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Full text of "Contributions to the ecclesiastical history of Essex County, Mass."

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CONTRIBUTIONS 



THE ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY 



ESSEX COUNTY. MASS. 



PREPARED AND I'UISLISHKD UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE ESSEX 
NORTH ASSOCIATION. 



BOSTON: 

CONGREGATIONAL BOARD OF PUBLICATION, 

13 CORNHILL. 

1865. 



wiNTHi;i>r rn?:s.s. (AMnniixn: 

ALLEN A>D PARMIAM. 




PREFATORY ^'()TE. 



The object of this volume is to collect, and jait into a more 
])ermanent form, for preservation, such materials for an Ecclesi- 
astical History of Essex North, as were accessible. These mate- 
rials have been "gathered from various sources ; and as the work 
has been done by diiferent persons, with little opportunity of mutual 
consultation, it must necessarily lack the unity which a single 
mind would have given it. Sketches of the members of the Min- 
isters' Meeting were also prepared, but omitted for want of space. 

In that part of the volume relating to the churches, no attempt 
has been made to bring down the history later than 1861. 

Acknowledgments of indebtedness are hereby gratefully made 
to the Annals of Dr. Sprague, the Manuscript Sketches of Mr, 
Sibley, Librarian of Harvard University, and also to the numerous 
friends who have so cheerfully aided, by their contributions and 
suggestions, in the compilation of the volume. 

NEWiiURYPOKT, Uctober, 1864. 



CONTENTS. 



ACC0U\T OF THE CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY. Bv ReV. J. Pilce, 



PAGE 
1 



11. 



History of the Association. By Rev. S. J. Spalding, 

Early Ministerial Associations, . 

Ministers' Meeting, ..... 

Haverhill Association, .... 

Essex North Association, .... 

Original Declaration, .... 

Revised Rules, ..... 

Questions to be proposed in the examination of Candidates, 

The Association to act as a Council, . 

Approbation of Candidates for tlie Ministry, 

-Exercises of the Association, .... 

Religious Publications, .... 

Action on Slavery, ..... 
Temperance, .... 
The Sabbath, .... 

Formation of the Conference, 

Tables, 

Members of Ministers' Meeting, . 

Candidates approbated by the Ministers' Meeting, 

Members of the Haverhill Association, 

Candidates approbated by the Haverhill Association, 

Members of the Essex North Association, 

Candidates approbated by the Essex North Association, 



9 
13 
19 
24 
25 
32 
33 
35 
36 
39 
41 
43 
45 
45 
46 
52 
52 
52 
53 
53 
54 
54 



III. 



Sketches of Members, 

Jedediah Jewett, 
James Chandler, . 



57 

57 
59 



CONTENTS. 



Moses Hale, 

Moses Parsons, 

Thomas Hibbert, 

George Leslie, 

John Cleavclanrl, 

Oliver Noble, 

Christopher Britl£;e Marsh, 

Joseph Dana, 

David Ta])i)an, 

Levi Frisliie, 

Samuel Si>rina', 

Daniel Breek, 

True Kiiiihall, 

Ehenezer Bradford, 

Ebenezcr Dutch, 

Elijah Parish, 

Asahel Huntington, 

Andrew Bcattie, . 

Leonard Woods, 

Abraham Moor, . 

Isaac Braman, 

David TuUar, 

David Tenny Kimball, 

Thomas Holt, 

James Miltimore, 

William Baleh, . 

James WakeHeld Tucker, 

Benjamin Sawver. 

John Kirby, 

Leonard Within<j,ton, 

Willard Holbrook, 

Gardner Braman Perry, 

Luther Frascur Dimniick, 

Rodney Gove Dennis, 

Elijah Demond, 

William Ford, 

Henry Clarke Wrijiht, 

Daniel Fitz, 

Paul Couch, . 

Peter Sidney Eaton, 

Isaac Richmond Barbour, 

John Charles March, 

John Quincy Adams Edgcll, 

Abijah Cross, 

Joseph Whittlesey, 

Henry Durant, 

Benjamin Ober, 

Joseph Hardy Town, 

James Ro3'al Gushing, 

Samuel Howland Peckham, 



CONTENTS. 


IX 


Nathan Monroe, . . . 


165 


Seth Harrison Keeler, ..... 


16tt 


Randolph Campbell, ...••• 


168 


James Brj^ant Hadley, ..... 


169 


Lucius Watson Chirk, ..... 


169 


Edward Alexander Lawrence, .... 


171 


Charles Moulson Brown, ..... 


172 


Samuel Hill Merrill, ..... 


. 173 


Anson Sheldon, ...... 


174 


Jonathan Frencli Stearns, . . 


. 174 


John Pike, ....... 


175 


Henrj^ Augustus Woodman, .... 


. 176 


Enoch Pond, Jr., . 


177 


Henry Boynton Smith, ..... 


. 179 


John Phelps Cowles, ...... 


180 


Benjamin Franklin Hosford, .... 


. 182 


Honitio Merrill, . . . • 


184 


Calvin Emmons Park, ..... 


. 185 


John Moor Prince, ...... 


186 


Daniel Taggart Fisk, ..... 


. 187 


David Oliphant, ...... 


187 


Albert Paine, ...... 


189 


Wales Lewis, ....... 


190 


.John Edwards Emerson, .... 


190 


Francis Vergnies Tenny, 


191 


Elam Jewett Comings, ..... 


. '192 


Rufus King, ....... 


193 


James Monroe Bacon, ..... 


. 194 


Samuel Jones Spalding, ..... 


195 


Leonard Stickney Parker, .... 


. 196 


Asa Farwell, ....... 


197 


David Webster Pickard, ..... 


199 


James Tomb McCoUom, ..... 


200 


Leander Thompson, ..... 


. 202 


Davis Foster, ....... 


203 


William Greenough Thayer Shedd, 


. 203 


Herman Rowlee Timlow, . . . . . 


205 


Alexander Crocker Childs, .... 


. 206 


' Thomas Doggett, ...... 


207 


Charles Dickinson Herbert, .... 


^ . 208 


Charles Beecher, ...... 


208 


Abraham Burnham, ..... 


. 210 


George Washington Finney, . . . . . 


210 


Charles Brooks, ...... 


. 211 


John Rogers Thurston, . . . ■ . 


212 


Timothy D wight Porter Stone, . 


. 212 


Elias Cornelius Hooker, . . . . , 


214 


James Cruickshanks, ..... 


. 214 


Raymond Hoyt Seeley, . . . . . 


215 


P>lward William Hooker, .... 


. 216 



CONTENTS 



IV. 



DlSCOCKSE RELATING TO THE ChCRCHES AND RELIGIOUS HiSTORY OF 

Essex North. By Rev. D. T. Fiske, 

Local Boimclaries of Essex North, 
Extinct Churches, 

The Fifth Church in Newliury, 

The First Church in Salishury, 

The First Church in Amesbury, . 

The Church at Parker River ViUage, 

The Winter St. Churdi, Haverhill, 
Churches Denominationally Extinct, . 

The First Church in Newl)uryport, 

The First Church in Haverhill, 
Other Denominations, 

Quakers, 

Episcopalians, 

Presbyterians, . 

Baptists, .... 

Unitarians, 

Christians, 

Methodists, 

Univcrsalists, 

Free Will Baptists, 

Second Adventists, 

Roman Catholics, 
Number of Ministers and Length of Pastorates, 
Aimual Additions to the Churches, . 
Whitfield and The Great Awakening, 
Decadal Review of the Century, 
Ancient Customs, ....... 

A Pastor must be a member of his Churcli and subject to its 
discipline, .... 

Reading the Scriptures in Church, 

Pastor and Teacher, 

Length of Sabbath Services, 

Singing, .... 

Expense of supidying Sacramental Table, 

Sermons read Sabbath Noon, 

Days of Fasting, .... 

Social religious Meetings, 
Parish Laws and Ministerial Support, 
The Half- Way Covenant, 

Theological Peculiarities, .... 

Appendix. — Table of Annual Additions to the Churches, 



CONTENTS. 



XI 



V. 



Sketches of the Churches, 



296 



Amesbury Mills, ...... 


296 


Amesbury West, ..... 


. 298 


Amesbury and Salisbury, ..... 


301 


Boxford West, ...... 


. 303 


Bradford, ....... 


30.5 


Georgetown, ...... 


. 308 


Groveland, . . . . 


311 


Haverhill, Centre Church, .... 


, 317 


Haverhill East, ...... 


320 


Haverhill, North Church, .... 


. 322 


Haverhill West, ...... 


324 


Ipswich, First Church, • . . . . 


. 331 


Ipswich, Second Church, ..... 


335 


Ipswich-Linebrook, ..... 


. 338 


Newbury, First Church, ..... 


340 


Newbury-Byfield, ..... 


. 34.5 


Newburyport, Belleville Church, .... 


350 


Newburyport, Fourth Church, .... 


354 


Newburyport, North Ciiurch, ..... 


362 


Newburyport, Whitfield Church, .... 


. 363 


Rowley, ...... 


367 


Salisbury, Second Church, .... 


. 373 


West Newbury, First Church, .... 


375 


West Newbury, Second Church, ... 


. 381 



VI. 



Essay — Vibrations in Theology. By Rev. L. Withington, D. D. 



386 



ERRATPiM. ~- Page 8, line 1, for " The logical term," read " The logical yen 



CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY 



THE ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION 



BY REV. JOHN PIKE, ROWLEr. 



The Essex North Association has, within a few years, been grievously 
afflicted in the loss of valued members. Messrs. Braraan, Perry, Kim- 
bal, and Holbrook, who knew very much of its early character, passed 
aAvay within a few months of each other, and before a Centennial gather- 
ing was contemplated. The books passed into the hands of others, 
who, in looking over them carefully, found that we were nearing the day 
which would complete the first century of the Association. They commu- 
nicated the fact, and the following arrangements were made : 

April 17, 1860. As the Centennial of the Association will occur 
September 8, 1861, Brothers Spalding, Fiske, and Thurston are appointed 
a Committee to consider and recommend some plan for the proper observ- 
ance of the event, who reported the following, which was adopted : 

1. A Discourse, giving a History of the Association. 

2. A Discourse, giving Sketches of the Churches of the Association. 

3. A Social Reunion. 

To carry out this plan, it is recommended that the pastors commence 
at once the collection of material for the histories of their different 
churches, which histories shall contain an account of their formation, their 
original confessions of faith ; biographies of their different pastors, their 
places and times of birth ; names of parents, places, and times of ordina- 
tion, etc. These historical accounts to be completed as early as January 
1, 1861. 

Brother Spalding was appointed to w^ite the History of the Associ- 
ation. 

Brother Fiske was appointed to write the History of the churches. 

Brother Withington, Dimmick, Spalding, Fiske, and Thurston were 
appointed a general Committee of arrangements. 

1 



2 CKNTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY. 

April 17, 18G1. A special Committee was appointed to consider the 
time of holding the Centennial of the Association, and the best method 
of conducting the same. This Committee consisted of Brothers Pike, 
Withington, Fiske, and Spalding, who selected the 15th of October as 
the day for the celebration. 

October 15, 18G1. Voted, — That a Committee of three be appointed 
to draw up an account" of the exercises of the day. Brothers Pike, 
Hosford, and McCollom were chosen said Committee. 

The following account of the Centennial Celebration was drawn up by 
the Chairman of the Committee, Rev. John Pike. 

The fifteenth day of October, 1861, will be memorable in the history 
of Rowley and the surrounding region. It was one of the loveliest days 
that ever lightened the world. Every one that has a memory left for 
pleasant things, will recollect our blue Italian sky, the thin mists hang- 
ing on the edge of the horizon, the first falling leaves of autumn, the 
groves adorned wath the rich hues of ripened leaves, the gardens in the 
choice beauty of those later flowers which are the richest ornament of 
the year. Had we chosen for ourselves from this or other years, we 
could hardly have selected a day or scene into which so many beauties 
were crowded. 

It was not the beauty of the day, however, that animated our rural 
town, on the morning of the fifteenth. The chann was, that it was a 
memorial of those distant days, when they, of whom the world was not 
worthy, gathered to prepare themselves to be more useful to the churches, 
which God had committed to their care. The venerable men realized 
the truth of the saying, " iron shai'peneth iron, so a man sharpeneth the 
countenance of his friend." Doubtless, much of that devout and intelli- 
gent thought which marked our earlier churches, was due to the earnest 
struggles they had, while comparing their views of truth, and pleading 
unitedly with God. It is well to remember them. The welcome 
which the people of Rowley gave the Essex North Asociation, was 
not a mere form. They reverenced in their hearts those patriarchal 
servants of God, who had gone to their i;est ; and so they heartily 
w^elcomed those who most nearly represented them among the living. 
The first meeting of our Association may have excited little interest be- 
yond the quiet dwelling in which it was formed ; but the meeting which 
commemorated it, moved the mind and hearts of hundreds to welcome 
those who succeed the fathers, and carry along their religion. 

The public services were in the Congregational Church. The intro- 
ductory prayer of the morning, l)y Rev. Mr. Edgell, that previous to the 
sermon by Rev. Dr. Withington, the one succeeding it by Rev. Mr. 
Campbell, and those of the afternoon by Rev. Dr. Shedd, and Rev. Mr. 



CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY. O 

Olipliant, most happily led us to the consideration of that past memorable 
history of the Association, which God had so kindly directed ; to that 
care for religious truth and heavenly devotion which had marked it ; to 
that steadfastness for the faith, and that spiritual life which mark it still ; 
to tliat hope that it will be preserved as the bond of congenial minds and 
hearts, and make the ministry more effective in the future than any soli- 
tary working could make it. The singing by the choir might safely be 
considered a model. It was free from the lightness and display which, 
if common, are for that reason none the less unappropriate and irreverent. 
Some of the favorite old tunes were selected and sung, with the ancient 
enthusiasm. Lenox, Majesty, and the like, may have gone forth in other 
days with more abundant voices, but never with those which were sweeter. 
It is hardly needful to comment upon the sermons. They will be printed 
with this, and speak for themselves. Suffice it to say, that their worthy 
authors never had a more respectable audience, — never kept one longer, 
— never exhibited more faithful research, — never were more deserving 
of the thanks of the dead, whose memory they served to keep alive, and 
of- the living whom they helped make more worthy to be remembered, 
when future Centennials shall come. 

One of the most interesting services was at the decline of the day. 
The sun set upon the day as pleasantly as it rose. And as it was going 
down amid glories that seemed like opening the gate of heaven, we went 
together to the old pai-sonage, made acceptable to heaven and precious to 
the earth, by the many who had filled it with their prayers and praises. 
The wonderful scene, as we stood under the old elm tree, with its autum- 
nal beauties glowing in the descending sunlight, and that in the room 
where the pastors had so often met, can never be described. It was one 
of those rare occasions, which will grow more vivid as we pass along ; will 
be the last lost amid the decays of nature ; and among the first to revive, 
as we enter the gates of the Kingdom of Heaven. Rev. John Pike was 
chosen moderator, and votes were passed expressing our sympathy with 
the occasion ; our thanks that those who had it in charge had labored so 
faithfully to make it interesting ; our desire that the memorials be gath- 
ered together, and put into the form by which they shall be most likely 
to be preserved for those who keep the next Centennial Anniversary. 
Then was sung the Doxology in Old Hundred, — the memorial of the 
past, whose tones wei"e deepened by many voices, and by more sympa- 
thetic hearts — rising as it used to, when Jewett consecrated the man- 
sion, and perhaps ceasing not to rise, till it attracted the notice of those 
who once sang and prayed there, and inspired them more heartily to 
join in the song of Moses and the Lamb. 

The evening exercise only remained. It was a fit close of the joyous 



* CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARV. 

day. The clei-gy and their families met in the lower hall, at seven 
o'clock, with a few laymen, whose ministerial sympathies joined them 
closely to us. Among the most venerable of the last, was Joshua Jewett, 
deacon for more than fifty years of the Congregational Church, whose 
head a crown of glory, and benignant countenance kindled by the heaven 
he was approaching, will never be forgotten. The allusions which he 
made to death, as, at ninety-three years of age, he stood trembling over 
the grave, and to the next Centennial scene in which none of us could 
share, were a fit anticipation of that close of life so soon coming. A few 
months after this, he went up to mingle with the ministers of his youth, 
and to leave the pastor, who had often received Jiis blessing, the 
church and society, who had long enjoyed his counsels, and the village 
whose honors he had received, and whose families he had animated, 
deeply impressed with the idea that the loss was immense to earth, the 
gain great to heaven. In the moments of weakness and decay, and 
breath just departing, his pastor repeated the lines, — 

" There is a land of pure delight, 
Where saints immortal reign," 

he took up the remainder of the verse, and sang with the once beautiful 
voice with which he used to lead the choir, — 

" Infinite day excludes the night, 
And pleasures banish pain." 

At eight o'clock, the free and social communion of the evening was 
succeeded by special remarks for the benefit of all. The first sentiment 
given, was the following : 

The Clergy of Essex North, — They shine with an hereditary light in their 
fiecular sons, who, amidst the wranglings of the law, have not forgotten the pre- 
cepts of the Gospel. 

Hon. Asahel Huntington, of Salem, gave a happy sketch of the 
various clergymen of the association he had known in his boyhood. He 
was cordially welcomed by the later clergymen, who listened to him, and 
know his attachment to orthodox truth, and all who represent it. 

The second sentiment was, — 

Our aged brethren — whose white heads make them to be known — may 
they at length receive that white stone, in which is written the new name, 
which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it. 

Rev. Dr. Withington, of Newbury, responded to this. 

If he was the old man — it was the old man eloquent. He never 
spake more aptly and beautifully. His pictures of the past were life- 
like. He closed his sayings with the sentiment, — 



CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY. U 

The pastor of the flock, where an association early assembled together with 
his people — ^^ Furmnsi pecoris Ciisto.'i fonnodor Ij)se." Magic words, which 
we translate — the hospitable keeper of a hospitable people. 

Rev. John Pike, of Rowley, followed this sentiment with some re- 
marks upon the delicacy and faithfulness with which the translation was 
made, and certain reminiscences of the occasional mental encounters, and 
social interviews, which he had with Dr. Withington, so immensely his 
superior in every thing intellectual and social, and yet so genial, and 
truly his companion and friend. Whether his remarks added to the in- 
terest which the day brought, must be left for those who heard them, to 
say. 

The fourth sentiment was this, — 

Andover Seminary, — whatever storms may blow around her eminence, 
she must be safe, we think, beneath her protecting shed. 

Professor Shedd followed, with very pleasant remarks, acknowledging 
his deep interest in the Seminary, and the Association. We thought, 
then, that the influence of his original, cultivated, and devout mind, 
would be permanent for the Seminary, and the surrounding churches. 
The hope is passed. But we may still have a hope, that his successor 
will catch his mantle, and be in the Seminary, and in our Association, 
an enlightening and devout mind, such as Dr. Shedd has been during 
the many pleasant years of our intercourse. 

Some remaining moments were most happily filled with sentiments 
appropriate to the occasion, and remarks by Hon. Mr. Benson, of Win- 
throp, Maine, Rev. J. C. Fletcher, Rev. Dr. Worcester, and Dea. Joshua 
Jewett, to whom allusion has ali'eady been made. The free, social com- 
munion, was then resumed, enlivened by the ice cream and cake, which 
on such an evening was welcome. The moments were rapidly seized, 
to make firmer the friendship between the ministers and their families, 
who had never been socially together before. It was in those happy 
moments that the idea arose, which will be carried out in coming years, 
that there shall be'an annual gathering of the clergy and their wives, so 
that at the future great celebration, they may not have to meet each 
other as strangers. Two of these gatherings have taken place, the first 
at Rev. Mr. Farwell's, the second at Rev. Mr. Spalding's. 

The pleasantest scenes of earth and its happiest communions must 
close. Voices were occasionally heard around us, saying, " Arise, let us 
go hence." The hour of ten o'clock had arrived ; so we sang that won- 
derful hymn, — 

" Blest be the tie that binds, 
Our hearts in union sweet," 



6 CENTENNIAL ANNIA'ERSARY. 

and went out, never all to meet again till the last trump shall assemble 
the nations. 

It was as beautiful an evening as it had been day. The lesser light 
ruled the night, with the majesty that the greater had ruled the day- 
Many improved it, to go to their homes. Some remained to visit us in 
the morning, and abundantly to reward every toil, by saying, that noth- 
ing could well be added to the previous day, and nothing safely sub- 
tracted from it. So, we hope, it may be said by all. 

Rowley has rejoiced in the occasion. May it gratefully receive the 
clergy and their families as centuries go their rounds. May such bril- 
liant days, such brilliant, social, and religious services be often granted 
by Him, with whom one day is as a thousand years. And when the last 
is over, may the past and present ministry, and those who have listened 
to their voices, join in the gi*eat and eternal celebration, of which all that 
is pleasant and beautiful here is but the faint shadow. 

At the meeting in the venerable mansion of the former pastor, the 
Association voted, that a Committee of three be appointed to draw up 
an account of the exercises of the day. Brothers Pike, Hosford, and 
McCollom were chosen. 

After the social meeting in the hall, the thanks of the Association 
were voted to the Congregational Society, its pastor, and choir, for their 
cordial efforts to make the Centennial occasion happy in its arrange- 
ments, and the source of pleasant and grateful memories in the future. 

December 18, 1861. Brother Hosford pi*esented to the Association 
the following Resolutions, for a permanent record upon its books, which 
were adopted : 

The Essex North Association, desiring to express their feelings in 
regard to theii; recent Centennial at Rowley, more fully than they could 
be expressed in the ordinary record of their pi'oceedings, adopt this ad- 
ditional minute : 

Resolved, That w^e gratefully recognize the good hand of our God 
upon us, in having put it into our hearts to observe this occasion ; and 
in having kindly disposed the people, among whom the Association was 
first formed, to welcome it to their hospitaUties for the celebration of its 
first Centennial, thus deepening the peculiar interest of the occasion by 
vivid local Associations. 

Resolved, That our gratitude is due, and is hereby acknowledged, to 
Brothers Spalding and Fiske respectively, for their laborious, but cheer- 
ful researches into the history of this Association and of its churches ; 
for the candor and good sense shown in drawing out the strong points, 
and in enforcing the practical lessons of that history ; and for the Cath- 



CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY. * 

olic and Christian spirit, which, breathing through those discourses, 
awakened the same spirit in us. 

Resolved, That it is exceedingly desirable that these Discourses be 
printed, and thus the important facts they contain be secured for the 
future. 

That we recognize the special love of the Great Head, in his having 
kept all the churches of this Association, with two exceptions, upon " the 
foundation of the Prophets and Apostles, Jesus Christ being the chief 
Corner Stone," during the popular Unitarian Apostasy, and that this fact 
strengthens our confidence in His loving care of them for the future. 

That, standing as we did on that day, between the past and the future, 
the one furnishing us subduing memories, and the other inspiriting 
hopes ; we appreciated, as never before, our high calling as ministers of 
Christ and his church ; the value of the precious trust handed down to 
us by the Fathers, and our sacred responsibility to Christ's people, who 
will come after us, to transmit this trust to them unimpaired and unen- 
cumbered. 

Freely have we received ; freely let us give. 

That we hope and confidently expect that "Jesus Christ, the same 
yesterday, to-day, and forever," will have faithful churches and ministers 
in this valley to celebrate the next Centennial of this Association ; and 
in this faith, we, their fathers in the order of time, but brethren in spirit, 
do hereby record for them our fraternal Christian greetings and bene- 
diction — an unembodied, but cordial right hand of fellowship — to be 
transmitted by them, together with their own, to their successors, and so 
on, a swelling tide of love, blessing, and power, until our Lord shall 
come. 

Voted, That Dr. Withington be requested to prepare, for the volume 
to be published by the Association, " An Essay, on the relations of Cal- 
vinism and Hopkinsianism in the History of the Churches." 

Voted, That the matter of the Church History be left to Brother 
Fiske's direction. 



THE 



HISTORY OF THE ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION.^ 



BY REV. S. J. SPALDING, KEWBURYPORT. 



The logical term of Congregationalisra is love. This principle devel- 
ops primarily a simple brotherhood ; and, but for personal ambition and 
the love of power, this would be its ultimate and only expression. 
Church establishments and denominational peculiarities are rendered 
necessary by an imperfect spiritual life. The highest, purest, and best 
Christian feeling invariably chrystallizes in a true communion of saints. 
In the revulsion from the arbitrary uniformity of the Established Church 
of England, the Puritans, as was natural, passed into the extreme of 
independency. This was the prevailing type of the Puritan polity until 
the time of Cromwell. From that period onward there was a recession 
from extreme views, slowly at first, but more rapidly as the necessity of 
reconstruction and unity was felt by the churches. But it is noticeable 
that this recession was not at all in the line of established authority, but 
entirely in that of fraternity and fellowship. Among those earlier 
churches there was no expressed law of comity — each church took to 
itself all the functions which are now shared by a number ; the member- 
ship organized without consultation with other churches ; it ordained its 
pastors, and approved candidates for the ministry ; nor was the ordina- 
tion by one church deemed binding on another. While these elements 
of Puritanism were in this unsettled and somewhat plastic state, the 
planting of New England began ; and from 1 630, ten years after the 
landing of the Pilgrims, the gradual development of the Congregational 
polity becomes distinct. Congregationalism, as understood in New Eng- 
land, is not an exotic, but it came up with the growth of the colonies. 
And it is evident that the founders of our churches were aware of their 
work, and of its importance in the future history of the country. Their 
appeal is not to authority, but to the Scriptures; and their aim and study 

^ A Centennial Discourse, preaclied at Rowley, Oct. 15, 1861. 



