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Full text of "Contributions to the natural history of Alaska. Results of investigations ... in the Yukon district and the Aleutian islands; conducted under the auspices of the Signal service, United States Army, extending from May, 1874, to August, 1881 .."

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49th Congeess, ) SENATE. < Mis. Doc. 

1st Session. I \ No. 155. 



CONTRIBUTIONS ^fiT^ 



TO THK 



NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 



RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS MADE CHIEFLY IN THE YUKON 

DISTRICT AND THE ALEUTIAN ISLANDS; CONDUCTED 

UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE SIGNAL SERVICE, 

UNITED STATES ARMY, EXTENDING FROM 

MAY, 1874, TO AUGUST, 1881. 



PRBPARKD UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

BRIO. AND BVT. MAJ. GEN. W. B. HAZEN, 

CHIEF SIGNAL OFFICER OF THE ARMY. 
. , . BY 

1^. M. TTIRlSrER. 






No. II. 

ARCTIC SERIES OF PUBLICATIONS ISSUED IN CONNECTION WITH THE SIGNAL SERVICE, U. S. ARMY. 

WITH 26 PLATES. 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PBINTINO OPPIOE. 

1886. 



CRH 



.A4 



te 
















\ 






ARCTIC SERIES OF PUBLICATIONS 



ISSUED IN CONNECTION WITH 



THE SIGNAL SERVICE, U. S. ARMY. 



Vh"^ 



No. I. — Beport of the Expedition to Point Barrow, Alaska. By Lieut. P. H. Kay. 1885. 

No. IL— Contributions to the Natural History of Alaska. By L. M. Turner. 1886. 

No. IlL— •Report upon Natural History Collections made in Alaska in 1877-1881. By B. W. 

Nelson. 1886. 

No. IV.— •Report of the Expedition to Lady Franklin Bay, By Lteut. A. W. Greely. 1887. 

No. V. — •Report of Observations made in Ungava and Labrador. By L. M. Turner. 1887. 



V. 



J 



' ^ 



■v- 



\ 



*lu courtM) uf prttparatiuii. 



LETTER OP TRANSMITTAL. 



i^ATiONAL Museum, April 25, 1882, 

SiE: Herewith 1 have the honor to transmit to you for publication the following notes made 
by me in the Territory of Alaska during the years 1874 to 1881, under the direction of the Chief 
Signal OflBcer, U. S. Army, and in connection with the National Museum, under the direction of 
Prof. S. F. Baird, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

A brief recital of the various localities visited by me is necessary. 

Under special orders I was directed by the Chief Signal Officer to proceed to Saint Michael's, 
Alaska, and there establish a meteorological station. I arrived at Saint IMichael's May 25, 1874, and 
began taking meteorological observations June 26, 1874. During my leisure time I was employed 
in obtaining such objects pertaining to the natural history of that region as could be done. The 
collection embraced specimens of plants, insects, fishes, birds, mammals, and a great quantity of 
ethnological matter, together with extensive vocabularies of the Untllet, Mal^mut, Nulato Iug4- 
l@t, and Aleut languages* Each of these subjects received the fullest attention that the means 
and time at my disposition would allow; special attention being given to obtaining a full series of 
the birds of .that region and to collecting all ethnological material possible. Several species of 
fishes and birds had not hitherto been detected within North American limits. 

This work was prosecuted until I signified my desire to return to civilization and was relieved, 
at my own request, by Private E. W. Nelson, Signal Corps, U. S. Army, who assumed charge of 
the meteorological duties and other work, under special orders from the Chief Signal Officer. 

To Private Nelson was turned over all Government property under my charge, July 14, 1877. 

I returned to Washington City, and at my own request was discharged from the Signal Corps, 
U. S. Army. 

On the 6th of March, 1878, I again was connected with the Signal Corps, and, under special 
orders from the Chief Signal Officer, was directed to proceed to Unalashka Island, Alaska, and 
after establishing a meteorological station at that place, to also establish stations at Attn, Atkha, 
Belkovsky, Port Alexander (Bristol Bay), and Saint Paul Island, of the Pribylof Group. 

I arrived at Unalashka May 8, 1878, and proceeded to Fort Alexander to establish the station 
at that place. I secured the cooperation of Mr. J. W. Clark, to whom was intrusted a full set of 
meteorological instruments, excepting barometers, of which I had none even for myself, and sta- 
tionery. On my return to Unalashka in the early part of July, 1878, 1 soon departed for Belkov- 
sky, for the purpose of establishing a meteorological station at that place, but not finding a person 
there whom I considered of sufficient intelligence and reliability to perform the work, I was com- 
pelled to abandon that station. At Unalashka there was no one to take observations during my 
absence, and lateness of the season prevented me from going to the western part of the Aleutian 
Islands to establish stations at Atkha and Attn. At Saint Paul Island I secured the services of 
Mr. H. W, Mclntyre, who promised to take observations at that place. 

In May, 1879, 1 visited the island of Atkha, but not finding a white man permanently at that 

place, I was necessitated to remain there until September, 1879, when I returned to Unalashka; 

where I remained until June 3, 1880; and upon an opportunity oflFering I proceeded to Attn to 

take personal charge of a station at that place. I remainetl at Attn until June, 1881, and returned 

to Unalashka to be relieved of further duty by Sergeant S. Applegate, Signal Corps, U. S. Army, 

5 



6 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

and by the Bauie order was iustructed to proceed to Wafihiiigton City and report to the Chief 
Sigual Officer iu person. 1 departed from Unalashka July 22, 1881, and arrived in Washington 
City , September 15, 1881, where I received instructions to prepare this report from the notw made 
by me while in Alaska. 

Of the difficulties under which I have labored to carry out my instructions, and to procure the 
number of objects of the natural history of the places visited by me, it is not necessary to relate 
in this connection. 

The report is intended to give only such notes as were made by myself in the field, and only 
in such instances as are necessary to substantiate my own observations have I made any citations 
from other works on the subjects under consideration. 

The arrangement of subjects is presented nnder {he heads of— 

Letter to the Chief Signal Officer. 

Physical and descriptive geography. 

Meteorology. 

Botany. 

Fishes. 

Birds, with list of other birds known to occur in Alaska. 

Mammals. 

The subject of meteorology' is believed to be sufficiently explicit in itself to require no explana. 
tiou, other than that the tables are based on the observations as taken by the persons whose 
names are made in that connection. 

The list of plants is that given by Dr. J. T. Rothrock in Smithsonian Report for 1807, and 
contains those plants principally collected b^' the employes of the Western Union Telegraph 
Company, in their exploration connected with the Russian overland telegraph expedition, Dr. 
Rothrock himself among the number. To this list has been added such plants as were collected 
by me and identified by Prof. A. Gray, of Harvard University ; the ferns by Prof. D. C. Eaton 5 the 
grasses by Dr. G, W. Vasey and Mr, Conant, of the Agricultural Department. Tire order of the 
list has not been changed from that i>reseuted by Dr. Rothrock, and with it are combined such 
notes and distiibution of species as were made by me. There is no doubt but that the list will 
admit of many additions, there having been so little opportunity to consult and reach all the litera* 
ture on the entire subject, I could not in time obtain the more recent works so as to present to it in 
accordance with the recent classifications. 

I may justly state in this connection that of all great difficulties the most troublesome was 
to preserve the plants after I had collected them. The constant moisture of the climate has 
Irequently ruined my entire collection of a summer's work. All that remained after supposing the 
plants were sufficiently dried would be a mass of mold and dry edges of paper, this being appar- 
ently done in less than forty-eight hours' time. 

The only reptile obtained by me was a Rana sylvatica f from Fort Yukon, just within the 
Arctic circle, where this species is quite plentiful. This and a species of Bufo from the vicinity of 
Sitka are the only two batrachians known to me to be found in the Territory. 

The collection of fishes was not large, owing to the lack of preservative material in other 
quantity than merely sufficient to preserve only the rarer and smaller kinds. 

To Dr. T. H. Bean, curator of ichthyology of the National Museum, was given the task of 
elaborating the material, many of the species being new to science and others rare. The notes 
are given just as made in the field. That they could have been made more extensive by consulting 
other authors is evident, but such course was not deemed necessary. 

The engrossing nature of other work necessarily limited the collection of birds, as it was im. 
possible for me to leave the station for the purpose of making more extensive investigations; and 
there was no one to whom I could entrust the duties to be performed by me. In the spring and 
summer, when the birds were most plentiful, preparations of the past season's work had to be 
attended to, in order to ship them on the expected vessel, whose movements depended entirely on 
the absence or presence of the ice; so that only the latter part of the summer was available for 
procuring specimens. During the period from November to the succeeding May.few ptarmigan 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 7 

and an occasional raven will he the only birds seen daring that time, hence there are for the greater 
part of the year but few birds to be added to the collection. 

The notes on the birds are, except in few instances, the results of my owu observations in tlie 
field. Several species collected by me are new to the North American bird fauna, and others, very 
rare species, which hjid hitherto been special desiderata. To my own notes is an appeudix contain- 
ing a list of all the birds known to occur within the limits of Alaska. That many more names of 
birds will be added to the list is only a question of the time when the Territory will be fully inves- 
tigated by a thorough exploration, as many species are known to be abuudant on the borders of 
the country. Yet the fact of there being no recorded instances of their occurrence in Alaska has 
been sufficient to exclude them from the list. 

Without entering into a detailed account of the manner in which the birds are best obtained 
in a country whose^features have but little in common with others more southern, 1 could only be 
sure of securing all the birds I could attend to by beiug well prepared with a hunting outfit, so 
far as gun (a fine one made by Parker Bros., West Meriden, Conn.) and ammunition were con- 
cerned — ^for without these it is impossible to obtain specimens where the birds perceptibly become 
scarcer and{wilder each^year, due to the introduction of immense qu^tntities of cheap shot-guns 
that do more harm by scaring than killing in the hands of the native youths. At Saint Michael's 
the geese and ducks have greatly decreased in numbers, if we may. believe the reports of the hunt- 
ers of former days who bagged many times the quantity which may now be obtained, and this with 
infinitely better guns and certainly not worse shots. Among the Aleutian Islands the birds have 
forsaken the vicinity of the villages, and only by visiting the uninhabited islands can a complete 
series of specimens be obtained, as the people and foxes have driven the birds away. This is note- 
worthy from the fact that the natives of Attu speak of a large cormorant, which, from the descrip- 
tion given by them, could have been none other than the greatly desired Pallas's cormorant 
{PhcUacrocorax perapicillatMs Pall.). This bird is now not to be found, where but twenty years ago 
(when no fire-arms were used) it was quite abundant at Attu and among the other Nearer islands. 

At the present time most birds are seen as the vessel quietly moves through the still waters. 
At sea myriads of auks of various kinds sit among the tide streams, feeding on various substances, 
and are only disturbed by the vessel making a narrow break in their rauks as they stretch away 
for miles in length, where even in moderately rough weather the birds spend most of their time, 
each species in a manner by itself, but with an occasional intrusion of a puffin, gull, or other bird 
in theseriation formed by the gently undulating sea. Though generally each species or it and its 
congeners keep well together, yet the interval separating the species is generally distinct, even of 
but few yards or by overlapping ranks but slightly separated. 

The gulls and ravens prefer the shingly beach or sands, and carefully scan the surface for a 
scrap of anything fit or not fit for food. The former sedate and often of solemn mood, the reverse 
of the wary raven ever on the alert for a trap in which his foot may be caught, for they frequently 
walk along and instantly jump as though something had exploded directly under it, yet continue 
its fantastic actions for hours. 

The snipe and kindred birds seek the more marshy places, where they abound in their season. 
But few species of the waders remain in the Aleutian Islands and none in the northern portions of 
the Territory during the winter. The ducks and geese are widely distributed, and in a great 
measure modified for the time being by their surroundings in each locality. 

The list of mammals presented represents all the known living and fossil species, the greater 
part being found on the mainland. On the Aleutian Islands the only mammals are the foxes and 
the seals, with few species of rodentia, of which two species are imported. There are no mice or 
rats on the extreme western islands at the present time, and only one species of fox, Vulpes 
lugopus. One of the small islands near Kiska Island is said by the natives to be literally honey- 
combed with the holes of a species of spermophile. I was unable to secure specimens for identifica- 
tion. I was also unable to procure a specimen of the bat, which is plentiful at Eadiak, and occa- 
sionally ranges, in the months of July and August, even as far north as Nulato, on the Yukon River. 

(A large collection of insects and shells was also made by me, but owing to circumstances beyond 
my control I am not able to present the notes pertaining to them in this connection, or to give a 
list of the species.) 



8 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 



It has been deemed advisable to give a list of the principal localities with their geographical 
position, especially those mentioned in my notes. 

Many persons having visited Alaska and thrown into contact with people speaking the Ras- 
sian language, which has scarcely any affinity with the English, and daring their short stay have 
presumed to have mastered the sounds of consonants and vowels which are peculiar to the Russian 
language; hence many discrepancies have arisen and resulted in 8i>elling certain words in several 
erroneous ways. The name of one of the principal large islands of the eastern part of the Aleutian 
chain has been given thus, Aoualashka, Oonalashka, Oonalaska, Unalaska, and Unalashka. The 
majority of English writers in spelling the Russian patronymics give an forff as the ending for 
Bussian words which really end in the sound of/, and should be so written, as the sound of /is 
accidental in all words ending with the hard semivowel i, or when placed before strong consonants, 
and then taking the sound of its corresponding tet'ter ♦, which is the pure and simple/ as used in 
English. 

The following names are believeil to be entirely in accordance with the pioi>er sound of the 
Russian and native names. The latitude and longitude are taken mostly from the determinations 
made by ihe U. S. Coast Survey and other authorities. They are sufficiently correct for the 
purpose intended. 



Lociklity. 



U. S. CoMt Survey Station. Sitka 

Astronomical Station, Saint Paul Harbor, Kadiak ■ 

Kariak Villafie. Kadiak 

Village in Delarof Harbor, Unga Island 

B«Ik6v8ky Vlllrige 

Cape Petrof, west end of Sannakh Island and Harbor 

Southwest point of entrance to False Pass between Aliaska and Unimak 

South Capo, Akntin Island *■ 

Non h Cape, U ndlga Island 

North Cape, Akiin Island ■ 

Astronomical Station, CbernovAk^y Bay ^ — 

Astronomical Station, Iliuliuk Village, Unalanhka Island 

North point of Umnak Island 

Bogaslof Island — 

West point of Amlia Island 

Village (astronomical station) on Nazan Bay, Atkha Island 

Korotinskj Peak (volcano, 4,852 feet high) 

Kanaga Peak, on Kanaga Island 

Constantine Bay, Astronomical Si ation, Amchitka Island 

Astit>noniical Station at village, Kyska Harbor, Kyska Island 

Bouldyr Island (E. Cape) 

West point of Semichi Islands 

Northeast Capeof Agattn Island 

East Cape, Attn Island , 

Flagstaff in C hichagof Harbor^ A ttu Island 

Cape Wransel (the western point of Attn Island) 

Obiennoi (Massacre) Bay, south side of Attn 

Mouth of Ugdsik River 

A mak Island 

Fort Alexander, on Nnshagak River 

Cape Ncwenbam 

Cape Riimiantzof 

West point of Stuart Island 

Saint MIchaers , 

Unalakhlit , 

Besborongh Island 

Cape Prince of Wales, the westernmost point of mainland of North America.. 

Went Capo. Saint George Island 

Southwest Cape, Saint Paul Island 

Southeast point of Saint Matthew Island , 

Southeast Cape, Saint Lawrence Island , 



Latitude. 



67 02 
57 47 

57 34 
55 U 
55 05 
54 27 
54 47 
54 01 

53 58 

54 16 
53 23 
53 52 
53 32 
53 58 
52 06 
52 10 
52 23 
51 54 

51 23 
91 59 

52 34 

52 45 
62 27 
62 51 

62 56 

53 58 
52 40 

68 12 

55 25 

58 57 
58 42 

61 52 

63 35 
63 28 

63 53 

64 06 

65 32 

56 37 

57 10 
60 17 

62 67 



It 

53 

57 

36 

30 

13 

00 

04 

30 

48 

30 

57 

53.7 

00 

36 

30 

30 

30 

30 

30 

04 

00 

00 

86 

36 

00.9 

00 

48 

42 

00 

06 

00 

00 

30 

00 

33 

36 

00 

48 

12 

30 

00 



Longitude. 



Authority. 



135 20 
152 21 

164 24 

160 30 
162 00 

162 40 

163 14 

165 59 

166 03 

165 34 

167 29 

166 31 

167 59 

167 59 

173 51 

174 15 

174 17 
177 16 
179 12 
177 00 

175 49 
173 50 
173 36 
173 23 
173 12 

172 26 

173 05 

157 30 
103 01 

158 18 
162 05 
166 17 
162 32 

161 48 

160 30 

161 07 

168 05 

169 48 

170 28 
172 14 
169 24 



n 

20 

21 

30 

00 

15 

00 

00 

12 

00 

00 

56 

44.2 

00 

00 

18 

18 

18 

00 

06 E. 

00 . 

00 

30 

00 E. 

00 

23.7 

00 

00 

00 W 

30 

24 

00 

00 

36 

00 

16 

00 

00 

00 

00 

06 

80 



U. S. CoMt Survey. 

Do. 
ArchimandHtof. 
U. S. Coast Survey. 

Do. 

Do. 
Voronkovsky. 
Krenitain. 

Do. 

Do. 
U. S. Coast Survey. 

Do. 
Vasilief. 
U. S. Coast Surrey . 

Do. 
Pavlof. 

Salmatof and others, 
n. S. Coast Survey. 

Do. 
Gibson. 

Do. 
Benseman and others. 
Gibson. 

n. S. Coast Survey. 
Gibson. 

Do. 
Staninkovich. 

Do. 
Wrangel and others. 
Vasilief and others. 
Etolin. 
Tebienkof. 

Mean of KeUelt and Zagoskln. 
Zagoskin. 
Khramohenko. 
n. S. Coast Survey. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Pavlof. 



Ohoria Pwintvla lies in about WP 15' N., and 162° W. long., and is directly north of Chamisso Island, in Eschsoholts Bay, a part of Kotse 
bue Sound. 

Names of other localities mentioned in these papers are believed to be sufficiently explicit. 



I desire to express my deep obligations to Prof. S. F. Baird, Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution and Director of the National Maseum, in affording me every facility in preparing these 
pages. To Mr. Robert Ridgway, curator of ornithology of the National Museum, my obligations 
are deep for the many valuable suggestions he has made. To Dr. L. Stejneger I am under great 
obligations for suggestions on several subjects, especirilly those pertaining to Pyrrhula and Moia- 
cilla^ which were reviewed by him. Also to Dr. T. H. Bean, curator of ichthology, I am greatly 
indebted for tbe identifications of all the fishes collected by me. To Messrs. J. N. McQuestion, 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 9 

A. Mayo, and J. Harper, of the apper Yakon District, I am deeply indebted for many specimens of 
birds which I would not otherwise have obtained. 

In the Unalashkan District I can but remember with pleasure the facilities afforded me by 
the Western Fur and Trading Company through their agents, Mr. John Hague, and especially to 
Mr. Robert King, agent of the district. 

To the gentlemen composing the Alaska Commercial Company, in San Francisco, I take 
pleasure in acknowledging the many favors extended me with extreme courtesy at Saint Michael's 
and during the first year of my stay at Unalashka. 
I am, sir, very respectfully, yours, 

LDCIEN M. TUBNER. 
The Chief Signal Oppiceb U. S. Army, 

Washington y D. C. 
S. Mis. 165 2 



RESEARCHES IN ALASKA. 



Part I.-GENERj^L DESCRIPTION 

Part II.-METEOROLOaY. 

Part III-PL^NTS. 

Part IV.-EISHES. 

Part V.-BIRDS. 

Part VI.-Mj^MM^T.S. 



11 



PART L-GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COUNTRY. 

The character of the country in the vicinity of Saint Michael's is that of a vast moorland, much 
diversified with low, rolling areaa to higher levels on which are situated either high hills or short 
chains of mountains of not great height, usually surrounded, especially near the coast, by great 
marshy plains or tundras, on which are numerous lakes of greater or less size, and in most instances 
connected with each other, or else having short, small outlets which run directly into some one of 
the numerous coves or arms of the sea, or unite with a larger stream which leads its tortuous way 
to the smaller tributaries of the great Yukon River. The size of these streams is variable accord- 
ing to the soil through which they wind. In the vicinity of Saint Michael's there are none of suffi- 
cient size to be worthy of mention. 

Along the eastern side of Norton Bay are several small streams (scarcely of size to be called 
rivers) which empty into the bay and take their origin among the hills to the eastward and which 
form the watershed between the Yukon River and Norton Sound. The streams on the eastern 
side of those hills are tributary to the Yukon, and are of inferior size. The trend of the coast on 
the eastern side of the sound is northeast and southwest. It contains but few, and those broad, 
indentations, the general line being incurved and having but few islands on its margin; the 
larger islands being Stuart and Saint Michael's, the former on the outside of Saint Michael's, and this 
only separated by a narrow strait, while Saint Michael's Island is separated from the mainland by a 
narrow gut of only a few rods in width, and of such slight depth that in October, when the lowest 
tides occur, it is dry at low water. The coast on the northern side of the sound has an east and west 
trend ; the extreme portions only being deeply indented to form Norton Bay and Golovin Sound 
at the eastern end, and Clarence Sound on the western extremity. The only islands worthy of 
mention on this stretch of coast are Aziak or Sledge Island, and Ok^vtik or King's Island, the 
latter situated at some distance from the mainland, the line of the eoaist being rather abrupt and 
having but a narrow strip of low land before the foothills of the Kavy^ytik Peninsula The region 
embracing the Yukon Delta is very low, only occasional hills, and these rarely touching the sea, to 
relieve the monotony of the area. Several streams of moderate size are to be found between Saint 
Michael's and the Yukon. The delta itself comprises numerous streams of variable size, and these 
constantly changing by the force of the ice brought down by the spring freshets, which plows away 
eixtire islands, and blocks channels and forms others among the yielding alluvium, while back from 
the sea-shore the flat land is infinitely intersected with sluggish streams, none of which contain 
water only during the wet season. These streams and the land in that vicinity are frequently over, 
flowed by the high tides of December. The ice frozen to the soil is lifted by the waters, and in rising 
carry tons and tons of earth from the bottoms of the creeks and deposit it beyond the banks. When 
the spring opens large masses of fresh earth are often met with, carried out in this manner. I 
observed a single deposit of this kind over 500 feet long, about 30 feet wide, and averaging 2 feet 
deep, thrown out of the ^^ canal " between Saint Michael's Island and the mainland, and this led me 
to account for the numerous little knolls of earth in the neighborhood. They may be detected also 
by the ranker growth of grasses which are found on them. 

Between the Yukon Delta and Cape Rumiantzof the coast line extends northeast and south, 
west. It is indented by numerous, shallow bays and low, narrow capes. Many streams, some of 

13 



14 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

cousiderable size, drain the vast, extremely depressed, area between the Yukon and Kuskokvim 
Rivers. The coast line between the Kaskok^im River and Aliaska is partly low in the northern, 
and rugged in the central part, with alternating low and high stretches on the southern part. 
This extent is much broken by broad bays of water, several large streams, and the large rivers, 
Nnshag^k, Kvichilk, an(] Ug^sik. At varying distances along the entire coast line broken ranges 
of mountains ap})ear, their general direction being east and west for the southern part, and north 
and south for the northern part. The character of the interior is not known, except along the 
larger rivers, and that being of generally the same character as the coa«t. The peninsula of 
Aliaska is simply a continuation of the Alaskan Mountains, forming a comparatively long, narrow 
strip of land, extending nearly northeast and southwest. It is very mountainous, much broken 
into short ranges, usually several peaks on a wide base, or else isolated mountains often of great 
height, the ]>ortion of those over 2,800 feel high being destitute of vegetation. These mountains 
are quite abrui»t on the southern side, and have numerous bays, coves, and arms of the sea thrust 
among thorn, evt^n to their bases. The northern shore of the peninsula of Aliaska is a low, varie<l 
stri]) of land, a few miles to a few rods in width, the eastern end of the north side l>eing generally 
wider and of less elevation, somewhat approaching the general characters of the tundras of the 
Yukon District. 

The Aleutian Islands are but an interrupted continuation of the Aliaskan Peninsula. They 
extend in an easterly and western direction for a little over 1,000 miles; the central islands being 
farther south give the chain a nearly regular curve. Including the Commander Islands, the chain 
has its ends terminating nearly in the sam^ degree (5/>o) of latitude, and the southernmost islands 
lying in about 51^ :i6' north. The principal islands of the chain have their longer axis nearly in 
the same direction as that of the decurvature of the entire chain, the shorter axis lying to the 
eastwaixl of north. The ishinds in the central part present a slight exception to these directions. 
These islands are, generally speaking, very mountainous (among them several acjtive volcanoes, 
some of them very high), their sides generally abrupt, containing innumerable indentations, such 
as deep baj's and coves — these more abundant on the northern and e^istem sides than on the south- 
ern and western. (Nearly all the anchorages, and the villages, with few exceptions, are on the north 
and east sides of the islands.) There is but little level ground on any of the islands, that little being 
formed at the entrance to the larger valleys flanked by high mountains on either side, from which 
descend innumerable small streams from the summits of the mountains crowned, in most instances^ 
with eternal snows. These streams unite to form creeks of slight depth and width, hav^ing a short 
course before they reach the sea. Lakes of variable size are to be found on nearly all the islands, 
some of quile large area being situated on the higher hills. The hardness of the rocks and the 
slight degree by which they are held in solution, renders the water flowing over them remarkably 
pure and of excellence for drinking purposes. I much doubt if water from any part of the globe 
makes better tea. 

SOIL. 

Thf greater portion of the coast line is bound with trachyte, porphyrite, syenite, and lava 
The hardness of the rocks has produced a meager soil, though in some localities it is sandy and in 
others a few isolated beds of clay occur. Near the mouths of the larger rivers great deposits of 
alluvial matter are to be found, generally formed of fine sand and decomposed vegetable matter. 
The depths of soil vary in each locality, and in the areas less favorably situated for drainage the 
soil remains frozen at a depth of less than 18 inches from the surface. The stratum of irozen soil 
varies from 3 feet to an unknown depth. I have seen several holes dug for various purposes and 
in apparently well-drained situations, and have in each instance, on the hill on which is situate<l 
the redoubt of Saint Michael's, found the continually frozen soil to be at a depth of less than 3 
feet from the surface. In localities which are well drained the layer of frozen soil may even dis- 
appear during the latter part of summer, and in some places among the alluvial deposits it thaws 
out early in July. Among the Aleutian Islands the soil is frozen only during protracted periods 
of cold. The constant rains speedily thaw out the ground, which is in most plac* s but a thin sod 
pf a few inches to 2 or 3 feet, resting on a bed of gravel formed ages ago, and gradually encroached 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. l£ 

npon and matted together by the roots of gi^aases which thrive on the lower lands, and which 
having fulfilled all the requirements of nature, are prostrated to the earth, not to rapidly 
decay, but even for years to remain and help bind the few particles of soil together lest it falls 
between the interstices of the gravel bed below. In the Yukon District it is almost impossible to 
find pure soil ; the particles on being dried and separated reveal uudecomposed vegetable fibers, 
and disintegrated volcanic scorisB. This character of soil made it necessary that we should fre- 
quently moisten our garden-beds at Saint MichaePs lest they blow away. 

VEGETATION. 

The scanty growth of plants, other than mosses, is due to the great accumulations of sphagnum, 
which, in the localities favorable lor its growth, reaches a depth of 6 to 80 inches in the extremely 
depressed areas, and forming a covering, which, by its non-conductivity of heat, prevents the warm 
rays of the sun from penetrating to the frozen stratum below. Drainage being imperfect is a 
principal cause of the constantly frozen ground. Water remains in certain localities of extended 
area for ages, while at the bottom is in most instances to be found a thin deposit of mud resting 
on either frozen soil or pure ice. In walking over the low tracts I have frequently felt the 
ground undulate beneath me like a sheet of thin ice when walked upon. Frequent, small rounded 
holes were found of only a few inches in diameter. Into these holes I have often stepped and gone 
down to a depth of over 2 feet, and prevented from going farther by the hole being too small to 
admit my body. Having oue day shot a duck, which mysteriously disappeared, I went to the 
edge of the pond and looked for the bird. I then thrust a long stick under the edge of* the sod 
resting on the water of the pond, and could feel with but little interference from grassroots far 
in under, yet the water was too deep for me to touch the bottom of the pond. I now saw that 
the margins of the ponds were being gradually encroached upon by the matting of the grasses, 
which in the course of time would entirely cover the surface, and in their turn be succeeded by a 
growth of sphagnum, which by its retention of cold would prevent the ice formed in the water 
below from being thawed out, and by the accumulation of vegetable matter on its surface decrease 
the power of the summer's sun to melt the frozen lake for more than a few inches of its depth. 
These lakes of ice have been the source of the ice bluffs presented on various parts of the coast, 
especially north of Bering Strait, the accumulation of soil on them producing the wonderi'ully 
attractive masses of plants and flowers spoken of by Arctic voyagers. 

Another cause that may influence the speedy freezing, and consequent non-thawing of the 
coast line and moorlands is the fact that the annual snow-fall is probably only half as much or a 
third less than in the interior, comparatively adjacent. The greater part of the snow which falls 
on the coast is immediately drifted either into the sea or else far inland. It is rare that a depth 
of more than 18 inches of snow is found on the low level coast lands. Scarcely a day from 
November to April passes but that the snow is drifted. The ravines, gullies, and abrupt hillsides 
are the first to fill up, and by the middle of December the general character of the snow-sheet is 
level, only interrupted by bluffs and steep hillsides. Those places where the snow collects into the 
deeper drifts are found to be the scene of the more luxuriant vegetation in spring. 

With these facts it would seem incredible that flowers should ajipear in this apparently bleak 
and desolate region. 

The mantle of snow has scarcely disappeared in spring than the whole surface of the earth is 
awakened, numerous plants flourishing under such circumstances, existing, it would seem, independ- 
ent of terrestrial heat, and in the course of a few weeks surprise is changed into wotider at the 
luxuriance and beauty of the vegetation, equaled only in more favored climes. With the sun 
above the horizon throughout the twenty-four hours the growth of plants is rapid in the extreme. 
The snow has hardly disappeared before the tiny but hardy Dodecathean has in twelve days from 
its birth passed through the successive stages of growth, flowering, and the formation of its fruit. 
The Pediculares in a short ten days have shot up several inches, and though the leaves are not yet 
formed, the brighter pink raceme is full of bursting flowers. By the middle of July (and the snow 
sometimes continues falling to the middle of June) epilobiums, anemones, asters, ranunculuses, 
and dozens of gaudily colored plants enliven and variegate the earth. During the long Arctic 
days the plants have their period of sleep, short, though as plainly marked as in the tropics. 



16 CONTRIBUilONS TO THB'NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

• 

This time of rest is indicated by the drooping of the leaves and folding of the corollas and other 
signs which are observed in milder climes. Each species of plant requires a certain amount of 
heat, light, and moisture to fulfil the required conditions of life. Of light and moisture there is 
sufficient in the higher latitudes ; the deficiency of heat may be supplemented by certain changes 
in the plant without losing their individuality, and may be chauged to meet the requirements 
necessary for their existence in this latitude. The colors of the flowers are usually most intense; 
shades of blue and red prevail, the leaves are thicker or more fleshy and contain less woody 
fiber. The stems of many of the flowering plants attain their full height before the leaves and 
branches are half developed; and, in many instances, the flowers appear before the leaves, thus 
showing that in the struggle for existence the leaves and other parts of the plants have remained 
subservient to the fruit-producing portions. In many perennials the roots attain larger size than 
in warmer latitudes, and thus seem to store up an energy which not only adapts the plant; to with- 
stand the rigors of the climate, but forms a store from which to draw vitality in the early spring. 
The shrubby plants growing near the coast are peculiar for their change of growth by which they 
are enabled to lie nearer the ground and thus receive a greater amount of heat and also to be 
the better protected by the mantle of snow.' The thickets of alder and willow are extremely 
tangled, the stems forming infinite curves and elbows, interlaced and matted together in such 
degree that progress is not possible among them. These shrubs in the most favorable localities 
attain a height of but feet feet, while their manner of growth and numerous abortive leaf-buds 
indicate their struggle for existence. 

The willows and alders and dwarf birches alone attain a moderate height in the immediate 
vicinity of Saint Michael's. About 20 miles from the coa«t line, and just beyond the low hills 
which are near the sea shore, a scanty growth of poplars may be found in the protected ravines. 
These trees rarely reach a diameter of over 8 inches, and are generally decayed within. On the 
portage from (Jnalakhlit to the Yukon River a few spruce and poplars attain a height of 25 feet. 
Not until the watershed of the Yukon is reached do we find trees of considerable size ; there 
spruce, willow, poplars, and birch obtain good size, and form the supply from which all the wood 
of the district is obtained. An incalculable quantity is brought down as drift each spring, and, 
thrown on the broad ocean, is distributed by tides, currents, and wiuds over the shores of all 
the islands and mainland bordering Bering Sea. Not until the shore of the inner part of Bristol 
Bay is reached do we find spruce growing immediately on the coast. On Aliaska trees are only 
found on its extreme eastern limits, and then mostly on the southern side. The willows and alders 
grow to a greater size on the western part of Aliaska than on the Aleutian Islands.. The eastern 
part of Kadiak Island and ihose lying to the northeast of it are abundantly supplied with spruce 
and other trees. Of late years many cords of wood are exported from Kadiak to the Aleutian 
Islands for fuel. 

Among the Aleutian Islands the only trees are the spruce from Sitka, set out by the priest of 
the Unalashkan district in 1832, on the island of Amakn^k, a few hundred yards from the village 
of Iliuliuk, on Unalashka Island. The trees grew, some died, and now but fourteen remain ; the 
other eight were either broken down or died. They have not reproduced their kind, though an 
abundant crop of cones is prqduced. Alders and willows are the only large shrubs found on the 
Aleutian Islands. Their growth is scarcely superior to that of the same species at Saint Michael. 
Even though drift-wood is scarce and cord-wood is dear, the Aleuts prefer to burn a few wisps of 
grass or a bunch of Umjpetrum rather than go the same distance for the alder or willow. Though 
it is true that among these islands the Umpetrum attains its rankest growth, the entire hillside is 
covered with it, and the grasses contend in height with the willows. 



PART II-METEOROLOGY. 



ABSTRACTS FROM THE DAILY JOURNAL AT SAINT MIOHAEL, ALASKA. 

JULY, 1874. 

Jaly 1: A strong gale from the south, attaining a niflxininin velocity of 55 miles. — ^Jnly 7: The temperature has 
been slowly increasing for the past several days and is now quite pleasant. — July 9: Light rains in early a. m., and 
beautiful rosy sunset.— July 11 : Light to gentle rains.—July 12: Light to gentle rains. — July 14: Light rain in a. 
m. — July 16: Hard shower of large drops of rain.— July 17: Hard showers of rain. — ^July 18: Hard showers of rain. — 
July 21 : Maximum temperature of the season was reached to-day ; 65°. — July 24 : Maximum temperature of 7(P was 
reached to-day; three distinct peals of thunder from a cloud iu the southwest ; no lightning observed. — July 26: 
Showery in a. m. and early p. m. — July 27 : Drizzling rains jail day. — July 29 : Showery at intervals. — July 30 : Light 
rains ending iu mist. — July 31 : Light rains at time. 

AUGUST, 1874. 

August 1 : Heavy falls of rain ; showers in the distance. — August 2: Rain in the distance. — August 3: Rain late 
in p. m.— August 4 : Hard rain to-day.— August 5: Hard gale from the south toward noon ; rain at intervals. — ^August 
6 : Light showers of rain. — August 7: A light gale blowing at 2 p. m. ; light misty rain. — August 8 : A light rain in a. 
m. — August 11 : Frequent light showers ; hard gale from the south after noon. — August 12 : Strong gale from the south 
by 2 p. m. ; light rain in p. m. — August 13: Showery at intervals. — August 14: Beautiful bauds of cirro-cumulus 
clouds having their texture disposed in waves and fibers in all directions. — August 18: Fog and mist in late p. m. — 
August 19: Showers of light character. — August 21: Light gale from the north. — ^August 22: A sharp hail-storm at 
3.24 p. m. with rain, lasting until 3.42 p. m. — August 23 : Red glare on the clouds as the sun neared the horizon ; a 
red and yellowish rain-bow appeared, accompanied by a second, which lasted but a few minutes. — August 27 : A very 
slight rain in late p. m. — August 28: Foggy in early a. m. — August 31 : Foggy in early a. m ; a light rain in early 
p. m. 

SEPTEMBER. 1874. 

September 2: Heavy rain in p. m. — September 3 : Frequent showers during day.— September 7 : Hard rain in a. 
ni. and light mistiness in p. m. — September 10 : Aurora began at 9.09 p. m., lasting until 0.25 a. m. of September 11 ; 
it began as a single arch low down, a second arch at an elevation of 20 degrees formed soon after; a third arch appeared 
after a few minutes at an elevation of 40 degrees ; the ends of the three arches coalesced at their eastern parts and slowly 
vanished, to form again as the first arch, only more bright in color, from w£ich beams shot up to form an arch at 60 
degrees elevation ; between these two arches slender beams constantly played ; one long beam touched the eastern end 
of the two arches and rapidly swept their entire length, and disappeared beneath the w^estem horizon ; after this 
beam had disappeared the auroral arch subsided into a state of passiveness, which gradually faded into an auroral 
haze. — September 11 : The auroral haze of yesterday lasted only twenty-five minutes after the beginning of the day.— 
September 12 : An aurora similar to the one witnessed on the 10th instant was observed this evening ; the color was 
a yellowish-green. — September 13 : Very dry to-day ; the cistern of the hygrometer had to be filled twice ; the lowest 
humidity was at 12 m., showing only 35.9 per cent, of moisture in the atmosphere.— September 14: A very light frost 
was observed this morning. — September 15 : A dense fog in the day ; a light frost in the early a. m. — September 17 : 
Showery during the day.— September 27 : Light spit of snow during the night. — September 28 : Light gale from the 
northeast; beautiful display of cirri clouds at 7 a. m. 

OCTOBER. 1874. 

October 1 : Snow fell heavily about 18 miles east of here.— October 2 : Few flakes of snow fell at 9 p. m. — Ootober 
4 : An aurora consisting of three well defined arches with numerous streamers moving from east to west lasted until 
4 a. m. of October 5.— October 5 : The auroia of yesterday evening lasted until 4 a. m. to-day; but little disturbance 
was shown.— October 8: A light snow-fall to-day.— October 12: A light spit of snow in the late p. m.-^Oetober 13 : 
Several fluffs of snow fell at intervals.— October 14 : Light snow at times.— October 15 : Rather heavy snow-fall dur- 
ing the day.— October 17 : Beautiful golden fiunrise.- October 18 : Hard bnow-storm in p. m. — October 19 : Spits of 
snow fell during the day ; some small pieces of floating ice were seen in the bay.— October 20 : Snow fell quite rapidly 

S. Mis. 155 2 17 



18 CONTEIBtJTIONS TO THE KAT0EAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

to-day. — October 21 : A light gale from the Boutb. — October 23 : A light gale increaaiDg to a storm rate prevailed 
to-day ; snow and rain fell nearly all day. — October 24 : A strong gale from the southeast ; showers of rain, changed 
to mistiness in late p. m. — October 26 : Strong storm fiom the south, increasing to 67 miles per hoar at 7 a. m ; mod- 
erated after noon ; rain fell in a. m. — October 26 : Very high tide to-day cansed by the south wind of the 25th. — October 
27: Strong storm of wind from the south ; severe showers of rain in p. m. and mistiness in a. m. — October 29 : Very 
heavy fall of snow. — October 30 : Much snow fell to-day. — October 31 : Light spit of snow to-day. 

NOVEMBER, 1874. - 

November 2: Snow melted slightly to-day.— November 4: Snow fell Ijj^htly to-day. — November 6: Snow foil 
lightly ; large pieces of ice have been observed floating in the bay ; a pale auroral arch of yellowish color was 
seen this evening. — November 7 : A light gale from the south ; heavy fall of snow occurred.— November 6 : A Mak 
gale from the northeast in p. m. ; a pale parhelion was observed at 1.45 p. m.— November 9: A fearful gale from the 
northeast increasing to the strongest storm rate.— November 10: Wind northeast to south, high to a gale rate. — No- 
vember 11: Gale from the south; light fall of snow; some thaw in exposed places.— November 12: Strong gale 
firom the south ; a few drops of rain fell in p. m.— November 13 : Gale of wind from the south. — ^November 14 : Mod- 
erat-e gale blowing from the northeast. — November 15: Stronger gale from the northeast; lighter gale from the 
south. — November 16 : Strong gale from the south ; beautiful red sunrise. — November 17 : Gale from the south early 
in a. m. ; ice in the bay rapidly breaking up and going out to sea. — ^November 18 : A light gale in the middle of the 
p. m., increased to a strong gale; light snowfall to-day.— November 19: Very high barometer (30.793) to-day. — 
November 20 : Ice in the bay coalesced during the night. — November 21 : A light gale from the northeast ; ice in the 
bay is breaking into slush. — ^November 23 : A gale blowing from the northeast all day ; a pale aurora was seen iu the 
early evening ; the bright moonlight prevented it being readily seen.— November 24: Alight gale from the north- 
east. — November 29 : A few irregular flashes of auroral light were seen this evening. — ^November 30 : Beautiful red 
sunrise ; a pale aurora was observed at 10.20 p. m. 

DECEMBER. 1874. 

December 1 : Decrease of temperature cansed great deposits of frost spicule on the hairs, feathers, and nail-heads. — 
December 2 : A moderate fall of snow in a. m. — December 4 : A parhelion was observed at 1.45 p. m. — December 
5: A gale blowing from the east. — December 6 : A strong gale from the northeast in p. m. ; a faint auroral glow was 
observed from 5 to 10 p. m. — December 7 : A strong gale from the south in p. m. ; large masses of snow felt. — 
Decembers: A slight auroral display was observed at 9.30 p. m. — December 9: Strong gale from the northeast 
deep fiery-red sunset. — December 14 : High gale from the northeast ; a magnificent anroral display of five perfect 
arches, commencing as pale, fitful streaks and gradually assuming arches; held this position with little disturbance 
until 4 a. m. of December 15. — December 15: A strong gusty gale from the northeast ; the aurora observed yesterday 
continued until 4 a. m. to-day ; a second aurora, consisting of the same number of arches and relative position in the 
heavens, was seen from 5.30 p. m. to 11.30 p. m. of to-day. — December 16 : Few flakes of snow ; lunar corona of fine 
coloration when the clouds pass the face of the moon. — December 17 : Brilliant parhelia in p. m. ; the one to the left 
south of the sun had about 30 degrees of the parhelio circle well developed. — ^December 18 : Magnificent displays of cirri 
clouds. — December 19 : High storm of wind from the northeast ; very gudty. — December 20 : Wet snow fell during the 
night ; a beautiful lunar corona at 9.30 p. m. — ^December 21 : Great quantities of frost spicule were formed ; snow 
fell in small amounts. — December 22: Snow fell in considerable amount. — ^December 23: A strong storm from the 
south during day ; a light amount of snow fell. — December 24 : A strong hurricane fh>m the south ; maximum 
velocity recorded was 89 miles per hour; the ice in the bay was thrown in huge blocks upon the shore; the tide 
rose the highest it has been known for years ; a light rain fell at times. — December 25 : High to a low gale from the 
south ; heavy fall of snow. — ^December 27 : A feariul hurricane prevailed, attaining a rato of 94 miles per hour at 
5.24 p. m. ; the snow was whirled in blinding drifts. — December 28: Low gale of wind from S. to NW. — December 
31 : Beautiful sunrise; an aurora of slight intensity was observed this evening, 

JANUARY, 1875. 

January 1 : Gale from the northeast ; a slight tinge of an aurora at 5.25 p. m.. lasting until 1.45 a. m. of January 
2. — January 2 : Strong gale from the east, increasing to a storm rate ; aurora of yesterday evening disappeared at 
1.45 a. m. to-day. — January 3: Brisk gale from the northeast ; finely developed twilight curve this evening. — January 
7 : Moderate snow-fall from 3 a. m. to 3.20 p. m. — January 9 : High gale during latter part of the day ; light amounts 
of snow fell. — January 10: Strong gale from the northeast in early a. m. ; a magnificent rain-bow this a. m. ; the 
colors were the brightest I ever witnessed ; three bows were developed. — January 11 : Strong gale from the east and 
southeast; rain and sleet fell in light quantities. — January 12: Beautiful sunrise of gold and red. — January 14: A 
magnificent sunrise of bright fiarae-color, the clouds having distorted edges of lighter color. — January 16: Beautiful 
display of upper clouds. — January 17: Dense fog covered everything with spicule of frost. — January 18: A fog-bank 
passed by at 2 p. m., covering everything with frost crystals.— January 19: Beautiful lunar corona of vivid prismatic 
colors this evening, caused by the white stratus clouds passing the moon's disk. — January 20: Faint lunar halo at 9 
p. m. — January 21 : High winds caused much light snow to bo drifted into the air and caused the production of a 
halo of 22 degrees, the lower part of which was cut ofi* by the earth ; the sun is too low all to be represented ; the 
ends conld be seen between the hills and myself; the upper side of the halo was also out off as the particles of 
drifting snow were not at times carried high enough into the air to produce a complete circle above the sun. — January 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATUEAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 19 

22 : Solar halo partially visible in early a. m. — Jaunary 23 : This morning, as the son rose, a bright perihelion with 10 
degrees of tbe4)arhelic circle was formed ; .at the moment of greatest brightness the son appeared double like a figore 
8 somewhat appressed, the lower was the true sun, while tbe upper was the mock sun ; the temperature has been 
as low as — 32° in tbe past twenty-four hours. — January 24 : The temperature went as low as — 37° to-day. — January 
25 : A high gale from the northeast increased to a storm rate from the south ; much snow drifted during the day. — 
January 26 : Strong gusty stonn from the south ; much drifting snow. — January 27 : Strong gale from the east and 
southeast; a slight drizzle of rain in p. m. — January 28: Strong gale from SE. to S. ; beautiful display of upper 
clouds. — January 29: Gale of variable rate from S. to SW.— January 30: Strong gale from the south.— January 31: 
Strong gale from the northeast ; beautiful red sunset. 

FEBRUARY. 1875. 

February 1 : High northeast gale. ; a most extravagant display of upper clouds until 2 p. m. ; snow fell at 4 
p. m. of light character. — February 2 : Much drifting snow from the high winds. — February 3 : Light gale from the 
south. — ^February 4 : Very light gale from NE. to £. — February 5 : Gale of light character from the northeast. — 
February 6: A strong gale from the northeast; an aurora began at 9.35 p. m., appearing soon aft«r like heavy 
drapery moved by a high wind. — February 7 : A light gale rate of wind prevailed at times ; eleven bright bands of 
cirri haze appeared when the sun was within 3 degrees of setting ; tlioy were 35 degrees high, and apparently convergent 
opposite the sun. — February 8 : A strong gale from the south. — February 9 : A moderate gale blew, from the northeast 
and east. — February 10 : A furious gale in p. m. from the south ; frequent spits of snow. — February 12 : A brisk gale 
from the northeast.— February 13: To-day was so warm and pleasant that a fly ventured out in my room. — February 
14 : A light gale from the east ; a pale lunar halo at 6 p. m. — February 15 : A strong gale from the southeast. — Feb- 
ruary 16: A light gale from the northeast; few flakes of snow fell; a halo and bright corona around the moon at 
8.15 p. m. — ^February 17: Strong gale from SE. to SW. ; few flakes of snow fell; lunar corona and halo this even- 
ing. — February 18: Frost spicule in moderate quantities formed on different objects to-day. — February 19: Alight 
gale from the northeast drifted much falling snow. — February 20: A strong gale from the northeast; much snow 
was drifted. — February 21 : Much drifting of snow from the light gale of wind from the northeast. — February 22 : 
Gusty gale from the northeast ; snow drifted furiously. — February 23 : Gale to a storm rate of wind from the south. 
Snow fell in p. m., but was drifted. — February 24: Snow fell, but was drifted. — February 25: A variable gale from 
NE. to E.— February 26: Strong storm of wind from N. to NE. ; an aurora was visible at 7 p. m., beginning as a low 
thin, pale yellowish arch, broken in the center; these ends soon united, and frt)m whieh three other arches appeared 
and ext<ended across the heavens for 35 degrees south of the zenith, and about the same distance north of the zenith ; 
the center was somewhat broken, the brightest part being near 30 degrees from the center; at 7.35 p. m. the southern 
arch disappeared, the band intersecting the zenith had much faded ; the one at about 63 degrees elevation had also 
decreased in brilliancy ; the decrease of intensity of those three arches seemed to augment the power of the lower arch; 
at the same time the dark segment appeared well defined; at 9 p. m. the remaining arch began to send up streamers 
which, faint at first, soon became very brilliant and gathered in the zenith (really slightly east of it about 11 degrees) 
to form a magnificent corona with east and west extensions; the cupola broke at 9.40 p. m., forming a long arch with its 
center in the zenith ; this arch was of a bright sulphur-yellow ; a few minutes elapsed and the arch was broken 
into disconnected beams which rapidly vanished, so that by 1.30 a. m. of February 27 it had completely disappeared. — 
February 27 : Strong gale from the north in the early part of the a. m ; a slight trace of yesterday evening's aurora 
was visible this morning early ; a pale aurora was observed this evening at 9.15 p. m. — February 28 : Considerable 
vertical mirage this morning ; a pale aurora from 8.20 p. in. to-day lasted until 3 a. m. of March 1. 

MARCH. 1875. 

March 1 : Strong gusty gale from the north and northeast, a pale ill-defined aurora from 9.30 p. m. to 10.40 
p. m.— March 2 : Beautiful twilight curve this evening ; a pale aurora of a single arch from 7.25 p. m. to 11.40 p. m. — 
March 3: Aurora of a single arch was visible from 10.15 p. m. until 3.25 a. m. of March 4. — March 4: The aurora of 
yesterday evening continued until 3.25 a. m. to-day.— March 6 : A pale aurora at 8.15 p. m. consisting of ill-defined frag- 
ments with few '* dancers'' on the eastern extremity. — March 1 : A pale aurora from 7.45 p. ra. to 11.55 p. m. was obscured 
by clouds. — ^March 8 : A low storm of wind blew gustily from E. to NE. — March 9: A hard wind-storm blew from var- 
ious points of the compass.— March 10 : A gusty gale to a high storm rate of wind from the south and southwest ; 
maximum velocity of 71 miles per hour was registered at 1.30 p. m. little more fell and some melted in exposed 
places. — March 11: A high, gusty gale from the south, large flakes of snow fell plentifully, but was drifted. — 
March 12: Much gustiness of wind; air full of frost- films; two halos, one of 22 degrees and one of 46 degrees, 
formed round the sun; parhelia formed on the inner halo.— March 14: Gusty gale from the northeast ; fantastic 
arrangements of upper clouds prevailed to-day. — March 15: A brisk gale from the northeast ; snow fell at a distance. — 
March 16: A high gale rate of wind prevailed from the northeast.— March 17: Much snow fell to-day, drifting furi- 
ously. — March 18: Gusty gale from N. to W. ; snow fell in abundance, but was drifted. — March 19: A moderate 
gale of wind from the north; air full of frozen vapor, making a faint parhelion; at sunset a faint arc of a halo of 22 
degrees was observed ; a single arch of an aurora was seen f^om 10. 15 p. m. to 11.45 p.m .when it was obscured by clouds. — 
March 21 : A perfect halo of 22 degrees was formed around the sun at 2 p. m. — March 22 : Considerable mirage from 7 
to 8 a. m. — March 23 : A strong storm rate of wind from the west ; the ice in the sea at the northeast point of Saint 
Michael Island moved out to-day. — March 24 : A strong storm of wind prevailed from the northeast ; much snow 
drifted. — March 25 : A strong gale frt>m the north in the early part of the day ; much snow drifted ; a halo of 22 degrees 



20 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

and of 46 degrees formed aronnd the snn ; as the snn sank beneath the horizon a conical beam shot np for 7 deg rees 
and 3 degrees wide at the horizon, changed to a single vertical beam of 12 degrees high as the sny fnrther disap. 
peared. — March 26 : Variably light to a strong gale rate at intervals prevailed from S. to 8W. ; at 1.45 p. m. a 
splendid arrangement of halos of 22 degrees and 46 degrees with parhelia at the intersection with the partially 
formed parhelic circle was interrupted with broken stratus. — March 27 : An aurora of a poorly defined arch with few 
<< dancers'' and flashes lasted from 8.40 p. ni. to 3.45 a. ni. of March 28.— March 28: The aurora of yesterday evening 
lasted until 3.45 a. m. of to-day ; an anrora of feeble intensity began at 8.20 p. ro., disappearing at 11.20 p. m. — March 
30: A high gale prevailed early in the day fVom the south ; fine snow was drifted from the sky for the greater part of 
the day; a halo of 22 degrees aod one of 46 degrees formed round the snn ; parhelia formed on the halo of 22 degrees; 
a pale aurora of a single arch from 8.30 p. m. to 3.35 a. m. of March 31.— March 31 : An aurora, the continuation of 
the one seen March 30, lasted until 3.35 a. ro. of to-day; dnriug this month so much snow has drfted that measure- 
ments have not been at all times possible. 

APRIL. 1875. 

April 1 : A hnrricane blowing from the south ; much snow flying in the air. — April 2 : A hurricane from the sonth, 
blowing at a rate of 86 miles at times ; ice in the sea breaking up. — April 3: A hurricane rate of wind from the south, 
blowing 86 miles per hour at its maximum ; snow on the ground nearly gone ; much ice in the sea has moved out.— 
April 4 : A stormy gale from the south ; much snow fell and drifted. — April 5 : A high gale early in a. m. from the 
south; much snow fell and drifted. — April 6 : Gusty gale rate of wind from K. to NE. ; an aurora was visible from 9 
p. m. to 3.10 a. m. of April 7; no arch was formed; a grand display of streamers and beams taking the form of 
drapery moved by the wind. — ^April 7: Anrora of yesterday evening continued until 3.10 a. m. of to-day ; an aurora 
similar to the one recorded yesterday was seen this evening from 9 p. ni. to 2.25 a. m. of April 8 ; it had a horse- 
shoe form and constantly waved back and forth, subsiding to a haze and reappearing. — April 9: Aurora of April 8 
disappeared at 2.25 a. m.; an anrora of slight intensity was observed from 10.10 p. m. to 11.42 p. m.— April 13: A 
low gale rate of wind from various quarters; a light spit of snow.— April 15: Much frost in the air. — April 16: A 
strong gale from the southwest. — April 17 : A light gale from 8. to SW. ; large flakes of snow fell. — April 18 : A light 
fog in the evening ; much frostiness in the air. — April 19 : Fogginess all the earl^ a. m ; considerable thaw to-day. — 
April 24 : Large flakes of snow fell irregularly. — April 25 : Little snow fell in large flakes. — April 26 : A dense fog in 
early a. m. ; a light gale from the north toward noon ; much thawing ; pale solar hale. — April 27 : Hard storm of wind 
from the north and northeast; snow fell in light amounts.— April 28: A light gale from the east and northeast; 
beautiful display of upper clouds. — April S9: Snow rapidly melting; quite warm to-day; swans {Olor oolitmlnanu$) 
arrived to-day. — April 30 : A strong gale from N£. to £. 

MAY, 1875. 

May 1 : A gusty gale from the northeast, at times attaining a storm rate. —May 2 : A storm rate of wind from the 
northeast. — ^May 3 : A low storm of wind at noon. — May 4 : A gale rate of wind from the northeast ; at 5.24 p. m. a 
bright halo of 22 degrees having brilliant parhelia at the intersection of the parhelic circle and a very bright parhelion 
at the intersection of the vertical beam. — May 5 : Solar halo of 22 degrees attended by brighter parhelia in the early 
p. m. — May 8 : Some of the larger water-fowl arrived this week. — May 10 : Fog during the early p. m.— May 16 : Several 
specieb of land birds have arrived ; the unfavorable weather has been much against their coming.— May 17 : Little snow 
to-day.— May 18 : Half an inch of snow fell during the day.— May 19 : Considerable snow fell during the night.— May 
21 : A heavy fall of snow in early a. m. — May 23: A few radishes, lettuce, and cabbages growing finely in the hot- 
bed.— May 27 : Dense fog in late p. m. — May 28: Dense fog prevailed. — May 29: Several additional birds arrived this 
week, among them were snipe and a blackbird ; alight gale prevaile4 early in a. m. from the south. — May 30: Light 
gale fh)m the south. — May 31 : A light gale from the southwest. 

JUNE, 1875. 

June 1 : Ice has again accumulated to seaward.— June 2 : Several lepidopters flying around to-day. — June 3 : Grass 
and few flowering plants are beginning to show above ground.— June 4 : A strong gale from N. to S. via £. blowing.— 
June 5: Warm and pleasant. — June 7 : Several light showers of rain. — June 8: Rain of light to moderate character 
all day. — June 9: Light rain during day; fog prevailed at times. — June 10: Fog at times. — June 12 : Ice in the bay 
breaking into small pieces ; a light frost last night ; few flowers in blossom. — June 14 : Two vessels reported in night as 
being far out to sea ; they came through the broken ice by evening. — June 15 : A moderate gale from the south and 
sothwest took out the ice in the bay ; also the two vessels, which sustained no harm ; a severe thunder-storm occurred 
in the early p. m.— June 16 : Attempts to reach the vessels were frustrated by the pack-ice. — June 18 : Strong gale from 
the east and southeast.— June 19 : Very gusty wind to-day from S£. to S. ; ice still jammed in the bay. — June 20 : A 
hard storm of wind from the southeast ; ice in the bay dashed to pieces by the waves and rapidly disappearing. — June 
24 : Rain fell of light character. — June 28 : Strong gale from the south. 

JULY, 1875. 

July 8: Light shower of rain. — July 9: Light gale early in p. m. ; rain of light character fell. — July 10: Strong 
gale from the southeast ; light rain fell. — July 12 : Very light raiu-fall ; strong gale from the south.— July 13 : 
Strong gale ; light rain-fall. — July 14: Light gale from the north. — July 15: Moderate rain-fall. — July 17: High gale 
from the southwest. — July 18: Strong gale from the northeast. — July 20: A strong gale from the south; hard rain- 



OOlirrEIBUTIONS TO THE I^ATUEAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 21 

fall.— July 25: Light gale from the north. — July 26: High gale from the northeast; fine twilight corve. — Jaly27: 
A gale of yariable rate from the northeast; temperature 7(P to-day. — July 28: Temperature 70^ to-day. — ^July 30: 
Strong storm of wind from the south ; hard rain late in p. m. — July 31 : Gusty storm of wind from the south ; much 
rain fell at intervals. 

AUGUST, 1875. 

August 2: A strong storm rate of wind from S. to SW. — August 3 : Storm rate of wind, very gusty ; rain fell in 
light quantity. — August 4: Moderate storm rate of wind from the south ; heavy rain. — August 5: Heavy rain-fall. — 
August 7: High gale rate of wind from the south. — ^August 10: Several light showers of rain. — August 11: High gale 
from the south; light rain-fall. — ^August 12: Strong storm of wind fh)m S. to SW; heavy rains in the distance.— 
August 13 : A hard shower of rain in early p. m.— August 17: Light rain late in p. m. — August 18: Light rain in early 
a. m. — August 22: A light gale from S. to £. — August 24: A heavy dash of rain in a. m. — August 26: A light rain in 
p. m. — August 27: High gale from the east. — August 28: Strong hurricane from the south; a maximum velocity of 
81 miles per hour was obtained ; light rain fell. — August 29 : A strong gale from the southwest and west ; light rain- 
fall. 

SEPTEMBER, 1875. 

September 1 : A high gale from the east ; light rain in p. m. — September 2 : Light rain in a. m. — September 3 : 
Moderate rain-fall ; a pale arch of an aurora waa seen from 8.30 p. m., until 10 p. m., when clouds obscured. — Septem- 
ber 5: Hard showers in p. m. — September 6: Hard rain in a. m. — September 7: Light rain in middle of day. — Septem- 
ber 8: Strong gale from the southwest; bright aurora partially obscured by clouds. — September 10: Strong gale 
from S. to SW. — September 14: Light to high gales from the boutheast. — September 15: Moderate gale from fhe south- 
east. — September 16: Strong storm of wind from S. to §W. — September 17 : Brisk gale from SE. to E. — September 18: 
Rain of moderate character in p. m. — September 19: Moderate rain in a. m. — September 20: Fog in early a. m. — Sep- 
tember 21: Fiery-red and gold sunset. — September 22: Light gale from the northeast ; sea very rough.— September 
23 : Strong gale from NE. to E.— September 24: Gusty gales from the northeast ; sea water very turbid. — September 
25: Coppery red sunset.— September 27: Strong gale from the northeast; light rain in p. m.— September 29: Moder- 
ate rain-fall. 

OCTOBER, 1875. 

October 4 : Aurora of a single arch visible from 6.30 p. m. to 2 a. m. of October 5. — October 5 : Aurora of yester- 
day continued until 2p. m; aurora viable this morning, consisting of three pale arches, lasting until midnight; 
high gale in p. m. northeast. — October 6: Strong storm from the northeast; aurora of a single arch from ti p. m. 
until daylight of October 7. — October 7: Fearful surges of storm rate of winda from the northeast; brilliant sunset ; 
thin films of ice on the shallow pools; aurora of October 6 continued without change until daylight. — October 8: 
high gale rate of wind from the northeast ; water in the bay very low ; heavy ice on the fresh water. — October 9 : 
High gale of wind from SE. to S. : snow fell in the distance.— October 11 : Brilliant meteor in the southeast at 9.38 p. 
m. — October 13: High gale from the northeast. — October 14: Light rain in p. m. — October 15: Light rain in a. m. — 
October 16 : Strong gale from the north.— October 17: High gale from the nortbeaat ; light snow-fall and sleet ; water 
very low in the bay. — October 19: Heavy frost last night. — October 25: Few flakes of snow.— October 26: Spits of 
sleet and snow. — October 29: High to a strong gale from the south ; snow fell, changing to rain, which froze fast as 
it fell ; misty rain in late p. m. — October 30: Light gale from the southwest; snow and rain fell lightly ; ice making 
in the sea next the shore. 

NOVEMBER, 1875. 

November 1 : A high gale from the northeast auroral arch in the evening, partially obscured by clouds. — ^November 
2: Aurora of yesterday continued until 4.50 a.m. to-day; auroral haze was observed at 10.30 p. m. — November 3: 
Auroral haze from 6.20 p. m. to 9 p. m. — November 4: Light gale from the southwest ; ice forming quite heavily in the 
bay ; snow fell, but was drifted. — ^November 5 : Little snow and sleet fell in a. m ; a pale auroral glow in late p. m. — 
November 6 : Several sleet squalls of light character.— November 8 : Lunar halo of 22 degrees in late p. m. — ^November 
9 : Fine snow fell in considerable quantity ; high gale late in p. m.— November 11 : Bright parhelia at 8.40 a. m ; a well 
defined vertical beam also showed ; the red color was very bright, changing to pale bluish at noon. — ^November 12 : 
Light mirage. — November 13: Lunar halos of 22 and 46 degrees with parselenes at the intersections of the parselenic 
circle and vertical beam. — November 16 : Considerable amounts of frost crystals. — ^November 17 : Long spiculie of frost 
attached to the grass. — November 18 : Heavy fog ; everything is bent to the ground under the weight of frost crystals ; 
I bave never before witnessed such a grand crystallization of moisture.— November 19: Much mirage. — November 20: 
F( w flaketi of snow. — November 22 : Strong gale from the southwest ; all the ice to the northeast of the island has moved 
out to seaward. — ^November 26: Moderate gale from the northeast.— November 29: Aurora began at 5.24 p. ui., and 
continued all night, lasting until 5 a. m. of November 30. — November 30: Aurora continued until 5 a. m ; a single 
auroral arch began at 9.30 p. m., continuing with little change until 5.30 a. m. of December 1. 

DECEMBER, 1875. 

December 1 : Aurora of November 30 continued until 5.30 a. m. of to-day ; aurora of feeble intensity fi^m 9.50 
p. m. to 4.35 a. m. of December 2; slight indications of an arch at midnight. — December 2: Parhelia having slight 
tails were seen to-day ; aurora of December 2 continued until 4.35 a. m. to-day ; an aurora, hardly recognizable, was 



22 OONTEIBUTIONS TO THE NATUBAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

visible at 9.10 p. to. — December 3 : Strong gale from the southwest ; pale anrora at 9.30 p. m. — ^December 4 : Faint 
auroral glow ; mooh mirage. — December 9 : Air full of frozen particles, forming parhelia and a doubling of the sun at 
10.20 a. ro. as it rose through the stratum of drifting snow; parselenes were formed in the evening; a complete par- 
selenic circle with a ci re um zenithal external arc and the one below it were well defined. — December 10: Dazzling 
parhelia formed toward noon ; parselenes and part of a parselenic circle were developed in the evening; much snow fly- 
ing through the air. — December 11: Parhelia and parselenes formed to-day. — Decern her 15: Much mirage to>day. — 
December 17 : Pale aurora began at 9 p. m., lasting notil 3.15 a. m. of December 18. — December 16 : The aurora of yes- 
terday evening continued until 3.15 a. m. of to-day ; an ill-formed arch of an aurora began at 9 p. m., lasting until 11.45 
p. m. — December 19: Pale auroral glow at 9 p. m.— December 20: High storm fh>m the south ; much snow drifted. — 
December 21 : A moderate gale from the southwest ; snow flying furiously. — December 24 : High gusty gale from NE. to 
£. — December 25: A high gale from £. to N£. ; much snow fell. — December26 : Very high tide. — Deoember 27: Strong 
gale from the south. ; high tide at 5.15 p. m; much ice moves off to seaward. — ^December 28: Strong gale from the 
southwest ; sr.ow drifted furiously. — December 29 : Aurora at 10.15 p. m., lasted until 7.20 a. m. of Deoember 30. — 
December 30 : Aurora of yesterday lasted until 7.20 a. m. of to-day ( an aurora of little intensity from 8.25 p. m. lasted 
until 7.15 a. m. of December 31. — December 31 : Aurora of yesterday lasted until 7.15 a. m. of to-day ; a second aurora 
of feeble intensity began at 10.35 p. m., and lasted until 7.35 a. m. of January 1, 1876. The auroras of December, 
1875, have been remarkably low in intensity. 

JANUARY. 1876. 

January 1 : Aurora visible at 1.59 a. ni., lasting until 7.25 a. ui., the continuation ef the one seen yesterday even- 
ing; much mirage to-day. — January 2: Considerable mirage to-day. — January 3: Very gusty gale from the east by 
j^oon — January 4 : Strong gusty gale ; much snow drifted. — January 5 : Strong gusty gale from the southeast. — Janu- 
ary 6 : Very gusty gale from the southeast ; hdow fell. — January 7 : High storm from the south ; much snow drifted ; 
|ce began to move out this evening. — January 8 : Much snow fell, some drifted. — January 9 : Gusty gale from the south 
and southwest; snow drifted furiously. — January 10 : Lunar fog bow with faint supernumerary ; parhelia in p. m. with 
bright vertical beam.— January 11 : Strong gale from the north ; threatened rain. — January 12: Light gale from the east ; 
snow during night.— January 14 : Snow sifted from the sky.—January 15: Irregular gale from the south; much snow 
flying. — January 16: High storm from the south; snow drifted furiously. — January 17: Gusty gale from the south; 
sea-ice all gone excepting that in the bay.— January 18 : High gale from the south ; all the sea-ice gone, an occurrence 
rarely known at this season. — ^January 19: Hard gale from the southwest ; much snow in large flakes fell.— Jannsry 
20: Strong gale from the south west. >- Jan nary 22: Gusty gale from the south^ increased to a high storm ; indistinct 
auroral arch obscured by clouds this evening. — January 24: Hard gale from the north.^January 25 : Gusty gale 
from the south ; auroral arch at 7 a. m., lasting until 8.20 a. m.— January 26 : Terrific gale from the south ; very gusty. — 
January 27: Hard gale, with much flying snow. — January 28 : Pale auroral arch from 1.59 a. m. to 7.15 a. m. — Janu- 
ary 29: Pale aurora at 7 a. m. ; auroral haze at 10.15 p. m., dibappearing at 11.15 p. m.— January 30: Light gale from 
K. to N£.— January 31 : Gusly gale fiom eabt ; auloral arch at 7 a. m. ; lasting until 8.10 a. m.; very bright display. 

F£BHUARY, 1876. 

February 3 : Faint auroral arch from 7 a. ui. to 7.45 a. m. — February 8 : Brisk gale from northeast made the snow 
fly.— February 9: Gusty gale from N. to N£. ; much snow flyiug. — February 13: Light gale from the north; aurora^ 
haze from 7 to 7.35 a. m. — February 15 : Auroral haze from 8.30 p. m. to 10.15 a. m. — February 17 : An aurora of mod- 
erate intensity, forming an arch from 8.35 p. m. to 8.10 a. m. of February 18.— February 18 : The aurora of yesterday 
evening lasted until 8.10 a. m. to-day ; aurora from 7.30 p. m. lasting until 7.45 a. m. of February 19; thiq aurora formed 
an arch, having slight disturbances on the eastern end. — February 19 : Anrora of yesterday evening lasted until 7.45 
a. m. of to-day ; aurora of a siugle arch from 8.15 p. m. to midnight. — February 21 : Bright parhelia and halo at noon. — 
February 22: Fog bow during the middle of the day.— February 23 : Dark-edged halo of 22 degrees around sun. — 
February 24 : Variable gale from the south ; snow fell and much drifting occurred.— February 25 : Snappy gale of 
variable rate from N. to N£. ; a fririous snow-storm prevailed.— February 26 : Part of a halo and parhelia toward noon* 

MARCH, 1876. 

March 2 : Gusty gale from the northeast ; snow flying furiously. — March 3 : Small lunar halo of 22 degrees in the 
evening. — March 4 : Strong gusty gale from the northeast; considerable snow falling and drifting. — March 5 : Considera- 
ble thaw.— March 6 : Strong gale from £. to N£. ; snow drifted ; bright lunar halo of 22 degrees at midnight. — March 
7 : Hurricane gusts from S£. to S. ; snow flyiug furiously. — March 8 : Irregular gale rate from S. to £. ; snow and rain 
fell in light character.— March 11: Suow flying furiously; gorgeous sunrise. — March 12: Snow fell and drifted. — 
March 14: Gusty gale from the southwest.— March 17: Gusty gale from the north. — March 18: Light gale from the 
north. — March 19 : Light gale from K. to N£.— March 21 : Much drifting snow. — March 25 : Aurora of two arches, 
upper faint, appeared at 9.20 p. m., lasting until 1.30 a. m. of March 26. — March 26: Aurora of yesterday continued 
uvtil 1.30 a. m. of to-day ; a pale arch of an aurora visible from 10 p. m. to 4.30 a. m. of March 27. — March 27 : The 
aurora of yesterday lasted until 4.30 a. m. of to-day ; aurora this evening lasting from 9.40 p. m. to 11.15 p. m. — March 
28: Auroral arch at 10 p. m., became very bright at 11 p. m., continuing until 4.35 a. m. of March 29. — March 29 : 
Aurora of last night continued until 4.35 a. m. to-day. — March 31 : Considerable fine snow sifted to-day. 



OONTBIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 23 

APRIL, 1876. 

April 1 : Slight melting. — April 2 : Melting in middle of day.— April 3 : Much snow drifted to-day.— April 4 : 
Snow melted greatly. — April 5: Light gale, and drifting snow from the sonthwest. — ^April6: Considerable fog over 
the hills. — April 7: Mirage of slight intensity.— April 8: Much vertical mirage.— April 9: Considerable thaw to-day. — 
April 10: Light gale from the northeast. — April 11: Deposits of frost on everything. — April 13: Much thaw in 
middle of day. — ^April 15: Light snow in thin films fell.— April 17: Pale solar halo with parhelia.— April 18: Much 
melting of snow. — ^April 20: Gasty gale from N£. to £.; much thaw. — April 21: Light gale fh>m £. to SE. — April 
22: Several of the imperfectly migratory birds have b%come quite numerous, such as Lagapva lagopus, AcantkU linaria, 
and Plectrophenax nivalis; mnch melting of the snow brings these birds to the coast.— April 23 : Heavy fall of snow ; 
traders report the snow of ^the interior to be rapidly melting. — ^April 24 : Much fine snow fell. — April 25 : Large flakes 
of snow fell abundantly. — ^April 26: Extremely heavy fall of large snow-flakes; I observed a chickadee on one of 
the houses. — April 27 : Arrival of a trader, from the Kuskokvim River, who reports the appearance of geese and ducks in 
that vicinity. — April 30 : Much snow having fallen in the past week has prevented migratory birds from appearing. 

MAY, 1876. 

May 1 : A light gale from the north. — ^May 2 : Much snow fell and drifted. — ^May 3 : Strong gale from the 
north. — May 4: Arrival of a trader, who reports warm, spring-like weather at the Yukon delta, with an abundance of 
geese and ducks.— May 9: Arrival of the first geese. — May 13 : Lowest barometer read 28.740 to day. — May 25: Snow 
has nearly all gone ; ice in the bay and to seaward is nearly all gone. 

JUNE, 1876. 

June 9: Gusty gale from S. to SW. — June 11: Much ice returned to the bay. — June 12: Dense fog; whales, 
Orca padfiea{1)f were seen in the large hole in the ice in the bay. — June 13 : Light gale from the southwest ; dense fog 
prevailed. — June 14 : Dense fog ; ice in the bay nearly gone.— June 16 ; Dense fog ; several white whales, Delphinapterug 
oatodoWf were seen to-day; herring came at 6 a. m. to-day in great numbers. — June 17: Ice still remains in the 
vicinity. — June 18: Dense fog. — June 19: Light rain ; dense fog in p. m; mnch ice, in the form of a belf<, at sea.— 
June 20 : Kain of light character; we planted garden-seeds May 28 ; the young vegetables look verj' promising.— 
June 21: Densest fog. — June 23: Traders from the head of the Yukon district arrived to-day.— June 24 : Den^e fog.— 
June 25: Arrival of a vessel from San Francisco; the remainder of the boats belonging to the different trading 
stations of this district arrived to-day. — June 28: Hard, dashing rain, accompanied by thunder and lightning ; 
temperature rose to 75^ ; arrival of steamer St. Paul. — June 30 : Hard rain, with thunder and lightning. 

JULY, 1876. 

July 1: Light rain ; mist in middle of day. — July 2: Gusty gale from N. to NE. ; heavy rain fell. — July 4: Light 
gale from SE. to S. ; light shower of rain. — July 10: Very high tide at 8.40 a. in. — July 11: Dense fog.— July 14: 
Very gusty gale. — July 15: Light to moderate rain. — July 16: Gusty gale from the southeast. — July 17: Light gale 
from the southeast. — July 18: Strong gale from the south. — July 19: Hard, gusty gale from the south; light 
showers. — July 20: Gusty storm of wind and rain from S. to E. — July 21: Gusty gale from SE. to S. ; intervals of 
light rain. — July 22: Light rains ; the boats loaded for the distant stations of this district have been detained eleven 
days by the strong winds. — July 26: Light rain. — July 30: Rather hard rains.— July 31 : Moderate rain at intervals. 

AUGUST, 1876. 

August 2: Rain of hard character. — August 3 : Rain of light character. — August 4 : Showery in p. m. — August 5: 
Hard dash of rain fell as snow on the hills. — August 6: Frost during the night. — August 10: Light rain. — August 11: 
Moderate rain. — ^August 12: Hard dash of rain. — August 13: Halo around sun. — August 14: Light rain; gusty gale 
from N. to NW. — August 17: Light rain. — August 18: Moderate rain. — August 19: Light rain; very high tide at 
7.10 a. m. — August 20 : Light to hard rain ; very gusty from the southwest. — August 21 : Misty rain ; great numbers 
of migratory birds have departed within the past week; the list includes terns, sparrows, and swallows. — August 
23: Heavy dew. — August 25: During the past ten days we have enjoyed an abnndarce of bine- berries, salmon -berries, 
and cow-berries, forming an agreeable addition to our plain fare. — Augnst 27 : Several boats arrived from the Yukon 
delta ; the men report mnch rain during this month. — August 29: Dense fog in a. ni. ; bright display of aurora this 
evening, forming a complete veil over the northern heavens, notable for the rapid changes from one form to another ; 
the aurora was so low that a dense cumulo stratus cloud was visible beyond the aurora at times. 

SEPTEMBER, 1876. 

* September 1 : Light rain in p. m. — September 2 : Moderate rain in p. m. — September 3 : Heavy showers in night. — 
September 4: Gusty gale from E. to S. ; hard dashes of rain. — September 5 : Gentle showers to moderate rain. — Sep- 
tember 6 : Moderate rain. — September 7 : Light showers.- September 11 : Light rain. — September 12 : Finn display of 
upper clouds.— September 13: Surging gale from SE. to S. ; very high tide. — September 14: Light gale from the 
southeast. — September 15 : Heavy rain.— September 16 : Light rain. — September 17 > Very disagreeable and damp. — 
September 18 : Light rains. — September 19: Drizzly rains; snow fell on the hills. — September 20: Light rains. — 
September 21 : Light rain; heavy snow fell on the hills. — September 22 : Moderate rain. — September 23 : Few pelleta 



24 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

of sleet fell; ebarp freeze: ice Dearly half an ineh thick on the freeh- water pools. — September 25: A faint auroral 
glow fro;n 8 p. m. to 10 p. m.^September 26: Light Bpit of snow; brilliant anrora. — September 27: Light rains; 
aurora of yesterday continued until 4 a. m. of to-day.— September 38 : Solar halo of 22 degrees; frost and ice. — Sep- 
tember 30 : Heavy snow fell to the eastward. 

OCTOBER, 1876. 

October 1 : Solar and Innar halo. — October 2 : Light gale from N£. to £. ; moderate rain in p. m. — October 3 : 
Heavy rain; high tide. — October 4: Light to moderate rain. — ^ctober 5: Fog in p. m. ; large flock (about seventy- 
five individuals) of Sabine gulls {Xema sahinii) flew past this place and to the northward; this is a rare bird in 
this vicinity, and rarely more than one individual is seen at a time. — October 6: Densest fog; light spit of snow.— 
October 7: Rain of light character began late in night. — October 6: Moderate to hard rain; very low tide; water 
15^ feet below mean tide. — October 10 : Unusually brilliant aurora, greatly obscured by clouds ; rain late in p. m. — 
October 11 : Moderate rain. — October 15: Gusty gale from the north; faint anrora in evening. — October 16: Gusty 
gale from the north. — October 16 : Two to three inches of ice on the lakes ; ice has also formed where the sea-spray has 
dashed on the rocks of the beach. — October 18 : Great numbers of large gulls (Larui harroviannuM and lemcapieru9) have 
been seen to-day. — October 20: Brilliant aurora revealed through a rift in the clouds.— October 24: Several gulls of 
the species mentioned October 18 have been seen to-day. — October 26 : Light spit of snow. — October 28 : The gulls 
previously mentioned have been numerous to-day. — October 29: Ice beginning to form in the bay .--October 31 :. Ice 
formed on the bay so thick that a couple of people crossed on it. 

NOVEMBER, 1876. 

. November 1: Strong gusty gale from S. to S£. ; ice in the bay taken out by the wind ; rain and sleet of light 
character. — ^November 4 : Light gale from NW. to N. ; snow fell heavily in the distance ; ice in the bay forming* 
rapidly. — November 5 : Low gale from the north. — November 7 : Strong gale from the south ; a larger part of the ice 
was carried out ; snow fell and drifted. — ^November 8 : Snow late in p. m. — November 9 : Misty, freezing to the grasses 
and weeds; ice again went out of the bay. — November 10: Misty, with intervals of snow-sqoalls. — November 12: 
Aurora began to show at 5.24 p. m. as a light. haziness, which gradually became denser, forming an arch at 7.10 p. m., 
on which beams danced with incredible velocity from E. to W. and vice rerra, with an irregular flapping up and down ; 
the colors were pale greenish-yellow above and deep purple below; the center of the arch for its entire length was 
yellowish, with a margin of about 16 degrees in width of green to deepest yellow, while below, for about 25 degrees, 
the edging was blue, green, purple, red, and yellow at difterent times ; when an intense wave would start from near 
the eastern end and rush rapidly along the arch all the colors listed above would shine vividly and in such quick 
succession that it was at times impossible to keep account of their changes; the dark segment was ill-defined ; the 
display lasted until 11.50 p. m.^November 15: Pale aurora from 6.10 p. m. to 9.25 p. m. — November 16: Pale aurora 
from 6.20 p. m. to 10 p. m. — November 17 : Pale aurora formed an arch, lasting from 5.50 to 11.10 p. m. ; at 4.24 p. m. 
I was startled by two flashes of light, which, to a great degree, dimmed the flame of an argand burner on the lamp ; 
I immediately ran to the window to look for fire, but seeing none, I rushed out of the house, and looking in the W. 
NW., i. e., 23^ N. of W., saw an irregular streak of fire perpendicular to the earth; below this was a second and a 
third below that ; the first streak at an altitude of 28^, and was about 2^Sy long and 12^ wide, then at a space of 3^ 
began the second or middle streak, having the same length and width as the upper ; the third or lower was like the 
middle streak, excepting It was shorter and much brighter ; all had the peculiar bright white light of the sun, not 
yellowish, like the moon ; I immediately ran to tell Mr. Neumann, who lives in the next house ; he was huntiug his 
hat to come and tell me that he had seen it fall ; he described it as descending slowly in a zigzag manner, as indi- 
ated by its path, and that it seemed to swell and shrink in size in falling; he described the size of the meteor to 
be about the size of the moon, and that the outlines were very irregular ; we watched the light from iJH p. m. 
to 5 p. m., at which time the upper streak had faded out of sight ; the middle streak had moved westward (nearly 
northward) 10 degrees and was now inclined to the horizon ; the third or lower streak was also inclined to the horizon, 
and moving to the westward ; the middle one had now taken the exact shape of the hull of a large vessel, and was 
plainly distinguishable as well-defined cirri streaks in daytime ; the lower streak faded out at 5.35 p. m. ; the middle 
or hull-shaped one lasted until 5.46 p. m., or a total time of one hour and twenty-two minutes; this meteor was 
witnessed by three white men, including myself; many natives also saw the meteor, and were greatly frightened. — 
November 18: Auroral haze in early evening, obscured by clouds. — November 20: Light spit of snow. — November 25: 
Pale halos and parselenes.— November 26: Air full of frozen vapor, making a pale halo and parhelia; a pale aurora 
from 7 to 7.25 a. m. ; pale auroral arch at 6.25 p. m.— November 27: Aurora of yesterday evening continued until 7.30 
a. m. to-day.— November 30 : Lunar halo all night. 

DECEMBER, 187a 

December 1: Much snow flying. — December 2: Cold, gusty gale from the north; snow fiying; imperfect solar 
halo and parhelia. — December 7: Strong gale from the south; much drifting snow. — December 9: Snow fell and 
instantly drifted.— December 11: Strong gale from the northeast ; snow drifted furiously; pale aurora from 5.10 to 
8.10 p, m. — December 15: Air full of frost spiculie ; snow fell. — December 18: Faint auroral glow hidden by clouds. 
— December 20: Strong Riisty gale from the south. — December 21: Strong gale from N. to NE.; Snow and rain fell, 
light in character.— December 26: Brilliant lunar coronte. — December 27: Much mirage. — December 30: Air full of 
frost films. — December 31 : Parhelia at noon. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 25 

JANUARY. 1877. 

January 1 : Terrible storm to a hurricane rate of wind from the north ; snow drifted forionsly ; bright parhelia 
and parselenes. — Jaunary 2: Terrible storm rate of wind from the north ; parhelia and parselenes. — January 3: Very 
high gale from the north; the arrival of traders from the Kuskokvim River was a pleasant surprise to-day; the 
traders report much rain and snow; bard rains near the winter solstice took off all the snow and made the river rise 
so high that many natives fled to the higher lands ; the month of November, 1676, was very cold and caused much 
distress among the natives ; along the Ynkon delta was much snow and generally mild weather ; fur-bearing animals 
are rei)orted to be abundant ; th^se traders express the severity of the wind and cold on the first of this month as being 
extreme. — January 5: Pale auroral arch of little change from 8.30 p. m., lasting until 7.25 a. m. of January 6. — Jan- 
nary 6: High, gnsty gale fVom K. to N£.; much horizontal mirage daring the morning ; auroral haze from 5.10 p. m. . 
to 11 p. m. — January 8: Moderate snow fell. — January 9: Heavy snow fell. — January 11: Terrible snow-storm from 
the high winds driving the recently-fallen snow. — January 12: Light gale from the south ;* little snow fell. — January 
15: Much fine snow sifted during the day. — January IQ: Variable gale from the south, with drifting snow. — January 
17: Strong gale from the south; temperature rose to 41^; snow much melted. — January 18: Violent gusts of a hur- 
ricane rate from the south ; ice carried high on the beach by the tide and wind. — January 20: Bxtremely beautiful 
forms of upper clouds to-day were the admiration of all who witnessed them. — January 21: Pale lunar corona. — Jan- 
uary 22: Fine snow of delicate prisms sifted from the sky ; pale lunar corona in the evening. — January 23: Faint halo 
of 22 degrees around the moon. — January 24 : Faint lunar halo of 22 degrees. — January 25 : Great amount of frost spic- 
ulsB deposited on everything ; these spicule frequently attain a length of 2 inches and form a beautiful scene when the 
sun shines on them. — January 27^ Solar and lunar halo of 22 degrees. — January 28 : Parhelia at 11 a. m.-— January 30 
Many frost films in the air. 

FEBRUARY, 1877. • 

February 1: Light fog in middle of day; pale, white halo around the sun. — February 2: Temperature, 41^. 5; 
pale anroraof two arches from 5.24 p. m., obscured by clouds at 10.30 p.m. — Februarys: Pale halo at noon; slight 
mirage ; pale aurora, with well-defined dark segment from 8.30 p. m. to 10 p.m., and then obscured by clouds. — Feb- 
ruary 4 : Light to a gusty gale from N. to N£. ; snow drifted furiously ; a bright vertical beam 10 degrees in length' 
passed over the moon's disk in the evening. — February 5 : Solar halo and parhelia. — February 7 : Parhelia at 11 a.m. — 
February 8 : Parhelion at 11 a. m. ; pale auroral arch from 9 p. m. to 11 p. m.— February 9 : Many frost films in the 
air ; parhelia and solar halos. — February 10 : Pale auroral haze from 5.50 p. m. to 11.10 p. m. — February 11: Halo of 22 
degrees around the sun ; beautiful red and gold sunrise ; much mirage. — February 12 : Mirage to a slight degree ; faint 
parhelion at 2 p. m. ; a pale auroral haze at 7 p. m., increased to form an arch at 9.10 p. m., with several sheets of low 
intensity below it at the eastern end ; at 9.30 p. m. signs of breaking into two arches with several patches of less 
intensity trying to form a third arch, at which time only the central arch was perfect ; at 10 p. m. three imperfect 
arches ; at 11 p. m. three full arches of light intensity ; at 1 a. m. of February 13 a broad arch diffused itself 20 degrees 
wide and gradually became narrower to fade out of sight at 5 a. m. — February 13 : Auroral haze began at 6 p. m., last- 
ing until 9 p. m., when it faded out of sight to recur as part of an ellipse and very bright with considerable wavering, 
lasting until 4 a. m. of February 14. — Febmarj- 14 : Much horizontal and vertical mirage; three parhelia and a halo 
from 1 to 4 p. m. ; vertical beam was 8 degrees high at sunset ; contact arch much V-shaped ; pale auroral haze from 
5.50 to 8.10 p. m. — February 15: Much snow flying ; mock suns, parhelia, vertical beam, and a halo during the day. — 
February 17 : Much flying snow ; a vertical beam at sunrise, a pale halo and two parhelia during the day. — February 
18: Parhelia and flying snow films; pale auroral arch from 8.20 p. m. to 11.15 p. m ; minimum' temperature 50^ to- 
day ; I learn from natives living on the north side of Norton Sound that the bright meteor of November 17, 1876, was 
seen all along that coast. — February 19: Temperature low as — 50^, giving a mean temperature for 'the day of — 45°; 
much mirage; pale auroral arch at 9 p. m. — February 21: Auroral arch of coppery color; much vertical and hori- 
zontal mirage to day. — February 22 : A beautiful red sunrise. — February 23 : Much mirage all day. — February 26 : 
much mirage in a. m.— February 27 : Miles of mirage ; part of an eclipse of the moon was observed. — February 28 : 
Much mirage; lunar halo and parselenes at 9 p. m. ; this has been the coldest of all months since I have been here. 

MARCH, 1877. 

March 1 : Pale aurora nearly obscured by clouds ; two species of flies were seen in the house to-day. — March 4 : 
Much mirage. — March 5: Sudden envelopment of fog xrom 2.20 p. m. to 5 p. m. — March 6: Mnch mirage, great 
amount of frost spicnla) on everything |; auroral haze from 9.10 to 10.35 p. m. — March 7: Much mirage. — March 8; 
Brilliant red meteor at 6.40 p. m. in S. 80° W. at an altitude of 20 degrees. — March 9: Much horizontal and little 
vertical milage during the day; an auroral light showed through the clouds at 6.25 p. m. and rapidly advanced 
to 50 degrees south of zenith as a hazy band, with its center over the magnetic meridian ; then a clear space of 20 
degrees wide; at 5 degrees south of zenith a broad, swaying band of 25 degrees wide, composed of vertical beams, 
rushed over the sky fk'om east to west and vice versa with such rapidity that it was at times hardly credible; at 7.20 p. 
m. an attempt was made to form an auroral corona of broken, scattered beams, which whirled in the zenith like a 
whirlpool of water; some of the beams revolving twice round the center, lasting only a minute, to burst out with a 
flash to scamper off to the westward, where the end of the arch was extremely bright; violet, green, blue, red, and 
d ifferent shades of yellow were seen in this display ; at 8 p. m. a broad, surging band of 15 degrees was holding across the 
zenith from east to west, with beams dancing along its length ; at 9 p. m. the aurora was nearly spent and at midnight 

S. Mis. 165 3 



26 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATUBAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

WM preaenting only a faint color, becoming obsonred by tbe clouds. — March 10: A low auroral arch from 9 p. m. to 
11.20p. m. — March 11 : Auroral arch from 9.25 p. ni. ; to 11.50 p. m. ; much mirage.— March 12: Very strong mirage.— 
March 13: Aurora seen through the clouda; mirage at 7 a. m. — March 15: Much mirage. — March 19: Red-poll linnets 
(Acanthis) came to the redoubt to-day; these birds are residents of this vicinity and are only migratory according to 
the exigency of the weather. — March 20: Mu^h mirage. — March 23: Mirage; aurora of five arches; moonlight too 
bright to allow much intensity of color in the aurora. — March 24 : Lunar corona.— March 30: Blight spits of snow. — 
March 31 : Light gale and gusty from NE.to S£. 

APRIL, 1877. 

April 1 : Snow much melted, ground quite bare. — April 2 : Snow fell abundantly on the hill-tops, with rain in tbe 
valleys.— April 3 : Light rains. — April 4 : Light snow ; strong gale from £. to 8£.— April 5 : Light gale from S. to 8£. ; 
ptarmigans and red-poll linnets are quite plentiful ; much of the snow has melted; little snow in large flakes fell. — 
April 6 : Blue-bottle flies were humming round the houses to-day. — April 7 : Auroral arch from SAO to 11 p. m.— April 
8 : Auroral arch from 8.20 to 9.40 p. m., and obscured.- April 9 : Snow fell late in p. m. — ^April 10: Strong gusty gale 
from north.— April 11 : Strong gale from N. to N£ ; sleet fell in small amounts. — April 12 : Light snow-fall. — ^April 13 : 
Sleet and rain of light character. — April 14 : Several spits of snow fell, harder on the hills.— April 17 : Parhelia and a 
halo with faint contact arcs. — ^April 18 : Faint aurora at 11 p. m. — April 19: Solar halo of 22 degrees at 2 p. m; gulls 
are reported to be plentiful outside of Stewart's Island. — April 20 : Arrival of a trader from Nnlato, on the Yukon River; 
states that the portage between that place and here is nearly bare of snow ; the creeks and other streams are full of 
water; that ducks and gulls were seen in that vicinity. — April 21: Light gale from N£. to S£. ; heavy rain in the 
distance. — April 22: Gusty gsle from S£. to 8. ; heavy showers of rain. — April 23: Gale rate of wind from the south ; 
rain fell heavily in the distance. — April 24 : The snow has disappeared as if magic ; much vertical mirage ; a mos- 
quito was seen to-day ; gulls (Larua harraviannua) were seen flying high in the air to-day ; halo round tbe moon. — ^April 25 : 
Arrival of a trader from the Lower Yukon ; reports warm weather with much rain ; geese and other water birds are 
plentiful in that vicinity. — April 27: Several pairs of geese have been seen to- day; I think the absence of snow does 
not favor the arrival of the geese. — April 28: First appearance of the Lapland long-spur (Chloarius lapp<miou$) 
to-day. — April 29: Parhelia with considerable ''tails'' were seen to-day; mirage of varying amounts; a pair of 
ducks was seen ; the first goose was brought in to-day. — April 30 : Many species of ducks, geese, snipe, and other 
water birds have arrived within the last week ; several species of insects have also been observed ; it is considered 
to be a very open spring. 

MAY, 1877. 

May 2 : Halos, parhelia, and contact arcs with a parhelic circle ; the halos of 22 and 46 degrees were well developed ; 
parhelia at 15, 22, 30, 46, and 90 degrees ; the anthelion was extremely bright ; the parhelia at 22 degrees were so bright 
as to rival the sun in splendor. — May 3 : Strong gale from N. to N£. — May 5 : Light rain. — May 6 : Light gale from S£. 
to S ; several spits of snow. — May 7 : High storm from the south ; snow-squalls frequent. — May 8: High gale from 
£. to S£., with light rain. — May 10: Light rain; ice formed in the night. — May 11: Light snow; ice formed last 
night. — May 12 : Ice breaking off and going out to seaward ; little ice made in the fresh-water pools. — May 13 ; 
Heavy snow on the high hills ; sea is reported to be free from ice about 10 miles distant. — May 14 : Much vortical 
mirage. — May 15: Rain and snow fell; ice made in the night. — May 17: Sleet in slight amounts fell.— May 18: Sleet- 
squalls; ice rapidly going out. — May 19: Gusty gale from the southeast; ice all gone.— May 20: Ice-jam in the 
bay. — May 21: Sleet>-8qualls prevailed. — May 22: Light rain; very gusty at times; arrival of swallows {Chelidon 
tryikroga8ter),-'May 28 : Several peals of loud thunder and vivid flashes of lightning in the distance ; few drops of 
rain ; brownish haze has prevailed for several days. 

JUNE, 1877. 

June 1 : Ice moving in from the northeast and northwest ; halo, parhelia, and contact arc. — June 2 : Ice to 
southward all gone. — June 4 : Light rain, fog later. — June 5 : Foggy early.— June 6 : Ice all gone from sight; salmon 
are reported to be plentiful outside the island. — June 9: Rain and hail ; a single peal of thunder. — June 10 : Foggy . 
vegetation rapidly springing up,— June 11 : Traders from the upper part of the district arrive ; reports of early 
spring throughout the district. — June 16 : Many peals of thunder ; rain at noon. — June 17 : Herrings are plentiful 
in the bay.— June 19: Arrival of schooner General Miller from San Francisco via Unalashka.— June 20 : Arrival of 
Loleta from San Francisco. — June 27 : Very hard rain. — June 28 : Moderate rain. 

JULY, 1877. ^ 

July 2: Light rain. — July 3: Moderate rain.— July 5: High winds. — July 6: Frost, gusty gale from the east.— 
July 7 : Moderate gale from S. to N.— July 8 : Irregular rains. — July 10 : Light showers at intervals.— July 11 : Light 
rain.— July 12: Heavy rain. — July 14: High winds; arrival of steamer St. Paul ; orders received from the Office of 
the Chief Signal Officer, U. S. Army, directing me to turn over all property of the United States in my possession to 
Private E. W. Nelson, Signal Corps, U. S. Army, and relieving me from duty at this station ; all property was turned 
over and I proceeded to San Francisco and thence to Washington, D. C. 

The following considerations of the meteorology of the vicinity of Saint Michael, Alaska, are 
intended to convey a general description of the principal features incident to this area. Though 



COlSTTEIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTOET OP ALASKA. 27 

imperfect as the knowledge is, and recogDizing the necessity of carefalness, I shall endeavor to 
present only facts, and leave the more important deductions to be made by those better pre 
to undertake the task. 

The system of observations undertaken by me should not be considered perfect, as I have, in 
a great measure, relied upon my own tact, through an inability to obtain the much-desired instruc- 
tion and advice from the proper authority from the first to the last of my three years', stay at this 
place. 

ATMOSPHEBIO PBESSUBE. 

The variability of pressure at all seasous, depending as it does on the influence of locality, is 
sometimes greatly exteuded, so that a considerable district is included in the area of low pressure 
in summer and generally local in winter, while area of high is usually more restricted. The 
fluctuations of the barometric column are great. Usually a low barometer is preceded by a high 
range, and vice versa. 

The oscillations, considered for a season, are much greater in winter than in summer. At 
times the fall is regularly graduated and at others rapid in extreme, while opposed to this the 
column is sometimes very sluggish, scarcely moving for the entire day. In the winter oscillations 
a rise or fall of seveuty-five hundredths of an inch is recorded several times. 

The average low winter pressure will be found to result more from the quick succession of ^ 
storms than from any other cause. Wave after wave of cold, each succeeded by one of warmer, 
will keep the column in a state of continual oscillation. The fall is usually more noticeable and 
extended in winter during a storm from the north or northeast than from any neighboring effect of 
heat. 

The oscillations during a storm correspond to the variable force of the wind, and usually 
coexistent with the greatest force of the wind. 

The extreme height of the barometer is usual in November upon the setting in of winter^ 
reading 30.960j a corresponding low from the increasing heat of summer in May, reading 28.701. 
A continued maximum, when the barometer reads above 30.00, is of frequent occurrence in all 
seasons of the year. A correspon<^ing low prevails to a less degree. Often periods not controlled 
by other than local influences show that the rain-fall begins at one-tenth of an inch below an «. 
assumed mean of 29.700, and the column wavers upward immediately on the fall of the first few 
drops. 

TEMPEBATXTBE. 

The range of temperature, covering the extremes of 76^ in June and — 50^ in February, is 
extremely variable for each month, and this for the different years is irregular. 

Starting from April, we find the mean monthly heat increases almost uniformly to a maxi- 
mum mean of 55^.355 for July and 52^.996 for August, then as steadily declines during the fall and 
winter months, usually reaching its minimum mean in February or March. 

The minimum may occur in either of these months. During the winter the temperature is 
subject to a greater range for each month than in summer. In January a range of 80^ has been 
recorded as the extremes for a month, and in July a range of 32^ was the greatest. Banges 
nearly as great as the former may occur at irregular periods during the winter. The least varia- 
tion between the extreme means for any two days in a month is found usually in August, when 
8^.5 is read, while the greatest variation between the extreme means for any two days in a month 
is found in January, giving a reading of 50<^.75. The greatest monthly variation is found in July, 
with the mean of 55^.355, and February having a mean of — 23^.8, making a difference for the 
extremes for the months of 79^.155. That this latter is exceptional will be seen from the appended 
summary. 

The least daily variation, derived from the maximum and minimum thermometers, shows only 
20.6, while 4^ to 6^ is common. 

HUMIDITY. 

The prevailing high humidness of the air in this locality shows considerable variance between 
the ¥rinter and summer ; in the latter reading occasionally as low as 40 per cent., and usually at 



28 GOBTBIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTOBY OF ALASKA. 

70 per cent reaches its maximom extended period in winter, where for months the record of sat* 
nration is not broken. This is farther proven by the fiict that a piece of ice half an inch in thick- 
ness wiU be two months clinging to an erect pole. The least amount of vapor in the air is recorded 
from 11 a. m. to 3 p. m., or corresponding to the maximum heat for the day. 

This is, I believe, somewhat at variance from the nsaally assumed rule. 

The humidity of the various surface-currents also presents great diiferences. The northeast 
current contains least humidity, though this wind, being the most frequent, presents many 
irregularities. 

Following the card of winds to the south, the humidity increases, while sonth-souihwest 
diminishes to a slight degree. From north back to southwest the humidity increases. Of all the 
winds, the southwest contains the greatest amount of moisture, and is sure to result in rain or fog 
in summer if the wind should back. To this the month of June, 1877, presented some exceptions. 

The wind blew from the southwest during the night, laden with moisture, and backing the fol- 
lowing morning to north or northeast (a warmer wind), brought on fog as a thin stratum, though 
not at any time as it was in former years. 

BAIN. 

Bain usually begins, with low, foggy clouds, precipitating small drops, and generally increasing 
in size to the middle of the shower, then decrease to taper off a longer time than beginning. Mists 
to moderate is the usual character of the showers. Hard dashes seldom occur, and then never 
with that violence that seems to fall on the mainland but few miles distant, or in warmer countries. 
Shower after shower hangs in the neighborhood, rarely approaching within 2 or 3 miles, and 
carried to either side, generally to the west. Thunder and lightning seldom accompany these 
showers. Only once has a shower, accompanied by vivid lightning and loud thunder, passed over- 
head, and then rivaled a thunder-storm of the Middle States. Thunder is sometimes beard in the 
neighborhood, though not more than three or four times on an average in a year. Lightning is 
yet rarer. The greatest amount of rain usually falls in August, and for any one day the greatest 
recorded depth is .83 inch, while showers are frequent that give «1 to .3 inch. 

Bain occurs every December upon the winter solstice. The exposed thermometer has read 24^, 
while rain during this period occurred. 

nail from a heavy cumnlo-stratns cloud has twice fallen, and was restricted to an area of prob- 
ably less than 3 square miles. No visible electric display accompanied these falls. The latest 
rains that fall are frozen the instant they touch the earth, these occurring in October or November. 

I have thought that it is probably a provision of nature to overload the weeds and grasses to 
break them to the ground, that the seeds may be more protected from cold by the approaching 
winter's snow. 

SNOW. 

Snow usually falls in moderate quantities. A depth of over a foot has occurred but twice in 
three years. A hard wind generally accompanies the storm, so that it is usually drifted the instant 
it touches the ground. It may fall in any month but July. 

Once the old and new snow met on the highest hilltops. Varied forms of flakes are met, but 
usually the compound flakes are precipitated upon a high temperature, while the smaller kinds 
fall during cold. Often fine flour like particles are sifted from a thin veil of cirro-stratus and thin 
stratus; this rarely exceeds one-tenth of an inch in depth. During clear weather frost-crystals sift 
from the sky and can only be recognized by looking over the top of a building while the comb of 
the roof hides the sun. It is probable that the greater part of these frost films do not reach the 
ground, as all my endeavors to collect them on black paper in a situation well guarded against 
currents of air were fruitless. Sometimes when a crust is formed on the snow, the heat absorbed 
into the earth through the snow liberates vapor, which, emerging through the snow, is crystallized 
in long spicnleB like a forest of feathers, minature ferns, and palm leaves. 

In February, 1875, 1 noticed' a Y-shaped halo on the ice below me, and extending a great 
distance, regularly diverging with the apex toward me. I now venture to suggest that these 
frost-crystals on the ice might produce such refraction and reflection. 



OONTBIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTOBT OP ALASKA. 29 

Frost spicalsB attain a length of 2 inches during a temperatare between zero and melting- 
point of ice and a light southwest wind. These grow on all objects, though on posts, palings, 
feathers and hairs the most beautiful needles are formed. They are generally broken off by 
a succeeding wind. 

The results obtained from measurements of snow have been very much less than the actual 
amount. Ko sooner does a snow begin to fall than a wind will drift it into the sea or interior. 
The annual fall is probably not one-half ao great on this part of the coast as it is in the interior 
but few miles. 

I estimate that only about three-fifths of the true amount has been recorded, so deficient have 
been the snow measurements. It has a range of seventy degrees of temperature for falling. 
Large fiakes, almost snow-balls, have fallen when the exposed thermometer read 40^, and the 
lowest has been— 30o. 

The greater amount of snow falls in March, and as this month is the windiest, it is very 
evident that the foregoing statement may be correct. I estimate, roughly of course, that the 
snow-fall of winter is fully one-third greater than the rain-fall for summer. 

DEW. 

Dew is not often noticed, probably from the fact of the short nights during the period 
that dew should fall. It is most often noticed in August and September, sometimes forming 
copiously. 

Foa. 

Fog is rare in winter and more common in summer, as often the result of the low descent of 
clouds as to the effect of the intermingling of two currents of air having different temperatures. 
Fog-patches 'are often seen on the low grounds. A general fog attends the breaking up of the ice 
in spring, and is said to be an index to the breaking up of the ice in the Yukon Biver. On two 
occasions this has been verified. 

The fog-cloud seldom lasts longer than a day, still more often for only a few hours, thoagh 
intervals of more or less density have prevailed for two or three days. A wind backing to the 
soAthwest after a warm spell usually produces the most persistent fog. 

CLOUDS. 

Situated as this part of the country is, and partaking the nature of both a marine and con- 
tinental climate, the amount of cloudiness is not so great, after taking an extended period into 
consideration. 

The proportion of cloudiness is taken at 2 p. m. ; about equal to the amount of clear and fair 
days taken at the same hour of the day. 

From June to November the amount of entire cloudiness consumes about two-thirds of the 
time. 

From November to March the number of clear days equal at least those of cloudy, while fair 
days are proportionate equally to either. 

The ratio of clear to cloudy is one to three, while fair stands two to three. To be plainer, one 
day in six is clear, two fair and three cloudy, when taken for an extended period. 

The greatest number of clear days occur in November and February ; the latter somewhat in 
excess of the former month. 

STRATUS. 

I have divided the stratus cloud according to its apparent height by a qualifying word. 

This cloud, usually low or at a medium height, presents its characteristic color. Variability 
of color is recordied whenever occurring. 

Sometimes in moderate weather the color assumes the deepest blue-black, having this color 
more intensely than in any other form of cloud. 

Stratus prevails to a greater extent than any other cloud, often continuing for nearly a month 



30 OOKTBIBUTION8 TO THE NATURAL HISTOBT OP ALASKA. 

at a time. Stratus and nimbus are so intimately related that to separate them would add con- 
fusion, and I have used the term nimbus for an actual raining-clond. From these two kinds the 
greater part of the precipitation falls, excepting the finest particles of snow. 

CUMULO-STEATUS. 

Cumnlostratus, attendant upon the warmest days of summer, is the most prevalent cloud 
during that season, and attains the magnitude it does in warmer latitudes. Far in the edge of 
the east or south horizon, several small, firmly-outlined clouds will expand to overspread the 
greater part of the heavens by 2 p. m., and from these the most copious showers of rain fall. The 
height of this cloud is from 2,000 feet to about 2 miles, usually of blue color and white edges. 

CUMULITS. 

Cumuli are classed as belonging to the lower system of clouds, and rarely present any other 
appearance than extraordinary cumulo-stratus. But few distinctions have been made in the daily 
journal between these two clouds. 

True cumuli rarely approach nearer than 6 to 10 miles, and more often the heads of the 
clouds are but little raised above the horizon. These clouds are principally formed in the south- 
east and west-southwest. 

I noticed rain to pour from one of these clouds in June, 1875, for several hours on the main- 
laud, about 20 miles distant, and accompanied by thunder and lightning. 

The usual color is dark blue to bright indigo, and occasionally silver-edged. 

OIBBO-STBATTIS. 

Cirro-stratus is not often observed, and is usually the result of rapidly descending cirri. 
Stratus and cirro-stratus are at times scarcely distinguishable. Snow in finest, round, firm rifts 
form this cloud in winter. The usual color is grayish. 

to 

PALLIO-CIEBITS. 

This cloud forms itself in such an incredibly short time as to give but little time for its study • 
it disappears as suddenly. Usually perfect, and really an exaggerated form of low globular cirro- 
cumulus, rarely moves from any other point than north or south, and is almost certain to result 
in snow. It seldom remains longer than three hours, and but once hung for three days, this sel- 
dom attaining sufficient density to veil the sun, and presents that singular phenomenon of sunshine 
and clouds. It has a pale-blue rounded form and white-edged, seemingly in a state of repulsion. 

CIBEO-CUMTJLI. 

The prevailing forms of this cloud are the apparent converging bauds, often of the greatest 
delicacy of texture. 

On one occasion eleven perfect bands were seen, and four to seven being common. These 
bands usually extend due east and west, moving from south, rarely from north; and northwest 
and southeast, moving from northwest, rarer still north and south, moving from either point, 
though more frequently from south ; and southwest and northeast from either point, though most 
frequently from northeast. * 

These bands most often extending east and west is probably due to the indrawing effect of 
the ascending and descending currents near this latitude. 

Broken bands and irregular forms are common. One of these irregular forms is like a wall of 
masonry with the mortar left out, and, if in the east or west near the time of sunrise or sunset, it 
is most beautifully tinted with a rather deep pink, forming a splendid spectacle. 

The cirro-cumulus cloud has a great range through the atmosphere of probably 1 to 4 miles. 
Their color is usually pale pearly-blue to white. 



OONTBIBUTIONS TO THE NATUEAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 31 

OIBBI. 

The prevailing forms of this doad are pencil-streaks and whirls. Many modifications occur, 
which bring the cirri and cirro-cumalus in such close relationship that it is often a matter of nice 
discrimination to separate them. In this condition they are recorded as intermixed. This condi- 
tion may continue for several days with not another cloud to be seen, and calm to gentle surface- 
currents, while the two clouds are being rapidly hurled from north to south, or, more commonly, 
vice versa. 

Above this intermixture and the upper limits of the cirri are multitudinous modifications of 
the primary cirri. Among these the principal varieties are jelly-fish (usually head to the wind), 
horsetails (rare), wisps, plumes, and filoplumate curls, pectinate and double pectinate; forms like 
the blur of a moderately -stretched cord having locks of loose cotton closely arranged on it and the 
string put in motion with a twang of the finger. This appears to be the pencil and curl cloud 
interformed. 

Many other varieties, such as the fancy can suggest, are also seen. The cirro-cumuli and cirri 
in this latitude presents such attractive forms that the pen cannot describe and only the most 
skillful brush portray. 

Pale, scarcely distinguishable cirri rapidly form the frayed curl cloud, descend through the 
cirro-cumulus region, seem to miss the cirro-stratus, and form stratus in such a shoii; time that it 
is hardly credible, fiain in the summer or snow in winter is sure to result from this rapid descent. 

SUNSET SHADOWS. 

Sunset shadows are seldom seen, and more rarely perfect. On one occasion eleven perfect 
bands or fingers were seen to point to the zenith when the sun was within 2 degrees of setting. 

GLEAB WEATHER. 

The sky is often clear of clouds for days at a time, especially in the months of J^ovember and 
February ; clear days occur rarely in the summer, and are then pleasant in the extreme. 

I have entered only absolutely clear weather as clear, or with such few exceptions as will 
readily show themselves. 

WINDS. 

In the earlier months of my stay at this station 1 recorded the winds in their subdivisions of 
the eight principal points of the compass, but later I have disregarded this on account of the 
extreme unsteadiness of all winds. 

The oscillations of the vane are extremely rapid, and covering on one occasion a range of 180 
degrees, while the usual swing is 15 to 80 degrees, 45 being common; steadiness of the vane being 
very rare, and then only in light to fresh winds. 

SURFACE-CURRENTS. 

North wind. — This wind prevailing in the southwest and westerly quadrants of storms, has a 
general tendency to veer, and often, by its extreme unsteadiness, oscillates ft-om north 18^ degrees 
W, to NNE., or even to BNE. It blows for days together without a sign of cloud. Its velocity 
is extremely variable, from light breeze to a terrific hurricane. 

In October it blows for weeks at a rate of from 15 to 70 miles per hour, while for the other 
seasons its average rate is about 34 miles. During the prevalence of this wind fair to clear 
weather obtains. This wind is taken as the standard for relative frequency, and will be considered 
as the unit of ratio. 

