimates may be made from suitable diagrams or ta- 
bles of center heights. 

When the side slope becomes an important factor, the 
proper corrections should be made, see Trautwine's and 
Wellington's diagrams, etc. 

The following table shows the effect of side slopes on 
quantities and indicates when corrections should be apH 
plied. 

In the level column the prismoid is \aken of such length 
that the volume is loo yards. The other columns shdw 
the volume of a prismoid of the same length and center 
height on the various side slopes given. 

Table of ^/( increase due to slope of natural surface. 

20- ft. roadbed slope i to i. 



Center Cut 
Keet 


Level 


5^ 
102 


10^ 


15^ 
114 


20« 
127 


25*^ 
150 


80*^ 


5 


100 


106 


190 


10 


100 


101 


104 


110 


120 


137 


160 


15 


100 


101 


104 


109 


118 


133 


154 


20 


100 


101 


104 


109 


117 


131 


151 


25 


100 


101 


103 


lOS 


117 


130 


149 


30 


100 


101 


103 


108 


116 


130 


148 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 



37 



Table of % increase due to transverse slope of the natural 
surface i6-ft. roadbed slope 13^ to i. 



Center Fill 
Feet 



5 

10 
15 
20 
25 
80 



Level 


5^ 


10^ 


129 


20^ 


26^ 


100 


102 


111 


158 


235 


100 


102 


108 


122 


148 


206 


100 


102 


108 


121 


146 


203 


100 


102 


108 


120 


145 


200 


100 


102 


108 


120 


144 


199 


100 


102 


108 


120 


144 


198 



30* 



507 
441 
422 
414 
410 
407 



On preliminary surveys topography should be used on 
grade lines and at critical places for the purpose of mak- 
ing a paper location, and from this the preliminary esti- 
mate is to be made. 

Preliminary lines to be thus used must be laid close 
to the line the final location will follow. 



PREPARATION FOR CONSTRUCTION. 

Before the work of construction is commenced upon 
any route the Division Engineer carefully examines the 
line to see if any improvement can be made in the loca- 
tion, and he should submit to the Chief Engineer maps 
and profiles of any changes which he may think desirable ; 
but no changes should be made without approval. 

Each Division Engineer usually submits for approval, 
to the Chief Engineer, a list of all buildings, sidings, Y's, 
etc., with proposed location of same, required on all work. 

The arrangement of all stations, terminals and sidings, 
the location of water tanks, and all matters having a bear- 
ing upon the operation of any line should also be sub- 
mitted to the Chief Engineer for criticism before being 
constructed. * 



38 ROADBED AND TRACK 

When approval is obtained, the Division Engineer at 
once makes formal requisition for said structures, always 
giving point of delivery. 

RIGHT OF WAY. 

As soon as the construction of a line has been ap- 
proved, the Chief Engineer issues the necessary instruc- 
tions for securing the right of way, which generally is 
uniformly loo feet in width, except where additional land 
is required for station grounds, borrow pits, waste banks, 
or other purposes. A width of 200 feet should be se- 
cured at all important streams and at other points as 
below. 

Widths of Right of Way Required Where Material Is 

Wasted or Borrozved. 

Ht. of Embk. Width of R. of W. 

8 ft. 120 ft. 

10 " 140 " 

12 " 160 " 

14 " 180 " 

16 " 200 '' 

18 '' 220 " 

20 " 240 " 

22 " 260 " 

24 " 280 *' 

26 " 300 " 



When land owners are willing to sell the earth off of 
additional ground wanted at a reasonable price, 100' of 
right of way will be sufficient if a double track Ry., with 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 39 

slopes for excavation or embankment can be placed there- 
on, but 200' should be taken on all important streams. 

The right of way should be secured as rapidly as pos- 
sible, contracts for the same being taken and forwarded 
immediately to the Division Engineer's office, where the 
deeds will be made. 

The description of irregular tracts which are acquired 
by the Company, will be by metes and bounds, obtained 
by actual survey, and properly referred to the center line 
of railroad and also to some permanent landmark. 

The description of right of way through government 
subdivisions will be made in the following form: 

"A strip, piece or parcel of land one hundred feet in 
width, situated in the North- West Quarter of the North- 
west Quarter of Section Ten in Township Two North, 

Range One West (S. lo T. 2 N. R. i W.) 

County, (State or Territory), and having 

tor its boundaries two lines that are parallel with and 
equidistant from the center line of the railroad. 

"For a more particular description reference may be 
had to the plat drawn upon and made a part of this 
deed.'^ 

The description of lots in platted tracts should be in 
the following form: 

"Lot Seven (7), Block Six (6), in Smith's Addition 

to the town of County of , State of 

according to the recorded plat thereof." 

All plats drawn upon deeds should give ties to the 
government survey points or to some permanent points, 
so that the land can be located from the description of 
the plat. 



40 ROADBED AND TRACK 



RIGHT OF WAY MAPS. 

After the line has been finally located and right of 
way secured, a right of way map should be secured and 
made in the Assistant Engineer's office. 

Right of way maps should be made on a scale of 40G 
feet to the inch, corresponding to the scale of ordinary 
profile paper and should show the location of stations, the 
beginning and ending of each curve, the amount of curv- 
ature and the amount of the angle. They should show 
all section lines, quarter section lines and other land 
lines. 

Measurements to section corners should be made as 
frequently as possible. The maps should show the width 
of right of way at all changes in such width, and the dis- 
tance from the center line to each line of the right of 
way on the right or left. 

In recording deed upon maps, the property described 
should be platted upon the right of way map from the 
actual description in the deed regardless of any plat that 
may be attached. to the deed, unless the deed makes the 
map a part of the deed. 

The progress of fencing done on the right of way 
should be indicated on the right of way map. 

Right of way maps when completed should be for- 
warded to the Chief Engineer, accompanied by all deeds. 

BRIDGE SOUNDINGS. 

Before construction the sites of all the bridges should 
be sounded to determine the character of the foundations 
required. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 41 

Soundings may be done by a party of three men under 
a foreman and provided with the following equipment: 

I Team and heavy wagon. 
I Sounding rod in sections. 

1 Drill ordinary (i inch bar 8 feet long). 

2 Pipe wrenches. 

2 Steel clamps to raise rod. 

1 Spoon. 

2 Water pails. 
I Axe. 

The sounding rod described below is designed so that 
it may be made wherever there are light pipe fitting 
appliances. The connections are reduced in diameter 
to obviate their extra resistance in sticky holes. The 
sounding rod is made of four ten feet sections of one 
inch gas pipe (i}i inches external diameter). Into both 
ends of each section a 6 inch piece of }i inch gas pipe 
is welded so that it projects J^ of an inch outside the i 
inch pipe. These projecting ends are then threaded on 
the outside and connection made between them with the 
ordinary % inch couplings i^ inches long with inside 
thread. These are kept in stock by plumbers, fitters, etc. 

The drill bit is made of a one inch steel rod I2 inches 
long and pointed as an ordinary rock drill with edge i^ 
inches wide, the line across the widest part of the bit, 
for this work, being one inch from the extreme point. 
The upper end of this bit should be welded to a round 
rod of soft iron ij4 inches in diameter, and one foot long, 
the connection at the weld being tapered. The free end 
of this iron rod is then drawn down and threaded to 
fit into the standard coupling. Soft iron is used in order 
to spare the dies in cutting the thread. 



7 



42 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Several of these welded' up-drill bits should be pro- 
vided to avoid the delay of working with a dull tool. 

This sounding rod is to be used as an ordinary churn 
drill, and the sections are connected or disconnected by 
using the pipe wrenches. 

In addition to the sounding rod, a drill made of I inch 
round steel 3 feet long and with a point similar to that 
of the sounding rod, should be provided for starting holes. 

The clamp is a piece of steel of the size and form of a 
monkey wrench. It is made to fit the pipe snugly, so 
that when a lever is put under the handle, the clamp will 
jam against the pipe and the latter may thus be withdrawn 
from the hole. 

Two clamps with levers are used, one on either side 
of the pipe to neutralize the bending and sticking due to 
side strain. 

The spoon is a ^ inch iron rod five or six feet long, 
to the lower end of which a bowl ij^ inches in diameter 
is welded at right angles. It is used for removing gravel 
and mud when beginning soundings. 

Where rock is known to be near the surface, test pits 
will give better results than soundings. 

In making test pits for bridges, the pits should be dug 
long and narrow, so that the digger with a long handled 
shovel may throw out the dirt backward over his shoulder 
from each end of the pit alternately. In this manner 
very deep pits may be dug by one nxan, single casting. 

Where a pier is to be built, holes must be drilled from 
the bottom of the pit to ascertain the character and thick- 
ness of bed rock. 

Notes of the position of the holes, where soundings 
are made or pits dug as well as depths and character of 
materials encountered, should be taken on the ground and 
platted in the office, on ravine sections. 



^ 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 43 



RESIDENT ENGINEERS. 

Assistant Engineers usually give personal attention to 
the instruction of Resident Engineers in regard to cross- 
section measurements and notes, and should from time 
to time take notice, that the work is properly done and 
notes carefully kept. They should see that each Resi- 
dent Engineer has a correct profile of his residency, show- 
ing grade lines, curves, bridge and culvert notes, and 
notes of all special work, such as changes of water course 
channels, rip-rap of banks, location of road crossings, 
etc., etc., and that all such notes are scrupulously ob- 
served and the work done accordingly. 

Resident Engineers will, as a rule, be allowed a rodman 
and tapeman, and when necessary a team with driver. 
The rodman must be capable of handling instruments 
and cross sectioning, the tape man capable of handling 
the rod. The teamster is to make one of the party in 
the field. (For equipment and supplies see appendix.) 

Resident Engineers, upon arrival on their residencies, 
will immediately notify the Chief Engineer, and Assistant 
Engineer of their post office, express, telephone and tele- 
graph address. 

ALIGNMENT AND CHECK LEVELS. 

The Resident Engineer will, as quickly as possible, 
check all curves and tangents and put in spirals. (See 
appendix; "Vertical Curves.") 

The length of spiral and offset for each degree of 
curve is furnished by the Assistant Engineer with the 
approval of the Chief Engineer. For details of spirals. 
see the treatise and illustrations entitled : "The Six Chord 



44 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Spiral/' following appendices at end of construction ac- 
counts and immediately preceding -the section on "Main- 
tenance of Way." 

Run check levels over the residency and report at once 
any discrepancies found. 

At junctions, Y's, etc., he will see that all curves, if 
not of the proper degree to fit the standard turnouts, are 
properly compounded for this. 

He will place a bench mark close to each bridge for 
cut-oflFs for piles and foundation elevation. 

Resident Engineers will not be allowed to make any 
change in grades or alignment; or location or size of 
bridges, culverts, etc., but must promptly call their su- 
perior's attention to any possible changes that they con- 
sider beneficial or economical. 

Engineers must carefully reference the beginning and 
ending points of all curves and points of compound 
curves. Also such other points as may be important. 
This may be done by setting two hubs at an angle of 45 
degrees and 135 degrees on each side of the tangent, say 
100 feet from the P. C. or P. T., as the case may be. The 
hubs should be driven down level with the ground, and 
a stake marked with the proper notation to witness the 
point. By this arrangement the P. C. or P. T., may be 
found by the measurement or by the intersection of the 
lines. 

The line may be referenced, near grade points, by 
measuring two equal distances, in a straight line, either 
on one side or both, at right angles to line and taking 
magnetic course of the reference line. The equal dis- 
tances serve as a gauge of the length of tape used, and 
if one point be lost, the magnetic bearing will help in 
replacing the station. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 



45 



FINAL LOCATION STATIONS. 

The final location stationing is to he maintained through- 
out, and all records and work are to conform to it. In 
case of errors found in one station, maintain the station- 
ing by recording the station long or short, as the case 
may be, giving its correct length. In the case of cumula- 
tive error, due to incorrectness of location chaining, pro- 
rate so as to bring the stations in agreement with those 
of the location. 

CROSS SECTIONING. 



All cross sections should be entered in the Cross Sec- 
tion Book as taken. Even if the cross sectioning cannot 
be carried continuously across a residency, the entries 
should be made continuous as though it were, leave two 
or more blank leaves at the end of each mile, to be used 
for the summary. 

Each piece of cross sectioning should be carefully in- 
dexed in the Cross Section Boc4c, station to station. 

Vertical curves are required at all grade intersections. 
In "sags" the rate of change should not exceed one- 
tenth feet per station. On summits curves should be 
short to facilitate drainage. 

On vertical curves the grade elevation of each full sta- 
tion should be entered on the profile and also in the level 
book. 

Cross section should be taken and slope stakes set at 
every point where a difference of elevation between the 
center line of the two cross sections exceeds two feet, 
and always every 50 feet, treating half stations as though 
they were full ones. In staking out grading have number 



46 ROADBED AND TRACK 

of station marked on face of center stake and cut or fill 
marked on face and number of station on the back. 

On slope stakes at full stations have cut or fill marked 
on the face and number of station on the back. Have + 
Stations marked with last figure of full station with a +. 
Thus, for station 729+63, mark "9+63/' 

Cross sections should be taken at all mile posts for 
convenience in calculations. 

Take cross sections and set grades where the shallow 
side of the cut comes to grade, and where the shallow 
side of the fill does the same. 

It is usually sufficient to note the plusses at which the 
deep sides of the cut and fill come to grade. 

Where it is expected to strike rock or its equivalent, 
the preliminary cross section may be made at a slope 
of J4 to I. This will in part allow for the compound 
sections as they develop on construction. 

All embankments at bridge ends are to be staked out 
with the roadbed two feet wider than called for in the 
specifications, tapering back to the specification width in 
50 feet. 

As these ends of bank are most exposed to rain wash 
it is usually better, if the water-way will permit, to make 
them wedge shaped instead of with the usual rounding at 
the base, thus giving footing material to support the 
corners. 

Banks over 20 feet high, where considerable shrinkage 
is anticipated, may also be staked out for a roadbed two 
feet wider than usual. 

Any isolated mass of rock which occurs between slope 
stakes, but is not included in the regular notes, should 
be separately noted and added to the sum total of the 
material in the cut. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 47 



STANDARD PLANS. 



Resident Engineers will call for blue prints of the 
standard plans of all structures that will be erected on 
their residency, and, in accordance with them, make all 
necessary detailed drawings, showing thereon all dimen- 
sions in conformity with the standard plans furnished. 

A copy of these detailed plans for masonry, etc., must 
be furnished to the Contractor's foreman. In concrete 
work the forms should be designed by the Resident En- 
gineer, giving sufficient dimensions to enable the con- 
tractor to properly erect the forms. 

Blue prints of ravine sections showing the design of 
each opening, together with the bill of material for each, 
will be supplied to the Resident Engineers, who will 
promptly upon receipt, check up all bills and at once 
notify the Assistant Engineer's office of any discrepan- 
cies or errors. 

No changes will be made by the Resident Engineer 
in the standard plans of any structure or in the length 
of pile and frame bridges shown on the ravine sections, 
but he will call the Assistant Engineer's attention to any 
such change as he may deem advisable, and upon ap- 
proval of any change will forward to the Assistant En- 
gineer a revised bill of material for the whole structure. 

He should see that the necessary drain boxes, culverts, 
etc., are promptly ordered and placed so that contractors 
will not be kept waiting to complete the fills. 

FIELD PROFILE AND BOOKS. 

The Resident Engineer will obtain the necessary data 
to enable making up at once, on plate "A" profile paper, 
a field profile similar in every respect to the final profile, 



48 ROADBED AXD TRACK 

showing particularly in pencil the approximate quantities 
and contemplated overhaul. 

He will keep a transit book, field cross-section book, 
bridge book, pile recorder's book, and diary. 

A title should be written on the fly leaf of the book, 
giving the residency number, Resident's name, and post 
office address, with a brief statement of what the book is 
used for. This title ought to be placed on the fly-leaf. 
Each leaf must be numbered or paged, dating each day's 
entries, and carefully indexing, in the front of the book, 
each separate piece of work.- Indexing and paging should 
be done as the work is performed. 

A field entry of notes on paper or in memorandum 
books, intended to be transferred to the proper book by 
the Resident Engineer or his subordinate should never be 
permitted. 

This method of indexing, paging, etc., is to be fol- 
lowed with all books used by the Resident Engineer, in- 
cluding the final estimate book. 

In the transit book should be kept all alignment notes, 
reference points, land and other surveys, together with 
all level notes, which may be taken in connection with 
any survey, so that complete notes of every kind of and 
small piece of work, may be entirely in one book. 

The station for each mile will be given the Resident 
Engineer, and the beginning and ending of miles thus 
shown are to be maintained throughout in handling the 
work, and in all records. 

STATION GROUNDS. 

Resident Engineers will ascertain the location of all 
station grounds, and sidings as early as possible. All 
references to length of siding will be from H. B. to H. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 49 

B. unless otherwise stated. No borrow pits or waste 
will be allowed within the limits of the station ground 
without permission from the Assistant Engineer. Resi- 
dent Engineers will obtain full instructions before per- 
mitting the contractors to commence work on station 
grounds. 

CONSTRUCTION. 

The Assistant Engineer in charge of construction 
should give as much personal attention as possible to the 
details of the work of construction, so as to be fully posted 
upon all points, such as classification of material, etc. 

He ought to see that all work is done in accordance 
with specifications or instructions, and must be diligent 
to save expenses in all ways consistent with sound en- 
gineering. 

He must make written reports to accompany force 
reports to the Chief Engineer of the progress of the work, 
calling attention to any want of proper energy on the 
part of contractors, or any disposition to slight or neglect 
their work. 

The Resident Engineer will keep a diary, entering 
briefly all instructions given to contractors, date that each 
contractor began and completed his work, the date of 
beginning and completion of all openings and important 
pieces of work ; also as a guide to classification notes re- 
garding classified material, the manner in which contrac- 
tors handle various kinds of material and any other mat- 
ter that may be an aid or guide in making the final classi- 
fication and estimate. This will be turned in with the 
final records. 

The Resident Engineer must use the greatest care 
to see that his note books, profiles, etc., are not lost. 



50 ROADBED AND TRACK 

He should keep up his records as far as possible to obviate 
the serious consequences of such loss. 

During the progress of the work of construction upon 
any division, the Resident Engineer must go frequently 
along the line, to see that all work is being faithfully 
and honestly performed in accordance with the specifica- 
tions, and that cross section stakes are properly guarded 
and preserved. 

Careful attention must be paid to the notes on the 
profile requiring special work, such as dykes, ditches, road 
crossings, etc., so as to arrange for the most economical 
performance of such work. 

CLEARING AND GRUBBING. 

Clearing must not be piled oflF the right of way, unless 
the contractor first secures the consent of the owner in 
writing, which consent is to be forwarded by the Resident 
Engineer to the Assistant Engineer. 

Clearing must not be piled within the reach of high 
water, so that it might be floated back into the openings. 
Bear in mind that in all overflow districts there is a cur- 
rent both ways. 

The specification clause as to burning all brush must 
be fully enforced. 

In clearing allowance should be made for telegraph 
lines, which are usually 45 feet from the center line. 
Dead and leaning trees outside the right of way, which 
if blown down towards the telegraph line or track would 
obstruct or damage either, should be carefully selected 
and cut down and proper damages paid the owner for 
same. 

Clearing and grubbing should be so conducted that 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 51 

the top of no stump will be less than two feet below sub 
grade. 

In general, borrow pits should be grubbed for their 
full width, and the grubbing paid for: 

Large grub holes should be refilled and tamped. 

Grubs should be burned or removed from the right 
of way. 

ROAD-BED EXCAVATIONS. 

Resident Engineers will give centers through the ex- 
cavations as the work progresses to insure the contractors 
excavating true to the required slope. 

Plowing should not be done nearer than one foot to the 
slope and all slopes must be cleaned down as the work 
progresses, and when material will permit, by pick, mat- 
tock or shovel. 

Slope boards should be used in this work. They are 
usually furnished by the Company for use of the Con- 
tractor, to be returned to the Resident Engineer as soon 
as the work is finished. 

If, as any excavation progresses, the character of the 
material changes so as to require a different base or slope, 
the Resident Engineer must re-cross section the work 
without delay and take such measurements as will enable 
. him to calculate accurately the amount of material taken 
out. 

On a scale of ten feet to an inch, all excavation cross 
sections involving classification should be platted. On 
these excavation areas, note the classification lines as 
they develop during the progress of the work. 

When a cut contains material in excess of the amount 
required to make embankments, such excess ought to be 
hauled and used to widen the banks equally on both sides 




52 ROADBED AND TRACK 

of the center line within the limits of free haul, and if 
in the judgment of the Engineer, advisable, beyond it, 
paying for the overhaul. 

It should be thoroughly understood that all excavated 
material is, if so desired by the Resident Engineer, to be 
hauled to the limit, where the cost of overhaul per yard 
equals the price per cubic yard of earth excavation. 

In cases where banks are so low as to make haul im- 
practicable, material will be wasted. 

In such cases care must be taken to deposit it in such 
a way that it will not be washed back into the cut. 

Wasting material is objectionable and will only be re- 
sorted to when it cannot be avoided. 

Waste banks must be left in regular and sightly shape. 
If waste be above grade they shall not be nearer than 20 
feet to slope stakes. 

Waste banks are not allowed at mouth of cuts. 

Line the back of waste banks so that a three foot fence 
berm is left, and see that waste banks are generally lev- 
eled on top so that they are not unsightly. 

Whenever embankments are in excess, cuts within the 
limit of free haul (and at the discretion of the Assistant 
Engineer for a reasonable distance beyond it) should be 
staked out wider than the usual roadbed. 

All change channel and cut widening work should be 
staked out early and liberally so that the contractors 
will have no excuse for filling everything in sight from 
borrow pits. 

At passing tracks on the switch stand side both cuts 
and fills should be made three feet wider than usual for 
distances from the stand of 25 feet toward the station and 
175 feet away from it, to enable the brakeman to over- 
take the train after throwing the switch. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 53 

In rock cutting, grades may be marked by white lead 
on the sides of rock cuts at a height of two feet above 
sub-grades. 

The contractor must be obliged to take his cuts out to 
slope and down to grade, yet do so without waste of labor 
in unnecessary work. 

While the work of finishing is being done, the En- 
gineer must see that all rock cuts, and cuts that have 
boulders in the bottom, are taken out one foot below 
sub-grade, and that the cut is full width, so as to allow 
for a full ditch. 

After the cut is out it must be filled in to grade with 
the best material at hand, leaving a ditch on each side of 
the cut for drainage. 

If the contractor so desires he may take out half the 
width of a cut at a time and have it inspected. This to 
allow for handling the material back with the least labor. 

In filling in rock cuts, broken stone from the side or 
bottom of cut not more* than two inches in diameter, 
should be used, if possible, and the contractor allowed for 
the refilling. 

Contractors will deposit on the side of the railroad, 
or at such places as the Engineer may designate, within 
the limits of haul, and convenient for handling by train 
or otherwise, any rock, or stone they may have excavated 
which may be suitable for rip-rap, slope wall, etc. 

In piling, make piles at 90° with the track, leaving a 
four foot space between piles so that a number of men 
may be employed at one time at each pile to quickly load 
construction train standing on main line. 

The use of powder in large blasts, such as seam, pot- 
hole, shaft or drift shots, may be restricted by the En- 
gineer, 



54 ROADBED AND TRACK 

The position of charges must be watched by the Engi- 
neer to protect slopes of earth in a compound section. 
Thus, for a cut of six feet of earth overlying four feet 
of solid rock, the centers should be fired first and mucked 
out and then the cut widened by light side shots to avoid 
shattering slope. 

SURFACE DITCHES. 

Surface ditches should be staked out on the high side 
of cut and excavated at the same time cuts are opened. 

Ditches should be neat and regular, placing all material 
excavated on the lower side in a continuous uniform bank 
with two foot berm, thus forming in a levee, and adding 
to the value of the ditch. 

No surface ditch ought to be less than one and one- 
half feet deep, and two feet wide on the bottom, nor 
nearer than ten feet to the edge of any cut. 

Ditches must be led away at the ends of cuts in order 
to prevent water running against embankments. 

Where cuts are wasted, the waste bank should be made 
continuous on the high side of the cut to hold the 
surface water back. 

In finishing excavate a surface ditch half-way between 
the waste bank and the high side slope, to keep all drain- 
age from the waste bank out of the cut. 

BERM DITCHES. 

Where embankments are made from excavation, and 
there is no borrow pit to keep the surface water away 
from the embankment, berm ditches will be excavated, 
and made as large as the case may require. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 55 

All berm ditches will be staked out, and generally have 
the material excavated from them placed in the embank- 
ment before any material is hauled from the cut. 



EMBANKMENTS. 

When the clause in the specifications requires embank- 
ments to be built to the slope from their base up so that 
the whole may settle into a compact mass it must be en- 
forced by the Resident Engineer. 

Additions made subsequently are liable to slide off. 

The bank must be made full and regular, and care must 
be taken to avoid sags between stations. 

Particular care should be taken to guard against con- 
cave slopes. 

The best material ought to be placed in the center of 
the bank under the roadbed and poorest in the slopes. 
All fills should be topped at least one foot deep with the 
best material obtainable. 

Material unusually liable to shrink, such as frost clods, 
sods, etc., should be placed no farther in from the slope 
than it is below grade. 

Sod and surface material from cuts should not be 
hauled into the light part of the adjacent fill, but fur- 
ther along and used in the slope where the bank is 
higher. 

In building high embankments with wheel scrapers, 
the runways, where carried up into the bank should be 
made the full width of the embankment. 

Runways allowed to stay narrow and hard packed 
cause uneven settlement of the bank after completion. 

When necessary to work in freezing weather the earth 



>6 ROADBED AND TRACK 

:o be used in fills must be kept constantly plowed to 
reduce freezing to a minimum. 

When embankments are constructed over culverts, or 
when they are to abutt against masonry, or trestle bridges, 
Lhe earth forming such embankments ought to be tamped 
or otherwise made as compact as possible. 

The contractor should be required to use the greatest 
care in such cases, that the masonry be not jarred, broken, 
pushed out of place or injured in any way, particularly 
when the mortar is green. 

In turning streams, place the change at the outside of 
the right of way, flaring the opening of the change for the 
first hundred feet of its length in order to avoid erosive 
eddies. 

Care should be taken to make embankments across old 
channels strong enough to resist the action of the current. 

In such cases the width of the embankment should 
usually be not less than ten ( lo) feet from the center line 
on the side against which the current will act, with two 
to one slope. 

SHRINKAGE. 

Resident Engineers will consult with the Assistant En- 
giner as to the amount of shrinkage, if any, that may be 
required on the various embankments. This is governed 
by the kind of material, method of filling, proximity of 
bridges and nearness of the tracklaying. 

This shrinkage, when required, will be placed on em- 
bankments before setting the final finishing stakes, and 
it must be placed uniformly on top of slopes. The con- 
tractor must be informed of the amount of shrinkage that 
he will be required to put on before he completes rough- 
ing in the embankment. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 57 

The average shrinkage is io% on casting and shovel 
work. 

7% on wagon work. 
5% on scraper work. 

A safe plan for shrinkage is to widen high banks from 
slope stakes up and shrinkage can be made up in ballast 
whenever necessary. 

RIP-RAP. 

When embankments are rip-rapped to protect them 
from action of water, that part of the embankment upon 
which the rip-rap is placed should generally be made with 
slope of two to one. 

If the embankment has been finished at a steeper slope, 
the rip-rap should be so placed that its exterior slope shall 
be two to one and well backed. This is to avoid under- 
mining. 

When, however, the base of the rip-rap is on rock or 
its equivalent, the rip- rap may follow the usual Ij4 to I 
slope. 

Wherever possible the base of the slope should be 
ditched to give the rip-rap a secure foundation. 

Stones should measure generally one cubic foot and 
the size of rip-rap should increase with the velocity of 
the stream. 

The largest stones ought to be placed at the bottom and 
where the current has the greatest force, and must be laid 
by hand as closely together as possible so as to avoid large 
openings. 

The ends of all rip-rap protection should be turned 
into the bank so as to prevent its being undermined or 
washed out. 



58 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Care should be taken to make a smooth connection be- 
tween rip-rap and the paving of culverts and masonry. 

SLOPE WALL. 

Slope walls should be made not less than i}4 feet thick 
and their foundation well set down. 

When it is intended to hold slopes at a deeper angle 
than I J4 to I, they should be built with as much care as 
dry rubble work, and whenever possible backed with loose 
rock. 

The bed should be at right angles to the plane of 
the slope. 

BORROW PITS. 

Borrowing from the sides should not be allowed on 
station grounds or sidings, except by special permission 
of the Engineer. 

Material ought to be hauled from the excavations made 
at the ends of such sidings or station grounds. 

If borrow pits are necessary they should be made on 
the extreme outside of the right of way and with care 
for drainage. 

No borrow pits should be made where they might cause 
injury to the roadbed. 

No borrow pits ought to be excavated below the grade 
of openings through which they are to drain, due allow- 
ance being made for setting down culverts, etc., and the 
contractors should be shown how to excavate the pits, so 
that when finished they will drain their entire length. 

If necessary the Resident Engineer should run levels 
along the pit to effect this. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 59 

Borrow pits for light fills should be rather narrow and 
deep to diminish the percentage of sod in the bank. 

Commence borrow pits three feet further out from the 
slope stakes than berm calls for, as slips tear off the 
corner. 

Slopes of borrow pits should be Ij4 to i, both sides. 

Incline the bottom of the borrow pit away from em- 
bankment so that drainage will be toward the outside 
of the pit. 

On the outside of the borrow pit leave three feet for 
fence berm immediately inside of right of way limit and 
line the borrow pit generally so that it will not be un- 
sightly. 

Do not cut borrow pits directly through to creek chan- 
nels, but leave 15 feet of creek berm. 

In finishings dig small ditch for drainage in a suitable 
place as far away from embankment as possible. 

At bridges, where possible, widen original channel 
from within four feet of toe stakes, on 2 to i slope, down 
to stream bed, dishing the center one foot. 

This is to be done generally for full width of right of 
way. 

The quantities to be borrowed may be arrived at from 
the plotted haul and the contractors should be instructed 
where, and how much to borrow, so that the necessary 
borrow may not be exceeded, leaving excavation to be 
wasted. 

Berms of the following widths must be left between 
the slope stakes and the edge of the borrow pit : 

For banks under 3 feet in height, berms 6' wide. 

For banks from 3 to 10 feet in height, berms 8' wide. 

For banks over 10' in height, berms 10' wide. 



60 ROADBED AND TRACK 



CROSSINGS. 

In locating crossings consult the right of way deeds 
and comply with any stipulation contained therein. 

Grades on crossings should not exceed six per cent. 

The usual width of a farm crossing should be 12 feet, 
and that of an ordinary highway crossing 20 feet with 
the usual slopes, and with 20' of level grade each side 
of center line. Top of road crossing should be one foot 
above grade. 

Engineers should endeavor to secure, wherever practi- 
cable, 'at reasonable expense, undergrade or overhead 
crossings. 

Bridges and culverts can frequently be utilized at slight 
expense for undergrade crossings for stock by making 
necessary openings in the right of way fence. 

Street crossings in cities or towns will consist of a 
plank outside of each rail and the space between the 
rails fully planked, except for the flange groove, between 
each rail and the nearest plank. 

Country road crossings and private farm crossings will 
consist of four planks, one on each side of each rail, and 
the space between the two inner planks must be well filled 
with broken stone or earth. 

All the planks in a crossing must be cut to an even 
length and laid evenly. 

Planks must be secured to a tie by a sufiicient number 
of 8 inch boat spikes; common track spikes must not 
be used. 

The inside plank next to the rail should be laid so as 
to leave two inches between the head of the rail and the 
edge of the plank. On the outside of the track the under 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 61 

edge of the plank should be notched to set over the spikes 
and the plank close to the rail. 

The ends of the plank ought to be rounded and bev- 
eled. Crossings should be put in promptly to avoid any 
inconvenience to the public. 

FINISHING. 

The contractor must have the requisite plant for finish- 
ing up, before giving finishing stakes. 

This is to avoid having cuts and banks completed to the 
neglect of ditches, borrow pits, drainage, etc. 

One and one-half to one slopes on fills should be 
combed down to true prismoid if necessary, for the con- 
tractors are paid for so making them. 

No concave slopes are permitted, either in cuts or fills, 
or unsightly bumps in the cut slopes. 

FINISHING STAKES. 

All grading should be finished according to the stand- 
ard roadbed sections. 

In finishing embankments on tangent, put in the grade 
on hubs placed in center, leaving the foreman to set his 
own side stakes. 

On curves one grade stake should be placed at the cen- 
ter and one on each high side at the edge of the bank. 

In cuts a grade stake on each side, both on tangents 
and curves, should be driven in the foot of the slope at 
the half width of the roadbed. 

Stakes should be set at each full and half station. 

The tops of all grade stakes should be chalked for iden- 
tification. 

Before acceptance, the grade over the embankments 
and through cuts ought to be checked, to see that ditches 
are of proper depth and fully excavated, and that the 



62 ROADBED AND TRACK 

roadbed between grade stakes is without sag and true 
to the grade line. 

Neat, true to the prism grading work ought to be re- 
quired. Before acceptance see that the prisms are full. 
This may be done with a short slope board with a small 
level attached. 

Where the line is to be ballasted, in order to facilitate 
drainage, the roadbed at sub-grade should be crowned 
on tangents by raising the center four inches above the 
sides, making due allowance for ballast in establishing 
final grade elevation, 

SUPER-ELEVATION OF CURVES. 

On all curves the roadbed ought to be finished to 
conform to a super-elevation equal to two per cent of the 
width of the roadbed for each degree in the index of the 
curve. The outer edge of the roadbed should be raised 
above the grade at the center line half the super-elevation 
and the inner edge of the roadbed depressed below the 
grade of the center line half of the super-elevation, the 
center line remaining in conformity with the profile grade 
plus shrinkage. Thus, for a i6 ft. roadbed on a 4 deg. 
curve the super-elevation would equal 1.28 feet or .64 
feet above the grade of the center for outer edge and .64 
feet below the grade of the center for the inner edge. 

Curves having bridges within their lengths should be 
treated in the same manner as at other points. 

The distance out in both cases should be set at a point 
corresponding with the width of the roadbed desired, 
which in general will be 16 feet on embankments and 8 
feet each side of the center line. On sharp curves proper 
:orrections should be made in the slope stakes due to the 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 63 

curve elevation. It is desired that embankments shall 
be full and strong on the outside of all curves. 

This inclination of the surface should be carried in 
full amount through the whole length of the curve and 
should gradually be brought to the level at distances 
beyond the ends of the curve equal to 25 feet for each 
degree in the index of the curve, unless the tangents be 
too short. 

Super-€levation will not be graded on any roadbed 
greater than for an 8 degree curve. 

Material used for ballasting, widening banks, or rais- 
ing sags should be procured at points where the removal 
of same will benefit the roadbed by widening cuts, re- 
ducing grades, ditching, etc. 

•Engineers should give this subject special attention. 

MASONRY. 

Special attention ought to be paid to all masonry, to 
see that it is done strictly in accordance with the plans 
and specifications, great care being used in laying out 
the work. 

All culverts and masonry structures should be staked 
out and a plan furnished the contractor's foreman, on 
which the location of all stakes must be shown. 

The stakes for the inside and end building lines should 
be set far enough back from the work to permit of its 
being carried on without disturbing the stakes, and so 
that a line stretched from tack to tack will intersect at 
the nearest corners. 

In putting in abutments, piers, etc., the footing course 
must be spread below the wash, and the reach of frost, 
unless the foundation is on rock or its equivalent. 



64 ROADBED AND TRACK 

In general where piling cannot be driven, a safe sup- 
porting power of two tons per square foot may be taken. 

Excavations for stone masonry will in general be 
staked out one foot greater than the outside dimensions 
of the footing course. 

In concrete foundations without grillage, they may 
correspond with the dimensions of the footing course. 

Sufficient slope should be given to reasonably obviate 
caving during the laying of foundations. 

It is usually best to cross section the larger foundation 
areas in squares, so that, in case of enlargement by cav- 
ing, extra sloping, etc., a complete record of the surface 
is at hand. Stakes should not be put in on these squares, 
the slope stakes being set independently. 

When so directed by the Engineer, all material ex- 
cavated from foundation pits, within haul of embank- 
ment, is to be placed therein and estimated as excavation, 
and borrow quantities reduced accordingly. 

A complete record with sketches and dimensions ought 
to be kept of all masonry built, particularly showing the 
foundation work, which may not afterwards be accessible. 

The depth of the foundation below some fixed point in 
the structure as top of coping, must in every case be 
given. 

Resident Engineers should allow no important struc- 
tures, such as abutments, piers and large culverts, to be 
started until their immediate superior has examined and 
approved the foundation. 

In the case of minor structures, box drains, etc., the 
Resident Engineer's approval will be sufficient. 

He must examine the foundation for all sub-sills, tres- 
tle bents, culverts, etc., to see that they are satisfactory. 

Engineers should guard against taking any risks by 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 65 

building on foundations subject to settlement, wash, frost, 
etc. Even when solid rock is reached several feet should 
be drilled into to prove it is not a shell. 

The Resident Engineer should ask for special instruc- 
tions in cases where there is no certain foundation. 

CULVERTS. 

Every culvert should be built so that it can discharge 
water under a moderate head without damage to itself. 

Culverts should be laid out at right angles to the 
center line whenever practicable; the channel being 
changed if necessary. 

They should as a rule be set low enough to drain 
borrow pits. 

All culverts must be made to drain themselves as well 
as their tributary areas. 

The greatest care should be used. in preparing founda- 
tions to keep them below frost and from becoming under- 
mined. For masonry or dry wall culverts all soft ma- 
terial must be removed and the walls carried well down 
in trenches to a secure foundation. 

The space between the walls must be carefully paved. 
Paving is usually 12 inches deep and consists of flat stones 
set upon their edges, the longest dimensions being at 
right angles to the water-way. 

They should be of sufficient depth to reach through the 
whole paving and so laid that the spaces between them 
are a minimum. 

Culverts ought to be laid to as great a grade as their 
safety and the nature of the ground will permit, at the 
same time insuring a proper inlet and outlet. 

Culverts should be protected at both ends by a curb 
of large stone, extending three feet below the floor. 



66 ROADBED AND TRACK 

The lower end must receive special attention, to keep 
the back wash from undermining, and to give free and 
safe vent to the water for some distance from the slope. 

The foregoing also applies to wooden box culverts. 

Vitrified pipes, when used for culverts, should be at 
least three feet below sub-grade, and crowned a few 
inches at the center to allow for settlement. 

When putting in pipe culverts, the bottom of the trench 
ought to be rounded, cutting depressions for the sockets. 

If the natural foundation be poor, it should be re- 
moved and good material substituted. Stone in contact 
with the pipe should be avoided. 

Care should be taken that the spigot end of each sec- 
tion of pipe enters the socket of the next section to its 
full depth and is blocked up, so that the lower interior 
surface of each section is flush with the connecting one. 

The mortar for cementing the joints should be com- 
posed of equal parts of sand and cement thoroughly 
mixed just before using. 

The earth should then be tamped thoroughly under 
the pipe, taking care that the hardest tamping is not done 
directly under the center of the pipe (which should be 
slightly relieved) but on each side of it about 30** from 
the vertical. 

When filling in, use drag scraper to build up walls 
of well trodden earth, parallel to and as close as possible 
to each side of the pipe, giving the space over the pipe a 
more moderate tamping, thus imitating the conditions of 
a pipe laid in a trench. 

When double pipes are put in, they should be placed 
far enough apart to permit of thorough work between 
them. 

The upper end of a culvert may sometimes be effi- 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 67 

ciently protected by a wooden bulkhead, whose founda- 
tion is deep enough to prevent undermining or upheaval 
from frost. 

This may be made by planting inclined posts against 
the slope and on each side of the culvert mouth (but not 
too close) so that their lower ends are well down below 
the natural surface. Planks are then spiked on clear 
down and fitted snugly around the pipe. Before the 
wood decays the bank, aided by rip-rap, may be sufficient- 
ly consolidated to take care of the culvert. 



BLIND DRAINS. 

Blind drains are made of rough stones thrown in 
without particular order, except thajt the largest stones 
should be at the bottom. 

The top of the drain should be covered with brush or 
sods. 

The use of blind drains is objectionable, and should 
be restricted to cases where the amount of water to be 
disposed of is known to be very small. 



PILING. 

Stake out all pile bridges in advance of the driver, and 
in accordance with the standard plan, setting a stake for 
each pile. 

In general it is best to use the near face of the bent 
as its station number; for then centers can be plumbed 
up from hubs below, etc. 

In this case the piles must be driven immediately back 
of the stakes set for them. 



68 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Pile Inspectors are appointed by the Assistant En- 
gineer, and they report to the Resident Engineer of the 
residency upon which they are recording. 

It is their duty to watch the driving of piles at all 
times, and to keep a record of all piles driven. 

The Resident Engineer ought to require piles to be 
driven to such depths as will make them secure against 
being washed out by the scour of streams as well as 
against sinking under the load. 

Formula for safe load in pounds: 

2W H W=wt. hammer in lbs. 
S + I HzziFall in feet. 

'S=Set of pile in inches under last blow. 

As the simplest rule, some specifications require that 
the pile be driven until it will not sink more than five 
inches in five blows,- hammer one ton, fall 25 feet. 

The Resident Engineer provides the Pile Inspector 
with a standard level book to be headed as below, and 
with ravine sections showing the pile openings on the 
residency, together with bills of piling ordered for each 
opening, which the recorder will enter in the pile record 
book. 

Resident Engineers are held responsible for the proper 
keeping of the pile record by the recorder. 

The bents of each bridge are numbered consecutively 
with the stationing, the bank bent being numbered i, and 
the piles in each bent lettered, A, B, C, D, etc., from left 
to right, when looking with the stationing. 

Sketches of all pile foundations, other than trestles, 
must be given, in order that the piles in the record may 
be properly identified. 



'RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 69 

The pile record shows on the left hand page: 

1st. Station. 

2nd. Bent No. and pile letter. 

3rd. Kind of pile and whether treated or un- 
treated. 

4th. Length put in leads. 

5th. Penetration below surface. 

6th. Length under cut-off, to be filled in subse- 
quently. 

7th. Penetration under last five blows. 

8th. Weight of hammer and last drop in feet. 

On the right hand page all remarks bearing on the 
work should be made. 

The Pile Inspector should see that long piles are not 
used where shorter ones will amply suffice. 

To prevent splitting or brooming the piles in driving, 
the top must be well chamfered all round or pile rings 
used. 

For hStrd driving the piles must be shod. 

When necessary to drive to a great depth, and piles 
of adequate length cannot be obtained, one ought to be 
spliced upon the top of another. 

The first pile having been driven as far as practicable, 
it must be cut oflF squarely to receive the other or follow- 
ing pile, which must also be squared and set upon top 
of the other one already driven. The piles are then to 
be squared on four sides and fastened together by spiking 
on pieces of scantling. 

Pile Inspectors when leaving a residency should leave 
the pile record book with the Resident Engineer. This 
record book of the Inspector is turned over to the Bridge 
Engineer, who makes up a complete record for each 



70 ROADBED AND TRACK 

bridge by separate bents, either pile or frame, with com- 
plete bill of material. Where the piles are driven by the 
Railway Company, the foreman in charge is expected to 
keep the above records and report them to the Resident 
Engineer. 

In giving cut-offs on pile bents, or curves, drive a tack 
in the pile under the inside rail (the grade pile) at some 
convenient whole number of feet near the cut-off and 
below it, if possible, blazing the pile where the tack is 
driven and marking the feet, up or down, to cut-off on 
the blaze. 

This distance should be recorded in the notes. 

The outside pile is treated in the same way, allowing 
for the elevation according to its distance out. 

On tangents tacks should be driven in the two outside 
piles, the intermediate cut-offs being lined in by the 
sawyers. 

If possible try to avoid driving the tacks above or at 
the exact height of cut-off, as in case of error the record 
is lost. 

In every case the distance from the top of the pile to 
the cut-off should be noted, as this with the pile record 
fixes the length of pile below cut-off. 

TIMBER STRUCTURES. 

All timber should be sawn or hewn square, of proper 
dimensions, free from large wanes, shakes, rot, large 
and unsound knots, or any defects likely to impair its 
strength and durability. 

The use for which timber is intended must be taken 
into consideration, all imperfect sticks being excluded 
from places where considerable loads are to be sustained, 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 71 

particularly where the piece is under transverse strain or 
tension. 

Frame trestles should have foundations composed of 
piles or mud sills. 

When, in the judgment of the Engineer, the ground 
is 90 hard that piles cannot properly be driven, mud sills 
may be used. 

In preparing for foundations^ for trestles or other 
structures, care should be taken to have the bed entirely 
in excavation. To facilitate this step bents should be 
used in extreme cases. 

These sills ought to be settled as nearly as possible 
to a permanent bearing by the use of heavy rammers. 

Care should be taken not to bury with earth any portion 
of the sills or posts. 

Foundation pits for trestle bents should be arranged 
so as to give good drainage. 

Great care must be taken in framing trestles and all 
timber structures to secure a perfect fit at all joints. 
Shimming should never be permitted. 

All adjustments on height of structures, due to settle- 
ment or other causes, must be rectified by jacking up 
from the bottom to the proper elevation. 

Unless the road is to be ballasted the bridge stringers 
should be set 3 inches above sub-grade. 

Allowances for ballasting should be made on all ma- 
sonry, piers, abutments, etc. 

In general : 

1st The foundation must be firm and unyielding. 
2nd. The pile bents must be jacked and braced to 

right line. 
3rd. The cut-offs must be true and piles water 

tabled. 



r 



72 ROADBED AND TRACK 

4th. All timbers must be sized to a true and full 
bearing on piles and other timbers. 

5th. Ends of caps and ties must be sawed to line 
from end to end of bridge ; ties sized to full 
bearing without shoulders, guard rails well 
secured in line. 

6th. Sway and other bracing must be adequate 
and well bolted and spiked. 

7th. Bank walls, dump boards and supports must 
be in good shape, the track approach true 
and firmly bedded, earth or ballast kept 
away from the ends of stringers or wall 
plates. 

8th. All framing must be so arranged that water 
is not retained. 

gth. Water-ways must be cleaned out and rein- 
forced with rip-rap if needful. 

loth. The w'hole structure must be in good line 
and surface completely bolted and washered 
throughout. 

nth. All creosoted structures shall be doped with 
creosote wherever cut framed or bored. 



ABUTMENT AND PIER CRIB FILLING. 

Abutment and pier cribs should be filled with angular 
stones of a size and character satisfactory to the En- 
gineer, which should be placed in the cribs without dam- 
age to any portion of the structure, and as the inspectors 
direct. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 73 



FENCING. 

Fencing should be placed on the exterior boundaries 
of the right of way as shown on the profile or right of 
way map. 

It should be built to conform with the standard plans 
of the Company, and the local fencing laws, which 
should be consulted for this purpose. 

Posts should have, at 500 foot intervals, a wire brace 
twisted tight from the top to the bottoms of the two 
adjoining posts. 

Suitable corner braces should always be put in. 

All wires should be stretched until they hum when 
lightly tapped. 

QUANTITIES. 

Resident Engineers should calculate quantities as the 
work proceeds. 

The calculation should be completed before the com- 
pletion of the grading of the roadbed and ' carefully re- 
corded. 

Graduation quantities will as a rule be calculated by 
the method of average end areas. For this Resident 
Engineers must generally take cross sections with no 
greater diflFerence than 3 feet between the center heights 
of adjoining cross sections. 

Returns should be made to the nearest full yard, omit- 
ting tenths. 

In calculating quantities at the ends of cuts, where 
the solid has only one end area, estimate as a pyramid 
instead of as a wedge ; i. e., the end area by one-third of 
the length. 



^ 



74 ROADBED AND TRACK 

As a check, see that the sum of the pay quantities less 
the waste equals the total embankment. 

In all calculations reserve the better man for the final 
cliecking. A contrary course sometimes results in- no 
check. 

The following tabulation will show the limit beyond 
which the cross sections must either be taken closer to- 
gether or else the prismoidal corrections used. 



TABLE OF PRISMOIDAL CORRECTIONS. 

Correction in cu. yds. per lOO ft. 



Diff. in 




Stations f 


or slopes 


f 


Cent. hts. 


M:i . 


y^-.i 


1:1 


1^:1 


I 


0.2 


03 


0.6 


0.9 


2 


0.6 


1.2 


2.4 


3-7 


3 


1.4 


2.8 


5-6 


8.3 


4 


2-5 


5-0 


9.9 


14.8 


5 


3-9 


7-7 


154 


23.1 


6 


5-6 


II. I 


22.2 


33-3 


7 


• 7-6 


15-2 


303 


45-4 


8 


9-9 


19.8 


39-6 


59-3 


9 


12.5 


25.0 


50.0 


750 


lO 


15-4 


30.9 


61.7 


92.6 


II 


18.7 


37-4 


74.7 


1 12.0 


12 


22.2 


44.4 


.88.9 


133-3 


13 


26.1 


52.2 


104.3 


156.4 


14 


303 


60.5 


121.0 


181.4 


15 


34-7 


69-5 


138.9 


208.3 



Note: — That the corrections vary directly with the 
slope ratio and with the square of difference of center 
heights. For prismoids less than loo ft., multiply above 
corrections by the length in feet and point off two deci- 
mals. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 75 

In unusual cases, particularly on mountain work, the 
prismoidal corrections may, by special instruction from 
the Chief Engineer, be used throughout. 

These corrections are to be added together for each 
cut or section and deducted in gross from the end area 
volume. 

Note the conyenient rule for the area of three level 
sections — One-half center height+sum of distance out-(- 
J4 road-bed+sum of side heights. 

Irregular and compound sections should be platted on 
cross section paper on a scale of lo feet per inch, the 
classification marked on them distinctly and the end areas 
calculated by the usual methods. 

The prismoidal formula should be used for masonry. 

REPORTS. 

Resident Engineers should forward each week a con- 
cise report, compiled from their diaries, showing the prog- 
ress of the work, good and bad methods of handling the 
same, and other items of importance; also any recom- 
mendations for increase of force or change in the method 
of deaHng with the work. 

This ought to be accompanied by a force report giving 
by sections, stations and contractors, the full average 
force which the contractor has on the ground during the 
time covered by the report, and which might if conditions 
were favorable, be used on the work to advantage. 

For this purpose, men and animals are not to be 
counted unless the contractor has at hand the necessary 
plant for them. 

In the remark column the number of days actually 
worked by this full force should be given. If half force 
works full time enter a half number of days, etc. 



76 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Then, on the back of the report, note the causes of 
time lost, such as "Idle 3d and loth on account of wet 
cut, station 548" or "Borrow pits allowed to freeze, sec- 
tion 17," etc. 

Resident Engineers should report at once by letter, 
telephone or telegraph, any matters which require the 
prompt decision of an higher authority. 

PROGRESS PROFILES. 

Progress profiles should be sent each month to the 
Chief Engineer's office properly marked to show all work 
done up to and included in the last estimate, on the part 
of the road in charge of the Engineer. 

They should show all work done both graphically and 
by percentages the total for each section and all material 
delivered to date. 

Not only grading but also bridges and culverts, with 
their exact location, description and the location of all 
buildings, or structures of any kind, wells dug, main 
track, sidings or "Y's" laid, etc., should be shown. 

The depth that piles are driven below the surface of 
the ground should be indicated by dotted lines, showing 
the point of lowest pile in bent; the mud sills of trestles 
should be shown by a short heavy line, and on steep side 
hills the elevation of each mud sill should be marked in 
the same way. 

When track is laid, the end of the track should be 
marked for each day. 

The completed profile is generally returned to the of- 
fice of the Assistant Engineer at the close of the work. 

The marking on progress profile by months should be 
diagonal or section ruling at an angle of 45° to right. 



^ 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 77 

same to left, same both right and left crossing and uni- 
form shading with lead pencil. The section shading should 
open with about twenty lines to the inch. The pencil 
shading must be moderately heavy to blue print well. No 
attempt need be made to reserve a special form of shad- 
ing for any one montK Thus, January and October, if 
not adjacent, may have the same shading. 

The months may be marked on the shading with their 
customary abbreviations or with Roman Numerals. 



Jan. 


. I. 


July . 


. VII. 


Feb. . 


. . II. 


Aug. . 


. VIII 


Mar. . 


. III. 


Sept. . 


. IX. 


Apr. 


. IV. 


Oct. . 


X 


May 


. V. 


Nov. . 


. XI. 


June 


, .VI. 


Dec. . 


. XII. 



Open spaces in the shading should be left for these 
marks, which should be used often enough for quick 
identification. (Several on each section.) 



REPORTS. 

Maps, profiles, estimates and general records should 
be completed while construction is in progress, and the 
data for making them close at hand. 

The standard record book for graduation is furnished 
each Engineer in charge of a residency. 

The notes should be written in ink when final, but not 
until then. The record should contain cross-section notes, 
and all other data pertaining to the calculation of quan- 
tities, classification in detail, ground and grade eleva- 
tions, alignment, material or labor account, and the data 



r 



78 ROADBED AND TRACK 

■ 

for every item embraced in the final estimate, including 
force accounts. 

Following the notes of each section, there should ap- 
pear the notes of all rip-rap, road crossings, drainage 
and all other grading work which has been done upon 
that section. 

Excavations for foundations should generally be en- 
tered in the bridge book as their cost is chargeable to 
bridges, trestles and culverts. 

Following these notes, there should be a general sum- 
mation of quantities of the different classes of work, con- 
cluding with a statement of the "final estimate'' for the 
section. 

At the end of each mile give also the names of all the 
grading and clearing contractors engaged on that mile ; 
noting the beginning and ending stations of their work, 
together with the date they began and completed their 
work. 

All solid rock cross-sections ought to be inked in a 
separate plat cross section book, showing fully the clas- 
sification lines, and at the end of each cut its total classi- 
fication. 

A final summary will be made, giving the estimate by 
totals in each section. 

The record must be kept up, as far as possible, while 
the work is in progress, and should be carefully indexed 
and turned in to the Assistant Engineer at the close of 
the work, and finally checked in his office, before a final 
estimate is given. 

In the standard record book for bridges (called the 
Bridge-Book) the final notes pertaining to truss bridges, 
trestles, cattle guards, culverts, pipe drains and other 
structures required for drainage should be entered in ink. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 79 

This must show quantities, classification, disposition, 
dates and the notes necessary to check the quantities, to- 
gether with the name of the sub-contractor actually doing 
the work. 

On the left hand page should be entered all bills of tim- 
ber, piling and other material; also the amount actually 
in structure and disposition of the surplus. On the right 
hand page a sketch of the structure, showing in the case 
of pile bridges, a ravine section, the kind of material pen- 
etrated with penetration of piles, similar in outline to 
standard ravine section. 

In the case of truss bridges record the floor system 
separately from the truss proper. 

Care should be taken in this record throughout to dis- 
tinguish between treated and untreated material, either 
piling or sawed lumber. Show whether creosote or chlor- 
ide of zinc is used in treated material. 

For masonry structures, and all culverts of whatever 
kind sufficient dimensions must be shown to enable the 
quantities to be checked. 

In all cases care must be taken to show the nature and 
kind of material the structure is founded upon; giving 
the quantities, classification and disposition of the ma- 
terial excavated from foundation pits. 

Under the structure ought to be entered the date work 
was commenced and the structure completed, the name 
of the sub-contractor actually performing the work, and 
that of the inspector. 



1 



80 ROADBED AND TRACK 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. 

For Class of Structures. 

W. B. Wooden or timber box culvert. 

S. B. Stone box culvert. P. C. Pile culvert. 

S. A. Stone arch culvert. P. B. Pile bridge. 

T. P. Tile culvert pipe. T. B. Trestle bridge. 

C. P. Cast culvert pipe. H. T. Howe truss. 

B. D. Blind drain. C. T. Combination truss. 

P. G. Plate girder. I. T. Iron truss. 

D. S. Draw span. 

The Resident Engineer should see that each Record 
Book has its title written in ink upon the first ruled 
page of the book in the following form : 

BRIDGE OR GRADUATION RECORD BOOK. 

Of sections to of the 

railroad. 

From Station to Station 

Asst. Engineer. 

Resident Engineer. 

The Bridge Book should be carefully indexed and 
turned in with the final estimate. 



PERMANENT BENCH MARKS. 

As soon as the construction permits, the Resident En- 
gineer should place permanent Bench Marks at least 
every half mile; and when possible establish them on 
masonry bridge seats, stone culvert steps or other sub- 
stantial and permanent objects. When such structures 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 81 

are not on the work with sufficient frequency, requisition 
should be made for standard Bench Marks. 

All these should be recorded in the last pages of the 
Record Books and on the final profile, giving both loca- 
tion and elevation. 

FINAL PROFILE. 

Upon the completion of work upon any Residency, the 
Resident Engineer ought, as soon as practicable, com- 
plete and send to the Assistant Engineer a correct profile 
of the division, showing all information required on pro- 
files, in accordance with the actual construction. 

This profile should be made as per standard sample 
(see preceding instructions Profiles) on a continuous 
roll of plate "A" profile paper, in scale 200 feet wide, 
long enough to leave 18 inches of blank paper at each 
end. 

To the usual title should be added : 

Final Profile, Residency No. 6. 
Miles, 18 to 27, 
Station, 1081 to 1556. 

Give the station and plus of both ends of pile and 
girder bridges, centers of end pin of pin bridges, center 
of pipes and all covered culverts, center of road cross- 
ings and cattle guards ; names of rivers, creeks, town and 
stations; length of sidings; H. B. to H. B., alignments, 
Bench Marks and final quantities by sections and struc- 
tures from the record books. 



r 



82 ROADBED AND TRACK 

STATION PLATS. 

Station plats should be made on a scale of one inc 
equals lOO feet. 

They should show the name of the station, the couni 
and province in which they are located, and the title i 
the branch and system to which they belong. 

This title should be in the lower left hand corner 
possible. 

The quarter section, town and range should be plaixj 
shown upon the map, the number and kind of conveyan 
of each piece of property, as also the North point; da( 
scale and number to be shown as specified for right- 
way maps. 

Make the drawing on tracing cloth, using the unglai 
side. > 

The degree and curvature of the turn-out and I 
alignment of all the tracks should be shown comply 
together with the distance out from the center line 
main track, when said tracks are parallel to the n? 
track. 

The location station of the head block should be sh<i 
and the character of the turn-out or switch designa! 
such as stub-switch, split switch, or whatever the naj 
of the device may be. 

Take plusses to all land lines and show them pU 
outside of right of way line, so as to place them oil 
the way of future tracks and buildings, which will c< 
figures. 

Land divisions, such as sections, townships and rafl 
should be written with the top of the letters to the N 
regardless of the other lettering on the map. 

School District numbers should be reported and \ 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 



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82 ROApBED AND TRACK 



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RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 83 

ten in on the map in pencil with date of obtaining same, 
as they are liable to change without notice. 

Make center line .a fine, clear line rather than a heavy 
one, on account of making scale measurements from it 
It is unnecessary to rule in double lines. 

HAUL AND OVERHAUL. 

The positions of the mile posts are fixed, and the con- 
tractor must arrange with his sub-contractors accord- 
ingly. 

When material is hauled past a mile post, that fact 
and the quantity moved must be stated in the column 
of remarks in the estimate books, on both miles affected. 
For example: "On mile 50, five hundred cubic yards 
hauled into embankment from mile 51." All excavated 
material (from cuts or borrow pits) must be estimated 
and placed in pay column on the mile upon which such 
material was excavated. 

All calculations should be checked in the office of the 
Assistant Engineer before a final estimate is given. 

This work is facilitated by the use of tables, diagrams 
or a twenty-inch slide rule. 

The foregoing method pays for a full yard of overhaul 
the moment that yard passes the boundary of any full 
overhaul station. 

No fractional overhaul stations are considered. 

According to the usual definition of overhaul («. ^.,. cen- 
ter of bulk of cut to center of bulk of fill after the free 
haul has been made) the contractor is always overpaid 
by this method. 

On level ground the percentages of overpayment when 
the 100 feet haul station is taken as the indivisible unit 
are as follows : 



84 



ROADBED AND TRACK 

Per Cent, 
First one hundred feet of overhaul 



A Ol 


two 


lA^JtV^VJ 




\JI. \ 


J V V.A AACt-I^A 








three 












33-3 




four 












25- 




five 












20. 




six 












16.7 




seven 












14-3 




eight 












12.5 




nine 












II. I 




ten 












10.0 



These excess percentages would average a great deal 
less on ordinary work since the cuts and fills usually in- 
crease with the length of haul. 

On level work the excess would be eliminated, if the 
free haul by the 100 foot unit method be made 50 feet 
longer than by the center of bulk method. 

The hundred foot unit method favors any length of 
haul to some extent, but the premium is much greater 
on the short hauls, and it is a good one to use when it is 
specially desired to help them. 

If closer figures be desired, the horizontal length of 
haul lines on the diagram may be ruled so that they differ 
by 50 feet in length instead of 100 as shown. 

In this case, the excess percentages on level work 
would be cut in two, for then every 50 feet would be 
taken as the indivisible unit of haul. Similarly taking- 
every 25 feet as the unit the 100 feet excess percentages 
would be divided by four, the price paid per unit being 
always proportional to its length. 

In other words, the smaller the unit the nearer the ai>: 
proach to an exact measure of overhaul. 

Under the same contract a 100 foot unit should not 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 85 

be allowed to one subcontractor, while another is held to 
a 50 foot unit. Some uniform method clearly understood 
in advance by all parties to the. contract should be used. 

It is often the best plan to adopt a rule for measuring, 
that slightly overpays in a definite manner. 

This tends to avoid disputes, and, in case estimates have 
to be submitted to the courts, overhaul figures particu- 
larly when approximate graphic methods are used, will 
not add to complications. 

Note that in the diagram the true measure of the haul 
over 500 feet is the part shaded, the limiting inside lines 
being drawn perpendicular to the ends C and A of the 
500 foot haul line. 

Thus the sum of the right and left shaded areas be- 
tween the 500 and 600 feet lines is approximately, 

^X(6oo — 500) X 97yds.= 48.5 yds. overhaul, simi- 
larly between 600 and 700. 

I J4 X (700— 600) X loi yds^^isij^ 

Total 500 to 700 =200.0 

The estimate from the diagram by 100 ft. units is 97 
yds.Xi sta.+ioi yds.X^ stas.=299 yds. 

An excess of 49.5%, which is about the same as the 
overpayment for the first two hundred feet of level work. 



li ti 





EXCAVATION. 




Sta. 


Yds. 


Per 


Sta. 


Total. 







130 




630 


+50 




90 




500 


I 




120 




410 


+50 




100 




290 


2 




90 




190 


+50 




60 




100 


3 




40 




40 


+73 




0.0 







86 ROADBED AND TIJACK ' 

OVERHAUL EARTH. 

97 Cu. Yds. I Station 97 

Id " 2 '' 202 

Total overhaul to 700 299 

OVERHAUL ROCK. 

80 yds. I Station 80 

82 " 2 " 164 

Total overhaul to 700 244 





EMBANKMENT. 










Total 


Sta, 


Yds. Per Sta.. 


Total each. 


Solid Rock 


3+73 


0.0 






4 


50 


50 


31 


+50 


30 


80 


SO 


5 


50 


130 


81 


+SO 


70 


200 


125 


+80 


60 


260 


163 


6 


10 


320 


200 


+SO 


80 


400 


250 


7 


"5 


Sio 


318 


+50 


580 


590 


368 


8 


120 


710 


444 



In the foregoing the amount of solid rock is taken 
which will in each case when broken to swell 60% of its 
volume in place fill the yardage marked in the earth col- 
umn opposite. 

In making this diagram the total yardage, both in cuts 
and fills both ways from the grade point, is summed up 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 87 

to the various cross section stations within the limit of 
haul. These stations are platted on a horizontal line to 
the scale chosen. 

Then the total yardages from the grade point to each 
station are platted vertically under that station to the 
yardage scale chosen and connecting lines drawn as 
shown. 

Then a horizontal scale is slid downwards until it meas- 
ures between the cut and fill projections 500, 600, 700 feet. 
These horizontal lines are then ruled in. 

This haul diagram may be platted on plate "A" profile 
paper to the following scales: 

Horizontal i in.=200 to 400 feet. 
Vertical i in.=:200 to 2000 yds. 

Shrinkage and expansion affect distances hauled but 
not yardage hauled ; this latter is always to be measured 
and estimated in excavation. 

In the diagram i yard solid rock is taken equal to 1.6 
yards in embankment. Hence dotted line is platted in 
proportion, vertically. Thus at the point where the regu- 
lar cross section quantities sum up to 160 yards, the 
dotted line passes through the 100 yard point. 

Free haul points and all other quantities determined 
from diagram of this form are to be entered into the notes 
as final, no further numerical calculations being neces- 
sary. 

The haul diagrams from which final estimate has been 
made are to be turned in with the final cross section 
notes and become part thereof. 

The Engineer will note expansion of rock by taking 
stations between which, cut and fill actually balance on 
the ground. 



88 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Haul should be estimated separately for each cut, and 
paid for on the section from which the excavation is 
made. 

That phase of railway construction coming within the 
scope of the railway civil engineer has thus far been 
chiefly described by Mr. Stephens. 

Regarding the actual laying of ties and rails and the 
ballasting, lining and surfacing of the tracks, these mat- 
ters will be found pretty well covered in section two of 
tliis volume. Those who may require a more compre- 
hensive and detailed account of the subjects will find it 
in a very excellent work entitled "Notes on Track" by 
Mr. W. M. Camp, from which are given a few brief ex- 
tracts pertinent to the work of laying the ties and rails, 
as follows: 

'The work of track-laying may be analyzed into two 
distinct operations, namely: That of forwarding ma- 
terials and laying them down at the front ; and the work 
of joining these materials together and building the track 
structure. The methods pursued in the former opera- 
tion have to do principally with the speed and cost of 
track-laying, and in the latter with the excellence of the 
track, for, on general principles, good track can be laid 
just as cheaply as poor track, if intelligent labor be em- 
ployed and placed under competent supervision. In the 
organization of a track-laying crew there is usually a 
superintendent of construction, assisted by a clerk and 
three foremen. There is a foreman over tie distribution, 
a foreman with the rail car, and a foreman over the strap- 
pers and spikers. The clerk keeps the time of the men 
and looks after ordering and accounting for the camp 
supplies. Circumstances sometimes demand both a clerk 
and a time-keeper. If the work is done by contractors 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 89 

the railway company has its own superintenaent or en- 
gineer, who is usually assisted by a clerk and an inspector 
or two, to see that material is not wasted and that the 
work is done properly and according to contract specifi- 
cations. The number of inspectors required always de- 
pends a good deal upon the honesty and reliability of the 
contractor. There is also a receiver of material employed 
by the Railway Company, through whose hands all the 
track material must pass and be accounted for by the 
time it reaches the front. 

"The Superintendent of Construction usually gets about 
on horseback, and for convenience of communicating with 
headquarters it is a good plan to build the telegraph line 
as fast as the track-laying progresses. When this is done 
the superintendent of track-laying usually has a clerk who 
is a telegraph operator, and the line is temporarily con- 
nected with the office-car and put in working order as 
often as the car is side-tracked, or every evening at tht 
end of track if the outfit train is kept moving with the 
work. Usually there is a night watchman to take care 
of the locomotive, and sometimes another to look after 
the train and outfit. On extensive work, however, par- 
ticularly when some distance from the base of supplies, 
there is usually a night train crew to make up the ma- 
terial train or the following day's work and bring it to 
the front. The baking for a large crew, and sometimes 
part of the cooking, is done during the night by an ex- 
tra force in the kitchen car." 

PLACING TIES. 

This is covered fully in section 2 of this volume under 
the general head of Cross-ties and sub-heading of Spac- 
ing Ties. The practice on different roads is given, also 



90 ROADBED AND TRACK 

tables giving number of ties per mile. Writing on this 
subject, and continuing, Mr. Camp states: 

"It will usually be found cheaper to distribute the ties 
with teams, if there is good opportunity to work them, 
than by any other method. Ten teams in one day can 
haul out the ties for a mile of track. The wagons should 
be coupled up short and provided with a sort of rack, 
so that a full load may be put on in a single pile. A 
V-shaped affair built on the order of a hay-rack is 
sometimes used. It saves much labor of handling to 
unload the ties from the cars to the wagons direct. A 
plank chute, with rollers, attached to the door-posts, 
with the outer end slung from the top of the car, is some- 
times used for passing the ties from the car to the 

wagons." 

* * ♦ * *^ 

"The ties are thrown down and then lined and 
spaced. If the faces of a tie vary in width the 
wider face should be placed downward, thus taking 
advantage of a larger bearing surface for the ballast. 
In lining the ties two men are given a stout cord 
or small rope about .1,000 feet long, called the tie 
line, which they stretch out and wrap around stakes 
set opposite every center stake at a distance of half 
the standard tie length. On curves the tie line should 
be staked about every 25* feet. On some roads it 
is the rule to line the ends of the ties on the south 
or east side of the track ; on other roads they are lined 
on the side of the track on which the mile posts are 
located, and on many roads the inside of curves is always 
taken from the line side; but any question as to which 
is the proper side to line is of comparatively little conse- 
quence. On double track it conduces much to the appear- 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 91 

ance of things to always line the ties on the outside of 
both tracks. As the ties are laid down they are dropped 
approximately to the tie line, and the two men referred 
to, one working at each side of the track with a light 
pick, one end of which has been cut off near the eye 
(commonly known as a 'picaroon'), pull the ties to the 
line and space them at the same time. It saves time to 
have a man with a sort of T-square gage turned down 
at the end so as to reach over and catch the end of the 
tie, measure from the long corner and mark across the 
face of each tie, on the line side, with a large plumbago 
pencil, a gage line for the edge of the rail base. This 
can be done rapidly, and it saves the spikers the trouble 
of gaging each tie to a notch on the hammer handle, as 
it is usually done. Among track-layers this man is 
known as the 'fiddler/ In some cases his tool consists 
of a piece of 6" board with a cleat across one end, to 
catch over the end of the tie, and a car door handle 
screwed on top, with which to carry it." 

^J^ ^^^ ^^m ^m^ ^^^ 

"Men a little accustomed to the work will rapidly place 
the ties about the right distance apart, by the eye, with- 
out hardly taking thought. Ties should be placed square- 
ly across the track, and never obliquely to suit joints 
which do not come exactly opposite. On curves it is 
usual to put the butt or wide end of the tie to the outside 
of the curve. It is the practice to some extent, however, 
to vary this arrangement to suit the class of traffic. Thus 
where the curve is to be elevated fully for fast passenger 
traffic the larger end of the tie would be placed under 
the inner rail, so as to give more supporting surface to 
resist the additional weight of freight trains thrown to 
that side of the track by reason of the slower speed. But 



92 ROADBED AND TRACK 

if the freight traffic is the more important and the curves 
are elevated for a compromise speed, the larger ends are 
placed under the outer rail, so as to better resist the ad- 
ditional weight thrown upon that rail by passenger trains 
running at higher speed." 

^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

"In order to space the ties with reference to the joints, 
in advance of the laying of the rails, a light pole as long 
as the standard rail is trailed along over the ties and 
the proper locations for the joint ties are measured off. 
In laying the Columbia and Western branch of the 
Canadian Pacific Ry., a piece of band iron 30 ft. long, 
with a ring on the front end, to pull it along, and copper 
rivets at intervals corresponding to the tie spaces, was 
used for this purpose. The use of a spacing pole or line 
requires the attention of two men and gives a good 
deal of bother. Where the rails are laid broken jointed 
requiring the arrangement of two sets of joint ties in 
each rail length, it is better to let the tie spacing go, 
except roughtly, until after the rails are laid down — 
and it is perhaps the better plan in any case. Two men 
working with the picks and two men with bars to lift the 
rails, can then space the joint ties and divide up the 
other spaces to conform thereto. Owing to variation in 
rough measurements the joint ties should not, in any 
event, be located far ahead of the rails. To avoid dis- 
crepancies and the necessity for rearranging the ties at 
intervals the pole measurements should be checked occa- 
sionally by referring back to the rails.'' 

Joints, Supported and Suspended. — ^This subject is 
treated at length in Section 2, under the sub-heading of 
"Rail Joints," but in regard to what are generally known 
as "three-tie joints," Mr. Camp, continuing, says: 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 93 

"Since long splice bars have come into use the term 
*three-tie' joint has gained currency. Such, however, is 
only another name for a supported joint, the *three-tie' 
idea arising from the fact that the splice extends over 
three ties. Strictly speaking, the two outer ties of such 
a group are not joint ties, because they lie neither under 
the joint nor adjacent to it. For the sake of accuracy 
the terms joint and splice should not be used interchange- 
ably ; nevertheless their use in this manner is pretty 
general." 

* 3|E 3)C 3)C 3|C 

The Rail Car. — "From the point where the materials 
are unloaded from the construction train the rails, and in 
some cases the ties, are hauled ahead on strongly built 
cars known as 'rail cars/ also commonly called 'iron 
cars' and 'steel cars.' The car is usually about 8 ft. long, 
with 4x8 inch side sills and four cross pieces, and it 
should carry a load of 15 to 18 tons, or, say, forty or 
forty-five 80-lb. rails. On both ends of the car, near each 
corner, there should be a roller, for use in unloading the 
rails. Planks are sometimes nailed to the under side of 
the frame, between the two middle cross pieces, to form 
the bottom of a box for carrying tools and small sup- 
plies. The wheels are usually about 16 inches in diam- 
eter and the treads of the same should be 7 or 8 inches 
wide, so that the car may be safely run over loosely- 
lying rails, before the track is spiked. If the wheel treads 
are narrow in a case of this kind it requires a great deal 
of care to keep them from dropping between the rails 
on curves. A rail car off the track, with a load of rails 
aboard, is often the cause of serious delay to the whole 
work. The axles should be as large as 2^ or 3 inches 
'n diameter, and the wheels should be spoked, so that 



94 ROADBED AND TRACK 

they can be spragged in emergency. For hitching the 
team to the car there should be a large ring eye-bolt 
at each side sill at the middle. For hauling rails it is 
usual to have a team of two horses hitched in tandem, 
the driver riding the hind hors€i and driving the one 
ahead. In this way, they pull close beside the track, on 
a rope 25 to 30 feet long, and are driven at a trot when 
returning with the empty car. A man with a brake stick 
should always ride the car and be ready to unhook the 
rope in case the car should get the start of the team." 
Placing Rails. — "As the limit to the length of track 
that can be laid in a day, after the ties have been placed, 
is fixed only by the rapidity with which the rails can 
be laid down, much depends upon the skill acquired by 
the rail-car gang in handling rails. The succession of 
movements in laying the rails to place is about as fol- 
lows:. There is a man with a wheel chock to stop the 
car at the right place at every move ahead. There is a 
squad of five men (more or less, according to the weight 
of the rail) near the head end of the rail who seize it 
in their hands and carry it ahead as soon as the car 
stops; after a little practice they pull the rail off so as 
to drop it almost to place. Two men, known as 'heeler' 
and 'hip heeler,' at the rear end of the rail, move it in 
line with the rail behind; the heeler inserts an expan- 
sion shim ; the men at the head end give the rail a pull 
backwards, to close up on the shim; one man who 
watches the rails for lip carries a bar, to hold the end of 
any rail in line, in case of necessity, and the car is 
pushed ahead. A clamp gage is sometimes used on the 
rails ahead of the car to keep them from spreading, 
especially on curves. Where quick work is desired there 
are two parties handling rails, unloading from both sides 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 95 

of the car at the same time. The opportunity to do this 
is not so favorable if the rails are laid broken jointed, 
which is the reason that contractors prefer to lay them 
square jointed. On track with but few curves greater 
speed can be made in laying rails square jointed than 
when laying them broken jointed, because there is not so 
much starting and stopping of the car. 

"One rail-car can handle the rails for laying a mile 
of track per day. In fast work two rail-cars are used. 
One of the cars is loaded while the other is being un- 
loaded, and in order to get the loaded car past the empty 
one, when pulling the loaded car to the front, the empty 
car is turned up on its side, on the ties, outside the 
rail, and held there or tilted back and propped in a 
leaning position while the loaded car is passing. • A 
portable turntable has sometimes been used for this pur- 
pose. The men with the rail-laying car come back with 
the empty car each time as far as the point where it is 
passed by the loaded car coming out, but if the work 
is properly managed they should pass near the front, 
thus delaying the rail-laying crew as little as possible. 
The crew at the rear should be large enough to unload 
the material, curve the rails, if necessary, load the ties 
and the rail-cars and keep things moving at the front. 
In some cases where the ties are hauled, ahead by teams 
the rail-cars are loaded by the rail-laying crew. Where 
such is the practice it pays to load up two cars with 
rails, before starting out, and take them both to the 
front. After the first car has been unloaded it is taken 
off the track and the second car is run forward and un- 
loaded. This arrangement saves the time that -would 
otherwise be lost in taking the crew back to load and 
return with the second car, and it gives the material 



96 ROADBED AND TRACK 

train a chance to run back and do switching. On every 
carload of rails hauled ahead enough splices, bolts and 
spikes are taken to lay the rails. The splices are thrown 
off at every joint passed and spikes and bolts, in the 
original kegs or boxes, at such intervals as they are 
needed. In some instances the heelers attend to dropping 
off the fastenings. 

"In laying track around the curves the inner rail gains 
upon the outer rail at the rate of about 1.03 inches per 
100 feet per degree of curvature. Provision should there- 
fore be made to lay enough short rails on the inner side 
of the curve to compensate for this gain. In practice 
such rails are seldom shortened more than i ft., but a 
shortening of about 6 inches is considered preferable, 
as then the relative position of the joints on the two sides 
of the track need not change so much. It is most con- 
venient to crop the rails with a view to save one or two 
bolt holes, which will usually shorten the rail about 6 
inches. If 293^2 feet is the length of the short rail used 
each one so laid should be placed when the inner rail 
has gained 3 inches instead of waiting until it has gained 
all of the 6 inches, as then the joints on opposite sides 
need not get more than 3 inches out of the desired rela- 
tive position. If the tangent beyond the curve is laid 
square- jointed, the last short rail laid in the curve (or the 
only one in a short curve) should be cut to such length 
that it will bring the joints even at the end of the curve, 
whether it comes the standard length for the short rail 
or not. The short rails for use on curves are usually 
loaded with the rest and are designated by some mark, 
such as a band of white paint around the rail or by 
painting the end of the rail white or both. 

"It is not considered standard practice to lay in main 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 97 

track a piece of rail shorter than 14 feet. Gaps shorter 
than this are closed by taking out a rail of full length 
and using two cut rails as 'closers' for the whole dis- 
tance. As an example, suppose that a gap of ten feet 
is to be closed. Taking out a whole rail leaves a gap 
of 40 feet, which is closed by laying two 20 feet pieces 
or two pieces of other convenient lengths, neither being 
shorter than 14 feet. On the outer side of curves it is 
not desirable to use short lengths at all, especially pieces 
shorter than 20 feet. On short curves it is an easy 
matter to avoid the use of a short piece by slipping the 
rails back to carry the gap ahead to the tangent. Short 
lengths of rails laid on either side of a curve should be 
curved before laying, whether the rails of full length 
laid on the curve are so prepared or not. To secure a 
proper fit for the splice bars the ends of any rails which 
may have become burred by sawing or other cause, 
should be filed smooth on the fishing 
surfaces. For this purpose sharp cold 
chisels and large bastard-cut files are 
useful. The same treatment should 
be applied to splice^bars burred at the oold chisel. 
ends." 

"In passing from even to broken joints in entering a 
curve, or vice versa, upon leaving the curve, the work 
need not be delayed to await the cutting of a rail, for 
the changed arrangement of the joints may be started 
and the connection made temporarily by turning out the 
end of a whole rail and laying a switch point. A rail 
may then be cut at convenience, to fill the gap, and the 
spare piece from the rail so cut should be taken ahead 
to the other end of the curve, or else to the next curve. 




98 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



If the curves are only a short distance apart (say less 
than 1,000 feet) it is usual, where the practice of chang- 
ing the relation of the joints at curves is followed to 
continue the broken joints throughout the intervening 
tangents/' (See "Rail Joints'' in Section 2 for Even and 
Broken Joints.) 

SPLICE BARS. 




T 



— ^ — o — sr 



isr 



^" ^ ^t^ 




1. One Tie Supported. 




2. Two Ties Suspended. 




o m -^ m ' m 




3. Three Ties Supported. 



"Touching the question of square or broken joints for 
double track, arguments are presented both ways. Some 
prefer square joints in order to keep the joint ties square 
when the rails creep. If the rails creep on broken- jointed 
track the ties are slewed out of square and the rails are 
pulled out of gage and alignment. This difficulty may 
be overcome, however, by putting anchor splices or anti- 
creepers on the solid rail opposite the joint. Others 
prefer broken joints for the reason that, with traffic in 
one direction, one rail will generally creep more than 
the other, and if the joints are laid even to start with, 
it is only a little while until the joint ties become slewed 
out of square, making it necessary to drive one of the 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION .99 

rails back, to bring the joints opposite and straighten the 
ties around/' 



Handling Curved Rails— "It is well to so arrange 
the work that the rails may be taken from the curving 
blocks or machine and loaded directly onto the cars; 
otherwise the expense of handling is considerably in- 
creased. After rails are curved they should be handled 
with special care and should not be thrown. 

