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THE 



CONSTRUCTION of CRANES 



AND OTHER 



LIFTING MACHINERY, 

EDWARD C. K MARKS, 

Asmcuite Mthiber of the Institution of Civil Suffinkers; MenUter of the Iiutitution 
of Mechanical Sngineers ; Felloio of the C/iartered Inttitute of Patent Agents. 

Author ov 

**The Co-nstmetion and Working of Pumps" **MechanicaZ Engineering Mate^'iids^' 

**The Manufacture of Iron and Steel TkUtes" 
'^The Evolution of Modern Small Arms and Ammunition^" etc. 



THIRD EDITION-REVISED AND ENLARGED. 



PRICE 38. 6d. NET. 



1904. 

THE TECHNICAL PUBLISHING CO. LIMITED, 287, Deaxs(jatk, Maschbstbr. 

John Hbtwood, Doansgate, Manchester, and 29 and 30, Shoe Ijane, Loudon ; 

SiMFKiN, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent, and Co. Ltd., Stationers' Hall 

Court, London ; 

D. Van Nostrand Co., 23, Murray Street, and 27, Warren Street, New York ; 

The Derry-Collard Co., 256 and 257, Broadway, New York ; 

E. W. Cole, Sydney and Melbourne, Australia ; 

Geo. Uobertson and Co. Proprietary Limited, Melbourne, Sydney, Adebiide, 

and Brisbane ; and all Booksellers. 






I. 



( THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC L'RARY 

917683A 

ASTOR. LE.^ )X ArfO 






• • • • 

• • • 






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• • •* 



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• • • • • . • 

• * ^» m • • « 

» * • • • <» 



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* • 



» • • 



• • - 



t 



PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION. 



This edition contains in Part I. the matter which constituted the 
original edition, and in Parts I. and II. the work as it appeared in the 
second edition. 

The slight revision found necessary has been in form rather than 
in substance. 

The new matter, Part III., comprises numerous examples, setting 
forth the present practice of some of the best-known makers of lifting 
machinery. Many of such examples serve to illustrate the extensive 
and extending application of electrical energy to the operation of cranes 
and lifting machines of all types. 

« 

The author desires to express his thanks to all those makers for their 
ready and courteously-rendered assistance. 

E. C. R. M. 
13, Temple Sti*eet, Birmingham, 
November, 1904. 



X 



CONTENTS. 



PART I. 

NOTES ON GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE 
IN STANDARD TYPES OF LIFTING MACHINES. 

CHAPTER I.— Pulley Blocks. 

Introductiou— Rope and Chain Blocks — Weston's DifiFerential GhiUu 
Block— Chinese Windlass— Example of 2-ton Weston Block— Self-sustaining 
Proi>erty of Block— Power Required to Raise Load 1-7 

CHAPTER II.— Crabs and Winches. 

Principle of Action and Calculation of Power or Mechanical Advantage 
Obtained — 8ingle-piirchase Crab — Classification of Crabs by Lifting 
Cajmcity— Example of 1-ton Direct Crab— Calculation of Power of Single- 
purchsise Cnibs— Loss by Friction— Stresses to be Resisted by Machine 7-lS 

CHAPTKR III. — Double-purchase Crabs. 

Necessity for Employment of Double-purchase Gearing — Calculation of 
Power— Example of 50-cwt. Double-purchase Crab— Stress on Crab Sides — 
Strap Brake 13-19 

CHAPTER IV.— Treble-purchase Crabs. 

General Practice in Construction— Example of 10-ton Treble-purchase 
Crab— Details of Gearing, Shafts, and Bearings 20-2& 

CHAPTER v.— Hand Cranes. 

Definition* of Crane— Wall or Jib Crane- Stress on Jib and Tie Rods — 
Example of 1-ton Wrought-iron Jib Crane 25-30 

CHAPTER VI.— Pillar Cranks. 

General i)escrii>tion— Calculation of Stresses— Example of 5-cwt. Crane- 
Resistance to Slewing— Pillar Crane with Horizontal Jib 30-35 

CHAPTER VII.— Whip Cranes. 

Origin of Name— Length of Hauling Rope— Method of Working and 
Calculation of Power -Stress on Jib and Tie Rods— Strength of Timl>er 
Jib— Example of 1-tou Crane— Indei)endeut Whip Cranes 36-41 



VI. CONTENTS, 

CHAPTER VIII.— Foundry Cranes. 

PAOB 

Requirements of Foundry Crane — Racking Motion — Example of 3- ton 
Hand-power Foundry Crane— Power Required for Racking— Calculation 
of Stresses— Independent Foundry Crane 41-47 

CHAPTER IX.— Derrick Cranes. 

Special Feature of Derrick Cranes — The Invention of David Henderson— 
The Fuzee Barrel — Method of Working — Example of 30-cwt. Crane— Stresses 
on Ties 48- 

CHAPTER X.— Wharf Cranes. 

Example of 4-ton Crane — Stability of Foimdations — Resistance to 
Slewing — Slewing Gear 55-60 

CHAPTER XI.— Portable Cranes. 

Example of 8-ton Crane —Balancing of Load— Calculation of Stresses — 
Leading Dimensions of 8-ton Crane— Lowering Jib 01-66 

CHAPTER XII. — Overhead Travelling Cranes. 

General Description— 3-ton Pulley Block Traveller — Wheel Base of End 
Carriages — Traversing Load Across Girders — Cherry's Brake Travellhig 
Crab— Calculation of Power— Description of Brake— Span of Travellers — 
Marks' Brake Traveller— Description of Brake— Meacock and Ravens- 
croft's Disengaging Clutch— Travellers Operated from Girder Platform 66-86 

CHAPTER XIII.— Steam-power Hoists. 

Power and Speed of Hand-lifting Machines— Man Power and Horse 
Power — Factory or Warehouse Hoists Driven from Shafting 85-9 

CHAPTER XIV. — Power Cranes for Warehouses. 

Adaptation of Hand Crabs for Working by Belt Power — Friction-geared 
Crane — Arrangement of Working by Hand Power when Required 91- 7 

CHAPTER XV.— Cage or Car Lifts 

The American Elevator — Worm-gear Lift— Safety Apparatus — Power 
Required from Shafting— Combined Hand and Power Lift 97-104 

CHAPTER XVI. — Locomotive Steam Cranes. 

General Description— Smith's High-speed Crane— Loose Roller Path — 
Varying Tyi)es of Locomotive Steam Cranes— Steam Goliath Crane— Steel- 
works Locomotive Crane 104-11 

CHAPTER XVIL— Fixed Steam Cranes 
Fairbaim Cranes— 4-ton Forge Crane— Steam Wharf Crane 113-115 

CHAPTER XVIII. — Steam-power Overhead Travelling Cranes. 

Leading Types— Self-contained Steam-power Travellers — Example of 
75-ton Size— Overhejid Shafting or Square-shaft Travellers 115-122 



CONTENTS. VU. 

CHAPTER XIX. — Rope-driven and Electric Travelling Cranes. 

PAOE 

Limit of Application of Square-shaft Travellei-s— Fly-rope Transmission 
of Power— Application to Cranes— Electric Cranes — Vaiiglian's Rope- 
driven Travelling Crane— Example of 25-ton Size— Rope-driven Walking 
Jib Crane 122-128 

CHAPTER XX.— Lifting Jacks. 
General Principles— Screw Jack — Mechanical Advantage Obtained— 
Travelling Screw Jack— Windlass Jacks — Hydraulic Jacks 128-135 

CHAPTER XXI.— Chains and Ropes. 

Short-link Crane Chain— Stud-link Chain— Pitched Chain— Diameter 
of Chain Barrels— Manufacture and Testing of Chain— Strength of Chain — 
Strength of Hemp Ropes— Strength of Steel- wire Rope or Cable, and Care 
of same 136-142 

PART II. 

SOME PATENTED INVENTIONS RELATING TO 

LIFTING MACHINERY. 

CHAPTER XXII.— Rope Pulley Blocks. 

Improvements in Rope Pulley Blocks— Improvements in Chain Pulley 
Blocks— Attempts to Produce a Frictionless Chain Block— Worm Block— 
The Cherry Self-sustaining Brake Block 143-147 

CHAPTER XXIII.— Crabs, Capstans, and Winches. 

Efiforts of Inventors chiefly directed to the Brake Mechanism— J. 
Scott's Frictional Driving Gear for Winches— Winches for Holding and 
Hauling Roi)es — Winch for Service on Trawlers— Electric-driven Winch . . 148-154 

Chapter XXIV. — Ship Derricks, and other Loading, Unloading, 

AND Transporting Machines and Appliances. 

Loading Appliances for the Coaling of Ships— The Temperley Trans- 
porter 154-168 

CHAPTER XXV. — Electric and other Lifts or Elevators. 

Electric and other Lifts or Elevators— The Application of Electricity to 
Lifting Machinery— Comparative Cost, Ac, of Hydraulic and Electric 
Lifting Machinery— The Push-button System of Controlling the Working 
of Electric Elevators 168-176 

CHAPTER XXVI. — Electric Overhead and other Cranes and 

Hoists. 

Arrangements of Electric Motors for Crane and Hoist Work— J. A. F. 
Aspinall's Electric Overhead Luggage Carrier— The Invention of W. 
Craven (1897) — F. J. Sprague's Electrically-actuated Hoist or Lift 
Mechanism— 20-ton Three-motor Overhead Electric Travelling Crane 176-18S 



viiL CONTENTS. 

PART IIL 

EXAMPLES OF PRESENT PRACTICE BY LEADING 
MAKERS OF LIFTING MACHINERY. 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

PAGE 

HtAHiiu Titan Crsaue, by Kausomefl and Rapier Limited— Sheer L^s, br 
'^/waiM, Hlieldon, and Co. Limited, and by Taylor and Hubbard 1S4-191 

CHABTER XXVIII.— Rtdraulic Cranes and Jacks. 

Travelling Type Hydraulic Crane and Hydraulic Coaling Crane, by 
O^wanx, Sheldon, and Co. Limited— Combined Hydraulic and Electric 
Crane, by Henry Berry and Co. Limited— Hydraulic Lifting Jacks and 
Hydraulic Pulling Jackn, by Youngs 191-199 

CHAPTER XXIX. — Electkic Locomotive or Tuavelling Jib 

Cranes. 

Klectric Jib Crane, by Htothert and I*itt Limited— Electi ic Travelling 
Wlmrf Crane, by Craven linm. Limited —Electric Locomotive Cranes, by 
TliomaM Hmith and Houh 200-208 

CHAPTER XXX.— Electric Walking Jib Cranes, Foundry 

Cranes, and Winches. 

Two-motor Electric Walking Cranes, by Cowans, Sheldon, and Co. 
Limited, and by Craven Bros. Limited — Electiic Fotiiidrj- Cnine and 
Electric Winch, by Uansomes and Rajiifr Limited 208-214 

CHAPTER XXXI. — Electric Overhead Travelling Crane. 

Tun-tons Three-motor Crane, by Craven Bros. Limited— Electric Cranes 
or Travellers, by Thomas Smith and Hons— Travellers OjDerated from 
(Jround Level — 125- tons Four-motor Crane, by Vaughan and Sons Limited — 
Cranes by Joseph Adamson and Co., and Efficiency of same— Single-motor 
Oane, by Ran somes and Rai)ier Limited— American Cmues, by William 
Sellers and Co., and by I'awling and Harnischfeger 214-23 

CHAPTER XXXIl.— Temi'erley Transporters. 

TyjHJS— Coaling Warshii)s— Travelling Tower Transi>orter— Fixed Trans- 
]M)rtors — FHectric Engine or Motor — Hydraulic Engine or Motor — 
Traveller 237-244 

CHAPTER XXXIII. — Electric and Hydraulic Lifts or Elevators 

AND Pneumatic Hoists. 

Eleetrie I'assengor Lift, by Waygood and Co. Limited— Push-button 
(Control— Electric Goods and Seryice Lift— Electric Winding Gear and 
Lifts, by Holt and Willetts— Comparison of Electric Lifts with Hydraulic 
Lifts— Ilydratilic Lifts or Elevators, by Waygood— Plunger f^levators — 
Pnotimatio Hoists, by Reavcll and Co. Limited 245-254 



ICONSTRUCTION OF CRANES AND 
OTHER LIFTING MACHINERY. 

PAET I. 

POTIS ON GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE" 
IN STANDARD TYPES OF MACHINES. 



DK the following pages aa attempt ia made to give some 

isigbt into the principlei and general practice of the 

■Mmstrnctioii of lifting machines for band and ateam power. 

The term " lifting machinery " embraces a very wide range 

if appliances, from the simple palley block and screwjack — 

■bich every engineer has handled at some time or other in 

irse of his career— to the monster cranes to be met 

rith in our dock -yards and elsewhere, capable of lifting and 

towering weights of tens and even hundreds of tons. A 

tnibject of such magnitude, therefore, cannot be treated fally 

|:ln the limited apace available, and only the more prominent 

^examples have been selected for consideration. 



PtLLKY BLOCKS. 



Pulley Block a. 



lethod of determining the power o 
pnrchoBH of ordinary chain or rope " taiikle " (the teri_ 
employed to dnnote a. pair of blocks, together with their 
ropea or chains) is to count the number of pnlleya or Bheavea 
in ea^ hlock, and consider their sum to represent the 
parchase of the tackle. Thus, when naing a two and three • 
sheave set of blocks, we have five sheaves, and the gain or 
purchase wonld, by the above rule, be stated aa 5 : L 

Bnt it ia a very easy matter to get a purchase of 6 : 1 with 
« Bet of two and three sheave blocks ; as, for example, in fig. 
1, where A represents a weight required tti be moved in the 
horizontal direction indicated by the arrow 1. If the three- 
sheave block be attached to the weight A, whilst the two- 
aheave is attached to aome iixed point B, the three-^ekrO' 
block will become the movable one, and a little examination 
will show that the purchase ia 6 : 1. The portion of rope C^ 
or the hand rope, must be led away in the direction ahovn 
by the arrow 2. But if the two-sheave block be attached to 
the weight, thus becoming the movable block, whilst the 
three-aheave ia made faat at B, fig. 2, then the purchase will 
only bft T): I, 

In the aaine manner, with a two and two sheave block » 
purchase of 5 : 1 can be obtained ; with a two and one sheave 
a purchase of 4 : 1 ; and so on. The better way, therefore, 
in which to determine the power of a pair of blocks is hy 
the following simple formula :— 
N = P 

where N = the number of ropes or chains leading to or from- 
the movable block, whilst P = t^o power or purchase of the 
tackla It must be understood, of courae, that there is really 
only one rope or chain employed with one set of blocks, but 
it is naual, in determining the purchase, to speak of eaoh 
portion of rope between the top and bottom pulleys aa one 
rope. Hence, in a two and three sheave set of blocks we Bay 
there are six ropes, viz., five portions between the blocks, 
and one portion of rope leading to the hand, often termed ' 
the hand rope. And thus it will be seen that, in the case Oi 
fig. 1, there are sis ropea leading to and from the movable 
block of the tackle, but only live in the case of fig. 2. 

A very well-known and universally employed block is the 
Weston's diflerential chain block, which ia identical in 
^^L principle with an old contrivance known aa the Chinese ■ 



windlaea, illustrated in fig. 3. This windlass consists of a 
barrel of two diiFereat diameters mounted upon an asle, 
provided with handles as in the nsusl luaoner. The chain 
or rops is wound runnd the smaller end of the barrel, and 
then passes round the bottom or failing block, and on round 
the larger end of the barrel. The differential barrel gives 
this cDDtrivaace an enoimoas pnrchoae, for it will be a 




-=-rj-r:.W^¥m 



that whilst the handles are being turned for the purpose of 
lifting the load, the rope or chain is being paid oil the 
smaller end of the barrel, and on to the larger end. But the 
larger end of the barrel will wind up a small amount more 
rope than is unwound from the smaller end, and this small 
amount, divided b; 2 (on account of the use of the falling 
block), will Kive ns the distance through which the load will 
be raised. The load is thus raised very slowly, but what ia 
lost in speed is gained in power, and we are therefore 




enabled by this simple contrivance to lift very heavy 
weights. The power or purchase of the appliance may he 
expressed by the formula— 




PULLEY BLOCKS. 



I 



the difference between the circumferences of the large and 
small ends of barrel, and F = the power gained. Example : 
Let the larger end of the barrel be 6in. diameter, and the 
smaller end 5^in., the radius of the handles being 15in. 
Assuming that two men are together exerting a force of 
501b. at the handles, what weight will they lift ? We first 
find that the circumference of the larger end of our barrel 



fl I I i i I I T 

Mi » ' 1 5 » ^ » ♦ 




7r^^ 



-JL 



F/rt. 3. 



is 19in., whilst that of the smaller end is 17Jin., and the 
difference between them is therefore Ifin. We are now in a 
position to substitute these values in our formula thus — 



fxj|><2 = .<«, 



and by multiplying 108 by 50 we obtain the theoretical 
amount (disregarding friction) that the men would lift, viz., 
6,4001b. 

The great mechanical advantage obtainable with this old 
appliance has long been known, but it has a great practical 



'disadvantage irhich prevented its ext«nded applicaUon. 

■ The length of rope or chain required ia very great^ and 
varies with the power of the machine. In the example 
given, if it bad been reqair^d to raise the load a height of 
6ft, we should have to wind over 100ft. of rope on the small 
end of barrel before starting, and on completion of the lift 
of 5ft. this rope wonld have become transferred to the larger 
end ; and thus, not only is a great !ongth of rope required, 
bat also a long and cumbersome barrel, Weston overcame 
these difficulties in a very ingenioas manner in his chain 
block, a working drawing of which is shown in Gg. 4. The 
long barrel is replaced by a chain wheel having two grooves, 
suitably arranged for the reception of the chain, the 
diameters from the centro to centre of the grooves being 
slightly diSerent, thus forming a difTerential pitch-chain 
wheel. The grooves have luga coat on to prevent the chain 
from slipping, the length between the two lugs being known 
as a apace. The chain, which is endless, passes through each 
pulley in working, going round the pulley several times in 
the course of the lift. To put the chain into gear in the 
pulleys, the latter are removed from their frames by taking 
ont the centre pin ; then, after the chain has been fitted into 
the spaces, the pulleys are put into their frames again, and 
the centre pin reinserted. The block shown in fig. 4 is a 
two-ton size. The top frame A is made of two wrought-iron 
plates of the dimensions given, 2in. by ^in. thict, welded to 
mn-over cross plates, and connected together by the forRed 
cross-bar B and the pins C. The hook is made from IJin. 
round iron for the top block, and l|in. for the bottom or 
falling block, and after passing throngh the cross-bar is 
riveted, not tightly, but in sucb a manner that the hook 
shall be free to turn or swivel. The two pitch-chain wheels 
are cast together, one being lOin. outside diameter, and the 
other 9|in. ; the larger pulley containing twelve chain 
epaces, and the smaller only eleven spaces. The size of 
chain required ia fin. block or pitched chain — that is, it is 
made to a gauge, so that each link shall be as exactly alike 
BB possible, which is of course necessary. The chain guards 
D prevent the chain from jumping out of the wheels or 
riding over the rim, and tbia is further prevented hy the 
chain guides E, through which the chain passes. The frame 
of the bottom block is shown cast in one piece from malleable 
coat iron. The top frames are also frequently made in thia 
manner— in fact, almost invariably ao in the caae of the 

L smaller blocks, in order to cheapen their mannfactnre. 

Another important advantage of the differential block is 




I 



that it is self'Snstaining, or, in other words, the load will not 
run down if the pnlling chain be released of let go, as would 
happen in the case of the ordinary rope or chain block. 
But this advantage ia only obtained at the expense of the 
rfficiency of the appliance ; and thus we find that abont 60 
per cent of the work put into the machine ia absorbed in 
friction, BQoh friction being caused not only by the presanre 
on the centre pine, bnt also by the rubbing of the chain on 
the pitch-chain wheels. In the case of the two-ton block 
just described we find that theoretically, by exerting ui 
energy of about 1861b,, we ought to be able to lift the fnll 
load of two tons, because if the chain is passed through a 
distance of twelve links, the load will only be raiced a 
distance of half a chain link, and hence the parcbase ia 24 to 
1. But the efficiency of the machine being only 40 per cent, 
the actual energy needed to raise the load will be 4661b. 
This efficiency is exceedingly low, but the eKcesslTe friction 
prevents the load from running down, lowering being 
only effected by pulling the chain in the opposite direction 
to that reqnired for lifting the load. 



CHAPTER 11. 
Ceabs and W I.N cues. 

An ordinary crab or winch, to lift a given load, is a much 
larger and more cumbersome piece of mechanism than a 
pulley block capable of lifting a similar quantity, bnt the 
crab has this great advantage over the pulley block, it 
contains its own chain, for, as the load is being lifted, the 
chain is wonnd round the crab barrel, thereby being 
prevented from entangling with itself or with other objects, 
08 so frequently occurs when working with a set of blocks. 
The action of a crab depends upon the principle of the lever, 
and, in its simplest form, consists merely of a barrel, either 
of wood or iron, mounted upon an axle, to one or both ends 
of which is attached a handle, the axle being carried or 
supported by two side bearinij framp^s. Snch a contrivance, 
commonly known as a " windlass," is to be met with in 
every village, erected over wells for the porpose of drawing 
up the bnckets of water. The power or purchase of the 
windlass is expressed by the ratio between the diameters of 
the circles described by the handle and the diameter of the 
barrel It is necessary, however, to point oat that, for the 
pnrpoae of calculating the power, we must not measure the 
C — diameter of the barrel, but take the diameter of the 





laii-= and 1 



:C'FI"E^ 



barrel and add ro it the diameter of the rope, in order to get 
the theoretical or effective diameter. Tuku, for examplp, a 
windlasB having a (tin. barrel, and a handle of 14iD. radius, 
and let the diameter of the rope employed be lin, : then the 
purchase or power will he 23 : 7, or 4 ; 1, bo that, disregarding 
friction, by exerting a force of 201b, on the handle of the 
wiudlaaa, a man could raise a weight of SOIh. from the 
barrel ; thongh, of coarse, the hitadie would have to be 
turned through 4Et. for every 1ft. through which the bucket 
or load was required to bo raised. 




When it is necessary to lift and lower heavier weights than 
can be conveniently dealt with by a windlass such as that 
described, then the purchase is increased or multiplied by 
the iotrodaction of spur wheels or gearing, such wheels 
varying in number and size according to the load to be 
lifted. ThuB, single-purchase crabs, which are usually 
employed for lifting loads up to IJ tons direct from the 
barrel, contain only one large spur wheel and one small one, 
the smaller being termed the pinion. For loads between IJ 
tons and 3 tons double-purchase crabs are employed. 




CTlATiS AND WINC1IK9. 9 

r containing two spur wheels and two pinions. When the 
^ load exceeds 3 tons treble-pnrchftse craba are nanally resorted 
to, having three spur wheels and three pinions. 

The size of a crab is often denoted by the load it ie 
capBible of lifting in conibication with a set of palley blocks, 
hntihia is a method not to be recommended. It is a far 
better pW to treat each machine on its own merits, as it 
were, and ascertain what it is itself capable of performing 
without the aaaistance of a set of blocks or any other outside 
appliance. This ie the method we shall adopt in these 
articles, and hereafter, in mentioning the Bi?.e of a crab, it 




must be nnderatood to refer to the actual load the machine 
is capable of iiflintj direct from the barrel. Thus, a I-ton 
direct crab ia a crab that is strong enough, and haa purchase 
enough in its gearing, to enable a load of 1 ton to be readily 
lifted by a ropa or chain leading direct from its barrel We 
particularly emphasise lift in tbia case, becaase a crab is 
^ often used for the purpose of dragging a load along the 

fronnd or elsewhere, which is of courae very different from 
fting the load, and takes far ksa power. 




LO 



CRABS AND WINCHES. 



Figs. 5 and 6 in the adjoining illustrations represent a 
front and side elevation of a 1-ton direct crab, taken from 
actual practice, figure 7 being a section of the crab sides 
through A6. The leading outside dimensions are given in 
the illustrations ; the other leading dimensions and 
particulars are as follows : barre], 4iin. diameter ; handles 
(tv/o), 14in. radius ; spur wheel, 25 Jin. diameter. 80 teeth, 
lin. pitch, 2|in. face ; pinion, 12 teeth, lin. pitch, 2gin. face ; 
barrel shaft, l^In. square ; first motion or hanale shaft, 
li'ein. diameter. The shafts are of wrought iron, the handles 
also being of wrought iron jn. diameter. There are three 
wrought-iron tie bolts or stretchers, one at top ind two at 
bottom of crab, for the purpose of bolting the two sides 
together, the top stretcher being |In. diameter, and the two 
bottom ones gin. diameter. When a brake is employed, the 
brake wheel is usually keyed on to the barrel shaft, as 
shown. Ordinary spur gearing i^ employed, though some- 
times the " round noso " form of tooth is adopted. Fig. 10 
is a sectional view of the barrel, the metal in the body of 
which is Mn. in thickness ; the ratchet, or catch wheel, is 
cast on one end of the barrel, and a square hole is cored in 
each end of the barrel, suitable for the reception of the 
barrel shaft, which passes right through it. 



-?tr 






^ 




r--2.|.-i 



Fio. 7. 

Owing to the liability of the cast-iron sides of the crab to 
become broken in the event of rough usage, wrought-iron 
sides are frequently employed, as illustrated in figs. 8 and 9. 
For this size crab (1 ton), the plate would be Ain. thick, 
with a length of 2iin. angle iron riveted to the bottom, to 
torm the base. The bearings for the shafts are made by 
riveting in cast-iron bushes. In order to keep the crab from 
turning and twisting over whilst working, holding-down 
bolts must be passed through each foot of the crab sides, and 
bolted to stout timbers loaded with pig iron, or to other 
suitable foundation. With wrought-iron sides, the holding- 



^i AKD WIKCH 



11 



down bolte are passed through the aDffle iron base. For th<* 
l-ton crab in qaeation, four fin. wrought-iron. bolts would 

Having now obtained the dimfnaions and pftrticulara at 
an ordinary conirneroial crab, we will proceed to inveitiRatn 
the machine, in order to ascertain (1) the number of pounds 
that mast be exerted at the handles in order to lift the full 
load of 1 ton, and (2) the capability of the variona parts to 
resist the stresses or strains coining upon them. 

The force necessary at the handles will depend upon the 
purchase or power of the machine, and this purchase will be 
obtained fay the following formula : — 

Di»ro. nf crrele described by handle. _N". of teetb io wheel 




The diameter of oar crab barrel is 4^,in., and, the load beinp: 
1 ton, the chain (which is nanally preferable to rope) must 
not be less than |in. This will make the effective diameter 
P ol the barrel about 5^in., so that our equation will become — 

51x1^=34 approx. = purchaBe or power of crab ; 




c 



I 



rtcd the force necCBSary at the handles will now be found by 
dividing the load to be lift«d b; Si, thaa— 

But this IB the amonnt assuming that the maohine ig b 
perfect one, loBing Dothing by friction, which is far frtMn 
being the caee, for, what with the friction of the bearinge 
and the loss occftaioned by the wrapping of the chain roand 
the barrel, the efficiency of ordinary commercial cral« cannot 
Hnfely he taken at more than GO per cent ; so that instead of 
661b. we shall actually require llOib. at the handles to lift 
the full load of 1 ton, and this will neceGaitate the employ- 
ment of three men if the load is to be raised through any 
considerable distance. In order to increase the efficiency oif 
crabs, the bearings are frequently brass bushed, which can 
be done at a slight estra coat, and is very advantageous. 

The first stress set up is by the chain pulling at the barrel, 
from whence the stress iB distributed throughout tho 
machina We shall now only consider the strength of the 
spur wheel and pinion, and also that of the shafts, having 
something to say concerning the other parts later on, when 
dealing with double and treble parchase crabs. 

The pressure on the teeth of the spur wheel (and, of 
course, that upon the pinion also) will be less thnn the force 
pulling at the barrel, in the same proportion ae the diameter 




nf the spur wheel is greater than the diameter of the barrel. 
Now, the diameter of the spnr wheel is 4| times greater 
than the eH'ective diameter of the barrel, and therefore the 
pressure on the teeth will be — 

?||-» = 4851b. 

A reliable rule (or obtaining the working strength of cast 
iron wheel teeth is that given by " Box," viz.^ 

350 X pitch X breadth = safe loads in pounds, 
f nitch and breadth in inches). 



r 



nnrOLK PtJBCKASK CEABB, 13 

Aj oQr spar wheel ia lin. pitch, aad 2iin.face, it will be 
Men thftt there ia a conBiderable marfcin of strength, though 
it is cecesaary to bear in mind that, if the crab is employed 
with a considerable length of chain, the chain will become 
piled up upon the barret, the ellective diameter of which will 
thoB become mnch largi^r, atd the preaanro on the teeth 
proportionately increased. 

The chief stress coming upon the shafts is a torsional, or 
twisting one. The barrel shaft is l|in. sqaare, and, at a 
distance of 2Jin.— say Sin. from its centre— there is acting a 
load of 2,240ib,, tending to twiat it asDnder. The nltimate 
torsional strenRth of a lin. square bar of good wrought iron 
may be taken at 8001b,, acting at a leverage of Ifc. from tbi- 
centre of the bar, and the Btrength increaaes aa the cube, or 
as the third power of increase in the size of bar, and also in 
direct proportion to the decrease of the leverage ; bo that 
the ultimate torsional atrength of the l|[n. square bar, at a 
leverage of 3in., will be — 

800 X V X my = 80O A 4 X &i = 17,1501ba. 
and this will give us a fwjtor of safety of more than 7. The 
first motion, or handle Bhaft, ia Ifiin. diameter, and its tor- 
sional load ia 4851bB., acting at a leverage of about, 2ia. ; ao 
that this shaft ig of ample torsional strength, thongh not 
more than suffloiently large to give stiilnea?. 



CHAPTER III. 

DOOBLE PtTROHASE CHADS. 

In the previous chapter it waa stated that single purchase 
oraba are but seldom deaigned for lifting a greater load than 
IJ tons direct from the barrel The reason for this is that 
tne purchase or power of the crab can only be increased as 
foUowa : (1) by decreasing the diameter of the barrel ; (2) by 
increasing the radius of the handles ; (3) by decreaaing the 
diameter of the pinion or small spur wheel ; (4) by increasing 
the diameter of the large spur wheel; andthereis a practical 
limit beyond which we cannot go in each of these four cases, 
u we shall now see. In the first place, the diameter of the 
tbiUTel must always bear a minimum ratio to the diameter of 
■^e chain employed, and we cannot go below that ratio 
ithout seriously damaging the chain, and, in fact, making 
^fiie lapping of the chain round the barrel to be almost a matter 
^ impossibility. It is found in practice that the diameter 




UUGBLE PUBCUASE CRABS. 



of the barrel ahoald not be less than twelve times the diameter 
of the chain employed, so that for Jin. ohain a 6iiL barrel 
would be required. The radioa of the handles ii limited in 




?h«*Z'nHi*'' V?r'°'^j°'^°-'* 'X'casioned to the men in taming 
the handles if the radins u nndaly large. A tall man wUE 
of coarse, be able to work with . irger handl" thai 2 



DOCBLB PCKCll. 

short man, bat in practice a crab handle is seldom mule of a 
greatf^r radios than lOin. Tha diametpr of the pinion mnat 
be snfBciently large to allow of its being bored out for the 
reception of its shaft, and alao to give enllicieat metal 
between the bore and the bottom of the t«eth to permit of a 
key-way being cut These pinions, on account of their small 




^Hdiamete 
^B large sp 
^BsriBiDg 
^H irhich I 
^V.inoreaae 
^Kbe leng 



;dikmeter, are cast solid. Increasing the diameter of the 
large spur wheel is limited by the inconvenience and expense 
srising from the employment of a large and heavy wheel, 
'Which also entails additionally large crab sides, as for every 
inoreaae in diameter of the spur wheel the crab aides have to 
be lengthened a proportionate amount, in order to give the 



16 



DOUBLE PURCHASE GRABS. 



necoFsary distance between the bearings ; so ^ that an ex- 
ceptionally large spur wheel means an exceptionally large, 
clnmsy, and heavy crab. 
In a doable- purchase crab we at once have a very con- 




FIo. 13. 



yenient method of increasing oar parchase or power by the 
introdaction of another pair of wheels, which is eqaivalent 
to the introduction of another lever into the machine ; the 
single-parchase crab obtains its power from a compound 
lever, the double-purchase does its work by virtue of a triple 




^ pnrchase. 



i FDRCHA8E CRABS. 

syatemof leTerage. The formola (or obtaining the power 
ot Btich a machine will be as follows : — 

handle ^ let whpel ^ 2od wh ppl ^ 

barrel IsC pinion 2u(l pinion 
Where there are two spur whpela and two pinions in a 
crab, it is Qenal to speak of thoni aiS tirat and second spur 
wheels and lirat and second pinions respectively, the first 
pinion being the one on the drat motion shaft. As in the 
case of our formula for the si ngle< purchase crab, the ratio 
of handle to barrel is the ratio of the diameter of the circin 
described by the handles to the diameter of the barrel ; and, 




similarly, the ratio between wheels and pinions is expressed 
by the difi'erence between the number of teeth in the wheels 
to the number of teeth in the pinions. 

Figs. 11 and 12 in the accompanying illustrations show 
elevation and plan respectively of a BO owt. donble-purohase 
orab, capable of lifting 2^ tons direct from the barrel. 
[The over-all height and width of the crab are given in the 
' jjeratton ; the length may be varied to snit a longer or 





18 DorBI.E PCRCHASE CRABS 

shorter barrel, as may be required. The leading particnlara 
are bb follow : diameter of barrel = Tin. ; 1st spar wheel — 
lii'gin. diameter, l/jin. 31 teeth, 2|in. face ; 1st pinion Sjin. 
diameter, 12 teeth, li^ein. pitch, 3fin. face ; 2nd spnr wheel 
= 35]'3in. diameter, iTirin. pitch, 77 teeth, 25111. face; 2nd 
pinion same as lat pinion. The tirat spur wheel and second 
pinion are uBually cast together. EadiuB of handles = 16in' 
barrel shaft = 2|in. eqnare ; first and second motion, or 
handle shafts = Ipn. diameter. The power or ] vrchase of 
the crab will be as follows : 



The effective diameter of the barrel will be abont 8jia, aa 
at least Ain. chain mnat be employed when lifting a fnll I 
load. ' 





The force required at the handles will be : 2^ tona-i-64= ' 
881K (theoretical amount), and assoming the efficiency of the 
machine to be 60 per cent, then the actual force required at 
the handles will he 1471b., or the energy of four strong men. 

In fig. 14 is shown a part oatline of a crab side and barrel, 
illustrating the various ways in which the strain doe to tho 
load may be set up in the crab sides j for in working, tha 
chain or rope may be Ird away in either of the directions 
AB, AC, or DE, in each o; which cases there is a force of 2* 
tons pulling at the barrel, and this force has to be resiste 
by the crab sides. In the case of AB, a tensional stress ia -i 
brought to bear upon that portion of the aide below the I 
centre of the barrel shaft bearing, and u^on the holding* 1 
down bolts at the feet of the crab, whilst with AC the streni 
upon the crab sides is a compressive one, the holding-downB 



a altogether 



19 



Dg relieved of 
the direction I 

pnt upon the crah Hides, for they will be acting aa cantilevera, 
with a leverage FG, the end G being fixed. All crab aides 
mnst therefore be made of sufficient atrength to safely resist 
the load when acting in the direction UK ; and farther, each 
aide ahonld be made of soch a strength as that it may itself 
be able to withstand the load, for when the chain ia being 
led ofl' from one end of the barrel almost the whole of the 
streaa will have to be carried by the side nearest to that end. 

Instead of fixing the brake upon the barrel shaft, as 
described and illoatrated when dealing with single- purchase 
crabs in our previoaa article, it is sometimes fixed upon the 
second motion shaft, as shown in figs. 11 and 12. By thia 
method we can obtain a more powerful brake, and one of 
greater convenience in manipulating, than the ordinary 
lever brake. The brake wheel ia usually made of cast iron, 
but reqnires to be very atrong, and, for this reason, it is 
frequently constructed with a solid centre web between the 
boas and the rim of the wheel. The brake strap is simply a 
atrip of thin steel fixed at one end to a projection formed 
on the top tie bolt or stretcher, whilst the other end is 
connected to a screw passing through a plain hole 
formed in a second projection on the other aide 
of the stretcher aa shown in tig. 15. This screw is 
operated by means of a small hand wheel, the boss 
of which has a thread cut in it to suit the screw. In attach- 
ing a brake to a crab, great care tuuat in every case be taken 
that (he brake wheel, when the load is being lowered, runs 
in the direction indicated by the arrow in lig. 15, so that the 
greater strain upon the brake strap may come upon ita fixed 
end, B3 otherwise it will be much more diUicult to control 
the load. 

When letting out, or lowering rapidly by brake, it may 
become necessary to throw the first motion shaft out of gear. 
This is eflected by raising a bracket or fall (shown at H, in 
fig. 12, and in detail in fig. IC), and then slipping the shaft 
back until the collar J (fig. ISHoraed on the shaft comes into 
contact with the crab aide. Thebracket or fall H is then 
allowed to drop down on to the shaft again, thereby prevent- 
ing any lateral or side movement of the shaft. When 
lifting light loads, the handles are placed upon the second 
motion shaft, and the crab worked sirgle purchase. 

Fig. 13 shows an elevation of a wrought-iron side suitable 
for this crab, The thickness of the plate should bo ^ in., and 
the angle iron riveted on to form the base should be 3 in. by 
3 in. by ^ in. in section. 




■ 
■ 



W TKEBLB PTIROBASK CBAB3 

CHAPTER rv. 
Treble Phrceiasb Crabs. 
A CRAB that haa Leen dr signed to lift a certain gi^en load 
CADDot, vith safety, be employed for raising a greater weight 
than its specified maximum load direct from the barrel : but, 
by the intervention of pulley block tackle, we can multiply 
onr power at the expense of the speed to any extent we may 
desire. An ordinary set of pulley blocks haa three and two 
sheavea respectively, and with these the power of the crab 
would be mnltiplied either five or six times, accordiog to the 
manner in which the blocks are employed (see Chapter I. for 
"Pulley Blocks"); bat there are many caaea where the 
amount of space available between the crab and the load to 
be dealt witn is so limited that it is impossible to employ 
blocks, and the load must, therefore, be lifted direct from the 
barrel. This, when the load exceeds three tons, will 
necessitate the employment of a treble-purchase crab. Sach 
a crab, together with a set of blocks, wonid also be employed 
for handling loads of thirty or forty tons and upwards. 

With these large crabs the general practice is to aonatmot 
the sides of wrought-iron plate, having an angle-iron basei 
and, in many cases, angle-iron stitfening pieces all round the 
edges of the plates. These stiflening pieces do good service 
in preserving the rigidity of the machine, but add con- 
siderably to the cost, and also to the weight of the crab- 
Wronght-iroD aides are stronger than cast iron, and stand 
more rough usage ; hence their general adoption. In addi- 
tion to this, the crab may be modified in shape to suit 
particular requirements, without expensive alterations to 
patterns, ikc, as would be necefsary with cast-iron aides. 

A treble- purchase crab, capable of lifting ten tons direct 
from the barrel, is shown by plan and elevation in £gs. 17 
and IS. The sides are cut out of wroDght-iron plate | in. in 
thickness, having an angle iron riveted on to form the base. 



The barrel is 12 in. diameteri 
ius. The gearing is as follows : — 
tm., 12 teeth, 1^ in. pitch, 3in. face. 
I, diam., 46 teeth, 1 J in. pitch, 2^ in. face, 
am., 11 teeth, 1| in. pitch, 3} in. face. 
1. diam., 60 teethj 1 1 in. pitchy 3 in. fmoe. 
8rd pinion. .8§ in. Biam., 11 teeth, 2g in. pitch, 6|in. face. 
3rd wheel....3f t. ej in, diam,, OS teeth, 2| in. pitch, 6i in. Smb. 
The purchase of the crab will therefore be — 
' 200 approx. 



x^in. 
the handles 16 in. radi 
1st pinion. ..5§ in, dii 
Ist wheel,...] ft. 10 in 
and pinion.. 6i°s in. dii 
2nd wheel, .,2ft. 3|ir 



14 12 11 



11 



TREBLE PURCHASE CRABS. 



21 




Fii;s. 17 AND ISJ. 



22 TREBLB PURCHASE CEABS 

The effectire diameter of the barrel will be 14iD., two Jio. 
chains b«ing employed for lifting the load. CalcnlaCiDB 
upon an efficiency of 60 per cent, it will be seen that in order 
to lift the full load of 10 tona direct from the barrel, a force 
of 186 lb. must be exerted at the crab handles, or six men 
each exerting 311b. Thesmallapurwheelsor pinions should 
be strengthened by ahroading, as this will be a set-otl' against 
the weakness of the form of the teeth, which is inevitable 
in the case of small wheels. The pinions have also much 
more wear apon them than the wheels into which they gear ; 
for, in the crab under cons idernt ion, for inatsnce, whe'-o ' 



^^^^^^^^ 



Z2 



{///^ ////.> ^/////////A 



numbers of teeth in the third wheel and third pinion ara 
respectively 65 and 11, it is obvious that each tooth of the 
pinion has to stand five times the amount of wear on each 
tooth of the wheel. There is little, if anything, to be gained 
by shrouding the teeth of large spur wheels, and, moreover, 
shrouded wheels have a very heavy appearance, but with 
small pinions it becomes a matter of necessity to resort 
to shrouding. 

The large spur wheel is keyed on to the barrel in the 
manner shown in fig. 19, the end of the barrel being turned 
to suit the bore or the wheel, and thus the spur wheel. 




carrying with it the barrel, revolvea on the barrel shalt, the 
latter remaining Htationary in ita bearings. This methnd of 
driving the barrel makes a far better job in a large crab 
than that of keying the wheel and barrel directly on to the 
shaft, and is more economical of space. Two keys should be 
employed, care being taken that they are put in at right 
angles to each other. Instead of tbaa keying the wheel to 
the barrel, the latter ia sometimes made with a flange at 
each end, and having the flange adjoining the wheel provided 
with projections or Inga for fitting between the arms ; thas 
the barrel ia driven by the arms of the spar wheel. The 
brake wheel is keyed on to the second motion shaft ; the 
brake may be operated by means of levers, but it is far n 
convenient, and a more powerful check is obtained by 
employing the screw brake, arranged as shown in the 
illustrationa. The ratchet, or catch wheel, which should be 
of wronght iron, is also keyed on to the secoiid motion shaft, 
the pawl being carried by a bolt throngb the crab side. 
The handles are of wronght iron, lin. diameter. Both the 
firat and also the second motion shafts may be employed as 
handle shafts, but when working at the second motion shaft 
the crab virtually becomes a donble-pnrchase one, and as 
there is no necessity for the first motion shaft to ba 
revolving, it should be thrown out of gear, which may be 
done in several ways, but perhaps the simplest la to ca^t the 
first pinion with a long boss, this boss being afterwards 
drilled and tapped for the reception of a hand screw. The 
pinion, being driven by a feather key, may be slipped along 
the abaft until it is drawn oat of its wheel, and the acreiv 
then being tightened ap, secures the pinion and prevents it 
from farther travelling along the shaft. Another method is 
to provide the pinion with a clutch, so that the shaft may 
he thrown in or out of gear without its being necessary to 
toQch the pinion with ttie hands, as in the former case. 