The temperature of this wind is low. 

Northeast uAnd, — The northeast current so nearly resembles that of the north that to separate 
them is more convenient than advisable. The oscillations of the vane, during high winds from this 
point, cover two-thirds of the oscillations for the north wind, besides having its own tendency to 
eastward. Its velocity is usually about 31 miles, and ranges from light to highest storm-rate. 



32 OONTRIBTJTIONS TO THE NATUBAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

This wind is the most freqaent^ and has the ratio of two to one of the north wind. Its temper- 
ature is higher than that of the north wind. 

East tpind. — ^A dae east wind seldom prevails, as it has an east-northeast or east-southeast 
tendency. It seldom lasts longer than one day, and usually for only a few hours, as it is in general 
only blowing during the passage of northeast to south. Its velocity is high, about 28 miles per 
hour, and on two occasions has exerted itself to a hurricane-rate, once of 86 miles and at another 
time of highest storm-rate. Its temperature is warm, generally pleasant. 

It has the ratio of five-tenths to that of the north wind. 

Southeast wind. — The wind prevails from this point sa seldom, and often in the relapse of the 
north quadrant of storms, or else when the northeast wiod is veering to south for a long period. 

This is the warmest of all the winds, and raises the temperature many degrees in spring, at 
the season when this wind occurs most often, and attaining its greatest violence, sometimes that 
of a hurricane-rate to that of highest gale. It is intimately connected with the south wind. 

Exceptions hold this wind for thirty hours, but the average duration is not longer than five 
hours, with an average rate of 35 miles, always having a tendency to veer. It has a ratio of .25 
to the north wind. 

South wind. — ^The surface current from this point is the most frequent of the southerly winds. 
It is the great current pushing toward all the storm centers of Northern Alaska. For days in 
winter, and longer in summer, it will hurl masses of air at least a mile deep, ' and often 4 miles 
deep, northward, at a rate of 50 miles per hour, and for hours asserts its terrific hurricane strength 
of 85 to over 100 miles per hour. A short lull usually occurs in the center of these storms. The 
vane is comparatively steady, considered for hours, but has sometimes a backing or veering tend- 
ency, or even both, of 20 or 25 degrees on either side of south. 

To this wind we owe our very existence in this country. By its power the ice is forced 
through the straits. The tides caused by this wind raise up and break the otherwise firmly 
bound shore-ice. Our annual supply of wood is thrown on shore by this wind and its accompany- 
ing tides. 

The temperature of this wind is higher than any other wind, excepting the southeast. It has 
about the same frequency as the north wind. 

Southwest unnd. — This wind, occurring so frequently and usually the resting point for backing 
winds from the northeast, has a ratio of four-fifbhs to one of the north wind for frequency. Being 
most often the result of a backing wind, it has the efifect to reduce the temperature 15 to 20 
degrees. By its low temperature it causes the greater amount of fog at this place. It always 
has a tendency to veer, rarely backs, and especially to veer if the wind should hack to this point. 
Its rate is usually 30 miles per hour, and very seldom blows over 50 miles per hour. 

West wind. — ^This wind, usually prevailing in that quarter only temporarily, and from a backing 
wind, has an effect to lower the temperature, but if veering to raise it. This wind, usually fresh 
to brisk, has but once reached a gale rate of 55 miles per hour. It has a ratio of .25 to one of the 
north wind. 

Northwest unnd. — ^This is intimately connected with the west wind, and like it usually tempo- 
rary in that point for only a short time, and usually the result of backing. Its temperature is low. 
Its ratio to the north wind is as one-^fth to one. 

The rate of the wind is inconsiderable, seldom over a brisk rate, and its highest recorded 
velocity is 48 miles an hour. 

That the westT and northwest winds should occur most frequently I am led to infer from the 
fact that during the winter of my first year at this station a delegate was sent from the neigh- 
boring native village to request me to turn the dial of the anemometer so that it should face the 
west, as it faced east-northeast, as the reindeer in moving go against the wind, and that would 
bring them to this part of the coast. 

After some parley I convinced the native that the machine did not make the wind. I never 
heard anything more about it. 



CONTEIBUTIONS TO THE NATUEAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 33 

GENERAL REMARKS CONCERNING THE WIND. 

The intermediate winds have been left out, and included in the remarks for the eight principal 
points. A few remarks concerning the surface winds will not be out of place. 

The effect of backing, if on the west side, is to lower the temperature; hence to veer on that 
side is to raise the temperature. 

To veer on the east side is to raise the temperature ; to back is to lower the temperature. 
The ratio or frequency of veering or backing is greater for the latter. A view of the " summary '^ 
will show the number of times of frequency from all recorded points of the winds. 

Upper currents. — ^Of these there are four, of which the one from the south is the most frequent? 
and probably equal to that of all others. The north current is the next most frequent ; then is 
followed by one from southeast and one from northwest, the former iu excess of the latter for 
number of times. 

At times streams of upper clouds are carried from soutli for days and even weeks at a time ; 
even if the lower sky should be clouded for a time during this period, I have reason to believe that 
the upper current has not been interrupted. 

During the latt<er days of my stay I began to foretell changes of wind on the surface from north 
to south by these upper clouds moving from north. It has but rarely failed unless the whole 
mass of the atmosphere was to move from the south. 

TIDES. 

Tides forming a part of my regular observations, demand attention. The observations have 
beeu most of the time without a proper gauge, as the bottom in the arm of the sea here consists 
of fine volcanic gravel and ashes, which make a very unstable foundation for a gauge. The high 
waves have carried out three gauges; hence I have adopted permanent stones and rocks for the 
necessary measurements. 

The effect of the attraction of the sun and moon on the water in Norton Sound is to raise ^ 
tidal wave of about 2^ feet in height. This is proven during periods of comparative quiet, when 
the winds are at rest. 

The winds having a much greater effect will be considered next. 

Starting from the north and northeast, the effect of brisk to high winds continued for two 
days is to lower the water of this part of the sound about 1^ feet, and continues iu this proportion 
for each day of winds from those points, though a northeast wind is more effective than a north 
wind, as will be seen from the trend of the coast and the low pressure to the westward. 

The east wind occurdng but seldom, and never so vigorous as to produce any appreciable 
effect, is left out of the question. 

The southeast wind, holding for two days, by its southward tendency always raises a tide 4 
to 6 feet above mean. .This extreme tide occurs usually in the mouths of May and September. 
The south wind exerts the greatest force, and raises the tidal wave to the extreme of 6 to 7 feet 
above mean tide. 

The hard storm attendant upon the winter solstice produces annually an extreme tide of 7 to 
8 feet. This, and the southeast wind are the opposite iu power to the north and northeast. 

The north wind in the month of October, acquiring a high storm velocity and lasting for 
many days together, throws 7 to 8 feet of water out of Norton Sound. 

The shallowness of the 3-fathom curve bounding this part of the coast, and the low tide, 
would render it very unsafe for any craft to be inside. 

The beach around the island, facing the sea, is narrow, only a few feet, and composed of fine 
volcanic sand, the remains of the solitary basalt-rock which forms the foundation of all this part 
of the coast, and, from its extreme hardness, is well termed iron-bound. 

When I first came here I made notice of certain unchangeable places on the beach, and these 
are now 18 inches above the level taken at that time. 

American traders who have been here ever since the occupation of the Territory concur with 

me in the statement, i, «., that the coast is rising. The natives inform me that many years ago 

an earthquake occurred in this locality and raised the coast several feet in the neighborhood of 

Eeg6khtoak, a village about 18 miles east of this place. The fierce beating of the north and 

8- Mis. 156 5 



34 CONTBIBUTIONS TO THE NATUBAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

northestft winds in October throws huge winnows of sand on the beach, and are not conformed 
with the general level until the following spring. 

It is rare that more than one tide occurs in a day, and in those times is what is termed a 
long and short tide. 

The nsnal time of high water occurs fifty minutes later each day, though there are so many 
exceptions that it cannot be given as a rule. 

For several days the rising of the tide is shortened in time, and floods at nearly the same 
hour for several days. No positive rules can be laid down by me on the tides. 

BAINBOW. 

This spectacle occurs seldom, by reason of the entire cloudiness during rain. In summer the 
bow is sometimes complete, and does not differ from those in lower latitudes. In winter an arc of 
10 to 20 degrees will sometimes be seen, and on one occasion, when only a slight rift toward the 
sun made opposite to it a rainbow whosft length was scarcely half its width. 

In November, 1874, an arc of 15 degrees in height was seen, and besides the primary bow there 
were three supernumerary bows of variable colors, as given in the Journal for that day. 

I can conceive of no more beautiful object in nature than this spectacle so brightly displayed 
agaipst a sky of leaden hue. 

The fog-bow is sometimes seen during the day, and on several occasions after night. Only 
once, and then after night, did it incline toward prismatic coloration, and that of faintest red. 

OOBON.E. 

Goronse have never been seen, excepting surrounding the moon. A white mass of stratus in 
winter, if not of too great density, produces this phenomenon in its greatest brilliancy. The 
different rings are of variable width. 

HAI.OS. 

I shall divide the halos into three classes, according to intensity or absence of coloration. 

A pure white halo of 22 degrees often occurs during a time of clear upper sky and the lower 
atmosphere filled with finest fh>zen fog-like particles. It is probably due to the smallness of 
these particles that the halo is colorless, for the same reason that a fog-bow should be w>hite. 

A second kind of halo occurs frequently, which I have recorded on the Form 4 as a dark halo 
of 22 degrees. It usually occurs during a very dense streaked cirri veil, and increases to such 
density as to obscure the sun. 

In my earlier days I have frequently noticed that if a piece of perfectly clear ice is held at a 
certain angle, and looked through edgewise, it appears black. I now venture to suggest that the 
films of ice in the atmosphere were descending at this angle, and hence the halo appears dark. 
The inner edge of the ring is usually whitish, but the line dividing the dark and white circles is 
very apparent to an observer. 

This halo and the first mentioned halo are always without parhelia or contact arches. 

The third class comprises all the halos that exhibit prismatic colors. 

The sun during the season for this phenomenon does not rise sufficiently above the horizon to 
permit an entire halo of 22 degrees to be observed, but it has frequently descended to the ground 
and not distant half a mile; and was one time, as previously referred to, seen on the ice at a 
diverging angle; probably the reflection of the portion in the air. The halo of 45 degrees has 
been recorded several times. •These two alone present coloration, oftentimes very brilliant, but 
always less so on the one of 45 degrees than on the one of 22 degrees. The parhelic circle has 
been seen complete on two occasions, and always white. 

Parhelia at the intersection of the two halos are common enough ; often the tail is prolonged 
to several degrees. The coloration of these is extremely bright, and sometimes so brilliant as to 
dazzle the eyes. The contact arch is seen only above the sun for reasons stated before. 

These are more noticeable during the descent of frost films, and are best observed by looking 
over the top of a building to hide the sun. 

The <^ horns" are fuUy developed, with the lenticular space well preserved. They exhibit 



CONTEIBUTIOlfS TO THE NATUBAL HISTOET OP ALASKA. 35 

pale, prismatic colors, most often red. Vertical beams are sometimes noticed, bat they rarely 
intersect the halo of 22 degrees. They are more often 5 to 8 degrees above and below the snn or 
moon. Like the parhelic circle, they contain no trace of coloration. The anthelion is seen only 
with the parhelic circle complete. 

In March, 1875, traces of parhelia, on the parhelic circle, indicated the presence of the halo of 
90 degrees radius. In May, 1877, it was more plainly seen. 

MIBAGE. 

I have divided this phenomenon into two kinds, viz, vertical and horizontal, or lateral, the 
vertical mirage being the commoner of the two. 

During the moderately fresh winds, or seasons of calm in winter on clear days, this kind of 
mirage is seen. It lasts with varying intensitj^ for the entire day, often extending along the coast 
for miles. The horizontal mirage is less common and usually weak. Occasionally the high hill- 
tops, off 30 or 40 miles, are thrown into the greatest conftision, or else extended laterally over a 
considerable area, or distorted and broken. 

This kind qf mirage seldom lasts more than half an hour after the sun has risen, and is the 
most intense about half an hour before sunrise. 

The rapidity of motion is greater in the lateral than in the vertical kind. The low coast and 
absence of trees and bare rocks on the hill sides do not allow of very much variety in either kind 
of mirage. 

TWILIGHT OUEVBS. 

t 

Twilight curves may be seen at any time after sunset or before sunrise, during clear weather. 
Their occurrence being as certain as the setting of the snn, I have kept no record of them except 
in the daily journal, and there have merely alluded to them as having occurred during the period 
referred to. 

ELEGTBIOITY. 

Electricity has shown itself to be very abundant during the periods of great cold in winter. 
Having no special instruments to determine intensity of kind, I shall confine my remarks to those 
occasions when it was developed by friction of the hand on the fur of a dead animal. 

A couple of foetal seals had been stuffed with straw, and as my hand was stroking them one 
evening in the dark I noticed sheets of electricity to follow the hand, accompanied by the charac- 
teristic crackling. I then tried an india-rubber comb on my dry head, and found that very con- 
siderable sparks could be drawn out. 

At another time I had occasion to tear a piece of muslin that had been washed, and being 
where the temperature was at least minus 16^ Fah., I found that by simply tearing the cloth a 
streak of light much like that produced by drawing a match across the moist palm of the hand in 
the dark could be plainly seen. I repeated the experiment several times, and extended it to stiff 
manila paper, and with the same results. 

I requested Mr. Neumann, agent of the Alaska Commercial Company, to try the experiment, 
and some time afterward he assured me of his success in producing the same results. 

In fact, the air seems to be filled with electricity during the above-mentioned periods. This 
naturally brings me to the magnetic variation of this place. 

I placed the compass carefully oji a board constructed to point due north, and for months 
at a time I have never seen a tenth of a degree variation of the needle from 23 degrees east, ftot 
even a tremor being observed during an auroral display. This 22. degree (f) variation is exactly 
what Capt. £. E. Smith, of the schooner Eustace, informed me had been before determined, but 
by whom ascertained is unknown to me. 

AUBOBAS. 

The auroral displays seen at this station naturally divide themselves into two classes, accord- 
ing to their intensity. 

The first of these is what I bave described as an auroral haze. It has very slight intensity, 
no particular form, seldom lasts long, and more seldom recurs. This is the most common display 
recorded. 



36 



CONTEIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTOBY OF ALASKA. 



The second class will embrace all other kinds, with their variableness of intensity and form. 
Barely au arch forms itself unless preceded by the first class as a haze. 

This second class to be produced, the haze gathers into a pale narrow arch of variable height, 
usually at 20 degrees altitude, increases in brightness by 9 o'clock, and then' forms a second arch 
above, at a distance varying from 5 to 20 degrees, and rarely more than 6 to 10 degrees wide. 
Three or more arches are rare. The single-arched variety has its eastern and western ends 
incurved at times. Also the eastern end is often broken into a sheet, or patches irregularly 
scattered, but in the maximum intensity they are absorbed into the arch. Beams, waves, stream- 
ers, folds, and other fantastic perturbations attend a brilliant display. These beams move east 
to w(\st, or vice rersa^ on the ai^ch with a frightful velocity. Sometimes beams move from east to 
west while others from west to east are being translated with the same rapidity. 

No clash or interference is observable. These pulsations sometimes travel the entire length 
of the visible length of tlie arch in less than two miftutes, and once in less than one minute. The 
highest grades of auroras seldom occur over this locality. The corona has been but once perfectly 
developed. The width of beams, arches, &c., are variable, as is also the length of the streamers. 
The usual color is pale straw to sulphur-yellow. Othep colors have never but twice been observed. 
Becurring fits are but differences of intensity, and may be said to attend all the displays excepting 
those of the first class. The dark segment, when present, is usually sharply defined. 

The frequency of auroras at this station is somewhat less than is assumed for the latitude of 
64 degrees north, and is ])robablydue to the prevalence of clouds during the months of greatest 
frequency. For four months, May, June, July, August, and a part of September, auroras are not 
observable at all from the twilight. March and February show the greatest number of displays, 
and for the entire year about thirty-two auroras are recorded. 

Summary of meleorological observations taken at Saint MichaeVSj Alaska, 



Bate. 



1874. 



July 

Augast — 
SepU^niber 
Ootob«r.... 
Noveiuber . 
December . 

1875. 



a 
s 

at 



S 



29.002 
28.964 
29.704 
29. 639 
29.775 
29.683 



Janaary . . . 
February . 

March 

April 

May 

June ■ . 

July 

August . . , 
September 
October — 
November 
December . 

1876. i 

January ! 29.814 

February 30.207 

March 341.145 

ApiU 29.899 



30.029 
29.753 
29.954 
au. 117 
29.094 
29.815 
29.925 
29. 717 
29. 719 
29.694 
30.2^1 
29.966 



^.y». 



§ 

«a 
^ . 

H 



June 29.763 

29.808 
29.825 
29. 675 
29.665 
30. 145 
29.749 



July 

August 

September — 

October 

November 

December 

1877. 

January 29.908 

Februarv 30.103 

March.: 29.880 

April I 29.704 

May I 29.584 

June , 29.821 



30.281 
30.435 
30.101 
30.311 
30.852 
30.580 



30. 799 
80.264 
30.703 
80.645 
30.289 
30.368 
30. 312 
30. 112 
30.289 
30.58J 
30.998 
30.463 



30.582 
30.689 
80.508 
30.366 



30.009 
30.295 
30. 150 
30.2S5 
30.323 
30. 6:^2 
30.494 



30.427 
30.625 
30. 179 
30. 145 
29.992 
30. 305 



B 
S 

p « 
B 

a 

•pi* 



29.419 
29. 219 
29.196 
28.700 
2&722 
29. 495 
28.941 



29.211 
29. 371 
29. 290 
29. 022 
29. 078 
29.456 



29.426 
29.375 
29. 332 
2a 026 
29.085 
29. 015 



2&876 
29.269 
29.058 
29. 481 
29.277 
29.382 
29.645 
29.301 
29. 4tl4 
28. 862 
29. 399 
29.011 



29.018 
29.341 
29.858 
29.335 



a . 



62.7 
.53.0 
42.0 
2a 4 
20.3 
16.9 



17.1 
20.4 
6 
12.4 
30.5 
44.8 
55.4 
60.7 
45.5 
35.4 

ao 

—0.7 



a9 

-9.3 

7.05 

15.7 

37.4 

47.4 

5^.7 

49.2 

44.4 

30.3 

6.9 

3.4 



1.6 

-23.8 
12.7 
2a 8 
37.4 
52.2 



« 

a 


i 


• 


p» 


♦» d 


a 


ap 
22 


If 


■sS. 


1 


8 


a 


^ 


^ 


70 


38 


67 


30 


56 


28 


45 


13 


42 


1 


38 


- 9 


35 


-37 


38 


-25 



I 



30 
39 
42 
64 
70 
64 
!» 
54 
24 
29 



84 
17 
34 
41 
57 
76 
68 
64 
60 
43 
86 
36 



41 
12 
38 
43 
67 
70 



36 

-28 

15 

29 

39 

28 

30 

17 

-17 

-82 



-28 
<40 
-28.5 
-17 

16 

32 

39 

34 

31 

8 

-24 

25 



-39 
-50 
-16 
- 3 
16 
86 



BS 



1.18 
2.07 
0.79 
2.06 
0.78 
2.03 



0.28 
0.09 

(*) 
•0.03 
0.31 
0.67 
1.45 
2.21 
2.00 
0.22 
0.20 
0.57 



0.38 
(*) 
(*) 

1.58 

*0.41 
1.46 
1.81 
3.18 
3.24 
1.67 
0.33 
0.10 



0.93 

(*) 
0.27 
0.42 
0.39 
L08 






.11 

18 

4 
9 

4 
• 8 



8 

11 

7 

2 

7 

6 

9 

14 

11 

7 

2 



5 

1 

7 

7 

8 

6 

10 

15 

17 

12 

9 

8 



10 
4 

3 

8 
8 

4 






19 
1 
5 
2 

8 
5 



2 
4 
6 
• 

1 

1 


9 
7 
9 



6 
20 
8 
8 

1 
3 
3 

1 

12 
2 



4 
19 
12 
5 

8 



>% 
^ 



7 
11 



12 
11 
16 



10 
8 

7 

4 



10 
3 
8 
9 
11 
10 
5 
9 
3 
3 
8 
8 



9 

8 

11 



11 
17 



« 

•a 
P 

O 





• 


1 
1 


m 


\a 


1 ^ 


1 


«B 


1 


s 


1 ^ 

< a 


s 


6 


1 73 


a 


•** 
a 


H 


T 


>Z5 


; ^ 


H 



15 
16 



17 
18 

10 



11 , 10 
13 I 17 

12 18 



20 
28 
23 
18 



10 12 
8 14 



12 
8 22' 

14 I 11 
6 24 



15 

13 

20 

19 

23. 

19 

27 

27 

15 



18 
6 



20 
5 
82 
26 
49 
28 
60 
31 
10 



14 

29 



16 21 

6 88 



67 
16 
44 



48 
73 
30 
86 
69 
52 28 
23 I 43 
49 44 
36 I 30 
87 62 
68 I 19 



21 42 78 



33 I 38 

58 ! 48 



8 66 
10 1 15 I 70 



20 ; 44 

10 I 60 



73 
73 
59 
33 



16 39 

23 87 

57 70 

20 74 

14 105 

2 146 



97 
116 
65 
69 
77 
76 
43 
21 
48 



20 125 



78 
48 



1 
27 
13 



a 
I 
s 

a 



CO 



21 
8 

28 
6 

U 

14 



16 

27 

29 

21 

6 

18 

13 

22 

19 

35 

I 16 

: 10 



i'i 



^ I a 
a g 



I m 



t I a 

a 



c 

4> 



26 
8 

30 
6 
16 43 

7 I 87 



73 
48 
14 



7 ! 40 
15 . 27 



7 


20 
9 
8 



21 
32 
15 
21 
33 
44 



32 24 

7 I 18 

8 I 19 



8 



29 



28 I 10 



2 
1 




14 87 

10 I 8 

11 25 
17 , 4 
27 22 

6 6 

4 2 

11 4 



18 
64 
16 



16 I 8 

21 , 12 

7 19 

73 I 16 16 



8 
3 



18 
8 
30 
43 
88 



55 

54 

4 

41 

65 



24 
11 2 
19 30 
19 45 
80 17 
' 14 I 47 
61 47 



4 

2 



9 

10 
12 
21 
27 I 14 
23 10 



17 

18 

2 

8 

8 



2 

8 
3 
4 

10 
1 
40 14 



22 2 

23 1 
1 I 40 12 

81 85 I 2 






4 3 , 62 25 7 

9 I 8 7 

27 15 I 2 I 1 2 

11 12 21 I 12 2 ' 

14 37 30 I 17 4 

15 18 : 18 40 , 9 



17 
4 
6 

20 





8 
1 
5 
9 
11 



18 
8 

12 
4 
6 
1 



5 

1 I 
5 
8 
9 
6 
8 
11 
2 
1 

1. 



4 
14 

9 
44 
21 



ea 

S3 



1 I 9,675 
1 9.006 
5 9. 491 
11.888 I 
12,264 , 
14,182 I 



5 
S 
9 
9 
2 
1 
8 



16.798 

16.344 

18,416 

11,991 

13.797 

18,897 

14.433 

8 ' 14,827 

8 12,508 

5 I 16,611 

30 I 7.960 

26 I 9,668 



17 

1 76 

2 I 88 
4 16 

, 8 
11 5 

1 I 6 



16,206 
7,156 

11,886 
8,477 



13,020 
ai79 
7,660 

I 17, 112 
8.480 

I 18,720 



44 14, 086 

42 4.680 

31 ! 6,696 

4 , 12,466 

3 ' 16,368 

6 12,831 



• 

P 





2 
2 

4 
7 



2 
4 
10 
S 





1 

6 

7 

12 



7 
8 
4 





2 

^ 

7 
1 



2 
11 
7 
8 





* Snow drifted too much to allow accurate measnrementa. 



CONTEIBQTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTOEY OP ALASKA. 



37 



Thermometrio QhservaUans taken at Saint Mi6kaeV9, AUuka, 
(Obierver anknown. Copied from Wild, St Peterabarg, 1882, p. 288.1 



Tear. 


January. 


February. 


• 

M 


• 

< 


1 


« 

a 
p 
Ha 


• 

►9 


5 


1 


1 


November. 


i 


• 

i 

1 


184S 
















11.2 
9.8 


&2 
7.0 


0.8 
1.8 


-5.2 


-17.1 
-lOil 




1854 








1 




11.8 
13.8 




18M , 


-2&1 


-ai 


-18.6 


■'-i.*o' 


-0.7 


8.4 


















Mean* 


-28.1 
-14.8 


-8.1 
17.8 


-13.8 
7.7 


-8.0 
1A.8 


-0.7 
81. S 


&4 
48.6 


12.7 
54.8 


10.4 
51.8 

• 


7.8 
48.0 


1.1 
84.0 


-5.25 
22.8 


-18i8 
23.0 


— 8lS1 


Meant 


2ffL4 







* Celsius thermometer. 



t Fahrenheit 



Meteorological oheerratione at Redoubt Saint MichaeVe, 
LCisfcem barometer No. 1818, and thermometers, by James Green, New Yorlc— Observer, Captain Biedell, superintendent of tmdinK-statioik) 



Date. 



1889. 
Jaly 3 



8 



10 



11 



12 



13 



14 



15 



16 



17 



18 



Hour. 



2p.m. 
9p.m. 
9a.m. 
12 m.. 

8 p.m. 
9p.m. 

9 a.m. 
12 m.. 

8 p.m. 
9p.m. 
9a.m. 
18 m.. 
8p.m. 

9 p.m. 
9a.m. 
12m.. 
3 p.m. 
9p.m. 
9 a.m. 
12 m.. 

8 p.m. 
9p.m. 
9a.m. 
18 m.. 
3 p.m. 

9 p.m. 
9 a.m. 
12 m.. 

8 p.m. 

9 p.m. 
9a.m. 
12 m.. 
3p.m. 
9p.m. 
9a.m. 
12 m.. 
3 p.m. 
9 p.m. 
9a.m. 
12m.. 
3 p.m. 
9p.m. 
9a.m. 
12 m.. 
3p.m. 
9p. m 
9a.m. 
12 m . 

8 p. m. 
9p.m. 
9a.m. 
12 m.. 
3 p.m. 

9 p.m. 
9a.m. 
12m.. 
3p.m. 
9p.m. 
9a.m. 
12m.. 
8p.m. 
9p.m. 



Att ther- 
mometer. 



84.5 
56.2 
64.0 
61.3 
61.0 
61.8 
«7.5 
68.6 
61.8 
60.8 
66.8 
67.0 
66.0 
62.0 
63.6 
65.2 
80l2 
61.5 
62.0 
64.0 
61.2 
58.0 
57.0 
57.0 
55.6 
56.5 
62.5 
59.5 
5&6 
58.0 
62.5 
60.7 
5a5 
5&2 
64.2 
63.8 
62.0 
57.5 
63.5 



61.5 
60.0 
61.0 
61.5 
61.5 
61.8 
61.5 
64.0 
63.5 
61.8 
62.4 
62.0 
59.6 
61.2 
61.4 
61.0 
60.0 
5&8 
63.4 
62.4 
61.0 
69.0 



Barometer 
onoor- 
rected. 



20.919 

.872 

29.808 

.m 

.758 



28.785 
.757 
.730 
.718 

29.796 
.785 
.778 
.771 

29.764 
.760 
.766 
.719 

29.780 

.780 

.744 

820 

2a 928 
.994 
.824 
.942 

30.025 
.024 
.018 
.060 

80.052 
.064 
.042 
.040 

80.02t^ 
.008 

29.998 

80.020 

80. 012 
.006 

29.998 

80.030 

30.092 
.090 
.080 
.078 

3a 144 
.160 
.177 
.210 

80.220 
.216 
.218 
.188 

30.126 
.120 
.120 
.124 

30.114 
.124 
.088 
.062 



Barometer 

reduced to 

standard 

aodSSoF. 



21L795 
.778 

29.686 
.659 
.645 
.583 

29L605 
.687 
.624 
.607 

29.668 
.655 
.653 
.656 

29.634 
.645 
.640 
.605 

26.615 
.600 
.631 
.714 

29.825 
.821 
.885 
.84:i 

29.907 
.914 
.911 
.924 

29L934 
.941 
.935 
.941 

29.906 
.886 
.881 
.915 

29.881 
.887 
.883 
.919 

29.978 
.975 
.965 
.962 

30.029 
.038 
.060 
.104 

3ai02 
.099 
.108 
.071 

80.011 
.006 
.015 
.016 

29.894 

30.006 

29.974 
.963 



Wind. 



Direc- 
tion. 



SB. 

B. 

N. 

N. 

N. 

N. 
SB. 

N. 
ENB. 
BSB. 

B. 

E. 

E. 

E. 
BSB. 
BSE. 
BSE. 
BSB. 

S. 

S. 
NW. 

W. 

NB. 

NNB. 

N. 
NNW. 
NW. 
NW. 
NW. 
W. 
NB. 

N. 

N. 
W. 
SW. 
8W. 
SW. 
SW. 
SB. 



SB. 
SW. 

S. 

S. 

8. 

S. 

S. 

s. 

SW. 
SW. 

& 
s. 

8. 

8. 

S. 

S. 

8. 

B. 
SW. 

8. 

B. 
NW. 



Force. 



2 
2 
3 
5 
6 
4 
4 
4 
8 
4 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
5 
6 
6 
3 
3 
3 
4 
5 
5 
5 
5 
4 
4 
5 
8 
2 
4 
4 
8 
4 
3 
5 
3 
6 



Ckmds. 



I 



Amount 



Kind. 



4 
8 
6 
6 
6 
6 
5 
5 
4 
4 
6 
6 
6 
5 
5 
4 
8 
8 
-3 
3 
2 
2 



10 
10 
4 
4 
4 
3 
8 
9 
10 
9 
9 

10 

10 

10 

9 

9 

10 

10 

10 

10 

8 



Cir.nim 

Cir. strat 

Cir 

Cir. onm , 

Cir. oum t. 

Cir. strat 

Cum 

NIm 

Rain 

Nim 

Nim. cum , 

Nim 

Bain 

Bain 

BaiP. 

Nim 

Nim 

Rain 

Bain 

Rain 

Nim 



I^taebed ther- 
mometers. 



8 I Cum.; sqaally. 



1 


10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
8 
10 
9 
9 
8 



Cam. cir , 

Nim 

Nim 

Strat 

Cum .... 
Cam..... 
Cum..... 
Clear... 
Clear .... 
Clear .... 
Clear.... 
Clear.... 

Cum 

Cum 

Clear.... 
Clear.... 
Cir. cum. 



Dry. 


1 
Wet 


o 


o 


64.5 




66w6 




66.0 




62.6 




62.0 




62.0 




69l0 




66.0 




64.0 




63.5 




67.0 




65.8 




66.5 




64.6 




64.0 


-^•••••* 


66.5 




66.6 




63.6 




63.6 




68.0 




68.6 




44.5 





Cir. strat 

Cir. strat 

Nim 

Nim 

Nim , 

Rain 

FoK 

Rain 

Fog 

Com 

Fog; rain 

Fog; rain 

Nim 

Fog; rain 

Fog; rain-sqoalls. 
Fog; rain-squalls 

Cam 

Cir.onm 

Strat 

Strat 

Cum. strat 

Cum. strat 



56u5 
55.5 
66u0 
66.5 
56.0 
7a 
64.6 
49.0 
54.0 
60.5 
68.5 
49.0 
53.6 
68.0 
610 
68.0 
M.0 



70.0 
58.0 
68.0 
54.0 
64.5 
51.0 
68.0 
56.0 
66.0 
63.0 
60.0 
50.6 
62.0 
50.0 
51.0 
53.0 
66.0 
68.0 
64.5 
66.5 
67.5 
6t0 



47.0 
47.6 
47.0 
40.6 
47.6 
56.0 
64.6 
43.0 
48.6 
60.6 
58.6 
48.6 
46L6 
68.0 
61.6 
48L0 
46.5 



69.5 
46.5 
47.5 
49.0 
4a 6 
4&0 
4a5 
6L0 
6L0 

4ao 

47.0 
47.6 
48.0 
47.0 
47.6 

4ao 

5L0 

4ao 

60.0 
5L0 
616 

60.0 



38 



CONTEIBUTIONS TO THE NATCr«AL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 



Meteorological observaiUms at Bed&uhi Saint MiokaeVe — Continued. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1809. 
/nlj 10 



ao 



21 < 



22 



23 



24 



25 



26 



27 



28 



80 



81 



Ang. 1 



8 



8 



10 



9a.m.. 
12 m... 
8p.in.. 
9 p.m.. 
9a.m.. 
12 m... 

8 p. m . . 

9 p.m., 
9 a. m.. 
12 m... 

8 p. m . . 
9p.m.. 

9 a. m.. 
12 m... 

8 p.m.. 
0p.m.. 
9a.m.. 
12m.. 
3p.m.. 

9 p.m., 
9a. m.. 
12m.. 
8 p.m.. 
9p. m.. 
9a. m.. 
12m.. 

8 p.m.. 

9 p.m.. 
9a.m.. 
12m.. 
8p. m . 
9 p.m., 
9a. m.. 
12m.. 

8 p.m.. 

9 p.m.. 
a.m., 
12m.. 

8 p.m.. 
p.m.. 

9 a. m.. 
18 m... 
3 p.m. 
9 p.m., 
9a.m., 
12 m.. 
3 p.m. 
9 p.m. 
a.'m 
Tim... 
8 p. m . 
Op. m. 
Oa. m 
12 m... 
3 p.m., 
p.m. 
a.m., 
12m... 
3 p.m.. 
p.m.. 
Oa. m. 
12m ... 

8 p.m.. 
p.m.. 
Oa. m.. 
12m.. 
3 p. m . , 
p.m., 
Oa. m. 
12 m ... 
3 p.m. 
p.m. 
Oa. m. 
12m.. 
3p.m. 

9 p.m.. 
9a. ro. 
12m.. 

8 p.m.. 

9 p. m ■ . 
9 a.m.. 
12 m . . 
3 p.m.. 
9 p.m.. 
0a.m.. 
12m... 
8 p.m.. 
p.m.. 
a. m . . 
12m... 
8 p.m.. 



Att. ther- 
mometer. 



61.5 
60.0 
60.4 

ea6 

60.0 
61.0 
60.5 
50.6 
64.0 
64.5 
68.5 
68.4 
61.8 
68.3 
63.2 
58.0 
61.8 
64.0 
56.0 
55.0 
65.8 
57.0 
54.3 
63.1 
59.5 
58.3 
57.8 
58.1 
60.6 
50.8 
57.5 
54.5 
50.7 
62.8 
60.4 
58.8 
60.0 
61.8 
60.8 
61.6 
60.8 
61.4 
50.8 
50.8 
65.0 
6&7 
65.3 
50.5 
68.2 
61.8 
60.5 
60.0 
67.5 
64.1 
61.5 
62.5 
66.8 
64.5 
60.0 



Barometer 
uncor- 
reotod. 



61.5 
61.1 
61.5 
60.5 
63.5 
63.2 
61.8 
61.5 
64.0 
68.0 
64.0 
50.5 
61.8 
61.2 
56.8 
57.8 
57.8 
58.5 
56.8 
59.0 
50.0 
55.5 
55.0 
54.0 
50.5 
59.5 
60.2 
60.0 
64.0 
61.5 
61.0 



80.030 
.082 
.022 
.000 

20.074 
.976 
«966 
7976 

20.962 
.950 
.964 
.952 

29.982 
.924 
.930 
.984 

29.916 
.846 
.842 
.856 

29.980 
.064 
.028 
.948 

80.004 
.062 
.080 
.146 

80.842 
.322 
.310 
.802 

80.226 
.228 
.100 
.100 

30.102 
.148 
.116 
.050 

29.922 
.862 
.770 
.968 

S9.61S 
.606 
.611 
.626 

90.636 
.627 
.504 
.606 

29.662 
.668 
.668 
.668 

29.760 
.760 
.760 



Barometer 

reduced to 

standard 

andSS^F. 



20.664 
.688 

.686 
.686 

20.676 
. 664 
.620 
.500 

20.582 
.582 
.582 
.504 

20.682 
.741 
.746 

.vn 

29.536 
.584 
.642 
.716 

29.754 
.764 

29.778 
.816 

29.910 
.010 



20.915 
.921 
.909 

.887 
29.868 
.862 
.858 
• 866 
29L840 



.838 
.881 
29.816 
.804 
.810 



20.801 
.748 
.789 
.758 

29.804 
.861 



.828 

20.804 
.055 
.976 

8a040 

801 280 
.210 
.204 
.104 

80. U5 
.100 
.077 
.082 

8a078 
.082 
.002 

20.084 

29.808 
.747 
.650 
.857 

80.485 
.470 
.485 
.516 

20l508 
.511 
.481 
.405 

20.532 
.547 
.554 
.551 

20.682 
.638 
.626 



Wind. 



Direc- 
tion. 



Force. 



NNE. 
NXE. 

SE. 

N. 

N. 

N. 

N. 

wsw. 
w. 

8W. 

8W. 

8SW. 

8W. 

W. 

WSW. 

8W. 

NW. 

NW. 

W. 

NNW. 

NNW. 

NNW. 

NW. 

NNW. 

NNW. 

NW. 

W. 

WNW. 

NW. 

NW. 

SSE. 

ESS. 

8. 
8SB. 

8. 

ESB. 

SE. 

8. 

E. 

SSE. 

SE. 

NNW. 

NNW. 

ESE. 
ENE. 
ENE. 

S. 
NE. 

NNE. 



NNW. 
NNW. 



SW. 
SW, 
SW. 



.031 ! 

28.986 ; 

.984 I 

.986 I 



29.550 
.575 
.572 
.572 

2a 557 
.546 
.505 
.476 

20.461 
.464 
.461 
.485 

20.567 
.628 
.646 
.568 

29.482 
.478 
.542 
.600 

20.647 
.666 

29! 680 
.718 

20.800 
.800 
.808 
.820 

20.864 
.868 
.872 



NNW. 
NNW. 

NNW. 
NNW. 

SW. 

8W. 

SW. 

SW. 

SW. 



3 
8 
8 
2 
2 
2 
8 
1 
1 
2 
5 
4 
7 
5 
8 
2 
1 
2 
4 
5 
5 
4 
3 
2 
5 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
2 
2 
4 
4 
3 
8 
3 
5 
1 
4 
4 
1 
6 
3 
2 
4 
3 
2 
1 
2 
2 


2 
2 

4 
5 
5 



Clonda. 



Amount. 



Kind. 



W. 
WSW. 
WSW. 
WSW. 

SW. 

s. 
s. 

NW. 

N. 
NW. 

N. 

N. 
ENE. 
NW. 
ENE. 
NE. 
NNE. 
NNE. 

N. 

N. 

N. 



5 
4 

4 
4 
3 
5 
5 
5 
2 

8 
2 
3 
3 
3 
6 
5 
4 
6 
5 
5 
5 
4 
3 
4 
4 
4 
2 
4 
4 
8 



8 

8 
10 


8 
8 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
8 
8 
6 
8 
6 
2 
6 
4 
8 
2 
4 
1 
I 
1 
1 
1 
1 
5 
6 
6 
8 
9 
9 
9 
8 
7 
8 
9 
5 
8 
5 
4 
7 
6 
7 
4 
8 
7 
5 
9 
7 
7 
9 
9 
10 
10 




8 
5 
6 
5 
4 
10 
10 
10 

10 

7 



2 
2 
3 

10 
10 
4 
6 
3 
3 
3 
3 
8 
2 
2 



Cum , 

Cum 

CnnLoir 

Fog 

Nim 

Strat 

Strat 

Cir.atrat 

Cam. ; baffling wind 

Com 

Cam. olm 

Cum. nim 

Bain 

Little rain 

Little rain 

Nim 

Strat 

Strat 

Strat 

Strat 

Clr 

Cir 

Clr 

Cir 

Cir 

Cir 

Cir 

Cir 

Cir 

Cir 

Cam. atrac 

Cum. strat 

Strat. oum .......... 

Cum. nim 

Little rain 

Little rain 

Nim. strat 

Rain 

Nim 

Nim 
Strat. 
Strat 
Cir. strat 
Cir. strat 
Nim 
Nim 

Cir. cam. 
Cir. cum. 
Cir. cum. 

Cum 

Cir. cum. 
Cir. strat 
Cir. strat 

Strat 

Strat 

Cir. nim . 
Cir. nim . 

Nim 

Nim 



Fine ndn . . 

Nim 

Nim 

Nim 

Cir 

Cir 

Nim. rain . . 
Nim. rain.. 

Strat 

Strat 

Strat. cam. 

Nim 

Cir. cam .. 
Cir. cum... 
Cir. cum... 
Nim. rain.. 



Rain 

Fog and rain 
Hsirdrain.... 
Heavy rain . . 

Rain 

Cir. cum 

Cir. cam 

Cir. oum 

Cir. oum 

Cir. cum 

Strat 

Cir 

Cir 

Cir 



Detaohed 
thermometefs. 



Dry. 



09.0 
60.5 
6L5 
66.0 
57.5 
50.5 
60.0 
54.0 
57.0 
6L5 
56.0 
60.0 
50.6 
5L8 
64.8 
48.0 
50.7 
54.8 
50.0 
50.0 
52.0 
61.0 
65.8 
48.0 
58.7 
64.0 
65.0 
50.0 
57.7 
64.0 
65.0 
52.5 
57.5 
60.0 
57.5 
54.5 
5L5 
56.2 
50.5 
57.0 
56.8 
6L3 
68.8 
57.6 
63.0 
61.5 
62.0 
60.0 
63.0 
64.5 
60.0 
60.0 
62.0 
70.1 
70.0 
62.0 
60.0 
58.0 
57.5 



61.5 
57.0 
62.0 
54.0 
65.5 
6L5 
52.0 
5L5 



55.0 
5L0 
6L8 
61.2 
56.3 
57.8 
57.8 
58.5 
56.8 
50.0 
45.0 
46.5 
56.0 
5L0 
50.0 
66.0 
70.0 
57.0 
58.0 
66.0 



Wet 



54.5 
66.0 
56l0 
52.0 
52.5 
54.0 
54.0 
40.0 
5L5 
54.2 
50.5 
47.8 
48.8 
40.4 
5L0 
48.8 
47.0 
50.0 
51.9 
45.8 
46.8 
50.0 
54.8 
42.8 
47.4 
53.0 
58.8 
45.0 
50.5 
54.5 
54.0 
46.0 
40.6 
50.5 
48.7 
40.5 
4a 3 
50.5 
58.7 
52.8 
5L5 
56.0 
5612 
53.5 
57.0 
55.5 
57.0 
65.0 
58.1 
5a5 
60.0 
54.8 
50.0 
64.3 
62.0 
56.2 
55.5 
53.0 
52.0 



5L7 
50.5 
53.7 
50.0 
47.5 
60.0 
48.8 
48.5 



40.5 
45.5 
51.0 
40.0 
48.5 
46.6 
48.8 
53.2 
57.0 
47.0 
42.0 
42.0 
50.2 
47.8 
55.0 
64.5 
64.5 
54.5 
53.5 
60.5 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 



39 



Meteorological oh$ervaUon9 ai Hedouht Saint MichaeVe — Continued. 



Date. 



1800. 
Ang. 10 
11 



12 



18 



14 



15 



16 



17 



18 



19 



20 



21 



23 



24 



25 



27 



20 



80 



81 



Sep 



Hoar. 



9 p.m. 
0».m. 
12 m.. 

8 p.m. 
Op.m 
9».m. 
12m.. 
3 p.m. 
p.m. 

9 a.m. 
12 m.. 
8 p.m. 
Op.m. 
a.m. 
12 m .. 
8 p.m. 
Op.m. 
0a.m. 
12 m.. 
8 p.m. 
Op.m. 
9a.m. 
12 m.. 
8 p.m. 
Op. m 
Oa. m. 
12m.. 
3 p.m. 
Op.m. 
a. m. 
12 m.. 
8 p.m. 
Op.m. 
Oa. m. 
12 m. . 
8 p.m. 
Op.m. 
a.m. 
12 m. . 

8 p.m. 
Op.m. 
9a. m. 
12 m.. 
8p.m. 

9 p.m. 
9a. m. 
12 m . 
8p.m. 
9p. m 
9 a. m. 
12 m.. 
3 p.m. 
9 p.m. 
9a. m. 
12 m.-. 
3 p.m. 
9 p.m. 
9a.m. 
12 m.. 
3 p. m. 
9 p.m. 
9a. m. 
12 m.. 

8 p. m. 
9p. m 

9 a. m. 
12 m.. 
8 p.m. 
9p.m. 
9a.m. 
12 m.. 
3 p.m. 
9p.m 
9a.m. 
12 m.. 
8p.m. 
9p.m. 
9a.m. 
12m.. 

8 p.m. 
9p.m. 

9 a.m. 
12m.. 
8p.m. 
9p.m. 
9a. m. 
12 m.. 
8 p.m. 
9p.m. 
9a.m. 
12m.. 



Att. ther- 
mometer. 



o 

6L7 
68.9 
60.9 
63.9 
61.3 
64.3 
62.9 
64.0 
62.8 
64.0 
64.6 
65.5 
62.7 
68.0 
63.2 
62.5 
64.0 
67.0 
66.0 
66.0 
62.3 
70.0 
67.5 
61.5 



68.0 
68.8 
66.5 
68.0 
66.7 
64.0 
66.5 
60.0 
62.5 
61.0 
68.0 
63.5 
64.0 
63.8 
62.7 
60.5 
58.7 
61.5 
64.0 
60.7 
61.7 
02.3 
63.0 
68.7 
64.5 
64.2 
61.2 
60.0 
63.8 
64.0 
64.0 
66.0 
64.0 
62.2 
62.5 
60.8 
66.0 
64.5 
64.8 
64.2 
64.0 
59.2 

•%o.o 

64.8 
62.5 
62.5 
59.0 
59.0 
58.0 
59.0 
58.5 
69.0 
59.0 
60.2 
61.8 
60.0 
60.5 
62.0 
63.0 
68.0 
6&0 
64.0 
65.0 
60.0 
57.0 
60.0 



Barometer 
nnoor- 
rooted. 



.986 

30.020 
.018 
.040 

29.992 

29.906 
.876 
.868 
.830 

29.860 

. 864 

..872 

.880 

29.944 
.970 
.970 
.970 

80.058 
.062 
.062 
.060 

80.079 
.070 
.037 



Barometer 

redaoed to 

standard 

and 2!29 F. 



Wind. 



Clouds. 



Detaohed ther- 
mometers. 



Direc- 
tion. 



29.968 
.942 
.940 
.906 

29.992 
. 990 
.994 
.756 

29.520 
.548 
.620 
.700 

29.872 
.924 



.918 

29.884 
.910 
.942 

80.064 

30.250 
.254 
.262 
.260 

30.195 
.140 
.068 

29.898 

29.796 
.79tt 
.796 
.858 

29.868 
. 866 
.816 
.812 

29.886 
.910 
.910 
.984 

29.978 
.978 
.076 
.972 

29.988 
.830 
.870 
.770 

29.664 
.606 
.576 
.566 

29L586 
.528 

• 564 

• 566 
29.500 

.502 
.508 
.584 

29.540 
.540 
.544 
.618 

29.728 
.760 



.880 

29.898 
.904 
.918 
.877 

29.783 
.757 
.746 
.711 

29.728 
.740 
.746 
.771 

29.825 
.850 
.852 
.848 

29.928 
.934 
.984 
.942 

29.941 
.988 
.922 



29.832 
.806 
.811 
.787 

29.863 
.868 
.865 
.646 

29.408 
.435 
.508 
.581 

29.750 
.804 
.811 
.805 

29.726 
.795 
.820 
.951 

80.134 
.136 
.148 
.189 

80.071 
.017 

29.958 
.787 

29.674 
.674 
.674 
.733 

29.746 
.749 
.699 



29.758 
.786 
.786 
.811 

29.866 



.865 

iUA 

29.820 
.812 
.761 
.662 

29.569 
.499 
.470 
.459 

29.429 
.417 
.439 
.456 

29.889 
.887 
.390 
.416 

29.417 
.419 
.421 
.508 

29.626 
.660 



a 

8. 
NW. 

NNW. 

N. 

N. 
XB. 
NB. 

N. 

B. 
SB. 
8SE. 
NE. 
ENE. 
NB. 
NE. 



Force. 



5 
2 
2 



NE. 
NE. 



8W. 
B. 

NE 



SB. 
SB. 



S. 

BE. 
SB. 
SB. 
NE. 
SB. 
S. 
SW. 

s. • 

S. 
S. 

SB. 

SB. 
SSW. 
SSW. 

SW. 

SW. 

SW. 

SW. 
JBW. 
BNE. 

E. 
ESE. 
NNK. 

NB. 

N. 
N. 

N. 

SW. 

SB. 

SBi 



5 
4 
5 


3 
3 

2 
1 
3 



a 
wsw. 
wsw. 
wsw. 

s. 

SB. 

w. 

SW. 

SB. 

N. 

WNW. 

WNW. 

BNB. 

BNE. 

B. 
BNB. 

NE. 

NE. 
BNB. 
BNB. 

E. 
BSE. 
BSE. 

S. 
88B. 
SSW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SSB. 
SSB. 



4 

8 

2 
5 
6 
5 
6 
7 
8 
6 
6 
5 
5 
5 
5 
2 
4 
8 
3 
3 
2 
2 
3 
2 
3 
4 
6 
6 
4 
2 
3 
8 
2 


1 
8 
8 
4 
2 
8 
2 
3 
4 
8 
4 
8 
5 
5 
6 
6 
5 
8 
2 
8 
6 
6 
5 
8 
8 
4 
2 
4 
7 
6 



Amount. 



6 

5 
1 
1 
2 
7 
8 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
7 
3 
2 
4 
2 
3 
3 
8 
8 
5 
2 
2 



Kind. 



Dry. 



Cir 

Cir. cam... 

Cir 

Cir 

Cir 

Strata..... 

Nim 

Bain 

Rain 

Strat. cum. 
Strat. cam. 
Cir. strat . 
Cir. strat .. 
Cam. cir... 
Cum. cir. . . 
Cum. cir. . . 
Cum. cir... 
Cir. cum.. 
Cir. cum... 
Cir. cum... 

Cum 

Strat. cir .. 
Strat. cir .. 
Cum. strat. 



2 

1 

2 

8 

9 

9 

9 
10 
10 
10 

9 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 

7 

7 
10 

9 

5 i 

5 I 

•I 

10 ! 

10 I 

10 i 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

8 

4 

7 

10 
10 

8 

9 
10 

9 

9 

9 

8 

9 

9 
10 

9 

9 

9 
10 
10 
10 

9 
10 

9 

9 
10 

9 

5 

6 

8 

9 



Cum. strat 

Cum. strat 

Cum. strat 

Strat. nim 

Nim. rain 

Nim 

Nim 

Nim. rain 

Nim. ; light fog. 

DrlKsly rain 

Nim. cum 

Nim 

Nfm 

Nim. strat 

Strat. cum 

Strat. cum 

Fine rain 

Fine rain 

Fine rain 

Fine rain 



o 

5&5 

52.8 
68.5 
67.8 
57.9 
60.1 
68.0 
6&5 
58.5 
59.5 
63.2 
65.0 
6&5 
58.0 
72.0 
65.5 
54.0 
64.0 
60.0 
73.0 
58.0 
62.0 
75.5 
7&5 



Nim 

Nim. strat 

Strat 

Strat 

Nim. rain 

Strat 

Strat 

Nim 

Strat 

Strat 

Strat.; nim. fog — 

Cir. strat 

Cnm.ctr 

Cum. nim. ok 

Cum. nim. dr 

Cum. cir 

Cum. nim 

Cam 

Nim 

Strat 

Nim 

Strat. nim 

Strat. cir. nim 

Strat. cir. nim 

Strat. nim 

Strat. nim 

Strat 

Strat ;.. 

Nim 

Niin 

Fog 

Nim. rain 

Nim. cum 

Nim.; rain-sqaalls... 

Strat. nim 

Strat. nim 

Nim 

Strat. nim 

Cir. strat 

Cum. stoat 

Cum. cir 

Cam. dr. nlQ.; rain 



63.7 

73.8 

76.0 

62.0 

57.0 

58.0 

58.0 

57.0 

65.5 

54.3 

56.3 

53.0 

53.5 

54.8 

56.0 

52.8 

68.0 

56.0 

50.8 

52.0 

49.0 

54.8 

58.5 

65.0 

54.8 

57.5 

59.0 

57.5 

57.5 

56.5 

61.0 

52.0 

51.6 

58.8 

54.8 

62.0 

5&0 

56.0 

56.5 

52.0 

54.0 

58.0 

57.0 

68.0 

68.5 

5&2 

67.2 

58.0 

58.0 

56.8 

66.5 

68.5 

54.0 

97.0 

57.0 

56.0 

5&7 

56.0 

97.0 

53.6 



Wet 



86.0 
56.0 
68.0 
68.0 



51.5 
48.9 
68.3 
62.5 
5&8 
56.7 
50.0 
61.8 
55.0 
54.5 
57.0 
58.5 
55.9 
53.0 
65.0 
50.5 
50.0 
58.0 
61.0 
65.5 
58.5 
55.0 
66.2 
67.5 



66.5 
6&5 
68.0 
56.8 
5^0 
52.0 
52.0 
52.5 
50.0 
50.0 
51.0 
49.6 
50.0 
50.5 
50.6 
49.8 
49.9 
50.8 
62.0 
48.5 
45.3 
50.0 
58.0 
5L0 
49.3 
51.5 
53.0 
58.0 
54.0 
54.5 
5&0 
47.5 
46.2 
49.0 
5L0 
47.8 
60.0 
62.5 
52.0 
47.2 
49.0 
53.0 
51.0 
49.0 
49.5 
51.8 
5Z8 
49.5 
49.0 
51.0 
50.6 
40.0 
50.5 
58.5 
53.0 
52.0 
51.0 
53.0 
50.5 
48.0 



4&0 
46.2 
46.0 
49-0 



40 



CONTBIBQTIONS TO THE ^ATUEAL HISTOETOF ALASKA. 



Meteorological obeervationt at Bedcnht Saint IHoAaer^^-Continued. 



Dftto. 



19 



20 



21 



22 



28 



24 



25 



186D. 
Sepi. 2 

3 



8 







10 



11 



12 



18 



U 



15 



16 



17 



18 



Hoar. 



8 p. in. 
9p. m. 
9a. m. 
12 m.. 

8 p.m. 

9 p.m. 
0». ra. 
12 m.. 
3 p.m. 
p.m. 
9a. m. 
12 m.. 
3 p.m. 
9 p.m. 
0a.m. 
12 m.. 

8 p.m. 

9 p.m. 
Oa. m. 
12m.. 
3 p.m. 
9 p.m. 
9 a. m. 
12 m.. 
8p.m. 
9 p.m. 
9a. m. 
12 m.. 

8 p.m. 
0p.m. 

9 a. m. 
12 m.. 

8 p.m. 

9 p.m. 
9 a.m. 
12 m .. 

8 p.m. 

9 p.m. 
9a.m. 
12m.. 
3p.m. 
9p.m. 
9 a. m. 
12 m.. 

8 p.m. 

9 p.m 
9a. m 
12 m.. 
3 p.m. 
9 p.m. 
9a.m 
12 m.. 
3p.m. 
9p.m 
9 a. m. 
12 m.. 
8p.m 
9 p.m. 
9 a.m. 
12 m.. 

8 p.m. 
9p.m. 
9a. m. 
12 m.. 
8p.m. 
9p.m. 
9a. m. 
12 m.. 
3p.m 
9p.m. 
9a. m. 
12m.. 
8p.m. 
9p.m. 

9 a. m. 
12 m.. 

8 p.m. 

9 p.m. 
9 a.m. 
12m.. 

8 p. m . 

9 pum. 
9 a.m. 
12 m.. 
8 p.m. 



9p.m 

9a.m. 

12m.. 

Spurn. 

9p.m. 



Att. ther. 
mometor. 



o 

59.2 

00.0 

57.5 

56.0 

56. 2< 

55.0 

57.0 

5ao 

59.5 
58.8 
60.0 
SO 5 
61.5 



Barometer 
nnoor. 
reot«d. 



Barometer 

reduced to 

standard 

and320F. 



Wind 



I 



Cloads. 



Detached ther- 
mometers. 



Direc- 
tion. 



.818 
.828 

29.900 
.854 
.758 
.524 

29.886 
.848 
.402 
.604 

29.726 
.766 
.766 



.709 
.717 

29.795 
.758 
.657 
.526 

29.238 
.242 
.292 
.496 

29.616 
.657 
.652 



.1. 



60.3 
61.5 
59.8 




60.0 
5&5 
5&5 
57.6 
56.0 
57.0 
50.5 
60.0 
56.0 
57.0 
68.0 
61.5 
58.5 
58.0 
58.0 
57.0 
57.5 
58.0 
60.5 
58.5 
58.5 
58.0 
50.5 
57.5 
57.5 
56.5 
61.5 
52.7 
52.3 
54.0 
53.2 
52.0 
51.7 
52.0 
54.8 
56u8 
56.2 
58.0 
61.2 
59.0 
69.0 
58.0 



57.0 
57.0 
58.5 
60.0 
50. U 
5&0 
57.0 

5ao 

57.5 
68.0 
61.0 
56.5 
54.8 
56.8 
56.8 
5&5 
68.3 
53.7 
55.6 
57.8 
63.8 
62.7 
6L5 

62.5 
60.0 
60.0 
62.0 



29.900 
.758 
.820 

29.754 
.700 
.680 
.688 

29.704 
.712 
.728 
.726 

2^.602 
.690 
.690 
.662 

29.684 
.604 
.516 
,600 

28l776 
.772 
.884 
.870 

29.688 
.604 
.516 
.600 

29.776 
.772 

29.834 
.870 

30.070 
.074 
.080 
.076 

29.962 
.966 
.966 
. 966 

80.062 
.070 
.074 



8. 

SB. 

£SB. 

BNB. 

BNB. 

KNB. 

NE.by£. 

NE.byE. 

BSE. 

SB. 

ESB. 

BSE. 

SW. 



I 



Force. : Amount. 



5 
4 
6 
5 
7 
7 
5 
5 
6 
6 
4 
4 
2 



10 
9 
4 

6 

8 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

7 

4 

6 



Kind. 



Dry. 



Wet 



20.982 
.990 

80.004 
.004 

29.960 
.900 
.892 
.886 

29.822 
.814 
.808 
. oue 

S9.860 
.884 
.888 
.014 

29.960 
. 064 
.966 
.968 

29.906 
.860 
.758 

.684 

20.526 

.524 

.520 



29.789 
.651 
.713 

29.651 
.600 
.588 
.579 

29.504 
.612 
.626 
.608 

29.578 
.584 
.585 
.557 

29u58S 
.501 
.411 
.289 

29.699 
.665 
.728 
.760 

29.585 
.501 
.415 
.486 

29.685 
.682 

29.739 
.777 

29.980 
.985 
.990 
.978 

29.863 
.865 
.860 
.851 

29.953 
.961 
.968 



SW. 

SW. 

W. 



Cum. dr.; raln-sqoaUs 

Cnm. nim • 

Cam.cir 

Caio. clr 

Cnm-oir 

Cam.nim.: rain 

Kim. ;flne rain 

Scotch mist 

Scotch mist 

Com. nim 

C ir. steal nim 

Cir.strat 

Cir. com 



52.0 
51.0 
50.0 
55.8 
55.8 
52.5 
53.5 
55.0 
54.0 
5L0 
52.5 
56.2 
55.0 



KE. 

NB. 

; NE. 

;N£.by£. 

NE.by£. 

KNE. 

SB. 

SB. 

ESE. 

ESE. 

ESE. 

BNB. 

NNE. 

N. 

N. 

NNW. 

K. 



3 
3 
8 



9 I Com. nim 
9 I Com. cir.. 
4 I Cir. cum . 



49.8 
60.2 
52.0 



SE. 



29.879 
.887 
.897 
.898 

29.851 
.794 
.789 
.777 

29.717 
.708 
.694 
.706 

29.762 
.786 
.786 
.815 

29.866 

. INIV 

.893 
.863 
29.786 
.741 
.638 

.516 

29.415 

.413 

.408 



SW. 
MB. 
NB. 
NB. 
NE. 
KE. 

N. 

V. 
NW. 

8. 
SSB. 
SW. 

s. 
s. 

SSB. 
SSW. 

ssw. 

SSW. 

s. 

NMB. 

NMB. 



4 or 




SB. 

NB. 

NE. 

MB. 

MB. 

MB. 

KB. 

KE. 

ME. 

KE. 

K. 

K. 

N. 
SB. 

S. 

S. 

S. 
SE. 

S. 
K. 

KKW. 

KE. 

KE. 
KKB. 



4or 



2 
8 
4 
4 

5 
5 
4 
2 
4 
3 
4 
1 
4 
4 
5 
5 
4 


8 

2 
1 
1 
4 
2 
2 
6 
5 
8 
5 
4 
1 
3 
5 
3 
3 
3 
2 
8 
8 
5 



5 

4 
4 



2 
5 

10 
8 
7 
9 
9 
9 
5 
4 
7 
6 
7 
6 
7 

10 
9 
9 
3 



4 
5 
8 
6 
9 
9 
9 
10 
10 
10 
9 
7 
6 
4 
8 
4 
1 



4 

8 



2 

3 

4 

5 

5 

5 

5 

4 

1 

1 

2 

1 

2 

4 

3 

4 

8 

3 

2 

2 

1 
2 
8 
5 



4 
7 
9 
10 
9 
9 
8 
2 
8 
7 
9 
7 
7 
6 
7 
6 
9 
5 
6 
7 
7 
6 
7 

8 


1 



Cir. com 

Cir. cum 

Cir. cum 

Clear sky 

Cir. cam 

Cam. cir 

Cam. nim.; rain 

Stratclr 

Strat.cir 

Strat 

Strat 

Strat. nim 

Strat nim 

Strat nim 

Strat nim 

Cum. cir 

Cum. cir 

Cum. cir 

Cam 

Cum. nim 

Cam. nim 

Cum. nim 

Cum. nim 

Clear sky 

Clear sky 

Cam. cir 

Cum. cir 

Kim. cam 

Kim. com. cir . . . 

Kim. cum 

Nim. cam 

Kim 

Kim 

Kim 

Nim 

Cam. nim 

Cam. nim 

Cir. cam 

Cir. cam 

Cam. oim 

Cir. cnm 

Cir 



54.5 
55.0 
48.0 
48.0 
56.0 
48.0 
51.0 
52.2 
58.0 
54.0 
52.5 
51.5 
68.5 
50.5 
51.5 
54.0 
66.0 
55.0 
50.0 
50.0 
5L0 
50.8 
48.5 
50.8 
60.8 

5ao 

52.0 
40.0 
50.0 
48.5 
44.0 
46.5 
47.0 
47.7 
46i2 
48.8 
50.0 
50.0 
48.0 
50.0 
52.5 
52.0 



52.0 


40.0 


50.0 


48.5 1 



Cir. strat 

Strat nim 

Kim.; llcbtmist 

Kim.; rain ^■. 

Strat. nim 

Strat 

Strat dr 

Cir 

Cum. cir 

Cam. cir... 

Cam. cir 

Cam 

Strat nim 

Strat. nim 

Kim 

Kim 

Strat. cir 

Strat cir 

Cir.strat 

Cir 

Cir 

Cam. dr 

Cam. dr.; light baffling 

wind. 
Cam. nim. ; rain-sqaalls . . . . . 

Clear sky 

Clear sky 

Cir. cam 



48.0 
52.0 
58.0 
50.0 
50.5 
58.5 
53.5 
49.8 
49.7 
52.3 
52.0 
50.5 
51.0 
54.5 
54.0 
49.7 
47.5 
52.5 
51.3 
48.0 
51.0 
62.0 
52.0 

48.0 
50.0 
54.0 
6L5 



47.5 
47.0 
45.0 
50.0 
48.8 
47.0 
49.0 
50.5 

5ao 

46.0 
47.0 
49.0 
49.5 



44.0 
46.8 
45.5 



4&0 
48.0 
42. C 
43.0 
48w0 
48.0 
46.0 
47.5 

4ao 

49.0 
47.0 
48.0 
58.0 
50.5 
49.5 
40.0 
49.5 
49.5 
45.5 
46.0 
45.5 
44.7 
48.5 
45.5 
53.5 
52.0 
48.8 
43.5 
45.0 
42.0 
30.0 
42.0 
48.0 
48.5 
42.0 
44.2 
45.0 
45.0 
43.0 
4&0 
47.0 
46.0 



42.0 
46.0 
47.0 
44.0 
46.0 
47.5 
46.5 
45.0 
48.8 
47.5 
46i5 
46.0 
4&7 

4a7 

4&0 
45.5 
48.5 
46i8 
45.4 
42.5 
4&0 
46.5 
47.0 

48.0 
45.0 
4&0 
44.5 



/ 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 



41 



Meteorological observations at Redoubt Saint MichaeVs. 



Date. 


Hour. 
Oa.m 


Att. therm. 


Readinf!: of 

barometer 

No. 1613. 

29. 630 
.645 
.653 
.652 
.650 
.650 
.050 
.663 


Reading of 

barometer 

No. 1609. 


Wii 

Direc- 
tion. 


ad. 

1 
Force. 

r 

1 t 

3 
3 

1 3 
1 2 

; J 


I 

1 


Clouda. 


Deta 
thenno 

Dry. 


ched 
meters. 




> 1613. 1609. 

O ' o 

60.0 

55. 5 56. 5 
57.0 58.5 
55. 55. 5 
53. 5 54. 2 
55, 5 56. 5 
55. 6 57. 
53. 5 1 54. 5 

1 


Amount. 
2 


Kind. 


Wet 


I860. 
Sept. 26 


NNE. 

NNE. 
NNE. 
. NNE. 
NNE. 
NNE. 
NNE. 
NNE. 


Stmt, cir 


1 
o 1 o 

47.0 ' 41.0 


10.5 A. m 

11.5 a. m 


29.632 
.644 
.630 
.630 
.638 
.651 
.650 


1 

I 
2 
2 
2 
2 


Stratcir 

Strat. cir 


52. 45. 
52.5 ' 45.0 




12 5 p. in 

1.5 p. ID 

2 p*. m 


Sti at. cir 


53.0 ' 45.5 




Strat. cir 


53. 45. 5 




Stratcir 


53.0 
53.5 
52.5 


45.5 




3 p. m 


Cir. strat 


45.5 




4 p. in 


Cir. strat 


46.0 




*^ 







Meteoi'ological obso'vations at Fort Yukon, Alaska, 

iCi stern barometer No. 1609, and thermometers, by James Green, New York — Observers, Mr. J. J. M%jor and Private Michael Foley, Uulted 

States Army. J 



Date. 



Aug. 8 
Aug. 9 



Aug. 10 

Aug. 11 
Aug. 12 



Ang. 13 



THRKH0USTKR8. 



Aug. 14 



Time. 



1869. ! 
Aug. 3 I 

Aug. 4 I 

I 

I 

Aug. 5 

Aug. 6 
Aug. 7 I 



Jl m. 
9 00 a. m 
00 p. m 



3 
6 
10 
2 
7 



p.m 
a.m 
p.m 
p.m 



m 
m 
m 
m 
m 



00 

00 

00 

00 
10 00 a. m 
12 00 m . . 

00 p. m 

00 p. 

00 p. 

00 a. 

00 a. 

30 p. 

6 45 a. m 

7 00 a. m 
3U a. ni 
uO a. Tu 
30a.m 
00 n. Ill 
OOm.. 
OU p. m 
00 p. m 
00 p.m 
00 p 
00 p 
00 p 
00 a 
00 a.m 
0Ua.m 
00 p.m 
00 p.m 



3 
4 
6 
9 
11 
3 



7 
8 
8 
9 
12 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
9 
10 
11 
3 
4 



m 

lU 

m 
m 



8 00p.m 



8 

9 

11 

11 

12 

3 

6 

9 

11 

12 

1 

2 

3 

4 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

9 

10 

11 

12 

1 

2 

3 

4 



00a.m 
30 a. m 
00 a.m 
00 a. ni 
OOm.. 
00 p.m 
00 p. m 
00a.m 
00 a.ni 
OOm... 
00 p. 

P 

p. 

P- 

P- 

P 

P- 

p. 

P- 

P- 

a. 

a. 

a. 
OOm 
00 p. 
00 p. 
OOp. m 
00 p.m 



UO 
00 
00 
15 
00 
00 
00 
00 
30 
30 
00 
00 



m 
ni 
m 
m 
m 
m 
m 
ni 
m 
m 

Dl 

m 
ni 



m 
m 



•-I 



Under cover. Open air. 
Det 



Wind. 



Barometer 
uncor- 
rected. 



Att 



62.0 
65.0 
64.0 
.60.0 
60.0 
60.0 
60.0 
59.0 
63.0 
72.0 
62.0 
59.0 
60.0 
64.0 
57.5 
57.5 
59.0 
59.5 
59.0 
59.0 
60.0 
64.5 
64.0 
65.0 
68.0 
66.0 
64.0 
58.0 
61.0 
62.0 
67.5 
72.6 
66.0 
58.0 
60.5 
60.0 
60.0 
61.0 
64.0 
6.5.0 
60.0 
61.0 
62.0 
64.0 
65.0 
65.0 
67.0 
67.0 
67.0 
67.0 
66.0 
65.0 
63.0 
61.0 
62.0 
62.0 
64.0 
65.0 
67.0 
67.0 
67.5 



Dry. . Wet. 



63.0 


63.0 


63.0 


64.0 


67.0 



65.0 
68.5 
68.0 
63.0 
63.0 
63.0 
63.0 
64.0 
67.0 
67.5 
67.0 
62.0 
64.0 
69.5 
60.5 
60.5 
62.0 
62.5 
62.0 
62.0 
63.0 
68.0 
67.5 
67.0 
67.0 
67.0 
67.0 
61.0 
65.0 
66.0 
73.0 
73.0 
71.0 
62.0 
64.0 
64.0 
64.0 
65.0 
70.0 
73.0 
63.0 
65.5 
67.0 
69.0 
71.0 
72.0 
74.0 
75.0 
74.0 
74.0 
72.0 
70.0 
67.0 
65.5 
65.5 
65.0 
68.0 
71.0 
73.5 
73. 5 
75.0 



Barometer 

reduced to 

stantlard 

and 32° F. 



Clouds. 



I * 



29.011 

28.971 
.963 

29.020 
.024 

2a 996 

29. 004 
.064 
.077 
.089 
.074 

29.155 
.166 
.181 

29. 332 
.333 
.340 
.341 
.353 
.353 
.326 
.312 
.300 
.274 
.216 
.266 
.254 

29.339 

2V.501 
.501 
.495 
.494 
.488 

29.510 
.514 

29.550 

29.575 
.564 
.563 
.530 

29.556 
.552 
.551 
.546 
.536 
.536 
.536 
.532 
.524 
.526 
.536 
.526 
. 526 

29.546 
.544 
.534 
.534 
.534 
.542 
.540 
.538 



28.910 
.862 
.857 

28.924 
.928 
.900 

28.908 
.971 
.974 
.962 
.973 

29. 062 
.070 
.075 

29.259 
.213 
.240 
.245 
.259 
.259 
.229 
.203 
.192 
.164 
.098 
.153 
.146 

29. 247 

29. 401 
.399 
.378 
.364 
.875 

29. 418 
.416 

29.453 

29.478 
.464 
.455 
.420 

29. 4.59 
.452 
.449 
.438 
.426 
.426 
.421 
.417 
.409 
.411 
.4-^3 
.416 
. 421 

29.446 
.442 
.432 
.426 
.424 
.427 
.425 
.421 



Direc- 
tion. 



SE. 
NW. 
NW. 
NW. 
NW. 

W. 

W. 

W. 



NW. 
NW. 
NW. 

W. 

W. 

W. 

£. 
SW. 



8. 
SW. 
SW. 
NE. 
NE. 

N." 

N. 

N. 



W. 
W. 

w. 
w. 



54. 
8. 
S. 

s. 
s. 
s. 

8. 

s. 

S. 
s. 

s. 



Force. Amount. 



Kind. 



SW. 
SW. 





1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 




2 
2 
2 








1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
2 
2 

1 
1 
1 
1 

I 
I 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 





1 
1 






8 


Nim.; rain. 


8 


Nim. 


7 


Nim. ; rain at intervals. 


8 


Nim. 


8 


Nim. 


8 


Nim. 


8 


Nim. 


6 


Cum. nim. 


4 


Cum. nim. 


4 


Cum. 


3 


(yum. strat. 


7.5 


Cum. ste^t. 


5 


Cum. strat. 


5 


Cum. 8ti*atH 


7 


Cum. nim. strat 


7 


Cum. nim. strat 


7 


Cum. iiim. strat 


5 


Cum. strat 


5 


Cum. Hfrat. 


5 


Cum. strat 


5 


Cir cum. 


3 


Cir. cum. 


4 


Cir. cum. 


4 


Cir. com. 


4 


Cir. cum. 


4 


Cir. cum. 


4 


Cir. cam. 


3 


Light fleecy clouds. 


5 


Cir. strat. 


4 


Cir. strat 


4 


Cir. strat 


3 


Cir. strat 


2 


Cir. strat 


1 


Cir. strat.; light and fleecy. 


1 


Cir. strat.; light and fleecy. 


5 


Cir. strat 


1 


Cum. 







3 


Cum. 


3 


Cum. 


3 


Cum. 




Cum. 




Cum. 




Cora. 




Cum. 




Cum. 




Cum. 




Cum. 




Cum'. 


1 1 


Cum. 




Cum. 


A 1 


Cum. 


* 1 


Cum. 







> 














1 


Cum. 


I 


Cum, 













S. Mis. 155 6 



42 



CONTKIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTOKY OF ALASKA. 



Meteorological ohBerraiions at Fort Yukon — Continued. 



Date. 



Time. 



THBKM0MKTKK8. 



Under cover. ' Open air. 



WlDll. 



CloudH. 



«»*«•..«*».■ Barometer 



reoted. 



1869. 
Aug. 14 



Ang. 15 



Aug. 16 



Aug. 17 



A tig. 10 



Aug. 21 



Ang. 18 



Aug. 20 



h. m. 




5 00 p. 


m ... 


6 00 p. 


ro .. 


7 00 p. 


m ... 


8 00 p. 


m .. 


00 p. 


m ... 


30 a. m . . . 


10 30 a. 


m . .. 


11 00a.ra ... 


12 45 p. 


m ... 


2 00 p. 


m .. 


3 00 p. 


m . .. 


4 00 p. 


m ... 


5 00 p. 


m ... 


6 00 p. 


m ... 


7 00 p. 


ni ... 


8 00 p. 


m ... 


00 ft. 


m ... 


10 00 a. 


m .. 


11 00a.m ... 


12 OOm 




• 1 OOp. 


m ... 


2 00 p. 


ni ... 


3 OOp. 


m ... 


4 OOp. 


ni ... 


5 OOp. 


m ... 


6 00. p. 


m . .. 


7 OOp. 


m ... 


8 OOp. 


m ... 


9 OOp. 


m ... 


10 00 a. m . . . 


11 00 a. 


m .. 


12 OOm 




1 OOp. 


m ... 


2 OOp. 


m . .. 


3 OOp. 


m ... 


4 OOp. 


m ... 


5 OOp. 


m ... 


6 OOp. 


m ... 


7 OOp. 


m ... 


8 OOp. 


m ... 


10 OOp. 


m . .. 


9 00 a. 


ra ... 


10 3U H. 


ni ... 


11 00a.ni ... 


12 ou ni 


. • ■ * . 


1 UOp. 


m . . . 


2 00 p. 


m ... 


3 UOp. 


ni ... 


4 00 p. 


ni ... 


5 OOp. 


m ... 


6 OOp. 


ni ... 


7 OOp. 


m ... 


8 00)1. 


ni ... 


9 00 p. 


ni ... 


8 00 H. 


lU ... 


00 a. 


m .. 


10 30 a. 


UI ... 


11 00 a. 


m .. 


12 00 ui 


• • • ■ 


1 OOp. 


m . . . 


2 00 p. 


m 


3 OOp. 


m ... 


4 OOp. 


m . .. 


5 OOp. 


ro . .. 


6 00 p. 


ro .. 


7 OOp. 


m ... 


8 00 p. 


ni ... 


8 00 H. m . . . 


9 00 a. 


m ... 


10 00a.ni ... 


11 00 a. 


ro ... 


12 00 m 





1 OOp. 


ro . .. 


2 OOp. 


m . . . I 


3 OOp. 


ro ... 


4 OOp. 


m ... 


5 OOp. 


ra . 1 


6 OOp. 


m . ... 


7 OOp. 


ro .. 


8 OOp. 


tu ... 


9 00 a. m . . . 


10 00 a. m ... 


11 00 a. 


ro ...' 


12 OOm 


— i 


1 OOp. 


m ... 


2 OOp. 


UI ... 


3 OOp. 


ni . .. 


3 30 p. 


ni .. 


4 OOp. 


m ... 


7 OOp. 


m . .. 


8 OOp. 


m ...; 



Att. 



69.0 

68.0 

66.0 

65.0 

65.0 

62.5 

64.0 

64.0 

65.0 

66.0 

68.0 

68.0 

68.0 

68.0 

67.0 

67.0 

61.0 

63.0 

64.0 

65.0 

66.0 

66.4 

67.5 

69.0 

69.4 

69.0 

07.3 

64.0 

64.0 

61.0 

63.0 

65.0 

67.0 

67.0 

68.0 

73.0 

87.0 

84.0 

73.0 

66.0 

65.0 

61.0 

63.0 

64.0 

6.5.0 

60.0 

68.0 

7U.0 

05.4 

70.0 

69.0 

68.0 

67.0 

66.0 

59.0 

61.0 

64.0 

04.0 

65.0 

66.0 

67.0 

66.0 

67.0 

67.0 

6.5.0 

64.0 

63.0 

59.0 

60.0 

CI.O 

65.0 

6d5 

67.0 

62.0 

68.0 

63.0 

64.0 

69.0 

62.0 

62.0 

58.0 

GO.O 

61.0 

61.0 

61.0 

62.(1 

63.0 

66.0 

72.0 

64.0 

66,0 



Det. Dry. Wet. 



75.0 
75.0 
72.0 
70.0 
70.0 
66.0 
67.0 
67.0 
71.0 
73.0 
75.0 
75.0 
75.0 
75.0 
72.5 
71.0 
04.4 
66.4 
66.4 
70.0 
71.0 
71.0 
73.0 
75.0 
76.0 
76.0 
72.0 
09.0 
69.0 
64.0 
87.0 
09.0 
73.0 
73.0 
75.0 
76.0 
76.0 
77.0 
77.0 
71.0 
69.0 
65.0 
67.0 
67.0 
7U.0 
72.0 
74.0 
75.0 
66.0 
76.0 
74.0 
73.0 
72.0 
71.0 
62.0 
64.0 
67.0 

cao 

6&0 

69.0 

70.0 

69.0 

70.0 

69.0 

68.0 

67.0 

65.0 

61.0 

62.0 

63.0 

03.0 

66.0 

66.0 

65.0 

67.0 

69.0 

67.0 

66.0 

6i>.0 

6.5.0 

61.0 

62.0 

6.1.0 

63.0 

63. 

65.0 

65.0 

67.0 

67.0 

67.0 

65,0 



70.0 
79.0 
84.0 
82.5 
82.0 
81.5 
81.5 
72.0 

66.5 , 
59.8 
67.8 
71.1 

71.6 , 
78.0 
80.7 

82.5 ' 
85.6 
81.5 
79.5 
65.2 
61.4 
60.7 
71.8 
71.8 I 
71.6 
7&0 ' 

82.6 i 
81.5 I 

84.7 ! 
88.0 , 

82.3 , 
71.5 I 
64.5 I 
56.0 

62.5 . 
73.0 
71.2 
70.5 
78.0 
82.5 
82.0 
KS.0 
87.0 , 

75.4 I 

70.6 : 

65.5 ' 
61.7 
57.0 
64.0 
71.3 
71.5 
70.6 
72.2 
71.5 
60.0 
67.5 

65.6 , 
6.^0 I 
58.0 
57.5 
54.0 
50.2 
57.0 
58.5 
62.0 
60.0 i 
62.0 I 
61.0 I 
63.0 
59.5 
63.5 
55.4 
54.0 
56.5 
58.7 
58.0 

59.7 I 
61.5 

61.4 ! 
67.0 
64.7 

62.5 ' 
.59. 5 , 
56.0 



59.7 
63.0 
62.5 
64.0 
62.5 
62.5 
63.5 
50.0 
57.3 
55.0 
59.2 
61.4 
62.0 
00.7 
62.5 
64.0 
66.2 
64.5 
<.2.4 
CI. 7 
54.7 
55.4 
63.0 
60.4 
62.2 
62.5 
65.4 
63.2 
65.0 
66.2 
65.5 
63.4 
61.6 
53.4 
54.4 
60.5 
62.0 
61.2 
63.0 

r3.o 

62.5 
64.7 
6.5 
62.5 
61.0 
50.5 
50.0 
53.0 
55.6 
60.0 
58.5 
62 7 
60.5 
50.4 
63.0 
58.5 
55.5 
54.0 
54.2 
53.0 
49. .5 
51.3 
;".?. 
51.2 
5'J.3 
52.0 
53.5 
52.0 
53.5 
51.5 
53.5 
50.2 
49.2 
52.6 

52. 5 
51.7 
53.5 
.54. 5 

53. 
6'_». 6 

54. tf 
57.4 
52.6' 
51.1 



.536 
.534 
.526 
.536 
.516 

29.603 
.664 
.662 
. 664 
.605 
.586 
.584 
.576 
. 576 
.576 
.676 

29.664 
.664 
.606 
.554 
.546 
.576 
.566 
.556 
.556 
.5t6 
.554 
.556 
.546 

29.556 
.554 
.552 
.546 
.514 
.534 
.536 
.544 
.536 
.516 
.446 
.446 

29.456 
.566 
.574 
.576 
.574 
.576 
.564 
.564 
.554 
. 564 

29.546 
.546 
.544 

29.414 
.346 
.324 
.314 
.340 
.344 
.326 
.826 
.324 
.326 
324 
.355 

29.415 
.414 
.425 
.416 
.425 
.425 
.423 
.425 
.426 
.436 
.425 
.447 
.4.58 

29.475 
.476 
.450 
.405 
.446 
.487 
.486 
.435 
.497 
.485 
,436 



standard 
and 329 F. 



I 



.415 
.416 
.413 
.426 
.406 

29.499 
.556 
.554 
.554 
..492 
.468 
.466 
.456 
.458 
.461 
.461 

^.564 
.559 
.498 
.444 
.433 
.462 
.449 
.435 
.434 
.425 
.438 
.448 
.425 

29.456 
.449 
.442 
.431 
.429 
.416 
.409 
.376 
.376 
.385 
.333 
.336 

29.456 
.461 
.466 
.466 
.461 
.458 
.441 
.453 
.431 
.443 

29.428 
.431 
.431 

29.320 
.240 
.210 
.206 
.236 
.231 
.223 
.211 
.209 
.211 
.214 
.247 
.248 

29. 321 
.317 
.325 
.306 
.311 
.310 
.321 
.307 
.320 
.328 
.304 
.345 
. 356 

29.383 

■ .379 
.350 
.395 
.346 
.385 
.381 
.322 
.368 
.377 
.323 



Dln-o- 
tioii. 



Force. Amount. 



SW. 
W. 
W. 
W. 
W. 

w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 
w. 

8K. 

S£. 

£. 

£. 

B. 

£. 

E. 

B. 

E. 

SE 

SK. 

£. 

E. 

£. 

E. 

£. 

£. 

E. 

E. 

B. 

£. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 

£. 

E. 

E. 

E. 

£. 

E. 

£. 

£. 

£. 
SW. 
SW. 

N. 

N. 

E. 

£. 

E. 
SW. 

S. 

S. 
SW. 
SW, 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW. 
SW, 
SW. 
SW. 










2 

1 

2 
•> 

2 

2 

•> 

2 
3 
8 
3 
3 

a 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

3 

1- 

1 

2 

1 
•) 

2 
2 
1 










5 
3 
2 
2 
1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
5 
5 
6 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
3 

o 

2 
1 
2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
2 
1 
2 

a 

3 
4 

4 
4 

4 

4 

2 

4 

5 

5 

5 

6 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

4 

4 

4 

6 

5 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 



7 

7 

6 

5 

4 

4 



Kind. 



C*nra. : light and fleecy. 

Cir. Btrat. 

Cir. at rat 

(Jir. 81 rat. 

Cir. Ht rat. 

Cir. at rat 

(yir. ntrat. 

Cir. atrat 

(*ir. atrat 

Cir. Btrat. 

(yir. Btrat 

Cir. Rtrat. 

Cam. 

Cnm. cir. Btrat 

Cir. atrat. 

Cir. Btrat 

Cir. atmt. 

Cir. Btrat 

(;ir. atrat 

Cir. atiTit 

Cir. Btrat. 

Light llifc.v (loiidH. 

Cura. cir. stmt. 

Cum. 

Cum. 

Cir. strat. 

Cir. atrat. 

Cir. ntrat. 

Cir. Btrat. 

Cum cir. atrat. 

Cum. rir. atrat 

Cum. cir. atrat 

Cir. atrat. 

Cir. ntrat 

Cir. Btrat 

Cir. atrat. 

Cir. atrat 

Cir. strat. 

Cir. Btrat 

<'ir. atnif. 

Cii. Ml rat. 

Cir. ntrat. 

Liyht flec'cy cloudB. 

Cum. 

(*iini. 

Cum. 

('iiin. 

C 11 m. 

Cum. cir. atrat. 

Cum. cir. strat. 

Cum. cir. strut. 

Curii. cir. Btrat. 

Cum. cir. strat. 

Cum. cir. strat 

Cum. 

Cum. cir. strat 

Cum. cir. atrat. 

Cum. cir. strat. 

C'Um. 

Cnro. 

Cir. atrat. : little raiu. 

Cir. ntrat.; liitle rain. 

Cir. strat ; little raiu. 

Cum. cir. ntitit. 

(>um. cir. attHt. 

Cnm. cir. nt rat. 

Cum. cir. atmt. 

Cum. cir. stmt. 

('um. cir. Btrat. 

Cum. cir. stmt 

Cum. cir. strat. 

Cum. cir. strat 

Cum. cir. nlrat% 

('nm. cir. atrat. 

Cum. cir. ntrat • 

('um. cir. strat. 

Cum. cir. ntnt. 

Cum. cir. at nit. 

Cura. oir. strat 

Cnro. cir. stmt 

Cum. cir. nt nit 

Cum. cir. ntrat. 

Ciiiu. cir. slmt. 

Cura. cir. ntrat. 

Cum. cir. strat. 

Cnm. cir. strat 

Cum. cir. strat 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 



43 



Meteorological ohaerrations at Fort Yukon — Cnntiiuied. 



TIIKItMOMKTRBB. 



Date. 



Auk. 21 
Aug. 22, 



A«g. 23 



Aug. 24 



Aug. 1'5 



Aug. 26 



Au;;. 27 



Time. 



h. 

9 

10 

11 

12 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

« 

7 

8 

7 

8 

9 

10 

U 

12 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

9 

lU 

II 

12 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

G 

7 

K 

10 

' 12 

I 

3 



tit. 

00 p. in 

30H.ni 

00a.ra 

m . . 

p. ra 

P 
P 



00 
00 
00 
00 



ni 
in 



00 p. m . 



00 



m 



P 

00 p. m 
00 p. Ill 
00 p. m 
00 a. m 
00, A. m 
00* n. ni 
30 a. ni 
00 a. in 
00 ni . . . 
OOp 

P 
P 



00 

00 

OOp. 

OOp. 

00 



ni 
m 

lO 

m 

m 

p. m 

00 a. m 
00 n. m 
00 n. m 
00 m... 
00 p. 
00 p. 
30 p. 
OOp. 
OOp. 
00 p. 
OOp. 
OOp. 
30 .1. 
OOm 
OOp. 
OOp. 



ni 
ni 
ui 
m 
in 
in 
m 
m 
m 



m 

lU 



9 OOa. ni 

10 30 a. ni 
12 OOm... 

1 OOp. ro 

2 00 p. m 

4 00 (1. m 

5 00 p. m 
9 00 a. ni 

11 OOa. ni 

12 00 ni . . 
4 OOp. m 
7 (K) p. m 



Under cover. 



i 



Ql.O 
59.0 
61.0 
Gl.O 
61.0 
Gl.O 
G3.0 
C6l0 
71.0 
76.0 
65.0 
61.0 
.'i7.0 
r)6.0 
W. 
.')9. 
.VJ. 
W.O 
62. 
63.0 
65.0 
66.0 
66.0 
63 
56 

.•lao 

60. 

61.0 

62.0 

63.0 

61. 

02. 

6i. 

61. 

60.0 

60.0 

59.0 

60.0 

60.5 

60.0 

58.5 
59.6 
60.5 
62.0 
63.0 
63.5 
62.5 
55.0 
56.0 
66. -5 
60.0 
56.0 










64.0 
61.0 
63.0 
63.0 
63.0 
05. 
69.0 
67.0 
69.0 
69.0 
67.0 
65.0 
59.0 
59.0 
60.0 
61.0 
62.0 
6.V0 
68.0 
68.0 
69.0 
69.0 
68.0 
66.0 
59.0 
00.0 
63.0 
65.0 
66.0 
07.0 
6.'i. 
65.0 
65.0 
64.0 
63.0 
63.0 
62.0 
64.0 
64.0 
64.0 

62.0 
63.0 
64.5 
67.5 
67.5 
67.5 
66.0 
58.0 
59.0 
60.5 
62.0 
60.5 



Open air. 



Att j Det I Dry. 



53.5 
5a2 
58.0 
58.2 
59 
02.7 
6.^>. 5 
63.0 
&3.5 
65.0 
.^8.2 
5.^2 
49.5 
51.0 
55.2 
60.7 
62.5 
65.2 
63.7 
71 
72.0 
66.2 
65.0 
63.4 
55.0 



61 

64 

6K 

65, 

08 

64.0 

61.3 

63.4 

61.0 

54.0 
50.0 
62.5 
62.3 
60.7 

56.7 
59.5 
62.8 
67.3 
6.5.0 
66.5 
64.3 
48.5 
49.0 
50.0 
50.0 
46.6 



Barometer 
uncor- 
rected. 



Wet. 



58.0 
52.4 
52.5 
52.5 
51.3 
53.7 
56.2 
59.6 
56.0 
55.4 
52.0 
51.1 
47.0 
50.4 
49.3 
53.2 
53.6 
55.3 

5ao 

58 5 
56.0 
58.2 
56.7 
54.0 
51.0 
52.0 
56.5 
55.4 
55.0 
.54.5 
55.0 
hh, 4 
55.3 
56.5 
53.4 
50.0 
54.0 
.•W.0 
58.0 
55.5 

56.0 
56.0 
58.2 
60.0 
58.5 
60.0 
5«. 
47.0 
47.8 
47.5 
48.0 
43.5 



.445 

29.665 
.665 
.674 
.625 
.625 
. 635 
.645 
. 655 
.635 
.615 
.615 

29. 764 
.715 
.765 
.750 
.750 
.745 
.736 
.736 
.725 
. 715 
.695 
.675 

29.437 
.426 
.415 
.453 
.3!)6 
..176 
.3.56 
.M6 
.345 
.326 
.316 
.265 

29.348 
.346 
.337 
.335 

29.349 
.847 
.345 
.343 
.336 
.330 
.328 

29.447 
.460 
.475 
.476 
.493 



Wind. 



Clouda. 



Barometer 

reduced to 

standard 

and 320 F. 



.345 

29.571 
.565 
.574 
.525 
.525 
.525 
.5,12 
. 529 
.496 
.505 
.515 

29. 675 
.628 
.673 
.662 
.662 
.648 
.684 
.631 
.615 
.602 
.582 
.570 

29. .150 
.334 
.318 
.353 
.294 
. 271 
.2.56 
. 244 
.243 
.226 
.219 
.168 

29.254 
.249 
.239 
.238 

29.253 
.251 
.247 
.231 
.231 
.224 
.224 

29. 36.') 
.373 
.867 
.379 
.406 



Direc- 
tion. 



s\v. 
sw. 

vSW. 

sw. 
sw. 
sw. 
sw. 
sw. 
»w. 
sw. 
sw. 
sw. 
sw. 
sw. 
sw. 
sw. 
sw. 

E. 

sw. 

sw. 

sw. 

sw. 

w. 

w. 

E. 
E. 
E. 

N. 
N 
£. 
E. 
E. 
E. 
S. 
N. 
N. 

*NE." 



S. 



Force. Amount 



S. 
SW. 
SW. 

sw. 
sw. 

xw." 

NW. 
NW. 
NW. 
NW. 



1 

2 

2 

3 

2 . 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 
•> 

2 
2 



3 
2 
2 
3 



3 
7 
7 
7 

7 
5 



6 
4 
4 

2 

2 

1 

4 

4 

3 

3 

4 

4 

4 

5 

6 

2 
o 

2 
2 
3 

4 
4 
6 
6 
6 
7 
7 
7 
5 

8 



Kind, 



8 



Cum. cir. Rtrat. 
Cam. cir. atrat. 
(/um. cir. strat 
Cum. cir. atrat. 
('um.i'ir. atrat. 
(him. cir. atrat 
(>nro. cir. atrat 
(!um. cir. atrat 
Cum. cir. atrat. 
Cnm. cir. atrat 
(htm. cir. atrat 
('urn. cir. atrar. 
Cum. cir. atrtt^' 
Cum. cir. atrat 
Cum. cir. atrat. 
Cuiu. cir. atrat. 
Cum cir. atrat. 
(yum. cir. atrat. 
Cum. cir. atrat 
Cum oil-, atrat. 
Cum. cir. atrat. 
Cum. cir. atrat 
Cum. cir. atrat 
Cnm. cir. atrat. 
Cum. cir. atrat. 
Cum. cir. atrat. 
Cum. cir. atrat. 
<'um. cir. atrat. 
('urn. cir. atrat. 
Cum. cir. atrtii. 
Cum. cir. atrat. 
Cum. cir. atrat 
Cum. cir. atrat 
Cum. cir. atrat 
Cum. cir. atrat. 
Cnm. cir. atrat. 
Nim. cum. 
Cir. nim. 

Nim. cnm. atrat cir.; light 

rain. 
Cum. cir. nim. 
Cir. cum. 
Cir. cum. 
Cir. cum. 
Cir. cam. 
Cir. cum. 
Cir. cum. 
Nim. 

Nim.; ligLtraiu. 
Cum. nim. 
Cum. nim. 
Nim. 



Date. 



ObnerratioHB of minimum temperature during the night, 
fSpirit thermometer, having a bteel index within the tube.] 



I Observed 
minimum 
tempera- 
ture. 



Thermom- 
eter re- 
duced to 
open-air i' 
dry ther- ]| 

mometer. '•■ 



Date. 



Observed 

minimum 

tt-mpera- 

turo. 



Thermom- 
eter re- 
duced to 
open-air 
dry ther- 
mometer 



August 19, 1869 41.0 

AngitMt20, 1869 ' 43.5 

Augn8t22, 1H69 42.4 

Aiigual 23, 1869 42.4 



o 

.19.6 
4i.O 
40.9 
40.9 



August 24, 1869 I 

August 2.5, 1869 

August 26, 1809 

August 27, 1869 



36.2 
46.0 
48.0 
44.5 



84.9 
44.4 
46.3 
43.0 



Latitude 66^ 33' 47", longitude I45<^ 17' 47" west of Greenwich; compnte<l byCapt C. W. Ka^mond, Engineer Ctirpa, IT. S. Ariiiv, Jul} to 
September, 1869. 



44 OONTBLBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

ABSTRACT OF DAILY JOURNAL KEPT AT UNALASHKA ISLAND, ALASKA. 

SEPTEMBER, 1878. 

September 2 : Gale from the northwest. — September 3: Gale from the west. — September 5: Light gale from £. to 
SE. ; moderate rain. — September 6: Light gale from the southwest ; hard rain. — September?: Misty in a. m. ; mod- 
erate rain-fall.— September 11: Moderate rain. — September 13 : Light rain. — September 14: Light rain. — September 
15: Light rain. — September 16: Moderate rain. — September 17: Moderate rain. — September 18: Hard rain. — Septem- 
ber 19: Moderate rain. — September 24: Gusty gale; light rain. — September 25: Light rain. — September 28: Light 
rain; gusty, high winds. — September 29 : Light rain ; snow on the mountains. — September 30 : Moderate rain ; gusty, 
high winds. 

OCTOBER. 1878. 

October 1 : Moderate rain-fall ; heavy snow on'the hills. — October 2 : Light rain. — October 3 : Light rain ; snow 
falls every night on the hills. — October 4 : Light rain and sleet. — October 5: Light frost during night. — October 6: 
Hard storm of wind ; light rain from the southwest. — October 7 : Fearful storm from the southwest; mo<1erate rain. — 
October 9: Gusty, gale from SW. to SE. ; moderate rain. — October 11: Light rain. — October 14 : Gusty gale from 
the southwest. — October 15: Moderate rain, fell as snow on the hills. — October 16: Light snow; heavy squalls of 
sleet. — Ocl'J'"djL- 17 : Heavy squalls of sleet. — October 18 : Snow squalls. — October 20 : Moderate snow fell. — October 
22 : Moderate rain. — October 23 : Moderate gale from the southeast ; heavy rain. — October 24 : Moderate rain. — 
October 25: Heavy rain; high, gusty winds from the southeast. — October 26: Very hanl rain. — October 29: Light 
rains; solar halo. — October 30: Moderate rain. — October 31: Light rain; snow has fallen quite heavily on the 
mountains. * 

NOVEMBER, 1878. 

November 1 : Heavy frost ; lunar corona; solar halo ; heavy snow on the hills. — November 2 : Light snow squalls. — 
November 3: Heavy snow. — November 5: Light silbw squalls. — November 6: Moderate rain aud snow. — November 
7 : Light rain. — November 8 : Gusty gale from SE. to SW. ; light squalls of snow and sleet. — November 9 : Strong 
gusty gale from the west ; heavy snow and sleet squalls. —November 10 : Gusty gale from the southeast ; heavy rain aud 
sleet. — November 12: Slight earthquake reported at 2.30 a. m. — November 14 : Moderate snow fell. — November 15: 
Slight spits of sleet. — November 16 : Moderate snow ; solar halo. — November 17 : Moderate snow. — November 18 : 
Heavy snow. — November 20: Snow squalls. — November 21: Snow falling lightly. — November 22: Heavy snow. — 
November 23: Light snow. — November 24: Heavy snow. — November 25: Moderate snow. — November 26: Moderate 
snow. — November 28 : Rain, sleet, and snow quite heavy. — November 29 : Light r^in. 

DECEMBER. 1878. 

December 1 : Light snow. — December 2 : Light snow. — December 3 : Strong gale from the southeast ; snow chang- 
ing to rain, quite heavj'. — December 4 : Hard rain. — December 5 : Moderate rain. — December 6 : Rain, snow, and sleet 
in heavy squalls.— December 8: Hard rain. — December 11 : Mmlerate rain, sleet, and snow. — December 12: Moderate 
snow. — December 13 : Strong, gusty gale from the southeast ; moderate rain. — December 15 : Moderate raiu. — Decem- 
ber 16 : Moderate snow. — December 18: Heavy snow. — December 19 : Heavy snow squalls. — December 21 : Fearful gale 
from the north ; much drifting snow. — December 22 : High gale from N. to NW. ; falling snow drifted. — December 2ii : 
Snow fell and drifted from high wiuds. — December 24 : Misting, later heavy rain. — December 25 : Fearful gale from 
the southeast ; dashing rain melted nearly 3 feet of ground-snow. — December 26 : Heavy rain. — December 27 : High 
gale from the southeast ; very heavy rain. — December 28 : Terrific gale increased to storm from the southeast ; heavy 
rain-fall. — December 29 : High, gusty gale from SK. to SW. ; heavy rain with snow. — December 30 : Rain and snow of 
moderate character. — December 31 : Fearful hurricane from SE. to E. ; very heavy rain-fall. An aneroid barometer 
in the office t)f the Alaska Commercial Company read 27.84 at 4.20 p. m. ; all the snow melted &om the mountains. 

JANUARY, 1879. 

January 1 : Moderate rain.— January 2 : Light rain.— January 3 : Light snow.— January 4: Modeiate rain aud 
snow. — January 5: Light snow.— January 6 : Light snow.— January 10 : Light rain. — January 11 : Misty.— January 
12: Light snow. — January 16 : Snow squalls ,'of hard character.— January 17: Snow and sleet, drifted furiously. — ^Jan- 
uary *20 : Snow and rain of light character. — January 21 : Gale from the southwest ; heavy snow.— January 22 : Gusty 
gale from the southwest.— January 24 : Heavy rain.— January 25.— Moderate rain.— January 26 : Hard gale from the 
southeast; hard snow squalls ; snow drifted.— January 27 : Fearful gale; hard snow fall.— Januaray 28: Gusty gale 
from the southwest ; pnow squalls. — ^January 29 : Awful hurricane from the southwest ; snow fell and drifted furi- 
ously ; aneroid barometer in the office of the Alaska Commercial Company read 27.70 at 4.20 p. m. — January 30 : 
Terrific gale from the southwest ; snow fell aud drifted furiously.— January 31 : Lunar halo. The natives predicted 
that this month would be one characterized by its extieme mildness ; the report shows that each day was busy and 
replete with atmospheric disturbances. 

FEBRUARY, 1879. 

February 1: Heavy rain. — February 2: Moderate snow. — February 5: Gusty gale from the southeast; solar halo 
ftom drifting snow. — February 6: Moderate rain. — February' 7: Gusty gale from the southeast; moderate rain. — 



GONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 45 

February 8 : Moderate rain. — February 12 : Moderate rain. — February 13 : Moderate rain. — February 14 : Hard froet. — 
February 19 : Gusty gale from NE. to NW. ; light snow. — February 20 : High gale, very gusty, from N. to NW. — Feb- 
ruary 21 : Gusty gale from N. to NW. ; hard snow squalls. — February 22 : Snow fell and drifted. — February 23 ; Snow 
fell and drifted. — February 24 : Snow drifted furiously. — February 26 : Snow drifted lightly. — February 27 : Snow 
drifted furiously. — February 28 : Light snow fell. 

MARCH, 1879. 

March 1: Hard snow squalls. — March 3: Much snow drifted. — March 6: Solar halo and parhelia. — March 9: 
Heavy snow. — March 10: Heavy snow. — March 11: Heavy snow. — March 12: Snow squalls of light eharacter. — 
March 13: Hard snow-fall. — March 17: Misty. — March 18: Heavy snow fell. — March 23: Solar halo. — March 25 
Imperfect solar halo. — March 28 : Blinding snow-storm; little rain fell. — March 29: Moderate snow squalls.— March 
30 : Light snow squalls. — March 31 : Warmer, with threatened rain. 

APRIL, 1879. 

April 1: Arrival of schooner Bella from San Francisco; snow squall of frequent occurrence. — April 2: Snow 
squalls of moderate character. — April 3: Light suow and sleet. — April 5: Gale from the southwest, very gusty; w^t 
snow fell.— April 6: Moderate snow fell. — April 7: Moderate snow fell.— April 9: Moderate snow fell. — April 10: 
Heavy snow. — April 11 : Gusty gale from the west. — April 12: Light snow. — April 14: Light snow. — April 17: Fear- 
ful snow-storm, much drifting.— April 18: Imperfect solar halo. — April 19 : Heavy snow fell.— April 20: Light snow. — 
April 21 : Light snow and sleet. — April 22: Pale solar halo. — April 23 : Moderate rain. — April 27: Arrival of vessel St. 
George from San Francisco. I prepare to depart for Attu Island under instructions from ofiSce of the Chief Signal 
Officer. Observations discontinuetl at this place. 

ABSTRACT OF DAILY JOURNAL KEPT AT ATKHA ISLAND, ALASKA. 

MAY, 1879. 

May 4 : Arrived at this place. — May 5 : Vessel discharged' cargo. — May 6 : Departure of vessel ; instruments put 
in temporary position. — May 7: Began taking meteorological observations; light suow fell in early a. m. — May 9: 
Light squall of sleet and rain.- May 10: Copious rain. — May 11 : Light gale from the southeast ; heavy rain. — May 
12 : Moderate rain. — May 13 : Sleet squalls of light character.— May 14 : Very gusty gale SE. to S. ; heavy rain. — May 
16: Strong gale; moderate rain. — May 16: F6w flakes of snow. — May 17: Moderate rain ; gusty wind.— May 18: Light 
rain. — May 21: Light snow. — May* 22: High winds; light snow. — May 23: Gusty gale from NE. to SE. ; moderate 
rain and few snow-flakes fell. — May 24: Moderate rain. — May 25: Light rain.— May 26: Hard gale from northwest; 
sleet fell at intervals. — May 26: Light snow fell. — May 29: Light rain.— May 30: Gusty SE. to NW. winds; heavy 
rain. — May 31 : Light rain; high temperature (65^). 

JUNE, 1879. 

June 1 : Light rain. — June 2: Very gnsty from the northwest ; light to cioclerate rains. — June 3 : Gusty gale from 
the northwest ; moderate rain ; severe earthquake at 9.3()| a. ni.; the shocks were almost without interval, moving 
from E. to W. ; the undulations numbered eight and lasted about six seconds; the clock was stopped by being thrown 
out of perpendicnl ar. — June/: Moderate rain. — June 8: Gusty gale from the northwest; hard rain. — June 9: Light 
gale from the northwest ; heavy rain ; sleet fell at times.— June 13: Light rain. — June 16: Solar halo at 2 p. m. — June 
17: Pale solar halo. — June 21: Dense fog. — June 22: Light rain. — June 23: Light rain. — June 25: Gusty gale from 
the northwest. — Jnne 27 : Arrival of revenue cutter Richard Rush. — June 28: Departure of Richard Rush. — June 30: 
Gusty gale from the northwest; light rain. 

JULY, 1879. 

July I : Heavy rain-fall. — July 2 : Light gale from the west ; rain, snow, and sleet fell ; quite heavily on the hills.^— 
July 3: Solar halo. — July 4 : Distant thunder; hard rain. — July 5: Hard rain.-^july 8 : Heavy rain.— July 11: Hard 
gale from SE. to SW. ; very heavy rain. — July 12: Hard rain. — July 13: Light gale from the southeast; moderate 
rain. — July 15: Light showers. — July 18: Light gale from the west. — July 23: Moderate rain.— July 24: Moderate 
rain. — July 28 : Moderate rain. — July 29 : Heavy rain.— July 31 r Very gusty gale from the west. 

AUGUST, 1879. 

August 2: Drizzling rain. — August 3: Moderate rain; temperature reached OO'^. — August 4: Gusty S. to SW. 
winds; light rain. — August 5: Very heavy rain. — August 6: Very hard rain ; lunar corona. — August 7: Moderate 
rain. — August 8: Gale from tho west; light rain. — August 9: Light rain; gusty from the west. — August 11: Hard 
rain. — August 12: Light rain. — August 14 : Hard rain; arrival of schooner St. George, from Unalashka. — August 15: 
Moderate rain; departure of St. George for the westward. — August 17: Light rain. — August 18: Moderate rain. — 
August 20: Foggy. — August 21 : Hardest dash of rain. — August 22: Very hartl rain. — August 23: Very hard rain. — 
August 27: Gusty in a. m. ; hard rain. — August 28: Gusty winds blowing a hard gale from west; moderate rain. — 
August 29: Arrival of vessel St. George from the westward ; depart for Unalashka; observations ceased because there 
was no one to take them. 



46 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

MONTHLY ABSTRACT OF DAILY JOURNAL KEPT AT UNALASHKA ISLAND, ALASKA. 

After my return from Atkha Island on the 8th of September, I placed the instramiBots in 
position and began taking observations on the 17th instant. 

SEPTEMBER, 1879. 

September 38 : Solar halo. — September 29 : Light rain. — September 30: Moderate rain. 

OCTOBER, 1879. 

October 6: Rain, snow, and sleet fell quite heavily. — October 7: Light rain. — October 9: Light rain. — October 
10: Moderate rain. — October 11: Light rain. — October V2: Light rain.— October 13: Light rain". — October 14: Moder- 
ate rain. — October ir>: Light rain. — October IC: Snow fell on the mountains. — October 18: Moderate rain ; sleet fel 
lightly. — October 19: Moderate rain. — October 20: Light rain. — October 21: Gusty gale from the north; suow and 
sleet squalls; first appearance of fur-seals (Callorkinus urHntu) from the breeding-grounds at the Pribilof Islands. — 
October 22: Gusty gale from the north; snow and sleet squalls of hard character. — October 23: Suow and sleet in 
light squalls; ice formed on the shallow pools. — October 24: Low gale from the north; hard sleet and snow 
quails. — October 25: Moderate rain with sleet squalls. — October 26: Light rain and sleet squalls. — October 27. 
Gusty gale from the southeast ; very heavy rain; arrival of schooner Unalashka from San Francisco. — October 28: 
Hard gale from the southeast ; extremely heavy rain; nearly all the snow has disappeared from the mountains. — 
October 29: Dashing rain; lunar corona. — October 30: Light rain; frost in the evening. — October 31: Moderate 
rain, fell as snow on the mountains. 

NOVEMBER. 1879. 

November 1: Frequent showers of rain ; ice formed during the night. — ^November 2: Heavy snow and rain 
squalls. — November 3: Raiu and snow, the former quite heavy at times. — November 4: Very gusty from SW. to 
SE. ; light raiu and snow.— November 5: Very heavy rain. — November 6: Hard rain. — November 7: Light gale 
from SW. to NW. ; moderate rain. — November 8: Gusty gale from the west; snow and rain of light character ; 
departure of Saint George for Sau Francisco. — ^November 9: Snow squalls; dense fog in the Uniuiak Pasd. — Novem- 
ber 11: Hard gale from SW. to SE. ; very heavy rain. — November 12: Strong gale from the southwest; moderate 
rain. — November 13: Gusty gale from the west; light rain and snow. — November 14: Light rain and snow. — 
November 15: High gale from the north. — November 17: Rain and hail. — November 18: Rain and snow, very 
light. — November 20: Light sleet. — November 22: Hard rain. — November 23: Hard rain; very gusty. — November 
24 : Low gale from the southeast; moderate rain. — November 2(i: Moderate rain. — ^November 27: Very heavy rain. — 
November 28: Lunar corona; departure of Daisy ^owo for San Francisco. — November 29: Drizzling and foggy 
clonds. — November 30 : Light rains. 

DECEMBER. 1879. 

December 1 : Moderate rain. — December 2: Light showers of rain, changed to snow. — December 3 : Very gusty 
winds; frequent squalls of sleet and snow. — December 4 : Low, gusty gale from the uorthwest; suow and sleet 
squalls, very light. — December 5: Light snow and sleet squalls. — December 6 ; Light snow and sleet. — December 7 : 
Spits of snow and sleet. — December 9: High gale from the northwest ; violent squalls of snow and sleet. — December 10: 
Gale from the northwest; violent swirls of snow and sleet. — December 17: Hard rain. — December 18: Hard raiu. — 
December 19: Heavy rain. — December 20: Light rain.— December 21: Light rain; schooner Georgie R. Higgins 
departs for San Francisco.-^December 22 : Light rains. — December 23 : Heavy rains. — December 24 : Frost. 

JANUARY, 1880. 

January 1 : Heavy frost. — January 2: General shooting stars this evening. — January 3: Light spit of snow. — 
January 5; Heavy frost — January 9: Light snow. — January 10: Light now. — January 11: Light snow changing to 
moderate rain.— January 12 : Moderate rain. — January 13: Rain, hail, and snow. — January 16: Very light spit of 
guow. — January 17 : Much rain mixed with snow.— January 18 : Hard rain. — January 19 : Gusty gale to a low 
gtorm rate from the south ; light snow fell. — ^January 20 : Gale from the northwest ; heavy snow. — January 21 : 
Heavy snow. — January 22 : Light snow. — January 23 : Light snow ; lunar corona. — January 24 : Heavy snow. — 
January 26: Moderate rain ; gale from SE. to SW. — ^Jannary 27 : Fine snow fell in late p. m. — January 28: Moderate 
rain and snow. — January 29 : Light snow.— January 30: Light rain and snow; few discharges of hail with rain. — 
January 31 : Gale from the northeast ; heavy rain and snow. 