"In laying where curves are numerous the rails should 
be curved in the material yard or before they are shipped 
to the front. A man from the engineering department is 
usually given charge and supplied with a note book 
giving the location and lengths of the tangents and 
curves of the line. This man has charge of loading the 
rails and the ties (in case the ties are of different kinds, 
so that a harder quality may be had for the curves) and 
he is supposed to so arrange the shipments that cars 
loaded with material for the curves are forwarded in 
their proper order. By a little calculation the cars can 
be arranged to come exactly in the order needed. To 
avoid confusion, cars loaded with rails for certain curves 
should be labeled by marking, on a shingle or card tacked 
to the side of the car, the station numbers of P. C.'s 
between which the material is to be used. In building 
the Columbia & Western branch of the Canadian Pa- 
cific Ry., each car was marked with the initial station for 
any curved rails carried, and the first and last rails of 
each curve had the station number painted on them. 
Rails curved for different degrees of curvature should 
not be mixed, or carelessly loaded on the same car. To 
avoid inconvenience the curved rails for difTerQijt, curves 



100 ROADBED AND TRACK 

should be placed in separate piles, divided, if necessary, 
by pieces of board. It is also customary in loading 
curved rails not to place rails for more than one curve 
on the same car, the balance of the carload, if there is 
room to spare, being finished out with straight rails." 
"Following behind the rail-laying car come the splicers 
or 'strappers,' as they are commonly called. These men 
are usually divided into two parties — the 'head strappers/ 
who should be quick and steady with the fingers, to put 
on the splices and one bolt in each splice to hold it in 
place, and the 'back strappers/ who put in the remaining 
bolts and finish tightening the splice/' 

^ >|c H: 3|: :|c 

"The first thing to be done is to get the ends of the 
two rails in line, at the same level, and take out the 
expansion shim. This the head strapper does by prying 
on the rail with his wrench in one hand, and grabbing 
up with the other hand a chip, pebble or some other 
object to put under one of the rails to hold it up evQn 
with the other; it then takes but an instant to put the 
ends in line. Then, standing inside the rail, if the bolt 
heads come on that side, he puts the splice bars in place, 
not by feeling for a bolt hole in the rail with his finger, 
but by sighting down with the eye — a more rapid method. 
He then puts a bolt through one of the middle holes, 
gives the nut a few turns with the fingers or wrench, far 
enough to hold the splice in place, and goes ahead to 
another joint. The head strapper should work some 
little distance in rear of the rail laying, as, if he gets too 
near, the removal of the expansion shims may permit 
the rails to be bunted back and close the joint openings. 

"The back strapper next comes along, puts in the full 
nunflJSrr-of .<boUs: and tightens them." 

,' * • * 

'. " :|c * * * * 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 101 

"He should carry a spike maul, and after the bolts are 
fairly well tightened sledge the splice bars together by 
striking each a hard blow between every two bolt holes 
and at the ends; and each bolt head should be lightly 
tapped. This hammering will pulverize the oxide scale 
between the surface of the rail and the splice bars and 
drive the splice bars to a closer fit. The bolts will be 
found loose after this hammering and should then be 
tightened again about as tight as a man can conveniently 
pull on them with an i8-in. wrench, using both hands 
and standing on his feet. Such an adjustment will not 
be too tight, as it would if the splices were worn to a 
closer fit with the rail, as is the case after trains have 
run for awhile. Nuts should be put on flat side to the 
washer or nut lock, and before they 
are tightened the splice bars should be 
adjusted to bring the bolts squarely 
across the rail. A good fit for the 

bolt head cannot be obtained unless spike maul. 

> 

the bolt is at right angles to the splice. 
After the track is ballasted and lined the bolts should be 
thoroughly gone over again, for after surface kinks have 
been taken out and the rails put in line some of the 
splices will be found to have loosened. Some roads re- 
quire that within a month after traffic begins running 
the bolts shall be tightened again." 

"Where rails of different heights come together in 
main track the splice bars should be stepped and made to 
fit accurately and it is sometimes found necessary to 
offset them to suit a difference of thickness in the two 
webs or a jog in the alignment of the same. The joint 
in this case should be made ^supported' and an iron 
shim should be put under the rail of lesser hdight, or a 




102 ROADBED AND TRACK 

stepped shim under both, to bring the top surfaces of 
the rail-heads even. This shim should be spiked to the 
tie, like a tie-plate, so that it will remain in place. A 
splice made to fit the two rails of dissimilar section is 
generally known as a 'compromise' or 'offset' splice." 

Spiking. — "Spiking is one of the most important de- 
tails of tracklaying, because it is very troublesome to 
remedy when wrongly done. Spikers should not be 
pushed, for if they are they will surely slight the work 
in some respect. Two men drive spikes together, deliv- 
ering blows on opposite sides of the rail at alternate 
intervals. Right-handed men should be paifed with right- 
handed men, and left-handed with left-handed. Fre- 




SPIKB. 

quently right and left-handed men are paired together, 
principally because it looks better, perhaps, to see both 
facing the front ; but there is nothing gained in rapidity 
thereby and the work cannot be done so satisfactorily. 
While driving a spike the spiker invariably pulls or starts 
the tie toward himself at each blow. It is clear, therefore, 
that two men driving from the same side of the tie will 
both move it, unless it can be held up more tightly than 
can always be easily done, and both will tend to move it 
in the same direction; but when they stand facing each 
other the tendency to pull or start the tie one way is 
balanced by a like tendency from the opposite direction, 
and the tie is not moved in being spiked.'' 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 103 

"The line side of the track is of course spiked first. 
To begin with, the spiker on the outside sees that the tie 
end is at proper distance from the rail, driving it through 
when too long, or having his partner drive it from his 
end when too short; he then sets his spike. When a 
gage mark is not placed on the tie face he measures by 
a notch out on his hammer handle. This length should 
be such that a tie of standard length projects equally 
beyond both rails when they are spiked to proper gage. 
When the rail is too far out of gage with most of the 
tie ends the man holding up the ties, called *the nipper,' 
should take his bar and throw the rail over to the approx- 
imate gage. After the spike on the outside of the rail 
has been set, so as not to allow the tie to shove through 
while it is being raised to the rail, the nipper holds it 
firmly up against the rail base while the spikers do the 
rest. Before the spikes are driven, however, the men 
should see that the tie is properly spaced from the others 
and square across the track. If this is not attended to 
the spikes will be out of true when the tie is shifted to 
proper position. 

"The nipper is usually provided with a pinch bar (a 
crow bar is a poor tool for this purpose) and a block of 
wood about 24x12 ins. in size, for a fulcrum, with a 
spike driven into it for a handle, and 
ordinarily they answer the purpose well , , _^ . 

enough." PINCH BAR. 

^ :|c jfc ^ ^ 

4e 4e 4c 3|c 4c 

"Spikes should not be leaned to suit the swing of the 
spiker's hammer, but should be driven perpendicular to 
the tie face. It requires some vigilance to get men to 
abide by this rule, since one must bend his back a little 



104 ROADBED AND TRACK 

in order to do so, but it must be insisted upon. Where 
a spike has been driven slantwise it is a difficult matter 
to catch the head with a claw-bar when the spike must 
be pulled, and if the spike is inclined under the rail the 
latter will ride the neck of the spike and cut it. One aid 
to good spiking is to have the hammer handles the full 
regulation length of 3 ft. Ordinarily men will not drive 
spikes properly unless they are watched and criticised 
occasionally; let foremen not forget this. The spike 
should be started plumb, with the side of the point against 
the rail flange, so that it will crowd the rail all its way 
down. The finishing blow should tap the head down to 
a firm hold upon the rail flange, but not too forcibly, lest 
the spike be broken off or cracked under the head or the 
neck of the spike.be forced away from the rail flange. 
The effect of this last blow is to spring the rail base 
slightly into the fibres of the wood and start the spike 
further into the tie, so that the spikes are made to hold 
the rail-base to the tie with a force of several hundred 
pounds. This drawing force is caused by the action of 
the wood fibres, which are forced inward with the spike 
and act somewhat like a pawl to resist any tendency to 
pull the spike back. 

*The usual practice is to drive two spikes in each tie 
for each rail, and to drive them staggered; that is, on 
opposite sides of the same rail the two spikes stand near 
opposite edges of the tie face. In ties sawed or hewn 
on four faces spikes should not be driven nearer than 
2^ ins. to the edge of the tie face and in pole ties they 
should be driven at about 34 the width of face from the 
edge of the face. Spikes should be so driven that they 
have no tendency to swing the tie askew to the rails 
before the track is ballasted. This requirement can be 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 105 

fulfilled by driving both outside spikes the same edge of 
the tie face and both inside spikes near the other edge 
of the face. For the same reason spikes should not be 
driven in the middle of the tie face; besides, with pole 
ties, the heart of the timber being under the middle of 
the face, the spike does not hold so firmly when driven 
there and it is also more liable to split the tie or to come 
where the tie most usually checks open." 

^ H: 3k ^ 3(c 

«l* V' y^ ^If ^^ 

*i» 'i> ^ ^ ^ 

"On the gage side of the track, every third tie at the 
farthest, that is, at least one-third of the ties, should be 
spiked to the gage ; but where the ties lie very unevenly 
and on curves of short radius, the rails should be spiked 
to the gage on alternate ties. It is more important that 
men spiking with the gage should be experienced and 
skillful in driving spikes than it is with spikers on the 
line side. The nipper for the gage spikers should keep 
the rail thrown nearly to the gage ahead of them. If 
the line side is left badly out of line after being spiked 
it is well to throw it into fair line before spiking the gage 
side. Where the tie that is being spiked is held up 
firmly the rail can be moved slightly to gage by a stroke 
sidewise with the hammer; if not, or if it be moved 
slightly out of gage after the spikes have been started, 
but before they are down, it can be drawn powerfully by 
slightly bending over the spike on the side from which 
the rail is to be removed, and as the spike is driven fur- 
ther down it will crowd the rail over." 

*?E ^f ^fj ^^ 

^f^ ^^ ^* '^ 

"In order that the spike may crowd or 'draw' with 
most force when driven in this manner it should be started 



106 ROADBED AND TRACK 

perpendicularly to the tie face, the same as when driving 
a spike under ordinary conditions and not slantwise under 
the rail, as some wrongly suppose ; then it should not be 
bent over until after half way down, since the body of 
the spike is then firmly held in the tie and, by bending 
the spike and driving straight down upon it, a powerful 
side pressure is exerted against the rail. In curves of 
short radius a sharply pointed pick is the best tool for 
crowding and holding the rail to gage. If the gage is 
tight the inside spiker starts his spike first, and if it is 
loose the outside spiker starts his spike first, and the, 
first spike started should put the rail to gage before the 
other spike is started. Then if there be no tendency in 
the rail to spring itself out of gage, both spikes should 
be put down together; otherwise the advantage should 
be given the spike first started. But if a slight bending 
inward of this spike will not bring the proper gage the 
rail should be moved by sticking a pick into the face of 
the tie ahead and prying it over. The gage should rest 
squarely across the rail just far enough in advance of 
the tie which is being spiked to be out of the way of 
the hammer of the inside spiker, and it should be kept 
there until the tie is spiked. The men who do the gaging 
cannot spike as rapidly as the other spikers, and where 
the ties are so soft that a spike can be put down with 
not more than three hammer blows, one spiker is enough 
to go with the gage ; for where under such circumstances 
there are two, one will be standing still doing nothing 
a large part of the time ; and so, to economize time, he 
might better form part of another spiking crew. 

''Rails should be gaged to within almost a hair's 
breadth, because it can just as well be done that way 
ifter men become a little expert." 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 107 

"The gage should just come to place on being raised 
three or four inches at one end and let drop; if there 
can be any movement of it across the track it is too loose ; 
if it will not drop to place it is too tight. The gages 
should all be tested and closely inspected by the foreman 
every morning, without fail. There is more necessity for 
watching gages in track laying than in track repair work, 
for irresponsible men will sometimes permit the rail to 
spring inward on the gage with such force that one of 
its lugs is loosened, and say nothing about it. It is the 
duty of the men spiking the gage side to see that all ties 
spiked are put square with the rails, and also to spike 
no tie having a warped or twisted face until it has been 
adzed to fit evenly with the rail base on that side. Of 
course it is taken for granted that when spiking the line 
side both edges of each tie face have been brought up 
evenly to the rail base on that side. Sometimes the ne- 
cessity for adzing does not appear until after one end 
of the tie has been spiked." 

^K ^^ ^F ^^ ^^ 

• T* *P T* 1* *i* 

Track-Laying Machines. — Regarding laying track 
by machines Mr. Camp says: "A track-laying machine 
is an arrangement of devices for running ties and rails 
to the head end of a material train. The Holman ma- 
chine consists of a series of tramways or rollers about 
20 inches wide arranged in frames or sections about 30 
feet long, which are supported upon brackets attached 
to the stake pockets at the sides of ordinary flat-cars 
on which the materials for laying the track has been for- 
warded, no change in the cars being required. The 
brackets are in adjustable lengths, so that each tramway 
may be inclined slightly from the rear forward. The 



^ 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



^ 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 109 

brackets which support the tie trams at the rear stand 
above the level of the car floor, about knee high, while 
those at the front end are suspended below the level of 
the car floor. The sections are connected up continu- 
ously forming an incline rollway the whole length of the 
train, over which the ties and rails are pushed to the 
front, to be lifted and placed on the roadbed by the track- 
layers. The rollway for forwarding the rails is arranged 
on one side of the train (left-hand facing the front) 
and that for the ties on the other side. The head car 
of the train carries a derrick or braced tower supporting 
stays for the shoot or end section of the tie rollway, which 
is extended beyond the car thirty-five or forty feet. The 
rail tramway extends ahead of the car 8 feet. On this 
car, called the Tioneer Car' or Tilot Car,' are car- 
ried the tool boxes and the spikes, bolts and splices for 
each train-load of material. The spikes and bolts are 
usually carried in a large box (called the Tig Trough') 
7 feet long suspended at the head end of the car cross- 
wise the track, about hip high. As the ties and rails 
are placed in position two strappers and 4 spikers 
quickly fasten each pair of rails, placing only two bolts 
in each splice and spiking only the center and quarter 
ties. The train advances one rail length at a time, the 
locomotive engineer at the rear taking signals from a 
man posted on top of the frame on the pilot car. The 
work of completing the splicing and spiking is attended 
to in rear of the train, only such work being done in 
front as is necessary to make safe for the train to pass. 
The splice bolts are not fully tightened, and it is also 
quite commonly the practice to place only half the ties 
in advance of the train. 
"The ordinary and most convenient rate of laying track 



110 ROADBED AND TRACK 

with this machine, when full tieing ahead is Ij4 miles 
per day. The force required at this speed includes 40 
to 45 men with the machine and 22 to 28 men behind the 
train, the ordinary distribution being about as follows: 
In front of the machine, 6 or 8 tie carriers, I tie liner, 

1 chute man, 6 or 8 rail carriers, 2 bolters, 2 nippers, 4 
spikers, i foreman; on the train, 2 men unloading rails, 

2 men pushing rails, 14 to 16 men handling ties ; behind 
the train, 2 tie spacers, 8 to 12 spikers, 4 to 6 nippers, 3 
bolters, i spike peddler, 4 men lining track, i foreman. 
With larger crews ij4 to 2 miles of track can be laid 
each day. In the construction of the Washington County 
R. R. in Maine, in 1899, a crew of no men working 
with a Holman machine laid 10,300 feet of track, fully 
tied and spiked, in 9 hours. On the Pacific extension 
of the Great Northern Ry., in 1891, the average speed 
with a Holman machine for 82 short days during the 
winter was more than ij4 miles per day, and in 25 days 
the average speed was 2 miles per day; the best record 
was 140 stations, or 2.65 miles one day." 

The Harris Machine. — "The Harris Track-Laying 
rnachine consists of ordinary flat cars fitted up with a roll- 
way for forwarding the rails and a tramway for a push 
car or truck on which the ties are run out to the front. 
Five 6x8-in.xii-ft. timbers or switch ties are laid across 
each car and spiked fast, and on these is laid a tram 
track of ordinary rails. On the old machines (which 
went out of use in 1900) the gag« of this tram track 
was ^Yt. feet, but on the machines of later designs the 
gage is only 2 feet, and the track is laid along the mid- 
dle of the cars. Betweeen the rails of this track, and 
on a level with base of rail, there are cast iron rollers 
15 inches long, on which the rails for track -laying are 



.RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 



111 



pushed to the front. On the cars which carry the rails 
the cross-timbers are framed out at the middle and the 
rails of the tram track are depressed to bring the top 
of rail flush with the tops of the timbers. This arrange- 
ment permits the supply rails, which are carried in piles 
on either side of the tram-way, to be easily slid or rolled 
onto the rollers. Only the cars loaded with rails have 
the roll-way, and these cars are, of course, placed ahead 
of the cars, loaded with the ties. On the cars loaded 
with the ties, the tram rails are laid on top of the cross- 








Oi^mm-Ctm^ifm« 



AiOt of PlVHfrCt^ 




MMM^.l^m,m- \M.mjmmU,m,AxA 



HARRIS TRACK-LAYING MACHINE. 



timbers and alternately between these long ties or timbers 
there are 8 feet ties to afford close supports for the 
truck-loading horses or 'trestles,' to be described pres- 
ently. The gaps in the tram-track, between the cars are 
closed by short pieces of rail having the bottom flange 
cut oflF at each end so that the web may be dropped 
between splice bars bolted to the ends of the fixed tram- 
rails on the cars.- Allowance is made in the length of 
the short connecting rails for slack between the cars. 
On the front car, the tram-track is extended twenty 



112 ROADBED AND TRACK 

feet ahead of the car and is held up by truss rods 
carried over a framed bent lO or 12 feet high and an- 
chored at th« back of the car. The ties are piled across 
the tram way and the spikes, bolts and splice bars are 
chinked into spare space on the rail cars. The cross- 
timbers which project over the sides of the car carry 
a running-plank on either side for the men to stand upon 
while loading the ties. It also affords a foot-way for 
the men pushing the tie truck and a place for the rail 
men to step aside while the loaded tie truck is pass- 
ing. 



TRACK-LAYING MACHINE. 

"The ties are not loaded upon the tie truac direct, 
but are first placed crosswise on a pair of portable 
wooden horses or 'tie-loading trestles' stood parallel 
with the tram track on either side. These tie horses 
each have a top piece or upper frarne carried on links 
which is raised four inches before the ties are placed 
upon it. After a truck-load of ties has been placed 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 113 

across the horses the empty track, which is 2 inches 
lower, than the tops of the horses in their raised position 
is run between the horses and under the pile of ties, at 
the same time automatically disengaging a latch which 
holds the load of ties in the raised position. In this man- 
ner the load is caused to drop 2 inches onto the track, 
the top pieces of the horses dropping 2 inches further 
clear of the load and out of the way of the movement 
of the same. The truck, as thus automatically loaded, 
is jiushed to the front and the work of loading the horses 



^ 



By the courtesy of the publishers, the Engineering News Pub- 
lishing Company, the subject-matter regarding **The Six-Chord 
Spiral'' in this volume is taken from a book by that title by 
J. R. Stephens, C. £., and likewise we are indebted to the same 
pabliahers for quotations from ^'Railway Track and Track 
Work'' by E. E. R. Tratman, C. E. 



forward and at the end of the tram-way is run again 
chocks or stop-blocks. The tram-car body is made ii- 
two parts, the upper of which slides between guides, over 
the lower part on rollers, so that when the car is brought 
to a stop at the end the load is shifted forward 30 inches, 
causing the car to overbalance, tilt forward and dump it- 
self, throwing the ties crosswise on the roadbed. The 
car is then righted and run back for another load, while 
the rails which had been spliced and lying on the pilot- 
car are run ahead off the car onto a portable dolly about 
30 inches high standing on runners, on. the ties, about 



112 ROADBED AND TRACK 



feet ahead of the car and is held up by truss rods 
carried over a framed bent lO or 12 feet high and an- 
chored at the back of the car. The ties are piled across 
the tram way and the spikes, bolts and sphce bars are 
chinked into spare space on the rail cars. The cross- 
timbers which project over the sides of the car carry 
a running-plank on either side for the men to stand upon 
while loading the ties. It also affords a foot-way for 
the men pushing the tie truck and a place for the rail 
I aside w hile the_ loaded tie truck is pass- 



ROBERTS TRACK-LAYING MACHINE. 

;ies are not loaded upon the tie truat direct, 
first placed crosswise on a pair of portable 

horses or 'tie-loading trestles' stood parallel 
tram track on either side. These tie horses 

e a top piece or upper frarne carried on links 
raised four inches before the ties are placed 
After a truck-load of ties has been placed , 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 113 

across the horses the empty track, which is 2 inches 
lower, than the tops of the horses in their raised position 
is run between the horses and. under the pile of ties, at 
the same time automatically disengaging a latch which 
holds the load of ties in the raised position. In this man- 
ner the load is caused to drop 2 inches onto the track, 
the top pieces of the horses dropping 2 inches further 
clear of the load and out of the way of the movement 
of the same. The truck, as thus automatically loaded, 
is pushed to the front and the work of loading the horses 
is repeated. The horses stand on runners, and as each 
truck-load of ties is delivered they are pulled ahead to 
a new position within reach of the receding tie-pile on 
the flat-car. 

"In starting out to lay track the rails are thrown 
onto the rollway with a rail fork and pulled ahead to the 
pilot car by men with tongs or hooks. Here they are 
spliced and bolted together four rails at a time — that 
is, two rails in a stretch for each side of the track — 
using two bolts to each splice, allowing for expansion 
and putting in the expansion shims. In the meantime 
the tie truck or tram-car has been loaded and pushed 
forward and at the end of the tram-way is run against 
chocks or stop-blocks. The tram-car body is made in 
two parts, the upper of which slides between guides, over 
the lower part on rollers, so that when the car is brought 
to a stop at the end the load is shifted forward 30 inches, 
causing the car to overbalance, tilt forward and dump it- 
self, throwing the ties crosswise on the roadbed. The 
car is then righted and run back for another load, while 
the rails which had been spliced and lying on the pilot- 
car are run ahead off the car onto a portable dolly about 
30 inches high standing on runners, on. the ties, about 



^ 



114 ROADBED AND TRACK 

25 feet ahead of the extended tram-track. Suspended 
from the cross-timber at the end of the tram-track there 
is a roller about a foot lower than the rollers on the flat- 
car, which serves as an intermediate support for the rail 
between the end of the car and the dolly. The rails are 
run to a position opposite their place in the track and are 
then lifted down and heeled into splice-bars fastened 
loosely to the last rails laid. In laying broken- jointed 
track the rails on the 'long side^ are simply run a half- 
rail length further ahead on the rollers. As soon as the 
rails are in place the track is quarter spiked and the train 
is moved ahead 60 feet. 

"The foregoing is known as the method of 'standard 
60 feet set-outs' and is the usual way of proceeding to 
lay two miles of track per day. In this case 34 to 42 men 
are required with the machine, according to the weight 
of rail, quality of the ties (soft or hard- wood), efficiency 
of the men, organization, etc. Of this crew 14 men 
called the 'top force/ are engaged on the cars as fol- 
lows : 4 men loading ties, 3 men running tie car, i man 
breaking out rails onto the rollers, 4 men pulling rails 
with hooks and delivering them ahead, and 2 top bolters. 
The 'ground force,' or the men ahead of the machine, 
are distributed as follows: i man with tie line, i man 
with spacing pole and marking ties for line rail, i spike 
peddler, i man serving splice bars, 8 spikers, 4 nippers, 
2 men carrying dolly, i 'expansion man' (with sledge to 
drive rails back when necessary), one heeler (who, as 
a rule, is the foreman of the ground force), 2 bolters and 
4 to 6 extra men ; or a total of 26 to 28 men. With soft 
wood ties the 4 to 6 'extra men' are usually dispensed 
with, and sometimes the force is cut down i or 2 more. 
The usual practice in laying 60 feet 'set-outs' is to half- 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 115 

tie ahead. If it is desired to work a smaller crew, laying 
I to i>4 rniles per day, the rails are run down singly, or 
in 30 feet *set-outs,' the train moving ahead 30 feet at a 
time; or by using the same force, half-tieing the track 
and handling single rails in 60 feet 'set-outs/ 1^4 to 1 34 
miles of track can be laid per day. For fast work, as 
when it is desired to lay 3 miles per day, a larger force 
is put on and the rails are handled in spliced sections of 
3 each, or in 90 feet 'set-outs' the train then moving 
ahead 90 feet at a time. In this case 3 dollies are used 
ahead of the pilot or pioneer car in running the rails to 
place. 

"With the Harris machine the track layers in advance 
of the train are not divided into separate squads desig- 
nated as tie carriers, rail carriers, spikers, etc., as in 
usual practice with other machines. Each truck-load of 
ties contains the proper number to lay the 'set-out' of 
rails (30, 60 or 90 feet of track, as the case may be), and 
as they are dumped the momentum of the truck throws 
them sprawling ahead over about 30 feet of roadbed. As 
the rails cannot be laid until the ties are placed, the whole 
track-laying gang ahead of the car, except the tie-line 
man,^ the two bolters, flie splice carrier and the 'fiddler' 
or tie-marker, is first engaged in placing the ties, which 
is quickly done. The same men then run out the rails 
and lift them down and then divide up into spiking gangs 
and make ready for the train to advance. In rapid work 
the track in advance of the Harris machine is only half 
tied, the remainder of the ties being dropped oflF the box 
or other cars in which they happen to be loaded and 
which are coupled in behind the tram-way cars. This 
arrangement saves transferring half the ties to the ma- 
chine cars. 



116 ROADBED AND TRACK 

"Before referring to records of work performed in con- 
nection with the use of this machine the difference in 
the methods of handling the ties on the old and new ma- 
chines should be explained. On the old machine the tie 
truck had to be built wide, for the wide-gage track, and 
it was high enough to straddle the piles of rails on the 
rail cars. The tie truck for the machine of later design 
is narrow, running between the rail piles, and it is much 
lighter and easier to handle than the old device. On the 
old machine the ties were loaded directly upon the truck, 
by hand. For rapid work two tie-trucks were used after 
the train became half unloaded, as then some time was 
lost in pushing the truck over the increased distance. 
In that case the hindermost truck was being loaded while 
the forward one was being pushed to the front and 
dumped. The rear truck was made somewhat higher 
than the other, and when they met the load was trans- 
ferred by sliding the ties on to the lower truck. The 
automatic tie-loading device of the present machine en- 
ables faster work to be done than was possible with the 
old machine. On the present machine the tie-truck can 
be shoved forth and back on the run, if need be, stop- 
ping only an instant at either end for the truck to re- 
ceive or dump its load. It is thus possible to keep a 
loaded tie-truck on the move half the time. At the same 
time the present machine is more adaptable to the con- 
venience of working a small crew and laying track at 
moderate speed, when desired. Four to six men can 
load and deliver ties for laying a mile of track per day ; 
in laying two miles per day seven or eight men are re- 
quired. Four men can work at loading the horses — ^two 
men placing the ties upon the front end of the horses 
and two more shoving them back and piling them up. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 117 

**A seeming drawback with the Harris machine is the 
necessity for transferring the rails and at least half of 
the ties to the specially equipped flat-cars. In fairness, 
however, it should be considered that both rails and ties 
are frequently shipped in box, stock, or gondola cars, 
in which case the rails must be transferred, in any event. 
In the yards, where the cars between which the transfer 
of material is to be made, can be switched to stand side 
by side or end to end, the cost of loading the 'machine 
cars' is but very little more than the cost of taking the 
material out of the cars in which it was shipped. There 
is also an advantage in having the material on the ma- 
chine cars, for as soon as they reach the front there is 
no delay in starting the work, whereas with other ma- 
chines, some time is lost in putting on and taking off 
apparatus. When working with the Harris machine it is 
customary to rig up as many cars as may be necessary 
to have in order to keep the transfer gang in the ma- 
terial yard steadily at work while track is being laid at 
the front. This arrangement should always provide 
loaded 'machine cars* as they are needed. The equip- 
ment of the cars is comparatively inexpensive, as the ma- 
terial required is standard track material and its useful- 
ness for further service in the track is not impaired, ex- 
cept in the case of the framing out of the cross-timbers 
on the rail cars. The labor of laying the tram-track on 
the flat-cars and of dismantling the cars after track-lay- 
ing has been completed is small. The narrow-gage tram- 
way, located as it is along the center of the train, is less 
distorted in rounding a curve than is the case with a track 
or devices at the sides of the cars. As a practical test 
of this matter, one of these machines was successfully 
used in laying track on the 24 deg. curves of the Montana 



^ 



118 ROADBED AND TRACK 

R. R., a Standard-gage road running out of Lombard, 
Mont. 

"As a matter of record 3.2 miles of track have been 
laid with this machine (old pattern) in 9 hours. On the 
Chicago, Kansas & Nebraska Ry. (now Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific Ry.)» in 1887 the average record for 
132 days with the Harris machine was 2.18 miles of track 
laid per day, with a total force of 3 foremen and 100 
to 115 laborers, including the gang which transferred 
ties and rails to the material cars. In building the Guern- 
sey extension of the Burlington & Missouri River R. R., 
in Wyoming, in 1900, a record made with one of the im- 
proved machines was 3,750 feet of track laid in 2 hours 
and 35 minutes. The track was laid with 75 lb. rails 
and oak ties, and was full tied ahead of the machine. 
The crew on the cars and ahead of the machine con- 
sisted of 28 men, distributed as follows: Ground force, 

1 tie-line man, i spacing-pole man and tie marker, i spike 
peddler, i splice carrier, i heeler, 6 spikers and nippers, 

2 bolters and 4 or 5 extra men ; top force, 4 men loading 
ties, 3 men on tie-car, i man breaking out rails, 2 men 
pulling rails. The average day's work with this crew, 
laying by 30 feet 'set-outs,' and full tieing ahead, was 
6,000 feet of track per day." 

By the courtesy of Mr. John Smith, a railroad con- 
tractor of long experience, Mr. Camp gives in his "sup- 
plementary notes" the following on the subject of: 

''Material Yards in Track-Laying." — "The location 
of material yards and the handling of the material on 
new lines depend a great deal on the conditions under 
which the work is done. It is a very different matter in 
laying track on some new roads, that is being built in 
lO-mile stretches, where it is necessary to finish the first 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 119 

10 miles in order to pay for the grading of the next lo 
miles, from what it is on a long road where the work 
progresses continuously. Then, again, there is the small 
company that gets only a few cars of rails at a time, and 
begins to operate its road before it is built. (In this 
connection I have seen a road put on trains to do local 
business when some of the track was only half tied and 
only two or three ties spiked to a rail — track that I would 
not advise running a construction train over at any con- 
siderable speed.) For a road that gets only a little ma- 
terial at a time and is a long time building, and where 
only a few miles of track are laid each month no special 
rule can be laid down for placing material yards or for 
handling the material trains. For short lines of this kind 
but little need be said about the material yard, except that 
what little material is to be stored should be unloaded 
with as much regularity as possible. 

"Where long lines are being built the material yard 
should be planned out in advance, and the material should 
all be unloaded according to this plan and with the ob- 
ject in view that it will have to be reloaded, probably in 
a hurry, and that a delay to the track-laying force for an 
hour will amount to as much as, or more than, the wages 
of the unloading gang for an entire day. The mistake 
usually made is at the very first in not providing sufficient 
room, by laying side-tracks, to hold the material. Never 
unload any material off from the main line, either the 
new main line or the old one, and especially the old one. 
Never unload material off from a side-track on the old 
main line that is being used to operate the old road. 
Never unload material off from a Y-track, either old or 
new. Never unload material into borrow pits or off 
from a high fill ; and, above all things, never unload the 



^ 



120 * ROADBED AND TRACK 

cars just where the freight train happens to set them, 
unless it is the proper place. Never send a young man 
out from the engineer's office to pick up a few men and 
get those cars unloaded as quick as possible.' Never 
send a section foreman on the operative road to unload 
material for the construction or engineering department 
unless you tell him what you want done and how. 

"In level country a satisfactory material yard can be 
easily planned and quickly and cheaply laid out. The 
number of tracks and their location will, of course, de- 
pend upon the conditions at hand, but have at least two 
side-tracks. It is well to have at least two side-tracks 
on the same side of the main line, about 12 feet centers 
for about 300 feet, when the outer track should swing out 
farther away from the first. At least one of the tracks 
should be connected at both ends, and if any of the tracks 
are to be 'stubs' or 'spur tracks' (which, for temporary 
use, are about as good as any), the switches should be at 
the end opposite from the direction in which the track 
is to be laid — ^that is, if the road is to be built towards 
the west, the switches should be at the east end of the 

« 

yard. As many tracks should be laid as may be neces- 
sary to hold all the material that may be on hand at a 
time. Temporary tracks can be laid with about 12 ties 
to a rail, and should be surfaced up only as much as may 
be necessary in order to prevent the rails from being 
bent. In other words, don't go to the expense of laying 
a full tied, full spiked, full bolted and surfaced track for 
a temporary one. 

"In unloading the ties pile them at right angles to the 

track and in not. more than two piles on one side of the 

track. Do not carry them away off, 25 to 100 feet from 

— the track, and do not pile them up in crib-work style, half 



^ 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 121 

one way and half the other. This is sometimes done with 
the idea of letting the air get at them to dry them out. 
Rails should always be unloaded lengthwise of the track, 
and do not unload one car-load 'here' on a couple of ties 
and another car-load 'there/ I saw, in one instance, 85 
lb. rails piled up 10 or 12 feet high, with every other 
layer at right angles to the track. The cost of unloading 
them must have been ten times as much as it would have 
been to have done it right. It took twenty men to load 
them and it required twice as long to do it as it would 
have taken ten men if they were unloaded properly. Rails 
should not be unloaded and piled up close to the track 
when there is plenty of room, but as far out from it as 
possible without going beyond the point where a 30-foot 
rail can be used for a skid to unload and reload them. 
By doing this the piles can be made about 50% higher 
than if the rails are piled close to the track, and they can 
be reloaded in half the time with a smaller force than if 
they are piled close to the track. Four men will skid 
up rails from this pile about as quickly as ten or twelve 
men will load them when they are close to the track. An- 
gle bars as well as spikes and bolts could be unloaded 
near the rails. A cribwork of ties with a floor of ties 
or crossing plank about two feet above the track should 
be made and the kegs unloaded on this. If the material 
yard is on a grade, put the spikes, etc., at the down-grade 
end of the piles of rails, so that after a car is loaded with 
rails it can be started with a bar and run down opposite 
the 'trimmings^ (spikes, bolts, and angle bars). I have 
seen a few very nice examples of this arrangement. 

*1 might say that a well arranged material yard is 
something that is seldom seen, and that, except on the 
long western lines wherie men have learned from ex- 



122 ROADBED AND TRACK 

perience, material is seldom unloaded correctly. One 
great mistake, for a small matter, is to place kegs of 
spikes or bolts on the ground and. a .thousand feet or more 
from the rails. I might explain in this connection, even 
if partly by repetition, that each car of rails should be 
'trimmed' when loaded ; that is, put on all the angle bars 
for the rails and usually all of the spikes, bolts, and nut 
locks necessary for them. The exception in the latter 
case is where a 'spike car' is used in connection with the 
track-laying. When the last method is practicable it is 
about the best, in my opinion, the spikes for the 'back- 
work' then being carried on a separate car and distributed 
from this car as may be required. At one end of this 
same car there should be carried crossing plank and sur- 
face cattle guards when the track force is putting them in. 
What I mean by properly unloading spikes and bolts is 
that they should never be rolled into borrow-pits or be 
placed several feet below the level of the track ; and they 
should never be unloaded directly on the ground as the 
dampness caused by rain, etc., will rot the kegs and rust 
the bolts. The practice of unloading them low down, off 
a fill, will also cause the kegs to be broken, so that they 
cannot be reloaded. Always build a platform with a 
cribwork of ties about half the height of the floor of 
the car. It will pay, as it saves breaking the kegs in 
unloading upon it, they are easily reloaded, and moisture 
of the ground will not affect them. It is my observation 
that many men unload track materials with only one idea 
in mind, and that is to get them off the cars with the 
least amount of work and trouble and to unload every car 
wherever the train happens to leave it. For example, 
in a material yard I have in mind, the spikes and bolts 
were unloaded at the west end of the material side-track. 



^ 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 123 



while the rails were unloaded at the extreme east end of 
the yard, one-third of a mile from the spikes, with 30,000 
or 40,000 ties piled up along the track in between them. 

"All material loaded in the material yard should be 
loaded properly. When curved rails are being laid they 
should be curved before loading them to go to the front ; 
and do not forget to curve just enough 'short rails' for 
them, and do not load the short rails all on the bot- 
tom of the car under the rest of the curved rails ; place 
them on top, as it is then easier to get at them at the front ; 
otherwise it is necessary to 'dig' for them when wanted. 
In laying right and left-hand rails, that is, using a certain 
side for the 'running' side, as when laying old rails, for 
example, arrange them on the cars so that they will un- 
load properly. Where the Harris track-laying machine 
is being used they may be loaded on the right and left- 
hand sides of the cars, but for other track-laying ma- 
chines, where the rails are all run forward on one side of 
the train, it is necessary to load the rails for one side of 
the track on one car and the rails for the other side of 
the track on another car, alternating the cars loaded with 
right and left-hand rails. It is then always necessary to 
bring out the cars in pairs. 

"Personally, one of the best material yards I ever saw 
was at Fremont, Neb., in 1887, where the material for 
more than 100 miles of track was piled up. We laid this 
track by contract, and in only one instance was the 
'front' delayed for failure of the prompt delivery of the 
material to the last side-track, and, as a rule, we laid 
more than two miles of track per day. An excellent il- 
lustration of modern practice in handling material for 
long stretches of track-laying, especially in the west, 
was afforded in the methods employed by the Burling- ^ 1 



124 ROADBED AND TRACK 

ton & Missouri Railroad in the Guernsey extension, in 
1899 and 1900. The same practice was also employed 
not only on previous extensions of this same Company, 
but on other western roads where there was considerable 
work to do from one point. The material yard on the 
Guernsey (Wyo.) line was located at Alliance, Neb., the 
point where the new work started. When the work of 
laying track started there were vast quantities of ties 
unloaded and piled up, riot promiscuously here and there, 
but all in one place, along two or three *tie-tracks.' The 
rails were unloaded along both sides of a track used 
only for that purpose. The man who unloaded them did 
so with the idea that it would be necessary to again load 
them, and he did it right. 

"On this extension (as is the practice on most of the 
western roads in laying new track) the telegraph wire 
was brought up to the end of the track every night and 
an operator was employed so that all reports and orders 
could be sent in daily. The speed of track-laying was 
about i>4 niiles per day. The supply train left the ma- 
terial yard at Alliance each evening at about 7 o'clock, 
carrying material for the next day's track-laying. The 
selection of the late hour for leaving was to give oppor- 
tunity to send in special messages by wire late in the day 
and have the things ordered brought out to the front the 
same night. In making up this train the cars loaded with 
the material for the next afternoon's work were placed 
ahead, with the cars carrying material to start the work 
in the morning coupled in at the rear of the car. The 
purpose of this arrangement was to save switching at the 
farthest side-track, or the point where the material was 
left, as the car-loads of material for the moming^s work 
were then pushed in at the rear end of the side-track. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 125 

in position for 'first out' in the morning, leaving the 
other division of the train on side-track to be taken out 
after noon. This arrangement of running the supply 
trains at night also afforded the best economy in the 
use of cars, as the cars unloaded at the front during 
any certain day could be returned to the material yard 
in time for reloading early the next morning. The bal- 
lasting of the track followed close upon the track-laying, 
so that the material trains were able to make good speed." 

Ballast and Ballasting. — This subject, in section 2, 
under the heading of Maintenance of Way, is treated at 
length, but, in connection with the laying of ties and 
rails it may be as well to quote Mr. Camp again, who 
says: 

"The grade for top of rail in ballasting is indicated by 
stakes about four feet from the rail at one side of the 
track, opposite every full station and wherever there is a 
change of grade. These stakes are set after the track is 
laid. The stake is driven or sawed off to bring its top 
to grade. If the foreman in charge of the work is ex- 
perienced at raising track it is useless to set stakes closer 
than 100 feet apart .except where there is a change of 
grade ; and there is no necessity, either, for setting stakes 
both sides of the track.'* 

Raising the Track. — Concerning this, he says: "A 
jack is a better tool for raising track than a lever, because 
it requires only one man to operate it, whereas a lever 
usually requires three or more; the jack can also lift 
through a greater vertical height without changing, and 
it does not throw the track out of line so much when 
raising with a lever. If the roadbed is soft, so that the 
jack sinks in too much, it may be stood upon a piece of 
plank. Using the level board, the rail is raised to surface 



AND TRACK 

opposite each rail grade stake, and then at the joints and 
centers, blocking them to place, or shovel-tamping if the 
ballast is at hand. It is an advantage to have ballast 
on hand in sufficient quantity to tamp the tie ends, because 
blocking will settle when the train comes on and the 
track will have to be raised again, besides, it is not alto- 



gether desirable to leave blocks, stones, etc., under the 
track so near the bottoms of the ties. With rails of heavy 
section the stiffness of the rail will usually hold the quar- 
ters to surface if the joints and centers are supported. On 
track laid with rails of light weight a quarter now and 
then will sag and require raising to surface. In a high 
lift. light splices are in danger of being bent by taking 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 127 

hold of the rail at the joint. It is better in a case of this 
kind to take some point two or three feet to one side of 
the joint as the raising point. Track usually settles as 
soon as the jack lets go, and allowance should be made 
accordingly. It is a good plan to raise every joint some- 
what higher than the point to which it would naturally 
settle back so that it will stand striking down. The usual 
arrangement is to have a man carry a i6 lb. sledge along 
and strike down on the tie tamped. In this way a good 
surface can be had without taking so much pains with 
the raising, and the ballast under such ties gets hardened 
to a considerable extent by being struck down. 

**It is well to raise and hold the rails on both sides to 
surface before tamping the ends of the ties, because 
where one rail has been raised and the tie ends have bq,en 
tamped, when it comes to raising the rail on the opposite 
side the rail first raised will rise with an eighth to a 
quarter as fast and leave the ties which have been tamped 
bearing only at their ends, with a clear space under the 
tie at the rail seat. The side last tamped will then hold 
up better than the side tamped first, and the track will 
settle more on one side than on the other ; but this is not 
liable to happen where neither side is tamped until after 
both sides have been raised and held. Unless the side 
first raised be blocked, and that directly underneath the 
rail, it will rise a little with the second side when it is 
raised, as just explained, and after the track is leveled 
across or elevated it will be somewhat higher than the 
grade stakes. There is no objection to this excess, be- 
cause it provides an allowance for settlement and does 
not usually leave the surface of the side first raised un- 
even; should it do so occasionally, a few strokes from 
the sledge on the high ties will usually put it right. 



128 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Some make it a practice to set the jacks outside the rails 
and raise both sides of the track at the same time. Where 
the lift is high this is a good plan. 

"The man who sights the rail should be at least 60 feet 
back of the point which is being raised, so that his eye 
can catch a good stretch of rail between. It is well to 
designate each point which is raised opposite a grade 
stake by placing a pebble or chunk of dirt on the rail, 
for it is an aid in sighting other points on the rail with 
reference to it. One man can sight for two jacks — one 
at raising points, the other at raising centers. About the 
utmost speed attainable in raising track at one place 
would be had by using five jacks ; one crew with jack and 
level-board could put both rails to grade opposite grade 
stakes; a man behind, sighting for two jacks, could fol- 
low and place one rail, that is one side, to surface; and 
behind him on the opposite side, a crew with jack and 
level-'board could raise the joints, and another jack with 
a man to sight for it could be used in putting up the cen- 
ters. The best sighter should be put on the side which 
is in the advance. It requires a little genius as well as 
judgment to sight rails well and rapidly." * * * * 

"When the rails are out of true the ties appear to form 
the elements of a warped surface. On curves the rails 
are sighted along the inside of the curve. 

"Track tangents should be raised and tamped level 
transversely. There are those who claim that a train 
will run more steadily on straight line if the rail on one 
side is about 34 -inch lower than the other than it will on 
track which is level transversely* This claim is based on 
the idea that the wheel flange on the lower, side will fol- 
low the rail instead of moving first towards one side and 
then towards the other, as it does on track which is level 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 129 

transversely. But the coning of the wheels would not in 
all probability allow this steadiness of movement on 
straight line, and if it did, more power would be expended 
in hauling the train, because if the same wheel-flange 
followed one rail all the time, either one or both wheels 
would have to slip a little almost constantly. 

"In ballasting new track, it is desirable, especially when 
working a large crew, to have the track where raising is 
in progress entirely free from passing trains. In case 
the ballast must be hauled from the rear, the best plan, 
if practicable, is to first unload ballast along the track 
for several miles in sufficient quantity to tamp the ties 
outside the rails; on fills where the track is to be raised 
6 inches or higher there is not usually room for more 
material than this. Then everything is ready to begin 
with part of the crew to raise the track and tamp the ties 
outside both rails; this will hold up a train without set- 
tling to hurt, and the train should follow to haul what 
ballast is needed to complete the work. The remainder 
of the crew should follow the first party and tamp the 
ties between the rails, line the track and fill it in." • 

Tamping. — "Except where broken _______ «, 

stone or slag is used for ballast the "^^"^^^^ 

shovel is the best tool for tamping tamping bar. 
new track. Tamping bars are not effective in such work. 
The tamping bar is intended to be used only where ballast 
can be confined in a small space, such as is found between 
the bottom of a tie and a hard bed, when the lift is 
small. In raising new track, where the lift is usually 
several inches, the ballast must necessarily be put in loose ; 
and it can become hard and compact only after time and 
by pressure from trains running over it. The range of 
action of a tamping bar is only an inch or two in depth 



130 ROADBED AND TRACK 

below the bottom of the tie at the most, and consequently 
it is a waste of time to attempt to harden several inches 
of ballast under the tie with such a tool when the ballast 
between the ties is in a loose condition. The shovel does 
just as good work and is far more rapid. In shovel 
tamping, the gravel or other ballast is first shoved under 
the tie with the shovel blade, and then crowded, the lat- 
ter effect being produced by putting the foot on the shoul- 
der of the blade and driving it under the bottom of the 
tie, at the same time prying backward a little on the 
handle, thus enabling the lower edge of the blade to pry 
forward and crowd. Before placing the foot upon the 
blade, ballast should be filled in between the ties as high 
as an inch or two above the tie bottoms, so that a fulcrum 
may be had for the back of the shovel blade to pry against. 
The thin edge of a shovel blade, even when new (being 
only atKDUt 3/32 in. thick), is not worth much for a ram- 
mer; it is, therefore, the prying and ramming combined 
which crowds or tamps the ballast under the tie, but prin- 
cipally the prying. This is the reason it is so important 
that ballast between the ties should all the while be kept 
somewhat higher than their bottoms and that the edge 
of the shovel blade should penetrate under the lower cor- 
ner or edge of the bottom face instead of against the 
side of the tie.'' *********** 

"In starting out at tamping, the foreman, who by all 
means should at some time have worked at shovel tamp- 
ing himself, should take a shovel and show each man in- 
dividually how it is done." * ******* 

**Men should be given to understand that as soon as a 
tie is properly tamped the work on that tie should cease, 
since there is not the slightest necessity for tamping 
against the side of it; that is to say, above the edge of 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 131 

the bottom face ; that as soon as one is through tamping 
under the bottom of one tie further effort can most profit- 
ably be expanded under the bottom of the next tie ahead." 

"Most kinds of dirt ballast can not be well tamped with 
the shovel blade. Cast ends are sometimes provided for 
shovel handles, so that the tamper may take the edge of 
the blade in his hand and use the handle as a rammer and 
in some kinds of dirt ballast they do pretty good work. 
A tool called a puddle is sometimes used for this pur- 
pose. It resembles very much a tamping pick with the 
pick end of the tool cut off near the eye. 

"Stone and slag ballast are tamped with tamping picks. 
Each tamper works by himself, stooping over the tie and 
driving the rock into the space underneath it. In order 
to do this work uniformly, more or less care must be 
exercised, for, if not mindful, one may, in striking with 
a tamping pick easily wedge parts of the track up above 
its proper surface. The material is first thrown into the 
track loosely and pushed under the ties with shovel, and 
then thoroughly packed with the tamping picks. After a 
few days the track should be carefully resurfaced, taking 
out the rough spots, tamping the raised ties and filling in 
and dressing off. As already stated, rock to be broken 
for ballast is sometimes thrown into the track and broken 
up there. This is not a good plan to follow, however, 
since the ballast is liable not to be broken finely enough 
to the proper depth, unless the rock be thrown in a piece 
at a time. It gives the men a chance to break the ma- 
terial finely on the top and leave larger pieces under- 
neath where they cannot be seen. The ballast if broken 
on the spot ought, therefore, to be . broken up on the 
shoulder, outside the track. It should be thrown in with 



132 ROADBED AND TRACK 

forks rather than shovels, since with the latter it is diffi- 
cult to handle rock ballast lying on the ground without 
taking up some dirt with it ; and of course it is desirable 
to keep rock ballast clean in order to prevent the growth 
of vegetation and the churning of ties. 

"Shovel tamping is done on both sides of the tie simul- 
taneously. Outside the rails two men work together, on 
opposite sides of the same tie; between the rails four 
men — two on each side of the tie — usually tamp to- 
gether. Ties should be well tamped directly underneath 
the nail seat. This can always be done to best advantage 
by getting the tool in there at the start. A shovel blade 
must be thrust in cornerwise in order to do it, and such 
cannot be done after the tie has already been tamped 
farther out toward the end ; or farther in toward the mid- 
dle, if tamping be done inside the rails. When tamping 
either outside or inside the rails one should aim to tamp 
the tie directly underneath the rail from that side. It is 
an easier matter to tamp the ties at this point when using 
a tamping bar or tamping pick than when using a shovel. 
When tamping new track for the first time, the middle of 
the tie may, without ill effect, be tamped as firmly as the 
ends, but after that the middle should never be tamped 
quite as solidly as the ends." ******** 

Regarding Ballasting Cars. — "The Rodger ballast- 
car of improved design is convertible into a flat-bottomed 
gondola car. The car of improved design is similar to 
the old car, but having the addition of removable sloping 
ends and foldable longitudinal sections attached to the in- 
termediate sills, which may be swung over to form a 
tight flat-bottom gondola car, overcoming the objection to 
the old-style Rodger ballast-car, namely, that it was not 
available for ordinary freight service, although exten- 



134 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



ner by a crew of eighteen men in one-half day, the men 
being employed, for the most part, in pushing the slag 
down into the hoppers with bars. After raising the track 
to grade and tamping it with slag that material was lev- 
eled down even with the bottoms of the ties, and cinder 
ballast for filling was dumped in the same manner. 

"Another very well-known car for hauling either bal- 
last or filling material is the Goodwin car, in use on a 
large number of roads. This car is made to dump either 




GOODWIN DUMP CAR. 



at the side or from the center or from both outlets at 
the same time. The car as now built is constructed 
entirely of steel and iron. As shown in the cross- 
sectional view, the body of the car is built upon two plate- 
girder sills, 21 inches apart. These girders are i8 inches 
deep at the middle and g}i. inches deep at the ends. The 
space between the sills is left clear for dumping the load 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 135 

between the rails, and from each sill there is an apron 
or floor inclining downwards. The two ends of the car 
are connected by stop side plates i8 inches deep and the 
car is divided at the middle by a transverse bulkhead, so 
that either of the two compartments can be dumped in- 
dependently of the other. To the top side plate on each 
side of the car in each compartment, there is hinged a 



GOODWIN DUMP CAR WITH SWINGING DOORS OPEN. 

swinging door, which, when the car is loaded, rests upon 
tile projection of a movable section in the bottom of the 
hopper. This bottom is composed of two narrow movable 
sections hinged to a longitudinal shaft. Each bottom 
section is held in position by a tripping device, by means 
of which the said movable section on either side of the 
car may be released, when it swings downward, inclin- 
ing toward the apron, thus releasing the swinging door 
and permitting the discharge of the load. The apron is 



136 ROADBED AND TRACK 

hinged along its middle line (longitudinally), so that the 
upper portion can be swung upward, as shown by the 
broken lines at the left side of the figure. When the 
upper section of the apron is set in this position and the 
swinging door released, the latter strikes against and is 
held by a spring on the raised portion of the apron and 
the contents of the car are discharged between the sills 
and inside the rails of the track. The dumping devices 
are arranged to be operated either by hand or by com 
pressed air. Hand dumping is accomplished by the wheel 
at the end. When equipped for pneumatic dumping an 
air cylinder is attached to the end of the car, on the out- 
side, beside the hand wheel. This car can be made to 
discharge half of its load on one side and half on the 
other; or half in the center and half on the outside; all 
on one side, or all in the center, as is desired. 'The car 
is 35 feet ii inches long over the end sills, 8 feet lo 
inches wide over all, and the extreme height above top 
of rail is 8 feet 6 inches. The carrying capacity is 8o,- 
ooo to 125,000 pounds, or in volume, with the load heaped, 
it amounts to about 29 cubic yards. The ends of the car 
are of wood construction, but in later design the ends 
are constructed entirely of steel. These cars are con- 
structed with a view to turning them to service for car- 
rying coal, ore, .^^rain and other bulky freight. For grain 
service the car is provided with an adjustable steel top 
for protecting;- the grain from the weather, and for car- 
rying coke there is a top crate which enlarges the capac- 
ity to 37 cubic yards.^' 

Lining. — Continuing Mr. Camp says: "After the 
track has been tamped, and before it is filled in, it should 
be lined. It can be easier thrown before it is filled in 
than afterward, as there is then not so much material to 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 



138 ROADBED AND TRACK 

hold the ties, and besides, the rail is more free to align 
itself farther from the point at which it is thrown, thereby 
lessening its tendency to kink and require throwing at 
more frequent intervals. The foregoing applies to track 
in most kinds of ballast, but in stone or slag ballast the 
track should be lined before it is tamped the last time, 
because when track is thrown on freshly placed ballast of 
these kinds the pieces of stone will roll and raise it out 
of surface. As a guide in throwing the track to the cen- 
ter stakes, a tack is driven in the middle of the gage, or 
it is notched at that point. The gage is then placed 
across the rails at each center stake and the track is 
thrown to bring the mark on the gage vertically over the 
tack in the stake. It is well to place pebbles or other 
small objects on the rail at such points to designate the 
place. The crew then goes back and throws the joints, 
centers, and quarters if need be, to line with the rail at 
these designated places. Six men will usually be a large 
enough force to handle it easily, and in some cases four 
will be sufficient. They should all throw together at the 
word, with a rather steady pull or heave, not trying to 
jerk too quickly. At some places where there is a short 
kink the rail must be held at one place while throwing it 
at another, so as to avoid throwing out of line the portion 
which is so held." 

Filling-In and Dressing. — "After the track is lined 
it is filled in and dressed off. The manner of filling in 
depends a good deal on the quality of the ballast. Track 
in broken stone, ordinary gravel, cinder and like kinds of 
ballast should be filled in full, even with the tops of the 
ties inside the rails, but not over the tops. For a dis- 
tance of six inches inside the rails, however, and from 
there on out to the end of the tie, the ballast should be 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 



139 



just enough lower to nicely clear the rail base. If the 
ballast be even with the rail base, sand or dirt will be 
sucked in between it and the tie face, as the rail springs 
up and down under trains, and in winter the flange of 
the rail between the ties will lie in a frozen rut which will 
be a hindrance to shimming and other kinds of work 
which must sometimes be done. The expansion or heav- 
ing of the ballast is also liable to lift the rails from the 
ties and start the spikes. Beyond the ends of the ties 
the ballast should be shouldered out full depth a distance 
of at least 8 inches, and better if lo or 12 inches. Bal- 
last banked against the ends of the ties helps very much 
to hold the track in line. It also keeps the ground from 
freezing that much deeper in the winter, and in case of 
derailment gives some aid to the wheels and protection 
to the ties. The portion just outside the ends of the ties 
is usually called the ballast shoulder. From the top of 
the shoulder the ballast may be sloped oflf gradually to- 
ward the ditch or edge of fill; broken stone ballast is 
usually sloped off more abruptly — something like i to i, 
say. If too much ballast has been left during construc- 
tion it may remain to be used in repairs later on, but no 
material should remain piled in a ditch or in a cut. 

"In all kinds of loose ballast through which water soaks 
away readily little attention need be given to dressing the 
material with a view to draining the water oiT the top; 
but in dirt ballast, and, to some extent in sand ballast also, 
the conditions are different. In those cases, the ballast 
must be so dressed that it will run all water possible oflf 
the top and keep it from getting underneath the ties. 
The only thing which makes dirt a practicable ballast is 
good surface drainage. Dirt and sand ballast should be 
rounded up two or three inches higher than the tops 



140 ROADBED AND TRACK 

of the ties in the middle of the track, covering the ties, 
over a strip about 3 feet wide, and then sloped down to 
the bottoms of the ties at their ends, passing i or i>^ 
inches under the rail base. The standards of some roads 
require that between the rails the ties shall be covered as 
far as a line three inches from the rail base, from which 
point the ballast shall be sloped down to the bottoms of 
the ties at their ends, 'care being taken to leave an open- 
ing under the rail for drainage.' Outside the ends of the 
ties the surface should slope away gently out over the 
shoulder. On quite a number of roads, one of which is 
the Illinois Central, it is the practice to fill in and dress 
off cementing gravel ballast in this manner; that is, to 
heap it up in the middle of the track and slope it down 
to the bottoms of the ties at their ends. Cementing 
gravel does not pass water freely, and it is so difficult 
to work that much labor is saved by leaving the ends of 
the ties uncovered, so that they may be readily opened 
out for tamping. 

"There are several objectionable effects from the bank- 
ing of ballast inside the rails, two or three of which it 
may be well enough to remark upon. Where ballast is 
dressed in this manner there is always a tendency to cen- 
ter-binding of the track. In the first instance, as elsewhere 
stated, the ballast or earth under the exposed ends of the 
ties is not as well retained as it is under the middle of the 
track, where there is a full depth of filling. When the 
ground is thawing the frost leaves from under the ends 
of the ties before it does the middle of the track. The 
effect of this condition is inequality of support and a 
slight rocking of the track, which causes it to settle out of 
surface. Nevertheless, in the qualities of ballast under 
consideration, the advantages obtained by covering the 



^ 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 141 

ties in the middle of the track outweigh the disadvantages. 
Aside from the superior drainage effected, the heap of 
ballast in the middle of the track assist materially in hold- 
ing the track in alignment. When heaping the filling in 
curved track it is usual to crown it on the outer side pi 
the center line, which brings the highest point of the fill- 
ing nearer the outer than the inner rail ; otherwise it 
might not be possible on track highly elevated to make 
the filling slope both ways. 

"When dressing off filling for the first time, except in 
dirt ballast, it is not worth while to spend any time at 
work intended merely to make a neat appearance, because 
the track will soon settle and have to be raised. At the 
first dressing merely *cuff ' it over roughly with the shovel, 
but after the track has been put in good surface the sec- 
ond time, it may be dressed oflf more carefully. In dress- 
ing off stone ballast, it puts a 'finishing touch' on appear- 
ances to lay a margin of stones to line on the shoulder, 
parallel with the rails, but opinions regarding the utility 
of such work are likely to be influenced by personal 
tastes." 

Quantity of Ballast Required. — "To fill in track 
properly with ballast, between the ties and for a foot 
outside the ends, even with the tops of the ties, requires 
about i6 cubic yards of material per lOO feet of single 
track. For every inch below the bottoms of the ties, 
about 4 cubic yards of ballast is required per lOO feet of 
track. For double track, 13 feet centers, filled full be- 
tween the tracks evenly with the tops of the ties, about 
2 1/5 times the above amount will be required for filling 
down as far as the bottoms of the ties — that is, about 35 
cubic yards per 100 feet; for ballast below this point, 
double the figure, or 8 cubic yards per 100 feet per inch 
in depth." 



r 



142 ROADBED AND TRACK 



CONSTRUCTION ACCOUNTS. 

Railway companies with highly organized departments 
maintain a distinct bureau to make accurate itemized rec- 
ords of everything pertaining to construction accounts. 
Minute classifications of all expenses are kept, every item 
being charged to its proper sub-division in such classifi- 
cations. 

In a general way, but perhaps not so minutely sub- 
divided, construction accounts are required to be kept 
when the company may not have such a highly developed 
and complex organization. 

Therefore the practice of rendering accounts and the 
particulars regarding how items should be classified and 
charged, which follows, may be of much assistance to 
those unfamiliar with such details. 



BILLS. 

Every official incurring indebtedness on account of 
the company will request that bills covering the same 
be rendered promptly ; upon receiving such bills they will 
be carefully examined, and, if found correct, so certified 
in ink by the official, who will sign his full name and title ; 
they will then be forwarded to the assistant engineer who, 
after approving the same, will forward them to the di- 
vision engineer for voucher. 

Bills should state all the facts as clearly as the nature 
of the case will permit, giving all items, quantities, prices 
and dates in full ; if bill as rendered does not give all in- 
formation necessary to a proper understanding of the 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 143 

transaction, the certifying official should add sufficient 
explanation to make it fully understood. 

All bills should reach the division engineer's office not 
later than the seventh day of the month, and such record 
kept of them by certifying officials as to preclude the pos- 
sibility of their certifying a duplicate bill for the same 
account 

Bills covering purchases by the purchasing agent, or 
shipments from stock, will be forwarded by the general 
storekeeper, or division storekeepers, to the engineer in 
charge of the work, who will write the distribution on 
face of bill, certify to the receipt of the material and re- 
turn bill promptly. 

VOUCHERS. 

All vouchers will be made in division engineers' offices, 
certified by them, and forwarded promptly to the chief 
engineer. They should be forwarded daily as made up, 
and should all reach the chief engineer's office by the 
sixteenth. They should be numbered consecutively, com- 
mencing with No. I for the first January voucher each 
year. 

CASH EXPENDITURES. 

Officials supplied with company funds should under- 
stand that the money is only to be used to make small 
payments for supplies in the field, or other expenditures 
for which circumstances make it necessary to pay cash. 
Wherever- possible bills should be certified and forwarded 
for voucher in the usual manner. 

For all cash payments, receipts should be taken, giving 
the residence of signer and date of payment. If for sup- 



144 ROADBED AND TRACK 

plies, the receipt must give different items in detail ; when 
for board or lodgings, the exact time for which charge is 
made, and name of the individual boarded or lodged. 

These receipts must be sent in to assistant engineer 
promptly at the close of mouth, with list of same accom- 
panying, and after examination forwarded to division 
engineer for voucher. 

Officials must be careful to observe the limitations 
placed upon making cash payments, as it is found there 
is a tendency to make unnecessary payments in this man- 
ner, instead of forwarding bills for voucher and pay- 
ment by the treasurer. 

TIME RETURNS. 

Time returns will be made out by each official in charge 
of a party, and, after being certified, forwarded to the as- 
sistant engineer in charge of the work in time to reach 
his office on the first day of the month. After being ap- 
proved they will be forwarded to the division engineer so 
as to reach his pffice by the third of the month. 

The name and occupation of every employe will be re- 
turned on the time book, and when an employe has not 
worked a full month, the days actually worked must be 
shown. 

Particular care must be taken to spell each man's name 
correctly on the return, and to write the name clearly; 
neglect to do this is inexcusable. 

When time made by employes is omitted from return 
of current month, it will be entered on succeeding month's 
roll with notation showing from what month's roll it was 
omitted. All possible care must be exercised to prevent 
such omissions. 



\ 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 145 

Time of men who are paid a monthly rate will be stated 
in months or fractional parts thereof, using actual calen- 
dar days of the month in which the labor is performed, 
as 28, 29, 30 or 31, as the case may be ; time of employes 
paid a daily rate will be stated in days and hours. 

For gangs of laborers and section men, time books must 
be kept and sent in at end of month as prescribed for time 
returns. 

PAY ROLI^. 

Pay rolls will be made up from time returns and time 
books in the division engineer's office and will be for- 
warded to the chief engineer not later than the fifth of 
the month. 

Time books will be sent to the chief engineer with the 
rolls ; when the latter are audited they will be sent back to 
the division engineer for filing. 

DISCHARGE CHECKS. 

Employes leaving the service of the company should 
be paid in full at time of leaving or as soon thereafter as 
practicable. For this purpose a Discharge Check will be 
given the employe for the current month. 

When an employe has been paid by discharge check 
(which will only be issued to men leaving the service) 
his name will appear on time return in the usual manner, 
with the notation "D. C." and number of same. Parties 
using discharge checks will be held responsible for their 
correctness, and for the proper notation being made on 
time return. Any overpayment will be charged to them. 
Before the returns are forwarded the Discharge Check 
stub should be carefully checked with same. 



146 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Be careful and see that the month in which service is 
performed is always correctly stated ; if Discharge Check 
be given for omitted time in one month, to appear on pay 
rolls for another month, note the fact prominently in red 
ink on the face of the check. 

Discharge Checks cannot be issued after time returns 
have been forwarded, except by authority of chief engi- 
neer. 

DEDUCTION FROM PAY ROLLS. 

Amounts due the Railway Co. will be deducted from 
pay rolls; no orders will be required, and deductions 
of this kind will take precedence over all others. 

Deductions will be made for board from section and 
other laborers boarding in section houses, boarding cars 
or boarding camps ; it will not be necessary to take or- 
ders. Orders should, however, be taken for all board 
deductions from other employes. 

When it is necessary or desirable to protect parties 
who supply merchandise to employes, deductions will be 
made from same upon presentation of proper accounts. 

Pay rolls will show to whom deductions from each em- 
ploye are payable, and a deduction roll will be made con- 
taining name, address and amount due each party to 
whom deductions are payable. 

ASSIGNMENT OF WAGES. 

Assignments will not be honored unless made for full 
amount due. 

When a party claims to hold an assignment of wages 
and notifies the officers, under whom the assignor is em- 
ployed, the holder of the assignment will be required to 



^ 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 147 

produce it ; if found good in law, notation should be made 
in ink on pay roll, opposite name of assigning employe, in 
column provided for receipt, as follows: "Assigned to" 
giving name of assignee, and date of presentation of as- 
signment ; but no deduction will be made on pay roll. If 
assignment is presented before pay roll is prepared, a 
record should be made, and proper notation made on pay 
roll when prepared; if presented after pay roll has been 
forwarded, the auditor of disbursements should be ad- 
vised by wire. The treasurer must be notified by wire of 
every assignment as soon as presented. 

After an assignment is made, the assigning employe 
has no further interest in the wages thus assigned so far 
as this company is concerned, and payment will be made 
to assignee only; and to him only upon surrender of as- 
signment to paying officer, who, upon payment thereof, 
will take assignee's receipt and attach assignment thereto. 

Assignee will receipt thus : "John Smith, by Wm. Jones, 
assignee'^ and not individually. 



GARNISHMENTS. 

When service of garnishment or attachment is made 
on an officer, agent or employe of the company, he should 
at once telegraph the treasurer, division counsel and di- 
vision engineer, stating the nature of the case and giving 
the name of the plaintiff and defendant, and also the oc- 
cupation and location of the latter. He should forward 
papers served by first train mail to the division counsel 
for the district in which the action is brought. 



148 roadbed and track 

contractors' estimates. 

Promptly at the close of the month each resident en- 
gineer will make on the prescribed form detailed esti- 
mates, by stations, of all work done by contractors. They 
will be written in copying ink, and forwarded to the as- 
sistant engineer, who, after checking and approving will 
consolidate the same on the proper forms and forward in 
duplicate to the division engineer for voucher. 

Forms as provided for the purpose will be forwarded 
in duplicate to the chief engineer with voucher covering 
the estimate. 

As contractors' estimates are generally payable on the 
twentieth of the month, it is absolutely necessary that 
they should reach the chief engineer not later than the 
tenth, and, to secure this, prompt and accurate work by 
all concerned is necessary. 

Separate forms must be made for the work of different 
contractors. 

No information will be given to contractors or sub- 
contractors in reference to their estimate until the same 
shall have been approved by the division engineer, and 
no information in regard to a final estimate until ap- 
proved by the Chief Engineer. 

force accounts. 

Whenever work is required to be done which is not 
covered by the prices herein mentioned, the Chief Engi- 
neer of the Company shall give a written order for the 
doing of the same. Nothing shall be deemed extra work, 
however, which can be measured or estimated under the 
provisions of the contract. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 149 

All claims for extra work or material must be pre- 
sented to the Chief Engineer of the Company for allow- 
ance at the close of the month in which it was done or 
furnished, otherwise all claims therefor shall be deemed 
absolutely waived by the contractor, and the Company 
shall not be required to allow or pay for the same. 



APPROXIMATE ESTIMATE OF EXPENDITURES. 

On the first day of every month, each assistant engi- 
neer will send to his division engineer an approximate es- 
timate of the expenditures on his work in the preceding 
month. Give amounts to nearest hundred dollars, and 
after this manner, viz. : 

Company Bills and Traffic Charges $1,200 

Pay Rolls 1,000 

Bills 5^600 

Estimates 4,800 

Total $12,600 

Note. — 'Contractors' estimates should include retained 
percentage, if any, and if more than one contractor on 
the work, give estimate of each separately. Include all 
bills sent in to division engineer for voucher in preceding 
month. Give any extraordinary expenditure as a separate 
item. 

The approximate estimate of assistant engineers will, 
after being checked by the division engineer, be tele- 
graphed to the chief engineer not later than the third of 
the month, each piece of work being given separately. 



150 ROADBED AND TRACK 



DISTRIBUTION. 

All bills, pay rolls and estimates must be distributed 
by the certifying official before being forwarded, by no- 
tation on face of bills, and by a memorandum accompany- 
ing estimates and pay rolls. Distribution to buildings 
must show the particular structures and their location. 

Engineering expenses are not to be so distributed, the 
object being to keep record of the labor and material ex- 
pended directly upon each building. Treat in above man- 
ner stations, section houses, freight houses, water tanks, 
pump houses, turntables, engine houses, important 
bridges, etc. 

When voucher is prepared the distribution will be con- 
densed on face of voucher. Use numerals when indicat- 
ing the distribution on voucher. The following is the es- 
tablished construction distribution: 



I. ENGINEERING EXPENSES. 

To this account should be charged the salaries and 
wages of all persons employed in engineers' service, in- 
cluding clerks, janitors, teamsters and cooks; the cost 
and repairs of field, office and pocket instruments, draw- 
ing boards, blueprint apparatus, office furniture, station- 
ery boxes, tents, -temporary quarters for engineers, 
camp equipage, cooking utensils, stoves, cost of hire of 
animals and vehicles ; provisions and forage for men and 
animals, including board, hotel bills, traveling expenses, 
stable bills ;' rent, heating, lighting, cleaning and repairing 
engineers' offices; stationery and other contingent ex- 
penses of engineers. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 151 



LAND. 

2. RIGHT OF WAY AND STATION GROUNDS. 

To this account should be charged the cost of land 
acquired for roadbed (of necessary width conformity to 
depth and slopes of excavations and embankments), sta- 
tion and terminal grounds; also the cost of land pur- 
chased for ingress or egress to and from station ground ; 
salaries and expenses of counsel, right-of-way agent, and 
of engineer and assistants when especially engaged upon 
such matters ; stakes used to denote right of way limits ; 
expenses of appraisals, or of juries, commissioners or 
arbitrators in condemnation cases, cost of removal of 
buildings when upon right-of-way station or terminal 
grounds, but not included in property purchased ; station- 
ery supplied right-of-way agent, engineers and assistants, 
engineers' instruments, etc., when used for such purposes ; 
commission paid outside parties for purchase of prop- 
erties for these purposes ; cost of plats, abstracts, notarial 
fees, recording deeds, etc. 

Note particularly account No. 3 as regards cost of 
property purchased, but not required for the operation of 
the road. 

3. REAL ESTATE. 

To this account should be charged the cost of all land 
purchased by the railway in excess of that actually re- 
quired for road bed, station, or terminal grounds, or 
other specific purposes, including all expenses incurred in 
connection with such purpose as enumerated in account 



152 ROADBED AND TRACK 

No 2, "Right of Way and Station Grounds." A portion 
of the cost of land purchased outside right-of-way for 
borrow pits or waste banks should be charged to this ac- 
count. 

Note. — The amount to be charged to Real Estate 
should be an estimate of the saleable value of said borrow 
pits or waste banks after completion of the road. 



4. GRADING. 

To this account should be charged the cost of clearing 
right-of-way, station grounds or otherwise, and grub- 
bing, as required by specifications; the cost of grading 
roadbed and station grounds whether excavation or em- 
bankments ; dressing slopes of cuts and fills ; reconstruct- 
ing pikes or roads ; ditching roadbed ; berm ditches ; cost 
of material taken from borrow pits, haul if allowed ; rent 
of equipment used in hauling material ; amounts paid for 
privilege of borrowing material or making waste banks 
outside of company's right-of-way or station grounds ; 
ditches for water ways not specially required by right- 
of-way agreement, in which case cost would be properly 
chargeable to account No. 2. This account also includes 
retaining wall and other masonry or rip-rap for the pro- 
tection of embankments, cuts and slopes ; cribbing or bulk- 
heading built to protect the tracks or embankments along 
the seashore or banks of lakes and streams, including 
the cost of cribs, breakwaters, wing dams, or other de- 
vises constructed to change the direction of the current 
of a stream to prevent the washing out of the bank: ' 
grading for road crossings. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 153 

5. TUNNELS. 

To this account should be charged the cost of tunnel- 
ing, including such timber as may be used for centering, 
packing, etc. ; cost of stone, brick, cement sand, lime, salt, 
piles, timber, spikes, nails, braces, concrete, etc., used in 
the construction or lining of same ; cost of labor prepar- 
ing or securing the same, scaffolding, cofferdams, and 
pneumatic caissons; cost of soundings and machinery, 
pumps, engines, etc., used for such work. This account 
does not include grading or surfacing the roadbed, or 
cost of the track through the tunnel. 

6. BRIDGES, TRESTLES AND CULVERTS. 

To this account should be charged the cost of all 
bridges and trestles erected to carry tracks over streams, 
ravines, streets or other railroads, and culverts, both 
substructure and superstructure, including fire protection. 
This account should include abutments, piers, pier filling, 
supports, draw and pier protection, machinery to operate 
drawbridges, masonry ends and wing walls for culverts, 
cost of inspection of bridge material either at shop or site 
of structure, cost of tests, of wing dams, cribs, or ice- 
breakers for the purpose of regulating the current of a 
stream or breaking up ice-jams before reaching a bridge ; 
cost of excavating channels at bridges; also labor and 
material used in painting structure. 

In case "false work" is furnished by the company for 
erection of bridge superstructure, the cost of same should 
be charged to this account, and when removed the value 
of the material removed should be credited to this ac- 
count and charged to the account benefited. 



154 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Note. — ^The cost of ties, guard rails and other track 
material used on bridges and culverts is chargeable to 
account Nos. 7, 8 and 9. 

Note, — ^When bridges or culverts of a more expensive 
class are erected in place of old ones, only the difference 
between cost of the new structures and original cost of 
the old ones will be charged to "Improvements." Credit 
"Improvements" and debit "Operating Expenses" with 
actual cost of old structure, and when actual cost cannot 
be ascertained, make estimate based on prices prevailing 
at time the structures were built. 

TRACK. 

7. TIES. 

To this account should be charged the cost of all cross, 
switch, bridge and other -ties laid in the main track or 
tracks, sidings, spurs, gravel and repair track; in tun- 
nels, depots, shop and other yards, shops and other build- 
ings, etc. ; on turn-tables, wharves, piers, track scales, in- 
clines, bridges, trestles and culverts to and from coal 
chutes, coal pockets, fuel and water stations, etc. ; also 
the cost of inspection, loading and unloading, and any 
process of preservation. 

8. RAILS. 

To this account should be charged the cost of rails and 
guard rails laid in the main tracks, sidings, spurs, gravel 
and repair tracks; in tunnels, depots, shop and other 
yards, shops and other buildings, etc.; on turn-tables, 
wharves, piers, track-scales, inclines, bridges, trestles, 
and culverts to and from coal chutes, coal pockets, fuel 
and water stations, etc. ; also the cost of inspection, load- 
ing and unloading. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 



155 



9. TRACK FASTENINGS. 

m 

To this account should be charged the cost of spikes 
used for laying rails, and of fish and tie-plates, splice and 
angle bars, chairs, rail braces, bolts, nuts, nut locks or 
washers used in connection with same ; also cost of in- 
spection, loading and unloading. 

10. FROGS AND SWITCHES. 

To this account should be charged the cost of all frogs, 
switches and switch material, including switch stands 
(throw or lever), frog guard rails, crossing frogs and 
timbers, bolts, etc., used in foundations or base of same. 

II. TRACK LAYING AND SURFACING. 

To this account should be charged the cost of distrib- 
uting, laying, spacing and lining ties ; cost of laying, spik- 
ing and jointing rails, surfacing and lining track, in- 
cluding: the adjustment of rail to the proper elevation, 
and labor of placing frogs and switches; cost of track 
tools, including shovels, picks, track- jacks, crowbars, 
levers, spiking mauls, gauges and wrenches ; cost of put- 
ting in ballast ; service of engines, cars and crews distrib- 
uting track material, and rental of such equipment. 



12. BALLAST. 

To this account should be charged the cost of all bal- 
last, whether of broken stone, slag, gravel, other ma- 
terial especially provided for this purpose; also the ex- 
pense of loading, hauling, and unloading alongside of 
track, and rent of equipment. 



156 ROADBED AND TRACK 



STRUCTURES. 

13. STATION BUILDINGS AND FIXTURES. 

To this account should be charged the cost of all ma- 
terial and labor expended on station buildings and out- 
houses in connection therewith, including cost of plat- 
forms, sidewalks, excavation, foundation, drainage, 
water, gas and sewer pipes and connections, steam-heat- 
ing apparatus, stoves, electric light and power fixtures, 
including wiring for same, grading and putting ground 
in order after building has been finished ; electric bells, 
elevators, and all other material, furniture, or fixtures 
used to complete the building ; wells for water supply of 
station; also salaries and expenses of architects. 

Note. — ^This account should include the cost of similar 
buildings on docks, wharves and piers, when used for sta- 
tion purposes. 

Note, — The class of buildings considered as coming 
under the head of Station Buildings are those used in 
connection with the handling of traffic, such as Pas- 
senger Station Houses, Freight Depots, Track Scales 
and analogous structures. 

The cost of all structures not properly diargeable to 
Accounts Nos. 13 and 26, inclusive, should be charged to 
Account No. 32, Miscellaneous Structures. 

14. ENGINE HOUSE AND TURN-TABLES. 

To this account should be charged the cost of all round- 
houses (including cinder and drop pits), and turn-tables, 
heating, lighting and power plants, platforms, sidewalks 
and outhouses in connection therewith. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 157 

This account should include amounts paid when erect- 
ed by contract, labor and material when built by com- 
pany, preparing grounds before and clearing up same 
after construction, foundation, painting, excavation for 
and lining turn-table pit, and of cinder or drop pits inside 
or outside of roundhouses; foundation for turn-tables; 
loading, unloading and placing turn-table in position; 
levers, stops and machinery for operating turn-table; 
sewerage system, connection with water supply system 
and wells. This account does not include the cost of 
tracks laid in connection with roundhouse or turn-tables. 



15. ENGINE AND CAR SHOPS. 

To this account should be charged the cost of all build- 
ings to be used as shops (including transfer tables) ; 
heating, lighting and power plants, platforms, sidewalk 
and outhouses in connection therewith ; oil houses, sand 
house, store houses for company's material, scrap bins, 
etc. 

This account should also include amounts paid when 
erected by contract, labor and material when erected by 
company, preparing grounds before and after clearing up 
same after construction; foundation, painting, sewerage 
system, connection with water supply system and wells. 
This account does not include the cost of tracks laid m% 
connection with these buildings. 

16. SHOP MACHINERY AND TOOLS. 

To this account should be charged the cost of all new 
machinery and additional tools placed in any of the 
shops, including foundation for same ; loading, unloading 



^ 



158 ROADBED AND TRACK 

and placing machinery in position. It must not include 
any machinery or tools purchased to take the place of 
those that have worn out or destroyed. 



17. WATER STATIONS, 

To this account should be charged the cost of the ma- 
terial and labor expended in the construction of water 
stations for the purpose of supplying locomotives with 
water, including cost of windmills, pumps, boilers, pump- 
houses, tanks, tubs, tank foundations, track foundations, 
track tanks or troughs, engines and all fixtures and 
pipes, standpipes or penstocks and connections; wells, 
dams and reservoirs or cisterns, rip-rapping reservoirs 
and spillways ; also tools used in the work This account 
must not include waterworks, wells, etc., exclusively fof 
supply of stations, hotels, tenements or section houses, 
which should be charged to the- appropriate accounts. 



18. FUEL STATIONS. 

To this account should be charged arhounts paid under 
contract for, or the cost of all labor and material expend- 
ed in the construction of coal platforms, coal sheds, coal 
pocket chutes, woodsheds and racks, and all machinery 
or appliances necessary to equip them for service. This 
account includes inclines at fuel stations (except the cost 
of track laid thereon), tipple cars, buckets, cranes for 
handling same, elevating machinery, gasoline or other en- 
gines for operating same, dumping machinery, all appli- 
ances for weighing coal in pockets and opening coal 
pockets. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 159 

19. FENCING RIGHT-OF-WAY. 

To this account should be charged the cost of all ma- 
terial and labor used in construction board, wire, rail, 
hedge, stone, or other fences along the right-of-way or 
limits of roadbed ; but no charge should be made to this 
account for fences constructed around stock yards, fuel 
stations, station grounds shops, and on other properties 
outside of right-of-way, which should be charged to their 
appropriate accounts. 

20. SNOW FENCES AND SNOW STRUCTURES. 

To this account should be charged the cost of all 
structures erected exclusively to protect road or build- 
ings from snow. 

21. STOCK YARDS. 

To this account should be charged the cost of all labor 
and material expended on stock yards, including fa- 
cilities for feeding, watering and weighing. 

22, CROSSINGS, CATTLEGUARDS AND SIGNS. 

To this account should be charged the cost of all labor 
and material used in constructing farm, country road or 
street crossings at grade ; overhead bridges, cattleguards 
and wings and all track signs, crossing gates and watch- 
houses at crossings, but not cost of grading. 

23. INTERLOCKING OR SIGNAL APPARATUS. 

To this account should be charged the cost of inter- 
locking or signal apparatus complete, when built by con- 
tract. If built by the railway company the cost of labor 



160 ROADBED AND TRACK 

and materials, including all levers, racks, wires, pulleys, 
semaphores, semaphore signals, ground signals, posts, 
material in box troughs and other fixtures, tower, foun- 
dation for same, and all other work necessary to com- 
plete it. 