The shafts for a orab of this capacity, beiag somewhtC 
large in size, should be constructed of hammered iron or 
■ ]nild steel, as ordinary bar iron will not give a sufficiently 
~~ d surface for the bearings. The sizes of the shafts will 

t motion shaft ^ S^io. dia., and Ijia, dia. at bearingii. 

& shaft = slin. dia., and 3in. dia. at bearings. 

Srd motion shaft = 3|in. dia, and iJ^in. dia. at bearings. 

Barrel shaft = 4in. dia, and ^in. dia. at bearings. 

The crab ia stayed or stilTened by two l|Ln. diameter tie 




at the base, and is further tied together 
screwed by studs to the ends o£ the 



34 TREl 

Tfv iliameter of the Bhaft at the bearings is.of conrae, 
chiefly determined by the load snch shafts wUl have to 
resist ; but the length of the bearing, together with its 
diameter, mnat be considered in another relation, namelj, 
the tendency to abrasion, or the '' ganling " of the shafts in 
its bearings ; for it is well known that when the pressure 
per square inah upon a hearing exceeds a certain amonnt, 
the shaft will commence to cut or abrade the bearing in 
spite of the most constant lubrication, and endless trouble 
will be experienced. The pressure per square inch that can 
be safely carried varies with the material employed in the 
construction both of the shaft and also the bearing, A steel 
or hammered iron shaft will resist abrasion much better 
than common bar iron, with the laminations and defects to 
which such iron is subject, and it has been found in practioe 
that a steel or hammered iron shaft, working in cast-iron 
bearings, can carry from 5cwt, to dcwt. per square inch of 
bearing in actual contact with the shaft without abrasion. 
It must be borne in mind that the shaft will not be bearing 
upon the whole of its circumference, but only upon half of 
it, and hence, with a Sin. shaft 5in. long, we shall have a 
bearing surface of 

? X I x f = V = 22i square inches. 

In the 10-ton crab under consideration, we have, in the 
case of the barrel shaft, cast iron revolving upon mild steel. 
At one end the bearing is 5in. diameter and Oln. long, and at 
the other 5in. diameter and Sin. long. In the latter 
therefore, the number of square inches available to carry the 
load is : 

{ X 5 X } = V - 37J square inches, 
and asauming that the full load of 10 tons or 20Oi3wt. U 
acting upon this bearing, we shall have 

^^TT ^ Blowt. per square inch of bearing. 

When the chain is being led otffrom one end of a barrel, 
then almost the whole strain will be brought to bear upon 
the bearing nearest to that end. But in this case, where, aa 
before stated, two chains are employed for iifcing the load, 
the whole strain cannot be brought upon one bearing ; and 
thns it wiU be seen that there is ample surface provided. 
As a general rule, it will be found advisable to keep well 
under the 5cwt limit, though, if the bearings be brass 
liuehcd, as much as 7cwt. per square inch may be put upon 



I 



I 



I WALL CRAKES. 2b 

• The Buhject of crabs baa been dealt with thus fnlljr 
becaQEre they embody in principle, bi far as the lifting 
mechaniam is concerned, the whole range of hand power 
lifting machinery where the wheel and axle in combination 

with gearing is employed to enable a small motive power, 
moving at a considerable rate, to life heavy bodies at a 
proportionately slower rate of speed. In other words, if the 
principle of a crab ia nnderstood, then all machines working 
u|)oii the same principle — viz., the jirinciple of the lever — 
will be nnderstood also. We shall, therefore, in dealing with 
the other hand lifting machinery, reqoire to devote bat 
little space to the mechanism by which the power is 
maltiplied at the expense of the speed, bat abail treat chiefly 
on some of the most important modiiicatiouB and arrange' 
ments to which sach mechanisu is sabjected to suit special 
requirements. 



CHAPTER V. 
Hand Ckanes, 



^ OBAN^ in its simplest form, consists of a crab combined 
with a jib or projecting arm carrying a gnide pnlley at itn 
outer extremity, this combination enabling a load to be 
lifted from the ground with the crab itself at the ground 
level To raise a load from any given level with a crab, it 
is necessary that the crab be tised above that level, or, if 
this is not possible, then a guide pulley must be fixed above 
the load, the rope or chain passing from the crab and over 
thin gnide pnlley before being attached to the load. But 
there are many cases— as, for instance, on a dock quay or 
railway wharf — where there is nothing overhead to which a 
guide pulley can be attached, and hence the neceaaity for 
the employment of cranes, combining in the one machine 
the crab, jib, and guide pulley. Such machines are arranged 
in very many and varied ways to suit the particular service 
for which they are intended, but there are certain well- 
known types in constant demand, and having, therefore, a 
distinctive name. The simplest and best known ia the 

Wall Crane, 
also frequently termed a "jib crane," which is largely em- 
ployed for warehonses. It consists of an ordinary crab and 
chain, with a jib (usnaUy of wrought iron) carrying the 
pnide pulley, arranged as shown in figs. 20 and 21. The jib 
IS fixed to the outside of the building, being carried by 



J 



"Z^ 




28 WALL CRAXES. 

brackets bolted to the wall, in which brackets the jib is free 
to revolve, whilst the crab is fixed on one of the floors inside 
the batlding. The chain passes through the wall, over the 
guide pulley, on the inside bracket, aad thence down to the 
crab. The distance A is known as the radius of the crane, 
and maybe of any required length; while the distance B, 
between the top and bottom bracket, is known as the height 
of the crane ; and this also may he of any dimension to suit 
requirements. The radiuE', in the case of a warehouse crane 
attached to the outer or street wall of a building, is suffi- 
ciently great to enable the jib to be swung oat over the 
pavement or causeway, so that the hook at the end of the 
chain can be let down on to a wagon or trolly drawn up at 
the street side. In lifting a load into a warehouse from a 
wagon, the jib is swung out over the wagon, and after the 
load has been drawn up to the required floor the iib is pulled 
round and the load is thus brought into the building. Simi- 
larly, in lowering or letting out a load from the warehouse, 
the iib is pulled round to the wall, the load being then picked 
up from the floor by the crab, and with the jib swung oat 
over the street, to be lowered on to the wason or trolly below. 
The jib may be manipulated by a hooked pole, or by means 
of two small hand ropes attached, one on either side of Uie 
jib head, so that it may be turned in either direction at wilL 

The jib itself is very frequently ajtoken of as the crane, 
though, of course, it is not complete without the crab ; and 
before dealing farther with fig?. 20 and 21 we will consider 
the stresses coming upon the crane. 

The strongest form of wall crane or jib that can he em- 
ployed is that shown in fig. 22, where the tie-bar C is equal 
in length to the post D. The stresses set up by the weight 
W may be represented graphically by the dotted line par- 
allelogram EFGH, which uiay be drawn to any convenient 
scale. EF and £H represent the pull of the chain, whilst the 
resultant of these two forces, EG, represents the thragt 
upon the diagonal stay J. EF and KH are both equal to the 
load. Thus, if the load W bs one ton, then EF and EH will 
each be a force of one ton ; and by measuring the distance 
EG, and comparing it with EF or EH, we obtain the com- 
pressive force acting upon the diasoual stay. The direction 
of action of each of these forces— EE, EH, and EG— is shown 
by the arrow heads. Since the force EG acts along the 
centre line of the diagonal stay J, there will be no stress due 
to the load on the tie-bar C, which serves only to support 
the weight of the diagonal stay, and to keep it in position, 
In fig, 23, where the tie-bar C is longer than the post D, EG, 



I 



WAI.t. CRANKS. Kl 

the reanltant of the chain forces, is the stress that haa to be 
resisted, u in the former case, and this will be done by the 
forces acting as shown by dotted line triangle. A dotted 
line drawn down the centre of the diagonal stay, and another 
line drawn from O parallftl with the tie bar C, will complete 
the trianglnof forces; EK repreaenting the thrust on the 
stay, and GE the tension or pnllini;; resistance of the tie-btr 
C. In this case, then, the tie bar is in tension. Bat in fig. 
24 ve have an instance in which C is in compression, owing 
to the post D being longer than the tie-bar C. Here the 
resulting force EG is balanced by the resistances of the stay 
J and bar C ; and an examination of the triangle of forces 
EOL will show that both C and J are in compression, so that 
the bsr C becomes a stmt instead of a tie, as in lig. 23. 

The Liuestion as to what part the chain bears in relieving 
the tie-bars of a crane from the stress set np by the load is 
one which is constantly presenting itself. But^ us will be 
seen by the foregoing examples, what is known as the tie-bar 
may take no part at all in supporting the loEid, or the bar 
may be either in tension or compression, according to the 
arrangement of the crane. By carefully plotting down the 
lines of the forces as shown, no dilUcnlty should be ex- 
perienced in getting at the extent and direction of the 
■tresaea set np by the load. 

Althoagh the strongest form of jib crane is that shown in 
fig, 22, yet it is not the most convenient, for it has a great 
practical disadvantage owing to its straight diagonal stay, 
which, when lifting balky cases or cratep, causes great in- 
convenience by the amonnt of space it occupies. To obviate 
this, the stay is arched, or curved, as in lig. 20, and althongh 
tbia does not give the best results in strength for a given 
_ amonnt of metal, yet it is the moat convenient form for 
caotical use, and hence its general adoption. Snch a crane 
ractically becomes a beam or cantilever, aabjected at its free 
a horizontal and a vertical force, each of which is 
n extent to the load to be dealt with. 
The dimensions given in fig. 20 are for a one-ton wrought- 
e of 4 ft. radios and 5 ft. high. It will he seen that 
e load is intended to ba lifted direct from the barrel with- 
t the intervention of pulley blocks, so that a ,'n in. short 
_.ik chain must be employed, as it will have to snatain the 
pinll load of one ton. The top and bottom brackets are 
L Iwlted to the wall, as shown, each with four | in, bolts ; the 
I bolt holes in the inside and outside brackets correspond with 
f each other, so that the same bolts go right through each, 
I thus securing them to the wall. A log should also be cast 



( 



fbko 



30 TU.TAR CRANES. 

on the back of the brnokets, that it may euttr the wall and 
aasiat the bolts in resisting the vertical or downward pull 
of the load. The guide pnlley on the top inside bracket i=i 
looee on its apindle, and there is eoffiaient space between the 
sides of the bracket to allow of movement of the pnlley 
with the chain as the latter travels along the barrel of the 
crah. 

Instead of constracting the crane with square bars and 
rings, riveted together as the one jost deficribed, jib cranes 
are frequently made from wrongbt-iron plates stiU'ened wiUi 
tie-bars and struts ; but the form shown in tig. 20 is the one 
in most general use, probably becanse it is more convenient 
for swinging or slewing in its bearings, and will stand a 
great amount of hard usage, which these cranes always 
meet with. 



CHAPTER VI. 



In factories, stores, or other buildings where central iron 
columns or pillars are employed for assisting in the support 
of the floors and roof of the structure, and where loads of 
from quarter to half a ton have to be dealt with, a convenient 
and useful crane can be formed by ntilising one of the 
columns as a crane post and building the machine about it^ 
as shown in lig. 25, Such a crane can be slewed or swung 
completely round the column, thus commanding a complete 
circle in which loads may be dealt with. In many existing 
buildings the columns would be found amply strong for 
carrying a crane of this description, and the machine 
could be fixed to the column without it being necessary to 
remove or alter it in any way, With a new building, how- 
ever, it would be advantageous to construct the column on 
which a crane was proposed to be fixed after the manner 
shown in fig. 2b, having a neck at the upper and lower end 
tnmed to suit the wrougbt-iron clips by which the tie rod 
and the jib are secured to the column. 

It should here be explained that in cranes where the 
diagonal stay is distinct from the tie rod, and not rigidly 
connected to it, as in the illnatrations given in the previous 
chapter, it is usual to speak of the stay itself as the "jib." 

The connectinR clips are forged in two pieces and securely 
bolted tt^ether around the necks of the column. But when 
thus bolted together the clips must not bind or fit tight, the 



1 



^^MPPHPVI 


^ l-irLAn CRANES. SI 


^HBpre being of anch diameter that they make an easy fit aronnd 
^^Beir bearings, so that the crane ma^ be freely tamed or 
^^tewed. The jibconsiata ol a wronght-iron tube, at the upper 


■i 


Ntir 








t J^ 




1 

j 1 


/W ■ 








/M 3 






1 

, 1 


■''m 










:'"(^g /I 










^^m /K / 








!! 


JW //' / ■ 




Si 


\S^ // i / / 


"^ 


fi 


// [/■'' 




1 /' ' f . 




"'" 




[ ^^^^^ 



end of which a cast-iron bead or cap is seanred. The lo-vcer 
end of this cap enters the tnbe to the distance of about 6 in., 
and a hole is tbendriUed throngh both tube and cap to admit 
of a stud or rivet for rigidly connecting them together. 
The jib-hesd gnide pulley is carried in the upper portion of 
the cap. A caat-iron foot, secured in the same manner to the 
lower end of the tube, enables a pin connection to be made 
between the jib and the bottom clip of the column. The 
lifting mechanism itself, or the crab, is made up of Bingle- 
purcbaae gearing, with barrel and ratchet, brake wheel, &,e., 
carried on a cast-iron bracket made in two halves, which are 
bolted together upon the tubular jib, as shown in fig. 25. An 
enlarged end elevation ot the bracket is shown in fig. S8. It 
may be fited anywhere on the tube, but its position above 
the groand or floor level must be such that the crab handles 
come at a convenient height for working. 

It is unnecessary to go into the question of the purchase 
or power to be provided for in the lifting mEchaniam, or of 
the strength of such parts of the crane, as these matters have 
been fully dealt with when treating of crabs in our preceding 
chapters. 

In fig. 26 the stresses coming upon the jib and the tie rod 
are diagrammatioaliy shown. The vertical line A B and the 
line A 0, each of which are drawn parallel to one portion of 
the chain, represent the two forces acting upon or pulling 
at the jib head. On the line AB set out the distance A F to 
any convenient Bcale, and onACsetont A O equal toAF. 
Complete the parallelogram by drawing the dotted line FD 
parallel to A Q, and G D parallel to A F, when the diagonal 
A D will represent the resnitant of the two forces A G and 
A F. The arrow heads show the direction in which the forces 
act. This stress A D is the one which has to be resisted by 
oar jib and tie rod, and by constructing the triangle A D K, 
fig. 26, we can at once obtain the amount of stress borne by 
each of these members. D E, which is drawn parallel to the 
tie rod, represents the stress on the rod, whilst the line A E, 
drawn parallel to the jib, represents the stress on the jib ; 
the length of the lines indicate the magnitude and the arrow 
heads the direction of the forces. A little reflection will 
show that in this case the tie rod is in tension and the jib in 
compression. 

Assuming that the load is 5 cwt., we find that the resultant 
A D is a force of 9 cwt,, that the compression on the jib is 
101 cwt,, and the tension on the tie rod Sj cwt. These are, 
of cours& the stresses produced by the load itself ; the weight 
of the jib will also have to be borne by the tie rod, and 



I 



^ 



PII.LAB CRASE^. 83 

there is another point to which atteation Bhonld be directed. 
In working the crane the chain may become caught or en- 
tangled at the jib head, and if such happened the streeaes 
upon the jib and tie rod wonid be aomewhat different, 
becanse the load wonId simply be acting In a downward 
vertical line upon the jib head. The diasram tor thia emer- 
gency, which every orane ahonid be prepared to meet, ia 
ahown in tig. 27. A F repreaenta the load, A E the compression 
on the jib, and i' £ the tension of the tie rod ; and by measare- 
ment we lind that the conipreasion is 6} cwt, while the tension 
on the tie rod ia 3^ owt. This ia not a matter of any material 





Ldifferenoe ; in fact, the compreasion on the jib is considerably 
' IB in the latter diaicram than in the former, though in some 
._ Bes the streaeea might be very appreciably increased in 
I nlcnlating upon such an emergency. 

I ForaBcwtcraneof rft. fiin. radiuaand lift. Sin. height, 
I the tube forming the jib should be of 3^ in. external diameter, 
I the thickneas of metal forming the tube being i^in, thus 
giving an internal diameter of 3J in. Although stronger 
than actually necesaary, the tie rod should be made from iron 
rnot less than fin. diameter, owing to the forging required 
[ upon it ; one end having to be forked, so as to embrace the 
I jib head, and the other end swelled oat to pass between the 
I eaia of the dip, having also drilled holes at each end to allow 
r of the admission of pins. 

The resistance to turning, or stewing, ia set np by the 

I friction between the chpa and the column. We have seen 

ijiat the thrust against the bottom clip is I0§ cwt., and the 

piUl against the top one 3^ cwt. These, then, are the preaaurea 

exerted between the inside surface of the clips and the surface 



J 



34 



rii.y . 



1 CRA7IE3. 



h 



of the coltttnns, the total being lOf + SJ"!* cwt ; and aaanm- 
iag the coefficient of friction to be '2=i, we have a reaiatance 
of 14-^5=2Scwt. If the diameter of the top neck be 6in., and 
the diameter of the bottom bearing Bin., the mean diameter 
may he taken at Tin., or a radius of SiiiL This is the ieveroge 
of the resiatance to turning. The power to turn the crane, 
however, is applied by the man's hand at the chain hanging 
from the jib head, so that the leverage of the power is 7ft. Gin. 
=90tn., and the gain of the leveracn of power over leverage 
of resiatance is therefore 90 ; 3^ = 25 ; 1 ; bo that the force or 
pull required on the chain hanging from the jib head in order 
to turn the load=2tcwt 4-25 = l.'ilb. The weight of the 
crane itaelf will, of course, somewhat increase this amonnt. 

When a diagonal jib is not admissible, on account of the 
ppace occapifd. and where there is no existing column that 
can be utilised, the form of crane shown in fig. 2!) may be 
adopted. The crane post and horizontal jib can be either of 
wrought-iron plates secured together by bolts and distance 
pieces, or they may be constructed of wood. The gearing 
and lifting mechanism is carried by a bracket attached to the 
crane post. The fitrcssee set np by the loAd at the jib head 
are shown by 6gB. 30, 31, and 32, In fig. 30, A D is the 
resultant of the two chain forces A B and A C. ABsuming a 
5 cwt. load, this resultant will be Tcwt,,and in fig. 31 we see 
how this force is opposed by the jib and tie rod ; D E, which 
represents the tensile stress onthe tie rod, being drawn parallel 
to the tie rod, and the horizontal A E, representing the com- 
pressive stress on the jib, being parallel with the jib. By 
measuring, it wi!i be found that the stress on the tie rod is 
ISi^cwt., whilst that on the jib is 21^ cwt. In fig. 32 a diagram 
is given when, assuming that the load is hanging direct from 
the end of the jib, as in fig. 27 in the case of the former crane, 
the stress on the tie rod will be found to be the same og 
before, viz., 18^ cwt., whilst that on the jib will be 17A cwt. 

The stresses on the guide pulley, carried in the crane, will 
be in the direction indicated by the arrows 1 and 2 (fig. 29), 
and each of these forces are equal to the load. The hori- 
zontal force (I) is acting in opposition, it will be seen, to the 
compresBive force on the jib, which force (A E, fig. 31) ia 
equal to 215 cwt., as we have seen, but being opposed by s 
force of 5 cwt., there is but 16§ cwt. coming upon the crane 
post, so that the post virtually becomes a beam or girder 
fixed at each end, and sustaining a load of lOJcwt 

The horizontal jib in this type of crane (fig. 29} is fixed at 
such distance above the floor or ground level ob to allow of 
people passing freely underneath it. It will be seen that 



PILLAE CRANIO. 



. * less thr angle between the tie rod and the horiBoiital jib 
'tbe greater is the stress, both apon the rod and also npoD 




30 WHIP CKANE3. 

CHAPTER VIL 

Whip Cranes. 

The whip crane illustrated in figs. 'Si and 31 is another 
form of central pillar crane. The term "whipping" a load 
appears to have had its origin with the pulling or whipping 
up of coals or other cargo from the holds of aniliug vesaels, 
where no steam winches are available, a method that may 
still be dail^ seen in operation at all seaporta. The coals 




l» 



are shovelled into baskets, which are drawn np by means of 
a rope passing over a single aheave pulley or gin block, 
attached to the end of a jib ran out from the mast and 
rigging of the vessel. Ko purchase is, |of course, obtained 



WHIP CRASFS. 37 

by tluB arrangement, eo that no greater load can be drawn 
up at a time than the men are able to rabe by their own 
exertions, unaided by any mechanical power ; bat by long 
practice the men acqnire a great degree of dexterity in 
suddenly palling or anatchiug at the haaling rope, and thus 
throwing all their energy into one pull that shall be 
aufScient to bring ap the coal-kden basket at a brisk speed. 
This HuddenSy applied force constitutes the " whipping." 

Whip cranes are very extenaively employed in railway 
goods atations or other places where loads have to be dealt 
with that vary very considerably in weight. Each crane 
has two barrels, one at the top and the other at the lower 
portion of the crane post. The upper barrel is employed for 
winding the lifting chain, whilst the lower one winds the 
hand or haaling rope. The hauling rope is secured to the 
lower barrel, and passes up to and around the large rope 
wheel on the apper or chain barrel shaft. Sufficient rope is 
wound roand this wheel to allow of the load being lifted to 
the required height before all the rope passes to the lower 
barrel The length of rojie required on the top wheel is 
therefore not less than the height of lift multiplied by the 
ratio between the diameter of the wheel and the diameter of 
the chain barrel. In the one-ton crane illustrated in Hgs, 
33 and 34, where the rope wheel is 3ft. diameter and the 
chain barrel 8in,, if the load had to he lifted throngh a 
height of 6ft,, the amount of rope required on the top wheel 
would be 



3G 



22itt. 



It is always well to nave half a lap of rope, at the least, 
beyond what is actually required, as this will relieve the 
strain in the attachment of the rope to the wheel. Snch 
attachment is usually made by passing the rope throngh a 
hole formed in the rim of the wheel, and tying a secure Enot 
at its ('nd. 

Light loads, up to about 3 or 4 cwt., are lifted by simply 
pulling at the haaling rope, the mechanical advantage being 
represented by the ratio between the rope wheel and the 
chain pulley. This, as we have already seen in the case of 
the crane before us, is 4^ ; 1. The heavier loads are lifted by 
turning the rope barrel abaft with the crab handles, thus 
giving the advantage of a compound system of leverage. 
Our one-ton crane will have a barrel of 12in. diameter, and 
_ crab handles of 15in. radius ; the purchase will therefore be 
, 30 
4i^-p-,=10i. 




38 wnrr cranks. 

(The diameter of the rope maat be added to the diameter of 
the barrel, ) For dealing with the maximum loads the crane 
ia con^trncted to carry, the crab handles are fixed on the first 
motion ahaft, on whica is keyed a pinion gearing with a apnr 
wheel on thn barrel shaft. With a spur wheel 25 in, and a 
pinion 5 in. diameter, the total purchase of the crane will be 
10iX5=515 

=52 : 1 approximately. 





In figs. 35 and 3G, the atreases coming upon the jib and the 
tie roda are graphically represented. The crane, as illustrated, 
is constrncted with a timber crane poat and ji'i, and two 
wronght-iron tie rods. In ti?. 3i the lines AB and A U 
represent the forces set np by the load on the jib head, the 





WHIP CKAM3, 

__.alUiit of tbeoe forcea bein^ ffivtta by tbe tine A C, tlw 
I teaoltuit of the panllelogmn A B C D Id fig ■%. *^ Me 
bow this force AC uoppwed by the jib and the tt« rods, thn 
line A E being drawn paraUei with the jib, wvd the line C K 
panJlel with the tie rods. Bj measuring A E ws dnd tb»i 
there is • oompresaire itrtva of 3} tons coming upon the jib, 
wfailat the tensile stress ap<,>ii tne tie rods is rather more 
than 2 tons. The thmst of ii tons npon the jib being 
tnuismitted to the crute post, the strength of the Utter bu 
to be considered as » beam supported at its two ends aiad 
f mstaining a load of 3 t<<n^ and this loid m^v bs asanmed u 





Kj^tiug in the centre of length of the beam. The timber 
Vgenerallj employed for whip crane purposes is pitch pine, 
Kvnd onr formala for obtaining the breaking strength of a 
(lienni of this material will be 

= breakiug wei^iht in tons. 
n thia formula, ll = tbe d-'ptb of the beam iu ioohes, \^=' 
i breadth in inches, and L=the distance in feet between 
, s points of support The fraction f is a constant 
Atained by experiment. 

Onr one-ton crane has a radius of !0f(., and a distancii of 

.3 ft. between the top and botCoui bearing brackets. The jib 

" ■ 1 , ajid the crane post llin. square. The breakiug 

t of the crane poat, acting as u beam in the manner 

"j therefore 

a approximately 

Aa its load ia only 3J tons, it will bo seen that we have 
^factor of si-fdtygrcater than6. It will also be observed that 



)nt ■ 



40 wnip CRASE3. 

The tie rada Bhoald each be lin. diameter wrought iron. 
The lifting chain mast be t^ in. short-link crane chain, and the 
hauling rope about 3^ in, circumference, which is u subfitantiHl 
ai^.e for the men to graap in the hand. The ratchet or catch 
wheel is cast on its barrel (the lower, or rope barrel), the 
brake wheel being also cast upon the spur wheel. A caat- 
iron cap or bracket, is fitted ou to each end of the crane post, 
the turned wrought- iron pins or pivots upon which the crane 
revolves being cottered into these capa. The top and bottom 
bearing, or supporting brackets, are bored out to receive the 
pivots. Cast-iron frame plates bolted upon each side of the 
crane post, as thown in figs. 33 and 34, serve to carry the 
gearing and lifting mechanism. A rope guard should be 
fixed on the crane post near to the top wheel, to prevent 
the rope from over-riding. This guard may simply con- 
sist of a short length of bar iron about 1 in. diameter, having 
one end formed into a loop through which the rope passes, 
and the other end forged down and screwed, soitable for 
bolting through the post. 

Whip cranes, as with all other lifting macbines, may be 
considerably modified in arrangement and shape to suit 
special requirements. Instead of making the crane post and 
jib of wood, the whole machine is frequently built up 
entirety of iron, having a, post and jib constructed of 
'wmught-iron plates, with distance pieces and bolts and nute, 
BB in the case of the pillar crane illustrated in fig. 2!) in the 
last chapter, or a wrought-iron tubular jib may be employed 
if no inconvenience would be caused by its inclined position. 
Another modification is the 

rXDKI'KMJENT WuiP CeaNE. 

The term "independent" is used to denote that the crane 
is independent of any top support or bearing, a type that 
is employed within buildings where the roofs are of light 
construction, also upon dock quays, wharves, and other 
places where no support can be given to the top of the crane. 
The crane post in this class of machine is almost invariably 
made of iron, as the removal of the top support very much 
increases the stress upon it. The jib may be either of wood, 
wrought-iron tube, or wrongbt-iron cambered plates, 
forming a curvfd or "swan neck "jib. To give the necessary 
stability, the post must enter a cast-iron foot or foundation 
plate, firmly bolted to a brick, stone, or concrete foundation ; 
the lower portion of the post being turned, and the 
foundation plate bored to receive it, bo tuat the whole crane 
moy revolve freely and awing in a complete circle, In 



\ 



FOUHDKY CRANKB- 



41 



order to make the swinging or slewing operation sa readily 

med as possible, Hiaall friction wheels or rollers are, 

in the larger class of cranes of this deEcripttOD, attaohed to 

the lower end of the jib, with their peripheries bearing 

against the crane post ; the friction is then concentrated on 

the pins of the rollers, and is much more readily overcome 

I than when the jib foot hears directly against the post. Tho 

I lifting mechanism ia the same as in the previous crane, the 

I large rope wheel and chain barrel being carried at the lop 

of the post, whilst the rope barrel, with the gearing, brake, 

Ac, is sapported by a bracket or sleeve secured to the lower 

end of the post. 

Whip cranes, especially of the independent type, are 
rarely built for lifting greater loads than three tons. To 
construct them for greater loads than this would be to 
I prodnce a very clumsy machine. It will be readily seen, 
I too, that a moderate height of lift is a necessity with these 
I cranes ; as for every foot of lifting chain we require abont 
I Bft. of hauling rope, every increase in the height of lift will 
I entail a considerable addition to the length of rope, for 
I which accommodation must be provided on the rope wheel 
I and barrel. But for thmr special pnrpoae of dealing quickly 
[ with the smaller class of cases and packages in places where 
" i amount of traffic will not warrant the expense of a 
I steam or hydranlic crane, it would be diiBculC to tind a more 
1 luitable machine. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

FOUNDEY CR.4SES. 

I The requirements of foundry work necessitate the employ- 
ment of a crane, which, in addition to the ordinary lifting 
gear, must be provided with mechanism for readily altering 
the eftective radioF, in order that loads may be lifted or 
lowered at varying distances from the centre post of the 
machine, or lifted up from one point and travelled in either 
direction along the horizontal jib, to be set down at any 
other place within the prescribed area of operation, as may 
he desired. In small foundries one such machine erected in 
the centre of the building is frequently sufficient to do all 
the mechanical lifting reqnir.^d, the heavy work being 
concentrated around the craro, so that the moulding boxes, 
large patterns, &Q; may be readily dealt with, and placed in 
the positions required by the moulders. In larger works, 
where the oe&tre of the foundry ia served by overhead 



I 



42 FOUSDRT CRANES. 

traTelling cranes, this fixed central pillar type may be still 
nsefnlly employed for equipping the aides or wings of the 
foundry ; for such a purpose they are carried on. brackets 
secured to the walls of the building. 

The in-and-out horizontal motion is brought about fay em- 
ploying a carriage supported by the jib of the crane and 




I guide pi 

^H of the cl 

^^b other en 



along which it travels. The carriage is provided with two 
guide pulleys, around which pasaes the lifting chain, one end 
of the chain being attached to the winding barrel, whilst the 
other end is anchored to the outer end of the jib. A bottom 



70l-.NniIT CKASE3. 



43 



Wot falling block is always employed witb this type of crane, 
* and thns, as the gnide carriage is moved alon^ the jib, the 
load travels with it, bnt keeps at the aame distance above 
the groond level, having no vertical movement whatever 
daring this operation, lu old cranes, the niovement of the 
carriage was accomplished by a rack and pinion, the rack 
hfliiig tised along the jib, and the pinion on the carriage. 
With chain wheel and gearing, the pinion was operated from 
below by pulling the hand chain, working in wheel, and the 
carrisge conid thus be moved, or " racked," in either direction. 
This employment of the rack and wheel originated the term 
"racking motion," which is still used to denote the in-and-out 
horizontal movement of the load, and although such move- 
ment may be eflected by a screw and nat,or by various other 
methods, the term is still employed. 

The il lustrations, fig^ ;!7 and 38, represent a 3-ton hand- 
power foundry crane, having a maximum radius of 15 ft. and 
a height of 20 ft. Fig. 37 is the front elevation, and tig. 38 
an end elevation, whilst tigs. 39 and 40 are detail views to a 
larger scale of the running carriage, and fig. 41 a section of 
the upright column or post of the crane, and also of the 
diagonal stay. It will be seen that the post horizontal jib, 
and diagonal stay are each built up of rolled iron angle 
barp, riveted to a wrooght-iron web plate. The size of ttie 
angle iron througbout should be 2J in. by 2t in. by f in,, and 
the web plate A in. thick ; iho width of the post and of the 
diagonal stay being lOin., and the width or depth of the 
horizontal jib 14in., tapering down to about lOin. at the 
extreme end. The jib is Btifiened with wrought-iron tee 
bars of 4i in, by 2i in. by § ia, or some equal section, whilst 

I the post and diagonal stay have their two sides connected or 
braced together by |in. bolts paesisg through cast-iron dis- 
tance pieces (lig' 41). It is not possible, of course, to get 
bolts and distance pieces between the aides of the horizontal 
jib, becaUBB the running carriage, or "runner " as it is com- 
monly termed, has to pass between them ; and for the same 
reason also we are unable to put tie bolts along the whole 
length of the diagonal stay, as we can do with the post. 
The shafts, with the gearing, chain barrel, brake wheel, and 
ratchet, are anpported by the web plate at the bottom of the 
post and diagonal stay, as shown in fii;B. 37 and 38, caat-irvn 
bnsbes, to form bearings for the shafts, being let into and 
■crewed or riveted to the web plate exactly as in the case of 
a wrought-iron sided crab. The lifting chain passes from 
the barrel to the gnide pulley fixed near to the post end of 
'"""'' the ' rnnuRr" guide pulleys and bottom 



the jib, and round the ' 



44 



FOUNDRY CRANES. 



block, the end of the chain being then anchored at the ex- 
treme outward end of the jib. The racking motion is 
effected by pulling the hand chain working into the top 
chain wheel, and thus operating, with the intervention of 
spur gearing, a pitched wheel around which the racking chain 



1 



m 



aa^ 



B**.\ 



i 



\a« 



Tsr '.vA*: ' . :-<v ■ .t^:jiKi g gj ', *;^^;..>'.y>: 




Fto. 8^. 



J 



.U\<.'i>P j S/h. 



'■"-^•■^'-b^^ ' .jC ':<^ 



passes. The ends of this chain are anchored to the shafts of 
the running carriage, one end being attached to each axle ; 
and a guide pulley is fixed at the end of the jib, so that the 
racking chain itself, together with the runner, forms one 



FOUNDRY CRANES. 



45 



-Jo J 






o 
Em 



o 




i fc 







complete endless chain ; the load may therefore he traveraed 
in either direction along the jib by pulling the hand chain 
aa required. 

VariooB forma may be given to the running carriage (as 
indeed to any other details of the crane), bnt that shown in 
figs. 39 and 40 is the best for general pnrposeB, Wrought- 
iron platea I'oin. or Jin. thick form the sides ; the wheels or 
rollers run looee upon their axlea, and are made of Buificient 
width to work upon the top of the Rtrder. The guide pulleys 
also run loose, their pins having the ends turned down and 
screwed for nuts, in order that the two side plates may be 
securely clamped together. In many cranes the bosses of 
the rollers and gnide pulleys fit close to and rub against the 
wrought-iron plates ; but it is better to rivet or screw cast- 
iron flanges to the plates, to keep the wheels from wearing 
them with the continued rubbing and grinding. 

In determining the diameter of wheels for the carriage 
there are two important poiuts to be considered. For easy 
working, the wheels should he as large as possible. Other 
things heing equal, a carriage having wheels of 12 in, diameter 
will mn twice as easily as one having only 8 in. wheels. But 
with large wheels a difficulty arises in that the carriage will 
run towards the post directly the load is attempted to be 
lifted by working at the crab handles. This tendency to run 
in (which arisRS from the friction set up in the guide pulleys, 
and the horizontal pnll required to overcome such friction) 
is much increased if the guide pulleys are small. The com- 
mon method adopted for preventing this is to fasten the 
hand chain to a small hook or holt attached for that purpose 
to the crane post. But such a method is unreliable and 
dangerous. By employing wheels of moderate diameter, 
not exceeding say 8 in. for a 3-ton crane, and making the 
chain guide pulleys of as large a diameter as can be con- 
veniently worked in, a crane can be made of which the 
runner will not move until the racking gear is operated. 

The power required to rack the load will vary very oon- 
aiderably with almost every foundry crane- The diameters 
and uniformity, or otherwise, of the wheels and pulleys 
greatly affect the result. No hard and fast rule can there- 
fore he given for determining the necessary purchase to be 
given to the racking gear ; each crane must be considered 
with due regard to its own particular arrangement, li 
the load hung direct from the carriage, and the latt«r 
had no chain guide pulleys, the force required to move 
the carriage with its load along the horiiiontal jib would 
be : Load in pounds x coefficient of friction in 



I 



FOTTSDRY CRANES. 



»ni)gs X 



diameter of axke 



■- force required in pounds to 



disraeter of wheels 
iDTercome reaiBtauce to motion. 

With a 3-ton load on a carriage having wheels of Sin. 
I diameter and axles of 1| in , and OBSuming the coefficient of 
Tiotion to be ■2, the foroe reqoired to rack would be 300 !ba. 
^In the 3-ton orane under consideration, however, we mnsK 
■^ow for double this amount on aocoant of the friction of 
B«hain and guide pulley?, thus making the total force required 
|-to be 600 lbs- A pull of not more than GO lbs. being calculated 
_£the force available on the hand chaio, the purchase re- 
■Quired in order to get the rackiug motion will be 10 :1. 

The lifting chain should be ^in., and the racking chain ^in. 
■'The former will be ordinary short link crane chain, but the 
tracking chain must be pitched. 

Figs. 42, 43, and 44 are diagrams showing the principal 
I stresses set up in the crane with different positions if the 
T load. With load at the extreme end of jib, as in Hz. 42, the 
I length A becomes a cantilever, and the triangle BCD 
1 represents the manner in which the pull of the ioad B C is 
L resisted by the tension of the jib and the compressive 
I strength of the diagonal stay. Fig. 48 represents the load 
I directly over the junction of diagonal with the jib, and in 
I £g. 44 the running carriage is seen between the post and 
[ the stay. 

Independent foundry cranes are also constructed and em- 
I ployed where the roof of building is of light construction, 
I or where no top support can be given to the cran& In such 
I cases the structure is carried by a circular cabt or wrought 
['iron post entering into brackets or foundation plates, built 
[ in several feet of masonry, in order to give the necessary 
b stability. The gearing is supported by brackets, bolted on 
I to the side of the crane ; ana this method, it may be men- 
tioned, is always adopted by some makers for cranes both 
with and without top supports, in preference to fitting cast- 
a bushes on to the plates. Other modilications from the 
[ example given also occur in practice. Instead of making 
the horizontal jib with two separate girders, bolted to the 
' upright or post and the diagonal stay, the three parts are 
frequently made up with continuous plating and angle iron 
riveted together, and thus the bolt and nut connections are 
avoided. This is certainly advisable with heavy cranes, say 
for 8 or 10 ton loads and upwards, but ia not necessary with 
lighter machines. 



48 DERRICK CRANES. 

CHAPTER IS- 
Dbhriok Cranes, 

TnE terms "derrick" and "jib" are ayuonymona, but what 
U commercially kuowu aa a derrick orane has for its dis- 
tingoishing featnre a compound syetem of geariog by means 
of -which the etTective radius of the crane can be altered, 
not by giving; motion to a running carriage carried by a 
horizontal jib, as with a foundry crane, bnt by moving the 
jib itself, taming it about its supporting centre, and thus 
bringing the jib head nearer to or farther from the centre of 
the crane as reqaired. Mr. David Henderson, of Renfrew, 
in 1815, invented a method of working the lift and derrick 
barrels of a crane aimaltaneously, which allowed of the 
lifting chain being hauled in ur let out whilst the jib itself 
was in motion, the result of this combined action being to 
produce a simple horizontal movement of the weight or load. 
The great advantage of this system speedily became appre- 
ciated, and at the present day thia type of crane isaniversally 
employed by contractors in the erection of lofty buildings, 
in bridge and girder yards, quarries, and on other heavy 
ont-door work. 

Referenceto the outline diagrams, tig8.45,46,and47, villat 
once demonstrate the result aimed at and accomplished by 
Mr. Henderson. Fig. 45 represents a crane having one barrel 
for winding the lifting chain in the ordinary manner, and a 
second barret, quite inaepr^ndent-, for drawing the jib nearer 
to or letting it out farther from the centre of the crane. Such 
cranes are very useful for many purposes ; each barrel is 
worked by its own set of gearing and handle shafts, the 
arrangement being usually spoken of as a "lulling" jib orane. 
With the load ofi', the radius may be readily adjusted, bat if 
it is attempted to luH' with a load suspended from the lifting 
chain, not only will the load be drawn up, but if at all bolky 
it will very quickly come into contact with the jib, as shown 
in fig. 46. By arranging his gearing so that the two barrels 
could beconnected when it was desired to alter the jibradins, 
and worked together, Mr. Henderson was able to manipulate 
the jib of his crane at pleasure, with the load suspended from 
it and keeping the same horizontal distance above ground 
level, as illustrated in fig. 47. The load was thus kept clear 
of the jib, and could be very quickly picked up from one 
place and set down at another within the area of the maximum 
radius of the machine. 

It will be seen, on a little consideration, that the ratio 
between the movement of the jib and the paying out or 



I 



DERRICK CRANES. 



40 




Fio. 45. 



Fia. 46 




r^ y ^gfea&titwViigHVfrj i 



¥io. 47. 



E 




BBEEK'K CRANES. 

taking la of the lifting chain, to kee^ the lo&d horizoutal, 
ia not a constant one. When the jib la near its maximum 
radius a greater length of lift chain will require to be p&id 
out or drawn in (according as to whether the jib is being 
raised or lowered) for a given horizontal movement, Bay one 
foot of the load, than for a similar horizontal movement, when 
the jib head is near ita minimum radios. To meet this vary- 
ing ratio between the movements of the lifting and derrick 
chains, a f uzee barrel, as in figure 47, is emploj'ed for winding 
the derrick or jib chain, and is so arranged that when the jib 
head is at its greatest distance from the crane centre, the 
derrick chain is wound upon the amailer end of the fuzee 
barrel, and works towards the larger end as the jib is drawn 
nearer. The proportions of the fuzee will vary with the 
length of the jib and also with the position of the lifting 
chain barrel and the manner in which this chain is led efi ; 
for instead of running direct from the barrel to the jib head 
pulley, it is sometimes led over a guide pulley at the top of 
the central post or mast of the crane, similar to the derrick 
chain. When the difference in diameter between the two 
ends of the fuzee is so great that the chain will not climb 
upon it, grooves are formed around the fiuiee to suit the 
ohain, and to guide it in travelling from the one end to 
the other. 

When ordinary lifting and lowering operations only are 
beicg performea by this crane, the gearing between the 
lifting and the derrick barrels is thrown out of connection 
' aeans of a clutch ; a ratchet and pawl being provided on 
fnzee barrel shaft to prevent the strain on the derrick 
jhain causing its barrel and shaft to revolve, and eo letting 
dawn the jib. If, after a load has been drawn up to a certain 
(leight from the ground, it is required to draw it nearer to 
the centre of the crane, the clutch ia thrown into gear, and 
the two barrels thus work together, and impirt a horizontal 
movement to the load. Instead of brinfring the load nearer 
to the centre, it might be required farther from it ; in such 
a case, the pawl would have to be drawn from the ratchet or 
catch wheel before any outward or downward movement of 
the jib could take place. The clntch must always be thrown 
into gear before the pawl is releasedj for the jib cannot run 
down whilst the derrick barrel ia in connection with the 
lifting barrel ; such tendency being counteracted by the load, 
for whilst the lifting chain ia winding on to its barrel the 
derrick chain is unwinding from the fnzee, and vice vend. 
Thia balancing of the atreason the derrick chain by the load 
itself ia the reason of the crane being termed by moat makera 
a "aatety derrick crane." 



a. 