FEBRUARY. 1880. 

February 1 : Moderate rain with snow.— February 2 : Light snow.— February 5 : Heavy snow and light rain. — Feb- 
ruary 6: Light rains. — February 8: High winds with snow which drifted furiously. — February 9 : Gusty gale from 
SE. to SW. ; rain, snow, and sleet fell in moderate quantities. — February 10: Furious gale from the west; violent 
drifting of the falling sleet and snow.— February 1 1 : Drifting snow ; moderate snow fell. — ^Febmary 12 : Rain and snow 



CONTEIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 47 

of moderate character.— February 13: Light snow.— February 14: Faint halo and parhelia.— February 17: Fine solar 
halo, brilliant parhelia, and well-developed lunar halo.— February 18: Hard rain for few minutes, later very light.— 
February 19: Rain, hail, sleet, and snow of moderate character; arrivalof Daisy Ro we from San Francisco.-Febniary 
20 : Northwest gale of light character.— February 21 : Gusty northwest gale. — February 22: Gale from the northwest ; 
moderate rain with snow.- February 23 : Moderate rain. — February 24: Light rain.- February 25: Low storm from 
the southeast; hard rain, little sleet.— February 26 : Gusty gale from the northwest, snow and sleet.— February 27 : 
Hard rain with snow. — February 28: Snow and sleet squalls.— February 29: Solar halo and parhelia. 

MARCH, 1880. 

March 1: Pale halo around the sun. — March 2: Pale solar halo. — March 3: Gusty gale from the west; light 
rains. — March 4: Light rain. — March 5: Gale from the west; rain, snow, and sleet, with thunder and lightning. — 
March 6: Gusty gale; rain, snow, and sleet. — March 7: Light rain. — March 8: Light snow. — March 9: Moderate 
snow. — March 10: Hard rain and snow. — March 11: Light snow. — March 12: Light rain. — March 13: Light gale 
from the southeast; very heavy rain. — March 14: Light rain. — March 1.5: Hard storm from the southeast; heavy 
rain. — March 16: Light rain ; pale solar halo. — March 17: Hard rain and snow. — March 18: Light rain. — March 19 j 
High gale from the north ; much snow and sleet fell and drifted. — March 20: Gusty gale from the northwest; sleet 
and snow, drifted as it fell. — March 21 : Light rain and snow. — March 24 : Light rain. — March 25 : Arrival of Mathew 
Turner from San Francisco.— March 26: Solar and lunar halo.— March 28: Light rain.— March 29: Light rain. — 
March 30 : Very light rain. — March 31 : Light showers of rain. 

APRIL. 1880. 

April 2: Rain and-snow of lightest character. — April 3: Light rain and snow. — April 4: Light snow. — April 5: 
Sleet squalls. — April 6: Light rain and snow. — April 7: Gusty winds from SE. to NW. ; moderate rain. — April H: 
Strong storm from the north ; little snow and sleet ; arrival of Unalashka from San Francisco. — April 10: Light gale 
from the southeast; rain with hail. — April 11: Light snow. — April 12: Light rain, hail, and snow. — April 13: Kain, 
snow, and sleet. — April 14: High gale from the west; light snow and sleet. — April 15: Large flakes of snow fell 
lightly. — April 16: Gusty gale from the southwest; moderate rain with snow. — April 17: Gusty gale from southwest; 
rain, snow, and sleet of lightest character. — April 18 : tligh storm from NW. te N. ; moderate snow and sleet ; hard 
freeze last night. — April 19 : Heavy snow squall. — April 21: Moderate gale from the northwest ; violent sleet squall. — 
April 23 : Light rain ; solar halo.— April 24 : Light rain. — April 27 : Light rain. — April 28 : Very light rain. — April 30 : 
Spring-like weather. 

MAY,. 1880. 

. May 1: Removal of my office to room adjoining office of the Western Fur and Trading Company. — May 10: Sola 
halo. — May 12: Hard rain.— May 13: Hard rain.— May 14 : Misty.— May 15: Higl^ winds; hard rain. — May 16: High 
winds from the northwest; hard rain; later misty.— May 17: Hard rain.— May 18: Strong gale; hard rain. — May 
19: Light rain. — May 21: Light snow and rain. — May 22: Snow and rain of moderate character. — May 23: Misty. — 
May 26 : Heavy frost ; solar halo. —May 27 : Showerj', of light character. — May 29 : Preparations for departure to Attn 
Island, Alaska, for the purpose of taking a series of meteorological observations at that place. 

ABSTRACT OF DAILY JOURNAL KEPT AT ATTU ISLAND, ALASKA. 

JULY, 1880. 

July 21 : Placed instrument in position.- July 22 : Began taking meteorological observations ; fine weather, with 
clear, warm days and no precipitation for the remainder of the month. 

AUGUST. 1880. 

August 4 : Gusty gale from the northwest ; moderate rain. — August 5 : Hard gale from the northwest with violent 
rain. — August 6; Low gale from the northwest; very hard rain. — August 7: Yery hard rain with low gale from the 
northwest. — August 8: Light rain ; natives assert that the gale which prevailed for the three past days is an unusua^ 
occurrence for August. — August 14: Misty. — August 15: Light, misty rain,- August 16: Light rain.— August 22: 
Light rain. — August 23: Light rain. — August 26: Hard rain. — August 27: Light rain. — August 28: Misty. — August 
29 : Hard rain. — August 30 : Moderate rain. — August 31 : Light rain. 

SEPTEMBER, 1880. 

September 1 : Light rain. — September 6: Very light rain. — September 7 : Drizzly.— September 10 : Light rain. — 
September 16 : Hard rain. — September 18: Hard rain. — September 20: Frost; lunar halo.— September 21 : Showery; 
lunar halo. — September 22: Light rain. — September 23: Mod<rate rain. — September 24: Dashing rain; gusty gale 
from S. to SE. — September 25: StitT gale from the southeast ; hard rain.— September 28: Little hail fell in p. m. — 
September 30 : Dashing rain with gusty gale from the southeast. 



48 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

OCTOBER, 1880. 

October 1 : Very hard rain ; gale from the north. — October 2 : Showers of rain ; spits of snow ; high winds. — 
October 3 : Hard dashes of rain. — October 4 : Suow fell heavily on the mountains. — October 5 : A furious gale with 
gnsts of a hurricane rate all day ; the roof of my house was taken off, the boards loosened, a flood of water entered 
from the torrents of rain ; the anemometer carried off and bent out of shape ; all of my specimens of natural history, 
including a complete series of plants from various islands of the Aleutian chain, were ruined ; no help of any kind 
here and very little with which to repair damage; all records written with ink were in most instances hopelessly 
ruined ; the wind blew from SE. to £. over the mountain tops in the most violent gusts. — October 6 : Gale from the 
southeast ; showery. — October 7 : Gusty gale from E. to NE. ; hard rain. — October 8 : Gusty gale from the northeast ; 
snow on the hills ; moderate showers. — October 9 : Rain ; snow fell in light amounts, disappearing on the hills. — 
October 10 : Lunar halo. — October 11 : Moderate rain ; heavy snow on the hills. — October 12 : Moderate snow and 
rain. — October 13 : Hard rain. — October 16 : Light rain. — October 17 ; Arrival of steamer Dora from eastward ; I have, 
just this day, repaired the damages which occurred to my house on October 5 ; lunar halo in evening. — October 18 : 
Light rain and suow. — October tiO: Moderate rain; light frost. — October 22 : Hard rain. — October 23 : Light rain. — 
October 24 : Misty. — October 25 : Drizzly. — October 28 : Moderate frost and freeze. — October 31 : Four vibrations of 
an earthquake at .09 a. m. ; undulations from E. to W. 

NOVEMBER, 1880. 

November 2: Light snow. — November 3 : Light sleet and snow spits. — November 7 : Rain and hail of light char- 
acter. — ^November 8 : Light rain ; lunar corona. — November 13: Light rain and suow. — November 14 : Rain and snow 
of moderate character. — ^November 16: Hard gale from the south; moderate rain with snow. — November 17: Mod- 
erate rain with little snow. — November 18: Hard rain. — November 19: Hard rain.— November 20: Light to misty 
rain. — November 22: Misty to moderate rain. — November 23: Hard rain. — November 24: Very hard rain.— Novem- 
ber 25: Moderate to hanl rain. — November 26: Very hard rain. — November 27: Light rain. —November 28: Very 
hard raiu. — November 29: Furious gale from the southeast; dashing rain. — November 30: Strong gale from the 
southeast ; hard rain with snow. 

DECEMBER, 1880. 

• 

December 1 : Light rain, snow, and sleet. — December 3 : Very heavy rain. — December 4 : Very heavy rain. — 
December 5: Light rain. — December 6: Very heavy raiu-f all. — December 7: Hard rain. — December 8: Hard rain. — 
December 9: Light rain. — December 10: Misty; snow on the mountains. — December 11 : Very gusty gale from E. to 
S. ; moderate rain with sleet squalls. — December 12 : Light sleet, snow and rain. — December 13 : Wet snow fell 
lightly.— December 14 : Light sleet; gust from the northeast. — December 15 : Sleet squalls; very heavy sea running. — 
December 16: Sleet of light character, very moist. — December 17:- Light raiu. — December 18: Hard storm from the 
northeast; violent sea; hard rain with snow. — December 19: Violent storm from the northeast; heavy rain with 
snow. — December 20: Gusty north wind ; moderate suow with rain. — December 21 : Gusty northwest wind. — Decem- 
ber 22: High winds backing and subsiding; light sleet squalls; sea violent. — December 23: Gale from the north- 
west ; light sleet squalls.— December 24 : High gale from the northwest ; sleet and snow.— December 25 : High gusty 
gale from the west and northwest ; sleet swirls of light character. — December 26 : High gale from W. to NW. ; little 
snow fell; sea raging violently. — December 27: High gale from the northwest. — December 28*. Northwest gale of 
gusty character; rain, sleet, hail, and snow fell o'f lightest charact.er. — December 29: Northwest gale, rather gusty; 
hard rain and snow. — December 30: Heavy rain; snow nearly gone; sea going down. — December 31: Hard rain; 
natives report an earthquake shock as having occurred at or about 2 a. m. of night before last (30th); a slight shock 
was felt af 7.25 p. m. 

^ JANUARY, 1881. 

January 1: Moderate rain and snow.— January 2: Light suow. —January 3: Air full of frost films. — January 5: 
Terrific gusts of a high storm rate from SW. to SF3. ; snow drifted furiously from the mountain tops. — January 6 : 
Very heavy fall of frost films from the sky during clear weather; not a cloud in tbe sky when they fell, yet the air 
was darkened with the films. — January 7: Gusty south winds; suow drifted furiously; sleet later in the day, with 
heavy gusts of wind. — January 8: Frightful gusts of a high storm rate fi;oni S. to SE. ; heavy dashes of rain. — Janu- 
ary 9: Gusty gale from S. to SE. ; solar halo ; moderate suow. — January 10 : High gale from 6. to SW. ; frequent hard 
snow squalls. — January 11 : Light frequent flufi's of suow. — January 12: Gusty gale from SW. to SE. ; moderate sleet 
and snow. — January 13: Gusty S. to E. winds; moderate snow and rain. — January 14: Rain, icy sleety hail fell of 
hard character. — Jannary 15: Heavy suow; light gUHty gale from E. to N£. ; light snow and sleet. — January 16: 
Violent snow and sleet squalls; sea violent; raiu fell late in p. m. — January 17: Gale, very gusty from the north; 
sleet and snow squalls; lunar corona.— January 18: Gustiness from N. to NW. ; fierce snow and sleet squalls; slush 
forms in the bay. — Jannary 19: Few sleet pellets. — January 20: Temperature 17°, lowest up to date; very gusty from 
the northwest, increased to a hard gale ; frequent sleet and snow squalls ; snow flying furiously. — January 21 : Heavy 
fall of sleet and snow ; the ground is covered to a depth of 5 feet with sleet and snow.— January 22 : Gale from the 
northwest, increased to st>orm ; snow and sleet fell heavily ; snow drifted furiously. — January 23: Rain and snow; the 
hay is covered with frozen snow-slnsh, a very unusual occurrence ; water-fowl are extremely scarce. — Jannary 84 : 



OONTEIBUTIOirS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA* 49 

Moderate rain and snow ; goaty gale ftt>m the north.— January 25 : Goaty gale from the north ; light rain. — Janoary 
26 : Light gale late in p. m. from the eoath ; rain and snow fell lightly. ^Tanoary 27 : Hard rain with little snow ; 
hard gale rate from S£. to £. — Janoary 28: Goaty gale from the northeast; moderate rain with snow. — ^Janoary 29 : 
Gosty gale from S. to N£. ; hard rain with snow. — Janoary 30 : Heavy sea ronning.— Janoary 31 : Natives preparing 
to go o£f to the other islands to hont sea-otters ; they are detained by the severe weather of this entire month ; late 
in p. m. they started, hot were soon compelled to go to land ; the snow has nearly disappeared from the low groonds ; 
all kinds of water-fowl are extremely scarce, and fresh food is not attainable. 

FEBBUABY, 1881. 

Febroary 1 : Light snow and sleet. — Febroary 2 : Deposit of frost on varioos objects ; hard freeze ; snow of light 
character in p. ra. — Febroary 3: Heavy sea ronning. — ^Febroary 6: Light snow with drizzling rain. — ^Febroary 7: 
Gosty gale from the sooth ; short, hard rain ; snow drifted violently ; lonar corona. — ^Febroary 8. — ^Violent gosts from 
the sooth ; qoite hard freeze. — ^Febroary 9 : Hard gale, increased to a storm rate from the northeast ; hard rain with 
snow. — ^Febroary 10 : Light rain, with snow and sleet sqoalls ; lonar corona. — ^Febroary 11 : Sea very roogh. — Febroaiy 
12: Lonar cot ona.— Febroary 13 : Sooth to east gale ; light rain-fall.— Febroary 14 : High gale from NE. to NW. ; grass 
beginning to peep oot.— Febroary 15: Moderate snow with gale from the north. — Febroary 16: Gosty gale from the 
northwest; fine snow fell. — Febroary 17: Light skifts of snow and sleet.— Febroary 19: Light snow-fall. — ^Febroary 
20 : Great gnstiness of wind from the north ; misty. — Febroary 21 : Hard rain ; earthqoake at 7.16 p. m. ; it gave qoite 
a wrench to the hoose ; ondolations from £. to W. — Febroary 22 : Light gale from NE. to N. ; moderate rain ; violent 
sea ronning. — Febroary 24 : Light snow fell. — ^Febroary 25 : High gosty winds ftt)m 8W. to NW.— Febroary 26 : Sleet 
and snow sqoalls. — Febroary 27 : Gale from S. to SW. ; light sleet and snow fall. — Febroary 28 : Violent snow sqoalls, 
with sleet ; doring this month the natives have made several ineffectnal attempts to cross the straits between this 
island and the Semechi Islands, tb hont sea-otters {Enkydrit lutris) at the latter place ; the weather has not been so 
bad doring the month of Febroary for several years. 

MARCH, 1881. 

March 1 : Gosty gale from the sooth ; light soow-fall. — ^March 2 : Heavy snow-fall. — March 3 : Solar halo. — ^March 
4 : Moderate snow-fall. — ^March 6 : Gosty gale from the sooth ; increased to high storm fh>m northeast ; snow drifted 
most forioosly, a gloomy day ; the very earth trembles onder the shocks received from the force of the sorf of the 
violently raging sea. — March 7 : Violent gosts irom SW. to SE ; soow fell and drifted fririoosly.— March 8 : Very 
gosty from SW. to S£. ; snow fell heavily and drifted. — March 9 : Sleet and snow drifted violently. — March 10 : Gosty 
gale from the sooth; sleet and snow drifted forioosly. — ^March 11 : Light sleet and snow sqoalls. — ^March 12: Lowest 
temperatore (10°}.— March 13: High gale from £. to NW. ; light snow-fall.— March 14 : Heavy gale ootside from the 
northwest ; snow and sleet fell lightly. — ^March 15 : Hard storm from the north ; moderate snow with little sleet. — 
March 16 : Gosty gale from S. to SE. ; snow fell late.— March 17 : Violent gale from SW. to E. ; snow of moderate charac- 
ter fell, moch drifted ; sea in terrible commotion. — March 18 : Strong gale from N. to NE. ; little snow fell.— March 
19: Hard storm irom N. toNE. ; violent sea; sleet and snow sqoalls.— March 20 : Gale from « the northeast ; light 
snow.— March 21 : Light snow skifts.- March 22: Hard gosts from NW. to S. and NE. ; sleet and snow of moderate 
character. — ^March 23 : Severe earthqoake at 7.04 p. m. ; began as gradoal settling then a series of rapidly soccessive 
vibrations lasting nineteen seconds. — March 24 : Terrific gale from the sootheast ; snow and sleet fori#osly drifted. — 
March 25 : Light sleet and snow with great gostiness of wind from S. to SE.— March 26 : Large flakes of snow ; light 
mist.— March 27: Gosty from N. to NE. ; misty.— March 28: Violeot sea ronning; light rain.— March 29: A light 
freeze and frost; light rain. — March 31: Light snow changed to rain. 

APRIL, 1881. 

April 1 : Violent horricane from SW. to SE. ; dashing rain ; all the snow gone from the lower groonds ; arrival 
of wild geese {Branta canaden9%9 hutchinaii) ; several snow-flakes {PUctrophwax nivalis) were seen to-day; they are 
not migratory from this island; the greater nomber of these birds remain throoghoot the winter bot are only rarely 
seen daring that time on the north side of the island. — ^April 2: Irregolar gale from SW. to S. ; rain, snow, and sleet 
fell moderately ; a severe earthqoake of snfficient force to awaken the entire village occorred at 3.15 a. m. ; several 
vibrations, all from E. to W.— April 3 : Moderate snow and sleet; the party of hooters (19) retom fiom the Semechi 
Islands ; they had hot poorest soccess, having obtained bot six sea-otter skins where in former years they secored over 
a hondred.— April 4 ; Gosty gale from N. to S. via E. ; sleet and snow fell lightly .—April 5 : Hard gale from S. to SE. ; 
light snow with rain,— April 6 : Gosty gale from the cast.— April 8 : Gosty gale from the sooth.— April 9 : Low gale 
from the north ; misty in p. m.— April 10 : Moderate rain ; I learn to-day, that swans (Olw ooltnManuB) were in a large 
flock in the lake near the head of Massacre Bay on the sooth side of this island.— April 11 : N. to E. gale ; high sea; 
moderate rain.— April 12: High gale from the northeast: light rain with little sleet.— April 13 : Northeast gosty gale ; 
very high sea ronning.— April 15 : Light rain with snow. — ^April 16: Hard rain with snow; variable gale fkom the 
northeast.— April 17 : Low gale from the north ; hard rain with snow.— April 18: Light rain ; gale from the north. — 
April 19: Heavy snow-fall.— April 20: Moderate snow-fall.— April 23 : Strong gale from the sooth.— April 24: Solar 
halo.— April 25: Light rain.— April 26 : Light snow-fall with rain.— April 27: Light rain-fall. April 30 : Light rain. 

S. Mis. 166 1 



50 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATUEAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 



MAT, 1861. 

May 5 : Qngtj from 8. ; light rain.— May 6 : Freqaent showers ; frost iu late p. m.— May 7 : Terrific gusto from 
S. to SE. ; frost of light oharacter ; mnch wet snow falling at times.— May 8 : Hard showers ; gnsty gale from 8. to 
NW.— May 9: Wind everywhere. Wowing a gale at times ; rain and snow fell lightly.— May 10 : Light snow.— May 11 : 
Frequent rains and snow ; arrival of steamer Dora frt)m eastward.— May 12 : Rain and wet snow nearly entire day ; 
departure of Dora; schooner Czar arrived off the island at 7.40 p. m; preparations to leave this place.- May 13: 
Czar came to anchor; heard that word had been sent that I was to be relieved of duty ; preparation for departure 
to Unalasbka where I arrived June 28. Turned over all Government property in my possession to 8. Applegate, Ser- 
geant, 8ignal Corps, U. 8. Army, on July 2, 1881; leave for 8an Francisco on July S2, 1881 ; arrive in Washington 
September 16, 1881. 

SwmwMtry of m§Uorologiedl ohiervaiio^i takm ai placet on ike JUmikm lelande, AlMka. 

[UnslMhka Idsad (UinUiik Yilli^e). Lstltade W> W t Umgltade lOO^ W.] 



Months. 



187$-*79. 



Bcpteinbef ...... 

October 

NoTvniber. •••■■< 

Deoember 

JsDosry 

Febroary 

Uueh 

April 



I 
I 



pi 



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48.02 
40.77 
88.50 
SB. 12 
88.07 
29.20 
82.10 
88.07 



J, 



66 

40 
48 
46 
48 
44 
40 



i 

a* 



86 
20 
21 
19 
20 
7 
15 
21 



-I 

-I 

^1 






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2.66 
8.07 
8.78 
10.02 
2.88 
1.86 
8.26 
2.98 



10 
20 
10 
24 
21 
10 
10 
10 



I 

5 







1 

2 
1 
1 
8 




I 





2 


2 
7 
1 



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o 

5 



80 
81 
87 
29 
80 
25 
16 
27 



^ 



8 

7 


9 
4 
84 
4 
1 



8 
I 

i 





18 

8 
9 
2 
8 



I 

t 

I 



10 


87 

1 
1 

4 




I 

S 
I 



S 



64 

00 
6 

07 
49 
69 
48 
97 



I 
I 



17 
47 

8 
40 
82 

7 
10 



1 

I 



67 
77 
14 
22 
71 
8 
21 
49 



8 



19 

17 

86 

9 

14 

9 

8 



19 


87 
2 

89 

14 



I 



7 
20 
68 
84 
27 
21 
109 



IKswn Bsy. Atkha Idsnd. Lstitode 62o lO' 40" ; lengitnde 174o 16^ 18" W.] 



1879. 
Iffay* 








89.90 
42.08 
48L86 
50.81 


65 

64 
66 
09 


80 
80 
88 
46 


4.40 
1.70 
4.25 
8.01 


10 
11 
10 
20 




2 




2 
4 




25 
88 
25 
29 


1 
8 


1 


4 
2 
9 
2 


7 

27 
7 



66 

47 
40 
40 


9 



10 

6 


18 
15 
18 
42 


82 

41 
56 
74 


28 

41 

6 

2 


16 
29 
64 
84 




JllD«t . 










July 










Aaffostt 










^•"•■"•"t •«..•••..... 











(XTnalMibka laland, maUnk Yillsge.] 



1879-*80. 
September^ 








4t86 
87.96 
81.26 
80.32 
29.28 
81.37 
88.25 
38w82 
85.10 


51 
48 
36 

84 
85 
48 

46 
52 
58 


87 
24 
24 
28 
19 
27 
24 
25 
28 


0.87 
6.98 
6.56 
2.68 
4.11 
8.80 
3.28 
1.18 
2.80 


2 
23 
28 
15 
20 
19 
25 
19 
10 





1 
1 

1 




. 




4 


1 
1 

4 



14 
81 
81 
26 
80 
28 
29 
27 
29 


10 
45 
9 
2 
29 
11 
12 
21 
14 


10 
18 


14 

5 


21 

4 
88 



4 


88 

1 
7 



29 
20 
89 
42 
47 
44 
61 
66 
41 


16 

18 

10 
2 


22 
22 
68 

20 
86 
88 

7 
11 

8 


8 
68 

54 

7 

28 
50 
68 
89 
14 



88 

12 
111 
15 
22 
4 
18 
68 


14 
18 
27 
17 
16 
11 
89 
82 
26 


1,498 
8,111 
7,668 
8,799 
7,218 
9.611 
7,761 
8,982 
6,960 


October 








ITo vem her 








Dccciobor ........... 
















Fobrosry 








Msroh 








April 








Mayl ..... . 








MK^f ^•....•. ......... 









[Chicbsgof Httrbor, Altu Idsnd. Lstitode 52o SS' 42"; longitode ISO" 47'.] 



1880-'81. 



Jnlyl .... 
Anfrust .. 
September 
October. .. 
27oveinber. 
Deoember. 
Jaoasry... 
Febraary.. 

March 

Aprilir.... 
May 



29.794 
29.659 
29.887 
29.087 
29.586 
29.520 
29.875 



29.506 
29.737 



80.168 
80.113 
80.222 
80.466 
80.188 
80.344 
80.811 

80.184 
80.708 



29.407 
29.090 
20.179 
28L922 
28.771 
28.754 
28.748 
28.926 
28.639 
28.820 



62.35 
61.56 
47.75 
41.12 
35.45 
83.01 
81.17 
31.05 
20.02 
36.70 
89.55 



66 
66 
58 
49 
46 
44 
42 
41 
41 
52 
40 



42 



80 
25 
22 
17 
17 
11 
26 
31 




4.62 
4.06 
8.91 
6.46 
6.52 
5.19 
2.91 
2.43 
2.16 
1.20 




16 
14 
17 
20 
28 
26 
17 
23 
14 

7 



5 
8 
6 



1 

1 





8 


2 


8 

















80 


87 


10 


5 28 


40 


6 


5 


3 


18 





88 


40 


87 


6 18 


24 


12 




26 


50 


12 


18 


18 


49 


4 : 27 


65 


40 




14 


28 


21 


20 


8 


12 


4 26 


74 


13 




15 


51 


12 




15 


18 


1 


30 


36 


47 




41 


10 







60 


6 


6 24 27 


27 




23 


82 


7 




18 


21 


8 ; 20 


81 


25 




15 


76 


8 




20 


15 


7 23 


40 20 




21 


46 


7 




24 


85 


3 


27 


35 40 


16 


17 


68 


8 




12 


20 


1 


12 


6 8 


> 1 


18 


87 


11 




1 


4 



024 

5,184 

6»40e 

4.778 

7.784 

14,474 

9,988 

7,781 

10^658 

10,922 

8,597 



* First twenty-eight dayi of the month, 
t Latt twenty •fire dayi of the month. 



* First twenty-nine dayi of the month. 
{ Last foarteen days of the month. 



I Last ten days of the month. 

f First thirteen days of the month. 



OONTBIBlJTIOirS TO THE KATCBAL HISTOBY OF ALASKA. 



51 



Melearologieal chBervatUms at lUuliuk, UnaUuhka, l825 to 1834, old style. 
[Lfttltade 58^ 69'.7 ; longitude IMP 29^.1. ObMrrmtlons of the bwomotor, reduced to 14<> BeMunnr 88^.6 ITkhreiiliett] 



Tpm-I- 




Febnury. 


Marab. 


ApziL 




liax. 


Min, 


Mean. 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean. 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean. 


Max. 


Ifill. 


Mean. 


1826 


80.09 
29.69 
30.04 
29.94 
29.73 
29.96 
30.14 
80.22 
29.M 
80.26 


2&46 
2&68 
28.49 
28.77 
2&86 
2&97 
28.26 
29.03 
28.40 
28.90 


29.041 
29.030 
29.218 
29.47 
29.29 
2a 455 
2a 307 
2a 748 
2a 030 
29.579 


2a 51 
80.19 
29.97 
2a 84 
2a 69 
8a 88 
8a 05 
30.25 
80.08 
30.89 


2a 42 
29.49 
2a 49 
2a 35 
2a 55 
2a 87* 
2a 27 
29.07 
2a 67 
2a 49 


2a 968 
2a 588 
29.297 
2a 17 
29.20 
2a 502 
29.107 
2a 697 
2a 246 
29.599 


2a 71 

29.94 

3a 01 

3a 08 
2a 96 
80.12 
80.00 

8a 11 

80.06 
80.26 


2a 19 

2a 49 
2a 77 
2a 72 

2a 51 

2a 98 

2a 16 

29.28 
2a 50 
29.17 


2a 958 
29.248 
29.820 
2a 42 
29.08 
2a 689 
2a 809 
29.778 
29.302 
2a 860 


2a 88 
80.08 
8a 04 
89.74 
2a 84 
80.20 
8a 08 
29.97 

sail 

2a 99 


2a 84 
2a 66 

2a 70 
2a 86 
2a 44 
2a 76 
2a 66 
2a 86 
2a 60 
2a 79 


2a 248 


1 AM , , 


2a 219 


1827 


89.414 


1828 


2a 88 


1829 


2a 66 


1880 


2a 360 


1881 


2a 801 


1882 


3a 688 


1888 


2a 078 


1884 


2a 429 






Mflenii ... 


29 96 


28.90 


29.317 


80.08 


2a 66 


29.841 


80.08 


2a 67 


2a 416 


8a 02 


2a 73 


2a 429 






Hifflimt end lowest ....^r...-..^- 


80.26 


28.26 




8a 89 


2a 27 




8a 26 


2a 16 




8a 24 


2a 44 










■ 






Hey. 


June. 


J'nly. 


▲vgiiat. 


Yeen. 


ICu. 


Hin. 


Mesn. 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean. 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean. 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean. 


1825 


29.90 
29.92 


2&96 
2a 02 


29.419 
29.496 


2a 79 
2a 89 


2a 88 
29.04 


2a 864 
2a 491 


2a 81 

2a 78 


2a 06 
2a 09 


2a 501 
29.447 


2a 86 
29.86 


2a 76 

2a 21 


2a 400 


1896 


2a 66] 


1827 


21 






1828 


80.06 

8a U 

80.01 
29.90 
29.86 
29.80 
8a 00 


28.94 
28.80 
-28.92 
28.90 
2a 04 
2a 17 
29. 44 J 


29.60 

29.48 

29*506 

29.559 

29.500 

29.518 

29.713 


2a 78 
2a 89 
2a 86 
30.10 
29.89 

29.99 


2a 96 
29.05 
2a 87 
29.13 
2a 28 

■ • « • ■ • 

29.07 


2a 44 
29.55 
29.542 
2a642 
2a 604 

29.528 


2a 82 
29.78 
30.08 
30.04 
80.06 
^00 


1.18 


29.56 
29.678 
2a 658 
29.571 
2a 685 
29.712 


8a 00 
80.22 

2a)r7 

2a 98 
29.96 
8a 04 


2a 20 
2a 09 
2a 95 
29. OS 

saoo 

29.U 


2a 66 


1829 


29.99 
2a 04 
2a 18 
29.05 
2tl,16 


2a 619 


1880 


29.457 


1831 


2a 488 


1888 -. 


2a 511 


1888 


2a 611 


1884 


















ICmuu 


29.96 


2a 02 


2a 464 


29.89 


29.04 


29.520 


saoi 


2a 09 


2a 688 


2a 97 


29.04 


2a 687 






IflirKAMft «.m1 lA«rAat 


80. U 


2&80 




80.10 


2a 87 




30.06 


2a 96 




8a 22 


2a76 . 


"' 


■ 1 IHMO^» ^as^* aw WW ».•» ••••»••••«•••• 










Ye«n. 


Be 


ptember 


* 


October. 


XTorember. 


December. 


Yeailj 


ICu. 


Min. 


Keen. 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean. 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean. 


Max. 


Mean. 


MlA. 


" neaaa. 


1S9S ^. , 


29.84 
29.64 


2174 
2&41 


29.400 
29.100 


2a 87 
2a 79 
2a 86 
29.82 
80.05 
30.06 
80 04 
80.01 
2a 66 


2a 17 
2a 15 

2a 01 

2a 45 
2a 87 
2a 94 
2a 59 
2a 45 

2a 51 


2a 202 
2a 106 
29.28 
2a 16 
2a 521 
29.518 
29.586 
29.536 
29.019 


2a 76 
29.70 
80.08 
29.85 
30.31 
29.93 
29.91 
29.82 
2a 68 


2a 81 
2a 07 
2a 60 
2a 66 
2a 87 
2a 05 

2a 21 

2a 46 
2a 66 


29.065 
2a 991 
^.44 
2a 20 
2a 669 
29.076 
29.542 
29.214 
29.888 








. *2a299 


1820 -,--,.,---,,- 


80.14 
80.26 
8a88 
8a 23 
2a 92 
2a 55 
8a 82 
80.28 


2a 66 

2a 87 

2a 71 

2a 88 
2a 07 

2a 11 

2a 64 
2a 07 


29.568 

2a 66 
2a 88 
2a 709 
29.328 
2a 893 
2a 428 
2a 388 


29.818 


1827 


t2a878 


1828 


29.77 
2a 79 
30.15 
8a 06 
2a 89 
8a 82 


2a 74 
2a 5u 
2a 54 
2a96 
2a 90 
2a 49 


2a 41 
2a 161 
2a 402 
29.176 
8a 588 
89.269 


2a 48 


1829 

1880 


2a 488 

2a 460 


18S1 


2a 897 


1882 .-r 


2a 878 


1888 


8a 868 


1884 






















• 










Meeae 


29.87 


2a 66 


2a 307 


29.90 


2a 57 


29.819 


2a 88 


2a 89 


2a 287 


80.18 


8a 67 


8a 476 








Highest end loweet .. 


8a 16 


2a 41 




80.06 


2a 15 




3a SI 


2a 05 




8a 88 


2a 07 




■ 



























* Mean for eleven montha. t Mean for seyen months. X Mean for six mmiths. 

KoTS.— The barometer by which the ahore observations were made is marked Benjamin 94 XY, and was compaied In 1887 with the 
bazometer of the discovery vessel Seniavin under , and found to read 0.32 inch lower ; therefore all these obeervaUons must be Inoieaeed 

by that amount. 

The mean of all the above observaUona, nine ftill years, is 29.421 inches, the highest observed reading in the abore tlaie waa 8a 89 
inches and the loweet 2a 05 inches. 



52 



OONTBIBUTIONS TO THE NATUBAL HISTOBY OF ALA8KA. 



iMMroIoffiooI oh—rvMotu at IIMImk, CmImMw, 1887-1834. 
[Ttmparaton obMmtliMu from 1SS8 to 104, old ityte.] 









Jftiniwy. 


Febmaiy. 


Maroh. 


Yfltf. 


A.1L 


Noon. 


P.M 


Mean. 


Obaerred. 


A.M. 


Noon. 


P.M. 


Mean. 


Obaerred. 


A.M. 


Noon. 


P.M. 


Mean. 


Observed. 




Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Mia. 








ig28 








40.3 

28.6 

21.80 

28.96 

26.60 

80.86 

30.81 












88.8 

81.1 

28.4 

27.41 

84.77 

88.49 

88.10 










81.8 
82.8 

lao 

27.43 
84.65 


■ 




IJMO 
















. 
















igao 


SO. 5 
28.2 
25.2 
29.8 
2a6 


28.8 
80.5 
80.8 
38.2 
83.8 


19.8 
2&1 
24.8 
28L6 

sai 


89.9 
41.0 
41.0 
40.3 
39.4 


2.7 
9.5 
7.2 


96.1 
26.8 
34.0 


38.0 
29.4 
36.9 
35.8 
86.6 


26.1 
28.1 
88.2 
82.2 
80.9 


44.4 

47.7 
48.9 
42.1 
45.5 


-ao 
ia2 

25.2 
18.5 
20.7 


17.1 
26.8 
88.9 
80.2 
29.7 


24.8 
30.9 
87.8 
86.9 
3a4 


17.9 
24.5 
32.3 
28.9 
28.4 


45.5 
42.6 


0.5 


1831 


7.2 


1882 


1&5 


1888 


18.5 32.6 
16. 2 81. 8 


8100 ' 58.4 
8L 53 i 4a 4 


lao 


1884 


lai 




1 




MmoB.. 




26.66' 30.02 


25.98 


29.56 


40.82 10.82 80.18 


84.34 


29.7 


81.68 


45.72 


14.8 


S7.54| 83.36 


2a4 


29.98 J 51.66 

1 


12.18 








ApriL 


May. 


Jnne. 


YtKt. 


A. 11 


Noon. 


P.M. 


Mean. 


Obaerred. 


A.M 


Noon. 


P.M. 


Mean. 


Obewred. 


A.M 


Noon. 


P.M. 


Mean. 


Observed. 




Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


iir&T 


Min. 






i 




1888. ..T 






• 


86.7 

88.8 

87.5 

83.21 

36.66 

86.81 

85.38 












41.2 

41.2 

40.0 

37.94 

42.59 

43.0 

48.0 












46.8 

46.8 

44.8 

45.02 

47.64 

4a 21 






1829 
































1880 


86.9 
8L7 
86.8 
36.8 
84.2 


40.8 
88.2 
89.8 
89.8 
3&8 


34.8 
29.8 
34.4 
34.4 
38.5 


50.7 
46.2 
47.7 
47.7 
53.4 


29.7 
16.2 
25.9 
1&5 
26.4 


39.5 
37.2 
45.3 
43.2 
40.6 


42.6 

41.0 
45.1 


37.3 
35.6 
38.6 


55.6 
52.2 
6L2 
61.2 
58.8 


82.7 
87.5 
33.7 
86.5 
81.3 


45.7 
45.0 
47. S 
45.7 


4a3 
48.1 
50.4 
48.2 


42.3 
42.0 
45.4 
48.2 


5a7 

57.9 
6a9 

6a9 


4a 3 


1881 


84.2 


1882 


42.1 


1838 


45.2 ' 40.6 
49.8 39.0 


43.2 


1884 


















'M'Asnfi . . 




8&18 


89.18 


38.88 


85.72 


49.14 


t 28.84 


4L16 


44.7S| 8a22 


41.28 


97.70 


32.14 


45.90 


48.25 


48.32 


4a 21 


68.1 


8a 96 








July. 


Angnitt. 


September. 


Yfltf. 


A.1L 


Noon. 


P.M. 


Mean. 


Obaerred. 


AM 


Noon. 


P.M. 


Mean. 


Observed. 


AM. 


Noon. 


P.M. 


Mean. 


Observed. 




Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Mln. 


Max. 


Min. 


1827 


•••••• 




































1828 








50.9 

50.3 

5a4 

46.19 

5L66 

54.17 












56.7 

4a5 

58.7 

47.45 

54.90 

5a 20 










* 'i 


45.9 
45.7 






1829 


49.5 
50.4 
46.6 
51.4 
58.9 


58.8 
56.8 
48.2 
54.5 
57.5 


47.5 
47.0 
48.8 
48.0 
51.1 


67.8 
71.4 
64.6 

70.2 
7618 


43.2 
42.1 
89.4 
43.2 
44.8 


47.6 
68.9 
46.6 
58.6 
49.8 


51.7 
56.9 
51.8 
58.4 
58.8 


46.4 
50.3 
44.4 

52.5 
47.0 


64.6 
77.0 
61.2 
77.0 
73.6 


88.8 
43.9 
40.3 
42.1 
88.1 


45.8 
42.5 
39.9 
40.1 
43.2 


48L5 

4ai 

48.1 
45.5 
47.9 


48.'8' 


5a9 

50.0 
58.2 

5ao 

54.5 


'80.'i' 


1880 


42.8 
87.9 
4a 1 
48.4 


4a8 
4a 82 
41.90 
44.87 


2&6 


1881 


32.0 


1882 


2&9 


1888 


32.0 


1884 
















1 






i 
















Hmumi.. 




50.86 


53.46 


47.68 


5a 60 


70. M 


42.54 


50.3 


54.42 


4&12 


51.91 


7a 68 


40.54 


42.22 


46.22 


4L40 


48.66 


54.48 


8a 88 








Ootober. 


KoTomber. 


December. 




Yew. 


A.1L 


Koon. 


P.M. 


Mean. 


Observed. 


LM. 


Noon. 


P.M. 


Mean. 


Obaerred. 


A.M 


Noon* 


P.M. 


Mean. 


Observed. 


Yearly 
means. 




Max. 


Mln. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 




1827 








85.8 

88.5 

88.3 

86.7 

86.05 

85.60 

86.07 












86.5 

81.8 

84.2 

29.7 

32.76 

84.13 

27.99 










* 


85.4 

25.0 

29.40 

25.20 

8a 65 

80.26 

27.30 








1828 
































8&05 


1829 

1880 

1881 

1882 

XOOO ••^••••« 

1884 .WTTTTT- 


87.6 
86.9 
85.1 
84.1 
84.7 


40.6 
88.8 
88.7 
87.6 
89.2 


87.0 
86.0 
84.4 
86.1 
34.3 


54.5 

46.6 
45l5 
48.9 
48.9 


26w8 
24.6 
28.0 
24.1 
20.8 


88.2 
28.7 
82.0 
88.6 
26.8 


86.5 
81.9 
84.6 
35.S 
8L4 


32.8 
28.6 
81.8 
33.7 
26.8 


54.'5 
43.9 
89.9 
47.7 
87.2 


ia5 

M.7 
19:6 
2a4 

ai 


29.0 
24.8 
29.9 
29.3 
2a7 


31.5 
27.1 
82.8 
81.3 
29l0 


'27"9 
28.7 
29.8 
30.1 

2ai 


'46.6' 

42.1 

39.9 

45.5 

38.7 


12.0 

7.9 

12.9 

ia5 

5.0 


3a 41 

sasi 

35.46 
8K53 
37.78 










































Mmub.... 


8&48 


88.86 


85.86 


36.72 


48.88 


23.86 


30.74 


88.92 


30.64 


82.44 


44.64 


17.06 


27.94 


80.84 


27.42 


2a 08 


42.56 


1L8 


87. S8 



OONTEIBUTIOFS TO THE NATUEAIi HISTOBY OF ALASKA. 



53 



GbMrvoHofU far Hreothn of wind at lUuUuk, UnaUuikka,fw 1825, 1826, 1827,* 1828, 1829,t 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833, 1834, 

old style. 



Montho. 



J^ukiiaxy 



Maroh 

^:::::::;::::::::::::::::: 

June : 

July 

August 

September 

Ootober 

KoYember 

Deoember 

•epaiate obeenratloiie In 1827, 
1888; andlOO 



Total. 



Vorth. 



120 
68 
81 
68 
40 
84 
21 
37 
67 
62 
68 

189 

196 



VortheMt 



20 
16 
82 
42 
88 
28 
16 

1^ 
18 

18 

20 

118 



401 



BMt. 



62 
81 
48 
68 
78 
66 
17 
15 
26 
29 
37 
47 

219 



767 



Sontheest. 



74 



81 
76 
84 
72 
74 
68 
54 
57 
89 

242 



1,060 



Dlreotioii. 










South. 


Soatliirart. 


Weet 


KortliwMt 


Calnoaad 
hlghain. 


88 


29 


49 


60 


188 


74 


46 


46 


62 


146 


84 


C6 


88 


06 


81 


81 


87 


79 


67 


90 


68 


68 


87 


81 


118 


89 


77 


41 


47 


180 


94 


180 


78 


22 


141 


76 


86 


101 


54 


176 


56 


82 


114 


68 


149 


56 


04 


92 


107 


156 


57 


60 


122 


78 


188 


50 


62 


55 


114 


184 


1 ^ 


148 


144 


154 


642 


1,127 


1,022 


1,089 


1,002 


2,281 



* Jenoaiy, Vebrnacy, Karoh, April, Ootober, Norember, Deoember. t First six months. In this time sbont 160 obserT»tions loot. 
OhservatUms for ikeforoe of wind at IHuHuk^ UnalMhka, for Boven ffear$, between 1825 and 1834, old etgle. 





Fotoo* 


Months. 


Light 


Moderete. 


Fresh. 


Strong, 


Very 
strong. 


Jonnniy ..•..■..■ .•......> ...........r,... 


286 
227 
266 
260 
272 
880 
279 
266 
206 
200 
284 
217 


187 
114 
167 
167 
187 
112 
104 
146 
181 
189 
115 
116 


69 
68 
80 
95 
66 
48 
58 
48 
85 
79 
77 
88 


41 
86 

46 
83 

21 

xi 

9 
46 
46 
54 

78 


12 


Febnuury ........>....--- 




liMoh 




Anril 




i£^::::::::::i::::::::::::ii:::::i::: 




JHIIf .......... .»...».,»T .TT r • 




JuJt 




A nvnat 




September .......T...r. ,,..,,.^.,^,^^,,--^--,, — 




Ootober 




IToTember ...•■•.. 




Deoember.... 








TotsJ , i.... 


^980 


1,684 


880 


427 


66 







Three obsenmtioiis eeeh dny. 

NOTI.— On the 17th of Mnien sad 29lh of Ootober, 1883, the wind w»8 extrtordinnrily strong. 



ObeervaiUme of the weather at JUuUnk, Unalaekka, for seven ffeare, 1825, 1826, 1829/ 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833, 1834*, oM ofyto. 



Months. 



Jsnnsiry... 
Febiusiy . 
Mnroh .... 

^— 

Jnne 

Jnly 

Angnst ... 
September 
Ootober... 
NoTomber. 



Total. 



Without 
ekmds. 


Clesr.with 
olouds. 


Chsnge- 
nble. 


Cloudy. 


Bsln. 


Snow. 


Fog. 


Total thun- 
der-etorms. 


Total earth, 
quakes. 


11 


82 


Ill 


65 


58 


118 


15 









88 


86 


60 


61 


94 


29 









26 


112 


76 


61 


134 


10 


2 






26 


104 


76 


91 


96 


16 


2 






29 


105 


81 


106 


81 


49 


1 






24 


95 


85 


88 


4 


76 









22 


118 


77 


75 





75 


1 






29 


106 


77 


118 


2 


62 


2 






28 


107 


73 


148 


89 


88 


8 






21 


.115 


91 


118 


90 


18 


5 






29 


88 


90 


81 


126 


9 


1 






18 


116 


82 


47 


182 


6 







58 


812 


J,263 


982 


1,015 


866 


886 


17 


82 



* Part of eaoh of these years. Three obserrations each day. 
Thmnder-etorme and eartkqaakee noted in the ahoveperlod. 



Thunder. 



Barth. 



1881 

1882 

1888 
1829aiidi884 

Total. 



54 OOHTBIBUTION8 TO THE NATUBAL HI8TOEY OP ALASKA. 

atfauUvrohaiMl •! - _.- -^ , , _,„ 

Of Sw. InnooMt SktatlMac^, prieti of Ute UmaUuUca strict. 



Nova... 



Hooa... 






(».m.. 

Hdob... 
8p.ai.. 



I a*.iii.. 
HMia... 

gtS" 

Nms." 

;p.m.. 



NW., modaiala 

WMW., nodento.. 
do 

saw., light 

8SS^ uodenlc 

8SW„ modMMe.... 

iraw., mildsnto .'.'. 

do. 

TSW., ftMh 



W., nradtriM.. 



BW., very «t 



, ' r( n ., DQOBTmb 

VssiE..rti^"I! 

J CiUm 

WSW^..%lil.. 
8SW Mgtt... 

NNB.. light!': 



infW.,ftHb 

MW., modemta 

WNW., ntodtnM ,. 
VT., modflTAt*. .--.-- 

niis., ugbt 



Eiri.. vwjfrwh.. 



EnIA., modenls .. 

do 

NNS.. mgdante.. 



KE., moduBta... 



NHK, light . . 
iJKB.,n 



WNW,, TMJ 

HW.,fte«h. 

!!!"!do!!;i; 
WMW., mod 
NNX., light 



Skj iiiMnihan^f. 
Ovvnaat or flooDJ. 



id elHT ill da;, bat im tha « 



M and oUar, bat U 



Cl«v and •auhlne. ahowcn. 

Ckar ud aDBthln*. 

CiMT ond wuutaliit, with ihowtn. 

Oreroul, wot uov. 

OT«Taut.bBlL 



Cleu ud liuigliioa. 
Clour im^ iDublDt, w 



Clou- and (uiuliliie. wltbonl oloodo. 



Cloody ind at timM num. 
Clan aod ■nnafaine. 



Clear and vithout dooda. 

Dd. 
Cloudy and oooaalonal niow. 



CkadTau 
Clondj. 



I>o. 

Do. 

Clondr^ 

Orereaat. mt inov. 
Cloody ind at tbuaa aDow. 
Clear aod annaUiM. 
Clondi aod at timea Bmr. 

Claar and wtUumt slonda. 



OOXTEBIBUnOKS TO THE NATUBAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

Journal 0/ iMttorologiaal obMrraUmi, ^'o. — ContiDoed. 



55 



NB.. DMdsra 
NMB., ttfh 



SSW., T«rr frwh . . 



BSK. nrftrttt, . 

US., light 



BWy tnoimU. . 



NKS., tigbt 

ITE., nkedenU 

do - 

mtB.. verjrfre«h,.. 



Do.' 

Do. 
Clondj Mid at tliiiM hi 
Clear ud iiiMUns. 

Cloud; Rod kt time* n 



Chmdy and piHirliiK rain*. 

Cloudy, rain, ead now. 
Cloudy ud rain. 
Oreniaat, rain, and mow. 
Cloudy ud at UmM lain. 

Clear ud rarlable. 
Do. 
Do. 



Clondyao^ 



Cloodv. 

Do.* 
Dark and Aoe rain. 
Clondj ud w* ■"'•• 
Clon^ and M 






Clondy and tlilok now. 



.. Clondy ud 



Do. 



Ckndy and heavy w 

Foe and Una ibow. 

Ctoody. 

CloDdv and at tlmH I 

Do, 



Clondy ud at Ui 



Do. 
i^art ponring nliie. 

Clear ud no ohmda. 
Clear ud ansMilne. 

Clear ud witbaat olonda. 

Clear and wlthont alonda. 

Do. 
Clear. ■nnehlDO, olonda. 
CloBdy. 



Wtiid,inn. B«ln,ai 



56 OOSTTBIBUTIOirS TO THE KATtTBAL HISTOBY OF ALASKA. 







OONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 



67 



JcwrmU of meUorologioal ohwrwiUofUy ^. — Continued* 



Time. 



HOQIB* 



1867. 
Jan. 26 



27 
28 
29 

80 



31 

(*) 
Feb. 1 



2 

8 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

16 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 



8|>.m . 
8e.m . 
Noon.. 
8i».in . 
8e.m . 
Noon.. 
8|>.ni . 
8e.m . 
Noon.. 
8p.ni . 
8e.m . 
Noon.. 
8i». m 
8n.m . 
Noon.. 
8p. m . 
8&.m ■ 
Noon.. 
8|i.m . 
8e.m ■ 
Noon.. 
8p. m . 
8n.m . 
Noon.. 
8p.m . 
8n.m . 
Noon.. 
8p. m . 
8e.m . 
Noon.. 
8p.ni . 
8e.ni . 
Noon.. 
8p.ni . 
8e.ni . 
Noon.. 
8p.ni . 
8e.ni . 
Noon.. 
8p.ni . 
8e.in . 
Noon.. 
8pim . 
8e m . 
Noon.. 
8p.m . 
8 e.ni . 
Noon.. 
8p. m. 
8e.in . 
Noon.. 
8p.m . 
8e.ni . 
Noon.. 
8p.m . 
8a.m . 
Noon.. 
8p.ni . 
8e.ni . 
Noon. . 
8p.ni . 
8e.m . 
Noon.. 
8p. m 
8e.m . 
Noon.. 
8p.ni . 
8a. m . 
Noon . 
8p.in . 
8e.in . 
Noon.. 
8p.ni . 
8a. m . 
Noon.. 
8p.ni . 
8a. m 
Noon.. 
8p. m . 
8a. m . 
Niion. . 
8p. m . 
8e.ni . 
Noon.. 
8p.ni . 
8e m . 
Noon.. 
8p.ni . 






< 



27 
88 
26 
25 



86 
86 
86 
86 
38 
35 
86 
88 
35 
29 
27 
21 
20 
22 
20 
15 
16 
13 
17 
20 
18 
16 
20 
17 
27 
81 
34 
30 
44 
33 
32 
49 
34 
30 
44 
88 
89 
42 
88 
88 
86 
82 
86 
46 
86 
27 
28 
96 
29 
84 
36 
44 
45 
48 
40 
62 
42 
87 
87 
84 
26 
42 
84 
84 
86 
85 
34 
38 
29 
89 
44 
42 
44 
48 
88 
87 
44 
84 
86 
86 
84 



i 

t 



o 
30.8 



28.8 



30.6 



35.3 



86.8 



86.8 



26.6 



20.7 



14.7 



16.7 



17.7 
'80.7 



35.7 



. 3&8 



85u6 

• • ■ • • 

38.0 



88.8 



88.6 



27.0 

> ■ • • » a 

83.0 



45.6 



44.6 



36.0 



34.0 

• » • • « 

35.0 



88.8 



41.6 

■ » • « 

4&8 



88.8 

■ * • 

'85.6' 



Direction end foroe of the 
wind. 



do 

NW., moderete 

WN W., moderete. . . . 
NN W., moderate . . . . 

Calm 

W.^rooderete 

do 

do 

SW.,mod6rete 

Celm 

B.,fireeh ■ 

do 

NE., very stronfc 

ENB.. very atrong . . . 

NB.,freeh 

do 

N..giUe 

do 

do 

do 

NNW.,fireeh 

NW.,fteali 

do 

do 

do 

do 

NNW.. fresh 

N., very freeh 

NNW.,freeh 

do 

WN W., moderete — 
ENB.. very ftweh . . . . 

do 

NB.. moderete 

Calm 

......do 

do 

do 

do 

8SE., moderete 

88 W., moderete 

SW., moderete 

BSB., very freeh 

S.,fire8h 

8W.,fieeh 

do 

SSW., fbeah 

do 

BSB., freeh 

8SB., moderete 

do 

Calm 

WXW., very atrong. 

NW^fi^eh 

NNW., fhxh 

Calm 

do 

8W.. moderate 

8., moderete 

do 



do 

do 

do 

do 

8SW., fn^ah- 

8W., freah . 

SsiVV., fhwh 

Celm 

do 

ENB.. freah 

B.NB., very fttMh. 
SW., very Areah .. 

do 

WNW, freah. ... 
W.S'W., moderate. 
NNB. moderate.. 
8., fi-eah 



do 

do 

do 

, do . ...•• .... 

S.. moderate 

SvV.. freah 

WSVV., freah 

do 

W8\V., raoierete 
W.. mmlerute ... 
SW., freah 



Weetfaer. 



Cleer end without eloude. 
Cloudy. 

Clear end sunahine. 
Cleer end without elonda. 
Cleer end et timee olonda. 
Cloudy end et timea enow. 
Clear end et timee elonda. 
Cleer end without doude. 
Clondyend et timee anew. 

Cleer end without olonda. 
Cloudv. 

Dark end wei anew. 

Derk and line anew. 

Dark and at timee rein. 

Derk end fine anow. 

Cloudy. 

Cloudy end anow. 

Cloudvand et timee enow. 

Do! 

Do. 

1*1. 

Do. 

Da 

Do. 

Do. 
Cloudy. 

Cloudy end et timee snow. 
Cloudy. 

Derk end snow. 
Derk. 

Derk end snow. 
Cleer and without clouds. 
Clear, sunahine. end douda. 
Cloudy end et timee snow. 

Do. 

Da 
Clear and et timee doods. 



Cloudv. 

Do. 

Da 
Cleer without cloude. 
Cloudv end et timee rein. 
Cloudy and at timee heU. 
Derk end et timee anow. 
Clear and without doude. 

Da 
Clear, sunshine, end clooda. 
Cloudy. 
Dark and wet snow. 

Do. 

Do. 
Clear and at timee cloudy. 
Clear and without doods. 

Da 
Ulondy. 

Derk and fine saow. 
Clou'ly. 

Do. 

Do. 
Clear end derk weether. 
Cleer and without doade. 

Da 
Cloudy. 

Cleer end witiiont douda. 
Cloady and et timoe enow. 

Da 



8. Mis. 



•Meea tempereture for Jeauary, 81^.66. 



58 



OONTEIBDTIONS TO THE NATURAL mSTORT OP ALASKA. 



Journal of meUioroloffiodl ob$ervaUonif ^o. — Continued. 



Time. 



18t7. 
Feb. 24 



26 
87 



. 1 



8 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

IS 

18 

14 

15 

10 

17 

18 

10 

20 

81 

28 



84 



Hoiin. 



8ft. m . 
Koon.. 
8]i.m . 
8a. m . 
Noon.. 
Bp.m . 
8a. m . 
Koon.. 
8p.m . 
8a. m . 
Koon.. 
8|>.m . 
8a. m.. 
Koon.. 
8p.m . 
8a. m . 
Noon.. 
^p.m . 
8a. m . 
Ko«n.. 
8p.m. 
8a.m . 
Noon.. 
8p.m . 
8a.m . 
Koon.. 
8p.m . 
8a.m . 
Noon.. 
8p.m . 
8a.m . 
Noon.. 
8p.m . 
8a.m . 
Noon.. 
8p.m . 
8a.m . 
Noon.. 
8p.m . 
8a.m . 
Noon.. 
8p.m . 
8a.m . 
Noon.. 
8p.m . 
8a.m . 
Noon.. 
8p.m . 
8a.m . 
Noon.. 
8p.m . 
8a.m . 
Noon:. 
8p.m . 
8a.m . 
Noon.. 
8p.m . 
8a.m . 
Noon.. 
8p.m . 
8a.m . 
Noon.. 
8p. m . 
8a.m . 
Noon.. 
8p.m. 
8a.m . 
Noon.. 
8p.m . 
8a.m . 
Koon . 
8p. m . 
8a.m. 
Koon.. 
8p.m . 
8a.m . 
Koon.. 
8p.m . 
8a.m . 
Koon.. 
8p.m. 
8a.m. 
Koon.. 
8pim . 
8a.m. 
Noon.. 
8p.m . 
8a.m . 
Noon.. 



« • 

§1 



o 

26 
85 
21 
26 
20 
17 
82 
85 
38 
38 
41 
35 
86 
40 
34 
85 
30 
32 
33 

a 

28 

88 

45 

82 

32 

36 

82 

35 

43 

36 

37 

30 

35 

30 

41 

20 

35 

37 

85 

38 

40 

86 

36 

45 

84 

32 

42 

34 

31 

43 

20 

37 

42 

32 

84 

30 

37 

35 

47 

85 

33 

48 

35 

40 

45 

36 

38 

40 

31 

38 

44 

37 

45 

46 

42 

44 

45 

40 

42 

40 

30 

38 

43 

48 

41 

44 

37 

42 

43 



24.0 



84.0 



33.8. 



8&5 



36.6 



35u3 



34.6 



36.3 



33.8 
'88.' o' 



36.8 



35.6 



38.0 



38.3 



35.6 



36.3 



86.0 



37.0 



30.0 



38.6 



40.3 



36.3 



30.6 



44.3 



43.0 



43.6 



41.0 



40.6 



Direction and force of the 
wind. 



WNW., very freeh 
KNW., Teryftesh. 

N.. fraeh 

Calm 

do 

do 

.- do 

ESB., moderate 

SE., frenh 

SSE., freeh 

do 

do 

do 

do 

SB., freeh 

SSE., light 

Calm 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

NNE., moderate . . 

do 

NNE., fresh 

NE., moderate 

do 

EKE., moderate . . . 

do 

E., moderate 

ENE., light 

SW., fresh 

do 

Calm 

EKE., fresh 

E., very fresh 

do 

ESE., very fresh . . . 

v^ — do 

E., very tresh 

SE^ fresh 

SSE., fresh 

— . do 

EKE., fresh 

SSE., fresh 

SSE., moderate 

Calm 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

SSE., fresh 

do 

KB., fresh 

KNE.. fresh 

KM W., moderate .. 

WKW., light 

Calm 

do 

EKE., fresh 

SSE., moderate 

SSE., light 

do 

do 

do 

Calm 

do 



SSE., light 

E., f^h 

S., fresh 

. do 

ESE., fresh 

SSE., fresh 

do 

ESE., fresh 

SSE., fresh 

do 

SSW., fresh .... 

SSE., fresh 

do 

ESE.. fresh 

SE., fresh 

do 

SSW., moderate. 

do 

do 



Weftttier. 



Clondy. 



• 



Do. 
Clear and without ekmda.i 

Do. 

Do. 
Clear, sonshlne, without olonda. 

Do. 
Clondy. 

Iio. 

Do. 

Do. 
Clear, sonshlne, and at timea donds. 

Do. 
Clear and without clooda. 
Clear, sunshine, without clouds. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Cloudy. 

Clear and without clouds. 
Cloudy. 

Clear and without clouds. 
Clear, sunshine, without clouds. 
Clear and at times clouds. 
Dark and fine snow. 
Dark and wet snow. 
Dark and rain. 
Dark and wet snow. 
Dark and hesTy rain. 
Dark and fine snow. 
Cloudy. 

Clear and sunshine, no clouds. 
Clear and without clouds. 
Dark and fine anew. 
Dark and fine rain. 
Dark and heavy rain. 

Do. 
Clear and at times rain. 
Oloomy aad heavy rain. 
Cloudy and at times rain. 

Do. 
Cloudy and at times rain. 
Dark and thick snow. 
Cloudv and at times snow. 

Do. 
Clear, sunshine, without clouds. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Cloudy. 

Do. 

Do. 
Dark and thick anew. 
Cloudy. 

Do. 

Do. 
Clear, sunshine, and cloudy. 
Dark and wet snow. 
Cloudy. 

Do. 
Cloudy and at times rain. 

Do. 

Do. 
Clear imd without clouds. 
Clondy. 

Do. 
Gloomy and heavy rain. 
Clear, sunshine, at times clouds. 

Do. 
Dark and rain. 
Clear and at times rain. 
Clear, sunshine, at times clouds. 
Gloomy and heavy rain. 
Cloudy and at times rain. 
Cloudy. 

Do. 

Do. 
Clear, sunshine, without clouds. 
Dark and rain. 

Do. 
Cloudy. 

Do. 
Dark and fine snow. 
Cloudy. 



* lieaa temperature for F^hniarj, 830.88. 



OOIITEIBXJTIOirS TO THE KATUBAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 



59 



Journal of meteorological observationsy ^o.— Continued. 



Time. 


Hoon. 


II 


!& 


* 

Dileotion and force of the 
wind. 


Weather. 


1867. 


8p.in 

8ft. m 

Noon 

8d. m 


o 

86 
82 
34 
28 
25 
28 
21 
28 
85 
27 
87 
42 
85 
28 
86 
24 


O 

4a8 


W.. moderate 


Cloudy. 

IHirk Mid mo^v. 




...... do 




"28.6' 


W8W.. moderate 


Do. 




NW.. Resh 


Cloodv. 
Do. 


87 


wy.ua ................ 

8ft. m 


N., sale 




IToon 


N.. verv atroDff .............. 


Cloody and ftt times snow. 
D^r^ ^nd ftt times snow. 




8i>.in 


Kir., fresh..." 


28 


V |nuB 

8 a.in 




Cloady. 
Do. 




KOOD 








8D.in 


28.3 


SE., fredi 


Dark and snow. 


29 


V gnaaa ................ 

8ft. m 


SW'.. fteah 


Cloady and at times snow. 




Koon 


do 


Clear, sunshine, without doads. 




8B.III 


88.0 


W.. verv ftesh 


Dark and snow. 


80 


"!"■" 

8 ft.m 


N., fireeh 


Cloudy. 
Do. 




^1 OOQ . ■ ... ..a... ...... 


do 


* 


8D.m' 


29.6 




Do. 




oy.iu ................ 







* Mean temperature for thirty days in March, 86.081. 



SUMMABY. 



Month. 



Koyember, 1866 
December, 1866 
January, 1867 . . 
February, 1867 . 
March, 1867.... 



Mean 
tempera- 
ture. 



86.1 
88.9 
81.7 
88.8 
86L8 



Daily 
maximum. 



4L7 
41.0 
87.0 
46i6 
44.8 



Dally 
minimum. 



80.8 
24.8 
24.8 
14.7 
28.0 



Koelood- 
lesadnys. 



PART IIL-PLANTS. 



Note. — The matter inclosed by parentheses, and inclading the initial T, has been added to 
the list of plants given by Dr. J. T. Bothrock.* 

RAM UMCULACXLS. 

Thalictrufn alpinum^ L., Kotzebae Sonnd and Port Clarence. 

Anemone alpina^ L., Kotzebne Sonnd. 

Anemone patenSj L., Fort Yakon. 

Anemone parviflora^ MiGHX., Kotzebue Sound. 

Anemone richardaoni^ Hook., TTnalashka, Kotzebue Sonnd, Yukon Biver. 

Anemone nardasiflora^ L., {=A. multiHda of Hooker). ^< Kotzebne Sound, Point Barrow to 
Mackenzie Biver, ITnalashka Island. (This species is abundant throughout the Aleutian Islands, 
attaining a height of 1 foot. The early spring growth on the upper end of the root is eaten by the 
natives of those islands. It has a waxy, farinaceous taste which is not disagreeable. T.) 

HepaUea triloba^ Ohaix., Sitka. 

Ranunculua pallasiij Sghlecht., Kotzebue Sound. 

Banunculua hyperhoreua^ Bottb., Korton Sonnd to Wainwright Inlet. 

jB. purahii^ Bighards., Kotzebue Sound. 

£. lapponicua^ L., Kotzebue Sound. 

jB. pygnuBua^ Wahl., Kotzebue Sound. 

jB. nivaliaj B. Bb., Kotzebue Sound. 

B. eachacholtziij Sghleoht., Kotzebne Sound to Gape Lisbnrne. 

jB. oocidentaliaj Ntttt., (jB. recurvatuSj Bonoabd in Vegetation of Sitka, but not of Poie), Sitka. 

{B. fluviatilia^ L., Atkha and Attn Islands. Quite common in the running streams of water, 
and occasionally in the upland pools. T.) 

(B. nelaonij D C. Abundant throughout the Aleutian Islands. Attains a height of 15 inches, 
t) 

Oaltha paluatriaj L., var. aaarifoliaj Unalashka, Bothbook. (All Aleutian Islands, quite com- 
the lower hill slopes. T.) 

(7. leptoaepala^ D 0. Sitka. 

0. arcticay B. Bb., This species doubtless occurs in the extreme northeast part of the territory. 

Coptis infolia^ Salisb., Sitka. 

0. aaplenifolia^ SaI/ISB,, Sitka. 

(<7. trifoHa^ Salisb., Common throughout the Aleutian Islands and mainland coast, growing 
solitary, 2 to 3 inches high. This species was collected also at an elevation of 1,300 feet at Atkha 
Island. T.) 

Aquilegia formoaa^ FisoH., (= A. canadensis^ BoNa). Sitka. 

Delphinium menziesiij D 0. Kotzebue Sound to Gape Lisbnrne. 

Aconitum napelluSj L., var. delphini/oliumj Smith. Sitka, Kotzebue Sound, Ohamisso Island, 
Norton Sonnd, and between Point Barrow and Mackenzie Biver. (Quite common through the 
entire Aleutian chain. T.) 



yuphar luteumj Smith. Sitka. (This species grows vigorously in a shallow lake on the south- 
west side of Attn Island. T.) 



* Sketob.of the Flon of Alaska, by J. T. Bothrock, M. D. (Smithsonian Beport for 1667, pp. 433-463.) 

61 



62 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATTJEAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 



Pofpaver alpinumj L., P. nudioauU. Norton Soand, Kotzebae Sound, and from Point Barrow 
to Mackenzie River. {N%Ldieaule occnrs sparingly in the rocky bed of the creek beyond the large 
lake southeast of the village of Iliulink on Unalashka Island. It was not observed on any other 
island, though carefully searched for. T.) 



FUBftARIACBJEI. 



Oorydalis paueiflaraj Pbbs., Norton Sound, island of Saint Lawrence. 
0. glaucaj Pubsh. Point Barrow to Mackenzie River. 



Barberea vulgaris^ R. Bb., Sitka and Norton Sound. All Aleutian Islands. (T.) 

Arahis hirauta^ Scop., Sit^a and Unalashka. (All the Aleutian Islands. T.) 

{Arabia petrcea, L., var. ambigua^ Regel. Sitka and throughout Aleutian Chain. T.) 

Ncbsturtium palustre^ D 0., Eschholtz Bay, Unalashka, and Yukon River. 

Cardamine lenenaiaj Andbe. Island of Saint Lawrence, Unalashka, Sitka. 

0. pratensiSj L., Eotzebue Sound, Point Barrow, to Mackenzie River; (Norton Sound and 
throughout tl^e Aleutian Islands. T.) 

(7. hirauta^ L., Unalashka and Sitka, (Atkha Island. Common. T.) 

0. purpurea, Cham., Kotzebue Sound, Wainwright Inlet, Unalashka. 

0. digitata, RioilABDS., (Possibly only a form of G. pratenaia ; see J. D. Hooker in Outlines 
of the Distribution of Arctic Plants.) Wainwright Inlet, island of Saint Lawrence, and between 
Point Barrow and Mackenzie River. 

Alyaaum hyperboreumy L., A doubtful native of America. Ledebour, in Flora Rossica, simply 
tells us (on authority of Steller and Krasch) that it is '< in ora occidentale Americse borealis." 

Parrya maorocarpaj R. Bb., Eotzebue Sound, Cape Lisbnrne, between Point Barrow and 
Mackenzie River, and island of Saint Lawrence. 

Drdba algida, D C, Island of Saint Lawrence. 

2). alpina^ L., Eo.tzebue Sound. 

D. glacialia, Adams. Cape Lisbnrne, Assistance Bay, Oarry Island. 

2>. ateUata, Jagq., var. hebeoarpa. Kotzebue Sound, Unalashka, and Saint Lawrence Island (t). 
(High hill-tops of Aleutian Islands, rare. T.) 

D. hirtaj L., Eotzebue Sound. 

D. incanaj L., Garry Island, Saint Lawrence Island, Unalashka, (all the Aleutian Islands/ 
Quite common. T.) 

D. gra^siliay Ledeb., Unalashka. 

D. borealiaj D C. Islands of Saint Lawrence and Unalashka. According to J. D. Hooker 
this species is perhaps only a leafy form of 2). incana. 

D. unalaachkiana, D C, <^ A var. D. borealia '' (t), Ledebour j op. cit. at Unalashka. 

D. atenotoba, Ledeb., Unalashka. 

D. muricelUiy Wahl., D. nivaliaj Liljebl., Wainwright Inlet. 

D. grandia, Langsdobff. Sitka, Unalashka. 

Coehlearia feneatrata, R. Bb., Norton Sound to Point Barrow and Assistance Bay. 

0. obhngifoliay D C. Sitka, Eotzebue Sound, Wainwright Inlet, and between Point Barrow 
and Mackenzie River, Norton Sound. 

0. anglica, L., Eotzebue Sound and Assistance Bay. 

{Oochlearia offioinaliaj h.. Saint Michael's. Seven inches high, not very common; abundant 
throughout the Aleutian Islands. T.) 

Tetrapoma pyriforme, Seemann. Tab. 2, Bot. of Voyage of the Herald. Probably introduced 
by the Russians, as it has not been found elsewhere than at Saint Michael's. 

Heaperia pallasiij T. and G. Eotzebue Sound and Cape Lisbnrne. 

Siaymbrium aophia, L., var. aophioidea, Eotzebue Sound and between Point Barrow and Mac- 
kenzie River, 



OONTEIBUTIOKS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 63 

Eryrimum lanceolatum. R. Bb., Arctic coast, Fallen. 

Hutrema edwardsii^ R. Bb., Saint Lawrence. 

Aphragmus eschscholtzianus, Andbz., Unalashka. 

Huichinsia calydna, Desy., Kotzebue Soand and Cape Ejrazeustem. 

VIOLACEJS. 

Viola biflara, L., var. sitchenais^ Regel. Sitka. 

T. 6Iandfa(t), Kotzebue Sound (Botany of Beechey's Voyage). 

V, Langsdarffii^ FiscH., Kodiak and Unalashka. (This species is quite plentiful on all the 
Aleutian Islands. The plants found on certain areas of the lower grounds attain a vigorous 
growth. Those which occur on the island of Attn are quite small and of lighter blue color. T.) 

DROSERACEJS. 

Drosera rotundifoUa^ L., Sitka. (This plant is not common at Saint Michael's, there growing 
in rery small patches. The flowers are white; attains there a height of 2 inches. Among all the 
Aleutian Islands it occurs plentifully, here attaining a greater size and large patches which remain 
in color (deep reddish-brown) throughout the entire winter. The leaves exude a viscid substance 
which allures small dipterous insects, and these are finally absorbed. T.) 

Parnassia paltLstris^ L., Norton Sound, Fort Yukon. (Common at bases of ravine sides and 
hills among the western islands of the Aleutian chain. T.) 

P. Icotzehueij Cham., Port Clarence to Cape Lisburne, Bot. Herald. (Common on the western 
islands of the Aleutian chain, less so on the eastern islan<l8,growing at the bases of hills. Flowers 
white. T.) 



Dianthus repens, WrLLD., Norton Sound, Kotzebue Sound, Cape Lisburne, and Yukon River 
banks. 

Silene acauliSj L., Kotzebue Sound, Cape Lisburne, and between Point Barrow and Macken- 
zie River. 

Melandryum apefalum^ Fenzl., Kotzebue Sound and northern coasts. 

Spergula saginoideSj L., Sitka, Unalashka, and Kotzebue Sound. 

8. rubta^ T. and G., Sitka. 

8. arvennSy L., Sitka. 

Arenaria vema^ L., (var. hirta). Western shore of Northern Alaska. 

A. arctica, Fenzl., Kotzebue Sound to Cape Lisburne, (This plant was obtained only at 
Sann&k Island, growing in large st/ools; the heads were of a delicate pink color. Not observed 
elsewhere on the islands to the westward. T.) 

A. macrocarpa, Fenzl., Saint Lawrence Island and northwest coast. 

Honkeneya peploides^ ^bb,,^ Northern shores. (Obtained at Atkha Island; not common; 
grows on the drier hill- sides. T.) 

H.pepUndes, var. oblojigifolia, Ehb., Sitka and Kotzebue Sound. 

MerMa pkysodes, Ftsoh., Norton Sound to Point Barrow. 

Moehringia laterifloraj Fenzl., Sitka to Unalashka, Fort Yukon. 

8tellaria niedia^ Smith. Sitka and Unalashka. 

8. borealis^ Bigelow. Sitka and Unalashka. 

8. borealiSj var. crispa. Sitka and Unalashka. 

8, crassifolia, £hr., Sitka. 

8. humifusay Rottbl., Sitka, Norton Sound, Kotzebue Sound. 

8. langifolia, Muhl., Sitka and Kotzebue Sound. 

8. longipe8, Goldie. Kotzebue Sound, Yukon River. 

8, uliginosay L. (Obtained only at Attn and Atkha Islands, growing under the eaves or in the 
crevices of the oldest wooden houses. It is quite rare at either place. T.) 

Cerastium vulgatumj L., 0. alpinum^ in Bongard's Vegetation of Sitka. (Obtained at Atkha 
Island among the wet localities on sides of hills. Flowers in early July. T.) 



64 COISTTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

C. vulgatumy L., var. grandifiorumj Ledeb., in Flora Rossica. Norton Sonnd. 
0. vulgatuMj L., var. behringianumj Ledeb., in Flora Rossica. Norton Sound. 
{Sagina linfuei^ Pbest., Obtained from the high hill-tops of Atkha Island ; not common. T.) 



Linum perennCj L., Fort Yukon. 

Oeranium erianthunij D C, Sitka and Unalashka. ( Rare at Saint Michael's ; abundant through- 
out the Aleutian Islands. Flowers pale blue. T.) 

LB017MIN0S2I. 

Lupinus perenni^j L., Kotzebue Sound. 

X. nootkatemiSj Donn. Unalashka, Fort Yukon. (This plant is very abundant throughout the 
entire coa^t line of Alaska, including the Aleutian Islands. It attains a height according to 
locality, the more northeru plants are of small size while on the Aleutian Islands it frequently 
attains a height of 4 feet. The flowers are pale blue to nearly white, forming a raceme of nearly a 
foot in length. The root is very large; and, in rich soil, becomes over 15 inches in length by 2 or 3 
inches in diameter and of spindle-shape. This plant is called zhdltia kdren or " yellow-root,'' by the 
Russian-speaking people. About the middle of October the Aleuts dig great quantities of these 
roots for food. The roots are carefully scraped until the skin is removed, the interior possessing a 
slightly bitter but farinaceous taste and is eaten either raw or else boiled. When eaten in excess 
it is apt to produce disagreeable effects, and if oily food is not also eaten soon after the presence 
of so much woody fiber in thi* stomach and intestines, is likely to produce fatal inflammation. The 
roots are frequently the only food that the hunters can obtain during long-continued storms. Sev- 
eral such instances have occurred to my own knowledge. I am not aware that the natives of the 
mainland make use of this plant for food. A remark concerning the spread of this plant may not 
be out of place. Sear the grave-yard of Iliuliuk village on Unalashka Island in 1878, but few stalks 
of this plant were to be seen ; in 1881 the area was covered with a mass of vigorous stalks and were 
frequently referred to by others who had noticed their rapid growth. The cattle formerly collected 
there when they had eaten sufliciently, and their droppings may have favored the increased growth 
of these plants. T.) 

Trifolium repenSy L., Sitka ; fide Dr. A. Kellogg. 

Astragalus frigidus^ Geay. Pha>ca frigiduSy L., Kotzebue Sound. 

A. alpinuSj L., Kotzebue Sound to Point Barrow, Fort Yukon. 

A polarisj Benth., Rediscovered by Seemann at Eschscholtz Bay, in Kotzebue Sound, during 
the voyage of the Herald. See J. D. Hooker, on Distribution of Arctic Plants. 

A. hypoglottiSj L., Point Barrow and eastward. Fort Yukon. 

Oxytropis oampestris, D C, including 0. borealiSj D G. Kotzebue Sound. 

0. uralensisj L., Kotzebue Sound and west coast of Alaska. 

Vida gigantea, Hook., v. amerioana^ MuHL., Sitka, Arctic coast. 

Lathyrus maritimuSj Bigel., Sitka, west coast of Alaska. (Grows abundantly throughout 
the coast line of Alaska, south of Gape Lisburne, and including the entire chain of Aleutian 
Islands. In some localities it becomes very luxuriant, the legumes bearing several seed of consid- 
erable size. There is no use made of this plant by the natives; neither is it eaten by the cattle or 
isheep. T.) 

Hedysarum horealej Nutt., Kotzebue Sound and Gape Lisburne. 

H. mackenzii, Righabds., Yukon River, 50 miles west of Fort Yukon. Sweetish root, eaten by 
the Indians. 



SpiroM hetuUfoUay Pall., Kotzebue Sound. 

8. aruncus, L., Sitka. 

8. salicifolia, L., Point Barrow to Mackenzie River. 

8. pectinaUij T. and G., Sitka and about Bering Straits. 



OONTEIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALARKA, 65 

Dryas octopetala^ L., Kotzebue Sound to Port Clarence and northern shore. Dr. Rothrock 
says he cannot do otherwise than unite D. integrifolmj Yahl.., with this species ; J. D. Hooker 
has already done so in his paper quoted above. 

Oeum macrophyllumj Willde., Sitka, Unalashka. (Obtained only at Attn and ITnalashka. 
Not common at ITnalashka, and but little more so at Attn. The semi-domesticated young of the 
white-cheeked goose devour the leaves of this plant so that it is difficult to obtain good specimens 
of it. Flowers yellow, plant attaining a height of 16 inches. T.) 

O. calthifoliumy Smith. Unalashka, Sitka. (Grows among the drier crevices and clefts of 
rocks along the beach. Usually in stools of variable size. Flowers bright yellow. « June to latter 
part of August. Some of the leaves remain green the entire year. Common throughout the entire 
Aleutian chain. Rare at Saint Michael's, and there quite stunted. T.) 

6, glaciale, Adams. Cape Lisburne and Kotzebue Sound ; also found on northern shore, west 
of Mackenzie River. 

0. rosaiiy Sebinge. Unalashka. 

Sanguuarba canadensisj L., Banks of Buckland River, Unalashka, Sitka, Fort Yukon, Yukon 
River banks. 

Sihhaldia procumhens^ L., Unalashka. (All the Aleutian Islands, rarely exceeding an inch in 
height. T.) 

Poientilla norvegica^ L., Sitka, Point Barrow to Mackenzie River. 

P. pennsylvanica^ L., Kotzebue Sound. 

P. anserina, L., Sitka, Kotzebue Sound, Point Barrow, northern coast, Fort Yukon. 

P. nanaj Lehm., Kotzebue Sound. 

P. emarginata^ Pubsh. Kotzebue Sound, between Point Barrow and Mackenzie River. 

P. nivea^ L., Kotzebue Sound and coast west of Cape Bathurst,^de Botany of the Herald. 

P. villosa^ Pall., Kotzebue Sound, Unalashka, Sitka. (Common throughout the coast of the 
mainland and the Aleutian Islands, growing, on rocky places near the beach. Flowers yellow. T.) 

P. bijiora^ Lehm., Kotzebue Sound, Cape Lisburne. 

P.fruticosQy L., Kotzebue Sound, banks of Buckland River. 

P. palustris^ Scop., Sitka, Saint Lawrence. 

Rvhvs apectabilis, Pubsh. Sitka, Kadiak, Cape Saint Elias. 

B. arctictiSj L., Kotzebue Sound, Saint MichaePs. 

jB. pedatus, Smith. Sitka. 

B, chamcemorusj L., Sitka, north and west coast of Alaska. (Very abundant at Saint 
Michael's and southward along the entire coast, including Aliaska and Unlmak, Aknt&n, Attn, 
and Agattu, of the Aleutian Islands. It is not found on Unalashka or any of the intermediate 
islands to Attn. The berries are slightly acid when fully ripe, and are eagerly sought for by the 
natives, who preserve them by putting them in water and allowing the mass to freeze. Among 
the Eskimo of Korton Sound the berries are mixed with the back-fat of the reindeer, to form the 
talkusha of the Russians. The children begin to pick these berries as soon as they have formed 
in fruit, and eat them in such quantities that scarcely anything else is consumed during the entire 
day. T.) 

{Buima stellattufy Smith, l^ot observed at Unalashka ; plentiful at Atkha, and less abundant 
at Attn. Flowers pink ; fruit insignificant, scarcely having taste. T.) 

jB. nutkanu8j Mog., Sitka. 

Bosa cinnamomeay L., Point Barrow to Mackenzie River, Fort Yukon. ^ 

Pyrus rivularis, Dougl., Sitka. 

P. 8ambucifoliaj Cham, and Sohleght., Sitka. (A species of ^^ strawberry "; grows abundantly 
on Akut&n Island, the fruit being very fragrant and of excellent flavor. At Atkha Island the 
same species is found sparingly on the path from Naz4n Bay to Old Harbor. I have eaten the 
fruit from both the localities named above, but could not obtain specimens of the plant at the 
proper season. It is not found on any other of the islands to my knowledge. T.) 

8. Mis. 156 9 



66 OOHlTEIBtJTlONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

ONAORACBiB. 

Upilobium angustifolium^ L., Sitka, ITnalashka, Fort YakoD, banks of Yukon River, north and 
west shores of Alaska. (At Saint Michael's this plant occurs, generally solitary, among the tall 
grasses on the steeper hillsides, growing to a height of 8 to 17 inches. Flowers pinkish to red. T.) 

E. latifoUumj L., Norton Sound, Point Barrow, Sitka, Unalashka. (Abundant along the rocky 
banks of creeks 5 attains a height of 18 inches. Flowers reddish purple, very showy. The stems 
are very woody and difficult to break. T.) 

m. luteumj PuBSH. Sitka, Unalashka. (Abundant throughout the Aleutian Islands, rare at 
Saint Michael's. Flowers yellow. T.) 

E, palustrcj L., Kotzebue Sound, fide Ledebour, in Flora Eossica. 

E. tetragonum^ L., Given as a native of this region. 

E. roseunij Sghbeb., Sitka. (Plentiful throughout the Aleutian Islands; grows in wet locali- 
ties. T.) 

E. aLpinum^ L., Sitka. 

E. affincy Bong-abd: Sitka. (Most abundant on the western islands of the Aleutian chain ; 
less common on the eastern islands. Grows 2 feet high. T.) 

Girccea alpinaj L., Sitka. 

Hippuris vulgariSj L., Sitka, Bay of Good Hope. 

H. montana, Ledeb., Unalashka. 

J7. maritimay Hellen. Kotzebue Sound and delta of river Buckland. 

PORTIJLACACEJE3. 

Ola/yionia virginicay L., Kotzebue Sound. 

(7. sarmentosay C. A. Meyeb. Cape Lisburne, Kotzebue Sound. 

O.fl^ellariSy Bong., Sitka. 

(7. 9%biricay L., Sitka, Cape Saint Elias. (Abundant throughout the Aleutian Islands, growing 
amongst rank grasses and other plants. Flowers white to r<^d. T.) 

0, chamissaniSy Esohscholtz. (0. aquatica, Nutt. in Flora North America, Torroy and Gray, 
fi^e Ledebour). Unalashka. 

Montia fontanuiy L., Sitka, Unalashka, Norton Sound, Kotzebue Sound. 



Sedum rhodiolay D C. Norton and Kotzebue Sounds. 

GROSSULACEJES. 

Ribes rubrumy L., Port Clarence, Kotzebue Sound, Yukon River, (Saint Michael's. T.) 

B. hud8onianum^iGKABDS.y Yukon Eiver. 

JS. laxiflorumy PuBSH. Cape Saint Elias and Sitka. 

22. bracteosuniy DouGL., Sitka. 

B, lacustrej Pubsh. Point Barrow to Mackenzie River. 



8axi/raga oppositifolia, L., Unalashka, Cai^e Lisburne, Kotzebue Sound, and northern coast. 

8. hronchialisy L., Kotzebue Sound, Wainwriglit Inlet, Unalashka. 

8. nitiday Sghbeb., Unalashka, ^^ Ledebour, Flora Rossica. 

8. eschscholtziiy Stebnb., Cape Lisburne, Kotzebue Sound. 

8. flugellarisy Willd., Cape Lisburne, Kotzcbiu* Sound, Assistance Bay. 

8. hirculu8y L., Norton Sound to Point Barrow, and on northern coast. (Common along the 
beach and wet places of the lower hillsides of the Aleutian Islands. T.) 

8. tricmpidaiay Retz., Kotzebue Sound, Unalaslika, Fort Yukon. 

8. serpylUfoliay Pubsh. Cape Lisburne, Unalashka, Saint Lawrence Island. • 

8. leucanthemifoliay Lap., {8. atellarisy L., var. hrunnomnay Bongabd, Veg. Sitka.) Sitka and 
Cape Prince of Wales. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 67 

8. davurica, Pall., (Seemann has united with this species 8. flabellifoUa^ and apparently on 
good grounds. ) Gape Lisbarae, Eotzebue Sound, Uualashka. 

8. nivalis^ L., Unalashka, Cape Lisbarne, and other stations on the coast. 

8. cemtiay L., Point Barrow to Mackenzie River. 

8. hieraeifoUay W. and K., Saint Lawrence, Kotzebne Sound. 

8. nelsoniafiaj DoNN (Not of Hooker and Arnott, in Botany of Beechey's Voyage). Norton 
Sound. 

8, spicata, Donn. Sledge Island, Cape Prince of Wales. 

8. punctata, L., 8. cestivalis^ Fischer, Sitka, Unalashka, Kotzebue Sound, (all the Aleutian 
Islands. T.) 

8. arguta, DoNN. Northwest coast. Where? 

8. nudicauliSy Donn. between Norton and Kotzebue Sound, fide Ledebour, Flora Rossica. 

8. heterantheray Hooker. 8. mert^nsiana. Bong., Veg. Sitka, fide Ledebour, 8. cestivaliSj var. 
T. and G. Sitka. 

8, exilis, St£PH., Schischmareff and Eschscholtz Bays. Most likely as suggested by J. D. 
Hooker, only a weedy state of 8. cernua. 

8. sibirica, L., Kotzebue Sound. 

8, rivularis, L., Kotzebue Sound. 

8, ccespitosa, L., Kotzebue Sound. 

8. exarata, Vill., Unalashka, Kotzebue Sound. 

S. siUiiifi^ra, Sternb., Kotzebue Sound, Unalashka. (Common on all the Aleutian Islands. T.) 

8. androsa^cea, L., Is hardly likely to be identical with the plant said by Pursh to inhabit the 
northwest coast; Dr. Rothrock does not include it in his list. 

Boykinia richardsoniij 8aj*i/raga richardsoniij Hook., 8, nelsoniana^ Hook, and Arnott, in 
Botany of Beecliev's Voyage, tab. 29. 

Leptarrhenapyrifolia, R. Br., Unalashka and Cape Prince of Wales! (All the Aleutian Islands, 
growing to a height of 1 foot. Flowers in early July. T.) 

Chrysosplenium alternifolium, L., -Kotzebue Sound to Cape Lisbume. (Found only on tops of 
hills in areas bare of other vegetation. Atkha, Attn, Unalashka Islands. T.) 

UMBELIiIFERJEI. 

Bupleurum ranunculoides^ L., Port Clarence to Cape Lisbume, Norton Sound. (Obtained only 
at Saint Michael's. Grows in single stalks on the drier spots of marshy tracts. Flowers bright 
yellow. Not common. T.) 

Liguaticum scoticum, L., Sitka, Kadiak, Kotzebue Sound, and Norton Sound. 

Conioselinum fi^cheri, Wimm. and Gbab., Sitka, Unalashka, Kotzebue Sound, and Arctic coast. 
(This species occurs throughout the Aleutiau Islands, growing on the lowlands. It is regarded as 
highly poisonous by the natives. T.) 

Hera^leum lanatuMj MiCHX. Sitka. 

Osmorrhiza nuda^ ToBB., 0. brevistylus^ Bongabd, Vegetation of Sitka, Unalashka, Sitka. 

Arohangelica officinalis, Hoffm., Unalashka, Kotzebue Sound, Sitka. (This species occurs 
sparingly in the vicinity of Saint Michael's, rarely attaining a height of more than 2 feet, and 
haWng a stalk scarcely more than half an inch in diameter. Amdng the Aleutian Islands It is 
very abundant, especially on the outskirts of the sites of ancient villages and in the excavations 
which formed the dwelliugs in those villages. It attains, in such localities, a height of several 
feet, 4 to 6 feet being common sizes, and of very thick stalks. This species is one of the earliest 
plants to appear in spring. The leaf-stalks become very long. At Attu I haveseen them 4 feet 
long, bearing a leaf as large as a palm-leaf fan. The tender -leaf-stalks and the main stalk are 
eaten by the Aleuts. During the months of May and June the women go and gather great bundles 
of these stalks and bring them to the village. The Urst iinger is inserfed into th^ hollow stalk and 
rapidly split open; the teeth are then used to assist the fingers to separate the tender parts from 
the exterior skin and strings of the stalk. It is an operation which requires much dexterity and 
practice to enable one to prevent the tender parts from breaking. The main stalk is stripped of 



68 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA 

its skiu, which, when yoang and tender, is easily accomplished. The main stalk possesses a 
sweetish, aromatic taste ; the leaf-stalks are sweeter, but less aromatic. I have seen l)oys and girls 
eat these stalks by the yard at a time. A boy at Atkha received the nick-name of Poochka, the 
Rossian name of this plant, becaase he devoured so much of it. On the approach of frost the 
plant rapidly withers, and leaves the dry stalks standing until pushed out of the way for the next 
year's growth. When these stalks are in sufficient quantity near a village the people use them as 
fuel. The exterior bark of the dead stalk is impervious to the rain ; hence when camping out a 
fire is easily started with these stalks if they are first broken open. They produce a fierce fire. T.) 
A. gmelinij D 0., Sitka, Unalashka, Kotzebue Sound. 



Panax harridunij Smith. Sitka, Kadiak. 

Adoxa moschatellinay L., Russian America, fide Ledebour ; what part t 

CORNACEJEI. 

. Oornus sueoioaj L., Common on western coast of Alaska. (Oommon at Saint Michael's. Flowers 
in the latter part of June. Grows in small patches along edges of grassy blufifs. T.) 

0. uftalaschJcensiSj Ledeboub. Unalashka. 

0. canadensiSj L., Sitka. (Abundant at Saint Michael's. Fruit bright red, edible, sweetish 
taste. Plentiful among the Aleutian Islands. T.) 

(7. stoUmifera^ Mighx., Fort Yukon. 



8ambucu8 pubetis, Mighx., Sitka. 

Viburnum acerifoliumy L., Fort Yukon. 

V. pav4Afiorum^ Pylaie, F. axierifolium^ Bongard's Veg. Sitka. (The stipuliform appendages 
appear to be the only constant difference between these two species in my specimens. They are 
quite variable in length of stamens and shape of corolla. — J. T. Rothrock.) • 

Linncea borealiSy Obonov., Norton and Kotzebue Sounds, Sitka, Unalashka. (Abundant 
throughout the Aleutian Islands. Grows on the cold hillsides. Flowers pink. T.) 



Odlium triUdum^ L., Unalashka and Sitka. 

0, horeale^ L., (?. rubivideSj Hook, and Abnott, Bot. Beechey, fide Seeraann. Kotzebue Sound, 
Buckland River, Fort Yukon, and banks of Yukon Rirer. 

Q. trifioruMj MiGHX., Sitka, Unalashka. 

G. a/paHne^ L., Sitka, Unalashka. (Found only at Attn Island, growing under the eaves of an 
old house. Flowers greenisl; white. The plant consisted of only a single stalk and was certainly 
an introduced individual. T.) 



Valeria/na dUnca^ L., Norton Sound. 

V. eapitata^ Willd., Kotzebue Sound to Gape Lisburne, Sitka, Point Barrow to Mackenzie 
River, and south to Aliaska. 

Tellima grandifioray DouGL, Sitka and islands adjacent to the coast. 
Tiarella trifoliatay L., Sitka and Alaskan coast. 
Heuchera glabra^ Willd., JJ. divarioata^ Fisgh., Sitka. 

COMPOSITJS. 

Nardosmia fri!ffida^ Hooe:., includes y. corymbosa, Hook.; Unalashka, Norton Souud, northern 
coast. 

Aster multifiorusj Ait., (Perhaps we may include under this A. ramulosiSj Lindl., and A, 
falcatuSj Lindl. If this be done we have one polymorphic species ranging from Georgia to Point 
Barrow and Mackenzie River, and from Massachusetts to the Rocky Mountains.) Northern coast. 



OONTEIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 69 

A. peregrinusy Pubsh. Unalashka, I^orfolk Sound. (Abundant throughout the Aleutian 
Islands. Usually solitary stalks. On some of the isl/iuds this plant blooms until covered with suow 
in the middle of November. Where the roots have been covered by heavy snow-drifts at elevations 
of 1,500 feet it is the last plant to flower in spring; the colors of which vary from lightest pink to 
blueish. T.) 

A.foliaceus^ Lindl., Unalashka. 

ii. salsuginoatMj Richards., Sitka, Unalashka, Kotzebue Sound. 

A. alpinusj L., Unalashka, 2,000 feet above sea-level. 

A. 'sihiricitSy L., including, after J. D. Hooker and Fries, A, montanus, liioUABDS, and A. 
richardsoniij Spb. Kotzebue Sound, Unalashka, Point Barrow. 

Erigeron uniflorum. L., (Following Fries, I include under this species E. pulchellum, D C, as 
a variety. There is unquestionably good ground for the union. — J. T. Bothrock.) Unalashka, 
Gape Lisburne. 

E. glabellvm, Nutt., Wainwright Inlet to Mackenzie River; var. aapersum. Fort Yukon. 

Solidago virga-aureaj L., Unalashka to Kotzebue Sound Gape Lisburne, and on northern coast; 
var. multiradiataj Fort Yukon. 

8. canfertijloraj D G., Unalashka, Gape Mulgrave, Kadiak. 

Ptarmica borealis, D G., Sitka. 

P. sibirica, Unalashka, Eschscholtz Bay. 

P. upeciosa^ DG., given by Ledebour, on the authority of J. O. Gmelin, as a native of this 
region. ^ 

Achillea miUefoliumj L., Norton Sound, Unalashka, Sitka, Fort Yukon. 

Lencanthemum integrifoliumj D G., Kotzebue Sound ; Saint Lawrence Island, and from Point 
Barrow to Mackenzie River. 

L, arcticunij D G., Norton Souud to Washington Inlet. (Abundant at Saint Michael's and 
throughout the Aleutian Islands; growing along the beach in solitary stalks, with roots much ex- 
posed. The leaves of this plant at Saint Michael's are very fleshy. T.) 

Matricaria discoidea^ D G., Sitka, Unalashka. 

M, inodorata, L., Kotzebue Sound, var. eligulata^ Norton Sound. This may be yet entitled to 
specific rank, as Seemann suggests. 

Tanaceium kotzebuensia, BBSS., Gape Espenberg, ./l(^ Ledebour ex Eschscholtz. 

T. huronensCj Nutt., Fort Yukon. 
• ArtemeMia borealis^ Pallas. Kotzebue Sound, Arctic coast, and what seems to be a variety 
with glomerate, almost capitate, inflorescence from Sitka. 

A. vulgariSy L., var. tiU^iy Fort Saint Michael's and western and northern coasts. 

A. glomeratay Ledeb.I Kotzebue Sound. 

A. androsacea^ Seem., Bot. Herald, tab. 6 ; A, glomerata of Hooker and Arnott, Bot. Beechey, 
but not of Ledebour, fide Seemann. This, it is thought by Dr. Hooker, may prove ''an arctic, 
tufted variety of some better-known plant. '^ 

A. globulariaj Gham., Unalashka, Saint Lawrence. 

A. arcticaj Less., Gape Lisburne and Point Hope, and possibly Sitka. 

A, chamissonisy Bess., Seemann states that though A. arctica and A. chamissonis are by some 
authors united, they may be at once distinguished by their different habits. 

A. absinthiumj L., Given by Ledebour (Flora Rossica), on the authority of J. G. Gmelin, as a 
doubtful native of Russian America. 

thtaphalium sylvaticuniy L., Russian America, fi^e Ledebour ex J. G. Gmelin. 

Antennaria alpina^ Gaebt., including A. manacephalay D G. Kotzebue Sound, Saint Lawrence 
Island and Unalashka. (Gommon throughout the Aleutian Islands, growing in stools among the 
clefts of rocks on the sides of the drier ravines. T.) 

A. dioicaj Gaebt., Islands adjacent to the American coast, Ledebour ex J. G. Gmelin. (Gom- 
mon throughout the Aleutian Islands; grows in the clefts of the drier rocks on the faces of 
bluffs. T.) 

A. margaritaceay R. Bb., Sitka, Unalashka. (Abundant throughout the Aleutian Islands, 
growing on the drier hillsides. Rare at Saint Michael's. T.) 



70 OONTEIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

Arnica angusUfoliaj Yahl. Kotzebue Soand, Fort Yukon. 

A. chamissoniSy Lssa, IJnalashka. 

A. obtusifolia, Lbss., Unalashka. 

A. unalaschkensiSj Less., (Jnalashka. (Gomnion everywhere on the Aleutian Islands, growing 
on the drier hillsides. T.) 

A. latifolia^ BoNa., Sitka. 

Senieio resedifoUuSj Less., Gape Lisbume, Kotzebue Sound. (Common throughout the Aleu 
tian Islands, growing on hillsides. Flowers yellow. T.) 

8.frigidu8y Less., Kotzebue Sound, Cape Lisbume, Saint Lawrence. 

8. triangulariSj Hooker. Sitka. 

S. pseudo-arnica, Less., Common on western shore of Alaska; also Charaisso Island. 

8, aureus, L., Fort Yukon. 

8. lugensy Riohabds., Kotzebue Sound, Cape of Good Hope, Fort Yukon. 

8. palustris, D C, Korton Sound, Kotzebue Sound, Wain wright Inlet, northern shore. (Obtained 
only at Saint Michael's, growing on wet situations, 2 to 3 feet high high. Not common. T.) 

8. hookeri, T. and O., Kotzebue Sound. 

8aussurea alpinaj L., Kotzebue Sound. Dr. Rothrock here includes 8. monticola, which was 
found by PuUen on the northern shore ^m Point Barrow to Mackenzie River. 

8. subsinuata, Ledeb., Kotzebue Sound, Bot. Herald, tab. 7. 

Taraxa>cufn dens-leaniSj Desf., Kotzebue Sound to Point Hope and northern coast. Unalashka, 
var. ceratopkorum, Norton Sound, (and all the Aleutian Islands. T.) 

T. pulustre, D C, Kotzebue Sound. (Common throughout the Aleutian Islands, growing in 
the dry clefts of rocks on the hillsides and faces of clififs. The flowers are rich golden-yellow and 
form of mass of bloom. The leaves are used by the Aleuts, who steam or wilt the leaves and ap]>1y 
them to indolent ulcers. T.) 

T. lyratum, D C, Unalashka. 

Mulgedium pulchellum, NuTT., Point Barrow to Mackenzie River. 

yabalus aUitus, Hooker. Unalashka, Sitka. 

Apargidium horeale, T. and G., Sitka. 

Hieraceum triste, Willd., Unalashka, Norfolk Sound. (Plentiful at Atkha, Attu, and Una- 
lashka. Grows on the wet hillsides. Flowers yellow. At Saint Michael's this plant is quite 
rare. T.) 

{Cnicus kamtchaticus {cirsium, Ledeb.). This plant (for the first time detected on the North 
American side) was obtained only at Attu, the westernmost island of the chain. It attains a 
height of 7 feet and has a remarkably vigorous growth, the stems attaining a diameter of 3 inches 
and developing a great amount of woody fiber. The leaves are very large, the spines long and 
sharp, producing a very painftil wound. T.) . 

CABCFANULACEA. 

Campanula da^syanthaj M. and Bleb., Unalashka, Cape Prince of Wales. 

C rotundifolia, L., 0, heterodoxa, Vest., Sitka. 

C. unifloraj L., Kotzebue Sound, Cape Lisbume, Unalashka. 

(7. lasiocarpa, Cham., Kotzebue Sound, Unalashka. (Common throughout the entire Aleutian 
Islands; grows solitary on the hilltops. Rare at Saint Michael's. T.) 

(0. pilosa, Pall., Abundant at Unalashka; grows on the lower hilltops, which are barren of 
other vegetation, usually solitary. T.) 

ERICACEiB. 

Vaodnium vUis-idceaj L., Unalashka, Saint Lawrence, Sitka, Norton Sound to Point Barrow, 
and on the northern coast. (This plant is abundant throughout the coast line of the mainland 
and on the eastern islands of the Aleutian chain. Among the western islands it is not so plenti- 
ful and not at all common at Attu. It attains a height of several inches, growing in small 
patches or else scattered among the other plants of the lower hills. The berries are deep red and 
intensely acid, but of good flavor after a taste for it is acquired. The natives gather great quanti^ 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 71 

ties of the berries for food, and in some localities are in demand for preservation by putting them 
in pnre water and kept for winter's use by the white people of Alaska. When cooked with a suf- 
ficient quantity of sugar they make a good pie or an excellent jelly or jam. T.) 

F. myrtilloides, Hooker. Sitka. 

V. myrUlluSy L., Sitka. 

V. chamissonU, Bong., Sitka, Unalashka. 

V. avalifoKumj Smith. Sitka. 

7. parvifoliunij Smith. Sitka. 

T. salictnum, Cham, and Sghlecht., Unalashka. 

F. aespitosumj Mighx., Sitka. 

F. uligino8umj L.^ Sitka, Unalashka, Kotzebue Sound, northern coast (Plentiful at Unalashka 
and Attn ; less common on the intermediate islands. Berries ripen in latter part of August and 
early September. They are gathered in great quantities by the natives. T.) 

OxycocctM vulgaris, PuBSH. Sitka, Kotzebue Sound, Unalashka. 

Arciostaphylos alp^ina^ Spbeng., Unalashka, Norton Sound to Point Barrow, Arctic coast. 

A. uva-ursij Spreng., Unalashka, Gape Prince of Wales, Arctic coast. 

Andromeda polifolia, L., Sitka, Kotzebue Sound. (Common at Saint Michael; rarer among the 
Aleutian Islands. Grows in little clumps. Flowers purplish. T.) 

Cassandra calyculata, Donn. Kotzebue Sound. 

Cassiope lycopodioides^ DoNN. Kotzebue Sound. (Plentiful throughout the Aleutian Islands. 
Grows in large masses on the low hilltops. Flowers white. Not common at Saint Michael. T.) 

(7. teira^ona, DoNN. Saint Lawrcuce, Kotzebue Sound to Point Barrow, Arctic coast. 

0. mertensiana, DoNN. Sitka. 

0. stellerianaj D G., Sitka. 

Phyllodoce pallasiana^ Donn. Sitka, Unalashka. 

Menziesia ferruginea. Smith. Sitka, Unalashka. 

Imseleuria procumbens, Desv., Gape Lisburne, Unalashka, Chamisso Island. (Occurs plenti* 
tifully in small patches throughout the Aleutian Islands. Flowers white. T.) 

BliodoAendron lapponiciim, Wahl., Port Glarence. 

R. kamtschaticuvi^ Pall., Unalashka. (Plentiful at Unalashka and Attu; less so at Atklia. 
Grows along the rocky edges of cliiis. Flowers reddish-purple, quite showy. T.) 

Kalmia glaucUj AlT., Sitka. 

Ledum lati/oliumj Ait., Sitka. 

L. palustre^ L., Norton Sound to Point Barrow and northern coast This and the preceding 
species should probably be united. (Abundant at Saint MichaePs; common at Unalashka, Atkha, 
and, Attn. A tea is maile of the flowers of this plant. The infusion has a slightly terebinthine 
taste, which becomes pleasant enough after a time. Among some of the white people it has a 
reputed tonic effect on the system. T.) 

Cladothamnus pyroUeflorus, BoNa., Sitka. 

Pyrola rQtundifoliaj L., Unalashka, Kotzebue Sound, and northern coast. 

Pyrola rotundifolia^ L., var. bra^ctata, .Gray. (Gommon throughout the Aleutian IslandSi 
growing in wet places. Flowers greenish. T.) 

P. minoTj L., Unalashka. 

P. secundaj L., Sitka, Kotzebue Sound. 

Moneses gra/ndifloraj Salisb., Sitka. 



Pinguicula vulgaris, L., Sitka. (Abundant at Unalashka, rare at Attn and Atkha, growing in 
wet placea bare of other vegetation. The leaves exude a viscid substance which causes many small 
dipterous insects to adhere to them. Flowers blue. T.) 

P. mieroceroji^ Willd., Unalashka. 

P. macrocerasj Oham., Unalashka. 

P. ffillosa^ L., Islands of Ghamisso and Unalashka, Norton Sound. 



72 CONTBIBITTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA 



Primula nivaliSj Pall., Unalashka, Saint Lawrence, Eotzebae Sound. 

P. strietaf Hobn£M., after J. D. Hooker, Dr. Rothrock includes under this species P. home 
manniana and P. mistassinicaj both of 0. and S. and of Mighx. Kotzebue Sound. 

Androsace chanueja^ne, Willd., Kotzebue Sound to Wainwright Inlet. (Plentiful at Una- 
lashka, rarer at Attn. Grows among the drier rocks on the faces of clifts. T.) 

A. septentrionaliSy L., Kotzebue Sound and Ohamisso Island, Fort Yukon. 

A. villosa is stated by Ledebour to have been found at Kotzebue Sound. It is likely an over- 
sight, as Hooker and Arnott do not contain it in their list of plants collected there. 

Dodecathean meadia^ L., Sitka, Kotzebue Sound, and Cape Lisburne. Dr. Rothrock includes 
in this species D, integufolium and D*frigidum, and regards them as varieties of a widely distrib- 
uted polymorphic species. (Common at Saint Michael, Unalashka, Atkha, and Attn. At Saint 
Michael's I have known the ground to be covered with a patch of snow on the 1st day of June, 
which on the 12th had melted, and this plant was then in blossom. At Atkha Island I obtained 
specimens at an elevation of 1,500 feet, where nothing but scattered stalks of this plant would grow 
on the barren areas, having little soil mixed with the sharp-edged stones. The plants in such sit- 
uations were scarcely an inch in height. T.) 

Olaux maritimaj L., Sitka. 

Trientdlis eurapcea, L., Sitka, Norton Sound. 

(T. europcea, var. arctica^ Gray. Grows abundantly in wet places among all the Aleutian 
Islands. T.) 

QENTIANACEiE. 

QenUania amarella, L., Sitka. 

6, acutaj Mighx., Unalaska. 

0. tenelUij Roltb., Kotzebue Sound. (Common among the Aleutian Islands, but rare at Saint 
Michael's. T.) 

G. detonsa^ Fries., Point Barrow to Mackenzie River, Fort Yukon. 

O. propinquaj Richards., O, mrlckmna. Kotzebue Sound, Point Clarence, Norton Sound. 

G, aleutka, Cham., Unalashka. 

6. prostratay H^nke. Unalashka, Kotzebue Sound. (Common among the Aleutian Islands. 
Grows in wet situations. T.) 

G. glaucaj Pall., Kotzebue Sound, Wainwright Inlet 

G. platypetala^ Griesb., Sitka. 

G. d(mgla88ianaj Bong., Sitka. 

Pleurogyne rotata^ Griesb., Kotzebue Sound, Buckland River, Arctic coast. (Rather common 
among the high grasses on dry hill-sides at Saint Michael. Flowers white. T.^ 

Swertta perennis^ L., Kadiak. Dr. Kellogg also obtained 8. perennis L., var. obtiisa from 
Kadiak. 

Villaraia crista-galliy Griesb., Sitka. 

Menycmthes trifoliataj L., Unalashka, Sitka. 

POIiEMONLiLCBiB. 

Phlox sibirieaj L., Kotzebue Sound. 

Polemonium caeruleumy L., Norton Sound to Point Barrow ; islands of Saint George, Una- 
lashka, and Chamisso^ Fort Tukon. Dr. Rothrock recognizes but two species of this genus 
belonging to northern North America, the one, P. reptanSy L., which is well marked, and the 
other P. ccBruleum^ L., as made up of all the others. The numerous forms of the latter aggregate 
species are easily connected. Even P. pulchelluMy Bunge, which is perhaps the best marked 
variety, shades off by invisible gradations into the others. (Common throughout the Aleutian 
Islands. Grows to 3 feet in height. Flowers blue. T.) 

Diapensia lapponioa^ L., Saint Lawrence. (Obtained only at Atkha Island among the clefts of 
rocks on the fiooes of cliffo. T.) 



CONTEIBUTION8 TO THE NATUKAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 73 



Merteima maritimai Down. Sitka, Norton Soanil to Point Barrow, and Cape Bathnrst. 

Jf. paniculataj Donn. M, pilosa^ D C, Kotzebue Sonncl, Fort Yukou. 

ilf. sibiricaj DoNN. M, denticMlatay Donn, Kotzebue Sound. 

Myosotis sylvaticaj Hoffm., Cape Lisburne and Arctic coast. 

Echinospermum redoicsJciiy Lehm., t Port Yukon. 

UritricMum villosum, BuNGE., Dr. Rothrock here includes, after J. D. Hooker, 1. o., E. areti- 
oides^ A, D C, which form is found at Cape Lisburne and island of Saint Lawrence. Tab. Ill, 
Bot. Herald. 

E. plebejumy Alph. D C, Unalashka. 

HTDROPHTLLACEiE. 

Romcmzoffia unaUtschkensiSj Cham., Unalashka. (Common on edges and in crevices of clifiBs. 
White flowers. T.) 

E. sitchensisy Cham., Sitka. (Abundant in the clefts on the sides of ravines and faces of bluffs 
of all the Aleutian Islands. T.) 



PentstefnonfrutescenSj Lamb., Unalashka. Not found since Pallas is said to have discovered 
it in Kamchatka and in the island of Unalashka. 

Mimulus luteuSj L., Jif. guttaiuSj D C. Cape Saint Elias, Unalashka, Kadiak, Sitka. (Very 
abundant at Unalashka, Atkha, and rare at Attn, growing in the coldest springs of water that 
issue from the hill-sides. At Atkha this plant is wonderfully abundant, forming large patches, 
which in the flowering season (early June to the middle of July) are a mass of golden yellow. T.) 

Veroniea anagallis^ L., Sitka. (Common in wet places throughout the entire Aleutian chain. 
T.) 

Veronica americanaj Sohweinitz. Sitka. 

V. heccdbungay L., Unalashka. 

V. stellerij Pall., Unalashka. (Comipon among the Aleutian Islands. Plowera white. T.) 

F. alpina, L., Sitka, Unalashka. Common on the hill-sides throughout the Aleutian Islands. 
Plowers white. T.) 

F. serpyllifoliaj L., Sitka, Unalashka. (Common throughout the ilentian Islands. T.) 

Gdstill^a pallida^ Kunth., Sitka, Kotzebue Sound, Chamisso Island, Arctic coast. Fort Yukon. 
Dr. Rothrock thinks that J. D. Hooker has justly included with tins species C, septentrionaUsj 
LiNDL. Professor Gray has also united them in the last edition of his Manual of Botany ; also, in 
his revision of the genus (see Am. Jour. Sci., second series, vol. xxxiv, p. 44). 