24. DOCKS, WHARVES AND COAL BUNKERS. 

To this account should be charged the entire cost oi 
docks, wharves, fefry or other landings, inclines to trans- 
fer steamers, and coal bunkers and machinery ; including 
grounds and riparian rights, dredging of slips, piling, 
filling cribs, pile protection, building cofferdams, pump- 
ing or bailing water, masonry walls or filling, etc., and 
all expenses incurred in the construction of these struc- 
tures, except the cost of tracks and buildings thereon. 



25. TRANSFER BOATS AND BARGES. 

To this account will be charged the cost of boats and 
barges. Renewals, repairs and operating expenses of 
boats in construction service are not chargeable to this 
account, but will be charged to the accounts benefited by 
the service, this account being designed to represent the 
cost of the property only. 



26. SECTION AND TOOL HOUSES. 

To this account should be charged the cost of all labor 
material expended on all buildings for use of track and 
bridgemen, including buildings for storing and protect- 
ing hand and push cars, tools, etc. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 161 

2^. GRAIN ELEVATORS. 

To this account should be charged the cost of ground 
on which elevator is located, cost of foundations, elevator 
buildings, conveyors, fixtures, and machinery complete; 
and material, labor^ transportation, and other charges 
incidental to construction. This account does not in- 
clude the cost of small storage elevators at way stations, 
which are considered to be station buildings. 

28. STORAGE WAREHOUSES. 

To this account should be charged the cost of ground 
on which storage warehouses are located, and cost of 
buildings, machinery, etc., complete, when built by con- 
tract ; if built by the railway company, the cost of ground, 
material, machinery, fixtures and labor, transportation, 
and all other expenditures incidental to construction. 

The buildings herein referred to are not the ordinary 
freight warehouses or stations where freight is received 
for shipment, etc., but warehouses in which merchandise 
is stored, and which the railway company or others oper- 
ate as warehouses. 



29. ELECTRIC LIGHT PLANTS. 

To this account should be charged the cost of all labor 
and materials, including cost of transportation, used to 
put in operation either arc or incandescent light plants, 
such as dynamos, engines for running dynamos, wire 
constituting lines, glass globes, carbon or arc lights, car- 
bonized filament for incandescent lights, poles, hangers 



162 ROADBED AND TRACK 

for lights, insulators, and every expense incidental to 
the. erection of a plant. When it is necessary to erect a 
building for an electric light plant, the entire cost of 
same, including ground, should be charged to this ac- 
count. ; 

30. ELECTRIC MOTIVE-POWER PLANTS. 

To this account should be charged the cost of ground 
on which electric-power stations are located, and the cost 
of erection of power houses and car sheds, including all 
expenditures for labor and material, stationary engines, 
boilers, and machinery, pumps, condensers, foundations, 
and settings for steam plants; generators, foundations 
and settings, switchboard and lighting apparatus for elec- 
tric plants; current conductors, including poles, wires, 
and labor for overhead work, third rails, fastenings for 
same and labor laying same, with costs of inspection, 
loading and unloading; feed wires, track bonding, and 
grade crossing cut-outs and all other expenditures con- 
nected with the installation of plants intended to generate 
and distribute electricity for motive power, including 
transportation. 

31. GAS-MAKING PLANTS. 

To this account should be charged the cost of all labor 

and material, including cost of transportation, used to put 

into operation a gas-making plant complete. The cost 

of ground on which the plant is located should also be 

* charged to this account. 

32. MISCELLANEOUS STRUCTURES. 

To this account should be charged the cost of struc- 
tures of every character, including cost of materials, la- 
bor, and all incidental expenses connected therewith, 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 163 

which are permanent or a betterment to the property and 
enter into the cost of road, and which are not otherwise 
herein particularly referred to, and for which no account 
has been provided, the object being to designate one 
general classification to which may be charged the cost 
of all minor structures ; and in this way avoid increasing 
the number of general accounts. 

33. TELEGRAPH LINES. 

To this account should be charged the cost of newly 
constructed telegraph and telephone lines, including 
poles, wires, billets, insulators, instruments, and all other 
materials used, also labor employed in the construction 
work, and cost of all tools used. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

34. TRANSPORTATION CHARGES. 

To this account should be charged local freight, pas- 
senger and express charges over the railway and 
branches. 

35. OPERATING EXPENSES AND EARNINGS. 

To this account should be charged all expenses, not 
herein designated to be charged to other accounts, for 
transporting construction material over road being con- 
structed and for rental of equipment; also expenses for 
operating road for traffic while in charge of construction 
department, including pavments for personal injury, stock 
killed or injured, or oti.er damage caused by operating 
for traffic. This account will be credited with the 
amounts received for transportation of such traffic. 



164 ROADBED AND TRACK 

36. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT. 

To this account should be charged cost of all equip- 
ment for construction purposes, including steam shovels, 
pile drivers, stone derricks, stone crushers, iron, hand, 
push and velocipede cars and tunnel machinery, but ex- 
clusive of boats. Renewal, repairs and expenses are not 
chargeable to this account. 

37. EQUIPMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF SECTIONS. 

To this account should be charged the cost of all tools, 
hand and push cars necessary to equip new sections. Also 
the cost of maintaining sections after the road has been 
turned over to the Operating Department, but mainte- 
nance of track still left with the Construction Department. 

38. GENERAL EXPENSES. 

To this account should be charged expenses of incor- 
poration and all contingent expenses, which arc not 
proper charges to engineering, such as taxes, printing and 
engraving bonds, etc. 

39. INTEREST AND DISCOUNT. 

To this account should be charged construction inter- 
est, discount on securities sold, interest on loans effected 
and on notes issued for construction purposes or overdue 
payments to contractors or other creditors, and discount, 
interest and exchange on other commercial paper issued 
for a similar purpose. Premium realized from sale of 
bonds, stock or other securities for a specific work should 



^ 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 165 

be credited to this account. Discount or premium real- 
ized from sale of bonds, stock or other securities for a 
specific work should be applied to such work. 

40. LEGAL EXPENSES. 

To this account should be charged the amount of all 
attorney's salaries, fees and, expenses, and all other inci- 
dental legal expenses incurred during the process of con- 
struction of a road, except when the expense can be 
charged directly to the account for which it is incurred. 

TRACK LAYING REPORTS. 

The number of feet of main track laid every day must 
be telegraphed to the chief engineer and division engineer 
in the following manner : 

" Division, main track laid Jan. lo, 

1904, from station 626 to station 640, fourteen hundred 
feet." 

A daily record of all track laid must be carefully kept, 
with every blank properly filled in. This report will be 
forwarded to division engineer by first train, who, after 
checking and making record of same, will forward to 
chief engineer. 

INSTRUMENT REPORTS. 

All persons in charge of instruments, live stock, tents, 
etc., will make a monthly report of same on the form 
provided, following printed instructions on blank. These 
reports will be written in copying ink and forwarded to 
assistant engineer, who will forward all for his work, in 
one package, to division engineer. After being checked in 
division engineer's office, an impression copy will be taken 
and all forwarded in one package to the chief engineer. 



166 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Instruments which become unfit for service should be 
forwarded to the chief engineer, with a card attached, 
stating the defects in full. 

Instruments must be properly cared for, and any dam- 
age resulting from negligence will be charged to the part; 
at fault. • Surplus instruments should be sent in to the 
division engineer. 

REQUISITIONS. 

Assistant engineers will make all requisitions through 
the division engineer. 

A copy of the requisitions will be sent to assistant engi- 
neer to advise him as to what material has been ordered 
for his work, and to enable him to check the same upon 
receipt. 

Purchases of subsistence stores and camp equipment 
will be made by assistant engineers under the supervision 
of the division engineer. 

For all other articles, requisitions must be made as 
above specified, except in cases of emergency to avoid 
delay to work, when material may be ordered by wire, 
such orders being confirmed at once by requisition, with 
notation ''confirming telegram of this date." Should 
urgency be so great as to require immediate local pur- 
chase, authority for such purchase must be obtained by 
wire. 

RECEIPT OF MATERIAL AND DISTRIBUTION RECORD. 

All material must be carefully checked with invoice 
immediately upon receipt, and a record of it entered in 
the "Material Book" of the prescribed form as provided, 
showing date received, car initials apd number, way bill 
number, quantity and description of material, name of 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 167 

shipper, date of invoice and amount, date that the in- 
voice is certified and returned, amount of traffic charges, 
and date expense bill is certified and handed back to 
agent. Any shortages must be reported by letter accom- 
panying the invoice. A smaller book or blotter will be 
used in entering receipt of the material, from which the 
Material Book will be posted". 

A distribution record, of the prescribed form as pro- 
vided, will be kept, containing a complete record of con- 
struction cost in proper numerical order, including both 
labor and material, under the accounts numbered i to 40. 

In this record will be entered the following: 

1. The bills of material required for. each special 
structure or bridge, and all general construction items of 
rails, cross ties, angle bars, bolts, fencing, etc., not in- 
cluded in special bills of material. 

2. The number of the requisition covering each item 
of material. 

3. The partial or complete receipts of material apply- 
ing on such requisition. 

4. The reference to the page of the Material Book 
from which such receipts are posted. 

5. The cost of the material received as ascertained 
and posted from the invoices of same. 

Enter under proper accounts engineering expenses, ex- 
penditures for right-of-way, real estate, and all other ex- 
penditures that go to make up the complete cost of the 
work. 

Accounts should be posted daily, checking complete 
receipts of each item in red ink. Partial receipts should 
be entered under head of remarks, noting page number 
of Material Book and amount of invoice, until completed 
and properly counter-checked. 



168 ROADBED AND TRACK 

This record must show at all times the exact relation 
between the requirements of the bill of material and the 
receipts to date, as this information is most important. 

At the conclusion of work forward the material and 
distribution records to the division engineer, who will 
furnish to the chief engineer a complete abstract of cost 
of each special structure, including large bridges, con- 
taining cost of each class of labor or material, but omit- 
ting itemized details of same. 

Where, under the terms of contract, contractors are 
required to care for material, the records will be kept in 
precisely the same manner. Material clerks are required 
to give contractors every assistance in caring for material 
and full information at any time as to the purpose for 
which any material is intended, and will sec that no ma- 
terial is diverted from the purpose for which it was in- 
tended, without authority of assistant engineer. 

All material must be unloaded promptly, and no ma- 
terial will be borrowed, loaned or sold except by author- 
ity of the chief engineer. 

TRANSFER OF MATERIAL TO OPERATING DEPARTMENT. 

When work on branch lines, or on special improve- 
ments is finished, all material left over will be inven- 
toried by the engineer in charge, and loaded and shipped 
to division store, or otherwise, as directed. This inven- 
tory must show in detail location, quantity, description 
and percentage of value as compared with new material 
of like kind. It should be forwarded promptly to the 
division engineer, thence through the office of the chief 
engineer to the general storekeeper, who will arrange 
to give the work proper credit. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 



169 



1 



INVENTORIES. 

At the end of each month each assistant engineer, resi- 
dent engineer, or other official having property of the 
railway company in his charge, will make out a full in- 
ventory of it and forward same to the chief engineer 
through the division engineer. 

The value of this inventory depends upon its being 
made promptly, and showing, in detail, what property the 
railway company owns, where it is located, and what it 
is worth. Division engineers will see that the above in- 
structions are followed, and that the inventories are com- 
plete in every particular. 

INSURANCE. 

All buildings, important bridges, trestles and other 
structures liable to damage from fire will be reported to 
the chief engineer for insurance immediately on comple- 
tion. Make these reports in tabulated form, as follows: 



Description of buildings for insurance on the 



Place 



Use 



Station 

Opposite 

Center 



DiRtance 

and 
Direction 

from 
Main Track 



Dimen- 
sions 

Ground 
Plan 



Num- 
ber of 
Stories 



Kind 

of 
Struc- 
ture 



Kind 

of 
Roof 






170 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



Make special mention of engines, tools and machinery 
in shops, and of pumps, boilers and water supply pipes 
in pump houses. 



Description 


of bridges for insurance on 


the 


No. of 
Bridge 


Station at 
end 


Miles 
from 


Character 


Length 


Value and 
other 






Remarks 















Give piers and abutments as separate items. Include 
cost of rails in the value column. Bridges costing less 
than $400.00 need not be reported. 



WORK TRAIN SERVICE. 

Work trains will be controlled by assistant engineers 
or such other official as they may designate. 

Trainmen will be furnished on request of the division 
engineer. 

The transportation rules of the railway company will 
govern all lines under construction. 

Locomotives and enginemen will be furnished on requi- 
sition made through the chief engineer's office. 

All enginemen and trainmen will be carried upon the 
rolls of the assistant engineer. 

Requisitions for engines and cars will be made through 
the chief engineer's office, specifying the purpose for 
which required. 



^ 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 171 

All conductors will make daily reports of all cars han- 
dled by them. 

At the close of each month assistant engineers will for- 
ward all reports to division engineer with a statement 
covering the same. 

At end of every month each assistant engineer will 
make a report to his division engineer of all cabooses, 
boarding cars, water tank cars, tool cars, etc., used on 
his work during the month, giving car numbers, dates 
between which used, purpose for which used, and 
whether used by company or contractors. 

From this report the bills of rental against construc- 
tion department and contractors will be made up in the 
division engineer's office. 

Construction material must be promptly unloaded and 
cars returned at once. 

Under no circumstances must foreign cars be used in 
work-train service, nor must any cars be used as cabooses 
or boarding cars except those furnished for that purpose. 

COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC DURING CONSTRUCTION. 

The province of this department is to construct new 
roads, not to operate them, and they are to be turned 
over to the operating department as soon as practicable. 

The object of these instructions is to relieve this de- 
partment from handling money, and place the responsi- 
bility of properly collecting and accounting for revenue 
arising from transactions of commercial business in the 
hands of the officials of the railway company, to whom . 
such work belongs. 

The accounting department will see that such earnings 
are duly credited to construction account. 



172 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Time cards will be arranged by assistant engineers 
with as much reference to convenient transaction of com- 
mercial business as is consistent with the economical 
handling of construction work. 

Officers and employes are 'to handle no money col- 
lected for transportation of freight and passengers except 
as herein provided. 

As soon as commercial business is likely to be offered, 
the assistant engineer shall notify the division engineer, 
who shall request the division superintendent under whose 
jurisdiction the branch will pass when completed, to nom- 
inate agents and operators, subject to approval by the 
chief engineer and the proper officials. 

The chief engineer will request the general traffic man- 
ager to publish freight and passenger rates. 

A traveling auditor will be sent to install, instruct and 
bond station agents. 

The division engineer will ask the division superin- 
tendent to furnish train crews. 

The men so nominated and installed will be in the em- 
ploy of and paid by construction department. 

They will be directly under orders of the assistant en- 
gineer in everything, except collecting and remitting 
money, making way-bills and reports, and keeping ac- 
counts. In these matters they will be under orders of 
and comply with instructions given by the accounting de- 
partment and by the treasurer. 

Conductors shall furnish the assistant engineer with 
duplicate reports of all collections to permit a check on 
same. 

Neglect to comply promptly and fully with rules of 
these officials will be cause for dismissal. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 173 

Standard printed rules and regulations in force under 
operating department defining their duties, will be fur- 
nished, and must be strictly complied with. 

If express, mail or telegraph services are extended 
over the branch, agents, operators and conductors will 
transact the business in conformity with current practice 
on the adjacent main line. 

When assistant engineers deem change of agents, op- 
erators, dispatchers, or conductors necessary, due and 
sufficient notice must be given to the division superin- 
tendent. 

Agents must not be transferred from station, or given 
leave of absence until checked out by traveling auditor 
and substitute duly installed. 

The accounting department will provide outfit of sta- 
tionery and blanks necessary to open new stations. 

When no regular trains are run, conductors of work 
trains will collect, report and remit cash collections ais 
provided in instructions to conductors of regular trains, 
and all work train conductors will follow same rules. 

No person will be allowed to ride on trains without 
paying fare, unless provided with a pass. 

Assistant engineers will make themselves familiar with 
rules and regulations in force on operating divisions, 
and see that their agents and conductors act in accord- 
ance therewith. 

Assistant engineers stand in the same relation to these 
employes as a division superintendent to his men. 

PASSES. 

Books of passes will be furnished from the chief en- 
gineer's office to assistant engineers for issue to employes 
traveling on company business. 



174 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Passes will not be honored unless bearing written coun- 
ter-signature of the person authorized to do so, and con- 
ductors will decline to honor any pass signed or counter- 
signed "by" or "per" any person. 

Passes for families of employes, contractors or em- 
ployes not traveling on company business, will be issued 
only on approval of chief engineer. 

ACCIDENT REPORTS. 

In case of accident on the railway or on the property 
of the company, resulting in death or personal injury, 
either to employes or others, employes must telegraph 
the facts immediately to the division engineer. This tele- 
gram must be confirmed by written report on the blank 
provided for that purpose and forwarded by first mail to 
the division engineer, who will transmit the same through 
the office of the chief engineer to the general claim agent. 

If .the injured employe is allowed compensation for 
time lost on account of injuries or other payment there- 
for, release of damages should be taken. Such allowance 
or payment should be made only on authority first ob- 
tained from the chief engineer. 

Copy of special instructions issued by the general claim 
agent relative to use of release blanks will be furnished to 

engineers on application to the division engineer. 

* 

TELEGRAMS. 

Messages should be sent by wire only when the mail 
services will not answer the purpose. There is a ten- 
dency to use the telegraph for communicating matters of 
small- importance, simply because there is less care and 
time involved to the sender in one form than the other. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 175 



APPENDIX. 

SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT FOR FIELD 

PARTIES. 

SUPPLIES FOR 12 MEN, 30 DAYS 

(Or in the same proportion for any number,) 

6cxD Ibsf Flour 
50 lbs. Buckwheat flour 
50 lbs. Oatmeal 
30 lbs. Cornmeal 
150 lbs. Sugar 
20 lbs. Salt 
10 lbs. Baking Powder 
2 lbs. Mustard 
I lb. Pepper, ground 

1 lb. Ginger, ground 

J4 lb. Cinnamon, ground 

j4 lb. Allspice, ground 
100 lbs. L. C. Bacon 
150 lbs. Bacon 

30 lbs. Dried Beef 

25 lbs. Codfish 

2 cases Condensed Milk 
20 lbs. Coifee 

20 lbs. Tea 
30 lbs. Lard 
6 lbs. Yeast Cakes 
20 lbs. Stilton Cheese 
100 lbs. Beans 
60 lbs. Rice 



r 

176 ROADBED AND TRACK 

lo lbs. Barley 
20 lbs. Soap 

I bottle Lemon Extract 

I bottle Vanilla Extract 
ID lbs. Currants 

I box Raisins 

I gallon Vinegar 
30 lbs. Evaporated Apples 
60 lbs. Dried Prunes or Plums 
J4 lb. Nutmegs, ground 

I large box Matches 

I box Candles 

I lb. Lye 
60 lbs. Butter 

6 bottles Worcestershire Sauce 
75 lbs. Canned Com Beef 
60 lbs. Yellow Sugar 
Eggs, fresh meat and vegetables as required, if they 
can be obtained from the farming community. 

ENGINEER EQUIPMENT AND STATIONERY. 

(For One Field Party,) 

I Transit 
I Level 

I Chain, 10 extra links 
I Level Rod, 12 ft. 
I Hand Level 
I Barometer 
I Prismatic Compass 
I Protractor, Celluloid 
48 Thumb Tacks 
6 Camel Hair Brushes 



^ 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 177 

I Scale, triangular^ loth inches 

I Straight Edge, 30 in., steel, nickel-plated 

I Drafting Board, 3 ft. by 2 ft. 

I Stationery Chest, 12 in. by 15 in. by 30 in. 

I Solar Ephemeris 

I Boxwood Thermometer 

6 Scratch Blocks 
12 Blotters 

I Block Vouchers 
12 Papers Tacks, 8 oz. tinned 

3 quires Wrapping Paper 
12 Balls Twine 

1 Slab for India Ink 

2 Inkstands 

4 pads Letter Paper 
4 pads Note Paper 
4 quires Foolscap 

3 Triangles, 10, 8 and 5 in. 30 and 60 
I roll Tracing Cloth, 36 in. 

1 Book of Recipes 

2 Tin Map Cases, 6x36 in. 
I Steel Tape, 100 ft. 

4 Hand Axes and Extra Handles 

1 Brush Hook 

2 so-ft. Tapes in cases, 2 without cases 
I Stick India Ink 

I pint Combined Writ'g Fluid, in stone bottle 

1 small bottle Red Ink 

2 dozen Shipping Tags 
6 Transit Books 

6 Level Books 

6 Topography Books 

I Requisition Book 



178 ROADBED AND TRACK 

6 Note Books 

6 Indelible Pencils 
100 Bills 
12 2-H Pencils 
12 4-H Pencils 
12 Lumber Crayons 
lOO Manila Envelopes, large 
loo Manila Envelopes, small 

6 Penholders 

I box Assorted Pens 
12 Crowquill Pens 

I box Pins 

6 Rubber Erasers 

50 sheets Cross-section Paper, loths 
20 yds. Drawing Paper, 30 in. wide 
10 yds. Plate A Profile Paper, thick 
24 Time Books 

1 box Rubber Bands, assorted 

2 lbs. Keil in sticks 



CAMP EQUIPMENT. 

(For One Field Party,) 

1 Tent and Fly, 10x12 

2 Tents and Flics, 12x14 
I Grindstone 

I Handsaw 

I Cross-cut Saw 

I Alarm Clock 

1 bundle Sail Twine and Needles 

2 Flat Files for filing axes 
10 yds. Toweling 



^ 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 179 

2 Stew Pans 

2 Water Pails 

2 5-gal. Dishpans 

2 large Iron Spoons, 12 in. 

I Soup Ladle 

1 Cake Turner 

2 Butcher Knives 

2 Tarpaulins, 12x12 

I Shotgun and Cartridges 

I Rifle and Cartridges 

1 Hammer 

2 pair Climbing Irons 
2 coils ^-in. Rope. 

18 Extra Bags 

2 Sibley Stoves, sheet iron, with pipe. 

1 4-hole Folding Cook Stove and kettles, 

complete. 

3 pieces Pipe, with dampers 

12 pieces Pipe, without dampers 

2 Whetstones 

I set Pot Hooks 

1 Bake Pot 

2 nests of Tin Pails 

4 Pepper Boxes 
4 Salt Dishes 

I Sieve 

1 Collander. 

2 Can Openers 
I Meat Hook 

I Potato Masher 

I Rolling Pin 

I Bread Board 

I Flesh Fork 



180 ROADBED AND TRACK 

1 Biscuit Cutter 
1 8 Teaspoons 

1 8 Tablespoons 
i8 Knives 
1 8 Forks 

2 Washbasins 

lo lbs. lo d. Nails 
4 lbs. 4 d. Nails 
2 Iron Pots 
2 Coffee Pots 
2 Tea Pots 
I large Frying Pan 
I small Frying Pan 

1 8 Coifee Cups 

24 Tin Plates 



MEDICAL EQUIPMENT. 

(For One Field Party.) 

yi doz. boxes Cooper's Pills 
I lb. Rochelle Salts 

1 lb. Epsom Salts 

2 bottles Iodoform Gauze 
6 rolls Bandages 

1 roll Sticking Plaster 

2 oz. Laudanum 
I gal. Fly Oil 

I doz. T oz. Phials and Corks 

3 Surgeon's Needles 

I card Surgeon's Silk 
6 I oz. bottles Chlorodyne 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 



181 



APPENDIX-VERTICAL CURVES. 
TABLE OP ORDINATES TO VERTICAL CURVES. 





Rate of Change 


per Station. 




Rate of Change. 


DistaDce 












Distance 
from P.C. 








from P.C. 




















0.05 


0.10 


0.15 


0.20 


0.30 




0.05 


0.10 


0.15 


00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


500 


0.63 


1.25 


188 


10 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


510 


0.65 


1.30 


195 


20 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.01 


520 


0.68 


1.35 


203 


30 


0.00 


0.00 


0.01 


0.01 


0.01 


530 


70 


1.40 


2 11 


40 


0.00 


0.01 


0.01 


0.02 


0.02 


540 


0.73 


1.46 


2 19 


50 


0.01 


0.01 


0.02 


0.03 


0.04 


550 


0.76 


1.51 


2.27 


60 


0.01 


0.02 


0.03 


0.04 


0.05 


560 


0.79 


1.57 


2.35 


70 


0.01 


0.02 


0.04 


0.05 


0.07 


570 


0.81 


1.62 


2.44 


80 


0.02 


0.03 


0.05 


0.06 


0.10 


580 


0.84 


1.68 


2.52 


90 


0.02 


0.04 


006 


0.08 


0.12 


590 


0.87 


1.74 


2.61 


100 


0.03 


0.05 


0.08 


0.10 


0.15 


600 


0.90 


1.80 


2.70 


110 


0.03 


0.06 


0.09 


0.12 


0.18 


610 


0.93 


1.86 


2.79 


120 


0.04 


0.07 


0.11 


0.14 


0.22 


620 


0.96 


1.92 


2.88 


130 


0.04 


0.08 


0.13 


0.17 


0.25 


630 


0.99 


1.98 


2.98 


140 


0.05 


0.10 


0.15 


0.20 


0.29 


640 


1.03 


2.05 


3.07 


150 


006 


0.11 


0.17 


0.23 


0.34 


650 


1.06 


2.11 


3.17 


160 


0.06 


0.13 


0.19 


0.26 


0.38 


660 


1.09 


2.18 


3.27 


170 


0.07 


0.14 


0.22 


0.29 


0.43 


670 


1.12 


2.24 


3.37 


180 


0.08 


0.16 


0.24 


0.32 


0.49 


680 


1.16 


2.31 


3.47 


190 


0.09 


0.18 


0.27 


0.36 


0.54 


690 


1.19 


2.38 


3.57 


200 


0.10 


0.20 


0.30 


0.40 


0.60 


700 


1.23 


2.45 


3.68 


210 


0.11 


0.22 


0.33 


0.44 


0.66 


710 


126 


2.52 


3 78 


220 


0.12 


0.24 


0.36 


0.48 


0.73 


720 


1.30 


2.59 


3.89 


230 


0.13 


0.26 


0.40 


0.53 


0.79 


730 


1.33 


2.66 


4.00 


240 


0.14 


0.29 


0.43 


0.58 


0.86 


740 


1.37 


2.74 


4.11 


250 


0.16 


0.31 


0.47 


0.63 


0.94 


750 


1.41 


2.81 


422 


260 


0.17 


0.34 


0.51 


' 0.68 


1.01 


760 


1.45 


2.89 


4 33 


270 


0.18 


0.36 


0.55 


0.73 


1.09 


770 


1.48 


2.96 


4.45 


280 


0.20 


0.39 


0.59 


0.78 


1.18 


780 


1.52 


3.04 


4.56 


290 


0.21 


0.42 


0.63 


0.84 


1.26 


790 


1.56 


3.12 


4.68 


300 


0.23 


0.45 


0.68 


0.90 


1.35 


800 


1.60 


3.20 


4.80 


310 


0.24 


0.48 


0.72 


0.96 


1.44 


810 


1.64 


3.28 


4.92 


320 


0.26 


0.51 


0.77 


1.02 


1.54 


820 


1.68 


3 36 


5.04 


830 


0.27 


0.54 


0.82 


1.09 


1.63 


830 


1.72 


3.44 


5.17 


340 


0.29 


0.58 


0.87 


L16 


1.73 


840 


1.77 


3.53 


5.29 


850 


0.31 


0.61 


0.92 


1.23 


1.84 


850 


1.81 


3.61 


5.42 


360 


0.32 


0.65 


0.97 


1.30 


1.94 


860 


1.85 


3.70 


5.55 


370 


0.34 


0.68 


1.03 


137 


2.05 


870 


1.89 


3.78 


5.68 


380 


036 


0.72 


1.08 


1.44 


2.17 


880 


1.94 


3.87 


5.81 


390 


0.38 


0.76 


1.14 


1.52 


2 28 


890 


1.98 


3.96 


5.94 


400 


0.40 


0.80 


1.20 


1.60 


2.40 


900 


2.03 


4.05 


6.08 


410 


0.42 


0.84 


1.26 


1.68 


2.52 


910 


2.07 


4.14 


6.21 


420 


0.44 


0.88 


1.32 


176 


2.65 


920 


2.12 


4.23 


6.35 


430 


0.46 


0.92 


1.39 


185 


2.77 


930 


2.16 


4.32 


6 49 


440 


0.48 


0.97 


1.45 


1.94 


2.90 


940 


2.21 


4.42 


6 63 


450 


0.51 


1.01 


1.52 


2.03 


3.04 


950 


2.26 


4.51 


6.77 


460 


0.53 


1.06 


1.59 


2.12 


3.17 


960 


2.31 


4.61 


6.91 


470 


0.55 


1.10 


1.66 


2.21 


3.31 


970 


2.35 


4.70 


7.06 


480 


0.58 


1.15 


173 


2.30 


3.46 


980 


2.40 


4.80 


7.20 


490 


0.60 


1.20 


1.80 


2.40 


3.60 


9*K) 


2.45 


4.90 


7.35 


500 


0.63 


L26 


1.88 


2.50 


3.75 


1000 


2.50 


5.00 


7.50 

• 



182 ROADBED AND TRACK 

The preceding table of vertical curves gives the vertical 
distances from the tangent grade line at the correspond- 
ing distances from the P. V. C. or P. V. T. (See first 
column.) 

The distances are to be taken up or down according 
to the form of the grade angle : 

Example: — Given a — 0.8 grade meeting a +0.5 at 
station 103, El. 136.42. It is required to insert a vertical 
curve having a rate of change of o.i per station. 

In this case the grade angle or algebraic difference of 
the two rates will be 1.3 feet. 

Hence the curve will be 1.3+0.1 = 1300 feet long, or 
650 feet on each side of the vertex — then 

103— (6+So)= 96+50 P. V. C El.=i36.42+(o.8x 
650) =141.62. 

103+ (6+50) =109+50 P. V. T. £1=136.42+ (0.5 X 

650) =139-67. 

From these elevations and that of the vertex the eleva- 
tions on the grade tangents are computed, using the 0.8 
and 0.5 rates, see column 2 of the subjoined tabulation. 

Column 3 gives the corrections which are taken from 
the vertical curve table for a o.i rate at the correspond- 
ing distance from the P. V. C. or P. V. T. 

Column 4 in this case is the sum of columns 2 and 3 
and gives the corrected grade elevations. 

Intermediate values as for cut-offs, of pile bents, etc., 
are obtained by interpolation in the vertical curve table, 
before transferring to column 3 in the subjoined. 

Thus for Sta. 104+37, which is 513 feet from P. T., 
the correction would be between 1.30 and 1.35 in the 
proportion of 3 to 10, or 1.3 15. 

The tangent grade at 104+37= 136.92+ (.37X0.5) = 
137.105, and this plus 1.315=138.42. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 



183 



Station. 



96+50 P.Y.C. 

97 

98 

99 
100 
101 
102 
103 



Tan- 
Kent 
Qrade 



141.62 
141.22 
140.42 
139.62 
138.82 
138.02 
137.22 
186.42 



Verti- 
cal 
Correc- 
tion 



Zero 

+ .01 

+ .11 
+ .31 

+ .61 

+ 1.01 

+ 1.51 

+ 2.11 



Cor- 
rected 
Grade. 



141.62 
141.28 
140.58 
139.98 
139.43 
139.03 
188.78 
188.58 



station. 



104 

104+87 
105 
106 
107 
108 
109 
9+50 PVT 



Tangent 
Grade. 



186.92 

187.105 

187.42 

137.92 

138.42 

188.92 

139.42 

189.67 



Vertical 
Correc- 
tion. 



+ 1.51 
+ 1.315 
+1.01 
+ .61 
+ .31 

+ .11 
+ .01 

Zero 



Cor- 
rected 
Grade. 



138.48 
138.42 
188.48 
188.58 
138.78 
189.08 
139.48 
189.67 



Intermediate rates in the vertical curve table may be 
obtained by multiplying the tabular values for the o.i 
rate by the rate selected. 

A 0.25 ,rate of change in this table is also obtained by 
interpolation between the 0.2 and 0.3 rates. 

Note that the ordinates for the 0.2 rate may be taken 
directly from any table of squares. 

Thus for 470 ft. the square equals 220900 and the ordi- 
nate is 2.21 for a .2 rate and 1.105 for a .1 rate. Simi- 
larly for 473 feet the ordinate for the 0.2 rate is 2.24. 



THE SIX CHORD SPIRAL. 

There are two general forms of spirals in common use. 

1st: The Track Parabola, in which the deflections 
from the point of spiral. vary as the squares of the dis- 
tances measured from the same point along the curve. 

In the ordinary cubic parabola these distances are 
measured along the tangent produced. 

With the track parabola, any given values of Rm and 
p, Fig. I, are fitted exactly. 



184 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



Further, any intermediate point can be set exactly and 
the instrument being moved up, work continued in a man- 
ner similar to that used in laying out circular curves. 

This, however, sometimes results in trouble for inex- 
perienced men. 

2nd: The Polychord Spiral, in which the degree of 
curve increases with each chord, in arithmetical pro- 
gression. 

The polychord spiral, with an infinite number of chords, 
is the track parabola. 



s^/^ 






r>f/y^^^7- 







Reduced to its simplest form, the polychord becomes 
what might be called a One Chord Spiral. 

The latter is a terminal circular curve having a radius 
2Rm (see dotted curve Fig. i). 

The values of p and R being fixed, all polychord spirals 
will fall between the one chord spiral and the track para- 
bola, and the greater the number of chords, the nearer 
the approach to the track parabola. 

For fixed values of p and Rm, each form of spiral has 
's own appropriate length, the one chord being the short- 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 185 

est and the track parabola the longest, all the polychords 
falling in between ; the greater the number of chords the 
longer the spiral. 

In practice, the maximum lateral variation of a six 
chord from a parabola will not exceed 0.02 feet. The 
usual variation is negligible in this class of work. Hence 
the principal easement curves in use yield alignments 
which approach each other so closely that their riding 
qualities are the same. 

The total length of track, between common points on 
the main tangent and main curve, is also the same, no 
matter what spiral be used, so that, after track is laid 
to a one chord, it may be thrown into a track parabola 
without altering the expansion. 

The three principal classes of polychords are : 

1st With deflections constant, while chord length and 
number of chords vary (such as the Searles form). 

2nd. With chord length constant, while deflections 
and number of chords vary. 

3rd. Number of chords constant, while deflections 
and chord lengths vary. 

Most of these spirals depend for their usefulness on 
specially prepared tables which must be consulted in the 
field and their efficiency for varying values of p and Rm 
increases with the number of tables. 

Thus, Searles has provided 500 tabuliated spirals from 
which to select the one coming nearest to given values 
of p and Rm. 

The spiral used in the following discussion is of the 
3rd type and has invariably six chords. 

The Six Chord Spiral is chosen: 

1st On account of its extremely simple relation to 



^ 



186 ROADBED AND TRACK 

the one chord spiral or terminal arc of half the degree 
of the main curve (see Fig. 2). 

2nd. On account of its close approximation to the 
track parabola, and all polychords commonly used. 

It will first be considered as a curve to be offset from 
the one chord spiral. 

The offsets are small, and may usually be estimated, 
in a manner analogous to the use of the self reading rod 
in levelling. 

The instrument is to be kept on the one chord spiral, 
and all calculations, shifts, etc., are made by the ordinary 
rules and tables for circular curves. 

Notes are kept and plats made precisely as for com- 
pound curves. 

The one chord is sufficiently exact for right of way 
descriptions. 

Since the one chord and the six chord have the same 
length between common points no equation of distance is 
introduced in passing from one to the other. 

To aid the eye in offsetting in the field of view of the 
instrument, a 2>^ inch wrought iron washer may be put 
on the transit rod. This will give a o.i ft. offset on each 
side of the centre rod, which is usually a sufficient help 
for setting stakes. 

A more exact makeshift may be obtained as follows: 

Take a two foot rule, cut off the two outside hinged 
legs, thus leaving the pivot joint with a six inch leg on 
each side. Screw one of these legs along a face of an 
ordinary wooden octagon rod. 

The other leg will make a folding offset sight. This 
movable leg should have fastened to its face a strip of 
sheet iron say. 6 in. long and i in. wide, in which V 
shaped notches are cut, deep ones for the full tenths from 
■od centre, and shallow for the half tenths. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 



187 



^ 



When the vertical hair cuts the scale at the proper off- 
set, set tack at point of rod. 

In case the spiral is so long that a division into six 
parts gives too great a distance between track centres, 
it may be divided into twelve equal parts by taking every 
fifth point in Table i. 



f?€2 



TAHHStN 




►,^ "Af 'subs stand ^of{ MAtrf cuf^ve 

<*-. \.fj.\ - - - O/^e CHORD 



O/^MAll^ CVf\VA 









r/yr s/x c^Ofio sp/r/il /f/vo tfrm/a/ml curve 

/y/ll//A/G /f R/fD/US 7W/CS TH/fT Or Af/i/A/ CC/Rl/£ 



This will not constitute the regular twelve chord 
spiral, which would be longer and include a greater total 
angle than the six chord. 

As a guide to section foremen in determining track 
elevation it is preferable to divide the spiral into some 
fixed number of equal parts regardless of the full sta- 
tioning. 



188 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



This spiral has six chords, each=:"C' ^one-fourth 
length of terminal curve, hence spiral is ij4 times length 
of terminal curve, and the quarter points, Hj, Hg, H3, H4 
of the terminal curve, are abreast the one-sixth points, 
Si, S2, S3, S4 of the spiral. S3 and H3 coincide. 

One-half the terminal curve is inside the spiral, the 
other half outside; and the offsets bet>yeen them, at 
equal distances from Hg or S3, are equal. HiSi=:H5S5= 
.036P and H2S2=^H4S4=:.o54P. 

The offset P— Rm (i — cos Ti)=Rm X versed sine T^, 
where Rm =radius of main curve, and T^^the terminal 

angh (a). Rm=4^ 

To locate the spiral, take the distance for gaining the 
required elevation:=L6:=6C. [At the nearest multiple 

of six feet to avoid fractional chaining.] 

Here C=chord and LB=6C=length of spiral. 



Tv,.„ 2CXDm__, 



DM=Degree of main curve 
Where I Ti=Terminal angle in degrees 
C=Length of chord in feet 



Next calculate P from equation (a) above. Run in 
the terminal curve and offset to spiral. Locate P S and 
Se on outer tangent and main curve, one chord length 
from Hj and H^ respectively. 

Note. — Tg, the total angle of six chord^iJ^Tj. 

Note particularly that the length of six chord=Le is 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 189 

1.5 times the length of the one chord=:Li, also as an aid 
to the memory that the offset .054=1.5 times .036. 

In practice, taping p at 4 feet the offsets would be 4 
times .054^=0.216 ft. and 4 times .036=0.144 ft. 

Example. — Take a 14** curve having a spiral approach 
of six chords, each 25 ft. long or 150 ft. in all, to connect 
with a 7** approach, and calculate the offsets to spiral. 

Rm =573O-^H=409-3- Le=25X6=i5o. 

Ti (the terminal angle) =>^ LeXD=i5oXi4-^3=7% 
L<j being expressed in one hundred foot units. 

The main offset p=Rm (1 — cos Ti)=409.3X. 00745= 
3-05 feet. 

The offsets HiSi=H5S5=3.o5X -036=0. 11 ft. 

H2S2=H4S4=3.05X. 054=0. 16 ft. 
HgSgi^Zero. 

The P. S. and Sq are set as shown in Fig. 2. 

The 7® approach from Hj to Hg, or the one chord 
spiral will be four 25 ft. chords. 

Whenever intermediate offsets are required, as in cen- 
tering trestle bents, etc., the following table is used: 






r 



190 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Table for intermediate offsets from main tangent and 
main curve with one chord approach, to the six chord 
spiral. 

To be measured inward from the main tangent half 
of spiral and outward from the main curve half. 



i !i f If 

S? eS Is si 


Coefficients 
which X p give 
ofisete Id leet. 
Tenths ol 
Chord leoBth. 

DWerences lor 
ol chord length. 


=1 |Sa =1 


P. 8. .000 8g 

.0000 

1 .000 9 

.0001 

2 .001 8 

.0002 
8 .008 7 

.0003 

4 .006 6 

.0003 

5 .009 6 

.0004 

6 .013 4 

.0005 

7 .018 8 

.0005 

8 .023 2 

.0006 

9 .029 1 

.0007 


Sj .036 Sg 

.0006 

1 .042 9 

.0006 

2 .048 8 

.0004 
8 .062 7 

.0004 

4 .056 6 

.0002 

5 .058 5 

.0001 

6 .069 4 

.0000 

7 .059 3 

.0000 

8 .059 2 

.0002 

9 .057 1 

.0003 


83 .054 84 

.0004 

1 .060 ■ 9 

.0004 

2 .046 8 

.0005 
8 .041 7 

.0005 

4 .036 6 

.0005 

5 .031 6 

.0005 

6 .026 4 

-oooe 

7 .020 3 

-OOOC 

8 .014 2 

.0007 

9 .007 1 

.0007 



Example. — In the preceding example let the P. S. l>c 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 



191 



at station 7+07, chords 25 feet, required the offset 
at the even station 8. The curve may be tabulated thus : 



P.S. 
Si 
S 



2 — 
83= 



7+07 
7+32 

7+57 
7+82 

8+07 J 



Hence 8=53+18/25=53+0.72 

toward S4, which by interpolation in table I 

=.042 and, 

.042XP or 3.05=. 128 ft. 



If the numbering ran in the opposite direction, the 
offset at 6+40 being required then, 



P.S.: 



7+07 
:6+82 

^6+57 

:6+32 



Here 6+40=53+8/25=53+0.32 
► toward 52 which by table I 
=.0212X305=074 ft. 



In case a simple curve has been run in connecting the 
main tangents, as in Fig. i, no provision being made 
for spiraling, the circular curve is moved inward, without 
altering the original radius, along the line B C, for the 
distance E F=p-7-cos 3^ I where p is the principal offset, 
and I the total angle turned between tangents, E F being 
parallel to B C 

Also E G=p tan J4 I. 

The distance G H back to the P C is one-half the long 
chord of the one chord spiral approach. 

Hence G H=Ri sin J4 Tj 

And E H =Ri sin J^ T^+p tan >4 I. 

In order to avoid small equations and to fit the ground 
^rom the start, the one chord spiral should be run in on 
th? first located line that is likely to become final 



^ 



192 ROADBED AND TRACK 



COMPOUND CURVES. 

Whenever the degrees of curvature of the two mem- 
bers of a compound curve differ materially, they should 
be connected by a spiral. 

This spiral should be run in on the original location, 
to save the trouble of subsequent shifts, equations, etc. 

The general method before described, of offsets from 
a one chord to a six chord spiral, may be applied equally 
well in this case. 

The one chord connection averages the degrees of the 
adjacent main curves. 

Thus a 4° compounding into an 8® will have a one 
chord connection of J4 (8-|-4)=:6°. 

To make room for this intermediate 6°, a sufficient 
offset between the two main curves must be allowed, 
and the sharper curve must lie inside the lighter one. * 

The length of the one chord spiral, the principal oflFset 
or gap p, and the intermediate offsets are determined 
as follows: 

Take the 4°, 6° and 8° combination and assume that 
the whole curvature is uniformly *'bent" outward until 
the 4'' becomes a tangent, the 6° a 2°, and the 8° a 4°. 

We then have the conditions of a 4° curve from tan- 
gent, and the necessary calculations are made, as before 
shown, to fit these conditions. 

P. S. to Si=S5 to Se=M SiS5=::j4 H^H^. ASgr^AH, 
=BS3=BH3. HiH3=H3H5. 

Note. — ^All "H" points are on one chord spiral. 

"S" " " " six " 

Example. — (See Searles R. R. spiral, page 63, Art. 

55.) 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 



193 



^ 



Given a compound curve in which d'=6° and d"=io° 
40' to replace the P. C. C. by a spiral having six chords 
of 25 ft. each (P. S. to Sg, Fig. 3). 

First determine the data for the one chord H1H5, 

Fig. 3. 
Its degree di=>4 (10° 4o'+6°)=:8° 20'. 

Its length 11=4X25=100 ft. 

Its total angle ti=8>^ X 100=8° 20'^ of which d'x'^ li 
=6°X.5o=3° is deducted from the 6° & d"X>4 li=io° 
4o'X.5o=S° 20' is deducted from the 10° 40'. 




^s.79S»Sj'r4>s^^^^s^'^^//,^^ jf^^^^^ssj'B^j Hfis^^i^r 



m..m 



Aftre-- A^^^^ /*0^/^rs ^^£ o^ OAfe c^o^D s/*/H^L 



The total angle of the six chord spiral will be 8° 20' X 
1.5=12° 30' of this. 

d'X^ li=6°=.75=4° 30' is deducted from the 6°. 

And d"X^ 1 1=10° 40' X 75 =8° 00' is deducted from 
the 10° 40'. 

Note, that in this case the choice of a six chord spiral 
by Searles is accidental. The above reasoning would not 
obtain had any other chord number been chosen. 



194 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Now assuming, as before, that the 6** curve (the light- 
est of the three) be bent straight, the 8° 20' curve be- 
comes a 2° 20' and the 10° 40' becomes a 4° 40'. 

Hence the conditions are a 2° 20' one chord approach 
from tangent to a 4** 40' main curve. 

The terminal angle for 100 feet of 2° 20' curve=2® 
20' and pi=.436X2.33X 1=1.02 (see For. 4 Fig. 2) 
or Pi=i228X. 00083= 1.02 (see For. i Fig. 2), 
which is the value given by Searles, page 65. 

Then with the instrument at Hj or H5 (each being 
two chord lengths or 50 ft. from the middle point S3 or 
H3) run in the 8° 20' one chord spiral and offset. 

HiSi=H5S5=i.02X.036=.037 ft. 

H2S2=H^S4=:i.02X.054=.055 ft. 

Intermediate offsets are interpolated from Table I, 
as before shown. 

Since in this particular case the maximum difference 
between the one chord and six chord is but }i inch, the 
six chord might well be omitted until it comes to the 
final adjustment of the track. 

Note the direction of the offsets, outward from the 
one chord line on sharper curve half, and inward on 
lighter curve half. 

Similarly to the above the length of the one chord 
when pi is given may be determined from formulae 3, 5 
and 6, Fig. 2, taking 4** 40' as the main curve. 

To shift the two members of a compound curve so that 
suitable spirals may be inserted. 

Let L E F, Fig. 4, be a compound curve with B and 
C as centres (b and c being the total angles), which has 
been run in without provision for spirals. 

Required to insert spirals without changing the degree 
of either branch of the original compound. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 



195 



The required offsets p and P, Fig. 4, are to be taken 
for spirals having a length suitable for the speed and 
elevation proposed. 

Assume that the curve E F is slid inward, along the 
radial line E B common to both curves, until F falls on 

G, E an D and C on C 

P 
Then F G parallel & equal to E d= 



cos c 



Where P= G N and ang. F G N=c 
Also F N=:P tan c. 




B^RCC. 



Next determine the proper offset p, for a one chord 
J K uniting the two members of the compound (see Fig. 

3 and following). 

p 

Then E H=E D — pi= p.. 

cos c 

Assume that the curve E L is moved inward until E 



r 



196 ROADBED AND TRACK 

falls on H and L on M. E H being equal and parallel 
to M L 

Since angle T M L=: b M T=: M L cos b 

Hence M T=: ( p/ ) cos b 

\cos c / 

If the curve had been thus run in, the P. T. at M 
would be a distance, M U too far out to fit the spiral 
selected, whose principal offset is p. 

To make this fit, the provisional P C at G must be 
pushed ahead, along Y G produced, for a distance. 



GV = WN = 



I — pi ) cos b— p 

\C08 C / 



sin (b + c) 



If b+c exceeds 90°, its sine will be sin (180 — (b+c)) 
F W= P tan c— W N 

From W add the distance back to S making W S=:Ri 
sin Yz Ti where Ri= 2 C F (see also equation 7, Fig. 2). 

The whole curve, with one chord spirals may now be 
run in, remembering to deduct from the total angle c, 
the terminal angle of its spiral to tangent, plus the angle 
K C D of the one chord K J. 

Similarly the total angle b is reduced by its terminal 
spiral angle plus the angle J B' H. 

Angle K C D=:>4 J KX degree of curve E F 
" J B' YL=y2 J KX " " " EL 

In the case of a long compound, minor differences in 
running may be adjusted by shifting J, the end of the 
one chord (see Shunk, page loi, and Searles, page 113). 

This should be done by first running out the full 
curve J M, and before attempting to put in the final 
spiral. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 



197 



In some cases it will be necessary to shift the original 
P. C. C. before room can be made for end spirals. 

In making any or all of these shifts, the nature of the 
ground should be kept in mind, in order to gain the ad- 
vantages of a general revision of the line. For this 
purpose, a large scale special plate is often of use. 



F/G.S 




Fig. 5 indicates the process, when the curve is to be 
run in from the lighter end. 
Here ang. F G N= b 

Then F G parallel and equal s,^ E D= — ^-r- 

cos b 

F N=p tan b D H=Pi 



E H=E D+p,=:3:£^+p,==L M=::::^+p, 



cos b 



cos b 



ang. T M .L=c 



r 



198 ROADBED AND TRACK 



Then T M=L MXcos c=/ — ^-^ — hPi^ 

\cos b / 



cos c 



= (^+pO'^'^- 



T U=:P the required offset=T M+M U 
Hence the shift required is 

P— T M=P— /-£— +p^ ) cos c - 

\cos b ^ / 

and the necessary full back 

P — ( T+Pi )cos c 

G V- ^^^ ' 

sin (b+c) 

The rest of the process is the same as in the preceding 
case after G V has been obtained. 



THE LENGTH OF SPIRALS. 

There is no definite rule for determining the length of 
spirals. This depends on both speed and elevation. 

The rate on which the given elevation is to be ob- 
tained is also important. 

Some rules for spiral length are based on a uniform 
rate of elevation grade, such as i in 300, i in 400, etc. 

The rational rule for varying speeds is that the same 
amount of super-elevation should be attained in the same 
time. 

This may be called the '*time approach!' 

It follows that curves of th^ same degree, operated 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 



199 



under different speed conditions, should have spiral 
lengths proportional to the cubes of the speeds used. 

The following tables indicate the relations between 
spirals, and the data used to determine their lengths. 



TABLE IL 



9) 
> 

U 


o 








•2 

o 


o 


9 "^ 
o II 


a 

9 
O 
u 


u 


es 






§ 

o . 


H 


►« u 


a 
o . 


h 


• 

g 

S 

> 


• 


o . 
a A 


■si H 


& 


(S" 


09 (0 


O 


3-" 




S-x 



2 

3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 

lO 



0-30 

I 

1-30 

2 

2-30 

3 

3-30 
4 
4-30 

5 



100. 
70.7 

57.7 
50.0 

44.7 
40.8 

37.7 
354 

33.3 
31.6 



•5 
.5 
.5 
.5 
.5 
.5 
.5 
.5 
•5 
.5 



3-5 
3.5 
3-5 
3.5 
3.5 
3.5 
3.5 
3.5 
3.5 
3.5 



400.0 
282.8 
230.8 
200.0 
178.8 
163.2 
151.0 
141.6 

133.2 
126.4 



600.0 
424.2 
346.2 
300.0 
268.2 
244.8 
226.5 
212.4 
199.8 
189.6 



I in 1200 

I in 848 

I in 692 

I in 600 

I in 536 

I in 490 

I in 452 

I in 425 

I in 400 

I in 379 



In the above table, the maximum safe speeds are, for 
convenience, taken as the reciprocals of the square roots 
of the degrees of main curveXioo; also 

Length of one chord spiral=max. speedX4 



tt 



t( 



SIX 



t( 



(( 



tt 



tt 



X6 



Note from Table II that for curves operated under 
the same conditions of safe speed and with time ap- 
proaches, the offsets p and the elevation are constant. 



200 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



The following convenient rules for lengths of spirals 
are also indicated in the table: 

Rule L — Length of six chord equals speed in miles 
per hour multiplied by elevation in inches. 
Here maximum p=3.5 feet. 

Rule IL — If somewhat longer spirals be desired, then 

Length of one chord spiral equals speed in miles per 
hour multiplied by elevation in tenths of feet. 

Here maximum p^5.45 feet. 

Other rules, yielding longer or shorter spirals as de- 
sired, may be formed on the same plan. 

The following table of elevations explains itself. The 
elevations are in decimals of a foot. 



TABLE III. 

Speed in Miles Per Hour, 



Degree 



curlt' 31-6 33-3 354 37-7 40.8 44.7 SO-o 57-7 70-7 loo.o 



I 


•05 


.06 


.06 


.07 


.08 


.10 


•13 


.17. 


25 ^50 


2 


.10 


.11 


•13 


•14 


•17 


•.20 


•25 


•34 


•50 


3 


•15 


•17 


.19 


-.21 


•25 


•30 


•38 


•50 




4 


.20 


.22 


•25 


•29 


•33 


.40 


•50 






5 


•25 


.28 


•31 


•36 


•42 


•50 








6 


•30 


•33 


•38 


•43 


•50 










7 


•35 


•39 


•44 


•50 












8 


.40 


•44 


•50 














9 


•45 


•50 
















10 


•50 



















» 

Now finding a 5° curve which is elevated .36 ft. and 
giving satisfaction as to rail wear, comfort, etc., a glance 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 201 

at Table III shows that it belongs to the 7° maximum 
series, having a speed of 37.7 miles per hour. 

The length of spiral required would be adopting Rule 
I under Table II .36X12=4.32 ins. & 4.32X37.7=162.9 
ft. for the length of a six chord spiral, and i62.9X%= 
108.6 ft., the corresponding one chord spiral. 

If Rule II be adopted, then — 

ioX.36X37.7=i35.72=length of one chord & 135.72X 
i.5=203.58=length of six chord. 

It may sometimes be advisable to use longer ease- 
ments on certain curves, so that, if the speed limit be 
increased, the elevation only need be changed, the align- 
ment remaining fixed. 

For construction purposes it is necessary to divide the 
line into speed sections of suitable length, treating each 
section by itself. 

A speed section may sometimes be as small as a single 
sharp curve, or even the sharp member of a compound 
curve. 



The Length of Spirals Joining Compound Curves, 

This should obviously be sufficient to gain the proper 
difference of elevation between the two curves, or what 
is the same thing, the length for a spiral from tangent 
to a curve whose degree is the difference between the 
two members of the compound. 

For example : 

A 5° curve compounds with a 3° required the length 
of one chord connection using Rule II. 



^ 



202 ROADBED AND TRACK 

5°— 3°=2°. Then assuming speed at 40.8 miles, col- 
umn 6, Table III, gives elevation for a 2° =.17 ft. 

Then i.7X40.8=69.4=:length of one chord spiral. 
Length of six chord=69.4X 1.5=104.1 ft. 

To Run in the Six Chord Spiral by Deflections, 

The degrees of curvature of the six arcs of the spiral 
are, D/7 2EI/7 3D/7 4D/7 5D/7 and 6D/7, 7D/7=D 
being the degree of main curve (see Fig. 2). 

The angle of crossing of the six chord and one chord 

^^ ^ ^ DXC 

at Oo or H=: , 

^ 700 

when both D and the crossing angle are expressed in 
degrees and decimals and C equals the length of the 
single chords in ft. 

DXL 



The total angle of the six chord= 



200 



The following table gives the deflections with transit 
located at P. S. S3 and Sg with zero on tangent at each 
transit f>oint respectively. 

The coefficients given are to be multiplied into CXD 
(with D in degrees and C in feet). The product will 
be the deflections from tangent at instrument in minutes 
and decimals. 

Logarithms of coefficients if used should be added to 
I^g. (CXD). 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 



203 



TABLE IV. 

Deflection Table for Six Chord Spiral — Zero on Tangent. 





Inst. 


on P.S. 


Inst, on Ss 


Inst 


. on S3 




Point 


Coeff. 


Logo! Co 


Coeff. Log of Co 


Coeff. 


Log of Co 


Point 


P. S. 


Zero 




1.1500 0.06070 


0.3143 


9.49733 


P. S. 


81 


0.0429 


8.63202 


1.0286 0.01223 


0.2357 


9.37239 


Si 


8/ 


0.1072 


9.02996 


0.8786 9.94378 


0.1286 


9.10909 


Ss 


S3 


0.2000 


9.30103 


0.7000 9.84510 


Zero 




83 


8, 


0.3214 


9.50708 


0.4929 9.69272 


0.1714 


9.23408 


s. 


85 


0.4714 


9.67342 


0.2572 9.41018 


0.3643 


9.56144 


Ss 


8« 


0.6500 


9.81291 


Zero 


0.5857 


9,76769 


Se 



Example. — Take a 14° curve having a spiral approach 
of six chords each 25 ft. long or 150 ft. in all, to calculate 
the deflections. 

Here CXD=25Xi4=35o log.=2.54407 
Then from Table IV Inst, on P. S. 

S S S S S S 

Oj 02 k-Js O4 05 Og 

8.63202 9.02996 9.30103 9.50708 9.67342 9.8129I 

2.54407 2.54407 2.54407 2.54407 2.54407 2.54407 



I.I7609 1.57403 I.845IO 2.051 15 2.21749 2.35698 



15' 37.5' 70' II2.5' 165' 227.5' 



With Inst, at Sg to turn tangent to the six chord and 
main curve at Sg. 

Sight on P. S. with vernier set at (see Table IV) 
i.i5XCXD=:i.i5X35o=402^'=6^ 42^', and then 



' 



204 ROADBED AND TRACK 

turn vernier to zero, or, sighting on S3, 0.7X350=245' 
=4° 05', which is to be turned off at Sq to obtain tangent. 

These computations may be made by logarithms, as 
before. 

For Inst, at S the crossing angle between the spiral 
and the 7° curve (one chord spiral) will be CXD~700 
^^35^"^ 700^0.5=0° 30' and from this, one may pass 
from one curve to the other. 

The total angle of the six chorid is DXL-^ 200=5 14 X 
150-^-200=10° 30'. 

To calculate the deflections for a six chord spiral 
joining two members of a compound curve. 

See example under Fig. 3. 

First calculate the deflections by Table IV for 150 ft. 
of six chord spiral joining a tangent with a 10° 40' — 6° 
=4° 40' main curve. 

Then to each deflection thus found add that of a 6° 
curve for the length of sight taken. 

Thus from P. S. to S^ add 45'. 

" S3 " Se '' 2° 15' 

If so desired, necessary tabulations may be prepared in 
advance, giving once for all the deflections required for 
the general run of curves in use, precisely as is customary 
with all table spirals. 

If desired coefficients for Instrument on Si 'S2 S4 and 
S5 may be computed and arranged as in Table IV, but 
the method of offsets from the one chord spiral is 
preferable. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 



205 



TRACK PARABOLA. 



The following (Table V) may be used in offsetting 
from the one chord spiral to the track parabola. 

Tables I and V are on the same base and may be sim- 
ilarly used. 

It will be noticed that the differences between the cor- 
responding pfTsets in Tables I and V are, for any usual 
value of p, too small to be noteworthy. 

In actual service, the parabola has no advantage what- 
ever over the polychord spiral, arid a choice between them 
should be governed by their relative adaptability to field 
and office use. 

The offsets in Table V are to be measured inward 
from the main tangent half of spiral, and outward from 
the main curve half. 

Note that the offsets at P. S. are insignificant. 

For p=:io ft. they are o.oi ft. 



206 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



TABLE V. 

Table of intermediate offsets from main tangent and 
main curve with one chord approach to track parabola. 



Tenths of 
Chord length. 


Coefficients 
which X p give 
offsets in feet. 


Tenths of 
Chord length. 


Differences for 
each hundredth 
of chord length. 


Tenths t>f 
Chord length. 


Coefficients 
which X p give 
offsets in feet. 


Tenths of 
Chord length. 


Differences for 
eat h hundredth 
of chord length. 


Tenths of 
Chord length. 


Coefficients 
which X p give 
offsets in feet. 


Tenths of 
Chord length. 


Differences for 
each hundredth 
of chord length. 


P.S. 


.001 


^6 


.0001 


«! 


.038 


85 


.0007 


^2 


.055 


h 


.0003 


1 


.002 


9 


.0001 


1 


.045 


9 


.0006 


1 


.052 


9 


.0004 


.2 


.003 


8 


.0002 


2 


.051 


8 


.0004 


2 


.048 


8 


.0005 


3 


.005 


7 


.0003 


3 


.055 


7 


.0003 


3 


.043 


7 


.0005 


4 


.008 


6 


.0003 


4 


.058 


6 


.0002 


4 


.038 


6 


.0006 


5 


.011 


5 


.0004 


5 


.060 


5 


.0001 


5 


.032 


5 


.0006 


6 


.015 


4 


.0004 


6 


.061 


4 


.0000 


6 


.026 


4 


.0006 


7 


.019 


3 


.0005 


7 


.061 


3 


.0001 


7 

• 


.020 


3 


.0006 


8 


.024 


2 


.0007 


8 


.060 


2 


.0002 


8 


.014 


2 


.0007 


9 


.031 


1 


.0007 


9 


.058 


1 


.0003 


9 


.007 


1 


.0007 


^1 


.038 


^5 




82 


.055 


S4 




h 


.000 


S3 


1 



The relative lengths and total angles of spirals for 

constant values of p and Rm (see Fig. i). 

Let Li=length or total angle of one chord spiral. 
Le= " " " " " six " 
Lp— " " " " " track parabola. 

Then Le^i.sL, L^^^L^ L,=.577Lp 
Lp=i733Li Lp=:i.i55Le Le=.866Lp 






RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 



207 



Example: Given R=: 1432.5=4° curve 

P=4.65 

The total angle of a one chord, will be (For. 3, Fig. 2) 

4° 37'=4.6i7°. 

The total angle of a six chord 

4.6i7°Xi.S=6.926°=6° 553^'. 

The total angle of track parabola 

4.617° X 1.733=8° 00'. 

Length one chord=4.6i7-T-2** =230.85 ft. 
six chord=230.85X 1.5=346.28 ft. 
parabola =230.85 X i .733=400.00 ft. 



it 



u 



These lengths are bisected at S3, which is the middle 
point of all spirals. 

In the foregoing example, 400 — 230.85=169.15 ft. is 
the difference, Lp — Li=.733 Lj. 

Hence 169.15-^2=84.58 ft., is the distance to be laid 
off along main tangent or main curve, from the begin- 
ning or ending of the one chord, in order to obtain the 
beginning or ending of the track parabola. This -may be 
used in connection with Table V, when it is desired to 
lay off the track parabola. 

The total angles of the spirals will be divided at the 
middle point S3 as follows : 



^4=2.31° on tangent half. 
j/$=2.3i° on main curve half. 
2/7=1.98° on tangent half. 
5/7=:4.95° on main curve half. 
^=2° on tangent half, 
o ^=6° on main curve half. 

In all spiral running it is important to keep a watch 



One chord 4.617 

" 4.617 

Six " 6.926 

" 6.926 

Track parabola 8° 

8° 



r 



208 ROADBED AND TRACK 

on the total, angles of the various parts, so that the 
grand total, from tangent to tangent, will check with 
the intersection angle of the whole curve. 

Note: Illustrations of the various instruments used 
in making the surveys will be found in the appendixes at 
end of this volume. 



SECTION IL 
Maintenance of Way. 



The Roadbed. 



The railroad completed and having been, so to speak, 
delivered to the operating department, we may suppose 
it to be performing its functions, and that with passen- 
ger and freight trains now being hauled daily over its 
tracks, the next thing to care for is the maintenance of 
the roadbed, the surfacing and lining of the track, re- 
newals of ties, rails, frogs, switches, etc., and the im- 
provements which always follow after construction. 

The increased weight of the rolling stock, particu- 
larly of locomotives, and also, the heavier trains hauled, 
is constantly making m.ore and more difficult the prob- 
lem of maintenance of roadbed, track and bridges. 

We will first consider the maintenance of the roadbed. 
The greatest difficulty met is that of drainage. Mr. L. R. 
Zollinger, Engineer of Maintenance of Way, Pennsylva- 
nia Railroad, an eminent authority upon the subject of 
roadbed maintenance, says: 

"Water is the greatest enemy to the roadbed, so that 
good drainage becomes a matter of vital importance. 
Without ditches of sufficient width and depth the ballast 
will soon become filled with dirt and other impervious 
material, which act as a dam to hold the water under the 
track. In winter the freezing of this water causes 'heav- 
ing track,' which destroys the true surface of the rail, 

209 



210 ROADBED AND TRACK 

while at other times it causes 'pumping,' especially at the 
joints, which likewise result in uneven surface (Fig. i). 
It is therefore necessary at all times to keep the ditches 
open their full width and depth. If, during construc- 
tion, the cuts were not made sufficiently wide and deep to 
provide a proper ditch, one of the first requirements after 
the road is turned over to the roadmaster is to widen them 



Fig, 1. Low Joints Caused by "Pumping. " 

out. The shoulder of the ditch next to the track should 
be low enough to insure a fall from the bottom of the 
ballast at the center of the track ; the ballast border 
should be wide enough to hold the ends of the ties in line, 
"The standard ditch on the Pennsylvania Railroad for 
a four-track road calls for a distance of lo feet 6 inches 
from the rail and 3 feet below the base of it to its outer 
edge. Fig. 2 shows a ditch built to standard specifica- 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 211 

tions, the standard section in the foreground and beyond 
it a ditch that will not afford the proper drainage. The 
shadow of the telegraph pole falling across the ditch at 
right angles shows clearly the section, which can be com- 
pared favorably with the Pennsylvania Railroad standard 
plan (Fig. 3). 



Fig. 2. Ditch Built to Standard SpeclIlcatioTis. 

"Tlie material cleaned from ditches in a side hill cut is 
usually carried across the track and wasted. In a short 
through cut it may be carried out to the ends with wheel- 
barrows ; but in a long cut a work train is used, the ma- 
terial is loaded on low cars by shovels, or by mechanical 
means. It is unloaded on embankments that have not 
sufficient width or at other places where filling is needed; 
this is done by hand or by plow unloader. 



212 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



"The maintenance of the ditch becomes an expensive 
operation, and any expenditure to reduce the washing or 
erosion of the slope is well made. Where the material 
is of clay, or a mixture with that material, slides are 
usually aggravating. By placing porous tiles under the 
surface, running down the slope, at an angle of 45 de- 
grees, the sub-surface water can be conducted away with- 




, >■■<.■ •■'•K- 




"V'«» 



.<Jjtf K. IF-XV 




•X 







'>?v 



•5^. 






•X- 






57618 
R. R. R. STArsJOAPJO 

CROSS - SECTION 

or 

ROAD -BCD 

OFT Cdtrac TO ct«»T»»c or tK*c<« 
^ MA ^ • «t 

CO«MCT, n 






^JAZ'-i-^ 



Fig. 3. p. R. R. Standard Ditch and Roadbed. 



out damage to the bank. To cover the slope with sod or 
other vegetation will protect it from erosion, and a berme 
ditch on top will catch the surface water from above. A 
very satisfactory way of maintaining the surface of a wet 
cut, where the expenses will warrant, is to hold the slope 
with a low masonry toe wall, with weep holes at the bot- 
tom, which allow the water to seep out. If the slope is 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 213 . 

then sodded, there need be little fear of any further 
trouble (Fig. 4). 

"In towns or at points where the work will be of last- 
ing character, the ditches can be paved with flat stones, 
cobbles or concrete ; such ditches are easily maintained 
and flush themselves during heavy rains. Fig, 5 shows 
a section of concrete ditch as constructed aiong the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad near Ardmore. 



Fig. 4. Toe WaU Holding Embankment, 

"Refore a bank is considered in fit shape for sod, it 
should be carefully sloped. The angle of the slope should 
be made to suit the material in it — .solid rock, of course, 
will stand almost vertical, loose material will stand at 
different angles. The common slope for dirt is one and 
one-half to one, meaning a base of one and one-half times 



J 



214 ROADBED AND TRACK 

the vertical height. Quicksand, and unstable material 
of that character, may require a slope of two or even 
three to one. Loose rock will usually stand at a one to 
one slope. Experience is necessary to determine the neces- 
sary slope, and even the best judgment will err. When 
such a mistake is made, there may be several ways to 
rectify it; either to remove the material from the ditch 



Fig. 5. Concrete Ditch, 

as fast as it slides in until it finds its natural slope or 
angle of repose, or to resort to tiles and sod, or, lastly, 
to build a toe wall such as heretofore described. Such 
a wall may be built of stone, or a crib made of old cross- 
ties, or other timbers and filled with stone may be sub- 
stituted to save expense. Such construction will last 
for many years. If there are springs, or if the material 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 215 

indicates that it will slide when the frost comes out of the 
ground, porous tile drains should be laid a foot or more 
under the siurf ace at an angle of 45 degrees, close enough 
together to insure drying up the surface. A cheaper 
method, and one which is satisfactory, provided the cut 
is not too wet, is as follows : 

"Heavy wooden stakes, two or more feet long, are 
driven down at right angles to the surface, eight feet 
apart in the row and the rows every six feet from the 
bottom to the top of bank. The stakes in the row are 
then made to support hemlock or other cheap plank, 
which are placed under the surface. The surface is 
again sloped and, if convenient, a thin layer of good soil 
is added to insure the growth of the sod, which is lastly 
laid in the usual manner. Where sod is not to be had, 
grass and oat seed may be sown and raked in ; this in a 
favorable season will be successful, a dashing rain, how- 
ever, would wash it away and the labor would be lost. 

"In some sections near large cities where street sweep- 
ings can be had, such material is used to cover the banks, 
grass and oat seed being added. On account of the 
fertilizer in the sweepings a sod is soon formed, the oats 
grow very quickly, throwing out a large number of 
roots, which at once protect the bank from washing, the 
stalk serving to protect the young grass from the heat 
of the sun.^' 

Continuing, he says : "Retaining walls of considerable 
size should be built by masons. Small ones can be con- 
structed by track men. Care should be taken to dig out 
the foundation below the frost line, and to a firm bed ; 
the stone must be laid on their flat sides, the face of the 
wall should slope with a pronounced batter, usually not 
less than two inches horizontal to one foot vertical. 



^ 



216 ROADUED AND TRACK 

Weep holes must be left, or pipes inserted for drainage. 
If the bank be excessively wet, a French drain or a line 
terra-cotta pipe should be laid along the back edge of 
wall connected to the weep holes. 

"There is another method of holding the toe of a 
bank. Stones somewhat flat in shape are laid on their 
edges following the slope of 'Ihe bank. These prevent 
the surface earth from sliiiin~. If used on the side of 



a bank next to a stream it is a very good method of 
protecting the embankment from scouring by the water, 
especially on curved embankments where the force of 
the current is directed aj^ainst the slope. This method 
is known as 'rip-rap.' but it must be regarded as a surface 
protection only; it is not a retaining wall. 

"Havin,!; gotten the ditches in proper form, the banks 
sloped and protected, it becomes necessary to provide 



MAINTENANCE OF \^AY • 217 

means of conveying the water that falls' on the track 
and roadway proper to ditches. 

"The roadbed is constructed high in the center, the 
surface sloping both directions in order to convey the 
water as it percolates through the ballast to the ditches 
on either side. We find, first of all, in wet cuts, that 



wafer rises under the roadbed, keeping it continually 
saturated, and the ballast by the weight of traffic is 
forced into this plastic material, and that it is quite im- 
possible to keep the track in surface. This situation is 
met by digging transverse trenches sufficiently close to- 
gether and below the surface of the roadbed and laying 
in these unglazed terra-cotta pipe below the frost line. 
Tftese pipes are laid on inch boards, six inches wide, to 



218 ROADBED AND TRACK 

keep them in line and covered with broken stone, cinder 
or "Other permeable material. Fig. 6 shows the kind of 
tiles used, and Fig. 7 shows ends o£ pipe at ditch line 
after they have been laid. 

"If the traffic is exceptionally heavy, iron pipes should 
be substituted for tile in the transverse drains, and the 
water led^ to these by longitudinal drains of porous 
tiJes or iron pipes laid in the inter-track space. 



"The ballast itself, even when carefully made, will, in 
time, become filled with dirt, ashes and other material, 
to such an extent that it will not permit the water to 
f«ss freely, or if the stone is soft enough to crush under 
heavy traffic, it will grind into powder and with water 
form a cement which is destructive to the drainage. 



1 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 219 

When such conditions obtain, it is necessary to dig up 
the ballast and remove all the dirt and fine particles 
with a tool known as a ballast fork. The dirt is carried 
out by hand, thrown over the banks, or piled up in the 
ditch to be removed by the work train ; or if the roadbed 
has been soft or the ballast has been crushed, it may be 
necessary to restore the track to its original surface by 
elevating it and tamping the ballast under the tie in the 
new position. This is known as 'raising' track and 
should on.ly be resorted to in order to restore the grade 
and should not be done as a substitute for cleaning bal- 
last, as it leaves all the dirt below the tie, where it soon 
compacts and the drainage is again interfered with. 

"Fig. 8 shows the method of cleaning ballast with a 
fork. After ballast is cleaned, or the track raised, it 
usually requires new ballast to fill up the inter-tie spaces. 
This is received in cars of the hopper type and unloaded 
on the tracks while the train is in motion, the material 
being leveled by the simple device of a cross-tie across 
the rails. See Fig. 9. 

"Fig. 10 s-hows a finished and well maintained rail- 
road. The slopes are sodded, the ditches in good condi- 
tion, the track well filled with clean ballast." 

Regarding ballast, he says: *^The stone to be used 
on any particular portion of the road is generally deter- 
mined by the local rock. The P. R. R. is so extensive 
that all kinds of stone are used, according to location. 
On the New York, the Maryland and Schuylkill divisions, 
and the West Jersey & Sea Shore Railroad, trap rock is 
used; on the P. R. R., N. C. Ry., P. & E. Division, and 
parts of the B. & A. V. Division, limestone is used. At 
various points, but not in large quantity, sandstone is 
used. 



120 ROADBED AND TRACK 

"Trap rock is the hardest and most durable, having a 
rrushing strength of iSpoo pounds per square inch ; 
;ome of the limestones are very soft, breaking under a 
:rushing force as low as 3,000 pounds. We find on the 
P. R. R. that the heavy equipment and the numerous 
:rains on the main line are crushing the limestone ballast, 
ind it has been determined that trap rock or a stone 
af equal hardness or toughness will have to be substi- 
:uted at an increased cost and with a longer haul. 



Fig, 9. DlHribmiiig Stooc Ballast— Leveling with b Croas-lle. 

"The standard size of ballast on the P. R. R. and 
most other railroads is that of a stone that will pass 
through a 2'/^" ring, all small particles being removed 
by a screen of one inch mesh. It is probable that the 
specifications for ballast of trap rock will be changed 
to stone passing through a two inch ring." 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 221 



1 



r 

22:i ROADBED AND TltACK 



^ 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 223 

Relative to the problem of removing snow, Mr. Zol- 
linger says: "The removing of snow a sufficient dis- 
tance away from the track is the greatest problem 
roads in the northern tier of the states and southern 
Canada have to contend with. In these latitudes, heavy 
snowstorms are sometimes of almost daily occurrence 
and with four or five months of continuously freezing 
weather, the snow does not have a chance to melt. The 
first few storms cause no particular trouble, for the rails 
are kept clear with ordinary snow-plows and Hangers, 
but when the snow becomes walled up on each side of 
the track, the plows and flangers going through and 
cleaning out the fres^h snow simply throw it against these 
snow walls from which it falls back in the track. When 
such a crisis presents itself, an army of men are called 
out with snow shovels to do the work by hand. On 
the R. W. & O. Division of the New York Central R. R., 
a type of plow called the Russell plow is used for cut- 
ting back these walls of snow. The device is a very 
heavily constructed car, usually built of southern pine, 
about twelve feet high. The front, which cuts the snow 
and throws it aside, looks like a giant dirt plow. On 
each side of the car are heavily built wings which can 
be let out or pulled in as desired by application of air. 
When these wings are fully extended they reach out on 
each side about six feet from the body of the car. They 
have just the proper curvature and angle to curl the 
snow up and shoot it clear of a snow bank twelve or 
fourteen feet hig'h. 

"In the west, in the mountain districts, snow-sheds are 
built to keep the avalanche of snow and ice from burying 
the tracks. These sheds are made of logs and boards 



' 



224 ROADBED AND TRACK 

and the trains run through them as in tunnels. They 
are broken at intervals to check fire, should it occur. 

"After ordinary snows or after the road is opened 
by plows, the track men are required to remove all the 
snow from the inside of the rails the width of a shovel. 
This is known as 'flanging' and is necessary to prevent 
ice forming against the head of the rail to such height 
as to derail a wheel and also to prepare for the next 
storm. 




\/lf-i mU (brt 



Snow-slied in the Sierra Nevadas. 



"There is a device called a Tlanger/ or a 'Flange 
Car,' which is used on some railroads and does mechani- 
cally the work of hundreds of men. It is simply a box 
car made over and has a blade or scraper that can be 
lowered between the two rails. This blade is usually 
lowered and raised by simply turning a lever which puts 
on an application of air and works on the same principle 
as the air-brake.'^ 

The "Flanger" is hauled over the road by a locomotive 
and the faster the run the quicker the road is flanged 
and the farther away the snow is thrown from the track. 

The advantages of good drainage from the roadbed 
being apparent, we will next consider ballasting in rela- 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 225 

tion to maintenance. The quality and arrangement of 
ballast materially affects the preservation of the tie from 
decay. But ballast has other equally important purposes 
besides that of drainage. It serves to increase the bear- 
ing surface of the tie and so helps the distribution of 
the weight of the train and lessens the force of the im- 
pact of the heavy hammer-like blow of the locomotive 
drivers upon the joints or ends of the rails. It strengthens 



Ftg, 11. Track Laid Ready for Surfacing, 

the roadbed and protects the sub-grade. Increases 
the elasticity of the roadbed, rendering it more uniform. 
Admits of lining and surfacing being done, also renewals 
being made without disturbing the sub-grade.' 

The recorded experience of railway track officials 
tends to prove conclusively that clean, sharp sand or 



226 ROADBED AND TRACK 

gravel ballast "makes a good, unyielding foundation for 
track," and, as Mr. Moses Burpee, in his series of let- 
ters to his trackmen, which were published in the Rail- 
way and Engineering Review, says: "Water drains 
through and from clean gravel or coarse sand very 
quickly, less quickly through fine sand, very slowly 
through the finest; while clay, which is composed of 
the same material as sand only it is ground to an ex- 
treme fineness, nearly always contains a small amount 
of moisture. But while it parts with its moisture very 
slowly it also absorbs it very slowly.'^ Loam absorbs it 
quickly and retains it much longer. Local conditions and 
other considerations often prevent the use of an ideal 



• ^ ^(nafc Mein & Side Track yS/one & Cinder B^lia^f. 
Fig. 12. 



material for ballasting, therefore we will consider the 
uses and advantages of the different ballasting materials 
generally used, which, as a rule, are as follows: Rock 
or crushed stone, gravel, slag or furnace refuse, disin- 
tegrated granite, cinders, burnt clay, sand, chatts, vol- 
canic cinder, burnt shale or mine cinder, earth and mud. 
Mr. A. G. Caldwell, formerly lecturer on Railway 
Maintenance, University of Chicago, and now a railway 
civil engineer, on one of our railways, says: "Rock 
ballast is perhaps the best for the following reasons : 
It is vefy porous and allows the best of drainage ; it 
does not heave in freezing weather, provided the road- 
bed is properly drained and the loads upon the ties are 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



227 



more evenly distributed. Moreover, rock ballast is clean 
and devoid of dust and when carefully dressed presents 
a neat appearance. The absence of dust is a strong 
argument in its favor with roads depending upon summer 
traffic for both passenger and freight. But it is expen- 
sive to handle, in both the cost of first placing in the 
track and afterward for renewal. It is also harder on 
the ties than a softer ballast. The largest item of ex- 
pense is chiefly in the cost of crushing. It has to be 
selected with care, otherwise there is danger of its de- 
composing when exposed to the elements. Sandstone 
will often do this, though the Norfolk and Western has 
used a quality that gives excellent service. The most 
suitable is said to be trap, granite or limestone, as they 




Main Doubtm Track ^ Oroya/ 3a//as/. 
Pig. 13. 



break off angularly and hence will hold together better. 
"The next kind in importance and by some placed first, 
is gravel. For cheapness of handling, gravel is much 
superior to crushed rock. The chief saving being in 
loading the material and working it to the proper shape 
for ballasting. In the first place, rock requires blasting 
to loosen, but gravel is usually loaded by a steam shovel 
directly into the car. After blasting rock but little of it 
is of good size for direct ballasting and must be worked 
over in a rock crusher. This of course requires time 
and money. Gravel is. of many kinds and is classified 
mainly by the size of the stones or pebbles and its free- 
dom from earth or loam. This last point is a most 



r 



228 ROADBED AND TRACK 



important one. The presence of rich loam or dirt is 
inducive of a rapid growth of weeds and grass. Unless 
this part of the gravel is removed, in some manner, the 
presence of weeds and grass will be most persistent each 
year to the detriment of the life of the ties and the good 
appearance of the roadbed. The best gravel to suit all 
around conditions should contain from thirty to forty- 
five per cent sand. When the proportion of sand is 
much over the upper limit the roadbed becomes dusty, 
to the detriment of the increase in passenger traffic and 
the condition of the equipment. Probably the only ad- 
vantage of such ballast is a good temporary surfacing, 
as for the time being this sandy ballast packs well and 
the track can be brought up to a nicety. On the other 
hand a lack of sand below about thirty per cent is a 
most undesirable condition in ballasting. As usual in 
such cases, the rocks will average a large size. and be 
entirely unfit for holding the track to line. Stone should 
be discarded that will not drop through one and one- 
half inch or two inch mesh. 