Fif^B. 48 aod 49 give a general elevation aod plan of a 
derrick crane, ahowing how the jib may be Bwnng through 
nearly three-fonrths of a circle. As a general rale, the fram- 




52 



DERRICK CRANES. 



iog of the machine is constmcted of timber, such as pitch 
piue. The gearing is carried by cast-iron side plates or 
brackets secured to the lower end of the central pillar, or 



s 




Via. 49. 



mast, which is formed by bolting together two lengths of 
timber. These cranes may be made of any required size up 



DEKRICE CBANBS 53 

to a jib leni;tb of 40ft. to 60 ft. A 30 cwt. machine would 
ordiiiBrilj have a maximnm radius of about 25 ft, cor- 
reaponding to a jib length of about 30ft and a maat 16ft, 
with sleepers about Soft, long, The atresa on the jib and 
the derrick chain {which takes the place of the tie rcid) will 
be found in the manner previoualj described. For the dimen- 
aiona given, the jib should have an area equal to a lOin. 
aquare beam in the centre of ita length, and a 7in. sqnare at 
the ends. It will be seen that the true length of the back 
tiea or timber cannot be seen either in plan or elevation. 
This must be obtained by making a aecond elevation from 
the plan, as shown in &ii. 50 (the jib is omitted in thia dia- 
gram), making the line X' V^ parallel to one of the tiea, aa 
A B, and the distance C D tqual to the distance £ F ; then 
the distance G D gives the true length of the back ties. 

The brick ties are sab ject«d lothestreaaaet up by thepnllol 
the derrick chain. At some position of the jib thia stresa ia 
equally resisted by the two ties, but at other positiona one tie 
alone serves to preserve the equilibrium of the stmotare. 
When the jib lies on the path O 1 (fig. 51). for instance, all 
the stress cornea upon the tie H, which is then in tension ; 
also when the jib gets round to the position O 2 the tie H has 
to do nearly all the work of resistance ; but in thia position, 
it must be noted H will be in compression, because the mast, 
together with the gearing and top guide pulley, swings round 
with the jib, and the derrick chain therefore pulls in the 
opposite direction. Each back timber mnat, therefore, be 
made of sufficient strength to resist either in tension or com- 
nreasion the greatest atreas set up by the derrick chain. 
This may be calculated by taking the jib in the position 01, 
when the stresa diagram will be as in tig. 52 ; E L being the 
length and position of the back tie, and E M the direction 
of chain, L M being drawn parallel to the mast. Knowing 
the magnitude of the force K M, we can at once obtain by 
measuring Iv L the stress on the back timbers, and from L M 
that on the mast. Thia stress on the mast, it will be observed, 
also varies from tension to compression, though the other 
stress on the maat, viz., the vertical pull of the derrick chain 
on the barrel, and also on the top guide pulley, must not be 
lost sight of. 

The crane revolves on wrought-iron pins fixed in the top 
and bottom iron brackets of the mast, the upper pin 
revolving in the boss formed in the wrought straps 
embracing the top of the back timbers, whilst the lower one 
works in a small cast-iron plate secured to the working floor 
level Very little foundation ia required for this plate, as 




I 



i 



64 



DEBRICE CRANES 



the crane is held down by weights of iron, stone, or other 
material lain across the ends of the sleepers or ground 
timbers, or by bolting the sleepers to timber or to any 





\ 



M 




FiQS. 50, 51, 52. 



temporary foundation. The ready manner in which this 
type of crane can be set up in any required position is one 
of its chief advantages. 



CHAPTER X. 

Wharf Ceases. 
FoK service on dcwk and canal wharves, railway goods yards, 
and other places at which a stroDg fixed hand cranM ia 
reqnired, bnt where there are no overhead beams or girdnra 
that can be utilised to assist in supporting the machine, the 
type known as the "wharf crane" is generaUy eoip'oyed 
The necessary^ stability of snch a crane is obtained by 
employing an iron central colnmn or post, abont the upper 
portion of which the machine ia fixed ; whilst the lower 
portion of the post, by entering some considerable distance 
into a masonry or brick foundation, preserves the equilibrium 
of the structure. 

Fig. 63 gives a side elevation, and fig. 54 an end elevation 
of a four-ton hand wharf crane. The foundatinn is shown 
in section, with the omission of the left-hand portion in fig. 
53. A small plan of the top cast-iron foundation plate is 
seen at fig. 55. The bottom foundation plate is similar to 
the top, with the omiesion of the roller path. Both plates 
are connected together by tie bolts, the inicrvening distance 
being filled in with masonry or brickwork. 

The outline diagram, fig. QCi, illustrates the manner in 
which the loaded crane is sustained by its foundation. Let 



portion into the brick foundation, and at its top end into a 
cap secured to the crab carrying the lifting mechanism of 
the machine. The anapended weight W will be constantly 
endeavouring to pull the jib and crab over on the fnlcmm 
or turning point A at the lower end of the jib ; but such 
action will be resisted by the crab {which virtnall; takPH 
the place of a lever, repreaented by the dark line A O) 
bearing at G against the crane post The arrow 1 gives the 
direction of the force W acting at the end of a lever, the 
effective length of which is the horizontal distance C, whilst 
the arrow S gives the direction of resistance ofiered by crane 

fost, acting at a leverage equal to the vertical distance D. 
b will be readily seen that the resistance at D must be 
greater than W, in the same proportion that the lenjtth O is 
greater than the length D. Thus, if C is 13ft, and D 3jfc, 
tJie ratio between C and D will be 4 : 1 ; and therefore with 
a four-ton load, the pressure exerted at the end G of the 
crane post will be 16 bons, so that the upper portion of the 
orane post becomes a cantilever loaded at its free end (3^ft. 
from the point of support) with a load of 16 tons. Crane 




WHARF CRAT 



posts are freqaently conatrncted in the form of hollow 
pillars of cast iron ; bnt it is far more reliable to make them 
of solid wrought iron, A good formula for the Btrength of 




beams or cantilevers of solid wrought iron of circular 
section, Bupporttd at one end and loaded at the other, is as 
foUowB :~ 



\R¥ CRANES, 



D •- diameter of iron in inches, L = 
feet, and W = breaking weight ii. . 
has been obteined from experiment 



In the given ouei 




WHAEF (T.AXES 



This a 



I factor c 



The I 



B allowB 
tapered towards its upper end. 

Bat there is a farther tendency on. the part of the 
BUBpended load W to drag the whole crane completely over 
about the point R Assuming for the moment that the 
erane post merely enters into the top foundation plate, and 
that the lower piate and tie bolts are dispenaed with, it will 
1 that There ie nothing beyond the weight of the 




h 



structure itself, acting at a distance F (fig. 56) from the 
taming point or fulcrum B, to prevent the load acting at 
the greater leverage E from pulling the whole machine 
completely over. Hence the neoeflsity of having a heavy 
foundation, and for carrying the crane poat down to enter 
a lower foundation plate, bo that^ instead of having a 
leverage of reaiatance equal only to the distance F, we esui 
obtain a far greater leverage F (tig. 53) with the same 
plates and tie bolts, as, with a thoroughly well built 



WnAHF CKANEB, 

fonndatioD, the turning point or fDlcrnm vill be B*- (Gg. 53) 
tbe edge nearest to the load. With a crane of 14Ct. radiaa 
(the naaal radins for a 4-ton crane), and a foundation of 12ft. 
diameter, the fnlcram JJ' will be Cft. from the centre of 
post ; the leverage of power to leverage of resistance will 
then be 8:6. If, therefore, the foundation weighs 5^ tons, 
the load will be counterbalanced, but it is necessary to allow 
for contingencies and for this reason the brickwork should 
be four times this aniount, or 21J tons. Allowing 1 cwt. per 
cubic foot as the weight of brickwork, we shall require 

21 ;\ X aO = 427 cubic feet ; 
and as the area of a l-2h, circle is 1 13, the depth of fonndation 
required will be 4ft. The area and depth of brickwork can, 
of course, be roade to an^ desired dimensions to suit the 
situation at which the crane is employed, care being taken that 
there is ample balauce in each case. 

Wharf cranes awing in a complete circle aboat their central 
pillars or posts, the posts themselves remaining stationary. 
In small cranes this swinging or slewing is accomplished by 
pulling round tbe jib ; bnt all machines of three tons and 
upwards ehonld be provided with slewing gear. This gear, 
shown in ligs. 53 and M, consists of a bevel pinion keyed on 
to a handle abaft, and working into a bevel wheel fixed to a 
vertical shaft, on the lower end of which is keyed a small 
spur wheel or pinion, gearing into an internal wheel formed 
in the interior of the roller path on the top fonndation plate. 
On calculating the strains set np in the jib and tie rods, in the 
manner previously described, it will be fonnd that in tbe case 
of Gg. 5ii the compression on the jib is 12^ tons, and the ten' 
sion on the rods G tons. If the roller path is 3 ft. in diameter, 
the resiatafce to slewing set up by the pressure of the jib 
foot against the roller path will be acting at a distance of 
1 ft. C in. from the centre of the crane ; and if the crane is 
pulled round from the end of the jib, the leverage of power 
wiU be 14 ft. ; the leverage of power to leverage of resistance 
will therefore be in tbe ratio 14 : 1^, or !) : 1 approximately. 
Tbe jib foot, however, is provided with a roller, and assuming 
its diameter to be Din., and that of Uiepinon which it revolves 
to be li in., we shall have a further leverage of (i : 1, which 
makes the total leverage of power over leverage of resistance 
in the ratio of 54 : 1 ; the pull required nt the end of the jib 
to overcome the resistance to slewing or revolving set up by 
the compression of tbe jib under its full load will be 

^^^ ^ '^ = '046 tons = 1031b. approximately 




liO WniW CJIAKES. 

('2 ifl the coefficient of friction ; this will, of course, vary with 
the lutnre and condition of sarfaces in contact). 

Bnt there ia a further reaiatance to circular motion, set up 
by the pressure against the top of the crane post at G. This 
pressure, as we have previously seen, is 16 tons. Taking the 
I diameter of post in its top cap or bearing at Bin., the leverage 

^^1 of power to leverage of resistance will be 14 ft. : j ft, « 66 : ^M 

^^h I, and the force necessary at jib head will therefore be ^H 

^H 1^ x^ ^ ,pgj ^^^^ ^ ^23 jj^_ approx. H 

The total pall required, then, at the end of the jib to slew the 

crane with its fall load of four tons is 103 + ISS = 231 lb. In 

the calculation of this quantity no account has been taken 

' of the weight of the machine itself, or of anything beyond 

■ the two chief resistances to motion ; but enough has been 

given to show that to slew a craue of this description with- 
out mechanical means is a tronblesome task. 
With slewing gear there are the same resistances to motion, 
but we can multiply our leverage of power to a greater extent 
and mnch more readily with gearing. IE the diameter of the 
internal spar or tooth wheel formed on the roller path 
be 2 ft. Cin., the diameter of the pinion 4 in., the ratio between 

■ bevel wheel and ptaiou 6 : 1, and the radius of the handle 

16 in, then the purchase or the leverage ;of power will be 
|.?.|.,„ 
The first fraction expresses the ratio between diameters of 
internal wheel and roller path ; the second is the ratio between 
diameter of circle described by handle and diameter of 
pinion working into intpmal wheel ; whilst the third is the 
ratio between bevel wheel and pinion. The pressure on the 
roller path is, as we have seen. 12^ tons; but taking a 
coefficient of '2 and a roller of Oiti. niamcter on l^in. pina, 
we have only to consider a load of about 0301b., and dividing 
this by 40 we obtain the power rf quired at the handle, viz., 
231b. To this amount must be added the power required to 
overcome the friction set up at the crane post cap, the 
resistance to motion at this point being 16 tons -j- '2 = 
7,168)b. : but the leverage of power in this case is 

-^?x^='>4o 

1 '^ 1 1 -*"■ 

The first nnmber gives the ratio between the diameter of 
internal wheel and diameter of top of crane post, the two 
rrmaining numbers being as before. The power required ia 
therefore 7,108 ■^ 240 = 801b., and the total power required 
at the handle of slewing gear = 23 + 30 =-- 031b. 



I 



TOKTABLB CRANKS. 

CHAPTER XI. 



POKT.M 



E Chases. 



EAciTof thecranea previoaaly considered, with tbe exception 
nf the derrick, belongs to the fixed type of hand crane?. 
The derrick, on account of its not requiring any deep 
foundation or overhead supporting beams or girden, and 
the comparative ease with which it can be erected in any 
required position, may be considered as a semi-portable 
crane. Bat there is a constant demand for a lifting machine 
that shall be entirely self -sustained and self-supporting, and 
which may be readily removed from place to place as 
required without having to be taken to pieces and 
re-erected. Such conditions are met in the portable hand 
crane, as illustrated in ligs. 57 and 58— fig. 57 being a side 
elevation and fig. 68 a plan of an 8 ton crane. The machine 
ia shown mounted upon plain wheels and axlee, suitable for 
a common road, but if required for railway service it would 
be provided with rail wheels and axles, axle boxes and 
springs, &c., to correspond with the rolling stock of the 
railway line the crane had to work upon. As no holding- 
down bolts are employed, neither a long crane post entering 
into a deep masonry foundation, as in the case of the wharf 
crane, the portable crane has to depend for stability upon a 
counter-weight or balanca The load W (fig. 60) acting at 
the end of the jib has a tendency to pull the whole structure 
over upon its two front wheels as a fnlcrnm (see A, fig. 60), 
and the moment of this force is W x G. Such action is 
resisted by the weight W- acting at a leverage C^, and 
therefore, to obtain equilibrium of the structure, the 
moment of the resistance W- must equal the moment of the 
load, thus— 

W X C = W^ X C. 
As in the cafe of the wharf crane, the upper part of this 
machine is also capable of being swung round in a complete 
circle, and it will be seen that when a load is being lifted 
from the side of the under frame or trolley the crane will ba 
polled over on the two side wheels nearest the load, as 
centre, or fulcrum (see fig. Gl), onless sufficient balance, W, 
be employed at the end of the tail piece, or, in Other words, 
unless W x E = W- x E'. The balance W nsually consists 
of a cast-iron box (see figs. 57 and 58) loaded with pig iron, 
or other heavy material, to make up the necessary weight, 
and is mounted npoa small wheels or rollers, in order that it 
may be more easily moved along the tail piece in either 



PonTABLK c 




ontward end of the screw Ib squared down, similarlj to the 
handle ehafta of the lifting and slewing gear of the era 



The BBme handle ma^, therefore, be employed either for 

lifting the load, Hlewing, or turning the crane, or altering 
the radius of the balance box. A hand wheel, permanently 
keyed to the operating eorew, ie employed by some makers, 
and this method has the advantagB of being always ready 
for DSQ when required. When lifting the full load the 
balance box maat be drawn to the extreme end of the tail 
piece, bnt when the load ia removed the weighted box is 
HufScient in many cranes to pull the machine over about the 
two wheels nearest the box, as centre. Care is required in 
working the crane. The autest method to adopt in lifting 
is to attach the hook to the required load, and then, by 
raising it very HliBhtly,it wili be at once seen if there is any 
tendency to pull the crane over, and thus whether the 
haiance box is sufficiently loaded, or far enough out. 
Similarly, when the load ia lowered, before the hook is 
released from the sling, the box should be ran ia by the 
operating screw. Several accidents have occurred by the 
overturning of this type of crane, but in almost all cases they 
have occurred by carelesa working. A self-acting balance, 
regulated by the load itself, has been introduced. With this 
system the balance, consisting of a circular weight of cast 
iron, is attached by link connections with the tie rode, so 
that when a heavy load is being lifted the weigh tia automati- 
cally set in motion by the tension on the rods, and rolled to 
the end of the tail piece ; but, when the load ia removed, the 
balance, by its weight, runs down the slightly -inclined tail 
piece towards the crane post. It is, however, quite impossible 
to guard against groas carelessneea, and the rough usage 
frequently given to hand-lifting machinery of every descrip- 
tion must always be fruitful in the production of accidents. 
With ordinary care, and a little practice in the use of the 
machine, the ordinary type of portable crane, with hand- 
moved balance box, as here illustrated, has been found as 
useful and safe for its purpose as any that can be adopted. 

The use of a return or falling block, as in the machine 
under consideration, at once gives us a power or mechanical 
advantage of two to one. With heavy cranes, say from 15 
tons and upwards, the bottom block is provided with two or 
more puUeys, and the jib head Qtted with multiple pulleys 
to correspond ; the lifting rope or chain, as also the gearing, 
can be thus kept at a moderate size, whatever the total load 
may be. The length of chain required will, of course, be greater 
than the length required for a direct lift, proportionafto the 
numberof pulleys employed.^ The calculation of the stresses 
set up by the load on the jib and tie rods will be slightly 



6R 

difTerent where a return block is employed to the cisps we 
have previously considered of direct lifting. In the S-ton 
crane before us (figB. 57 and 58), where there ia a single 
sheave return block, there is a stress of 4 tons coming upon 
the chain anchorage at the jib head, and a simiiar stress of 
4 tons on the chain passing round the jib head pnlley on its 
way to the barrel. The atreSEes set np by_ the chain passing 
round the pulley will be calculated graphically, as in fie. 62, 
similarly to the cases previously considered. A B and A C 
represent the directions taken by the ohain, on which ar>i 
plotted off A D and A E, equal in length, to represent thu 
mai^nitude of stress. A F is the resultant of A D, A E ; and 
A G, drawn parallel to the jib, represents the amount of 
stress on that member ; whilst F O, parallel to the tie roda, 
repreaents the load coming npon them. The arrow heads 
show the direction of the forces, and these indicate^ it will be 
seen, that the jib is in compression and the rods in tension. 
Fig. G3 is the diagram of stresses set up by the anchored 
portion of the lifting chain. L M represents the load of 
4 tons on the jib head anchorage ; L N, drawn parallel to the 
jib, represents the direction and magnitude of the forces 
coming npon it ; and similarly M N shows us the tensile 
stress we have to provide against in the tie rods. The total 
compressive stress coming upon the jih due to the full load 
of 8 tons on the crane is, therefore, A G + L N, and the total 
tensile stress on the tie rods is F G + M N. 

The crane illustrated in figs, 57 and 58 has a wrought-iron 
tubular jib, wrought-iroa crab aides, atiH'ened with an angle 
iron riveted all round edges, and bolted to channel irons, the 
extensions of which carry the balance box. The under frame, 
trolley, or carriage is also constructed of channel iron, and in 
fig. 59 the method of fixing the bedplate for receiving the 
short crane post is shown. The slewing or turning gear ia 
worked from the second motion shaft, a bevel pinion pro- 
vided with a clutch being carried upon that shaft, which, 
when the lifting motions are in operation, is thrown out of 
gear ; but when the crane has to be turned or slewed round, 
the lifting wheel pinion is thrown out of gear with the large 
spur wheel on the barrel shaft, and the bevel pinion pat into 
gear with the bevel wheel on the upright or vertical shaft, 
carrying at its lower end a small pinion, gearing into an 
internal wheel on the roller path of the bedplate. Other 
particulars of this crane are given in the following list :— 

Load, 8 tons. 
BftdiuB, 14 ft. 



ee OVESBFAD TSATKIXIXG CKA^TXB. 

Size of diuB, Jm. 

Disateter of baml, 9iiL 

Length of burel (between taa^), 26 in. 

lATge •par wbed, 88 teetk, l^iB.pitcli,4in. f»ce. 

Pinion, II teetl^ 1| in. pitcb, 4l in. face. 

Smklkr^rar wheel, 80 teeth. If in. pitch, 3^ in. btce. 

Pinion, 12 teeth, I^in. pitcl^^in. f^ee. 

H«pdlc«, 16 in. ndioB. 

B&Unce box, length, &ft ; width, 2ft. lin.; depth, 4ft 

Diuneter of operattng screw, l^ in. 

Centre to centre of road wheels, 7 ft. C to. 

It ii f reqDentlj foond necessarr to take a portable crane 
nnder arches aod through doorwaya where there is not 
ntBatmt room to allow the jib to pass under without being 
towered. Such cranea abooid, therefore, be provided with 
nadj meana for loweriog the jib, and the simplest method is 
to make the connection of the tie rods U> the crab ddee by 
means of links, as shown in elevation in fig. 57. When the 
jib has to be lowered the return block is drswit ap tight 
against the jib bead, the link pins are then removed, and the 
jib lowered the required distance by turning the handles, and 
so paying oot the chain from the barrel. In the same manner 
the jib can be drawn up again to its working position, and 
the tie rods connected to the links by the re-insertion of 
tbft pins. 

Various modifications can be made in any of the details of 
a portable crane to salt any particalar service. Each of the 
two sides forming the crab and tail piece may be made in one 
complete casting, instead of with plate and angle iron bolted 
to channels. The jib is cosstracted of wood, channel iron, 
braced angle iron, or a wrought-iron tube as in the example 
before at, and similarly the other parts of the machine may 
be altered as desired. 



CHAPTER XIL 
Overhead Teavellino Ceanes. 
TiiKconaiderationof portable or travelling cranes in oar last 
chapter naturally leads ns to the subject of the overheaid 
travelling cranes employed in turning and erecting shops 
where heavy work is dealt with, in foundries, boiler shops, 
timber yards, and many other places, where any of the types 
of lifting machines previously noted conld not be conveniently 
employ«I. In buildings of moderate width, one overhead 




I 




OVBEHEAll TEA.VKLLING 

travelling crane (or " traveller," aa the machine ie more 
frfqneiitlT termed) may be mnde to Eerve the entire shop b; 
fixing raila upon beams, supported either on corbels bailt ont 
from the wall, or by iron bracfeeta bolted to the wall. In 
wider shops, one end carriage of the traveller may be sup- 
ported from the wall, and the other end by columns, to which 
are secured the longitudinal beams or sleepers, having the 
rails screwed or spiked on. Fig. 64 shows an arrangement of 
this kind. 

Travelling cranes, or travellers, consist usually of two quite 
distinct parts. There is, (irst, the movable bridge or girder, 
of sufficient length or span to run upon the overhead rails, 
and upon this bridge is placed the other portion of the 
machine, vix., the crab or lifting appliance itself, quite In- 
dppendent of the movable bridge or girder, but so arranged 
that it may be traversed across it in either direction, and 
thus pick up loads at any part of the span . The pulley block 
traveller, illustrated in the accompanying figures, is one of 
the simplest forms of this type of lifting macbine ; the aotna) 
lifting mechanism consisting simply of a Weston or other 
pnlley block suspended from a running carriage or " runner," 
aa shown in the general elevation, fig. M and plan 05. 

The movable bridge consists of one or two cross girders, 
according to the loadand span, secured to end carriages, each 
of which is mounted upon a pair of wheels. For toads not 
exceeding three or four tons, and a span not greater than 
I6ft. or 18ft,, the cross girder may consist of a single 
rolled iron joist of I section. The span is the distanoe 
measured from centre to centre of rails. A 3-ton traveller, 
foral5ft. span, should have a 12 in- by Sin. rolled iron joist — 
that is to say, a joist 12 in. deep, with two equal flanges Sin. 
wide, and a weight of about 56 lb. per foot ; this will allow 
of ample margin for strength and stiBnesa. With a rolled 
steel joist of the section named the weight need not exceed 
46 lbs. per foot. The end carriages may be bnilt np in several 
ways. In figs. 61 and 65 they are sbown constructed of that 
form of rolled iron known as the "channel section." ~In figs. 
CS and 67 larger details of these ends are shown, the former 
figure being an elevation of one end carriage and the latter 
a plan. The 12 in. by 6 in. joist is secured by four bolts at 
each end, passing through it^ bottom fiange (two upon each 
side of the web) and through the upper flanges of the channel 
irons, and it is further secured by wrought-iron stays bolted 
to the girders and to cross plates secured to the carriage. 
Angle-iron distance pieces top and bottom at each end assist 
in connecting the two "channels" forming the carriage. 



'VEBIIEAD TEiVELLIN'i lHANES 




■H» cMBS— when tbe tntTdlefa u« w q« inj li 
ia nopa vitli low nc^ for iBrtaaee — vvhU fa 

-J *-jp guj to orereaBie tfae fSeahr c 

camaaea eaa be onp loycd, m u fip. 70 and 7i-. . 

waj tlie wlKde immAjim ■•▼ be iiilJlj wa tkaJ iats » a 
m^kr vertiea] dutnea. uwiaa^tt-vaBeadcai ' 
■tSI reqinred, aad mot b« kqit withiB the amal 
tber cmkl eadi be fonned wiU two vnodbt-ii 
bolted togetber, with their deep lidea Tertical, and faApias 
the end* cranked op to receive the rail wheeJa. Another 
method woald be to suspend the girder from the cfaumel iron 
end curiagea by bolts and nnta, althoogh it ia far prefenbla 
to let the girder rest apon its ends rather thAn to be banging 
from tbem- i 

The wheel base, or the distance between tfae ceatiea of each 
pair of rail wheels (measured along the trackX is a matter of 
■ome considerable importance. EcODOmy of space and 
material will, of coorse, always demand that this distance, aa I 
with all others, shall be as Email as ia convenient with safetr ' 
and good working ; but, on the other hand, the leas this dis- | 
t&nce between the wheels, the greater will be their tendencf 
to bind apon the rails. The enJ carriages of a traveller ' 
cannot be depended opon to move precisely simnltaneonaly; 
for with a heavy toad suspended from a position on the cross 
girder very near to one of the carriages, the opposite and 
lighter end will naturally have a t«ndency to move fint 
when the travelling gear ia operated, and the efTtct of thij < 
tendency will be to twist thcit end carriage and bind its 
wheels against the rails ; this twisting, however, is better * 
resisted by a long wheel base than by a short one, and henoa < 
the danger of being over economical in the matter of space 
and material required for the end carriages. With the three- 
ton crane under consideration, the distance between the 
wheels (centre to centre) shoald bo not less than 4ft To i 
assist as far as possible in securing uniform and simnltaneous 
movement of every part of the machine when travelling 
alon^ the track, the first motion abaft of the travelling gear- 
ing is continued right across, parallel with the girder, and 
upon each end is keyed a hand chain wheel and a pinion to 



I 
I 



71 OT1XBIA9 TKATZUXSn CSASIB. 

max brio % apBr wbeel ke^ed as to tko ofcAoa^ _ 

the axle, ■■ Aown ia tbe figsm. Tte nil who^ a>V___ 

axlfs nort be ■ ww d by keyiag, bat at the opponte «ad oC 
f^cfa canioge, when there ii bo searing, the lail whedania 
looae vpon their axlea. KiA ad caniaee hai^ therefore, one 
of ita fail wbeeli keyed aad theater loMBBpan their napee- 
civea^W. ThereiaBonectflMtjtoenploraaolidoroMduf^ 
and it IB Uiiu a Teiy caaamam practice to taim Aort piaa or 
sadgeona to form the enda of the diaft, aad nate ap the 
kngtfa by riveting them into a iteau ^pe. A two-indh 
WTOsgbt-imn steam pipe will be quite stiff euoiiEfh for thta 
pnrpoee. With spans exceeding IS fu, an intermediate bear- 
ing i> reqnired for mpporting this tabular cross ahaft, and 
inch bearing can be readily provided with a two-girder 
machine by bolting a light bracket of wroaght-iran b«r to 
one of the girders, after bendint; to the reqatred shapa In 
two-girder travellers the cross "numer" will work betweea 
th(* girders, ba>-ingitiain&II wheels w rollera overhanging. 

Tne "ranner" from which the pulley block is siupendedia 
ehown in larger detail in liga 03 and 69. When the crow 
girder consista of a rolled iroo joist, and care is taken to aee 
that it is straight, no rails are reqnireJ, the wheels or rollera 
l>eing made to aait the width of the girder flaogeB. Aa with 
the end carriage rail wheels, bo also it would be an advantage, 
M regards easy working, to make the mnner rollen cl Ift^ 
diameter ; bot large wheels wonld encroach npon the head 
room, and hence ^e necessity of their diameter being kept 
down. Short span palley block travellers seldom have any 
chain wheel and gearing provided for the purpose of tra- 
versing the block carriage or mnner across the girder, ancb 
motion being obtained by pulling at the anapended load in 
either direction as reqnired. The rollers work loose npon 
their pins, and assaaiing their cotffiiiient of friction to be 
'2 • i,aa in previous examples, the approximate pull required 
to traverse the full load of three tons suspended from a car- 
riage having Sin. diameter rollers on 2 in. pins wil! be: 
3 X i X ^ — Scwt. This will be equal to the united effort of 
three or four men. Traversing a full load is, therefore, a very 
clumsy operation, and it is only with short spans that gear- 
ing can be dispensed with. The side plates of the carriage 
shoald be of wrought iron /i in. thick, and the wheel centrea 
about 17 in. or 18 in- The wronght-iron hook bar is kept a 
close up to the girder as possible, only juBt sufficient space 
being given to allow of the admission of the hook of the top 
ptilley block. 

The pulley-block travellers previously referred to a 



ploved cliitdT for light ki*d( uid auall sputs ; tliey cannot 
wiui Mh'&ntage be naed for loada grent e r thui tliree (n* foor 
tons, for, in tiddition to the ivge paUey biock which woald 
be reqnired, making with its rtuming carriage & reiy stng- 
glingpiece of lifting mechanisiu, the ^reat loss by friction in 
the Weston block causes a i-er? low efficiency, whilst it is as 
much trouble to lower as to lift a load. There are, it is trap, 
many typea of brake pulley blocks employed, with advan- 
tages claimed over the Weston in redaced friction and rapid 
lowering by brake if required, but it is far handier to have 
the lifting appliance and ranniog carriage combined, thns 
making a complete overhead travelling crab. 

The overhead travelling brake crab illostrated : 
adjoining figorea ih a very excellent type of this class. It 
is the invention of Mr. Henry Cherry, and was ^tented in 
X875. Fig. 72 is a front and fig. 73 a aide elevation of the 
machine, the plan being given in fig. 76. A general elevation 
of the complete traveller, hainng two wrought. iroo riveted 
plated girders and end carriages, is shown in iig. 77, and 
details of the end carriages, showing connection of girders, 
in figs. 7S and 79. 

The actnal lifting mechanism conaigta of the hand chain 
wheel A keyed on to a shaft B (fig. 7*!)- At the end of the 
shaft B a small toothed wheel or ninion is formed, gearing 
into the internal tooth wheel C ; the pitch chain wheel D ia 
cast together with this internal tooth wheel, and both ran 
loose apon the centre pin carried by the aides EE of the caat- 
iroD frame. A bottom or falling block is employed, so that 
the purchase of the crab will be as follows : — 
a effective dium. of wheel A No. of teeth iu wheel C . 

effeutiie diain. of nheel D No. of teeLh id i>iuioD '^ 

The crab, with its load, may be traversed across the girders 
by the hand chain wheel F connected with the pinion working 
into the tooth wheel G keyed on to one of the rail wheel 
shafts. 

The self -sustaining aatomatic brake is the novel and moat 
interesting portion of the raachine- The principle of the 
brake is tbe employment of the friction set up by the load 
itself to safely sustain that load in any desired position 
nhilst being lifted, and in such a manner that this friction 
shall not increase the eilort necessary to lift the load, aa in 
tbe Weston blocks. The lifting chain H' H^ il" H-* (dg. 72) 
paeeea round the chain wheel D and the bottom block, as 
shown. The end H' is anchored to a strong cast-iron brake 
strap or bracket centred upon the centre pin of tbe chain 



OVEEUEAD TRATELUNG CKANES. 




wbeel and internal tooth wb«eL This brake strap is shown 
in detail in fijts. 74 and 75. J is the centre pin bearing, or 
falcmm, and K the point of attachment of the lifting chain. 
It will be readily aeen that as tbe load ia pulling at K in the 
direction indicated by thp arrow, the upper portion of the 



1 



I 




fltran will be prf esed against the lirake wheel L carried on 
the band chain wheel shaft B. Pawls or catches are attached 
to the brake wheel L (which is loose upon tbe shaft), and 
these engage into tbe internal ratchet or catch wheel M 



OVESnSAD TRATEI.LISG CRANES, 




78 



OTKKHEAD TBAVELLINQ CKANES. 



(keyed on to the abaft B), and therefore, Trhen the load 
attempts to ron down, it muBt carry with it the brake wheel 
L, but this it is prevented from doini; by the friction set np 
between the wheel and the strap. The load may be lowered 
rapidly when required by releasing the brake strap slightly 
from the brake wheel L, and this is accomplished by means 
of the cord and lever O (Bg. 72.), whereby a presanre is 
brought to bear against the strap shonlder N (fig. 74), For 
steadily lowering the load, the hand chain must be pulled in 
the reverse direction for lifting, thus overcoming the friction 
at the brake wheel ; the friction is, ot course, proportional 
to the amount of load. 

When the hand chain is pulled in the direction for lifting 
the load, the ratchet travels in the direction indicated by tho 
arrow 3 (fig. 74), and thus slips over the pawls ; the brake 
wheel, therefore, remains stationary, and consequently no 
work is lost in naeless friction. Three pawls are provided, 
so that at least one will fall into connection with the ratchet 
in whatever position it may be. The loose end of the lifting 
chain H* (fig. 72) is suspended from any convenient position 
on the crab side, as shown. 

This type of overhead travelling crab may be usefully em- 
ployed to deal with loads up to 10 or 12 tons. The cross 
girders and end carriages of the crane may be modified in 
many ways. Where but little head room is available parallel 
flanged girders mav be employed, instead of the parabolic 
form shown in hg, 77, and the crab made to run upon the 
inside angle irons of the bottom fla,iigea. In short span 
travellers carrying light loads there is no necessity to employ 
wide cover plates on the girders, or rails for the crab to run 
npon, the wheels being made to suit the top of the girders. 
With spans ot about 50 ft., however, cover plates are of great 
asustance in giving lateral stiffness, and rails will then be 
necessitated on account of the width of the top of girders 
(see tig. 73). The arrangement of the longitudinal travelling 
gear of the machine will be similar to that described for the 
pnlley-block traveller, supports being provided for the cross 
shaft by attaching brackets to one of the girders at intervals 
not exceeding 15 ft. The dimensions between centres of rail 
wheels given in figs, 72 and 73 refers to a live-ton crab, and 
will suffice to show the compactness of the machine. 

Overhead travellers are frequently required to work in 
situations where, on account of the bulky nature of tho load 
or from other causes, it would neither be convenient nor safe 



I 




OVEKBEiU TRAVBLtING CBAHBB, 




OVEKHBAP THA" 

_ii cloee proximity to the lifting chain, so that the n 
workincp, are compelled to atand qaite cioHe to or even partly 
iioder tbe load. I[i sach cases, the liftine mechstiiam shonld 
be carried at one end of the girders, ana the main or lifting 
chain directed by ^nide pulleys on a running carriage in the 
Bame manner as vith the fixed fonndry crane. 

The adjoming illnatrations represent a coed example of a 
traveller of the deacriptioa named. The lifting gearing, with 
brake, as also the traversing gearing, are all arranged at one 
end of the cross girdere, being carried by cast-iron brackets and 
buehes fixed to the wrought-iron girders. An enlarged detail 
of this gearing is given in figs. 60 and 81 ; the self-snstaining 
automatic brake is shown separately in fig. 83, This brake, 
the invention of Mr. G. Croydon Marks, has been successf nlly 
applied to a very large and varied class of lifting machinery. 
Its action will be clearly understood with a very little stady 
of the lig. 83, to which we shall presently refer. The general 
arrangement of tbe traveller is shown in fig. 82. Two 
parabolic wronght-iron riveted plate girders are secured to 
the end carriages (which are shown as cast iron in the illus- 
trations), and the lifting mechanism is arranged at one end 
of the girders in the manner shown in li^, 62, and in larger 
detail in figs. 80 and 81, The actual lifting chain is made to pass 
over the chain wheel A (figs. 80 and 81), and the free end then 
hangs down, and is looped up to tbe end carriage, as shown 
(B B, fig, 80), whilst the other portion of the chain passes 
along between tbe two girders, over tbe guide pullc,vs of thn 
mnning carriage, and after passing around the falling block 
is anchored to the opposite end carriage. The racking (or 
movement of the running carriage, either with or without 
the load suspended, across the girders) is eJiected by the chain 
wheel e, operated by the hand chain wheel D, together with 
gearing, in a manner similar to that described when dealing 
with the fonndry crane. 

By the use of a falling block there will, of course, be only 
hail the load coming npon the chain wheel A. In a 10 ton 
traveller, therefore, the load upon A would be 5 tons as a 
maximum, and for such a load J in, pitched chain should be 
employed, while the purehaseof tbe hand chain wheel E over 
the lifting chain wheel A should be 84 : 1. This will be moat 
conveniently obtained with treble -purchase gearing, and to 
lift the full load of 10 tons four ordinary men will be required 
to pull at tbe hand chain working over the wheel E. The 
racking gearingshouldbedouble purchase, and the mechanical 
gain of the hand chain wheel D over the racking chain 
wheel c should be arranged to be about 34 : 1 ; size of racking 



1 





I 



OrsKHKAD TKAVXLUXG CXAXKS. 



fonrtli motion ilMft of the UftiBg icearii^uidKlaothBfint 
and Kcond iDotioD shaftc of tbe ntdkiiw goKriniL CMS bo iBp- 
ported b]r cut-iroo biuhes aecurod to tnewebaoE tbegudcn 

gimilu to the way in vfaicb the slufU of wroi^ht-tnm nded 
crabe are EDpporte± 

Beferring again to fig. 33, the br&ke wheel F is keyed npon 
the third motioa shaft of the lifting gearing (aee fi^. S0\ 
whilst on the Becond motion shaft is supported the disc Q. 
This disc G is bored slightly oat of centre, so that it forms an 
eccentric. When the load attempts to ran down the wheel 
F revolves, or attempts to rerolve, in the direction indicated 
by arrow 1 ; bat it cannot revolve without rfragging with it 
the disc Q, which is loose apon its shaft, aod is kept in con- 
tact with the wheel F by the weight H. As G is an eccentric, 
any movement in the direction of the arrow 2 will cause an 
increase of the distance J, and the wheel F will thus become 
locked or wedged by the eccentric disi^, and the load stis- 
pended and safely snatained in any position. By pulling the 
brake cord gently, the eccentric will be tnmed in the reverse 
direction, and the brake wheel F being thas released, the 
load will descend freely until it is checked either by loosing 
the brake cord altogether, and thus allowing the eccentric to 
wedge the break wheel, or by pulling the cord a little farther 
down, and so tightening the leather-lined brake strap around 
the rim of the wheel F. The screw stop E is set to prevent 
the eccentric being drawn in too far when the brake cord is 
suddenly released after the load has been allowed to fall nn- 
checked for several feet. Many types of brakes subjected to 
this careless but frequent nssge will stop the load qnite dead, 
and thus greatly endanger the entire machine, and render 
it liable to complete wreckage. With the Marks brak& how- 
ever, this ia obviated by allowing the eccentric to be drawn 
in only just sufficiently far to safely hold the load ; but when, 
after the load has been allowed to fall freely, and thus to 
acquire considerable momentum, the eccentric is suddenly 
released, it will be drawn in only aa far as the atop K per- 
mits—that is, until the stop is brought into contact with the 
brake wheel — and the loa^d will then creep down a short 
distance against the brake until the momentum has been 
overcome. 

With a 10-ton traveller it will he advisable to have some 
method of throwing a portion of the gearing out of servioe^ 
to obtain a quicker motion, with less purchase, for lifting 



I 



I 



84 n-VTROEAi 

lighter loads. This may be done by makiDg one of the apnr 
wheels to slide along its shaft npon a feather key, and 
controlled by a clutch operated with a lever. Another 
method of obtaining a quicker motion is to have two hand 
chain wheels keyed upon the first motion shaft of the 
lifting gearing, the larger wheel for the heavy and the 
smaller for the light loads. The objection to this method ie 
that it necessitate 8 the employment of another chain, 
making one the more to got in the way. 




Tu. St 

Fig. 84 represents a neat contrivance as devised by Messrs. 
Meacook and fiavenflcroft, of Birmingham, for disengaging 
the hand chain lifting wheel of overhead travellers and similar 
maohines, and thtu to prevent the rapid motion of the hand 
chain when the load ia being lowered by brake. The illaa- 
tration will snUiciently explain itself with a word or two of 
explanation. The hand chain wheel is loose upon its shaft 
instead of being keyed npon it in the ordinary manner, and 
is connected and disconnected with the shaft by means of the 



'■dntch M driven by a feather key. The clutch Mis operated 
by the cam N attached to the lever O. This same lever O 
can be readily arranged to control the particniar eelf-anatain- 
ing brake employed on the machine, and thus the same pull 
on the one cord wiil release the brake and disconnect the 
hand chain wheel ; the hand chain, therefore, will remain 
stationary dorinft the descent of the load. 

Many overhead travellers are constructed to be worked 
from above instead of from the ground level. A complete 
iifcing crab is mounted upon wheels to suit the cross girders 
of the traveller, and a platform is conatrncted along each of 
the girders, upon which the men stand to operate the crab ; 
the travelling gear and all other motions of the machine are 
also entirely controlled from these platforms. There are 
various other modifications of hand power machines that we 
cannot dwell upon now, but must proceed to consider a few 
examples of the application of steam power to lifting 



■ CHAPTER XIII. 

Steam Puwku Hoists. 

In consideration of hand-power lifting machinery, we have 
seen that although such machines are very considerably 
modified intheir design and general arrangement to suit the 
special requirements of the class of work on which they are 
to be employed, yet in each case their function is precisely 
the samp, viz., the conversion of a small force moving throogh 
a considerable space into a large force moving through a 
small space ; and, further, we have seen that whereas, with the 
aid of such machinery, two or three men can lift a load 
of ten, twenty, forty, or any other number of tons, yet 
no more is got out of the machines (bnt rather a little less) 
than the men themselves put into them. We cannot create 
power. A lifting machine merely receives power from some 
external source, and gives forth such power again in a some- 
what ditTerent form ; it has no power or force whatsoever 
within itself. The greater the load we require to lift with 
a given available force, the less will be the distance through 
which we can move the load in any given time. Unless we 
can increase onr motive power, then, we can only increase 
the actual weight that can be lifted at the expense of the 
speed at which such weight will be raised. 





That gain of power in band-power lifLing machinery most 
always be accompanied by loss of speed, is one of the firat 
lesBona that the science of mechanics teaches as : and it is 
anrprimng, therefore, to find how many very able and ex- 
cellent men of bnsinesB will altogether ignore this simple 
but analterable law, when broaght to consider the necessity 
of i>nrchaBing some sort of lifting appliance with which to 
equip their premises. They wilF stady cheapness in cost 
price before efficiency, and will decide upon a machine that 
is, no doubt, of very low first cost, but which is also very 
frequently quite uaadapted to efficiently perform the service 
required of it. There are at the present time to be met with 
in almost every town of anv size, warehouses fitted with 
hand-power hoists, which, though very good machines of 
their class, are a eoorce of mnch annoyance to the proprietors 
on account of their unlitness for the work required of them. 

James Watt calculated that a horse can perform 33,000 foot- 
pounds of work in one minute, though it is now generally 
recognised that this figure is somewhat too high, and that a 
horse can do work at this rate for a very short time only ; 
but nevertheless Watt's figures are still the universal measure 
of a horse power as adopted by engineers. Assoming a man 
to possess one-aixth the power of a horse, then — 

One man power = 33,000 -i- 6 = 5,500 foot-pounds per miunte. 

The given quantity (5,500 foot-pounds or units of work per 
minute) represents the energy of a strong man working at 
what we may term "high pressure"; he will be unable to 
exert himself to this extent for any length of time. Now, 
the raising of a load of, aay, half a ton, to a height of dOEt, 
represents 00,000 unita of work, thus— 
1,120 X 50 = 50,000. 
It will be seen, therefore, that a strong man pulling hard on 
the hand rope of a good hand-power lift will require ten 
minutes to raise a load of half a ton from the basement of 
a building to an npper fioor a distance of 50 f L above, whereas 
a power lift, operated either by steam, gas, or hydraulics, 
will readily perform the same work in from 25 to 50 seconds, 
according to the amount of power available. 