MIXISTEPaAL ASSOCIATIONS. • » 

are evidently to lay foundations which will meet the approbation of 
the Divine Spirit. With our Fathers the great interest was the Church. 
As yet the State was not, only as it existed in the Church. And it has 
been well said by that diligent and filial student of Puritanism in New 
England, the late Dr. Joseph S. Clark : " Any intelligent person who 
will look at the facts, will see that it was not the Church allying itself to 
the State, but a State growing out of the Church, which occasioned the 
seeming jumble of ecclesiastical and civil affairs — a condition of things 
almost inevitable, while the great interests of rehgion, as centei-ed in the 
Church, were about the only subjects requiring legislation, and while the 
State, as such, was in its nonage. And when the two, in subsequent 
time, became distinct, as we now see them, the thing which actually hap- 
pened was not a divorcement of the Church from the State, but an elim- 
ination of the State from the Church. This fact must be borne in mind, 
or we shall never come to a right understanding of our fathers or their 
institutions." 

MINISTERIAL ASSOCIATIONS. 

With a work of so vast proportions, and of so vital interest on their 
hands, it was necessary that the early clergy of New England should 
confer often together. It is not surprising, therefore, that we find the 
following in the journal of Gov. Winthrop, under the early date of 1633: 
" The ministers in the Bay and Saugus did meet once a fortnight at one 
of their houses by course, where some question of moment was debated." 

These ministers were Rev. Messrs. Skelton and Higginson of Salem, 
Maverick and Warham of Dorchester, Wilson of Boston, Philips of 
Watertown, Weld and Elliot of Roxbury, Bacheller of Lynn, and James 
of Charlestown. 

At this time there were but seven or eight churches in the Bay, and 
but ten in what is now the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

The custom of ministerial Associations (for such the meeting referred 
to by Gov. Winthrop seems to have been), runs back almost to the first 
settlement of New England. They were, however, viewed with distrust, 
and were thought to endanger the liberties of the churches. 

" Mr. Skelton," says Gov, Winthrop in his journal, "■ the pastor of 
Salem, and Mr. Williams, who was removed from Plimouth thither (but 
not in any office, though he exercised by way of prophecy), took some 
exception against it, as fearing it might grow, in time, to a presbytery, 
or superintendency, to the prejudice of the churches' liberties. But this 
fear was without cause ; for they were all clear in that point, that no 
church or person can have power over another church ; neither did 

2 



10 HISTORY OF KSSEX XORTH ASSOCIATION. 

they in their meetings exercise any such jurisdiction."^ In 1G41-42, 
Letchford, in his Plain Dealing, says, " of late, divers of the ministers 
have had set meetings to order church matters ; whereby it is conceived 
they bend towards Presbyterian rule." In 1643, there was an assembly 
called at Cambridge of all the pastors in the country, some fifty in all. 
" The principal occasion," of which, says Gov. Winthrop, " was because 
some of the elders went about to set up some things according to the 
presbytery, as of Newbury, etc. The assembly concluded against some 
parts of the presbyterial way, and the Newbury ministers took time to 
consider the arguments," etc. 

This jealousy of ministerial power was early excited : and, perhaps for 
this reason, these ministerial meetings were for some years discontinued. 

Thomas Shepard of Charlestown,^ in 1672, speaks of them as belong- 
ing to former days. "Again there might be seen," he says, " ministers 
and ministers cleaving together in way of communion ; nothing that was 
difficult, or questionable, or weighty, or new% or that had an influence 
upon the whole, but they were wont to consult with one another : as I 
have heard from divers of the ancient ministers of Christ now with God, 
and, when I was a child, I observed in my father's house, if there hap- 
pened to be some misunderstanding at any time, it was reasoned out 
placidly, and still ministerial communion was maintained ; and these 
things are known unto hundreds yet living, that they may remem- 
ber the ministers' meetings in the several towns by course, — at Cam- 
bridge, Boston, Charlestown, Roxbury, etc." 

That these meetings were discontinued w-ould appear also from the 
statement of John Wise of Ipswich, in his work of caustic satire, " The 
Churches' Quarrel Espoused," published in 1710. He says: "About 
thirty years ago, more or less, there was no appearance of the associa- 
tions of pastors in these cf)lonies, and in some parts and places there i.s 
none yet." 

The facts then appear to be these : The early clergy of New England, 
from a desire for mutual consultation and social converse, were naturally 
brought together at stated times. These gatherings were of a purely social 
and religious character, and wholly unexceptionable. But some of the 
clergy of New England were avowed Presbyterians, as Thomas Paiker 
of Newbury and his kinsman and his colleague, James Noyes, also John 
Woodbridge of Andover ; and others, like Samuel Stone, the colleague 
of the famous Thomas Hooker, had Presbyterian tendencies. These 
facts, together w^ith the jealousy of ministerial power in our churches, led 



» Gov. Winthrop's Journal, Nov. 1633, Vol. I. p. li: 
- Cong. Quart., Vol. II. 204. A. H. Quint. 



MIMSTKRIAL ASSOCIATIONS. 11 

to a discontinuance of these meetings, jierliaps as early as 1645 or 1650. 
Near the close of the seventeenth century, or very early in the eighteenth, 
these meetings were revived in a still more systematic form, and with a 
decided ecclesiastical character. In the first instance they were purely 
indigenous, and arose from the peculiar circumstances of the early clergy. 
The revival of the associations^ may be traced to Rev. Charles Morton, 
minister of Charlestown. ' Mr. Morton came to New England in 1686, 
probably bringing with him the records of an Association once existing in 
Cornwall, England. Such a manuscrij)t volume is now in the library of 
the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

An association of the ministers of Boston and vicinity, meeting at Cain- 
bridge, was formed in 1690, and doubtless at the suggestion of Mr. Mor- 
ton. The first record is in his handwriting, and bears the date of " Oct. 
1.3, 1690, at Charlestown." This is in the volume just referred to. The 
rules adopted, were, with some additions, those of the English association. 

The first nine signatures to these rules are those of Charles Morton, 
James Allen, Michael Wigglesworth, Joshua Moody, Samuel Willard, 
John Bailey, Nathaniel Gookin, Cotton Mather, and Nehemiah Walter. 
As the result of their deliberations a small work was published 1699, 
entitled " Thirty Important Cases, Resolved with evidence of Scripture 
and Reason. [Mostly] By several pastors of adjacent churches, meeting 
in Cambridge, New England. [With some other memorable Matters] 
Now Published for General Benefit, in Boston, in New England. 
Printed by Bartholomew Green, and John Allen. Sold at the Book- 
sellers' Shops. 1699." 

There is an advertisement in this work written by Cotton Mather. In 
this he tells us that the number of members then belonging to the associ- 
ation was seventeen ; that the meetings were held in the library of Har- 
vard College, on the first Monday of every month, except the three win- 
ter months ; that many cases of discipline, or of conscience, were refei'red 
to them for advice from all parts of the country ; and that as the same 
question was frequently submitted to them by different churches or per- 
sons, it was thought best to publish their most important recorded deter- 
minations; together with the reasons for them. 

After citing many of the propositions discussed by this body in the 5th 
Book of his Magnalia, Cotton Mather concludes : 

Having so often produced the propositions voted by an assembly of ministers 
at Cambridge, for the explanation of our platform, 'tis not here, amiss, on this 
occasion, to give some history of that assembly. 

Know, then, that according to the advice of Mr. Hooker, who about a week 
before he fell sick of his last, let fall these words : " We must agree upon con- 

1 See art. hy A. H. Quint, Cong. Quart. II. 203. 



12 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

stant meetings of ministers, and settle the c6nsociation of churches, or else we 
are utterly undone ; " it has been the care of the ministers, in the sevei-al viciti- 
ages throughout the most part of the country, to establish such constant meetings, 
whereat they had informed one another of their various exercises, and assisted 
one another in the work of our Lord : besides a general appearance of all the 
ministers in each colony, once a year, at the town, and the time of the General 
Court for elections of magistrates in the colonies. These meetings have not all 
obliged themselves to one method of proceedings, in pursuing of mutual edifica- 
tion ; some do still fast and pray together, and speak in their turn to a proposed 
subject, much after the manner of the great Grindal's lectures, then held in the 
congi'egation of that pastor, to whose house they adjourn, and confer awhile to- 
gether on matters of concernment ; but one of these meetings is regulated by 
the following orders : 

It w agreed by us, ivkose names are under written, that ive do associate our- 
selves/or the pro77ioting of the Gospel, and our mutual assistance and furtherance 
in that great work. 

In order thereunto — 

I. That we meet constantly, at the College in Cambridge, on a Monday at 
nine or ten of the clock in the morning, once in six weeks, or oftener, if need be. 

II. That in such meetings, one shall be chosen INIoderator, pro tempore, for 
the better order and decency of our proceedings, which Moderator is to be 
chosen at the end of every meeting. 

III. That the Moderator's work be : 

1. To end the meeting, wherein he is chosen, and to begin the next with 
prayer. 

2. To propose mattters to be debated, and receive the suffrages of the 
brethren. 

3. To receive, with the consent of the brethren, the subscriptions of such as 
shall join with us ; and keep all the papers belonging to. the association. 

4. To give and receive notices, and appoint meetings upon emergent occa- 
sions. 

IV. That we shall submit unto the councils, reproofs, and censures of breth- 
ren so associated and assembled, in all things in the Lord. (Eph. v. 21.) 

V. That none of us shall relinquish this association, nor forsake the 
appointed meetings, without giving sufficient reason for the same. 

VI. That our work in the said meeting shall be : 

1 . To debate any matter referring to ourselves. 

2. To hear and consider any cases that shall be proposed unto us, from 
churches or private persons. 

3. To answer any letters directed unto us, from any other associations or 
persons. 

4. To discourse of any question proposed at the former meeting. 

It was probably frona this body that the sixteen proposals came, Nov. 
5, 1705, which mark an important crisis in the history of our churches. 
These proposals contemplated great changes in our polity, and were noth- 
ing less than an attempt by certain ministers " in and about Boston " to 
unsettle the platform of these Congregational churches. The attempt 
was utterly defeated by Rev. John Wise of the Chebacco Parish, Ipswich 
— now Essex — in a pamphlet entitled, " The Churches' Quarrel 
Espoused." 

That this was not the only association, appears from the fact that the 
" Proposals " were drawn up and put forth for the consideration of " the 
several associated ministers in the several parts of the country." Mr. 



ministers' meetings. 1'8 

Wise thus characterizes these '' Proposals ": — " They seem a conjunc- 
tion of all the church governments in the world, and the least part is 
Congregational ; " — " the spectre or ghost of Presbyterianism ; " — 
" something considerable of prelacy ; " — " something which smells very 
strong of the infallible chair." 

The " Proposals " came to a speedy death in this Commonwealth, and 
in the larger part of New England, but the associations increased in 
number and strength. 

MINISTERS' MEETINGS. 

The first -Association of which we have any authentic records in the 
valley of the Merrimac, was formed at Bradford, June 3, 1719. The 
following are the — * 

Articles of Agreement for the Regulation of the Society. 

It is Agreed by us, whose Names are underwritten, ^t We do Associate our- 
selves for the promoting the Gospel, and our mutual Assistance and furtherance 
in that great work ; in order thereto : 

I. That We meet the — 

Third Wednesday in April at Mr. Symmes' ; 

Third Tuesday iu May at Mr. Brown's ; 

Third Tuesday in June at Mr. Barnard's ; 

First Tuesday in August at Mr. Hale's ; 

Second Wednesday in Sept. at Mr. Rogers' ; 

Third Tuesday in October at Mr. PhilHps' ; 

Last Tuesday in November at Mr. Tufts' ; 

Annually. And if any of the Meetings be Diverted by an Extraordinary 

Providence or public Solemnity, that we meet ye Week following. 

II. That in such Meetings One shall be chosen Moderator, for the time 
being, to continue till the next Meeting. 

III. That the Moderator's Work be : 

1. To appoint meetings upon emergent occasions. 

2. To Propose Matters to be debated. 

IV. That we Submit unto the Counsels, Reproofs, and Censures of the 
Brethren so associated and Assembled in all things in ye Lord. (Eph. 5 : 21 ) 

V. That none of us relinquish this Assoeiation, nor forsake ye appointed 
Meeting without giving sufficient reason for the Same. 

VI. That Our Work in the said Meeting shall be — 

1. To begin and end the meeting with Prayer: the Person at whose house 
We meet to begin with Prayer ; and the Person at whose house it is to be next 
to End with Prayer. 

2. To Give our Answer to Such Question, or Questions, as shall be pro- 
posed at the preceding Meeting. 

3. To hear and consider any Cases that shall be laid before us. 

VII. That at our Table-refreshments We Content ourselves with Two Dishes. 

Thomas Symmes, 
Moses Hale, 
John Rogers, 
Samuel Phillips, 
John Tufts, 
John Barnard, 
, John Brown. 



14 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

These articles were evidently copied from those of the Association 
formed " at Charlestown, in N. E., Oct. 13, 1690." 
The record of the first meeting is as follows : 

A. D. 1719. August 4. At a Ministers' Meeting at the Rev. Mr. Moses 
Hale's, at Byfield, present the 

Rev. Mr. Symmes, 
" " Hale, 

•' 'Pl'FTS, 

Browx. 

This Question was answered, scil : •' What is the Duty of Ministers and 
Churches with respect to their Adult Baptized non-communicants '? " It wa:8 
Answered in this Agreement, scil : " That the Pastors and Churches owe unto 
their Adult Baptized non-communicants. An Instruction in the Laws of our 
Lord Jesus; an Admonition upon scandalous Violation of those Laws; and, 
upon incoi-rigilijeness in Evil, an open Rejection from all Ecclesiastical Priv- 
ileges." 

This is the only record for 1719. There are but two meetings 
recorded in 1720, and both are of a similar character. No meeting is 
recorded in 1721, and only one in 1722. In 1723, it was '• agreed to 
turn the Ministers' Meetings this year into days of fasting and jirayer." 
This arrangement was carried through in the respective congregations 
— there being preaching in the a. m. and the p. M. 

The business at the meetings of this body, ^vas generally to consider 
and resolve cases of difficulty; — of which there was a numberless 
amount. But this routine is sometimes broken. 

October 20, 1824, at ]Mr. Tufts." Spent the Day in Fasting and Prayer in 
private, principally to implore the Compassion, and Aids, and Direction of 
Heaven, for ourselves and other Ministers in the Country, under their difficult 
and distressing circumstances, by reason of a short and scanty Maintenance. 
Mr. Symmes gave us a Sermon on these Words, Job xxi. 4 : As for me, is my 
complaint to man ? 

1725. August 17. Proposed that every one should take notice of any thing 
remarkable in his Reading or Conversation, and communicate it to the Associa- 
tion for their Mutual Edification. 

1726. June 21 Discoursed of a Fast because of the great drought, and 
agreed at length to meet at Byfield for that end, the next week on Wednes- 
day, June 29, unless Providence should prevent us by sending a plentiful rain 
this week. 

1731. April 20. Proposed to turn some of our meetings at least into 
Fasts, to bewail the Declension and other Judgments of the present times, and 
implore a blessing on our ISIinistrv, more especially as to the rising Generation. 
And to begin at Haverhill. Mr. Phillips and Tufts to preach ; Mr. Barnard 
and Parsons to pray. 

Nearly all the meetings for the years '31 and '32 were turned into days of 
fasting and prayer. 

1735. June. Our conversation turned chiefly upon Mr. Fiske's case, and 
what had been transacted this Year at the Convention, and upon the Accounts 
we had received of the uncommon concern which prevailed in the inhabitants 
of the County of Hampshire and Places adjacent, for the Salvation of their 
Souls. 



MIXISTEKS' MEETINGS. 15 

1735. July 15. Agreed to ripen our thoughts upon the Platform, and par- 
ticularly upon that part of it relating to the Consociation of Churches. 

1735. October. 21. Discoursed of things relating to the work to be done on 
the next Day, the Gathering a third Church in Haverhill, and endeavored to 
prepare matters for it. Considered a covenant which Mr. Brown had drawn 
up for that occasion ; and assigned to each, that was to officiate, his part. 
[This determines the date of the founding of the Church iu West Haverhill.] 

In 1741, June, the Association was divided by the following votes: 

1 . Voted, that this Association shall be divided. 

2. Voted, that Mr. Barnard, Parsons, Balch, Cushing, Jr., Barnard, Jr. 
together with IVIr. Johnson and Mr. Chandler, if they shall desire it, be one of 
the associations into which this association be divided. 

3." Vcfted, that Mr. Phillips, Mr. Cushing, ISargent, Baily, together with 
Mr. Brown, Batcheller, and Flagg, if they desire it, be the other of the associa- 
tions into which this association be divided. 

4. Voted, that the meetings of each association for the time to come be 
upon the second Tuesdays of the months in which each association shall 
amongst themselves agree to have them. 

5. Voted, that there be a general meeting of both associations once a year, 
at the time and place which shall be agreed upon at the preceding general 
meeting : and that the General Meeting to be agreed on, be appointed one 
year in one association and another year in the other — and if any accident 
shall prevent a General Meeting, then that association in which said General 
Meeting was to have been, shall, among themselves, appoint another day, and 
seasonably invite the other association thereto. 

6. Voted, that the next General Meeting be on the second Tuesday in 
September, 1742, at the house of Mr. .lames Cushing. 

7. Voted, that the book belonging to this association before the division be 
kept still for the use of both associations in their General Meeting, and that a 
clerk be chosen for said General fleeting. 

8. Voted, that Mr. Parsons be the clerk for said General Meeting. 

9. Voted, that this association be trom this time divided, in Consequence 
of the vote first mentioned. 

In consequence of this arrangement, we have no records of the meet- 
ings of these associations from June, 1741, to May 14, 1745. Nor is 
there any record of a general meeting. This is the more to be regretted 
as it was the period of special excitement with reference to Mr. White- 
field. The first visit of this distinguished preacher to New England was 
in 1740. He arrived in Boston, Sept. 18, and proceeded east as far as 
York, Maine, and then west to Northampton, and completed his tour on 
the 1st of December. 

Two weeks after Mr. Whitefield left New England, Rev. Cjlilbert Ten- 
nent made a similar tour of about the same length. Opposition, if it 
existed, was either concealed or ineffectual. Mr. Prince, in his Chris- 
tian History, says, alluding to this stage of the revival : " And thus suc- 
cessfully did this divine work, as above described, go on, without lisp, as 
I remember, of a separation either in this town or province, for above a 
year and a half after Mr. Whitefield left us, namely, the end of June» 
1742; when the Rev. Mr. Davenport of Long Island, came to Boston. 



16 HISTORY OF ESSKX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

The excesses of this preacher in denunciation soon aroused a powerful 
opposition, and two great factions were formed which divided the minis- 
ters of New England." In the Merrimac Valley, some pastors sided 
with, and some, against, the new movements. 

The Ministers' Meeting, of which we have been speaking, united with 
a neighboring Association in sending a letter, dated Dec. 26, 1744, to the 
Associated Ministers of Boston and Charleslown, relating to the admis- 
sion of Mr. Whitefield into their pulpits. This letter, signed by the 
members of these Associations, or the larger portion of them, together with 
the action of the Cambridge Association, advising, in answer to his request, 
one of their own members, was published. The pamphlet is in thS library 
of the Boston Athenii^um. (B. 583. Tracts.) Of the first Association the 
names are Caleb Cushing of Salisbury, Joseph Whipple of Hampton 
Falls, John Lowell of Newbury, Paine Wingate of Amesbury, Jeremiah 
Fogg of Kensington, Nathaniel Gookin of North Hampton, Elisha Odlin 
of Amesbury, Peter Coffin of Kingston, William Parsons of South Hamp- 
ton, and Samuel Webster of Salisbury. 

Of this association we know nothing except its existence and member- 
ship at the time referred to. Of the ten signatures, five are names of 
pastors within the geographical bounds of the Essex North Association, 
Of the five churches represented by these pastors, two have become 
extinct, viz.. East Salisbury and Sandy Hill. One has become Unitarian, 
viz., the First Church of Newburyport ; one is fieeble, Rocky Hill ; and 
one, that of West Amesbury, is now full of strength and vitality. 

Of the second Association the names are as follows : 

John Barnai'd, North Andover ; Joseph Parsons, Bradford ; William 
Balch, Bradford (now Groveland) ; James Cushing, Haverhill (North 
Parish, Plaistow) ; Christopher Sargent, Methuen ; William Johnson, 
Newbury (now Second Church, West Newbury) ; John Cushing, Box- 
ford West ; Thomas Barnard, Newbury (now First Church, West 
Newbury) ; Edward Barnard, Haverhill Centre. 

We find in this list the names of pastors belonging to both parts of the 
Ministers' Meeting, from which we infer that they still consider themselves 
one. 

The names of the body, not attached to the letter, are James Chandler, 
Samuel Phillips, Samuel Batcheller, Ebenezer Flagg, and Abner Bailey. 
Nine of the members signed the letter, and five did not. Those who 
signed were all opposed to Mr. Whitefield ; and those who did not were 
.supposed to be his advocates. Messrs. Phillips and Chandler seem at 
this time to have withdrawn from the body, as their names do not again 
appear upon the records. It is noticeable, also, that all who joined the 
Association after 1745, were either decided Arminians, or moderate Cal- 
vinists. These were John Tucker of Newbury, William Symmes of 



HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 17 

North Andover, Elizur Holyoke of Boxford, Jonathan Eames of Newton, 
N. H., Samuel Williams of Bradford, Thomas Gary of Newburyport, and 
Jonathan French of Andover. 

There is evidence that from the time of Mr. Whitefield's second 
visit onward, there was a well-understood division among the pastors in 
this region. The opponents of Mr. Whitefield were strongly in the 
majority in the Ministers' Meeting — consequently those who joined that 
body were in sympathy with them. 

About this time the two parts of the Association came together. 

RECONSTRUCTION. 

At a Ministers' Meeting at Mr. Sargent's, May 14, 1745. 

Several of the Association which had for some years past resided on the 
north side of the river, but since ceased, appearing desirous of uniting with us 
again, it was put to vote, " Whether those gentlemen of the two Associations 
present shall be re-united ? " passed in the affirm. The gentlemen and the Rev. 
Messrs. Flagg, Batcheller, Bayley. The Rev. Mr. Parker of Haverhill, having 
desired to be admitted into the Association, voted in the afHrm. Voted, that 
the Rev. Mr. Barnard of Newbury, be clerk of the Association. At this meet- 
ing there were present Rev. Messrs. Barnard, Parsons, Balch, Gushing, Sar- 
gent, Gushing, jun., Barnard, jun., Barnard, tertius. 

The Ministers' Meeting continued its regular sessions down to August 
10, 1773. The record there closes abruptly. During the first part of 
its existence, from 1719 to 1744, a period of twenty-five years, there is 
no division of sentiment noticeable: but in the last part, from 1744 to 
1773, a period of twenty-nine years, it is evident that a change had taken 
place in the views of a majority of its members respecting the duties of 
practical religious life. No fast or season of special prayer was observed 
by the body after 1745. No questions of vital interest were discussed, 
but the whole time of the sessions seems to have been taken up in hear- 
ing statements of difficulties and giving advice. 

June 9, 1752. The Association subscribed thirty-three dollars to the rcHef 
of the poor in Boston, in this Season of distress, by reason of the Smallpox, and 
sent it by Mr. Parsons, going to Medfbrd. 

August 11, 1752. Mr. Barnard of Andover, gave an account of a letter 
received from the honorable Thomas Hubbard, Esq., returning thanks in the 
name of the overseers of the poor of the Town of Boston, to the Association for 
thirty-three dollars contributed to them under their distress. 

August 8, 1758. The Association, by a Committee, proportioned the charge 
for printing a late pamphlet entitled " A Vindication, etc.," wrote by one of our 
number. 

