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Continental Congress 

at York, Pennsylvania 



York County in the 


Author of the History of York County, Pennsylvania, Curator 

and Librarian of the Historical Society of York County, 

Member of tlie National Geographic Society, 

American Historical Association and the 

Pennsylvania History Club 






MAf 22 ;iM 

/^' /^/^'7 'tCk^fS<^J 


THE following pages furnish a careful record of the transactions of Conti- 
nental Congress, while it held its sessions in York from September 30, 1777 
to June 27, 1778. Shortly before the Battle of Brandywine Congress ad- 
journed from Independence Hall to meet at Lancaster, but held only one day's 
session in that city. Meantime, the British had taken possession of Philadeljihia 
and Congress removed to York. 

While in session here for a period of nine months, Continental Congress, with 
representatives from the thirteen original states passed the Articles of Confedera- 
tion, received the news of the surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga, issued the first 
Thanksgiving Proclamation, commissioned Baron Steuben a major general in the 
American army, and also received a comnjunication from Benjamin Franklin, our 
commissioner at Paris, that the French government had entered into a treatv to 
assist the infant Republic of the United States, by sending not only money, but a 
fleet and an army to aid the Americans in their struggle for liberty. These im- 
portant facts of general history are told in a connected narrative in this volume. 

In addition the work contains an exhaustive account of the part taken bv 
York County in the war for Independence. Attention is called to the article on 
the Flying Camp, which contained three regiments of troops west of the Susque- 
hanna, who performed valiant services at the battle of Fort Washington. No 
other city of the Union, except Philadelphia, New York and Boston has more in- 
teresting associations relating to the Revolution than York, Pennsylvania, and it 
is the object of these pages to bring out this fact clearly to the student of 
American History. 

(^ R P 

York, Pa., April 1. 1^)14. 





First York County Troops — Thompson's 
Battalion — Expedition to Canada — Sixth 
Pennsylvania Battalion — Battle of Three 
Rivers — McClean's Company — Grier's 
Company — Miles' Regiment — Albright's 
Comipany — First Pennsylvania Regiment 
— Battle of Long Island. 

In 1774 the difficulties between the King 
of England and the thirteen colonies were 
not adjusted by the appeals made to the 
King and Parliament. As the result of this 
condition the first Continental Congress 
with representatives from the diflerent 
colonies, met in Philadelphia in September 
of that year. This Congress sent a decla- 
ration of Rights to tlie King, but it was un- 
answered. Soon afterward IMassachusetts 
assembled a Provincial Congress and began 
to form troops and collect military stores to 
oppose by armed resistance what was 
termed the tyranny of the English govern- 
ment. Gen. Thomas Gage, who had 
fought under Braddock in the French and 
Indian war, was in charge of the British 
troops at Boston. 

On the evening of April 18, 
Concord 1775. Gage dispatched 800 
and regulars to Concord, a few 

Lexington, miles northwest of Boston, to 
capture the army stores there. 
On their way they found a party of armed 
yeomanry on Lexington Common. A 
British officer ordered them to disperse and 
as they remained motionless his soldiers 
fired, killing seven men, and then proceede-<l 
to Concord. By the time they reached 
Concord most of tlie stores had been re- 
moved. In a sharp skirnu'sh, the British 
regulars were defeated, and as they marched 
back toward Boston, Inmdreds of farmers 
advanced upon them, firing from l^ehind 
walls and trees after the Indian fasliion. 

The British lost nearly 300 men, and though 
reinforced, narrowdy escaped capture. This 
was the beginning of the Revolutionary 

On the loth of Alay, 1775, the second 
Continental Congress assembled in Phila- 
delphia and on the same day Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point, on Lake Champlain. were 
captured by patriots from the Green 
Mountains and Connecticut Valley, under 
Ethan Allen and Seth Warner. 

The tocsin of war had now been sounded 
and American troops began to assemble in 
the vicinity of Boston. These men had 
come from farms and workshops and, al- 
though untrained as soldiers, were eager 
for armed conflict with the British foe. 
Meantime reinforcements had arrived from 
England. General Gage was succeeded by 
Sir William Howe, who now commanded 
10,000 men, and on June 17 the famous bat- 
tle of Bunker Hill was fought. Although 
the Americans were defeated, tlie moral 
efifect of the battle was in their favor. 

At this time the American forces around 
Boston were composed of undisciplined 
troops. The news of the conflict at Lexing- 
ton and Concord soon spread from Massa- 
chusetts to Georgia. It aroused a spirit of 
patriotism that prevailed throughout the 
country during the entire period of the war. 
Continental Congress had taken charge of 
the assembling of troops in Massachusetts 
to oppose the British forces of Sir William 
Howe, and now^ supported active measures 
for a war against the mother country. On 
June 14 this body of patriots adopted a 
resolution that eight companies of trained 
riflemen from Pennsylvania, two from 
I^laryland and two from Virginia be raised, 
and as soon as organized should be marched 
to the army under \\'ashington at Cam- 

A military spirit had existed in Pennsyl- 
vania and the adjoining colonies since the 
French and Indian war. Companies had 
been organized in nearly all the centres of 



population. The men who composed these 
companies were trained liunters and skilled 
marksmen so that when tlieir patriotism 
was aroused, these sturdy pioneers were 
quick to respond to the resolution of 
Congress and the appeals of their fellow- 
countrymen in New England. 

When the news of Lexington and Con- 
cord reached the county seat at York it was 
soon transmitted to every section of York 
County. A similar spirit pervaded the 
neighboring counties of Pennsylvania. One 
of the eight Pennsylvania companies was to 
be recruited in York County. Each com- 
pany was officered with a captain, three lieu- 
tenants, four sergeants, four corporals, a 
drummer and sixty-eight privates. The 
captain was to receive twenty dollars per 
month ; a lieutenant, thirteen and one-third 
dollars; a sergeant, eight dollars; a cor- 
poral, seven and one-third; a drummer the 
same; privates, six and two-thirds. All 
were to find their own arms and clothes. 


The sturdy yeomanry of this section of 
Pennsylvania \vere ready for the emergency. 
Local militia companies had been organized. 
At this period there were three armed 
companies in the town of Y'ork. From the 
militia of the county it was decided to select 
the reciuisite number of officers and sixty- 
eight riflemen to form a company. Recruit- 
ing began at Marsh Creek, at Gettys' tavern, 
now the site of Gettysburg. Some men 
came from the ]\Ionaghan settlement, where 
Dillsburg now stands, and still another 
scjuad was recruited in the southern part of 
the county. These men, ready to enlist in 
the cause of American Independence, came 
to York, where the company was organized 
with Michael Doudel as captain ; Henry 
Miller, first lieutenant ; John Dill, second 
lieutenant; James Matson, third lieutenant. 

On receipt of the instructions of Con- 
gress the York County committee, which 
was made up of such sturdy patriots as 
James Smith, Thomas Hartley, George 
Irwin, John Kean, Joseph Donaldson and 
Michael Hahn, immediately assembled and 
tbok steps to prepare the company for the 
front. Everything was done with the 
greatest expedition. So many men wanted 
to enlist that there were more than the 
of^cers were authorized to accept. 

" I'll take only the men that can hit that 
nose at one hundred and fifty yards," said 
young Lieutenant ]\Iiller, as he chalked a 
small nose on a barn door. 

Horatio Gates, recently appointed adju- 
tant-general of the army and who iiad 
chanced to arrive in York from his home in 
Virginia on his way to headquarters, de- 
cided it would be unwise to refuse the en- 
listment of such courageous men. " They 
will make soldiers," he said. 

The committee appointed to pro\ide the 
necessaries for the company did their work 
so well that in a few days a company of lOO 
men was completely armed and equipped 
for the field without a farthing being ad- 
vanced from the Continental treasury. 

" The spirit of the people on this oc- 
casion," wrote the local committee of cor- 
respondence to Congress, " gave the com- 
mittee encouragement. Tlie men seemed 
actuated Avith the greatest zeal and thought 
tliemselves honored in having their names 
enrolled among the sons of liberty who are 
to fight for their country and in defense of 
their dearest rights and privileges. The 
only uneasiness they feel is that they are not 
this moment at the scene of action. From 
the spirit of the soldiers we entertain the 
most flattering hopes that they will prove 
servicable to the cause of liberty and reflect 
honor on this county. The principal people 
here have caught the spirit of the honorable 
Congress and in their small circle have done 
everything in their power to animate their 
neighbors to stand forth in this day of 
despotism and resist the arbitrary and im- 
just measures of Parliament with all the 
power which heaven has given them. And 
we have the pleasure to inform you that 
their labors have not been in vain and that 
the county is ready to strain every nerve to 
put into execution any measures which the 
Congress may judge necessary to oiu" com- 
mon defense. The officers are men of 
whose courage we have the highest opinion. 
The captain has behaved very well on this 
occasion and has done all in his power by 
advancing money, etc., to forward the com- 
mon cause." 

It would be interesting to record the en- 
tire muster roll of this band of patriots. 
The official records being defective, all 
that can be here given are the fol- 





Fit'st Lieuienant. 


Second Lieutenant, 


Third Lieutenant. 



Armor, Robert 
Armstrong, George 
Beverly, John 
Bettinger, Christian 
Brown, John 
Campbell, Thomas 
Clark, John 
Cline, William 
Cooper, William 
Dougherty, George 
Douther, John 
Evans, Abel 
Ferguson, John 
Graft, Robert 
Griffith, John 
Halbut, Joseph 
Kennedy, Richard 
Kennedv. Thomas 


Lelap, Daniel 
Lewis, Abram 
McAlister, John 
McCrary, John 
McCurt, John 
Minshall, Joshua 
Mill, James 
Moore, Edward 
Ramsey, David 
Russell, William 
Shields, Matthew 
Staley. Jacob 
Start, Andrew 
Sullivan, Patrick 
Sweeney, Isaac 
Tanner, Tobias 
Taylor, John 
Turner, Cornelius 

The form of enlistment to which every 
one of these volunteer soldiers appended his 
signature before leaving York reads : " I 
have this day voluntarily enlisted myself as 
a soldier in the American Continental army 
for one year, unless sooner discharged, and 
do bind myself to conform in all instances 
to such rules and regulations as are. or shall 
be, established for the government of said 

According to the diary of Rev. 
Leave John Roth, pastor of the Mora- 

for vian Church at York, Captain 

Boston. Doudel and his company attended 
religious services at Zion Re- 
formed Church on the morning of July ist. 
They listened to a patriotic sermon de- 
livered by Rev. Daniel \\'agner, the pastor, 
who enjoined them " to keep God before 
their eyes continually and then they would 
be assured of his guidance and protection." 
At I o'clock in the afternoon, this band of 
one hundred American patriots started out 
East Market Street on the long march to 
join the army under Washington at Cam- 

In answer to the resolution of Congress 
for eight companies from Pennsylvania, the 
recruiting of men took place in the other 
counties of the Province. One company 
was raised in Xorthampton County, com- 
manded by Captain Abraham Miller; one in 

Berks County, Captain George Xagel; one 
in Bedford County, Captain Robert Clug- 
gage ; one in Northumberland, Captain 
John Lowdon ; two in Cumberland, which 
then included Franklin, commanded by 
Captain James Ross and Captain Matthew- 
Smith. In all, there were nine companies 
from Pennsylvania, one more than re- 
quested by Congress. By order of Conti- 
nental Congress and the Pennsylvania As- 
sembly, they were organized into what was 
termed b}' General Washington in organi- 
zing the army, " Colonel Thompson"'s Bat- 
talion of Riflemen from Pennsylvania." 


Col. William Thompson, who was as- 
signed to the command of this battalion, 
was a native of Ireland, born in 1725. He 
settled in Cumberland Coimty early in life 
and during the French and Indian war had 
commanded a company of mounted 
frontiersmen. When the Revolution opened 
he was a surveyor residing at Carlisle. The 
following is the field and staff of this bat- 
talion when organized on its arrival at 
Washington's headquarters : 

Colonel — William Thompson. 

Lieutenant-Colonel — Edward Hand. 

Major — Robert McGaw. 

Chaplain — Rev. Samuel Blair. 

Adjutant — David Ziegler. 

Quartermaster — Frederick Hubley. 

Surgeon — William McGaw. 

Surgeon's Mate — Christian Reinecke. 

Pay Master — David Harris. 

Commissary — John Biddle. 

^^'agon Master — Adam Egle. 

The officers of this famous battalion of 
riflemen were the first after General Wash- 
ington to recei\-e commissions from Con- 
gress, and these patriots from Pennsylvania 
were the first troops west of the Hudson 
and south of Long Island to join the 
American army under the commander-in- 
chief at Cambridge, Massachusetts. The 
York riflemen, after crossing the Susque- 
hanna, passed through Reading and Bethle- 
hem, reaching New York before any other 
Pennsylvania company, and proceeded to 
Boston, arriving there July 25. At this time 
there were 10,000 British regulars in Boston 
under Sir William Howe, and others were 
on the war from England. 



Continental Congress was 
Washington now in session behind closed 
Takes . doors in Carpenter's Hall, 
Command. Philadelphia. On June 15 
Thomas Johnson, a delegate 
from Frederick, ^Maryland, and afterward 
the first governor of Maryland, nominated 
George \\'ashington for commander-in- 
chief of the American army. John Adams, 
in an eloquent speech, seconded the motion, 
and Washington, who was then a member 
of Congress from Virginia, was unani- 
mously chosen. He started for Boston on 
horseback June 21, and, while passing- 
through New York city, June 25, received 
the news of the battle of Bunker Hill. He 
arrived at Cambridge July 2. The next day 
he took formal command, drawing his 
sword under an elm tree which a few years 
ago was appropriatel}' marked. At this 
time there were 14,500 New England troops 
equipped for duty around Boston, but ac- 
cording to an official statement they had 
onl}^ nine rounds of ammunition to a man. 
Washington at once organized these raw 
troops into divisions for drill and discipline, 
and began to lay siege to the city of Boston. 
The arrival of the troops from Pennsyl- 
vania was enthusiastically received by the 
patriots of New England. The evidences of 
the courage and fortitude of the riflemen 
from York and their willingness to join in 
the struggle for American liberty is shown 
by the following extracts from Moore's 
Diary of the Revolution : 

York July 25, 1775. — Capt. Doudel, with his 

ip company of riflemen from York, Penn- 

roopb sylvania, arrived at Cambridge about one 

in o'clock today, and since has made pro- 

Action posals to General Washington to attack 

the transport stationed on Charles river. 
He will engage to take the transport with thirty men. 
The General thinks it best to decline at present; but at 
the same time commends the spirit of Captain Doudel 
and his brave men who, though just arrived after a very 
long march, offer to execute the plan immediately. 

July 30, 1775. — Last Friday the regulars cut several 
trees and were busy all night in throwing up a line of 
abatis in Charlestown Xeck. In the evening orders 
were given to the York county riflemen to march down 
to our advanced post in Charlestown Neck, to endeavor 
to surround the advanced guard and bring ofif some 
prisoners, from whom we e.xpected to learn their design 
in throwing up their abatis in the Neck. The rifle com- 
pany divided and executed their plan in the following 
manner: Captain Doudel with thirty-nine men filed off 
to the right of Bunker Hill, and, creeping on their 
hands and knees, got into the rear without being dis- 
covered. The other band of forty men, under Lieu- 
tenant Miller, were successful in getting behind the 
sentinels on the left, and were within a few yards of 

joining the division on the right, when a party of reg- 
ulars came down the hill to relieve their guard, and 
cro.ssed our«riflemen under Captain Doudel as they were 
lying on the ground in Indian file. The regulars were 
within twenty yards of our men before they saw them 
and immediately lired. The riflemen returned the salute, 
killed several and brought off two prisoners and their 
arms, with the loss of Corporal Cruise, who is supposed 
to have been killed as he has not been heard of since 
the affair. 

August 9, 1775. — The riflemen from York county have 
annoyed the regulars vcrj* much. By a gentleman who 
left Boston yesterday, we hear that Captains Percival 
and Sabine of the Marines, Captain Johnston of the 
Royal Irish, and Captain LeAIoine of the train, were 
killed Monday. Captain Clietwyn, son of Lord Chet- 
wyn, is mortally wounded. The number of privates 
killed this week we have not heard. The regulars have 
thrown up a breastwork across the neck at the foot of 
Bunker Hill to protect their sentries and advance 

Frothingham, in describing Thompson's 
battalion and other riflemen from the south 
in his " Siege of Boston," saj's : 

" The riflemen from Pennsylvania at- 
tracted much attention. They had enlisted 
with great promptness and had marched 
from four to seven hundred miles. In a 
short time large bodies of them arrived in 
camp. They were remarkably stout, hardy 
men, dressed in white frocks, or rifle shirts, 
and round hats, and were skillful marksmen. 
At a review, a company of them, while on 
a quick advance, fired balls into circular 
targets seven inches in diameter at a 
distance of 250 yards. They were statioiied 
on the lines and became terrible to the 
British. The account of their prowess was 
circulated over England." 

Corporal Walter Cruise, mentioned 
A in the above extract from Moore's 
Local Diary, was a member of Captain 
Hero. Doudel's company from York. He 
was taken a prisoner to the British 
camp. So many of the officers and privates 
of the royal army had fallen under the un- 
erring aim of the Pennsylvania, Maryland 
and Virginia riflemen that Cruise, being 
one of the first of them to be captured, be- 
came the object of their resentment. The 
British finally sent him to England to be 
tried on certain charges, where a curiosity 
had been aroused to see, in his frontier 
costuine, one of the riflemen of whom they 
had heard such wonderful stories. After a 
term of imprisonment he was taken before 
the mayor of London, but that magistrate, 
finding no crime charged against him, of 
which he could take cognizance, released 



him from custody. Artliur I-ee, of Virginia, 
the secret agent in London for the Ameri- 
can colonies, upon hearing of Cruise's re- 
lease, sent for him and after congratulating 
him upon regaining his freedom, delivered 
Cruise a package of papers. 

" These papers are of the greatest mo- 
ment to the liberty of our country. Can I 
trust you to deliver them safely into the 
hands of General Washington and the 
Continental Congress?" 

" You can trust me," was the reply. 

" Then I will secure a passage for you to 
Halifax, the nearest and safest route to 
America. For the cause of American 
liberty you will guard these papers well, 
and when you arrive in America, deliver 
them as soon as possible to General Wash- 
ington and the Continental Congress. I 
can promise you that your country will not 
forget your services." 

Wishing him success on his mission, 
Arthur Lee bade him farewell, and Cruise 
was soon aboard a vessel bound for 
America. On his arrival at Halifax, the 
heroic corporal hastened with his valuable 
despatches to Xew York, the headquarters 
of the American army, where he delivered 
them safely into the hands of General 
Washington, who immediately transmitted 
copies to Continental Congress at Philadel- 
phia, where the news was eagerly received. 
An impression had been prevalent among 
the American people that peace commis- 
sioners would be sent to adjust the differ- 
ences between England and the colonies, 
but instead, the despatches brought by 
Corporal Cruise informed them that the 
King intended to send more English troops 
and to hire German soldiers for the war in 

Nothing enraged the .\meri- 
Declaration cans more than the arrival 
of of this news nor urged them 

Independence, more to declare indepen- 
dence, than this hiring of 
foreign mercenaries by the British govern- 
ment. At length, in June, a motion was 
made in Congress liy Richard Henry Lee. 
a delegate from Virginia. " that these 
United Colonies are. and of right ought to 
be, free and independent states." This 
motion was carried on July 2 and the 
Declaration of Independence draughted by 
Thomas Jefferson and re\ised by a com- 

mittee, of which he was a member, was 
adopted July 4 at Independence Hall. Phila- 

Thompson's battalion of Pennsylvania 
riflemen remained with the arm\' under 
Washington during the summer of 1775, 
participating in the siege of Boston. Cap- 
tain Michael Doudel, who commanded the 
company from York County, resigned his 
commission on account of ill health- and re- 
turned to his family at York. Lieutenant 
Henry Miller was promoted to captain. 
This battalion was placed in the division of 
General Charles Lee upon the organization 
of the American army around Boston. It 
remained in his command until August 20, 
when it was transferred to General Israel 
Putnam, encamped four miles from Cam- 
bridge. On August 29, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Edward Hand writes : " Our battalion 
formed the picket guard of the two 
thousand provincial troops who on the 
evening of the 26th of August took posses- 
sion of Ploughed Hill and threw up en- 
trenchments, and on the morning of the 
27th met with its first loss. Private Simpson, 
of Captain Matthew Smith's company, who 
was wounded in the leg- and died there- 

Captain James Wilkinson, who, after the 
Revolution, became commander-in-chief of 
the army, joined Thompson's battalion at 
Boston as a volunteer. In recording the 
death of Private Simpson, he says : " The 
young man was visited and consoled during 
his illness by General Washington in per- 
son and by most of the officers of rank be- 
longing to the army. Every exertion by 
surgeons was made to save him, and his 
death became a theme of common sorrow 
in an army of twelve or fourteen thousand 

.\n incident now occurred 
Proposed which interested all the Penn- 
Canada syhania soldiers under Colo- 
Expedition, nel Thompson. An expedi- 
tion had been planned to in- 
vade Canada. The story goes that this ex- 
pedition was suggested by Benedict Arnold, 
then considered a skillful soldier, who held 
the commission of colonel in the army 
around Boston. One thousand men were to 
be detached and sent under Arnold through 
the wilderness of Maine to Quebec. On 
September 5 the company under Captain 


1 62 


Smith, of Dauphin County, and the com- 
pany under Captain Hendricks, of Cuinl)er- 
land County, were ordered to parade upon 
the Boston Common, preparatory to join- 
ing Arnold, and they united witli his expe- 
dition the following week. The story of 
their experience in this campaign is given 
in the history of the first expedition to 
Canada, described elsewhere in this work. 

The York riflemen under Henry Miller 
were disappointed in not having the oppor- 
tunity of joining Arnold on this expedition, 
for they already had attained a high reputa- 
tion as trained marksmen. A troubl'e had 
arisen, however, in Thompson's command, 
for some of his troops, including the York 
Riflemen, had been lax in discipline, even 
going so far as to have released some of 
their companions from the guard house, for 
which offense they themselves were 
punished. In order that idleness might not 
be a bane to them, the commanding general 
ordered that they should thereafter do all 
camp duty the same as other regiments. 
Obedient to the order, a strict discipline 
was now enforced by the company officers, 
and a contemporary letter states, "that 
upon every alarm it was impossil^le for 
men to behave with more readiness or 
attend better to their duty." On the gth 
of November, these men, who had already 
been the first Pennsylvania troops to en- 
gage the British in armed conflict, took 
part in the skirmish at Lechmere's Point, 
in sight of Boston. In describing this affair 
the Philadelphia Evening Post of 1775 
says : 

" The British had landed 

Valor of under cover of a fire from 

Pennsylvania their batteries on Bunker, 

Troops. Breed's and Copp's hills, as 

well as from a frigate which 
lay three hundred yards ofT the point. In a 
high tide it is an island. Colonel Thomp- 
son marched instantly with his men, and 
though it was a \ery stormy day, they re- 
garded not the tide nor waited for boats, 
but took to the water up to their armpits, 
for a quarter of a mile, and notwithstand- 
ing the regulars' fire, reached the island, 
and although the enemy were lodged behind 
the walls and under cover, drove them to 
their boats. Loss, one killed (Alexander 
Creighton, of Ross' company) and three 

\\-ounded : British loss, seventeen killed and 
one wounded." 

The ne.xt day, according to official re- 
ports. Colonel Thompson and his battalion 
were pidjlicly thanked by AX'ashington in 
general orders. General Washington's 
army around Boston was increased in 
numbers by the arrival of new troops 
during the winter of 1775-6. Early in 
March there were indications that General 
Howe, the commander of the British forces, 
was making arrangements to evacuate the 
city, and on the 17th of March the siege of 
Boston ended, when General How^e set sail 
with his army for Halifax, in Nova Scotia. 
It was this incident in .American history that 
ga\-e rise to the humorous expression 
" Gone to Halifax," After his arrival at 
Halifax, Howe made arrangements for an 
expedition against New York City. 

Immediately after the departure of the 
British. Washington took possession of 
Boston. Believing that the final destination 
of Howe was New York, he began to move 
part of his army toward that city, leaving 
Boston in possession of New England 
troops. He accompanied his army on the 
march toward New York. 

Colonel Thompson was jiromoted to the 
rank of brigadier-general on March i, and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Hand was placed in 
connnanil of the battalion, receiving his 
commission as colonel from Continental 
Congress, March 7. During the siege of 
Boston, W'alter Cruise, John Brown and 
Cornelius Turner, of York Count}-, were 
taken prisoners. At this time Colonel Ed- 
ward Hand reported that his battalion was 
composed of six companies. 

Hand's battalion, which now in 

An official papers was called a reg- 

Historic iment. had a standard of " deep 
Banner. green ground, the device a tiger 
partly enclosed by toils attempt- 
ing the pass, defended by a hunter armed 
with a spear (in wdiite) on crimson field, 
the motto ' Domari Nolo." " Their uni- 
forms were made of brown holland and 
Osnaburgs, something like a shirt, douljle 
caped over the shoulders in imitation of the 
Indians; and on the breast in capital letters 
was their motto, " Liberty or Death." 

When Washington discovered that Howe 
was preparing to leave Boston, he sent 



General Sullivan with Thompson's, now 
Hand's, riflemen with five other regiments 
to Xew York. They left Boston on March 
14 and arrived at New York March 28. Ar- 
rangements had been made for Sullivan to 
reinforce the expedition against Montreal 
in Canada, taking the place of Thomas, who 
succeeded Montgomery after the latter had 
been killed. 

Hand's regiment, in which the 
March York riflemen, under Captain Mil- 

to ler, were now serving, was ]:)laced 

Long under General Israel Putnam, who 
Island, had been sent to New York by 
Washington to take command of 
all the forces in and around that city and 
await the e.xpected arrival of the British 
army from Halifax, .\pril 5. Hand's reg- 
iment w'as moved by order of General Put- 
nam to Long Island, where it remained at a 
station near New Utrecht during the re- 
mainder of April and the months of May 
and June, doing some good service. 

On the 22d of April. 1776. General W'ash- 
ington said in a letter to the President of 
Congress. " The time for which the rifle- 
men enlisted will expire on the first of Juh' 
next, and as the loss of such a \-aluable and 
brave body of men will be of great injury to 
the ser\-ice I would su1:)mit it to the con- 
sideration of Congress whether it would not 
be best to adopt some method to induce 
them to continue. They are. indeed, a very 
useful corps, but I need not mention this. 
as their importance is already kncjwn to 

Congress had (without the knowledge of 
the commander-in-chief) passed a resolu- 
tion, dated April 15. to recruit and re-enlist 
the battalion and the independent rifle com- 
panies attached to it. for a term of two years 
unless sooner discharged. On the 30th of 
June, the day when the time of those who 
did not re-enlist expired. Colonel Hand said 
in a letter. " Almost all the men discharged 
today declare that they will stay to know 
what the fleet will do." meaning the British 
fleet bringing Howe's army from Halifax to 
the harbor of New York. (3n the first of 
July. 1776. the rifle battalion, recruited and 
re-enlisted, entered on another term of 
service as the First Regiment of Pennsyl- 
vania in the Continental Line. Pennsyl- 
vania troops thus formed the first regiment 
of the regular army of the United States. 


Soon after the opening of the war at 
Lexington and Concord, the conquest of 
Canada was contemplated by the New 
England leaders, but Congress was un- 
willing to adopt measures except such as 
were purely defensi\-e in character. It was 
only with reluctance that Congress had 
sanctioned the garrisoning of Ticonderoga 
in northeastern New York by Connecticut 
troops. During the summer of 1775 it was 
ascertained that Sir Guy Carleton. the 
Governor of Canada, w^as about to take 
steps to recover Ticonderoga. which had 
been captured by Ethan Allen in May. 
Congress also learned that the English had 
intrigued with the Iroquois Indians of cen- 
tral New York to harass the New* England 
frontier and the region along the Hudson 
River. \\'ith this condition of affairs 
Congress resolved upon the invasion of 
Canada as a measure of self-defence. 

An expedition led by General 
March Richard ^Montgomery passed 
to down Lake Champlain against 

Quebec. Montreal. On September 12, 
Montgomery, with a force of two 
thousand men, laid siege to the fortress of 
St. John's, which commanded the approach 
to Montreal. .After a siege of fifty days St. 
John's surrendered and Montgomery en- 
tered Montreal nine days later. Meanwhile 
\\'ashington. in command of the army at 
Cambridge, detached one thousand infantry. 
'Morgan's Virginia sharpshooters, and two 
companies of riflemen from Pennsylvania to 
advance through the forests of Maine to 
Oueljec. This expedition was in command 
of Colonel Benedict Arnold, wdio is sup- 
posed to have suggested it. .\aron Burr 
served on the staff of Arnold in this expeili- 
tion and at one time acted as a spy in the 
garb of a Catholic priest. One of the Penn- 
sylvania companies that went with this ex- 
pedition was recruited in Cumberland 
County and was commanded by Captain 
William Hendricks: the other connnanded 
In- Captain Matthew Smith, had been raised 
in the present area of Dauphin County. 
Both of these companies had served in 
Thompson's Battalion at the siege of Boston 
and both contained some York County sol- 
diers. Lieutenant Michael Simpson, who 
afterward wrote the introduction to Hon. 

1 64 


John Joseph Henry's account of this expe- 
dition, was a lieutenant in Captain Smith's 
company. He resided on the Simpson 
Ferry property at New Market in Fairview 

Arnold's march, which was as difficult as 
Hannibal's crossing of the Alps, was con- 
ducted with great ability, but it was nearly 
ruined by the misconduct of a subordinate 
officer, who deserted with two hundred men 
and the greater part of the provisions. 
After frightful hardships to which two hun- 
dred more men succumbed, on the 13th of 
X^ovember the little army climbed the 
Heights of Al)raham, fronting Quebec. As 
Arnold's force was insufficient to storm the 
city and the garrison would not come out to 
fight, he was obliged to await the arrival of 
Montgomery, who had just taken Montreal. 
On the morning of December 31, Mont- 
gomery and Arnold made a conijjined attack 
on Quebec and each came near carrying his 
point, but in the assault Montgomery was 
slain and Arnold wounded in the leg. The 
enthusiasm of the troops was chilled and 
they were repelled. Captain Morgan suc- 
ceeded Montgomery in the temj^orary com- 
mand but in a violent attack on the British, 
he and his company were made prisoners. 
With the failure of this desperate attack 
passed away the golden opportunity for tak- 
ing the citadel of Canada. Arnold remained 
throughout the winter in the neighborhood 
of Quebec and in the spring the enterprise 
was taken up by W'ooster and Sullivan with 
fresh forces. 

During the fall of 1775 Con- 
Reinforce- gress asked that five battalions 
merits for l)e rais"ed in Pennsylvania to re- 
Canada, inforce the expedition for the 
conquest of Canada. When 
these battalions were organized the first 
was commanded by John Philip De Hass, of 
Lebanon; the second by Colonel Arthur St. 
Clair, of Westmoreland county, who had 
seen service in the British army under Am- 
herst ; the third by Colonel John Shea, an 
Irish merchant of Philadelphia; the fourth 
by Colonel Anthony Wayne, a surveyor and 
member of the assembly from Chester 
county, and the fifth by Colonel Robert 
McGaw. of Carlisle. January 4, 1776, Con- 
gress passed a resolution that a sixth bat- 
talion be raised in Pennsylvania, which was 
recruited west of the Susquehanna. .Ks 

York count}' had no troops yet organized in 
response to these \'ariotis calls for the ex- 
pedition to Canada, James Smith, a practic- 
ing lawyer and chairman of the Committee 
of Safety for York county, wrote the fol- 
lowing letter : 

James Smith to Benjamin Franklin and Robert Morris, 
Esquires, and the Committee of Safety of Penn- 

York, Pa., December 2i, 1775. 

Gentlemen : — By the last night's post we received the 
public papers, acquainting us of the resolve of congress 
touching the raising of four battalions in this province 
and desiring the conmiittee of safety to appoint the com- 
pany officers and recommend the field officers of those 
battalions to the honorable continental congress. 

The time limited for the appointment and recom- 
mendation being fi.xed to the second of January it will 
be impracticable for the members of your committee in 
this county to attend; in this situation of affairs the 
Committee of Correspondence for York County hope 
your board will not think it improper to trouble you on 
that subject, well knowing that the great cause of 
American liberty is our primary object and that every- 
thing that may tend to forward that glorious cause 
through whatever channel will not be unacceptable. I 
am directed by the Committee of Correspondence for 
this county to write to the Committee of Safety and in 
the strongest terms to request that the board may 
please to recommend Thomas Hartley, Esq., to be lieu- 
tenant colonel of one of the battalions to be raised in 
this province and in case that recommendation should 
take place that the board will please to appoint David 
Grier. Esq.. to be captain; John McDowell, lieutenant; 
William Nichols, ensign, of one company; Moses Mc- 
Clean, captain ; Lewis Bush, lieutenant, and Robert 
Hoopes, ensign, of another company in the same bat- 
talion; and if a third company should be raised in York 
county to please to appoint Bernard Eichelberger, cap- 
tain or lieutenant as you may think best. 

If the board should think this application not im- 
proper in this situation and it should be agreeable to 
them, the Committee of Correspondence here will exert 
every nerve in assisting the officers to get their com- 
panies filled in the most expeditious manner witli the 
best men and at the least possible expense to the public. 
I am 
with great respect 
Your most Innnble Servant, 
To Benjamin Franklin & James Smith, Chair' 

Robert Morris, Esq., and of the Com'e York Co. 

the Connnittee of Safety of the 
Province of Pennsylvania 
at Philadelphia. 

By the Lancaster post to be delivered as soon as 


William Irvine, a graduate of medicine 
from the University of Dublin, who settled 
at Carlisle in 1764, where he practiced his 
profession until the opening of the Revolu- 
tion, was appointed to command the Sixth 
Battalion. Colonel Ir\-ine had servetl as an 
officer in the British army in the war be- 
tween England and France before he came 
to this country. Thomas Hartley, then a 

'rill'". REVOLU'i'IOX 


])racticing lawyer at ^'()|•k. was inailc lieu- 
tenant colonel; James Dunlap. major: Rev. 
William Linn, chaplain: John Brooks, ad- 
jutant, and Robert Johnston, surgeon. 

Immediately after the receipt of the news 
from Congress asking for troops from west 
of the Susquehanna, recruiting began at 
N'ork. in the lower end of York county, in 
the Monaghau settlement around the pres- 
ent site of DilJsburg. at Hanover, and in 
the Marsh Creek country around the site • 
of Gettysburg. In a short time two com- 
panies were organized. One of these com- 
panies was commanded by Captain David 
Grier. a member of the bar. wdio had been 
admitted to the practice of law at York in 
1 77 1. The other was commanded by Cap- 
tain Moses }iIcClean. son of Archibald Mc- 
Clean. a noted surveyor of York who had 
assisted in running Mason and Dixon's line. 

Colonel Irvine's command, known in his- 
tory as the Sixth Pennsylvania battalion, 
was organized at Carlisle in March. 1776. 
On the 22d _of that month Colonel Irvine 
wrote to John Hancock. President of Con- 
gress : 

'T am honored with your orders to march 
my battalion to New York, wdiich shall be 
complied with, with all possible expedition. 
Many of the arms are old. and want bay- 
onets and repairs. However. I shall not 
wait for bayonets, as I hope to be supplied 
at Philadelphia or New York. I have been 
ol)liged to purchase many rifles, but I pre- 
sume they may l)e changed for muskets, 
should the service require it: knapsacks, 
haversacks, canteens, and many other ne- 
cessaries which the commissioners promised 
to forward for my battalion, have not yet 
come to hand. Though I do not mean to 
wait for them, yet X think it proper to ac- 
quaint you. as t^erhaps your fitrther orders 
may be necessary." 

A few days later Colonel Irvine left Car- 
lisle with his battalion for the Canada cam- 
paign. His command numbered 780 men. 
'I'he captains of the eight dilTerent com- 
panies comprising this battalion were: 
Da\id Grier, Moses McClean, Samuel Hay. 
Robert Adams, Abraham Smith. William 
Riiqjew James A. \\ ilson and Jeremiah 

In accordance with a resolution of Con- 
gress each company was to be com])osed of 
sixty-eight men. one captain, one lieutenant. 

one ensign, four sergeants and four cor- 
porals: pri\ates to be enlisted for one year 
at five dollars per month : each private to be 
allowed instead of bount}-. one felt hat. a 
pair of yarn stockings and a pair of shoes: 
the men to find their own arms : the en- 
listed men to be furnished with a hunting 
.^hirt. not exceeding in value one and one- 
third of a dollar, and a blanket, provided 
tliese can be procured but not to be made 
part of the terms of enlistment. 

The Sixth Battalion under Colo- 
Join nel Irvine arrived at .\lbany 
Sullivan's May ro. where it joined a part 
Command, of Wayne's l)attalion from 

Chester county. These troops 
proceeded to Fort Ticonderoga on Lake 
Champlain. where they embarked with Gen- 
eral John Sullivan for St. John's. Here 
the\' joined the Pennsylvania and other 
troops, all of which were placed under com- 
mand of General John Sullivan, a native of 
Maine, who had held a command under 
Washington at the siege of Boston. He 
was one of the eight brigadier generals first 
commissioned by Congress at Philadelphia. 
On June 2 he took coinmand of the northern 
army on the borders of Canada, succeeding 
General Thomas, of Massachusetts, wdio 
had died of smallpox near Montreal. Wil- 
liam Thompson, who had been promoted 
from the command of his battalion of Penn- 
syhania riflemen to the rank of brigadier 
general, had been ordered from Boston in 
April, 1776, to reinforce General Thomas 
with four regiments which were afterward 
increased to ten. He met the northern 
army on its retreat from Quebec and as- 
sumed the chief command when General 
Thomas was sick, yielding it up on Jvme 4. 
to General Sullivan, by whose orders two 
days later he made a disastrous attack on 
the enemv at Three Rivers. 


The story of the battle of Three Rivers 
is liest told in a letter written by Ivieutenant 
Colonel Hartley, of York, to his personal 
friend, Jasper Yeates. of Lancaster. This 
letter dated at the camp at Sorel, three days 
after the i)attle. June 12. 1776. reads as fol- 
lows : 

"Before the arrival of Colonel Wayne's 
and Irvine's regiments under the command 
of General Sullivan, Colonel St. Clair, with 

1 66 


a (letacliment of seven hundred men. was 
sent down the river St. Lawrence al)out 
nine leagues, to watch tlie motions of the 
enemy and act occasionally. General Sul- 
livan's arrival here was at a critical time. 
Canada was lost, unless some notable exer- 
tion was made; the credit of our arms gone 
and no large numlier of our American 
troops to sustain our posts. It was saitl 
that the taking of Three Rivers, with such 
troops as were on it would be of service. .\ 
detachment under General Thompson was 
sent down the river. The corps under Colo- 
nel St. Clair w'as to join it, and if the Gen- 
eral thought it expedient, he was ordered 
by Sullivan to attack the enemy at Three 

"We left this on the evening of the 5th 
instant in several batteaux and joined St. 
Clair about twelve o'clock at night. It be- 
ing too late to proceed on to Three Rivers 
the enterprise was postponed until the next 

"In the dusk of the evening of the 7th we 
set ofi from the Nicolette with about fifteen 
hundred rank and file besides officers. It 
was intended to attack Three Rivers about 
daybreak in four places. Thompson landed 
his forces about nine miles above the town 
on the north side of the St. Lawrence, and 
divided his army into five divisions. Max- 
well. St. Clair, Wayne and Irvine each com- 
manding a division, and I had the honor of 
commanding the reserve. Leaving two 
hundred and fifty men to guard the bat- 
teaux, the army proceeded swiftly towards 
the town. I was to be ready to sustain the 
party which might need assistance. 

"The guards proved faithless and the 
General was misinformed as to the number 
of the enemy as well as to the situation of 
the town. Our men had lost their sleep for 
two nights, yet were in pretty good spirits. 
Daylight appeared and showed us to the 
enemy. Our guides (perhaps traitors) had 
led us through windings, and were rather 
carrying us off from the post. The General 
was enraged at their conduct. 

"There were mutual firings. Our people 
killed some in a barge. Our scheme was 
no longer an enterprise. It might have 
been prudent perhaps to retreat but no one 
would propose it. We endeavored to pene- 
trate through a swamp to the town and 
avoid the shipping. A\ e liad no idea of the 

difficulties we were to surmount in the mire, 
otherwise the way by the shipping would 
have been preferred. 

"We waded three hours in the mud about 
mid-deep in general, the men fasting. We 
e\ery moment expected to get through and 
find some good ground to form on, but were 
deceived. The second division under Colo- 
nel Anthony Wayne, saw a part of the 
enemy and attacked them. Captain Samuel 
Hay of our regiment (Sixth battalion), with 
his company of riflemen, assisted and be- 
haved nobly. Colonel Wayne advanced, 
the enemy's light infantry were driven from 
their ground and the Indians in their flanks 
were silenced. 

"The great body of the enemy, 
A Furious which we knew nothing of, 

Fire. consisting of two or three thou- 

sand men, covered with en- 
trenchments, and assisted with the cannon 
of the shipping and several field pieces, be- 
gan a furious fire and continued it upon our 
troops in the front. It was so heavy that 
the division gave way, and from the badness 
of the ground could not form suddenly 
again. St. Clair's division advanced but the 
fire was too heavy. Part of Irvine's divi- 
sion, especially the riflemen, went up to- 
wards the enemy. I understood the army 
was in confusion. I consulted some friends 
and led up the reserve within a short dis- 
tance of the enemy. McClean's and Grier's 
companies from York county advanced with 
spirit; McClean's men took the best situa- 
tion, and within eighty yards of the enemy 
exposed to the fire of the shipping as hot as 
hell. I experienced some of it. 

"Not a man of McClean's company be- 
haved badly; Grier's company behaved well. 
Several of the enemy were killed in the at- 
tack of the reserve. Under the disadvan- 
tages, our men would fight ; but we had no 
covering, no artillery, and no prospect of 
succeeding, as the number of the enemy was 
so much superior to ours. Wayne and 
Allen rallied part of our men, and kept up a 
fire against the English from the swamp. 
The enemy, in the meantime, dispatched a 
strong body to cut ofT our retreat to the 
boats, wdien it was thought expedient to 
retreat. Our General and Colonel Irvine 
were not to be found ; they had both gone up 
to the front in a very heavy fire. This gave 
US ereat uneasiness l)ut a retreat was neces- 



sary. This could not l)e done regularly, as 
we could not regain the road on account of 
the enemy's shipping and artillery, and went 
off in small parties through the swamp. 
Wayne and Allen gathered some hundreds 
together and I got as many in my division 
as I could, with several others amounting 
to upwards of two hundred. 

"Wayne with his party, and I with mine, 
tried several waj-s to get to our batteau.x. 
Wayne was obliged, not far from the river, 
to march by seven hundred of the eneni)-. 
He intended to attack 'them, but his men 
were so much fatigued that it was deemed 
unsafe. The enemy fired their small arms 
and artillery on our men as loud as thunder. 
They returned a retreating fire. Several of 
the enemy were killed and wounded. We 
came within a mile of where our boats were, 
but our guard had carried them ofi. The 
English had possession of the ground where 
we landed. Their shipping proceeded up 
the river, covering parties being sent to take 
possession of the ferries we were to pass. 

"Wayne with his party lay near the 
enemy. I passed through a big swamp and 
at night took possession of a hill near the 
enemy. We were without food and the 
water very bad. I mounted a small quarter 
guard, fixed my alarm post, and made every 
man lie down on the ground, on which he 
was to rise for action in case of an attack. 
I slept a little by resting my head on a cold 
bough of spruce. 

"Morning dawned (Sunday, June 9). and 
I consulted our officers and men. They 
said they were refreshed with sleep. It was 
agreed to stand together, that they would 
support me and effect a passage through 
the enemy or die in the attempt. A little 
spring water refreshed us more. The 
necessary dispositions were made but we 
had no guides. We heard the enemy within 
a half mile of us, but no one seemed alarmed 
so we proceeded and luckily fell in with 
Wayne's track. We pursued it and over- 
took him near the river Du Lac. This 
made us upwards of seven hundred strong 
and we agreed to attack the enemy if they 
fell in our way to Bokie (Berthier). opposite 
Sorel. We were sure they would attempt 
the fort at Sorel before we could arrive, but 
as we came up the English left the ferries 
and drew all their forces l)ack to Three 
Rivers. Bv forced marches and surmount- 

ing every difficulty, we got up, crossed the 
ri\er and arrived at Sorel, Monday after- 
noon, June 10. We brought nearly twelve 
hundred men back with our party. ]\Iany 
are yet missing, one hundred and fifty or 
two hundred. Some scattered ones are 
continually coming in so that our loss will 
not be so great as was first imagined. 

"Colonel Wayne behaved exceedingly 
well and showed himself a man of courage 
and a true soldier. Colonel Allen exerted 
himself and is a fine fellow. Colonel Max- 
well was often in the midst of danger. His 
own division was not present to support 
him. He was also very useful in the re- 
treat after he joined \Vayne. Lieutenant 
Edie. of the York troops, I fear is killed. 
He was a fine young fellow and behaved 
bravely. He approached the enemy's works 
without dismay several times and remained 
in the swamp to the last. He was in the 
second engagement where it is supposed he 
was killed. Ensign Hoopes of the same 
company was wounded near the breast- 
works when I led up the reserve. I cannot 
say too much of his bravery. He showed 
the greatest courage after he had received 
se\-eral wounds in the arm. He stood his 
ground and animated his men. He nobly 
made good his retreat with me through a 
swamp nearly eighteen miles long. Sev- 
eral of our regiment were killed. I appre- 
hend between thirty and fifty. 

"June 13. Last night a sort of flag of 
truce came from the enemy. General 
Thompson, Colonel William Irvine. Dr. 
McKenzie, Lieutenants Edie and Currie and 
Parson McCalla (of the First) are prison- 
ers. They were taken up by some of the 
rascally Canadians in the most treacherous 

At the time of the battle of Three Rivers, 
the British forces in Canada numbering 
13,000 men. were under command of Sir 
Guy Carleton, a noted soldier in the English 
army, who had been appointed governor of 
the Province of Quebec in 1772. He had 
recaptured Montreal before the contest at 
Three Rivers, where the British troops were 
commanded by Sir John Burgoyne, the ill- 
fated officer who, in 1777. surrendered his 
entire army at the battle of Saratoga. The 
American forces at the battle of Three Riv- 
ers were composed entirely of Pennsylvania 
troops, with the e.xception of a small de- 

1 68 


tachmcnt from Xew Jersey. They fought 
gallantly against great odds with all the ad- 
vantages in favor of the enemy. It was the 
first engagement of the Revolution on 
American soil fought by Pennsylvania 
troops. Although they did not succeed, the 
battle proved again to the ministry and the 
King of England that the American volun- 
teers, fighting for libert\- and independence, 
were destined to rank in a])ility and achieve- 
ment with the trained soldiers of Europe. 

After the engagement at Three 
Sullivan Rivers and the defeat of .Arnold 
Retreats, at Montreal, Sullivan began his 
masterh- retreat. He joined 
Arnold at St. Johns, on the Sorel river, 
wdiich flows from the mouth of Lake Cham- 
plain into the St. Lawrence. 

"The rear of the army," says Wilkinson 
in his "Memoirs," "with baggage stores, 
reached St. Johns on June i8th, was em- 
barked and moved up the Sorel the same 
afternoon. After the last boat except Ar- 
nold's had put off, at Arnold's suggestion, 
he and Wilkinson went down the direct 
road to Chamblv for two miles, where they 
met the advance of the British di\ision, 
under Burgoyne. They reconnoitered it a 
few minutes, then galloped back to St. 
Johns and stripping their horses, shot them. 
Arnold then ordered all on board, pushed 
off the boat with his own hands, and thus 
indulged the vanity of being the last man 
wdTo embarked from the shores of the 
enemy. They followed the army twelve 
miles to the Lsle Aux Xoix, where they ar- 
rived after dark." 

The head of Burgoyne's column entered 
St. Johns on the evening of the i8th, and 
Philip's advance guard on the morning of 
the 19th. On the 19th general orders at 
Isle Aux Noix directed the commands of 
de Hass, Wayne, St. Clair and Ir\-ine to 
encamp on the east side of the island. 

On the 2 1 St. Irvine's battalion met with 
another heavy loss, as is detailed by a letter 
from one of the regiment : 

"Captains McClean, Adams and Rippey, 
Lieutenants McFerran. McAllister and 
Hoge, and Ensigns Lusk and Culbertson, 
with four privates, went over from the Isle 
-Aux Noix to the western shore of the lake, 
about a mile from camp, l)ut within sight, 
to fish and divert themselves. McClean 
prutlently proposed to take arms with them 

Init was o\erruled. Some Indians observed 
their motions, and wdiile they were at a 
house drinking some spruce beer, the sav- 
ages surrounded them, killed Captain 
Adams, Ensign Culbertson and two privates, 
whom they scalped in a most inhuman and 
barljarous manner, and carried off prisoners 
McClean, McFerran, McAllister and Hoge 
and two other privates. But a party coming 
to their relief from camp aided Captain Rip- 
pey and Ensign Lusk to make their escape." 

The bodies of those killed were brought 
to the Isle Aux Noix and decently buried 
!)}■ Wa}'ne, ^\■ho with a party followed the 
Indians and recovered the batteaux with 
the bodies. 

Isle Aux Xoix proved very unlTealthy; 
Wayne had sixty men out of one hundred 
and thirty-eight taken down with sickness, 
after their arrival there: and on the 24th of 
June, de Haas and all his field officers with 
a number of his men were sick. On the 
25th, General Sullivan commenced moving 
the army to Isle la Motte. Colonel Hartley, 
with two hundred and fifty men of Irvine's 
battalion, went by land, scouring the coun- 
tr}', traversing disagreeable swamps, de- 
stroying on the way the houses, mills, etc., 
of the traitor McDonald, who had deceived 
them at I'hree Rivers. 

( )n June 27th, at Isle la Motte 
Gates in all the army took vessels and 
Command, came to Crown Point, which 
they reached on July ist. 
General Gates arrived there on the evening 
of the 5th, superceding General Sullivan, 
and on the 7th at a council of war, it was 
determined to remove the army to Ticon- 
deroga. The battalions of de Haas, St. 
Clair and W ayne arrived there on the loth, 
the Sixth battalion under Hartley remain- 
ing posted at Crown Point, where it en- 
camped the balance of the summer and fall, 
the sentinel regiment of Gates" army. On 
the 20th Gate's brigaded his army, and the 
four Pennsylvania battalions were consti- 
tuted the Fourth Brigade, Colonel Arthur 
St. Clair commanding: Edward Scull bri- 
gade-major for the Third and Fourth bat- 
talions. August 14th, Hartley's scouts 
found the British still at St. Johns. 

On the 6th of Septemlier, Hartley desired 
General Gates to send to Crown Point, 
either General \\'ayne's battalion or the 
Second and he would defend it with them. 



Gates gave liim jjositive orders to retreat 
if the British reached that point. 'i'he 
British did not come, however, and on the 
22d Irvine's regiment was still at Crown 
Point-^one lieutenant colonel, one major, 
four captains. li\-e tirst lieutenants, three 
second lieutenants, five ensigns, four staf¥, 
seventeen sergeants, fifteen drvmis, and four 
hundred and eighty-six rank and file. On 
the rith of October, Hartley still main- 
tained his post, having found in the woods 
some cannon lost in the French war. With 
great labor he had roads cut and transported 
them to Crown Point, and had a battery of 
six guns read}' for the enemj' not any too 
soon, for on the same day the British at- 
tacked Arnold's fleet on Lake Champlain, 
compelling him to retire towards Crown 
Point. On the 14th Hartley set fire to all 
the houses at or near Crown Point and re- 
tired to Ticonderoga. 

The season was too far advanced for the 
British to make any further progress ; after 
threatening Ticonderoga they retired into 
winter quarters. On the i8th of November 
General Gates putting \\'a\-ne in command 
of Ticonderoga, proceeded to join General 
\\'ashington with the larger part of the 
army, the three Pennsylvania battalions 
whose time would expire on the 5th of Jan- 
uary, agreeing to remain until they were re- 
lieved by other troops. On the 29th of 
November, the Second, commanded by 
Wood, numbered four hundred and twenty- 
six officers and men ; Wayne's five hundred 
and sixty-five ; Irvine's five hundred and 

On the 4th of Deceml)er. Wayne writes 
to the Committee of Safety: 

"The wretched condition the battalions 
are now in for want of almost every neces- 
sary, except flour and bad beef, is shocking 
to humanity, and beggars all description. 
We have neither beds nor bedding for our 
sick to lie on or under, other than their 
own clothing; no medicine or other things 
needed for them. The dead and dying, 
lying mingled together in our hospital, or 
rather house of carnage, is no uncommon 
sight. The}' are objects truly worth}- of 
your notice." 

On the J4th of January, 1777, the 

The Pennsylvania battalions left Ti- 

Return conderoga with General Wayne 

Home, for their homes. Irvine's battal- 

ion under the command of Ucutenant 
Colonel Hartley reached Carlisle on its 
return March 15. 1777, where it was re- 
enlisted for three years or the war as the 
Se\enth Pennsylvania Regiment of the 
Continental Line. 

Colonel Irvine, of Carlisle, who com- 
manded the Sixth battalion in which the 
York county troops served, was captured 
at Three Rivers and carried a prisoner to 
New York, where he was paroled August 
3, 1776. but was not exchanged until May 
6. 1778, when he resumed the command 
of the Seventh Pennsylvania regiment. He 
took part in various campaigns ami was 
promoted to brigadier general and after the 
war ser\'ed as a member of Continental 

A\'illiam Thompson, who was captured 
at Three Rivers, had commanded Thomp- 
son's Rifle Battalion in front of Boston until 
he was promoted brigadier-general and 
joined the expedition against Canada. He 
was held a prisoner in New York until 
August, 1776, when he returned to Phila- 
delphia on parole but was not exchanged 
until 1778. He died near Carlisle in 1781, 
aged 56 years. 

Captain Moses McClean, who was ca]5- 
tured by the Indians in this campaign, was 
held a prisoner of war until 2^Iarch zj. 1777. 
when he was exchanged. After the war he 
moved to Ohio and died at Chillicothe. Au- 
gust 25. 1810. aged seventy-three years. 

Captain Da\-id Grier, who won a brilliant 
record for gallantry at Three Rivers, was 
promoted to major of his regiment October 
-5- ^77^- He was made lieutenant colonel 
of tlie Seventh Pennsylvania regiment, 
which he commanded during Colonel Ir- 
vine's imprisonment. In September, 1777. 
he participated in battles under General 
Wayne 'and was wounded slightly at 
Chad's Ford and was also wounded in the 
side by a bayonet at Paoli. Colonel Grier 
practiced law after the war and was a prom- 
inent citizen of York. He was a presiden- 
tial elector at W'ashington's first election. 
He died in York in 1791. 

Lieutenant John Edie. who became a 
prisoner of war at Three Rivers, was not 
exchanged until April 10. 1778. From 1791 
to 1798 he was editor and one of the owners 
of the Pennsylvania Herald and General 
.\d\ertiser published at York, the files of 



which paper are in the Historical Society of Necdham, Robert 

York county. After the Revolution Lieu- XolX' LukT"' 

tenant Edie became brigadier general in the O'Har'a. Dennis 

state militia. Patten, John 

Lieutenant Abdiel McAllister, of Grier's RobhTson.' John 
company, who was captured at Three Riv- 
ers, was the oldest son of Colonel Richard 

Sample, VVilham 
Shugart, EH 
Simonton, John 
Sloane, David 
Smith, Patrick 
Sulhvan, Peter 
Tibbens, Henry 

McAllister, founder of Hanover, who com- 
manded the Second regiment in the Flying 



Captain David Grier's company came 
from York, Hanover, the vicinitj' of Dills- 
burg and the lower end of York county. 
Its membership was almost entirely com- 
posed of Scotch-Irish. The following is 
The following is a complete muster roll the complete muster roll of the company: 
of Captain Moses McClean's company re- 
cruited partly in York county and partly in 
the present area of Adams county: 

Adair, John 
Alhson, Robert 
Atcheson, Edward 
Barclay, Joseph 
Blain, John 
Blakely, George 
Brown, John 
Campbell, William 
Chesney, Thomas 
Cochran, William 
Conn, John 
Commoly, John 
Crawford, Robert 
Cunningham, David 
Cunningham, Patrick 
Dill, Thomas 
Dingley, William 
DuflSeld, Felix 
Dunlap. John 
Evan. William 
Entrican. William 
Faith, Alexander 
Gerard, Mathias 
Gibbons, Henry 
Gravnor, Thomas 
Griffith, David 
Hall, John 
Hargie, John 
Heinerman, Michael 
Hughes, William 

McClean. Moses. 

First Lieutenants. 
Eichelberger, Barnet. 
Edie. John. 

Seeond Lieutenant, 

Hoge. John. 


Hoopes, Robert. 


Ralston, Robert. 

Smith, John. 

Milligan, James. 

King, John. 

Allison, Robert. 
Drum and Fife, 

Conner. Patrick. 

Stack, Richard. 

Jayne, Aaron 
Johnston, George 
Johnston, James 
Kelly, Edward 
Kennedy, Samuel 
King, Patrick 
King, William 
Kincaid, Samuel 
Limerick, Patrick 
Long, Joseph 
Lynch, Patrick 
Alahon, Charles 
Madden. Timothy 
Ma.xwell. James 
Meloy, Bartholomew 
McBride, John 
McDaniel, James 
McDonald, William 
McDowell, John 
McFarland. Jacob 
McGee, John 
McGonagal, Neal 
McGuan. Patrick 
McKeeder, Owen 
McManery, James 
McWilliams, John 
Morgan. Christian 
Mullen, Daniel 
Murphy, Dennis 
Murray, Eneas 

Anguis, William 
Barnes, Patrick 
Baker, George 
Bacheldor, Ebenezer 
Barry, James 
Beard, Robert 
Brian, John 
Campbell, .Archibald 
Clemmonds, John 
Conn, Adam 
Conner, George 
Conway. Charles 
Cooper. George 
Corrigan, Cornelius 
—Davis, David 
Dulany, Thomas 
Dorce or Deis. John 
Dougherty, Charles 
Dougherty, John 
Esson, Alexander 
Falkner, John 
Frick, John 
Forsyth, Robert 
Gedcies, Joseph 
Grant, Peter 
Guncager, Charles 
Gytinger, Charles 
Harkins, James 
Hickenbottom, Edward 
Hodge, Isaac 


Grier, David. 

First Lieutenant, 

McDowell, John. 

Second Lieutenant, 

McAllister, Abdiel. 

Nichols, William. 

Hughes, John. 

Walker, Andrew. 

Kno.x, John. 

Jeffries, Robert. 

Hayman, John. 

Lawson. James. 

Mcllhenny, Felix. 

Lethew, David. 
Tomson, Ezra. 
Drum and Fife, 

Hamilton, James. 

Wright, Mathias. 

Hoy, Thomas 
Jackson, Archibald 
Johnston, Robert 
Johnston, William 
Kelly, George 
Kelly, Thomas 
Leeson, James 
IVLason. William 
Matthews, Jacob 
McCall, John 
McCoy, William 
McDaniel, John 
McGowan, Samuel 
McKissack, Henry 
McMeehan, Michael 
McMullan, James 
Mealy, Lawrence 
Murphy, Michael 
Murphy, Dennis 
O'Loan. Patrick 
O'Niel, Peter 
Pcarcy, John 
Price, James 
Quigley, William 
Redmond, Murtough 
Robinson, James 
Roney. Patrick 
Russel. Joseph 
Scullion, Patrick 
Schregh, Peter 





Shaw, Arcliibald 
Shaw. James 
Standley, Francis 
Shive, Philip 
Schultz. Micliael 
Seidle. Peter 
Schneiiler. Jolin 
Spencer, Edward 
Stevenson, James 
Swank, Baltzer 
Swartz, George 

Swartz, Peter 
Taylor, John 
Trees, Jacob 
Wade, Joseph 
Weaverling, Adam 
Welch, Edward 
White, Isaac 
Wilkinson, William 
Wilson, Joseph 
Worley, George 
Wright. Matthias 


The next troops to leave York to battle 
for the cause of independence were led by 
Captain Philip Albright, a prominent citizen 
of the county. This company joined Colonel 
Miles' Pennsylvania Ritle Regiment, which 
was organized March 5, 1776, in response 
to a call of the State Assembly for 2,000 
troops to defend Pennsyh-ania. Colonel 
Saiuuel Miles, its first commander, was 
then a resident of Philadelphia. He had 
served with credit in the French and Indian 
War under Braddock. and when peace was 
declared, was placed in charge of a garrison 
on the site of Erie. He raised his regiment 
of 1.000 men and formed them into two bat- 
talions within a period of six weeks and 
rendezvoused at Marcus Hook, on the 
northeast coast of New Jersey. 

At this time the British army 
Marches under Howe, which had evacu- 
to Long ated Boston March 18. had not 
Island. yet arrived at Long Island. 
Colonel Miles drilled and dis- 
ciplined his regiment for active service in 
the field and on July 2 he was ordered to 
Philadelphia, where the regiment was 
thoroughly equipped. On July 5 he marched 
with his command to Trenton and from 
thence to Amboy. July 16 he joined Hugh 
Mercer, who had been raised to the rank of 
brigadier-general at the request of Wash- 
ington, and placed in command of the Fly- 
ing Camp, composed largely of Pennsyl- 
vania troops. The British army was soon 
to attack New York and on August 10 
Miles was ordered to Long Island. 

On August 12 Miles' regiment and Colo- 
nel Samuel Atlee's battalion of musketry, 
from Lancaster, were brigaded with 
Glover's and Smalhvood's regiments and 
placed under the command of Lord Stirling, 
an English officer who was made a briga- 
dier-general in the American army. Stir- 
ling's brigade took an active part in the 
battle of Long Island, serving under Gen- 

eral Sullivan, connuanding the left wing of 
Washington's army. There are no minute 
details of the part taken by Captain Al- 
bright's company of York County troops in 
this famous Ijattle. The report of Miles, in 
whose regiment Captain Albright served, 
will be found interesting. 

"On the landing of the British army on 
Long Island, I was ordered with my rifle 
regiment to watch their motions. I marched 
near to the village of Flat Bush, where the 
Highlanders then lay, but they moved the 
next day to General Howe's camp, and their 
place was supplied by the Hessians. I lay 
there within cannon shot of the Hessian 
camp for four days without receiving orders 
from General Sullivan. I was stationed 
directly in front of the village of Flat Bush, 
but on the left of the road leading to New 
Y^ork, where the Hessians were encamped. 
The main body of the enemy, under the im- 
mediate command of General Howe, lay 
about two miles to my left, and General 
Grant, with another body of British troops, 
lay about four miles to my right. There 
were several small bodies of Americans dis- 
persed to my right but not a man to my left, 
although the main body of the enemy lay to 
my left. This was our situation on the 26th 
of August. About I o'clock at night Grant 
on the right and Howe on the left, began 
their march, atid by daylight Grant had got 
within a mile of our entrenchments, and 
Howe had got into the Jamaica Road, about 
two miles from our lines. The Hessians 
kept their position until 7 in the morning. 
As soon as they moved the firing began at 
our redoubt. I immediately marched to- 
wards the firing, but had not proceeded 
more than one or two hundred yards when 
I was stopped by Colonel Willey, who told 
me that I could not pass on ; that we were 
to defend a road that led from Flat Bush 
road to the Jamaica road. 

"I made a retrograde march, a distance 
of nearly two miles through woods within 
sight of the Jamaica road, and to my great 
mortification saw the main body of the 
enemy in full march between me and our 
lines, and the baggage guard just coming 
into the road. I had then only the first bat- 
talion with me. The second was some 
distance to the rear, and I directed Major 
Williams, who was on horseback, to return 
and order Lieutenant-Colonel Brodhead, of 


my regiment, to pusli on b_\- tlie left of tlie Colonel Miles" regiment, when organized, 
enemy and endeavor to get into our lines had men. rank and file. Of this num- 
that way. They succeeded, but liad to wade her 650 entered the battle of Long Island, 
a mill dam. in which a few were drowned, in which about 50 were killed and wounded 
I returned to the battalion and called a and 159 taken prisoners. Captain Albright's 
council of the oi^cers and laid three propo- company lost in this engagement in killed, 
sitions before them ; first, to attack the bag- wounded and prisoners, three sergeants and 
gage guard, endeavor to cut our way twenty-seven privates. The responsible 
through them, proceed to Hell Gate and position held by Miles in this battle is shown 
then cross the sound ; second, to lay where in the report of Lieutenant-Colonel Brod- 
\ve were until the whole had passed us and head, of the regiment. On September 5, 
then proceed to Hell Gate; or third, to en- 1776, he wrote: "Xo troops could have be- 
deavor to force our way through the haved better than ours in this battle, for, 
enemy's flank guards into our line at though the\- seldom engaged less than fi\-e 
Brooklyn. to one, they frequently repulsed the enemy 
"The third pro])osition was with great slaughter, and I am confident 
Colonel adopted, and we immediately that the number Icilled and wounded on 
Miles a began our march, but had not their side is greater than ours, notwith- 
Prisoner. proceeded more than half a mile standing we had to fight them front and rear 
until we fell in with a body of imder every disadvantage. I understand 
seven or eight hundred light infantry, which that General Sullixan has taken the liberty 
we attacked without hesitation. Tlieir to charge our bra\e and good Colonel Miles 
superiority of numbers encouraged them to with the ill success of the day, but gi\'e me 
march up with their bayonets, which we lea\e to say, that if General Sulli\'an and the 
could not withstand, having none ourselves, rest of the generals on Long Island had 
I therefore oi'dered the troops to push on been as \ig'ilant and prudent as he. we 
toward our lines. I remained on the might and in all probability would ha\e cut 
grounds myself until they had all passed me. oft Clinton's lirigade: our officers and men 
the enemy being then within less than in general, considering the confusion, be- 
twenty yards of us. and by this means I haved as well as men could do — a few lie- 
came into the rear instead of the front of haved badly. Our men are getting very 
my command. ^^'e had proceeded but a sickly for want of blankets and clothing, 
short distance before we were again en- ha\-ing thrown away those the}- had in the 
gaged with a superior force of the enemy, engagement, which I fear they cannot be 
and here we lost a number of men, but took furnished here." 

Major Moncrieffe, their commanding of- In this battle Miles' regiment and Atlee's 
ficer, prisoner. Finding that the enemv had battalion suli'ered so severely that General 
possession of the ground between us and Washington ordered the three liattalions to 
our lines, and that it was impossible for us be considered as a regiment under the com- 
to cut our way through as a l)ody, I directed mand of Lieutenant-Colonel Brodhead until 
the men to make the best of tlieir way as further orders. Both these commands had 
well as they could. Some few got in safe, enlisted for fifteen months to defend the 
but there were 159 taken prisoners. I my- state of Pennsyhania. As they were now 
self was entirely cut off from our lines and with the American army in another state, 
therefore endeavored to conceal myself, Colonel Brodhead petitioned the State 
with a few men wdio would not leave me. I Legislature at this time to know their 
hoped to remain until night, when I in- military relations, whereupon both com- 
tended to try to get to Hell Gate and cross mands were turned over to the authority of 
the sound ; but about 3 o'clock in the after- Congress. On September 19 the three bat- 
noon was discovered by a party of Hessians talions mutinied and appeared on jiarade 
and obliged to surrender — thus ended the under arms. After this two hundretl men 
career of that day." Lieutenant William deserted, about thirty of them were kept 
AlcPherson. of Alljright's company, became back 1)y fnrce. Those who deserted gave as 
a ]>risoner of war and was held by the a reason a lack of sufticient clothing, 
British for more than a year. blankets, rations and pay. but the records 




seem to show thai they had ah^cady Ijcen 
jiaid in continental money, which had 
greatly depreciated. Meantime, however, a 
supply of clothing had been sent from 

(Jn Octolier 3. Captain Al- 
bright had in his company 
three sergeants, one drummer 
and forty-six i)rivates. On the 
same day the Pennsylvania Council of 
Safety ordered a re-arrangement of the 
three battalions, and on the 25th of the 
same month, ten of the companies of the 
battalion ceased to exist l)y being consoli- 
dated with others. On the same day Cap- 
tain Albright's company and six others 
were ordered to retain their captains. 
These and the remnants of the other bat- 
talions of the state troops followed the 
fortunes of the Continental army. Part of 
the regiment under Lieutenant-Colonel 
Brodhead was present at the battle of Fort 
\\'ashington. November 16. The remainder 
of the regiment accompanied Washington 
in the retreat across New Jersey and took 
part in the battles of Trenton and Princeton. 
Late in the year 1776 a dif^culty arose 
between Major Williams, of Miles' regi- 
ment, and Captain Philip Albright. The 
major had made himself obnoxious in many 
ways to the subordinate officers, with whom 
he was not popular. Both Williams and Al- 
bright explained their differences to the 
Council of Safety of Pennsylvania, but the 
matter was never satisfactorily adjusted, 
and Captain Albright resigned his commis- 
sion on January 2;^. 1777. 

The following is the roll of Captain Philip 
Albright's company after the battle of Long 
Island, taken in camp near 
N. v.. September i, 1776: 

King's Bridgfe, 


Albright, Philip. 

First Lieutenants, 

Thomson, John. 

Sheriff. Cornelius. 

Second Lieutcniint. 
McPher.son. William. 

Third Licutcndnt. 
Stake, Jacob. 

Wilson. Thomas. 
Tate. Robert. 
Willey, James. 
Geddes, James. 

Quartermaster Sergeant, 
Lytle, Andrew. 


Harden. John. 


Awl. John, 
liarron. Robert. 
Beltzhover, Ludwig. 
Boned, .Andrew. 
Boyd. .Mexandcr. 
Branon, William. 
Brown. John. 
Burk. Michael. 
Bushani. Jacob. 
Carlton. Edward. 
Conrad. George. 
Croan, Henry. 
Crookham. John. 
Cuxel. James. 
Diiffield, Rachford. 
Ferril. Hugh. 
Fink. Michael. 
Foster, Thomas. 
Glen, Patrick. 
Gobin. Hugh. 
Gordan. James. 
Grearley, John. 
Gregg. John. 
Gregg. Robert. 
Helm. George. 
Helsley, Jacob. 
Hendry, John. 
Hollan, William. 
Hudson, John. 
Hutchinson, James. 
Jacobs. Johnathan. 
James. William. 
Kennedy, Philip. 
Kilean, Michael. 
Kilpatrick, Robert. 
Kilpatrick, William. 
Knee (Karee). Thomas. 

Lead, Connid. 
Lcavingston, Jacob. 
Lutes, John. — 
Malseed, Samuel. 
McBroom. Henry. 
McCay, James. 
McClughan, Hugh. 
McCown, Daniel. 
McCown, Patrick. 
McElnay, John. 
McFarlane, James. 
McGinish. Patt. 
McGuire, Bartholomew. 
McNeal, Daniel. 
Morrison. James. 
Myer. Joseph. 
Newman. Jacob. 
Reed. Hugh. 
Rinehart. John. 
Rubart. Adam. 
Ryan, Christian. 
Ryan. Michael. 
Shadow. Henry. 
Smith, John. 
Spangler. Charles. 
Stockdel, Torrence. 
Stuart, David. 
Stump. Charles. 
Sturgeon, Robert. 
Swartz. John. 
Trine, George. 
Wampler. George. 
Wells. Edward. ^ 
Welshance. William. 
Williams. Thomas. 
Woods, Samuel. 

descendant of George Albright, who left the 
German Palatinate and arriving in this 
country settled in Philadelphia, and engaged 
in commercial pursuits. He remained in 
that city until 1740, when he moved to York, 
then a part of Lancaster County, in which 
county he had a number of \aluable planta- 

Captain Albright was the youngest of 
three sons of George Albright, and received 
his education at York in the school main- 
tained by the German Lutheran Church. 
Endowed with the usual German thrift, he 
w'as able to save enough in succeeding years 
to purchase the estate of the Rankin family. 
This property was situated on the Codorus 
about two miles below York, and consisted 
of a large flouring mill and plantation. 
Philip Albright made his home upon his 
newlv purchased plantation, having some 
years previous married Anna Maria Ursula, 



daugliter of Johann Daniel Duenckle. a 
German refugee and aristocrat. 

When the tension with Great Britain be- 
came keen, there was no more enthusiastic 
partisan of colonial independence than 
Philip Albright, and when the preliminary 
steps were taken looking to tlie achievement 
of that end, he was chosen a member of the 
Committee of Observation, formed at York, 
December i6, 1774. On March 19, 1776, he 
was appointed captain of the First Battalion 
of the Pennsylvania regiment under the 
command of Colonel Samuel Miles. He fol- 
lowed the fortunes of this regiment under 
Washington at the battle of Long Island 
and other engagements around Xew York 
and in the Jersey campaign, during the 
winter of 1776-7. As a result of difficulties 
with Major Ennion Williams, Captain Al- 
bright resigned his command on January 
-3' '^777- H^is retirement to private life, 
however, was of short duration, for on April 
5, 1778, while Continental Congress was in 
session at York, he was commissioned 
lieutenant-colonel of the Third Battalion of 
York County Militia, David Jameson, colo- 
nel. Five days after the date of his com- 
mission, the Ijattalion was ordered out to 
guard the frontier against hostile Indians, 
who had committed depredations in the 
Wyoming Valley, and in central and west- 
ern Pennsydvania. 

At the close of the war, Philip Albright 
returned to his family, with whom he lived 
in considerable state and was highly es- 
teemed by his fellows. In 1797. he lost his 
wife. The same year, in recognition of his 
services to his country, he was elected to 
the State Legislature from York County, 
and served two years. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Albright died April 2, 1800, "a warm friend 
of his country," leaving a large estate, and 
survived by two sons and four daughters. 
One of his daughters married George Small, 
father of Philip A. and Samuel, founders of 
the f^rm of P. A. & S. Small. 

SON, who was captured in the battle 
of Long Island, was a son of Robert 
McPherson, who served as a captain in 
the French and Indian war, and com- 
manded a battalion of York County 
militia in the Revolution. He was born 
near the site of Gettysburg, December 2, 
1757, and at the age of 19 aided in recruit- 

ing Albright's company, of which he became 
second lieutenant. During the hottest of 
the fighting in the battle of Long Island. 
Lieutenant McPherson fell into the hands 
of the enemy and was held a prisoner of war 
njear Xew York city for one year. After the 
war he l)ecame a prominent and influential 
citizen of the ]\Iarsh Creek country. He 
represented York County in the State 
Legislature from 1790 to 1799. except in 
1793. During the last year he served in the 
Legislature, he secured the passage of a bill 
to divide York County, and organize the 
new county of Adams, which was accom- 
plished in 1800. He died at Getty slnirg, 
August 2. 1832, at the age of seventy-five 
years. Lieutenant McPherson was twice 
married, first in 1780, to Mary Garick, of 
Frederick County, Maryland, and second in 
1793, to Sara Reynolds, of Shippensl)urg. 
He was the father of fourteen children. 
John B. McPherson, one of his sons, was 
forty-five years cashier of the Gettysburg" 
bank, the oldest financial institution in the 
county. Hon. Edward McPherson, son of 
John B. McPherson, was born in 1831 and 
died in 1895. He was a representative in 
the Thirty-sixth and Thirty-seventh Con- 
gresses, and sixteen years clerk of the 
national House of Representatives. 


The First Pennsylvania Regiment was 
organized in the field at the headquarters 
of the army at Long Island, July 11, 1776. 
Most of the membership was composed of 
re-enlisted men who had previously served 
one year in Thompson's battalion. The 
new regiment was placed in the command 
of Col. Edward Hand, of Lancaster, with 
Benjamin Chambers, of Franklin County, as 
lieutenant-colonel, and Rev. Samuel Blair, 
chaplain. Owing to a controversy James 
Ross was not appointed major until three 
months afterward. When the regiment was 
organized, the nine companies were com- 
manded respectively by Henry Miller, Mat- 
thew Smith, Robert Cluggage, James Ross, 
Charles Craig, James Grier, David Harris, 
James Parr and James Hamilton. The two 
companies which had accompanied Arnold's 
expedition to Canada had returned in time 
to join the regiment when it was organ- 



This regiment now entered upon 
Under a career of drill and discipline 
Sullivan preparing for a contest with the 
at Long British, which was expected to 
Island. come soon after their arrival at 
Long Island. General Sullivan, 
under whom Thompson's battalion had 
served in front of Boston, liad now returned 
from the ex])edition to Canada and Captain 
Miller's company from York, with the I'irst 
Pennsylvania Regiment, was again placed in 
Sullivan's command on Long Island. Gen- 
eral Howe arrived with 25,000 troops at the 
entrance of Xew York harbor early in 
August, and was accompanied by his 
brother. Admiral Lord Howe, with a resist- 
less fleet. The .\merican army untler 
^\'ashington numbered less than 10.000. 
General Israel Putnam commanded 5.000 
troops at Brooklyn Heights and Sullivan, 
under whom the York soldiers were serving, 
had 4,000 men guarding the roads on Long 
Island. August 2^. Howe, with 20.000 
troops, attacked Sullivan. \\'ith his great 
superiority of force he was able to surround 
the Americans and take more than 1,000 
prisoners, including General Sullivan. Had 
Howe attacked the works on Brooklyn 
Heights he would probably have met with a 
bloody defeat; but Bunker Hill had taught 
him a lesson and he determined to besiege 
the place instead of assaulting it. When 
Washington perceived this intention he 
withdrew the army, taking it across the 
East River one dark, foggy night in such 
boats and scows as he could collect. This 
skillful retreat under the very nose of the 
enemy was a wonderful achievement. 

In the battle of Long Island Hand's regi- 
ment took a conspicuous part. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Chambers, of this regiment, in de- 
scribing the engagement wrote as follows : 
"On the morning of August 22 there were 
nine thousand troops approaching us on 
New Utrecht plains. The guard alarmed 
our small camp and we assembled at the flag 
staff. We found our forces too small to 
attack the enemy on the plain. .\ detach- 
ment of the regiment under the command of 
Captain Miller, of York, follo\ved the enemy 
with the design to decoy a portion of them 
to follow him. The remainder of our regi- 
ment was stationed along the woods near 
Captain Mille-'s detachment, which had 
moved to a point 200 yards from the 

British. lUit they decided not to attack 
him. Captain Miller then returned to the 
regiment, which moved along the enemy's 
flank. Our men now fired and killed several 
Hessians. Strong guards were maintained 
all day on the flanks of the enemy and our 
regiment and the Hessians kept up a severe 
firing with a loss of but two wounded on our 
side. We laid a few Hessians low and made 
them retreat out of Flat Bush. Our men 
went into the town and brought the goods 
out of the burning houses. 

"The enemy nearly lost their field pieces. 
We could certainly have taken the cannon 
had it not been for some foolish person 
calling retreat. The main body of the foe 
returned to the town and when our men 
came back to camp they told of their ex- 
ploits. Their stories were doubted by some, 
which enraged our men so that a few of 
them ran and brought away several Hes- 
sians on their backs. This kind of firing by 
our riflemen and theirs continued until 2 
o'clock in the morning of the 26th. when our 
regiment was relieved by a portion of the 
Flying Camp, and we started for Fort 
Greene to get refreshment, not having lain 
down the whole of this time and almost 
dead with fatigue. We just reached the fort 
when the alarm guns were fired. We were 
compelled to return to the lines, and, as 
soon as it was light, saw our men and theirs 
engaged with field pieces. 

"At last the enemy surrounded 
A our advance guard, and then a 

Spirited heavy firing continued for several 
Contest, hours. The main body that sur- 
rounded our men marched within 
thirty yards of Forts Brown and Greene; 
but when we fired they retreated with loss. 
Our men behaved as bravely as ever men 
did, but it is surprising that with the superi- 
ority of the enemy our men were not cut to 
pieces. They behaved gallantly, and there 
are but fi\e or si.x hundred missing of the 
2.500 comprising our brig'ade. 

"General Lord Stirling fought like a wolf 
and was taken prisoner. Colonels Miles and 
.\tlee. Major Burd, Captain Peebles, Lieu- 
tenant Watt, and a great number of other 
otiicers are also prisoners. Colonel Piper is 
missing. From deserters we learn that the 
enemy lost Major General Grant and two 
brigadiers and many others, and five hun- 
dred killed. Our loss is chiefly in prisoners." 

J 76 


Colonel Hand, in his report of the retreat 
after the battle of Long Island, said: "W hen 
it \vas determined to exaeuate Long Island. 
General AlifBin. of Pennsylvania, told me 
that Washington had honored him with the 
command of the covering party and that our 
regiment was to be emploj'ed in that ser- 
vice. He then assigned us our se\'eral sta- 
tions which we were to occupy as soon as it 
was dark and pointed out Brooklyn Church 
as an alarm post to which the whole force 
was to repair and unitetlly oppose the 
enemy in case they discovered our move- 
ments and made an attack in consequence. 
My regiment was posted in a redoubt on 
the left and in the lines on the right of the 
great road below Brooklyn Church. Cap- 
tain Henry iMiller commanded in the re- 

Lieutenant-Colonel Chambers wrote: 
"The Pennsylvania troops received great 
honor l)y being chosen corps de reserve to 
cover the retreat. The regiments of 
Colonels Hand, Morgan, Shea and Hazlett 
were detailed for that purpose. We kept up 
camp fires with the outposts stationed until 
all the rest were over. We left the lines 
after it was fair day and then came off. 
Never was a greater feat of generalship 
shown than in this retreat — to bring of¥ an 
army of twelve thousand men within sight 
of a strong enemy, supported by as strong a 
fleet as ever floated our seas. We saved all 
our baggage. General Washington saw the 
last troop cross o\'er.'" 

^Vriting to his wife. Captain 
Captain Miller states: "Today, August 4, 
Henry my company was reviewed by 
Miller's General Washington, but owing 
Account, to the heavy cannonading up the 
river his stay was very short." 
Again, on the 31st of the same month: "As 
our regiments were sent only as an advance 
guard to watch the movements of the 
enemy and not for the purpose of making a 
stand where they did, and as they were 
brought into action by the great spirit 
which prevailed among the Pennsylvania, 
Maryland and lower country troops, the 
result of the battle could not be ])roperly 
called a defeat. \\'e forced the enemy to 
retreat three different times from their ad- 
vanced posts, and their loss was greater 
than our ow'n. The retreat was conducted 
in such a manner as would do honor to the 

most experienced generals and army in the 
world : for it entirely disconcerted the de- 
signs of the enemy to surround us. I had 
the honor to be in the rear guard: the sun 
was up before I left the island. Governor's 
Island was given up yesterday. \\'e shall 
leave New York in a few days, for this 
place is too advantageously situated for the 
enemy, and the possession of it will not 
afford them an easy access to the back 

A contemporary writer states this addi- 
tional fact: "Captain Miller, in this retreat, 
was the last man to enter the boat, and that, 
when they were pushed off and were sup- 
posed to be out of danger, a heavy fog hung 
over them. He stood up, hat in hand, and 
gave three hearty cheers. This brought on 
them a heavy volley of musketry." 

After Washington had crossed into New 
York city from Long Island, he placed his 
army on the east bank of the Hudson in the 
vicinity of White Plains. He abandoned 
everything on Manhattan Island except 
Fort W^ashington. To defend this strategic 
point he sent a body of nearly two thousand 
troops in command of Colonel Robert Mc- 
Gaw, of Carlisle, Pennsylvania. This officer 
had been major of Thompson's riflemen, 
which had marched from southern Pennsyl- 
vania to Boston at the opening of the war. 
Colonel McGaw had won distinction for 
gallantry at Long Island and had merited 
the promotion he received upon the recom- 
mentlation of the commander-in-chief. 
While presenting a front parallel to that of 
Howe, frecjuent skirmishes occurred in 
which the Americans were entirely success- 

Hand's riflemen followed the 

Hand's fortunes of the army under 

Regiment Washington on the east bank 

in New of the Hudson. On October 12 

York. Colonel Hand and his riflemen 
assisted by Colonel Prescott, of 
Bunker Hill fame, checked the advance of 
the British at Pell's Neck, immediately after 
they had landed from Long Island. Octo- 
ber 23 Colonel Hand attacked two hundred 
and forty Hessian chasseurs near East 
Chester and routed them. In both these 
skirmishes Captain Miller and his York 
Count}' men took a conspicuous part. 

At this juncture General Greene, with a 
small force, garrisoned Fort Lee, upon the 



Palisades on the west bank of the Hudson, 
nearly opposite Fort Washington. Sulli- 
van, Stirling and Morgan, who had been 
captured at the battle of Long Island in 
August, now rejoined the army after being- 
exchanged. General Charles Lee arrived 
from South Carolina and was placed second 
in command of the .\nierican army around 
iSew York. Washington had taken up his 
headquarters at White Plains, where both 
armies were concentrating. The Americans 
were placed in four divisions commanded 
respectively by Lee, Heatli, Sullivan and 
Lincoln. On October 28 Howe attacked 
Washington at White Plains, where he lost 
two hundred and twent3'-nine men. 

\\'ashington now moved up the river and 
soon after had five thousand of his men 
under Putnam cross to the west side of the 
Hudson into New Jersey at Hackensack. 
He sent Heath up to Peekskill with three 
thousand men to guard the entrance to the 
Highlands, and left Lee at North Castle 
with seven thousand men. The enemy 
greatly outnumbered A\'ashington at this 
time. His entire army was credited with 
nineteen thousand men, but the term of 
service of many of them had expired, so that 
his entire army did not exceed twelve 
thousand efificient men to oppose twenty- 
five thousand trained British and Hessian 
soldiers. At a council of war now held with 
his generals, W'ashington decided to retreat 
across New Jersey, but Congress desired 
that he should continue to hold Forts 
Washington and Lee. The officious inter- 
ference of Congress, an error of judgment 
on the part of Greene, and the insubordina- 
tion of Lee, occurring altogether at the 
critical moment brought about the greatest 
disaster of the war and came within an ace 
of overwhelming the American cause in 
total and irretrievable ruin. The story of 
the disaster of Fort Washington, where 
York County lost at least six hundred 
ofificers and men, is told in the succeeding 
pages of this work in an article relating to 
the Flying Camp. 


REVOLUTION— Continued. 

The Flying Camp — York County Regi- 
ments — Battle of Fort Washington — 
Washington's Retreat and Victory at 
Trenton — Battle of Princeton. 

In June, 1776, after the British under 
General Howe had evacuated Boston 
and were about to threaten New 
York, Continental Congress issued a 
call for troops to join Washington's 
army. These troops, 10,000 in num- 
ber, were to be enlisted for a term of 
six months from the organized militia in 
Pennsylvania, Maryland and Delaware. 
Colonel Miles" Rifle Regiment and Colonel 
Atlee's Battalion of Musketry, state troops 
already in the field, in all 1500 men, were to 
be accredited as part of the quota from 
Pennsylvania, which was expected to raise 
6000 men. Maryland was to furnish 3400 
and Delaware 600. This body of troops 
after enlistment and organization became 
known as the Flying Camp. By request of 
Washington, his personal friend. General 
Hugh Mercer, a physician by profession and 
a soldier by instinct, was selected as com- 
mander with the rank of brigadier-general. 

General fiercer was a nati\e of 
General Scotland, and in 1747, settled in 
Mercer. Franklin County, Pennsylvania, 
at the site of Mercersburg, where 
he practiced medicine among his Scotch- 
Irish neighbors. He had served with dis- 
tinction in the French and Indian war under 
Braddock. being severely wounded in the 
shoulder at Monongahela, and received a 
medal from the city of Philadelphia for his 
bravery in this expedition. In 1758, he 
commanded a regiment under General 
Forbes against the Indians at Fort Du- 
quesne. After the close of the French and 
Indian war, he practiced his profession at 
Fredericksburg, Virginia, where he became 
a close and intimate friend of Washington. 

The enlisted men of the Flying Camp 
under the act of Congress, were required to 
furnish their own arms, blankets, haversacks 
and knapsacks. Men. unable to furnish 
their own muskets, were to be supplied with 
arms which had been made by order of the 
Assembly for the use of the militia. The 
Pennsylvania Assembly adjourned in June, 




1776, witliout completing arrangements for 
the organization of troops for the Flying 
Camp. The Pennsylvania Conference, 
composed of representatives from the com- 
mittees of safety in the dififerent counties, 
met in Philadelphia during the latter part 
of June. This conference considered itself 
the only representative body in Pennsyl- 
vania and made immediate provisions for 
the enlistment of as many as possible of the 
4500 men intended for the Flying Camp. 
The conference appointed a committee of 
twelve men representing the different coun- 
ties of Pennsylvania to devise ways and 
means for raising the 4500 men, and to in- 
quire into all matters necessary for sending 
them to the army. 

In the apportionment Philadelphia city 
and county was to furnish 956 men ; Bucks 
County, 400 men ; Chester County, 652 ; 
Berks, 666; Northampton, 346; Cumberland, 
334; Lancaster, 746; York, 400. Colonel 
Richard McAllister, the founder of Han- 
over, then in command of a battalion of 
militia, was a representative from York 
County on this committee. The Pennsyl- 
vania Conference appointed Colonel James 
Smith, Dr. Benjamin Rush and John Bayard 
to prepare a draft of an address to the As- 
sociators. James Smith was then a prac- 
ticing lawver at York and commander of a 
battalion of militia in this county. 

The address which Smith and 
A Patriotic his associates prepared is sup- 
Appeal, posed to have been written by 

this ardent patriot, who shortly 
after signed the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. The address reads as follows: 

To the Associators of Pennsylvania : 

Gentlemen : — The only design of our meeting to- 
gether was to put an end to our own power in the 
province, by fixing upon a plan for calling a convention, 
to form a government under the authority of the people. 
But the sudden and unexpected separation of tlie late 
assembly, has compelled us to undertake the execvition 
of a resolve of Congress, for calling forth 4500 of the 
militia of the Province, to join the militia of the neigh- 
boring colonies, to form a camp for our immediate 
protection. We presume only to recornmend the plan 
we have formed to you, trusting that in a case of so 
much consequence, your love of virtue and zeal for 
liberty will supply the want of authority delegated to 
us expressly for that 

We need not remind you that you are now furnished 
with new motives to animate and support your courage. 
You are now about to contend against the power of 
Great Britain, in order to displace one set of villains to 
make room for another. Your arms will not be ener- 
vated in the day of battle with the reflection, that you 
are to risk vour lives or shed your blood for a British 

tyrant ; or that your posterity will have your work to 
do over again. You are about to contend for i)erma- 
ncnt freedom, to be supported by a government which 
will be derived from yourselves, and which will have 
for its object, not the emolument of one man or class 
of men only, but the safety, liberty and happiness of 
every individual in the community. We call upon you, 
therefore, by the respect and obedience which are due 
to the authority of the United Colonies to concur in this 
important measure. The present campaign will probably 
decide the fate of America. It is now in your power 
to immortalize your names, by mingling your achieve- 
ments with the events of the year 1776— a year which 
we hope will be famed in the annals of history to the 
end of time, for establishing upon a lasting foundation 
the liberties of one quarter of the globe. 

Remember the honor of our colonies is at stake. 
Should you desert the common cause at the present 
juncture, the glory you have acquired by your former 
exertions of strength and virtue, will be tarnished; and 
our friends and brethren, who are now acquiring laurels 
in the most remote parts of America, will reproach us 
and blush to own themselves natives or inhabitants of 

But there are other motives before you. Your houses, 
your fields, the legacies of your ancestors, or the dear- 
bought fruits of your own industry, and your liberty, 
now urge you to the field. These cannot plead with 
you in vain, or we might point out to you further, your 
wives, your children, your aged fathers and mothers, 
who now look up to you for aid, and hope for salvation 
in this day of- calamity, only from the instrumentality 
of your swords. 

Remember the name of Pennsylvania. Think of your 
ancestors and of your posterity. 

Signed by the unanimous order of the conference, 
Thomas McKean, President. 
June 25. 1776. 

The formation of the Flying 
Elect Camp, as directed by Con- 

Brigadiers, gress, from such of the asso- 
ciated battalions as volun- 
teered for the purpose. rec[uired full organ- 
ization, and a meeting was called at Lan- 
caster, to which the militia of the state were 
directed to send representatives. This 
meeting, composed of the delegates from 
the ofiicers and privates of the fifty-three 
battalions of Associators, convened on the 
memorable Fourth of July, 1776, for the 
purpose of choosing two brigadier-generals. 
Colonel George Ross was chosen president 
of the meeting, and Colonel David Clymer, 
secretary. Colonel Mark Burd, Colonel 
George Ross and Captain Sharp Dulaney 
were appointed judges of the election. The 
election was held and resulted in the choice 
of Daniel Roberdeau and James Ewing, the 
former having 160 votes and the latter 85. 
Upon the announcement of this result, the 
president immediately declared Daniel Rob- 
erdeau commander of the First Brigade and 
James Ewing commander of the Second 

Daniel Roberdeau was a native of the 



Island of Si. Christopher, and became a 
prominent merchant of Philadelphia. In 
1776 he was the colonel of a battalion of As- 
sociators. In May of the same year he pre- 
sided over a public meeting at Philadelphia, 
which favored the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. In that year he owned a privateer 
which captured a prize of $22,000, which 
money he turned over to the disposal of 
Congress. In 1777 he was a leading mem- 
ber of Continental Congress at York. 

James Ewing was a citizen of York 
Count V. residing on his plantation in Hel- 
1am township, near W'rightsville. He was 
then forty years of age. He had served as 
a lieutenant in Forbes' expedition against 
Fort Duquesne in 1758. In 1771-5 he was 
a member of the General Assembly of Penn- 
s\dvania, and at the outl)reak of the Revo- 
lution became a member of the Committee 
of Safety for York County. 

On July 7, 1776, the pastor of the 

A Moravian Church at ^'ork. made 

Local the following entr}- in liis diary: 
Diary. "Strict orders came that all As- 
sociators of this county should 
hold themselves in readiness to march to 
the front. In the following week they left. 

"July 17 — Yorktown seems quite de- 
serted on account of tlie departure for the 
army of all men under fifty years of age. 
Our young 'men had to lea\e for Jersey. 
Ernst Schlosser, the three sons of Brothers 
Rothrock, Brinkman. John Seifer's eldest 
son. John Hoenrison. and. in short, tjie 
most of the others who are under fifty years 
of age, will have to march off in the next 
few days. Several of our people, because 
the town has been so emptied, have in addi- 
tion to other persons been elected as mem- 
bers of the committee ad interim, with a 
guard given them day and night, in order to 
maintain peace and quietness, and give 
security against the plots of Tories. All 
business is prostrated, all shops are closed. 
How many prayers and tears will now be 
brought Ijefore the Lord, by parents for 
their children. l)y children for their parents, 
li\' wives for their husbands. 

"August — Numerous bands of soldiers 
from Maryland, Virginia, etc., passed 
through the town. 

"September 4 — Our town has not re- 
mained exempt from the pre\'ailing unrest 
of the land. Xone of oiu^ comnnmicant 

brethren ha\e been comi)elled to enter the 
war, and those wiio were married and had 
gone to Jersey, have again returned in the 
first jjart of tine week to their respective 
homes. The young single men of our so- 
ciety, of whom tlicre are about ten absent, 
ha\e been drawn into the Flying Camp. 

"In the beginning of September, some of 
those who had gone to the front from here 
returned. On the 28th of September, 1776, 
Philip Rothrock returned from a visit to liis 
sons in camp near New York." 

In oljedience to the call for 
The militia from Pennsylvania 

Organization, to join the Flying Camp, 
Ijeing formed in the State 
of Xew Jersey, five battalions of Associ- 
ators left York County in July, 1776. These 
battalions passed through Lancaster and 
Philadelphia, and then proceeded by water 
to Trenton and from thence to the head- 
quarters of the Flying Camp at Perth Am- 
Ijoy, arriving there late in July. At this 
time, other battalions of Associators from 
Pennsylvania and Xew Jersey arrived at 
Perth Ambo}', wdiere General fiercer and 
his brigadiers, Ewing and Roberdeau, 
began the organization of the Flying Cam]), 
liy asking volunteer enlistments. 

The Convention of the State of Penn- 
syh-ania, on August 12, resolved to 
add four additional battalions to the 
Flying Camp. York County being re- 
quired to furnish 515 men toward 
making out the number of 2,984, the 
amount of the four new battalions. On 
the same day, Colonel George Ross, vice- 
president of the convention : Colonel 
Thomas Matlack, of Philadelphia, and 
Colonel Henry Slagle, of York County, 
were chosen commissioners to go to the 
headquarters in Xew Jersey, to aid in form- 
ing the Flying Camp. Before a complete 
organization had been effected, the British 
were threatening the city of Xew York. 
Colonel Miles' regiment was sent to Long 
Island, and the newly organized regiments 
under Swope and McAllister, of York 
Coimty. were sent forward for active 
operations in the field. 

.\fter the recjuisite number had been en- 
listed. General Mercer issued an order. 
-August 19, authorizing the return to their 
homes of the balance of the associated 
militia. This patriotic band of soldiers was 

I So 


organized shortly after tlie Declaration of 
Independence, when the political affairs of 
the State of Pennsylvania were controlled 
by the Provincial Conference. 

The British army under General Howe 
was arriving" on Long Island from Halifax, 
Xo\a Scotia, where it had gone after 
evacuating Boston. Xew York was in the 
hands of the Americans and a battle 
between \A'ashington and Howe was soon 
expected at Long Island or in the northern 
part of Xew Jersey. 


York County showed her lo\'aIty to the 
catise of independence by sending more 
troops from the militia service than were 
needed for her quota for the organization 
of the Flying Camp. Two regiments had 
been formed from the York County militia. 
These commands were designated the First 
and Second Pennsylvania Regiments of the 
Flying Camp. The officers of the First 
Regiment were: Michael Swope, colonel; 
Robert Stevenson, lieutenant-colonel ; Wil- 
liam Bailey, major. It was composed of 
eight companies with the following officers: 

First Company — 

Michael Schmeiser, captain. 

Zachariah Shugart, first lieutenant. 

Andrew Robinson, second lieutenant. 

William A\"ayne, ensign. 
Second Company — 

Gerhart Graeff, captain. 