In a busy warehouse or factory the hoist will be used many 
timet daily, and the extra first outlay rpqnired in installing k 
good power machine will be bat a trifling matter compared 
with the daily loss of time, energy, and temper of the un- 
fortunate men who are called upon to work a heavy hand 
hoist Instances can be given where, in a factory fitted with 



I 



STEAM POW£B HOI&TS. 



87 




f^ffSm.^^^^}i^^-ii^'''^^^''''<^f^*^''^i^m^ii^^ 



v^^^^^j^i^ii-)^'i^^^; x:^>!^si^)^ 



Fio. 85 





I 



I POWEB HOISTS 



a hand hoist, it was necees&ry for a couple 
some hoars' overtime daily for the express pnrposeof hauling 
the goods to or from the various floors of the building, but 
nhere, aft«r the hand mecbine had been replaced by a good 
power hoist, worked by belting olt' an esieting line of shaft- 
ing, all necessity for snch overtime was abolifibed, the machine 
being quite capable of quickly dealing with the goods at the 
varioos floors as required from time to time during the conree 
of the regular working hours The fixing of a power hoist 




in a warehouse where no ateam power is employeJ, and con- 
sequently no line of shafting available, was formerly almost 
impracticable ; but by the aid of the gas engine a supply of 
power is now open to all basinefS houses in onr towns at a 
very moderate cost. Many gas engines are to be found 
fixed in warehouaea for the express purpose of driving 
lifting maohinea; a good engine can be started without 
difficulty, rendering snch installations as efficient and 
economical as any that can be adopted. Electric hoists are 
also Ix'coming popular. 



STEAM POWBB Homis, fit 

' la &g. 85 (pE^ 67) is represented the Heotional elevation 
' of a factory or warehouse fitted with a hoiat driven by 
belting fromapulleyon the line shaft. The hoist represented 
is arranged to lift or raise the load by means of tne power 
transmitted through the belt, wliilat the descent is efVected 
by the weight of the load iUelf, controlled and regulated by 
the brake. Such an arrangement is usually described as 
"lifting by belt and lowering by brake ;" and hoists driven 
by belting from a line of shafting are all included under the 
term "power hoists." As we have already seen, the power 
raa^ be obtained through ihe medium of a gas or a steam 
engine, or of an electric motor. 




The hoiat mechanism is shown in larger detail in figs. 86, 
87, and 88. Single purchase gearing is employed (see figs. 86 
and 87), the two belt pulleys being carried by the pinion or 
first-inotion shaft ; one of the pulleys is securely keyed to 
the shaft, whilst the other runs loose upon it. The lifting 
chain is wound around the barrel, keyed on to the second^ 
motion shaft, and a counter-balance ball or weight is fixed 
near to the hook end of the chain, in order to unwind it 
from the barrel when required, without any load attached to 
the hook. The action of Ihe belt-shifting forks, or belt- 
shifting gear, will be seen by referring to fig. 88. By means 
of the weighted lever there shown the belt is always kept 
upon the loose pulley until a load has to be raised, when the 
attendant, by pulling the oord, is enabled to shift the belt 




90 9TKAM POIVER HOISTS 

to the fast or driving pulley, and he must continue boldiog 

the cord until the load has been drawn up to the required 

I height. Some niachinea are ao constructed that the belt, 

having been shitted on to fast pulley, will remain there 

until the lever ia drawn back again b;^ a second cord or other 

contrivance ; but for work of the kind indicated, where no 

cage IB employed, but the goods simply drawn up in crates 

or cases attached direct to the chain hook, it is far safer that 

the attendant shonld be compelled to hold the belt-shifting 

, cord dnrinR the whole time of the raising of the load. When 

^^m the belt is shifted on to the loose pulley , the load is anstaiaed 

^^L by the brake } the Marks brake, as fully described in onr i 




lEHt chapter, being very suitable for this purpose. The 
brake wheel ia keyed upon the second-motion or barrel shaft 
and the eccentric disc is carried on the first-motion shaft, 
A leather-lined strap embraces the brake wheel, and thfl 
speed of descent is regulated by means of the levers and 
hand cord, as shown in the illustrations. No expenditure of i 
the motive power occurs when the load is descending, and I 
this, added to the simplicity of the arrangement, is some- I 
times an inducement to employ a machine of this descriptioii J 
upon service for which it is quite unsuited. In all noiste 1 
fitted with a cage or oar, for instance, in which the attendant \ 
TidfB with the goods, it is decidedly dangerous to lower by 



1 

I 



POWER CRANES. !>I 

brake. All snch machineB ahonid be so arraiiged that the 
lowering is effected by driviDg from the main shaft with a 
crossed bnlt, thaa obtaining a reversed motion to that of 
lifting. With a properly- constructed machine, it will then 
be impossible for a too rapid descent of the car to take place, 
u it cannot travel any faster than the belt will drive it. 



CHAPTER XIV. 
Power Ceanes for WAKEiiousua. 
The otdinary hand-power warehouse crane, consisting of a 
swinging ]ib attached to the exterior surtaoe of one of the 
walls of the building, and so arranged that the chain passes 
over the pulley at the jib head, thence through a smalt 
passaee cut in the wall, and finally is secured to the barrel 
of a nand crab or winch, has been fully described in the 
fifth chapter of this series. The crab may be fixed 
on any one of the fioora of the building as may be most 
convenient ; but one of the disadvantages of the system is 
that it can be worked from that one Hoor only. It is to get 
over this difficulty that the lifting mpcbanism is sometimes 
arranged after the manner of a hand lift nr hoist, having an 
eadlesH rope passing through all the floors, so that the 
machine can be operated from any one of them as required. 
This makes a mnch better arrangement in many instances, 
but, like all hand-lifting machines, it is open to the great 
objection of slowness of actioD, rendering it altogether unfit 
for moat warehouses or factories, and hence the necessity 
that exists for constructing tbes9 warehouse or wall cranes 
to bo worked by power— that is, by the agency of steam, 
gu or other motive power engine. 

The simpUat lifting machine of this description would 
appear to be obtuined by converting an ordinary hand crab, 
and adapting it for being driven by a belt from a line of 
shafting. It might at first sight be suggested that to 
accomplish this it would merely be necessary to lengthen the 
handle shaft of the crab, and fix thereon fast and loose belt 
pulleys ; but in addition to the belt-shifting gear required, 
several other alterations will be necessary to satisfactorily 
oonTert the band crab ; amongst other matters, a combined 
self -sustaining and controlling brake must be employed, for 
I with B power-driven crab the noise made by the pawl and 
kntchet during the time of lifting the load would be quite 




A 



92 



POWER CRANES 



r *mm)imMK>iviBi}t)/wnmmin»i}mi)^!fmnniii»iim>igws)m»it 




y^ff>.,}f)i»iWffffff/wmmmfffffrrf/fmm}^ffjnm/»n)mim 



Fio. 8». 



93 

t unbearable in any building, and it wonid, moreover, be a 
somewhat difficult matter to relenae the ratchet 'when required 
from any of the varioua floors. The shaft bearinga mitBt 
be braas bushed, and should also be arranged with looEe 
caps and brasses, eo that the latter may be readily adjtuted 
or renewed when required ; and the crab throu^^hout must 
be of better construction and fiiiish than the oidinary hand 
macfaine, seeing that aU the moving parts will be run much 
foster, and consequently be snbjc^cted to more wear and tear. 
There are many objections to the use of spur gearing in a 
power crab. Provided that such gearing was very carefully 
oonstructed on correc' theoretical principles, the wheels 
should, no doubr, work faii-iy quietly snd smoothly ; but 
chiefly on account of the rough usage to which such machines 
are subjected, the flrat and main point considered is that 
every part must be o: very ample strength, and it therefore 
frequently happens that when the load is being raised or 
lowered at a brisk rate of speed the gearing mskea rather 
more noise than is desirable. Thia difficulty can be very 
readily aurmonnted fay the employment of frictional gearing, 
and, as the large friction wheel can be made to serve the 
combined purposes of apur wheel, ratchet and paw^, and 
brake, a friction crab or hoist becomes a very efficient and 
economical machine to work in connection with a warehouse 

ib'igs. 89 to !)1 of the accompanyiog illustrations represent 
a wall crane attached to the ontside of a warehouse wall, the 
lifting mechanism or hoist being carried in the interior of 
the building, ae shown. It may be fixed in any convenient 
position, either supported by the roof principals, or suspended 
from any one of the floors, aa desired. The arreingement of 
the friction gearing and brake is shown in detail in fige. 89 
and 90. The large friction and brake wheel A, and the chain 
barrel B, are loose upon their shaft, but they are bolted 
rigidly together, so that the one cannot revolve without 
oarryiug the other with it. The machine, aa illustrated, is 
arranged to be worked also by hand power if required, aa 
that in cases of urgency late gooda can be despatched from 
the warehouse after the engine has ceased running for the 
day. At the oppoaite end of the barrel, therefore, a spur 
wheel ia secured, and thua any motion of the barrel givea 
motion alao to the friction and break wheel A and spar wheel c. 
When running by power the spur pinion D (which is 
"feathered " to its shaft) is drawn out of gear and no motion 
u transmitted to the shaft E, or bevel wheels F G. Only 

3 belt pulley H is required, the pulley shaft J bebg kept 




/niy _ 

kept ^H 



FO-WEK CBASB8 







Ml I 







FOE WAKEHOCSBS. 



93 



in conBtant motion the whole time that the engine is running. 
The Hupporting ends of the barrel shaft are tamed down 
eccentrically with the main portion, and npon the con- 
tinuation of one anch eccentric end ia keyed the operating 
lever K (figa. 90 and 9L) Re'ferring to the diagram (fig, 91}, 
it will be readily Been that when the operating lever K 
(partially represented bv dotted lines) is moved in the direc- 
tion of the arrow the large friction wheel will be thrown 
towards the right ; the efiect of SDch movement will be to 
press the friction wheel against the smaller friction wheel or 
pinion L (fig. 90), and as this friction pinion is always in 
constant motion with the pnlley, the large wheel A will also 
be driven, together with the barrel B and spur wheel e. The 
chain from the crane is wound around the barrel B, and 
when the load has been drawn up to the required height the 
operating lever is released ; the counterweight M, aided by 
the weight of the lever itself, will then immediately turn 
the wheel A over to the left until it cornea into contact with 
the brake block N, such brake block conBiating of a caat-iron 
bracket rigidly secured to the side frame of the hoiat, and 
lined with hardwood tarned to anit the periphery of the 
friction and brake wheel. The brake block will effectually 
prevent any movement of the wheel, and the load will there- 
fore remain auspended at any deeired position. In order to 
lower the load, the lever K must be raised to its mid position 
and held there, when the wheel will be out of contact with 
both driving pinion L and brake block N, and the load will 
descend by causing the barrel with friction wheel and spur 
wheel to revolve upon their supporting ahaft. 

To arrange the hoiat for working b; hand power, the spur 
pinion B is put into gear with its wheel V (see fig. 90), and 
the operating lever K ia fised to the bracket O (lig. 90), in 
order that the barrel and spur wheel may be retained in the 
one central poaition. The power ia applied by pulling at the 
rope working in the wheel P {fig. 89), this wheel being keyed 
bo one end of the shaft, which carries at its oppoaite end the 
bevel pinion G, gearing with the wheel F, and in this manner 
the power and motion are tranamitted to the chain barrel. 
Fig. 91 also gives enhirged views of a aelf-sustaining and 
controlling brake, for use when working by hand power. 
The hollow brake wheel Q is carried loosely (not keyed) upon 
the rope-wheel shaft, and in the interior of the whpel is 
secured the ratchet wheel R by keying to the shaft. When 
the hand rope is pulled in the direction required for lifting 
the load, the ratchet revolvea in the direction indicated by 
the arrow abovn, and slips over the pawls or catches secured 



I 



POWXB GKANBS 





to the bre-ke wheel. The brake wheel, therefore, 
statiooaryonthe shaft, and does not retard the littmg motion. 
Bot when the load, on the releaaa of the hand-hanling rope, 
attempta to ran down, the ratchet will, of conrae, revolve in 
the opposite direction, and in each direction it will en^cage 
with one or the other of the three pawls or catches, and be 
compelled to carry the brake wheel around with it. Motion 
of the brake wheel ia, however, prevented by the brake strap, 
which ia weighted anfEoiently to hold the full load the 
machine has to lift^ and the load can only be made to descend 
by operating the brake lever, and thns releasing the leather- 
lined embracing strap, when any required speed of descent 



between the friction wheel A (fig. 00) and friction pinion L 
when they are both made of caat iron, and to overcome this 
and other difficulties attendant on the working of iron npon 
iron, some makers employ upon all friction hoists conatmcted 
at their works a friction pinion, having the rubbing surface 
formed with paper. A great number of laminm or thin 
sheets of paper are very tightly compressed together by bolts 
paaaing throngh the iron central core and flanges of the 
pinion wheel or disc. The first cost of a paper disc is, of course, 
somewhat higher than one of solid cast iron, bat the former 
has many decided advantages. The friction between iron 
and paper is very much greater than that between iron and 
iron, and consequently a much less force ia required on the 
hand cord of the operating lever K to set the machine in 
motion. The paper w«ll adapt itself to and "bed" all over 
the contact surface of the large iron wheel, and the latter 
will always remain true and require no re-factng, whilst the 
paper diac itself will not wear anything like as rapidly as 
those conatmcted of iron. In some instances, where iron 
diaca are employed, sparks are sometimes emitted from the 
rubbing together of the dry iron, bat with a paper diac there 
ia no such danger. 



CHAPTER XT. 



LiFT^, or elevators, when required primarily for the con- 
veyance of passengers, as in the case of those fixed in office 
buildings, hotels, underground railway stations, and othei 
placea where the number of stairs is far too formidable to be 
:■ Attempted by ordinary persons, are now almost invariably 




I 



I 



worked by hydraulic preaanre or by electric motors. The 1 
car of a good hydraulic or electric lift of proper coostructioa ' 
can be made to travel at several hundred feet per muiut«, 
and with ench aDioothneas and quietneaa aa to l)e a pleasant 
motion even to the moat nervona passeDgers. The impetus 
given to the employment of auch lifta or elevatora is no 
doubt dne in a large measure to the example of onr cousins 
in the United States. Buildings of twenty and more storeys 
are of common occurrence in America, and it is found that 
the upper floors of such buildings do not stand idle and thns 
become a source of loss to the owner, taut are eagerly sought 
after on account of the greater light obtainable in them and 
the comparative freedom from diatarbance arising from the 
din and roar of the street traffic, whilst the good elevator or 
elevators with which they are equipped (in large blocks, two. 
four, or an even greater number of machines are employed) 
makes the approach to the top oUices quite an easy matter, 
the stairs forming but a aecondary means of commnnicatioa 
between the upper and lower iloora, ao that, as it is sometimes 
expressed, "the top doors are bronght on a level with the 
street" 

But for warehouse purposes, when a cage lift is required 
to convey parcels and other small goods in considerable 
qaantitf between the various floors, a power lift driven by 
belting may satisfactorily perform the work required, and 
the accompanying illustrations (figs. 'J2 to 96) represent snch 
a cage lift driven by belting from shafting m the basement 
of a warehouse. The gearing employed is a worm and worm 
wheel, the former being keyed upon the driving pulley shaft, 
and the latter upon the barrel shaft. The advantage of the 
worm mechanism is that the load cannot ran dotrn, for vrith 
a moderate pitch worm and worm wheel the wheel cannot 
drive the worm, and therefore the cage will not descend until 
the worm is driven by the belting in the reverse direction to 
that required for lifting the load ; hence the necessity of 
employing two belts, one of which must be open and the 
other crossed. 

In bnildinga where there is a line of shafting on the top 
door, the simplest arrangement is to tix all the gearing im- 
mediately over the cage well or casing, because the main 
rope or ropes from the cage can then be led over wheels 
keyed on to the worm-wheel shaft, and thence directly down 
to the balance weight which balances the dead weight of the 
cage. Such arrangement is simpler and cheaper than that 
shown in the illustrations, but the latter is the best that can 
be adopted when a line of shafting is only available on the 



100 OAB LIFTS, 

lower floora, and although the gearing is here shown fixed 
npon the basement, it will be readily noderstood that it can 
be quite bs easily fixed upon any oae of the other iloors, aa 
nay be moat convenient ; it is indeed an annenal thing to 
find two lifts arranged precisely in the same manner, each 
machine reqniring aoroe modification, either in design or 
arrangement, to snit the special circamstances of each 
particular case. 

All lifts having a cage or car sufficientiy lai^e to convey 
one or more persona ahould have two lifting ropes, each 
being of ample strength to sastain the fnll load. Steel wire 
ropea are now very generally employed, and when care ia 
taken to select the beat qualities they are quite reliable. 
All wheels and pulleys around which the rope has to paaa 
should be of large diameter ; the minimum diameter 
allowable, if the life of the rope is to be considered, ehonld 
be 15 times the diameter of the rope for guide pulleys where 
the rope passes round but a small fraction of the 
circumference of the pulley, and 30 times the diameter of 
the rope for wheels having half their circumference 
embraced, as with the guide wheels at the top of the lift 
casing in figs. ^2 and 93, and for barrels around which the 
rope IS completely coiled. The balance weight, which passes 
down on the opposite side of the casing to that occupied by 
the two lifting ropes, should be connected to the cage by an 
independent rope ; the weight is gnided in its ascent and 
descent bj lugs working in grooves cut in the wood guidea, 
as seen in fig. 03, It ia a distinct advantage that all the 
rope pulleys should be turned in the tathe, and the barrel 
should have spiral grooves cut around their circumference 
to snide the rope and prevent rubbing and chafing during 
coiling and uncoiling ; rongh and uneven puUeya will 
quickly destroy a wire rope. Ordinary care and attention 
will prevent any accidental falling of the cage, as the ropea 
will not break without giving previous warning in the 
wearing of the strands ; and, moreover, with two ropea it ia 
scarcely likely that both would fail at once. But as an 
additional safeguard the cage is usually provided with Bome 
form of safety gear, the most common contrivance being a 
system of eccentrically formed wedges, which, when brought 
into action, are wedged between the cai^s and guides, thng 
preventing movement of the cage. When tho ropes are 
tight, these wedges are held away from the guides, bnt 
should the ropes break the wedges are drawn in rapidly by 
means of springa. It is found, however, that the long 
period during which the springs are kept at precisely the 



I 



same tension frequently deprives them of a great part of 
tjieir elasticity, rendering them stiff and useless, and this 
circnmatance, t<^ether nith the liability of the springs to 
become choked and blocked with dnat and dirt, has broaght 
" safety gear " for lifts into bad repute ; in many instances 
thnj are merely useless encumbrances upon the cage. In 
the construction of firat-claBa passenger elevators or lifts, 
the practice now is to employ a system of wedges which act 
quite independently of any fiprings ; the breakage or undue 
stretching of any rope takes away the vertical support of 
the wedges, and which, therefore, fall into position by the 
action of gravity, immediately arresting the descent of the 
car, and forming a really reliable safety apparatus. 

The drivini; arrangement of the lift is shown in fig. 94, 
whilst figs. 05 and 'lO show the method of carrying the worm 
in an oil box, cast with one of the pedestals of the barrel 
shaft ; the thrust of the worm is received against a steel 
washer, interposed between the end of the worm shaft and 
the bottom of the horizontal foot-step bearing ; adjast- 
ment is etiected by means of the wrought-iron gland and 
bolts. The design of the pedestal shown in Sgs. 05 and W 
varies somewhat from that of tie. 02, hut in each figure the 
satae arrangement of worm box is adopted. The worm may 
be either of cast or wrought iron, bat the best metal for the 
purpose is cast steel, combining strength with hardness of 
surface. The screw or thread is usually double pitched ; 
during working, the oil box is kept well supplied with oil, 
tallow, and black lead, bo that the lower part of the worm ia 
constantly immersed in its lubricant. The lifting power of 
the machine will be expressed by the ratio between the belt 
pulley and winding drum, multiplied by the ratio between 
the revoiuttons of the worm with that of the worm wheel. 
Thus aBHume that the maximum load required to be raised 
by a lift is 10 cwt. ; let the winding barrels be 21in. 
diameter, and the belt pulleys ISin. diameter, with a worm 
wheel having 30 teeth if single, or GO teeth it double pitched, 
then for every revolution of the worm wheel the worm 
must revolve 30 times, and the power or purchase of the 
machine will therefore be 



IH 31) 540 






P 



that is to say, a tension of llh. at the belt-pulley rim should 
raise a load of 2a7ib, and thereforn to raise a load of lOcwt, 
or 1,1201b,, will require 1,120 ~ 25 71b. = Ulb. nearly. 
Eat the etEciency of a worm lift is never very great, and 



felthotigh it is postrible to obtain a higber, ypt it vill be well 
'lot to calculate upon a daily working efficiency of more 




lan 50 per cent ; tbta ia conaiderably above tbe average of 
le majority of worm lifts at present in nae. The tenaion 



n 





I 



I 



lOCOMOTIYE 

required, then, at the rim of the belt pnlley L 

before db wiil be 44 x 2 = 881b. Now, the belt pulley in ' 
oar worm ahaft is ISin. diameter, and If this is driven from 
a 24in. pulley od the main or counter shaft, the difference in 
tenaion between the tight and slack aides of the belt will be 
about 2 to I ; therefore to obtain a working tension at the 

Enlley rim of S81b. the tension of tba tight side of belt ntnst 
B 88 X 2 = 17i>lb. ; and allowing 601b. tension per inch of 
-width for single belting, the driving belts for the lift mnat 
be Sin. wide. 

A very convenient form of lift for working either by hand 
or power, is BDmetimea made in which the power mechanism 
conaista of a friction wheel driven by & belt pulley, and sus- 
pended by brackets from an; desired floor of the boilding ; 
the controlling cord (which alao is naed for manipulating t^e 
brake) is connected with a swing bracket or lever carrying 
a smijl wheel or disc, and this disc, on the tightening of 
the cord, presses the hand rope of the lift against the friction 
wheel, with the result that the motion of the wheel is traoB- 
mitted by the rope to the top or lifting mechanism of the 
macbina The great advantage of such an arrangement is 
that the lift may be worked either by hand or power at 
pleasure, without any adjustment whatever to any part at 
the mechanism. ~ 



CHAPIER XVl. 

Locomotive Steam Cbaxes. 

The best known type of steam crane is undoubtedly the J 
steam power arrangement of the portable crane described J 
in our eleventh chapter. It ia to be seen in constant operation 1 
on docks and harbour works, railway and canal construction, I 
and on many other services where the hand crane would be J 
altogether aaelesH. It is generally termed the Jocomotivel 
st«am crane, as its propelling or locomotive motion, i 
common with all other motions of the machine, is driven h 
steam power. 

On referring to the accompanying fig. 97, an illustration i 
of one tf pe of locomotive steam crane, as constructed by 
Mr. Thomas Smith, of llodley, near Leeds, it wiU be seen 
that the boiler occupies the place of, and does duty for, the 
balance box or weight in counteracting the overturning eSeot 
of the Boipended load at the jib head. Underneath i' 



LOCOSIOTIVE STEAM CRANES. 105 

_jiler and between the obannelB or side framing of the tail 
' piece is fixed a 'water tank for containing a supply of feed 
water, which is forced into the boiler aa required, either by 
a Hmall pnnip worked with an eccentric and rod from the 
crank or engine shaft of the crane, or by mBans of an injector 
attached to the boiler itself. It is agood practice, when the 
crane ia intended for service in remote parts, to provide 
both pump and injector, in order that a temporary failure 
of action of either the one or the other will not disable the 
machine. Instead of a pump worked from the crank shaft, 
a small independent pump of the Worthington type is some- 
times employed by crane makers. 

Each crane is provided with two steam cylinders, one on 
either aide, and fixed either horizontally or vertically, tig. 07 
being an example of the former arrangement which has the 
distinct advantage of enabling the barrel and gearing to be 
kept down and much nearer the ground level than ia possible 
with the vertical cylinder type, and the stability oE the 
machine will, of course, be the greater the lower we can keep 
its centre of gravity. For loads np to abont 6 tons, single- 
parcbase gearing is employed ; beyond this, and np to abont 
10 tons, the general practice is to employ donble-purchase 
gearing. The lifting, slewing or turning, luffing or jib 
adJDsting, and locomotive motions are all driven from the 
crank shaft, bping thrown in or out of action as required by 
lueanaof clatches. The locomotive or self-propelling mechan- 
ism consists of a short vertical shaft, driven from the crank 
or engine shaft, and carrying at its lower end a bevel pinion 
gearing into a bevel wheel, keyed to a horizontal shaft, 
supported beneath the underframe orcarriBge. On the ends 
of this horizontal shaft bevel pinions are fixed, gearing into 
bevel wheels on the travelling axles. In some cases endless 
chain and chain wheels are employed to transmit the motion 
along the bottom of the carriage to the axlee, instead of the 
gearing as described. The descent of the load is controlled 
and regulated by a brake wheel secured to the barrel shaft 
and embraced by a strap, operated by a foot lever or a screw 
and hand wheel. The engines are fitted with link reversing 
gear, to enable all the motions of the crane to be readily 
reversed. 

Mr. Thomas Smith has constrnc ted cranes of the type shown 

in fig. DT to lift their loads at a very high rate of speed. One 

such supplied and ii.\ed at the viccnalling yard, at Gosport, 

for the purpose of loading and discharging veaaeb, has a 

■ .lifting speed at the rate of loOft. per minute. Its fall work- 

g load is li tons, and the machine is capable of dealing 



106 LUfOMOTlVK STEAM CRiSES. 

with this load &t a jib radius of 32ft. The liftinft is 
perfoFmed direct from the barrel, wit ha steel wire rope SJ in, 
in circnmfe recce. The engines have a pair of cylindera 
7i in. diameter, with a 10 in. piston stroke. The piston rods 
&re of steel, as aleo is the crank shaft, with all the feathers 
in same ; the crank disc platesare balanced, and tbecjlindera 
are lagged with silicate cotton and sheet steel, thus giving 




I 



them a very neat appearance The vertical boiler is \ 
7ft lin high by 3ft din. diameter, with two cross tabes ' 
interseotttig the firebcc the plates are of best mild steel, 
and the vertical seams of outside shell are double-riveted. 
Silicate cotton and sheet steel are also employed for lagging 
the boiler, which will saatain a eteam pressure of 751b. per 
square inch The re\ohing or slewing motion consists of 



'ipur and mitre wheels geared up From the engine shaft to 
nwin internal wheel on base plate, such motion being driven 
from a double friction cone, on crank or engine shaft, the 
orane being radiated in either direction as reqairnd, without 
stopping or reversing the engines, fay the simple msnipnla- 
tion of a screw lever working into a light hand wheel ; the 

Erincipal bearings sre made adjastable, and bushed with 
ird gun metal. The luffing or jib adjusting motion 
oonsiata of spur and worm wheels, with wrought-iron worm, 
geared ap from engine shaft to chain drum, with chain, 
btidlerads, and pnlleys connected to jib head, and controlled 
bj clutch and lever. 

The whole snperstrttcture of this crane, consisting of the 
boiler, with engines, lifting gearing, and jib, radiates on a 
short wrought-iron central pillar, which is turned to lit into 
the cast-iron base plate secured to the wrought-iron under- 
frame or carriage. The anti-friction rollers, which run on a 
circular and truly tomed path forming part of the base 
plate, reduce the stress coming upon the central pillar, and 
allow the whole to radiate ^more easily. The underframe or 
carriage is built up of wrought iron with wronght-iron 
chequered cover plates, forming the top face ; it is mounted 
on two steel axles keyed to steel-tired travelling wheels, set 
to the ordinary gauge of 4(t. 8iin. The various parts are 
easy of access for adjustment, &,g., and the whole of the 
movements of the crane are within easy reach and control 
of one man. The total weight is about 15 tons, 

A very notable improvement in the construction of cranes 
which rotate on a horizontal path about a fixed vertical 
column or post was patented by Mr. Alexander Grafton, in 
1882, and has been applied by several firms of crane makers. 
Such improvement consists in making the roller path quite 
distinct from the bed or baae plate, instead of its being cast 
into the bed, as was the former general practice. This loose 
circular path has teeth cast around it, into which gears the 
pinion of the slewing or rotating mechanism. Fig. 98 is a 
part front elevation of a crane showing the path with the 
rollers ; whilst fig. '.'^ gives two enlarged views showing in 
detail the loose path. The rollers bear upon the upper 
surface of the ring at A, the underside of the ring resting 
upon a turned seating on the base plate. The teeth in this 
oase are formed externally on the ring ; but in figa ICO and 
101 modifications of the loose path are shown, in one of 
which (fig. 101) they are fcrmed internally. The prpssure 
ot the superstructure of the crane u^n the path is snfQcient 
i-to keep it stationary when slewing or rotating under 




108 



LOCOMOTIVE STEAM CRANES. 




Fn;. '.'S 



JTTWh 



mTrp^^/''^iuiLUJL 




J 






f)nn)))))7/n7r}nt)if^ 




I'k;. '.'0. 



LOCOMOTIVB 9TKAM CRANES. 

ordinary conditior.s, bat should the mechaniam be suddenly 
Btoppea or started, the additional stress occasioned, instead 
of breaking the wheel teeth, or causing failare of socae other 
part of the machine, as has so frequently happened where a 
fixed path is employed, would simply cause the loose path 
to revolve slightly Dpon its seat until the shock had spent 
itself, It will thns be seen that a loose roller path performs 
very much the same service for a crane that a safety valve 
does for a steam boiler. Under ordinary workirg cocditions 
the loose roller path, like the safety valve, does not come 
into action ; but so soon as any nndue stress is 




brought npon the crane, the path yields, 
friction between it and its seating on the base 
plate ia insuUicient to resist anything beyond the ordinary 
stress of working. The loose path has also an advantage 
in that ita occasional movement prevents the rollers 
from rubbing and wearing it in one place, or upon one small 
portion only, for in the majority of cases a crane is not often 
required to swing round in a complete circle, the chief work 
being confined to an angle of about 90 degrees ; so that the 
patiti of a fixed crane wul be quickly worn down in that one- 




J 



110 



MTOMOTIVK BTEAM C11ANE9, 



portion only, vhilst the moTement, in the case of a loose 
path, will canae the wearing to be pqualiaed and diBtribnted 
all ronnd tlie ring ; and further, a loose path can be readily 
renewed at any time, whereas the wearing down of a iixed 
path would in most cases mean a Bacrifice ai the whole bed 
or h&se plate. 

The modification shown in fig. 102 is a loose roller path 
intended for » crsne where the rollers are placed at an angle 
to correspond with the angle of the jib, and take their bear- 
ing upon the inclined aarface B. 




LOCOMOTIVE STEAM (J 



111 



it could be conpled np to any engine or train of wagons, and 
Bent forward to the particular station or section of the line 
on which it was required ; and further, the renewals to Buch 
portions of the machine conid be supplied from the ordinary 
stores of the company. 

Fig. 103 represents what is known as a Goliath steam crane, 
and in this instance consists of an ordinary locomotive steam 
crane, mounted npon a gantry of large span. This type of 
crane is found of great service in lifting materials out of 
veaaels and lowering them direct into trucks drawn up 
ander the gantry. The illastration is tnlcpn from a Goliath 




eupplied to the Government of New South Wales ; the 
locomotive crane on the top of gantry was made to lift a 
working load of 10 tons at a radius of 20ft,, the travelling 
wheels being set to a gange of 10ft. The load is lifted 
by the aid of a single sheave return block ; gio. chain is 
employed, the hoisting barrel being grooved to receive same. 
In the employment of chain of this size, the barrels should 
in all cases be grooved, otherwise the chain will be distorted 
in winding. Tlie gantry was built up exclusively of wrouRht 
iron, made to span three sets of rails of 4ft. SJin, gaofre. The 



112 



LOCOUOTIYE 3TEAH CEANES. 



gaatry end carriages were monnted on travelling wheels, aa f 
shown in illastratioo, and driven by means of spnr and bevel 
gearing connected np to the engine shaft of the crane. On 
each end carriage a warping drnm is fixed, dri%'pn from the 
engine or first motion shaft, for the pnrpose of drawing the 
railway tracks under the crone in position for loading and 
in loading. 




FIXED STEAM CRAKES. 



113 



Bitnatioiu where head room is limited. It ia built 
mn on the ordinary 4ft. 8Uix. rail aaaee, and itb 
total height above raiia does not exceed laft Oin. It 
ia capable of lifting a load of 10 tooa at a radiaa of 20ft , 
and 7 tons at 35ft, radius, from the central pillar. The 
load ia lifted direct by a ateel wire rope li^in. diameter, 
which is wound on a large grooved barrel. Double- purchase 
gearing is employed, and all the motions of thecrane^iftin^, 
slewing, and travelling — are driven from the engine abaft. 
The load ia euatained and lowered by a powerful friction 
brake. The engines are fitted vith link reversing motion, 
and the two cylinders are 81in. diameter by 12in. stroke. The 
boiler is Nicholson'a patent, SFt. high by 4ft. Gin. diameter, 
with a combustion chamber 2ft. Gin. diameter, across which 
run four lOin. tubes. The shell is i'«in. thick, and the fire 
box, which is 4ft. diameter by '2ft. high, has Mn. plates- The 
chimney is led off one end of the combustion chamber. The 
crab aide frames are constrocted of wrought-iron plates and 
angles, firmly secured to the swivel brackets or bearings, 
which ride on the central post or pillar ; this pillar is of 
wrought iron Oin. diameter at the top and 14^in. at the base. 
The under-frame or carriage is also constructed of wrought- 
iron plates and angles. A galvanised roofiog is provided for 
covering the engines, boiler, and gearing, thus protecting 
them and also the driver from the weather. The total weight 
of the crane is 60 tons. 



CHAPTEH XA'II. 



Fio. 105 is an illustration of a forge crane, driven by steam 
power, and built upon the Fairbairn principle. The portion 
of the structure entering the foundation is not shown in the 
illustration, but sucb portion extends to a considerable depth, 
depending upon the load to be lifted and the height of crane 
above ground level, and must be built in good masonry, as 
the stability is given only by the weighted foundation. The 
question of crane foundations has been already dealt with 
somewhat fully in our tenth article, when describing the 
ordinary band wharf crane. In its general construction this 
forge crane is precisely similar in principle to the wrought- 
iron tubular girder or bridge, with which the name of 
Fairbaim is ao intimately connected. It may be considered 



jj 



lU 



FIXED BTEAU CBAHES. 



aa a curved tubular girder placed on end ; the greatest atreaa 
cornea npoa the crane at the ground level, dne to the leverage 
of the load hanging at the outer end, and, consequently, at 
this point the girder has its greatest proportions, from which 
it tapers away to the extremity of the curved end or radin& 
and tapers also in its lower and hidden portion, the end of 
which IB fitted with a gudgeon working into a cast-iron sho8 
or footstep bearing. 

This method of construction is peculiarly suited for wharf 
cranes having to deal with very heavy loads, and in variona 
dockyards Fairbairn cranes may be seen working, having a 




lifting capacity up to or beyond 60 tons. The illugtration 
(fig. 105) is from a crane of a lighter lifting capacity, ite 
working load being four tons, with a radius enabling it to 
take up its load at a distance of 19ft. from the centre oi the 
roller path supporting the crane at the groond level ; whilst 
by means of the racking motion worked by the large hand- 
whee! shown, the load can be traversed horizontally through 
a range of 6ft. Gin. The engine driving the lifting and 
revolving motiona consists of two steam cylindera &xad. 



TRAVELUSG CRANES. 115 

'▼erticBJly to the crane, and provided with link reversing 
motioD. The steamia conveyed to the cylinders from the boiler, 
Qxed anywhere in the neighbonrhood of the crane, by a Bteam 
pipe which enters a statting box lixed at the outer end of a 
abort tabs or pipe connected with the cyliudera, and in this 
manner the Bteam supply is not interrupted on the stewing 
or revolving of the crane, the steam supply pipe remaining 
stationary, being kept steam-tight at the joint by the 
revolving stalBng box. This crane is intended for forge 
service : it is altogether independent of any top support, 
and its curved form renders it especially valuable, in that it 
does not cause any obstruction to the movements of the 
workmen beneath it. 

Fig. 100 gives an illustration of a steam wharf crane, of 
tho type nanally employed for loads up to 10 or IS tons. 
The boiler is attached to the crane, and placed as close as 
possible to its central pillar or port, just allowing suUicient 
room for the driver to stand between the boiler and engine 
and gearing, in order that the whole machine may ba 
revolved in a small space ; for, as it is chiefly employed on 
docks and whar^'eB, where space is valuable, it is of great 
importance that the crane shall go into the smaUest possible 
compass. 

In the type illustrated the two steam cylinders are 
vettioal, one on each outer face of the side frames ; the 
wrought-iron crane post is extended beneath the surface of 
the ground, and made to enter cast-iron foundation plates, 
arranged as described in our tenth article. This same 
description of wharf crane is also extensively emploj^ed 
-without having its own boiler attached, being supplied with 
steam from any available source, after the same manner as 
with the forge crane just noticed. 

The whole of the illustrations in this article have been 
prepared from cranes made by Mr. Thomas Smith, of 
Rodley, L?eds, and the dimensions and particulars ^iven are 
taken from cranes made at his works, and put m actual 
service. 



CHAPIEii XVIII. 

Steam Powgb Oveiiuejd Travelling Ceanes. 
Steam power overhead travelling cranes may be divided 
into two chief classes, the distinguishing feature being the 
manner in which the motive power is supplied to the 
mechanism of the lifting machine In the first class we 





STEAM POWER OVERHEAD 

may place those trftvellera which are provtdfd with steam 
engine and boilt^r, thua haviog tbeir own independent power 
supply, wfaiiBt the second and far larger class embracea all 
tboHe machines having their motive power aapplied to them 
from a steam or gas engine situated in any convenient 
position at some distance from the traveller. Snch engine 
may be put down for the express purpose of driving the 
traveller, or it may he the motive powermachine from which 
the whole of the mscbinery in the building is driven. 

Travelling cranes provided with their own engines and 
boilers are generally inadmissible in engineering, turning, 
erecting, and other general factories, on account of the 
smoke and fumes given off, and the large amount of head 
room DSnally required between the rails and the top of the 
boiler. But in heavy fonndriep, boiler shop?, and similar 
buildings, the amount of smoke and fumes given ofi from 
the boiler of a travelling crane is but the addition of a small 
quantity to that already prevailing in the shop, whilst, by 
careful designing, the bead room required can be much 
reduced ; in such cases, therefore, the self-contained power 
traveller may he frequently employed with great advantage, 
and form the best arrangement that could be adopted. On 
heavy open-air work in docks and shipbuilding yards, and 
engineering establishments, this typo of crane is largely 
employed, and has been made with lifting capacities up to 
IfiO tons. In most cases the one pair of engines, lixed to the 
lifting crab, drives all ihe motions of the crane, lifting and 
lowering the load, travelling the whole machine 
longitodinally on suitable railed girders or elevated rail 
track, and traversing the crab and load across the girders in 
either direction, These motions may be performed either 
separately or simultaneously, at the will of the attendant. 

The illustration, Sg. 107, represents a self-contained steam 
power travelling cranp, as constructed by Mr. Thomas Smith, 
of Itodley. This firm have constrncted amongst othera 
a 75 ton crane of this description, in which the lifting ia 
effected by a steel wire rope of Gin. circumference, running 
in four plies, with a grooved pulley in top and bottom blocks. 
The hoisting or lifting motion ia treble purchase, with three 
speeds of lifting, and the double spiral-grooved barrel or 
drum is of snliicient diameter and length to allow the load 
being lifted through a height of 30fc. without any over- 
lapping of the rope. The bottom or falling block is provided 
with a special swivel book, in which anti-friction rollers 
radiate, allowing the hook to be turned easily even with tnll 
load suspended ; the hook itself is forged from best Yorkshire 



I 



i 




n the usual donble or ram's horn shape, with a sbnckle I 
attached for couTenience in lifting lighter IohIb. The boiler 
Rmplojed ia Nicholson's pEiteut, and is 9ft. high fay 4ft. 6in. 
diameter, conatrncted from mild steel plates and carrying 
a working preesnre of 801b. per square inch, the hydraulic 
teat having been twice that amount. The boiler and the 
vhole of the engine work and gearing of the craue are so 
arranged as to occupy as little head room aa possible. In 
the illustration the et«am cylinders are shown horizontal, 
but in order to obtain greater compaetneaa, and facility of 
working, the two eogine cylinders of the 75 ton steam crane 
now under notice are arranged diagonally, having a diameter 
of 9hin. and allowing; a piston stroke of 14in. The transverse 
travelling motion consicta of bevel and spur wheels geared 
np to the axleg of the crab and controlled by double mctton 
cones ; whilst the motion for travelling the whole crane 
longitudinaUy has bevel and spar gear with square cross 
shafts (having bearings attached to one of the girders, bnshed 
with white metal), and controUedalEO by large donble friction 
cones, which enable the crane to be travelled in either direc- 
tion without stopping or reversing the engines ; they are of 
ample diameter, in order to give a good wearing surface, and 
are controlled bj; screw lever and light hand wheel. The 
two transverse girders and also the end carriages are bnilt I 
up in bos section with plates and angles, the girders being 
provided with steel rails to anit the wheels of the crab ; tfa« ] 
end carriages are mounted upon doable- flanged steel-tyred I 
travelling wheels, set to a gauge or span of 50f r.. The crab 
is provided with gun-metal bearings, and all the principal 
axles and shafts are of mild steel ; steel pinions are also em- 
ployed. The boiler is placed on one side and projecting 
beyond one of the cross girders, whilst the feed-water tank is 
secured on the opposite side of the crab and proJRcting beyond ' 
the other cross girder, tbaa obtaining a good distribution of ' 
the dead weight and mnre perfectly balancing the whole | 
machine. A powerful brake is placed upon the second motion | 
crab shaft, controlled by a screw !everand hand wheeL The 
whole of the crane motions are within easy reach and control 
of one man stationed on the platform attached to the crab. 

Coming now to the second class of overhead steam I 
travellers in which the necessary motive power is supplied to J 
the machine from some external source, we find that two 1 
systems are in general employment to e(i\ ct the transmission J 
of power from the source of sapply to the traveller itself, j 
The first of these systems that we shall notice is tboj 



I 



120 OVEBHSAD BHAmNO CBAKS. 

OVERHEAD SHAFTING CRANE, 

more popularly known as the "Eqnare shaft traveller" due 

to the fact that sqaare shafting ia employed, rnDDuig the 
entire length of one side of the gantry or elevated rail track, 
to drive all the motiona of the machine. This line shaft is 
driven by gearing from one end, and has Hnpporting bearinga 
arranged along the gantry side, the square shaft having lo 
be turned down round for a. short distance at the pofiitiona 
of contact with the bearings. The ehafti is kept constantly 
ranning in one direction only, and the motion ia taken from 
it by means of a bevel pinion wheel carried by the end 
carriage of the traveller, and having a square-cored boss 
made to fit the shaft in such a manner that whilst the shaft 
cannot revolve without carrying the pinion with it, yet the 
pinion ia free to move longitudinally in either oirection 
along the shaft on the movement of the crane when the 
travelling gear is put into operation. From this pinion fiil 
the motions of the crane are driven, being controlled by an 
attendant who aita in a cage fiied below the girdera, aa 
shown in the illustration, fig. lOB, and from this station he 
can readily see and control the load in any position, putting 
either one or all of the motions into action as required by 
doable friction cones operated with levers or small baad. 
wheels. The sopporting bearings for the line shaft must be 
arranged so that they can be readily knocked aside or out of 
position as the crane ia travelled longitudinally, and the 
simplest way of edVcting this is to employ a swinging or 
rocking bearing, supported by s pin or stud on which it is 
free to turn, and having a semicircular brass or bearing piece 
at its upper end, supporting the under side of the shaft ; the 
lower end of the beating, below the supporting pin, ia 
weighted, so that it will always swing back into position 
after the passing of the traveller. Such a contrivance i^ 
however, objectionally noisy and harsh in its action. A 
better practice is to arracge for the bearing to slide between 
vertical guides, and to he depressed during the pasfeing of the 
traveller by an inclined plate or projecting lever, or to em- 
ploy a double bearing in the form of a bell-crank lever, one 
arm being elevated whilst the other ia depressed by the 
passing traveller. This latter type is largely employed, and 
has a smooth and ensy movement. 