This pamphlet was prepared as a defence of Rev. Samuel Bacheller, 
the first minister of the West Parish in Haverhill, who was accused of 
heresy, in saying that the work of redemption was finished when Christ 
uttered the words " It is finished." It was intended as a reply to a large 
pamphlet written by Joseph Haynes, entitled, " A Discourse in order to 

3 



lo HISTORY OF ESSEX XORTH ASSOCIATION". 

confute the heresy, delivered and much contended for, in the West Parish 
^n Haverhill, and countenanced by many of the ministers of the neighbor- 
ing parishes, namely : ' That the blood and water which came from 
Christ when the soldier pierced his side, his laying in his grave and his 
resurrection, was no part of the work of redemption, and that his laying 
in the grave was no part of his humiliation.'" It was printed in 1757. 
[See a more extended account in the sketch of Rev. Samuel Bacheller.] 

1769. June. A motion was made to have a lecture on the forenoon of 
oui" Association. Some discussion followed, when it was agreed that each mem- 
ber should act his pleasure with respect to the lecture. The lecture was 
preached generally at all the subsetjuent meetings. 

After the death of the Ministers' Meeting at the early age of 54, its 
records passed into the hands of Rev. Dr. William Symmes of North 
Andover, and Rev. Elizur Holyoke of Boxford, First Parish, and by 
them were given to the Wilmington Association, now the Andover. The 
following is the record : 

1792. July 3. Wilmington. The Association, to which this book formerly 
belonged, having been long since dissolved, the book fell into the hands of the 
Rev. Messrs. Holyoke and Symmes, who deshed the Scribe, in their names, to 
present it to this Association, if they would please to accept it. It was grate- 
fully received, and the thanks of the Association were given to Messrs. Holyoke 
and Symmes for the same. 

Voted, That in future the votes and proceedings of the Association shall 
be recorded in this book. 

But why, it may be asked, were these records taken to the Wilming- 
ton Association in preference to the bod}'^ occupying most of the ground 
of the old Ministers' Meeting, and known as the Essex Middle, and now 
as the Essex North ? 

The Wilmington Association was formed July 5th, 1763, nearly two 
years after the formation of what is now the Essex North. It was evi- 
dently formed with a bias in the opposite direction from that of the 
Essex North, and a bias with which Mr. Holyoke, and Dr. Symmes, and 
Mr. Jonathan French, all of whom became members of it, were in sym- 
pathy. The 5th and 6th articles of agreement show this bias more dis- 
tinctly than any statement, namely : 

5. We propose to admit no person into our Association as a member, to 
the grief and displeasure of any one among us. 

We propose not to admit into our pulpits ^ny preacher which we think 
will be to the grief of any of our Association. 

The articles were originally signed by 

Isaac Morrill of Wilmington. 

Thomas Jones of Woburn. 

Elias Smith. 

Eliab Stone of Reading. 
Jonathan French was admitted to it May 7, 17 76. 
William Symmes was admitted to it July 2, 1782. 
Elizur Holyoke was admitted to it Aug. 6, 1782. 



HISTOKY OF ESSKX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 19 

In May 9, 1797, the name was changed from Wilmington to Andover 
Association. 

The active members of that body, at the time the transfer of the rec- 
ords was made, were Rev. Henry Cummings, D. D.,of Rillerica, Rev. Isaac 
Morrill of Wilmington, Rev. Eliab Stone of Reading, Rev. John Marret 
of Woburn, Rev. Caleb Prentice of South Reading. Rev. Mr. INIorrill of 
Wilmington, was a decided Arminian, and a bitter opponent of White- 
field. It is said that Whitefield once sent an appointment for preaching 
on the common by the meeting-liouse in Wilmington, when Father 
Morrill mounted his horse, and rode to every house in town to forbid 
attendance, thus carrying the notice to every family, and securing for 
Mr. Whitefield an overwhelming congregation. 

Dr. Cummings of Billerica, was a strong revolutionary patriot, and an 
intelligent, openly determined Arminian. 



HAVERHILL ASSOCIATION. 

It may be proper here briefly to allude to another ministerial body, 
which, though some eighteen years subsequent to the Essex North Asso- 
ciation in respect to organization, was yet related to it as occupying a 
considerable portion of its present field. I refer to the Haverhill Associa- 
tion, formed at Haverhill, August 19, 1779. 

The plan on which the Haverhill Association was first formed was 
this : 

It having been found by experience that associations of the ministers of the 
gospel, under proper regulations, are well adapted to promote the design of this 
sacred office, and subserve the common interest of the churches : — 

We, therefore, the subscribers, pastors of neighboring churches, do hereby 
propose and agree to associate. We agree to meet together at om' respective 
homes in rotation according to seniority, on the Tuesday before the first Sab- 
bath in IMay, and the five following months annually. And when met, to take 
under consideration such matters as may properly come before us relative to 
our fidelity to each other — to the interests of religion in general and of the 
churches in particular to which we severally belong — to give and receive, in 
the spirit of meekness and brotherly love, such advice as may appear most 
suitable under our present difficulties, as well as those which may subsist in our 
respective charges. And that all things may be done decently and in order, 
we agree to choose a moderator who shall continue until another is chosen ; 
also a scribe to take minutes of our proceedings, and to give attested copies as 
there may be occasion. 

And as public lectures on such occasions have sometimes been given, and, 
when generally attended by the people, might be to edification, we therefore 
agree to have pubUc lectures in the parishes or towns where we meet, so long 
as the people shall give us countenance and encouragement by manifesting a 
good disposition to attend them. 

In token of this our agreement and association,^and, with a serious determi- 
nation to meet together without needlessly or trivially absenting ourselves, and 



20 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

that we will hold the objects seriously in view as above specified, we have here- 
unto set our respective names : 
Haverhill, August 19, 17 79. 

Gyles Merrill, 
Phineas Adams, 
Stephen Peabody, 
JoHx Shaw. 

The Eev. Gyles Merrill was chosen moderator, and the Rev. Mr. Adams, 
scribe. 

The early records of the Haverhill Association are exceedingly 
meagre. Under the date of August 19, 1779, we have an account of the 
organization at Haverhill, but at which parish there is nothing to deter- 
mine. From this date to October, 1811, when the rules were first re- 
vised, a period of thirty-two years, there are but twenty-four records 
made ; and the only items noted are the admission of members, the ap- 
probation of candidates for the ministry, the choice of officers, and one 
ordination of an evangelist, namely, — that of Jacob Burbank, at Pelham, 
N. H., September 14, 1809. 

This body was composed of ministers resident in both Massachusetts 
and New Hampshire, but principally from the former. In the course 
of time the Massachusetts element had almost entirely withdrawn ; and 
on May 7, 1834, the rules of the body were revised, and the name 
changed to that of the Derry Association. This still exists, and is one 
of the most important of the associations of New Hampshire, and a 
curious instance of migration. This body first appointed delegates to the 
General Association of Massachusetts, May 19, 1807; its last appoint- 
ment was made May 15, 1833. From Dr. Bouton's Historical Dis- 
course on the Fiftieth Anniversary of the General Association of New 
Hampshire, it seems that Dr. Church was present and was chosen scribe 
of that body at its organization, June 8, 1809. At the first meeting, 
after the organization, John H. Church and John Kelley are enrolled as 
from the Haverhill North Association. But the first appointment of 
delegates to the General Associations of New Hampshire, which appears 
upon the records of the Haverhill Association, was made August 10, 
1813. From this time onward until the change in the name, and the 
body became distinctly an Association of New Hampshire, two sets of 
delegates were annually chosen to represent the members in their re- 
spective States. 

REVISED RULES. 

October, 1811. At Amesbury, W. Parish, Mass. 

Then the following regulations, for the government of the Haverhill Asso- 
ciation, were adopted : 



HISTORY OF ESSKX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 21 

Article I. There shall be three constitutional meetings of this Association 
annually. 

Article II. The first annual meeting of this bodv shall be on the second 
Tuesday in June. The second meeting shall be on the second Tuesday in Au- 
gust. The third and last meeting shall be on the second Tuesday in October. 

Extra meetings may be called in the following manner: Five members 
signing a written request to the scribe, and having provided a place for said 
meeting, and giving this information in the request — it shall be the duty of 
the scribe to call such meeting, by giving information to those members who 
did not sign the request. 

REGULATIONS. 

Article I. The public lecture shall be in the afternoon, on Tuesday the 
day of the meeting, at such hour as is judged the most convenient by the mem- 
ber at whose house the meeting is holden. The members shall convene and 
form before dinner, and the Association shall be in session until twelve the 
next day. 

Business of these meetings : Two sermons shall be read in rotation, begin- 
ning with the two senior members, followed with remarks. 

Article II. There shall at each meeting be two theological questions dis- 
cussed, beginning with two members next in standing to the two seniors, and 
the two seniors shall propose the two first questions, and then those who answer 
questions shall propose the next, without regarding seniority. Questions in 
theology or morals shall occupy the remaining time. 

Article III. It shall be the duty of each member to propose, at the last 
meeting in the year, a subject for the preachers the next year. The three sen- 
ior members present shall select from these six subjects^ which shall be given 
by vote of this body to the principals and their seconds. 

Article IV. It is expected that the moderator will be attentive that the 
members conform to these rules. 

Article V. It is also expected that the scribe record all votes which re- 
spect the interest of this body, at the time and place when they shall be 
taken. 

At the first regular meeting under the revised rules, important action 

was taken on the subject of temperance. 



TEMPERANCE. 

At a meeting of the Haverhill Association, at the house of Rev. Na- 
than Bradstreet, in Chester, N. H., on the second Tuesday in June (the 
10th), 1812, action was taken with a view to discountenance the 
improper use of ardent spirits ; and it was 

" Voted, That no brother shall be deemed wanting in generosity or 
hospitality if he neglects to provide ardent spirits for his brethren, when 
they meet at his house." Rev. Messrs. Smith and Church were also 
appointed as a Committee to confer with the Londonden'y Presbytery 
on the subject, and to obtain their cooperation with them in measures 
calculated to prevent the intemperate use of ardent spirits. 

The following preamble and rules of conduct were unanimously 
adopted by the Association at the same time and place : 



22 HISTOl:V OF ESSEX NOKTH ASSOCIATION. 

The Haverhill Association being (lee])ly impressed with the numerous evils 
■which grow out of a common and excessive use of spirituous liquors, and feel- 
ing themselves under sacred obligations to be patterns of sobriety, and to avoid 
every appearance of evil, do agree to adojjt the following as general rules of 
conduct : 

1. This Association agree that they will consider the exhibition of spirit- 
uous li(juors, in their meetings, as no part of brotherly entertainment ; and they 
agree in common cases of health to refrain wholly from their use. 

2. The UKimbers of this Association being accjuainted with each other's 
determination, do decide that a brother of this body shall not be deemed defi- 
cient in the rites of hospitality, who omits in ordinary cases to set spirituous 
li(|uors before us, in our common intercourse, but shall be considered as acting 
a decorous, brotherly, and Christian part. 

3. This Association do agree that they will, in their parochial visits, in 
their social interviews and circles, in their attendance on funeral and marriage 
solemnities, do all they deem consistent with Christian prudence to discounte- 
nance and suppress the common use of ardent spirits. 

4. This Association, feeling a deep and tender concern for the temporal 
and eternal welfare of the people under their parochial care, beg leave to 
solicit their particular attention to this important subject. They unitedly and 
earnestly re(-ommend, that they would refrain from the use of ardent spirits, in 
their friendly and social intercourse ; and in particular on funeral occasions, 
when God is calling us to solemn thoughtfulness, that every thing might be 
avoided which tends to weaken the impression and render us less mindful of 
our latter end. 

A further revision of the articles of the Association, was made and 
adopted at a meeting in Bradford, June 13, 1815. Under these regula- 
tions the body continued, without any material alterations, until 1834. 

October 10, 1815. Professor Ebenezer Porter, of Andover, was admitted 
a member. 

June 9, 1818. Tompkins, Eaton, and. Dodge, were appointed a Commit- 
tee to revise the questions to be proposed to candidates for the ministry. 

August 3, 1819. The subject of a Ministerial Library was referred to 
Eaton, Tompkins, and Church, as a Committee. The records give no account 
of their final action. Same date, Parker, Church, and Harris, were appointed 
a Committee to prepare and publish in the Concord Observer, Essays on the 
regulations and utility of Sabbath Schools. Same date. Tompkins, Eastman, 
and Kelley, were appointed a Committee to collect facts respecting the pro- 
fanation of the Sabbath, and disasters happening to transgressors ; with a view 
of publishing a tract on the subject. 

October 12, 1819. The word license is used for the first time in the 
records, in the place of the word approbation, in recommending candi- 
dates for the ministry. 

June 13, 1820. The Association had a conference on this question, " Is it 
lawful for a man to yoke his team and endeavor thereby to secure grain or hay 
on the Sabbath day from apprehended damage ? " The records do not give 
the conclusion to which they came. 

August 7, 1821. Voted, To have a special meeting of the Association for 
prayer, at Atkinson, August 29th. 

June 11, 1822. Special action was taken to secure the preaching of the 
gospel to the vacant societies in Nottingham West, Litchfield, and Atkinson, 
N. H., and Haverhill AVest. Inquiries were directed to be made respecting 
Manchester, Sandown, Hawke, and Newtown, N. H. 

August 12, 1823. Considered the subject of ordaining two young men to 
the work of the gospel ministry, and deferred the subject till to-morrow morn- 



HTSTOUY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 23 

ing at eiolit o'clock, with a view of calling in delegates from some of the neigh- 
boring churches. 

August 13. Voted, To resolve the Association into an ecclesiastical council, 
together with those delegates who are present, for the purpose of ordaining Mr. 
William Shed and Mr. WiUiam W. Niles as evangelists, and appointed Rev. 
John H. Church as assistant Scribe. 

This was evidently a departure from the original design of the Associa- 
tion, and an encroachment upon the independence of the churches. It 
was an assumption of power which is very infrequent in the history of 
similar bodies, and can only be accounted for by the presence of several 
members of the Londonderry Presbytery in the Association. This action 
in the ordination of evangelists was probably without any intentional tres- 
pass on the well-established nsage of Congregational churches. But it is 
instructive, in showing how easily important departures are taken from 
the simplicity of our polity. There is, it is true, a deference shown to 
Congregational custom in delaying until the next day final action, that 
delegates of the churches might be summoned. 

But it is very plain that no meeting of any church could be regularly 
called in that brief space of time, and delegates appointed. It seems 
more like the action of a session and a presbytery. 

October 10, 1826. Voted, That it is expedient to form a conference of 
churches. Clim'ch, Kelly, and Ingraham, were appointed a Committee to draft 
a constitution. 

The movement of forming local conferences in New England, origi- 
nated in almost all cases in the Associations. 

In 1832, an effort was made to form a new Association by taking sev- 
eral brethren fi-om the Haverhill and Andover Associations. This pro- 
ject, however, failed. It is probable that the brethren found much prac- 
tical inconvenience in being in two States. For within four years after 
this scheme was abandoned, the four churches in Haverhill and the one 
in Bradford united with the Essex North Association. The church in 
West Amesbury had done the same thing in 1827. 

Thus one by one the Massachusetts churches withdrew, leaving the 
Haverhill Association to become. May 7, 1834, the Derry Association of 
New Hampshire. 

In the fifty -five years of its history, as representing in part the churches 
of Massachusetts, it had forty merabei's, and eighty licentiates. Of the 
ten churches of this State once connected with that body, all but two, 
Dracut and Methuen, are now within the present bounds of the Essex 
North Association. . 

The whole number of different churches connected with it from 1779 
to 1834 was nineteen, of which ten were in Massachusetts and nine in 
New Hampshire. 

The names of the churches in Massachusetts, and the dates of their 



24 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

connection, were as follows. Haverhill Centre, West, and North, 1779. 
West Boxford, Methuen, and Bradford, 1788. Amesbury West, 1791. 
Haverhill East, 1797. Amesbury First Church, 1805. Professor 
Porter, 1815, and Dracut, 1816. 

The churches of New Hampshire, and the dates of their connection, 
were as follows, Atkinson, 1779. Hampstead, 1793. Salem, 1797. 
Chester, 1801. Pelham, 1809. Windham, 1810. Derry First Church, 
1811. Londonderry, 1832. Auburn, 1834. 

We thus find traces of three diiferent ministerial bodies on the territory 
now occupied by the Essex North Association. First, the " Ministers' 
Meeting," which was formed in 1719, and became extinct about 1773. 
Its records are in fine preservation, and are held by the Andover Associ- 
ation. Its Moderators, it would seem, were chosen at each meeting. Its 
Scribes were, John Brown, 1719-1735; Moses Parsons, 1735-1745; 
Thomas Barnard, 1745-1750; Edward Barnard, 1750. 

Of the second body there are various notices, but as yet we can find 
no trgices of its records. It embraced the ministers in the south-eastern 
part of New Hampshire, and a few in the north-eastern corner of Massa- 
chusetts. The third body is the " Haverhill Association." Its records 
are in the keeping of the Derry Association, N. H. It did not die, but 
had a transmigrration. 



ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 
V 

The Essex North Association was formed in Rowley, West Parish 
(now Georgetown), September 8, 1761. 

The following is a list of its officers, from its organization to the pres- 
ent time : 

Rev. Jedediah Jewett was elected Standing Moderator September 8, 17G1 ; 
whii-h ofiice be held until his death, IMay 8, 1774. Rev. James Chandler was 
chosen June 14, 1774, and died April 19, 1789. John Cleveland was chosen 
1789, and died April 22, 1799. Joseph Dana, D. D., was chosen May 14, 1799. 
In consequence of some misunderstanding he did not meet with the Association, 
and the office was declared vacant, and Samuel Spring, D. D., was chosen 
September 9, 1806. Explanations having been made, Dr. Spring resigned 
July 12, 1808, and, at the same meeting. Dr. Dana was re-chosen, and contin- 
ued in office until his death, November 16, 1827. Isaac Braman was chosen 
October 30, 1832, and died December 26, 1858. Luther F. Dimmick, D. D., 
was chosen April 17, 1860, died May 16, 18G0. Leonard Withington, D. D., 
was chosen June 19, 1860. 

The Scribes of the Association, have been, — 

Moses Parsons, elected September 8, 1761 ; died December 11, 1783 ; holding 
olfice twenty-two years. David Tappan, D. D., elected April 20, 1 784 ; resigned 
about 1793 ; holding office nine years. Samuel Spring, D. D., elected May 14, 



ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 25 

1793; resigned 1805; holding office twelve years. Leonard Woods, D. D., 
elected June, 1805 ; resigned May 12, 1812 ; holding office seven years. David 
T. Kimball was elected May 12^ 1812; died February 3, 18G0; holding office 
forty-eight years. Samuel J. Spalding, elected February 21, 1860. 

The purpose of this Association is well set forth in the following 
declaration : 

We, the subscribers, pastors of churches in the vicinity, in the county of 
Essex, in New England, beholding and being affected with the declining state 
of rehglon in our several congregations, and round about us ; and agreeing with 
the late Rev. Dr. Doddridge, that one thing which may serve as a means of the 
revival of it, is that neighboring ministers in one part of the land and another 
should enter into Associations to strengthen the hands of each other, by united 
consultation and prayer ; and seeing many of our brethren in the ministry are 
associated, we think it may answer many valuable ends for us to associate also ; 
which we do with greater cheerfulness because of our present agreement 
respecting the doctrines of the gospel. 

And that our Association meetings may answer the valuable ends proposed, 
we consent to the plan proposed by the aforesaid Rev. Dr. Doddridge, and 
oblige ourselves to conform to the following rules : 

I. That our Association meetings be held at certain periodical seasons, 
(namely), on the second Tuesday of each month, except those months of the 
year which shall be thought inconvenient for the Association to meet in. These 
meetings to be at our respective houses alternately, — reserving to ourselves 
liberty to alter the time of our meetings as the major part shall think proper. 

II. That each member of the Association shall endeavor (if possible) to 
be present, studying to order his affairs so as to guard against unnecessary 
hinderances. 

in. At every Association meeting the minister at whose house we convene 
shall open the meeting with prayer, and the minister at whose House we are 
next to convene shall close the meeting with prayei". 

IV. That there shall be a public exercise at each meeting of the Associ- 
ation. The public worship to begin at eleven o'clock, A. m., and that each 
Pastor at these assemblies take part in his turn. The minister at whose House 
the meeting is, to be excused from preaching or any part of the public exercises 
of the day. 

V. That after a moderate repast, to be managed with as little trouble and 
expense as may be, an hour or two In the afternoon be spent in religious Con- 
ference and Prayer, and in taking into consideration (merely as friends in 
council, and without the least pretence to any right of authoritative decision) the 
concerns of any Bi'other or any Society, which may be brought before us for 
advice. 

VI. That every member of this Association, shall consider it as an addi- 
tional obligation upon him, to endeavor to be, so far as he justly and honorably 
can, a Friend and Guardian to the Reputation, Comfort, and Usefulness of all 
his Brethren in the Christian ministry, near or remote, of whatever Party or 
Denomination. 

Dated at Eowley, September 8, 1761. 

Jedediah Jewett, 
James Chandler, 
Moses Hale, 
Moses Parsons, 
Thomas Hibbert, 
George Leslie, 
John Cleveland, 



26 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION'. 

There are foui' particulars in this document worthy of special notice : 

(a) The devotional element. It provides for a public religious service, 
and a season of conference and prayer at each meeting. And this course, 
we have reason to think, was very strictly adhered to. On looking over 
the records of the first fifty years of this Association, I find but two or 
three instances in which the advice of the Association was sought incases 
of difficulty. That which formed the staple business of the " Ministers' 
Meeting," and also of the " Wilmington Association," as the records of 
each show, was almost entirely unknown to our fathers of the Essex 
North. Their meetings were for mutual religious improvement, and to 
this end all their efforts were directed. 

(b) Another point to be noticed is tJie general agreement of these fa- 
thers in doctrine. They were not theologians, in the technical sense of 
that term. There was among them no Edwards, or Hopkins, or Emmons, 
or Burton ; but they had a common interest in the same general views 
of the atonement, and of man's great need, and of the necessity of means 
to the great ends of redemptive mercy. Their sympathy in doctrine 
arose more from a similarity of views respecting practical godliness than 
from theological study. Most of them are known to have been favor- 
able to the utterance of earnest evangelical sentiments. There was not 
at this time any decided and outspoken defection from the truth ; but the 
letter of President Edwards to Professor Wigglesworth, at Harvard 
College, in 1757, the autobiographical sketches of Dr. Hopkins, and his 
sermon, published in Boston in 1768, indicate that there was a concealed 
defection, and that men were even then taking sides for or against evan- 
gelical truth. The founders of this Association were decidedly for the truth. 

(c) Another point in their declaration of sentiments, though contained 
in parenthesis, is significant and important. When speaking " of taking 
into consideration the concerns of any brother or any society which may 
be brought to them for advice," they are explicit on the nature of this 
duty. It is " merely a friendly council and without the least pretence to 
any right or authoritative decision." There is a tendency to ecclesiasti- 
cal control noticeable in the clergy of New England from the outset. It 
was prominent in the assemblies of 1636, 1648, 1662, and 1679. It was 
again attempted in 1725, and hence the pertinency of the discussion of 
the principles of the Cambridge Platform in the early years of the 
" Ministers' Meeting." At the time this Association was formed, " au- 
thority was claimed not only by the consociations of Connecticut, but by 
many of the Ecclesiastical Councils of Massachusetts, to control the 
churches by interposing a negative." President Stiles, in his sermon 
before the convention of Congregational Ministers, at Bristol, R. L, 
thus lays down the fundamental principle of our polity to which our fa- 



ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 27 ' 

thers so reverently bowed : " Each individual church has the sole right 
of judging and determining its own controversies. Our churches, to the 
purposes of discipline, are so many distinct ecclesiastical sovereignties, in 
point of power and control, as independent of one another as the United 
Provinces of Holland to purposes of civil government." 

For the first fifty years of our history as an ecclesiastical body, there 
is not the slightest infringement upon this principle. The fathers of this 
Association were, with rare exceptions, men who loved and revered the 
polity of New England. 

(d) Another particular noticeable in the articles of agreement, was 
the genuine catholicity of our fathers : , 

VI. That every member of this Association shall consider it as an addi- 
tional obHgation upon him to endeavor to be, so far as he justly and honorably 
can, a Friend and Guardian to the Reputation, Comfort, and Usefulness of all 
his brethren in the Chi'istian Ministry, near or remote, of whatever Party or 
Denomination. 

It would be natural for members of the same fraternity from selfish 
considerations to succor and sustain each other. But this rule covers the 
whole field of ministerial labor, and embraces all schools, and parties, 
and sects of the Christian ministry. The contrast between this doc- 
ument and that of the Wilmington Association, made less than two 
years later, is remarkable. And so, the world over, we shall find that 
there is no bigotry so intense, no uncharitableness so bitter, as that of 
the self-esteemed liberalist. This sixth rule is the corner-stone of the 
Association. It has been a good foundation for these many years. Our 
very differences of temperament and taste, of study and of culture, of 
theological training and views, have made the mosaic and charm of the 
body. 