C. parvifloraj BoNG., Sitka. This is apparently the commonest species and of widest range 
west of the Rocky Mountains, extending from Russian America to Southern California, Gray,*l. c. 

{Euphrasia officinaliSy L.<, common throughout the Aleutian Islands, growing in wet places. 
Plowers white or yellow. T.) 

Shinanthua crisH-gallij L., Unalashka. (Throughout the Aleutian Islands, most abundant at 
Atkha. Growing in wet places. Plowers yellow. Attains a height of 9 inches. T.) 

Pedicularis verHcillaiaj L., Sitka and the islands generally; also, Kotzebue Sound. (Common 
at Saint Michael. Growing in solitary stalks on'wet places. Plowers pink to red. T.) 

P. ohamisMuiSy Stev., Unalashka. (Common throughout Alaska. Grows in isolated stalks 
in wet places. The flowers are reddish, and at Saint Michael's is among the first plants to bloom, 
the flowers appearing before the leaves have grown half an inch in length. T.) 

P. pedioillaia, Bunge, P. nastUaj BoNa., in Feg., Sitka, non — M. A. Bleb., fide Ledeb. PI. 
Rossica. Sitka. 

P. subnudaj Benth., Sitka. 

P. palusiriSy L., Arctic America. At Bay of Good Hope, fide Ledebour in PI. Boss. 

P. euphrasioidesj Steph., Norton Sound, Kotzebue Sound, islands of Chamisso and Kadiak. 

P. sudeticay L., Cape Lisburne, Kotzebue Sound, Arctic coast, island of Saint Lawrence. J. 
S. Mis. 155 10 



74 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

D. Hooker suggests uniting this with P. langsdorffli^ and Dr. Rothrock, on his authority, admits the 
reduction. (Oommon at Atkha, Attn, and Unalashka. At Saint Michael's this plant attains a 
height of only a few inches. Flowers pink to red. T.) 

P. hirsutHj L., including here P. lanata^ Willd., as done by Bentham, fide J. D. Hooker. 
Islands of Saint George, Saint Lawrence, Kotzebue Sound, and Arctic coast. 

P. versicolor J Wahlenb., Kotzebue Sound, island of Saint Lawrence. 

P. capitataj Adams., Kotzebue Sound, Arctic coast, Unalashka. 



Boschniahia glahra^ C. A. Meyeb., Sitka and Kotzebue Sound. 

SEIiAQINACEiE. 

Qymnandra gmelini^ Cham, et'ScHLECHT., Unalashka, Saint Lawrence Island. 
6. stellerij Gham. et Schleght., Kotzebue Sound, island of Saint Lawrence. 



Dracocephalum jparvifiorum^ L., Fort Yukon. 
Brunella tulgaris^ L., Sitka, Unalashka. 
Oaleopsis tetrahit.j Sitka. Probably introduced. 

PLUMBAQINACEiC: 

Statice armeria^ L., Unalashka, Kotzebue Sound, and northern coast. 

PL ANT AQIN ACEiE . 

Planiago major,* L., Sitka, banks of Yukon River. 

P. mdcrocarpay Gham. et Schlecht., Sitka, Unalashka. (Gommon among the Aleutian 
Islands ; growing in wet situations. Flowers white. T.) 
P. maritimay L., Sitka, Unalashka. 
P. media^ L., Russian America,./^ J. G. Gmelin. 

POLTQONACEiE. 

Oxyria reniformiSj HooK.^ Sitka, Unalashka, Saint Lawrence, Kotzebue Sound, Gai)e Lis- 
burne, Arctic coast. 

Rumex salicifoliuSj Weinm., Sitka. 

R, acetosa^ L., Kotzebue Sound. 

R. domcaticuSy Habtm., Sitka, Unalashka, Kotzebue Sound to Wainwright Inlet. 

Polygonum bistortaj L., Kotzebue Sound to Point Barrow and northern coast. 

P. vtviparuniy L., Sitka, Unalashka, along the coast generally. 

P, polymorphwnj Ledeb., var. lapathifolinm^ Ledeb., Kotzebue Sound. P.alpinuniy Hook.et 
Amott, in Beechey's voyage, fids Ledebour. Kotzebue Sound. 

P. tripterocarpunij Gray. This species is not fully proved to be distinct from P. pofymor- 
phum var. lapathifoHum^ but an additional series of specimens may prove it to be. Goal Bay. 

P. avicularej L., Sitka. 

EMPETRACE2I. 

Empetrnm nigrum^ L., Sitka, Saint Lawrence, Unalashka, Norton Sound, Point Barrow, 
Arctic coast. (This heather is found abundantly throughout all the treeless portions of Alaska. 
On the Aleutian Islands it obtains its maxininni growth. The lower hills are covered with large 
patches of many rods in area with this species. The berries are black in color, have a slightly 
acid taste when ripe, being produced in profusion on the stems, so much so that nearly a handful 
may be gathered at a time. Great quantities are gathered by the natives, who use them either raw 
or else cooked, though rarely in the latter manner. These berries form the food of several species 
of birds, such as geese, ptarmigans, and plovers. The natives of Aliaska £i»q<l son^e of the pastern 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 75 

islands of the Aleutian chain use this heather for fuel. The women gather great bunches by 
pulling it from t\Pd ground and carrying it to their houses, where it is immediately used. In rare 
instances it is kept for a few days (but only because there is a sufficiency of other fuel to be used 
in its stead), until it is dried out. It is used in the following manner : The pot or kettle contain- 
ing water or food to be boiled is placed on a small stick stuck in the side of the sod chimney of 
the hut; a few shreds of the plant are lighted, it burns rapidly, and has a quick, darting flame, like 
the branches of pine trees. The bunch of lighted fuel is held under the vessel, and, as fast as it 
is consumed by flame another wisp is lighted, until the boiling is finished. This work is usually 
performed by the smaller boys or girls. This kind of fuel is not used by the Attn people, the 
Atkan people being the farthest to the west who employ it for that purpose. The Attn people 
have never used it, and only those of Attn who have been to the eastward know how to use it, as 
it requires considerable skill to keep the heat properly applied to the vessel containing the water 
or food. 

At Atkha Island I saw several large patches, which had a deeper green and seemed to be 
of more vigorous growth. On inquiry I found that the people had in few years past taken the 
heather off from those areas, and that it was being renewed with a heavier growth. T.) 

{Bryanthiis aleuticusy Gray. Common on the high hill-tops of the Aleutian Islands. Flowers 
white. T.) 

SALICACEiE. 

Salix myrtilloides^ L., Eotzebue Sound. 

8. lapponicum^ L., Eotzebue Sound. 

8, glaucay L., Gape Espenberg and Ghamisso Island. 

8. arctica^ Pall., Unalashka, Eotzebue Sound. 

8. myrsinites, L., Saint Lawrence Island fide Ledebour. 

8, ovalifoliUy Tbatjtvelt.; 8. uva-ursij Seemann, Bot. Herald {fide Anderson). Eotzebue 
Sound, Gape Espenberg, Unalashka. 

8. rhoMnifolia (Pall. 1). Unalashka. 

8» glacialiSj Anbebs., Between Gape Barrow and Mackenzie River, '< Gaptain PuUen.^ 

8. reticulata^ L., Unalashka, Eotzebue Sound, Gape Lisburne, Arctic coast. 

8. phlebaphyllay Anders., Unalashka, Saint Lawrence, Eotzebue Sound. 

8, polaris^ Wahl., Wainwright Inlet. 

8. speciosay Hook, et Abnott, in Bot. Beechey.. Eotzebue Sound. 

8. richardsoni^ Hook., Eotzebue Sound to Gape Lisburne. 

{8. rotundifoliaj Trautvelt, var. retuaa (!). This species of willow was collected at Atkha 
Island, where it is common, growing among the heather {Empeirum nigrum)^ with its heads of 
cottony catkins peering just above the surface of the other vegetation. I did not observe this 
species on any other island, though it doubtless occurs. T.) 

8. barclayij Andebs., Eadiak. 

8, phyllicoidesj Andebs., Western Arctic America (Avatscha Bay, Seemann). 

8. cordata^ Muhl., var. mackenziana. Point Barrow and along Arctic coast. This form 
Anderson regards as a hybrid between 8. cordaia and 8. vagants, 

{8alix pallaaiij Andebs., var. ohcordata^ Andebs., This species of willow attains the greatest 
size of any among the Aleutian Islands. The growth is exceedingly crooked, rarely straight for 
more than a foot, attaining a diameter of 2 to 3 inches, but often decayed within. In all the valleys 
and wider ravines this species is found in abundance. The roots form an intricate mass, often much 
exposed, and, with the crooked branches and trunks, form an impenetrable thicket of considerable 
area. Wiien drift-wood is scarce the Aleuts grub up these shrubs (for they are not fit to be termed 
even an approach to trees), to be used as firewood. When the wood is well seasoned it produces a 
bright hot fire, making a much better heat than any of the drift-wood which is cast upon the beach. 
Yemaminof states that in former years the willows grew to such size in one of the ravines-opening 
on the west side of Gaptain's Harbor at Unalashka Island that the Russians and Aleuts procured 
sufficient of these trunks to be used advantageously in making bidaras (open skin boats), and 
hidarkas (skin-covered canoes). I visited the locality to find traces of such former growth and found 



76 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

the willows to be of but little better size than in other places near by. It is a fact that on the 
tops and high sides of some of the hills just beyond the present graveyard alrllialiak are to be 
fonnd at the present day large roots of the willow exposed to the air and but little decayed. At 
those heights the willows do not at present grow, and no species of willow is now found growing 
near them. Those roots are of equal size of any that now grow in the ravines many hundred feet 
feet below. I may add that I havo heard visitors to those places make the assertion that those 
roots are the roots of oaks. T.) 

8. sitchensisj Ledeb., Sitka. 

Populus haUamiferaj L., Ohilcaht, Yukon River. 

URTICACE2I. 

Urtica dioicaj L., Sitka, fide Bongard. 

BETXTLACEJB. 

Betula glanduloaaj MiCHX., Yukon River, 
B. nanay L., Norton Sound, Chamisso Island, Point Barrow. 
B. ermanij Cham., Unalashka. 

Alnus viridiSy D C, Sitka, Unalashka, Norton Sound, Kotzebue Sound, Yukon River, North- 
ern coast. 

A, rubra, Bong., Sitka. 

A.incana, Willd., Eotzebue Sound. 



MyricagalSj L., Sitka. 



AMes canadensis, Mighx., Sitka. 

A. mertensiana, Bong., Sitka. 

A. sitchensis, Bong., Sitka. 

A. alba, Michx., Northwestern Alaska, where, according to Seemann, it grows from 20 to 25 
feet high. 

Finus cembra, L., Kotzebue Sound, vide Bongard and Hooker and Arnott. 

P. contorta, Dougl., Sitka. Dr. Rothrock thinks this can hardly be P. inops ot Ait., as is 
alleged by some authors. 

Thuja excelsa, Bong., Sitka and Southern Russian America. 

Juniperus nana, Willd., Sitka. 

8ALSOLACE2:. 

• 

Teloxys aristaiu, Moquin-Tandon. Russian America. (Where!) 
Atriplex littoralis, L., Kotzebue and Norton Sound. 
A. ginelini, C. A. Meyer, Bong., Veg. Sitka. Kotzebue Sound, Sitka. 
Corispermum hyssopifolium, Ster., Point Barrow to Mackenzie River. 
Blitum capitatum, L., Fort Yukon. 



Sparganium natans^ L., Kotzebue Sound, Unalashka. 

AROIDE2:. 

Lysichiton Jcamtschatcense, Schott ; J)ra>conticum Icamtehatcene, L. 5 Symplocarpus kamtsehati- 
cus, Bongard; Arctiodracon l-amtschaticttm, Gray on the botany of Japan in Memoirs of Ameri- 
can Academy of Arts and Sciences, new series, vol. 2, pp. 408, 409. Sitka. Dr. Rothrock gives 
the description and some remarks on the affinities of this plant, by Professor Gray, 1. c. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 77 



Zostera marina^ L., Unalashka. 

Potamogeton natanSj L., Sitka. 

P. rufescens^ Bssseb., Uiialashaka. 



JUNCAQINACEiE. 



Triglochin maritimuniy L., Sitka, 
T. p.alu8trej L., Unalashka. 



Corallorhiza mertensiana^ Lindl., Sitka. 

0. innata^ R. Br., Kotzebne Sound, Unalashka. • 

Microstylis diphyllos, Lindl., Unalashka. 

Calypso borealiSj Salisb., Sitka. 

Orchis latifolia^ L., Unalshka. 

Platanthera obtusata, Lindl., Kotzebne Sonnd. 

P. schisehmarefflanaj Lindl., Unalashka. 

P. Koenigii^ Lindl., Sitka, Unalashka. 

P. dilatatay Lindl., Sitka, Unalashka. 

Perisiylus charismmiSj Lindl., Unalashka. 

P. hracteatus, Lindl., Unalashka. 

Listera card4itay R. Bb., Sitka, Unalashka. 

X. eschscholtziana, Cham., Unalshka. 

Spiranihes romanzoffiana^ Cham., Unalashka. 

CypHpedium guttatum^^vrAAi^x^ Unalashka. (Abundant on the drier hill-sides at Unalashka; 
common on the higher parts of the valleys at Attn ; not found on the intermediate islands. Flow- 
ers greenish-white, with dots of brown or rusty color. T.) 



S%9yrinchium bermudiana^ L., var. anceps. Sitka. 

Iris sibiricaj L., Norton and Kotzebne Sounds. (A species of Iris is quite plentiful on all the 
Aleutian Islands. I am not aware to which species it should be referred. T.) 



Streptopus amplexifoliuSj D C. Sitka and Unlalashka. (Rare at Saint Michael's. Among the 
Aleutian Islands it grows along the deeper ravines, among the rank vegetation, attaining a height 
of over three feet. T.) 

S. rosetMj MiGHX., Sitka. 

Smil<icina bifolia^ Keb., Sitka. Dr. Rothrock ' adds : ''The large-leaved form appears most 
common by far, if we may judge from the proportion of it in the collections made at Sitka.'^ 

{Smilacina liplia^ var. occidentalis. This insignificant plant was obtained only at Attn Island. 
It is quite rare, growing on the level wet tops of the lower hills. T.) 

(Uvularia ampleanfoliay L., Throughout the mainland coast south of the Bering Strait; very 
plentiful on all the Aleutian Islands ; grows along the bases of ravines and among other rank 
vegetation. Fruit bright red, edible ; flowers greenish. T.) 

(Maianihenium bifoliumj D C. Not common ; throughout the Aleutian Islands. T.) 

UImIACBJB. 

Lloydia serotina^ Richenb., Saint Lawrence Island, Unalashka, Cape Lisburne, Kotzebne Sound. 
(Grows in clusters on ledges of highest bluffs. Flowers white; obtained only at Unalashka; not 
observed elsewhere. T.) 

Fritillaria kamtschatcensisj FisGH., Sitka, Unalashka, Cai)e Prince of Wales. (Common at 
Saint Michael's, there attaining a height of only a few inches, with bulb proportionately smalL 



78 OONTBIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

The flower beiug small and of more greeDish color. The natives of Norton Sound eat the bulb, 
but not to such a degree as the natives of the Aleutian Islands, where this plant is found in great- 
est abundance and size on all the islands. The natives (Aleuts) consume great quantities of the 
bulbs. Duriog the months of September and August the women accompany the men who go out 
hunting the geese, which are making their autumnal migration. The women dig the roots of this 
lily and store them in huge grass sacks for winter's use. The bulbs are dug up with a copper or 
iron rod, the dirt shaken off and exposed to the air to dry the remaining dirt, which is then re- 
moved as much as possible. The bulbs are boiled with meat or simply in water ; either way reduces 
them to a pasty consistency, having about as much taste as so much boiled starch. When eaten 
raw the bulblets have a bitter taste (the bitterness lies only in the thin skin which surrounds 
them), and is at first difficult to acquire a taste for. Those plants which grow in rich, loose soil 
form a bulb which is often 2 inches in diameter and an, inch in thickness. This proves that by 
cultivation these bulbs could be produced of such size that they might be used as a substitute 
for the watery potatoes which are grown on some of the islands. The Russian-speaking people 
call this plant sa ra nd^ meaning lily. T.) 

Allium schcmaprnsum^ L., Port Clarence, Norton and Kotzebue Sounds, and rapids of Y|ikon 
River. (A species of garlic occurs plentifully at Attn on the south side of the island. The natives 
dig it in the latter part of August^ and use the bulbS for seasoning geese and other water-fowl. It 
is very strong, and when once eaten of is never forgotten. It does not, to my knowledge, occur on 
the eastern islands of the Aleutian chain. T.) 

Zygudenus glaucu%^ Nutt., Kotzebue Sound, Port Clarence, Arctic coast, Fort Yukon. 

Veratrum esohscholtziiy Gbay. Sitka. 

Tqfieldia cocdnea^ Richards., Kotzebue Sound, Chamisso Island, Cape Lisburue. 

T. glntitwsaj Pubsh. Sitka. 

T. borealis^ L., abundant throughout the Aleutian Islands, growing along the little streams 
which issue sluggishly from the ground. (T.) 

JUNCACEJB. 

Luzula pilosaj Willd., Sitka, Kotzebue Sound. 

(X. comosa var. congesta. Common throughout the western Aleutian Islands. T.) 

L, spadicea, D C. Sitka, Unalashka, Kotzebue Sound. 

(2/. spadicea^ D C, var. parvijiora^ Meyer. Common throughout the western islands of the 
Aleutian Chain. T.) 

L, arcuataj Wahl., Kotzebue Sound, Saint Lawrence, Unalashka. 

L, campestris^ D C, Unalashka, Sitka, Kotzebue Sound. 

L, spicata^ D C, Saint Lawrence, Kotzebue Sound. 

Juncus baltictis^ Dethard. Cape Espenberg, Norton Sound, Unalashka. 

J. arctictiSj Willd., Sitka. 

J, ensifoUfiSj Wigkstroh. Unalashka. , 

{J. xiphioides var. triandrtis^ Eng., Common at Atkha and Attn. T.) 

J.falcatusj E. Meter. Unalashka, Sitka. 

J. cdstaneus^ Smith. Sitka, Unalashka, Kotzebue Sound. (Common throughout the Aleutian 
Islands. T.) 

J. biglumis^ L., Kotzebue Sound. 

(/. drummondi, Ledeb., Unalashka (to Attn. T.) 

J, paradoxus^ Meyer, is given by Ledebour as a doubtful native of Sitka. 



Sdrpus c(B8pit08U8y L., Unalashka, Sitka. 
8. sylvatictiSy L., Sitka. 
Eriophorum vaginatunij L., Sitka. 

H. scheuchzerij Hoppe. Kotzebue Sound and Sitka, fide Mertens. 

E, ehamissoni^^ C. A. Meter. Sitka, Unalashka. (Abundant on the boggy places throughout 
the Aleutian Islands. T.) 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 79 

E. callitrixj Oham., Saint Lawrence. 

E. latifoUum^ L., Including E. polyatachyum and E. gracile^ Sitka, Norton Sound to Point Bat- 
row and the Arctic coast. "The silky hair of the cotton grasses is used by the Esquimaux as a 
substitute for tinder," Seemann. (Not uncommon on the Aleutian Islands. T.) 

{E. capitatumy Host., Rather common at Saint Michael's. T.) 

Rhynchoapara alba^ Yahl., Sitka. 

Elyna spicata^ Sghbab., Arctic coast. 

Oarex leiocarpaj 0. A. Meyer. Sitka, Uualashka. 

0. micrapada^ G. A. Meyer. Uualashka. 

C. circinatay G. A. Meyer. Sitka, Uualashka. 

0. nigrioanaj G. A. Meyer. Sitka, Unalashka. 

C, paucifloray Lightf., Sitka. 

0. elangatay L., Sitka. 

0. leporina, L., Uualashka. 

C lagopina^ Wahl., Kotzebue Sound. 

0. norveffioaj Willd.-, Sitka, Kotzebue Sound. 

C. canescenSy L., Sitka. 

C. stellulatay Good., Sitka, Unalashka. 

0. remoUiy L., Sitka. 

C. buxbaumiiy Wahl., Sitka, (Saint Michael's. T.) 

C. mertensiij Presgott. Unalashka, Sitka. 

C. atratay L., Kotzebue Sound. 

0. gmeliniy Hook., Sitka, Unalashka, Kotzebue Sound. 

0. lividay Wahl., Sitka. 

0. capillariSy L., Unalashka. 

0. rariflaray Smith. Unalashka, Schischmareff Bay. 

0. rotundata^ Wahl., Kotzebue Sound. 

0. macrochcetay G. A. Meyer. Unalashka, Sitka. 

0. melanocarpay Cham., Saint Lawrence. 

G. stylosay G. A. Meyer. Sitka, Unalashka. 

(7. limosay L., Sitka. 

0. saaatilisy Wahl., Kotzebue and Norton Sounds. 

0. ccespitosay L., Sitka, Kotzebue Sound. 

0. striotay Good., Kotzebue Sound. 

(7. aquatilisy Wahl., Unalashka, Kotzebue Sound. 

(7. cryptocatpay G. A. Meyer. Sitka, Kotzebue Sound. (All the Aleutian Islands. T.) 

0. acutay L., Sitka. 

0. vesicariay L., Sitka, Kotzebue Sound. 

G, fuliginosay Sterns., Kotzebue and Norton Sounds. In a footnote Dr. Hothrock states 
that he had not access to Boott's great work on Garex, and has followed Ledebour as the latest 
available authority. Most likely some modifications of this list will yet be needed. 



Hordeum pratensty L., Sitka, Unalashka. 

R.jubatuniy L., Fort Yukon, Saint Michael's. 

Elymus sibiricuSy L., Sitka. 

E. arenariuSy L., Norton Sound to Point Barrow. 

E. molliSy Trin., Sitka, Norton and Kotzebue Sounds. (Abundant throughout the Aleutian 
Islands. Grows to a height of five feet in favorable situations. The grains have a tendency to 
produce ergot. It is rare to find a head without one or more diseased grains of often an inch in 
length. T.) 

Triticum repensy L., Kotzebue Sound. 

Festuca avitiay L., Kotzebue Sound. 



80 0ONTBIBUTION8 TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

F. rubraj L.y Sitka, Kotzebae Sound. United by Messrs. Hooker and Gray with F. ovina. 

F, subulataj Bong., Sitka. 

Bromus ciliatus, L., Kotzebae Sound. 
B. subulatuSy Ledeb., Unalasbka. 
B. aleutensiSj Tbin., Unalasbka. 

B, sitchensisj Bong., Sitka. 

Foa stenanthaj Tbin., Unalasbka, Sitka, and in America Arctica and Fretuin Seujawin, 
Ledeboar Flora Rossica, vol. iv, p. 372. (In a foot-note Dr. Rotbrock adds that on the authority 
of Prof. S. F. Baird the fretum Senjawin is on the Asiatic side, and lies in latitude 64P 45' north 
and longitude 172o 35' west, between Kayne Island and the Asiatic sbo re.) 

P. flavicansy Ledeb., Unalasbka. 

P. arctica, R. Bb., Kotzebue Sound, Unalashka, Sitka. 

P. cmisiay All., Unalashka, Cape Lisburne, Kotzebue Sound. Dr. Rotbrock here includes 
P. ahbreviata, Bb. 

P. rotunda, Tbin., Unalashka. 

P. nemoraliSy L., Kotzebue Sound. 

P. annuay L., Sitka. 

P, pratensiSj L., Kotzebue Sound, Unalashka. 

Oolpodium fulvum^ Ledeb., Kotzebue Sound. 

Bupontia psiloanthaj RuPB., Kotzebue Sound. 

Oatabrosa a^quaticaj Beauy., Sitka, fide Ledebour. 

C, algidttj Fbies. Kotzebue Sound. 
Airopia maritima, Ledeb., Sitka. 

A. angustata, Ledeb., Kotzebue Sound. 

Qlyceria aquaticay Smith. Sitka. 

6, glumariSy Ledeb., St. Lawrence, Sitka, Aliaska, Kotzebue Sound. 

G. angu8f4itay Pbesl., Atkha Island. 

G. stenantha var. vivipera, Atkha Island. 

Hierochloa borealisy R. and Sohult., Unalashka, Kotzebue Sound. 

H, alpinay R. and Schult., Unalashka, Kotzebue Sound, Arctic Sound. 

Trisetum subspicatumy Tbin., Unalashka, Kotzebue Sound, Point Barrow to Mackenzie River. 

T. sesquifioruMy Tbin., Unalashka. 

T, cemuiumy Tbin., Sitka. 

Aira ccespitosay Tbin., Unalashka and mainland. 

A. ccBspitosay Tbin., var. boUnioa, Sitka. (Dr. Rotbrock adds that, in looking over the speci- 
mens of A, C€B9pitosa in Herb. Gray, he finds one from the Si^ndwich Islands, and another from 
Fort Vancouver, both of which appear identical with our forms from Sitka. They having been 
authentically named by Colonel Munro as Aira caespitoaa var. boUnicay he has labeled the Sitkan 
specimens in accordance with his determination. Trinius, in Icones Granimum, in the text front- 
ing his A.flexuosay var. bottnicay speaks of an Aira very similar to A, bottnica being found at Sitka 
by Mertens. Bongard is silent on the subject in << Vegetation of Sitka," though he finds in Herb., 
Gray, a specimen similar to the Sitkan ones marked (but from Unalashka) as A. ocespitosay var. 
longifiora, Trinius 1. c, Vol. Ill, writes of the same plant from Sitka, ''Gseterum hac varietate 
transitus quidam sistitur ab A.ccespitosadA flexuosam"; which statement seems probable enough.) 

A. arcticay Tbin., Kotzebue Sound, Unalashka, Sitka, and interior of the country. 

A. atropuspureay Soheele. Sitka, Unalashka, and from Point Barrow to Mackenzie River. 

Oalamagro8ti8 aleuticay Tbin., Unalashka, Sitka. 

C. purpurascetiSy R. Bb., Fort Yukon. Torrey and Gray regard this as a form of 0. sylvatica 
D. C. 

0. strigosay Wahl., Sitka. Munro unites this with (7. aleuticay BoNa. 

0. neglectay Gaebtneb. Kotzebue Sound. 

C. lapponicay Tbin., Unalashka. 

C carhodensiSy Beauy., Kotzebue Sound. 

0. langsdorj^iy Tbin., Kotzebue Sound. 



OONTEIBUTIONS TO THE NATURA.L HISTOEY OP ALASKA. 81 

ArdagrastU latifoliaj Lsdbb., Kotzebne Sound and Arctic coast. 
CKnna lat^folia^ Ledbb., Sitka. 
Agrostis cequivalviij Tbin., Sitka, XJnalashka. 
A. exarata^ Tbin., tlnalaehka, Sitka, Eadiak. 
A. geminatay Tbin., XJnalashka. 
A. laxifhra^ B. Bb., Unalashka. 

Pkleum pratensey L., Alaska, where it thrives well according to Kellogg ; but in what part of 
Alaska! 

P.dlpinumj L., Sitka, Unalashka, Kot^bne Sound, Saint Lawrence (Arctic coast 1). 
Alopecurus alpinus^ Sm., Saint Lawrence, Kotzsebue Sound (and Arctic coast t ). 

EQUI8ETACILSI, 

JEquisetum arvensey L., Sitka, Unalashka. 
K sylvatieumj L., Kotzebne Sound. 

LTCOPODIACBJB. 

Lyoopodium selagoj L., Sitka, Unalashka, Kotzebne Sound. (Throughout the Aleutian Islands, 
grows in stont clumps. T.) 

X. annotinumj L., Sitka, Unalashka, Kotzebne Sound, Norton Sound. * 

L. sitchensej Bupbboht. Sitka. 

L. oampUmatum. SitkAj fide Ledebour, Flora Bossica. (Abundant at Unalashka, and common 
on the western islands of the Aleutian Ghain. Grows amongst the scanty grasses on the dryer hill- 
tops. T.) 

L. alpinuniy L., Unalashka. Found in abundance throughout the treeless districts of Alaska. 

L. dendraideumy MiCHX., Sitka ; fide Ledebour, Flora Bossica. 

L. elavatumj L. Sitka, Unalashka^ (Common at Saint MichaeFs and the Aleutian Islands, 
growing at times twenty feet long. T.) 

Selaginella spinosoy Bbauy., Unalashka. 



Ophiogloesum vutgatum^ L., (obtained on|y at Unalashka, where it grows in great abundance 
among the rankest patches of other ferns and weeds. The leaf is bright sap green during life, 
and turns golden yellow as it withers. This species was carefully sought for among the other 
islands, bat not discovered. T.) 

Botryckium lunariaj L., Unalashka. (Abundant at Unalashka and Attu. Not observed else, 
where, though carefully searched tbr. This fern grows on the edges of the rocks which have been 
covered with a light or thin deposit of soil. The number of plants found at any given locality, 
though of very restricted area, may be as great as fifty, and varying from 1 to 6 inches in height. 
At Attu they were found on the gravelly level at the head of Chichagof Harbor, among the scanty 
grasses just a few rods west of where are the remains of the former houses of the natives who were 
taken to the Commander Islands. At Sarana Bay, on the northeast side of Attn, this fern grows 
in great profusion and attains a height of 9 inches in the rich, warm, sandy soil which is at the 
head of that bay, among the rank grasses of that place, near the present houses which constitute 
the summer village of the Attu people. T.) 

{B. boreaUj Mildb. This species was not observed elsewhere than on the sides of the paths 
beyond the graveyard at Iliuliuk village, Unalashka. It never grows in patches. Barely more 
than one stalk will be found at a time or separated by at least a few inches from another, and not 
more than half a dozen will be found near the first. It attains a variable size of half an inch to 
4 inches in height, depending altogether on the, soil, for in those places where the banks, or sides 
of the cow-paths have parted, and firesh soil has been exposed several years before will be found 
the larger plants of this species. T.) 

{B. lanoeolatumj Auost., Common at Unalashka, growing isolated among the scanty grasses 
and mosses of the low hill-tops and along the broken edges of the paths leading beyond the lake 
southeast of Iliuliuk village. T.) 
S. Mis. 165 11 



82 CONTEIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

{B. rutacennij Willd., {B, matrioarifoliumy A. Brown. Unalasbka. T.) 

(B. ternatumy Schwartz. Common at Unalaslika, growing on tbe lower level grounds and at 
tbe bases of gradually sloping bills. Tbis species remains green tbrougboat tbe winter, the last 
frond alone remaining so, and toward spring turns a dull bronzy color, wbicb disappears witb tbe 
enlivenment of spring. Tbis species was not observed to the westward. T.) 

(B. virginicuinj Schwartz. Very rare at Unalasbka; not observed on any of the other Aleu- 
tian Islands. T.) 

Cystopteris fragiliSy Bernh., Unalasbka, Kotzebne Sound. (I found tbis species to be rare at 
St. Michael's, of scanty growth in small clusters. At Unalashka it occurs in the small caves along 
tbe beach. At Svenoi or Hog Island, in Captain's Harbor, it is very plentiful. In a cave at the 
head of Goltseb Harbor, on tbe northern side of Attn Island, it is very abundant, growing in large 
patches and of luxuriant growth. It does not occur on tbe intermediate islands that I am aware 
of. T.) 

{Aspiditim oreopterisy SwARTZ. Common at Unalasbka and Attn. Not found on the inter- 
mediate islands. Not previously described from North America. T.) 

(A. spinulosum var. dilatatuviy Hooker. Obtained at Unalashka, Afognak, and Attn. Quite 
common at tbe latter place ; grows in tufts of a half dozen fronds from a single root. The plant 
has a yellowish -green color in life, and is conspicuous among other plants at the bases of bluffs 
and the slo]fing sides of the wide ravines. T.) 

A. lonchitiSy SwARTZ, Unalashka, Chamisso, and Escbscboltz. (A single tufb, of half a dozen 
fronds, was brought to me by a native at Saint Michael's. It is quite rare there. At Unalashka 
it is extremely abundant, growing on the ledges of cliffs and bluffs which form tbe steep sides of 
tbe deeper ravines. This species was never met witb far from the sea-shore, and was not observed 
on the islands to tbe westward. T.) 

A. fragransj Swartz. Sitka, Unalashka. 

A, aculeatnm, Swartz. Sitka. (Prof. D. C. Eaton says this si>ecies has been found but once 
at that locality. T.) 

Blechnum spicantj Roth., {Lomaria spicant^ Desv.)j Sitka. 

Pteris aquilinay L^, Sitka. 

P. argenteaj S. G. Gmelin. America-Rossica, Steller ex Pallas. (An evident error. T.) 

AUosarus gitckensiSy Rupreoht. (= Oryptofframpie acrostichoides jli.Bnows). Sitka. (Mibi 
ignota, Ledebonr.) 

A. faveolatiiSy Ruprecht. Unalashka, Kadiak. (Tbis species is the same as Gryptogramme 
acrostichmdes R. Brown. T.) 

(Phegopteris polypodioidesj Fee. Common at Unalasbka, Afognak, and Attu. T.) 

(P. dryopteriSj Feb. Abundant at Unalasbka, Afognak, and Attu. T.) 

Polypodium vulgare^ L., (Abundant throughout the Aleutian Islands; grows amongst tbe tall 
grasses to a height of a foot, while on the rock ledges it attains a height of only an inch. T.) 

Adiantum pedatuniy L., (Common at Unalasbka and Attn. Grows on the ledges of rocks which 
are covered with turf. It was not observed on the intermediate islands. T.) 

Asplenium felix-fcdfuinay Bernh., Unalashka, Sitka, Kadiak. (Not common in tbe spruce 
woods of Afognak Island. T.) 



[Determined and compiled by Thomas P. James.] 

MUSCI. 

Sphagnum cymbifoliunij Ehrh., Sitka. 

8. tereSy Wahl., Nulato. 

8. cuspidatuiUj var. recurvum. Beauv., Sitka. 

8. acutifoUumy Ehrh., Sitka and Alaska. 

8. fimbriatum, Wilson. Kotzebne Sound. 

I 

8, fimbriatumy var. ramis dense compactis, foliis brevioribus subellipticisj Norton Sound. 
Weisia serrulatay Funk., Nulato. 



f 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATtlRAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 83 



IHcranum orispunij ELbdw., Eotzebae Soand. 

D. polycarpunij Ehbh., Alaska. 

B. heteromallum^ Hedw., Alaska. 

D. congestuMy Bbid., Sitka. 

D. scoparium^ Hedw., Kotzebae Soand and Alaska. 

2>. eUyngatum^ Schwaeo., Kotzebue Sound. 

D. palustrcj Bbid., var. foliis planis neo undulatis., Sitka, Nalato. 
I- 2>. majtMy Smith., Sitka. 

D. schraderij ScHWAEa., Kotzebue Sound. 

Barbula mUllerij Bb. and SCH., Alaska. 

Oeratodon purpureusj Bbib., Kotzebue Sound, Sitka, Nulato. 

Distichium capillaceum^ Bb. and SoH., Kotzebue Sound, Nulato. 

Tetraphis pellucida^ Hedw., Sitka. 

Ulota barclayij Mitten., Sitka. 

Ba>oomitrium acieularey Bbib., Sitka. 

jB. fascieulare, Bbid., Alaska. 

B. canescensy var. ericoidesy Bbid., Sitka. 

B, lanuginasumj Bb. and SoH., Kotzebue Sound. 

Tayloria serrata^ Bb. and SoH., Sitka. 

Tetraplodon mnioidesy Hedw., Kotzebue Sound, Sitka. 

Splachnum sphcericumj Hedw., Norton Sound. 

S, vascuhsumy Lnm., Sitka. 

T. urceolatusj Bb. and SOH., Kotzebue Sound. 

Euoalyptrarhabdocarpa^ Sohwaeg., Nulato. 

Funai'ia hygrometrxca^ Hedw., Iktigalik. 

Bartra/mia menziesiiy Hook., Western Russian America. 
^ Oanostomum horeale^ Swabtz., Kotzebue Sound. 

Bryum polymarphumy Bb. and ScH., Sitka. 

B. nutanSy Sohbsb., Ketzebue Sound, Sitka, Iktigalik. 

B. erudnniy Sohbeb., Iktigalik. 

JB. pyrifomtey Hedw., Iktigalik. 

B, laoustrey Bbid., Kotzebue Sound. 

B. inclinatumy Bb. and ScH., Kotzebue Sound. 

B. capillar€y Hedw., Sitka. 

JB. argenteuniy Linn., Iktigalik. 

Mnium punctatuniy Hedw., Sitka. 

M. rostratuniy Sghwaeg., Kotzebue Sound. 

M, affincy var. zetatuniy Bb. and SCH., Sitka. 

M. menziesiiy Hook., Sitka. 

Aulaoamnion turgiduMy Sohwaeg., Kotzebue Sound. 

A.palustrey Sohwaeg., Kotzebue Sound, Sitka, Nulato. 

Pogonatum capillar Cy Mighx. and Bbid., Kotzebue Sound, Sitka, Alaska. 

P. alpinuMy Linn., var. foliis capsulis longioribus. Kotzebue Sound and Sitka. 

P. alpinum^ \2kT. furcatumy Bbid., Schismareff Bay. 

P. alpinuMy var. campanulatuniy Bbid., Unalashka. 
^ P. atravirensy Mitten., Sitka. 

P. contortuniy Menz., Northwest coast of Russian America. 

P. dentatumy Menz., Northwest coast of Russian America. 

Polytrichum graciley Menz., Kotzebue Sound. 

P.farmosumy Hedw., Alaska. 

P. cavifoKuniy Wilson in Bot. Herald (Seemann)., Kotzebue Sound. 

P. pUiferumy ScHBEB., Alaska. 

P. juniperinuniy Willd., Kotzebue Sound, Nulato. 

P. juniperinuniy var. strictuniy Bb. and SoH., Kotzebue Sound and Sitka. 



84 CONTEIBUTIOKS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

P. juniperinumj var. foliis distantibas, angustioribus patolis. Kotsebue Soondy Sitka, Nalato. 
P. sexangulare^ Hopp., Barren specimens from Herald Island. 
P. commune^ Linn., Sitka. 
Antitriokia curtipendulaj Bbid., Sitka. 
A. calif amicaj Lesyx., Alaska. 
Keckera dauglassiij Hook., Steekine, Alaska. 
N. menziesiiy Hook., Alaska. 
Alsia calif omioa^ Lbsyx., Alaska. 
Higfnum triquetrum^ Linn., Nalato and Alaska. 
H, toreum^ Linn., Sitka and Alaska. 
H» squarrasumy Linn., Sitka. 
J3. crispifoliumj Hook., N. W. Russian America. 
JJ. laxifoliumy Hook., N. W. Russian America. 
J7. aplendens^ Hedw., Nulato and Alaska. 
H. strigasumj Hofpm., Nulato. 
E. undulatumy Linn., Sitka. 
JJ. lutescensy Hubs., Kotzebue Sound and Alaska. 

H. myosuroide8y var. 8toUm\ferumj Hook., N. W. Russian America, Sitka, and Alaska. 
H. ruthenUnim^ Wbinm., Sitka. 
E. sckreheriy WiiXD., Sitka. 
JJ. stokesiiy Tubnbb (not L. M.). Alaska. 
H. uncifuitufnj Hedw., Kotzebue Sound. 

R. uncinatumj var. majuiy Wilson, twice as large as the ordinary form. Kotzebue Sound, 
Alaska. 

H. ref>olven8y Swabtz, Kotzebue Sound. 

JJ. circinaldy Hook., Kotzebue Sound, Nulato, and Alaska. 

H. rugosumy Hedw., Kotzebue Sound. 

H. illecebrumy SOHW^(}., var. caulis divisionibus subdendroedus foliis snbintegerrinns. Alaska. 

JJ. rivularey Bb. and Son., var. foliis minus acutis. Kotzebue Souu^. 

H. sdlebrosum t HoFFM., Kotzebue Sound. 

H. nitensj Schbeb., Kotzebue Sound. 

H. denHoulatumy Linn., Sitka. 

JJ. serpenSy Lnm., Alaska. 



Marehantia polymorphay Linn., Alaska. 

Fegatella eonicay Oobda., Sitka and Iktigalik. * 

FimbraHa tenelloy Nees t Alaska. 

Jungemumnia dlbica/nsy Linn., Alaska. 

J. tfichcphyUay Linn., Alaska. 

Scapama numerosay Nees. Alaska. 

LICHBlfBS. 

[List compiled by H. Mann. ] 

Spasihrcphoronfragiley Pebs., 

S. coralloidesy Pebs., 

B(eomyc€8 iomadopkilusy Ntl., Biiu&ra io^MdaphyUa^ anet. 

Cladonia gracilisy Hoffm., Sitka, Kotzebue Sound. 

(7. pyxddatay Agh., Kotzebue Sound. 

0. 'defcrmiSy Hoffm., Kotzebue Sound. 

0. uncialisy Hoffm., Sitka, Kotzebue Sound. 

0. rangiferinay Hoffm., AU Russian America. 

C sylvoMctty Agh., All Russian America. 

Pilapharcn robwtumy Nyl., Islands of Bering's Straits. 



, CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 85 

P. ctcicularej Tuck., (Sect, of Stereocaulon.) Rnssian America. 

Stereocaulon paschaUy Lawb., Kotzebue Sound. 

8. tamento9um f Fries. Kotzebae Sound and other localities. Absence of fruit renders deter- 
mination doubtful. 

Thamnolia vermiculo/re. Gommon. • 

Alectoria ochroletusa^ Fries. Kotzebue Sound, on the ground the normal form ; also, var. sar- 
mentosa pendant from the trees. 

A. divergenSf Ntl., Various localities. 

Oetraria isUmdicay AcH., Common. 

Platysma cucullatumj &offm., Common. 

P. septentrionalej Ntl., Kotzebue Sound. 

P. glauounij Nyl., Kotzebue Sound. 

yephrama arcticum^ Fries. Kotzebue Sound. , 

Peltigera venosa^ Hoffm., Kotzebue Sound. 

P. oiminaj Hoffm., Kotzebue Sound. 

P. polydactyla^ Hoffm., Kotzebue Sound, Sitka, &c. 

P. apihosa^ Hoffm., Kotzebue Sound, Sitka, &c. 

Sticta pulmonaoea^ AOH., Kotzebue Sound, Sitka, &c. 

8. scorbioulataj AoH., Kotzebue Sound. 

Parmelia perforataj AOH., Kotzebue Sound. 

P. perlata, AOH., Kotzebue Sound. 

P. saaatiliSy ACH., Kotzebue Sound. 

P. tUiaceaj AOH., Kotzebue Sound. 

Physcia parietinaj D. N., Kotzebue Sound. 

P. stellariSy Fbibs. 

P. obscuray Fries. Kotzebue Sound. 

Leca/tiorapallescenSy var. upsale}m8j Fries. Kotzebue Sound. 

L. tartarioOjVBT.frigidaj AoH., Kotzebue Sound. 

Placodium elega/nsj Fries. 

Praroma hypnarumy D C, 

FUNQI. 

Bothidea betutina^ var. Betulce nance^ Fries. Kotzebue Sound. 
Erineum rogeum^ Sohultz. 



Fwsus vesiculosu8y L., Plentiful in Kotzebue Sound. 

Alaria esculentaj Grev., Arctic coast. 

Ohordafilum^ Stack., 

Dyctiosiphonfceniculaceusj Grev., 

ChcBtopteris plumosay Kuxz. 

Odonthalia dentata^ var. angusta^ Harv., Arctic coast. 

{Odonthalia Jcamtschatica, Sannakh Island. T.) 

Rhodamela larix^ AG. 

{Rhodamela Jlocceosa. Sannakh Island. T.) 

Delesseria sinuosay Aa., Arctic Ocean. 

{Delesseriajurgensii, Sannakh Island. T.) 

{Haloaaccion ramentficeum, Sannakh Island. T.) 

{PHlota agplenoides. Sannakh Island. T.) 

{Ptilota plumosa var. filieina. Sannakh Island.) 

(Halidrys osfnundaeea. Sannakh Island.) 

Phyllophora brodimy J. Aa. Arctic coast (single specimen broad-leaved variety.) 

Alnfeldtia (Gymnogongrus) plicatay J. Ag. Arctic coast. 

Nostoc vermcosum^ Fresh- water pools at Point Clarence. 



PART lY.-FISHES 



The collection of fishes made by me was not large, owing to insufficiency of preservative mate- 
rial. Among those obtained were several new species and other interesting forms. 

Under each species is given sach notes as I was able to obtain ; other species are included in order 
to give a general list of the principal food-fishes of those waters. 

The systematic names and order of the list are taken from the Preliminary Catalogue of the 
Fishes of Alaskan and Adjacent Waters, by Dr. Tarleton H. Bean, of the U. S. Fish Gommission, 
in the Proceedings of the IT. S. National Museum, pages 239-272, 1880. 

To Dr. Bean was given the labor of identifying the species obtained by me, and to him are due 
my kindest acknowledgments for the care with which he has performed the task. 

0ASTBR08TBIDJB. 

1. Gasterostbus cataphbactes (Pall.) Tflesius. 

This species is quite common in the small streams which form the outlets of the lakes on the low 
grounds. They usually lie under the overhanging banks of the stream, and often will scarcely move 
when touched. The specimens taken by me were collected July 14, 1878, at Sannakh Island, the 
great sea-otter ground of Alaska. 

2. Gasterostbus miceocephalus Girard. 

This species was taken at Sannakh Island, Alaska, in the same stream from which O, cataphractes 
was taken. There is no special difiference in their habits. 
Of the two species the former was the more abundant. 

3. Gasterostbus pungitius L. subsp. Braohypoda Bean. 

This species is quite common in the fresh-water lakes and small streams on the low lands in 
the vicinity of Saint Michael's. They are more abundant in the brackish lakes formed by the over- 
flow of high tides and waves. Where a small stream of fresh water falls into one of these brack- 
ish lakes these fish collect in great numbers, so that a handful may be taken at one time. The 
spines on the body can be depressed or elevated at will, and when the ventral spines are pressed 
a small stream of water is spurted out of them. A wound produced by the spines is extremely 
painful. 

The natives eat these fish either raw or cooked. 

The specimens obtained by me were collected in June, 1876, at Saint Michael's, Alaska. 

PLEX7RONECTID JB. 

5. Pleuronectes stellatus Pallas. 

At Saint Michael's the Flounders are quite numerous. They appear near the shores as soon as 
the winter's ice has left the shallower waters. During calm weather and toward the close of the 
day is the best time for taking these fish. They bite readily at the hook baited with any kind of 
flesh. The natives prize the flesh of these fish very highly. 

During stormy weather these fish seek the deeper portions of the bays and coves. As soon 
as ice forms in the fall they retire to the deepest parts of the bays, where the water does not freeze. 

Among the Aleutian Islands this species is extremely abundant and in some particular local- 
ities is the only fish to be found. The Aleuts care but little for this fish, and will often throw 

87 



88 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

them back in the water when caught. There is but little meat on them, and that is fall of short, 
strong bones. 

The Russian name of the Flounder is KdmbaL The smaller ones are called Kambalushka. The 
Eskimo name of this species is Na Wg niiJcj and is derived from the word Nd takj signifying boot-sole. 

6. Pleuboneotes glacialis Pallas. (See Fig. I.) 

This species has the same habits as P. stellatus at Saint Michael's. It is smaller in size than P. 
stellattM. The flesh is not so palatable as that of the other species. 

Both species are liable to be diseased in the summer months. Great tumors appear on the 
sides at the bases of the fins and near the gills. They are so repulsive that one can scarcely eat 
the fish after seeing them in this condition. 

During calm weather I have had opportunity to observe the habits of Flounders from the wharf 
at Saint Michael's and Unalashka. The fish towards evening usually come near the shore, especially 
when the tide is rising. The fish lie on the sandy bottom waiting for. food to come in reach, or 
else by a quick movement of their fins throw the sand over their back so as to completely hide 
their body. After the sand has settled, a slight mark will lead to the detection of their hiding 
place. In the course of a few minutes a single eye of the fish will be thrust out for half an inch 
and slowly be moved round and round in search of food. Should a small fish come near it is in- 
stantly seized by the hidden Flounder. 

At Saint Michael's I was once on the wharf where several natives were fishing. One of the natives 
was a woman who had but a few days before come from Nulato and had never seen a Flounder in 
her life. She soon caught one of these fish, and when she saw that it was different from any other 
fish she had ever seen her astonishment knew no bounds. The fish gave a flop and exposed its 
white lower parts. The woman gave a scream and shouted, *' Slapjack Reba." 

The word slapjack is universally known for the pancake or griddle cake, and r^a is the 
Russian word for fish. At the present time the Flounders are usually called '^ Slapjack Reba." 

Neither species of the Flounders attain a greater size than fourteen inches in length, and 
rarely weigh over ten to eighteen ounces. 

At Unalashka Island the Flounders Bttain a greater size than observed at Attn Island, and 
scarcely as large as some individuals seen at Saint* Michael's. 

12. HiPPOOLOSSUS VULGARIS Fleming. 

The Halibut is not common at Saint Michael's, and rarely attains a size of more than 20 inches 
in length and a weight of more than twelve pounds. It occurs in Norton Sound near the shores in 
the months of July, August, and September. It is doubtless migratory, as I never heard of it 
being obtained at any other time. 

Among the Aleutian Islands it is a constant resident, and there attains an enormous size 
and weight. In some localities it has been caught weighing over 300 pounds. The larger 
individuals are extremely difficult to kill, and require a great amount of 'Splaying" before being 
brought to the surface and there dispatched with a club ('' Kolotiiahka " of the Russian-speaking 
Aleut). 

The fish are often taken while fishing for cod and other fish. 

The usual method pursued by the Aleut of the present day is to make a wooden hook that re- 
sembles a shoe with the sole detached, excepting at the heel, from the upper. Through the part 
which I have likened to the sole of the shoe is driven a strong spike, usually three or four inches 
in length, and set at an angle of about forty degrees from the sole, and directed inward. The 
upper part is then fastened so that the under surface^ will be about an inch and a half from the point 
of the spike. The bait is securely fastened to the lower part, and when the fish attempts to swallow 
the bait, the upper lip is pushed on the spike by the interference of the upper part of the hook, 
so that any attempt of the fish to withdraw from the hook is only to transfix the upper jaw more 
firmly on the spike. 

This hook is usually set in the early morning, and is wiitched from the house or shore. An in- 
flated stomach of a seal is usually attached to the line as a float, and when it is seen to move, then 
it is known that a Halibut is at the bait. Other fish rarely attempt to take the bait, as the wooden 



U Hlat. Alukk. - Tnnwr. 



ConUtb. St. But. A 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 89 

parts of the hook move roand so that they are frightened oif. Occasionally a large cod may be 
taken that way, bnt only the persistent endeavors of the Halibut enable it to be taken by this means. 

At Attn Island the Halibut attains a great size, but the larger ones are rarely taken. The 
Atkhan Aleuts secure large fish of this species. At Atkha two canoes usually go together so as 
to assist each other in case of necessity. When a large Halibut is taken the man gives a signal 
to his comrade, and begins to tire the fish out. The comrade approaches so as to be near when 
the fish is drawn to the surface, as they are so string that they have frequently upset the canoe of 
the fisherman, who is nearly always drowned if alone. 

When the fish is exhausted it is drawn to the surface and struck on the head with the club 
used by all the Aleut fishermen. The one who comes as assistant is the person who does the killing, 
while the other holds the line, ready to give play at the least movement of the fish. After the 
fish has been killed it is secured between the two canoes and taken to land. This method is 
pursued only for large fish ; the smaller ones are managed by a single fisherman. 

The fish usually lie in water of 20 to 100 fathoms. The larger fish in the deeper water. 
Their fiesh is excellent, but dry, unless properly cooked. The best way is to roast a large piece 
of the belly with a little water and scraps of fat pork, to keep the fish from becoming too dry. If 
properly attended to it makes a' feast fit for a king. The natives usually boil the fish, a not very 
choice way of preparing it. Large strips are cut up and hung on poles or lines to dry. It becomes 
very hard, and unless it is not eaten with sufficient fatty substances it is not healthy. The dried 
strips are usually put in the stomach of a sea-lion and kept for winter consumption. 

OADID2I. 

15. BoBEoaADUS SAiDA (Lepcch.) Bean. (See Fig. II.) 

The specimens of Arctic Cod collected by me were obtained in the latter part of February, 1877, 
the coldest month during a nearly four years stay at Saint Michael's. 

Some natives had made holes in the ice in the bay, and were fishing through these holes when 
I visited them and obtained several specimens. This species was not observed at any other than 
the winter season. The natives informed me that they only occur in winter. They were obtained 
in about three and a half fathoms. I could not learn any particulars of their habits. 

16. Gadus mobbhua LinnaBus. 

The Cod of the North Pacific ranges to about latitude 64^ SO' N. on the American shores, 
and perhaps not so high on the Kamchatkau side. The limit of their northern boundary is the 
line of constant ice during midwinter, although the northern limit of these fish is not yet well 
made Qut. 

The Cod fisheries of Alaska are of great importance, the banks very extensive, and containing 
an abundance of fish for all purposes. 

The favorite localities are the Shumagin Islands, Cook's Inlet, and throughout the Aleutian 
Islands. North of Aliaaka the best-known locality is about thirty miles northeast of Am^k Island, 
and another of probably less importance lies thirty miles off shore from Cape Strog6uof to the mouth 
of Sulima River. Among the Aleutian Islands, especially on the north side, a hook can scarcely 
be thrown in the water without taking a Cod. One of the localities where the best fish are taken 
among the Aleutian Islands is off the north head of Unalashka. Another is at the entrance to Nazan 
Harbor (Atkha Island) and on the north side of Atkha Island. Off the northeast shoulder of 
Kiska Island, and in recent years oif the northwest shoulder of Attn Island, they are abundant. 

I have learned of nothing that would lead me to believe in large migrations of the Aleutian Cod. 
They retire to the deeper waters of the neighborhood on the approach of winter, and draw near the 
land in May. They are most abundant in July and September in some localities, and in others in Feb- 
ruary and March. The time of their greatest abundance at any particular locality varies according 
to circumstances that are not yet well understood. While at Amchitka Island in 1881 1 saw the bones 
of Codfish of such size as to excite wonder, yet I was informed by natives that the Cod only comes on 
tlie north side of that island in July and never stay later than the first of September. Bones of 
immense size were extremely abundant on the soil around the ancient village sites. At Attu 
S. Mis. 165 12 



90 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

• 

Island the Codfish are ver^' numerous at the present day. They attain immense size there. I saw 
one individual in Febrnary, 1881, that weighed just out of the water an even thirty pounds. The 
fish was fat and vigorous. It was caught in water of about twenty-five fathoms. The natives ot 
Attn inform me that the God has not long been an inhabitant of the waters around that island. Its 
advent was near 1873. Previous to that time individuals had been obtained but rarely, and many 
of the men had not seen a God previous to that time. At Atkha Island the God also attains a great 
size. I have never seen a sickly fish at that place. In the entrance to the <*01d Harbor'^ (Starry 
Oaven)j on the north side, the old men repair in summer to catch the God to dry for winter. They 
assert that they are plentiful and of larger size than any other locality near that island. 

At Unalashka these fish are very abundant and here unhealthy fish are quite common, though 
on the outside of the northeast point of the island large, healthy fish are taken in greatest abundance. 
The supply among the Aleutian Islands being always equal to the demand made on them. The na- 
tives frequently sell the surplus fish to the company, which salts them to send to the Pribylof 
Islands for the use of the people there. Of course only large fish are bought. The price paid is 
five cents in trade or money for euch fish in the fresh, cleaned state. The size of the runs of fish 
depends greatly on the season and depth of water from which they are obtained. The larger fish 
are obtained from the deeper water. The average weight of the fish among the Aleutian waters 
will be about twelve pounds. Individuals of 18 to 24 pounds arc quite common, while the majority 
of the catch will be about fifteen to sixteen pounds. It is possible that the off-shore fish will 
average one or two pounds more than the shore fish. Myriads of small God are to be seen round 
the wharves at Unalashka during the latter part of September, and all of October. These bite 
readily at the hook. 

A piece of other fish is generally used for bait for catching Cod. The Codfish is one of the 
principal food-fishes of the Aleuts. They frequently go out to the banks, some miles off shore, and 
in the course of a few hours return with their canoe loaded down to the water's edge with fine fish. 
They prepare great quantities of these fish for winter's use by drying them. Their manner of 
preparing them is as follows : The head is partly severed from the body at the throat, the gills are 
taken out, a slit along the belly and the entrails are removed, the backbone is cut on each side 
and either removed as far as the tail, which is left to hold the two sides together to allow them to 
be hung over a pole, or else it is left in and dried with the body. When fish are abundant this is 
rarely done. The sides are then cut transversely through the fiesh to the skin and the body then 
hung up by the tail to dry. During rainy weather an old seal-skin is tied over the bunches of 
fish to keep them dry as possible. When the fish are sufficiently dry they are stored away for 
future use. The ravens have a fine time watching the stages of drying fish, for if there is any- 
thing which a raven loves it is a fish that an Aleut has hung up to dry. The natives of Attn will 
not permit cats to be kept on the island, because the cats, which they formerly had, ate'or des- 
troyed more fish in one night than an Aleut woman could hang up in a day. It would be interest- 
ing to know how many God are taken by the Aleuts west of TTnimak Pass. If each fisherman re- 
ported daily to the '' Tyone " the number taken, the amount could be given to the agent of the com- 
pany there, and at the end of the year a very nearly approximate total could be given. 

The appearance of the God is extremely variable. The darker-colored fish are generally the 
older ones, and most of them have a dark patch at the base of the head. The general color above is 
a variable dirty brown to dusky. The sides are pale brown to gray, becoming nearly pure white on 
the belly and lower side of the head. Back of the anal fin the color is generally the same as that of 
the middle of the sides of the body. The older fish have the more uniform colors, while the middle 
size and younger fish have the colors more distinct and the blotches are less confluent. 

The ground color of the fish is also variable, being gray, yellowish, plumbeus, or even sooty. 

The size and shape of the head are also extremely variable; in fact scarcely any two fish caught 
the same da3' will have similar heads. 

18. TiLESiA GEACiLis (Tiles) Swaiuson. (See Fig. III.) 

This species is known to the natives and white residents of Saint Michael's district as VdJch nya^ 
a word of uncertain origin, but supposed to have been introduced from Siberia, as it is used by the 



^ 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 91 

Rnssian-speaking population.- The Eskimo name of this fish is J^ Jcdth loo 4h, Many of the 
white traders give this fish the English name of '' Tom-cod.^ 

Natives of Unalashka speak of the fish as Vdlh nya^ a name ased by all the Rassian-speaking 
people where this species occurs. 

At Saint Michael's this species is a constant resident, and wonderfully abundant at all seasons. 
In the spring, as soon as the ice goes out, they are caught from all the small points of land that 
project into the water. During the summer but few are caught as the abundance of other fishes 
make the Yakhnya little sought after. 

When the ice in November has set, small holes of a few inches in diameter are cut through it. 
The thin ice which may form during the night is easily removed with the ice-pick, and scooped out 
with a small sieve-like scoop of a few inches in diameter, having a hoop made of bone, horn, or wood, 
and netted across with whalebone (baleen) or sinew. This scoop is also used to free the hole from 
slush which drifting snow may make during the day while fishing. The hook used by the Eskimo 
consists of a piece of slightly curved bone, ivory, or deer horn. A small piece of metal (preferably 
copper, as this will not be so easily broken as steel or iron) is sharpened and firmly set in the con- 
cave side of the shaft of the hook. No barb is used, as the weather is so cold in winter that the 
hands would be frozen in removing the fish, which the presence of the barb would render necessary. 
Without the barb the fish is detached instantly unless the hook is swallowed too far. Sometimes 
the hook is made to imitate the form of the sea-slug or other crustacean. The great secret is to 
keep the line taut, so that in drawing it to the surface the fish has no chance to become detached, 
but does so as soon as the line is slackened. The bait used is generally a piece of fresh fish of any 
kind. The bait is secured to the hook by two little sinew threads which are fastened to the upper 
part of the hook. This keeps the bait from being taken ofif by the fish, as in winter it would be 
serious work to fasten on bait every few minutes. All this is done before leaving the village. The 
line is generally made of whalebone (baleen), cut into long strips, and polished so that the water 
will not cling to it and freeze. The lower part of the line next the hook is sometimes made of strips 
of the shaft of >the quill of a gull, goose, or swan, or the sinew from -the wing of a swan is also used. 
Several of these snoods may be used on one line, and during times of abundance bf fish each hook 
will hav& a fish on it. 

Each of these materials has the property of not retaining the water on its surface, so that the 
line rarely becomes clogged with ice. A sinker is seldom used, excepting in summer fishing, and 
then may be a grooved stone from the beach, or often a piece of ivory is cut in imitation of a fish 
and tied on the line with the tail upward. This serves two purposes, one to represent a fish going 
down to seize the bait and make the live, big fish hurry up and bite, and secondly, to make less 
resistance when the line is drawn from the water. Just above the hooks are sometimes found small 
red beads, or the little red processes which are to be found on the base of the bill of the auklet {Simo- 
rhynchus cristafellus). These are also used as attractions for the fish. 

The Eskimo fisherman, or woman, goes out early in the morning to the hole, which has been 
made the day before, for while Cutting it out the fish are frightened away from it and nothing will 
be caught that time. The person takes a grass sack or basket along to carry the fish home in. A 
piece of old sealskin or grass mat is taken to sit on. On arrival at the place it is carefully cleaned 
out by means of the seine-like scoops with as little disturbance as possible, the line prepared and let 
down into the water. Ere many seconds one or two fish will be drawn out and slung high in the 
air ; and, as they slap down on the ice they invariably become detached from the hook. The native 
is now in good humor, as an abundsince of fish is indicated by their taking the hook when first put 
down. He takes o£f his glove and contentedly reaches behind his right ear for the quid of to- 
bacco, which has lain there for the last twelve hours, covered by his abundant locks of hair; and, 
thrusting it far back between the teeth and cheek, calmly lets it soak while he pulls out dozens 
of Yakhni (plural form of the word). When he has caught a sufficient number he gives a signal for 
those on the lookout to come with a dog ad sled to carry them home. During favorable times 
two or three bushels may be caught by a single fisherman. Any that are not wanted for home 
consumption are brought to the trading post and sold for so much per basketfiil of about 75 to 125 
fish, the price being fifteen to twenty cents in trade, which represents six to nine cents in money. 
During the winter fishing a short pole is used, while in snmmer a long pole is held over the pro- 



92 CONTEIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

jecting ledge of rocks. The number of fish of this species consaroed by the inhabitants of Norton 
Sound is enormous. They are used as food for man and dog. The natives either cook them by 
boiling, or else freeze and eat them raw. I have never eaten a boiled Vakhnya, neither do I 
desire to eat it. Tbe flesh is rather firm, but in a very^ short time becomes watery. When they 
are fried hard and brown they do well enough as a change but not as a regular diet month after 
month. 1 have eaten them while frozen so hard that the flesh had to be shaved oflf with a knife, 
but there is so little fleshy fiber and so much water in the meat that it is like eating ice made from 
the water in which they were boiled. 

The geographical distribution of this species is not well made out. They occur on the mainland 
shores of Alaska from Bering Strait to Eadiak Island. Among the Aleutian Islands I have seen 
this species only at Unalashka, and there only on two occasion^ and not half a dozen fish altogether. 
I do not believe that it occurs to the westward of that island, as all inquiries concerning it at 
Atklia and Attn elicited no information that led me to recognize this species as existing there. 

The Eskimo assert that these fish spawn in February among the pebbles at the bottoms of the 
deeper ]>ortion8 of the bays. I have seen small fry of this species in the latter part of Septem- 
ber and in October. They were about an inch to an inch and a half in length. They do not as- 
semble in large schools, but seem to stream out irregularly along the beach and search round 
and round for food. There appears to be but little regularity in their method of moving from place 
to place for either young or old fish. 

There is considerable individual variation in this species. Some have a darker color than 
others and a slightly different shape. The general color when fresh is a grayish brown above, 
becoming lighter on the sides and belly. Toward the tail the color is also lighter. Some indi- 
viduals have small, darker colored spots on the sides; but this soems'to be due to the effect of 
season, as the greater number of spotted fish are to be found in the winter months. 

The size of this species is not great. They rarely attain a greater length than fifteen inches 
and not more than a pound and a quarter in weight. 

19. LoODA MACULOSA (Lc S.) Rich. 

This species is the <<lk>«A" of the Hudson Bay men; and the name has been introduced into 
Alaska also, as the Russians, in speaking of this fish, always use the word ^< Losh." 

This fish attains a considerable size, often of more than four feet long and weighing sixty to 
seventy-five pounds. Their flesh is firm and dry, scarcely eatable, used principally as dog food. 
The liver is very large, and contains a great quantity of rich oil which is highly prized for cooking 
purposes by both whites and natives. When part of the oil has been removed from the liver the 
latter is then excellent food when fried and eaten hot. The roe also attains an immense size, and 
affords a very rich soup. This species is found only in the Yukon River, so far as my own knowl- 
edge is concerned. It is said to be abundant throughout the Hudson Bay territory. 

I am not aware that it visits the sea. The lowest point on the Yukon River from which I could 
obtain any information was at the Mission, and from there up to f^ort Yukon it is plentiful during 
the winter months. It is usualy taken in wooden (wicker) traps. 

The specimens which I saw were brought from Nulato to be used for dog-feed while on a trip. 
They were too large too be preserved by any means at my disposal. 

LTCODIDiB. 

20. Gymnelis vibidis (Fabr.) Reinhardt. 

The small fish discribed under this name were obtained at Saint Michael's, October 10, 1876. 
They are to be found at low tide under the flat stones in the muddy places along the beach. They 
scoop out the mud and a slight amount of water is retained in the depression until the return of 
the tide. They are very plentiful in such localities; tB many as a half dozen may be found under 
^ stone not over a foot in diameter. Their food consists of slugs and marine worms. 

They are small in size, rarely over four or five inches in length and of very slender body. The 
color is uniform, dark sooty-brown with a greenish reflection when wet. Many interrupted bands 
of lighter color extend on sides and lower parts. 



Conlrlb. Nut. Hint. AUika -Turner. 



,<^. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 93 

They are distribated along the coast as far north as Bering's Strait and on the Kamchatkan 
shore. They occar among the Aleatian Islands, bat not so plentifnlly as farther north. 

The Bskimo name of this species is Kooth hc'y Uky a name I could not get the signification of. 

21. Lygodbs tubnebi Bean. (See Fig. lY.) 

A single specimen, of this hitherto unknown species, was collected March 28, 1876, at Saint 
Michael's, Alaska. 

It was selected from among a lot of other fish, which had been caught through holes in the ice. 

It is not a common fish, as it was the only one seen while at that place, hence nothing can be 
given of its habits. 

This species has been fully described in ProcU. S. National Museum, Vol. I, p. 463-466, 1878, 
by Dr. Tarleton H. Bean, of the U. S. Fish Commission. 



23. Stioh^us punotatus (Fabr.) Beinhardt. 

A single individual of this species was collected at Saint Michael's, Alaska, June 29, 1874. It 
was picked up on the beach after a rather severe storm. 

Previous to my finding this specimen it had not been detected on the Pacific coast. 

The fish is quite small, about five and a half inches long. 

It has no economic value, and is of rare occurrence. 

A full description of this species, together with comparative tables with other specimens from 
the Atlantic, will be found in Proc. U. S. National Museum, Vol. I, p. 279-281, 1878, by Dr. Tarle 
ton H. Bean, U. 8. Fish Commission. 



28. Anoplasohus ateopubpubbus (Kittlitz) Gill. 

This little fish is usually found associated with Oymnelis viridis and Murcmoides omatus under 
the flat stones among the silt washed from the high banks above. 

This species rarely attains a greater size than six inches, and as it has no economic value it is of 
little importance. 

30. Mtjbjsnoidbs obnattjs (Oirard) Oill. 

I obtained several specimens of this species at Atkha Island, May 29, 1879. They are abun- 
dant among the mud which has been washed from the high turf banks above and lodged between 
the crevices of the rocks in the water below. W here the various patches of seaweeds grow these 
fish may be found at low tide by turning aside the alga). Sometimes a perfect nest, containing a 
dozen or more individuals, may be found in such a small place that it will be filled with these fish. 
It rarely attains a great size. The largest specimen was eleven inches. The smaller ones are a 
beantifEil red color, dotted with minute black spots in life. This species occurs among all the 
Aleutian Islands. I am not aware that the natives use it for food. 



32. Anabbhiohas lbptubtts Bean. (See Fig. V.) 

Two specimens were obtained at Saint Michael's, one June 24, 1876, the other. June 10, 1877. 
This species had not previously been represented from the Pacific. 

It is a migratory fish, coming to the shores at Saint Michael's as soon as the ice leaves the 
beach. It remains until ice forms in November. During the period between those dates it is 
quite plentilhl. It frequents the rocky ledges, shelves, and points which have vegetation growing 
near the edge of the water. The Eskimo prize the flesh of this fish very highly. The meat is 
white, firm, and of a fine flavor. The Eskimo bait a large hook with tender grass roots and cast 
it into the water when the tide is at half flood in the evening, as the fish is mostly nocturnal 
in its habits. The part of the line near the hook is usually made of a stiff strip of baleen to pre- 
vent the numerous teeth of the fish from cutting the line in two. The strong teeth are used to tear 



94 OONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA, 

the sods of grass that may wash iDto the sea from the shore or cliff ledges into pieces to eat. My 
attention was once directed to a floating sod a short distance from the shore, going through strange 
motions. I called the attention of the native wifh me. He informed me that it was a Kao chdo thlUk 
eating it. I well knew that that name was applied to this species. I directed the canoe toward 
the sod an4 saw the fish tearing it. It was with difiQcnlty that we made the fish leave its food, and 
only after several thrusts at it with the paddle did it swim off. The natives told me how to catch 
them. I afterward saw them set their hooks, baited with grass-roots, and was assured that a fish 
would be taken by morning. 

The upper parts and sides are uniform dark chocolate-brown in life. The abdomen is lighter, 
sometimes gray, clouded with brownish. 

The natives strip the skin from this fish and tan it, to be used in inserting between the seams 
of boots and other waterproof garments. The skin of the fish is said to swell when moistened, and 
thus draw the threads tighter together. The dried skin is totally different from the fresh skin, in 
that it is nearly black and beautifully mottled with black and silvery dots. 

I have not seen this species in any other locality, though it doubtless occurs in other portions 
of the waters of Bering Sea. 

A full description of this species is given in Proc. TJ. S. National Museum, Vol. II, pp. 212-214, 
1879, by Dr. Tarleton H. Bean, of the U. S. Fish Commission. 



LiPABis CALLIODON (Pallas) Gtinther. 

This small fish was collected by me at Saint Michael's, Alaska, in the early part of October, 
1876. They are usually found attached to rocks by the sucker-like disk on the thorax. They 
rarely attain a greater length than three inches and are not common in that locality. The Eskimo 
name of this species is NUp ^ chUJc^ meaning svcJcer. They are of no economic importance. 

38, LiPABis OYOLOPUS GUnther. 

A single specimen of this species was obtained by me June 28, 1879, at Atkha Island. It is 
quite small, rarely attaining a length of over two and a half inches. It inhabits the shallow de- 
pressions in the rocky shelves of the beach where the tide overflows. It was not a common fish, 
as I saw but two specimens during the four months of my stay at the place. 

AGONIDiE. 

40. SiPHAGONUS BABBATUS Stcindachner. 

A single specimen of this species was picked up dead on the beach at Ilinliuk village, Una- 
lashka Island, in August, 1878. It was the only specimen seen there. I could obtain no informa- 
tion concerning its habits, excepting that the natives asserted that it is "a seaweed fish," leading 
me to infer that it frequented the patches of fuci and other algce. It was shown to several persons 
at Attn Island. Those natives assured me that it is frequently found there. It is a small fish of 
only five and a half inches in length. It is not used for food. 

COTTID2. 

43. CoTTUS TJENiOPTEBUS Ener. (See Pig. VI.) 

This species occurs abundantly throughout that part of the Territory north of the Aleutian 
Islands. It is a constant resident of Norton Sound. « During the summer months they are ex- 
tremely abundant. The Eskimo prize the flesh very highly, though they have so many subcuta- 
neous parasites that I could not induce myself to touch the flesh. 

They attain quite a large size, though the average is about a foot long. The head is so large 
that the body is quite small when prepared for the table. 

The general form of this species is much more slender than the others. The colors of the fresh 
fish are much varied, principally shades of gray and brown with large blotches of yellowish on 
the fins. 



Coablb. Nat. Bitt. Alukft.— Tamer. 



CdDlrlb. Nit. B 



t. AlaakA.— Toracr. 



CoDtrlb. Nat. Hlit. Alaik*.— Tuner. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 95 

■ 

44. COTTUS POLTAOANTHOOEPHALUS Pallas. 

The Spiu j-headed Scalpiu is very abuDdant among all the Aleutian Islands. I am not aware 
that it occurs north of Aliaska on the American side. 

It does not differ in habits from the other speciies, and like them is used for food by the Aleuts 
and some of the whites. 

It attains a greater size than the preceding species, has a larger head and thicker body. The 
coloration is also different. The ground color is dark brown ; sides and tail are more or less dis- 
tinctly banded with yellowish ; the dorsal fin has two oblique dark bands in front and three on the 
posterior part. The anal fin has four dark bands; each of the outer ones less evident. 

The pectoral has three irregular bands of dark brown with yellowish spots. The caudal is 
obscurely banded with dark brown and tipped with yellowish. 

46. OoTTUS HT7MILIS Bean. (See Fig. VII.) 

This Sculpin is very abundant at Saint Michael's throughout the year. During winter they 
retire to the deeper portions of the bays. In summer they approach the shores and obtain most of 
their food during the flooding of the tide. They are not active ; usually they progress a few feet and 
then rest quietly on the bottom. When a desirable object of food comes near they give a quick dash 
upon it. The size of the mouth makes up for any apparent lack of speed. The Eskimo call this 
species Kd nuJch puk^ or Big-mouth. The Bussian name is Kaldg^ and is applied to all the species 
of this genus which occur there. The Sculpins are generally taken with hook and line. Any kind 
of fresh meat is used for bait. The fish are voracious feeders, and when caught with the steel 
hooks they frequently swallow the hook so deeply that the fli$h has to be ripped open to take it 
out. They are caught principally by the old women and men who are not able to go great distances 
to procure other food. 

Other species of Sculpins occur in Alaskan waters, bat a lack of means to preserve a great 
number of specimens necessitated my collecting only the most important. 

54. Hemilbpidotus josdani Bean. 

A single specimen of this species was taken in October at Unalashka. It is a common species, 
and occurs throughout the Aleutian Islands. It attains a considerable size, often fourteen to 
sixteen inches in length. The general color above is umber-brown, becoming yellowish-brown 
below, with numerous spots and blotches of irregular size on sides and fins. This fish is considered 
excellent food. It is not infested with parasites like other fishes of its kind. They have similar 
habits with the true Sculpins. 



70. Hexagbammus aspbb Steller. (See Pig. VIII.) 

This fish is known to the English-speaking people of Saint Michael's and the Unalashkan dis- 
tricts as '^ Bock-cod," and to the Bnssian-speaking population as ^^ Terpdog^ a word meaning a 
rasp. 

The <^ Terpdog^ frequents the rocky ledges, points of land which extend into the water, and 
shallow coves. Those places where the various kinds of sea- weeds abound are the best resorts for 
this fish. When the tide is high they seek their food among the rocky reefs. The natives value 
their flesh very highly. The meat is quite flrm and contains few bones; it has a peculiar greenish 
color, but soon becomes light in color after the death of the fish. The women do most of the fish- 
ing for these fish. Any kind of fresh meat is used for bait. Frequently the women will be taken 
by the men to some favorite locality and remain there to fish while the men continue the journey 
in search of wood cast up on the beach, or go out to sea to catch Cod or other fish. 

During the winter time the foxes of the Aleutian Islands catch many of these '^ Bock -cod," as 
they are left in the shallow lagoons or rock crevices by the receding tides. The fox is quite expert 
in catching the fish. He will watch them for a long time until they wander into the shallower 
water, upon which the fox springs, even immersing his entire head to seize the fish. 

This species rarely attains a greater length than fourteen inches and a weight of a pound and a 
half to two iK>unds. Their distribution in Alaska is the entire coast south of Bering's Strait^ and in- 



96 OONTMBUIIONS TO THE NATURAL HI8TOET OP AT.AftlTA 

eluding all the Aleutian Islands. The localities of greatest abundance are Attn, Atkba, Kiska, 
TJnalashka, Sannakh and Unga. 

71. Hexagbammus ordinatub (Cope) Bean. 

This species was not obtained at Saint Michael'a b.y me. It is extremely abundant among the 
Aleutian Islands. It has the same habits as the other species, and is known by tbe same name 
among the people of that region. 

72. Hexagbammus supebgiliosus (Pall.) Jord. and Oilb. 

This species does not differ in life habits from the other two. It is abundant throughout the 
Aleutian Islands. During the months of August, September, and part of October, the old men of 
the Attn take their wives and repair to some favorite haunt of these fish and while there they 
catch a supply, which is dried for winter use. The boys and girls go at low tides along the beach 
and with their hands search'amoug the sea-weeds and rock crevices for these and other fish which 
are to be used as food. This species of fish is quite variable in coloration. The ground-color is 
black, varying to light brown, with blotches on the sides and abdomen of deep vermilion, shading 
to light umber. 

This species is rarely over sixteen inches in length. 

75. Pleubogbammus monoptebygius (Pall.) Gill. 

When I arrived at Dnalashka in 1878 I heard much talk about the ''Mackerel." During the 
summer of that year I had an opportunity of conversing with those who frequented the western 
islands of the Chain where these fish were said to abound. Several persons referred to these fish 
as '' Spanish Mackerel," others called them '' Horse Mackerel" and ''Alaskan Mackerel," and under 
several scientific names. They were served at the table on several occasions, and all who ate of 
them highly praised their good qualities and spoke of their great resemblance in taste to the 
Atlantic Mackerel. It was not until in May, 1879, that I had an opportunity of visiting the locality 
where they were said to be abundant. 

During the summer of 1879 I was at Atkha Island, and soon made inquiry concerning the 
fish. I was told that they make their appearance in the narrow pass between the islands of Atkha 
and Amlia about the 1st of June; and, that the fish invariably come from the Pacific Ocean, which 
here mingles its waters with that of Bering Sea. 

The first arrivals of fish are the males of largest size and beauty of color. They arrive a few 
days before and await the arrival of the females and immature males. 

By the 18th of June the fish have come in countless thousands. They arrange themselves 
with their heads toward the tide currents which rush violently through the pass. The flood tide 
sets in from the Pacific, while the ebb flows toward the Pacific, or, in other words, a southerly 
directed current for the ebb and a northerly directed current' for the flood tide. The pass is very 
rocky, with numerous sunken rocks in the middle and on the eastern side. The western side of 
the pass has the deepest water and is three fathoms deep in the channel. On the north side of 
the pass numerous ledges of rocks, hidden rocks, kelp patches, and small islets of but few feet 
above the water's edge are to be found. It would be very difficult navigation for a vessel of over 
twenty tons to go through there with safety. The natives of the present day cross pretty well 
to the north side of the pass until they get under Amlia Island and then run near the shore of 
Amlia with their small bidari or open boats. 

Among the sea weeds or kelp patches on a cloudy day of clear lower atmosphere the fish may 
be seen in the following order : 

The young males and immature females form a stratum of three or four fish deep and several 
feet wide, beneath these a second stratum of older males and females, whose roe is not yet de- 
veloped, and will later, in the spawning season, take their place with those in the third stratum, 
which is composed of vigorous males afid females. The latter are the most abundant. The 
female deposits her eggs on the kelp, though much of it must doubtless be lost by the swift cur- 
rents washing it off". These males and females remain in th\^ place until the spawning season is 
over, generally by the 20th of July. After which they gradually disperse and quickly find their 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 97 

way back to the Pacific. Many times I have seen huge Halibut {Hippoglosstis vulgaris)^ lying like 
large flagstones beneath the lower stratum of fish, waiting for one to come within reach. Without 
moving a great distance I could see over a dozen Halibut at a time. I estimated the weight of 
some of the larger ones to be not less than three hundred and fifty pounds. 

The natives of Atkha repair to this place and have several turf houses of small size built there. 
It is also a garden spot where a few vegetables, such as radishes, turnips, and a few potatoes are 
planted. To attend to their gardens and to be near the fishing-grounds the Aleuts of many places 
have built these summer villages and call them Lajjt nik. Here assemble all the old men not 
able to hunt and the children and women of the hunters gone off on a summer's cruise for sea- otters. 
These lay in a store of dried and salted fish for their sons and friends. I made several visits to 
this place to learn the habits of the fish. 

The natives obtain the greater number of the fish in the following manner. Each man has a 
two-holed bidarka (canoe). In it a small boy sits in the front hole while the old man sits in the 
rear hole. The man uses a pole of several feet in length (generally not less than 12 feet long), on 
which is firmly secured a hook of iron, having a flattened point with a sharp edge and a notch 
filed on the inner side to act as a barb. When the canoe arrives at the place the boy is ordered 
to seize hold of a strong frond of*theOiant Kelp, which streams out sometimes for over a hundred 
feet, and among which the fish are most abundant. After coming thus to anchor, the man care- 
fully thrusts the pole into the water, and if the fish are plentiful he will soon feel them surging 
against it. He now begins to jerk it up and down in the water to gig any fish that, may come 
along. In a few seconds he brings one out. The work now becomes exciting, for scarcely has the 
pole been again thrust in the water than it is jerked into another fish. A man may thus, in a couple 
of hours, take two to three hundred fish. After the canoe is loaded it is taken to the shore, where 
the women slit open the back of the fish, take off the head, clean out the entrails, and with a cut on 
each side, the backbone is removed to the tail. The two sides of the fish are left hanging together 
by the tail. This is to enable the fish to be hung over a pole to dry. Often the men bring the fish 
directly to the principal village and clean them there, though this is done more often when the 
fish are to be salted. At the season between June 25th and July 25th the fish are extremely fat from 
the abundance of a small crustacean, which has previously come in myriads to the same places as 
these fish. The fish which are to be dried, are usually taken about the Ist of August, as they are 
so fat before that time that I have seen the oil drip from the drying fish. They also, from the 
presence of the oil, become rancid in a short time, and are said not to keep so well. 

At Attn Island I also had an excellent opportunity for studying the habits of these fish. At 
this place the fish are most abundant at the entrance to Ghichagof Harbor on the northeast shoul- 
der of the island. Several islets and many reefs are disposed nearly across the entrance to the 
harbor. Between these the tide currents run with great velocity. An abundance of large kelp 
patches is found in the vicinity. The fish arrive at Attn, from the southwestward, about the 24th 
of April, though this date varies according to the openness of the season. It is rarely later than 
the 1st of May. The fish come at first in a straggling manner, and their first appearance is made 
known by their being caught on hooks while the men are fishing for other kinds. The first comers 
are usually nearly adult males. They are not fat on arrival, but soon become so from the abundance 
of small crustaceans that fairly swarm among the patches of sea- weed by the lOth of May ; and at 
which time the fish are tolerably numerous. By the 10th of June thousands of these fish can be 
seen in the shallow water (about one and a half to eight fathoms deep) below. The natives here take 
ru)nsiderable quantities of these fish, and dry them for use at an early date. They rarely salt them, 
for reason that, they state, this fish makes the consumer thirsty. When they go to catch them they 
the visit the various localities known to be the haunts of these fish, and by looking beneath the mass 
of kelp fronds can see them if present; if not, the fish are off in the open water. They then watch 
every floating piece of detached ^ea-weed. It is constantly turning round and round like in an eddy 
of water. The fish are playing with it, and there will be found an abundance. The gaff is quickly 
thrust into the water, and one is soon struck and brought out. 

I here had opportunity to come to the conclusion that these fish will bite readily at the book. 
I saw them jump and struggle to get at the gaff and could feel them strike against it while it was 

B. Mis. 166 13 



98 CONTBIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL mSTOBY OP ALASKA. 

in the water, and at times it was impossible to hold it in position, as the mass of moving fish car- 
ried it along with them. 

Any kind of fresh fish may* be ased as bait on a small cod-hook for these fish. A piece of 
scarlet flannel tied above the hook is good to attract the fish, as they will then bite'voracionsly. 

With the hook a person can catch the fish as fast as pnt into the water. With the nseof sev- 
eral hooks on one line several fish may be taken at once. With the gaff the fish are taken in great 
quantities, eqnal to all demands. The run lasts at Attn until July 25th, after which the fish are 
spent and slowly disappear from the waters. 

These fish were not known at Attn previous to 1875. They came unexpectedly and were caught 
on hooks set for other fish. Since that time the people have had an abundance of them. From my 
own observations I am led to assert that 500 barrels of 200 pounds each can be procured at Attn 
in the season from June 1 to July 31. At the entrance to Ohichagof Harbor is the only known 
locality at Attn where these fish resort. The natives assert that the coming of these fish was 
coincident with the disappearance of the sea-lion Eumetopias stelleri; and those natives maintain 

■ 

that the fish drove the sea-lions off. Just opposite to my own conclusions, for I think the fish 
come to those places where they will be least persecuted by the sea-lions. 

These fish are also reported to be abundant at Eiska Island, between the islands of Atkha and 
Athdkh. Also between Un^lga and Unalashka, and also in the passes between some of the Shu- 
magin Islands. I saw a few individuals in Captain's Harbor, Unalashka Island, in the early part 
of July, 1881. This is the first instance of their occurrence in that locality. Tbey were small in 
size, and of the size which constitutes the upper stratum as spoken of in regard to the disposition 
of the fish on the spawning grounds of Amlia Pass. 

This fish could be easily taken in great quantities, especially at Amlia Pass and Attn. Some 
writers of Alaskan affairs have mentioned exorbitant prices paid for a barrel of salted fish of this 
kind. They can be prepared at a cost of two dollars per barrel for the fish at eithrr Attn or Am- 
lia. The cost of the barrel and salt, of course, is to be added. Only the necessary sheds for pro- 
tecting the barrels from the weather would have to be erected. Native help could be procured at 
a cost of a dollar per day for a man, and fifty to seventy-five cents per day for the women, who 
can clean the fish as expertly as the men. 

Ere many years these fish will command a highly remunerative price to those who will engage 
in the enterprise. 

Nothing has been done by either trading company in the matter of bringing these fish into 
a market. 

In the beginning of this article I gave the various names used by the white people who have 
become acquainted with the fish only on reputation. The Bussian -speaking people refer to them 
as Soo dock ke', a diminutive form of 8oo ddkj meaning a iangre, or perch-pike. The natives of 
Unalashka and Atkha Islands speak of them, in the Aleutian language, as Ta mU'th ghes, while 
the Attu people call them TU'v ween. At Atkha, on June 18, 1880, 1 had several specimens brought 
to me for purposes of description, the notes of which are as follows : 

Male, adult, June 18, 1880 : 

Dorsal outline, from anterior spine of dorsal fin, gradually sloping to the base of caudal; ante- 
rior to the dorsal fin the outline is descending for two fifths its length to end of snout, though having 
a slight upward curve directly in the center; anterior to the boundary of this prominence the 
occipital outline begins, and continues a direct slope to the end of the snout. The abdominal out- 
line is moderately decurved ; the post-abdominal line is nearly straight in its slight ascent to the 
base of the caudal ray. The thoracic and gill outline is gradually ascending to the base of the 
inter-maxillary bones, while the line from the base of these to the mentum i^ rat her abrupt, ascending 
at an angle of forty-five degrees. The body has its greatest vertical depth at the base of the four- 
teenth spine of the dorsal fin. The greatest lateral thickness is at the intersection of the same line 
at a right angle, gradually becoming thinner as it approaches the base of the anal fin, where it 
preserves a uniform thickness, giving great strength to the caudal rays. The coloration is ex- 
tremely variable, generally dark (light in some specimens), olive (nearly approaching black in some 
specimens) on the dorsum and above the median lateral line; below this line, especially on the 
sides, and posterioi to the vent, are five bands, or bars, the three anterior bands becoming obscure 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATUBAL HISTOEY OP ALASKA- ©9 

OQ the abdomen, the anterior of which is less evident than the second, bat is intensified in oat- 
line as the bands sacceed posteriorly to the last, which entirely encircles the fish. These bands 
vary mach in width and depth of coloration. (The adult males which first arrive have the colors 
mach sabdaed, and not until the height of the spawning season do they assume their vivid 
colors.) These bands are of the general color of the dorsum, variable shades of olive. The color 
between the bands is golden yellow to reddish orange yellow, straw and lemon yellow, and each 
having a coppery reflection, making a contrast of extreme splendor. 

The lighter-colored parts are evanescent to a great degree, and are soon faded on the death of 
the fish. They then turn dark plunibeus and gradually fade to a lusterless white; numerous white 
patches then appear on various parts of the body. If the fish is soon preserved in salt, or other 
substance, the bands of color do not entirely disappear. 

The head is large, stout ; bones firmly knitted together ; nostril small, above which is a notice- 
able depression in the nasal bone. 

Mouth medium sized, directed slightly obliquely upward when closed and nearly circular when 
opened ; lower lip moderately pendant, upper lip thick and rolled back. The teeth are small and 
weak. Eye large ; orbit strong, irregularly oval, longest diameter in a line from corner of mouth 
to anterior spine of dorsal. The upper outline of the orbit slopes obliquely in front, presenting a 
peculiarly formed contour, being four-fifths as high as long and one-fourth the length of the head 
to end of nasal bone, and equal to two-thirds the width of interorbital space, and one and three- 
fourths times the distance of anterior edge of orbit to middle of nostril. 

Operculum narrow and strong, waved on upper edge, and ooncavely outlined; lower edge mod- 
erately convex ; the posterior side of operculum is irregular, the apper comer of which is above the 
center of the posterior third of the opercular bone, thus : forming a subtriangle in outline. 

The gill rays are seven, forming a rounded outline with the gill covers. 

Dorsal fin moderately curved, attaining greatest height at eighth ray and preserving this 
height to the eighteenth, then decurved to the twenty -third, then ascending to the twenty-ninth, 
gradually arching to the thirty-sixth, and decurving to the forty-seventh or last. 

The dorsal rays are moderately strong, and arched backward. The soft membrane is consid- 
erably depressed between the spines. The height of the longest dorsal spine is contained 6| times 
in the length of the dorsal fin and equals the distance from the first to the eighth spine of the an- 
terior part of the fin and the last ten of the soft rays. The third soft ray is equal to two-fifths the 
height of the eighth spine. 

The pectoral fin has a rounded outline, rather stout, contains twenty-five rays, of which the 
sixth to thirteenth are of the same length. The longest rays are two and one-fourth times the 
height of the eighth to eighteenth dorsal, each ray terminating in soft membrane. The insertion 
of the pectoral is wide and fleshy, equal to one-half its length. 

The ventral fins, long and weak, contain six rays, each terminating in filaments, the third ray 
forming a long point behind ; the base is equal to one-fourth the length of longest ray, the rays 
much branching. 

The anal fin contains twenty-four rays, of which the third to the eleventh are the longest, 
though they all form a convex outline ; the penultimate ray is equal to two-flbfths the length of the 
anterior ray. 

The caudal fin is notched for half its length, the edges of the notch waved half as deep as its 
length at medan line, forming a deep notched, nearly heart-shaped caudal fin. The scales are 
small, smooth, disposed in four rows between dorsal fin and upper lateral line; eighteen to eleven 
rows of scales between first (upper) and second lateral lines, which extends from edge of operculum 
to the end of the tail, and is 147 scales in length ; the upper lateral line contains 219 scales from tail 
to bifurcation (of lateral line) on the dorsum. The point of bifurcation of upper lateral line on 
dorsum is eleven scales anterior to the first dorsal spine; the prolongation of upper lateral line at 
bifurcation is five scales. A third lateral line extends from just in ftont of the lower insertion of the 
pectoral fin, and continues between the abdominal and pectoral to even with the end of the pros- 
trate twelfth ray of the pectoral, where its end is brought down and continues for 59 scales, then 
interrupted for the distance of the length of the pectoral^n, then continued 41 scales, terminating 
abruptly. 



100 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

A fourth lateral line begins jast beneath the in gill covers, passes between the abdominal fins, 
and contains 48 scales; it then bifurcates at a line beneath half the length of the ventral fin, then 
diverges to arch over the anus, passes a straight line of five scales above the anal fin to termin- 
ate at the insertion of the inferior caudal ray, and contains 151 scales from its bifarcation to 
caudal ray. 

The number of lateral lines varies, as does also their relative position on the side of the fish ; 
however, the number of lateral lines is never less than three, the absent one being the second one from 
above. The gi^ater percentage of males have four lateral lines, while some of the females have 
bat three. 

The intestine is about twice the length of the fish less the tail. 

The milt of the male is waxy white and of firm consistence in the Aresh specimens. The 
females have the roe disposed in two folds about six inches long and an inch in diameter, tapering 
at both ends. The eggs of the female when matured for spawning are about the size of a number 
twelve shot, and have a dark grayish spot on one side of them. 

At Attn I saw a small specimen of this species on October 1 1th. I thought it to be a fish of the 
preceding year, as it was about two inches long and too large to have been of that yearns spawn^ 
unless they grow very rapidly. 



82. Dallia pectoralis Bean. (See Fig. IX.) 

A new genus has been established for this.fish by Dr. T. H. Bean,* of the U. S. Fish Commission, 
and dedicated to Mr. W. H. Dall, of the United States Coast Survey, in appreciation of his 
contributions to the zoology of Alaska. 

The generic characters are as follows : Dallia, gen. nov. Umhridce f 

Body oblong, covered with cycloid scales of small size with radiated striie ; lateral line not 
conspicuous; eye smaller than Vmbra; cleft of the mouth of moderate width. Yentrals inserted 
in front of the beginning of the dorsal, composed of three rays. Basis of anal as long as, or longer 
than, that of dorsal. Caudal fin rounded and many rayed. Villiform teeth on the intermaxillaries, 
the mandible, the vomer, and the palatines. Pectoral rounded and many-rayed. 

Dallia pbgtobalis, sp. nov., Bean. 

B. VII-VIII ; D. 12-14 ; A. 14-16 ; V. 3 ; P. 33-^6 ; C. 30^3. 

The height of the body is contained four to four and one-half times in its length without 
caudal; length of head four and one-fourth to four and one-half times. The eye is one-seventh to 
one-sixth as large as the head. The pectoral is one-half as long as the head to end of upper jaw, 
the ventrals one-third as long. The origin of the dorsal is twice as far from the end of the 
snout as from the origin of the middle caudal rays. The longest dorsal rays are a little more 
than half the length of the head. The anal begins almost directly under the origin of the dorsal 
and has nearly the same extent ; its longest rays equal or slightly exceed the longest dorsal rays. 
The ventrals originate in advance of the dorsal, and can be made to reach to or slightly beyond 
the origin of the anal. The vent is immediately in front ot the beginning of the anal. About 77 
scales in lateral line ; eleven rows of scales between the dorsal and the lateral line, and eleven 
rows between the lateral line and the anal. 

Color. — Dusky brown mottled with whitish, all the fins similarly colored, the dusky spots some- 
times becoming confluent on the caudal and simulating bands; belly mainly whitish, but in some 
specimens thickly covered with small dusky spots. 

LIST OF SPBCIMKN8. 

23496 a-^, (collector's number, 1430) 7 specimens. Saint Michael's, Alaska, February, 1877. L. M. Turner. 
^ 23498 a. D. 13 ; A. 16 ; V. 3 ; P. 36 ; C. .33 ; B. 8. Length 206"'«. 



*The desoription, as given above, together with the ray formula^, was taken from Proceedings of the U. 8. National 
Museum, volume 2, pages 358-9, of Descriptions of some genera and species of Alaskaa fishes, by Dr. Tarleton H. 
Bean. 






ConMb. Hat Hlit. Aluka.— Tnnier. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 101 

33498 h. D. 13 ; A. 14 ; V. 3 ; P. :« ; C. 31 ; B. 7-«. Length 200«"">. 
83498 0. D.14; A. 15; V.3; P.33; C.31; B.8. Length 180«» 
23498 d. D. 14 ; A. 14 ; V. 3 ; P. 33 ; C. 30 ; B. 7-8. Length 184™". 
23496 e. D. 13 ; A. 14 ; V. 3 ; P. 35 ; C. 30 ; B. 8. Length 175"». 
23498/. D.14; A. 14; V.3; P. 35; C.30; B.8. Length 170"" 
23498 g, D. 13 ; A. 14 ; V. 3 ; P. 35 ; C. 31 ; B. 8. Length 167™". 

This species is probably the most abundant of all the fishes which occur in the fresh and 
brackish waters of the northern part of Alaska. It is known to the whites as ^^ Black-fish," to the 
Russian-speaking population as ^' Oh6rnia Beeba," and to the Eskimo as E mdng ^fc." 

It is found in all the small streams of the low grounds, in the wet morasses and sphagnum- 
covered areas, which are soaked with water and which at time^ seem to contain but sufficient water 
to more than moisten the skin of the fish. In the low grounds or tundra are many, countless 
thousands, small ponds of very slight depth, connected with each other by small streams of 
variable width, of few feet to those so narrow as to be hidden by the overlapping sedges or sphagnum 
moss. These smaller streams are said to have been made by the muskrats and mink, which travel 
from pond to pond in search of food. These narrower outlets of the ponds are at certain seasons so 
full of these fish that they completely block them up. The soft, yielding sphagnum moss above 
is pushed aside, and under it these fish find a convenient retreat. Here the fish are partially 
protected from the great cold of winter by the covering of moss and grass. In such situations 
they collect in such numbers thatligures fail to express an adequate idea of their numbers. 
They are to be measured by the yard. Their mass is deep according the nature of the retreat. 
If it is a pond overgrown with sedges and mosses which by their non-conductivity of heat 
^allows only a slight depth to be thawed out in the short Arctic summer, the fish mass will 
completely fill it up. The natives repair to the places, which are known to be the refuge of 
these fish, and set a small trap constructed after the following manner: A number of small splints 
of spruce wood are carefully bound together so as to make a conical-formed weir some eight feet 
in length, the smaller end of which is opened about two to three inches. This communicates with 
a large basket-shaped trap, which is so placed that when the fish enter the smiill orifice next the 
trap they will scarcely find it by which to make their exit. The larger end of the funnel is ten to 
eighteen inches in diameter and set with the mouth toward the direction from which the mass of fish 
is moving. The fish push on until the basket is filled, their number prevent those within from 
moving outward until the whole trap is a mass of living fish. The natives remove the basket every 
day or two to relieve the pressure on it and to supply their own wants and those of their dogs. 
Nearly every head of a family has a trap, and during the greater part of the year, from May to 
December, tons and tons of these fish are daily removed. They form the principal food of the 
natives living between the Yukon Delta and the Kuskokvim River and as far interior as the bases 
of the higher hills. North of the> Yukon Delta they are also abundant, especially on the sphagnum- 
covered areas back of Kothlik and Pikmiktalik. The natives sell many of these fish in baskets 
(they are sold by the basketful), a few cents paying for about three-fourths of a bushel. When 
taken from the traps the fish are immediately put into these baskets and taken to the village, where 
the baskets of fish are placed on stages, or caches^ out of the way of the dogs. Here the fish are 
exposed to the severe temperature and cold winds. The mass of fish in each basket is frozen in a 
few minutes; and when required to take them out they have to be chopped out with an ax or 
beaten with a club to divide them into pieces of sufficient size to be fed to the dogs, or put into the 

pot to boil. 

The vitality of these fish is astonishing. They will remaiu in those grass-baskets for weeks, and 
when brought into the house and thawed out they will be as lively as ever. The pieces which are 
thrown to the raveaous dogs are eagerly swallowed ; the animal heat of the dog's stomach thaws 
the fish out, whereupon its movements soon cause the dog to vomit it up alive. This I have 9em^ 
but have heard some even more wonderful stories of this fish. 

The food of these fish has always been a matter of wonder to me, considering the number of 
fish to be supplied in the scanty waters where they abound. 

The contents of several stomachs were examined and found to contain only a mass of undis- 
tingaishable earthy matter, vegetable fragments, and what appeared to be the undigested portions 



102 CON8BIBUTION8 TO THE NATURAL HI8TOBY OF ALASKA. 

of skius of small worms which freqaent the ponds and low grounds. I was unable to save any 
specimens of worms, supposed to be larvae of some kind, as the alcohol in which they were placed 
reduced them to an unrecognizable condition. 

The spawning season is in June and July, or as soon as the lagoons thaw out sufficiently. The 
eggs are deposited in the vegetable slime at the bottoms of the shallow ponds. 

ICICROSTOMIDiB. 

83. OSMEBUS DENTEX Stcindachuer. (See Fig. X.) 

The smelt arrives sparingly at Saint Michael's about the 1st of June. The first appearance of 
the fish is generally known from its being canght with others in small shore-seines or else on a 
hook set for other fish ; though they rarely bite at the hook in those waters. By the middle of 
June the fish have become abundant. They appear to come from the southwest, and arrive in 
small schools at the beginning of their approach to the shore, and later come in schools of several 
yards wide and many rods in length. They swim along the shore, seeking places to spawn. The 
spawning season begins in the latter part of June and continues until the middle of July. The 
eggs are deposited among the sea- weeds, which grow just below the surface of the lowest tides. 
They disappear by the last of July. 

The Eskimo catch great qnantities of these fish and dry them in the air. The fish are gener- 
ally obtained by means of a short seine about twice or three times as long as wide. The fish are 
then drawn on shore, where they remain in heaps until the wooieu take the entrails out by a dex- 
trous pinch of the thumb and forefinger, which tears apart the flesh between the gills and belly. 
The forefinger is then run inside the fish and the belly ripped open, which same movement takes 
out the off&l. The women in the fall have prepared great quantities of grass blades, which are 
twisted into a thin rope, which is run through the gills and out the mouth of the fish, or else the 
strands of the rope are twisted around the fish's head as the rope is made. These strings of fish 
are then hung on poles in the open air. After having dried for a sufficient time the fish are then 
stored in the caches. 

When dried these fish are not bad eating, as there is sufficient oil in them to prevent their 
drying too hard, and yet not enough to become too rancid. 

The Eskimo name of these fish is Ithl kwdg fiUk. 

I have not seen this species among the Aleutian Islands, though it doubtless occurs there. 

85. Mallotus viLLOSUS.(Miiller) Cuv. 

This species ranges over the entirecoast lineofBering Sea. On the American side they are most 
abundant south of latitude 60^; and, above that are known to me only from a few specimens seen 
in the dried state with another fish, Hypomesus olidus. 

Among the Aleutian islands these fish abound in incredible numbers. 

At Atkha Island in 1879 I had an opportunity to observe these fish as they camain to the sandy 
beach of Nazan Bay to spawn. The 21st of July of that year a boy brought a basket of these fish 
and asked me to buy them. I inquired where he had obtained them. He replied that they were 
abundant along the sandy beach not far from the village. I immediately went to the place and 
found that the waves of the preceding day had thrown millions of these fish on the beach. The 
number was increasing every time a wave was broken on the beach. The fish come to the sandy 
beach to spawn, and when a high wave runs on the sandy flat the fish cast their spawn at that 
time. The spawn is covered with the sand, which the retreating wave washes back with it The 
dead fish w%re so thick on the beach that it was impossible to walk without stepping on hundreds 
of them. They could be gathered with a shovel, they laid so thickly. The spawn is very small, 
the eggs not larger than the size of half a pin-head, and is extended in small masses, which are held 
together by a viscid mass which is ejected at the same time. If the sand does not cover it in- 
stantly the mass is soon nothing but a small rounded ball about a quarter of an inch in diameter, 
of fine sand held together by the ^gg mass. This is rolled over and over by each wave until it is 
but little injured by the action of the waves. 

The eggs which are hidden by the sand soon show signs of life, usually about thirty days after 
deposit. The beach then becomes a quivering mass of eggs and sand. As soon as the eggs are 



Contrib. Nn. HUt. Alaikk.— Tuiiwt. PLATS ] 



Conttib. V»t. Illgt. AUaka.~TDni«r. 



Contrib. Nat, HItt. AlMkk,- 



PLATB la. 



CONTRIBDTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 103 

hatched the fry are washed back into the sea by the waves. The natives assert that these fish 
deposit their spawn only in the places against which the waves will wash when the fish-&y are 
ready to be hatched. 

The natives prepare great quantities of these fish by drying them in the air. They are not 
cleaned ; a blade of strong grass is twisted between the gills and neck, which makes & rope of fish. 
These ropes will sometimes be many yards in length. 

At Attn these fish are said to be very abundant every third year. This was also stated to be 
a fact at Atkha. One thing is certain that they were very pl<Bntifal at Atkha in 1879, and not in 
1880 or '81, and that they were not at Attn in 1880, and were reported to have been abnndant in 
1878. 

The OuUs, Terns, Sea-lions, Killer- whales and Hair-seals have a great liking for these little 
fish. Thousands of Galls and Terns were hovering over the schools of these fish at Atkha in 1879. 

At Unalashka Island these fish are said to be common at times, but I could get no definite in- 
formation concerning them. The Russian-speaking people call them ^^K& rush Ice.^ 

I know of no fish which has a sweeter taste than this species. When fried to a rich brown color 
they are excellent. The head is all that is necessary to be removed, as the entrails contain nothing. 

^. Hypomesus olidus (Pall.) Gill. 

This little fish abounds at Saint Michael's as soon as the shore ice is lifted sufficiently to allow 
them to pass under and through the little streams which, the rapidly-melting snow filling up the 
fresh water ponds and lakes, have made their way through the sands to the sea. These fish ascend 
to the lakes by these small streams. So many are hurried onward by the necessity of soon casting 
their spawn in the lakes that they choke up the streams which lead into them. The ponds are fre- 
quUy very near the sealevel, and only separated from the sea by the barrier of sand thrown up by the 
surf, and at extreme high tides and waves are brackish. Into these, great quantities of drift wood is 
thrown. These ponds seem to be preferred by these fishes. In one large pond, of nearly half an 
acre in extent, a few miles from Saint Michael's, these fish were found in incredible numbers. The 
date was May 20, 1877, by which time they were in such. numbers that the natives procured 
thousands of them by thrusting a stick into the water and throwing them out with it. A small 
dip-net was also used, which brought out two or three gallons at a time. When fried these fish 
possess a sweetish taste, and are excellent eating. The natives at Saint Michael's dry these fish 
on strings of grass. I did not have lime to investigate their spawning habits. 

COREGONIDJB. 

« 

75 (of Appendix). Stbnodus magkenzii Eichardson. (See Fig. XII.) 

This large Whitefish occurs plentifully throughout the Yukon Biver and tributaries. It attains 
a great size, weighing sixty pounds, and reported to be of greater weight, and is a valuable food 
fish. Numbers are procured at the Yukon Delta in the winter by cutting through the ice and set- 
ting wicker-traps for them. The natives bring quantities of these fish to Saint Michael's to sell. 
When roasted the flesh is excellent. The specimens seen by me were of such condition and size 
that I could not preserve them. 

The Bussian name of this species is NSlma. The Eskimo name is Che. This species is distin- 
guishable by the presence of weak teeth, strongly projecting lower jaw, pale plumbeous dorsum and 
upper sides, becoming silvery white below. 

89. OoBEGONUS LAURETTA Bean. 

This species is quite small, rarely over fifteen inches in length. The dorsal and abdominal 
outlines are but little curved; the head is small, lower jaw projecting but slightly. This fish in 
the Yukon Biver is poor in quality of flesh and bony, it being there considered the poorest of all 
the Whitefish. It is most abundant at Nulato, on the Yukon Biver. Dr. T. H. Bean, of the U. S. 
Fish Commission, informs me that this species occurs plentifully in the neighborhood of Bering 
Strait and that the fish from that locality are excellent eating. It is a well-known fact throughout 



104 OONTBIBUTIONS TO THE NATUBAL HISTOEY OP ALASKA. 

Alaska that localities of but short distances apart make greatest differeDces iu the quality of the 
flesh of various kinds of fish. 

The Russian name of this species is Nulatovsky cigd. 

90. .GoBEGONUS MSBGKii Giinther (var. f). 

This species prefers the larger tide lagoons and streams which are slightly brackish and con- 
tain muddy water. This fish is abundant in September to the middle of December. The flesh is 
very fine and fat. It is at that time quite abundant. The natives set nets across the tide wat^r 
streams when the tide is high, and as it recedes the fish retire toward the bays and are caught by 
the obstructing net. 

This species is the Marskoi cigd of the Russians. 

The coloration is darker than in the other species. The head is well formed and has a slightly 
projecting lower jaw. The entire fish is rarely over ten inches in length, and weighs about three- 
quarters of a pound. 

91. CoEBGK)NUS CLUPEiFORMis (Mitchill) Milncr. 

This species is the largest of the genus ; it often attains a weight of over thirty pounds. It is 
very abundant in ISTovember to January io the Lower Yukon. It is less abundant in summer. It 
spawns in September and October. The fiesh is excellent when roasted. Many of these fish are 
oaught in traps set in the ice, after the middle of November. 

The color is somewhat lighter than Stenodns; the lower jaw is shorter than the upper; the 
scales large, as are also the fins. The head is moderate, seeming small on account of the stricture 
at the nape ; the teeth small and deciduous. 

This species is the Mdksun of the Russians, and Che of the Eskimo. 

93. COREGONUS QUADBiLATEBALis Richardson. 

This species is quite small, rarely attaininga greater length than fourteen inches. Itis extremely 
abundant at the mouth of the Yukon in the early winter months, and has a range throughout the 
entire river, as young of this species^about four inches in length were obtained from Fort Yukon in 
the early part of June, 1877. They were the fish of the preceding winter. This species is not very 
delicate eating. The form is peculiar, as its name indicates. The head is small and attenuated, 
the lower jaw shorter than the upper. This species is called Krug by the Russians. 

There are two other well-marked species of Coregoni in the Yukon district. I did not have the 
opportunity^ to procure specimens. 

The Russians refer tooneof them as Oorbataj Hlgmfying humped, or arched back. I am notcertain 
to which species this should be referred. Several individuals of this species came to my notiC4», 
but were obtained in January at Kothlik, near the Yukon Delta, and brought to Saint Michael's on 
the sled with other fish. The fins were so broken by being frozen that the specimens were worth- 
less. The second species may be the one referred to as C. kennicottii* by Mr. Milner. Not having 
specimens of my own collecting, I am not able to state positively that this is the species, but it is 
more than probable, as Mr. W. H. Dall collected it at Nulato, on the Yukon, March 27, Id67.t 

SALMONDLS. 

95. Salyelinus malha (Walb.) Jordan and Gilbert. 

The Salmon-trout is a resident of the smaller streams of the mainland and islands. It com< s 
from the sea in September in great numbers mtx> the rivers emptying into Il^orton Sound. In the 
latter part of October the natives put down wicker-traps and catch great quantities of these fish. 
They are brought to Saint Michael's by the sled-load and sold. In the month of July they descend 



*A figare (No. XI) of this well-marked species is iuserted iu order to show the characters of it. Speeimens, 
now in the collection of the U. S. Nat. Masenro, were procured at Nnlato, Alaska, by W. H. Dall ; aud, from thebe 
the drawiug was prepared. 

tThe occurrence of the Grayling in those »%'ater8 is of sufficient importance to warrant the insertion of a figure 
of Thtmallus sionifer (Rich.) Car. & Yal. Specimens were secured by H. M. Bannister at St. Miohael'Si Mid by 
W. H. DaU at NolKto. (See Fig. XIU,) 



Ccmtrib. Mai, BUt. Aliukk.— Tanwt. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 105 

the streams and reiuain in the sea nutil September. The more northern localities have the larger 
individuals, those among the Aleutian Ishiuds being smaller than those seen at Saint Michael's, 
and which are of the same size and color as those seen at Karluk, on Kadiak Island. At this place 
great numbers are seined from the river and salted for market in San Francisco. The average 
weight of those prepared for market is near two and a lialf pounds. 