The illustration, iig. 108, is taken from one of Mr. Smith's 
cranes, and another type, built by the same firm, is shown 
in fig. 109, which is a square shaft traveller, arranged to be 
operated entirely from the ground level, below the girders, 



I 



^P OVERHEAD aHAFTING CRANES. 


121 1 


1 j^ 


J 


^^^H IJI '^\ 


1 






^^ if "^ ^ 


■ 




■ 


r w ... <^ 


1 




:f 


1 


t_ u^ ^^^ 


■ 




■ 




1 



1S2 



> ELECTEICAL 



by meana of light hand chains working into wheels I 
connected with the donble friction cones. It has lifting 
and lowering, travelling and traversing motions, and is of 
great service in erecting and machine shops, being as easy 
of manipalatiou as a hand machine, with the great 
advantage of the quicker motions to be obtained by power 
driving. It takes up hut little head room, and aa the 
gearing is very compact, the crab can be traversed close to 
the end carriages, to deal with loads near to the walls or 
anpportingcolamns. 

A Bqnare-shaft traveller can be arranged, if required, to be 
worked by hand at any time when the engine may not be 
running. This is accomplished by employing a traversing 
crab provided with hand gear in place of the running 
carriage shown in lig. lOS, making it of eufiicient height, and 
allowing enongh head room to enable the men to Stand on 
the crab platform to work at the handles. Such a combina- 
tion forms rather a complicated machine, but it becomes a 
necessity on s< 



CHAPTEK XIX. 

RoPE-DtilVES AND ELECTRICAL TkaVKLI 



5 Ckanes. 



I 



The overhead travelling crane, driven by square shafting, 
as previously described, is limited in its application by two 
or three practical con side rat ions, of which the chief ia the ' 
difficulty of adequately supporting the long line shaft, and 
making it run smoothly and quietly at sufficient speed to 
enable the loads to be dealt with by the traveller with the 
despatch required in a busy foundry, machine shop, or 
timoer yard. Whore, for example,a large foundry is served 
by one or two travelling cranes, it ia of the utmost ■ 
importance that the machines shall be driven at the highest 
possible speed in lifting and lowering, travelling and ■ 
traversing, otherwise the moulders will be frequently kept 
waiting at one end of the building whilst the travelling 
crane is slowly operating on work elsewhere, or creeping , 
along the elevated rail track from the opposite end of the 
foundry. 

To ensnre a quick-running traveller, it will, of oonrse, be j 
necessary to have a greater engine power available. Thu ] 
for instance, to lift a load of, say, four tons, at the rate u i 
soft, per minute, will take twice the horse power reqoired ] 
to lift the same load at the rate of 10ft. per minute : hnt^ a* i 
this matter has already received considerable attentom 1 



TEAVELLKG CEANZS, 

when discasBing warehoose lifts, it will need no farther 
treatment herp, though it muBt be well understood that at all 
times, and under any condition whatever, the grfnt-ir the 
speed Bt which any given load is lifted, the greater must 
be the power of the driving engine or motive-power 
machine. 

Rope-driven travelling cranes are free from the difficulties 
connected with the employment of a long driviniif shaft, and 
hence have displaced the latter from general favour ; in fact, 
the whole system of " tly-rope " transmission of power has 
received great attention from engineers, and, as a result, we 
now tind rope driving employed in many large factoriea, in 
which the former praotice was to transmit the power of the 
engine to the line shafting on the various tloors by gearing, 
or by wide leather or cotton belting. Amongst other 
advantages, it is found that rope driving is far more 
economical of apace, and works quieter than any system of 
gear or beit transmission. The ropea are driven at high 
velocities, running at the rate of from 2,000ft to 4,000ft. per 
minute, and in some cases at even greater speeds. Wire 
ropea have been employed on this service, but do not give 
very satisfactory results under such severe conditions. 
Bopes made of raw hide have given Bnccesa ; but the general 
practice ia to use cotton ropes, which when properly made 
and well cared for give excellent results. A good cotton 
rope, well dressed with beeswax and black lead, has the 
appearance, after a year's wear, of a polished bar of black 
metal, and the inside of the rope will be as clean and dry as 
when first made. Hemp ropea are also employed. 

In cases where the motive power has to he transmitted 
over distances of several hundred feet, and for travelling 
cranes working on a gantry of great length, the rope system 
is particularly applicable, for the power may be easily and 
quietly transmitted around vsrions angles, and to almost 
any required distance, without ehaf ting or bevelgearing, and 
with but small frietional loss. A gantry, or overhead rail 
track, having a length of from 200£t. to S50ft. is the limit to 
which a square-shaft traveller can be auccessfnlly applied, 
for beyond this length trouble would be experienced in the 
torsion of the shaft. A good travelling speed for a square- 
shaft machine is from 50Et. to OOft. per minute ; at a greater 
speed it would become very noisy, whereas a rope traveller 
may be run along a gantry at 160ft. per minute or mora 

The application of electricity to the driving of overhead 
travelling cranes has made much advance during the past fev 
years, and moat makers of lifting machinery are now pre- 



t 



) EUXiTKICAL 

pared to submit propojain for various types of electrical 
travelling cranes. At the Paris Exhibition of 1889 there were 
two ten-ton overhead electric travelling cranee working in. 
the great machinery halL They were constracted by two 
French tirms — MesHra. Bon and Inatrement, and Meesra. Migj 
Echevenia and Brsz^kD, both of Paris. The crane by the tirst- 
named tirm was worked by a Gramme generator and motor, 
both being exactly similar. The generator was driven by 
a 25 horse power Weatinghonse engine, and the cnrrent was 
led from the generating station by underground cablp*. and 
connected with two solid copper conductors (Na 5 B.W.Q.), 
fixed the whole length of the rail track. Stont brass hooka, 
hanging veiticiilly from the underside of the crane, led the 
current from the bare conductors to the motor carried on one 
of the end carriages of the crane. This motor, calculated to 
supply twelve brake horse power to the lifting mechanism, 
was coupled to a short lecgch of shafting, from which the 
three motions — lifting, travelling, and traversing — were 
operated by mpans of worm geariog, the direction of motion 
being regulated by three nests of double-friction cones, con- 
trolled by theattendant. The weight of the crane was thirty 
tons, and the length of rail track 1,050ft,, a distance the 
machine could travel in eleven minutes, being at the rate of 
95^ ft. per minute. 

The adjoining illustration, iig. 110, represents a rope-power 
overhead travelling crane, constructed bv Messrs. Vanghan 
and Son, of West Gorton, Manchester. The driving rope is 
dellectcd over three grooi'ed pulleys, carried by the head 
stock secured to one of the end carriages. These grooved 
pulleys are keyed to short t-hafta carrying belt pnlley?, and 
the motion from these latter pulleys is transmitted by open 
and cross belts to the thrt-e cross shafts, which extend the 
whole length of the cross girders. The hoistingand lowering, 
and also the cross- traverse shaft, is carried along the top of 
the girders, and is provided with some form of tumbler, or 
movable bearings, similar to those employed with the sqnara 
shaft traveller for supporting the long line shaft. The shaft 
connecting the travelling gt-ar on each end carriage ia carried 
ncross near to the bottom uf the girders, and is supported by 
bearings bolted to the girder weii plates. Each of the threa 
cross driving belts are provided with two fast pulleya, driven 
by open and cross belts respectively, so that all the motions 
can be reversed by the attendant seated in the cage by the 
simple manipulation of belt-shifting forks. This system is 
found to be very efficient, the motion being gradually starteHt 
as thje belt is moved across the face of the puUey, thus pre- J 



( 



rii 



12G EOPK DEIVBN AMD ELECTEICAL 

venting any disagreeable and dangeroaa starting ifaocks. ] 




I 



All the motiona of the crane, lifting or lowering, i 



TRATELLINQ CRANEB. 

with travelling the whole crans bodily along the gantry, and 
traversing the crab across the girderB, can be drivea aimul- 
taueously, and are under the entire control of the driver in 
the ca({e, and the driving rope itself can be stopped or started 
from the cage at any point of the track. 

A 25-ton overhpad rope traveller, of (i2£t. span, constructed 
by Massra. Vaughan and Son, is driven by a l^in. diameter 




rope made of the best quality of cotton, running at a speed 
of 2,600ft per minute. The speeds of lifting are as follow : 
26 tons at 2^[t. per minute, 12^ tons at 5ft. per minute, 4 tons 
at 15ft per minute. The lowering speeds are about 40 per 
cent quicker than the hoisting speeds. The cross-tra verse 
motion is at the rate of 40ft. per minute, and the loi^itudinal 
travelling motion fJOft. per minute. The chain employed 
is i.'in, diameter, and, as the bottom or (ailing block has two 
pulleys, the load is arranged to be carried by four lengths of 
the chain, each length supporting one-fourth of the full load. 
Two views of the bottom block are given in the illustration, 
iig. Ill, from which it will be seen that the head of the 
shackle is carried on a number of steel rollers, thus allowing 
the maximum load suspended to be easily turned by hand, 
and adjusted es requireo. The approximate weight of the 
crane is 43 tons, and sixteen indicated horse power are 
required to drive it when working on its maximum load. 
Fig. 112 illustrates what is known as a rope-power walking 

{'ib crane, employed in shops where there is not sufficient 
lead room to erect an overhead crane, or for working between 
two lines of lathes or machine tools, and in warehouses and 



128 itrriNG JACKS, 

on other semcea where a travellmg cr&ne iB required thftt | 
occupiea but a amall anioont of space, and is able to be 
chie^y BUpported from the floor level The traveller mna 
upon a single rail laid Hash with the floor level, and conaiBta 
of a wheel box or carriage conatructed of wronght-iron 
riveted plates, mounted by bearinga npon two rail wheels. 
In the centre of the wheel carriage a short vertical pin or 
column is fixed, £nd on this ia supported the wronght-iroQ 
plate jib, the top aupport of the jib being obtained by gnide 
rollers running between guiding joists cecored to the ceilinii. 
The lifting gearing ia lixed to the top of the jib, as shown in 
illustration, and ia driven from a vertical shaft having a rope 
pulley fitted to its top end, such wheel or pulley receiving 
motion from a cotton rope extending the full length of the 
track, the rope being deflected round the driving wheel by 
two small guide pnlleys. The lower end of the vertical shalt 
is geared np to one of the rail wheel?, and thus power ia 
available for both lifting and travelling motions. The jib 
can be revolved in a complete circle, and is fitted at its base 
with friction rollers running on a roller path fixed to the 
wheel carriage. A fonr-ton crane, conatracted by Mesars. 
Vaugfaan and Son, with a jib radios of 10ft., ia driven by a 
cotton rope mnning at 2,C00ft. per minute, the diameter of 
the rope being fin. The speed of lifting ia 4[t. 6iu. per 
minute, lowering 40 per cent quicker, and travelling speed 
80ft. per minute. From five to six indicated horse power 
are required to work this crana 



I 



CHAPTER XX. 

Lifting Jacks, 

All lifting jacks in general use are operated by mannml 
power, the transmisaion of such power being effected by 
the employment of a screw, rack and pinion, or some 
similar niecfaanical arrangement ; or, in the cue of 
bydranlic jacks, by water or other liquid. Althoagh 
with the aid of a jack one man can Utt a load of ^0 
toua, yet it mast not be forgotten that no power is 
cTeat«d, but that all the work got oat of the machine I 
has first of all to be put into it. The muscular energy . 
of the man is exerted as a small force acting through ^ 



LIFTIKO JACKS. 123 

a considerable apace, and the province — the only province of 
the jack — is to receive sneh energy and give it out again as 
a large force acting through a Bmall spaca The measure of 
the force or power is the load multiplied by the distance 
through which it ia moved, in illustration of which truth we 
shall preeently give examples. 

The »ccompanyini{ illuHtrationa repreaent several well- 
known typpB of jacks aa constructed by M^sirB. Youngs, of 
Ryland Worka, Birmingham, who make a ajDeeiality of such 
work, and produce a very great variety of jacks suited for 
every requirement. 



Fig. 113 is an illustration of a screw bottlejaok, in which 
a wrought'iron or mild ateei screw is received by a caat- 
steel case or bottle, having a thread cut within it at its 
upper end to form a nut in which the screw can freely work. 
The spherical or ball head of the screw has holes drilled 
through it at right angles, to allow of the insertion of the 
operating bar or lever of round iron, and beyond the ball 
head a short plain pin is forged and turned down to eater 
into the cap ; the cap itself is quite free to turn or be 
revolved upon this pin, but is secured to the jack by a small 
screw stud projecting into a groove turned around the pin, 
or by the riveting over of the end of the pin itaelf. The 
mechanical advantage obtained by this jack is measured by 
the dill'erence between the pitch of the screw thread and the 
working length of the operating bar or lever. Take the 
case of a 10-ton jack having a 2gin. outside diameter screw, 
with a thread of Jin. pitch, and total height when down of 
2Tin. If the men are working with a lever of snch length 




I 



Bat there is a h> avy frictioual Iobs in the ordinary s__ _ 
jack, so that not ieaa than twice the theoretical power 
shonld he calculated us the amount required to raise the 
Imd. The illustration represents the bottle or casing whi-n 
of ooBt steel, though they are sometimes made with wrought 
iron plate, forged and welded to the required shape, and 
having »n inside boss formed at the upper end, making a 
solid neok, which ia bored and threaded to receive the 
screw. Braas nuts may be also employed either with oast- 
steel or wrought-iron bottles. 

In tig. Hi IS illustrated a type known as the leg traversing 
screw jack, in which the bottle or case is replaced by four 
wrought-iron or steel legs, enterinjc at their upper end into 
a brass nut, threaded to salt the lifting screw, and at the 
lower end into a brass base piece. The base piece is carried 
upon a rectangolar wrought-iron or steel base, supporting a 



LIFTING JACKS. 



131 



screw ranning lonKitndinally throughout its lenglh, and 
paaaing through a nut formed beneath the braas LasH piece ' 
the ecrew can be freely revolved by a hand lever fixed on 
either of its aqnare ends, but lateral motion is prevented 
and therefore when the screw is revolved the jack ia 
traverfied across the base, together with the load supported 
»* +i,™j,„i- v.i.a.1 Tho t.o^o.,.;„™ „«-«„jg required of leas 



at the jack head. The traversing 




strength than the lifting tcrew, as the former has only to 
overcome the frictional reaiBtnnce set up between the base 
piece and the base by the weight of the load and that of the 
jack itself. It will he observed in the itlastratior. <i;. 114, 
that the operating lever for the lifting screw difters from 
that employed on the bottle jack previously noted, a small 
ratchet wheel beirg seen at the top of the screw in place of 
the ball head shown in fig. 113 ; this ratchet wheel is keyed 
fast to the screw, and is embraced by the jawa of a short 
caat-ateel handle, such jaws being bored to suit the plaiu 
neck portion of the B;rew, so that the handle can be freely 
revolved. A double pawl or ratchet is fixed between the 
jaws beyond the ratchet wheel, and may be pressed into 
connection with the ratchet teeth on either side of the handle 



LIFTING JACKS. 133 

or lever s,a may be reqnired for rftiaing or loweriDg the screw ; 
a Bhort spiral spring prevents the pawl from any accidental 
disconnection during ordinary working, and the free end of 
the lever has a hole cored within it to receive an ordinary 
lever bar. With thia arrangement the screw can be worked 
without the necpssity for the continnai withdrawing and 
refitting of the lever bar, or for the operators to awing it 
through a complete circle, as mast be done in using the 
ordinary ball-head screw jack ; but with a ratchet lever the 
operator can lix himself in any one convenient position, and, 
bj^ working the lever continuonaly forward and backward, 
raise or lower the load as required. The traversing screw 
lever is also arranged with a ratchet and double pawl for a 
like pnrposa The screw bottle jack (tig. 11^) can be fitted 
upon a traversing base and provided with ratchet handles 
in precisely the same manner as the leg traversing jack. 

The mechanical power or advantage of the types of screw 
jacks previously considered can be increased by two methods 
only, viz.. decreasinri the pitch of the screw, and increasing 
the length of the operating bar or lever. But if the screw 
thread is too finely pitched, rapid wear will take place and 
the jack quickly rendered unfit for service, whilst a long 
operating lever ia inadmissible when working in close 
qnarters. In the jack iilnRtrated in fig. 115, however, we 
have a type in which the power is further multiplied by the 
introduction of small spur gearing, and hence known as the 
windlass jack. Instead of a nut forming part of the jack 
body, the screw thread ia cut within a bevel toothed wheel, 
and into this wheel gears a smaller bevel wheel or pinion. 
The operating handle is fixed upon the square end of the 
pinion shaft or pin. The mechanical advantage will be 
loand as follows : 

eircnmferpncB of circls dnscribpd by handle 

pitcb of screw 

num ber of teeth in wheel 

number of teeth in pinion 

Take, for example, a jack having a screw of ^in. pitch, and 
handles of li>in. radius, with bevel wheel four times larger 
than the pinion, then the mechanical advantage obtained will 
be calculated aa follows : 



I 

I 

1 




Thus every lib. applied to the handles ahonld balance & 
load of S041b. at the jack head, bnt the handle would have 
to be moved through a distance of S04in. before the load 
could be raised lin. 

In order to give a atil) greater niechanicsl advantage, 

double-purchase windlass jacks are employed, and other 

modificHtions are also constructed, such aa the norm and 

worm wheel, rack and pinion jack, and other similar 

mechanical devices for increasing the lifting power at the 

exoense of the speed. 

But a much more convenient and effective way of pro- 

^H ducing the change from " speed " to " power," as we may term 

^^h it, is open to us by taking advantage of the practical 

^^B incompressibility of water, as ia done so snccesafaLly in the 

^^^ hydraulic jack and other hydraniic lifting and geaeral 
machinery. As, however, the subject of hydraulic trans- 
mission of power has been extensively discussed in the 
articles by Mr G. Croydon Marks, recently appearing in 
7'lie I'l-ai'tica/ En'jinff); and now published in book form, we 
shall not refer at any length to these jacks. Detailed infor- 
mation as to the power required, and strength of the 
various parts of hydraulic lifting machinery, wili be foand 
in the work by the brother of the present writer, the hydraulic 




I 




LIFTtKQ JACKB. 

jack being very tally dealt with, and results given of tests 
irith same. Fig. llt> is a sectional elevation of thebydranUc 
lifting jack as usually conatrncted. A is r reservoir or 
cistern containing the working fluid, which may be either 
'water or water and glycerine in about equal parts (such 
mistnre keeping Haid at a lower temperature chau water) ; 
B is the working lever, and C a gun-metal pump piston 
fitting into the pump D. also of gun metal. On elevating 
and depressing the lever B, the wat«r is drawn through the 
suction or inlet valve E into the cylinder F, and, on 
continual pumping, the cylinder and ciatrrn (usually 
forming a complete casting in b'pcI) will be gradually raised, 
carrying also the load, supported either at the head or foot 
of the cylinder, being guided by the fixed ram H, the 
guiding key or feather J, working along a slot cot in the 
ram, preventing any turning of the cylinder. Lowering is 
effected by very slightly aascrewing the screw stop K, 




when the water will retnm from the cylinder to the cistern 
ly way of the hy-pasa shown in illustration. By removal of 
the screw O, at the top of the cistern, the working liquid 
can be introduced without removal of the top cap or cover. 
Fig. 117 is an external view of a hjdraulic jack of precisely 
similar construction to that shown in section, though of a 
greater lifting capacity, hence having ram and cylinder of 
greater diameter. The box key or spanner shown in fig. 117 
is for the purpose of removing the small pump when 
required for cleaning and repairing. The 20-ton hydraulic 
jack, as made by M-'Ssrs. Youngs, has leading dimensions 
abont as follow : Diameter of ram and cylinder Sin., 
diameter of pump planger tin, length of hand or working 
lever 27in., lengib of pomp lever or crank Hia. Height 



em ^1 

lof ■ 

■ 




CBAIKS AND UlU'ES. 

when down SSin., ran out 13in., total weight complete 1321b. 
The jack can be mounted, if ao reqnired, upon a traversing 
base fitted with a screw and ratchet lever bb previously 
described. 

The efficiency of tbe ordinary hydraulic jick is about 77 
per centj and its power is calculated as follows : 

Area of ram lenaihoEband lever , ,, _„ 

-T 7 Xf — ^--i xpoweron handle X 77= 

Areaotpuuip lenKthof pump lever 

lond raised in pounds. 

Fig. lis is an illustration of the type known as the 
hydraulic ship jack, on account o( its extensive use for ship 
docking and lantiebinK purposes. These jocka are made 
with a lifting capacity ranging from i'O to 200 tons ; they 
are niade of less height than the ordinary type, having their 
cisterns attached to the side instead of tu the top of the 
cylinder. The 200-ton ship jack has a total height when 
down of Hin, only, with a run ont of 7in. : the principle of 
their working is precisely the satire as with the ordinary 
hydranlio jack, and the mechanical advantage obtained ia 
calculated in a simUar manner for each type. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

Chain.s and lloPEa 

As an appendix to the previous articles, we will here give 
some few particulars as to the chains and ropes employed 
with cranes and lifting machinery generally. 

Lifting chains are made up of links formed from round 
bar iron (the tlit bar link chain being chiefly employed for 
gearing or driving purposes}, and may be either what is 
known as the " short link crane chain," such as ia employed 
on cranes, hoists, and other machinery with plain barrels 
and pulie^B, or it may be " pitched chain," made to a gauge 
to ensure its proper working in the sprockets of the pitched 
chain wheeb of chain pultry blacks and other appliances. 

Fig. lit) illostrales the short link crane chain. The 
length A ia usually about 4^ to 4| times, and the width B 
abont 3J to 3^ times tbe diameter of the iron from which the 
links are made. Thus the Kn. chain would have links of 
about Sgin. totAl length and l^in. extreme width. 

Chain cable for ship anchorage and mooring purposes baa 
rast-iron stnds inserted in the links, as shown in fig. 120. 
Such atnds prevent the entangling or "kinjting" of the 



I 



I cJuuD npon itself, and also add very much to tbe atresgth. 

f hj Fesisting the tendency oE the links to collapse, and 

keeping them up to the normal shape. Stnd link chain can 





be worked with a greater load than an open link chain of 
the same size, in proportion of 3 to 2 ; thus the Admiralty 
proof for a lin. open link chain is 12 tons, but for a lin, 



138 CHAIKS AND HOPES. 

Btnd link chain it ia 18 tons. Bnt atod link chain is not 
employed on crane work, aa it is unsnited for workio^ over 
ordinary wheels and pnlleya. 

The type of link for a block or pitched chain ia ahown 
in fig. 121. It will he noted that the links are straight, 
with rounded ends, aa ihis shape ta bettor fitted for working 
over pitched chain wheels than the slightly elliptic form of 
thi> ordinary short link chain. The ontaide lengths and widths 
are approximately the same in either crane or block chain. 

A cheaper, bnt weaker form of chain ia manufactured, 
having longer linka than those shown in adjoining illuatra- 
tion ; but with crane chain the linka should be made as small 
as posaible, in order to give the greati'st poeaible amount of 
llexibility, for lon^ linka would be subjected to very severe 
bending action when passing round palleya. It is to dis- 
tinRuish good llexible crane chain from the inferior long link 
production that the term ''short link" is employed. In 
steam coal whipping cranes, and other lifting machines where 
the chain ia constantly driven at a high speed, the diameter 
of the winding barrel requires to be much larger than in 
the case of a very alow moving and but seldom used hand 
crab, and should be not leas than 30 times the diameter of 
thS chain iron. The diameter of the guiding pulle;a must 
be also proportionately large. 

Chain is most extensively produced in South StsfTordshire, 
from the brands of iron specially manufactured iu the dis- 
trict. The greatest care should be exercised at all times to 
ensure that the chains are made from the moat suitable 
material with the best workmanship. As to the material 
itaelf, what ia required is that the iron shall have considerable 
elasticity, and be of very excellent welding quality, for as 
every link contains a weld, anything in the way of what we 
may call a "steely iron," which can only be welded with 
dithculty, is quite inadmissible ; and it ia not merely a 
question of high tensile strength, for an iron that would give 
very good resnlta under the steady pull of a testing machine 
might be altogether unfitted tor the manufacture of a chain 
which has to resist suddenly- applied atressea and ahocka. 
The"proot strain" generally adopted for chain is what is 
known as British Admiralty proof, and is about one-half the 
ultimate strength, or twice the working strength of the 
chain. It has been contended that the system under which 
a chain is tested with a load double that it will have to 
T in practical work is a very bad one, bat, if there is a 
: link or a bad weld anywhere, a high-proof test will 
find it oat as will no other test that can be conveniently 
adopted. 




CHAINR AND ROPBS. 139 

The iron employed in the constrnction of chainB should have 
a tenaile strength of about 22 or 33 tons per square inch, with 
an elongation of 20 to 2b per cent in a length of lOin., and a 
rednction of area at fractare of 40 to 45 per cent. The 

following table gives the strength of good crane chain : — 



Table 



' Pboof Strains and Safe Wobking Loads foe 
Short-link Crane Chain. 



Dl«n. 


lithe*. 


PriHif atnja In 


S^aRorklsglaad 


111 ulmin In i«mo3» 




1 


5 


1 
t 


<li 




* 


3i 


1| 
11 


11) 
11 




^ 


31 


s 


ID 




i 


19 


n 


a* 




1) 


S| 


s 


90 




i 


«! 


3* 


34 




a 


■i 


* 


40 




1 


n 


*i 


47 




11 


m 

■■at 


4 

10 


flO 




li 


-' 


14 


'" 



Some makers recomtnend a greater working load than 
about half the proof strain, but when life or limb woald 
certainly be endangered in the event of failore of the chain, 

as in the caee of crane work, the working loads shoald never 
exceed those given in table. 

The late Sir John Anderson, in his escellent work on 
"Strength of Materials," gives a very simple and reliable 




140 



CHAINS AND KOPBS. 



role for mentally estimating the safe working strength of 
crane chain, as follows : Square the number of eighths of an 
inch in the diameter of iron out of which chain is made, and 
divide b^ 10, or strike off the last figure as a decimal. The 
answer will be the safe working load in tons. For example : 
In a lin. chain there are eight eighths of an inch — 

8 X 8 = G4, 

and striking off the last figure, we get 6*4 tons as the greatest 
safe load. Similarly, for a §in. chain, 3x3 = 9; striking 
off the last figure, we get 0*9 tons. 



Table of Breaking Weights and Safe Total Working 

Loads for Hemp Kopes. 



Girth ov 

circumference 

in inches. 


Breaking weight 
in tons. 


Safe working load 
in tous. 


Approximate 

weight of rope in 

pounds per fathom. 


2 


If 


i 


1 


n 


2i 


i 


n 


3 


3i . 


h 


2 


8* 


^ 


f 


n 


4 


&i 


1 


3J 


4* 


n 


u 


4i 


6 


9 


n 


5J 


5,^ 


U 


n 


7 


6 


u 


n 


8i 


oi 


15i 


'^^ 


0^ 


7 


ITi 


2i 


103 


Ti 


, -201 


3* 


12i 


8 


201 


3| 


14 


9 


*JO.l 


5 


17i 


10 


86^ 


6 


22 



All chains in service should be periodically examined and 
tested by a capable man, and in working they should be kept 
clean and free from dirt or grit. A well greased or lubricated 



cbain will last mach longer than when worked dr^. After 
long-continued ose chains become brittle, and will give way 
nnder loads far below that which they ahonld eafelj carry, 

EnEAKCN^j STiiAiNa am: Ihr.n ^i'Eeu Wogkisg Loads of 
Best ^uauty Stebl Wiiie Eofes fok Cha.ms and 
Capstans. 



Dliroster 


","'Sr» 


SStl 


Hrenlii.iK Btmi 
Uopo i", ton». 


Saffl W,>rkiug 


- 


li 


11 
11 


il 




■*T7 


11 


ll 


8i 


095 


■6311 


11 


H 


134 


1-35 


Tin 


2i 


a 


22) 


2-27 


■?Bs 


'i 


I'i 


■^:i 


377 


■SIS 




Si 
13i 


'i 


E 


1132 


<J 


ss 


sr 


a-7 


1-750 


SJ 


29 


132 


iB-a 


1-M9 


" 


=6 


i;,7 


lOT 



u in good working order, i^aroi 
of the chain will restore the links 
condition. 



Careful periodio re -annealing 
i-_i__ ^.^ their original elastic 



The employment of hemp ropes in lifting machinery is 
now almost entirely confined to the hand ropes of hoista, 
whip crones, and other similar services. Although of low 



A 



142 



ROPE PULLET BLOCKS. 



lirat coat, a bempen rope will prove more expensive tor 
crane -lifting servioe than either chairi or wire rope, and 
par^iculftrly 8o if used on oatdoor work, on account of its 
rapid wear and deterioration ; it cannot, moreover, be relied 
upon for safe and continuous working. Bub on temporary 
work hemp ropes are, and will continae to he, largely 
employed, and a table is therefore given of the strengths of 
gond hemp rope. 

Steel wire rope or cable is exclusively employed in pit- 
winding and other mining operations, and it is receiving 
increasing favour and application to the work of general 
lifting machinery. 

Many other sizes of steel wire ropes besides those given in 
table can be obtained from the makers. 

The life of wire rope is greatly increased if care is taken 
to keep it clear of dirt and grit, and weil lubricated with 
blacklead and tallow, or some similar lubricant . The pulleys 
and barrels should have turned grooves to suit the rope, and 
they should be of large diameter, wherever possible not 
less than thirty times the diameter of the rope. A fast- 
running rope passing around small palleya will be quickly 
worn out. Careful esamination should be frequently made 
of all ropes in' service, aad they shonld be at once removed 
when any sign of undue wear is detected. The working 
loads given in table are one-tenth breaking loads ; for very 
alow and steady running the working load may be increased 
up to one-sixth breaking load. 



PAKT II. 

SOME PATENTED INVENTIONS RELATING 
TO LIFTING MACHINERY. 



CHAPTER XXir. 



Ro 



Hops pnlley blocks of thc^ '' Londoa " and other patterns bo 
well known and universally employed nii^hi appear to oflur 
bat little room for improvement, oiiier than by the adoption 
of anch materials of conatrnction and processes of mana- 
facture as will permit of the production of these naefal and 
handy lifting appliances of lighter weight, combined with 
eqnal or greater strength, and at less coat than is possible 
with the use of the older materials and processes. 

Bat for some services the ordinary rope blocks have 
defects, one of the most serious being the want of means 
whereby the load shall be aatomatically sustained on the 
withdrawal of the lifting force, and hence inventors have 
directed their attention to the provision of such ninann. 

T. M. Thompson, in 181>2, obtained a patent No. 4887 of 
that year for rope pulley blocks, having the pulleys on the 
upper block mounted on two separate asles, and between 
them a brake block, against which the rope is jammed by 
the tilting of one of the pulleys on the release of the pull or 
tension required for lifting. The patent is now void. 

The specification No. i!U7, of 1892, in the name of L. 
Klerity, shows a rope pulley block with tour diHerential 
pulleys mounted upon separate axles, the eitdleaa lifting rope 
passing in succession around each. It may be described as a 
modified Weston's diiferential block, with a series of pulleys 
arranged to give sufficient friction to enable ropes with 
emooth pulleys to be employed, Thia patent ia now void. 

Fig. V2-2 is from' specification No. 18433, of 1894 (F. X. 
Bousseau), showing a rope puiley block provided with a 
cam or wedge-like brake, which normally jams the rope to 
prevent ranning down, but which can be lifted out of con- 
tact by a pull on the rope in the direction required for 
lifting, or by pulling the brake cord. It must be understood 
that the above-named are neither the first nor the only 
proposals for making a rope pulley block ae If -sustaining. 
Various devices for such a purpose will be met with in the 
catalogue of lifting machinery makers, published many 
years a^o. 



.he M 



Chain Pulley Bujcks, 
Since the introduction of the Weaton differential pulley 
block, the patent on which was granted in 1850, No. 1033, 
there have been innumerable attempts to prodnce n chain 
block haying all the handinesH and safety of the Weston, 
without its exceBBive friction. The etibrts of a few of thoae 



► 




inventora wlio have labonred with this end in view have met 
with a certain measure of sncceas, bnt the greater namber 
have advanced very little beyond the paper ntage. In aonie 
caaea the propo^la demonatrate that the Weston h ock, in 
one particalar, is not well nnderstood by those who propone 
to improve it, for attempte have been made to redace the 
friction without making other provisiona for Eustaining the 



load. A little atudy of the Weaton block should h 
show th&t its self-ecataining principle depends solely upon 
the fact that considerably more than half the work put into 
It is absorbed by friction. 

Brief particulars are given hereunder of a few of the many 
blocks that have been patented, having some form of brake 
mechanipin for automatically sastaininK the load. 

In A. £. Pickering's specification, Nn. 1574, of 1892, from 
which the adjoining hgs. 123, 1S4, and 12a have been taken, the 
axle of the lifting chain wheel A is geared with the shaft or 
spindle B. The cam-faced bevel wheel C is keyed to the 
shaft B, and a similar wheel C is monnb-d loosely ou sleeve 
D, which is itself loose upon the shaft B, and has the hand 
chain wheel E keyed on its ont^r end, Within the enclosing 
box or frame the sleeve D has three radial projecting blocks, 
as D', each carrying a pinion gearing between the wheels 
C C, as shown. During lifting the wheels C and C are 
carried round together with the slepve D, but on the release 
of the hand chain wheel the wheel C, under the action of the 
suspended load, moves slightly with respect to the wheel C, 
witb the result that both wheels are jammed outwards into 
frictiooal contact with the sides of the box or frame, and 
thus sustain the load. Sejiarate views to a larger scale of 
one of the cam-faced bevel pinions C and C are given at figs. 
124 and 125. Some trouble would probably be experienced by 
the lateral pressures on the sides of the block oAused by the 
action of the brake, and the fact that the patent has been 
allowed to lapse may f rhaps be taken as an indication that 
the appliance did not prove altogether satisfactory in actual 

Chain blocks having worm gearing can be made to sus- 
tain the load by their own internal friction ; but with a 
aaick pitch gear, where the worm wheel is enabled to drive 
le wortr, a brake most be provided if the block is to be 
capable of sostaining its load. 

In the worm block described in the specification of E. 
Priest and another. No. H236, of 18!>3, there is loosely 
mounted on the worm shaft a cam with a coned head, which 
tits into a corresponding recess in the hand chain wheel. 
The said loose cam is ecgeged by a fixed cam formed on the 
frame crossbar ; and on tbe load starting to run down, the 
loose cam jams between the hand wheel and the fixed cam, 
and thus prevents the descent. This patent is still in force. 

Fig. 12C is from the specification No. 19258, of 1893 (Holt 
and Witletts), describing a worm block, having a loosely- 
monnted hand chain wheel A, with one or more inclined 



146 



CHA1> PrLLEY BLCfCKa. 



■nrfaoei on its boo, which bear agunit Bimilar anrfacet on 
the coUftr 6. Between the wheel A and a fixed collar C is 
mounted a ratchet wheel D, with which a pawl engage*. 
Daring lifting the inclined anrfacea jam the wheel D 
between the hand chain wheel A and the fixed collar C ; 




nnKaging with the wheel D sostains the anapended load. 
Lowering is efi'ected hj turning the hand chain wheel A in 
the reverse direction to that required for lifting. Thii 
patent is still in force. 
Other arrangements of self-snstaining brake mechaninn 



CHAIN PDLLEY BLOCKB, 147 

for 'worm blocks are described in the specificatione Nos. 
22951, of 1893 {Kirffer), 24229, of 1893 (Matthew and LeJth), 
8iid8121, of 1895(HolT]b). 

Many blocks are to be met with in. which epioyclio gearing 
ia employed. The Cherry self-sustaining brake block, as at 
one time made by Messrs. Taiigye, is an example. From a 
description of this block in the speciiicatioa No. S09, of 1871, 
it will be found the epicyclic internal gearing employed is 
controlled by an eccentric, An improTed block of this type 
is shown in the specification No. 19134, of 11^92 (Lighthonse 
and Gibson), the patent on which is now void. 




Fig. 127, from the specification So. 23976, of 1894 (AUdays 
and Onions Pneumatic Engineering Company, and others), 
represents a block with a pair of chain palleya of eqoal 
diameters, but with differential gear wheels, by which the 
chain wheels or pulleys are driven at varying rates of speed. 
In this case, as with the Weston block emplorinR differential 
chain wheels, the load is automatically snstained by the 
internal friction of the appliance. The patent is now 



em^at, cxnrASe^ axd wtscbb. 



CHAPTER T Sni 



CbaB^. CiPaTASs, A 



t Wlxchis. 



d-power crahe, ab with pulley blocks, Uie efforts of I 
inTenton have be«D directed cfaieSy to tbe braka J 
In cftpstuu, power cikb*, and atesiu wincbea J 
UK> amuiKBiDetit « the dnnDg geu- and other puts haTQ J 
receired conndenble Rttention, with a new to incraae ths 1 
efficiency of the mechinea or to render Uiem more compad 
ukd to provide for greater convenience in working. 

In tbe BpecificatioD No. &4W, of 1892 (O. Witt«j, a crab o 
h is shown in whi 



winch 



'faich the barrp], monntrd loofidy on its I 




■haft, can 1>e driven either throngh worm gearing or 
ordinary apiir gearing. The patent granted on this epecifi- 
cation became void through non-payment of renewal fee. 

The appliofttion to a winch of a syateai of moltiple pnlleya 
in a manner somewhat similar to that employed in hydrauliu 
cranes is shown in the specification Xo. 7!U5, of 1892 (J. 



CEABS, CAPSTANS, ASD \ 

Wotherapoon). The two Beta of pulleys are caoBed to 
advaoce npoD, or recede from, each other by the action of a 
pair of Borews, each having a right and left hand thread, 
driven through worm gearing. The patent is now void. 

Fig. 128, from the specification No. 18587, of 1892 (J. Soott), 
illustrates an arrangement of frictional driving gear for a 




winch, whereby the dram can be reversed without reverBing 
the driving ahaf^. The shaft A, carrying the drum B with 
the internally V-grooved frictional wheel 0, ia mounted 
eccentrically, so that either the frictional surface of the 




CRAE3, CAPSTANS, AND mxCHES. 

outer flaDge or that of the inner l^ange of the wbrpl C can 
be put into gear or contact with the friction pinioa D on the 
driving abaft E. Thia patent is now void. 

Fig. 129, from the specification No. 5530, of 1893 (H. Roll), 
illastratea crab and the like brake luechaniBm arranged to 
be antomatically applied by the action of the centrifagal 
force set up by the descent of the load. Upon the shaft A, 
which is geared with the lifting drum or barrel, is mounted 
a brake wheel B embraced by a strap or band C, tbe said 
band being operated by the movement of "the sliding sleeve 



D on tbe shaft A. The sleeve D is connected by bell-cranfc ] 
levers, as E to tbe inner and fr^o ends of weights F, which j 
are pivoted near the periphery of the brake wheel B. On 1 
the descent of the load the weights F fly out by centrifugal 1 
force, and thus, by causing the sleeve D to travel to the 
left along the shaft A, apply the brake. The patent is void. 
The brake for crabs and winches illustrated at fig. 130 is 
from the specification No. 24252, of 1593 (Beckett and 
Roberts). The contrivance is a modification of the G. C. 
Marks combined eccentric and strap brake, introduced in. 



the year 1884, On reference to the fig, 130 it will be seea that 
B wheel or disc A secured to the motion shaft B rtms in 
peripheral contact with the cam or eccentric C, provided 
with an operating handle D. During lifting the disc A 
revolvea in a clock-wise direction, but when the load attempita 
to run down the disc is wedged by the cam or eccentric. 




To permit of lowering, the cEtm is lifted out of engagetnent 
bj the handle, and the embracing bralce strap £ is simDlta- 
neonaly tightened aronnd the disc A for the 
checking the descent. This patent is now void. 



1B2 



:, CAPSTASB, .' 



Several forms of brHkes for craba and winches have been 
dedgned of the type described in the Bpeinficfttion Xo. 2742, 
of 1888, owned by Messra, Touoga, of Ryl&nd Street Works, 
Birmingham, in which looee segmetits are aatomatically 
expanded, when the load attempta to mn down, against 
some fixed part of the crab or lifting machine. 

The winch or capstan illastrated at fig. 131, from the 
specification No. 14863, of 1895 (7.. G. Kelley), is designed 
especially for ose on shipboard for holding and hauling 
ropes. The hollow post A, with extensions as A^ and A-, b 
fitted with a dmm B mnning on bearings C and D. The 
internal extension of the drum B is provided with ratchet 
wheels, arranged to break teeth with each other, which 
engage with pawls E and E'. The dram or barrel ia rotated 
by means of a lever inserted in the socket F of the ratchet 

For service on board trawlers special forms of steam 
winches are constructed to provide for the varying 
manipulation of the trawl warps durincf fishing. In the 
specification No. 1457S, of 1895, of C. D. Holmes, of the Hull 
Engineering Works, Hull, steam trawl winches are described 
having two separate barrels upon the same shaft, and so 
arranged in coDJunction with driving and control mechanism 
that the barrels may be revolved in the direction for winding 
or unwinding their respective warps either together or 
separately. In his specification, No, 29777, of 1896, Mr. 
Holmes describes his special ''warp gnides" for use with 
trawl winches, by the use of which a man standing quite 
i:lear of the ran of the ropes or warps can effectually guide 
the same as they are wound on to the barrel or barrels^nd 
that without obstructing the run out. 

Trawlers and other fishing craft which depend on their 
sails for propulsion are usually fitted with steam winding 
apparatus, and a convenient form of such gear is obtained 
by mounting a small engine on the hearl of a capstan. In 
their specification No. B217, of 1897, W. Elliott and W. 
Qarrood, of Beccleg, Sutilblk, show a simple clutch device for 
coupling auxiliary winding apparatus with aach a capstan 
engine. One end of the engine shaft is cut away 
eccentrically, as also is the interior of the winding dram m 
the auxiliary apparatus. The clutch coupling is formed by 
a roller inserted in the space thus formed. 

Fig. 132, from the specification No. 24836, of 1895 (Q. 
AsmiBsen), illustrates a winch or windlass driven from an 
electro-motor A. On the motor shaft is secured a V-grooved 
friction pinion which runs between the pair of friction rims 



of the wheel E on the worm ahaft. By means of a lever C 
the motor shaft caa be raised or lowered to canBe the pinion 




pinion muat be pnt into gear with the outer friction r 
and for lowering with the inner rim ; thoB, with the mot 
shaft running in the one direction, &nd at a constant speed, 
the windlass ia driven in the ooe direction for lifting the 
load, and in a reverse direction, and at a qaicker speed, for 
lowering the load. It will be observed, however, that the 
chief feature of the frictional driving gear, viz., the double 
rims on the wheel with the driving pinioti between them, 
and arranged to be thrown into gear with either the one or 
the other as required, is to be found in the prior specification 
No, 18587, of 1892 (J. Scott), previously referred to and 
illustrated at ig. 128. 