"It is difficult to prescribe exact specifications for 
good ballast owing to the large number of varieties 
and the many conditions of circumstances which the 
product of any pit may meet. There is usually a method 
of overcoming the evils mentioned at a nominal cost. 
On some roads, ballast is screened to the proper require- 
ments by a machine which is nothing more or less than 
an elevator with a series of revolving screens which sep- 
arate the sand and cleaned gravel. Another process is 
that of washing the ballast. The gravel is elevated as 
before and then dropped through a series of screens 
while water is turned on the gravel as it enters the top 
_ screen. By an inclined arrangement the cleaned ballast 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 229 

is dropped off to one side into cars placed to receive it. 
The water with the sand in solution is carried to the 
other side, where a combined weir and puddling arrange- 
ment allows the water to pass on, and the sand drops 
down into cars waiting below. Among the varieties of 
gravel with which roadmasters have to deal in certain 
localities is one kind known as 'cementing gravel/ a 
peculiarity due to the intermingling of iron oxides and 
calcerous material with the original gravel. It is hard 
to work, and when dumped off ballasting cars and some- 
times after it is put in the track, forms cakes rendering 
it often more difficult to work than crushed rock. When 
possible, material of a free nature is often hauled a con- 
siderable distance in preference to using 'cementing 
gravel.' By mixing with it free or good gravel it is 
found to be of sufficient quality for track work. The 
amount of 'cementing graveP except when entirely un- 
avoidable should not be greater than one-third of the 
entire mass. 

"A ballast which is claimed by several western roads 
to be superior to either crushed rock or gravel is known 
as 'decomposed granite.* The Union Pacific has its en- 
tire main line ballasted with this material obtained for 
the greater part from the great Sherman Hill, Wyoming. 
It is in extensive masses of decomposed granite particles 
and of such a nature that it is loaded direct on cars 
with a steam shovel. Blasting facilitates • the work, but 
is not absolutely necessary. The Rock Island has also 
used it on their Colorado Division, obtaining it from 
Apel, Colorado, on the Colorado Midland, with excellent 
results. However, theirs is of two kinds, one wherein 
the particles are about the size of a pea, the whole having 
a decided pink color, the other being slightly larger in 



1 



230 ROADBED AND TRACK 

size, the pink color being over-shot with a grayish cast. 
It has firmness of bearing for ties, allows the track to be 
easily lined and surfaced and affords excellent drainage. 

"For what we might term second-class ballasting, cin- 
ders come first. In yard, commercial spur and all side- 
track work it is a cheap and effective ballast. Cinder 
ballast is also useful as a foundation for other kinds of 
ballast, especially in wet clay or dirt cuts. 

* 'Furnace slag makes good ballast and is usually avail- 
able for the cost of hauling from the furnace. Some 
slag, especially that having large porous pieces, is not 
desirable on account of the difficulty of handling in track 
for surfacing or renewal work. The preferable quality 
is in small, hard and glassy pieces. 

"Another ballast meeting with favor in the southwest 
is burnt clay. The best of this kind is produced by the 
burning of 'gumbo' or 'black wax' clay. This material 
should be burned very hard, as it easily breaks up. Where 
this ballast is used to any extent, the kilns are often from 
one-half to one mile in extent over a trench previously 
dug to a depth of about 8 feet. The cost of burning 
ranges from 25 cents per cubic yard upward, though 
contracts have been known to be let at 19 cents, the rail- 
way company furnishing the material. The life of a tic 
is said to be increased ten per cent when this ballast is 
used, as against crushed rock. 

"Volcanic cinder has been used by the Santa Fe on 
its Arizona lines. It is worked from pits or pockets like 
gravel. In appearance when in the track it resembles 
burnt clay. 

"We must consider sand among the poorer classes of 
ballast. The chief trouble being its shifty nature and 
the damage it causes by working into axle and journal 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 231 

bearings. It is used to quite an extent, however, but 
for the most part through lack of convenient places from 
which to secure better ballast such as gravel or rock. 

"Burnt shale, where the shale is of the easily handled 
or soft variety, mine cinder and chatts are also used 
as ballast, but to such a small extent as to be hardly 
worth noticing. 

"The worst ballast the section foreman has to con- 
tend with, which is really no ballast at all, is mud. In 
rainy weather with this material, the track becomes a 
sort of floating dock for trains. Its action on the tie, 
due to lack of drainage, is naturally severe. As a result 
the tie is never quite dry on the sides and bottom and 
with a hot sun beating down on its top, rotting quickly 
sets in as a consequence." 

Coming to the methods of ballasting, another authority 
upon the subject writes: "The method depends to an 
extent upon the character of the work. This also deter- 
mines the kind of track gang to be employed. If the 
work is to be done on an extensive scale such as changing 
an earth road-bed to one of gravel, rock, or slag, it is 
done by special gangs, but when merely repairs on a 
small scale are to be made they are done by the regular 
section gang. 

"If an earth roadbed is being changed to one ballasted 
with other materials, the earth between the ties and at 
the ends of them should be thrown out on the slopes of 
the embankments. In cuts it should be removed entirely 
and taken to fill out narrow embankments with a view 
to getting the roadbed as nearly as possible to standard 
before beginning to place the ballast." 

Methods of loading cars have been previously touched 
upon, the steam-shovel being most generally used. 



232 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Ballast is loaded on flat-cars fitted with side-boards, gon- 
dola or flat-bqttom cars and the hopper-bottom style of 
cars. Flats carry from 5 to 12 cubic yards, the gondolas 
and hopper-bottoms varying from fifteen to thirty yards 
according to capacity. 

For the speedy and economical handling of ballast, spe- 
cial cars have been designed and are being more and 
more extensively used, particularly where work has to be . 
done upon a large scale. The Rodgers ballast car dumps 
the material between the rails in the center of the track, 
the last car in train of ballast cars having a plow for 



cleaning and flanging the track. The amount of ballast 
to be distributed is regulated by the amount of opening 
given to the doors of the hopper in the bottom of the 
ballast car and the speed of the train. When a large 
amount of ballast is to be deposited, it is done by running 
.the ballast train over the track two or more times. 

Another car for handling ballast is the Goodwin Steel 
Gravity Dump Car. It is dumped by one man by means 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 233 

of compressed air, which operates to move the dumping 
attachments of all the cars in the train at the same time. 
The ballast can all be dumped on one side of a rail or 
both sides, or all on the outside of both rails or all on 
the inside of both rails. 

The latest development in ballasting cars provide for 
both side and center dump work. The earlier designs 
which are for the larger part in present use, are the 
separate side or center dump cars. 

The Lidgerwood Engine for unloading ballast is meet- 
ing with much approval, A large center plow is placed 
on an empty car and at the far end of the engine of a 



Fig. 15, Right and Lett Hand Dump Cars. 

String of loaded cars. The Lidgerwood Engine with 
cable and drums being on a car placed next to the loco- 
motive. In stretching the cable, two upright posts are 
generally placed near the track, one on each side and 
far enough out to clear any swinging car doors, etc. A 
heavy rope from ten to fifteen feet long is attached to 
the top of each post and the outer ends are either at- 
tached to a ring or have separate rings to hold a hook 
in the end of the cable. The locomotive places the Lid- 



r 

234 ROADBED AND TRACK 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 235 

gerwooci car so that the end of the cable on the Lidger- 
wood is close to these posts. The cable is then attached 
and the locomotive is sent ahead til! the end of the 
cable can be easily caught on the large plow at the end 
of the train. 

In distributing the ballast after the cable has been 
properly stretched, a flagman is stationed on top of the 
plow to signal both the locomotive and the Lidgerwood. 



He holds flags of two different colors, usually red for 
the locomotive and white for the Lidgerwood. As long 
as he holds these up or even straight off to the side the 
two engines are kept in motion, but at the drop of either 
that particular engine stops. The reason for this is 
obvious. The locomotive is rarely run at the same speed 
as the Lidgerwood and requires separate attention. When 
the plow is being moved toward the Lidgerwood and 



236 ROADBED AND TRACK 

throwing the material off to the sides of the car, there 
are often places where more ballast is needed than others. 
This is especially true in reballasting work, hence the 
need of two flags. 

Track jacks are used, one at each rail, opposite each 
other, for lifting the track six inches at a time when 
placing ballast under the ties. They are mad>e with long 
narrow bases to enable them being placed between the 
ties. Another device for the purpose is the "Walters' 
Ballast Placing Device.'^ It is maintained that for 
gravel, dirt, cinders, burnt clay and similar ballast this 
device is admirably adapted; for rock ballast it is im- 
practicable unless fine screenings can be used to put 
under the tie. 

In general, ballasting material should be procured at 
points along the road where its removal would benefit by 
widening cuts, reducing grades or ditching. The North- 
ern Pacific rules provide as follows for ballasting : "All 
spikes should be driven before ballast is distributed; 
ballast should not be distributed until roadbed is of full 
width and all unsuitable material removed. When ma- 
terial is unfit for use as ballast, it should be cleaned out 
from bottom of tie and used for widening the banks. 
Where there is trouble in heaving, or wet spots, the 
material should be taken out to such depth and in such 
a manner as to insure perfect drainage. Care must be 
taken to avoid wasting ballast down the sides of slopes, 
or otherwise. The depth of ballast will be determined 
in accordance with the local conditions and the character 
and the amount of ballast already in place, if any. In 
general, not less than 8 inches of good material will be 
required under ties. 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 237 

Tamping, — Tamp the entire length of ties on new 
track. Special pains should be taken to insure -thorough 
tamping, from end of tie to one foot inside of rail. On 
old track, the center should be filled and lightly tamped. 

Tamp joints and second ties thoroughly. Thorough 
tamping of the second tie from joints is of equal im- 
portance with that required by the joint ties, and will 
prevent the formation of cracks starting from upper 
edge of splices by reducing the upward deflection of joints 
when a wheel is over the second tie. 

Material for filling and ballasting must not be taken 
from slopes of embankments. When ballasting is com- 
pleted the track must be in perfect line, surface and. 
gauge, in accordance with the stakes furnished by the 
engineer. 

Ballast Cross-Section, — Rock ballast should be filled in 
level with the top of tie from center to 2 feet outside of 
rail, slopes i to i. 

Gravel ballast must be finished to the standard cross- 
section, which is as follows : 

At the center and for one foot on each side thereof, 
the top of ballast will be even with the top of ties, and 
thence carried out with a straight uniform slope, passing 
four inches above bottom of ties at ends, to a point 2}^ 
feet outside of rail, thence to an intersection with the 
roadbed, with slopes of i^ to i. 

If material is used which is more or less impervious 
to water the slopes should be carried to an intersection 
with roadbed on a line with bottom of ties at ends. 

The practice of crowning the ballast above top of tie 
at center causes dusty track and rots the tie at the center, 
and is not permitted except when absolutely required for 



238 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



drainage on account of the character of material used for 
ballasting. 

Ballasting is an important factor in making a good 
track, but in connection with it, there are other things 
to be remembered, concerning which a noted writer of 
authority, Mr. Benjamin Reece, says: 

"The province of labor is to make the track stable, 
and to securely fasten and unite its parts so as to prevent 
independent motion. The elasticity of bearing does not 
imply loose and shifting parts. Flexibility of material 
must not be confounded with yielding and inadequate 
support. The impact due to low joints, bad surface, poor 
line and defective gauge greatly augments the destructive 
effects of increased wheel pressure, and the deterioration 
of track is much accelerated when deprived of proper 
care. In nothing do trackmen need to be more fully 
drilled than in the matter of thorough and conscientious 
track work, more particularly in tamping, so that the 
track may stand the service to which it is subjected. 
Thorough track work implies tight joints, the use of track 
level, true gauge, and conscientious tamping and atten- 
tion to minor details." 

One writer says: "There are varying opinions as to 
the cross-section depending upon the quality of the ma- 
terial and the climatic conditions. Thus with good, clean, 
coarse gravel, or in warm, dry regions, it is better to 
make the section as with broken stone, bringing the bal- 
last level with the tops of the ties and shouldering it 
out 6" to 12" from their ends. With inferior fine or 
loamy gravel (and this is the quality most generally met 
with) or where water and frost have to be considered, it 
is better to slope the ballast from the middle of the tie 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 239 

to the ends, to allow the water to drain off and not to 
be held back by the rails, the ballast being one inch 
clear below the rail base. The slope may be made con- 
tinuous with that of the roadbed to the ditch, and may 
be to the bottom of the end of the tie or a little higher, 
so as to leave part of the end embedded, but this latter 
arrangement is likely to retain water along the ends of 
the ties. In some cases the ballast is flat on top for 
about three feet, and then slopes down under the rails to 
the bottom of the ties. Fine gravel is sometimes filled 
in two or three inches above the ties at the middle, but 
in wet country this keeps the ties damp and leads to rot- 
ting, though in dry country it may protect them from 
the sun and from hot engine cinders. The Houston and 
Texas Central Railway fills in the gravel between the 
rails to the level of the under side of the rail heads. On 
double track the ballast is usually sloped towards the 
middle of the roadbed to form a central drain which 
should be at least six inches below the ties, and is some- 
times carried down to the surface of the roadbed. Cross- 
box drains in the ballast carry the water to the side 
ditches. At stations on the Southern Pacific Railway the 
ties rest on 8 inches of ballast, and cinders are filled in 
nearly to the under side of the rail heads between the 
rails and between the main and side tracks.'^ 

The maintenance work to be done and the facilities for 
doing it depends more or less upon the section of the 
country in which the railway is located and also upon 
the season of the year. In "Railway Track and Track 
Work," Mr. Tratman says: 

"As to the seasons for doing the different kinds of 
work, It may be said that general improvements, tile 



240 ROADBED AND TRACK 

drainage, reballasting, etc., can best be carried on from 
late spring to late autumn, but alh such work should, 
as far as possible, be planned and arranged for before- 
hand, so that the track may not be disturbed for rebal- 
lasting just after the section gang has completed a thor- 
ough surfacing. Work trains and floating gangs for 
ditching, ballasting, widening cuts, etc., and speciaJ gangs 
on new interlocking plants, rearrangement of yards, re- 
pairing or building structures, etc., may be worked at 
any time from the end of one winter to the beginning 
of another. For the ordinary work on the sections no 
set rules or program of procedure can be formulated, 
as the requirements vary in different sections of the 
country. In general, however, the year may be divided 
into four seasons, and the work done during these sea- 
sons practically as outlined below: 

''Spring. — As soon as the winter is over, all likelihood 
of snow passed, and the frost coming out of the ground, 
the work of reducing and removing the shims should be 
commenced. The frost will, of course, remain longer 
in the road'bed in cuts than on exposed banks. Low 
joints must be raised, spikes driven, bolts tightened, cat- 
tle guards and road crossings cleared and repaired, 
ditches cleaned, fences repaired, portable show fences 
taken down and piled, rubbish and old material clearcvl 
from the right of way, and the necessary lining and sur- 
facing done to put the track in good condition previous 
to the more extensive work later in the season. At the 
same time sign posts and telegraph poles are straightened, 
fences repaired, and side tracks and yards overhauled. 
The gang (if not already increased) is then increased to 
its maximum number and the work of renewing ties is 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 241 

commenced, the ties having been previously distributed 
on the section. About four days a week should be spent 
in putting in the ties, all ties being fully tamped as soon 
as they are in place. The other two days are spent on 
other necessary work. On some roads the tie renewals 
are done quickly at the beginning of the season, while 
on others, this work is spread out through the season. 
The former is by far the better plan, as the continued 
disturbance resulting from the latter plan is very detri- 
mental to the maintenance of good track. When the 
ties are all in, the work of thorough lining and surfacing 
preparatory for the heavy summer traffic is commenced. 
The lining is done first on account of the bad line result- 
ing from the tie renewals, but the surfacing should fol- 
low very closely. The gauging is done at the same 
time. Ballasting is done after the new ties have been 
put in. In surfacing, care must be taken not to raise 
the track too much, but only to give a uniform surface, 
the track being raised out of a face only about once in 
four or five years. 

^'Summer, — Besides the work of surfacing, rail re- 
newals may be done at any convenient time between 
spring and winter. The new rails are sometimes laid 
before the ties are renewed, but it is better to put the 
ties in first and have them thoroughly tamped up, espe- 
cially if there are many bad ties. A general inspection 
of spikes, bolts, nuts and nut locks is then to be made. 
All worn, bent, broken or improperly driven spikes are 
removed, the holes plugged and new spikes are driven. 
Broken or loose, bolts are made good. Switches and 
switch connections, frogs, guard rails, etc., need to be 
carefully inspected and repaired. As fast as the regular 



242 ROADBED AND TRACK 

surfacing is completed, the ballast should be dressed to 
the standard cross-section, and the toe of slope lined to a 
'grass line' about 5 feet 6 inches from the rail. Tile 
drainage, correction of signs, and the general work not 
interfering with the track itself can best be done during 
the summer. Spare time can also be spent in trimming 
up yard tracks, and clearing yards and station grounds. 

"Autumn. — Weeds should be cut at least once a year 
and the best time for this is just before seeding. The 
grass on the right of way should be mowed, bushes 
cleared and trimmed, and in cases where fires cause 
trouble, a fire guard may be formed by plowing a narrow 
strip about 50 feet on each side from the track. Burnt 
or decayed trees likely to fall near the track should 
also be removed, and the dry brush, old ties, etc., may 
now be burned. Old material should also be cleared 
up. About a month before the commencement of the 
winter or rainy season a general surfacing, lining, gaug- 
ing and dressing of the track should be done, starting 
at the farther end of the section and working steadily 
to the other end. 

"The track itself should be put in condition at the 
same time and the spikes and joints seen to. When this 
is done ditching must be undertaken, the ditches being 
cleaned out and improved where necessary to give the 
necessary width and grade. The more thoroughly this 
work is done the better will the track be during the 
winter period. Trenches should also be cut under switch 
rods to prevent water or snow collecting around them 
and freezing. The culverts and water-ways must then 
be cleared of brush and obstructions, and any sig^s of 
scour or undermining looked for, while streams should 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 243 

be examined above and below the culverts and any ob- 
structions removed. After this there is plenty of work 
to be done in cutting and burning weeds, repairing 
fences, repairing and erecting snow fences, and stacking 
additional portable snow fences where they will be 
needed. Track signs and telegraph poles have to be in- 
spected and cattle guards and crossings cleaned up. Yards 
and side tracks may be profitably cleaned, drained, leveled 
up and repaired before the snow falls. 

''Winter, — The winter work with reduced track forces 
is largely that of inspecting the track and making small 
repairs; also looking after the spikes, bolts, frogs and 
switches. Such work will occupy the time between snow 
storms or in fine weather. During snow storms the 
switches, frogs and guard rail flangeways must be kept 
clear as also all signal and interlocking connections. Salt 
is used to melt the snow but oil afterwards should be 
applied to all moving parts, such as slide plates, bell crank 
levers, etc., as the salt water has a tendency to rust the 
iron, making the parts move hard. In heavy snow storms 
the section men must work in clearing the track and 
help the snow gang or shovelers. In the intervals of 
fine weather, rails, ties, lumber, fence material, etc., may 
be distributed, ready for spring work. Heaving of the 
track by frost is now to be expected and proper pre- 
cautions must be taken to keep the track in surface by 
shimming, while in very bad places blocking may be 
necessary. The ditches should be examined as soon as 
any thaw sets in and kept clear of ice or packed snow 
so as to allow free passage from the water." 

Mr. Kindelan, in the 'Trackman^s Helper," thus de- 
scribes "Shimming"; — 

"When the ballast is frozen in the winter it cannot 



244 ROADBED AND TRACK 

be tamped and if the track is heaved by frost the sur- 
face is made uneven both transversely and longitudinally. 
This must be tested by a level for the former and by 
sighting or the use of a long straight-edge for the latter. 
In such cases wooden plates or shims must be placed 
between the rail and the tie to bring the rail up to proper 
surface. The upper face of the tie should not be adzed 
to lower the rail, unless this is absolutely necessary, but 
the shims should be placed on the lower ties. Shimming 
is also required with soft ballast, that is so soft after 
heavy rains that tamping is impracticable, the ballast and 
roadbed being so saturated that no other method of sur- 
facing is effective. In some very bad cases, or in acci- 
dents, blocking must be used under the ties but this 
should be avoided when possible and the foreman must 
see that this blocking is not forgotten and left in place 
but that it is taken out when the shims are removed or 
when the ballast has dried out sufficiently to give the 
track a proper bearing as the frost comes out of the 
ground and the ground settles, thinner shims must be 
substituted for the thicker ones to prevent surface bend- 
ing of the rails. The shims should never be left in place 
after the spring ; and as fast as they are removed the spike 
holes in the ties should be properly plugged. Heaving 
is most troublesome in earth and clay but is also felt in 
gravel. Where much trouble is experienced from heav- 
ing, it will usually be found economical to apply gravel 
ballast liberally; as the spiking and shimming injure the 
ties and spoil the permanent surface of the track. The 
shims may be cut by the section men but it is better to 
use those cut by machinery having two spike holes bored 
diagonally opposite one another. They are about six 
inches wide and the length should be at least equal to 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 245 

three times the width of the rail-base so as to give ample 
room for spiking and keeping the spikes clear of the 
angle-bars. The thickness is from three-quarter inch 
to two inches. If a raise of more than two inches is 
required, a piece of one inch to three inch plank should 
first be spiked to the tie by bolt-spikes, the plank being 
about two feet long or as long as the tie if both rails 
have to be shimmed. Upon this plank should be placed 
shims to bring the rail to the required level, these being 
fastened by long spikes passing through shims and plank 
into the tie. With specially high shimming it is well 
to place rail braces outside the rails, especially on curves. 
Where tie plates are used, the plates should not be taken 
off, but the shims placed on them, and if the shimming 
is high, a tie plate may be placed on its top. The tie 
should be adzed to give a level seat for the shims. Spik- 
ing should be attended to as fast as the shimming is 
put in, and if a whole rail length is to be shimmed, the 
joint, center and quarter ties should be first shimmed and 
spiked." 

Policing is thus described by Mr. Tratman: "This 
work includes the general maintenance of the roadway 
in neat and proper condition and is to be attended to 
continually. Weeds must be kept cut and trimmed to 
the grass line; ballast properly dressed and sloped; 
ditches cleaned; rubbish picked up, and spare material 
properly placed. Combustible material must be kept 
cleared from around bridges, trestles, signal posts, etc., 
dirt and gravel must be removed from bridge seats and 
trestle caps, and care taken to prevent ballast from 
working over onto the bridge abutments or falling into 
streets below! Large loose stones may be neatly piled 
around the bases of signal posts, sign posts, etc., to keep 



246 ROADBED AND TRACK 

vegetation from growing. All trees that are in danger 
of falling on the track, or that interfere with the pass- 
age of trains, or obscure the view must be removed or 
trimmed. If they are on private land, and the owners 
object to such work, a report must be made as to the cir- 
cumstances. Any interference with or obstruction of 
ditches, culverts, etc., by land owners must be prevented 
or a report made thereon. 

"All old track material, or other material from cars, 
old ties, rubbish, etc., must be picked up and removed 
from the track, all scrap being carried to the section tool 
house to be properly sorted and disposed of. All scrap 
iron, lumber, etc., must be neatly piled on platforms. 
New material, such as rails, ties, etc., must be properly 
piled or stacked, and no material should be thus piled 
within eight feet of the track. 

"Care should be taken to have a neat and tidy ap- 
pearance of the section, with track full spiked and bolted, 
switches cleaned and well oiled, cattle guards and road 
crossings in good condition, fences in repair and wing 
fences at cattle guards kept whitewashed, ballast evenly 
and uniformly sloped and free from weeds, sod line 
cleanly cut at foot of slopes, and grass and weeds not 
allowed to grow too high before cutting. Side tracks 
in yards should also be kept free from weeds and rub- 
bish, old paper, scrap, etc. Station grounds also must 
be kept neat. Signs must be upright and in good re- 
pair. Section houses must be clean and tidy with tools, 
track material, scrap etc., properly sorted and placed. 

"Every possible means consistent with general atten- 
tion to track work, should be taken to keep people from 
walking on or at the side of the track and from using 
-^ the railway as a public path. This is specially necessary 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 247 

near cities where the traffic is heavy. In such cases, 
where people • habitually walk on the track a liberal cov- 
ering of coarse broken stone or slag or even cinders may 
be laid upon the ballast between the rails and tracks and 
upon the berme at the edge of the roadway. This will 
soon drive off those persons who cannot comfortably 
walk on the ties. This matter is far too often neglected, 
and railways are themselves partly responsible for the 
habit which the public has acquired of treating the tracks 
as a public way." 

Station Grounds and Buildings, — "In order to have a 
good reputation for the road on the part of the public 
it is very desirable that the grounds at stations should 
be kept clean and tidy and free from rubbish. On some 
roads this work is delegated to the station agent who 
has his men attend to it, while on other roads it is part 
of the section gang's work. The latter is the better 
plan if the force is sufficient and the work is done by 
direction of the roadmaster, the station agent being given 
authority to employ the section men for this purpose 
when he thinks proper. On roads having stations with 
lawns, flower beds, and nice grounds a special force is 
sometimes kept to attend to them, for instance the Boston 
and Albany Railway has on each of its principal di- 
visions a gardener with five to twelve men who grade, 
plant and seed the grounds, and take care of them. These 
men cut the grass with lawn mowers and do the weeding, 
trimming of shrubbery, etc. They also attend to places 
where the banks are graded and seeded. This force is 
included in the roadway department. The Pennsylvania 
Railway also employs landscape engineers and a large 
force of gardeners and spends large sums of money in 
making and maintaining attractive grounds. As a result 



248 ROADBED AND TRACK 

it has a reputation for the appearance of its stations. 
Some Western roads including the Fremont, Elkhorn, 
and Missouri Valley Railway have adopted the policy 
of making a "Park" at most of the stations, sodding the 
ground and planting trees. It is specially important to 
have attractive grounds and pleasant surroundings at im- 
portant stations and at junctions where passengers may 
have to change trains or to stop over for connecting 
trains. 

'In all ordinary cas€s, however, much may be done 
by foremen, and station agents who are not averse to 
putting in a little time in improving the appearance of 
the station grounds. The Agents especially should see 
that the grounds and platforms are kept free from all 
papers and other rubbish. A plot of turf, cinder or 
gravel pathway, a flower bed, a creeper on the building 
or on a pile of rock-work, can be had with little trouble 
and have a great effect upon the general appearance of 
a station. The approaches and surroundings on the town 
side of the station should be cared for as well as the 
grounds on the railway side. 

"The platforms should be convenient and in good re- 
pair and the fences kept in repair. Many a division 
superintendent and roadmaster can aid materially in main- 
taining a good appearance along the road by fitting up 
a car with brake pumps and paint tanks for painting 
by compressed air, the work being done rapidly and 
economically by a few men, and being applicable to 
stations, freight-sheds, ice-houses, pump-houses, section- 
houses, signal-houses, signal-towers, fences, signal-posts 
and signs, etc., and also for whitewashing cattle-guard 
fences, interior of sheds, etc. 

"The yards, spaces between the tracks, etc., at stations 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 249 

should be neatly leveled, and covered with ashes, and 
should be kept in order by the section men, but strict 
rules should be made and enforced against the scatter- 
ing of ashes and cinders from engines (which should 
be dumped at specific points), the sweeping of rubbish 
and dirt from the station onto the track, and the sweeping 
out of refuse and dirt from the cars upon the track- 
Every station should have a can or bin for waste paper 
and rubbish which should be emptied at intervals into a 
dirt car. Similar receptacles should be provided at yards 
or places where cars are cleaned. At large terminal- 
yards one man may be kept busy cleaning up paper and 
rubbish. It is a good plan to have station inspectors 
to see that the stations, waiting-rooms, closets, etc., are 
kept in proper and sanitary condition and that the grounds 
are properly cared for. Cleanliness should be enforced 
in every case but the standard of appearance will of 
course, vary according to the financial condition of the 
road and the size of the force. The same is true of 
section boarding-houses and tool-houses.'^ 

Old Material, — "In all renewals and periodical polic- 
ing, cleaning up of yards, etc., it must be borne in mind 
that new material must be properly used and cared for, 
and not wasted, and also that no old material should 
be simply thrown away as useless. Even if really use- 
less i6v railway purposes, the material in the aggregate 
has a certain selling value, which, if the material is 
thrown away, is wrongfully lost to the Company. These 
remarks apply also to the wreckage and scrap resulting 
from train accidents and the burning of cars. Record 
must be kept of the disposal of all scrap and old ma- 
terial. 

"Old rails should not be left hidden in the grass or 



250 ROADBED AND TRACK 

weeds of the right of way, but properly piled for ship- 
ment as they may be used for side tracks or branches, 
sold for scrap or even made into new rails of somewhat 
lighter section by heating and rerolling. Old ties have 
rarely much value, but if thrown away, sold, burnt, used 
for cribbing, etc., all unbroken spikes should first be 
pulled and when ties are burned the ashes should be raked 
over for spikes. In piling old rails, the splice bars and 
bolts should all be removed, good splice bars sorted in 
pairs and broken bars kept separate. Nuts and bolts, 
if good, should be kept together, but broken bolts should 
have the nuts removed and kept separate. Many spikes 
that now go from the track to the scrap-heap (or down 
the bank) might be used over again if properly driven 
in the first place and properly drawn. Foremen should 
be careful to see that all track and car material, etc., 
is picked up regularly and that their men do not get in 
the habit of flinging old bolts, spikes, etc., down the 
bank. In removing bolts, the nuts should be unscrewed 
properly, the bolt taken out, and the lock and nut put 
back on the bolt. If, however, the nut is so rusted or 
wedged on the bolt that it will not unscrew, it is more 
economical to knock off the nut with the end of the bolt 
in it, with a sledge, than to waste time in forcing the 
wrench. Only good discipline and good management of 
men can insure the exercise of proper judgment' as to 
when to knock off nuts in this way. If a wedged or 
rusted bolt has to be knocked out, care should be taken 
not to hit the head of the rail." 

Care of Material. — "At the section tool-house the 

scrap should be piled and sorted, nuts taken off broken 

bolts, etc., this work being done in wet or stormy weather 

— or when the men cannot work on the track. All scrap 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 251 

iron, lumber, etc., must be piled neatly on platforms, 
car scraps, drawbars, couplers, etc., being kept separate. 
Small scrap, such as bolts, nuts and spikes may be kept 
in shallow boxes, or in old spike and bolt kegs. Rails 
may be piled on the right of way at mile-posts, but 
should not be piled with splice bars and bolts left on. 
Old ties may be stacked on the right-of-way until per- 
mission is given to bum them, the ties removed being 
piled at the end of each day's work and not left in the 
ditch or on the roadbed. 

Under this heading it will be appropriate to refer to 
the treatment and disposal of the material found in 
the general scrap pile at the division points or main 
shops, which subject was discussed by the late Mr. J. 
N. Barr, of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway 
in a paper before the Western Railway Qub. The style 
of material delivered for the scrap pile is significant of 
the character of the men sending it, as for instance ; one 
man who is somewhat careless and finds it easier to use 
new material than to sort out the serviceable from the 
unserviceable scrap at his tool house, will send in many 
old bolts and nuts that are good for further use. In 
some cases it may be advisable to go to the expense 
of putting in a set of small rolls, to bring odd sizes of 
iron to standard sizes for bolts, plates, etc., a shear (per- 
haps operated by an airf)rake cylinder with 4 feet lever 
and 6 inch jaw) for cutting rods, or even to build a 
small furnace for heating angles, etc., to be rerolled. 
Of course, it must be borne in mind that while with a 
single large scrap pile at one large central shop it may 
be economical to carefully sort and handle the material 
and treat it as above noted, this may not be the case with 
several smaller piles at divisional shops. Also, that in 



^ 



252 ROADBED AND TRACK 

some cases an article made by treating scrap may be made 
more expensive than a newly purchased article of the 
same kind. These are matters for the exercise of judg- 
ment and calculation in order to ensure real economy. 

"In most scrap piles there is a great proportion of 
bolts. These may be sorted as to their diameters and 
length and stored in compartments. Stub ends of ^ 
inch to I inch bolts, about SJ^ inches long, may be 
used for making track bolts, a bolt heading machine at 
the shops being equipped with suitable dies. Nuts may 
be cleaned of rust by pickling in a weak solution of hydro- 
chloric acid and then used again, or if damaged they may 
be slightly compressed by dies in a bolt heading machine 
and then retapped. Plates and shapes may be utilized 
for small plate girders to cross culverts, etc. Lining 
bars, crowbars, wrenches, etc., may be successfully made 
from elliptic springs, the plate being heated to a cherry 
red and then put in a bulldozer, where it is sheared off 
and has two square holes punched at one operation. Old 
flues, which bring little as scrap, make good fencing 
for station grounds, posts for track signs, or grates for 
cinder pits, where fireboxes are cleaned out. Old fish- 
plates or plain splice bars may be sheared to length and 
stamped to shape for rail braces. 

"In sorting, care should be taken to pick out any new 
or practically uninjured material, which may, by acci- 
dent, or carelessness have got in with the scrap, when 
sorted the stuflf should be arranged so as to be easily 
seen and got at, but discrimination should be exercised 
so as not to store a lot of miscellaneous material on the 
supposition of its being of some possible use eventually." 
(PP 3ii"3i5 *'^y* Track and Trackwork" — Tratman.) 



1 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



CROSS TIES. 



Next in order we pass from the roadbed to the cross 
ties. The American Railway Engineering and Mainten- 
ance of Way Association gives the following definitions 
of a cross tie: 

"A cross tie — ^that transverse member of a railway 
track which supports the rails and by means of which 
they are retained in position. Sawed tie — a tie having 
both faces and sides sawed. Half round tie — a slabbed 
tie which has greater width on lower than on top face. 



Heart tie — A tie which shows sapwood on one or two 
corners only and which sapwood does not measure more 
than one inch on either corner, on lines drawn diagonally 
across the end of tie. A doty tie — a tie which is affected 
by funguous disease. Score Marks — Marks made by the 
axe as an aid in hewing. Face — the upper or lower 
plane surface of a tie." 

Mr. A. C. Caldwell writes: "A hewn tie is superior 
to a sawed tie in nearly all cases. The reason is evi- 
dent when the action of the two can be watched. As a 
rule the sawed fie with its sharp edges cut into the bal- 
last, weakening the surface level and support to the rail. 




254 ROADBED AND TRACK 

The most common size in railroad ties is the 6 in. depth, 
8 in. width, and 8 ft. length. Due to heavy and fast 
traffic this is being exceeded on some roads and more 
especially in the east. Such sizes as 7"xio"x8>4', 7"x 
8"x8^' are being used to some extent." 

The proper spacing of ties, is a matter of experience 
rather than one of any exact mathematical formula. This 
is on account of the support given by ballast of so many 
different kinds and grades. As one of our prominent 
western engineers has said: "The proper spacing of ties 
embodies the three following features: 

"i. The proper width of tie for bearing surface under 
the rail. 
. "2. The supporting strength of roadbed. 
"3. The proper spacing for economical tamping. 

"The first feature seems to be taken care of by widely 
varying methods throughout the country, naturally due 
to the variety of woods and the conditions which they 
encounter. If we stop to consider the different crushing 
strengths of woods we readily see the uselessness of get- 
ting a specific rule. The supporting strength of roadbed 
varies widely on account of the many different ballasts 
and their depth under the ties. This ballast question is 
not so difficult as the first for we can find reasonable lim- 
its to ballasting. For instance, ballast of any sort should 
at least have a depth of six inches under the tie and it 
is rarely specified for a greater depth than eighteen 
inches. The third feature is less important than the other 
two and is more a matter of convenience for using tools. 
We may assume 20 ties per 30 ft. rail as a maximum 
number, since any greater number hinders very largely 
rapid work in the tamping of ties." 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 255 

Spacing Ties. — Regarding this matter Mr. Caldwell 
says: "Plenty of timber under the rails is a matter of 
economy and saving of rail. For main track on most 
roads the number is generally about i8 for a 30 ft. 
rail and 20 for a 33 ft. rail. In lining ties, the usual 
custom is the stretching of a rope anywhere from 200 to 
1,000 ft., depending on the length of tangent or straight 
track, and at the half tie length from the center stakes 
set by the engineers. On curve work of any considera- 
ble sharpness the rope is staked for the tie lining at 
about 25 ft. intervals. A man working ahead of the 
rail man and chalking with a square the proper line for 
the base of rail can, if skillful, save considerable time. 
Among track-layers he is known as the 'fiddler.' He 
works directly behind the tie placers, who bring the ties 
in proper line, usually with a short pick. A matter re- 
quiring rather good judgment is the tie placing for 
rail joints. The general tendency is to place them too 
close, the idea in this being to strengthen the joint. The 
governing feature for the minimum distance in tie spacing 
is of course to allow the least space in which a shovel can 
be used in tamping the ballast." 

Ties are spaced differently on different roads. The 
following table gives the spacing used to a 30 ft. rail 
by some of the roads in the United States: 

Pennsylvania, main line 14 wide ties 

" . sidings 12 ties 

Northern Pacific 16 " 

Chesapeake & Ohio 18 " 

Central Ry. of New Jersey 16 " 

Southern Pacific, main line 17 " 

branches 15 " 



^ 



256 ROADBED AND TRACK 

The joint ties should be the largest ones and should be 
more Closely placed than the others to give a better bear- 
ing for the rail ends. 

The following table gives the number of ties per mile 
of single track: 



CROSS TIES PER MILE. 

Center to Center. Ties per Mile. 
i8 inches 3»520 

21 " 3,017 

24 " 2,640 

27 " .2,347 

30 ** 2,112 



Number of ties per 30- ft. rail, 12 2,112 

14 2,464 

16. 2,816 

18 3,108 



(( H U H ii i( 

li U ti H ii it 

ii ii ii it it it 



Ties suffer rapid deterioration from the action of the 
elements. Ballast and ballasting have different effects 
upon ties according to the material used. Where soil 
or clay is used sometimes the interior of ties rot before 
the traffic has worn them. Quality and arrangement of 
ballast therefore may often have a great effect upon the 
preservation of ties from decay. 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



257 



Giving the square feet of bearing surface ties eight feet 
long and of different width have on the ballast or road- 
lied. 





LENGTH OF THE EIGHT FEET. 


NUMBER OF 

TIES TO A 

CO-FOOT RAIL. 


Square feet of surface for ties of the following width. 


• 


7 inches. 


8 inches. 


9 inches. 


10 inches. 


14 

15 
16 

18 


65.24 
69.90 

74.56 
79.22 
83.88 


74.62 

79-95 
85.28 

90.61 
95-94 


84.00 

90.00 

96.00 

102.00 

108.00 


93.24 
99.90 

106.56 

113.22 

119.88 



^ 



TABLE NO. 19. 



ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD BALLAST TABLE 
SHOWING CUBIC YAIU>S PER MILE OF TRACK 





Size of Ties 


Double 
Track 


Single Track 


Material 


OassA 


Class B 


Class C 


• 

Rock 


6"X8"X8'o" 
7"X9"X8'6" 
7"X9"X9'o" 


6,891 

7»34i 
7»496 


3.488 

3.784 
3.916 


2,692 
2,966 

3.081 


* • « • 


■ 


• • • • 


Cementing gravel 


6"X8"X8'o" 
7"X9"X8'6" 
7" X9" X9'o" 


• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 


2,747 
2,887 

2,995 


2,291 

2,414 
2,506 


1,868 

1.975 
2,050 


Loose gravel and 
cinders 


6"x8"X8'o" 
7"X9"X8'6" 
7"X9"X9'o" 


7.325 
7.924 
8,061 


3.82s 
4,168 

4,302 


3.014 

3^3^^ 
3.428 


2,287 
2,536 
2,635 


Earth 


6"X8"X8'o" 
7"X9"X8'6" . 
7"X9"X9'o" 


« ■ • • 

• • • ■ 

• • • ■ 


• • • • 

• • * • 

. . . . • 


• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 


499 
541 
551 



258 ROADBED AND TRACK 



An authority on the subject says : "Natural decay of 
ties ballasted with the best material, such as broken stone, 
gravel or cinders, would be much less than where poor 
ballast was used. I should think twenty-five per cent 
less, as a tie would lie perfectly undisturbed and dry, and 
would not be cut into by the rail. In poor ballast such 
as soil and clay, the middle of the tie would decay before 
its surface was damaged." 



a Tie, Spilt Quar 




Action uf Spike on Tie, 

Fig. 18. 

There is a great difference of opinion among practical 
men regarding the relative deterioration of ties from 
natural causes and from wear and tear. Their decay and 
damage are dependent upon so many contingencies that 
estimates of what amount should be charged to traffic 
and what amount to wear and tear would not apply to all 
roads. 

One writer insists that no portion of the cost of main- 
tenance should be charged to traffic, while another not 
only insists that the tie is injured by the weight of pass- 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 259 

ing" trains and changing of spikes, but that the movement 
of passing trains loosens the .soil enveloping the tie, thus 
greatly hastening its decay. 

Where the business of a line is heavy, ties receive ma- 
terial harm from respiking and resetting of rails, and if 
of inferior wood are frequently cut down and split by the 
rail. Ji^s, if properly ballasted, receive little detriment 
from the wear and tear of light traffic, except upon 
curves. 

The natural duration of a tie is dependent upon the 
kind of wood, how it is seasoned, nature of climate, and 
quality of the ballast in which it is laid. All these must 
be considered in arriving at a result. 

The quality of ties is important. It has a 
bearing on the stability and permanence of 
the roadbed as well as upon the cost of 
maintenance. Ties can be divided into three 
general classes as follows: ist, untreated 

wood; 2d, wood treated with a preservative 
process, and 3d, metal. 

The kinds of wood vary. Statistics show 
the following approximate proportions have 
been heretofore used in the United States: „. _ 

Fig. 19. 

Oak, 62 per cent ; chestnut, 5 per cent ; pine, spiy^e. 
17 per cent; cedar (red, white and California), 
7 per cent ; hemlock and tamarack, 3 per cent ; cypress, 2 
per cent ; redwood, 3 per cent ; other kinds, i per cent. 

The requirements of a good tie are: First, ability to 
hold a spike against the strain exerted on the spike by 
the rail ; second, it must not be brittle and split when the 
spike is driven; third, the wood should not yield or be 
compressed by the rail ; fourth, it should stand without 
the pressure of the ballast (when stone) without being 




260 ROADBED AND TRACK 

crushed ; fifth, its size should give sufficient bearing sur- 
face to support the load imposed without the rail sinking 
into the tie, or the tie being pressed into the ballast, or 
become broken ; and finally, it should be durable. 




1. Ties must be piled in accordance with pile numbers 
best suited to local conditions. 

2. Ground supports of sound stuff, giving not less 
than 6 inches clear air space, must be used, and no rot- 
ten or decaying wood allowed to remain in any yard or 
near any pile. In pilin^s; ties not more than two for 
each pile should be in contact with the ground, excepting 
in triangular piles, as shown in No, i. 




3. Where roof courses are required, particular care 
should be taken in constructing them so as to obtain the 
desired protection, sufficient material necessary for this 
purpose being used. 

4. In storage yards each pile should be plainly marked 
with the month and year in which received, these marks 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



261 



to be placed where they can most easily be seen, and a 
clear space, preferably 4 feet, left between each two rows 
of piles, to facilitate seasoning. 



No. 6 




No. 6 




Tin to EKk Cmim liM M B4») 



5. Material must not be piled where any part is likely 
to come in contact with water, or where water can stand 
or run on surface of ground under the piles. 



No. 7 




No. 8 






PillNg 



i9m€)$m%Vn0m.h 



6. Tall weeds or high grass must not be allowed to 
remain near any material piled on the railway company's 
property. 

No. 9 




7. Treated ties must not be placed in service until they 
have seasoned the full time prescribed for that purpose. 



^ 



^ 



262 ROADBED AND TRACK 

LIFE OF TIES. 

Years. 

Chestnut 7 

Cedar 6 to 12 

Hemlock 3 to 6 

White Oak, about 7 

Spruce Pine 5 

Yellow Pine 4 to 6 

Red Wood 12 to 15 

Fir 6 to 8 

Tamarack 4 to 6 

METHOD OF TREATMENT. 

Zinc Chloride or Burnettizing. 
Zinc Tannin or Wellhouse. 
Zinc Creosote or Allerdyce. 
Zinc Creosote or Emulsion. 
Zinc Creosote or Giussani. 
Creosote Ruping. 
Hasselmann Treatment. 
Spirit Line or Wood Creosoting. 
Wood Line. 
Mercuric Chloride Kyanizing. 

Treating Ties. — 'Concerning chemically treating ties, 
Mr. A. C. Caldwell says: 

"Tie timber is of many kinds, such as oak, pine, chest- 
nut, cedar, etc. The white oak tie when within fairly 
easy distance of a road is without doubt the best all 
around tie. Due to its toughness and durability it is a 
tie of great favor especially in the middle and southeast- 
ern states. It is much superior to the red oak, though 
it is an excellent tie when treated with preservatives. 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 263 

Chestnut ties have a life averaging about seven to nine 
years under ordinary traffic and hold a spike well. Chest- 
nut ties rot from the outside toWard the center and even 
hold a spike when entirely rotted out on the outside. 
Cedar when used with a tie-plate forms a most economi- 
cal tie and is a favorite over the white oak when used 
in the above manner. 

"Treating ties with creosote and by chemicals on a 
number of western roads has been quite successful. One 
large western system has several tie-treating plants of 
its own and has gone at the business in a systematic way, 
with good results. The creosote or its modification, the 
'Reuping process/ is highly successful. 

"The Reuping process consists mainly of forcing air 
into the cells of the wood and then forcing in the impreg- 
nating fluid without dropping the pressure. The pres- 
sure used at this stage is gradually increased, varying, of 
course, with the nature of the wood, until a state of sat- 
uration is reached, the excess fluid being then allowed to 
drain off. Herein lies the commercial advantage of this 
process in that no more of the fluid is used than is abso- 
lutely necessary. In the equipment of the plant the im- 
pregnating and pressure cylinders are not of necessity 
elaborate. Two large tanks are generally used for stor- 
ing the creosote after it is pumped, from a well into 
which the creosote has been previously run from cars. 
From the storage tanks, the oil is passed into working 
tanks, where it is brought up to the proper temperature. 
The creosote is then by successive steps carried through 
the pressure and impregnating cylinders and into the tie 
to be treated. By an estimate on the chemical life of the 
creosote it is claimed that the preservation will last 
from 12 to 15 years in the case of the soft pine tie. The 



::5 



264 ROADBED AND TRACK 

output of the plant is rated at 10,000 to 15,000 ties per 
day of 24 hours. 

"There are a number 6i other methods of treating tie- 
timber such as the 'steaming process/ sulphur and various 
other chemical treatments. However, none of them 
seemed to have achieved the success secured by the use 
of creosote and the modified creosote processes." 

A Committee on the Preservation of Timber reported 
to the American Society of Civil Engineers regarding the 
cause of decay in timber, as follows : 

"Pure woody fiber is said by chemists to be composed 
of 52.4 parts of carbon, 41.9 parts of oxygen and 5.7 
parts of hydrogen, and to be the same in all the different 
varieties. If it can be entirely deprived of the sap and of 
moisture, it undergoes change very slowly, if at all. 

"Decay originates with the sap. This varies from 35 
to 55 per cent of the whole when the tree is filled^ and con- 
tains a great many substances, such as albuminous mat- 
ter, sugar, starch, resin, etc., with a large portion of 
water. 

"Woody fiber alone will not decay, but when associated 
with the sap, fermentation takes place in the latter (with 
such energy as may depend upon its constituent ele- 
ments), which act upon the woody fiber and produce 
decay. In order that this may take place, it is believed 
that there must be a concurrence of four separate condi- 
tions : 

"First — The wood must contain the elements or germs 
of fermentation when exposed to air and water. 

"Second — There must be water or moisture to promote 
the fermentation. 

"Third — There must be air present to oxidize the Fa- 
ulting products. 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 265 

** Fourth — The temperature must be approximately be- 
tween 50 degrees and loo degrees F. Below 32 degrees 
F. and above 150 degrees F. no decay occurs. 

"When, therefore, wood is exposed to the weather (air, 
moisture and ordinary temperature), fermentation and 
decay will take place, unless the germs can be removed 
or rendered inoperative. 

/'Experience has proven that the coagulation of the 
sap retards, but does not prevent, the decay of wood per- 
manently. It is, therefore, necessary to poison the germs 
of decay which may exist, or may subsequently enter the 
wood, or to prevent their intrusion, and this is the office 
performed by the various antiseptics. 

"We need not here discuss the mooted question be- 
tween chemists whether fermentation and decay result 
from slow combustion (Erema causis) or from the pres- 
ence of living organisms (Bacteria, etc.)." 

Another writer says: "Various conditions affect the 
value of preservative processes, as shown by the wide 
variation of the life of treated ties. The time of year the 
timber is cut and the amount of moisture the tie con- 
tains when it is treated are among the known factors 
affecting results obtained by treatment. 

"The theory of the process of wood preservation is 
to withdraw the moisture .or sap and to introduce into 
the pores of the wood an antiseptic to prevent decay. 
The experience of the English, French, and German 
railroads is that pine ties are made to last from fifteen 
to thirty years by chemical treatment, the life depending 
upon the process adopted. 

"The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway officials, 
after more than fifteen years trial on a large scale, be- 
lieve they are getting from eleven to twelve years serv- 



266 ROADBED AND TRACK 

ice from mountain pine having a natural life of about 
four years, while from natural (untreated) white oak 
they get but six years in heavy main line service, and 
from cedar ten years under light service/' 

Several other American railroads have experimented 
with treated ties, the results being generally favorable, 
many of them now treat all ties, piles and other timber 
used in track maintenance. 

The Railroad Gazette (1907) states: "Last year 
7,500,000 ties or about 10 per cent of the total number 
laid in track, were treated by some preservative process, 
according to a recent bulletin of the Department of Agri- 
culture. Most of these ties were laid in the middle west, 
where the supply of hardwood timber suitable for ties 
has almost disappeared. Ten railroads now have their 
own tie-treating plants and others are planning to build 
similar works for their exclusive use. Straight creosoting 
and the somewhat cheaper process of zinc and creosote 
combined are now in most general favoi. Mr. Octave 
Chanlite, in discussing a recent paper by Mr. W. C. Gush- 
ing on the treatment of tie timber, warns prospective 
users of the creosote process against too small doses of 
this costly antiseptic. He gives some figures showing 
the life of creosoted ties on the Western Railway of 
France, where the process has been in use for more than 
forty years. Beech ties laid down in 1865 which were 
treated with from 40 to 48 pounds of antiseptic per tie, 
when taken up 25 years later, were in perfect condition. 
In 1878, in order to reduce the cost of the treatment, the 
amount of creosote injected was brought down to from 
26 to 33 pounds. At the end of three years some of the 
ties began to decay, and after five years a large number 
were removed. After this experience the amount of an- 



1 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 267 



tiseptic injected was again increased to 39 pounds and 
later to 48 pounds as a minimum."- 

Mr. J. T. Richards, Chief Engineer, Maintenance of 
Way, Pennsylvania Railroad, stated in a lecture he de- 
livered January, 1906: "The English roads are getting 
an average of twenty-one years use out of wooden ties 
by treating them with creosote to prevent them from rot- 
ting and by protecting them with a large tie-plate to keep 
the upper surface from being worn out by the rail. The 
life of the tie is thus extended to that of at least two or 
three sets of rails, or longer than our metal bridges, or 
cars or locomotives have been lasting, so the cross-tic 
should not be abandoned by reason of its short life. 

"The soft wood timber used by the English roads is 
best adapted for chemical preservation, and can be grown 
to an available size within practically the life of a cross- 
tie. With our belt or land suitable for growing soft 
woods, extending from the middle of the state of New 
Jersey along the Atlantic Coast fifty to seventy-five miles 
in width to the State of Texas, it would seem to be very 
poor management on our part to allow ourselves to run 
out of wood for cross-ties.'^ 

Therefore, the question of cross-ties is not such a 
serious one as at first sight it appears to be. True, the 
use of hardwood for ties may in time be discontinued, 
but, as Mr. Richards says, there is no good reason why 
we should "run out of wood," since the use of soft-wood 
ties has been successfully demonstrated. By treating soft- 
wood ties and by the general use of tie-plates there seems 
to be no immediate cause for anxiety concerning an ade- 
quate supply of cross-ties for years to come. 

Metal Ties. The third style is the metal tie. These 
ties have, for the most part, been designed after the ^ 



268 ROADBED AND TRACK 

wooden cross-tie with such changes as seemed necessary. 
Metal ties have been used to a large extent in some coun- 
tries where timber is scarce or decays rapidly. Euro- 
pean practice has proven the metal tie to be economically 
successful under the conditions which prevail there. 






f'---:'- - -8-0- - 




^'- ^/tL THICK 

Ptff. 20. Morrell Metal Tie. 

Generally satisfactory experiments with metal ties have 
been made in England on the principal roads, with results 
which it is thought may lead to important developments, 
metal ties being more universally adopted ultimately. 

In Holland and Germany metal ties are extensively 
used and in Belgium experiments have been made with 
satisfactory results. In France metal ties have not been 
officially adopted yet, although for some years experi- 
ments with many styles and patterns have been in prog- 
ress. France has been using chemical preservatives for 
wood for so long and so successfully that the need for 
metal ties as a substitute for wood has not been as press- 
ing as it is in some other European countries. 

An authority on the subject says concerning the ex- 
perience of the railways in Holland in connection with 
the use of metal ties that the results have been satisfac- 
tory from every point of view. "Of one hundred and 



^ 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 269 

twenty-four thousand metal ties laid during a period 
of sixteen years not one had to be removed. Ties, after 
being in use for twenty-five years with a service of six- 
teen trains per day, have been found to be substantially 
as good as new.. The metal track is found to be safe, 
elastic and agreeable." 

The railways in Switzerland having the heaviest traf- 
fic have used metal ties for some years with highly satis- 
factory results. Experience and careful calculations have 
resulted in placing the minimum durability of metal ties 
at forty years, although it is thought it may be extended 
to seventy years. 

The following countries have been the principal users 
of metal ties: 

Countries. Mileage, 1894. 

British India I3>655 

Germany 1 1,605 

Argentine Republic 3^638 

Cape Colony 906 

Egypt 866 

All other countries 4^425 

Totals 35.095 

The value and character of metal ties have been care- 
fully considered and exhaustingly discussed at various 
railway congresses in Europe and at the last International 
Railway Congress held in Washington, D. C. It seems 
to be generally conceded that after comparing the relative 
cost, and taking account of every expense, including first 
cost, transportation, handling, laying, maintaining, re- 
newing, interest, and the value of the old material, there — 



;:^ 



270 ROADBED AND TRACK 

are few railroads where the exclusive use of wood for 
ties is the cheapest. Those qualified by skill and ex- 
perience sum up the result of their observations in re- 
gard to the requirements of a successful metal tie as 
follows : "It must be heavy enough to hold the rails 
down well and make a firm track ; light enough to be of 
reasonable cost; must have metal enough to stand wear 
and tear and give ample strength ; must be easy of manu- 
facture, and require a minimum of shop-work ; must not 
be liable to lateral motion in the ballast; must be easy 
to lay, remove, or ballast. The fastenings must be sim- 
ple and efficient, with as few parts as possible, and capa- 
ble of adjustment for widening the gauge at curves, etc., 
the price be such as to enable an actual ultimate economy 
to be shown, the quality of the metal must be such as to 
sustain shocks without injury and it must have sufficient 
elasticity to give an easy riding track." 

The experiments and experiences of different coun- 
tries will eventually evolve a perfectly satisfactory metal 
tie. Out of it will grow practical forms and efficient 
methods. It will remain for us to profit by this ex- 
perience, which will result in improvements and modifi- 
cations made necessary by actual practice. 

The essential advantages will prove to be, as a writer 
on the subject has said: '^Reduced expense for mainte- 
nance and renewals, owing to the solid construction and 
the greater durability of the parts ; a better class of track, 
owing to improved fastenings, etc., and the fact that the 
roadbed is not torn up (as with wooden ties) for fre- 
quent renewals, so that it gives the best road with the 
least amount of work for maintenance, and finally in- 
creased safety for traffic, owing to the superiority of the 
fastenings over those used with wooden ties." 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 271 



^ 



Tie-Plates. — Regarding the use of tie-plates Mr. J. T. 
Richards says: 

"With the depletion of the white oak and the harder 
timbers, necessitating the use of softer and cheaper woods 
for cross-ties, and the increase in the weight of locomo- 
tives and equipment and lading, the wear on ties at the 
point of rail contact has so rapidly worn them out, that 
it has become necessary to place a plate immediately un- 
derneath the rail for the protection of the tie. These are 
known as "tie-plates/' which are now being more gener- 
ally used with good effect. 

"The function of the tie-plate is to protect the wood, 
and to hold the rail to gauge more firmly than the old 
standard spike." 

As already stated, chemical treatment of such soft- 
wood ties as hemlock, mountain pine, Oregon fir, etc., 
materially increases their life by protecting them from 
decay and the effects of climatic action. This fact, how- 
ever, does not remove the advisability, if not the actual 
necessity of using tie-plates to further protect them from 
damage by rail cutting. 

It has been shown that the 5J/^ inch wide rail-base of 
a loo-pound rail quickly cuts into a cross-tie and so 
shortens its life, but recent practice has demonstrated 
the fact that this damage by rail cutting is obviated to a 
great extent by the use of tie-plates of approved standard 
patterns. 

Where tie-plates are not used on all the ties they will 
be found of special benefit on heavy grades and sharp 
curves, preventing cutting of the tie and canting of the 
rail. They also preserve the gauge without the use of 
rail braces. In places where moisture tends to soften the 
tie they prevent the rail cutting into it and preserve the _ 



272 ROADBED AND TRACK 

gauge. Where the roadbed yields under the weight of 
the train, such as swampy ground, they prevent the rail 
from cutting into the tie, thus lessening the tendency to 
excessive rail creeping. They should also be used on 
long bridges, elevated roads, in busy freight yards and 
on tangents where trains are frequent, and where track 
deteriorates rapidly. 

The uses of tie-plates may therefore be briefly sum- 
marized as follows : 

1. To prolong the life of new soft wood ties by pre- 
venting the destruction of the fibers by the sawing action 
of the rail 

2. To prolong the life for years of rail-eaten ties, 
by proper adzing and the use of tie plates. 

3. To give a firm seat to the rail, and hold it in an 
upright position, thereby maintaining perfect surface. 

And, lastly, to hold the track to gauge, for the reason 
that the spikes are backed by the plate on both sides of 
the rail, both spikes being used to hold rail in line. 

Many forms of tie-plates have been introduced, the 
first used being merely flat pieces of boiler iron with 
holes punched for spikes. Then came a flat bottom plate 
with a shoulder on top, and next plates made with under 
ridges cutting across the grain of the wood to prevent the 
sliding of the plate, and later modifications of this in the 
form of claws or broken ribs. This style was followed 
by the longitudinal flange plate, the advantages of which 
are thus briefly described: 

First, a plate with longitudinal flange is stronger for 
the weight of metal used than any other form of plate. 
Second, the flanges bedding themselves between the fibers 



^ 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 273 

of the wood, prevent the sliding of the plate. Third, they 
furnish the requisite supporting power to the spike to 
prevent the spreading of the track, and, fourthly, they 
attach themselves to the tie in such a way as to become 
a part of it, preventing friction between the plate and 
tie, thus preserving the fibers of the tie, ,< 

The pioneer of longitudinal flange plates was the Ser- 
vis, which was afterward followed by the Wolhaupter, 
and next came the Q and W, a combination of the Ser- 
vis and Wolhaupter. 

The Wolhaupter and Q and W have come into general 
favor of late, millions now being in use; it is claimed 
for them that: First, they furnish a maximum strength, 
maximum life, with a minimum amount of metal. Sec- 
ond, the flanges are so designed as to furnish the requisite 
resistance against buckling. Third, the metal is distrib- 
uted and arranged to give the greatest cross section of 
metal to resist the shearing action of the spike by having 
grooves over instead of between flanges; grooves be- 
tween flanges drain water into spike holes. Fourth, the 
grooves collect the sand and dirt and prevent the grind- 
ing out of the plate. 

There are three general styles of tie-plates made, of 
which it will suffice here to mention only the longitudinal 
flange already described, the "C. A. C' or claw and 
shoulder, the flat bottom, corrugated top, shoulder tie- 
plate and the combination joint and intermediate tie- 
plate as shown in the following illustrations: 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



rv 



Not taking into consideration the advantages of a 
smooth riding track, the increased life of the ties, and the 
prevention of spreading rails and possible wrecks, the 
use of tie-plates is becoming a question of economy. It 
is claimed that careful estimates show that the difference 



MAINTENANCE 'of WAY 275 

in cost between soft and hard wood ties, together with 
the expense of adzing, tamping and keeping track to 
gauge and line when using hard-wood ties, will, when soft 
. wood ties and tie-plates are used, defray the cost of the 
plates in two years. 



A section foreman on the C. & N. W. Ry., Mr. Geo. 
Samson, writes, regarding his experience with the use 
of tie-plates, as follows : "Good cedar ties last about 
eight years when the traffic is heavy and trains fast, but 
when tie-plates are used they last about sixteen years.'" 
This is significant when it is considered that the average 
life of an oak tie is but eight years; "tlnis," he says, "it 
will be seen that chestnut, j'ellow pine and other soft 



276 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



woods will serve instead of oak ties on curves if tie- 
plates are used." Continuing he says : "The best way 

to put tie-plates on new ties is to first lay the gauge on 
the tie and pound the tie-plate on with a wooden sledge 
before the tie is pulled into the track." Where tie-plates 



Sectional View 




^ 



are used on hard or medium hard, fibered ties, a plate 
4-4" or 5" wide, in accordance with the weight of the 
rolling stock and amount of traffic, should be used. On 
soft wood ties a plate not less than 5" wide should be used, 
but preferably a plate 6" wide. Under no circumstances 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



277 



should a plate less than y^" thick be used, and where traf- 
fic is heavy, a plate 5-16" or 3-8" thick is necessary. 
Plates should be not over 3" longer than the width of 
the rail-base. 



(Puenttd) 

Sectional View 




POINTERS REG.AUniNG TIE PLATES. 

Holes: For a 9-16" spike allow about 1-16" play. 
Holes usually are %" by Y^". For ^" spikes make the 
same allowance. Holes are generally ^" square. From 
outside to outside of holes should be 1-16" more than the 
base of the rail and spike added. The length should be 
about 3" more than the base of the rail. The width and 



278 ROADBED AND TRACK 

style depends upon the character of the tie and the base 
of the rail. For heavy traffic heavy plates 5-16" to ^" 
thick should be used. For average traffic plates '/i" thick 
. will answer. On hardwood ties narrow plates may be 
used, but on soft wood ties it is best to use about 5" plates, 
although some roads prefer the narrow plate, using a 
special plate at joints on account of the wide stagger of 
angle bar slotting. The following illustration indicates 
the proper names for plates, according to the ties upon 
which they are to be applied. 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



279 



^ 



Many roads specify three holes for intermediate plates 
as shown by the following illustration. When so punched 
the confusion and extra labor in handling is avoided 
which often ensues when using plates punched with two 
holes, right and left. 



D 



I 



n 



D 



Fig, 21. Can be used on either side of the track. 

When laying new rails it will be unnecessary to move 
tie plates if they are punched with holes for two dif- 
ferent rail bases. The following illustration shows a 
plate punched for a 6o-pound and 75-pound rail. 



S 



I 



B3 



cQ 



* 



e-/^' 






^iffi^^ 



o 



a 



T 



'^fi- 



I 



I 



Fig. 22. 

The following rules for applying tie-plates under the 
various methods described will be found practicable and 
should prove useful to trackmen: 

SETTING UNDER TRAFFIC METHOD. 

1st. Draw spikes on every other tie. 

2nd. Plug spike holes. 

3rd. If tie is cut by rail, adze it perfectly smooth, a 



280 ROADBED AND TRACK 

little deeper on inside than on outside, over a space about 
three inches beyond the ends of plate. Never leave adzed 
surface dished or hollowed. 

4th. Place plate under rail exactly square with it. 

5tli. Drive spike straight down. 

6th. After first train passes over track, drive spikes 
home. 

7th. Go over track again and place plates in same 
manner on every other tie that has been left without a 
plate. 

CHANNEL METHOD. 

1st. Pull spikes, plug holes and adze ties same as in 
self-setting method. 

2nd. Place plate on tie outside of rail, raising one 
end of plate by putting spike under it — drive flanges 
well down into tie with swage. See A. 





Fig. 23. Fig. 24. 

3rd. Drive inner end of plate beneath rail with swage. 
See B. 

4th. Remove spike, nip up end of tie and drive plate 
home. 

5rfi. Set flanges on inner end of plate well, down into 
tie. 

6th. Drive spikes, and then set plates on every other 
tie without a plate in same manner. 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 281 

APPLICATION OF TIE-PLATES WITH WEDGE. 

Draw spikes, plug holes, adze ties on every other tie 
same as in self-setting method, and place plate in posi- 
tion under rail. 




hCiS^fe 




(A) (B) (C) 

Fig. 25. Fig. 26. 

1st. Drive inside edge of plate into tie. Sketch A. 
2nd. Place wedge between plate and rail. Sketch B. 
3rd. Drive outside edge of plate into tie until plate 
is seated. Sketch C. 

THE PLATE GAUGE. 

Used in Connection with the Follower Plate Method. 

Adjust gauge so that when plates are placed in forks 
they will be in proper position on tie for driving. 

Drive Home with Beatle and Follower Plate. 



^ 



3tf^ 



Fig. 27. Tie Plate Gauge. 
FOLLOWER PLATE SYSTEM IN TRACK. 

Draw spikes on every other tie, plug spike holes and 
adze tie same as in self-setjing method of 
application. 

Place tie plate under rail, with a ^-in. thick 
perfectly flat follower plate on top of same. 
Drive plate home with swages by striking each ^^' ^• 
end of the plate at the same time — until plate is seated. 




STRADDLER METHOD. 



Draw spikes, plug lioles, adze ties, and set plates un- 
der rail properly, as in self-setting method. Place strad- 
dler in position, and strike same with 20 lb, swage until 
seated. 



rs 



The machine shown is an ordinary push car ri^ed 
with a small pile driver. The blow of the hammer is 
received by a straddler, which in turn distributes the blow 
evenly and without injury to the plate, seating the same 

perfectly in the tie. 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



Fig. 30. DeBiKDed and uxed by the Southero Pacific Co. 
MACHINE IN NEW TIES BEFORE THEY ARE PUT IN THE 
TRACK, 



Fig. 31. 

Note :^The machine above ilhistrated is owned by the 
Kailroad Supply Company, who lease it to railroad com- 
panies when .so desired. 



it ROADBED AND TRACK 

! MACHINE IN NEW TIES BEFORE THEY ARE PUT IN THE 
TRACK. 



(P.» 



This method was used in the construction work of the 
Santa Fe & San Joaquin Valley Railway in California 
by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R. R. Co., and 

proved very satisfactory. 



. Wilson Hydraulic Pien 



This press consists of two open face jaws which exert 
a pressure of forty tons each. There are guides to locate 
the spike holes in line for the rails. It is operated by a 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



double plunger hand pump as shown in cut. The weight 
of this machine is 1,750 pounds. 



fig. 84. Double Plunger pqmp. 

Used in connection with tie-plate press. 

Sometimes it is necessary to punch special holes in tie- 
plates at different points along the track, for which pur- 
pose a portable tie-plate punch is used same as shown 
in the following illustration {Fig. 35), 

The Spike. — With the substitution of cross-ties as the 
support of the rails instead of the stone blocks came the 
introduction of the railroad spike in which there has been 
but little change from the earliest period of use to the 
present time. The spike has made a great record for ef- 
ficient work, but the heavy rolling loads are likely soon to 
crowd it out and call for a stronger device. 

An authority on track states : "The holding power of 
tfie spike depends on the nature of the tie, the conditions 



r 



286 



ROADBED AND TRACK 




Fig. 35. 



RAILROAD SPIKES 



Size 


Average 


Measured 


No. PER Keg 


Under Head 


OF 200 LBS. 


SKx A 


375 


5 xA 


400 


5 x)i 


450 


4}ixH 


530 


4 x}i 


600 


4>^xA 


680 


4 xA 


720 


3>^XiV 


900 


4 xfi 


1000 


S}ixH 


1190 


3 x Ji 


1240 


2}ixH 


1342 



FJg. 3G. 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



287 



under which the spike is driven, and the length of time 
it has been in the track. 

"The force exerted by the rail When a train passes over 
it tends to lift the spike out of the wood ; this takes place 
on a tangent, and is independent of any lateral pressure 
produced by the swaying motion of the train. The hold- 
ing power of newly driven spikes has been found by ex- 
periments to vary from 1,500 pounds to 7,000 pounds, the 
latter being one of those cases, probably, where the con- 
ditions were more favorable than exist in actual practice. 
In a good oak or pine tie the resistance of a newly driven 
spike for a 75-pound rail would probably be about 3,500 

pounds." 

Spikes required per mile of track: 



Size Measured 


Average Number 
Per Keg of 
200 Pounds. 


Ties Two Feet Be- 
tween Centre and 


RAIL USED 


Under Head. 


Four Spikes per Tie. 
Maizes per Mile. 


Weight per Yard. 


Inches. 




Pounds. Kegs. 




5X X ^\ 


375 


5632 = 28.16 


45 to 100 


5 XrV 


400 


5280 — 26.4 


40 to 56 


5 xX 


450 


4692 = 23.46 


40 


4XxX 


530 


3984 = 19.92 


35 


4 xX 


600 


3520 = 17.60 


30 


4X X tV 


680 


3104 = 15.52 


25 


4 x-rV 


720 


2932 = 14.66 


23 


8>i X tV 


900 


2356 — 11.73 


20 


2Xx'A 


1342 


1572= 7.86 


16 


2% X tV 


1800 


1172= 5.86 


12 



Fig. 37. 



Damage to Cross-Ties by Spiking, — Mr. Caldwell says : 
"Experiments show that driving the spike, without pre- 
viously boring for the same, lessens the adhesion of the 
spike, and injures the wood. When a spike is so driven 



288 ROADBED AND TRACK 

in an oak tie, the woody fibers are driven downward with 
the spike extending around the same for about half an 
inch, and inclining, on an average, at an angle of about 
45 degrees. By removing the spike and splitting the tie 




Fig. 3g. SPIKE PULLERS. 
-kB on same principle as cant hook wben used tn turn a place 
limber. 

aplke wllbout bending, 
spikes from between suerd rails, switches, frogs. Is used 



through the spike hole, it will be found that the fibers 
have sprung back until the hole is nearly half closed ; 
they will also be found to be perfectly pliable, having lost 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 289 

almost all power of adhesion ; they are thus in good con- 
dition to receive moisture, which engenders decay. To 
obviate this, a hole one-sixteenth of an inch less in diam- 
eter than the thickness of the spike should be bored the 
full depth that the spike will be driven in the wood. This 
prevents injury to the fibers and increases adhesion, 
which latter is the principal point gained by boring holes. 
A spike with a diamond point will give better satisfaction 
than the ordinary chisel pointed spike. The ordinary 
spike, on account of its sharp edges, has a tendency to. 
drift from the direction of the hole. The diamond pointed 
spike, will go straight home. The spike should have a 
short point commencing half an inch from the end and 
tapering uniformly on its four sides. The holes should 
be made in ties before they are put in track." 

RAILS. 

"The life of first-class 60 to 80 pound steel rails was 
given by Wellington in his 'Economical Theory of Rail- 
way Location' (1887) as about 150,000,000 to 200,000,- 
000 tons. There are from 10 to 15 pounds of metal, or 
f^-inch, to 5^-inch depth of head available for wear, and 
abrasion takes place at the rate of about one pound per 
10,000,000 tons, or i-16-inch per 14,000,000 to 15,- 
000,000 tons of traffic. The rate of wear is increased 
about 75 per cent by the use of sand by the locomotives. 
The failure of modern rails, as a rule, is due more to 
deformation of section at and near to joints than to 
abrasion proper, and this deformation and crushing are 
largely due to the heavily loaded driving wheels, the 
wear from which is estimated at 50 to 75 per cent of 
the total. Heavy freight engines may have three or four 



"> 



290 ROADBED AND TRACK 

driving axle loads of 30,000 to 38,000 pounds, on a wheel 
base of 12 to 15 feet. The area of contact between the 
driving wheels and rails is an oval about ixj^ inch, or 
with worn tires or worn rails ix>^ inches, with an area 
of 1.07 square inch. The maintenance of rails ought not 
to exceed one half cent or one cent per train mile, but 
it is very generally as much as three cents, owing partly 
to work on side-tracks. About half the rrietal in the 
rail-head is available for wear, but the full depth of wear 
is not obtainable in main track, as the rails would then 
be too rough for service; about 54 inch is the limit 01 
wear in main track, the rails being then removed to 
branch or side-tracks.'' 




Action of Wheel on Rail Joint 



Illustrating the evolution of the weight of the rail and 
'-the modern rails used by the Pennsylvania Railroad, Mr. 
Joseph T. Richards, Chief Engineer Maintenance of Way 
of that road, says: "We have had in main line tracks, 
rails weighing 41 J^ pounds per yard, afterwards in- 
creased to 45 pounds, 60 pounds,^ 64 pounds, and 67 
pounds. Early in the Eighties 70-pound rails were in- 
troduced and used until 1887, when 85-pound rails were 
adopted and continued for five years until 1892, when 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 291 

they gave way to the present rails of loo pounds per 
yard." 

Continuii^, he says: "The question of what is the 
proper rail section, remains practically unsolved to the 
present day. It has been the subject of discussion by 
various scientific societies, as well as by the manufacturers 
of rails. 



"The American Society of Civil Engineers thought it 
important enough to appoint on June 3rd, 1885. a commit- 
tee to consider this important feature of roadbed construc- 
tion, and they established what is called the 'American 
Society Section of Rail.' This committee made its first 
report June 29, 1888. The rail recommended was ac 



292 , ROADBED AND TRACK 

cepted by a gfeat many railroads in the United States, 
but not by others. In March, 1902, the American So- 
ciety of Civil Engineers appointed another committee 
to reconsider the subject. The American Railway En- 
gineering and Maintenance of Way Association, the 
American Society for Testing Materials, and the Engi- 
neering Standard's Committee (of Great Britain), all 
have committees. Since 1902, these committees have 
been working in harmony, and with the manufacturers 
of rails, have obtained and discussed much data pertain- 



I WtlLcb tbe Motion 



ing to the service of rails made by different metallurgical 
processes under various specifications and have also col- 
lected information as to the use by the American railroad 
of rails made according to theAmerican Society Section. 
The following shows the percentage of the American So- 
ciety Section of rail rolled by eight mills in the United 
States for domestic use, and similar information in re- 
gard to those for export in the totals rolled for each for 
the year ending June 30th, 1905 : 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



293 



1 



Tons per mile and feet of track per ton of rails of dif- 
ferent weight per yard : 



PouiidH 
per Yard. 


Gross Tons 
per Mile. 


Feet of Track 

per Tod of 

Rails. 


Pounds 
per Yard. 


Gross Tons 
per Mile. 


Feet of Track 

per Ton of 

Ralls. 


48 


75.43 


70.00 


84 


132.00 


40.00 


49 


77.00 


68.57 


85 


133.57 


39.53 


50 


78.57 


67.20 


86 


135.14 


39.07 


51 


80.14 


65.88 


87 


136.71 


38.62 


52 


81.71 


64.62 


88 


138.29 


38.18 


53 


83.29 


63.40 


89 


139.86 


37.76 


54 


84.86 


62.22 


90 


141.43 


37.33 


55 


86.43 


61.09 


91 


143.00 


36.92 


56 


88.00 


60.00 


92 


144.57 


36.52 


57 


89.57 


58.95 


93 


146.14 


36.13 


58 


91.14 


57.93 


94 


147.71 


35.76 


59 


92.71 


56.95 


95 


149.29 


35.37 


60 


94.29 


56.00 


96 


150.86 


35.00 


61 


95.86 


55.08 


"97 


152.43 


34.64 


62 


97.43 


54.19 


98 


154.00 


34.29 


63 


99.00 


. 53.33 


99 


155.57 


33.94 


64 


100.57 


52.50 


100 


157.14 


33.60 


65 


102.14 


51.69 


101 


158.71 


33.27 


66 


103.71 


50.91 


102 


160.29 


32.94 


67 


105.29 


50.15 


103 


161.86 


32.62 


68 


106.86 


49.41 


104 


163.43 


32.31 


69 


108.43 


48.70 


105 


165.00 


32.00 


70 


110.00 


48.00 


106 


166.57 


31.70 


71 


111.57 


47.32 


107 


168.14 


31.40 


72 


113.14 


46.67 


108 


169.71 


31.11 


73 


114.71 


46.03 


109 


171.29 


30.83 


74 


116.29 


45.41 


110 


172.86 


30.54 


76 


117.86 


44.80 


111 


174.43 


30.27 


76 


119.43 


44.21 


112 


176.00 


30.00 


77 


121.00 


43.64 


113 


177.57 


29.73 


78 


122.57 


43.08 


114 


179.14 


29.47 


79 


124.14 


42.53 


115 


180.71 


29.22 


80 


125.71 


42.00 


116 


182.29 


28.97 


81 


127.29 


41.48 


117 


183.86 


28.72 


82 


128.86 


40.98 


118 


185.48 


28.47 


83 


130.43 


40.48 


119 


187.00 


28.24 








120 


188.57 


28.00 



294 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



^^^^^^^W> 



Domestic. 



Pennsylvania Steel Co | 

Maryland Steel Company..] 
Cambria Steel Company .... 

Illinois Steel Company 

Carnegie Steel Company. . . . 
Lackawanna Steel Company 
Tennessee Coal and Iron Co. 
Colorado Fuel and Iron Co. 




Foreign. 



Practically none 

None 
None 

79.9% 
Practically nom 

None 

None 



"From this it can be seen how largely the rail section is 
standardized. Great economy must result by the rail- 
roads of the United States, thus allowing the mills to 
produce sudh a large percentage of the total output from 
one pattern." 

Regarding natural deterioration, rust, or oxidation isi 
the greatest enemy to the rail, and concerning its de-^ 
structive tendency Professor Carhart, in "Building and 
Repairing Railways," says: 

"It is well known that a perished iron or steel surface 
does not rust so soon as a rough surface which is exposed 
to the same conditions. Rough lines and sharp points 
appear to serve as nuclei about which water condenses. 
Moist air when expanded suddenly precipitates its va^ 
por as a cloud, if dust is present to furnish centers o 
condensation. Frost crystals form first along scratch 
on glass, so moisture appears to condense more quickl 
and freely on a rough surface of iron than on a clean pel 
ished one. Rusting takes place only in the presence o 
moisture. A clean plate* in dry air never rusts. Mixture 



K 



m 






Tl 



c _ 



'»4 



y 

d 
n 
I 



4. 

i 






t 



/ 



^ »> 



s 






Jt. 



y 



► 



1 



i 



I 
\ 









ssf" ! 



/' 



r 



C^ .^li^^t 



.:»i2r«v: .;.ji.' *i 



. -«->-'".'^ 



is 

«• 



y a^^ 



>.v.^ ..:./^4S 



Maryl - - 
Camb '■- . 


, -.S ^T -- 


lUinoi ■ 




Came 




Lacks ' ...-- 




Tennt " , 
Color 


-: ;P '\ 




'"•'"''' ""-^ 


"F: ',:. 


.■-'■y .. ^i" 


stand 




roads 




prodi ";> 




one I '\ 


i 


Re \ 


: 1 


the % 




struck 




Repa 

"It--' 




does 


.""■ 


to th, _, . 




appe: . 
Mois t 




. por ; _ I 
cond' -' 




on g; ! 




and' 





i-l 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 295 

of explosive gases do not explode when the electric spark 
passes unless vapor of water is present. When a metal 
surface is once covered with rust, the rusting proceeds 
much more rapidly than at first, because the rust is hydro- 
scopic ; moisture is taken up and conducted inward to- 
ward the metal ; hydratic oxides of iron are thus formed 
and fresh metal underneath is attacked because of the 
presence of moisture or of the hydratic oxides on the out- 



side. A coat of iron rust hastens the rusting process ex- 
cept when the metal is coated with the black oxide of 
iron. It can then be exposed to any weather without 
rusting. But the black oxide is formed only at a high 
temperature. The scales that fall from the rails as they 
come from the rolls are largely black oxide of iron." 



296 ROADBED AND TRACK 

While it is, of course, most desirable to have rails of 
ample weight for the traffic, and although the tendency is 
toward using heavier rails, yet, as Mr. Tratman says : 

"The rail is only one part of the track, and that im- 
provements in ballast, ties, fastenings, joints, etc., are of 
equal importance in the constructiori and maintenance of 
a first-class track. The laying of rails should also be 
very carefully and thoroughly done, though this is a 
point that is frequently neglected to a greater or less ex- 
tent. For instance, new rails carelessly laid on old ties 
may be given a wavy surface or permanent set, due to 
careless handling or to uneven bearing surfaces, which 
cannot afterwards be remedied and will materially reduce 
the beneficial results intended to be obtained by the new 
rails. With an ordinary good track, on which light rails 
are replaced by heavier rails, the work of maintenance 
and renewals should be very much reduced, owing to the 
increased weight and stiffness of the rails, which reduces 
the deflections, so that the joints can be kept in better 
condition. The number of ties should not be reduced 
for heavier rails, as the rail should not be independently 
considered as a bridge or girder resting upon piers. A 
fairly large number of ties and fastenings greatly facili- 
tates the maintenance and adjustment of surface, line 
and gauge to ensure an easy riding track, m.ore so than 
when the supports and fastenings are 33 to 36 inches 
apart, as with English track.'' 



TESTING STEEL. 

Mr. E. F. Kenney, Engineer o*f Tests, Pennsylvania 
Railroad, said in a lecture which he delivered before the 
Transportation class, in the Institute of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Department, Y. M. C. A., at Philadelphia: 

All material used in the construction of a railroad and 
its equipment must be subjected to tests of some kind, 
but the field is such a large one that I will confine my 
remarks to the one material that composes .the greater 
part of our construction work to-day. For railroad uses 
particularly, steel stands pre-eminent, and a thorough 
testing of its qualities before putting it in service is more 
necessary than in the case of almost any other material 
used. 

To make the subject of tests a little clearer and possibly 
a little more interesting, I will first briefly sketch the oper- 
ation of steel-making. 