The natives of the Aleutian Islands make but little use of these fish, as they are taken most 
abundantly during the season when the salmon are plentiful. 

I am not prepared to state whether there is any special difference or not between the fish found 
in the small streams of the Aleutian Islands and those referred to under this article. As the 
brook fish of the islands have not the red spots on the sides and have never been seen to attain 
such size as that of the species at the head of this article, they will be treated of as a separate 
species until known to be otherwise. They have habits which are essentially different in that they 
seldom go to the sea for more than six weeks of time in September and October, and that they dig 
out the banks where the current is deflected from a point above, and under these banks collect 
in great numbers. They are poor and lean in the spring, and not until late in August do they 
become fat. They are in April and May reduced to mere skeletons in some localities. They are 
abundant at Unalashka, Atkha, and Attn. They have black spots on the sides, and the general 
color is very dark. After the large fish have returned from the sea they are lighter in color and 
have white edj^es to the fins. 

A lack of preserving material prevented me. from procuring specimens of these fish. They are 
referred to by the white people as Brook-trout in contradistinction to the Salmon-trout as meant 
by Salvelinus mahna. During the late summer the Brook-trout are caught by means of the fly, or, 
in lieu of that, a piece of salmon, or the roe of the salmon, is good bait. This same species is 
reiK)rted to be abundant on-Nunivak Island, and also on Unga Island. It doubtless occurs in all 
the mountain streams south of latitude 62^ N. 

The Russian name of this species is Ooletz. 

99. Oncorhynohus chouicha (Walb.) Jordan and Gilbert. 
This species attains the largest size of any of its genus, weighing from sixty to one hundred 
pounds. Some individuals have been taken which were said to have weighed one hundred and 
forty pounds. The range of this species in Alaska is from Sitka to Bering Strait, and it is found 
in all the considerable streams of the mainland. It arrives at the mouth of the rivers south of the 
peninsula of Aliaska in the month of May or early part of June. In those rivers north of the pe- 
ninsula it arrives a<;cording to the season, being in the Nushagak River rarely later than the 8th 
of June and a few days later in the Kuskokoim River. At the Yukon Delta they arrive aboat 
the 10th to the 20th of June, a few days earlier or later, depending on the ice in the river break- 
ing up, generally occurring about that time before it is removed from the delt^i. The fish remain 
outside for several days before entering the fresh water so as to accustom themselves to the change 
of water. The larger fish usually enter first. They are the healthier and strongest fish which have 
been able to make their way in advance of the others. By the 1st of July the^' have ascended 
about 400 miles of the Yukon and by the middle of the month are a thousand miles from its mouth. 
The stronger fish ascend the river for several hundred miles beyond that ])oint. The natives, Es- 
kimo and Indians, prepare immense quantities of these fish for future use. The fish are caught in 
various ways. The Eskimo usually set nets of short dimensions, fastened at one end to the shore off a 
point of rocks, the other end let into water of one to two fathoms deep. Floats of variously shaped 
pieces of wood ]>revent the net from sinking too deep and dragging on the bottom against the jagged 
rocks. The nets are set in the evening as the fish approach the shore during the late hours of the 
day and early hours of the morning, or between 10 p. m. and 5. a. m. The meshes of the net are made 
so that when stretched out diagonally they will be five to nine inches across. The fish in attempt- 
ing to pass through are caught by the gills, hence cannot i)ass through or go backward. Early in 
the morning the men visit the net and secure the fish by first drawing them to the surface and strik- 
ing them over the head with a club. Several hundred pounds are frequently caught in a single set 
gill-net of that description. The natives of the rivers use the same kind of nets, and usually take 
these nets in their single canoes and descend the stream. The net is thrown overboard; and, as the 
S. Mis. 165 14 



106 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THfi NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

fish are ascending they come in contact with the net. They either become entangled in the meshes 
or else in their straggles the net becomes so wrapped around them that escape is impossible. They 
are drawn to the surface and dispatched by a blow on the head. The fish is quickly put in the 
canoe apd the descent of the river is continued until the canoe is loaded. During the time when the 
water in the river is muddy the fish cannot perceive the net at a great distance and rely on their 
own strength to break through the barrier. In ascending the streams the fish keep near the shore 
to avoid the strength of the current and also to feel the change of water which may issue from the 
tributaries of the main stream. The natives then also catch many of the larger fish by means of 
spears, to which a thong is attached so as to be able to withdraw the fish when struck. 

When the fish are to be prepared for drying, the head is first severed from the body, the belly 
ripped open, the entrails and other inner parts are removed. The backbone is removed by a slit 
lengthwise, dividing the ribs from it, and then cutting down through the skin. The fish is then 
left so that the two sides are attached only at the tail. These pieces are then thrown over a pole 
or staging, with the fiesh side out, so as to dry as rapidly as possible. Should the fish be large 
several transverse incisions are made in the fiesh to facilitate the process of drying. 

Among the Indians of the Yukon this species is prepared so as to make a first-rate grade of 
Ukali (the Russian word for all kinds of dried fish). The fish is carefully cleaned; the back bone 
taken out with as many of the attached ribs as possible; in most instances, especially if the fish is 
large, all the bones, except the fins, are carefully removed. The fish is hung up for several days, 
until it has dried out to a certain degree. The fish are so full of oil that among those people who 
have not the opportunity of procuring real oil, excepting what is brought to them by the Eskimo 
for trade, wooden vessels are placed under the fish to obtain the oil as it drips from the fish 
when drying. This oil is eaten as food, or is saved until winter to use in the lamps. After the oil 
has dripped out and the fish is somewhat dried, the pieces are then separated and i>laced between 
layers of birch bark, formed so that the pressure o4' the fish and weight of stones, i)at on the i>ile of 
fish, squeezes out nearly all the oil in the flesh. This oil is also saved for us8 in the dwellings. The 
fish, by this pressure, become very dry, yet not too much so. This process secures a first-rate article 
of ukalij which is much sought for by the traders. 

The inferior grades of dried fish are used as dog-feed. A fish which weighs, when fresh, about 
60 pounds will make about 25 pounds of ukali. When the backbone is dried with the rest of the 
body, it then forms three slices. This is done only with those fish which are of an inferior grade, 
and are intended for dog-feed, though they are used by the natives as well. 

The exact localities where this species spawns was not determined to my satisfaction. They 
have such an expanse of water to range over that among the numerous tributaries it would be a 
very difficult matter to ascertain their spawning places. It is, doubtless, above Nnlato on the 
Yukon River. The run of this species lasts in the Yukon for about twenty-five days, the best fish 
being the first, while the last are weak and frequently immature fish. After spawning the fish be- 
come exhausted, and are thrown on the bea<;h in immense quantities. 

At the Kuskokvim River this species is not so plentiful as in either the Yukon or the Nusha- 
gak River. On the north side of Aliaska the fish are most abundant in the rivers in the follow- 
ing order; Yukon, Nushagak, Ugasik, Kuskokvim, and Kvi'chuk, the latter being the outlet of 
Ilyamna Lake. 

North of Unalakhlit this species is not to be found in considerable numbers, it being there 
replaced by other species. 

Among the Aleutian Islands this species is not often obtained. It appears there to be a 
mere straggler, and among the eastern islands of the chain not more than a couple of dozens are 
taken in a year. I saw a fine female, which had spawned and had returned to the sea, taken at Una- 
lashka, September 25, 1878. This individual weighed 38 pounds, and was in excellent condition 
for the table. It was taken while seining for other species of salmon. 

At Atkha Island this species is occasionally taken in the early spring, but not more than half 
a dozen are yearly procured. 

At Attn they are rarely seen. But one was taken in 1879, and one in 1880. Both were taken 
in the latter part of September. 

Great quantities of these fish are salted by the white peot)le of the Saint Michael's district for 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 107 

home GODsuiiiptiou. A few barrelH of bellien (the choicest part of the finh) ^re Bent to particular 
friends iu other parts of the territory, and a few reach San Francisco. At Nushagak the Alaska 
Commercial Conipaii}' has a supply prepared to be taken to the Pribylof Islands for the natives at 
that place. 

At Nushagak, in 1S78, a large trap was made of spruce splints fastened to stakes driven into 
the soft bed ot the river. The doorway was so placed that the fish entered, when ascending from 
the sea, and continued to a chamber by a tortuous passage-way; and, as the consecutive chambers led 
against the stream the fisii constantly struggled to the innermost parts of the trap. The ingress 
was so small that it would be difficult for the fish to return by it. I have seen several hundred 
fish, at one tide, taken in the trap, and not one of the fish weighed less than 20 pounds, ranging 
from that up to 60 pounds. They frequently burst the trap sides, from the pressure of their bodies, 
when the tide recedes. At this time the fish are taken out and salted. 

The further north the fish are found the better the quality of the flesh. The white people, who 
have had an opportunity of eating the fish from the various localities named above, invariably 
pronounce the Yukon fish to be the better, and a difi;ereuce may be detected iu the flavor of the 
fish from each locality. 

The flesh is so oily that fat of any kind is unnecessary when frying. The pan is made hot and 
a thin steak not over half an inch in thickness is placed in it; a sufficient oil is soon tried out to 
cook the fish to a rich, crisp brown. The fish should be eaten while hot, as it loses its fine flavor 
when cold. 

The color of the fresh flesh is variable in this species ; some of the individuals being an orange 
red, others having a yellowish-red color, others a deep-red orange. The blood is quite dark. The 
color of the spawn is reddish orange to a light-reddish brown. The eggs are large, and lie in two 
great masses, one on each side. When the eggs are mature they are nearly one-fifth of an inch in 
diameter. The milt of the male is also in two sacks and is of a light ashy color. The milt is 
generally about one-third the size of the roe of a female of the same weight, though the roe of the 
female will weigh several pounds if she be a large fish. 

The fish present the following color, though there is considerable individual variation: Head, 
nape, dorsum, and tail dark plumbeus, nearly black in some individuals and of a greenish cast in 
others. The sides are light plumbeus, the belly grayish or ashy. The fins are generally much 
darker than the other portions of the body. The Russian-speaking people call this species 
Chavwha, a word derived from the Kamchadale language and api)lied to this or kindred species. 
The Eskimo of Saint Michael's vicinity call this species Tak zhdk ftik meaning the big salt-water ^ 
from the word tdk zhiik^ meaning nea and used also for mlt. The AleuHian name of this salmon is 
A mi ung. 

100. Onchouhynchus keta (Walb.) Gill and Jordan. 

This species rarely attains a great weight. The largest individuals weigh as much as 12 
pounds in the fresh state. 

This species arrives at Saint Michael's about the 15th of July and continue to run for about 
three weeks. These fish prefer the smaller streams, and when ascending the largest rivers usu- 
ally run into some of the tributaries which have a pebbly or rocky bottom. 

Great numbers of these fish are caught by means of seines dragged along the sides of the 
streams. In the Uualakhlit River they are excessively abundant. To this stream the natives 
from the neighboring coast repair to prepare these fish for winter use. The fish are-slit into two 
pieces, joined only by the titil, and then dried. The backbone is taken out, as the fish dries more 
rapidly and does not so soon become rancid. The backbonea are also drie<l for dogfood. When 
dried thoroughly, the average weight is not more than a {)OHnd and a half, as the backbone and 
head are taken ofi^*. 

This species was not observed among any of the Aleutian Islands. I was informed that it is 
taken in scanty numbers at irregular seasons at (Jnalashka and Attu. This fish remains sometimes 
in the rivers until the end of the year. They spawn about the 1st of August and have completed 
by the 10th. They return weak, and iu.most instances injured on the rocks, so that they are cast 
on the shore in great quantities. 



108 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

Tbe flesh of this species is not good. It is coarse and without a decided flavor. The color of 
the fresh flesh is light-'reddish orange, the mature ova being still lighter. The exterior color of 
this fish is considerably lighter than 0. choui'cha^ but of the same pattern. 

The Russian name of this species is Hoiko. The Eskimo name at Saint Michael's is Ntik kUk. 

101. ONCHoniiYNcmus NERKA (Wall).) Gill and Jordan. 

This species arrives at Saint Michael's about the last days of July and remains until the first 
week in September. These fish prefer the smaller streams of the mainland and islands. They are 
caught in great numbers by means of seines. These seines are usually set across thd stream, and 
when a sufficient number is caught below, the seine is drawn on shore and the fish thrown out of 
the seine as fast as the number of the fish will permit it. Hundreds at a time are caught by this 
means. The Eskimo also use a small dip-net and secure many of these fish by inserting it under 
the shelving banks, or between the rocky places, where they maj' have stopped to rest. Among the 
Aleutian Islands the small mountain streams, which form the outlet of a lake situated at the head 
of large ravines, are favorite places for these fish to ascend for spawning. The spawn is said to be 
placed among the fine gravel at the bottom of the deepest i)ortions of the lakes. The fish ascend 
these streams at the high tides which occur toward the early morning, usually from 1 to 5 a. m. 
They play around the mouths of the streams for many days before entering. They enter slowly at 
first. In the course of a few days a sufticieut number have arrived at the spawning places. They 
Bwim round and round the lake, seeking the best locality, and on the arrival of the greater part of 
tbe fish that will enter that place the fish begin to clear the mud, slime, and movssy accumulatious 
oflf the pebbles which are at the place selected by them. The fish work industriously, turning over 
the gravel with their snouts, until a clean surface is presente<l on which to place their spawn. I had 
an opportunity to verify tliis at Attu Island in the latter part of August, 1880. The fish were ob- 
served shooting through the water of a lake near the village; and, on inquiry, I was informed that 
they were clearing their spawning-grounds. While clearing the area they root around among the 
gravel and mud, and when a suflicient space is upturned they swim rapidly over it, the motion of 
their body creating a current, which removes the loosely atlherent particles of slime and mud which 
have settled on them, the result of the accumulations which have been washed down during the 
winter and spring months. The spawn is then deposited on the clean surface. The young fry 
do not leave the lakes until the following spring, or just before the adults arrive the following year. 

About the 1st of May the Aleuts of Attu Island prepare the weir (zapor of the Russians) 
which Obstructs the passage of the fish to the lake. A level place in the bed of the creek is selected 
where the banks are so high that in times of very high water it will flow over the top of the weir 
before it will undermine the place w here the upper log of the weir is secured in the bank. Each 
head of a family and the young men contribute so much material in the shape of stakes of the 
requisite length, generally about 9 feet long and 3 inches in width by 2 inches in thickness. 
A long log is laid across the stream at a convenient height (about 5 feet above the bed of the 
stream). The stakes are then set slanting, with the lower end further up-stream. Large rocks are 
used to hold the stakes in position and to allow the water from above to pjws through. After this 
is done the bed of the creek below the weir is cleared of all loose stones, so as to allow the net or 
hand-seine to bo used in catciiing the fish, wiiich collect below and cannot pass beyond. 

Early in the morning the people visit the locality ; and, if sufficient fish have collected during 
the night, all the people at the place assemble, and those most expert in using the seine stand 
Bome distance below the weir. The young boys and girls have gone into the water some distance 
below, and with shouts and beating the water the fish seek the shelter near the weir. Those hold- 
ing the seine then enter and soon have all the fish secured. They are thrown on the bank and 
cleaned. The fish are owned in common; any one who desires to work can do so, those not so de- 
siring will of course be remembered, in the winter, when the fish are to be distributed. After the 
fish are dried they are carried on the backs of the women and children to the principal village and 
stored^ in October, in sea-lion stomachs for winter's food. The stomachs of these animals are very 
large, and when fresh are inflated 'with air and stretched as much as possible, sometimes having a 
capacity of over 35 gallons, or a little more than a barrel. These skins make a convenient recep- 
tacle for storing these fish, as they absorb just sufficient moisture to keep the contents in good con- 



CONTEIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 109 

(lition and alno prevent mold from 8i>oiliDg them. When food is scarce, the chief or 8onae other 
selected person divides the supply of fish, giving to each person a stated quantity, so that each 
will get an equal share. 

The fali of snow of the preceding winter has much to do with the summer's catch of tish at A tta. 
The streams are short and shallow, so that if sufficient snow has not fallen during the winter to 
feed the streams with water during summer the fish will not enti*r the creeks. The supply of these 
fish laid by at Attn for the winter of 188()-'81 was not over 1,201), for during the preciMiing year but 
little snow had fallen and but little rain in July and August of 1880. This same species is also 
caught at that place by means of a small seine about 120 feet long, oil' the mouths of the small 
streams as the tish are waiting for a favorable tide to help carry them over the small bars at the 
mouth of the creek. When the wind is blowing on shore the fish keep at some distance, but when 
blowing from the land the fish come into shallow water. The net is carried out by means of two 
canoes lashed together, or else from a small, open skinboat called a bidard. Two men row the >H)aty 
anc»ther puts the net out in the proper position, while those on shore hold to a rope by which it is 
gently drawn along the beach until the fish begin to show signs of being within the net. The boat 
is then rapidly taken to shore and the two ends slowly dragged out until the captured fish are 
drawn out. This manner of taking fish is practiced by all the Aleuts^ while the traps across the 
streams are not used at all places ou account of scarcity of wood. At Atkha and Unalashka 
seines or nets are mostly used. 

The Aleuts in former times procured their fish in the same manner. At some places are traces 
of former superstitions concerning the fish streams. A man who was guilty of some crime against 
his fellows was not permitted to cross the stream during the fishing season. At Uinnak Island 
women at certain periods are not, even at the present time, allowed to participate in the labor of 
catching the fish, for fear of polluting the stream. 

The Alaska Commercial Company and the Western Fur and Trading Cotnpany have erected 
quite extensive packing works at Karliik. on the northwest end of Kadiak Island, for salting their 
fish. During the season of 1881 over 3,000 barrels of these fish were put ui) for the California 
market. The workmen of the two companies used seines for catching the fish, and could catch as 
many as were possible to save when caught. 

Tliis species is called KruHiiaya r&ba in the Russian language, and Iku'k knk in the Eskimo 
language; and A' nuk by the Aleuts. 

102. Oncorhynchus kisutcii (Walb.) Gill and Jordan. 

This species arrives at Saint Michael's about the first of August and remains until the freez* 
ing of the fresh water in the latter part of October or early N(»veniber. These fish are not so 
numerous at Saint Michael's as the species nerka^ keta, or gorhuncha. They are larger than either 
of those species, and less in size than the chavicha. The average weight of this species will be not 
far from twenty-two pounds. They are darker colored exteriorly than the other species and have 
spots ou the fins, upper sides, and head. These spots are dark chocolate in life, and soon become 
l)ale alter death. The^' are ]>rocured in the same manner as the other species and are dried for 
food. *The natives of the mainland do not consider this species as heiwg particulaily good. It is 
used principally for dog-food by the Eskimo. I have reason to believe that the more northern 
individuals of this species are not so good as tho^e found farther south. They are quite plentiful 
among the Aleutian Islands. Here they are preserved by drying, salting, or drying for a few days, 
then salting very slightly and hanging in the smoke to finish drying. W^en prepared with c^re 
and smoked for several days with good hard wood (any other than spruce or cottonwood) they are 
fine eating. When fried these fish are very dry, and have a tendency to crumble to fine ])iece8 
while in the pan. The fibers of the meat do not hold together. This species is the last to arrive at 
the Aleutian Is1an<ls and remain until the snow covers the ground. The habits of this species are 
similar to those of the species nerka and gorhuscha^ excepting that the spawn is laid among coarser 
gravel and stones along the banks of the creek and lakes. These fish tear up large areas of 
stones, and by rolling them about clean the slime and mud from the surface of the spawning- 
grounds. Even the banks of the lakes, where a gravel bed has previously formed, will be 
excavated so as to procure the necessary stones among which to deposit their spawn. The 



1 10 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

snouts and tins of tbe fish are worn nearly off at the end of the seiison. The fish in the latter part 
of October and November are so exhausted that they then ascend the small branches of the 
principal streams and there wait their death. I have seen them with the end of the snout worn 
off past tlie muzzle and not a fin on them. At this season the native (Aleut) boys j<o early in the 
morning and catch these fish as they move in the deeper [)ortions of the little streams — deejier 
than wide — which have cut through the ravines. The number of th.ese fish at Atkha is considerably 
greater than at Attn and less than at Unalashka. I have seen individuals of this species caught 
as late as the middle of January. They are, after the middle of September, in goor condition and 
fit only for food during most pressing need. 

The fish is a strong swimmer and very active, stemming the strong currents of the mountain 
streams with a rapid, zigzag conrse. 

The eggs of this species are collected by the youngsters and put into the skin of the fish after 
all the fiesh has been removed. This is as carefully saved as is the ukali made by the adults. 

The Russian name of this species is K&zooch. The Aleuts call it Ka W thakh. 

103. Onchoeynchus gorbuscha (Walb.) Gill and Jordan. 

This salmon is the smallest of all the species in this genus. They will not average over five 
pounds in weight. They are distinguishable at a glance by the arched back, which gives them the* 
common name Hump back or QorbUfsha in the Russian language. This species arrives iftt Saint 
Michael's about the 25th of July and remains five weeks. They also prefer the smaller streams 
and in some places are to be counted only by hundreds of thousands. They appear at the surface 
of the water like the pindrops of an April shower. Near the head of Norton Sound these fish are 
so abundant that the streams are choked with the struggling mass impelled by the calls of repro- 
duction. These fish are obtained in the same manner as the other species. They are fat and when 
friecl are next to the chavi'cha in flavor. The extremel}' old fish have a mealy substance at the base 
of the dorsal fin, beneath the skin, which has a tendency to make the meat dry. The belly is very 
fine, and in the earliest fish to arrive it is not to be surpassed as a pan piece. 

This species has about the same habits as the keta^ preferring, however, to deposit its spawn 
on the clean sand at the bottom of the lakes. 

The exterior color of this species is much lighter than either of the others. The back is light 
plumbeous with silvery sides, the belly white. The fins are darker at the tips and lighter at the 
base, the dorsal and caudal are like the color of the back. 

This fish makes a good article of ukali, but is apt to become very dry. Much other matter 
might be written in regard to the salmon of Alaska. The fishing interest is merely being awakened, 
and not until the sup[>Iy nearer home is exhausted and the demand becomes greater will it be fully 
known what stores of fish are yet in Alaska awaiting the enterprise of the people to bring them 
to a market. The season is sufficiently long for any well-regulated cannery or packing establish- 
ment to procure all that could be taken care of. Native help is abundant and may be procured 
at a very reasonable rate, especially if supplies of tea, coffee, sugar, flour, and crackers are kept 
in store for the natives to draw upon while engaged in the season's work. 

Several persons have attempted to establish works for preserving these fish, but have failed 
for hu*k of the requisite knowledge and, in some instances, insufficiency of capital. Thei'e is no 
doubt that thousands of barrels of salted salmon and the same number of cases of canned fish 
could be prepared in the summer season at the mouth of the Yukon. A vessel would have to take 
the su[>plies for each year in advance, as the Ashing season would be half ov^er before a vessel 
could arrive at the grounds, owing to the shifting of the channel. At the Nushagak and Ugasik 
Rivers, also, canneries could be profitably erected, and with a season of ten days longer than at 
the Yukon. At Kadiak but little has been done, though the day is not far distant when other 
establishments will be erected in that neighborhood. The fish already command a remunerative 
price in the San Francisco markets, and have only to be introduced to give an extended eastern 
demand for them. 

The Aleuts give the name Ath ga' yuk to this salmon. 

The relative values of the diflerent species stand as follows, according to the opinion of those 
who have bad opi)ortunity to test the matter : first, the chavi'cha^ then gorhuacha^ kisutch^ keta, 
and nerka. 



ContTlb. Mat. Ubt. AlMka.— Tut 



CONTEIBUTIONS TO THE ITATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. Ill 

The natives have different opinions of their relative values. The Aleuts consider the cartilag- 
inous nose and forehead of the Jcisutch to be the best of food when fresh. I have seen the entire 
family seated on the parlor floor with a Jcisutch before each member, who was industriously strip- 
ping that portion off the head and devouring it. The heads make a rich soup which is highly 
praised by some of the white people. The belly of the chavi'cha is usually cut from the body of the 
large fish and salted a« a separate piece. This is the finest of all salted fish. It is very fat and 
has a taste that once partaken of is rarely forgotten. When freshened and dressed with spices and 
vinegar it is a tempting dish. The Russians make a kind of pastry of salmon-bellies, rice, eggs 
and such other things as may be at hand. When prepared in good style it is very nice, but when 
it has a few shreds of Attn garlic in it it is better to let it alone if you expexit to entertain friends 
during the next several days. 

CLUPEIDiB. 

106. Cltjpea mirabilis Girard. (See Fig. XIV.) 

The herring arrives at Saint MichaePs about the lOtli of June and remains ten to twelve days. 
It is extremely abundant, swimming in large schools near the shore ; seeking localities where sea- 
weeds abound on which to deposit its spawn. 

The natives use seines with meshes of two inches across for these fish and catch tliom by the ton. 
They are eviscerated and dried for food. Among the Aleutian Islands this species is wonderfully 
abundant. At Unalashka they are plentiful in the latter part of July and again in September, 
though the second appearance of the fish is not always certain in this locality. The Aleuts of 
Unalashka catch thousands of these fish in seines. I knew one haul of a seine, about 75 feet long, to 
successfully land 3,G00 of these fish at Immiign^ cove, near Iliuliuk village, on Unalashka Island. 

At Atkha Island they are excessively abundant in Old Harbor, on the northeast side of the 
island. The Atkhan people preserve large numbers of these fish by drying tliem. I do not know 
tlmt they occur at Attn Island ; for during the two seasons that I was there, none put in an appear- 
ance, and as the natives did not speak of them I am led to conclude they do not visit that island. 
AH along the south side of Aliaska an<l the Kadiak district these 6sh are plentiful. Their range 
is comprised between the southern coast of California and Bering's Strait. 

The herring of the Aleutian Islands are larger than those of the Saint Michael's district and 
possess a decidedly superior flavor. 

The Russian name of this fish is Selld; the Eskimo name is I hith ho u'kpiik; the Aleutian 
name for the herring is U'l ngan. 



113. Raia parmifera Bean. 

This Ray is abundant at some localities among the Aleutian Islands. Toward evening, when 
the tide is high, these queer-looking objects come near the water's edge to seek the offal, which may 
have been thrown on the beach after the fish caught during the day have been cleaned. The Rays 
appear to forget that the tide in the ocean has an ebb as well as a flood, for numbers arc left on 
the beach by the receding tide. Early in the morning in January, February, March, and the early 
part of April great numbers are left on the beach. They seem to make no struggle to get back in 
the water, as the sand under them is apparently undisturbed where they lie with their heads to- 
ward the point from which the wind was blowing at the time. When a hard windstorm is com- 
mencing these Rays may be seen sporting at the surface of the water like flashes of light or small 
white-caps just breaking ; dozens at a time may be seen. There is no use made of the flesh. The 
Aleuts look with disgust u])on these fish. The color of the fish is about that of dressed sole- 
leather on the back and white underneath, with pinkish patches near the nose and anus. 

I have never seen this species west of Unalashka, though it doubtless occurs throughout at 
least the eastern islands of the chain. 

At Saint Michael's it is very rare; only a few individuals were known to the natives. This 
species attains a great size, often three feet long and two feet wide. This and one of the large 
Scnlpins (Gottus) are the most disgusting inhabitants of that part of the sea. 



112 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

Their food is composed of anything that may come in the way. The month is capable of 
being projected three or more inches and is sufficient in power when projected to canse tlie hand 
to receive a smart blow. 

The Rnssian-speaking people call the Rays Morskoi ChUca^ or Sea gulls. 

PETROMTZONTIDiB. 

116. Amm:oc(EXes aureus Bean. (See Fig. XV.) 

This species of Lamprey ascends the Yukon River in the latter part of DectMuber of each year 
They are so abundant that figures fail to express an adequate idea of their numbers. They swim 
in larg^ schools toward their spawning place, which is yet undetermined. They are not rapid in 
their movements, so that by the middle of February they have ascended only about 2*10 miles up 
the river. By that time they have aTrived at Anvik and Mission on the Yukon, and by the latter 
part of April they have arrived at Fort Yukon, over 1,000 miles from the mouth of the river. The 
season at any given place is about three weeks. 

At Mission and Anvik the natives, wjio are on the watch for their coming, cut a narrow piece of 
ice out of the river, and in a direction across the current where the fish are luscendiiig. A long 
stick, having several twigs -or forks left on it, is used to obtain these fish. The native then thrusts 
it into the water, and with a quick lift throws out dozens of these fish at a time. In a couple of 
hours an industrious native will have caught a wagon-load of them. The fish are thrown into piles 
.and are left to freeze as they fall. So long as the ice in the river lasts the pile of fish is secure, as 
it is frozen so hard that nothing iiffects it. When the fish are wanted for food a chunk is picked 
off and t^keu to the huts. The fish are very fat. The oil is readily b()i](Ml out, and is said ro have 
a pleasant taste, though a rather rank smell. I am not aware that this species is found anywhere 
else than in the Yukon River. 

The color of the fish is yellowish olive on the back, becoming lighter on sides and dull sul- 
phur-yellow on abdomen and lower side of head. The lower parts i>osterior to the anus are like tlie 
color of the sides. 

The Russian name of this species is Meiwga,, meaning Lamprey. As this species does not occur 
in the vicinity of Saint MichaePs, I could not learn any name for it in the Eskimo language. These 
people only know of the fish by its being obtained from the Yukon. 

SCTMNIDiB. 

95 (of Appendix). Somniosus microcephalus (Bloch) Gill. 

On the 28th of November, 1874, a trader was visiting some fox-traps a few miles above Saint 
Michael's. Uis attention was directed to the dogs which accompanie<l him, snifiing the air, and 
running to the shore under a high bluff where they found a dead Shark which had apparently been 
lying there several days, and was probably stranded there previous to the bay having been frozen 
over on the 19tli of that month. I wiis informed of it, and went with him to the place. In the 
mean time he had set several fox traps near the carcass, as the foxes attracted by the food had 
visited it in great numbers. On arriving at the place he told me to look out for traps. Just at that 
instant a setter dog stepped into one of the traps. The fright made the dog Jump so high that she 
struck him, and nearly knocked him down. After releasing the dog, we jnied the Shark out from 
between the rocks and slioie-ice. It measured seven feet nine inches in length, and weighed 340 
l>ounds. A portion was taken to the redoubt, whei^ it was used as dog food, the dogs having no 
dislike for the meat. 

A second specimen was <*>iistup by the sea near the village of At hwiky or Stebbins,on the western 
side of the island of Saint Michael's, in November, 1876. These two individuals were the only ones 
ever known to occur in that vicinity, as the natives had never seen or heard of them previous to 
the appearance of the first one. 

A large species of Shark (Squaliis acanthias lAnnS) occurs in the neighborhood of Karluk on the 
north western side of Kadiak Island. It comes there in large schools, sometimes numbering thirty 
to fifty, to obtain the salmon which are entering the small river at that point. The natives en- 
gaged in helping preserve salmon for the fishing stations there generally take a calm day and hunt 



CoDtrib. N>t. BUt. Aluka.— Tuinat. 



© 



CONTEIBUTIONS TO THE NATtJBAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 113 

these Sharks with harpoons. After being strack and tired oat the fish is dispatched with a lance, 
driven through the heart The livers are taken out and the oil allowed to drain from them and used 
as food, and is considered quite a prize by those people. The season for the arrival of that Shark at 
Earlak is from the 18th of July to the 25th, and it remains only a few days. I saw the bodies of over 
a dozen individoals from which the livers had been taken. The liver is very large and will yield a 
considerable quantity of oil. 

At Atkha Island I saw a large Shark swimming, with its black fin out of water, in Kazan Bay, 
in the latter part of June, 1879. I fired several shots into it, but failed to get it. This species was 
doubtless different from the one seen at Earluk, and totally distinct from the one at the head of 
this article. Unfortunately I had not the means of preserving large fish, so had, in several instances, 
to let desirable fishes be passed by. 

Octopus punotatus Qabb. 

This creature is distributed in great abundance throughout the southern and eastern part of the 
coast line. It is not plentiful north of the Aleutian Islands, but among them is extremely plenti- 
ful. The natives assert that it was common in Unalashka previous to 1867, but an earthquake 
caused them to leave the neighborhood of Iliuliuk village. Of late y^rs they are beginning to 
reappear. At this place they do not attain a very great size, seldom over three to five feet in expanse 
of arms. At the islands west of the islands of tlie Four Graters this species is found in great num- 
bers, and in some localities attains a great size, some individuals being over 10 feet in expanse 
of outstretched arms. At Ejska Island the largest individuals occur, though but little larger than 
those of Attn. 

They ftequent the shallower parts of the flat-topped reefs of rocks and rocky shoals at the 
entrances to harbors and between islets. 

They are generally drawn up in a crevice of the rock, awaiting an unlucky fish to pass within 
reach, when the arms are thrown out with lightning like rapidity, and seizing the victim it is 
slowly drawn toward the body and devoured. The animal then remains very sluggish for some 
time. The natives also find them where the receding tide has left them in a crevice of the rocks. 
The animal is said at this time to be easily frightened and will run over the beach to the water 
with astonishing rapidity. The natives catch them with a hooked gaff, which is carefully placed 
under the animal when it is discovered in the shallow water. By a quick jerk the animal is with- 
drawn before the disks have an opportunity to grasp the 8urfac3 of the rocks. The flesh is used 
as food, either in a raw condition or boiled. It is considered very fine eating. When going out on 
a fishing party the people are generally successful if a ^^Bak" (Bussian name) is secured for bait. 
Fish of all kinds, which will bite at the hook, eagerly seize this food. Again, the fisherman often pulls 
up a fish and to it is attached an Octopus which has seized it as it was dragged near its retreat. 
It oftentimes seizes the bait of the fisherman and is brought to the surface. It is very difficult to 
manage a large individual, as the arms are pulling and thrashing in every direction. The native en- 
deavors to seize the animal just behind the head, where a slight squeeze will instantly kill it. The 
women are very expert in this, and will firequently kill those of such size that the men will hesi- 
tate to struggle with. 

The gall of this animal is dried and used as an article of paint for canoe-paddles, and orna- 
mental stripes on their garments. The gall is of an india-ink color; has a lustrous fracture, and 
is prepared as a pigment by pounding, or grinding, it on a flat stone with a little water. It is applied 
with the hand and well rubbed in. After an hour or so the painted surface is carefully oiled with 
seal or other animal oil, and held over a fire to allow it to be absorbed. It then turns a dark slaty 
black, and is extremely durable. 

This animal is so abundant that it could be made available as a supply of bait to be used in 
catching cod and other fish. 
S. Mis. 155 15 



PART V.-BIRDS. 



I The number preceding the name corresponds to the number in the A. O. U. Check-list of 1886.1 

2. OOLYMBUS HOLBCELLH (Beinh.). HoJbwlVs Orebe. 

This Grebe is not common in any part of the territory. A single specimen was brought to me 
from the Kuskokvim River, September 10, 1876, by Mr. J. W. Clark, who informed me that this 
species was extremely rare in that locality. It frequents the lakes and tide lagoons. 

Two specimens were obtained at Unalashka Island. In this locality they are to be found only 
in the winter season, and are not at all common. 

The iris is black; bill, greenish-horn ; dusky on culmen and tomial edges; tip of upper man- 
dible, black ; lower, greenish ; feet, greenish with edges of scales darkened ; tips of toes dark ; in- 
ner edges of lobes dark ; claws light-edged ; a male, No. 197, from Unalashka, December 17, 1878. 
Another specimen, from the same locality, has the bill dark on base of culmen and region of 
nostril, otherwise yellow ; feet greenish-yellow with darker lines through centers of scales, while 
the scales themselves are edged with brilliant yellow. 

Several specimens of Grebes were observed among the Aleutian Islands, but it was beyond 
my power to obtain them. The Eskimo name of this Grebe is Ta td tUkj from its note ta-ta-ta. 

3. CoLYMBUS AURITUS Linn. Homed Orebe. 

This Grebe is occasionally seen in the neighborhood of Saint MichaePs ; more often in spring 
or fall. In the interior of the Yukon District it is common, especially along the tributaries of the 
Yukon. At Nulato and Fort Yukon it is said to breed ; although, I do not think it does along the 
coast in the vicinity of Saint MichaePs. 

Among the Aleutian Islands it is to be found in the winter. I did not observe it there in the 
summer and at no time to the westward of Unalashka Island. 

This species prefers the fresh bodies of water, and only resorts to the bays and estuaries when 
the fresh water is frozen. The nesting habits of this species were not learned by me. 

The iris of the species is yellow^ culmen black, rest of bill bright yellow, outer side of tarsus 
and under side of web blackish ; inner side of tarsus, toes, and lobes bright yellow, with faint 
greenish tinge ; claws dark. 

The native who brought me a specimen of this bird had no name for it, and declared it was 
the first he had seen. 

At Attn Island I observed a Grebe, which I suspected was this species. It was so shy that 
near approach was impossible. 

7. Ubinator imbeb (Gunn.). Loan. 

This Loon occurs but sparingly, according to my own experience, along the Alaskan shores. I 
saw three individuals at once in the vicinity of Cape Newenham, and occasionally an individual in 
the vicinity of Saint MichaePs. I failed to secure specimens of it for preser^'ation. 

8. Ubinatob adamsii (Gray). YelUno-MUed Loon. 

This Loon occurs sparingly in the vicinity of Saint MichaePs. 

The only specimen seen by me, that I could certainly identify as this species, was killed by a 
native. A press of other work caused me to delay preparing the skin until it was too late. 

U5 



116 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

9. Ubinatob abotigus (Linn.). BlackthroaUd Loan. 

The BMickthroated Loon is qnite common at Saint Michael's, where it arrives by the middle of 
May. As soon as the sea-ice is moved these birds resort to the sea, rarely far from land. Doring 
the breeding season they retire to the smaller lakes, whose margins are hedged with a growth of 
rankest grass. A nest was known to be in a pond some distance from the Redoubt. I went there 
to obtain the eggs. The parent was sitting in the pond and would not fly, but dove and swam 
round in the water and seemed much distressed by our presence. Several shots were fired into 
her before she was killed. They are extremely tenacious of life; and when they are killed it is 
only after the body is riddled with shot. 

These birds are to be found among the Aleutian Islands at any season of the year. At Am- 
chitka Island a pair frequently were s^n in the bay, during the month of June, but always just out 
of range for a shot. 

They would swim up and down the bay for half a mile and return by the same course. A na- 
tive boy finally shot one of them, unknown to me until after he had plucked the feathers Irom the 
body. The Aleuts value the fiesh very highly, but admit that it is tough. 

Many years ago the natives of Saint Michael's vicinity made use of the skins of this species for 
a number of purposes. I have seen them converted into a sort of work-bag ; in which small, but 
valuable tools were kept. The skin in such a case is cut down the back and the flesh removed. 
The skin is then dried by being worn on the head of the person owning it. Another purpose for 
which it is used is to form a receptacle for the bunch of fine shavings which are tied together and 
serve as a flesh-brush while taking a bath; and, for this reason, it is just as well to ask what is in 
it before investigating its contents on your own account, as these people have but little soap and 
employ something else in lieu of it. 

On the Lower Tukon River is a village called by the Russians Oagara ShapJca, and means Loon 
Gap, on account of the natives wearing the skins of these birds as caps. 

The Eskimo name of this species is Tu S' Wlcj and is derived from the note too-ee — a most dis- 
mal sound heard in the stillness of the night. 

10. UBmATOB PAOiPious (LawT.). Pacific Loon. 

A single specimen of this Diver was obtained August 25, 1876, at Saint Michael's. It is not 
common, and was not recognized to a certainty at any other time. This specimen was an adult 
female and had just passed the breeding season. Where, or how, this bird breeds is unknown to 
me. 

This species vas observed in Ghichagof Harbor, Attn IsliEi.nd, in the winter of 1880~'81. I did 
not observe them there at any other season of the year in the vicinity of Attn; yet they breed in 
considerable numbers on the low grounds of Semichi. 

11. Urinatob lumme (Gunn.). Bed throated Loon. 

The Red-throated Diver is quite abundant thronghodt the Territory. It is common among 
the tributaries of the Yukon River. 

This Diver arrives by the 20th of May, and immediately repairs to the lagoons and grassy 
lakes where it breeds. It remains until late in September. 

They obtain much of their food from the sea. They consume small fish, which they obtain by 
diving. They are very watchful and rely more on their ability to escape danger by diving than 
by flying. When about to dive they draw the head and neck back, throw the body forward 
with a plunge, or else, when surprised, they quietly sink in the water in such manner as to leave 
scarcely a ripple on the surface. 

Among the Aleutian Islands this species is quite abundant. It breeds in nearly all the islands 
of the chain. At Atkha several pairs were known to breed among the lakes on the highest hills. 

Several young of this bird were brought to me, while at Atkha in 1879, but want of time, when 
I received them, caused me to put them in an out-building. The next day I went to look for them, 
and found that the rats had carried them oif during the night. 

When the young birds are not yet able to accompany the parents the latter feed them on 
small fish fry from the sea. A pair which bad nested a couple of miles back of the village at 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATUBAL HI8TOBT OF ALASKA. 117 

Nasan Bay, on Atkba Island, attracted my attention early every morning by their harab, cack- 
ling notes as the parent flew toward the bay to obtain food. I endeavored to discover whence the 
parent came, and posted myself near the track it nsaally flew, bat the intervening hills pre- 
vented me from detecting the locality. I could not bat observe the regolarity with which the 
morning visit was made to the bay. It never varied ten minutes from 8 o'clock a. m. 

The flesh of this bird is considered palatable by many of the Aleuts and most of the people 
near Saint Michael's. 

This spedes remains among the Aleutian Islands the entire year, but lees in winter than in 
summer. 

Quite a number of these Loons breed on Semiohi and Agattu, of the Nearer Group. 

12. LuNDA. oiBHATA Pall. Tufted Puffin. 

The Tufted Puffin is common in the neighborhood of Saint Michael's, though here not more than 
one-third in number compared with F. oorniculata. At some of the localities south of the Kavy^yak 
Peninsula these birds abound. On the outer side of Whale Island, near Saint Michael's, they are 
more plentiful than elsewhere in the immediate vicinity of Saint Michael's. A number of pairs 
breed on the little round island just outside of Whale Island, to the right of the entrance to Saint 
Michael's. A few also breed on Egg Island, to the northward of the entrance to the harbor. At Gape 
Neweuham but few of these birds were seen in comparison to the number of F. camiculata^ with 
which they ate generally associated. Along the northern shores of the Aliaskan Peninsula they 
were seen in considerable numbers, as they were also at the Pribylof Group, Saint Matthew's and 
Saint Lawrence Islands. Among the Aleutian Islands, and on the south side of Aliaska, with 
adjacent islands, these Puffins are found in great numbers. Some of the islands afford better 
locations for breeding, and these are resorted to by incredible numbers of these birds. Their food 
consists of mollusks and other marine food, such as small fish. 

The nesting habits of this Puffin resemble those of the Homed Puffin. My own observations 
show that the former prefer the cliffs and edges of bluffs overgrown with grass, which has made 
an accumulation of soil on the tops and edges of some bluffs to a depth of several feet. This soil 
is a i)erfect network of holes and burrows of these birds. That species of g^rass usually grows in 
large tussocks, and the falling stalks and blades, overlapping the other tussocks, form a convenient 
retreat for these birds, and doubtless the grass is of ranker growth, due to the excrement of these 
birds coming almost in contact with the grass roots. It is not without danger to attempt to walk 
among tbese tussocks, as their roots are not strong, for the least misstep would precipitate the 
person many feet below. 

The nest is usually the bare earth, whereon a single egg is laid. The young take to the water 
before being able to fly. The parent bird assists the young to the water. 

The adult bird may be found many miles from land. They probably visit certain localities 
far off in search of food. 

During perfectly calm weather they experience great difficulty in rising from the water, but 
will flop and kick along the surface for many rods and suddenly drop. When alighting on the 
water they usually dive under the surface for a few feet. They are expert divers, and when 
wounded are difficult to obtain until life is extinct. They are extremely vicious when caught, and 
with their powerful jaws they can inflict a severe wound, not relaxing their hold until the beak is 
pried apart. Their claws are extremely sharp, and scratch deeply into the hand, inflicting painful 
wounds. The skin of this bird is very tough ; and, as the plumage is nearly uniform in color, 
these Puffins are much sought for by the natives, who use their skins to convert into articles of 
clothing. 

While the natives are on the summer hunt for sea-otters they improve the days qpfavorable for 
that pursuit in visiting the breeding localities of the Tufted and Homed Puffins, to catch them for 
their skins. The hand is usually protected with a leathem glove of seal-skin, or else a coat sleeve 
is wrapi)ed around on the hand. The bird makes little attempt to avoid capture, but holds by the beak 
to the person, and uses its feet to best advantage. The natives endeavor to catch the bird by the 
wing, as the daws are then used to retard the bird being withdrawn from its crevice or hole, and, 
besidcBy in the strugglCi if the bird should be taken by the body the feathers might be poUed oat 



118 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

As soon as the bird is captared the native either breaks the small of the bird's back, or else bites 
it in the head. This latter method is preferred for killing all kinds of large birds, and is more 
practiced by the Aleuts, while the northern people break the back of the bird. When the native 
returns home with a sufficient number of birds for his own and family necessity, the labor of taking 
out the flesh begins. The beak is cut off just at the edge of the feathers, the meat, bones, and 
everything else inside of the skin must come out at that hole. The wings are carefully drawn un- 
til the humerus can be dislocated from the body. The wing is then cut off. The skin is now 
turned inside out and the larger, adherent particles of flesh and fat are removed. The skins are 
then hung up to dry until the severe weather of winter compels the women to remain within 
doors. A certain liquid has been saved up for a considerable time until it acquires a intolerableodor. 
The skins are then soaked in this liquid until the oiliuess and fatty parts are removed from 
the skins, and if the person is able to purchase soap the skins are then washed in a strong suds. 
If not washed in soapy water it matters little, as the greater part of the odor is removed by wash- 
ing in some convenient creek until the person is tired, which occurs before long engaged. The 
skins are then hung up to dry. After that the skins are carefully scraped ; and the toagher parts 
chewed between the teeth to make them pliable. An Aleut woman will go on a visit to a neigh- 
bor to have a Chypeet^ or tea-party ; in the intervals of drink and gossip a bird-skin will be drawn 
from beneath the folds of her garment ; and, she will then as complacently chew the skin as one of 
our country dames will draw out her knitting and pipe to while away the time. 

The number of skins used for a jparfta, or long gown-like garment, with or without a hood, is 
variable, according to the size and height of the wearer. A common-sized man requires the skins 
of forty-flve birds of the Puffin kind. The women and children require less. Forty-five skins are 
usually bundled together and rated as one parka. 

The parka is worn with the feathers inside; and, when the garment is new, makes the wearer 
quite conspicuous. The skins are cut down the back, leaving a straight edge, to which another is 
sewed until the required length is obtained. On the edge of this strip another strip is added. 
This will be heavy and inconvenient in sewing, so another pair of strips are sewed together until 
the desired height of the garment is obtained. The arm pieces are made separately, and are the 
last to be sewed on. The edges of the collar and sleeve are bound with cloth to prevent tearing. 
The flesh side of the skin is then ornamented with stripes of paint of various colors, such as 
vermilion, green, blue, or black. Before the introduction of dry paints the natives used various 
colored rocks, which they powdered up and mixed with blood of the raven or other land-bird, and 
applied it for ornamental purposes. A parka is expected to last for two years; but, in the soot- 
begrimed houses, it soon becomes a receptacle for all dirt. The parka may be washed in water 
occasionally; and, I believe this is only done when it becomes so infested with vermin that the 
owner is afraid to put it down for fear it will walk off. A washed parka of nearly two years old 
is a sorry-looking object. The long feathers are by that time mostly fallen off. A few patches of 
down and skin are about all that remain. 

Before the advent of the Russians and the introduction of civilized clothing this parka was 
the only garment worn by the Aleuts, and is now quite extensively used by the Attn men and 
women. 

14. FBATEBGULi. OOBNIOULATA (Naum.). Homed Puffin. 

The Homed Puffin is abundant on all the shore line of Alaska south of the Arctic circle; and, 
in favored localities it abounds in incredible numbers. Their favorite resorts on land are the high, 
precipitous walls of rock, which face the sea, or else the small islets which have their bases composed 
of immense blocks of rocks thrown irregularly together. 

At Saint Michael's Island there are but few places affording suitable locations for them. On 
Wha^, Stewart's and Round Island, in that neighborhood, the abrupt nature of their outlines 
form convenient harbors for this bird; hence they frequent those places in considerable numbers. 

AtGapeNewenham,on the northern side of Bristol Bay, I saw these birds in countless thousands 
in June, 1878. They were constantly flying from the sea to the higher parts of that bold cape. 
A few days after I saw them quite as plentifully in toward the head of Ttigiak Bay. Later in 
that month I saw them in thousands near Am4k Island, just north of the western end of the Penln- 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 119 

Bala of Aliaska. This is the beginning of the area of their greatest abundance. All the Aleutian 
Islands, with their adjacent islets, form an east and west extension of a continaoos breeding 
ground of these birds for over a thousand miles in length. The Pribylof Oroup, Saint Mathew's 
Island and Saint Lawrence Island are also great breeding places of these Puffins. 

Their nests are placed on the ledges of the highest cliffs of those islands where foxes are' found, 
and on islands where foxes are not found these birds breed generally at the bases of blufib, un- 
der the large rocks which have become detached and fallen down. Their nest is composed of just 
whatever happens to be there, be it sticks, stones, or earth. A few feathers may be dropped from 
the bird, but not for an evident purpose of nest construction. A single egg of clear white color 
is laid on the bare gravel or earth. The egg is very large for the size of the bird, and when cooked 
is tolerable eating. The bird sits long at a time on the egg, and does not leave it until hunger com- 
pels her to seek food. Their food is composed of mollusks of various kinds, a few shreds of cer- 
tain sea- weed fronds, and larvsB, which are abundant on some of these sea- weeds. 

The young leave the nest before being able to fly. The parent assists them to the water; and, 
should they have been reared on the fa<^e of a high bluff, the old bird catches the young one by 
the wing and they flutter at a long angle to the water. The old bird endeavors to keep under the 
young one. I have seen them drop their young accidentally and cause great consternation of the 
parent, which could'not check her flight immediately, but returned and showed great solicitude by 
turning the young one over and over in the water to see if it was injured. During severe storms 
the young are taken to the lee of some reef or islet until the waves become quiet 

Early in the morning these birds quit the shores and go out to sea to hunt their food. 
Late in the afternoon they return. For several hours these birds keep a constant stream on the way. 
They frequently go many miles from land, and should a fog prevail they return with unerring cer- 
tainty to their particular locality. This Puffin is constantly associated with L, cirrhatay and, in 
general habits, agree with it, though the former is more difficult to obtain. The skins of this bird 
are used to a great extent in making articles of clothing for some of the western Aleuts and some 
of the natives near the Yukon Delta and southward. 

The Eskimo name of this Puffin is Ka WkhpUkj and signifies Big white- breast. 

16. PTyoHOBi.MPHUS ALEUTious (Pall.). Cassiu^s AuJclet 

A specimen of this Auklet was obtained at Atkha Island, June 23, 1879. The bird was brought 
by a fisherman who lives at Old Harbor, on the northeast end of Atkha Island. He reported this 
species to be not abundant, yet common and breeding there. 

17. Cycloerhynohus psittaculus (Pall.). Paroquet Auklet, 

No specimen of this Anklet was obtained or seen at Saint Michael's. Among the Aleutian 
Islands it is abundant, and breeds in all suitable places along the chain. It is not sociable, being 
rarely seen in flocks of more than three or four, and more often solitary. 

This species is more abundant among the central portions of the Aleutian chain than else- 
where, and is plentiful on Agattu Island; rare on the other islands of that group, though not 
resident. 

18. SiMOEHYNCHUS CEISTATELLUS (Pall.). Crested Auklet. 

The Crested Auklet was observed on two occasions at Saint Michael's. It is very rare in that 
immediate vicinity, though it doubtless occurs in other localities near that place. 

At Bristol Bay and on the northern side of Aliaska I saw numbers of these birds. 

Among the Aleutian Islands this Auk is extremely abundant. They report to the outlying 
islets and rocks away from the larger bodies of land. 

I failed to obtain their eggs, for the reason that the nest is placed far under huge rocks, or in 
the deep, inaccessible crevices. 

This species remains, in few numbers, among the waters surrounding the Aleutian Islands, but 
in the summer season is greatly more numerous, esi)ecially so among the more western islands. 

The iris is white, feet dusky, bill crimson with a horn-blue tip. The colors of the bill become 
intensified upon drying. 



120 OONTEIBXJTIOirS TO THE NATTTEAL mSTORT OP ALASKA. 

The note of this bird is a pecnliar grant of two or three syllables. It is impossible to repre- 
sent the sound by any oombination of letters. 

In former years when the Alents of one village or island made war on their neighbors the early 
morning notes of this bird indicated to the people the time of day for making an attack. 

The Eskimo of Norton Sound use the red processes at the base of the bill of this bird to attach 
to the flsh-lines to attract the fish. 

19. SiMOBHYiYOHUS PTOM^us (GmoL). Whiskered AuJclet [See Plate I.] 

Three si>ecimen8 of this Anklet were obtained at Atkha Island, Jane 12, 1879. Two of them 
were adult males in the breeding plumage and one in the downy stage. 

They were brought to me by a native, who had killed them near the base of Eorovinsky 
volcano. 

They were reported to be common in that neighborhood. 

I saw several individuals near the outer islet at the entrance to Nazau Bay, on Atkha Island. 
They were not recognized in any other part of the Aleutian Ohain, excepting on the Nearer Group, 
where they were quite abundant. 

The summer plumage of the adult male is dark slate on head, nape, back, and wings. The 
shoulders have an obscure bronzy shade, the tip of the wings becoming lighter. The throat is a 
little lighter than the head and fades to light grayish on the abdomen. The tuft on the head 
consists of Ave to seven filamentous feathers, of color of head, curved forward so that their tips 
hang directly over the tip of the bill. These feathers, which form the tuft, become lighter in color 
according to age of the individual. In front of the eye and above the angle of the mouth three 
filamentous feathers of pure white point directly backward. These form the upper angle of a V- 
shaped white patch, which has its forward angle beginning at the base of the apper mandible. 
The other branch continues back of the rictus and terminates in white filaments, which extend 
back the same distance as the terminal filaments of the upper branch. Behind the eye is- a white 
narrow stripe, consisting of several very long, white filaments, the longer of which extend about 
half an inch beyond the shoulders when the bird is sitting on the water. 

The young in the downy stage is of dark, sooty-brown, somewhat lighter on the abdomen. 

In the adult the bill is deep vermilion, with bluish tip. The feet, toes, web and claws dark. 
Iris black« In the young the bill and feet are dusky. 

20. SiMOBHTNOHUS pusiLLUS (Pall.). Leost Auklet. 

Many individuals of this Auklet were seen while I was on a sailing vessel travelling from one 
place to another among the Aleutian Islands. This species occurs along the entire chain, and as 
far east as Eadiak. On the north side of Aliaska I observed it only in the vicinity of Am4k 
Island, near the western end of the peninsula of Aliaska. 

In 1874 I observed it in abundance near Saint Mathew's Island. 

This bird does not come near the present settlements on the Aleutian Islands, while at Saint 
George's Island, of the Pribylof Group, it is wonderfully abundant almost in the village. 

They are very active while on the water, and disappear like a flash when they dive. Near 
Semichi and Atkha I observed quite a number of these little birds sitting on the water. 

21. Synthlibobhamphus antiqutjs (Gmel.). Ancient Murrelet. 

A single specimen of this bird was obtained at Atkha Island, June 12, 1879. It was brought 
to me by a native, who had shot it at the base of Kor6vinsky volcano, on the northeast end of 
AtkHa Island. 

Upon inquiry I was informed that these birds are plentiful in that locality, and breed in holes 
made in the turf, or sod, overhanging the brow of the cliff's. 

Among the Nearer Islands this Murrelet is abundant in summer, breeding, and is sparingly 
resident ; rarely coming to Attn, but more plentiful on the western end of Semichi and the south 
sideof Agattu. 

24. Bbaohybamphus KiTTLiTzn (Brandt). KitttiUfi OuiUemot [See Plate II«] 
A single specimen of Kittlitz's Guillemot was obtained April ^24, 1879, at Ilitiliuk village on 



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CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 121 

Unalashka Island. It was the only one seen in that locality. The native who brought it to me 
asserted that this species is abundant throughout the year at Sannakh Island. They breed there, 
laying a single, pure white egg. The nest is placed among the roots of the large tussocks of grass 
on the edges of bluffs and cliff ledges. 

I observed several of these birds to the westward of Unalashka Island. They are not rare on 
Amchitka Island, and in the neighborhood of the Old Harbor, on Atkha Island. 

The S])ecimen obtained by me was in the winter plumage of the following pattern : 

Forehead, top and back of head dark plumbeous, back, rump, and upper tail-coverts plumbe- 
ous. The feathers of the middle back and whole of the rump tipped very narrowly with white* 
Tail dusky, tipped narrowly with white. Wings dusky slate. Secondaries and greater coverts 
narrowly tipped with white. Scapulars chiefly white, forming a broad, longitudinal stripe. A nar- 
row, white collar round hind neck scarcely interrupted in middle portion. A broad, transverse 
space of uniform slate color on each side of breast, separated by less than an inch of white between 
them. Lores, superciliary and supra-auricular regions, with rest of head and neck and entire lower 
parts, pure white. 

Bill black, feet weak, pale blue in front and darker posteriorly. Claws and iris black. 

The following measurements were taken. Length, 9.75 ; wing, 5.15; bill, 4; rictus, I ; tarsus, 5 • 
middle toe, 95. A comparison of this species with that of B, marmoratuH shows the winter plumage 
of the latter to be: Forehea<l, sides, top and back of head dusty slate; back and rump plumbeous, 
each feather of the back narrowly tipped with white; tail, slate; wings, dark slate, the remiges 
decidedly darker. The secondaries and greater coverts tipped with a narrow edge of white. 
Scapulars white, forming a broad longitudinal stripe. Beneath pure white. White collar inter- 
rupted, for nearly half an inch, on back of neck. Measurements show: Length, 10.2; wing, 4 9; 
bill, .8; rictus, 1.3; tarsus, .78; middle toe, 1.1. 

28. Cepphus mandtii (Licht). MandVs Ouillemot. 

The Black Guillemot occurs rarely at Saint Michael's; only two specimens were obtained there. 
One of them was shot February 1, 1875, after a severe storm had moved the ice. 

It was obtained by a native, who shot it as it sat in a crevice of the ice. It was in the winter 
plumage. The second specimen was obtained late in March of 1875, far out at sea beyond Stewart's 
Island, and procured al^o by a native, who was out sealing. 

I know nothing of the general habits of this bird. It was not observed at any other place 
along the coast, or on the Aleutian Islands. 

The bill and iris are black, mouth crimson, feet red. 

29. Cepphus columba (Pall.). IHgeon Guillemot. 

This Guillemot occurs sparingly in the vicinity of Saint Michael's. Around the northeast end 
of the island of Saint Michael's and near Whale Island a few may be seen after the ice has left the 
shores. It breeds on the little islet near Whale Island. I could not obtain the eggs, because they 
were too far under the huge blocks of stone at \X» base. 

At Cape Newenham I observed numbers of these birds in June, 1878. 

This species is abundant at some of the Aleutian Islands. It frequents the small islets off' 
shore and is rather shy, permitting no reasonable approach. The only way I could obtain them 
was to watch from the top of some bluff and shoot them as they sat below. They utter only one 
note, a sharp, ringing ticseet. When sitting on the water they ride buoyantly, and rise without 
difficulty. This species is not abundant at the extreme western Aleutian Islands; but few were 
seen at Attu, though in the neighborhood of Agattu and the Semichi Islnnds they are more plenti- 
ful, and not observed in winter. On the south side of Aliaska, and adjacent islands, I saw numbers 
of these birds. 

Off to the north of IJmnak Island, al>out twenty miles distant, lies the recently upheaved island, 
named Bogoslov; here I saw thousands of these Guillemots in 1881, as I passed it. The island 
seemed to be one of the principal breeding grounds of this s))ecies, as they were here in such num- 
bers in June. 

The mouth and feet of this bird are bright red ; claws, bill, and iris black. The Eskimo name 
of this Guillemot is T( tUk. 
S. Mis. 155 16 



122 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

30a, Uria troile oalifornica (BryaDt). California Murre. 

The California Guillemot occurs sparingly among the places resorted to by U. lomvia arrcj and 
is so intimately associated with that species, in mode of life, as to call for no separate description. 
The only difference in the birds is the character of the bill. 

I am not aware of the extreme northern range of this species; this could be determined only 
by an indiscriminate slaughter of all the genus obtainable. I did not procure it at Saint Michael's, 
but observed it as far north as Saint Mathew's Island. 

31a. Uria lomvia arra (Pall.). Pallas^s Murre. 

Pallas's Guillemot arrives at Saint Michael's as soon as the ice has moved sufficiently to show 
water in the cracks or about the bases of the small, outlying islets. This date is rarely later than 
the 25th of May. This species is not abundant in the immediate vicinity of Saint Michael's. At 
^Sg Island, about ten miles from the entrance to the harbor, many of these birds breed every year 
on the bluffs and ledges. The egg is laid on the bare rock without pretense of nest. Only one egg is 
laid in a season if undisturbed, but will be renewed if the season is not too far advanced. The egg 
is very large, having a bluish-green ground with dark, brown mottlings of variable outline. The 
shell is exceedingly strong and may be rolled around in such manner as to astonish any one not 
familiar with it. It is very palatable and remains fresh for a long time. 

At Cape Newenham, on the north side of Bristol Bay, 1 saw thousands of these birds repair- 
ing to the cliffs of that cape. They were especially numerous in other localities along the northern 
side of Aliaska. Along the entire Aleutian chain these birds are to be found. At Bogoslov 
Island millions of them breed every summer. I was in a boat within few yards of that island in 
June, 1880, and pae^sed within 300 yards of it in a vessel in June, 1881. A large colony of sea- 
lions breed here every year. Some of the crew fired rifle shots at some of the sea-lions, and when 
the sound of the re])ort was reverberated against the bluff the air was filled with these birds. 
The entire surface of the it^land, from 100 feet from its base to its top, was made white with the 
breasts of these birds. The island is about 000 feet high, and conical, composed of disintegrating, 
angular pieces, constantly being detached, by action of the weather, from the mass which composes 
the island. When the birds flew from their nests small pieces of stone were thrown down, and 
these again started others, that on one occasion caused, by the great mass of fine rock falling on it, 
a huge rock to come bounding down its side right in the midstof oneof the principal places where 
the sea-lions were lying. The large rock that fell was not less than twelve feet square, and weighed 
over a hundred tons. The thundering noise caused the hundreds of sea-lions to take to the water, 
and in their haste many were so injured as to be incapable of regaining their places when their 
alarm had subsided. The rock rolled (in several, and mashed them flat. The birds took flight, 
and darkened the air with their numbers. 

These birds are very quarrelsome during the breeding season, and many are killed by being 
dashed on the rocks below the nests. I have frequently, after a hard storm, found these birds 
dead on the beach where the waves had thrown them. 

On the water these biids ride gracefully and have the habit of swimming on one side only. I 
had observed this feature in several of them, and suspected the birds to have been wounded, but 
on chasing them I found to the contrary. They have two notes, one of which is like the Meat of an 
old ram, the other is like calling a-a to some one at a distance. From the latter note is derived 
the specific name of the bird. The Eskimo call them Ahl pa. The Eussians call thera Arra, and 
some writers have supposed this to be the origin of the specific name, but in all the languages of 
the people neighboring to these birds the vernacular is derived from the note a a, and in these 
languages the name invariably begins with a. The iris and bill of this bird are black, the feet are 
dusky. The flesh is palatable and is eagerly eaten by the natives. 

This bird is quite plentiful among all the Aleutian Islands, and is a winter resident from Una- 
lashka to the end of the chain. 

36. Stebcorarius pomarinus (Temm.). Pomarine Jaeger, 

The Pomarine Jaeger arrives at Saint Michael's by the first week in June, or it may arrive by 
the 23d of May if the season is sufficiently advanced. This species is an inhabitant of the drier 



CONTBIBrTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 123 

portions of tbe lowlands, nsually solitary, though several may be seen at one time in the neighbor, 
hood. When not on the wing they may be seen sitting on an elevated tusfjock of grass watching 
for insects. They seek their food by wandering over great areas, generally the chains of lakes. 
An> refuse matter, small fish or wounded bird, is eagerly seized by them. When sitting on the 
water the buoyancy of this bird is such that it seems to scarcely touch the surface of the water. 
The iris of this bird is dark brown, tarsi and toes bluish, web and soles black. 

37. Steboobabius pabasiticus (Linn.) Parasitic Jaeger. 

The Parasitic Jaeger arrives at Saint Michael's about the same time as theotherspecies. This 
species frequents the water more than the Pomarine Jaeger. It searches the beach, bays, and 
lakes for food, which consist of fishes that may have been cast on the beach, shell fish, and 
other animal food. They also eat the berries of Empetrum nigrum. They harass the Gulls and 
terns, causing them to disgorge the food which they have just swallowed. On one occasion I saw 
two of this s)>ecies attempt to chase a Gull, L. barrovmnuH^ which is not an a<;tive bird on the 
wing, but on this occasion was in a bad humor. Amidst the fiercest screams the Gull succeeded 
in putting both the Jaegers to flight, and pursuit was continued for several hundred yards. 

I was out one evening, just as the sun had disappeared behind the hills. When I came to the 
chain of lakes back of Saint Michael's, I observed several muskrats swimming in one of the shallow 
lakes. After I had watched them for some time, I shot one and too'c off its skin, which I threw 
on the surface of the water. A gentle wind drove it several yards from me. 1 was about to go 
elsewhere, when I observed a bird, half a mile ofi", making directly for me. I recognized it to be a 
Jaeger, which, with scarcely a movement of its wings, drove straight for the piece of muskrat-skin. 
It seized the skin in its beak and then passed it to its claws, by which it carried it off a little 
distance and began to strip the adhering muscle and fat from it. This bird was certainly pos- 
sessed of keenest eyesight. These birds are said to breed on the faces of high bluffs. I never 
saw the nests or eggs. This bird is a frequent visitor to the Aleutian Islands. I observed it at 
Atkha July 17, 18711, and again in June, 1880, at the same place. A few days after I saw one 
flying near the vessel while off Eiska Island. At the Semichi Islands it breeds abundantly, ac- 
cording to the assertions of the natives. I have seen the bird on several occasions near Chichagof 
Harbor, Attn Island, but it visits only this island from Agattu and Semichi. 

At Amchitka Island I saw several of these birds sitting on the hillocks and tussocks of grass. 
They were at this place exceedingly shy, and would under no circumstances permit me to approach 
within gunshot. During fine weather these birds have the habit of sitting for a long time in an 
apparent doze. Of the many individuals seen on the Aleutian Islands I have never observed that 
activity of this bird which characterizes it in the Yukon district. 

The Eskimo have many traditions connected with this bird. They ascribe great prowess 
and bravery to it. In the earliest times this bird was a cannibal, and is now called A hlukk tay6o 
U, and means thief, because it formerly stole men. The iris of this bird is brown, tarsi and toes 
blue, web and soles black, claws black, beak blackish. 

38. Steboobabius longioaudus Vieill. Lang-tailed Jaeger. 

The Long-tailed Jaeger arrives several days x)revious to the appearance of its congeners. The 
18th of May, 1875, was a day of special abundance. I killed nine of them that day, and did not 
walk out of an area bounded by thirty yards sqnare. On their first arrival they are somewhat gre- 
garious, though this may be due to the limited portions of ground free from snow. At this time the 
little pools of the low ground are being rapidly thawed out; many cracks in the heaving sea-ice 
expose the water to view. These places are then scanned for food. When the ice in the lakes and 
larger ponds is melted, these birds usually are hovering in the vicinity, or seated on some knoU 
watching a gull or tern dive for a fish. The Jaeger gives chase, uttering a scream that frightens 
the gull or tern, and causes it to disgorge the fish. The Jaeger is extremely swift on wing, and 
when pursuing another bird thrashes the air with wing and tail, giving an undulatory motion to 
the body. These birds may frequently be seen sitting on a solitary rock, exposed in some shallow 
tide lagoon, or else walking along the beach, in search of food cast up by the sea. 

Their nests and eggs were not obtained by me. They are said to build on the clifb and blaffs 



124 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

aloDg the Yukon Elver near Mission. They also breed on the hillsides of the tandra. Several 
pairs were known to be breeding near Saint Mlchaers, but I failed to discover their nest. During 
the breeding season they are very shy. In the fall they have sufficient curiosity to allow them to be 
killed. Should one of their kind be shot and slightly wounded the others will gather round it, and 
if not frightened away will soon dispatch their comrade. 

I had frequently wounded desirable species of ducks and other birds on the lakes, but when 
taken out by the wind from my reach I had to leave th»*m until I returned, sometimes the next day. 
On my return I always found that the feathers had been plucked from the breast of the bird and 
the flesh had been eaten. I suspected the rouskrats of having done it until I detected a Jaeger 
in the act of eating a bird which I had left. 

The Long-tailed Jaeger is rarely seen on the Eastern Aleutian Islands. I saw one at Sannakh 
Island in July, 1878. I saw a few at Atkha Island in 1879, and two at Attn Island in 1880. They 
were flying over the water of the bays but never in gunshot. This species is reported to breeil 
at the Semichi Islands — there among the little knolls of the low ground. Throughout the Terri- 
tory of Alaska the Jaegers are known to the Russian-speaking population as Ras Mi nik^ a word 
meaning robber, thief. The Eskimo of Norton Sound call this species Yung Uk, and means little 
man. The Jaegers are all intimately connected with many of the traditions of the Eskimo. 

40/t. RissA TRIDAOTYLA POLLICARIS Ridgw. Pacific Kittiicake. 

The Pacific Kittiwake is a common bird at Saint Michael's when the ice breaks up, a date which 
varies from the 15th of May to the middle of June. They remain longer than any of the gull kind, 
except L. harrorianus. It is not an abundant bird at any time in this vicinity. The great breeding- 
grounds of this species is farther south. On the Pribylof Group and some of the western Aleutian 
Islands this species breeds in thousands. In this locality (Saint Michael's) I am led to infer that 
it breeds but sparingly. A young female (a bird of the year) was killed October 2, 1874, at Saint 
Michael's. 

The adult plumage is assumed the first year. This specimen presented the following pattern 
of coloration : Head pure white with circumorbital space clouded with more or less black. Post- 
anricnlar space and a narrow band over hind neck black, succeeded by a grayish band reaching to 
the interscapulars. Back dark gull-blue, lightening toward the upper tail coverts, which are pure 
white. Tail black tipped for little more than an inch. Wing coverts at their insertion blackish with 
numerous lighter pearl-blue markings which become white on the tips, forming a longitudinal 
band. Primary coverts black. Primaries black, excepting the inner ones, which are white tinged 
with blueish. The under side of the primaries is black with white shaft to the quills. The plumage 
below is pure white. Iris black, bill black, claws black, feet pale flesh. This Kittiwake usually 
seeks its food against the wind, and if several birds are together they go abreast, stretched out 
for many yards in line. When an object of food is discerned this bird generally mounts a few 
feet and comes down with a plunge, and remains on the water scarcely an instant. I have never 
seen one sitting for any length of time on the water. They are nearly always on the wing. 

41. RissA BREViROSTRis (Bruch.). Red legged KitHwake. 

The Red-legged Kittiwake is not a common bird in the vicinity of Saint Michael's. The onlj one 
obtained there was a young female, dated September 18, 1876. Farther south this bird has been 
observed in thousands. The Aleutian Islands and the Pribylof (Jroup are its home. On Akutan 
quite a number were observed on a high cliff near the village on that island. In the same year 
(1878) I saw a few at Sannakh, and in later years I frequently saw them passing the vessel which 
I was on. To the westward this Kittiwake occurs more plentifully than tridactyla, with which it 
associates. 

Not having opportunity, during the breeding season, I did not obtain eggs of this bird. 

The rich vermilion of the legs, the crimson eyelids, clear hazel iris, with the pure white of 
head, neck, and under parts contrast beautifully with the pearl-gray mantle of back and wings. 

The Eskimo name of this bird is ^g Wk, and signifies big throat. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 125 

42.1. Labus bareoviantjs Ridgw. Western Glaucous OulL* 

This Gull is the earliest bird to arrive at Saint Michael's. By the middle of April they arrive 
in few numbers, sailing high in the air, almost out of sight. Their note, being tlie first intimation 
of their presence, is always gladly welcomed as a sign that the ice, farther south, is breaking up 
They resort to the low places on their arrival and eagerly scan the fissures of the ice for food. 
They are not at all shy at any season of the year. As they sit on the exposed rocks, just at the 
edge of the water, a native, or other person, in a canoe may pass so close to them that they may be 
knocked off with a paddle. At times they wrangle with the ravens for the offal of fish which some 
native fisherman has left in the village. This large Gull is not particular about food. Anything 
which he can swallow is gulped down. I saw a young bird of this species catch a tomcod that was 
too large to be swallowed. It flew to the bank and picked it to pieces. This bird had been follow- 
ing my canoe for many hundred yards, and when it caught the fish it was not twenty feet away. 

This Gull nests in a tussock of grass that may grow in the middle of a pond in the lowlands, 
otherwise foxes might disturb it. The nest is built of grass and other material. The eggs are 
deposited early in June and are two or three in number. Should the eggs be removed the parent 
will renew the complement, but only one or two will be laid. The period of incubation is about 
three weeks. The young are downy and pure white on their first appearance, but soon change 
to gray with darker mottlings. Thp> plumage in the fall of the first year is dark and remains so 
until the fall of the second year, when it is changed to a much lighter shade. The spring of the 
third year gives it the adult plumage of pearl gray and white. A most beautiful bird, so neat in 
plumage that, though it walks the muddiest beach and sits in the mouths of the little streams, 
which pour out a torrent of muddy water after a hard rain, not a single feather will be soiled. 
Among the Aleutian Islands these birds remain throughout the year, though in winter much less 
in number. They are compelled by severe periods of weather to come directly into the villages for 
food. I have frequently seen them sitting on the sod-covered houses of the the natives. At these 
times I have seen them scarcely fly when approached. They sit among the breakers of the little 
bays, and when a wave would come and thi*eaten to upset them a single flap of their large wings 
enabled the wave to pass beneath without disturbance to the bird, which was waiting for the 
undertow to wash up some refuse matter that would oft'ord a morsel of food. They frequently get 
rolled over by a wave when their attention is too deeply riveted on some object that a previous 
wave had brought to view. When taking flight from the water these Gulls sprf^ad their wings out 
and run for several feet on the surface of the water. 

This Gull is especiall}' numerous in some localities. At Saint Michael's but few breed, while 
on some of the Aleutian islands* especially Akutan, Umnak, Amchitka, Amlia, many thousands 
breed. At Earliik, on the northwest shoulder of Kadiak, I saw countless thousands of these Gulls 
in August, 1881, as they were on the cliffs near the fishing station. 

The bill and the feet of the young bird are brown to lead gray. The adult has flesh colored 
feet, and yellow bill, on which is a red spot near the end of the lower mandible. 

The note of this bird is variable, in spring a harsh kaou, which changes to a deep honk in a few 
weeks. When flying along the shore a prolonged, grunting croak is uttered. I have also ob- 
served that the Western Glau<ms Gull changes its note during the winter, as at this time a note is 
uttered which is heard at no other season ; and in the spring the note is not again heard. 

The Eskimo name for the Western Glaueus Gull is Kd kefzh vUk^ meaning the large one utter- 
ing ko k6. 

The Aleuts have several names for it to iudicate the special plumages as are shown by the age 
of the bird. The adult is called Hlu kakh^ and is derived from the note of this species. 

There is no special use made of these birds by any of the natives of Northern Alaska, except 
for food. The flesh of the young bird is considered excellent, and when other food is scarce au old 
Gull is often killed for that purpose. The eggs of this species are excellent when fresh, but become 
rancid in a few days. 

44. LAltus GLAUCESCENS Naum. Olaucous winged Gull. 
This Gull o<*.curs si>aringly in the vicinity of Saint Michael's, where I obtained one specimen. 

*See '*Aak» July, 1S86, pp. 330-1. 



126 COKTRIBUTIOKS TO THE NATXJJBAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

Along the Aleutian Islands it occurs in greater numbers, but is generally in the less accessible 
places. I obtained a specimen at Unala^bka Island in the winter (December 14) of 1878. I did not 
observe it so often in the eastern islands of the Aleutian chain. It occurs plentifully round San- 
nakh, the 8h6magiu Islands, and Kadiak, and abundant on the Fearer Group. I did not obtain 
eggs of this species, though it doubtless breeds along the entire coast of the territory south of 
Bering Strait. 

« 

55. Labus braghtbhynchus Rich. Shorthilled Oull 

The Short -billed Gull arrives at Saint Michael's according to the openness of the season. It 
comes in few numbers as soon as large cracks are made in the ice. This may be early as the first 
of May or as late as the 25th. The season of 1874 was unusually open. Upon our arrival at Saint 
Michael's, on May 25, hundreds of these gulls were flying over the bay. In the course of a few days 
they became less, so that by the middle of June only few pairs were seen. In later years they were 
not abundant at any time, though the breaking up of the ice was accompanied with visit^s of num- 
bers of them. During the breeding season these Gulls resort to the higher blufis and clifis. Such 
locations are not found in the vicinity of Saint Michael's, and but few pairs were known to breed 
there. Sometimes they breed on Whale Island near there. 

Among the Aleutian Islands these birds congregate in many thousands on the cliffs to breed. 

On the islands where I have been stationed natives also live. They and the foxes keep, to a 
great extent, these, and in fact nearly all other water birds, from breeding near the settlements. It 
is to the uninhabited islands that the majority of the birds resort, hence did not obtain the eggs of 
this species. 

At Atkha Island, in the early part of August, 1879, a small species of fish (MaUotus mHosus) 
was thrown up by the waves onto the beach. These fish cast their spawn in the sand and is cov- 
ered by the next wave. 

The Gulls of this species follow the wake of these fishes, and during the spawning season 
devour many thousands of them. 

At Amchitka Island I observed this species frequenting the beach at low tide and securing the 
sea-urchins {Strongylocentratus drobaekiensis A. Ag.) which occur plentifully. The birds seize the 
prey, carry it several ;rards into the air and then drop it on the rocks ; or, as it frequently happens, 
into the little pools left by the receding tide. These pools are of variable depth, but when of not 
more than a few inches deep, the bird again took the object to drop it, perhaps into the same place ; 
evidently not with the intention of washing any objectionable matter from its surface, but simply 
from the fact that the bird had not yet learned to calculate the law of falling bodies, .yet when the 
shell-fish was dropped on the rocks and broken open the bird greedily devoured the well filled ovaries. 
These Gulls and the Ravens, frequently carry the shells far to the inland and there break them open 
with their beaks. The old shells may be frequently found on a knoll of ground or tuft of grass. 

During the winter these birds retire to some other locality but not distant, as they return early 
in March to the western Aleutian Islands. 

The flesh is said to be very good ; the Aleuts eat it either raw or cooked. The bill, feet, and 
toes of this species are greenish yellow, the web yellowish, eyelids crimson, iris dark hazel. 

60. Labus Philadelphia (Ord). Bonapart^s GulL 

Individuals of this species were procured and seen only at the mouth of the Kuskokvim Biver, 
June 17, 1879. 

At that date the twilight lingers throughout the entire night, and during this time I wandered 
along the banks of a large lake, lying several hundred yards distant from the warehouse, used to 
store the trader's annual supplies in if he does not happen to meet the vessel when she arrives in 
the spring. I secured three specimens of this Gull, but was unable to preserve them on account of 
bad weather coming on the next day, causing other feelings than a desire to skin birds. 

This is the only locality where I saw this Gull. 

62. Xbma sabinii (Sab.). Sabint^s Oull. ' 

This Gull is found abundantly in the vicinity of Saint Michael's. A few miles farther south it 
is very numerous. It breeds along the low grounds from Saint Michael's to Bristol Bay. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 127 

A yoang one scarcely able to fly was obtained at the ^^ canal " on the 21st of July, 1875. It 
had doubtless been reared at that place. 

They are rarely seen in large flocks, though a dozen may be seen at a time. I saw once a 
flock of not less than seventy-five, on the 29th of October, 1876, flying northward past the redoubt. 
They settled on the water of the bay for a few moments and took their flight farther northward. 

Their food consists of worms and aquatic insects. 

I examined the crops of eight specimens that were obtained July 21, 1875, and all were filled 
with aquatic larvsB of an insect thai could not be determined. 

I have never seen this bird hovering over the ponds like the Onlls and Terns. 

I observed this species at the month of the Kuskokvim River in June, 1878, and at Nushagak 
and Tdgiak, on Bristol Bay, in the same month. 

It is not found on the Aleutian Islands, except in rare instances, as I saw but one at Atkha 
Island, in July, 1879, and one flying near the vessel off Eiska Island, in June, 1880. 

The young birds have a black bill and flesh-colored tarsi, toes, and web; claws black. 

The adults have a black bill with yellow tipjris black, eyelids bright red ; tarsi, toes, and web 
dark lead color; claws black. 

The Eskimo name of this bird is Na ehU'thl ngd Uky and refers to the cap or hood of the bird. 

71. Sterna pabadis^a Briinn. Arctic Tern. 

The Arctic Tern is one of the earliest birds to arrive at Saint Michael's. The earliest date 
recorded was April 25, a very early season, showing that the Terns only await the movement of the 
sea-ice to appear in any locality. They become very abundant by the middle of May. They breed 
on the low grounds, preferably a low, damp island, such as those at the northern end of the ^' canal.'' 
On this place hundreds of nests were discovered in 1876. 

The nest is merely a bare spot on the ground ; sometimes a few blades of grass surround the 
margin of the nest, but these seem to be more the result of cleaning off a bare spot than «n attempt 
to construct a nest. 

The eggs vary from one to two, never more. 

The Arctic Tern is so intimately associated with the Aleutian Tern, both in nesting habits and 
procuring foo<l, that the remarks for the one will apply for the other. Their nests are sometimes 
placed within two feet of each other, and apparently without causing animosity between the species. 

The young are hatched in two and a half weeks, and are ready to fly by tlie first of August. 

These birds remain until the end of the first week in September, or some ten days later than 
8, alevtica. 

They procure their food by flying over the water at a slight distance, the head constantly 
twisting to one or the other side to scan the surface for small fish. With a sudden dash, sometimes 
nearly disappearing beneath the water, the bird rarely fails to bring out the fisli for which it dove. 

The Tern will sometimes not see a fish nntil it has flown past the object, and under such cir- 
cumstances I have seen the bird turn a complete somersault and twist over right side up and dive 
for the fish it had just passed. 

When they have completely wetted the surface of their plumage they halt for an instant, in 
their flight, and a quick shiver causes the water to be shaken off. 

They are frequently harassed by the large Skua Gulls or Jaegers {Siercorarii), which cause 
the Terns to disgorge the contents of their crops. 

The Terns evince their displeasure by a defiant $quae. 

The bill of this bird is crimson; tarsi vermilion. The young birds have flesh-colored bill 
and feet. 

The Eskimo name of this Tern is K kuthl kwi Ukj and refers to its note. 

I have observed this bird at Kuskokvim River, Bristol Bay, Atkha Island, and at Attn 
Island. Among the Aleutian Islands it is not at all common, although more plentiful to the west- 
ward portion of the chain. 

73. Stbbna aleutiga Baird. Aleutian Tern. 
The Aleutiau Tern arrives at Saint Michael's by the Ist of June, and remains until the latter 



128 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

part of August. It is very abundant in this vicinity, breeding plentifully on a small island just at 
the northern end of the '^ canal." They are usually associated with 8. paraducea^ both in procuring 
food and nesting habits. The nest consists of a bare spot on the gionnd, with few wisps of grass 
round the margin of the nest. Sometimes no sign of a nest is visible; the ^gg^ then are deposited 
on the ground. The number of eggs is one or two. Incubation lasts for seventeen days. The 
young are able to fly by the first of August. 

The note of this bird differs from that of 8. paradiftwa in that the "squay'* is weaker and 
squeaky; the other note is like twee-ee prolonged, and is readily distinguishable from the harsher 
"squay'^ of the 8, paradiscea, 

I have never observed this Tern among the A'entian Islands, although it may occur there, 
especially on the less rugged islands. 

The Eskimo name of this Tern is Eg Wg nd giik^ and refers to the white stripe on the head. 

81. DiOMEDEA. NiGBiPESAud. Black-footed Albatross. 

The Black-footed Albatross is quite a common bird in some localities north of the Aleutian 
Islands. In Bristol Bay in June, 1878, 1 saw numbers of them in the vicinity of Oa()e Newenham. 
They were not shy and seemed perfectly at home. Toward the western Aleutian Islands they are 
not common but are frequently met. They follow the vessels for miles or even day after day, feed- 
ing on all manner of scraps of food, which were thrown overboard from the galley. 

They have a peculiar note, which is only uttered when a less fortunate bird attempts to seize a 
morsel of food from another's beak. The note is then a whining groan. On the wing these birds 
are extremely graceful. They rise and fall in their flight with the curve of the wave over which 
they sail; and, at times, it seems as though the tips of their wings touch the water; and apparently 
without effort these birds will continue on flight for a great distance without other movement of 
their body than a simple roll to one or the other side. 

I have often tried to catch them by baiting a piece of pork on a hook and letting it trail many 
feet in the wake of the vessel. The birds become very intelligent and soon suspect the intention. 
They seize the baited hook in the tips of the long, stout beak and by rising partly on wing^with 
feet spread out and tail bent into the water, they make a strong pull against the line; and frequently 
snap a stout cord. Many will cx)llect round the vessel and each one seems eager to snatch the 
food used as bait; they rarely try it but once. In rising from the water the wings are unfolded, 
joint at a time; and, only when the bird is on the water, a quick stroke with its feet sends it to the 
surface, where by skipping and flapping along the body gains sufficient momentum to enable the 
wings to carry it away. 

I have no doubt that this bird breeds in some locality among the islands, for it is found there 
from the early part of May to late October. 

There is much difference in the color of specimens seen in these northern localities. The bill 
is dusky to pure white, plumage sooty to lighter, with considerable white about the neck and chin. 
The feet are dusky to black. Some of these birds were suspected to be young of the year, but I 
could never get a specimen of them as they were too far off from land; and to obtain one, while a 
vessel is in motion, is impossible. 

82. DiOMBDEA ALBATBUS (Pall.). Short-tailed Albatross. 

The Short-tailed Albatross is found in great abundance in the neighborhood of Capo Newen- 
ham, near Bristol Bay. In June, 1878, I was on a vessel in that locality, and at one time counted 
fourteen individuals, flying or sitting. 

The mouth of the Kuskokvim River was the farthest north that I observed these birds near 
the shore, but at sea I have seen them near Saint Lawrence Island. The natives of Saint Michael's 
assert they are to be seen in rare instances off the northwest point of Stewart's Island. 

Among the Aleutian Islands they are quite common, but generally far out at sea. They ap- 
proach the land during dense fogs, and may then be found sitting on a small rock jutting from the 
water. 

I never could obtain a specimen in condition to save the skin, for the birds do not come near 
the settlements ; and, when a native kills one he saves only the wings, from which to take the sinew 



OOiTTBtBXJTIONS TO THtJ IfATTJEAL HiSTOBY OP ALASKA. l29 

for wrapping ronnd his spear heads. At Attn I saw two specimens that were killed in the latter 
part of March, 1881. The wings had been cut off and the body partly plucked of feathers. This 
species passes the winter in this locality and may be found, during very severe weather, about the 
western end of the island of Attn. I received a head (by which the species was identified) from 
Nnshagak, on Bristol Bay, in September, 1878. 

This species undoubtedly breeds near some of the places mentioned as having been observed. 

86 b. FULMABUS GLAGiALis GLUPISGHA (Steju.). Pacific Fulmar. 

Hundreds of thousands of these birds were seen off Unimak Pass and the eastern end of 
Unalashka Island ; in fact, they covered acres of water. The dark form prevailing in number, 
while the remainder were of the light form. To the we^stward I have seen them less abundant 
though still very numerous, near Seguam Island, Kiska, Amchitka, Atkha, and plentiful at 
Semichi. 

The habits of this bird are very strange. They are seldom seen during stormy weather and 
then only individual birds. During calm periods these birds sit, some few miles from the land, on 
the water and will scarcely endeavor to avoid a vessel drifting through their midst. I have never 
seen a live bird of this species either on or over the land. Where a bird, so abundant as this, 
breeds or what its specific habits are I am unable even to conjecture. 

With these birds are associated, in a manner, another bird of which I obtained, at Amchitka 
Island, a single specimen, which had been thrown up dead by the sea and so far advanced in decom- 
position that to lift it separated the members of its body. This dead bird resembled those asso- 
ciated with the Pacific Fulmars and was, so far as possible to identify it, a specimen of Puffinus teth 
uirostris Temm. Natives of Attn, who were with me on Amchitka Island, informed me that birds 
of this kind (like the dead one) breed plentifully on the Semichi Islands. 

105. OOEANODBOMA FUBCATA (GmcL). Fork-tailcd Petrel. 

A singl e specimen of this Petrel was brought to me by a native who had killed it ji^hile out in 
his bidarka (canoe) hunting seals off Stewart's Island. They are said to be rare in this locality, 
though abundant far out to sea. I had observed many of this species while I was traveling among 
the A^leutian Islands. They are rarely seen near land. The Atkha people assert that these birds 
breed abundantly on the cliffs of Korovinsky volcano, on the northeast shoulder of Atkha Island. 
I have seen this species as far westward as Attn Island. At Atkha a native brought me a specimen 
of this bird, but it had been kept so long before an opportunity occurred to permit his return to 
the village that the bird was too far advanced in decomposition to allow the skin to be taken off. 
The Eskimo name of this bird is ku ^k^ and means oil-eater. They assert that this bird skims 
the water for traces of oil which may have flowed from a wounded seal or whale, and that large 
flocks of them will follow the floating carcass of a seal for that purpose. 

1206. Phalaobogobax dilophus oiNOiNATUS (Brandt). White-crested Cormorant 

The White-crested Cormorant is a visitor to Saint Michael's by the tenth of June. It does not 
occur in great numbers in that vicinity ; only few breed here. At Besborough Island, some forty 
miles north of Saint Michael's, this bird breeds in abundance on the walls of that almost inac- 
cessible island. 

A young bird of this species was obtained October 2, 1876. The gular sack is yellow, bill pale 
with darker culmen; feet and weba black. Iris d^k gray. The Eskimo name of this Cormorant is 
Mdn uihl kd Uk^ and means tongue cut off short. 

The white plumes on the head of this Cormorant, in the breeding season, are used by the in- 
habitants of the Aleutian Chain to adorn the small sacks (used as work-bags) made by the Aleut 
women. The feathers of the neck are also used for the same purpose. 

123. Phalaobocobax pelagious Pall. Pelagic Cormorant. 

In most localities of the Aleutian Islands this form is extremely numerous. Along these islands 
the bird is a constant resident, apparently more numerous in winter than in summer. 

It breeds on all the principal islands. The nest is usually placed on a ledge of some bold- 
S. Mis. 156 ^17 



1 30 OOHTEIBUTION8 TO THE NATUBAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

faced rock; and, in most instances, about forty feet above the sea. The nest is large, boiltof sea- 
weeds, a few grass stalks, and an abundance of its own excrement. 

They are filthy about their nests ; the walls of the neighboring rocks are covered with the liquid 
excrement of this bird, and may oftener lead to the discovery of a nest than any other sign. The 
nests which I observed on Amchitka Island were being occupied June 7. The eggs number three 
or four, blue of pale shade to white in color. Tbey receive accumulations from the nest and soon 
are indistinguishable in color. The young are hatched by the middle of July and take to the water 
by the middle of August. They are then somewhat heavier than the old bird. The young assume 
the adult plumage on the second year. The color of the bill is dark on the ridge and yellowish 
below, the upper mandible having a greater or less amount of dark while the lower is nearly 
always yellowish, with perhaps a lighter tip and darker base. The gular sack is red and wrinkled. 
I do not remember to have heard a sound uttered by this bird. 

They are exceedingly inquisitive and will fly round and round a vessel or boat, sometimes 
within a few feet of the sails. When on the nest it frequently stretches out its snake^like neck to 
watch a passing canoe, and its curiosity not being satisfied the bird will leave its nest to follow. 

It is by far the most beautiful bird of Bering Sea. The plumage glitters with metallic re- 
flections of blue, purple, and bronze. 

During severe weather of the winter and fall these birds resort to the high rocky ledges or 
the single rocks which jut from the sea. Some of the rocks are fairly covered with these birds, 
and these appearing like a lot of black bottles standing on the rock. The natives of all parts of 
the country use the flesh of this bird for food. Some of the Aleuts, especially those of Attn, prize 
the flesh more than any other bird. They formerly obtained many of these birds with a kind of 
net which was thrown over the birds when sitting on the shore rocks, being driven there by the 
severity of a storm so that the birds could not remain on the outer rocks without being washed off. 

In former years this bird was reported to be extremely abundant at Attn, but has greatly dis- 
appeared in the last fifteen years. 

Before the introduction of civilized clothing the skins of these birds were used for clothing. 
Fifteen of them were counted as a parka or long gown-like garment. 

The natives of Attn have spoken to me of another cormorant, which many years ago abounded 
there, but in the last fifteen years none have been seen. They describe it as being fully twice as 
large as the red-faced cormorant and of difierent plumage. From the description, I have reason 
to suspect that the bird referred to was Phalacracorax perspicillatus Pall. 

The Eskimo name of this species isV^gd zhUkj and means cliff-dweller. This word is also used 
to mean any kind of dried, desiccated meat 

123a. Phalaobooobax pelagious bobustus Bidgw. Violet-green Oarmarant 

The Violet-green Cormorant is very common near the entrance to Saint Michael's. These birds 
arrive about the 5th of June and remain until the ice closes in in October or Fovember. They 
frequent the rocky shores and cliffs. A few of this species breed near Saint Michael's. 

When passing along the shores of Bristol Bay I observed numerous Cormorants, which I also 
referred to the present form. 

124. Phalaobooobax ubilb (Gmel.). Red-faced Oormarant 

A single specimen of this Cormorant was obtained at Saint Michael's. I did not to a certainty 
observe it in any other locality, though it is known to occur in numbers in other parts of the ter. 
ritory. TheEussians have the word UrSel to be an equivalent with our word Shag or Cormorant; 
and, again, the Bussian-speaking population, together with the natives, have each singular ideas of 
color, so that any attempt to obtain information of birds, by describing their colors, is very unsat- 
isfactory and frequently exasperating. 

129. Mebganseb amebioaiojs (Cass.). American Merganser. 

A pair of these birds was seen in the possession of a native at Unalashka Island, January 17, 
1879. He would not part with them on any consideration, as he supposed the good will of the 
person to whom they were presented to be of more value than anything received from one outside 



OONTEIBUTIOirS TO THE NATUBAL HISTOBY OP ALASKA. 131 

the pale of his church. They were the only ones of this species seen in the country. At Unalashka 
Island they remain during the winter, but do not breed there in the summer. 

130. MERaANSEB SEBBATOB (Linn.). Red-breasted Merganser. 

The Bed-breasted Merganser is common in the Saint Michael's district. In the Aleutian Island 
district it is met with in pairs, and then only rarely. It is more abundant at Attn and Atkha than 
any other of the larger islands visited by me. In the Saint Michael's district it aixives early in 
June or late in May and remains throughout the summer to breed. The fhlly-fledged young were 
observed there in September. • 

At Atkha it breeds in the small ponds on the high levels of the mountains. I found a dead, 
young bird of this species on the 4th of July, 1880. Among all these islands this bird is a con- 
stant resident. 

The flesh of the Bed-breasted Merganser is quite a delicacy among the Aleuts, who seem to 
prize it higher than the flesh of any Duck. 

The Eskimo call this bird Pi' Hkj because the nest is shaped like the Pi, or hole, of the bidarka, 
or canoe, in which the person sits. The Bussian name is Kro Jchdl. 

132. Anas boschas Linn. Mallard. 

The Mallard is a common duck in the Yukon district. It arrives about the 1st of May and re- 
mains throughout the summer. It is rarely abundant in any locality and seldom seen in large 
flocks ; half a dozen individuals usually comprise a flock. It breeds wherever found in the sum- 
mer season. It is plentiful on the Aleutian Islands in winter. 

The low land at the head of Captain's Harbor, on Unalashka Island, forms a winter feeding- 
ground for hundreds of these ducks, where they congregate in large flocks in December and the 
earlier months of the year to remain until the season is sufficiently advanced to favor their north- 
ward migration. Only a few pairs were ever seen at Unalashka Island in the breeding season. 
At Attn Island this duck is common in winter. It breeds sparingly at Agattu Island and on 
the Semichi Islands. A few pairs were also observed at Amchitka Island in the latter part of 
May, 1881. During the fall and winter the flesh of this duck is excellent, being fat and tender. 
The Bussian name of the duck ^ 84le sen. 

135. Anas stbepeba Linn. Oadwall. 

A single specimen of the Gad wall was obtained at Unalashka Island in December, 1878. It is 
not common among the Aleutian Islands, but is abundant along the Yukon Delta district in sum- 
mer. In habits it is nearly identical with the Pintail, and often associated with them. It breeds 
in the high latitudes, but not on the Aleutian Islands that I am aware of. 

137. Anab ahebioana Omel. Baldpate. 

The Baldpate is not abundantr in the Saint Michael's district. It arrives about the 26th of 
May, or even later. It is not at all gregarious, being found solitary or in pairs. It frequents the 
marshes, preferably those which are overflowed by the higher tides when it first arrives. As soon as 
the season is advanced and the greater part of the snow is gone, the little rivulets are full of 
muddy water they resort to these places for food. They seem to delight in, shovelling among the 
mud in search for their food. I once saw tfro ducks (which, at the distance, I could not recognize) 
feeding in one of these small mud sloughs. I made quite a detour : one ran up to the top of the 
bank and watched me, as it thought, go away, and quietly returned to its mate. I came back to the 
place by another way and approached within a few yards of them unobserved. They plunged their 
heads at times completely under the soft soil to obtain a tender root or slug. They seemed to be 
in a playful mood, as they frequently caressed each other by putting their heads round each oth- 
er's necks and crowding near each other. One finally came up to the top of the bank and was 
then within a few feet of me ; with a* sputtering squak it flew off until I dropped it. It was a 
male. The female flew offl 

The flesh of the Baldpate is fine eating. 

I have never observed this species among the eastern Aleutian Islands. To the westward I 



132 OOKTBIBUTIONS TO THE NATUBAL HISTOEY OP ALASKA. 

saw a pair that were feeding at the mouth of a little stream which runs through the village on Na- 
zan Bay, Atkha Island. I fired but failed to obtain them ; I never saw them afterward. 

At Attn Island the Baldpate is rare, a summer visitor, and not ascertained to breed. The 
conditions on Semiohi are favorable for a breeding locality of this species. 

138. Anas obeooa Linn. JEurapean Teal 

A male of this species was obtained by me at Aktha Island June 28, 1879. As it was the only 
specimen observed and nothing differing in habits from A. caroUnenses at the time it was procured, 
I can give no information other than it is extremely rare and not known to be other than a sum* 
mer visitor and probably breeding among the islands of the Aleutian chain. 

This is the first specimen of this species recorded from the Pacific coast of North America. 

139. Anas oaeolinensis Gmelin. Oreenmnged Teal, 

This beautiful little duck is found in all parts of Alaska. It arrives at Saint Michael's by the 
10th of May. 

It never occurs in large flocks; singly, in pairs, or less than half a dozen individuals being the 
usual numbers seen at once. 

Along the low lauds bordering the '^ canal," at Saint Michael's, it can be found at any time 
from May to September 25tli. It breeds among the sedges at the margins of the ponds. In the fall 
it resorts to the lakes of the higher grounds. This bird is not at all shy and endeavors to conceal 
itself among the grasses rather than take flight. 

Many of these ponds have a species of grass growing on their margins that forms a kind of 
matting of its roots and stalks that in time encroaches on the pond in such manner as to completely 
cover it. This sends its tender roots down into the water and in time formes sufiiciently firm masses 
to walk on. The Teals seek these places for food and when surprised usually dive under the mass 
of vegetation out of sight. A careful search will sometimes reveal just their head and neck thrust 
out of some hole while their body is hidden below. 

I once shot a Teal, which dove under the edge of the grass on the margin of a pond where it 
was sitting. I thrust a stick under and could feel for over a yard without interference of grass- 
roots, yet it had sufficient firmness to support me even on its edge. I then knew how it was that 
wounded ducks always disappeared in such a hitherto, mysterious manner. 

I have observed the Green-winged Teal at the mouth of the Kuskokvim River in the early part 
of June, 1878, and in the same month at Nusbagak settlement, on the river of that name; also at 
Ugasik, on the peninsula of Aliaska. It is found on all the larger islands of the Aleutian Ohain. 
At Unalashka it occurs in the neighborhood of Captain's Harbor at all seasons of the year. It 
undoubtedly breeds there, although I have not seen the eggs or nest in that exact locality. It 
also occurs on all of the islands west of Unalashka. At Atkha, Amchitka, Semichi, and Attn it 
is abundant. At Atkha it seems to prefer the bars that make off the mouths of the creeks which 
empty into the sea. Just below the village on Nazan Bay, at Atkha Island, is a small stream that 
throws out great quantities of sand, gravel, and clay. Quite a bar, or shallow place, has been 
formed by it, and when the tide recedes a large area is exposed, to which OuUs, Mallards, and 
Teals resort. 

At Attn the Teals frequent the southern side of the island more than the northern. 

At the Semichi Islands numbers breed every year among the marshes that abound there. 

At Amchitka Island they were extremely abundant in the middle of May, 1881. Along all 
the little streams that were cutting deep into the earth,iind so narrow that the tall grass completely 
hid them for many yards of their length, the Teals were found walking along under snch places, 
searching for tender roots and insects. These streams are not long, as they are usually the outlets 
of some inland lake, and their sides are prevented from widening by the dense mat of grass-roots, 
so that their streams are deep and narrow. As soon as ^he current has excavated beneath the 
roots of grass the stream widens, and the banks thus form an overhanging shelf on each side. 
Under these places the Teals resort, so that it is difficult to fipd them^ as they will not fly up while 
in such places. 



OONTEIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 133 

In the evening they assemble in the larger, shallow lakes, and even then sit or dig singly or in 
pairs, as they are distributed over the snrface of the lakes. 

At Amchitka Island their breeding-places are among the tall grasses that grow on the sea- 
side of sand-banks thrown up by the ocean, or else on the steep slopes of other hills facing 
the sea. 

The flesh of this bird is excellent and nsnally fat, except in the middle summer months. 

The Russian name of this species is CherdJc, 

140. Anas disoors Linn. Bluetcinged Teal. 

The Blue-winged Teal was not obtained by me. A native had a specimen which he had killed 
in the lakes, on the mainland, a short distance from the Redoubt. The bird was minus the greater 
part of its feathers, excepting the quills of the wing and feathers of the head. The speculum of 
the wing was sufficient to determine the species. I saw several individuals on the wing in the fall, 
but could not procure them. 

At Atkha Island, July 7, 1879, 1 saw a female of this species sitting among some seaweeds in 
a place where I could not approach unobserved. I had cartridges loaded only with No. 12 shot. 
I waited some time, hoping the bird would approach sufficiently near to kill it with such fine shot, 
but when fired at they had no effect on the bird. 

I am inclined to believed that this species is a vei7 irregular visitor to the Aleutian Islands, 
yet the Oreen-winged Teal abounds there. 

At Saint Michael's it is not at all common, and more plentiful in the spring than fall. It un- 
doubtedly breeds in the interior. 

142. Spatula clypbata (Linn.). Shoveler. 

The Shoveler is a rare bird in the vicinity of Saint Michael's. The only bpci'iiiK'u obtained 
by me was shot near the <^ canal " on the 25th of May, 1877. It is rare from the fact of the many 
hundreds of birds brought by the natives to the store to sell I never found one of this species 
among them. 

143. Dafila acuta (Linn.). Pintail 

The Pintail is a common duck in the Saint Michael's district. It arrives with the earliest 
birds, early in May, and remains until late iu September. It breeds among the lagoons which 
abound in this locality. 

The Pintail is found sparingly on Unalashka Island in November. It does not winter on the 
Aleutian Islands to my knowledge, as none were ever observed there later than that month. 

This duck feeds principally on the tender shoots of sedges and other grasses that grow round 
the margins of the marshes. They become very fat, and are then sluggish and slow to rise. In 
the spring they are lean and rather shy. They fiy faster than any other duck. Their flesh is 
excellent in the fall. 

This bird is usually found in small flocks or in pairs. 

148. Atthta mabila neabctioa Stejn. American Scaup Duck. 

The Scaup Duck is not common in the vicinity of Saint Michael's. It prefers localities with 
higher coasts than there. It is said to be rather plentiftil on the outside of Stewart's Island and 
in the neighborhood of Unalakhlit. 

This bird arrives there as soon as the sea is partially free from ice. In this locality I never 
found the nest or eggs, but it undoubtedly breeds there. 

It is common along the entire Aleutian Chain, but it is shy and difficult to obtain. It is more 
abundant in winter than in summer, and remains the entire year. 

150. Aythya collabis (Donov.). Ring-necked Duck. 

This bird is not common in the vicinity of Saint Michael's. It arrives as soon as the sea is par- 
tially free from ice, this date being variable — May 9 to the last of the month. It also frequents 
the brackish lagoons in the earlier months. The nest and eggs were not obtained. 

It is rarely seen about the Aleutian Islands. It is so shy as to scarcely permit approach with- 
in gun-range. 



134 OONTEIBXJTIOKS TO THE NATUBAL HISTOBT OF ALASKA. 

At Amchitka Island I observed a male of this species in a firesh-water lake near the center of 
the island. The bird was extremely shy, and under no circnmstances coold I approach within snf- 
ficient distance to procure it without it instantly dove out of sight and disappeared. I suspected 
the female to have a nest in the vicinity, although I could never detect her whereabouts. 

In Chichagof Harbor (Attn Island) I observed several individuals of this species during the 
winter of 188(>-'81. I repeatedly attempted to secure them, but failed on account of the shyness ot 
the bird. Whenever observed at this place the bird was always alone ; two or more were never 
seen at a time. 

160. Glaucionetta clangula AMERICANA (Bonap.). American Ooldeneye. 

A single specimen of this bird was brought to me at Saint Michael's, but it was not in condi- 
tion to save the skin. It does not appear in any numbers there. The few to be seen were individ- 
uals, always singly. 

It is not common among the Aleutian Islands. In Unalashka it was obtained in the month of 
December, and remains there all winter. It was never observed there in summer, and at no season 
among the extreme western islands. 

153. Chaeitonetta albeola (Linn.). Bufflehead. 

The BufBe-head is not common in the Saint MichaePs district, and not plentiful anywhere in 
the territory that has come under my observation. 

It occurs at Unalashka in the winter, when my specimens were obtained. It was not observed 
to the westward on the Aleutian Ohain, except rarely, and then only in the winter. 

154. Clangula hyemalis (Linn.). Old-squaw. 

The Old-squaw is a common sea-duck iu all parts of the Saint Michael's di8trict. It arrives 
early in May and remains until the ice closes in November. It winters ^mong the entire Aleutian 
Ohain, and is extremely abundant there. They breed to the far northern regions, and only spar- 
ingly at Saint Michael's. It only sparingly breeds along the Aleutian Islands among the fresh- 
water ponds. It is essentially marine in its habits, and was never observed in the freshwater 
lakes or streams excepting during the breeding season. It is remarkably strong in flight and 
alights on the water with a hard dash, making the water fly for many feet. It also ascends to 
great heights as it flies from one locality to another, if distant. It is very noisy and the note may 
be heard a great distance. The natives of Attn call this bird A Idng Ukj from its note, which is 
repeated at short intervals. 

It congregates in large flocks, sometimes of over a hundred. They search for their food in the 
shallower places in the coves and bays. When searching for food they string out in a long line 
and swim abreast. At a signal one at the extreme end goes down, the rest follow in regular time, 
never all at once, and rarely more than two or three at a time. The last one goes down in his 
turn with the regularity of clock-work. As they dive they seem to go over so far as to throw the 
long tail-feathers until they touch water on the other side. They remain under water a long 
time, and usually come up near each other. They utter their noisy notes and again spread out 
for another dive. When wounded they swim many yards under the water. The flesh of this duck 
is not unpalatable, but has a decided fishy odor, which may disappear if the bird is cleaned and 
hung away for awhile. 

155. HiSTBiONicus HiSTRiONiCUS (Liuu.). Harlequin Duck. 

This pretty duck is not common in theimmediate vicinity of Saint Michael's. South of that 
place it becomes more numerous, and extremely abundant around all the Aleutian Islands. It pre- 
fers the rocky places, exposed reefs, and shallow gravelly banks that are alternately covered or 
left bare by the sea. The food of this duck is of an animal nature. Shellfish of all kinds do not 
come amiss, the common black mussel {Mytelis edulie) beingits favorite food. These mussels are 
everywhere abundant on the rocks that are not exposed to too great a swash from the sea. Among 
the coves and small indentations of the sea, especially if in the neighborhood of small islets, these 
ducks are to be found in great numbers. They dive after the mussels, and are frequently caught 
by the shellfish and held until the former are drowned and cease their struggles, upon which they 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 135 

are released. This bird is not at all shy. They are, in the middle of the winter, usually found 
singly or in small flocks. At this season they will even separate their ranks to allow a canoe 
pass between them, or else fly a few yards and again settle. They usually are near the shore, 
searching the shallow, pebbly places for food when the surf is high. When a breaker comes over 
them they dive until it passes. At Attn I have seen them dive before a breaker struck them, and 
in such shallow water that I often wondered how they held on, as they come up at times not a foot 
from where they went down. They have a peculiar whistle for a note, and in the mating season, 
early in March, they assemble in larger flocks (sometimes as many as twenty or thirty individuals 
form a flock) ; they then constantly utter this whistle, as they chase each other over and through the 
water. Several males will attend one female during this season until she selects her choice. Dur- 
ing the breeding season I have seen three males with one female. 

The flesh of this duck is good, but somewhat fishy. 

The Aleuts have but little liking for its flesh, as they seldom shoot it when they have opx>or- 
tunity. 

The nest and eggs were not procured and the only nest I ever saw was near Iliuliuk village, 
on Unalashka Island. Two immense blocks of rock had become detached from the cliff above, and 
when they fell their edges formed a hollow place beneath. In under this I discovered a deserted 
nest, which the native who was with me asserted was that of a bird of this species. The form 
was similar to that of the nest of 0. hyemaliSj and in fact so closely resembled it that I persisted 
in it being of this bird until the native asked me if I did not know that the Old-squaw did not build 
in such places. 

157. Eniconetta stellebi (Pall.). Steller^s Duck. 

Steller's Duck is rare at Saint Michael's. 

On the southern and eastern shores of Bristol Bay and the northern shores of Aliaska this 
species is plentiful. 

Among the Aleutian Islands it is only rarely seen in summer. In winter it abounds in Gap- 
tain's Harbor on Unalashka Island. It keeps oft* shore and ventures nearer only in boisterous 
weather. It dives deep in the water for its food, and remains under a great length of time. Its 
food is of an animal nature, procured from the sea. 

I was never able to procure the eggs of this species. 

The winter plumage of the male is extremely beautiful. The top and sides of the head silky, 
silvery-white, with faint greenish shade on forehead and lores^ an anteorbital spot of velvety green; 
circumorbital black spot, narrow in front and wider behind ; an occipital band of green, having a 
minute black edge at the lateral ends; rest of head and upper hind neck white; chin and throat 
black, with bluish reflection ; a narrow collar of greenish blue-black on neck in front, which in the 
hind neck is continuous with the same color on the back, becoming purplish blue-black on the 
upper back and darkening posteriorly, where the rump and upper tail-coverts are lustrous, dark 
slaty black. The scapulars and interscapulars long, and the latter linear, having the exterior 
web, with brilliant, violet blue-black reflection on each of the linear feathers; the inner web white, 
and each of these feathers tipped with white. The speculum of same color, but with a white in- 
terior spot on each feather, forming a perpendicular bar; preceding the speculum is a white bar, 
having nearly double the width of the posterior one. Wing slaty black, rather ligher toward the 
insertion of the quills; tail same color as wings. A narrow white collar incircling the upper breast 
and broadening out on the sides of the lower hind neck. A small blue-black spot on the sides of 
the breast where the feathers overlap the carpal joint of the closed wing. Under surface of the 
body deep brownish black, darkening posteriorly, to become black on the crissum and under tail- 
coverts, and becoming rich reddish brown on breast and sides, which on the upper sides and upper 
breast become buff, fading to a creamy white on the shoulders and under the wings. The sides 
directly under the carpal joint of the closed wing have a distinct black blotch of small size. 