CHAPTER XXIV, 

Ship Dekkicks and other Loadi.vg, Unloadinq, and 

TKANSPDETINii MacHINBS AND APPLI.^NCES, 

The rivalry existing between the various crews of 
British warships, more eepecially of the Channel Squadron, 
with regard to the establishmenc of records in emartnees in 
" coaling ship," has directed the attention of many people 
not generally interested in lifting niachiner; to the "Tem- 
perley transporters " and other appliances employed for 
such work. 

The Temperley transporter is covered by a number of 
patents, of which some particulars are given hereafter, but 
by way of introduction we may here give an extract from 
the catalogue of the Temperley Transporter Company : 
"The Temperley transporter was tirst introduced in 1893, 
when the portable beam type was tried with marked sncceas 
by the Admiralty for coaling men-of-war during the naval 
msniFuvresof that year. Since then these transporters have 
not only been geiierally adopted for this purpose by the 
British and other governments, but they have been applied 
in a variety of new forms for use on shore, where they are 
found to oiier many advantages over other appliances, 
especially when a long out-reach ia necessary, and goods 
have to be conveyed to a considetable distance from the 
lifting point. The special feature of the Temperley 
transporter ia a pulley carriiige or traveller, of novel design, 
working on an elevated track, provided with a simple auto- 
matic device by which the traveller is arrested and held 



SHir DERRICKS. 



155 



/ 



/ 

/ 




Ifi6 SHIP DEBKICKS. 

Btatiooary whilst a load ie being lifted or lowered, and whicb 
BOBtains the load whilst the traveller is moving. The 
operations of lifting, transportinK, and lowering thi load are 
effected hj the simple action of haaling-in and p'lying-oiit a 
single rope, and any ordinary form of winch may therefore 
he ased for working the transporter, or a hydraulic ram may 
be used instead of a winch where the distance of transporta- 
tion is not too long. The travellers are made of varioni 
sizes and patterns, adapted to work on heams, cables, c 
other forms of track, eitner inclined or horizontal, accordin 
to the requirements of the cast." 

The adjoining ijluatration, fig. 133, is from J. Temperlej'i 
Bp<^cification No. iGSS, of 1802 : "Apparatus for loading and 




discharging vessels, particularly thoae which have 1 
hatches extending a considerable distance fore and aft. 
From the apex of a pair of shear legs (which are secured by 
suitable stays) is suspended a horizontal beam or girder A, 
which extends over the hatch, and auiEoiently over one or 
hotb of the sides to command the quay or lighter alongside 
the vessel. The said beam or girder supports a travelling 
carringe, from which the load is suspended. By mounting 
the shear legs on a frame arranged for running upon raila 
the complete apparatus can be made to travel both fore and 
aft; or, instead of on snch a travelling frame, the shear 



BHIP DERRICKS. 157 

lega can be mounted on or near the combinga of the hatchea, 
or on girdera fixed {kcroas tbebatchea. The legs can ha so 
pivoted that when not required for their ordinary ase they 
can be lowered and made to serve aa a supporting beam for 
the hatchway cover. The movement of the frame, shear 
legs, beam, and the travelling carriage or beam rnnner, alao 
the raising and lowering of the load, is effected either by a 
conveniently arranged independent engine or motor, or by 
gearing froin a line ahaft. 

Fig. 134 is from Temperley's appeification No- 7422, of 
18^2. Deacribing hia invention the patentee statea that 
instead of having to awing roand the yard or derrick B 
employed for loading and unloading vessels, he fixes it in 
one poattion, and suspends therefrom a. beam or girder A, 
whicb serves the same purpose as the similar beam or 
girder in the prior specification to which we have referred. 
The girder can be inclined to the vertical and made to 
swing horizontally. When cant pd into an inclined position 
the beam or girder can be made to serve aa " the framing of 
an elevator, having attached to it for this purpose the wheels 
and chain of bnckets, so that grain or ocher like material can 
be dealt with for loading or unloading." 

The runner or carriage for traveling along the jib-like 
beam or girder of the transporter is described in Temperley's 
specification No. £1 170. of 1S93, from which we have selected 
the illnatratiouH 135, 13G, 137, and 138. Under the title of "lui- 
provementB in travelling carriages for raising, lowering, and 
traversing loiids," the patentee states that hia invention 
"relatea to Ih^ carriages which are arranged to travel along 
beams or girders, and which have mounted on them pulleys 
or aheaves, over which paas ropes or chains for the pnrpose 
of raising or lowering loads. The chief object which I have 
in view is to tffect not only the raiaing and lowering of the 
load, but also the travel of the carriages along the beam or 
girder by the action of a single rope or chain worked by a 
single winch. The beam or girder may be inclined in one 
direction, so that the carriage when free tends to run to the 
one end, or if it is not ao inclined, or if it is oppositely 
inclined, I provide a weight with a rope or chain passing 
over a pulley at the one end so as to draw the carriage to 
that end, the working rope or chain being posstd over a 
pulley a' the opposite end to the operating winch." 

Fig. 135 is a side elevation and fig. 136 a front elevation 
showing the carriage in condition for travelling along the 
track or girder withoat raising or lowering the load that 
may be anapended therefrom, whilst fig. 137 is a side elevation 



158 BHIP DERIirCKS 

of the carriage when in condition for raising or lowering the 
load, without travelling Fig. 13S represents the complete 
apparatna (runner and derrick), aa arranged for loading and 
unloading &% a wh?.rf. 



C^^^ 




The main framing of the carriage is mounted on wbeaU j 
which roll on the lower Hange of the joiit or girder as afaown. .1 
To anch main frame is jointed at a a the under frame of the f 



SHir DBitnicKS. 1B9 

carriage on which is moauted the guide pulley b, and on the 
centre supporting pin of such pulley is alao moouted the 
lever bracket =, having n forked lower end as shown. 




Between a nair of arms or projections from the lever bracket 
e is pivoted a pawl lever having a pair of long arms dd 
between which the rope e paases, and a single short arm or 



i 



leo 



SHIP DKUUCKS. 




Fio/ 137. 



pawl engaging with the ratchet -toothed edge of the segment 
/. A bolt g on the lever bracket c ia arranged in position 
for engaging a g&p in a pivoted cam pl&te !i, which cfttn 
plate IB arranged to engage with a gecond cam plate /, having 
a projecting horn arranged to engage with a notched piece 
or pieces aaoh as k, fixed where deaired to the anderside ot 




the girder. On the lifting rope being slackened out, a 
weighted rope or chain connected at I will draw the carriage 
and load to the right hand, when it ia free to move. 

With the parts in the position shown at tig. 137 the 
carriage cannot move, the horn of the cam plate ;' being in 
engagement with a certain notch in the piece or pieces 
attached to the underside of the girder. The load can then 
be lowered by unwinding the rope or raised by windiro; it 



KiS 



SHIP DERBICKSl 



I 



on to the winch barrel or otherwise. Dnring lifting 1 
accidental elevation of the lever bracket c is prevented by 
the engagement of the pawl with the toothed segment f. i 
BnL when the load has been raised to snch a height that | 
the block m (secnrely tixed in the required position on the ' 
lifting rope) comes in contact with the long ATtaadd, the I 
pawl is disengaged and the farther movtment of the ulock j 
m with the rope will caase the lever bracket c to move roan " 
to the poaition shown at fig. 135, and the cam plates to take np I 
the poaition shown in snch lignrp. With the parte in each 1 
position the whole carriage with the load sostained fay the \ 
engagement of the forked end of the lever bracket c with the I 
block m can be palled to the left by simply hauling or 
winding in the rope, or allowed to be drawn lo the right on 
slackening oat or unwinding the rope ; thus the load can be J 
carried along in either direction without being raised or I 
lowered. When the carriage travels to the right, tne epring I 
or weighted pawl ;', monnted on the cam plate /, ia stopped I 
by a shoalder adjacent to the notch in the plate or bar I 
k on the nnderside of the girder, and the cam plate ; is then I 
again turned to the position shown at fig, 137, thus allowing I 
the lever bracket e to be carried down by the block »(, when I 
the rope is farther slackened out The carriage being now I 
retained as before by the engagement of the projecting bom i 
from / with the notched girder plate, the raising or lowering % 
of a load can be effected as described. 1 

The specification of patent No. 4.i81, of 1897, in the names J 
of J. and J. K. Temperley, descrities a special type of atmo- ] 
ture tor supporting the overhead track for the runner or 1 
lifting carriage. Instead of a rigid cantilever, the structare 1 
has a pair of oppositely disposed booms, supporting the J 
track, which abut by hemispherical bearings against a central \ 
tower, mounted to run on rails as usual. Tension rods from i 
the tower sustain the booms in position, and they are sap- I 
ported laterally by guy ropt-s I 

In their specification No. 6075, of 1897. Messrs- Temperley I 
describe a crane with a derrick pivoted at its inner end to ft ] 
central post, which is provided with a footstep bearing afc I 
its lower end, whilst its upper end is supported by a bearing I 
ring, to which the guy ropes are attached; the post ibI 
stiffened by trussing. The running carriage is preferably of 1 
the type described in Teiuperley's specification Na 21170; of I 
18^2, to which we have previously referred. 

The accompanying illustrations, figs. 13!l, 140, and 141, i 

from the specification Na 14102, of 1897, of J. and J. R. 4 
Temperley. According to one p»rt of the invention desoribed J 



SHIP CSKBICKB. 




I 



164 SHIP DEREICKS. 

in the said specification, the spparatna for raising, loweriog, 
and conveying or transporting loads is constrncted in ani^ 
a manner that it can be erected with facility without the aid 
of scnffolding. The patentees state ; To attain this end wa 
conatroct the apparatus with a tower or trestle composed of 
two obliqae or convergent trussed frames or supports, which 
are rigidly united at their ujiper ends, and are connected at 
their lower ends to opposite aides of a travelling platform or 
gantry. Each of the said frames or snpparts comprises a 
pEUr of legs connected together by ties and braces, and forms 
one side of the said tower or trestle. To these trnssed 
frames or sapports is rigidly secured, at a suitable height, an 
inclined or horizontal trassed frame, and we firmly attach 
the overhead beam or track to the said horizontal or inclined 
frame ; or we employ two overhead beams or tracks arTanged 
parallel with each other, and strongly braced together 
laterally. We farther support the overhanging parts of the 
said track or tracks by tension ropes or slings attached to 
the top of the said tower, leaving a clear space throngh the 
said tower to permit the passage of the load carriage of 
traveller and its load along the overhead beam or track from 
end to end thereof. 

" When the overhead beam or track is of great length, it is 
necessary to use intermediate supports or carriers for the 
lifting and haaling rope of the traveller. To permit the use ' 
of supports or carriers for this purpose, without interfering 
with the movement of the traveller from end to end of the 
track, we have devised a rope support or rope carrier of ' 
novel construction. The rope carrier comprises two laterallT 
movable or swinging arms or parts, either or each of whicQ 
carries a supporting pulley for the rope, and which are bd 
constructed and arranged that, in the movement of tha 
traveller along the track, suitably curved or inclined pro- 
jections on both sides of the traveller will engage with them, 
and throat them aside in opposite directions so as to permit, 
the passage of the traveller between them, and will thMi 
allow them to resume their normal position, the parte being: 
BO constructed as to enable these operations to take plaoc 
without shock or jar, and without liability to the trsvellei 
having a lateral swinging motion imparted to it, as would. 
be the case if the rope carrier were poshed aside by only, 
one side of the traveller." 

Fig. 130 is a side elevation, tig. 140 an end elevation (partly 
in section), and tig. 141 a plan (partly in section on the line 
aax, lig. 139), showing one form of the improved appliance, 
described in the specification. 



appliance. 



SHll' tinnRICKS. 165 

Od tbe trHTeliiiiK gantry A ia mounted the to^er or 
trestle 6. The overhead beam or track ia rigidly secared 
to a slightly inclinpd truiaed frarne D, which is connected to 
the tower at a suitable height. The beam or track is alao 
supported by tension ropes or slings E attached to the top 
of the tower, Saitable guys, as F, prevent undue swaying 
of the overhanging parts of the said beam or track. The 
shorter overhanging part of the beam ia pivoted at a, to 

Eermit of it being raised to the position indicated by dotted 
una at fig. 139. 

The Temperley'a specification No. 14720, of 1897, des- 
cribes the use of a fall or return block, with a lifting carriage 
or rnnner of the type described in the prior soecification. 
No. 21170, of 18n2 ; whilst their specification No. 30024, of 
1807, relates to apparatus for actuating grabs or backets 
through the medium of the lifting rope, which is shown as 
applied to thp crane d"Bcribed in tLe aforesaid specification 
No. 14720, of 1897. 

The Temperle:? Transporter Company publish the follow- 
ing particulars, indicating the capabilities of their appli- 
ances : A tranaveraing boom transporter, erected at the 
Midland Coal Company's Wharf, Woolwich, for discharging 
coal from steam colliers on to a atock heap and into wagons, 
consisting of a tubular steel boom 83 ft. long, suspended from 
a carriage, which ia transversed along the fiangcs of an over- 
head girder of 40ft, span by means of an endless chain led 
to a hand crab. The lioom can be tnmed to a diagonal 
or other position, as may be re^juired. The storage capacity 
of the portion of the wharf commanded by the transporter 
is 2,o00 tons, and such a quantity can be stacked without 
any trimming or barrowing being required. The transporter 
is capable of making (30 lifts per hour, and the qnantity of 
coal usually lifted in each skip is 13 to 14 cwt,, giving a 
dui-y of 40 tons per hour. 

Portable beam transporters for cargo steamers, made in 
sizes from 30ft, to GOft. Ions; ; usual patterns supplied lift 
aOcwt, 20cwt,| and 15 cwt. Weight of transporters (in- 
cluding traveller) varies from 12 cwt. to 30 cwt., according to 
size. When at work the portable transporter is suspended 
from the end of an ordinary derrick, and is held by guys 
in a fixed inclined position, one end being over the hatchway 
and the other end over the quay or lightera. From 
40 tons to (iO tons of goods may be handled per hour by each 
transporter. 

Travelling tower transporter at lime-kilns. Load, 15 cwt, ; 
lifting Bpeed, SOOft. per minute^ traaaporting speed, 400 ft 



A 




poratooa, 3Sft.; total 



71 ft J over water, I2ft-: 
MoCire power, ateun. 

In m record perfomunce in coaling ship oo H M A Uajei 
* few years ago, 1,900 bags, repreaentlng 190 tow 
cool, were taken on board in ose boor from a collier Ij: 
alongside. Two derricks and two Temperleys were « 
ployed. Bnt with reguvl to the Temperieya the Enyi*. 
in the iaaae of September SOtb, 1S98, says : " It is quit 
mistake to take the fignrea ot coal received from 




» 



Temperleys as of any value in the matter of being a ganKvfl 
of their fall capacity. The forward hatches of the Majeetia 
class cannot take more than ten bags at a time at the t 
whereas the Temperlny transportor can easily car 
nnmber in excess of thia We do not know a single ca 
which circarastances have allowed of a transporWr I 
worked to its fall capacity," Aa an instance of a lat«r p.. 
formance, it is recorded that the same vessel, coaling i 
stream at Portsmouth, on January 23rd, 1903, took in 1,7' 
tons in 8 hours 5 mimttes, giving an average of 212 ti 
hour. In one hour it was 257 tona. 



amp DERRICKS. 



167 



Fig. 142 is from the apecifioation No. 15872, of 1895 (G. 
Tfzack, of South Shielda), for derricks for loading or dis- 
D&arging cargo. The boom A, pivoted to the mast B, has its 
outer end Bnpported by a gny C. A goide rope D ia attached 
u flhowa The running carriage E ia controlled by a whip 
rope passing roncd the barrel of the winch ; the carriage 
mns oDt nnder the action of the weight. In a modification 
two booms are employed, ho that the ship may load or dis- 
charge on either aide. 




S- 143 illuatratea the balancing arranttementfor a floating 
crane, deacribed in the apecitication No. 191U6, of 1803, in the 
name of G. F. M. Stoney (Measra. Ranaomes and Rapier 
Limited, Waterside Worka, Ipawich). The crane, monnted 
upon the barge A, has a pair of aimilar jiba or booms B and 
B'', which are ao operated by chains that aa the weight ia 
raised the floating balance weight D ia simaltaneonsly raised 
the necessary extent ont of the water to balance the load. 

In hia specification No, 112G6, of 1894, Mr. Stoney 
mentions tne application of the aforesaid balancing 
arrangement to a special type of fioating crane, of which 
he gives an illaatration. 

In the specitioation No, 2733, of 1898, two mariners 
HntohinBon and Newton) describe a derrick for use on 



168 BIKCTRIC AND OTHER LIFTS. 

board Bbip, in which the crttne post has a ball and Bocket, or 
univeraal joint ; hy adjustment of the guy ropes the poet 
caD be intilined at any angle. 

A. McKinlay, of the British India Steam Mavigation 
Company, of Calcatta, in his specification No- 164IG, of 1892, 
describea a derrick for ships' nse in which the }ib is sup- 
ported from the mast head by a tJEed rope, and ako by & 
gay rope pasaing round a snatch block and thence to a i 
winch ; slewing can therefore be readily effected by ths | 
hanling in or paying oat of the gny rope. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

Electric and other Lifts or Elkvatoeb. 



I 



private generating plant can now be installed, have natarally 1 
led to an angmentatioa daring recent years in the demand I 
for the application of electrical energy for the working of M 
uU classes of lifting machinery. Electric lifts or elevators in J 
particular have received mnch attention, and makers axe M 
now prepared to supply reliable and safe machines for hotel, t 
warehouse, and other services. 1 

The cost of & properly -constructed electric lift or elevator I 
will exceed that of a hydraalic lift or elevator, bat the cost i 
of working the former will be much less than that of tjie J 
latter. Hydraulic lifts consume the same amount of water 1 
per trip with a light or empty car as when ranning witb f 
the maximam load. By telescopic rams, and other meanai I 
attempts have been made to proportion the consumption ct 1 
water to the load raised, but with the modem suspended I 
car and the jigger, or similar type of hydraulic motor, which I 
is the best that can be adopted for most services, anch I 
saving can be effected only at the cost of loss of speed aad I 
8t«admee8 in working, and additional expenditore for up- I 
keep With electric elevators, however, the amount of I 
electricity used is proportional to the load to be raised, and I 
the Otis Elevator Company give it as their experience tfaft^ J 
as a general resnlt, where electricity has to be purchased I 
from supply companies, and water from public hydnuUio 1 
power mains, the cost of working an electric elevator wiilj 
net exceed one-fourth of tbe cost of working a hydraolioX 



BLTCTETC-A>-D OTHEIl LIFTS. 1U9 

elevator for the same duty, whilat the ooat of upkeep or 
mainteiiEmoe of the electric machine ib no greater thau the 
like coat for a hydraulic machine. 

The specification No. 40t), of 1893, of the American, now 
the Otis Elevator Company, deaeribea the regulation of the 
speed of the electro-motora of lifts employed in oounection 
with a maltiple-wire Byatem oi" distributing electricity. 
The regalation is effected by changing the connection 
between the armature and the yarious wires of the system, 
HO as to Tary the E.M.F. of the current passing through the 
armature. The patent granted on this application has been 
allowed to lapse. 

In their epeciiication No. 1143, of 1892, the same company 
describe the arrangement of a controlling switch, in the car 
or cage of an electric lift or elevator, with the Held current 
only to pass through it The armature current is started by 
the switch, hut reversal of the motor is effected by reversing 
the current in the field circuit. The patent on this appli- 
cation is now void. 

The Otis Company's specification No. 12858, of 1894 (the 
patent on which has been allowed to become void), describes 
means for preventing the fraying of the rope or cable of a 
lift or elevator during working, such meana comprising the 
provision of a screw shaft for supporting the overhead 
■ sheave or pulley over which the rope passes from the 
grooved wicding drum or barrel The interior of the hub 
of the sheave or pulley ia threaded to receive the screw 
ehaft, and thus, as the pulley revolves on the working of the 
lift, it travels laterally at the same rate as the ropB or cable 
on the drum. 

An improved stopping device^ for use in connection with 
an electric switch or a hydraulic valve, is described in the 
Otis Company's specification So. 23G&5, of 1895 It consists 
essentially in the omission of a number of teeth from the 
spur wheel, which is formed with or secured to the pulley 
around which the hand rope passes, so that, when brought 
into position for stopping, a further slight motion of the 
hand rope will have no action on the switch or valve, and 
thus the necessity for delicate manipulation of the rope is 
dispensed with. 

The adjoining illnatrations, figs. 144 and 145, are from the 
specification No. 7853, of 18015, of the Otis Company, which 
describes stopping devices for normal working, and meana 
for the prevention oE overwinding. The figures illustrate 
the application of the invention lo an electric lift, bat it 
oan be equally well applied to a steam or hydraulic lift. 



(^ 



BiacTSjc ax» orasK uns. 



m-. 




ml 


n 


/^^ 




et 

H 1 




/ 


J^ 




/ I — — ^. 



The switch A, fig. 144, is oporHted by a hand kvnr B, armnfed 
within the cage or car in sach a manner that, by movement 
of the lever, the palley beam is rocked. The lines or 
ropes D D^, wound round the pnlleya on the beam C, are 
attached to eye bolta at the top of the well, and at the lower 
end to a pulley or segment E, Thus, on movina: tho hand 
lever B, a uiovement of the pulley or apRment E ie efiected 
which, through the barF, actnatea the Bwiti^h A. Ab the pin 
/, of the bar F, engages a X-^bnppd lever G, the movement 




of the bar in a dirt^ction to stop the motor H applies a brake 
strap to the drum or wheel J. For the prevnntion of over- 
winding the end of the winding shaft K, fig. 145, ia screwed, 
and carries a, nut L, which travels along the surew, and, 
when the cage or car reaches the top or Dottom of the well, 
so jams the pinion M as to cause it to rotate with the shaft, 
and, thronph auitable gearing, to operate the pulley or 
segment E, fig. 144, and thus atop the motor. The weight N 
returns the pinion M, when freed, to its mid-position. 



^ 



i 



a 



17s 2LEDTSI0 AND OTHER LIFTS. 

The Otis patent specification No. 7654, of 1^96 (bearing 
the same date an that of the patent just deBcribed), relates to 
means for regulating the starting of laotors. R^siatances 
are interposed in the circuit at starting, which are sub- 
sequently cut out automatically, the rate of cutting oat 
being governed by an electro maRnetic daah-pot or brake. 
Fig. 146, from the specification, showu the arrangem^it 
adapted for use with an elevator. The wheel A, operated 
by the hand cord, controls the current reverBer B. The 
suitably wound motor C is connected with a sec of resistances 
D, and a switch lever E carrying a contact e is mounted on 
an axle F. The short arm of the lever £ is fitted with a 
pawl enfiagiug a ratchet wheel connected to the spur wheel 
F'-, which through other suitable wbeola turns the disc G 
between the poles of the magnet H, so forming a daab-poL 
The cam J on the wheel A ts so shaped and arranged that 
when turned it will allow the long arm of the lever £ to fall 
under the influence of the weight £^ at a rate governed by 
the dash-pot, and as it dropa it cots out the resistances. 
When the wheel A is turned to stop the motion, the long 
arm of the lever E is raised to pot the resistances in circuit. 

In their specification No. 10772, of 189ti, the Otis Company 
describe means for preventing overwinding of electric 
winding engines, having some of the features of the devices 
for eflecting the same purpose described in their prior 
specification No. 7853, of Ib'M, to which we have referred. 
Bat in this their later method they arrange for the sending 
of reverse currents throuch the motor to bring it to rest. 

The Otis specification No. 1883, of the year 1808, deecribea 
arrangement of circuits for the push-button system of 
controlling the working of electric elevators. 

The introduction of the push-button system of controlling 
constitutes the greatest advance in recent electric elevator 
practice, for with such a system the working of the elevator 
is rendered so simple and reliable that an attendant is 
unnecessary, anyone being able to use and control the lift 
with perfect nafety. 

The Otis Elevator Company have kindly supplied the 
following particulars as to their achievements with thia 
system : — 

"There are several forms of the Otis push-button method 
of operation. With the ■ two-button system, two push 
buttons are placed at each landing door, and two corres- 
ponding buttons in the car, one of these in each caee being 
for the up motion and the other for the down motion. The 
operation consists simply in pressing one of the buttons, 



BLECTRIC ANI> OTHER LIFTS. 

the car responding by either ascending or descending, 
according as to which of the buttons is pressed. With this 
arrangement the oar only travels while the button is 
depressed, stopping immediately it is released. It is a 
perfectly simpJe method of operation, but requires a slight 
amount of judgment to determine when to release the 
button, in order that the car may atand level with the 
landing. 

"A modification of the last arraneemeot hiks been intro- 
duced with three push buttons. In this case it is only 
necessary to press the up or down motion button to start 
the car, when it will continue to travel up or down according 
to circumstances, without its being necpssary to keep the 
button depressed. A pressure of the third button imme- 
diately brings the car to rest, but a little judgment is 
necessary to determine when to press the stop-motion 
button. 

"The latest development, however, has been in the 
direction of producing an elevator which shall be entirety 
automatic in its action, and this has been done with aignal 
success. In this case a single button is placed at each 
landing door, a set of buttons being situated in the car, and 
labelled to correspond with the various landings. 

"The operation is as foUows : Upon a person arriving at 
the landing door, and pressing the button placed there, the 
car will immediately travel to and automatically stop at 
that door, whether at the time of being called the car 
huppeuB to be above or below. The passenger then steps 
into the car, and presses the button corresponding to the 
floor which he wishes to travel to. The car iraiiiediately 
travels to that floor and stops there automatically without 
any further operation on the part of the passenger. In 
addition to the buttons before mentioned, there is in this 
last system an extra push button in the car which enables 
the passenger to stop the car at any point in its travel if, 
for instance, he should have accidentally pressed the wrong 
button and found himself to be travelling, in the wrong 
direction. II tving stopped the car, he could then despatch 
it to the riglit floor by pressing the button corresponding 

"The safety arrangemt^nts with this method of operation 
are perfect, and provide, among other things, that the 
passenger in the car has sole control over the elevator until 
he has done with it ; the mere pressing of a button in the 
Cftr setting the machine in motion, being arranged to 
completely out out of aotion the whole of the rest of the 



the operatiDg circuit whrn the door is open, readerinR 




the ulevntor imuiovable. It is thus impoaaible for a careless 
pttSHuiiger to ^nter the car and travel to some other Hoor 
leaving the door opeo for anyone to fall down the shaft 

''There are other combinationa of these button systems, 
notably oue used iseuerally in coonectioa with dinnerBerrice 



elevator^ by which the same automatic reaolts are prodnced 
aa deaaribed in the last cabs, but in this case the car is 
deBpatched from the landings without a. paaseuger, and 
arranged ao that it can be called to any landing, and 
despatched from any landing to any other landing, by merely 
pressing a aiugte button-" 

The arrangement of a lift, iUnatr^ted at liga. 147 and 14S, ia 
from the apecitication No. 4093, of 1896, in the name of C. J. 




Hall, of San Francisco, U.S.A. The cage represented by A 
IB balanoid by the weight fi. The liEtiug rope ia practically 
endleaa, being attached at one end to the top of the weight 

B, whilst the other end, after the rope has been passed around 
the guide pulleys at the top and bottom of the shaft, is 
attached to the bottom of B. The motor and gearing are 
fixed to a frame or bed, which ia mounted on trunnions, as 

C, in order that they shall hang in the lifting rope, and 
thus keep the aame taut. 





k; 



ELECTEIC O^-SRHEAD AKI> OTBEK CSANKS. 

In his apeciScation No. 18156, of 1893, £. W. Anderem has 
B neat smngement for keeping lift ropes tant by die weifibt 
of the cage and its coantcr-balancinf; weight, and for 
obtaining a snfficient grip npon the driving barrel to 
present slipping. The rope from the cage, or car, first 
passes over the ordiDar; overhead guide pulley at the top of 
the well or lift casiu);, and then descends to and p^Esea under 
the winding barrel of the motor. From the barrel the rope 
IB led over a guide pulley fiited above, below, or on one aide 
of the barrel, and thence returns aod again passes round the 
barrel before being led up to another overhpad pulley, on 
the opposite aide of which the rope ia attached to the balance 

Fiu. 140 ia a plan of the lift, or hoist drivicg mechanism 
described iu the speci6cation No. 10640, of 1S:I2, in the name 
of T. Tbomaa, of Cardiff. The first motion shaft A is driven 
by a pair of belt«, one crossed and one open, to give rotation 
in opposi'e directions, which run on looeely mounted 
pulleys. Between the pulleys is a fixed disc with a flange 
opposite annalar recesses in the adjacent sides of the pnlleys. 
sncb flange being caused to engage with one or the other ot 
the pulleys as required, by operation of the hand cord 
wound round the pnlley B, the motion of which ia 
tranamitted by a chain to the wheel C on the shaft A, thus 
eflecting a lateral displacement of the said shaft (and the 
flxed disc thereon) in the required direction. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

ELECTRK: OvEEHEALi AND UTHER CkASES AND Hoi3TS. 

To meet the requirements of crane and hoist work many- 
special forma or arrangements of electro- motors have been 
proposed. In the specification No. 1C562. of ISftS, filed on 
behalf of an American inventor, E. R. Eamond, of New 
York, an electro-motor is deacribed and illustrated in which 
both the field and the armature are rotatable, being geared 
together by an intermediate pinion which eni^ages with an 
internal spur wheel or ring at one end of the field and with 
a pinion on the armature shaft. The said intermediate 
pinion is journalled in an arm suspended from the armature 
ibaft and capable of vibration thereon, agqinat the reiistance 
" weight or aprings. The periphery of the field may be 



ELECTKIC OVERHEAD AND OTHEE C 



177 



' made to serve aa the hoisting or -winding drom of the littinf! 
ninchinp. The brake afaoea are connected to a pair of 
Bolenoida in the circnic of the motor, bo that when the 
cnrrent is turned off they are aatomaticallj applied. The 
hoisting; rope is cauaed to pass round gaidu pulleys ao 
Hrranged on the machine^that, ahonld the rope give way or 
Iiecome alack, the electric circuit will be faroken and the 
brake applied. 

The specification No. 99a3, of 18M, in the namea of A. G. 
Hadcock and C. W. Hutchinaon, of the Elawick Works, 
describea an ammunition hoist for use on warahipa, arranged 
to be driven by an electro- mot or. 

In hia apecification No. 12895. of 1896, R R. Smith, of 
Chicago, deacribea an arrangement for the working of a 




hoiflt or lift by the inductive action of a aolenoid. Suspended 
from a bight of the lifting rope ia a solenoid (bailt np of 
superposed aeriea of coils, each aeries being composed 
of iBveral coils), which passes over a Eyed core built up of 
B'gmentH insulated from each other. When ihe cnrrent is 
switched on it iirst paases through No. 1 coil of each seriee 
and the solenoid travels down the core, raising the cage by 
its descent. After descending a certiiiu distance tbe current 
is automatically switched from the No. 1 coila to the No. 2, 
and from them to the No. 3 coib, and so on. 

N. S. Kpith'd specification No. 11052, of 1895, deaoribea the 
nae of an electro- mag net in place of the usual hook and sling 
ohaina. 



OTKBEEAD Jl 



} OTHKB CR&NBB. 



Fig. 150 ifl from the Bpecificition No 17379, of 1804 (filed on 
behalf of a German inventor), describing means to prevent 
damage by overloading in electrically-driven cranes and 
elevators. The liftinp rope A is passed over a pnllcy B 
mounted at one end of a lever C, which is balanced by & 
weight D, or by a spring, and connected by a link E to a 
switch G, An excessive load raises the lever against the 
action of the weight, and tbns operates the switch G and 
breaks the circait. Fig. 151 is from the same inventor's 
specification No. 18359, of 1894. To prevent burning out of 
the armature coils, &c., the switch and brake gear are an 
connected aa to be operated simnltaneonsly. The winding 
dmm A is fitted with a pavl a, which, in the direction c$ 




h 



lowFrin;;, engnges a toothed brake disc B. The switch 
handle C is connected by a rod c to one arm of a weighted 
bell-crank lever D carrying a brake band. The illustration 
shows the position when no current is passing through the 
armature, the load being sustained by the brake. When 
the handle C is moved to the left the drum is rotated to the 
rifffat to raise the load, the brake disc remaining stationary. 
When moved but slightly to the right (not far enough to 
turn the current on), the brake is slacktned, and the load, 
descends under its own weight. Further movement of tlio. 
handle to the right passes the current through the coils in 
the lowering direction. 

In the electrically -driven overhead travelling crane 
described in ihe specificaMon No. 8G71. of 1895 (in the 
names of J. G. and E. G Fiegehen, of Bedford), the liftioif 



BLECTKIC 



AND OTHER CKANES. 



170 



mechDnum is driven by a belt from a motor momitcd 
on the traveniiiig crab itself. The control of the lifting 
mecbanism and also the gear for traversing the crab across 
the girders ia effected with friction clntches operated by 
bell-crank levers, the said levers being moved aa reqnired by 
passing a carreut throagb, and so exciting suitably -arranged 
electro- magnets. The load-suBtainirg lirake ia applied by 
the action of a weighted lever ; the release of the brake is 
eSected by the action of electro- magnets. 

The illnstration at tig. l'>2, showing part of an overhead 
electric travelling crane, ifi from the specification No. 2d43ti, 
of 1S!)G, which is algo in the names of J. Q. and £- U 
Fiegehen, of Bedford. The motor A is nlaced at one end of 
the girder B of the crane. The motor shaft is prolonged and 
fitted with a worm C, which drives (throagh suitable 
gearing) the shaft D, from which the travelling wheels are 
driven. In thia way skewing action is prevented. 




In his specification No. 17206, of 1895, J. A. F. Aspinall, 
of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, describes an 
electric travelling crane which he has specially designed 
for the transference of luggage from one platform to another 
in a railway station. The rims of the supporting wheels of 
the crane are inanlated from their bosses, and from snch 
rims the current in transferred from the rails on which they 
mn by means of brashes to the motor. 

The electric overhead traveller or travelling crane, 
represented at figs. 153 and 11)4, is from the specification 
No. 10755, of 1897, of W. Craven, of the Vauxball Ironworks, 
Mancbeater. The invention comprises the adaption of the 
coil brake device (described in the same inventor's 
specification No. 31883, of 1891) to an electrically-driven 
crane. Fig. 151 is an end section on the line a b, fig. 153. The 
cam bar A, which acts upon the weight B, is connected to an 
arm C, which slides on the shaft D. When the hand lever E 



180 ELXCTSIC OVBSHZAD AND OTHBS CBANSB. 

is operated to control tbe motor F, it Bimnltaneonslj 
partially rotates the shaft D in snch a way that the brake is 

applied when the motor is not mnning. 

In tbe electrically- actuated lift or hoist mechanism 
described in the speci&cation Xo. 30923, of 1897, filed on 
behalf of F. J. Sprague, of New York, two motors in serieti 
are employed, each armature shaft being fitted with a pair 
of worms. One worm of each pair engages a worm wheel on 




the abaft of tbe winding drum. Tbe other pair of worms 
gear with worm wheels mounted on a shaft adjacent to and 
positively geared with the drum abaft by spur wheels, the 
idea being to ensure sycchronoua working of the motors. 

In their specification No. 14090, of 1898, F. H. Royce and 
E. A. Clareuont describe means for lowering the load on a 
crane or hoist driven by electro- motors, dependent on the 



ASD OTHER C 



181 



itctioDof the motor itaelF, and alao to render the operation 
of lowering lesa jerky and uneven in action. The patentees 
make nae of a snitabJe awitcb and varinble reaiatancea for 
ahort-circniting the armature of the lifting motor. The 
switch ia bo arranged that the contact makers, which are 
snitably joined together, can be moved either to the right or 
left. 

Fig. IBS represents a 20-ton three-motnr overhead electric 
traveller aa conatrncted by Measrs. Vaughan and Son 
Limited, of West Gorton, Mancheater, who have kindly 
supplied the following particulars : " The particular crane 
illustrated haa a span of 45 ft.; ita longitudinal travelling 




speed is 300 ft per minnte, and cross-travelling speed 180 ft 
per minute. The current ia conducted along the gantry to 
the crane by two bare copper wires, and collected bjr meana 
of a sliding contact bracket. The three reversing switches — 
Vaughan and Foster's pitent— are contained in the cage, 
where they are under the control of the operator, and ao 
arranged that the three movements of the traveller may be 
controlled either separately or aimultaneouely as required. 
They are of the liquid resistance type, the cisterns containing 
a chemical solution. When the lever is in a vertical position 
the current ia otT, the forward and backward motions altering 
the direction of rotation of the motors. Contact ia broken 
on the surface of the liquid, and there is consequently 
no sparking on the switch commutator." 



I 



ELECTEIC OVenSTAD AND OTHEE CRANES. 

The speed of the motora can be varied within considerable 
limits, and with a little practice the operator can msDipalate 
the fnll load with extreme delicacy. The hoisting and crews- 
traverse motors are incorporated practically in the crab aides, 
the redaction of speed being accompliahed by trains of spur 
gearing, suitable for two speeds of hoisticg. The barrel is of 
cast iron, with right and left hand grooves for the steel wire 
rope. This, while ensuring equal diatribntion of the load on 
each girder and the lifting in a trae vertical line, etfectnally 
prevents overlapping, and consequently any danger arising 
trom slipping of the load, which is eqaally sustained by four 
parts of the ropa The head of the hook is fitted with 
hardened cast-ateel balls and plates, which permit of the 
maximnm load being freely revolved. The longitudinal 
travel motor is carried on brackets at one end of the girders, 
and, by means of snitabie spur gearing and a cross shaft, 
motion is conveyed to one travelling wheel in each wheel 
box, ensuring smooth running and a freedom from any 
"cross winding". The three reversing motors, which are 
•pecially designed for these cranes, are series wound for 
continuous current, the very disadvantages which render 
them nuButtable for regnlar service making them ideal for 
crane work. 

Messrs. Vanghan and Son have adopted slow-speed motors, 
which are so arranged that worm gearing is entirely dis- 
pensed with. Although larger and more expensive motora 
are required, the longer life, the elimination of com- 
paratively high-speed gear wheels, and the consequent 
reduction of gearing and the qnicker reversing and stopping 
powers, have been found to compensate for the incrcoiBea 
cost. Any risk through want of attentiou or carelessness 
is removed by means of a powerful automatic brake. When 
the current is switched on to the hoisting motor it puts into 
circuit an electro- magnet of sufficient power to raise the 
brake lever and render it inoperative at the moment when 
hoisting or lowering commences, and also during its 
continuance; the act of "awitchiug off" of the current 
producing a reverse operation. If, from any cause during 
working operations (he current should fail, the brake magnet 
would instantly release the brake, and allow it to take 
oharge of and sustain the load. 



PAKT m. 

EXAMPLES OF PRESENT PRACTICE BY 

T.FAPEN'G Ar\KER> 



CHAPTER XXm. 



SiKjJi Tit&zi Cnz^fa. s::i.!L ia ill:i<czi;:ei &( ftj^ ld<Sv mtm 
{ttraealArlT adii'ai f:r stcnix i=, the nrrT.-img of ineak- 
wmsen cr hsxrj sea ti1I:« 5:>r=»«i of ciccme bfeeka. Xo 
ttigxK ia rgiTTurwii •.: «iiricr: the ^rme. &i h can craTci ob 
the bkcaa Trhioa :• hi* rrrT:.:.i«Iy sei Tne iUostiatioK 
sIkvb a 33-t.>c. il'-ri'-zi i stcan Ti-Liii zriii-? ccilr ct M« 

\jm.ioxLf ini Witersii-r Ir:z.T;rk.*. IrsTnch, for a 
VmA of 30 Toc*. a rn;tvmnTn ^irkinz r^iins of f^TfL. and 
<50ft. L-rlzit •:: lift. The n.!:::* ■:: Tirkii^j may be Tuied 
by mfffcr* ot the ••j-riLnj'' cr nzjiiiiz carriaae sb>«Ti in tfas 
aiastrad'jc. Th-? jri:.- ir the fr.i cf the jib is used for 
paring the hottoiL ::r thr •M:i:r»ftc cslz?: th-eae are 
in the boi Tith : lenin^ base, ■• hi *h i* al3»> to be seen in 
illaatzaticiL The c;*rrla2e oa whi-^h rhe complete 
■troetare ia moTinteti is high en^xi^b to aSov the 
ffffwrATning the blockd to mn under the jib. The blodks 
if desire*!^ be taken from the rear of the enne and ifemd 
loond in aiiTance of the nme. In this manner the load 
maj be mored throujzh a horiaoiitai dissanee cqial to taa en 
the ndios without altering the postioa of tike cnne as a 
wfa(^ Farther, during the action of aleving the so^ended 
^oll load of 30 ton^ the cnne itself vdghi^g 330 tons (tkna 



TITAN CKASE. 185 

making 350 tona in all), can also travel abog ita rails at tlia 
rate of 60 ff. per miuute. Other speeds ai'e us followa : — 

Lifting full load 10 ft. per minute. 

Lifting light load 30ft. „ 

Turning or alewing One revolution in 

two minutes. 
Travelling the toad along jib Toft, per minute. 




The makers claim tliat the springa on which the stroctore I 
is moiiDteii greatly ease the streaaea imposed when lifting I 
the load, for after the steel wire ropes are woond taut tha f 



I 




load is brought gradually on to the jib, because oa th« loi 
cornea on the jib goea down, owing to the yielding of t 



BTRAU TKATELttira CRAHKB. 



187 



kfront apringB under the increasing lo&d. Tq loweriuK ibe 
load is controlled by a atrap brake and by a hydraulic bralio 
(Matthew's patent). By the latt«r the load can bo lowered 
one-hundredth part of an inch if deBired. 

Sheer Leo 9. 
Fig. 1 57 illiiBtmtes masting sheers capable of dealing with a 
load of 150 tons, constructed by Messrs. Cowaiia, Sheldon, 
and Co. Limited, of Carliale. The sheers illustrated are 
worked by steam power, bat the makers also construct them 
to be driven by hydraulic or electric power. The crab has 
two hoisting drums for the main lift and au independent 
drum for lighter loads. All these drums can be worked 
together or independently of each other. A drum is alao 
provided for in-hauling. The back leg is actuated by a, 
horizontal screw working iu a, brass or gun-metal nut. 
Brakes are provided for the hoisting drums iknd alao for the 
hoTisontal screw. The legs are made of steel plates turned 
on the ends and butted against eai:h other. The rivet holes 
iu the plates and fautt straps are all drilled. A ladder is 
provided on the Imck leg, giving aooesa to the top pin aiid 
shackles. The top block can, however, be lower«l without 
interfering with the top pin; the latter passes through the 
front and back leg capa. 

St BAM TrtAVKLLING C RASES. 

Fig. 158 is an illustration of a ateam travelling crane by 
Messrs, Ransomes and Rapier. The particular example 
from which the illustration is taken is for a working load of 
30 tons (test load 37 tons at 36 ft. radina) ; height of lift, 
50 ft ; weight in working order, alxiut 120 tona. The gauge, 
centres of rails, is 16 ft. The carriage or wheeled standard 
is high and open to allow railway trucks to paaa through it. 
All the motions are worked by steam power. A crane as 
illustrated was supplied to the Great Eastern Railway Com- 
pany for dealing with heavy goods at Parkeston, Harwich. 