The records of the Association, though complete from its organization, 
are very meagre for the first fifty years, covering but twenty-six small 
letter pages. From the position of the names upon the manuscript, we 
infer that Jewett, Chandlex', Hale, Parsons, Hibbert, and Leslie, were at 
the first meeting, and signed the rules September 8, 1761. As there is 
no record of the admission of John Cleaveland, we have placed his 
name also among the original members, though from the position of the 
signature we might infer that he joined the body at a later date. 

After the preamble and rules, there follows the record of the first 
meeting : 

At an Association Meeting in Rowley, West Parish, September 8, 1761, 
the following Question was put — Whether the Rev. Jedediah Jewett, the 
Senior Pastor, be the Standing Moderator of the Association. 

Passed in the affirmative. 



~28 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

At the same .meeting the following Question was put — Whether the 
Rev. Moses f arsons be the Scribe of the Association. 
Passed in the affirmative. 

There is no record for 1762, 1763, 1764, 1765, 1766. 

The second record was of a meeting " at Amesbury, August 18, 1767." 
The, only item of business was the admission of Rev. Oliver Noble. 

The next record was of a meeting " at Newbui-y Port, May 8, 1770." 
The only business was the admission of Rev. Christopher Bridge Marsh 
as a member. 

The fourth record was made of a meeting " at Ipswich, July 10, 
1770," Rev. Joseph Dana was admitted. 

The fifth record is as follows : 

At a meeting of the Association at Linebrook, November 13, 1770, the 
Conduct of the Chh. under the Pastoral Care of the Revd. Mr. Christopher 
Bridge Marsh, respecting their receiving Members to their Communion who 
belonged to the first Chh. in Haverhill, and the Chhs. in Salisbury, was taken 
into consideration. 

After the same was debated upon, the following Question was put by the 
Standing Moderator — Whether, upon the whole, it appears to us that the sd. 
Chh. has given any just ground of offence to any Chh. to withdraw or withhold 
Communion from them for their so doing — which question was resolved unan- 
imously in the negative. 

There is no record for 1771, 1772, 1773. 

In 1774 there are two records ; June 14, when Rev. James Chandler 
was elected Standing Moderator in place of Rev. Jedediah Jewett, de- 
ceased ; and Aug. 9, when " The Revd. David Tappan," afterward 
Prof. David Tappan of Harvard University, was admitted a member. 

There is no record for 1775, 1776, 1777, 1778. 

June 8, 1779. Rev. Levi Frisble was admitted a member. 

There -is but one record in 1780, when at a meeting in By field, July 
11, Rev. Samuel Spring was received as a member. In 1781 there is 
but one record : " By field, June 10, Rev. Daniel Breck was received as 
a member." 

There is no record for 1782. 

The next record gives the surname of Middle to the body, which was 
probably suggested by the fact, that teritorially the Association occupied 
the towns in Essex County, lying between those of the Haverhill Asso- 
ciation and the Essex South. 

At a meeting of the Middle Association of Essex County at Newbury Port, 
June 10, 1783, application being made to this Association by a Committee of 
the East Parish in Amesbury, for advice under present difficulties — 

Voted, as the unanimous advice of this Association, , 

1 . That the said Parish, with as many of the members of the Church as 



ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 29 

are disposed to join them, renew their application to the Rev. Mr. Ilibbert for 
a mutual Council. 

2. That if they shall not succeed in this, they, by themselves, call a 
respectable Council of Churches to advise them what steps to take, and 

3. That in the mean time the said Parish look out /or a Preacher, that 
they may regularly attend public worship together. 

In the name of the Association, 

MosE^ Parsons, Scribe. 

At a meeting of the Association at the Revd. David Tappan's at Newbury, 
New town, Oct. 14, 1783, it was voted unanimously that the Revd. Thomas 
Hibbert of Amesbury be dismissed from this Association. 

April 20, 1 784. Rev'd. David Tappan was chosen Scribe in place -of 
Rev'd. Moses Parsons, deceased. 

August 10, 1784. Rev'd. True Kimball was admitted as a member. 

At a meeting of the Association at Ipswich, May 10, 1785, the Rev. Mr. 
Powers, lately minister of Cohass, requested and received from the Association 
a written certificate or Testimonial, Signed by the Moderator and all the 
members present, expressing their esteem of him as a Christian and a minister, 
and recommending him to any churches or societies among whom he may be 
providentially called to preach the Gospel. 

June 13, 1786. At a meeting at Newburyport the Association gave a sim- 
ilar Testimonial to Mi-. Ebenezer Cleaveland, late Pastor of the church at 
Sandy Bay, Gloucester. 

The first person of whom there is any record, who was examined and 
approved by the Association, as qualified to preach the Gospel, was Mr. 
Nathaniel Howe ; and the record is as follows : 

At a Meeting of the Association at Newbury, Newtown, May 8, 1787, Mr. 
Nathaniel Howe, at his request, was examined and approved by the Associa- 
tion as a Candidate for the Gospel Ministry ; and a Certificate was given him 
by the Scribe, testifying their approbation of him as a person qualified to 
preach the Gospel. 

At a meeting of the Association at New Rowley, June 12, 1787, 

Voted, to turn our future meetings through the present year into Seasons 
of Fasting and Prayer on account of the present moral and religious and polit- 
ical situation of this people ; and to invite our Several flocks to vmite with us in 
these Solenmities. 

In accordance with the above resolution, eleven fasts were observed in the 
following order ; Topsfield, Chebacco, Ipswich South Church, Newburj- Port, 
Old Rowley, Ipswich First Church, New Rowley, Newbury Third Parish, New- 
bury Second Parish, By field, Bradford lower Paiish. These fasts, were observed 
by preaching in the morning and afternoon by two of the brethren. The 
names of the preachers and their texts for each place are given. 

September 11, 1787. Mr. Moses Bradford was examined and approved 
as qualified to preach the Gospel. 
October 9, 1787. Rev. Ebenezer Dutch was admitted as a member. 

There is no record for 1788. 

August, 1789, Messrs. Lambert and Ariel Chute examined and approved. 

No record for 1790. 

April, 1791. Mr. Daniel Merrill was examined and approved. 
At a meeting of the Association in Chebacco, May 3, 1791, the late Recom- 
mendation of the Convention of Ministers at Boston, respecting licensing and 



30 HISTOKJf OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATIOX. 

encouraging Preachers, etc., was adopted by the Association, as the rule of their 
future conduct in such cases. 

At a meeting of the Association in Newbury, third Parish, it was 

Voted, that One of our Body be sent for to preach the gospel gratis to those 
people in New Hampshire and Vermont, who shall appear most to need and 
desire such a favor ; that he continue in that service for a number of weeks 
equal to the number of members in the Association ; and that each of the other 
members supply his j^ulpit one Sabbath in his absence. This vote was passed 
conditionally, tliat is, on the supposition of the concurrence of our several 
churches and congregations in the affair. 

At a meeting of the Association at Bradford, August 9, 1791, the Asso- 
ciation abridged the term of service for their proposed Missionary, from eight to 
seven weeks, and engaged to supply his pulpit through the whole of that term ; 
as also to stand ready to preach Lectures, visit the sick, attend funerals, etc., in 
his Parish, if they should be called to it. Tuey likewise voted that their Mis- 
sionary shall receive no compensation for his services, from those to whom he 
ministers ; but yet shall be at liberty to receive small contributions, if offered 
by individuals, to indemnify him for his necessary travelling expenses ; and shall 
keep and exhibit to the Association, an exact account of his travels, labors, 
expenditures, and of any donations he may receive ; and if upon such an exhi- 
bition they find he has sustained considerable loss in the service, they promise 
to unite their endeavors for his compensation. They also by their vote 
requested the Rev. David Tappan to accept of said Mission, and desired their 
Moderator, the Rev. John Cleaveland, to furnish him with proper Testimonials, 
signed by him in their name. 

June 12, 1792. Mr. Gould was examined and approved. 

August 14, 1792. At a meeting of the Association at Newbury Port, the 
Rev. Elijah Parish was recjuested by their vote to accept of a similar Mission 
with that which Mr. Tappan undertook the year preceding. He accordingly 
undertook it on the same terms and lor the same number of weeks with his 
predecessor ; and was desired to pursue much the same route, and to pay a 
special attention to that part of Vermont which Mi'. Tappan had visited. 

This closes the records in the clear, bold hand of Prof. Tappan. 

May 14, 1793. The Association met at Ipswich, and made choice of Sam- 
uel Spring as Scribe ; and approbated Mr. Daniel Dana as a candidate for the 
gospel ministry. 

May 13, 1794. Examined and approbated Mr. Eliphalet Gillett. 

June 10, 1794. Approbated Mr. Perley. 

June 9, 1 795. Examined and recommended Mr. Joseph Dana. 

The subsequent years, '96, '97, and '98, the Association met as usual; and in 
rotation performed the general duties expected on the occasion, not having been 
engaged in any exercises or resolutions which require a particular record. 

May 14, 1799. Met at Mr. Frisbie's, and elected the Rev. Joseph Dana 
Moderator. (Mr. Beatty preached.) 

In the afternoon, attended to the Letter of the Boston Association. 

1. Voted, that the desire of the Boston Association to promote the interest 
of religious reformation, expressed in the circular letter, merits the most serious 
and vigorous attention. 

2. Voted, to comply with the request of the letter, by choosing delegates 
to consult with others, at the time specified, relative to suitable measures to 
obtain the desirable object. 

3. Voted, to depute the Rev. Joseph Dana and Samuel Spring to meet the 
Delegates of Boston the day previous to the general election. 

At this same meeting a change was made in the exercises of the Asso- 



ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 31 

elation, which introduced one of its present prominent features, namely, 
theological criticism. 

4. Voted, that one member of the Association shall read a dissertation on 
some interesting theological question at every meeting of the Association. 

5. That the Bi-other of whom the dissertation is expected shall be the one 
who receiA'es and entertains the Association. 

6. That the question to be answered shall be proposed invariably by the 
Brother who answered the last question, and by him who has the Association 
at his house. 

7. The question put by the Bi'other above designated may be varied by the 
major part of the Association if thought expedient. 

8. Charles Coffin, junior, examined and approbated. Rev. A. Beattie and L. 
Woods admitted as members. 

June 11, 1799. A meeting, but no matters of interest. 

Aug. 13, 1799. Rev. A. Moor and Rev. Isaac Braman admitted as members. 

May, 1800. Mr. Samuel Dana examined and approbated by the Association. 

The last record in the handwriting of Samuel Spring is May 12, 
1801. 

There is no record in 1802, 1803, 1804. 

June, 1805. At Rev. Mr. Tullar's, Rowley, Rev. Leonard Woods chosen 
Scribe. 

July 29, 180G. Mr. Lake Coffin, A. B., examined and approbated. 

September 9, 1806. At Rev. Mr. Tullar's, Rowley. 

Whereas, the Rev. Dr. Dana, who has been chosen Moderator of this Associ- 
ation, has for four Successive meetings absented himself without offering any 
reasons, in consequence of which the Association is left without Moderator, 
therefore : 

V.oted, that a Moderator be now chosen, who shall continue in office during 
the pleasure of the Association. Accordingly the Rev. Samuel Spring was 
chosen Moderator by baUot. 

By Rev. Mr. Spring's motion, also, 

"Voted, that on common occasions, the members of this Association serve as 
Moderator in rotation. 

Voted, to continue to Daniel Lovejoy the license he had received from the 
Lincoln Association. 

Examined and approbated Paul Jewett. 

Voted, that the members of the Association severally subscribe the license 
given to candidates. 

May 12, 1807. At Byfield. The Association, 

Voted, to send a delegate to general Association at Windsor the last 
Wednesday in May, and chose Rev. Mr. Spring unanimously. 

Examined and licensed Mr. Joseph Merrill. 

June, 9, 1807. At Newburyport. Chose Rev. Mr. Braman as delegate from 
the Association to the General Association at Windsor, in addition to the choice 
of Rev. Mr. Spring above mentioned. 

July 12, 1808. By motion of Rev. Dr. Spring, 

Voted, that^the order of September 9, 1806, respecting the members serving 
on common occasions be retained, and that the oldest member be Moderator on 
all special occasions. Accordingly Dr. Dana is to take the place of Special 
Moderator which Dr. Spring by his motion resigned. 

July 12, 1808. Voted, that the Scribe procure such a book for the Associa- 
tion as he shall judge proper, and report the price to the Association. 

Voted, that a Committee of three be chosen to present a system of rules for 



32 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

the acceptance of the brethren, having a particular respect to the rules pre- 
viously adopted ; and that Dr. Dana, Mr. Huntington, and Mr. Wood, be the 
Committee. 

This portion of the records covers the transactions of the first forty- 
seven years of the Association. They were years of intense interest and 
activity in both civil and theological atfairs. It embraces the period of 
the Revolution, and also, the rise of the Hopkinsian school in New Eng- 
land. Of this school there were two prominent advocates in this Associ- 
ation, Eev. Dr. Samuel Spring, and Rev. Dr. Papish. Rev. Dr. Woods 
was then a young man, but reputed to be in sympathy and close fellow- 
ship with Dr. Spring. The principal opponent of this system was Rev 
Dr. Joseph Dana. It is much to be regretted that the records give so 
little of the internal life of the Association. We have only the barest 
recital of facts, and these few in number, and external in character. Yet 
the organization served to keep alive the vital truths of the Gospel in the 
churches of this vicinity, and to unite, in cooperative efforts, nearly the 
whole ministry of this valley, although this locality was well known as the 
stronghold of what was termed " libei'al Christianity." Only two churches 
within the territorial bounds of this body, the first in Newburyport, and 
the first in Haverhill, passed over to Unitarianism. 



REVISED RULES. 

At a meeting on the second Tuesday in October, 1808, at the house of Rev* 
Dr. Dana, the following system of Rules was adopted by the Association : 



SYSTEM OF RULES. 

The meetings of the Association shall be held at the houses of the members 
in rotation on the second Tuesday of each month, except those months in 
which it shall be deemed inconvenient to meet. 

2. Each member of the Association shall be present at every meeting, unless 
special reasons prevent. 

3. At each meeting there shall be public worship, beginning at 1 1 o'clock, 
A. M., the members officiating in rotation according to age, excepting the 
brother at whose house the meeting is held. 

4. Afler a moderate repast, to be made with as little trouble and expense as 
may be, the brother at whose house the meeting is held, shall introduce the 
business with prayer, and the Association shall employ their time in religious 
conference ; and if there be occasion for it, in examining and approbating can- 
didates; and in taking into consideration, merely as a friendly council, and 
without the least pretence to any right of authoritative decision, the concerns of 
any brother, or any society, which may be brought before the associated 
brethren for advice. 

5. Any person who wishes to become a member of this Association, shall 
give notice of his desire at a regular meeting ; and at the following meeting, if 
he continues to request admission, the Association shall determine by vote 
whether his request shall be complied with. It shall be considered requisite to 



ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION', 33 

the admission of any pei-son, that the consent of two-thirds of the whole Asso- 
ciation be obtained, and that he subscribe to the system of rules adopted by the 
Association. 

6. The members of this Association will consider their connection as an addi- 
tional motive to be friends and guardians to the reputation, comfort, and use- 
fulness of each other, and of all Christian ministers according to the rules of our 
holy religion. 

7. On all common occasions, the associated brethren shall serve as Moderator 
in rotation, in the order of seniority. 

8. It shall be the duty of the moderator on all occasions to preserve order 
in the Association, and to see that all business is executed with propriety and 
expedition. 

9. There shall be a Standing Moderator and Scribe, who shall both be 
chosen by ballot. It is understood that the senior minister shall be chosen 
Moderator unless special reasons shall lead the association to excuse him from 
that office. 

10. A standing posture is deemed pi'oper while speaking, and the Moderator 
shall be directly addressed in all the remarks offered to the Association. 

11. The Scribe shall keep a record of the place of the meeting, of those 
who officiate in public, of the candidates who are approbated, and of all special 
transactions of the association. 

12. With a view to improvement, free remarks may be made by the breth- 
ren on all the public performances of the association, unless special business 
render it inconvenient. 

13. The Standing Moderator, when requested by three members, or when 
two join with him in deeming it expedient, shall call a sjjeeial meeting of the 
Association, taking care to inform every member of the time, place, and par- 
ticular object of the meeting. 

14. When the ministers of this Association are called, in their associated 
capacity, to act as an ordaining council, the churches under their pastoral 
care shall be seasonably requested to send delegates to represent them in coun- 
cil. 

15. In order that any person may be regularly approbated by this Associa- 
ciation, as a candidate for the Gospel Ministry, he shall, in the first place, by 
proper evidence, satisfy the associated brethren that he is a member, in good 
standing, of some Congregational or Presbyterian Church ; that he has tor a 
considerable time maintained an unblemished moral and religious character ; that 
he possesses promising natural abilities ; and that his literary acquirements are 
adequate to the work of a Gospel Minister ; and, in addition to all this, that he 
has diligently and under proper direction devoted himself to the study of divin- 
ity for at least two years ; unless in some rare instances two-thirds of all the 
members judge it expedient to waive this rule. Having given the Association 
full satisfaction on these subjects, the applicant shall, in the second place, sub- 
mit to a particular examination respecting his theological and personal qual- 
ifications. 

In order to expedite the examination, the Standing IModerator shall propose 
to him the following questions ; the brethren having opportunity to add any 
pertinent inquu-ies on each question before proceeding to the next. 

QUESTIONS TO BE PROPOSED IN THE EXAMINATION OF CANDIDATES. 

1. By what arguments do you prove the being and perfection of God ? 

2. How do you prove the doctrine of divine providence '? 

3. How do you prove the divine authority of the Scriptures ? 

4. What is the doctrine of the Trinity, and how is it supported ? 

5. By what arguments do you prove the proper Deity of Jesus Christ ? and 
■what are the practical uses of this doctrine ? 

5 



34 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

6. What was the original character and state of man, and under what con- 
stitution was lie placed ? 

7. What is the Scripture doctrine of original sin ? What is the moral state 
of man by nature ? And by what symptoms is the progress of depravity 
usually marked ? To what source is it to be traced ? 

8. What is redemption by Christ ? And what do the Scriptures teach con- 
cerning the nature and design of the atonement ? 

9. What is the extent of the Gospel offer ? 

1 0. What is regeneration ? Why necessary ? How effected ? And what 
its fruits ? 

11. AVhat is the Gospel doctrine of justification ? 

1 2. AYhat is the nature of true holiness '? What is the distinguishing nature 
of true Christian faith, love, repentance, and other graces, and wherein do they 
differ from what hypocrites may experience ? 

13. What is the doctrine of Sovereign grace? W^hat is the Scripture doc- 
trine of election ? And how does it differ fi-om the doctrine of Sovereign 
grace ? 

14. What do the Scriptures teach concerning the final perseverance of 
saints ? 

15. What answer is to be given to the awakened, distressed sinner, who 
anxiously inquires, " What shall I do to be saved ?" 

16. WHiat are the chief points of distinction between Law and Gospel ? 

1 7. W^hat ai-e the principle characteristics which distinguish the religion of 
regenerate sinners from the religion of a state of innocence V 

18. What is the true doctrine of the means of rehgion with reference to 
saints and sinners V 

19. What is the Scripture doctrine of the soul's unembodied state after 
death V Of the general resurrection ? And of the future judgment ? 

20. How do you prove that the future punishment of the wicked will be 
without end ? 

21. What is a Christian Church? What qualifications are requisite in 
order-J^o a complete standing in the visible Church ? And what do the Scrip- 
tures teach concerning the design and proper subjects of baptism and the 
Lord's Supper? 

22. What are the qualifications of the standing officers of the Church, 
especially of Ministers ? What constitutes a call to the INIinistry ? 

23. What ought to be the disposition and views of one who offers himself to 
preach the Gospel ? What are your hopes and the grounds of them ? 

After a satisfactory examination on these subjects, the candidate for appro- 
bation shall read a sermon on some important Gospel subject. 

Finally, the Association, seriously deliberating on the question before them, 
and feeling their responsibilities to the Head of the Church, shall either express 
their satisfaction with his qualifications and give him the usual letter of approba- 
tion, signed by the Moderator and Scribe, or shall give him such advice as 
Christian love and fidelity dictate. 

In ordinary cases anj' person, wishing for approbation, shall make known his 
desire to the Association a month at least previous to the time of his examina- 
tion, and shall be furnished, if he requests it, with a copy of the whole preceding 
rule respecting the approbation of Candidates. 

The rules reported by this Committee, and adopted by the Association, 
it will be seen differ materially from the old articles of agreement. 

The vote for a Committee to revise the rules was passed with a pro- 
viso. The Committee were to have " a particular respect to the rules 
previously adopted." Not one of the original members was now living. 



ASSOCIATION TO ACT AS COUNCIL. 38 

Dr. Joseph Dana knew them well, for he was ordained in 1765, and was 
still in active duty. So with Dr. Spring; he was ordained in 1777, and 
knew them all personally except Jedediah Jewett. So with Ebenezer 
Dutch, who was settled in 1779. Dr. Parish was ordained in 1787, 
which was two years before the death of James Chandler, and twelve 
years before the death of John Cleaveland. 

THE ASSOCIATION TO ACT AS A COUNCIL. 

The first particular to be noticed in the new rules was the introduction 
of the 1 4th rule. 

This rule, we think, must have been wholly prospective, as there is no 
evidence that the Association was ever called to act as a council. 

All usages in this vicinity were against such action. It was in fact the 
incorporation of the idea of a consociation, the same which appeared in 
the "sixteen proposals" of the Boston Association in 1705. It was the 
same spirit which again arose in 1774 in the Bolton case, in which the 
right of a pastor to negative the votes of the church was claimed by Mr. 
Goss, and defended in a pamphlet by Rev. Zabdiel Adams of Lunen- 
burg, and answered by a racy writer signing himself " A Neighbour." 
In this discussion the question came up, whether there is binding force in 
the decisions of ecclesiastical councils, independent of their acceptance by 
the churches. Those who advocated the authoritative decisions of coun- 
cils " succeeded," says Dr. Clark (Congregational Churches in Massa- 
chusetts, p. 213), "in getting their views adopted by the 'Convention of 
Congregational Ministers,' at their meeting in May, 1773, and in the 
publishment of the same in a pamphlet with the imprimatur of the Con- 
vention. But the spirit of liberty was too wide awake at that time to 
bear the yoke thus laid upon the necks of the people, and it was indig- 
nantly thrown off." The result of the discussion was the re-statement of 
the principles of our Congregational polity, and a return to the doctrine 
of the Cambridge platform respecting councils, namely, "that a council is 
not to decide authoritatively, but to advise the church how to decide and 
determine;" and that this advice " should have just so much force as 
there is force in the reason of it." 

Of this controversy there is no intimation on our records. But in 
1815 the identical proposals of the Boston Association in 1705 were 
again resuscitated. They came before the General Association, and a 
Committee was raised to inquire into their history and report at the next 
annual meeting. This Committee, through their chairman. Rev. Jedediah 
Morse, D. D., presented an elaborate report, and recommended the adop- 
tion of a plan of ecclesiastical order in consistency with the views of Cotton 



36 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

Mather. The subject came up in this Association, was discussed and 
written upon, and on the 13th of June, 1815, it was 

Voted, That in the view of this Association it is inexpedient that any new 
manual of church disciphne, or ecclesiastical judicature, be estabhshed in the 
churches; and that our representatives in the general Association be respect- 
fully requested to use all their influence to prevent the adoption of any such 
measure in that reverend body. 



APPROBATION OF CANDIDATES FOR THE MINISTRY. 

Another particular in which the new code differed from the old, was 
the full and explicit arrangement made for the approbation of candidates 
for the ministry. 

And here it may be well to notice somewhat fully the history of tliis 
matter. 

In the earliest Puritan churches it was not customary when a new 
church was to be organized, or a minister ordained, or a candidate appro- 
bated, to go outside of the individual church.^ So, also, in ordination.^ 

If the company of believers had the right to organize themselves into 
a church, and to ordain a pastor over themselves, much more have they 
the right of approbation. And thus the church and town of Woburn rea- 
soned, in their petition to the General Court, August 30, 1653.^ The 
result was that the General Court repealed the order that ministers 
should be approbated by a council, or by the county court. The right 
of approbation was conceded to be in the church. "This," says Wise, 
"was the old custom." — Churches' Quar. Espoused, 171. 



1 The custom had become prevalent, but not universal, in 1636, of asking the 
advice of neighboring churches wlien a new church was to be formed. — Clark's Cong. 
Chhs., p. 20. 

^ The calling in of councils to perform tlie ordination services, was understood to 
be in theory nothing more nor less than the church itself performing them by proxy, 
on the principle, qui facit per aliumfacit per se. In their reasonings on the subject, to 
leave the ultimate decision of the question to other churches, whether a company of 
believers should be a church and have a pastor, would be to adopt the Presb}i;erian 
rule, which they had no thought of adopting ; to leave it to the good pleasure of neigh- 
boring ministers, would be to resume the yoke of prelacy which they had just thrown 
off. Every step taken toward uniformit}' and afHliation during this period, M'as taken 
with the utmost caution, and not till it was clearly seen that the fundamental principle 
of their ecclesiastical organism — independency, or self-government — was not en- 
dangered thereby. So that these seeming restraints, which the usages of the times 
were throwing upon their liberty, they regarded as merely the bonds of fellowship, 
which did not trammel their freedom. — Clark's Cong. Chhs., pp. 23, 24. 