The female in winter has the head light olive-brown, slightly mixed with rufous and finely 
marked with black, producing faint narrow bars. On the neck and upper back the reddish brown 
is confined to a crescentic margin and tip to each feather, inclosing a small, rounded black spot, 
the middle having a narrow tip of reddish brown of darker shade to each feather, becoming abso- 



136 OONTEIBUTIONS TO THE ISTATURAX HlSTOET OP ALASKA. 

lotely barred with black and rich chestnnt on rump and upper tail-coverts. Scapulars rather 
lighter than back and with a narrow edging of brownish on each feather, the tips of the linear 
interscapulars with silvery-gray. Wing rich, dark chestnut. The speculum bluish-black, edged 
with white as a wider bar anteriorly and narrower posteriorly with the white bar. Breast and 
sides rich, light reddish-brown, with a rounded dot of blackish brown on each feather. These 
colors become blended on the breast and abdomen to produce a dark brownish-black on those 
parts, and darkening posteriorly. The iris dark-brown, bill dusky horn blue, feet dusky olive. 

On the western islands of the chain I have observed this duck to be quite plentiful about the 
Nearer Islands during winter, and few were seen along the western end of Attn in July, 1880, 
the natives asserting that it breeds sparingly on Agattu. 

158. Ahotonetta fisohebi (Brandt). Spectacled Eider. 

This large Eider is common in the vicinity of Saint Michael's, where it arrives early in May. 
Along the coast of Bristol Bay it is extremely abundant with others of this genus. 
Its nesting habits are similar to that of the King Eider. 

This species occurs among all the Aleutian Islands, where it breeds and is a constant resident, 
but extremely shy. 

161. SoMATEBiA v-NiGEA Gray. Pacific Eider. ; 

The Pacific Eider is to be found in all parts of Alaska that have come under my observation, 
viz : Korton Sound and coast south to Peninsula of Aliaska, and west to Attn of the Aleutian Islands, 
and east to the entrance of Cook's Inlet and neighborhood of Kadiak. At Saint Michael's it is 
common, arriving as soon as the sea-ice breaks in the spring. My earliest specimen was May 31, 
1876. 

In Bristol Bay it is plentiful and extremely abundant in the neighborhood of Ugasik, where I 
have seen thousands at a time on the bars left by the receding tides on the northeastern shores of 
Aliaska. 

Among the Aleutian Islands it is a constant resident, the greater number being found in 
winter. 

At Saint Michael's they breed in considerable numbers and there prefer the open tundra for a 
nesting place. A nest was found with eleven eggs on the hillside about half a mile back of the 
Kedoubt. The nest was made in a mossy situation, consisting of few blades of grass and well lined 
with the sooty-colored down from the abdomen of the bird itself. 

Along the Aleutian Islands the bird prefers the steep slopes heavily clothed with rank grasses, 
such as wild rye {Elymus), which grows in huge tussocks, among which the nest is hidden. A slight 
depression is scratched out; the eggs are placed on the bare ground, the down being used only 
as a cover for the eggs when the parent is absent from the nest. The eggs are never placed on 
the down. 

The down is plucked from the breast for that purpose only, and increases in amount as the 
increased complement of eggs demands a greater amount of covering. 

The nest when first scratched out is usually left to dry out several days before it is used, as the 
bare spots were sometimes seen a week before an egg was deposited. With the first egg only a 
small quantity of down was found in the nest, and will be replaced two or three times if removed. 
When the nest is full of eggs and they, with all the down, are removed, the bird seeks some other 
locality for again laying fewer eggs, generally not more than five for the second nest. Another 
peculiarity that was brought to my notice by a native was that these birds usually seek some slope 
where the Duck Hawk has its nest on the high point forming one end of the slope. This was true 
in three instances that came under my observation. The Eiders were more numerous in such local- 
ities than otherwise. The natives always are glad when the Hawk comes screaming overhead as 
the canoe is being paddled along the shore, for they know the nest of the Hawk is near and 
that many nests of the Eider will be found close by. The female Eider becomes very fat in the 
breeding season. This may in a measure compensate for the loss of the down from her breast. 
The skin on the breast also is thicker and, with the layer of fat, will be over half an inch in thick- 
ness. The male Eiders are at this season very poor and lean. 



OOUTftlBtJTIOlfS TO TfiE KaTCBAL HtSTOBTf OF ALASKA. 13? 

In the early spring I have seen as many as seven males following one female as they were 
flying h^. 1 further believe that a female is never attended by a single male, as always two or 
more males were seen with a female. At all seasons of the year the males are more numerous 
than the females. 

The Eiders never resort to the fresh-water ponds. They are seen in the vicinity of fresh water 
only where a small creek empties into the sea, and were then supposed to be there for the purpose 
of obtaining fresh water to diiuk. The food of the Eiders is of an animal nature. They dive and 
obtain most of their food from the bottom of the bays and coves. They remain under the water 
for a long time, and, while under, swim exasperatiugly long distances. 

The bird is very shy except when on land during boisterous weather. At that time the natives 
of the western islands of the Aleutian Chain used small hand-nets to throw over the birds as they 
sat stupidly on the shore. A bright night with a hard gale of wind was the best time 'o secure 
them. The birds then sit in a huddle and many are caught at one throw of the net. The natives 
assert that the common Hair Seals catch these birds when on the water and drag them under to 
play with them ; hence, these birds are constantly on the alert for seals and take flight as soon as 
. a seal is discovered near. 

The young male Eiders assume the adult plumage completely only at the beginning of the 
third year. 

The Eskimo name of this bird is mi't hUkj and is derived from the dull, hissing sound uttered 
by this species when disturbed. 

162. SoMATEBiA SPECTABiLis (Liuu.). King Eider. 

The King Eider is not common in the vicinity of Saint Michael's during the summer. It is 
more abundant in spring and fall. It breeds sparingly at Saint Michael's. I never obtained its 
nest, but saw the birds under circumstances that cause me to assert that it breeds there. 

It occurs among the eastern Aleutian Islands, more abundantly in winter than in summer. 

The nesting habits of this species are identical with that of V-nigra. 

163. OiDEMiA AMERICANA (Sw. & Rich.). Americim Scoter. 

The American Scoter arrives at Saint Michael's by the 1st of June and remains until about 
the last of October, or when the icy slush begins to form on the sea. They are not plentiful, at 
least in that immediate vicinity. A few miles further up the coast they are more abundant. 

Along the shores of Aliaska and the waters of Bristol Bay I saw numbers of these birds in 
1878, but under such circumstances that I was unable to obtain them. 

Amorg the Aleutian Islands they are to be found throughout the year, though more plentiful 
during the winter, and breeding sparingly along the entire chain. 

They are not gregarious, rarely more than three or four together ; and often only solitary. 
When alone they are easily approached if the bidarka is directed so as to pass them at a few rods. 
They often dive and remain under water an astonishingly great period, and frequently never a))pear 
In sight, though the water may be perfectly calm and allow careful search. 

The male is noted for the gibbosity of pinkish-white near base of bill ; the lower edge of the 
swelling is deep red, gradually blending with the black of the rest of the bill. 

The flesh is excellent during the winter. They feed on mollusks and other animal life; yet the 
flesh does not acquire a strong taste. 

The Bussians call this duck Turpdn. 

165. OiDEMiA DEGLANDi (Bonap.). White-Winged Scoter. 

1 found this Scoter to be rare in all localities visited by me. It does not occur except sparingly 
among the Aleutian Islands that I could discover. 

A single specimen was obtained at Saint Michael's. I know nothing of its habits. 

Another individual of this species was procured April 20, 1879, at Unalashka Island and incor- 
rectly referred to 0. fueca Linn^, but upon more careful examination it proved to be this species. 

166. OiDEMiA PERSPICILLATA (Linn.). Surf Scoter. 

The Surf Duck is common in all localities of the Yukon district bordering on the sea, but be- 
comes more abundant to the southward. 

S. Mis. 166 18 



138 COKTMBITTIOKS TO THE KATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

It is commoD among the Aleutian Islands. It frequents ibe larger coves and bays, wbere 
in favored situations this bird is abundant in winter. » 

It is rather shy, but when single or in pairs it may be approached to within long range. The 
favorite way to obtain this duck is to wait until it dives, then to go to where it will come up. It is 
then so confused that ample time is given to obtain a shot at shorter range. When wounded this 
duck will dive and swim for t;wo or three hundred yards. I have wounded them and waited for 
twenty minutes to have them reappear. They often sink to the bottom, as they die under water, 
and there is not sufficient air in their lungs to float them. If not this, there is always some big fish 
that accompanies the hunter and takes the bird only after it has dived under the water. 

Unless the bird is killed outright there is but little chance to obtain it. 

They have a peculiar habit of stretching up their necks as though they had some throat 
disease like the ^^ gapes " in the young chickens. 

The flesh of this duck is very nice, and if well prepared is excellent food, being free from any 
strong odors. Its food is obtained from the bottom of the bays and coves, and consists almost 
entirely of shell-fish and worms that are found among the rocks. 

The Surf Duck is the Svestunj or Whistler, of the Russians. 

169a. Chen hyperbobea (Pall.). Les$er Snow Ooose, 

The White or Snow Ooose arrives in the Yukon district early in May. It is usually contem- 
porary in its arrival with the White-fronted Goose and the Northern Crane (0. canadensis). 

It occurs only sparingly in the vicinity of Saint MichaePs, and remains but few days until it 
goes farther north. I am not aware that it breeds south of the Arctic Circle. They do not return 
along the coast in the fall by way of Saint Michael's. They are usually on the wing by 10 o'clock 
of each day, and to procure these birds one must seek them at early dawn while they are feeding 

Their flesh is only tolerable eating, it being lean and has a peculiar odor. 

This is the Baily Ooose (White Goose) of the Russians. 

It is not known to winter in any part of Alaska. It does not occur on any of the Aleutian 
Islands, even during the migrations. 

171a. Anseb albipbons gambeli (Hartl.). American White-fronted Ooose. 

This species of goose arrives at Saint Michael's as early as April 25 in favorable years, and 
rarely later than the 10th of May in any year. By the 25th of May they are abundant. 

It inhabits the fresh-water lagoons, and is essentially a vegetarian. The only animal food 
found in their crops was aquatic larvse and insects. I am not aware that it eats shell-fish at any 
season of the year. The young grass shoots found in the margins of the ponds form its principal 
food. 

It breeds in greatest numbers on the Yukon Delta. The young are attended by the parents 
until the former are able to fly in late August. 

These geese remain in this vicinity until the sharp ft*osts in October freeze the margins of the 
ponds. 

I have never observed this species of goose on the Aleutian Islands. They probably never 
visit the islands lying west of the mainland, as that region does not contain their paiticular food 
in sufficient quantity to induce them to visit it. 

The flesh of this goose is excellent for the table, and they become very fat in the fall of the year. 

At Saint Michael's this species of goose is called in Russian Tun dri na Ooose^ or Low ground 
Goose. 

This species does not winter in any part of Alaska. 

172. Bbanta canadensis (Linn.). Canada Ooose. 

The Canada Goose is not common on the coast. A few stragglers are shot during the spring 
migrations. It occurs along the upper Yukon River region, and seems to prefer the interior rather 
than the vicinity of the coast. The Canada Goose is not known to occur on any of the Aleutian 
Islands. 



OONTBIBUTIOlSrS TO THE KATTJEAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 139 

172a. Bbanta oanadbnsis HUTOHiNsn (Sw. and Rich.). Hutchins'a Qaase. 

Hatchins's Ooose is one of the mont abundant of the geese that occar at Saint Michael's. 
They arrive in early May and breed all along the coast lowlands. They are especially abundant 
aroand the Yukon Delta and lowlands back of Gape Bomauzof. 

Their nesting habits are the same as that of the other geese of the genus. 

The flesh of this species is excellent food in the fall when they are fat. 

On the Aleutian Islands they are especially abundant to the westward of Unalashka, and 
breed by scores on Atkha and in thousands on the Nearer Islands, being so intimately associated 
with B. canadensis minima as to be indistinguishable in their habits. 

172o. Bbanta canadensis minima Bidgw. Cackling Ooose, 

The White-cheeked Goose is the first one of its kind that visits the vicinity of Saint Michael's, 
and arrives about the 1st of May, or even earlier. It is tlie commonest of all the geese that abound 
there. It breeds all along the coast of the Yukon district, but is reported to be rare in the interior, 
its place there being taken by B, canadensis hutchinsii. It is also abundant on the Aliaska Peninsula 
(north side), Bristol Bay, and the lowlands of the Nushagak River district. It may breed at Una- 
lashka Island, but if it does it is not to my knowledge after repeated inquiry on the subject The 
westernmost of the Aleutian Islands is also a favorite resort in summer for it. It breeds in great- 
est abundance on the Semechi Islands and Agattu Island of the extreme western islands. The 
Semechi Islands are especially adapted as breeding-grounds. They lie in 174^ E. longitude, and 
are low and level, covered with marshes and lagoons rank in aquatic vegetation, among which the 
geese breed in thousands. 

The upper Yukon District, the Yukon Delta, and south to the Bristol Bay District are fairly alive 
with them in the breeding season. They remain in this locality until about the .1st of October, 
while in the Aleutian Islands they remain until the middle of November. This bird does not win- 
ter in any part of Alaska. The clutch of eggs varies from seven to thirteen, and are laid in a care- 
lessly-arranged nest composed of dead grasses and few feathers. The young remain with the parents 
until the latter molt, by the 20th of August, by which time the young are able to fly. This date 
witnesses a few of the older young and adult males coming from the breeding-grounds on the 
Semechi Islands to the island of Attn. The geese have exhausted,- by that time, the food supply 
of that place, and repair to Attn to feast on the berries of theVaccineum that are rapidly ripening. 
Attn Island has a great many Blue Foxes (F. lagopus) on it; hence is resorted to only by adult 
birds. The birds arrive poor and lean, but by the 10th of September they abound in thousands, 
and are very fat at this time. The birds usually alight on the hillsides, and quickly strip the lower 
areas of the berries that have ripened earlier. Toward the evening the geese resort to the shallow 
pools (destitute of vegetation, with gravelly bottoms) on the sides of the mountains. 

After a certain holiday of the Greco-Bussian Church in September, the natives know that the 
geese have become fat, and every one has prepared himself to hunt them. 

Their miscellaneous assortment of guns — ^from the old-style Knssian spill-out shotgun to the 
modern thiubarreled American or Belgian shotgun, that kicks as hard behind as it shoots ahead — ^is 
carefully dissected. A new tube perhajm is added, but of uncertain fixity of purpose, as it often 
flies out at times least expected. The breech-pin is taken out and carefully scoured and oiled. In 
the absence of screws a few thongs of sinew will secure the parts together, and, tightened by means 
of small wedges of wood, give solidity. It is a ludicrous sight to see an Aleut youth handle a 
gun of this description. He tries to hit a mark with a large number of shot and but little powder 
to give them force. He misses the mark, but consoles himself that the gun was fixed up to kill 
geese. But the younger ones of the youths rarely kill a goose, as they have not yet acquired the 
native cunning of the elders which enables them to secure more by this means than by relying on the 
good shootiug qualities of their gun. 

The adult natives take to their canoes and go some distance from the village to bunt for several 
days at a time. They sometimes take the women along to gather berries and roots for winter's use. 
The men take a small supply ot salt to preserve the geese until their return. When a sufficient 
number is obtained they take them home and salt them in an old barrel. Should they not be success- 
ful, and remain out for a long time, the birds become very rank from lack of sufficient salt to preserve 



140 OONTEIBTJTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTOBY OF ALASKA. 

them. It makes I>Qt little difference to them if the goose is fresh or stale. I once remarked to a 
native that he was salting geese that were far advanced. He replied that they did not ask in 
winter, when food was scarce, whether food stinks or not. 

The manner of shooting geese at Attn Island is different from that pursued in other localities- 

In the evening the geese repair to the shallow pools to preen their feathers and be secure from 
the attacks of foxes. These resorts leave unmistakable signs of the presence of geese of preceding 
nights. The native wanders over the hills until he finds a lake where "signs" are abundant. 

^Rvery preparation is made for camping out a night or two. A pair of long boots, made of 
seal-skin and watertight, are taken. A long sort of shin (called a kamlayl'a)^ made of the intes- 
tines of the sea-lion, is used as a water proof against rain and the wet of the rank vegetation of 
the low grounds. 

A hut is generally to be found near the favorite night haunts of the geese. To this one jour- 
nies in a canoe; and, on arriving the chyn^k (tea-kettle) is hung on the soon-kindled fire to boil, as 
the chypeet (tea-drinking) is a certain concomitant of all Alaskan jaunts, either of pleasure or of 
profit. The chypeet over, the approach of dusk is awaited. The hunters then seek the chosen 
ponds and secrete themselves in a gully, or on the hillside near the place selected to watch the 
geese as they come in for the evening ; for during the day the geese have been teeding on the 
smooth, sloping hillsides. 

The hunter is careful to approach these lakes, lest he leave a foot-print or other sign of his 
presence, as the goose is ever on the alert for such traces and forsakes any lake that is suspected. 
They will in such cases hover round and round, endeavoring to discover danger, and when satis- 
fied that the lake has been visited by man, or that he is present, their loud cries give warning to 
all the geese within hearing, as they quickly stream oft' and away to the head of the ravine from 
which they came. Aft^r such an occurrence the hunter would just as well go home, or seek some 
other locality, for no more geese will visit that lake until the next night. 

A night on which the sky is partly clouded and a light wind is blowing is the best. If the air 
is calm, and the night bright, the still water reflects too strongly the outlines of the surrounding 
hills, making the water inky black and renders it imiK>ssible to distinguish a goose sitting on the 
water. 

At the time the geese are expected, each person has selected his place and remains quiet. On 
the approach of the first flock for the night a low whistle from the hunter to his companion gives 
signal. A low hUnJc^ hUnk of the geese and a swirl of wings announce their approach. A straight 
dash, or a few circles round the pond, and they settle. Shoot just as they alight and again as they 
rise. Sometimes they become so confused as to enable the holder of a breech-loader to get four shots 
at a single flock. The dead geese serve as decoys, and soon many are added to those already killed. 
The gentle wind slowly blows them ashore, while you are waiting for others. In a short time a 
sufficient number is obtained. At an appointed time another native comes from the hut to help 
bear home the geese. 

Another method is still pursued at this place, but as it is being superseded by the use of the 
gun it will not be out of place to record it, as it is now adopted by the older men alone. 

A net is prepared in thefollowing manner: Strips of whalebone about threefeet in length are tied 
by cords at intervals of two inches apart, so that the length of the net may be thirty feet and three feet 
high. The net is placed edgewise on the margin of a pond frequented by geese in October. A stout 
cord is secured to the end of the net, and firmly fastened to a peg in the ground. The other end is 
secured in like manner. A long cord reaches from the middle and top of the net to the owner who 
sits a convenient distance off to be out of sight by the geese. On the approach of a flock of geese 
to the pond they are not alarmed at the net, as the strips of whalebone stand on end and resemble 
grass-stalks. They swim near the net; and, when sufficiently near, the cord held by the man is 
jerked by him and causes the net to be thrown on the geese. The interstices of the net entangles 
their heads, necks, and wings so they cannot fly. The hunter runs out to twist their necks and 
again sets his net for another flock. This method was employed almost entirely before the use of 
guns became general. 

In the earliest times, and before the advent of the Bussians, they used another meatis to.pro- 
cure birds of all kinds, but especially geese and ducks. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATPEAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 141 

The beach was searched for three rouDded stODes of near equal weight and size, generally 
aboat one and one half inches in diameter, though this differed with each individnaPs strength, 
women the also using lighter stones than those used by the men. 

After the stones had been selected a groove was cut round the stone and deepened sufficiently 
to hold a strong thong of seal-skin about twelve inches long. Each stone was thus prepared with 
the thong securely tied to it. The three loose ends of the strings m ere then tied together, so that 
the distance between two outstretched stones was about twenty inches. The strings were then taken 
by the knotted ends and laid careiully in the palm of the hand. The stones tiiat are attached to the 
other ends of the strings were carefully disposed on the coiled thongs in the hand. A flock of 
gecbc that came within distance would have this Mas thrown at them, and was certain to become 
entangled on the neck or wings of some goose, which fell to the earth and was immediately 
secured. The women were adepts at throwing these stones. An old woman told me that she had 
often secured two and occasionally three geese at a single throw. 

About the 1st of October the ^eese are so fat that they frequently burst the skin on their 
breast when shot and fall to the ground. During the summer the geese are not moleste<l. The 
natives take many of the young and domesticate them. I have seen as many as fifty young ones 
at a time at Attu Island, owned by the natives, to whom the goslings become much attached, 
especially those who attend them. The goslings remain at large during the winter, but have to 
be fed during severe spells of weather. The house-tops being covered with sod, the excessive heat 
within causes the grass-roots to continually send out new blades of grass. The geese are con- 
stantly searching every house top to find the tender blades. One man had a pair of adult geese 
which he assured me had been reared from goslings, and that they were then entering the sixth 
year of their captivity. These two geese did not breed the second year of their life, but that every 
year thereafter they had reared a brood of young, and brought them home as soon as hatched 
The wings and half of the tail feathers had to be clipped every season to prevent them migrating 
In the fall of 1880 this pair of geese went away and were gone so long that the man supposed they 
would not return. After some time they returned, and on catching them, to clip them, it nas found 
that the male had a shot-hole through the web of one foot and a second hole in the other leg. This, 
doubtless, made the geese think " there is no place like home.^ This pair was killed later in the 
season. 

As an illustration of the parental solicitude exhibited by these birds, I will relate that several 
years ago a heavy fall of snow occurred in the latter part of June at the islands of Agattu and 
Seroichi, and covered the ground with more than three feet of snow. At that date the geese 
were incubating. The ^eese did not quit their nests, and were suffocated. The natives found 
scores of the birds sitting dead on their nests after the snow had melted 

After the 16th of November these geese leave the islands and are not to be seen until the 
following April. At Atkha the people rear a number of the goslings of this spi cies. The young 
are obtained from the islets lying contiguous to the larger islands in that vicinity. From the 
best information I could obtain this and Hutchins' Goose are the only species which breed on the 
Aleutian chain ; and, none of them breeding east of Unashka Island. On Un^shka, Amlia, Atkha, 
Ath&kh, Kan^ga, Tan4ga, Kiska, Boulder, iSemichi, and Agattu are the greatest breeding grounds 
of the Aleutian Islands. On some of these islands foxes of various kinds are numerous, hence, 
while they are excellent feeding grounds for the geese in the fall, the geese are compelled to rear 
their young on the nearer islets, where the foxes cannot molest the young goslings, unless there 
happen to be lakes containing small islands in them. There the geese are secure from foxes an0 
other animals. 

174. Bbanta nigricans (Lawr.). Black Brant 

The Black Brant arrives at Saint Michael's from the 5th to the 15th of May ; and, is usually 
about a week to ten days later than the other geese. 

Along the eastern end of the canal, which separates Saint Michael's Island from the maiolandy 
this Brant is seldom seen ; and then either singly, or in small flocks of less than ^ dozen individuals ; 
and these are apparently stragglers from the great stream that pours northward between Saint 
Michael's Island and Stewart's Island. Three or four days after the appearance of the fijrst arrivals, 



142 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATTTRAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

the low groands, bordering the strait between these two islauds, were in former years, a favorite 
place for shooting these birds; for here the}' flew bat few yards above the ground. As many as a 
hundred and fifty were obtained in a single morning's shooting. In later years they have become 
much less numerouts in this particular locality. Their flight was directed to the Kavyayak Penin- 
sula, north of Norton Sound. They do not remain on flight more than a week or ten days, in their 
migration, in spring. The natives living on the south side of that peninsula assert that this bird 
does not breed there, but continues its flight to the Arctic regions. They do not breed in the Yukon 
district, but return in the fall by the way of the interior, for but few are then seen. 

This species does not occur on the Aleutian Islands to my knowledge. 

The flesh is not good, as the birds are so lean in the spring that they are strongly flavoretl. 
They are eaten by the Russians and natives. 

The Russian name of this species is NtmkS^ when used in the plural number. 

176. Philacte canagica (Sevast.). Emperor Goose. 

This beautiful goose is found in all parts of Alaska within the following boundaries: 

Oook's Inlet for the eastern, the peninsula of Aliaska and islands to the south of it for the 
southern boundary, and extending to Attn Island, which forms the western limit. The northern 
boundary includes the Aleutian Islands, Pribylof Group, and Saint Lawrence Island, then across 
eastward to Saint Michael's, on the mainland. 

The habitat of this goose is strictly littoral-maritime, frequenting only the reefs, rocks, and 
shoals of the salt water and the brackish lagoons of the mainland coast. It is never found in fresh- 
water localities, excepting those contiguous to the sea, such as the lower Yukon Delta, mouth of 
the Enskokvim River, and the^bars lying ofi* the mouth of the Nnshagak River. It is most abun- 
dant in the vicinity of Kothlik, on the northern edge of the Yukon Delta; the tide lagoons near 
Gape Romanzof and those at the mouth of the Ugasik River on the north and east end of the penin- 
sula of Aliaska, on Sanuakh Island, and some of the Aleutian Islands. 

The more northern localities mentioned form the summer habitat and breeding grounds, while 
the entire south side of the Aliaskau Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands form the winter resort- 

The migration to the northward begins in April, after the middle of the month. A constant 
stream of these geese pour into the lagoons, on the north side of the peninsula, in the neighborhood 
of Ugasik. They remain there until the snow and ice begin to clear from their breeding-grounds, 
on which they arrive by the middle of May or early part of June. By the middle of June incu- 
bation has begun. A slight depression in the ground, lined with few stalks of grass and few feath- 
ers from the parent bird, forms a nest in which are deposited seven to eleven eggs of a soiled white, 
or sometimes with dots of pale olive. The presence of the dottings on the shell is extremely vari- 
able, as even eggs in the same nest will be without them, or sometimes only one part of the egg will 
be so marked. The period of incubation was not determined. The young leave the nest as soon 
as hatched and remain with the parent bii-ds. The former are able to fly by the first week in Sep- 
tember, as a young bird was killed by me at Saint Michael's on the 9th of September, 1874. It was 
the only one of its kind ever obtained in that immediate locality. A few miles to the south of 
that place the bird becomes numerous. 

In the month of October, usually from the 7th to the 20th of the mouth, a strong north-northeast 
wind blows, attaining at times a strong gale rate. This constant wind has the effect of lowering the 
waters of Norton Sound to a remarkable degree, sometimes as much as eight feet below the lowest 
water of other seasons. 

At this period the Emperor Goose visits the vicinity of Stewart's and Saint Michael's Islands 
in great numbers to feed on the shellfish exposed by the low water. By the 15th of November 
the rocks are covered with frozen slush. The geese theft depart for the south side of the peninsula 
and the Aleutian Islands. They arrive at Unalashka by the Ist of December, and remain until 
the next April. 

In Captain's Harbor (Unalashka Island) several reefs are frequented by them during the night 
and early morn. 

On Athakh, Kanaga, Tanaga, Amchitka, and Kiska Islands they are plentiful in January, 
February, and March. At Attu these geese arrive in the latter part of December and remain until 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 143 

the latter part of March. Tbey are, however, not so abandaot on the extreme westward islands 
of the chain. 

They do not breed on any of -the Aleutian Islands. 

The flesh of this goose is coarse, besides having a very disagreeable odor and fishy taste. The 
latter can, in a degree, be removed by stripping off the skin and letting the body of the bird freeze 
over night. When well roasted it is tolerable food. Several plucked birds were brought to me 
from the Semichi Islands by natives, who had repaired thither to hunt sea-otters; and in the absence 
of other fresh food the flesh of the Emperor Goose formed an acceptable change. 

The bird is very shy ; and, as it frequents only the most exposed rocks, is difficult to approach 
openly. They are oftener obtained as they fly unwittingly over a concealed hunter. 

It may be well in this connection to add that the Russian name of this particular goose is 
8a sdr ka. Many persons, having: but a limited knowledge of tbe Russian language, and more igno- 
rant of the i-ules for pronunciation and the sounds of the consonants, have presumed that the word 
8a sdr ha is referable to the word Tsar^ meaning Emperor, or to the word Isarskie (an adjective 
derived from Tsar)^ signifying pertaining to a Tsar. 

The word 8a sdr kaiB nothing more than the Russian word for Guinea Hen, Numidea meleagris. 
A certain resemblance of the two birds in coloration is obvious, hence the application of the nam^ 
in question. 

Another remark may not be out of place. Along the Aleutian Islands the name of this bird 
in Russian is ^^Lidenna Ooose^ (Beach Goose), while at Saint Michael's tbe ^'lAdenna Qoose^ is the 
White cheeked Goose, B, canadensis hutchinsii^ and this bird among the Aleutians is called the 
^^ TAndrina Ooose; " and again at Saint Michael's the ^^ Tundrina Ooose^^ is the A. alMfrons gambeUij 
or American White-fronted Goose, a bird that does not, to uiy knowledge, occur on the Aleutian 
Islands. The specific name of this bird was a curiosity to me, and after much trouble I succeeded 
in finding the following article in the Nova Acta Academise Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitanse, 
tomos XIII, 1802, p. 346: ^'Description d'une nouvelle espece de Canard et d'une vari^t^ de 
PHuitrier, qui se trouvent dans le cabinet d'histoire naturelle de 1' Academic Imp^riale des Sciences, 
par l^Adjoint Sewastianoff. Pr6sent^ et lu le 8 octobre 1800." 

After giving a description and measurements of this species the article, on page 349, gives the 
probable origin of the specific name : 

Ce canard, dan9 le Catalogue des Oiiieanx apport^ par Mr. Billings, port« le nom systdmatiqne d^Anas canagica. II 
est tr^ probable que cette nouvelle esji^ce a ^t^ d^couverte par Mr. le Capitaine Billings sur Ptle Canaga, ou Kyktak, 
ane des lies Almontes la plus proche des c6te8 de PAm^rique septentrioDale et sitn^e derri^re le cap Aliazka, et que 
le nom de Pesp^e, c'est k dice Canagica, a ^t^ impost k oet oiseau du nom de la premiere lie, ou de celui des prinoi* 
panx habitaus de I'lle Kyktak appel^ Caniagues ou Canagues, qui, peut-6tre ayaut apprivois^ cet oiseau, Pout rendu 
domestique. 

Ces sont les sauvagea tr^ belliqueux et que les Basses, dans nu second voyage entreprispar Scbeliohoff, avoient 
beauconp de peine k se soumettre. 

l^ear longitude 177^ west of Greenwich lies the large Aleutian island called JTana^a. This 
island could have been relerred to in the above description, but as it says that the island is situ- 
ated behind, ^' situe derriire le cap AliazkOy^ the peninsula of Aliaska, tbe island now called Kadiak 
is doubtless referred to. The original luuuit name of Kadiak was Kaniag or Kauaguk, The name 
Kyktaky as used above, is simply one of the many forms of spelling of the Inuuit word KikhtHk] 
meaning island. * 

The geese form an important article of food in the Yukon District, alike to the white and native 
population. Tliey are mostly obtained by means of the gun. 

The best localities near Saint Michael's are toward the western end of tbe canal, along the 
edge of the low grounds bordering the bills of tbe mainland, and near tbe village of Stepbansky 
(Athwik, native name), on the western side of Saint Micbacrs Island. Tbis area is low, inter- 
sected with innumerable swamps and connecting streams, forming a flue feeding-ground for all 
kinds of waterfowl. 

A regular camping outfit is taken by sledge and dogs to a chosen locality. In the early morn- 
ing a site is selected where the geese fly round some euding of a bill range, for they fly low and 
prefer to sweep round the hills rather than mount over them. Tbey are frequently so low in their 



144 CONTEIBUTIOKS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

flight that the hanter has to wait until the geese are well past before he can shoot them to an 
advaDtage. A nearly constant stream of geese fly round a certain point, just to the left of the 
Crooked Canal, on a slight eminence, formed from the deposit -of soil torn up by some immense 
ice cake, which the high tides of some December in years long gone by, had left as the water 
receded and the warm weather of spring had melted; now overgrown wi|:h patches of rank 
vegetation. 

At a convenient distance a native prepares a fhigrant pot of tea, with slices of bacon and 
some hard bread, to be eaten when a surfeit of sport caused one to think of else than the slaughter 
of geese and ducks. 

By ten o'clock the geese were done flying for that morning. The low character of the g^nnd 
did not favor approach to the geese feeding at the ponds. During the middle of the day a quiet 
sleep invigorated the hunter for the late evening shooting. The latter generally affording a less 
number of geese than the morning's shooting. 

By the next morning a sufficient number of geese were obtained to heavily load a sledge; 
drawn by six, lusty Eskimo <logs, assisted by two sturdy natives. This 8i>ort generally lasts from 
the arrival of the geese until the first week of June. At this time they repair to the breeding- 
grounds. During the summer the geese are not hunted. The eggs are eagerly sought by the na- 
tives and whites and take the place of meat of the birds. In tlie latter part of August or the early 
part of September the fall shooting begins, as the geese have moulted, the young are able to fly, and 
they are fattening on the ripening berries. The geese are now obtained by watching the ponds, or 
as they fly over in small flocks or singly. Should a flock not fly sufficiently near, a favorite method 
to attract their attention is for the hunter to lie on his back, swing his arms and hat, kick up his 
legs, and imitate the call of the geese, it rarely fails to bring them within distance, and may, if 
several be just shot from their ranks, be repeated, and even a third time. Later in the season, when 
cool and frosty nights are regular, great numbers of the geese are killed an<l disemboweled for 
freezing to keep throughout the winter. The feathers are left on the birds, for the flesh is sajd to 
keep in better condition. The body is washed out and the bird hung up b^^ the neck in the ice. 
house to keep, even until the geese have arrived the next spring. The flesh, when thawed out 
slowly, has lost all the rank taste, and, in my opinion, is much improved by the freezing process. 

1 have eaten the flesh of all the various kinds of geese, frequenting those northern regions, and 
place them in value of flesh as follows : While-fronted Goose, A. albifrons gambelli ; White cheeked 
Goose, B. canadensis hutchirmi and B. canadensis minima; Canada Goose, B, canadensis; Black 
Brant £. nigricans^ and is always tough and lean, fit food only for a liupsiau ; Snow Goose, Cken 
hjfperborensy is scarcely tit for food, except in eases of necessity. Its fleslris coarse, nuik, and has 
a decidedly unpleasant odor ; the Emperor Goose, P. canagica^ is scarcely to be thought of as food. 
There is a disgusting odor about this bird that can only be removed in a degree, and then only 
by taking off the skin and freezing the body for a time. Even this does not rid the flesh entirely 
of its strong taste. 

180. Olor columbianus (Ord). Whistling Swan. 

The Whistling Swan is a common bird in the Yukon district. It arrives about the 1st of May, 
or in open years two weeks earlier. The Swan and the Great Gull, L. harravianus, are nearly con- 
tem|oraueous in arrival. They do ni>t arrive in large flocks, but rathcy: in a straggling manner of 
one, two, or three at a time, and rarely are seen in greatei- numbi^rs than half a dozen at a time. 

It breeds abundantly along the lowlands of the coast. The eggs are one to three in number, 
placed in a tussock of grass that grows in a pond »^ way from the margin of it. The eggs are soiled 
while to slightly fulvous in color. The young are able to leave the nest by the first week in July, 
and fly by the middle of September. They migrate about the middle of October, and at this time 
the migration is invariably to the northward from Saint Michael's, and directed toward the head of 
Norton .Sound. As many as five hundred may form a single line, flying silently just over the shore 
line at a height of less than 600 feet. I always suspected that these birds flew to the northward as 
far as the Ulukuk Portage, in about 65^ 30' north latitude, so as to get to the Yukon River at 
Nulato, about 120 miles in the interior of the Territory, and continue their flight up the Yukon 
River, which would in its course let these birds more easily cross the Rocky Mountain ridge with 



CONTRIBUTIOKS TO THE KATUBAL mSTORlT Of ALASKA. l46 

least effort. This is supported by the fact that I never saw Swans, at any season of the year, 
migrating to the sonthward. 

Thu Swan is found on the extreme western ishmds of the Aleutian Ohain in winter, and occa- 
sionally it is reported as having been seen in winter on Sannakh Island. At Attn Island a large 
flock was seen in a lake, just back of Massacre Bay, on the sonth side of the island, in April, 1881. 
They were very wild and remained for only a week. 

In former years quite a number of swan skins were annually exported from Saint Michael's. 

The flesh of this bird is not palatable. A young bird is only tolerable. The eggs are coarse, oily, 

and rank. The feet, bill, and iris are black. The bill has a yellow spot on it.. 

♦ 
205. Gbus OANADBNSIS (Linn.). Little Brown Crane. 

The Little Brown Crane is one of the earliest arrivals at Saint Michael's, it being in advance of 
theGteese and nearly contemporary with the Swan. The earliest date of its arrival was May 2, 
1875. A few birds usually come in advance of the main body ; where, if they reach the grounds too 
early, they pass most of the time on the wing. By the middle of May hundreds of them may be 
seen on the low grounds. 

During the mating season they execute the most surprising antics. They assemble on some 
level place; and, amid their deafening croaks, there perform a series of motions very similar to a 
quadrille as danced in the rural districts. 

The nest is placed on a tussock of grass, which may grow on an islet of some pond. The num- 
ber of eggs is one or two. The young are hatched by the 10th of July. The young remain in the 
downy stage until the autumnal moult. They remain in this locality until the latter part of Sep- 
tember. Their flesh is considered tolerable eating, though it is strong unless the bird is young. 

I have been informed on good authority that these birds pass over the entrance of Cook's 
Inlet in thousands, in April, on their way to the northward. 

I have never seen nor heard these birds oh any of the Aleutian Islands. The natives of Attn 
assert that several years ago one was killed in October on that island. It was doubtless a storm - 
driven straggler. 

222. Crymophilus fulioabius (Linn.). Red Phalarape. 

The Bed Phalarope arrives at Saint Michael's about the 1st of June. They are not abundant 
at any time, except during the early part of June. They are more frequently seen on the mainland, 
opposite the Redoubt, than on the island of Saint Michael's. They depart from this locality by 
the end of August. They breed near here, but eggs and nest were not found. In the neighbor- 
hood of the Yukon Delta they are abundant throughout the summer. Their habits, on the laud 
and lakes, are identical with that of P. lobatus. In the early part of June, 1878, 1 was on a vessel 
going to the Kuskokvim, Bristol Bay, and other places in that vicinity. I frequently saw large 
flocks of these birds alight in the sea to pick up such food as minute mollusks, or following the 
wakes of sea-lion troops, or that of a whale. At times they were so close to the vessel that they 
could have been caught with a dip-net. When seeking a locality abounding in food the flocks of 
these birds are constantly wheeling spirally upward and outward lor two or three hundred yards, 
and again dart to the water or again start upward in the same manner. 

They utter all the while a shar[) ttceetj and when sitting on the water are exceedingly graceful; 
their bodies so buoyant as seemingly not to touch the water. They rarely progress on the water 
in a straight line, a few inches forward and a turn to right or left, and again to right or left. 

I saw but few of these birds at Nushagak. At the mouth of the Ugasik Biver, and the 
low grounds surrounding it, I saw hundreds of these birds. 

I have no record of their occurrence on the Aleutian Islands. They may occasionally occur 
there with the other species. 

A belated individual of this species was killed October 14, L876, at Saint Michael's. A fierce 
snow-storm was raging at the time. The specimen was in the winter plumage, and as it flew by 
me its bewildered actions reminded me of a bat. 

The iris is reddish-brown, tarsi, toes, and lobes of web flesh colored, joints bluish. Bill yel- 
lowish, tipped with black. 
S. Mis. 155 19 



146 OONTBIBUTION8 TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

223. Phalabopus lobatus (Linn.). Northern Phalarope. 

The Northern Phalarope occurs abundantly at Saint Michael's. It arrives by the 25th of May, 
thongh the earliest record of this species was May 13th. This species frequents the shallow pools 
and mnrgius of the Iake8, seeking its food among the sedges and other aquatic plants. It swims 
among them, or creeps over the little knots of grass. Their food consists entirely of aquatic worms, 
slugs, larvae, and flies. 

They breed in June. The nest is placed among the grasses and consists of a lot of grass blades 
arranged with little care. Four of five eggs of greenish ground, thickly blotched with dark are laid. 
The young are able to fly by the first of August. The female of this species is noted for having a 
brighter pattern of coloration than the male, and is somewhat .larger in size. This species is widely 
dispersed, and apparently abundant throughout the Yukon district. It occurs far up the Yukon 
Biver. On the coast it abounds in the lower portions. Hundreds of them were seen on the low 
grounds on the northern side of Aliaska. On the Aleutian Islands this species was not observed 
at Unalashka. On the western islands of the Aleutian Chain it is abundant. Many breed on 
Atkha, Amchitka, Semichi,and Agattu. At Amchitka they were very numerous among the little 
streams which form the outlet of the inland lakes. They remain until October on these islands 
and return in the latter part of April. The iris of thisspecies is variable, a reddish brown to nearly 
black, the bill is black with lighter base, tarsi and toes bluish with dark joints. 

The Attu people call this bird Chi't kMkh and is derived from the note. 

230. Gallinago DELIOATA (Ord). WiUan^s Snipe. 

Wilson's Snipe arrives at Saint Michael's early in June, or even in the latter part 6f May, if 
the season is sufficiently open. It is common enough, though more often heard than seen. They 
frequent the more broken higher parts of the lowlands, and always in the vicinity of the larger 
ponds of fresh water, where they seek their food among the sedges and other aquatic grasses. 
This Snipe is not shy, and relies more on hiding in the grasses than taking to flight. Early in the 
morning or late in the night (during the long twilight which prevails from the middle of May to 
the middle of July in this latitude) is the best time to find these birds on the ground. During 
these hours they will scarcely fly, unless suddenly startled, but will run along over the ground, 
and may be driven for quite a distance, especially in the breeding season, before they fly. 

During the day these birds are mostly on the wing. In the breeding season the males fly 
high (at times undiscoverable) in the air over the location of the nest. Their wings make a pecu- 
liar noise — huttle^ huttle — continued for half a minute at a time and re^ieated at short intervals. 
This sound is very deceptive, and long search often fails to discover the bird. 

This Snipe remains until the middle of September, and becomes very fat at that season. 

I have seen this bird at the mouth of the Kuskokvim Biver in June, 1878, and at Nushagak, 
on Bristol Bay, in the same month. It was not observed on any of the Aleutian Islands. 

232. Maobobhamphus sgolopageus (Say). Lang-billed Dowitcher. 

This Snipe arrives at Saint Michael's after the middle of May, usually about the 20th of the 
month. It is common in certain localities on the island of Saint Michael's, and more plentiful along 
the lower end of the *' Canal " and neighborhood of the Yukon Delta. It prefers the muddy places 
and slimy edges of the smaller pools. It is rarely found among the sedges and other grasses, 
resorting to these places only in the breeding sea-son. It is rare that more than one individual is 
seen at a time. The nest and eggs were not discovered, though the bird breeds in this vicinity, as 
it was observed throughout the season until August. 

I observed this Snipe near the Kuskokvim Biver in June, 1878. I have never seen it on the 
Aleutian Islands; and, from the physical character of those islands, -doubt that it occurs there. 

234. Tbinga canutus Linn. Knot. 

The Knot arrives at Saint Michael's by the 25th of May. It breeds along the coast in this 
vicinity among the grassy swamps. 

I did not see the eggs or nest. It is quite common early in June, but retires to the more 
secluded places by the middle of the month. The specimens obtained by me did not vary from the 



OONTRIBUTIOI^S TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 147 

foUowiog: Length, 10.5; expanse, 20.5; wing, 6.75; tail, 2.75. Iris, bill, and feet black. I have 
not observed this bird west of IJgasik, on the eastern end of Aliaska, where it was qnite plentiftil 
in the latter part of Jnne, 1878. 

236. Tbinga gottbsi (Ridgw.). Aleutim Sandpiper. 

The Aleutian Sandpiper arrives at Saint Michael's early in May of each year, and in consid- 
erable numbers, being generally, on their arrival, in the dark plumage, which is changed for the 
summer by the first of June in this locality. On their appearance they are strictly littoral-mari. 
time, resorting to the larger bowlders and rocky shelves covered with seawee<1, among which 
these birds industriously search for slugs and other marine worms. Usually several birds are to- 
gether, rarely singly, and seldom over eight or ten in a flock. It is not at all shy, depending 
more on its color to hide by squatting among the crevices of the dark lava-rocks and thus be un- 
observed. When cautiously approached these birds generally run to the highest part of the i*ock 
or bowlder which they are on then huddle together before taking flight the moment after. This 
habit allows them to be nearly all killed at a single discharge of the gun. The native boys, having 
observed this habit of these birds, procure a club about two feet long, and when the birds huddle 
together, before taking flight, the club is hurled in such manner as to sweep all the birds off the 
rock. This manner of procuring these birds is practiced by the western Aleut boys to a great de- 
gree. By the middle of June it is rare to see one of these birds in the winter plumage. On as- 
suming the summer plumage the habits of the birds are entirely changed. They build their nests 
on the dryer places of the marshy ground and are usually seen either singly or in pairs. The nest 
is comfortably made of dry grasses and a few feathers placed on a small dry tuft of grass growing, 
perhaps, surrounded by water. The young are able to leave the nest by the 10th of July. The 
number reared in a nest is four or five. They follow their parents until they assume the winter 
plumage in the latter part of August or September, or even later. The males are much devoted to 
their mates while incubating, and I have every reason to believe that the male does the greater 
part of the labor of incubating, as they were the ones generally found either on or near the nests. 
When alighting near the nest either sex has the habit of raising its wings perpendicularly and 
slowly folding them, all the while uttering a trilling peep continued for several seconds. 

This species seems to be most abundant among the Aleutian Islands in the winter season, 
although I obtained seven specimens in the breeding plumage at Atkha in June and July, 1879, 
and observed a few at Attu in the summer of 1880, and several pairs at Amchitka in June, 1881. 
At Unalashka they are quite numerous in Captain's Harbor. In the month of November these 
liirds become very fkt, and possess a delicate flavor when broiled. 

239. TsiNGA. MAOUI4AXA Vieill. Pectoral Sandpiper. 

A single specimen of this Sandpiper was obtained at Saint Michael's. It is quite rare, accord- 
ing to my experience. At Attu Island, on the 22d of September, 1S80, 1 started up a species of 
Snipe which I had not seen before or since in the Aleutian Islands. It was in a small, but treach- 
erous, swamp to which I could only approach the edge. The bird started up with a sharp tweet^ 
and was away before I could fully identify it. I always suspected it to be of this species. I con- 
sidered it to be a straggler, as I visited the same locality for others but failed to see more of them 
until the 29th of the month, when I secured three specimens in the same swampy tract and fully 
identified them. 

243a. Tbinoa ALPI^A paoifioa (Goues). Red-backed Sandpiper. 

The Red-backed Sandpiper is one of the latest arrivals of the scolapacine birds. It rarely 
comes before the 5tb of June. It is common; inhabits the lowest marshy tracts of the country. 
It does not wander into the interior, that I could discover. It goes up the Yukon Delta quite a 
distance, but prefers the neighborhood o£ the sea. I did not discover the nest or eggs, but it 
doubtless breeds abundantly, as it remains in this locality until the first week of October. 

It was not observed on the Aleutian Islands, though it may occur on the eastern islands of 
the chain. 



148 OONTEIBCmONS TO THE KATUBAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

247. E0BEITNETES OOOIDENTAL.IS. (Lawr.). Westem Sandpiper. 

The Western Saiulpi|>er arrives at Saint Michael's by the middle of May. My earliest record 
was the 14th of May, 1875. Like many other of the limicoline birds its movements depend much 
on the o))ening of the slimy pools which it frequents. It is often associated with P. lobatus. 

About the first of June it begins to build its nest among the dry mosses found on the low 
grounds; a slight depression in the moss, containing a few feathers. Four or five eggs are laid. 
The male assists in incubating, as the first specimen I obtained was a male, which fluttered from the 
nest as though -he was wounded. His fluttering wings, low peeping note, and limping gait caused 
me to detect the nest almost between my feet. 

While the female sits on the nest the male is constantly hovering over her, fluttering his 
wings with rapid strokes and uttering a peeping trill the entire while. 

The young are hatched by the first of July and are able to fly in three weeks. I am not aware 
that more than one brood is hatched in a season. 

By the first week in August these birds resort to the tide-swamps and muddy places along 
the beach. 

They depart to the southward by the middle of September. There is great diversity in the 
length of the bill of this species. The bill is dark with lighter base. The iris black ; tarsidark. 
The males average smaller measurement than the females. 

This Sandpiper is abundant in all the Aleutian Islands. 

At Atkha and Amchitka it is extremely abundant. 

At Saint Michael's it probably outnumbers any other wader individually. 

250. LiMOSA LAPPONIOA BAUEBi (Naum.). Pacific Oodwit 

The Pacific God wit arrives at Saint Michael's about the first week in June. In this locality it 
frequents the banks of the numerous intersecting streams of the lowlands, and is especially abun- 
dant along the <^ canal." 

This species probably breeds here, as it was observed during that season, although 1 did not 
obtain the eggs of this bird. 

This Godwit is found on the Aleutian Islands in the latter part of May as it is on its way to 
the northward. On Atkha Island I obtained three specimens. They were on the sandy beach of 
the west side of Nazan Bay. They remain but a few days, and are probably stragglers from the 
main body of their kind. 

At Amchitka I saw four of this species on May 24, 1881. They were in Gonstantine Harbor of 
this island. 

I do not think they breed on any of the Aleutian Islands. 

The flesh of this bird is excellent, being quite as large in body as the Green winged Teal. 

255. ToTANUS FLAVIPES (Gmel.). Yellow-legs. 

The Yellow-legs is only a straggler at Saint Michael's, and was seen only on two occasions on 
the beach in the early part of June. 

I obtained a specimen at Fort Yukon, where it is not common. On some parts of the Yukon 
River it is said to be common, but not so according to my own observation. 

I saw a specimen of this Snipe at Nushagak, on Bristol Bay, in the month of June, 1878. It 
was running along the muddy edge of the river. I had only time to identify it as it flew, and that 
before I got within distance to shoot it. 

It does not occur on the Aleutian Islands that I am aware of. 

259. Uetebaotitis inoanus (Gmel.). Wandering Tattler. 

According to my own experience I found the W^andering Tattler to be a rare bird in all parts 
of the Territory visited by me. 

At Saint Michael's the bird arrives by the first of June and remains until the earlier frosts of the 
middle' of September. It appeared to prefer the less frequented portions of the rocky shores where 
the crevices and rifts abound in the shelving rocks jutting from the edges of the islands and points. 



CONTEIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 149 

Rarely did I find two or three of these birds even near each other, their habits rendering them 
pecaliarly solitary. While not shy, ^et they are not easily approached, for as soon as they detect 
danger they are apt to sknlk, and rely upon their coloration of plainage to enable them to escape 
detection. I was informed by credible natives that this species has been known to breed on the 
small island (Whale Island) near Saint Michael's. Under the varioas circumstances which I ob. 
served this Tattler I could not doubt that it breeds in that vicinity. The Unalit term this bird Tu 
va td tUk, Among the Aleutian Islands it was observed once on Unalashka, several on Atkha, 
and twice on Attn. 

264. NxjMBNius LONGiROSTBis (Wils.). LongbUUd Ourletc. 

A single individual of this species was seen in the marshes, west of Saint Michael's, toward the 
middle of the night of June 19, 1874. The bird wiis very shy. I succeeded in wounding it in the 
tip of the wing and came near securing it. It took flight and flew just beyond gun range each 
time I approached it. It finally flew beytmd a hill, where I could not succeed in finding ir. This 
is the only instance of its occurrence in that vicinity, and is remarkable that it should be found in 
that locality, for it was far north of its usual haunts. The great size of the bird, the extreme 
length of the bill and pattern of coloration could not cause me to mistake it for hudsoniouSy which 
is not rare in that locality. 

265. NuMENiUS HUDSONicus (Lath.). HudJtonian Curlew. 

The Hudsonian Curlew is not a common bird in the vicinity of Saint Michael's. On the Yukon 
Delta it is said to be quite common. I am not aware that it breeds in the neighborhoo<l of Saint 
Michael's. 

-It does not occur on any of the Aleutian Islands to my knowledge. 

266. NuMENius BOBEALis (Forst.). Eskimo Curkic. 

A single specimen of this Curlew was obtained May 22, 1874, on shipboard about sixty miles 
west of Nunivak Island, Bering Sea. 

The bird was much fatigued and made no attempt to fly when taken by the hand. 

270. Chabadbius rquatabola (Linn.). Black-bellied Plover. 

This large Plover is not rare in the vicinity of Saint Michael's. It prefers the drier uplands, 
where it procures its food of insects and berries. They are seldom seen in flocks of more than 
a dozen; half that number being the more common, and pairs or couples quite as often. I found 
them always on the alert, and not easy to approach. 

They occasionally occur in the spring migrations on the Aleutian Islands, the more abun- 
dantly on the western islands than those in the vicinity of Unalashka. I saw several on San- 
nakh Island in the spring of 1878, and also in late August of 1870. 

The nests and eggs were not obtained. In general habits they are similar to the Golden 
Plover. They arrive at Saint Michael's by June Ist and leave by September 25th. 

272a. Chabadbius dominicus fulvus (Gmel.). Pacific Oolden Plover. 

The Pacific Golden Plover arrives ac Saint MichaeFs by the Ist of June or perhaps a few 
days earlier. It frequents the sides of the low hills as soon' as the snow is melted. They are 
rarely seen in flocks, though several may be seen at a time scattered over the higher parts of the 
low grounds. 

They feed principally on berries of the Vaceineum and Empetrum on their first arrival, as 
many of these berries do not dislodge until succeeding growths push them off. 

A few of these birds breed in the vicinity of Saint Michael's, but eggs were not .obtained 

by me. 

In the fall these birds become very fat, and are fine eating. 

I observed one of this species on Sanuakh Island in July, 1878, and one was brought to 
me in plucked condition of body, but wing, head, and neck feathers remained on it; hence 
saflicient to identify it on the 17th of May, 1879, at Atkha Island. I also saw two of them on 



150 OONTBIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

the beach at Massacre Bay, ou the soath side of Atta Island, in the early part of October, 1880. 
1 had no gun with me, so could not procure them. They were then (October 3) in their winter 
plumage. 

274. ^aiALiTTS SEMIPALMATA Bouap. Semipalmated Plover. 

A single specimen of this bird was obtained at Saint Michael's in the yard. It was shot Octo- 
ber 1st, during a freezing rain. It was the fatt^^st bird that ever came under itiy notice. 

This bird does not appear to be numerous in this vicinity, although in the interior along the 
Yukon River it is plentiful and abundant at Fort Yukon, whence I obtained most of my specimens. 

This species was not observed on any of the Aleutian Islands. 

282. Aphbiza vmaATA (Gmel). Surf Bird. 

The Surf Bird was not observed at Saint Michael's, though it doubtless occurs there during the 
summer. At Sannakh Island in 1878, and at Kadiak in 1881, I saw several individuals of this 
species, but under circumstances which rendered it an impossibility to collect them. It has much 
the same habits as A. melanocephala. 

283. Abenabia iNl£BPB£S(Linn.). Turnstone. 

The Turnstone is of more frequent ocurrence on the region about the shores of Bristol Bay, 
the Aliaska Peninsula, and the Aleutian Islands; perhaps more common ou the western islands of 
that chain than to the eastward. I saw individuals at Attn, Amchitka, Atkha, and in the vicinity 
of Belkovsky village. What appeared strange to me was the fact that but one could be found at 
a time, and then most unexpectedly as it flushed from thecrevicesof thorough edged shore; occa- 
sionally venturing along the sandy beach where the long waves roll slowly up and down the strand 
washing, here and there, a mollusk or crustacean from under the flat, thin stones, and eagerly 
seized by the birds ever on the alert for a morsel of food. In these situations the manner of the 
bird caused it to appear out of its usual haunts, hence timid and shy, taking flight long before one 
is within gun range; yet among the crevices of the rocks it often relies upon its coloration to con. 
ceal it from view. Its noise is not at all charming enough to be called pleasant; a rattling, discord- 
ant, harsh note, apt to startle one if the bird flushes directly from your feet. 

I observed the bird at times and under such conditions that I could not doubt the proximity 
of a nest. 

They do not arrive on the Aleutian Islands until the middle of May, and none were observed 
anywhere after the 1st of October. 

284. Abknabia melanocephala (Vig.). Black Turnstone. 

The Black Turnstone is one of the earliest arrivals in the vicinity of Saint Michael's. The 
13th of May was the earliest date recorded. It arrives with the earlier geese, and for the first few 
weeks frequents the edges of the low ponds, which are the first to be freed from ice in spring. 
After the sea ice has left the shores it repairs to the rocky beach and seeks its food among the 
stones and seaweeds. It is ever on the alert for a venturesome slug, which may be exposed as the 
waves roll the stones back and forth on the beach. This bird then follows the wave until another 
causes it to retreat. They are often netted in these instances. They usually squat on the place 
where they may be when alarmed, but on taking flight they utter a rattling scream that is quite 
enervating when they are suddenly come upon. They are mostly solitary in their habits, rarely 
more than one is seen at a time. 

I did not discover the nest and eggs of this bird, but it breeds along the entire coast of the 
mainland. I saw two of these birds at the mouth of the Kuskokvim Biver in June, 1878. They 
occur on the south side of the peninsula of Aliaska, as I saw one at Belkovsky in the early part 
of August, 1881. 

They are reported to be plentiful on Unga Island and Sannakh Island. The sea-otter hunters 
both native and white, detest this bird as it frequents the places most resorted to by marine mam- 
mals and is certain to give alarm to the otter or sealt which he hunter is endeavoring to approach. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 151 

I did not observe this bird west of Belkovsky and believe that the island of Sannakh is its 
most western limit of range. 

The Datives of Unalashka, who go to Sannakh Island every year to hunt sea-otters, say that it 
does not occur at Unalashka and other islands west of the mainland. 

287. HiBMATOPUS BAOHMANi Aud. Block Oyster -catcher. 

The Black Oyster-catcher is found on the islands of Alaska that lie south of the peninsula of 
Aliaska, as far east as the Shumagin Group, and to the westward as far as Kiska Island of the Aleu- 
tian Ghaiu, and is a constant resident of this area. I observed this bird on the peninsula, but only 
on the south side of it. The low, marshy character of the northern side of Aliaska precludes the pos- 
sibility of its occurrence there, as it invariably frequents the rocky reefs and water-washed rocks 
that lie out from the main body of the island or shore; and, is strictly littoral, never on any occasion 
going inland; and in its j9ight invariably flying over water. 

The flight consists of a few rapid strokes of the wing, followed by a sail for a few yards. It is 
sluggish when on the wing, and flies with difficulty, and rarely long continued. When alarmed it 
flies over the water within few yard^ of the shore, and in going from one point of rocks to another it 
either makes the trip in easy stages from one large rock to another, or else follows the indentations of 
the shore line. The bird is always on the alert, and not at all shy. It generally sees the hunter long 
before he suspects the presence of the bird. The bird either squats in a depression of the rocks, or 
stealthily creeps to the top of some huge bowlder, where it utters a piercing, whistling chatter like that 
of a policeman's rattle. It causes the intruder long search to discover the presence of the bird, for its 
color is so near thatof the rocks itfrequents that it is not easily detected. The note is then answered 
by another bird, so that in a few minutes a dozen may be •battering hideously, making the hunter 
wonder where all the birds came from so suddenly, as all the birds within hearing assemble on the 
first note of alarm. 

The Black Oyster-catcher is universally detested by both white and native hunters, as it fre- 
quents just those places most resorted to by seals and sea-otters, so that on the approach of a hunter 
to obtain those animals the bird is certain to give the alarm and cause the animal to disappear 
into the water. 

I once procured a less than half-grown bird of this species, and if any one would like to have 
one it can be gotten up in the following manner : Take the hinder half of a black kitten, dip about 
four inches of its tail in red paint, then fasten to the legs a piece of tallow candle about four inches 
long, jab the wick end of the candle down hard on the floor to spread it out for feet. Stand it up 
and heave a boot-jack at it to give the desired animation, and a good representation of a young 
Black Oyster catcher will be produced, for a more comical object than a toddliug Oyster-catcher is 
difficult to conceive. 

The one I had was put in the house until an opportunity offered to preserve its skin. It always 
greeted the opening or shutting of the door with its deafening noise. At night it became lonely 
and attempted to sing a song. I got up from bed to quiet it, and succeeded only as long as I re- 
mained out of bed. Neither the bird nor I slept that night. By early dawn it migrated to another 
building from which it escaped when I unguardedly left the door open. 

The food of the Black Oyster-catcher consists entirely of whelks, limpets, and other similarly 
shaped shell-fish that adhere to the rocks. The crops of many of these birds were opened, and in 
only one instance did I find anything of a vegetable nature, and that was supposed to be pieces of 
sea-weed. 

The feet are well adapted to a secure footing on the slimy rocks. The horny pectinations on 
the toes give additional security. It backs up a slippery, inclined rock when it wishes to change 
position ; hence the necessity of only three toes. 

This bird breeds on all the area mentioned. The eggs are laid on the bare rock, just above 
high-water wash. The number of eggs varies from one to three, usually two, and are laid about 
the 10th of June. The exact time of incubation is not known to me, but the young are able to 
walk about soon after hatching, and fly about the middle of August. The coloration of the young 
bird is the same as that of the adult, with the exception of the bill, which is lighter colored at the 



152 OONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATUBAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

anterior half and the basal half much lighter, even having a decided shade of yellow. The month 
is yellow. The flesh of this species is very nice when the skin has been removed. 

The Russian name of the bird is Morskoi Ptookh^av Sea Cock. The Aleutian name is Hekh at 
Unalasbka and Hegis at Atka. At Attn the bird is only known by reputation, and is there called 
Hekhy from its note. 

It has never been observed outside of the limits defined above. Mr. H. W. Elliot does not 
place it in his list of birds from the Pribylof Group. I did not observe this bird at Kadiak Island, 
though Messrs. Dal! and Bannister, in the List of the Birds of Alaska, with biographical notes, 
Transactions Chicago Academy of Sciences, 1869, recoid that it was obtained abundantly at Kadiak 
and Sitka. 

The great distance between Kiska and Boulder Islands, together with inability' to sustain 
protracted flight, may prevent this bird from attaining the westernmost islands of the Aleutian 
Chain. 

298. DKiVDBA.aAPUS CANADENSIS (Linn.). Canada Orouse, 

The Canada Grouse occurs in the wooded districts of the Yukon Valley. It is common in 
some localities and rare in others. The lowest point on the Yukon River where it is found is at 
Mission. 

The specimens obtained by me were from Nulato and Anvik, in March, 1876. 

300&. BoNASA UMBELLUS UMBELLOIDES (Dongl.). Gray Ruffed Orotise. 

The Gray Rufled Grouse is a resident of the wooded districts of the Yukon Valley. It is 
abundant at I^ulato and Anvik. 

The specimens which I obtained were from Nulato, March 15, 1875. 

301. Lagopus lagopus (Linn.). Willow Ptarmigan. 

The Willow Ptarmigan is found in abundance on all the lower-ground regions of the entire 
mainland coast, including the Peninsula of Aliaska. It prefers the moi*e level, open localities, 
and is rarely found near the edge of the wooded districts, it being there replaced by the Dusky 
Grouse, J), ohscurm faliginosus ; the Spruce Partritlge, D. canadensis^ and the Gray Ruffed Grouse, 
B. umbellus umbelloides. Though during winter the Ptarmigan seeks shelter under the willow 
patches or other bushes on the creek banks and in the ravines, I have never observed this species 
on the Peninsula of Aliaska or on any of the Aleutian Islands. The physical character of those 
regions [irecludes the probability of it inhabiting them, it being there replaced by L. rupestriSj 
and it alone. The Willow Grouse is always abundant where found. 

In the last part of Msirch, or by the 10th of April, the male begins to show few markings of 
rich brown on the neck. This is so constant a period that the lunuit have adopted it bs the name 
of their fourth month, and call that month Kup ndkh chikj or when the neck of the Ptarmigan is 
half brown. 

The mating season begins by the middle of May. The male selects his mate by going through 
a series of fantastic antics, such as spreading his wings, his tail outspread and thrown over the 
back, the neck ruffled, and head either thrown back to meet the tail feathers or else stretched along 
the ground, while he utters a hoarse, barking croak and starts into the air with a bound, to sail and 
flutter round and round in a circle, and, alighting a few yards from her, to advance to her as though 
he wanted to run over her, but stopping when near to stretch up his neck and again go througrh 
the same performance. Woe to another male which thinks to coax away the object of his choice. 
The intruder has only to be seen by the other when a battle takes place. They seize each other 
by the feathers or comb. They pull and jerk until the one or other is exhausted. The intruder is 
nearly always vanquished, as the other would die before deserting his chosen female. 

The natives have taken advantage of his pugnacious habits and capture great numbers of the 
males by preparing a stuffed male and fastening it flrmly to a sharpened stick inserted into the 
body and securely tied to it. They then have a small net of three or four feet square, to which are 
fixed two pegs, one at each corner, to fasten it securely to the ground. The native sets out in 
search of a pair, and can hear them before long, as they are near some patch of snow on the open 



OONTEIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 153 

groand. He approaches, fastens the net to the ground, and sticks the bird-decoy near the net. The 
live male soon perceives the decoy and rushes to it to give battle ; he pulls and tugs at it until the 
native jerks a string which throws the net over him. I once saw a male Ptarmigan advance to the 
decoy while the native was yet setting the net, and not a foot from the decoy. In some instances 
the male is so courageous that he will advance when the decoy is held at arm's length. Even 
throwing the net over him does not cause him to desist fighting. 

The nesting season begins about the 1st of June, or when the snow is generally gone from the 
low grounds and hillsides. The nest is usually on a hillside or under the shelter of a solitary 
straggling bush of small size. A few grass stalks or blades, with the few feathers that fall from 
the female's breast and abdomen, form the nest. 

The number of eggs varies from nine to seventeen. The period of incubation was not deter- 
mined. The young are able to follow the parents as soon as they are hatched. The young remain 
with the old. They are able to fly as soon as they are as large as Bob White, 0. virginianus. 
By the middle of August they attain this size, and are the size of the adult female by the 1st ot 
November. During the month of September the birds feed oil berries, and their flesh is then bet* 
ter than at any other season. 

When the snow has pretty weU covered the ground in late November. the Ptarmigans assem- 
ble in immense flocks, often numbering thousands. I was once out on the higher grounds just south 
of the Crooked Oanal. I ascended a slight hill and came, unexpectedly, on one of these large flocks 
that covered acres of ground. I was among them before either was aware of it. They flew, and 
made both the air and earth tremble. There must have been over hve thousand birds in this one 
flock. They flew beyond a neighboring hill-range. Approaching night and a heavy snow falling 
prevented me from following them. 

Daring the winter these birds subsist on the past year's twigs of the willow and alder or other 
bushes. I have cut open the crops of many of these winter-killed birds and found them to contain 
only pieces of twigs about one-third of an inch long, or just about the width of the gape of the 
posterior, horny part of the bill, as though this has been the means of measurement in cutting them 
off. The flesh at this time is dry and of a peculiar taste. In the spring the Ptarmigans congregate 
in great' numbers on the willow-bushes and eat the tender, swelling buds. The flesh then acquires 
a bitter, but not unpleasant taste. 

As open weather advances they find berries that have remained frozen the entire winter, and 
tender grass shoots, and later, insects. The young are insectivorous to a great degree in their 
youngest days. They consume great numbers of spiders that are to be found on the warm hill- 
sides. 

The Ptarmigans that are reared on the Kavy^yak Peninsula migrate^late in the fall to the 
interior. In the spring these birds go back to their summer haunts. The natives then arrange 
pieces of brush into small clumps set in' a line and extending along the ice. On the branches of 
this brush they hang nooses of sinew. The place where the birds usually go back to the i)en insula 
is near the end of Norton Bay, opposite Shaktolik and Egowik. The natives there prepare these 
thickets set with nooses during this season of migration. The birds come in such numbers to 
those places that. when they see the bushes they follow them and many thousands are caught in 
the snares. 

A single native, having only half a dozen clumps of these bushes, placed about seventy-flve 
yards apart, cannot take the captured birds out fast enough. They say the birds seem to fall to 
the ice from every direction, they come in such great numbers. A man will, in a single day, catch 
a sledge-load of them. The natives bring them to Saint Michael's by the load ; and sell them in 
that quantity for a mere trifle. They are used for dog-food at this season. 

The Ptarmigan is by far the most abundant land bird of the Yukon district. 

The question has been agitated whether the Ptarmingan moults the feathers from the summer 
plumage to the white of the winter plumage, or whether it is a fading of the colors of the summer 
plumage. The female during the incubating season is completely denuded on the al)domen and 
inner side of the upper thigh of feathers. In the winter this tract is completely feathered with 
white feathers. The abdomen at that season (when bare) is covered with a thick yellow, greasy, 
wrinkled skin, that is probably to protect her from the wounds she might sustain while on thenest^ 
3. Mis. 166 ^20 



154 OOlirrBIBXTTIONS to the natural history of ALASKA. 

and also to allow her to bring the warmth of her body directly in contact with the eggs. Birds 
killed jast on the approach of the monlt for winter always revealed pinfeathers having a white 
feather just starting out. 

The Eskimo name of this Ptarmigan is A kdzh giky and refers to the sonnd produced by this 
bird when alarmed. Then the note is a kaakf when sounded deep in the throat. 

302. LAaopus RUPESTBis (Gmel.). Rock Ptarmigan. 

The Bock Ptarmigan is found on all the hills and higher ground along the entire coast region of 
Alaska, In the interior it is found only on the mountain chains. It is abundant within the Arctic 
circle and down to Kadiak Island. To the westward it is found on the peninsula of Aliaska and 
all of the eastern islands of the Aleuiian chain. It is the only species of Ptarmigan found on the 
eastern Aleutian Islands, unless the Willow Ptarmigan may be found on the islapd of Unimak, a 
few miles from the i>eninsula of Aliaska. On some of the islands it is extremely abundant ; among 
those may be mentioned Unalashka, Unimak, Akutan, and Akoon. 

It is resident where found ; and, among the islands, rarely leaves its native island. At Akutan 
they are more abundant than elsewhere observed. They come even directly into the village, and 
may be seen or heard at any time on the hill-sides near by. 

At Unalashka they seem to prefer the high, rocky ledges, but everywhere come down to the low, 
narrow valleys to roost and rear their young. They rarely assemble in large flocks ; a dozen to 
twenty individuals usually comprise a flock. 

The mating season begins in the early part of May, and is continued for about three weeks, by 
which time a site for the nest is chosen, usually amidst the tall grasses at the mouth of a wide 
valley, or else on the open tundra among the moss and scanty grass. 

The male has assumed his summer plumage of rich chestnut, fulvous, and black markings on 
the neck, head, back, and edges of the wings, the rest of the body being white, which, by its 
contrast with the other colors, makes a maguifloent plumage. The female has less chestnut, black, 
and white plumage, and more of the fulvous to render her less conspicuous. In the male the neck 
is stretched along the ground, the tail spread and thrown over the back, the wings outstretched, 
while he utters a rattling croak that may be heard for a long distance. 

They seem to be less pugnacious than the Willow '< Grouse" or Ptarmigan. 

The nest of this bird is composed of a few stalks of grass and a few feathers that fall from the 
mother's breast. The nest is a very careless afiair, and often near the completion of incubation the 
eggs will lie on the bare ground surrounded by a slight circle of grass stalks that have apparently 
been kicked aside by the mother impatient of her task. The number of eggs varies from nine to 
seventeen, eleven being the usual number. The exact date of incubation was not determined by me. 
The young are able to follow the mother as soon as they are hatched. As this bird never collects 
into large flocks, I always supposed the flocks seen in winter were the parents with the brood 
reared the previous summer. The power of flight of this bird is much stronger than its congener. 
It is sustained for a longer period and much more rapid. The flesh of this species is better than 
that of the Willow Ptarmigan and is much sought for as food. The best time to hunt this bird is 
early in the morning when the wind is calm and a moist snow is falling. The birds are then slug- 
gish and dislike to rise to the hilltops. At Samt Michael's this bird is more often seen in the 
winter, as during the summer it is on such parts of the mountains as are rarely visited by man. 
The physical character of the Aliaska Peninsula is eminently suitable to this bird, abounding in 
abrupt ridges of mountains and high, small plains, just such grounds as are not resorted to by the 
Willow Ptarmigan. 

The seasonal changes of plumage take place in April to the middle of May for the summer, and 
in November for the winter plumage. 

The Eskimo name of this bird is Vng an udk^ and refers to the guttural note produced on being 
surprised. 

The winter plumage of this Ptarmigan is pure white with a black stripe at the base of the bill. 
In many of these birds the black stripe in the winter plumage is wanting. 

The adult, male breeding-plumage of the specimen obtained from Unalashka, May 18, 1877, 
presents the following pattern of coloration : 



p- 



u 
(- 

3 



•z. 
M 
X 

< 

2 



.^ 



< 
2 



/• 



.1 

I 

. I' I 



•I. 






' • ( 



v\ 



•i 



* ♦ 



' \\ 



.' t 'I 



«• 1 1 



1/ J , . /• ,• / /' 



'I '■ 






i» 



"•| 



• . •- 






r' I: 



1 ( • 



h' 






I 



V < t '<i . f i. * ! ■ 



. » 



.1 •». 






.. 1 



\ . 



• I . 



N •) •. 






COIJTBIBUTIONS TO THE NATPEAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 155 

Oroand color of back, scapnlars, rump, and upper tail-coverts dark liver-brown, the nape and 
crown liji^bt reddisb-j^rown barred witb black ; wbile tbe back and other posterior parts are very 
finely and densely vermicnlated with black, producing the dark liver-brown aspect. Chin and 
throat white. The jugulum similar to the crown and nape, bnt with the black bars broader and 
more distinct, becoming finer and less distinct on the upper breast. The wing, including the 
primaries, secondaries, and some of the tertiaries, white with few scattered feathers of the same 
pattern of coloration as the upper back. The longer tail-coverts are somewhat darker than the 
color of the back, owing to the finer vermiculHtion of the black and the brown colors. The. black 
stripe from base of side of bill much spotted with white. The lower breast, abdomen and under 
tailcoverts white. Tail black with a very narrow tip of white. The outline of the tail is decidedly 
rounded. 

The adult female breeding plumage of a specimen * obtained at Unalashka May 18, 1877, pre- 
sents the following pattern of coloration : Upper parts, including head, neck, and upper tailcoverts, 
bright brown ocher, the tips of each feather either brighter or else white ; coarsely barred, having 
a tendency to spotting with black, which on elevating the superincumbent feathers is greater in 
area on each side of the shaft. The lower parts, including fore neck, breast, and sides, bright yel- 
low ocher with sparser, but more regular, bars of black. The wings, including primaries and sec- 
ondaries, whice. The wing coverts similar to the coloration of the hind neck. The flanks and 
sides broadly barred with black and light yellowish ocher. The abdomen white. The lower tail- 
coverts very distinctly barred with black and yellowish ocher, the latter color finely dotted with 
black and narrowly tipped with white. The claws black, with light edges and tips. The tarsus 
and toes of both sexes covered with fine downy, white feathers, containing but few bristles. 

The coloration of this bird is entirely distinct from that of the species occurring farther to the 
westward, and is somewhat darker than birds from the interior of the mainland. 

302o. Lagofus BUFESTBis ATKHENSis (Tumer). Tumer^s Ptarmigan. [See Plates III 
and IV.] 

Catalogue number 85597, 'd ad. Atkha Island, Alaska, May 29, 1879. 

Ground color of upper parts light olive brown, altogether lighter than in corresponding 
plumage of rupestris. The whole surface very finely and densely vermicnlated with black. The 
tips of many of the feathers lighter and more grayish, with very narrow crescentio bar of whitish. 
The ground color of head and nape above is more yellowish than on the back. The crown spotted 
with black. Ground color of fore neck, jugulum, and upi)er breast, light fulvous or yellowish* 
brown, distinctly and somewhat regularly barred with black. The upper breast, sides, and flanks 
similar, but more finely and distinctly barred with dusky. The wing, lower breast, abdomen, and 
under tail-coverts pure white. The inferior upper tail-coverts, in this example, are little lighter 
than the rump, simply the obliteration of the prevailing color of the back. Tail black and de- 
cidedly truncate, not rounded, as in rupestris, and narrowly tipped with white. 

No. 85598. S . June 7, 1879. Atkha Island. This example of few days later plumage pre- 
sents no appreciable difference from the one of May 29. The distribution of the white on the up- 
per breast is little greater. The dusky shaft of the primaries is quite conspicuous in both exam- 
ples. 

Catalogue number, 85600 9 ad. Atkha Island, May 29, 1879. 

Ground color of head, neck, breast, sides, flanks, and upper tail-coverts, light-brown ocher; 
paler and much less rusty than in the corresponding plumage of rupestris. The upper parts irregu- 
larly barred with black. The most of the feathers tipped with a narrow, crescentic bar of white, 
the black bar immediately preceding it is much broader than the others. The fore part of the back 
is irregularly spotted with black. Crown spotted with black, some feathers tipped with yellow- 
ish-white. Jugulum and breast more sparsely but regularly barred with black. The sides and 
abdomeu similarly, but more broadly, barred with black and light yellowish-brown. But few white 
feathers occur on the breast and abdomen. The under tail-coverts very distinctly bari*ed with 
black and light yellowish-brown. The wings white, the dusky color on the shafts not extending to 
the tips. The tips of the upper tail-coverts and tail have a narrow band of white. 

* The bird ocourriDg on Unalashka Island has since been described, by Dr. L. Stejneger, as a new sab-species, 
onder the name Xo^opas rupettrii n$Uoni. (See '^ Ank," 1, 1SS4, p. 286.) 



156 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 



Example 85599 9 ad. Jane 7, 1879, from the same locality, iB similar in pattern of coloration. 
Bill and iris black ; claws black, with white edges and tips. 

When I first obtained these birds I was struck with the greater size and also with the shape 
of the bill and greater length of the claws when compared with the mainland bird. This bird 
freqaeuts the lowlands and hills of the western islands of the Aleutian Chain. They are qnite 
plentifal on Atkha, Amchitka, and Attn Islands. The nest is bnilt amongst the rank grasses at 
the bases of hills and the lowlands near the beach. The nest is carelessly arranged with few 
dried grass stalks and other trash that may be near. The eggs vary from eleven to seventeen, 
and are darker in color tlian those of rupestrisy and but slightly inferior in size to those of L. 
lagopus. A number of eggs of this species were procured, but broken in transportation ; hence, can 
give no measurements of them. The general habits of this species are those of the other species. 
At Attn they frequent the higher elevations, probably on account of the great number of foxes 
( Vulpes lagqpuSy Baird), which occur on that island, and have but little to subsist on. The natives 
of Attn assert that this same species of Ptarmigan occurs on Agattu Island, and that it is quite 
numerous there, probably on account of the absence of foxes.* 

The following tables show the comparative measurements of eight males and seven females of 
rupestrUj taken from various localities in the central part of the Hudson Bay Territory and from 
Alaska: 









0* 



SB 



.77 
.80 



.88 
.87 



m 

S 

I 



.78 
.71 



I 



82 



o 

n 



1 

m 
H 



I. 



S s 



10 ' 4. 10 ' 1. 31 



18 ' 3.90 



1.10 



.97 
.0* 



1 






1 






1 

s 


7.60 




.«2 


Sight examplM. 


.» 


7.10 


Seren ezunplet. 



MeasurennenU of fwo whales and twoftmaleM of athken8i$ from Aihha Island. 



▲Toimgecf 



.91 


.44 


.87 


.80 


.24 


4.25 


1.34 


1.00 


.06 


7.88 


.68 


.44 


.83 


.80 


.34 


4.00 


1.28 


1.10 


.67 


7.89 



Two ezamplM. 
Two ezunplM. 



331. GiBGUS HUBSONius (Linn.). Marsh Eawlc. 

The Marsh Hawk appears to be a resident of the Yukon district only between the early part 
of April and late November. Many specimens were obtained from the interior and none during 
the winter months. A single specimen was killed at Saint Michael's, where it is rare. It frequents 
the lowlands and rolling ground,* and especially the neighborhood of extensive marshes bounded 
by low hills, where its food of ducks and large snipe abound. I did not obtain nest or eggs, though 
it breeds in the interior. At Fort Yukon it appears to be abundant, as many specimens were ob- 
tained from that locality in May of 1875 and 1876. 

A flock of ten individuals of this Hawk were seen near the graveyard near Iliuliuk Village on 
Unalashka Island. The birds wheeled round and around my head, and at times darting after my 
cap, which I threw into the air. I never observed it before or after that date, October 16, 1878. 

This species is a rare summer visitor to Attn Island. 

332. AOOIPITEB VELOX (Wils.). Sharp'Shinned Hawk. 

Several individuals of the Shari>-shinned Hawk were seen in the vicinity of Saint Michael's. 
I could not obtain a specimen. The natives of the lower Yukon Biver use the skins of this species 
in several of their ceremonies performed over the sick. 

This species does not visit the Aleutian Islands. 



* The Rock Ptarmigan occnrriog on the Nearer Gronp of the Aleutian Islands may prove to be distinct from 
the one procured from Atkha, aa the isolated condition of the group will fully warrant the assumption. I saw the 
Attn Ptarmigans only in winter, a period of the year not to be taken as a time for making comparisons of birds so 
nearly alike at that season. 



ooirrBiBUTioisrs to the natural history op Alaska. 157 

334. AooiPiTEB ATBI0APILLU8 (Wils.). American Goihawk. 

The American Goshawk is a common species throughout the Yukon Valley, and apparently 
confines itself entirely to the mainland, although plentiful along the seashore. Specimens were 
obtained from Fort Yukon, Yukon Delta, and the vicinity of Saint Michael's. The tracts preferred 
by this Goshawk are the narrow valleys, borders of streams, and the open tundra, which it con- 
stantly scans for Ptarmigan and small mammals; the Lemming forming a considerable portion of 
its food. It will sit for hours in some secluded spot, awaiting a Ptarmigan to raise its wings. No 
sooner does its prey rise a few feet from the earth than with a few rapid strokes of the wing, and a 
short sail, the Goshawk is brought within seizing distance; it pounces upon the bird, grasping it 
with both feet under the wings ; and after giving it a few blows on the head they both fall to the 
ground; often tumbling several feet before they stop; the Hawk not relinquishing its hold during 
the time. During the mating season of the Ptarmigans many males sufifer death while striving to 
gain the affection of the female, for as he launches high in air, rattling his hoarse note of defiance 
to any other male of its kind in the vicinity, the Goshawk darts from a patch of alders or willows, 
or from the edge of the neighboring blufi', and with a dash they come to the ground, often within 
few yards of the terror-stricken female, which now seeks safety in flight as distant as her wings 
will carry her. I have seen this hawk sail without a quiver of its pinions, until within seizing 
distance of its quarry, and suddenly throw its wings back, when with a clash they came together, 
and the vicinity was filled with white feathers, floating peacefully through the air. I secured both 
birds, and found the entire side of the Ptarmigan ripped open. 

On another occasion I shot a fine individual as it rose from a small clump of willow, to which 
I had approached unobserved by the bird. It had been devouring a Ptarmigan, which it had se- 
cured but a little while before. The flesh of the bird was yet warm, though nearly all devoured. 
The Goshawk was only wing-tipped with shot and proved to be quite vicious, seizing my boot 
with its talons and striving to grasp my hand with its beak. The bird was so quick that I had to 
call the assistance of a native to detach the claws from my clothing. Upon skinning the bird I 
found its crop to be full of the fle^^h of the bird it was eating when I flushed it. I am under the 
impression that the Goshawk is not able to fly with the weight of a Ptarmigan in its claws. It is 
a resident of the interior and comes to the coast quite early in spring, as is attested by the fact 
that I killed one specimen April 28, and a fine example was brought to me from the mouth of 
the Uphtin (part of the northern Yukon Delta), where it was killed April 25. It was a female, 
and contained an egg, quite ready for extrusion, and had already received a pale bluish-green color 
on the shell. The bird was shot while on the nest, placed in a small poplar tree. The nest was 
composed of sticks and a few blades of grass. The size was quite bulky, measuring nearly two feet 
in extreme diameter, and having but a slight depression. The bird was extremely vicious, choosing 
to remain on the nest rather than desert it. The male attacked the native and tore his cotton shirt 
into shreds and snatched the cap from the head of the astonished man, who was so surprised, at 
the impetuosity of the attack, that he struck wildly at the bird with his arms, and before he could 
reload his gun the bird took flight. This Goshawk breeds wherever found in summer, placing its 
nest in a tree or shrub, or even on the ledge of a cliff, inaccessible to foxes or other enemies. 

The Innuit prize the tail and wing feathers of the Goshawk very highly for tipping the shafts 
of their arrows and darts. The relative value of one of these birds is that of two skins of the adult 
reindeer. They give the name iTt? ing u UJch tuk to this species, in allusion to the bars on the tail- 
feathers* The ins of this species is yellowish, the feet nearly the same color, lighter and brighter 
in spring and summer and darker in winter. The cere in fresh specimens is pale greenish, becom- 
ing yellow on drying. The beak is pale bluish, to dueky or clouded, and always having a black 
tip. Claws always black. The eyelids yellowish or yellowish-green. This species apparently 
prefer tracts of country the opposite to that chosen by its near relative, A. atricapillus striaiulus, of 
the lower portion of the Alaskan territory ; the latter preferring the more heavily wooded por- 
tions. I was led to conclude that the American Goshawk is not apt to wander over great areas of 
country, but that after it has chosen a locality, which will afford a supply of food, it remains in that 
immediate vicinity, changing its location only in winter upon stress of weather. 



158 OONTBIBUTIONS TO THE NATUEAL HIBTOBY OF ALASKA. 



347a. ARGHninTEa LAGOFU8 SANOTi-jOHANNis (Gmel.). American Rough-legged Hatok. 

This Hawk is not abundant in the Yukon District. A specimen was obtained from Saint 
Michael's and one from Fort Yukon. At the latter place it is more common than on the coast. 

I know nothing of its general habits, as I failed to obtain either eggs or nest. 

An individual of this species was seen in captivity at Ilitiliuk village, on Unalashka island. 
I had just returned to the place from a sea- voyage in July, 1878. The Hawk was a sorry looking 
object, having been shot through the wing. It eagerly devoured pieces of raw fish that were 
thrown to it. A Bald Eagle, also in captivity at the time, was its compamion. The two birds got 
along well together. The Hawk was quite ppssive and rarely attempted to show a vicious dispo- 
sition. 

349. Aquila GHBYSAi^TOS (Linn.). Ooldcn Eagle. 

The Golden Eagle is not rare in the neighborhood of Saint Michael's. It is more frequently 
seen further north in the vicinity of Norton Bay, and in the hills back of Pastolik, than on Saint 
Michael's Island. The single specimen obtained by me was brought from a few miles back of Pikmik- 
t&lik, where the bird had been caught in a steel trap set for foxes. The bird was caught by the feet 
as it attempted to carry away the bait fastened to the trap. The date of its capture was March 
10, 1877, indicating a winter residence in that locality for this bird. That month was the coldest 
March during the four years at the village of Saint Michael's, but few miles north of Pikmikt&lik. 
The bird was doubtless impelled by keenest hunger, as it was observed for several days to attempt 
to take bait from other traps when this one was set, and succeeded in taking the Eagle. The range 
of this bird is irregular. It is found in some localities with the Bald Eagle, and again where the 
latter is not to be seen. 

On the Aleutian Islands it is quite a common bird. At Unalashka they are fully as common 
as the Bald Eagle, and are reported to breed in March in the high bluffs on Makusbin Point. 

On the western end of Unalashka Island I saw several of these birds flying along the cliffs. 

At Atkha Island they are quite numerous, being more plentiful than the Bald Eagle. They 
are reported to breed on the cliffs and crags of Korovinsky Volcano. At Atkha the Golden Eagle 
is not at all shy while flying, seemingly more intent on satisfying a curiosity as they pass overhead. 
I saw a single specimen on Amchitka Island, in May, 1881, and none further west of that place. 
They do not at all occur at Attn, as a year's stay at that place afforded me the sight of but one 
eagle while there. The Golden Eagle has but one note, of a prolonged, shrill whistle, uttered either 
on the wing or at rest. 

Their food consists of ptarmigans, ducks, and other birds, while I have seen them under such 
circumstances that I believed they were eating from a dead fish, which had long before been thrown 
on the beach. 

The Eskimo of Norton Sound call this bird Ma t4g vik^ a word I could not obtain any mean- 
ing for. 

352. Hali^etus leuoocephalus (Linn.). Bald Eagle. 

The Bald Eagle is occasionally seen in the vicinity of Saint Michael's, and is reported to be 
not uncommon in the interior. I saw several specimens along the coast of Bristol Bay in 1878. 

Among the Aleutian Islands it is plentiful. At Unalashka Island it breeds among the cliffs 
on the northern side of the island. They breed early in March. The young are frequently brought 
to the village of Ilitiliuk, where they are kept for several weeks, or until some one maliciously kills 
them. Several adults were also seen there in captivity. They had been wounded and brought to 
the village. This eagle has the habit of sitting on the edge of some high bluff for hours at a time. 
They are at this place quite difficult to approach. At Atkha Island they are very numerous, coming 
directly into the village to remain for several hours at a time. At this time is not at all shy. Tbey 
will allow approach to within few yards, so close that I have thrown a stone to makethem fly so that 
I could shoot them while on the wing. They breed on several ot the high bluffs of the northeast 
shoulder of the island. Near the anchorage in Nazan Bay, of Atkha Island, are two large, 
sugar-loaf shaped rocks that rise perpendicularly from a rocky base, which is exposed only at 
lowest tides. On the top of these peaks, of near 250 feet high, the Bald Eagle has reared its 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL fflSTOBT OP ALASKA. 159 

yoQDg for many years. This eagle is found as far westward as Attn, but does not breed there, 
according to the natives. I saw one at a great height in October, 1880, and bringing a glass to 
bear on it I could easily recognize it to be the Bald Eagle. This was the only instance of its 
occurrence from July, 1880, to June, 1881. The white head and tail, with a different mode of 
flight, enable one to distinguish it at a great distance. 

At Amchitka Island I saw several pairs of this bird in June, 1881. 

I was always on the lookout for H. alhicillaj but have come to the conclusion that it does not 
occur on the Aleutian Islands. 

Repeated inquiry among the traders, who had been long in the country, revealed to me that 
when they had seen such birds as I most desired to learn the occurrence of, I found, on longer ac. 
quaintance with them, that traders generally described an eagle that turned out to be a Cormorant 
or Loon. 

The adult Bald Eagle is a fine looking bird and always in clean plumage. When in captivity 
he is the most bedraggled object, with scarcely a clean feather on him. 

The food of this eagle is rather mixed, consisting of ptarmigans, ducks, and an occasional fish. 
Any fish or bird that may be thrown dead on the beach is eagerly eaten by this eagle. I saw in 
Nazan Bay, on Atkha Island, a pair of these eagles wrangling with dozens of gulls and several 
ravens over the putrid carcass of a sea-lion. 

This bird is undoubtedly the origin of the ^^ ba^glei^ of the Eastern Aleuts, as it sometimes sits 
on a hill top or open space and opens its wings to air them, or sits in such a strange position 
that it is, at a distance, scarcely recognizable as a bird. The timid Aleut imagines it to be some 
strange beast, which entices the victim within reach and disappears with it ; and, according to 
their story, this beast turns out to be a man, who keeps the captive as his servant.* 

I once had occasion to ascend the top of a high hill near Ili61iuk village. When I was up 
about 500 feet high I saw something, off at what I thought to be but a comparatively short distance, 
and supposed it to be a native hunting Hock Ptarmigan, £. rupeatris nelsoni Stejn. I hallooed for 
the person to wait for me. I th6n passed round to another side of a spur and found the object had 
disappeared, but eoon saw it return, and found it to be a Bald Eagle, which looked as large as a 
man ; for the difference in density of the atmosphere had magnified it, as I was much lower, that 
when I arrived at the top of the mountain I saw what a great distance I had estimated as being 
only a couple of hundred yards. When I first saw the bird I did not know that a terrible gale 
was waiting my arrival at the top of the mountain. 

353. Faloo islandus BrUnn. White OyrfaUxm. 

A single specimen of this Gyrfalcon was killed at Saint Michael's May 16, 1877. It is not a 
common bird in this vicinity, and oftener seen in spring than at other seasons*. 
I could learn nothing about its habits. 

354a. Falco eusticolus oybfalco (Linn.). Oyr/alcon. 

Several specimens of this Gyrfalcon were obtained in the vicinity of Saint Michael's, where it 
is a constant resident, with probable exception during protracted periods of severe weather in 
winter only. 

The natives assert that this bird breeds on the high hills, either on a rocky ledge or on the 
moss-covered ground. 

I did not obtain eggs and nest of it. It is very active on the wing. Its food consists princi- 
pally of Ptarmigans, which it seizes only when the prey is on the wing. I saw one capture an 
adult male Ptarmigan in April, 1870. The Gyrfalcon struck the bird with its breast; and, as the 

* The hayglie stories of the Aleuts are a wonderful mixture of cunniug and superstition. I think, however, the 
earliest Russians made use of the expression (for in the Russian language the word means deserter, runaway) in all 
its subsequent meanings, in order to deter their women, whom they had, in most instances, forced from Their homes 
and compelled to live with their bated mates, from deserting them and returning to their own people. At the present 
day it is used as a '' bugbear " to prevent the small children from wandering away. Hany of the adolts stoutly main- 
tain that they have seen these apparitions. The Attn people do not use the expression only as they have heard of it 
from their eastern relations. 



160 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

Ptarmigan recoiled from the blow, the hawk seized it with ita claws and bore it to the ground, 

where it soon dispatched it. 

In the fresh specimen the color of the iris is yellow ; bill white with dark tip ; tarsi and toes 

bluish-white; claws black; cere greenish. 

The natives nse the wing and tail feathers of this bird as vanes for the shafts of their spears 
and arrows. 

The Eskimo name of this Gyrfalcon is GhS M'v yiikj and refers to the longitudinal stripings on 

the breast 

356. Paloo peregbinus anatum (Bonap.). Ihwk Hawk. 

I saw but two or three individuals of this species at Saint Michael's; the character of the 

country not appearing favorable for its occurrence. They were observed at such irregular intervals 

that I concluded the Duck Hawk was merely a casual visitor to that part of > the coast. In the 

interior, and especially along the high blufis overhanging the l^ukon River, it is reported to be 
not rare. 

In the vicinity of Bristol Bay I saw two pairs launch from the cliffs near Gape Newenham, 
and also one bird fly past the vessel as she was anchored in the Nushagak River, opposite the 
trading post on that stream. This date was June 25, 1878. 

There can be no question that the Duck Hawk breeds in the more suitable localities of the 
entire range over which it wanders. I did not obtain eggs or nests of this species. Its general 
habits are quite well known. 

356a. FAI.CO peregrinus pealei Ridgw. PeaJ^s Falcon. 

This Palcon was frequently observed on Amchitka Island in the month of June, 1881 ; and on 
several occasions on Attn Island, during 1880 and 1881. It breeds on nearly all of the islands of 
the chain, and is a winter resident, on the Nearer Group at least. On Agattu it is reported to be 
very common ; and, on Amchitka I knew of three nests on the ledges of the high blufifs, hanging 
over the sea. Any approach to the cliffs was heralded by the bird darting from the nest and 
circling high in the air, screaming fiercely all the while. Any attempt to shoot the birds, while 
flying over the water, would have resulted in the loss of the specimen, for they always flew in front 
of the cliffs out of gun-range. 

At Attn Island I frequently saw one of these birds join the Ravens when the latter were 
performing their aerial gymnastics on the approach of a gale. 

The Hawk endeavored to imitate the Ravens, which paid but little attention to the antics of 
the intruder. 

At Attn this hawk is not common, though the natives assert that it is common enough at 
Agattu and the Semichi Islands. The natives had told me that where this Hawk breeds there 
will be found the nests of Eiders. I could not believe it until a short stay at Amchitka Island 
forced me to recognize it as a fact, for, in each instance, the nests of Eiders were very abundant in 
each of the localities where the nest of this hawk was known to be. It is quite probable that the 
hawk selects the place with special reference to prospective young Eiders. 

The Eskimo use the skins of the smaller hawks in several of their dances, and in many of the 
incantations held over those afflicted with disease. The skin is affixed to a large mask, worn over 
the face. The skin of Accipiter velox is also used for the same purpose. 

367. Falco columbarius (Linn.). Pigeon Hawk. 

This species of Hawk was observed on several occasions in the vicinity of Saint MichaePs, 
though never at such times as led me to believe that it breeds there. Its visits were merely wan- 
derings at times when not caring to devote itself to the duties of rearing its young. 

Unfortunately their appearance was at such times that I could not procure a specimen fh)m 
the mainliHid. 

An individual was procured at Unalashka in the year 1879, and was the farthest west that 1 
observed the Pigeon Hawk. 

In the early part of August, 1881, 1 saw two, evidently mates, at the northwest end of Kadiak 
Island. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURA.L HISTOBlT OF ALASKA, 161 

364. PAin>iON haxiaJItus oabolinensis (Gmel.)- American Otprey. 

A single specimen of the American Osprey was obtained from Fort Tnkon, May 20, 1876. It 
is reported as an early arrival ; and daring the summer to be not uncommon, though it ranges 
along the smaller tributaries rather than the larger rivers. 

I have been assured, by natives and white persons, that the Osprey does not descend the 
Yukon Biver lower than the Mission. At Nulato it is quite common on the north side of the river, 
and rarer on the south side. 

They return for many years to the same nest. 

I did not obtain either eggs or nest of this species. 

Some of the native tribes greatly prize the wing and tail feathers to a£Elx to their arrow shafts. 

367. A8I0 AOOIPITBINUS (Pall.). Sharlreared Owl 

The Short-eared Owl is the commonest bird of prey in the Territory. It is to be found in all 
localities of the mainland and Aleutian Islands. It is most abundant on the lowlands, where it 
may be seen on the wing nearly every day in the year. It is a common sight in the spring, during 
the arrivals of the smaller kinds of water birds, to see this owl sailing or flopping over the marshes 
in search of food. During the brightest days it generally remains in an alder thicket, but flies at 
the least alarm. They are more often shot as it flies unwittingly by. 

I had occasion to go out to the end of my house one night with a lighted cigarette in my 
mouth. Suddenly something came so close to my head as to nearly knock my cap ofll In a 
moment another came. I saw it to be an owl and ran for my gun. As I suspected the light from 
my cigarette had attracted the bird I tried some matches. In a moment owls were thick around 
me. I succeeded in killing nine of them, and knew that several more were lying not far off, but 
could not find them, as I could only see objects which were several degrees above the horizon. 

I could not obtain eggs of this species, although it is reported to breed anywhere among the 
grass and moss of the hillsides. Among the Aleutian Islands this owl is not rare. I obtained a 
specimen at Unalashka Island, where the natives assert it is to be found in the larger ravines. 

At Atkha Island I saw one of them as it flew from a patch of wild rye. It was the only one 
seen. At Attn I saw one, but missed killing it, as it was too far off for large shot. The Aleuts 
have no good word for this bird. The women are afraid to touch it. 

Among the natives of the Yukon District the liver of this bird is used as a love-philter. The 
liver is dried and reduced to a powder; and placed, unknown, to the person to whom the philter 
is to be administered, in some food. On eating the food the desired affection is supposed to make 
itself evident. I knew of %n instance where a native endeavored, by this means, to regain the 
affection of his wife. The mother-in-law had more potency than dried owMiver; and as she con- 
trolled her daughter the philter was as naught. 

It is administered, indifferently, by man or woman, and is frequently used by the Eskimo. 

The native (Eskimo) name of this owl is MUng hu chff w4k, 

370. Ulula oinebea (Gmel.). Oreat Oray Owl. 

The Great Gray Owl is a resident of the Yukon Valley and was obtained on the coast at the 
Uphtin Slough, the northern part of the Yukon Delta. It is not common there. The specimen 
was a female containing; large, but undeveloped, eggs, two in number; hence should conclude the 
period of incubation to be from the latter part of April to middle of May, as this specimen was ob- 
tained April 8, 1876. The iris was yellow, bill white, cere pale flesh-color, and dark daws. 

Several specimens were obtained from Fort Yukon, where this bird appears to be common 
and resident. ^ 

It is said to be very stupid during the day but active during the twilight. 

Their habits weie not learned. 

* The colors of this si)ecies are dusky grayish-brown and grayish- white; the former oolor pre. 

vailing above and the latter below ; the upper surface with mottliugs of a transverse tendency; 

the lower surface with the markings in the form of longitudinal stripes, which are transformed into 

transverse bars on the flanks, &c. Face grayish- white, with concentric rings of dusky. The tail 

S. Mis. 165 ^21 



162 OONTEIBUTIOWa TO THE NA^TURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

having a decided tendency to alternating bars of the prevailing colors of the body. Iris yellow ; 
bill ivory-white in life, drying yellowish; cere pale flesh-color in life ; claws dark. 

[370a.l Ulula oinebea lapponica (Retz.). Lapp Owl. [See Plate V.] 

The difference between this species and cinerea is in the coloration alone, which in lappimica 
is: Above, pale brownish-gray and grayish -white, with the latter color predominating on the 
lower surface, neck, and head ; back with greater amount of brownish, rather darker on wings and 
tail, which is somewhat darker on the lower half than in cinerea. The disposition of the colors pro. 
duce irregular, ragged stripes ; longitudinally less evident and the brown narrower on the lower 
parts. Facial disks ashy-gray, with narrow, concentric rings, scarcely regular, but more so than in 
dnerea. Bill yellowish in life, somewhat the color of soiled ivory. The iris yellow, claws light 
edged, with darker bases. Gere dark. 

A single specimen, an adult female, of this species was brought to me April 15, 1876, from the 

Yukon Delta. It is said to be quite rare. I could not learn anything special regarding its habits. 

* 

371. Ntotala TBNaMALMi BiOHABDSONi (Bouap.). Rickatdsim^i Owl. 

Richardson's Owl does not occur on the coast near St. Michael's. It inhabits the wooded 
districts. 

A specimen was obtained from Fort Yukon, where it is reported to be not uncommon. 

Natives from Nulato describe a small species of owl as being quite plentiful in that vicinity. I 
have no doubt they referred to this si)ecies. 

375a. Bubo vibghniantts stjbabotictts (Hoy). Western Homed Owl. 

The Western Homed Owl is only an occasional visitor to the immediate vicinity of Saint 
Michael's, its place on the barren grounds being taken hyJST. nyctea. 

A single specimen was obtained from a valley about sixteen miles southeast of the Redoubt. 
This locality contains a few stunted poplars and alders, of which some of the latter were the largest 
seen by me along Norton Sound coast. Another specimen was a young bird obtained on the port- 
age between Ulnkuk and Nulato, though nearer the former place, in the month of October. 

Along the upper part of the Yukon River this owl is common and resident wherever found. 

The Eskimo name of this owl \b Ma led pi uk^ and has reference to the tufts of feathers 
on the head. 

There is great difference in the pattern of coloration and its distribution in each specimen of 
this bird obtained by me. • 

In example 73089, $ , ad., March, 1877, from Saint Michael's; a nearly pure, white groundcolor 
beneath, regularly barred with narrow brownish -black on sides and flanks, becoming obsolete on 
legs and median line of abdomen and lower breast. The under tail-coverts barred with black, the 
bars about one-third as wide as the white ; the under tail surface containssix transverse bars, which 
are about one-fifth as wide as the white, the latter terminal. The upper breast and throat white, 
with irregular, large blotches of slaty black. A few feathers of rnfous on the lower parts, mostly 
evident on elevating the feathers. Wings, head, and back slaty brown, much spotted with irreg- 
ular markings of white. Face lighter than back. The upper surface of the tail is similar to the 
back, except that the markings are finer and show no signs of bars only when the tail-feathers are 
elevated. A few irregular patches of yellowish, brown become evident when the feathers of the 
upper surface are disturbed. 

No. 73090, i , ad., June 20, 1876, from Fort Yukon. This example has the slaty brown pre- 
vailing on the lower parts. The breast and sides are nearly confluent bars, which extend across 
the upper breast; disappearing and leaving a pure white patch on the lower breast and upper ab- 
domen. The lower abdomen, thighs, and tarsus are whitish-fulvous, with very fine bars of dusky^ 
brown, which become nearly obsolete on feathers of the tarsus, and there prevail as fine broken 
bars on an ashy ground, showing a slight fulvous tint. The under surface of the tail-feathers con- 
tains seven bars of less distinctness than in No. 73089. Wings, back, head, and tail above are a 
shade darker than in 73089, with the dottings of whitish very irregular in size and distribution. 



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OONTBIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 163 

The throat is white with irregular patohes of blackish, having few spots of fulvous on each feather 
not purely white. 

No. 70276, from Saint Michael's, has the bars finer and extending nearly across the under sur- 
face of the body, with exception of throat, upper breast, and legs. The throat nearly pure white. 
The jugular and upper breast with fewer blotches of blackish. The tail and its under coverts 
finely barred with more decided brownish. Legs nearly uniform whitish-fulvous, with few irregular 
markings of lighter brown than on abdomen and showing but little barring. Entire upper surface 
and wings slaty brown, with very fine markings of white and fulvous, the latter in excess on ele- 
vating the tips of the feathers, though nearly concealed when the feathers are arranged in order. 

No. 70277, 9 , Saint Michael's. This example is strikingly different from all the others. The 
ground color is grayish-fulvous above ; tail and wing coverts are the darker portions of the upper 
surfaces. The back, shoulders, head, and rump show narrow lines transversely, with little dispo- 
sition to form bars, the markings being very irregularly disposed. The tall above shows a slight 
evidence of barring, and becomes nearly obsolete below, where the inferior surface of the feathers 
show the bars only on the inner web and only obsoletely on the extreme half of the outer web. 
The breast, neck, abdomen, and legs are nearly pure whitish ; bars of very fine lines are trans- 
versely disposed on the sides and flanks. This example is a young male, in nearly adult plumage, 
obtained in March, 1877, having been a bird of the previous year. 

There are no appreciable difi'erences in the measurements of any birds of this species obtained 
from those localities. The bill is blue-black ; cere dark greenish ; claws black, with lighter tips^ 
iris yellow, with fine, brownish specks, especially nearer the pupil. 

376. Nyotea nyctea (Linn.). Snmoy OwL 

The Snowy Owl is a. resident of all the northern part of Alaska, both interior and insular. 
The first specimens seen by me were on a high piece of floating ice, far out at sea between 
Saint Mathew's Island and Saint Lawrence Island, in Bering Sea. Several rifle shots were fired 
at them, which had only the efifect to make the birds walk to another place on the ice. At Saint 
Michael's this owl was frequently brought to me. I have seen them on the hill just back of the 
Redoubt and on the hills beyond the ^^ Canal." A few miles in the interior it is quite plentiful at all 
seasons of the year. It flies quite as well during cloudy days as at night but is at all times rather 
shy. They are more often obtained when they are startled from some bunch of grass or straggling 
willow patch. I know nothing of their breeding habits, but the natives assert that it breeds under 
the overlapping grass on the edge of a low bluft'^ that it lays four white eggs early in April. 

This Owl is not rare on some of the Aleutian Islands. A fine specimen was shot by Mr. Rob- 
ert King, the agent of the Western Fur and Trading Company, at Ilitiliuk village, Unalashka Island. 
The Owl had been observed for several nights on some of the buildings near the stable, doubtless 
watching a convenient opportunity to pounce on a pair of tame rabbits that lived under the stable. 
The bird was sitting on the flag-staff but a few yards in front of the dwelling of Mr. King, who 
immediately presented the bird to me. 

This is the only instance where I obtained a specimen from Unalashka Island. The natives 
assert that it is only occasionally seen there. At Agattu Island it is quite common. It rarely 
visits Attn, but few miles irom it. Its rarity is, doubtless, due to the presence of foxes ( F. lagopua) 
on the latter island. 

On Agattu Island this Owl is a constant resident. 

The food of this bird is composed of grouse, ducks, and an occasional stranded fish. The iris 
is yellow; bill and claws white. 

The Eskimo name of this « >wl is tTngpHky or Oreat Beard. 

[377.] SuBNiA ULULA (Linn.). Hawk Owl. [See Plate VI.] 

Above light brownish gray, darker on npi>er back; sides of lower neck, wings, and tail much 
spotted with irregular, quadrate blotches of grayish- white, having a slight tendency to produce 
undulating bars on the middle back ; the brown color predominating on the tail, wings, and lower 
neck. Head and nape whitish-gray, with fine bars of light brownish-gray on the ocdput, becoming 
less in amount at the lower, posterior margin of the crown. Crown grayish, with numerous, irregular. 



164 0ONTEIBUTIO198 TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

transyerse, narrow bars of brownish-slate, these dark markings becoming more namerous on the 
forehead. The ear-coverts of slaty-brown, forming a oonspicnous, perpendicular, bar which is 
produced over the disk of each eye. A postcervical band of light brownish-gray is scarcely 
interrapted in its conjunction with the perpendicular bar behind the ear-coverts. Sides of wing- 
coverts nearly pure white, with few markings of the same color as the middle back. 

Facial disks grayish-white; the bristles on the sides of the base of beak blackish. 

Lower surface grayish-white with numerous narrow bars of grayish, brown; the latter bars 
occupy about one-half the width of the grayish space on the breast and sides, and become about 
one-fourth as wide on the abdomen and with a corresponding increase in the width of the grayish ; 
or, in other words, the grayish is about four times as wide as the brownish. Inferior surface of the 
tail rather lighter than the superior and have the grayish bars less apparent, owing to the two 
colors blending together. The superior surface of the tail is marked with eight, narrow, transverse 
bars of grayish, the latter terminal, while counted fh)m below there are nine bars. A broad, 
pectoral band of grayish extends from the carpal joint, of the closed wing, to the opposite side, and 
is nearly an inch in width, devoid of other than few, subquadrate markings of light brownish-gray. 
Above this band there is a blackish spot, of irregular outline, formed on the upper sides of the 
breast. The under surface of the wing is not different from the superior surface, excepting that 
the spotting is nearly pure white and of larger size than that which shows on the outer webs of 
the superior surface of the wing-quills. 

In life the bill is ivory-white; iris yellow; claws dusky. 

This bird measures slightly larger than the American Hawk Owl. The wing, 9.75 inches ; 
tail, 7.10 inches ; culmen, .85 inch ; tarsus, .86 inch ; middle toe, .82. 

The European Hawk Owl is but rarely seen in the vicinity of Saint Michael's. 

The first bird of the kind that I saw was brought to me by a native, who obtained it in the 
bushes near the southeast base of Sham&n Mountain, near the Redoubt. An Eskimo dog stole the 
bird and destroyed it before I could get it away. The second specimen was procured b}' me. I 
was ascending a gravelly point of land on the northeast end of the island, when a native who was 
with me caUed my attention to the bird, sitting in a clump of rank grass. I had no gun with me; 
the native assured me that the bird was not vicious. I seized the bird with my hands; and, while 
examining it, the soil and grass beneath me gave way, and while attempting to prevent myself from 
sliding down hill the bird got away from me and flew off. The third example was brought to me 
by a native. The skin was preserved, but has been lost in some unaccountable manner. 

The two species are distinguishable at a glance, by the dark markings, prevailing as spots, on 
the American bird, and the light markings predominating on the European bird. 

The natives assert that it is a resident and breeds in the vicinity of Saint MicbaeFs; also that 
it is a coast bird, i. e., not going far into the interior ; and that it can live a long time in winter 
without food, as it remains for days in the protection of the holes about the tangled roots of the 
willow and alder patches. The native (Eskimo) name of this species is I Ung n^A;, and signifies 
pallid. 