The locomotive ateam crane illustrated at fig. 159 is by 
Messrs. Taylor and Hubbard, of Kent Street Works, 
Leicester, and ia of the makers' standard type as constructed 



I 



168 STBAH tRAVGLLIMO OltANHB. 

in »\7.e» or of liftiug oapaoities ranging from hnlf a ton to 
7 toiiB. The following give leatliug partioukra of the 3-toii 

Loud 3 tona. 

Radius for full load 16 ft 

Total weiglit 12J tons (without 

water or ooal). 

Shipping measurement 550 cubic feet. 

Weight of heaviest piece 2 tons. 

Lifting full load 60 ft per minuta. 

Lifting a light toad 90ft. „ 

Travelling 340ft 

Slewing complete oirole ISaeconda. 

Derrick from lowest to highest 

point 20 „ 

The two steam oylindera are each 6J in. diameter, with a 
piston stroke of 10 in. The conneoting rods are 1ft 9 in. 
(oentres}, and the crunk shaft 1!^ in. diameter. Steam pipe, 
Ijin, diameter; eshauat pipe, 2 in. 

The boiler is 7 ft, high and 3 ft. diameter, and has a 
fireboi 2 ft 6 in. diameter by 4 ft high. Working pressure 
701b. ; teat pressure 1401b. per square inch. The firebox 
is fitted with two cross tubes, each 8 in. diameter. Ths J 
up-take ia 9 iu. diameter. Ths mild steel plates for the 1 
boiler shell, the firebox, and the np-take are all ^ in. thick. 
The tapered ohimuey is of coat iron. The boiler is fed by a \ 
pump worked from the croaahead of one of the crane engines 
or cyliudera. The water tank holds 110 gallons. 

The lifting barrel is lOJiu. diameter, provided with ' 
100 ft of ^ in. diameter tested eteel wire rope ; barrel J 
shaft of mild steel 3^ in. diameter. A chain may be 1 
employed instead of a steel wire rope for lifting ; tho ] 
example shown in the illustration has a chain. The lifting j 
gear wheel ia 3 ft. 3J in. diameter. The derrick barrels or i 
pulleys are 10 in. diameter on a shaft, 3|in. diameter, of i 
mild steel ; derrick worm wheel (oast ateel) 1 ft 3 in. i 
diameter, gearing with a phosphor bronze worm. Tha 
centre pin is of forged steel and 4-i in. diameter. 



The jib is 20ft. centres; the ateel ohnnnela f»r jib srii 
8 in. by Sin. seotiou. 

The carriage is made for standard 4 ft. 6^ in. gnnga of 
rails. The oast-steel rail wheels, 2 ft diameter, are 6 ft. 



1 




between centres ; the steei axles are SJ^in. diameter. The 
slewing path is 4 ft. 6 in. diameter, and is provided with 
safety slipping ring. The steel channel a for carriage 
framiug are 1 2 in, by 3 in. section ; total length of c 
10 ft Sill. 




^^V IM RTKAX TKATKEISra CKAKX. 

^B Tbe ItMd of 3 tons ifl lifted direct from bairel wiHioat 
^H bll or return block (» single sheaTO &U or return falook ii 


1 


■ 




■ 

i 

m 


^^^1 


w 


Bed with the 5-ton crane, the makers' nest size above 
he 3-ton). The crane wU derrick with its load or travel 


J 



I 

I 



HTDKAULIC CEANEa. 101 

witb it suapeoded at right angles to the track. The derrick 
motion is aelf-holding. The crane will lift its full load 
<iirect from raila, even when standing aideways of the track, 
without the aid of clips and cross girders. When handling 
the load at the speeds previously stated the engines ran at 
about 150 revolutions per minute for lifting, 300 revolutions 
per minute for travelling, and 300 revolutions per minute 
for slewing. Thus for each revolution of the crane (per- 
formed in fifteen seconds) the engine crank shaft makes 
about 75 revolutions. The crane (3-ton size) will haul 
40 tons along the raila, on the level, at a speed of 'JO ft. 
per minute. All the parts of cranes of the same size ure 
interchangeable. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 
Htdraulio CaANEa. 



The travelling type hydraulic crane illustrated at fig. 160 is 
by Messrs. Cowans, Sheldon, and Co. Limited, of Carlisle. 
It is adapted for hauling independent of rails, being 6tted 
with broad wheels suitable for running in a warehouse, along 
a quay wall, or a roadway. Several cranes similar to that 
illustrated ha^/e been supplied by the makers to the following 
leading particulars : — 

Load 5 tons. 

Eadins 23 ft. 6 in. 

Lifting speed 60 ft. per minute for 5 tons load. 

Revolving speed 250 ft. per minute at chain book. 

Centres of travelling wheels 8 ft. 

Height 30 ft. from ground level to centre of jib top 
pulley. 

The bottom framing is of steel plates and angles built in 
pyramidal form. The cast-iron brackets for travelling wheels 
»re fitted with aorewdown feet to give additional stability 
for lifting the load. The lifting cylinder is fixed Iietweeu, 
9 aerves to tie together and stay the rotatabia 



192 HYOKAUUC CBANBS. 

upright framiiig, wiiich is also of steel plates and angles ' 
'I'he revolriug cylinders are fixed on the outer aides of the 
upright framing. The top of the pyramidal frame or base 
hoB secured to it a bored-out cast-iron plate, aud rnund the 
upright is fitted u. cast-irou ring provided with rollers, to ' 
fncilitate slewing. The jib is of braced steel chaunela. 




I 



balance weight or counterpoise is carried out at rear of J 
jib, as shown. The chains pass from the ram heada of I 
the slewing or revolving cylinders to a drum fixed to the J 
bottom of pyramidal frame. The lifting cylinder 
titled with a telescopic ram for effecting a saving in water A 
used when dealing with light loads up to two tons. The I 
attendant is placed well up wliere be has a clear view of bia J 



HYDRAULIC CRANBa. 



work. The power is ooiweyed in the usual manner, through 
I oooks coupling up to telescopic pipea fitted to the crane. 

H Htdraduo Coaling Crank. 

Fig. 161 illustrates a 25-tou liydraulia uoaling crane, by 
Measra. Cowwis, Siieldou, and Co. Limited. The crone hwa 
six cylinders, viz., three for lifting, one for tipping, and two 
for revolving or slewing ; the lilting and tipping rams are 
also provided with constant press ure-re turn cylinder?. All 
the cylinders are fised underground in a covered pit, per- 
mitting of ready examination and overhauling. The lifting 
cylinder ram heads are carried on wheels runtjing on rails, 
and the tipping and revolving rams on guides. The crane 
has three lifting powers, viz., 25 tons, 16 tons, and 8 tung. 
For lifting 25 tons the three cylinders are used ; for lifting 
16 tons two cylindere; and for lifting 8 tons one cylinder. 
The different powers are all worked by two levers in the 
ocane house ; no diaoonnectiog ia required. The makers 
give the following particulars aa to speed of working: 
The full load of 25 tons ia lifted at the rate of 35 ft. per 
minute, and revolved at 300 ft. per minute at hook. In 
actual work one crane as aforesaid has shipped 260 wagons 
of coal in 15 hours, being an average of 17J wagons per 
hour. 

The oircular bottom framing of crane ia tied down to its 
foundations by eight bolts passing through heavy brackets 
riveted to the framing. A centrally-bored oast-iron plate ia 
lised to the top of bottom framing. Around tho upright, 
which is of ateel plates and angles of bos section, are fixed 
turned cast-iron rings, between whioh and the plate pre- 
viously referred to is a ring of live rollers. The weight of 
the mast or upright is alao supported at the bottom by 
another ring of live rollers, upon which the nuiat aits. On 
the bottom of upright is fixed a pitch wheel, round which 
works a pitch chain wheel for slewing crane. The jib is of 
steel plates and angles made up in H aection; the tie rods 
are ateel channels. The jib head pulleys, guide pulleya for 
chain, and pulleya for tipping rope exe of cast steel. The 
houae is fixed at one aide of bottom framing, but is separaterl 



HYDRACLIC COALlBli < 




HYTtHAULia AND KLECTKIC CHANK. 195 

m tile same, aud in it are two sets of level's and valves su 
it tlie operator can work the erane from eitiier end of the 
lae ; this enables the crnne to work on either side. All 
I valves are below the flooring of house and quite easy of 
6^3. The cradle and wagon are raised by A aiiigle chain 

at a radius of 34 ft. 6 in. The lieight from ijuay level to 

the centre of jib top pulley is 50 ft, 

Combined Htdeiadijo and Electric Crase. 

Fig, 163 represents a 60-tou combined hydraulic and 
electric tntvellini; crane by Messrs. Henry Berry and Co. ■ 
Limited, of Croydon Works, Hunslet, Leeds, designed for uae 
to connection with a hydraulic forgiug press. 

The main frame or triJTolliuo; bridge of the crane is made 
lip of box section girders, whilst the crab compriaea a cast 
steel platform mounted on wheels. The lifting and lowering la 
performed by means of a direct-acting hydraulic cylinder and 
ramoarriedouthearab, and havingaatrokeof 7 ft The water 
ia conveyed to and from the c_( Imder by walking pipes. The 
longitudinal travelling, the cross traveisiiig, and the turning 
motions are jieri'ormail by elect.ric motors acting through 
gearing. Each motion has an independent motor. The con- 
trollers foE the motors are placed in a cage (not ahowu in 
the illustration) suspended from the main girders of the 

The motor for the longitudinal traveliiug is placed on the 
aide of one of the main girders at about the centre, thus 
giving eqnal torsion to the cross shaft connecting two 
opposite travelling wheels. The cross traversing and 
turning motors are disposed on the crab and moved with ic, 
the electric curreut being taken from and returned to bare 
copper conductors disposed between the two main girders. 
Both these motors have an initial reduction by a worm gear, 
enclosed in a gear case, the traversing motor being after- 
wards connected to one of the travelling axles ot the crab by 
spur gearing, and the turning motor to a vertical telescopic 
sliaft by a pair of mitre wheels. The liftin}^ bars (which 
[■are suspended from a oroashaad on the top of lifting ram) 
I forged steel crossbead connecting tboir lower 




■TBKA1IU0 AXV nXCTSIC CXAXS 

•xtreoitias, and » bnokat 011711^ k spur vbcel diiTen bj 
the leloacicpie afakft, *Bd geuing into a aimikr wheel keyed ! 
00 to a ecntntl iwliual ilnft. This central rertical shaft | 
tarns ia a hollow Totieal deeve and curies a wonn, wliieh, I 
throu^ ft wonu wheel and spar Kear, operates the tunuug < 




m^sim. 



I 



dram. The frame tarrring the tnmiBg liriitu is eupportettj 
on a ball bearing at the lower end of the hollow spindle ; 
taming of the ingot ia effected by means of an endlesi 
link chain (not ahown on the illostration). The i 
state that the turning gear is very effiraent, and that I 
ingot can be readily tnmed in either direction at wiU. 



irVDRAUtlC LIFTING JACKS. 

Hydraulio Liftinq JiDKa 



The hydraulio lifting jack illustrated at tig. 163 is of the 
"Securitas" type by Measra. Younga, of Ryland Street, 
Birmingham, The makara describe it aa oombining all the 
advanttges of the ordinary hydraulic with the reliability of 
the screw jitck. The ram ia screw cut and fitted with a nut 




which ia placed below the oylindor. Wheu the cylinder haa 
been pumped to the required height, the iiut is screwed close 
up against it, and the cyliuder is then maintained in position. 
Should, there be any leakage of pressure owing to the leather 
packings being worn, nu inconvenience would result, as the 
cyliuder caunot desoeud until the nut is screwed down the 
rain again. This type of jauk is made of capacities ranging 
from 4 to 60 tons. 



198 HYDKAULIP JACKB- 

Fig. 164 repreaentaa 100-ton "Securitas" hydraulic bridge 
jack by the farai makers. Snah jacks are especially suitable 
for 8er»icea where it is desired to keep the lifting jack under 
weight for any leogtb of time. The ram is screw cut «iid ia 
fitted with a nut having two handles. Bam. ia pumped up 
iu the usual mauner, and as it rises the nut is carried 
with it. When the desired height ia attained the nut ia 
screwed down until it rests oh the top of the cylinder ; the 
load '.a then maintained in position without further trouble 
or anxiety. When the ram has to he lowered it should be 
pumped up slightly, the nut aorewed up the ram, and the 




Htop valve opened to permit descent of raoo. The detaoheil 
cistern is connected to the cjliuder by copper piping These 
jacks are made in sizes or capacities rauging from a** to 300 
tons. 

Htdraclic Pdli.ixc Jaok. 
The hydraulic pulhng jack, by Measra. Youngs (illustrated 
at fig. 166), ia described as a most useful and powerful sub- 
stitute for pulley blocks in all confined spaces or where it is 
incoavenient to use blocks. It is used, for instance, in tlie 
shaft tunnels of steamers. The jack cylinder is fitted with 
an eye at each end (aa shown in the sectional iliuatration). 
Theae jacks are made in sizes from 2 to 25 tons, with a run 
out of 2i ill. iuid upwards. 



(0) 




Dracatmos or t\na. 

A—O^tn. 

B— Pomp. 

C— GaBM ■tniner uter MicUm iakt. 
t C — Suctwfli talTcuxl i'|<ri<-g. 

Il — De&mj tkItc, i^Tiiig. ac-l sU>|'per. 

K — Pump pIoDga-. 

}- — Piun|> plunger lotber pkckiug. 

G — Pump tbafi. 

II— Pump ilufl fct fcrrw. 

J — Air BDil filling «crew. 
K r -Leatlier packing fi<r pistoa. 
1. C — Leattier [Wckiug for [iisLou nut. 

M— Stop and relBnaa vaWe. 

N — Stop and rvUue valve atM, 

<j — St^p and relFHK vaKe gluid. 

C-Cjiroder. 

fj — Piston wid rwt. 

U — Eye op tin cjlinder «nd. 

S— EjB cup ua cisteru eud. 
T l— LeMlier piiekiiig fur inner ta\ir. 

V— Plain CHp 111) cjliudcr end. 




JIB OBANEB. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

Kr.KCTiiic LocoMOTrvE or Travelusg Jib Cranks. 
A THKEE-Tos elsutric jib crnne, as con'truoteil by MesBra 
Stothert and Pitt Limited, of Bath, for the Clyde Navigation 
TruBteea, is illustrated at fig. 166. The leading particulars 
nre as follow ; — 

HH£iu]uia working load 3 tune. 

Tot*] hei^tof lift 30 ft 

R4diuii from oeotre ol fun to lifUog rijgie 41 ft. 

Cflutre of jib pulley aboTe quay level <!0 f b. 

Eitreme radius ufWil from canlro pin ft. 




» 



10. JIB OBANXS. 201 

The apeeda specified (but oooeiderobl; exceeded at official 
test) were aa follow : — 

LiftiDg speed forthree tons load =• 150 ft. par minute. 

Ravolviag speed measured at loid = 300 ft. per minute. 

The truck or undercarriage is on the lines of hydraulic 
oranea of a similar type. It runs on four uaalrateel single- 
Hanged wheels on rails of 14 ft gauge centre to centre. The 
wheels are also spaced 14 ft. apart in the^other direction, bo 
that the crane rests on a square base. Screw blocking jacks 
are attached to each corner of the truck. Hand travelling 
gear is fitted to esch wheel. The arch of the truok is high 
enough, to allow of the passage of loocmotives and freight 
wagons. The stability of the crane was proved by a test 
load of 6 tons suspended from the hook. 

The cnstrsteel roller path carries a ring of 24 caat-stee! 
live rollers ; the ring is centred by radius rods about the 
centre p'n. T'^e upper roller path, to which the super- 
structure is bolted, is also of cast steel. The ballast to 
counterbalance the load is carried uuder and between the 
tail girders. The jib tie roda are attached to the two braced 
"A" framea. 

The makers employ their patented system of working 
with a detachable barrel, by which they claim to obtain a 
greatly inci'eased speed with economy of current. In this 
particular ease the load is lifted direct, or without fall 
blocks, by a steel wire rope coiled on a turned and spirally- 
grooved barrel The barrel is loose on the barrel shafr, but 
to the latter is keyed the main spur wheel, which gears wiih 
a pillion on the armature shaft of the lifting motor. The 
spur wheel is of cast and the pinion of forged steel, and 
both have machine-cut teeth and run in an oil bath. The 
connection and disconnection of the barrel and the shaft are 
efieeted through a "Lindsay" coil friction clutch. The 
hand lever actuating the controller of the lifting motor also 
actuates an eleetric solenoid which controls the friction 
clutch, HO that on moving the lever forward from the off 
position carrent is switched on to the solenoid, the clutch 
is put into ttutiou, and the lifting motor started simul- 
taneously ; after the clutoh is in gear further movement of 
the lever cuts out resistance and speeds up the motor. A 



SS02 SUBOTBIO LOGO. JIB OBANBS. 

meohanical oonneotion (Aldridge's patent) is made betweeu 
the lifting controller handle and the friction clutch each as 
will enable the motions of the handle to be continued after 
the clutch is " home." A friction brake drum is keyed oix 
the lifting barrel, and encircled by a steel strap lined with 
willow blocks. This mechanical brake is also interlocked 
with the controller, and thus the motor cannot be started 
when the brake is holding the load. The lifting controller 
does not reverse the motor, as the lowering is effected 
independently by the loose drum. The makers add the 
following note respecting their system : — 

** In cranes with barrels always in gear with a reversible 
motor care has to be taken to check the lifting motor when 
the hook is a sufficient distance from the jib head, so that 
the momentum of the revolving armature may be absorbed 
before the hook is overwound on the jib pulley, with the 
possible result that the jib itself is lifted and the tie rods 
bent. With the system described above lifting can be 
continued at full speed and the load brought to rest instantly 
by pulling over the handle, the only revolving parts which 
have to be brought to rest being the barrel and brake drum, 
which have comparatively small inertia and do not revolve 
at an excessive speed. But the great gain in speed is 
in lowering, which can be performed at a vastly greater 
speed than is possible by a reversible motor, there being a 
perfectly free run out under the control of the foot brake, 
and what is of equal importance, lowering can be commenced 
instantly without perceptible pause from lifting at full speed ; 
the lifting armature can continue to revolve with slackening 
speed during the period of lowering, and then come to rest 
quietly without shock. As a matter of practice it is found 
that a load can be lowered 60 ft. before the lifting armatuze 
has ceased to revolve in the direction of hoisting." 

The revolving motion is worked by a separate motor and 
controller, acting on a train of cut gearing ; a friction brake 
is provided to prevent crane slewing too far by its momentum. 
This brake is also employed to hold the crane from revolving^ 
when desired. 

A small overhead crane, running on rails fixed to the 
inner sides of the house or cabin, enables the motors, lifting 
barrel and gearing to be easily taken out for repairs. 



ELEOTRIC 1^00. JIB CSANE3. 203 

The electrio equipment of the crane is by Mesara. Siemens 
Brothers and Co. Limited, of Loadon, The liftiug motor is 
completely enclosed, and designed to give the required power 
on a 230 volt circuit and 380 raTOlntiona par minute, witli 

^a temperature rise not eiceeding 70 deg. Fah. at the eipirn- 
tion of Fi daya work. The armiiture is of the slotted drum 
type, with former wound coils. The armature core is of 
mild steel discs. The field coils are of copper strips, imd 
easily removable from the magnet cores. The carbon briishea 
have one fi^ed position for all loads. Ali insulation was 
tested with 3,000 volts alternating before starting to work. 
Tho lifting controller is of the Siemoua type, which,, it is 

^ claimed, may be manipulated by untrained workmen without 
fear of breakdown, and, being without notching gear, may be 
operated throughout a Hay's work without fatigue. 
The resLBtaace oonaists of a number of coila of metnl tape 
wound upon porcelain insulators, each layer of tape Ijeiug 
aepArat«d froui the next by asbestos , 

The motor for the revolving motion ia of the same type iia 

the lifting motor, but runs at a speed of 820 revoliitioua per 

minute. The revolving controller ia of the same tjfpo as 

L that for lifting, but vertical instead of horiKoutol, and it 

I reverses the motor when required. 

The collector couaiata of two copper rings mounted upon 
inaulation material, and separated by insulating rings. The 
current is collected by two copper gauze straps, each 
encircling one ring, the tension being regulated by springs. 
The atrapa are attached to terminai blocks, which are in 
turn anpporttd by poruelain insulators. 

An electric radiator is provided for warming the crane 
cabin. 

The fiexible twin connecting cable is carried in a flexible 
galvanised metallic tubing to avoid poasibility of damage, 
and terminatea in a collector plug. This plug is contained 
in a caKt-iroD hood which accurately fits the socket in the 
quay-conneotiog box, and so makes a water and dust tight 
coin lection. 

At the otficial tests the efficiency of the crane at full load 
(i.e., the ratio of the current conaumed to the load lifted) 
was found to be 73 per cent with the gear new and stiff. 



204 BLBOTBIO LOGO. JIB 0BAHB8. 

Fig. 167 is an illustration of a 2-ton eleotrio wharf 
orane by Messrs. Craven Brothers Ltd, of Vauxhall Worksy 
Osborne Street, Manchester. 

The jib radius is 15 ft. and the height of lift 14 ft. 6 in* 

The speeds are as follow : — 

Per min. 

Hoisting maximum load 30fb. 

Longitudinal travelling (maximum load)... 100ft 
Slewing motion (maximum load) 1 00 ft. 

With decrease of load an iucrease of speed is obtained due 
to the acceleration of the speed of the motor. 

The crane has two motors — one for hoisting and lowering, 
and one for travelling and slewiug. The current is supplied 
through cable attached to the terminals in the connecting 
boxes let flush into the ground between the rails ; the cable 
is taken up by or paid out from the barrel according to the 
position of crane relative to the box it is coupled to. A 
collector is fixed to the carriage, which takes the onrrent 
for the motors off the drum. The motors, made by the 
Lancashire Dynamo and Motor Co. Ltd., of Trafiford Park, 
Manchester, are controlled by reversing metallic resistance 
controllers of the tramway type. 

The roller path and slewing gear are entirely of steeL 
The hoisting motion is equipped with the makers' patent 
automatic coil magnetic brake, for securing effectual control 
of the load without excessive shocks to the gearing. The 
brake is applied by gravity, and is not dependent on springs. 
An over-winding attachment is also provided, consisting of 
a double-pole switch adapted to automatically break the 
circuit and so stop the hoisting barrel should tiie latter be 
driven beyond a certain point. 



Fig. 168 represents a 3-tou locomotive electric jib orane 
by Messrs. Thos. Smith and Sons, of Rodley, Leeds, for 
standard 4 ft 8| in. gauge. The load of 3 tons is lifted 
direct from the barrel and at a maximum radius, in the 
example shown, of 16 ft The hoisting motion has single- 
purchase gearing with grooved drum. The barrel shaft is 
provided with a friction brake controlled by foot lever. The 
revolving motion has spur and mitre gear, with doable* 



J 



1 


W ELECTRIC toco. JIB CRANEB. 207 

' ffiotion oone, internal wheel, and Mtoel roller path. The jil> 
axijnBting motioii comprises steel apur and wurm gear, with 
lever-eoQtrolled clutch. 

The Clime in all ite rooticms ia opernted by one aerieB- 
wound reversible motor of about 30 B.H.P. uapiicity, running 
at ahirnt 650 revohitiona per miaute, iind having controller 


1 






\ 




1 


with in^'tallic reaistiincfiB of the tramway type. The con- 
nection from the main ahaft to the motor w, by gearing cut 
from the solid, the first motion pinion being of forged ateel 
or raw hide. 

The foUowioR are brief particulars ooncemiug another 
1 type of locomotive electric jib crane by MesBra. Thomas 


J 



208 KLBCTRIC LOGO. JIB CSAJflS. ' 

Smith and Suns, and illuatiuted at lig. 14. Load : 5 toiiB at 
16 ft, 2 tODB at 35 ft, 1^ tons at 40 ft, 1 ton at 42 ft. 
radiua ; gauge of raOd 7 ft. ; Bt«Ql lattice jib 46 ft long. 
Single purchase spur gearing for hoisting, with grooved drum 
and single friction clutcli titted vith expanding rings and 
wedges. Foot-lever operated friction brake fur lowering 
load. Bevel and mitre gear with double friction Qlutch for 
propelling motion, and spur and mitre gear with double 
friction clutch for revolving or slewing motion. Spnr and 
worm gear for jib adjusting. Crane in all its motions is 
operated by one 20 B.H.P. single-phase alternating motor of 
the enclosed type. Current collected from a uable in centre 
of track ; return by meaus of rails. Motor and first motion 
shaft of crane connected by bevel treariog cut from the solid ; 
gun-metal worm wheel, with enclosed steel worm running in 
an oil bath. A friction clutch is arranged between worm 
shaft nnd motor. The upper structure of crane rotates 
about a forged-Bteel post or centre pillar. 

The makers state : " Although it is often thought that 
the single-phase motor is not suited for this class of work, it 
is (with the arrangement of gearing used on thia orane) 
giving every satiafaction, and is under ae easy oontrol as if 
worked by a continuous current motor." 



i 



CHAPTER X.\X. 
Eleittbio Walkihij Jib Cbankb. 
Fro. 170 represeutg a two-motor electric wh Iking crane, aa 
constructed by Messrs. Cowans, Sheldon, and Co. Limited, 
of Carlisle, this particular crane being iidapted for dealing 
with 5-tou loads at a radius of 10 ft. 6 in. It is a irell- 
known type for use in ahops or positions where a broad , 
gauge, or double rail track, or an overhead era 
permissible. The crane travels on one rail laid in 
of the shop, the top end of the machine being supported by 
two guiding channels or joists, a boas fitted on the top of a 
steel pillar being made to slide between such guides. Ths 
carriage runs upon two wheels, and the bottom framing 
consists of a box-shaped girder formed of steel plates and 



SIO BLECTRIO WALKING CRANBa. 

rollers, ao that ft motor for revolving ia not necesetry. The J 
current ia oollected by alippera from bare trolley wiraa J 
Buapended from tbe cbauaela above mentioned, and from I 
thence ia carried down to circular coUeutors fixed on 
pillar. The craue aidea are formed of steel chanuela tied \ 
together by caat-iron atretchera bored out to fit the centra J 
pill or [mat round which the crane revolvea. The jib and 1 




atay roda are alao formed of chaunela braced together. Th 
controllers are of the metallic resistance type, which givt 
very fine adjuatment, and they are fiied ou the liottom | 
frame. A small platform, which is not shown in the picture, 
carries the operator: The travelling speed ia 300 ft. per j 
minute, and the lifting speed 20 ft. per minute. T{i< 
apeeda could, of courae, be inareoaed to auit other roqnj 



ELECTRIC WALKING) CKAITES, 



2U 



ments. The crane illuatrnted wob worked by contiauoua 
current, but Mesaie. Cowana, Sbeldon, and Co. alao make 
them to work with tbree-phaae equipment. 

Another example of aa electric walking crane or aingle- 
track jib orane is illuatratedat Sg. 171, ooaHistiog of a 3-taa 
machine bj Measra. Craven Brothers Limited, of Mancheater. 




The head of the orane ie fitted with a oaat-ateel roller to run 
between the guiding joiate. Bare copper leads are carried 
ofi the Baid joists, and the current is taken therefrom by 
collectors with alip ring attachment and thence to the 
niotore, of which there are two— one for hoisting and lowering 



i 



212 XLICTBIC FODMDRT CKANE. 

and one for travelling mid elewhig. The crane is equipped j 
with metallic reTersing controllers. The motors are by the I 
LanCiiahire Dj-uamo and Motor Co. Limited. 







A 4-ton crane by Messrs. Craven Brothers Limited U J 
ilinstrated at fig. 172. It is generally similar to the oranaj 
shown at fig. 171, but has an angular straight line instead oT^ 
a curved jib, and liquid reversing controllers. 




ELBCTRIC FOUNDRY CKASB 



Electric Foukdri Ceake. 

An electric jib critiie of the foundry type, by Messrs. 
BaoBomes and Rapier Limited, of Ipswich, is uhown at 
fig. 173, aa arranged to awing round one of the main columm 
supporting the roof of the foundry and the runway of an 
overhead crane. The working load of the crane illustrated 
is 5 tons, the tnaiimum worlting radiua 14 ft. 9 in., and the 




weight (in working order) about 7 tons. For this load the 
makers consider hand power sufficient for the ttirnii<g and 
rackiiit; mation, which can be easily operated by one mun. 
Por lifting the load eleotrio or linud power i^ applied at 
pleasure. For delicate operations in manipulating boxes 
hand gear caa be used if desired. The motor can, however, 
be brought into operation instantly, and the hand gear 
micliitched so that the bandies shnll not fly niund. 



214 WLMcnac < 

Electric Wisch. 

Fig. 174 is an iUostzadoQ of am electric winch by Messrs;. 
Ransomes and Kapier Limited, fc^r hoisting a load of 3 tons 
at the rate of 80 ^ per minute, with a seiies-woond motor ; 
lighter loads at quicker speeds. The controller is of the 
metallic tramway tjpe. The machine is fitted with a barrel 
and tvo warping drams. The barrel is loose on its shaft, 
liein^ connected and disconnecte*! therewith hv a claw dntch 
and held as required, when disconnected for lowering the 
load, bv a screw brake. The foundation frame is of steel 
channels, and the gear is carried in opening or adjustable 
bearings as shown. The whole machine is self-contained, 
and its wei^rht Hn workimr order) is about 3i tons. 



CHAPTEPw XXXL 

Electric Overhead Travelling Cranks. 

Thb electric overhead traveller, or travelling crane, illus- 
trated at fig. 175, by Messrs. Craven Brothers Limited, of 
Manchester, is of the three-motor type for a load of 10 tons. 
The speeds are as follow : — 

Hoisting 10 tons at 15 ft. per minute. 

Cross travelling, under full load, 100 ft per minute. 
Longitudinal travelling ,, 300 ft, „ 

Increased speeds with decrease of load, due to the accelera- 
tion of the speed of the motor. 

The girders are of single wel), and the end carriages of 
box section. All rivet holes are drilled, and the riveting is 
by power. 

The motor for longitudinal travel is bolted to one of the 
girders in the centre of the span ; it is on the opposite side 
of the crane to that shown in the illustration. The longi- 
tudinal travelling wheels have cast-iron centres hooped with 
double-flanged steel tyres. A foot brake is provided to assist 
in controlling the longitudinal movements of the crane with- 
out reversing the motor suddenly. 

The crab side frames are of cast iron, well stayed together 
and fitted throughout with steel axles and shafts revolving 



2L6 



KLBOTBIC OTEBRIAD OBANKB. 



I 



in brass bearinga. Tbe crab is carried by four double-ianged 
caat-ateel runners keyed to the axlea on the inner aides of 
the frames. The hoisting and lowering motion ia through 
caat-iroa lifting barrel with four falls or piles (making double 
bijtht) of flexible steel-wire rope. All the gearing ia machine 
cut, except tbe hoisting barrel wheel and pinion which are 
machine monlded, The two-abeave bottom block bas a roller 
pathway under head of hook. Theendsof rope are fixed at ends 
of groovea in barrel, and the middle part looped up over a 
compensating pulley carried by a forged-ateel suapensiou 
beam in crab, so that the load is evenly diatributed on the 
four parts of the rope and raised in a vertical line through- 
out the lift. 

The barrel ia driven by spur gearing from a reversing 
motor carried on a motor plate between the crab sides, with 
a pinion on the armature shaft gearing into a wheel on the 
second-motion shaft. The gearing provides the two apseda 
of lifting, which ore readily changed by clutches operated 
tiirough a lever by the attendant from the oage after bring- 
ing the crab to tbe cage end of the pirdera. On the second- 
motion shaft ia provided the makers' patent automatic-coil 
magnetic brake, which ia applied by gravity. The switch 
handle controlling the hoiatiug motor ia arranged so that 
simnltaneou'ly with the supply of current to motor an 
electro-Qiaguet is enei^iaed and caused to raise tbe brake 
weight, thereby rendering brake inoperative. A failure of 
current from any cause results in the immediate application 
of the brake, which then tukea care of and suataius the load. 
The brake also permits attendant to lower load by gravity ; 
this ia effected through a separate lever in the attendant's 
cage connected to the brake lever on tbe crab by a square 
shaft across the crane, whereby the brake may be releaaed, 
or extra presatire applied thereto over and above that set up 
automatically by the weight to the coils. 

Rails are riveted to the top flanges of the girders for tbe 
traverse or croas travelling of the crab, this motion being 
obtained from a reversing motor acting through spur 
gearing. 

Tbe three reversing motors are of the enclosed multipolar 
type, series wound. They are made by tho Lancashire 



BLECTBIC OVEBBEAD CB&NES. 217 

Dynamo and Motor Co. Ltd., with whom Masira, Craven 
Bros. Ltd. are amalgamated. The motors arc coEtrolled from 
the cage by three liquid raaiatance controllers ; the circuit 
being broken at the surface of the liquid, eparkiog atiout 
tha mechaniaiu, with consequent buruiog out, ie avoided. 
Hard-drawn copper leada are carried between the girders by 
inaulated brackets ; straining scren'B are fitted at each end, 




1 fuaes for each motor are carried on slate and boned in. 
Doain pole doable switch breaks the circuit from all the 



Fig. 17G is an illustration afaowtng the crab and motora of 
a 20-ton three-motor electric overhead traveller, by Measrs. 
Thoa. Smith and Sons, of Eodley, near Leeds, The span of 
the crane is GO ft. The boi-aectiou steel girders and tlie 



318 ELECTRIC OTBRHEAD CRANES. 

end carriages have all plate edges planed. The travelliiig 
wheels have double-flanged ateel tyres, and flteel axles ia 
guD-metal bearings. The crab has cast-iron sides, with cap* 
and bolts and gun-metal bearings ; it is mounted ou four 
double-flanged steel tram rails. The hoisting motion ii 
gearing with double spiral grooved dram for verticil lift, 
two-sheave bottom block and top or compensating jjnlley, 
steel wire rope, foi-ged iron swivel book with ateel anti- 
friction rollers. There is also an additional hoisting drum, 
for lighter loads up to six tons, lifting with a single-sheave 
return block. 

The transverse travelling motion acts through spur geaP 
connected up to the tram wheels of the crab. The longi-, 
tudinal travelling has spur gear with cross shnft carried in 
f^un-metal bearings. 

All the gearing is cut from the solid with the exceptio 
the barrel wheel and the pinion gearing into same. Tho 
principal pinions and the shafts a 

Tlie powers and speeds of the completely encloeed motoni 
are as follow : — 

for hoietiiiK 

For IrOQSvetBe traTelling 

For lougitudinal travBlliDg... 

The speeds of the varioi 

Hoisting from Urge drum ... 
Hoiating irora acsall drum ... 



J. P. at about BOO 

le motions are as hereunder :-— 



:0 tons at 4 ft permiu 

etooaat 12i{t.pariii 
tons at 25 iL perm 
About BO ft. per mini 
About 350 feet per m 



te (slow gear), 10 
■ite (quick gear), 
lute (slow gear), S 
jute {quiet gearjt 



The travelling speeds can bo increased for the lightaf' 

The armature of the hoistiikg motor is fitted 
automatic electric brake, operated by solenoids and si 
failure of current supply will result in automatic application 
of the brake for sustaining the load. 

The motors are controlled by lever controllers of tha 
liquid type. 

The total weight of crane is about 22 tous. 



£i:bctbig ovbrhbad 

The illustration at fig, 177 is of a light type quick-workiug 
one-motor electric overhead traveller, by Messre. ThoB. Smith 
aiid Sons. The lifting, cross traverse, and longitudinal 
travelling are all effected from the one motor, acting (as 
shown in the illustration) through worm gearing. The crane, 
which has a short span, is driven hy au attendant from a 
Beat mounted on the crab itself. The motor U shunt wound, 



s girder 



tnd end carriages are of 
! mounted on steel-tyred 



I 




doable-flaniced wheels. For very light loads the block can 
be taken oif and the work Ufted from the end of the wire 



Electric overhead travellers are also constructed by various 
makers adapted to be worked fiom below or the ground level. 
In some such cases the motor is employed for hoisting only, 
the transverse and longitudinal travelling being by hand 
power gearing operated through chain wheels with depend- 



EIXCTBIC OVEHKKAD CRANKa. 



221 



An electric overhead travelling crane of 125 tons capacity 
IB illustrated at fig. 178. It was constructed by MeaerB. 
Vaughan and Son Ltd., of West Gorton, Manchester, for the 
armour-plate worka of Measre. Armstrong, Whitworth, and 
Co, Ltd., at Openahaw, Manchester. Another view, par- 
ticularly showing the crab, is given at fig. 179. The crane 
was tested, and satis fuctorily dealt with a load of 135 tons. 

The span of the crane is 51 ft The girders and the end 
carriages are of boi section, built up from plates and angles 
of mild steel having an ultimate tensile strength of not leas 
than 26 nor more than 30 tons per square inch, with an 
elongation of at least 20 per cent in 8 in. The girders are 
6 ft. deep at centre, 4 ft. at ends, and 54 ffc. overall length. 
The top and bottom booms or flanges each conaiat of two 
steel plates, each plate being 1 ft. 7 in. wide by I in. thick. 
The two web plates of each girder are yj in. thick. Ekch 
girder is stifieued with diaphragms of H-section joists 
between the inner sides of the web platea, and with tees on 
the outer aide of the outer web plate. 

The two travelling wheels of each end carriage have 
double-flanged steel tyres shrunk on ; they are i ft. diameter 

The crab has two double steel-plate sides Emily stayed 
together, and is mounted on four double flanged steel-tyred 
runners. The plates are 1 in. thick and spaced about 4 in. 
apart. Tho rails for the runners, and also for the end 
carriage wheels, consist of solid bars 4 in. wide by 3 in. deep. 

The crab carries three worm wheels, two for lifting and one 
for traversing. Two motors are on one side (as shown in illus- 
tration) and one on the opposite side of the crab. The 
worm wheels have gun-metal rims, with teeth cut from the 
solid. The steel worms, cut from the soUd, are fitted tJ3 
extensions of the respective armature shafts. 

The main hoisting is effected by two barrels, one at each 
end of the crab, operated simultaneously from the large 
hoisting motor, but rotating in opposite direction. Tho 
worms and worm wheels give the first reduction in speed 
from the motor; subsequent reductions are given by the 
spur wheels aud pinions connecting the respective IwirreU 
with their worm drive. Two speeds of Kftiug with the main 



KLECTRIC OVERHEAD CRANES. 223 

bftrrols are provided, the necessary ohange wtkeels and cliitcli 
gear being operated from the platForms. The barrels are of 
oaat iron, with machine-cut right and left hand groovea for 
the Hteel-wire rope, which is I fin. diameter. The falling 
block niny iie described as of a duplex doubla^heave type, 
there being a pair of sheaves for caeh of the barrels, or four 
sheaves in all. Each barrel has its own rope, which is led 




round the two guide pulleys at the one end of the bottom 
block and thence over a top compensating pulley; the ends 
of the lope are anchored at the respective ends of the barrel. 
In addition to the distribution of the load on either barrel 
equally between its two ends, by the pulleys aforesaid, equal 
distribution is assured betu'ean the two barrels and over the 
eight falls (four bights) of rope (which they, with the duplei 
double-sheave block, provide), by means of an additional 



I 



I 



2S4 KLEOTSICI OVEBHBAD OBAHU. 

compensating pullej arranged between, but above, the 
ordinary compenaating puUeya, so that the latter may bo 
c'jupled by means of a flexible or chain connection. By this 
equalising or compenautiag arrangement, which is shown in 
diagrammatic form at fig. 180, an accurate distribution of the 
load is obtained, and tiie tension on the two lifting ropes 
when raising the full load is thuy limited to 
if^=15|, say 16 tons. 

The large spur wiieels are mounted upon aiid keyed to 
their respective barrels, and the barrel shafts thereby 
relieved from torsional stress. The spur wheels, with the 
esception of the barrel wheels and their pinions, hav8 
machine-cut teeth. The makers are thus enabled to employ 
teeth of fine pitch with attendant smoothness of running, 
obtaining the necessary strength by making the wheels of 
such a width as would be inadmissible with cast teeth. 

The hook of the bottom block is of the double or ram's 
liorn type, sometimes termed the anchor type. The head is 
in the form of a nut, with buttress threads, and beneath it 
are hardened steel balls and plates to assist the swivelling 
or rotation of the load. 

Light loads, up to 10 tons, are dealt with by an ausiliary 
barrel arranged in the crab and operated by a separata 
motor; it is therefore quite independent of the main hoist. 
With the auxiliary barrel a single-aheave fall or bottom block 
is pmployed. 

The main and amiliary hoisting motions are each fitted 
with magoetia brakes, for the automatic application and 
release of the brake respectively on the interruption and 
supply of the current to the motor. 

The motor for longitudinal travelling is mounted at one 
end of the crane ; a cross shaft extends between gearing 
placed on the respective end carriages. All the gearing in 
this motion is spur driven, and the teeth are machine out 
with the exception of the last wheels and pinions, which are 
but slow moving. 

The four motors are of the multipolar tramway type, and 
wound for an E.M.F. of 220 volts. The speed of the otab 
motors when loaded is under 300 revolutions per minnte. 
Eftch motor is operated by a liquid type controller. 



ELKCTBTC OTESHBAD CKAKia SSa 

The full load of 125 tons is lifted at the rate of IJ ft. per 
miuute. The travelling ib done at about 100 fL per niinute. 

The totiil weight of the crane with its maiimiim load 
Haapended is nearly 250 tons. The crab alone weighs 40 
toiiH and the fall blook about 2J tons. 

Fig, 181 representa a 70-toii three-motor crane for a 50 ft. 
Bpan, by Measrs. Joseph Adamson and Co., of Hyde, 
Cheshire, and fig. 182 a 40-ton three-motor crane for a 37 ft, 
6 in. epan, by the same makers. In each case the hoisting 
motor is at one end, and the motor for cross traversing at 
the opposite end of the oraK The motor for the longi- 
tudinal travelling of the compjete crane is fixed on one of 
the girders at the centre of the span. 

With the 70-ton orane the hoisting is at the rate of 
4J ft, per minute, this motion being driven by a 33 B.H.P. 
motor running at 400 revolutions per minute. The 
travelling speed ia at 100 ft per minute, the motor for this 
motion being a 21 B.H.P. running at 266 revohitions per 
niinute. The cross traversing ia at the rate of 40 ft. per 
minute with a 10 B.H.P. motor ninning at 435 revolutions 
per minute. 

The load ia carried by sis plies or falls (three bights) of 
steel wire rope 4J in. in circumference. 

With the 40-ton crane the hoisting is at the rate of 4 ft. 
per minute with a 16 B.H.P. motor running at 333 revolu- 
tions per minute, the travelling at 120 ft with a motor of 
same power and speed as for hoisting, and the cross 
traversing at 60ft. with a 10 B.H.P. motor running at 435 
revolutions per minute. The load in this case is carried by four 
pliesorla!ls(twobights)of 4^in.circuniferencesteel wire rope. 

The girders in each crane are of the bos type. In the 
attachment of the girders to the end carriages the makers 
employ gusset plates, such as may be seen in the illustra- 
tions, to prevent " cross working " or " parallel-rule action " 
of the girders and carriages during travelling, when one end 
of the crane attempts to gain upon the other, owing to a 
greasy rail or unequal distribution of the load. These 
gusset plates extend over the joint between girder and 
carriage. To further reduce the tendency to cross working, 



888 ELICTRIC OTBSRIAD CRANIS. 

the makers allow n. bigh proportion of wheel base to span ; 
they give it as their eiperience that this should not be loss 
than one in five. 