Daniel McCollom, ensign. 
Third Company — 

Jacob Dritt, captain. 

John Baymiller, hrst lieutenant. 

Henry Clayton, second lieutenant. 

Jacob Mayer, ensign. 

Daniel Herrington, corporal. 
Fourth Company — 

Christian S.take, captain. 

Cornelius Sheriff, first lieutenant. 

Jacob Holtzinger, second lieutenant. 

Jacob Barnitz, ensign. 
Fifth Company — 

John McDonald, captain. 

A\'illiam Scott, first lieutenant 

Robert Patton, second lieutenant. 

Ensign Howe. 
Sixth Company — 

John Ewing, captain. 

William Paysley, ensign. 

Seventh Compan}- — 

William Xelson, captain. 

James Todd, first lieutenant. 

Joseph Welsh, second lieutenyn. 

Ensign Xesbit. 
Eighth Company — 

Joshua A\'illiams, captain. 

Jacob Brinkerhoiif, ensign. 
Soon after the organization. Colonel 
Swope's regiment, with other commands of 
Ewing's brigade, was ordered to garrison 
Fort Constitution, afterward named Fort 
Lee, situated on the west side of the Hud- 
son River, above New York City. October 
8, it contained 2t7 commissioned officers and 
staff, 44 non-commissioned officers, and 359 
rank and file. 

The Second Pennsylvania 
McAllister's Regiment of the Flying 
Regiment. Camp, commanded by Colo- 
nel Richard McAllister, was 
composed of eight companies. Six of 
tliese companies were recruited out of the 
l)attalions of militia which had marched to 
New Jersey from the various parts of York 
County, and the territory now embraced in 
Adams County. These companies were 
commanded respectively by Captains Xich- 
olas Bittinger, AX'illiani McCarter, W\ Mc- 
Coskey, John Laird, Samuel Wilson and 
John Paxton. Two companies from Bucks 
County belonged to this regiment. Mc- 
Allister's regiment was at Perth Amboy 
October 8, 1776, when it contained 41 com- 
missioned officers and staff, 43 non- 
commissioned officers and 438 rank and file. 
David Kennedy was lieutenant-colonel and 
John Clark, who had previously served with 
the first troops that left York for Boston, 
was commissioned major. 

Meantime, the battle of Long Island had 
been fought and the British had taken 
possession of New York City, which then 
covered the lower part of Manhattan 
Island. W^ashington retreated to the 
northern part of the island and then placed 
his army on both sides of the Hudson. The 
enemy held Long Island and Staten Island. 
General Mercer, commanding the Flying 
Camp, despatched McAllister's regiment to 
attack a body of the enemy on Staten 
Island, October 14. Major John Clark, in 
his autobiography, says, "In the expedition 
to Staten Island, I took a stand of British 
colors of the Twenty-third Light Dragoons. 



I commanded the ad\rince of 500 riflemen 
and the first Hessians taken, or rather 
W'aldeckers, fell into my hands, about 

Soon after the Staten Island affair, Mc- 
Allister's regiment joined tho brigade at 
Fort Lee. At this time, ]\Iajor Clark 
selected 200 men from the regiment to 
guard the passes opposite White Plains. He 
fortified his position and laid plans to pre- 
vent detachments of Howe's army from 
passing up the Hudson. 

With the same detachment on November 
9, at the command of General Greene, 
Clark was sent to Dobb's Ferry on the east 
side of the Hudson to protect the landing 
of a quantity of flour for the American 
army. \\'ith his accustomed sagacity, 
Clark reconnoitered the situation and dis- 
covered that the enemy to the number of 
about 5,000 were encamped nearby. He 
reported that in his opinion, the British 
were laying plans to cross the river and 
attack Fort Washington, situated in the 
northern part of Manhattan Island. 

Swope's regiment was stationed on the 
New Jersey side of the Hudson to guard the 
passes of that stream during the battle of 
White Plains, fought on the eastern side of 
the river, below Yonkers. Colonel Robert 
McGaw, of Cttmberland County, Pennsyl- 
vania, with twelve hundred men, was placed 
in charge of the defenses of Fort \\'ashing- 
ton. General Greene, struck with the im- 
portance of protecting McGaw. suggested 
to the commander-in-chief that a portion of 
the Flying Camp, then stationed on the 
western side of the Hudson, should cross 
o\-er and assist Colonel ^NIcGaw in defend- 
ing Fort Washington. This fort was con- 
sidered a strategic point, and General Howe 
determined to attack it with a large force. 
It was one of tlie most hazardous positions 
defended by Pennsylvania troops during the 
entire period of the Revolution. Ten 
thousand regulars would have been re- 
(juired to successfully perform this duty. 


In accordance with Greene's suggestion. 
Colonel Swope's and a part of I\lc.\llister's 
regiments crossed the Hudson and joined 
the Pennsylvania troops under McGaw in 
defending the fort. November 15, the 
adjutant-general. Colonel Patterson, of the 

British army, was sent to summon the gar- 
rison in Fort Washington to surrender, 
threatening at the same time, to "put it to 
the sword," if the demand was rejected. At 
this juncture. Colonel McGaw sent the fol- 
lowing communication to General Greene: 

"A flag of truce came out just now from 
King's Bridge. The adjutant-general was 
at the head of it. I sent down Colonel 
Swope. The adjutant-general would hardly 
give him two hours for an alternative be- 
tween surrendering at discretion or every 
man being put to the sword. He waits an 
answer. I shall send him a proper one. 
You will, I dare say, do what is best. We 
are determined to defend the post or 

In response to this communication. Colo- 
nel Swope, of York, delivered the following 
remarkable document to the adjutant- 
general of the British army in accordance 
with the directions of Colonel McGaw: 

"If I rightly understand the purport of 
your message from General Howe, com- 
municated to Colonel Swope, this post is to 
be immediately surrenderetl or the garrison 
put to the sword. I rather think it is a 
mistake than a settled resolution in General 
Howe to act a part so unworthy of himself 
and the British nation. 

"But give me leave to assure his Excel- 
lency that, actuated by the most glorious 
cause of mankind ever fought in, I am de- 
termined to defend this post to the very last 

After learning the determination of these 
gallant Pennsylvania troops, the British 
decided to make the attack, the following 
day. Early in the morning on the six- 
teenth, the enemy's batteries from the east- 
ern side of the Harlem River, opened fire 
upon the commands of Colonel Baxter, of 
]\Iaryland, and Colonel Lambert Cadwalla- 
der, of Pennsylvania, who held positions 
witliout the fort. 

Meantime General \\'ashington, with 
Greene. Mercer and Putnam, crossed the 
river from Fort Lee to the vicinity of F"ort 
Washington, and examined the position of 
the .American troops and reconnoitered the 
movements of the enemy. These officers 
then returned to Fort Lee, entrusting the 
entire command to Colonel McGaw and his 
heroic band of patriots. 

Aljout noon. General Knyphausen, com- 



manding" the Hessian forces, l:)egan a 
furious attack upon tiie north. SimuUa- 
neous attacks were made by Lord Percy on 
the south, and Colonel Sterling and General 
Matthews crossed the Harlem river and 
movetl on the fort from the east. The 
British dro\-e the Americans from their out- 
posts and soon stood victorious upon the 
hills overlooking the open fields around 
Fort \\'ashington. Xear the fort severe 
skirmishes took place and many of the Hes- 
sian pursuers were slain. The defense was 
gallant, but pike, ball and baj'onet, used by 
live thousand men, overpowered the weak- 
ened patriots and they were nearly all 
gathered within the ramparts of the fort, 
but not until about i,ooo men had fallen 
"into the hands of the enemy. 

General Howe sent an order 
Surrender for surrender. Perceiving fur- 
of the Fort, ther resistance to be in vain, 

McGaw complied and at half 
past one the British flag was waving where 
the ContineiTtal banner had been unfurled 
defiantly in the morning. The entire gar- 
rison, numbering nearly three thousand 
njen, surrendered. Washington, standing 
on the ramparts of Fort Lee with tears in 
his eyes, saw the garrison in Fort Washing- 
ton meet its doom, and the American ban- 
ner torn down and replaced by the flag of 

When the attack on Fort ^^'ashington 
began about noon of Xovember i6, 1776, 
Swope's regiment was defending one of the 
outposts some distance to the southeast. 
His position was assaulted by the Hessian 
troops under Knyphausen. Swope's men 
fought gallantly, but being o\'erpowered by 
the enemy, were compelled to fall back. In 
this movement they were flanked by the 
British and Hessians and forced to sur- 
render. Almost the entire command of 400 
York County soldiers became prisoners of 
war. Jacob Barnitz, a young man of 
eighteen and a color bearer of the regiment, 
was wounded in both legs by rifle balls and 
was left on the held. The attack of the 
enemy was violent and impetuous, and as 
they approached the outposts of the fort, 
the Hessians lost heavily in killed and 
wounded from the well directed aim of the 
Pennsylvania soldiers. Colonel McGaw's 
loss in killed and wounded did not exceed 
100 men, but almost his entire command of 

3,000 men were compelled to surrender to 
the enemy. 

Colonel Xliomas Hartley, in 1779, wrote a 
letter stating that nearly 400 York County 
troops, largely from Swope's regiment and 
partly from iNIcAllister's regiment, had been 
held in N^ew York and Long Island as 
prisoners of w-ar; that at the expiration of 
three years only fifty of the entire number 
captured had returned to their homes. He 
made this assertion to prove the loj'alty of 
the people west of the Susquehanna to the 
cause of American independence, and fur- 
ther claimed that York County had fur- 
nished more troops for the army than any 
other county in the thirteen original states. 

These American soldiers were placed in 
jails, churches, sugar houses and other 
buildings, and held as prisoners of war for 
many months, some of them not having 
been released until three years after their 
capture. The stories of their treatment if 
they could be given in detail would rank 
among the most sorrowful ever recorded on 
the pages of history. They w-ere given an 
insui^cient amount of food, were obliged to 
remain in cold, damp rooms without any 
privileges of outdoor exercise. Many of 
these gallant sons of Pennsylvania died 
from the horrors of British prison pens and 
others contracted diseases from which they 
never recovered. The treatment of the 
British and Hessian prisoners by the 
Americans formed no comparison to the 
treatment of Colonel McGaw's men while 
they were held prisoners in New York and 
Long Island. 

Owing to the absence of oiTicial doc- 
uments, a complete record of the casualties 
in Swope's and McAllister's regiments can- 
not be given. From various sources of in- 
formation the following facts have been ob- 
tained. Among the prisoners captured at 
Fort AA'ashington were Colonel Michael 
Swope. Major William Bailey, Surgeon 
Humphrey Fullerton, Captains Michael 
Smyser, Jacob Drift, Christian Stake, John 
McDonald, Henry Clayton, Flenry Lewis, 
Lieutenants Zachariah Shugart, Jacob 
Holtzinger, Andrew Robinson, Benjamin 
Davis, Lieutenants Clayton, Robert Patton, 
Joseph Welsh, Ensigns Jacob Barnitz, 
Jacob Morgan and Jacob ]Meyer, and Adju- 
tant Howe. 

The follo\\'ing sohliers served in Captain 



Stake's company and were taken prisoners 

at Fort \\ asliington : 

Sergeant Peter 

Haack, Sergeant John Dicks, Sergeant 
Henry Counselman, Corporal John Adlum, 
David Parker, James Dobbins, Hugh Dob- 
bins, Henry Miller, John Stroman, Christian 
Stroman, James Berry, Joseph Bay, Henry 
Hoff, Joseph Updegraff, Daniel ^liller, 
Jacob Hake, Jr., Henry Shultz, William 
Lukens, the mulatto cook. 

The casualties of ^McAllister's regiment 
as far as could be obtained were the follow- 
ing: Captain ^IcCarter, shot through the 
breast and died five days after the battle ; 
Captain Nicholas Bittinger, the ancestor of 
the Bittinger family in York and Adams 
Counties, held as a prisoner of war in Xew^ 
York for several months; Lieutenants Wil- 
liam Young, Joseph Morrison, Hugh King, 
Shannon, Henry Bittinger, Ensign Thomas 
Reed, Private Charles \\'ilson. 

The battle of Fort Washington was 
fought largely by troops from west of the 
Susquehanna River from York and Cumber- 
land Counties. .About one-half of the en- 
listed men of Swope's and AIcAUister's 
regiments were Pennsylvania Germans who 
fought gallantly before they would sur- 
render the fort to the enemy. 

Captains William Scott, John Jamison, 
Thomas Campbell, Lieutenants Samuel 
Lindsay, Henry Bear, Joseph Morrison, 
John Irwin. John Findlay, Godfrey Myers, 
Matthew Bennett, of York County, were 
prisoners of war on Long Island, in August, 

Among the soldiers belonging to Swope's 
regiment, who died in New York prisons, 
were Sergeants Peter Haack and John 
Hicks; Privates Hugh Dobbins, Henry 
Hoff, David Parker. They were buried in 
Trinit}' churchyard, New York, in the same 
hallowed ground in which were interred the 
remains of Alexander Hamilton and many 
other noted Revolutionary soldiers. Cap- 
tain McCarter, of McAllister's regiment, 
who was mortally wounded at Fort Wash- 
ington, was also buried in Trinity grave- 

Benjamin Davis, who served as lieuten- 
ant in Captain Smyser's company, was held 
as a prisoner of war during the whole period 
of the Revolution. He owned a fulling mill 
in York County and 186 acres of land. In 
^larch. 1781. he applied to the State of 

Pennsylvania for a pension, stating in his 
application tlnat his property had been sold 
to support his family during his long im- 

John ^IcKinley, of Lower Chanceford 
Township, the great-grandfather of William 
McKinley, served in the Sixth Battalion, 
York County Militia, and marched with it 
to join the Flying Camp in 1776. 

Gerhardt GraetT, a captain in the Flying 
Camp, was taken a prisoner at Fort Wash- 
ington, and died in captivity. Almost his 
entire company became prisoners of war at 
Fort Washington. 

manded one of the divisions of the Flying- 
Camp, was born in IManor Township, Lan- 
caster County, August 3, 1736, of Scotch- 
Irish ancestry. His father emigrated from 
the north of Ireland to Pennsylvania in 
1734. The son received a good education. 
During ForUes' expedition to Fort Du- 
quesne in the French and Indian war, he 
entered the provincial service and was com- 
missioned lieutenant. May 10, 1758. He 
was a member of the General Assembly of 
Pennsylvania from 1771 to 1775. At the 
outbreak of the Revolution, he was on the 
Committee of Safety for York County, and 
on July 4, 1776, was chosen one of the two 
brigadier-generals of I he Pennsylvania As- 
sociators, out of which was formed the Fly- 
ing Camp. He commanded one of the di- 
visions of the Flying Camp in the campaign 
around New York City during the year 
1776. In December of that year, when 
General Washington had planned an attack 
on the British at Trenton, General Ewing, 
in command of the Pennsylvania Militia, 
was stationed at a point a few miles below 
Trenton. It was intended that his division 
of troops should cross the Delaware to New 
Jersey on Christmas night at the same time 
that \\'ashington was crossing a short 
distance above Trenton, where the stream 
was narrow. Owing to the width of the 
river below Trenton and the floating ice, 
Ewing was unable to cross until after the 
victory had been won at Trenton. General 
Sullivan commanded a body of men near 
Bristol, and was also unable to cross the 
river on account of the obstructions. Some 
days later, both these commands took posi- 
tion in New Jersey and acted as a reserve at 
the battle of Princeton. After the war. 

1 84 


General Ewing returned to liis plantation in 
Hellam Township, about t\\o miles west of 
AVrightsville, where he followed the occu- 
pation of a farmer. His character, promi- 
nence and ability Avon him recognition at 
the hands of his fellow-citizens and he was 
frequently called upon to serve in high posi- 
tions of honor and trust. Immediately after 
the>war, he was chosen a member of the Su- 
preme Executive Council of Pennsylvania 
and was vice-president of the Council, a 
position corresponding to lieutenant-gov- 
ernor, from November 7, 1782, to Novem- 
ber 6, 1784. The following year he served 
as a member of the State Legislature, where 
he was active in securing the passage of 
laws relating to the material development 
of the state. The state constitution of 1790 
made the Legislature composed of two 
bodies, Senate and House of Representa- 
tives, and from 1795 to 1799, General Ewing 
represented York County in the State Sen- 
ate, being one of its most influential mem- 
bers. It was during this period that he be- 
came deeply interested in the navigation of 
the Susquehanna River, advocating the con- 
struction of a channel in the centre of the 
river through the Conewago rapids and ex- 
tending from Harrisburg to the Chesapeake 
Bay. When the subject of making Wright's 
Ferry the seat of the United States govern- 
ment was discussed in Congress, he was one 
of the strong supporters for the selection of 
the west bank of the Susquehanna, at 
AVrightsville, as the place for the national 
government. General Ewing was a mem- 
ber of the Presbyterian Church and was 
prominent in the councils of that church. 
He had served as vice-president of the State 
during the same period that John Dickinson 
was president, and when Dickinson College 
was founded at Carlisle, in 1783, he was 
chosen a member of the first board of 
trustees of that institution. He died at his 
home in Hellam Township, near the Sus- 
quehanna River, March i, 1806, at the age 
of seventy years. 

the heroes of Fort Washington, was born at 
York about .1748, son of George Swope, one 
of the commissioners who laid ofif York 
County in 1749. Early in life, Colonel 
Swope became one of the most influential 
citizens in the town and county of York. 
He was elected coroner in 1761 ; appointed 

justice of the peace in 1764; judge of the 
Orphan's Court in 1767; member of the 
Pennsylvania Assembly from 1768 until the 
opening of the Revolution ; member of the 
committee of correspondence at York in 
1775, and the same year was chosen major 
of the First Battalion of York County 
Militia, commanded by James Smith, signer 
of the' Declaration of Independence. When 
Smith became a member of Continental 
Congress, Major Swope was elected colonel 
of the First Battalion of militia. In the 
summer of 1776; when the militia was called 
into active service. Colonel Swope took his 
battalion to Perth Amboy, New Jersey, and 
at this place recruited from the different 
battalions of York County militia, the First 
Pennsylvania Regiment in the Flj^ing Camp, 
whose history is given in the preceding 
pages. At the battle of Fort Washington, 
November 16, 1776, Colonel Swope was 
taken prisoner, together with most of his 
regiment. He, with other officers, was con- 
fined in New York City until June 23, 1778, 
when he was released on parole. His parole 
was cancelled by special order on the 8th of 
August, 1779, and he was required to return 
to prison in New York, where he remained, 
with some fellow-prisoners, until he was 
finally exchanged for a British officer of the 
same rank, at Elizabeth, New Jersey, Janu- 
ary 26, 1781. He then returned to York on 
foot, a distance of 170 miles. Before leaving 
prison, the American agent, Lewis Pintard, 
gave him a large supply of Continental 
money to pay his expenses on his return 
home. At this time. Continental money had 
become almost valueless, and Colonel 
Swope exchanged seventy-five dollars in 
currency for one in specie. 

Colonel Swope first began business at 
York as an inn-keeper. In 1783, two years 
after his return to York from his experience 
as a prisoner, he was assessed as a store- 
keeper, with merchandise and real estate 
valued at 1,119 pounds. He then had a 
family of five persons. He owned silver- 
ware to the amount of thirty-two pounds, a 
pleasure carriage and one slave. In 1782, 
he was commissioned one of the court 
justices for York County. 

Colonel Swope was first married to Anna 
Maria, daughter of Casper Spangler, of 
York. She died sometime before the 
Revolution. In 1777, when Continental 



Congress came to York, his second wife, 
Eva Swope, rented their home, on the south 
side of West Alarket Street, to John Han- 
cock, president of Congress. This building 
was then known as the President's house, 
and the rental of it for the use of the presi- 
dent of Congress, was paid by the govern- 
ment. Hancock resigned his office two 
months after Congress came to York and 
returned to ]Massachusetts. In February, 
1778, when Baron Steuben came to York to 
ofier his services as an officer in the Ameri- 
can army, he occupied the Swope residence 
for a period of three weeks, with his retinue 
of attendants. ^leantime, he received the 
commission of a major-general and pro- 
ceeded to Valley Forge to drill the army in 
the tactics he had learned while serving 
under Frederick the Great of Prussia. In 
1785, Colonel Swope removed froin York to 
Alexandria, Virginia. After going there, 
his business affairs at York were conducted 
by Colonel Thomas Hartley, who disposed 
of his real estate. 

who commanded the Second Penns\lvania 
Regiment of York County Troops in the 
Flying Camp, was born in 1724. He was a 
son of. Archibald ]\IcAllister, who came to 
America from Scotland in 1732. About 
1745 Richard ^IcAllister moved from Cum- 
berland County to the site of Hanover, 
where he purchased a large tract of 
land. On February 2t„ 1748, he married 
Mary, daughter of Colonel Matthew Dill, 
who commanded a regiment in the French 
and Indian war, and whose son. ]\Iatthew, 

' founded Dillsburg. In 1750, Richard Mc.\l- 
lister was a candidate for sheriff of York 
County against Colonel Hance Hamilton, 
who resided near the site of Gettysburg. 
The election was so close that it was con- 
tested and the Provincial authorities com- 
missioned Hance Hamilton. In 1763, Rich- 
ard McAllister founded the town of Han- 
over and soon became one of the leading 
citizens of York County. In 1775 he was 
elected a member of the Committee of Ob- 
servation and Safety for York County. In_ 
June of the same year he served as a repre- 
sentative in the Provincial Conference, 

'which met in Carpenter's Hall, Philadel- 
phia, and in January, 1776, he was a mem- 
ber of the same body. In 1775 he was com- 
missioned colonel of the Fourth Battalion 

of York Count}' ]\Iilitia. During the fall of 
the same year, he received the commission 
as colonel of a battalion of Minute Men, 
formed out of the militia of York County. 
In July, 1776, when Congress issued a call 
for ten thousand troops. Colonel McAllister 
marched with his battalion through Lan- 
caster and Philadelphia to Perth Amboy, N. 
J. At this point, when the Flying Camp 
was organized under the command of Gen- 
eral Hugh Mercer, he was chosen colonel of 
the Second Pennsylvania Regiment. Colo- 
nel ]McAllister commanded his regiment in 
the campaign around New York City and 
led the expedition to Staten Island. 
Later in the campaign. Colonel McAl- 
lister's regiment took part in the defense 
of Fort Washington, where he lost a large 
number of troops who became prisoners of 
war, including two of his captains. In the 
campaign of 1776 he was, present with his 
regiment, under General James Ewing, sta- 
tioned below Trenton on the Pennsylvania 
side of the Delaware, when Washington 
captured the Hessians in Trenton on 
Christmas night. 

After the expiration of his term of service 
in the Flying Camp, in 1777, McAllister re- 
turned to his home at Hanover, and in 
ISIarch of this year he was elected by the 
General Assembly of Pennsylvania, county 
lieutenant. This office required him to see 
that the six difterent battalions of the 
militia in York County, which then included 
Adams, were drilled and disciplined ready 
for service in the field when they were re- 
quired to defend their state against the in- 
vasion of the British foe. He was successful 
in this position and on several occasions 
issued calls for certain classes of the militia 
to march from York County to the army 
under \\'ashington. During the years 
1783-84-85-86, he was a member of the Su- 
preme E.xecutive Council of Pennsylvania, 
which, under the state constitution of 1776 
to 1790, was the Executive Body in the state 
government. During the years that he 
served in this body, he was also a member 
of the Council of Censors, whose duty was 
to look after the interests of the confiscated 
estates of Pennsylvania Tories. Colonel 
McAllister early in lif2 took a prominent 
part in the legal afYairs of York County. He 
was commissioned justice of the peace and 
justice for the court of common pleas in 

1 86 


Marcli, 1771. He was a member of the first 
State Constitutional Convention in the year 
1776, and on February 17, 1784, became 
presiding justice of the York County 
Courts. On June 30, 1791, he entertained 
President A\'ashington for a few hours 
wliile passing through llie town of Hanover 
on his way to Philadelphia. He died at 
Hanover at four o'clock in the evening, Oc- 
tober 7, 1795. His remains were first buried 
in the graveyard, belonging to Emanviel's 
Reformed Church of Hanover, of which he 
was a member and one of the leading con- 
tributors during its early history. About 
1870 his remains were removed to Mount 
Olivet Cemetery in the suburbs of Hanover, 
where they now lie, and on every succeed- 
ing Memorial day commemorative services 
are held at this tomb by the Grand Army 
Post of Hanover. Colonel McAllister had 
eleven children. His eldest son, Abdiel, 
commanded a company in Colonel Irvine's 
regiment in the first expedition to Canada, 
in 1775, and during the campaign around 
Philadelphia took part in the battle of 
Brandywine, when this regiment was com- 
manded by Colonel David Grier, of York. 
Archibald McAllister, another son, born 
1756, commanded a company in the battle 
of Germantown, in 1777, and also in the 
engagement at Monmouth, New Jersey, in 
1778. Matthew, a younger son, born 1758, 
became first United States district attorney 
of Georgia, judge of the Superior Court of 
the state and mayor of Savannah during the 
war of 1812. 

Colonel Julian McAllister, one of his sons, 
commanded a regiment in the Union army 
during the Civil w'ar. 

.early days written Schmeiser, who served 
with distinction as a captain in the Flying 
Camp, was born in 1740, a few miles west of 
York. His father, Matthias Smyser, came 
from Germany in 1731, at the age of sixteen, 
and when he reached his manhood, became 
one of the earliest settlers of York County 
in the vicinity of Spring Grove. Michael 
Smyser was thirty-five years old when the 
Revolution opened. He became one of the 
early citizens west of the Stisqnehanna to 
organize in opposition to the English gov- 
ernment. He was one of a committee of 
twelve from York County, who raised 
money in 1775 to send to the inhabitants of 

Boston, ^\■hen the port of that city was 
closed by the British. He joined the Conti- 
nental army as a captain in Colonel Michael 
Swope's regiment of York County Volun- 
teers, and was captured by the enemy in the 
engagement at Fort Washington, north of 
New York City, on the i6th of November, 
1776. Several months of distressing im- 
prisonment followed, during which time he 
was unremitting in his efforts to alleviate 
the sufferings of others, and bold and ani- 
mated in the advocacy of his -country's 
cause. After his release and return home, 
he was elected a member of the House of 
Representatives of Pennsylvania from York 
County, and from that time to 1790 was 
seven times re-elected to the same position. 
From 1790 to 1795 he represented his 
county in the State Senate, being the first 
person from A'ork County to fill that posi- 
tion mider the State Constitution of 1790. 
Here his warm attachment to our political 
institutions enabled him to act with honor 
to himself and his constituents. After the 
war, he turned his attention to agricultural 
pursuits, and kept a tavern a short distance 
west of York. He died in the year 1810, 
and his remains are interred near those of 
his father in the graveyard of the First 
Lutheran Church of York. He left three 
sons and four daughters, viz. : Peter, Eliza- 
beth, Sarah, Jacob, Marv, Alichael, Susan. 

twice wounded_at the battle of Fort Wash- 
ington, was born at York in the year 1758. 
He was the son of John George Carl Bar- 
nitz, who came to this country about 1745, 
first settled in Baltimore and later removed • 
to York. Jacob Barnitz grew to manhood 
in his native town and was a boy seventeen 
years old wdien the first troops left York to 
join the American army at Boston. The 
same year, he enlisted and trained with the 
First Battalion of York County Militia 
under Colonel James Smith, in Captain 
Stake's company. He marched with the 
battalion to New Jersey, and when Colonel 
Michael Swope organized the first regiment 
of Pennsylvania troops for the Flying 
Camp, Jacob Barnitz, at the age of eighteen, 
was made ensign or flag bearer, a com- 
missioned officer with the rank of second* 
lieutenant. He participated in the cam- 
paign around New York City, and carried 
the flag of his regiment when the British 



attacked Fort Washington, Xu\ember i6,- 
1776. Colonel Swope was commanding- tlie 
ontposts, and wlien he was drixen back by 
the approaching Hessians in large numbers, 
the flag bearer was the target of the enemy's 
balls. While falling back toward the fortifi- 
cations, Ensign Barnitz was wounded in 
l)oth legs and left on the field. He lay 
where he fell during the night and the next 
day, as the evening closed, a Hessian 
soldier approached and was about to bay- 
onet him, when a British ofiicer, who 
chanced to be near, took pity "on him and 
thus saved his life. He was then thrown on 
a wagon and taken a prisoner of w^ar to 
Xew York City, then in the hands of the 
British, where he remained fifteen months, 
suft'ering from his wounds. After his ex- 
change, 1778, he was removed on a wagon 
from Xew York City to his home in York. 
He partially recovered from his wounds, 
and in 1785 was appointed register and re- 
corder of York County, serving continu- 
ously until 1824, a period of thirty-five 
years. Ensign Barnitz, a name which he 
always retained, carried a British ball, re- 
ceived at the attack on Fort Washington, 
for thirty ^-ears, but the shattered bone 
lengthened, and in 1806 he was compelled 
to undergo amputation. 

Soon after the war he married !Mary, 
daughter of Archibald McLean, the noted 
surveyor of York. Their eldest son was 
Charles A. Barnitz, an eminent lawyer and 
member of the Twenty-third Congress. 
Their second son was Lieutenant Jacob 
Barnitz, a gallant soldier of the war of 1812, 
who bore a distinguished part as an ofificer 
of \olunteers at the battle of Xorth Point. 
Ensign Barnitz died April 16, 1828, at the 
age of seventy years, and his remains now 
rest at a spot north of Zion Lutheran 
Church of York. Shortly after the close of 
the war, under act of Congress passed June 
7, 1785, he became a pensioner and received 
up to the time of his death, the sum of $3,- 
500, as a reward for his valor and patriotism 
during the Revolution. 

The British ball which he carried in his 
leg from 1776 to 1808 was presented to the 
Historical Society of Y''ork County in 1904 
by his granddaughter. Miss Catharine 

a company in Swope's Regiment. He was 

made prisoner at Fort Washington, and 
underwent a long captivity. When the lines 
of the American forces were attacked by the 
enemy, previous to the capture of the fort, 
Captain Dritt, with a party of men chiefly 
from his own company, was ordered in ad- 
vance to oppose the landing of the British, 
who came in boats across Harlem Creek, 
below King's Bridge. He defended his 
position with great bravery, until, having 
lost a number of his men, and being nearly 
surrounded by the Hessians on one side and 
the British troops on the other, he retreated 
into the fort with difficulty and was there 
captured with the garrison. After the war 
Captain Dritt resided on his plantation in 
Lower \\'indsor Township, near the site of 
East Prospect and was engaged in trans- 
porting" goods and merchandise in a large 
ark down the Susquehanna River from its 
upper waters. He kept up an interest in 
military matters and about 1800 w^as com- 
missioned a brigadier-general in the state 
militia. He lost his life by an vmfortunate 
accident. On December 19, 1817, he 
crossed the Susquehanna to the site of Lit- 
tle Washington and went to the Marietta 
Bank, where he obtained five hundred dol- 
lars. W^hen he returned to the east side of 
the ferry, where his son Colonel John Dritt 
resided, the latter advised him not to cross 
the river to his home. He was accompanied 
by a young man named Griffith. They en- 
tered a boat which was capsized in the mid- 
dle of the stream when it came in contact 
with a large cake of ice. Many fruitless 
efforts were made to recover the dead body 
of the old soldier. Three months after the 
drowning, the body of General Dritt was 
found lying along the banks of the Chesa- 
peake Bay near the mouth of the Susque- 
hanna, by some colored slaves. The body 
was identified by some silver shoe buckles 
which he wore. His remains were interred 
near the site where they were found. 

who commanded a company in McAllister's 
regiment, and was captured by the British 
at Fort Washington, was born in Alsace, 
Germany. He came to America with his 
parents and became one of the earliest set- 
tlers in the vicinity of Hanover. In 1743, 
he was one of the co.ncil for St. Matthew's 
Church, at Hanover, the second Lutheran 
congregation west of the Susquehanna. 

1 88 


During" a vacancy in the pulpit, Xicholas 
Bittinger was elected to conduct religious 
services and read sermons. At the opening 
of the Revolution, he was chosen a member 
of the Committee of Safety for York 
County, and in 1776, upon the organization 
of the Flying Camp, took command of a 
company of sixty-eight men. He fell into 
the hands of the enemy at Fort Washington 
and was held a prisoner of war for nearly 
fifteen ijionths. AA'hen Captain Bittinger 
entered the. service, he had reached the age 
of fifty years. His eldest daughter was the 
wife of John Clark, major of McAllister's 
regiment. Captain Bittinger accumulated 
considerable property, and at the time of his 
death, in 1804, owned several farms a short 
distance north of Hanover. His remains 
were buried in the Lutheran graveyard at 
Abbottstown. Several of his descendants, 
including. the late Rev. Joseph Bittinger and 
Rev. John Ouiney Bittinger, became promi- 
nent clergymen in the Presbyterian Church. 
Hon. John \\'. Bittenger, president judge of 
the York County courts, and Dr. Joseph R. 
Bittinger, of Hanover, are also descendants 
of Captain Bittinger. 


At the disaster of Fort Washington on 
November 16, 1776, York County suffered 
its severest loss during the entire Revolu- 
tion. Nearly six hundred officers and men 
had fallen into the hands of the British and 
were held as prisoners of war in New York 
city and at dififerent posts on Long Island. 
The First Pennsylvania Regiment, in which 
Captain Henry Miller's York County troops 
served, had lost heavily at Long Island in 
August of the same year. Captain Philip 
Albright's company had its ranks depleted 
in the same battle. 

The defeats of the American army around 
New York city compelled ^^'ashington to 
retreat across X^ew Jersey in order to defend 
the city of Philadelphia. Congress became 
terrified and removed to Baltimore. The 
term of enlistment of many of the troops 
from Pennsylvania and New Jersey had ex- 
pired, and desertions depleted the ranks of 
nearly all the regiments then in the field. 
General Charles Lee, second in command, 
became disaftected toward the commander- 
in-chief. AN'ashington fell back toward 

Philadelphia through Princeton and Tren- 
ton, and on December 8 crossed the Dela- 
ware with his entire army, numbering about 
four thousand men of the eleven thousand 
or more tliat crossed with him to New York 
city after the battle of Long Island. 

Meantime Schuyler and Gates came down 
from Central New York with seven regi- 
ments and prepared to join him at head- 
(juarters at N'ew^town, Bucks County, a few 
miles southwest of Trenton. General Israel 
Putnam was put in charge of the defenses at 
Philadelphia At this time in the war, 
both General Howe and Lord Cornwallis, 
who had followed Washington to Trenton, 
decided to return to N'ew York, leaving a 
small detachment of troops near Trenton, 
believing that they could resist any attacks 
of the shattered army under Washington. 

During this dark period of the war 
Washington began to show the military 
genius and self command that soon made 
him loom up as the dominating personality 
of the Revolution. He planned a bold at- 
tack to capture the advanced posts of the 
British at Trenton. The militia of the ad- 
joining states was called out in the dead of 
winter and in a few weeks he had a con- 
siderable army stationed at different posts 
from a point eight miles above Trenton on 
the Pennsylvania side of the Delaware and 
down that stream to Germantown, a short 
distance from Philadelphia. He placed Sul- 
livan at Bristol, a few miles above Philadel- 
phia, with two thousand troops, formerly 
connnanded by General Charles Lee, who 
had been captured at Elizabeth while on the 
retreat across New Jersey. 

General James Ewing, of York 
General County, was put in command 
Ewing's of a brigade of Pennsylvania 
Command, and X'^ew Jersey militia with 
instructions from Washington 
to guard the Delaware from the ferry at 
Trenton down the river to a point opposite 
Bordentown, New Jersey. His force was 
composed of the remnants of the Flying 
Camp, which met such heavy losses at Long 
Island and Fort Washington, and recruits 
from the Pennsylvania and New Jersey 
militia. Colonel Richard McAllister, com- 
manding the second regiment of the Flying 
Camp, was present with Ewing, but havinfj- 
lost heavily in former engagements, now 
had . fewer than three hundred men. 



Washington took position nine miles above 
I'renton at a point \\here the river is not 
more than one hundred yards wide. The 
British army was stationed in a semi-circle 
with Trenton as the center of the arc. 

Washington's plan was, by a sudden at- 
tack, to overwhelm the British center at 
Trenton, and thus force the army to retreat 
to New York. The Delaware was to be 
crossed in three divisions. The right wing, 
2,000 men, under Gates, was to attack 
Count Donop at Burlington ; Ewing, with 
the centre, was to cross a short distance be- 
low Trenton; while Washington' himself, 
v.-ith the left wing, was to cross nine miles 
above, and march down upon Trenton from 
the north. On Christmas day all was ready, 
but the beginning of the enterprise was not 
auspicious. Gates, who preferred to go and 
intrigue with Congress, succeeded in beg- 
ging off, and started for Baltimore. Cad- 
walader, who took his place, tried hard to 
get his men and artillery across the river, 
but was baffled by the huge masses of float- 
ing ice, and reluctantly gave up the attempt. 
Ewing was so discouraged that he did not 
even try to cross, and both ofificeri took it 
for granted that Washington must be foiled 
in like manner. 

But Washington was desper- 

Crossing ately in earnest, and although 

the at sunset, just as he had 

Delaware, reached his crossing-place, he 

was informed by a special mes- 
senger of the failure of Ewing and Cad- 
walader, he determined to go on and make 
the attack with the 2,500 men whom he had 
with him. The great blocks of ice, borne 
swiftly along by the powerful current, 
made the passage extremely dangerous, but 
Glover, with his skilful fishermen of Marble- 
head, succeeded in ferrying the little army 
across without the loss of a man or a gun. 
More than ten hours were consumed in the 
passage, and then there was a march of nine 
miles to be made in a blinding storm of 
snow and sleet. They pushed rapidly on in 
two columns, led b}^ Greene and Sullivan 
respectively, drove in the enemy's pickets 
at the point of the bayonet, and entered the 
town by different roads soon after sunrise. 
A\ ashington's gtms were at once planted so 
as to sweep the streets, and after Colonel 
Rahl and seventeen of his men had been 
slain, the whole body of Hessians, 1,000 in 

number, surrendered. Of the .\mericans, 
two were frozen to deatli on the march and 
two were killed in action. 

Captain Henry Miller's company 
York of the First Pennsylvania Reg- 
Troops inient performed valiant services 
at in this engagement. Most of 

Trenton, the men in his command at 
Trenton were the same soldiers 
who had enlisted at York in 1775, and 
marched with him to Boston. In referring 
to the battle, Captain ^ililler wrote: 

"General Stephen's brigade entered Tren- 
ton and routed the Hessians. Washington 
desired our regiment to lead the advance, 
which we did. We formed in line of battle 
and advanced within sixty yards of the 
Hessians without firing a gun. We moved 
with such rapidity and determination that 
we struck them with terror. The enemy 
grounded their arms, and 919 Hessians sur- 
rendered as prisoners of war." 

Colonel Miles' Pennsylvania Regiment 
served in Lord Stirling's brigade and took 
a leading part at the battle of Trenton in 
the capture of the Hessians. Miles him- 
self was a prisoner of war in the hands of 
the British, having been captured at the 
battle of Long Island, nearly five months 
before. In this engagement the regiment 
was commanded by Major Williams. Cap- 
tain Albright's company of York County 
troops had lost thirty men, or about half its 
number in killed, wounded and prisoners at 
Long Island. The companj^ entered the 
battle of Trenton with about thirty men, 
who rendered valiant services in winning 
this famous victory. 

The news of the victory at Trenton 
spread rapidly. To convince the people of 
what had happened, the Hessian prisoners 
were marched through the streets of Phila- 
delphia, and the Hessian flag was sent to 
Baltimore to hang in the hall of Congress. 
The spirits of the people rose with a great 
rebound, the cloud of depression which 
rested upon the country was lifted, and hope 
was again felt everywhere. Troops came in 
from Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and the 
New England men agreed to stay after the 
expiration of their term of enlistment. 

The blow struck bj^ \\'ashington fell 
heavily upon the British. Even with their 
powerful army thej' could not afford to lose 
a thousand men at a stroke, nor would their 



prestige bear sucli sudden disaster. It was 
clear even to tlie mind of Howe that tlie 
.\merican Revolution was not over, and that 
Washington and his victorious army held 
the field. Trenton must be redeemed and 
they determined to finish the business at 

After the defeat of the British 
Movement at Trenton through the mili- 

After tary genius of \\'ashington, 

Trenton. Lord Cornwallis, who had 
gone to New York, returned 
in haste to attack the American army. De- 
cember 30, V\'ashington recrossed the Dela- 
ware and took post at Trenton, where he 
was joined by Cadwalader and Mifflin, each 
with 1.800 Pennsylvania militia. On the 
morning of January 2 Cornwallis advanced 
with 8,000 men upon Trenton, but his 
march was slow. 

As sooH as General Washington had pro- 
cured definite information of the strength 
and position of the enemy, he sent out. 
under Brigadier-General de Fermoy, a de- 
tachment, consisting of his own brigade. 
Colonel Edward Hand's Pennsylvania rifle- 
men, and Colonel Hausegger's German bat- 
talion, with Colonel Charles Scott's Vir- 
ginia Continental regiment, and two guns- 
of Captain Forrest's battery, to harass the 
enemy in every possible way, and to dispute 
their advance as much as they were able, 
that the impending battle might be post- 
poned at least twenty-four hours. The 
.Vmericans posted themselves a short dis- 
tance south of the village of Maidenhead, 
with pickets up to the town. The British 
outposts were about a mile north of Maiden- 
head. This was the state of af¥airs on the 
old Princeton road at the close of New 
Year's day. 

About this time the commanders of regi- 
ments on the advance lines of the x\merican 
army, finding that General de Fermoy had 
returned to Trenton in a very questionable 
manner, determined to resist the advance of 
the king's troops without further orders. 
.About 10 o'clock the first alarm gun was 
fired by the American \idettes. Colonel 
Hand, with his splendid regiment of rifle- 
men. Captain Henry Miller, of his command 
being in charge of the skirmish line, con- 
ducted the retreat to Trenton. Every 
place which would even for a few moments 
give shelter from which to take a steady 

aim was taken ad\antage of' and every part 
of the road was disputed in all possible 
ways. On one occasion so stubborn a stand 
was made by the Americans that a check 
was produced on the British advance. They 
actually fell back and the patriots carefully 
pressed toward them. At last, howe\er, the 
American detachment w^as driven to the 
woods running along the south bank of the 
Shabbakonk Creek, and here a severe skir- 
mish commenced about one o'clock, and a 
deadly fire was made upon the British 
forces, throwing them into considerable 

For a long time this conflict 

On to was maintained with great 

Princeton, vigor, and the battalions of 

von Linsingen and Block, a 
part of Colonel \'on Donop's original com- 
mand, were drawn up in order of battle, ex- 
pecting then and there to enter upon the 
general engagement which they anticipated. 
For fully three hours the gallant little 
American force, somewdiat protected by the 
dense woods, harassed the red coats and 
continually thinned their ranks with 
musketry and artillery. Right well did 
they carry out the plan of General Wash- 
ington to consume the entire day. if pos- 
sible, in skirmishing and so retard the 
enemy's advance tow^trci^^Trenton. Wash- 
ington was well pleased with the all-day 
running fight and begged the little party 
not to yield until compelled to. A battery 
of British artillery was soon afterward 
brought into position and made every effort 
to dislodge the American advance force. 
Nearly an hour was consumed before the 
patriot band, unable any longer to sustain 
themselves, began again to yield the ground 
and retreat down the Brunswick road into 
the village, having captured some twenty- 
fi\-e or thirty men during the day. In this 
way the last determined stand beyond the 
town was taken, and a's the Americans be- 
gan to retreat, the advance party of the 
Britis'h, about 1,500 men, again commenced 
their march in column, the main army being 
still a consideralile distance in the rear. 

The ad\-ance guard of Cornwallis's army 
pressed on, driving the Americans before 
them, and killing some, until they ai'rived 
at the narrow stone bridge which spanned, 
with but one arch, the Assunpink Creek. 
The detachment of skirmishers which all 



day long had hovered before and around 
the enemy, hastily, although with difficulty, 
crowded through the passage at the bridge 
scarcely sixteen feet wide. Colonel Hitch- 
cock's l)rigade protected these weary men 
as they filed across the bridge and took their 
places with the main army. General Wash- 
ington himself was on horseback at one end 
of the bridge, overlooking the scene, and 
by his personal exposure inspired his men 
with courage and confidence. It was then 
after 5 o'clock and rapidly growing dark. 
With the light made by the firing, it could 
l)e seen that the advance of the king's 
troops, entirely unaware of the force now 
before them, had pressed on until they were 
within range of the American guns. They 
made three fruitless efforts to reach and 
cross the bridge, but found further pursuit 
checked, and were unable to endure the con- 
centrated fire. The effect of this fire upon 
them was extremely uncertain, and doubt- 
less will never be correctly ascertained, as 
no mention of loss is made in any British 
official reports. The loss of the American 
army was small. 


Many of the British officers urged a gen-" 
eral and renewed attack, but the short w-in- 
ter day was drawing to a close, and Corn- 
wallis decided to wait until morning. 
Washington had spent the day with stub- 
born skirmishing, for he had no intention of 
fighting a pitched battle with his poorly 
armed men, inferior in numbers to their 
well-equipped opponents, who had received 
reinforcements in the morning. He had 
checked the enemy all day, and he had now 
the night in which to act, so he set the men 
to work on entrenchments, lighted camp 
fires along the river bank, and having con- 
vinced Cornwallis that he would be there 
in the morning, he marched ofif with his 
whole army at midnight, leaving his fires 
burning. By daybreak he was near Prince- 
ton, and moved with the main army straight 
for the town, while Mercer was detached 
with three hundred men to destroy the 
bridge which gave the most direct connec- 
tion with Cornwallis. 

Toward sunrise, as the British detach- 
ment was coming down the road from 
Princeton to Trenton, in obedience to Corn- 
wallis' order, its van, imder Colonel Maw- 

hood, met the foremost column of Ameri- 
cans approaching, under General Mercer. 
As he caught sight of the Americans, Maw- 
hood thought that they must be a party of 
fugitives, and hastened to intercept them; 
but he was soon undeceived. 

'I'he -Americans attacked with 

General \igor, and a sharp fight was 

Mercer sustained, with varying for- 

Wounded. tunes, until Mercer was pierced 

Ijy a bayonet, and his men 
began to fall Ijack in some confusion. Just 
at this critical moment \\'ashington came 
galloping upon the field and rallied the 
troops, and as the entire forces on both 
sides had now come up, the fight became 
general. In a few' minutes the British were 
routed and their line cut in two; one half 
fleeing toward Trenton, the other half to- 
ward Xew Brunswick. There was little 
slaughter, as the whole fight did not occupy 
more than twenty minutes. 'The British 
lost about 200 in killed and wounded, with 
300 prisoners, and their cannon; the Ameri- 
can loss was less than 100. The brave 
General Mercer died of his w^ound. 


REVOLUTION— Continued. 

Campaign of 1777 — Battles of Brandywine, 
Paoli and Germantown — Washington at 
Valley Forge — York Troops at Mon- 
mouth — Major John Clark — General 
Henry Miller — Hartley's Regiment — 
Colonel Thomas Hartley. 

The American army had been defeated at 
Long Island and Fort \\'ashington, but 
through the masterly skill of the com- 
mander-in-chief, it had won decisive victo- 
ries at Trenton and Princeton. In a brief 
campaign of three weeks. Washington had 
rallied the fragments of a defeated and 
liroken army, taken nearly two thousand 
prisoners and recovered the state of New 
Jersey. By sheer force of military capacity, 
he had completely turned the tide of popu- 
lar feeling. His army began to grow by the 
accession of fresh recruits. Newly organ- 
ized regiments of the Pennsylvania line 
joined him in the early part of 1777. These 



included the regiments commanded by 
Colonel Tliomas Hartley and Colonel David 
Grier, of York. Although the term of en- 
listment of the Flying Camp had expired, 
their places were taken by regiments of 
Pennsylvania militia, including" several com- 
mands from west of the Susquehanna River. 
Flushed with his victories at Trenton and 
Princeton, Washington defied the British, 
and spent the winter in camp at Morris- 
town, near New York City, then held by the 
British. Even Frederick the ' Great, of 
Prussia, the most famous military chieftain 
of the day, in a public declaration, com- 
mended Washington for his successful cam- 
paign in New Jersey. 

Although at one time threat- 
Enlarging ened by the invading foe, Phila- 
the Army, delphia still remained in the 

hands of the Americans. From 
December 20, 1776, to February 27, 1777, 
Congress held its sessions in Baltimore. 
In consequence of the alarming state of af- 
fairs on December 27, three days after as- 
sembling in a three-story building on the 
southwest corner of Baltimore and Sharp 
Streets, in that city. Congress invested 
Washington for six months with extraor- 
dinary powers. It authorized him to raise 
and officer sixteen additional battalions of 
infantry, three thousand light horse, three 
regiments of artillery and a corps of engi- 
neers, to appoint and remove officers under 
the rank of brigadier-general, and take, at 
a fair compensation, any private property 
needed for the maintenance of the army. 

The British army under Howe remained 
in New York City durmg the winter, while 
AX'ashington continued at jMorristown. 
Early in June, Howe laid his plans for an- 
other campaign across New Jersey with the 
ultimate purpose of capturing Philadelphia. 
He left New York City with 18,000 men and 
plenty of boats to cross the Delaware if he 
reached that stream. Washington, with 
8,000 men, left his winter encampment at 
Morristown and planted his army at JMid- 
dlebrook, ten miles from New Brunswick. 
A campaign of eighteen days ensued, con- 
sisting of wily marches and counter- 
marches, the result of wdiich showed that 
Washington's advantage of position could 
not be wrested from him. Howe being too 
prudent to attack Washington, abandoned 
his plan and returned to New York. 

Early in the same year Gen- 
Howe eral Burgoyne, with an army 
Approaches of 10,000 British and Hes- 
Philadelphia. sians, was ordered to de- 
scend the Hudson to New 
York and thus separate New England from 
the other states and divide the country in 
twain. Washington at first believed that 
Howe would go to the assistance of Bur- 
goyne, but early in July, leaving 7,000 
troops under Sir Henry Clinton in New 
York, Howe's army of 18,000 men em- 
barked in 228 vessels and put to sea. Just 
before sailing he wrote a letter to Burgoyne, 
stating that his destination was Boston and 
artfully contrived that the letter should fall 
into Washington's hands. But the Ameri- 
can general, believing that he was going 
southward, placed Putnam in the Highlands 
with 4,000 men, and with the balance of the 
army, moved toward Philadelphia, which 
he anticipated that Howe had determined to 
capture. July 3, the British army was 
sighted off the capes' of Delaware. Fearing 
that the river was carefully guarded, Howe 
moved his fleet up the Chesapeake, and 
after a sail of 400 miles, arrived at the head 
of Elk River, near Elkton, Maryland, Au- 
'gust 25. On hearing" this news, Washing- 
ton advanced to Wilmington, Delaware. 
Immediately after landing", Howe issued a 
proclamation of amnesty, but few of the 
Americans sympathized enough with the 
British to give them much assistance. 


Meantime Washington's forces were in- 
creased by the arrival of 3,000 troops from 
Pennsylvania and adjoining states. He 
now determined to offer battle, although he 
had only 11,000 men to contend with 
Howe's 18,000 trained soldiers. Brandy- 
wine Creek was in the line of march from 
Howe's position to Philadelphia. Wash- 
ington placed his army at Chad's Ford," the 
leading crossing place of this stream. It 
was here the battle took place September 
II, 1777, resulting in a loss of 1,000 Ameri- 
can soldiers in killed, wounded and cap- 
tured. The British loss exceeded that num- 

In the battle of Brandywine, Washington 
placed the center of his army just behind 
Chad's Ford and across the road. In front 
of this center, he planted Proctor's artillery. 



which was supported by a division of Penn- 
sylvania troo])s under General Anthony 
\\'ayne. Colonel Hartley, of York, had 
command of the first britjade in this 
division. Colonel Edward Hand, of Lan- 
caster, having been promoted to the rank of 
brigadier-general, the First Pennsylvania 
Line, formerly Hand's regiment, was com- 
manded by Colonel James Chambers, of 
Cumberland, later Franklin County. This 
regiment had in line at Brandywine many 
of the same York County troops who had 
fought under Captain Henry Miller at Long 
Island, Trenton and Princeton. ]\Iiller 
having been promoted to the rank of major. 
James Matson succeeded to the command 
of the company. Michael Simpson, of York 
ICounty, was captain of another company of 
this regiment. The Seventh Pennsylvania 
regiment, commanded Ijy Colonel David 
Grier, served in Wayne's brigade. It con- 
tained a large number of York County 

Lewis Bush served as major of Hartley's 
regiment, and some of its captains at 
Brandywine were Benjamin Stoddard. Evan 
Edwards. George Ross, Archibald McAl- 
lister, Robert Hoopes and James Kenny. 
Captain McAllister was a son of Richard 
I\Ic.\llister, of Hano\er, Avho had com- 
manded the First Regiment of the Flying 
Camp. Some of the lieutenants of Hart- 
ley's regiment in this battle were Andrew 
A\'alker. Joseph Davis, Isaac Sweeny, Henry 
Carberrv, James Dill. James Lemon, Martin 
Eichelberger and William Lemon. Of this 
list, Dill, Walker and Eichelberger were 
from York County. At daybreak of Sep- 
tember II, General Knyphausen, with 7.000 
troops, drove in the advance of Wayne's 
division, across the Brandywine a^ Chad's 
Ford. General Armstrong, commanding 
the Pennsylvania militia, occupied the ex- 
treme left of \\ ashington's arnn-, and was 
stationed on clitifs, a short distance south 
of Wayne's position. General Greene, upon 
whose staff Major Clark, of York, was then 
serving, commanded the reserves in support 
of General Wayne's division. The right 
wing of the American army, stretching two 
miles up the Brandywine, was commanded 
by General Sullivan. Lord Cornwallis. with 
the left of the British army, crossed the 
Brandywine in the afternoon a short dis- 
tance up the stream and came in on Sulli- 

van's right flank, when a terrible conflict 
ensued. The artillery of both armies 
opened with terrible effect, and the conflict 
became general and severely contested. Sul- 
li\an was slowly pushed back, being over- 
powered by the large British force, and De- 
borre's brigade, stationed below him, broke 
and fled in confusion. The brigades under 
Lord Sterling and General Conway stood 
firm. Meantime, Sullivan and Lafayette, 
unable to rally the fugitives, went to the as- 
sistance of Sterling and Conway. 

The youthful Lafayette, whom 
Lafayette Congress had just commis- 
Wounded. sioned a brigadier-general, now 
received his first baptism of 
fire. In order to act more efficiently, he dis- 
mounted, and while fighting in the line, was 
wounded in the leg. At this juncture. Gen- 
eral Washington, with the brigades of 
Greene, Weedon and Muhlenberg, hastened 
to strengthen General Sullivan, but they did 
not arrive in time to prevent the retreat. 
By a skillful movement, Greene opened his 
ranks and received the fugitives and covered 
their retreat, checking the advance and kept 
the enemy at bay until dark. 

Late in the afternoon. General Knyp- 
hausen crossed the Brandywine at Chad's 
Ford and made a violent attack upon 
Wayne's division. Wayne held his position 
gallantly and with his Pennsylvania troops 
dealt a terrible blow upon the enemy. Hear- 
ing of the defeat of the right wing, his gal- 
lant Pennsylvanians who had fought so 
bravely, were ordered by the commanding 
general to retreat. In order to protect his 
men. Wayne left the artillery in the hands 
of the enemy and fell back to Greene, who 
protected him from a rout. The militia 
under the command of General Armstrong, 
being posted about two miles below Chad's 
Ford, had no opportunity of engaging the 
enem}-. During the succeeding night, the 
defeated forces of General \\ ashington re- 
treated to Chester and on the following day 
to Germantown, where they went into 

William Russel. of York County, 

Ensign residing at Abbottstown, lost a 
William leg by a cannon ball in the battle 

Russel. of Brandywine. In this engage- 
ment he was the ensign for the 
Thir<l Pennsyhania regiment, and in 1779 
Colonel Henry Miller and Major Jolm Clark 




requested tlie State of Pennsylvania to 
grant Ensign Russel a certificate due to his 
merit, and a pension because he behaved as 
a good and dutiful soldier, and liis woimd 
pre\-ented him from receiving promotion. 
Ensign Russel had served as a pri\-ate in the 
first company that left York for Boston, 
July. 1775. 


I'he liattle of Paoli, memoraljle in the 
annals of history, was one of the most im- 
portant engagements of the Revolution, in 
which York County troops participated. It 
ended in the defeat of the Pennsylvania 
troops under General Wayne, owing to the 
superior force of the British. In this bat- 
tle the troops from west of the Susquehanna 
suttered almost as severely as those from 
the same region who fought so bravely in 
the battle of Fort Washington, which took 
place in November of the previous year. 
The Seventh Pennsylvania regiment, com- 
manded by Colonel David Grier, of York, 
took a very prominent part in this battle. 
In the Seventh Regiment were the York 
County companies of Captain John Mc- 
Dowell and Captain ^^'illiam Alexander. 
The former had succeeded Captain Moses 
McClean after he became a prisoner of war 
in the first Canadian campaign, and the lat- 
ter succeeded Captain David Grier, when 
he was promoted to the rank of major, in 
October, 1776. 

The First Pennsylvania regiment, which, 
under Colonel William Thompson, of Car- 
lisle, had won a brilliant record in front of 
Boston, in 1775, and under Colonel Edward 
Hand, of Lancaster, at Long Island, Tren- 
ton and Princeton, was commanded by 
Colonel James Chambers, of Cumberland 
County, in the battles of Paoli and German- 
town. In this regiment were the York 
County volunteers who had marched to 
Boston under Captain Michael Doudel in 
the summer of 1775, and later fought with 
gallantry under Captain Henry Miller at 
Long Island, White Plains, Trenton and 
Princeton. The company was now in com- 
mand of Captain James Matson. Captain 
Miller had been promoted to the rank of 
major in the same regiment. 

After the l^attle of Brandywine on Sep- 
tember II, Washington's army fell back to 
Chester and from thence marched to Phila- 

delphia to defend that city from the ad- 
vancing British under Howe. On Septem- 
ber 16, Wayne's division of Pennsylvania 
troops met a force of the British at the 
Warren tavern, twenty-three miles south- 
west of Philadelphia. The American troops 
began the engagement with an impetuosity 
characteristic of their commander, but a 
heavy shower coming up prevented a con- 
tinuance of the engagement. 

Washington now sent Wayne, 

A with 1,500 men and four pieces of 

Night cannon, to annoy the rear of the 
Attack. British forces and attempt to cut 
off their baggage train. General 
Smallwood, with eleven hundred and fifty 
Maryland militia, and Colonel Gist, from 
the same state, with seven hundred men, 
were ordered to unite their forces with 
Wayne and act under his direction. After 
a secret march A\'ayne, with his Pennsyl- 
\'ania troops, occupied a secluded spot about 
three miles southwest of the enemy's line. 
Howe, hearing of this movement for the 
])urpose of cutting off his wagon train, sent 
General Grey with a considerable force to 
surprise Wayne and drive liim from his 

"At nine P. M., September 20," says 
General Wayne, " a farmer living near, in- 
formed me before Colonels Hartley, Brod- 
head and Temple, that the enemy intended 
to attack me that night. I sent out \-idettes 
to patrol all the roads leading to the 
enemy's camp." 

One of the videttes returned and notified 
the general that the enemy was approach- 
ing. General ^\'ayne now commanded all 
his troops to form, having pre\iously or- 
dered them to lie on their arms, ready for 
any emergency. Then selecting the First 
Pennsylvania and the light infantry, he 
formed them on the right toward which the 
attacking party was approaching. He re- 
mained with this force, but owing to in- 
feriority of numbers, was unal^le to contend 
with the impetuous charge of the British, 
who were ordered to use only bayonets and 
give no quarters. 

At this point in the attack, 

A Colonel Humpton, commanding 

Bayonet one of the regiments to the left, 

Charge. failed to promptly obey Wayne's 

orders. This delay proved fatal 

and the l)runt of the battle fell upon the 



Seventh Pennsylvania Regiment, under 
Colonel David Grier. Humpton's regiment 
now fell back in confusion, the Maryland 
militia failed to appear. The British troops 
rushed on the Americans with great im- 
petuosity, and obeying the commands of 
their superior officers, forced the Pennsyl- 
vania troops back at the point of the bay- 
onet. The cry for ciuarters was unheeded. 
The British bayonet now did its work with 
savage ferocity. Wayne had been outnum- 
bered and defeated. The morning sun 
looked down from clear skies on a scene of 
butchery, probably unparalleled in Ameri- 
can histor)-. 

The American loss was not less than 
three hundred in killed and wounded, many 
of whom were from west of the Susque- 
hanna. About seventy became prisoners of 
war. Colonel Da\id Grier, of York, com- 
manding the Seventh Pennsylvania, wdio 
was conspicuous for his gallantry in this 
battle, was twice pierced by a British 

The news of the disaster, known as the 
"Massacre at Paoli," brought sadness and 
sorrow to many homes in York and Cum- 
berland Counties. In a letter from Wayne 
to General W ashington, written the day 
after the battle, he says, "I must in justice 
to Colonels Hartley, Humpton, Brodhead, 
Grier, Butler, Hubley and indeed every field 
and other officer, inform your excellency 
that I deri\-ed every assistance possible from 
those gentlemen on this occasion." 

Colonel David Grier, who com- 

Colonel nianded the Seventh Pennsyl- 

David \ania Regiment at Brandywine 

Grier. and Paoli, had a brilliant military 

career during the Revolution. He 
was the son of William Grier, one of the 
earliest of the Scotch-Irish settlers who 
took up lands in the Manor of Maske, near 
the site of Gettysburg, and was born there 
in 1742. He received a classical education 
and during his early manhood removed to 
York, where he entered upon the study of 
law with James Smith, who became one of 
the signers of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. He was admitted to the bar in 1771, 
and began the practice of his profession at 
York. During the French and Indian war 
he joined a military company which 
marched against the Indians on the frontier 
of Pennsylvania. At the opening of the 

Revolution he became an ardent patriot. In 
the fall of 1775 he recruited a company of 
sixty men from York County, which was 
assigned to the Sixth Pennsylvania bat- 
talion. This battalion, under command of 
Colonel William Irvine, took a prominent 
part in the expedition to Canada. It was 
present and suffered a considerable loss in 
the battle of Three Rivers. For his gal- 
lantry in action and his military capacity. 
Captain Grier was promoted major of the 
battalion, October, 1776. He returned with 
his command to Carlisle. Later he was as- 
signed to command the Seventh Pennsyl- 
\-ania Regiment, with the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel. \\'hen the British approached 
Philadelphia, his regiment was placed iii 
\\'ayne"s brigade, and with it Colonel Grier 
took a conspicuous part in the battle of 
Brandywine. At the battle of Paoli, as 
stated above, his regiment was engaged in 
the hardest fighting. While leading his 
regiment, endeavoring to repel the British 
assault, he was twice bayoneted, receiving 
wounds from which he never recovered. 
This disabled him for further military ser- 
vice in the field. After recovering from his 
wound he was appointed to take charge of 
the post at York, where he rendered efficient 
service in the cjuartermaster's department. 
After the war, he practiced law at York and 
became one of the leading citizens west of 
the Susquehanna. He was elected to the 
General Assembly in 1783, served as a dele- 
gate to the Con\-ention to ratify the Federal 
Constitution in 1787. and was chosen by the 
Constitutionalists one of the first presi- 
dential electors. Colonel (^rier died at 
York, June 3, 1790. 


After the battle of Brandywine, Wash- 
ington retreated toward Philadelphia and 
encamped near Germantown. now the 
northern part of the city. Although he 
had suft'ered a serious defeat at Brandywine 
on September 11, and the division of Penn- 
sylvania troops under Wayne, had been 
routed at Paoli nine days later, the com- 
mander-in-chief was undismayed. Wash- 
ington's reserve power now asserted itself 
in a masterly way. Before leaving Phila- 
delphia. Continental Congress had again 
clothed him with extraordinary powers 
which he used with discretionary effect. In 



obedience to his request, measures were 
adopted to increase tlie army. Continental 
troops serving on distant stations were 
sunnnoned to his assistance and the militia 
from Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland 
and adjoining states were called out. 

Howe, following in pursuit of the Ameri- 
can armv. took possession of Philadelphia 
immediately after it was evacuated. Antic- 
ipating the approach of the enemy. Con- 
gress had adjourned on the 23rd of Septem- 
ber to meet at Lancaster on the 27th. Still 
fearing the danger of an approaching 
enemy, after holding one day's session at 
Lancaster, Congress adjourned to York, 
where it remained nine months, holding its 
"first session September 30th. Meantime 
Flowe's army had taken possession of Phil- 
adelphia and part of his forces encamped at 
Germantown, ten miles north of Independ- 
ence Hall. Admiral Howe, commanding 
the enemy's fleet which had brought the 
British army to the head of the Chesapeake, 
before the battle of Brandywine, now de- 
scended that bay and moved up the Dela- 
ware to capture the force below Philadel- 

Another battle was now imminent near 
Philadelphia, and the commanding generals 
for several succeeding days were engaged 
in manouvering their armies to obtain an 
advantageous position. After holding a 
conference with his generals, Washington 
determined to attack the camp at German- 
town. The morning of October 4 was de- 
cided upon as the time for the attack. 

The main part of the American 
Plan of army was encamped fourteen 
Attack, miles northwest of the enemy. 
On the evening of October 3rd, 
Washington took up the line of march to- 
ward Germantown, moving in person with 
the divisions under Sullivan and Wayne. 
The Continental troops of York county 
were serving under Wayne. On account of 
the roads being rough, the advance of the 
American army did not reach the outposts 
of the enemy until sunrise, and the alarm 
was quickly given to the British camp. Ac- 
cording to the plan of battle, Conway's 
brigade of Sullivan's division moved on the 
right flank and General Armstrong with 
1000 Pennsylvania militia, moved on the ex- 
treme right of the American line for the 
purpose of attacking the British left, over- 

powering it and coming in on his rear. The 
York county militia served in this command. 
The divisions under Greene and Stephen 
flanked by the brigade of McDougal, formed 
the left of the American line for the purpose 
of attacking the British right. The New 
Jersey and Maryland militia moved on the 
extreme left of the .Americans, with the pur- 
pose of turning the right of the British line 
and coming in on the rear. The other bri- 
gades under Stirling were held in reserve. 

'Fhe battle opened by Conway's brigade 
of Sullivan's division attacking the enemy's 
picket line. This movement ha\ing been 
already anticipated, was quickly reinforced. 
Sullivan's entire division moved forward 
and captured the enemy's baggage and 
camp equipment. The Continental troops 
under Greene and the Pennsylvania militia 
under Armstrong failed to appear at the 
time expected. Wayne's division was or- 
dered to move toward the British left. 

Washington ordered a concentrated at- 
tack of all his forces in line of battle. 

Although the British regiments 
Drove were Iving liehind entrenchments 

the and stone walls, the forces under 
British Wayne and Sullivan, the centre of 
Back, the .\merican line, moved forward 
with impetuosity and drove the 
British regulars back to the main force at 
Germantown. W'hile retreating, the Brit- 
ish took advantage of every dwelling house 
or other building as a defensive fortress to 
fire upon the advancing American troops. 
One of these buildings, used with disastrous 
efl^ect, was the large stone mansion of Ben- 
jamin Chew, then chief justice of Pennsyl- 
vania. Six companies of the 40th British 
regiment under command of Colonel Mus- 
grave, threw themselves into this building, 
barricaded the doors and lower windows 
and opened a murderous fire on the Ameri- 
can troops from the roof and upper win- 
dows. After leaving a regiment to guard 
this house, General Wayne pressed onward 
and with Sullivan continued the pursuit a 
mile further through the streets of German- 
town, while the reserve under Stirling fol- 
lowed. In this onward movement, Wayne 
used the bayonet in driving back the British, 
in retaliation for the massacre at Paoli. 
Conway on the flank, and \N'ashington, with 
Nash's and Maxwell's brigades, bore down 
after Sullivan, and would ha\'e made the day 



fatal to the British, had not Colonel Mus- 
grave stationed himself in the Chew man- 
sion. At this place Washington halted with 
his reserve and calle<l upon Musgrave to 
surrender, which he declined to do. The 
British opened fire upon Ma-xwell's brigade, 
causing. considerable loss of life. The delay 
brought about by this affair gave Howe in 
Germantown an opportunity to reform his 
lines, and after a battle which lasted in all 
two hours, he defeated the American army. 
The British loss in this battle was 13 ofificers 
and 58 men killed. 55 officers and 395 men 
wounded. The American loss was 30 otft- 
cers and 122 men killed. 117 officers and 404 
men wounded, and about 50 officers and 350 
men taken prisoners. 

The cause of this defeat is attrib- 
Cause of uted to the use of the Chew house 
Defeat. as a fortification, and the con- 
fusion which arose between the 
di\isions of Stephen and Wayne. Owing 
to a dense fog and the incapacity of Stephen, 
his brigade fired upon W ayne, mistaking his 
troops for the enemy. This blunder ruined 
the Ijattle and gave the victory to the Brit- 
ish forces. 

The defeat of Washington at German- 
town when it was hoped he would win a 
victory, was a sad misfortune to the cause 
of American Independence. If he had de- 
feated the enemy as he had done at Trenton 
and Princeton, the war might soon ha\e 
been brought to a close. 

Congress at York, eagerly awaited the 
result of this battle. The gloom and de- 
spondency which pervaded this body and 
the entire thirteen states was removed after 
hearing of the surrender of Btirgoyne and 
his entire army of 6000 men at Saratoga, on 
October 19. two weeks after the defeat at 


After the battle of Germantown. Wash- 
ington kept himself thoroughly informed 
concerning the movement of the enemy in 
and about Philadelphia. Colonel John 
Clark, of York, who had served with dis- 
tinction in the Flying Camp, and later as an 
aide on the staff of General Greene, now 
acted as chief of scouts for Washington, 
frecjuently bringing the commander-in-chief 

important information. The weather had 
already become severe. During the latter 
part of November. Washington moved with 
his little army to the village of White 
Marsh, situated in one of the beautiful val- 
leys of Montgomery county, sixteen miles 
northwest of Philadelphia. After holding 
a council with his subordinate officers, he 
determined to go into winter quarters at 
this place, unless the danger of the situation 
required him to find a better location. 

Continental Congress was now in session 
at York, pervaded by the gloom and de- 
spondency which had spread throughout the 
country. While Congress awaited with 
eager interest the success of the campaign 
of Gates against Burgoyne, who was then 
attempting to come down the Hudson, cut 
the coimtry in twain and join the British in 
New York, this body also looked with hope 
and expectation to the important future for 
the army under Washington and the defence 
of the forts in the hands of the Americans 
below Philadelphia. 

On December 3. the British 

The army, encouraged by its success 
Affair at at Brandywine and German- 
Chestnut town, moved out from Philadel- 

Hill. phia. fifteen thousand strong, to 
again attack the American 
forces. General James Irvines brigade of 
600 Pennsylvania militia, in which the liat- 
talion from York county served, was or- 
dered to the left of the American line in the 
vicinity of Chestnut Hill. Irvine engaged 
the enemy and a lively skirmish ensued. 
His militia broke ranks at the first fire, ow- 
ing to the superiority of the enemy's num- 
ber. In this engagement which lasted but a 
short time, the British lost twelve in killed 
and wounded. Among the wounded was 
Sir James Murray, a young officer serving 
in a regiment of light infantry. While at- 
tempting to rally his troops. General Irvine 
had a horse shot under him, lost three fin- 
gers by a bullet, and received severe bruises 
in the head in falling from his horse to the 
ground. Irvine was captured with five of 
his men who were wounded. He was held 
a prisoner of war in Philadelphia and New 
York until June i. 1781. From 1782 to 
1793 he was major general of the Pennsyl- 
vania militia, vice-president of Pennsylvania 
and one of the first trustees of Dickinson 



There was no further collision 
The between the armies until De- 

Skirmish cember 7, when Morgan's Penn- 
at White s\l\ania and Virginia riilemen 
Marsh. were ordered forward on the 
right. They were supported by 
Webb's Continental regiment and Potter's 
brigade of Pennsylvania militia. Colonel 
James Thompson from- York County, with 
a battalion of nearly 300 men formed a 
part of Potter's brigade in this engage- 
ment. Colonel David Jameson, with a 
battalion of about 150 men, was also 
present. Morgan originally opposed the 
advance of the enemy commanded by 
Lord Cornwallis. Four British officers 
and three men fell before the unerring 
aim of the riflemen. \\ elib's regulars 
and the Pennsylvania militia under Cad- 
wallader, Reed and Potter, took a posi- 
tion in a woods forming the left of the 
American line. Here they offered a stub- 
born resistance for a short time. When the 
British advanced in solid column, the militia 
opened a severe fire after which the Ameri- 
can line broke and fell back in disorder. At 
this time in the fight. General Joseph Reed, 
who afterward served as president of Penn- 
sylvania, was entreated by the militia to 
rally them for action. While attempting to 
do this, his horse was shot under him, and 
he narrowly escaped capture. ^leanwhile, 
Washington with his headquarters at White 
Marsh, was preparing for a general engage- 
ment. The se\-erity of winter had now ar- 
ri\'ed and the British retraced their steps to 
Philadelphia. \Vashington was surprised 
at Howe's prompt retrogade, for the British 
officers had boasted that they were going to 
"drive Mr. Washington over the Blue 

On December 10, a grand foraging party 
of 3000 men, lead by Cornwallis, came up 
the Schuylkill and attacked Potter's brigade 
of 2000 Pennsylvania militia. Three regi- 
ments of this brigade behaved gallantly in a 
sharp contest with the enemy, but were 
driven across the river by a superior force. 
In this engagement the casualties were few. 
After destroying several buildings and ob- 
taining booty, the British returned to Phil- 
adelphia, December 16. 

On September 6, 1777. five days before 
the battle of Brandywine, Colonel James 
Thompson reported in his battalion of York 

Count}- militia, then stationed at W'ilming- 
ton, Delaware, under General James Potter, 
I major, 4 companies, 4 captains, 4 lieuten- 
ants, 4 ensigns. 4 sergeants, 2 drummers, 2 
fifers, and 121 men fit for duty out of a total 
of 127. 

On Novemljer 24, at Camp White Marsh, 
near Valley Forge, Colonel Thompson re- 
ported 1 major, 6 companies, 6 captains, 12 
lieutenants, 6 ensigns, i adjutant, i quarter- 
master, 24 sergeants, 4 drummers, 3 fifers, 
or 202, fit for duty out of a total of 215. 

On the same date. Colonel William 
Rankin, at White Marsh, reported i major, 
3 companies, 3 captains. 4 lieutenants, 3 
ensigns, i adjutant, i quartermaster, 9 ser- 
geants, I drummer, i fifer, or 78 fit for duty 
out of a total of 81. Colonel David Jame- 
son, at the same camp, reported 3 com- 
panies, 3 captains, 4 lieutenants, 3 ensigns, 
I adjutant, i quartermaster, 9 sergeants, or 
70 fit for duty out of a total of 75. 

On Decemljer 22, at the camp near Valley 
Forge, Colonel Andrews reported i major, 
5 captains, 6 lieutenants, 3 ensigns, i adju- 
tant, I quartermaster, 13 sergeants, or 120 
fit for tluty out of a total of 165. 

These militia battalions from York 
County were a part of the force called out 
before the battle of Brandywine, but did not 
take part in that engagement. They were 
present at the battle of Germantown and 
the minor engagements at White Marsh and 
Chestnut Hill, in the militia brigades of 
Armstrong and Potter. 

Some of the casualties in Colonel 
Hartley's Regiment in the battles of 
Brandywine. Paoli and Germantown, 
were : Lieutenant James Dill, Lieu- 
tenant James Lemon, Sergeant William 
Chambers, Sergeant John Ivousden, Cor- 
poral Anthony Wall, killed; Private George 
Blakely, wounded and prisoner at Paoli, in 
Captain Robert Hoopes' company: Privates 
\Villiam Cornwall, George Duke, John El- 
liott, Joseph Finnemore, James Flin, killed; 
Philip Graham, killed at Brandywine; Jacob 
Houts, wounded at Germantown; Chris- 
topher Morris and John Shannon, killed; 
William Price, died of wounds. 


No further offensive or defensi\-e move- 
ments were made by either army in 1777, 
and December 17, Washington with an army 



of less than 10,000 men. depleted b\- the re- 
cent engagements at Brandvwine. Paoli and 
Germantoun. broke camp at White Marsh 
and took up the march for Valley Forge, 
near the site of Norristown. 

The Pennsylvania Assembly which had 
moved from Philadelphia to Lancaster 
and held its sessions in the Court 
House in Centre Square of that town, 
was unfriendly to Washington. It as- 
sumed to be a patriotic body, but failed 
to adopt measures to provide its own militia 
in \\ ashington's army, with shoes, stock- 
ings and clothing. As the story goes, al- 
though perhaps much exaggerated, the 
blood stained marks of the Continental 
troops were observed on the line of move- 
ment from White Marsh to Valley Forge. 
This, however. was an unnecessary condition 
of affairs, owing either to negligence or dis- 
loyalty, for, says a trustworthy authority, 
quantities of shoes, stockings, clothing and 
other apparel were lying "at difYerent places 
on the road between Lancaster and Valley 
Forge. It is claimed that neither horses 
nor wagons could have been procured to 
convey them to camp. Congress at York, 
now recommended to the state legislatures 
to enact laws giving authority to seize 
woolen cloths, blankets, linen, shoes, stock- 
ings, hats and other necessary articles of 
clothing for the army, wherever they might 
be found, and sent to the relief of the sol- 

On Deceml)er 30, Congress renewed the 
authority of Washington, giving him ex- 
traordinary powers and further ordered him 
"to inform the brave officers and soldiers of 
the Continental army now in camp, that as 
the situation of the enemy has rendered it 
necessary for the army to take post in a part 
of the country not provided with houses and 
in consequence thereof to reside in huts : 
Congress approving of their soldierly pa- 
tience, fidelity and zeal in the cause of their 
country, have directed one month's ex- 
traordinary pay to be given to each : and 
are exerting themselves to remedy the in- 
conveniences which the army has lately ex- 
perienced from the defects of the commis- 
sary and clothier's department." 

After \\'ashington took up his 

Crooked headcjuarters at Valley Forge 

Billet some of the Pennsylvania militia. 

Tavern, under General Armstrong, re- 

mained in camp at White Marsh as 
a guard to watch the enemy's mo\-ements 
during the winter. On account of age, de- 
bility and long service in the French and 
Indian war and the Revolution, Armstrong 
asked to be relieved and returned to his 
home in Carlisle, late in December, 1777. 
The term of enlistment of some of the bat- 
talions of Pennsylvania militia had also ex- 
pired and they returned home until another 
call demanded their services in the field. 

General Potter, wdio had served in the 
Canada expedition and in the campaigns in 
New Jersey and around Philadelphia, asked 
to be relieved from the service to turn at- 
tention to his business interests in Cinnber- 
land county. 

January 9, 1778, Colonel John Lacey, of 
Bucks county, was promoted to the rank of 
brigadier-general and given the command 
of a brigade of militia with headquarters at 
the Crooked Billet Tavern in Bucks county. 
The object of Washington in sending Lacey 
there was to prevent the Tories from New 
Jersey and eastern Pennsyh-ania from tak- 
ing their produce and grain to Philadelphia 
and selling them in that city. In this capac- 
ity. General Lacey performed an important 
duty. \\'hen Howe discovered the moti\-e 
in sending the militia into Bucks county, on 
May I, he sent a body of troops under Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Abercrombie, commanding 
a regiment of light infantry, a squadron of 
rangers and a detachment of ca\alry to sur- 
round Lacey and his men, and capture them. 
An attempt was made to attack and surprise 
the militia force, in the same manner that 
General Wayne and his brigade had been 
assaulted in September, 1777, at Paoli. The 
approach of the British was a surprise, and 
they nearly surrounded Lacey and his men 
before they were ready to meet the enemy. 
It was a night attack, and before the Amer- 
icans could offer resistance, they endured a 
formidable assault. In order to protect his 
entire force from capture, Lacey ordered a 
retreat, leaving his baggage behind. In 
this affair the American loss was twenty-six 
killed, eight or ten wounded, and fifty-eight 
missing. It is stated on good authority that 
some of the prisoners were bayoneted and 
others burned bv Simcoe's, Hoventlen's and 
James' Rangers, among whom were loyal- 
ists who had joined the British cause. The 
British loss was small. 



Alxiul Februar}' 7 of this year, one bat- 
talion of York county militia, under the 
command of Major Thomas Lilly, left York 
to join the force under Lacey. They were 
delayed by the bad weather and did not 
reach Crooked Billet until the 23rd of the 


The British army evacuated Philadelphia 
on June 18, and began the march toward 
New ^'ork. Howe, who had commanded 
the enemy's forces at Brandywine and Ger- 
mantown and during the evacuation of 
Philadelphia, was succeeded by Sir Henry 
Clinton. On June 21, Washington left the 
encampment at Valley Forge and crossed 
the Delaware at Trenton, determining to 
strike the enemy at the first opportunity. 
During the winter, the American forces had 
been trained and disciplined under the 
direction of Baron Steuben, a soldier and 
tactician who came to this country from the 
court of Frederick the Great. Although the 
American army had suffered hardships at 
Y^alley Forge, the rank and file were in ex- 
cellent trim. \\'ashington followed closely 
in pursuit of the British and directed Gen- 
eral Charles Lee to move forward and 
attack the enemy's rear at Freehold, in 
Monmouth County. Lee at first declined 
this duty, and Lafayette, with a division of 
troops composed in part of Wayne's brigade 
of the Pennsylvania Line, was ordered to 
hang on the enemy's rear. 

Lee, meantime, changed his mind and 
claimed the authority to lead the detach- 
ment, which he was unfortunately permitted 
to do. He marched five miles in advance of 
the main army to vigorously attack the 
enemy. \\'hen he arrived within striking 
distance, Wayne, with 700 Pennsylvania 
soldiers of the Continental Line, was 
despatched to attack the left rear. \\'hen 
he approached the enemy, Simcoe's rangers 
of mounted men dashed u])on Colonel 
Richard Butler's Pennsylvania regiment, 
but were driven back. 

At this juncture, a combined 
Battle of attack was made by the 
Monmouth. British and the battle of Mon- 
mouth was opened. The 
enemy now became the assailants. Wayne 
looked around in vain for a supporting 
column of Americans. It was at this time 

in the battle that General Lee had ordered 
his part of the line to fall back. Dismay 
and consternation followed, and to prevent 
defeat, Washington himself rode into the 
thickest of the fight. After reprimanding 
Lee, he ordered Wayne to form his regi- 
ments in line of battle, and check the assault 
of the enemy. 

Meantime, Washington went to the rear 
and brought up the main army. One of 
Wayne's regiments, ordered to the front, 
was the Seventh Pennsylvania Line, for- 
merly commanded by Colonel Da\'id Grier, 
of York, who had been wounded at Paoli. 
It was now led b\- its original commander. 
Colonel William Irvine, of Carlisle, who 
had been captured in the Canada expedition 
and lately released. The other regiments 
were the Thirteenth Pennsylvania, com- 
manded by Colonel Walter Stewart, and the 
Third, Colonel Thomas Craig. They were 
aided by a Maryland and a Virginia regi- 
ment. These gallant troops held the posi- 
tion until the reinforcements, wdiich made 
up the second line of battle, arrived. 
\'\'a}-ne was stationed in an orchard with a 
hill on either side. General Greene took 
position on the right and Lord Stirling on- 
the left. General Knox, commanding the 
artillery force, planted his guns on thchills 
to the left, near Stirling's troops, and opened 
on the enemy. The withering fire of 
\A^ayne's command in the centre made a 
further advance of the enemy impossible. 
The British grenadiers, endeavoring to 
pierce \\'ayne's line, were repulsed. At 
length, Lieutenant-Colonel Alonckton, at 
the head of the divisions in which were sons 
of many of the noblest English families who 
had given tone to fashionalile dissipation 
while Philadelphia was in the hands of the 
enemy, and Continental Congress at York, 
harangued his men and led them on the 
charge. He was repulsed by Wayne and in 
the attack, fell mortally wounded. 

Sir Henry Clinton, commanding the 
British forces, now attacked the left under 
Stirling, but was driven back by the artil- 
lery. He then attempted to break through 
the right, but was overpowered by Greene, 
who was supported by a strong battery. 
\\'ayne advanced from the centre and com- 
pelled the British to retreat to their first 

Evening had now arrived, and the 



Americans bivouacked for the night near 
the enemy, who stole away before morning 
had dawned, and left Washington in com- 
mand of the field. Thus ended one of the 
most brilliant \-ictories of the Revolution. 
It added laurels to the American arms and 
increased the power and influence of the 

The First Pennsylvania Regiment at 
Monmouth was in command of Colonel 
James Chambers, who had led it at 
Brandywine and Germantown. Henry Mil- 
ler, who had left York in 1775 ^vith the first 
troops for Boston, was major of this 
regiment. The company of York County 
troops which, had fought at Boston, Long 
Island, Trenton. Princeton, Brandywine, 
Paoli and Germantown, were still serving 
in the First Pennsylvania Regiment, but no 
muster roll of it for 1778 has been found. 
In this battle Captain John McDowell com- 
manded Moses McClean's company, and 
Captain William Alexander, Grier's com- 
pany, serving in the Seventh Pennsylvania 
Line. These were the two companies that 
had marched with Irvine's regiment on the 
first expedition to Canada, in the winter of 


Jacob Stake, of \ ork, who was first lieu- 
tenant of Captain Albright's compan\' in 
Miles' regiment, commanded a coinpany in 
the Tenth Pennsylvania Regiment at ]\Ion- 
mouth. James Lang, of York County, who 
had served as a lieutenant in Atlee's 
Musketry Battalion, also commanded a 
company in the Tenth Regiment. Joshua 
Williams, of York County, commanded a 
companv in the Fourth Pennsvlvania Regi- 
ment under Colonel William Butler. Wal- 
ter Cruise, of York, who was a corporal in 
Miller's company and had been captured at 
Boston in 1775, commanded a company in 
the Sixth Regiment. 

The following is the muster roll of Cap- 
tain John r^IcDowell's companv in 1778: 


John McDowell. 

First Lieutenant, 

William Miller. 

Second Lieutenant, 

Robert McPherson. 


James Milligan. 

Thomas Gainer, 
Roger Cough, 
."Xdam Linn. 

Edward .\tchison, 
George Blackley, 
William Bradshavv 
Henry Cain, 
William Campbell, 
Thomas Chesney, 
John Connelly, 
Daniel Conner, 
John Donnel, 
Philip Dufficld, 
John Diigan. 
John Farming. 
Henry Garman. 
Samuel Gilmore, 
John Hart, 
Robert Hunter, 
James Johnston, 
Matthew Kelly, 
Andrew Kennedy, 
Patrick King. 
Michael Lennogan 

William Manley. 

Patrick Conner. 


John McCalloh, 
Francis McDonncl, 
Alexander McDonnel, 
Xeal McGunnagle, 
Patrick McKeehan, 
John Milton, 
John Morrison, 
Bartholomew Mulloy, 
Dennis .Murphy, 
James Quinn, 
Thomas Riley, 
Michael Shawley, 
Solomon Silas. 
Diggonv Sparks, 
Richard Slack, 
George Sullivan, 
Marly Sullivan, 
John Walch. 
Edward Welch, 
James Welch, 
John Welch, 
Hendrick Winkler. 

The following is the muster-roll of Cap- 
tain William Alexander's Company in 1778: 

William Alexander. 

First Lieutenant, 
Samuel Kennedy. 

Second Lieutenant, 
.Alexander Russell. 

Robert McWheeling. 

William Gray. 
John Smith. 
Joseph Wade. 
Matthew Way. 

George Brown. 
James Hamilton. 
Joseph Rawlands, 
Joseph Templcton. 


William Anguish 
James Berry 
John Brannon 
John Bryans 
Patrick Butler 
John Clemonds 
Adam Conn 
Cornelius Corrigan 
William Courtney 
David Davis 
James Donovan 
John Farrell 
Henry Freet 
William Guthrie 
James Harkens 
Richard Henlev 

James Hutton 
Jacob Leed 
John McCall 
Thomas McConn 
Patrick McCormick 
John McDonnel 
John McGinnis 
Patrick McGonaghy 
Isaac Moore 
Timothy .Murphy 
Patrick Xowland 
James Price 
Patrick Rooney 
John Sommerville 
John Stewart 
\\'illiam Wilkinson 
George Worley. 

The following is the muster-roll of Cap- 
tain James Lang's Company, which served 



in the Tenth Pennsylvania Regiment at the 
battle of Monmoutli : 

Daniel Powers 
Samuel Green 
John Sniitli 
John Lockhard 
Adam Truby 
Daniel Hoy 
Simon Digby 
David Stinson 
Henry Falls 
j.-nies Sharplice 
Andrew Carvan 
John McBride 
Thomas Whelan 
Andrew McQuigan 
James Duncan 
Robert Hanna 

James Lang. 

Daniel McLean, 
Thomas Filson, 
Barny Shields. 

John Smitli, 
James Tyre. 
Drum and Fife, 
Leonard Toops, 
Andrew Cutler. 


John Sulavan 
William Stage 
John Burnham 
Hugh Bradley 
Bartholomew Berrey 
John ^IcCarron 
William Douglass 
John Jones 
Robert Holston 
John Sigafuss 
David Griffin 
Edward Butler 
Samuel Lessley 
Lawrence Gorman 
Abraham Hornick 
Thomas Borland 
Barnev Burnes. 

The following is the muster-roll of Cap- 
tain Jacob Stake's Company which served 
in the Tenth Pennsylvania Line in 1778 at 
the battle of Monmouth : 

Jacob Stake. 

John Wynne, 
Samuel Edger, 
John Ray. 

Michael Elly, 
Martin Sullivan. 


John Jeffrys. 


Martin Ashburn. 

John Pierce 
James McCray 
Richard Coogan 
George Montgomery 
William Short 
Jacob Stillwell 
Nathaniel Webber 
Timothy McNamara 
Charles Fulks 
John Gcttiss 
William Leech 
Lawrence Sullivan 
Samuel Dickson 
James Pratt 
John Funk 
John Stammers 


Christopher Reily 
John Chappel 
William Williams 
Edward Helb 
Rudolph Crowman 
Stephen Falkentine 
Daniel Forker 
Patrick Coyle 
James McLaughlin 
William Grace 
Benjamin Toy 
Thomas Moore 
Malcolm Black 
Patrick Collins 
Richard Harding 
George Webb 
Bastion Maraquet. 


The following is a return of Captain 
Henry Miller's Company, on November 4, 
1776. It was then serving in the First 
Pennsylvania Regiment and formed part of 
the rear column of \\'ashington's army in 
the retreat across New Jersey to Trenton, 
after the defeat at Fort Washington. This 
company, under Captain Miller, took part 
in the battles of Princeton and Trenton, and 
when Henry Miller was promoted to major 
of the regiment, was commanded at Bran- 
dywine and Germantown by Captain James 
]Matson. It took part in the battle of Mon- 
mouth, and in 1781. still in the First Regi- 
ment, marched under Colonel Richard But- 
ler, with Wayne's Brigade of the Pennsyl- 
vania Line, and was present at the surren- 
der of Cornwallis at Yorktown. Virginia, in 
October, 1781. 


Henry Miller. 

First Lieutenant, 

James Matson. 

Second Lieutenant, 

John Clark. 


John Line 
Charles Liness 
John McAllister 
John McCray 
George McCrea 
John McCurt 
Joseph McQuiston 
James Mill 

Joshua Minshall , 

Edward Moore 
James Morrison 
Patrick Murphy 
John Patton 
Patrick Preston 
Michael Quin 
John Quint 
.■\ndrew Sharp 
John Shaven 
Joseph Shibbey 
Matthew Shields 
James Smith 
Jacob Staley 
Andrew Start 
Alexander Stevens 
Patrick Stewlan 
Matthew Stoyle 
Tobias Tanner 
John Taylor 
William Taylor 
David Torrence 
Timothy Winters 

Edward White. 

William Allen 
Robert .Armor 
George Armstrong 
John Bell 
John Beverly 
Christian Bittinger 
Richard Block 
George Brown 
John Burke 
Thomas Campbell 
William Carnahan 
John Clark 
Robert Conyers 
William Cooper 
Thomas Crone 
George Dougherty 
John Douther 
Able Evans 
Thomas Fanning 
John Ferguson 
William Goudy 
Patrick Graft 
John Griffith 
Thomas Griffith 
Joseph Halbut 
Robert Harvey 
John Humphries 
Richard Kennedy 
Thomas Kennedy 
John Leiper 
Abraham Lewis 

MAJOR JOHN CLARK, who rendered 
valuable services at the battle of Monmouth, 
was born in Lancaster County, in 1751. of 
English ancestry. He obtained his educa- 



tion in the schools of his native county and 
wlien about twenty years of age removed to 
York. At the opening of the Revolution, he 
was a student of law, but his professional 
studies were interrupted by enlisting in the 
army. Juh^ i. 1775. he was chosen third 
lieutenant of the first military company 
which marched from York and arrived at 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, where it joined 
Washington's army. Lieutenant Clark 
took part with his company in the skirmish 
with the British at Charlestown. a few days 
after their arrival at Boston. For gallantry 
in this affair, he was promoted to the rank 
of second lieutenant of his company, then 
commanded by Captain Henry Miller. He 
served as second lieutenant of Miller's com- 
pany in the hard fought battle of Long Is- 
land, in August, 1776. This company then 
formed a part of the First Regiment of the 
Penns\lvania Line. 

Lieutenant Clark was also conspicuous 
for his gallantry at Flatbush, Long Island. 
In September, 1776, he was chosen major 
of the Second Regiment of the Flying 
Camp, upon the recommendation of General 
Hugh Mercer. This regiment, composed 
entirely of York County troops, was com- 
manded b}' Colonel Richard McAllister, 
founder of Hanover. October 15, 1776, 
r^Iajor Clark participated with his regiment 
in an expedition against the British on 
Staten Island, and in this action commanded 
the advance with 500 riflemen. He suc- 
ceeded in capturing 60 W'aldeckers or Hes- 

Soon after this brilliant afifair, Major 
Clark moved with his regiment up the w-est 
side of the Hudson River and took position 
opposite White Plains. Here he com- 
manded a detachment of 200 men. With 
these men he built fortifications to aid in 
preventing Howe's army from crossing to 
the west bank of the Hudson. 

After the battle of Fort Washington, 
when the American army retired from the 
vicinity of Xew York, Major Clark com- 
manded the rear of the retreating forces, 
southward over the state of Xew Jersey. 
He was present at the battle of Trenton 
and after Washington's victory at that 
place, which ended in the capture of Rahl 
and 1.000 Hessian troops. Major Clark re- 
ported that he collected the trophies of 
victory and held possession of the town. 

while the other troops went in pursuit of 
the enemy. 

The following day, December 27, with 
200 men, he marched in pursuit of a body of 
British, commanded by General Stirling and 
Count Donop, to Hidetown and Cranberry, 
leaving the British in his rear at Princeton. 
This was a bold and brilliant dash in the 
cold weather of midwinter. .\t the villages 
of Allentown and Cranberry nearby, he cap- 
tured a large amount of British stores and 
provisions, and at Hidetown surprised and 
took prisoners thirty British officers. This 
remarkable raid and its achievement won 
for him and his soldiers from York County 
the plaudits of his superior officers, when 
they returned to headquarters near Trenton. 
Major Clark and his men were commended 
for their bravery by Washington, Greene 
and Reed. W'ashington presented Clark 
with a British sword that had been cap- 
tured in battle. Shortly after the battle of 
Trenton the term of enlistment of McAl- 
lister's regiment of the Flying Camp ex- 
pired. The men were honorably dis- 
charged and returned home. Major Clark 
remained in the service, and was assigned 
to duty under General Thomas Mifflin, who 
was reorganizing the Pennsylvania militia 
then in New Jersey and eastern Pennsyl- 
vania. He was the only officer present at 
Crosswicks, near Trenton, in January, 1777. 
when General Mififlin made a strong appeal 
to the New England militia to remain one 
month longer in service. On the following 
day General Greene dispatched Major Clark 
on the important duty of discovering the 
force and movement of the enemy under 
Lord Cornwallis, then advancing toward 
Princeton, New Jersey. He soon returned 
to Greene with the desired information and 
then aided in forming an advance battle 
line to meet the approaching British under 
Cornwallis, at the opening of the battle of 
Princeton. During the day of the engage- 
ment, Clark, as brigade major under Mifflin, 
did valiant service in directing the artillery 
into action. 