Steel is essentially a combination of iron and carbon; 
so is cast iron and also wrought iron. The difference is 

r 

only in the amount of carbon and method of manufacture. 
Wrought iron is the nearest approadh to pure iron — in 
fact, it is made as near to pure iron as the commercial 
methods will permit. Steel contains more carbon, to 
make it harder and stronger than iron would be, varying 
for different purposes from o.io to about one per cent, 
tha strength and hardness increasing with the amount of 
carbon. Cast iron or pig iron, which is the crude form 
just as it comes from the blast furnace, is iron with about 
four per cent of carbon. All steel and iron contain other 

297 



298 ROADBED AND TRACK 

elements, as phosphorus, silicon, sulphur, manganese, etc., 
which are incidental and not essential. The only one 
which particularly concerns us in the testing of steel is 
phosphorus. This is an evil with no redeeming features. 
Its effect is to make steel brittle, particularly when sub- 
jected to sudden shock, and its elimination has been the 
great problem of the steel-maker for years. 



PROCESS OF MAKING. 

The old method of making steel was to take wrought 
iron which had previously been made from pig iron by 
burning out the carbon in a puddling furnace, and recar- 
bonizing it by heating it in the presence of charcoal. This 
was a slow and expensive process, .and the use of steel 
was much limited. It was not until recent years that any 
direct method of making steel from pig iron was known. 
The first successful solution was the invention of the 
Bessemer process. This consists in burning out the car- 
bon frorri molten pig iron by forcing a current of air 
through it. It is quick and cheap, and while the product 
is not nearly as high in grade as that made by the old 
process, its cheapness gave a tremendous impetus to the 
use of steel. The vital weakness of the Bessemer process 
as carried on in this country is the inability to remove any 
of the phosphorus. All of the phosphorus which is con- 
tained in the original pig iron remains in the steel. In 
the last twenty or thirty years there has been developed 
another and better process for making steel direct. This 
is called the basic open-hearth process, which burns out 
the carbon from a bath of molten pig iron and at the 
same time permits of removing nearly all the contained 
phosphorus. Tha last feature is of such tremendous im- 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 299 

portance that the process has practically superseded the 
Bessemer process for the manufacture of steel which is 
to be subjected to shock. No one would think of using 
Bessemer steel in the construction of bridges, locomotives 
or car axles, or anything which has severe service to per- 
form. 

When the requisite amount of carbon is burned out of 
the steel, it is poured into wrought-iron molds containing 
two tons or more, and after cooling sufficiently is stripped 
of the mold, leaving the metal in the form of large 
ingots. 

ROLLING. 

The ingot is sent to the rolling-mill and forced through 
rolls very much on the principle of a clothes-wringer. It 
is drawn through successive passes, each smaller than the 
previous one, until the short, heavy ingot is reduced in 
section and drawn out into a bar sixty or ninety feet 
long. 

It is just as necessary that this should be carefully done 
as the steel-making. The best of steel can be ruined if it 
is rolled at an improper temperature. 

Steel, instead of being a homogeneous material, is in 
reality a mass of crystals cemented together ; in fact, very 
similar to sandstone. The crystals are very hard, being 
composed of a mixture of carbon and iron, while the 
matrix, or cementing material, is pure iron. 

This structure is not visible to the eye, but under the 
microscope it gives us the best test of the heat treatment 
of steel. To show it we have to grind the steel to a mirror 
polish, first with emery paper of different grades, grad- 
ually working from coarse to very fine, and finish with 
chamois and rouge. The slightest scratch will vitiate 



300 ROADBED AND TRACK 

the work. It is then treated with nitric acid, which etches 
the pure iron matrix, but does not attack the compound 
of iron and carbon which forms the crystals. After the 
etching has been carried far enough the crystalline struc- 
ture is plainly visible under a magnification of about fifty 
diameters. 

These microscopic tests are responsible for the only im- 
provement in rolling steel which we have had for years. 
They are of very recent development, and have thrown 
light on many points which were formerly mysteries. 
Many instances of bad behavior of steel which were 
ascribed to bad chemistry or careless blowing have been 
shown to be entirely due to improper heating of the steel 
in the rolling mill. ******* 

Now, the finer this structure is — ^that is, the smaller 
the crystals — the greater is the strength of the steel, and 
this fineness of the structure is regulated by the tempera- 
ture at which the last work is done on the steel. A piece 
of steel which is finished at a high temperature will show 
a* coarse grain, but steel which is worked until it gets 
down to a dull cherry red will have a fine, close structure. 

You can see from this that it is expedient to have steel 
finished as cold as practicable, but finishing cold means 
very much more wear on the machinery of the rolling- 
mill and a decreased amount of production. There is 
a strong temptation for the maker to finish steel at high 
temperature, and the great records of output are only 
achieved at the expense of quality of the finished steel. 
In making steel into shapes which are thin, there is little 
difficulty from this source, but in heavy sections of eye- 
bars for bridges or in steel rails the inspector has to keep 
prodding the rolling-mill to secure a proper finishing tem- 
perature. 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 301 



TESTS. 

Surface Inspection. — When steel is being rolled it may 
be torn by the great strain put on it by the rolls, and flaws 
develop, some slight, some so deep as to hurt the strength 
of the bar. Sometimes cinder or slag is rolled into the 
steel, making a pocket, which decreases the strength. To 
see that no material is accepted which is defective in this 
way, the inspector looks very carefully over the surface. 
A piece is then cut from the finished bar and subjected 
to physical tests. 

Physical Tests, — ^The tests usually made are as follows: 
Determination of tensile strength, elastic limit, amount of 
stretch in a given length, amount of reduction of area of 
material before it breaks, and freedom from brittleness, 
as shown by bending flat without heat a piece of the ma- 
terial to see whether it shows any disposition to crack. 

The ultimate strength is found by pulling a piece of the 
material, generally not less than one-half square inch, un- 
til it breaks. This is done on a machine. 

The test piece is held by two sets of jaws which are 
gradually drawn apart until the piece is broken. There 
is a scale beam like the beam of ordinary platform scales, 
and on this a weight is moved until it balances the pull 
of the machine. In some machines the moving of this 
weight is automatic, being governed by the making and 
breaking of an electric current at the end of the beam. 
When the pull of the machine is greater than the weight 
the beam goes up arid, touching, completes the circuit. 
This starts a motor which moves the weight out along 
the scale beam until it forces the beam down. The cur- 
rent IS then broken and the motor stops, leaving the 



302 ROADBED AND TRACK 

weight stationary until the increase in the amount of pull 
in the machine forces the arm up again. In this way the . 
machine shows at all times the amount of tension which 
is on the test piece, and the inspector can watch the be- 
havior of the test piece under the successive amounts of 
stress. The amount of pull shown by the machine at. the 
moment the piece is broken shows the ultimate strength. 

All materials are more or less elastic, some more so 
than others. A piece of steel is not as elastic as a piece 
of India rubber, but nevertheless it is elastic, and when 
you pull it it will stretch. When you release it, it will 
return to its original length. This is true of steel up to 
a certain point, which is called the elastic limit. If more 
stress is put on it beyond that point it stretches much 
faster than it did before, and when the pull is released 
the piece of steel will not return to its original length, 
but will be longer. In service we must be sure that our 
material is not subjected to a force which can deform it, 
so it is very important that this limit of the elasticity of 
our material should be known. 

In addition to strength, our steel must be ductile. 
Safety demands that we should have ample warning 
when any material is overloaded. We want to be certain 
that it will stretch and bend before it breaks, so we re- 
quire our test pieces to show a hig'h amount of elongation 
before they break, and also ability to withstand pretty 
severe distortion. This is ascertained by bending the ma- 
terial cold,. which test it must stand without showing any 
cracks. 

On some things, such as axles, rails and eyebars for 
bridges, in addition to these tests of small pieces, full- 
sized tests are made. A complete axle is placed on sup- 
ports and a weight dropped on it to test its freedom from 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 303 

brittleness. It must stand a given number of blows be- 
fore breaking. A section of rail is treated in the same 
way, except that the rail is required to stand only one 
blow, but that is very severe. The success or failure of 
the one axle or rail determines the acceptance or rejec- 
tion of the lot from which the test was picked. 

All material which goes into work has to pass these 
tests, and inspectors are sent to the different mills to see 
that they are carried out. 

Chemical Tests. — In addition, chemical analyses are 
made to supplement the physical tests. This is necessary 
mainly because of phosphorus. Steel containing phos- 
phorus*may be very brittle when subjected to a shock such 
as it might easily get in service, and yet stand very well 
the physical tests in the testing machine, because the load 
is gradually applied in the machine and there is no sud- 
den shock. 

One-tenth of one per cent, of phosphorus seems like a 
small amount, and yet it is enough to make a piece of 
steel, which is otherwise first-class, unfit for use in a 
bridge or axle. For this reason the chemical analysis is 
very necessary, as there is nothing in the appearance of 
the steel to indicate the brittleness. 

After we are certain that the material for our bridge 
is all right we have to have inspectors lode after its fab- 
rication in the shop. Every rivet you see in a bridge has 
to be tested to see that it is right. Every dimension has 
to be measured to insure the bridge going together prop- 
erly in the field, and then the work of erection in the field 
has to be inspected. 

While all these safeguards are necessary and are never 
waived, the practice of steel construction for bridges and 



304 ROADBED AND TRACK 

buildings has arrived at a point where it is quite satisfac- 
tory and gives very little anxiety. 

In another field of inspection this condition is far from 
being realized. The practice in steel rail making is far 
behind that of structural steel. Rails wear out very 
quickly, and broken rails occur at alarming rate. If we 
have the rails made hard enough to withstand the traffic 
of the constantly increasing tonnage, we would get a 
crop of broken rails which would frighten every one, so 
we have been trying to work along "between the devil 
and the deep sea," making the rails as hard as we dared 
without running too heavily into danger of breaking. 
The trouble is that steel for rails is made almost .univer- 
sally by the acid Bessemer process. This process, as I 
said before, has been abandoned for bridge steel because 
of the treacherous character of the product, and yet steel 
rails, which are subjected to greater stresses and more 
severe treatment than any part of a bridge, continue to 
be made of Bessemer steel. 

The severity of service on rails has increased greatly 
in the last ten years. The weights of locomotives and 
cars have increased about fifty per cent, and the speed 
has increased nearly in proportion. To withstand these 
increased stresses we have practically done nothing for 
the rail. Our heaviest section of rail weighs lOO pounds 
to the yard, and this has not been increased in thirteen 
years. We have made a slight improvement in rolling the 
rails a little colder, but other than that we have done 
nothing. That much can be done has been shown in 
tests of special rails. First we tried rails made exactly 
as the ordinary rails, except that we added three and one- 
fourth per cent of nickel, but they were not very suc- 
•:essful, particularly as the addition of the nickel raised 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY » 305 

the price of rails about twenty-five dollars a ton. We 
have since been trying rails made by the open-hearth 
process, and in some of these we put nickel, while in 
others we relied on carbon alone to give the steel the 
necessary wearing qualities. 

We had a few rails rhade with a certain amount of car- 
bon in them, and tested them for brittleness by dropping 
a weight on them. If they were not brittle we would 
make a few more with an increased amount of carbon, 
until we had rails of 0.90 carbon. They were very hard, 
but in spite of the hardness they were quite tough. This 
was because we were able to keep the phosphorus very 
low. 

These rails were placed in track in competition with 
some ordinary rails at Union Furnace, on the Middle 
Division. There is a sharp curve here where trains run 
at hig'h speed, and the east-bound track has to accommo- 
date both passenger and freight traffic. This is the most 
severe test of rail that we can have. 

The outer rail of all curves is raised higher than the 
inner rail, and the amount of elevation is proportional to 
the speed of the train. Now, on this curve at Union Fur- 
nace we have to make the elevation of the outer rail to 
suit the speed of the passenger trains, and when freight 
trains, which move more slowly, come along, the eleva- 
tion of the outer rail is too great for their speed. This 
gives an excess of load on the low rail, and causes a 
mashing of the head. 

Previous to the trial of these high carbon rails we had 
not been able to get rails which would stand this service 
in the low rail. The nickel steel rails which were made 
by the Bessemer process a few years ago wore quite well 
in the high rail, where they were subjected mainly to 



306 ROADBED AND TRACK 

abrasion, but they went to pieces very quickly in the 

The open hearth rails have been in track fourteen 
months, and the ordinary rails are laid right next to them, 
so that they have been subject to exactly the same condi- 
tions, except that the ordinary rails have had two months' 
less service. The test as originally projected was to de- 
termine the relative wear of different grades of open- 
hearth rails, and these rails had been in track about two 
months when we decided to lay some ordinary rails with 
them for comparison. We had no doubt that the open- 
hearth rails would wear better than the Bessemer, but no 
one supposed there would be such a difference as has 
been shown. In spite of the extra two months of service 
the high carbon open-hearth rails show not more than 
twenty-five per cent of the wear of the Bessemer rails. 
In the low rail, where we have always had trouble be- 
fore, the wear is so slight as to make it difficult to show 
on a diagram, and there is no mashing down. With all 
the hardness thus shown the rails are not at all brittle. 
A wreck occurred at this point, and though some of the 
rails were bent, none were broken. 

The rails have proven themselves ideal, but unfortun- 
ately we cannot get them in any great quantity, for none 
of the mills have the facilities for making them, and it 
will be years before they will have such facilities. This 
is extremely regrettable, as they will not be expensive; 
if they could be furnished at all, they would cost little, 
if any, more than the ordinary rails, while they would 
last at least two or three times as long and yet be safer. 
The necessity for betterment has been so strongly urged 
to the rail-makers, and the remedy so plainly pointed out, 
that we have hopes that they will make a start toward 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 307 

preparing themselves for the manufacture of rails of 
open-hearth steel. Then we expect the steel in rails to 
be as satisfactory as it now is for other purposes. 

The questions and answers which follow were brought 
out in the discussion which ensued at the conclusion 
of the lecture. 

DISCUSSION ON TESTS. 

Q. Who determines when a rail is worn out? 

A. The Supervisor. 

Q. Is it necessary to straighten rails after they are 
rolled in the mill? 

A. Yes. 

Q. How are rails bent for curves? 

A. For all ordinary curves the rails are not bent be- 
fore being laid. There is sufficient elasticity in the rail 
to permit it being lined up to the desired curve after be- 
ing spiked. For sharp curves it is bent by an arrange- 
ment called a rail bender, which is part of a track gang's 
equipment. 

Q. Are open-hearth rails made up North, or only in 
Alabama ? 

A. In large quantities only at Ensley. 

Q. Will you explain the open-hearth process ? 

A. The open-hearth process consists in removing part 
of the carbon and other impurities from pig iron by sub- 
jecting it to the action of heat and an active slag, of the 
proper chemical composition, ^ in a regenerative furnace. 
A regenerative furnace is one in which the fuel gas and 
air are heated previous to ignition by heat from previously 
burned fuel. This is done by having the gases resulting 
from the combustion passing through chambers filled with 



308 ROADBED AND TRACK 

loosely laid brick, which are thereby heated to a yellow 
heat. The direction of the draft is then reversed, and the 
gas and air which comprise the fuel are brought through 
these heated chambers. The combustion of this preheated 
fuel gives the intense temperature necessary to melt the 
steel. 

Q, Is the open-hearth rail used on railroads in Eng- 
land? 

A. I think the London & Northwestern is the only 
road which does. 

Q. What is the difference in cost of production? 

A. Not more than a dollar or two per ton. 

Q. If one rail does not stand test, is the whole lot 
thrown out? 

A. If one rail breaks under the drop test another is 
tried. If that also breaks all rails from that heat of 
steel are rejected. If the second rail stands the test a 
third rail is tried, and if it fails the heat is rejected ; if it 
stands the heat is accepted. 

Q, What is done with rejected rails? 

A. Sometimes they are broken up and rolled into 
rails of smaller section ; sometimes they are remelted. 

Q. Is electricity used in smelting steel? 
. A, No. 

Q. Does crystallization of steel show a defect in manu- 
facture ? 

A. All steel has a crystalline structure. 

Q. Does open-hearth process require more labor than 
Bessemer ? 

A. Yes, but this cost is counteracted by the fact that 
less iron is lost in the open-hearth process. 

Q. Of what is the bottom of an open-hearth furnace 
made? 



^ 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 309 

A. In acid process, silica brick ; in basic, dolomite or 
magnesite. 

Q. Is a furnace shut out of commission after each 
heating ? 

A. No. 

Q. How do they know when a furnace bottom is 
worn out ? 

A. By looking at it when it is empty. 

Q, What fuel is used in the open-hearth process ? 

A. Gas, made in a gas producer. 

Q. Is electrolysis the same as crystallization? 

A. No. 

Q. Are railroad spikes tested? 

A. Yes. 

Q. What is the elastic* limit of bridge steel? 

A. About 40,000 pounds per square inch. 

Q. Where are chemical analyses of steel made? 

A. At the mills. 

Q. What determines the weight of rails to be put 
down — 80, 90 and lOO pounds ? 

A. The character and amount of traffic. 



RAIL JOINTS. 

The best method of fastening the rails together is 
not yet settled. There are a number of different meth- 
ods in use. With the constantly increasing weight of 
engines and heavier trains, the method of connecting the 
rails is becoming a vital question. 

A writer on this subject says: "Two functions are 
performed by rail joints. One is that of resisting the 
rapid blows from the wheels of engines and cars of fast 
passenger trains, the other, the hard slow blows from 
heavy freight trains. 

"The weight on the driving wheels of the new passen- 
ger locomotive of the high speed type is less than the new 
style of locomotives for freight. The latest style of 
freight locomotives have a weight on each driver of 







Fig. 44. Reinforced Rail Joint. 

24,000 pounds, while some high speed passenger locomo- 
tives have a weight on each driver of 22,000 pounds. A 
60,000 pound capacity car fully loaded will have from 
11,000 to 12,000 pounds weight per wheel. In the case 
of a tonnage train consisting of a 1 2- wheel engine and 
100 loaded cars passing over a rail joint, there will be 
four blows of 24,000 pounds made by the engine and 260 
blows of from 11,000 to 12,000 pounds made by the wheek 
of the freight cars.- When this is considered the impor- 
tance of a good rail joint becomes apparent. 

310 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



I RAIL JOINT, 



Section. SLde View, 

"COMMON SENSE" RAIL JOINT, 



TRUSS RAIL JOINT, 
Fig. 4B. 



312 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



Number of fastenings required to the ton of rails. 



Weight 

of Bail 

per yard. 


24-foot 


25-foot 


26-foot 


27-foot 


28-foot 


30-foot 


Rail. 

« 


Rail. 


tRail. 


Rail. 


RaU. 


Rail. 


Pounds. 


Joints. 


Joints. 


Joints. 


Joints. 


Joints. 


Joints. 


12 


23.33 


22.40 


21.53 


20.74 


20.00 


18.66 


16 


17.60 


16.80 


16.16 


15.66 


16.00 


14.00 


20 


14.00 


13.66 


12.92 


12.44 


12.00 


11.20 


25 


11.20 


10.74 


10.32 


9.95 


9.68 


8.96 


30 


9.83 


8.94 


8.60 


8.29 


8.00 


7.46 


36 


8.00 


7.68 


7.38 


7.11 


6.86 


6.40 


40 


7.00 


6.71 


6.46 


6.22 


6.99 


5.60 


45 


6.22 


6.96 


6.74 


5.62 


6.33 


4.97 


60 


5.60 


6.37 


6.16 


4.97 


4.79 


4.48 


66 


5.09 


4.88 


4.69 


4.62 


4.36 


4.07 


66 


6.00 


4.79 


4.61 


4.44 


4.28 


4.00 


60 


4.66 


4.47 


4.30 


4.14 


4.00 


3.73 


62 


4.61 


4.33 


4.16 


4.01 


8.86 


3.61 


64 


4.37 


4.19 


4.03 


3.88 


3.74 


3.50 


65 


4.30 


4.13 


8.97 


3.82 


3.69 


3.44 


67 


4.17 


4.00 


3.85 


8.71 


3.58 


3.34 


70 












3.20 


75 












2.98 


80 


■■•■.••^^ 










2.80 


86 












2.63 


90 












2.48 


95 












2.35 


100 












2.24 



33-foot 
Rail. 



Joints. 

16,96 
12.72 
10.18 
8.14 
6.78 
5.81 
5.09 
4.52 
4.07 
3.70 
3.63 
3.39 
3.28 
3.17 
3.13 
3.03 
2.90 
2.71 
2.54 
2.39 
2.26 
2.14 
2.03 



Fig. 46. 

"The length of rail joints varies from 48 inches with 
six bolts to 24 inches with four bolts. The spacing of 
the ties under the rail joints is not uniform; some roads 
place the joint between the ties, others place a tie directly 
under the joint; theoretically the former will permit the 
rail to respond to the wave action more fully than the 
latter, and those advocating the first style of spacing the 
ties claim it makes an easier riding track on account of 
the wave motion of the rail not being so greatly interfered 
with." 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



313 



^ 



The practice on tangents is to use "even joints," that 
is, joints directly opposite each other, arid on curves 
"broken joints," that is, the end or joint of one rail in 
a track is laid opposite the center of the other rail. 








Fig. 47. RAIL JOINTS OR SPLICES. 
A, Sampson Angle Bar: B, Bonzano Splice; G, Continuous Splice (old pattern) ; 
D, Fisher "Bridge" Splice; E. Continuous Splice; F, Weber Splice; G. Fisher 
"Triple Fish" Splice; H. Permanent Splice; M. Barschall Splice; P, Price 
Splice; R. Long Splice. 



There are two general types of rail joints ; the "sus- 
pended" and the "supported.^' The suspended is where 
the ends of the rails come between two ties, the supported 
is where the ends of the rails meet directly over a tie. 



314 ROADBED AND TRACK 

When the rails are "even jointed'* (or, as sometimes 
called, "square jointed"), the supported joint is most 
generally the practice, but when the rails are "broken 
jointed'^ the suspended joint is the common practice. 
Those not familiar with track maintenance ordinarily 
favor the supported or rigid joint. One having had a 
little practical experience in track work readily perceives 
the advantage of a suspended rail joint for general pur- 
poses. Mr. A. C. Caldwell thus refers to this subject: 
*'In passing over the rails, at a high rate of speed, the 
wheels, especially those of the locomotive, have a ham- 
mer-like blow effect on the joints. If the joint is stiffer 
than the rest of the rail, there is generally a jolt and a 
consequent damage to equipment. The supported joint 
being unable to yield under the heavy blows will not, 
as a rule, hold up to the rest of the track and is soon 
pounded into the ballast. With the suspended joints, 
there is a slight give which relieves too great a strain 
on the joint when the train is passing over. Again, the 
blow is distributed more evenly. 

"The joint bars used for the joining of the rails are 
of many kinds. They may be classified into two general 
types: The "Fish" (inventor) plate, which is a metal 
plate fitting close to the web of the rail and of a depth 
equal to the distance between the ball or head of the 
rail and the flange or bottom. The angle bar being 
somewhat similar except that more metal is added and 
sufficient to carry over the top of the flange of the rail 
and almost touching the tie. The continuous joint is one 
where more metal is added so that the joint plates reach 
clear around the flange of the rail, the two plates just 
meeting at the half-way point under the 'bottom of the 
rail. Some of the joints now on the markets have a base 



MAINTENANCii 



315 



plate in addition to tlie continuous plates just described 
for holding the rail to the ties. The spikes most com- 
monly used are about 5J^ inches long and from one-half 
to nine-sixteenths inches through. The spike head pro- 
jects on one side so as to gain a good purchase of the 
rail and is wedge shaped in the shank. Other spikes 




:LJtAa. JUHCTIBH 




Fit. 48. Oompromiae SpUcinEArraDKemeDla. 



such as the Goldie, whose driving end is pointed, the 
Greer, with its extra head for easy spike pulling, the 
screw spike, with its firm clutch of the tie, are also used. 
The first mentioned is, of course, more common through 
its cheapness and simplicity. There is also another spike 
called the boat spike used for work in road crossings 
with big heavy planks." 



316 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Joint ties should be tamped first and the other after- 
wards, bringing the rail to grade with the joint. The 
ties at crossings, switches and frogs should be tamped 
very thoroughly. 

Low joints will be a frequent trouble in track on a 
new road and the uneven settlements of the embankments 
will require a great deal of extra labor and watchfulness 
on the part of the section force. 

Creeping Rails. — The "creeping'' of rails is a source 
of trouWe in maintenance of track.. It is more noticeable 
at switches than at any other points, but is less trouble- 
some where the split switch is used than at stub switches. 
The Roadmasters' Association after considerable discus- 
sion of the subject arrived at conclusions as follows: 

"The creeping is not alike for both rails ; in double 
track roads the rails creep in the direction of the traffic ; 
the movement is greater on down than up grades and is 
worse where tracks have to be laid over marsh or soft 
yielding sub-soil. On single track it is most noticeable 
on down grades, and where there are descending grades 
from both directions, the rails creep down and come to- 
gether in the valley. On curves, the outer or high rail 
creeps the more and where there are successive reverse 
curves, especially on grades, the creep starts on tangents 
at the approach and continues on the high rail to end 
of first curve, then the opposite rail on the reverse curve 
shows the more creep. In other words the high rail in 
each successive curve is found to creep more than the low 
rail. The cause of creeping is because of a rolling load 
passing over the rail which depresses the track directly 
under it and produces a corresponding elevation and de- 
pression ahead and behind it which may be likened to a 
wave motion. Mr. F. A. Delano, President, Wabash 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 317 

Railroad, while superintendent of freight terminals of the 
Chicago, Burlington and Quincy R. R., assisted by Mr. 
J. E. Howard of the Watertown Arsenal, found by ex- 
periment that the ground near a locomotive weighing 
1 10,000 pounds on a track having 66 pound rails resting 
on oak ties, 17 to a 30 foot rail, and in gravel ballast, 
the greatest depression was 0.161 inch under the middle 
driver. Under similar conditions, but with cinder ballast 
instead of gravel, the depression under the middle driver 
was 0.230 inch. The depression of the ground caused 
by a 125,000 pound locomotive under the above condi- 
tions with gravel ballast at a point opposite the main 
driver was as follows : 
* 

"Distance from the rail, 31 inches; depression 0.047 
inch. 

**Distance from the rail, 61 inches; depression, 0.013 
inch. 

"Distance from the rail, 91 inches; depression, o.ooi 
inch. 

"With the track depressed under the weight of an en- 
gine a corresponding rise just ahead of it to be afterwards 
depressed as the engine approaches it and passes over it 
produces a violent wave motion under high speed which 
is the cause of creeping rails. The movement of the rail 
tends to carry the tie with it and where the ballast is 
not filled up to the top of the tie at the end, the tie 
acts as a lever, the balance at the center being a fulcrum 
and the twisting of the tie in the track tends to tighten 
the gauge ; this takes place more at the joint ties and 
more particularly where the rails are laid with broken 
joints. This tendency to move the ties takes them off 



r 



318 



ROADBED AND TRACK 




ni«9Mw9^Di|H Oe 




•CCTMH A* 



PIiAN AND EliEVATION OF A JOINT TO TAKE UP THE EXPAN- 
SION AND CONTBACTION OF RAILS. 




flfiSf 




3 



^m^Tff 



9 



EXPANSION JOINT FOR A BRIDQE OR DIPi^CULT 

PIECE OF TRACK. 



Fig. 49. Used on bridges and at points where expansion and con- 
traction of rails is such that they cannot, without considerable trouble, 
be kept in line. This device is also used where creeping of rails is 
troublesome. 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 319 

their well tamped bed and tends to produce a creeping of 
the whole track which will lead to a general disintegra- 
tion and destroy the alignment and surface, which will 
require a lafge amount of hard work to place the track 
in proper condition again. There is not at present any 
known method of preventing rails from creeping, but the 
evil can be lessened by resorting to devices for anchoring 
the rails at the joint by spiking the tie through the slot, 
in the angle bar; the larger the number of ties thus 
spiked, the more firmly the rail is secured. Some roads 
having rails laid with broken joints use sections of an 
angle bar, bolted to the rail opposite the joint, and .spike 
the tie through the slot in these sections of the angle 
bar; this tends to prevent the tie from twisting and 
tightening the gauge. One end of a flat bar of iron 
turned half round is sometimes placed inside the nut of 
track bolts at the joint, and the other end spiked to a tie 
to secure greater resistance. At entrances to yards or 
points where the rails creep much, some roadmasters 
anchor the rails by spiking a piece of strap iron to three 
or more ties, the spikes being placed in the holes bored 
in the strap iron. The vertical and lateral motions can be 
retarded or reduced to a minimum by having a stiff rail 
in section to transmit the load over the greatest possible 
surface of ties and ballast with good broad ties placed 
as close together as good tamping will permit, the spikes 
should be well driven and the ballast dressed off as full 
as possible at the end of the ties. Figure 49 rep- 
resents plans sometimes adopted to allow for the expan- 
sion and contraction at difficult points.'' 

One authority states that: "A steel rail 30 feet long 
expands J4 oi an inch for a change of 100 degrees in 



^ 



320 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



temperature. Some roads, upon laying rails, allow the 
following expansion : 

!At zero expansion should 'be ^4 inch. 
'At 25 above expansion should be 3-16. 
'At 50 above expansion should be %. 
'At 75 above expansion should be 1-16. 
"At 100 above expansion should be o. 
"Note. — Expansion should always be uniform. By 
observing this and using care in placing plates and in 
spiking, much can be done to stop 'creeping track.' " 

Table compiled by Mr. W. C. Downing showing 
amount of expansion of steel rails and thickness of shim 
required for a 30- foot rail : 



ti 



it 



It 



tt 





VARIATIONS. 


■ 


Temperature 






Thickness of 


Degree 






Expansion Shim 


Fahrenheit. 


In Decimals of 


In Fractions of 


in Inches. 




an Inch. 


an Inch. 




— 30 


.3744 


24-64 


6-16 


20 


•3510 


23-64 


6-16 


— ID 


.3276 


21-64 


6-16 





.3042 


19-64 


5-16 


10 


.2808 


18-64 


5-16 


20 


.2574 


16-64 


4-16 


30 


.2340 


15-64 


4-16 


40 


.2100 


14-64 


4-16 


50 


.1872 


12-64 


3-16 


60 


.1638 


10-64 


3-16 


70 


.1404 


9-64 


3-16 


80 


.1170 


7-64 


2-16 


90 


.0936 


6-64 


2-16 


100 


.0702 


5-64 


1-16 


1 10 


.0468 


3-64 


1-16 


120 


.0234 


1-64 


1-16 


130 


.0000 


• • • « 


• • • • 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 321 

The rails are supposed to be in contact at a tempera- 
ture of 130 degrees Fahrenheit. 

The following rule is enforced on the Northern Pa- 
cific Ry., concerning expansion: 

"Proper allowance must be made for expansion, ac- 
cording to temperature, as follows : 

Temp. Ins. Temp. Ins. 

80^^ ' tV so*' % 



60^ % 0< 



5 



"Proper expansion must be secured by the use of iron 
shims, provided in accordance with the above specifica- 
tions, except where track is laid on a steep grade, when 
sawed wooden shims of proper thickness will be provided. 
These shims must be left in place until track is full 
spiked, bolted and thoroughly anchored. 

"In order to prevent rails from 'creeping/ it is abso- 
lutely essential that each individual rail shall be so thor- 
oughly anchored as to insure freedom from contact with 
adjoining rails. Creeping can not be prevented, if a 
number of consecutive rails are in contact." 

LINE AND SURFACE. 

The Pennsylvania Ry. issues this rule for lining and 
surfacing : "The track shall be laid in true line and sur- 
face; the rails are to be laid and spiked after the ties 
have been bedded in the ballast; and on curves, the 
proper elevation must be given to the outer rail and 
carried uniformly around the curve. This elevation 
should be commenced from fifty (50) to three hundred 
(300) feet back of the point of curvature, depending on 
the degree of the curve and speed of trains, and increased 
uniformly to the* latter point, where the full elevation is 



322 ROADBED AND TRACK 

attained. The same methoJ should be adopted in leaving 
the curve." 

The following rules are in force on the Northern Pa- 
cific Ry, : "To insure perfect alignment at rail ends, the 
rails should be brought squarely together, the splices 
placed and carefully bolted before spiking. Perfect align- 
ment at rail ends is of great importance in order to pre- 
vent excessive flange wear. 

"The position of tlie brand on the rail k immaterial, 
whether right or left, inside or outside, but its position 
must be uniform with the contiguous rails, and the brand 
should not be alternated on the same line of rails. 



Curz-ing.— Rails in curves of over 2 degrees must be 
separately curved, and before being placed in track. An 
Emerson rail bender or bender of similar type will in- 
variably be used for this purpose. The sledging of rails 
is positively prohibited. 

"Particular care must be given to insure uniform 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 323 

curvature of the rail throughout its length, in accordance 
with the following tab.le of middle ordinates : 

■ 

Degs Ins. Degs. Ins. 



TTT 
1 3 



1 X 11 2» 

2 ' X 12 2Tif 

3 tI 13 Stt 

4 il 14 3tV 

5 . lA 15 SX 

6 ItV 16 3% 

7 ' 15^ 17 4 

8 1% 18 4% 

9 2% 19 4X 
10 2% 20 4A 



"Note. — Ordinate at quarters equals three-quarters of 
middle ordinates. 

''Joints and centers should be gauged first and the track 
gauge must be applied at as many points as may be 
necessary to insure perfect and uniform gauge. 

"Easement curves must be spiked to gauge at five dif- 
ferent points within each rail length, and all track must 
be accurately gauged when spiked. 

"Suitable track gauges for use on tangents and curves, 
which will insure the retention of the proper gauge during 
the operation of spiking must be used. All track gauges 
must be tested by the engineer or roadmaster at the be- 
ginning of the working season, and the date of inspection 
recorded.'^ 

Correcting Alignment on Curves. — In a series of cir- 
cular letters to his trackmen, which subsequently were 
published by the Railway Review, Mr. Moses Burpee, 
Chief Engineer, B. & A. R. R., says : 

"Railroad line is originally established with the en- 



324 ROADBED AND TRACK 

gineer's transit instrument and chain, and with these it 
is possible to run a line absolutely straight or with cur- 
vatures of any degree." 

He then goes on to explain how imperative it is to 
have a first-class track for heavy traffic, and tells how 
advisable it is to use instruments to define the line. He 
emphasizes the importance of trackmen gaining a knowl- 

Warren CIrcular-Bnd Track Gage. 



» 1^ ' 



McHenrj Adjustable Track > 
Fig. BO. 

eSge of the properties of curves, which they will find 
very useful when track details are left almost, if not 
wholly to them. He says he believes any man can 
easily learn the principles, provided he has not already 
done so, as explained by him. In a familiar, easy style, 
he proceeds to call attention to the disagreeable motion 
of a car when rounding a curve in which there are sharp 
and flat places alternately. This, he says, can be reme- 
died by lining the curve with perfect uniformity, making 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 325 

uniform elevations on the outer rail to agree with the 
curvature. "You can imagine,"' he says, "how much 
extra wear and tear a train suffers on badly lined curves 
by the swaying of the cars, twisting the frame and 
wrenching the couplings, and so on. Besides this, it 
must, no doubt, cost more in engine power to pull a 



Fig. 51. LayinB Track. 

train over badly lined track. How much extra power 
is needed can not be guessed, but with proper appliances 
can be measured. Yet it is not necessary to know, for 
we can safely assume that it is cheaper to move loads on 
good tracks than on bad, and this is one good reason, 
in addition to that of the dilTerence in wear and tear, 
for keeping the track in the best possible condition. 
"Still another and perhaps the most important of all 



326 ROADBED AND TRACK 

in an economic sense is the fact that the speed of trains 
may be greatly increased on good track as compared 
with bad — thus enabling the transportation of larger 
quantities of freight and more passengers with the same 
number of engines and cars. By far the greatest con- 
sideration of all is that of safety, which is, of course, 
enhanced by all track improvement. Therefore, inasmuch 
as an important part of the trackman's work is to reduce 
the friction and expense of moving traffic over the road 
it is important for him to know and apply the principles 
necessary to good work." 

Continuing, he further says: "In railroading, line is 
either straight or curved. Technically, straight line is 
called tangent, and for convenience and brevity we will 
use that name. Curves are commonly spoken of as flat 
and sharp, but for definite designation, when it is neces- 
sary to know just how flat or sharp they are, we speak 
of them as being of a certain number of degrees. A 
one degree curve changes direction one degree each loo 
feet, and 2 degree curve twice as much, a three degree 
curve three times as much, and so on. 

He then goes on to explain the rules and methods for 
finding deflections up to a few hundred feet, the simplest 
rule as given by him is this: 

^ "Extend the tangent beyond the B. C. and mark the 
end of the first 100 feet from B. C. I., the end of the 
second 100 feet mark 2, the third 100 feet 3, and so on. 
Measure the side on which the curve runs, at point i, the 
deflection distance, equal to loyi inches multiplied by 
the degree of curve; for point 2, square 2 (that is, 
multiply it by itself) and the product 4, by the deflection 
at I ; for point 3 use its square, 9, for the multiplier, etc." 
He accompanies this explanation with a sketch and 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 327 

table which we reproduce. He refers to it as Table i. 
This table, he says, will also give deflections for curves 
I to 8 degrees up to a certain limit, within the scope of 
which but a very small error is found, "but," he says, 
"beyond that limit the rule would not answer." 

Continuing, he says, speaking of the rule as he ex- 
plains it : "On account of its simplicity it is worth re- 
membering, and can be used very often when the means 
of finding correct curve points are not at hand." 



—nteroagiinm^ Of ma 




Pig. B2. 



The trackman should, he says, "carry a good line all 
the way around a curve. No matter how well a curve 
may have been originally lined, there are many ways 
for it to get out of line each year, and the longer it is 
left without re-lining with transit, the worse it is apt to 
become." 



328 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



He goes on to illustrate ways by which roadbed and 
track may get out of line, shows the difficulty of exactly 
lining to the original curve, and points out the advantage 
of knowing how to smooth up badly lined curves to avoid 
sudden changes in direction. 



;E3^5^ 



—fjM— 



>^¥ 



/c fo <^a. Jca fa *^. .^/ff^a. ^a/o&a efc omfM, /Mm 

/eyefAer a// rAe ^tefoficfa /-^ i?6 e/e. aAt/a'/t^/aip at/f 

dyfAe /wmAs/ref^fjfK^K-ej Lay o^/" tAisyreJv/'^ frofrt ^ 

pot/ttj 6. A eAr. eu^trards. a^^ mar/lry f^ p9//ffs TTieje • 
pof/tf^ are //r 



V 



ry 



jAa*¥n dy i^ffetf /frre / ^^ 



I 



y 



Fig. 53. 



Continuing, he says : "With all due respect to instru- 
ment work, I think it not unreasonable to say that the 
section crew can, by the intelligent use of the following 
rule, do as good a job of lining with a fine cord and a 
pocket full of nails as an engineer can with a transit. 
The cord should be a few feet longer than two rail lengths 
and the wire nails about 6 or 7 inches long; about 15 
or 20 of them should have small tags with the letter A, 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 329 

the same number with the letter B, and as many more 
blank ones will probably be found convenient. 

"Fig. I shows a method of correcting the line of a 
very badly lined curve. From point i to 3 it is sharper 
than it should be; from 3 to 5 flatter, and from 5 to 7 
it is very much too sharp. For convenience it will be 
better to use the rail joints if the rails are all of equal 
lengths. If they are not, points should be measured 
around the curve, say 50 feet apart (in which case the 
cord must be 100 feet long), and the rail marked with 
chalk or otherwise at these points, i, 2, 3, 4, etc., placing 
I at the beginning of the curve usually called B. C. Sight 
along the gauge line of rail, first from i to 3, and place 
in this line opposite 2, one of the nails marked A. Then 
sight 2 to 4 and place a nail opposite 3, also marked A., 
and so on around the curve, sighting between odd num- 
bers for th« setting points AAA opposite even numbers, 
and sighting lines between even numbers for setting 
points, AAA opposite odd numbers. These points may 
be designated as lA, 2A, 3A, etc. In order, however, to 
find lA, which is opposite the B. C, we need to draw a 
line backwards from 2 and parallel with the tangent. 
We may do this by sighting from 2 and finding a point 
outside the line exactly opposite 2, which will range with 
the rail along tangent, and measure the distance from the 
point to 2. Then lay off this distance at i for lA. Then 
from lA sight to 3A and in this line opposite 3A place 
nail marked 2B and sight from 2A to 4A, and opposite 
3A set another nail marked 3B, and so on around the 
curve. 

"Next add together all the distances, iB, 2B, 3B, 4B, 
etc., between gauge line of rail and points B that will 
have been thus set, and divide by the number of the 



330 ROADBED AND TRACK 

distances. The B points will lie in a curve which is 
very nearly true, and by measuring outwards from these 
B points the average as above found we get the proper 
position for the rail, to which it should be thrown. When 
laying off the final points they should be marked by the 
blank nails; then the nails marked A and B should be 
removed and the new line tested in the same way that 
the rail was, and if the new ordinates 2A, 3A, etc., are 
found to be very nearly equal it may be as well to line 
the track to the new curve. However, it is possible, 
if there is still considerable inequality in the ordinates, 
to reduce that inequality by repeating the operation, using 
the line marked by the blank nails as a starting line just 
as you at first used the rail. It is sometimes the case 
that the roadbed is not in good line, and consequently it 
will not be possible to exactly line the track, and even 
one line of ordinates, viz., those designated by A will 
give a line as good as can be used, and that although the 
B line will be nearer a true circle it may move the track 
too much to one side of the solid roadbed. 

"The figure shows how a very irregular curve is im- 
proved by only two lines of chords and ordinates. The 
dotted line is a true circle which very nearly, but not 
quite, strikes the points found. These points are the 
centers of the little circles. It is probable that one or 
two more lines would have brought it so near that the 
difference would have been almost imperceptible. It is 
not possible to draw a perfect circle in this way, but the 
oftener you correct what you have, the nearer the result- 
ing curve is to perfection, and as you always have in 
starting a curve which is pretty near you will soon get 
one that is very nearly perfect and on which no defects 
in driving quality can be found. 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 331 

• 

"You will see in Fig. i that a true circle extends from 
between i and 2 to 5, but that a circle of shorter radius 
(the line drawn to center) is required from 5 to 6, and 
of one of still shorter radius from 6 to some distance be- 
yond 7. In the original curve there is considerable bulge 
opposite those points, and it would require a repetition 
of the process to draw that bulge in to a true circle. 
But sometimes curves are made originally of varying 
rates of curvature in different portions, and to change 
such to uniform curvature would be wrong. Curves hav- 
ing one portion of different radius from another portion 
are called compound curves, and are frequently used in 
rough side-hill country. It . is scarcely possible for a 
trackman, or others to find the exact points where the 
curvature changes unless the original point is marked by 
witness stakes. The use of the above rule will show 
nearly where such points are, and it will improve or make 
the change from flat to sharp curvature a gradual in- 
stead of an abrupt one. The point of change or com- 
pounding can be detected by the changing length of 
ordinates, and when located the portions of the curve on 
either side should be treated independently of each other. 

"The. above statement of the rule uses the gauge line 
of the outer rail of curve to work by. It may be better to 
drive the blank nails along the center of the track as it 
is, finding them by the center mark on the track gauge, 
and correct the line in the same way as above described. 
This will avoid working close to the rail, which might 
obstruct the setting of the points if the rail instead of the 
center of the track were used.'' 

Middle Ordinates. — Having shown how to ascertain 
whether a curve is out of line and how to correct bad 
line in curves, Mr. Burpee goes on to explain another 



332 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



method of doing the same thing, which he says, for 
short curves may be a better one. 

Continuing, he states: "Any distance along a curve 
may be taken, but, for convenience sake, the reason for 
which will be seen as we go along, it is better to take a 
distance which can be divided into eight equal parts. 




Chora. 



The ore obn^ f •presents o rafffoel a/ne Qreifthnf, mech ef 
eft/0f/9nffh. 9j(t9na*n^ /rom AtoB. /tsmidtt^ erdinafe ts C P. 
OfrfOe ore fnfo ffho/i^ms. A-C ontf C-B, ofMfoifC into ovortoro ot £ 
on^r. -Mi'Mto ortff nates of /toff-erts ere J /enoth erfhot «/* /ystni^ 
^lose offuerferarca ore^ thet of hetf-orcs. These t^/ees 
merketf on fteure as /, ^. /b. 



TUBUC or OtfOthMTK LeNOTHS. \ 


Decree ofCvm 


/ 


3 


J 


A 


5 


6 


7 


8 


^ 


/o 


m^Mr^itefeSff'C^ote 


/ 


/% 


S% 


Jt 


^» 


^% 


Si 


rk 


d^ 


^1 


" - 6& • 


/4 


2li 


^% 


4^ 


H 


6i 


s 


^% 


fo^ 


//t 


- JZ?' - 


« 


/# 


s 


H 


n 


d 


H 


Ji 


31 


6% 


- M' - 


Si 


J^ 


7i 


Mti 


/Ji 


^i 


/9i 


Zf 


2^1 


2H 


For lenarh of orcf/hafe. foot tn colvmn unchrfijfvre refiresentim 
t/eareo of cvrtre, encfmsome fineasfw7fthofchcr4oiirenm 
tefthantf co/umn 



Note - The line for chontr of €0" corresponds to t^ro 30' nsM 
Myths Thaf for 6t' to ti¥0 JS'reits. 

Fig. 54. 



"Referring to the figure with Table 2, lay out chord 
AB and find D at its middle point, just opposite C, the 
middle of the arc. CD is the middle ordinate of arc AB. 
Again find chords and middle ordinates of half arcs 
AC-CB, and of quarter arcs AE-EC-CF and FB. The 
middle ordinate of the half arc is one-quarter that of 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



333 



the whole arc, and the middle ordinate of the quarter arc 
is one-quarter that of the half arc, or one-rsixteenth that 
of the whole arc. Therefore, in order to make the curve 
AB uniform, measure off the proper ordinate lengths from 
the chords, using a quarter of CD at E and F for or- 
dinates of half arcs, and a sixteenth of CD as ordinates 
of the quarter arcs. Remember that one end of the 
ordinate is on the middle of the chord or straight line 




AfiOV/e an///M/ifa StD,^f^ ^^^y fff(/o/. *sAonr Mot ct/rKth 
fi/re AT e^tfa/. fi'wn ^ to ^, 




/rat um/brm, o/7{f /br ate^ >^3^3C tc ^ />i^cper/y /o/'/reet at 
3. Me mt^&h andf/ratif, D, mt/st ^e an atvrtr^ c/" £Se /f 

fig. 55. 



drawn from end to end of arc ; and the other end must 
be a point in the curve. In Table 2 chord length is in 
feet, and length of ordinates are given in inches. 

"This. method will be found convenient for portions 
of a curve of 8 rail lengths in any curve up to 6 degrees, 
which will not bring the point D off the roadbed. For 
sharper curves it will be better to use some shorter arc ; 
for instance, one composed of 8 times 25 feet, the ordi- 



334 ROADBED AND TRACK 



• 



nate o»f which will be about two-thirds that of the chord 
with eight thirties; or an arc of 8 times 20 feet, the 
ordinate of which will be less than half the 3ame. 

"It, however, has this limitati<ip, namely, that you 
cannot be sure, when you need to repeat the lining of 
successive portions of a curve such as is represented in 
the arc AB, Table 2, that you may apply the point A to 
the point B; that is, begin one arc where you left off 
the other, and that the curve will be uniform throu^^^hout 
the length of the two arcs. . Should your curve be not a 
compound but a simple one, that is, one which has an 
equal length of radius, or equal degree of curvature 
throughout, it is very unlikely that any error at the point 
where the two arcs join each other will amount to any- 
thing serious, but should it be perceptible, it can be lined 
by eye without trouble. But you can test the line if 
there is any doubt, after you have run in two arcs in 
this way. Join the middle points pf the two. This gives 
an arc the same in every way as AB. Fig. 2 explains this, 
the arcs AB and BC each being equal in every way to 
the arc AB in Table 2, but not showing the half and quar- 
ter arcs, as they are not in this case necessary. A new 
arc EF is composed of one-half of each of the two arcs 
laid down and one end of its middle ordinate will be the 
point where the two join each other. If the middle or- 
dinate is equal in length to the middle ordinate of either 
of the others, then the curvature is uniform for the 
length of the two arcs. 

"If, however, we find the ordinate F of different length 
from E, it indicates that curve is either out of line or is 
'compound.' By referring to Figure 3 we see two arcs 
of a- compound curve, joined at the point of compound- 
ing. Both these arcs can be lined separately by the rule 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 

* 



335 



with Table 2, but the middle ordinate must be of differ- 
ent length, and if we find that the middle ordinate D, Fig- 
ure 3, of the arc made by taking a half each of AB and 
BC, is an average oflE and F, it is proof that the curve 
throughout the two arcs is properly lined. 




tut /toying O /esj fhan cither £ or /\ 




i>yt />oy/ny /? oreaf»r H^on either S or ^ 

Fig. 56. 



"Figure 4 shows the two arcs each in perfect line, in- 
dependently of the other, but not properly joined at B, 
where the ordinate D is less than F or E. Figure 5 
shows a case where D is greater than F or E. When P 
is of the proper length, as before described, the two arcs 
are said to be joined tangentially." 

Transition Curves. — Passing on in order he next 
comes to what is sometimes called "tapering off the 
curve," and also known as easement, spiral or transition 



336 ROADBED AND TRACK 

curve. Mr. Burpee says he prefers the term transition 
curve when describing making a gradual change from 
a tangent to a curve. He says : 

"The need for a transition curvfe lies in the fact that 
on all curves where trains are run at speed, it is neces- 
sary to raise the outer rail in order to give an inward 
inclination to the cars and prevent them from tipping 
outward dangerously or uncomfortably by the reason 
of the centrifugal force due to curve motion. Of course, 
this elevation of the outer rail must be made gradually, 
so that its tendency to raise one side of the car shall be 
only so fast as to be readily absorbed by the springs. 
The idea is to avoid the sudden and disagreeable side- 
wise motion which is noticeable where no transition is 
used. 

"Most of us remember the old rule used years ago which 
said you should give an inch^ elevation per degree of 
curve at the B. C. and E. C, and run this elevation oflf 
on the tangents at the rate of one inch in 50 feet. For 
instance, the elevation for the outer rail of a one-degree 
curve should begin 50 feet before yoti get to the B. C, 
and gradually increase until you get the full inch just 
at the B. C. ; this rate to be maintained around the curve 
to the E. C, and then taper oflf to level in 50 feet. To 
work out this plan on a 3-degree or 4-degree curve 
causes the cars to tip badly just before coming to the 
curve. Usually 3 or 4 bad vibrations occur before set- 
tling down to smooth motion. 

''Several years ago, it was thought, and by many 
strongly argued, that transition was entirely unnecessary, 
and perhaps with speed of 25 miles per hour it was. It 
might also be left out of the question with very easy 
curves, say one of qne degree or two degrees. The 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 337 

usual practice of engineers then was to run uniform curv- 
ature from B. C* to E. C. 

"In many cases, intelligent trackmen improved on this 
by tapering off the points of curves. Sometimes this 
practice was criticised by engineers, but not generally. 
It was admitted to be an improvement, but one which 
could be introduced without the engineer's help, and, 
in fact, there were no rules made for transition curves 
until recent years. There are two reasons for the growth 
of the idea and use of the transition curve. One, the 
extension of railroads into country requiring sharp curva- 
ture, and the consequent use of sharp curvature gener- 
ally ; the other, the improvement of track and locomotives 
making high speed possible. 

"But while possible for the trackmen to line to a transi- 
tion which improved the riding quality of road, it was 
even more difficult than to properly line an ordinary 
curve, and engineers, seeing the very general need which 
came along with fast speeds, heavy engines and cars, 
devised transitions to suit the purpose, and which could 
be laid off with instruments. . There are many kinds, but 
they differ very slightly in detail, and are all alike in 
principle and operation. It is very easy to imagine that 
what is wanted is a curve which shall begin very gently 
and increase gradually until the same curvature is at- 
tained as that of the main curve, and for the elevation 
of the track to begin just about where the transition 
does and increase proportionately, so that there is al- 
ways a perfect balance between the centrifugal force 
which on a curve makes the car lean outward, and the 
force due to elevation of outer rail which prevents it 
from doing so. Therefore, as the elevation must come 
in gradually from a level, the curvature should also 



338 ROADBED AND TRACK 

be worked in gradually, and this is why the transition 
curve is necessary and has been devised. 

"Usually in new construction the whole curve is 
shifted inwards from the located line and the transition 
is fitted at each end. This permits the best and most 
rational arrangement. But on a line already built, it 
is not possible to throw the track off the roadbed so far 
as that method would require, but it is usual to apply 
such transition at the end of curve as can readily be done 
without throwing the track more than a foot or so. 
This must begin at some point on the tangent and end 
somewhere on the curve, and would probably never be 
much more than 250 feet long, although the length may 
be such as circumstances require. 




os^osr 



Fig. 57. 



"To get a rule for a curve which can be very readily 
put in by trackmen on the ground, I have devised that 
shown in Figure 6. I do not claim that it is so good 
a curve as could be run by transit, but it gives one which 
is correct in principle and varies only slightly in detail 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



339 



from the best possible. In Fig. 6, lay off from the B. C. 
along the curve three chords of equal length. The end 
of the third chord is point o. Continue marking off 
along the curve chords of same length as before, mark- 
ing their ends oi, 02, 03. The last is E. T. C. Going 
back to o, mark the chords before measured, i, 2, 3, 
along the curve and at equal distances, 4, 5, 6, along the 
tangent. Six is B. T. C. 



Omt&tf*S$, .ffy^^^g^ <»^ TM^ ^^^*1^^: 




SHOWING THE SLOPES FOR AN EARTH CUT. 

dotted lines show the slopes for an eftrth cut. The full lines show tiM 
dopel lor a rock and earth cut. 




Emhsnkxnenti bulli toll widtli ftt ynde and oat to the slope stakes. 

Fig. 58. 



"Draw a straight line o to 2, and mark the point on 
this line opposite i, iT. Draw line iT to 3, and on it, 
opposite 2, mark 2T. Draw 2T to 4, and opposite 3, 
mark 3T. Draw line 3T to 5, and opposite 4, mark 4T. 
Opposite 5, lay oif sT at a distance from 5 equal to 
one-fourth that from 4 to 4T. Next lay off the dis- 



340 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Stance from o to oT, equal to nine-sixteenths that from 
I to iT — 01 to oiT equal to four-sixteenths ando2to02T 
equal to one-sixteenth the same. The curved line pass- 
ing from B. T. C. through 5T, 4T, 3T, 2T, iT, oT, oiT, 
02T, and E. T. C, is the transition curve. The lengths 
of the chords may be such as will give satisfactory re- 
sults, but in curves 6 degrees and less this length should 
not be less than 50 feet, unless the position of 2T is too 
far from the center of the roadbed. This is the greatest 
ordinate and, therefore, the length of chord may be de- 
termined very early in the process." 

Running off Elevation, — ^As set forth and clearly ex- 
plained by Mr. Burpee it is readily to be seen from the 
preceding explanations, rules and diagrams, that getting 
the proper elevation is as much a part of the transition 
as the lining of the curve is. In demonstrating this 
he explains the relations between transition curves and 
the change from the level track required on tangents to 
the elevated outer rail required on curves. He then pro- 
ceeds to show how the conclusion has been arrived at 
in actual practice by discovering defects in the methods 
which, though useful under different circumstances, are 
not adaptable to the present high speeds. 

He takes up this subject in his usual pleasing style, 
continuing as follows: 

'*We shall first discuss the method once very com- 
monly used of placing full elevation at the B. C, and 
gradually tapering it off along the tangent at the rate of 
one inch to 50 feet. 

"Fig. 7 represents the two rails of a track as seen with 
the eye on the same level as the track, the outer rail 
of the curve being shown by the dotted line and the 
'nner by the full line. The incline portion AB of the 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



341 



dotted line shows the making or developing of the ele- 
vation along the tangent at the rate of one inch to 50 
feet. It should be remembered, however, that the forces 






cimn^*m^XI»,t. 



f]^ 






Curtf9 



'7hn^0nr 



U^. 




3ofhffaH*Som0 ci¥»t 



'^ LAm r»M90r0^ tf Centmr •fSrvn*v tf Trmm. 






uS^ 



% 



t 







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cor at A.r.A O. 

of ear .sffOitfn btf 
/it/ Hn0s. 7y>9»r^Km/, 
S^ tf9t^d tift9*. 



acting on the cars or engines to move them in any di- 
rection are concentrated at one point in each. This point 
is the center of gravity. In an engine this is about 7 



342 ROADBED AND TRACK 

feet above the rails, and in loaded cars, except where 
the loads are of very heavy substance, probably about 
six feet. Therefore, the elevation of one rail will move 
the path of the center of gravity to one side of the center 
by tipping the cars; and where the height is 7 feet, the 
distance to one side will be about i^ times the elevation 
of the rail. 

"Fig. 8 shows a track, a small portion of tangent and 
the adjoining curve, as seen from above, or as a plan 
view. It includes the portion in which the change from 
the tangent motion to the curve motion takes place, but 
without any transition curve applied, and with elevation 
made in the same way as Fig. 7. The outer rail is ele- 
vated, and the path of the center of gravity of the train 
is shown by a dotted line which is parallel to the curve; 
but at a distance about equal to one and one-half times 
the elevation to one side of the center line. This line, 
starting from the B. C, where it makes an abrupt angle 
with its direction on the curve, runs direct to the center 
of the track at the point where the elevation runs out, 
as shown by B. A., and there reaches the center line, 
where it makes another angle, and thence follows the 
center of the track. 

"Now, suppose a train to be approaching the curve 
from the tangent; so long as both rails are on the 
same level, the center of gravity will be directly over the 
center of the track and in plain view it will be shown 
by the same line; but when the elevation of one rail be- 
gins the path of the center of gravity departs at A from 
the center of the track, and its departure increases to 
the point where full elevation is attained ; in this case 
at B. C, where it begins to follow a line parallel with the 
center line, but at one side, as shown above. . 



1 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 343 

"The law of inertia which tends to resist the move- 
ment of a body and also to resist its coming to rest 
when in motion applies to this case, so that the center 
of gravity of the train in motion on a straight line tries 
to continue on that line, and when a car arrives at A, 
instead of diverging immediately at the angle required 
by this method, still keeps on the tangent, owing to the 
elasticity of the springs until an amount of elevation 
has been reached sufficient to overcome its inertia, and 
to force the actual path of the center of gravity which 
we are now considering, to approach the line of its sup- 
posed path, namely, the dotted line AB. The car springs, 
which meantime have become more heavily loaded on the 
higher side of the car, in recovering also help to throw 
the car in that direction until the springs on the lower 
side resist and temporarily check further motion in this 
direction. This is illustrated by the first waves in the 
wavy line beginning at A and running toward the curve. 
This wave is shown as ending at C, where, because the 
two forces are nearly balanced, there is very little lateral 
motion, but increasing inclination of the car again dis- 
turbs the temporary balancing and gives a second impulse 
towards the low side, resulting in the second wave which 
reaches its height at D. Here the curve begins, and 
the centrifugal forces, aided by the compressed springs 
on the low side, result in a sudden righting movement 
to the car. This by its inertia goes to E, a little be- 
yond the true position (the dotted line), but as there 
are now two pretty nearly balanced forces the waves 
of lateral motion grow smaller and soon entirely cease, 
the waves F and G showing this gradual reduction. 
These latter waves coming after the car has reached 



341 ROADBED AND TRACK 

the curve where elevation and centrifugal forces are bal- 
anced, are due to alternate action of the car springs/' 

Compromise Run-off for Curve Elevation. — Having 
explained why one method for graduating the elevation 
of the outer rail at the ends of curves is not a complete 
success, Mr. Burpee goes on to describe a method used 
without transition curves, one wherein the graduation of 
elevation takes place, partly on the tangent and partly 
on the curves. He explains that in practice some make 
the rule to have two-thirds the amount of elevation at the 
B. C, graduating or running out at one inch to 50 feet 
on the tangent, and gaining the rest of the elevation at 
the same rate on the curve. He states, however, that 
where the transition curve is not possible, he has adopted 
a rate of one-half at B. C, graduating to nothing on the 
tangent and usually at a rate of one inch to 50 feet, 
increasing it on the curve until the full elevation is made. 

Accompanying this description is a diagram, Figures 
10, II and 12, illustrating the relation between the center 
line of the track and the path followed by the center of 
gravity of the cars. He makes it plain by this diagram 
that no such lurching in the motion of cars at any speed 
is possible with this method as is shown to be the case 
when the method described in "Running off Elevation" 
is employed as shown in Figs. 7, 8 and 9. It will be seen 
that half the elevation is attained at the beginning of the 
curve, the car having only a slight tipping motion, which 
by its inertia increases its inclination though there be 
no further elevation in the track to aid it, but at this 
point the curve counteracts the tendency to further in- 
clination of the car, and so the two balancing each other, 
permit the car to run with an even pressure on the 
springs, without any further increase or decrease of 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 345 

inclination than given it by the track. The B. C. ele- 
vation at this point is not stffficient, it is true, as he 
points out, ''but" he says, "we must remember two im- 
portant facts which materially affect the necessary de- 
gree of elevation at this point." He then proceeds to 
further explain the method as follows: 

*'One of these is that the car does not feel the full 
influence of the centrifugal force due to running on the 
curve while the rear truck is still on the tangent; and 
until both trucks are on the curve it does not need full 
elevation. When the rear truck has reached the B. C, the 
forward truck in the case of a passenger car will have 
reached a point where the elevation is about or nearly 
an inch greater, so that in reality the center of gravity 
of the car when the rear truck is at the B. C, and 
is just receiving the full effect of centrifugal force is at 
a point where the elevation is about half an inch more 
than at the B. C, and consequently aids to compensate 
for the deficiency in elevation at the B. C. 

"The other fact is that when a car in motion begins 
to run on the graduation of elevation in one rail, there 
is a sudden raising of one side, and the impetus thus 
given to it is sustained even when the force is with- 
drawn. The force in this case is not the elevation itself, 
but the increasing of elevation which tends to tip the 
car more as it proceeds towards point where elevation is 
full.'' 

Or, as he explains, there is a greater force tending 
to throw the car against the low rail when it is proceed- 
ing along the graduated rail toward the full elevation 
than when it proceeds along a track one rail of which 
IS constantly higher than the other, "by an unvarying 
amount." "Therefore," as Mr. Burpee points out, "when 



346 ROADBED AND TRACK 

running elevations into and out of curves this force 
which inclines the car toward the low rail should be taken 
into account." He then goes on to explain in what man- 
ner it is provided for by the method he recommends. It 
will be seen that the half-elevation at B. C. is provided 
for, the rest is gained at the usual rate after striking the 
curve, by referring to Figs. lo, ii, 12 and 13, this and the 
above principles are made quite plain. In further illus- 
tration, he says : 

"Figure ii shows in the dotted line the supposed 
path of the center of gravity of the cars, or the path 
it would make if there were no springs in them, and also 
by a full line, the center of the track itself. You will 
see that there is not any abrupt change in directions at 
A, B and C, as there are in Figure 8 at A and B. 
Figure 12 shows the corresponding lines of Figure 8, 
and Figure 11, side by side for convenient comparison. 
Inasmuch as the changes of direction of. the moving 
load are made more gradually there is a corresponding 
improvement in the riding of the cars. 

"Figure 13 shows also the supposed path of the center 
of gravity of the cars and the actual path of the same, 
due to their springs permitting a different motion in the 
body of the car from that in the truck. At first there 
is a tendency for the center of gravity not to be affected 
by the change in direction at A required by the begin- 
ning of elevation. When, however, the elevation in- 
creases to such an extent as to be noticeable, which will 
probably be near the time the forward truck has reached 
the B. C, and inward tipping motion begins, but at 
about the same time the curving motion begins also, and 
the centrifugal force is gradually applied and counter- 
acts the inward inclination due to increasing elevation 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



347 



1 






Cunrg 



^ SC9^ 



^1 







72»wy</7/ 













t 



' \o ^-^A* at Fife. '■ 



IT* 










Fig. 60. 



r 



348 ROADBED AND TRACK 

and compressed springs on the high-rail side. The car 
is now in a position where, tending in one direction, the 
centrifugal force, and, therefore, the tendency of car 
to tip outwards, is on the increase. On the other hand, 
the elevation is increasing and along with it the spring 
pressure over the outer rail, which, with the momentum 
of inward tipping motion due to increasing elevation of 
the outer rail, tends to balance the centrifugal force and 
maintain a smooth motion in the cars. The improve- 
ment over the method previously shown is due to bring- 
ing the opposing forces into play at the same instant 
rather than one following the other, which would result 
in an excessive alternate swaying motion." 

Results are, of course, always largely dependent upon 
methods, and to get satisfactory results, one sihould have 
the method right, that is the method should be as sim- 
ple as possible in order that its principle may be easily 
understood. With a clear understanding of its princi- 
pies the results of any method may be obtained. Hence, 
as he aptly says, "it would take time to make a scientific 
demonstration, but,'* he says, "I think the principle 
is quite simple and will be easily understood.*' Continu- 
ing, he goes on to state that the exact proportion of the 
full elevation which should be given at the B. C, will, of 
course, be subject to local conditions and so may be a lit- 
tle difficult to determine, "but," he says, "we can be sure 
the rule of one-half is a great improvement over the 
practice of full elevation at the B. C. Careful observa- 
tion after its application may determine in Some cases 
the advisability of slight change of the proportion of the 
elevation at the B. C, but it is likely that no great 
change will -ever be necessary. It will also be noticed 
that the actual path of the center of gravity of the 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 349 

cars will come pretty near to a transition curve and it 
is this we want rather than to make the wheels fol- 
low the same. It is seen that this path here is deter- 
mined partly by the springs, while it would be better 
not to use them for that purpose unless unavoidable." 

"W-e must remember/' he says, "we are not to con- 
sider this method if it is possible to apply a regular 
transition, this method being as its name implies merely 
a 'compromise,' which may be used at points where reg- 
ular transition was not provided for in the construction 
of the road, and where to now apply it would entail 
great expense/' 

He further says that taken in relation to "Running 
off Elevation," this method should be considered as an 
improvement over that therein described or "as a stage 
in the development of the ideal run-off." 

Curved Graduation of Elevation. — ^This method, is, he 
states, a modification of the compromise method just de- 
scribed, in so far as it explains the increase of elevation. 
He illustrates it with diagrams and in making reference 
thereto, be also refers to some of the Figures in the 
diagrams already described. He calls attention to a re- 
semblance between Figure 14 in this diagram and Figure 
10 in a preceding one, because in both half the amount of 
elevation is made at the B. C, but, he points out, "in- 
stead of beginning at A and having it reach full ele- 
vation at B," the abrupt angles at A and B are rounded 
off "to avoid even small changes in direction," as are 
shown by Fig. 11 in a preceding diagram, illustrating 
"Compromise run-off.'' 

In the compromise method a result approaching this 
was effected, "but," he says, "although an improvement 
over the method for 'Running off Elevation' as pre 



350 



ROADBED AND TRACK 






n^M 



Cvrf^ 



V) 

1 




O /^ C 




Kffrf/'ca/ ^ury^ 







Vi 

4- 



otinf £l9 If at/on. - 



ssA 



l/»rficol Cut '¥9 Ui»i¥9rttJ - 



i^^ 



Fig. 61. 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 351 

viously described, it is not quite free from decided, 
though small, changes of direction." An immediate or 
sudden change of direction by moving bodies from one 
course to another cannot be made without causing a stress 
within them, therefore, if the change of direction is made, 
as he points out, "gradually or through an easy curve, the 
stress is distributed both in time and distance and is not 
noticeable." He calls attention to what he explained con- 
cerning this in describing ''Running off Elevations" as 
shown in Fig. 9, "the change of direction," he says, "due 
to elevation in track at A did not immediately produce a 
change in the direction of the car, but the springs over 
the elevated rail were compressed until by the combined 
force of the springs and inclined position of the rails, the 
inertia of the car, which at first tended to continued mo- 
tion in direction of the tangent, was overcome and the 
car was thrown towards and finally beyond the correct 
position, its motion on account of action of springs being 
along a curved line. Without the aid of the springs the 
stresses on cars from the sudden changes of direction as 
above described, would soon cause their destruction. 

"Here we have the choice of curving the path of cen- 
ter of gravity by placing the duty on the springs or on 
the trade. The latter is cheaper and better. I think it 
is quite plain that Figs. 10 to 13, 'Compromise Run- 
off' show that much less spring work is done in passing 
through the graduation of elevation than had been done 
by the method of 'Running off Elevation,' and this simply 
by an arrangement that provides for a less abrupt change 
in direction of the path of center of gravity of the cars, 
and, therefore, with less tendency for the car to be im- 
pelled in some other direction by its inertia, than to fol- 



352 ROADBED AND TRACK 

low the path determined by the rail, as shown by Fig. 9, 
of a preceding diagram. 

"Therefore, the rounding off of beginning and end 
of graduation, as shown in Fig. 14, will.be followed 
by beneficial results, in that it causes the center of grav- 
ity of cars to follow a curved path without the help of 
the springs. By examining Fig. 15, you will see at A 
and B, the. angles of the change in direction when these 
curves are not used and also the curve CD, made to 
round off the angle A, and the curve EF, made to round 
off the angle B. If you will refer to Fig. 13, 'Compro- 
mise Run-off,' you will see that the curve of the path of 
the car's center of gravity begins at B, and is produced 
by the springs, and although answering the purpose 
fairly well for trains of moderate speed, and a great im- 
provement on older methods, is not so good as that here 
described. 

"Referring again to Fig. 15, you will see that instead 
of the change in direction beginning at A, the intro- 
duction of the curve causes it to begin considerably ear- 
lier, but with a very gradual change, so that the full rate 
of graduation is not made until we pass A, and come 
to D, the end of the curve used for the rounding of an- 
gle A. The straight rate of graduation is then kept up 
until the point E, where the curve begins which is to 
round off the angle B, and gradually lessens it until it 
blends into the full elevation at F, without any percepti- 
ble shock. You will see that this method of making the 
graduation of elevation increases the distance and time, 
both of which are important factors in reducing stresses 
consequent on change of direction in heavy bodies. The 
increase in length of graduation shown in Figs. 14 and 
15 is about 50 per cent, and I have described it for the 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 353 

purpose of making it easier to understand a more com- 
plete method shown by Figs. i6 and 17. In Figs. 14 
and 15, the part of the straight graduation between D 
and E is unchanged and remains the same as laid out 

from A to B. In Figs. 16 and 17, we suppose a begin- 
ning and end of graduation at A and B, but we introduce 
curves which meet at the B. C, so that the curved grad- 
uation which we are using touches the straight gradua- 
tion nowhere except at the B. C, where the curve EF 

begins. We must know, of course, the full amount of 
elevation to be used, and therefore, the length of straight 
graduation AB. The length of curved graduation is 
double this, because the beginning of curved graduation 
is at C, and AC is equal to AD, and the end is at F, and 
BF equals BE. D and E are at the same point, namely 
the B. C, where one-half the elevation is used. The 
proportions of elevation to be given along the curved 
graduation at different points are as follows: 

At the beginning C-^none. 

At A— one-eighth (y^) oi the whole amount. 

At the B. C. — one-half (j/2) oi the whole amount. 

At B — seven-eighths (%) of the whole amount. 

At Fr— the whole amount." 

Curved Graduation Throughout, — This method is a 
continuation of the preceding method and was touched 
upon toward the conclusion of the description of curved 
graduation. This method when employed necessitates an 
upward curve for the first half, rising from the level rail, 
and a downward curve for the last half, joining the fully 
elevated rail in a direction parallel to the grade of 
the road. He states that "where the upward and down- 



354 ROADBED AND TRACK 

ward curvatures join each other, which in the method 
we have adopted is at the B. C, the rate of graduation 
is ^eater than at any other point, and is, in usual prac- 
tice, one inch to fifty feet," 



-i»i»4« it * '1^ 




f^m. 



rtzdGfcglZE22:S 



"Referring to Figure i8, notice that the elevated rail 
is represented by the curved line CF, and the regular 
rate, or straig'ht graduation, by the dotted line AB. The 
line of figures o to 8 under the diagram refer to the 
points where the ordinates of elevation are made or to 
the ordinates themselves. The length, or, as we may 
say, the height, of the ordinates depends on the degree of 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 355 

the curve, and will be found in Table 3, allowing the 
amount prescribed by our rules; namely 15-16 inch per 
degree. There are exceptions to this, for in i-degree 
and 2-degree curves the table gives i inch to the degree. 
The additional i6th or 8th of an inch in these cases 
would not be noticeable where the elevation is so small, 
even if it were possible to work so close in surfacing. 
In 6-degree curves the elevation used is a little less than 
the rule. In curves 7 degrees to 10 degrees the amounts 
are equal, because when the elevation is so great as in 
these curvatures the amount of inclination in the cars is 
excessive and uncomfortable unless at higher speeds 
than usual on such sharp curvatures. It is well to re- 
member here, that within a certain limit the elevation 
does not increase in proportion to speed; but in propor- 
tion to square of speed ; that is, suppose at 40 miles per 
hour, you need two inches elevation on a 2-degree curve, 
at one-half the speed you would want one-quarter that 
elevation, or one-half inch ; the square of 40 being 1,600, 
and the square of 20 being 400, or one-fourth. An ex- 
ception to the rule is necessary, therefore, in very sharp 
urves, for two reasons, viz.: great elevation shifts the 
load of the car too far to one side, overloading the 
springs and producing bad effects on the low rail; and, 
the general and safe practice of reducing speed on sharp 
curves. 

"The length also of the space between the ordinates 
depends upon the degree of the curve. For the length 
of straight graduation it is usually 50 feet for each inch 
of elevation, and in the curved graduation, Fig. 18, it is, 
as explained in 'Curved Graduation of Elevation,' twice 
the length ; therefore, the total length in feet of gradua- 
tion is equal to 100 miltiplied by number of inches in ele- 



356 ROADBED AND TRACK 

vation. In i -degree and 2-degree curves we make only 
four spaces, but on curves sharper than 2 degrees we 
make 8 spaces. The length of these spaces is shown 
at the foot of Table 3. 

''Although it is probably best not to make these spaces 
much shorter than the table gives, we can, in exceptional 
cases, do so. Such exceptions might be on curves which 
reverse, or where the tangent between curves of oppo- 
site direction is too short to allow the proper proportion 
of the graduation to be made within its length. Again, it 
has already been pointed out that the only place on the 
curved graduation where the rate is as great as the 
straight rate is at B. C, and even here, supposing the cen- 
ter of a passenger car with truck centers 40 feet apart 
to be over the B. C, one truck center will be 20 feet on 
the upward curve and the other 20 feet on the down- 
ward curve. The straight rate of graduation would in 
40 feet amount to 1 3-1 6th of an inch, but on the curve 
graduation it will be, for reasons above mentioned, but 
ii-i6th of an inch. True, this difference does not 
amount to much, but I mention it more to point out the 
fact, so that the character of the graduation will be better 
understood. 

"In determining the length of the spaces between the 
ordinates we must consider the action of car springs, as 
these are the means used for easing the motion of cars 
over irregularities of track. The freight car of to-day 
has a base from center to center of trucks of about 30 
feet; most are shorter and a few are longer, but we can 
use this in our consideration. At 50 feet to the inch the 
amount of graduation between centers of trucks as above 
would be 30-50th of an inch, or about 5^th of an inch. 
The usual allowable working deflection in freight car 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 357 

springs is one inch. This does not take up the entire 
play, but as much as it should, as we never want the 
springs to come close together, for then they are useless. 
This deflection would in extreme cases permit 2 
inches graduation in the distance between truck centers, 
or 30 feet. But we propose, as a rule, to use only 3-10 
that amount rated at i inch in 50 feet. For passenger 
cars the springs are more flexible even than this, so it 
will be safe to say that a passenger car will go where a 
freight car will." 

"The conclusion we should draw from this is not that 
we should make our graduation as short as the car springs 
and the distance between trucks seem to indicate as al- 
lowable, but that we should be cautious in changing a 
rate proven to be safe. We also know from experience 
of cases which do not admit of the regular rate being 
used, that a quicker rate will work all right, but in as 
much as there is discomfort if not actual damage caused 
by cars tipping very much towards the low rail, there is 
good reason for making the graduation as short as prac- 
ticable, and a good proportion of it on the curve itself. 
It is only by careful experimenting that the proper pro- 
portions are arrived at in such experimental cases. When 
these have been ascertained, adopt them generally in sim- 
ilar cases. 

"By referring to Figure 19, which shows the track 
as seen from the foregoing, you will notice that the posi- 
tions of ordinates are marked from o to 8, as in Fig. 18. 
Point 4 is at the B. C, but the center of gravity of the 
cars begins to make a curved path at o, where the curved 
graduation begins and follows an easy curved line, blend- 
ing naturally into the regular curve at 8, instead of at 
the B. C. From o to 4, the wheels are still on the tan- — 



358 ROADBED AND TRACK 

gent, but owing to the curved graduation, the motion 
of the body of the car is in a curved line, and the centri- 
fugal force due to this counteracts its tendency to tip 
over toward the lower rail. From 4, the B. C, of the 
track, the rate of graduation diminishes, and this results 
in a diminishing rate in curvature of the path of the 
center of gravity of the car until it equals that of the 
curved track after the point 8 is reached where the eleva- 
tion is full ; and from this point through the curve, the 
path of the center of gravity of the cars is parallel to the 
center of the track. This method of graduation effects a 
transition of twice the usual length of the graduation. 
Although not lined in the track and not affecting the 
wheels, it does affect the loads, and that is the principal 
thing. This transition curve in center of gravity path 
starts at o. At the B. C, the rate of curvature is a half 
that of the curve of the track, and at 8, is equal to the 
same. 

"As before mentioned, it is not intended to make this 
take the place of a transition curve which should be built 
into the road, but it can be made to answer the purpose 
fairly well where none has been provided for, and the 
object of this (as well as the previous papers), is to en- 
able trackmen to help themselves when circumstances re- 
quire it." 

Application of Transition Curves, — ^Under this caption 
Mr. Burpee makes a brief review of the main points of 
the transition curves mentioned in the different methods 
described by him, and then he goes on to describe a 
method in common use. To explain what he means he 
savs : 

"Figure 20 shows a curve fitted with such transitions 
as are described in 'Transition Curves,' and it is also 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



359 



similar to all the transition curves which are applied to 
track laid on a roadbed on which none was run before 
grading, but where the main curve runs from B. C. to 
E. C, on a true circular arc. On each end the transitions 
B. T. C. to E. T. C. are run, so as to begin the graduation 
of elevation at or near the B. T. C, and gradually in- 




3TC, 




exi 



Fig. 63. 



crease it as the transition becomes sharper until attain- 
ing full elevation at E. T. C. The worst fault with this 
is that at the E. T. C, it must be a little sharper than the 
main or original curve. 

"The only way to avoid this is as shown in Fig. 21. 
The original curve is from B. C. to E. C, the outside 



360 ROADBED AND TRACK 

curve. You will see that no part of this is used when 
the transitions are run in, but that the middle portion 
between B. T. C. and E. T. C. is a little inside and paral- 
lel with the original, and is, therefore, a trifle sharper 
than it, but the increased curvature is immaterial, and it 
has the advantage over Fig. 20, in the fact that there are 
no sharper places at the end of the transition than in the 
middle or main portion of the curve. 
' '*In the method of 'Curved Graduation Throughout,' 
the line followed by the center of gravity of the cars is 
similar to this but that method comes far short of giv- 
ing so good a result as this. 

"This transition begins with a short arc or chord of i 
degree and is followed in order by arcs of 2 degrees, 3 
degrees and so on. The arcs are of equal length in any 
one transition, but this length may be such as circimi- 
stances determine. Excellent results are obtained by 25- 
foot chords, which do not require a great distance or off- 
set to separate the inner curve from the original. If 
we are, however, obliged to graduate the elevation i 
inch in 50 feet and begin at the B. T. C, it would be nec- 
essary to mark the chords about 50 feet long. In mod- 
erately sharp curves the difference in length of offset be- 
tween this chord length and 25 feet would not be notice- 
able, but in curves of 5 degrees and 6 degrees it would be 
considerable and in some places the greater offset might 
be objectionable. Therefore, I have adopted 25 feet as be- 
ing the shortest length permissible, and yet long enough 
to fairly accomplish the desired result. The rule for 
graduation with this is to have i inch elevation at the 
B. T. C, and to increase elevation at the rate of i inch 
to 50 feet until full allowance was attained. This comes 
usually beyond the E. T. C. In other words, the length 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



1 

361 



of the graduation is greater than the length of the transi- 
tion, and a part of the excess of length lies beyond each 
end. That is, it begins before the transition does, and 
ends after. The advantage of the 50- foot chord lies in 
the transition and elevation beginning and ending at the 
same points. 




Fig. €4. 



"The number of arcs or chords in the transition is one 
less than the number expressing the degree of curve. For 
instance, a transition of 3 chords is required for a 4-de- 
gree curve. The curvature thus progresses: i, 2, 3, 4. 
The first half of its length is on tangent and the last half 
on the original curve, thus for a 4-degree curve and 
transition chord 25 feet long, the total transition length 



r 



362 ROADBED AND TRACK 

will be 75 feet, and it will begin on the tangent 37)^ 
feet before coming to the B. C, and end on the curve 
37J4 feet beyond the B. C. See Fig. 23. 

"Figure 22 shows a 3-degree curve with transition, 
applied at each end, two chords — ^a i degree and a 2 
degree. The radius of each chord is shown, and you 
will see that the center of any arc always lies in the ra- 
dius of the preceding arc. When longer chords than 
25 feet are used, the ordinates. are also longer, as fol- 
lows: A chord of 35.4, ordinates twice; 43.3, three 
times; and 50 feet four times, as long as those for 25 
feet. 