The aile boxes or bearings for the oilea of the end 
carriages are each bushed with gun metal and lubricated by 
means of a floating roller which carries the oil from the 
reaervoir (in bottom of box) to the axle. 

Messrs. Adamson and Co. conatrnct their own motors. 
They are of the multipolar enclosed type. The armatures 
are of the slotted drum type with former-wound coils. The ' 
commutators have dritwn or drop forged copper sectioiu < 




^ 



insulated throughout with mica. Fixed carbon brushes of 
the reaction type are used. Tbe field coils are wound on 
formers and iuaulated before beiug put into p:)3ition on tbe 
cores. The connection between the armature shaft or 
spindle and the pinion which it drives is effected by a flange 
coupling, one half of the coupling being forged solid with 
the armature spindle, and the other half with the spindle 
which has the pinion forged so^id therewith. 

Fig. 183 shows the hoisting motor with automatic magnetic 

The following particulars have been published by Messrs. 
Adamson concerning the efficiencies (l>eing ratio of work 



SLBCTRIC OVEBBEAD CEANXS. 231 

done in raising load to power consumed by motor) obtained 
by actual testa of their electric overhead travelling cranes ;— 

50'tan crane : Motor running at 400 revolutions, lifting 
speed i ft. per minute. Spur gearing. Maximum efficiency 
obtained 63 per cent, the load being 30 tons. With full 
load the efficiency was 56 per cent, 

25-ton crauo : Ratio of spar gearing equal 60 revolu- 
tions of motor to 1 ft, lift of load. The maximum 
efficieucy — 63 per cent — was given with a 15-ton load. 

5-ton crane: Ratio of spur gearing equal 26'6 ruTolii- 
tions of motor per 1 ft. lift of load. Maximum efficiency — 
60 per cent — obtained with 3-toii load. The efficiency of 
the gearing alone was 73 per cent, and of the motor alone 
83 per cent 

With regard to the efficiency of the 70-ton crane illustrated 
at tig. 181, the makers advise that they made no testa with 
intermediate loads, but that with the full load of TO tons 
they obtained an efficiency of 74J per cent. 

Fig. 184 illustrates a single-motor overhead crane, by 
Messrs. Rausomes and Rapier Limited, of Ipswich, for a 
working load of 5 tons and a span of 100 ft The single 
motor is placed at one end of the girders ; a jenny, or 
carriage with guide pulleys, is drawn along the lower 
flanges of girders for traversing the load. The speeds with 
full loads are as hereunder : — 

Hoisting 14 ft per minute. 

Traversing 50 ft per minute. 

Travailing 76 ft per minute. 

The crane can be used in opened spaces, such as timber 
yards. The weight in working order is about 24J- tons. 

Figs. 185 and 186 are two views of a 150-ton (American 
ton = 2,000 lb.) electric overhead crane as built by Messrs. 
William Sellers and Co., of Pliiladelphia, Pa., for the Home- 
stead Steel Works of the Carnegie Company, at Pittsburgh. 
The crane, as described by the makers, has a span of 50 ft, 
and is provided with two trolleys or crabs each of 75 tons 
capacity. The bridge girders are carried upon eight 37 in. 
diameter wheels, arranged '" ' '. supporttd in equalising 



r 


232 KLBeiEIG OTERHKAD CaAKEa. 1 

trucks conneoted to the bridge by large fulcrum pins and i 
Bteel bearings. Two of the wheels at each end are driven. J 
The load of 75 tons ia carried upon ais parts of If in. chain, i 
arranged bo that the lift ia vortical, and there is no tendency! 
to lateral movement or to twisting of the load. The orana 1 
is operated with indepenclent motors for each movement, . 
The lo\v«r Iriune of the tr.'lloy ii plated audernoath to 


I 


W 




1 


Ml -'.^-^-raW 


^H^^lk' .^-^^^^^^b^hikA ;^ 


m 


^^■^'^'^^-t^-^-T-^l'- ^ 


pi^s 


' ■-^^fc' ^" ■ i ■'" .'■ JBML ■- . ." 


.• ..'■ -- 


^Bl^^^Si— "■■*—">»■■ '^""^MI 


.^-ITl^' ' 


B^ ^^"KJI 


1 ^I 


i 


protect it fr.. th \ tt 1 1 t 1 
overwiiichit a 1 i IfnU e| ese t tl e t ui tlie 
bridge and shows one f the trolloys n [ oa t o 

Another Aoier can rane s sho u at fig IS tibch 
represents a 150-ton (Amer n tons) b gh speed cr ue— 
test load 200 tons— as n de 1 y Measra Piwl ng and 
HRrnischfeger of M 1 aukee W a for tl e forge pla t of the 


i 



ELECTRIC OVERHEAD CRANES. 233 

Midvale Steel Company, of Philadelphia, Pa. The cmue 
belongs to the makers' type A class. Every crane in this 
class has a trolley, or traveraing crab, provided with two 
grooved drums and two reductions ia speed between hoisting 
motor pinion and the drum gears. The makers state that 
" these reductions are made in oil-tight cases in order to 
exclude all dust and dirt, and as all gears are cut from 
solid stock — generally gun iron or semi-steel — and run in 
pinions cut from forged steel blanks, the arrangement 
secures not only a high degree of efficiency, but a dnrability 
two or three fold greater than when the geara run exposed 
to dust and dirt with little or no Inbrioation." The makers' 
list of standard machines, with hoisting and travelling 
speeds they recommend as suitable for general service, is as 



B0H,lUri.c,rk- 


UbubI hoisting 
lolTefid'Sht. 


Trolloy apneds, 

(uU load and 

ItKht. 


Itght. 


UbubI Flie „l 


3 


25^ 


100-150 


250-300 


Son« 


5 


20-50 


100-lBO 


250-300 


„ 


Ti 


lS-15 


100-150 


260-300 


„ 


10 


16-10 


100-150 


550-300 


„ 


15 


14—35 


100-150 


MO-SOO 


3 


2D 


12-M 


100-150 


jso-soo 


5 


35 


10-25 


100-160 


250-300 


6 


50 


10-S5 


100-150 


250-300 


n 


40 


8-20 


100-150 


S50-S00 


10 


iO 


a- 20 


100-150 


350-300 


10 


eu 


a— 20 


lOCt— 150 


S60-8W 


15 


76 


B— 20 


100-160 


SOO— 2W 


15 


100 


0-15 


100-160 


200-860 


20 


125 


U-15 


100-160 


150-aM 


20 


ISO 


fl-15 


10.^.60 


lCO-200 


25 



n feet per minute. 



JH4 KLMTRIr OVSRBKAD CBASEfl. 




23C KLEfTRIC OVEBHEAD CBANES. 




TKHPKRtKT TBAEISPORriKS. 

The crane ahown at fig. 187 lifts full load at the rate of 

8 ft. per minute. Weight of crane uomplet* is 380,000 tb. 

Fig. 188 represents a crane, by t!ie same makers, provided 
with a traTerBiDg eitemioQ piece tor handling Joadd nutaide 
the gantry or overhead track, oa illustrated. 

lu fig. 189 there is shown a travelling electric hoiat, also 
by Messrs. Pawling and Hamischfeger, for use on a lixed 
overhead track or runway, which may be straight or curved, 
or both, aa required. The machine has two motors, one for 
the hoiBtiug and one for the travelling motion. They are 
also made with but one motor, the travelling motion being 
then opemted through hand chain. 



CHAPTER XSXII. 
Tbnphkleit Tbakspobtbrs. 

The Temperley transporter is succinctly described by the 
raakera, the Temperlej Transporter Company, of 73, Bishopa- 
pite Street Within, London, E.G., as consisting " essentially 
of an automatic traveller, a beam forming a truck upon which 
the traveller runs, a steel v/iie rope by means of which the 
load is lifted and transported, and an engine for operating 

Wheu used for handling coal, ore, or other materials iu 
bulk, automatic dumping skips are employed. The auto- 
matic traveller is made in two types: (1) single purchase 
for handling loads up to 30 cwt., and (2) double purchase 
for loads of 35 and 50 cwt For heavier loada, specially 
designed travellers are required. 

The travellers are arranged for either inclined or horizontal 
tracks. With ati inclined track the weight of tlie traveller, 
either tight or loaded, causes it to run down the incline ; 
with a horizontal track an overhauling rope with counter- 
balance weight is employed for the return movement of 
traveller. The traveller is automatically locked to the beam 
during the load lifting and lowering ojieration. 

Fig. 190 illustrates the coaling of H.M.S, Majestic with 
four Temperley jMitent portable transporters, Such portable 
transporters are employed by the makers in the equipment 
of complete " coaling craft " provided with storage capacities 



TBUP&nLE? TKU18P0BTBB8. 



up to 12,000 tona aud rates of output per hour up to 600 or 
700 tona of bagged coal. The vessels are Belf-propeUei 
not, according to requirements. 



b 




TXMFBELKY TKAKSFOBTEHB. 



mounted ou wheels. These transportera are usually mads'fl 
self-propelling. The ateam, electric, or hydraulic motor for- T 
driving all tliL' u.titiuua of tlje m^ichiinri-; ,'inii>'.l >,i 



N 





lower platform of the tovfer itself. With a steam engine, or 
winch, the boiler is also momited on the same platform, m 




TBMPEKLET TRANBPOBTEES. 241 

The particular traiisporter shown at fig. 191 was supplied for 
discharging coul from ateitmerB at St. Michael, Azores. Tho 
coal is lifted out of the vessel and mo along the transporter 
beam fur discharge either through the roof of the Btarage 
sheds expending the whole length of the qnay, or into wagons 
on the opposite side of the building. The drirer's platform 
is placed at a sufficient height to give him a clear view on 
the deck, of the vessel and over the roof of the sheds. The 
following leuding figures relaie to this transporter ; Load, 
22 cwt. ; lifting speed, 200 ft, per minute; transporting 
speed, 400 ft. per minnte ; reach on water aide 50 ft., and 
on land side 50 ft., gauge 14 ft, total 114 ff. Motive power 
jB stenDk. The water-side ami is made to hinge up. 

At fig. 102 Temperley 6ied traasporters are shown as 
employed at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, for military 
stores. The near transporter ot the two shown in the illus- 
tnitioii has the river end of the beam htuged up to allow 
vessels to pass. These transporters are for handling loads 
up to 30 cwt. Ebieh beam is long enough for a total effective 
travel of 107 ft. 3 in. It will be seen that it has a great 
over-reach from the building on the water aide — the side 
shown In the illustration. The machines serve, or convey 
goods between, the store building and the vessels and rail- 
way iriicks on the respective sides of the same, the beam of 
each machine being in part within the hiilldiug. 

An siample of a two-speed electric entjine or motor for 
Temperley transporters is shown at fig. 193, The machine 
is designed for lifting the load at the rate of 400 1^ per 
minute with the low gear and 800 ft per minute with the 
high gear. The hoisting drum runs loose on its shaft for 
lowering the load, but ia clutch-conuected therewith for 
lifting the load. The brake rim is formed on the drum or 
barrel ; the brake ia controlled by a balanced foot lever. 

An illustration of a hydraulic transporter engine is 'given 
at fig. 194. The lifting speeds areas follows: Low gear, 
360 ft. per minute ; high gear, 680 ft per minute. 

Fig. 195 represents a double-purchase traveller and rope 
carrier as employed on Temperley transporters of various 
types. 



TBNPlfBLBy TRANSPORTBBS. 




KLKOTBIC UFTS. 24B 

CHAPTER XXXIir. 

ELBcTific Lifts or Elevatoiis. 

Fig. 196 is an illiiHtrfttion of au electric pasaenger lift, or 
eievfttor, as made by Mesars. R. Wajgood and Co. Limited, 
of Falmouth Road, London, S.B, This ty[)e of lift is made 




in all sizes hj Meusra. Wuygood, to take two pas8ena;er8 and 
iijiwarda, aud to ruu at epeodB from 100 ft. to 300 ft per 
minute. As will be seen, the car is of tbe sUBpeaaioii type, 
and ia connected by its supporting rofws or cables ■sith 
the combined motor and winding gear (iied at the basement 




or on one of the fluoi's nerved by the ofir. The gear com- 
priaea a cut worm and worm wheel, the former being of ateel 
and provided with ball thrust bearings. The worm wheal, 
disposed ahove the worm, haa a phosphor bronze rim with 
the teeth cut therein. 

Automatic switch or ciit-ofTgear is arranged iu uonuectioti 
with the grooved winding drum, for the purpose of btoppiug 



ELECTBIG LIFTS i.'47 

the supply of current to the motor wheu the tlnim hiia made 
the required iiumlier of revolutiooa, in either direction, to 
bring the car to the top and bottom floors respectivflly. 

The controiliDg switch is operated by a car switch whioli 
ia fitted with a detachable handle, thus giving the operator 
or attendant complete oontrol over the stopping aod atartini; 
of the mnchine. The controlling switch is self-centring, su 
that ill the event of the current failing, or being cut off, the 
awitch will automatically take the off position ; the lift 
cannot be started agaiu other than by the action of the oar 
awitch. The lift is further provided with a patent slack 
cable safety switch, to stop the machine if either the oar or 
lulanae weight should meet with an obstruction either in 
aaceadJDg or descending. An automatic electric brake 
operates whenever the current is shut off from any oauae. 

The makers also adopt an automatic or push button 
uciutrol for their machines, to enable any i>er8on entering the 
i-ar to start the lift and ensure its stopping at the desired 
lioor by simply pressio^ the liutton iu the oar corresponding 
to that floor. 

Fig. 1 97 illustrates an electric goods and service lift by 
the same makers, the motor and winding gear being fixed 
above thn car well or casing. In the case of hotels the 
service lifts may bo worked or ooutroUed by a. press button 
from any floor. 

Fig. 198 represents the direct-coupled electric w'nding 
gear for passenger and goods elevators, as made by Messrs. 
Holt and Willettir, 6f Lion Works, Cradley Heath, near 
Birmingham. The motor is of the multipolar enclosed 
compound wound type. It is fitted with a slot-wound 
armature, self-aligning and self-oiling iiearings, adjustable 
carbon brush gear, and special hard copper commutator. 
The winding gear is of the worm type, having a hardened 
nnd polished steel worm working into a machine-out 
phosphor brouKe scroll or worm wheel As will he seen 
from the illustration the worm is arranged above the worm 
wheel, and the motor raised to bring its armature shaft or 
spindle into alignment with the worm spindle. The thrust 
of the screw or worm is taken on a continuously-lubricated 
ball thrust Irearing. 



250 ELECTRIC AND HYDRAUUC LIFTS. 

The electro-maguetic brake comprises wrought-iron em- 
bracing areas fitted with cast-iron slippers run with white 
metal. 

Referring to the speed controller, the makers state that it 
gives a perfectly accelerated start free from jerk, is entirely 
automatic in action, and the resistance cannot be cut out of 
circuit unless the lift starts. The rate of cut out is auto- 
matic and beyond the attendant's control, and the lift cannot 
be forced to start under an overload. The resistance is 
automatically replaced in armature circuit on the instant of 
failure of current from any cause. The reversing switch is 
of the tramway controller type, destructive sparking being 
prevented by opening the main circuit at several points 
simultaneously. 

The machines tire generally built to give car speeds of 
from 100 to 300 ft. per minute. The cars may be fitted 
with semi-automatic or completely automatic push-button 
control. 

In a comparison made by Messrs. Holt and Willetts of 
electric lifts with hydraulic lifts, they give it that though 
the first cost of the electric lift is about 50 per cent more 
than the hydraulic lift, this difference will in four years, 
or less, have been saved by the difference in the cost of 
working. 

They give the following figures : " An electric passenger 
lift for a 10 cwt. load and a 60 ft. rise or travel, with a car 
speed of 180 ft. per minute, costs say £321 (three hundred 
and twenty-one pounds). A high-pressure hydraulic lift for 
the same duty, similar car, etc., would cost about £217 
(two hundred and seventeen pounds). But taking the price 
of water at two shillings and tenpence per 1,000 gallons at 
700 lb. per square inch pressure, as supplied by the London 
Hydraulic Power Co., the hydraulic lift, assuming 22 full or 
complete up and down journeys per hour, would use 
considerably over 7,000 gallons per week of 50 hours. The 
cost of water would thus be not less than £1 (one pound) 
per week. An electric lift for the same service, and 
assuming full loads every journey, would use 48 Board of 
Trade units, and taking the price at 2|d. per unit, the cost 



.YDEAUIJC UFTS, 



if current per week amouuta to ten shillitigs, ( 
3Bt of water for the hydraulic machine." 



withM uud nj, t e ad nta^es uuiny respects of the 
|fitcGtric maoh ne over the hy iiul here are still tnany 




where the latter is preferred nud is the more suituil for 
e required duty. A good eiample of a suspeuded type 



252 HYDRAULIC LIPIS. 

hydraulic lift, by UeBsrs. B. Waygood and Co. Limitod, is 
shown at fig. 199, whilst fig. 200 illustrates a direct-acting 
bydraulic lift by the same makers. With the latter arnmge- 
uient the whole of the weight ia supported ou the fouudatiou 



of the building, no overhead sheaves are required, and the 
foct that the car is supported from below providea an element 
of safety, both actual and apparent, which is much appreciated 
by inauj people. The dead weight of the moviag ports is 



254 PNEUMATIC HOISTS. 

counterbalanced by a hydraulic balancing cylinder, fixed at 
the side of the lift as shown, which considerably reduces the 
consumption of water. The direct-acting type of hydraulic 
machine has long been known in this country, and it appears 
to be now coming into considerable favour in America, 
under the name of " plunger elevators," even for very high 
buildings. 

Pneumatic Hoists. 

Fig. 201 represents a vertical type direct-acting pneumatic 
hoist, as made by Messrs. Reavell and Co. Limited, of Rane- 
lagh Works, Ipswich. Fig. 202 illustrates the horizontal and 
double -purchase type. These hoists are particularly useful 
for fixing over lathes or other machine tools for the rapid 
handling of the work by the artisans at such tools. Being 
simple and easy in manipulation and quick in action, no 
difficulty is found in so using them for this service, with 
the result that a great saving in shop labourers is effected. 
They are constructed for working pressures of from 60 lb. to 
1201b. per square inch, depending upon the air pressure 
available in the pneumatic mains throughout the works. 
The horizontal type is well adapted for situations where 
head room is limited ; the runners can be arranged to suit 
any girder or channels in stores, etc. 



INDEX. 



Abrasion of Shafts, 24. 

Adamson Electric Travellers, 225. 

Admiralty Proof for Chains, 138. 

Alldays and Onions Pulley Block, 147. 

Aldridge Clutch, 202. 

American Elevators or Lifts, 98, 168, 254. 

American Cranes, 281. 

Ammunition Hoist, i77. 

Anderson Tension Device for Lift Ropes, 

176. 
Asmissen Winch, 152. 
Aspinall Luggage Carrier, 179. 



B 

Balance Box for Portable Cranes, 61. 

Barrels, Crab, 3, 10, 14, 18, 20, 22, 148. 

Barrels, Fuzee, 50. 

Bearings, 10, 24. 

Beckett and Roberts Brake, 150. 

Belt Driven Hoist, 89. 

Berry Hydraulic and Electric Crane, 195. 

Blocks, Chain Pulley, 5, 144. 

Blocks, Fall, 3, 63, 116, 127, 223. 

Blocks, Pulley. (See Pulley Blocks.) 

Brakes, 10, 19, 23, 74, 80, 95, 145, 150, 152, 

202. 
Brakes, Electro-Magnetic, 177, 179, 183, 

204, 216, 218, 224, 228, 247, 250. 



Cable, 142. 

Cage Lifts, 97. 

Capstan, 152. 

Chains, 186. 

Chain Pulley Blocks, 5, 144. 

Cherry Brake Grab, 74. 

Chinese Windlass, 2. 

Clutches, 84, 179, 201, 208, 216. 

Coaling Cranes, 198. 

Coaling Ships, 164, 165, 166, 237. 

CoUectors, Electric, 203, 210, 211. 

Combined Hydraulic and Electric Cranes, 

195. 
Controllers, Electric, 169, 181, 208, 207, 

210, 212, 214, 217, 218, 224, 246. 
Cowans and Sheldon Cranes, 187, 191, 

208, 211. 



Crabs, Action of, 7. 

Crabs, Barrels, 10, 13, 18, 22, 143. 

(.'rabs, Bearings, 10, 24. 

Crabs, brakes, 10, 19, 23, 160. 

Crabs, Double-purchase, 13. 

Crabs, Efficiency, 12, 18, 22. 

Crabs, Friction-typj Power, 93, 148. 

Crabs, Friction in, 12. 

Crabs, Gearing for, 10, 12, 15, 18, 22. 

Crabs, Handles for, 10, 14, 15, 18, 20, 28, 

Crabs, Power, 93. 

Crabs, Ratchet, 10. 23. 

Crabs, Shafts, 10, 18, 23. 

Crabs, Sides, 10, 15, 18, 20. 

Crabs, Single-purchase, 8. 

Crabs, Stresses in, 12, 13, 18. 

Crabs, Tie Bolts, 10, 23. 

Crabs, Treble-purchase, 20. 

Cranes, Belt-driven Warehouse, 91. 

Cranes, Electric, Fiegeheu, 178. 

Cranes, Electric Forge, 195. 

Cranes, Electric Foundry, 213. 

Cranes, Electric Jib, 200. (See Jib 
Crane. \ 

Cranes, Electric Locomotive, 204. 

Cranes, Electric Overhead, 12.S, 176, 214, 
221, 225, 231. (See Overhead Cranes.) 

Cranes, Electric Portable, 200. 

Cranes, Electric Walking or Single Track, 
208, 211. 

Cranes, Electric Wharf, 204. 

Cranes, Floating, ib7. 

Cranes, Hand Derrick, 48. 

Cranes, Hand Foundry, 41. (See Foun- 
dry Cranes.) 

Cranes, Hand Jib, 25. 

Cranes, Hand Goliath, 112. 

Cranes, Hand Overhead, 66. (See Over- 
head Cranes.) 

Cranes, Hand Pillar, 80. (See Pillar 
Cranes.) 

Cranes, Hand Portable, 61. (See Portable 
Cranes.) 

Cranes, Hand Wall, 25, 93. 

Cranes, Hand Warehouse, 28, 91. 

Cranes, Hand, Wellingfton, 112. 

Cranes, Hand Wharf, 65. 

Cranes, Hand Whip, 86. 

Cranes, Hydraulic, 191. 

Cranes, Hydraulic, Speeds of, 191, 198. 

Cranes, Hydraulic, Machinery for, 192, 
198. 



256 



IN DFX. 



Cranes, Rope-driven Overhead, 122. 

Cranes, Rope-driven Walking or Single 
I'rack. 127. 

Cranes, Shaft-diiven Overhead, 120. 

CraneR, Steam Foundiy or Forgo. 1 1 8. 

Cranes, Steam Gol'ath, 111. 

Cranes, Steam Locomotive, 104, 187. 
(See Loeoniotivo Steam Cranes.) 

Cranes, Steam Oveiliwid, 11/J. tSoc Over- 
head Grant's.) 

Cranes, Steam 'I'itan, 1>^4. 

Cranes, Steai)i Travtjllinj,'-, 1S7. 

Cnines, Steam Wellington, 112. 

Cranes, Steam Wharf, 11 r*. 

Craven Cranes, 179, 211, 212, 214. 

Cross Working or Winding of Travelh rs, 
70, 183, 22r). 



Derrieks, 4S. 

Derricks, Fii/.ec, Barrel for, r»o. 
Derricks, Lifting and Lufling, 48. 
Derricks, Safety, 50. 
Derricks, Stresses in, f)S. 
Derricks, Ship, 154, !♦;:, 168. 
Differential Weston Bloek, 2. 
Disengaging ( 'lutch, 84. 
Driving Clnt eh, Cone, 118. 



Eflieiency of Crab, Double-purchase, 18. 
EfTiciency of Crab, Single-purchase. 12. 
Etliciencv of Crab, Treble-purduisi', 22. 
Effieiency of Crane, Electric, 20H, 22S, 231. 
Efficiency of- .lacks. Screw, 130. 
Eflieiency of Jacks, Hydraulic, 1"6. 
Efficiency of Weston lilock, 7. 
Efficiency of Worm Gearing, 103, 
Electro-magnet in Placo of llook, 177 
Electric Cranes. (See Cranes.) 
Electric Elevators. (See Lifts.) 
Electric Regulating and Stopjiing 

Devices for Lifts, lo9. 
Electric Winch. (See Winches.) 
Elevators. (See Lifts.) 
Elliott and Ganood Cap.stan, l'>2. 
Esmond Electric M<itor, 176. 



Factoiy Hoists, 08. 
Fairbaini Ci-anes, 113. 
Falling Hlock, 63, 127. 
Fiegehen Electric Cmne, 178. 
Floating Crane.s, 167. 
Forge Crane, 118, lyo. 
Foundry Crane, 41, 113. 213. 
Foundry Crane, Carriage for, 42 
Foundry Crane, Chain for, 47. 
Fo'indry Crone, Electric, 218. 
Foimdry Crane, Falling Block, 



Foundry Crane, Independent, 47. 
Foundry Crane, Lifting Gear, 48. 
Foimdry Crane, Racking, 48, 46. 
Foundry Crane, Stresses in, 47. 
Foundry Crane, Wheels for Carriage, 46. 
Foundations, 40, 63, 65, 68. 
Friction Gear, 93. 
Friction in Crabs, 12. 
Friction in Crane, Fonndiy Gearing, 47. 
Friction in Crane Jack, 130. 
Friction Gear, Weston Block, 7. 
Eiiction Crane, Worm Hoist, 102. 
Fuzee Barrel Derrick, 50, 



G 

Gantry Crane, 112. 

(bearing for Crab, Double -pm-chase, 18. 

Gearing for Crab, Single-purchase, 10. 

Gearing for Crab, Treble-purchase, 20. 

Gearing, Shrouding for, 22. 

Gearing, Strength of, 12. 

(Jirders for Overhead Cranes, 68, 78, 118, 

214. 217, 221, 225. 
(Joliath Crane, 112. 
(Jrafton Locomotive Crane, 107. 
(hain Elevator, 157. 



H 

Iladcoek Am munition Hoist, 177. 

Hall Elevator, 175. 

Handles for Crab, 10, 14, 15, 18, 20, 28. 

Henderson Derrick Gear, 48. 

High Speed Crane, 105. 

Hoists, Electric, 177. 

Hoists, Electric, Preventing Overload- 
ing, 178. 

Hoists, Steam Power. 85. 

Hoists. Steam Power, l5clt-.-hifting Gear 
for, i)0. 

Hoists, Steam Power, Brake for, 90. 

Hoists, Pneumatic, 254. 

Holmes Trawler Winch, 162. 

Holt and Willetts Pulley Block, 145. 

Holt and Willetts Elevator, 247. 

Holub Pulley Block, 147. 

Horse Power Defined, 86. 

Hutchinson and Xewton Ship Derrick, 
167. 

Hydraulic Cranes, 191. 

Hydraulic Cranes, Coaling, 193. 

Hydraulic and Electric Cranes, Com- 
bined, 195. 

Hydraulic Jacks, 134, 197, 198. 

Hydraulic Engines, 241. 



I 



Independent Foundry Crane, 47. 
Independent Whip Crane, 40. 



INDEX. 



257 



Jacks, Hydraulic, 134, 197, 198. 

Jacks, Hydraulic, Capacity of, 197, 198. 

Jacks, Hydraulic, Efficiency of, 136. 

Jacks, Hydraulic, Power of, 136. 

Jacks, Luting, 128. 

Jacks, Pulling, 198. 

Jacks, Screw, 129. 

Jacks, Screw, Friction in, 130. 

Jacks, Screw, Power of, 130. 

Jacks, Ship, 136. 

Jacks, Traversing, 130. 

Jacks, Windlass, 133. 

Jacks, Windlass, Power of, 133. 

Jib Crane, 25, 

Jib Crane, Electric, 200. 

Jib Crane, Speeds of, 201. 

Jib, Lowering, 66. 

Jib, "Swan" Neck, 40. 



K 



Keith Electro Magnet, 177. 
Kelley Ship Winch, 152. 
Kieflfer Pulley Block, 147. 
Koll Crab Brake. 160. 



Lancashire Dynamo Motor Co., 204, 212, 

216. 
Lighthouse and Gibson Pulley Block, 

147. 
Lifting, Electro Magnet for, 177. 
Lifts, Anderson, 176. 
Lifts, Belt, Size of, 104. 
Lifts, Cage or Car, 97. 
Lifts, Cost of Maintenance, 168, 250. 
Lifts, Electric, 168 245. 
Lifts, Electric, Brakes for, 250. 
Lifts, Electric, Comparison with 

Hydraulic, 168, 250. 
Lifts, Electric, Current Controllers, 160, 

246. < 
Lifts, Electric, Gearing for, 246, 247. 
Lifts, Electric, Hall, 175. 
Lifts, Electric, Otis, 169. 
Lifts, Electric, Push Button System, 172, 

247. 
Lifts, Electric, Speeds of, 246, 250. 
Lifts, Electric, Speed Regulation, 169, 

250. 
Lifts, Electric, Stopping Device for, 169. 
Lifts, Gearing for, 98, 102, 104, 246, 247. 
Lifts, Hydraulic, 251. 
Lifts, Hydraulic, *'Phuiger," 254. 
Lifts, Hydraulic, Stopping Device for, 

169. 
Lifts, Hall, 175. 
Lifts, Otis, 169. 
Lifts, Power of, 102. 

S 



Lifts, Hopes for, lOOt 

Lifts, Ropes, Preservation of, 169. 

Lifts, Safety Gear for, 100. 

Lifts, Speed of, 98, 246, 250. 

Lifts, Stopping Device for Electric or 
Hydraulic, 169. 

Lifts, Tension Device, 176. 

Lifts, Thomas, 176. 

Lindsay Friction Clutch, 201. 

Loading Ship, Improvements in Appli- 
ances for, 154. 

Locomotive Steam Cranes, 104, 187. 

Locomotive Steam Cranes, Engines for, 
106, 188. 

Locomotive Steam Cranes, Gearing for, 
105, 188. 

Locomotive Steam Cmnes, Speeds of, 
188, 191. 

Locomotive Electric Cranes, 200, 204. 

London Block. 143. 

Loose Roller Path for Cranes, 107, 201, 
207. 

Lowering Jib, 48, 66, 107. 

Luffing Jib, 48, 66, 107. 



M 



Magnet Lifting, 177. 

Manufacture of Chains, 138. 

Marks Brake. 80. 

Matthew and Leith Pulley Block, 147. 

Meacock and Ravenscroft Clutch, 84. 

Mechanical Advantage of — 

Crab, Single-purchase, 11. 
Crab, Double-purchase, 17. 
Crab, Treble-purchase, 20. 
Crab, Cherry, 74. 
Crane, Whip, 37, 38. 
Jack, Hydraulic, 136. 
Jack, Screw, 130. 
Jack, Windlass. 133. 
Pulley Block, 2, 7. 
Windlass, 7. 
Windla.s8, Chinese, 3. 

Motors, Electric, 176, 177, 180, 183, 195, 
203, 204, 209, 212, 214, 216, 218, 219, 224, 
225, 237, 241, 247. 

Motors, Electric, Single-phase, 208. 



N 

Nicholson Boiler, 113, 118. 



Origin of Whip Crane, 36. 
Otis Elevator Co., 169. 
Oveirhead Electric Cranes, 123, 176, 214, 
221,225 23L 



258 



INDEX. 



Overbeivd Electric Cranes, American, 231. 
Overheivd. Electric Cranes, Brakes for, 

183, 216, 224. 
Overhead Electric Cranes, Controllers or 

Switches, 181, 217, 224. 
Overhead Electric Cranes, Cross-winding 

or Twisting, 183, 225. 
Overhead Electric Cranes, Electro-mag- 
netic Jirako Release, 179. 
Overhead Electric Cranes, Girders for, 

214, 217,221, 225. 
Overhead Electric Cranes, Lowering of 

Load, 180. 
Overhead Electric^ Cranes, Motors, 183, 

214, 224, 237. 
Overhead Electric Cranes, Preventing 

Overloading, 178. 
Overhead Electric Cranes, I'reventing 

liuniing of Armature, 178, 
Overhead Electric Cranes, fc>2)an of, 181, 

221, 225, 231. 
Overhead Electric Cranes, Si)ecd of, isi, 

214, 225, 231, 233,237. 
Overhead Hand Cranes, ()<!. 
Overhead IJand Brake, Self-sustaining, 

74, 30. 
Overhead Hand Crah Brake, 74. 
Overhead Hand Cross- winding or Twist- 
ing, 70. 
Overhead Hand Brake End Carriages, OS. 
Overhead lland Brake, Girders, 08, 78. 
Overhead Han<l Brakes. Lifting Mechan- 
ism, 74, 80. 
Overhead Hand Brake, Marks, 80. 
Overhead Hand Brake, Bower of, 80. 
Overhead Hand Brake, Racking, 72, 80. 
Overhead Hand Brake, " Runner," 72. 
Overhead Hand Brake, Si»an, <58, 78. 
Overhead Roi)e-driven Cranes, 122. 
Overhead liope-driven Cranes, Roi)es for, 

123. 
Overhead Rope-driven Cranes, Span, 127. 
Overhead Roj)e-driven Cranes, Speeds, 

122, 127. 
Overhead Shaft-driven Cranes, 120. 
Overhead Steam-driven Cranes, 11.'), 
Overhead Steam-driven Cranes, Boiler 

and Engine for, 118. 
Overhead Steam-driven Cranes, Gearing 

for, 118. 
Overhead Steam-driven Cranes, Girders, 

118. 
Overhead Steam-driven Cranes, Span, lis 
Overloading Electric Hoists, Preventing, 

178. 
Overwinding Electric Cranes, I'revent- 
ing, 204. 



Pawling and Haruischfeger Cranes, 232. 
Pickering Pulley Block, 145. 
Pilllar Cranes, 30. 



Pillar Cranes, Crab for, 82. 

Piljar Crane Jib, Diagonal, 81. 

Pillar Crane Jib, Horizontal, 85. 

Pillar Cranes, Slewing Resistance to, 33. 

Pillar Cranes, Stresses in, 32, 33, 85. 

Pitch Chain, 138. 

Plunger Elevators, 254. 

Portable Electric Cranes, 200. 

Portable Hand Cranes, Bl. 

Portable Hand Cranes, Balancing of, 61. 

Portable Hand Cranes, Dimensions, 
Chief, 66. 

Portable Hand Cranes, Jib Lowering, 
66. 

Portable Hand Cranes, Slewing, 65. 

Portable Hand Cranes, Stresses in, 65, 

Portable Hydraulic Cranes, 191. 
j Portable Ilvdraulio Cranes, Siweds of, 
m, 193. 

Power and Siwed, 85. 

Power or Purchase of Crab, Cheny, 74. 

Power or Purchase of Crab, Double- 
purchase, 17, 18. 

Power or Purchase of Crab, Single-pur- 
chase, 11. 

Power or Purchase of Crab, Treble-pur- 
chase, 20. 

Power or I'lnchase of Crane, Whip, 37, 
38. 

Power or Purchase of Jack, Hydraulic, 
130. 

Power or Purchase of Jack, Screw, 130. 

Power or Purchase of Jack, Windlass, 
133. 

Power or Pmchase of Lift or Elevator, 
102. 

Power or Purchase of Pulley Blocks, 2, 7. 

Power or Purchase of Windlass, 7. 

Power or Purchase of Windlass, Chinese, 
3. 

I'ressine on Crab Bearings, 24. 

I'ulley Blocks, 2. 

Pulley Blocks, Alldays and Onions, 147. 

Pullev Blocks, Brake Mechanism, 145. 

Pulley Blocks, Chain, 5, 144. 

Pulley Blocks, Cherry, 147. 

Pulley Blocks, Efticiency of, 7. 

Pullev Blocks, Friction in, 7. 

Pullev Blocks, Holt and Willetts, 145. 

Pulley Blocks, KiefTer, 147. 

Pulley Blocks, Lighthouse and Gibson, 
147. 

Pullev Blocks, London, 143. 

Pulley Blocks, Matthew and Leith, 147. 

Pulley Blocks, Pickering, 145. 

Pulley Blocks, Power of, 2 7. 

Pullev Blocks, I'riest, 145. 

Pulley Blocks, Roi)e, 143. 

Pullej' Blocks, Rousseau, 143. 

Pulley Blocks, Self-sustaining, 7, 1 44. 
Pulley lilocks, Thompson, 143. 

Pulley Blocks, Weston, 2, 5. 
Pulley Blocks, Worm-gearing, 145. 
l*usirButton System, Elevators, 172, 247. 



INDEX. 



259 



Ktickiug Motion, 43, 46, 72, SO. 

Racking Motion, Purchase of Gear for, 

47. 
Hacking Motion, Power required for, 4t>, 

72. 
llansome and Rapier Omnes, 167, 184, 

187, 213, 214, 231. 
Reavell Pne\imatic Hoist, 254. 
Resistance to Slewing, 33, 59. 
Roller Path for Cranes, 107, 201, 207. 
Rope-driven Cranes, 122, 127. 
Rope-driven Cranes, Ropes for, 123. 
Ropes for Elevators, 100. 
Roi)es, Hemp, Breaking and Working 

Loads for, 140. 
Ropes, Ste«l, Breaking and Working 

Loads for, 141. 
Ropes, Treatment of, 123, 142. 
Rousseau Pulley Block, 143. 
Royce and Claromont Electric Crane, 

180. 
Runner, Foundiy Crane, 43. 



Safety Gear, 100. 
Scott Crab, 149. 
Secmitas, Jack, 198. 
Self-sustaining Brakes, 74, SO. 
Self-sustaining Property of Weston Block, 

Sellers Electric Crane, 231. 
Sheer Legs, 156, 187. 
Ships, Coaling, 154, 165, 166, 237. 
Ships, Loading, 156. 
Ship's Dei-ricks, 167. 
Siemens Motor, 203. 
Single-track Cranes, 127, 208, 211. 
Slewing, Resistance to, 33, 59. 
Slewing, Gear, 60, 65, 106, 204. 
Smith, H. R., lilectric Hoist, 177. 
Smith, Thos., Crane Locomotive, 104, 204. 
Smith, Thos., Crane Traveller, 116, 120, 

217, 219. 
Solenoid for Actuating Hoist, 177. 
Span of Travellers, 78, 181, 221, 225, 231, 

233, 287. 
Sprague Electric Crane, 180. 
Square Shaft Travellers, 120. 
Stability of Foundations, 58. 
Steam Cranes, Fixed, 113. 
Steam Cranes, Locomotive, 104, 187. 
Steam Cranes, Travellers, 115. 
Steam Cranes, Wharf, 115. 
Steam Hoists, 85. 
Stothert and Pitt Crane, 200. 
Strap Brake, 19. 
Strength of Chains, 139. 
Strength of Gearing, 12. 
Strength of Roiies, Hemp, 141. 
Strength of Ropes, Steel, 142. 



Strength of Shafts, 13. 
Stresses in Crab, Double-purchase, 18. 
Stresses in Crab, Single-purchase, 12. 
Stresses in Crab, Shaft, 13. 
Stresses in Cranes, Derrick, 53. 
Stresses in Cranes, Foundry, 47. 
Stresses in Cranes, Pillar, 32, 33, 34. 
Stresses in Cranes, Portable, 65. 
Stresses in Cranes, Wall, 28. 
Stresses in Cranes, Wharf, 55. 
Stresses in Cranes, Whip, 33, 39. 
Stud Chain, 186. 
Stuffing Box, Revolving, 115. 



Taylor and Hubbard Locomotive Crane, 

187. 
Testing Chains, 138. 
Thomas Lift, 176. 
Thompson Pulley Block, 143. 
Tie Rods, Stresses in, 28, 32, 33, 38. 
Titan Cranes, 184. 
Titan Cranes, Speeds of, 185. 
Transporters, Temperley, 154, 237. 
Transporters, Temperley, Caxnibilities of, 

165, 237. 
Transix)rters, Temperley, Electric, 241. 
Transporters, Temperley, Hydraulic, 241. 
Transporters, Temperley, Sjieeds of, 165, 

241. 
Travelling Cranes. (See Overhead Cranes.) 
Traversing Load on Overhead Ci-ane, 72, 

80. 
Traversing Jack, 130. 
Trawler Winch, 152. 
Treble-pui-chase Crab, 20. 
Tj^pes of Locomotive Cranes, 104, 187. 
Tyzack Ship Derrick, 167. 



u 

Unloading AjJiJiance for Shii>s, 154. 



Vauglian Electric Crane, 181, 221. 

Vaughan Falling Block, 127. 

Vauglian Overhead Rojie Crane, 124, 127. 



w 

Warehouse Cranes, 28, 91. 
Warehouse Cranes, Brake for, 95. 
Warehouse Cranes, Convertible Hand or 

Power, 95. 
Warehouse Cranes, Crab, Friction for, 93. 
Warehouse Cranes, Gearing for, 93. 
Walking Cranes, 127, 208, 211. 
Walking^ Cranes, Speeds of, 128, 210. 



260 



INDEX. 



Wjili Cranes, 25, 93. 

Wall Cranes, Radius of, 28. 

Wall Cranes, Securing to Wall, 2P. 

Wall Cranes, Stresseb in, 28. 

Waygood Electric Lifts, 245. 

Waygood Hydraulic Lifts, 2"»]. 

Wellington Crane, 111'. 

Weight of Foundations, 51'. 

Weston Hlock, 2, 5. 

Wharf Cranes, 55, 115, 204. 

Wharf Cranes, Electric, 204. 

Wharf Cranes, Electric, Speeds of, 204. 

Wharf Cranes, Foundations, ;'»">. 

XVharf Cranes, Slewing, Resistance to, 

59. 
Wharf Cranes, Slewing, Gearing for, «iO. 
Wharf Cranes, Stresses in, 55. 
Wheel Hase for Traveller Fhul Carriages, 

70. 
Whij) Crane, 36. 
Whi]) Crane, Brake, 40. 
Whip Crane, Capicity of, 41. 
Whij) Crane, Chain, 40. 
Whip Crane, Independent, 40. 
Whij) Crane, Indei)endcnt. Foundation 

for, 40. 
Whip Crane, Jib, 40. 



Whip Crane, Lifting Geju-, 37. 
Whij) Crane, Pxirchase or Power, 37, 38. 
Whip Crane, Sl-iwing, 41. 
Winches, Capstans, and Crabs, Improve- 
ments in, 148. 
Winch, Asmissen Electric, 152. 
Winch, Beckett and Roberts Brake, 150. 
Winch, Electric, 214, 241. 
Winch, Holmes Trawler, 152. 
Winch, Kelley, Ship, U2. 
Winch, Scott, Friction Driving Gear, 149. 
Winch, Hydraulic, 241. 
Windlass, 7. 
Windlass, Chinese, 2. 
Windlass Jack, 13H. 
Windlass, Power of, 7. 
Witte Crab, 148. 

Worm Gearing, Efficiencj' of, 103. 
Worm Gearing, Pulley Block, 14 
Worm Gearing for Lift, 98. 
Wotherspoon Crab, 148, 
Wrought-iron Jib Crane, 2.'*. 



Youngs Jacks, 129, 135, 197. 



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