When the American army arrived at 
Morristown, New Jersey, at the request of 
Washington he was made chief of staff to 
GeneraF Greene, with the rank of major in 
the Continental Line. His training as a 
despatch bearer, and his success in leading 
reconnoitering parlies, made him a useful 



officer to General Greene, who. next to 
Washington, was ranked as the ablest 
soldier of the Revolution. While making a 
reconnoissance with a small body of troops 
to ascertain the position of the advancing 
British under General Howe, at Brandy- 
wine. Major Clark received a wound from 
a rifle ball passing through his right 
shoulder. He then returned to his home in 
York, and after recuperating, joined his 
command before the battle of Germantown. 
In this engagement, while leading a small 
detachment, he took prisoner Captain 
Speak, of the 37th Light Infantry. Immedi- 
ately after the battle, with a small scouting 
party, he moved within sight of the British 
line in order to ascertain the enemy's loss 
and if possible, discover the future plan of 
operations. He accomplished his purpose 
with great personal clanger, and communi- 
cated to the commander-in-chief, not only 
the losses of the British at Germantown. but 
Howe's plan of movement against the 
American forces, after the battle. These 
facts enabled Washington to make such a 
disposition of his troops as to gain ad- 
vantage over Howe at White Marsh, a few 
days later. He also recommended the de- 
tachment of Smallwood's brigade of Mary- 
land troops to Wilmington. Delaware, 
which was re-captured by the Americans. 
This movement resulted in seizing two of 
the enemy's ships on the Delaware heavily 
ladened with provisions and munitions of 
war. For his brilliant achievements at this 
period. Major Clark received the highest 
commendation from his superior oflicers. 
The wound which he had received at 
Brandywine now compelled his retirement, 
and he again returned to his home at York. 
In January. 1778. together with Captain 
Lee. of Virginia, known as "Light Horse 
Harry" of the Revolution, Clark was called 
tq the encampment at Valley Forge to con- 
sult with Washington about a proposed at- 
tack on a detachment of Howe's forces then 
at Darby, or the main body of the army in 
and around Philadelphia. Both Lee and 
Clark advised Washington against any win- 
ter attack of the British forces. At a coun- 
cil of war a majority of the subordinate 
commanders present were of the same opin- 
ion. In appreciation of his ability as a sol- 
dier. Washington now offered to Clark 
different positions of responsibility and 

trust, but owing to the condition of his 
health, he declined these proft'ered honors 
and again returned to York, to recuperate 
his health. In recognition of what Clark 
had done while in the army, Washington 
wrote the following interesting letter to 
Henry Laurens, then president of Congress, 
at York : 

"Headquarters. Valley Forge, Jan. 2. 1778. 
"Sir : — I take the liberty of introducing Major John 
Clark, the bearer of this, to your notice. He entered 
the service at the commencement of the war and has 
for some time past acted as aide-de-camp to Major- 
General Greene. He is active, sensible and enterprising 
and has rendered me very great assistance since the 
army has been in Pennsylvania, by procuring one con- 
stant and certain intelligence of the motions and inten- 
tions of the enemy. It is somewhat uncertain whether 
the state of tlje major's health will admit of his remain- 
ing in the military line; if it should. I may perhaps have 
occasion to recommend him in a more particular manner 
to the favor of Congress at a future time. At present. 1 
can assiH'e you that if you should, while he remains in 
the neighborhood of York, have any occasion for his 
services, you will find him not only willing, but very 
capable of executing any of your commands. I have 
the honor to be. etc.. 


After receiving the letter to Henr\' 
Laurens. President of Continental Con- 
gress then in session at York. Major Clark 
was appointed auditor of the accounts 
of the army under General Washington. 
He accepted this position February 24. 
1778. He served for a period of two years 
and then returned to his home. \Vhen he 
assumed the duties of this office the Treas- 
ury of the United States had but small 
deposits and Major Clark advanced the sum 
of eleven hundred and fifty-two pounds of 
his own money for one of the best teams in 
America to secure and haul the outfit of the 
auditors, their baggage and documents be- 
longing to the officers, to the headquarters 
of the army. During the battle of Mon- 
mouth. Major John Clark, of York, was 
again called to his former position as an 
aide on the staff of General Greene. Here 
he again succeeded in endearing himself to 
his own commander and also the head of the 
army. It was Clark who had carried the 
orders for General Lee to make the first 
attack, and his testimony was used when 
Lee was afterward court-martialed and de- 
prived of his command. 

The liattle of Monmouth was the last en- 
gagement in which Major Clark partici- 
pated during the Revolution. Having 
nearly completed his legal studies before he 




entereil the army lie was admitted to the 
bar at York, April 27, 1779, and spent the 
remainder of his life as a practicing lawyer. 

During the second war with Great Britain 
in 1812, he ofifered his services for the de- 
fence of his country. When the British, 
under General Ross, approached Baltimore, 
in 1814, Major Clark proceeded to that city. 
He presented himself before the military 
authorities of Baltimore with a letter from 
James Monroe, Secretary-of-War in Madi- 
son's Cabinet, wdio recommended Major 
Clark for his ability as a soldier in the Revo- 
lution. He then offered General Smith, 
commanding the forces at Baltimore, to 
lead the advance and attack the British 
when they landed at North Point, but the 
duty had already been assigned to others. 

After the defeat of the British at North 
Point, General Smith tendered his thanks to 
Major Clark for "the zeal and active ser- 
vices he voluntarily rendered during his 
stay at Baltimore and in its defence." 

He continued the practice of law at York 
during the remainder of his life. He re- 
sided in a large home at the southwest cor- 
ner of Market and Beaver Streets, which in 
1906 was used by Adams Express Com- 
pany. In personal appearance, he was 
large of frame, of commanding presence 
and military bearing. In 1818 he was a 
candidate of the Federalist party to repre- 
sent Lancaster and York Counties in the 
Congress of the United States, but was de- 
feated. After the Revolution, Major Clark 
was in close and intimate relations with 
General Washington until the time of the 
latter's death in 1799. 

Major Clark was married early in life to 
a daughter of Captain Nicholas Bittinger. 
of Hanover, who commanded a company in 
the same regiment of the Flying Camp in 
■which Clark served as a major. He had one 
son, George Clark, and several daughters, 
none of whom left descendants. The only 
portrait of the major in existence, except a 
drawing, was interred with the remains of 
Julia Clark, his daughter, at her recjuest, in 
St. John's Episcopal Churchyard. Major 
Clark died December 27, 1819, at the age of 
68, and his remains were buried in St. 
John's Episcopal Churchyard. He was 
prominent in the Masonic Fraternity and 
was a vestryman of St. John's Church. 

who entered the army as a lieutenant, in 
1775, ser\ed continuously until the year 
1779. He was conspicuous for his gallantry 
in the siege of Boston, at the battles of 
Long Island, White Plains, Trenton, 
Princeton, Brandywine, Germantown and 
Monmouth. In all he participated in forty- 
seven battles and skirmishes with the 
British during the four years of his military- 
service in the army. 

He was born February 13, 1751, at the 
site of Millersville, Lancaster County. 
Pennsylvania, where his father was a farmer 
owning a large estate. After receiving a 
good preparatory education, he went to 
Reading, where he entered the law office of 
Collinson Reed, and studied conveyancing. 
In 1769. he removed to York, where he 
began the occupation of a conveyancer and 
continued his legal studies with Samuel 
Johnson, one of the pioneer lawyers of York 
County. When the Revolution opened he 
espoused the cause of the colonists and be- 
came second lieutenant of the York Ritle- 
men, a company of 100 trained marksmen 
from York County, who, on July i, 1775, 
began the march to Boston, and joined 
W'ashington's army at Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, on July 25. Here they were as- 
signed to Thompson's Battalion, the first 
troops south of New York to join the 
American army during the Revolution. 
Their reputation for trained marksmanship 
with the use of the rifle was already well 
known. The troops wdio engaged in the 
battle of Bunker Hill had used muskets. 

Two days after the York Riflemen, under 
Captain Doudel, arrived at Washington's 
headcjuarters, at the request of Lieutenant 
Miller, they were sent out to reconnoiter 
the position of the enemy at Bunker Hill. 
This was done with Washington's consent 
and resulted in the capture of several 
prisoners, from whom the position and 
number of the enemy were obtained. Soon 
after this event. Lieutenant Miller was 
made captain of his company, and com- 
manded it on the march toward New York. 
He and his riflemen were conspicuous for 
their \alor at the battle of Long Island and 
guarded the retreat of Washington's army, 
which, through a fog, crossed to New York 
City. Captain Miller, amid a shower of 



bullets frDUi the enemy, was the last Ameri- 
can soldier to enter the boats. 

He participated in the battle of White 
Plains, and with a detachment from the 
First Regiment of the Pennsylvania Line, 
guarded the rear during Washington's re- 
treat across New Jersey. At the battle of 
Trenton the First Regiment, under Colonel 
Edward Hand, formed the advance battle 
line, and during that eventful Christmas 
night of 1776 was the first to attack the 
Hessians at their post. After the surrender 
of 1,000 Hessians at Trenton, Washington 
re-crossed into Pennsylvania. He then se- 
lected Hand's riflemen, with Captain Miller 
commanding his company, to lead the ad- 
vance and attack the approaching enemy. 
In the action which ensued Miller com- 
manded the left wing of the regiment. 

At the battle of Princeton, on the suc- 
ceeding day, these riflemen were conspic- 
uous for their valor and aided in winning 
a brilliant victory. For his gallantry in 
action, at the request of Washington, Cap- 
tain Miller was promoted to major of his 
regiment, and held this position at the bat- 
tle of Brandywine. In the battle of Ger- 
mantown his regiment formed a part of 
\\'ayne's brigade, and aided in driving the 
enemy toward Philadelphia, during the first 
part of the engagement. Six days after the 
battle, which resulted in a British victory. 
Major Miller wrote to his family at York: 
"We hope to meet them soon again, and 
with the assistance of Providence to restore 
our suffering citizens of Philadelphia to 
their possessions and homes." 

During the winter of 1777-8, Major Mil- 
ler remained in camp with his regiment at 
Valley Forge. The arduous duties of army- 
life required him to spend part of the winter 
at his home, recuperating his health. It 
was during this winter that Continental 
Congress held its sessions in York, and 
W^ashington lay in winter quarters at Val- 
ley Forge. 

On the march through New Jersey in pur- 
suit of the enemy under Sir Henry Clinton, 
in June, 1778, Major Miller's regiment 
formed a ])art of the Pennsylvania division 
commanded by General Anthony AVayne. 
In this, the last battle of the Revolution in 
which Major Miller participated, he showed 
the same coolness and bravery that he had 
displayed on former occasions when he led 

his York County Riflemen on to victory. 
While commanding a detachment under 
Wayne in the thickest of the fight, his horse 
was shot by a cannon ball. He quickly 
mounted another and rode forward, when 
this horse was killed by a musket ball. 
Mounting a third, he led his men onward 
until the British were driven from the field. 
For gallant and meritorious services at the 
battle of ISIonmouth, Major Miller was pro- 
moted to lieutenant-colonel of the Second 
Pennsylvania Regiment in tlie Continental 
Line, but owing to the condition of his 
atTairs at home, as the result of four years' 
service in the army, he held this position for 
a short time only and then resigned. He 
then turned his attention to his business 
affairs at York. The pay he had received 
as a soldier, in depreciated currency, did not 
furnish him means enough to support his 

In 1780, he was elected sherift' of York 
County, and served in that position for 
three years. He represented York County 
in the State Legislature in 1783-4-5. He 
was appointed protbonotary in 1785, and in 
the same year commissioned one of the 
court justices for York County. He was 
elected a delegate to the convention which 
framed the State Constitution of 1790. 
After the war, he became a brigadier- 
general of the state militia, and in 1794 was 
quartermaster-general of the United States 
army in the \Vhiskey Insurrection in west- 
ern Pennsylvania. 

General Miller was appointed supervisor 
of revenue for the State of Pennsylvania by 
President Washington, and served in the 
same office under President Adams; but on 
account of his staunch adherence to the 
Federalist party, was removed from the 
office by Thomas Jefferson, when he Ije- 
canie President. Although he had reached 
the age of 63, wdien the second war with 
Great Britain began, he tendered his ser- 
vices to the United States government, and 
was placed in charge of the defence of Fort 
McHenry. This occurred when the city of 
Baltimore was first threatened by the 
English, in 1813. Having still retained his 
relations to his native state, when the militia 
was organized he received the appointment 
of brigadier-general. In 1814. when the 
British appeared before Baltimore, he 
served in the capacity of quartermaster- 



general and was present at Baltimore with 
the Pennsylvania troops, which had 
marched there for the defence of that city. 
His experience as an officer in the Revolu- 
tion was of great advantage to the com- 
manding officers at Baltimore, at the time 
of the battle of North Point and the bom- 
bardment of Fort McHenry. Before retir- 
ing from service. General Miller received the 
commendations of the military authorities 
of Baltimore and the national government. 

He retired to private life, residing on a 
farm in the Juniata Valley, and in 1821 was 
appointed prothonotary of the new county 
of Perry. At the expiration of his term of 
ofifice, he removed his family residence to 
Carlisle, where he died April 5. 1824, and 
was buried there with military honors. 

His family consisted of two sons and four 
daughters. His son Joseph was a lieutenant 
in the army, and died in the service, wdiile 
performing his duties as quartermaster at 
Ogdensburg, during the second war with 
England, and his son William was a lieuten- 
ant in the navy, and died on board the 
frigate "LTnsurgent," Captain Murray. 

His eldest daughter, Capandana, married 
Colonel Campbell; his second daughter. 
Mary, married Thomas Banning, a Mary- 
land planter; and his third daughter, Julia 
Anna, married David Watts, of Carlisle. 
His fourth daughter, Harriet, died unmar- 
ried. There are no descendants of these 
children now surviving, except those of 
David Watts and Julia Anna ^Miller. 


Thomas Hartley, a member of the York 
County Bar, and a young man of rare at- 
tainments, entered the military service in 
the fall of 1775. Before hostilities had 
opened between the colonies and the 
mother country, he had commanded a com- 
pany of militia from York and vicinity. The 
fierce conflict at Bunker Hill in June, 1775, 
stimulated his military ardor. When an ex- 
pedition was planned against Canada in the 
fall of 1775, he tendered his services to the 
cause of American liberty. A regiment 
composed of eight companies was organ- 
ized, at Carlisle, from militia in the region 
now embraced in York. Cuml)erland. 
Franklin. Adams and Perry Counties. Wil- 
liam Irxine, of Carlisle, was commissioned 

colonel of this regiment and Thomas Hart- 
ley, lieutenant-colonel, at the age of twenty- 
seven. The part taken by the regiment in 
the Canada campaign is told in a previous 
chapter in this work. After the capture of 
Colonel Irvine, in Canada, Hartley was 
placed in command of the regiment and 
brought it back to Carlisle in ^Iarch, 1777. 
Irvine remained a j^risoner of war until 
April, 1778. His command, which at first 
enlisted for a term of one j'ear for the 
Canada campaign, re-enlisted, and in June, 
1778, under the command of Lieutenant- 
colonel David Grier, of York, was stationed 
at Middlebrook, New Jersey, and in Sep- 
tember at Trappe, in Montgomery County, 
Pennsylvania. It joined Wayne's brigade 
and took part in the battles of Brandywine, 
Paoli and Germantown. as told elsewhere in 
this history. 

Thomas Hartley, while in charge of the 
regiment at Ticonderoga, was commis- 
sioned colonel, January 11, 1777. After the 
regiment reached Carlisle in March of that 
year. Hartley spent some time at York. 

In December, 1776, Congress authorized 
Washington to raise sixteen battalions of 
infantry for the military service from the 
different states then forming the Union. 
This resolution was adopted two days after 
the battle of Trenton, which had been a sig- 
nal victory for the American cause. Two 
of these battalions were to come from 
Pennsylvania. For this purpose Thomas 
Hartley and John Patton, of Chester 
County, were each commissioned colonel to 
raise a regiment. In the absence of official 
reports, it is difficult to give a detailed ac- 
count of these regiments. 

Colonel Thomas Hartleys regiment 
joined Washington's ami}', wdien General 
Howe landed at the head of Elk River, in 
September, 1777. All the available Ameri- 
can troops were then concentrated in the 
\icinity of Philadelphia. Hartley's regi- 
ment formed part of the First Pennsylvania 
Brigade in General \\'ayne's division. In 
the battle of Brandywine, Colonel Hartley 
commanded this Ijrigade, which did valiant 
service in the engagement, and lost heavily 
in both officers and men. This brigade also 
took part in the battle of Paoli, fought near 
Philadelphia, nine days after the defeat at 
Brandxwine, and still under the command 
of Hartley, ]Ku-tici])ated in the battle of Ger- 



mantown, October 4. After Germaiitown, 
Hartle\'"s regiment, which originally num- 
bered 600 men from the different counties 
of Pennsylvania, had in rank and file less 
than half its original enlistment. Major 
Lewis Bush was mortally wounded at 
Brandywine, and Captain Robert Hoopes 
was killed. Other casualties in this regi- 
ment, in the battles of Brandywine, Paoli 
and Germantown, were: Lieutenant James 
Dill. Lieutenant James Lemon. Sergeant 
\\'illiam Chambers. Sergeant John Rousden. 
Corporal Anthony \\"all, killed: Private 
George Blakely. wounded and prisoner at 
Paoli. in Captain Robert Hoopes' company: 
Privates William Cornwall. George Duke. 
John Elliott. Joseph Finnemore. James Flin. 
killed; Philip Graham, killed at Brandy- 
wine : Jacob Houts. wounded at German- 
town : Christopher Morris and John Shan- 
non, killed : William Price, died of wounds. 

After the close of the campaign 
Hartley's of the American army around 
Regiment Philadelphia, in 1777, and when 
at York. AN'ashington went into winter 

quarters at Valley Forge. Colo- 
nel Hartley returned with iiis regiment to 
York, where it remained in barracks for two 
or three months as a guard to Continental 
Congress, then in session here. February 
II, 1778. Congress passed a resolution or- 
dering Michael Hillegas, treasurer of the 
United States, to issue a warrant for two 
months' pay to Colonel Hartley's regiment, 
then in York. On the same day another 
resolution was adopted directing the board 
of war to aid in recruiting this regiment. 
On June 17. according to the diary of Rev. 
John Roth, of the Moravian Church, a part 
of Hartley's regiment left York for the 
American camp near Philadelphia, having 
in charge a number of English prisoners. 
On June 25, at the request of General 
Washington. Colonel Hartley reported with 
his regiinent at Valley Forge, just before 
the American army had left the camp to 
take the field in New Jersey. A few days 
later Congress adjourned to Philadelphia, 
which had been evacuated by the British, 
then falling back through New Jersey to 
New York. 

In June. 1778. just before Con- 
Wyoming gress left York for Philadel- 
Massacre. phia, the settlers near Wilkes- 

barre, in the Wyoming Valley, 

in the northern part of Pennsylvania, heard 
o{ the approach of a large force of Tories 
and Indians under Colonel John Butler. 
An appeal for help was made to Congress 
as nearly all the able-bodied men were in 
the Continental army. These hostile bands 
approached suddenly, when Colonel Zebu- 
Ion Butler, of the Pennsylvania Line, who 
was home on a furlough, recruited three 
hundred men to meet a force three times as 
large. He met the enemy on July 3 at a fort 
near the Susquehanna, a short distance 
abo\e Wilkesbarre, and here occurred what 
is known to history as the Wyoming Mas- 
sacre. ' Only fifty of Zebulon Butler's men 
escaped. Those who did not fall in battle, 
when captured were put to death by the 
bullets of the Tories or the tomahawks of 
the Indians. The depredations in the 
W'yoming Valley continued and became so 
heartrending that all the settlers fled. 

The Wyoming Massacre was not the 
only one in Pennsylvania in the war of the 
Revolution. Immediately after that of 
Wyoming, the wild precipitate flight, 
known as the "Great Runaway," occurred 
in the valley of the West Branch. All sum- 
mer the scalping knife and tomahawk had 
been doing their deadly work there, and 
wdien the news of the massacre on North 
Branch arrived, the West Branch above 
Sunbury and Northumberland was aband- 
oned by the settlers. Boats, canoes, hog- 
troughs, rafts, and every sort of floating 
things, were crowded with women and 
children. The men came down in single 
file, on each side of the river, and acted as 
guards. Sunbury became a frontier town 
and the site of Harrisburg. Paxtang, and 
Middletown, were places of resort for the 
unfortunate refugees. Bedford and West- 
moreland counties and the country about 
Pittsburg were likewise sorely afflicted at 
this time. 

The massacre of W^yoming, 

Hartley which occurred on July 3, 

Marches caused serious apprehension to 

to General Washington and Con- 

Sunbury. tinental Congress. At this time. 

Colonel Hartley's regiment was 
with Washington's army in New Jersey, 
and the remainder performing guard duty 
at Philadelphia. In accordance with a reso- 
lution of the Pennsylvania Council of 
Safety, Hartley's regiment was ordered, on 



Jul}' 14, to go to Sunbury, in Xortliumber- 
laud County, fifty miles above Harrisburg. 
At the same time, the Committee of Safety 
ordered the militia to be called out from 
the counties of Xorthumberland, Lancaster, 
Berks, Northampton, Cumberland and 
York, in all about 1,800 men. These troops 
were intended to guard the frontier from 
the ravages of the Indians and Tories. 
Four hundred and fifty troops from Berks 
and Northampton were to repair to Easton ; 
eight hundred and fifty from Xorthumber- 
land, Lancaster and Berks to go to Sunbury, 
three hundred from Cumberland and two 
hundred from York County to join Colonel 
Broadhead at Standing Stone, the site of 

As the Indians continued to be very 
troublesome on the northern and western 
frontiers of Penns3dvania, it soon became 
apparent to the military authorities that 
some offensive operations must be under- 
taken, to punish the savage foe, or the in- 
habitants of Central Pennsylvania would be 
in imminent danger. 

With this object in view, Colonel 
Goes Hartley, in September, 1778, was 

to sent from Sunbury, by the Board 
Tioga, of ^^'ar on an expedition to Tioga 
Point, on the headwaters of the 
X'orth Branch, to destroy some of their vil- 
lages and break up their places of rendez- 
vous. His expedition was one of the most 
memorable on record, and proved success- 
ful. In October, 1778, after his return to 
Sunbury, from this expedition, Colonel 
Hartley wrote to Congress an extended ac- 
count of it, which reads in part as follows: 

"With a frontier from Wyoming to Alle- 
gheny, we were sensible the few regular 
troops we had could not defend the neces- 
sary posts. We thought (if it were prac- 
ticable), it would be best to draw the prin- 
cipal part of our force together, as the in- 
habitants would be in no great danger dur- 
ing our absence. I made a stroke at some 
of the nearest Indian towns, especially as 
we learned a handsome detachment had 
been sent into the enemy's country by way 
of the Cherry Valley, New York. \\'e were 
in hopes we should drive the savages to a 
greater distance. 

"\\'ith volunteers and others, we reck- 
oned on 400 rank and file for the expedition, 
besides 17 horses, which I mounted from 

my own regiment, under the command of 
Lieutenant Henry Carbery. Our rendez- 
vous was Fort Muncy, near the site of Wil- 
liamsport, on the \\'est Branch, intending 
to penetrate by the Sheshecunnunk path, 
to Tioga, at the junction of the Cayuga, 
with the main Northeast Branch of Susque- 
hanna, from thence to act as circumstances 
might require. 

"The troops met at Aluncy the i8th of 
September, and when we came to count and 
array our force for the expedition, they 
amounted to only about 200 rank and file. 
We thought the number small, but as we 
presumed the enemy had no notice of our 
designs, we hoped at least to make a good 
diversion if no more, whilst the inhabitants 
were saving their grain on the frontier. On 
the morning of the 21st, at four o'clock, we 
marched from Muncy, with the force I have 
mentioned ; we carried two boxes of spare 
ammunition and twelve days' provisions. 

"In our route we met with 

Endures great rains and prodigious 
Hardships, swamps ; mountains, defiles 
and rocks impeded our march. 
^^'e had to open and clear the way as we 
passed. We waded or swam the Lycoming 
Creek upwards of twenty times. I will not 
trouble your honorable body with the 
tedious detail, but I cannot help observing 
that, I imagine, the difficulties in crossing 
the Alps or passing up Kennebec River to 
Canada in 1775, could not have been greater 
than those our men experienced for the 
time. I have the pleasure to say they sur- 
mounted them with great resolution and 
fortitude. In lonely woods and groves we 
found the haunts and lurking places of the 
savage murderers, who had desolated our 
frontier. A\'e saw the huts where they had 
dressed and dried the scalps of the helpless 
women and children who fell into their 

"On the morning of the 26th, our 

Drives advance party of 19, met with an 

the equal number of Indians on the 

Enemy path, approaching one another. 

Back. Our men had the first fire. .\. 
very important Indian chief was 
killed and scalped and the rest fled. A few 
miles further, we discovered where up- 
wards of seventy warriors had lay the night 
before, on their march towards our frontier. 
The panic communicated and they fled with 




their bretlireii. No time was lost; we ad- 
vanced towards Sheshecunnunck, in the 
neighborhood of which place we took fif- 
teen prisoners from them. We learned that 
a man had deserted from Captain Spald- 
ing's company at Wyoming, after the troops 
had marched from thence and had given the 
enemy notice of onr intended expedition 
against them. 

"We moved with the greatest dispatch 
towards Tioga, advancing our horse and 
some foot in front, wdro did their duty very 
well.. A number of the enemy fled before 
us with precipitation. It was near dark, 
when we came to that towni. Our troops 
were much fatigued and it was impossible 
to proceed further that night. We were 
told that young Butler, who had led the 
'J'ories at the Wyoming Massacre, had been 
at Tioga a few hours before we came — that 
he had 300 men with him, the most of them 
Tories, dressed in green — that they were 
returned towards Chemung, 12 miles off, 
and that they determined to give us battle 
in some of the defiles near it. It was soon 
resolved w^e should proceed no further, but 
if possible make our way to Wyoming. AVe 
burned Tioga, Queen Hester's Palace or 
town, and all the settlements on this side. 
Several canoes were taken and some plun- 
der, part of which was destroyed. Lieu- 
tenant Carbery, with the .horse only, was 
close on Butler. He was in possession of 
the town of Shawnee, three miles up the 
Cayuga Branch, but as we did not advance, 
he returned. 

"The consternation of the enemy was 
great. \\'e pushed our good fortune as far 
as we dare, nay, it is probable the good 
countenance \ve put on, saved us from 
destruction, as we were advanced so far 
into the enemy's country, and no return 
but what we could make with the sword. 
We came to Sheshecunnimck that night. 
Had we had 500 regular troops, and 150 
light troops, with one or two pieces of ar- 
tillery, we probably might have destroyed 
Chemung, which is now the receptacle for 
all villainous Indians and Tories from the 
different tribes and states. From this they 
make their excursions against the frontiers 
of New York, Pennsylvania, Jersey, A¥yom- 
ing and commit those horrid murders and 
devastations we have heard of. Niagara 
and Chemung are the asylums of these 

Tories who cannot get to New York. On 
the morning of the 28th, we crossed the 
river and marched towards Wyalusing, 
wdiere w'e arri\ed that night at 11 o'clock; 
our men were much worn down and our 
whiskey and flour were gone. 

"On the morning of the 29th, we were 
obliged to stay till 11 o'clock to kill and 
cook beef. This gave the enemy leisure to 
approach. Seventy of our vnen from real 
or pretended lameness went into the 
canoes ; others rode on the empty pack 
horses. We had not more than 120 rank 
and file to fall in the line of march. Lieu- 
tenant Sweeney, a valuable officer, had the 
rear guard, consisting of thirty men, besides 
five active runners, under Mr. Camplen. 
The advance guard was to consist of an 
officer and fifteen men. There were a few 
flankers, but from the difficulty of the 
ground and fatigue, they were seldom of 
use. The rest of our little army was formed 
into three divisions. Those of my regiment 
composed the first. Captain Spalding's the 
second, and Captain Morrow's the third. 
The light horse was equally divided be- 
tween front and rear. The pack horses and 
the cattle we had collected, were to follow 
the advance guard. In this order we 
marched from Wyalusing at 12 o'clock. A 
slight attack was made on our front from a 
hill. Half an hour afterwards a warmer one 
was made on the same quarter. After or- 
dering the second and third divisions to 
outflank the enemy, we soon drove them, 
but this, as I expected, was only amuse- 
ment, and we lost as little time as possible 
with them. 

"At 2 o'clock a very heavy attack 

An was made on our rear, which 

Indian obliged most of the rear guard to 

Attack, give way, while several Indians 

appeared on our left flank. By 
the weight of the firing, we were soon con- 
vinced we had to oppose a large body. 
Captain Stoddard commanded in front and 
I was in the centre. I observed some high 
ground which overlooked the enemy. 
Orders were immediately given for the first 
and third di\isions to take possession of it, 
whilst Captain Spalding was despatched to 
support the rear guard. We gained the 
heights almost unnoticed by the barbarians. 
Captain Stoddart sent a small party towards 
the enemy's rear. At this critical moment. 



Captains Boone and Braily, and Lieutenant 
King, with a few brave fellows, landed from 
the canoes, joined Lieutenant Sweeney and 
renewed the action there. The war whoop 
was given by our people below and com- 
municated round. We advanced on the 
enemy on all sides. 

^\'ith great shouting and noise, 
The the Indians, after a brave resist- 

Enemy ance of some minutes, con- 
Repulsed. cei\ed themselves nearly sur- 
rounded, and fled with the ut- 
most haste, by the only passes that re- 
mained, and left ten dead on the ground. 
Our troops wished to do their duty, but 
they were much overcome with fatigue, 
otherwise (as the Indians imagined them- 
selves surrounded), we should have driven 
the enemy into the river. From every ac- 
count, these were a select body of warriors, 
sent after us, consisting of nearly 200 men. 
Their confidence and impetuosity, probably 
gave the victory to us. After they had 
driven our rear some distance, their chief 
was heard to say in the Indian language 
that which is interpreted thus : 'M}^ brave 
warriors, we drive them, be bold and strong, 
the day is ours.' Upon this they advanced 
very quickly without sufficiently regarding 
their rear. 

"\\'e had no alternatixe, but conquest or 
death. They w^ould have murdered us all 
had they succeeded, but the great God of 
Battles protected us in the day of danger. 
\\'e had four killed and ten wounded. The 
enemy must have had at least treble the 
number killed and wounded. They received 
such a beating as pre\ented them giving us 
any further trouble during our march to 
\\'yoming (W'ilkesbarre), which is more 
than fifty miles from the place of action. 
The officers of my regiment behaved well to 
a man. All the party will acknowledge the 
greatest merit and bravery of Captain Stod- 
dart. I cannot say enough in his favor. He 
deserves the esteem of his country. Lieu- 
tenant Carbery, with liis horse, was very 
active, and rendered important services till 
his horses were fatigued. Nearly all the 
other officers acquitted themselves with 
reputation. Captain Spalding exerted him- 
self as much as possible. Captain Murrow, 
from his knowledge of Indian, afl'airs and 
their mode of fighting, was serviceable. 
His men were marksmen and were useful. 

The men of my regiment were armed with 
muskets and bayonets. They were no great 
marksmen, and were awkward at wood 
fighting. The bullets and three swan shot 
in each piece made up, in some measure, for 
the w^ant of skill. Though we were happy 
enough to succeed in this action, yet I am 
convinced that a number of lighter troops, 
under good officers, are necessary for this 

"On the third, the savages 
Reaches and scalped three men who 
Wyoming, had imprudently left the gar- 
rison at Wyoming to go in 
search of potatoes. From our observations, 
we imagine that the same party wdio had 
fought us, after taking care of their dead 
and wounded, had come on towards Wyom- 
ing, and are now in that neighborhood. I 
left half of my detachment there, with five 
of my own officers. Should they attempt to 
invest the place when their number is in- 
creased, I make no doubt but they will be 

"Our garrisons have plenty of beef and 
salt, though flour is scarce at Wyoming. I 
arrived here with the remainder of the de- 
tachment on the 5th. We have performed 
a circuit of nearly 300 miles in about two 
weeks, ^^'e brought off nearly fifty head 
of cattle, twenty-eight canoes, besides 
man}' other articles. I would respectfully 
propose that the Congress would be pleased 
to send a Connecticut regiment to garrison 
Wyoming as soon as possible. It is but 120 
miles from Fish Kills, New York. I have 
done all I can for the good of the whole. I 
have given all the support in my power to 
the post, but if troops are not immediately 
sent, these settlements will be destro3'ed in 
detail. In a week or less a regiment could 
march from Fish Kills to Wyoming. My 
little regiment with two classes of Lancaster 
and Berks County Alilitia, will be scarcely 
sufficient to preserve the posts from Nesco- 
pake falls to Muncy, and from thence to the 
liead of Penn's Valley." 

The report sent to Congress from Sun- 
bury by Colonel Hartley was received with 
favor both by Congress and the Legislature 
of Pennsvlvania. For his success the execu- 
tive council of the State extended to him a 
unanimous vote of thanks. Immediately 
after sending this letter to Congress, for the 
purpose of guarding the frontier, he re- 



quested that "300 round bullets for three 
pounders, 300 cartridges of grape shot for 
the same bore, 1,000 flints, six barrels of 
powder, a quantity of twine and portfire, a 
ream of cannon cartridge paper," and some 
other small articles be sent to Sunbury. He 
said that they had eight cannon firing three 
pound balls on the frontier, at Forts Muncy 
and Antes. 

Colonel Hartley remained in the military 
service on the frontier with Sunbury as his 
headquarters from October, 1778, until De- 
cember of that 3'ear, when he was elected to 
represent York County in the Pennsylvania 
Assembly. Upon his retirement from the 
military service. Continental Congress, 
deeming the reasons for his resigning satis- 
factory, bore testimony of their "high sense 
of Colonel Hartley's merit and services." 

The commissioned officers of Colonel 
Hartley's Regiment, in June, 1777, were the 
following: Colonel Thomas Hartley, ap- 
pointed January 10, 1777; Lieutenant- 
Colonel r^I organ Conner, appointed April 9, 
1777; Major Lewis Bush, January 12, 1777; 
Quartermaster John McAllister, April 17, 
1777; Adjutant Robert Ralston, January 16, 
1777; Paymaster Thomond Ball, January 
.15, 1777; Surgeon Jacob Swope, January 15, 
1777; Surgeon Tracey, February 5, 1777; 
Captain Bernard Eichelberger, January 12, 
1777; Captain William Nichols, January 13, 
1777; Captain Robert Hoopes, January 13, 
1777; Captain Benjamin C. Stoddart, Janu- 
ary 14, 1777; Captain William Kelley, Janu- 
ary 16, 1777; Captain Richard Willson, Feb- 
ruary 15, 1777; Captain George Bush, 
March i, 1777; Captain Archibald ^NIcAUis- 
ter, April 18, 1777; First Lieutenant Paul 
Parker, Januarj^ 16, 1777; First Lieutenant 
James Forrester, January 23, 1777; First 
Lieutenant Horatio Ross, January 24, 1777; 
First Lieutenant James Kenny, January 25, 
1777; First Lieutenant James Dill, Febru- 
ary 5, 1777; First Lieutenant Count De 
Momfort, March 23, 1777; First Lieuten- 
ant Charles Croxall, May 25, 1777; First 
Lieutenant John Hughes, June i, 1777; 
Second Lieutenant Andrew Walker, Janu- 
ary 12, 1777; Second Lieutenant Isaac 
Sweeney, January 23, 1777; Second Lieu- 
tenant Flenry Carberry, January 24, 1777; 
Second Lieutenant Martin Eichelberger, 
January 25, 1777; Second Lieutenant Wil- 
liam McCurdy, January 26, 1777; Second 

Lieutenant William Clenuu, Alay 26, 1777; 
Ensign George Hillery, February i, 1777; 
Ensign John McBride, February 2, 1777; 
Ensign James McCalmon, January 24, 1777 ; 
Ensign John Manghan, February 25, 1777; 
Ensign Nachel Dorsey, May i, 1777; En- 
sign John Stake, Alay 26, 1777. 


Colonel Thomas Hartley was born in 
Colebrookdale, Pennsylvania, September 7, 
1748. His father, George Hartley, of Eng- 
lish birth, was one of the early settlers and 
a leading citizen of Berks County. In his 
youth, Thomas Hartley displayed strong in- 
tellectual endowments. He obtained his 
preliminary education at a classical school 
in Reading. In 1766, when eighteen years 
of age, he removed to York, where he 
entered upon the study of law with Samuel 
Johnson, a relative of his mother, and one 
of the early members of the York County 
Bar. He was admitted to the practice of 
law at York in 1769. Although still a young 
man, he was one of the earliest citizens 
west of the Susquehanna to espouse the 
cause of the American colonists when their 
rights were tread upon by the British 

As early as 1774, two years before the 
Declaration of Independence, Thomas Hart- 
ley was chosen first lieutenant of a military 
company at York, for the purpose of 
making disciplined soldiers. In the summer 
of 1775, he was elected lieutenant-colonel 
of the First Battalion of York County As- 
sociators. He now became an active and 
zealous patriot and was chosen lieutenant- 
colonel of a battalion of "Minute Men," se- 
lected from the other five battalions of as- 
sociators in York County. This battalion 
was ready at a moment's notice for any 
emergency that might occur between the 
colonies and the mother country. In the 
fall of 1775, he joined the expedition to 
Canada and was chosen lieutenant-colonel 
of Irvine's regiment, whose history is given 
in the preceding pages. Upon his return 
from the Canada campaign, he became lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the Seventh Pennsylvania 
Regiment. The remaining part of his mili- 
tary career is given above. 

After his retirement from the army, he 
served as a member of the Pennsylvania 
Legislature in 1779, meantime devoting his 




attentions to Iiis law practice at York. He 
was chosen a member of the Council of 
Censors, in 1783, to adjust the Revolution- 
ary claims for Pennsylvania. In 1788, he 
was elected a member of the first Congress. 
The success of his career in the House of 
Representatives for a period of twelve 
years, is given in the chapter relating to the 
Representatives in Congress from York 

Although the last twelve \-ears of his life 
were devoted entirely to his professional 
labors and to his brilliant career as a repre- 
sentative in Congress, of which he was one 
of the ablest debaters, he kept up his in- 
terest in military afifairs, in which he had 
won distinction during the Revolution, and 
in 1800, the last year of his life, was chosen 
by Governor McKean, major-general of the 
militia within the present area of York and 
Adams Counties. 

Colonel Hartley took part in more than 
twenty skirmishes and battles during the 
Revolution. He was noted for military skill 
and strategy, and always showed great 
courage in battle. On account of his 
achievements and his amiable personality, 
General Washington entertained for him 
the highest regard and afifection. The 
authorities of Pennsylvania and Continental 
Congress paid high tribute to his worth as 
a soldier and to his sterling patriotism, 
while serving in the army. He was highly 
esteemed by his fellow-ofificers with whom 
he was associated during the war for inde- 
pendence. He died at York, December 21, 
1800, at the early age of fifty-two, after 
having nearly completed his sixth term in 

New Eleventh Regiment. Pennsvlvania 
Line, and a gallant soldier of the Revolu- 
tion, was born in York Count}' in 1753. 
James Prowell, his grandfather, came to 
-America in 1705 with the early \\'elsh inuiii- 
gration, and settled on the \\'elsh tract in 
the northern part of Chester County. 'l"he 
children of James Prowell were Charles, 
Mary and Thomas. Charles joined a 
Chester County regiment at the advanced 
age of sixty years, and was lost, either 
killed or captured, in the first Jersey cam- 
paign, during the Revolution. Mary was 
married to Richard Buck, in the First 
Presbyterian Church of Philadeliihia. 

Thomas Prowell, the youngest son and 
father of Major Prowell, was a prominent 
farmer and iron manufacturer of Chester 
County. In 1752, he was married in Gloria 
Dei, known as Old Swede's Church, in the 
southern part of Philadelphia, to Rachel 
Griffith, a Quakeress from Chester County. 
This ceremony took place shortly after this 
church was transferred from the IvUtherans 
to the Episcopalians. Many of the relatives 
of Rachel Griffith migrated with the early 
Quakers, who settled in Warrington and 
Newberry Townships. Soon after their 
marriage, Thomas and Rachel Prowell 
moved to \\'arrington, where he purchased 
a tract of land near the Conewago. They 
remained in York Count\' about three 
years, and then returned to Chester County, 
where the youngest son, Captain \\'illiam 
Prowell, was born in 1755- Thomas 
Prowell died in 1765, leaving an estate of 
412 pounds, in Chester County, of which 
David Thomas and Joseph Coates were 
executors; and an estate of 336 pounds in 
York County, of which Robert Nelson and 
Peter Gardner were executors. His will be- 
fjueathed equal shares to his widow and two 
sons, and named Rev. Owen Thomas as 
guardian of his son Joseph, and Joseph 
Coates guardian of his son William. 

Joseph Prowell was educated at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, and early in life 
engaged in the iron business with his 
brother William. At the opening' of the 
war for independence, he was a member of 
the Philadelphia Light Horse, afterward 
known as the City Troop. This famous 
cavalry company was present at the battles 
of Trenton and Princeton in 1776. 

On January 11, 1777, Joseph Prowell was 
detached from the City Troop and • com- 
missioned a captain in Colonel John Pat- 
ton's additional regiment of the Pennsyl- 
vania Line, composed of men from Chester 
and Philadelphia Counties. \\'ith this regi- 
ment he took part, during that year, in the 
battles of Brandywine and Germantown. 
For his military skill and gallantry in action 
Captain Prowell was promoted major of 
his regiment January i, 1778. On January 
13, 1779, Major Prowell was transferred to 
the New Eleventh Pennsylvania Regiment, 
whose command was assigned to Colonel 
Thomas Hartley, of York. When it was 
decided to send an expedition, under Gen- 



eral Sullivan, against the Indians in the 
■^^'yoming Valley, in Pennsylvania, and 
Ciierry Valley, in Xew York, Major 
Prowell commanded a detachment of the 
Xe\A' Eleventh Regiment, in all 200 men, to 
lead the advance. He marched from Easton 
and reached Bear Creek, about ten miles 
southwest of ^^'ilkes-Barre, on the night of 
April 19. It was now thought they were 
out of danger from the Indians. Major 
Prowell ordered that officers and men 
should dress in their best apparel, their 
arms be newly burnished, and everything 
be put in order to present a fine appearance 
upon entering the beautiful A\'voming Val- 

AMien they reached Laurel Run, four 
miles southwest of A\'ilkesbarre, they were 
attacked by a band of Indians lying in am- 
bush, when Captain Davis, Lieutenant 
Jones, Corporal Butler and three privates 
were killed. Owing to this surprise the 
troops were thrown into confusion. They 
retreated a short distance and formed in 
line of battle and succeeded in dispersing 
the Indians, who fled after a few scattering- 
discharges, and the troops entered the val- 
ley to garrison the fort at Wyoming, where 
the massacre had occurred some time 
before. After the close of the war Major 
Prowell became a shipping merchant in 
Philadelphia, engaged in trade with many 
foreign ports. On June 4, 1804, he took sick 
while on board his \essel, wdiich he landed 
on the Barbadoes Islands, east of the West 
Indies, and the same day made his will. 
From this sickness he partially recovered, 
landed at Philadelphia, and a few days later 
added a codicil to his will, in his own hand- 
\\riting: "at the house of my esteemed 
friends. Captain James Josiah and his 
estimable lady, near Philadelphia." There 
he dted on April 3, 1805, aged fifty-three 
years. He was buried with "the honors of 
war" by the City Troop of Philadelphia. 

Major Prowell is remembered tradition- 
ally as a bold, daring and fearless officer, 
and had a romantic history. ' He partici- 
pated in the sailors' troubles with the 
pirates of the Barbary States, and afterward 
owned large possessions in the Colony of 
Dernaii. He owned a plantation called 
"Washington," in the Colony of Berbice, 
and there assisted the British government 
to quell an insurrection in 1803. The 

executors of Alajor Prowell's estate were 
David Lennox, of Philadelphia: Robert and 
William Pulsford, of London; and John 
Douglass, of the Colony of Berbice — in each 
of wdiich places he had possessions. 


REVOLUTION— Continued. 

The Pennsylvania Line at York — Execu- 
tion at York — Pulaski's Legion — Ar- 
mand's Legion — Quartermasters' Posts 
in York County. 

In February, 1781, Congress resolved to 
send the Pennsylvania Line to Virginia for 
the purpose of joining" the southern army 
under General Nathaniel Greene, then re- 
treating northward through the Carolinas, 
closely pursued by Lord Cornwallis. A de- 
tachment of the British army under Bene- 
dict Arnold and William Philips had landed 
at Richmond and was threatening to invade 
the State of Virginia. Thomas Jefferson 
was the governor of that state and the 
Legislature had removed to Charlottes- 

The Pennsylvania Line, now under the 
command of General Arthur St. Clair, was 
ordered to rendezvous at York. It was 
composed of two brigades commanded re- 
spectively by Anthony Wayne and AA^illiam 
Irvine. The mutiny which had occurred in 
December, 1780, while the Pennsylvania 
Line was in X^ew Jersey, had been settled, 
largely through the influence of General 
Anthony Wayne, but many of the troops 
had been discharged and had returned to 
their homes. Early in January, 1781, six 
regiments of the Line and Proctor's Artil- 
lery, both much reduced in numbers, were 
stationed at different places in Pennsyl- 
vania for the purpose of recruiting. The 
First Regiment, under Colonel Daniel 
Broadhead, was sent to York ; the Second, 
Colonel AValter Stewart, to Yellow Springs; 
the Third, Colonel Thomas Craig, to Eas- 
ton; the Fourth, Colonel AVilliam Butler, to 
Carlisle; the Fifth, Colonel Richard Butler, 
to Reading; the Sixth, Colonel Richard 
Humpton, to Lebanon, and the Artillery, 
under Colonel Thomas Proctor, to New- 
town. Other regiments were stationed at 


Fort Pitt, in western Penns\l\ania. Gen- "The parties from the several 
eral Irvine, of Carlisle, who had served with Ordered regiments which are to compose 
credit in the Canada and Xew Jersey cam- to York, tlie first detachment, have orders 
paigns, was assigned to superintend the re- to march from the cantonments 
crniting throughout the State, and General to York, the moment the auditors have 
Wayne was ordered to York. At this finished the settlements, respectively. You 
juncture, Washington wrote to St. Clair : will, therefore, repair to York as soon as 
"Congress has determined conveniently may be, to make the necessary 
Washington's that the Pennsylvania Line, arrangements and take such measures as 
Letter. except Moylan's Dragoons, may prevent, as much as possible, any delay 
and other troops to the at that place. You will please to take the 
westward, shall compose part of the South- command of it upon yourself, and proceed, 
ern Army, and has directed me to order it by the enclosed route, to join General 
to join the army in Virginia by detach- Greene with all the dispatch that the nature 
ments, as they may be in readiness to of the case will admit of. Should anj' oper- 
march. You will, therefore, in obedience to ations of the enemy render the passage at 
the above resolve, put matters in a proper Alexandria precarious, you are not to con- 
train to carry it into execution with all dis- sider yourself as bound Ijy the route, but 
patch possible. You will now, in case cir- will make choice of such other place to cross 
cumstances should permit the detachment the Potomac where it may be done with 
under the command of Lafayette to proceed safety, making as little detour as possible, 
down the Chesapeake, not confine yourself As several of the squads must pass through 
to a single battalion of four hundred men, Lancaster and there be supplied with pro- 
as mentioned in mine of the 22d, but en- visions to carry them to York, give atten- 
deavor to send as many as possible by so tion to these matters in your way so as to 
good and expeditious a conveyance. facilitate their march, and prevent disap- 

"I think it essential that one of the pointment. I wish you a prosperous jour- 
brigadiers should proceed to Virginia with ney, and all happiness. 

the first detachment that moves, and there "Yott will please to favor me with an ac- 
be ready to receive and form the remainder count of the return of the numbers you 
as they come on. There may be greater march with, and direct the brigade quarter- 
necessity of an ofhcer of rank being at hand, master to forward a return of the camp 
as the Line, from the late disturbances in it, equipage and utensils received by him. Let 
will have lost somewdiat of its discipline, me know, also, what number of arms were 
General Irvine, being employed in superin- sent on to York. If there is any surplus, 
tending the recruiting business, the duty de- they may be stored and left under the care 
volves upon General Wa\-ne. I ha\e writ- of the commanding officer at that place, as 
ten to him on the subject." also any surplus of blankets beyond that 

In March, Lafayette proceeded from which completes the detachment." 

Philadelphia with 1,000 New England and The Pennsylvania Line at 

New Jersey troops to Baltimore, whence he Recruiting. York, under Wayne, was com- 

moved to Fredericksburg, Virginia. In ac- posed of two hundred men 

cordance with instructions, the different from the First regiment, 120 from the 

regiments of the Pennsylvania Line at their Second. 80 from the Third, 160 from the 

places of cantonment in this state, had been Fourth, 240 from the Fifth and 160 from the 

increased in numbers by recruits. Prepara- Sixth. \\'ayne's force was formed into 

tions were then made to rendezvous these three battalions, commanded respectively 

troops at York. General Anthony Wayne, by Colonel Richard Butler, Colonel Walter 

who had already won distinction as a sol- Stewart and Colonel Richard Humpton. 

dier in several battles of the Revolution Nine officers and ninety men with six field 

and had displayed remarkable skill and pieces from Proctor's Fourth Continental 

strategy in the capture of Stony Point on Artillery were added to the detachment, 

the Hudson, was ordered to command the This, together with recruits received at 

first detachment to be sent to Virginia. York, increased his command to nearly a 

May 2. 1781, St. Clair wrote to Wayne: thousand men. It was a long and tedious 



business to reorganize the men and procure 
the needed suppHes for the expedition. In 
the efforts to prepare them for the campaign 
he was embarrassed by difficulties of the 
same sort that had been encountered since 
the beginning of the war. Recruits for the 
expedition were scarce, the needed supplies 
were not forthcoming, and the worthless 
paper which was given to pzy his men, it 
was soon discovered would purchase 
nothing in the way of the commonest neces- 
saries. No allowance being made for the 
actual depreciation of this miscalled money 
below its nominal value, there was much 
discontent on the part of the men to whom 
it was offered. The result of this renewed 
attempt on the part of the state to pay its 
soldiers in nominal money, when it had 
agreed to pay them in what was real, is 
clearly expressed in the following letter of 
Wayne, May 20, 1781 : 

"\Mien I arrived at York there was 
scarcely a horse or a carriage fit to transport 
any part of our baggage or supplies. This 
dif^culty I found means to remedy by bar- 
tering one species of public property to pro- 
cure another. The troops were retarded in 
advancing to the general rendezvous by the 
unaccountable delay of the auditors who 
were appointed to settle and pay the propor- 
tion of the depreciation due them, which, 
when received, was not equal to one-seventh 
part of its nominal value. This was an 
alarming circumstance. The soldier}^ but 
too sensibly felt the imposition; nor did the 
conduct or counsel of the inhabitants tend 
to moderate but rather to inflame their 
minds by refusing to part with anything 
which the soldiers needed in exchange for 
it, saying it was not worth accepting, and 
that they (the soldiers) ought not to march 
until justice was done them. To minds al- 
ready susceptible to this kind of impression 
and whose recent revolt was fresh in their 
memory little more was wanting to stimu- 
late them to try it again. The day ante- 
cedent to that on which the march was to 
commence, a few leading mutineers on the 
right of each regiment called out to pay 
them in real and not ideal money, they were 
no longer to be trifled with. Upon this they 
were ordered to their tents, which, being 
peremptorily refused, the principals were 
immediately either knocked down or con- 
fined by the officers, who were previously 

prepared for this event. A court-martial 
was ordered on the spot, the commission of 
the crime, trial and execution were all in- 
cluded in the course of a few hours in front 
of the line paraded under arms. The de- 
termined countenances of the officers pro- 
duced a conviction to the soldiery that the 
sentence of the court-martial would be car- 
ried into execution at every risk and conse- 
quence. ^^'hether by design or accident, 
the particular friends and messmates of the 
culprits were their executioners, and while 
the tears rolled down their cheeks in 
showers, they silently and faithfully obeyed 
their orders without a moment's hesitation. 
Thus was this hideous monster crushed in 
its birth, however, to myself and officers a 
most painful scene." 

AA'hile General AVayne was in York he 
occupied the building at the northwest cor- 
ner of Market and Beaver Streets as his 
headquarters. His troops were encamped 
on the public common, now Penn Park. 

Before he had finished the organization 
of his brigade, Washington wrote: 

"The critical condition of our southern 
affairs, and the reinforcements sent by the 
enemy to that quarter, urge the necessity of 
moving as large a proportion of the Penn- 
sylvania Line as possible, without a mo- 
ment's loss of time. Indeed I hope before 
this, by the measures you have taken, all 
the impediments to a movement will have 
been obviated. I am persuaded your utmost 
and unremitting exertions will not be want- 
ing on this and every occasion of serving 
your country so essentially, that they may 
be e\er crowned with success, that nothing 
but propitious events may attend you on the 

Mav 26, Wayne's corps, much 

Marches smaller in numljer than he had 

to anticipated and by no means well 

Virginia, equipped, began the march 

southward from York. 

Captain Joseph McClellan, who served in 
this expedition, kept an interesting diary 
describing the march from York to Virginia. 
According to his record. General Wayne 
and his troops began to march at 9 A. M. 
of May 26. On the evening of that day 
they encamped along the hillside in Heidel- 
berg Township, near the present site of 
Menges' Mills. At daylight on the 27th, 
General Wavne ordered the drums to beat 





as a signal to take up the march. The}' 
passed througli Hanover and halted at Lit- 
tlestown, a distance of fourteen miles. 
Continuing the march, Captain McClellan 
says : "We passed through Taneytown, and 
halted upon the bank of Pipe Creek, being 
fourteen miles. 

"May 29. Marched at 9 o'clock, and en- 
camped about 12 on the south bank of the 
Monocacy, being fourteen miles. 

"The troops took up the line of march at 
3 A. M. and encamped on the S. W. of 
Monocac}', 14 miles. 

"May 30. Continued on the ground for 
the men to wash and clean their arms. 
Reviewed at 5 P. M. At 7 P. M. we were 
reviewed by General Wayne. 

"May 31. ?klarched at sunrise; passed 

through Fredericktown about 8, 


there were a number of British officers who 
were prisoners of war. They took a view 
of us as we passed through the town. Con- 
tinued our march to the Potomac, at No- 
land's Ferry, where we halted some time 
for the artillery and baggage to cross. The 
troops crossed in the e\'ening. and halted 
one mile from the ferry and lay without 
tents. It rained most of the night. In 
crossing there were four men drowned by 
one of the boats sinking. Our march this 
da}' was 16 miles, besides crossing the ferry. 
We crossed the Potomac at Noland's Ferry 
in bad scows. One sunk, in which one ser- 
geant and three privates of our regiment 
(First) were drowned." 

June 7, with his force reduced 
Joins to about 900 men as the result 

Lafayette, of the long march, Wayne ar- 
rived at Fredericksburg, where 
he joined Lafayette, who had a force of 
1,200 men. Before Wayne arrived in Vir- 
ginia, Richmond had been burned by the 
English under Philips and Arnold. The 
State Legislature had moved to Charlottes- 
ville, the home of Thomas Jefferson, who 
was then the governor of Virginia. Preda- 
tory parties were then scouring this state 
and Jefferson, at his home, narrowly es- 
caped being captured by a band of the 
British under Tarleton. Lafayette and 
W'ayne commanded the only .Vmerican 
forces then in Virginia. The object of 
Wayne and Lafayette now was to check the 
raids of the English detachments sent into 

the interior of Virginia intent on robbery 
and the destruction of military stores. 

Meanwhile, Greene had re- 

The treated northward through the 

Surrender State of North Carolina, closely 

of followed by Lord Cornwallis. 

Cornwallis. Washington moved southward 

from the vicinity of New York 
with 6,000 men and the French fleet arrived 
at the mouth of the Chesapeake. Wash- 
ington united the forces under Greene, 
Lafayette and Wayne with his own army, 
numbering in all 16,000 men, in front of 
Cornwallis at Yorktown, Virginia, wdiile 
the French fleet closed in behind and pre- 
^•ented the enemy from escaping. The 
siege and battle of Yorktown followed, and 
on October 19, Cornwallis surrendered his 
entire army. This was the last important 
engagement of the Revolution. 


Samuel Dewees was serving as a fifer in 
Colonel Richard Butler's regiment when it 
was encamped at York. After the Revolu- 
tion he resided in Maryland until his death, 
about 1836. He served as a captain of 
Maryland troops in the war of 1812 and with 
his company helped to defend Baltimore 
against the British, in September, 1814. 
About thirty years after the Revolution he 
wrote and published a book describing his 
experiences in the war of the Revolution. 
Captain Dewees was a witness to the shoot- 
ing at York of four soldiers of the Pennsyl- 
vania Line in 1781. He describes the un- 
fortunate affair as follows : 

"Whilst we lay at Lebanon a circum- 
stance transpired worthy of notice, and 
which I here record as a prelude to the 
tragic event at York. A sergeant, who was 
known by the appellation of Macaroni 
Jack, a very intelligent, active, neat and 
clever fellow, had committed some trivial 
offence. He had his wife with him in camp, 
who always kept him \ery clean and neat in 
his appearance. She was washerwoman to 
a number of soldiers, myself among the 
number. She was a very well behaved and 
good conditioned woman. 

"The officers for the purpose of making 
an impression upon him and to better his 
conduct, ordered him to be brought from 
the guard house, which done, he was tied up 
and the drummers ordered to give him a 



certain number of lashes upon his bare back. 
The intention of the officers was not to 
chastise him. 

"When he was tied up he looked around 
and addressed the soldiers, exclaiming at 
the same time, 'dear brother soldiers, won't 
you help me.' This, in the eyes of the 
officers, savored of mutiny and they called 
out, 'take him down, take him down.' The 
order was instantl}- obeyed, and he was 
taken back to the guard house again and 
hand-cufifed. At this time there were two 
deserters confined with him. On the next 
or second day after this, we were ordered 
on to Y'ork, Pa., where, upon our arrival, 
we encamped upon the common below the 
town. Our three prisoners were confined in 
York jail. In a few days after we arrived at 
Y^ork, a soldier by the name of Jack Smith, 
and another soldier whose name I do not 
now remember, were engaged in playing 
long bullets. While thus engaged some of 
the officers were walking along the road, 
where they were throwing" the bullets. The 
bullets passing near the officers, they used 
very harsh language to Smith and his com- 
rade, who immediately retorted by using 
the same kind of indecorous language. A 
file of men was immediately despatched 
with orders to take Smith and his comrade 
under guard and march them oiT to York 

"In three or four days after these 
arrests were made, a sergeant of the 
name of Lilly was offensive. He was 
a very fine fellow and an excellent 
scholar, so much so, that much of the 
regimental writing fell to his lot to do, 
and for which he received a remuneration in 
some way. This sergeant having become 
intoxicated, had quarreled with one or more 
of his messmates, and upon some of the 
officers coming around to inquire what the 
matter was, found him out of his tent. The 
officers scolded him and bade him to go into 
his quarters. Lilly having been much in 
favor and knowing his abilities and the ser- 
vices rendered, was (although intoxicated) 
very much wounded and could not bear to 
be thus harshly dealt with and used lan- 
guage of an unbecoming kind to his superior 
officers. The officers immediately ordered 
him to be taken to York jail. 

"On the next day in the morning we beat 
up the troop. After roll call, we were 

ordered to beat up the troop again. The 
whole line was again formed, and I think 
the orders were, for every soldier to appear 
in line, with his knapsack on his back. I 
suppose that at this time there were parts 
of three regiments, in all 800 or 1,000 men 
lying at Y'ork, the whole of which was com- 
manded by Colonel Anthony Wayne. The 
whole body, sentinels, invalids, etc., ex- 
cepted, when formed were marched to the 
distance of about half a mile from the camp. 
Twenty men were then ordered out of the 
line and formed into marching order and all 
the musicians placed at their head. After 
remaining a short time in a marching pos- 
ture, the order of forward was given. We 
were then marched direct to the jail door. 
The prisoners, six in number, were then 
brought out and their sentence, which was 
death, was read to them. 

"At this time it was thought that none in 
the line save the officers knew for what the 
provost guard was detached, but it appeared 
afterwards that previous to the firing which 
was the means of launching four out of the 
six into eternity, the matter of rescuing 
them was whispered among the soldiers, 
but they did not concert measures in time, 
to prevent the awful catastrophe which they 
meditated, by an act of insubordination 
upon their part. 

"After the sentence of death w'as read to 
the condemned soldiers at the jail door, we 
then marched them out and down below 
town, playing the 'dead march' in front of 
them. We continued our march full half a 
mile and halted on a piece of ground (the 
Common) adjoining a field of rye which was 
then in blossom. This was sometime in 
the earhr part of May, 1781. After a halt 
was made, the prisoners were ordered to 
kneel down with their backs to the rye field 
fence. Their eyes were then bandaged or 
co\-ered over with silk handkerchiefs. The 
officer in command then divided his force of 
twenty men into two platoons. The whole 
was then ordered to load their pieces. This 
done, ten were ordered to advance, and at 
the signal given by the officer, which was 
the wave of his pocket handkerchief, the 
first platoon of ten fired at one of the six. 
Macaroni Jack was the first shot and in- 
stantly killed. The first platoon was then 
ordered to retire and reload, and the second 
platoon of ten ordered to advance. When 



the signal was again given, Sniitli shared 
the same fate, but with an awfuhiess that 
would have made even devils to have shrunk 
back and stood appalled. His head was 
literally blown in fragments from ofT his 
body. The second platoon was then ordered 
to retire and reload, whilst the first was 
ordered to advance and at the same signal 
fired at the third man. The second platoon 
then advanced and fired to order, at Ser- 
geant Lilly, whose brave and noble soul was 
instantly on the wing to the presence of the 
Supreme Judge, who has pledged himself 
that he will do that which is right. The 
arms of each had been tied above their 
elbows with the cords passing behind their 
backs. Being thus tied, enabled them to 
have the use of their hands. I ventured 
near and noticed that Macaroni Jack had 
his hands clasped together in front of his 
breast and had both of his thumbs shot ofi. 
The distance that the platoons stood from 
them at the time the}' tired could not have 
been more than ten feet. So near did they 
stand that the handkerchiefs covering the 
eyes of some of them that were shot were 
set on fire. The fence and even the heads 
of rye for some distance within the field 
were covered with blood and brains. After 
four were shot, we musicians with a portion 
of the twenty men were ordered to march 
and were then conducted up to the main line 
of the army. After our arrival there, the 
whole line was thrown into marching order 
and led to the scene of bloody death. 
A\'hen the troops advanced near to the spot 
they deployed ofif into double file and were 
then marched very near to the dead bodies, 
as also to those still on their knees waiting 
the awful death that they had every reason 
to believe still awaited them. The order 
was for every man to look upon the bodies 
as he passed, and in order that the soldiers 
in line might behold them more distinctly in 
passing the}' were ordered to countermarch 
after they had passed and then marched as 
close to them upon their return. 

"The two deserters that were still in a 
kneeling posture were reprieved, the band- 
ages taken from their eyes, then untied, and 
restored to their respective companies." 

Wayne's brigade, was born in York County, 
April I, 1743. He was the son of Thomas 
and Eleanor Butler, who came from Ireland 

to America, and settled "near the Conewago 
on the west side of the Susquehanna," in 
the original area of York County. He was 
educated in the classical school taught by 
Rev. Mr. Allison in Chester County, and 
then studied law. In 1764, he served in 
Bouquet's expedition against the Indians 
of western Pennsylvania. At the opening 
of the Revolution, he was chosen major of 
the Eighth Pennsylvania Regiment, and 
soon after, lieutenant-colonel of Morgan's 
rifles. He was present with the northern 
army under Gates at the surrender of Bur- 
goyne at Saratoga in October, 1777, and at 
the battle of Monmouth in 1778. He soon 
after became colonel of the Ninth Pennsyl- 
vania Regiment, which he commanded at 
the battle of Stony Point. He came to York 
in the spring of 1781, and commanded a 
regiment of the Pennsylvania Line. In May 
of that year, he marched with Wayne's 
brigade to Yorktown, Virginia, joining 
Lafay"ette's command at Fredericksburg. 
While with Lafayette's division near Wil- 
liamsburg, Virginia, he attacked Colonel 
Simcoe's rangers, gaining the advantage. 
After the war, he settled in Carlisle, and in 
1788 was member of the State Legislature, 
from Cumberland County. In 1787, he was 
agent for the Indian affairs in Ohio, and in 
the expedition of St. Clair's campaign 
against the Indians, in 1791, commanded 
the right wing, with the rank of major- 
general. When attacked early in the morn- 
ing of November 4, he repeatedly charged 
the enemy, received several severe wounds 
and was finally killed. Butler County, in 
"western Pennsylvania, was named in his 

Colonel William Butler, his brother, was 
lieutenant-colonel of the Fourth Pennsyl- 
vania Regiment in the Revolutionary army. 
In October, 1778, after the destruction of 
Wyoming by John Butler and the Indians, 
he conducted an expedition from Schoharie, 
which destroyed the Indian settlements of 
Unadilla and Anaguaga. 

Thomas, another brother, was born in 
Pennsylvania, in 1754. In 1776, while 
studying law with Judge Wilson, of Phila- 
delphia, he joined the army, soon obtained 
a company, and was in almost every action 
in the middle states during the Revolution. 
At Brandywine, September 11, 1777, he re- 
ceived the thanks of Washington on the 



field for intrepidit}' in rall\-ing a retreating 
detachment. At Monmouth lie was thanked 
by Wayne for defending a defile in the face 
of a heavy fire, while Colonel Richard But- 
ler's regiment withdrew. After the war he 
retired to a farm, but in 1791, was made 
major, and commanded a battalion from 
Carlisle in Gibson's regiment, under St. 
Clair, at whose defeat, November 4, he was 
twice wounded. He became major of the 
fourth sub-legion on April 11, 1792, lieu- 
tenant-colonel commanding the Fourth In- 
fantry on July I, 1792, and' on the reorgan- 
ization of the army on a peace basis, in June, 
1802, was retained as colonel of the Second 
Infantry, to which he was appointed on 
.\pril I, 1802. In 1797 he was ordered by 
President AA'ashington to expel settlers 
from Indian lands in Tennessee, and made 
several treaties with the Indians while in 
that country. He died in New Orleans, 
Louisiana, September 7, 1805. 

son of John Campbell, was born about 1750 
in Chanceford Township, York County. 
His father took up a tract of land at an 
early day, situated on the "Great Road lead- 
ing from York to Nelson's. Ferry." He was 
of Scotch-Irish descent, and received the 
education accorded that sturdy race. He 
was a farmer by occupation. AVhen the 
Revolutionary struggle began, he enlisted 
as a private in Captain Michael Doudel's 
company, attached to Colonel William 
Thompson's Battalion of Riflemen, in July, 
1 775- Fie served through the New England 
campaign, and was commissioned first lieu- 
tenant in tlie Fourth Regiment of the Penn- 
sylvania Line, January 3, 1777. He was 
severely wounded at Germantown, was pro- 
moted captain January i, 1781, and retired 
from the service January i, 1783. He w-as 
one of the original members of the Pennsyl- 
vania Society of the Cincinnati. Captain 
Campbell was chosen a delegate to the 
State Convention to ratify the Federal Con- 
stitution in 1787; served as a member of the 
Pennsylvania House of Representatives 
from 1797 to 1800, and of the Senate from 
the York and Adams district from 1805 to 
1808. He died at his residence in Mona- 
ghan Township, York Countv, January 19, 

The First Regiment of the Pennsylvania 
Line marched with Wayne from York to 

the surrender of Cornwallis. This regiment 
then contained about twenty of the one 
hundred men that had marched from York 
to Boston and joined A\'ashington at Cam- 
bridge in July, 1775. The muster roll of 
this company will he found among the suc- 
ceeding pages. 


Pulaski's Legion, a bod)^ of niounted 
lancers and infantry, was quartered in York 
in IMarch and April, 1779, coming here after 
leaving the winter encampment in New 
Jersey. These troops were commanded by 
Count Cassimer Pulaski, a Polish soldier, 
wdio led the insurgents during an insurrec- 
tion in Poland. He had ten years' experi- 
ence as an officer in his native country 
before he went to Paris, where, in the spring 
of 1777, he met Benjamin Franklin. Soon 
afterward he sailed for Philadelphia and be- 
came an aide on the staff of General W'ash- 
ington, with the rank of colonel. The first 
action in wdiich he took part was at Brandy- 
wine. \A'hen the Continental troops began 
to yield, he made a reconnoissance with the 
general's jjod)^ guard and reported tliat the 
enemy was endeavoring to cut ofT the line of 
retreat. He was authorized to collect as 
many of the scattered troops as came in his 
way and employ them according to his dis- 
cretion, which he did in a manner so 
prompt as to eft'ect important aid in the 
retreat of the army. Four days later, on re- 
commendation of Washington, he was com- 
missioned a brigadier-general and placed in 
charge of the cavalr}-. He took part in the 
battle of Germantown and engaged in the 
operations under General Wayne, during 
the winter of 1777-8. The cavalry officers 
could not be reconciled to the orders of a 
foreigner who could scarcely speak English, 
and whose ideas of discipline and tactics 
dift'ered widely from those to which they 
had been accustomed, and these circum- 
stances induced Pulaski to resign his com- 
mand in March. 1778, and return to Valley 
Forge, wdiere he was assigned to special 
duty. .\t his suggestion, wdiich was 
adopted by Washington, Congress, March 
28, 1778, authorized the formation of a 
corps, composed of sixty-eight light horse 
and two hundred foot soldiers. This Legion 
was recruited in Pen'nsyhania and Mary- 
land, and soon after took part in several 



actions in Xew Jersey. In the engagement 
with the enemy at Little Egg Harbor, 
Pulaski was surprised by the British and in 
a bayonet encounter, lost in killed and 
wounded forty of his Legion. 

In February, 1779, Count Pulaski 
Ordered was ordered to South Carolina to 
South. join the arm}- under General Lin- 
coln. He rendezvoused his 
Legion at York, encamping on the Public 
Common. Count Pulaski, while here, occu- 
l)ied quarters on the west side of North 
George Street near Centre Square, and re- 
cruited about twenty men from this county. 
During part of the time that his Legion was 
encamped at York, the Count was absent. 
His subordinate officers did not enforce 
rigid discipline, and some of the troops 
scoured the country round about, foraging 
for food and provisions. This brought forth 
a bitter complaint on the part of the citi- 
zens of York and the surrounding countr\'. 
Colonel James Smith, then a delegate in 
Congress from York, wrote a letter to the 
President of Pennsylvania in which he 
described the misconduct of Pulaski's men. 
He stated that "they forage indiscriminately 
and take whatever they want from the poor 
terrified inhabitants, many of whom, 
strongly impressed by the terrors of mili- 
tary violence in Europe, submit to the spoil- 
ing of their goods and insult to their person 
without complaining, while others resent it 
in open clamor and complaint and will soon 
probably redress themselves." 

President Reed drew the attention of the 
Board of War to the disturbances at Y'ork 
and that body addressed Count Pulaski a 
letter, which in part reads ; 

"We have the honor to enclose you a 
copy of our letter and an extract of another, 
relative to the conduct of your corps in your 
absence. \\^e hoped that all such grounds 
of complaint had long since ceased. But as 
those mentioned correspond with former re- 
ports we cannot avoid giving some credit 
to them. The complaints are of such a 
nature as to demand a strict enquiry, at the 
same time they should lead you and your 
officers to maintain a stricter discipline in 
the corps. \Ye do not mean, however, to 
delay the Legion on these accounts. Its 
services are wanted at the southward, 
whither we desire it may be marched with 
all possible dispatch." 

During the month of April, 
Killed at Pulaski began the march to 
Savannah. South Carolina, arriving at 
Charleston in May. He was in 
active service in command of his troops 
until October, 1779, when he was mortally 
wounded during the siege of Savannah. He 
was taken to the brig. Wasp, where he died 
as the vessel was leaving the harbor. His 
remains were buried at sea. Among the sol- 
diers from Y^ork County, who served under 
Pulaski, were Frederick Boyer, 1778-1783, 
resided in York County, 1835, aged eighty- 
seven years; Martin Miller, resided in Y^ork 
County, 1835, aged seventy-one; Edward 
Smith, died June 26, 1832, in York County, 
aged seventy-six years. 

The banner which belonged to Pulaski's 
Legion is now in the possession of the 
]\Iaryland Historical Society, Baltimore. It 
was in that city that he recruited his inde- 
pendent command to the number of 300 
men, and on July 29, 1778, he gave a public 
review of his Legion to the citizens and 
military authorities of Baltimore. 

^^'hile recruiting his Legion, Pulaski 
went to the Moravian settlement at Bethle- 
hem. Upon visiting the Sisters' house he 
saw their beautiful embroidery and ordered 
them to prepare a small cavalry banner for 
his Legion. It was made of crimson silk. 
Supposing that it had been presented to the 
Legion by the Moravian Sisters, the noted 
poet, Henry \\'. Longfellow, made the 
incident the subject of a poem, and at- 
tempted to make it more efTective by the 
introduction of cowls, altars and censers. • 


Armand's Legion was quartered at Y'ork 
from December 25, 1782, to November, 
1783. It w^as commanded by a noted 
French soldier, who had served ten j-ears 
in the Guarde du Corps of Paris. He came 
to America, volunteered in the cause of the 
Revolution, May 10, 1777, when he was 
commissioned by Congress a colonel under 
the name of Charles Armand, concealing his 
rank of Marquis de la Rouerie. Congress 
authorized him to raise a corps of French 
soldiers in number not exceeding two hun- 
dred. About one-half of his command, how- 
ever, were Americans. Colonel Armand 
was a spirited officer and did good service 
throughout the war. He participated in the 


engagement at Red Bank, was with Lafay- 
ette in New Jersey, and active in West 
Chester County, New York, opposing the 
forces of Emmerick and Barremore, the lat- 
ter of whom he captured near Kings Bridge, 
November 8, 1779. In February of the fol- 
lowing year his command was incorporated 
with Pulaski's Legion and both participated 
in the southern campaign under Gates, 
whom he severely criticized for his in- 
efliciency at the battle of Camden. In 1781 
he went to France to procure clothing and 
accoutrements for his Legion, returning in 
time to take part in the battle of Yorktown 
and surrender of Cornwallis, in October, 

In March, 1783, while he was w'ith his 
command at York, Congress commissioned 
him a brigadier-general in obedience to a 
request of Washington. General Armand 
was urbane and polished in manner, an elo- 
quent and persuasive speaker, a gallant 
leader and a man greatly beloved by his 
men and his superior officers. 

After the surrender of Lord Corn- 
Came wallis at Yorktown, Armand's 
to Legion, composed of about 200 
York. Dragoons, accompanied Washing- 
ton's arm)^ to the vicinity of New 
York. In February, 1782, Armand was 
ordered to report to General Greene in the 
Southern Department, and in December of 
the same year, he came from Virginia to 
York. While here, he met Colonel Thomas 
Hartley, with whom part of his Legion had 
served in the expedition against the hostile 
Indians in northern Pennsylvania and 
southern New York. Colonel Armand re- 
mained wath his Legion for a period of 
eleven months. Before his departure, in 
November, 1783, James Smith, Colonel 
Thomas Hartley, Archibald McClean and 
others, presented him with the following ad- 
dress : 

"Hearing that your Legion is about to be 
disbanded, and that you will soon return to 
your native country, we, the inhabitants of 
York, in Pennsylvania, express to you the 
high sense we entertain of the strict discip- 
line, good conduct, and deportment of the 
officers and soldiers of your corps, whilst 
stationed amongst us for ten months past. 

"We return to you our hearty thanks, as 
well for the service rendered to America in 
the field, as for the attention you have paid 

to the property and ci\'il rights of the peo- 
ple. Be pleased to communicate our senti- 
ments to ^lajor Shaftner, and all your 
worthy officers, and assure them we shall 
ever hold them in the greatest esteem. 

"We pray that you may have an agree- 
able passage across the ocean, and that you 
may receive a just reward for your illus- 
trious actions, performed in support of lib- 
erty and the honor of the allied arms." 

To these encouraging words Colonel Ar- 
mand replied : 

"I received your polite address of the 
1 8th, and from its impression on my feel- 
ings, and of the officers and soldiers of the 
Legion, I am truly happy in giving you our 
united and most hearty thanks. If the 
Legion has observed that good conduct, 
wdiich merits the applause you give it, I 
conceive that in so doing, they have only 
discharged their duty, and obeyed punctu- 
ally the orders and intentions of His Excel- 
lency, General \A'ashington, whose exem- 
plary virtues, talents and honor, must have 
raised ambition to some merit in those, who, 
like the corps I had the honor to command, 
placed all their confidence in him. 

"Permit me to say, gentlemen, that sol- 
diers cannot be guilty of misconduct, where 
the inhabitants are kind to them, also are 
attached to the cause of their country, and 
so respectable as those of York. I think it 
my duty to thank you for the good behavior 
of the Legion whilst amongst you, for it 
was encouraged and supported by your 
conduct towards them. 

"I shall only add, that although the 
greater part of us will shortly return home, 
the conclusion of the war rendering our 
longer stay unnecessary, we shall be happy 
again to join the army of America, if in 
future our services should be deemed of 

There were a number of soldiers in York 
County W'ho had served in Armand's Legion 
during the Revolution. Among these were : 

John Gottlieb Alorris, surgeon, promoted 
from surgeon's mate, died in York in 1808; 
Leonard Bamagartel, resided in York 
County in 1835; John Glehmer, resided at 
York in 1828; Conrad Pudding, died in 
York County in 1828, aged seventy-four; 
Philip ShafYer, resided in York County in 
1828; Lewis Shelly, died in York County in 
1825; Conrad Stengle, died at York before 


1826; Owen Cooley, York, March 25, 1777; 
John Enrich, York, March 9, 1777; Adam 
Brandliefer, York, February 26, 1777; John 
Michael Koch, January 25, 1777, died in 
York County in 1849. 

During the time that Armand's Legion 
was in York his men were quartered in log 
houses at the northwest corner of Duke and 
Philadelphia Streets. One row extended 
westward on Philadelphia and another 
north on Duke Street. These properties 
were then owned bv Mr. James Beck. 

mand's Legion, who settled as a physician 
in York after the Revolution, was born in 
Prussia in the \-illage of Redekin, near 
Magdeburg, in 1754. He received a liberal 
education and also studied medicine and 
surgery in one of the higher institutions of 
Germany. During the latter part of 1776, 
Dr. Morris came to America, landing at 
Philadelphia, where, after a careful exam- 
ination, he was granted a certificate to serve 
as a surgeon in the Continental army. This 
certificate was signed by William Shippen, 
\\illiam Brown and other noted surgeons 
of that day. He was then a young man of 
twenty-two, and is said to have possessed 
rare accomplishments. When Armand's 
Legion was organized, in 1777, Dr. Morris 
was appointed assistant surgeon to this 
command. He accompanied Colonel Ar- 
mand in both his northern and southern 
campaigiTs. After the battle of Camden, 
South Carolina, Morris w^as made chief 
surgeon of the Legion, which, in October, 
1781, was present and took part in the bat- 
tle of Yorktown, \'irginia, and witnessed 
the surrender of Cornwallis and his entire 

At the close of the war, Surgeon Morris 
settled in York as a physician and druggist. 
In June. 1784, he married Barbara Myers, 
of York. Dr. Morris was one of the early 
members of the Society of Cincinnati, com- 
posed of commissioned ofificers of the Revo- 
lution. Charles A. Morris, his eldest son, 
was a druggist at York for more than half 
a century. He married Cassandra, the sis- 
ter of Philip and Samuel Small. At his 
death, he ga\e most of his estate to charity 
and benevolence. Rev. John G. Morris, the 
second son, was a noted Lutheran clergy- 
man, lecturer and entomologist, and served 
as president of the ^Maryland Historical 

Society. He was married to Eliza, sister of 
Dr. Jacob Hay, Sr. He died at Baltimore in 
1895, at the advanced age of 92 years. 
George Morris, the third son, was one of the 
early coal merchants of York, and died 
unmarried many years earlier than his 


During the year 1778-9, when the Indians 
and Tories were giving trouble along the 
northern and western frontiers, posts were 
established by authority of Congress at 
Carlisle, York, Hanover, and Marsh Creek, 
near the site of Gettysburg. Colonel John 
Davis had been appointed deputy quarter- 
master-general of the region west of the 
Susquehanna, with headquarters at Carlisle, 
which was the distributing point of army 
supplies for the frontier. Colonel David 
Grier, who had been seriously wounded at 
the battle of Paoli, while in command of the 
Seventh Pennsylvania Regiment, was made 
quartermaster at York; Captain Alexander 
McDowell, at Hanover, and Colonel Robert 
McPherson, at Marsh Creek. There is no 
complete statement of the different pur- 
chases made at these posts during the y.ears 
named. Some of the original papers have 
been procured, froin which interesting 
facts have been taken. 

On May 14, 1778, Captain ^^'illiam Nich- 
ols, assistant quartermaster at York, wrote 
to Colonel John Davis, that he had sent to 
Carlisle two small teams and would send 
another in two daj^s. Captain Nichols 
states that he had already received $45,000 
for the 'department at York. On June 2, 
1778, Colonel Grier reported the following 
employes at his office at York: John Mc- 
Pherson, clerk, whose salary was $60 per 
month; Robert Z\IcPherson, jr., clerk, $60; 
Henry Zinn, measurer of forage, $80; James 
Shaw and Patrick JMay, weighers of hay and 
attendants at the public stables of the gov- 
ernment, $80 each ; John Uley, express 
rider, $90 and expenses ; and Francis Jones, 
Ijrigade wagonmaster, whose salary is not 
gi\en. On August 25. 1778, Colonel David 
Grier received $12,000 from Colonel Davis 
for use of the post at York. On September 
12, 1778, John Pollock, of York, received 
1,000 shingles, a quantity of nails and 820 



spikes for use in repairing the gox'ernment 
stables at York. 

Charles Lukens wrote to Colonel Davis 
from Washingtonburg to send a team to 
York for oil and other articles. Captain 
Alexander McDowell, in charge of the post 
at Hanover, wrote, on April 30, 1779, to 
Colonel Davis that pack horses were 
difficult to procure around Hanover, but 
that he had purchased nine. Captain Mc- 
Dowell also states in his letter that "the 
horses that were brought for the army 
camps to winter at Hanover were looking 
well and fit for service. Forage is very 
scarce. Oats and spelts can hardly be 
bought at any price, owing to a frost during 
the summer. Rye is scarce and sold at the 
rate of five pounds per bushel. Oats or 
spelts are worth at least $6 per bushel in 
Continental money." He also asked Colo- 
nel Davis to send him $10,000 from Carlisle 
if Davis had "plent}- of money on hand." 

On May i, 1779. McDowell wrote that 
he could procure only one team to go to 
Fort Pitt, as "all the farmers are busy with 
their summer crops, as the frost had caused 
the destruction of the previous crops." On 
May 17, Colonel Davis sent six teams to 
Colonel McPherson to carry eighty-five bar- 
rels of beef and pork to Fort Pitt. On May 
28, Colonel Davis ordered Colonel Grier to 
send from York to the American camp all 
the horses, also the portmanteaus and pack 
saddles. Colonel Grier was also to send 
wagons to Carlisle to convey military stores 
from that post to Pittsburg. On the same 
day. Colonel Grier received $12,000 for use 
at his post. 

On June 4, 1779, Charles Lukens wrote 
from Washingtonburg to Colonel Davis to 
procure a team of four horses and a wagon, 
and send it to Spring Forge, in York 
County,, to purchase "bar iron for the use 
of the United States." This bar iron was 
to be hauled to Philadelphia. On July 26, 
he ordered Colonel Davis to send another 
team to Spring Forge to procure bar iron 
for the government. On August 7, Captain 
McDowell asked the quartermasters' de- 
partment at Carlisle to send him $10,000 
for use at the post at Hanover. Some time 
before, McDowell had sent to Carlisle for 
the army, 216 tar pots for wagons, 104 
army canteens, 109 pounds of lashing rope. 
August 12, Captain McDowell received a 

communication from the Board of Treasury 
of the United States, asking him to forward 
all vouchers he received for furnishing 
forage and wood for the use of Burgo)ne's 
army, then numbering about 4,000 men, 
who were marched through Hanover and 
camped there for the night, on their way to 
Charlottesville, Virginia, as prisoners of 
war, during the latter part of December, 

Colonel Grier s report to the government 
for the month of August, 1779, showed that 
he had expended during that month, the 
sum of 2,634 pounds in Continental money : 
to Francis Jones, wagonmaster of a brigade, 
1,237 pounds; to George Messencope, 
wagonmaster, 209 pounds ; George Moul, 
for smith work, 215 pounds; John McAllis- 
ter, for supplies, 151 pounds; Thomas 
White, wagonmaster, iii pounds; and to 
Jacob Probst, for ropes, 75 pounds. The 
balance was paid in small amounts to diiTer- 
ent persons for various purposes. 

The official report for the month of Au- 
gust, shows that Captain McDowell ex- 
pended at his post at Hanover, the sum of 
1,171 pounds, which he estimated an equiva- 
lent of $3,124, showing that Continental 
money then was worth about thirty cents 
on the dollar in specie. Among the items 
were the following: Colonel Richard McAl- 
lister, for seven quires of paper, 15 pounds 
or $42; John Hinkel, for smith work, 100 
pounds; William Kitt (Gitt), for riding 
express and expenses, 11 pounds; George 
Boyer, for 296 pounds of beef, 75 pounds. 

September 5, 1779, John McPherson, 
clerk of the post at York, reported that he 
had sent to the quartermasters' department 
at Carlisle, fifty-one pounds of lashing rope, 
for which he paid fifteen shillings a pound, 
and 100 halter ropes, which cost seven shil- 
lings and six pence each. He thought these 
prices were high for the articles named, but 
stated that more ropes and halters could be 
obtained at York if needed, at these prices. 

Quartermaster Grier, at York, November 
I, reported the following stores on hand: 3 
wagons, 9 reams of writing paper, 50 blank 
books, 250 yards of linen, 50 bags, 159 can- 
teens, 2 saddles, and 4 horses. In a letter 
to the quartermaster-general at Carlisle, 
Colonel Grier wrote that he needed for 
use at his post in York, a good supply of 
money for necessary expenditures. He fur- 





ther stated that he would be i-equired to 
purchase a large amount of forage to keep 
some cattle during the winter belonging to 
the government. 

Charles AlcClure, from tlie post at Car- 
lisle, ordered two wagons to go to Ken- 
nedy's mill, in York County, now near the 
site of Gettysburg, for the purpose of con- 
veying flour to Carlisle, and corn to ^lajor 
Smith's mill. In Xo\ember, 1779, Colonel 
Grier expended at his post in York, the sum 
of 517 pounds. 

April 7, 1780, four wagons were sent from 
the post at Carlisle to procure, for the de- 
partment, thirty-one barrels of flour at 
DeardorfT's mill, in York County, doubtless 
a mill with that name near York Springs. 
May 24, Colonel Henry ]\Iiller, then serving 
as sheriff of York County, wrote to the 
quartermaster at Carlisle that the arrival 
of twelve merchant vessels at Baltimore 
caused a decline in the prices of all merchan- 
dise in this region. In this letter he stated 
that much depended upon the results in the 
south, to which region the British army had 
then gone, the seat of war having been 
transferred to South Carolina and Georgia. 
The troubles with the Indians along the 
frontier had been brought to an end. In the 
summer of 1782, the post at York was dis- 
continued. Besides the quartermaster- 
general, Colonel David Grier, and his assist- 
ant, John McPherson, the department at 
York had in its employ two clerks, two men 
in charge of the stables, and four persons 
in the forage department. 

John McAllister, acting commissary of 
issues at York, in June, 1779, was charged 
with malpractice and peculation in office 
for having misused provisions belonging to 
the government. He was accused by Jacob 
Eichelberger and Major David Jameson, of 
York, with having fed hogs with flour and 
good biscuit "at a time when soldiers that 
were on the march to the army were in the 
greatest need of flour for rations." McAl- 
lister admitted part of the accusation and 
acknowledged that he had mixed water with 
W'hiskey, a part of the government stores 
in his possession. 

Owing to the-se accusations, the question 
arose as to continuing the commissary de- 
partment at York, whereupon Jameson and 
Eichelberger asserted that York "was a 
great thoroughfare for troops, particularly 

militia in marching from the southward to 
the main army." They urged that another 
commissary be appointed instead of McAl- 
lister, for "it was thought proper when 
Congress was here during the winter of 
1777-78 to have a commissary of purchases, 
another of issues, a quartermaster, town 
major and a physician, wdiich officers have 
since been continued." 

McAllister appeared in his defence before 
the Supreme Executive Council at Phila- 
delphia, when only part of the accusations 
were pro\en. He remained in office a short 
time and was then removed. 

Robert Erwin, who. in 1780, had been 
sent by William Buchanan, commissary- 
general of purchases, to take charge of the 
post at Hanover, succeeded in the purchase 
of a large amount of supplies in that region. 
In April, 1780, he had on hand 4,500 pounds 
of bacon, 4,500 pounds of pork, 10,000 
pounds of flour, and 400 gallons of whiskey 
and an amount of forage which he had pur- 
chased for the government. 


REVOLUTION— Continued. 

British and Hessian Prisoners — The Re- 
turn of the Prisoners — Camp Security — 
Sergeant Lamb's Story — Baron Riedesel 
— A Heroine of the Revolution — Dr. 
John Connolly. 

During the Revolution the British and 
Hessian prisoners were sent to the interior 
of the country, a long distance from the 
scene of war. This was done by order of 
Congress so that there might be no danger 
that these prisoners would be set free by 
raids from the British army. Lancaster, 
York, Reading, Lebanon, Carlisle, Penn- 
sylvania; Frederick, Maryland; Winchester 
and Charlottesville, Virginia, were places 
where large detachments of British and 
Hessian prisoners were kept for several 
months and some of them for two or three 
years. Barracks were erected in all of these 
towns. They were used as places of con- 
finement and were carefully guarded by the 
local militia. Officers were frequently cjuar- 
tered in the county jails and other public 
and private buildings. The York County 
jail, then situated at the northeast corner of 
George and King Streets, contained British 




prisoners, generally officers, a large part of 
the time from 1776 to 1780. Temporary 
barracks \\ere erected on the public com- 
mon and private soldiers were confined 
therein, during the early part of the war. 
The place of imprisonment best known to 
history in York County was situated in the 
northwest corner of \\'indsor Township, 
near the \illage of Longstown. At this 
place a large number of prisoners, part of 
Burgoyne's army and other soldiers cap- 
tured in the south, were imprisoned for 
nearly two years, during the latter part of 
the Revolution. In 1781, a contagious 
fever broke out in camp, of which a large 
number of prisoners died. 

The first prisoners brought to York ar- 
rived in March and April, 1776. During the 
summer of 1775, General Montgomery, by 
authority of Congress, led an expedition for 
the capture of Canada. It was an ill-fated 
campaign for this gallant soldier of the 
Revolution lost his life in an engagement 
with the enemy in front of Quebec. 

In the engagement at St. Johns and 
Chambley, in the vicinity of Quebec, about 
400 British soldiers ^\•ere captured. They 
belonged to the vSeventh Royal Fusileers 
and the Twenty-Sixth Regulars, both 
famous commands which had taken part in 
several engagements in Europe. When 
Congress heard of these captured officers 
and men. it ordered that they be sent to 
Lancaster. The detachment from the 
Seventh Fusileers reached Lancaster, De- 
cember 9, 1775, and the prisoners of the 
Twenty-Sixth Regiment some time later. 
Barracks had already been erected in that 
town and the prisoners placed therein. 
Some of the- officers were quartered in 
private houses under guard. Strange as it 
may seem, the wixes and children of most 
of the officers and some of the men, accom- 
panied the army to Canada and were also 
captured and brought to Lancaster. There 
were 66 women and 125 children with the 
prisoners, during the early part of 1776. 
Early in March, 1776, Congress ordered 
that one-half the prisoners from the 
Seventh Regiment be removed to \"ork and 
the rest to Carlisle. 

Among the officers taken to 

Andre Carlisle was the unfortunate 

at Major .\ndre, then a lieutenant. 

Carlisle. \\ho had been captured in 

Canada, .\fter his release he returned 
to the British arm\' and was recap- 
tured near Tarrytown during his alliance 
\\ith the traitor, Benedict Arnold. He was 
then executed as a spy. Andre was im- 
prisoned for a considerable time at both 
Lancaster and Carlisle. In March, 1776, 
when the officers and men of the Seventh 
Regiment were ordered to York, there 
\\ere a few cases of smallpox here. When 
the}- heard this news, the officers objected 
to coming, but some of them were finally 
brought to York. When it was discovered 
that smallpox did not prevail to an alarming 
extent. Congress ordered that one-half the 
British officers belonging to the Twenty- 
Sixth Regiment should be removed to York 
and the rest to Carlisle. 

Because the conduct of these 
First officers at Lancaster had been 
Prisoners reprehensible, they were re- 
in York. quired to cross the Susque- 
hanna and they remained in 
York as prisoners of war for six or eight 
months, till they were exchanged. A com- 
plete list of these officers cannot be given. 
Among the names revealed are the follow- 
ing: Captains John Strong, James Living- 
stone, and Andrew Gordon ; Lieutenants 
Laurence Dulhanty. Edward Thompson. 
Don McDonall and Edward P. Wellington ; 
Ensigns Robert Thomas and James Gor- 
don; Captains Daniel Robertson, of the 
Royal Highland Emigrant Regiment, and 
Robert Chase, of the navy. 

In July, 1776, a petition signed by nearh' 
all the above-named officers was sent to 
John Hancock, then President of Congress 
at Philadelphia. In this petition they com- 
plained of ill-treatment and dissatisfaction 
because they had been separated from their 
men, who were left at Lancaster. They 
further stated that they had signed a parole 
which gave them privileges usually ac- 
corded to all officers who were prisoners of 
war. It seems, however, that they were 
confined to their rooms at night and this 
was the main cause of their complaint. 
Their servants were also taken from them 
by order of Congress. They asserted that 
the local Committee of Safety was preju- 
diced against them. They requested that 
they be treated as gentlemen and given the 
freedom usually accorded to prisoners who 
had signed a ]:)arole. They were quartered 


in taverns and private houses and if the re- 
strictions as to their fnovements be con- 
tinued, tliey preferred to be imprisoned in 
the county jail. 'IMie real cause, however, 
that they were not allowed to move about 
the town during the night was that some 
British prisoners at Lebanon had escaped 
in the darkness of the night. The connnit- 
tee at York determined to keep a close 
watch over these officers so that no oppor- 
tunities were afforded them to escape, and 
their requirements were enforced until the 
officers were exchanged. 


The surrender of Burgoyne to Gates at 
Saratoga, October i8, 1777, placed in the 
hands of Congress, then in session at York, 
the disposition of nearly 6,000 prisoners of 
war. Sir John Burgoyne, the famous 
British general, with a well-equipped army, 
had passed up Lake Champlain from 
Canada and down the Hudson, intentling to 
join Sir Henrj' Clinton at New York City. 
After two unsuccessful attacks upon the 
American army, under General Gates, he 
fell back to Saratoga, where he surrendered 
his entire army, including his two major- 
generals, \\'illiam Phillips and Baron Rie- 
desel. The former had commanded the 
British troops comprising the right of Bur- 
goyne's army, and the latter the German 
troops on the left. An official report states 
that 5,800 troops surrendered at Saratoga, 
of whom about 2.400 were Germans and the 
balance British. According to the terms of 
the surrender, known in English history as 
the "Convention of Saratoga,"' the British 
and Hessian prisoners were to be marched 
to Boston and from that port sent to Eng- 
land. The British forces were placed under 
command of Phillips and the Germans 
under Riedesel, while the entire army on 
this march was guarded by two brigades of 
American troops. If any of these prisoners 
desired to take the oath of allegiance to the 
American government, they were permitted 
to desert. About 100 Germans and nearly 
the same number of British took advantage 
of this opportunity before they reached 
Boston. .\s the prisoners expected soon to 
l)e released, strict discipline was enforced 
and the best of decorum displayed while on 
this march. 

W'lien these prisoners of war reached 

Boston, the Hessian troops were quartered 
on Winter Hill, near Cambridge, in bar- 
racks, which had been erected by the 
American troops during the siege of Bos- 
ton. The British troops were given rude 
quarters on Prospect Hill, just outside of 
Cambridge. The officers, who had signed 
a strict parole, were treated little better 
than the private soldiers. They were per- 
mitted to find quarters in the small towns 
and villages nearby. The captured army 
was supplied with provisions and fuel that 
were paid for by General Heath, the Ameri- 
can commander at Boston, with Continental 
money, and Congress insisted that Bur- 
goyne should make his repayment dollar for 
dollar in British gold, worth three times as 
much. By the terms of the surrender, Bur- 
go)ne's troops were to receive pay from the 
English government and be supplied with 
provisions paid for by authority of Bur- 
goyne himself. The Continental money at 
this time being worth only thirty cents on 
the dollar, a controversy arose about the 
decision of Congress requiring Burgoyne to 
pay this obligation in gold coin. Even Gen- 
eral Heath, in a letter to ^^'ashington. 
stated. "What an opinion must General 
Burgoyne have of the authority of these 
States to suppose that his money would 
be received at any higher rate than our 

Congress, anxious to impose conditions 
not likely to be fulfilled, demanded that 
General Burgoyne should make out a de- 
scriptive list of all the officers and soldiers 
in his army, in order that if any of them 
should thereafter be found serving against 
the United States they might be punished 
accordingly. As no such provision was con- 
tained in the convention, upon the faith of 
which Burgoyne had surrendered, he 
naturally regarded the demand as insulting, 
and at first refused to comply with it. He 
afterwards yielded the point, in his eager- 
ness to liberate his soldiers: but meanwhile, 
in a letter to Gates at Albany, he had in- 
cautiously said, "The public faith is 
broken." and this remark, coming to the 
ears of Congress, was immediately laid hold 
of as a pretext for repudiating the conven- 
tion altogether. It was argued that Bur- 
goyne had charged the United States with 
bad faith, in order to have an excuse for 
repudiating the convention on his own part. 



On the Sth of January, Congress accord- 
ingly resolved, "that the embarkation of 
Lieutenant-General Burgoyne and the 
troops under his command be suspended 
until a distinct and explicit ratification of 
the Convention of Saratoga shall be prop- 
erly notified by the court of Great Britain 
to Congress." As the British government 
could not give the required ratification 
without implicitly recognizing" the inde- 
pendence of the United States, no further 
steps were taken in the matter, the "public 
faith" really was broken and the captured 
army was never sent home. By the end of 
the year 1777, about 400 British prisoners 
on Prospect Hill had deserted, but ac- 
cording to records only 20 Germans es- 

In March, 1778, General Bur- 
Burgoyne goyne, on account of ill health. 
Released, was permitted by Congress to 

return to England. In order to 
secure his release he was required to make 
a deposit of $40,000 in gold or silver, and 
this money was used for buying food and 
supplies, to be procured in Rhode Island, 
for the prisoners. After his capture and 
release, he changed his sentiments toward 
the United States. While still a prisoner on 
parole he entered the British parliament 
and became conspicuous among the de- 
fenders of the American cause. 