The dotted diagonal line marked B. C, intersects the 
horizontal lines at their middle points, and the dotted 
vertical lines from these intersections point to the position 
of the B. C. of a curve relative to its transition, showing 
that one-half of the transition is on the tangent to the left 
of the B. C, and one-half on the curve to the right of the 
B. C. Where such a transition has been put into the 
track it can be relined by the following: The first thing 
to do is to find the degree of the curve by stretching a 
cord 61 ft. 8 inches in length along the side of rail, so 
that middle of cord is about opposite the middle of the 
rail. This will give a better average middle ordinate than 
if it were taken near a joint, for the reason that if the 
track is not well lined the errors in line are usually great- 
est at the joints. The number of inches in the length of 
this middle ordinate is the same as the number of degrees 
of the curve. 

"Second: Stretch a cord along the outside of the outer 
rail on the tangent near the B. C. so as also to extend 
along the curve two or three rail lengths, but in a straight 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 




364 ROADBED AND TRACK 

line. This cord may be in line with the base of the rail 
and just above the spike heads. See Fig. 4. 

"Third: From Fig. 23 find the ordinate or tangent 
deflection at the E. T. C. of the transition for this curve. 

"Fourth: Find the place where the distance between 
this chord and the base of the rail is equal to the ordinate 
or tangent deflection at the E. T. C. and stick a nail there 
on line with the tangent ; and find if the other ordinates 
or tangent deflections between this and B. T. C. are of 
correct length, as shown in Fig. 23, measuring them at 
points 25 feet apart or at distances equal to the length of 
the chord used in the transition. See Fig. 24. 

The methods described by Mr. Burpee are, as he states, 
descriptive of "the lining of curves ; the elevation of the 
outer rail on curves ; and the transitions at curve ends for 
the purpose of changing the motion of cars from tangent 
to curve, and curve to tangent easily and naturally." 

It is one thing to put a track into any specified condi- 
tion desired but it is quite another thing to keep it in the 
same condition and maintain perfect line and surface. 

Many things combine to counteract the efforts of track- 
men. One of the most common of them is the "heaving" 
of track. Regarding this and how best to remedy it, he 
says: 

"In summer, when the roadbed is dry, the trade may 
be in the very best condition and yet the same track in 
winter may become dangerously rough. The reason for 
this is that any soil which contains moisture expands or 
swells in freezing. That which contains least moisture 
expands least, and that which contains most, expands 
most. While it is absolutely dry no expansion takes 
place, no matter how cold the weather may be, but abso- 
lutely dry soil is almost never found. Frequently soils of 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



365 



^ 



;i 



;i 




CO 
QO 

bO 



366 ROADBED AND TRACE 

different capacities for holding moisture are found close 
beside eadi other. Here there will be different rates of 
expansion every few feet, and as usually the only direc- 
tion possible for expansion to occur is upward, we find 
what we call "heaving by frost" taking place and throw- 
ing the rails very much out of surface, but sometimes also 
out of line. 



FlE. ST. WideDlng BinbsnkiDent. 

"Should the soil be of uniform nature as to its capacity 
to hold moisture the heaving actually. done would not be 
noticeable, because all had expanded uniformly. The 
need of shimming therefore is almost or entirely due to 
the variable nature of the materials in the roadbed under 
the ballast. 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 367 

"In grading the roadbed, owing to the uneven 6r 
wavy natural surface of the ground, the grade must fre- 
quently intersect this surface sometimes being below it, 
as in cuttings, and sometimes above, as in embankments. 
Usually the earth or other material excavated in cut- 
tings, where surface is above grade, is used in building 
the embankments on those portions of the ground sur- 
face which are lower than grade. The foot or two of 
surface is usually loam, while underneath the loam there 
is a bed of subsoil or hard pan. The surface loam is 
more spongy and will hold much more water than the 
subsoil, and consequently will, when frozen, be expanded 
more than the subsoil. Where a cut is more than i or 2 
feet deep the grade usually passes into the subsoil; but 
where it enters and leaves the cut and also on the adjoin- 
ing portion of the embankment which was made of loam 
from the nearest part of the cut, it will be found in almost 
all cases that the frost will heave the track badly. That is 
what really happens at each end of the cut and where the 
embankments are shallow. It is due to the larger pro- 
portion of frozen moisture in the soil at these .parts of 
the road. At the same time it is noticeable that the part 
of the cut where the subsoil has been penetrated will 
usually have been heaved a very little or that the heaving 
is so uniform as to be not noticeable. The same is true 
of the adjoining embankment where its depth is suffi- 
cient to permit drainage, and is due to the very small 
amount of. moisture contained in it. 

"It will be noticed in cuttings where there are very 
shallow places, and where loam has been left in the road- 
bed that here heaving will take place to a greater degree 
than in deeper parts of the cutting. Also, in the shallow 
embankments of varying depths, that considerable heav- 



368 ROADBED AND TRACK 

ing will occur where it is very shallow ; that is, so shallow 
that the frost will penetrate to the loam under the em- 
bankment. Two things must combine to produce heav- 
ing, namely moisture and freezing. 

"There are occasionally cuttings in which, even where 
quite deep, the track will heave badly. A large boulder, 
if the frost gets under it, will sometimes be forced up. 
Sometimes a solid ledge preventing drainage will cause 
it, though a seamy ledge with vertical strata seems to 
afford fair drainage which obviates it. Frequently, too, 
heaving is due to clay streaks in sand or gravel cuts. 

"The remedy possible to section men is, of course, to 
drain the road as well as possible. It is likely that a 
ditch 2^^ feet below the base of rail would almost en- 
tirely cure the trouble. But it is possible that even after 
this some places may have to be 'dug out'; that is, the 
light porous soils, clay or boulders must be removed from 
under- the track and replaced with gravel. 

"Plenty of ballast, of course, will do more than any 
other one thing except ditching. But ditching and dig- 
ging out should precede ballasting in order to secure the 
best results." 

'track notes by practical men. 

Economy in Track Work, — Expressing his views on 
this subject to a convention of roadmasters and track- 
men, Mr. C. H. Bowen, roadmaster, C. & N. W. Ry., 
wrote : 

"Economy in track work is the frugal and judicious 
use of material, tools and labor. To practice economy is 
to avoid waste. 

"We will first consider the use of tools and material. 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 369 

About all that can be said is: Do not waste anything. 
Do not carry on hand tools or material for which you 
will have no- use. 

"Keep close check on your foreman's requisitions and 
monthly material reports. Before forwarding a requisi- 
tion for anything, be sure that it cannot be found on hand 
at some point on your division. 

"Keep all sections well supplied with necessary tools 
and material. If this is not done, the foreman cannot 
work his men to advantage. 

"If possible, keep your hand-cars in first-class, easy- 
running condition. Do not carry a large amount of sur- 
plus or emergency material on each section, but keep a 
full supply at a few important points from which ship- 
ments can be made quickly. 

"The proper use of material depends very largely on 
the section foreman. He should give the matter close 
personal attention, see that all material, both usable and 
scrap, is properly taken c^re of and entered on monthly 
report. Do not take out of the track any material which 
has not outlived its usefulness, nor ship away as scrap 
any usable spikes, bolts, nut locks or angle bars. 

"The general impression is that all scrap is sorted at 
the shops and that none of the usable material is lont 
sight of. While this is probably true, the proper place 
to do the sorting is on the section where the material 
can be used. Material not suitable for main track can 
be used to advantage in unimportant sidings, spurs, tem- 
porary tracks, etc. Every division has more or less of 
this class of tracks, and we have all seen boarding cars 
set out on tracks built of good rail, new spikes, bolts, 
angle bars, and even new ties. This is certainly not an 
economical use of material. 



370 ROADBED AND TRACK 

"Do not lose sight of the fact that every piece of scrap 
iron has a money value; pick up everything you see. 
The thought often occurs to me that if every old bolt 
and spike were a new copper penny we would see fewer 
of them lying around on the right of way. 

Economy in Labor. — Here we often find it necessary 
to spend money in order to exercise real economy. If 
you have a gang of twelve or fifteen green laborers on 
a section, give the foreman an assistant and do not 
expect him to raise track, put in ties and do other work 
to advantage without it, for there are some things that 
even a section foreman cannot do. If the gang is in- 
creased to seventy men, give him a time-keeper and all 
the assistant foremen your superintendent will stand for. 
A common mistake is to have too little intelligent super- 
vision. This is what we must have and it is money well 
and economically spent. If you have a work train doing 
any kind of work, assemble all the men you can work to 
advantage. If you have thirty carloads of ties to dis- 
tribute on your division, instead of working two days 
with a small gang of men^ get together men enough to 
finish in one day. You thus save the expense of the 
engine and crew for one day and incidentally give the 
train dispatcher one day^s use of the engine and free the 
fifteen cars one day earlier. In these strenuous times 
this is a big item. 

"On the other hand, if you have a few rails to load at 
some point, send just men enough to handle the rail but 
no more. A tracklaying gang to work economically 
should be just large enough for the work to move along 
smoothly all the time, each man doing the same work 
all the time. The exact size of the gang will depend to 
some extent upon the kind of men. 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 371 

"In closing, a few suggestions to section foremen. 
Before it freezes up in the fall, see that all necessary 
ditches are cut to properly drain the switches in your 
yard; do not wait until you are obliged to pick frozen 
ground. In gauging track in the fall and winter it is 
not necessary to spend time and use material in plugging 
spike holes in ties that will be taken out of track the 
following spring. If you are working 6 or 8 men, do 
not keep them all on the hand car in your daily trip of 
inspection over the section ; you can surely leave part of 
them where the day's work is to be done and outline 
enough work to keep them employed until you return. 
If, when you have the entire crew on the hand car, you 
discover a broken fence board or wire, broken bolt in 
frog or switch, or any of the numerous small things 
you find every day, do not go at the work with the 
whole crew, but leave one or two men to make the 
repairs and go on to your regular work with the balance 
of the men. Some men will accomplish little enough if 
they are placed where work is staring them in the face, 
and the foreman is pounding them on the back, we should 
certainly avoid placing them in positions where they 
cannot find work if they are looking for it. I venture to 
say that we have all seen four and even six men trying 
to put a pair of angle bars on a joint or replace a broken 
bolt, in most of these cases the foreman doing the greater 
part of the work. In rare cases we see a tendency on 
the part of the foreman to exercise too much supervision. 
It is poor economy for a foreman to stand around in the 
winter and direct the work of one or two old, experienced 
men in cleaning out switches and crossings, gauging and 
shimming track, or other work. This is one of the cases 



372 ROADBED AND TRACK 

where the roadmaster puts in his oar and pulls for 
economy." 

Relaying Track. — Relating his own experiences re- 
garding relaying rails Mr. Peter Stafford, roadmaster, C. 
& N. W. Ry. (lines west of Missouri river), wrote: 

"The first move is to unload steel properly so as to 
minimize time in laying. In my experience I have found 
that a great deal of time is saved by getting steel prop- 
erly distributed. Fastenings should also be placed at the 
same time. A roadmaster should always select one of 
his most reliable foremen to lay steel. The success of 
the work depends greatly on this. A capable foreman 
can work from forty to fifty men to good advantage. 
When old rails are removed from track, ties should be 
adzed so as to get a good level bearing for new rails. 
We find in many instances that old rails on soft wood 
ties will roll, or turn out. Expansion is an important 
feature to consider in laying track. The proper expan- 
sion shims should be used in every joint. Climatic changes 
should be very carefully watched in laying steel. Fore- 
men should be well supplied with all sizes of expansion 
shims, and should also be supplied with a thermometer. 

"Expansion shims should not be taken out until joints 
are bolted. Each day's laying should be finished com- 
pletely, that is to spiking and bolting. I have found that 
sometimes foremen are apt to neglect some of this work, 
letting it go for several days, which causes the rails to 
"creep" or "run," causing poor expansion in the joints. 

"Joint ties and base plates should be put under joints, 
and track gauged as quickly as possible, the force doing 
this work not being more than a rnile in the rear of the 
laying force, work being done by a foreman and a force 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 373 

of about thirty men. Of course when relaying track 
in the winter, joint ties cannot be put in. 

'Track should be spiked in full, and every slot hole 
should be spiked in ties . that come under angle bars. 
About thirty days after steel is laid, track bolts should 
be all gone over, and retightened. 

"With the force I have named, and with good weather, 
a foreman should lay and complete one mile a day. In* 
closing, I would say that the greatest care and caution 
should be exercised in making connections with new and 
old steel at the end of each day^s work to prevent any 
accident during the night." 

The Northern Pacific follow the following rules when 
relaying track: 

"When relaying track, a convenient method of unload- 
ing rails from end of car is by means of two 30-foot 
lines, equipped with grab-hooks on each end, one end to 
be made fast to joints and the other end to slots in end 
of rails, using the engine for moving the cars. This 
insures proper spacing, and is more economical than 
unloading from the sides. Use roller at end of car when 
drawing off rails. 

"Distributing rails. — ^The rails may be distributed 
either from end " or sides of train. If distributed from 
the sides, both ends of rail must be dropped simulta- 
neously. Skids will invariably be used whenever neces- 
sary to unload into piles. In all cases the greatest care 
must be used to avoid injury to rails by dropping them 
on hard substances or uneven surfaces." 

The Secret of Good Track. — "Good Track," says Mr. 
M. J. Deltgen, a roadmaster in Iowa, "lies largely with 
the men in charge of it: No matter how good the 
material you have to build the track with, it will not be 



374 ROADBED AND TRACK 

good track unless laid by men who thoroughly under- 
stand their work, and it will quickly become poor track 
unless it is watched closely and given proper care. These 
. duties fall to the roadmaster. It is 'up to him' to see 
that his track is in the very best of shape. Every section 
foreman on his division must be a thorough track man 
and capable of handling the men over whom he is placed 
• in charge. The roadmaster must keep in constant touch 
with the foreman, point out the bad spots and give him 
such information and suggestions as will help him to 
keep his section in the best shape. 

"The season of work on track is from the time the frost 
comes out of the ground in the spring until the ground 
freezes up in the fall. 

"As soon as the frost is out of the ground, the fore- 
man starts to surfacing, lining and gauging h's track, 
and putting in ties. His force is increased, and if it is 
decided to do any heavy work, such as putting on ballast, 
an extra gang, commonly called the 'floating gang,' is 
put on, shifting from one section to another as the work 
requires. 

"It is good policy to have floating gangs go over 
stone ballast track at least once every four years and 
bring the surface to a face. 

"As the work progresses the roadmaster should be 
constantly alert as to the condition of track. He should 
ride over his division at least once every three days, on 
fast trains, taking particular notice of the riding of the 
track, and see that it is in perfect gauge, well lined and 
surfaced. The track may look to a section foreman to 
be in perfect surface, yet the roadmaster on the train 
will find low joints caused by the hammering of the 
train on a loose or battered joint which has pounded the 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 375 

ballast from under the tie, thereby causing a lo>y joint 
which, after the train has passed, will spring back and 
look to be in perfect surface. 

"The roadmaster should also see that his track is well 
tied, and that each tie is well tamped up. He should 
pay attention to the waterways and ditches and see that 
they are cleaned out and kept free from all obstructions, 
so that his roadbed will be well drained. He should take 
frequent trips on his motor car or on foot over his divi- 
sion, examining the switches and frogs to see that' they 
are in good condition. While on these trips, he can per- 
sonally show his foreman how to do the finer work, such 
as lining the curve, etc." 

Laying Cross-Ties. — "It is thought by some foremen," 
says Mr. P. W. Mosher, Roadmaster, Chicago Terminals 
C. & N. W. Ry., "that half an inch or an inch longer 
or shorter on either side of the rail does not materially 
matter. For example: We put 17 ties under a 30 foot 
rail, 8 of them 16 inches from the flange and 9 of them 
15 inches from the flange of an 80 pound rail. Here we 
have a difference of 63 square inches, which gives us 
unequal bearings, and the track settles on one side more 
than on the other. 

"The importance of ties being laid all with equal bear- 
ings should not," he says, "be overlooked.^' 

Another roadmaster, writing of section foremen says: 
"The foreman who realizes that a train may be expected 
at all times; who lays out his work in advance; who 
appreciates the necessity of enough and no more ballast ; 
who is an artist in surfacing, tamping and ditching and 
draining; who is mindful of storms, fences, old material, 
fires, weeds, brush and grass, who does not hesitate 
when emergency calls, is the one who will be a road- 



376 ROADBED AND TRACK 

master just as surely as his pay check comes every thirty 
days." 

Regarding work gangs, another writes: "In the or- 
ganization of work gangs, no matter for what purpose, 
it is a fact that the better organized the men are the 
better and more economically the work will be done. 
Each lot of men should be so assigned by their leader 
that when working in large gangs they can be gotten 
into line without delay when there is a change of work 
or other occasion for the use of thorough system, the 
foreman in charge always keeping the leaders instructed 
what to do and when to do it. Such instruction should 
be issued in time so that it cannot be said that 'haste 
made waste.' '' 

In bunching from ten to twenty gangs together for 
any purpose, each foreman should always be with his 
men to instruct and try to carry out the chief foreman's 
idea of the work, so that all gangs will act as one man. 

Tamping Ties. — Regarding the question whether ties 
should be tamped throughout their entire length, Mr. Ole 
Hanson, Section Foreman, C. & N. W. says: 

*1 believe they should, so as to furnish a solid bearing, 
but not too solid in center so as to cause the track to 
rock or become center-bound. After the track is brought 
to surface and level, see that it is perfect to gauge and 
then line it up. In lining out kinks, stand three or four 
hundred feet from the lining gang so that a perfect direct 
line can be had. After lining see that all track is gauged, 
as spacing ties often makes small kinks, especially in 
ight rail and in this case, spikes should be reset, old 
holes plugged and bolts tightened up. The track should 
then be dressed up as the different kinds of material used 
would indicate. Gravel track should be dressed off by 



MAINTENANCE OP WAY 377 

filling center two inches above top of the center of tie 
to one inch below the base of the rail and two inches 
below the end and as far out as the amount of gravel will 
permit/' 

Caring for Track in Heavy Rains. — In Colorado 
where, owing to the mountainous character of the coun- 
try heavy rains are followed by rushing torrents, Mr. J. 
Brown, Foreman of Sec. 55, C. & N. W. Ry., says: 

"In case of heavy rainfall, track men should make 
their inspection right then and not wait until the rain is 
over, or perhaps to get a meal or possibly a few hours' 
sleep. I think this is the time the Company suffers most. 
I have known men that think because they have made 
their inspection right after the rainfall that the danger 
is all over. Th&t is when I think there is the greatest 
danger. When the high grades and cuts are soaked with 
water and a slide is liable to take place at any time. Also 
in sloughs where muskrats have undermined track, it 
will settle then if at any time. All through these in- 
spections the foreman should be the man as much as 
possible, as there is no time he is needed any worse, and 
I think for at least twenty-four hours after heavy and 
long rainfalls track should be inspected frequently. In 
cold weather I think track should be inspected first thing 
in the morning as broken rails are usually found between 
the hours of 4 and 9. Of course, in extreme cold weather 
an inspection in the afternoon should be made. 

"I think a regular track inspection should be made 
during hot weather between the hours of 2 and 6 in the 
sffternoon, as then is when the track is liable to get too 
tight and kink, and especially on double track where 
traffic is all one way. 



378 ROADBED AND TRACK 

"I usually have one man do my track inspection, as 
it is easier to make one man familiar with the weak points 
than a half dozen, and no matter what gang it is, there 
is always a choice, and I think the brightest man should 
be used for that purpose. In a period of eighteen years' 
service with this company as foreman I have never had 
a car wheel on the ground caused by condition of the 
track." 

In case of floods and freshets likely to endanger the 
track, Mr. T. O. Tow, Section Foreman, writes: 

"I call out the necessary help and go over and carefully 
examine track and bridges. I leave one man at each 
bridge in case of necessity, and at long bridges leave 
two men at night with the necessary signals to flag trains 
in cage the track is not safe for traffic at* the usual speed 
and have watchmen on day and night until the water 
goes down. This is very important. 

"In extreme cold weather the man who inspects tracks 
must be provided with tools, a spike maul, a few railroad 
spikes and bolts, and a track wrench. In case of finding 
broken rail, spike on a pair of angle bars so it will be 
safe for traffic during the winter months. I leave angle 
bars along my section, putting thejn about one-half mile 
apart, so a man can find them if needed. I have fixed a 
number of broken rails this way myself, until I got help 
to. fix them O. K. If spikes are in the way of angle bars, 
take a spike maul and knock the heads off. These tools 
and supplies can easily be carried by getting a cloth bag 
for spikes and bolts." 

Use of Angle Bars. — "In winter time each section 
should have a pair of angle bars of proper size placed 
conveniently about every half mile and trackwalkers 
should know where to find them. A few spikes and 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 379 

bolts should also be placed near at hand, and the track 
walker should carry a light or short handled spike ham- 
mer and wrench, so that he can put on bolts and drive 
spikes or knock off spike heads if in the way of angle 
bars. 

*lf you find you have several bent angle bars and only 
have five or ten pairs of new ones on hand, it is a good 
idea to put the bent ones into an old pile of ties and set 
fire to it, bending them back slightly when they have 
reached a fairly good heat; then raise the joint when 
putting them on the rails, and they will last nearly as 
long as a new bar. Turn the angle bars, too, and put 
them on the rails on opposite sides from that occupied 
formerly. This will give you a square shoulder on the 
slot and prevent the rail from creeping, much more than 
if it were not done. 

"Whenever a low joint is being raised, tighten the 
bolts and spikes, for this will hold up the joint far .longer 
than it would otherwise hold. 

"A good way to prevent switches from lipping is to 
put a tie-rod on at the switch point and one at the heel, 
hooking them onto the flanges of the rails ; then see that 
your switch-stand is not too badly worn to permit it to 
be loose at the points. If this is done it will greatly 
lessen derailments. 

"Switches, frogs and guard-rails must receive special 
attention in track inspection and foremen should per- 
sonally examine all connections in switches and see that 
cotters are in bolts and that all are snug and joints fit 
neatly, guard-rails securely fastened and bolts tight in 
frogs. Proper gauge must be maintained at all frogs 
and switches and watched closely/' 

Switches are of three styles, Stub, Split and Special 



380 ROADBED AND TRACK 

or Patented. The third style (comprising special and 
patented) being modification of or improvements upon 
the first two. 

The Stub switch is here illustrated : 



Head Blocks 



The Split switch is the same in principle as the old 
English point switch used in England since 1S30. The 
Clarke-Jeffery and Lorenz are of this style. See illus- 
trations : 



1 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



381 












ri^f 



e3 ' 




^w^ 








' ' I . ■ 



3 









'rraii iVhi' 



^-ii 






i 



H3 







i 



i*i? 



.h,i 







4:3 

o 
CO 



•-9 

o 



O 



'4fi2 ROADBED AND TRACK 

The improvements made by different makers are in- 
tended to take up the wear of the switch points, and so 
preserve the gauge true and also reduce the danger of 
the flanges of wheels running between the rail and switch 
point. This has been effected, in part, by a modification 
of the bridle rods. In the Transit Split Switch only one 
bridle rod is used, it being alongside the tie, hence it is 
not in the way when ties are tamped or when there is 



ice and snow. The Lorenz safety split switch has a 
heavy spring attached to a bridle rod at the point of 
the switch, strong enough to cause positive motion of the 
points, yet it permits a car to pass through when run 
from a siding into the switch, the spring then throwing 
the points back again to their proper position. 

Switches of special design are mostly intended to give 
a continuous rail for the main line. There are various 
styles and makes including the MacPherson Improved 
Safety. The Wharton switch. The Dnjjgan switch, etc. 

The principal objection to the stub switch is that the 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



383 









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1 J l IW. H 



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^^S 

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m-^ 









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ROADBED AND TRACK 



!l 
II 

Sf 
11 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 385 

pounding of the ends of the rails at the head block by 
the passing wheels causes the rails to bind at the head 
block when the expansion becomes great, and thus brings 
about the derailment of trains. 

Their use should be confined to side tracks, but they 
are not to be recommended for use even there. 

Frogs can be placed in three general classes: Rigid, 
spring rail and switch rail. The manufacturers of frogs 
and switches make about four styles of rigid frogs. 

Rigid frogs are of two styles, in one the metal between 
the rails is in two pieces, in the other the two pieces are 
welded together where they meet at the point of the frog, 
making it stiffer and affording more support to the point. 
Some roads have styles which differ somewhat in detail 
and the various makers also diflfer in respect of style 
and detail. 

Where the traffic on the main line tracks is heavy 
rigid frogs should not be used but where first cost makes 
it necessary they may be used on branches and in yards. 

To prevent the pounding of the frog and to obtain 
a smooth riding main track spring rail frogs have been 
used to a considerable extent. It overcomes the weak 
point in the track caused by a rigid frog. The Eureka 
Spring Rail Frog illustrated here has all ends spliced 
solidly together as in a rigid frog. The hinge rail is 
attached to the main rail by a bolt hinge (see section I 
J) ; this allows the rail to move freely and prevents its 
creeping; it is attached to the movable part of the run- 
ning rail by strong bolts passing through both rails and 
a wrought iron filling (see section E F). This makes 
this movable part strong throughout. Manufacturers 
have a number of other styles of spring rail frogs, and 
some roads have patterns of their own. 



386 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



Spring rail frogs and movable points are being used 
in place of frogs to secure a smooth riding track. 

The next illustration shows a movable point crossing, 
which is used instead of the frog by connecting the levers 
at the movable point with the switch stand. The 
Coughlin switch rail frog is designed to leave the main 
line track unbroken at the frog, there being no guard- 
rail or frog required for the main line. The principle 
of this spring rail frog is in use on the Lehigh Valley 
Railway and Western Maryland Railway. It can be 




Fig. 74. "Eureka" Spring Rail Frog. 



used with the split switch or Wharton points. The 
spring rail frog used with the MacPherson improved 
safety switch accomplishes the same object that the 
Coughlin switch rail frog does, except that a guard-rail 
is required on the main line track. 

A crossing with very heavy angle bars having eight 
bolts, the bottom plates extending the length of the cross- 
ing (sometimes they are put under the corners) is shown 
in the following illustration: 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



Fig. T5. Movable PdIdC Crossing, 




Fig. 77. R[GHT HAND FROG. 
Wllh the names ot \be diHerent parts; the na 
with a len bund M 



388 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Ordering frogs and switch points or tongues often 
leads to confusion on account of the section foreman or 
clerk not thoroughly understanding when they are right 
or left hand. A good rule is to stand at the head block 
and look towards the frog; if the frog is on the right 
hand it is a right hand frog, or if it is on the left hand, 
it is a left hand frog ; the same rule applies to the switch 
points or tongues of a split switch and to the head blocks 
of a stub switch. 

The different parts of a frog and their names are 
shown in the following illustration: 

Instructions for measuring in order to take the angle 
of a frog and also an example are here shown: 



Fig. 78. TO TAKE THE ANGLE OF A FROG. 

Measure A-6 and C-D and add them together, then divide the 
distance B-C by their sum. 

Example: Distance A-B=8^^ C-D=4'^ then 84-4=12. 
The distance B-C=72'', 72-*-12=6 or No. 6 Frog. 

Caution : In measuring be careful that all measurements are made 
on the running line. 

A Three Way Split Switch is shown in the two illus- 
trations which follow ; one shows a view taken from the 
switch stand, the other shows the arrangement of the 
switch points. 

The correct location of the frogs and rails from the 
headblocks to the frogs, and from the frogs to the sid- 
ings, when laying out side-tracks and yards, is a .mathe- 
matical problem, and ought not to be done, as it some- 
times is by calculations made by the section foreman's 
measurement through eye-sight alone. 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



Big. 78. 

The Elliott Frog and Switch Company furnish dimen- 
sions in detail for laying out switches where the switch 
point and frog angle are taken as tangent to the curve 
of the rail from the headblock to the frog. 

The next illustration shows the construction of a 
"Combination Slip Switch Crossing." 



I Three Throw Split 



ROAUBED AND TRACK 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



391 



Cross-Qvers enabling westbound or northbound trains 
to take sidings on south or east tracks and vice versa are 
necessary on double track roads. 




Fig. 82. Plan of a Cross Over. 

"Care should be taken to place cross-overs so that 
trains will run through switches as shown in illustration 
and not against the point of the switch ; this reduces 
the liability of accidents from derailment. Derailing 
switches should be placed on all side-tracks where the- 
grade is such that cars are liable to run onto the main 
line. The safest construction is to place derailing 
switches at all sidings connected with the main line; 
high winds will cause light box cars to move on a side- 
track, or careless switching when a fast train is due has 
occasioned freight cars to run into a switch and caused 
accidents." 




Fig. 83. Plan Illustrating the Use of a Cross Over or Switch Connect- 
ing the Two Main Line Tracks of a Double Track Road. C Is 
the Cross Over Connecting Tracks A and B to enable a Train 
on Track A to Reach Siding D. 

The next illustration illustrates a derailing switch op- 
erated from the switch stand which operates the main 



392 ROADBED AND TRACK 

line switch ; when the switch is set for the main track the 
derailing switch is set to throw a moving car off the 
siding on the opposite side from the main line track. 
This switch is connected and operated by the movement 
of the main line switch. The cut shows the switch set 
for the main line and the derailing switch set to throw 
a car moving out of the siding from the track. When 
the switch is set for siding the derailing switch closes 
automatically. 



The following recommendations of the American Rail- 
way Engineering Maintenance of Way Association give 
in concise form practices for line and surface. 



Maintenance of Line. 

A. Tangents should be adjusted between summits, 
and t>etwcen curves, throwing curves to meet tangents, 
or tangents to meet curves. 

B. Casement curves recommended on — 

All curves over one degree for speed of sixty miles 
Der hour. 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 393 

All curves over two degrees for speed of thirty miles 
per hour. 

— to extend same distance out as curve elevation. For 
ordinary practice lOO feet per degree of curve. 



Maintenance of Surface, 

Elevation of curves: The inner rail should be main- 
tained at grade, and for ordinary practice the maximum 
elevation of outer rail should not, exceed 8 inches. 

A. Spiking. 

I — Use wooden gauge. 

2 — Gauge wherever spike is driven. 

3 — Start spike straight — face against rail — never 
straighten while driving. 

4 — Outside spikes of both rails on same side of tie. 
Inside spikes on opposite side. 

B. Widening of gauge on curves. Committee make 
no recommendations. 

C. Methods to prevent spreading track and canting 
rail on curves. Committee recommends — 

I — For heavy traffic use tie plates on all curves. 

2 — For medium traffic use tie plates on curves over 
three degrees. 

3 — For light traffic double spike the outside rail. 

4 — Tie plates are recommended in preference to rail 
braces except for guard rails, stock rails and switches. 



394 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



EASY RULES. 



MIDDLE ORDINATE. 



I — To find the degree of any curve: Find the middle 
ordinate of a chord 6i feet 4 inches. The number of 
inches in this M. O. is the degree of the curve. 

*2 — To find the middle ordinate of a 30- foot rail, divide 
the degree of the curve by 4. This is good up to 10 de- 
grees. 

3 — To find the number of a frog: 

Measure the distance in feet from the theoretical point 
of frog to where the gauge lines are 6 inches apart. 
Multiply this distance by 2. The result is the number of 
the frog. 

TO FIND THE NUMBER OF A FROG FOR ANY TURNOIJT. 

Lav out line of lead, A. B. Mark where it crosses 
gauge line of rail. Measure the distance in feet to where 
this line is 6 inches from the gauge side of rail. Mul- 
tiply this distance by 2. The result is the number of 
frog required. 




For example : The distance shown in the cut is 4 feet 
6 inches. Number of frog required is No. 9. 



MAINTENANCE 01'' WAY 



1 



39a 



TABLE OP TIMBER 





DRY, 








, NAMI 


Specific 

OmrUf 


Wt.Mf 
Ca.h. 


W\.Mr 

. lonvT. 
a.M. 


PI.B.M 

P" 
N«TM 


A«h...: 


•.61" 


88 


3166 


682 


Cherry 


.07 


42 


3500 


zn 


Chestnut 


.66 


41 


8417 


586 


Cork 


.d5 


16.6 


• • • ■ 


• • • 


Elm 


.66^ 


35 


2916 


686 


Hemlock 


.40 


S5 


2088 


960 


Hickory 


.85 


^8 


4416 


458 


Mahogany 


.85 


58 


4416 


458 


Maple 


.79 


49 


416ft 


480 


Oak, White 


-.77 


48 


4000 


500 


Pine, White 


.40 


25 


2088 


960 


Yellow Southern 


•72. 


45 


8750 


588 


Sycamore 


.69 


87 


8088 


660 


Spruce 


.40 


25 


2088 


960 


Walnut 


.61 


88 


8166 


682 





Green timber weight from 20% to 40jt more. 

TABLE OF WEIGHTS 

" FUELS 



KIHD 


BROKEN 


SOLID ^^M 


Wt. per 
Cm.ri. 


Cm. Pi. 
per Ton 


SMdfie 

Onwltf 


Wi.MV 

Ca.Pi. 


Coal, anthracite .... 


67 


35 


1.6 


98.9 


Coal,' bituminous, ip. 


50 


40* 


1.35 


84 


Coal, bituminous, sm. 


54 


87 


• • • • 


• • • * 


Coke, hard 


27 


74- 


• • • • 


82 


Coke, soft 


20 


100 


• • • a 


26 


Charcoal 


15 


185 


• • • «. 


15 to 80 


Peat, pressed 


20 


100 ' 


• • • • 


20 to 80 


Oil. fuel 54.8 


36.6 


.878 


64.8 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



r. 



MAINTENANCE OF WAY 



TABLES OP WEIGHTS 
HBTALS 



BUILDING MATERIAL 



AND TRACK 



SEcriox III, 

Bridges and Buildings. 

In a lecture which he delivered before the Transpor- 
tation Class, Institute of Pennsylvania Railroad Depart- 
ment, Y. M. C. A., Philadelphia, regarding bridges, Mr. 
H. R. Leonard, Engineer of Bridges, Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, said: 

The definition of bridge as any structure which spans 
a body of water, or a valley, road, or the like, and af- 
fords passage or conveyance, would place this class of 
structure among the earliest of engineering achieve- 
ments. The history of bridge building, however, may be 
divided into two epochs, which can be aptly termed the 
mechanical and the scientific. 

Prior to about the middle of the last century bridges 
were built (that is, so far as any records show) by en- 
gineers or mechanics who were obliged to rely wholly on 
their judgment or experience in proportioning the various 
parts of their structures ; the familiar stone-arch bridge 
was probably the earliest form used, and records, ruins, 
and still-existing structures combine to show to what 
proficiency the art was brought. 

A bridge was built across the Ta^us at Alcantara, 
Spain, about A. D. 104, consisting of six arches of vary- 
inr^ spans, having a total length of 670 feet, built of 
granite blocks laid without cement, and continued in use 
until 1809, when it was partially destroyed by Enq^lish 
troops. Seventeen hundred years of time and travel is 
certainly an endorsement of the skill of its builders. 

399 



r 



400 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Wooden construction, owing to the destructibility of 
the material, cannot be traced back as far as the stone, 
but some remarkable structures were built in the latter 
part of the eighteenth and early part of the nineteenth 
centuries, spans of 368 feet and 340 feet, the latter across 
the Schuylkill at Fairmount having been completed and 
put in service. Such spans would be considered long 
even in steel construction. 

Great ingenuity was displayed in framing some of 
these structures, and bridges are in existence today hav- 
ing absolutely no metal in their construction othfer than 
the spikes in floor plank and nails in- the weatherboard- 
ing. Many forms of wooden bridges were developed, 
but science and economical conditions have practically 
eliminated all but one type, known as the "Howe truss," 
of which we have quite a number on this system. 

The scientific epoch in bridge building can be said 
to date from 1847, when Squire Whipple published a 
book under the title "A Work on Bridge Building." In 
this publication was contained the first scientific analysis 
of the various stresses in a truss bridge. The circula- 
tion of the book was small, and it was some years be- 
fore its influence was seen or felt in engineering circles. 

In 1851 Mr. Herman Haupt, who had extensive ex- 
perience in building wooden railroad bridges, published 
a work on "The General Theory of Bridge Construc- 
tion." This was produced independently of Mr. Whip- 
ple's work, as his preface states: "If any work exists 
containing an exposition of a theory sufficient to account 
generally for the various phenomena observed in the mu- 
tual action of the parts of trussed combinations of wood 
or metals, the author has neither seen nor heard of it. 



». If 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 401 

These two works mark the first step in the development 
of our modern structures. 

The rapid expansion of the railroad systems of the 
country is largely responsible for the development of the 
American railroad bridge; and many engineers turned 
their attention to this branch of engineering, but rather 
as contractors than as engineers. Many different types 
of bridges and parts of bridges were patented, some hav- 
ing considerable merit and others none at all. 

Up to about 1874 the designing of bridges was almost 
exclusively done by the contracting companies, each hav- 
ing its own peculiar style of bridge. This custom led to 
the development of economical bridges at first cost, 
which, in the earlier stages of railroad construction, was 
a considerable factor. But as traffic grew it was soon 
seen that first cost was not the only item to be considered, 
and the railroads began to devote some of their engineer- 
ing talent to this branch. I would say at this time that 
the Pennsylvania Railroad was among the first, if not 
the first, to appoint an Engineer of bridges, which was 
done in 1865,* Mr. Joseph M. Wilson being placed in 
charge of the department at that time. Maintenance 
was seen to be of considerable import, and more atten- 
tion was paid to details with a view to producing a last- 
ing bridge than to producing a bridge which could be sold 
for the least amount of money. The materials used in 
construction were studied more closely, and still more 
rapid progress was made, until at this date, while we 
do not claim perfection, we may claim that we have ad- 
vanced fairly well toward that goal. 

Metal bridges were built on the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road as early as 185 1, of spans varying from 65 to no 
feet, on what is now the Pittsburgh Division. These 



r 



402 ROADBED AND TRACK 

were partly of cast iron ; and it goes without saying that 
they have since been replaced. 

The nature of the country to be traversed in building 
our railroads led to the development of truss bridges, 
differing completely in make-up and detail from the 
bridges in use in England and on the Continent. Foreign- 
built bridges were put together with rivets at all their 
joints, and even to this date are assembled in the shops 
to insure accurate fit. But the necessity for speed both 
in manufacture and erection prompted our engineers to 
adopt what is called the Pin-connected Truss, the great 
number of small rivets at each joint being replaced with 
one large pin or bolt. The parts could be manufactured 
and the pin holes so accurately bored in the shops that 
further assembling was unnecessary until the work was 
put together at its final site. And the substitution of the 
pin for the rivets enabled bridge erectors to complete 
the work on the ground in much less time than is re- 
quired for the erection of the so-called riveted bridge. 
As the bridge in process of erection is carried on light 
false work in rivers that are liable to sudden rises or 
floods, the time saved at this stage was of great im- 
portance. The adoption of the pin system is the one 
point where American practice differs from that of our 
foreign neighbors. 

About two per cent of American railroad mileage is 
carried on bridges. This seems small when spoken of as 
a percentage, but when considering the total mileage, is 
considerable. On the Pennsylvania System we have a 
total of 146.38 miles carried on bridges. This is under 
the general average, we having 1.85 per cent on a total 
mileage of running tracks of 7,700 miles on the lines east 
of Pittsburgh and Erie. This is carried on 4,005 bridges, 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 403 

822 stone or brick, 2,368 of iron or steel, and 815 wooden 
structures. This number seems large, but included in 
this list are many small bridges for cattle-passes and 
road-crossings. But as an offset to these smaller bridges 
there are many bridges of considerable length, notably 
the Rockville bridge, the Shocks bridge and the Havre- 
de-Grace bridge over the Susquehanna river, and the 
bridge over the Delaware at Philadelphia, all of several 
thousand feet in length. The large number (815) of 
wooden bridges includes a great many wooden 'trestles 
or pile bridges, with which you are no doubt familiar; 
although we still have some wooden truss bridges on the 
system which are gradually being replaced. In addi- 
tion to the number of bridges carrying our tracks, we 
have something over 900 overhead bridges carrying high- 
ways, most of which have been built by the railroad com- 
pany. 

The standard bridge of the Pennsylvania Railroad (if 
we may call it so) is the masonry arch, and when given 
the conditions for the successful building of the same, 
should always be the structure adopted. The essential 
conditions for the successful building of the masonry 
arch are good foundations and plenty of room, so that 
we may have ample rise of arch. Once properly built 
the cost of maintenance of the masonrv arch is reduced 
to almost nothing: and the standard track construction 
can be carried over it the same as on the solid earth. 

There are, and always will be, locations from which 

the masonry arch will be debarred, and at these points 

» 

steel bridges .must be built. And these are built in 
various styles, as follows, viz. : 

For extremely short openings, say up to twenty-one 
feet, rolled beams, 



404 ROADBED AND TRACK 

For moderate length of spans, say up to 120 feet, plate 
girders. 

Krom 120 feet to about 200 feet, riveted truss bridges. 

From 200 feet upwards, pin-connected truss bridges. 

First we will describe a truss. A truss consists of any 
number of parts, dependent of course on its size, but in 
general division consisting of chords, flanges, and web 
members. The chords are longitudinal, and the web 
members connect the upper and lower chords both verti- 
cally and diagonally, and divide the entire truss into a 
series of triangles. The triangle cannot change its shape, 
and as it is necessary to preserve the integrity of the 
whole, the truss must be so divided. The connection of 
the web members to the chords determines whether they 
are pin-connected or riveted trusses. 



Perapectlve View ot Through Plate Girder Bridge. 

Plate girders differ from truss bridges inasmuch as 
for the separate web members there is substituted a solid 
plate or web, the chords still being there but termed 
flanges, and are rigidly riveted throughout their entire 
length to the web plate. 

The I-beams mentioned are of the same, general form 
as the plate girders, but are commercially rolled in all 
our large mills to a form approximating the girder. No 
further mention need be made of I-beams, 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 



405 



Plate girders are made in two styles, termed deck and 
half through. The deck bridge carries the track on its 
upper flange, while the half through has a solid floor sys- 
tem consisting of smaller girders resting on or framed 
just above the lower flange. This type is used a great 
deal for street and other crossings where we have a 
limited amount of room between the rail and the road 
or stream to be crossed. Truss bridges are termed either 
deck or through for the same reasons. 




DECK WARREN TRUSS. 

A B is the lower chord. 

C D is the upper chord to which the bridge floor is attached. 

A C and B D are the end po«ts. 

A E, E F, F Q, O H, etc., are the oblique members. 



All our bridge structures are designed to carry the 
weight of the track and the weight of the structure it- 
self, which combined weight is termed the dead or static 
load ; and the weight of two locomotives and the follow- 
ing train, which is termed the live load. The earlier 
bridges were designed to carry as a live load one ton 
per lineal foot. Our first printed specification, issued in 
1883, called for a live load of two eighty-six-ton locomo- 
tives followed by a train load of one and a half tons per 
foot. Our specification of 1887 called for two locomo- 
tives each weighing loo tons, followed by two tons per 
lineal foot of train. In 1897 the weight of locomotives 
was increased to 125 tons, and in 1901 the weight of 
our live loading was further increased to i58j^-ton lo- 



r 



406 ROADBED AND TRACK 

comotives, followed by a train load of two and one-h^lf 
tons per lineal foot ; while our present practice is to meet 
a load of two locomotives weighing 187 tons each and a 
train load of two and one-half tons per lineal foot. The 
weight of engines specified in 1883 — that is, eighty-six 
tons — was a little in excess of that of the actual locomo- 
tive of that date ; the actual weight of our H-6-A loco- 
motive now in use is 168J/2 tons. So that the motive 
power in a period of twenty years has increased in weight 
nearly 100 per cent. 

The question has often been raised as to what is the 
life of a metal bridge. It is almost impossible to answer 
this question, as no properly designed railroad bridge has 
carried the load for which it was desir^ned long enough 
to wear out. The most of our renewals are due, not to 
the bridges wearing out, but to the fact of their having 
to carry such greatly increased loads. The present load 
we are using in designing you will note is somewhat 
heavier than our H-6-A locomotive, which is the heaviest 
now in use on the system. This excess we hope will pro- 
vide against any further increase in weight. 

For most of our proposed bridges the locations are 
such that we know at a glance what class of brid^t^^e is 
required. But where a wide stream is to be crossed the 
character of the bridge must be carefully thought out so 

« 

that an economical and effectual span may be adopted. 
The cost of the superstructure of a bridge — that is, the 
steel portion — varies almost as the square of the span: 
while the cost of the substructure — that is, the piers and 
abutments — varies very nearly as the length of the span : 
so that to obtain the proper relation both the sub- 
structure and the superstructure must be carefully esti- 
mated. Take for example the new bridge now building 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS . 407 

at Havre-de-Grace. On the north side of the river foun- 
dations were deep and expensive ; while on the south side 
of the river, rock was quite near the surface of the 
water. After careful study, spans of 260 feet center to 
center of piers were adopted for the north side, and spans 
200 feet center to center of piers for the south side. 

After determining the length of span and character 
of bridge proposed, the stresses in all its members are 
calculated for dead and live loads. Then owing to the 
dynamic eiTect of the swiftly moving live load we add 
a certain percentage to same, which we term impact. 
This amount of added stress is to cover not only the 
dynamic effect, but also the jars and jolts from imperfect 
track, flat wheels and imperfectly balanced locomotives. 
Having calculated the stresses occurring in all members 
of the various kinds, the various parts are proportioned 
to resist same. Many tests of material have been made 
which enable us to determine to what extent we may 
strain the steel of which these parts are composed. A 
general plan, on which is indicated the stresses and size 
of members, is prepared, which is termed the strain sheet. 
The practice of the Pennsylvania Railroad for a good 
many years in contracting for their bridges has been to 
buy same by the pound. This method removes from the 
contractor any temptation to skimp in details or connec- 
tions, and enables the railroad company to determine 
just what it wants in regard to these details without con- 
tinually wrangling with the contractors, contracts being 
based on a pound price on the strain sheet above referred 
to, standard specifications and the general details usually 
furnished the contractor. 

The standard specifications referred to give as minute 
directions as possible covering the entire structure, loads, ^ 



r 



408 . ROADBED AND TRACK 

allowable stresses on steel for all the different members ; 
also such general directions as to details as can be made 
to cover the general practice. It also specifies the quality 
of steel and character of workmanship, and defines the 
tests that all this material must fulfil before acceptance. 
These specifications are drawn with the utmost care, 
but it is impossible to cover all points. Mr. Theodore 
Cooper, one of the most eminent bridge engineers in the 
country, has published a general form of specification, 
and has printed on the cover of same a sentence which is 
probably more important than any contained between 
the covers of his or any other specifications, and reads as 
follows: 'The most perfect system of rules to insure 
success must be interpreted upon the broad grounds of 
professional intelligence and common sense." 

After the work is placed, so-called shop drawings are 
made, which locate accurately every hole and connect- 
ing rivet for the entire work. These shop drawings 
must be carefully scanned, as the strength of the weakest 
part measures the strength of the whole; and no work 
is manufactured until such shop drawings have been 
checked and approved. During the progress of manu- 
facture a careful inspection is made of both raw material 
and finished work; and this inspection is maintained up 
to the time that the bridge is erected and ready for travel. 
I need say nothing further in regard to inspection, as 
this is the subject-matter of another talk. 

The different styles of bridges now in use have been 
already referred to; there are numerous other types of 
construction which the length of span and character of 
location render more adaptable than the styles referred 
to — ^notably the metal arA, the suspension bridge, or the 
cantilever truss. These three types can be built in much 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 409 

longer spans than the simple truss, and can also be 
erected without much false work. Metal arches and the 
cantilever bridge have been built over the Niagara gorge 
where no false work could be placed. Suspension bridges 
j can also' be erected without false work, as some of you 
I have doubtless seen in the work over the East River at 

I 



Cantnever Bridge at Mlciga, O. Pitts burg- Wabash EiteoEloD. 

New York. Simple truss bridf;-cs have been built to the 
maximum span, I think, of 550 feet. The East River 
suspension bridge has a span about 1,575 ^^^ti ^nd 'S the 
maximum for that type. A cantilever bridge has been 
built with a span of 1,700 feet over the Firth in Scotland, 
and a cantilever bridge of 1.800-foot span is now being 
built over the Saint Lawrence at Quebec. 



410 ROADBED AND TRACK 

In closing I would like to say that the same care 
which is used in designing and building railroad bridges 
should be exercised in maintaining same. . Inequalities 
of track, not only on the bridge but on the approaches to 
same, will cause swinging and weaving of locomotives 
and cars, which should be avoided. And painting, it 
should be remembered, is primarily for the preservation 
of the structure rather than for appearance. 

I have endeavored to give you a general idea of the 
subject, and have purposely avoided going into any de- 
tails, as the subject is one that can be mastered com- 
pletely, if at all, onlv after years of experience and 
careful study. 

The questions and answers which follow were evolved 
during a discussion which followed Mr. Leonard's lec- 
ture : 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON BRIDGES. 

Q. What are the usual imperfections in modern 
bridges ? 

A, There should be no imperfections in a modern 
bridge, within the limits of our knowledge, provided that 
the designing, checking and inspection of the work are 
in competent hands. 

Q. What is the chief advantage of steel bridges? 

A. They can be built in longer spans than masonry 
arches, and where there is doubtful foundation or lim- 
ited room. 

Q. What is a cantilever bridge? 

A. A cantilever bridge usually consists of three clear 
spans resting primarily on two piers and anchored to 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 411 

two abutments. The span between piers and abutments 
is called the anchor arm, and projecting into the central 
span from each pier are portions which are called the 
cantilever arms. At the centre of the bridge and be- 
tween the ends of the cantilever arms is a portion of the 
bridge called the suspended span. 

Q. What rule determines the distance between the 
anchored ends of the bridge and the p'ier? 

A. No fixed rule. 

Q. What is false work? 

A. Temporary scaffolding for erecting bridges. 

Q. What is reinforced concrete work? 

A, Cement concrete in which is bedded steel or iron 
rods, or other shapes for strengthening purposes. 

Q, Is that better than stone for foundations? 

A. Reinforced concrete is not used for foundation 
work. • 

Q. Which makes a stronger joint, one with heated 
rivets or cold rivets ? 

A. Rivets driven hot. 

Q. Which is cheaper, steel spans or stone arches, at 
first cost? 

A. This is a broad question. Given the conditions for 
building stone arches, at present price of steel, arches 
would be cheaper. 

Q. What is the object of putting up half of stone 
arch bridge at a time ? 

A. This is never done except in cases of four-track 
bridges, and then only to prevent interruption of travel 
on the existing lines, if the completion of the four-track 
width would interfere with same. 

Q. In steel spans, is provision made for expansion? 

A, Always. 



412 ROADBED AND TRACK 

Q. Is the superiority of American bridge-builders 
demonstrated ? 

A. This is a question that would be better answered 
by a neutral. However, a number of English bridge- 
builders have imported American managers. 

Q. Does i<t happen that one side of a stone arch bridge 
settles ? 

A, All structures are liable to s-light settlements. 

Q. Is the percentage of bridge mileage increasing? 
A. Yes, owing to elevation of our tracks through 
towns and cities. 

Q. What governs choice of style of bridges? 

^. Local conditions. 

Q, Is cast iron used in the construction of bridges? 

A. Only in minor details. 

Q. Is the concrete found^ation better than the stone 
foundation ? 

A, There is a difference of opinion on this point ; but 
the drift is towards concrete foundation. 

Q, What is the factor of safety? 

A, The ratio between the load for which the work 
is designed and the load wliich would cause its destruc- 
tion. 

Q. What IS the limit of elasticity of steel? 

A, The amount of stress per square inch which steel 
can be subjected to without causing a permanent dis- 
tortion, and under which the metal will reassume its 
original dimensions when relieved of load. 

Q. How is it determined when a bridge is too weak 
to stand the travel? 

A. By calculation of the stresses in the structure, 
and further, by its action under travel. 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 413 

Q. Who makes the shop drawings for a bridge? 

A, The contractor's draughtsmen. 

Q. Who checks the shop drawings? 

A'. The railroad. 

Q. Does this free the builder from responsibility? 

A. It does not. 

Q: About how much a pound does a bridge cost? 

A, Prices vary considerable. At present about 4 
cents per pound in place. 

Q. How was the span put in over the Schuylkill 
River without loss of time ? 

A. False work equal to the width of three bridges 
was placed under the existing structure, and the a^w 
bridge built on one side and the track placed on same 
complete. Under the new and old bridges were placed 
rollers, and when the work was complete the change was 
made by rolling out the old bridge, and by the same 
operation putting the new one in place and connecting 
the rails. 



r 



BRIDGE AND TRESTLE CONSTRUCTION 

NOTES. 

The construction of wooden trestle bridges is a sub- 
ject of too much detail to admit of comprehensive treat- 
ment within the scope of this volume. The notes which 
follow are chiefly extracts from a very exhaustive work 
by Mr.' Wolcott C. Foster upon the subject of con- 
structing wooden trestle bridges, according to present 
practice on American railroads. By his kind permis- 
sion and through the courtesy of his publishers, Messrs. 
John Wiley & Sons, the quotations referred to are made. 

The whole subject of pile drivers, pile driving, trestle 
and bridge construction is covered in a comprehensive 
manner and the details given very fully by Mr. Foster, 
who in relation to pile drivers states that: 

While there are a great many forms and styles of 
pile-driving apparatus, there are but three principal meth- 
ods of sinking piles in general use. These are : 

1st. To force the piles into the ground by allowing 
a heavy weight to fall vpon them when in an upright 
position, or by striking heavy blows by some means 
upon their heads or tops. 

2nd. To sink the piles by means of a jet of water. 

3rd. To screw the piles (which are either of iron or 
else have a special shoe) into the ground. 

As the first of the methods is the one most extensively 
used, we may say almost universally, and the one most 
generally applicable to trestle building, we will confine 
ourselves strictly to a description of several different 

414 



1 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 415 

forms of apparatus for accomplishing the desired end by 
this means. 

The particular kind of machine to be used will depend 
upon the special conditions surrounding the case. 

In very rough and bare country the simpler and lighter 
the machines, consistent with the requirements of the 
work, the better. Sometimes merely a pair of leads with 
the necessary stays or back-bracing to give them the 
required stiffness, a common hoisting machine (usually 
horse power in such a case as this), with the hammer, 
ropes and locks, are all that are carried from place 
to place. Everything is made as simple as possible, and 
so that it can be taken apart for transportation. Some- 
times the apparatus is mounted upon wheels, so that 
it may be folded down and drawn around by a team of 
horses. When the scene of action is reached the leads 
are merely raised up. This lifts the wheels off the 
ground. The base is then lashed to a couple of 12-inch 
logs, and as soon as the hoister is put in position and the 
tackle arranged, everything is ready for the commence- 
ment of the driving. 

Where transportation is not too difficult, it is prefera- 
ble to use a more complete driver. A steam-boiler and 
hoister is substituted for the horsepower one. With this 
arrangement the driving proceeds more rapidly and at 
less cost. 

When many piles have to be driven in navigable wa- 
ters, the driver is mounted on a scow. 

Continuing, relative to this subject, he says: In 
double-tracking a single-track road, or in repairing tres- 
tles in use, a form of driver n:ounted on a flat-car is 
found to boi very convenient and economical. Figures 
84A, 84B, 84C to 84D show the details of one of the 



416 ROADBED AND TRACK 

latest designs for a driver of this kind (taken from the 
Railway Review, October 25 and November 8, 1890). 

It was constructed by the Missouri Pacific Railway, 
with the purpose of obtaining a machine .wljich could 
work eflfectively on piles at a further distance from the 
roadbed than usual. The design was worked out jointly 
by the Bridge and Building Department and the Car 
Department. 

Figure 84B shows the framing of the upper deck of 
the pile driver, and of the cab. It will be noticed that 
the main timbers are very long — 57 ft. 8 in., and are S 
xi2^ inches in thickness. The side sills are 6j^xi2}4 
inches, and 43 feet long. From the centre of the track 
on which the platform revolves to the center of the leac 
is a distance of 33 feet and in order to reach work tha 
is located 16 feet to one side of the center of the tracl 
the. driver must swing to an angle of about 30 degreei 
from the track. The upper platform travels upon thre< 
circular tracks. The first is a complete circle, having 2 
diameter of nearly nine feet, and as the car is 9 feet wid< 
and the upper platform 10 feet, this track is fixed. Th< 
next circle has a diameter of 13 feet 3 inches, and h 
cornposed of four pieces of rail of the ordinary sectio 
two of which are firmly secured to the car platfo 
while the other two pieces overhang the sides of the ca 
and are removed while the pile driver is in transit. Whe 
in use they are supported in position by two wrought 
iron swing-brackets fastened to the outside face of eac 
side-sill, and are also secured- to fixed sections by fish 
plates. The third circular track has a radius of 14 feel 
5 inches, and is a bar of iron 4x1 inch. This track i; 
not carried beyond the sides of the car. The whcelsf 
which bear upon the two smaller circles are attached di- 



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BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 417 

rectly to a heavy flooring on the under side of the plat- 
form, and as far as possible they are placed in the vicin- 
ity of a longitudinal sill, so as to g^ve them as solid a 
bearing as possible. The rollers which bear on the outer 
one of the three tracks are secured to the under side of 
a heavy transverse bolster, which is composed of three 
pieces of wood with three wrought iron plates, 6xji 
inches in section intervening between them, the bolster 
being 6xio>^ inches in section. The bolster at the center- 
pin is wood 12 inches wide and 9 inches deep, and is 
trussed by two rods each an inch in diameter. 



Fig. 84C. C«p PLIe Driver. Missouri Pad do Rj, 

The construction of the leads will be best understood 
by a reference to Fig. 84A. The leads are 36 feet long, 
and are hinged to a heavy triangular frame work, a de- 
tail of which is shown in Fig. 84B. A sole-plate lox^ 
inches in section is secured to the upper face of the 
longitudinal sills which support the beam. The hinge- 
frame is secured to this plate, and consists of pieces 6x^ 
inches reinforced by angle-irons. The inner faces of the 
leads are protected by steel channel irons extending up 
from the bottom end for a distance .jf.ift.feii't:-. These 



r 



418 ROADBED AND TRACK 

afford a good bearing for the hammer, which is planed 
out to fit thenv 

The car upon which the pile driver is carried is shown 
in Fig. 84D. It is an exceedingly heavy car, as will be 
seen from the inspection of the drawing. It is 30 feet 
long and 9 feet wide and very strongly trussed. The 
rack for moving the upper deck is seen in this view, and 
requires no explanation. When the car is in transit, 4 
jack-screws, one at each comer of the car, are adjusted 
against suitable sockets on the under side of the upper 
deck so as to steady the entire superstructure. At the 
same time the upper deck is prevented from swinging 
out of a longitudinal position by means of suitable hooks 
attached to the upper deck, which engage eye-bolts in 
the ends of the car. When the pile-driver is at work 
these jack-screws are released and the heavy screws seen 
extending down through the floor of the car are made 
to bear upon the truck frarnes. This prevents any undue 
strain on the truck springs, and also any unsteadiness 
which might be caused from their elasticity/' 

The hammer weighs 2,397 pounds, and is operated by 
a Lidgerwood hoisting engine. As will be seen from 
the illustrations, the upper platform of the pile driver 
is so long in comparison with the car which carries it 
that a flat car at each end is necessary for its transpor- 
tation. One of these cars is constructed for the purpose, 
and carries a supply of water and coal, and any other 
material which may be necessary. This is attached at 
the cab end of the pile-driver, and the one at the other 
end is a common flat-car. 

The matter of foundations is gone into by Mr. Foster, 
with thoroughness of detail, who says further, in regard 
to grillage. aiid..crib .'foundations : 



BKlDGi;,S AND BUILUINC; 



ROABBHD AND TRACK 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 421 

On some of the branches from the Cripple Creek ex- 
tension of the Norfolk and Western- Railroad, crib foun- 
dations are used for the trestles. These cribs are formed 
by piling logs on top of each other, notching them where 
they cross, and then filling up the interior with stones. 
Fig. 84E. 



Marklne Piles for Cuttlns off. 

They are built pyramidal in form, and are suitable 
for side-hill work where the slope is not too great, 
though their use is not by any means limited to this kind 
of ground, as they form a good foundation on the level. 
When on a side-hill the ground beneath them is exca- 
vated in steps, and the cribs are built up level so as not 
to necessitate the breaking of the sill. The Ic^s com- 
posing the crib should be at least ten inches in diameter 
at the smallest place, and it is better if they are not im- 
der foot. 

In regard to driving piles, which is treated at great 
length, he says, concerning "marking piles for cutting 
off": 

As soon as the pile-driving has advanced a short dis- 
tance, the preparation of the top of the piles for the re- 
ception of the cap is begun. The elevation of the top 



KOADBED AND TRACK 



AND BUTIJ3INGS 423 

of tile pile is marked by a line on the face of one or 
two piles in each bent by the engineer. 

A narrow plank having a straight upper edge, and 
long enough to extend entirely across the bent, is then 
nailed on each side of the piles (Fig. 84F) and the top 
cut off level or cut in far enough to form the tenon. A 
cross-cut saw worked by two men is very convenient 
for this work. 



P!g. 840. Pile Tenon and Trenail. 

There are several ways of fastening the caps to the 
piles — ^by mo/tise and tenon, by drift-bolts, or by dowels. 
For solid caps, a tenOn 3 inches thick, 8 inches wide and 
5 inches long is a very good size. The edges around the 
top of the tenon should be chamfered (Fig. 84G). When 
tenons are employed, it is customary to use wooden pins 
(treenails) for fastening the parts together. The pins 
may be of any tough hard wood. White oak and locust 
answer all the requirements very well. They ought to 
be from i to i>^ inches in diameter, and slightly 



424 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



tapered — say % io % oi an inch (Fig. 84G). The hole 
in the tenon should be somewhat nearer the top of the 
pile than that in the cap is to the edge, so that the pin 
when driven in will draw the two parts tightly together. 
Bolts J4 of ^n inch in diameter have been sometimes 
used in place of pins, but are not as desirable; in fact, 
their use should be discouraged. When drift dowels are 
employed the top of the pile is cut off- square. Dowels 
frequently extend through the cap; generally one, some- 
times two, drift-bolts or dowels per mile are used; one 
is amply sufficient. 





Fig. 84H. Fastening Gap to Piles. 



Sometimes a mortise-and-tenon joint is employed for 
the outer piles, with the inner piles cut off square, and 
drift bolted as shown in Fig. 84H. 

There is still another method of fastening the caps to 
the piles, which is rapidly becoming the general practice, 
which is by the use of split-caps. Instead of a single piece 
of timber for the cap, two pieces, each half the size, are 
employed. For instance, a single 12x12 inch stick is re- 
placed by two 6x12 inch sticks. A tongue or tenon about 
3 inches thick and the full width of the pile is formed 
on its top, and one of these pieces placed on either side 
and held in place by one, or better, two 54 or i inch, 
bolts passed through at each pile. The sticks should not 
be notched and they should rest evenly on the edges 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 



425 



formed, on top of the piles. This form of cap is claimed 
to have many advantages, among which may be men- 
tioned : 

1st. On account of smaller size, better timber may 
be obtained at less cost. 

2nd. Repairs may be made with ease and great econ- 
omy in time and labor. 




Pig. 84J. Effect of Overdriving Piles. 



3rd. Traffic need not be interfered with or endan- 
gered while repairs are being made. 

4th. The caps may be replaced without cutting or in- 
juring any other part of the structure in the least. 

5th. Economy in material, because it is not necessary 
to replace the whole cap unless both sticks are decayed 
or injured, but only that part which is no longer in serv- 
iceable condition. 



426 ROADBED AND TRACK 




BRILXIES AND ISUILDINGS 






1 



428 ROADBED Alio TRACK 

Speaking of the eflfect of over-driving piles, he says: 
It is dangerous to attempt to drive piles to a very small 
settlement under the last blow of the hammer. * * * 
A case occurred on the Boston, Hoosac Tunnel & West- 
ern Railway, clearly illustrating the bad effects from 
over-driving. In two places this road passed under the 
Troy & Greenfield Railroad, both of which crossings 
were at embankments of sand. For the proposed open- 
ing, to be spanned by iron bridges on masonry abutments, 
temporary bents of piles were driven in the embankments 
to about 22 feet below track -level of the T. & G. R. R. 
to allow excavation for the abutments, etc., at the un- 
der crossing. The fine compact sand caused hard and 
slow driving. In a subsequent excavation which soon 
followed it was found that over one-half of these piles 
were next to worthless, being split or broken from the 
driving at depth below eight in one or more of the 
three ways shown in Fig. 84J. Most of the piles failed 
as shown in i, some as in 2 and only a few as in 3. 
The standard pile-trestle, Denver & Rio Grande R. R., 
shown in the accompanying illustrations, he describes in 
detail as follows: 

^ Dimensions of Timber. 

Floor-System : 

Guard-rails, 7 in.X8X32 ft., notched i in. 

Ties, 8 in.X8 in.Xi2 ft, notched J4 in. for both guard- 
rails and stringers, as shown in detail. 

Track-stringers, 8 in.Xi6 in.X32 ft., notched 54 ^^• 
over caps. 

Jack-stringers, 8 in.Xi6 in.X32 ft, notched }i in. 
over caps. 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 429 

Bent: 

Cap, 12 in.Xi^ in.Xi4 ft., notched }i in. over piles. 

Sway-braces, 3 in.Xio in. 

Piles, 14 in. diameter at top. 
, Bank- Bent : 

Dump-boards, 3 in.Xi2 in.Xi4 ft.; 3 in.Xi2 in.Xi6 
ft. ; 3 in.Xi2 in.XiS ft. 

Battens, 3 in.Xio in.X3 ft. 

Dimensions of Iron Details, 
Bolts : 

}i in.X33 i^-J guard-rail to ties and jack-stringers. 

^ in.X38 in.; ties to caps. 

^ in.X22 in.; stringer- joints ; packing-bolts. 

J4 in.XiS in.; sway-braces to posts. 

Drift-bolts: ^ in.X22 in.; caps to piles. 

Boat-spikes: J^ in.XS in.; sway-braces to posts. 

Cast washers: ^ in.X4 5n. ; under heads and nuts 
of ^-in. bolts. 

Cast separators: 3 in.X4 '^^-y between stringer-pieces 
for ^-in. bolts. 

Trestles. — The life of timber used in trestles and in 
wooden bridges varies with the local conditions, kind of 
timber, and location. Just as fast as financial conditions 
permit, it is considered advisable to replace wooden 
bridges with structures of a more enduring character. 
Indeed, upon many railways the heavy traffic and in- 
creased weight of locomotives and trains have necessi- 
tated changes in the design and construction of bridges 
from time to time, first from wood to steel, and more 
recently from steel to stone and concrete. Thus in re- 
cent years practically every bridge on the main line di- 



430 ROADBED AND TRACK 

visions of the Pennsylvania Railway has been entirely 
reconstructed of stone or concrete at an enormous total 
outlay. The same thing is true of nearly every railway 
of any great mileage whose traffic is sufficiently heavy to 
justify the expenditure. 



Where steel bridges have not been displaced by stone 
or concrete structures they have, almost without excep- 
tion, been greatly strengthened by reinforcement or else 
have been replaced by bridges of heavier and stronger 
construction in order to sustain the increased stress 
caused by the heavier trains and modern locomotives of 
such immense tonnage. 

But aside from these reasons, it is to the financial inter- 
est of railways to replace wooden structures, as far as 
possible, with others of a more permanent character. 
Whether these shall be of iron, steel, or masonry, and 
whether embankments shall have permanent culverts de- 
pends, of course, upon local conditions. However, ac- 
cording to the opinion of engineering experts whose ex- 
perience qualifies them to speak with authority, it is pos- 
sible to construct such permanent structures more eco- 
nomically after a road is in operation than could have 
been done when the road was originally built. Experts 
state that it is to the advantage of railways to spenJ 



BRIDGliS AND llUlLDtNGS 431 

$3.00 for permanent work rather than $i.oo for renewals 
of wooden structures when the average life of the lat- 
ter is taken into account, and assuming the interest on 
the investment for permanent improvements to be five 
per cent per annum. 

But, notwithstanding the rapid displacement of wooden 
bridges by steel and stone there will always remain a 
vast number of miles of wooden trestling in this coun- 
try. Some idea of the extent of this mileage may be 



FiK. S5A, Concrete Eind Construcllon Pipe Culverls. 

had when it is remembered that according to a report 
on American Railroad Bridges prepared by Theo. Cooper 
and presented in 1889 to the American Society of Civil 
Engineers, there were in that year 2,400 miles of single 
track railway-trestle composed of 150,000 separate struc- 
tures, having about 730,000 spans. After making due 
allowance for the reduction made in this total by the 



432 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



substitution of more permanent structures in some in- 
stances, it is questionable whether the total would not 
exceed the original by reason of the enormous additions 
to railway mileage through new construction in the past 
fifteen years. 




Timber having such an important place in railway 
structures tends to increase the responsibilities of the 
bridge and building department, whose chief must exer- 
cise eternal vigilance in efforts to have bridges and tres- 
tles properly inspected, repaired and renewed and meas- 
ures taken for protection against flood and fire. 

The bridge and building department is therefore one 
of much importance. It is usually controlled by the 
Chief Engineer. Sometimes it is headed by a general 
officer with the title of Bridge Engineer, who has under 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 



433 



him several superintendents or supervisors each in charge 
of an extensive division, and to these the foremen in 
charge of bridge carpenter gangs report. 

The number of miles over which a superintendent of 
bridges and building has jurisdiction depends, to a large 
extent, upon the character of the road, whether single 
or double track, few or many bridges and trestles, and 
whether the culverts be of iron or stone, and the bridges 
constructed of wood, iron, steel, stone or concrete. Gen- 
erally speaking a single track road division is from three 
to four hundred miles. 

Two regular inspections of all bridges and buildings 
is generally made each year. One in the spring after 
frost is out of the ground, the other in the fall before 
freezing weather sets in. Each bridge and building is 
numbered, the numbers running in consecutive order, and 
the inspection begins, as a rule, with the lowest or first 
number and proceeds in numerical order. The inspection 
in the spring is to ascertain the damage done by frost, 
ice, etc., during the winter and to determine how much 
work must be done during the approaching summer. The 
fall inspection reveals whether the summer's work has 
been properly done; whether the structures are safe 
and also what repairs and renewals are necessary the 
following year. The notes taken and the reports made 
enable an approximate estimate of the labor and material 
needed the next year to be made up during the early 
winter. 

The Inspection. — The following instructions govern, 
in a general way, what should be noted in making in- 
spections. The rules are condensed and compiled from 
different .authorities upon the subject: 



r 



434 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



Wooden truss bridges must be carefully examined. 
The truss rods must be taut but not strained, the ad- 
justment being made when there is no load upon the 
structure. The camber must be true and uniform for 
top and bottom chords. Under a live load the deflec- 
tion must not be excessive. It should be the same for 
both trusses. The test for this should be made with an 
instrument. Careful search must be made for cracks in 
attachments of cast iron, as post shoes, angle blocks, 



—m.if 





Fig. 86. Bridge Numbers. 



chord boxes ; they should also be examined for indica- 
tions of displacement and for openings in bottom chords 
or crushing of timber in top of chord. Shearing of 
clamp daps should be made a note of. Nuts on bolts 
must be tight. Where barrels of water or other means 
are provided for fire protection they should be seen to 
be in proper order and notes made thereof. 

Great care must be taken to examine timber structures 
for decayed and broken members. Any such found 
should be carefully noted and their exact locatibn given 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 



435 



to guide foremen when making repairs. Frame bents 
or bracing, longitudinal and sway, must be securely 
fastened to the sills, caps, plumb and batter posts. 

Bridge piers, abutments, arched culverts, stone box 
culverts and retaining walls must be examined for any 
indications of settlement in foundation. For cracks either 
in the face, seams, or stone and for walls out of line be- 
cause of too much pressure of embankments. Careful 
inspection of foundations to detect the scour of the stream, 
must be made, the rip-rap examined to see the quantity 
IS sufficient and that it is so placed that it will not be 
washed away by the current during a freshet. To ascer- 




Cast-iron Spool. 




Corbel-stringer 
Separator. 

Fig. 87. 







Angle-lug. 



tain that embankments will not be undermined by water 
running through the outside of culverts when constructed 
of iron pipe they must be carefully examined. The out- 
lets of all culverts — iron pipe, stone arch, and box — 
should be examined to see that the paving is not being 
washed down. The inlets to them must also be inspected 
for brush and drift brought down by freshets, choking 
up the openings and causing water to flow over em- 
bankfnents. 

Inspectors should ascertain when inspecting iron 
bridges that bed plates and rollers are clean. The rollers 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



BRIDGES AND IIUILDINGS 437 



1 



C=3 



^ 



■Si? 



^ 



438 ROADBED AND TRACK 

ought to stand so they move squarely back and forth 
with the truss. Examinations for spHts In connecting: 
angles in the connections between floor beams and trusses 
must be carefully made. Suspended floor beams should 
receive particular attention to see whether they are tight 
against the post bed or free to move. Tension can be 
tested by springing tension members, care being exercised 
to detect distortion or crookedness in the members. 
Counter lateral and vibration rods must be taut, not 
strained, and adjustment made when no load is upon tlie 



I*;. ' i 1 




t_£J 




















^ 



F[g. STB. Pile Trei!tle wllh Eartb Roadbed, 



bridge. The center line of all tension members ought to 
be in the line of the strain, and there should be no twists 
in lateral struts and top chords; these should be per- 
fectly straight. Lightly sound field driven rivets to see 
if tight. Movement caused by rust streaks or indicated 
by other signs in members must be noted. The camber 
of both top and bottom chords must be regular and 
similar; the deflection under a live load should be the 
same for the two trusses in the same span and must not 
be excessive. 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 



1 



Overhead bridges for highways must be inspected in 
the same manner as truss bridges, and coal sheds and 
water tanks examined for defects in foundations and for 
decayed timber. 



Fig. S8. Hartley and Teetep OaaoLLne Motor Car. 

In examining; buildings and platforms the condition 
of the floors, siding and plastering must be noted and 
care taken to carefully inspect for defects in chimneys, 
the condition of roofs, fastenings for doors and windows 
and decay in sills and defects in foundations should be 
looked for carefully. 

The foregoing is merely a concise, general summary of 
the more essential particulars of making a semi-anmial 
inspection. More specific details can perhaps best be 



r 



440 ROADBED AND TRACK 

given by quoting in full the rules and regulations and 
instructions regarding bridge and building inspections 
as in force upon two great railway systems which trav- 
erse almost every character of topography ever encoun- 
tered in railway engineering. These instructions govern- 
ing in the first instance the Northern Pacific Railway, 
and secondly the Southern Pacific, should be found most 
valuable and easily conformable to the local conditions of 
railways anywhere. The Northern Pacific rules are as 
follows : 

The division engineers will make occasional exami- 
nations of the condition of all important bridges and 
culverts. In an emergency they will, on their own au- 
thority, report such repairs as they may deem necessary 
for safety, to the division superintendent for immediate 
attention. In other cases they will make their reports 
to the chief engineer, who will decide on the amount 
and character of the work to be done. 

Great care must be taken by division engineers and 
supervisors of bridges and buildings, to whom the se- 
curity of structures is intrusted, and to make such in- 
spections so thorough and the records thereof so com- 
plete as to convey definite and precise knowledge of the 
conditions of each and every structure at the time of 
last inspection. 

There will be two regular inspections each year, as 
follows : 

1. January, by the supervisor of bridges for each di- 
vision of all truss and large trestle bridges. 

2. In September, by the division engineers and super- 
visors of bridges, of all bridges, culverts, waterways, 
etc. 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 



441 



In addition the supervisors of bridges must at all 
times make such inspection as may be necessary to in- 
sure safety. 

The September inspection must be made with special 
reference to obtaining information for estimating the 
cost of renewals and repairs, and for the material re- 
quired for the ensuing year. 




1 B ' '^ 

MODIFICATION OF THD WARREN TRUSS FOR LONG SPANS. 

This is type of the truss used for the bridge across the Mississippi River 

at Memphis, Tenn. The lower chord is 75 feet above 

high water. The span is 621 feet. 




MODIFIED FORM OF WARREN TRUSS. 

As the length of the Warren truss is increased and the height of 
the truss also increased, making the points A and B of the triangle 
ABC too far apart to support the floor system, a vertical C D is added 
to support the floor at the point D. 

Fig. 89. 



The supervisors of bridges will forward the report of 
these inspections, with an impression copy of the same, 
to the division superintendent for approval. Division 
superintendents will forward both copies to the division 
engineer. 



r 



442 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



The supervisor of bridges will make such further in- 
spections as he finds necessary to keep thoroughly posted 
as to the conditions and safety of all bridges and cul- 
verts on his division. 

Division superintendents will arrange to obtain the 
record of extreme high water at the time of each flood, 
or extraordinary freshet, at all bridges, culverts and 
openings. 

Section foremen should be instructed to go over their 
sections at such times and take the measurements from 
top of tie to the extreme high water mark and report 
such measurements, giving the number of the bridge or 
opening, to the division superintendent. 




WHIPPLE TRUSS OR DOUBLE INTERSECTION PRATT. 

As the leiiigth of the span is increased, the height of the truss must 
be increased, and to place the oblique members at or near an angle of 
45" in a Pratt truss or 60* in a Warren truss, the length of the panel 
must be increased. Modifications must now be made of the simple 
trusses to afford intermediate points to supi>ort the floor system. The 
Whipple truss is a modification of the Pratt truss made for this pur- 
pose ; A B C D represents a panel of a Pratt truss ; an extra vertical 
E F and extra obliques D E and E G are added to afford support to 
the point E to support the fioor system. 

Fig. 90. 

Division superintendents^ will forward this informa- 
tion to the division engineers, who will retain copy and 
forward the information to the office of the chief engi- 
neer for record. 

Supervisors of bridges will furnish the division super- 
intendent monthly reports of all repairs and renewals of 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 443 

bridges and culverts, executed during the month. These 
reports will be forwarded to the division engineer, who 
will check same against the inspection requirements, for 
the purpose of insuring compliance with such require- 
ments. 

At the completion of the work the supervisors of 
bridges will forward a report to the division superin- 
tendent, showing all changes in the class of structure, 



Fig. 91. Bridge Hand Car. 

details of construction and length, height and position 
of structures; also the cost of labor and material ex- 
pended. This report will be forwarded to the division 
engineer, who, after recording same, will send it to the 
chief engineer for final record. 

Following the September inspection, estimates of the 
cost of repairs, renewals and replacements recommended ^ 



444 ROADBED AND TRACK 

for the ensuing year will be prepared by the division 
supervisors and division engineers, which will be tabu- 
lated and forwarded through the office of the chief en- 
gineer. The character and extent of renewals and im- 
provements will be determined from this report. De- 
scriptions and estimates will be given for permanent 
structures, wherever same appear desirable or economical. 

This report will show the cost of necessary repairs 
recommended for the ensuing year; the average annual 
cost of such repairs ; the total cost of the structure upon 
which repairs are recommended, and also the total cost 
and annual" interest upon permanent structures, where 
such structures are recommended. 

All changes, additions and expensive renewals of 
bridges, culverts or other important structures shall be 
made only upon the properly approved plans and esti- 
mates of the chief engineer, who will make contracts for 
and superintend the work. 

Instructions to Inspectors, — Note-books of inspection 
must 'be filled out at the structure after a careful exami- 
nation has been made of each of the points itemized in 
the blanks, using in cases where there are a number of 
spans in which defects are observed, a properly noted 
column for each span. When the spans are all in good 
condition one column only need be used, but the number 
of spans should be noted. 

Designate the separate spans of the bridge by number- 
ing them in the direction of the bridge numbers on the 
division, and the separate bents or piers in the same man- 
ner, commencing with abutment bank-bent or sill as 
No. I. Designate the truss as the right or left, locating 
points on it by numbering the panels in the same direc- 
tion as the stands are numbered. 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 



445 



When wooden structures are four years old, such 
members as by their position are particularly liable to 
decay must be tested by boring, the holes to be plugged 
up as soon as the inspection is completed. 

When making regular inspections the inspectors will 
take a statement of the results of the last examination 
relative to such structures as required attention at that 
time, and in reporting on these structures special notice 
must be made as to whether the repairs and recommen- 
dations of the previous examinations have been fully 
carried out or not, and whether the work is in accord- 
ance with the standard plans. 




^ 



Fig. 92. Cantilever Bridge. 



Instructions Regarding Inspection Reports: — (Num- 
bers and directions in these instructions correspond with 
numbers and abbreviations on report blanks.) 

I — ^Does water-way require straightening, cleaning out 
or enlarging above or below structure? Does structure 
afford ample water way? Is rip rap needed to maintain 
channel or protect roadway? 

2 — Note line and surface, also condition of rails, joints 
and fastenings on bridge and approaches. See that rails 
are braced on curves where necessary, and that track on 
approaches is firmly bedded, avoiding shock or jolt to 
train as it passes on to bridge. 



r 



446 ROADBED AND TRACK 

3 — Note any rotten, split or otherwise defective bridge 
ties, giving- number, size and kind. 

4 — See if guard rails are in line and bolted or spiked 
down tight. 

5 — Note condition of caps and stringers, particularly 
at points where they bear against other members. 

6 — Note if plumb and batter posts are crooked, split 
or decayed, and if bents stand plumb. 

;7 — See if trestle towers or bents are properly sway- 
braced, and all braces longitudinal and transverse are 
drawn up tight and have sufficient bolts or spikes to hold 
them properly. 

8 — Nole particularly the condition of piles where they 
enter the ground or water. See that they stand properly. 

9 — Examine each pier and abutment as to joints, set- 
tlement, imperfect stones, cracks or other defects; note 
if work needs pointing up, or if cracks have opened 
since last pointed. Make such measurements as will 
locate position or cracks, and note on sketch on back of 
the report blank. Condition of rip rap, if any. Is rip 
rap needed to prevent undermining? How much? Con- 
dition of pedestal stones, and whether bridge seat is clean 
and water drained off. 

10 — Note condition of culvert and retaining walls. 
See if they are yielding by settlement or bulging from 
the pressure of the embankment 

II — Condition of rain, or covering stone, of box or 
arch culverts. 

12 — Note condition of paving and rip rap, and that 
same is so placed that it cannot be undermined by wash- 
ing. 