^ If a church has liberty of election and ordination, then it has the power of appro- 
bation also. — M?ss. Hist. Soc. Coll., III. S., vol. 1, p. 42. 



APPROBATION OF CANDIDATES FOR THE MINISTRY. 37 

By and by individual j^astors gave letters of commendation and intro- 
duction. Then, as there were Associations of clergymen, they united in 
giving the letter, and all signed it. Generally these letters introduced 
the candidate to a particular church or field of labor. As at the Minis- 
ters' Meeting, June 17, 1729 : 

We did nothing besides giving a recommendation of Mr. Timothy Walker 
for Pennicook. 

September 15,1730. Gave Mr. Chandler recommendation in order for preach- 
ing. Signed by all the members present. 

April 17, 1733. Mr. Francis Wooster applied himself to the Association, to 
see if they could encourage him in preaching the gospel. 

Voted, That we can't think it advisable for Mr. Wooster to continue h^ 
preaching and intention of settling in the ministry, but content himself to serve 
God and his generation in some private calling. 
Signed by 

Samuel Phillips, 
John Barxakd, 
John Brown, 
Joseph Parsons, 
William Balch, 
James Gushing, 
Christopher Sargent, 
James Chandler. 

In 1734 there was trouble in the Parish of West Haverhill, about the 
settlement of a Mr. Skinner. The following is the record : 

Some proposal made for Mr. Skinner's approbation, if we were sensible of his 
fitness for the ministry, or, if not, that we might come into some method for a 
trial of his fitness. But the proposal not come into ; inasmuch as this is an un- 
usal thing among us, after a candidate is already become a preacher. 

July 15, 1735. Approved Mr. Nathaniel Merrill for occasional preaching. 

September, 1737. Approved Mr. Samuel Phillips, Jr., for occasional preach- 
ing. 

September, 1738. Approved of Mr. Edward Barnard and Mr. Abner Bailey 
for occasional preaching. 

So M-. Samuel Webster, in 1739. 

In October 14, 1755, there is the following : 

Mr. Joseph Parsons, Jr., was approved of (after he had delivered a discourse 
to the Association) in order to public preaching, and encouraged to enter upon 
it. The same with Jonathan Eames in 1756, and Abiel Foster in 1760. 

In the case of John Page and Amos Moody in 1762, and of John 
Marsh in 1764, no mention is made of any discourse; but in the case of 
Thomas Gary in 1766, and of Thomas Barnard in 1769, it is stated that 
they read a discourse and were approbated. 

The first certificate given by the Essex North Association was to Mr. 
Nathaniel Howe, May 8, 1787. The record is : 

Mr. Nathl. Howe, at his request, was examined and approved by the Associa- 



38 HISTORY OF KSSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

tion as a Candidate for the Gospel Ministry ; and a certificate was given him 
by the Scribe, testifying their approbation of him as a person qualified to preach 
the Gospel. 

A similar certificate was given to Moses Bradford, Sept. 11, 1787 ; to 
Nathaniel Lambert and Ariel Parish in 1789. Every candidate, before 
approbation, invariably passed a careful examination. Thus gradually 
the examination and approbation of candidates for the ministry passed 
from the hands of the churches to that of the clergy, and naturally to 
that of clerical Associations. " This," says Dr. Clarke, " is the only 
thing in the celebrated 'Proposals' of 1705, which has survived the 
scathing satire of Mr. Wise in the ' Churches' Quarrel Espoused.' " In 
1790, the Convention of Congregational Ministers recommended that only 
those bearing papers from clerical bodies be admitted to the pulpits. And 
this, in effect, made such papers necessary. And this recommendation 
was adopted by this Association, May 3, 1791, and made the rule of 
their future conduct. It was in connection with this vote that the word 
" licensing " first appears in our records, and was introduced by Rev. Dr. 
Tappan, who was then Scribe. It was never used by Dr. Spring while 
he served in that office, but was again introduced by his successor, Rev. 
Dr. Woods. When the rules were revised in 1808, and in 1834, and 
again in 1860, the old word "approbate" was used instead of the usurper 
" license," and it, in fact, better expresses the purport of such credentials. 

In the revision of the rules of the Association in 1808, very special 
attention was given to the approbation of candidates for the ministry. 
See rule loth. 

To expedite the examination which was to be conducted as now by 
the standing Moderator, twenty-three questions were framed with great 
care, all of which were to be put to the candidate. 

Young men now began to make application for certificates of approTia- 
tion from the new seminary at Andover. 

July 9, 1811, Dr. Dana, by vote of the Association, exhibited a sum- 
mary view of arguments for and against the examination of candidates 
for the ministry in the original languages of Scripture. 

September 8, 1812. Some changes were made in the mode of exami- 
nation. Instead of the questions, the candidate was to be examined in 
the manner set forth in the following resolution : 

Voted, That every candidate for approbation shall read a sermon before the 
Association, if circumstances pei-mit, and then be examined on the following 
subjects, instead of the questions, namely : On the being and perfections of 
God ; the divine authority of the Scriptures ; the doctrine of the Trinity ; the 
original Character and State of man ; the doctrine of original Sin, and the 
present State of man by nature ; the atonement of Christ ; the extent of the 
gospel offer ; regeneration and the distinguishing nature of holiness ; the doc- 



EXERCISES. 39 

trines of election and Sovereign grace ; perseverance and justification ; the 
means of religion, and the proper treatment of awakened sinners ; the interme- 
diate state, resurrection, and future retribution ; the nature of the Church and 
the qualifications of its members ; the Christian rites, or ordinances ; the neces- 
sary qualifications of ministers ; and on personal religion. 

July 10, 1827. Brothers Dimmick and Withington were a committee 
to " revise the form of approbation of candidates for the ministry, and to 
make such alterations as they may think proper, and cause two hundred 
copies of the same to be printed." This Committee reported their form 
to the Association, September 11. It was approved and ordered to be 
printed. At this date the word " Hcense " appears in the new form of 
certificate prepared by those most excellent Congregationalists, Brothers 
Dimmick and Withington, and soon was in general use. There are sev- 
eral records which show very clearly that the Association insisted that 
men should be well qualified for the office of the ministry. The present 
rule is : 

It shall be further rec^uired, that he (the candidate) shall have diligently, and 
under proper direction, devoted himself to the study of divinity for at least two 
years, unless, in some rare instances, two-thirds of all the members judge it 
expedient to waive the rule. . 

The whole number approbated by the Association during the century, 
and whose names appear upon the records, is seventy-six. 



EXERCISES. 

We have already seen, that in the old Ministers' Meeting, little else 
was accomplished than the exchange of views on matters of difficulty in 
the different churches, and a larger social intercourse. In this Associa- 
tion, the first direction given was that of religious devotion — varied 
only in the form of the religious services. The first change in the order 
of exercises was made, 

May 14, 1799. 4th. Voted, that one member of the Association shall read a 
dissertation on some interesting theological question at every meeting of the 
Association. 

5th. That the Brother of whom the dissertation is expected, shall be the one 
who receives and entertains the Association. 

6th. That the question to be answered shall be proposed invariably by the 
Brother who answered the last question, and by him who had the Association 
at his house. 

No change whatever was made in the order or the kind of exercises 
by the revised rules of 1808, except the introduction of free criticism on 
all the performances. 

This of itself was a most valuable addition, and has contributed a 
large share to the usefulness of this body. 



.# 



# 



40 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATIOX. 

June 8, ]824. Rev. Messrs. Miltimore, Withington, and Diinmick, 
were appointed a Committee to consider what maj be done to render the 
meetings of this Association more profitable, and to suggest a plan for 
that purpose. This Committee reported : 

July 13. 1. That the Association meet precisely at 10 o'clock, and immedi- 
ately proceed to business. 

2 That tln-ce members be particularly designated to read dissertations at 
each meeting ; that it be understood that they will be depended on ; and that 
the reading commence immediately after the opening of the meeting by prayer. 

3. That after the reading of the dissertations, one plan of a sermon be exhib- 
ited at each meeting by a member previously appointed. 

4. That a Committee be appointed to collect and arrange a list of subjects on 
ministerial duties ; tliat each preacher choose one from these subjects ; that he 
be appointed with a substitute at the preceding meeting ; and be depended on 
to perform. 

5. That the subject of remarking on the public performances be more faith- 
fully attended to ; and that we observe more strictly the rule of closing each 
meeting in a solemn manner by prayer, at the house where it has been holden. 

July 10, 1832. It was voted, that the Association meet six times a year, and 
that the meetings be held on the last Tuesdays in August, October, December, 
February, April, and June. Each meeting to commence at five o'clock, p. m., 
and to continue till the afternoon of the next day. [The understanding is that 
the brethren continue till early tea, is the explanatory note appended to the 
vote.] 

Voted, that the next Association sermon be preached in the evening. 

August 27, 1832, only a month later, it was 

Voted, to introduce into the Association the usual exercises of the Clergy- 
man's Society. 

This was a circle formed at the house of Dr. Withington, October 26, 
1819. There were present Brothers D. T. Kimball, L. Withington, 
Willard Holbrook, and G. B. Perry. The exercises were to be a ser- 
mon preached in public, the reading of portions of the Scripture in the 
original languages, and dissertations on moral and religious subjects, doc- 
trinal and practical. 

Subsequently the following brethren joined it: B. Sawyer, L. F. Dim- 
mick, R. G. Dennis, E. Demond, and H. C. Wright. The idea of this 
society was first suggested to Rev. Dr. Withington by Dr. Perry, when 
the former was in discharge of his duties as chaplain upon the training- 
field at Georgetown. 

At the time this society was formed, the exercises of the Association 
consisted only of a sermon preached at 11 o'clock, A. M. ; followed by 
criticism and dinner ; after that, sometimes a dissertation, and sometimes 
not ; an hour or two of general conversation, and then an adjournment. 
As the members of the Clergymen's Society were all members of the as- 
sociation, we should naturally expect to find the direct influence of the 



RELIGIOUS PUBLICATIONS. 41 

former, which was composed of young men, in the exercises of the latter. 
Hence the adoption, in 1824, of the rule for three dissertations. 

In 1832, the entire course of exercises in the Clei'gymen's Society was 
adopted by the Association. Tliis made it necessary for the Association 
to assemble in the p. M. and to tarry over night. Substantially our present 
course of exercises was initiated by the Clergymen's Society in 1819, par- 
tially adopted by the association in 1824, and fully adopted in 1832. The 
older clergymen were not so familiar with Hebrew and Greek as those 
were supposed to be who graduated at Andover. Hence the hesitation 
in making the reading of portions of Scripture in the original languages a 
part of their regular exercises. It is a noble example, worthy to be put 
into the history of our body, that Father Kimball commenced and pros- 
ecuted the study of Hebrew after he was forty years of age. 

The Clergymen's Society, finding all its ends answered in the Associa- 
tion, at a meeting in Amesbury, August 28, 1832, it was 

Voted, to discontinue our meetings so long as the spirit of this society shall 
be maintained in operation. 

Voted, that the records of this society be deposited with the clerk of the 
Essex Middle Association. 

No important change has been made in the exercises of this body since 
that period. It may be remarked that the study of the Scriptures in the 
original languages, has, since 1832, been a prominent exercise in the body. 

RELIGIOUS PUBLICATIONS. 

In 1832, the Association resolved that it was desirable that a religious 
periodical be published within the bounds of the Essex Middle Associa- 
tion, and Brothers Dimmick, Withington, Bai'bour, Perry, and Wright, 
were a Committee to make inquii-y about the subject and report. This 
report was made October 30, 1832, whereupon it was 

Voted, that we proceed to have the first number of a religious periodical 
published, provided a printer will take the pecuniary responsibility of the pub- 
Hcation. 

Voted, that Brothers Withington and Dimmick be a Committee to carry the 
preceding vote into execution, and to su^Derintend the publication. 

Voted, that the title of the periodical be referred to them. 

This resulted in the establishment of the Essex North Register ; — first 
issued in the form of an 18mo. pamphlet, and finally changed into that 
of a newspaper. It was for several years edited, alternate weeks, by 
Brothers Withington and Dimmick. This eventually passed into other 
hands and beyond the control of the Association. 

6 



42 ' HISTORY OF ESSEX NOKTH ASSOCIATION. 

It is very much to be regretted that no files of this publication have 
been preserved among the papers of this body. 

February 23, 1841. It was voted, that Brothers Dimmick and Campbell be 
a Committee to concert some plan for preparing matter for the Watchlower, 
agreeably to the engagement entered into at the last meeting by the brethren 
of the Association. 

These engagements were probably somewhat indefinite, as the only 
record is that of the appointment of a Committee to consult with Mr. To- 
zier, who was then the publisher. 

August 30, 1842. The subject of publishing a small religious newspaper 
within our bounds, having been introduced and discussed at considerable length, 
it was voted : 

1. That it is desirable to have such a paper in the midst of us. 

2. That it is not the wish of the Association to exclude other religious news- 
papers from our circle ; but only to fill a niche which is not likely to be occu- 
pied. 

3. That the paper should be of a decidedly evangelical character, harmoniz- 
ing with the general sentiments and usages of the churches with which we are 
connected. The Essex North Register, published under our patronage a few 
years ago, is a paper in accordance with our views of what is now required. 

4. That if such a paper can be pubhshed on reasonable terms, the members 
of the Association will favor its circulation in their respective circles, assuming, 
however, no pecuniary responsibility; but not doubting that the paper, well 
conducted, will soon obtain patronage adequate to its support. 

5. That a Committee of this body be appointed to institute inquiry with 
regard to this subject ; that if they can make satisfactory arrangements, they be 
authorized to proceed to the estabhshment of such a paper as that above men- 
tioned. 

6. That if a contract be made with any individual to publish the paper, or 
with any one to superintend in part the editorial department, there shall be a 
standing editing Committee who shall be joint editors in conducting the paper, 
and shall have a right to have inserted in its columns whatever communications 
said Committee shall deem suitable for publication. 

Voted, that the Committee consist of four, namely : Brothers Dimmick, 
March, Stearns, Perry. 

This Committee reported February 29, 1843, upon which it was 

Voted, that in consideration of the arrangements recently made by Mr. 
Nason, this Association will suspend for the present the plan of publishing a 
paper, as proposed, and will endeavor to cooperate with Mr. Nason, by contribu- 
tions and patronage, for securing a good religious paper, according to the views 
of the evangelical Congregational churches, provided Mr. Nason is disposed to 
come into such an understanding with us. 

This resulted in an indirect connection between the Association and 
the Watchtotver. 

June ^5, 1845. Mr. Woodman presented the subject of the Watch- 
tower to the Association, which was conversed upon, and it was 

Voted, that the Watchtower, as at present conducted, meets the general ap- 
probation of this Association ; that it is deemed by us desirable and important 



SLAVERY. 43 

that it be sustained ; and we cheerfully recommend it as a good family paper to 
our congregations and to the community. 

Voted, that we accede to Brother Woodman's request, that the Watchtower 
be edited by himself, assisted by an association of clergymen. 



SLAVERY. 
At the meeting December 25, 1838, it was 

Voted, that a committee of five be chosen to prepare resolutions on the 
subject of slavery, and report at a special meeting. 

I cannot find that this Committee ever made a report. It was com- 
posed of Brothers Edgell, Perry, Monroe, Dimmick, and Withington. 
October 30, 1839. It was 

Resolved, that a Committee of three be appointed to prepare a statement of 
our views on the subject of slavery, in the foi'm of an address to Southern min- 
isters, to be presented at our next meeting. 

Brothers Dimmick, Durant, and March, were the Committee. This 
Committee made their report February 26, 1840, which was recom- 
mitted. April 28, 1840,. it was 

Voted, to send the address to the Charleston Union Presbytery, signed by 
the Moderator and Scribe. 

The document was forwarded, accompanied with the following note. 

To the Clerk of the Charleston Union Presbytery, S. C. : 

Dear Sir, — The origin of the accompanying communication you wiU per- 
ceive from one or two of its opening paragraphs. It is now forwarded to you 
for your Presbytery, according to the direction of the body from which it has 
emanated. 

Very respectfully yours, 

L. F. Dimmick, Chairman of the Commiitee. 
Newburyport, Mass, May 7, 1840. 

In October following, a newspaper (the Southern Christian Sentinel) 
was received in reply'; on the margin of which was written : 

Dear Brother, — Having been absent from the city for some time — your 
communication, in behalf of the Essex North Association, on the subject of 
slavery, was not received until two days ago ; and as our Presbytery does not 
meet till the next month, I am most happy in forwarding to you the letter of 
Rev. Mr. Fuller [contained in that number of the Sentiner] as a just exhibition 
of the views and spirit of Christian slaveholders. Will you have the goodness 
to contrast them with those of your communication, and in the presence of God, 
on the bended knee, ask yourself, with which you would rather enter heaven ? 
— My brother, admitted to heaven with the spirit of your communication, 
every harp of that blessed abode would be hush [ed ?] to silence by your pres- 
ence ! ! ! The Charleston Union Presbytery will duly consider your communi- 
cation — but they will never adopt your views, and your rules of interpret- 
ation ; much less your spirit — heaven forbid. 

Yours truly, 

Elipha White, Stated Clerk, C. U. P. 



44 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

After the meeting of the Presbytery the comraunication was sent 
back, with the following note : 

John's Island, November 24, 1840. 

Rev. and dear Sir, — As Stated Clerk of the Charleston Union Presby- 
tery, I had the honor, the last week, to jjrcsent the communication of the Essex 
North Association, forwarded by you to that body; — whereupon the Presby- 
tery voted unanimously, on motion of Dr. Post, not to receive it. Accordingly, 
as in duty bound, I return the communication for your further disposal. With 
great respect for you personally, and in due consideration of those for whom 
you act, I remain 

Yours truly, Elipha White. 

Rev. L. F. DiMMicK. 

The communication referred to, and the correspondence to which it 
led, filled nearly nine columns of " The Watchtower," issued March 5, 
1841. In language and in spirit it was thoroughly courteous and fra- 
ternal. The following quotation of the first two or three paragraphs will 
show under what circumstances it was written : 

To the Union Presbytery of Charleston, S. C. 

Dear Brethren, — The Essex North Association, at their meeting in 
October last, appointed a committee to prepare a letter to the Union Presby- 
tery of Charleston, S. C, on the subject of slavery. The Association were 
induced to this measure, in part at least, by some resolves which have ema- 
nated from your Presbytery on the subject referred to ; among wliich was the 
following, namely. 

Resolved, that in the opinion of this Presbji;ery, the holding of slaves, so far 
from being a sin in the sight of God, is nowhere condemned in his Holy Word ; 
— that it is in accordance with the example, and consistent with tlie precepts of 
patriarchs, prophets, and apostles. 

Again, October 31, 1842, a Committee was appointed to draft resolu- 
tions on the subject of slavery, in connection with a Committee of the 
conference. December 27, 1842, Brothers Stearns and Withington, 
were appointed a Committee to draft a petition to the General Court, and 
to the Congress of the United States respecting slaveiy. This was pre- 
sented January 5, 1843, and adopted and signed -by the brethren, and 
transmitted both to the legislature and to congress. 

Unfortunately, none of these papers were entered upon our minutes, 
and we have no means of forming a judgment as to 'their character, 
except from the opinions of those still with us who participated in the 
action of these meetings. 

Indirectly, the subject came up again with questions of the continuance 
of our correspondence with the Old School Presbyterian Assembly, and 
none of those present at the meeting at Dr. Withington's, February 24, 
1857, when the question was on final action, can forget the eloquent 
words for freedom which leaped out of the quiet moderation of our 
beloved brother and father, the late Dr. Dimmick. 



THE SABBATH. 45 

It was there declared to be the sense of this Association — 

That they are not prepared to take the responsibihty of discontinuing the 
correspondence with the Presbyterian churches in the present condition of 
things, but will continue it on the same principles as before. 

The principles on which that correspondence had existed were those 
of Christian fraternity and faithfulness. And the judgment expressed 
is to this effect ; — we wish to continue the correspondence, and will do 
so, using our long-conceded right to rebuke complicity in known sin, as 
our judgment and conscience, enlightened by the Spirit of God, shall 
dictate. 

TEMPERANCE. 

The Association early took a deep interest in the cause of Temper- 
ance. It is within the recollection of some of our number that the Asso- 
ciation dinner was hardly thought well furnished without a supply of 
assorted liquors. Some of our venerable fathers could see no harm at 
all in moderate potations of good brandy and wine. They had strong 
heads, and so they were not easily turned — still, if it were proper, we 
could turn over some leaves in the past, and read there the most im- 
pressive warnings to young clergymen and to young men. 

It was a bold stand when two young men of the Association, Dimmick 
and Withington, allowed themselves to be out of liquors at the meeting 
of the Association. The subject was discussed in 1827. In July, 
1829 

The time was chiefly occupied with remarks on the subject of Temperance. 

Brothers Perry, Barbour, and Withington, were instructed to present 
a scriptural view of that subject at the next meeting. At this time, 
September 8, 1829, they made their report, and were requested to pub- 
lish it. * 

April 28, 1835, it was 

Voted, that it be recommended that wine, with no infusion of ardent spirit, 
be used at the communion of the churches. 

THE SABBATH. 

June 30, 1840. Voted, that a Committee of four be chosen with reference 
to the violation of the Sabbath, by cars on our railroads ; and that Brothers 
Dimmick, Kimball, Campbell, and Munroe, be the Conunittee. 

October 27, 1840. Voted, that in the opinion of this Association, to buy or 
hold stock in rail cars which travel on the Sabbath, is inconsistent with Christian 
character. 



46 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

December 29, 1840, they voted to reconsider this vote, and then appointed 
a Committee to draft resolutions on the subject of stockholding and Sab- 
bath-breaking establishments — to report at the next meeting. Brothers 
Withington, Campbell, and Munroe, were the Committee. 

CONFERENCE. 

It was in this body that the Essex North Conference originated. July 
10, 1827, it was 

Voted, that a committee of three be appointed to draw up rules respecting a 
conference of the churches in this vicinity, with reasons in favor of the same, to 
report at the next meeting. Brothers Dimmick, Holbrook, and Peny, were 
the Committee. 

The report was prepared, but as the meeting was small it was deferred. 
At a special meeting, February 28, 1828, holden at brother Wright's, 
in West Newbury, it was 

Voted, that in the opinion of this Association we might form a conference, 
which would be of extensive utility ; and that a conference is desirable on the 
plan suggested in the following articles. 

Then follows what is in substance the original Constitution of the 
Essex North Conference. 

The articles were offered to a meeting, composed of pastors and dele- 
gates from our churches, called at the house of Rev. Dr. Dimmick, on 
the last Wednesday of April, 1828 — and the Essex North Conference 
was formed, September 8, 1833. 

Voted, that brothers Withington, Dimmick, and Perry, be a Committee to 
visit the churches on the north side of the river, not connected with the confer- 
ence of churches, and Invite them to become connected with it. 

Voted, that brothers Withington, Holbrook, and Mai'ch, be a Committee to 
visit the church at the Lower Green in Newbury, for the same purpose. 

The brethren of this Association have been most warmly interested in the 
establishment of the State Conference. One of our members, the Rev. 
Dr. Dimmick, bore a prominent part in the preliminary work of that 
enterprise. He had the highest expectations of its success and useful- 
ness. 

At the organization of this Association in 1761, the pastors of the fol- 
lowing churches belonged to it : — Rowley, Georgetown, West Newbury 
First Church, Byfield, Amesbury East or Sandy Hill, Ipswich, Linebrook, 
and Essex. Territorially it has changed very much, both by additions 
and withdrawals. In 1767, Belleville united with the body — the North 
Church, Newburyport, in 1770. Ipswich South Church united in 1770, 
and withdrew in 1835. West Newbury Second Church united in 1774. 
Ipswich First Church united in 1779, and its connection ceased in 1860, 



CONCLUSION. 47 

by the death of Father Kimball. Topsfield united in 1781, and withdrew 
in 1824. Groveland united in 1787. Rocky Hill, Salisbury, 1799. 
Newbury First Church, 1799. Amesbury West Parish united in 1827. 
Haverhill West Parish united in 1833, also the Centre Church in 
Haverhill the same year. Amesbury Mills united in 1834. Haverhill 
East Church in 1835. Haverhill and Plaistow Church also in 1835, 
and withdrew in 1855. Bradford united in 1836. Fourth Church, 
Newburyport, united in 1838, and the church at Salisbury Point the 
same year. Boxford West united in 1847. Whitefield Church, New- 
buryport, 1850. Haverhill Winter Street Church united in 1851. The 
North Church in Haverhill in 1862. The Theological Seminary 
at Andover, had a connection with this body in 1808, through Dr. 
Woods. There is no record that he ever withdrew. Again, this connec- 
tion was reestablished in 1856, by Professor Shedd, who withdrew to the 
Presbytery in New York in 1862, on his removal to that city. It will 
be observed that the churches in the north part of the county have come 
in quite recently. Formerly these churches were connected with the 
Haverhill Association, of which a sketch has been already given. 