Meanwhile, a fleet of vessels arrived at 
Newport from England for the purpose of 
transporting the troops to their native 
country, but the fleet had to return without 
them. Early in April a number of war 
vessels appeared ofi^ the coast of Boston, 
and as General Heath feared an attack from 
the enemy, he had the British troops 
removed from Prospect Hill, fiftj^-five miles 
northwest to the village of Rutland, near 
the present city of Worcester. On account 
of the difficulty of obtaining provisions for 
these prisoners, a long discussion arose in 
Congress, still in session at York, as to 
what disposition should be made of them. 
^Vhile this discussion was in progress, the 
barracks at York and Lancaster, in Penn- 
sylvania, were mentioned as suitable places 
to quarter them. It was finally decided that 
the British and Hessians should be removed 
to Charlottesville, Virginia, where the 
troops could be more readily supplied with 
provisions than in Alassachusetts. 

.Vbout November i. General 
Prisoners Heath gave orders that the 

Sent British troops at Rutland under 

South. command of General Phillips 
should march in three di\-isions 
to the south. The first division started No- 
Acmber 10, and the others in two successive 
days, imder guard of Continental troops 
and Massachusetts militia. Before the 
British had left Rutland, they were paid in 
coin received from Sir Henry Clinton at 
New York. 

The German troops at Cambridge, under 
an American guard, also began the march 
in three divisions on November 10, in com- 
mand of Baron Riedesel, it being arranged 
that one di\ision was always one day in 
advance of the other. Before leaving Mas- 
sachusetts, all the officers had to sign a 
strict parole not to desert on the march. 
As many of the British and Hessian officers 
and some of the private soldiers had their 
wives and children with them, when they 
were captured at Saratoga, General Wash- 
ington ordered that wagons be provided for 
transporting the women and children to 
Virginia. The Baroness Riedesel was ac- 
companied by three little children, and her 
diary describing this trip has been pub- 
lished in the German and English lan- 

The German troops had not received 
money to support them on the march before 
leaving Boston and no pay was sent them 
from Sir Henry Clinton. In order to 
remedy the difiiculty. Baron Riedesel re- 
turned to Boston, where he secured $70,000 
in paper money on his own responsibility, 
to aid in moving his troops. 

The British troops passed through Mas- 
sachusetts and Connecticut to Fishkill on 
the Hudson. In a letter written December 
10, at Sherwood's Ferry, on the banks of 
the Delaware, Lieutenant Anbury wrote : 

"General \^^ashington was not without 
apprehension that Sir Henry Clinton, then 
at New York, would make eft'orts to retake 
us, either by an expedition up the North 
River, or our march through the Jerseys, 
and therefore took every precaution to 
frustrate any plan that might be concerted, 
for upon the arrival of our army at Fishkill, 
General ^^'ashington moved his army into 
the middle of the Jerseys and detached a 
considerable l)ody of troops to escort us, so 



\er\- ai)[)rchcnsive was he of a rescue, that 
to each brigade of otirs they had a brigade 
of armed men, who marched the men in 
close columns. As to the officers they paid 
little attention, as we had signed a very 
strict parole, previous to our leaving New 
England. Now we ]ia\-e passed the Dela- 
ware, the Pennsylvania militia are to guard 
us and the brigades that escorted us through 
Xew York and the Jerseys return to Wash- 
ington's army." \\'hen the British prison- 
ers had reached Sussex in crossing the 
state of Xew Jersey, Sir Henry Clinton sent 
out a paymaster who paid off the troops in 
British coin. 

The three divisions of German troops 
under Baron Riedesel also crossed the Hud- 
son at Fishkill a few days after the British 
had passed over. .\t this place, ^\'ashing"- 
ton paid them the compliment of his pres- 
ence. He also gave them a strong guard 
lest Clinton should carry out his threat of 
releasing them by force. 

Lieutenant Anl^ury made the 
Arrive at following entry in his journal 
Lancaster, after arri\-ing at Lancaster: 

"In our \\a\- hither, we crossed 
the Schuylkill, o\er the Ijridge built by Gen- 
eral Washington's army, when they were 
encamped at Valley Forge. I imagine it 
was the intention of the Americans that this 
bridge should remain as a triumphal me- 
mento, for in the centre of every arch is 
engraxed in the wood, the names of the 
principal generals in their country and in 
the midde arch was General A\'ashington's 
with the date of the year the Ijridge Avas 
erected. This bridge was built to preserve 
a communication and to favor a retreat in 
case they were compelled to quit their en- 
campment. Our troops slept in the huts at 
Valley Forge which had been constructed 
by the Americans." 

Lancaster at this time was the largest 
inland town in -\merica, containing a popu- 
lation of nearly 4000. The inhabitants 
were composed of German and Scotch- 
Irish. Most of the houses had an elevation 
before the door and they were entered 1)\' 
ascending high steps from the street, re- 
sembling a small balcony witli benches on 
both sides where the inhabitants sat and 
took in the fresh air and viewed the peo])Ie 
passing. The town had consideral)le trade 
with Pliiladelphia and Xew York. Among 

its popidalion \vere a large number of me- 
chanics. There were three or four churches, 
and the county court house in Centre 
Square in \vhich the Pennsylvania Legis- 
lature had held its sessions when driven 
out of Philadelphia the year before. Con- 
gress had convened in this building one day 
in September, 1777, and then adjoiu-ned to 
York. The largest pipe organ in .\merica, 
which hatl been made at the town of Lititz, 
was then in use in the First Lutheran 
Church of Lancaster. Some of the officers 
who went to see this wonderful piece of 
.uechanism sent descriptions of it to then- 
homes. The manufacturer had made every 
part of the organ with his own hands. One 
of the diaries states : 

"The organ had not only everv pipe and 
stop that is in most others, but it has many 
pipes to swell the base which are of an 
amazing circumference, and they are played 
upon by the feet, there being a row of 
wooden kevs that the performer treads on." 

After bivouacking for the night around 
the borough of Lancaster, the three 
divisions of the British troops, com- 
manded by General William Phillips 
and tinder a guard of several regi- 
ments of Pennsylvania militia, and a 
detachment of the Continental army, the 
march xvas begun to the Susquehanna ri\-er, 
crossing at the present sites of Columbia 
and \\'rightsville. A regiment of the York 
County militia joined the guard at Wright's 
Ferry, and Colonel Josepli Jeffries, wagon 
master for York County, furnished one htin- 
dred wagons and teams with which he con- 
veyed into Virginia the women and children 
and the baggage belonging to both the Brit- 
ish and German prisoners. Many of these 
wagons were afterward pressed into service 
by the state of Virginia. The advance 
reached York on December 16. Lieutenant 
.\nbury made the following entry in refer- 
ence to York : 

"After we crossed the Suscpie- 
Reach hanna. \\e arrived at York, which 
York, was sometime the seat of Congress. 
This is reckoned the second inland 
town in America: it is not nearly so large as 
Lancaster, but much pleasanter. being sit- 
uated on the Codorus creek, a pretty stream 
which falls into the Sus<|uehanna. This 
town contains between two and three thou- 
sand inhabitants, chiefl\' Germans, inter- 


mixed \\'ith Scotcli-Irish. Here was for- 
merly more trade than in Lancaster, and 
notwithstanding the troul)les, it has still 
more the appearance of it. As our division 
came into tlie town at four o'clock in the 
afternoon, and marched the next morning, I 
had but little time to make any particular 
observations; but in walking about I saw 
the Court House and a few churches, which 
are very neat brick buildings, and I re- 
marked the houses were much better built 
and with more regularity than at Lancaster. 
Of the two, though York is considerably 
less than the other, I should give it the 
preference for a place of residence." 

Along the entire line of march 
Hessians from Massachusetts to Virginia 
Desert. the guard of American troops 
made no special efforts to pie- 
vent desertions among the prisoners. Lieu- 
tenant Anbury says : 

"It was with a view and a hope that the 
men would desert, that Congress marched 
us at this inclement season : numbers have 
answered their wishes, especially the Ger- 
mans, who seeing in what a comfortable 
manner their countrymen live, left us in 
great numbers, as we marched through 
X^ew A'ork, the Jerseys and Pennsylvania. 
Among the number of deserters is my ser- 
vant, who, as we left Lancaster, ran from 
me WMth my horse, portmanteau and every- 
thing he could take with him. I did not 
miss him till night, as I concluded he was 
with the baggage wagons. The next morn- 
ing I obtained permission from the officer 
that escorted us, to return in pursuit of 

Rev. John Roth, pastor of the ^Moravian 
church at York, recorded in his diary : 

"Dec. i6. — To-night a party of the Con- 
vention troops, the Hessians and others cap- 
tured at Saratoga by Gates, arrived here 
from New England on way to Virginia. 

"Dec. 22. — The Convention troops which 
arrived here on the i6th and 19th inst. left 
for the south (Virginia). 

"Dec. 24. — Numbers of Convention troops 
are deserting on account of their being 
badly treated by their officers. Some of 
them attended our services and were atten- 
tive and earnest." 

The first division of British troops num- 
bering 781, arrived in York, December 16; 
the second division, numbering 873, on the 

following da_\-: and the third division, a body 
of 923, on the evening of December 19. 
There were in all 2577 British soldiers. 

The Germans arrived in York in three 
di\isions. The first came on December 22, 
and numbered 947. With this body were 
a large number of women and children, 
transported on wagons. The last two 
divisions of German troops passed through 
York, December 23 and 24, and numbered 
935. There were in all 4459 British and 
Hessian officers and men on this famous 
march, as prisoners of war, to Virginia. 

After leaving York, the pris- 

Pass oners w-ere marched in brigades 

Through a distance of fifteen to twenty 
Hanover, miles a day. There is a well- 
founded tradition that the dif- 
ferent brigades bivouacked on successive 
nights along a hillside near Alenges' ]\Iills 
in Heidelberg township, and proceeded the 
next day through Hanover, halting again 
for the night near Littlestowm, in Adams 
County. Till they arri\'ed at Frederick, the 
most delightful winter weather had favored 
them on the march, but while encamped 
around that town a heavy snow fell. This 
was followed by extreme cold weather 
which made it impossible for the brigades 
in the rear to cross the Potomac, then cov- 
ered w'ith floating ice. After they had all 
crossed that stream, the Virginia roads were 
almost impassable. The top of the deep 
snow was a crust but not sufficiently strong 
to bear the weight of a man, so that the 
movement from the Potomac to V'irginia 
was the most difficult and distressing part 
of the march. 

The last brigade finally 
At arrived at Charlottesville. 

Charlottesville. Having started from Mass- 
achusetts November 10, it 
required two full months to complete this 
march of nearly 700 miles. At Charlottes- 
ville a rude village was built on the brow of 
a pleasant ridge of hills, and gardens were 
laid out and planted. Much kind assistance 
was rendered in all this work by Thomas 
Jefferson, who was then living close by on 
his estate at Monticello, and did everything 
in his power to make things comfortable for 
soldiers and officers. 

General \\'illiam Phillips, who was second 
in command at Saratoga and who had been 
in charge of the Con^■ention prisoners on 



the march to \'irginia and while in the bar- 
racks at Charlottesville, was allowed to go 
to New York in the fall of 1779, on parole. 
^\"hile in that cit)- he was exchanged for 
General Benjamin Lincoln, recently cap- 
tured at Charleston, S. C. In 1780 Phillips 
joined Benedict .\rnold in an expedition 
against Richmond. Predatory parties had 
been sent out in the direction of Charlottes- 
\ille and fearing that Arnold and Phillips 
might form an expedition for the release of 
the prisoners, Congress decided in the fall 
of 1780 to remove them northward. In the 
early part of October, the prisoners were 
marched toward \\'inchester, in the same 
inanner that they had gone to Charlottes- 
ville, two years before. The prisoners 
were quartered at \\'inchester for two 
weeks and removed to Frederick, Maryland, 
where they were held until Congress de- 
cided where they should be taken. .\t this 
place they occupied comfortable barracks 
and the men were allowed many privileges. 
The officers were quartered in the town and 
plantations around. On May 31, 1781, 
these British officers and prisoners wit- 
nessed the movement of the Pennsylvania 
Line through Frederick. On July 31, 1781. 
tenant Anbur}^ wrote in his journal: 

"We daily expect to remove 
Move from this province on account 

Northward, of the movements of Lord 
Cornwallis' army, which we 
understand is forming a junction with the 
troops landed in \'irginia, under the com- 
mand of General Phillips and General Ar- 
nold, and this state is not without appre- 
hensions of a descent being made by the 
King's forces. Therefore to impede this 
progress. General ^^'ashington has detached 
two strong bodies, one of Continental 
troops, under the command of the ]\Iarquis 
de la Fayette, and the other consisting of 
the Pennsylvania Line, under General 
A\'ayne. They passed through Frederick 
last month, and appeared to be mostly 
Scotch and Irish with a great number of 
blacks. They were badly clothed, and so 
extremely mutinous and discontented, that 
their officers were afraid to trust them with 
ammunition. I observed that they w^ore 
black and white cockades, the ground being 
the first color and the relief of the other. 
On inc|uiring the cause, a very pompous 
American replied, 'It was a compliment to 

and a symbol of afTection for their generous 
and magnanimous allies the French.' " 

The British and Hessian prisoners greatly 
diminished in numbers both by death and 
desertion while at Frederick. Congress 
hnally decided to remove the prisoners to 
York and Lancaster, in Pennsylvania. The 
officers were separated from the prisoners 
at Lancaster and sent to East ^^"indsor, 
Connecticut. Brigadier-General Flamilton, 
in charge of the British troops, expressed 
great displeasure on account of this separa- 
tion which, he claimed, was in direct oppo- 
sition to the agreement entered into at the 
surrender at Saratoga, three years before. 


The Convention prisoners remoxed late 
in 1780 from Charlottesville to Winchester, 
Virginia, and to Frederick, Maryland, were 
ordered by Congress in 1781 to be brought 
to Pennsyhania. The British were to be 
quartered at York and the Hessians at Lan- 
caster. There were at that time about 
3000 of Burgoyne's officers and men held as 
prisoners of war. Joseph Reed, then presi- 
dent of Pennsylvania, protested against so 
many prisoners being brought into this 
commonwealth. In response to President 
Reed's protest, the Board of AVar asserted 
that Congress had not changed its decision 
and that Pennsylvania should make prepa- 
ration to guard and sustain the prisoners at 
such places in Pennsylvania as would be 
most convenient. At this juncture, Gov- 
ernor Thomas Lee, of ilaryland, wrote to 
President Reed that he had been informed 
by Thomas Jefferson, governor of Virginia, 
that the Burgoyne prisoners and other Brit- 
ish captured at Cowpens, S. C, were at 
A\'inchester, March 12, 1781, on their way 
to Pennsylvania, and the British prisoners 
at Frederick, 800 in number, were to be sent 
to York. On the same day that Governor 
Lee sent his communication to President 
Reed, the latter wrote a long letter to the 
Board of \\'ar. in which he stated: 

We acknowledge the receipt o£ your 
Reed's f^^or of the 13th inst., calling upon us 
-- . . to prepare U guard of 400 militia and to 

OppOSltlOn.siipply provisions and all other neces- 
saries for the convention troops, observ- 
ing that though the Hon. Congress had 
directed you to take measures for guarding and supply- 
ing these troops after they arrive at their proposed 
quarters that you have no other means in your power 
to comply with this direction than by calling on this 


state for that guard and those supplies. We are sorry. 
Gentlemen, to inform you that in the present exhausted 
state of our treasury \vc have little prospect of being 
able to answer your expectations. We have computed 
the monthly expense of feeding these troops and guards 
at 8,g6o pounds specie per month — the pay of the militia 
and repair of barracks will also be considerable — which 
added to the necessary advances daily making for the 
sustenance of the prisoners already here amoimting to 
1,000 — to the recruiting and support of the Pennsyl- 
vania Line daily increasing and wholly within the State, 
the supply of the Continental Array, the artificers, inva- 
lids, mechanics, and other dependencies on Congress, 
will, we arc persuaded, be a burden insupportable. And 
we must acknowledge freely that we think it very un- 
equal that when there are thirteen states in union all 
the prisoners should be brought into one. We have 
always endeavored to comply with requisitions when in 
our power, but we do not see the least probability of 
answering present expectations in their full extent. 
Having already observed to our delegates in Congress, 
the danger of adding to the dissatisfaction of the in- 
habitants, especially from the influence of the German 
officers, we need not touch on that head, though of a 
very delicate and alarming nature. But in another view 
the bringing these troops into the state must affect the 
general interest. Should they cross the Susquehanna 
we are fully persuaded much the greatest part of them 
will be in Kew York in a few months; they will find 
so many friends and opportunities to convey them 
thither that unless closely confined no precautions will 
be sufficient to prevent this evil. Our militia in the 
country are very badly armed, so that if either through 
scarcit}' of provisions, other discontent or impatience of 
captivity these troops should resolve to serve the enemy 
and prefer force to desertion we apprehend there is 
danger of their effecting it. The high price of pro- 
visions, of fuel and all other necessaries at Lancaster 
and York will be an object also well worthy of con- 
sideration, the rates of wood and other necessary 
articles at Lancaster not differin.g materially from those 
of Philadelphia. This will be our last representation on 
the subject which we have thought it our duty to make 
— that should any bad consequences result we may 
stand fully acquitted, having declared our opinion that 
we shall not be able to provide for them with that 
plenty or guard them in that security which the case 

The Board of ^^■ar then decided that the 
British officers held at ^^'inchester and 
Frederick shotild 1)e "put on tlieir parole" 
and sent to Simsbury, Connecticut, the Ger- 
man troops should be held at A\'inchester 
and their officers put on parole at that place. 
The British privates and non-commissioned 
officers were to remain at Frederick for the 
time being. Colonel James Wood, of the 
Continental army, who had the prisoners in 
charge, was ordered by Congress to carry 
out the plans already made for their dis- 
position. Almost I, GOO unconditional 
prisoners captured af Cowpens and else- 
where in the south were ordered to the Lan- 
caster barracks and the 3,000 Saratoga 
prisoners to be retained for a time in Mary- 
land and V'irginia. At this time General 
Philips, of the British army, who had been 

exchanged, was then in command of 900 
men who had either deserted or escaped 
from the camp at Charlottesville. With this 
force he had joined the traitor, Benedict 
Arnold, in front of Richmond. Lord Corii- 
wallis, with a large British army, was now 
on his march through the Carolinas toward 
A^irginia in pursuit of General Greene. As 
the Board of War thought the scene of 
hostilities in 1781 might be in Virginia, it 
decided in May of that year that the prison- 
ers held in Virginia and Maryland should 
be forwarded to eastern {Massachusetts, 
Congress then ordered Pennsylvania to 
furnish 600 militia, which were to assemble 
at York, and relieve the Virginia militia and 
take charge of the prisoners to be moved 
eastward under the superintendency of 
Colonel James \\'ood. 

The York County wagon- 
Prisoners in masters were ordered to 
Pennsylvania, have fifty or more wagons 

at York. Major Bailey, of 
York, commanded the militia assembled for 
the purpose of acting as a guard to the 
prisoners on their eastern movement and 
under his direction the Virginia guard 
was relieved and the local militia escorted 
the prisoners to Lancaster, where they 
arrived early in June, 1781. The British 
were placed in the Lancaster l)arracks and 
in camps on the public common in that 
town. It was now decided by Congress to 
ha\-e them remain in Pennsylvania. On 
June 17, Major Bailey escorted from York 
two divisions, one of 1,200 German and 
Hessian prisoners, to Reading, and another 
composed of 600 privates, 300 waiters and 
about 300 women and children to Lancaster. 
On June 27, President Reed, of Pennsyl- 
vania, wrote, "The Convention and other 
British prisoners to the number of 4,000 are 
now in the State of Pennsylvania." He 
therefore ordered out the militia of York, 
Lancaster, Berks and Xorthampton Coun- 
ties to guard them on tlieir movement to 
places where they were to be confined. 
Colonel \\'ood, of the Continental army, in 
charge of the prisoners both in Virginia and 
after they came to Pennsylvania, wrote. 
June 30, 1781, that he had received instruc- 
tions from the Board of War to quarter the 
British near York and the Germans at 
Reading, but that he had not received 
definite instructions as to the exact places 



of confinement. President Reed then wrote 
to William Scott, lieutenant of the York 
County militia, to mark out a suitable spot, 
well-wooded and watered for the accommo- 
dation of the prisoners to be quartered at 
York. A place where the prisoners could 
build huts, surrounded by a picket, was 
designated. The local militia intended to 
guard the prisoners, were to receive pay at 
the rate of three and a half shillings a day 
in coin. The Continental money was then 
nearly worthless. On July 28, Lieutenant 
William Scott, of York County, wrote to 
President Reed: 

Agreeable to your Excellency's orders I have 
Camp found a place for the convention troops to 
Near encamp ; about four miles and a half soutli- 
^ east of Yorktown, which Colonel Wood had 

lOrk. approved as a suitable and convenient place. 
I have also called the fourth class of the 
militia, who have furnished upwards of one 
hundred men to guard them. Colonel Wood is of the 
opinion it will require near double that number until 
the necessary works on the encampment are erected. 

I have collected all the arms in York and Hanover. 
which are not half enough for the guards. Therefore 
have to request of the Honorable Council to send us 
arms and ammunition for the use of the guards afore- 

The arms which our seven months' men carried to 
Philadelphia last year (forty-three in number) were 
delivered up in a house near the bridge on W'ater 
Street, where clothing and other military stores were 
then kept, but no receipts passed for them that I can 

Colonel Wood has called on me for ten or twelve 
carpenters and for axes, spades, picks and shovels, for 
building the huts and pickets. The carpenters and the 
smiths who make the tools look to me for their pay: 
have therefore to beg your E.xcellency's directions in 
this matter, whether it is a county or continental charge 
and how and when these people are to be paid and by 

On August 2, 1781, Colonel James Wood 
stated "I have fixed the British troops on 
good ground, the property of a non-juror, 
between York and Susquehanna, so as to be 
verv convenient to throw them across the 


The place selected by Colonel Wood as a 
cantonment for the prisoners was situated 
in the extreme northeastern part of Wind- 
sor Township, a short distance east of the 
village of Longstown, and on the north side 
of the road leading from Longstown to East 
Prospect. At this place the British Con- 
vention prisoners to the number of nearly 
two thousand were brought back from Lan- 
caster in August, 1781. They were required 
to assist the carpenters employed by the 

government in erecting a stockade and in 
building huts out of wood. This place was 
known in Revolutionary annals as "Camp 
Security" and is so designated in the gov- 
ernment records. 

.\fter the prisoners had arrived at York, 
Lancaster and Reading, the authorities of 
Pennsylvania and Continental Congress, as 
well, thought it possible that the British 
forces under Lord Cornwallis might raid 
into Pennsylvania for the purpose of releas- 
ing these prisoners. 

In March, 1781. General Greene had 
fought the battle of Guilford Court House, 
near Greensboro, North Carolina, with 
Cornwallis, who then commanded 7,000 
men. It was an indecisive battle and re- 
sulted in Cornwallis moving to Wilmington 
on the coast of that state. Greene returned 
to South Carolina and after successive en- 
gagements with the enemy, drove them into 
Charleston and Savannah. Cornwallis 
sailed to Hampton Roads and selected a de- 
fensive position on the James River at 
Yorktown, Virginia. In August, 1781, a 
detachment of 2,000 of the troops from the 
British army under Cornwallis landed on 
the banks of the Chesapeake near An- 
napolis, Maryland. ^Meantime, Washing- 
ton, with an arm\- of 6,000 men, marched 
from the Hudson River through eastern 
Pennsylvania and ]Maryland to join Lafay- 
ette and ^^'a^•ne, then concentrating near 
Yorktown, Virginia. 

The arrival of the 2.000 troops at 
Militia Annapolis caused alarm at York, 
Called Lancaster and Reading, and the 
Out, authorities of Pennsylvania called 
out the militia for defensive oper- 
ations. Lieutenant William Scott, com- 
mander of the York County IMilitia, put into 
service 200 light horse, a cavalry squadron, 
and posted them in a chain west of the Sus- 
quehanna, extending from York to Chesa- 
peake Bay. In case the British landed at 
the head of the Chesapeake these horsemen 
were intended to convey the news with all 
possible haste to the cantonments of prison- 
ers at York and the other towns in Penn- 
sylvania. .At this period in the Revolution 
there was considerable excitement in York 
County and the adjoining sections of the 
state. Fortunatel}-, the appearance of 
Washington in \'irginia caused a change in 
the operations of the enemy, who now con- 



centrated under Cornwallis at Yorktown, 
where, in October, 1781, the entire British 
ami}' surrendered. Later in the year, and 
during the spring of 1782, detachments of 
prisoners from the army of CorhwalHs were 
also brought to York and imprisoned in 
liuts erected a short distance east of the 
stockade in Windsor Township, where 
about 2,000 of Burgoyne's army were then 
held, as described above. A description of 
the prison pens near York, as they were at 
this period is given in an abstract from the 
diary of Sergeant Lamb, found further on in 
this narrative. At this place most of the 
British prisoners, brought here in 1781 and 

1782, remained until the cessation of hostili- 
ties was declared April 19, 1783, the eighth 
anniversary of the battle of Lexington and 

So far as is known, few Hessians 
Hessians were ever held as prisoners of 
at war within the stockade or the 

Reading, huts of the prison pen in Wind- 
sor Township, in 1781-2-3. 
There were a number of Hessians in 
Y^ork in 1777. The German and Hes- 
sian troops, about 1,200 in number, 
were held as prisoners in Reading, 
until the close, of the war. On February 8, 

1783, a letter was sent to General Riedesel. 
instructing the Hessian and German prison- 
ers to remain in America after they were set 
free, if they so desired. In pursuance of this 
letter, a large number of the Hessians who 
had been captured at Saratoga, Long Island 
and Trenton, remained in Pennsylvania, 
where they became industrious mechanics 
or farmers. Quite a number of them settled 
in difl'erent parts of York County. 

Daniel Brubaker, a citizen of 
Brubaker's Lancaster County, owned the 
Petition. land four and a half miles east 
of York where the prison pens 
had been erected. In December, 1781, four 
months after the arrival of the first prison- 
ers, he sent a petition to General Benjamin 
Lincoln, of the Continental army and the 
Supreme Executive Council of Pennsyl- 
vania, setting forth certain grievances. He 
stated that he owned 280 acres near York, 
for which he had paid 1,200 pounds specie. 
This land had been selected as a place for 
confinement for part of the British Conven- 
tion prisoners that had been removed from 
Lancaster. One hundred acres of this land 

had been cleared. The persons employed 
by the government in constructing stock- . 
ades and building huts, had cleared thirty 
additional acres of timber, for which he had 
received no pay. The guards had also used 
nearly all the fall rails which enclosed his 
cleared land. This had deprived his tenant 
of the Indian corn on the land and the use 
of his pasture. He further stated that he 
did not want to say anything against Colo- 
nel Wood, who had charge of the prisoners 
and who regretted the condition of affairs 
which had come about before that officer 
had been placed in charge of the prison 
pens. The petitioner acknowledged that 
the prisoners could not be removed during 
the inclement season, yet he requested that 
all further waste or destruction of the tim- 
ber or other property on his plantation be 


Sergeant Roger Lamb, an educated Irish- . 
man, who was captured with Burgoyne at 
Saratoga, wrote a work entitled "Journal of 
the American W'ar," which was published in 
Dublin in 1809. He served in a regiment 
of AA'elsh Fusileers and after his capture 
accompanied the British prisoners to Bos- 
ton, where he remained until they were re- 
moved to Virginia. When these prisoners 
were about to cross the Hudson at Fishkill, 
on their march to the south. Sergeant Lamb 
escaped to the city of New York, where he 
was received with great afifability by Major 
Andre, who was acting as adjutant-general 
to Sir Henry Clinton, commanding the 
British forces in that city. In 1781 he 
served in the Southern army and at the bat- 
tle of Guilford Court House saved Corn- 
wallis from capture. 

In October of the same year he was cap- 
tured with the British army at Yorktown 
and soon after he escaped the American 
guard and fled to Frederick, Maryland, 
where he was again captured and placed in 
the barracks in that town with other British 
officers. After two weeks' imprisonment 
there, he was sent to W^inchester, Virginia, 
where his own regiment, which had served 
at the siege of Yorktown, was then quar- 
tered in barracks. 

"Part of the British troops remained in 
W'inchester until January, 1782," says Ser- 
geant Lamb in his Journal, "when Congress 



ordered us to 1)C marched to York, in Penn- 
sylvania. I received information that as 
soon as I fell into ranks to march off. I 
should be taken and confined in \\'inchester 
jail, as the Americans were apprehensive 
that when I got near to New York I should 
again attempt my escape to that place; I 
was advised by my officers to conceal ni}^- 
self until the troops had marched. I took 
the hint and hid myself in the hospital 
among the sick, where I reinained until the 
American guards had been two days on 
their march with the British prisoners. I 
then prepared to follow them, but at a 
cautious distance. 

"The troops arri\-ed at York, 

In Camp and were confined in. a prison 

Security, similar to the one at Rutland, 

Massachusetts, where Bur- 

goyne's prisoners were held in 1778. 

"A great number of trees were ordered to 
be cut down in the woods ; these were 
sharpened at each end, and driven firmly 
into the earth verj- close together, enclos- 
ing a space of about two or three acres. 
American sentinels were planted on the 
outside of the fence, at convenient distances, 
in order to prevent our getting out. At one 
angle, a gate was erected and on the out- 
side thereof, stood the guard house; two 
sentinels were constantly posted at this 
gate, and no one could get out unless he had 
a pass from the officer of the guard ; but 
this was a privilege in which very few were 

"About two hundred yards from this pen, 
a small village had been built by prisoners 
of General Burgoyne's army, who were al- 
lowed very great privileges with respect to 
liberty in the country. When some of my 
former comrades of the Ninth Regiment 
were informed that I was a prisoner in Lord 
Cornwallis' army, and that I was shortly 
expected at York, they immediately applied 
to the commanding officer of the Americans 
for a pass in mj- name, claiming me as one 
of their regiment. This w^as immediately 
granted, and some of them kindly and 
attentively placed themselves on the w-atch 
for my arrival, lest I should be confined with 
the rest of Lord Cornwallis' army. When I 
reached York I was most agreeably sur- 
prised at meeting my former companions; 
and more so when a pass was put into m\' 
hands, giving me the ])rivilege of ten miles 

of the countr\' round while I behaved well 
and orderly. I was then conducted to a hut 
which my poor loving coinpanions had built 
for me in their village before my arrival. 
Here I remained some tinje, visiting my 
former companions from hut to hut ; but I 
was astonished at the spirit of industry 
which prevailed among them. Men, women 
and children were employed making lace, 
buckles, spoons, and exercising other me- 
chanical trades which they had learned 
during their captivity. They had very great 
liberty from the Americans, and were 
allowed to go around the country and sell 
their goods ; wdiile the soldiers of Corn- 
wallis' army w-ere closel}' confined. I per- 
ceived that they had lost that animation 
which ought to possess the breast of the 
soldier. I strove by every argument to 
rouse them from their lethargy. I offered 
to head any number of them, and make a 
noble effort to escape into New York, and 
join our comrades in arms; but all my 
efforts proved ineffectual. As for my own 
part, I was determined to make the attempt. 
I well knew from experience, that a few 
companions would be highly necessary. 
Accordingly I sent word of my intention to 
seven men of the Twenty-third Regiment 
who were confined in the pen, that I was 
willing to take thein with me. I believe in 
all the British army that these men, three 
sergeants and four privates, could not have 
been excelled for courage and intrepidity. 
They rejoiced at the idea; and by the aid of 
some of Burgoyne's army, they were en- 
abled under cover of a dark night, to scale 
their fence and assemble in my hut. I sent 
word of my intention to my commanding 
officer. Captain Saumarez, of the Twenty- 
third, and likewise the names of the men 
whom I purposed to take with me. As my 
money was almost expended, I begged of 
him to advance me as much as convenient. 
He immediately sent me a supply. 

"It was on the first of ^L-lrch, 
Escaped 1782, that I set off with my 
From party." 

Prison. After Sergeant Lamb escaped 
with his seven companions from 
prison at Y^ork, he went to New York City, 
where Sir Guy Carleton was then com- 
mander of the British troops. After the war 
he returned to Dublin, where he became a 
teacher and author, and died in 1830. 




Baron Friederich Adolph Riedesel, who 
held the rank of a major-general in the 
English army, commanded 2,400 Brunswick 
and Hessian troops at the time of the sur- 
render of Burgoyne at Saratoga. Both his 
entire command and himself became prison- 
ers of war on October 17, 1777. General 
Riedesel was born in Lauterbach, Rhine- 
Hesse, June 3, 1738. At the time of the sur- 
render he was 39 years of age. Riedesel 
studied law, but during the Seven Years' 
AA'ar for German liberty served as an aide 
on the staff of Prince Ferdinand of Bruns- 
wick. He acquitted himself gallantly in the 
execution of an important commission at 
the battle of Minden. In 1767 he was pro- 
moted to the rank of adjutant-general of the 
Prussian army. Soon after the beginning 
of the American Revolution, England, 
having hired of the petty German sover- 
eigns 20,000 troops, of which 4,000 were 
from Brunswick, Riedesel was given the 
rank of major-general and placed in com- 
mand of the Brunswickers. He arrived 
with his troops at Quebec, Canada, June, 
1776. The following year he joined Bur- 
goyne on his unfortunate expedition, in 
command of all the German troops. Rie- 
desel wrote an extended account of his ex- 
perience as an officer and a prisoner while in 
America. This journal was afterward 
translated into English. He passed through 
York, December, 1778, in command of his 
own troops as prisoners on their way to Vir- 
ginia, and upon his return in 1779 remained 
here a week with his wife, three children 
and a retinue of attendants. 

.\fter the surrender at Saratoga, some of 
the English officers were exchanged, but 
few of the Germans. Riedesel wrote to 
Howe, at Philadelphia, asking that a cor- 
responding number of German officers be 
exchanged, including General Specht and 
Riedesel's own aides. The Baron remained 
in command of his own soldiers and had 
them undergo military drill every day while 
in camp at Winter Hill, after their move- 
ment to Boston, even though they had 
given up their arms at the surrender. 

After the prisoners learned that Congress 
at York had decided not to recognize the 
agreement at Saratoga, numbers of them 
deserted. 'J'here were, however, more 

desertions among the English than the Ger- 
mans. Congress sent an American named 
]\Iasserow as a commissioner, to Boston to 
consult with the British and German officers 
with reference to their exchange. Riedesel 
alleges that Masserow accepted bribes; that 
he received from 50 to 100 guineas each, for 
recommending to Congress certain officers 
to be exchanged. It is even claimed by the 
Baron in his journal that Burgoyne himself 
courted the favor of the commissioner and 
through him obtained authority of Congress 
for his own release b)^ the payment of 
$40,000, which was paid in provisions and 
used for the maintenance of the American 
troops and British and Hessian prisoners in 
[Massachusetts. By the order of General 
Howe, ships were sent from Rhode Island 
laden with flour and meat. 

General Riedesel, through Commissioner 
Masserow, petitioned Congress for permis- 
sion to send to Canada for the baggage and 
clothing of his troops, which was granted. 
During the summer of 1778 the people of 
Massachusetts, as well as the American 
soldiers, tried to induce the prisoners to 
desert. They succeeded best with the 
British. By the 5th of April, 655 English 
soldiers, 119 Germans, 41 Hesse-Hanau and 
3 Brunswickers had deserted. Up to this 
time not a single German officer had been 

In November, 1778, arrangements were 
made to send the captured troops to Vir- 
ginia. The American guard for removing 
these troops was increased by the addition 
of three regiments of the Massachusetts 
militia. The light horse and artiller}- were 
also increased. In May, American emis- 
saries came into camp and induced many 
Germans to desert. By authority of Con- 
gress circulars were distributed through the 
camps of the prisoners to encourage both 
the British and Germans to desert. During 
the months of April and May the Bruns- 
wickers lost 118 men by desertion. 

In September a number of German 
officers were exchanged, among them Chap- 
lain F. V. Melsheimer, of the Brunswick 
Dragoon Regiment. 

After Congress decided not to accept the 
conditions of the surrender at Saratoga, Sir 
Henry Clinton, in New York, declared that 
if the Convention troops were to be treated 
like other prisoners, they must be supported 



by their captors. General Heath, in com- 
mand at Boston, received orders from Con- 
gress at York that the British and German 
prisoners should be removed to Charlottes- 
\ille, Virginia, a long distance away from 
the theatre of war, and to a jilace where 
provisions could more easily be oljtained. 
The prisoners were marched from Rutland 
and Cambridge by the American guard in 
the following order, starting November 10: 
Each nationality formed three 
Order di\-isions, and was attended by an 

of American escort. The first Eng- 

March. lish division, consisting of the 
artillery, grenadiers, light infantry 
and the Ninth Regiment under Lieutenant 
Colonel Hill, and the First German division, 
consisting of the dragoons, grenadiers, and 
the regiment Von Rhetz under Major Von 
Mengen, were to start on November 10. 
The second English division, consisting of 
tlie Twentieth and Twenty-first Regiments, 
under command of Major Forster, and the 
second German division, consisting of the 
regiments of Von Riedesel and Von Specht 
and led by Brigadier-General Specht, were 
to follow on the nth. On the 12th the third 
English division, composed of the Twenty- 
fourth, Forty-seventh and Sixty-second 
Regiments, under the command of Briga- 
dier Hamilton, were to follow. The third 
German division, which was made up of the 
battalion Barner, the regiment Hesse- 
Hanau, and Hanau artillery, under Briga- 
dier Gall, were also to march on the same 

General Riedesel says in his journal: 

"The want of money was one of critical 
importance in our position at that time. All 
the officers who had money were obliged to 
lend it for the use of the troops, who in this 
manner received their pay in hard cash. 
Those officers who were in need of money 
had as much furnished them as was neces- 
sary to procure horses, etc., for their long 
journey. Nor was this more than fair, as 
several months' pay was due them. This 
arrangement was somewhat of a help, it is 
true, but not nearly enough to satisfy the 
demands of all." 

When the German troops arrived at 
Salisbury, Conn., they received $70,000, 
which Riedesel had borrowed on his own 
credit from merchants in Boston. On No- 
veml)er 28, the advance of the German 

troops arrived at Fishkill, on the Hudson; 
December 13, they were passing through 
Bucks County, Pennsylvania, and on the 
i6th crossed the Schuylkill at Valley Forge. 
On the 20th they crossed the Conestoga 
Creek to Lancaster, where they rested one 
day : on the 22d they crossed the Susque- 
hanna at Wright's Ferry and took quarters 
for the night at York. On the 24th they 
arrived at Hanover, where they rested a 
day, passed through Littlestown on Christ- 
mas day and on the 26th halted at Taney- 
tbwn, Marjdand. The other brigades or 
divisions of British and German troops fol- 
lowed in succession, a day behind the ad- 

On New Year's eve, 1778, the German 
troops first stepped upon the soil of Vir- 
ginia and on the 15th of January arrived at 
their place of destination, near Charlottes- 
ville, where they remained as prisoners of 
war from January, 1779, until the fall of 
1781. The estimated number of British and 
German troops wdio were marched from 
Massachusetts through York to Virginia, 
was 4,459. According to this statement 
about 1,300 had deserted, for the descriptive 
list shows that 5,800 had surrendered at 
Saratoga in October, 1777. 

In an account of the movement of the 
troops from Boston to Virginia, William 
Stone, the biographer of Riedesel, states: 

"On this journey General Riedesel and 
his family experienced much that was dis- 
agreeable, and suffered many wrongs from 
the inhabitants, \\ho w-ere to a man in favor 
of the cause of freedom. Some of them 
scarcely would grant a shelter to the w'eary 
travellers, even when extreme fatigue pre- 
vented them from going a step further, and 
it \vould have been still worse for them, had 
not ^ladame Riedesel been in the party. 
By her eloquence and patience, she knew 
how to move these obdurate people. 

"The passage across the Hudson in a 
miserable skifif in the midst of stormy 
weather, was attended with extreme dan- 
ger; and competent judges who afterward 
heard of it. could scarcely understand how 
it was that it had been so successfully ac- 
complished. The river having been safely 
crossed, the party continued their journe}^ 
as far as the residence of an American 
colonel, by the name of Osborn, to whom 
Riedesel had a letter from Gates. Thev 



were received Ijy liim in a most friendly 
manner, notwithstanding he was a great 
enemy to tlie ro}-aIists, as well as a very 
l)lunt man. 

"The fact that General Rie- 
Excitement desel did not arrive at Lan- 
in caster on the 19th of Decent- 

Lancaster, ber, with the troops, was, per- 
haps, a most fortunate cir- 
cumstance; for the inhabitants were so en- 
raged against him, that extreme measures 
might ha\e been provoked by his presence. 
Among the silly reports that were circulated 
and believed in those excitable times by the 
people of Lancaster, was one to the effect 
that the town of Lancaster and the sur- 
rounding cotmtry had been presented to the 
German general, by the king of England, and 
that the general would soon arrive with his 
troops to take possession. The excitement 
was, therefore, great wdien the German 
troops arrived ; but as soon as the American 
officers on the escort explained the true 
position of affairs, and the pitiable condition 
of the troops was seen, many a good citizen 
of Lancaster wondered how he could have 
given credence to such a ridiculous rumor. 

"Snow had fallen to such a depth that the 
carriages of the general's party could 
scarcely move. The coachmen, at times, 
were obliged to take the horses from the 
vehicles, and with the officers who escorted 
the family, ride on in advance, to break a 
road. The provisions were exhausted, and 
very often not a particle of food could be 
had of the inhabitants even for money. 
Baroness Riedesel and her children actually 
suffered from sheer want, and this notwith- 
standing her husband and his officers de- 
prived themselves of everything, that the 
women and children might be provided for. 
Captain Edmonson, who, out of love for the 
children, had accompanied the party, would 
often ride to the huts, wdiich were a little 
off the road, and beg provisions of the in- 
habitants; but he generally returned from 
a l>ootless mission. 

"Soon after crossing the Hudson, General 
Riedesel, accompanied by a few of his adju- 
tants, left his family in order to overtake his 
troops. It is not known definitely wdiere he 
met them, or indeed if he overtook them at 
all. Only this much is known to a certainty, 
that the general waited for his family at 
Colle, which is distant about two hours 

from Charlottesville. Here he had hired a 
house which he was occupying when 
Madame Riedesel and the children joined 
him about the middle of February. The 
party had been twelve weeks on their w^ay, 
liad crossed six states, and had journeyed 
six hundred and seventy-eight miles. The 
house, hired by Riedesel at Colle, belonged 
to an Italian, wdio, a few weeks later, moved 
out of it, leaving it, together with a nice 
little garden, to Riedesel and his family." 

During the stuumer of 1779, General 
Riedesel built a house at Colle, wdiich cost 
him 100 guineas, but his family and he never 
had the opportunity of occupying it. In 
September of that year he received word 
that he would soon be exchanged. After 
putting the German prisoners in charge of 
General Specht, by authority of Colonel 
James Wood, the commander of the Ameri- 
can guard, Riedesel left Virginia for Xew 
York, accompanied by Major-General Phil- 
lips. Soon after his arrival there he was 
exchanged and by order of Sir Henry Clin- 
ton was placed in command at Long Island 
with headquarters on what are now Brook- 
lyn Heights. At tlie close of the Revolu- 
tion, in 1783, he returned to Germany, 
where he w^as given the rank of lieutenant- 
general in 1787. At the time of his death, 
in 1800, he was commandant of the city of 


The wife of General Riedesel had a ro- 
mantic history during the Revolution. She 
followed the fortunes of her husband and 
was captured at Saratoga when Burgoyne 
surrendered. The Baroness kept a diary, 
wdiich was afterward published in the Ger- 
man language. This journal was translated 
into English and pulilished in America in 
1867. The story of her experience after 
her capture reads like a romance of the 
Middle Ages. During her captivit}', she 
twice passed through York and on her 
return from Virginia spent several days in 
York with her three little daughters and a 
retinue of attendants. A condensed story 
of her experience is herewith given : 

The Baroness Riedesel was present at the 
first engagement at Saratoga and was near 
her husband in the thickest of the fight. She 
heard the rattle of musketry, and the boom 



of cannon, and when the fighting ended took 
care of the wounded. After the battle a 
large calash was built to convey herself, her 
three children, and her two servants, and 
in this vehicle she followed the army in the 
midst of the soldiers, who were merrily 
singing songs and hurrahing with a desire 
for victory. 

"\Miile passing through the American 
camp in my calash after the surrender," 
says the Baroness, "none of the American 
soldiers cast at us scornful glances, even 
showing compassion on their countenances 
at seeing a mother with her little children in 
such a situation. \\'hen I approached the 
-tents, a noble looking man came toward me, 
took the children out of the wagon, em- 
braced and kissed them and then with tears 
in his eyes helped me also to alight. His 
tenderness toward my children and myself 
inspired me with courage. He then led me 
to the tent of General Gates, with whom I 
found Generals Burgoyne and Philips, con- 
ferring about the capitulation. 

"I then learned that this noble 

Dined man, who led me to the tent. 

With was the American General 
Schuyler. Schuyler, who had preceded 
Gates in the command of the 
American army. Schuyler invited me to 
dine at his own tent and I then learned that 
this noble-hearted man was a husband and 
father. I afterwards met his wife and 
daughters in Albany. One of his daughters 
married Alexander Hamilton." 

The Baron and Baroness Riedesel mo\'ed 
with the prisoners from Albanj^ to Boston, 
riding in their calash. They occupied a 
comfortable home at Cambridge for a year 
while arrangements were made to remove 
the prisoners to Virginia. 

The cause of this order was the declara- 
tion of Sir Henry Clinton, then in command 
of the British at New York City, that since 
the Convention troops (those who sur- 
rendered at Saratoga) were not acknowl- 
edged as such, but looked upon in the same 
light as ordinary prisoners of war, he was 
no longer disposed to forward provisions to 
them, or pay the "exorbitant bills of the 
Americans," consequently Congress must 
maintain the prisoners itself. .As the coun- 
try in the vicinity of Boston was very de- 
ficient in provisions, the Convention troops 
were accordingly sent to Virginia, which it 

was thought would be better able to furnish 
the needful supplies. 

The keeping of the German colors were 
entrusted to the Baroness at Cambridge. 
During the time she remained there she had 
them concealed within a mattress. The 
.\mericans thought they had been destroyed 
at Saratoga, but some time later this mat- 
tress was forwarded to Halifa.x, and when 
the Baroness was set free, in 1782, she took 
the mattress with her to her native land. 

"In the month of November, 1778," says 
the Baroness, "when the prisoners were 
ordered to Virginia, my husband purchased 
a pretty English wagon so that we were 
enabled to travel easily with my three 
daughters, Gustava, Frederika and Caro- 
line. Gustava entreated Captain Edmons- 
ton, one of my husband's adjutants, not to 
leave us on the way. He gave his promise 
and faithfull}' kept it. I traveled with the 
army on the way to Virginia. An old 
Yager, who acted as driver, together with 
the captain guided our vehicle over the 
almost impassable roads. My provisions 
and baggage were carried in a wagon which 
followed the servants. Upon reaching the 
Hudson River at Fishkill, we lodged at the 
house of a boatman. After crossing the 
river and going a distance, my husband, 
children and both my maidservants re- 
mained eight days at the home of Colonel 
Osborn, a wealthy planter, in order to give 
our troops time to cross the river, which, on 
account of the scarcity of boats, was very 
tedious. Our third stopping place after 
leaving Colonel Osborn was at the house 
of a German. At another time we had our 
quarters for the night at the home of Colo- 
nel Howe. Before we crossed the Blue 
Mountains, in Virginia, we made a further 
halt of eight days that our troops might 
have time to collect again. 

"Meantime such a great quantity 
Down of snow fell that two of our 
in servants were obliged to go 

Virginia, before my wagon on horseback 
in order to make a path for us. 
On our journey through Pennsylvania, 
Maryland and Virginia, we passed through 
a picturesque country which, however, by 
reason of its wildness, inspired us with ter- 
ror. We arri\ed at Colle. near Charlottes- 
ville, in the middle of February, 1779, where 
my husband, who had gone ahead with our 



troops, awaited us with impatient longing. 
yiy husband built a large house at Cole, two 
hours' ride from the prisoners quartered at 
Charlottesville. The house cost him one 
hundred guineas. In the summer of 1779, 
we received word that General Philips and 
my husband, with their adjutants, had per- 
mission to go to New York in order to be 
exchanged. My husband handed over the 
charge of the German troops to General 
Specht. He then proceeded northward with 
General Philips and I set out to meet him 
at York, Pennsylvania. Before leaving Vir- 
ginia, Mrs. Carroll sent me an invitation for 
me to visit her at her home in Maryland. I 
determined to accept her courtesies. She 
resided near the town of Baltimore, which. 
I was told, was very pretty and inhabited 
by many amiable families. We remained as 
her guests eight days and were hospitably 

"While moving toward York, Pennsyl- 
vania, from Baltimore, we were overtaken 
in a forest by a violent thunderstorm. A 
trunk of a tree broke and fell between the 
carriage box and the horses. Here we sat 
fast aground, and could not stir from the 
place, as none of our servants were strong 
enough to move the tree from the spot 
where it had fallen. In the meantime, it 
thundered fearfully; the lightning struck in 
several places round about us ; and another 
and larger tree threatened to crush us. I 
could only urge the ser\'ants to disengage us 
from the jam, but the coachman, who was 
completely bewildered, assured me it was 
impossible. At last, my little Gustava, who 
was at that time only eight years old, said, 
'Only unhitch the horses, and put them be- 
hind the wagon, and you can draw it back- 
wards.' This suggestion was immediately 
acted upon, and every one asked the other 
why that idea had not occurred to them 

"So finally we arrived happily at 

The York, in Pennsylvania, where we 

Baroness found my husband, who had 
in York, been very much w^orried about 
us on account of the vivid light- 
ning. \\'e rode through 'a magnificent coun- 

The "Memoirs" of Baron Riedesel says: 
"Upon reaching York with General Philips, 
whom he had met on the w^ay, the Baron 
found that his wife had arrived a few davs 

before him. After encountering many dan- 
gers that brave woman, with her children, 
had reached the place a few days earlier and 
had thus had an opportunity of enjoying a 
little rest, which she very much needed." 

"From York," says the Baroness, "we 
pursued our journey through beautifully 
cultivated country regions and arrived 
safely at Elizabeth, New Jersey. We ex- 
pected to cross over to New York the same 
evening and be restored to our freedom, but 
while seated at dinner, an officer from 
Washington arrived with a letter ordering 
us to return to Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 
as Congress had refused to ratify the ex- 
change. The eyes of General Philips, who 
was by nature very passionate, fairly scintil- 
lated with rage. In a fit of anger he struck 
the table with his fist. I was like one petri- 
fied and could not utter a word." 

In obedience to the order, they returned 
to Bethlehem, remaining there until the lat- 
ter part of November, when they were 
allowed to enter the British lines in New 
York City. General Riedesel and his wife 
remained there several months, and March 
7, 1780, she gave birth to her fourth 
daughter. Says the baroness in her diary : 
"We had intended, in case it had been a boy, 
to call the child Americus, which we now 
exchanged for America." General Philips, 
General Knyphausen and Colonel Wurmb 
acted as sponsors at the baptism of the 


Dr. John Connolly, a romantic character 
in the history of the Revolution, was held a 
prisoner of war at York for a period of two 
years. He was born in Lancaster County 
in 1744, son of John Connolly, a surgeon in 
the British service in America. His mother 
was first the wife of James Patterson, the 
noted Indian trader, at Lancaster, who, 
after his death married as her second hus- 
band, Thomas Ewing, father of General 
James Ewing, of York County, who com- 
manded a brigade in the Flying Camp. 
Surgeon Connolly was her third husband. 
Dr. John Connolly, their son, who was edu- 
cated as a physician, was a man of vigor and 
force, ^^'hen the Revolution opened he be- 
came a loyalist, and at the suggestion of 
Lord Dunmore, Governor of Virginia, went 
to Boston, where he obtained a colonel's 

thl: re\ull"i'1().\ 


commission from General Gage. tlie Britisli 
commander at that port. Owing to his 
alliance with Dunrnore, who was also a 
loyalist, Connolly was induced to raise a 
regiment of Tories and Indians to be known 
as the Roj-al Foresters. \\'hile passing 
through Hagerstown, Maryland, with a 
single companion on his way to the western 
frontier for the purpose of organizing his 
command, he was arrested. His captors 
found in his saddlebags his commission. He 
was taken to Philadelphia and placed in 
prison. \\'hile passing through York, Con- 
nolly recorded in his journal : "On the sec- 
ond day after our capture we arrived at 
York, where a committee decided that we 
should be confined in a room in the county 
jail, in which was a straw bed. little cover- 
ing" and no fire. The new-made soldiers of 
York were then so fond of fife and drum 
that they entertained us all night with this 
music. The next morning, January i, 1776, 
we were conducted to the tavern, where our 
horses had been kept, by a militar}- guard 
with a drummer beating the Rogue's 
March. When the guard which brought us 
here from Frederick started from York, the 
people of the town and the soldiers ironic- 
ally complimented us with many wishes of 
a happ}' new year. Great numbers of the 
inhabitants of York rode with us until we 
arrived at Wright's Ferry, the home of my 
half brother, Colonel James Ewing, who 
differed from me in political affiliation, for 
he espoused the cause of the colonies. At 
Ewing's request, I was allowed to walk on 
the ice with him in crossing the Susque- 
hanna. After less than a year's imprison- 
ment in Philadelphia, through my brother, 
James Ewing, wdio had become a general in 
the American army, I was released upon a 
temporary parole and permitted to go to his 
home in York County, where I was allowed 
to go five miles distant for exercise to re- 
cuperate my health. Here I was sent in 
November, 1776, and remained two months, 
when I was again remanded to prison, but 
General Ewing again came to my rescue 
and by his own bond I was, in the spring of 
1777, again permitted to live at his home 
on parole. I continued in this happy situa- 
tion from April 11 to October 14, 1777. 
W'hen Congress moved to York, the Board 
of ^^'ar, believing that I was plotting 
against the go\ernment. had me placed in 

the county jail at York, where I was closely 
locked up and all the former severity 
against me renewed. The York jail was so 
crowded witii British prisoners, permanent 
and transient, that a contagious fever ap- 

Connolly, being a physician, in May, 177S, 
petitioned Congress, then sitting at York, 
to relieve him and his associates from this 
unsanitary condition of affairs, .\mong the 
British prisoners who signed this document 
with Connolly were Richard M. Stockton, 
Charles Harrison, Asher Dunham, Robert 
Morrison and Francis Frazer. 

Five days later the Board of \\'ar, under 
instructions from Congress, reported that 
Thomas Peters, deput}' commissary of 
prisoners at York and Carlisle ; Dr. Henry, 
an attending surgeon, and Colonel Picker- 
ing, a member of the Board of War, had 
visited the York jail and found that the 
statements made by Connolly and his asso- 
ciates were exaggerated. They further 
mentioned "that Connolly and six British 
officers occupied two rooms in the jail, one 
fifteen by twenty feet, and the other nearly 
as large; that they also had the privilege of 
the jail yard, which was sixty yards long 
and eighteen yards wide. This jail is used 
as a place of temporary confinement for 
passing prisoners and is not now crowded. 
There are only nine privates in the jail, 
and three of them are the officers' servants. 
The jail is capable of holding one hundred 
and sixty prisoners. Five of the soldiers 
Iiave light fevers, common to places of con- 
finement, but their disorders are not con- 
tagious or dangerous." 

Dr. William Shippen, surgeon-general of 
the army, while on a visit to York, had ex- 
amined Connolly during his imprisonment 
and pronounced him a hypochondraic and 
not responsible for his statements. This 
opinion was concurred in by Colonel Pick- 
ering and the rest, but Connolly denied 
these allegations and claimed he was treated 

.\fter Congress returned to Philadelphia, 
in June, 1778, Connolly was admitted to 
parole and sent to that city, but he was 
afterward remanded to prison, where he re- 
mained until nearly the end of the war. 

-After the close of the Revolution he 
\isited General Ewing upon his plantation. 
On one occasion, in an unguarded moment. 




\\lien seated at tlie tal)le, lie boastfully made 
the remarkable statement that the British 
army would yet come down from Canada 
and concjuer the United States. This as- 
tounding remark exasperated Ewing, who 
rose from his chair and seized Connolly by 
the throat. The two men were separated 
by the appeals of Ewing's wife. Although 
holding opposite views during the Revolu- 
tion and thereafter, there always existed a 
bond of fraternal union between Ewing and 
his half-brother. Even as late as 1798, in 
an attempt to recover land that he owned at 
the Falls of the Ohio River, Connolly at- 
tempted to enlist some army officers in a 
scheme to capture Louisiana and set up a 
separate government in the West. The at- 
tention of the President of the United States 
was called to this plot and measures were 
taken to prevent its execution. Connolly 
died in Canada at an advanced age. He was 
an adventurer throughout his whole life. 


REVOLUTION— Continued. 

Committee of Safety — Associators — Bio- 
graphical — Historical Notes — Muster 
Rolls — Pensioners. 

In the year 1774. when the sentiment 
spread throughout America in opposition 
to the British government of the colonies, 
committees of correspondence and commit- 
tees of safety were organized. Li May of 
that year, Charles Thomson, by order of 
the Committee of Safety of Philadelphia, 
sent out circular letters to the different 
counties of Pennsylvania, asking for the 
sentiments of the inhabitants in relation to 
the attitude of the mother country toward 
the colonies. This letter also asked that 
delegates should be chosen from York 
County to attend a provincial conference to 
be held at Philadelphia, June 15, 1774. 

Li response to this letter a meet- 
First ing was held in York, presided 
Meeting over by Michael Swope, who 
in afterwards commanded _ a regi- 

York. ment of Y'ork County troops in 

the Revolution. This meeting 
decided to concur with the sister colonies 
in anv constitutional measures in order to 

obtain redress, and recognized the j^eople of 
Boston as "sufl:"ering in the common cause 
of liberty." It was resolved that every 
township in Y'ork County send delegates to 
meet in convention on the 4th of July fol- 
lowing. A committee of thirteen was then 
appointed for the town of Y'ork. June 28, 
the Philadelphia Committee of Safety 
transmitted to the committee of thirteen in 
York, resolutions passed by the Provincial 
Conference assembled in State House 
Square on June 18. This Provincial Con- 
ference had recommended that the com- 
mittees appointed in the different counties 
or such number of them as thought proper, 
meet in Philadelphia at the time the 
Provincial Assembly should convene. On 
account of the Indian disturbances, John 
Penn, governor of Pennsylvania, liad called 
a meeting of the Pro\incial Assembly for 
July 18. The committees of the several 
counties thus assembling in Philadelphia at 
the same time as the Provincial Assembly 
met, could then frame and prepare such 
matters for submission to the Assembly as 
might be thought proper and expedient. 

In accordance with this request, James 
Smith, Joseph Donaldson and Thomas 
Hartley were sent as deputies from Y'ork 
County to the Provincial Conference, which 
had been announced to assemble at Phila- 
delphia on July 15, three days before the 
Pro\incial Assembly met pursuant to the 
call of Governor Penn. James Smith was 
appointed a member of a committee to pre- 
pare a petition to the Provincial Assembly 
to appoint delegates to attend a Continental 
Congress of representatives from all the 
colonies in America. This Congress met in 
Philadelphia, September 5, 1774, in Car- 
penter's Hall. Among the members of this 
illustrious body were George Washington, 
Patrick Henry, John Adams, Samuel 
Adams, John Jay, and John Rutledge. This 
Congress agreed upon a Declaration of 
Rights, and after discussing other meas- 
ures, adjourned to meet in Philadelphia on 
the loth of May, 1775. 

On December 16, 1774, the freeholders 
of Y'ork County met at the Court House for 
the purpose of electing a Committee of 
Safety, which was composed of one or more 
representatives from every township in the 
county. The following is a list of the per- 
sons chosen : 



HcMiry Slagle, 
Joseph Donaldson, 
George Eichclbergcr. 
George Irwin, 
John Hay, 
Archibald McClcan. 
David Grier, 
David Kennedy. 
Thomas Fisher. 
John Kean, 
John Houston. 
George Kuntz, 
Simon Coppenhaffer, 
Joseph Jefferies, 
Robert McCorlcy, 
Michael Hahn, 
Baltzer Spanglcr. 
Daniel Messerly, 
Nicholas Bittinger, 
Michael Davis, 

Jacob Doudel. 
Frederick Fischcl. 
James Dickson. 
William McClellan, 
William Cathcart, 
Patrick Scott. 
Michael Doudel, 
Michael Bard, 
Casper Reinecker, 
Henry Liebhard, 
John Maxwell. 
George Oge, 
John O. Blcncs. 
William Dill. 
Henry Banta. Sr., t^ 
William Kilmary, 
William Chesney, 
Francis Holton, 
Peter Reel. 
Andrew Finlev. 

On Decemljer 17, the Committee met at 
tlie Court House and organized by electing 
James Smith, chairman ; Thomas Hartley, 
vice-president; John Hay, treasurer, and 
George Lewis Lefler, secretary. At this 
meeting the committee prepared rules for 
the transaction of business, laid plans for 
raising money to be sent to the unfortunate 
people of Boston, whose rights had been 
trampled upon by the English government, 
and then adjourned until December 29. On 
December 22. 1774, a letter was received 
from the Committee of Safety in Philadel- 
phia requesting that the local committees 
in Pennsylvania send delegates to a 
Provincial Convention to be held in Phila- 
delphia, January 23, 1775, in order that 
these delegates might discuss questions 
relating to the common defence of the peo- 
ple in Pennsylvania and the other colonies. 
James Smith, Thomas Hartley. John Hay, 
George Eichelberger, Joseph Donaldson, 
George Irwin and Michael Smyser were 
chosen by the committee to represent York 
County in the proposed convention. When 
this Provincial Conference met at Philadel- 
phia, on January 22, they resolved that this 
Convention heartily approved of the con- 
duct and proceedings of the Continental 
Congress, wiiich had alread\- held a ses- 

In April, 1775, James Smith, chairman of 
the Committee of Safety, addressed a 
patriotic letter to the committee at Boston 
and forwarded the sum of 246 pounds for 
tiie relief of the suffering people of that 

I'he term Associators \vas ap])lied to 
patriotic citizens of Pennsylvania who 
1)anded together earlv in the I'^exnlution to 

protect themselves against the alleged 
tyranny of the English government, of 
which they were subjects. The love of 
liberty seems to have been inborn with our 
ancestors before the struggle for indepen- 
dence had begmi. Persecutions in Europe 
had led the Scotch from the north of Ire- 
land, the Germans from the Palatinate, the 
Pietists from Germany and Switzerland to 
come to this province because its founder 
had offered freedom of conscience and a 
liberal government. 

After the close of the Erench and Indian 
war, peace and prosperity reigned through- 
out York, Cumberland, Westmoreland and 
Bedford, then called the frontier counties, 
embracing all the region west of the Sus- 
quehanna River. W ithin a few years York 
and Cumberland had become densely popu- 
lated, each containing about twenty-live 
thousand settlers, who were clearing the 
primeval forests, cultivating the valuable 
lands and hunting the wild game which was 
alnmdant everywhere. 

As a result of the Indian in- 
Expert cursions and their experience a^ 
Riflemen, hunters, these sturdy pioneers 
had become expert riflemen. 
When they heard the news from Xew Eng- 
land and the other colonies that measures 
would be taken to resist the tyranny of 
England, our ancestors in York County 
were (|uick to respond. .Militia companies 
had been in existence before 1750, and three 
companies from York County had partici- 
pated as Provincial troops in the French 
and Indian war. They had been sworn into 
the British service to protect their home^ 
against the hostile invaders and finrdly 
drove them back to the Ohio Valley. 

The military spirit had decreased for 
sexeral years, until the patriots of York 
County heard of the difficulties at Boston. 
James Smith, the leading member of the 
York Bar, in May, 1774, was sent as a dele- 
gate to the Provincial Conference, which 
was held at Carpenter's Hall. Philadelphia. 
From the time he had heard of the disturbed 
state of affairs in Massachusetts, James 
Smith was one of the foremost in this prov- 
ince to advocate armed resistance against 
the mother country. He presented his 
arguments with force and eloquence to the 
Conference, which, however, adopted con- 
ciliatorv measures. 



Immediately after his return to 
The York, this ardent advocate of 

First American liberty began the 

Company, organization of the first mili- 
tary company in Pennsylvania 
for the purpose of opposing British oppres- 
sion. James Smith was chosen captain of 
this company; Thomas Hartley, first lieu- 
tenant; David Grier, second lieutenant; 
Henry [Miller, ensign. The commanding 
officer became a signer of the Declaration of 
Independence and his subordinates all won 
distinction in the American army. The 
non-commissioned officers and privates 
^vere composed of the leading citizens of 
the town and county. They met regularly 
for drill and discipline, being armed with 
rifles for complete training in the art of war. 

Meantime the first Continental Congress 
had met at Carpenter's Hall, September 5, 
1774, and although this body agreed upon 
a declaration of rights, and sent a petition 
to the king, it did not urge armed resist- 
ance against the mother country. The mili- 
tary spirit, however, was rife throughout 
York Count}^, \\'hicli embraced the area now 
included in .Vdanis, and within a short time 
other companies of Associators were 
formed. On February 14, 1775, the local 
Committee of Correspondence, at a meet- 
ing held in the Court House at York, re- 
corded that there were several companies of 
Associators within the limits of the count\' 
engaged in military drill and discipline 
similar to the one at York. It further 
stated that the conunanding officers were 
willing to disband these companies if their 
existence was not agreeable to the com- 
mittee. James Smith being chairman, de- 
clared in open meeting and had it recorded 
that the committee would not discourage 
the martial spirit of these Associators 
throughout York County, but on the con- 
trary reported: "we are of the opinion that 
said Associators if trained with prudence, 
moderation and a strict regard to good 
order, under the direction of a man of 
probity and understanding, would tend 
much to the security of this country 
against the attempts of our enemies." 

The news from Lexington and Concord 
where the British had attacked the militia 
of Massachusetts, stimulated the military 
ardor of the .'\ssociators in York County, 
and it reached the higliest point of tension 

when these patriots heard of the battle of 
Bunker Hill, June 17, 1775. Immediately 
after the news was brought to York 
County, the military company conunanded 
l)y Captain Michael Doudel, with Lieuten- 
ants Miller, Dill and Matson, began the 
march to join the patriot army under Wash- 
ington around Boston. The career of this 
company is told elsewhere in this volume. 

'I'he Revolution had now opened and all 
of the thirteen colonies were in a condition 
of rebellion. This state of affairs brought 
about a meeting of the Pennsylvania As- 
sembly, June 30, 1775, which by this time 
had become a patriotic body. INIany of 
those in favor of the British crown had re- 
tired. The Assembly approved the organ- 
ization of Associators and passed resolu- 
tions agreeing in case of invasion to provide 
for necessar}' pay of officers and soldiers 
performing military duty while in active 
service. It recommended that the Board of 
Commissioners and Assessors in each 
county provide a number of muskets or 
rifles with bayonets, cartridge boxes large 
enough for twenty rounds, and knapsacks. 
Three hundred were asked for the Count}- 
of York. Every county was requested to 
select a number of Minute Men equal to the 
number of arms, and to be in readiness 
upon the shortest notice to march to any 
quarter in case of emergency. 

Saturday of each week was set apart for 
military drill. The average number of men 
in a company was eighty, rank and file. 
The company could not go outside of Penn- 
sylvania without the vote of the majority of 
the officers and men. 

Immediately after the first company of 
volunteers under Captain Doudel and Lieu- 
tenant Miller began the march to Boston 
to join the army under Washington, the As- 
sociators began to organize for defensi\-e 
operations in case their services were 
needed. A meeting of the local Committee 
of Safety and officers of the Associators was 
held in the county Court House at York, 
July 28th and 29th, 1775. It was presided 
over by James Smith. Under the authority 
of this meeting, York County was divided 
into five military districts. 

The associated companies then 

Battalions already formed in the town of 

Organized. York and tlie Townships of 

Hellam, Windsor, JManchester, 



York and Codorus, were organized into the 
first Ijattalion of York County .\ssociators 
under the command of James Smith, as 
colonel; Thomas Hartley, lieutenant-colo- 
nel: Joseph Donaldson and Michael Swopc. 

The second battalion was formed from 
associated companies in the region of what 
is now part of Adams County, including the 
Townships of Cumberland, Hamilton Ban, 
Straban, Menallen. ^It. Joy and Tyrone, 
with Robert McPherson, colonel: David 
Kennedy, lieutenant-colonel; and Moses 
McClean and Hugh Dunwoodie, majors. 

The third battalion was formed from as- 
sociated companies in Heidelberg, Berwick, 
Paradise. Mt. Pleasant, ^Manheim and Ger- 
many Townships, with Richard AIcAllister, 
colonel; Henry Slagle, lieutenant-colonel; 
John Andrews and Joseph Jeffries, majors. 

Tlie fourth battalion ^\•as formed from the 
associated companies in Chanceford, 
Shrewsbury, Fawn and Hopewell Town- 
ships, with William Smith, colonel; Francis 
Holton, lieutenant-colonel; and John Gib- 
son and John Finley, majors. 

The fifth battalion was formed from the 
associated companies in Dover. Xewberry, 
Monaghan, \\'arrington, Huntingdon and 
Reading Townships, with \\'illiam Rankin, 
colonel; Matthew Dill, lieutenant-colonel; 
Robert Stevenson and Gerhart Graefif, 

At this same meeting for the or- 
Minute ganization of battalions of Asso- 
Men. ciators, under the authority of the 
Pennsylvania Conference, a bat- 
talion of Minute Men was organized with 
Richard ]ilc.\llister, colonel; Thomas Hart- 
lew lieutenant-colonel, and David Grier, 
major. This battalion was composed of five 
companies, one from each military district 
of the county. Each company of Minute 
Men was composed of a captain, two lieu- 
tenants, four sergeants, four corporals, an 
ensign, a drummer and sixty-eight or more 
privates. These Minute Men were volun- 
teers from the five battalions of Associators. 
one company from each battalion. The 
week following this historic meeting in the 
provincial Court House at York, the differ- 
ent companies were formed and banded 
themselves together to be ready at a mo- 
ment's warning to take the field in defence 
of their rights and liberties. 

The Associators and Minute Men of York 
Coimty who had already subscribed to the 
voluntar}- articles of association for de- 
fensive purposes, and which were the first 
prepared in any province or colony in the 
country, accepted thirty-two articles of as- 
sociation recommended by the Pennsyl- 
\ania Conference, August 12, 1775. These 
articles provided for every contingency that 
might arise to the troops if called into 
active service. They were read in the 
presence of each company, after which 
officers and privates gave their solemn 
attestation. The preamble to these articles 
reads as follows : 

"We, the ofticers and soldiers engaged 
in the present association for the defence 
of American liberty, being fully sensible 
that the strength and security of any body 
of men, acting together, consists in just 
regularit}'. due subordination and exact 
obedience to command, without wdiich no 
indi\'idual can have that confidence in sup- 
port of those about him that is so necessary 
to giye firmness and resolution to the whole, 
do voluntarily and freely, after consider- 
ation of the following articles, adopt the 
same as the rules by which we agree and 
resolve to be governed in all our military 
concerns and operations until the same, or 
any of them, shall be changed or dissolved 
by the Assembly, or Provincial Convention, 
or in their recess by the Committee of 
Safety, or a happy reconciliation shall take 
place between Great Britain and tlit- 

On August I. Colonel James Smith, com- 
mander of the first battalion of Associators 
and chairman of the Committee of Cor- 
respondence and Obserxation for York 
County, addressed a letter to the delegates 
in Continental Congress from Pennsyl- 
vania. This Congress had convened in 
Philadelphia on May 10. on the day when 
Ticonderoga and Crown Point had been 
captured by Ethai* .\llen. As recorded in 
the Pennsylvania .\rchives, Colonel Smith 
asked an opinion as to how the committee 
should proceed with those citizens who for 
conscience' sake were opposed to bearing 
arms. The following day. Michael Swopc. 
of York, who was a member of the Penn- 
sylvania Committee of Safety, wrote to 
John Dickinson, at Philadelphia, president 
of the Committee. In this letter the writer 


HISTom" ()1 


reports the success of a meeting held at 

W illiani Irvine, of Carlisle, 

was prompt. 

York in julv; he asked that the officers was commissioned colonel to oro-anize and 
chosen to command the companies of Asso- command the Sixth Battalion of Pennsyl- 
ciators and Minute Men recei\e commis- vania \'olunteers, largely composed of 
sions, thus giving them proper authority to troops from west of the Susquehanna, 
perform their military dtities. Captain Closes McClean recruited and corn- 
By this time in the history of affairs manded one of the companies from York 
which brought forth the war for indepen- County \\'hich joined Irvine's battalion, and 
dence there were fifty-three battalions of Captain David Grier the other. The 
Associators in Pennsjdvania. It must be muster rolls of these two companies and 
understood that the incidents herein the part taken by these troops in the first 
described took place one year before the Canada expedition will be found in the 
Declaration of Independence, when Penn- chapter on that subject in this volume, 
sylvania was still a province and the As- Thomas Hartley, a member of the York 
sembly not acting under a constitution. County Bar, was commissioned lieutenant- 
which was adopted in 1776, when this prov- colonel of this battalion. He was then 
ince became one of the thirteen original twenty-six years of age. 
states. The remaining troops all over 
On September 14, the local committee Committee York County continued to 
from this county reported to Benjamin of Safety. practice the manual of arms 
Franklin and the Committee of Safety for with their flintlock muskets. 
Pennsylvania, that the number of Associ- They were imbued with the military spirit 
ators in York County was 3,349. Accord- and continued to prepare themselves to 
ing to this report there were in July pre- take an active part in the war which had 
ceding nine hundred non-associators in this opened with so much energy and defiance 
county, who were opposed to bearing arms, to the mother country. ^Meantime a new 
Meantime some of these had voluntarily Committee of Safety and Observation was 
joined the military companies and became elected by a popular vote throughout the 
loyal to the cause of independence. The county. Only men interested in protecting 
liattalions in York County, according to the the rights of the colonies were chosen, 
committee's statement, did not contain an There were several members from each of 
equal number of men, but none of them had the twenty-six townships. The following 
fewer than five hundred. The first three are the names: 
battalions were large enougli for regiments. 
The men appointed to command these com- 
panies were generalh' efficient. The dis- 
cipline of the companies was not all the 
same, so this committee suggested if any 
weve to be called into service it would be 
\\'ell to call otit those who were best trained 
in the manual of arms and in military 

It will thus be seen that the Associators 
west of the Susquehanna were preparing 
themselves for anj- emergencv. The com- 
panv that had volunteered ear'lv in Julv had-^?=''^'" ^pangler, 

, ' , I r ' , John Houston, 

already won a record for courage and Thomas Armor 

marksmanship in Thompson's battalion in 
A\'ashington's army, at Boston. 

When it was decided by Continental 
Congress, in the winter of 1775-6. to send 
an expedition to in\'ade Canada, two com- 
panies were ordered to be recruited for that 
service from the associated battalions of 
York County. The response to this call 

Michael Swope, 
James Smith, 
Thomas Hartley, 
John Hay, 
Charles Lukens, 
David Grier, 
Joseph Donaldson, 
George Irwin, 
John Kean, 
William Lease, 
William Scott. 
George Eichelberger, 
Philip Albright, 
Michael Hahn, 
David Candler, 

John Schultz, 
Christopher Slagle, 
Andrew Rutter, 
Peter Wolfe, 
Philip Jacob King, 
Zachariah Shugart, 
John Herbach, 
William Johnston, 
John Spangler, 
James Dickson, 
Francis Cazart, 

George Brinkerhoff, 
John Semple, 
Robert McPlierson, 
Samnel Edie, 
William McClellan, 
1 homas Donglass, 
John Agnew, 
David Kennedy, 
George Clingen, 
George Kerr, 
Abraham Banta, — 
John Mickle, Jr., 
Samnel McConaughy, 
David McConaughy, 
John Blackburn, 
William Walker, 
Richard McAllister, 
Christian Graff, 
Jacob Will, 
Henry Slagle, 
John Hamilton, 
John Montieth, 
Thomas Lilly, 
Richard Parsel, 
Charles Gelwix, 
John ]\IcClure, 
William Shakly. 
Frederick Gelwix, 
John H inkle. 



John Hoover, 
Patrick McSherry," 
James Lceper, 
Joseph Reed, 
Patrick Scott, 
James Edgar, 
Benjamin Savage, 
Andrew Thompson, . 
Peter Baker, 
Jacob Kase!, 
John Wilhams, 
'Wilham Mitchell, 

Lewis Williams, 
William Rankin, 
James Xailer, 
Haltzer Knertzer, 
Henry Mathias, 
George Stough, 
Daniel Messerly, 
John X^esbit, 
William Wakely, 
John Chamberlain, 
Andrew Thompson, 
Alexander Sanderson. 

The British army, after having been 
driven out of Boston by the Americans 
under Washington, proceeded to Halifax. 
Xova Scotia. When Congress heard that 
this army was about to threaten New York, 
it asked for 2,000 troops from Pennsylvania. 
A regiment under Colonel Sainuel ]\Iiles 
was organized at Philadelphia. One com- 
• pany was called for from York County. 
This company was recruited from dififerent 
battalions of Associators and was placed in 
conmiand of Philip Albright as captain: 
John Thompson, first lieutenant ; Cornelius 
Sheriff, second lieutenant ; William Mc- 
Pherson, second lieutenant ; Jacob Stair, 
third lieutenant. This company joined the 
regiment in June and the story of its 
service is given in the history of Colonel 
^files' regiment, found in this volume. 

During the first years of the war, many 
of the patriots of the Revolution were only 
seeking for what they termed the rights of 
the colonies, but as England was sending 
more troops to this country for the purpose 
of conquering the Americans now in the 
field, the spirit of independence prevailed 
throughout the colonies from New Hamp- 
shire to Georgia. On July 4, 1776, by a 
majority vote in Continental Congress, the 
Declaration of Independence was adopted. 
Pennsylvania was no longer a province 
under the English government. She was in 
the centre of the thirteen original states, 
and when the war had ended was the key- 
stone of the arch vmder which the American 
troops marched when they were mustered 
out of service. Philadelphia was to become 
the first seat of government of the new-born 
Republic of the United States. The five 
battalions of Associators in York County 
continued to drill and discipline more fre- 
quently than they had done before Congress 
had declared the states free and indepen- 
dent. They had company drill at the regu- 
lar parading ground selected by the captain, 
and twice a month all the companies of a 

battalion met and drilled at one place under 
the command of the colonel. The war spirit 
was rife throughout the state of Pennsyl- 
vania and in every section of York County. 

The climax came when the Brit- 
Called ish threatened to capture the city 
Into of New York. Sir William Howe 
Service, was now in command of the 

enemy's troops and had received 
many recruits from across the ocean. In 
order to supply all protective measures pos- 
sible, on July 5, 1776, the day after the 
Declaration of Independence had been 
voted upon, a committee of Congress held 
a conference with the Pennsylvania Com- 
mittee of Safety, and the field officers of the 
five battalions of Associators then organ- 
ized in Philadelphia. At this meeting reso- 
lutions were adopted, urgently requesting 
that the entire force of Associators in Penn- 
sylvania, in all, fifty-three battalions, "who 
can be furnished with arms and accoutre- 
ments be forthwith requested to march 
with the utmost expedition" to Trenton and 
New Brunswick in the State of New Jersey. 
These troops were to remain in the service 
until a Flying Camp composed of 10,000 
men could be organized in the field, and 
placed under the command of General 
Hugh Mercer, a bosom friend of Washing- 
ton. On the same day, Congress approved 
what had been done and "recommended to 
the good people of Pennsylvania to carry 
their purposes into execution with the same 
laudable readiness which they have ever 
manifested in supporting the injured rights 
of their country." This news was soon 
brought west of the Susquehanna and cir- 
culated throughout York County. 

There are no official reports which give 
the historian the privilege of describing in 
detail how these five battalions of associ- 
ated militia from this county congregated at 
their appointed places and began the march 
toward Philadelphia and Trenton. Every 
flintlock musket or rifle available was 
brought into requisition and given to these 
patriots who had answered the call of their 
country for the common defence of the 
nation, which had just declared its indepen- 

Michael Swope took command of 
Going the battalion which had been 
to the drilled by James Smith, who had 
Front, been elected to Congress, and be- 



came a signer of the immortal ileclara- 
tion. Robert McPherson, who then re- 
sided near the site of Gettysburg, marched 
toward York with the Second Battalion. 
Richard McAllister, who was also com- 
mander of the Minute Alen, came with the 
Third Battalion from Hanover and vicinity. 
\\'illiam Smith, with the Fourth Battalion, 
from the lower end of the county, crossed 
the Susquehanna at McCall's Ferry and pro- 
ceeded to Lancaster, where he afterward 
met the other battalions on the march. 
William Rankin came from Newberry and 
adjoining townships with the Fifth Bat- 
talion. If they all obtained firelocks and 
the necessary equipment, there were at least 
2.500 professional men, tillers of the soil 
and tradesmen, who crossed the Susque- 
hanna and began the march to Philadelphia 
and Trenton in the midsummer days of 
July, 1776, shortly after the Declaration of 
Independence had been read in front of the 
Court House at York. 

"On July 7," says the pastor of the 
IMoravian Church in his diary, "strict orders 
came that all Associators of this county 
should hold themselves in readiness to 
march to the front." 

In answer to the call for troops, York 
County responded with the five battalions, 
the advance reaching Philadelphia July 16. 
From thence they proceeded to Perth Am- 
boy, near the city of New York, and during 
the succeeding month two regiments were 
formed out of these battalions of Associ- 
ators. They composed the First and 
Second Pennsylvania Regiments of the 
Flying Camp, whose history will be found 
in another chapter of this book. 

The Associators who had not 
Proof of enlisted in the Flying Camp in 
Patriotism, accordance with the act of 
Congress, after receiving the 
pay of troops in the Continental service, 
were permitted to return home. It seems 
that a sufficient numl:)er had enlisted for the 
immediate demands of the army. The 
object in calling the entire militia force of 
the state for one month had a double pur- 
pose. It supplied sufficient men for the 
Flying Camp, and at that early period 
proved the courage and patriotism of the 
Pennsylvania Associators in the cause of 

The .\ssociators A\'ho returned home kept 

up their organizations and continued their 
military drill and discipline, expecting that 
they might soon again be called into the 
service. After the battle of Long Island, 
which was succeeded by the disaster to the 
American arms at Fort Washington, the 
British held New York City. Succeeding 
these events \\'ashington, with his depleted 
army, retreated across New Jersey and 
when Philadelphia was threatened by the 
invading foe, there was another call for 
troops. The Pennsylvania Council of 
Safety requested the Board of War to sta- 
tion more troops for the defence of Phila- 
delphia. The object of this move was not 
only to protect the city against the invading 
foe, but to menace the adherents to the 
Crown known as Tories, who lived in Phila- 
delphia and the surrounding country. It 
was then ordered that two Virginia battal- 
ions, the German battalion, four companies 
of Marines, and 500 Associators from each 
of the counties of York, Cumberland, Lan- 
caster and Berks be called into the service 
and placed under the command of General 
Stephen for the defence of Philadelphia. 

Thomas Wharton, president of 

Mifflin Pennsylvania, on December 23, 

at issued an address which appealed 

York. to every friend of his country. 

Meantime, General Thomas Mif- 
flin, the "fighting Quaker" of the Revolu- 
tion, was requested by the State Assembly 
to make a tour of Pennsylvania. He made 
speeches in every section of the state, 
arousing the patriotism of the people by his 
fascinating eloquence. He came to York 
and also visited Carlisle. In both of these 
towns he stirred up so much enthusiasm 
that an early chronicler was constrained to 
say "the quota from the back counties was 
easily raised." In fact the loyalty to the 
union of states in the interior counties was 
much more pronounced than in the city of 

This alarming call was the result of the 
defeat of A\^ashington around New York 
City and the retreat of his army across 
New Jersey. The term of enlistment of 
some of his soldiers had ended. The Flying 
Camp, which had enlisted for the term of 
six months, would end January i, but many 
of this gallant band of soldiers were per- 
suaded to remain in the service for a longer 
time. A\'ithin a few da^'s, three thousand 



Associators from the interior of Pennsyl- 
vania arrived in the city of Phihidelphia and 
were placed in command of Cadwalader 
and Ewing, then guarding the Delaware 
River from Trenton to Philadelphia. Al- 
though not active participants, they were 
present at Trenton and Princeton, im- 
portant victories in the American cause. 

When it was feared the British would 
again attack Philadelphia in the spring of 
1777, the Supreme Executive Council, in a 
proclamation of the 9th of April, after 
stating the causes of alarm and calling upon 
the people to prepare for defence, used this 
language : 

"This city lias once been saved by the 
vigorous, manly efforts of a few brave As- 
sociators, who generously stepped forward 
in defence of their country ; and it has been 
repeatedly and justly observed, and ought 
to be acknowledged as a signal evidence of 
the favor of Divine Providence that the 
lives of the associated militia in every Ijattle 
during this just war have been remarkably 
spared. Confiding, therefore, in the con- 
tinuance of His blessing, who is indeed the 
God of Armies, let every man among us 
hold himself ready to march into the field 
whenever he shall be called upon to do so." 
With the passage and promulga- 
State tion of the new militia law, the 
Militia. Associated Battalions as such 
ceased to exist. The days of the 
Associators had passed away and the Penn- 
syl\-ania militia came upon the stage of 
action. It was naturally anticipated that 
greater thoroughness in discipline would be 
the result, yet this was never realized. Al- 
though the militia served well in the cam- 
paign around Philadelphia, September, 
1777, yet their duties were afterward 
chiefly confined either in protecting the 
frontiers, standing sentinel while the back- 
woodsman sowed his grain and reaped his 
harvest, or in guarding prisoners of war. 
The influence of the Associators was never- 
theless felt throughout the contest for in- 

At the next session of the Pennsylvania 
Assembly, a special act was passed relating 
to the militia of the state. The act pro- 
vided for the division of York County into 
six districts for the purpose of keeping the 
militia organizations in practice ready for 
service. Each countv of the state was re- 

quired to have at least 640 militia, armed 
and equipped and ready for military duty. 
Tiie organization of the county 

Militia militia was in ciiarge of a lieu- 
Organized, tenant and in each district a 
sub-lieutenant was appointed. 
This law went into force in March, 1777. 
Richard Mc.Vllister, who had commanded a 
regiment in the Flying Camp, was ap- 
pointed lieutenant of York County. Hance 
Morrison, Robert Stevenson, John Hay, 
James McCandless and John Carson were 
appointed sub-lieutenants. It was the duty 
of the sub-lieutenants to carry out all the 
provisions of the act and see that at least 
640 men in his district between the ages of 
18 and 50 should receive the proper military 
drill so as to be trained in the art of war. 
All persons enrolled who failed to be 
present at muster without cause were fined 
7 shillings and 6 pence. There were eight 
companies in a district. Each company 
was required to drill at least two days eacli 
month. The companies met at regular in- 
tervals for battalion drill. The militia 
forces of the state were then placed under 
the command of Brigadier-Generals John 
Armstrong, John Cadwalader. James Pot- 
ter and Samuel Meredith. In June, Arm- 
strong was made the major-general and 
James Irvine was appointed additional 
brigadier, in August. 

As early as April 25, 1777, President 
AMiarton, by advice of Continental Con- 
gress and the Board of War, ordered at 
least 500 militia from the different counties 
of the state to rendezvous at Bristol and 
Chester, to be in readiness for the enemy if 
they attempted to attack Philadelphia. 

On May i, 1777, Colonel Richard McAl- 
lister wrote to President Wharton that he 
had just finished dividing York County into 
military districts. It was difficult to raise 
tlie quota of 640 men required for each dis- 
trict. He assured Mr. A\"harton that he had 
not lost one hour in organizing the militia, 
nor would he until the work was thor- 
oughly done. On May 7, President Whar- 
ton acknowledged the receipt of McAl- 
lister's letter, assuring the latter that he 
felt confident that he was performing his 
duty to his utmost a1)ility. He requested 
that a report of tlie election of officers for 
each battalion be forwarded in order that 
commissions for these of^cers might be sent 



to Colonel McAllister for distribution. As 
soon as he learned the movements of the 
enemy, Wharton stated that he would in- 
form McAllister of the condition of affairs, 
so that he might be able to furnish the 
quota of men required from York County. 

June 14, the Supreme Executive Council 
of the state sent a circular letter requesting 
the county lieutenants to forward to the 
seat of war the militia of the first class, and 
to have in readiness those of the second 
class for active service. 

July 4, McAllister wrote to 
Trouble President Wharton from Han- 

in over, stating that he had great 

Raising difBculty in getting the battalions 
Troops, together for military practice. 
Some of the officers elected were 
unsatisfactory and others would not serve. 
He stated that there was a lack of arms in 
York County necessary for the troops either 
for drill or active service in the field, and 
urged that the state supply the necessary 
arms. This worked against his ability to 
forward the troops as rapidly as expected. 

On July 28, Continental Congress, upon 
receiving the news of the movement of 
Howe's army from New York toward 
Philadelphia, asked the State of Pennsyl- 
vania to furnish 4,000 troops from the 
organized militia within the state. Each 
county was requested to send one class of 
the militia. 

It will be seen from these numerous calls 
for troops the disturbed condition of affairs 
in Pennsylvania during this crucial period 
of the Revolution. Most of the militia of 
York County at this time belonged to the 
agricultural classes. Some of them were 
Quakers, who, according to their religion, 
were non-combatants. Still another class 
were Germans who had sworn allegiance to 
the government of England when they set- 
tled in York County and other sections of 
Pennsylvania. When General Howe landed 
in N'ew York after the battle of Long Island 
he had offered a general amnesty to all 
Americans who were willing to adhere to 
the British crown. There were many Ger- 
mans serving in the British army at this 
period, and German emissaries were sent 
out among the people of that nationality 
throughout Pennsylvania, urging them to 
oppose the militia laws. This caused a 
great difficultv in York and other counties 

of the state which contained German in- 

On August 28. 1777. Colonel Richard Mc- 
Allister wrote to President Wharton that 
there were dissensions among the Associ- 
ators in the German townships near Han- 
over. Two hundred freemen had assembled 
at one place for the purpose of opposing the 
draft of tlie militia for service in the field. 
He continued by saying that he had lived 
in peace among these people for twenty 
years or more, and knew well their customs 
and habits, but it was very difficult to in- 
duce them to take up arms against the 
country to which they had sworn allegiance. 
He said that notwithstanding the ditficulties 
lie liad encountered in the prosecution of 
his duties as lieutenant of York County, he 
had marched five companies to the front 
fully armed and equipped, in answer to the 
recent call, and would soon have three more 
companies ready to take up the march for 
the army. In this letter McAllister stated 
that in two or three companies all of the 
men were substitutes, except five or six. 
He obtained substitutes for the sum of $40, 
while in Cumberland County from $100 to 
$110 were paid to induce men to enlist as 

Early in the summer. Colonel McAllister 
had received from the State of Pennsyhania 
the sum of 1,000 pounds for the purpose of 
carrying on his work and was charged with 
the same. On August i, the sum of 3,000 
pounds, or about $15,000, was sent to him. 
This money was used to equip the soldiers 
and to buy substitutes to take the places of 
those who refused to enter the army. 

Instead of crossing New Jersey and at- 
tacking Philadelphia, as anticipated. Gen- 
eral Howe set sail from New York and 
came up the Chesapeake Bay, landing near 
Elkton, Md., with an army of 18,000 men. 
At this alarming period of the war. Presi- 
dent Wharton, of Pennsylvania, issued a 
proclamation to the people of the state 
which in part reads as follows: 

"The time is at length come in 
Appeal which the fate of ourselves, our 
to Arms, wives, children and posterity 
must be speedily determined; 
General Howe, at the head of a British 
army, the only hope, the last resource of 
our enemy, has invaded this state, dis- 
missing his ships and disencumbering him- 


self of his heav)- ai"tiller_\- and baggage, he 
appears to have risked all upon the event of 
a movement which must either deliver up 
to plunder and devastation, this capital of 
Pennsylvania and of America, or forever 
blast the cruel designs of our implacable 
foe. Blessed be God, Providence seems to 
have left it to ourselves to determine 
whether we shall triumph in victory and 
rest in freedom and peace, or by tamely 
submitting, or weakly resisting, deliver our- 
selves up a prey to an enemy. 

"The foe is manifestly aiming, either by 
force to conquer, or by strategem and stolen 
marches to elude the vigilance of our brave 
commander, declining a battle with our 
countrjnnen, they have attempted to steal 
upon us by surprise. They have been 
hitherto defeated, but numbers are abso- 
lutely necessary to watch them on every 
quarter at once. 

"The neighboring states are hurrying 
forward their militia, and we hope by rising 
as one man, and besetting the foe at a 
distance from his fleet, we shall speedily 
enclose him like a lion in the toils. 

"The Council therefore most humbly be- 
seech and entreat all persons whatsoexer, to 
exert themselves Avithout delay, to seize 
this present opportunity of crushing the 
foe, now in the bowels of our countr\% by 
marching forth instantly under their re- 
spective officers, to the assistance of our 
great general, that he may be able to en- 
viron and demolish the only British army 
that remains formidable in America. Ani- 
mated with the hope that Heaven, as before 
it has done in all times of difficulty and dan- 
ger, will again crown our righteous efforts 
with success, we look forward to the pros- 
pect of seeing our insulting foe cut off from 
all means of escape and, by the goodness of 
the .Almighty, the Lord of Hosts and God 
of Battles, wholly delivered into our 

The first and second classes 
At of militia had already been 

Brandywine called out during the early 
and summer of 1777. After the 

Germantown. proclamation had been cir- 
culated, the third class had 
been ordered to the seat of war. Similar 
calls were made from other counties in the 
state. They marched to join AX'ashington's 
ami}' near Philadelphia and were placed 

under General .\rmslrong, who commanded 
the extreme left of the American army at 
the battle of Brandywine. .-Mthough not 
actively engaged in the battle. Armstrong 
and his Pennsylvania militia remained on 
the heights below Chad's Ford and were 
witnesses to the battle. After the defeat, 
Armstrong retreated to Chester and then 
moved with Washington to Philadelphia. 
Li the battle of Germantown, the Pennsyl- 
vania militia took a prominent part. They 
behaved with gallantry in this engagement 
as well as in the spirited skirmishes at 
Chestnut Hill, \\'hite Marsh and Crooked 
Billet Tavern. In the affair at White 
Alarsh, Colonel James Thompson, of Hope- 
well Township, who commanded a battalion 
of York County men, was wounded and car- 
ried off the field on a horse by General 
James Potter, then commanding a brigade 
of Pennsylvania militia. 

After the campaign of 1778, which re- 
sulted in the victory at Monmouth, Xew 
Jersey, the Pennsylvania militia west of the 
Susquehanna was utilized in guarding the 
northern and western frontiers from the 
ravages of hostile Indians, who had been 
incited by British emissaries to disturb the 
quietude of white settlers in this region. A 
battalion of York County militia, in 1779, 
under command of Colonel Philip Albright, 
was marched to Standing Stone, the site of 
Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, and quartered 
there for several months. 

When the seat of war was transferred to 
the South, and Pennsylvania was no longer 
in danger of invasion by the British, the 
state militia spent most of their time at 
home, awaiting the result of the war. 
When Burgoyne's army was marched from 
Boston to Virginia in December. 1778. a 
regiment of York County militia took 
charge of these 4,500 British and Hessians 
and marched them to Charlottesville, where 
they were held for three years. After the 
return of these prisoners to Pennsylvania, 
two or three companies of local militia, at 
stated times, guarded about 1.800 prisoners, 
kept in a stockade in Windsor Township, 
four and a half miles southeast of York. In 
1781, when Cornwallis moved northward 
toward \'irginia and threatened to land at 
Annapolis, Maryland, and send a division 
to release the prisoners at York, Lancaster 
and Reading, a part of the militia force was 


called out and stationed along the west 
bank of the Susquehanna, under the direc- 
tion of William Scott, who was lieutenant 
for York Count3^ 

After the close of the war, in 1783. tlie 
militia system was in force for more than 
half a century. 

commanded the first battalion of York 
County militia at Germantown and AVhite 
]\Iarsh, was born in Sadsbury Township, 
Lancaster County, in 1745. He grew to 
manhood in his native county and in 1773 
was married to Lydia, daughter of Robert 
Bailey. Soon after his marriage he re- 
mo\-ed to the southern section of York 
County, where he engaged in farming. He 
became prominently identified with the 
Round Hill Church, in Hopewell Township. 
Shortly after the opening of the Revolution 
he appeared before his l)rother, Andrew 
Thompson, one of the court justices for 
York County, and took the oath of alle- 
giance and fidelity to the government of the 
L'nited vStates. He served as a lieutenant 
in the Pennsylvania Line and was promoted 
for meritorious services. In September, 
1777, when the Pennsylvania militia was 
called into acti\-e service to aid in opposing 
the British army under Howe from its 
approach to Philadelphia, James Thompson 
was commissioned colonel of the First Bat- 
talion of the A^ork County troops. This 
battalion was placed in the brigade of 
Pennsyhania militia commanded by Briga- 
dier-General Potter, and served in the cam- 
paign around Philadelphia during the fall 
of 1777. 

Colonel Thompson was se\-erely wounded 
in an action at White Horse Tavern, near 
Philadelphia, and was carried from the 
field by General Potter, on the latter's 
horse, to the brigade surgeon for treatment. 
After recuperating from his wound. Colonel 
Thompson returned to his home in A'ork 
County, where he served during the next 
year as purchasing agent for the govern- 
ment. In 1779 he was chosen a member, to 
represent York County, in the Supreme 
Executive Council of Pennsjdvania. Some- 
time after the Revolution he removed to 
Sadsbury Township, where, in association 
with his brother-in-law. Colonel John 
Steele, he built a grist mill and a paper mill 
on the (_)ctorara Creek. Thev conducted a 

considerable business here for twenty years 
or more. Late in life. Colonel Thompson 
removed to the Chester County side of the 
Octorara, where he died October 3, 1807, 
at the age of 62 vears. 