377a. SUBNIA ULULA OAPAEOOH (Mtill.). American Hawk Owl 

DeseripUan.-^ Ahoy edsLTk vandyke-brown, darker anteriorly, less intense, and more grayish, on 
the tail ; a narrow streak of brownish-black originates over the eye, and extends backward above 
the upper edge of the ear-coverts, where it forms an elbow, passing downward, in a broad stripe, 
over the ends of the ear-coverts. Confluent with this, at about the middle of the vertical stripe, 
is another of similar tint, which passes more broadly down the side of the nape. Between the last 
stripes (those of opposite sides) is another, or medial one, of less pure black, extending from the oc- 
ciput down the nape ; every feather of the crown, forehead, and occiput with a central, ovate dot 
of white— those anterior more circular, those on the occipit less numerous and more linear. Be- 
tween the lateral and posterior nuchal stripes the white prevails, the brown forming irregular, ter- 
minal and transverse or medial spots. These become more lineal toward the back. Interscapu- 
lars plain; posterior scapulars variegated, with partially concealed, large, transverse, spots of white ; 
the lower feathers with nearly the whole, outer webs white, their confluence causing a conspicuous 
patch above the wing, ^ump with sparse, irregular, but generally transverse spots of white j up. 



0ONTBIBUTION8 TO THE NATURAL HI8TOBY OF ALASKA. 165 

per tail-oovertB with broader, more regular bars of the game, these aboat equal to the brown in 
width. Lower feathers of the middle and secondary wing-ooverts each with an ovoid, white spot 
on the outer web ; secondaries crossed by about three series of longitudinally-ovoid, white spots 
(situated on the edge of the feathers), and very narrowly tipped with the same ; primary coverts 
with one or two less continuous, transverse series of spots, these found only on the outer feathers ; 
primaries with about seven transverse series of white spots, these obsolete, except on the five outer 
feathers, on which those anterior to the emargination are most conspicuous. All the primaries 
are very narrowly bordered with white at the ends. Tail, with seven or eight very narrow bands 
of white, those on the middle feathers purely so, becoming obsolete exteriorly ; the last is terminal. 
Eyebrows, lores, and face grayish -white, the grayish appearance apparently caused by the blackish 
shaft of the feathers ; that of the face continues (contracting considerably) across the lower parts of 
the throat, separating a large space of dark brown, which covers the whole throat from an indistinct 
coHar of the same, extending across the jugulum, this collar uniting the lower ends of the auricular 
and cervical, dusky bauils, the space between which is nearly clear white. Ground color of the 
lower parts white, but everywhere with numerous, very regular, transverse bars of deep brown of 
a tint more reddish than the back, the brown bars rather more than half as wide as the white ones; 
across the upper parts of the breast (beneath the gular collar) the white very much invades and 
reduces the brown, forming a broad, lighter belt across the jugulum; below this the brown bars 
increase in width, their aggregation tending somewhat to a suffusion, giving the white jugular belt 
better definition. On the legs and toes the bars are narrower, more distant, and less regular. 
The whole lining of the wings is barred like the sides. The dark brown prevails on the under sur- 
face of the primaries, &c. ; the former having transverse, irregular, elliptical spots of white, 
those touching neither the shaft nor the edge ; on the longest quill are seven of these spots ; on 
all they are anterior to the emargination. 

There is considerable individual variation of plumage in this species. The darker colors may 
be of a more or less reddish-brown and have the same general distribution of coloration as de- 
scribed above, or else the lighter colors may be greater in amount with the same general pattern. 
The beak is generally palest flesh-color in life, or even ivory-white, but becomes yellowish on 
drying. The claws are dark to pale horn-color. The wing is 9 inches long ; tail, 6.5 to 7 inches ; 
tarsus, .9 inch ; middle toe (without claw), .80 to .83 inch. There are no exterior differences in the 
sexes of this bird. 

The American Hawk Owl is a very common resident throughout the Yukon district. Along 
the coast it is quite abundant. They usually seclude themselves in the willow or alder patches, 
or are frequently startled from some grass-covered bank of a lake. They fly equally well by night 
or by day. I once observed a bird of this species sitting, during a bright day, on a post. I ap- 
proached the bird to within a few feet. It squatted, then stood up, and seemed ready to fly at any 
moment. I went within six feet of it, and it then settled down as if to take a nap. I retired and 
threw a stick at it to make it fly. I shouted and made other noises, and only after several attempts 
to dislodge it did it fly. When taking flight from an elevated i)osition they invariably drop to 
within a few feet of the earth and sail away rapidly. They are not at all vicious ; they hold tightly 
with their claws, and in no instance did a wounded Hawk Owl attempt to use its beak, though the 
feathers on the head and neck were raised and an attitude of threatened attack with beak ^as 
always made. After a few minute's captivity they become passive and make no attempt to escape. 
In the neighborhood of Nulato, Anvik, and Fort Yukon this owl is quite abundant. It is proba- 
bte that thin species rarely wanders far from where it was reared, though excessive periods of cold 
may cause it to retire to the ravines and bush-patches of the interior. The natives assert that 
these birds can live several days without food, which consists of small birds and mice ; the heads 
of its victims being the preferred partf^. 

The nesting habits were not learned by me. 

The Eskimo call this bird THJcfe d ling Uky and refers to the spots on the plumage resembling 
something else. 

390. Gebyle aloyon (Linn.). Belted Kingfisher. 

A single specimen of this bird was obtained at Fort Yukon, It is said to be common along 
the entire Yukon Biver and is a snmmer visitant only. 



166 OONTEIBDTIONS TO THE NATURAL HI8TOBY OF ALASKA. 

394. Dbtobatbs PUBBSOiyivs. Doum/g Woodpecker. 

The Downy Woodpecker ranges thronghont the wooded districts of Alaska. 

Along the Yukon River it is very common. It prefers the poplar groves and alder thickets. 
A.t the Ynkon Delta it is common in winter, seeking its food among the willow patches. 

It occasionally visits the vicinity of Saint Michael's, as one was seen at a distance as it took 
flight from a thicket of willows on the edge of a lake, west of the Redoabt. 

401a. PiooiDES AMEBIOANUS ALASGENSis (Nels.). Aloikan Three-toed Woodpecker. 

Specimens of the American Three-toed Woodpecker were obtained from Nnlato and Fort 
Yakon, on the Yukon River. The bird is a resident of the wooded districts, and common in some 
localities. 

The iris is black ; tip of bill black, becoming paler posteriorly to nearly white at base ; toes 
and feet black. 

The difference in plumage of alascensis and dorsalis is sufficient to warrant the separation of 
the two forms, but from a lack of sufficient material for comparison the matter may be considered 
as not yet decided. 

401ft. PiooiDES AMEBiOANUS DOBSAL.IS Baird. Alpine Three-toed Woodpecker. 

This Woodpecker is abundant in the interior wherever there are wooded districts. 

It rarely visits the vicinity of Saint Michael's. A single specimen was seen in April, 1876, on 
the high staff at the end of the warehouse. It flew off immediately. I again saw an individual of 
this species among some poplar trees, about eighteen miles southeast of the Redoubt, in March, 
1877. 

At Fort Yukon this bird is numerous. From there I obtained all my specimens. 

I could not learn of the occurrence of this bird on the western part of Aliaska. At Nushagak 
Station, and on the river of that name, it is quite abundant. 

412. CoLAPTES AUEATUS (Linn.). Flicker. 

The Flicker does not occur on the coast of the Yukon District to my knowledge. A specimen 
was obtained from Fort Yukon, where it is not abundant. 

457. Satobnis saya (Bonap.). Say^s Phcsbe. 

Several specimens of this bird were obtained from Fort Yukon, where it arrives during the 
latter part of May. I am not aware that it descends to the coast. 

474. Otogobis alpestbis leucol^ma (Cones). Fallid Horned Lark. 

A single specimen of this bird was brought to me by a native, who said he had just killed it 
at Egg Island, a lew miles irom the village of Saint Michael's. It was a female and had been just 
killed. This species is not common in that vicinity, but is said to be common on the higher hills 
just back of the seashore. The bill, feet, and iris were black. 

475. Pica pica hudsonica (Sab.). American Magpie. 

A specimen of this Magpie was not obtained by me. Several of the traders from the Upper 
Yukon district reported this species to be not rare in the neighborhood of Fort Yukon, and rather 
more common in the vicinity of Fort Reliance, farther up the Yukon River but south of Fort 
Yukon. I saw a single individual at Unga Island in the latter part of July, Ib81. It is said to breed 
on the island among the alder thickets. At Kadiak Island I observed quite a number of these 
birds. A young bird was seen as a captive at Karluk fishing- station, on the northwest shoulder 
of Kadiak Island. The bird was quite gentle, constantly uttering its harsh cry. At Saint Paul's 
village, Kadiak Island, I observed quite a number of these birds among the shade trees within 
the village. They were constantly quarreling ; even the dashing rain, which prevailed during my 
very short stay there, did not at all dampen their ardor in making a noise. Several nests were also 
seen, which had been used earlier in the year, lor I saw them August 9, 1881. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATUEAL HISTORY OP ALASKA, 167 

This species does not visit the Aleutian Islandii The farthest west that I could leam of their 
oocurrence was at Belkovsky, though they may be eventually found on Unimak Island, next the 
western end of Aliaska. 

4Mb. Pebisobeus canadensis fumifbons Bidgw. Alaskan Jay. 

This bird is known by the name of WhisJcy JacTc throughout the Hudson Bay territory, and 
fiSc^yoA to the Russian -speaking element of Alaska. 

It rarely occurs in the vicinity of Saint Michael's. Two specimens were obtained at the Re- 
doubt, during my three-and-a-half years' stay there. 

Along the Yukon River it is abundant and a permanent resident. 

The most of my specimens were obtained from Fort Yukon, Nulato and Anvik, on the Yukon 
River. 

I did not observe it in any other part of the country. 

There is great diversity in coloration of plumage. The old birds become nearly white, from 
the dark sooty plumage of the young. 

■ 

486. OoBVUS COBAX SINUATUR (Wagl.). American Raven. 

The American Raven is a resident throughout the Territory of Alaska. In the vicinity of 
Saint Michael's it is common in summer. 

During the excessively cold periods of winter it retires to the interior. It visits the coast during 
warm, broken spells of weather in winter ; in the early spring many individuals may be seen. 

It does not breed near Saint Michael's that I am aware of, but on the high blufBs along the 
Yukon River it breeds in numbers. 

The Raven seems to prefer the more thickly settled localities, and is more abundant near 
villages than in the less populated districts. It is common at Nushagak and on all the Aleutian 
islands. 

At Unalaabka it is extremely numerous. I have counted over two hundred individuals at one 
time at that place. At Atkha and Attn Islands it is also very numerous. They are the scavengers 
of the villages. They have a great share of intelligence ; though not shy they are extremely wary, 
and when ihey assemble round a pile of offal, left from cleaning fish, which some fisherman has just 
brought in, they are ever on the alert. It is scarcely possible to pick up a stone to throw at them 
without being seen, even though the distance off might make one think he has not been observed. 
When the person arrives at several rods from throwing distance, the Ravens take flight, to return 
as soon as the intruder is out of reach. 

At Atkha the natives and others have many chickens. The Alaska Commercial Company had 
two roosters and several hens. One of these roosters, a veritable Turk^ fought the younger rooster 
until the latter had^ in some one of his battles, lost his right eye. The loss of this eye pre- 
vented him from guarding against the sudden attacks of the older rooster, which finally drove the 
younger to the outskirts of the flock or else to solitude. The younger roost nsed to hang round 
some of the hens to divert them from the attentions of the older one, which finally gave him such 
a beating as to nearly kill him. 

The Ravens used to watch these affrays, and alight within a few yards to witness the fight, but 
always taking good care to keep out of reach of the old rooster. 

Out of revenge and a mixture of pure curseduess they would wait until the younger rooster 
was walking among the tall grass and sail directly over him, then drop down on the ground near 
him, uttering a loud fmwakj which made the young rooster believe the old one had slipped up on 
him. I have seen this done over a score of times, and have seen the young rooster drop on the 
ground from fright. 

On the approach of bad weather the Ravens retire to a high, bold precipice ; and, over its top, 
or along its face, they go through the most astonishing, aerial evolutions, chasing each other for 
hours in and out, to the right and left, up and down. Their flight at such times is extremely 
varied with rapid beats of the wing or a short sail, a sudden halt, and turn completely over and fly 
back from where they started. They also turn over sidewise, generally to the right and under, 
coming up on the other side and continuing without halt. They frequently fly with one wing dosed 
and the other straight up in the air. 



168 OOUTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

One Raven will secure a choice bit of offal and fly away with it Another, deBiring a share, 
will give chase, which results in the most wonderful performances. The pursuer endeavors to fly 
beneath and snatch it with the claws by turning over and grabbing it from the beak or claws of 
the other. The first is ready to turn abruptly upward and sail for many feet directly up. The 
pursuer follows, and a dash to the very ground ensues, after which the chase is continued until the 
one drops the morsel or the other becomes tired of pursuit. 

I have seen a Raven chase a duck {Histrionietu histrionicus LmN.) for over a mile. The 
Raven kept at the same distance ft'om the duck, neither gaining nor decreasing the distance of 
about 20 yards between them. I had a good view of the chase, and saw the duck start oat of the 
water about 20 yards ahead of the Raven as the latter was listlessly flying over. The Raven took 
after it with a '^ hwah^ which urged the duck on at a rapid rate. The Raven increased his speed 
to keep up with all the turns and angles of the duck, which finally flew out to seaward, upon 
which the Raven ceased pursuit and flew along just as though nothing had happened. The Raven 
chased that duck for no other reason than pure maliciousness. I have reason to believe the Raven 
could have caught the duck if it had wanted to do so, as I had seen Ravens fly faster on many occa- 
sions, but never before had seen a Harlequin Duck in a hurry. At Atkha Island I saw a nest con- 
taining two, nearly fledged, young Ravens. The nest was placed on a ledge of a low cliff. The nest 
was composed of dried stalks of a species of Arohangelicaj which grows abundantly on all the islands, 
and some dried fronds of seaweed. The rocks in the neighborhood were whitened by the excre- 
ment of these filthy birds. The walls of the bluff formed a rather narrow angle, and when I ap- 
proached the nest the clamor of the young birds was deafening. 

The young are able to fly by the middle of June. The young do not assume the lustre of the 
adult before the next year. 

The notes of the Raven are extremely varied to express surprise, danger, satisfaction, or nearly 
anything else, as they convey much by their note. A single male will sit on some slightly ele- 
vated knoll, and with outstretched, ruffled neck, he utters a note that sounds like that of a choking 
dog. Two will get close together in early spring and talk to each other for half an hour, uttering a 
series of kuitle^ Icuttle^ TcuUle^ all the while. 

When one has a piece of offal stolen from him he utters a hwah. On the wing they utter a 
short croak, at other times they utter al lUkhy al lUkhj which sounds like the Aleut word for two. 
The similarity of the sounds caused me to remark to a small boy, who was with me that a Raven, which 
had just flown by and uttered his allUkkj aUHkh^ had counted us correctly. The boy did not com- 
prehend my remark until I informed him that there were but two of us and that the Raven said so 
as he flew by. The boy was some time laughing at the idea of a Raven counting us in the Atkhan 
dialect. 

The Eskimo name of this bird is Tu V& kag Uk. The Unalashkans call it Ka H kak. The 
Attn Islanders call it Ka'l gakh. Throughout the entire Territory this bird is intimately connected 
with the myths and legends of the natives. They ascribe deeds of valor, heroism, sagacity, and 
deepest cunning to the Raven. 

509. ScoLECOPHAGUS OABOLINUS (MulL). Busty Blackbird. 

The Rusty Blackbird is one of the earliest land birds to arrive at this locality (Saint Michael's) ; 
May 25th being the earliest date recorded. It is not common here, and does not breed in this 
neighborhood to my knowledge. On the Lower Yukou River it is said to be abundant. 

Along the upper part of the Yukon River, especially in the neighborhood of Fort Yukon, this 
bird is abundant. It arrives there by the 10th of April and remains until October. 

The iris is white; bill and feet black. 

The Eskimo name of this bird is Kdth ka gd yUk. 

I did not observe this Blackbird on Aliaska nor on the Aleutian Islands. 

515. PiNicoLA ENUOLBATOB (Linn.). Pine Orosheak. 

The Pine Grosbeak is a resident of the interior and wooded districts of the en tire Territory of 
Alaska. It occasionally visits the Redoubt of St. Michael's during a warm period of weather in 
winter. 



CONTEIBUTIONS TO THE NATCTBAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 169 



• / 



It is very plentiful along the Yukon Biver, especially at Nulato, Anvik, and Fort Yakon. 
The specimens were all obtained from one or the other of those places. 

The fresh specimens that came to me in a frozen condition presented the following coloration : 
Bill dark ; tarsus, toes, and claws darker ; iris black. 

It feeds on seeds ; preferably those from the cones of the spruce. 

I observed several individuals of this species among the scattered clumps of spruce trees at a 
few miles from Nushagak, on the river of that name flowing into the head of Bristol Bay. 

616. Pybrhula cassini (Baird). OassMs Bullfinch. [See Plate VII.] 

(Dr. L. Stejneger has kindly furnished me, in February, 1882, the following remarks upon the 
status of the present species) : 

'^ Prof. S. F. Baird^s Pyrrhula coceinea var. cas^ni (Trans. Chicago Acad. 1, 1868, p. 316), has 
been the subject of several interpretations. 

Mr. Tristram (Ibis, 1871, p. 231) considers it to be entitled to specific rank, while other authors 
regard it as belonging either to Pyrrhula cineraoea Gab. or to P major Brehm (= coceinea De Selys). 

It would, therefore, be interesting to know to which species this only American specimen 
should be referred. 

I have minutely examined Professor Baird's type, which is deposited in the collection of the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

The specimen is not in the best condition, the outermost tail feather on one side and the 
innermost remex on one wing being lost. 

It appears from examination (as also Mr. Dybowsky and Professor Gabanis, Jour, flir Ornith., 
1874, p. 40, have concluded before me) that the American specimen is afemale. That the specimen is 
labeled as an adult male is in all probability founded on error which should not mislead us. It is 
not the first instance that the label has given erroneous information concerning the sex. 

Measurements of the specimen give: Gulmen, .40 ; wing, 3.75; tail, 2.85; tarsus, .74; mid- 
dle toe, .48 inch. 

Forehead and top of head lustrous blue-black, this black extending as a narrow line entirely 
round base of lower mandible and expanding to about three times its width between the rami of 
the lower mandible. The tail, including the upper coverts, is lustrous blue-black above and slate- 
black below. Wings slaty on the remiges, becoming the color of the tail on the tertials. The 
outer web of the first primary is gray, with slightest tinge of red. The primary coverts are dark 
ash and are thus quite conspicuous. The greater wing-coverts are broadly edged with bluish- 
black and broadly tipped with grayish- white. Nape, back, scapulars, lesser and middle wing-cov- 
erts uniform cinereous. Rump and lower tailcoverts pure white. The lower parts reddish-gray, 
becoming decidedly vinaceous on the flanks. The auriculars tinged with red. Bill brownish-black ; 
tarsi brown ; toes darker. 

The specimen in question is neither a male of P. major nor dnera^cea nor griseiventris Lafrsn. 

If it be a male it would be quite a new species, of which the male would be almost precisely 
like the female of cinera^iea^ as I propose to show below. 

When we shall decide on this case we prefer without hesitation the first alternative as being 
the most natural and probable one. 

The under parts are of the same color, excepting a somewhat purer gray than the same sex of 
the Great European Bullfinch, P. major. The color of the back is pure cinereous, without the 
brownish wash of P. major. The white of the rump embraces an area in width of .9 inches (22 
mm.). The outer web of the first primary has an edge of gray. The length of the tail-feather are 
2.85 inches (72 mm.).* 

In some of these particulars, which the specimen examined has in common with the female ot 
P. major ^ it difiers from P. cinera4iea in which the white of the rump embraces an area of 1.38 inches 
(34 mm.), while the light border on the outer primary is nearly always wanting. The first primary, 

* '* Baird, Brewer, and Ridjjrway, in Hist. N. A. B., I, p. 457, give the length of the tail as 3.25 inches (d2 mm.). The 
difference of the length arises from the different manner of meatinremcnt. . I myself (as does Mr. Dybowsky) measure 
the tail-feathers from the base of the qnills at their insertion and not, as in the work mentioned above, 'from the 
coccyx inside the skin.' '' 

8. Mis. 165 22 



170 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

• 

with very few exceptions, is shorter than the fifth. In the same manner the measurements best 
agree with those of P. major. The average length of the tails of twenty-nine females was foand 
by Mr. Dybowsky to be 2.85 inches (72 mm.). The wing being 3.58 inch (90 mm.) or precisely 
the same nnmbers which I have given above. On the other hand the specimen agrees so closely 
with the colors of the female of cineracea that there can be no doubt but that it is the female of 
cinerctcea. The differences noted above are only such as also occur in occasional female individaals 
of cinernoea. (See E. v. Homeyer, Jour, ftir Oruith, 1879, p. 178.) 

There are also two more marks by which Professor Baird's bird agree with P. cineracea^ for it 
lacks the red spot on the innermost tertial. The spot in that bird being gray, with a bluish-black 
spot at the tip, and has the tips of the greater wing-coverts gray and not white. It may, however, 
be well to state that occasional individuals of P. major also lack the red spot on the inner tertial. 
(See Dybowsky and v. Homeyer, 1. c). 

The white on the outer tail-feather is rather large and thus agrees with the majority of indi- 
viduals oicineraxiea, P.cassini has nothing to do with P. orientalis Tem. {=griseiventri8 La.fbsn). 
This is a smaller bird and much nearer allied to the small European form as will be understood 
from the following comparison which I had the opportunity of making in the museum of the Phil- 
adelphia Academy of Nat. Sciences: 

The specimens of Pyrrkula orientalis Temsi . here described are a male and a female, numbered 
777 in the Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., and were obtained from Japan. 

The male of P. orientalis Temm. is especially distinguishable from the male of P. europ<Ba (the 
small species) by the gray of the back being less pure, it being strongly tinged with rose- red ; also 
by the black cap extending less farther posteriorly. The color of the throat and cheeks is purer 
and more glossy rose-red, while the breast and remaining under parts are strongly sha<led with 
gray. The red color extends to the crissum without becoming less intense. The tips of the greater 
coverts are pure gray, not white or whitish. The innermost tertial has no red spot. Measurements 
of the male give: Gulmen, .40; wing, 3.30; tail feathers, 2.40; tarsus, .64 inch. 

The female of orientalis is distinguishable from the female europcea in the same manner as the 
male by the gray tips on the greater wingcoverts and wanting the red spot on the inner tertial. 
The back is more tinged with brown, duller and more reddish than in any of the four females of 
euri^cea now before me, in which the shade of gray in europcea is more fulvous, the cap somewhat 
shorter, the auriculars, chin, and throat more reddish— just the same parts which in the male are 
more rosy. Measnrementsof the female give: Gulmen, .37; wing, 3.35; tail feathers, 2.44; tarsus, 
.70 inch. 

The synonomy of P. cassini will, consequently, stand as follows : 

1831 — Pyrrhula rubicilla Pall. Zoogr. liusso-Asiat., 11, p. 7 ( 9 partim.). 

1869. — Pyrrhula coceinea var. cassinii Baird, Trans. Chic. Acad., 1, 1869, p. 316. 

1871.— PyrrAw/a cassini Tristr., Ibis, 1871, p. 231. 

1872. — Pyrrhula cineracea Cab., Jour, liir Ornith., 1872, p. 316. 

Figures. Transactions Chic. Acad., 1, 1869, PI. XXIX; Cab. Jour. f. Orn., 1874, PI. IJ" 

Wbile in Alaska I made strenuous endeavors to obtain specimens of P. cassini Baird, but 
failed to procure them. The question of the relationship of the species referred to may, however 
be considered as settled, as Dr. L. Stejneger, since he wrote the above, has had the opportunity of 
comparing Baird's type of cassini with an undoubted t^pecimen of cineracea, and finds his identifi- 
cation to be correct. 

521. LoxiA GUBVIBOSTBA MINOR (Brchui). American Crossbill. 

I had the good fortune to obtain a specimen of the American Crossbill at Saint Michael's on 
August 4, 1875. It was sitting on a weed near the base of the sundial, back of the inclosure. 

Measurements of the fresh specimen were as follows: 5.75 by 10 by 3.25 by 2. Iris black, feet 
and bill dusky, male, adult. 

This bird is extremely rare in this locality, as some natives to whom I showed it declared it to 
be the first one they had ever seen. 

This species was not obtained by Messrs. Dall and Bannister in the Yukon Territory. 

This is the only individual ever obtained north of Sitka, nearly 600 miles further south than 
Saint Michael's. 



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CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA, 171 

622. LoxiA LEUCOPTERA Gmel. White-winged CrossbilL [See Plate VII.] 

The White- winged Crossbill is abundant in the interior of the Yukon district and other wooded 
parts. It occasionally visits the neighborhood of Saint Michael's, though not in numbers, as only 
an individual, or a very small flock, may be seen in spring or fall. It then acts as though it was in 
a strange place and anxious to get away, for it was very shy. 

Measurements of a fresh specimen obtained from Nulato were as follows: No. 213, 5.5 by 11 
by 3 by 2.6 ; iris, bill, feet, and claws black. Dated March 15, 1875. 

Leucosticte gbiseonucha (Brandt). Aleutian Leucosticte. [See Plate VIII.] 

This species is common on all the Aleutian Islands, including the Pribylof Group, Sannakh, 
mainland at Belkovsky, Unga Island, and was also observed at Eadiak Island. 

At Attn Island the bird occurs rather sparingly near Chichagof Harbor, but toward the western 
end of the island it is more abundant. At Unalashka, in the neighborhood of Ilifiliuk village, the 
bird is also not often seen. At the village on the harbor of Nazan ( Atkha Island) the bird is rarely 
seen, though at a distance of a few miles from either of these places just mentioned the bird is 
common enough. At the villages of Saint Paul's Island and that of Saint George Island the bird 
is abundant in the so-called streets. I have counted as many as twenty individuals around one 
building at Saint George's Island; and some of them within few feet of several persons. They 
seemed regardless of the presence of man ; while at other places they were seldom seen and were 
then shy. taking long flight when approached. 

This bird prefers the bold, ragged clifis along the seashore. They are constantly in motion, 
either on the wing, flying in sweeping, long curves, sometimes near the earth, to mount thirty or 
forty feet at a single effort, alighting on some projecting ledge of a bluff to search for food, and 
away again to alight for a moment on a weed stalk. Their nest is built on a small protected ledge 
of a bluff, or else in a small crevice. 

A nest was obtained by me from a small cleft of a rock on the side of a high bluff. It was 
composed of small pieces of wild-parsnip stalks, coarse grass stems, and finer blades of grass to 
form the lining. The nest is not elaborate, the material being somewhat carelessly arranged. 
Four (sometimes five) white eggs are laid in the early part of June. The young are able to fly 
by the first of August. 

I believe that but one brood is reared in a season. In the latter part of August and during Sep- 
tember small flocks, numbering never more than eight or ten, have been frequently observed, but 
I was led to consider these companies as the parent birds with the brood of young just reared. On 
the approach of winter these birds separate, so that during the winter more than one at a time is 
rarely seen. 

In April they seem again to assemble in small flocks of not more than five to eight in number 
and remain so until the mating season separates them. 

The number of birds seen in winter is much less than that seen in summer; hence the conclu- 
sion that part of them migrate, but to what locality is yet unknown, as their habitat is restricted 
to Eadiak on the east, Attn on the west, the Pribylof Islands on the north, and the southern sides 
of the Aleutian Islands and those islands to the south of the Aliaska Peninsula forming the 
southern border of their habitat. 

527a. AOANTHis HOBNEMANNU EXiLiPES (Coucs). Hoary Redpoll. 

The Hoary Redpoll is a common bird throughout the entire Territory of Alaska. The number 
at any given locality scarcely changes in winter or summer. 

Along the less protected parts of the coasts, where food is not so readily found in winter, the 
birds go to the interior for a time, and only along the coast is it imperfectly migratory. In the 
wooded districts it is a permanent resident. 

As early as March great numbers visit Saint Michael's, resorting to the bushes, weed stalks, and 
denuded areas of ground. 

This species breeds at Saint Michael's. 

The Eskimo name of this bird is OJcfek td gdkj or dweller among the Okfeg at, or alder patches. 



172 CONTRIBCJTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

528. AcANTHis LiNABiA (Llnu.). Redpoll 

The common Redpoll is a resident of all parts of Alaska excepting the Aleutian Chain. At 
the latter place (Aleutian chain proper) this species is a summer visitor only, though breeding 
here. It makes its appearance in April and remaius until the latter part of October. It was never 
observed west of Unalashka Island. 

In the Yukon district it is one of the commonest birds to be met with. It breeds wherever 
found in the summer. 

The male birds with their brilliant rosy breasts and crown, their cheerful twitter makes them 
a general favorite. 

The rosiness is not fully developed until after the second year. The young birds resemble the 
females of the second or third year, though old females also have a faint rosy tinge on the breast. 

Their sociability was so developed that they would sit on the wind-vane, placed on a high staff 
and turn round with the vane as the wind veered or backed. The yards often contained a hundred 
at a time. They were quite fearless and only took flight for a few feet. 

The nest and eggs were not obtained. The natives assert that it breeds at Saint Michael'Si 
among the bunches of weeds and grasses. 

The Eskimo call this species by the same name as the Hoary Redpoll. The natives recog- 
nize no specific differences between the two. 

My own observation tends to the same belief. They are so intimately associated that only 
the most rigid comparisons separate them in even a slight degree. 

534. Plegtbophenax nivalis (Linn). Snowflake. 

This pleasant and familiar little bird may be seen at Saint Michael's, or in its vicinity, at any 
season of the year, excepting during the protracted periods of coldest weather in midwinter. It 
is very abundant in the spring months of May and June. In April it is usually found in large 
flocks on the low ground near the Canal. As the snow is melted off of the higher grounds it 
repairs there to procure the seeds that remain from the last year. By the 15th of May the birds 
begin to separate into pairs and seek the cliffs and bluffs, on the sides of which they build their 
nests in June. The nest is placed on some small jutting point from the cliff, or sometimes in a 
chink or crevice. I have seen only deserted nests. The young are able to fly by the Ist of August, 
and they, with their parents, remain together until October, when they assemble into larger flocks, 
sometimes of hundreds in number. 

The Snowflake is irregularly migratory from the coa^t to the interior in the higher latitudes, and 
are permanent residents of the Yukon District. 

I observed this bird at Nushagak on Bristol Bay in June, 1878, under such circumstances 
that led me to conclude it was breeding. 

At Unalashka Island the Snowflake was seen on the eastern end of the island only in April 
and May and never during the summer months. While at Ohemovsky (village) I saw this bird 
abundant in the middle of June, 1880. At Akutan Island I have seen it in July and September. 

Among the western islands of the Aleutian Chain the Snowflake is a permanent resident, 
breeding there in great abundance at Atkha and Amchitka. At Attn Island the bird is plentiful 
at all seasons, and in the hardest weather may be seen on the gravelly be^ch eagerly searching 
for food. They breed here in numbers. The note of the male during the breeding season is a* clear 
whistle prolonged through several notes and cadences. ItB note can be heard a great distance. 

The female utters only a chirp, which is also the note of the male at other than the breeding 
season. 

Among the Aleutian Islands the summer plumage is assumed in the early part of May, and in 
the latter part of May at Saint Michael's. 

I observed this bird at Belkovsky in July, 1881, and at Kadiak in the early part of August, 
1881. At the latter place young birds of the season were abundant. 

The Eskimo name of this bird is A m6u 6 thUg Ukj and refers to the white plumage contrasted 
with the black. 



CONTEIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 173 

536. Oaloabius lapponictjs (Linn.). Lapland Longspur. 

The Lapland Longspur arrives at Saint Michael's from the Stb to the 15th of May. A few ar- 
rive at first, and before a month elapses it is the most abnndant laud bird seen in that locality. They 
frequent the lower grounds on their arrival and retire to the higher levels as soon as the snow is 
sufficiently melted. They have but little fear of man, and scarcely hop more than a few feet from 
the path even when they have but just come. 

The mating season begins soon after their appearance. The pair usually select some open spot 
that may be only a foot or so above the general level of the ground. The male takes possession of 
the highest point of that ground and reserves it for himself during the season of incubation. The 
nest is usually placed in a tuft of grass or dry moss. It is composed of grass and lined with 
feathers, forming a snug home. The number of eggs is four or five, laid by the 10th of June. The 
young are able to fly by the 25th of July. A second brood is often reared, and in my belief it is 
only the earliest arrivals that rear the second brood, as those pairs which I had earliest noticed on 
the nearer selected spots of ground were the ones that certainly had^atched two broods. 

The male is most assiduous in his attentions during incubation. He seeks the highest part of 
the ground, and dashes into the air, to circle round and round the nest in gradually decreasing spiral 
flight, while he utters a trilling note, a beautiful sound, then alights near by and utters a chirping 
t9weqf as he walks over the ground. In a few minutes he repeats the flight and song. This is 
continued all the day, usually the first bird-song heard in the morning and the last at night. The 
last part of September sees these birds preparing for departure. They are gone by the 5th ot 
October. 

The Lapland Longspur is abundant on the westernmost of the Aleutian Islands. At Attn it is 
very abundant, at Amchitka scarcely less so, and especially abundant at Atkha. I have never 
observed it at Unalashka at any season. At Belkovsky it was seen iu July, 1881, and at Kadiak 
Island it was abundant in August, 1881. Among these were many birds reared that season. 

542. Amkodbamus sandwighensis (Gmel.). Sandwich Sparrow. 

This little Sparrow is one of the earliest arrivals at Unalashka, usually by the 10th of May. 

By the 1st of June they become quite abundant. They frequent the grassy bluffs and sandy 
tracts along the beach. 

They breed in June, in the grass. The nest and eggs were not obtained by me, though several 
nests were shown to me and asserted to belong to this bird, but as I had no positive proof Icould 
not accept them as such. 

The young are able to fly in the latter part of July, though some young, that were just fledged, 
were seen as late as the middle of August. I suspect that more than one brood is reared in a season. 

On the eastern Aleutian Islands this Sparrow is quite common. At Unalashka Island many 
are to be found early in May. 

They are especially abundant on the low portage across the middle of Amakn&k Island, lying 
in the northeast part of Captain's Ilarbor. 

At Atkha Island I saw but few of these birds in 1879, and none farther west of this place 
until I visited Attn Island in 1880 and saw a few of these birds. Young birds, just able to fly, 
indicated they had been reared on the island. 

542b. Ammodbamus sandwichensis alaudinus (Bonap.). Western Savanna Sparrow. 

The habits and arrival of this species are identical with that of A. sandwichensis. There is 
nothing except in coloration to distinguish them. This species was not obtained at the Aleutian 
Islands, but at Saint Michael's is as common as the other species. 

Upper bill dark ; lower pale ; feet pale. 

555. ZONOTRIGHIA INTEBXEDIA Eidgw. Intermediate Sparrow, 

This sparrow arrives at Saint Michael's early in Juue. It is quite abundant among the alder 
patches on all parts of the island of Saint Michael's. It breeds here, as young birds were obtained 
in the first week of August in fully fledged condition. It leaves this vicinity in the latter part of 
AugOBt. I observed this bird at the mouth of the Kuskokvim Biver in June, 1878, and during the 



174 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

latter part of the same montb at Nushagak, on Bristol Bay. At the latter place it was very abun- 
dant along the thickets that fringe the streams of the low grounds. It does not visit the Aleutian 
Islands. The Eskimo name of this bird is Cha pdng dkh tuUd gak^ and signifies the small Oka 
pang Ukj or Passerella ilicLca. 

557. ZoNOTEiCHiA CORONATA (Pall.). Oolden-CTOwned Sparrow. 

A pair of these birds were shot in June, 1876, on the western end of Whale Island, near Saint 
Michael's. They frequent the edges of thickets of alder which grow on the sides of steep hills 
or hang over the brows of cliffs. They are also found at the bases of high cliffs near the water's 
edge, seeking food among the decaying seaweed thrown up by the waves. They are not common in 
this vicinity, as these two were the only ones obtained at this place, although this pair would un- 
doubtedly have bred here. In the interior they are not common, as I obtained only one specimen 
from Fort Yukon, and none were seen in other parts of the couiitry. Several individuals of this 
species were observed near the village at the fishing station of Karluk, on the northwestern shoul- 
der of Kadiak, in the early part of August, 1881. 

559a. Spizella monticola oohracea Brewst. Western Tree Sparrow. 

The Western Tree Sparrow arrives at St. Michael's by the Ist of June and remains only two 
and a half months. It breeds in the alder thickets that skirt the small lakes on the low grounds. 
It is quite common ; and, in the breeding season the male has a beautiful twittering song. I observed 
this Sparrow at Nushagak, Bristol Bay, in June, 1878. In the interior it is quite abundant. At 
Fort Yukon and Nulato it is especially so. The Eskimo name of the Tree Sparrow is Miit cMJc Uk. 

560. Spizella sooialis (Wils.). Chipping Sparrow. 

Several specimens of this Sparrow were obtained from Fort Yukon in June, 1876. It is not 
found on the coast in the vicinity of Saint Michael's, nor was it observed at Nushagak in June, 

1878. It does not occur on any of the Aleutian Islands, to my knowledge. 

567. JuNCO HYEMALis (Linn.). Slate-colored Junco. 

The Slate-colored Junco is rarely common at Saint Michael's. It is to be seen only in May or 
November. In the interior it is quite common, breeding at Fort Yukon and Nulato. I do not 
believe that it breeds anywhere along the coast of the Yukon district. It is not a resident of the 
district, and has not been yet detected on Aliaska nor (fn the Aleutian Islands. 

667a. Junco hyemalis oregonus. (Towns.). Oregon Junco, 

A single specimen (female) of the Oregon Snowbird was obtained at Unalashka Island, April 8, 

1879. The bird was shot by a native at the mouth of the creek back of Iliuliuk village. It is ex- 
tremely rare, as the native asserted it to be the first time he or his companions had seen such a 
bird. It was undoubtedly a straggler, from the mainland, and blown to this place by the extremely 
boisterous weather of that spring. 

I have not observed this bird anywhere else on the Aleutian Islands. 

Numerous individuals of this species were seen at Karluk, on the northwestern shoulder of 
Kadiak. The birds were quite familiar, hopping about the village and among the stakes which 
supported the stages of drying fish. 

582. Melospiza cinebea (Gmel.). Aleutian Song Sparrow. 

The Aleutian Song Sparrow is a constant resident of the Aleutian Islands, the peninsula of 
Aliaska, and the adjacent islands lying on the south side as far eastward as Cook's Inlet. It does 
not occur to my knowledge on the north side of the peninsula. It is strictly littoral in its habits, 
never going far into the interior of an island or the mainland of the peninsula. It prefers the vicinity 
of cliflfs and precipices or the beach covered with immense bowlders. During the breeding season 
it is found abundantly on the low swales which are heavily clothed with wild rye. 

Mating occurs late in April, and incubation about the first week in May. Young birds, able to 
fly a few yards, were obtained as early as the 12th of May and as late as the middle of August. 



CONTBIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 175 

Two, and sometimes three, broods are reared in a single season. The nest is placed in a tussock of 
grass, either on a steep hillside or on a ledge of some cliff. Again the nest is occasionally found in 
the low places near the water's edge of some small cove. There is great diversity of location 
sought by this bird in nesting habits. The nest is well built of grass, coarse blades for the foun- 
dation and finer ones as the nest approaches completion. The inside of the nest is lined with 
feathers of various birds. 

The number of eggs varies from four to six ; the latt^er number is rare, five being the usual 
number. 

The young birds are fed exclusively on insects for the first few days. The old birds are quite 
expert in seizing insects on the wings. I have frequently seen them dart from a» prominent rock 
to secure a passing lepidopter. The large gallinipper is a choice morsel for them, and these birds 
may frequently be seen hopping, along the paths or edges of grass patches, in search of them and 
other insects. 

This Sparrow is not shy, as it frequently alights on the window-sill to search about the turf, 
piled against the houses, for food. 

I frequently threw out pieces of bread or cracker for these birds, and soon taught them to 
know where they could get something on days of bad weather ; and those days come with suf- 
ficient frequency. 

The house-top was a favorite place for them to alight early in the morning to sing. One bird 
delighted to sit on the wind- vane, while a gentle, unsteady wind would swing him round and back, 
evidently to his great delight, as he constantly uttered bis song, which I have in vain tried to imi- 
tate, as it consisted of such rapid modulations that 1 could never catch it. They will at times sing 
part of their song and stop short, as though interrupted, look around for a few seconds, and be- 
gin where they left off. The song is usually sung in answer to that of a rival male. After being 
repeated many times one or the other of the males is certain to approach the other and again re- 
peat his song. 

The males are as a general thing peaceable. I saw two males which were a long time in set- 
tling some variance between them. They began early in March to alight near each other and 
remains steadfastly, within two or three feet of each other, each waiting a movement of theother^ 
which would be immediately taken advantage of. Any retreat was closely followed up, and the 
pursuer was frequently brought to an abrupt stand by the sudden turning of the one pursued. 
When either of them took flight the other immediately attacked him by pecking and attempting to 
catch the wing feathers in his claws to bring him to the ground. Only once did I see them in 
close combat, and as they soon parted without apparent damage, and again that same day re- 
newed the chasing on the ground, I concluded they did not have a very serious matter between 
them. This warfare between these birds continued into early May, when they, being absorbed in 
their household duties, lost sight of. 

During the severest weather these birds seek shelter under a projecting bunch of grass on the 
base of a bluff, or under the eave of the house, or edge of the thatch; during the severest gusts, 
of wind and snow, these pleasing birds will be singing their soug, unmindful of storms or cares. 

The name of this Sparrow in the Attn language is Chtk ch6 nkh^ and refers to its note. 

A careful comparison of individuals of this species from all the principal islands of the Aleu- 
tian chain and from the islands south of Aliaska, including Kadiak, reveals no ap])reciab]e differ, 
ences, but they are notably differently colored, and average slightly larger than rufina from Cook's 
Inlet, the mainland, and the adjacent islands south of the inlet. 

Inctnereatheuppersurfaceisbrow^uishplumbesns, outer surface of wings somewhat more brown, 
the greater coverts slightly rufescent. Interscapulars with medial broad but obsolete streaks of 
sepia brown ; crown and upper tail coverts with more sharply defined and narrower dusky shaft- 
streaks. Beneath giayish-white, much obscured by brownish -plumbesus laterally. A whitish, 
supraloral space, but no appreciable superciliary stripe ; a whitish maxillary stripe, beneath it an 
irregular one of dusky sepia; irregular streaks of dark grizzly-sepia on breast and along sides, 
blended into a broad crescent across the jngulum. The female has more grayish white on the 
lower parts, especially on the abdomen ; otherwise there is no exterior differences in the sexes. 
The autumnal plumage is little darker, but similarly distributed, and with less whitish on the 
lower parts. 



176 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

586. Passbrella iliaga (Men.). Fox Sparrow. 

The Fox Sparrow arrives at Saint Michael's by the 8th of June. Breeds here in the thickets of 
alder round the edges of the small lakes. It is not abundant, though in some restricted localities 
several pairs may be found during the breeding season. The nests are built in the densest parts 
of the thickets, which renders them extremely difficult to find. 

A male bird was shot in the edge of a clump of bushes on the 17th day of July, and in its bill 
were over a dozen gallinippers, which had been divested of their wings. They were intended for 
food of very young birds of this species. In the interior, and especially at Fort Yukon, this 
Sparrow is quite common. 

It leaves tfie vicinity of Saint Michael's in the latter part of August. 

This Sparrow is a beautiful songster. The Eskimo name of this bird is Chapang UJc. 

613. Chblidon eeytheogaster (Bodd.). Bam Swallow. 

The Barn Swallow arrives at Saint Michael's about the 7th of June. A few of the more intrepid 
ones may arrive some few days earlier. By the loth of the month as many as forty pairs have been 
counted in the dusk of the twilight, which is light enough to see to read by at midnight during 
this season of the year. 

The earliest arrivals dart into the usual places occupied by them as though they were the iden- 
tical birds hatched there the preceding year. On their arrival they are loud in the manifestations 
of joy for the termination of the long journey lately winged to the distant north. 

In the spring of 1876 snow squalls and frosty weather held until late in Juue. The poor birds 
had had no opportunity to recover their exhausted condition, resulting from their long flight to the 
north. Many of them succumbed to the chilling weather, while others, benumbed by the cold, 
permitted themselves to be handled and seemed to enjoy the warmth given out by the hand, as they 
nestled closely between them, without evincing any fear. 

They build their nests on the beams projecting from the old houses and under the eaves of the 
other buildings. Nidificatiou begins as soon as the sun thaws the ground sufficiently to allow them 
to obtain the mud with which to construct their nests. After that the yard is searched for feathers 
with which to line it. At this season of the year many game birds are killed for food; hence the 
yard has various kinds of feathers in abundance. The swallows appear to delight in picking up a 
feather, carrying it high in the air, and drop it to catch it again as it flutters downward. Oftentimes 
two or more swallows will join in playing with a large feather, from the breast of a swan. I 
have seen one swallow chase another, which was carrying one of these large feathers, snatch it 
from him, and only to be followed in most wonderful aerial evolutions by the one from which it was 
taken. This sport continues for an hour at a time. 

The Russians protected this bird ] hence it seems to have less fear of man in that region than 
in warmer climes. 

My window was favorably situated from which I could observe these birds collect mud, for 
their nests. I never before knew how it was done, but supposed that they picked the mud pellet 
up between their beaks. I have watched them for hours at a time, and when my eyes were not 
to exceed four feet from the birds at work. They flew to the puddle of water and mud, stepping 
over the ground until they found a place having the proper consistency, would look up at me as 
if to say that this will do. The neck is stretched out nearly its full length and the head kept 
with the bill at a right angle to the neck. A slight pressing of the beak into the earth and 
a tugging twist of the body gently pulls toward the bird a small pellet of mud. The bird then 
lowers its neck to the ground with the beak on the opposite side of the pellet (or on the side next 
the bird.) The beak is now thrust under the pellet until the mass of mud is pushed onto the top of * 
the bill and rests against the forehead. This is the manner in which it obtains the mud and is in 
position to enable the bird to deposit it. The mud is also smeared with the top of the beak. 

The Swallow frequently rears two broods in a single season. The first brood is fully fledged 
and on the wing by the 15th of July. The second brood is ready for flight by the 25th of August 
They remain around the Redoubt until September 10th to 20th. Previous to their departure they 
assemble on the buildings, in the evenings and early morn, filling the air with their twitter. The 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 177 

late youu^ are HOiiietiuies not ready to undertake their long journey. The older ones gather 
round it and actually push it from the building to make it fly, as it seems to fear to trust itself to 
its wings. 

Their arrival in spring is always welcomed by the people who live in the Redoubt, while in the 
fall some one will remark : ^^ It has been some time since I saw a swallow." Each person fully un- 
derstood the thought that occupied the other's mind during the momentary silence that followed the 
remark. It meant that winter was near; how will it be, and what shall we dof 

The distribution of the Barn Swallow in Alaska is well made out. It is a regular visitor to all 
littoral Alaska, and as far along the northern coast as Unalakhlit in latitude 65<=^ north, while in 
the interior it is found all along the immense Yukon River. Along the peninsula of Aliaska it is 
sparingly found. It appears in scanty numbers at Iliuliuk village, on Unalashka Island. It breeds 
there. During the spring of 1879 not one was seen at this place, neither were there any seen dur- 
ing the summer or fall. It was an exceptionally boisterous year ; gale after gale rapidly succeed- 
ing the other possibly deterred the usually venturesome bird from coming there. This is the only 
species of swallow found on any of the Aleutian Chain proper, and is not known west of the island 
of Unalashka. 

While at Atkha Island in 1879, and at Attn Island in 1880 and 1881, 1 made special inquiry con- 
cerning this bird, and only those persons who had visited Unalashka Island and saw the bird there 
knew of its existence. The absence of knowledge of this bird at either of those places shows con. 
clusively that neither it nor its congeners visit those places. 

At Nushagak (Bristol Bay) the Barn Swallow is found in considerable numbers. It breeds 
there, as I saw their nests in June, 1878. 

The Hirundo UnalashkensiSi Gmelin, is certainly not referable to any known America swallow. 

614. Taohycinbta bioolob (VieilL). Tree Swallow. 

On several occasions I observed this Swallow flitting about the buildings at Saint Michael's, 
during the months of August and early September. The lateness of the season led me to conclude 
they were birds having reared their young in the interior portions of the country, and were now on 
their way to the southward, preferring, through some freak or fancy, to return by the coast rather 
than the interior. 

At the trading station on the Nushagak River I saw a great many, certainly a dozen pairs, of 
these birds swiftly scouring the edges of the river banks and upper dry lands to obtain the myriads 
of insects to be found there. 

This species was not observed in any other portion of the country. 

616. Cliticola BIPABIA (Linn.). Bank Swallow. 

The Bank Swallows were but occasional visitors to the vicinity of Saint Michael's, where it was 
observed only during the middle of the summer season. It came at very irregular intervals and 
remained but few hours. 

They were quite plentiful along the high banks of the lower portion of the Nushagak River in 
the latter part of June, 1878. They were intimately associated with T. bicolor in their search of 
food. Unfortunately I was unable to obtain specimens from either locality. 

618. Ampelis gabbulus (Linn.). Bohemian Waarwing. 

This bird is only an occasional visitor to the coast. A single specimen was brought to me by 
a native, who said he had killed it near Unalakhlit, on Norton Sound, and further asserted that it 
is rare in that locality. 

Other specimens were obtained from Nulato and Fort Yukon. At the latter place it is not at 
all common. 

In the neighborhood of Anvik on the Yukon River, and at Kolmakof Redoubt on the Kus. 
kokvim River, it is reported to be common. 

The Eskimo name of this bird is Tik e che n wnk^ and means a killer of small birds. The 
clotted blood of its victims may be seen on the wings of the Waxwing. 

S. Mis. 155 23 



178 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

621. Lanius BOBEAI.IS (Vieill). Northern SkriJce. 

The Great Northern Shrike i8 fouud throughout the Yukon district. It is imperfectly migra- 
tory as periods of excessively cold weather impel it to seek food in warmer localities. It is a resident, 
breeding wherever found in the summer. It rarely visit* the immediate vicinity of Saint Michael's. 
On one occasion an individual was observed sitting on one of the large warehouses within the 
Redoubt. 

Not observed elsewhere. 

646. Hblminthophila oelata (Say). Orange-crwjcned Warbler. 

Two of these Warblers were shot among the weeds surrounding the Redoubt of Saint Michael's. 
They are not common for they were the only ones ever seen at the place. As these specimens were 
the only ones procured by me while in Alaska, and were obtained in the month of September, I am 
led to conclude that they came from the interior, where they probably may have bred. 

652. Denbboioa estiva (Gmel.). Yellow Warbler. 

Specimens of the Summer Yellow j^ird were obtained from several localities. It is common 
at Fort Yukon, Nowikakit, Nulato and Mission on the' Yukon River. At the Yukon Delta it is 
occasionally found. It rarely visits the vicinity of Saint Michael's and then only in the fall while 
it is migrating. 

665. Dendroiga coeonata (Linn.). Myrtle Warbler. 

The specimens of the Yellow-rump Warbler collected by me were obtained from Fort Yukon, 
where they breed. 

They inhabit only the wooded portions of the district. 

I observed this Warbler at Nnshagak, Bristol Bay, in June, 1878, where it was quite abundant 
among the willow thickets on the banks of the river. 

661. DEin)EOiOA STRIATA (Forst.). BlacJcpoll Warbler. 

This Warbler was obtained only from Fort Yukon on September 18, 1875, and again from 
the same locality on May 28, 1877. It is not common at any time in that locality. 

Those dates must nearly represent the earliest appearance and probable latest stay in that 
locality. 

676. SoiURUS NOVEBORACENSis (Gmel.). Water Thrush. 

Several specimens of this Water Thrush were obtained at Saint Michael's in August, 1876. I 
have never observed it in that vicinity at any time other that after the breeding season. 

The birds were quite gentle, and frequented the paths among the tall grass, searching for 
worms and insects. They evidently were hatched in the interior and visited thd coast on their 
fall migration. After the 25th of August none were to be seen. 

The Eskimo name of this bird is CheeMng i^/;, derived from the note che-che-che. 

685. Sylvanta pusiLLA (Wils.). Wilson^s Warbler. 

A single specimen of the Black-capped Yellow Warbler was brought to me by a native, who 
said he had shot it among some straggling willows, which skirted a lake, about a mile distant from 
the Redoubt of Saint Michael's. 

It is not a common bird in that vicinity, occurring only in the fall migration. 

Other specimens were obtained from Fort Yukon and Nulato, where it is not rare. 

The bill was pale hom*color with darker tip ; legs and toes pale; claws darker. 

[696.] MoTACiLLA OCULARIS Swinh. Swinho^s Wagtail.* [See Plate XI.] 
At Attn Island, Alaska, I was looking out of my window on the morning of May 14, 1881, 



* Ab the specimen was not Hecnred sn accurate identificatiun of the species cannot be made. It may have been 
a $ of If . lugen^ (Kittl. nee Temni.), which breeds in Kamtchatkat for the female of this species can be distingaished 
from M. ocular U except by a most careful comparison of specimens; and as the latter has been taken within Lower 
California, I have thought it preferable to record my observation under this heading. 



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. OONTRIBUTIONB TO THE NATUSAL HIBTOBY OF ALASKA. 1*79 

watching the ve88el, which was to take me to Unalashka IslaDd, enter the harbor. I saw a bird 
jast beneath the window and on the groand, not more than seven feet from my eyes. At the first 
glance I supposed the bird to be Plectrophanax nivalis. A moment snfiioed to convince me that it 
was not. I ran to get my gun; and, as I opened the^door, of the entry- way, to get out, the door 
opened directly on the bird, which, with a chirp precisely like that of Budytes Jlavns leucoHtriatuSj 
flew off to a distance of 75 yards and alighted. I approached as nearly as I dared and fired at it, 
but failed to obtain it, as the gun was loaded with No. 3 shot. It flew off beyond the hills and was 
not seen again. The bustle and preparation for departure prevented me from following the bird. 

I had ample time to identify the bird as a Afota4nlla, and one new to my list. The black on the 
head and neck, together with the grayish on the other iK>rtions of the body, and the manner of 
gait, were sufficient to cause it to be recognized. 

Mr. W. H. Dall collected a specimen of this species at Plover Bay, Siberia, and one was col- 
lected by Dr. T. H. Bean, of the U. S. Fish Commission, in the same locality in 1880. 

Seebohm (Ibis, 1878, p. 346) says : ^' I have a skin of MotaciUa amnrensis Seeb., collected by 
Wossnessensky on the 23d of April, 1845, upon Oorogan Island, possibly either one of the Knrile 
or one of the Aleutian Islands." I have endeavored to find the geographical position of Oorogan 
Island and have failed. It may possibly be one so small in size as to be known only to those who 
visit that locality. 

An intimate acquaintance with the names of all the Aleutian Islands compels me to assert 
that it is not to be found among the Aleutian Islands, unless it be some island which, from the 
spelling, ^' Oorogan," is not now recognizable, nor is there any island of the chain which approaches 
it in sound, as the Aleutian languages have no ^^R" in their vocabulary. It is necessary, however, 
to state that Wossnessensky did, about that time, collect siiecimens of natural history along the 
coasts of the Okhotsk Sea for the Imperial Academy. And Grewink, in Bescbaffenheit der Nord- 
West-Eiiste Americas, St. Petersburg, 1850. says : 

Ini August 1839 geht J. G. WosnesseDBky ab, besncht 1S40 nnd 1841 Nenalbiou, Ober- and llDt-ercalifornien, 1842 
nud J843 die Aleutischen luBelu, mehre Inselgroppen im Beringsmeere o. den Kotzebnesundi 1844 dieKurilschen Inselo - 
1845 uDd 1846 bereist er die Ocbotsker KiiBte, 1847 und 184fc die ganze Halbinsel Kamtechatka und kebrt von bier ttber 
Sitcha JqH 1849 mit dem Scbifte Atcba uacb St. Petersburg zortick. 

A second reference to the voyages made by Yosnessensky is to be found in Nouvelles Annales 
des Voyages, Paris, A. Bertrand, 1846, tome III de la Collection V% s^rie VI, tome II, p. 250. 

Dans la H^nce de PAcad^mie Imp^riale do Saint-P<§tersbourg (classe pbysico-iuatb^niatique), du 19 septeuibre 
dernier {i" octobre, n.et.)* uuelettredeM. Etboliu a fait connaltrelesderni^res courses du pr<$parateurVozuesseiisky, 
Daus V6l6 de 1845, apr^s avoir visits les lies Kouriles, le voyageur a inouille^ dans le port de Petropaulovsk, au 
Kamtchaka; puis de 14 il s'eat rendu aux lies de Bebring, ^ Atta, Atkba, Saint- Paul et Sain t- Georges, et il est revenu 
en automne li Novo-Arkbanghelsk. LliM. Etbolin lui a fonrni roccasiou de visiter les d^troit^ des Koloohes. Au 
moment du depart de la poste, Voznessensky se disposait pour un voyage k Okhotnk et dans le golfe d'Aian, d'oii il 
devait revenir k Petropaulovsk. Quarante-deux caises, renfermant la r^colte des demi^res courses du z^le naturaliste, 
6taient parties pour Saint-P^tersbourg par la voie de Londres. 

696. BuDYTBS FLAVTTS LEUCOSTRIATUS (Hom.). Siberian Yellow Wagtail. 

This bird arrives about the 12th of June; a few days earlier or later, depending on the opening 
of the spring. Immediately on its arrival, in but few numbers, they are very shy, alighting on the 
bare areas of ground to fly away at only an instant of rest. Few females arrive with the earliest 
visitants. But few days elapse liefore mating begins. A pair is no sooner mated than the labor 
of making their nest commences. A tussock of grass, on which the dead stems and blades have 
fallen over and form a cover, is the place selected for the nest. The nest is constructed of fine 
grasses with few grass roots, built into a compact form, having the edges or walls of the nest well 
carried up, so that the sitting bird is nearly obscured in her nest. 

Eggs are sometimes laid before the nest is completed. The process of construction goes on 
until the open space, under the overhanging grass, is tilled with the bulk of the nest. The over, 
hanging grass-blades are then drawn over the nest, leaving only a small rounded hole between 
them as an entrance to the nest. 

The complement of eggs varies from five to seven, the latter number being the usual number 
in the nest 



180 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

iDcnbation lastn ten to thirteen days. The young birds are fed exclusively on insect food. 
They are able to fly in fifteen to eighteen days after hatching. 

The earliest birds sometimes hatch two broods of young in aseason, as young just able to fly 
have been observed as late as August 18th; 

By the l&t of September the birds of this species collect into small flocks, of eight to twenty 
in number, and remain until as late as September 2l8t, at which date they have about all disappeared. 
They generally signalize their readiness to depart by assembling on the low banks, bordering the 
beach, and dart high into the air to return to the same, or similar, place after a few minutes time. 
At this particular season of the year they are extremely wary and difiScult of approach. The only 
note ever heard was an impatient chirp, uttered only while on the wing. On the ground the 
bird walks, with a screwing motion, the head and neck moving back and forward with each 
step, while the tail is const^antly tilting up and down. 

There are no seasonal difierences in the adults, the coloration of the male being only brighter 
than that of the female. The young assume the adult plumage only on the second year, or at least 
after they have departed from this region. 

The nests and eggs were obtained after much difficulty. 

I endeavored to procure the parents of some nests for certainty of identification, and not until 
a native suggested to me to place a slip-noose over the entrance did I succeed in catching every 
one I desired. 

The range of this bird is strictly littoral, and includes the outlying islands near the mainland. 
It was observed at Saint Michaels, Yukon River mouth, Kuskokvim River mouth, and Nusbagak 
on Bristol Bay during the breeding se^ason. 

I once observed the bird on Attn Island (the westernmost of the Aleutian Chain) on Sunday, 
October 8, 1880. I chased the bird up and down for two hours, but was not able to get near 
enough for a shot, as it was very wild. It was evidently on the fall migration, and none were seen 
after that day. It does not remain on the Aleutian Islands during the breeding season. 

The Eskimo name of this bird is Pshu kUJc and refers to its note. 

A comparison of this species with the European bird shows but little difference, it being only 
in the amount of dark on the upper breast, and the amount of gray on the head, though this varies 
extremely in the Alaskan specimens. 

697. Anthus pensilvanious (Lath.). American Pipit. 

The American Pipit occurs throughout the Territory of Alaska, including the Aleutian 
Islands. 

It is found in greatest abundance in the interior of the mainland, especially in the neighbor 
hood of Fort Yukon. In rarely visits Saint Michael's except in the fall. 

On the Aleutian Islands it prefers the higher hills. Those whose tops are bare of vegetation 
seem to be their favorite resort. They breed wherever found in summer. A i)air collected in 
August, 1878, at Unalashka Island, were known to have nested on the high hills just east of the 
graveyard. I searched many times for the nest, but failed to find it, and then shot the birds. 

Their note is a peculiar whistling strain of a high key, and uttered only as the bird flies from 
one peak to another. ' When sitting on the ground a chirp resembling the chirp of B.fluvus is 
uttered. 

At Attn Island I saw this bird in the early part of September, 1880. The bird alighted for 
a moment on a little eminence of a high plateau at the head pf Massacre Bay, on the south side 
of this island. Not having a gun with me I could not secure the bird. It is not at all abundant 
at that place, as it was the only one seen there. 

At Atkha Island I saw a pair of these birds which evidently had a nest on the top of the 
high hills back of the head of Nazan Bay. Another individual was seen on the northwest side of 
the same bay. I heard it singing and scaled a steep bluff of near 800 feet high to secure the bird. 
It must have been disturbed by my presence, for just as I arrived at the top and stopped, to take a 
moment's breath, the bird took a long flight and was lost to sight and hearing. 

[699. J Anthus cbbvinus (Pallas). Meadow Pipit. [See Plate IX.] 
A single specimen of this bird was obtaino<l by Messrs. Dall and Bannister at Saint Michael's. 



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CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 181 

This with a specimeD obtained in 1845 in Greenland are the only two examples of this species taken 
on the American shores. 

The habits of the species are known only from European individuals. 

It is deemed of sufficient interest to present a plate of this specimen to accompany this report. 

701. CiNCLUS MEXTCANTJS Swains. American IHpper. 

Obtained from several localities. Number 179 was obtained at Unalashka Island, Alaska. It 
inhabits the rocky creeks flowing from the mountains. It is not common here. I observed it on 
another occasion, but failed to secure it. A permanent resident and breeds here. 

The other specimens were obtained from Nulato, Alaska. At this place the bird is common, 
breeds here, and is a winter resident along the open streams in the neighborhood of springs which 
keep the water from freezing even in coldest weather. 

No. 210 presents the following measurements taken from the fresh specimen, 7.5 by 10.8 by 
3.4 by 2.2; iris and bill black: feet soiled-white with dark joints; claws white; ?ad. No. 1022 
measures 7.75 by 12 by 3.8 by 2, with iris and bill black; feet soiled-white, with dark joints. 

I observed this bird at Attn Island. It was in the small creek which empties in Chichagof 
Harbor. The bird flew a little distance, on my unexpected approach, and further search failed to 
drive it from its hiding place. It is said to be extremely rare at Attu, as only few of the natives 
knew anything about the bird. 

723. Troglodytes alasoensis Baird. Alaskan Wren. [See Plate IX.] 

Original Nos. 6, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177. 

This pleasing little bird is found in abundance on all the Aleutian Chain proper. It also was 
observed on Unga Island, Kodiak Island, and on the mainland at Belkovsky. It never goes to the 
interior of even the medium-sized islands, but remains strictly along the clifi's, blufi*s, and other 
high places forming the seasides of the islands. The lowlands in proximity to the water is also 
inhabited by them. The latter, together with the large bowlders lying at the water's edge, form 
their favorite haunts. Weed-patches near a settlement is also a favorite resort of these Wrens 
in the fall. 

They remain on these islands during the entire year, and are as numerous in winter as in 
summer. 

Their food consists of insects, and occasionally a few seeds will be found in their crops. 

Mating^ occurs early in May or late in April. Nidification begins immediately. The nest is 
placed in a crevice in the face of a cliff or amongst the large tussocks of wild rye or other grasses 
The nest is large and well built; coarse grasses and roots form the foundation, and as the nest 
nears completion smaller grasses are selected. The interior of the nest contains few feathers of 
various species of birds. The walls of the nest are well carried up, and in some instances form a 
partial roof over the nest, leaving a hole in one side as an entrance. Five to nine eggs are laid; 
they are pure white in color. The young birds are able to fly in three or four weeks after hatching. 
I am not certain that more than one brood is hatched in a season, blit young birds have been seen 
late as August 25th. At the approach of winter the bird becomes very familiar, and is frequently 
found on the window-sills searching for insects. 

On one occasion I heard a gentle tapping at my back window ; as I had frequently heard the 
same noise, I carefully drew the curtain paitly aside, and saw a Wren endeavoring to obtain a fly 
that was inside of the pane of glass. The bini did not ai>i)ear to be disturbed by my presence. 

Their note is a prolonged twitter of several modulations and rei>eated at short intervals. When 
surprised, or when they come upon an object that excites their curiosity, a rapid and long rattle is 
sounded as an alarm, soon to be answered by a second bird. These two keep up the sound until 
all the Wrens within hearing assemble to investigate the cause. As many as a dozen will surround 
the object, and approach so close that the outstretched hand might capture them. The least 
motion, however, disperses them so quickly that one wonders where they have disappeared. 
They, at these times, hide under the stalks of the weeds or grass. 

The fresh color of the bill varies from very pale to dark horn. The base of the lower mandi- 
ble is always paler than any other paxt. The tarsi and feet are pale, with darker claws. The 
length of the bill is extremely variable. The iris is deepest, shining black. 



182 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 



7356. Parus ateicapillus ogoidentalis (Baird). Oregon Chickadee. 

The Oregon Gbickadee ranges through the Yukon District. During a warm period of winter 
these birds were occasionally seen at Saint Michael's. They retire to the interior during the month 
of May and are not to be seen during the summer on the coast. 

They breed in the wooded districts. 

Specimens were obtained from Fort Yukon, Nulato, and Saint MichaePs. 

This Chickadee presents several characters which may eventually permit it to be ranked as 
a variety peculiar to the Northwest coast. An insufficiency of specimens from intermediate locali- 
ties alone prevents me from making a comparison of the present material. The evidence at hand 
scarcely warrants the separation of the bird as a variety. 

739. Parus cinotus obtectus (Cab.). Siberian Chickadee. [See Plate X.J 

Parus cinctus Auct. nee Bodd. (1783). — Ridgway, Bull. Nutt. Orp. CI., 1878, p. 37. 

Parus sibiricus Auct. nee Gmel. (1788.) 

?1826. — Parus cinereus Pall., Zoog. Russo-Asiatica. I, p. 668. 

1853. — Parus sibiricus forma major Midd. Sibir. Reise. I, p. — . 

l^Til.— Parus (Poecila) obtectus Cab., Jour. f. Ornith., 1871, p. 237 (May). 

1871. — Parus grisescens Dresser and Sharpe, Birds of Europe, Part VI, I, p. 6 (August). 

1883. — Parv^ cinctus grisescens Nelson, Cruise Corwin, p. 60. 

Several specimens of Parus were obtained from various localities in the Yukon district. They 
were referred to the species cinctus, (See Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club for January, 1878, p. 37.) That 
they should have been referred to the species obtectus will appear from the following comparisons : 

Previous to 1878 Parus cinotus Bodd had not been detected within our North American limits. 
About the same time my specimens were received at the Smithsonian Institution. A Parus 
(obtained by Mr. MacFarlaneat Fort Anderson, Hudson Bay Territory, June, 1864) was discovered 
among the duplicates and was subsequently determined to be the same species. 

A comparison of my specimens with Parus cinctus Bodd (=P. sibiricus Omel. et AuoT.), from 
Lapland, shows that the American specimens are not P. ductus^ but are undistinguishable from 
P. obtectus Cab., as I propose to show : 

Paru9 oinotus Bodd. 



I Calinen. Wing. 



Tall 
feathers. 



Tanas. 



Middle 
toe. 



Sex. 



Locality. 



Date. 




Parus obtectus Cab. 



0.38 


2.65 


2.65 




2.60 
2.65 


2.67 
2.40 


0.40 


0.40 


2.70 


2.85 


0.41 


2.70 


2.80 


0.40 


2.70 


2.70 


0.40 


2.65 


2.68 



0.68 
0.62 
0.60 
0.66 
0.65 
0.58 



0.63 



0.40 
0.35 
0.40 
40 
0.40 
0.39 



-ad.. 
9 ad.. 
— ad.. 
9 ad., 
c^ad.. 



0.39 



Nulato Mar., 1875 

Fort Anderson ... June, 1864 

Nulato Mar., 1875 

— do I Mar., 1875 

Saint Michael's . ..| Feb., 1876 



(/•ad.. I Nulato ' Mar.. 1875 



Although the tables of measurements prove but slight relative difference between the species 
the pattern of coloration will show that P. cinctvs has the forehead, top, and back of head light 
grayish-brown. Back, light grayish, raw umber. Tail, plumbeous. Greater coverts edged with 
brownish-white; secondaries edged with grayish- white. Lores, snuff'-brown. ^eck, and sides of 
head, white. Chin and throat, sepia-brown. Breast and abdomen, white. Sides and flanks, reddish 
ochraceous. In some of the Lapland specimens the darker colors are much intensified, especially on 
back and sides. 



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CONTBIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 183 

Parus ohtectus Gab. 

Forehead, top and back of head, brownish graj. Back, light fulvous-gray. Wings, dusky-slate 
Secoudaries conspicuously edged with white. Tail, pluuibeous-slate; outer feathers edged with paler 
plumbeous. Neck and sides of head, white. Chin and throat fuliginous dusky,soine of the posterior 
feathers of the throat tipped with white. Breast and abdomen, white. A narrow, dark, fuliginous 
stripe runs through the eye and separates the white of the auriculars from the color of the crown. 

The iris, bill, and feet, black. 

Parus cinctus is an inhabitant of the northern ])ortions of Europe and western Sibiria as far 
east as the Yenisei River. 

Paru8 ohtectus is found throughout the eastern portions of Siberia, and is the true Siberian form. 

This species {ohtectus) is not abundant in the known portions of the Yukon District. It is a 
winter resident and doubtless breeds there. A single specimen was obtained from Saint MichaeFs. 
The Chickadees visit thf» coast only during favorable weather in winter. I have never seen any 
species in the vicinity of Saint Michael's during the breeding-season. 

The specimen procured by Mr. MacFarlane was a female. The nest and eggs of this individual 
were also secured, and are now in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution. 

740. Paeus hudsonicus Forst. Hudsonian Chickadee. [See Plate X.] 

A number of specimens of this Chickadee were obtained from Fort Yukon, Nulato, and sev- 
eral from Saint MichaePs. 

It visits the coast only during the winter. May 20th was the latest date obtained at Saint 
Michael's. This particular bird was shot while it was among a straggling clump of low willows on 
the edge of a high bank, forming the outline of a lake. 

The iris, feet, and bill of the fresh specimen are black. 

It is a constant resident of the wooded districts, and in some localities is quite abundant. It 
was not observed out of the Yukon District by me. 

749 Regulus calendula (Linn.). Buby crowned Kinglet 

Specimens of the Ruby-crowned Kinglet were obtained from Fort Yukon, where it is common, 
breeding there. 

This bird may occur on the coast of the Yukon District, although I have not seen it. 

At Nushagak, on Bristol Bay, I saw a single specimen of this bird flitting among the willow 
thickets which skirt the banks of that river. The date was June 28, 1878. 

767. Ttjedus ALICIA Baird. Gray-cheeked Thrush. 

This species is not common at Saint Michael's. A pair were observed, flitting fh)m one clump 
of small alders to another, just back of the Redoubt. They flew to a larger pat<3h, where I obtained 
the male. The female took flight at the discharge of the gun, and was not secured. 

This species breeds in this vicinity, but I failed to discover the nest and eggs. 

They arrive about the first week in June. I have no date of departure. The iris and upper 
mandible, black ; lower mandible, dark anteriorly and lighter at base, drying very pale. Feet 
dark, with paler soles. Oape yellow. 

This species has not yet been detected on the Aleutian Islands. 

768a. TuBDUS xtsttjlatus swaiwsoni (Cab.). Olive-hacked Thrush. 

A single specimen of this species was obtained from Fort If ukon, Alaska. 
It is apparently not common in any locality and probably does not visit the coast of the Yukon 
District. 

761. Mebula miobatobia (Linn.). American Rohin. 

The specimens of the Robin collected by me were obtained from Fort Yukon, where it is quite 
common and breeds. 

It arrives there during the latter twenty days of May and remains until the sharp frosts of 
Septeml>er. I obtained no specimens from other i>arts of the Yukon District. 



184 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

I was at Nufibagak, near the river of that uame emptying into Bristol Bay, in June, 1878, 
where I had a few hoars' hunting. About two miles back of the village the timber begins. It is 
a scanty growth of spruce, many of the trees isolated. Along the streams heavy growths of alder 
form extensive thickets. On approaching one of these clumps I heard a twittering of an unknown 
bird. I ci*ept up stealthily, but the bird darted to the other side of the thicket. After repeated 
trials to get within shooting distance, and following it over two miles, I fired at long range and 
failed to get the bird. What it was I have no knowledge. It looked like a Robin, but much more 
active, and of deeper color. The song, which was uttered incessantly when not on the wing, did 
not at all resemble that of the Robin. 

The Robin has not been detected on the Aleutian Islands, although it is reported to be seen as 
a chance visitor during the migratory season at the Pribylof Islands. 

763. Hespbbogiohla N-^via (Gmel.). Varied Thrush. 

One 8i)ecimen was obtained at Fort Yukon, Alaska, September 4, 1876. It is not plentiful 
at any time. A second specimen was brought to me at Saint Michael's on May 27, 1877, killed by 
a native, just back of the Redoubt, among the patches of alder. It was far advanced in decom|io 
sition when I saw it, and found it impossible to even save the wings and other parts for identifica- 
tion, else than on the spot. 

It is only a casual visitor to the coast, and apparently not abundant anywhere in the Yukon 
District. 

This species was not detected on any of the Aleutian Islands. 

LIST OP THE BIRDS OF ALASKA. 

The following list contains all the authentically known and recognized species of Alaskan 
birds. A full investigation of the natural history of the Territory will, doubtless, add many names 
of birds which have not yet been detected within its border and included waters. 

The nomenclature here adopted is that of the A. O. U. Check-list of North American Birds, 
1886. The numbers preceding each species or subspecies correspond with the numbers in that 
Ohecklist. 

Family PODICIPID^. Grebes. 

Genus Colymbus Linnaeus. 

2. Colymbus holbcelli (Heinh.) HolbalVs Orebe. 

3. Colymbus aubitus Linn. Horned Orebe. 

Family URINATORIDiB. Loons. 
Genus Ubinator Cuvier. 

7. Ubinator imbeb (Gunn.). Loan. 

8. Ubinator adamsii (Gray). Yellow billed Loon. 

9. Ubinatob abgtious (Linn.). Black-throated Loon. 

10. Ubinatob pacificus (Lawr.). Pacific Loon. 

11. Ubinatob lumme (Gunn.). Bed-throated Loon. 

Family ALCID^. Auks, Mubres, and Puffins. 

Genus Lunda Pallas. 

12. Lunda oibbhata Pall. Tufted Puffin. 

Genus Fbatkbgula Brisson. 
14. Fbateboula OOBNIOULATA (Naum.). Homed Puffin. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 185 

OeiioB Gebobhinoa Bonaparte. 

15. Cbbobhinoa monooebata (Pall.). Bhinoeeros Auklet. 

Oenas Pttghobamphus Brandt. 

16. Ptychobamphus albuticus (Pall.). CassMs Auklet. 

OeuoH Gyclobbhtnohtts Eaap. 

17. Oyolobbhynchus psittaculus (Pall.). Paroquet Auklet. 

6euu8 SiMOBHYNOHUS Merrem. 

18. SiMOBHYNOHUS OBiSTATELLUS (Pall.). Crested Auklet. 

19. SiMOBHYNOHUS PYOM^us (Omel.). Whiskered Auklet. 

20. SiMOBHYNOHUS PUSiLLUS (Pall.). Least Auklet. 

Genus Synthlibobhamphus Brandt 

21. Synthlibobamphus antiquus (Gmel.). Ancient Murrelet. 

22. Synthlibobamphus wumizusume (Temm.). TemminoVs Murrelet. 

Oenus Bbaohybhamphus Brandt. 

23. Bbaohybamphus mabmobatus (Omel.). Marbled Murrelet. 

24. Bbaohybamphus eittlitzii Brandt. Kittlits?s Murrelet. 

Genoa Oepphus Pallas. 

28. Oepphus mandtu (Licht.). Mandfs OuiUemot. 

29. Gbpphus oolumba Pall. Pigeon Ouillemot. 

Genas Ubia Brisson. 



N 



30a. Ubia tboile oalifobnioa (Bryant). California Murre. 
31. Ubia lomvia abba (Pall.). Pallas^s Murre. 

Family STERGORARIID^. Skuas and JjBGBbs. 

Genua Steboobabtus Brisson. 

36. Steboobabius pomabinus (Temm.). Poniarine Jasger. 

37. Steboobabius pabasitious (Linn.). Parasitic Jcsger. 

38. Steboobabius lonoioaudus (Vieill.). Long-tailed Jceger. 

Family LARID-^. Gulls and Tebns. 
Genus Gayia Bole. 

39. Gayia alba (Gunn.). Ivory Quit. 

Genus RissA Stephens. 

40a. RiSSA TBIDAOTYLA POLLiOABis Ridgw. Pacific Kittifcake. 
41. RisSA BBEYIBOSTBIS (Bruch). Bed legged Kittiwake. 

Genus Labus LinnsBus. 

42{. Labus babboyiannus Ridgw. Western Olauoous Oull. 
44. Labus olauobsoens Naum. Olaucous-unnged Oull. 
46. Labus nblsoni Hensh. Nelscn^s Oull. 
S. Mis. 166 ^24 



186 OOIJTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

48. Labus sohistisagus Stejn. Slaty-booked Oull. 

52. Labus oaohinnans Pall. Pallas*8 OulL 

53. Labus oajlifobnigus Lawr. California OtUl, 

55. Labus bbaohybhtnghus Rich. Skortbilled Oull, 

60. Labus Philadelphia (Ord). Banapart^s Oull 

OenuB Rhodostethia Maggillivray. 

61. Bhodostbthia bosea (Maggil.). Rost^s Chill. 

G^nus Xema Leach. 

62. Xema SAsnai (Sab.). Sabin^s OuU. 

G^nas Stebna Lintisens. 

71. Stbbka pabadis^a Briinn. Arctic Tern. 
73. Stebna aleutioa Baird. Aleutian Tern. 

Oenns Hydboohelidon Bote. 

77. Hydboohelidok nioba subinamensis (Omel.). Black Tern. 

Family DIOMEDEIDJEl. Albatbosses. 
G^nas DiOMEDEA LinnsBus. 

81. DiOMEDEA NIOBIPES Aud. Blockfooted Albatross. 

82. DiOMEDEA ALBATBUS Pall. Short-tailed Albatross. 

Family PBOGELLARIID^E. Fulmabs and Sheabwatebs. 

G^nas Fulmabus Stephens. 

866. Fulmabus glaoialis glupischa Stejn. Pacific Fulmar. 
86c. Fulmabus glagialis bodgebsii (Case.). Rodgers^s Fulmar. 

^Genns Pupfinus Brisson. * 

96. Pupfinus tenuibostbis (Temm.). Slender-billed Shearwater. 

Genus JEstbelata Bonaparte. 
100. JBSTBELATA FISHEBI Ridgw. Fishet^s Petrel. 

Genus Ogeanodboma Reichenbach. 

106. Ogeanodboma fubgata (Gmel.). Fork-tailed Petrel 
105.1. Ogeanodboma hobnby (Gray). Hornby* s Petrel 
106. Ogeanodboma leugobhoa (Vieill.). Leach's Petrel 

Family PHALACKOCORACIDJi:. Cobmoeants. 
Genus Phalagbooobax Brisson. 

120ft. Phalagbogobax dilophus CINGINATUS (Brandt). Whits-crested Cormorant. 

123. Phalagbogobax pelagigus Pall. Pelagic Cormorant 

123a. Phalagbogobax pelagigus robusti^s Ridgw. Violet-greets Cormorant. 

124. Phalagbogobax ubile (Gmel.). Red-faced Cormorant. 

(t) Phalagbogobax pbbspigillatus Pall. Pallors Cormora/nt. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 187 

Family ANATIDJB. Duoks, Obese, and Swans. 

G^Dus Merganser Brisson. 

129. Mebgansbr ambriganus (Cass.). American Merganser. 

130. MERaANSER SERRATOR (Linn.). Red breasted Merganser. 

G«nu8 LoPHODTTES Reicheobach. 

131. LOPHODYTES CTJOULLATUS (Linn.). Hooded Merganser. 

Genns Anas Linn»as. 

132. Anas bosghas Linn. Mallard. 

135. Anas strbpera Linn. Oadwall. 

136. Anas penelope Linn. Widgeon. 

137. Anas amerigana Gmel. Baldpate. 
[138.] Anas gregga Linn. European Teal. 

139. Anas garolinensis Gmelin. Oreenwinged Teal. 

140. Anas disgors Linn. Blue-winged Teal. 

G^nus Spatula Boie. 

142. Spatula glypeata (Linn.). Shaveler. 

Genns Dapila Stephens. 

143. Dafila aguta (Linn.). Pintail. 

G^nus Aythya Boie. 

146. Aythya amerigana (Eyt). Redhead. 

147. Aythya tallisneria (Wils.). Canvas-back. 

148. Aythya marila neargtiga Stejn. American Scaup Duck. 

149. Aythya apfinis (Eyt.). Lesser Scaup Duck. 
160. Aythya gollaris (Donov.). Ring necked Duck. 

Genns Glaugeonetta Stejneger. 

151. Glaugionetta glangula amerigana (Bonap.). American Ooldeneye. 

152. Glaugionetta islandiga (Gmel.). Barrotc^s Oolden-eye. 

G^nns Gharitonetta Stejneger. • 

153. Gharitonetta albeola (Linn.). Buffle-head. 

Genus Glangula Leach. 

154. Glangula hyemalis (Linn.). Old-squaw. 

Genns Histrionigus Lesson. 

155. Histrionigus histrionigus (Linn.). Harlequin Duck. 

Gtonus Enigonetta Gray. 
157. Enigonetta stelleri (Pail.). Steller^s Duck. 

Genns Argtonetta Gray. 
15& Aeotonxtta fisgheei (Brandt). Sjpectacled Eider. 



188 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

Genns Somaterii. Leach. 

161. SOMATBBIA T-NiaBA Gray. Pacific Eider, 

162. SOMATEBIA 8PEGTABIL1S (Linn.). King Eider. 

GenaR Oidbmia Fleming. 

163. Oidbmia AMEBIGAKA Sw. & Rich. American Scoter. 

165. Oidbmia dbglandi Bonap. Whitetcinged Scoter. 

166. Oidbmia pbbspigillata (Linn.). Surf Scoter. 

Genus Chen Boie. 

169. Chen hypebbobba (Pall.). Lesser Snow Oooee. 

170. Chen Bossn (Baird). Bost^s Snow Ooose. 

Genns Anser Brisson. 
171a. Anseb ALBIFBONS OAMBELI (Hart!.). American White-fronted Ooose. 

Genns Bbanta Scopoli. 

172. Bbanta canadensis (Linn.). Canada Goose. 

172a. Bbanta canadensis hutchinsii (Sw. and Rich.). Hutchins^s Goose. 

172ft. Bbanta canadensis occidentalis (Baird). White-cheeked Goose. 

172e. Bbanta canadensis minima Ridgw. Cackling Goose. 

174. Bbanta nigbicans (Lawr.). Black Brant. 

Genus Philacte Bannister. 

176. Philacte canagica (Sevast.). Emperor Goose. 

Genus Olob Wagler. 

180. Olob golumbianus (Ord). Whistling Swan. 

181. Olob buccinatob (Rich.). Trumpeter Swan. 

Family ARDBID^. Hebons, Bittebns, etc. 

G^nus Abdea Linn. 
104. Abdea hebodias Linn. Great Blue Heron. 

Family GRUID^. Cranes. 

Genus Grus Pallas. 
205. Gbus canadensis (Linn.). Little Brown Crane. 

Family RALLID^. Rails, Gallinxjles, and Coots. 

Genus Fulica Linniens. 
221. FULICA AMBBICANA Gmel. American Coot 

Family PHALAROPODID^. Phalabopes. 
Genus Crymophilus Vieillot. 
122. Cbymophilus PULICABIUS (Linn.). Red Phalarope. 

Genus Phalabopus Brisson. 
223. Phalabopus lobatus (Linn.). Northern Phalarope. 



COITPBIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 189 

Family SCOLOPACIDJB. Snipes, SAin)PiPEB8, etc. 

Genus Gallinaoo Leach. 

230. Oallinaoo dblioata (Ord). Wilson^s Snipe. 

GeDOB Magbobhamphus Leach. 

231. Magbobhamphus gbisbus (Gmel.). Doicitcher, 

232. Magbobhamphus soolopaobus (Say). LongMUed Dountcher. 

Geniis TBiNaA LinusBus. 

234. Tbinga ganutus Liun. Knot. 

235. Tbinga mabitima Brunn. Purple Sandpiper. 

236. Tbinga goubsi (Ridgw.). Aleutian Sandpiper. 

237. Tbinga ptilognbmis Cones. Prybilof Sandpiper. 

238. Tbinga acuminata (Horsf.). Sharp-tailed Sandpiper. 

239. Tbinga maculata Vieill. Pectoral Sandpiper. 

240. Tbinga puscigollis Vieill. White-rumped Sandpiper. 

241. Tbinga baibdii Cones. Baird^n Sandpiper. 

242. Tbinga minutilla Vieill. Least Sandpiper. 
242.1. Tbinga damagbnsis (Horsf.). Long-toed Stint. 

243a. Tbinga alpina pacifica {('ones). Red backed Sandpiper. 
244. Tbinga febbuginba Briinu. Curlew Sandpiper, 

Genus Eubynobhynchus Nilsson. 
[246.] EuBTNOBHYNGHUS PYGM^us Linn. Spoon-Mll Sandpiper. 

Genus Ebeunetes Illiger. 

246. Ebeunetes pusillus (Liun.). Semipalmated Sandpiper. 

247. Ebeunetes oggidentalis Lawr. Western Sandpiper. 

Genus Calidbis Cuvier. 

248. Calidbis abenabia (Linn.). Sanderling. 

Genus Limosa Brisson. 

249. Limosa fedoa (Linn.). Marbled Oodwit. 

250. Limosa lapponiga bauebi (Nauni.). Pacific Qodwit. 

251. Limosa h^mastiga (Linn.). Hudsonian Oodtcit. 

Genus Rotanus Becbsteiu. 

254. Totanus melanoleucus (Gniel.). Greats Yellotc-legs. 

255. Totanus flavipes (Gmel.). Yellow legs. 

256. Totanus solitabius (Wils.). Solitary Sandpiper. 

Genus Hetebactitis Stejneger. 
269. Hetebagtitis incanus (Gmel.). Wandering Tattler. 

Genus Babtbamia Lesson. 

261. Babtbamia longigauda (Bechst.). Bartramian Sandpiper. 

Genus Tbyngites Cabanis. 

262. Tbyngites subbufigollis (Vieill.). Buf breasted Sandpiper. 



190 OONTEIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

GeniiB AoTiTis Illiger. 

263. AOTITIB MAGTTLABIA (Linn.). Spotted Sandpiper. 

G^Dus NuHENius Brisson. 

264. NuMENius LONGiBOSTBis Wils. Long billed Curlew. 

265. NuMBNius HUDSONicus Lath. Eudsonian Curlmt, 

266. NUMENITJS BOBEALis (FoFBt.). EskifHO Curlew. 

[268.] NUMENITTS TAHITIEKSIS (Gmel.). Bristle-thighed Curlew. 

Family CHARADRIIDJB. Plotebs. 

GenuB Vamellus Brisson. 

[269.] Vanellus vanellus (Linn.). Lapwing. 

Genu8 Charadbius LinnsBas. 

270. Ghabadbius squat abola (Linn.). Black bellied Plover. 

272. Ghabadbius dominicus (Miill.). American Golden Plover. 

272a. Ghabadbius dominicus fulvus (Gmel.). Pacific Golden Plover. 

Genas ^gmalitis Boie. 

274. *uEgial.itis semipalmata (Bonap.). Semipalmated Plover. 
[276.] JSgiaxitis dubia (Scop.). Little Ring Plover. 
[279.] ^GIALITIS MONGOLA (Pall.). Mongolian Plover. 

Family APHRIZID-^. Subp Bibds and Tubnstones. 

Genue Aphbiza Audubon. 

282. Aphbiza viegata (Grael.). Surf Bird. 

Genus Abknabia Brisson. 

283. Abenabia intebpbes (Linn.). Turnstone. 

284. Abenabia melanogephala (Vig.). Black Turnstone. 

Family H^MATOPODID^. Oysteb-catchebs. 
Genus H^matopus Linnieus. 
287. H JBMATOPUs baghmani Aud. Black Oyster-catcher. 

Family TETRAONID^. Gbousb, Pabtbidges, etc. 

Genus Dendbagapus Elliott. 

297a. Dendbagapus obscubus puliginosus Ridgw. Sooty Grouse. 
298. Dendbagapus canadensis (Linn.). Canada Gro'kise. 

Genus Bonasa Stephens. 

3006. BoNASA UMBELLUS UMBBLLOIDBS (Dougl.). Gray Ruffed Grouse. 



''See Cones, Birds N. W., p. 4.55; and Finsch Abh. Nat. Ill, 1872,62, Alaska. It is quite probable that the species 
referred to should be ^. semipalmata ; aud especially as this species abounds in that region, while droumeincta is an 
eastern bird. 



OONTEIBDTION8 TO THE NATDRAL HISTORY OP ALASKAl. 191 

Oenas Lagopus Brisson. 

301. Lagoptjb lagopus (LiuD.). Willow Ptarmigan. 

302. Lagopus bupestbis (Gmel.). Rock Ptarmigan. 

302b. Lagopus rupestris nelsoni Stejn. Nelson^tt Ptarmigan. 
302c. Lagopus bupestbis atkhensis (Turner). Turner's Ptarmigan. 

Genas Pedioobtes Baird. 
308. Pedioobtes phasianellus (LIdd.). Sharp-tailed Orouse. 

Family FALCONID^. Vultures, Falcons, Hawks, Eagles, etc. 

Geiius CiBCUS Lac6pMe. 

331. GiBCUS HUDSONIUS (Linn.). Marsh Hawk. 

Genus Accipiteb Brisson. 

332. Accipiteb telox (Wils.). Sharp-shinned Hawk. 

334. Accipiteb atbicapillus (Wils.). American Ooshawk. 

334a. Accipiteb atbicapillus stbiatulus Ridgw. Western Ooshawk. 

Genus Buteo Cuvier. 

337fc. Buteo bobealis calubus (Cass.). Western Red-tail 
342. Buteo swainsoni Bonap. Swainson^s Hawk. 

Genus Abchibutbo Brehm. 

[347.] Abchibutbo lagopus (Briiun.). Rough-legged Hawk. 

347a. Abchibuteo lagopus sancti-johannis (Gmel.). American Rough-legged Hawk. 

Genus Aquila Brisson. 
349. Aquila chbtsa£tos (Linn.). Oolden Eagle. 

Genus Hali^tus Saviguy. 

352. Halustus leucocephalus (Linn.). Bald Eagle. 

Genus Falco Linnseus. 

353. Falco islandus (Briinn.). White Qyrfalcon. 

354. Falco busticolus (Linn.). Gray Qyrfalcon. 
354a. Falco busticolus gybpalco (Linn.). Oyrfalcon. 

356. Falco pebegbinus anatum (Bonap.). Duck Hawk. 
356a. Falco pebegbinus pealei Ridgw. Peal4?s Falcon. 

357. Falco columbabius Linn.. Pigeon Hawk. 

357a, Falco columbabius suckleyi Ridgw. Black Merlin. 
360. Falco spabvebius Linn. American Sparrow Hawk. 

Genus Pandion Savigny. 

364. Pandion halia£tus cabolinensis (Gmel.). American Osprey. 

Family BUBONII)^. Hobned Owls, etc. 

Genus Asio Brisson. 
367, Abio AOOIPITBINUS (Pall.). Short-eared Owl. 



192 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATUltAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

Oenns Ulxjla Cnvier. 

270. Ulula oinsbea (GmeL). Great Ora/y Owl 
f370a.] Ulula cinerea lapponica (Retz.). Lapp Owl. 

Genus Ntgtala Brehm. 
371. Ntotala tenomalmi biohabdsoni (Bonap.). Richardsati?9 Owl. 

GeunB Megasgops Kaap. 

373^ Mboasoops asio eennioottii (Elliott). Kennieott^s Screech Owl. 

Genas Bubo Ouvier. 

375b. Bubo viboinianus abotious (Swains.). Arctic Homed Owl. 
375c. Bubo vibginianus satubatus Ridgw. Dusky Horned Owl. 

Genas Nygtea Stephens. 

376. Nygtea nygtea (Linn.). Snowy Owl, 

Genus SuBNiA Dum^ril. 

[377.] SUBNIA ULULA (Liuu.). Hawk Owl. 

311a. SuBNLA ULULA GAPABOGH (MliU.). American Hawk Owl. 

Family ALGEDINID^E. Eikgfibhbbs. 

Genus Gebylb Boie. 

390 Gebyle algyon (Linn.). Belted Kingfisher. 

Family PIGID^. Woodpegkebs. 

Genus Dbyobates Boie. 

393a. Dbyobates villosus leugomelas (Bodd.). Northern Hairy Woodpecker. 
394. Dbyobates pubbsgens (Linn.). Downy Woodpecker. 

Genus Pigoides Lac^pMe. 

401. Pigoides amebiganus Brehm. American Three toed Woodpecker. 

401a. Pigoides amebiganus alasgensis (Nels.). Alaskan Three-toed Woodpecker. 

401b. Pigoides amebiganus dorsalis Baird. Alpine Three-toed Woodpecker. 



Genus Colaptes Swainson. * 



412. GOLAPTES AUBATUS (Liun.). Flicker. 

413a. GoLAPTES GAPEB SATUBATIOB Ridgw. Northwestern Flicker. 

Family TROGHILIDjB. Hummingbibds. 
Genus Tboghilus LinnsBus. 
433. Tboghilus bupus Gmel. Rufous Hummingbird. 

Family TYRANNI D^ . Tyeant Flygatghebs. 
Genus Sayobnis Bonaparte. 
457. Sayobnis saya (Bonap.). Say^s Fhcsbe. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 193 

Oenas Empibonax Oabania. 

464. Ehpidonax diffigilib Baird. Baird^s Flycatcher. 
466. Ehpidonax pusillus (Swaius.). Little Flycatcher. 

Family ALAUDID^E. Larks. 

Gknus Otogobis LinnsBas. 

474a. Otogobis alpestbis lbugol^ma (Cones). Pallid Homed Lark. 

Family CORVID-^. Crows, Magpies, Jays, etc. 

Oenus PiGA Brisson. 

476. PiGA PIGA HUDSONIGA (Sab.). 

Oenus Cyanogitta Strickland. 
478. Cyanogitta stellebi (Omel.). Steller^e Jay. 

Genus Psbisoreus Bonaparte. 

484ft. Periborexjs gakadensis PUMiFROifS Ridgw. Alaskan Jay. 

Genus GoRVxrs Linnaeus. 

486. CORTUS GORAX siNTJATUS (Wagl.). American Raven. 
489. GORTUS GAURmus Baird. Northwest Crow. 

Genus Pigigorvtjs Bonaparte. 

491. Pigigorvtjs golumbiakus (Wils.). Olark^s Nutcracker. 

Family STURNIDJB. Starlings. 

Genus Sgolegophagus Swainson. 

569. Sgolegophagus garolinus (Mill!.). Busty Blackbird. 

Family FRINGILLID^. Finghes, Sparrows, etg. 

Genus Pinigola YieiUot. 

515. PiNiGOLA ENUGLEATOR (Linn.). Pinc Orosbeak. 

Genus Pyrrhula Brisson. 

[516.] Pyrrhttla gassini (Baird). Oassin^s BuUfineh. 

G^nus LoxiA LinnsDUS. 

521. LoxiA GURTIROSTRA MINOR (Brehui). American OrossbUt. 

522. LoxiA LEUGOPTERA (Gmel.). White-winged CrossbiU. 

Genus Leugobtigte Swainson. 

523. Leugobtigte orisbonugha (Brandt). Aleutian Leueosticte. 

524a. Leugobtigte tephbogotis littoralis (Baird). Hepbum^s Leueosticte. 

Genns Aganthis Bechstein. 

527a. Aganthis hornemannii exilipes (Coues). Hoary BedpoU. 
528. Aganthis linaria (Linn.). Bedpoll 

528a. Aganthis linaria holbcellii (Brebm). HolbailVs BedpoU. 
S. Mis. 155 25 



194 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

Genus Pleotbophbnax Stejueger. 

534. Pleotbophbnax nivalis (Linn.). Snowflake. 

534a. Plbotbophenax nivalis townsbndi Ridgw. TownsenePs Snowflake. 

535. Plegteophenax hypebbobeus Ridgw. MoKay*s Snowfldke. 

Genus Galoabius Bechstein. 

536. Calcabius lapponicus (Linn.). Lapland Longspur. 

537. Calcabius pictus (Swains.). Smithes Longspur. 

Genus Ammodbamus Swainsou. 

542. Ammodbamus sandwighensis (Gmel.). Sandwich Sparrow. 

542^. Ammodbamus sandwiohensis alaudinus (Bonap.). Western Savanna Sparrotc. 

Genus Zonotbiohla Swainson. 

555. ZoNOTBiCHiA INTEBMEDIA Ridgw. Intermediate Sparrow. 
557. ZoNOTBiCHiA COBONATA (Pall.). OoldencTOvmed Sparrow. 

Genus Spizella Bonaparte. 

559a. Spizella montioola oghbagea Brewst. Western Tree Sparrow. 
560. Spizella sogialis (Wils.). Chipping Sparrow. 

Genus Jungo Wagler. 

567. JuNGO HYEMALis (Linn.). Slate-colored Junoo. 

567a. JuNGO HYEMALIS OBEGONUS (Towns.). Oregon Junco. 

Genus Melospiza Baird. 

581/. Melospiza fasgiata bufina (Bonap.). Sooty Song Sparrow. 

582. Melospiza ginebea (Gmel.). Aleutian Song Sparrow. 

583. Melospiza lingolni (And.). LincoMs Sparrow. 

Genus Passebella Swainson. 

585. Passebella iliaga (Merr.). Fox Sparrow. 

585a. Passebella iliaga unalasghgensis (Gmel.). Townsend^s Sparrow. 

Family HIRTJNDINIDuE. Swallows. 

Genus Petboghelidon Gabanis. 

612. Petboghelidon lunifbons (Say.). Cliff Swallow. 

Genus Chelidon Forster. 

613. Chelidon ebythbogasteb (Bodd.). Bam Swallow. 

Genus Taghygineta Gabanis. 

614. Taghygineta bigolob (Vieill.). Tree Sparrow.'^ 

Genus Olivigola Forster. 
616. Olivigola bipaeia (Liuu.). Bank Swallow. 

Family AMPELID^. Waxwings, etg. 
Genus Ampelis Linnaeus. 
618. Ampelis gabbulus Linn. Bohemian Waxwing. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 195 

Family Ij.AN11DM Shrikes. 
Genus Lanius Linnseus. 

621. Lanius bobealis Vieill. Northern Shrike. 

Family MNIOTILTLD-ZE. Wood-Warblebs. 

Geuus Hblminthophila Kidgway. 

040. IlELMiNTHOPHiLA CELATA (Say). Orange-crowned Warbler. 

040a. Uelminthophila celata lutescens (Ridgw.). Lutescent Warbler. 

Genas Dendboica Gray. 

652. Dendboica -ZESTIVA (Gniel.). Yellow Warbler. 
065. Dendboica cobonata (Linn.). Myrtle Warbler. 
661. Dendboica striata (Forat). Black-poll Warbler. 
668. Dendboica townsendi (Nutl.). Townsend^s Warbler. 

GenuB Seiubus Swainson. 

674. Seiubus aubocapillus (Linn.). Oven-bird. 

076a. Seiubus noyebobacensis notabilis (Grinn.). OrinnelVs Waterthrmh. 

Genus Sylyania Nuttall. 

^^. Sylyania pusilla (Wils.). Wilson^s Warbler. 

686a. Sylyania pusilla pileolata (Pall.). Pileolated Warbler. 

Famuly MOTA01LLIDJ8. Wagtails. 
Genus Motaoilla Linnaeus. 
[695]. MoTACiLLA OCULABIS Swiuh. Swinho^B Wagtail. 

Genus Bxtdytes Cuvier. 
697. Budytes flavus leuoostbiatus (Horn.). Siberian Yellow Wagtail. 

Genus Anthus Becbstein. 

697. Anihus pensilyanicus (Lath.). American Pipit. 
[699.] Anthus cebyinus (Pallas). Red-throated Pipit. 

Family CINCLID^. Dippers. 

Genus Cinclus Becbstein. 

701. Cinclus mexicanus Swains. American Dipper. 

Family TROGLODYTID-^.* Wrens, Thrashers, etc. 

Genus Troglodytes Vieillot. 

722a. Tboglodytes hiemalis pacipicus Baird. Wefttetn Winter Wren. 
723. Tboglodytes alascensis Baird. Alaskan Wren. 

Family CERTHIIDuE. Creepers. 

Genus Certhia LinnsBus. 

726. Certhia familiaris Americana (Bonap.). Brown Creeper'. 



196 0Ol<rTBlBnTtONS TO THE! ItATlTBAli HlSTORlt OP ALASKA. 

Familt PABIDiB. Nuthatches akd Tits. 

Gtonns Pabus LinnsBns. 

735a. Pabus abtioapillus septentbionalis (Harris). Lang-tailed Ohiekadee. 
735b. Pabus atbioapillus oooidbktax.is (Baird). Oregon Chickadee. 

739. Pabus ohvotus obtbotus (Gab.). Siberian Chickadee. 

740. Pabus hudsokious Forst Eudeonian Chickadee. 

741. Pabus bufbsoens Towns. Chestnutbacked Chickadee. 

Family SYLYUD^. Wabblebs, EiNGLSTSy bto. 
OenuB Phyllopsbustes Meyer. 

747. Phyllopsbustes bobbalis (Bias.). KennicotVs Willow Warbler. 

Oenas Begulus Cavier. 

748. Begulus satbapa Licht. Oolden-oroicned Kinglet. 

748a. Begulus satbapa oliyaobus Baird. Western Oolden-craumed Kinglet. 

749. Begulus calendula (Linn.). Bubycraumed Kinglet. 

Family TTTRDIDM. Thbushbs, etc. 
Gtenas TUBDUS Linnaeas. 

767. TuBDUS ALiciiB Baird. Oraycheeked Thrush. 

758. TUBDUS USTULATUS (Nutt.). Bussct-bocked Thrush. 

759. TuBDUS AONALASCHKfi Omel. Dwarf Hermit Thrush. 

Oenns Mebula Leach. 
761. Mebula migbatobia (Linn.). American Bobin. 

Gtonos Hespebocichla Baird. 
763. Hespebocichla njbyia (OmeK). Varied Thrush. 

OenaR Oyanecula Brebm. 
[764.] Oyanecula suecica (Linn.). Bed-spotted lUuethroat. 

Genns Saxicola Becbstein. 
766. Saxicola osnanthe (Linn.). Wheatear. 



PART VI -MAMMALS. 



Okdeb CETACEA. Cetaceans. 

« 

Family DELPHINID.^. The Dolphins. 

Oenos Delphinus. 
Dblphinus BAiBBn Dall. BairW% Dolphin. 

Oenas Leuoobhamphus. 
Leucobhamphus bobealis (Peale) Gill. Right-whale Porpoise. 

Oenns Lagenobhtnohus. 
LAOEN0BHYN0HT7S OBLIQUIBENB Oill. Striped Ihlphin. 

While retorning from Attu Island to ITDalashka I observed, in the vicinity of Anichi^tka Island 
quite a nnmber of Dolphins sporting aboat the vessel, as she was speeding at a lively rate over the, 
water. These creatures were only about eight or nine feet in length and had numerous markings, 
stripes or bars, along the sides and throat. These markings were two or three inches wide and 
of a sulphur-yellow color, while the back and sides were bluish-black. 

Two or three persons on the vessel declared they had seen the same species in the waters of 
the Japan coast, and gave the name Japan Dolphins to those seen near Amchi^tka. I do not know 
to what species they should be referred. They do not, however, occur about the eastern Aleutian 
Islands. 

The Aleuts give the name A ga mdkh chikh to a species of striped, or barred. Dolphin ; but to 
which species the name should be referred I was not able to determine satisfactorily to myself. 

Oenus Oboa. 

Oboa atba Oope. Pacific Killer. 

The <' Killer" Whale is very abundant in the waters of the Aleutian Islands and the Pribylof 
Oroup, occurring less plentifully in the more northern portions of Bering Sea. 

At Saint Michael's I have but once seen them in the small bay ; this instance occurring when 
the surface of the water was covered with ice, the only break being a place of several hundred 
feet in length and only a few rods wide. They had come irom the sea and appeared in this 
opening. They remained several hours and apparently disliked to dive again under the strip of 
ice, over half a mile in width, between the break and the open sea. Many of the natives saw these 
creatures, but would not attempt their capture, asserting that the '* Killers" would cut their canoes 
in two with their fins and then swallow the occupant of the k&iClk. 

In the vicinity of Saint PauPs and Saint George's Islands this Dolphin commits great depre- 
dations among the smaller individuals of the Fur Seals, repairing to those islands to breed. The 
Killer is certainly most numerous in the neighborhood of Kyska Island, for, on the north of that 

197 



198 OONTBIBXJTIONS TO THE NATUEAL HISTOEY OP ALASKA. 

ifilandy and not ten miles from shore, I have seen not less than one handred and flftiy individuals at 
a single glance over the surface of the water; some of them appearing to have a length of not 
less than twenty-eight feet. 

Near the recently formed island, Bogaslov, I witnessed several of these marine cat-throats 
chasing five Sea-lions. One of the Dolphins seized a nearly full-grown female Sea-lion, and in plain 
view, for the creatures were not fifty feet from the vessel, lying in a calm and but gently moving in 
the slight undulations of the sea, tore the throat from the huge beast, while the remainder of the 
Sea-lions were attempting to clamber upon the vessel, which they doubtless mistook for a rock. 
One of the ^'KiUers " attempted to seize another Sea-lion, but just at that moment observed the ves- 
sel, and, while passing under her stern, received a shot from a rifle, which paralyzed it. The ball 
entered the ^' blow-hole," and a spirt of blood issued several feet high . The creature sank obliquely 
through the water. The muzzle of the gun was certainly not more than six feet from the Dolphin. 

In the vicinity of Tig&lda Island I witnessed two of these creatures attacking a very large 
Finback Whale. The latter was nearly exhausted by the persistent and impetuous lunges made 
upon it by its enemies. The sound of the splash made by the attacking Dolphins, as they leaped 
entirely out of the water and thundered upon the body of their prey, could be heard more than 
half a mile. It is not an unusal occurrence to find the carcass of some one of the larger species 
of the cetaceans, frequenting the Alaskan waters, with the throat torn out by the ^' Killer," which 
is said specially to relish the tongue of its huge victims; the remainder of the body often showing 
marks of the contest with its foes, for a single ^^ Killer " never makes the attack, usually two to 
seven individuals engage in the struggle, endeavoring to cause the Whale to dive and be thus 
prevented fr^m breathing, thereby the sooner becoming exhausted, as the merciless foes attack 
with the savage ferocity of enraged wolves. 

The food of the "Killer" is suspected to be quite varied in character, for it is frequently seen 
following the schools of Surf Smelts, Hypamestis oUdus (Pall) Gill, which occur in numbers beyond 
calculation near the sandy shores of some of the Aleutian Islands. Here are seen single " Killers", 
swimming amongst these little fishes ; and, during the appearance of those Smelts, was the ouly 
time that I ever saw the "Killer" near the shore. 

The Aleuts have a wholesome dread of this Dolphin. They relate numerous instances where a 
skin canoe has been upset by them and the occupant devoured. I suspect, however, that the na- 
tive touched a hidden rock, while attempting to discover the locality where the "Killer" would re- 
appear, and that the misfortune was due to his own ina<lvertence. Let it be as it may, the Aleut 
of the present day betakes himself to the nearest landing place on discovering the proximity of an 
individual; and, when safely landed a^ldresses it, claiming to have done neither it nor its relations 
any harm ; and if the Killer fears to attack him in the water he may now have the opportunity to 
come out on land and try its strength as did its ancestors, which vainly contended with a human 
character of ancient times, in which the then amphibian "Killer" was worsted, and has since that 
time become strictly a creature of the water. 

I had but little opportunity to observe this species from November to the following May, but 
am led to conclude that the various species of Dolphins do not remain in the vicinity of the sea-ice 
during the winter. They appear plentifully about the Aleutian Islands by the last of April, and 
probably foUow the retreating ice to the northward, arriving at Saint Michael's by the middle of May 
Their breeding habits were not learned; although, very small individuals were observed as early as 
the middle of June, and these appeared well able to follow the adults. 

The Aleuts speak of the Killer as A^ lyuk; and, to another species, which they recognize, they 
give the name Um gii, likh. 

I have seen what I believed to be two species, and perhaps three species, of the so-called 
"Killers," swimming together, all moving in the same direction. 

Genus Delphinaptebus. 

Dblphinapterus oatodon (Linn6) GOl. White Whale. 

The White Whale is of frequent occurrence in the more northern portions of Bering Sea. It 
is more littoral in its habits than any other cetacean, often ascending the larger fresh- water streams 



OONTEIBDTIONS TO THE NATUBAL HISTOEY OP ALASKA. 199 

for a distance of over a hundred miles. The Enssian-speaking population refer to this Whale as 
the Beluga^ a word which is properly referable to a huge species of Sturgeon, and by some strange 
misconception the name has been transplanted among the Alaskan people, and will forever remain. 
The Aleuts give the name Ed thdkh to the White Whale, while the mainland Innuit refer to it by 
the name Ki U VAg wuk for the more northern villages, and variously-spelled words, such as 8tto4k 
and Stwak for the middle and lower villages, respectively. 

I have never seen this creature west of the Aliaska Peninsula. In the vicinity of the month 
of the Kuskokvlm Eiver and northward to the Arctic circle the abundance of these Whales is at 
times almost incredible ; yet, where this year they may be plentifal they may be entirely absent 
the next season. It is a creature of very erratic habits and disposition. 

This Whale is '.highly prized by the mainland Innuit for its flesh, oiKand skin. They capture 
it in the early spring as it appears, among the last of the broken ice-fields, along the shore. The 
capture of one of these individuals is a source of great praise and profit to the slayer ; and, for 
his portion receives the head and skin, while the remainder goes to the various people of the com- 
mnnity. Not a few are taken in the seal-nets set in the late fall at Saint Michael's. 

The natives in the vicinity of Cape Eumiantzof are more fortunate than those either north of 
the Yukon Eiver or south of the Kuskokvim Eiver, for here the country is so low that the spring- 
tides overflow great areas of the low-grounds and communicate with the shallow lagoons and lakes 
of that depressed area, lying near the sea between the mouths of those rivers. The inhabitants 
procure great numbers of these Whales as they repair to those lakes and evidently forget to go 
out with the tide, and thus fall an easy prey to the spear of the watchful native. 