The present membership of the churches, represented in this body, is 
three thousand four hundred and forty ; and the number of churches is 
twenty-two. Of the original eight churches six are still with us : Rowley, 
Georgetown, West Newbury First Church, Newbury (Byfield), Ipswich 
(Linebrook). The church at the East Parish, Amesbury, has become 
extinct. The church at Essex is now connected with the Essex South 
Association. The remaining churches are in the chronological order of 
their admission. Belleville, Newburyport; North Church, Newbury- 
port ; West Newbury, Second Church ; Groveland ; Salisbury, Rocky 
Hill ; Newbury, First Church ; Amesbury, West Parish ; Haverhill, 
West Parish ; Haverhill, Centre Church ; Amesbury Mills ; Haverhill, 
East Church ; Bradford ; Newburyport, Fourth Church ; Amesbury and 
Salisbury, Union Evangelical Church ; Boxford, West Parish ; Whitefield 
Church, Newburyport; North Church, Haverhill. 

Our whole number of members from the organization is ninety-nine ; of 
whom fifty-eight are now living. Of the forty-one deceased, twenty-seven 
died in the pastoral office, and twenty-three in their first pastorates. 

The average age of those who have died is fifty-nine years, five 
months, and twenty-one days. The average pastoral life is twenty-seven 
years and three months. Several of them wei'e in the active duties 
of the ministry some years after they ceased to be pastors. Two of 
them, Rev. David Tappan and Rev. Leonard Woods, both of the Second 
Parish in West Newbury, left their pastoral charge to occupy professor- 
ships ; the first in Harvard University, the second in Andover Theologi- 
cal Seminary. 



48 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

For the first twenty years and more, this body was known simply as 
the Association. I cannot find any trace of a distinctive name, until June 
10, 1783, when it was designated as the "Middle Association of Essex 
County ; " for the sake of brevity this was probably shortened into 
*' Essex Middle Association." But when, or how, or by whom, it was 
christened, I cannot discover. The probability is, that after the Haver- 
hill Association was formed, its geographical position determined its name. 

But in 1834, January 8th — the anniversary of the battle of New 
Orleans, — it was 

Voted, this Association is hereafter to be styled The Essex North Association. 

The house where the oldest member of this body. Rev. Jedediah Jew- 
ett, lived, and in whiqh the fathers of this Association frequently met, is 
still standing, but a short distance from this church.-' 

It is a pleasant fact, that we have with us to-day one of the same 
name, whose birth-day, August 23, 1768, was subsequent to that of the 
Association, only some seven years. And among our treasures we have 
sketches of the ministers of Old Rowley, drawn up the pfist season in the 
handwriting of our venerable friend, Dr. Joshua Jewett. To many of 
us, it would be an occasion not second to this, to keep his hundredth 
anniversary. For our sakes we could wish it, not for his. 

The oldest member of the Association is Rev. Benjamin Sawyer, of 
Rocky Hill, Salisbury. He was admitted a member in May, 1817. 
Dr. Withington was admitted in June of the same year. 

The social influence of the families of the clergymen in this valley is 
a matter worthy of extended investigation. 

The twenty-seven members of the old Ministers' Meeting were all 
married, and all had children but one, James Chandler. Of the families 
of three members our information is incomplete. The twenty-three other 
members had one hundred and eighty-four children — ninety-five sons and 
eichty-nine daughters. Of the sous, twenty-three are known to have 
graduated at college, and nine entered the ministry. Of the daughters, 
eight married clergymen. When the deduction of two-fifths, for those 
who die before twenty (which is 95 — 38=57) is made, it will he found, 
I think, that a larger ratio of the sons of clergymen are educated at col- 
lege than of any other class in the community. 

Among the sons of the members of the Ministers' Meeting were the 
following clergymen : 

John Rogers, Leominster, Mass. 
Joshua Tufts, Litchfield, N. H. 



Rowley. 



CONCLUSION. 49 

Thomas Barnard, Salem, Mass. 
Edward Barnard, Haverhill, Mass. 
John Brown, Cohasset, Mass. 
Cotton Brown, Brookline, Mass. 
Thomas Brown, Marsbfield, Mass. 
Joseph Parsons, Brookiield, Mass. 
Thomas Barnard, D. D., Salem, Mass. 

Among the other sons were Hon. Samuel Phillips of North An- 
dover, founder in connection with his brother John, and especially his son, 
Judge Samuel Phillips, of Phillips Academy, Andover. He was a civil 
magistrate, and a member of the Executive Council. 

John Phillips, LL. D., founder of " Phillips Academy," Exeter, N. 
H. ; joint founder of PhilUps Academy, Andover ; Trustee of Dartmouth 
College, and a civil magistrate. 

Hon. William Philips of Boston. 

Hon. Nathaniel Peaslee Sargent, Judge of the Superior Court 
in Massachusetts, and in 1789 appointed Chief Justice. 

Samuel Holyoke of Concord, N. H., a distinguished composer of 
music. 

Charles Kilborn Williams, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court 
and Governor of Vermont. 

In the Essex North Association, of the first forty members all were 
married but two, who died early in their ministry ; four had no children, 
and the facts respecting one family are unknown. In the other thirty- 
three families there were two hundred and seventeen children; one 
hundred and eleven sons and one hundred and six daughters. Deduct- 
ing the two-fifths for those who would die before twenty years of age, 
there would be sixty-six to enter upon manhood. Of these, thirty-two 
were graduates of college, and eleven entered the ministry. Seven of the 
daughters married clergymen. 

The sons of the members who became clergymen were as follows : 

MosES Hale of Boxford, Mass., W. Parish. 
John Cleaveland, Stoneham, Mass. 
Daniel Dana, D. D., Newburj^ort, Mass. 
Samuel Dana, Marblehead, Mass. 
Benjamin Tappan, D. D., Augusta, Me. 
Gardiner Spring, D. D., LL. D., New York, N. Y. 
Samuel Spring, D. D., Hartford, Ct. 
James Bradford, Sheffield, Mass. 
Milton P. Braman, D. D., Danvers, Mass. 
Leonard Woods, LL. D., Brunswick, Me. 
David T. Kimball, Jr. 

Two of the above became presidents of colleges ; Daniel Dana, D. 
D., of Dartmouth College, and Leonard Woods, LL. D., of Bowdoin 
College. Two of the sons of the Association became professors in col- 

7 



50 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

leges. Joseph Dana in the Ohio University, and Levi Frisbie in 
Harvard College. 

Theophilus Parsons, LL. D., became Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court of Massachusetts. Daniel Breck, LL. D., was a representative 
in Congress from Kentucky, and a Judge of the Supreme Court of that 
State. Hon. Elisha Huntington, an eminent physician of Lowell, 
Mass., and a lieut.-governor of the State of Massachusetts. Also his 
brother, Hon. Asahel Huntington of Salem, Mass., who has always 
stood among the foremost in the support of every noble public movement. 

The question naturally arises, What is the practical benefit of the As- 
sociation ? 

Much every way — chiefly, however, as a bond of Christian fellow- 
ship, both among the pastors and the churches of the Merrimac Valley. 
To our mind, the Christian life of this body is a constant example of those 
social graces indispensable to harmony, peace, and love, among Christian 
brethren. We have always had the different shadings of theological 
belief among our members ; yet always within the limits of a substan- 
tial orthodoxy ; we have always had brethren of widely different tastes 
and culture, and yet we have preserved the unity of the spirit. There 
is no outward formal bond holding us together, and yet we ai'e stronger 
than if riveted by a thousand arbitrary enactments, and braced through 
and through by the decisions of spiritual courts. We have no eccle- 
siastical authority or control, but our ecclesiastical influence in our own 
field renders such authority needless. 

Again, the Association has had great influence in keeping up a high 
standai'd of Christian scholarship and attainments among the pastors of 
the Congregational churches in this part of the county. There has been 
no period since its organization when there were not one or more of its 
members who had an influence far beyond the territorial limits of the 
body itself. Among its original members, George Leslie was a man of 
fine classical attainments. He fitted many young men for college and 
several for the ministry. Dr. Emmons said of John Cleaveland, that 
" he was a pattern of piety and an ornament to the Christian and clerical 
profession." Then followed Joseph Dana, David Tappan, Samuel 
Spring, Elijah Parish, and Asahel Huntington. Then Leonard Woods, 
Leonard Withington, and Luther F. Dimmick, and still later, Henry B. 
Smith, Edward A. Lawrence, W. G. T. Shedd. 

The influence of these men, not to mention that of others still with us, 
has been potential in keeping up a high standard of ministerial character 
and scholarship among the members, and in demanding as much from the 
candidates for the ministry who came to this body for approbation. " No 
man," says Dr. Woods, ever " felt more deeply the importance of a 



CONCLUSION. 51 

learned ministry, or pursued that object with a more steady purpose, with 
a greater magnanimity, or in a more disinterested manner, than Dr. 
Spring. Several years before any thing was done in this quarter toward 
a Theological Institution, it was with him a subject of deep thought and 
of serious conversation. Dr. Spring was a fatlier to the seminary." 

The following members of the Association have been officially con- 
nected with the Theological Seminary at Andover. 

Dr. Spring was one of the Visitors from 1808 to his death in 1819. 

Rev. Leonard Woods, D. D., was the first Professor of Christian The- 
ology, and held tha^ office from 1808 to 1846. 

Rev. Luther F. Dimmick, D. D., was a Trustee from 1846 to his 
death in 1860. 

Rev. W. G. T. Shedd was Professor of Ecclesiastical History from 
1853 to 1862. 

Rev. Daniel T. Fisk, D. D., was elected a Trustee in 1861, and is 
still in office. 

George Leslie, one of the original members of the Association, was 
invited to a professorship in Dartmouth College, but declined. David 
Tappan was a Professor in Harvard College. Henry Durant is now a 
Professor in the College at Oakland, Cal. Edward A. Lawrence is a 
Professor at East Windsor Theological Seminary. Henry B. Smith is 
a Professor in the Union Theological Seminary, New York. 

The Association has also been an important agent in promoting the 
beneficence, the piety, and the moral efficiency of the churches. Our 
records furnish the most abundant proofs of the hearty interest which our 
fathers and brethren have taken in the causes of education and temper- 
ance, and the removal of the social evils of our country and the world. 
They were earnest and cordial in the organization of the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, the Home Missionary, 
the Tract, the Bible, and the Education Societies. 

" The Massachusetts Missionary Society," says Dr. Woods, " was in- 
debted to Dr. Spring as much as to any man, for its existence and pros- 
perity." " He bore a most important part in originating the Foreign 
Mission from America. The measures which led to the organization 
of a public body for the promotion of that great object, were first sug- 
gested by him. And in the whole management of that glorious and suc- 
cessful undertaking, he was among those who were entrusted with the 
principal agency." ^ 

The Association began its existence just at the close of the French and 



^ Sermou at the Funeral of Dr. Spring, by Leonard Woods, D. D. 



52 



HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 



Indian war, and just as the contest between the colonies and the crown 
began. The first centennial is celebrated just at the opening of a fearful 
civil strife which covers the whole land with darkness. Our fathers wei'e 
true to liberty, to justice, and to Christ. May the same hand which led 
them through all their trials, guide our steps in the future, and fill our 
souls with the same patience, endurance, and faith. We may be assured 
that whatever changes come to society and our country, the dominion of 
our King " is an everlasting dominion which shall not pass away, and his 
kingdom, that which shall not be destroyed." 

MEMBERS OF THE MINISTERS' MEETING, FORMED IN BRADFORD, JUNE 3, 1719. 



Thomas Symmes, . 
Moses Hale, 
John Rogers, . 
Samuel Phillips, . 
John Tufts, . 
John Barnard, . 
.John Brown, . 
Joseph Parsons, . 
WilUani Batch, 
Christopher Sargent, . 
James Chandler, 
James Cushiog, . 
William Johnson, . 
Samuel Bacheller, 
John Cushing, 
Ebenezer Flagg, . 
Edward Barnard, . 
Abner Bailey, 
Benjamin Parker, . 
Thomas Barnard, 
John Tucker, D. D., 
William Symmes, D. D., 
Elizur Hoiyoke, 
Jonathan Eames, 
Samuel Williams, LL. D , 
Thomas Gary, 
Jonathan French, . 



Date of Admission. 



June 

June 

June 

June 

June 

June 

June 

June 

.Tune 

May 

April 

April 

May 

April 



August, 



in9 

19 



1719 
1719 



1733 



June, 

October 8, 
October 11. 
November 14, 
about 
about 

August 12, 
August 13, 
about May, 



30 



Residence. 



Bradford. 

Newbury (Byfield). 

Boxford, 1st Church. 

Andover, South Church. 

West Newbury, 1st Church. 

Andover, North Church. 

Haverhill. 

Bradford. 

Groveland 

Methuen. 

Georgetown. 

Haverhill. North Parish. 

West Newbury, 2d Church. 

Haverhill, West Parish. 

Boxford, West Parish. 

Chester, N.H. 

Haverhill. 

Salem, N. H. 

Haverhill, East Parish. 

West Newbury, Ist Parish. 

Newburj-. 

Andover, North Parish. 

Boxford, East Parish. 

Newton, N. H. 

Bradford. 

Newburyport. 

Andover, South Parish. 



CANDIDATES APPROBATED BY THE MINISTERS' MEETING. 



Timothy Walker, . 
James Chandler. 
Nathaniel Merrill, . 
Samuel Phillips, Jr., . 
Edward Barnard, . 
Abner Bailey, 
Samuel Webster, D. D., . 
Joseph Parsons, Jr., . 
Abiel Foster, . 
Jacob Emery, 
Amos Moody, . 
John Page, . 
John Marsh, D. D., 
Thomas Gary. 
Thomas Barnard, D. D., 
Stephen Peabody, 



DateofApi 


)robation 
29, 1729 


Residence. 


June 


Concord, N, H. 


September 


1.5, 


1730 


Georgetown. 


Julv 


1.5, 


IV35 


Hudson, N. H. 


September 




1737 


Andover, North Parish. 


September 




173S 


Haverhill. 


September 




1738 


Salem, N. H. 


September 




1739 


Salisbury. 


October 


14, 


1755 


Brookfield. 


April 


15, 


17H0 


Canterbury, N. H. 






17ti:^ 


Pembroke, N. H. 


October 


12, 


1762 


Pclham, N. H. , 


October 


li2, 


1762 


Danville, N. H. 


August 


14, 


1764 


Wethersfield, Conn. 


June 


10, 


1766 


Newburyport. 


August, 




1769 


Salem. 


May 


14, 


1771 


Atkinson, N. H. 



MEMBERS. 



55 



MEMBERS OF THE HAVERHILL ASSOCIATION, FORMED AT HAVERHILL, MASS., AUGUST 

19, 1779. 



Gyles Merrill, . 
Phiueas Adams, . 
Stephen Peabody, . 
John Shaw, 
Moses Hale, 

Simon Finley Williams, 
Jonathan Allen, 
Peter Eaton, 
Francis Welch, 
John Kelly, 
David Smith, . 
Abiel Abbott, 
Humphrey Clark Perley, 
John Smith, 
Isaac Tompkins, 
Nathan Bradstreet, 
Samuel Mead, 
Stephen Hull, . 
John Hubbard Church, . 
Samuel Harris, . 
Joshua Dodge, 
Edward L. Parker, 
Ebenezer Porter, Prof., . 
Jacob Ward Eastman, 
William Gould, 
William Balch, . 
Joel Ranney Arnold, 
Moses Welch, 
Joseph Merrill, 
Ira Ingraham, 
Dudley Phelps, 
Calvin Cutler, 
Moses G. Grosvenor, 
Spencer F. Beard, 
Loammi Ives Hoadly, 
Jonathan Clement, 
Samuel H. Peckham, 
Abijah Cross, 
John R. Adams, 
Benjamin Sargent, 



Date of Admission. 



August 
August 
August 
August 



1779 
1779 
1779 
1779 



April 

May 

April 

April 

July 

June 

June 

June 

August 

August 

September 

July 

July 

August 

probably 

probably 

April 

October 

June 

June 

June 

June 

October 

June 

June 

June 

August 

January 

October 

June 

June 

June 

June 

June 

January 



1788 
1788 
1791 
1791 
1793 
1795 
1795 
1796 
1797 
1797 
1801 
1805 
1805 
1809 
1809 
1810 
1811 
1815 
1816 
1816 
1820 
1820 
1820 
1821 
1825 
1828 
1828 
1829 
1829 
1831 
18.31 
1831 
1831 
1832 
1834 



Place of Settlement. 

Haverhill, North Parish. 
Haverhill, West Parish. 
Atkinson, N. H. 
Haverhill, 1st Parish. 
Boxford, West Parish. 
Methuen. 
Bradford. 

Boxford, West Parish. 
Amesbury, AVest Parish. 
Hampstead, N. H. 
Amesbury, West Pari.sh. 
Haverhill. 1st Parish. 
Methuen. 
Salem, N. H. 
Haverhill, East Parish. 
Chester. N. H. 
Amesbury, West Parish. 
Amesbury, 1st Parish. 
Pelham, N. H. 
AVindham, N. H. 
Haverhill, 1st Parish. 
Derry, 1st Parish. 
Theo. Sem., Audover. 
Methuen. 
Dracut. 
Salem, N. H. 
Chester, N. H. 
Amesbury, West Parish. 
Dracut. 
Bradford. 

Haverhill, 1st Parish. 
AVindham, N. H. 
Haverhill, West Parish. 
Methuen. 
Bradford. 
Chester, N. H. 
Haverhill, North Parish. 
Haverhill, AVest Parish. 
Londonderry, N. H. 
Auburn, N. H. 



CANDIDATES APPROVED BY THE HAVERHILL ASSOCIATION. 



NAMES. 



John Kelley, 
Rufus Anderson, 
Josiah Webster, . 
Samuel Walker, 
David Batehelder, 
Benjamin AA'bite, 
Benjamin Rice, . 
John Bascom, 
Joseph W. Clary, 
Josiah Peet, . 
Darius 0. Griswold 
Richard Hall, 
Nathaniel Merrill, 
Joshua Dean, . 
Jacob Ide, . 
Jonathan Lee, 
Eleazer Lord, 
Samuel John Mills 
Ansel Nash, 
Simeon AVoodruff, 
Ephraim H. Newton 
Chauncey Booth, 
William Eaton, . 
David Oliphant, 



Date of Approval. 



May 



1, 1792 



no date given. 
May 1, 1804 

January 81, 1810 
April, 1810 

March 13, 1811 



April 
April 



April 



9, 1811 
15, 1812 



14, 1813 



NAMES. 



Date of Approval. 



Hezekiah Woodruff, 
Philip Colby, 
Robert Crowell. . 
AVilliam Gould, 
Valentine Little, 
Enoch Pillsbury, 
Horatio Bard well, 
Calvin Colton, 
Leonard Jewett, 
David M. Mitchell, 
Miles P. Squire, 
Elijah Baldwin, 
Herman Halsey, 
Stephen Mason, 
Robert Page, 
Job S. Swift, . 
AA'illiam Kimball, 
Henry Robinson, 
John AA'heeler, . 
Reynolds Bascom 
Robert H. Noyes, 
Henry AVade, . 
Samuel Griswold, 
Horace Smith, 



April 
June 



March 
June 



July 



14, 1813 
8, 1813 

30, 1814 
14, 1814 

6, I8I4 



August 8, 1815 



June II, 1816 

August 14, 1816 
August 3, 1819 

October 12, 1819 
November, 24, 1819 
August 8, 1821 



54 



HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 



CANDIDATES APPROVED BY THE HAVERHILL ASSOCIATION, — Continued. 



NAMES. 



James Prentiss, 
David C. Proctor, 
J.acob Cummings, . 
Nathaniel Coggswell, 
James Abell, . 
Carleton Hard, . 
James Kimball, 
William L. Buffett, 
John L. Burnap, 
Edmund Frost, . 
Abijah Cross. . 
Nathaniel Bouton, 
Caleb Burbank, 
Frederick E. Cannon, 
Flavel Griswold, 
Stephen Foster, . 



Date of Approval. 
August 29, 1821 



August 13, 1822 

June 10, 1823 

August 12, 1823 



July 



20. 1824 



NAMES. 



Ova P. Hoyt, . 
Hervey Jones, . 
Daniel Lancaster, . 
Erastus Maltby. 
Samuel Marsh, 
Edward Palmer, 
Ora Pearson, . 
Samuel Hall, 
Samuel Russell, 
John Sherer, 
Joseph P. Taylor, . 
Milton P. Braman, 
David Merrill, 
Samuel Arnold, . 
Samuel C. Jackson, 
Francis Welsh, . 



Date of Approval. 



July 



October 
August 
October 



20, 1824 



August 10, 1824 



12. 1824 
9, 1825 
11, 1825 



December 26, 1826 



May 



15, 1833 



MEMBERS OF THE ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION, ORGANIZED AT ROWLEY (WEST PAR- 
ISH), SEPTEMBER 8, 1761. 



NAMES. 








Date of Admission. 


Jedediah Jewett, ] 
James Chandler, g^ . 
Moses Hale, g" 2. 
Moses Parson.s, )■ g-^i. . 
Thomas Hibbert, ;? 5 
George Leslie, ? "^ . 
John Cleaveland, J 
Oliver Noble, 

Christopher Bridge Marsh, 
Joseph Dana, 
David Tappan, 
Levi Frisbie, 
Samuel Spring, 
Daniel Breck, 
True Kimball, 
Ebenezer Bradford, 
Ebenezer Dutch, . 
Elijah Parish, 
Asahel Huntington, 
Andrew Beattie, . 
Leonard Woods, 
Abraham Moor, . 
Isaac Brainan, 
David TuUer. 
David Tenuv Kimball, . 
Thomas Holt, 
James Miltiniore, . 
William Balch, . 
James Wakefield Tucker, 
Benjamin Sawyer, 
John Kirby, . 
Leonard Withington, . 
Willard Holbrook, 
Gardner Braman Perry, 
Luther Fraseur Dimmick, 
Rodney Gove Dennis, . 
Elijah Demond, 
William Ford, . 
Henry Clarke Wright, . 
Danie"liFitz, . 
Paul Couch, . 
Peter Sidney Eaton, . 
Isaac Richmond Barbour, 
John Chiirles March, 
John Quincy Adams Edgell, 
Abijah Cross. . • . 
John Whittlesey, . 
Henry Durant, . 






■ 


September 8, 1761 
September 8, 1761 
September 8, 1761 
September 8, 1761 
September 8, 1761 
September 8, 1761 
September 8, 1761 
August 18, 1767 
May 8, 1770 
July 10, 1770 
August 9. 1774 
June 8, 1779 
July 11, 1780 
June 10, 1781 
August 10, 1784 
October 9, 1787 
October 9, 1788 

May ' ' 14, 1799 
May 14, 1799 
August 13, 1799 
August 13, 1799 

June ' ' 13, 1809 
July 14. 1812 
July 14. 1812 
September 8, 1812 
May 12. 1817 
June 10, 1817 
June 10, 1817 
September 14, 1819 
October 12, 1819 
October — , 1820 
July 10, 1821 
September 11, 1821 
September 13, 1825 
July 11, 1826 
July 10, 1827 
July 10, 1827 
September 11, 1827 
May 13; 1828 
July 10, 1832 
December 25, 1832 
January 9, 1833 
Januai-y 9, 1833 
August 26, 1834 



Residence. 



Rowley. 

Georgetown. 

West Newbury, 1st Church. 

Newbui-y (Byfield). 

Amesburv, (East Parish). 

Ipswich (Linebrook). 

Essex. 

Newburyport (Belleville). 

Newburyport, North Church. 

Ipswich, South Church. 

West Newbury, 2d Church. 

Ipswich, 1st Church. 

Newburvport, North Church. 

Topsfield. 

West Newbury, 1st Church. 

Rowley. 

Groveland. 

Newbury (Byfield). 

Topsfield. 

Salisbury (Rocky Hill). 

West Newbury, 2d Church. 

Newbury, 1st Church. 

Georgetown. 

Rowley. 

Ipswich, 1st Church. 

Essex. 

Newburyport (BelleviUe). 

Salisbury (Rocky HUl). 

Rowley. 

Amesbury. 

West Newbury, 2d Church. 

Newbury, 1st Church. 

Rowley. 

Groveland. 

Newburyport, North Church. 

Topsfield. 

West Newbury. 2d Church. 

Newburyport, 2d Presbyterian. 

West Newbury. 1st Church. 

Ipswich, South Church. 