York Comity, was a native of the Province 
of Maryland, born August 16, 1742. He 
located in the southern part of York 
County, was an active and energetic Whig, 
and formed one of the Committee of Cor- 
respondence of the County, to succor the 
Eostonians at the time of the going into 
effect of the "Port Bill." He was a dele- 
gate to the Provincial Deputies, which met 
July 15, 1774; justice of the peace from 1774 
to 1776; member of the Provincial Confer- 
ence of January 23, 1775: and member of 
the Convention of July 15, 1776. He was a 
major of the First Battalion of the Associ- 
ators of York County, July, 1775, and was 
in service during the campaign of 1776. 
On the 8th of November, 1777, he was ap- 
pointed one of the commissioners to collect 
clothing for the Continental army. Major 
Donaldson died at York about 1790. For 
ten years he was a partner with Wil- 
liam Harris in the mercantile business at 
the southeast corner of Market and Water 
T t r c c t s 

(SLAGLE) was born in Lancaster County, 
Pennsylvania, in 1735. His father, Chris- 
topher Slagle, of Saxony, came to Pennsyl- 
vania in 1713, and the following year took 
up a large tract of land on the Conestoga 
Creek, and built a mill. Subsequently he 
transferred his interests therein, and re- 
moved, in 1737, west of the Susquehanna, 
locating near the present site of Hanover, 
now within the limits of Adams County, on 
Slagle's Run, a branch of the Little Cone- 
wago. Henry was one of four sons, Daniel, 
Jacob and Christopher, and followed the 
occupation of his father, a farmer and 
miller. He was commissioned one of the 
pro\incial magistrates in October, 1764, 
and continued in of-fice by the convention of 
1776. In December, 1774, he served on the 
committee of inspection for York County: 
commanded a battalion of Associators in 
1779; was a member of the Provincial Con- 
ference of June 18, 1776, and of the subse- 
quent convention of the I5tli of July. He 
was appointed by the Assembly, December 



16, 1777. (o take subscriptions for the Con- 
tinental loan: November 22, 1777, acted as 
one of the commissioners which met at 
New Haven, Connecticut, to regulate the 
price of commodities in the states. He 
represented York County in the General 
Assembly from 1777 to 1779; appointed 
sub-lieutenant of the county, -March 30, 
1780; one of the auditors of depreciation 
accounts for York Cotmty, March 3, 1781 ; 
member of the Constitutional Convention 
of 1789-90; commissioned by Governor 
Miliflin. one of the associate judges of York 
County, August 17, 1791. and continued as 
such upon the organization of Adams 
County. He represented the latter county 
in the Legislature, sessions of 1801-2. 
Colonel Slagle died at his residence, near 
Hanover; his remains were interred in the 
graveyard adjoining St. Matthew's Luth- 
eran Church. The various offices held by 
him show conclusively that he had the con- 
fidence of the community. He was an 
ardent patriot, a faithful officer, and an up- 
right citizen. 

HAY, of the Revolution, was born in 
Alsace, then in France, about 1733. His 
father. John Hay, was a native of Scotland, 
who. owing to the religious persecutions, 
emigrated to the Province of Alsace, sub- 
sequently coming to America, bringing 
with him four sons, who settled in Phila- 
delphia. Northampton, and York Counties, 
Pennsylvania, and in Virginia. John Hay, 
of York County, was naturalized April 11, 
1760. He w-as one of the Provincial mag- 
istrates; a commissioner of the county from 
1772 to 1775; member of the Committee of 
Correspondence to send aid to the people of 
Boston in 1774; of the Provincial Conven 

tion. Tune 

' / / .^ • 

First Lieutenant in 

Colonel James Smith's Battalion of Asso- 
ciators, December, 1775; member of the 
Provincial Conference which met at Car- 
penter's Hall, June 18, 1776; and of the 
Convention of July 15. called by that body. 
He was appointed sub-lieutenant of the 
county ^larch 12. 1777: resigning to accept 
the office of county treasurer in 1778, filling 
that position almost uninterruptedly until 
1801. He represented York County in the 
Assembly in 1779, 1782,^ 1783. and 1784. 
Colonel Hay was the owner of a large tract 
of land in the immediate vicinitv of "N'ork, 

part of which subsequently became incor- 
porated into the town and known as "Hay's 
Addition." He died in April, 1810. His 
son, Jacob, was a corporal in Moylan's cav- 
alrv regiment of the Revolution. 

■was the only son of Robert and Janet Mc- 
Pherson, who settled in the western portion 
of York County, in the fall of 1738 on the 
"Manor of Maske." He was born presum- 
abl}- in Ireland about 1730. and was a youth 
of eight years when his parents became a 
part of the well-known Marsh Creek settle- 
ment. He was educated at Rev. Dr. .Alli- 
son's school at New London, Chester 
County, Pennsylvania, which academy was 
afterward moved to Newark, Delaware, and 
became the foundation of the present col- 
lege at that place. His father died Decem- 
ber 25, 1749, and his mother September 2},, 
1767. In 175 1 he married Agnes, the 
daughter of Robert Miller, of the Cumber- 
land Valley. In 1755 he was appointed 
treasurer of York County, and in 1756 a 
commissioner of the county. The latter 
office he resigned on accepting a commis- 
sion as captain of the Third Battalion of the 
Provincial forces. May 10, 1758, serving 
under General Forbes on his expedition 
against Fort Duquesne. From 1762 to 1765 
he was sheriff of the county, and from 1764 
to the begiiming of the Revolution was a 
justice of the peace under the Proprietaries, 
serving from 1770 as president justice of the 
York County Court, and was re-commis- 
sioned a justice under the first constitution 
of the state. From 1765 to 1767 he was a 
member of the Provincial Assembly and in 
1768 was appointed county treasurer to fill 
a vacancy. He was a member of the Pro- 
vincial Conference which met at Carpenter's 
Hall. Philadelphia. June 18, 1776; and was 
one of the representatives of York Count}' 
in 1776. which formed the first constitution 
of the State of Pennsylvania. .Vt the be- 
ginning of the \\'ar for Independence he 
was commissioned a colonel of the York 
County Battalion of Associators, and dur- 
ing that and the following year he was in 
active service in the Jerseys and in the sub- 
sequent campaign around Philadelphia. 
.\fter his return from the field he was em- 
l)loyed as the purchasing commissary of 
army supplies for the western end of York 
County. In 1779 he was one of the three 



auditors of "confiscation and fine accounts." 
From 1781 to 1785 he served as a member 
of the Assembly of the State. Colonel Mc- 
Pherson was one of the charter members 
of the corporation of Dickinson College, 
and continued to act as trustee until his 
death, on February 19, 1789. His son, W'il- 
liam McPherson, served as a lieutenant in 
Albright's Company, Aides' Regiment, in 
the Revolution. 

one of the first settlers in the vicinity of the 
present ,ito)wn of Dillsburg. He was of 
Scotch-Irish ancestry. During the troubles 
immediately before the French and Indian 
war, he was one of the five commissioners, 
one of wdiom was Benjamin Franklin, ap- 
pointed to make a treaty with the Indians 
at the Croghan fort, which was located near 
the Susquehanna, in the lower end of Cum- 
berland County. He afterward took part 
in the French and Indian war. In 1749 he 
was one of the eight justices of the peace, 
and justice of the Court of Common Pleas 
of York County. He died before the Revo- 
lution. His remains, together with those 
of many of his descendants, lie in the family 
graveyard a few hundred yards west of 
Dillsburg, this county. His daughter mar- 
ried Colonel Richard McAllister. 

Colonel Matthew Dill, of the Revolution, 
was a son of Matthew Dill. In October, 
1764, he was appointed justice of the peace 
and the Court of Common Pleas, under the 
colonial go\ernment, and continued in the 
same office upon the adoption of the consti- 
tution of 1776. He served in the General 
Assembly in 1777-8-9. During the year 
1779 he was appointed sub-lieutenant of 
York County, to organize the county 
militia, and on March 30, 1780, was ap- 
pointed one of the three commissioners to 
seize the personal efifects of Tories in York 
County. For a short time after the Revo- 
lution he was president justice of the Court 
of Common Pleas. 

MAJOR ELI LEWIS, son of Ellis 
Lewis, wdio settled in Fairview Township 
ii'' 1735- '^^'^s born in Redland Valley, 
Januar}^ 31, 1750. In 1775 he became the 
commander of a company of Associators in 
Newberry and Fairview Townships. In 
1776 he marched with his company to 
join the Flying Camp. He was cap- 
tured and held as a prisoner of war in 

New Vcjrk City and Long Island for sev- 
eral months. 

Major Lewis was a man of education and 
in 1790, when Harrisburg was a small vil- 
lage, he founded The Monitor and Weekly 
.-\d\ertiser, the first newspaper at the state 

-After General St. Clair was routed by the 
Indians in Ohio, he printed and published 
in his newspaper. "St. Clair's Defeat," a 
poem containing literary merit, which was 
widely copied. In 1798 Major Lewis 
founded the town of Lewisberry. Novem- 
ber 10, 1779, he married Pamela Webster, 
at Londongrove Friends meeting house, 
Chester County. Major Lewis died at 
Lewisberry, February i, 1807. The re- 
mains of Major Lewis and his wife are 
buried in the Friends graveyard at New-- 
berrytown. The spot has recently been 
marked by a marble tablet and surrounded 
b}' a stone wall. Among their children 
were Ellis Lewis, who became chief justice 
of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania : 
Webster Lewis, physician at Lewisberry : 
James, a member of the bar and president 
of the York bank; Eli, president of the 
First National bank at York. 

York County, of Quaker parentage, was a 
natixe of England, his parents coming to 
this country when he was very young. 
Prior to the Revolution he was a justice of 
the peace of the Province, and located near 
the Susquehanna, in Fishing Creek \'alley, 
York County. Although a member of the 
A\'arrington Monthly Meeting, he became 
at the outset of the Revolution an ardent 
Whig, and was chosen colonel of one of the 
York County Battalions of Associators. 
He was a member of the Provincial Confer- 
ence of June 18, 1776, and of the Conven- 
tion of 15th of July following. By the 
latter body he was continued a justice of 
the peace. The cause of Colonel Rankin's 
defection has never been divulged, but 
during the 3'ear 1780 he was detected in 
holding a traitorous correspondence with 
the enemv, and in March.- 1781, he was 
arrested and thrown into prison. He 
escaped, however, from the York jail, when 
President Reed issued a proclamation 
offering a reward for his apprehension. 
With his brothers, John and James, who 
had also turned traitors to the Colonies, he 





went to England, but whether he died in 
exile, w^e have not been able to ascertain 
His property was partly confiscated, as also 
that of his brothers, who had large landed 
estates in York County, although, through 
the intervention of influential friends, a 
portion was saved to their descendants 
who remained in this country. These 
Tories were all compensated for their losses 
by the British government. 


The following items arranged in chrono- 
logical order, relate to interesting facts and 
incidents of the Revolution: 

In September, 1775, the Committee of 
Safety for York County, of which James 
Smith was chairman, sold to the Pennsyl- 
vania Council of Safety, forty-nine quarter 
casks of powder, weighing 1,225 pounds, 
and 3,770 pounds of lead, and a supply of 
arms and accoutrements, receiving 559 
pounds, 6 shillings, 11 pence. At this early 
date, York contained a depository for 
munitions of war, for soon after the Penn- 
sylvania Council ordered the local com- 
mittee to forward to Colonel Samuel More- 
head, of Westmoreland County. 500 pounds 
of powder, and 1,250 pounds of lead, for the 
use of militia in that county. These trans- 
actions took place nearly one year before 
the Declaration of Independence, when the 
affairs of the Province, then in a state of 
rel)ellion against tlie mother country, were 
controlled b\" the Pennsylvania Council of 

Octol^er 12, the local committee sent 
from the magazine at York, 200 pounds of 
gunpowder and 600 pounds of lead, to the 
Committee of Safety for Northampton 
County. About this time, James Smith 
notified the people of York County that 
they should not waste the powder and lead 
for it would be needed to carry on the war 
with England. 

In December, Robert Morris, of Phila- 
delphia, a member of the Continental Con- 
gress, requested the Pennsylvania Council 
of Safety to supply provisions for the 
women and children of the British troops, 
captured at St. Johns, Canada, and give 
directions for their removal to Reading, 
York and Lancaster. During the early part 
of the war, most of the British officers and 

many of the privates brought their wives 
and families to this country. 

January 15, 1776, Jasper 
Gunsmiths Yeates, of Lancaster, reported 
at Work, that the blankets engaged by 
Mr. Hough, in York County, 
for the public service, had been detained on 
the west side, owing to the floating ice on 
the river. Soon after the Revolution 
opened, the gunsmiths began to make fire- 
locks in every section of Pennsylvania, and 
in April, 1776, the Committees of Safety for 
York, Cumberland and Northampton Coun- 
ties were each ordered to send fifty-six 
flintlock muskets, the same number of 
bayonets and powder horns to Philadelphia. 
In June, Colonel William Rankin, of New- 
berry Township, received 200 pounds, or 
about $1,000, for rifles which he sold to the 
Pennsylvania Cominittee of Safety. 

Early in July, ten British prisoners of the 
company commanded by Captain Campbell 
were brought to York. These prisoners 
were fed by Elijah Etting, when they first 
arrived. He received three pounds, fifteen 
shillings, for feeding them seven days 
before the}- were put in permanent (quar- 
ters. July 15, Captain James Sterling re- 
ceived $100 part payment for expenses in 
marching British prisoners from Burling- 
ton, New Jersey, to York. 

September 25, Baltzer Spangler and four 
other persons received in all forty-fi\e dol- 
lars for riding" through York County to 
notify the colonels of the militia battalions 
to march to New Jerse}-. This was the first 
general call for the militia of York County 
to serve in the army. They marched to" 
Perth Amboy, New' Jersey, near Long Is- 
land, upon which the British army, under 
Howe, had recently landed. 

On September 30, Joseph Donaldson, of 
York, succeeded ]\Iichael Swope as a mem- 
ber of the Pennsylvania Council of Safety. 
Colonel Donaldson immediately proceeded 
to Philadelphia and assumed his duties. 

January 13, 1777, York County furnished 
4,000 bushels of grain as feed for horses in 
the continental service. About the same 
time, Joseph Pennell, assistant commissary- 
general, reported that owing to the demands 
for whiskey, by the use of small copper 
stills, many of the farmers in Pennsyhania 
were engaged in making this product. He 
notified the authorities that if the practice 



was continued the supply of rye and other 
grains would not ec|ual tlie demand. In 
February. General Jolm Armstrong, then in 
command of. a body of militia in the army, 
stated that rye and much of the wheat 
raised in Cumberland, Lancaster and York 
Counties, in 1776, had been used in distil- 
ling whiske\\ "This condition of affairs," 
he said, "is alarming, because in a few 
months, Penns}lvania may be scarce in 
bread for her own inhabitants." 

The field officers in command of the 
militia in 1777, were appointed by authority 
of the State Assembly upon the recom- 
mendation of the members from the differ- 
ent counties. The members of the As- 
sembly from York County then were 
Archibald McClean, Michael Swope, David 
Dunwoodie, James Dickson, Michael 
Hahn and John Read. March 11, Thomas 
Nesbitt paid Michael Hahn, of York, nine- 
teen pounds, seventeen shillings, for scab- 
bards furnished to the militia. At the same 
time, Michael Eichelberger, of York, re- 
ceived from Nesbitt, five pounds for lodging 
servants of militia officers at Y'ork. Mich- 
ael Hahn, who had been chosen to the 
Legislature from York, served as paymaster 
to the militia in 1776. He was succeeded, 
September 16, 1777, by Lieutenant AVilliam 

April 25, 500 militia from York County 
were ordered to proceed to the camp at 
Chester. These troops were drafted in ac- 
cordance with the militia law. In general 
orders, June 13, 1777, at Philadelphia, the 
detachment of the First Maryland Regi- 
ment was ordered to parade at five o'clock 
the next morning and escort prisoners to 
York. September 5, Richard Peters, secre- 
tary of the Board of War, suggested that 
the county lieutenants of militia for York, 
Lancaster, Cumberland, Berks and North- 
ampton Counties, furnish a guard for 
prisoners held in or passing through said 
counties, and also for guarding government 

There were Tories in York 
Committee County, during the Revolu- 
Appointed. tion, as well as in other parts 
of the country. The most 
stringent measures were adopted by the 
State Legislatures to check the growth of 
disloyalty. For this purpose committees 
were appointed in each county to seize the 

estates of the disaffected and confiscate the 
property. October 21, soon after Congress 
came to York, \\'illiam White, Robert 
Stevenson, James Nailor, ^Matthew Dill, 
\A'illiam Chesney and John Ewing were ap- 
pointed a committee for York County. No- 
vember 8, Joseph Donaldson. George Ir- 
win, Thomas Stockton, Frederick Gelwix, 
Thomas Weems, John Nesbitt, Henry Cot- 
ton, Jacob Staley, John Andrews and 
Robert Smith were appointed commission- 
ers to collect arms and accoutrements, 
blankets, woollen and linsey-woolsey cloth, 
linens, shoes and stockings for the army, 
from the inhabitants who had not taken the 
oath of allegiance and abjuration or who 
had aided the enemy. 

On October 15, 1777, Jacob Smearly was 
paid 13 pounds, 15 shillings for making 
irons for the prisoners of war. 

November 19, 1777, the Council of Safety 
ordered the civil authorities of Cumberland 
County to provide 126 wagons, and of York 
County 118 wagons for the purpose of re- 
moving government stores to places of 
safety west of the Susquehanna. This oc- 
curred shortly after the battle of German- 
town. The demands for wagons from the 
different townships of York County and 
from York were as follows: Monaghan, 2; 
AA'arrington, 6; Huntingdon, 6; Reading, 
6; Dover, 3; Newberry, 6; Manchester, 6; 
Hellam, 4; York Township, 4; York, 2; 
Hopewell, 2: Chanceford, 2; Fawn, 4; 
Shrewsbury, 4; A\'indsor, 6; Codorus, 6; 
Heidelberg, 6; Germany, 6; Paradise, 6; 
Berwick, 4; Mountjoy, 3; Mount Pleasant, 
3; Straban, 3; Tyrone, 4; Menallen, 3; 
Cumberland, 3: Hamiltonban, 3; Manheim, 

October 20, Captain Joshua AA'illiams 
made information before a justice of the 
peace of York County, charging Stephen 
Foulke with concealing deserters from Wil- 
liams' company. Justice Lees discharged 
Foulke for lack of sufficient evidence. 

January 9, 1778, Joseph Jeffries was ap- 
pointed wagon-master of York County. 
February 13, Captain Long, commanding 
militia whose term had expired, was 
ordered to convey British prisoners from 
Lancaster to York. 

General Washington, who had been 
given by Congress extraordinary powers, 
on February 17, 1778, ordered Lieutenant 



Thomas Campbell, of Monachan Townsliip. 
to return home and recruit one hundred and 
fifty men for the army. March 22, the 
Executive Council of Pennsylvania granted 
an order in favor of Colonel Richard ]\IcAl- 
lister, lieutenant of York County, for 3,000 
pounds, or $15,000, to be given to William 
Scott, paymaster of militia of York County. 
David Watson received 1,500 pounds from 
the same source, April 10, 1778. for the pur- 
pose of purchasing horses in the County of 
York, for the Continental cavalry. Captain 
Thomas Gourley, of the Ninth ; Captain 
Xehemiah Stokely, of the Eighth : Lieuten- 
ant James McCulIough, of the Fifth; Lieu- 
tenant Thomas Campbell and Lieutenant 
Samuel Gray, of the Fourth Pennsylvania 
Regiments, came to York County, in April, 
to recruit soldiers to fill up the Pennsyl- 
vania Line. 

Robert Stephenson, James Marlar, Wil- 
liam Chesney, Thomas Stockton, and 
Thomas Lilly were appointed commission- 
ers for York County, under the act of at- 
tainder. James Edgar, a member of the 
Pennsylvania Council of Safety, received 
1,000 pounds in May, for the use of David 
\\'atson in the purchase of horses. May 
20, ^^"illiam Scott, paymaster, received 
4,000 pounds to pay the militia then in the 
service from York County. June 29, two 
days after Congress left York, a large 
number of refugees from the western 
frontier of Pennsylvania arrived in York 
on the way to Maryland. 

August 10, Colonel Albright received 
from John Ha}-, sub-lieutenant of York 
County, 112 muskets for use of a part of 
his battalion on an expedition against the 
Indians and Tories in the interior of Penn- 
sylvania. These troops were sent to 
Standing Stone, now Huntingdon, Penn- 

On September 4, Elizabeth Shugart was 
given a pass into the British lines in the 
city of New York, for the purpose of visit- 
ing her husband, then a prisoner of war on 
Long Island, having been captured at Fort 
W'ashington while serving in Colonel 
Swope's Regiment, of York County. Sep- 
tember 5, Lieutenant James Milligan was 
ordered to recruit for the Continental army 
in York County, and for this purpose to 
receive pay from Richard McAllister, lieu- 
tenant of York Countv. 

James Elliot and a detachment of militia 
were paid 8 pounds for services and expense 
in disarming Tories, September 15, 1778. 

"Ralph," a negro slave belonging to 
John Rankin, of York County, petitioned 
the Assembly for his freedom in September, 
because his master was charged with being 
a Tory and was then in the British lines at 
Philadelphia. Ralph claimed his master 
had freed him sometime before he had gone 
to Philadelphia. Being unable to prove his 
assertion, the slave was ordered to be hired 
out. September 16, Paymaster William 
Scott received $20,000 for the use of the 
militia of York County. Colonel David 
Kennedy, of York County, one of the com- 
missioners to purchase clothing for the 
army in the county of York, received 
$12,500 for that purpose, October 10. 

On February 9, 1779, Colonel 
Wagons Joseph Jeffries petitioned the 
for Council of Safety for money to 

Prisoners, pay for wagons used in trans- 
porting the British and Hes- 
sian troops of Burgoyne's army from the 
Susquehanna River to Virginia. March 22, 
Colonel Richard McAllister received 
$15,000 for the use of William Scott, of 
York County, paymaster of militia. May 
14, York County was ordered to furnish 
thirty wagons to transport provisions and 
military stores to troops ordered to the 
western frontier at Fort Pitt, now Pitts- 

Archibald McClean, of York, who had 
served as a member of the State Assembly, 
was appointed by the Supreme Executive 
Council, July 14, 1779, to receive subscrip- 
tions in York County to aid in securing a 
loan of twenty million dollars for carrying 
on the war, as authorized by Congress. 
October 13, the Supreme Executive Council 
called out three classes of York County 
militia to guard the frontier and to join the 
Continental army. The state militia were 
usually called out for sixty days. On this 
occasion, Washington desired them to 
serve one month longer. In answer to this 
call, an additional bounty was to be re- 
ceived. The officers and privates were to 
receive eighty dollars in addition to tlie one 
hundred dollars provided by a law already 

March 30, 1780, ^^'illiam Scott was ap- 
pointed lieutenant of militia for York 




County to succeed Colonel Richard McAl- 
lister, who had been chosen a member of 
the Supreme Executive Council. Captain 
^^'illiam Scott was also appointed, .April 3, 
commissioner of purchase for York County, 
under an act of Assembly recently passed. 
The office of lieutenant of York County 
was created by the Assembly in 1776. This 
officer was required to organize the militia 
throughout the county in which he lived, 
and see that the different companies re- 
ceived careful military drill and discipline. 
He was also required to superintend the 
calling out of the difTerent classes of militia 
for service in the field, and, if necessary, 
was empowered to order a draft if there 
were not a sufficient number of soldiers to 
fill the quota as demanded. Captain Scott, 
also commissioner of purchase at that time, 
was ordered to purchase fifty tons of hay. 
two thousand bushels of corn or four 
thousand bushels of oats, and fifteen hun- 
dred barrels of flour, and in accordance with 
directions from General Washington, was 
ordered to deposit forty tons of hay, two 
thousand bushels of corn, one hundred bar- 
rels of flour, two hundred and eighty gal- 
lons of rum at York. 

April II, 1780, Thomas McKean, then 
chief-justice of Pennsylvania, wrote the 
Council, that the sheriff of York County 
had a prisoner who was charged with guid- 
ing the British from Philadelphia to 
Crooked Billet, in Bucks County, where the 
Pennsyhania militia were encamped. At 
this place, in 1778, the British had surprised 
the militia under General Lacey and routed 
them. In April, 1780, General Washington 
recommended that 100 barrels of flour, 
1,280 gallons of rum, 40 tons of hay and 
4,000 bushels of corn be purchased and 
placed among the militia stores at York. 

May 27, purchasing agents were 
Captain located in Pennsylvania at the 
William following posts: Philadelphia, 
Scott. Easton, Reading, Lancaster, Sun- 
bury, Carlisle and York. On 
June I, Captain William Scott received 
from the Supreme Executive Council of the 
State, $6,500 for the purchase of supplies 
for the army. Under a special rule, the 
Pennsylvania militia was to be composed of 
fifty battalions, of which York County had 
eight. In June, Major James Chamberlain 
was appointed wagon master of York 

Count}'. Colonel Ephraim Blaine, of Car- 
lisle, grandfather of Secretary of State 
James G. Blaine, in 1780, as clothier-gen- 
eral, reported that William Scott had suc- 
ceeded Colonel Henry Miller as assistant 
clothier-general of Pennsylvania. Miller 
had been appointed in 1779. John Brooks 
was then commissary of the government 
magazine at York. 

On June 26, Lieutenant Scott wrote to 
President Reed that he had the promise of 
600 barrels of flour from York County; had 
purchased 170 sheep, 20 head of beef, but 
was unable to procure much salt beef and 
bacon, because they were scarce. These 
provisions were intended for militia to be 
marched to the frontier. He also said he 
could send 100 militia to the front as soon 
as arms could be procured from Philadel- 
phia. The plans were changed upon the 
arrival of the French fleet and the expedi- 
tion to the frontier abandoned. 

On July 15, one company of militia from 
York County was ordered to Bedford, and 
another to A^'estmoreland County to aid in 
guarding the western frontier. Upon the 
arrival of the French fleet in American 
waters to aid in the cause of independence, 
the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsyl- 
vania ordered York County to provide 500 
barrels of flour per month, for a stated 
time, 500 bushels of forage per month, 25 
wagons, 300 horses and 600 militia. These 
supplies were intended for the soldiers and 
sailors of the French fleet; the horses and 
wagons to transport the goods, and the 
militia to act as a guard in transporting 
them. The wagonmaster of each county 
was to allow two work horses to remain on 
each farm. In September, 1780, the sum of 
$12,750 was advanced by the State of Penn- 
sylvania for calling into service a part of 
the militia of York County sent to the Con- 
tinental army in the field. 

Colonel William Scott wrote, August i, 
1780, to President Reed, that he "paraded 
one company of volunteers and ordered 
them to march for Bedford; but they are to 
set ofif this evening for Philadelphia under 
the command of Captain James Mackey. a 
gentleman who has served several years in 
our army and was recommended to me by 
gentlemen of my acquaintance, as one who 
l)eha\ed with bravery. The company con- 
sists of fiftv men exclusive of olficers," 




Xoveniljer 20, James Smith, of York, and 
Henry W ynkoop, of Bucks County, were 
recommended for appointment as judges of 
the High Court of Appeals for the State of 
Pennsylvania. Thomas Armor, Sr., was ap- 
pointed, November 25, collector of excise 
for York County. 

On Januar}- 30, 1781, Archibald 

Money AlcClean received $1,500, to aid 

for in recruiting men from York 

Recruits. County for the first regiment, 

Pennsylvania Line, which had 

been ordered to rendezvous at York. 

Three months later, McClean was granted 

$5,000 to be vised in paying bounties to 

recruits and gratuity, then given to men in 

service in the Pennsylvania Line. 

After 1779 the seat of war had been 
transferred to the South, where severe bat- 
tles occurred at Savannah, King's Moun- 
tain, Cowpens and other places. The valor 
of the American patriots called forth 
demonstrations of joy. General Greene 
was then in charge of the Southern army. 
In February, 1781, Archibald McClean 
wrote from York : "Upon the arrival of the 
news from the South, a number of us met 
and subscribed liberally for a 'feu de joy' 
and also for a prudent treat for the return- 
ing soldiers. We also raised a fund to be 
distributed among those whom we could 
engage to re-enlist." He further stated 
al:)out twenty of the returning soldiers had 

Alarch 3, Colonel ]\iichael Swope, of 
York, and Colonel Henry Slagle, of Han- 
over, were appointed, under authority of 
the Supreme Executive Council, to settle 
with troops of the First and Tenth Regi- 
ments of the Penns}-lvania Line, tlien in 
camp at York. Alarch 14, General James 
Potter and Mr. Cunningham were ap- 
pointed by the Supreme E.xecutive Council 
to confer with the members of Assemblv 
from York County, on the subject of the 
reception of the British and Hessian troops 
which were soon to arrive in Pennsylvania 
from Charlottesville, Virginia, where they 
had been held as prisoners of war since 
January, 1779. March 16, Colonel Michael 
Smyser, Captain Moses McClean, members 
of the Assembly from York County, and 
.\le.xander Lowry, of Lancaster County, 
held a conference with President Reed, 
relating to the moxenienl of the I'ritish and 

Hessian prisoners northward. They dis- 
cussed the danger that would arise by 
bringing" so large a number, more than 
3,000 foreign troops, into southern Penn- 

These troops, however, were brought 
soon after and placed in prison pens at 
York, Lancaster and Reading, the officers 
being sent to Connecticut. 

May 16, General Wayne, then in York, in 
command of the Pennsylvania Line, wrote 
the President of Pennsylvania asking for 
si.xty head of cattle to be sent within a few 
days for the use of the Fifth Regiment, 
which would s-oon arrive. June 26, William 
Alexander was appointed paymaster of 
York County militia to succeed Captain 
William Scott. Major James Moore was 
appointed recruiting agent for the Pennsyl- 
vania Line at Hanover. 

November 28, Captain Wil- 
McPherson's liam Scott wrote to the 

Cavalry. state authorities that a com- 
pany of cavalry had been 
organized in the \\estern part of York 
County. Thirty men had enlisted at Marsii 
Creek and half that number at Hanover. 
He further stated that they had elected 
William McPherson, captain; Robert Mor- 
rison, lieutenant, and James Gettys, cornet. 
It would seem that this company was 
organized for the frontier service, for seven 
months later, in June 1782, Captain Scott 
wrote from York: "On Sunda}^ last, I re- 
ceived the orders from Council of May 23, 
and agreeal)le to the directions therein con- 
tained, have ordered one-half of the Light 
Horse and four classes of militia of York 
County to hold themselves in readiness to 
march at the shortest notice. I have also 
taken an account of the public arms at this 
town and find sixty-eight unlit for use, 
which I have ordered to be immediately re- 
paired. The gunsmiths inform me that 
they will be all finished in a few days." 
The gunsmiths in York then were Philip 
Heckert, Ignatius Lightner, Adam Light- 
ner, Jacob Letter, Jacob \\'elschantz, 
Joseph Welschantz, Sr., Joseph Welsch- 
antz, Jr., and Conrad Welschantz. 

December 22, the Supreme Executive 
Council formed plans for recruiting the regi- 
ments of the Pennsylvania Line. This was 
two months after the surrender of Corn- 
wallis at ^'orktown, in \'irginia, and these 



troops had returned to their native state. 
York, Lancaster, Reading, Newtown, and 
CarHsle were the places of rendezvous for 
the regiments of these Pennsylvania troops. 
Colonel Richard Humpton, commanding 
the Second Regiment, was appointed to 
superintend this recruiting service. 

January 2, 1782, General Lincoln, of the 
Continental army, reported that General 
Hazen, commanding the regiment of Con- 
tinental troops known as "Congress' Own," 
had been appointed to guard prisoners at 
York, Lancaster and Reading. The state 
militia then guarding the prisoners were 
discharged from the service. February 2^1, 
Lieutenant Richard Johnston, of Hazen's 
Regiment, was directed to march with his 
company, then at York, to Bedford for the 
defense of the frontier. Captain William 
Alexander, lieutenant of York County, was 
ordered to call out forty men from the 
militia to guard the British, then in the 
■\'icinity of York. 

September 5, 1782, a company 

To marched from York to Fort 

Guard Pitt, the' site of Pittsburg, to 

the guard the frontier. This com- 

Frontier. pany was composed of seventy- 
eight men, rank and file. A 
wagon also was sent to carry prisoners. 

September 9, Captain Alexander was 
ordered to call into service one lieutenant, 
one sergeant, one corporal and fifteen men 
to guard the prisoners in York. Twenty 
days later these count}' lieutenants were in- 
structed that the Continental troops on 
their return from the western frontier 
would take the place of the militia in guard- 
ing prisoners of war in Pennsylvania. It 
was then ordered that these lieutenants had 
no further occasion to call out the militia 
for frontier service since the British had 
"called in" the savages and would give no 
further trouble. 

August 5, 1783, Jacob Smyser, of York, 
wrote to the President of Pennsylvania, 
"about 200 cattle perished in York County 
last spring, and the crops for this year 
failed. If the threatened attempts to en- 
force collections of taxes be carried out, it 
will be ruinous to the county. Few indi- 
\iduals will escape going to jail. Money 
has very little circulation among our in- 
habitants, as it has in other more fortunate 

and more populous sections. The mildew 
and hail have destroyed many fields of grain 
this year. Collectors of taxes have alread\' 
brought goods to York from a distance of 
twenty miles in order to sell them in this 
town, but met with no encouragement be- 
cause no one would bid on the distrained 
goods out of sympathy for the fellow- 
citizens from whom the goods had been 
seized." A few months later a riot oc- 
curred in York as the result of tax collect- 
ors seizing goods and merchandise from 
delinquent taxpayers. 

July 28, 1784, William Scott reported 
that there were still in York, belonging to 
the government, the following: 75 muskets, 
20 bayonets, 8 cartridge boxes and 8 can- 

Owing to the depreciation of the cur- 
rency and the heavy taxes imposed for car- 
rying on the war, it was often difficult to 
carry out the provisions of the law and 
certain officers refused to act. In 1778, 
George Jacobs, of Paradise, refused to ac- 
cept a commission as constable of that 
township. A\'illiam Park, of Monaghan 
Township, was charged with non-compli- 
ance with the law because he would not 
serve a summons on one of his neighbors 
for the collection of taxes. For the same 
cause Matthias Hollowpeter, of Warring- 
ton Township, was indicted. He pleaded 
guilty and "put himself upon the mercy of 
his country" because he did not want to 
distress his neighbors. 

\\'illiam Lukens, the colored 

Brought cook, in Colonel Swope's 

News to Regiment, -in the Flying 

Washington. Camp, was captured at Fort 

AYashington. He soon af- 
terward escaped from his imprisonment 
and went to Trenton, where he made shoes 
for himself out of a cartridge box, given to 
him by a Hessian soldier. A\'hen Washing- 
ton crossed New Jersey from New York, 
Lukens gave the general the information 
that Hessians were garrisoned at Trenton. 
As the story goes, this information was of 
great value to the American army to lay 
plans for the capture of 1,000 Hessian 
soldiers under Colonel Rahl. at Trenton, on 
Christmas night, 1776. After the war he 
returned to York, where he li\'ed tlie 
remainder of his life. 



Owing to the depreciation 

A Special in tiie value of Continental 

Commission, currency and the papet' 

money issued by the differ- 
ent states of the Union, during the Revolu- 
tion, there was a continual fluctuation in the 
prices of goods and commodities bought 
and sold. In order to prevent monopolies, 
to regulate the price of labor, of manu- 
factured products and of internal produce, 
commissioners were appointed by the 
legislatures of different states to meet at 
certain places. On March 26, 1777, the 
states of Xew York. New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia 
appointed commissioners, who, according 
to arrangements, met in York at the public 
inn of ^^'illianl White. The delegates who 
convened here were the following: John 
Sloss Hobart, Colonel Robert Van Rennse- 
laer, of Xew York ; Theophilus Elmer, 
Joseph Holmes, of Xew Jersey : George 
Henry, Bartram Galbreath, John W'hitehill, 
Richard Thomas, David McConaughy, of 
Pennsylvania ; Caesar Rodney, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Thomas Collins. Colonel James 
Lattamore. of Delaware : Xorman Bruce, 
John Braceo, Henry Griffith. Joseph Sim. of 
^Maryland; Lewis Burwell. Thomas Adams, 
of \^irginia ; Thomas Armor, clerk. 

These were representative men from the 
states named and they remained in session 
eight days. The commissioners could not 
agree on definite measures. They, how- 
ever, discussed inatters in detail and passed 
resolutions to be presented to the different 
legislatures. In X'ovember of the same 
year, commissioners from all of the thirteen 
original states were appointed to assemble 
at Xew Haven, Connecticut, to regulate the 
prices of commodities. Colonel Henr}- 
Slagle. of York County, was one of the 
representatives of Pennsylvania in that con- 

At the opening of hostilities, in 



the people of Pennsyl- 

vania, as elsewhere, were divided 
in their sentiments as to the prosecution of 
the war. People of English birth who 
favored King George were Loyalists. 
Later they became known as Tories. Those 
who favored the war for independence were 
called Whigs. The Quakers, in carrying 
out their religious l)eliefs, were opposed to 
taking up arms against their fellow-men. 

In the eastern part of the state, many of 
this class of people were ranked as Tories. 
After 1776, very few of them were elected 
to hold public office. Those who joined the 
arni}- became the fighting Quakers of the 

John Webb, an intelligent citizen of Xew- 
berry Township, was prosecuted because he 
had opposed the Provincial Conference of 
Pennsylvania, a bod\' which succeeded the 
Assembly, which was in part loyal to the 
British go\ernment. Webb was charged 
with ha\ing tlireatened Continental Con- 
gress and the officers of York County who 
supported that body. He went so far as to 
say that "within two or three days he could 
lay the town of York in ashes." 

Kilian Devinger and Andrew Miller, of 
Shrewsbury Township, were found guilty 
of treason, in April, 1779, for having pro- 
cured names to a paper to agree not to 
muster with the organized militia of the 
count}'. The paper, which they drew up. 
bound those who signed it to aid in break- 
ing open the county jail for the purpose of 
releasing those who were imprisoned by the 
state authorities for not obeying the militia 

At the October sessions of court, 1779. 
Henry ^\'atts, of York County, was indicted 
for misprison and treason for having said. 
"Yes, I am a Tory and I acknowledge it. I 
am an old warrior and one of King George's 
men. God bless King George ! Hurrah ! 
Here is health and happiness to King 
George and down with the rebels! I'll see 
King George reign here yet in a short 

Joseph Smith, of the town of York, in 
17S0, was found guilty of misdemeanor for 
asserting that Continental money was 
worth nothing and the paper money issued 
by the state no better. He further said to 
some patriots, "You have only eleven of the 
thirteen states left and how long will you 
keep Pennsylvania?" 

Christian Pochtel, of Manheim Town- 
ship, who was offered twenty pounds each, 
or about one hundred dollars in Conti- 
nental money, for three o.xen, refused the 
offer, stating that he would not sell for 
paper money because of its depreciation. 
He offered to sell them for fifteen pounds in 
gold or silver. Frederick Leather, of 
Dover Township, likewise refused to sell 



lour oxen if he were to recei\'e payment in 
Continental nione\'. Frederick Young, of 
]\lt. Pleasant Township, now in Adams 
County, also refused to sell his cattle. 
These oxen were wanted as rations for the 
Pennsylvania Line under General \\'ayne, 
then encamped at York, before leaving for 
the campaign against Cornwallis at York- 
town. Virginia. 

Samuel Keller, of York County, May lo. 
1781, was found guilty of misdemeanor for 
saying to other parties that if they could 
"keep off the rebel collector of taxes for 
two months, the King of England will con- 
([uer the cotmtry." 


At the opening of the Revolution, in 
1775. able-bodied citizens of Pennsylvania 
formed themselves into military companies 
and were known as Associators. Five bat- 
talions were organized in York County. 
Xo complete muster roll of these battalions 
is knoAvn to be in existence. A large pro- 
portion of them were found by Edward \\'. 
Spangler, Esq.. and first published in the 
Spangler Annals, in the year 1896. The 
original rolls were placed, by Mr. Spangler, 
in the Historical Society of York County. 
Printed copies of them will be found in the 
succeeding pages. After the state constitu- 
tion of 1776 was adopted, the state militia 
was organized out of the Associators. 
cluster rolls of some of the companies from 
York County ser\-ing in the Continental 
Line appear in the preceding chapters. 

The muster rolls of the militia companies 
which follow were largely furnished by 
Luther R. Kelker, of the Pennsylvania 
State Library, at Harrisburg. 

The First Battalion of York County As- 
sociators was organized in 1775 by Colonel 
James Smith, and included companies from 
the town of York and the townships of Hel- 
1am, Windsor, Manchester, York and Co- 
dorus. This battalion marched, in 1776, to 
Perth Amboy, New Jersey, where part of 
its rank and file enlisted in the First Regi- 
ment of the Flying Camp, commanded by 
Colonel Michael Swope. of Y'ork. In 1775, 
Thomas Hartley was lieutenant-colonel and 
Joseph Donaldson and Michael Swope, 
majors. The following is a complete mus- 

ter roll of se\-en of the eight companies in 



William Bailey. 

First Lieutenant, 

John Hay. 


John Mrown, 
Christian Beiding, 
Jacob Bamhart, 
George Beck, 
Wilial Brown, 
Jacob Baub, 
George Brionn, 
Matthias Crauth, 
Diter Conn, 
William Clem. 
Henry Counselman, 
John Claydt, 
Jacob Crist, 
Abraham Danner, 
Jacob Doudel, 
James Dobbins, 
John Dicks, 
Jacob Daiwele. 
Hugh Dobbins, 
George Erwin, 
^Michael Edwards, 
Jacob Entler, 
Diter Furth, 
John Fitz, 
George Frey, 
Philip Grener, 
Christian Greithler, 
John Grever. 
George Gulhiahr, 
Anthony Gyer, 
Jacob Gron, 
Seth Goodwein, 
Philip Gross, 
Jacob Grever. 
Adam Grener, 
Abraham Graufus, 
Thomas Hickson, 
Peter Haiier, 
Philip Heckert, 
Jacob Hause, 
George Haide, 
Peter Hoke, 
Francis Jones, 
George Koch, 
Henry Kiefer, 
Baltzer Kneible, 


.\braham Kneisle. 
Christian Kauffman, 
Joseph Klepper, 
Daniel Keiser, 
David Kuff, 
Christour Lauman, 
Frederick Laumaster, 
William Lange, 
Nathaniel Leightner, 
Jacob Lether, 
Nathaniel Leightner, 
Arthur McMann, 
James MacCamend, 
Paul Metzgar, 
John Mayer, 
.\ndrew Nonnemacher, 
John Neit, 
John Probst, 
Thomas Rein, 
Andrew Robinson, 
■^acob Sprenkle, 
Jacob Sheffer, 
Peter Schlemer, 
John Schultz. 
Peter Streber, 
.•\.ndener Schettle, 
Henry Schidtz, 
George StoU, 
John Shall, 
John Struhman, 
William Stoot, 
John Schultz, 
Christian Strahman, 
William Thomson, 
Jacob Vallvdein, 
Henry Wa'lter, 
Jacob Welshans, 
-Adam Wolf, 
Joseph Welshans, 
"George Wilt, 
Philip Waldismaien, 
David Welshans, 
John Welsh, 
Archibald M. Williams, 
Frederick Zeigle, 
Gottlieb Zeigle. 


Charles Lnkens. 

First Lieutenant, 

Christian Stake. 

Second Lieutenant, 

Ephraim Sherriff. 


Joseph Adlum. 
John Adhim, Jr., 
John Brown, 
John Blackburn, 
Robert Bailey, 
Charles Barnitz, 
Jacob Barnitz, 
Peter Boos, 
Martin Carman, 
David Candler, 
^ Isaac Davis, 
.Anthony Dougherty, 

Martin Eichelbergcr, Jr. 
John Forsythe, 
George Graham, 
James Gorman, 
.\ndrew Grobb, 
Jacob Holtzinger, 
Peter Haack. 
Frederick Huber, 
Frederick Houseman, 
Thomas Hancock, 
Thomas Irons. 
Godfry Lonberger, 



Henry Jlyers, 
William McMunn, 
William Xitterfeld, 
Jacob Obb. 
Thomas Prior, 
Robert Patton, 
Robert Paisley, 
David Parker, 

James Robb, 
William Skinner, 
John Shultz, Jr., 
John Shall. 
John Smith, 
George Test, 
William Vaines, 
John Willis. 


—1 Rudolph Spanglcr. 

First Lieutenant, 

Peter Reel. 

Second Lieutenant, 

George Shuch. 


Christopher Stayer. 


John Fishel. 


George Lewis Loeffler. 


Henry Bentz 

(son of Philip), 
Henry Brobeck, 
George Beyer, 
Frederick Bickel, 
Valentine Brenneisen, 
Daniel Barnitz, 
Nicholas Brand, 
Weirich Bentz, 
Henry Bentz 

(son of John), 
John Beltzner, 
Frederick Bringman, 
John Counselman, 
George Craft. 
Herman Cookes, 
Martin Crever, 
George Carman, 
Frederick Dambach, 
John Dallman, 
John Detter, 
Hartman Deitsh, 
Philip Entler, 
Philip Gossler, 
.\ndre\v Hertzog, 
Conrad Holtzbaum, 
John Immel, 

Christian Ilgenfritz, 
Peter King, 
Conrad Leatherman, 
George Nebinger, 
Luke Rose, 
Joseph Rothrock, 
Jacob Shuch, 
Peter Swartz, 
Christian Sinn, 
John Shall, 
Jacob Schneerer, 
Daniel Spangler, 
Abraham Sitler, 
John Smith. 
Simon Snyder, 
George Snyder, 
Francis Thomas, 
Henry Welsh, 
Joseph Weisang, 
Jacob Wolf, 
Henry Wolf 

(son of John), 
George Wolf, 
James Wallace, 
Henry Wolf. Jr., 
Matthias Zimmer. 


George Eichelberger. 

First Lieutenant, 

Michael Hahn. 

Second Lieutenant, 

Baltzer Spangler. 


Martin Brenneisen, 
Nicholas Bernhard, 
Joseph Boude, 
George Craff, 
James Clerck. 
Jacob Durang. 
Jacob Eichinger, 
Jacob Funck, 
John Flender, 
George Fritzler, 
George Fiarar, 
John Fisher, 
George Geesev. 
Michael Graybill, 
Liidwig Hetrick, 
Finken Imfelt, 
James Jones, 

John Kunckel. 
Michael Kopenhafer, 
George Moul, 
Casper MuUer, 
Jacob Miller, 
James McCullough, 
John "Maguire, 
George Myer, 
Samuel Nelson, 
Jacob Xeuman, 
John Pick. 
Jacob Rudisil 
Henry Ranch, 
Anthony Ritz, 
Michael Ruger, 
Jacob Schram, 
Jacob Schenk, 


George Spangler, 
Lorentz Small. 
Jacob Sclireiber, 
Jacob Schneider, 
jRudolph Spangler, 
Stophel Shellc}', 
Nicholas Upp, 
John Welsh, 

John Wcrlov, 
Jolin Wolff,' 
Ludwig Weisang, 
Michael Weider, 
Michael Welsh, 
Frederick Youce, 
Henry Zimmerman, 
Peter -. 


Simon Kopenhafer. 

First Lieutenant, 

Michael Schrciber. 

Second Lieutenant, 

Andreas Shinerd, Jr. 


Jacob Gotvvalt, Sr. 



Peter Bentz, 
Jacob Ersman, 
John Frey, 
John Gristy, 
Jacob Graft. 
Jonas Gastman, 
John Gastman, 
Jacob Gotwalt, Jr., 
Leonard Heindel, 
George Henry Houser, 
Jacob Herman, 
George Henry Haupt, 
Frederick Heid, 
Philip Hoffman, 
Jonas Herman, 
Nicholas Herrer, 
Michael Heyd, 
Jacob Huft, 
Andreas Heid, 
.•\mos Hershey, 
Conrad Insminger, 
John Kreibel. 
Gotfried Konig, 
George Koenich, 

imon Kopenhafer, Jr., 
Jacob Kauffman, 
Andreas Kraft, 
Reinhart Klein, 
Peter Lang, 
George Miller, Jr., 
Henry Noss, 

Henry Ord. 
Andreas Rittcr, 
John Reittingcr, 
P. Reittinger, 
John Rentzel. 
Christ Rentzcll, 
Jonas Rudisill, 
Philip Rudisill, 
Henry Rau, 
John Schwerd. 
James Schinerd, 
John Schreiber, 
Peter Schultz, 

--ilichael Sprenkle, 
Haus Saal, 
John Schram, 
Jacob Schindcl, 
Frederick Schindel, 
James Worle, 
Jacob Worle. 
Philip Wagner, 
William Worle, 
Daniel Worle, 
Jacob W"agner, 

_^hn Wilt, 
Sanuiel Wilt. 
Valentine Wilt, 
Philip Wintermyer. 
Peter Winterrecht, 
George Winterrecht. 
Philip Weil. 


Jost Herbach. 

First Lieutenant. 

Peter Shultz. 

Second Lieutenant, 

Baltzer Rudisill. 


Jlichael Ettingcr. 


Daniel Anthony, 
Nicholas Anthony, 
Henry Beyer, 
Christian Bixler, 
Joseph Bixler, 
John Bixler, 
Christian Bixler, 
Jacob Bixler, 
William Becker, 
Jacob Bohn, 
Nicholas Bohn, 
Jacob Bohn, Jr., 
Stephen Beyer, 
Jacob Beyer, 
John Beyer. 

William Bear, 
Conrad Becker, 
Henry Becker, Jr., 
John Bcyerley, 
Peter Elenberger, 
Michael Ettinger, 
Dewalt Gross, 
Samuel Gross, 
Stophel Grinwalt, 
Michael Ginder, 
Conrad Ginder, 
Christian Heit, 
John Heit, 
George Heckler, 
Casoer Knaub, Jr., 



Jacob Klingman. 
Frederick Klingman. 
Pliilip Jacob Hoenig, 
Valentine Kobler. 
Joseph Kohler, 
Jacob Knab, 
George Klingman, 
William Keys, 
Valentine Kohlman, 
Andreas Klein, 
Christian Leib, 
Ezra Lichtenberger, 
George Lichtenberger, 
Adam Lichtenberger. 
Knlian Lichtenberger. 
Michael Loebenstein, 
George Loebenstein, 
John Miller. 
Michael Melhorn. 
George Miller, 
Samuel Miller, 
George Philip Mohr, 

Adam Miller. 
George Ringer. 
Andrew Roth. 
John Rnth. Jr.. 
Henry Roth. 
Michael Ringer. 
William Rennel, 
John Reyf, 
Conrad Snyder, 
Philip Schweitzer, 
Paul Storm. 
Frederick Selcker, 
Jacob Snyder. Jr., 
Adam Schcnck, 
John Seder, 
Peter Sheaffer, 
Jacob Schmitt, 
George Welsh, 
Jacob Weber, 
Adam Wilt, 
Yost Wahl, 
Jacob Ziegler. 

George Hoover. 

Jacob Hederick, 
John Sharrer. 
Frederick Meyer. 
Samuel Glassick, 
Laurence Rohrbach, 
Theobald Snyder, 
Michael Behler. 

John Adarmel, 
George Kaltreider, 
Michael Lorick. 

Jacob Behler, 
Jacob Bear, Jr., 
George Bortner, 
Daniel Bear. 
William Becker. 
Samuel Brenneman, 
John Brodbeck, 
John Bower, 
Benjamin Brenneman, 
William Brenneman, 
Jacob Bear, Sr., 
Peter Castello, 
Helfrey Craumer, 
Nicholas Dehoff, 
George Dehoff, 
Peter Diskin, 
Abraham Eberhart, 
Wendel Eberhart, 
"Jacob Eppeis, 
Frederick Frashcr, 
Adam Foltz, 
Ulrich Followeider, 
Jacob Followeider, 
Frederick Fisher, 
John Followeider, 
Peter Gerberick, 
John Gantz, 
Jacob Greist, 
Leonard Girkenhyscr, 
Peter Henning, 
LHrich Hoover, 
Michael Henning, 
Jacob Houser, 
George Hamspachcr, 

George Hoover, 
John Hoover, 
Daniel Jones, 
Theobald Kaltreider, 
Thomas King, 
Abraham Keller, 
Peter Krebs, 
George Krebs, 
Ulrich Kneyer, 
Leonard Kneyer, 
Samuel Lorick, 
Conrad Ludwig, 
Henry Menche, 
Flenrv Newcomer, 
John ' Ott, 

Christian Rohrbach, Jr., 
Frederick Roadarmel, 
Jacob Roadarmel, 
Henry Rohrbach, 
Nicholas Rvbold. 
Vv'illiam Ruhl. 
Matthias Rybold, 
George Rybold, 
Adam Rybold, 
Henry Roberts, 
John Ruhl, 
Clementz Ruhl. 
Martin Snyder, 
George Smith, 
Martin Sheyerer, 
Matthias Si'nith. 
Jacob Sharrer. 
Zacharias Shug, 
Michael Shcverer, 

Henry Skiles. John Werner, 

Christopher Snyder, Jacob Ziegler, Jr., 

Isaac Varnum, Jacob Ziegler, Sr., 

Richard Willart, Michael Ziegler. 
Nicholas Weyant, 

The Second Battalion of Associators was 
organized in 1775 by Colonel Robert AIc- 
Pherson, of Marsh Creek, and included per- 
sons living in the present area of Adams 
County. Part of this battalion enlisted in 
the Second Regiment of the Flying Camp, 
at Perth Amboy, New Jersey, in 1776. The 
officers at the time of organization, in 1775, 
were "Robert McPherson, colonel; David 
Kennedy, lieutenant-colonel; Moses Mc- 
Clean and Hugh Dunwoodie, majors. The 
muster roll of only one company of this 
battalion was preserved. The rank and 
file of some of the companies enlisted in the 
Seventh Pennsylvania Line, commanded by 
Colonel David Grier. 


Hugh Campbell. 

First Lieutenant. 

William Lowther. 

.Seeond Lieutenant, 

Robert ]\IcElhenney. 


Simon Vanarsdalen. 


Joseph Hunter. 
John Armstrong 

John McCush. 

William Leach. 


John Banta. 


Andrew Little. 


Cornelius Cosine, 
Alexander Wilson, 

Alexander Bogle, 
James McElhenney, 

Arthur Beaty, 
Hugh McL.'iughlin, 
William Duffield, 
Samuel McManemy, 
Jacob Smock, 
Francis Monfort, 
Benedict Yeary, 
Henry Little, 
William Carsman, 
John McCance. 
Robert Stewart, 
Abran'i Banta, 
Joseph Weast, 
John Hope, 
Benjamin Leach, 
Robert Barber, 
Jaines Hutchison, 
Charles Orr, 
Robert McGowan, 
Thotuas Orbison, 
Hugh McWilliams, 
William McCance, 

Jacob Swiser, 
John Cumingore, 
Nathaniel Porter, 
Abraham Brewer, 
Lawrence Alonfort, 
John Sage, 
David Casart, 
John Willson, 
Charles Timmons, 
Andrew McKiney, 
Andrew Shiley, 
Frederick Shetz, 
Henry Little, 
Peter' Millar, 
Andrew Hunter, 
James Lyon, 
Nicholas Millar, 
Patrick Hogan, 
Farrah Doran, 
Stephen Giffen, 
James McCreary, 
Orbin Wence. 

Amboy, Septcmlier 17, 1776. Mustered 
then, I captain, 2 lieutenants, i ensign, 3 



sergeants, 3 corporals, i drummer, i fifer, 
34 privates. 

Sixteen enlisted in the Flying Camp, 4 on 
guard, I sick absent, i sick present, i on 

The Third Battalion of Associators was 
organized in 1775 by Colonel Richard Mc- 
Allister, of Hanover, who commanded the 
Second Pennsylvania Regiment of the 
Flying Camp, in which a large number of 
his men enlisted at Perth Amboy, New Jer- 
sey, in 1776. After the organization of the 
state militia, in 1777, the Third Battalion 
was commanded by Colonel David Jameson. 
Part of this battalion served under Jameson 
at Germantown, White Alarsh and minor 
engagements in 1777. It was organized in 
1775 out of the Associators in the town- 
ships of Heidelberg, Berwick. Paradise, 
Mt. Pleasant, Manheim and Germany. 


Jacob Beaver. 

First Lieutenant. 

Xicholas Baker. 

Second Lieittenant, 

John Bare. 


George Lefeber. 


Henry Albright, 
John Auber. 
George Auble, 
George Autick, 
Conrad Brubaker, 
Nicholas Bentz, 
Michael Broocker, 
Henry Bear, 
John Byer, 
Henry Byer, 
Jacob Byer, 
William Bradley, 
George Beaner, 
Michael Baymiller, 
John Croan,. Sr., 
John Croan, 
Samuel Christ, 
Jacob Dey, v 
Peter Ditty, 
John Dellinger, 
Henry Deethoff. 
Jacob Dellinger, 
John Douchki, 
Michael Dush, 
Nicholas Dey, — 
Ulrich Eleberger, 
John Ebay, 
Frederick Eaty, 
Frederick Fitz, 
Philip Fry. 
John Gohn, 
Philip Gohn. 
Andrew Gilbert, 4 
Philip German, 
Michael Garious, 
Francis Graff, 

George Gause, 
James Hines, 
Adam Heindel, 
Michael Holder, 
Philip Hune, 
.■\ndre\v Heins, 
Lorentz Hersinger, 
Laurence Heindel, Jr., 
Daniel Harkens, 
Henry Heltzel, 
Michael Henry, Jr., '^ 
John Imenheiser. 
Jeremiah Johnson, 
Anthony Keller, 
.•\aron Kephsnyder, 
Michael Koffeld, 
Martin Kealer, 
Frederick Lambert, 
Christopher Landis, 
Conrad Lookhoup. 
John Leaphart. 
Frederick Lebeknecht. 
Conrad Lora, 
John Landis, 
Conrad Lever, 
Philip Milhove, 
->Michael Mosser, 
John Mude, 
George Maxfield. 
Charles Means, 
James Murphy, 
Christopher Noble, 
Adam Pauls, 
Laurence Paul, 
George Poff. 
Nathan Phersize, 

Michael Petcrman, 
Christian Rothfon, 
George Rinehard, 
Henry Ruby, 
Joseph Rch, 
John Rupert, 
John Stair, — 
Peter Stcap, 
John Smith, 
Adam Stentler, 
James Strong, 
Conrad Shaeffcr, 
Jacob Stakcnar, 
Peter Seacat, 
Jacob Stromenger, 
Jacob Strickler, 

John Simson, 
Philip Stees, 
Peter Swartz, 
John Shenberger, 
Peter Treckler, 
John Tome, 
Paul Tritt, 
Peter Tritt, 
John Weber, 
Peter Wambach, 
George Woolpack, 
Ulrich Weber, 
Nicholas Young, 
Michael Zimmerman, 
Michael Ziegler, 
Philip . 


Godfrey Fry. 

First Lieutenant, 

John Bushong. 

Second Lieutenant, 

George Spangler. 


James Jones. 


John Bush, 
Wier Bentz, 
George Boly, 
Christian Betz, 
Jacob Byer, 
George Bentz, 
Henry Breninger, 
George Brown, 
Nicholas Deal, 
Peter Deal, 
Samuel Detweiler, 
George Deal, 
Jacob Fleger, 
Peter Foust, 
Jacob Freed, 
George Fliger, 
Michael Fishel, 
Henry Greenawalt, 
John Gusler, 
Christian Hogman, 
Frederick Houshill, 
John Immel, 
Henry Jones, 
William Johnston, 
Jacob Keller, 
Michael Kurtz, 
Jacob Koch, 
Conrad Kissinger, 
Yogam Leaman, 
Stephen Landis, 
George Ley, 
Peter Leman, 
Jacob Lehman, 

Jacob Lefever, 

Andrew Miller, 

Jacob Morks, 
_-Daniel Mosser, 

John Minster, 

George Michael Peter, 

Peter Peter, 

Edward Prion, 

John Rode, 

John Rankin. 

Godfrj' Sumwalt, 

Matthias Stuart, 

Henry Stouffer, 
—William Sprenkle, 

Christian Shewe, 

Daniel Stouffer, 

John Spangler, 

Jacob Speck. 

Jonas Spangler, 

Christian Sipe. 

Philip Spangler, 

Martin Speck, 

Michael Spangler, 

rtenry Spangler, 

George Swartz, 

John Stuart, 

James Shaw, 

John Trychler, 

Henry Wissendaul, 

Peter Wolf, 

Martin Wcller, 

Abraham Welshans. 

Peter Forte. , 

First Lieutenant. 

Christopher Stoehr. 

Second Lieutenant, 

Andrew Hertzog. 


Jacob Welshance. 


Henry Bouch. 
Henry Booser, 
Henry Bonix, 
Joseph Craft, 
.Abraham Danner, 

Peter Dinkle, 
Lawrence Etter, 
Jacob Ereon, 
John Edward, 
Michael Edward, 



George Fry, 
George Fritz, 
William Fondorow, 
Jacob Fackler, 
John Good, 
John Gohoet, 
Henry Hofe, 
Vincent Infelt, 
Isaac Jones, 
Francis Jones, 
James Kopp, 
Francis Koontz, 
Henry King, 
Daniel Kiser, 
John Kean, 
Nathaniel Lightner, 
Samuel Leidy, 
Frederick Laumaster, 
Godfry Loneberger, 
George Mock. 
William McMun, 
Henry Myer, 
James McCullock, 
Alexander McKitrich, 
Andrew Nunemaker, 
George Nebinger, 
John Peasley, 
Matthias Pourt, 

John Probst, 
Abraham Pick, 
George Peck, 
Anthony Ritz, 
Godfry Ream, 
Thomas Ryon, 
Anthony Rous, 
Peter Rose, 
James Smith, 
Killian Small, 
George Shook, 
—Jacob Sprenkle, 
John Shultz, 
Martin Shreader, 
Philip Shipe, 
Peter Schlimer, 
Frederick Tombach, 
Joseph Updegraff, 
Jacob Updegraff, Jr., 
Jacob Weaber, 
Adam Wolf, 
William White, 
Frederick Wyer, 
John Wolf, Jr., 
David Welshans, 
John Welch. 
George Waldimyer, 
Frederick Youse. 

Henrv Walter, 
John 'Wolf, 
Ludwig Weisang, 
Jacob Welchance, 
John Williamson, 

Christopher Lowman. 

First Lieutenant, 

Ephraim Pennington. 

Second Lieutenant, 

John Fishel. 


Charles Barnitz. 

John Alifred, 
Henry Bentz, 
Jacob Bahn, 
Martin Breneisen, 
Thomas Beltzhoover, 
Leonard Benel, 
Leonard Bensel, 
Andrew Billmeyer, 
ilichael Billmeyer, 
Frederick Bringman, 
Valentine Breneisen, 
John Biers, 
Felix Conoway, 
Alexander M. Conagle, 
John Dubman, 
Alexander Donaldson, 
Philip Endler, 
Samuel Fisher, 
Martin Flinchbaugh, 
Martin Flinchbaugh, 
Samuel Fisher, 
Martin Frey, 
Adam Gardner, 
Abram Gravious, 
George Goodyear, 
John Gorgus, 
Philip Greber, 
Philip Heckert, 
Christian Hecketurn, 
Andrew Hoffman, 
Frederick Housman, 
John Hickson, 
George Hope, 
Thomas Hickson, 
Jacob Houck, 
Samuel Koontz, 


George Kidy, 
Michael Keller, 
Henry Kyfer, 
IViartin Kearman, 
Abram Knisely, 
John Leisser, 
Jacob Letter, 
William Lanius, 
John Myer, 
Conrad Miller, 

-^ Michael Mosser, 
Conrad Miller, 

A Michael Mosser, 
Jacob Miller, 
Edward McDermot, 
Casper Miller, 
Thomas Owen, 
John Patterson, 
John Pick, 
Thomas Prior, 
Peter Real, 
Peter Real, 
Christopher Slagle, 
George Schlosser, 
Jacob Snerely, 
George Snyder, 
Jacob Shook, 
Jacob Snyder, 
Matthias Sitler, 
Jacob Schram, 
Abram Sitler, 
Peter Shitz, 
Joseph Tott, 
George Test, 
Joseph Updegraff, 
Samuel Updegraff, 

Michael Welsh, 
John Wiles, 
George Weller, 
Henry Welch. 


Alexander Ligget. 

First Lieutenant, 

Robert Richey. 

Second Lieutenant, 

Robert Stuart. 


Peter Fry. 


Aaron Arsdale, 
Andrew Brown, 
Rendal Cross, 
John Cadge, 
James Cross, 
John Eff, 
Archibald Eason, 
Robert Eakin, 
John Fisher, 
Bernat Fry, 
Conrad Fry, 
Paul Gier, 
David Good, 
Adam Gohn, 
Robert Greenless, 
Conrad Gyer, 
Frederick Hamer, 
Christopher Heindel, 
John Handerson, 
Adam Hindly, 
Alexander Handerson, 
Craft Hcrmal, 
Jacob Imsweller, 
Jacob Imsweller, 
Richard Jones, 
Peter Koble, 
Alexander Lewis, 
John Lynck, 
Christian Laundes, 
Samuel Laundes, 
Christian Lootz, 
Henry Long, 
William Ligget, 
Henry Myer, 
John Myers, 
James McCavick, 
James McNarey, 
Henry Miller, 

Michael Miller, 
Henry McGarrah, 
Samuel McCowen, 

Nathan McCoy, ■ 

Jacob Neff, 
Melker Ortas, 
Peter Offer, 
Daniel Peterman, 
Christopher Fetters, 
John Peterman, 
John Russel, 
Peter Reisinger, 
Henry Reineberger, 
Thomas Robertson, 
James Ross, 
Jacob Ruby, 
John Smook, Jr., 
Jacob Smook, 
Philip Slifer, 
Jacob Stegner, 
George Smith, 
INIartin Slinger, 
barkley Sayler, 
Stephen Slifer, 
Baltzer Shenberger, 
Andrew Slinger, 
George Tyse, 
Henry Teckert, 
Henry Tyson, 
Benjamin Tyson, 
George Woolbeck, 
Andrew White, 
Philip Wambach, 
Michael Wambach, 
George Wambach, 
Leonard Young, 
William Young, 
Abraham Young. 


George Long. 

First Lieutenant, 

Samuel Smith. 

Second Lieutenant, 

Conrad Keesey. 


Samuel Mosser. 


Henry Alt, 
Michael Albright, 
Felix Albright, 
Peter Byer, 
John Bushong, 
Michael Bettinger, 
Jacob Bettinger, 
Jacob Bh'myer, 
Christian Elymyer, 
Henry Dolman, 
George Ditterheffer, 

Henry Dome, 
Bastian Erig, 
Adam Fishel, 
Henry Fisher, 
Frederick Fliger, 
Jacob Fliger, 
Casper Fisher, 
Adam Flinchbaugh, 
Michael Grimm, 
Peter Grimm, 
Philip Grimm, 



Yost Getz, 
Jacob Geescy, 
Michael Harnish. 
George Hardline, 
Michael Hinico, 
Jacob Inner?. 
Yost Kerchhard, 
John Kerchhard. 
Bernard Kousler, 
lohn Long, 
Felix .Miller, 
lohn Myer, 
\Villiani Miller, 
George Neaf, 
Ulrich Xeaf, 
Andrew Pefferman, 
Jacob Reman, 
William Rigert, 

John Reigert, 
■H^eter Sprenkle. 
Henry Snell, 
Peter Sins, 
Jacob Sebauld, 
Nicholas Sins, 
Jacob Shearer, Jr., 
Martin Stook, 
John Shoemaker, 
Alichael Sytz, 
Conrad Shentler, 
Christian Shetler, 
Jacob Shearer, 
Abrani Swingwiler, 
George Wilhelm, 
Nicholas Waltman, 
Liulwick Waltman. 


Michael Halm. 

First Lieutenant, 

John Minn. 

Second Lieutenant, 

Thomas Iron (Erion). 


Christian Sinn. 


Frederick Aderhold, 
Jacob Bernhard, 
Xicholas Brand, 
Peter Bear, 
Charles Brooks, 
John Bear, 
George Craft, 
-John Collins, 
David Candler, 
Adam Cookes. 
Michael Doudel, 
Jacob Durang, 
Jacob Eichinger, 
Thomas Eaton, 
Jacob Funk, 
John Flender, 
.Adam Greber, 
Martin Greber, 
Jacob Gardner, 
John Greber, 
George Gees, 
Christian Herman, 
Ludwig Headick, 
Christian Ilginfritz, 
George Irvin, 
Samuel Johnston, 
John Kurtz, 
Mr. Kenety, 
John Kunkle, 
William Kersey, 
Xathaniel Lightner, 
William Long, 
William Love, 
James Love, 
John Love, 
Conrad Letherman, 
James McLaughlin, 
George Maul, 

James McKea, 
Paul Metzgar, 
Peter Mundorf, 
Jacob Xewman, 
Frederick Pickle, 
Enoch Pennett. 
Jacob Rothrock, 
Christopher Sheeley, 
Jacob Schriber, 
Jacob Shaffer, 
Jacob Shank, 
Simon Snyder, 
iBaltzer Spangler, 
George Shall. 
Andrew Shetley, 
John Shultz. 

George Michael Spangler, 
George Stull, 
Rudolph Spangler, 
John Shall, 
George Stake, 
John Shuhz (hatter), 
Xathan Updegraff, 
Abram L'pdegraff, 
Ambrose Updegraff, 
Jacob LTpp, 
William Welsh, 
John Wall. 
John Welsh. 
Michael Widener, 
Francis Worley, 
Henry Wolf, 
Michael Wey, 
Andrew Welsh, 
George Wilt. 
Philip Weltzheimer, 
Matthias Zimmer. 


Daniel Eyster. 


John Albrecht, 
Jacob Becker, Jr., 
Michael Carl, 
Jacob Delong, 
George Drey, 

Paul Drey. 
John Eburr. 
Herman Emerick. 
Christopher Foulk, 
George Foulk, 

Matthias Frey, 
Carl Gciger, 
Jacob Geiger, 
Christian Gerber, 
George Gerber, 
Christian Grieft, 
Henry Hefner, 
Jacob Hefner, 
Andrew Helwig, 
Abraham Herb, 
Sebastian Herb, 
Christian Hoch, 
Adam Hubcr. 
George Huber, 
Jacob Hueder, 
Thomas Hunt, 
Peter Kiefer, 
Jacob Langalt, 
Abraham Lemritz, 
Nicholas Lemritz, 
Jacob Long, 
Xicholas Meyer, 
Philip Miller, 
George Oberdorff. 
Herman Oberdorff, 
Jacob Pott, 

George Reber, ,,„--' 
Michael Reider, 
Christian Reiff, 
Henry Reiff, 
Christian Reiss, 
Conrad Reiss, 
George Reiss, 
Michael Satler, 
Melchoir Schaum, 
John Scheiter, 
John Schuler, 
Jacob Shacffcr, 
George Shiver, 
John Shiver, 
John Shiver (Shier), 
Philip Shiver, 
Daniel Sowasch, 
Henry Sowasch, 
Valentine Starr, 
Adam Sweiger, 
Casper Werfel, 
Philip Wanemacher.— 
Adam Zidnier, 
Anthony Zidnier, 
Andrew Ziegler, 

The muster roll of the Fourth Battalion, 
organized in 1775, cannot be found. This 
battalion, composed of Associa'tors from 
Shrewsbury, Chanceford, Fawn and Hope- 
well Townships, was originally commanded 
by Colonel William Smith, with Francis 
Holton, lieutenant-colonel; John Gibson 
and John Finley, majors. The following is 
the muster roll of one company from 
Slirewsbury Township : 

Gideon Bausley. 

First Lieutenant, 

John Patrick. 

Second Lieutenant, 

Peter Smith. 


Conrad Taylor. 

John McDonald, 
David Jones, 
John Freeland, 
John Cleek, 
Anthonv Miller. 


Jacob Alt, 
John Ball, 
Stophel Baker, 
James Douglas. 
Thomas Foster, 
Conrad Free, 
James Freeland, 
Michael Howman, 
Sophel Heively, 
Adam Hendricks, 
Thomas Hunt, 
Jacob Hedrick, 
John Hendricks, 
Samuel Jones. 
Michael Jordan, 
Xathan Jones, 

John Loran. 
James Marshall, 
John Miller. 
Alexander Osborn, 
John Orr, 
Joshua Pearse, 
Xicholas Rodgers, 
Frederick Shinliver, 
Postle Sheeling, 
Thomas Sparks, 
George Sword, 
John Taylor, 
Stophel Wisehart, 
George Waltmyer, 
Aquilla Willey. 



The Fifth Battalion of Associators was 
organized in the townships of Dover, New- 
berry, Monaghan, Warrington, Hunting- 
don and Reading. It was originally com- 
manded by Colonel William Rankin. The 
following companies served in that bat- 
talion : 


Michael Ege. 

First Lieutenant, 

Joseph Spangler. 

Second Lieutenant, 

James Liggit. 


Reuben Fedro. 

Second .Sergeant, 

Joseph Keeppers. 

First Corporal, 

Adam DantHnger. 

Second Corporal, 

Thomas White. 


James Porter, 
.'Xmos Povvel, 
John Rose, 
William Smith. 
.\ndrew Stover, 
John Steiner, 
Peter Steiner, 
Frederick Scepter, 
Casper Stoner, 
Michael Uhl, 
Edward Woods, 
George White, 
Jacob Weston, 
Stophel Weinmiller, 
Stophel Zimmerman. 

John .\lsop, 
George Batchler, 
Edward Barton, 
George Conrad. 
William Chapman, 

-/■John Davis. 

' George Dashner, 
Thomas Eisenal, 
Michael Fissel, 
Henry Fissel, 
Tobias Heine, 
Frederick Hovias. 
Henry Krone, 
Jacob Lishy, 
Thomas Pussel, 
Thomas Parker, 

John Aby, 
George Attig, 
Henry Albrecht. 
John Aber, 
George Aber, 
John Ber, 
Henry Ber. 
Hales Brit, 
Michael Bentz, 
Michael Baymiller, 
Michael Bennet, 
Jacob Beyer, 
Philip Beyer, 
John Beyer, 
Henry Beyer, 
Jacob Berber, 
Peter Breckler, 
James Bruck, 
Conrad Biilhans, 
George Boner, 
Michael Bricker, 
William Critly, 
Conrad Cara, 
John Crone, Jr., 
John Crone, Sr., 

Jacob Blester. 

First Lieutenant. 

Nicholas Beck. 


George Lafeiber. 

Nicholas Day, 
Jacob Day, 
Michael Dast, 
John Dauchge, 
Jacob Dellinger, 
John Dellinger, 
Peter Dritt, 
Peter Diete, 
Henry Diethoss, 
Conrad Elleberger, 
John Frey, 
Philip Frey, 
I'Vederick Fitz, 
Philip Gun, 
Andreas Gilbert, 
Philip Gun, 
John Gon, 
Frantz Graft, 
Michael Garius, 
Michael Henry, Sr., 
Michael Henry, Jr., 
Lawrence Hirschinger, 
Matthias Hartford. 
Michael Holder, 
Daniel Herkens, 


Anthony Heins, 
James Heins, 
Samuel Heist, 
Adam Hales, 
Lawrence Hales, 
George Hass, 
Adam Handel, 
Lawrence Handel, 
Henry Haltzel, 
Philip Herman, 
John Imsheiser, 
Michael Kaffeld. 
Anthony Keller, 
Martin Kuler, 
Frederick Lambert, 
Christcl Landis, 
John Landis, 
Nicholas Leber, 
Frederick Lieberknecht, 
John Libhart, 
Conrad Leber. 
John Muth, 
Jared Mines, 
Jacob Meyer. 
George I\Iaxel, 
Michael Moster, 
James Murphv. 
Philip Mulhof, Sr., 
Philip Mulhof, Jr., 
Christof Nagel, 
Michael Peterman, 
George Paff, 

Joseph Reh, 
John Rupert, 
Henry Rupert, 
George Reinhardt. 
Christian Rathsban, 
Peter Stab, 
John Simden, 
Jacob Stagmeier. 
Jacob Strominger, 
John Schmidt, 
Adam Stantler, 
James Shandon, 
Jacob Strickler, 
John Star, 
Conrad Scheffer. 
Peter Sekatz, 
Peter Schwartz, 
John Shenberger, 
James Strang, 
Jacob Thorn, 
John Thom, 
Frederick LUz, 
John Weber, 
George Wollbach, 
Peter Wambach. 
George Wachtel, 
Aaron- Westsnyder, 
John Weil, 
Ulrich Weber, 
Nicholas Young, 
Michael Ziegler, 
Michael Zimmerman. 

Captain iMartin Shetter, who resided in 
the vicinity of Lewisberry, York County, 
commanded a militia company, which 
served during part of the Revolution. 
This company belonged to the present area 
of Newberry and Fairview Townships, in 
York County, and in 1782, its muster roll 
was as follows : 

Andrew Cline, 
Thomas Winry, 
John Weire, 
John Cochcnauer, 
Philip Beacher. 

George Miller, 
Jacob Bear, 
Ludwig Weire, 
John Hencock, 
Peter Zeller, 

Abraham Shelley, 
Valentine Shultz, 
George Strine, Jr., 
Frederick Zorger, 
Philip Fettro, 
James Hencock, 

Andrew Beadman, 
Michael Roessler, 
Jacob Heier. 
Samuel Braton. 
John Thaylor. 

First Class, 

Frederick Weaver, 
George Streine, 
Joseph Cobele, 
Joseph Oren. 

Second Class, 

Emanuel Beare, 
John Finch, 
John Hetrick. 
Abraham Shell.v. 

Tliird Class. 
Jr., George Mayers, 

Andrew Miller, 
Jacob Heidelbouch, 
Jacob Forney, 
Henry Strine. 

Fonrtli Class, 

William Rise, 
Henry Bush, 
John Heidelbouch. 
James Hess. 


Thomas Miller, 
Christian Baumgartner, 
Peter Pence, 
Henry Roessler, 


James Love, 
Matthias Zerger. 
Michael Wagner, 
George Bash. 

'J'llE RE\'(')LUTIOX 


Si.vth Class, 

Frederick Sline, 
Abraliara Stiiic, 
Lorentz Wolf, ' 
John Colgen, 
John Breneman. 
Seventh Class. 

Herman Sncidcr, 
Michael Row, 
Jacob Weier, 
Joseph Fettero, 
Henry Shultz. 
Eighth Class, 
Jacob Kaplor, William Barton, 

William Winry. John !Mathias, 

Tonatlian AlcCrcary, Daniel Brua, 

John Hurst, Peter Miller. 

Adam Snider, 

Joseph Garrctson, 
Cornelius Garrctson, 
Daniel Densyl, 
Emoss Lewis, 
John Fettero, 

llenry John, 
George Mansbcrger, 
Peter Densyl, 
Michael Coppenhoefer, 
Henry Bauer, 

Alex. Threw, 
Robert Torbcrt, 
John Taylor, 
William Thomson, 
John Webb, 

Hugh Whiteford, 
Samuel Willson, 
I'enjamin Willson, 
William Wallace, 
John Williamson. _ 

'I'lie Sixth Battalion of York County 
Alilitia, organized in 1776, was composed of 
eight companies. It was commanded in 
1777-8 by Colonel \\'illiam Ross, with /jasper 'cienients, 
David ^Miller as major. The following is a Robert^ Dixon, 
complete list of eight companies from 
different sections of York Countv: 

David Anderson, 
John Anderson, 
John Bohanan, 
John Blosser, 
Peter Bryfugle, 
Anthony Beaman, 
William Boyd, 
Henry Cunningham, 
Henry Craig, 
Robert Carswell, 
Stepliens Cornelius, 


Robert Armstrong, 
William Bolentine, 
Benjamin Bifet, 
Samuel Bohanan, 
Jonathon Burgess, 
James Breckenridge, 
Tames Buchanan, 
William Clark. 
Benjamin Ciumingham, 
Alex. Cooper, 
Nicholas Cooper, 
John Commins, 
Samuel Cuning, 
William Carkey, 
William Coloin, 
Hugh Crawford, 
Thomas Cooper, 
Richard Cord, 
John Cooper, 
William Cooper, 
Patrick Downey, 
John Doherty, 
William Davis, 
Isaac Davis, 
James Edgar, 
Robert Fliwen, 
Hugh Faton, 
Samuel Fulton, 
Archibald Greeless, 
Robert Glenn, 
John Glendenon. 
William Galougher, 
James Galeagher, 
James Heirs, 
. Joseph Henry. 
Thomas Hawkins, 
John Halbort, 

First Lieutenant, 
William Reed. 


David Steelt. 


Theophilas Jones, 
John Lemon, 
James Lard, 
John Lewiston, 
Abram Mickey, 
Edward Morris, 
James Milligan, 
Thomas Morris, 
George Mitchell, 
John McCandless, 
Thomas Matson, 
Matthias Morrison, 
Samuel Mclsaac, 
James McCroney, 
John Major, 
William Mclleny, 
Jacob McCulough, 
Michael McMullcn, 
•John Xeal, 
George Nicle, 
Theodore Patten, 
Pattrick Quigley, 
William Rowen, 
Jacob Reed. 
William Russel, 
James Robinson, 
Andrew Rowen, 
Joseph Ross. 
Robert Rowland, 
Thomas Steel, 
William Snodgrass, 
James Sample, 
Josiah Scott, 
Patrick Scott. 
James Sims, 
John Thomson. 
John Tagcrt, 

John Duncan, 
George Egert, 
Nicholas Feeple, 
Andrew Fulton, 
David Gemmill, 
John Griffith. 
Evan Griffith, 
Henry Householder, 
Stophel Hively, 
Jacob Householder, 
James Hamilton, 
Solomon James, 
John Mclsaac, 
James McAllister, 
— ^iobert McCay, 
James McElroy, 

I'irst Lieutenant, 

Isaac McKissick. 

Second Lieutenant, 

John Smith. 


Thomas Dixon. 


Michael Morrison, 
William Melurg, 
William Neilson, 
John Neilson, 
Joseph Nowland, 
Martin Overmiller, 
James Pegan, 
Elisha Pew, 
James Purdy, 
Patrick Purdy, 
David Proudfoot, 
Robert Proudfoot, 
Andrew Proudfoot, 
Sanuiel Rosborough, 
Adaui Reed, 
John Smith, 
William Smith, 
Robert Swan, 
Robert Straffort, 
Jacob Sadler, 
Samuel Smith, 
James Steel, 
Francis Sechrist, 
Frederick Satler, 
Andrew Thompson, 
James Young, 
Benjamin Yont, 
Jacob Yost. 


Robert Addair, 

John Carker, 

Philip Conol, 

John Duncan, 

Aaron Finley. 

Samuel Fullerton. 

William Fullerton 

Robert Finley, 
X George Henry, 

Thomas Kirkwood, 

Francis Helton, 
' James Henry. 
' William Henry, 

William Johnson, 

Patrick King, 

James Kirk. 

Joseph Kellit, 

John Lusk, 

James Lodge. 

Samuel ^Lartin, 

John McMillon, 

.Mexander .McAllister 

Robert Martin, 

Henry McCormick, 


Joseph Reed. 

First Lieutenant, 

Robert Smith. 


Samuel Collins. 


Frederick McPherson, 
William Mahlin, 
William Martin. 
Samuel McMichacl, ._ 
Samuel Nelson, 
Riiliert Nelson. 
William Nichol. 
Alexander Orr. 
James Paterson, 
William Patterson, 
S.imuel Peden, 
IX-ivid Patterson. 
Benjamin Pedan, 
James Robinson, 
John Robinson, 
James Ridgeway, 
Hugh Reed, 
Samuel Reed. 
Row leu Stevens. 
William Tulerton, 
Michael Travis. 
George Thompson, 
John Wallace. 
John Williams, 



Aaron Wallace, 
Matthias Wallace, 
William Wallace, 

John Wallace. 
Aloses Wallace. 

Joseph Reed (Ferryman). 


Joseph Aloffit. 

First Lieutenant, 

Andrew Warrick. 

Second Lieutenant, 

Samuel Moor. 

James Wilson. 


James Agnew. 
Robert Anderson, 
James Anderson, 
Nthemiah Armstrong, 
John Anderson, 
Thomas Balden, 
William Comon, 
Patrick Colwell, 
John Cross, 
Joseph Cross, 

• Conaday, 

William Douglass, 
Patrick Douglass, 
^Matthias Ewen, 
Samuel Elliot. 
George Egart, 
William Edgar, 
William Edie, 
William Godfrey, 
David Hart, 
Joseph Harrison, 
James Harper, 
James Hutchinson, 
John Howel, 
Charles Hay, 
F'rederick Kross, 
William Ligget, 
John McCulough, 
Robert McDonald, 
Robert McCleland, 

Hugh AlcCutchen, 
John Miller, 
John ^larshall, 
Joseph Manifold, 
William Morrord, 
John McKitrick, 
Benjamin Manifold, 
David Manson, 
John Montgomery, 
John McKell, 
Alex. Ramz}-, 
John Ranizy, 
Thomas Ray, 
John Richey, 
Peter Roberts, 
William Ramsav, 
Daniel Robb, 
Samuel Roe, 
William Spitler, 
.\braham Cinord, 
John Shinard. 
Andrew Sloan, 
Alexander Thompson, 
John Willson, 
William Willson, 
Samuel Watson, 
James Willson, 
Henrv Wert, 
William Willson, 
James Willson. 


John Reppey. 

First Lieutenant, 

John Colwell. 

Francis Andrew, 
George Aurson, 
John Buchanan, 
John Buck, 
William Bohanan, 
John Conor, 
John Cummins, 
John Curr_v, 
John Dougherty, 
Hugh Dougherty, 
Alexander FuUerton, 
John Fullerton, 
James Greer, 
James Hill, 
John Houge, 
Thomas Johnson, 
James Lord, 
Samuel Leeper, 
Patrick Masewell, 
John ]\IcHarsy. 
William Morrison, 
John Morrison, 


David McCulough. 
.■\lex. McCullough, 
Matthew McCall, 
.\ntlrew McClery, 
William McCullough, 
Robert McGill, 
William McCleland, 
John McClain, 
Moses McWhorter, 
Samuel Pollock, 
James Parks, 
John Ramsey. 
Walter Robinson, 
Samuel Ramsey, 
Patrick Smith, 
Sanniel Stewart, 
John Stewart, 
Gavin Scott, 
Robert Stewart, 
Jacob Visage, 
James Woran. 
Robert Zeliss. 

John Andrew, 
Charles Bradshaw, 
Robert Blain, 
Abraham Barber, 
George Burkholder, 
Alex. Cooper, 
Samuel Caldwell, 
Alex. Downing, 
John Douglass, 
Thomas Duncan, 
James Downing, 
John Elder, 
James Elder, 
Robert Forsythe, 
James Forsythe, 
John Gordon. 
Robert Hill, 
William Hill, 
James Hill, 
John Hill, 
James Jolly, 
Joseph Jackson, 
John Kelly, 
Joseph Kobb, 
William Long, 
Robert McGhee, 
John McKinley, 
David ;\rcKinley, 
William McCalough, 
Samuel McClurge, 


John ilcCall, 
Michael McAnulty, 
A. McCulough, 
Thomas Newton, 
James Newton, 
James Perron. 
William Quigley, 
Joseph Reed, 
John Reed, 
John Reed, 
Henry Robinson, 
John Robb, 
Alen Seath, 
Hugh Sprout, 
James Stewart, 
James Spear, 
James Shaw, 
John Stewart, 
Daniel Shaw, 
Archibald Shaw, 
William Smiley, 
Samuel Sprout, 
James Sprout, 
William Wedgeworth, 
Isaac Williams, 
Cornelius Ward, 
William Willson, 
Thomas Willson, 
Robert Walker. 


Thomas McXerry. 

First Lieutenant, 

William Adams. 


IMatthew Adams, 
John Arnold, 
William Adams, 
William Adams, big, 
William Adams, old, 
Henry .•\dams, 
John Armstrong, 
Joseph Allison, 
John Buchanan, 
Jacob Crowl, 
Henry Crovvl, 
George Cooster, 
John Cooster, 
Philip Elis, 
George Elis, 
John French, 
Henry Fodd, 
Jacob Gering, 
Thomas Grove; 
j\Latthew Hunter, 
Adam Keener, 
David Johnson, 
John Koon, 
George Keener, 
Ludwig Keeth, 
Jacob Koon, 

Michael Koon, 
Andrew Koon, 
George List, 
James ^IcLaughlin, 
Owin McLaughlin, 
David ;\IcXarv, 
William McCforg, 
John Murphy, 
John Oolrigh, 
William Ovvins, 
Richard Pendry, 
Robert Pendrj', 
James Porter, 
Nicholas Quigley, 
Adam Quickel, 
William Reed, 
Casper Saylor, 
Nicholas Strayer, 
Jacob Spotts, 
Jacob Sypher, 
Charles Stewart, 
Ceter Stoyler, 
Andrew Stayley, 
John Tinu}', 
Jacob Weester, 
Philip Winter. 

The Seventh Battalion of York County 
Mih'tia, organized under the state con.stitu- 
tion of 1776, was commanded by David 
Ivennedy, colonel, with James Agnew. lieu- 
tenant-colonel, and John \\'eams. major. 



The following is a complete muster roll 
this battalion for the years 1777 and 177 


John Myers. 

Second Lieutenant. 

Abraham Bollinger. 


Daniel Hamm. 

of Christian Pregiiier, 
Valentine Runk, 
Peter Ratt/, 
John Rose. 
Christian Road, 
John Simmon, 
Philip Senif, 
Frederick Scptre, 
Andrew Smith, 


Joseph Allender. 
Jacob Abley, 
William Brenneman, 
Jacob Bealor, Jr., 
Henr\' Baker, 
John Beigher, 
Benjamin Brenneman, 
Jacob Bealor, 
Samuel Brenneman, 
Joseph Brillherd, 
Martin Barkh\-mer, 
Helphrey Cramer, 
Jacob Colier. 
Nicholas Dehoff, 
William Frankelberger, 
Ulrich Fulwider, 
George Fenceler, 
Martin Gistwhite, 
Ulrich Hoover, 
John Hoover, 
Michael Hileman, 
Lawrence Hileman, 
Jacob Hofner, 
Henn.- Kesler, 
Jacob Keller. Sr., 
George Keller, over age. 
Andrew Miller, 
John Miller. 
George Miller. 
Jacob Miller. 

Peter XoU, 
John Ott. 
Stephen Peter, Jr., 
Stephen Peter. Sr., 
Michael Peter. 
John Rudisill. 
Christian Ruble. 
John Rever. 


Jacob Rodarmel. 
Jacob Stambaugh, 
Peter Stambaugh, 
John Snell, 
Henry Snyder. 
Harry Strayer. 
Zachary Shoe. 
Francis Stritehoof. 
Philip Stambaugh. S 
Philip Stambaugh. 
Christian So.abaugh, 
Martin Snyder, 
Henry Shiles. 
George Swartz. 
Daniel Tones. 
John Verner. 
Frederick Waggmen, 
George Warlev. 
Harry Warley: Jr.. 
Henry Warley. over 
Nicholas Wvant. 



Thomas White. 

First Lieutenant. 

Robert Jefferis. 

Second Lieutenant. 

John Jefferis. 


Alexander Lees. 


X'icholas Bentz. 
Jacob Byers. 
William Bond. 
George Conrad. 
William Chapman, 
John Dull. 
•-Hugh Davis. 
George Dashner. 
-Adam Dentlinger, 
John Dicke. Sr., 
Thomas Evans, 
John Everson. 
Henry Frankelberger, 
^Latthias Firestone. 
Samuel Freil. 
Henry Fissel. 
Michael Fissel, 
.-\dam First, 
Francis Huff, 
Philip Fissel. 
Henry Fissel, sadler, 
Wendel Fissel, 
Martin First, 

Christian Hershey, 
Joseph Hershey 
Joseph Hershey, 
John Helzel, 
Tobias Helzel, 
John Hom, 
Henry Horn. 
George Hines. 
Andrew Hershey, 
Peter Hershey, 
Adam Huff, 
.Abram Koontz, 
Thomas Hunt, 
Joseph Keepers. 
John Kinkennon, 
Peter Koontz, 
Michael Leckner, 
Jacob Mooler, 
Solomon Mooler, 
^^ichael McCann, 
Philip Miller. 
Daniel Oaks. 
Thomas Presel, 


^lichael Strawsbaugh, 
Jacob Wire, 
Daniel Wertz, 
William White, 
Jacob Wertz, 
John Wertz, 
Frank Wrinkler, 
Christian Young. 

William .Anderson, 
Jacob Alt, 
John Beard, 
Jacob Buzzard, 
Peter Baker, 
Jacob Brillhart, 
Edward Barton, 
Jacob Baker, 
Daniel Bailey, 
Michael Congle, 
John Clink, 
John Dicken, 
George Dommine, 
-:rJohn Davis, 
Henry Downs, 
Amos Dicken, 
Thomas Dicken, 
George Eisenhart, 
L'rias Freeland, 
John Freeland, 
Michael Felter, 
Christian Frey, 
Michael Garveric, 
Adam Hendricks, 
John Hunt, 
Michael Hubley, 
Wendel Horst, 
Isaac Hendricks, 
Godleib Howman, 
Jacob Headick, 
James Hendrick, 
Philip Herring. 


John Miller. 

First Lieutenant, 

Peter Smith. 

Second Lieutenant , 

John McDonald. 


Acquilla Wyley. 


William Hendricks, 
Michael Howman, 
Nathan Jones, 
David Jones. 
John Klinefelter, 
Daniel Kurfman, 
John Keller, 
Lawrence Klinefelter, 
Andrew Krist, 
Joseph Lowbridge, 
Casper Lutz, 
John Low, 
Frederick ^liller, 
James Marshall, 
Solomon Nonemaker, 
-^Alexander Osburn, 
George Peary, 
William Patterson, 
Frederick Rule, 
Sebastian Shilling, 
James Swinney, 
Ulrich Sipe, 
John Shyrer. 
Jacob Seabaugh, 
John Shelley. 
Henry Shaffer. 
Joseph Turner. 
George Waltimyer, 
Ambrose Wilcox, 
Edward Wood. 
Christian . 


Peter Zollinger. 

First Lieutenant, 

Daniel Amer. 

Second Lieutenant . 

Joseph Baltzley. 

Anthony Snvd. 


Adam Brener. 
Jacob Bowser. 
Christian Baker, 
Noah Bowser, 
David Baker, 
Valentine Barkhymcr, 
Daniel Bowser, 
Henry Baltzley, 
Jacob Bower. 
Abram Bowser, 
Ulrich Bernhard, 
John Bower. 
John Brener, 

Jacob Baker. 
John Brigner. 
Gotlieb Brizner, 
Nicholas Dillow, 
Conrad Dull. 
Philip Emeck, 
Peter Gise. 
Nicholas Goip. 
Wendel Gyer. 
Henry Heiney. 
Ludwig Heiner, 
John Hidler. 
Conrad Haverstock, 



George Jacobs, 
Henry Jacobs, 
Philip Jacobs, 
John Kell, 
John Lane, 
Jacob Long, 
Henry Long, 
Patrick McHailey, 
Richard Mumniett, 
William Mummett, Sr., 
John Mummett, 
William Mummett, Jr., 
Daniel Noel, 
Bloss Noel, 
John Naugle, 
William Philebe, 
Adam Player, Sr., 

Adam Pypher, 
Adam Player, Jr., 
Peter Prigner, 
Lawrence Rohrbaugh, 
Daniel Reincll, 
Jacob Stiflcr. 
Jacob Snyder, 
Philip Swisegood, 
Jolni Titto, 
George Tresler, 
John Taylor, 
Christopher Walter, 
Henry Walter, 
Stophel Weymiller, 
Frederick Walter, 
Conrad Walk. 


John Erman. 

First Lieutenant. 

Daniel Peterman. 

Second Lieutenant. 

Michael Busli. 

George Erman. 


Conrad Alt, 
Philip Applenian, 
Matthew Allison, 
Valentine Armspoker, 
Earnest Alp, 
Jacob Bailey, 
John Brillhart, 
Jacob Brillhart, 
David Byer, 
George Bailey, 
Michael Bush, 
Henry Byers, 
Samuel Brillhart, 
Bernard Blymyer, 
Lawrence Cramer, 
Baltzer Colier, 
John Colier, 
Charles Deal, 
Adam Deal, 
Gilian Dippinger, 
Jacob Earhart, 
Thomas Earhart, 
Michael Erman, 
Henry Frey, 
John Fry, 
Martin Feigle, 
Francis Grove. 
Casper Glatfelter, 
John Grimes, 
Henry Hess, 
Jacob Hildebrand, 
Nicholas Hope, 
Feli.x Hildebrand, 
Charles Hvmes, 
Martin Hart, 
Peter Klinefelter, 

Jacob Koffelt, 
John Klinefelter, 
Henry Keller, 
Christian Keller, 
Andrew Low, 
Tobias Miller, 
Edward Musgrove, 
Michael Myer, 
Andrew Myer, 
Christopher Myers, 
John Miller, 
Henry Miller, 
Ulrich Noyer, 
John Olp, 
Frederick Phenice, 
Andrew Peary, 
Nicholas Peary, 
Jacob Peck, 
Christian Rush, 
Abram Rever, 
Lawrence Rose, 
Adam Rose, 
Conrad Swartz, 
David Shaffer, 
Michael Shultz, 
John Shyrer, 
Joseph Sites, 
John Stites, 
John Stively, 
Christian Stively, 
George Seigh, 
Philip Shaffer, 
Thomas Tise. 
Philip Taylor, 
Matthias Trorbaugh. 