13 — Does pipe drain need head or tail wall to protect 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 447 

embankment from washing? And does it clear itself 
of water ? 

14 — Does timber box need to be replaced with ma- 
sonry, or culvert pipe? If so, give dimensions required 
to give ample water way, and give height from bottom 
of stream to rail. 

15 — See if bed plates and rollers are clean, and if the 
latter stand so as to move squarely back and forth with 
the truss. See if pedestal takes an even bearing on roll- 
ers. Examine anchor bolts. 

• 

16— Observe particularly the condition of walUplates 
where bolster rests upon them. Note any appearance of 
crushing or decay. 

17 — Note condition of bolsters and corbels. See if 
holes are bored through them where they cover the 
spaces between chord sticks, to prevent the collection of 
water, and if there is any indication of decay where they 
are in contact with chords. 

18 — Angle blocks and. all cast iron members such as 
chord boxes, post shoes, etc., must be examined for cracks 
and for any indication or displacement by reason of daps 
splitting or timber crushing. A hole of one-fourth inch 
in diameter, if drilled at the end of the crack, will fre- 
quently stop its extending farther. 

19 — Note particularly any appearance of opening of 
bottom chord joints. Wooden bridges over four years old 
should have gauge blocks at all joints in the middle half 
of the span, made by fastening two planed and squared 
blocks I by 2 inches, 6 inches long, to the chord sticks 
with screws, and scribing a* fine line across both. Any 
movement of joints should be noted, giving location and 
amount, scribing a new line from the old one on the out- 



r 



448 ROADBED AND TRACK 

side block across the inside block. See if clamp daps are 
shearing. 

20 — See that all chord and packing bolts are tight. 
Nuts on all bolts through guard rails, ties stringers and 
floor beams must be secured in place by burring the 
thread of the bolt at two or three places, with the cen- 
ter punch or cape chisel. 

21 — Note any signs of decay or crushing in packing 
blocks, and see that clamps and keys are in proper con- 
dition. 

22 — See if gib plates are distorted or crushing Into the 
chords; if they are, give their location and dimensions, 
number, size and spacing of rods passing through them. 
Give size of rods over threads. 

23 — Note condition of sides and roof of covered 
bridges, or of chord and end post covering. 

24 — Notice particularly the connections between strin- 
gers and floor beams ; see that connecting angles are 
not split, either in the angle or through in the line of the 
rivet holes. For wooden stringers, note condition as to 
soundness and bearings. 

25 — Notice particularly the connections between floor 
beams and trusses for evidence of imperfect bearing; or 
splitting of connecting angles. If suspended, notice if 
they are up tight against the post feet or free to move. 

26 — Test equality of tension in tie bars by springing 
them. Look for any signs of distortion or crookedness 
in bars of end panels of bottom chords. Howe truss rods, 
counter lateral and vibration rod must never be allowed 
to hang loose. They must not be adjusted while a load 
is on the bridge. They should be tightened enough to 
give close and even bearings, but must not be over- 
strained, as unnecessary strains are put on compression 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 449 

members if too much power is used in adjusting tension 
members. See that center line of all tension members is 
the same as the line of the strain. 

2^ — Examine carefully especially at the joints. 

28 — See if posts, lateral strutts and top chords are 
straight and free from twists. On wooden bridges, see if 
braces are up in place, taking a square bearing at ends, 
and note if any warping is evident. Note their condition 
as to soundness. 

29 — Examine all lateral connections and see that lat- 
eral tension members are straight. Examine bracing in 
iron trestles. 

30 — Make particular examination of all hangers^ test- 
ing each nut to see that it is tight. A streak of white paint 
drawn across a nut and bearing will indicate any move- 
ment. These nuts should be screwed up tight and se- 
cured by burring the thread of bolt and nut at two or 
three points with the center punch or cape chisel. 

31 — Note any pins which indicate the movement of 
any of the members coupling on them, or that have loose 
nuts. All pins and nuts should have a streak of white 
paint across the nut and pin end. 

32 — ^All field driven rivets in floor beams and stringer 
connections should be lightly sounded to see that they 
are tight. Also lateral connection rivets in riveted 
trusses, and any intersection or other rivets which indi- 
cate by rust streaks, or otherwise, that there is movement 
at that point. 

33 — Note if there are any members, such as closed 
columns, pedestals, etc., which catch and retain water by 
reason of not having proper drain holes. 

34 — Note carefully the line of each truss by the top 
chord and by points on the floor beams equidistant from 



r 



450 ROADBED AND TRACK 

the center of the posts. Also note the camber by the top 
and bottom chords, whether it is true and uniform or 
irregular. 

• 35 — Look for loose rods, hangers, loose braces, un- 
equalized timbers and other defects which require adjust- 
ing in order that each of the different parts may have 
proper bearings and carry its proper part of the load. 

36 — Note any undue vibration of the structure under 
live load. 

37 — Note excessive deflection of the structure under 
live load seeing if the two trusses have the same deflec- 
tion. 

38 — See if any rust spots are apparent under the paint. 
Note if structure needs repainting. Iron bridge work 
should be scraped and repainted as often as necessary 
to preserve from rusting. 

39 — Note such wooden structures as require barrels 
to add to their safety, giving number required. State 
condition of such barrels as may be in position. On -all 
bridges of such magnitude as to require a watchman, 
there should be a foot-plank between the rails securely 
fastened to the ties to facilitate crossing the bridge 
quickly in emergencies, such as fire, or danger to trains. 
Note if ladders, either fixed or portable, are required 
for the safety of the structure or to facilitate inspection. 

40 — See if material, drift-wood, weeds, grass or other 
rubbish is properly removed and burned, or otherwise 
disposed of. 

List of abbreviations for class of structures. 

W. B. — Wooden or timber box culvert. 
S. B. — Stone box culvert. 
S. A. — Stone arch culve.t. 
T. P. — Title culvert pipe. 



L 



451 




*ex- 
i the 
•k. 

, re- 
ame, 
J re- 
cked 
nade 
ilure 

j > etc. 

I iccu- 

I » 

' :erial 

\ :h as 

i "ivet- 

:tor's 
; false 

! con- 



r 



450 

the 
and 
irrc 

• 3 
equ 

ing- 

pro 

3 
live 

3 
live 

tior 

3 
No 

sho 

toi 

XJ 

to 

con 

bri< 

the 

fas 

qui 

No 

for 

A 
rub 

dis; 
I 

c 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 451 



C. P. — Cast culvert pipe. 

B. D. — Blind drain. 
W. C— Wall culvert. 
P. B.— Pile bridge. 
P. C. — Pile Culvert. 
T. B. — Trestk bridge. 
H. T. — Howe truss. 

C. T. — Combination truss. 
I. T. — Iron truss. 

D. S. — ^Draw span. 
P. G. — ^Plate girder. 



ERECTION OF STEEL BRIDGES. 

General. — Engineers, inspectors and contractors are ex- 
pected to make themselves thoroughly familiar with the 
general and special' specifications governing the work. 

All material received must be carefully checked, re- 
corded and reported immediately upon receipt of same, 
in accordance with the rules. Shortages should be re- 
ported immediately. Material received should be checked 
against complete bill of material, and every effort made 
to avoid delay to the progress of the work, by failure 
to receive material, including false work, tools, etc., etc. 

The engineer in charge must cause to be kept an accu- 
rate record of the cost of the work, including material 
and labor, keeping separately each class of work, such as 
rigging up, unloading, repairing, raising, fitting, rivet- 
ing, cleaning, painting, framing, bolting, contractor's 
pay-roll, character of plant, framing and erecting false 
work, and removal of same. A diary must be kept con- 
taining the dates of commencing and completing different 
classes of work, and all other general information of 



452 ROADBED AND TRACK 

value. A record, or copies of all orders or instructions, 
issued or received during the progress of the work and 
the daily force account should also be kept. 

The engineer in charge must check all distances and 
elevations on plans, before laying out the work, and will 
be held responsible for any errors that may arise through 
neglect on the part of himself 6r assistants, properly to 
verify and recheck, plans, points and elevations, given 
for the erection of the structure. Distances between 
centers and elevations of finished tops of masonry are 
especially important, and should be rechecked as often 
as may be necessary in order absolutely to insure against 
errors. The sum of the heights of the component parts 
forming the structure should be carefully checked 
against the total finished height, above assumed datum, 
to base of rail. The sum of all detail lengths must also 
be checked, with equal care, against the total length 
from the fixed initial point. 

Insure that the material shall not be injured, nor dan- 
gerously strained during the operation of loading, un- 
loading or handling same. All defects in workmanship 
or material must be remedied as soon as detected. A 
thorough inspection must be made for defects in paint- 
ing, cleaning, reaming, spots of shrivelled oil or paint, 
chips, burrs, sharp edges and black or rusty spots on 
steel, scale, cinders and scratches, particularly in joints 
and around rivet-heads, brush-hairs, or other foreign 
matter covered over with paint or oil; all such defects 
shall be remedied immediately, and noted in detail, to 
provide full information, in case of claims for extra com- 
pensation. 

Slight bends in members shall not be straightened un- 
_ less strictly necessary on account of the danger of over- 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 453 

straining connections and rivets. Connection plates, if 
slightly bent or twisted, shall be straightened cold; if 
bent so sharply as to require heating, the whole piece 
thus heated shall be subsequently annealed. All shop 
rivets, or any piece of member thus straightened, shall 
be properly tested. 

Particular care will be taken to insure free expansion 
and contraction, wherever provided for in plans. Any 
departure in dimensions amount of camber or otherwise, 
oi material received, from plans and specifications, must 
be noted and reported immediately. 

All machine-fitted bolts shall be perfectly tight, and 
should be burred or otherwise checked to prevent nuts 
from becoming loose, and no unfilled rivet or bolt holes 
should be left in any part of the structure. 

Fitting and Chipping, — The material must be as- 
sembled in accordance with the match marks, and no 
interchange of pieces must be made, unless absolutely 
necessary in order to avoid chipping and fitting or se- 
rious delay. 

Fitting and riveting of connections (especially angles) 
in cases where pieces are short or full, must be done in 
such a manner that the metal is not unduly strained or 
cracks caused. 

Dishonest or incompetent workmen frequently fill 
cracks with paint, putty, cinders, dirt, oil or filings, for 
the . purpose of deception. A close inspection must be 
made for this. ' 

Wooden rams or malls must be used in forcing mem- 
bers to position, in order to protect metal from injury or 
shocks. 

Chipping of rivets, angle flanges and edges of plates 
must be done without breaking out metal. Chipped edges 



454 ROADBED AND TRACK 

must be finished off with a file, and all concave corners 
must be rounded off. Chipping with a sledge will only 
be permitted in exceptional Cases, and must be done 
without leaving fractured edges. 

Riveting. — In driving rivets the dolly and die should 
be placed directly opposite each other, at right angles 
tb the riveted surface, to insure straight driving. Rivets 
must be 1 driven while at an orange heat, and no burnt 
rivets should be used. 

After riveting each rivet must be tamped with a ham- 
mer to insure they are tight, and the heads must be well 
formed, concentric with center of rivet, and closely fitted 
against the riveted surface. 

Defective rivets can usually be detected by their color, 
or by sound when tapped with a hammer, and all loose 
or burnt rivets must be immediately cut out and replaced. 

In cutting out rivets be careful to ascertain that other 
rivets in proximity have not been loosened. 

Tightening up, recupping and caulking old rivets will 
not be tolerated, except that occasionally recupping of 
sharp rivets do not form part of the important connec- 
tions or do not directly transmit stresses. 

Countersunk rivets must be inspected after chipping 
heads, arid no unnecessary chipping should be permitted. 

Painting. — The specifications under the head of clean- 
ing, oiling and painting must be strictly carried out. 

An accurate account should be kept of the quantities 
and proportions used, of pigments, oils, and other ingre- 
dients, and the quantities by weight or fluid measure, of 
the resulting mixtures, ascertained. A record should be 
kept of the quantity applied of each coat, and its propor- 
tion ascertained to area or weight of material covered. 

Paint should be thoroughly worked in all corners and 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 455 

joints, and narrow openings, covering edges and sealing 
up all lines of contact between parts. 

Unless otherwise specified, the ingredients and pro- 
portions of the mixture, for the three coats, shall be as 
follows : 

First coat — 30 lbs. pure lead to one gallon pure boiled 
linseed oil, 1-3 pint pure turpentine. 

Second coat — 25 lbs. pure lead to one gallon pure 
boiled linseed oil, % pint pure turpentine, lamp black, 
quantity not to exceed twelve ounces. 

Third coat — 15 lbs. dry pigment, Qeveland Ironclad, 
purple band No. 3, to i gallon of pure boiled linseed oil. 

The following are the rules adopted by the Southern 
Pacific Company, in relation to Bridges and Buildings : 

The records kept by the Superintendent of Bridges 
and Buildings should give the date when the piling was 
driven and the length from the point to the cut off, so 
that he can judge as to the security of the foundation. 
The date when all sills, plumb and batter posts, caps, 
corbels, stringers, ties and guard rails were placed in 
bridges should be kept in a convenient manner for ready 
reference, and this record book should be taken along 
when the inspections are being made. 

The first aim of the Superintendent of Bridges and 
Buildings should be to secure a good foundation for all 
his repair work ; to keep the structure thoroughly braced 
both while making the repairs and afterward. 

All joints should be made to fit snug and the bearing 
should not come on one corner or edge of a stick of tim- 
ber, but should come evenly over the whole section of the 
stick as a plumb post in a trestle or a diagonal or a mem- 
ber of the top or bottom chords of a Howe truss. The 
caps of a pile bent or the sills and caps of a frame bent 



456 ROADBED AND TRACK 

should be square with the track on a tangent and radial 
to the track curve. No repair work should be allowed 
which throws the strain on a member outside of its 
center line, thus tending to bend or buckle the member. 

In truss bridges the floor beams should always he 
placed at right angles to the track. This not only makes 
better riding track, but distributes the load uniformly 
between each truss. The main and counter braces should 
always be in their proper condition on the angle blocks 
before adjusting the truss rods. 

When the span has the required camber and the coun- 
ter braces are tight, those individual rods in each panel 
which may be slack should be tightened until each rod 
in the panel is strained in proportion to its area. When 
the rods are slack, counter braces loose, and camber less 
than required, commencing at first set of rods at either 
end of truss, tighten them evenly, not enough to buckle 
the counter braces but enough to so firmly fix the ends 
of these against the angle block that an ordinary blow 
with a maul will not start them from proper position, fol- 
lowing which, treat the first panel at the opposite end of 
truss in the same manner. This done, adjust the second 
panels from each end, and so on, working alternately 
from each end of the truss toward the center until each 
set of rods has been put in adjustment. Regardless of 
how much care has been taken to get the tension on all 
rods even, many rods will be found to require a second 
adjustment in order to leave the truss in perfect condi- 
tion. 

Be very careful not to overstrain small rods by exert- 
ing too much force on them. 

The force required to tighten a large rod is sufficient 
to break a small one and good judgment should be exer- 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 457 

cised to the end that each rod be strained only in propor- 
tion to its size. 

Do not attempt to increase the camber in a span by 
tightening the rods if the counter braces are all tight 
against the angle blocks. While it is possible to increase 
the camber in this manner, the result is accomplished at 
the expense of high initial strain on the rods, buckled 
corner braces, broken angle blocks^ and sheared packing 
keys and clamps in the chord, each and all of which are 
much more dangerous than want of camber. 

In practice it frequently occurs that the camber can 
be somewhat improved, in adjusting a truss, by slacking 
off the rods slightly in three or four panels each side of 
the center of the truss, before commencing at the ends of 
the truss to finally adjust the rods. 

In order to permit the angle blocks to be readily placed 
in position, the seats for same in the chords* are fre- 
quently framed with play enough to allow them to move 
slightly from their original position when subjected to 
the thrust from the main braces, the bottom angle block 
moving toward the end of the truss, and the top angle 
block toward the center of the truss. As this increases 
the length of the panel in the direction of the main brace 
and shortens it in the direction of the counter brace, it 
is obvious that, in order to preserve the original camber 
of the truss, new braces should be provided throughout, 
but usually the movement of the angle block is so slight 
that, while seriously affecting the camber, the angle of 
the brace is not changed enough to be noticeable as re- 
gards its bearing against the angle block. 

In such cases the counter braces can be shortened suf- 
ficiently to bring the truss to required camber without 
injurious effect on the truss. 



458 ROADBED AND TRACK 

In no instance should this be done without first receiv- . 
ing the sanction of the Bridge Superintendent. 

In adjusting the end panel rods of long heavy trusses, 
it is advisable to take -up a portion of the dead load by 
means of a screw jack placed under the panel to be ad- 
justed, which relieves the strain on the rods and assists 
in raising the truss to its proper position. 

The object in doing this is readily apparent from the 
fact that the wrench can be applied to only one rod at a 
time, and unless some assistance is given it, half the 
weight of the truss between it and the opposite abutment 
is thrown upon the rod. 

A block should be placed between the jack and the 
chord of sufficient length and strength to distribute the 
thrust from the jack over all the strands of chords to 
avoid any movement of the strands upon one another. 

Always remove the jack before allowing trains to pass 
over the bridge. 

When jack screws cannot be used, nuts should be 
turned a very little at a time on each rod in rotation. 
Nuts on truss rods must be screwed up by applying, a 
steady pressure to the wrench, no advantage being taken 
of the slack between the socket and nut to produce a 
blow on the nut by an oscillating movement of the 
wrench, as it not only destroys the shape of the nut but 
has a tendency to injure both nut and rod. 

Always support the truss by a post or bent (daced 
under the next panel before removing the end panel main 
braces and the old abutment block, and do not remove it 
or allow trains to pass over the bridge until the new 
block and braces are in place and the truss is again in 
adjustment. 

Where a broken angle block in bottom chord is to be 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 459 

replaced with a new one, a post or bent must be placed 
under the next panel point toward the center of the truss, 
sufficiently strong to support the portion of the truss 
which would otherwise be unsupported if the braces were 
removed. When it is impracticable to support the truss 
in the above mentioned manner, two rods should be pro- 
vided of sufficient length to run diagonally and in line 
with the counter brace from the top of the truss over 
the panel point in which the angle block is to be replaced, 
to the bottom of the truss under the next panel point to- 
ward the center of the truss with heavy wooden gibs top 
and bottom. 

The gibs must extend several inches beyond the chord 
on each side and have holes bored through them at the 
proper angle, so that when the rods are in place there 
will be one on each side of the truss. The rods are to be 
tightened until the load on the truss rods is removed, 
when the main and counter braces, truss rods and angle 
block can be removed and replaced. 

In replacing an angle block in the top chord support 
the panel point in which the angle block is to be changed 
in the same manner, taking care to leave in all braces 
which do not abut on the angle block to be replaced. 

No train should be allowed to cross the bridge until 
the truss is in adjustment and the support, if from the 
ground, is removed. 

Angle blocks are frequently broken by the shrinkage 
in the timber of the chord allowing the gib to bear 
against the ends of the angle block tubes. In this case 
hard wood shims of sufficient thickness must be placed 
between the gibs and chord to keep the gibs away from 
the tubes. In doing this do not slack the truss rods until 
temporary rods passing through strong wooden gibs have 



460 ROADBED AND TRACK 

been put in place, one on each side of the chord, as near 
to the panel point as possible to keep the truss in shape 
while the rods are loose. 

If more convenient a post can be placed under the 
panel point, which is to be removed before allowing 
trains to cross, and truss must be in adjustment for either 
method before allowing trains to cross. 

The recurring adjustment of the truss and lateral 
rods in a deck truss, and the inevitable reduction in the 
distance between the chords resulting from it, makes it 
necessary to shorten the transverse braces from time 
to time so that they may not be excessively strained. 
They must be kept tight, but not tight enough to buckle 
the timber or displace the strands, against which they 
abut from their proper position in the chord, as this 
would result in broken keys and clamps. 



BUILDINGS. 

In regard to buildings the architecture of modern rail- 
way terminal stations has become a field for the special- 
ist. Indeed noted engineers are making it their life- 
work. The extreme types of passenger terminals in 
America are found in the Grand Central Station in New 
York City, the Union Station in St. Louis, the Chicago, 
Milwaukee and St. Paul Station in Omaha and the new 
Pennsylvania terminals now constructing in New York, 
the Union Terminal in Washington, D. C, and the pro- 
posed new terminals in Chicago. There are, of course, 
many others possessing novel and interesting features, 
each worthy of careful study, but for the purposes of 
this treatise they will not be considered. Indeed it is 
beyond the scope of the limited space which can be al- 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 461 

lotted to the subject in this volume to give an adequate 
description of only the largest passenger terminals, there- 
fore only the more salient features of a few can be given. 
Regarding the Architecture of Terminal Passenger 
Depots Mr. Walter G. Berg, C. E., in his excellent work 
on "Buildings and Structures of American Railroads,'' 
says: 

A terminal depot involves such heavy expenditures, 
that it is a mistake to build it at the start on too small 
outlines. The size and ground-plan layout should cor- 
respond not only to the actual requirements of the busi- 
ness to be expected in the near future, but should be 
planned for the largest possible growth of the business 
that can be plausibly expected for a long term of years, 
as subsequent alterations or enlargements of a previously 
adopted plan on a smaller scale are very difficult and ex- 
pensive to make. The importance of planning for the 
future should be especially emphasized in acquiring ter- 
minal lands, as additional ground can be obtained prior 
to the construction of a terminal depot at much less rates 
than if the railroad company waits till the value of the 
neighboring property is not only enhanced, but the neces- 
sity for acquiring the adjoining tracts becomes a vital 
railroad question of public importance. It is far prefer- 
able to build at first only part of a large layout, extend- 
ing the buildings and adding extra facilities and more 
permanent arrangements as the business increases and 
the railroad company's exchequer allows it. Thus an ex- 
tensive train-shed can be replaced temporarily ' by plat- 
form shed roofs, or the length of the shed reduced and 
covered platforms run out along the tracks beyond the 
shed, or the width of the shed reduced to one span, if the 
final plan contemplates several spans. The accommoda- 



462 ROADBED AND TRACK 

tions for baggage, express, mail, emigrants, etc., which 
are usually provided for in wings, detached buildings, or 
end pavilions, can be furnished of a more temporary na- 
ture or provided elsewhere temporarily. The import of 
these remarks is to emphasize the necessity in building 
a large railroad terminal of acquiring sufficient land at 
the start and making the general plans to cover the prob- 
able requirements for a great many years, even if all the 
ground is not occupied at once or the entire building 
erected immediately as planned. 

The class of building materials to use and the general 
fmish of the buildings will depend on the amount of 
money available for the structure and the class of ma- 
terials in general use or easily obtainable in each par- 
ticular section of the country. It can be said, however, 
that, owing to the importance and cost of the structure, 
together with the serious difficulties and delays that 
would result to the entire passenger business of the road 
in case of a fire, it is desirable to have as fire-proof a 
structure as possible, equipped with the best fire-service 
provisions. 

Relative to the style of architecture to be adopted for 
a terminal passenger depot, it will depend, more or less, 
on the importance of the station, the surroundings, the 
proximity and style of neighboring buildings, the size 
of the structure, the desires of the railroad management, 
the wishes of the public, the prevailing class of architec- 
ture and building materials in general use in the locality 
in question, and the individual views of the architect 
making the design. 

In general, however, it can be said that the character 
of the building should be expressed to a certain extent in 
its exterior, the structure should be built on broader and 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 463 

grander lines than local depots, presenting a bold and 
prominent front, relieved, however, by suitable .disposi- 
tion and divisions of the wall surface, the fenestration, 
roof lines, and other details, without detracting from the 
general features of the design as a whole. 

Train-sheds are used in connection with a terminal 
passenger depot, to cover the tracks and platforms in 
front of the depot on which passengers take or leave 
trains. At very large terminals, situated in cities, train- 
sheds are a necessary requirement of the depot structure ; 
but at minor terminals, especially where the appropria- 
tion for the buildings is limited, satisfactory results can 
be practically obtained by a series of platform-sheds. If 
the general lay-out at the start is made with a view to 
building eventually a train-shed, when the business war- 
rants it or funds are at hand to do so, then the introduc- 
tion of temporary platform-sheds is a very commendable 
solution of the question. The first cost of the train-shed 
can also be diminished by reducing its length or omitting 
additional spans, where the final plan contemplates sev- 
eral spans, and substituting, if required, light temporary 
platform-sheds. At the Union Depot at Kansas City, 
Mo., one-legged iron platform-sheds are used on the 
longitudinal platforms between the tracks, while large 
arched arcades, 50 feet in width, cover crosswalks con- 
necting the longitudinal platforms 'with the covered plat- 
form along the face of the depot. Excepting during very 
stormy weather, this system provides ample protection for 
passengers and baggage, and offers, in addition to 
cheapness of first cost, the great advantages of being light, 
airy, an'd not seriously affected by smoke, soot, and the 
deafening noise from trains and engines which renders a 
great many train-sheds very objectionable. In fact, a 



r 



464 ROADBED AND TRACK 

system of platform roofs on the longitudinal platforms, 
connecting at head-stations directly with the lobby or 
covered crosswalk in front of the head-house, and at 
side-stations by means of covered transverse arcades with 
the platform in front of the depot building, can be con- 
sidered as far superior to the attempt to build a small 
and especially a low train-shed, in which the light and 
ventilation is bad, the smoke and soot a constant annoy- 
ance, while the acoustic properties are such that the 
noise of escaping steam from cylinders or safety-valves, 
the ringing of fhe bell, the sounds accompanying the slip- 
ping of the drivers in starting a heavy train, combined 
with the general confusion and bustle, all intensified by 
the reverberations caused by a low roof and side gal- 
leries, render the structure a nuisance to the traveling 
public, as well as a serious drawback to the quick and 
efficient despatch of the station service, where dependent 
on verbal communications or signals by sound. To obtain 
the best acoustic results a good height of the structure 
is most valuable, as also the absence of the side galleries 
or low lean-to roofs on the sides of the main shed span, 
which are liable to catch the sounds more readily and 
intensify them by repeated reverberations. 

Train-sheds are usually built with iron roof-trusses 
resting on stone or brick side walls or on iron columns, 
covered with boards on wooden rafters or purlins, and 
roofed with tin or tarred felt or building-paper. The ex- 
posure of so much iron-work to the deteriorating effects 
of the sulphurous gases collecting under the roof is very 
objectionable. Skylights are very hard to keep water- 
tight in consequence of the constant damage being done 
by these gases. It can, therefore, be said, that practically 
repairs are constantly required in a large train-shed, if 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 465 

painting is included ; in fact, it is very seldom that ^paint- 
ing or repair work of some kind is not going on inside 
or outside of a train-shed. For this reason prominent 
railroad men have frequently expressed it as their 
opinion that the general adoption of iron for train-sheds 
cannot be considered as such an excellent innovation, 
as a heavily timbered roof or a combination roof has 
some decided advantages over an all-iron roof. The 
roof-trusses in train-sheds are usually spaced from 20 to 
40 feet apart. The longitudinal and sway bracing is very 
important so as to resist the wind-pressure. 

Mr. L. C. Fritch, in ''Railway Organization and Work- 
ing," thus describes the passenger terminals at Washing- 
ton, Boston and St. Louis: 

"The new Union Station, Washington, D. C, is in- 
tended to be, it is said, the finest railway station in the 
world, (was in course of construction when in 1906 he 
wrote). The estimated cost is about $18,000,000, shared 
by the railways, the federal government and the District 
of Columbia. The train-shed will be 760 feet wide and 
705 feet long, and will contain 33 tracks, of which 13 
will lie on a lower level than the remaining 20, the former 
being through-tracks to accommodate the service which 
will use the tunnel under Capitol Hill. The general wait- 
ing-room will be 130 by 220 feet, and will be covered by 
a Roman barrel-vault 90 feet high. The passenger con- 
course, or lobby, will be 760 feet long by 130 feet wide, 
and will be divided into an outbound concourse, 80 feet 
wide, and an inbound concourse 50 feet wide. 

"The Union Station at St. Louis has, perhaps, a larger 
number of railways using it than any other station in the 
world. This station was remodeled in 1904 for the traffic 
arising from the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, which 



ROAUUEU AND TRACK 




BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 467 

was handled with great success. The train-shed is a 
pocket-shed, 6oi feet wide and 8io feet long, and has 32 
tracks. The passenger concourse is 120 feet wide — 70 
feet wide for outgoing and 50 feet wide for incoming 
passengers. The entrance to the train-shed provides for 
two three-track Y-connections from each direction. The 
express buildings are all located alongside and west of 
the track approaches to the station, each building being 
provided with independent track connections. The bag- 
gage-room for small baggage is located alongside the 
concourse, but the baggage-room for wagon baggage is 
located under the south end of the train-shed. Subways 
are provided for handling baggage and express, and 
communication with the platform in the train-shed is had 
by means of elevators. 

"The passenger station of the Boston Terminal Com- 
pany has the unusual feature of a substation located 
under the main station for the purpose of handling subur- 
ban traffic. The train-shed is 620 feet long and 620 feet 
wide, and has 28 train-tracks. The substation has a 
double track, spread at the platforms. The substation 
tracks are entirely below the grade of the surface tracks. 
The inbound baggage-room is located on the east side, 
and the outbound baggage-room on the west side, of the 
train-shed, with a subway for handling both express and 
baggage. The express buildings are located on the west 
side of the tracks approaching the station, the buildings 
being provided with independent tracks for express- 
cars." 

The subject of railway buildings is of too broad a 
scope to be comprehensively covered here. The large 
volume by Mr. Berg (already referred to) gives minute 
descriptions of Passenger Terminals, illustrations and 



1 



r 



468 ROADBED AND TRACK 



specifications, and treats of the construction of every 
kind of building required by railways. Those desiring 
to go into the subject in detail will find it a valuable 
work. 

The provision for ample track facilities and proper ar- 
rangement of tracks at terminals if not of equal import- 
ance, is only second to that of Stations, concerning 
which Mr. L. C. Fritch, in "Railway Organization and 
Working," says: 

"Thefe are two varieties: (i) through-track arrange- 
ment, where trains enter at one end of the train-shed and 
depart from the opposite end; (2) pocket or spur-track 
arrangement, where trains enter and depart from stub 
or spur-tracks. The through-track arrangement is the 
most desirable from every point of view, as it obviates 
the undesirable feature of backing trains into or out of 
a terminal station, which must be done in the case of a 
pocket arrangement. 'Location and available space often 
limit the design, or modify it to the extent of permitting 
only a pocket arrangement, or a modification of it in 
the form of a combination of a through and pocket ar- 
rangement.^' 

Continuing he says : 

*Tassenger-coach and equipment yards are usually 
divided into two parts: (a) a coach storage-yard, where 
coaches and other passenger equipment are stored ready 
for use, being *made up' or switched in the order in 
which the equipment is required for use in trains; (b) 
a cleaning-yard, where the equipment is placed imme- 
diately after arrival, to be cleaned and made ready for 
use. The storage-yard is usually a simple series of 
parallel tracks of capacity to hold a train of maximum 
size; the tracks being, in some instances, designed to 



. BRIDGBS AND BUILDINGS 



11 

S3 

.■a 

II 

III 

Is 

s" 



r 



470 ttOAD13ED AND TRACK 



serve also as a cleaning-yard, where cars may be cleaned 
without taking them to a separate cleaning-yard. 

"The Qeaning-yard is a specially designed yard, with 
tracks spaced a sufficient distance apart to permit the 
cleaning of the outside of cars on adjoining tracks. A 
system of water, air-heater, and gas-pipes extends 
throughout the yard, with frequent connections so ar- 
ranged that use may be made of any of these necessities 
for any car. The renovation of the passenger equipment 
forms a most important part in the passenger service of 
today. At the end of each trip or run it is now custom- 
ary thoroughly to renovate both the interior and the ex- 
terior of each passenger-car, entailing a large force of 
men and no small expense. In this work the vacuum 

^' ' system of cleaning by means of compressed air is now 
largely employed, resulting in great economy and in in- 

. " creased facility in producing sanitary results. The cost 
invplved in the use of the compressed-air system is about 
one-half of that of the old method of cleaning. 

r , **Freight Yards, at terminal or for any large freight 
' .' station, should,'' Mr. Fritch says, in continuing his sub- 
-l.ject, **indude the following: (i) Freight-yards for the 
.purpose of receiving, classifying, storing, and forward- 
ing the freight-cars'; also the necessary appurtenances, 
; such as repair-yards, engine roundhouse, and equipment 
;. to care for freight locomotives. (2) Freight Stations, 
including freight-houses, transfer-houses, warehouses, 
' elevators, platforms, etc., for receiving, delivering, stor- 
ing, transferring, etc., freight to and from cars. (3) 
Team-tracks, for the purpose of handling freight directly 
to and from wagons and cars. (4) Industry tracks, for 
the purpose of receiving and forwarding freight directly 
from and to industrial plants ; the tracks extending into 



BRIDGES AN'D BUILDINGS 



472 ROADBED AND TRACK 

such plants, thus eliminating the necessity of drayage 
or transfer of freight by wagons. (5) Water terminals, 
for the purpose of interchange of freight between rail 
and water-craft; including docks, wharves, piers, eleva- 
tors, warehouses, etc." 

He briefly describes the facilities required under group 
No. I, and then, continuing, says: 

"The summit or hump-yard has become a necessity in 
a modern. I?u-ge freight-yard, where a heavy volume of 
business/ is done. The classifying-yard is usually the 
limit erf the capacity of the entire system. In the design 
of the summit or hump-yard great care must be exer- 
cised to adopt a gradient that will carry cars the neces- 
sary distant into the classifying-yard. 

"The number of tracks required in a classifying-yard . 
depends upon the number of classifications to be made. 
The yArd of the Chicago Union Transfer Company at 
Chicago h;s^s^ 42 tracks, of 60 cars' capacity each. The 
lengtfi of the tracks depends upon the maximum number 
of cars usually handled per train, and ranges from 45 to 
90 cars. Track-scales are usually located on the summit 
or hurhpC'J. 

"Frei^Uf Stations, — A modern freight station of large 
dimension^ 'includes such facilities as freight-houses, 
transfer-houses, warehouses, elevators, platforms, stock- 
pens, etc.,tand is used for the purpose of receiving and 
delivering freight by the railway from and to the public. 
Certain fundamental principles have been evolved, and 
are now generally accepted in the establishment of mod- 
ern freight-station facilities. 

"Freight-houses usually consist of inbound and out- 
bound houses. At the inbound house incoming freight 
is received, being unloaded directly into the house from 



r 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 



473 



tracks along the side. Usually not more than two tracks 
are required, the unloaded cars being pulled to be re- 
placed with loaded ones. The object of this restriction 
of the number of tracks is to reduce the distance that 
freight must be trucked from the cars to the house. 
Modern practice limits the width of inbound freight- 
houses from 60 to 70 feet, the length varying with the 
requirements, regulated by the volume of traffic. It is 
customary to provide a platform 8 to 10 feet wide on one 




Front Elevation. 



or both sides of the house, which permits cars to be 
placed at any point opposite the house, and also furnishes 
accommodation for the maximum number of wagons 
on the delivery side of the house. Paved drive-ways, 
not less than 50 feet wide, should be provided on this 
side of the house. The doors of the house should be 
placed uniformly 40 feet center to center, in ord.er to 
come approximately opposite the car doors when the cars 
are placed at the house. The house is usually posted in 
a systematic manner into sections numbered or lettered, 
and when freight is unloaded, notations are made on the 
freight-bills showing location, in order that it may be 
readily located. 

"The outbound house is used for the purpose of for- 
warding shipments received from wagons delivering at 



474 ROADBED AND TRACK 

one side of the house. The freight is weighed as re- 
ceived, and then trucked directly into the outbound cars 
on tracks along the other side of the house. The modern 
practice is to hmit the width of the outbound house to 
30 or 35 feet, in order to reduce the trucking distance 
over which the freight must be handled. The tracks 
are placed alongside of the house on the side opposite the 
driveway. They are usually spaced closely ti^ether, and 
as many tracks are provided as the number of cars' ca- 
pacity for the daily loading requires. It is customary 
to provide an outside platform on the track side for con- 
venience in longitudinal trucking, but the wagon, or re- 
ceiving, side is usually provided with a line of doors 
closely placed, so that nearly the entire side Of the house 
is open for receipt of freight. 



End EleTallon and Crou-Secllon. 

"Whenever space permits, it is good practice to place 
the inbound and outboimd houses opposite each other, 
with the tracks between the houses and a transfer plat- 
form between two sets of tracks for the purpose of trans- 
ferring cars. This arrangement is a flexible one, to the 
extent that the track arrangement can be utilized for 
either house to any desired limits ; also, the transfer 
freight can be handled at the same time with the inbound 
and outbound freight. Furthermore, the freighthouse 



^ 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 475 

forces are easily interchangeable, and full advantage can 
be taken of the fact that in the morning the inbound 
freight is heavy and the outbound freight light, which 
conditions are reversed in the afternoons, thus keeping 
the forces uniformly engaged during the entire day. 

"Warehouses are usually provided for the purpose of 
storing freight, both inbound and outbound ; but the reg- 
ular business of warehousing is one apart from trans- 
portation, and in many states the laws prohibit railways 
from doing a warehouse business, other than such as is 
incidental to the transporting of the goods. Warehouses 
are therefore not essentially a part of railway terminal 
facilities, when considered strictly as warehouses. 

"Elevators are provided for handling grain for the 
purpose of storage, cleaning, clipping, drying, sorting, or 
transferring from cars to vessels. The usual type, almost 
a universal one, is a system of tracks constructed over 
pits into which the grain is unloaded, thence being car- 
ried into bins by means of conveyors. Chutes are pro- 
vided for loading cars on the same tracks when grain 
shipments are outbound. Marine conveyors are provided 
for carrying the grain from elevators to vessels, when 
the elevators are located at a point removed from the 
vessels' landing. In case of elevators directly alongside 
of vessels, chutes are used/' 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



WRECKS. 



The illustrations accompanying this chapter, together 
with the directions to trackmen by Mr, Kindelan, as 
given by him in "The Trackman's Helper," covers what 
is required of a wrecking; gang. A wrecking outfit is 
usually kept in readiness at each division headquarters 



hioeed to base ol A-Irame, Tbese lack-sims extetid to a lateral base of 19 teel 
and are arranged to fold up wben not in use. Tbe cai is also provided wllb 
two addltiooal Jacks and [oar lal] clamps. Ample stability le obtained lor 
all ordinary loads by means ol jack-screwB aod rail clampa. It la only 
neceeaary to let down tbe Jaek-arms wben beavy loads are to be lUted and 
swune to tbe Bide. Far tbe lifting of the maiimum load Id extreme aide 
positions, it is necessary to eUII turtber ancbor tbe maebine by means ol slile 
euya to the top ol A-Irame, and ring boKa are provided in tbe bead lor tbis 



consisting of a tool car and derrick car. The following 
list of tools comprises those generally required and in 
addition most roads use a powerful steam wrecking 

crane as shown in illustration. 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 



477 



Tools on a wrecking or 

Heating stove. 

Hand saws. 

Axes. 

Adzes. 

Wheel gauge. 

Steel wreniihes. 

Soft and chipping ham- 
mers. 

Track shovels. 

30-inch steel bars. 

12 torches. 

Scoop shovels. 

Pinch bars. 

Cold chisels. 

Qevises. 

4 pairs rubber boots. 

Pair patent frogs. 

Iron bound wedges. 

Red flags. 

Red, white and green lan- 
terns. 

Oil and waste for packing. 

1 6- foot ladder. . 

Assorted sizes drift bolts. 

Coupling links and pins. 

8-inch and 12-inch pony 
jacks. 

Standard frogs. 

Switch chains. 

Torpedoes. 

Portable stretcher. 

2 gallons alcohol. 

Packing hooks and spoons. 



tool car: 

12 grain sacks, 2-bushel. 

Water barrel. 

Cross cut saws. 

Hand axes. 

Sledge hammers. 

12 and 1 5 -inch monkey 

wrenches. 
Spike mauls. 
4 inch rolling line. 
Picks. 

1 pair of climbers. 

6 baskets (grain) 2 bushels 
6 Water pails. 
Standard journal brasses 
for foreign cars. 

2 Hydraulic lifting jacks, 
15 and 20 tons. 

2 Ratchet lifting jacks and 
levers. 

A few hundred feet of 
spare i-inch to 2>^-inch 
guy lines and snatch 
blocks. 

A small coil of telegraph 
wire and a few insula- 
tors and other telegraph 
supplies necessary to 
start an emergency of- 
fice. 

A full set of edge tools, the 
personal property of the 
foreman of the wreck- 
ing crew. 



r 



478 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



Tools on the derrick car: 

I truck line, 2j4 inches diameter, 250 feet long. 

1 truck line, 2j4 inches diameter, 200 feet long. 

2 second-hand steel rails. 
4 iron-bound wedges. 

6 switch chains. 

3 truck chains. 

2 wire cables, 1% inches diameter. 




Fig. 94>. 15-Ton Double Mast Hand Wrecking Crane. 

"When a track foreman arrives at the scene of the ac- 
cident he should proceed immediately to do whatever 
work, in his judgment, would contribute most to putting 
track in a passable condition for other trains, notwith- 
standing the absence of his superior officers, who may 
not be able to reach the wreck for several hours. If 
the track is torn up and the cars do not interfere, put 
in ties enough to carry a train safely over where you 
can. If the rails are bent out of shape secure some from 
near by if it is possible. If this cannot be done, get as 
many as possible of the damaged rails to their proper 
shape and spiked down in the track. 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 479 

"If a small bridge or culvert has given way, crib it 
up with ties until you can cross it with track. If you 
cannot procure the ties along your section and many are 
not needed, remove a part of the ties from the track 
where it is full tied and where it will leave a sufficient 
number in the track to make it safe for the passage of 
trains. 

''In the same manner if you are short of bolts and 
spikes and too much time would be lost by going after 
them, borrow some from track where they can be spared 
and fix track to let trains pass. 

"If one or both trucks beneath a car should leave the 
track at once and turn across it as is often the case, un- 
couple from car and hitch a switch rope to the corner of 
the truck and to the draw-head of the car next to the 
one which is off the track. Then pull the truck into a 
position parallel to the track, after which it can be put 
on the rails with the wrecking frogs. 

"If the car should be loaded very heavily, it might 
be advisable to raise the end with jacks before squaring 
the truck. If the right man undertakes this job, the 
train need not be delayed over thirty minutes. 

''Sometimes when a car leaves the track, the center 
pin breaks or is so badly bent that it cannot be used 
again. This often happens on the road where there 
is nothing at hand to remove the crooked pin. In such 
a case, if the car is empty or not heavily loaded, it is 
best to roll the truck from beneath the car off the 
track, and haul the car into the station carefully sup- 
ported on that end. 

"When the ends of a broken center pin do not project 
the end of a car can be jacked up, the truck placed in 
position, and the end of the car again allowed to rest in 



480 ROADBED AND TRACK 

its place on the truck, after which, if watched carefully, 
the car can be hauled a long distance. 

"It often happens that a car gets off the track in 
such a place that it is impossible to get the help of an 
engine to puJl it on again without considerable delay. 
When a case of this kind occurs and there are other 
cars on the track near by, take the car nearest to the 
one off the track and couple the two together with a 



Fig. 95. Tllden Wrecklner Prog. 

chain or rope long enough to give plenty of slack. Then 
get together what men are available and push the car 
which is on the track close to the wrecked car. When 
you are ready to pull the wrecked car up on the track, 
start the car which is coupled to it away from it as 
fast as the men can push it. The jerk, when the slack 
of the line is taken up, will pull the car on the track 
as well as an engine can do it. If you have men enough, 
use for the motive power two or more cars if necessary. 
This is what is called 'slacking a car onto track.' 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 4S1 

"Wh«n cars have got off the track and are still on the 
ties, it is best to put blocks or ties between those in the 
track to keep the wheels from sinking between the ties. 
By doing this at once before attempting to put the cars 
back on the track, will generally save considerable time 
and labor, 

"If an engine or car mounts the outside rail of a 
sharp curve, and persists in running off the track, oil 
the rails thoronghly where the most trouble is experi- 
enced. This will generally allow the engine or car to 
go around the curve without leaving the track. 



Ptg. 06. Pal merlon Wrecking Prog, 

"Very rusty rails on a curve track which has not 
been used for some time, often cause the wheel to mount 
the outside rail of a curve, the surface not being smooth 
enough to allow the wheels to slide. 

"If at any time you find the connecting rod of a stub 
switch broken, or you want to use the switch and have 
no switch stand, slip a car link between the ends of 
the lead rails, allowing enough of it to project to hold 



r 



482 ROADBED AND TRACK 

the ends of the moving rails in place, or take a piece of 
plank of the right shape and use it in the same way as 
the link. This is better. 

"When the car trucks are thrown some distance from 
the track in a wreck, the quickest method of putting 
them on the track again if you have no derrick car, is 
to take bars and turn them almost parallel to the track, 
but with one end a little closer to the track than the 
other. Hitch a rope to this end of the truck and to the 
engine or the nearest car which is coupled to the engine, 
and the truck will pull onto the track easily, if there is 
nothing to obstruct its passage. 




Fig. 1)7. Device for Splicing a Broken Chain. 

''A link made of iron or steel and fashioned after 
the pattern shown in Fig. 97 is very handy to have when 
at a wreck pulling cars or engines with a chain. If a 
chain breaks the two broken ends can be brought to- 
gether, and fixed in this link as if held with a grab 
hook. 

"When car trucks are sunk in soft ground at a wreck, 
and there is no derrick car or other lifting apparatus 
at hand, a good way to handle them is to place a tie 
cross ways in the ground about four or five feet from 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 483 

the truck, then place two more long ties or timbers with 
their centers resting across the first tie and their ends 
in front of the truck wheels. The truck can then be 
pushed up on top of the long ties as if on a track. When 
it is centered over the bottom tie, the truck can be 
easily turned to run in any direction. 

'Trackmen in charge of a ballas-ting outfit if they 
are new in the business are often at a loss to know the 
quickest way to put a plow back on the cars if it should 
accidentally be pulled off on the ground. The best way 
to do in such a case is to roll the plow or pull it with 
the engine and cable into the same position on the track 
that it would occupy on the cars; then raise up the 
snout of the plow until you can back the end of a car 
under it, hook the end of the cable to the plow, block 
the car wheels and pull the plow on to the car with the 
engine. 

"If the hind truck of any kind of a car should by 
accident be derailed, broken or rendered useless, the car 
should be taken to the next station by uncoupling it from 
the cars behind it. Remove the disabled truck from the 
track; then take the caboose jacks and raise the body 
of the car enough to slip a tie under it across the track 
rails ; let the car down upon the tie, and by running 
carefully the car can be hauled to the station or side 
track, sliding on the tie. 

"It is always best when a wrecked car is loaded, to 
remove the load, or transfer it to another car on the 
good track. Outfits starting to go to a wreck should 
provide themselves with all the tools and appliances 
necessary for this purpose. 

"Car-truck center-pins which have been twisted or 
broken in a wreck may be removed by going inside the 



^ 



484 ROADBED AND TRACK 

car and cutting away with a hammer and cold chisel 
the iron ring which forms the head and shoulders of 
the pin. The pin may then be driven down through the 
bottom of the car. 

"There should always be a man on hand at a wreck 
to look after such jobs, and promptly remove all brake- 
beams, hanging irons, etc., so as not to delay the work 
after the cars are picked up or ready to be put on the 
track. 

"When pulling on a chain or rope with a locomotive 
at a wreck care should be taken not to have too much 
slack, as chains break easily. The same is true of switch 
ropes, but when they are new or not much worn, they 
will stand a greater slack strain than a chain will. Wire 
cables are preferable to either a chain or a rope for 
pulling, and they will stand a much greater slack strain, 
if not allowed to become twisted out of shape. 

"There is always danger of chains or switch ropes 
breaking when engines are pulling on them at a wreck, 
and those working near should not be allowed to stand 
too close to them. 

"What is generally termed *a dead man' is a device 
sometimes used to anchor a guy or stay rope where 
wrecking cars, engines or derricks have to do very heavy 
hoisting or pulling.- It is made by digging a trench five 
or six feet at a proper distance from the track and paral- 
lel to it. A narrow cross trench is then dug, slanting 
upward from the bottom and middle of the first trench 
to the surface of the ground. A good track tie or heavy 
timber is then buried in the first trench, and the rope 
is passed down through the cross trench and secured 
to the timber." 

In this connection, in speaking of th6 bridge force and 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 



r 



486 ROADBED AND TRACK 

wrecks, Mr. Foster says, in his work on Wooden Trestle 
Bridges : "The quickest method to adopt is to use a 
locomotive and hauling lines, which is illustrated by Fig. 
97A. If this method be adopted, the necessary snatch- 
blocks may be anchored to what are usually termed 'dead- 
men,' properly planted in the ground or anchored to 
trees if anv be found convenient. The anchor usuallv 
adopted is the 'dead man,' which consists of a piece of 
timber about lox 12 in. x 10 feet in length set horizon- 
tally in a trench about 5 feet deep and parallel to the 
center line of main track, at a sufficient distance from 
the wreck to haul out cars, trucks, etc., far enough to 
clear the site of the temporary work. Commencing at 
the center of the trench already dug, dig another at 
right angles to it, and about lo feet long, and sloping 
from the bottom of original trench to surface of ground 
toward the wreck. Pass a good one-inch chain around 
the center of the timber of sufficient length to lead up 
to the top of the ground. To this chain attach a snatch- 
block. Another anchor of the same kind should be placed 
in the ground near the track, to lead the line in the 
proper direction so it can be attached to the road engine, 
as illustrated in Fig. 97A. 

"After the wreck has been cleared away the bridge 
force can proceed with the construction of the tem- 
porary structure. The character of the structure will 
depend upon the physical features of the country and 
the break. The methods usually employed are to build 
either a pile or framed trestle or cribbing. Where an 
embankment is side-washed other methods are some- 
times adopted. One is to dig down the remaining em- 
bankment and bring up the part washed to a level. If 
the fill is cut down much below the grade, it becomes 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 487 

necessary to make a long run-oflf so that the grade will 
not be too steep. Another way is to build what is called 
a shoofly around the break. This method is not advis- 
able except in extreme cases, as the cars are likely to 
run off the track or the train break in two on account 
of sharp curves and steep grades. 

"Where cribbing is employed ordinary track-ties may 
be used for building the cribs. This is a crude method 
of constructing temporary work, and is frequently 
built by men of little experience in construction 
work of any kind, and consequently is likely to give 
trouble. Where the cribs are built in a proper manner 
there is no reason why they should not be perfectly safe. 
The cribs should be brought up as nearly level as pos- 
sible, care being taken to select ties of the same thick- 
ness for the same courses of a crib. For cribs 6 feet 
to 8 feet high single cribs may be used, but for higher 
work the method shown in Fig. 97B makes a firmer 
structure, with less swaying than double cribs built sep- 
arately. The cribs should be capped, and the floor-sys- 
tem built with ties and stringers as in other temporary 
work. Where the bottom is soft a complete floor of ties 
under the cribs may be necessary to give a proper foot- 
ing. This method of bridging a break in the track is 
the most expeditious, as a number of cribs can be built 
at the same time, and in this way a large force of men 
can be worked to advantage." 

Continuing, Mr. Kindelan says: "The first thing to 
do with a wrecked engine, if the frame is good, is to 
take jacks and put the engine in an upright position, 
such as it would occupy if standing on the main track. 
It may then be blocked up and raised sufficiently to place 
under it rails and ties, forming a temporary track. The 



r 



ROADBED AND TRACK 



v.! 5 



BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 489 

main track should then be cut at a rail joint, and lined 
out in an easy curve until the ends of the rails are in 
line with the temporary track. The tracks should then 
be connected, and the engine pulled upon the main track. 
If the engine stands at such an angle as to require a 
very sharp curve in the track over which it is pulled, 
put plenty of oil on the track rails, and elevate the out- 
side rail of the curve. 

"If the engine is only off the rails and still on the 
track ties, additional rails may be spiked, down to the 
ties in front of the wheels like a switch lead, and con- 
nected with a pair of the track rails. The engine may 
be pulled on again over this lead and the main track 
closed. This method is quicker and better for putting 
a derailed engine on the track when more than one truck 
is off the rails, than using frogs or blocking. 

"The first thing to do at any wreck of importance, 
where cars block the main track, is to use the first loco- 
motive which can be put into service and with switch 
ropes pull clear of the tracks all cars, trucks or other 
wreckages which cannot be readily put back on the track 
with the facilities at hand for doing such work. Proper 
care should be taken, in doing this part of the work, 
not to injure freight in the cars. When necessary, re- 
move it from the wrecked cars to a place of safety, and 
pull the cars and trucks into a position alongside the 
track, where it will be handy for the wrecking car to 
pick them up after it arrives. 

"The moment the track is clear of wreckage, the 
track force should go to work ahd repair it, and quickly 
put it in good condition for trains. 

"Track foremen should not allow their men to become 
confused or mixed up with the other gangs of men 



490 ROADBED AND TRACK 

which are present at a wreck, except when it is neces- 
sary for more than one gang of men to work together; 
even then the foreman should keep his own men as 
much together as possible, so as to always be ajble to 
control their actions and work them to the best advan- 
tage. 

"No matter what part of the work at a wreck a fore- 
man is called upon to do, he should act promptly, and 
work with a will to get the wreck cleared up, and the 
track ready for passage of trains with as little delay as 
possible." 



APPENDIXES. 



491 



r 



I 



INDEX TO APPENDIXES. 



A. Tables. 

B. Definitions. 

C. Concrete Piling. 

D. Engineering cuts. 

E. Construction cuts. 

F. Miscellaneous cuts. 



492 



APPENDIX A. 



The subject of curves h^s been fully covered in this 
volume by Mr. Stephens, nevertheless, the following tables 
taken from *The Engineer's Field Book/' by Mr. C. S. 
Cross, may, it is hoped, be of interest and value, and, 
perhaps, in some instances, serve to supplement the meth- 
. ods already described. 

In any event, they may serve for purposes of com- 
parison. 

RAILROAD CURVE TABLES BY C. S. CROSS FOR 

EXPEDITIOUSLY DETERMINING THE 

POINTS AT WHICH TO COMMENCE 

THE CURVING. 

The following tables compiled by Mr. C. S. Cross snow 
the distance from the point of intersection of the tangent 
lines to the beginning of one degree curve, the angle of 
deflection (wangle at center) being known. 

In the columns, under the head of degrees and opposite 
the minutes, are given the distances in feet from the in- 
tersection of tangents to the beginning of one degree 
curve. 

To ascertain the distance for any given degree of curve, 
divide the distance given in the tables for a one degree 
curve, by the degrees of the required curve, and you have 
the distance from the point of intersection to the begin- 
ning or end of curve. 

493 



494 APPENDIX A 

EXAMPLE. 

Required the distance from the point of intersection of 
tangents to the beginning of a two degrees curve, the 
angle of deflection being 25°. 

In the tables under 25°, and opposite o', find 1270.28 
which divided by the degrees of the curve (2°) give 
635.14 feet, the required distance. 

According to Mr. Cross, the radius of a one degree 
curve is 5730 feet. The circle being divided into 360 
parts of one degree (equal angle of deflection) give 360 
chords of one foot in length at the circumference, and 
also a radius of 57.3 ft. 

360 114.6 



3.1416 



= 57.3 



The chord of one foot in length for i degree==57.3 ft. 
radius. 

The chord of 10 feet in length for i degree ^573.0 
ft. radius. 

The chord of 100 feet in length for i degree =15730.0 
ft. radius. 

Or the radius may be calculated by natural sines, thus : 
sin. I : 100 ft. 'chord : sin. 89 ^ 30' : 5730 ft. radius. 

To determine the degree of curvature, having the radius 
given, divide the radius of a one degree curve, 5730, by 
the radius of the given curve. 

EXAMPLE. 

Required the degree of a curve having a radius of 1000 
feet : 

-^ =573°=5'" 43' 48" 



RAILROAD CURVE TABLES 



495 



To determine the length of the curve having the angle 
of deflection given; divide the angle of deflection 
(=angle at centre) by the degrees of the curve, and you 
have the required length of the curve. If there are de- 
grees and minutes in the angle of deflection, the minutes 
should be converted into decimals. — {See Table). 



EXAMPLE. 



. 49 



The angle of deflection being 200 49', — == 0.816. Then 

20,816 is the distance for a one degree curve ; if for a 2 
degree curve, divide this result by 2 ; for a 3 degree curve, 
divide by three, and so on. 

The angle of deflection being given, the following re- 
sults are readily determined. 



Angle of 
deflection. 


Degree of 
curve. 


Deflection 

per 
100 feet. 


Radius of 
curve. 


Distance 
from inter- 
section to 
beginning 

of curve. 


Length of 
curve. 


20" 49' 
20" 49' 
20" 49' 
20" 49' 
20" 49' 


1" 

2" 
3" 

4" 
5" 


0" 30' 

1" 00' 
1" 30' 
2" 00' 
2" 30' 


5730. 

2865. 

1910. 

1432.5 

1146. 


1052.49 
526.24 

. 350.83 
263.12 
210.50 


2081.6 

1040.8 

693.8 

520.4 

416.3 



To ascertain the radius of a curve, having the angle of 
deflection, and the distance from intersection to beginning 
of curve given. Find the distance for the angle of deflec- 
tion in the tables, which divided by 5730 gives the natural 
tangent of half the angle. 



496 APPENDIX A 

■ 

Then divide the distance from intersection to begin- 
ning" of curve by the natural tangent of half the angle, 
^nd you have the radius. 



EXAMPLE. 

Required the radius of a curve, the angle of deflection 
being 20°, and the distance from intersection of tangents 
to beginning of curve 225 feet. 

Under 20"^ and opposite o' in the tables, find 1010.37, 
which divided by 5730 feet gives the natural tangent 
0.17633. Then 225 ft. divided by 0.17633 gives the radius 
1276 feet. 

NATURAL TANGENTS. . 

Mr. Cross says further: "From the tables may also be 
determined the natural tangent for any given number of 
degrees' and minutes from one degree to 45**, by taking 
the distance given in the tables for twice the angle of 
which the tangent is sought, and dividing the same by 
5730.' 



» 



EXAMPLES: 

1st. Required the natural tangent of 30°. Under 60^ 
(twice the angle) find in the tables 3308.21 and divide 
the same by 5730, and you have the natural tangent for 
30^=0.57735. 

2d. Required the natural tangent for an angle of 
7° 28'; in the column of distances under 14° and oppo- 
site 56' (twice the angle) find 750.97, which divided by 
S730 gives the natural tangent for 7° 28'=o.i3io6. 



RAILROAD CURVE TABLES 497 

* 

"When a 66 foot chain is used for the length of sta- 
tions, the radius of a one degree curve, 5730 feet, may 
represent 57.30 chains of 66 feet, and the distances in the 
tables applied the same as for chains of 100 feet in 
length; but the radius as well as the length of stations 
will be proportionally less than for stations of 100 feet in 
length by 1/34 part." 

"If a 66 foot chain is used, the distance after being 
found in the tables, may be divided by 66, and the sta- 
tions in the curve reduced to 75.76 links which are equal 
to 50 feet, one-half the length of the stations generally 
adopted in staking the center line of railroads ; and the 
curve staked out accordingly, turning off one-half the 
number of degrees required for the stations of 100 feet 
in length/' 

"The degree of curvature is understood to express the 
number of degrees per 100 feet, and hence the convenience 
of making the stations of such length as will give a 
definite idea of the degree of curve and length of radius/' 



1 



APPENDIX A 



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10 



APPENDIX A 



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l^ Oi © (N CO 

cc CO ^ ^ 23! 

iC >0 to iC lO 



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lO^COC^rH 
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lO to lO to tQ 



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CO (C CO CO CO 



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cod5iqr-jt>. 

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cot^t^i>t^ 



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l>Qd©(Ni 
t^I^XX 



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'^n ^5? ^5^ ^T ^5^ ^5^ ^3? ^T ^» ^5? ^t ^5^ ^5^ ^9^ ^9^ ^w '^j' ^J' ^^ ^9^ 
lOtOiOtOiO tOtOtOtOtO lOtOiOtOtO lOtOiCtOtC 



c^x-^Sjiio 

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t>coaq>^© 

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to to tO«0 to 



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to to to to 



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RAILROAD CURVE TABLES 



12 



APPENDIX A 



rABLE OF MINUTES WITH COR- 


TABLE OF SECONDS WITH COR- 


RESPONDING DECIMALS. 


RESPONDING DECIMALS. 


M. 


D. 


M. 


D. 


s. 


D. 


S. 
// 


D. 


/ 





/ 


Q 


// - 


Q 





1 


0.0166 


31 


0.5167 


1 


0.0002778 


31 


0.0086111 


2 


0.0333 


32 


0.5333 


2 


0.0005556 


32 


0.0088888 


3 


0.0500 


33 


0.5500 


3 


0.0008333 


33 


0.0091666 


4 


0.0667 


34 


0.5667 


4 


0.0011111 


34 


0.0094444 


5 


0.0833 


35 


0.5833 


5 


0.0013888 


35 


0.0097222 


6 


0.1000 


36 


0.6000 


6 


0.0016666 


36 


0.0100000 


7 


0.1167 


37 


0.6167 


7 


0.0019444 


37 


0.0102777 


8 


0.1333 


38 


0.6333 


8 


0.0022222 


38 


0.0105555 


9 


0.1500 


39 


0.6500 


9 


0.0025000 


39 


0.0108333 


10 


0.1667 


40 


0,6667 


10 


0.0027777 


40 


0.0111111 


11 


0.1833 


41 


0.6833 


11 


0.0030555 


41 


0.0113888 


12 


0,2000 


42 


0.7000 


12 


0.0033333 


42 


0.0116666 


13 


0.2167 


43 


0.7167 


13 


0.0036111 


43 


0.0119444 


14 


0.2333 


44 


0.7333 


14 


0.0038888 


44 


0.0122222 


15 


0.2500 


45 


0.7500 


15 


0.0041666 


45 


0.0125000 


16 


0.2667 


46 


0.7667 


16 


0.0044444 


46 


0.0127777 


17 


0.2833 


47 


0.7833 


17 


0.0047722 


47 


0.0130555 


18 


0.3000 


48 


0.8000 


18 


0.0050000 


48 


0.0133333 


19 


0.3167 


49 


0.8167 


19 


0.0052777 


49 


0.0136111 


20 


0.3333 


50 


0.8333 


20 


0.0055555 


50 


0.0138888 


21 


0.3500 


51 


0.8500 


21 


0.0058333 


51 


0.0141666 


22 


0.3667 


52 


0.8667 


22 


0.0061111 


52 


0.0144444 


23 


0.3833 


53 


0.8833 


23 


0.0063888 


53 


0.0147222 


24 


0.4000 


54 


0.9000 


24 


0.0066666 


54 


0.0150000 


25 


0.4167 


55 


0.9167 


25 


0.0069444 


55 


0.0152777 


26 


0.4333 


56 


0.9333 


26 


0.0072222 


56 


0.0155555 


27 


0.4500 


57 


0.9500 


27 


0.0075000 


57 


0.0158333 


28 


0.4667 


58 


0.9667 


28 


0.0077777 


58 


0.0161111 


29 


0.4833 


59 


0.9833 


29 


0.0080555 


59 


0.0163888 


30 


0.5000 


60 


1.0000 


30 


0.0083333 


60 


0.0166666 



RAILROAD CURVE TABLES 



513 



1 



RAILROAD CURVE TABLE. 

The following Table shows the distance from the point 
of intersection of the tangent lines to the beginning of 
one degree curves, for each 30', the angle of deflection 
(wangle at center) being known. 

LznThe given angle of deflection. 
n.=:The sought for distance. 
in.=Difference for intermediate angles, 



p-- 



14 



APPENDIX A 



RAILROAD CURVE TABLE. 


_I 


II 


III 


SO** 


I 

30^ 


II 


III 


I 


II 


III 


0« 0^ 


25.00 


25.0 


1562.17 


26.8 


60« 


30^ 


3341.62 


33.4 


1 


50.02 


25.0 


31 




1589.04 


26.9 


61 




3375.20 


33.6 


1 30 


75.01 


25.0 


31 


30 


1616.03 


27.0 


61 


SO 


3408.95 


33.8 


2 


99.99 


25.0 


32 




1643.08 


27.0 


62 




3442.93 


34.0 


2 30 


125.03 


25.0 


32 


30 


1670.12 


27.0 


62 


SO 


3477.02 


34.1 


3 


150.07 


25.0 


33 




1697.28 


27.2 


63 




3511.34 


34.3 


3 30 


175.05 


25.0 


33 


30 


1724.56 


27.3 


63 


30 


3545.78 


34.4 


4 


200.09 


25.0 


34 




1751.83 


27.3 


64 




3580.45 


34.7 


4 30 


225.13 


25.0 


34 


30 


1779.22 


27.4 


64 


30 


3615.34 


34.9 


5 


250.17 


25.0 


35 




1806.67 


27.4 


65 




3650.41 


35.1 


5 30 


275.21 


25.0 


35. 


30 


1834.17 


27.5 


65 


SO 


3685.65 


35.2 


6 


300.30 


25.0 


36 




1861.79 


27.6 


66 




3721.06 


35.4 


6 30 


325.36 


25.0 


36 


30 


1889.47 


27.7 


66 


SO 


3756.70 


35.6 


7 


350.44 


25.1 


37 




1917.26 


27.8 


67 




3792.57 


35.9 


7 30 


375.54 


25.1 


37 


80 


1945.05 


27.8 


67 


30 


3828.61 


36.0 


8 


400.70 


25.1 


38 




1973.01 


27.9 


68 




3864.88 


36.3 


8 30 


425.79 


25.1 


38 


30 


2001.03 


28.0 


68 


30 


3901.38 


36.5 


i) 


450.95 


25.1 


39 




2029.11 


28.1 


69 




3938.11 


36.7 


9 30 


476.10 


25.1 


39 


30 


2057.30 


28.2 


69 


30 


3975.01 


36.9 


10 


501.32 


25.2 


40 




2085.55 


28.2 


70 




4012.15 


37.1 


10 30 


526.53 


25.2 


40 


30 


2113.91 


28.4 


70 


30 


4049.56 


37.4 


11 


551.74 


25.2 


41 




2142.33 


28.4 


71 




4087.15 


37.6 


11 30 


576.95 


25.2 


41 


30 


2170.92 


28.6 


71 


30 


4124.97 


37.8 


12 


602.22 


25.3 


42 




2199.52 


28.6 


72 




4163.07 


38.1 


12 30 


627.55 


25.3 


42 


30 


2228.28 


28.8 


72 


30 


4201.41 


88.3 


13 


652.87 


25.3 


43 




2257.10 


28.8 


73 




4239.97 


38.6 


13 30 


678.20 


25.3 


43 


30 


2286.04 


28.9 


73 


30 


4278.76 


38.8 


14 


703.53 


25.3 


44 




2315.09 


29.0 


74 




4317.84 


88.9 


14 30 


728.97 


25.4 


44 


30 


2344.20 


29.1 


74 


30 


4357.15 


39.3 


15 


754.35 


25.4 


45 




2373.42 


29.2 


75 




4396.74 


39.6 


15 30 


779.79 


25.4 


45 


30 


2402.76 


29.3 


75 


30 


4436.62 


39.9 


16 


805.29 


25.5 


46 




2432.21 


29.4 


76 




4476.73 


40.1 


16 30 


&30.79 


25.5 


46 


30 


2461.78 


29.6 


76 


30 


4517.13 


40.4 


17 


856.35 


25.5 


47 




2491.46 


29.7 


77 




4557.81 


40.7 


17 30 


881.90 


25.5 


47 


30 


2521.26 


29.8 


77 


30 


4598.78 


41.0 


18 


907.52 


25.6 


48 




2551.11 


29.8 


78 




4640.04 


41.3 


18 30 


933.18 


25.6 


48 


30 


2581.13 


30.0 


78 


30 


4681.58 


41.5 


19 


958.86 


25.7 


49 




2611.27 


30.1 


79 




4723.41 


41.8 


19 30 


984.58 


25.7 


49 


30 


2641.53 


30.3 


79 


30 


4765.58 


42.2 


20 


1010.37 


25.8 


50 




2671.90 


30.4 


80 




4808.04 


42.5 


20 30 


1036.15 


25.8 


50 


30 


2702.44 


30.5 


80 


30 


4850.79 


42.7 


21 


1062.00 


25.8 


51 




2733.04 


30.6 


81 




4898.88 


43.1 


21 30 


1089.90 


25.9 


51 


30 


2763.81 


30.8 


81 


30 


4937.25 


43.3 


22 


1113.80 


25.9 


52 




2794.69 


30.9 


82 




4980.97 


43.7 


22 30 


1139.75 


25.9 


52 


30 


2825.69 


31.0 


82 


30 


5025.04 


44.1 


23 


1165.76 


26.0 


53 




2856.86 


31.2 


83 




5069.44 


44.4 


23 30 


1191.84 


26.1 


53 


30 


2888.15 


31.3 


83 


30 


5114.20 


44.8 


24 


1217.96 


26.1 


54 




2919.55 


31.4 


84 




5159.29 


45.1 * 


24 30 


1244.10 


26.1 


54 


30 


2951.12 


316 


84 


30 


5204.73 


45.4 


25 


1270.28 


26.2 


55 




2982.81 


31.7 


86 




5250.57 


46.8 


25 30 


1296.58 


26.3 


55 


30 


3014.67 


31.9 


85 


30 


5296.75 


46.2 


26 


1322.88 


26.3 


56 




3046.64 


32.0 


86 




5343.28 


46.5 


26 30 


1349.24 


26.4 


56 


30 


3078.79 


32.2 


86 


30 


5390.21 


46.9 


27 


1375.65 


26.4 


57 




3111.10 


32.3 


87 




5437.54 


47.3 


27 30 


1402.10 


26.4 


57 


30 


3143.53 


32.4 


87 


30 


5485.27 


47.7 


28 


1428.65 


26.5 


58 




3176.14 


32.6 


88 




5533.35 


48.1 


28 30 


1455.25 


26.6 


58 


30 


3208.91 


32.8 


88 


30 


5581.88 


48.5 


29 


1481.89 


26.6 


59 




3241.86 


32.9 


89 




5630.81 


48.9 


29 30 


1508.59 


26.7 


59 


30 


3274.92 


33.1 


89 


30 


5680.20 


49.4 


30 


1535.30 


26.7 


60 




3308.21 


33.3 


90 




5730.00 


49.8 



RAILRO^\D CURVE TABLES 515 



^ 



EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT TABLES, 

FOR EXPEDITIOUSLY DETERMINING THE 

CUBIC YARDS FROM THE MEAN AREA. 

EXPLANATION OF TABLES. 

The tables are calculated for a distance of loo feet be- 
tween transverse sections. 

In the left hand column are given the areas in feet. To 
obtain the cubic yards for areas, without decimals, look 
in the second column under the head of o, and opposite 
the given area, find the cubic yards. 

Example. — Required the number of cubic yards for 
an area of 190 feet. In the second column under the 
head of o, and opposite 190 in the first column, find 
703.70 cubic yards. 

To obtain the cubic yards for a less distance than 100 
feet, multiply the cubic yards found in the tables by the 
given distance, and point off the fractional parts of 100 
feet. 

If the area has decimal parts, pass the eye to the right, 
opposite the area of the whole number, and under the 
head of such decimal will be found the number of yards. 

Example. — -Required the cubic yards for an area of 
105.4 feet. In the sixth column, under the head of 40, 
and opposite 105 in the first column, are given 390.37 
cubic yards. 

If the yards for an area greater than 354.90, and not 
exceeding 3549. feet, are required, the decimal point of 
the area given in the tables, and that of the cubic yards, 
being removed one figure to the right, will give the re- 



I g APPENDIX A 

jired yards. If there are decimal parts, add the clibic 
ards found opposite o. in the first column, under tne 
ead of such decimal. 

Example.— Required the cubic yards for an area of 
075 feet; remove the decimal point one figure to the 
^ft and find the yards for an area of 197-5 feet=73i-4». 
lien remove the decimal point one figure to the right anci 
ou have 7314.8 cubic yards. If there is a decimal, add 
he' cubic vards found for such decimal. 

Or to obtain the cubic yards for an area exceeding 
549 feet, take one-half of the area, and seek the corre- 
ponding- yards in tables and multiply the same by 2. 



RAILRO^U) CURVE TABLES 



517 



1 







EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT TABLES 


• 







0.00 


0.10 


0.20 


0.30 


0.40 


0.50 


0.60 


0.70 


0.80 


0.90 


0.00 


0.87 


0.74 


1.11 


1.48 


1.85 


2.22 


2.59 


2.96 


3.33 


1 


8.70 


4.07 


4.45 


4.81 


6.19 


6.66 


6.98 


6.30 


6.67 


7.04 


2 


7.41 


7.78 


8.16 


8.52 


8.89 


9.26 


9.63 


10.00 


10.37 


10.74 


3 


11.11 


11.48 


11.85 


12.22 


12.69 


12.96 


13.88 


13.70 


14.07 


14.44 


4 


14.82 


15.19 


15.66 


15.98 


16.80 


16.67 


17.04 


17.41 


17.78 


18.15 


5 


18.52 


18.89 


19.26 


19.68 


20.00 


20.37 


20.74 


21.11 


21.48 


21.85 


6 


22.22 


22.59 


22.96 


23.33 


23.70 


24.07 


24.44 


24.82 


25.19 


25.56 


7 


25.98 


26.80 


26.67 


27.04 


27.41 


27.78 


28.15 


28.62 


28.89 


29.26 


8 


29.68 


80.00 


80.87 


80.74 


31.11 


81.48 


81.85 


82.22 


82.59 


82.96 


9 


83.33 


88.70 


34.07 


84.44 


84.82 


85.19 


85.56 


86.98 


86.80 


86.67 


10 


87.04 


87.41 


37.78 


88.15 


88.52 


88.89 


89.26 


89.68 


40.00 


40.37 


11 


40.74 


41.11 


41.48 


41.85 


42.22 


42.59 


42.96 


48.38 


43.70 


44.07 


12 


44.44 


44.82 


45.19 


45.56 


45.93 


46.30 


46.67 


47.04 


47.41 


47.78 


13 


48.15 


48.52 


48.89 


49.26 


49.63 


60.00 


50.87 


60.74 


61.11 


61.48 


14 


51.85 


52.22 


62.59 


52.96 


63.33 


63.70 


64.07 


64.44 


64.82 


65.19 


15 


65.56 


55.98 


66.80 


66.67 


57.04 


67.41 


67.78 


58.16 


68.52 


58.89 


16 


59.26 


69.68 


60.00 


60.37 


60.74 


61.11 


61.48 


61.85 


62.22 


62.59 


17 


62.96 


63.88 


68.70 


64.07 


64.44 


64.82 


65.19 


65.56 


65.93 


66.30 


18 


66.67 


67.04 


67.41 


67.78 


68.15 


68.52 


68.89 


69.26 


69.63 


70.00 


19 


70.87 


70.74 


71.11 


71.48 


71.85 


72.22 


72.59 


72.96 


73.88 


73.70 


20 


74.07 


74.44 


74.82 


75.19 


75-56 


75.93 


76.80 


76.67 


77.04 


77.41 


21 


77.78 


78.15 


78.52 


78.89 


79.26 


79.63 


80.00 


80.37 


80.74 


81.11 


22 


81.48 


81.85 


82.22 


82.59 


82.96 


83.33 


88.70 


84.07 


84.44 


84.82 


23 


85.19 


85.56 


85.93 


86.30 


86.67 


87.04 


87.41 


87.78 


88.15 


88.52 


24 


88.89 


89.26 


89.63 


90.00 


90.87 


90.74 


91.11 


91.48 


91.85 


92.22 


25 


92.59 


92.96 


98.38 


93.70 


94.07 


94.44 


94.82 


95.19 


95.56 


95.93 


26 


96.30 


96.67 


97.04 


97.41 


97.78 


98.15 


98.52 


98.89 


99.26 


99.63 


27 


100.00 


100.87 


100.74 


101.11 


101.48 


101.85 


102.22 


102.59 


102.96 


103.33 


28 


103.70 


104.07 


104.44 


104.82 


105.19 


105.56 


105.93 


106.30 


106.67 


107.04 


29 


107.41 


107.78 


108.15 


108.52 


108.89 


109.26 


109.68 


110.00 


110.37 


110.74 


30 


111.11 


111.48 


111.85 


112.22 


112.59 


112.96 


118.38 


113.70 


114.07 


114.44 


31 


114.81 


115.18 


115.56 


115.92 


116.29 


116.67 


117.03 


117.40 


117.77 


118.15 


32 


118.52 


118.89 


119.26 


119.63 


120.00 


120.37 


120.74 


121.11 


121.48 


121.85 


33 


122.22 


122.59 


122.96 


123.38 


123.70 


124.07 


124.44 


124.81 


125.18 


125.55 


34 


125.92 


126.80 


126.66 


127.03 


127.40 


127.77 


128.14 


128.51 


128.88 


129.26 


35 


129.63 


180.00 


180.87 


180.74 


131.11 


131.48 


131.«S 


132.22 


132.59 


132.96 


36 


188.88 


188.70 


184.07 


134.44 


134.81 


135.18 


185.55 


135.92 


136.29 


136.67 


37 


137.04 


187.41 


187.78 


138.15 


138.52 


138.89 


139.26 


139.63 


140.00 


140.37 


38 


140.74 


141.11 


141.48 


141.85 


142.22 


142.59 


142.96 


143.33 


143.70 


144.07 


39 


144.44 


144.81 


145.18 


145.56 


145.92 


146.29 


146.66 


147.03 


147.40 


147.78 


40 


148.15 


148.52 


148.89 


149.26 


149.63 


160.00 


150.37 


150.74 


151.11 


151.48 


41 


151.85 


152.22 


152.59 


152.96 


153.33 


153.70 


154.07 


154.44 


154.81 


155.18 


42 


155.55 


155.92 


156.29 


156.66 


157.03 


157.40 


157.77 


158.14 


158.51 


158.89 


43 


159.26 


159.68 


160.00 


160.37 


160.74 


161.11 


161.48 


161.85 


162.22 


162.59 


44 


162.96 


168.88 


168.70 


164.07 


164.44 


164.81 


165.18 


165.55 


165.92 


166.30 



516 



APPENDIX A 



quired yards. If there are decimal parts, add the cCibic 
yards found opposite o. in the first column, under the 
head of such decimal. 

Example. — Required the cubic yards for an area of 
1975 i^^t; remove the decimal point one figure to the 
left, and find the yards for an area of 197.5 feet=73i.48, 
then remove the decimal point one figure to the right and 
you have 7314.8 cubic yards. If there is a decimal, add 
the cubic yards found for such decimal. 

Or, to obtain the cubic yards for an area exceeding 
3549 feet, take one-half of the area, and seek the corre- 
sponding yards in tables and multiply the same by 2. 



RAILRO^VD CURVE TABLES 



51^ 







EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT TABLES 


. 





0.00 


0.10 


0.20 


0.30 


0.40 


0.50 


0.60 


0.70 


0.80 


0.90 


0.00 


0.37 


0.74 


1.11 


1.48 


1.85 


2.22 


2.59 


2.96 


8.33 


1 


3.70 


4.07 


4.46 


4.81 


6.19 


6.66 


5.98 


6.30 


6.67 


7.04 


2 


7.41 


7.78 


8.15 


8.52 


8.89 


9.26 


9.63 


10.00 


10.37 


10.74 


3 


11.11 


11.48 


11.85 


12.22 


12.69 


12.96 


13.33 


13.70 


14.07 


14.44 


4 


14.82 


15.19 


16.66 


15.98 


16.30 


16.67 


17.04 


17.41 


17.78 


18.16 


5 


18.52 


18.89 


19.26 


19.63 


20.00 


20.37 


20.74 


21.11 


21.48 


21.85 


6 


22.22 


22.59 


22.96 


23.33 


23.70 


24.07 


24.44 


24.82 


25.19 


25.66 


7 


25.93 


26.30 


26.67 


27.04 


27.41 


27.78 


28.15 


28.52 


28.89 


29.26 


8 


29.63 


80.00 


80.87 


30.74 


31.11 


81.48 


81.85 


82.22 


82.69 


32.96 


9 


83.83 


88.70 


84.07 


34.44 


84.82 


86.19 


85.66 


85.98 


86.80 


86.67 


10 


87.04 


87.41 


37.78 


38.15 


88.62 


88.89 


89.26 


89.63 


40.00 


40.37 


11 


40.74 


41.11 


41.48 


41.85 


42.22 


42.59 


42.96 


43.83 


43.70 


44.07 


12 


44.44 


44.82 


45.19 


45.56 


45.98 


46.30 


46.67 


47.04 


47.41 


47.78 


13 


48.15 


48.52 


48.89 


49.26 


49.63 


50.00 


50.37 


60.74 


61.11 


61.48 


14 


61.85 


52.22 


62.59 


62.96 


53.33 


63.70 


54.07 


54.44 


54.82 


55.19 


15 


55.56 


55.93 


66.80 


66.67 


67.04 


57.41 


67.78 


58.16 


58.52 


58.89 


16 


59.26 


59.63 


60.00 


60.37 


60.74 


61.11 


61.48 


61.85 


62.22 


62.59 


17 


62.96 


63.38 


68.70 


64.07 


64.44 


64.82 


65.19 


66.66 


65.93 


66.30 


18 


66.67 


67.04 


67.41 


67.78 


68.15 


68.52 


68.89 


69.26 


69.63 


70.00 


19 


70.37 


70.74 


71.11 


71.48 


71.86 


72.22 


72.59 


72.96 


73.33 


73.70 


20 


74.07 


74.44 


74.82 


75.19 


75-56 


75.93 


76.30 


76.67 


77.04 


77.41 


21 


77.78 


78.15 


78.52 


78.89 


79.26 


79.63 


80.00 


80.37 


80.74 


81.11 


22 


81.48 


81.85 


82.22 


82.59 


82.96 


83.as 


83.70 


84.07 


84.44 


84.82 


23 


85.19 


85.66 


86.93 


86.30 


86.67 


87.04 


87.41 


87.78 


88.15 


88.52 


24 


88.89 


89.26 


89.68 


90.00 


90.37 


90.74 


91.11 


91.48 


91.85 


92.22 


25 


92.59 


92.96 


93.38 


93.70 


94.07 


94.44 


94.82 


95.19 


95.56 


95.98 


26 


96.30 


96.67 


97.04 


97.41 


97.78 


98.15 


98.52 


98.89 


99.26 


99.63 


27 


100.00 


100.37 


100.74 


101.11 


101.48 


101.85 


102.22 


102.59 


102.96 


103.33 


28 


103.70 


104.07 


104.44 


104.82 


105.19 


105.56 


105.93 


106.30 


106.67 


107.04 


29 


107.41 


107.78 


108.15 


108.52 


108.89 


109.26 


109.68 


110.00 


110.37 


110.74 


30 


111.11 


111.48 


111.85 


112.22 


112.59 


112.96 


113.33 


113.70 


114.07 


114.44 


31 


114.81 


115.18 


115.56 


116.92 


116.29 


116.67 


117.03 


117.40 


117.77 


118.15 


32 


118.52 


118.89 


119.26 


119.63 


120.00 


120.37 


120.74 


121.11 


121.48 


121.85 


33 


122.22 


122.59 


122.96 


123.33 


123.70 


124.07 


124.44 


124.81 


125.18 


125.65 


34 


125.92 


126.80 


126.66 


127.03 


127.40 


127.77 


128.14 


128.51 


128.88 


129.26 


35 


129.63 


180.00 


130.37 


130.74 


131.11 


131.48 


131.85 


132.22 


132.59 


132.96 


36 


133.83 


133.70 


184.07 


134.44 


134.81 


135.18 


135.55 


136.92 


136.29 


136.67 


37 


137.04 


137.41 


137.78 


138.15 


138.52 


138.89 


189.26 


139.63 


140.00 


140.37 


38 


140.74 


141.11 


141.48 


141.85 


142.22 


142.59 


142.96 


143.33 


143.70 


144.07 


30 


144.44 


144.81 


145.18 


145.66 


146.92 


146.29 


146.66 


147.03 


147.40 


147.78 


40 


148.15 


148.52 


148.89 


149.26 


149.63 


150.00 


150.37 


150.74 


151.11 


151.48 


41 


151.85 


152.22 


162.69 


152.96 


153.83 


153.70 


154.07 


154.44 


154.81 


155.18 


42 


155.55 


156.92 


156.29 


156.66 


157.03 


157.40 


157.77 


158.14 


158.51 


158.89 


43 


159.26 


169.63 


160.00 


160.37 


160.74 


161.11 


161.48 


161.85 


162.22 


162.59 


44 


162.96 


163.88 


163.70 


164.07 


164.44 


164.81 


165.18 


165.55 


165.92 166.30 



IS 



APPENDIX A 



EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT TABLES. 