VVest Newbury, 2d Church. 

Amesbury, West Parish. 

Newbury (Byfield). 

Newburyport (Belleville). 

West Newbury, 2d Church. 

Haverhill. West Parish. 

HaverhUl, Centre Church. 

Newbury (Byfield). 



MEMBERS. 



55 



MEMBEES OF THE ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION, — Continued. 



Benjamin Ober, 
Joseph Hai-dy Town, . 
James Koyal Gushing, . 
Samuel Howland Peckham 
Nathan Munroe, 
Seth Harrison Keeler, 
Randolph Campbell, 
James Bryant Hadley, 
Lucius Watson Clark, 
Edward Alexander Lawrence, 
Charles Moulson Brown, 
Samuel Hill Merrill, . 
Anson Sheldon, 
Jonathan French Stearns, 
John Pike, 
Henry Augustus Woodman 
Enoch Pond, Jr., . 
Heury Boynton Smith, 
John Phelps Cowles, 
Benjamin Franklin Hosford 
Horatio Merrill, 
Calvin Emmons Park, 
John Moor Prince, 
Daniel Taggart Fiske, 
David Oliphant, 
Albert Paine, 
Wales Lewis, . 
John Edwards Emerson, 
Francis Vergnies Tenney, 
Elam Jewett Comings, 
Rufus King, . 
James Monroe Bacon, 
Samuel Jones Spalding, 
Leonard Stickney Parker, 
Asa Farwell, . 
Daniel Webster Pickard, 
James Tomb McCoUom, 
Leander Thompson, . 
Davis Foster, 

William Greenough Thayer 
Herman Rowlee Timlow, 
Alexander Crocker Childs, 
Thomas Doggett, . 
Charles Dickinson Herbert, 
Charles Beecher, . 
Abraham Burnham, . 
George Washington Finney, 
Charles Brooks, . 
John Rogers Thurston, . 
Timothy Dwight Porter Stone 
Elias CorneUus Hooker, 



Shedd, 



Date of Admission. 



August 

October 

August 

August 

July 

April 

February 

February 

October 

January 

October 

February 

February 

December 

October 

February 

February 

June 

August 

October 

December 

February 

June 

December 

April 

December 

February 

May 

June 

February 

October 

December 

April 

June 

October 

February 

November 

June 

February 

April 

February 

February 

April 

December 

December 

December 

April 

April 

April 

October 

February 



26, 1884 
— , 1834 

27, 1835 

27, 1835 

28, 1836 

26, 1837 
28, 1838 
28, 1838 
SO, 1838 

1, 1840 

28, 1840 
24, 1841 
24. 1841 

29, 1841 
31, 1842 
29. 1843 
29, 1843 

27, 1843 
— , 1844 
29, 1845 
31, 1845 
24, 1847 
29, 1847 
29, 1847 

26, 1848 

27, 1848 

27, 1850 
1, 1850 

26, 1850 
26, 1851 
29, 1851 
31, 1851 

28, 1852 

22, 1853 

26, 1853 

28, 1854 
1, 1854 

20, 1855 

27, 1856 

29, 1856 
24, 1857 
24, 1857 
29, 1857 
29, 1857 
29, 1857 
29, 1857 
20, 1858 
19, 1859 
19, 1859 

23, 1860 
19, 1861 



Residence. 



West Newbury, First Church. 
Amesbury (Mills). 
Haverhill, East Parish. 
Haverliill and Plaistow. 
Bi-adford. 
Amesbury (Mills). 
Newburyport, 4th Church. 
Amesbury and Salisbury. 
Amesbury, West Parish. 
Haverhill, Centre Church. 

Amesbury (Mills). 

West Newbury, 1st Church. 

Newburyport, 1st Presbyterian. 

Rowley. 

West Newbury, Ist Church. 

Georgetown. 

Amesbury, West Parish. 

Ipswich. 

Haverhill, Centre Church. 

West Newbury, 1st Church. 

Boxford, West Parish. 

Georgetown. 

Newburyport (Belleville). 

Haverhill and Plaistow. 

Amesbury, West Parish. 

Haverhill, East Parish. 

Newburyport, Whitefield Ch. 

Newbury (By field). 

Haverhill, Winter Street. 

Amesbury (Mills). 

Amesbury and Salisbury. 

Newburyport, Whititield Ch. 

Haverhill, Winter St. 

Haverhill, West Parish. 

Groveland. 

Bradford. 

Amesbury, West Parish. 

West Newbury, 2d Church, 

Andover Theo. Seminary. 

Newburyport, 2d Pres. Church. 

Amesbury (Mills). 

Groveland. 

W'est Newbury, 1st Church. 

Georgetown. 

Haverhill, East Parish. 

Haverhill. 

Newbury (Byfield). 

Newbury, 1st Church. 

Amesbury (Mills). 

Newburyport, North Church. 



CANDIDATES FOR THE MINISTRY APPROBATED BY THE ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 



NAMES. 


Date of Approval. 1 


NAME. 


Date of Approval. 


Nathaniel Howe, 


May 


8, 1787 


Paul Jewett, 


. September 9, 1806 


Moses Bradford, 


September 


-, 1787 


Joseph Merrill, 


May 12, 1807 


Nathaniel Lambert, . 


August 


— , 1789 


Abraham Burnham, . 




Ariel Parish, . 


August 


— , 1789 


Luther Hart, . 


September 12, 1809 


Daniel Merrill, . 


April 


-, 1791 


Henry P. Strong, 


. September 12, 1809 


Gould, . 


June 


12, 1792 


Winthrop Bailey, . 


September 8, 1810 


Daniel Dana, 


May 


14, 1793 


Gamaliel Smith Olds, 


. October 9, 1810 


Eliphalet Gillett, . 


May 


13, 1794 


Abel Cutter, . 


October 9, 1810 


Humphrey C. Perley, 


June 


10, 1794 


Samuel NewhaU, 


. November 30, 1810 


Joseph Dana, . 


June 


9, 1795 


Justin Edwards, 


Mav 12, 1812 


Charles Coffin, Jr., . 


May 


14, 1799 


James Richards, 


. September 8, 1812 


Samuel Dana, 


May 


— , 1800 


Robert C. Robbins, 


October 12, 1812 


Lake Coffin, 


July 


29, 1806 


Edward AVarren, 


. October 12, 1812 


Daniel Lovejoy, 


September 


9. 1806 


1 Calvin Hitchcock, . 


July 12, 1814 



56 



HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 



CANDIDATES FOK THE MINISTRY APPROVED BY THE ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION, 

Continued. 



NAMES. 


Date of Appr 
July 12 


oval. 
1814 


NAMES. 


Date of Appr 
July 10, 


oval. 


Kalph Emerson, 


Samuel W. Clark, 


1827 


Joel Hawes, . 




May 


12 


1817 


Thomas R. Durfee, 




July 


10, 


1827 


Ebenezer Perkins, 






May 


12 


1817 


Henry C. Jewett, 






July 


10, 


1827 


Amos VV. Burnham, 






July 


14 


1818 


Joel W. Newton, 






July 


10, 


1827 


Alpha Miller, . 






July 


14 


1818 


Dudley Phelps, . 






July 


10, 


1827 


Luther F. Dimmick, 






July 


13 


1819 


Caleb Kimball, 






May 


11 


1830 


Cyrus Byington. 






July 


13 


1819 


Edward Cleaveland, 






October 


26 


1833 


Loiiis Dwight. 






July 


13 


1819 


Daniel T. Smith, . 






March 


12, 


1834 


Hezekiah Hull, . 






July 


13 


1819 


Seth Sweetser, . 






April 


22, 


1834 


Daniel Hemenwaj'. 






July 


13 


1819 


David T. Kimball, Jr. 






April 


22, 


1834 


John Wilcox, 






September 


14 


1819 


John Dudley, 






September 


12, 


1834 


Joseph A. E. Long, 






October 


— 


1820 


Francis V. Pike, 






April 


28, 


1835 


Joseph Searl, 






May 


8 


1821 


Moses P. Stickney, 






April 


26. 


1836 


Samuel Spring, 






May 


8 


1821 


Daniel P. Noyes, . 






August 


28, 


1846 


Eleazar Brainard, 






July 


9 


1822 


John Jackson, . 






July 


12, 


1848 


William Richards, . 






July 


9 


1822 


Elias Nason, . 






July 


10, 


1849 


Seneca White, . 






July 


9 


1822 j 


•John Coombs, . 






February 


26, 


1850 


Leonard Bacon, 




July 


8 


1823 ; 


Moses P. Case, 






October 


25, 


1853 


Heman M. Blodgett, 




July 


8 


1823 1 


Samuel C. Dean, 






February 


26, 


1856 


Isaac Oakes, . 




July 


8 


1823 


John D. Kingsbury, 






February 


26, 


1856 


Samuel A. Worcester, 




July 


8 


1823 1 


William M. Baker, 






June 


18, 


1856 


William Ford, 




September 


9 


1823 


Chauncey B. Thomas 






February 


22, 


1860 


Isaac Rogers, 




June 


14 


1825 ! 


Joseph Boardman, 




February 


22, 


1860 


Leander Cobb, 




July 


10 


1827 


Edward N. Goddard, 


February 


22, 


1860 



SKETCHES 



MEMBERS OF THE ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 



BY REV. S. J. SPALDING, NEWBURYPOKT. 



The following Abbreviations are used in these Sketches : 

a. aged; ab. about; cb. (eetatis) in the year of one's life; b. born; bp. baptized; d. 
died; dau. daughter; grad. graduated; inst. installed; ord. ordained; m. married; w. 
wife; tcid. widow; M. H. S. Massachusetts Historical Society; A. A. S. American An- 
tiquarian Society; H. G. S. Historical and Genealogical Society; K N. A. Essex North 
Association; A. C. Amherst College; B. C. Bowdoin College; B. U. Brown University ; 
C.N.J. College of New Jersey ; D. C. Dartmouth College; H. U. Harvard University; 
H. a Hamilton CoUege; M. C. Middlebury College; U. C. Union College; U. N. Y. 
University of New York ; U. V. University of Vermont ; W. C. Williams College ; Y. C. 
Yale College. 



JEDEDIAH JEWETT, 

Was the fifth minister of the First Church in Rowley, and was the 
son of Jonathan and Mary (Wicom) Jewett. He was born in Rowley, 
Massachusetts, 1705, and was baptized June 3, 1705. His baptism was 
on the day of his birth, or but a few days subsequent. He graduated at 
H. U. 1726, and was ordained colleague pastor with Rev. Edward Pay- 
son of the First Church in Rowley, Nov. 19, 1729. 

Mr. Jewett was married Nov. 11, 1730, by Rev. Moses Hale, to Eliza- 
beth Dummer, daughter and only child of Richard and Dorothy (Light) 
Dummer, of Newbury, Mass. She was born Dec. 7, 1713, and died 
April 14) 1764, leaving two children. 

1. Dummer, b. April 25, 1732; grad. H. U. 1752; was a merchant 

8 



58 HIsrOKY OF KSSKX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

in Ipswich, Mass. In a fit of insanity he destroyed his own life, by leap- 
ing from a garret window of his house, Oct. 1788, and died aged 56. 
He took a distinguished part in promoting our independence, was Repre- 
sentative in 1776 and 1780, was a lawyer, and of very estimable charac- 
tei'. He left a wife and children. 

2. Dorothy, b. May 2, 1736 ; mar. January 18, 1753, John Cahf, M. 
D., of Ipswich. 

Mr. Jewett was married a second time October 29, 1765, by Rev. 
William Balch, to Mrs. EUzabeth Parsons, widow of Rev. Joseph Par- 
sons of Bradford. This was her fourth marriage. Her maiden name 
was Elizabeth Greenleaf, and she was daughter of Rev. Daniel and 
Elizabeth (Gookin) Greenleaf. She was born Aug. 24, 1708, and 
married 1, David Bacon; 2, Joseph Scott; 3, Rev. Joseph Parsons of 
Bradford; and 4, Rev. Jedcdiah Jewett, and d. 1778. — Gen. Reg. X. 
153. 

Mr. Jewett received as a settlement £300, and a salary of £90, which 
was considerably increased in succeeding yeai's. In 1754, the parish 
voted, that Mr. Jewett have the use and improvement of all the upland 
and marsh at Sandy Bridge, four rights in the east end of Ox-pasture, 
and two rights in the Mill Swamp Pasture, for and during the terra of 
his ministry, he allowing £6, lawful money, per annum for rent. 

The last sermon he preached was at the ordination of the Rev. David 
Tappan of Newbury, April 18, 1774. This, with several other sermons 
of Mr. Jewett, were published. 

From that service he returned unwell, and died on the 8th of May 
following, in the forty-fifth year of his ministry, aged sixty-nine. 

He was possessed of considerable property, which came from the estate 
of his father-in-law, Dummer. With this were two female slaves. In 
his will he provided for their manumission, and made his estate, which 
he principally bequeathed to his children, liable for their maintenance, in 
case of poverty and need in their old age. 

During his ministry two hundred and nineteen were added to the 
church, — ninety-six in two special revivals, one in 1741, and the other 
in 1764 and 1765. 

The parish voted to defray the expenses of his funeral, and erect a 
suitable monument at his grave. From the inscription upon it, we learn 
that " He was a skilful, fervent preacher of the doctrine of God's grace 
to lost men, through Jesus Christ ; preached it as a doctrine according 
to godliness, so as to teach them who had believed in God to maintain 
good works. He also took heed to himself; was so pious, charitable, 
prudent, and patient, as to be an example to the flock." 

In December, 1774, the i^arish purchased of Dummer Jewett, Esq., for 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 59 

a parsonage, the homestead and buildings that were his father's, for which 
they paid £300, or $1000. These buildings were erected by Mr. Jewett 
sobn after his ordination, being the same now owned by Joseph Smith. 

Mr. Jewett was one of the fifty-three clergymen who were present and 
signed " The testimony and advice of the pastors of churches in New 
England, at a meeting in Boston, July 7, 1743, occasioned by the late 
happy revival of religion in many parts of the land." 

He published " A Sermon preached in Rowley, the next Lord's day 
after the death of Mr. John Ropes, master of the Grammar School in the 
town, — 1759." 



JAMES CHANDLER, 

The first pastor of the church in Georgetown, then the Second Church 
in Rowley, was born in Andover, June 10, 1706. He was the son of 
Thomas and Mary (Stevens) Chandler ; was brother of Rev. John 
Chandler of Billerica, and cousin of Rev. Benj. Stevens, D. D., of Kit- 
tery. Me. ; his mother being a daughter of De^fipn Joseph Stevens of 
Andover, and sister of Rev. Joseph Stevens of Clffln-lestown. 

Mr. Chandler graduated at H. U., 1728, and was ordained pastor of 
the church in Georgetown, Oct. 20, 1732. He was married Dec. 14, 
1736, by his father-in-laWy-to Mary Hale, daughter of Rev. Moses and 
Mary (Moody) Hale, of Byfield. They had no children. She died, 
Sept. 2, 1806. x. 92. He died April 19, 1789, aged 83 years, and in 
the fifty-seventh of his ministry. 

Mr. Chandler left but little property. His whole estates being 
appraised at £482 2s. By his will, bearing date May 23, 1787, he gave 
his negro servant, Sabina, to his wife, ordering that she should not be 
sold to go out of the house, and if she lived to become burdensome, he 
ordered his executor to assist in her support. 

He was a man of sound doctrine, exemplary life and conversation, 
dignified deportment, and esteemed both at home and abroad. Mr. Chan- 
dler was said to have been quite a fruit-grower in his day. He intro- 
duced the cultivation of all the best kinds of apples, also many medicinal 
plants. He was the only member of the Association who was also a 
member of the Ministers' Meeting. There is no record of his presence 
with that body, however, later than the year 1739. Mr, Chandler was 
present and signed " The Testimony and Advice of Pastors of Churches 
in New England, at a meeting in Boston, July 7, 1743 ; " which indicates 
his position and sympathy with reference to the "Great Awakening." 
It is an important fact in the history of the Association, that two of its 
original members took part in the deliberations of that body. 



60 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

Mr. Chandler was buried in the Union Cemetery, Georgetown, and 
the following inscription was put upon his tombstone : 

This monument is erected in memory of Rev. James Chandler, first Pastor of 
the 2d Church of Christ in Rowley, who departed this life Apr. 19, 1789, in the 
83d year ofhis age, 58th of his pastoral care of said church. 

Beneath the honours of this tomb 
we've placed our Pastor's Dear Eemains, 

to rest in silence here * 

till the last trumpet shall be blown, 
by the Eternal's High Command, 

to bid the world draw near. 
Then will he wake with Sweet surprise, 
and join the Saints above the skies, 

to sing in triumph there. 

The following is the inscription on the gravestone of Mrs. Chandler : 

Mes. 
MARY CHANDLER, 

KELICT OF 

REV. JAMES CHANDLER, 

^ died Sept. 2, 1806. ^Et. 92. 



When I lie buried in the dust, 
My flesh shall be thy care ; ^ 
These withering limbs to thee I trust, 
To raise them strong and fair. 

As the Essex North Association was organized in the West Parish, 
Rowley, which is now Georgetown, it was doubtless done at the house 
of Mr. Chandler. 

July 17, 1733. The Parish voted, they would be at the expense of the rais- 
ing of Mr. Chandler's house and barn. And agreed to give Mr. Joseph Nelson 
£ 1 2 to make provision for the same. — Gage's History of Rowley, p. 9 1 . 

After the death of Mr. Chandler, and while Mrs. Chandler was alive, 
the house was sold to Mr. Solomon Nelson, father of the late Hon. Jere- 
miah Nelson, of Newburyport. The house was burnt Apr. 4, 1825. 



PUBLICATIONS OF REV. JAMES CHANDLER. 

1. Two sermons preached at Rowley, West Parish, Lord's day, Feb. 
10, 1754. On Temptation and Prayer. 

2. Sermon, preached at the ordination of Mr. Thomas Lancaster, to 
the Pastoral care of the First Church in Scarborough, Maine, Nov. 8, 
1775. 

3. Sermon, preached at Newburyport, June 25, 1767. This sermon 



SKETCHES OP MEMBERS. 61 

was preached at " a Fast, Sanctified by tlie Congregational Church and 
Society there, under bereavement of their Pastor," Rev. John Lowell, 
who died May 15, 1767. 

Its publication drew out a letter of 27 pages in " Reply," from Rev. 
John Tucker, pastor of the First Church in Newbury, dated Aug. 25, 
1767. 

4. This was followed by an " Answer," of some 36 pages, by the 
author of the sermon, dated Rowley, Oct. 16, 1767. 

A Reply to Rev. Mr. Chandler's Answer then came, in a second let- 
ter by Rev. Mr. Tuckei', of 55 pages ; dated Newbury, Dec. 18, 1767. 

5. To this Rev. Mr. Chandler published, " A Serious Address," of 38 
pages, " to that part of the Congregational Church in Newburyport, 
which, for the present, attend the public worship of God in the Court 
House; occasioned by two letters published by the Rev. John Tucker, 
to make void in part a sermon preached to said church on their Solemn 
Fast, June 25, 1767. It contains also, an account of the dividing of said 
church and parish, into two Chi'istian societies." 

To this Rev. Mr. Tucker pubhshed " Remarks," of 43 pages, " On 
Rev. Mr. James Chandler's Serious Address," dated Newbury, July 25, 
1768. 

MOSES HALE, 

The son of Joseph and Maiy (Moody) Hale, was born in Newbury 
(Byfield), Jan. 18, 1715 ; grad. at H. U., 1734; preached at Rowley 
from 1745 to Dec. 12, 1750; ordained pastor of the First Church in 
West Newbury (then the Second Church in Newbury), Feb. 20, 1751 ; 
died Jan. 15, 1779. He was a nephew of Rev. Moses Hale of Byfield ; 
his father Joseph being a son of John and Sarah (Symonds) Hale. 

He married, Nov. 8, 1744, Mehitabel Dummer, daughter of Nathaniel 
and Sarah (Moody) Dummer. She was born Jan. 22, 1720-21 ; 
Their children were, — 

1. Nathaniel, b. Jan. 18, 1747. 

2. Rev. Moses, b. Feb. 19, 1749 ; grad. H. U., 1771 ; ord. at Box- 
ford, Nov. 16, 1774; d. May 26, 1786. 

3. Mehitable, b. Nov. 2, 1751 ; m. Rev. Levi Frisbie of Ipswich. 

4. Joseph, b. May 8, 1763. 

5. Sarah, b. ; m. Rev. Nathaniel Noyes, Nov. 12, 1765. 

After the death of Mr. Hale, Mrs. Hale went to reside with her 

daughter, Mrs. Frisbie, in Ipswich, where she died March 10, 1796, 
aged 77. 

The only publication of Mr. Hale that we have seen, is a Sermon 



62 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

preached at the ordination of Rev. Joseph Woodman, in Sanbornton, N. 
H. Nov. 13, 1771. 

Mr. Hale had resided with his family for several years previous to 
his residence in West Newbury, in New Rowley, now Georgetown, and 
brought the most cordial and complimentary letters from the minister, 
Rev. Mr. Chandler. At his ordination, his late pastor preached from 
the text in Isaiah 52 : 7, " How beautiful upon the mountains are the 
feet of Him that bringeth good tidings, that pubHsheth peace," &c. He 
had no stipulated salary ; perhaps on account of the fluctuation in the 
currency. His people at his settlement promised him a comfortable and 
honorable maintenance. A committee visited him prior to each annual 
parish meeting, to ascertain how much he would need, and it was inva- 
riably voted to him ; apparently, without the least hesitation. He usu- 
ally requested £75 in money. A few months before he died they voted 
him £500, " on account of the extremely high prices of the necessaries 
of life." And this was done while they were frequently obliged to fur- 
nish supplies for the desk, on account of their pastor's infirmities. 

At his death, they voted, unanimously, to be at the expense of his 
funeral, and placed £200 at the disposal of the Committee of arrange- 
ments. He had a ministry of nearly 29 years, and was buried at the 
Cemetery on Sawyer's Hill, the parish buying the ground at that time. 
The people seemed to have appreciated the excellence of their pastor, 
and treated him from first to last with the utmost love and veneration. 

During his ministry there does not seem to have been any special re- 
vival of religion. Sixty were added to the church by letter and profes- 
sion, and four hundred and sixteen children were baptized. 

It seems that at the opening of his ministry, the wig which Mr. Hale 
wore, gave great offence to some of the membei'S of his church. 

" May 7, 1752. The members of the Second Church in Newbury met 
to deal with our brother, Richard Bartlet, for the following reasons : 

" First, our said brother refuses communion with the church for no 
other reason, but because the pastor wears a wig, and because the church 
justifies him in it ; setting up his own opinion in opposition to the 
church ; contrary to that humility which becomes a Christian. 

" Second, and further, in an unchristian manner, he censures and con- 
demns both pastor and church as anti-christian on the aforesaid account, 
and he sticks not from time to time to assert, with the gi'eatest assurance, 
that all who wear wigs, unless they repent of that particular sin before 
they die, will certainly be damned, which we judge to be a piece of un- 
charitable and sinful rashness." 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 63 



MOSES PARSONS. 



The following sketch is taken in pai't from the first volume of Sprague's 
Annals, p. 448. 

Moses Parsons was the youngest son of Eben and Lydia (Haskell) 
Parsons, and was born at Gloucester, Mass., June 20, 1716. He spent 
his early years at home. He entered Harvard College in 1732, and was 
graduated in 1736. After his graduation, he was engaged, for a few 
years, in teaching school, first at Manchester, Mass., and afterwards at 
Gloucester ; during a part of which time, he was prosecuting his theolog- 
ical studies under the direction of the Rev. John White, then Minister of 
Gloucestef. As a teacher, he was eminently successful ; and in Glouces- 
ter particularly he rendered very important service to his pupils, as a 
spiritual guide, in a season of unusual attention to religion. 

Shortly after he was licensed, he was requested to preach as a candi- 
date for settlement in the parish of Byfield, Newbury, Mass., then 
vacant by the death of Rev. Moses Hale. He responded alfirmatively to 
their request, and commenced his labors on the 18th of March, 1744. 
After supplying the pulpit a few Sabbaths, he received a call to 
become their pastor, a^id having signified his acceptance of the call, was 
ordained on the 20th of June, 1744, — the day that completed his 
twenty-eighth year. The sermon on the occasion was preached by 
Rev. Mr. Wigglesworth, of Ipswich Hamlet (now Hamilton), from Gal. 
1: 10. Here Mr. Parsons held on the noiseless and even tenor of his 
way, during a ministry of nearly forty years. Besides a diligent dis- 
charge of those duties which were strictly professional, he evinced much 
public spirit in his efforts to promote the varied interests of humanity. 

In the establishment of the Academy at Byfield, under the will of 
Governor. Dummer, he is said to have had a controlling voice ; and it 
was chiefly through his influence that it was established on so desirable 
a basis, and that the celebrated " Master Moody " was placed at its head. 