George Geiselman. 
First Lieutenant, 
Frederick Heiner. 
Valentine Alt. 
John Byer, John Crowl, 

Christian Brenneman, John Dicken, 

Joseph Bigler, George Deal, 

George Emick, 
Jacob Fulwider, 
.'\ndrew Frederick, 
Jacob Funhuver, 
James Flowers, 
John Grow, 
Philip Hileman, 
Jacob Henry, 
Christian Hosier, 
Joseph Hosier, 
^lichael Hofner, 
Casper Hildebrand, 
Henry Hildebrand, 
~^ Jacob Henry, 
Jacob Kurfman, 
Godfrey Klintinch, 
Felix Klatfelter, 
Michael Klatfelter, 
Christian Klintinch, 
Henry Klatfelter, 
Valentine Lore, , 
Peter Low, 
Anthony Leaman, 
Henry Lise, 
Peter Lise, 
Jones Lordon, 
George Low, 
Michael Mitchel, 

Christian Michael, 
Emanuel Niswonger, 
George Nyman, 
George Piper, 
John Pope, 
-\dam Pope, 
Melchor Pypher, 
jNIichael Peltz, 
John Quarterman, 
Michael Rose, 
George Sliskman, 
Henry Swartz, 
Bernard Spangler 

(son of Jonas), 
Charles Sliuman, 
Andrew Shietler, 
Michael Shenk, 
Jacob Shaffer, 
Jacob Shyrer, 
John Smith, 
Abram Swartz, 
Jacob Welshans, 
Henry Wideman, 
Jacob Winter, 
George Walter, 
Jacob Ziegler, 
Bernard Ziegler, 
Christopher Zimmerman. 


Jacob Anient. 

First Lieutenant, 

Andrew Parley. 

Second Lieutenant, 

Nicholas Andrews,, 

Adam Klinefelter. 

Philip .-Vltland, 
Samuel Arnold, 
John Appleman, 
John Byer, 
Casper Bentzley, 
John Baker, 
John Buse, 
Warne Craver, 
Matthias Craff, 
John Deardorf, 
Peter Deardorf, 
John Fissel, 
Adam Fissel, 
Michael Frederick, 
Peter Flager, 
Jacob Fulgemore, 
Adam Fultz, 
Valentine Grove, 
David Griffith, 
David Griffith, 
Jacob Howry, 
Christopher Hyme, 
John John, 
Valentine Kulp, 
Adam Krist, 
Christopher Kemp, 
Rudy Klinpeter, 
John Kaltrider, 
Philip Krist. 
Christian Linbaker, 
Matthias Mummert, 
John M.ver, 
Peter Moore, 
John Nelson, 
Amos Powel, 
Peter Puse, 


Ludwig Pope, 
Michael Paulet, 
Martin Rafflesperger, 
George Rudy, 
Jacob Road, 
Abram Road, 
George Road, 
Matthias Stump, 
Ivlinman Stoutsberger, 
Peter Strine, 
John Stopher, 
Philip Stoofer, 
Henry Spangler 

(Rudy's son), 
Henry Say, 
John Sunday, 
John Sharke, 
Michael Sunday, 
Jacob Stover, 
; Henry Spangler 

(Jonas' son), 
Jacob Swartz, 
Bernhard Spangler 

(Rudy's son), 
Philip Shaffer, 
Peter Torn, 
John Tinkey, 
John Trimmer, 
Andrew Trimmer, 
Jacob Tortoisenian, 
Adam Walter, 
Philip Wyland, 
George Wallet, 
Christian Wiest, 
John Wiest, 
Henrv Whaler. 




John Shyrrer. 

First Lieutenant, 

Jacob Headrick. 

Second Lieutenant, 

Frederick Mvers. 

Jacob Bear. 


Henry William Keller, 
George Krapr, 
John Livingston, 
Henry Mankey, 
Valentine Mickle, 
James Moore, 
James Moore, 
Leonard Myer, 
Henrv Xycommer, 
Philip Null, 
George Portner, 
Adam Rypold, 
Nicholas Rypold, 
George Rypold, 
Henry Rohrbaugh, 
William Rule, 
John Rule, 
Ludvvick Reighgle, 
Michael Shearer, 
Martin Shyrer, 
Philip Snyder, 
Dewalt Snyder, 
George Smith, 
Matthias Smith, 
Leonard Sower, 
Jacob Stake, 
Henry WilUams, 
Jacob Warier, 
Francis Weymiller, 
Sebastian Widman, 
Michael Ziegler, Sr., 
Michael Ziegler. 

George Amspoker, 
John Brodbeck, 
Jacob Bear, Sr., 
Jacob Bailey, 
George Beck, 
Stophel Brigner, 
George Baker, 
William Baker, 
Jacob Dates, 
George Dehoff, 
Philip Emick, 
Wendel Everhart, 
John Everhart, 
Frederick Fisher, 
John Fulwider, 
Frederick Frazier, 
Samuel Glassick, 
John Gauntz, 
Peter Garveric, 
Frederick Hovice, 
Michael Hileman, 
George Huver, 
Peter Hiney, 
Jacob Hess, 
John Howser, 
Peter Krapr, 
Jacob Keller 

(son of George), 
Jacob Kessler, 
Abram Keller, 
Jacob Keller, , 
Andrew Kersh, 
John Kline, 

After the organization of the mihtia, in 
1777, the following two companies belonged 
to the Second Battalion, which included 
men from different sections of York 
Cotint}' : 


Emanuel Herman. 

First Lieutenant, 

William Mower. 

Second Lieutenant, 

John Brodrough. 


Herman Hoopes. 


>Lartin Ebert, 
Christian Eblv, 

Abraham Greenawalt, 
John Graff, 
Philip Heiges, 
Jacob Hoke, 
Jacob Hcrritz, 
John Hoke, 
Andrew Hoke, 
John Hagner, 
Lenhart Holtzapple, 
John Haler, 
Robert Inners, 
John Inners, 
Casper Koren, 
Joseph Kreibel, 
John Kurtz, 
John Kauffelt, 
Valentine Krantz, 
Peter Link, 
Lenhart Lecrone, 
George Lecrone, 
Michael Lau, 
Jacob Meisenkop, 
George Menges, 
Peter Menges, 
Andreas !Meyer, 
John ■\Iiller, 
Ludwig Moll, 
Simon Nirdnieyer, 
John Oberdorf, 
John Ottinger, 
Jacob Odenwalt, 
Jacob Ottinger,' 

Dietz Amand, 
Jacob Bauer, 
Robert Bayley, 
Jonas Bott, 
Jacob Bushong, 
George Bott, 
Jacob Bott, 
Matthias Detter, 
Gabriel Derr, 
Michael Emlet, 
George Eyster, 
Elias Eyster, 
George Eyster, Jr. 
Michael Ebert, 
Philip Ebert, 

Lenhart Ebly, 
John Emig, 
Conrad Eisenhart, 
Christian Eyster, 
Michael Finfrock, 
Gottlieb Fackler, 
John Fry, 
George Ferror, 
Stephen Finfrock, 
John Gratz, 
Isaac Gartman, 
Isaac Gartman, Jr., 

1 Icnry Ottinger, 
Peter Ottinger, 
John Oldham, 
Valentine Obcrdorf, 
Dietrich Ruppert, 
Gottlieb Rigcr, 
Jacob Roemer, 
Joseph Rothrock, 
(jcorgc Rothrock, 
Jacob Rudy, 
Adam Rolff, 
John Romer, 
Philip Stcll, 
Peter Sprcnkel, 
George Sprenkcl, 
Isaac Sterner, 
Peter Sprenkle, 
Jacob Schmcisser, 
Henry Shultz, 
Andreas Schneider, 
Matthias Schmeisser, 
Henry Weltzhofifer, 


Peter Wolff, 
Conrad Weigel, 
Martin Weigel, 
Sebastian Weigel, 
Peter Weigel, 
Philip Ziegler, 
Killian Ziegler, 
Jacob Ziegler, 
Peter Ziegler. 


Simon Copenhafer. 

First Lieutenant, 

Michael Schreiber. 

Second Lieutenant, 

Andrew Smith. 


Jacob Gotwalt. 



Philip Benedict, 
Peter Bang, 
Peter Bentz, 
Henry Decker, 
Frederick Ehresman, 
John Frey, 
Jacob Gotwalt, 
George Henry Houser, 
Frederick Haeck, 
Andreas Haeck, 
Jacob Herman, 
John Hearst, 
John Humrichhouser, 
Nicholas Hantz, 
Simon Kopenhafer, 
Adam Holtzapple, 
Nicholas Krasz, 
Godfrey King, 

Jacob Ernst, 
Andrew Ginigam, 
Joshua Horten, 
Jacob Huff. 
Andrew Hershey, 
John Herman, 
John Hoffman. 
Christian Kneisley, 
John Kanffman, 
John Kreibel, 
Jacob Kanffman, 
John Nesbinger, 

Reinhart Klein, 
John Kroll, 
George Miller, 
Conrad E. Alenges, 
Henry Ness, 
Jacob Ness, 
Henry Ort. 
I lenry Rudisill, 
Jonas Rudisill, 
George Romi.g, 
Peter Schultz. 
Ludwig Shindle, 
John Schran, 
Michael Wcntz, 
George Weitcrecht, 
Peter Weitcrecht, 
Valentine Wilt. 


William Rieth, 
Andreas Rittcr, 
John Schmidt, 
Yost Stork, 
James Schmidt, 
Philip Wintermoyer, 
Conrad Weikel, 
Nathan Worlcy, 
Jacob Worlev, 
John Willis,' 
James Worley, 
Frank Worlev. 




Tlie following is a muster roll of Captain 
Archibald McAllister's Company, in 1776, 
then serving under Colonel Hartley. In the 
fall of that year Hartley's Regiment joined 
\\'ashington's army near Trenton, New 
Jersey. This company, under Captain Mc- 
Allister, took part in the battles of Brandy- 
wine, Paoli, Germaritown and White Marsh 
in 1777, and in 1778, they marched with 
Hartley's regiment against the Indians on 
the northern frontier: 


Archibald McVUister. 

First Lieutenant, 

Isaac Sweeney. 


John Lesley. 


Patrick Conner, 

John Elliot. 


Thomas Bissel, 
Francis Britt, 
George Britt, 
James Burke, 
James Burns, 
John Carduss, 
William Chambers, 
John Clark, 
Robert Clark, 
Adam Clendennen, 
James Crangle, 
Charles Cro.xel, 
George Cusick, 
James Dill, 
Lewis Denisay, 
Robert Ellison, 
John Falls, 
Henry Gardner, 
Richard Karper, 
William Hayes, 
John Hendrick, 
Thomas Herington, 
Thomas Irwin, 
Thomas Judge. 
Matthias Kellar, 
Dennis Leray, 

Muster roll of the Fifth Company, Third 
Battalion. York County militia, for the 
years 1783-4: 


Peter Trine. 


John Kneisen. 

Peter Messerly. 

Jacob Stauch. 

.\dam Iletzer, 
John Wilth. 
Jacob Weigel, Daniel Rahauser, 

Charles Alitman. George Romigh. 

Baltzer Ham, .Andrew' Coder, 

Andrew Gross, Joseph Sipe, 

John McBride, 
John McDonald, 
John McGichen, 
William McGinness, 
Henry McGill, 
John JMcLean, 
James McManaray, 
Samuel McAIanamy, 
John Mahon, 
Benjamin Missum, 
Thomas Morrow, 
Cornelius Murray, 
Thomas Nicholas, 
John Page, 
.Andrew Patterson, 
Thomas Parker, » 
Patrick Roch, 
Paul Terry, 
Robert Thompson, 
Christian Timbrooke, 
Thomas Timpler, 
.Andrew Walker, 
.Andrew Webb, 
Robert White, 
Frederick Wolf. 

Michael Feyser, 
George Croun, 
Thomas Metzler, 
Jacob Zimmerman, 
Casper Bierbower, 
Jacob Bowler, 
Peter Stryn, 
Walter Hughes, 
Peter Thomas, 
William Crage, 
Eliser John, 
John John, 
George Geyer, 
Jacob Hoifman, 
Wendel Gross, 
Jacob Ruthy, 
Michael Gross, 
Ale.x, Ramsey Cober, 
Nicholas Hoffman, 
George Stauch, 
Michael Bennedick, 
Philip Hoffman, 
Frederick Beck, 
Jacob Huber, 
Alichael Welty, 
Jacob Welty, 
Abraham Messerly, 
Philip Bierbower, 
David Ramsey, 
George Ruthy, 
Jacob Leydig. 
Sanniel Perck, 
George Reedman, 
Frederick Heck, 
John Bowerway, 
Jacob Herman, 
George Eichholtz. 
Folden Erdel, 
Samuel Clerk, 
Henry Ruth}', 
George Lcvnningcr, 
Christian Heck, 

The official report of the Third Company, 
Fifth Battalion, York County militia, 1780: 


William Heaffer. 


Conrad Haverstock. 


Martin Berghimer. 


John Dressier, 

Michael Dellow, 

Henry Berghimer. 


Philip Hering, 

John Brenner. 


Abraham Jacobs, 
Ludwig Heaffer. 
John Mummert. 
Jacob Becker, 
Nicholas King, 
Christopher Speess, 
Wendel Henry, N 
George Keentzer, 
Henry Jacobs. 
John Hideler, 
Henry Balsley, 
Daniel Bowser. 
Jacob Snider. 
Yost Hiner, 

Frederick Eichholtz, 
Adam Guntel. 
Martin Ilgenfritz, 
Frederick Aliller, 
John Rothrof, 
Jonas Rothrof, 
Daniel Lebach, 
John Gross, 
Jacob Smith, 
Emanuel Sipe, 
Philip Sipe, 
Jacob Bender, 
George Leyser, 
Tobias Sipe, 
Philip Quickcl, 
.Anthony Bevenour, 
William Reed. 
Philip Rothrof, 
Jonathan Rauhauser, 
George Huber, 
Philip Miller, 
Henry Gertner, 
LUrich Derr, 
Jonas A'onner, 
Christian Hamm, 
Matthias Henry, Nt, 
Philip Wilty, 
Jacob Gross, 
Jacob Gilbert, 
Jacob Miller. 
George Shettle, 
George Shnellbecker, 
Matthias Eichholtz, 
.Andrew Sipe, 
Barnhart Feyser. 
Edward Brady, 
William Ramsey, 
Casper Cundel, 
John Qnickel, 
Michael William, 
Henrv Bowncr. 

Andrew Young, 
Philip Jacobs. 
Henry Stonesifer. 
Henry Ottinger, 
Jacob Fause, 
Peter Gise, 
George Fans, 
Samuel .Arnold. 
Peter Bricgner. 
William Mummert, 
Daniel .\mcrt, 
John Dull. 
Peter Heaffer. 
W'endel Gvger, 



Richard Minnmcrt. 
John Xaugle, 
Andrew liaverstock, 
Henry Walter. 
John Bowser, 
Conrad Dull. 
Patrick Haley. 
Philip Haverstock, 
Jacob Dressier, 

Jacob Steefler, 
Ludwig Hiner, 
John Lehn, 
Gotlecb Breegner, 
Xicholas Fickes.Nr 
Jacob Brenner, \ 
George Ox, 
Abraham Serflf. 
Robert Doughertv. 

The following is a return of the Sixth 
Company, Fifth Battalion, York County 
militia, from Paradise Township, Septem- 
ber I, 1781 : 


Andrew Bolly. 


John Stump. 


Philip Wyland. 


Peter Dierdorf. 
henry Sprengler, 
Michael IJonser, 
Matthias Mummert, 
John Stoufer. 
Werner Graver. 
Henry Spengler. 
-" Bernhard Spengler. 
iBernhard Spengler, 
Christian Wiest, 

Jacob Buss, 
Philip Christ. 
Adam Klinepeter, 
Jacob Amon. 
Xicholas Enders, 
Adam Walter, 
John Kell, 
George WoUed, 
Peter Moore, 
Peter Dewald, 
Valentine Grof, 
John Pawl, 
George Roth. 
David Baker. 
Philip Wolst. 
John Raker. 
Jacob Stover, 
Peter Thorn. 
Philip Shafcr. 
Rudolph Klinepeter 
George Bake. 
Christopher Kamps, 
John Buss. 
John Dierdorf, 
John Trimmer. 
Andrew Trimmer, 
George Rudy, 
John Sherk. 
John Wiest, 
Abraham Roth. 
Casper Goaks. 
Jacob Stover. 
John Fishel. 
Henrv Fishel. 

Christian Linebaugh, 
Jacob Roth, 
Philip Altland. 
Charles Hyme, 
Henry Klinepeter, 
Joseph Sunday, 
John Wide. 
Andrew Sunday. 
Henry Fishel. 
Adam Stover, 
Michael Howry. 
Henry Wahler. 
Jacob Rcnsell. 
David Griffy. 
John Myer. 
George Wide. 
George Krazingher. 
George Smith. 
Martin Rafflesbergcr. 
Christian Rafflesbergcr. 
Peter Trimmer. 
Thomas Louder. 
William Louder, 
Jacob Loser. 

Official report of Captain Shearer's Com- 
pany, Fifth Battalion of York County 
militia, in 1780: 


John Shearer. 


Frederick Fraser, Sr., 
Samuel Glasik. 
Deewald Shnider. 
Xicholas Ziegler. 
Adam Ripold. 
George Gross. 
George .Amspoker. 
John Brodbek. 
Jacob Shearer, 

Jacob Bear, 
Helfrey Cramer, 
George Krops. 
George Koltriter, 
Michael Shultz, 
^^ichaeI Rose, 
Jacob Ziegler. 
Michael Ehrman. 
John Sower. 

Henry Kuhn. 
John Keller. 
Benjamin Lawson. 
George Bortner, Sr., 
Jacob Keller Smith, 
Daniel Bear, 
Xicholas Dahoff, 
h'rederick William, 
Ludwig Bortner, 
ALartin Shyrer. 
Xicholas Ripold, 
-Abraham Keller, 
John Werner. 
Henry Wilhelm, 
George Smith. 
George Dahoff, 
Zachariah Shoe, 
(leorge Ripold, 
John Rohrbaugh, 
George Bortner, 
Peter Henig, 
John Gerberick, 
Jacob Xoll, 

George Huber, 
Matthias Ripold, 
Daniel Stouffer, 
Frederick Fraser, 
Philip Dahoff, 
Henry Albrecht, 
Peter Ollinger, 
Lugwig Rigel, 
Jacob Kants, 
William Ruhl, 
Daniel Cramer, 
Jacob Haderik, 
Frederick Wilhelm, 
Jacob Keller. 
Jacob Ziegler. 
John Eberhard, 
John Gantz, 
Benjamin Walker, 
William Baker, 
David Xeal, 
Jacob Kerker, 
-Adam Foltz, 
Peter Hah. 

Return of Captain Thomas White's Com- 
pany of the Fifth Battalion, York County 
militia, for the year 1780: 

Thomas White. 

Lawrence Helman. 

Francis Winkler. 

Edward Woods. 
Christopher Weyncniiller. 
Ulrich Barnhard. 

Christian Hershey, 
Joseph Hershey, Jr., 
Peter Hershey, 
Joseph Hershey, Sr., 
Xicholas Pence. 
Andrew Pence. 
Michael Fissel, 
Henry Fissel, 
Henry Fissel, Jr., 
George Conrad, 
Jacob Conrad, 
George Gentzler, 
:\IichaeI Miller, 
Philip Stover, 
Peter Marc.x, 
Peter Ratts, 
Martin Plank, 
^'ost Waggoner, 
John Joseph, 
Michael Strawsbach, 
David Griffith, 
Philip Meyers, 
Daniel Shynaman, 
Peter Sander. 
Jacob Wantz. " 

John Dicks, Sr., 
John L')icks, Jr., 
Martin Focrst, 
Peter Meinhart, 


Jacob Marcx. 
James Porter, 
Hugh Fulton. 
James Cre,gor\-. 
William Blackburn. 
-Andrew Hoff, 
.Adam Hoff, 
John Kilkanon, 
John Wertz. 
X'^alentinc Runk. 
Joseph Runk. 
Adam Dentlinger, 
John Simmons, 
Leonard Getz, 
Phillip Hoff, 
Peter Wertz. 
Henry Heltzel. 
John Rose. 
.■\braham Horn, 
Joseph Wilson, 
John Fricky, 
Elias Wood. 
John Ortman. 
Jacob Lischy, 
Geor,ge Krone. 
John Hershey, 
.Abraham Bollinger, 
Francis Reamer, 
Conrad Mole. 

Return of Captain Leclmer's Company of 
York County militia, for the 3'ear 1780: 



C (J />/((/", 

Jlichaei Lechncr. 


Henry Kesler. 


Henry Karwcr. 


Christian Roarbach, 


Lorenz Roarbach, 

Jacob Eppley, 

Jacob Stambach. 

Daniel Jones, 
Jacob Hefner, 
John Boelor. 


Franz Straithof. 


Frend, Fenes. 

Jacob Boeler, 
Henry Skiles, 
Jacob ^Miller, 
Samuel Brenneman, 
Martin Sneider, 
Henry Stambach, 
-Peter Kreps, 
George Werly, 
Stephen Peter, 
John Rever, 
-Michael Miller, 
Alexander Lees, 
Adani Miller, 
Abraham Bollinger, 
John Ham, 
Christian Noll, 
Jacob Straithoff, 
John Myer, 
Ben Brenneman, 
George Fransler, 
Philip Stambach, 
Jacob Wearly, 
Adam Hoffman, 
Daniel Wertz, 


Andrew IMiller, 
Daniel Ham, 
Christian Huble, 
William Becker, 
Christian Brillhard, 
George jMiller, 
Ullrich Huber, 
John Snell, 
Henry Werh', 
Jacob Noll, 
Thomas Harreys, 
John Weaver, 
Jacob Boeler, Jr., 
, Peter Stombach, 
John Kline, 
Lorenz Shultz, 
Thonias King, 
Jacob Kesler, 
John Rudisill. 
William Brenneman, 
John Huber, 
John Miller, 
Christian Hefner, 
Michael Peter. 

The following is a muster roll of Captain 
Reinhart Bott's Company of York County 
militia, from Manchester Township, 1780: 


Reinhart Bott. 


Philip Ziegler, Jr. 


Philip Ebert. 


Killian Ziegler. 

John Dettemar, 
Jacob Rudy, 
Peter Hoke. 
Andrew Zieglor, 
. John Ernst, 
Henry Dettemar. 
John Haller, Michael Bentz. 

John Emig, Philip Wintermeyer, 

Adam Wolf, Leonhart Wizel, 

Frederick Horn, Frederick Leonhart, 


Peter Weyand, 

Jacob Worley, 

Xicholas "Weyand, 

John Willis, 

Philip Reitz. 

Philip Hehzel, 

Bern lard Holtzappl 


Solomon Brown, 

Thomas Oldham, 

Michael Ebert, Jr., 

Andrew Hoke, 

Gotlieb Rieker, 

Robert Lewis, 

Peter Lind, 

Matthias Amend, 

George Sprenkle, 

Simon W'idmeyer, 

Joseph Graybill. 

Yost Strack, 

George Eyster, 

Jacob Grofe, 

^lichael Lau. 

JMichael Crouss, 

George Eisenhart, 

Edward Skemp, 

Martin Wizel, 

Emanuel Herman, 

John Hoke, 

Gabriel Derr, 

Stephen Finfrock, 

ilattliias Smyser, 

John Herman, 

Peter Ottinger, 

Joshua Huddon, 

Casper Carver, 

^Michael Sprenkle, 

Jacob Ziegler, 

Bernhard Rudy, 

Peter Widerecht, 

Peter Wolf, 

Henry Cunningham, 

Elias Eyster. 

Francis Jones, 

Matthias Detter, 

James Dobbins, 

Diter Rupert, 

Martin Life, 

James Worley, 

Sebastian Weigle, 

Andrew Hershey, 

Henry Shultz, 

Frederick Eichelberger, 

Henry Keifer, 

Peter Brenneman, 

Andrew Snyder, 

Herman Guckes, 

Andrew Weier, 

Jacob Franekaberger, 

Philip Hoffman, 

George Feeman, 

Peter Bentz, 

^Matthias Keller. 

Jacob Neass, 

Matthias Klein. 

George Crantz, 

Christian Landes, 

Adam Hoke, 

Casper Hammer, 

Jacob Smyser, 

John Jones, 

George Lecrone. 

Daniel Dippel, 

Henry Weltzhoffer, 

George Meisenkoop, 

Matthias Miller, 

George Finck, 

John Schram, 

Abraham Borger, 

Francis Worley, 

George JNIiles, 

John Reisinger, 

John Ebert, 

Philip Christ, 

Nicholas Hentz, 

Samuel Redinger, 

Everet Herr, 

Elisha Kirk, 

Anton Weier, 

Peter Lau, 

Philip Wolf. 

Gotlieb Fackler, 

Anton Raush, 

Martin Ebert, 

Michael Speck, 

Peter Alenges, 

Valentine Emig, 

lin Jacob Bott, 

Frederick Huber, 

j- Peter Sprenkle, 
"•.y George Bott, 

Jacob Hentz, 

Michael Finfrock, 

): David Shad, 

Jacob Ottinger. 

Jacob Kauffman, 

Return of Captain Matthias' Company, 

from Newberry Township, July i, 1780. 

This company 


d m Michael Smyser s 

Battalion of York County militia: 






George Myers. 


Charles Heyer. 



William Mackneley 

Thomas Eyeronss, 

John Stone, 

Joseph Ruppert, 

John Erss, 

George Syds, 

Stofel Bower, 

George Bruaw, 

Thomas Wincrey, 

George Miller, 

John Whyer, 

Conrad Sheffer. 

John Upd'egraff, 

JNfartin Shutter, 

James Adams, 

Jacob Barr, 



Jacob Gotwald, Jr., 
Henry John, 
Samuel Herd, 
Matthias Sorker, 
Ludwick Wliyer, 
Ijetter -Meyer, 
John Hunder, 
William Xicliolas, 
Andrew Miller, 
Abraham Shelley, 
Valentine Shultz, 
George Strine, 
Jacob Heitelbaugh, 
George Snyder, 
Frederick Sorker, 
Philip Fettrow, 
Amos Lewis, 
James Hengoge, 
Andrew Baitmen, 
Jacob Norberger, 
John Hofmen, 
George Bower. 
Bastian Whyel. 
Frederick Heyer, 
William Updegraff, 
William Bratain, 
Michael Ressler, 
Guy Cancley. 
Jacob Ruppert, 
John Nicholas, 
Philip Bence, 
Michael Fettrow, 

The following is a return of Captain 
^^'iley's Company, York County militia, for 
the year 1780: 


Aquila Wiley. 


Adam Hendri.x. 


Andrew Smith. 


Boston Shilling. 

I'Vederick Humel, 
Battereck McMuUen, 
John Forey, 
Casper Shctrone, 
Jacob Forey, 
i'liomas Miller, 
Andrew Clyne, 
James Karmen, 
Elven John, 
John Mcnspoker, 
Joseph Careson, 
Cornelius Careson, 
Daniel Densol, 
Uavid Ensmenger, 
Christian Bomgerdner, 
Hcnrj" Bower, 
Samuel Miller, 
Jacob Stattessman, 
George .\Ienspokcr, 
Michael Bollinger, 
Jacob ileyer, 
George Meyer, 
John Bower, 
William Remel, 
Jacob Copier, 
Robert Miller, 
William Winery, 
Frederick Stone, 
Thomas Bonine, 
Jonathan McTarey, 
Samuel Whev. 

James Wilgns, 
John Millar. 
Peter Smith, 
John McDonald, 
Peter Baker, 
Daniel Curfman, 
Christian Keisey, 
James Moor., 
\Villiam Wile. 
Michael Clifclter, 
Windel Hisa. 
James Marshal, 
John Keller. 
Jacob Ott. 
George Waltimire, 
Hennary Waggoner, 
George Isahart, 
Thomas Simyard, 
James McTwina, 
John Freeland, 
Jacob Hederick, 
Daniel Bailey. 
John McMahon, 
William Patterson, 
Conrod Free. 
Christian Crouse, 
Frederic Millar, 
Laurane Clifelter, 
Jacob Coler. 
Xehemiah L'nderwood. 
William .Anderson. 

Michael Heman, 
Henry Shaver, 
Henry Downs, 
John Clifelter, 
Jacob Bosard, 
Adam Deal. 
Isaac Hendrix, 
Thomas Arms. 
Solomon Xunemaker, 
Jacob Mire, 
Nicholas Rogers. 
Michael Kensler. 
Jolm Beard, 
Adam Lukus. 
Thomas Sparks. 
Chrisley Lipc. 
George Didenhaver, 
Frederick Rule. 
Francis Keilev, 
John ^rillar. 
Nicholas .Millar, 
Charles Waltimire, 
David Waltimire, 
.'\dam Snn'th. 
Isaac Low. 
Paul Hivly. 
Gasper Prcathaver, 
James F'reeland. 
Tlu-imas Hendrix. 

A part of the count}- militia were called 
out to ser\e for three months or more at a 
time to guard British prisoners at York, 
during the years 1777-78-79, and at Camp 
Security, the British prison four miles 
southeast of York, in 1781-82. The follow- 
ing companies served in tliis capacity: 

George Long. 

Christopher Elefritz, 
John Fischel. 

George Moore, 
Jacob Sprenkle, 
John Willard. 

^Lartin Kerman, 
Seth Goodwin, 
Philip Wagner. 


Forrest McKutchin, 
Luke McLeese, 
Peter W. Naught 

(or McDonough), 
Felix ililler, 
Patrick Oloan, 
David Patker, 
Thomas Ryan, 
Henry Ryschell, 
Jacob Speck, 
Peter Shoemaker, 
John Wilhelm, 
George Wilhelm, 
Philip Wagoner, 
Casper Williard, 
George Zech. 

Christopher Lauman. 
Daniel i:)oll. 

Jacob Doederly, 
John Dalsman, 
George Fleager, 
Philip Grim, 
Peter Grim, 
John Graham, 
Michael Grim, 
Jacob Houx, 
Michael Kurtz, 
Jacob Kook, 
Edward Lostikcl, 
John Long, 
Jacob Layman, 
Edward Alusgrove, 
Henry Miller, 
iLirtin Maver, 


John Agnew, 
Jacob Bitner 
Andrew Colhoon 
Martin Fry 
Jacob Graybill 
Peter Glossbrenner 
George Giess 
Peter Hess 

Christian Heckendorn 
John Hubley 
John Kock, Jr. 
George Lutman 
Henry Lanius 
Charles Lauman 
Lgnatius Li.ghtner 
William Mini 
John Ptligcr 
John Philby 
Barny Smith 
Henry Small 
Laurence Shultz 
Clement Slillinger 
Jacob Waltimire 
John Williams 
Jacob Welsh 
John Yous 

Hamilton Bagley 
John Eichelberger 
Henry Erwin 
Jacob Korr>" 
Joel Gray 
John Hively 
Stephen Harry 
Jacob Heckert 
Richard Hickson 
Thomas Koontz 
Peter Kurtz 
Abraham Lighlner 
Peter Lightner 
John Laffertv 
Philip Miller 
William ^Layson 
Dr. Emanuel McDowell 
Thomas McKinsey 
William Norris 
John Strebich 
Dr. Daniel Shefer 
George Stall 
Michael Schreiber 
John Shetly 
Joseph Uodegraff 
Jacob Wclshans. 



The following is a muster roll of Captain 
Samuel Fulton's Company of Y'ork County 
militia, guarding" the prisoners at Camp Se- 
curity, in September, 1781 : 

Samiie! Fulton. 

Joseph Dodds. 

Alexander Thompson, 
Alexander Smith, 
Ezekiel Sinkey. 

James Cowhick, 
John Patton, 
James Hawkins. 

Godfry Sidle. 


John Miirfe\', 
William McClellan, 
Jacob McCouUah, 
Andrew. Miller, 
Michael Miller, 
John Moser, 
Henry Miller, 
John Owens, 
John Oble, 
Ludwick Ortt, 
Robert Penrey, 
James Pollock, 
Peter Pence, 
Elisha Pew. 
Thomas Robison, 
Mandevill Reed, 
John Rodrof, 
John Sineard, 
Michael Simerman, 
William Scarlet, 
Joseph Stroup, 
Peter Strayer, 
Adam Swope, 
Jacob Stigner, 
Adam Shinbarger, 
Jacob Taylor, 
Eldrie Terr, 
Joseph Thompson, 
Stophel Writer, 
Moses Wallace, 
Charles Waltimier, 
John Waggoner. 

William Cooper, 
John Cooper, 
Brainerd Stroyner, 
Thomas Ramage, 
Alexander White, 
William Sullivan, 
Allen Torbctt, 
Thomas White, 
John Hall, 

Samuel Adams, 
Joseph Alison, 
William Adams, 
Thomas Robison, 
Samuel Barber, 
John Beveard, 
Jacob Balsley, 
Christian Branaman, 
.\ndrew Brown, 
Michael Caricker. 
Valentine Colman, 
William Donaldson, 
Joseph Delinger, 
John Delinger, 
Adam Darron, 
Michael Edwards, 
Frederick Eholes, 
John Freland, 
Michael Flint, 
■Michael Fedrow, 
Jacob Freeze, 
John Good. 
David Griffith, 
Tohn Gross, 
Robert Hill, 
Isaac Hendrick, 
Daniel Hair, 
Michael Henry, 
Frederick Humble, 
^lathias Kernes, 
Philip Knop. 
George Lecronc, 
Cieorge Lininger. 

William ^litchell's Company. December 
20, 1776, Fifth Battalion, Colonel Matthew 
Dill : 


William Mitchell. 

First Lieutenant, 

Joseph Eliott. 

.Second Lieutenant, 

Henry Shaeffer. 


Laurence Oats. 


John Lewis. 


Robert Torbett. William McLaughlin, 

Xicholas Shotto, Daniel Williams, 

Francis Boggs, 
Patrick Shannon, 
Peter Reeser, 
John Sullivan, 
John Bowie, 
John Williams, 
Benjamin Coble, 
John Sickleman, 
James White. 

Joseph McClellan's Company, September 
10, 1778, Xinth Pennsylvania Line: 


Joseph McClellan. 


Daniel Vanderslice, 

Hugh Flearren, 

Samson Dempsej'. 

Samuel Woods, 
Christian Young. 

George Stewart. 


James Callahan, 
George Shaffer, 
John Connely, 
Peter ilager, 
John Allison, 
Robert Armstrong, 
_;^John Davis, 
:, ;\Iichael Henderliter, 

George Hister, 
Simon Lauk, 
Samuel Lewis, 
Joseph Parker, 
Thomas Rendals, 
Xathan Roberts, 
Charles Stewart, 
John Stewart, 
Jonathan Thomas. 

George Alfred, 
Henry Harper, 
George Pention, 
Thomas Sumner, 
Adam Coch. 
Daniel Saliday, 
Daniel Benhart, 
Frederick Raimeck 
Jacob Powles, 
Laughlin Morrison 
Thomas Powell, 
Francis Matthews, 
Patrick Rock, 
Andrew Shaffer, 
Robert Eagen, 
James Haines, 
James Young, 

Isaac Sweeney's Company of the Xew 
Eleventh, 1781 : 

Isaac Sweeney. 


Septimus Davis. 


William Houston. 

Thomas Wilson, 
John Gray, 
Patrick Clemens. 

Andrew Miller, 
Edward Blake, 
John Smith. 

Robert Hunter. 

John McElroy. 

George Carman, 
John Edgar. 
William Fields. Forsythe, 
James Hines, 

.\ndrew Kelly, 
Roger O'Brien, 
Valentine Stickle, 
Hugh Swords, 
William Wilson. ' 



John Andrew's Company, April 30, 1779, 
'J'enth Battalion: 

John Andrews. 

William Bailey. 

Robert Chambers. 

M. David Beaty. 


Joseph Bogle, 

Benjamin Whitely, 
William Stragin, 
William Reed, 
John Sarsley, 
John Slammers, 
John Hoover, 
Robert Wilson, 
Alexander Bogle, 
David Cassat, 
William McGrer, 
Robert Campbell,^ 
John McCreesy. 

Robert Galbreath, 
John Hoult, 
Christian Freet, 
George Stope. 
Philip Hounsley, 
Nathan Grimes, 
Abraham Iloughtailcn, 
David Demorest, 
Henry Buchanan, 
\\'illiam Coule, 
Samuel McCush, 
George McCans, 
James Wier, 

The following is a list of York County 
soldiers w-ho served in the First Pennsyl- 
vania Regiment of Foot : 

Michael Long, 
Samuel Crawford, 

Robert Campbell, 

James Brown, 
John Mollin, 
Robert Garret, 
Ulrich Faulkner, 
William Kerr, 
Charles Boyles, 
Robert Magee, 
Thomas Collins, 
James Berry, 
Jesse Lester, 
George Sinn, 
Mathias Crout, 
James Robertson, 
John Kimmins, 
Jacob Harrington, 
William Williams, 
James McDonough, 
James Mclntyre, 
Thomas ^IcGee, 
Jolm ^L'llone, 
John McKinney, 
Peter Geehan, 
Samuel Woods, 
Martin Hart, 
George Corkingdate, 
John Allen, 
John Summerville, 
Edward Butler, 
P.-itrick Preston, 
Timothy Winters, 
Baltzer Barge, 

John Campbell, 

Edward Fielding, 
Evan Holt, 
James Dougherty, 
John Vandereramel, 
George Young, 
John Whitemari, 
John Unkey, 

Daniel Johnston, 
Michael Jones, 
Patrick Kelly, 
Robert Keenan, 
John Leonard, 
Thomas Maltzer, 
James Morrison, 
James McLean, 
William Welschance, 
Peter Eversole, 
William Klorris, 
Thomas Stewart, 
Felix McLaughlin, 
Edward Larder, 
John McXair, 
William Pilmore, 
Thomas Winters, 
John Gower, 
John Callahan, 
James Bradley, 
Edward Blake, 
Daniel Campbell, — 
Henry Crone, 
Hugh Henley. 
Thomas Hamilton, 
Frederick Snyder, 
Michael Wann, 
Peter Myers, 
Michael Kurtz, 
Samuel Allen, 
George Albertson, 
James Allison, 
Hugh Henderson, 
Patrick Ryan, 
Peter McBride, 
Thomas Moore, 
Thomas Katen, 
William Bradshaw, 
James Welsh, 
Marty Sullivan, 
.•\ndrew Crothy, 
John Fouder. 

The following soldiers from York County 
served in different commands during the 
Revolution : 

PennsyKania Artillery — John Benning- 
ton, Miciiael Kyall, John Kelley, James 
Ryburn, Frederick Leader, John Johnson, 
Samuel Laughlin, Alexander Martin, 
George Stewart, William ^Bergenhoff, 
Robert Ditcher, Patrick Dixon, James 
Baker, John Lochert. 

German Regiment — Jacob Krcmer, Jacob 
McLean, John Richcreek. 

Fourth Pennsylvania Line — Andrew 
Crotty, George Seittel, John McMeehan, 
Christian Pepret, Andrew Shoeman, John 
Cavanaugh, William Smith, John Anderson. 

Fifth Pennsylvania Line — John Deveney, 
Anthon)- Leaman, .\dam Shuman. 

Sixth Pennsylvania Line — William 
Brown, Michael Weirich, Joel Gray, 
Matthias Young, Ludwig Waltman. 

Seventh Pennsylvania Line — John 

Ninth Pennsylvania Line — John Tate, 
ensign; Stephen Stephenson, Adam David- 
son, captain; Samuel Jamieson. George 
Heffelfinger, Samuel Spicer, Leonard 

Eleventh Pennsylvania Line — Robert 
McMurdie, brigade chaplain. 

New Eleventh Pennsylvania — Martin 
Bloomenstine, Godlove Shaddow, John 
Richcreek, Joel Gray, John Snyder, Robert 
Casebolt. William Brown. 

Thirteenth Pennsylvania — Matthew Far- 

State Regiment of Foot — Captain John 
Marshall, successor to Captain Philip .Al- 
bright; Robert Sturgeon, Patrick McGin- 
nes, ^^'ilIiam Welshance, John Awl, Joseph 
Mj'ers, Samuel Woods, Edward Carlton, 
Terrence Stockdale. 

At the Flying Camp, 1776 — Captain 
Peter Ickes. Second-Lieutenant William 
Young. Ensign Elisha Grady, Christian 
Ouiggle. Jacob Klingman, Patrick Gibson, 
Henrjr Beard, Alexander Frew, George 
Gelwicks, Charles Wilson. 

The following is a list of commissioned 
officers of the York County militia for the 
years 1777-8-9: 

Colonel James Thompson's Battalion at 
Wilmington, Delaware, Sept. 3, 1777. 

1st Co.. Captains William Dodds, 38 men; 



_'d Co.. Samuel Ferguson, 41 men; 3d Co., 
illegible; 4th Co., Thomas Latta, 31 men; 
3th Co.. John Laird, 32 men; 6th Co., Peter 


len; 7th Co., John Myers, 18 men. 

First Battalion, October i, 1777. 

3d Co., Capt. Christian Kauffman, ist Lt. 
John Shaffer, 2d Lt. Henry Smith, Ensign 
Jacob Strehr; 4th Co., Capt. Daniel May, 
1st Lt. Andrew Milhorn, 2d Lt. Henry 
Yessler, Ensign Frederick Spahr. 

First Battalion. 

Col. James Thompson, 1778; Lt. Col. 
Samuel Neilson, 1778; Henry Miller, 1779; 
Major James Chamberlain, 1778; William 
Bailey, 1779. 

1st Co., Capt. William Dodds, 1778, John 
Ehrman, '79; ist Lt. Nealy, '78, Fred. 
^^'eare, '79; 2d Lt. Nealy, '78; Ensign Jos. 
Dodds, '78, Peter Swartz, '79. Rank and 
file, 104 men. 

2d Co., Capt. David Williams, '78, George 
Long, '79; 1st Lt. James McNickle, '78, 
John Korehart, '79; Ensign James Reed, 
'/8, John Smith, '79. Rank and file, 78 men. 

3d Co., Capt. John Shaver, '78, Michael 
Hahn, '79; ist Lt. Henry Smith, '78, 
Christian Zinn, '79; Ensign Jacob Miller, 
"78, Peter Hank, '79. Rank and file, 95 men. 

4th Co.. Capt. Daniel May, '78, Peter 
Ford, '79; 1st Lt. Andrew Melhorn, '78, 
John Jeffries, '79; 2d Lt. Henry Y''essler, 
'78; Ensign Frederick Spaar, '78, Charles 
Spangler, '79. Rank and file, 89 men. 

5th Co., Capt. James Parkinson, '78, Peter 
Imswiller, '79; ist Lt. James Fagen, '78, 
James Cross, '79; 2d Lt. Alexander Nesbitt, 
'78; Ensign John May, '78, Ulrich Sellor, 
'79. Rank and file, 206 men. 

6th Co., Capt. Benjamin Keable, '78, 
Michael Kaufelt, '79; ist Lt. Henry Shaver, 
'78, Philip Boyre, '79; 2d Lt. Lawrence 
Oats, '78; Ensign Michael Dush, "79. 
Rank and file, 75 men. 

7th Co., Capt. Francis Boner, '78, Ephraim 
Penington, '79; ist Lt. George Robenet, 
■78, Charles Barnet, '79; 2d Lt. John 
Schrote. '78; Ensign William Brandon, '78. 
Gotfry Lenhart, '79. Rank and file. 120 

8th Co., Capt. John O'Blainiss. '78; ist 
Lt. John Polk, '78; 2d Lt. William John- 
ston, '78; Ensign Benjamin Beaty, '78. 
Rank and file, 106 men. 

Second Battalion. 

Colonel William Rankin, '77-8; Lt. Col. 
John Ewing, '77-8, Moses McClean. "79; 
Major John Morgan, '77-8, John Edie, '79. 

1st Co., Capt. William Ashton,'77-8, Sam- 
uel Cabane. '79; ist Lt. Malachi Steahlev, 
'77, Tvlilkeah Shley, '78, William Hall, "79; 
2d Lt. James Elliot, '77-8; Ensign John 
Crull, '77, John Carroll, '78, John Murphey, 
Jr., '79. Rank and file, 91 men. 

2d Co., Capt. John Rankin, '77-8, Thomas 
Bigham, "79; ist Lt. Joseph Hunter, '77-8, 
William McCay, '79; 2d Lt. John Ashton, 
'77-8; Ensign Daniel McHenry, '77-8, John 
Murphey, '79. Rank and file, 88 men. 

3d Co., Capt. Simon Copenhafer, '77-8, 
Robert Bigham, '79; ist Lt. Michael 
Shriver, '77-8, \\'illiam jMcMun, '79; 2d Lt. 
Andrew Smith. '77-8; Ensign Jacob Gut- 
wait, '77-8, John Sheakley, '79. Rank and 
file, 60 men. 

4th Co., Capt. Philip Gartner, '77, Jacob 
Hiar, '78, James Miller, '79; ist Lt. John 
Higher, '77, Adam Barr, '78, James Mc- 
Kinley, '79; 2d Lt. Jacob Comfort, '78; 
Ensign George Hiar, '78, Barabus Mc- 
Sherry, '79. Rank and file, 66 men. 

5th Co., Capt. Emanuel Herman, '78, 
Thomas Orbison, '79; ist Lt. William 
Moneyer, '77, A\'illiam Momer, '78, Joseph 
Hunter, "79; 2d Lt. John Rothrock, '77, 
John Bodrough, '78; Ensign Harman 
Hoopes, '78, Robert Wilson, '79. Rank 
and file, 81 men. 

6th Co., Capt. John Mansberger, '77-8, 
James Johnston, '79; ist Lt. Henry Mat- 
thias, '77-8, John McBride, '79; 2d Lt. 
George Meyer, '77-8; Ensign Jacob Kepler, 
'77, Jacob Helpler, '78, John McBride, '79- 
Rank and file, 7^1 men. 

7th Co., Capt. Yost Herbach, '77-8, Wil- 
liam Lindsay, '79; ist Lt. Peter Shultz, 
'77-8, Robert Black, '79; 2d Lt. Baltzer 
Rudisill, '77-8; Ensign Michael Ettinger, 
'77-8, Samuel Russel, '79. Rank and file, 
50 men. 

Sth Co., Capt. A\'illiam Walls, '77-8, 
Thomas Clingen, '79; ist Lt. Henry Lee- 
pert. '77-8. Joseph Brown, '79; 2d Lt. John 
Jordan, '77-8: Ensign James Schultz, '77. 
Jacob Sholtz, '78.. John McLean, 79. Rank 
and file, 56 men. 

Third Battalion. 

Colonel l)a\id Jamison. "78; Lt. Col. 



Philip Albright, '78, Michael Smyser, 79; 
Major William Scott, '78, William Ashton. 


1st Co., Capt. Jacob Beaver, '78, Rinehart 

Bott, '79; 1st Lt. Nicholas Baker, '78, 

George Philip Zeigler, '79; 2d Lt. John 

Bare, '78; Ensign George Lefeber, '78, 

Philip Eberd, '79. Rank and file, 106 men. 

2d Co., Capt. Gotfry Fry, '78. Henry Mat- 
thias, '79; 1st Lt. John Bushong, '78, 
George Meyer, '79; 2d Lt. George Spangler, 
■78; Ensign James Jones, '78, Charles 
Hyer. '79. Rank and file, 65 men. 

3d Co.. Capt. Peter Forte, '78, John Mc- 
Master, '79; ist Lt. Christ Stear, '78, Wil- 
liam Bennet, '79; 2d Lt. Andrew Hartsock, 
'78; Ensign Jacob Welshance, '78, John 
INIapin. '79. Rank and file, 66 men. 

4th Co., Capt. Christopher Lowman, '78. 
Philip Jacob King, '79; ist Lt. Ephraim 
Penington, '78, Andrew Cross, '79; 2d Lt. 
John Fishel, '78; Ensign Charles Barnitz, 
"78, George ^Volf, '79. Rank and file, 72 

5th Co., Capt. Alexander Ligget, '78, 
Thomas Goald, '79; ist Lt. Robert Richey, 
'78, George Ensminger, '79; 2d Lt. Robert 
Stewart, '78: Ensign Peter Fry, '78, Wil- 
liam Nailor, '79. Rank and file, 75 men. 

6th Co., Capt. George Long, '78, Jacob 

Comfort, '79; 1st Lt. Samnel Smith, '78, 

George Meyer, '79: 2d Lt. Conrad Keesey, 

J '78: Ensign Samnel Mosser, '78, Elias Gise, 

"79. Rank and file, 62 men. 

7th Co.. Capt. :\Iichael Hahn. 78; ist Lt. 

John Mimm, 78; 2d Lt. Thomas , 

78: Ensign Christian Zinn, "78. Rank and 
file, 75 men. 

Fourth Battalion. 

Colonel John Andrew, '78; Lt. Col. Wil- 
liam ^\■alker, '78, William Gillelan, 79; 
Major Simon Vanarsdale, '78, John King, 


1st Co., Capt. John Calmery, '79; ist Lt. 
William Hamilton. '78, Samuel Gillelan, 
'79; 2d Lt, Joseph Pollock, '78; Ensign 
Adam W'eaver, '78, Nathaniel Glassco, '79. 
Rank and file, 58 men. 

2d Co., Capt. John King, '78, Robert 
Cample, '79; ist Lt. James Eliot, '78, John 
Bodine, '79; 2d Lt. Baltzer Tetrick, '78; 
Ensign \\illiam Neely, '78, David Scott, 
'79. Rank and file. 64 men. 

3d Co., Capt. William Gilliland, '78, David 

Stockton, '79; 1st Lt. Matthew Mitchell, 
'78, John Riner, '79; 2d Lt. William Kel- 
inery, '78; Ensign Nicholas Glascow, '78, 
Elisha Gready, '79. Rank and file, 67 men. 

4th Co., Capt. Samuel Morrison, '78, 
Joseph Pollock, '79; ist Lt, Peregin Mercer, 
78, William Hamilton, '79; 2d Lt. John 
Armstrong; Ensign Stephen K. Gififin, '78, 
Adam W^eaver, '79. Rank and file, 64 men. 

5th Coy Capt. John Mcllvain, 78, Josiah 
Carr, 'jy; ist Lt. John Range, '78, Lewis 
Vanarsdelin, '79; 2d Lt. Francis Clapsaddle, 
'78; Ensign James Geary, '78, John Watson, 
'79. Rank and file, 74 men. 

6th Co., Capt. John Stockton, 78, James 
Elliot, '79; 1st Lt. John Anderson, '78, Wil- 
liam Neally, '79: 2d Lt. David Stockton. 
"78; Ensign Elisha Grady, '78, Thomas 
Prior, '79. Rank and file, 64 men. 

7th Co., Capt. Samuel Erwin, '78, Andrew 
Paterson, '79; ist Lt. William Houghtelin, 
'78, Abraham Fletcher, '79; 2d Lt. Henry 
Forney, '78; Ensign William Reed, '78, 
William Fleming, '79. Rank and file, 79 

8th Co., Capt. Thomas Stockton, '78, 
James Geery, '79: 2d Lt. Daniel Mentieth, 
"78 ; Ensign Andrew Patterson, 78, George 
Sheakley, '79. Rank and file, 59 men. 

Fifth Battalion. 

Colonel Joseph Jeffries, 78: Lt. Col. 
Alichael Ege, '78, Francis Jacob Remer, '79: 
]\Iajor Joseph Spangler, 'jS, Joseph Wil- 
son, '79. 

1st Co., Capt. John Mayer, 'j'^. Thomas 
\\-hite, '79; 1st Lt. Abraham Bollinger. 78, 
Lawrence Helman, '79; Ensign Daniel 
Hum, 78, Francis Winkel, '79. Rank and 
file, 55 men. 

2d Co., Capt. Adam Black. 78, Acquilla 
^\'iley, '79; 1st Lt. William Lindsay. 78, 
Adam Hendrix. '79; 2d Lt, David Jordan, 
'78: Ensign Robert Buchanan, '78, Andrew 
Smith, 79. Rank and file, 60 men. 

3d Co., Capt. William McClane,'78, Peter 
Zollinger, 79: ist Lt. David Blyth, '78, 
^\■illiam Hefer, Jr., '79; 2d Lt. Benjamin 
Read, 78: Ensign William Hart, '78, ALar- 
tin Berkhimer. '79. Rank and file, 64 men. 

4th Co., Capt. David Wilson, 78, Michael 
Leightner, '79; ist Lt. Robert Rowan, '78. 
Henry Kessler, '79; 2d Lt. John Thomp- 
son. '78: Ensign John Cotton, 78, John 
Ham, "79. Rank and file, 64 men. 



5tli Co., Capt. Joseph Morrison, '78, 
Henry Ferree, '79; ist Lt. James Johnston, 
'78, John Snyder, '79; 2d Lt. John McBride, 
'78; Ensign John Buchanan, "78, Michael 
Snyder, '79. Rank and file, 59 men. 

6th Co., Capt. William ]\Iiller,'78, Andrew 
Paly, '79; 1st Lt. James Porter, '78, John 
Stump, 79; Ensign Barnabas McCherry, 
■78, Philip ^^'ylan(i, 79. Rank and file, 59 

7lh Co., Capt. Thomas Orbison, '78, 
George Geishelman, '79; ist Lt. Robert 
McElhenny, 78, Andrew Lau, '79; 2d Lt. 
Joseph Hunter, '78; Ensign Robert Wil- 
son, '78, Valentine Alt, '79. Rank and file, 
60 men. 

8th Co., Capt. John Paxton, '78, John 
Shorrer, '79; ist Lt. James Marshall, '78, 
Jacob Barr, '79; 2d Lt. William McMun, 
■78, Helfrich Cramer, '79. Rank and file, 
66 men. 

Sixth Battalion. 

Colonel William Ross, '78; Lt. Col. 
Samuel Nelson, '79; Major James Cham- 
berlain, '79. 

ist Co., Capt. Laird, '78, Peter 

Speece, '79; ist Lt. William Reed, '78, Johln 
Swan, '79; Ensign David Steel, '78, John 
Snyder, '79. Rank and file, 84 men. 

2d Co., Capt. Casper Reineke, '78, \\'il- 
liam Coulson, '79; ist Lt. Jacob Rudisell, 
78, Christian Keener, '79; 2d Lt. Simon 
Clear, '78; Ensign Elias Davis, '78, 
^Latthew Dill, 79. Rank and file, 89 men. 

Sd-tCo.. Capt. Alexander Nesbit, '79, Lt. 
Charles Brouster, '79; Ensign Henry De- 
walt, '78, Lazarus Nelson, '79. Rank and 
file, 85 men. 

4th Co., Capt. Frederick Kurtz, '78, An- 
drew Willson, '79; 1st Lt. Matthew Baker, 
'78, James Quigly, '79; 2d Lt. Henry 

M- ; Ensign Charles Vantine, '78, 

AA'illiam Buns, '79. Rank and file, 8^ men. 

5th Co., Capt. Peter Ekes, '78, Francis 
Boner. '79; ist Lt. Jolin" Mullin, '78, 
Thomas Black, 79; 2d Lt. Jonas Wolf; 
Ensign George Harmon, '78, Peter Zeigler, 
'79. Rank and file, 84 men. 

6th Co., Capt. Leonard Yenswene, '78, 
William. Dodds, '79; ist Lt. John Wampler, 
■78, Joseph Dodds, Jr., '79; 2d Lt. Jacob 
Xucomer, '78: Ensign Ludwick Wampler, 
'78, Adam Guchus, "79. Rank and file, 58 

7th Co., Capt. Andrew Foreman, '78. John 

Oblanas, '79; ist Lt. Henry Sturgeon, 78, 
John Polack, "79; 2d Lt. Richard Parsell, 
"78; Ensign James McMaster, '78, Benja- 
min Beaty, '79. Rank and file, 86 men. 

8th Co., Capt. Abraham Sell, 78, Daniel 
May, 79; 1st Lt. Jacob Kitsmiller, '78, An- 
drew Alilhorn, 79; Ensign Charles Grim, 
79. Rank and file, 66 men. 

Seventh Battalion. 

Colonel David Kennedy, '78; Lt. Col. 
James Agnew, '78, Adam Winterode, '79; 
IMajor John Weans, '78, Joseph Lilley, '79. 

1st Co., Capt. Thomas Latta, '78, Simon 
Clare, '79; ist Lt. Robert Fletcher, '78, 
Frederick Eyler, '79; 2d Lt. Samuel Cobain ; 
Ensign Henry Shultz, '79. Rank and file, 
69 men. 

2d Co., Capt. Thomas White. "78, Michael 
Carl, '79; 1st Lt. Robert Geffries, 78. Adam 
Hooper. '79; 2d Lt. John Gefifries, 78; En- 
sign Alexander Lee. '78, Henry Felty, '79. 
Rank and file, 57 men. 

3d Co., Capt. John ]\Iiller, 78. Conrad 
Shorets, '79; ist Lt. Peter Smith, '78, 
Henry Dewalt, 79; 2d Lt. John McDonald, 
'78; Ensign Quiller Winny, '78, Anthony 
Hinkel, 79. Rank and file, 60 men. 

4th Co., Capt. Abraham Furree, '79, 
Peter Solinger, '78; ist Lt. Daniel Amer, 
'78, Christian Koenzan, '79; 2d Lt. Joseph 
Baltzler, '78; Ensign Anthony Snider. '78, 
John Smith, '79. Rank and file, 64 men. 

5th Co.. Capt. John Arman, '78, Henry 
Moore. '79; ist Lt. Daniel Peterman, '78, 
Henry Hohsteter, '79; 2d Lt. Michael Sech, 
'78: Ensign George Arman, '78, Ulrich 
Hohsteter, '79. Rank and file, 65 men. 

6th Co., Capt. George Geiselman, '78, 
Andrew Foreman, '79; ist Lt. Frederick 
Hiner, '78, James McMaster, '79; 2d Lt. 
Henry Sumrough, '78; Ensign Valentine 
Alt, '78, Peter Foreman. '79. Rank and file, 
63 men. 

7th Co., Capt. Jacob Anient, '78, John 

Wampler, '79; ist Lt. Alexander . 

'78, Adam Fisher, '79: 2d Lt. Nicholas An- 
drews, '78; Ensign Adam Clinepeter, '78, 
Christian Gehret, '79. Rank and file, 55 

< 8th Co., Capt. John Sherer, '78. Peter, 
Ikes. '79; 1st Lt. Jacob Hetrick, 78. Jonas 
Wolf, '79; 2d Lt. Frederick Mayer," '78; 
Ensign Jacob Bear, '78, Alexander Adams, 
'79. Rank and file, 70 iTien. 



Eighth BattaUon. 

Colonel Henry .Slagle, "78; Lt. Col. John 
Laird. '79; Major Joseph Lilley, '78, David 
Wiley, '79. 

1st Co., Capt. Nicholas Gelwix, '78, James 
Maffet, '79; 1st Lt. Adam Hoopard, '78, 
James Patterson, '79; 2d Lt. George Gel- 
wix, '78; Ensign Henry Felty, '78, Alex- 
ander Allison, '79. Rank and file, 86 men. 

2d Co., Capt. Thomas Manery, '79; ist 
Lt. Isaac McKissick. '78, Thomas Gowan, 
'79; Ensign Thomas Dixon, '78, David 
Douglass, '79. Rank and file, 62 men. 

3d Co.. Capt. Umphry Andrews, '79, 
Joseph Reed, '78; ist Lt. Robert Smith, '78, 
Elias Adams, '79; Ensign Samuel Collins, 
'78, Allen Anderson, '79. Rank and file, 53 

4th Co., Capt. William Gray, '78, John 
Calwell, '79; 1st Lt. James Patterson, '78, 
John Sinkler, '79; 2d Lt. Humphries An- 
drews, '78; Ensign William McCulluch, '78, 
James Logne, '79. Rank and file, 69 men. 

;th Co., Capt. James Moffit, '78, Samuel 
Fulton. '79; 1st Lt. Andrew Warick, '78, 
Moses Andrews, '79; 2d Lt. Samuel Moor, 
'78: Ensign Thomas Allison, '78, Thomas 
Dickson, '79. Rank and file, 64 men. 

6th Co., Capt. John Rippy, '78. James 
Edger, '79; 1st Lt. John Caldwell, '78, John 
"Xampble, '79; Ensign John Taylor, '79. 
Rank and file, 44 men. 

7th Co., Capt. Joseph Reed, '78. Rank 
and file, 59 men. 

Sth Co., Capt. Thomas McXerey, '78; ist 
Lt.- William Adams, '78. Rank and file, 54 

The following is a miscellaneous list of 
soldiers from York County who served in 
the Revolution : Samuel Way, Newberry 
Township; William Complin. Marsh Creek 
settlement: Eli Pugh. Warrington Town- 
ship; Hugh Mcr^Ianus, ilonoghan Town- 
ship, enlisted February 12. 1782; James 
Brown, Marsh Creek settlement, enlisted 
February 13, 1782; Matthew Robinson, 
Bermudian settlement, March 3. 1782; 
.Andrew Guin, near James ^loore's mill, in 
"S'ork County, March 3. 1782: James 
Walker. York County: John McClelland, 
York County, in the Third Pennsylvania 
Regiment; John Hanna. near Tom's Creek, 
April I, 1782: David Johnston, April 5, 
1782: John Callahan. .April 8. 1782: Thomas 
AA'est. Xewberry Township, .April 23. 1782;. 

.\ndrew Graham. Bottstown, June 26, 1782; 
John Walter, born in Windsor Township; 
John Flodgskin. York County ; Hugh Mc- 
Ellvaney, Tyrone Township, September 2, 
1782; William Magahy, born in York 
County, lived in Cumberland County; Wil- 
liam Scarlett, Newberry Township; Robert 
Miller, York, October 21, 1782; William 
Johnston, near Michael Ege's iron works; 
Daniel Gordon, Mt. Pleasant Township, 
December 12, 1782; James O'Neal, Man- 
heim Township; John Walker, born in 
Peach Bottom, last resided near Carlisle, 
February 22, 1782; Thomas Benson, died 
in York County in 1808; Jacob Cramer, re- 
siding in York County in 1829: Matthew 
Dill, died on Jersey prison ship; Martin 
Doll, resided in York in 1829: Thomas Duff, - 
resided in York, 182^ j Vincent linfelt, re- 
sided in York County in 1829; William 
Johnson, resided in York County, 1824; 
Moses Keys, resided in York County in 
1810; John McCowan, resided in York 
County, 1819; Daniel Messerly, died in 
York County; Jacob Myer, resided in York 
County in 1816; Jacob McMillan, resided in 
A\'ashington Township in 1812; Michael 
Nagle, died on Jersey prison ship; Robert 
Peeling, sergeant, resided in York County 

in 1820; Ryebaker, wounded in 

service, resided in Dover Township in 
1807: William \\'ilson, died in York County 
in 1813. 


The following is a list of soldiers of the 
Revolution from York County who be- 
longed to different commands and received 
pensions under act of 1818: 

John Clark, Major, received an annual 
allowance of $240, and served in the Penn- 
sylvania Line: he died .\pril 27, 1819, aged 
67; Jacob Cramer, private, served in 
Hazen's German regiment, received an an- 
nual allowance of $96: died May 19, 1832, 
aged 78. Robert Ditcher, enlisted in the 
spring of 1777. in the New York Continen- 
tal Line, in Captain James Lee's company 
of artillery then in Philadelphia, attached to 
the regiment commanded by Colonel Lamb. 
He was present and took part in the battle 
of White Plains. Staten Island, Monmouth, 
^lud Island and Germantown, and was sev- 
eral times wounded: died January 10, 1832, 
aged /S. James Hogg served from January 



26, 1779. in the First Regiment of ?\!ary- 
land Line, commanded at first by Colonel 
Smallwood, and afterward by Colonel 
Stone. His company was at first that of 
Captain Nathaniel Ramsay, and afterward 
that of Captain Hazen; died January 3, 
1824, aged 79. Frederick Huebner, private, 
served in Armand's Legion, in the company 
of Captain Barron, for the term of about 
three years; died August 17, 1828, aged 76. 
Jacob McClean, pri\-ate, served in Colonel 
Housegger's regiment, called the "German 
Regiment," in the company of Captain 
Benjamin Weiser, from July, 1776, until 
1779; died February 18, 1824, aged 66. 
Zenos Macomber, private, served in Colonel 
Carter's Regiment from May, 1775, until 
Januarj-, 1776. -when he enlisted in Colonel 
Bond's regiment of the ALissachusetts 
Line. Serving in this regiiuent aliout two 
months, he was removed and placed in 
General Washington's foot guard, where he 
served until January, 1777, when he enlisted 
in General Washington's horse guard in 
which he served three years: died in 1835, 
aged j"^. Conrad Pudding, private, serxed 
in -Irmand's Legion, in Captain Sheriff's 
company, from the spring of 1781, until the 
fall of 1783, when the army was disbanded; 
died April 30, ]828, aged 74. Thomas 
Randolph. ])rivale. serx'ed in the Se\enth 
Regiment of the Virginia Line, commanded 
by Colonel McClellan. in the company of 
Captain Peasey, from 1775 to 1778; died 
June 25, 1828, aged 'i-/. Samuel Ramble, 
private, served in the First Regiment of the 
Virginia Line, under Colonel Campbell, in 
the company commanded by Captain ]\Ioss, 
during the last three }ears of the war; died 
July 28, 1830, aged -ji. Godlove (Dedlove) 
Shadow, pri\'ate, served from the spring of 
1776, until the close of the war in the 
regiment commanded by Colonel Moses 
Hazen, in the comiiany of Captain Duncan; 
died January 24. 1825. aged 69. Samuel 
Spicer. private, serx-ed in the Tenth Regi- 
ment of the Pennsylvania Line, under Colo- 
nel Humpton, in Captain \\'eaver's com- 
pany, for about one year before the close of 
the war: invalid pensioner, received an an- 
nual allowance of $96 from March 4, 1789; 
died in 1818. aged 8r. John Schneider, pri- 
vate, served in Colonel Hartley's regiment. 
Captain David Grier's company, from 
Xovemljer 11, 1775. until the end of one 

year and three months. He afterward 
ser\-ed in the regiment commanded by Colo- 
nel Haren, in Captain Turner's company 
from the early jiart of 1777, until the end 
of the war: died August 11, 1827, aged 76. 
James Silk, private, ser\'ed in the Maryland 
Continental Line; died in 1835, aged 84. 
John Taylor, musician, enlisted in February. 
1778, at Mt. Holly, New Jersey, in the com- 
pany of Captain John Cummings. and in 
the Second Regiment of the New Jersey 
l^ine, attached to the brigade commanded 
b\- General Maxwell: continued in service 
until October. 1783, when lie was dis- 
charged near Morristown, N. J. He \\'as 
at the battle of Monmouth, and at the 
capture of Cornwallis at Yorktown ; he 
ser\'ed as a ^•olunteer at the storming of 
Stony Point, by General Wayne, at which 
he was slightly wounded; died in 1835, aged 
"jj. r^Iichael \\'eirick, served in the Sixth 
Regiment of the ^Maryland I-<ine under 
Colonel A\'illiams and Colonel Stewart, and 
in the company of Captain Rebelle, during 
the last five years of the \\-ar ; died August 
1},. 1825. aged 71. Philip AA'agner, served 
in the A'irginia Continental Line; died in 
1835, aged 90. George Lingenfelder, served 
in Captain Michael McGuire's company, in 
Colonel Brooks' regiment, of Maryland, 
from June, 1780, until the close of the war. 
At the battle of Erandywine he was severely 
wounded; died in 1818, aged 59. Hum- 
phrey Andrews, enlisted in Chester County, 
Pennsylvania, on January 26, 1776, for the 
term of one year, in the company then com- 
manded by Captain James Taylor, in the 
Fourth Pennsylvania Regiment, com- 
manded by Colonel Anthony Wa}-ne. 
From Chester County he marched by way 
of New York, Albany-, Ticonderoga and 
Crown Point, to Montreal, at which place 
they met the troops under General Thomp- 
son, who were returning from the battle of 
Three Rivers. He thence returned with 
his fellow soldiers to Crown Point, -where 
he remained until January 24, 1777, sta- 
tioned between the two armies of Burgoyne 
and Flowe. ]\Iarching to Chester, he was 
discharged on the 25th of February. 1777. 
Andrews was engaged in a skirmish with 
the British in November. 1776. He died in 
1818, aged 63. Jacob Mayer, enlisted in 
York County, served in Colonel AVayne's 
regiment, in the company commandetl by 



Captain James Taylor from Februar}-, 1776, 
to the end of one year, when he was dis- 
cliargcd at Chester; died 1828, aged 67. 
Matthias Kraut served in the Tenth Regi- 
ment of the Pennsylvania Line, commanded 
l)y Captain Stout, from 1776, to the close of 
the war. He died in 1818, aged 58. Jacob 
Kramer, served in the regiment com- 
manded by Captain Housegger, and after- 
ward by Colonel Weltman, in the company 
commanded by Captain Paulsell, and after- 
ward b\' Captain Bo}er. He ser\ed from 
July 19, 1776, until Jul\' 19, 1779. He died 
in 1818, aged 62. 

The following soldiers from York County 
who served in the Pennsyhania Line, un- 
der an act of 1818, received an annual allow- 
ance of $96, and were dropped from the roll 
under act of May i, 1820: 

John Brown, private, aged 69; Jacob Fit- 
zer, private, aged 74; Abraham Greenwalt, 
private, aged 62; Anthony Lehman, private, 
served in the Fifth Regiment, under Colo- 
nel INIcGaw, in the company of Captain 
Deckert, from February, 1775, to January, 
^777' aged 67; David Ramsey, private, 
served in the First Rifle Regiment, under 
Colonel Edward Hand, the company under 
Captain Henry Miller, from July i, 1775, 
until June, 1776. Being then discharged, 
he joined Colonel Harnum's regiment, and 
was in service until taken prisoner at the 
battle of Brandywine. He w-as present and 
took part in the battles of Bunker Hill, 
Long Island, Flat Bush, at one of wdiich he 
was wounded in the head: aged 71. 

The following soldiers from YorkCounty, 
who served in the Pennsylvania Line, under 
act of 1818, received an annual allowance of 
$96. and died at the dates named : 

John Beatty, private, served in the Sixth 
Pennsylvania Regiment, commanded by 
Colonel Irwin, in the company of Abraham 
Smith, from February, 1776, until February, 
1777, died August 30, 1829, aged 74; John 
Jacob Brown (Bauer), private, served in the 
First Pennsylvania Regiment, commanded 
by Colonel Chambers, in Captain James 
\Vilson's company, from September, 1774, 
until the close of the war, died December 2, 
1827, aged 82: William Brown, private, en- 
listed at Philadelphia in the autumn of 1777, 
for the term of tliree years, in the company 
commanded by Captain John Doyle, and 
the First Reariment of the Pennsvlvania 

Line commanded by Colonel Hand. He 
was at the battles of Brandywine. Trenton, 
Princeton, Monmouth, Stony Point and 
Paoli, at the last of which he received sev- 
eral W'Ounds ; served six years and was dis- 
charged at Lancaster; died June 12, 1822, 
aged jy.. William Cline, private, served in 
Colonel \\'ayne's regiment, in Captain 
Frazer's company, from December, 1775, 
to March, 1777; died January 21, 1825, aged 
70. ^Matthias Crout, private, served in the 
Tenth Regiment, in a company commanded 
by Captain Stout, from 1776, to the close of 
the war; died July 22, 1827, aged 67. John 
Deveney,. private, served in the Fourth 
Regiment, commanded by Colonel Anthony 
Wayne, in Captain Robinson's company, 
from the fall of 1775, until the close of one 
year, at which time he entered the Fifth 
Regiment, in Captain Bartholomew's com- 
pany, in which he served until the close of 
the war; died February 15, 1827, aged 69. 
John Deis, private, served in Captain David 
Grier's company, in the regiment com- 
manded by Colonel Hartley, from March, 
1776, until the end of one year; died April 
5. 1822, aged 66. Joel Gray, private, served 
in Colonel Hartley's regiment, in the com- 
pany of Captain Bush, from October, 1778, 
until the first of April. 1781 ; died October 
9, 1820, aged yj. John Lockert, private, 
served in Colonel Proctor's regiment of ar- 
tillery, in the company of Captain Duftie, 
from June, 1777, until June, 1779; died June 
I, 1830, aged 76 Matthew Liddy, private, 
died April 24, 1830, aged 87. Christopher 
Xew (Nerr), private, served in the Second 
Regiment, commanded by Colonel Stewart, 
under Captain Patterson, from April, 1777, 
until January. 1780; died December i, 1826, 
aged "j}^. John Ohmet. private, served in 
the Tenth Regiment, commanded by Colo- 
nel Richard Hunipton. in the company of 
Captain Flicks, from May. 1777, until the 
close of the war: died April 16. 1823, aged 
65. William Smith, private, served in the 
Second Regiment, under Captain Watson, 
from February. 1776. until the close of one 
year; enlisted in the Fourth Regiment, 
commanded b\' Colonel William Butler, in 
Captain Bird's company; died July 4. 1821. 
aged 71. Adam Schuman. pri\ate. served 
in the Fifth Pennsylvania Regiment, com- 
manded by Colonel Richard Butler, in Cap- 
tain Walker's company, commanded by 



Lieutenant Feldman, from tlie spring of 
1776, until the close of the war; died May 
16, 1823, aged 80. Michael Shultz, private, 
served in Colonel Hartley's regiment, in 
Captain Grier's company, from January, 
1776, for the term of one year; died Feb- 
i-uary 8, 1834, aged yy. Joseph Wren, mu- 
sician, served in the Seventh Regiment, in 
the company of Captain Wilson, from Jan- 
viary, 1777, until the close of the war; died 
July 9, 1827, aged 89. Lewis (Ludvvig) 
Waltman, musician, served in the Sixth 
Regiment, commanded by Colonel Butler, 
in the company of Captain Bush, from the 
fall of 1777, for the term of three years and 
a half; died August 8, 1822, aged 64. 
Rhinehart Wire, musician, died July 7, 1827, 
aged 70. Edward Smith, private, served in 
Pulaski's Legion, died June 26, 1832, aged 
76. Christopher Sype, musician, served in 
the Pennsylvania Line; died October 2, 

The following soldiers from York County, 
who served in the Pennsylvania Continen- 
tal Line, were on the pension rolls in the 
year 1835, under the act passed in 1818, and 
received an annual allowance of $96: 

Thomas Burk. fifer, aged 74, served in 
Tenth Regiment, commanded by Lieuten- 
ant Colonel Hazen, from June, 1778, until 
1781 ; William Bargenhoff, private, aged 87; 
John Cavenough. corporal, aged 83; Martin 
Doll, private, aged 79; Jonathan Jacobs, 
private, aged 70; Peter Myers, private, aged 
74; Martin Miller, private, served in Count 
Pulaski's Legion, in Captain Seleski's com- 
pany for the term of eighteen months, aged 
71; Michael Peter, private, aged 83; Philip 
Peter Scherer, private, aged 76; Henry 
Snyder, private, aged 78: Anthony Sloth- 
our, musician, aged 83; V^alentine Stickel, 
musician, aged 82; ]\Iichael Warner, musi- 
cian, served in Captain Jacob Bower's com- 
pany, from October, 1781, until October, 
1783, aged 75; Andrew Young, musician, 
aged 78; Henry Doll, private, served in the 
First Regiment, under Colonel Stewart, and 
in the company under Captain Shade, for 
about one year, aged 78: Frederick Boyer, 
private, served in the detachment under 
Colonel Almon, from 1777 to 1779, when he 
enlisted in a corps of cavalry under Captain 
Selinski, and under the command of General 
Pulaski ; served in the corps until nearly the 
whole of it was destroyed, aged 83. John 

Michael, private, aged 91 ; Christian Pepret, 
served in Colonel Butler's regiment, in 
Captain Bush's company, from the year 
1779 until the close of the war, aged 83. 

The following Revolutionary soldiers, re- 
siding in York County, were placed on pen- 
sion rolls March 4, 183 1, most of whom re- 
ceived an annual allowance varying from 
$20 to $40 : 

Jonathan Mifflin, deputy-quartermaster, 
served in Pennsylvania militia, received an- 
nual allowance of $425; aged 80. Adam 
Wolf, lieutenant, served in the Pennsylvania 
State troops, received an annual allowance 
of $92, aged 84. John Datamar, ensign, 
served in Pennsylvania State troops, aged 
//. Henry Feltz, ensign and private, 
served in Pennsylvania militia, aged 76. 
James Patterson, pri\-ate, served in Penn- 
sylvania militia, received an annual allow- 
ance of $76, aged 80. Henry Baumgard- 
ner, private, served in Pennsylvania militia, 
aged 76; John Bullock, private, served in 
Maryland militia, aged 84; George Bailey, 
private, served in Pennsylvania militia, aged 
/T,; John Baker, private, in Maryland mili- 
tia, aged 76; Heifer Cramer, private, in 
Pennsylvania militia, aged 79; Joseph Croft, 
private, in Pennsylvania State troops, aged 
79; James Cross, private, in Pennsylvania 
militia, aged 75; Michael Coppenhaffer, 
private, in Pennsylvania militia: Andrew 
Finfrock, private, in Pennsylvania militia, 
aged jy; Henry Geip, private, in Pennsyl- 
vania militia, aged 78; George Goodyear, 
private, in Pennsylvania militia, aged 82 ; 
Philip Gohn, private, in Pennsylvania mili- 
tia, aged yy: Henry HofT, private, in Penn- 
sylvania militia, aged 74; Jacob Innois, 
private, in Pennsylvania militia, aged 82: 
John Jacobs, private, in Pennsylvania mili- 
tia, aged 80; George Krebs, private in 
Pennsylvania militia, aged 80; Valeiitine 
Kohler, private, in Pennsylvania militia, 
aged 79; John Kroan. private, in Pennsyl- 
vania militia, aged yy: Peter Grumbine, 
private, in Pennsylvania Continental Line, 
aged yT,: Christian Klinedinst, private, in 
Pennsylvania militia, aged 76; John Lipp, 
private, in Maryland militia, aged 88; Nich- 
olas Leber, private, in Pennsylvania militia, 
aged 78; Frederick Leader, private, served 
in artillery and infantry in Pennsylvania 
Line, aged 74: Philip Miller, private, in 
Pennsylvania militia, aged 83; Adam Pope, 



private, in Pennsylvania militia, aged 68: 
Daniel Pegg, private, in New Jersey militia, 
received an annual allowance of $53, aged 
78; Dewalt Rabenstine. pri\ate, in Pennsyl- 
vania militia, aged "/T,; Jacob Rudy, private, 
in Penns3'lvania militia, aged 83; Alatthias 
Ritz, pri\ate, in Pennsylvania militia, aged 
yy; John Stroman, private, in Pennsylvania 
State troops, aged y^\ John Schmuck, pri- 
vate, in Pennsyhania militia, aged 78; 
Adam Schlott, pri\-ate. in Pennsylvania 
militia, aged 72; Lewis Shive, private, in 
Pennsylvania militia, aged 74; Tobias Sype, 
private, in Pennsylvania militia, aged 73; 
John Stabb. private, in Pennsylvania mili- 
tia, aged 75 ; Ludwig Swartz, private, in 
Pennsylvania militia, aged 75; George 
Switzen, private, in Pennsylvania mili- 
tia, aged 71 ; Henry Tome, private, 
in Pennsylvania militia, aged 80; Alex- 
ander Thompson, private, in Pennsyl- 
vania militia, aged 75 ; David W'altagmer, 
private, in Pennsyhania militia, aged y^: 
Philip W'ambach. private, in Pennsylvania 
militia, ag«d 59 : John Welch, private, in 
Pennsylvania militia, aged 92: Caspar Zegar, 
private, in Pennsylvania militia, aged 81. 

The following Revolutionarv soldiers 
were in\alid pensioners residing in York 
County : 

■ Thomas Campbell, captain, received an 
annual allowance of $240. June 7, 1785; 
Andrew Johnson, lieutenant, received an 
annual allowance of $60. Februar_\- 15. 1812: 
Jacob Barnitz. ensign, annual allowance 
$120, June 7, 1785; George Benedict, annual 
allowance $40, November 22, 1809; John 
Cavenaugh. private, annual allowance $20. 
September 4. 1794: Henry Slotterback, 
private in Butler's regiment, annual allow- 
ance $60. March 3. 1827. 

The following is a miscellaneous list of 
Revolutionary pensioners : 

Robert Peeling, annual allowance $96, 
died August 2. 1839: Frederick Stine ; 
Jacob C/inder. served in General Armand's 
Legion: Dr. William H. Smith, surgeon 
mate in Pennsyhania Line: Captain 
George Jenkins, served in Pennsylvania 
Line: Tliomas Henderson, of Peach Bot- 
tom Township: Jacob Doudel. served in 
Pennsylvania Line, died September 21, 
1831: Philip Graybill, served in the Second 
Regiment of the Pennsylvania Line, died in 
1816: Philip Miller, served in Colonel Gib- 

son's regiment of the Pennsylvania Line, 
enlisted for one year, in 1778; Philip Miller, 
served in Colonel Stewart's regiment of the 
Pennsylvania Line; Nicholas James, in 
1849, aged 83: John Bryan, served in Ar- 
mand's I^egion until the end of the war, dis- 
charged at York: Captain Andrew Walker. 
served in Colonel Hartley's regiment of the 
Pennsylvania Line, from 1776 to the close 
of the war; Captain John Doyle; James 
Bennett, sergeant in Proctor's regiment of 
artillery in the Pennsylvania Line, died 
May 12, 1824. 

William Russel. of Franklin Township, 
ensign in Third Pennsylvania Regiment; 
vSamuel Spicer. private in Tenth Pennsyl- 
vania Regiment; Archibald Steel, officer in 
First Pennsylvania Regiment; John Brown, 
private in Captain Andrew L'win's com- 
pany in the Seventh Pennsylvania Regi- 
ment, under Colonel David Grier ;£Samuel 
IMosser. Washington County, private in 
-Vrmand's Legioii7?Christian Babst, private, 
in Armand's Legron ; Captain John Wamp- 
ler. engaged seven months' men in 1780; 
Barnet Slough, private in Armand's Legion; 
William ^Marshall, of York. pri\-ate Arm- 
and's Legion. 

The names of the following Revolution- 
ary pensioners were collected from the 
records of John Morris, a notary public of 
the Borough of York, and found in the 
office of Register of Wills of the count)': 
Peter Tims or Tome, a private in .Arm- 
and's Legion; John Boyle: John ' Trie, 
private Captain Bell's Company, Second 
Xew A'ork Regiment, Colonel Philip Cort- 
landt; Peter Christian, private Armand's 
Legion: John Michael: George Benedict: 
Da\"id Kramer, private .\rmand's Legion: 
Ephraim Ferguson, shoemaker, private in 
Captain Gibson's Company, Fifth Pennsyl- 
vania Regiment; Andrew McFarlin. dra- 
goon in Armand's Legion: George Zinn; 
Thomas Johnson, lieutenant in Colonel 
Cunningham's Battalion. 

Richard Yarding, a corporal in Captain 
Graeff's Company, Colonel Swope's Regi- 
ment, March 27, 1782, received from the 
comity by order of the court twenty-five 
pounds, or about $125, for services while a 
prisoner of war on Long Island. He w^as 
also allow^ed the pension of a corporal from 
the county, beginning from the time of his 
release on account of his disabilitv. 



John Stead, a private in Colonel Hart- 
le3'"s Eleventh Pennsylvania Regiment, was 
severely wounded at Paoli. In October, 
1782, the court allowed him twenty-five 
shillings per month on account of disability. 

George Stewart, of Windsor Township, 
must have been one of the youngest sol- 
diers of the Revolution. . He enlisted in 
Captain Porter's company in the lower end 
of York County, as a substitute, when, ac- 
cording to an official record, he was utterly 
incapable of carrying a musket. He was 
sold as a substitute by his master, George 

Robert Coney, a soldier of the Revolu- 
tion, was born at York in 1758 and died De- 
cember, i860, at his liome in Hamilton 
County, Ohio, at the age of one hundred 
and two years. He had entered the army 
under Washington as a drummer at the age 
of thirteen. 

John Purnell, the last survivor of the 
Revolution from York County, died at his 
residence on South Street, York, May 22, 
1863, at the age of ninety-eight. In 1777, 
at the age of eleven years, he became a 
cabin boy on board one of the war vessels 
of Commodore Paul Jones, the founder of 
the American navy, and is supposed to have 
been with that officer when he won the \'ic- 
tory over the British off the coast of France. 
Purnell was a pensioner from the year 1S18 
to the time of his death in 1863. 


Samuel Adams' Great Speech — John Han- 
cock's Resignation — Laurens Chosen 
President — First National Thanksgiving 
— Articles of Confederation Adopted — 
Proceedings in 1778. 

In the summer of 1777 General Howe de- 
termined to leave X^ew York for the purpose 
of attacking Philadelphia, the seat of the 
United States Government. He embarked 
in July with 18,000 men. Finding that the 
entrance to the Delaware River was well 
fortified and that strong defenses had been 
erected a short distance below Philadelphia, 
he decided to enter Pennsylvania by sailing 
up the Chesapeake. Owing to a stormy 
passage, he did not arrive at the head of the 
bay until August 25, when he landed at 
Elkton, ]Maryland. 

At this time General Washington with a 
small army crossed X^ew Jersey to defend 
Philadelphia. A resolution of Congress 
was passed, calling out the militia of Penn- 
sylvania, Virginia, Maryland and Delaware. 
August 26, John Adams, of Massachusetts, 
then a delegate in Congress and President 
of the Board of War, wrote: "Congress 
has been informed that Howe's army has 
landed upon the banks of the Elk River. 
The militia are turning out with great alac- 
rity from Maryland and Pennsylvania. 
They are distressed for want of arms. 
^lany have no arms and others only small 
fowling pieces." 

Washington now moved his army farther 
south and on September 11 with 11,000 
men, met Howe with his 18,000 British 
regulars and Hessians at Chad's Ford on 
the Brandywine, where a desperate battle 
took place. Washington was obliged to re- 
tire from the field, but the defeat was so 
slight that he was able to detain Howe for 
two weeks on the march of only twenty-six 
miles to Philadelphia. 

During these stirring times when the 
sound of the British guns was heard in 
Philadelphia from the battle of Brandywine, 
Congress resolved to remove the public ^ 
records to the interior of Pennsylvania and 
select another place as a temporary capital 
of the United States. It was hardly to be 
expected that Washington with his small 
force could defeat so large a body of the 
enemy and on September 14, three days 
after the battle, John Adams wrote from 
Philadelphia to his wife in Massachusetts: 
"Howe's army is at Chester, about fifteen 
miles from this town. General Washing- 
ton is over the Schuylkill awaiting the flank 
of Howe's army. How much longer Con- 
gress will stay is uncertain. If we should 
move, it will be to Reading, Lancaster, 
York, Easton or Bethlehem, some town in 
this state. Don't be anxious about me nor 
about our great and sacred cause. It is the 
cause of truth and will prevail." 

On the same day Congress resolved that 
if obliged to remove from Philadelphia, 
Lancaster should be the place of meeting , 
and that the public papers be put in the V 
care of Abraham Clark, one of the members 
from New Jersey, who was "empowered to 
procure wagons sufficient for conveying 
them and apply to General John Dickinson 



or any other officer commanding troops in 
the service of the United States who is 
hereb}^ directed to furnish a guard to con- 
duct the said papers safely to Lancaster " 

September 17, Congress resolved that 
"notwithstanding the brave exertions of the 
American army, the city of Philadelphia 
may possibly by the fortune of war, be for a 
time possessed by the enemy's army " 

It further resohed to grant to General 
\\'ashington. commander-in-chief, extraor- 
dinary powers for sixty days with the au- 
thority to suspend officers of the army for 
misbehavior, fill vacancies below the rank 
of brigadier general, and take provisions 
and other articles, wherever they may be 
found for the maintenance of the army. He 
was permitted to pay for these provisions or 
give certificates for the payment of them, 
and a pledge of the public credit was given 
for the future settlement of such certificates. 
Early on the morning of Sep- 
Arrive at tember 19, when the members 
Bethlehem, of Congress were in bed, they 
received word through Alex- 
ander Hamilton, then a colonel on the stafif 
of \\'ashington, that the British army was 
in possession of the fords over the Schuyl- 
kill. It was evident that the enemy would 
be in possession of Philadelphia in a few 
hours. At this time there were about thirty 
delegates present from the different states. 
Having adjourned to meet at Lancaster, 
this body of patriots to a\oid falling into 
the hands of the enemy, started northward 
to Bristol, twenty miles north of Philadel- 
phia. The official papers of the Board of 
\\'a.v and the Board of Treasury had been 
sent to Bristol some days before. They 
were conveyed to Trenton, to Easton and 
from thence to Bethlehem. The delegates 
from the different states seem to have pro- 
ceeded by the nearest route from Bristol 
and arrived at Bethlehem, a distance of 
forty miles, September 22. In the evening 
of the same day John Adams with the dele- 
gates arrived from Easton with the official 
papers guarded by fifty troopers and fifty 

A band of British Highlanders were then 
imprisoned at Bethlehem. They were or- 
dered to Lancaster and from thence taken 
through York, to Virginia. Their place of 
imprisonment at Bethlehem was turned into 
a hospital for wounded soldiers, brought 

there from the battle of Brandywine. Gen- 
eral Lafayette, who was also wounded at 
Brandywine, was taken to Bethlehem where 
he received surgical treatment. On Sep- 
tember 23, many of the delegates attended 
the children's meeting in the Moravian 
chapel. After the services John Hancock 
took up the service book used by the Mo- 
ravian pastor. Rev. John Ettwine, and with 
other delegates, examined it. The pastor 
explained its use and read that portion for 
the day containing the words "^^'hoever is 
not for us is against us." 

The members of Congress while at Beth- 
lehem signed an official paper authorizing 
the protection of the property of the Mora- 
vians. They were John Hancock. Samuel 
Adams, Richard Henry Lee, Benjamin Har- 
rison, Henry Laurens, John Adams, James 
Duane. Nathan Brownson. X'athaniel Fol- 
som, Richard Law, Eliphalet Dyer, Henry 
^larchant, \\'illiam Duer, Cornelius Har- 
nett, Joseph Jones and William Williams. 

The liberty bell from Independence Hall 
in Philadelphia, which rang out independ- 
ence after the Declaration had been signed, 
was brouglit from Philadelphia to Easton 
and from thence to Bethlehem. Soon after- 
ward this bell, now so famous in the history 
of our country, was concealed for several 
months in a Reformed Church at Allen- 

In accordance with the rcsolu- 

One Day tion of Congress, when it ad- 

at journed at Philadelphia to meet 

Lancaster, at Lancaster, the members at 

Bethlehem proceeded to that 

borough on horseback, arriving there on 

the evening of Friday, September 26. At 

this time the Pennsylvania Legislature had 

moved to Lancaster remaining in session 

there until June 20 of the following year. 

Upon arriving at Lancaster, Congress as- 
sembled in the Court House then situated 
in Centre Square and began the transaction 
of business. Several important letters 
were read. One was received from General 
Gates, then in command of the Northern 
army near Saratoga. This letter dated 
September 15, on account of the exciting 
condition of affairs had been a long time 
on the way. It was written four days be- 
fore Gates had won his first victory at Sar- 
atoga. A letter of great moment, dated 
September 2^. was received from General 




Washington. This letter -was written at 
Pottstown whicli was then his headquarters 
and stated the condition of his army after 
the defeat of Brandywine, and the need of 
arms and supphes. A resolution was then 
passed instructing the Board of War "to 
cooperate with General Washington in de- 
vising and carrying into execution effectual 
measures for supplying the army with fire- 
arms, shoes, blankets, stockings, provisions 
and other necessaries." The condition of 
atTairs around Pliiladelphia at this period 
was not encouraging to the Americans. 
Although Washington was receiving rein- 
forcements there was still danger that he 
had not a sut^cient army to defeat the 
enemy in a conflict which seemed inevi- 
table. Lancaster was only sixty-eight miles* 
from Pliiladelphia and scouting parties of 
the enemy frequently approachetl the 
borders of the county in which Congress 
was assembled. The Pennsylvania Legis- 
lature, then about to open its sessions at 
Lancaster, had begun to grow discouraged 
and disheartened by reason of the defeat of 
our army at Brandywine and the capture of 
Philadelphia by the British. Some of its 
members were inimical to the cause of inde- 
pendence and others were opposed to 
W'ashington as the head of the army. 

At the close of one day's session at Lan- 
caster, held on Saturday, September 27, the 
following resolution was adopted: "Re- 
solved, That the Treasury Board direct the 
treasurer, with all his papers, forms, etc., to 
repair to the town of York, in Pennsyl- 
vania." Immediately after the passage of 
this resolution, a motion was carried to ad- 
journ to meet at Y'ork on the following 
Tuesda_y at 10 o'clock A. M. 

These illustrious patriots 

Cross the whose acts and deeds have 

Susquehanna, added lustre to the pages of 

American history, wended 
their way toward the Susquehanna in order 
that the Inroad river might flow between 
them and the enemy wdiile they transacted 
the affairs of the infant government at 
York during the darkest period of the 
Revolution. They crossed the river on flat 
boats at Wright's Ferry and proceeded to 
York. They rode on horseback, except 
John Hancock, who traveled in a chaise, 
and Joseph Jones, a meml^er from Virginia, 
who came here in the private carriage of 

General Washington. Tiie following let- 
ter, written upon his arri\-al liere, to the 
commander-in-chief, tells an interesting 
story : 

York, Pa., September 30, 1777. 
Uear Sir: I have your phaeton here, though I was 
obliged to send for it after I left Philadelphia, being 
put to route the night I received your letter. The bolt 
that fastens the pole part of the long reins was lost, 
some brass nails also gone and the lining much dirtied 
and in some places torn. I will have these little matters 
repaired and the carriage and harness kept clean and in 
as good order as I can, which is the least I can do for 
the use, though I wovild rather buy it, if you are not 
determined against selling it and submit the price to 
yourself or your friend. Colonel Harrison, who may 
view it and pay the cash upon demand to your order. 
The harness I observe is not matched, though the 
difference is not very striking. Whether these hap- 
pened at Philadelphia since you left it there or before, 
you can judge. 

When Congress assembled September 
30, 1777, in the Provincial Court House, 
which stood in Centre Square, York, from 
1755 to 1841, it beheld the chief cities of the 
country in the hands of the enemy and the 
shattered army around Philadelpliia retreat- 
ing Ijefore a conquering foe. York con- 
tained 286 houses and aJDOut 1,800 in- 
hal)itants. There were within the town 
■a dozen or more puljlic inns or taverns, as 
they were then called, at wdiich some of the 
members with ditliculty secured lodging 
and .entertainment. A retinue of attend- 
ants, including the troops of cavalry and a 
company of infantry which had guarded the 
transmission of the government papers, 
also fotmd accommodations at public and 
private houses as liest they could. The 
members or delegates to Congress had 
been elected by their respective states for 
one year and recei\-ed such compensation 
as the state legislatures provided. The 
amounts varied from three to eight dollars 
a day in Continental money, then wortii 
about thirty cents on the dollar. The 
Board of Treasury, presided over Ijv El- 
bridge Gerry, of Massachusetts, took up its 
quarters in the residence of Archibald ^Ic- 
Clean, at the northeast corner of George 
Street and Centre Square. It was in this 
building that Michael Hillegas, treasurer, 
of the United States, distributed during the 
succeeding nine months, in accordance with 
the resolutions of Congress, the deposits of 
the government treasury. The Board of 
War. presided o\er by John Adams, of 
Massachusetts, held its meetings in the law 
olfice of Tames Smith, adjoining his 


President of Continental Congress when it assembled in 
York, September 30, 1777 



residence on the west side of Soutli Geors^e 
Street, near Centre Square. Different com- 
mittees met in the building at the south- 
west angle of Centre Square. The mem- 
bers of Congress paid their own expenses 
while here, except John Hancock, of Mas- 
sachusetts, the president, who occupied the 
house of Colonel Michael Swope, on the 
south side of West Market Street near 
Centre Square, and his current expenses 
were paid b)- autliority of tlie government 
out of the national treasury. 

Daniel Roberdeau, of Philadelphia, who. 
as a brigadier-general in the army, had 
captured from the British a prize of $22,000 
in siher and turned it over to the use of 
Congress, rented a house on South George 
Street. Several of the members, including 
John Adams, Elbridge Gerry, Samuel 
Adams, Benjamin Harrison, and Richard 
Henry Lee, lodged in his house. Other 
members stopped at private houses and at 
parsonages occupied by different clergy- 
men of the town. 

Congress held a iM^ief session on 
Opening September 30 and then ad- 
Session journed until the following 
at York, morning at 10 o'clock. The 
controlling power of the nation 
was vested in one body, and during the 
whole period of the war, until 1789, trans- 
acted the business of the government with 
closed doors. Xone but members and a 
few government officials were permitted to 
attend the sessions. Congress, however, at 
this time, could only recommend to the 
states what should be done. It had no 
power to lay a tax upon the different states 
or to order that soldiers should be drafted 
into the army. At this time the new re- 
public was composed of thirteen indepen- 
dent states. The Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, passed the year before, had not 
created a perfect union and our fathers had 
not yet "brought forth on this continent a 
new nation.'" The .\rticles of Confedera- 
tion, which had lieen discussed for se\'eral 
months at Independence Hall, in Philadel- 
phia, were now taken up for final passage. 
It is interesting to state here 
Where that the court house then used 
Congress as the Capitol of the United 

Met. States, had been built of brick 

twcntv-two \ears !)efore. It 

was 55 feet long and 45 feet wide. The 

main entrance, through double doors, led 
from South George Street. The judge's 
desk, at which the President sat, was at the 
western end of the building. Back of this, 
on a small pedestal, perched a plain image 
representing a statue blindfolded holding 
the scales of justice. Tw'o rows of seats 
for jurors extended along the walls to the 
left and right of the judge's desk. Several 
taJjles and desks rested on the floor within 
the bar. immediately l)ehind which stood a 
large ten-plate wood stove with an eight- 
inch pipe extending upward and then back 
to the east wall. The rows of seats to the 
rear of the Ijar inclined upward to the east- 
ern end of the building. .At the rear of the 
court room was a small gallery reached by 
winding stairs. There were six windows 
on each of the sides facing north and south 
George Street, and four windows each at 
the east and w^est ends of the building. 
Every window contained two sashes and 
every sash 18 small panes of glass. The 
second story of the Court House w'as used 
for public meetings, entertainments and at 
times for school purposes. In the original 
Court House there were only two gable 
ends, one facing east and the other west 
Market Street. The gables facing north and 
south George Street were placed there when 
the Court House was remodeled in 181 5. 

-V bell had been obtained for St. 

An John's Episcopal Church, on 

Historic Xorth Beaver Street, a few 

Bell. years before. There was no bel- 
fry on this church and no suitable 
place to hang the bell, so it was hung on a 
pole in Centre Square and there rung for 
religious services and for town meetings. 
When the news of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence was officially brought to York. 
James Smith and Archibald McClean 
ordered that this bell be put in the cupola 
of the Court House. In response to notifi- 
cation this historic bell was rung loud and 
long for lil)erty and independence. After 
the Revolution this bell was removed to the 
cupola of St. John's Episcopal Church of 
York, where it has since been used. A vast 
crowd of ]5eople had assembled in Centre 
Square and the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence was read amidst great applause. 