0.00 


0.10 


0.20 


0.30 


0.40 


0.50 


0.60 


0.70 


0.80 


0.90 


15 


166.67 


167.04 


167.41 


167.78 


168.16 


168.52 


168.89 


169.26 


169.63 


170.00 


16 


170.37 


170.74 


171.11 


171.48 


171.85 


172.22 


172.59 


172.96 


173.33 


173.70 


17 


174.07 


174.44 


174.81 


175.18 


175.55 


175.92 


176.29 


176.66 


177.03 


177.41 


1« 


177.78 


178.15 


178.52 


178.89 


179.26 


179.63 


180.00 


180.37 


180.74 


181.11 


19 


181.48 


181.85 


182.22 


182.59 


182.96 


183.33 


183.70 


184.07 


184.44 


184.81 


VO 


185.18 


ia5.55 


185.92 


186.29 


186.66 


187.03 


187.40 


187.77 


188.14 


188..52 


U 


188.H9 


189.26 


189.63 


190.00 


190.37 


190.74 


191.11 


191.48 


191. a5 


192.22 


^2 


192.59 


192.96 


193.33 


193.70 


194.07 


194.44 


194.81 


195.18 


195.55 


195.93 


'>3 


196.80 


196.67 


197.04 


197.41 


197.78 


198.15 


198.52 


198.89 


199.26 


11K).63 


A 


200.00 


200.37 


200.74 


201.11 


201.48 


201.85 


202.22 


202.59 


202.96 


203.33 


V) 


203.70 


204.07 


204.44 


204.81 


205.18 


205.65 


205.92 


206.29 


206.66 


207.03 


■>6 


207.41 


207.78 


208.15 


208.52 


208.89 


209.26 


209.63 


210.00 


210.37 


210.74 


■>7 


211.11 


211.48 


211.85 


212.22 


212.59 


212.96 


213.a3 


213.70 


214.07 


214.44 


)S 


214.81 


215.18 


215.55 


215.92 


216.29 


216 66 


217.0S 


217.40 


217.77 


218.15 


')9 


218.52 


218.89 


219.26 


219.63 


220.00 


220.37 


220.74 


221.11 


221.48 


221.85 


lO 


222.22 


222.59 


222.96 


223.33 


223.70 


224.07 


224.44 


224.81 


W5.18 


225.55 


)1 


225.92 


226.29 


226.66 


227.03 


227.40 


227.77 


228.14 


228.51 


2'?i<.88 


229.26 


i2 


229.63 


230.00 


230.37 


230.74 


231.11 


231.48 


231.85 


232.22 


232.59 


232.96 


>3 


233.33 


233.70 


234.07 


234.44 


234 81 


235.18 


235.55 


235.92 


236.29 


236.67 


>4 


237.04 


237.41 


237.78 


238.15 


238.52 


238.89 


239.26 


239.63 


240.00 


240.37 


« 


240.74 


241.11 


241.48 


241.85 


242.22 


242.59 


242.96 


243.33 


243.70 


244.07 


•^ 


244.44 


244.81 


245.18 


245.55 


245.92 


246.30 


246.67 


247.04 


247.41 


247.78 


1 


248.15 


248.52 


248.89 


249.26 


249.63 


250.00 


250.37 


250.74 


251.11 


251.48 


;s 


251.85 


252.22 


252.59 


252.96 


253.33 


253.70 


254.07 


254.44 


254.81 


255.18 


9 


255.56 


255.93 


256.30 


256.67 


257.04 


257.41 


257.78 


258.15 


258.52 


258.89 





259.26 


259.63 


260.00 


260.37 


260.74 


261.11 


261.48 


261.85 


262.22 


262.59 


1 


262.96 


263.33 


263.70 


264.07 


264.44 


264.81 


265.18 


265.55 


265.92 


266.30 


2 


26(j.67 


267.04 


267.41 


267.78 


268.15 


268.52 


268.89 


269.26 


269.63 


270.00 


3 


270.37 


270.74 


271.11 


271.48 


271.a5 


272.22 


272.59 


272.96 


273.33 


273.70 


1 


274.07 


274.44 


274.81 


275.18 


275.55 


275.92 


276.29 


276.66 


277.04 


277.41 


5 


277.78 


278.15 


278.52 


278.89 


279.26 


279.63 


280.00 


280.37 


280.74 


281.11 




281.48 


281.85 


282.22 


282.59 


282.96 


283.a3 


283.70 


284.07 


284.44 


284.81 


J 


285.18 


285.56 


285.93 


286.30 


286.67 


287.04 


287.41 


287.78 


288.15 


288.52 


i 


288.89 


289.26 


289.63 


290.00 


290.37 


290.74 


291.11 


291.48 


291.85 


292.22 


) 


292.59 


292.96 


293.33 


293.70 


294.07 


294.44 


294.81 


295.18 


295.55 


295.93 


) 


296.30 


296.67 


297.04 


297.41 


297.78 


298.15 


298.52 


298.89 


299.26 


299.63 




300.00 


300.37 


300.74 


301.11 


301.48 


301.86 


802.22 


302.59 


302.96 


803.33 


> 
* 


3a3.70 


304.07 


304.44 


304 81 


305.18 


305.55 


305.92 


806.29 


30(>.66 


307.03 


» 


307.41 


307.78 


308.15 


308.,52 


308.89 


309.26 


809.63 


310.00 


310.37 


310.74 




311.11 


311.48 


311.85 


312.22 


312.59 


312.96 


813.33 


313.70 


314.07 


314.44 




314.81 


315.19 


315.5^5 


315.93 


316.30 


316.67 


817.04 


317.41 


817.78 


318.15 




318..V2 


318.S9 


319.2r. 


319.63 


320.00 


320.37 


820.74 


321.11 


821.48 


821.85 




32*2. 22 322.59 


322.96 


323..S3 


.323.70 


324.07 


324.44 


324.81 


325.18 


325.55 




325.«»2 


326.. SO 


:^26.67 


327.04 


327.41 


327.78 


328.15 


328.52 


328.89 


329.'26 


• 


329.G3 


3:i0.00 


330.37 


3:^.74 


331.11 


331.48 


331.85 


332.22 


332.59 


3S2.96 



^ 



RAILROAD CURVE TABLES 



519 



EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT TABLES. 


90 


0.00 


0.10 


0.20 


0.30 


0.40 


0.50 

335.18 


0.60 


0.70 


0.80 


0.90 


333.33 


a33.70 


334.07 


a34.44 


334.81 


3.35.55 


335.92 


336.29 


336.67 


91 


337.04 


337.41 


337.78 


3:w.i5 


3:^.52 


338.89 


339.25 


339.62 


339.99 


340.37 


92 


340.74 


341.11 


341.48 


341.85 


342.22 


342.59 


342.96 


343.33 


343.70 


344.07 


93 


344.44 


344.81 


345.18 


345.56 


345.93 


346.30 


346.67 


347.03 


347.40 


347.78 


94 


348.15 


348.52 


348.89 


349.26 


349.63 


350.00 


350.37 


350.74 


351.11 


351.48 


96 


361.85 


352.22 


852.59 


352.96 


353.33 


363.70 


354.07 


354.44 


364.81 


356.18 


96 


356.55 


356.93 


366.30 


356.67 


357.04 


357.41 


357.78 


358.15 


368.52 


368.89 


97 


359.26 


369.63 


360.00 


360.37 


360.74 


361.11 


361.48 


361.85 


362.22 


362.59 


98 


362.96 


363.33 


363.70 


364.07 


364.44 


364.81 


365.18 


365.55 


365.93 


366.30 


99 


366.67 


367.04 


367.41 


367.78 


368.15 


368.52 


368.89 


369.26 


369.63 


370.00 


100 


370.37 


370.74 


371.11 


371.48 


371.85 


372.22 


372.59 


372.96 


373.33 


373.70 


101 


374.07 


374.44 


374.81 


375.18 


375.55 


375.92 


376.29 


376.67 


377.04 


377.41 


102 


377.78 


378.15 


378.52 


378.89 


379.26 


379.(« 


380.00 


380.37 


380.74 


381.11 


103 


381.48 


381.86 


382.22 


382.59 


382.96 


' 383.33 


383.70 


384.07 


384.44 


384.81 


104 


385 18 


385.55 


385.92 


386.29 


386.67 


387.04 


387.41 


387.78 


388.15 


388.62 


105 


388.89 


389.26 


389.63 


390.00 


390.37 


390.74 


391.11 


391.48 


391.85 


392.22 


106 


392.59 


392.96 


393.33 


393.70 


394.07 


394.44 


.394.81 


3a5.18 


•395.55 


395.92 


107 


396.30 


396.67 


397.04 


397.41 


397.78 


398.15 


398.52 


398.89 


399.26 


399.63 


108 


400.00 


400.37 


400.74 


401.11 


401.48 


401.85 


402.22 


402.59 


402.96 


403.33 


109 


403.70 


404.07 


404.44 


404.81 


405.18 


405.55 


405 92 


406.29 


406.67 


407.04 


110 


407.41 


4(y7.78 


408.15 


408.52 


408.89 


409.26 


409.63 


410.00 


410.37 


410.74 


111 


411.11 


411.48 


411.85 


412.22 


412.59 


412.96 


413.33 


413.70 


414.07 


414.44 


112 


414.81 


415.18 


415.55 


415.92 


416.29 


416.67 


417.04 


417.41 


417.78 


418.15 


113 


418.52 


418.89 


419.26 


419.63 


420.00 


420.37 


420.74 


421.11 


421.48 


421. a5 


114 


422.22 


422.59 


422.96 


423.33 


423.70 


424.07 


424.44 


424.81 


425.18 


425.56 


115 


425.93 


426.30 


426.67 


427.04 


427.41 


427.78 


428.15 


428.52 


428.89 


429.26 


116 


429.63 


430.00 


430.37 


430.74 


431.11 


431.48 


431.85 


432.22 


432.59 


432.96 


117 


433.33 


433.70 


434.07 


434.44 


434.81 


435.18 


435.55 


435.92 


436.29 


436.67 


118 


437.04 


437.41 


437.78 


438.15 


438.52 


438.89 


439.26 


4.39.63 


440.00 


440.37 


119 


440.74 


441.11 


441.48 


441.85 


442.22 


442.59 


442.96 


443.33 


443.70 


444.07 


120 


444.44 


444.81 


445.18 


445.55 


445.92 


446.29 


446.67 


447.04 


447.41 


447.78 


121 


448.15 


448.52 


448.89 


449.26 


449.63 


450.00 


450.37 


450.74 


451.11 


451.48 


vn 


451.85 


452.22 


452.59 


452.96 


453.33 


453.70 


454.07 


454.44 


454.81 


455.18 


123 


455.55 


456.92 


456.29 


456.67 


457.04 


457.41 


457.78 


458.15 


458.52 


458.89 


124 


459.26 


469.63 


460.00 


460.37 


460.74 


461.11 


461.48 


461.85 


462.22 


462.59 


125 


462.% 


463.33 


463.70 


464.07 


464.44 


464.81 


465.18 


465.55 


466.93 


466.30 


126 


466.67 


467.04 


467.41 


467.78 


468.15 


468.52 


468.89 


469.26 


469.63 


470.00 


127 


470.37 


470.74 


471.11 


471. 4H 


471. K-i 


472 22 


472.59 


472.96 


473.33 


473.70 


128 


474.07 


474.44 


474.81 


475.18 


475.56 


475!53 


476.30 


476.67 


477.04 


477.41 


129 


477.78 


478.15 


478.52 


478.89 


479.26 


479.63 


480.00 


480.37 


480.74 


481.11 


130 


481.48 


481.85 


482.22 


482.59 


482.96 


483.33 


483.70 


484.07 


484.44 


484.81 


131 


485.18 


485.55 


485.92 


486.29 


486.67 


487.04 


487.41 


487.78 


488.15 


488 52 


132 


488.89 


489.26 


489.63 


490.00 


4{K).37 


■ 490.74 


491.11 


491.48 


491.85 


492.22 


133 


492.59 


492.96 


493.33 


493.70 


4V)4.07 


4iM.44 


494.81 


495.19 


495.56 


495.93 


134 


496.30 


496.67 


497.04 


497.41 


497.78 


498.15 


498.52 


498.89 


499.26 


499.63 



20 



APPENDIX A 



EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT TABLES. 




0.00 


0.10 


0.20 


0.30 


0.40 


0.50 


0.60 


0.70 


0.80 


0.90 


Ife 


500.00 


500.37 


500.74 


501.11 


601.48 


501.85 


502.22 


502.59 


502.% 


503.88 


L36 


603.70 


504.07 


604.44 


504.81 


605.18 


505.66 


505.93 


506.30 


506.67 


507.04 


137 


507.41 


507.78 


608.15 


508.52 


508.89 


509.26 


509.63 


510.00 


610.37 


510.74 


L38 


511.11 


511.48 


511.85 


512.22 


512.59 


512.96 


613.33 


513.70 


514.07 


514.44 


L39 


514.81 


615.18 


515.55 


515.92 


516.29 


516.67 


517.04 


617.41 


517.78 


518.15 


L40 


518.52 


518.89 


519.26 


519.63 


520.00 


620.37 


520.74 


521.11 


521.48 


521.85 


L41 


522.22 


622.59 


622.96 


523.33 


523.70 


524.07 


524.44 


624.81 


525.19 


525.56 


[42 


525.93 


626.30 


626.67 


527.04 


527.41 


527.78 


528.15 


628.52 


528.89 


529.26 


143 


529.63 


530.00 


530.37 


630.74 


531.11 


531.48 


631.85 


532.22 


5.32.59 


532.94 


144 


533.33 


633.70 


534.07 


634.44 


534.81 


635.18 


536.56 


536.93 


536.30 


536.67 


L45 


637.04 


537.41 


637.78 


638.15 


538.52 


538.89 


539.26 


539.63 


540.00 


540.37 


i4G 


540.74 


541.11 


■ 541.48 


641.85 


542.22 


542.59 


542.96 


543.33 


543.70 


544.07 


L47 


544.44 


544.81 


545.18 


545.66 


545.93 


646.30 


646.67 


647.04 


547.41 


547.78 


L48 


548.15 


548.52 


648.89 


549.26 


649.(» 


650.00 


650.37 


5.')0.74 


551.11 


551.48 


L49 


651.85 


552.22 


652.59 


562.96 


653.33 


653.70 


554.07 


554.44 


554.81 


555.18 


L50 


555.55 


655.93 


656.30 


556 67 


657.04 


557.41 


557.78 


558.15 


558.52 


568.89 


L51 


559.26 


569.63 


660.00 


560.37 


660.74 


661.11 


561.48 


661.85 


562 22 


562.59 


L52 


562.96 


563.33 


563.70 


564.07 


664.44 


664.81 


505.18 


565 56 


566.93 


566.80 


153 


566.67 


567.04 


567.41 


567.78 


668.15 


668.52 


568.89 


669.26 


569.63 


570.00 


154 


570.37 


570.74 


571.11 


671.48 


571.85 


672.22 


672.59 


572.96 


673.33 


573.70 


L55 


674.07 


674.44 


674.81 


675.18 


575.56 


675.93 


576.30 


576.67 


577.04 


577.41 


L66 


577.78 


578.16 


678.52 


578.89 


679.26 


579.63 


680.00 


580.37 


580.74 


581.11 


L57 


581.48 


581.86 


582.22 


582.59 


682.96 


583.33 


583.70 


584.07 


684.44 


584.81 


L58 


585.18 


585.56 


585.92 


68(».29 


586.66 


587.04 


587.41 


687.78 


588.15 


588.52 


[59 


588.89 


589.26 


589.63 


590.00 


590.37 


590.74 


591.11 


691.48 


59L86 


592.22 


160 


592.59 


592.96 


593.33 


693.70 


694.07 


594.44 


594.81 


595.18 


696.55 


595.92 


161 


5%.29 


696.67 


597.04 


697,41 


697.78 


598.15 


698.52 


698.89 


599.26 


599.63 


L62 


600.00 


600.37 


600.74 


601.11 


601.48 


601.85 


602.22 


602.59 


602.96 


608.83 


163 


603.70 


604.07 


604.44 


604.81 


606.18 


605.55 


605.92 


606.30 


606.67 


607.04 


164 


607.41 


607.78 


608.15 


608.52 


608.89 


609.26 


609.63 


610.00 


610.37 


610.74 


165 


611.11 


611.48 


611.85 


612.22 


612.69 


612.96 


613.33 


618.70 


614.07 


614.44 


166 


614.81 


615.18 


615.56 


615.92 


616.29 


616.67 


617.04 


617.41 


617.78 


618.15 


167 


618.52 


618.89 


619.26 


619.63 


620.00 


620.37 


620.74 


621.11 


621.48 


621.85 


168 


622.22 


622.59 


622.96 


623.33 


623.70 


624.07 


624.44 


624.81 


625.18 


625.56 


L69 


625.93 


626.30 


626.67 


627.04 


627.41 


627.78 


628.16 


628.52 


628.89 


629.26 


170 


629.63 


630.00 


630.37 


630.74 


631.11 


631.48 


631.85 


682.22 


682.69 


682.96 


171 


633.33 


633.70 


634 07 


634.44 


634.81 


636.18 


635.55 


635.92 


636.29 


63G.66 


172 


637.04 


637.40 


637.77 


638.14 


638.51 


638.88 


639.25 


639.62 


639.99 


640.37 


173 


640.74 


641.11 


641.48 


641.85 


642.22 


642.59 


642.96 


643.38 


643.70 


644.07 


L74 


644.44 


644.81 


645.18 


645.65 


645.92 


646.29 


646.66 


647.03 


647.41 


647.78 


L75 


648.15 


648.52 


648.89 


649.26 


649.63 


650.00 


660.37 


650.74 


651.11 


661.48 


L76 


651.85 


652.22 


652.59 


652.96 


653.33 


653.70 


654.07 


654.44 


654.81 


655.18 


L77 


655.56 


655.93 


656.30 


656.67 


657.04 


667.41 


657.78 


658.16 


658.52 


658.89 


178 


659.26 


659.63 


660.00 


660.37 


660.74 


661.11 


661.48 


661.85 


662.22 


662.59 


179 


662.96 


663.a3 


663.70 


664.07 


664.44 


664.81 


666.18 


665.55 


665.92 


666.29 



RAILROAD CURVE TABLES 



521 



EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT TABLES. 

• 


180 


0.00 


0.10 


0.20 


0.30 


0.40 


0.50 


0.60 


0.70 


0.80 


0.90 


666.67 


667.04 


667.41 


667.78 


668.15 


668.52 


668.89 


669.26 


669.63 


670.00 


181 


670.37 


670.74 


671.11 


671.48 


671.85 


672.22 


672.59 


672.96 


673.33 


678.70 


182 


674.07 


674.44 


674.81 


675.18 


675.55 


675.93 


676.30 


676.67 


677.04 


677.41 


183 


677.78 


678.15 


678.52 


678.89 


679.26 


679.63 


680.00 


680.37 


680.74 


681.11 


184 


681.48 


681.85 


682.22 


682.59 


682.96 


683.88 


684.70 


684.07 


684.44 


684.81 


185 


685.18 


685.56 


685.93 


686.30 


686.67 


687.04 


687.41 


687.78 


688.15 


688.62 


186 


688.89 


689.26 


689.63 


690.00 


690.37 


690.74 


691.11 


691.48 


691.85 


692.22 


187 


692.59 


692.96 


693.33 


693.70 


694.07 


694.44 


694.81 


695.18 


695.55 


695 92 


188 


696.30 


696.67 


697.04 


697.41 


697.78 


698.15 


698.52 


698.89 


699.26 


699.63 


189 


700.00 


700.37 


700.74 


701.11 


701.48 


701.86 


702.22 


702.59 


702.96 


708.83 


190 


703.70 


704.07 


.704.44 


704.81 


705.18 


705.56 


706.92 


706.29 


706.66 


707.08 


191 


707.40 


707.77 


708.14 


708.51 


708.89 


709.26 


709.63 


710.00 


710.37 


710.74 


192 


711.11 


711.48 


711.85 


712.22 


712.59 


712.96 


713.33 


713.70 


714.07 


714.44 


193 


714.81 


715.18 


715.55 


715.92 


716.29 


716.67 


717.04 


717.41 


717.78 


718.15 


194 


718.52 


718.89 


719.26 


719.63 


720.00 


720.87 


720.74 


721.11 


721.48 


721.85 


195 


722.22 


722.59 


722.96 


723.83 


723.70 


724.07 


724.44 


724.81 


725.18 


725.55 


196 


725.92 


726.29 


726.66 


727.03 


727.40 


727.77 


728.14 


728.51 


728.88 


729.26 


197 


729.63 


730.00 


730.37 


730.74 


731.11 


731.48 


731.85 


732.22 


732.59 


732.96 


198 


733.33 


733.70 


734.07 


734.44 


734.81 


735.18 


735.55 


735.93 


736.30 


736.67 


199 


737.04 


787.41 


787.78 


738.15 


738.52 


788.89 


739.26 


739.68 


740.00 


740.87 


20O 


740.74 


741.11 


741.48 


741.85 


742.22 


742.59 


742.96 


748.88 


748.70 


744.07 


201 


744.44 


744.81 


745.18 


745.55 


745.98 


746.30 


746.67 


747.04 


747.41 


747.78 


202 


748.15 


748.52 


748.89 


749.26 


749.68 


750.00 


750.37 


750.74 


751.11 


761.48 


203 


751.85 


752.22 


752.59 


752.96 


753.38 


753.70 


754.07 


754.44 


754.81 


755.18 


204 


755.55 


755.98 


756.30 


756.67 


757.04 


757.41 


757.78 


758.15 


758.52 


758.89 


205 


759.26 


759.63 


760.00 


760.37 


760.74 


761.11 


761.48 


761.85 


762.22 


762.69 


206 


762.96 


763.83 


763.70 


764.07 


764.44 


764.81 


765.18 


765.56 


765.98 


766.30 


207 


766.66 


767.04 


767.41 


767.78 


768.15 


768.52 


768.89 


769.26 


769.63 


770.00 


208 


770.37 


770.74 


771.11 


771.48 


771.86 


772.22 


772.59 


772.96 


773.38 


773.70 


209 


774.07 


774.44 


774.81 


775.18 


775.55 


776.98 


776.30 


776.66 


777.04 


777.41 


210 


777.78 


778.15 


778.52 


778.89 


779.26 


779.68 


780.00 


780.87 


780.74 


781.11 


211 


781.48 


781.85 


782.22 


782.59 


782.96 


788.33 


783.70 


784.07 


784.44 


784.81 


212 


7«>.18 


785 56 


785.93 


786.30 


786.66 


787.04 


787.41 


787.78 


788.15 


788.52 


213 


788.89 


789.26 


789.63 


790.00 


790.87 


790.74 


791.11 


791.48 


791.85 


792.22 


214 


792.59 


792.96 


793.83 


793.70 


794.07 


794.44 


794.81 


795.18 


796.65 


796.93 


215 


796.80 


796.66 


797.04 


797.41 


797.78 


798.16 


798.52 


798.89 


799.26 


799.63 


216 


800.00 


800.37 


800.74 


801.11 


801.48 


801.85 


802.22 


802.59 


802.96 


803.33 


217 


803.70' 804.07 


804.44 


804.81 


805.18 


805.55 


805.93 


806.30 


806.66 


807.04 


218 


.807.41 


807.78 


808.15 


808.52 


cH.'o.Ojt 


809.26 


809.63 


810.00 


810.37 


810.74 


219 


811.11 


811.48 


811.85 


812.22 


812.59 


812.96 


813.88 


813.70 


814.07 


814.44 


220 


814.81 


816.18 


815.55 


815.93 


816.30 


816.66 


817.04 


817.41 


817.78 


818.15 


221 


818.52 


818.89 


819.26 


819.63 


820.00 


820.37 


820.74 


821.11 


821.48 


821.86 


222 


822.22 


822.59 


822.96 


823.33 


823.70 


824.07 


824.44 


824.81 


825.18 


825.55 


223 


825.93 


826.30 


826.66 


•827.04 


827.41 


827.78 


828.15 


828.52 


828.89 


829.26 


224 


829.63 


830.00 


830.37 


830.74 


831.11 


&S1.48 


831.85 


832.22 


832.59 


832.96 



22 



APPENDIX A 



EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT TABLES. 

• 






0.00 


0.10 


0.20 


0.30 


0.40 


0.50 


0.60 


0.70 


0.80 


0.90 


225 


833.33 


833.70 


834.07 


834.44 


834.81 


835.18 


835.55 


8a5.93 


836.30 


836.66 


226 


837.04 


837.41 


837.78 


838.15 


838.52 


838.89 


839.26 


839.63 


840.00 


840.37 


227 


840.74 


841.11 


841.48 


841.85 


842.22 


842.59 


84296 


843.33 


843.70 


844.07 


228 


844.44 


844.81 


845.18 


845.55 


845.93 


846.30 


846.66 


847.04 


847.41 


847.78 


229 


848.15 


848.52 


848.89 


849.26 


849.63 


850.00 


850,37 


850.74 


861.11 


851.48 


230 


851.85 


852.22 


852.59 


852.96 


853.a3 


853.70 


854.07 


854.44 


854.81 


855.18 


231 


855.55 


855.93 


856.30 


856.66 


857.04 


857.41 


857.78 


858.15 


858.52 


858.89 


232 


859.26 


859.63 


860.00 


860.37 


860.74 


861.11 


861.48 


861.85 


862.22 


862.59 


233 


862.96 


863.33 


863.70 


864.07 


864.44 


864.81 


865.18 


865.55 


865.93" 


866.30 


234 


866.66 


867.04 


867.41 


867.78 


868.15 


868.52 


868.89 


869.26 


869.63 


870.00 


235 


870.37 


870.74 


871.11 


871.48 


871.85 


872.22 


872.59 


872.96 


873.33 


873.70 


236 


874.07 


874.44 


874.81 


875.18 


875.55 


875.93 


876.30 


876.66 


877.04 


877.41 


237 


877.78 


878.15 


878.52 


878.89 


879.26 


879.63 


880.00 


880.37 


880.74 


881.11 


238 


881.48 


881.85 


882.22 


882.59 


882.96 


883.33 


883.70 


884.07 


884.44 


884.81 


239 


885.18 


885.55 


885.93 


886.30 


886.66 


887.04 


887.41 


887.78 


888.15 


888.52 


240 


888.88 


889.26 


889.63 


890.00 


890.37 


890.74 


891.11 


891.48 


891.88 


892.22 


241 


892.59 


892.96 


893.33 


893.70 


894.07 


891.44 


894.81 


895.18 


895.55 


895.93 


242 


896.30 


896.66 


897.04 


897.41 


897.78 


898.15 


898.52 


898.88 


899.26 


899.63 


243 


900.00 


900.37 


900.74 


901.11 


901.48 


901.85 


902.22 


902.59 


902.96 


903.83 


244 


903.70 


904.07 


904.44 


904.81 


905.18 


905.55 


905.93 


906.30 


906.66 


907.04 


245 


907.41 


907.78 


908.15 


908.52 


908.88 


909.26 


909.63 


910.00 


910.37 


910.74 


246 


911.11 


911.48 


911.85 


912.22 


912.59 


912.96 


913.83 


913.70 


914.07 


914.44 


247 


914.81 


915.18 


915.55 


915.93 


916.30 


916.66 


917.04 


917.41 


917.78 


918.15 


248 


918.52 


918.88 


919.26 


919.63 


920.00 


920.37 


920.74 


921.11 


921.48 


921.85 


249 


922.22 


922.59 


922.96 


923.33 


923.70 


924.07 


924.44 


924.81 


925.18 


925.55 


250 


925.92 


926.30 


926.66 


927.04 


927.41 


927.78 


928.15 


928.52 


928.88 


929.26 


251 


929.63 


930.00 


930.37 


930.74 


931.11 


931.48 


931.85 


932.22 


932 59 


932.96 


252 


933.33 


933.70 


934.07 


934.44 


934.81 


935.18 


935.55 


985.92 


936.30 


936.66 


253 


937.04 


937.41 


937.78 


938.15 


938.52 


938.88 


939.26 


939.63 


940.00 


940.37 


254 


940.74 


941.11 


941.48 


941.85 


942.22 


942.59 


942.96 


943.33 


943.70 


944.07 


255 


944.44 


944.81 


945.18 


945.55 


945.92 


946.30 


946.66 


947.04 


947.41 


947.78 


256 


948.15 


948.52 


948.88 


949.26 


949.63 


950.00 


950.37 


950.74 


951.11 


951.48 


257 


95185 


952.22 


952.59 


952.96 


953.33 


953.70 


954.07 


954.44 


954.81 


955.18 


258 


955.55 


955.92 


956.30 


956.66 


957.04 


957.41 


957.78 


958.15 


958.52 


958.88 


259 


959.26 


959.63 


960.00 


960.37 


960.74 


961.11 


961.48 


961.85 


962.22 


962.59 


260 


962.96 


%3.33 


963.70 


964.07 


964.44 


964.81 


965.18 


965.55 


965.92 


966.30 


261 


966.66 


967.04 


967.41 


967.78 


968.15 


968.52 


968.88 


969.26 


969.63 


970,00 


262 


970.37 


970.74 


971.11 


971.48 


971 85 


972.22 


972.59 


972.96 


973.33 


973.70 


263 


974.07 


974.44 


974.81 


975.18 


975.55 


975.92 


976.30 


976.66 


977.04 


977.41 


264 


977.78 


978.15 


978.52 


978.88 


979.26 


979.63 


980.00 


980.87 


980.74 


981.11 


265 


981.48 


981.85 


982.22 


982.59 


982.96 


983.33 


983.70 


984.07 


984.44 


964.81 


266 


985.18 


985.55 


985.92 


986.30 


986.66 


987.04 


987.41 


987.78 


988.16 


988.52 


267 


988.88 


989.26 


989.()3 


990.00 


990.37 


990.74 


991.11 


991.48 


991.85 


992.^2 


268 


992.59 


992.96 


993.33 


*)93.70 


994.07 


994.44 


994.81 


995.18 


995.56 


995.92 


269 


996.30 


996.66 


997.04 


997.41 


997.78 


998.15 


998.52 


998.88 


999.26 


999.63 



RAILROAD CURVE TABLES 



523 



1 



EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT TABLES. 



270 
271 
272 
273 
274 

275 
276 
277 
278 
279 

280 
281 
282 
283 

284 

285 
286 
287 
288 
289 

290 
291 
292 
293 
294 

295 

296 
297 
298 
299 



0.00 



1000.00 
1003.70 
1007.41 
1011.11 
1014.81 

1018.52 
1022.22 
1025.92 
1029.63 
1033.33 

1037.04 
1040.74 
1044.44 
1048.15 
1051.85 

1055.55 
1059.26 
1062.96 
1066.66 
1070.37 

1074.07 
1077.78 
1081.48 
1085.18 
1088.88 

1092.59 
1096.30 
1100.00 
1103.70 
1107.41 



0.10 



0.20 



0.30 



300 1111. 

301 1114, 

302 1118, 

303 1122. 



1000.37 
1004.07 
1007.78 
1011.48 
1015.18 

1018.88 
1022.59 
1026.30 
1030.00 
1033.70 

1037.41 
1041.11 
1044.81 
1048.52 
1052.22 

1055.92 
1059.63 
1063.33 
1067.04 
1070.74 

1074.44 
1078.15 
1081.85 
1085.65 
1089.26 

1092.96 
1096.66 
1100.37 
1104.07 
1107.78 



11 1111.48 
8211115.19 
5211118.89 



304 



1125 



22 
93 



805 1129.68 

806 1133.33 
307:1137.04 



808 
809 



1140.74 
1144.44 



310 1148.15 
31111151.85 

312 1155.56 

313 1159.26 
814 1162.96 



1122.59 
1126.30 

1130.00 
1133.70 
1137.41 
1141.11 
1144.82 

1148.62 
1152.22 
1155.93 
1159.63 
1168.83 



1000.74 
1004.44 
1008.15 
1011.85 
1015.55 

1019.26 
1022.96 
1026.66 
1030.37 
1034.07 

1037.78 
1041.48 
1045.18 
1048.88 
1052.59 

1056.30 
1060.00 
1063.70 
1067.41 
1071.11 

1074.81 
1078.52 
1082.22 
1085.92 
1089.63 

1093.33 
1097.04 
1100.74 
1104.44 
1108.15 

1111.85 
1115.56 
1119.26 
1122.96 
1126.67 

1130.37 
1134.07 
1137.78 
1141.48 
1145.19 

1148.89 
1152.59 
1156.30 
1160.00 
1163.70 



1001.11 
1004.81 
1008.52 
1012.22 
1015.92 

1019.63 
1023.33 
1027.04 
1030.74 
1034.44 

1038.15 
1041.85 
1045.55 
1049.26 
1052.96 

1056.66 
1060.37 
1064.07 
1067.78 
1071.48 

1075.18 
1078.88 
1082.59 
1086.30 
1090.00 

1093.70 
1097.41 
1101.11 
1104.81 
1108.52 

1112.22 
1115.93 
1119.63 
1123.33 
1127.04 

1130.74 
1134.44 
1138.15 
1141.85 
1145.56 

1149.26 
1152.96 
1156.67 
1160.37 
1164.07 



0.40 



1001.48 
1005.18 
1008.88 
1012.59 
1016.30 

1020.00 
1023.70 
1027.41 
1031.11 
1034.81 

1038.52 
1042.22 
1045.92 
1049.63 
1053.33 

1057.04 
1060.74 
1064.44 
1068.15 
1071.85 

1075.55 
1079.26 
1082.96 
1086.66 
1090.37 

1094.07 
1097.78 
1101.48 
1105.18 
1108.88 

1112.59 
1116.30 
1120.00 
1123.70 
1127.41 

1131.11 
1134.82 
1138.52 
1142.22 
1145.93 

1149.63 
1153.33 
1157.04 
1160.74 
1164.44 



0.50 



001.85 
0ft5.55 
009.26 
0V2M 
016.66 

020.37 
024.07 
027.78 
031.48 
035.18 

038.88 
042.59 
046.30 
050.00 
053.70 

057.41 
061.11 
064.81 
068.62 
072.22 

075.92 
079.63 
083.33 
087.04 
090.74 

094.44 

098.15 
101.85 
105.55 
109.26 

112.96 
116.67 
120.37 
124.07 
127.78 

131.48 
135.19 
138.89 
142.59 
146.30 

150.00 
153.70 
157.41 
161.11 
164.82 



0.60 



002.22 
005.92 
009.(i3 
013.33 
017.04 

020.74 
024 44 
028.15 
031.85 
035.55 

039.26 
042.96 
046.66 
050.37 
054.07 

057.78 
061.48 
065.18 
068.88 
072.59 

076.30 
080.00 

oas.7o 

087.41 
091.11 

094.81 
098.52 
102.22 
105.92 
109.63 

113.33 
117.04 
120.74 
124.44 
128.15 

131.85 
135.56 
139.26 
142.96 
146.67 

150.37 
154.07 
157.78 
161.48 
165.19 



0.70 



1002.59 
1006.30 
1010.00 
1013.70 
1017.41 

1021.11 
1024.81 
1028.52 
1032.22 
1035.92 

1089.68 
1048.88 
1047.04 
1050.74 
1054.44 

1058.15 
1061.85 
1065.55 
1069.26 
1072.96 

1076.66 
1080.37 
1084.07 

1087.78 
1091.48 

1095.18 
1098.88 
1102.59 
1106.30 
1110.00 

1118.70 
1117.41 
1121.11 
1124.82 
1128.52 

1132.22 
1135.93 
1139.63 
1143.33 
1147.04 

1150.74 
1154.44 
1158.15 
1161.85 
1165.56 



0.80 



1002.96 
1006.66 
1010.87 
1014.07 
1017.78 

1021.48 
1025.18 
1028.88 
1032.59 
1086.80 

1040.00 
1048.70 
1047.41 
1051.11 
1064.81 

1058.52 
1062.22 
1066.92 
1069.63 
1078.38 

1077.04 
1080.74 
1084.44 
1088.15 
1091.85 

1095.55 
1099.26 
1102.96 
1106.66 
1110.87 

1114.07 
1117.78 
1121.48 
1125.19 
1128.89 

1132.59 
1136.30 
1140.00 
1143.70 
1147.41 

1151.11 
1154.82 
1158.52 
1162.22 
1165.93 



0.90 



1003.83 
1007.04 
J010.74 
lbl4.44 
1018.15 

1021.85 
1025.56 
1029.26 
1032.96 
1086.66 

1040.87 
1044.07 
1047.78 
1051.48 
1065.18 

1058.88 
1062.59 
1066.30 
1070.00 
1073.70 

1077.41 
1081.11 
1084.81 
1088.52 
1092.22 

1095.92 
1099.63 

iias.33 

1107.04 
1110.74 

1114.44 
1118.15 
1121.85 
1125.56 
1129.26 

1132.96 
1137.67 
1140.37 
1144.07 
1147.78 

1151.48 
1155.19 
1158.89 
1162.59 
1166.30 



524 



APPENDIX A 



EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT TABLES. 



815 
816 
317 
31H 
319 

320 
321 
822 
3-23 
324 

325 
326 
327 
328 
329 

330 
331 
332 
333 
334 

335 
336 
337 
338 
339 

340 
341 
342 
343 
344 

345 
346 
347 
318 
349 



0.00 



1166.67 
1170.37 
1174.07 
1177.78 
1181.48 

1185.19 
1188.89 
1192 59 
1196.30 
1200.00 

1203.70 
1207.41 
1211.11 
1214.82 
1218.52 

1222.22 
1225.93 
1229.63 
1233.33 
1237.04 

1240.74 
1244.44 
1248.15 
1251.85 
1255.56 

1259.26 
1262.96 
1266.67 
1270.37 
1274.07 

1277.78 
1281.48 
1285.19 
1288.89 
1292.59 



awl 1296.30 



li'il 
352 



1300.00 
1303.70 
308 1307 41 
3o4i 1311.11 



0.10 



.355 1314.82 
3')(» 1318.52 
357 1322 22 
,3oH 1325.93 



0.20 



1167.04 
1170.74 
1174.44 
1178.15 
1181.85 

1185.56 
1189.26 
1192.96 
1196.67 
1200.37 

1204.07 
1207.78 
1211.48 
1215.19 
1218.89 

1222.59 
1226.80 
1230.00 
1233.70 
1237.41 

1241.11 
1244.82 
1248.52 
1252.22 
1255.93 

1259.63 
1263.33 
1267.04 
1270.74 
1274.44 

1278.15 
1281.a5 
1285.56 
1289.26 
1292.96 

1296.67 
1300.37 
1304.07 
1307.78 
1311.48 

1315.19 
1318.89 
1322.59 
1326.30 



3r^\) 1329.(13 i:«o.oo 



1167.41 
1171.11 
1174.82 
1178.52 
1182.22 

1185.93 
1189.63 
1198.33 
1197.04 
1200.74 

1204.44 
1208.15 
1211.85 
1215.56 
1219.26 

1222.96 
1226.67 
1230.37 
1234.07 
1237.78 

1241.48 
1245.19 
1248.89 
1252.59 
1256.30 

1260.00 
1263.70 
1267.41 
1271.11 
1274.82 

1278.52 
1282.22 
1285.93 
1289.63 
1293.33 

1297.04 
1300.74 
1304.44 
1308.15 
1311.85 

1315.56 
1319.26 
1322.96 
1326.67 
13:^.37 



0.30 



1167.78 
1171.48 
1175.19 
1178.89 
1182.59 

1186.80 
1190.00 
1198.70 
1197.41 
1201.11 

1204.82 
1208.52 
1212.22 
1215.93 
1219.68 

1223.33 
1227.04 
1230.74 
1234.44 
1288.15 

1241.85 
1245.56 
1249.26 
1-252.96 
1266.67 

1260.87 
1264.07 
1267.78 
1271.48 
1275.19 

1278.89 
1282.59 
1286.30 
1290.00 
1293.70 

1297.41 
1301.11 
1304.82 
1308.52 
1312.22 

1315.93 
1319.63 
1323.33 
1327.04 
1330.74 



0.40 



I 



0.50 



1168.15 
1171.85 
1175.66 
1179.26 
1182.96 

1186.67 
1190.87 
1194.07 
1197.78 
1201.48 

1205.19 
1208.89 
1212.59 
1216.80 
1220.00 

1228.70 
1227.41 
1231.11 
1248.82 
1288.52 

1242.22 
1245.93 
1249.63 
1258.33 
1257.04 

1260.74 
1264.44 
1268.15 
1271.85 
1275.56 

1279.26 
1282.96 
1286.67 
1290.37 
1294.07 

1297.78 
1301.48 
1305.19 
1308.89 
1312.59 

1316.30 
1320 00 
1323.70 
1327.41 
1331.11 



o.co 



1168.52 
1172.22 
1175.93 
1179.63 
1188 83 

1187.04 
1190.74 
1194.44 
1198.15 
1201.85 

1205.56 
1209.26 
1212.96 
1216.67 
1220.87 

1224.07 
1227.78 
1231.48 
1235.19 
1288.89 

1242.59 
1246.80 
1250.00 
1253.70 
1257.41 

126lll 
1264.82 
1268.52 
1272.22 
1275.93 

1279.63 
1288.88 
1287.04 
1290.74 
1294.44 

1298.15 
1301.85 
1305.56 
1309.26 
1312.96 

1316.67 
1320.37 
1324.07 
1327.78 
1331.48 



0.70 



1168.89 
1172.59 
1176.80 
1180.00 
1183.70 

1187.41 
1191.11 
1194.82 
1198.52 
1202.22 

1205.93 
1209.63 
1213.33 
1217.04 
1220.74 

1224.44 
1228.15 
1231.85 
1285.56 
1239.26 

1242.96 
1246.67 
1250.37 
1254.07 
1257.73 

1261.48 
1265.19 
1268.89 
1272.59 
1276.30 

'1280.00 
1283.70 
1287.41 
1291.11 
1294.82 

1298.52 
1302.22 
1305.93 
1309.63 
1318.33 

1317.04 
1320.74 
1324.44 
1328.15 
1331.85 



0.80 



1169.26 
1172.96 
1176.67 
1180.37 
1184.07 

1187.78 
1191.48 
1195.19 
1198.89 
1202.59 

1206.30 
1210.00 
1218.70 
1217.41 
1221.11 

1224.81 
1228.62 
1282.22 
1285.98 
1289.63 

1243.88 
1247.04 
1250.74 
1254.44 
1258.15 

1261.85 
1265.66 
1269.26 
1272.96 
1276.67 

1280.87 
1284^07 
1287.78 
1291.48 
1295.19 

1298.89 
1302.69 
1306.80 
1310.00 
1313.70 

1817.41 
1321.11 
1324.81 
1328.52 
1332.22 



1169.63 
1173.33 
1177.04 
1180.74 
1184.44 

1188.15 
1191.85 
1195.56 
1199.26 
1202.96 

1206.67 
1210.37 
1214.07 
1217.78 
1221.48 

1225.18 
1228.89 
1232.59 
1236.30 



0.90 



1170.00 
1173.70 
1177.41 
1181.11 
1184.82 

1188.52 
1192.22 
1195.93 
1199.63 
1203.38 

1207.04 
1210.74 
1214.44 
1218.15 
1221.86 

1225.55 
1229.26 
1232.96 
1236.67 



1240.00 1240.37 



1243.70 
1247.41 
1251.11 
1254.82 
1268.52 

1262.22 
1266.93 
1269.63 



1244.07 
1247.78 
1251.48 
1255.19 
1268.89 

1262.69 
1266.30 
1270.00 



1273.33 1273.70 
1277.04,1277.41 



1280.74 
1284.44 
1288.15 
1291.85 
1295.56 

1299.26 
1902.96 
1306.67 
1310.37 
1814.07 

1317.78 
1321.48 
1325.18 
1328.89 
1832.59 



1281.11 
1284.82 
1288.52 
1292.22 
1295.93 

1299.63 
1303.83 
1307.04 
1310.74 
1314.44 

1318.15 
1321.86 
1325.55 
1329.-26 
1332.96 



APPENDIX B. 



The following definitions, while not exhaustive, may, 
perhaps, be found serviceable : 

ABBREVIATIONS USED BY ENGINEERS. 

B. C. or P. C. — Beginning of Curve, or Point of Curve. 

P. T. — Point of Tangent, or end of Curve. 

F. C C. — Point of Compound Curve, or end of one curve 

and beginning of another, curving in the same direc- 
tion. 
P, R. C. — Point of Reverse Curve, or point where the 

direction of the curve is changed from right to left, or 

vice versa. 
P. L — Point of Intersection of Tangents. 
E. C. — Point of end of Curve. 

Note. — It will be noticed that one writer who is quoted 
in this volume refers to the beginning of curve as B. C, 
while another who is also quoted refers to it as P. C. 

Cross-Ties. — Terms Defined: There are wide differ- 
ences in the terms used to describe various sorts of tics 
and also to indicate their condition. The following defi- 
nitions are considered to comprise those in most general 
use, and, on the whole, are perhaps, the best. 

Doty Tie, — A tie containing *'dote" or dry rot. 

Heart Tie. — A tie which shows sap wood only on the 
corners, the sap wood measuring more than i inch on 
lines drawn diagonally across the end of tie. 

525 



APPENDIX B 

—One made from a cypress tree affected 
disease, known locally as peck. This does 
1 affect the usefulness of the tie. 

3ne made from a tree from which not more 
an be made from a section. Such ties gen- 
p wood on two sides. 

Tie. — One made from a tree, the size of 
not more than four ties to be made from 

Due hewn or sawed on top and bottom only. 

)ne showing more than a prescribed amount 
1 the cross section. 

s, — 'Made with an ax as a guide for hewing. 

One made from a tree whose size prevented 
ties being made from a section. 

't Tie. — One showing no sap wood in 

. — One made from a tree from which the 
itine was extracted before it was felled. 

-A device placed between the rail and the 
the wear of the latter. 

-One having a bend or crook in its length. 

e. — A certain defect in the timber caused 
Df the wind upon a growing tree, resulting 
►n or separation of -the fibers. 

ettized. — A method of preserving timber, 
)ride. Invented by Burnett. Used largely 

^oted. — Probably the most effective pre- 
the most expensive for initial cost. 

ized. — Invented by Kyan and largely used 



ABBREVIATIONS * 527 

in Europe. Introduced in America in 1838, but not much 
used here. It employs bi-chloride of mercury or corro- 
sive sublimate. 

Ties, — Willhoitsc Treatment, — Consists of injections of 
zinc chloride followed by solutions of glue and tannin. 
Makes an artificial leather and plugs up the ducts. Re- 
sults are said to be quite satisfactory. 

Track Definitioivs. 

Alignment, — Location with reference to curves and 
tangents. 

Curve, — A series of changes in direction according to a 
fixed or regular method. 

Curve Easement, — A curve of regularly varying radii, 
which connects a tangent to a simple curve, or which con- 
nects two simple curves. 

Curve, Simple. — A series of uniform changes in direc- 
tion laid out according to a fixed method. 

Curve, Vertical, — A curve which is used to connect 
Intersecting grade lines. 

Elevation (as applied to curves). — The amount which 
the outer rail is raised above the inner rail. 

Gauge (of track) — The shortest distance between the 
inside of the heads of the two rails forming the track, 
measured between parallel surfaces, perpendicular to the 
plane through tops of the two rails, and projecting i^ 
inches below the plane. 

Gauge, Standard, — The gauge or width of 4 feet 8>4 
inches. 

Gauge (Track Tool — Standard Specifications). — The 
g-auge recommended is a wooden bar with parallel metal 
measuring surfaces fastened rigidCy to it, perpendicular 



528 APPENDIX B 

to plane on top of rails and extending to a depth of ij^ 
inches below the same. 

Level. — The condition of the track as to the equal elev- 
ation of the rails transversely. 

Line, — The condition of the track in regard to uni- 
formity in direction over short distances on tangent?, or 
uniformity in variation in direction over short distances 
on curves. 

Surface, — The condition of the track as to vertical 
evenness or smoothness over short distances. 

Ta;t^^;z/.— Straight track. 

Track. — Ties, rails and fastenings, with all parts in 
their proper relative places. 



Trestle, Wooden. — Terms Employed. 

Batter. — Used to refer to the deviation from a perpen- 
dicular in upright members of a bent. 

Bent.^^Tht members, or group of members which form 
a single vertical support of a trestle. Called a "Pile 
Bent" when the principal members are piles, and a 
"Frame Bent" when of framed timbers. 

Bulkhecui. — Used to describe timber when it is placed 
on edge against the side of an end bent in order to retain 
an embankment. 

Cap. — The horizontal member placed on the tops of 
piles or posts and which serves to connect them in the 
form of a bent. 

Dowel. — The name applied to a short pin of wood or 
iron which is used to connect timbers. 

Drift Bolt. — A long piece of iron (round or square) 
and with or without either a head or a point which is 
driven as a spike. 



ABBREVIATIONS 529 

Frame Trestle. — So designated when its vertical mem- 
bers or supports are framed timbers. 

Guard Rails.— Longit\xdma,\ members of either iron or 
wood fastened on top of the ties alongside the track. 

Intermediate SilL — A horizontal member in the plane 
of the bent between the cap and lower sill into which 
the posts are framed. 

Longitudinal Struts or Girts. — Stiff members which are 
placed horizontally or almost so from bent to bent. 

Longitudinal X Braces. — Members which extend diag- 
onally from bent to bent in vertical planes. 

Packing Spools or Separators. — Small castings used in 
connection with packing bolts to hold the stringers in 
their relative position. 

Pile Trestle. — One in which the vertical members or 
supports are piles. 

Piles. — Timbers driven in the ground and intended 
generally to support a structure. 

Posts. — The vertical and battered members of the bent 
of a framed trestle. 

Sash Braces. — 'Members secured horizontally to the 
posts or piles of a bent. 

Shim. — A block used to raise any portion of a structure 
(and is generally evidence of faulty construction). 

Sill. — The lower horizontal member of a framed bent. 

Stringers. — The longitudinal members extending from 
bent to bent and supporting the ties. 

Subsills. — Timbers bedded in the ground to support 
framed bents. 

Sway Braces. — ^Members bolted or spiked to the bent 
and extending diagonally across its face. 

Ties. — Transverse timbers resting on the stringers and 
supporting the track. 



APPENDIX C 



Description and illustrations showing the latest ami 
most improved methods- for protecting piling by the use 
of concrete. 

CONCRETE. 

Concrete is entering more and more into railway con- 
struction. Its adaptability for bridge construction has 



been fiilly demonstrated; without it the rapid elevation 
of railway tracks which has been going on, particularly 



CONCRETE 531 

in Chicago, during the past year or two would have been 
impossible of accompHshment, and many other great en- 
gineering feats would probably not have been achieved, 
certainly not as rapidly. 

Concrete is now being tested as a substitute for wooden 
ties, and now it seems to have been the means of solving 
the question of preserving piles when submerged in 
water, especially salt water in which the marine wood 
borers have often attacked and rendered useless creosoted 
piles. 

This application of concrete is what is known as the 
Lock Joint Pipe for pile protection. These concrete pipes 
are made in halves, divided longitudinally, each half 
having a key way which forms a scarf joint when they are 
placed together and keyed. Thus the pipe may be placed 
around the pile and locked with a key which seals the 
joint so absolutely tight that the finest of sand cannot 
get through it. After the pipe has been placed around 
the pile and securely locked, the space between the pile 
and the inside of the pipe is filled up with sand. The 
pile being surrounded with sand is therefore left perfectly 
free to settle with any scour which might occur at the 
mud line or bottom, and so is fully protected under all 
conditions. 

After the sand has been allowed to settle the tops of 
the pif>es are sealed with a thin coating of cement mortar, 
thus preventing the sand from being washed out by the 
waves in a storm. 

Engineers and Roadmasters having the maintenance of 
trestles on pile bents submerged in tidal salt water have 
always experienced trouble with the teredo which attacks 
a pik at all points from the high-water line to the mud 



11 



CONCRETE 



APPENDIX C 



LocH Joint. Pipe < 



CONCRETE 535 

line or bottom, but to live it is necessary for them to 
have free access to sea water. It is a well known fact 
that the teredo never works below the mud line. The 
Lock Joint Pipe unlike most o,ther styles of pipe protec- 
tion can be placed around piles already in use, and when 
such piles have been attacked by the teredo it can be 
readily seen that filling the annular space between the 
pipe and the pile with sand and then sealing it at top 
with cement mortar not only kills those which have at- 
tacked the pile, but has the effect of raising the mud line, 
or bottom, above the high- water line, which effectually 
prevents further attack from the teredo. It is claimed for 
this method of pile protection that all teredos in a pile 
have been completely destroyed within from twenty-four 
to seventy-two hours. 

Concrete Lock Joint Pipe seems to combine all the good 
and to eliminate all the bad features of the various meth- 
ods of protection for piles. The fact that its employment 
does not necessitate the removal of caps; that the pile is 
left free to settle or hiove without danger of exposure 
at the mud line, through scouring, a most yital point of 
attack by teredos; that the joint is so absolutely tight; 
that only the portion of a pile whicfi is» exposed to attack 
need be protected ; and the ease with which any portion 
may be quickly and inexpensively repaired when neces- 
sary are bound to win favor with railway men. Many 
railroads, particularly in the south, have protected their 
piling with these Lock Joint Pipes of concrete and the 
Great Northern railway has used vast numbers of it in 
protecting their extensive piling in the bay at Everett, 
Wash. 



CONCRETE 537 

A Graphical Representation of Progress by Civil Engineers in Their 
Efforts to Kill and Prevent the Action of the Teredo and Llmnoria. 

Bent No. 1, showing unprotected piles in bridges, trestles, docks 
and wharves, and how they are eaten off by the Llmnoria in from six 
months to several years. 

Bent No. 2, showing unprotected piles entirely honeycombed by 
the teredo from the mud-line or bottom up to high water line in a 
period of from six months to several years. 

Bent No. 3, showing creosoted piles attached as in bents No. 1 and 
No. 2 — the speed of destruction only being slightly delayed. 

Bent No. 4, showing pile with entire cylindrical surface between 
mud-line and high water, covered with large headed iron tacks. This 
method Is ineffective and expensive — ^^an obsolete Dutch preventive. 

Bent No. 5, showing pile sheathed with sheet copper between some 
distance below mud-line and up above high water line. Very expen- 
sive and corrodes around nails. The teredo will enter a pile at an 
exposed surface no larger than a pin head. 

Bent No. 6 shows piles wrapped with burlap soaked In tar. Note 
difficulties with burlap as piles penetrate below original mud-line, and 
the action of the teredo at a lower level later exposed owing to 
increased scour adjacent to pile. Aleo the weight of oysters and 
barnacles tears the burlap, weakened by the rotting effect of salt water. 
Thus the pile becomes exposed at various places. 

Bent No. 7, showimg concrete covering applied to pile after driv- 
ing, using wood or removable steel forms placed by 'a diver. Concrete 
will adhere to the pile. Note, therefore, that as the increased scour 
lowers the mud>-line around the pile, the wood becomes exposed at a 
most vital point — near the bottom, difficult to inspect. Moreover should 
this concrete covering become damaged, repairs are impossible. Note 
also that it is extremely difficult to apply concrete under water without 
weakening the mixture. 

Bent No. 8, showing split vitrified clay pipe wired together and 
filled with concrete. Subject to same troubles as described in No. 7. 

Bent No. 9, vitrified clay sewer pipe, strung ov^r tops of pile.s 
and filled with sand. In a new structure these must be installed before 
deck is placed. In old structures caps must be removed before pipe 
can be placed. A serious objection is that repairs are impossible to 
one section of one pile without removing cap from bent. 

Bent No. 10, showing L»ock Joint concrete pipe, made in halves, 
placed AROUND a green pile and filled with sand. Joints are locked 
and seal-ed so tightly as to hold the finest sand ; thus the pipe does 
not adhere to the pile but settles gradually and follows the mud-line, 
always keeping pile fully protected throughout the field of attack of 
these marine wood-borers. Obviously, this system can be applied to 
old structures as easily as to new, without removing deck, without 
interfering with traffic, and without the necessity of employing a diveY 
and his expensive outfit. Inspection Is a simple matter, since sand 
showing at the top guarantees sand in place down to the lowest mud- 
line. Thus the opportunity for the action of the wood-borer has been 
eliminated, as this system practically raises the mud-line above the 
water line. 



^ 



APPENDIX C 



1 

CONCRETE 539 



fl 



APPENDIX D. 



The illustrations which follow are supplemental to 
those shown in the text and are intended to show some 
of the instruments and devices used by civil engineers. 



540 



APPENDIX D 



PRISMATIC COMPASS WITH THE CLYNOMBTER ATTACHMENT. 
Ttilu Is used to take the anEle oC slopes, and to take the masnetlc bear- 
ings ol a Yiaf. The Clynometer attacbmeat Is used t« take tlie 
slope ot the surface of the grouud with a horizontal plane. 




ANEROID BAROMETERS FOR MEASURING ALTITUDES, 
Bt the use of this In 



APFENorX D 




PROTRACTOR. 



CHESTERMAN'S METALLIC TAPE. 



1 



Arrii.NUix D 




Clyuometer or Sk 



LEVELING INSTltUMBNT ANll GRADIENTER. 
V'^e-a tor (opograpbical work. Dolll eleTalions aad i 



APPENDIX D 



545 



1 



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P 
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13] 



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Philadelphia Leveling Rod, with Target. 



Al'I'K.S'UlX D 



lPPENDIX d 



) QRADIENTER 



APPENDIX D 



PEDOrfETKR. 
iin record the distance tbe persoD carrying 



3[. AND CLYNOMETTBR, 
on same level SB eye ot obserTer. 
r taking Iha elope et the surface e 



^ 



APPENDIX E. 



The following cuts of appliances and tools used in the 
construction and maintenance of track are supplementary 
to those shown in the text. 



549 



DRAG SCRAPER WITH RUNNERS. 



1 BCKAPBll WITH BOTTOM I 



TWO-WHEELED SCRAPER. 



lPPENDIX e 



.^ 



SCRAPER (FOUR-WHEELED), READY TO U)AD FRONT PAN. 



SCRAPER ( TOUH- WHEELED I , THE REAR PAN DUMPED. 



AITENDIX E 



nBR niTCHRR AND WAGON LOADER, 



APPENDIX E 



553 1 



Steun Shovel at Wotk. 



APPENDIX E 



APPENDIX E 



AMERICAN RAILWAY-DITCHING MACHINE. 



plowed. Can be quickly movefl out ol tha way ot paSElng IraiDB. 
Reveralble, workg either way without turnlne c&T or engine. Will 
scrape both ditches at the same t^me. Ttn buckets are used In the 

Dlreotlone for using the American Hallway Dllohing mBcbtne. — If 
possible use an air-brake locomotive with this machine. See that 
slack between car and eoglne Is well taken up, bo as to prsToat 
Onneceesary Jerking. Strengthen spring-hangerE In the ordinary car, 

piished by putting In additional hangers. Use as small a wheel on car 
as posalble; ZO-inch wheels are the best size, although the ordinary 



APPENDIX E 



I 



APPENDIX E 



557 




£ 






THE WARE TIE PLATE SURFACER AND GAUGE. 

E, perspective of combined Tie Plate Surfacer and Gauge. 

H, elevation of tool showing use on a tie to ascertain level at 
points where tie plates are to be embedded. 

I, plan showing tool used to square and gauge tie plates. 

K, elevation showing tool used for testing level of embedded tie 
plates. 

L, plan showing implement used for gauging tie plates after ties 
are in track. 



,iPPENDIX E 



Track Ijever or UlUns Bar, Vied tor Heavy Track Work. 



sab 



Track Drill. 



AMERICAN GUARD RAIL FASTENER 



guard rail sud tbe mil of the mala track are thoroughly tsBtened 
togethsr by rivets aod to luctbcr secure the brnct three truck epikes 
piBB Chrougb both tbe brace and the ba°e plate 



5Q0 APPENDIX E 






FoTEed Steel Rail Braces, 



::^ 



^ 



APPENDIX F. 



The cuts shown in this appendix are intended, through 
pictorial portrayal, to further illustrate methods described 
in the text of this volume. 



561 



562 



APPENDIX F 



Expansion of Rails in Varying Temperatures Should 

BE Allowed for as Follows: 

Thermometer 90 deg. or over, allow gV inch 
** 70 to 90 deg., allow iV 

** 50 to 70 deg., allow % 

** 30 to 50 deg., allow A 

** 10 to 30 deg., allow H 

** . lOab.tolOb'lw.allow A 




Y Track, Usually Termed a (Why) "Y," Being Two Tracks Running 

from Main Line and Uniting in a "Y," E5nabling Engines to 

Turn without a Turntable and for Purposes of 

Switching Cars or Trains. 



^ 



APPENDIX F 



563 



^ 




Angle B&rs Used on a 75-lb. Rail of American Society of Civil 

Engineers' Standard. 



r 



564 



APPENDIX F 





SsctiYjn a B 



<--7' -^ 



ij^_ - * _ 



' SrcTipN C D • 



METAL TIB. 

Used on the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad. 

by Walter K^tte, C. B. 



Designed 




- ^//bYHfC/f 



MORRELL METAL TIB. 

Used on Delaware) Lackawanna & Western Ry. The rail rests on a 
crcosoted wooden block and the rail and block are securely bolted 
to the tie. 



:^ 



APPENDIX F 



APPENDIX F 



APPENDIX F 



"^ 




Car ReplRciHg Device. 




Skeleton ot Howe Truss Bridge. 



APPENDIX P 




Framed Trestle. 



^i^^ 



"wT 



Pile Trealte Brtdge, 



.e"^ 



INDEX. 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION^ 

The First, Second and Third Steps i 

Details of Construction 8 

The Exploration Line lo 

Full-Scale Profile lo 

Small Scale Maps lo 

Line Surveys 13 

Preliminary Surveys 15 

Location : 16 

Drainage 18 

Drainage Areas 19 

Water Supply 21 

General 21 

To Determine the Meridian from Alt. — ^Aziniuth 

Observation of Sun 23 

Levels 25 

Topography 27 

Land Lines 28 

Maps 29 

What Maps Must Show 30 

Profile^ 31 

What Profiles Must Show 32 

Records 34 

Estimates 36 

Preparation for Construction 37 

Right of Way 38 

Right of Way Maps 40 

Bridge Soundings 40 

1 



11 INDEX 

K^ILWAY CONSTRUCTION— Continued. 

Resident Engineers 43 

Alignment and Check Levels 43 

Final Location Stations 45 

Cross Sectioning 45 

Standard Plans 47 

Field Profile and Books 47 

Station Grounds 48 

Construction 49 

Gearing and Grubbing 50 

Road-Bed Excavations 51 

Surface Ditches 54 

Berm Ditches 54 

Embankments 55 

Shrinkage 56 

Rip-Rap 57 

Slope Wall 58 

Borrow Pits 58 

Crossings 60 

Finishing 61 

Finishing Stakes 61 

Super-Elevation of Curves 62 

Masonry 63 

Culverts 65 

Blind Drains. 67 

Piling 67 

Timber Structures 70 

Abutment and Pier Crib Filling 72 

Fencing 73 

Quantities 73 

Table of Prismoidal Corrections 74 

Reports 75 

Progress Profiles 76 



INDEX 111 

RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION— Continued. 

Reports 'j'j 

List of Abbreviations 80 

Bridge or Graduation Record Rook 80 

Permanent Bench Marks 80 

Final Profile 81 

Station Plats 82 

Haul and Overhaul 83 

Overhaul . Earth 86 

Overhaul Rock 86 

Embankment 86 

Placing Ties 89 

Joints, Supported and Suspended 92 

The Rail Car 93 

Placing Rails 94 

Cold Chisel 97 

Handling Curved Rails 99 

Spike Maul loi 

Spiking 102 

Spike 102 

Pinch Bar 103 

Track-Laying Machines 107 

Holman-Burke Track Laying Machine 108 

The Harris Machine no 

Roberts Track-Laying Machine 112 

Material Yards and Track Laying 118 

Ballast and Ballasting 125 

Raising the Track 125 

Tamping 129 

Tamping Bar 129 

Regarding Ballasting Cars 132 

The Rodger Ballasting Car 133 

Goodwin Dump Car 134 



JV INDEX 

RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION— Continued. . 

Goodwin Dump Car with Swinging Doors Open. 135 

Lining 136 

Goodwin Car with End Braces. 137 

Filling-In and Dressing. 138 

Quantity of Ballast Required 141 

CONSTRUCTION ACCOUNTS— 

Bills 142 

Vouchers 143 

Cash Expenditures 143 

Time Returns 144 

Pay Rolls 145 

Discharge Checks 145 

Deduction from Pay Rolls 146 

Assignment of Wages 146 

Garnishments 147 

Contractors' Estimates 148 

Force Accounts 148 

Approximate Estimate of Expenditures 149 

' Distribution 1 50 

Engineering Expenses 150 

LAND— 

Right of Way and Station Grounds 151 

Real Estate 151 

Grading 152 

Tunnels 153 

Bridges, Trestles and Culverts 153 

TRACK— 

Ties 154 

Rails 154 

Track Fastenings 155 

Frogs and Switches 155 

Track Laying and Surfacing 155 

Ballast 155 



INDEX V 

STRUCTURES— 

Station Building and Fixtures. , , 156 

Engine House and Turn-Tables 1 56 

Engine and Car Shops. 157 

Shop Machinery and Tools 157 

Water Stations 158 

Fuel Stations •• . . 158 

Fencing Right-of-Way 159 

Snow Fences and Snow Structures • • 1 59 

Stock Yards 159 

Crossings, Cattleguards and Signs 159 

Interlocking of Signal Apparatus 159 

Docks, Wharves and Coal Bunkers 160 

Transfer Boats and Barges 160 

-Section and Tool Houses , . . . 160 

Grain Elevators 161 

Storage Ware Houses 161 

Electric Light Plants 161 

Electric Motive-power Plants 162 

Gas-making Plants 162 

MISCELLANEOUS STRUCTURES— 

Telegraph Lines 163 

Miscellaneous • • 163 

Transportation Charges 163 

Operating Expenses and Earnings 163 

Construction Equipment 164 

Equipment and Maintenance of Sections 164 

General Expenses 164 

Interest and Discount 164 

Legal Expenses 165 

Track Laying Reports 165 

Instrument Reports 165 

Requisitions 166 



VI INDEX 

MISCELIANEOUS STRUCTURES— Continued. 

Receipt of Material and Distribution Record. . . .166 
Transfer of Material to Operating Department. 168 

Inventors 169 

Insurance 169 

Work Train Service 170 

Commercial Traffic During Construction 171 

Passes 173 

Accident Reports 174 

Telegrams 174 

SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT FOR FIELD 

PARrriES 175 

Engineer Equipment and Stationery 176 

Camp Exjuipment 178 

Medical Equipment 180 

TABLE OF ORDINATES TO VERTICAL 

CURVES 181 

THE SIX CHORD SPIRAL 183 

Compound Curves 192 

The Length of Spirals 198 

Speed in Miles per Hour 200 

The Length of Spirals Joining Compound Curves 201 
To Run in the Six Chord Spiral by Deflections . 202 

Deflection Table for Six Chord Spiral 203 

Track Parabola 205 

Table of Intermediate Offsets from Main Tan- 
gent and Main Curve with One Chord Ap- 
proach to Track Parabola •. . .206 

MAINTENANCE OF WAY— 

The Road-bed 209 

Low Joints caused by ^Tumping*" 210 

Ditch Built to Standard Specifications 211 

P. R. R. Standard Ditch and Roadbed 212 



INDEX VU 

MAINTENANCE OF WAY— Continued. 

Toe Wall Holding Embankment 213 

Concrete Ditch 214 

Terra-Cotta Drain Tiles. 216 

Drain Tiles Venting into Side Ditch 217 

Forking and Cleaning Stone Ballast 218 

Distributing Stone Ballast-Leveling with a Cross- 
Tie 220 

Pilot Snow-Plow Flanger , 221 

The "Rotary" Snow Plow 222 

Snow-Shed in the Sierra Nevada 224 

Track Laid Ready for Surfacing 225 

Single Main and Side Track-Stone and Cinder 

Ballast 226 

Main Double Track-Gravel Ballast 227 

Rotary Dump Car 232 

Right and Left Hand Dump Cars. 233 

The 25-Ton (Pull) Rapid Lidgerwood Unloader 234 

Making "Fiir from Trestle. 235 

Tamping 237 

Ballast Cross-Section 237 

Spring 240 

Summer 241 

Autumn 242 

Winter 243 

Station Grounds and Buildings 247 

Old Material 249 

Care of Material 250 

Cross Ties 253 

Spacing Ties 255 

Cross-Ties per Mile. 256 

Life of Ties 262 

Treating Ties. , . , . .263 



r 



Vni INDEX 

MAINTENANCE OF WAY-^Continued. 

Metal Ties , 267 

Morrell Metal Tie 268 

Tie-Plates 271 

Pointers Regarding Tie Plates ^yj 

Setting Under Traffic Method 279 

Channel Method 280 

Application of Tie-Plates with Wedge 281 

The'Plate Gauge 281 

Follower Plate System in Track 281 

Straddler Method 282 

Wilson Hydraulic Press 284 

Double Plunger Pump 285 

Damage to Cross-Ties by Spiking 287 

Spike Pullers 288 

Rails 289 

Action of Wheel on Rail Joint 290 

Tendency Which the Motion of the Wheel Has 

to Crush the Rails at Their Joint 292 

Tons per Mile and Feet of Track per Ton of 

Rails of Different Weight per Yard 293 

Perfection Track Drill for Drilling Bolt Holes in 

Rails 295 

TESTING STEEL 297 

Process of Making Steel. 298 

Rolling Steel 299 

Tests of Steel 301 

RAIL JOINTS ' 310 

Weber Rail Joints 311 

"Common Sense" Rail Joint 311 

Truss Rail Joints 311 

Number of Fastenings Required to the Ton of 
Rails 312 



INDEX IX 

RAIL JOINTS— Continued. 

Rail Joints or Splices 313 

Compromise Splicing Arrangements 315 

Creeping Rails 316 

Expansion Joint for a Bridge or Difficult Piece 

of Track 318 

Han and Elevation of a Joint to Take Up the 

Expansion and Contraction of Rails 318 

Line and Surface * 321 

Rail Bender and Straightener. . : 322 

Curving Rails 322 

Correcting Alignment on Curves 323 

Warren Circular-End Track Gage 324 

McHenry Adjustable Track Gage 324 

LAYING TRACKS. 325 

Middle Ordinates 331 

Slopes for an Earth Cut 339 

Embankment; Built Full Width at Grade and 

Out to the Slope Stakes 339 

Running Off Elevation 340 

Compromise Run-off for Curve Elevation 344 

Curved Graduation of Elevation 349 

Curved Graduation Throughout 353 

Application of Transition Curves 358 

Widening Embankment 366 

Track Notes by Practical Men 368 

Relaying Track 372 

The Secret of Good Track 373 

Laying Cross-Ties 375 

Tamping Ties 376 

Carihg for Track in Heavy Rains 377 

Use of Angle Bars 378 

Stub Switch, f . f f 380 



LAYING TRACKS— Continued. 

Split Switch. 380 

Clarke Jeffrey Split Switch 381 

Lorenz Safety Split Switch .382 

Transit Split Switch 383 

Combination Slip Switch Crossing with Adjusta- 
ble Tie Bars and Rigid Center Frogs 384 

"Eureka" Spring Rail Frog : 386 

Movable Point Crossing •. . .387 

Crossing Frogs with Extra Heavy Angle Irons. 387 

Right Hand Frog 387 

To Take the Angle of a Frog 388 

- Arrangement of the Switch Pomts for a Three 

Throw Split Switch 389 

Combination Slip Switch and Movable Center 

Points ..............'. 390 

Plan of a Cross Over. ...".•. 391 

Plan Illustrating the Use of a Cross Over or 
Switch Connecting the Two Main Line 

Tracks of a DouWe Track Road 391 

Derailing Switch Used to Prevent a Collision 
Between a Train on the Main Line and 
Cars Running off a Side Track Onto the 

Main Line 392 

Track 392 

Maintenance of Line 392 

Maintenance of Surface 393 

EASY RULES 394 

Middle Ordinate 394 

Find the Nurrtber of Frogs for Any Turnout. .,. .394 

Table of Timber — Dry. . . .^ 395 

Ta'ble of Weights — Fuel 395 

Table of Feet Board Measure 396 



INDEX XI 

EASY RULES— Continued. 

Table of Weights — Metals 397 

Table of Weights — Building Material 397 

Table Showing the Number of Feet Board Meas- 
ure in a Piece of Joist, Scantling or Timber . 398 

BIRIDGES AND BUILDINGS 399 

Perspective View of Through Plate Girder 

Bridge 404 

Deck Warren Truss : 405 

Cantilever Bridge at Mingo, Ohio 409 

Questions and Answers on Bridges 410 

Bridge and Trestle Construction Notes 414 

Car Pile Driver, Missouri Pacific Ry 419 

Crib Foundation 420 

Marking Piles for Cutting Off 421 

Grillage Foundation 422 

Pile Tenon and Trenail 423 

Fastening Cap to Piles 424 

Effect of Overdriving Piles .' I25 

Standard Pile Trestle, Denver & Rio Grande 

Railroad ' 427 

Dimensions of Timber 428 

Dimensions of Iron Details 429 

Concrete and Construction Pipe Culverts 431 

Stone Arched Culvert 432 

The Inspection 433 

Bridge Numbers ! 434 

Standard Framed Trestles, Pennsylvania R. R. .437 
Pile Trestle with Earth Roadbed, Louisville & 

Nashville R. R 438 

Harley and Teeter Gasoline Motor Car 439 

Modification of Warren Truss for Long Spans. .441 
Modified Form of Warren Truss. 441 



Xll INDEX 

BRIDGES AND BUILDINGS— Continued. 

Whipple Truss or Double Intersection Pratt. . . .422 

Bridge Hand Car 443 

Instructions to Inspectors 444 

Cantilever Bridge • 445 

Instruction Regarding Inspection Reports. .... .445 

Erection of Steel Bridges 45 1 

Fitting and Chipping 453 

Riveting 454 

Painting 454 

Buildings 460 

New Burlington Passenger Station at Omaha, 
Neb 466 

Vacuum Machine, Central Railroad of New Jer- 
sey Plant 469 

Application of Vacuum Cleaner to Railroad Car 

Seats 471 

Front Elevation of Freight House 473 

Rear Elevation and Cross Section of Freight 

House 474 

35-ton Steam Wrecking Crane 476 

Wrecks 476 

Tools on a Wrecking or Tool Car 477 

Tools on a Derrick Car 478 

15-ton Double Mast Hand Wrecking Crane 478 

Tilden Wrecking Frog 480 

Palmerton Wrecking Frog 481 

Device for Splicing a Broken Chain 482 

Sketch Showing Methods of Removing Debris. .485 

Sketch Showing Method of Bridging a Washout 
with Cribs of Track Ties 488 




INDEX XU\ 

RAILROAD CURVE TABLES by C. S. Cross for 
Expeditiously Determining the Points at 

Which to Commence the Curve 493 

Railroad Curve Table * ... 513 

EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT TABLES, 
for Expeditiously Determining the Cubic 
Yards from the Mean Area 515 

ABBREVIATIONS USED BY ENGINEERS,. .. .525 

TRACK DE^TINITIONS 528 

TRESTLE, WOODEN— TERMS EMPLOYED. .528 
CONCRETE— 

Method of Placing Lock Joint Pipe 530 

Pacific Lock Joint Pipe. 532 

Making Lock Joint Pipe for Great Northern 

Railway at Everett, Wash 533 

Lock Joint Pipe on Batter Piles 534 

Two Centuries of Thought in Pile Protection. .536 

Portion of Pile Destroyed by Teredo 538 

Life Size Picture of Teredo 538 

Sectional View of Pile Destroyed by Teredo. . . .538 

Piles Protected with Lock Joint Pipe 539 

Prismatic Compass with the Oynometer Attach- 
ment 541 

MISCELLANEOUS ILLUSTRATIONS— 

Aneroid Barometers for Measuring Altitudes. . .541 

Engineer's Scale 542 

Protractor . . . . , 542 

Engineer's Level 542 

Odometer ' 543 

Engineer's Steel Tape 543 

Chesterman's Metallic Tape 543 

Clynometer or Slope Instruments 544 

Leveling Instrument and Gradienter 54.^ 



XIV INDEX 

MISCELLANEOUS ILLUSTRATIONS— Continued. 

Philadelphia Leveling Rod, with Target 545 

Light Mountain Transit, with Vertical Arc, 
. Level, on Telescope, and Clamp and Tangent 

Telescope Axis 546 

Engineer's Transit with Level and Gradienter 

Attachment 547 

Pedometer 548 

Hand Level and Gynometer * '. . 548 

Drag Scraper with Runners 550 

Drag Scraper with Bottom Plate 550 

Two-Wheeled Scraper 550 

Scraper (Four-Whecled) ready to Load Front 

Pan 551 

Scraper (Four-Wheeled) the Rear Pan Dumf)ed.55i 

Grader Ditcher and Wagon Loader 552 

A Dump Wagon known as a Bottom Dump 

Wagon 552 

Steam Shovel at Work 553 

A Grader Ditcher and Wagon Loader 553 . 

Plan and Side and End Elevations of a Steam 

Shovel 554 

American Railway Ditching Machine 555 

Track Saw 556 

Railroad Shovel 556 

Rail Car 55^ 

Ware Tie Plate Surfacer and Gauge 557 

Track Lever or Lifting Bar, Used for Heavy 

Track W(5rk 558 

Track Drill 558 

American Guard Rail Fastener 559 

Forged Steel Rail Braces 560 

Bilge Pumps 560 



fNDEX * XV 

MISCELLANEOUS ILLUSTRATIONS— Continued. 
Expansion of Rails in Varying Temperatures. .562 
Angle Bars Used on a 75-lb. Rail of American 

Society of Civil Engineers' Standard 563 

Metal Tie 564 

Morrell Metal Tie 564 

Double Slip Switch with Movable- Point Frog. . .565 
Crossing Frogs Used Where Two Tracks Cross 

at an Acute Angle 565 

Single Slip Switch with Rigid Middle Frogs 566 

Replacer 567 

Car Replacing Device 567 

Skeleton of Howe Truss Brid<.^e 567 

Framed Trestle 568 

Pile Trestle Bridge 568 

Temporary Trestle over a river, preparatory to 

Building the Bridge 569 



7 



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^ 



Suctsessiui Motorman \ 



REVISED AND ENLARGED 1808 EDITION 

MODERN LOCOMOTIVE 



By C F. SWIMGIX. M. E. 



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FREDERICK J. DRAKE & CO. 

PUBLISHERS 

cmcAoaiu. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE BREAKDOWNS 
AND HOW TO REPAIR THEM 

WITH 

Questions and Answers 

Over three hundred questions by practical Locomotive 

Enginemen, asked because of breakdowns, snags and 

problems met with. Answered by W. G. Wallace 

in a clear, easily understood style, with many 

illustrations showing bovr to manage 

difficult breakdowns. 



The questions are carefully indexed and referred to 
by number. The book also contains useful Pointers 
and Tables for Enginemen, and three folding plates. 



285 Pages, 16mo Full Leather Limp, Price $1.50 

Stat postpaid to any address upon receipt of price. 



FREDERICK J. DRAKE & CO. 

Chicago, U. S. A.