The Innuit of the southern side of the month of the Kuskokvim Eiver are noted hunters of 
these Whales; and, the more readily to approach them they paint their kditLks with a whiteish clay, 
found in that vicinity, in order to represent a piece of floating ice, and thus be less liable to frighten 
the usually wary Beluga. 

In the months of June and July the young, of nearly blackish-blue color, may be seen clinging 
to the back of the mother as she slowly comes to the surface to breathe. 

The skin of the Beluga is converted into covers for skin boats and into boot-soles ; but is not 
so highly valued as the skins of the larger species of seals, for the reason that it is not so imper- 
vious to water. The blubber is cut into long, narrow strips and placed within the stomach of either 
a Seal or of a White Whale itself. It is highly prized as an article of food, and is worth about fifty 
per cent, more than the same quantity of seal-oil. The flesh is very dark and full of blood, which 
remains in the distended veins through lack of proper means of bleeding. The intestines and 
larger food-receptacles are highly valued for making sky-light covers of the former and bags for 
containing oil or flesh from the latter. 

I have eaten the fins and tails of these Whales and found, after they had lain in a strong brine 
for several hours, that the taste was not disagreeable when fresh. 

Not having seen one of the White Whales south of Aliaska, I am not positive to what portion of 
the sea they go when the northern portions are covered with ice. It is certain that they do not 
occur about the western Aleutian Islands. 

The food of the White Whale consists of the smaller species of marine fish, the smaller salmon 
being consumed in great quantities. I am not aware that it has any other enemy than man. 

This species does not obtain the creamy- white skin nntil it is five years old. The newly-born 
young are about thirty to forty inches in length, but rapidly increase in size until they attain a 
length of six to eight feet, and then slowly grow to a maximum length of sixteen feet. 

Genus Monodon. 

MoNODON MOKOOEBOS Linu^. Narwhol. 

The only information concerning the occurrence of the Narwhal on the Alaskan shore are the 
assertions (more properly traditions) of a large creature with a spear sticking from its head ; they 
do not now occur in the vicinity of the coasts inhabited by the Mal6mut, who gave the information 
to me. They even had no name that I thought was reliable for this creature. 



200 COKTEIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL fflSTOKY OP ALASKA. 

GenuB Phoojbna. 

Phog^na tomebina Gill. California Bay Porpoise. (T) PHOCiBNA oommunib. 

T his small Porpoise was observed only among the Aleutian Islands and in the vicinity of 
E[adiak. 

In Captain's Harbor, Unalashka Island, this species is rather common. I have never seen it 
singly ; usually two to seven individuals may be seen in the vicinity of the wharf; and, on two 
occasions these Puffing-Pigs have been taken on hooks baited for codfish. 

The irregularity of their appearance prevented an opportunity to study their general habits. 

The Bussianspeaking people apply the name svinJca to this Porpoise, while the Aleuts give it 
the name of Aid gikh ; and to another small Porpoise they give the name An gdi gikk. 

Family PHYSETERED-ai. Sperm Whajleb. 

Genus Physetbb. 

Physeter macroobphalus Linn^. Sperm Whale, 

I saw but a single individual of this huge Whale in the Alaskan waters. 

In the latter part of August, 1880, 1 was outside of the entrance to Ghichagof Harbor at 
Attn Island. Not 500 yards off appeared a large Sperm Whale, making directly for the boat in 
which I was sitting. In a few minutes she appeared within fifty y^ards and presented an excellent 
opportunity for identification. This individual was certainly not less than eighty feet in length. She 
passed on out to seaward, while the natives were relating that in former times the Sperm Whale 
was a frequent, summer visitor to the Nearer Group of islands. 

In the middle of July, 1881, a small individual was stranded on the west side of Captain's 
Harbor, Unalashka Island. This specimen was only about twenty feet in length, and so far ad- 
vanced in decomposition that a near approach was impossible. 

These are the only instances of the occurrence of this species ; and I am led to conclude that 
it is now only an occasional visitor during the later summer months. 

The Aleuts apply the term Ag thd gikh to the Sperm Whale. 

Family BAL^NID^. Whalebone Whales. 
Oenns BHAOHLUiEOTES Cope. 

Rhachianegtes olaucus Cope. California Gray Whale. 

• I am not certain that I ever saw this large whale, excepting on one occasion when crossing 
the northern portion of Unimak Pass, in the early part of June, 1878, where quite a number, prob- 
ably a dozen, of these creatures were observed at some distance, slowly making their way into 
Bering Sea. 

Genus Megaptera. 

Megafteba yebsabilis Cope. Humpback Whale. 

The Humpback is quite plentiful in the waters of Bering Sea and to the south of the Aleu. 
tian Islands. Its extreme northern range is not known to me. 

From the latter part of April to the last of October many individuals of this species occur in 
the immediate vicinity of Unalashka Island and are hunted by the Aleuts. The killing of these 
Whales was, in former times, attended with interesting ceremonies, often of a mysterious significa- 
tion. The whale-hunters were considered as the great men of the village, and to them was paid 
special honors, not only while living but also after death. 

At the present time the Aleutian whalers are confined to the islands lying eastward of and 
including TTmnak. At Iliuliuk but two or three persons are now living who are hardy enough to 
attack this large creature. In former years the head or point of the whale-spear was made of 
slate, but of later years it has been discarded, and the point is shaped from a portion of the side 
of a beer or thick wine bottle, the former being considered the better adapted, as the glass is brittle 
and more easily fashioned into the required form of three inches to four inches in length, and hAV- 



[ 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 201 

ing a breadth of two to two and a half iuches, exclusive of the neck, by which it is affixed, by means 
of thongs, to the shaft of wood, which has a length of six to eight feet. 

The haiiter usually selects some young boy, of about sixteen years, to accompany him on the 
seach for these creatures. A two-holed k^iuk is used, the boy acting as the propelling power when 
the prey is sighted, and on him depends much of the Huccess of the hunter, who is of coui-se the 
teacher of the boy as to the method to be pursued. The boy obeys implicitly all instructions; and, 
as the quest of whales is attended with much privation, they often undergo considerable suffering 
before one is struck. 

The conditions of the weather are noted, for neither a gale nor a calm is ventured in, the latter 
enabling the Whale to observe the approach of the hunters, while a gently undulating sea is preferred 
for that reason. When a Whale is sighted the occupants of the canoe approach, with theleast possi- 
ble noise, and when near the place, where the Whaleis expected to rise, the hunter lays aside hia pad- 
dle and takes his spear in hand, and with it directs the boy where to proceed. As soon as the Whale 
rises the hunter launches the spear into the side of the creature, and the canoe is instantly urged 
backward out of the splash made by the plunge of the Whale. The motion of its body breaks off' the 
brittle head of the spear, and each movement of the victim tends to drive the piece of glass deeper 
into its flesh until some vital spot is touched ; the whale then sinks to the bottom, where it is 
supposed to remain for three days, when the gases, generated by decomposition, cause it to rise to 
the surface and, in course of time, is drifted to the shore. Persons are sent from the village to 
scan the sea for the floating carcass, or to search the coves, reefs, and bays for the stranded liody. 

The number of whales procured in this manner may atuount, at lliuliuk, to as many as fifteen 
in a single summer. In the summer of 1879 no less than seventeen wjere struck, and but three 
became available to the people; the currents and winds often carrying them far beyond the place 
where struck. 

It was related to me that a whale carcass has been found on Unalashka Island that had a spear- 
head sticking in it, which had been thrown by, a Kadiak native whaler; and the body had drifted 
nearly 600 miles in a west-southwest direction. 

When the carcass of a cast whale is found, the people of the nearest village cease all other 
work and hasten to the scene, where the blubber and flesh is quickly stripped, and then carried to 
the village, where the pieces are hung up to dry for food. 

In former times the entire Aleutian population lived to a great extent on the flesh and blub- 
ber from these creatures; but of late years their time is so much occupied with hunting sea-otter<} 
and seals that they devote but little time to the pursuit of them. The Atkhan and Attu people 
do not now engage in the chase of whales. 

1 have heard two names applied to the larger whales, and am not positive to which spiciea 
they should be referred. I think the name of Chi' ihvkh belongs to the Humpback; and 1 ques- 
tion the application of the name Chi ka'kh lukh to the Finback. 

On many of the islands of the Aleutian Chain are ancient village sites still showing the ar- 
rangement of the ribs of the larger cetaceans having been employed instead of wood to support the 
turf sides of their former dwellings. On Attu Island I saw a single slab, probably cut from the 
lower jaw of a sperm whale, that had been used as a door to the extrance of one of their ancient 
houses. The slab was about thirty inches wide by forty inches long, and nearly two inches thick. 
It required two men to carry it. 

Genus Bal^nopteba. 

Baljenoptera davidsoni Scam. Finback Whale. 

There are certainly two species of Finback Whales occurring in the waters about the Aleutian 
Islands and the Peninsula of Aliaska. 

There is considerable difierence in the size of the two species; the larger one being more fre- 
quently seen on the south side of the islands and the peninsula, while the smaller is plentiful on 
the north side during May, June, and July. 

Having but little opportunity to observe the actions of the two species, I must dismiss them 
by giving an Aleut word Chi ka'kh lukh^ as applicable to one of the two species of Finbacks, though 
I am not certain to which it belougs- 
S. Mis. 155 ^26 



202 0ONTRIBDTION8 TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

Qeims SiBBALDius. 

SiBBALDius VELIFEEUS (Cope). Finbock Whale. 

This large Fiiibuck Wbale occurs mostly, according to my own observation, on the soutb side 
of thvi Aleutian Islands, and to the east as far as Kadiak. 

An occasional individual is cast up on the shores of the eastern islands of the chain. 

The Aleuts do not attempt to capture either of the species of the Finbacks at the present time, 
coirtenting themselves with the smaller Humpback. 

SiBBALDit^s SULFIIREITS (Copc). Sulphur-bottom Whale. 

This large species of Whale does not to my knowledge occur west of Unimak Pass. The only 
individual ever seen by me was one near the Island of Uki^mtik, to the west of Kadiak, in August, 
1881. 

Genus Bal^na. 

Bal^na japonica Gray. Pacific Right Whale. 

The only information I have of the occurrence of this species, in the waters here included, is 
from hearsay only. I have had no oi)portunity of obsennng an individual which I thought be- 
longed to this species. 

Balji^:na mystioetus Liun6. Bowhead. 

This Arctic species of whale is so well known that any remarks I could make would add nothing 
to the history of this much>sought-for creature. 

^ Obder UNGULATA. Ungulates. 
Family CERVII>^. The Deers. 

Genus Ceryus. 

Cervus canadensis Erx. American Elk. 

It is somewhat questionable whether this mammal really occurs in the region here included. 
My only information, concerning its occurrence, is derived from miners, who have visited the south- 
east portions of the country. 

Genus Alces. 

Alces machlis (Linn^) Gray. Moose. 

Within the i)ast fifty years this huge beast has become quite i>lentiful in Alaska. The Yukon 
District and the headwaters of the Tanan4, Kuskokvlm, and the Nushag^k Rivers are the scenes 
of abundance of Moose at all seasons. A single individual was killed in the vicinity of Pa8t6iik, 
near Saint Michael's, in the early winter of 1876. This was the first instance of its occurrence, on 
the seacoast, north of the Yukon River. 

Genus Rangeper. 

Rangifer tarandus (Linn^) Gray. 
Rangifer tarandus grcenlandicus (Kerr). 

At the present writing I do not feel warranted in separating the Barren-ground Reindeer into 
two species, or even subspecies, for the distinctions are not suflBciently diflFerentiated to substantiate 
the separation. 

The Barren ground Reindeer o< curs plentifully throughout the entire open area of the broad 
territory under consideration. 

A limit of time alone prevents me from giving an history of an animal so intimately connected 
with the very existence of the people dwelling in Alaska. 



CONTBIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 203 

Bangifeb tabandtjs CABiBOU (Kerr). Woodland Reindeer. 

This large Beiodeer occurs most plentifully in (he wooded portions of the territory, coming on 
the treeless areas, as may suit its convenience, at any season. 

It is not known to occur north of the headwiaters of the Tanand River, but is plentiful about 
the interior back of Bristol Bay and thence south. 

Family BOVID^. The Cattle. 

Genus Ovibos. 

Oyibos mosohatus Blainville. Musk-ox. 

There is no positive evidence of the actual occurrence of this mammal within the region here 
included ; but, as the northern Innit and Indians are so well acquainted with it, there can be no 
doubt that it has but recently disappeared, if scattered individuals do not yet inhabit the region 
northeast of the Rumiantzof Mountains and near the Arctic coast. 

Genus Ovis. 

Ovis MONTANA DALLi Nclsou. DalVs Mountain Sheep. 

From the material now in the National Museum, "kt Washington, D. C, there is sufficient reason 
to the claim being valid that the northern Mountain Sheep is entitled to rank at least as a sub- 
species. It is more than probable that it may prove, when additional information is obtained, of 
specific rank. 

The range of this mammal is even to the low hills of the interior lying as far north as latitude 
sixty-eight, in this extreme range api)roaching quite near the western coast. The southern limit 
has not yet been defined. 

Obdeb RODENTIA. 

Family SOIIJEID^. The Squibbels. 

Genus Abotomys. 

■ 

Abotomys pbuinosus Gmelin. Hoary Marmot. 

The Hoary Marmot occurs in the interior of the region along the tributaries of the Yukon 
Biver; and, is more plentiful in the drier areas toward the southern portion of the Tanan4 Biver, 
Knskokvim Biver, and the region east of Lake Ilydmna. The exact range of this rodent is not 
well known. The skins are brought in for trade, but as they possess no special value they are 
not much sought for. 

The information, concerning its habits, came to me from the traders only, who have stations in 
those localities mentioned. 

Genus Spebmophilus. 

Spebmophilus empetba empetba (Pall.) Allen. Parry^s Spermophile. 
This rodent is quite plentiful in the region about Nul4to also to the eastward and south. Its 
exact range and habits are not known by me. 

Spebmophilus empetba kadiacensis Allen. Kadiak Spermophile. 

Originally described from Kadiak, this species has a range greatly beyond that island. 
Having no opportunity to study the habits of the rodents in the country, I can add nothing 
that is not already known concerning the larger species. 

^ Genus SciUBUS. 

SoiUBUS HU DSONIUS HTJDSONius (Pallas) Allen. Hudsonian Squirrel. 
I am not positive that the Squirrel obtained by me from the wooded portions of the Yukon 
district should be referred to this species. 



204 CONSRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ALASKA. 

Genus SciUBOPTERUS. 

SciiTBOPTEEt s voLrcEi-LA HVDSONivs (Giiieliu) Allen, yorthcm Flying Squirrel. 

Not having seen an individual of this species in Alaska, and my information being only from 
hen rsHy, yet sufficiently tiDst worthy to believe, that a species of Flying Squirrel occurs in the 
eastern part of the Nut^hagak and Cook's Inlet regions, 1 can but doubtfully refer it to this species 

Family CASTORID^. The Beavers. 

Genus Castor. 

Castor fiber (Linn6). Beaver. 

The Beaver is generally distributed over all the mainland of Alaska, excepting the imme- 
diate coast and the more mountainous portions from latitude sixty-seven to the extreme uortb- 
ern portion. 

The number of Beaver is said to be rapidly diminishing; not only by the persecution by man, 
but from other causes not well understood. There being less demand than formerly may, per- 
haps, allow this important, fUr-bearing mammal to regain its wonted abundance. 

Family MURlDiE. The Mice. 
Genus Fiber. 

Fiber zibithecus (Linn6) Cuvier. Muskrat. 

This mammal has a range over all the region of the mainland south of latitude sixty-eight. It 
is extraordinarily abundant in the marshy tracts of the mainland between latitude sixty -four and 
fifty-nine, especially so between the Tukon and Nushagak rivers. Its habits are so well known 
that they need not be repeated. 

Genus Cttnioulus. 

OuNiouLUs TORQUATUS (Pall.) Coues. White Lemming. 

This Lemming occurs in the northern portions only, that I am aware of, from theshoresof the 
Arctic Ocean to latitude sixty. 

It cannot be said to occur plentifully in any particular portion of the region ; scattered individ- 
uals were all that I ever saw 5 and, as they are more readily perceived in the late fall, when they 
have assumed their silky coat of pure white fur, their habits could not be ascertained. 

When in this condition the Innuit give them the name Ki IvgrnyH tAlc, or inhabitants of the 
upper regions ; for those people stoutly maintain that these creatures drop from the sky during a 
snowfall. 

Genus Myodes. 

Myodes obensis Brandt. Tatcny Lemming. 

This species has a much greater range than the white species, occurring throughout the main- 
land of northern North America. 

It is, according to my own experience, much more plentiful than the White Lemming. Its 
habits were not well ascertained. This and the preceding species are the well-known "Deer- 
iboted Mice " of the traders in the northern regions ; the delusion arising from the peculiar pro- 
cesses appearing on the claws of the forefeet, and which are deciduous as soon as the snow melts 
in the spring. 

Of the smaller Murid^e the following genera and species are known to occur within the terri- 
tory ; but as they are of no special importance merely a list of them will be given : 

Synaptomys cooperi Baird. 
EvoTOMYS RTJTiLUS (Pall.) Coues. 
Abvioola riparius borbalis (Rich.) Coues. 
Arvioola xanthognathus Leach. 
Hesperomys leugopus sonoriensis (Le Gonte) Coues. 
All of which occur on the mainland. 



CONTRIBXJTIONS TO THE NATURAL HI8TOEY OF ALASKA. 206 

Family HYSTEICID-aJ. Poboupines. 
OeDQB Ebethbizon. 

Ebbthbizon bobsatus bpixamthus (Brandt) Alien. 

This Bpecies occurs on the mainland, from the Arctic circle to the southern limits of the region, 
and is occasionally fonnd on the extreme western end of AHaska. To this species has been given 
the name Nunik^ a word of Aleutian origin and now transplanted among the people of the main- 
land of Alaska. The Bussian name is, however, quite different. The Innuit name is 1 Idn hu ck4Jc, 

Family LBPORID^. Thb Habes. 

Genus Lbpus. 

Lepus timidus Linn^. Polar Hare. 

Occurs most plentifully about the treeless areas, and prefers the dreary coast to the interior. 

Lepus amebioanx7S amebioanus (Erx.) Allen. Northern Varying Hare. 

Very plentiful throughout the wooded and bushy portions of the regioir. It seldom wanders 
on the barren areas. Both 8x>ecies of hares are confined to the mainland, excepting the Polar 
Hare, which is often found on Unimak Island, to which it travels on the ice formed over << False" 
Pass. The smaller Hare does not occur on the western portion of Aliaska, hence does not reach 
any of the Aleutian Islands. 

Obdeb CHIROPTERA. Bats. 

Family VESPEBTILIGNID^. Tbue Bats. 

Genus (f ) 

A species of Bat is asserted to be quite plentifol on Kadiak Island, and ranges in sammer as 
far north as Fort Yukon and Nul&to. 

To what genus it should be referred I shall not attempt to decide, as a specimen never came 
into my possession while I was in the Territory. 

Obdeb INSECTIVORA. Ihsectivobes. 

Family SOBIOID^. Shbbws. 

Genus Sobex. 

SoBEX FOBSTEBi Richardson. For sterns Shrew. 

This little creature apparently ranges throughout the territory, from the Arctic Ocean to tho 
southern limits. 

Sobex coopebi Bachman. Oooper>8 Shrew. 
(f ) Sobex sphaonicola Ooues. 

A species of Shrew was collected at Saint Michael's, but has been mislaid, and the determina- 
tion of these insignificantcreatnres is toodifflcult to be attempted without greatstudy and sufficiency 
of material for comparison. A species of Shrew occurs near the large lake at the head of the spit 
on which Iliuliuk village is built Specimens were not preserved, so that it is impossible to refer 
it to any genus or species. 

Before dismissing the rodents, it may be well to state that no species of mouse, rat, or shrew 
occurs on the extreme western islands of the Aleutian Chain. A number of the common house 
mouse and rat are to be found on Atkha and to the eastward. The rats on Atkha are very large 
and extremely vicioas, often contending the pathway near the rocks, which shelter them fix>m the 
attacks of foxes and birds of prey. 



206 OONTEIBUTIOirS TO THE NATUBAL HISTOET OP ALASKA, 

Order CARNIVORA. Flesh-Eaters. 

Family OTABIIDiB. Eared Seals. 

Genns EuMETOPLis. 

EuMETOPiAS stelleri (LessoD) Peters. Northern Sea-IAon. 

Too well known to need discussion in this connection. Its range extending to latitude sixty- 
ftve degrees north ; here, however, merely stragglers occur, being, doubtless, the males worsted 
on the hauling-grounds farther south, and the barren females driven from those places. 

Genus Oallorhintjs. 

Oallorhinus ursinxjs (Linn6) Grajr. Fur Ikal; Alaskan Fur Seal. 

Bering Sea, from latitude sixty south into the Pacific Ocean. Migratory only into Bering Sea 
This species has been so accurately described by.Mr. H. W. Elliott* that further comment upon the 
creature would be useless. In the spring of 1873 a scarred male Fur Seal was killed in Tebenkof 
Gove, a couple of miles southwest of St. Michael's Bedoubt. The individual was so exhausted, 
from his wounds and journey, that he made no attempt to escape when approached. 

Family PHOCIDuB. Hair Seals. 
Genus Phooa. 

Phooa TiTULiNA Liuu^. HarhoT Seal. 

The entire coast line and Aleutian'Islands are frequented by this small species, which is highly 
prized by all the inhabitants. 

« 

Phooa grcsnlandioa Fabr. Harp Seal. 
All the Arctic shore, Bering Sea, and among the Aleutian Islands. 

Phooa fcbtida Fabr. Ringed Seal. 

Has the same range as the preceding, but disposed to be more plentiful in the northern and 
middle portions of its range. 

Phooa fasoiata Zimmerman. Ribbon Seal. 

This species is confined to the eastern portion of Bering Sea, having its center of abundance, 
so far as is known, in the vicinity of l^unlvak Island. 

Genus Erion^thus. 

ERiGNATHrs BARBATUS (Fabr.) Gill. Square-flipper Seal; Bearded Seal. 

Most plentiful in the eastern and northern portions of Bering Sea. Among all Che Aleutian 
Islands is not so plentiful as is reported to have been in former years. 

Family UBSip^. The Bears. 

Genus Ursus. 

CTrsus amerioanus Pallas. Black Bear. 

The Black Bear ranges throughout the wooded portions of Alaska. It is very plentiful in 
certain tracts along the Yukon valley, Kuskokvim Biver, Nushagak Biver, and thence southward 
and interior. 



* A monograph of the Seal Islands of Alaska. Sepecial Balletin 176. Reprinted, with additions, from the 
report on the Fishery Indnstries of the Tenth Census. Washington : Government Printing Office, 1882. 



OOlSrTKIBUTIONS TO THE NATUBAL HI8TOBT OP ALASKA. 207 

ITbsub hobbibilis Ord. Grizzly Bear. 

As I have not seen an undoubted individual of this beast within the territory I can only give 
the assertions of others who have described an immense bear from the interior along the south- 
eastern portions of the Yukon River. 

From the description I should conclude that the Orizzly Bear was referred to. Along that 
river the creature referred to ventures nearly to the Arctic circle. 

Ubsus biohabdsoni And. & Bach, Barren-ground Bear, 

As the name indicates, this species is confined to the treeless areas of the territory. It is suffi- 
ciently plentiful for all purposes ; having its center of abundance on the area about the eastern 
end of Aliaska^ although ranging to the extreme northern land. It occurs on TTnimak, the eastern 
Aleutian Island. 

The largest skin of a wild beast that I ever saw was taken from a huge male of this species 
killed within a few hundred yards of Pastolik, near the Yukon DeltA. 

^ Family ODOB-SJNIDuE. Walbusbs. 

Genus Odobjbnus. 

ODOB-fflNUS OBESUS (111.) Allen. Pacific Walrus. 

Bering Sea, rarely descending sooth of the Aleutian Islands. Formerly had a greater south- 
em range. Kow restricted to the northern portions of the Pacific. Occurs very rarely among the 
Aleutian Islands. A two-year old male was killed on Attn Island in September, 1880. 

Family PROCYONID^. Bacgoons. 

i 

m 

Genus Pbooyon. ^ 

Pbocyon lotob (Linn6) Storr. Raccoon. 

I have heard, on what I consider reliable authority, that the Raccoon is not uncommon in the 
south portions of the Alaskan mainland. 

Family MUSTILIDJB. Weasels. 

Genus Enhydbis. 

Enhybbis lutbis (Liun^) DeEay. Sea Otter. 

Occurs now only in south Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean. Most plentiful between 
latitudes fifty- six and fifty north. 

Genus Lutba. 

LuTBA OANADENSis (Turton) F. Cuv. Iforth American Otter. 
Entire mainland of Alaska south of latitude sixty-eight. 

Lutba felina Molina. Chinchimen. 
This species is supposed to occur in the southern portions of the Alaskan mainland only. 

Genus Gulo. 

GULO Lusous (Linn6) Sabine. Wolverine. 

All the mainland of Alaska ; more plentiful near the wooded areas. 

Genus Putobius. 

PuTOBius VI80N (Schreber) Gapper. American Mink. 

All the mainland of Alaska south of latitude sixty -eight. Very abundant on certain marshy 
areas of middle Alaska. 



208 OONTBIBUnOUS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OP ALASKA. 

^PuTORius vuLGAHis Liii]i6. Least Weasel. 
All the mainland of Alaska. 

PuTOBius EBMINEA (Linn6) GriflBth. Ermine^ Stoat. 
This species has the same range as the preceding. 

Genus Mustela. 

MUSTEL.A PENNANTI Erxlebcu. Pelan ; Pennanfs Marten ; Fisher. 

Occurs sparingly in the upper Yukon Valley ; rather more abundant in the heavier timbered 
regions to the south. 

Mustela amebioana Turton. Marten ; American Sahle. 

Very plentiful in the wooded areas; occasionally venturing to the rocky, barren tracts of the 
mainland only. 

Family CANID-«J. The Dogs. 
G^nus Vulpes. 

Vulpes pulvus fulvus (Desmarest). Bed Fox. 

All the mainland, excepting the immediate north coast; Saint Lawrence Island; Aleutian 
Islands as far west as Umnak. 

Vulpes fulvus aboentatus (Shaw) And. and Bach. Silver Fox; Black Fox. 

All of Alaska, excepting the extreme western Aleutian Islands, Pribylof Group and Saint 
Mathew's Island. 

Vulpes fulvus decussatus (Desm.). Gross Fox. 

All of Alaska, excepting certain islands to the extreme west of the chain, the Pribylof Group 
and (f ) Saint Mathew's. 

Vulpes LAaopus (Linn6) Gray. White Fox ; Arctic Fox ; including the Blue Fox. 

The White Pox occurs only in the more northern portions of the mainland ; occasionally car- 
ried to the more northern islands of Bering Sea by means of ice fields. The Blue Pox occurring 
on the mainland south of the Arctic circle and on all of the Aleutian islands, attaining best con- 
dition on the Pribylof Group and the western Aleutian Islands. At the latter place it is the only 
terrestrial mammal. 

Oanis lupus gbiseo-albus (Linn). Sabine. Gray Wolf. 

This wolf ranges over all the mainland of Alaska. On the Aleutian Islands it occurs only 
on Unimak ; attaining that locality by crossing on the ice, ftom the north, jamming into "False", 
or Isanotsky, Pass, separating that island from Aliaska. 

Family FELID^. The Cats. 
Genus Lynx. 

Lynx bobealis canadensis (Gray) Mivart. Canada Lynx. 

Wooded portions of the mainland; rarely wanderiug on the treeless areas. 

(Future investigations into the natural history of Alaska and its neighboring waters will cer- 
tainly reveal many additional species to be added to the list given in this connection and may re- 
quire a revision of some of those already listed.) 



INDEX. 



IfOTS.— A few[eiTora occurring in Ihe srieDtlflc names in the text are corrected in the index. 
A. 



Page. 

Abbreviata (For) 80 

Abieaalba 76 

canadensis 76 

mertensiana 76 

sitchensis 76 

Absinthium (Artemeaia) 69 

Acanthias (Squalns) 112 

Aoanthia 26 

homemannil exilipea 171,103 

lisaria 23, 172,108 

hollbcBUii 193 

Acanthocephalns (Cottns) 96 

Acaulis (Silene) 63 

Accipiter atricapiUns 167,191 

striatulna 157,191 

velox 166,160,191 

Aooipitrinns (Agio) 161,191 

Acerifolinm (Yibumnm) 68 

Acetosa (Ramex) 74 

Achillea millefoliom 60 

Acicnlare (Pilophoron) 85 

Acicnlare (Raoomitriam) 88 

Aconitnm napeUas delphinifolium 61 

Acroatichoides (Cryptogramme) 82 

Actitis macularia 190 

Aonleatom aspidiam 82 

Aoaminata (Tringa) 189 

Acota (Carei) 79 

(Daflla) .*,.... 188.187 

(Gentiana) 72 

Acotifollom (Sphagnnnr) 82 

Adamsii (XJrInator) 115,184 

Adiantnm pedatnm 82 

Adoxa moschatelllna 68 

/Bgiaiitis'meloda oircumcincta 190 

mongola 190 

semipalmata 150,100 

iBqulTalTla (Agrostis) M 81 

iEstiva (Dendroica) 173,195 

Jfistrelata flsheri 186 

Affine'(£pilobiam) 66 

selatnm (Mninm) 83 

Affinis (Aythya) 187 

Agrostis equlvalvis 81 

exarata 81 

geminata 81 

laxiflora 81 

Airaarctica i 80 

atropnrpnrea 80 

cespitosa 80 

bottnica 80 

flexnosa 60 

longiflora 80 

Alaria escolenta 85 

Alascensts ( Picoides amerioanns) 166,192 

(Troglodytes) 181,195 

Alatns (Nabalus) 70 

Alandinus ( Ammodramns sandwichenais) 173, 194 

S. Mis. 155 ^27 



I»i»ge 

Alba (Abies) 76 

(Gavia) 1» 

(Rhynchospora) 79 

Albatrns (DIomedea) 128,186 

Albeola (Charitonetto) .*... 134,187 

Albicans (Jnngermannia) 84 

Albioilla(HaliBBetns) 159,191 

AlbifVons gambeli (Anser) 138,143,144,188 

Alcesmachlis 202 

Alcyon (Ceryle) 165,192 

Alectoria divergens 85 

ochroleaca 85 

Alentensis (Bromus) 80 

Alentica (Galamagrostis) 80 

(Gentiana) - 72 

(Sterna) 127.186 

AlenUcos (Bryanthus) ;•• 76 

(Ptyohoramphns) 119,185 

Algida (CaUbrosa) 80 

(Draba) 62 

AliciSB (Tardus) 188,196 

Allium schienoprasum 78 

AUosorus faveolatus 82 

sitchensis 82 

Alnfeldtla plicata 85 

AInusincana 76 

rubra » 76 

viridis 76 

Alopecurus alpinus 81 

Alsia califomica 84 

AU«mifolium (Chrysosplenium) 67 

Alpestrisleucolffima (Otocoris) 166,193 

Alpina (Anemone) % 61 

(Antennaria) 69 

(Arctostaphylos) * 71 

(CIrc«a) 66 

(Draba) 62 

(Hierochloa) 80 

paciflca (Tringa) 147,180 

(Veronica) 73 

(Sassurea) 70 

Alpinum (Epilobium) 66 

furcatum (Pogonatum) 83 

(Lyeopodium) 81 

(Papaver) 62 

(Phleum) 1 81 

(Pogonatum) 83 

(Polygonum) 74 

(Thaliotmm) 61 

Alpinus (Alopecurus) 81 

(Aster) «» 

(Astragalus) 64 

Alyssnm hyperboreum 62 

Amarella (Gkntiana) 72 

Americana (Anas) 131,187 

(Aythya) 187 

(Certhia familiaris) 105 

(Fulica) IH8 

(Olaucionetta clangula) 134,187 

209 



210 



INDBX 



Am^rioaDft (MoBtela) 206 

(OidemU) 137.188 

(YeronlcaT 78 

Americanus •iMcensla (Plcoldes) 166,102 

donalis (PicoldM) 166,192 

(Lepna) 205 

(Lepas ameriduinB) 205 

(Merfcanser) 130,187 

(Ploolden) 102 

(TJraua) 206 

AmmoooBtes aareas i 112 

AmmodTamns BaodwichenaU 178, 104 

aUndlnas 173, 194 

Ampelia jcaimlus 177,194 

Amplexifolias (Streptopaa) 77 

Amplexifolia (dyalaria) 77 

Amnreoeis (Motaollla) 170 

Anagallis (Veronica) 78 

Anarrhlchas leptnma 08 

Anas amerioana 181,187 

boBohaa 131,187 

carolinenais 132,187 

creooa 132,187 

dlsoors 183,187 

penelope 187 

BtTopera 131,187 

Anatnm (Falco peregrinas) 160,101 

Anoepa (SiayrlnchinDi bermadiana) 77 

Andromeda x>olifo1ia — 71 

Androsacea ( Artemesia) 69 

Androsacea (SaxifVaga) 67 

Androaaee chamsBjaaine 72 

aeptentrionalia 72 

villoaa 72 

Anemone alpina 61 

naroias i flora 61 

parrlflora 61 

patens - 61 

riohardsoni 61 

Anglica (Cochlearia) 6S 

Angoata (Odonthalia dentaia) 85 

Angnatata (Atropla) 80 

(Glyceria) 80 

Angnstifolia (Arnica) 70 

AnKaatifohora (Epilobinm) 66 

Annotinnm (Lycopodium) 81 

Annna(Poa) 80 

Anoplnrchiia ntropnrpureas 93 

Anser albifrona gambeli 138,143,144,188 

Auaerina (Potentilla) 66 

Antennaria alpina 68 

dioica.^. 60 

margaritacea 6 

Antitilchia callfomica 8^ 

cnrtipeudula 84 

Antbas ocrvinns 180, 195 

penailvanicna 180,195 

Anttqnus (Synthliborampbna) 120, 185 

AonalaachkaD (Tardaa) 196 

Apargidiuro boreale 70 

Apadue (Galliam) 68 

Apetalnm (Melandrjum) 63 

Apbragmns eachscboltzianua 63 

Aphrlxa virgata ISO, 190 

Aptboaa (Peltigora) 85 

Aquilina (Pterib> 82 

Aquatilia (Oarex) 79 

Aqnatica (Catabrnaa) 80 

(Glycerin) 80 

Aqoila ohrysaetos 158,191 

Aquilegia furnioaa 61 

Arabia bimuta 62 

petrsea 63 

Arcbangelica ofllolnalia 67 

gmelini 68 

Archibateo lagopua 191 



^ag«b 

Archibnteolagopns sanoti-Johaonia 158, 191 

Arctagrostis latifolia 81 

Arctica (Aira) 80 

' (Arenaria) 68 

(Artemesia) 09 

(Caltha) 61 

i (Poa) 80 

(Salix) 75 

(Trientalia enropea) 72 

I A rcticum (Nephroma) 85 

(Leucantbemam) 69 

I A roticna (Bnbo Virginian aa) 103 

I Arotiodracon kamtachaticum 76 

' Arcticus (JvncDM) 78 

(Rubna) .* 65 

I (Urinator) •.... 116,184 

' Arctomya pminoaus 208 

, ArctonerU flscberi 186,187 

Arctoataphylos alpina 71 

uTa-nrsi 71 

Arciiata (Lnznla) 78 

Ardea herodias 188 

Arenaria arctioa .' 68 

macn«arpa 61 

▼emahirta 68 

(Calidria) 189 

interpres ISO-, 190 

melanocepbala 150, 190 

Arenariaa (Elymns) 70 

Aretioides (EHtricbium) 78 

Argentcnm (Brynm) 88 

Argen tatns (Y olpes falvaa) 208 

Argentca (Pteria) 88 

Arguta(Saxifraga) 67 

Aristato(Teloxya) 76 

Armeria (Statice) 74 

Arnica angustifolia 70 

cbamisaonis 70 

latifolia 70 

obtnaifolia 70 

unalascbkcnsis , 70 

Arra (Uria lorn via) 122,185 

Artemeaia absinth in m 09 

androaacea 60 

arotica 69 

borealis ! 09 

chamiasonis 69 

globularia 69 

glomerata 69 

vnlgaria 69» 

tilesil 69 

Amnena (SpircDa) 64 

Arvenae (Equiaetum) 81 

Arvenaia (Spergnla) 63 

Arvicola riparina borealia 204 

^anthognathus 204 

Aaio accipitrinua 161,191 

kennicottii (Megascopa) 103 

Aaper (Hexagrammns) 05 

Aspidinm aculeatom * 82 

fragrans 82 

loncbitis 83 

oreopterla 82 

splnulosiim dilatatum 82 

Aaplenifolia (Coptis) 61 

Aaplenium felixfcemina 88 

Aaplenoidea (Ptilota) 85 

Aater alplnua 60 

foliacens 60 

mnltifloma 68 

peregrinas 60 

aalanginosns 60 

slbiricns 60 

Astragalos alplnas 64 

frigidns 64 

hypoglottis 64 



L 



INDEX. 



211 



Astngalns polaris 04 

Assaiifolla (Caltha palofltrlB) 01 

Atkhemis (Lagopas nipe«tiis) 155,156.191 

AtlUMpberio preaaaro 27 

Atra(Orca) IW 

AtTaU(Carex) 79 

AtricapHlua (Acdplter) 167,191 

occidentalia (Parna) 182,196 

aeptentrioualia (Paras) 196 

strlatalus (Aocipiter) 157,191 

Atriplex groelini 76 

littoralia 76 

Atropla aDgnatata . M) 

maritima 80 

Atropurpurea (Avia) 80 

Atroparpnreas (Anoplarohus) 93 

AtiOTirena (Pogonatum) 83 

Aalaoomxiion oapillare 83 

paluatre 83 

targldam 83 

Aaratna (CoUptea) 166,192 

Aareaa (AmmoccetM) 112 

(Senloio) 70 

Anritaa (Colymbaa) 115,184 

AnrocapiUna <Seionia) 195 

Auroraa 35,36 

ATicolare (Polygonam) 74 

Ay thya americana 187 

afflnia 187 

coUaria 133,187 

marila nearctioa 133. 187 

yalllaneria. 187 



B. 



Bachmaai (Hamatopua) 151,190 

Bnomyoaa iomadophilas 84 

BalrdU (Delphinna) 197 

(Tringa) 189 

Balsnoptera dayidsoni 201 

Balanajaponica 202 

myatioeiua 202 

Balaamifer* (Popalna) 76 

Baltioaa (Juncaa) t 78 

Barbatna (Sipbagonna) 94 

(Brignatbua) 206 

Birberea Talgaria 62 

Barbala mUlarl 88 

BaieUyi (SaUx) 75 

(UloU) 88 

BanoTiauDoa (Laraa) 26,123,124,125^144.165 

Bartramia longicauda 189 

menEieaii 88 

Baaeri (Limoaa lapponica) 148,189 

Beocabanga (Veronica) 78 

Bebringianam (Ceraatinm Tulgatnm) 64 

Beimndiana (Siayrincbiam) 77 

, Bermadianam aDO«pa (Slayrinchinm) 77 

Batala ennani 76 

glandnloaa 76 

nana 76 

Betula naon (Dothldea betoUna) 65 

BetalifoUa (Spinea) 64 

Betalina (Doihidea) 65 

Beupleram rannncololdea 67 

Biatora iomadopbylla 84 

Bloolor (Taobycinata) 177,194 

Biflora (Potentilla) 65 

(Sitcbenaia viola) 68 

BtfoUa (SDiUadna) 77 

BifoUain (Malantbomam) 77 

Biglumla (Junoua) 78 

Blanda (Viola) 63 

Bleobnom splcant 82 

BUtam capitatam 76 

Bonaaa nmbeUna ambelloidea 152,190 



Page 

Boreale ( A pargidium) 70 

(Botrychium) 81 

(CoDOAtomnm) 83 

(Gallium) 68 

(Hed^'nanrnm) 64 

BoroHlis (Arteinesia) 69 

(Arvicola rlparius) 204 

(Draba) 62 

(Calypeo) 77 

canadensis (Lynx) 208 

(Hlerocbloa) 80 

(Lanlus) 178,196 

(LencorhampboB) 197 

(Linnaja) 68 

(Nnmenius) 149,190 

(Phyllopaonstea) .. 196 

(Ptaimica) 69 

(Stellaria) «3 

(Tofleldia) 78 

Boreogadna saida 89 

Boacbas (Anas) 131,187 

Boscbniakia glabra 74 

Botrycbiam boreale 81- 

lanceolatnm 81 

lunaria 81 

matricarifolinm 82 

rutaceam 82 

tematnm 82 

▼irginicam 82 

Bottnlca (Aira oaMpitoaa) 80 

(Aira flexaosa) 80 

Boykinla ricbardsonii 67 

Bracbypoda (Oasteroatena pangltiaa) 87 

Braobyrampbaa kitUiUli 120.185 

marmoratua 121,186 

Brachyrbyncbna (Lams) 126,186 

Branta canadensis ...*. 138,144,188 

canadensis hntcbinsil 49, 139, 143, 144, 188 

canadensis minima 139,144.188 

canadcDBls occidentalis 188 

nigricans 141.144,188 

Biaotata (rotnndifolia Pyrola) 71 

Braoteatns (Perlstylna) 77 

Braoteosum (Ribes) 66 

Breyiioatris (Rissa) 124»186 

Brodlei (PbyUopbora) 85 

Bromns aleatenais 80 

oiUatus 80 

sitcbensis 80 

sttbulatns 80 

BroncbialLs (Saxifraga) 66 

BruDella vnlgaris ^ 74 

Bryantboa aleatiooa 76 

Bryom argenteum 88 

oapillare 88 

oradnm 81 

inclinatum 88 

lacuatre 81 

nutans 88 

polymorpbnm •• 88 

pyriforme 88 

Bnbo virginianns arotiona 192 

Tlrglnianna anbarctioua 168,192 

Baocinator (Olor) 188 

Bndytes flams lencostriatoa 179^195 

Bufo 6 

Bnteo swainaoni 191 

Bnxbaamii (Carex) 79 

C. 

Cacbinana (Larns) 186 

Cieraleam (Polemonium) 72 

Caapitosa (Aira) 80 

bottnica (Aira) 80 

(Caiex) 7f 



212 



IHDBX. 



CflBspitosa lougiflora ( Alra) M 

(Saxifhi;i^) 67 

(Scirpae) 78 

Cieiipitoauin (Yaccininm) 71 

Cafer sRtiirfttior (Colaptes) 192 

Calamagroatis aleutica 80 

CRDadonsiii ^ 

laDgadorffii 80 

lapponica 80 

neglecta 80 

purpnraaoens 80 

Btrigosa 80 

sylvatica 80 

Calcarius lapponicua 26,173,194 

pictaa 194 

CalcndnUk (Regulua) 183,196 

Calidria arenaria 189 

Califomica (Alaia) 84 

(Antitriotria) 84 

(Urlatrolle) 122,186 

CaliforDicuB (Lftras) 186 

Calliodon (Uparia) 94 

Callorhiniia urainua 46 

Caltfaa arctlca 61 

leptosepala 61 

palnatria aasarifolia 61 

Calthlfolium (Geum) 65 

Calycina (Hutchinaia) 68 

Calycnluta (Caaaandra) 71 

Calypso borealU 77 

Campanala daayantha 70 

laalocarpA 70 

rotaodiflora 70 

pUosa 70 

nniflora 70 

Campanultam (Pogonatom alpinnm) 83 

Campeatris (LuKola) '. 78 

(Oxytropas) 64 

Canadensis (Abies) .* 76 

(BranU) 188,144,188 

(CalamagTostis) 80 

(Cervns) 202 

(Cornus) 68 

(Dendragapas) 152«190 

fiimifh>n8 (Perisorens) 167, 198 

(Oros) 188,146,188 

hatcliinsii (Brania) 49, 139, 148, 144. 188 

(Lutra) 207 

(Lynx borealis) 208 

minima (Branta) 129,144,188 

uocidentalis (Branta) •. . . 188 

(Sangnlsorba) 65 

Canngica (Phllacte) 142,144,188 

Canescens (Carex) 79 

ericoides (Baoomitrinm) 83 

Canina (Peltigera) -85 

Canis Inpns griseo-albus 208 

Canntus (Tringa) 146,189 

Caparooh (Sarnia alula) 164,192 

Capillaceam (Disticbinm).... 88 

Capillare (Bryam) 83 

(Pogonattim ) 88 

( Aulacomnion ) 83 

C apillaris (Carex ) 79 

Capitata (Pedicnlaris) 74 

(Valeriana) 68 

Capitatnm (Blitnm) 76 

(Eriophoram) 79 

Cardamine digitata 63 

biraata 62 

lenensis 62 

pratensis 62 

pnrpnrea 62 

Carex acuta 79 

atrata 79 

aqnatllis 79 



PagVL 

Carex bnxbaamii 79 

casspitosa 79 

canesoens 79 

capillaria 7V 

circinata 79 

oryptocarpa 79 

elongata 79 

fuliginosa 79 

gmelini 79 

lagopina 79 

leiocarpa 79 

leporlna 79 

limosa 79 

livida 79 

macrocbnta 79 

melanocM'pa 79 

mertenall 79 

micropoda 79 

nigricans 79 

norvegica 79 

paaciflora 79 

rariflora 79 

remota 79 

rotnndata 79 

taxatiUs 79 

ateUnlata 79 

atricta 79 

atyloaa 79 

vealoaria 79 

Caribou (Bangifer tarandjos) 208 

Carolinensis (Pandion balieetoa) 161,191 

(Anas) 182,187 

CarolinuB (Sooleoopbagoa) 168,198 

Cassandra oalyoulata 71 

Cassini (Pyrrhnla) 169,170,198 

(Pyrrbula coooinea) 169,170 

Cassiope ly copodioidea 7i 

mertensiana 71 

atelleriana 71 

tetragona 71 

Castanens (Jnncna) 78 

Caatilleja pallida 78 

jwnriflora 78 

septentriooaUs 7S 

Castor fiber 204 

Catabrosa algida 80 

aquatica 80 

Catapbraotes (Gaaterostens) 87 

Catodon (Delpblnaptems) 23,198 

Caurinos (CorTus) ' 193 

Cavlfolium (Polytriobnm) 88 

Celata (HelminthopbiU) 186 

Intesoens (Helminthopbila) 195 

Cembra (Pinus) 76 

Cenl8ia(Poa) 80 

Cepphns colomba 121, 185 

mandtii 121,186 

Cerastium vnlgatum 64 

bebringianum 64 

grandlflomm 64 

Ceratodon purpureas 83 

Ceratopbornm (dens-leonls Taraxaonm) 70 

Cemua (Saxifraga) 67 

Cemnium (Trisetum) 80 

Cerorbinca monocerata 186 

Certbia familiaris amerioana 196 

Cetraria ialandioa 85 

Cervlnus (Antbus) 180,196 

Cervus oanadensus 202 

Cerylealcyon 165,192 

Chetopteris plumosa 85 

Cbamsejasme (Androsaoe) ..^ 72 

Cbaroffimoras (Rubus) 66 

Cbamiasonis (Arnica) 70 

(Artemesia) }. — 09 

(Claytonia) 66 



QTDBX. 



213 



Page. 

CfaamiBSoniB (Eriopbomin ) 78 

(PedicnlariB) 73 

(Vacoiniam) 71 

Cbaradrius dominioua 190 

fulvas 149,190 

sqnatArola 190 

Ofaaritonetta albeola 134,187 

ChelidoD «rythn>gaater 26,176,177,194 

Chen hyperborea 138,144,188 

roasli 188 

Chorda fllam 85 

Cboriaanua (Perlstylna) 77 

Cbonioba (Ooooryocbaii) 105,108 

Cbrysodpleniam alternifoliuro 67 

CbryaaStoa (Aquila) 158, 19i 

CHiatua (Bi-omna) 80 

Cinamoinea (Boaa) GTi 

CinciDataa (Pbalaorocorax dilopbna) 129, 186 

Ciuclna raexioanuB 181, 195 

Ciuctas griceaceDS (Paraa) 182 

obectos (Paroa) 182,196 

(Parus) 182,183 

Ciiieracea (Pyrrbubi) 169,170 

Cineren lappouica (Ulula) 162, 192 

(Moloapiza) 174,194 

(UluU) 161.162,192 

Cinna laUfolia '.. .. 81 

Clrciea alplna 66 

Circinale (Hypnam) 84 

Circinata (Carex) 79 

Circumcincta {Mf^aHiiiB meloda) 190 

Circas bndaonlns 166,191 

Cirrbata (Lunda) 117,184 

Cirri 81 

Cirro-ciimali 30 

Cfrro-atratua 80 

Cladooia defomiia 84 

gracilia 84 

pyzadata 84 

rangiferioa 84 

ayWaticA 84 

anclalia 84 

Cladotbamnna pyiiolffifloruB 71 

Clangula anierioana (Glancionetta) 134,187 

hyemalla 134.135,187 

ClaTatom (Lyoopodlam) 81 

Clay tonia ob am iaaonia 66 

flaKollaria 66 

aarmentoaa 6C 

albirica 66 

vlrKinica •: 66 

Clearweatber 81 

CHvicoU riparU 177,194 

Clooda 29 

Clupea mh-abilia Ill 

Clupeiformlfl (Coregonua) 104 

Clypeata (Spatula) 133,187 

Cnioaa kamtcbatioua 70 

Coccinea casaini (Pyrrbala) 169,170 

(Tofi6ldia) 78 

Cooblearia anglica 62 

feDestrata 62 

obloDKifolia 62 

offloinalia 62 

Colaptea aaratna 166,192 

cafer aatoratior 192 

Colinaa TirginlaiinB 158 

Collaria (Aythya) 133,187 

Colpodiam falvnm 80 

Coliimba (Ceppbna) 121,185 

Columbariaa (Faloo) 160,191 

auckleyl (Faloo) 191 

ColnmbtaDua (Olor) 49,148,188 

(Pidcorvna) 1»3 

Colymbua anritna 115,184 



Pace. 

Colymbaa bolbcBllil 115,184 

Commane (PolyBtiobmn) 84 

Commonia (Pbocffina) 200 

Comosa oongeata (Lnsula) 78 

Complanatam (Lycopodiam) 81 

Confertiflora (8olida{!o) 69 

Congeatam (Dicrannm) 83 

Congeata (Luaala comoaa) 78 

Coaica (Fegatolla) 84 

Conioaelintiin flaobari 67 

Conoatoronm boreale 83 

Contorta (Pinua) 76 

Contortum (Pogonatam) 83 

Coopcri (Sorex) 205 

(Synaptomya) 204 

Coptia aaplenirolia 61 

infolia 61 

trlfolia 61 

Coralloidea (Sphieropburoo) 84 

Corax sinuatus (Corvaa) 167,193 

Cordata (Liatera) 77 

mackenaiaDa (Salix) 75 

(Salix) 75 

Coregonaa olupeiformia 104 

kounicottii 104 

laurettn 103 

merckii 104 

quadrilateralia 1 104 

CoriaperiDnm byaaopifoliam 76 

Cornicalata (Fratarcula) 116,184 

Comna oanadenaia 68 

atolonlfera 68 

aaecica 68 

unalaaobkenaia 68 

Coronw -. 84 

Coronata (Dendroica) 178,195 

(Zonotrichia) 174,194 

Corrallorbiza innata 77 

martenaiana 77 

Corvua caarinaa 103 

corax ainnatua 167,193 

Corydalia glauca 62 

pauclflora 62 

Cottua h umilia 95 

polyacantbocepbalua 05 

teenioptarua 04 

Coaeai (Tringa) 147,189 

Country, pby aical cbaracteriatica of tbe 13 

Craaaifolla (StolUria) 63 

Crecca(Anaa) 132,187 

Criapa (borealia Stellaria) 68 

Criapifoliani (Hypnam) 84 

Criapum (Dioranum) 83 

Criata-galli (Villaraia) 72 

Criati-galli (RbiDalitbua) 73 

CriaUtellua (Simorhyncbua) 91, 119, 185 

Cmdum (bryuni) > 88 

Crymopbilua falicariaa 145, lb8 

Crypt'<><^n><^ (Carex) 79 

Cryptogramme acroaticboidea 82 

CucuUatuin (Platyaina) 85 

Cnculattia (LopbodytM) 187 

Cumnlo-atrataa 30 

Cumulua 30 

Cnniculna torquataa 204 

Curtipendula ( Antitrichia) 84 

Curviroatra minor (Loxia) 170,198 

Cnapldatam reoarvum (Spbagnnm) 82 

Cyanecnla aaecica 196 

Cyanocitta atelleri 193 

Cyclopua (Liparia) 94 

Cyclorrbyncbna paittacnloa 119, 185 

Cymbifoliom (Spbagnnm) 82 

Cypripodinm gnttatom 77 

Cyatopteria fragilia 82 



214 



INDEX. 



DaflUaonU 133,187 

Dalll (Ovis montana) 203 

Dallla peotoralid 100 

Damacensis (Tringa) 189 

Daayantha (Campanala) 70 

DavidsoDi (BaliBnoptera) 201 

Dararioa (Saxif raga) 67 

Decawatua (Valpea ftilvuB) 208 

Deformia (Cladonia) 84 

Deglandi (Oldomla) 137,188 

Deleseeria jii rgensil 85 

ainiioBa 85 

Delicate (GfiJlinago) 14e,189 

Delpbinapterus catodoo 23,108 

Delphiulfolium (Aconitttm napelluB) 61 

Delphiiiiim menziesii .-• 61 

Dolpfainue bairdii 107 

Dendragapus canadensis • 152,190 

obscuTtts faliginosus 152,190 

Dendroica wstiva 178»196 

Goronata 178, 195 

striate 178,195 

townsendi 195 

Deudroidenm (Lycopodinm) 81 

Denteto anguste (Odonthalia) 86 

Dentetnm (Pogonatnm) 83 

Dentox (Osmenis) .' 102 

Denticnlate (Mortensia) 73 

Dentioulatum (Hypnmn) 84 

Dens-leonis (Tarazacam) 70 

Detonsa (Gentlana) 72 

Dew 29 

Diapensia lapponlca 72 

Dianthns repens 68 

Dicranum congeetum 88 

crispnm 88 

eloiigatam 83 

faeteromallam 88 

majas 88 

palnstre...' 88 

polyoarpam 88 

sohraderi 88 

scoparinm 88 

Difflcilis (Empidonax) 193 

Digiteto (Cardaniine) 62 

Dilatete (Platanthera) 77 

Dilatatam (A^spldinm spinalosam) 82 

DUophuB cincinatns (Phalacrooorax) 129,186 

Diolca (Antennaria) 69 

(Ui-tica) 76 

(Valeriana) 68 

Diomedea albatruB 128,186 

nigripes 128,186 

Diphyllos (Microstylis) 77 

Disooidea (Matricaria) 69 

Discors (Anas) 138,187 

Disticliium oapillaceam 88 

Divergens (Alectoria) 85 

Dodeoatheon 15 

meadia 72 

Domestioas (Rnmex) 74 

Doniinicns ftilvas (Charadrias) 149,190 

Dorsalis (Piooides amerioanus) 166,192 

Dorsatua epixanthus Eretbrizon 205 

Dotbidea betalina betala» oaD» 85 

Douglaslana ((rentiana) 72 

Doaglassii (Neckera) 84 

Drabaalgida , 62 

alpina — 62 

borealis 62 

gladalls 62 

gracilis 62 

hirte 62 

incana 62 

murioella 62 



Pago 

Draba stellate 68 

stenoloba 62 

nnalascblLiaoa 62 

Draoocepbalum parvlfloruxD 74 

Dracontiam kamtscbatcense 76 

Drobachiensis (Strongylocentratos) 126 

Drosera rotandifolia. 68 

Drummondi fnnous 78 

Dryas ootopetela 65 

Dryobates pubescens 166,192 

▼illosns leaoomelas 192 

Dryopteris (Phegopteris) 82 

Dupontia psiloantha 80 

Dyctioaipbon fcenicalaceos 85 

E. 

EcbinoBpennam redowskil 78 

Edwardsii (Batrema) 68 

Electricity 85 

El^gans (Placodinro) 85 

Elignlate (inodorata Matricaria) 69 

Elongata(CaTex) 70 

Elongatnm (Dioranam) 83 

Elymas arenarins 79 

molUs 79 

sibiricns 79 

^lynaspicate 79 

Emarginate (Potentilla) 65 

Empetra empetra (Spermopbilus) 203 

kadiaoensis (Sperinophilas) 203 

(Spermophilas empetra) 208 

Enipetmni 16 

nigmm 74,75,128 

Empidonax diffioilis 198 

Enbydris latris «. 49 

BDieonette stellert 185,187 

Bnsifolius ( Junciis) 78 

Eoncleator (Pinioola) 168,193 

Epilobiam affine 66 

alpinnm 66 

angostifolium 66 

latifoliom 66 

lateam 66 

palnstre 66 

tetragonum 66 

roseom 68 

BpizantbuB (Erethrizon dorsatns) 205 

Bquisetnro arvense 81 

sylTaticuTD 81 

Eretbrizon dorsatns epixanthus 205 

Ereaneies ocoidentaliB 148,189 

EriaDtbnm (Geraninm) 64 

Eriooides (Bacomitrium oanescens) 88 

Erigeron glabeUnm 09 

uniflomm 69 

Erignatbns barbatus 206 

Ermlnea (Pntorius) 208 

Briopbomm callitrix 79 

capitetum 79 

obamissonis 78 

gracile 79 

latifoUam 79 

polystachynm *. 79 

scbeucbaeri 78 

Taginatnm 78 

Eritriobium aretioides ..., 78 

pleb^nm 78 

yflloBnm 73 

ErmMii (Betula) 76 

Brysimnm lanceolatum 62 

Erytbrogaster (Cbelidon) 176,177,194 

Escbscboitziana (Listera) 77 

Eschscboltrianus (Apbragmns) 63 

Bscbscholtzil (Rannncnlas) 61 

(Saxifraga) 66 

(Veratmm) 78 



r 



im>EX. 



215 



Paget 

IBtcnlenU (Alarla) 85 

Snoal^tra rhabdocarpa 88 

Enroetoplaa stelleri 98 

Baphra«ia ofBclnalis 78 

BnphTABioidea (Pedienlaris) 78 

SnropSBa (Pyrrhnla) 170 

Enropa>a (TrientalU) 72 

SnTynorhyoobns pygmnas 169 

Bntrema edwardaii 63 

Byotomys mtUos 304 

BzaraUlAgroatia) 81 

(Saxtfk«ga) 67 

Bxoelaa (Thi^a) 76 

Bxilipes (Acanthla honiemannit) ...A 171,193 

Bzilis (Saxifraga) 67 

F. 

Faloatns (JancuB) 78 

Falco oolambarins 160,191 

colambarius snckleyi 191 

lalandas 159,191 

peregrinna aoatnm 169, 191 

peregrlnns pealel 160, 191 

rastloolas 191 

msticoIiM gyrfaleo 159,191 

sparrerlas 191 

FamfliarisamericaoaCGerthia) 19$ 

Fasciatamflnft (Ifelospixa) 176,194 

FanciaU (Phooa) 206 

Fapoionlare (Racomitrlnm) 88 

FaTOolato ■ ( A llosorus) 62 

Fegatella coniea 84 

Felina (Lntra) 207 

Felix- foDmina {AspleniiUD) 82 

Ftonestrata (Cochlearia) 62 

Ferraglnea (MensieBia) 71 

(TriDga) 189 

FeataoaoTlaa » 79 

mbra 80 

snbnlata 80 

Fiber (Caator) 204 

xibittieciis 201 

FiUcinaCPtilotaplamoea) 86 

Fflom (Chorda) 86 

Fimbriatnm (Sphagnum) 82 

Flmbraria tenella 84 

Fischeri (Arctonetta) 186^187 

(Coniotelinam) * 67 

Fisheri (CEstrelata) 186 

Flagellaris (Clayionia) 66 

(Saxifraga) 66 

FlaWcana (Poa) 80 

Flavipes (Totanua) 148.189 

Flams loaooatriatas (BadytM) 179,195 

Flexnoea bottoica (Aira) 80 

FloeoeoM (Rhodomela) 85 

FlayiaUIis (Bananenlns) 61 

FcBnicolaMiia (Dyotioaiphoo) '. 85 

Foetida (Phoea) 206 

Fog 29 

Folfaoeaa<Aater) 69 

Fontana (Montia) 66 

Formosa (A qnilegia) 61 

Forroosnm (Polytrichmio) 88 

Forstori (Sorex) 206 

Fragile (Spharophoron) 84 

Fragilia (Cystopteris) 82 

Fragrans (Aspidlnm) 82 

Fratercnla oonilcalata 118, 184 

Friglda (Lecanora tartarloa) 85 

(Kardoooma) 68 

Frigidna (Senlcio) 7o 

<AstTagalas) 64 

FritUlariakamtaohatoenaiB 77 

Fmteaoeos (PeototemoD) 73 

FmtiOMa (PoientiUa) 66 



Pagei 

FnouB Tesoicoloeas 86 

Fullca amerioana 188 

Fnlioarios (CrymophUas) 146,188 

Fnliginoea (Carex) 79 

Faliginoea8(Deodragapiuobacania) 162,190 

Fnlmanis glaoialis gluplaofaa 129, 186 

rodgeisli 186 

FalTum (Golpodinm) 80 

Fnlyns (Charadrias dominioiu) 140,190 

argentatna (Vulpea) 208 

decaasatuB (Vnlpea) 208 

fulvuB (Vnlpea) 208 

(Valpea ftilTna) 208 

Furcata (Oceanodroma) 129,180 

Famifrona (Periaorfma canadenaia) 167, 198 

Fanaria hygrometrica 83 

Farcatam (Pogooatum alpinam) 83 

Faaca (Oidemia) 137,188 

Fuacicollia (Tringa) 189 

G. 

Gadna morrhoa 89 

Gale(Myrica) t 76 

Galeopaia totrahit 74 

Gallinago deUcaU 146,189 

Gallium aparioe 68 

boreale 68 

trifldum 68 

triflonim 68 

Gambellii (Anaer nlbiftons) 188,143,144.188 

Garruloa (Ampella) 177,194 

Gaateroatena cataphrsctea 87 

miorocepbalua 87 

pungitiua brachypoda 87 

Gaviaalba 185 

GeminlU (Agrostia) 81 

GeuUana acuta 72 

aleutioa 72 

amorella 72 

detouaa 72 

douglaaiana 72 

glauca ..., 72 

platypetala »-• 72 

propinqua 72 

proatrata 72 

tenella 72 

Geranium erianthnm ••••• 64 

Genm calthifolinm 65 

glaciale 66 

maorophyllnm 65 

roasii..« •* 

Gigantea (Vlcia) 64 

Glabellnm (Erigeron) 69 

Glabra (Heuchera) 68 

GUbra (BoachnUkla) 74 

Glaciale (Geum) 65 

Glacialia (Draba) 62 

Qlacialia glapiacha rFulmaraa) 129,186 

Glaoialla (Plonronectea 88 

rodgersii (Folmarua 186 

(Salix) 75 

GlandnloMi(Betula) 76 

Glauoa (Corydalia) 62 

(Gentiana) ^ 72 

(Kalmia) 71 

(Salix) 75 

Glanceecena (Lama) 125,185 

Glancionetta clangula amerioana 134,187 

iaiandica 187 

Glaacnm (Platyama) 85 

Glauona (Rachiancctea) 200 

(Zygudenna) 78 

Glaux maiitiroa 72 

Globularia (Artemesia) 69 

GIomerata(Artemeaia) 69 

Glnmarls (Glyceria) 80 



216 



INDEX. 



Pnge. 

Glnpischa (Falmarns glaolalifl 129,186 

Glutinosa (Tofleldia) ^^ 

Glyceria angnBtato '- ^ 

aqnafioa ^ 

glumaris ^ 

stenaniha vlvipera 80 

Omelini (Aicbangolioa) ^ 

(Atriplex) "^^ 

(Carex) 79 

(Gymnandra) '* 

Gnapbalinm aylvatlcum * 

Gorbanoha (Oocorhynchaff) 110 

Gracile (Eriophorum) '* 

(Polytrichum) 83 

Gracllia (Cladonla) 8* 

(Draba) ^ 

(Tileeia) ^ 

Grandifloram (Ceraatiuin valgatum) W 

Grandiflora (Moneaus) ''I 

(TelUma) ^ 

Grioeacens (Parua oinctua) 182 

Griaeiventria (Pyrrhula) 169,170 

Griaoonucba (Leucoaticte) ^ 171,193 

Griaeo-albaa (Cania lupus) • 208 

GroDnlandlca (Phoca) 206 

•Groenlandicua (Rangifer tarandua) 202 

Grna canadenaia 138, 145, 188 

Gnlo lascoa 207 

GuttatuB (Mimulua) 73 

Giittatum (Cypripedium) 77 

Gyronaudra sniplini 74 

atelleri 74 

Gymnelia Tiridia 02,93 

(GymnoKODf^ua) plicata 85 

Gyrfidco(Falcoru8ticolua) 159,191 

H. 

HflBmaatioa (Limoaa) 189 

Hematopaa bachmani 151, 1 90 

Haliieetaa albicilla 159,191 

• carolinenaia (Pandlon) 161,191 

leucocephaliia : 158, 191 

Halidrya oamandacea 85 

Haloa M 

Haloaaccion ramentaceum 85 

Hedyaaram boreale 64 

maokenzii 64 

Helmlnthophlla oolata 178,195 

oelata Inteacena 195 

Hemilepidotna Jordan! 95 

Hepatica triloba 61 

Heracleam lanatam 67 

Herodiaa (Ardea) 188 

Heteromallnm (Dicranam) 83 

Heepei-ocicbla nsBvia 184, 196 

Heaperia pallaaii 62 

Heaperomya leacopna aonorienaia 204 

HeteraotitialDcaoua 148,189 

Hetorantbera (Saxlfraga) 67 

Heacbera glabra 68 

Hexagrammua aaper 95 

ordinatna 96 

Bopercilioaiia 96 

Hieroalia paciflcua (Troglodytea) 195 

Hleracifolia (Saxifntga) 67 

Hieraciam triate 70 

Hieroobloa alpina 80 

borealia 80 

Hippogloaana valgaria 88, 97 

Hippuria inaritima 66 

montana 66 

vulgaria 66 

Hlrcalaa (Saxifraga) 66 

Hirta ( Arenaria vema) 63 

(Draba) 62 

Hirauta (Arabia) 62 



Page. 

Hiraa ta (Cardamine) 62 

(Pedicnlaria) 74 

Hirundo nnalaahkensia 177 

Hiatrionicna blatrionlcna 134,168,187 

(Hiatrionlcua) 184,168,187 

HolbiBllil (Colymbua) 115,184 

peploidea 63 

Honkeneya peploidea oblongifolla 63 

Hookeri (Senioio) 70' 

Hoi-doum Jubatnm 79 

pratenae 79 

Hombyi (Oceanodroma) 186 

Honieiiiannii exilipea ( Acantbia) 171, 198 

Horribilia (Uraua) 207 

Horridnm (Panax) 68 

Hndaoniannm (Ribea) 66 

Hudaonica (Pica pica) 166,193 

HudaoniooB (Nnmeniua) 149,190 

(Parua) 183,196 

Hudaouiua (Circue) 156,191 

budsonina (Scinrna) 203 

(Sciuropterua volacella) 204 

(Solnrua budaoniaa) 203 

Humidity 27 

Hnmifnaa (Stellaria) 63 

Hamilia (Cottua) 95 

Hnronense (Tanacetuni) 69 

Hutobinaia calyciua 63 

Hatcbinaii (Branta canadenaia) 49, 139, 143, 144, 188 

Hy d rocbelidon nigra anrinamenaia - 186 

Hyeraali** (Clangnla) 134,135,187 

(Janco) 174,194 

oregonus (JTanoo) 174, 194 

Hygrometrica (Funaria) 83 

Hyperborea (Cben) 138,144,188 

Hyperboreum (Alyaaum) 62 

Hyperboreua (Pleotrophenax) 194 

(Ranunculua) ^ 61 

Hypnonim (Paoroma) 85 

Hypnam circinale 84 

criapifolium 84 

denticnlatum 84 

ilocebrnm 84 

laxifolium 84 

loroum 84 

Inteacena 84 

myosaroidea atolonifemm 84 

n itena 84 

revoWena , 84 

rivnlare 84 

rngoaum 84 

mthenicum 84 

aalebroaum. 84 

acbreberi 84 

aerpena 84 

splendena 84 

atokeaii 84 

•atrigoaum «, 84 

aqaarroanm 84 

triqaetrum 84 

undulatnm 84 

nnioinatam 84 

Hypoglottia (Aatragalua) 64 

Hypomeana olidua 102,103,198 

Hyaaopifolinra (Coriapermnm) 76 

I. 

Icroadopbylla (Biatora) 84 

Icmadopbilua (Bieomycea) 84 

Iliaca(Paa8erella) 174,176,194 

Iliaca unalaacbceneis (Paaaerella) 194 

Illecebrum (Hypnum) 84 

Imber (Urlnator) 116,184 

Inoaua (Alnna) 76 

(Draba) 62 

Incanna (Heteraotitia) 148,189 



1 



INDEX. 



217 



Page. 

Inolfnatam (Bryom) 88 

InfolU (Coptis) 61 

InoatA (Coirallorhisa) 77 

Inodorata (Matricaria) (H) 

■ Inops (Ptnns) , 76 

IntegrifoliniD (Leacanthem am) 69 

Intermedia (Zonotrichia) 173,194 

Interpree (Arenaria) 150,190 

IriBsibirioa 77 

lalandica (Cetraria) 85 

(Glaaeionetta) 187 

lalandus (Faloo) 150,101 

J. 

Japonioa (Baliena) 202 

Jordani /Hemilepidotus) 95 

Jabatum (Hordeum ) 79 

Junco hyemalis 174, 1 94 

oregonus 174, 194 

JimouB arcticna 78 

balticaa 78 

biglnrais 78 

castanena 78 

dmmmondi 78 

ensifolios 78 

falcatas 78 

paradoxus 78 

xiphioides triandrus 78 

Jnngermaania albioana 84 

trichophylla 84 

Jnnlperinam (Polytrichnm) 83 

JonipeniB nana 76 

Jikrgeosii (Delesaeria) 85 

K. 

Kadiacenaid (Spermophilos empetra) 203 

Slalmia glanca , 71 

Kamtchatica (Odonthalia) 85 

Kamtachatcense (Draoontium) 76 

Kamtacbatoenala (Fritillaria) 77 

(LyaichitOD) 76 

Kamtachaticam (Arotiodraoon) 76 

(Cnicns) 70 

Kamtobaticiim (Rbododendron) 71 

KamtaobaticuB (Symplooarpns) 76 

Kennioottii (Coregonaa) 104 

(Megascops aaio) 192 

Keta (Onoorhynobua) 107 

Kisutch (Oncorbyvcbaa) 100 

Kittlluii (Brachyramphna) 120,185 

Koenigii (Platantbera) 77 

Kotzebuei (Paroasaia) 68 

Kotseba«naia (Tanaoetam) 60 

Laonatre (Bryum) 88 

(Ribea) 66 

Lagenorbynobna obUqaidena 197 

Lagopina (Carex) 79 

Lagopas (Arcbibuteo) 191 

lagopaa 23,152,191 

(Lagopoa) 28,152,191 

mpeatria 154.156,191 

atkhenaia 155,156,191' 

nelaoni 156,159,191 

aanoti-Johannia (Arcbibuteo) 158,191 

(Vulpea) 189.156,168,208 

Lanata (Pedieularid) 74 

Zianatnm (Heraoleum) 67 

^janoeolatum (Botrycbium) 81 

(Eryaimum) 68 

LaogadorAi (Calamagroatis) 80 

(Pedioniaris) 74 

(VioU) 68 

LanioaboreaUa 178,195 

S. Mis. 155 ^28 



Pagft 

Laauginoaum (Baoomitrium) 88 

Lapathifoiiom (Polygonum polymorph am) 74 

Lapponica baaeri (Limoaa) 148,189 

(CalamagToatia) 80 

(Diapenaia). 72 

(Ulula cinerea) 162,192 

Lapponicum (Rhododendron) : 71 

Laponicum (Salix) • 75 

Lapponicue (CalcariuH) 178,194 

(Ranunculuis) ■ 61 

Larix (Rhodomela) 86 

LanM barroviannua 24,26,123.124.125,144,185 

braoh^TbynchuB 126, 186 

cachinana 186 

califomicus 186 

glaucescens 125,185 

leucopterua 24 

nelaoni 185 

Philadelphia 126,186 

BhistisaguB 180 

LaBiocarpa (Campanula) 70 

Lateriflora (Moehringia) 68 

LathyruB maritlmna 64 

Latifolia (ArcUgrostis) .'. 81 

(Arnica) 70 

(Clnna) 81 

(Orchia) 77 

Latifolium (Eriopbomm) 79 

(Ledum) 71 

Lau rett a (Coregon as) 108 

Laxiflora (AgroatiB) 81 

Laxiftilium (Hypnum) 84 

Laxifloruro (Rlliea) 66 

LecanoraiuilleBoenBapBalensiB 85 

tartarica frigida 85 

Ledum latifolium 71 

paluBtre 71 

Leiocarpa (Carex) 76 

Lenensia (Cardamine) 62 

Leporiua (Carex) 79 

Leptarrhena pyrifolia 67 

Leptoeepala (Caltha) 61 

LepturuB (Anarrhichaa) 98 

Lepus americanuB americanuB 205 

timiduB 205 

Leucantbemifolia (Saxifraga) 66 

Leucanthemum arcticum 69 

integrifolium 69 

LeucocephaluB (Halinetus) 158,101 

LeucoIsBma (Otocoria alpestria) 166,198 

Leucomelaa (Dryobates vUloaas) 192 

Leucoptera (Loxia) 171,^93 

LeucopuB Bonorienaia (Hesperomya) 204 

Leucorhoa (Oceanodroma) 186 

Leucorhamphua borealia J97 

Leacoaticte griaeonucha 171,198 

tepbrocotia littoralia 198 

LeuooBtriatuB (Bndytea flavuB) 179,195 

LigUBticum acoticnm 67 

Limoaa (Carex) 79 

h»maatica 189 

lapponica baueri 148, 189 

Llnaria(AcantbiB) 23,172,198 

Linoolni (Meloapisa) 194 

Linnea borealia 68 

Linnei (Sagina) 64 

Linumperenne 64 

Llparia oalliodon 94 

cyolopua 94 

Liplla oocidentalia (Smilaoina) 77 

Littoralia (A triplex) 76 

(Lenooaticte tepbrocotia) 198 

Liatera oordata 77 

eachacboltzlana 77 

Livida (Carex) 79 

Lloydia aerotina 77 



218 



INDEX. 



Lobatas (Phalaropus) 145, IM. 148, 188 

Loiselenrift prociunbeQs « 71 

Lomaria spicant 82 

Lomvia am (Uria) 122,185 

Lonchitis (Anpidiam) 82 

Longicaada (Bartramia) 189 

Longlcandaa (Stercorarina) 123,185 

Lonjj^flora (Aira cmspitoaa) 80 

Longlfolia (SteUaria) 63 

Lonf^ipes (Stellarla) ffS 

LoDgiroatria (Namenina) 140, 100 

Lophodjtea CQculataa 187 

Loreum (H^poam) 84 

Lota macaloaa 02 

Lotor (Procyon) 207 

Loxia carviroatra minor 170, 103 

leaooptera 17 1, 193 

Logena (Motacilla) 178 

(Senicio) 70 

Lamme (Urinator) 116,184 

LiiDar{a<BotrychiDm) ^ 81 

Lnnda cirrhata 117, 184 

LuDifrooH (PetrochelidoD) 194 

Lupaa griaeo-albuB (Canla) 208 

Lapin 08 nootkatenais 64 

perennia 64 

Luacus (Gulo) 207 

Luteacena (Helminthophila oelata) 105 

(Hypnam) 84 

Liitonm (EpUobiam) 66 

(Nuphar) 61 

Lateua (Mimalua) 73 

Lntra canadenais 207 

felina 207 

Lntria (Enhydrla) 40,207 

Luzala arcaata 78 

oampeatria 78 

oomoaa congeata 78 

piloaa 78 

spadioea 78 

spadlcea parriflora 78 

apicata 78 

Ly codes tnmeri 93 

Lycopodloides (Gaaaiope) 71 

Lyoopodium alpiiiuro 81 

annotioom 81 

clavatam 81 

Gomplanatam 81 

dendroideum 81 

selago 81 

aitohonae 81 

Lynx borealia canadenaia 208 

Lyratnm (Taraxacnm) 70 

Lyaichlton kamUohatcenae 76 

M. 

Macblia ( Aloea) 202 

Mackensiana (Salix cordata) 75 

Mackenzil (Hedyaaamm) 64 

(Stenadue) 103 

Macrocarpa ( A renaria) 63 

(Parrya) : <J2 

(Plantago) 74 

Macrocephalna (Phyaeter) 200 

Macroceraa (Pingnionla) 71 

MacrocbsBta (Carex) 79 

MacTophyllum (Oeam) 65 

Maororbampbna acolopacena 146,189 

Macnlaiia (Actitia) 190 

Maoalata (Tringa) 147,180 

Maonloaa (Lota) 92 

Kaianthemnm bifoliam 77 

M%)or (Paraa aibiricua) 182 

(Plantago) 74 

(Pyrrhnla) 160,170 



Pag& 

Mijus (Dicrannm) ' 83 

(Hypnam unoinatum)., 84 

MaUotua Tilloaua 102 

Malma (Salvelidua) 101,105 

Mandtii (Cepphua) 121,185. 

Marchant la poly morpha 84 

Margaritacea (Antennaria) 69 

Harila nearctica (Aythya) 138,187 

Marina (Zoatera) 77 

Maritlma (Atropia) 80 

(Glaux) 72 

(Hippuria) 66 

(Mertenaia) 78 

(Plantago) 74 

(Tringa) 189 

Haritimum (Triglocbin) 77 

Maritimua (Latbyraa) 64 

Marmorataa (Bracbyrampboa) 121,185 

Martenaiana (Corrallorbiza) 77 

Matricaria diacoidea 69 

inodorata 69 

eligulata 69 

Matricarifblium (Botrycbium) 82 

Meadia (Dodecatheon) , 72 

Media (Plantago) .74 

(Stellaria) 63 

Megaptera ToraabUia 200 

Megaacopa aaio kennicottii 192 

Melanocephala (Areuaria) 150,190 

Melanoleucua (Totanua) 189 

Mcloda circnmcincta (^gialitia) 19C 

Meloaplza ciuerea 174, 194 

faaciaU rnfina 175,194 

Malandryum apetalum 63 

Melanocarpa (Carex) 79 

Meloapiza lincolni 194 

Men j'antbea tri f oliata 72 

Menziesia ferraginea 71 

Menzieaii (Bartramia) 83 

(Delpbinum) 61 

(Mniom) 83 

(Neckera) 84 

Merckii (Coregonaa) 104 

Mergauaer amerioanaa 130, 18f' 

aerrator 131,187 

Merkia pbyaodea if3 

Meralnitea (Salix) 75 

Mertenaia dentioulata 73 

maritima 73 

paniculata 73 

piloaa 73 

aibirica 73 

Mertensiana (Abiea) 76 

(Gaaaiope) 71 

Mertenaii (Carex) 79 

Morula migratoria 183,196 

Meteorology 17 

general conaiderationa of 26 

Mexicanua (Cinclua) 181,195 

Miorocepbalna (Gaateroateua) 87 

(Somnioaaa) 112 

Microceraa (Pingnioula) 71 

Micropoda (Carex) 79 

Microatylia dipbylloa 77 

Mlgratoria (Merula) 183,196 

Millefolium (Acbillea) 69 

Mimulua gnttatua 73 

Mimniua luteua 73 

Minima (Branta canadensia) 139,144,188 

Minor (Loxia oorviroati-a) 170, 193 

(Pyrola) 71 

Minntllla (Tringa) 189 

Mlrabllia (Clupea) Ill 

Mirage 35 

Mninm affine zelatam 83 

menzieaii 83 



INDEX. 



219 



Page. 

Mnlnm panotatam 88 

roBtratum 88 

Mnioides (Tetraplodon) 83 

MoBhringia lateriflora 63 

Mollis (Elymna) 79 

MoDeeus grandiflora 71 

Mongola (ifigialitis) 100 

Monooerata (Cerorhioca) 185 

Monoceros (Monodon) 100 

Monodon monoceros 109 

Monopterygias (PleorogrammBs) 06 

Montana (Hlpparls) 66 

dalU(Ovis) 203 

Montia fontana 66 

Monticola oohraoea (Spisella) 174,104 

Morrhua (Gadus) 89 

Moachatellina (Adoxa) 68 

Mosohatus (Ovibos) 203 

Mofcaoilla amurensis 179 

lugens 178 

oonlarls 178,105 

Mulgedinm palohellum 70 

MflUeri (Barbala) 83 

Multifloros (Aster) 68 

Marmnoides omatQS 98 

Mnrioeila (Draba) 62 

Mnstela americana 208 

pennanti 208 

Myodea obenses 204 

MyoBOtis sylvatica 78 

Myosaroides stolonifemm (Hypnam) 84 

Myrioa gale , 76 

Myrtilloides (Salix) 76 

MyrtlUus (Vacclniom) 71 

MysticetuB (Bal»na) 202 

N. 

Kabalus alatns 70 

KiBvla (Hesperocichla) 184,196 

Nana(Betula) 76 

(Juniperus) 76 

(PotentUla) 65 

« Napellus delphinifolium ( Aconitam) 61 

Narcissiflora (Anemone) 61 

NardoBoma Mgida 68 

XTastn rti am painstre 62 

Kasnta (Pedioularis) 73 

Katans (Potamogeton) 77 

(Spargauium) 76 

Nearctica (Aythya marila) 133,187 

Keckera donglassii 84 

menziesii 84 

Keglecta (CalaroagitMtis) 80 

Kelsoni (Lagopos rapestris) .155,150,101 

(Larub) 185 

(Ranancnlas) ftl 

NelsonLana (Saxifraga) 87 

Kemoralis (Poa) 80 

Nephroma aroticam 86 

Kerka (Oncorhyncbua) 108 

Nigra Burinameuais (Hydrocbelidon) 186 

Kigricans (Branta) 141.144.188 

(Carex) 79 

Kigripes (Diomedea) 128,186 

Nigrum (Empetrum) 74,75,123 

Kitens (Hypnum) 84 

NiUda (Saxifraga) 66 

Nivalis (Plectrophenax) 23,49,172,194 

(Primala) 72 

(Bananculas) 61 

(Saxifraga) 67 

townsendi (Plectrophenax) 194 

Nivea (Potentilla) 66 

Nootkatensis (Lupinus) 64 

NoveboracenBis (Seiarus) 178,196 



Page. 

Norvegioa (Carex) 79 

(Potentilla) 65 

Noatoc verrucoBom 85 

Nnda (Osmorhisa) 67 

Nndicaale (Papaver) 62 

NudicauliB (Saxifraga) 67 

Namenias borealis , 149,190 

hndsonicas 149,190 

longirostris 149,190 

Uhitieneis 190 

Namerosa (Scapanica) 84 

Napbar Inteum 01 

Nntans (Bryam) 63 

Nutkanns (Rabas) 65 

Nyctea nyctea 162,163,192 

(Nyctea) 162,168,192 

Nyctale tengmalmi rlchardBoni 162,192 

Oboordata (Salix pallasii) 75 

Obensis (Myodes) 204 

Obesus (Odobsenus) 207 

Obliquidens (Lagenorhyuchos) 197 

Obion gif olia ( Coch 1 earia) 62 

(peploides Honkeneya) 63 

Obscnrus f oliginosns (Dendragapas) 152, 100 

Obscura (Physcia) 66 

Obtectus (Parua) 182,188 

(Parus cinctus) 182,106 

Obtnsa (Platanthera) 77 

(SwertU) 72 

Obtasifolia (Arnica) 70 

Occidentalis (Branta canadensis) 188 

(Ereanetes) 148,180 

(Parus atrioapillas) 182,106 

(Bananculas) 61 

(Smilacina lipUa) 77 

Oceanodroma forcata 120,186 

bombyi 186 

leucorhoa 186 

Oobracea (Spizella monticola) 174,194 

Oohroieuca (Alectoria) 85 

sarmentosa (Alectoria) 85 

Ootopetala (Dryas) 65 

Ociopus punctat U8 1 13 

Ocularis (Mot acilla) 178,195 

Odob»nua obeaus 207 

OdonthaliadenUta.angU8ta 85 

Kamtachatica 85 

(Eaanthe (Saxicola) 196 

Offlcinalia (Arohangelioa) 67 

(Cocblearia) 62 

(Euphrasia) 78 

Oidemia americana 137,188 

deglandi 137. Ia8 

fuaca 137,188 

perspicillata 137.188 

Olidas (Uyi»omeaa8) 102,103,108 

OlivaceuB (Kegulua aatrapa) 196 

Olor buccinator 188 

columbianua 40,144,188 

Onoorhynchus cbooicha — 105,108 

gorbuscha 110 

keU 107 

kiautch 109 

nerka 106 

Opbioglossum Tulgatum 81 

Oppositifolia (Saxifraga) 66 

Oroaatra 187 

paoifica 28 

Orchis Utifolla 77 

Ordinatus (Ht xagrammns; '. 06 

Oreopteris (Aspidium) 82 

Oregonas (Junco h^'emalis) 144,104 

OrienUlis (Pyrrhola) 170 



220 



INDEX, 



Omatns (Munenoidea) 98 

OsmeniB dentex 102 

Osmorrhlza uada ^ 

Osmundaoea (HAlldrya) 8S 

Otoooriaalpcatria leucolfema IM, 198 

Ovalifolia (Salix) 75 

Ovalifolinm (Vacciuium) , 71 

Oviboa moachatua 203 

Ovina (Featuoa) 79,89 

OTla moDtana dalll 203 

Oxycoccoa valgaria .' 71 

Oxyria reniforiDia 74 

Oxjiropua campeatria •* 

aralanaia M 

P. 

Paoiflca (Orca) 28 

(Trlma alplna) 147,189 

Paoiflcua (Troglodytea hiemalia) '. i9>'» 

(Urinator)... 116,184 

Palida (Caalellesja) 78 

Pallaaiana (Phyllodoce) 71 

Pallaali (Heaperia) «2 

obcordata (Sallx) 75 

(Ranuncalua) 81 

(Salix) 75 

PaUeacena apaalenaia (Lecaoora) 85 

Pallio-cimia 80 

Palaatre ( Aulaconmion) 88 

(Dicranam) 83 

(Epilobium) 88 

(Ledum) 71 

(Naaturtinm) 82 

(Taraxacum) 70 

(Triglochm) 77 

Paluatria aaaarifolla (Caltha) 61 

(Pamaaala) 63 

(PotentUla) 85 

(8emcio) 70 

Pandion halla^etua caroUnenaia 161,191 

Panax horridnm 68 

Panloolata (Mertenaia) 'i3 

Papaxer alpinum 82 

DmUcanlo 62 

Paradlaaea (Sterna) 127, 128,.186 

Paradoxun (Juncua) 78 

Paraaiticna (StercoraTJiis) 123,186 

Pari«tina ( I'byaciii) 86 

Parmelia perforata 86 

perlata. » 86 

aaxatilia 86 

tiliacca . 85 

Parmlfera (Raia) Ill 

Pamaaaia kotzebnei 63 

paloatria 83 

Parrya Diacrocarpa ■•. 62 

Parua atricapillua oocidentalia 182, 196 

aeptentrionalia 196 

cinctua 182,183 

griceacena * 182 

obtectua 182,196 

hndaonicna -, 183,196 

obteotua 182,183 

mfeacena 196 

aibiricaa 182 

major 182 

Parviflora (Anemoue) — 61 

(Caatilleja) TS 

Parvidorom (Dracocephalum) 74 

Parvifolium (Yacciniam) 71 

Paacbale (StereocauloD) 85 

Paaaerella iliaca 174,176,194 

onalaacbcenaia 194 

PateDa (Anemone) 61 

Paucidora (Carex) 79 

(Cor>dalia) 62 



PafB. 

PaaoUloram (Vibamnm) 81 

Pealei(Kalcoperegrinoa) 180,191 

PectinaU (Spiraea) N 

Pectoralia (Dallia) 188 

Pedatom (Adiantnm) 82 

Pedatoa (Rabua) 88 

Pedlcillato (Pedlcnlarle) 71 

Pedicularea 15 

Pedionlaria capitata .... 74 

cbamiaaonia 78 

enphraaloidea 78 

hiraata 74 

lanata 74 

langadorffii 74 

naaata 78 

pediciUata 78 

aubnuda 78 

aadedca 73 

veraicolor 74 

Terticillato 78 

Pedloocatea phaaianellaa 191 

Pelagicaa (Phalaorooorax) 189,188 

robaataa (Phalaorooorax) 180,188 

Pelluclda (Tetrophia) 88 

Pelt i gera ap thoaa 85 

canina 66 

polydactyU 86 

vanoaa ,. 85 

Penelope (Anaa) 187 

Pennant! (Maatela) 208 

Pennaylvanioa (PotentiUa) 66 

Penailvanioaa ( Autbua) 180, 196 

Pentateraon fmteacena 78 

Peploidea (Honkeneya) 68 

oblongifolia (Honkeneya) 68 

Peregriuaa anatum (Faloo) 100,191 

( Aater) 69 

pealei (Faloo) 160,191 

Pereuia (Lupinua) 64 

(Swertia) 78 

Perenue (Llnom) 64 

Perforata (Parmelia) 85 

Poriaoreua caoadenaia fumifrona 187, 198 

Periatjiua bracteatua 77 

choriaaniia 77 

Perlata (Paimelia) 85 

Perapicillata (Oidomia) 137,188 

Perapicillatua (Phalaorooorax) 7,130,186 

Petra^a (Arabia) 62 

Petrocheiidon lunifrona 194 

Phalaorooorax dilophua olncinatoa 129,186 

pelagicna 129,186 

robuatua 180,186 

peraploillattu 7, 130 

urlle 130,186 

Phalaropoa lobataa 145,146,148, 188 

Phasianellaa (Pediocetea) 191 

Phegopteria dryopteria 82 

polypoidea 82 

Phlebophylla (Salix) 75 

Phlenm alpinam 81 

pratenae 81 

Philacte canagica 142,144,188 

PhiladelphiA (Larua) 126.188 

Phoca faaciata 206 

fcBtida 206 

grcenlandica 206 

vitulina 206 

Phocvna commnnia 200 

yomerina 200 

Phlox aibirica 72 

Phyllicoidea (Salix) 75 

Phyllodoce pallaaiana 71 

Phyllophora brodisBi — 85 

Phyllopaeuatea borealia 196 

Phyacia parietina 85 



DTDEX. 



221 



Physoia obsoara 85 

BteUaris M 

Phy seter macrocephalas 200 

Physodes (MerkU) 63 

Pica pica hadaonica 166, 103 

hadaonica (Pica) 166.193 

Picicorvos columbiauus 193 

PlooidM amerioanna 192 

alaacensis 166,192 

doTsalU 166,192 

Piotnt (GaloariM) 194 

Pileolata (Sylvania pnailla) 195 

PiUferam (Polytricham) 83 

Pilopboron adcnlare 85 

Toboatam 84 

Pilosa (Campanula) 70 

(Luzula) 78 

(Mertensia) 73 

Ptogaioola maoroeeraa 71 

microcoraa 71 

▼illoM 71 

TulKaris 71 

Pinicol a en iioleator 168, 193 

Pinnscembra 76 

oontoiia 76 

inops 76 

Plaoodium elegane 85 

Plantago macrooarpa 74 

mi^or 74 

maritima 74 

media ^ 74 

Platantbera dilatata 77 

koeniicil 77 

obtuea 77- 

achischmareffiana 77 

Platypetala (Gentiana) 72 

Platysma ouoollatum 85 

glaacum 85 

neptontrionale 85 

P1eb«t)nro (Britricbiam) 73 

Pleotropbenaz byperbofens 194 

nivalis 23,49.172,194 

nivalis townsendi 194 

Pleurogrammns monopterygius 96 

Plearogyne rotata 72 

Pleoronectea fflaoialis 88 

steilatas 87,88 

PUoata (OymnogronKTus) 85 

Plmneaa (CbAtApteris) 86 

felicina (Ptilota) 85 

Poa abbreviate 80 

annua 80 

arotioa 80 

oenisia 80 

flavicans 80 

nemoralis 80 

pratensis 80 

rotunda 80 

Btenantba 80 

Pogonatum alpinum 83 

atrovireos 83 

capillare 88 

oontortnm 83 

deutetnm 88 

Polaris (Astragalus) 64 

(Sallx) 75 

Polemonium c»mlenm 72 

pnlchellum 72 

reptans 72 

Polifolia (Andromeda) 71 

PoUicaris (Rissa tridactyla) 124,185 

Polydactyla(Peltigera)... 85 

Polyoarpum (Diorannm) 83 

Polygonum alpinum 74 

avicnlare 74 

polymorpbum lapatblfollum 74 



P»ge. 

Polygonum tiiptero-oarpom 74 

Tiviparum 74 

Poly worpba (Marcbantia) 84 

Polymorpbum (Bryum) 8t 

lapithifolium ( Polygonum) 74 

Polypodium valgare 82 

Polypoides (Pbegopteris) 82 

Polytricbnm cavifolium 83 

commune 84 

fonuoaum 83 

gracile 83 

Juniperinum 88,84 

strictnm 83 

pUiferum 83 

sexangulare 84 

Polystachyum (Eriopborum) 79 

Pomarinus (Stercorarins) 122,185 

Populus balsamifera 76 

Potemogeton natans 77 

mfeacens 77 

PotentiUa anseiina 85 

biflora 65 

emarginata 66 

fruticosa 65 

nana 66 

nivea 65 

norvegica 65 

pal ust ris 65 

pennsylyanica \ 65 

vilosa 65 

Pratense Hordeum 79 

(Pbleum) 81 

Pratensis (Cardamine) 62 

(Poa) 80 

Primula nivalis 72 

(•tricte 72 

Prooumbens (Loiselearia) 7t 

(Sibbaldia) 65 

Procyonlotor 207 

Propinqua (Gentiana) 72 

ProAtrate ((3«ntiana) 72 

Pruinoiius ( Arotomys) 203 

Pseudivamica (Seuicio) 70 

Psiloantba (Dnpontia) 30 

Psitteculus (Cyolorrbyncbus) 119, 185 

Psoroma bypnorum 85 

Ptermiea borealis 69 

sibirioa 69 

speoiosa 69 

Pterls argentea 83 

aquilina 82 

Ptilocnemis (Tringa) 189 

Ptilote asplenoides 85 

Plumoaa fllioina 85 

Ptycborampbus aleuticns 119,185 

Pnbens (Saml>nons) 68 

Pubescen8(I>ryobates) 166,192 

Puffinus tennirostris 129,186 

Pulchellum (Mulgedium) .- 76 

(Polemonium) 72 

Pnlmonacea (Stiote) 86 

Punctata (Saxifk«ga) 67 

Punctatum (Hninm) 83 

Punctatus (Octopus) 113 

(Sticbsus) 93 

Pungitins braebypoda (Gasterostens) — 87 

Purpurascens (Calamagrostis) 80 

Purpurea (Cardamine) 62 

PurpareuB (Ceratodon) 83 

Pursbii (Ranunculus) 61 

PusUla (Sylvania) 178,195 

pileolate (Sylrauia) 195 

Pusillns (Slmorhyncbus) 120,185 

Pu toriu s erm inea 208 

vison 207 

vulgaris 308 



222 



IBDBZ. 



hmn 



t 



I 






a.1 



alte 



CI 

s 



dorsM 



71 
Tl 

n 

Tl 

71 
lA.ITf.193 
.... 1«!.:7* 
.... 1®. 17* 
17V 
.... 1A.1T<» 
.... 1A.:7« 



iSftixxi 

tUrMft* 

B»cbAri»peti Boykniai .... 
Kiparia iCavifeu«*# 



nr. 



tjUpoil 
Bnmlu« (Hjpaaaif 








IM 



«3 
e3 

ss 

111 

a? 

c 
Ska 

M 

S7 
€1 
U 

o 




7! 



Tl 

7S 



Sabttft ancCKv*. 



Kab^J^ Fm^^la 






CI 

CI 

i-a^iic 



.Tw«i..ii 



a»l 



zS'^t^': 



Lai 



• • 



PC 



St^s-tnu* 



T4 






£T-««»ai.T»' 









iwA- 



m 

75 
e4 

S 
75 



s6 









7t 

n 



INDEX. 



223 






§ 

c 

A 



Page. 

SallxoordaU 75 

maokeDsiaDA 75 

glacialis 75 

glaaoa 7i 

lappouicam 75 

myrsinites •. 75 

myrtilloldes 75 

ovalifolia 75 

pallaaii 75 

oboordata 75 

pblebopbylla 75 

phylliooides 75 

polaris 76 

retioalata 75 

rhamnifolia 75 

lichardaoni 75 

rotundifolia 75 

•itchenftU 76 

Bpeoiosa 75 

ava-nni 75 

vagants 75 

SalsnginosuB (Aater) 69 

galveliniu malnul 104,105 

Sambuclfulia (Pynu) 65 

Sarobuoua pabenn 68 

Saacti-Johannia ( Arcbibateo lagopas) 158, 191 

Sandwicbensia alaudinus ( Ammodramos) 173, 194 

( AmmodramaB) 173, 194 

Saoguiaorba oaiiadenaia 65 

Sarmentoaa (Alectoria ocbroleaoa) 85 

(Claytonia) 66 

Saaanrea alpina 70 

aubainaata 70 

Satrapa olivaceaa (Begulna) 196 

(Regulus) 196 

Saturatior (Colaptoa oafer) 102 

Saxati1i« (Carex) 79 

(Parmelia) 85 

Saxioola <Bnanthe 196 

SaxifragaaDdroaacea 07 

argnta 07 

bronohialia 66 

cemua 07 

ceapitoaa 07 

davarica 67 

eacbaoholtaii 66 

exarata 67 

exilis 67 

flagellaria 66 

heieranthera 67 

hieraclfolla 67 

bircalua 66 

leucantbemifoUa 66 

nltida 66 

nelaoniana 67 

niyalia 67 

nndicaalia 67 

oppoaitifolia 66 

punctata .• 67 

tiviilaria 67 

aerpillifolia 66 

aiblrlca 67 

aUeniflora 67 

apicata 67 

tricuapidata 66 

8aya (Sayornia) 166,192 

Hayorniaaaya 166,192 

Soapania nomeroaa 84 

Scbeuchzeri (Eriopboroni) 78 

Sobfenopraaam (AUiam) 78 

SchiacbmareflBana (Platantbera) 77 

Scbraderi (Dienumm) 83 

Schreberi (Hypnum) 84 

Setrpaa osBapltoaa 78 

B3'lyatiooa 78 

Boiaioptema voluoella badaonina 204 



Page. 

Solaroa bndaoniaa badaonina 208 

Sooleoophagua carollnua 168,198 

Soolopacena (Maororbampbna) 146,189 

Sooparinm (Diorannm) 83 

Soorbicnlata (StioU) 85 

Scoticnm (Lignaticnm) 67 

Secunda (Pyrola) 71 

Sednm rb odiola 66 

Seiuma anrocapUlua 195 

noveboracenaia 178, 195 

Selaginella apinoaa 81 

Selago (Lycopodlum) 81 

Semipalroata (iBgialitia) -. 150,190 

Senicio anreoa 70 

Mgidna 70 

bookeri 70 

lagena 70 

palufltria 70 

paeudo-amica 70 

reaedifolia 70 

triangularia 70 

Septentrionale (Platyama) .'. 85 

Septentrioualta (Androaaoe) 72 

(Caatilloja) 73 

(Parna atrioapillua) 196 

Serpena (Hypnani) 84 

Serpyilifolla (Saxifraga) 66 

(Veronica) 78 

SeroUna (Lloydia) 77 

Serrator (Merganaer) 131,187 

(Tayloria) 83 

SorulaU (Weiaia) 82 

Seaqniionim (Trisetum) 80 

Sexangulare (Polytricbnm) 84 

Sbiatiaagaa (Larna) 186 

Sibbaldia procunibena 65 

Sibirica (Claytonla) 66 

(Iria) 77 

(Mertenaia) 78 

(Pblox) 72 

(Ptormica) 69 

(Saxifraga) 67 

Sibiricua (Aater) 69 

(Elymna) 79 

m^or (Parna) 182 

(Parna) 182 

Signifer (Tbymallna) 104 

Silene acaulia 63 

SUenlflora (Saxifraga) 67 

Simorbyncbna criatatellna 91,119,185 

puaillua i 120,185 

pygmena 120, 185 

Sinnatna (Corvna corax) 167,198 

Sinnoaa (Deieaaerla) 65 

Sipbagonua barbatna 94 

Siaymbrinm aopbia aophioidea 62 

Siayrincbium bermndiana 77 

bermndiannm aucepa 77 

Sitobenae (Lycopodiuin) 81 

Sitcheuaia (Abiea) 76 

(Alloaoma) 82 

(Bromna) 80 

(Boniansoffla) 78 

(Salix) 76 

(Viola biflora) 63 

Smilaciua bifolia 77 

liplia occldentalia 77 

Snow 28 

Socialia (Spiaella) 174,194 

Soil 14 

Solidago oonfertiflora 69 

▼irga-aurea 69 

Solltarlna (Totanua) 189 

Soniateria.apectabilia 187,168 

v-nigra 136,188 

Somnloana miorocephalna 112 



224 



INDEX. 



SoDoriensis (Hespeioni^'s leooopae) 204 

Sophia aopbioides (SiBymbriam) 62 

Sorex cooperi 205 

forsieri 205 

Bphajoiioola 205 

Spadlcea (Luxala) 78 

parvlflora ( Lu sala) 78 

Sparganinm natans 76 

Bparveriaa (Faloo) 101 

Spatnla clypeata 133,187 

Specioaa (Ptannica) 69 

(Sallx) 76 

Speotabllis (Rubos) : 66 

(Somateria) 187,188 

Spergula arvensia 63 

rubra 63 

saginoidea 63 

Sp«nnopbil0' 7 

Spermophilns empetra emp^etra 203 

kadiaoensis 203 

Spberionm (SpLaohnam) 83 

Sphaeropboron ooralloides 84 

fragile 84 

Spbagnioola (Sorex) 205 

Sphagnam acatifolinm 82 

caapidatam recarvam 82 

cymbifolium 82 

flmbriatam H2 

teres 82 

Splachnam sphoricmn 83 

vaaculoeatn ' 83 

Spleodenii (Hypnnm) 84 

SpicaDt (BleohDum) 82 

(Lomaria) 82 

Splcata (Elyna) 79 

(Lnzula) 78 

(Saxlfraga) 67 

Spinoaa <Selagint>lla) 81 

SplDDloaum dilatatum (Aapidimn) 82 

Spinea aniDcas .' 64 

betalifolia 64 

pectiData ^ 64 

saliolfolia 64 

Spiranthea romanaoffiana 77 

Spizella montfcola ochraoea 174, 194 

aocialia 174.194 

Sqaalaa acantbiaa 112 

Sqaarrosam (Hypnum) 84 

Squatarola (Charadriua) .. 190 

Statlce armeria 74 

Stellaria borealia 63 

oriapa 63 

crasaifolia 63 

humifaaa 63 

loDgifolia 63 

longipea 68 

media 63 

nliginosa 63 

Stellaria (Phyacla) 85 

Stellate (Draba) 62 

Stellatna (Pleuronectea) 87,88 

(Raboa) 65 

Htelleriana (Caaaiope) 71 

Stelleri (Cyanocitte) 193 

Stellcri (Enioonetta) 135,187 

(Bnmetopiaa) 98,206 

(Gymnandra) 74 

(Veronica) 78 

Stellnlate (Garex) 79 

Stenantha Tivipera (Glyceria) 80 

(Poa) 80 

SteDodua macic enzli 103 

Stenoloba (Draba) 62 

Stereocanlon paachale 86 

tomentoauin 85 

Sterna alentica 127,186 



Page. 

Sterna paradiana -. 137,128,186 

Stercoranaa loDgicaadua 128,165 

paraalticua 128,165 

pomarlnaa 122,185 

Stichsoa panotetua 98 

Sticte palmonacea 85 

aoorbicnlata 85 

Stokeaii (Hypuum) 84 

Stolonifera (Comus) 68 

Stolonifenun (Hypnum myoaaroidea) 84 

Stratua 29 

Strepera (Anaa) 181,187 

Streptopua ampiexifoliaa 77 

roaeua 77 

StrUta (Dendroica) 178,195 

Striatulna (Acoipiter atricapiUoa) 187,191 

Stricte (Carox) 79 

(Primala) 72 

Strict um (Polytricham J aniperinum) ....: 83 

Strigoaa (Calamajeroatia) 80 

Sfcrigoaom (Hypnom) 64 

Strongylocentrataa drdbachlenaia 126 

Styloaa (Carex) 79 

SnbarcticaB (Babo virglnianua) 162, 191 

Snbnnda (Pedicalaria) 78 

Subruflcollia (Trj'ngitea) 188 

Sabainaata (Saaaurea) 70 

Subapicatam (Triaetnm) 80 

Subulate Feataca 80 

Subulatna (Bromna) 80 

Suckleji (Faloo oolumbariua) 191 

Sudetica (Pedicularia) 78 

Snecica (Comua) 68 

(Cyanecnla) 196 

Suuaet ahadowa 81 

Supercilioaua (Hoxagrammna) 96 

Snrinamenaia (Hydrochelidon nigra) 186 

Surface currente 81,32,88 

Sumianlula 168,192 

oaparoob 164,102 

Swainaoni (Buteo) 191 

Swainaonii (Turdaa uatulatua) 188,196 

Swertia perennis 72 

obtnaa 72 

Sylvania puaiUa 178,196 

pileolate 105 

Sylvatica (Calamagroatia) 80 

(Cladonia) 84 

(Myoaotia) 78 

Sylvatioum (Eqniaetnm) 81 

Sylvaticua (Soirpua) 78 

Symplocarpua kamtachatious 76 

Synaptoraya cooperi 204 

Syntbliboramphua antiquua 120,185 

wumisuaume 185 

T. 

Tachycinote bicolor 177, 194 

Tflbnioptema (Cottua) •. 94 

Tahitienaia (Nnroeniua)* 190 

TanacetDm huronenae 69 

kotzebuenaia. ^ 69 

Tarandua (Rangifer) 202 

caribou (Rangifer) 203 

grcenlandioua (Rangifer) 202 

Taraxacum dena-leonlfl 70 

var. ceratophomm 70 

lyratnm 70 

paluatre 70 

Tarterioa frigida (Lecanora) 85 

Tayloria serrate 88 

Tellima grandiflora 86 

Teloxya ariatete 76 

Temperature 27 

Tenella (Geutiana) 72 

(Fimbraria) '. M 



INDEX. 



225 



Tenfi:malini richajdaoni (Nyctale) . . 

TenairostriB (Pnffinas) 

TephrocoUs littoralia (Leucosticte) 

Teres (Sphagnam) 

Tematam (Botrychiom) 

Tetragona (CaMlope) 

TetragODDm (EpUobiam) 

Tetrahit (Galeopais) 

Tetraplodon mnioides 

Tetrapoma pyriforme 

Tetrophis pellucida 

Thalictnim alpiniim 

Thamnolia vemiiciilare 

Thu^ja excolaa 

ThymalluH sigDifer 

TiareUa trifoliata 

Tides 

Tileaia gracilis 

Tilesli (vulgaris artomesiH) 

TUiacea (ParmeUa) 

Timldus (Lepus) 

Tofloldia borealis 

ooocinea 

glntinosa 

Toroedtosum (Stereocaoloo) 

Torquatas (Cumculas) 

Totanus tlavipes 

melanol«*aous 

solitarias 

Townsendi (Dendroica) 

'Plectrophenax nivalis) 

Triandrus (Juncns xiphioldes) 

Triangularis (Senicio) 

Tricopbylla (Jangermannla) 

Trionspidata (Saxifraga) 

Tridactyla poUioaris (Rissa) 

Trientalis eurapsea 

arctica 

Trifldum (GaUium) 

Trlfolia (Coptis) , 

Trifoliata (Menyanthes) 

(Tiarella) 

Triilonim (Galliom) 

Trifolinm repens 

Trigloohin inaritimum 

palostre 

Triloba (Hepatioa) 

Tringa acuminata 

alpina paciflca 

balrdil 

canntas 

ooaesi 

damaoensis 

fsmginea 

fosoiooUls 

macalafta 

maritima 

minntiUa 

pUloonemis 

Tripterocarpom (Polygomun) 

Triqnetram (Hypnom) 

Trisetnm oemidam 

aeaquiflorum 

snbsploatiim .. . 

Triate (Hieradam) 

Tritlonin np«ns 

Trochilas niftia 

Troglodytes alaaoenaia 

hiemalis pacificiis 

Troile callfomica (tJrla) 

T nrceolatna 



Tryngltea sabmficollis ...... 

TnrdusalioiA 

aonalaacbkB 

ustnlatas 

• swainsonli. 

S. Mis. 155- 



P»ge. 

162,192 

120.180 

193 

8S 

82 

71 

66 

74 

88 

82 

83 

61 

85 

76 

104 

68 

38 

00 

60 

85 

205 

78 

78 

78 

85 

204 

148,180 

180 

180 

196 

104 

78 

70 

84 

06 

124,186 

72 

\ 

61 

72 

68 

68 

64 

77 

77 

61 

180 

147, 180 

180 

146,18 

147. 180 

180 

180 

180 

147, 180 

180 

180 

180 

74 

84 

80 

80 

80 

70 

70 

102 

181,105 

105 

122,185 

83 

180 

188,196 

106 

106 

188.106 



P»ge. 

Targidnm (Anlaoomnion)..... 88 

Taraeri (Lyoodes) 08 

TwIUgbt curves 85 

r. 

Uliginosa (Stollaria) 68 

Uliginosum (Vaocinium) 71 

Ulota barclayi 88 

Ulnla caparoch (Snmia) 164,102 

cinerea 161,162,102 

lapponica 162,102 

Ulnla (Snmia) 168,102 

Umbelloides (Bonasa umbellns) 152, 190 

Umbelliis umbelloides (Bonasa) 152, 190 

Cnalaschcensis (Pdsaerella iliaca) |94 

Unalascbkensis (Arnica) 70 

(Comus) 08 

Unalascbkensis (RomausofBa) 73 

Unalasbkonsis (Uirundo) 177 

Unalaschkiana (Draba) 62 

Uncialis (Cladonia) 84 

Uncinatum mi^us (Hypnum) 84 

Undulatum (Hypnum) 84 

Uuiflora (Campanula) 70 

Unlflorum (Erigeron) 60 

Upsalensin (Lecanora pallescens) 85 

Uralensis (Oxytropns) 64 

Uroeolatus (T ) 83 

Uria lomvia arra 122,185 

troile californica : 122,185 

Urile (Pbalacrocorax) 180,186 

Urinator adamsii 115,184 

•rcUcus 116^184 

iniber % 115,186 

lamme 116,184 

paciflcos 116.184 

Ursinus (Callorhinus) 46,206 

Ursos Americanns 206 

horribilis a07 

richardsoni 207 

Urticadioica 76 

Ustulatus swainaonii (Turdus) 183, 106 

(Turdos) 106 

U vnlaria amplexifolia 77 

Uva-ursi ( Arotostaphylos) 71 

(Salix) 75 

V. 

Vaccinium cjsspltosttm 71 

cbamissonis 71 

myrtUlos 71 

myrtilloidea 71 

ovalifoliom 71 

parvif olinm 71 

salieinom 71 

uUginosom 71 

vitiaidea 70 

YaganU (Sallx) 75 

Yaginatom (Briophorum) 78 

Valeriana eapitata 68 

dioioa 68 

Yallaneria (Aythya) 187 

Yanellus vandlns 100 

(Yanellna) 100 

Yaaoulosnm (Splaohnnm) 88 

Yegetatian 15 

Yelox (Aoclpiter) 156,160.101 

Yenoaa (Peltigara) 85 

Yeratmm eaehacholtsii 7d 

Yermiculare (ThamnoUa) 85 

Yema(Hlrtaarenaria) 68 

Yenmioa alpina 78 

americana 78 

anagalUa 78 

beccabanga 78 

aerpylUfolia 78 



29