On Tuesday evening, Septem- 
Hancock's ber 30. John Hancock wrote to 

Letter. .General Washington: 



York. Pa., 30 September, 1777. 

Sir: — Since my departure from Philadelphia, I have 
to acknowledge the receipt of your favors. Congress 
met on Saturday last at Lancaster and upon consulta- 
tion it was judged most prudent to adjourn to this place, 
where we now are and where we can prosecute business 
without interruption and where your despatches w'ill 
meet us. 

I have just now received by General Gates' aide-de- 
camp. Major Troup, sundry letters, copies of which I 
have the honor to enclose to you, by which it appears 
that our affairs in the northern department wear a 
favorable aspect and I hope soon to transmit you an 
account of an issue to the contest in that quarter. 

I w'ish soon to receive the most pleasing accounts 
from you. We are in daily expectation of agreeable 
tidings and that General Howe is totally reduced. 

I beg leave to refer you to enclosed papers ; and am 
with the utmost respect and esteem, sir, 

Your most obedient and verv humble servant, 


Including President Hancock, 

Delegates there were 25 delegates present 

to on October 3, when they voted 

Congress, on the resolution to refer to 

General \\'ashington the deci- 
sion of priority of rank in the army between 
Baron de Kalb and General Thomas Con- 
way. Their names and the states they 
represented are recorded in the journals of 
Congress as follows: Nathaniel Folsom, 
New Hampshire; Samuel Adams, John 
Adams, Elbridge Gerry and James Lovell, 
^Massachusetts : Henry Marchant, Rhode 
Island; Eliphalet Dyer. William Williams, 
Richard Law. Connecticut; James Duane, 
A\'illiam Duer, New York; Daniel Rober- 
deau, Pennsylvania; Charles Carroll, Sam- 
uel Chase, ISIaryland; Benjamin Harrison, 
Joseph Jones, Richard Henry Lee, Francis 
Lightfoot Lee. Virginia; John Penn, Cor- 
nelius Harnett, North Carolina; Arthur 
Aliddleton, Thomas Heyward, Henry 
Laurens. South Carolina; and Nathan 
Brownson, Georgia. Only 11 states voted. 
New Jersey and Delaware were not repre- 
•■^ented at this time. According to custom, 
the votes were cast by states. New dele- 
gates arrived at different times during the 
succeeding nine months. In all there were 
67 attending the sessions at York. There 
does not seem to have been more than 35 
present at one time. 

October 4, Captain Weaver was voted 
S2.000 for the purpose of defraying the ex- 
penses of taking a band of British prisoners 
froin Lancaster through York to Virginia. 
Colonel Richard ^IcAllister. of Hanover, 
lieutenant for "S'ork Conntv. wiis ordered 

by Thomas Wharton, President of the 
Legislature at Lancaster, to provide thirty 
men from York County to act as a guard 
for these prisoners on their march south- 

The commissary-general of purchases 
was instructed to employ some one to take 
charge of all the wheat in the several mills 
near York for the United States. Washing- 
ton was ordered to make provisions for 
quartering the troops during the coming- 
winter. News of the defeat of the British 
at Bennington by General Stark was re- 
ceived and that officer was tendered a vote 
of thanks. A letter was ordered to be writ- 
ten to General Gates informing him "that 
Congress highlj' approved of the prowess 
and behavior of the troops under his com- 
mand in their late gallant repulse of the 
enemy under General Burgoyne at Sara- 
toga." Two companies were raised to 
guard the government stores at Carlisle. 
The commissary-general was given the 
power to seize and press into service 
■ wagons, shallops and a store house, within 
seventy miles of Washington's headquar- 
ters. George Eichelberger, who had been 
appointed deputy quartermaster at York, 
was voted $2,500 for the use of his depart- 
ment. He was directed to provide mem- 
bers of Congress with the articles needed 
for themselves, their servants and their 
horses at cost. The different state legis- 
latures were recommended to pass laws to 
punish by death without the benefit of 
clergy, any person or persons found guilty 
of burning or destroying government 
magazines or stores. 

The British entered Phila- 

Medal for delphia, September 26, and 

Washington, soon after proceeded to the 

village of Germantown, six 
miles north of the city. AVashington 
attacked them on October 4 at daybreak, 
hoping to push their army against the 
Schuylkill River and destroy it. The dar- 
ing scheme almost succeeded, but victory 
was turned into defeat by a sudden panic 
among the Americans caused by an acci- 
dent. It was a foggy morning and one 
American battalion fired into another by 
mistake. The news of the defeat at Ger- 
mantown Avas brought to Congress by a 
despatch bearer. Although the report of 
the defeat was not encouraging, on October 



8 it was resolved "That the thanks of 
Congress be given to General Washington 
for his wise and well concerted attack upon 
the enemy's army near Germantown and 
to the officers and soldiers of the army for 
the brave exertions on that occasion; 
Congress being well satisfied that the best 
designs and boldest efforts sometimes fail 
by unforeseen incidents, trusting that on 
future occasions, the valor and virtue of the 
army will, bv^ the blessing of heaven, be 
crowned with complete and deserved suc- 
cess." Congress then ordered that a medal 
of honor be presented to the commander- 

The second day's session of 
Chaplains Continental Congress at York 
White opened \\'ednesday, October i. 
and Rev. Jacob Duche, who had 

Duffield. served as chaplain, became a 
loyalist ayd remained in Phila- 
delphia. Rev. William White, rector of the 
United Parishes of Christ's, St. Peter's and 
St. James' Episcopal Churches of Philadel- 
phia, was elected chaplain. He spent part 
of the succeedhig winter in York, occupy- 
ing rooms at the residence, on North 
George Street, of Rev. John Nicholas 
Kurtz, pastor of Christ Lutheran Church. 
At this time he was 29 3'ears of age. In 
1786 he became the first bishop of Pennsyl- 
vania. Rev. George Duffield, a native of 
Lancaster County, and pastor of the Third 
Presbyterian Church, of Philadelphia, was 
elected associate chaplain. He was then 45 
years old and one of the first clergymen in 
America to advocate the cause of inde- 
pendence. Before coming here he had 
served as chaplain in the army and for his 
intense loyalty to the patriotic cause, the 
British government otTered a prize for his 
capture. While in A^ork he w-as the guest 
of Rev. Daniel Wagner, pastor of Zion 
Reformed Church, who resided at the par- 
sonage on the north side of East King near 
George Street. Early in life Duffield had 
been pastor of the Presbyterian churclies 
at Dillsburg and Carlisle. 

B\- resolution Congress now decided that 
the morning session should begin at 10 .\. 
yi. and adjourn at i P. AL The afternoon 
session began at 4 o'clock and continued 
usually until 10 o'clock at night. The dis- 
cussions on the momentous f|uestions con- 
sidered by this body were often carried on 

in the form of conversations. Efforts at 
oratory were rarely attempted. On one or 
two occasions, Samuel Adams made patri- 
otic speeches like those he had delivered in 
Faneuil Hail. Boston, before the opening of 
the war. The flute-like tones of Richard 
Henry Lee always interested his hearers 
and commanded the closest attention. Pat- 
rick Henry was governor of Virginia and 
Thomas Jefiferson, a member of the legis- 
lature in session at Richmond. Benjamin 
Franklin, still a member from Pennsyl- 
vania, was United States commissioner in 
Paris, endeavoring to secure the recogni- 
tion of his government 1:)y King Louis XI\ 
of France. 

Of the delegates to Continental Congress 
during the entire period of the Revolution, 
none were more zealous in legislating for , 
the. prosecution of the war than Samuel 
Adams, of Massachusetts. He was a man 
of lofty patriotism and unbounded energy. 
The English government blamed John 
Hancock and Samuel Adams more than any 
others for the origin of the war, and a re- 
ward of $25,000 was offered for the capture 
of either of them. Both Hancock and 
Adams, if ever captured, were to be denied 
pardon for their alleged treason to the 
mother country. With .Vdams as the leader 
of Congress while in York, the struggle for 
liberty was simply a matter of life and 
death. Success in establishing freedom 
would send him down to posterity, honored ^^m 
by all future generations: failure pointed u^^^^ 
the prison cell and the ignomiu)' of a rebel 
doomed to the scaffold. Everything seemed 
dark and gloomy during the early days of 
October, 1777, and some of the members 
of Congress were ready to give up the 
struggle in despair and accept the over- 
tures of peace offered by the British gov- 
ernment. .\bout this time John Adams 
made the following entry in his diary: 

"The prospect is chilling on 

Adams' every side, gloomy, dark, mel- 

Soliloquy. ancholy and dispiriting. When 

and where will light come 
from? Shall we have good news from 
Europe? Shall we hear of a blow struck 
by Gates against Burgoyne? Is there a 
possibility tliat Washington may yet defeat 
Howe? Is there a possibility tliat Mc- 
Dougall and Dickinson shall destroy tlic 
British detachment in New Jersey? If 



Pliiladelphia is lost, is the cause of inde- 
pendence lost?" Then he continues: "Xo, 
the cause is not lost. Heaven grant us one 
great soul. One leading mind would extri- 
cate the best cause from the ruin that 
seems to await it. \\'e have as good a cause 
as ever was fought for. One active, mas- 
terly capacity would bring order out of this 
confusion and save our country." 

The affairs of the new born nation for a 
time were controlled by a few men, who 
met regularly in a caucus at the home of 
(icneral Roberdeau, of Pennsylvania, who 
li\ed in a rented house nearly opposite 
Christ Lutheran Church, on South George 
Street. Many of the leaders' in Congress, 
including Henry Laurens, Benjamin Harri- 
son, Dr. ^\'itherspoon, Richard Henry Lee, 
Elbridge Gerry and John and Samuel 
Adams, lodged in tliis house. It was here 
on one October night of 1/77, that Samuel 
Adams called a caucus. After obtaining 
the views of the different members, some of 
whom were very despondent, Samuel 
Adams rose and delivered one of the most 
eloquent speeches in American history, as 
follows : 

■'Gentlemen : Your spirits seem 
Samuel oppressed with the weight of 
Adams' public calamities, and your sad- 
Speech, ness of countenance reveals your 

disquietude. A patriot may grieve 
at the disasters of his country, but he will 
never despair of tlie commonwealth. Our 
.aiTairs are said to be desperate, but we are 
not without hope and not without courage. 
The eyes of the people of this country are 
upon us here, and the tone of their feeling 
is regulated by ours. If we as delegates in 
Congress give up in despair, and grow 
desperate, public confidence will be de- 
stroyed and American lijjerty will be no 

"But we are not driven to such straits. 
Though fortune has been unpropitious, our 
conditions are not desperate ; our burdens 
though grievous, can still be borne: our 
losses, though great, can be retrieved. 
Through the darkness that shrouds our 
prosperity, the ark of safety is visible. 
Despondency, gentlemen, becomes not the 
dignity of our cause, nor the character of 
the nation's representatives in Congress. 
Let us then be aroused and evince a spirit 
of patriotism that shall inspire the people 

with conlidence in us, in themseh'es and in 
the cause of our country. Let us show a 
spirit that will induce us to persevere in this 
struggle, until our rights shall be estab- 
lished and our liberty secured. 

"W'e have proclaimed to the worUl our 
determination to die free men, rather than 
live slaves; we have appealed to hea\-en for 
the justice of our cause and in the God of 
l)attles have we placed our trust. AYe have 
looked to Providence for help and protec- 
tion in the past; we must appeal to the 
same source in the future, for the Almighty 
Powers from above will sustain us in this 
struggle for independence. 

"There ha^-e been times since the open- 
ing of this war when we were reduced 
almost to distress, but the great arm of 
Omnipotence has raised us up. Let us still 
rely for assistance upon Him who is 
mighty to save. AA'e shall not be abandoned 
by the Powers above so long as we act 
worthy of aid and protection. The darkest 
hour is just before the dawn. Good news 
may soon reach us from the army and from 
across the sea." 

The patriotic fervor of the speaker on this 
occasion, thrilled the small audience and 
gave them renewed energy in the passage 
of legislation to aid in carrying on the war. 
John Hancock, of Massachu- 
Hancock's setts, who had served as 
Resignation, president of Congress from 
^lay, 1775, expressed a de- 
sire to retire and visit his home in Boston. 
He was now forty years of age. After the 
Boston Massacre. March 5, 1770, he was 
the head of the committee which asked for 
the removal of the British troops and at the 
funeral of the slain, he delivered an address 
so glowing and fearless in its reprobation 
of the conduct of the soldiery and their 
leaders as to greatly offend the governor. 
Hancock was president of Congress when 
the Declaration of Independence was 
passed, and the first to append his name to 
that immortal document. In his youth he 
had inherited a large fortune from an uncle 
and at the opening of the Revolution was 
the most extensive shipping merchant at 
Boston. His fortune was estimated at half 
a million dollars, he being probably the 
wealthiest man in the L'nited States. On 
account of his ardent patriotism he became 
a leader in the cause of American inde- 



pencleiice. October 25, 1777, a committee 
of Congress reported that his accounts had 
been audited and there was yet due him 
$1,392, which was ordered to be paid. As a 
presiding officer he was dignified, impartial, 
quick of apprehension and commanded the 
respect of Congress. lAit was not popular 
with all his associates. Later in life he em- 
ployed his large fortune for useful and 
benevolent purposes and was a liberal 
donor to Harvard College. While presi- 
dent of Congress at York, he incurred the 
displeasure of some of the leading members, 
including Samuel Adams, who was of an 
impetuous nature. Going out of the Court 
House one day, Benjamin Harrison, of Vir- 
ginia, suggested to Adams that he should 
forgive John Hancock for his vanity. 
Adams, in a fit of rage, quickly responded 
"Yes, Harrison, I can forgive him and I 
can forget him." After the war, however, 
they became firm friends and it is an inter- 
esting fact of history that Samuel Adams 
succeeded in persuading John Hancock to 
support the ratification of the constitution 
of the United States, to which he was 
originally opposed. When Hancock re- 
tired from Congress at York, he delivered 
the following address: 

"Gentlemen: Friday last com- 
The pleted two years and five 

President's months since you did me the 
Speech. honor of electing me to fill this 
chair. As I could neither 
flatter myself your choice proceeded from 
any idea of my abilities, but rather from a 
partial opinion of my attachment to the 
lil^erties of America. I felt myself under the 
strongest obligations to discharge the du- 
ties of the office, and I accepted the appoint- 
ment with the firmest resolution to go 
through the business annexed to it in the 
best manner I was able. Every argument 
inspired me to exert myself, and I endeav- 
ored, by industry and attention, to make up 
for every other deficiency. 

"As to my conduct, both in and out of 
Congress, in the execution of your business, 
it is improper for me to say anything. You 
are the best judges. But I think I shall be 
forgiven if I say I have spared no pains, 
expense or labor, to gratify your wishes, 
and to accomplish the views of Congress. 

"Wy health being much impaired. I find 
some relaxation absolutely necessary, after 

such constant application: I must therefore 
request your indulgence for leave of absence 
for two months. 

"But I cannot take my departure, gentle- 
men, without expressing my thanks for the 
civility and politeness I have experienced 
from you. It is impossible to mention this 
without a heartfelt pleasure. 

"If in the course of so long a period as I 
have* had the honor to fill this chair, any 
expressions may have dropped from me that 
may have given the least oft'ence to any 
member, as it was not intentional, so I hope 
his candor will pass it over. 

"May every happiness, gentlemen, attend 
you, both as members of this house and as 
individuals : and I pray heaven that 
unanimity and perseverance may go hand in 
hand in this house ; and that everything 
which may tend to distract or divide your 
councils be forever banished." 

Having retired from his high position as 
President of Congress, John Hancock 
started for his home at Boston. He passed 
through Reading and reached .Bethlehem 
on the evening of November 2, stopping 
over night in that borough at the Sun Inn, 
a large stone building still in existence. An 
entry in a local diary of that date reads: 
"John Hancock passed through on his way 
from York to Boston. He was escorted 
hence b}- a troop of fifteen horsemen, who 
had awaited his arrival. From him we 
learned that our friend. Henry Laurens, 
had been chosen President of Congress." 
As New York was in the hands of the 
British, he crossed the Hudson at Fislikill. 
At this point he was met by William Ellcry, 
who had been elected a delegate to Con- 
gress from Rhode Island. The latter, 
describing this meeting, records in his 
diary : "On our way to the Fishkill we met 
President John Hancock in a sulky, es- 
corted by one of his secretaries and two or 
three other gentlemen, and one light horse- 
man, returning from Congress at Y^'ork- 
town. This escort surprised us. as it 
seemed inadequate to the purpose either of 
defence or parade. But our surprise was 
not of long continuance; for we had not 
ridden far before we met. six or eight light 
horsemen on the canter, and just as we 
reached the ferry a boat arrived with many 
more, all making up the escort of President 
Hancock." Hancock, being re-elected, re- 



turned to Congress as a member in ]\Iav, 


Henry Laurens, who succeeded Hancock 
as president of Congress, was born in 
Charleston, South Carolina, in 1724. He 
had acquired a fortune in mercantile pur- 
suits in his native city, and at the time he 
was chosen president, was 53 years of age. 
He visited London in 1774, and while in 
that city was one of thirty-eight Americans 
who signed a petition to dissuade Parlia- 
ment from passing the Boston port bill. 
He returned to Charleston, and was chosen 
as member of the first Provincial Confer- 
ence of South Carolina. In 1776, he was 
elected a delegate to Continental Congress. 
Being a man of experience in public and 
private affairs, he became a leader of Con- 
gress soon after he took a seat in that body. 
AMien John Hancock determined to resign, 
Laurens was unanimously elected his suc- 
cessor, November i, and presided over 
Congress during the remainder of its ses- 
sions at York and until December 10, 1778. 
In 1779, he was appointed minister to Hol- 
land to negotiate a treaty that had been un- 
officially proposed to William Lee by Van 
Berckel, pensionary of .Amsterdam. He 
sailed on the packet "Mercury," which was 
captured by the British frigate "Vestal," of 
twenty-eight guns, off Newfoundland. Mr. 
Laurens threw his papers overboard; but 
they were reco\'ered, and gave evidence of 
his mission. The refusal of Holland to 
punish Van Berckel, at the dictation of 
Lord North's ministry, was instantly fol- 
lowed by war between Great Britain and 
that country. Mr. Laurens was taken to 
London, examined before the Privy council, 
and imprisoned in the Tower, on October 6, 
1780, on "suspicion of high treason," for 
nearly fifteen months, during which his 
health was greatly impaired. He was ill 
when he entered, but no medical attention 
was provided, and it was more than a year 
before he was granted pen and ink to draw 
a bill of exchange to provide for himself. 
But he obtained a pencil, and frequent 
communications were carried by a trusty 
person to the outside world, and he 
even corresponded with American news- 

^^'hen his son John appeared in Paris, in 

1781, to negotiate a loan with France, Mr. 
Laurens was informed that his confinement 
would be the more rigorous because the 
3'oung man had openly declared himself an 
enemy to the king and his country. It was 
suggested that if Mr. Laurens would advise 
his son to withdraw from his commission, 
such action would be received with favor at 
the British court; but he replied that his 
son was a man who would never sacrifice 
honor, even to save his father's life. Laur- 
ens received attention from many friends, 
among whom was Edmund Burke. Twice 
he refused oft'ers of pardon if he would 
serve the British ministry. While a pris- 
oner he learned of his son John's death in a 
skirmish in South Carolina, and on Decem- 
ber I, 1781, he addressed a petition to the 
House of Commons, in which he said that 
he had striven to prevent a rupture between 
the crown and colonies, and asked for more 
liberty. He was soon afterward exchanged 
for Lord Cornwallis and commissioned by 
Congress one of the ministers to negotiate 
peace. He then went to Paris, where, with 
John Jay and Benjamin Franklin, he signed 
the preliminaries of the treaty, November 
30, 17S2, and was instrumental in the inser- 
tion of a clause prohibiting, on the British 
evacuation, the "carrying away any negroes 
or other property of the inhabitants." On 
his return to Charleston he was welcomed 
with enthusiasm and offered many offices, 
which his impaired health forced him to 
decline. He retired to his plantation near 
Charleston and devoted his life to agricul- 
ture. He died December 8, 1792. 

Although Washington had been 

Gates' defeated at Brandywine and 

Victory. Germantown, he gave Howe so 

much trouble that the latter 
could not send reinforcements to Burgoyne 
at Saratoga. A force of 3,000 fresh troops 
from England had been sent up the Hudson 
from New York on the day the battle at 
Germantown was fought. They arrived too 
late to save Burgoyne's army from disaster. 
He had crossed the Hudson on September 
13 and six days later Benedict Arnold at- 
tacked him at Bemis Heights and a des- 
perate but indecisive battle was fought 

The news of this engagement was re- 
ceived by Congress September 30, the day 
the first session was held at York. It was 


Who succeeded John Hancock as President of Continental 
Congress, while in session at York 



brought by Colonel Robert Troup, an aide 
on the staff of General Gates, commander 
of the Northern Army. The letter con- 
veyed by Colonel Troup from Gates to John 
Hancock, President of Congress, stated the 
engagement began with a brisk skirmish 
early in the morning. This drew on the 
main body of the enemy to support the 
skirmishers. The action was continued 
until the close of the day, when both 
armies retired, with the advantage in favor 
of the Americans. General Gates said in 
his report to Congress at York, "The good 
behavior of the troops on this important oc- 
casion, cannot be surpassed by the most 
veteran army. To discriminate in praise of 
the officers would be an injustice, as they 
all deserve the honor and applause of Con- 
gress. The armies now remain encamped 
within two miles of each other. Today I 
W"rote to all the neighboring states and 
pressingly demanded the immediate march 
of their militia. When proper reinforce- 
ments arrive, I hope to give your Excel- 
lency more interesting intelligence." 

On October 7, Burgoyne 
Burgoyne's risked another battle and was 
Surrender. totally defeated by the Ameri- 
can army. He retreated to 
Saratoga, where he found himself sur- 
rounded, and on the 17th he surrendered 
what was left of his army, nearly 6,000 men, 
to General Gates. The honor of the \ic- 
tor}^ however, is due to Arnold and Mor- 
gan. Judged by its results, Saratoga was 
one of the greatest battles of history. It 
saved New York State, destroyed the 
British plan of the war, induced England to 
offer peace with representation in Parlia- 
ment or anything else except independence, 
and secured for us the aid of France. .\ 
delay of ten days had taken place between 
the last battle and the surrender, before a 
convention or agreement for terms of sur- 
render had been made between the two 
commanding officers. It was finally decided 
that Burgoyne's army, which became 
known as the "Convention prisoners," 
should be marched to Boston. They were 
afterward divided into small bands, 
marched southward and held for a long 
period as prisoners of war in the states of 
Pennsylvania, Marvland and Virginia. 
Some of them were kept at Lancaster and 

Colonel James Wilkinson, a 
News young man of twenty years, who 
Brought was serving as an aide on the 
to York, staff of General Gates, was as- 
signed the duty of bringing the 
news of this brilliant victory and surrender 
to Congress at York. He left Albany Oc- 
tober 20 and reached Easton, Pennsylvania, 
on the 24th, where he stopped one day. 
Here he met Dr. William Shippen, the 
director-general of the hospitals. The fol- 
lowing day he proceeded toward Reading, 
which he reached on the evening of the 
27th. While at Reading, he dined with 
Lord Stirling, of the American army, who 
had been wounded at Brandywine. One of 
the guests at the dinner was Alajor James 
Monroe, afterward President of the United 
States, and who was then recuperating 
from a wound he had received at the battle 
of Trenton. At this dinner, while in con- 
vivial mood, after drinking too much 
Madiera wine, W^ilkinson revealed the plot 
to remove Washington from the head of the 
army. This plot was known as the "Con- 
way Cabal." W^ilkinson also dined at Read- 
ing with General Mifflin, where he met two 
members of Congress from New England. 

Meantime, heavy rains had fallen and the 
Schuylkill River had overflowed its banks 
so that the stream, according to Colonel 
Wilkinson's statement, was impassable and 
he remained at Reading three days. He ar- 
ri\-ed at York October 31, but the news of 
the victory at Saratoga and the surrender 
of Burgoyne had reached Congress ten days 
before he came. ^Military courtesy would 
have required that General Gates should 
have communicated this information to 
AVashington, the head of the army, and 
from that source it should have been trans- 
mitted to Congress, but at this early date, 
he showed his disrespect for his chief. On 
October 21, according to the journals of 
Congress, two letters w-ere received by that 
body giving notification of the surrender of 
Burgoyne. One of these letters was sent 
by General Washington from his headquar- 
ters near Philadelphia, and the other b)^ 
General Israel Putnam, from Fishkill, X. 
Y., so that they were informed of the vic- 
tory before Wilkinson arrived. The infor- 
mation had been communicated to both 
Washington and Putnam by Governor 
Clinton, of X'ew York. 



When Wilkinson arrived at York, Han- 
cock had resigned as President of Congress 
and returned to his home in Massachusetts. 
Charles Thomson, of Philadelphia, secre- 
tary of Congress, acted as President until 
November i, when Henry Laurens, of 
South Carolina, assumed the duties of this 
office, to which he had lately been chosen. 
Finding that a change in. office had taken 
place, Wilkinson appeared before Secretary 
Thomson and presented him the following 

Camp Saratoga, Oct. 18, 1777. 
Gates' Sir : — I have the satisfaction to present 

RetJOrt ^°"' Excellency with the convention 

•1^ of Saratoga, by which his Excellency, 

Lieutenant-General Burgoyne, has sur- 
rendered himself and his whole army into my hands, 
and they are now upon their march for Boston. This 
signal and important event is the more glorious, as it 
was effected with so little loss to the army of the 
United States. 

This letter will be presented to your Excellency by 
my adjutant-general. Colonel Wilkinson, to whom I 
must beg leave to refer your Excellency for the particu- 
lars that brought this great business to so happy and 
fortunate a conclusion. 

I desire to be permitted to recommend this gallant 
officer, in the warmest manner, to Congress ; and entreat 
that he may be continued in his present office with the 
brevet of a brigadier-general. 

The honorable Congress will believe me when I assure 
them, that from the beginning of this contest I have not 
met with a more promising military genius than Colonel 
Wilkinson, whose services have been of the greatest 
importance to this army. 
I have the honor to be. 

Your Excellency's most obedient and humble servant 

His Excellency John Hancock, Esq., 
President of Congress. 

"By an order of Congress," 

Wilkinson says Colonel Wilkinson in his 

Before "Memoirs," "I appeared before 

Congress. Congress, October 31, where I 

was received with kindness 
and treated with indulgence. After having 
answered sundry questions respecting the 
relative situation of the two armies before, 
at and after the convention, the bearing of 
which in some instances tended to depreci- 
ate its importance; I observed that I had in 
charge sundry papers to be submitted to 
Congress, which required time for their ar- 
rangement, and thereupon I was pertnitted 
to withdraw. 

"In the course of this audience, I thought 
I perceived a disposition on the part of two 
or three gentlemen . to derogate General 
Gates' triumph. I had been questioned as 
to the practicability of making Burgoyne's 
army prisoners of war, and had heard it 

observed, that it would have been better for 
the United States if that army had escaped 
to Canada, where it would have been out of 
the way ; whereas the Convention would 
merely serve to transfer it to Sir \\'illiam 
Howe, and bring Burgoyne's whole force 
immediatel}- into operation against us on 
the Atlantic Coast. As unreasonable as 
these exceptions were, they merited con- 
sideration, and I determined to exercise the 
authority General Gates had given me, and 
meet them by a message to be prepared for 
Congress in his name. I consulted two of 
his friends, Samuel Adams and James 
Lovell, on the subject, to whom I had let- 
ters, who commended the plan, and I made 
a draft which they entirely approved. 

"Having prepared and arranged the docu- 
ments preliminary to the Convention, with 
returns of the two armies, and of the ord- 
nance and stores captured, I was again in- 
troduced to Congress the afternoon of 
November 3, by Mr. Thompson, Henry 
Laurens having been chosen the president, 
and delivered to that body a message from 
General Gates." 

This message discussed in detail the bat- 
tle of Saratoga and the surrender of the 
British army. It was accompanied by 
various original papers relating to the Con- 
vention or agreement between Gates and 
Burgoyne when they decided upon the 
terms of surrender. 

On November 4, the day after AA'ilkinson 
appeared the second time before Congress, 
he wrote an efTusive letter to Gates, ad- 
dressing him as "My Dear General and 
Loved Friend." In this letter he bewailed 
the fact that there was opposition to Gates 
among the members to Congress. He la- 
mented that he had not yet been honored 
with any marks of distinction and also 
stated that he had met Mrs. Gates and her 
son. Bob, while in York. 

A proposal was introduced into Congress 
two days later to present W'ilkinson with a 
sword. At this juncture Dr. John Wither- 
spoon, a delegate from New Jersey, in his 
broad Scotch, dryly remarked "I think ye'd 
better give the lad a pair of spurs." An- 
other delegate quickly responded "And a 
whip so that he may bring official news 
more promptly another time." 

Colonel Wilkinson remained in York 
until November g. In the meantime he was 



made a brigadier-general by brevet. He re- 
turned to the Xorthern army, going by way 
of AX'asiiington's headquarters. Twenty 
years later Colonel Wilkinson was ap- 
pointed to the head of the army of the 
United States. 

On November 4, Congress 

Gates passed the following: Resolved, 

Honored. That the thanks of Congress in 

their own name, and in behalf 
of the inhabitants of the thirteen United 
States, be presented to Major-General 
Gates, commander-in-chief in the northern 
department, and to Majors-General Lincoln 
and Arnold, and the rest of the officers and 
troops under his command, for their brave 
and successful eftorts in support of the in- 
ilependence of their country, whereby an 
ami}' of the enemy of 10,000 men has been 
totally defeated, one large detachment of it, 
strongly posted and entrenched, having 
been conquered at Bennington, and another 
repulsed with loss and disgrace from Fort 
Schuyler, and the main army of 6,000 men, 
under Lieutenant-General Burgoyne, after 
being beaten in different actions and driven 
from a formidable post and strong entrench- 
ments, reduced to the necessity of surren- 
dering themselves upon terms, honorable 
and advantageous to these states, on the 
17th day of October last, to Major-General 
Gates: and that a medal of gold be struck 
under the direction of the Board of War, 
in commemoration of this great event, and 
in the name of these United States, be pre- 
sented by the president to ^lajor-General 

General Washington was then informed 
that it was the desire of Congress that the 
forts and passes on the Hudson be regained. 
For this purpose he was instructed to retain 
Gates in the command of the Northern De- 
partment. General Israel Putnam, then at 
Fishkill, Xew York, with 2,500 men, was 
ordered to join the main armv under Wash- 
ington near Philadelphia. 

On October 31, President 
First Laurens appointed Richard 

National Henry Lee. of Virginia; 

Thanksgiving. Samuel Adams, of Massa- 
chusetts, and General Rob- 
erdeau. of Pennsylvania, a committee of 
Congress to draft a national proclamation 
of Thanksgi\ing, the first in the history of 
the .American Republic. This historic 

document was written at York by that emi- 
nent Virginian, Richard Henry Lee, who 
less than two years before had moved in 
Congress, at Philadelphia, that "these 
United States are and of right ought to be 
free and independent states," and himself 
became one of the signers of the Declara- 
tion of Lidependence. On November i the 
committee appointed to prepare a recom- 
mendation to set apart a day of public 
thanksgiving, brought in a report, which 
was taken into consideration and agreed to 
unanimously. The proclamation is re- 
markable in language and thought. Besides 
breathing forth a spirit of lofty patriotism, 
it also contains a deep and fervent religious 
sentiment. Following is the proclamation 
in full : 

"" "Forasmuch as it is the indispensable 
duty of all men to adore the superintending 
pro\idence of Almighty God, to acknowl- 
edge with gratitude their obligations for 
benefits received, and to implore such fur- 
ther blessings as they stand in need of; and 
it having pleased Him in His abundant 
mercy, not only to continue to us the in- 
numerable bounties of His common Prov- 
idence, but also to smile upon us in the 
prosecution of a just and necessary war for 
the defence and establishment of our in- 
alienable rights and liberties; particularly 
in that He has been pleased in so great a 
measure to prosper the means used for the 
support of our troops and to crown our 
arms with most signal success. 'Tt is there- 
fore recommended to the legislature of 
executive powers of these United States to 
set apart Thursday, the i8th of December 
next, for solemn Thanksgiving and praise ; 
that with one heart and one voice, the peo- 
ple of this country may express the grateful 
feelings of their hearts and consecrate 
themselves to the service of their Divine 
Benefactor: and that together with their 
sincere acknowledgments, they niay join in 
a penitent confession of their manifold sins, 
whereby they had forfeited every favor; and 
their humble and earnest supplication may 
be that it may please God, through the 
merits of Jesus Christ mercifully to forgive 
and blot them out of remembrance; that it 
may please Him graciously, to grant His 
blessings on the government of these 
states respectively and prosper the public 
council of the whole United States; to in- 



spire our commanders, both by land and sea, 
and all under them, with that wisdom and 
fortitude, which may render them tit instru- 
ments under the Providence of Almighty 
God to secure for these United States, the 
greatest of all blessings, independence and 
peace; that it may please Him to prosper 
the trade and manufactures of the people 
and the labor of the husbandman, that our 
land may yield its increase; to take the 
schools and seminaries of education, so ne- 
cessary for cultivating the principles of true 
liberty, virtue and piety, under his nurtur- 
ing hand and to prosper the means of 
retigion, for promotion and enlargement of 
that Kingdom, which consists of righteous- 
ness, peace and joy in the Holy Ghost. It 
is further recommended that servile labor 
and such recreation as at other times inno- 
cent, may be unbecoming the purpose of 
this appointment on so solemn occasion." 

On November i. President Laurens 
wrote the following letter to each of the 
Governors of the thirteen states then in the 
Union : 

York in Pennsyh'ania. Nov. i, 1777- 
Sir: — The arms of the United vState.s of America 
having been blessed in the present campaign with re- 
markable success. Congress has resolved to recommend 
that Thursday, December i8. ne.xt be set apart to be 
observed by all inhabitants throughout the Uinted 
States for a general Thanksgiving to Almighty God. 
and I hereby transmit to you the enclosed extract from 
the minutes of Congress for that purpose. 

Your Excellency will be pleased to take the necessary 
measures for carrying this resolve into effect in the 
state in which you reside. You will likewise find en- 
closed certified copy of the minutes, which will show 
j-our Excellency the authority under which I have the 
honor of addressing \'0U. 

I am with great esteem and regard, sir, your Excel- 
lency's most obedient and humble servant. 


As early as July. 1775, Benjamin Franklin 
submitted to Continental Congress a draft 
of Articles of Confederation for the 
thirteen Colonies. His plan limited their 
vitalitv to a time when reconciliation with 
Great Britain should take place, but if that 
event did not occur, they should be per- 
petual. Congress then had no fixed plans 
for the future and Dr. Franklin's proposi- 
tion does not seem to have been taken up 
for discussion at that time. After the 
Declaration of Independence was passed 
and signed, in 1-776. it was evident that 
some agreement to bind the states together 

more firmly was necessary. It was an easy 
matter to declare the states free and inde- 
pendent, but it was more difficult to form a 
perfect union. Congress therefore decided 
that a committee should be appointed to 
prepare and properly digest a form of con- 
federation to be entered into by the several 
states. The committee when appointed 
was composed of one delegate from each 
state with John Dickinson, of Pennsylvania, 
as chairman, and through him this com- 
mittee reported a draft of Articles of Con- 
federation on July 12, eight days after the 
Declaration had been passed. Almost daily 
discussions on this subject then took place 
in Congress until August 20. when the 
report was laid aside and was not taken up 
until the following April. ^Meanwhile sev- 
eral of the states had adopted constitutions 
and Congress was recognized by the differ- 
ent states as the supreme head in all mat- 
ters of public finance and plans for the 
prosecution of the war. During the next 
six months the subject was debated two or 
three times a week and several amendments 
were added. After Congress removed to 
York and began the vigorous transaction of 
Inisiness, discussions on the Articles were 
continued almost daily from October 7 
until they were passed, November 15. 
During these discussions, animated 
speeches were delivered and the conflicting 
interests of the states were strongly 
brought into view by the different speakers. 
After a spirited debate, the Articles of Con- 
federation were voted upon aflirmatively. 
The vote of Congress, passing these Ar- 
ticles, directed that they be submitted to the 
legislatures of the several states for ap- 
proval. According to the statement of 
Daniel Roberdeau, a delegate from Penn- 
svlvania. the Articles of Confederation as 
passed at York. November 15. were sent to 
Lancaster to be printed. After they were 
printed, Congress directed that, copies be 
sent to the speakers of the various state 
legislatures and laid before them for ratifi- 
cation. They were accompanied by a com- 
munication requesting the several legis- 
latures in case they approved of them, to 
instruct their delegates in Congress, to vote 
for a ratification of them, which last act 
should be final and conclusive. Tliis com- 
munication was in the form of an urgent 
appeal for immediate and united action. 



and endeavored to show that the plan pro- 
posed was the best that couUl Ije adapted to 
the circumstances of all. -\ committee of 
Congress, composed of \\'illiam Duer, 
James Lovell and Francis Lightfoot Lee, 
was appointed. November 29, to make a 
translation of the Articles of Confederation 
into the French language. This translation 
was sent to Benjamin Franklin and the 
other commissioners at Paris, ^vho were en- 
deavoring to secure a recognition of the 
American Republic b\' Louis XVI, King of 

The different legislatures felt the neces- 
sity of a firm bond of union between the 
states, yet they were slow to ratify the Ar- 
ticles. Some of them could not agree on 
the plan of representation mentioned in the 
Articles, because under them each state was 
entitled to the same voice in Congress 
whatever might be the difference in popu- 

The most objectionable feature, however, 
was the plan to determine the boundary 
lines of the states and the disposition of the 
unsettled western lands still belonging to 
England. On June -22, 1778, five days 
before adjourning at York to meet in Phila- 
delphia, Congress proceeded to consider the 
objections of the states to the Articles of 
Confederation and after a careful consider- 
ation of them, Richard Henry Lee, of Vir- 
ginia. Gouverneur ^Morris, of New^ Y'ork, and 
Francis Dana, of Massachusetts, were ap- 
l)ointed a committee to prepare a form of 
ratification. They reported the draft the 
following day and it was agreed to. 

Six states, ^lassachusetts, Con- 
Articles necticut, Virginia, Xorth Caro- 
Ratified. lina. South Carolina and Georgia, 

claimed that their "from sea to 
sea" charters gave them lands between the 
mountains and the Mississippi River, and 
one state, Xew York, had bought the In- 
dian title to land in the Ohio Valley. The 
other six states did not have "from sea to 
sea charters" and so had no claims to west- 
ern lands. As three of them, New Jersey, 
Delaware and Maryland, held that the 
claims 01 their sister states were invalid, 
they now refused to adopt the Articles un- 
less the land so claimed was given to Con- 
gress to be used to pay for the cost of the 
Revolution. For three years, the land- 
claiming states refused to be convinced by 

tiiese arguments, but the majority of the 
states had instructed their delegates to sign 
the Articles by July 9, 1778. At length, 
finding that Maryland was determined not 
to adopt the Articles till her demands were 
complied with, they began to yield. In 
February, 1780, Xe^\■ York ceded her claims 
to Congress, and in January, 1781, Virginia 
gave up her claim to the country north of 
the Ohio River. Maryland had now car- 
Vied her point, and on March 4, 1781, her 
delegates signed the Articles of Confedera- 
tion. As all the other states had ratified the 
Articles, this act on the part of Maryland 
made them law. and on ]\Iarch 2, 1781, Con- 
gress met for the first time under a form of 
government the states were pledged to obey 
and wdiich was in force until the adoption 
of the Constitution of the United States, in 

October 17, Congress decided 
Printing that the Committee of Intelli- 
Press at gence be authorized to take the 
York. most speedy and effectual meas- 
ures for getting a printing press 
erected in York for the purpose of "convey- 
ing to the public the intelligence that Con- 
gress may from time to time receive." The 
chairman of this committee was Richard 
Henry Lee, of Virginia, who, with his asso- 
ciates, completed arrangements for the re- 
moval to York of the Hall and Sellers 
Press, which had been conveyed to Lan- 
caster when Congress left Philadelphia. 
This printing press originally belonged to 
Benjamin Franklin, who sold it to Hall and 
Sellers, publishers of the "Pennsylvania Ga- 
zette." This paper, by authority of Con- 
gress, was printed at York from the time 
the press was brought here until June .27, 
1778, when Congress returned to Philadel- 
phia. The files of this paper for that period 
are now in the State Library at Harris- 

The Hall and Sellers press, when brought 
to York, was placed in the second story of 
the building now standing at the southwest 
corner of Market and Beaver Streets, occu- 
pied by the Adams Express Company. 
During the Revolution this building was 
the residence of Major John Clark, a noted 
soldier who served on the staff of General 
Xathaniel Greene. Besides printing the 
Pennsvlvania Gazette and a variety of 
pamphlets and documents for Congress, 



•Hall and Sellers were authorized to print 
a vast amount of Continental money. 

The first Board of \\'ar to direct 

New the affairs of the army, similar to 

Board the War Department of today, was 

of appointed in June, 1776. It was 

War. composeil of John Adams, Roger 
Sherman, Benjamin Harrison, 
James Wilson, and Edward Rutledge, five 
members of Congress. This board, with 
John Adams as president, was continued 
until 1777. In November of that year, by 
resolution of Congress, a new Board of 
A\'ar, composed of three persons, appointed 
to sit in the place where Congress held its 
sessions. They were not to be members of 
Congress and Thomas Mii^in, who had just 
resigned as quartermaster-general of the 
army. Colonel Timothy Pickering, adjutant- 
general of the army, and Colonel Robert 
Harrison, an aide on Washington's stafi, 
w'ere appointed the members of this board. 
They were to receive two thousand dollars 
a year. Colonel Harrison, the only personal 
friend of Washington in the board, declined 
the appointment. On November 2y, Con- 
gress decided to increase the number to 
five members, and elected General Horatio 
Gates, Joseph Trumbull and Richard 

Henr}- Laurens, President of Congress, 
then wrote to General Gates, "I have the 
pleasure of informing j-ou that you have 
been elected a member of the Board of W' ar 
and by the unanimous voice of Congress 
appointed its president, -a circumstance 
thoroughly e.xpressive of the high sense 
which Congress entertains of your abilities 
and peculiar fitness to discharge the duties 
of that important ofilice, iqion the right 
execution of which the safety and interest 
of the United States eminently depend." 
General Gates was allowed to retain the 
rank and pay of a major-general in the 
army and was not to be present at the meet- 
ings when his ser\-ices were demanded in 
the field. The membership was now almost 
entirely opposed to the interest of A\'ash- 
ington, who had not }-et Icwsmed up as the 
dominant personality of the Re\-olution. 
The acting members of the Board of \\'ar 
at this time were Timothy Pickering, of 
Massachusetts, and Richard Peters, of 
Pennsylvania, each of wliom received two 
thousand dollars a \ear. General Gates 

came to York in January, 1778, still bearing 
the laurels of his victory at Saratoga. 

Although the Board of 
Appropriations. Treasury at this period 

did not have a large fund 
to its credit, the amount of monev dis- 
tributed by authority of Congress from its 
vaults and different loan offices during Oc- 
tober, the first month of its session at York, 
exceeded one million dollars. An appropri- 
ation of $352,000 was granted to Thomas 
Mifflin, (luartermaster-general of the army, 
in accordance with his request of October 
14. Of this sum, a warrant on the loan 
oflice of the State of Connecticut for $50,000 
was to be sent to the deputy quartermaster- 
generalat Fishkill, New York; one on the 
loan office of the State of New Hampshire 
for $50,000 was to be sent to the deputy 
quartermaster-general at Hartford, Con- 
necticut; one on the loan office of the State 
of X'irginia for $50,000 was to be sent to the 
deput}' c|uartermaster-general at W^illiams- 
burg, X'irginia; one on the loan office of the 
State of New Jersey for $40,000 was to be 
sent to the deputy quartermaster-general at 
Easton, and one on, the loan office of the 
State of Pennsylvania for $60,000. The re- 
maining $102,000 was to be paid General 
Mifllin out of the treasury or monies in the 
hands of the auditor-general. 

The Board of War was voted $300,000 to 
be sent to the paymaster-general for the use 
of the ami}' under A\'ashington, near Phila- 
delphia. A warrant for $200,000 was or- 
dered drawn on the loan office for the State 
of Massachusetts in favor of Jonathan 
Trumbull, Jr., deputy quartermaster-gen- 
eral, for the use of the army on the Hudson 
under General Horatio Gates. Other sums 
advanced by Congress were $14,000 to 
Colonel George ]\forgan for the public ser- 
vice at Fort Pitt, now Pittsburg; $10,000 
to John Baynton, deputy paymaster-general 
at Fort Pitt ; $3,000 to Ebenezer Hazard, 
surveyor-general of the postoffice of the 
United States; $10,000 by warrant on the 
loan office of Pennsylvania in fa\or of Wil- 
liam Henry, of Lancaster, for the purchase 
of shoes and leather and for repairing con- 
tinental arms; $10,000 to William Bu- 
chanan, commissary-general, to close his 
accounts ; $20,000 for Continental troops in 
Georgia, and $4,000 to George Ross and 
Comiianv. owners of Marv Ann Furnace, in 



part payment for cannon balls for the nav)-. 
'I'his last item has special local significance. 
George Ross, of Lancaster, one of the sign- 
ers of the Declaration of Independence, 
owned ]\Iary Ann Furnace. This furnace, 
situated four miles south of Hanover, had 
been erected in 1762 and made cannon balls 
for the American army and navy in consid- 
erable quantities. 

In a letter written by Jonathan 

Expenses Elmer, a delegate from the 

of a State of New Jersey and dated 

Delegate, at York, N^ovember 20, 1777, he 

stated that he would leave York 
in a few days, after which the State of New 
Jersey would have no representation in 
Congress, until new ones were elected by 
the Legislature. In this letter, he mentions 
the fact that it cost him 20 shillings, or 
about $5.00, a day as expenses while at- 
tending Congress. He said it cost him 
sixty-five pounds to support himself and his 
horse during the seven weeks he was at 
York. He further stated that delegates 
from other states received a salary from five 
to eight dollars a day. 

On December, i 1777, Congress 
Lafayette passed a resolution requesting 
a Major- that Washington place General 
General. Lafayette in command of a 

division of Continental troops. 
Lafayette had recently arrived in this coun- 
try from France for the purpose of aiding 
the Americans in the war for independence. 
He had inherited a dislike for the English 
crown, for his father had Iseen killed in the 
French army on English soil, before the 
son was born. Lafayette had left his young 
wife and two children in France, to come to 
America. He landed at Charleston, South 
Carolina. From thence he traveled with a 
retinue of attendants to Philadelphia, ar- 
riving there shortly before the battle of 
Brandywine. He was only twenty years of 
age, when Congress, at the request of 
Washington, promoted him to the rank of 
major-general in the .\merican army. On 
the same day that this request was made. 
Congress ordered that the Committee of 
Commerce ship with all dispatch, 4,000 
hogsheads of tobacco to the commissioners 
of the L^nited States at the Court of France, 
to comply with a contract made with the 
authorities of that countrv. 

December i, it ordered that a warrant be 
issued on Thomas Smith, commissioner of 
the loan office in the State of Pennsylvania, 
for $20,000 in favor of John Gibson, auditor- 
general of Pennsylvania; that a warrant 
also be issued on Thomas Smith for $50,000 
to be sent to Dr. William Shippen, director- 
general of, the government hospitals in con- 
nection with the army. The same da)-. 
Congress ordered that a warrant be issued 
on Michael Hillegas, treasurer of the United 
States, with his office at the northeast cor- 
ner of George Street and Centre Square, 
for the amount of $50,000, for the use of 
Dr. William Shippen, in his department; 
ordered that $200,000 be sent to William 
Buchanan, commissary-general of pur- 
chases, for the American army; that $10,000 
be sent to Benjamin Flower, commissary- 
general of militar}^ stores; that $450,000 be 
sent to Thomas Mifflin, quartermaster-, 
general of the army; the sum of $150,000 
of this amount from the loan office in the 
State of New York; and $100,000 each from 
the loan offices of Pennsylvania and New 
Jersey, and $100,000 on the continental 

On December 2, the question of 
John the retirement of John Adams 
Adams from Congress came before that 
Retires, body. He had served continu- 
ously as a delegate to Congress 
since 1775, taking a very active part in all 
its deliberations. Adams seconded the 
nomination of appointing Washington as 
the head t)f the armj', in June, 1775, and 
made a forceful speech on that occasion. 
For a time, he was the devoted friend and 
supporter of the commander-in-chief. At 
this period in the war he was more inclined 
to favor the promotion of Gates. Late in 
November, he wrote to a friend in Boston 
that the money he received as a delegate to 
Congress was hardly sufficient to pay his 
hired man, whom he had engaged to take 
charge of the afTairs of his farm at Quincy, 
Massachusetts. He had already left York 
on horseback for Boston before Congress 
had voted to send him as a special commis- 
sioner or rather envoy extraordinary to the 
Court of France. Benjamin Franklin, who 
was still a member of Congress from Penn- 
sylvania, was serving on the commission in 
France in order to secure the alliance of 

This was a busv month for Congress. On that government in the cause of inde- 



pendence. Silas Deane, of Connecticut, had 
pre\'iously been sent to Paris for the same 
purpose, and Artliiu' Lee, of Virginia, who 
had been the secret agent of the United 
Colonies in England, had also been commis- 
sioned to go to France for the same pur- 
pose. Communications had frequently been 
received from Franklin, with reference to 
the hope of conciliating France in favor of 
the infant republic. It was now felt neces- 
sarj' that a member of Congress should 
proceed across the ocean and confer with 
the American commissioner at Paris. 
Adams was selected for that position, be- 
fore he had determined to go to his home 
in Massachusetts. He states in a letter that 
after he had mounted his horse at York for 
his journey home. Elbridge Gerry, of Mas- 
sachusetts, told him that he would presently 
receive a communication from Congress, 
asking him to go to France. He knew 
nothing definite about this matter until one 
month later, when a courier arrived at 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, where 
Adams, as a lawyer, was engaged in the 
trial of a case in court. This messenger 
came to the desk where he was sitting, and 
communicated the news to him. On De- 
cember 23, he wrote a letter to Congress 
accepting the appointment of commissioner 
to the Court of France. 

The attitude of Adams toward General 
Vashington as commander-in-chief was 
not understood. In a letter written from 
York to his wife, in Massachusetts, shortly 
after Gates' victory at Saratoga, he said, "if 
there was anj- glory to the American army, 
it could not be attributed to the com- 

Before he had completed his ar- 

Goes rangements to go to France, he 

to was called upon by General 

France. Henry Knox, chief of artillery in 

the American arm}-, and after- 
ward secretary of war in Washington's first 
cabinet. In answer to a cjuery concerning 
his opinion, Adams responded that Wash- 
ington was an "amiable gentleman." This 
reply did not satisfy Knox, who was a 
bosom friend of Washington, and said, "If 
you go to France as a special commissioner 
from Congress, you should be an avowed 
supporter of the commander-in-chief of our 
army." Before leaving Portsmouth for 
England, Adams had expressed himself 

more favorably toward Washington. By 
the time he arrived at Paris, Benjamin 
Franklin had secured the endorsement of 
the American republic by Louis XVI, of 
France, who not only agreed to sign a 
treaty of amity and commerce, but also to 
send a fleet and army to aid the Americans 
in fighting for their freedom. 

The treasury- now had very little money 
in its vaults and Congress, on December 2, 
appointed Nathaniel Folsom, of New 
Hampshire; James Duane, of New York, 
and Francis Dana, of Massachusetts, a com- 
mittee to make arrangements for securing 
a loan. Before Adams had set sail for 
France, Congress decided that he should 
unite with Franklin in asking the French 
government to loan the United States 
$2,000,000 sterling "on the thirteen United 
States, for a term not less than ten 3'ears." 
It was then decided to request the legis- 
latures of all the states to make a law for 
the collection of all colonial moneys and 
bills of credit issued by the authority of 
England before 1775, and that it should be 
exchanged for continental money. The 
sum of $3,100 was ordered to be sent to 
Colonel George Morgan, commanding Fort 
Pitt, at the site of Pittsburg, which was 
then threatened by the Indians. Colonel 
Thomas Butler, in charge of tlie armory at 
Lancaster, was voted $1,800. 

On December 3, Congress ordered that 
$1,000,000 be issued under the direction of 
the Board of Treasury and on the "faith of 
.the United States." These bills were to be 
of the same tenor and date as those issued 
November 7, 1777, to the amount of 
$1,000,000. This money was issued at York 
under authority of an act of Congress 
passed at Philadelphia and does not bear 
the impress of York upon it. The number 
of 15,384 bills with the denomination of $3, 
$4, $5, $6, $7, each, were issued, and the 
number of 15,385 bills of $2, $8, and $30 
each. On this day, Francis Dana, of Mas- 
sachusetts; Benjamin Rumsey, of Mary- 
land, and Dr. Joseph Jones, of Virginia, 
were added to the Board of Treasury. 
Dana had been transferred to this board 
from the Board of War. John Gibson was 
voted $380 in favor of Lieutenant Allen for 
conveying $300,000 to North Carolina. On 
December 5, Francis Lewis, of New York, 
arrived and took his seat in Congress. The 



sum of $70,ocx) was voted to James Mease, 
clothier-general, for the use of the Ameri- 
can army. The sum of $50,000 was voted 
to Nathaniel Appleton, commissioner of the 
loan office of Massachusetts, for the use of 
the marine department of that state. Joseph 
Clark was voted $50,000 in favor of the 
marine committee of Rhode Island. 

On December 8, James Lovell, of Mas- 
sachusetts, chairman of the committee of 
foreign atYairs, was ordered by Congress to 
request Silas Deane, one of the commis- 
sioners at Paris, to return to America and 
report to Congress. December 9, Presi- 
dent Laurens was ordered to communicate 
with the legislatures of Connecticut, Xew 
York, Pennsylvania, Jilaryland and South 
Carolina, asking that those states have a 
full representation in Congress. On Sep- 
tember 17, Congress had voted to General 
Washington, extraordinary powers, for 
sixty days, shortly before adjourning at 
Philadelphia. On November 14, these 
powers were renewed. On December 10, 
this body urged that Washington should 
take advantage of all the powers with which 
he was entrusted, for the purpose of secur- 
ing provisions and clothing in the region 
where they were now in camp. The Ameri- 
can army was then in camp at White 
Marsh, fourteen miles northwest of Phila- 
delphia. Thomas Smith, commissioner of 
the Pennsylvania loan office, was ordered to 
give the clothier-general $12,000 for the use 
of General Wayne's brigade of Pennsyl- 
vania troops, who had recently fought so 
valiantly at Paoli and Germantown. 

On December 11, Abraham 
Barracks Clark, delegate from Xew Jer- 
at York, sey, was sworn in as a member 

of Congress. On this day. 
Congress voted that barracks be erected in 
York for the accommodation of troops, "as 
may be from time to time stationed or de- 
tained, either as guards or for the purpose 
of equipment or discipline." December 12, 
a letter from President Laurens was read 
to Congress, in which he asked to be re- 
lieved from the office of President because 
of ill health. Xo action was taken on this 
letter and Laurens was persuaded to re- 
main in his office, although he was unable 
to attend the sessions for several days. 

On December 13, Francis Lewis, of Xew 
York, ^^'illiam EUery, of Rhode Island, and 

Cornelius Harnett, of Xorth Carolina, were 
added to the Committee on Commerce. 
General Thomas Conway, an Irish soldier, 
who had received military training in 
Europe, was appointed inspector-general 'of 
the army. At the same time, he was raised 
to the rank of major-general. 

From the time Congress came to 

Smith York, on September 30, to Decem- 

Takes ber 16, General • Roberdeau, of 

His Philadelphia, was the only delegate 

Seat. present from Pennsylvania. On 

this date, James Smith, of York, 
who had served during the year 1776 and 
had signed the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, took his seat and was sworn into 
office. Congress decided to meet twice a 
day. On December 17, Rev. John Wither- 
spoon, an eminent clergyman of Xew Jer- 
sc}-, and president of Princeton College, 
took his seat in Congress. Jonathan B. 
Smith, another delegate from Pennsylvania, 
took his seat in Congress. 

Colonel Rawlins, of the army, and others 
appeared before Congress and reported that 
the American prisoners in the hands of the 
British, in Xew York and elsewhere, were 
being badly treated. It was also reported 
that Sir \\'illiam Howe, in command of the 
British army at Philadelphia, demanded 
that Congress or the states should furnish 
the means or provisions for feeding the 
American prisoners. General Howe had 
refused to accept continental money for the 
purchase of provisions. Congress, there- 
fore, asked that provisions be sent and not 

December 20. an amount of money ag- 
gregating S6oo,ooo was appropriated for the 
use of W illiam Buchanan, commissary- 
general of purchases, for the southern, 
eastern and northern departments of the 
army, and $200,000 was voted to the State 
of Connecticut for purchasing provisions 
for the soldiers. 

There were no sessions from De- 
Batwell, cember 21 to December 27, 
the when, on the latter date, a letter 

Loyalist, from Rev. Daniel Batwell, rector 
of the Episcopal churches at 
York, Carlisle and York Springs, was read 
before Congress. Owing to his declared 
loyalty to the English crown, he had been 
arrested, dipped in the Codorus Creek and 
sent to the county jail. In the letter to 




Congress, he claimed that this imprison- 
ment liad impaired his healtli. He wished 
to be set free on parole and go to his resi- 
dence at York Springs. Dr. Henry, sur- 
geon at the jail and for the prisoners, testi- 
fied that Rev. Daniel Batwell "labors 
under a complication of disorders and that 
pure air and exercise are absolutely neces- 
sary for his recovery." Congress passed a 
resolution releasing the prisoner and per- 
mitting him to go to his farm, providing he 
would take the oath of allegiance to the 
State of Pennsylvania; or upon his refusal, 
was allowed to go with his family within 
the British lines at Philadelphia. Some 
time later, Mr. Batwell went to Philadel- 
phia, and in the fall of 1778, was appointed 
chaplain of a Tory regiment, serving in the 
British army. 

Benjamin Harrison, Jr., son of Benjamin 
Harrison, delegate to Congress, was voted 
$50,000 to be used by him, as deputy pay- 
master-general for the troops of the State 
of Virginia. Letters received from General 
Washington, describing the condition of 
his troops then going into camp at Valley 
Forge, were placed in charge of the Board 
of War on December 29. On the following 
day, \A'ashington was re-invested with dic- 
tatorial powers, which had been granted 
him when Philadelphia was evacuated. 
Colonel John Williams, of North Carolina, 
was voted $5,898, for the purpose of paying 
the ofBcers and recruits of the several bat- 
talions from the State of Virginia, quar- 
tered at York, by order of the Board of 
^^'ar. These troops were encamped on the 
Public Common in the barracks recently 
erected. They were performing guard 
duty, during the winter months, while York 
was the seat of go\'ernment. 


Sessions of Congress opened on January 
I, 1778, with uncertain conditions for the 
year. The British occupied Philadelphia, 
under command of Sir William Howe; Sir 
Henry Clinton was in command of the city 
of New Y^ork ; Washington was in camp at 
Valley Forge. The state militia, or at least 
a large part of it, had returned home, await- 
ing a future call to active service. Bur- 
goyne's troops, nearly 6,000 in number, 
were still held as prisoners of war near 
Boston. During the year 1777, there had 

Ijeen only one brilliant success to the 
American arms. This was the capture of 
the British army under Burgoyne at Sara- 
toga. It was true, Henry Laurens, presi- 
dent of Congress, had issued a national 
Thanksgiving proclamation during the pre- 
ceding month, but the condition of affairs 
was still dark and foreboding. The success 
of the British at Brandywine, Germantown 
and Paoli was received with public favor in 

It was hoped by the patriots of 
Seeking the Revolution that the victory at 
Aid Saratoga and the capture of 6,000 

From troops might influence some for- 
France. eign power to recognize the 
American government. England 
and France had been involved in a war 
which caused embitterment -between these 
nations. It was to Benjamin Franklin and 
his associates at Paris, that Congress now 
looked with hope. Could he obtain the 
support of the youthful King of France, 
Louis XVI? This was the subject often 
discussed by the small body of American 
patriots wdio were then holding the ses- 
sions of Congress in the Provincial Court 
House at Y'ork. Very few tidings had yet 
been received from Franklin, who had 
alread}' become a central figure at the Court 
of Iving Louis of France. It required 
several months for communications from 
him to cross the ocean to Portsmouth, New 
I^anipshire, or Boston, ^Massachusetts, and 
from thence conveyed overland across the 
Hudson at Fishkill, New York, through 
Bethlehem and Reading to the seat of gov- 
ernment at York. Such was the condition 
of affairs when Continental Congress 
began its duties in January, 1778. There 
were then about thirty-two delegates 
present. .Vll of the thirteen states were 
now represented. 

On New Year's day, the Chevalier de 
Villefranche, a somewhat noted engineer of 
France, decided that he would remain in 
this country. He had served with a corps 
of engineers in the American army, and 
was now raised to the rank of major and 
assigned to duty under the command of 
Brigadier du Portail. A communication 
from Baron de Kalb, a German nobleman, 
who, upon the endorsement of Washington, 
was created a major-general in the army, 
was read; also one from Lewis Casimer, 



l'.aroii (le llolzendorf. It was the custom while the Britisli arnn- was in and around 

of Congress to pay careful attention to Philadelphia. 

communications from distinguished for- On January 12, General Gates, 
eigners and these were referred to the Sent General Thomas Mifflin and Colo- 
Board of War for appropriate action. to nel Timothy Pickering were ap- 

Massachusetts usualh- had the largest Valley pointed a committee to visit the 

delegation in Congress at York, and on Forge. American army at Vallej' Forge. 

January I. the credentials of John Hancock, The vessels which had arrived 

Samuel Adams. John Adams. Robert T. from England to transport the British and 

Paine, Elbridge Gerry, Francis Dana and Hessian troops to England, were ordered by 

James Lovell were presented to Congress. Congress to quit the ports of Massachusetts. 

John Hancock, who had served as President Congress decided to annul the agreement 

the first month of its sessions at York, did made at Saratoga, and hold the soldiers as 

not return until May. John Adams, al- prisoners of war. It was further resolved 

though re-elected, at this time was on his that 1,500 American troops be ordered to 

way as a special ambassador to join the guard these prisoners then in camp near 

American commissioners at Paris. Benja- Boston until the British vessels had left the 

min Franklin, one of the delegates from port. 

Pennsylvania, nex'er attended the sessions On January 13, it was resolved that "Gen- 

at York. During this whole period he was eral \\'ashington require of General Howe 

in Paris. passports for American vessels to transport 

On January 3. the sum of $200,000 was to Boston provisions for the use of the 

appropriated for the use of Jonathan prisoners of Burgoyne's, army, during the 

Trumbull, Jr.. as paymaster of the military time this army shall be detained in Massa- 

department emliracing New York and the chusetts."' 

Xew England States. He was the son of On January 14. Dr. John Houston, resid- 

Jonathan Trumbull, of Connecticut, known ing east of York near the Susquehanna, 

to history as "Brother Jonathan." During obtained a warrant for pay as surgeon of 

this month long discussions arose in refer- Colonel Donaldson's Battalion of York 

ence to the agreement between Gates and County militia, serving under General 

Burgoj'ne when the latter surrendered at I'llercer. The Board of War was voted 

Saratoga. The sum of $62,000 was appro- $350,000. The sum of $100,000 was to be 

priated for a (]uantity of sulphur, saltpetre sent to Ebenezer Hancock, deputy pay- 

and lead purchased from Blair ]\IcClenachan master-general at Boston, and $250,000 to 

and James Caldwell, and deposited in care his assistant in the state of Rhode Island, 

of Leonard Jarvis at Dartmouth, Massachu- At the same time $750,000 was voted to the 

setts. Board of War, to be transmitted, $500,000 

January 6, Colonel James Wilkinson, who to William Palfrey, paymaster-general, and 

had brought to Congress the news of the $200,000 to William Bedlow, his assistant 

surrender of Burgoyne and his army, was at Peekskill. 

elected secretary of the Board of War. On January 15, it was resohcd to pur- 
January 7. letters were received from Gen- chase 30.000 barrels of flour, or wheat 
eral A\'ashington and General Thomas equivalent to be ground into flour, and sent 
Conway in reference to a controversy which in different quantities to the towns of Lan- 
afterwards terminated in what is known as caster, Reading, Bethlehem, Downingtown 
the "Conway Cabal." On January 8, the and Pottsgrove. On January 16, it w'as re- 
sum of $1,000,000 of Continental money solved to borrow $10,000,000 on the credit 
was ordered- to be printed under act of of the United States at an annual interest 
Congress passed May 20. 1777. On Janu- of six per cent. On January 19, Captain 
ary 10, a letter was received from General Ephraim Pennington, commanding a de- 
Washington recommending Major John tachment of York County militia, appointed 
Clark, of York, to the attention of Congress, as guards to the public stores in the town 
Major Clark had performed some brilliant of York, was issued a warrant for the pay- 
feats as chief of scouts in the fall of 1777. ment of rations. 



On January 20, a letter was 
Schuyler's read from General Philip 

Letter. Schuyler, asking for a "speedy 
inquiry into his conduct," while 
he was in command of the northern army 
Ijefore he was superseded by Gates. Stu- 
dents of history generally accredit Schuyler 
with having laid the plans for the conquest 
and capture of Burgoyne at Saratoga. He 
was removed from his position by a faction 
in Congress before he had an opportunity 
to show his military skill. 

On January 22. Congress resolved to emit 
$2,000,000 of continental currency under 
act of Congress passed May 20, 1777. On 
the same day Congress took into considera- 
tion an expedition to Canada under a plan 
proposed by General Gates, president of the 
Board of War. ' This plan was to place 
(General Lafayette in charge of the expedi- 
tion, General Thomas Conway second in 
command, and John Stark, the hero of Ben- 
nington, brigadier-general. 

On January 23, 'a committee of Congress, 
composed of James Smith, of York; \^'il- 
liam Ellery, of Rhode Island, and Eliphalet 
Dyer, of Connecticut, was appointed to take 
into consideration the wants of the army, 
as reported by the military committee 
which had visited Valley Forge. January 
28, the auditor-general reported that pay is 
due Captain Benjamin \VilIiams, paymaster 
of a detachment of several regiments of Vir- 
ginia troops, then in York. On January 
31, the military committee that visited Val- 
ley Forge, reported the necessity of ap- 
pointing a quartermaster-general for the 
army. The aggregate amount of money 
voted to different departments of the army 
during the last few days of January, was 
about $500,000. 

On February 3, Congress 
Oath of passed an important measure 
Allegiance, requiring every officer who 
held or would hold a commis- 
sion or office from Congress to take the fol- 
lowing oath : 

"I do acknowledge the United States of 
-Vmerica to be free, independent and sover- 
eign states, and declare that the people 
thereof ow'e no allegiance or obedience to 
George the Third, king of Great Britain, 
and I renounce, refuse and abjure any 
allegiance or obedience to him, and I do 
swear or af^rm that I will, to the utmost of 

my power, support, maintain and defend the 
said United States against the said King 
George the Third, and his heirs and their 
abettors, assistants and adherents, and will 
serve the said United States in the office of 
which I now hold fidelity, according to the 
best of my skill and understanding. So help 
me God." 

On February 4, Congress resolved to ap- 
point Monsieurs Goy, Pierre, Boichard, 
Parrison, and Niverd, captains of artillery 
in the continental army, and receive ap- 
pointments of that command while in 
America. On the following day a commit- 
tee of Congress interviewed these officers, 
then in York, in reference to promises made 
by the American commissioners at Paris, 
concerning their expenses until appointed 
to service in the army. On February 6, 
Major John Clark and Matthew Clarkson 
were appointed auditors for the army under 
command of General Washington. 

General Horatio Gates, who had 
Gates arrived at York, January 19, to take 
in the position as president of the 
York. Board of A\'ar, took up quarters 
first in a public inn of the town. On 
February 11, he asked for an appropriation 
of $1,333 to pay the current expenses of his 
aide-de-camp and secretary. Later General 
Gates rented a private residence on the 
north side of Market near Water Street, 
which he occupied until he left York, in 
April, 1778. 

On the same day. Colonel Hartley's regi- 
ment, then acting as guard to Congress, 
received two months' pay. February 16, it 
was resolved to print $2,000,000 of Conti- 
nental money. On February 26, Congress 
took up the question of the exchange of 
prisoners in accordanccwith an agreement 
made between General Washington and Sir 
William Howe, commanding the British 
army in America. The plan proposed was 
to exchange "officer for officer, soldier for 
soldier, citizen for citizen so far as number 
and rank will apply." It Avas decided by a 
resolution that the several states be re- 
quired "forthwith to fill up by draft from 
their militia, or in an}- other way that shall 
be effectual, their respecti\-e battalions of 
continental troops. All persons drafted 
shall serve in the continental battalions for 
their respective states for the term of nine 
months." During the month of Februarv, 





in various amounts, $1,325,000 were appro- 
priated for tlie use of the army. 

On Marcli 4, 1778, Congress gave Wash- 
ington power to '"employ in the service of 
the United States a body of Indians, not 
exceeding 400." On March 5, the sum of 
$2,000,000 was ordered to be issued under 
the authority of the United States. On 
?klarch 6, Thomas Scott, member of the Su- 
preme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, 
and James McLean and R. White, delegates 
from the State Assembly, then in session at 
Lancaster, waited upon Congress in refer- 
ence to the establishment of magazines of 
commissary stores for the army, and also 
on the subject of the British prisoners in 
\^irginia. On March 10, Peter Shultz re- 
ceived $548 for transporting the baggage 
of the York County militia, commanded by 
Colonel Michael Swope, from York to the 
army in New Jersey, in July, 1776. On the 
same day, Martin Brenise, of York, re- 
ceived $153 for attendance upon Congress, 
from the first of December, 1777, to the first 
of ]\larch, 1778, at one-third dollar per day, 
and for ringing the bell, at two-thirds dollar 
per day. On March 19, owing to the 
threatened attack of Indians and Tories, 500 
Pennsylvania militia were ordered to be 
sent to Easton, Bethlehem, and Reading, 
to guard the government magazines. 

On March 2t,, John Spangler, George 
Pentz and Jacob Lefever received pay for 
transporting baggage of the Pennsylvania 
militia, while on the way to the army. 
Peter Wolf, tavern keeper, of West Man- 
chester Township. recei\-ed pay for feeding 
militia passing through York County. 
March 27. ]\Iajor John Clark, of York, one 
of the auditors of the army, received $Soo 
to pay contingent expenses of his ofifice. 

On April 4, $1,000,000 of conti- 
Pulaski's nental money was ordered to be 
Legion. printed at York. General Wash- 
ington was empowered to call 
out 5.000 militia, from the states of Mary- 
land. Pennsyhania and New Jersey, to re- 
main in service for such time as he shall 
recommend. On April 6, Congress \oted 
that the sum of $50,000 be advanced by the 
Board of War to Count Pulaski, who had 
been made a brigadier-general in the Ameri- 
can army. Even' man who enlisted in his 
command was to receive $130. including the 
bountv money. Each trooper and member 

of the light infantry was to receive one 
stock, one cap, one pair of breeches, one 
coat, two pairs of stockings, two pairs of 
gaiters, three pairs of shoes, one pair of 
buckles, spear and cartridge box. Each 
trooper was also to receive a pair of boots. 
a saddle, halters, curry-comb and brush, 
picket cord, and pack saddle. Count 
Pulaski came to York in 1778 and partially 
recruited his legion here, before going 
south. He was killed soon afterward in an 
engagement at Savannah, Georgia. 

On April 9, the question of Congress re- 
moving to some other place was discussed. 
The following Saturday was set as the time 
to take into consideration the necessity of 
going to some more convenient place. The 
British still held Philadelphia, the State 
Assembly was in session at Lancaster, and 
not \ery friendly toward Congress, so the 
subject of removal was not further con- 

On A])ril 11, Congress voted 
New unanimously to emit $5,000,000 in 
Issue bills of credit on the faith of the 

of L^nited States. It was ordered 

Money, that new cuts be made for striking 
ofT and printing them, and that 
the form of the bills should be as follows : 

"This bill entitles the bearer to receive 

Spanish milled dollars, or the value 

thereof in gold or silver, according to a 
resolution passed by Congress at York. 
April II, 1778." This issue is known to the 
collectors of Continental money as the 
"Yorktown notes." They are the rarest 
specimens of Continental money because of 
the successful attempt to counterfeit them. 
For this reason Congress ordered a large 
number of these notes to be destroyed. 

It was ordered that the thirteen United 
States be pledged for the redemption of 
these bills of credit. The Franklin Press, 
then in ^'ork. by order of Congress, wa'^ 
used in printing Continental money. At 
least $10,000,000. under a preceding act, had 
been printed at York before the act of April 
II. 1778. had been passed. At this time 
paper money had greatly depreciated. It 
was worth about thirty cents on a dollar. 
Before the war had ended, in 1783, Congress 
had issued over $300,000,000 in Continental 
money. In 1781 one dollar in silver as a 
base was worth forty dollars in paper 
money. In 1783 the paper money was al- 



most worthless. The government never re- 
deemed it. 

On April 13, Colonel Thomas 

Hartley's Hartley was given authority to 
Regiment, raise a new regiment from 
different parts of Pennsylvania. 
This regiment was to be organized to 
march against the Indians and Tories who 
had been committing depredations in 
northern Pennsylvania and southern New 

April 15, Congress ordered that Major- 
General Gates proceed to Fishkill, New 
York, to take charge of the American 
troops at that point, and prevent the 
British in New York from going up the 
Hudson. At this period General Gates was 
still at York as president of the Board of 
War, having succeeded John Adams, of 
ilassachusetts, as the head of that impor- 
tant body. 

On April 17, the sum of $1,500,000 was 
advanced to Jeremiah Wadsmith, commis- 
sary-general of purchases for the army. 
On the following day Congress ordered the 
Franklin printing press, then in York and 
operated in a building belonging to Major 
^ John Clark, at the southwest corner of 
^Market and Beaver Streets, to begin print- 
ing $500,000 of Continental money, in ac- 
cordance with an act recently passed. 

On April 18, General A^'ashing•- 

Overtures ton, at Valley Forge, wrote a 

From letter and also sent important 

England. documents to Congress. The 
messenger arrived on April 20. 
One of these documents purported to "be 
the draft of a bill for declaring the inten- 
tions of the Parliament of Great Britain as 
to the exercise of what they are pleased to 
term their right of imposing taxes within 
these United States; and also the draft of a 
bill to enable the King of Great Britain to 
appoint commissioners w'ith powers to 
treat, consult and agree upon the means of 
quieting certain disorders wnthin the said 
states." President Laurens appointed Gov- 
erneur Morris, of New York: AA'illiam 
Henry Drayton, of South Carolina, and 
Francis Dana, of Massachusetts, a com- 
mittee to examine these documents and 
report to Congress. Upon its report to 
Congress, this committee stated that it 
could not decide whether these papers 
emanated from England or whether thev 

were prepared for the purpose of deluding 
Congress, by some schemers in Philadel- 
phia, which was then in possession of the 
British. The members of the committee, 
however, persuaded themselves to believe 
that they were valid documents and came 
by authority of Parliament, which body 
would take into favorable consideration the 
action of Congress upon them. They be- 
lie\ed this statement because General 
Howe "has made divers feeble efforts to set 
on foot some kind of treaty, during the last 
winter;" because the British supposed that 
the "fallacious idea of a cessation of hostili- 
ties will render these states remiss in their 
preparation for war;" because, believing the 
Americans w-earied with war, they suppose 
"we will accede to their terms for the sake 
of peace;" that the cessation of hostilities 
"will prevent foreign powers from giving 
aid to these states; that it will lead their 
own subjects to continue a little longer the 
present w^ar; and that it will detach some 
weak men in America from the cause of 
freedom and virtue; because the king, from 
his own showing, hath reason to apprehend 
that his fleets and armies, instead of being 
employed against the territories of these 
states, will be necessary for the defence of 
his own dominions. Because the imprac- 
ticability of subjugating this country being 
every day more and more manifest, it is to 
their interest to extricate themselves from 
the war upon any terms." The committee 
reported in detail what they termed the 
weakness and insincerity of the British 
crown, and concluded its report with a 
masterly presentation of the question, writ- 
ten in such forcible and elegant English 
that it is herewith presented : 

"From all which it appears 
Committee's evident to your committee. 
Report. that the said bills are in- 

tended to operate upon the 
hopes and fears of the good people of these 
states, so as to create divisions among them 
and a defection from the common cause, 
now, by the blessing of Divine Providence, 
drawing near to a favorable issue ; that they 
are the sequel of that insidious plan which, 
from the days of the stamp act down to the 
present time, hath involved this country in 
contention and bloodshed,- and that as in 
other cases so in this, although circum- 
stances may force them at times, to recede 



from their unjustifiable claims, there can be 
no doubt, but they will as heretofore upon 
the first favorable occasion, again display 
that lust of domination which hath rent in 
twain the mighty empire of Britain. 

"Upon the whole matter, the committee 
beg leave to report it as their opinion, that 
as the Americans, united in this arduous 
contest upon principles of common interest. 
for the defense of common rights and 
privileges, which union hath been ce- 
mented by common calamities and by mut- 
ual good offices and affections; do the. 
great cause, for which they contend, and in 
which all mankind are interested, must de- 
rive its success from the continuance of 
that union ; wherefore any men or body of 
men, who should presume to make any 
separate or partial convention or agree- 
ment with commissioners under the crown 
of Great Britain, or any of them, ought to 
be considered and treated as open and 
avowed enemies of these United States. 

"And further, the committee beg leave 
to report it as their opinion, that these 
United States cannot, with propriety, hold 
any conference or treaty with any commis- 
sioners on the part of Great Britain, unless 
they shall, as a preliminary thereto, either 
withdraw their fleets and armies or else, in 
positive and expressed terms acknowledge 
the independence of the said states. 

"And inasmuch as it appears to be the 
design of the enemies of these states to lull 
them into a fatal security, to the end that 
they may act with a becoming weight and 
importance, it is the opinion of your com- 
mittee, that the several states be called 
upon, to use the most strenuous exertions, 
to have their respective quotas of conti- 
nental troops in the field as soon as possible 
and that all the militia of the said states 
may be held in readiness to act as occasion 
ma}-- require." 

The proposition by Parliament to enter 
into a treaty with the American states at 
this time is suggestive. France was about 
to declare war against England. Benjamin 
Franklin, the American commissioner at 
Paris, early in March, on behalf of__the 
United States, had already entered into a 
treaty of Amity and Commerce and a treaty 
Alliance with Louis XVL the King of 
France. He had received the promise that 
the French would not onlv recognize that 

the United States had the right of belliger- 
ency,^but would also send a fleet and army 
to aid in the cause for American inde- 
pendence. Some months later the fleet, 
under Count d'Estiang, landed on the coast 
of Rhode Island. Lord North, the prime 
minister of England, had sent a communi- 
cation to Franklin at Paris, asking the 
privilege of a conference with him on the 
American war. Franklin responded to the 
emissary, "Tell Lord North that America 
has already gained her independence." 

At this period New York 
Washington's and Philadelphia were both 
Determination, in the hands of the enemy. 
Washington had been de- 
feated at Brandywine and Germantown and 
his small armj- was wintering at Valley 
Forge. There were many Americans origi- 
nally in favor of independence who had 
joined the ranks of the enemy. Especially 
was this the case in New Jersey, a part of 
New York and eastern Pennsylvania. This 
led the British emissaries who had been 
sent to Philadelphia to believe that Wash- 
ington and Congress would accept over- 
tures of peace. But the general of the army 
had written to Congress that if peace was 
then decided upon it would not be lasting. 
He asserted that he would keep his little 
army together and fight the British in the 
mountains of Virginia and Pennsylvania, 
rather than accept overtures from the 
British crown at this time in the war. Al- 
though there was factional opposition in 
Congress to Washington and there were 
many people in the United States who felt 
like accepting some kind of proposition 
from England to end the war, the great 
soldier now exerted his reserve power. 

General Washington, in camp 
Planning at Valley Forge, had begun to 
a lay plans for a summer cam- 

Campaign, paign against the enemy, still 

quartered in Philadelphia. 
Owing to the failure to make conciliatory 
terms with Congress, there were evidences 
that the British would soon leave Philadel- 
phia. The state militia had been called out 
to join in the campaign of 1778. On April 
23, Congress resolved that extraordinary 
powers vested in General Washington by 
the resolutions of September 17, October 8 
and December 10. 1777, be renewed and 
extended to August 10, 1778. This gave 



him control of the army with authority to 
remove officers for inefficiency, and pro- 
mote officers for valorous deeds in military 
achievements. It was at this period that 
the star of fame of General \Vashington 
began to rise, and so continued until it 
reached its zenith at the surrender of Corn- 
wallis at Yorktown, in October, 1781. 
Charles Carroll, of Maryland ; William 
Duer, of New York, and John Banister, of 
Virginia, were appointed a committee to 
notify Washington of the resolutions of 
Congress. On April 24, Nathaniel Greene, 
then quartermaster-general of the army, 
was voted $50,000 for his department. The 
sum of $30,000 was voted to the state of 
Maryland to aid in recruiting continental 

As the summer campaign was expected to 
be in New Jersey, it was ordered that the 
Board of AVar take the most expeditious 
measures for transporting provisions and 
stores from the southern states across the 
Chesapeake Bay. The states of Maryland 
and Virginia were ordered to utilize the 
armed galleys on the Chesapeake Bay in 
transporting these provisions and stores 
and that the galleys should be under the 
command of an officer of the continental 
line. The sailors of Pennsylvania were 
ordered to Baltimore for use in manning 
the galleys. 

On April 25, Roger Sherman, of 

Sherman Connecticut, presented his cre- 

Takes dentials and was sworn in as a 

His meml:)er. He had served with dis- 
Seat. tinction in the First Continental 
Congress which asseml^led in 
Philadelphia, in 1774. In 1776 he served 
Jefferson and Livingston, wliich had 
drafted the Declaration and presented it to 
Congress for adoption. He was one of the 
signers of that document. He was a valu- 
able acquisition to Congress, which, accord- 
ing to a yea and nay vote cast that day, 
contained twenty-seven members. Roger 
Sherman lived to the age of seventy-two 
years, and died while a member of the 
United States Senate from Connecticut. 

On this day important communications 
were received from General Washington. 
General Heath, in command of the forces 
guarding the Saratoga prisoners, then in 
camp near Boston, reported an agreement 
which he had entered into with General 

Burgoyne in reference to the pa\ment of 
provisions for the British prisoners of Bur- 
goyne's army. Congress discussed the 
question, respecting an allowance to army 
officers after tlie war. A motion was offered 
and carried that the officers of the army 
should be put on half pay. Later in the 
war, it was decided to give them public 
lands. Colonel Hartley, in 1785, was given 
a large tract of land in the interior part of 
the state, and Colonel Matthew Dill, in the 
western part of the state. Some officers 
accepted public lands as bounty and culti- 
\'ated them, while others never took ad- 
vantage of this opportunity. 

On April 27, Congress showed its 
Silver appreciation of General Washing- 
From ton by giving him power to call 
France, into his council of war the com- 
mander of the artillery, General 
Knox, before making plans for the summer 
campaign. An appropriation of $350,000 
was made to Ebenezer Hancock, deputy 
paymaster-general at Boston, for use in his 
department. Congress ordered the Board 
of War to give directions to General Heath, 
in command at Boston, how to bring to the 
United States Treasury at York, the hard 
money belonging to the government. This 
resolution refers to the arrival at Boston of 
$600,000 in silver from France. It was the 
first silver loan of that government to the 
United States. This money was put in 
charge of Captain James B. Fry, who had 
been a member of the famous "Boston Tea 
Partv." The wagon in which this money 
was brought to York, through Massachu- 
setts, crossing the Hudson at Fishkill, and 
passing through Bethlehem and Reading, 
arrivecl at York in charge of two companies 
of Massachusetts troops. 

On April 28, by a vote of Congress, Gen- 
eral Conway was permitted to resign his 
commission in the army. Congress voted 
$50,000 to Major Harry Lee to purchase 
horses towards recruiting and equipping his 
cavalry corps. The sum of $100,000 was 
appropriated for the benefit of the state of 
Maryland. April 29, Dr. Nathaniel Scud- 
der, delegate from New Jersey: George 
Plater, from Maryland, and Thomas 
Adams, of Virginia, were elected members 
of the marine committee to take the places 
of delegates who were absent. Congress 
appropriated $100,000 for the vise of Colonel 



Baylor, of Virginia, for the purpose of pur- 
chasing horses, arms and accoutrements 
for Major Lee's cavalry. Benjamin Flower, 
commissary-general of military stores, was 
voted $100,000 for the use of his depart- 
ment, and the sum of $350,000 was voted to 
Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., paymaster, for the 
use of his department. 

On May i, a resolution was 
Lee Returns adopted, excusing from the 
to Congress, milita persons employed in 
manufacturing military stores 
and other articles for the use of the United 
States. On this day, Richard Henry Lee. 
who, in 1776, was appointed chairman of the 
committee to draft the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, but on account of the sickness of 
his wife declined in favor of Thomas Jeffer- 
son, arrived in York and again took his seat 
in Congress. He came with Congress to 
Y'ork in September, 1777, and remained 
about three months and together with 
Benjamin Harrison, of Virginia, returned to 
his home. Harrison was one of the ablest 
men of the body and served on more com- 
mittees than any other delegate. While in 
York, he suffered from a disease from 
which he never fully recovered, and died at 
the age of fifty-one years. Richard Henry 
Lee was one of the most eloquent men who 
served in Continental Congress. 

The sum of $150,000 was appropriated 
for the use of the state of Maryland. An 
important resolution was adopted, appoint- 
ing Richard Henry Lee. of Virginia, Gouv- 
erneur Morris, of New York, and Roger 
Sherman, of Connecticut, a committee to 
report proper instructions to be transmitted 
to the commissioners of the United States 
at foreign courts. The marine committee 
was instructed to procure six of the best 
and swiftest sailing packet boats, for con- 
veying dispatches to and from France and 
Spain and the West Indies. 

The committee of commerce reported 
that it had received from the Board of War 
an invoice of articles, including medicines 
to be imported from France, for the cam- 
paign of 1779. On May 2, Nathan Sellers 
was given $164 for making a fine mould to 
be used in manufacturing paper for bills of 
exchange and for his expenses in coming to 
York and returning home. John Dunlap. 
of Philadelphia, was appointed to continue 
printing the Journals of Congress in place 

of Robert Aitken. Brigadier-General Hand, 
of Lancaster, who had served with distinc- 
tion at Long Island and Princeton, and 
was now in command at Fort Pitt, was re- 
lieved at his own request. 



Alliance with France — Death of Philip 
Livingston — Baron Steuben at York — 
Two Plans of Government — The Conway 
Cabal — Gates-Wilkinson Duel — List of 
Delegates — Congress Adjourns to Phila- 

The Declaration of Independence made 
it necessary to seek foreign alliance, and 
first of all with England's great rival, 
France. Here Franklin's world-wide fame 
and his long experience in public life in 
England and America enabled him to play 
a part that would have been impossible to 
any other American. He was thoroughly 
familiar with European politics. He had 
learned the French, Italian, and Spanish 
languages, and his fame as a scientist was 
known throughout all Europe. He was 
thus possessed of talismans for opening 
many a treasure house. Negotiations with 
the French Court had been already begun 
through the agency of Arthur Lee, of Vir- 
ginia, and Silas Deane, of Connecticut. In 
the fall of 1776 Benjamin Franklin, at the 
age of seventy, and Thomas Jefferson, at 
the age of thirty-four, were appointed by 
Congress as special commissioners to Paris. 
Jeft'erson asked to be excused, but urged 
that Franklin should accept the mission. 
His arrival, on December 21, was the oc- 
casion of great excitement in the fashion- 
able world of Paris. France, at this time, 
was an absolute monarchy, ruled by Louis 
Sixteenth, who had succeeded to the throne 
three j^ears before, at the age of twenty. 
He had succeeded his grandfather, Louis 
Fifteenth, who was king of France for a 
period of fifty years. Louis Fifteenth had 
succeeded his great-grandfather, Louis 
Fourteenth, who had reigned over France, 
as an absolute monarch, for a long period 
of se\entv vears. 



The court of Louis XVI, when 
Franklin's Frankhn arrived at Paris, was 
Popularity, the most brilliant in French 
history. Franklin at once 
captivated this court by his great learning, 
his plain habits and his fascinating man- 
ners. Within a few months after his arrival 
there, he was the most popular man in all 
Europe. Even Frederick the Great, the 
military genius of the continent; Leibnitz, 
the most distinguished scientist of Europe, 
and Voltaire, whose remarkable endow- 
ments had charmed many an intellectual 
circle, could not vie with the sage from 
America in popularity. 

Although the French nation was then 
heavily in debt, and two-thirds of the land 
was owned by the nobility and clergy, yet 
through the influence of Beaumarchais, the 
financial agent of France, and Vergennes, 
the minister of foreign affairs, Franklin suc- 
ceeded immediately in making a loan from 
France for the United States to the amount 
of two million francs, amounting to about 
four hundred thousand dollars. The fol- 
lowing year the sum of four hundred 
thousand francs was sent across the ocean 
to aid in the cause of American inde- 
pendence. Besides these amounts the 
French sent over a gift of nine million 
francs, or nearly two million dollars, and 
guaranteed the interest upon a loan from 
Holland of two million dollars. In Febru- 
ary. 1778, the sum of six hundred thousand 
dollars, in silver coin, sent over by the 
French government, arrived at Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire. In all, Franklin had ob- 
tained as a loan and by gift a sum of five 
million dollars for the benefit of the infant 
republic of the United States. 

These triumphs at Paris, and the 
A victory of the Americans at Sara- 
Treaty toga, when the entire army under 
Signed. Burgoyne became prisoners of 

war, brought forth the alliance 
with France. February 6, 1778, a treaty 
was signed by the King of France, which 
resulted in American independence. For 
the successful management of this negotia- 
tion, one of the most important in the his- 
tory of modern diplomacy, the credit is due 
to the genius of Franklin. 

His name now became famous to every 
citizen of France. His society was courted 
by the nobility of that country, as well as 

by all men of science and literature. His 
home at Passy, then in the suburbs, but 
now within the city of Paris, was a constant 
resort for the most distinguished men of 
France. About a month later, together 
with the other two commissioners, he was 
received by the king 'with imposing cere- 
monies. The reception on this occasion 
was one of the most brilliant scenes ever 
witnessed in the fashionable circles of 
Paris. Marie Antoinette, the beautiful and 
accomplished queen, from this time forth 
enthusiastically favored the republic of the 
United States. 

There were no cables across the 

News Atlantic at this early day. Even 

Brought steamships did not plough the 

to ocean yet for half a century, but 

York. it was desired to send the news 
of these treaties to America with 
all possible speed. Vergennes, the French 
minister, ordered that the swift sailing ves- 
sel. Mercury, be placed at Franklin's dis- 
posal. Simeon Deane, a young man then 
in Paris, and brother of one of the Ameri- 
can commissioners, was entrusted with this 
important mission. He received the doc- 
uments, signed by the King of France, and 
with a letter addressed to Congress, from 
Benjamin Franklin, and Silas Deane, left 
the port of Havre and steered for Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire. He arrived there, 
after a passage of two months. Reaching 
Boston he called upon John Hancock, and 
then proceeded on horseback, crossing the 
Hudson River at Fishkill, New York. He 
reached Valley Forge, on the evening of 
April 30. After holding a conference one 
day with General Washington, he pro- 
ceeded on his way westward, crossing the 
Susquehanna at Wright's Ferry, and arriv- 
ing in York at 3 P. M. in the afternoon of 
May 2. This was Saturday. Congress had 
adjourned for that week. Immediately 
after Simeon Deane rode through Center 
Square and stopped at a public inn, at the 
southeast corner of George Street and 
Center Square, Martin Brenise was ordered 
to ring the bell in the cupola of the Court 
House to call Congress together. 

There was great rejoicing atnong all the 
delegates, and the people of the town, /or 
the arrival of this news meant even more 
than the decisive victory of the Americans 
at Saratoga, and the surrender of Bur- 



goyne. Rev. George Duffield, tlie chaplain 
of Congress, who preached in Zion Re- 
formed Church the following day, had a 
large audience, and after offering up a fer- 
vent prayer, referred in eloquent words to 
the cheering news from across the ocean. 

On Monday, May 4, the treaty 
Treaty of Amity and Commerce and the 
Ratified, treaty of Alliance were unani- 
mously adopted by Congress 
with great enthusiasm. Richard Henry 
Lee, of Virginia; William Henry Drayton, 
of South Carolina, and Francis Dana, of 
Massachusetts, were appointed a committee 
to prepare a form of ratification of the 
treaties. At the same time a resolution 
was passed that "This Congress entertain 
the highest sense of the magnanimity and 
wisdom of his most Christian jNIajesty, for 
entering into a treaty with these United 
States, at Paris, on the 6th day of February 
last; and the commissioners, or any of 
them, representing these states at the Court 
of France, are directed to present the grate- 
ful acknowledgments of this Congress to 
his most Christian IMajesty, for his truly 
magnanimous conduct respecting these 
states in the said generous and disinterested 
treaties, and to assure his Majesty, on the 
part of Congress, it is sincerely wished that 
the friendship, so happily commenced be- 
tween France and these United States may 
be perpetual." 

Simeon Deane was voted $3,000 in con- 
sideration of his faithful execution of a 
most important trust reposed in him by the 
commissioners of the United States at 

The following is a copy of the letter 
which Simeon Deane brought from the 
American commissioners at Paris to Presi- 
dent Laurens and Continental Congress at 
York : 

Passy, February 8, 1778. 
Sir ; — We have now the satisfaction of acquainting 
you and the Congress that the treaties with France are 
at Icnglli completed and signed. The first is a treaty 
of Amity and Commerce, much on tlie plan of that pro- 
jected in Congress; the other is a treaty of .Mliance, in 
which it is stipulated that in case England declares war 
against France, or occasions a war by attempts to hinder 
her commerce with us. we should then make common 
cause of it and join our forces and councils, etc. The 
great aim of this treaty is declared to be to '"establish 
the liberty, sovereignty, and independency, absolute and 
unlimited, of the United States, as well in matters of 
government as commerce;" and this is guaranteed to us 
by France, together with all the countries we possess or 
shall possess at the conclu^i'ln of the w;ir; in n-turn for 

whicli the States guaranty to France all its possessions 
in America. We do not now add more particulars as 
you will soon have the whole by a safer conveyance, a 
frigate being appointed to carry our dis'patches. We 
only observe to you, and with pleasure, that we have 
found throughout this business the greatest cordiality 
in this court ; and no advantage has been taken of 
our present dilTicultics to obtain hard terms from us ; 
but such has been the king's magnanimity and goodness, 
that he has proposed none which we might not have 
readily agreed to in a state of full prosperity and estab- 
lished power. The principle laid down as the basis of 
the treaty being, as declared in the preamble, "the most 
perfect equality and reciprocity;" the privileges in trade, 
etc., are mutual, and none are given to France, but what 
we are at liberty to grant to any other nation. 

On the wliole, we have abundant reason to be satis- 
fied with the good will of this Court and of the nation 
in general, which we therefore hope will be cultivated 
by the Congress by every means which may establish the 
Union and render it permanent. Spain being slow, there 
is a separate and secret clause, by which she is to be 
received into the alliance upon requisition, and there is 
no doubt of the event. When we mention the good will 
of this nation to our cause, we may add that of all 
Europe, which having been offended by the pride and 
insolence of Britain, wishes to see its power diminished; 
and all who have received injuries from her are by one 
of the articles to be invited into our alliance. The prep- 
arations for war are carried on with immense activity 
and it is soon e.xpected. 

With our hearty congratulations and our duty to the 
Congress, we have the honor to be, very respectfully, 


On May 5, Philip Living- 
Further ston, a signer of the Declara- 
Proceedings. tion, and a member from the 
state of New Y^ork, arrived 
and took his seat in Congress. The sum of 
$200,000 was appropriated for use in paying 
debts contracted by William Buchanan, late 
commissary-general of purchases in the 
northern district, and the same amount in 
the southern district. On the same day 
Nathaniel Greene, quartermaster-general, 
was granted $3,000,000 for his department. 
This last appropriation was intended to be 
used for the campaign in New Jersey, which 
resulted in the battle and decisive victory at 
Monmouth. Baron Steuben, then with the 
army at Valley Forge, was made inspector- 
general, with the rank of major-general. 
Although this great German soldier agreed 
to serve without pay. Congress ordered that 
his paj' was to commence from the time he 
joined the army and entered the service of 
the United States. 

On May 8, Congress voted $56 to Captain 
Philip Albright, of York, for "sundry con- 
tingencies for the money press in York." 
On^Iav 9, it was ordered that $200 be paid 
to Charles Gist and James Claypoole toward 



defraying their expenses for their employ- 
ment by the treasurer in superintending the 
making of- paper for loan ofifice certificates 
and bills of exchange; that $20,000 be ad- 
vanced to the marine committee for the use 
of the navy board in the middle district; 
that $24,000 be advanced to the committee 
of commerce for use in their department. 

Captain Landais, of the French 
The navy, appeared in York before the 
French marine committee of Congress. 
Sailor. He came to this country with a 
recommendation from Silas Deane, 
which was endorsed by Baron Steuben. 
He had succeeded in quelling a mutiny on 
board the vessel Flammand and brought the 
ship safely into an American port. He was 
voted a sum of money for his services and 
made a captain in the United States navy. 
On May 11, Count Pulaski, the Polish 
nobleman, was voted $15,000 for the pur- 
pose of purchasing horses and recruiting his 
Legion, then in the field. Colonel Francis 
Johnson was elected commissary of pris- 
oners to succeed Elias Boudinot. \\ho had 
retired from office. 

On May 14, Ethan Allen, the Connecticut 
patriot, who had captured Ticonderoga on 
May 10, 1775, and afterward l)ecame a pris- 
oner of war, was raised to the rankof colo- 
nel in recognition of his loyalty and patriot- 
ism. On May 15, a resolution was adopted 
ordering John Penn, grandson of William 
Penn, and Benjamin Chew, late chief justice 
of Penns}'l\-ania for the provincial govern- 
ment, to be released from parole and con- 
veyed without delay into the State of Penn- 
sylvania. Both of these distinguished per- 
sons had been charged with disloyaltv to 
the United States government after the 
declaration of independence. 

On May 16, Dr. Jonathan Potts, deputy 
director-general of hospitals for the middle 
district, was voted $100,000 for the use of 
his department. The committee on foreign 
relations was asked to report to Congress 
the changes in or addition to the instruc- 
tions and commissions "given to American 
commissioners at the courts of Berlin, 
Vienna and Tuscany," On Ma_y 19, Ameri- 
can officers held as prisoners of war, were 
voted full pay during the time of their im- 
prisonment. On May 20, Rev, Dr. Robert 
Blackwell was appointed chaplain of Gen- 
eral ^^'ayne's brigade of the Pennsylvania 

Line, Alajor-General Alifllin by resolution 
of Congress was given leave to join the 
army under the command of General 
Washington, .\lthough Mifflin had been 
charged with Ijeing a leader in the Conway 
conspiracy, the magnanimity of Washing- 
ton was shown in this instance by receiving 
Mifflin back into his military circle. 

By resolution of Congress on May 22, the 
Board of Treasury was ordered to print 
$5,000,000. Dr. Jonathan Elmer, of New 
Jersey, and Daniel Roberdeau, of Pennsyl- 
vania, appeared before Congress and took 
their seats in that body. On May 26, Con- 
gress adopted new rules for the conduct of 
business at its sessions. 

On May 27 important changes 

Marine took place in the marine com- 
Committee. mittee of Congress. The 
new members of this com- 
mittee were Josiah Bartlett, of New Hamp- 
shire ; Samuel Adams, of Massachusetts: 
Gouverneur Morris, of New York; Henry 
Drayton, of South Carolina. Josiah Bart- 
lett had recently arrived and taken his seat 
as a delegate from the state of New Hamp- 
shire. By profession he was a physician 
and at the time he arrived in York, he was 
forty-nine years of age. He is accredited 
with hax'ing been the first physician in 
America to introduce into this country the 
practical use of Peru\'ian bark as a curative 
drug. Being a man of influence in New 
Hampshire, he had been chosen a delegate 
to Congress in 1776. He voted in favor of 
the Declaration of Independence, and was 
the second person to sign that immortal 
document. Dr. Bartlett had been the sur- 
geon in chief of General Stark's army at the 
battle of Bennington. In 1779, he left Con- 
gress to become chief justice of the courts 
of New Hampshire, and in 1790, under a 
new constitution, became the first governor 
of the state. In a personal letter to his 
family immediately after he arrived in 
York, Dr. Bartlett described his difficulty 
in obtaining a good boarding place. He 
finally secured apartments in a private 
house on Market Street on the west side of 
the Codorus. 

Congress decided to reorganize the Amer- 
ican army in the field and adopted rules and 
regulations for this reorganization. The 
committee of Congress who had gone to 
\\'ashins:ton"s armv had returned and re- 



ported a favorable condition in tlie affairs 
at \'alley Forge. 

June 2, a letter was recei\'ed from General 
Gates, who had gone to Fishkill, New York, 
in April to take charge of the army there. 
Gates enclosed with this letter communica- 
tions between himself and General \\'ash- 
ington, relative to the recent controversy, 
known to history as the "Conway Cabal." 
A few days before this. Gates had fought a 
dtiel with Colonel AMlkinson at St. Clair's 
headquarters on the Hudson River, an ac- 
count of which is found in the succeeding 

A resolution was adopted \-oting the sum 
of $420 to Rev. George Dutiield for services 
as chaplain to Congress from October, 1777, 
to April 30, 1778. Chaplain Duffield re- 
ceived the sum of $60 per month as a salary. 
During the time of his stay in York, he re- 
sided in the parsonage house occupied by 
Rev. Daniel Wagner, pastor of Zion Re- 
formed Church. This liouse stood on the 
north side of East King Street, east of 
Court Alley. June 4, a resolution was 
adopted that three commissioners be ap- 
pointed to meet with the Delaw^ares, Shaw- 
anese and other Indian tribes at Fort Pitt 
on July 2;^. and enter into a treaty with 
them. One of these commissioners was to 
be from Pennsylvania and the other two 
from Virginia. 

News had now arrived of the 

Howe probable evacuation of Phila- 

Returns to delphia by the British army. 
England. General A\'illiam Howe, who 
had command of the forces in 
that city from the time of its capture in 
October, 1777, was recalled in May by Par- 
liament, and returned to England. Howe 
first came to America early in 1775, succeed- 
ing General Gage as commander of the 
British forces in America. He commanded 
the British at the battle of Bunker Hill in 

1775. at Long Island and AVhite Plains in 

1776, and had defeated \\'ashington at 
Brandy wine and Germantown in 1777. He 
was charged by Parliament as having spent 
the winter of 1777-78 in indolence and 
pleasure, and for this reason was recalled. 
He was personally popular with many of his 
subordinate officers. A\ hen they heard of 
his expected departure for England, he was 
given a brilliant entertainment, memorable 
in history as the "Mescliianza." Many 

Tories of Philadelphia took part in this en- 
tertainment. Flowe was succeeded in com- 
mand of the British forces by Sir Henry 
Clinton, an English ofificer of high rank, who 
had occupied New York City before coming 
to Philadelphia. 

When Congress anticipated the evacua- 
tion of Philadelphia, on June 5, Washington 
was instructed that when he reoccupied the 
city, he should institute measures for the 
preservation of order in the city, and to pre- 
vent the removahtransfer or sale of goods or 
merchandise, belonging to the King of Great 
Britain, in possession of the inhabitants. 

June 6, letters were received b\' Congress 
from General Washington enclosing com- 
munications which he had received from 
Sir Henry Clinton and Lord Howe. On 
the same day, a messenger arrived in York 
with a communication from Lord Richard 
Howe, in command of the British navy in 
American waters, and from General Clinton 
in charge of the forces at Philadelphia. 
Accompanying these letters were three acts 
of the Parliament of Great Britain. These 
acts offered overtures of peace wdiich Con- 
gress was requested to accept. A commit- 
tee composed of William Henry Drayton, 
Richard Henry Lee, Gouverneur ]\Iorris, 
John Witherspoon and Samuel Adams, was 
appointed to repair to the next room and 
prepare an answer to the letters of Lord 
Howe and General Clinton. This commit- 
tee met on the second floor of the pro\incial 
court house at York, where they drafted 
the following reply, a copy of w'hich was 
sent to Howe and Clinton : 

Yorktown, June 6. 1778. 
Jly Lord : — 

I have had the honor to lay your lordship's letter, of 
May 27th. with the acts of the British Parliament en- 
closed, before Congress, and I am instructed to acquaint 
your lordship, that they have already expressed their 
sentiments upon bills not essentially different from those 
acts, in a publication of the 22d of April last. 

Your lortlship may be assured, that when the King of 
Great Britain shall be seriously disposed to put an end 
to the uniirovoked and cruel war waged against these 
United States, Congress will readily attend to such 
terms of peace, as may consist with the honor of inde- 
pendent nations, the interest of their constituents, and 
the sacred regard they mean to pay to treaties. 

I have the honor to be. etc.. 

HENRY LAURENS, President. 

On the same day that 

Peace Congress received these 

Commissioners, communications from the 

British officers, three 

commissioners arrived in Philadelphia on a 



fruitless errand for negotiating terms of 
peace. These commissioners were Earl of 
Carlisle, \Villiam Eden, afterward Lord 
Auckland, and George Johnston, who be- 
fore the Revolution had served as colonial 
governor of New York. As the instruc- 
tions given to them by the English govern- 
ment had already been conveyed to Con- 
gress and their acceptance refused, the ar- 
rival of these commissioners accomplished 
no purpose except to delay for a few da3's 
the evacuation of Philadelphia by the Brit- 
ish forces imder Sir Henry Clinton. How- 
ever, on June ii, a letter was received from 
General Washington with a communication 
from Clinton giving notification of the ar- 
rival of the British commissioners in Phila- 
delphia, and asking for a passport for Dr. 
Ferguson, secretary to the commissioners, 
to bring a letter from them to Congress. 
This was referred to a committee composed 
of Richard Henry Lee, Samuel Adams and 
Henry Marchant, who made a report on 
June 13, and the subject was taken up for 
debate. While the discussion was in pro- 
gress, a message arrived from \\'ashing- 
ton's headquarters at Valley Forge, with a 
letter from the British commissioners in 
Philadelphia. Immediately upon its receipt 
Charles Thomson, secretar}? of Congress, 
began to read this letter, which was ad- 
dressed to "His Excellency, Henry Laurens, 
the president, and others, the members of 
Congress." A deep silence prevailed until 
he arrived at some sentences reflecting 
upon "his most Christian Majesty, Louis 
XVI of France, the new ally of the Ameri- 
can government." \\'hen these oiTensi^'e 
words were reached, there was confusion in 
the hall of Congress and the secretary or- 
dered to discontinue the reading of the 
communication from the commissioners. 
At the session held on June 16. after mature 
deliberation, it was decided that the entire 
communication should be read before Con- 
gress. The subject was then referred to a 
committee composed of Richard Henry 
Lee, Samuel Adams, William Henry Dray- 
ton, Gouverneur Morris and John Wither- 
spoon. On June 17 the committee brought 
in a draught of a letter to be sent to the 
commissioners, which reads as follows: 

Yorktown. June 17, 1778. 
Sirs : — I have received the letter from your excel- 
lencies of the pth inst. with the enclosures, and laid 

them hefore Congress. Nothing but an earnest desire to 
spare the further effusion of human blood could have 
induced them to read a paper containing expressions so 
disrespectful to his most Christian majesty, the good 
and great ally of these states, or to consider proposi- 
tions so derogatory to the honor of an independent 

The acts of the British parliament, the commission 
from your sovereign, and your letter, suppose the peo- 
ple of these states to be subjects of the crown of Great 
Britain, and are founded on the idea of dependence, 
which is utterly inadmissible. 

I am further directed to inform your excellencies, 
that Congress are inclined to peace, notwithstandmg the 
unjust claims from which this war originated, and the 
savage manner in which it hath been conducted. They 
will, therefore, be ready to enter upon the consideration 
of a treaty of peace and commerce not inconsistent with 
treaties already existing, when the king of Great 
Britain shall demonstrate a sincere disposition for that 
purpose. The only solid proof of this disposition, will 
be, an explicit acknowledginent of the independence of 
these states, or the withdrawing his fleets and armies. 

I have the honor to be your excellencies most obedient 
anil humble servant, 

HENRY LAURENS, President. 

On June 18, Air. Holker, then in York, 
petitioned Congress for the payment of 
400,000 livres "to persons interested therein, 
as owners or otherwise concerned in the 
private vessels of war, Hancock and Bos- 
ton." This matter was referred to a com- 
mittee composed of Gouverneur Morris, 
John Witherspoon and Thomas McKean. 
On June 19, John Hancock, of Massachu- 
setts, returned to York and took his seat as 
a delegate in Congress. He had served as 
president of Continental Congress from the 
time of its organization until November, 
1777. He was the first to append his name 
to the Declaration of Independence. Let- 
ters from Arthur Lee, of Virginia, then a 
commissioner at the court of France, were 
received and read. These letters had been 
written on the 6th, 15th and 31st of Janu- 
ary. Another letter addressed to the Com- 
mittee on Foreign Affairs of the United 
States was received. This letter was writ- 
ten at Paris on January 16, and signed by 
Benjamin Franklin and Silas Deane, the 
other two commissioners of the L'nited 
States at France. These letters had been 
written a few days before the king of France 
had signed the treaty of Alliance and the 
treatv of Amity and Commerce which took 
place February 6, 1778. 

The - alliance with France now having 
been formed, and a French fleet and army 
on their way to American waters. Congress 
determined to aid Washington in preparing 
vigorous plans for the summer campaign. 



A warrant was issued on the treasurer of 
the United States for $1,500,000 to aid in 
prosecuting the war; ordered that $500,000 
be paid to General Nathaniel Greene, 
quarter-master general of the arm)-; that 
$2,000,000 be appropriated for the use of 
Jeremiah W'adsworth, commissary general 
of purchases for the arm}-; that $100,000 be 
appropriated for the use of Benjamin 
Flower, commissary general of military 
stores. On the same day the sum of 8223 
livres and $200 was appropriated for the 
benefit of General Thomas Conway "as a 
gratuity for his time and expenses previous 
to his entering into the pay of the United 
States and for his return to France." He 
was also voted $321, the balance of his ac- 
count with the United States. 

On June 20, news of the 
Evacuation greatest importance reached 
of York and was communi- 

Philadelphia. cated to Congress. A mes- 
senger arrived from General 
W ashington reporting that the British 
army under Sir Henry Clinton had evacu- 
ated Philadelphia on the i8th. This news 
was read in Congress amid the greatest en- 
thusiasm. It w-as nine months before, 
almost to the day, that Continental Con- 
gress, alarmed by the approach of the 
British army to Philadelphia, quickly ad- 
journed from Independence Hall to Lan- 
caster, and after spending one day in that 
town, removed to York. The information 
that Clinton and his army had left Phila- 
delphia was so gratifying that after a few 
patriotic speeches made by the leaders in 
Congress, that body adjourned. 

The town of York was wild 
Enthusiasm with enthusiasm. Bonfires 
in York. were built on the public com- 
mon : the provincial Court 
House, in which Congress had held its ses- 
sions three-fourths of the year, was bril- 
liantly illuminated in honor of the event. 
Militar}- companies paraded the streets, 
preceded b\- music from the drum and the 
fife. This so interested the rural folk 
round a1)Out that on that eventful Saturdaj- 
afternoon, the streets were filled with peo- 
ple. At the lodging places of the delegates 
to Congress, and at the twenty public inns 
in the town, the evacuation of Philadelphia 
was the sole topic of conversation. None 
of the members had received this news with 

greater applause than Samuel Adams and 
John Hancock, of [Massachusetts; Richard 
Henry Lee, of Virginia; Daniel Roberdeau 
and James Smith, of Pennsylvania; Roger 
Sherman. of Connecticut ; Francis Lewis and 
Gouverneur Morris, of New York; Josiah 
Bartlett, of New Hampshire, and the digni- 
fied and honored president of Congress, 
Henry Laurens, of South Carolina. In fact 
toward the close of the sessions at York, all 
these notable men and several others of 
equal fame and distinction had been re- 
elected to Congress and were now holding 
their seats in that body. Although the en- 
tire membership did not e.xceed thirty-five, 
there were more men of great eminence 
present on this occasion than at any time 
during the preceding nine months. 

After the adjournment of 
Independence Congress, the law ofifice of 

a Reality. James Smith, on South 
George Street, was the 
centre of interest and attraction. Associ- 
ated with him while Congress sat in York 
were twenty-six persons whose names will 
go down through the ages as immortals of 
history, because they appended their names 
to the Declaration of Independence. When 
that immortal document w^as signed, the 
government of the United States was only 
an experiment. Now the condition of 
afifairs was different. An army fresh from 
l)rilliant victories in Europe had defeated 
the Americans on Long Island and captured 
the city of New York. The same victorious 
army under General Howe, a near relative 
of George III, had sailed from New York. 
passed up the Chesapeake Bay. and, after 
defeating the Americans at Brandywine 
and Germantown, had captured and held 
the Federal City of the infant republic. 
The victory at Saratoga, the French al- 
liance, and the notorious conduct of Howe 
in Philadelphia, had turned the tide of 
afifairs in favor of independence. The 
Declaration of Independence was now a 
reality. Even Frederick tlie Great, then the 
military genius of all Europe, was not only 
declaring the praises of A\'ashington as a 
field marshal, but recognized the eminent 
statesmanship of the American Congress. 

The fact that many of the most important 
events, during the whole period of the 
Revolution, occurred while Congress was 
in session at Y'ork, is worthy of special com- 



ment and recognition. W hen tliat body 
arrived here during tlie last days of Septem- 
ber, 1777, in the language of one of the most 
distinguished of its members, "darkness and 
gloom surrounded our country on every 
side." Now all the bells of the country 
were ringing a paean of praise and thanks- 
giving, and the people of the United States 
were firm in the hope and expectation that 
ere long the fathers of the republic and the 
leaders of the American army in the field, 
would soon found on this continent, "a new 
nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated 
to the proposition that all men are created 
free and equal." Whatever might be said 
of the efTorts put forth by the American 
statesmen in Congress during the eventful 
years of 1777-1778, there was one fact that 
will always be recorded in the pages of his- 
tory. They often disagreed on the manner 
of conducting a campaign. They had fre- 
quently opposed \\'ashington"s plan of 
operations, and many of them, before he 
had risen to eminence as a soldier, had 
favored his removal from the chief com- 
mand. But during the darkest period 
which always comes before the dawn, those 
illustrious men who legislated for our coun- 
try during its earliest years, had banded 
themselves together with one aim and one 
purpose, and that was to defeat the British 
troops in America and establish the freedom 
of the colonies. 

On the following Sunday, after the re- 
ceipt of the news from Washington that the 
enemy had left the Federal city of Phila- 
delphia, the Court House bell in Centre 
Square rang with glad acclaim, as also did 
the bells of the Reformed and Lutheran 
churches. Rev. George DufBeld, then the 
chaplain to Congress, preached a sermon in 
the Reformed church. A vast number of 
people assembled to hear him. The dis- 
tinguished divine was filled with emotion, 
but his eloquent and prophetic words were 
received with such public favor that the 
audience could scarce refrain from applause. 
During that eventful Sunday afternoon, as 
the patriots from the thirteen states met 
each other on the streets, public inns or at 
the places where they lodged, congratula- 
tions were exchanged. 

Rev. Nicholas Kurtz, then the 
A Pastor's pastor of Christ Lutheran 
Patriotism. Church, spoke to his congre- 

gation in his native German tongue with 
great impressiveness. When the war 
opened, Pastor Kurtz \Aas troubled about 
the oath of allegiance he had taken to 
the King of England when he arrived in 
this country, in 1745, but in 1776, his con- 
science became clear and he was natural- 
ized under the first constitution of Pennsyl- 
vania adopted that year. So firm was he in 
his patriotism, that when Congress came to 
York, September, 1777, he invited Bishop 
William White, then the chaplain to Con- 
gress, to lodge at his parsonage on North 
George Street. He also entertained repre- 
sentatives from the French government, 
and a delegate in Congress from South 
Carolina. The large audience room of his 
stone church, on South George Street, was 
filled to overflowing to hear the eloquent 
words of their pastor on this occasion. The 
Germans of York and elsewhere in Penn- 
sylvania had earl}^ proved their loyalty to 
the cause of independence by enlisting in 
the army. Rev. John Ettwein, afterward 
for twenty years the senior bishop of the 
Moravian Church in America, was then a 
visitor at York to confer with. Congress 
about some affairs relating to the Mora- 
vians. He records in his diary that the 
"daily text (i Cor. x, 13) came to us with 
special power, considering the event which 
has happened in Philadelphia, and the de- 
liverance of this state from the yoke of the 
British king. Families who fled from 
Philadelphia, today began to return.'.' 

On June 20, Congress ordered that the 
several boards of Congress should put 
themselves in readiness to remove from 
York. It was resolved to emit $5,000,000 
in Continental money. Soon after the first 
session was held in York, Congress had 
taken up for consideration the adoption of 
the Articles of Confederation, which had 
been passed on November 15, 1777. Con- 
gress called upon the delegates present to 
report what action had been taken by their 
respective states upon the ratification of 
these articles. Owing to a controversy 
which had arisen in the Legislattire of 
Maryland in reference to its western 
boundaries, the delegates from that state 
reported that their constituents opposed 
the ratification of the Articles of Confeder- 
ation until these difficulties were removed. 
This was the beginning of a long discussion 



which ended in the }-ear 1781. when Mary- 
land was the last state to ratify them. 

June 23, Titus Hosmer, of Con- 
Ratifying necticut, arrived and took his 

the seat in Congress. Josiah Bart- 

Articles, lett, from New Hampshire, re- 
ported that his state, by vote of 
the legislature, had ratified the Articles of 
Confederation. The delegates from New 
York reported that their state had ratified 
the Articles with the pro\iso that the same 
shall not be binding on the state until all 
the other states in the Union should ratify 
them. The delegates of ^Massachusetts. 
Connecticut and Rhode Island reported 
that the legislatures of their states had 
found objections to the Articles, and asked 
amendments, which propositions were de- 
cided in the negative by Congress. 

On June 24, a resolution was adopted 
that Congress should adjourn on Saturday, 
June 27, from York to Philadelphia, to meet 
in Independence Hall, on July 2. A com- 
mittee was appointed to take measures for 
a public celebration of the anniversary of 
independence, at Philadelphia, on the 4th 
of July next, and were authorized and di- 
rected to invite the president and council 
and speaker of the Assembly of the Com- 
monwealth of Pennsylvania, and such other 
people of distinction as they should think 
proper. This committee was composed of 
William Duer, of New York; John Han- 
cock, of Massachusetts, and John Mat- 
thews, of South Carolina. It was resoh'ed 
"that Congress will, in a body, attend divine 
worship on Sunday the fifth day of July 
next, to rettirn thanks for the divine mercy 
in supporting the independence of these 
states, and that the chaplains be notified to 
officiate and preach sermons suited to the 

Colonel Hartley's Regiment, which had 
served as a guard to Congress for several 
months, left York for Washington's camp 
in two battalions, the first going on Janu- 
ary 17, and the other on June 24. On June 
25, a letter from North Carolina reported 
that the state had ratified the Articles of 
Confederation. Richard Henry Lee, Gouv- 
erneur Morris and Francis Dana were ap- 
pointed a committee to prepare a form of 
ratification of the Articles of Confederation. 
On the following day, this committee 
brought in a draught, which was agreed to. 

and a resolution was adopted that the .\r- 
ficles should be engrossed and signed before 
leaving York. This engrossed copy was 
prepared and brought before Congress, but 
was found to be incorrect. It was then re- 
solved that another copy be made, which 
was signed on July 9, at Philadelphia, by 
delegates in Congress from all the original 
thirteen states excepting New Jersey, Dela- 
ware, Maryland, North Carolina and 
Georgia. The last two were not at that 
time represented in Congress. 

Martin Brenise, of York, was voted $45 
for attending Congress from the ist to the 
27th of June, and for ringing the bell. John 
Fisher, the original clock-maker of York, 
who was also an engraver, was ordered to 
be paid for renewing two copper plates for 
loan office certificates, and making two let- 
ters in the device of the 30 dollar bills. 

A communication from Colonel ^lichael 
Swope, of York, was read before Congress. 
He had been captured at Fort Washington 
in November, 1776, and was still a ])risoner 
of war. 

The day after Congress adjourned at 
York most of the delegates prepared to 
leave. They crossed the Susquehanna at 
the site of Wrightsville, and proceeded over 
the direct route to Philadelphia. Citizens 
from Philadelphia and vicinity, who had fled 
to Lancaster, York and elsewhere when the 
British entered that city, now returned to 
their homes. Congress again convened at 
Independence Hall. 

William Ellery, a delegate from Rhode 
Island, wrote an interesting account of his 
trip to Philadelphia after leaving York, 
June 28, 1778. He was accompanied by 
Eldridge Gerry and Francis Dana, of Mas- 
sachusetts, and Richard Hutson, of South 
Carolina. In giving a report of his trip he 
stated that they went to Philadelphia by 
way of Wilmington and Chester because all 
the public inns would be occupied at night 
by other delegates and people who were re- 
turning to their homes in Philadelphia, 
after that city had been evacuated by the 
British. They crossed the Susquehanna 
River at McCall's Ferry. With some other 
delegates and citizens they celebrated July 
4, at Citv Tavern, Philadelphia. 

IMICH.A.EL HILLEGAS, treasurer of 
the United States during the time that 
Congress held its first sessions at York, 




was born in Pliiladelphia in 1728, of Ger- 
man parentage. He had served with 
prominence as a member of the Provincial 
Assembly, and when hostilities opened 
with the mother country, in 1775, he was a 
member of the Committee of Safety of his 
native city. He was chosen as treasurer of 
the United States soon after the adoption 
of the Declaration of Independence, and 
held that office until 1789, a period of 
thirteen years. This trust was one of great 
responsibility, and his faithful services to 
his country through those long years of 
Revolutionary struggle command the ad- 
miration of every true American. Pos- 
sessed of ample means, his devotion to his 
country stamps him as a pure patriot. In 
1780, Michael Hillegas was one of the 
original subscribers to the Bank of Penn- 
sylvania, organized chiefly for the relief of 
the government, his subscription being 
4,000 pounds. He was one of the original 
members of the American Philosophical 
Society, and died on September 29, 1804. 

CHARLES THOMPSON, secretary to 
Continental Congress at York, was born in 
Ireland, in 1729, and came to America in 
1740. He obtained a liberal education and' 
conducted a classical school at New Castle, 
Delaware. In 1774. he was married to a 
sister of Benjamin Harrison, a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, from Vir- 
ginia, and settled in Philadelphia. The 
same year he was elected secretary to the 
first Continental Congress and held that 
position continuously until the adoption of 
the National Constitution in 1789. When 
Congress adjourned from Philadelphia to 
York, he accompanied that body and was 
influential in all the legislation passed while 
in session here. When John Hancock re- 
signed the presidency, Thompson presided 
over Congress until Laurens was inducted 
into office. During his long career in the 
secretaryship, he kept voluminous notes of 
the proceedings of Congress. These he in- 
tended to publish in permanent form, but 
changed his mind and destroyed all his 
manuscripts, fearing that the reflections he 
might cast upon some of the eminent 
might affect the future history of the coun- 
try. He was the author of several books 
and pamphlets, mostly of a religious char- 
acter. Late in life, he resided at his country 
home in Lower Merion, Montgomery 

County, and died there in 1824, at the age 
of 95. ' 


The death of Philip Livingston, the 
distinguished patriot and signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, was the sad- 
dest event recorded during the sessions of 
Congress at York. This occurred early on 
the morning of June 12, 1778. He had been 
re-elected a delegate to Congress from the 
State of New York. At this time Livings- 
ton's health was in a precarious condition, 
but Governor Clinton urged that he repair 
at once to Congress in order to take the 
place of a retiring member. It seemed ne- 
cessary that Livingston should make the 
long journey in his enfeebled condition. 

He bade farewell to his family and 
Arrives friends, and started on horseback 

at with a single companion and ar- 

York. rived at York, May 4, 1778. On 
the following day. Congress re- 
ceived the encouraging news that the King 
of France had formed a treaty of Amity 
and Commerce and a treaty of Alliance 
with the United States. The people 
of the inland town of York and the 
distinguished patriots then in session here, 
were in ecstasy over the news which had 
been sent to Congress by Benjamin Frank- 
lin, the American commissioner at Paris. 
Livingston joined in this rejoicing and on 
the same day took his seat in Congress. 
Init the effect of the journey caused a re- 
lapse two days later. In his humble lodg- 
ings at a village inn he was tenderly cared 
for by his fellow delegates. There were 
four members in Congress at that time who 
were physicians, and with eager interest 
they watched his condition and rendered 
all medical aid that was possible. These 
men were Josiali Bartlett, of New Hamp- 
shire; Oliver Wolcott, of Connecticut: 
Jonathan Elmer, of New Jersey, and Joseph 
Jones, of Virginia. 

Henry Livingston, one of his sons, was 
then serving as an aide on the staff of Gen- 
eral Washington, at Valley Forge. A 
courier was sent in haste to this encamp- 
ment to notify the son of his father's illness. 
Colonel Livingston immediately came to 
York. The ravages of disease had borne 
hard on the system of his father, and after 
a lingering sickness of a little more than 


Signer of the Declaration of Independence, who died and 
is buried at York 


one niontli, Philip IJ\ing'ston died in the 
sixty-third year of his age. Gouverneur 
Morris, another Xew York delegate then in 
Congress, three days after Livingston's 
death, dispatched Governor Clinton, of 
Xew York, a letter in which he said in part : 
"I am sorr\' to inform your Excellency 
and the State of Xew York of the death of 
my worthy colleague, Philip Livingston. 
Almost immediately after his arrival here 
at York, he was confined to his room with. 
a dangerous malady from which time there 
seemed to be no chances of recovery. He 
grew steadily worse and on Friday last, at 
4 o'clock in the morning, paid the last debt 
to nature." 

Philip Livingston died of dropsy. 
His His body was taken in charge by 
Burial. Francis Lewis, Gouverneur Morris 
and William Duer, the other dele- 
gates from Xew York, and buried at 6 
o'clock on the evening of the day of his 
death. The Rev. Dr. George Duffield, then 
chaplain of Congress, officiated at this sad 
funeral. By invitation of Congress, the 
three village pastors were present, Xicholas 
Kurtz, representing the Lutheran congre- 
gation ; John Ettwein, the INIoravian, and 
Daniel \\'agner. the German Reformed. 
The entire delegation in Congress attended 
the funeral, each with crepe around the 
arm, which, by resolution, they were re- 
quired to wear for a period of thirty days. 
The remains of the distinguished dead were 
buried in the graveyard to the rear of the 
German Reformed Church, on West i\Iar- 
ket Street. York, just as the sun was sink- 
ing behind the western horizon. 

The remains of Philip Livingston lay en- 
tombed in the Reformed Churchyard at 
York, for a period of seventy-eight years. 
January, 1856, they were removed to 
Prospect Hill cemetery, a short distance 
north of York, where they now lie. the spot 
being marked by a marble shaft, on the face 
of which is the following inscription: 


To the niemorv of the Honornble 


Who died June 12, 1778, 

Aged 63 years. 

While attending the Congress of the 

United States, at York Town, 

Penna., as a Delegate from 

the State of Xew York. 

Eminently distinguished for his talents 

and rectitude, he deservedly enjoyed 

the confidence of his country, and 

the love and veneration of his 

friends and children. 

This monument erected by 

His Grandson, 

Stephen Van Renssalaer. 

Livingston was born at Albany, January 
15, 1716, and was the youngest of four sons. 
His great-grandfather was a celebrated 
divine in the church of Scotland and his 
grandfather, after emigrating to America, 
came into possession of a large manor on 
the Hudson. At his death, this manor was 
inherited by Philip Livingston, father of 
the signer. Philip Livingston, the son, was 
gifted with extraordinary mental endow- 
ments, and after his graduation from Yale 
College, in 1737, became a prosperous 
merchant in the city of Xew York. He 
served nine years as an alderman and was a 
member of the Colonial Assemblv durinsi 
the French and Lidian war. At the open- 
ing of the Revolution, Livingston became 
an ardent patriot and was one of the 
earliest in Xew York to oppose British op- 
pression and favor the freedom of the 
colonies. L: 1774, he was chosen a member 
of the first Continental Congress which met 
at Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, and was 
re-elected to the second Congress which 
convened at the same place the following 
year. In 1776, he was one of the fifty-six 
persons who signed the Declaration of In- 

On June 14, 1778, the following touching 
letter was written at York to Dr. Thomas 
Jones, by Henry Philip Livingston, a son of 
the statesman, who was the second of the 
signers to die since they had penned their 
names to the Declaration of Independence 
at Philadelphia, July 8, 1776: 

I sincerely lament that Providence has made it neces- 
sary to address my friends on so mournful an occasion 
as the present. Oh, for words to soften their distress 
and lessen the bitter pangs of grief. I feel myself un- 
equal to the duty and utterly at a loss what to say. 

]\Iy dear friend, have you received my letter of the 
nth? It was written with intent to prepare the minds 
of the family for the melancholy subject of this, and to 
prevent in some measure the eflfccts of a too sudden 
impression. L"nhappily, my apprehensions were not ill 
founded, for the disorder was too malignant and ob- 
stinate to struggle with. 

Must I tell you ! My dear father expired early on 
the morning of the 12th, and was buried the same 
evening. The funeral was conducted in a manner suit- 
able to his worth and station, being attended by all the 
military in town, the Congress, the strangers of distinc- 
tion, and the most respectable citizens. 

My dear mother and sister, grieve not immoderately 


even at the loss of an excellent husband and parent. 
Consider that worth and excellence cannot exempt one 
from the lot of human nature, for no sooner do we enter 
the world than we begin to leave it. It is not only 
natural but commendable to regret the loss of so tender 
a connection, but what can an excess of sorrow avail. 

I hope to set off for Hurly in two or three days, and 
1 hope, dear sir, by your influence and consolation to 
find the family as composed as this distressing event will 


Baron Steuben, the distinguished Ger- 
man officer, came to York in February, 
1778. He was enthusiastically received by 
Congress and the officers of the army then 
here. Steuben, who was 48 years of age. 
had won fame as a soldier in the Seven 
Years' War, for German liberty, and also 
had served as an aide on the staff of Fred- 
erick the Great of Prussia. He was one of 
the best trained soldiers of Europe, and the 
object in bringing him here was to train 
the American soldiers in the tactics used by 
the triumphant armies of Frederick the 
Great. Steuben wa« induced by St. Ger- 
main, the French minister of war, to join 
the American cause, while on a visit to 
Paris in the fall of 1777. Although he held 
high rank in the Prussian army, he entered 
into an arrangement with the French min- 
ister to sail for the United States. Embark- 
ing in a French gunboat, under the name of 
Frank, he set sail from Marseilles, Decem- 
ber II, 1777, and after a stormy passage of 
fifty-five days, arrived at Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire, from which town he proceeded 
to Boston. On Decemljer 6, five days after 
his arrival at Portsmouth, Steuben ad- 
ilressed the following letter to Congress at 
York : v 

Honorable Gentlemen : — The honor of 
Writes serving a nation, engaged in the noble 

enterprise of defending its rights and 

to liberties, was the motive that brought 

ConoresS. ™^ 'o '^'^'^ continent. I ask neither 

'^ riches nor titles. I am come here from 

the remotest end of Germany, at my 
own expense, and have given up an honorable and lucra- 
tive rank. I have made no conditions with your depu- 
ties in Paris, nor shall I make any with you. My only 
ambition is to serve you as a volunteer, to deserve the 
confidence of your general-in-chief, and to follow him 
in all his operations, as I have done during seven cam- 
paigns with the King of Prussia. Two and twenty 
years spent in such a school seem to give me a right of 
thinking myself among the number of experienced 
officers; and if I am possessed of the acquirements in 
the arts of war, they will be much more prized by me 
if I can employ them in the service of a republic such 
as I hope soon to see in America. I would willingly 
purchase, at the expense of my blood, the honor of 
having my name enrolled among those of the defenders 

of your liberty. Your gracious acceptance will be suffi- 
cient for me, and I ask no other favor than to be re- 
ceived among your officers. I venture to hope that you 
will grant this my request, and that you will be so good 
as to send me your orders to Boston, where I shall 
await them, and take suitable measures in accordance. 

On January 14, immediately after receiv- 
ing the letter from Steuben, Congress 
unanimously passed the following resolu- 
tion : 

"Whereas, Baron Steuben, a lieutenant- 
general in foreign service, has in a most dis- 
interested and heroic manner, offered his 
services to these states in the quality of a 

"Resolved, That the president present 
the thanks of Congress, in behalf of these 
United States, to Baron Steuben, for the 
zeal he has shown, for the cause of America, 
and the disinterested tender he has been 
pleased to make of his military talents; and 
inform him, that Congress cheerfully ac- 
cepts of his service as a volunteer in the 
army of these states, and wish him to repair 
to General ^Vashington's headquarters as 
soon as convenient." 

On the same day that Steu- 
Letter to ben wrote to Congress, he 
Washington, addressed the following let- 
ter to Washington : 

Sir : — The enclosed copy of a letter, the original of 
which I shall have the honor to present to your Excel- 
lency, will inform you of the motives that brought me 
over to this land. I shall only add to it, that the object 
of my greatest ambition is to render your country all 
the service in my power, and to deserve the title of a 
citizen of America, by fighting for the cause of your 
liberty. If the distinguished ranks in which I liave 
served in Europe should be an obstacle, I had rather 
serve under your Excellency as a volunteer, than to be 
an object of discontent to such deserving officers as 
have already distinguished themselves among you. Such 
being the sentiments I have always professed, I dare 
hope that the respectable Congress of the United States 
of America will accept my services. I could say, more- 
over, were it not for the fear of offending your modesty, 
that your Excellency is the only person under whom, 
after having served the King of Prussia, I could wish 
to follow a profession, to the study of which I have 
wholly devoted myself. I intend to go to Boston in a 
few days, where I shall present my letters to Mr. Han- 
cock, member of Congress, and there I shall await your 
Excellency's orders. 

Steuben left Portsmouth on the 
Meets 1 2th of December, 1777, and set 
Hancock, out for Boston, where he ar- 
rived on the 14th, and was re- 
ceived as cordially as at the former place. 
He met there John Hancock, who had just 
retired from the presidency of Congress, 
and received Washington's reply to his let- 



ter, by which he was informed that he must 
repair without delay to York, Pennsyl- 
vania, where Congress was then sitting, 
since it belonged exclusively to that body 
to enter into negotiations with him. At the 
same time, Hancock communicated to 
Steuben an order of Congress, that every 
preparation should be made to make him 
and his attendants comfortable on their 
journey to York, and ^Ir. Hancock himself, 
with great care, made all the necessary ar- 
rangements. Carriages, sleighs and saddle 
horses were provided, five negroes were as- 
signed to them as grooms and drivers, and 
an agent to prepare quarters and procure 

Duponceau, the learned 

Duponceau's Frenchman. who accom- 

Story. panied Steuben to America 

as his secretary and inter- 
preter, after the Revolution remained in this 
country, locating in Philadelphia. In 1836 
he published the following description of 
their trip from Boston to York : 

"Our party consisted of Baron Steulien 
and his servant, Carl Vogel, a young lad 
wliom he had brought from Germany, ^Ir. 
De Francy, an agent of Beaumarchais, and 
myself. \\'e traveled on horseback. Not- 
withstanding the recent capture of General 
Burg03'ne, the situation of the United 
States at that time was extremely critical. 
The enemy was in possession of Rhode 
Island, New York and Philadelphia, with 
well-organized and disciplined troops, far 
superior to our own. Our army (if army it 
might be called) was encamped at Valley 
Forge, in the depth of a severe winter, 
without proxisions. without clothes, with- 
out regular discipline, destitute, in short, of 
everything but courage and patriotism ; and 
what was worse than all, disaffection was 
spreading through the land. In this dismal 
state of things the baron was advised to 
keep as far from the coast as possible, lest 
he should be surprised by parties of the 
enemy or b}' the Tories, who made fre- 
quent incursions into the country between 
New York and Philadelphia. We, there- 
fore, shaped our course westward, and 
crossing the states of Massachusetts, Con- 
necticut, New York and Penns\-lvania, we 
employed about three weeks in a journey of 
410 miles in all. which at present would 
hardh- reciuire as manv davs." 

They stopped on their way, on 
Reaches Sunday, the i8th of January, at 
York. Springfield, on the 20th at Hart- 
ford, on the 28th at Fishkill, on 
Thursday, the 30th, at Bethlehem, on the 
2d of Februar}' at Reading, on the 4th at 
INIanheim, and arrived on Thursday, the 
5th, at York, and remained here until the 
19th of February. In his narrative, Du- 
ponceau relates several incidents of their 
trip to York. Among these is the amusing 
story of their experience at Manheim, in 
Lancaster County, where they lodged for 
the night before coming to York. 

"A great number of inns, in towns and 
countries, bore the sign of the King of 
Prussia, who was still very popular, par- 
ticularly among the Germans. I remember 
that at Manheim the baron, with a signifi- 
cant look, pointed out to me, at the tavern 
where we dined, a paltry engraving hung 
up on the wall, on which was represented 
a Prussian knocking down a Frenchman in 
great style. Underneath was the following 
motto : 
" 'Ein Franzmann zum Preuzen -wie eine 

" 'A Frenchman to a Prussian is no more 
than a mosquito.' 

"The good baron appeared to enjoy that 

picture exceedingly, and so, no doubt, did 

the German landlord to whom it l:>elonged.'" 

In a letter written to Baron de 

Steuben's Frank, dated July 4. 1779. 

Own Baron Steuben, from his head- 

Story, quarters on the Hudson, thu~ 
describes his visit to York: 

"The arrangements of my equipage de- 
tained me more than five weeks in Boston, 
so that I could not set out for York before 
the 14th of January. I was received there 
with the most distinguished attentions. A 
house was reserved for my use, and a guard 
of honor placed before tlie door. A day 
after my arrival. Congress inquired, 
through a committee of three members, the 
terms on which I proposed to enter the 
service. My answer was, that I had no wish 
to make anv arrangements or terms; that T 
wished to make tlie campaign as a volun- 
teer, desiring neither rank nor pay for my- 
self, and only commissions for the ofificers 
of my suite. This was agreed to by Con- 
gress, as I had expected. A resolution of 
tlianks. in the most obliging terms, was re- 



turned, \\ith an offer of defraying all my 
expenses. My officers received their com- 
missions, and even my secretary was 
gratified with the rank and the pay of a 

"I will here observe, that in the military 
organization of the states, the highest rank 
is that of major-general, Washington is 
the oldest major-general, being at the same 
time invested, in his quality of commander- 
in-chief, with all the privileges of a general 
field marshal in Europe. His authority is 
as unlimited as that of a Stadtholder in Hol- 
land can be. The other major-generals, 
whose number does not at present surpass 
nine, are the commanders of corps, armies, 
wings and divisions. General Gates is com- 
mander of the Northern army. General 
Lincoln of the Southern army, and General 
Sullivan of the forces against the Indians. 
All are under the orders of the com- 
mander-in-chief. The second rank is that 
of a general of brigade. They are the com- 
manders of brigades, like the major-gen- 
erals in European armies. 

"Upon my arrival in the camp, I was 
again the object of more honors than I was 
entitled to. General Washington came 
several miles to meet me on the road, and 
accompanied me to my quarters, where I 
found an officer with twenty-five men as a 
guard of honor. AVhen I declined this, say- 
ing that I wished to be considered merely 
as a volunteer, the general answered me in 
the politest words, that 'The whole army 
would be gratified to stand sentinel for such 
volunteers.' He introduced me to Major- 
General Stirling and several other generals. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Ternant and Major 
\\'alker were both appointed by Congress 
as my adjutant-generals. On the same day 
my name was given as a watchword. The 
following day the army was mustered, and 
General Washington accompanied me to 
review it." 

General Lafayette had left York a few 
days before Steuben's arrival. General 
Gates, who had been appointed president of 
the Board of War, came here on January 19. 
The fame of Steuben had preceded him to 
York. He was welcomed and courted by 
all, and General Gates, in particular, paid 
him the most assiduous court, and e\-en in- 
\ited him to make his house his home, 
which he declined. In a letter \\'ritten to 

John Hancock the day after his arrival at 
York, Steuben says : 

"Please to accept ni}- grateful thanks for 
all the kindness you have shown me during 
my stay in Boston. In this very moment I 
enjoy the good eff'ects of it, having taken 
the liberty of quartering myself in an apart- 
ment of your house in this town. My 
journey has been extremely painful; but the 
kind reception I have met with from Con- 
gress and General Gates on my arrival here, 
have made me soon forget those past incon- 
veniences. Now, sir, I am an American, 
and an American for life; your nation has 
become as dear to me as your cause already 
was. You know that my pretensions are 
very moderate ; I have submitted them to a 
committee sent to me by Congress. They 
seem to be satisfied, and so am I, and shall 
be the more so, when I find the opportunity 
to render all the services in my power to the 
United States of America. Three mem- 
bers of Congress have been appointed for 
concluding an arrangement with me tomor- 
row ; that w^ill not take long, my only claims 
being the confidence of your general-in- 

Freiderich Kapp, the biog- 

Interviewed rapher of Steuben, in re- 

by ferring to the Committee of 

Committee. Congress appointed to wait 

upon the Baron, says: 

"The committee of Congress mentioned 
b}' Steuljen, which was composed of Doctor 
AVitherspoon, the chairman, and only per- 
son who spoke French, Messrs. Henry, of 
Maryland, and Thomas McKean, waited 
upon Steuben the day after his arrival, and 
demanded of him the conditions on which 
he Avas inclined to serve the United States, 
and if he had made any stipulations with 
their commissioners in France? He replied 
that he liad made no agreement with theni, 
nor was it his intention to accept of any 
rank or pay; that he wished to join the 
army as a volunteer, and to render such 
services as the commander-in-chief should 
think him capable of, adding, that he had 
no other fortune than a revenue of about 
six hundred guineas per annum, arising 
from posts of honor in Germany, which he 
had relinquished to come to this country; 
that in consideration of this, he expected 
the L'nited States would defray his neces- 
sary expenses while in their service; that 



if, unhappily, this country sliould not suc- 
ceed in establishing their independence, or 
if he should not succeed in his endeavors in 
their service, in either of these cases he 
should consider the United States as free 
from any obligations towards him ; but if, 
on the other hand, the United States should 
be fortunate enough to establish their 
freedom, and that if his efforts should be 
successful, in that case he should expect a 
full indemnification for the sacrifice he had 
made in coming over, and such marks of 
liberality as the justice of the United 
States should dictate; that he only 
required commissions for the of^cers 
attached to his person, namely that 
of major and aide-de-camp for Mr. De 
Romanai, that of captain of engineers for 
]Mr. De I'Enfant, that of captain of cavalry 
for Mr. De Depontiere, and the rank of cap- 
tain for his secretary, Mr. Duponceau; that 
if these terms were agreeable to Congress 
he waited for their orders to join the army 
without delay." 

The committee appointed to in- 
Services terview Baron Steuben, re- 
Accepted, ported to Congress on the fol- 
lowing day. The propositions 
submitted by the Baron were unanimously 
accepted and soon afterward he proceeded 
to Valley Forge, where he began strict 
training and discipline for the campaign of 
1778. When he first arrived at the encamp- 
ment at Valley Forge, he experienced some 
difficulty because of his lack of familiarity 
with the English language, but his future 
career was successful, and the cause of in- 
dependence owed a debt to him for his 
achievements in the American army. 

When he arrived at York in February he 
was assigned to quarters in the house 
previously occupied by John Hancock, 
when he was president of Congress. The 
house stood on the south side of West Mar- 
ket Street, three doors west of Centre 
Square, and was owned by Colonel ^Michael 
Swope, who had commanded a regiment of 
York County troops at the battle of Fort 
Washington, where he and almost his en- 
tire command were captured, in Novem- 
ber, 1776, and were still prisoners of war in 
New York City and Long Island. On June 
23, Continental Congress approved a bill of 
S104 presented by Airs. Eva Swope, wife of 
Colonel Swope, for lodging and boarding 

Baron Steuben, his two aides and two 
servants, for thirteen da3's. 

Baron Steuben returned to York in June, 
1778, for the purpose of having the duties 
and powers of his department minutely de- 
fined and settled by Congress, lie did not 
tarry here long, however, but on hearing 
of the evacuation of Philadelphia by the 
British, hastened to join Washington, who 
was laying his plans for a summer cam- 
paign, which resulted in the victory at Mon- 
mouth and the transfer of the seat of war 
to the south. 


The party conflicts of our Revolutionary 
leaders were caused by the antagonism be- 
tween two schools of political thought— the 
liberative and the constructive. The sole 
object of the former was to get rid of the 
British authority in America, wdiich was 
interpreted to be tyranny. The latter 
sought to set up in the colonies a constitu- 
tional system of co-ordinate legislative, ex- 
ecutive and judicial departments in the 
place of authority of the British govern- 
ment. The liberative school sought to en- 
force government through congressional 
committees ; the constructive through heads 
of departments, giving large powers to 
Washington as commander-in-chief, and to 
Franklin at the head of the American le- 
gation at Paris. The contest between the 
leaders of the conflicting schools of thought 
among the Fathers of our Republic was 
dominant while Congress sat in York and 
continued until the Federal constitution 
was framed in 1787. 

Samuel Adams, of ■ Massachusetts, 
through his dislike of executive authority 
in any shape, became the leader of the 
liberati\'e school in Congress. Through his 
opposition to the adoption of scientific 
principles either in war, in diplomacy or in 
finance, he came more than once near 
wrecking the cause which he would gladly 
have given his life to sustain. Even after 
the war, both Samuel Adams and John 
Hancock opposed the ratification of a na- 
tional constitution, but when they finally 
accepted it as a wise compromise, they were 
of the greatest public service to the new 
government. John Adams, during the 
Revolution, advocated the same policy and 
principles as his cousin, Samuel Adams. 


\\'hen peace came, he was one of tlie most 
ardent supporters of constitutional and ex- 
ecutive authority. Closely allied with these 
three New England statesmen of this 
period were Richard Henry Lee and Fran- 
cis Lightfoot Lee, of Virginia, men of 
power and influence in Congress. 

In the political history of our country, 
these statesmen were not constructive in 
their tendencies. They were civilians and 
it is remarkable that no military man of 
eminence accepted the principles of gov- 
ernment which these men had advocated 
during the War for Independence. 

General A\'ashington by na- 
Washington ture and training, both as a 
a Leader. soldier and a statesman, be- 
came the great leader among 
those advocating a constructive policy. He 
declared that war was an instrument of con- 
struction of which destruction of English 
power was merely the preliminary incident. 
The object he had in view as early as 1776 
was essentially different from that of the 
leaders of the liberative school of Revolu- 
tionary statesmen. Washington had not 
yet loomed up as the dominating person- 
ality of the Revolution when the Articles of 
Confederation were passed by Congress at 
York, in November, 1777. Between him- 
self and the supporters of the liberative 
school there was antagonism, until after 
the former had driven the British army out 
of New Jersey, in 1778, and achieved dis- 
tinction on the field of battle at Trenton, 
Princeton and Monmouth. These victories 
attracted the attention of all Europe and 
called forth favorable comment from Fred- 
erick the Great. of Prussia. AVashington 
held that war was essential but should be 
conducted by trained regulars. Adams and 
his colleagues thought that America could 
fight the battles for independence with 
militia, because they had shown so much 
patriotic valor at Bunker Hill and the siege 
of Boston. Washington was one of the 
earliest who favored an alliance with 
France, the enemy of England. He courted 
the friendship of the youthful Lafayette and 
at once gave him high rank in the army. 
The diplomacy of the war was largely con- 
ducted by Washington as the head of the 
army. In this work he displayed wisdom 
and forethought to which the French never 
ceased to paj? tribute. 

Next to A\'ashington in this line of 
thought was Franklin, whose mind was 
eminently constructive, and who for 3'ears, 
as postmaster-general and as colonial agent 
in London, had acquired the largest expe- 
rience in American administration of any 
man then living. Of the same school of 
thought as Washington and Franklin were 
Robert Morris, John Lay, Gouverneur Mor- 
ris, Henry Laurens, Alexander Hamilton, 
Benjamin Harrison and Robert R. Living- 
ston. Their opponents argued that Rome 
enslaved the world by discipline; the Gauls 
liberated it from Rome's oppression by im- 
petuous zeal. It was the militia of New 
England, they claimed, who drove back the 
British regulars at Lexington and hurled 
back the enemy's onset at Bunker Hill. But 
in reply to this, Washington and his friends 
said that Rome succumbed to her own ener- 
vation, and that if the untrained farmers 
who drove back the invaders at Lexington 
and the half-armed militia who defended 
Bunker Hill had been fully armed and well- 
disciplined as soldiers, the British army at 
Boston would have been forced to capitu- 
late and the war would have been brought 
to an early close. But Washington still 
maintained that a war such as the United 
States then was engaged in could not be 
sustained by an army made up of militia or 
volunteers enlisted for a short term of 

These momentous questions had been 
frequently taken up in Congress during the 
early part of 1777. They were discussed with 
vigor and energy soon after Congress arrived 
at York. This was the turning point in the 
political thought of that eventuful period. 

The defeat of the American 
Antagonism army under W'ashington at 
to Brandywine and German- 

Washington, town, and the success of 
Gates at Saratoga shortly 
after Congress arrived in York, intensified 
the feeling of the liberative school of states- 
men in and out of Congress and culminated 
in serious antagonism to Washington. The 
attempts to undermine Washington owed 
their origin to the attitude of certain mem- 
bers of Congress toward him as com- 
mander-in-chief. Had it not been for the 
vigorous opposition of his political ene- 
mies, no army rival would have ventured 
to push forward. 



Early in 1777, John Adams declared that 
he was "sick of the Fabian system," adopted 
by the head of the army. After President 
Laurens had issued his proclamation for 
the national thanksgiving in honor of the 
victory at Saratoga, Adams wrote from 
York to his wife in Massachusetts: "One 
cause of it ought to be that the glory of 
turning the tide of arms is not immediately 
due to the commander-in-chief. ... If 
it had, idolatry and adulation would have 
been unbounded." James Lovell, the 
schoolmaster from Boston, then a delegate 
in Congress, asserted that "our affairs are 
Fabiused into a very disagreeable posture," 
and wrote that "depend upon it for every 
ten soldiers placed under the command of 
our Fabius, five recruits will be wanted an- 
nually during the war." William Williams, 
a member from Connecticut, agreed with 
Jonathan Trumbull that the time had come 
when "a much exalted character should 
make way for a general." He suggested if 
this was not done "voluntaril}^" those to 
whom the public looked should "see to it." 
Abraham Clark, a member from New Jer- 
sey, said, "we may talk of the enemy's 
cruelty as we will, but we have no greater 
cruelty to complain of than the manage- 
ment of our own army." Jonathan D. Sar- 
gent, noted as a jurist and later attorney- 
general of Pennsylvania, asserted: "We 
want a general— thousands of lives and mil- 
lions of property are yearly sacrificed to the 
inefficiency of our commander-in-chief. 
Two battles he has lost for us by two such 
blunders as might have disgraced a soldier 
of three months' standing, and yet we are 
so attached to this man that I fear we shall 
rather sink with him than throw him off 
our shoulders." Richard Henry Lee, of 
Virginia, agreed with Mifflin that Gates 
was needed to "procure the indispensable 
changes in our army." Other delegates to 
Congress who were inimical to \\'ashing- 
ton, either by openly expressed opinion or 
by vote, were Elbridge Gerry, Samuel 
Adams, \\'illiam Ellery, Eliphalet Dyer, 
Samuel Chase and F. L. Lee. 

There were other men conspicuous in the 
aft'airs of the government and in the army 
who displayed strong opposition to W^ash- 
ington. Thomas Mififlin, of Pennsylvania, 
who, at the request of A\'ashington, had 
been appointed quartermaster-general of 

the army, became unsparing in his criticism 
of his commander. He had served in this 
position for several months, but owing to 
some reflections made by Washington upon 
the management of his department, grew 
impetuous and resigned his position in the 
army and was outspoken in his strictures on 
the management of the campaign which 
had resulted in the defeats at Brandywine 
and Germantown. 

Dr. Benjamin Rush, of Philadelphia, who 
filled the position of surgeon and physician- 
general of the middle district, took occa- 
sion to speak of Washington in the most 
scathing terms. He often dealt in vituper- 
ation in making remarks about others. He 
quarreled with Dr. William Shippen, 
surgeon-general of the army, and even 
went so far as to ask for the removal of the 
latter. This incident brought forth from 
Washington that the criticism made by 
Rush against Shippen originated in bad 
motives. Rush retorted by picturing the 
army in a woeful condition. He claimed 
that Washington was controlled by General 
Greene, a "sycophant," General Knox, the 
commander of artillery, and Alexander 
Hamilton, one of his aides, a young man of 
twenty-one. He further predicted that the 
war would never end with him as com- 
mander-in-chief. Two months later. Rush 
came to York and resigned his commission 
in the army. Soon afterward he wrote an 
anonymous letter to Patrick Henry, then 
governor of Virginia, containing bitter sar- 
casm and scathing reflections on Washing- 
ton's character and ability as a soldier. 
The letter was forwarded to Washington, 
who recognized the handwriting of his an- 
tagonist. After reading it, Washington re- 
marked: "We have caught the sly fox at 

Early in October, soon after 

Laurens Congress assembled in York, 

a Henry Laurens, a distinguished 

Friend. member from South Carolina. 

wrote : "General Washington 
complains of the want of many essential 
articles for the army. He is the most to be 
pitied of any man I know. The essentials 
should have been supplied. If they had 
been provided some time ago, hundreds, 
perhaps thousands, of desertions would 
have been prevented and there would be no 
British army in Philadelphia." 



On October i6, Henry Laurens wrote to 
his son, then serving on the staff of General 
^Vashington : "I am writing this letter with 
difficulty in the hall of Congress. There is 
a constant buzzing and confusion about me 
amongst the delegates. Some of them are 
asking why General A\'ashington has not 
demanded supplies of which he claims there 
is a scarcit}', from the people and the 
Tories? why has he not prevented deser- 
tions and kept the British emissaries from 
entering his camp? The general opinion 
is that the difficulty arises from the want of 
discipline in the American army." 

The Supreme Executive 

The State Council and General As- 

Legislature. sembly of Pennsylvania, then 

in session at Lancaster, when 
they heard, in December, that Washington 
was about to go into winter quarters at Val- 
ley Forge, sent a remonstrance to Congress. 
Instead of being loyal to the commander- 
in-chief by furnishing the needed supplies 
for his army in the field and camp, these 
bodies clamored against the decimated 
army taking up quarters for the winter. 
They claimed that the withdrawal of the 
American army from the vicinity of Phila- 
delphia would give the enemy opportunity 
of foraging the region of eastern Pennsyl- 
vania and even endangering the safety of 
the legislature at Lancaster and Congress 
at York. This would incur a loss of repu- 
tation to the cause of independence, prevent 
the enlistment of the militia for the safety 
of the commonwealth, afi'ect the raising of 
taxes, and bring forth a multitude of other 
evils, civil and military, including submis- 
sion to the enemy. It was a wild, erratic 
and impetuous remonstrance unworthy of 
men claiming to be American patriots. 
They insisted on a winter campaign and 
further stated that the inland towns such 
as Lancaster and York were filled with 
refugees to such an extent that it was im- 
possible to accommodate soldiers quartered 
in these places. 

In reply to this opposition of the Penn- 
sylvania Legislature, Washington said: "I 
can assure these gentlemen that it is much 
easier to draw up remonstrances by their 
warm firesides than to endure the rigors of 
winter encampment without sufficient food 
and clothing on the bleak hills of Valley 

Again he said : "It is easy to bear the de- 
vices of private enemies whose ill will only 
arises from their common hatred to the 
cause we are engaged in ; but I confess, I 
cannot help feeling the most painful sensa- 
tions, whene\'er I have reason to believe I 
am the object of persecution to men, who 
are embarked in the same general interest, 
and whose friendship my heart does not 
reproach me with ever having done any- 
thing to forfeit. A\"ith many, it is a suffi- 
cient cause to hate and wish the ruin of a 
man, because he has been happy enough to 
be the object of his country's favor." 

It is related in Dunlap's History of New 
York, upon the authority of Morgan Lewis, 
an aide on the staff of General Gates, that in 
January, 1778, a day had been appointed 
by the opponents of AA'ashington in Con- 
gress for one of their members to move for 
the appointment of a committee to proceed 
to the camp at Valley Forge and report 
adversely to the intents of the commander- 
in-chief, and that the motion would have 
been adopted had not the opponents of 
AA'ashington unexpectedly lost their ma- 

At that time there were five delegates 
chosen to represent the state of New York 
in Congress. These men were James 
Duane, Philip Livingstone, Francis Lewis, 
William Duer and Gouverneur Morris. 
Only two of them were present, Duer and 
Lewis. The former was confined to his bed 
by sickness and it was thought he would be 
unable to attend the session of Congress 
when the vote for the appointment of the 
committee was to be taken. By a resolu- 
tion of the legislature of New York the 
presence of two delegates was necessary to 
entitle the state to a vote in Congress. 
Lewis was an active member of the naval 
board and a correspondent of Franklin, 
whose war polic}' coincided with that of 
AA'ashington. He kept himself thoroughly 
posted in what was being done by the op- 
ponents of the commander-in-chief. In the 
event of Duer being unable to attend this 
important session he dispatched a letter to 
Gouverneur Morris, who was then on his 
way to York, so that two delegates from 
the state would be on hand. Says Julia 
Delafield, the granddaughter and biog- 
rapher of Francis Lewis : 

"Morris was his intimate friend. He 





o i^ 



^ _ 

To 0- 


is e 



:::. H 



wrote to Morris informing him of the 
emergenc}', and begging iiim to come to 
York at once. Duer sent for his physician, 
Dr. Joseph Jones, one of the delegates from 
X'irginia, and requested him to have a cot 
ready to take him to the Court House. Dr. 
Jones replied. 'If you go you will endanger 
your life.' 'W ill 1 die before I reach the 
house?' 'Xo, but you may die in conse- 
quence of the exertion.' 'Then I will go. 
If you will not assist me, somebody else 
must; but I prefer j-our aid.' 

"The day appointed by the conspirators 
to bring forward their motion, Gates, his 
staff, and Gouverneur Morris arrived at 
York. They had all been detained on the 
Lancaster side of the river by the ice that 
obstructed the channel of the Susquehanna. 
Morgan Lewis and Morris repaired at once 
to the quarters of the New York delegates. 
There they found Francis Lewis w'ith his 
friend Duer, the latter wrapped in blankets, 
his cot and his bearers ready to convey him 
to the Hall of Congress. The arrival of 
Morris made it unnecessary for him to risk 
his life. The opponents of A\'ashington, 
finding that they were outnumbered, did 
not bring forward their motion." 


This was the condition of affairs in Con- 
gress at York, and throughout the thirteen 
original states at war with Great Britain at 
the opening of the year 177S. Washington 
had gone into winter quarters at Valley 
Forge and had there commenced the erec- 
tion of log huts for his soldiers in the camp. 
Fortunately, for the commander-in-chief 
and the future destiny of the country, there 
were strong men in and out of Congress 
who remained loyal to their chief. 

But the contending factions of 

Gates' Congress had brought forth 

Ambition, the aspirations of General 

Gates, the hero of Saratoga, to 
supplant W^ashington as the head of the 
army. Congress had invited him to York 
to l)ecome president of the Board of War. 
Prominent men believed him superior in 
military genius to Washington. So much 
applause caused his head to be turned. His 
vanity was only e.xcelled by his arrogance, 
for he had neglected to inform Washington, 
as was his duty, of the victory at Saratoga 
before sending his message to Congress. 

Washington congratulated Gates upon his 
victory, but reproved him for not comply- 
ing with the rules of the army by sending a 
direct communication to him as com- 
mander-in-chief. After the surrender, Gates 
had declined to quickl}' send a part of the 
army to the assistance of \\'ashington, near 
Philadelphia. Washington sent Alexander 
Hamilton, one of his aides, and by that 
means secured the return to the main army 
of ^Morgan's Riflemen, who had distin- 
guished themselves at the battle of Sara- 
toga. Had he been re-inforced earlier by 
these valiant soldiers, it is claimed that 
AA'ashington might have saved the forts on 
the Delaware and prevented the British 
from occupying Philadelphia during the 
winter. Gates took advantage of the situa- 
tion and entered into correspondence with 
General Thomas Conway, General j\Iifflin 
and other officers of the army, who were 
disaft'ected toward Washington. 

Thomas Conway was Washing- 
Conway's ton's traducer to Gates. He 
Intrigues, was an Irish-French soldier of 
rank, who unfortunately had 
been made a brigadier-general in the Con- 
tinental army. Having made friends of the 
New England delegates in Congress, it was 
then proposed by them to advance him to 
the rank of major-general, which Washing- 
ton had opposed on the grounds that "his 
merit and importance exist more in his 
imagination than in reality." For the 
moment this was sufficient to prevent Con- 
waj^'s promotion, and even if he had not 
before been opposed to his commander, he 
now became his bitter enemy. 

Colonel James Wilkinson, an aide on the 
staff" of Gates, had been assigned to the 
duty of carrying the news of the victory at 
Saratoga to York, and stopped on the way 
at Reading, Pennsylvania, where he re- 
mained three days. Lord Stirling, an officer 
in the American army, who had been 
wounded at Brandywine, had been taken to 
that town until his recovery. While in a 
convivial mood, after having drank too 
freely, Wilkinson revealed the secrets of the 
cabal to Major Williams, an aide on the 
staff of Lord Stirling. This information 
w-as communicated to Washington, who 
sent to Conway the following brief note: 

Sir: A letter which I received last night 
contained the following paragraph : — "In a 



letter from General Conway to General 
Gates, he says, 'Heaven has determined to 
save your country or a weak general and 
bad counsellors would have ruined it.' "' I 
am, sir, vour humble servant, 


This brought the attention of Washing- 
ton and his friends to what seemed to be a 
conspiracy to elevate Gates to the chief 
command of the army. Conway did not 
know what answer to make to this startling 
note. Meantime, General Mifflin wrote to 
Gates that an extract from one of Conway's 
letters had fallen into the hands of Wash- 
ington, and cautioned him to be more care- 
ful of his correspondence in the future. The 
plotters now became seriously alarmed. 
^\'ashington's curt letter left them in the 

Gates replied to Mifflin: "There is 
scarcely a man living who takes greater 
care of his papers than I do. I never fail to 
lock them up and keep the key in my 
pocket." He then arrived at the conclusion 
that Alexander Hamilton, who had visited 
him at Albany, had stealthily ransacked his 
effects and read his private correspondence. 
Gates wrote to Washington stating that he 
understood that some of Conway's confi- 
dential letters to himself had fallen into 
AA'ashington's hands. He then sent a copy 
of the letter to Congress in order that that 
body might assist in the discovery of the 
person who committed this alleged misde- 
meanor. The purpose of this artifice was 
to create, in Congress, an impression un- 
favorable to Washington, by making it ap- 
pear that he had encouraged his aides-de- 
camp in prying into the portfolios of other 
generals. Washington discerned the 
treacherous purpose of the letter and 
wrote to Gates : "Your letter came to my 
hands a few days ago, and to my great sur- 
prise, informed me that a copy of it had 
been sent to Congress, for what reason, I 
find myself unable to account ; but as some 
end was doubtless intended to be answered 
by it, I am laid under the disagreeable ne- 
cessity of returning my answer through the 
same channel, lest any member of that 
honorable body should harbor an unfavor- 
able suspicion of my having practiced some 
indirect means to come at the contents of 
the confidential letters between you and 
General Conwav." 

In this letter. Washington further related 
how Wilkinson had babbled over his cups 
at Reading and revealed the secret, which 
had spread consternation among the 
friends of the commander-in-chief. He had 
communicated this discovery to Conway to 
let that officer know that his intriguing dis- 
position was observed and watched. He 
had mentioned this to no one else but 
Lafayette. Washington did not know that 
Conway was in correspondence with Gates, 
and had even supposed that Wilkinson's 
information was given with the sanction of 
Gates and with friendly intent to forearm 
him against a secret enemy. "But in this," 
lie wrote, in concluding this remarkable let- 
ter, "as in other matters of late, I have 
found myself mistaken." 

Had it not been for the treach- 
Wilkinson erous letter of Gates, Wash- 
Blamed, ington never would have sus- 
pected him. Amid this dis- 
comfiture. Gates had a single ray of hope. 
It appeared that Washington thus far had 
no definite information except the sentence 
dropped in AA'ilkinson's conversation. 
Gates now attempted to make Wilkinson 
the scapegoat for all. and wrote again to 
Washington. den3'ing his intimacy with 
Conway, and declared that he had received 
Ijut one letter from him. He protested that 
this letter contained no such paragraph as 
that of which Washington had been in- 
formed. The information that Wilkinson 
had revealed, he declared to be a ^•illainous 
slander. In a previous letter to Washing- 
ton, Gates had admitted the existence of 
several letters which he had received from 
Conway. A stinging reply from Washing,- 
ton put Gates in a very uncomfortable 
position, from which there was no retreat. 
AA'hen Colonel AA'ilkinson heard of this 
matter, his youthful blood boiled with rage. 
Having been selected as president 
Gates of the Board of AA'ar, General 
at Gates resigned from his command 
York, of the northern army, then at Al- 
bany, and came to York, arriving 
liere January 19. By many of the delegates 
in Congress he was received with great en- 
thusiasm. The victory which he had won 
at Saratoga had gained for him temporarily 
a brilliant reputation as a soldier. He had 
won the first decisive battle of the Revo- 
lution. The surrender of Burgoyne, which 



followed, was largely instrumental in se- 
curing the alliance with France. The abil- 
ity of Washington had not yet been dis- 
covered by some of the leading" statesmen 
of the country. Men who never had seen 
Gates were shouting his praise and he re- 
ceived a cordial welcome when he reached 
the inland town of York, then the capital of 
the infant republic of the United States. 
His wife and son had preceded him some 
time before and had been given the best 
accommodations that could be afiforded 
them. Gates was called upon, fawned and 
flattered by his supporters in Congress and 
by the army officers who were then 
present in York. 

Soon after his arrival, lie as- 
Head of sumed his duties as president 
the Board of the Board of \\'ar. Associ- 
of War. ated with him on this board 
were four men, all supposed to 
be inimical to W'ashington as the head of 
the army. These men were Colonel Tim- 
othy Pickering, of Virginia; Richard Pe- 
ters, of Pennsylvania; General Thomas 
Mifflin, and Colonel Joseph Trumbull, of 
Connecticut. Encouraged by the flattery 
he had received, and buoyant with the hope 
that his name would soon be glittering as 
the commander-in-chief of the American 
army. Gates began the duties to which 
Congress had assigned him. The Board of 
War w'as then the directing power of the 
army, and he aimed to use this influential 
position which he now held to elevate him- 
self to the highest military position in this 

When General Gates arrived at York he 
took up his quarters at a public inn, where 
he remained two or three weeks. On Feb- 
ruary II, a bill amounting to $1,333 '^^'^^ 
ordered to be paid by Congress as expenses 
for himself, his family and his aides from 
the time of his arrival. Among the aides 
who accompanied him were Colonel Mor- 
gan Lewis, son of Francis Lewis, then a 
member of Congress from Xew York ; Cap- 
tain John Armstrong, son of General John 
Armstrong, of Carlisle, Pennsylvania; and 
Colonel Robert Troup, who had brought 
the news of the first battle of Saratoga to 
Congress during the previous October. 
Later Gates rented a house on the north 
side of West ^Larket Street near Water, 
which he occupied until he returned to the 

northern army at Fishkill, Xew York, in 

General Lafayette, the youthful 
Lafayette patriot of France, came to York 
at York. from Washington's headquar- 
ters at Valley Forge, on Janu- 
ary 30, 177S, eleven days after the arrival 
of Gates. Colonel Pickering arrived the 
same day. During the interim, the subject 
of supplanting Washington by Gates for 
the head of the army was an important 
topic for discussion, among members of 
Congress in private council and other ad- 
herents of Gates, then in York. Lafayette 
had arrived in America from France, June 
14, 1777, landing at Georgetown, South 
Carolina. He had proceeded to Philadel- 
phia, part of the way in a carriage, which 
broke down, and the remainder of the 
distance on horseback. It required him 
more than a month to reach Philadelphia. 
He had come to this country for the pur- 
pose of joining the American forces, and 
aid them in fighting for independence. He 
had inherited a dislike for the British gov- 
ernment, for his father had been killed in 
battle on English soil, before Lafayette was 
born. When he came to this country, he 
was only nineteen years of age, and at first 
received a cold reception from Congress. 
After he had declared his wish to serve as 
a volunteer and at his own expense. Con- 
gress appointed him a brigadier-general, 
July 31, 1777. The next day he was intro- 
duced to Washington, and the lifelong 
friendship between the two men was at 
once begun. Wasliington received him 
with great cordiality and for a time he 
served as an aide on the stafT of the com- 

At the battle of Brandywine Lafayette 
received his first baptism of fire and was 
wounded while gallantly leading a recon- 
noitering party to find out the position of 
a division of the enemy. His wound was 
first dressed by Dr. \\'illiam ]Magaw, of 
Cumberland County, a surgeon in Wayne's 
brigade. He was conveyed in the private 
carriage of Henry Laurens, to Bethlehem, 
Pennsylvania, where he remained two 
months until he had recovered from his 
wound. On November 25, in a recon- 
naissance of General Greene against Corn- 
wallis's position at Gloucester Point. Lafay- 
ette, with 300 men, defeated a superior 



force of Hessians. In recognition of this 
service, he was appointed, December 4, to 
command a division of Washington's army 
lately under General Stephen, who had been 
removed for alleged misconduct at the bat- 
tle of Germantown. Lafayette spent part 
of the winter at Valley Forge. 

Soon after Gates became 
Canadian president of the Board of War, 
Expedition that body conceived a plan for 
Planned. the invasion of Canada. They 
invited Lafayette to York for 
the purpose of receiving instructions to 
take charge of the Canadian expedition, 
with General Thomas Conway second in 
command. Washington had disapproved 
of this expedition, but Congress and the 
Board of War claimed that with the aid of 
Stark and his Green Mountain boys, and a 
small force of regulars stationed at Albany, 
they could make up an invading army of 
3,000 men. On January 24, while still at 
Valley Forge, Lafayette received a letter 
from Gates, containing information of his 
appointment as commander of the Cana- 
dian expedition. He refused to accept the 
appointment until he had consulted W'ash- 
ington, and made it a condition that Baron 
de Kalb, who ranked Conway, should ac- 
company the expedition. He then came to 
York for instructions, where he was re- 
ceived with great enthusiasm by Gates and 
his friends. They laid plans to win his in- 
fluence and support. 

A banquet had been prepared in 

An honor of the French patriot. 

Historic Lafayette was flattered and 

Banquet, toasted and a brilliant campaign 

was predicted. Gates assured 
him that a large army would be at Albany, 
New York, ready to march. Lafayette 
listened with placid composure and equa- 
nimity of mind. The fawning flattery 
which he had received from the intriguers 
against W^ashington did not turn his head. 
Although of an impulsive nature, like most 
Frenchmen, vanity was not one of his 
characteristics. He had already avowed his 
loyalty to the commander-in-chief, for 
whom he showed the most profound vener- 
ation. The ties of affection which linked 
Washington and Lafayette together in after 
years had already been formed. He de- 
termined not to oppose the views of his 
commander, whom he had just left at Val- 

ley Forge, but in obedience to duty, he had 
come to York to discuss the plan of invad- 
ing Canada. The rank to be accorded him 
by Congress and the Board of War was a 
promotion, and if this expedition would fur- 
ther the cause of independence, he had 
decided to take conmiand of the army. 

Lafayette now found himself in company 
opposed to the interests of his friend. The 
air of the banquet was distasteful to him. 
After a number of toasts had been offered. 
General Gates, as president of the Board of 
War, handed to Lafayette the commission 
which Congress had voted him on January 
23. Deeply impressed with the scenes and 
incidents that had transpired, the youthful 
Lafayette accepted his commission of 
major-general, then with calm dignity he 
rose from his chair, while breathless 
silence pervaded the room. All eyes were 
riveted upon him and the suspense that 
awaited his action produced a profound im- 
pression upon every one present. All that 
is definitely known of this incident is what 
Lafayette recorded in his own "Memoirs," 
published in the French language, some 
years later. He says : 

"I arose from my chair and 
Toast to referred to the numerous 
Washington, toasts that had already been 
offered in the interests of 
the American government and the prosecu- 
tion of the war. Then I reminded all 
present that there was one toast that had 
not yet been drunk. I then proposed the 
health of the commander-in-chief at Valley 
Forge. After I had done this, I looked 
around the table and saw the faces of the 
bancjueters redden with shame. 

"The deep silence then grew deeper. 
X^one dared refuse the toast, but some 
merely raised their glasses to their lips, 
while others cautiously put them down un- 

It was evident to all the opponents 
Plans of Washington that their plans 
Foiled, had been foiled, for the young 
soldier had displayed the loyalty 
to his chief that afterward marked him as 
one of the most eminent patriots of the 
Revolution. W'ith a shrug of the shoulders, 
he stepped away from the table and left the 
room. He retired to his quarters that 
night, feeling that he had won a victory 
and saved- the armv from the loss of Wash- 



ington, whose ability finally succeeded in 
winning triumph to the American arms in 
the War for Independence. 

Having accepted the commission and re- 
ceived his instructions. Lafayette soon 
afterward proceeded to Albany to assume 
his duties as commander of the northern 
army. When he reached there, he found 
neither troops, supplies nor equipments in 
readiness. Instead of 3,000 regulars, which 
Gates had promised, he found barely 1,200, 
and these were not equipped or clothed for 
a march into Canada. The plan of invasion 
ended in a complete fiasco. The scheme 
itself was condemned by public opinion. 
The opposition which Washington had 
shown to it increased his power and in- 
fluence in Congress. Lafayette and de 
Kalb were glad to return to their chief at 
\'alley Forge. 

The antagonism to Washing- 
The Cabal ton among many delegates to 
Collapsed. Congress now declined. Gates 
continued his work as president 
of the Board of War, but his influence was 
on the wane. He remained in York for a 
considerable time. On April 15, he was ap- 
pointed by Congress to proceed to Fishkill, 
New York, and take charge of the army at 
that point. Very little is definitely known 
of his career in this position. During the 
summer of 1778, he retired from the army 
and repaired to his estate in Berkeley 
County, Virginia. There were still mem- 
bers in Congress who recognized his mili- 
tar\' achie\-ements at Saratoga and believed 
that he possessed ability to command an 
army. On June 13, 1780, he was recalled 
from his retirement by Congress and placed 
in command of the army in North Carolina, 
designed to check the progress of Corn- 
wallis northward through that state. In 
the battle near Camden, South Carolina, 
August 16. he was defeated and his army 
nearly annihilated. He was soon afterward 
succeeded by General Nathaniel Greene, 
and suspended from duty. Thus ended his 
military career in the Revolution. 

At the close of the war. he retired to his 
estate in Virginia, where he lived until 
1790, when he removed to New York City, 
where, after a long illness, he died, April 
10, 1806, at the age of 78 years. General 
Gates was a man of pleasant address and 

cultivated manners. He possessed an in- 
teresting personality and a good education. 
Though having many faults, the chief of 
which was an overwhelming confidence in 
his own ability, combined with arrogance 
and untruthfulness, he had also some noble 
traits. Before he removed to New York he 
emancipated his slaves and provided for the 
support of those who could not take care 
of themselves. 

Mrs. Gates, wdio spent several 
Mrs. Gates months at York, was a 
at York. woman of rare accomplish- 
ments. \\'hile here she shared 
an enviable hospitality, entertaining the 
friends of her husband, who had achieved 
distinction by his victory at Saratoga. She 
was the daughter of James Valence, of 
Liverpool, England. At her father's death, 
before the Revolution, she came to this 
country, bringing with her $450,000, a 
wealth which exceeded that of any other 
woman in America. Their son and only 
ciiild, Robert, died shortly before the bat- 
tle of Camden. During the Revolution, 
jMrs. Gates spent a large portion of her 
fortune in a lavish hospitality upon her 
Iiusband's companions in arms, especially 
those in indigent circumstances. ]\Iany 
Revolutionary heroes were participants of 
her bounty, including Thaddeus Kosci- 
uszko. the Polish nobleman, who, when 
wounded, laj^ six months at her home, 
nursed by herself and her husband. 


At the opening of the war, Gates was an 
ardent patriot, and was present at York on 
his way to the army, July i, 1775, when the 
first troops Were about to march from here 
to join ^^'ash^ngton at Boston. In the 
spring of 1778, General Gates was forty- 
eight years of age. Wilkinson was twenty. 
This trained soldier and his youthful aide 
had been intimate friends from the open- 
ing of the war until the Conway Cabal was 
discovered by the friends of Washington. 
In the fall of 1777, when Congress ap- 
pointed Gates president of the Board of 
A\'ar, he requested that Colonel Wilkinson 
should be its secretary. 

Wilkinson remained with the Northern 
army on the Hudson for a time after Gates 
had come to York. The fact that Wilkin- 



son, while in a convivial mood, had revealed 
the Cabal to an army friend at Reading, 
while on his way to York, in October, with 
the official papers describing the surrender 
of Burgoyne, caused an estrangement be- 
tween himself and his superior officer. 
\\'hen Gates discovered that his secret cor- 
respondence with Conway had reached 
^Vashington, he tried to shift the responsi- 
bility upon Wilkinson. 

Early in February, 1778, Wilkin- 
Trouble son. who had been raised to the 
Brewing, rank of brigadier-general, re- 
ceived a letter from President 
Laurens to come at once to York and as- 
sume the duties of secretary to the Board 
of War. He left the military post at Al- 
bany, traveled in a sleigh to Reading, and 
from thence to Lancaster on horseback. 
Upon his arrival at Reading, for the first 
time, he heard that Gates had denounced 
him as the betrayer of Conway's letter. 
This news was confirmed when he reached 
Lancaster, where he remained one day. 
Meantime he sent a messenger with a let- 
ter to Gates, in York, charging the latter 
with impugning his honor. In this letter, 
he said, "What motive, sir, could induce me 
to injure you or General Conway? You, 
my boasted patron, friend and benefactor, 
he a stranger for whom I entertained favor- 
able sentiments." 

The response made by Gates to this let- 
ter was offensive in language and widened 
the breach between the two men. In sub- 
stance it said Wilkinson could have any 
satisfaction he desired. 

"Immediately after receiving 
The this letter," says AVilkinson, in 

Challenge, his Memoirs, "I repaired to 
York, arriving in that town by 
twilight on the evening of February 23, to 
avoid observation. During the night I met 
my early companion and friend, Captain 
Stoddert. I recounted my wrongs to him 
and requested him to bear a message from 
me to General Gates. He remonstrated 
against my intention to challenge Gates to 
fight a duel, and warned me that I was 
going headlong to destruction. For the 
first time we parted in displeasure. Soon 
afterward I met with Lieutenant-Colonel 
Ball, of the Virginia Line, whose spirit was 
as independent as his fortune. He deliv- 
ered to Gates the following note : 


"I have discharged my duty to you and ni\' conscience. 
Meet me tomorrow morning behind the Episcopal 
Church and I will then stipulate the satisfaction which 
you have promised to grant, 

"I am your most humble servant, 


This was an open challenge to fight a 
duel with his old commander. He had de- 
termined to defend his integrity and his 
honor. Gates had charged him with false 
representations at Reading to Major Wil- 
liams, an aide to Lord Stirling. These 
charges he could not endure and he now 
discovered that he was to be made the 
scapegoat of the Conway conspirators. So 
Colonel Ball, in obedience to his request, 
carried the challenge to the residence of 
General Gates, on the north side of Market 
Street, near Water. He was met at the 
doorway by the general, who read the chal- 
lenge with evident surprise. This w^as the 
age of duelling; if a man would not accept 
a challenge he was considered a coward. 
With calm dignity, he responded : 

"All right, sir. We will meet tomorrow 
morning at 8 o'clock." 

"He made no reference to the 

The kind of weapons to be used nor 
Meeting the distance. The place desig- 
Place. nated as the duelling ground was 
on the lawn to the rear of the 
Episcopal Church, near the Codorus Creek. 
At 8 o'clock on the following morning, 
Colonel Wilkinson walked dow-n Beaver 
Street, accompanied by his second, Colonel 
Ball. They saw General Gates standing on 
the street in front of the Episcopal Church, 
in company with Captain Stoddert. Gates 
was unarmed, for during the night he had 
decided to meet his former friend on terms 
of peace. Wilkinson halted a distance away 
and Stoddert approached him, saying; 

"General Gates wishes to speak to you." 

"I will meet him on the duelling ground 
in answer to the challenge which he ac- 
cepted," said W'ilkinson. 

Then Captain Stoddert pleaded with the 
young soldier and begged him to walk 
down to the church and greet his former 
chief, who did not wish to fight a duel with 
a person for whom he entertained the high- 
est regard and affection. 

"There is no occasion to fight a duel. 
Go with me and meet the general standing 
yonder in front of the church." 



A minute later the young colonel, who 
had brought the news of the victory at 
Saratoga to Congress, was greeted with a 
warm clasp of the hand from the former 
commander of the Xorthern army, wiio had 
received the sword of Sir John Burgoyne 
and accepted the terms of surrender of 
(i,000 British and Hessian soldiers at Sara- 
toga, a few months before. It was a strik- 
ing scene, and doubtless, was witnessed by 
very few persons, for little mention is made 
of this incident in the pri\ate correspond- 
ence of the members of Congress then in 
York, or in the family traditions of the citi- 

" Come, my dear boy," said General 
Gates, with tender emotion, " we must be 
friends again. There is no cause for ill will 
between us. Conway has acknowledged 
that he wrote a letter criticizing Washing- 
ton and has since made harsh statements 
about him." 

.\fter this friendly greeting, 
Wilkinson General Gates and Colonel 
Retires. Wilkinson left Colonel Ball 
and Captain Stoddert behind 
and walked away together. They engaged 
in a long conversation about the episode at 
Reading and their relation to General Stir- 
ling and Thomas Conway. Before they 
separated, it was agreed that Wilkinson 
would assume his duties the next day, as 
secretary of the Board of War. In his 
private correspondence he recorded that 
when he went to the war office he found 
General Gates barely civil and that he 
found Richard Peters and Timothy Picker- 
ing, other members of the board, agreeable 
companions. The coolness of the president 
of the board made his position uncomfort- 
able, and a few days later he resigned his 
position and went to Valley Forge, where 
he personally met Lord Stirling and Gen- 
eral Washington and recounted to them 
his difficulties with General Gates. 

The estrangement between General 
Gates and Colonel Wilkinson, which began 
at York, in February, 177S, continued for 
several months. Different statements had 
been made concerning the conduct of 
Gates when he failed to meet the challenge 
made by his opponent at York. After re- 
maining a short time at Valley Forge, 
^\'ilkinson returned to the Xorthern armv 

on the Hudson. He now held the rank of 
l)rigadier-general in the army, but as yet 
had been assigned to no important duty. 
.\fter Gates returned to the Xorthern army, 
near Kingston, on the Hudson, the two men 
again met. 

The controversy about the Conway 
The Cabal had not been settled. Wilk- 
Duel. inson decided to meet his opponent 

again on the field of honor and chal- 
lenged Gates to a duel, which took place 
near St. Clair's headquarters on the Hud- 
son, September 4, 1778. Captain John Car- 
ter, of Virginia, acted as second to Wilkin- 
son, and Thaddeus Kosciuszko, the Polish 
nobleman who was serving as a colonel in 
the American army, w'as second to Gates. 
In the duel flint-lock pistols were used. At 
the first shot, Wilkinson fired in the air, 
while Gates' pistol flashed the powder in 
the pan and did not discharge the ball. 
The}- charged their pistols a second time 
and when the order was given, Wilkinson 
hred, but Gates refused. When the word 
was given the third time. General Wilkin- 
son fired but missed his aim and the flint- 
lock which Gates held again flashed in the 
pan. The seconds now interposed and the 
antagonists shook hands. .After the duel 
General Gates signed a certificate to the 
effect that Wilkinson behaved like a gentle- 
man in the encounter at York. Upon re- 
cjuest, Wilkinson refused to sign and deliver 
up a similar certificate concerning the con- 
duct of Gates at York. Wilkinson then 
challenged Gates to another duel, but Gates 
refused, and the two men never became 
firm friends. 

Captain Ball, who was selected as second 
to Wilkinson for the proposed duel at 
\'ork, commanded a Virginia company, 
then encamped at York. Captain Benjamin 
Stoddert, second to General Gates, com- 
manded a company of Colonel Hartley's 
Regiment, then acting as a guard to Con- 

General Thomas Conway, the 
Thomas reputed leader of the conspiracy 
Conway, against Washington, was a na- 
tive of Ireland, born in the year 
1733. He had served for a time in the 
French army and came to this country at 
the request of Silas Deane, the American 
commissioner at Paris. In May. 1777, he 



was made a brigadier-general and in the fall 
of the same year, took part in the battles of 
Brandywine and Germantown. Embittered 
by Washington's opposition to his promo- 
tion to the rank of major-general, he began 
to write anonymous letters to prominent 
men, criticizing the ability of Washington 
as commander-in-chief. Conway came to 
York late in January, 177S. About the 
same time, Lafayette arrived here to meet 
the Board of War, and receive instructions 
regarding the projected Canada campaign. 
Conway was present at the famous banquet 
given by Gates in honor of Lafayette. 
After the plan to invade Canada had ended 
in a fiasco, Conway lost favor with Con- 
gress, and in a fit of passion he resigned his 
commission, and left the army. Because of 
his repeated attacks on Washington, he 
was challenged by General Cadwallader to 
fight a duel. The antagonists met July 22, 
1778, near Philadelphia, and Conway was 
shot in the mouth, the ball passing through 
his neck. A few days later he wrote a letter 
of apology to Washington, disclaiming that 
he ever conceived a plan for the latter's re- 
moval as commander-in-chief of the army. 
He then returned to Paris and entered the 
French army. During the French Revolu- 
tion he was obliged to flee the country. 
Nothing further is known of him. He is 
supposed to have died about 1800 in ob- 
scurity in the city of London. 


Continental Congress was first brought 
together in September, 1774, at Carpenter's 
Hall, Philadelphia. From the time of its 
organization until the Constitution of the 
United States went into efi^ect. in 1789, it 
was composed of one body, which elected 
its presiding officer. John Hancock was 
president of Congress from May, 1775, 
until October 31, 1777, when lie resigned. 
He was succeeded by Henry Laurens, of 
South Carolina, who presided o\er Con- 
gress eight of the nine months it sat in 
York. The delegates were chosen annually 
by the state legislatures. 

Few of the American patriots who 
organized this legislative body in 1774, be- 
lieved that its deliberations would result in 
creating a new nation on the western conti- 
nent. It first met to adjust the grievances 

against the mother country and issued a 
Declaration of Rights in 1774. This Con- 
gress petitioned the King and Parliament, 
in 1775, and finally passed the Declaration 
of Independence, in 177(). 

When Congress convened at York, Sep- 
temljer 30, 1777, in the minds of some of its 
members and many people of the United 
States, there was little hope that the army 
under Washington would eventually de- 
feat the British forces in America. At that 
time, everything was dark and foreboding 
and the success of the War for Indepen- 
dence seemed doubtful. Tlie patriots who 
came here, however, continued to legislate 
for the army and the establishment of the 
freedom of the United States. While Con- 
gress held its sessions in York, it passed the 
Articles of Confederation, which, when 
adopted, made the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence a reality. It received the news of 
the surrender of Burgoyne's army at Sara- 
toga; made Baron Steuben a major-general 
and sent him to the headquarters of the 
army to drill the American soldiers in the 
military tactics used by Frederick the Great 
of Prussia. It received the news from the 
American commissioners at Paris that the 
French nation had entered into a treaty of 
Alliance with the United States, and would 
send money, a fleet and an army to aid in 
tlie struggle for American independence. 

It was during the month of June, 1778, 
that Congress at York, and Washington at 
Valley Forge planned the campaign result- 
ing in the victory over the enemy at Mon- 
mouth, which transferred the seat of the 
war to the south. 

Continental Congress sat for a brief 
period at Princeton, one day at Lancaster, 
about two months at Baltimore, and a short 
time at Annapolis, but transacted no busi- 
ness at these places of importance to the 
nation. While in session at York, some of 
the greatest event in the whole history of 
the Revolution occurred. This historic im- 
portance of York as the temporary seat of 
the national government has never been 
fully set forth by historians. In the preced- 
ing pages an eft'ort has been made to give 
in detail the transactions of Congress and 
the current events during the darkest period 
of the Revolution, which ended in the dawn 
of independence. When Congress assem- 

A copy from a drawing formerly in the Emmett collection in New York 
and now in the possession of the Historical Society of York County. It is 
supposed to be the only authentic portrait of James Smith in existence. 



bled at York, it was composed of no more 
than thirty members. At stated limes, 
newly-elected delegates arrived, taking the 
places of those who had returned to their 
homes. There were never more than forty 
members present at one time. In all there 
were sixty-four delegates from the thirteen 
original states who occuijied seats in Con- 
gress from the time it came to York until it 
returned to Philadelphia. Twenty-six of 
these had. the pre\ious year, signed the 
Declaration of Independence. 

The following is the list of delegates at 
York : 

New Hampshire — Nathaniel Folsom, 
George Frost, John W'entworth, Dr. Josiah 

Massachusetts — Samuel .\dams. El- 
bridge Gerr}-, James Lovell, John Adams, 
Francis Dana, John Hancock, Dr. Samuel 

Connecticut — William Williams, Elipha- 
let Dyer, Richard Law, Titus Hosmer. 
Roger Sherman, Samuel Huntingdon, Dr. 
Oliver Wolcott. 

Rhode Island — Henry Marchant, Wil- 
liam Ellery, John Collins. 

New York — James Duane, William Duer, 
Francis Lewis, Gou\erneur Morris, Philip 

New Jersey — John Witherspoon, Dr. 
Jonathan Elmer, Abraham Clark, Dr. Na- 
thaniel Scudder. 

Pennsylvania — Robert Morris, Daniel 
Roberdeau, James Smith, Jonathan Bayard 
Smith, William Clingan, Joseph Reed. 

Delaware — Thomas McKean. 

Maryland — Charles Carroll, Samuel 
Chase, Benjamin Rumsey, George Plater. 
William Smith, James Forbes, John Henrv. 


Virginia — Francis Lightfoot Lee, Rich- 
ard Henry Lee, John Harvie, Benjamin 
Harrison, Dr. Joseph Junes, Thomas Ad- 
ams, John Bannister. 

North Carolina — John Penn, Cornelius 
Harnett, Dr. Thomas Burke. 

South Carolina — Henry Laurens, Thomas 
Heyward, Jr., Arthur Middleton, John 
Matthews, Richard Hutson, William Henrv 

Georgia — Edward Langvvorthy, George 
Walton, Dr. Nathan Brownson, Joseph 

JAMES SMITH, signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, was born in the north 
of Ireland. His father, John Smith, was a 
well-to-do farmer, but, induced by his 
brothers, who had previously emigrated to 
this country and settled in Chester County, 
he came to Pennsylvania in 1720, and soon 
afterward settled on the west side of the 
Susquehanna in what is now York County. 
John Smith died in the neighborhood of 
York in 1761. His eldest son, George, 
studied law at Lancaster, but shortly after 
his admission to the bar (1740) was 
drowned in the Susquehanna while bath- 
ing. The third son, Arthur, was a farmer, 
and removed to western Pennsylvania prior 
to the Revolution. James, the second son, 
received a liberal education, having been 
placed under the charge of the Rev. Dr. 
Alison, provost of the College of Philadel- 
phia. After completing his studies in 
Philadelphia, he began to read law at Lan- 
caster, where he was admitted to the bar 
in 1745. He subsequently went to the 
Cumberland Valley, where he practiced 
both law and surveying, remaining four or 
five years, and then settled at York. When 
the Revolution began, Smith became one 
of the first advocates of independence. He 
was chosen a member of the Provincial 
Deputies, July 15, 1774, and was the author 
of the " draught of instructions " to the Pro- 
vincial Assembly. He was a member of 
the Provincial Convention of January 23, 
1775; of the Provincial Conference of June 
18, 1776: and of the Convention of the loth 
of July following. In 1775 he was commis- 
sioned colonel of the First Battalion of As- 
sociators of York County, and throughout 
the Revolutionary struggle was largely in- 
strumental in organizing troops for the 
patriot army. In 1776 he was elected a 
delegate to the Continental Congress, and 
his name is affixed to the Declaration of 
Independence. He was re-elected the fol- 
lowing year and took his seat while Con- 
gress was in session in York. He was 
elected a member of the Assembly in 1779, 
and November 20, 1780, commissioned 
judge of the High Court of .Appeals. 

The Supreme Executive Council ap- 
pointed Colonel Smith a brigadier-general 
of the Pennsylvania militia, Alay 23, 1782, 
vice General Potter promoted. He was ap- 



pointed one of the counsellors on the part 
of Pennsylvania in the controversy be- 
tween that State and Connecticut, Febru- 
ary 10, 1784. In the following year the As- 
sembly elected him to Congress, in the 
place of Matthew Clarkson, resigned, but 
his advanced age obliged him to decline a 
re-election. Smith relinquished the practice 
of law in 1801, and from that period until 
his death lived in quiet retirement. He 
died at York on the 11th day of July, 1806. 
With an uncommonly retentive memory, 
with a vein of good humor and a fund of 
anecdotes, his excellent conversational 
powers drew around him many who en- 
joyed his sharp wit and lively manners, and 
made his old age bright and cheerful. 
James Smith married, in 1752, Eleanor, 
daughter of John Armor, of New Castle, 
Delaware. She and two children survived 
him several years. 

During the revolution, James Smith 
owned and occupied a dwelling house on 
the west side of South George Street near 
King. When Congress was in session at 
York, his home was a place of meeting of 
the distinguished statesmen who were then 
serving as delegates and on important com- 
mittees. His law office, a two-story build- 
ing which stood on the corner of South 
George Street and Mason Alley, a short 
distance north of his residence, was used as 

a meeting place of the Board of War, when 
it was presided over by John Adams, of 
Massachusetts. In 1805, his law office con- 
taining his library, many valuable docu- 
ments and letters which he received from 
distinguished men, was destroyed by fire. 

James and Eleanor Smith had five chil- 
dren : Margaret, the eldest, was born Sep- 
tember 14, 1753, married James Johnson, 
whose grandson. Dr. William Johnson, for 
many years was a practicing physician at 
York. Mrs. Johnson died at York, January 
18, 1838. Mary, the second daughter, mar- 
ried James Kelly, a memljer of the York 
County Bar, and died at York, September 4, 
1793. George, one of the sons, was born 
April 24, 1769, died unmarried at the age 
of 32, when his estate was inherited by his 
l)rother. Arthur died before he grew to 
manhood. James, the other son, owned 
considerable property and died without 
descendants, leaving his property to his 
cousins. The remains of James Smith, to- 
gether with his wife, who died July 13, 1818, 
and some of his children, were buried in the 
Presbyterian churchyard, on East Market 
Street, York. 

The public documents which lie prepared 
and the speeches he delivered during and 
after the Revolution show that he was a 
man of strong intellect, literary training, 
and an able lawyer. 


IF limn IIP III' 

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014 314 653 4 ^