He was blessed with a fine constitution, and generally with vigorous 
health ; and his death was the result of an illness of only a few days' 
continuance. He had attended a funeral at a distance from home, on a 
very inclement day, and took a violent cold that run into a lung fever, 
and after a few daj's terminated his life. He died on the 14th of Decem- 
ber, 1783 ; and his funeral sermon was preached by the Rev. David 
Tappan of Newbui-y. 

He was married January 11, 1742, to Susanna, daughter of Abraham 
and Anne (Robinson) Davis of Gloucester. Her mother, Anne Robinson, 
was said to be the great grand-daughter of the celebrated John Robinson, 
minister of the Puritan Church that emigrated from Holland to Ply- 
mouth. She died in Boston, Dec. 18, 1794, aged 75. 



64 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

The names of their children were, 

1. Moses, b. May 13, 1744, at Gloucester; H. U. 1765; d. , 

1801. 

2. Ebenezer, b. Feb. 27, 1745-6 ; ra. Mary Gorbam ; d. in Byfield, 
1819 ; engaged in commercial pursuits in Boston and Gloucester. 

3. Theophilus, b. April 8, 1747. 

4. Theophilus, b. Feb. 24, 1750 ; H. U. 1769 ; d. in Boston, Oct. 30, 
1813, aged 63; Chief Justice of Massachusetts from 1806 to his death. 

5. Theodore, b. July 31, 1751, H.U. 1773. He sailed from Glouces- 
ter in March, 1779, on board the privateer brig " Bennington." A letter 
was received from him dated in May following ; after which he was 
never again heard from, till accounts were received from London that 
the brig was sunk in the English channel in an engagement with a Brit- 
ish vessel of superior force. 

6. Susanna, b. April 28, 1753. 

7. William, b. Aug. 6, 1755 ; d. in Boston, March 19, 1837, aged 82 ; 
merchant in Boston. 

8. Judith, b. , 1757. 

9. Mary, b. Sept. 14, 1763. 

Of the three sons who graduated at H. U., two became lawyers and 
one a physician. One of them was the Hon. Theophilus Parsons, many 
years Chief Justice of Massachusetts, and one of the most eminent Amer- 
can jurists. After the death of Mr. Parsons, his widow removed to Bos- 
ton, where she had resided some time previous to her marriage, and 
remained there till her death, which occurred on the 18th of December, 
1794. Her remains were taken to Byfield for burial. 

Mr. Parsons published a sermon at the ordination of Joseph Dana at 
Ipswich, 1765 ; the Election Sermon, 1772 ; and a sermon at the ordi- 
nation of Obadiah Parsons at Gloucester, Nov. 11, 1772. 

The following is an extract from a letter written by Mr. Parsons' 
grand-son, Theophilus Parsons, Esq., Professor of Law in Harvard Uni- 
versity : 

" In sentiments and, doctrine I have always understood that my grand- 
father was what was then called, and would now be called, I suppose, 
Orthodox, but with strong Arminian tendencies. Hence, probably, it 
happened that all of his children who lived until Unitarianism existed 
among us as a recognized sect, became Unitarians. They were four in 
number, including my father. 

" I have also understood that he made no pretence to eloquence, and 
loved his home and his immediate duties without ever seeking, — and 
indeed rather avoiding, — any thing which might divert him from those 
duties, or procure him any distinction. I should doubt if he had popular 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 65 

talents of any kind. But I have reason to believe that by his grave and 
courteous demeanor, his devotion to duty, and his excellent good sense, 
he exerted a very important influence in his neighborhood. 

" As an instance how times are changed, I may say, that, on a salary 
of one hundred pounds lawful money, or $333.33, and a good farm 
attached to the premises, he educated three sons at H. U. without any 
assistance (and they were all who wished to go), and always lived liber- 
ally and easily, and entertained a great deal of company." 

From the fact that Mr. Parsons became one of the original members 
of the Association while the "Ministers' Meeting" was still in existence 
in the valley of the Merrimac, we infer that his preferences were quite 
decidedly orthodox. His near neighbor and townsman, Dr. Tucker, 
appropriately called the " Corypheus among the Arminians," was a mem- 
ber of the other body. So was Rev. William Symmes, D. D., a decided 
Arminian of North Ahdover. 

His associates in the Association were Jewett of Rowley, Chandler 
of New Rowley (now Georgetown), Lesslie of Linebrook, and John 
Cleaveland of Chebacco (now Essex) ; all of whom were men of decided, 
orthodox views. In the declaration which precedes the original articles 
of the Association, the members say, " We do this with the greater cheer- 
fulness, because of our present agreement respecting the doctrines of the 
Gospel." Mr. Parsons was the first Scribe of the Association, being 
elected at the organization, Sept. 8, 1761, and held the office until his 
death, a period of more than twenty-two years. 



THOMAS HIBBERT, 

Was the son of George and Sarah (Ellsworth) Hibbert, and was bom 

in Rowley ,1727; graduated at H. U. 1748; was ordained pastor 

of the church in the East Parish of Amesbury, known also as Sandy 
Hill, Nov. 6, 1754. He Avas dismissed from this church about 1781, on 
account of great dissatisfaction. After his dismission he organized an- 
other congregation in the same parish, which took the Presbyterian form 
of church government. They built a small house of worship, and, for a 
few years, maintained the ordinances of religion. 

This house was commonly known as the " Still." It is now standing 
and is used for a barn by Mr. Daniel Huntington, and is an object of at- 
tention from its " hopper-roof." 

At the council called to dismiss Mr. Hibbert, a man named Ruggles 
Colby was called upon to testify ; but was rejected, because he said he 
would " swear either way for a peck of beans." The intemperate habits 

9 



66 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

of Mr. Hibbert, which were the cause of dissatisfaction with him in the 
old church, still clung to him. 

In the later years of his life he retired to his farm. He died Sept. 

, 1793. It is reported to have been a frequent admonition of Mr. 

Hibbert to his flock, — " Do as I say, and not as I do." 

The social habits of the period in which he lived were peculiarly un- 
fortunate to men of his temperament. And while we are pained at his 
sad fall, and that of other able and excellent men in the ministry, our 
wonder is that so few of the clergy were ensnared and degraded. In 
some respects, certainly, the present time is better than the past. 



GEORGE LESSLIE, 

The first pastor of the church at Linebrook, Ipswich, was the son of 
Rev. James Lesslie, who came from Scotland, and settled in Topsfield 
when George was about two years old. He was born about 1727. 
George graduated at H. U., 1748 ; joined the church in Topsfield, March 
5, 1749, and appears to have studied his profession there with Rev. John 
Emerson. Having preached at Linebrook one year, he was ordained 
November 15, 1749 ; his dismission took effect Nov. 30, 1779, by advice 
of a council which convened on the 4th. He was induced to ask a dis- 
mission, because the jjarish declined to make up the loss he sustained by 
the depreciation of paper money. Mr. Lesslie had a settlement of £700, 
old tenor, equal to $311.08, and his salary was £100, lawful money, and 
twelve cords of wood. 

July 2, 1778, Mr. Lesslie attended to the gallows Ezra Ross (one of 
his parishioners), who was executed at Worcester with William Brooks, 
James Buchannan, and Bathsheba Spooner, for the murder of Joshua 
Spooner, of Brookfield (Bathsheba was the wife of the murdered man). 
The day was kept as a season of fasting and prayer in the Linebrook 
parish, on account of the untimely end of the murderer. 

January 31, 1765, Mr. Lesslie preached at the ordination of Mr. Sam- 
uel Perley, at Northampton, N. H., which sermon was printed. 

Sketch by Rev. J. F. Griswold. — N. H. Churches, p. 474. 

" Mr. Lesslie was installed over the church in Washington, N. H., July 
12, 1780. The services were performed in the barn of a Mr. John Saf- 
ford. One hundred acres of land were appropriated to the first settled 
minister of the town, and this was an inducement for him to accept the 
call. His salary was 100 acres of land and £50 sterling. He was a 
man of correct sentiments, a good scholar, and of studious habits. He 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 67 

was conscientious, of strict integrity, and had the confidence of the people. 
Soon after he received his call to settle here, he was invited to accept a 
professorship in Dartmouth College. He declined the invitation, on ac- 
count of the encouragement he had given the people in W. to settle with 
them. He left Linebrook with his family on the 6th of March. At that 
time there was no public road through this place, and intelligence from 
abroad was only occasionally received. It was only once in two or three 
months that news was received from Boston. Mr. Lesslie was nine days 
on the road in coming from Linebrook to Washington, — a distance of 
80 mileg. 

" His privations, during his first years here, were great. Provisions, 
in many instances, could not be obtained without going thirty or forty 
miles for them. The first winter he was here was unusually long. On 
the 19th of October, snow fell to the depth of two feet, and remained till 
late in the spring. Twenty-seven head of cattle died that spring from 
starvation. Mr. Lesslie lost his only cow. A day of fasting and prayer 
was observed on account of the sad prospects of the people. During one 
whole winter Mr. Lesslie's family were without salt, and for one bushel 
in the spring hcipaid $5." 

Mr. Lesslie died Sept. 11, 1800, aged 72. 

Mr. LessHe married, Oct. 26, 1756, Hephzibah Burpee, daughter of 
Deacon Jonathan Burpee, of his parish in Linebrook. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. George, b. January 12, 1758. 

2. David, b. December 17, 1759. 

3. James, b. March 10, 1761. 

4. Jonathan, b. June 5, 1763; d. Nov. 5, 1771. 

5. William, b. August 4, 1766. 

6. Hephzibah, b. March 19, 1770. 

7. Joseph, b. Feb. 28, 1774. 

8. Mehitable, b. September 5, 1778. 

Mr. Lesslie fitted many pupils for college, and others for the ministry. 
He had a strong mind, was a fine scholar, and a pious and useful minister. 
Tradition has reported his great infirmity to have been that of indolence. 



JOHN CLEAVELAND. 

The materials of the following sketch are from Sprague's Annals, and 
Felt's Hist, of Ipswich. 

John Cleaveland was the son of Josiah and Abigail ( ) Cleave- 

land, and was born at Canterbury, Ct., April 11, 1722. He entered 



68 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

Yale College in 1741, and remained thei'e till a few weeks before the 
close of his senior year. While at home, during the preceding vacation, 
he attended a meeting of Separatists in his native place, for which, on his 
return to college, he was required to make confession. He justified him- 
self on the ground that he was a member of the church, and that the meet- 
ing was attended by a majority of the church members, among whom was 
his father. He was expelled from college ; though he was subsequently 
allowed his degree, as graduating with his class in 1745. Mr. Cleaveland 
commenced preaching almost immediately after leaving college ; and for 
about two years supplied a society of Separatists in Boston, whp sympa- 
thized with the views and measures of the well-known Rev. James 
Davenport, who, about that time, visited New England. They invited 
Mr. Cleaveland to become their pastor ; but he declined. A new church 
at Chebacco, in Ipswich, — a secession from the Rev. Mr. Pickering's, 
then recently formed, gave him a call to settle over them, which he 
accepted; and he was accordingly ordained on the 25th of February, 
1747. The formation of the new church seems to have resulted, partly 
at least, from Mr. Pickering's refusal to invite Whitefield and Davenport 
into his pulpit, on the ground of their alleged irregularities. Mr, P. 
exerted himself to the utmost to prevent Mr. C.'s ordination ; but to no 
purpose, as it was favored by several of the leading ministers in the 
neighborhood. 

Shortly after the ordination took place, Mr. P. published a pamphlet, 
entitled, " A bad omen to the churches in the instance of Mr. John 
Cleaveland's ordination over a separation in Chebacco Parish." 

This was immediately answered by Mr. C. in another pamphlet, 
entitled " A plain narrative by the new church." While Mr. P. was 
preparing a rejoinder, he was interrupted by a sudden illness, which ter- 
minated fatally on the 7th of October, 1747 ; his church, however, after 
his death, carried out his purpose, and completed what he had begun. 
In 1 748, another pamphlet appeared, supposed to have been written by 
Mr. Cleaveland, entitled " Chebacco narrative rescued from the charge of 
falsehood and partiality." 

These pamphlets are all written with great spirit, and show that the 
minds of the several writers were stirred to their inmost depths. 

In 1763, Mr. Cleaveland published an ''Essay to defend some of the 
most important principles in the Protestant Reformed System of Chris- 
tianity, more especially Christ's Sacrifice and Atonement, against the inju- 
rious aspersions cast on the same by Mr. Mayhew, in a Thanksgiving 
Sermon." (8vo, pp. 108. Boston, 1763. M. H. S.). 

This drew forth from Dr. Mayhew "A Letter of Reproof to John 
Cleaveland, of Ipswich ; occasioned by a Defamatory Libel " (8vo, pp. 49. 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 69 

Boston, 1764. M, H. S.), which is probably the most scathing piece of 
invective that ever came from his pen. It seems, however, neither to 
have silenced or intimidated Mr. Cleaveland, as he replied to the letter 
without much delay. " Reply to Dr. Mayhew's Letter of Reproof." 
(8vo, pp. 96. Boston, 1765. M. H. S.) 

Mr. C. seems to have maintained somewhat of a controversial attitude, 
from taste or from circumstances, or from both, during a considerable 
part of his ministry. 

In 1758, Mr. Cleaveland was chaplain to a provincial regiment at 
Ticonderoga, and was on the battle-ground when Lord Howe was killed. 
The next year, he served in the same capacity in an expedition against 
the French, at Louisburg. In 1775, he was chaplain to a regiment at 
Cambridge ; and in 1776, went on a short campaign to New York. He 
had an eminently patriotic spirit, and shrunk from no sacrifice that prom- 
ised to benefit his country. Not only by his professional services as 
chaplain, but by various contributions to newspapers, he did much to 
encourage and further the great enterprise which had its issues in our 
national independence. 

Mr. Cleaveland died after a short and painful illness, on the 22d of 
April, 1799. His funeral sermon was preached by the Rev. Joseph 
Dafia of Ipswich, from 2 Kings 2 : 12. The parish voted eighty dollars 
to defray his funeral expenses. 

Mr. Cleaveland was married to Mary, the only daughter of Parker and 

Dodge of the Hamlet (Hamilton), July 31, 1747. She died of 

a cancer, April 11, 1768, in her forty-sixth year. In September — , 
1769, he was married to Mary, widow of Capt. John Foster of Manches- 
ter, Mass. She died at Topsfield, April 19, 1810, in her eightieth year. 

Mr. Cleaveland had seven children, four sons and three daughters. 

Besides the pamphlets already referred to, Mr. Cleaveland published a 
justification of his Church from the Strictures of the Rev. S. Wiggles- 
worth of the Hamlet, and the Rev. Richard Jaques of Gloucester, 1765 ; 
— A Short and Plain Narrative of the late Work of God's Spirit at Che- 
bacco, in Ipswich, in 1763 and 1764 (8vo, pp. 89. Boston, 1767. M. 
H. S. and A. A. S.) ; — An Attempt to nip in the bud the unscriptural 
Doctrine of Universal Salvation, 1776 ; Infant Baptism " From Heaven" 
and Immersion as the only mode of Baptism, and a Term of Christian 
Communion ^'- of men :'" or, a Short Dissertation on Baptists, in Two 
Parts (8vo, Salem, Mass., 1784. A. A. S.); — The Rev. Dr. N. Whit- 
aker's Neighbor is come, and searcheth him : or, a Brief Defence of a late 
Council's Result, against the Doctor's charges (8vo. Salem, 1784. A. A. 
S.) ; — Sermon at Stoneham, Mass., Oct. 19, 1785, at the Ordination of 
his son, John Cleaveland, jun. (8vo. Newburyport. A. A. S.). 

I find in the Diary of the Rev. Dr. Cogswell, who was, for many years, 



70 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

minister of the parish in which Mr. Cleaveland spent his early hfe, the 
following entry, under date of October 26, 1766: "Mr. John Cleave- 
land preached for me to good acceptance in general. Some admired 
him. He was very loud and earnest, and preached without notes. His 
doctrines were good. The greater part of Separates went to hear him." 

From Rev. Daniel Dana, D. D. 

" Newburypoet, March 28, 1856. 

" My dear Sir, — So many years have elapsed since Mr. Cleave- 
land's decease, that you will scarcely expect me to furnish you a verjf 
minute account of him ; and yet such recollections and impressions as I 
have concerning hira, I am most happy to communicate to you. 

" Mr. Cleaveland was nearly six feet in height, was very erect, of great 
muscular strength, with a florid complexion and blue eyes. He was by 
no means a graceful preacher. His manner sometimes bordered on the 
rough, and even the boisterous. Yet, as he uttered the encouraging, as 
well as alarming truths of God's word, and as all evidently proceeded 
from a heart deeply imbued with love to Christ, to his truth, and to the 
souls of men, his preaching was generally acceptable. In those good days 
elegance in preaching was less in demand, and its absence less a topic of 
complaint than in our fastidious times. 

" One circumstance pei'taining to his preaching was peculiar. During 
most of his life, he took with him to the desk very brief and imperfect 
notes. In consequence of this, his preaching was often more earnest and 
declamatory than instructive. But in later years, becoming more dis- 
trustful of his own powers, he wrote his sermons in full, and in reading 
confined himself to his notes. This change was, in view of his judicious 
hearers, quite an improvement ; while others thought that the good man 
had lost a portion of his animation and zeal. 

" His prayers were congenial with his sermons. Without a careful and 
orderly arrangement of topics, they were the effusions of a heart in close 
communion with God, and can-ied with them the affections of his hearers, 
especially the most serious portion of them. 

"Mr. Cleaveland's character was uniformly exemplary. With him love 
to the Saviour, and to the souls for which He died, was the absorbing 
sentiment. This was habitually manifest in methods altogether unosten- 
tatious, yet impossible to be misunderstood. He thus secured the consci- 
entious approbation of the community generally, and the warm love of 
the pious. Though his life was spent, for the most part, in comparative 
seclusion, his good influence was felt much beyond the immediate sphere 

of his labors. 

'' Believe me, as ever, most affectionately yours, 

" Daniel Dana." 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 71 



OLIVER NOBLE, 

Was the son of Daniel and Abigail (Loomis) Noble, and was born in 
Hebron, Conn., March 3, 1734. He graduated at Y. C. in 1757 ; was 
ordained pastor of the First Church in Coventry, Conn., January 10, 
1759 ; dismissed June 10, 1761. 

Rev. John Ballentine of Westfield, Mass., makes the following entry 
in his diary, under date of Nov. 11, 1761, — "Oliver Noble here, late 
minister of Coventry, Ct. There was no great opposition, yet some un- 
guarded expressions about a black velvet cape on a white great coat, 
gave such a handle against him as occasioned his dismission from them. 
Singularity in dress sometimes proves a snare to one that has a mind to 
be popular. We should dare to be true, though it exposes us to banter 
and ridicule. A small spark may be blown up to a great flame. Be 
careful what you say, and before Avhom. Do not meddle with other 
peoples' affairs. The asking of impertinent questions may have bad 
consequences." 

Mr. Noble was installed pastor of the Fifth Church in Newbury, Sept. 

1, 1762; dismissed April , 1784. The recognition of this separation 

was in the following paper : 

We, the underwritten, the Pastors and delegates of the Church in Hampton 
Falls and the Church in Greenland, being convened at the desire of the Rev- 
erend Oliver Noble and the Church and Congregation in this Place, to recog- 
nize a friendly separation, which the said Mr. Noble and the said Church and 
Parish have agreed should take place between them, as wliat they judge in 
their jjresent circumstances and dithculties will be for their mutual confort and 
the interest of religion, and the Reverend Mr. Taj^pan of Newbury, and the 
Church under his care, who were also invited on this occasion, having unex- 
pectedly failed to attend, so that we do not consider ourselves a sufficient num- 
ber to constitute an Ecclesiastical Council in form, therefore do give our opin- 
ions and advice only as undivided churches. 

We rejoice to find that the unhappy disputes which have sometimes arisen 
between Ministers and their people about temporal interest, and which too often 
have proved the occasion of bitter invectives and mutual accusations, have pro- 
duced no such disagreeable effects on this occasion, but, on the contrary, that 
we hear the Parties speaking of one another in terms of Love and Frien^lship, 
— that the Committee of the Church and Parish have under their hands testi- 
fied their approbation of Mr. Noble as a Preacher of the true Gospel among 
them for twenty years, a kind friend, a good neighbor, and a benevolent gen- 
tleman. 

We approve of the Separation for the reasons which have induced them 
thereto, and add our ardent wishes and prayers that the valuable ministerial 
gifts with which Mr. Noble is endowed, by the Author of every good and per- 
fect gift, may be improved, wherever Divine Providence may call him to labor, 
to tlje edification of the Church of Christ, the advancement of religion, and the 
Glory of God ; that he may ever be directed to unite in his conduct the wisdom 
of the Serpent with the innocence of the Dove, — and that the Church in this 
Place, who are now left as sheep without a Siiepherd, may be under the special 



72 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

care and blessing of the Great Shepherd of the Sheep, be kept united in the 
faith, fellowship, and hope of the Gospel, and in due time be happily resettled. 

Samuel Laxgdon, ) Church in 
Jonathan Tilton, \ Hampton Falls. 

Samuel Macclintock, > Church 
William Hains, \ in Greenland. 

Newbury, April 28, 1784. 

It is evident from papers still existing, that there was dissatisfaction 
with Mr. Noble on the part of the parish, and during his last years he 
had perplexing pecuniary embarrassments. 

In the year 1776, he was absent eleven months as chaplain in the army. 
The following is an extract from the Hist. Sermon of Rev. D. T. Fiske, 
present pastor of the church in Belleville. Speaking of Mr. Noble he 
says, — 

" He is represented as a man of fine, commanding person, tall and 
well-proportioned, noble in figure as well as in name, although negligent, 
and even slovenly in his attire. Mounted upon a skeleton of a horse, 
called ' Mr. Noble's frame,' and wrapped in a long dressing-gown, he at- 
tracted no little attention as he rode from house to house in the oversight 
of his flock." 

As a preacher, he is said to have possessed more than ordinary gifts. 
Three of his published sermons are extant. But his preaching does not 
seem to have been seconded by a wholly unexceptionable character and 
life. The remark made of another divine was applied to him, namely : 
" That when you saw him in the pulpit, you would think he never ought 
to be out of it ; and when you saw him out of it, you would think he 
never ought to be in it." 

From some papers which we have examined, relating to pecuniary 
transactions, our judgment is, that the faults of Mr. Noble arose rather 
from temperament and carelessness than deliberate intention. 

He was installed at New Castle, N. H., Aug. 18, 1784, where he re- 
mained until his death, which occurred Dec. 15, 1792, aged 58. 

The following is an extract from a letter of Rev. Lucius Alden of 
New Castle, N. H., respecting his ministry in that place. 

" Tradition represents him as evangelical in sentiment, and quite ac- 
ceptable as a preacher of the gospel. His personal appearance was 
good, portly, genteel. In his habits very social, — frequently visiting 
the families of his flock, and freely participating in their hospitalities. 
If his ministry was not marked with distinguished success, it should be 
recollected that he labored under considerable discouragements. The 
people had been destitute of a pastor some six years, several of the 
church and parish had become Baptists, among whom was Rev. Benja- 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 73 

mill Randall, founder of the Free Will Baptist societies in New Hamp- 
shire. Some had removed from fear of the British fleet, and the pecuni- 
ary embarrassments of the people were severe." 

Mr. Noble died after a short sickness. His remains rest in the grave- 
yard, opposite the church, in New Castle, N. H. No monument maVks 
the place of his bui'ial, but within the church, in the year 1852, a beautiful 
mural monument was erected to his memory and that of his five prede- 
cessors in the ministry of that ancient town. 

The inscription is as follows : 

Rev. John Emerson died' Jan. 21, 1732, aged 62. 
Rev. William Shurlleff died May 9, 1747, aged 58.. 
Rev. John Blunt died Aug. 7, 1748, aged 42. 
Rev. David Robinson died Nov. 18, 1749, aged 33. 
Rev. Stephen Chase died Jan. 1778, aged 72. 
Rev. Oliver Noble died Dec. 15, 1792, aged 56. 
Pastors of this Church. 



The memory of the just is blessed. 

Mr. Noble was married May 15, 1760, to Lucy Weld, daughter of 
Rev. Habijah and Mary (Fox) Weld, of Attleboro, Mass. She was 
born June 15, 1734, and died in Newbury, May 23, 1781, aged 46. 

Their children were, — 

1. Habijah Weld, b. Feb. 5, 1761, at Coventry, Ct. ; died unmar. in 
Marietta, Ohio, May — , 181 6, aged 55. 

2. Lucy, b. Oct. 7, 1762, at Coventry, Ct. ; m. Henry Collins, and d. 
in Broom, L. Canada, about 1806, aged ab. 44. 

3. Oliver, b. Oct. 14, 1764 ; d. Jan. 30, 1766, aged 1. 

4. Tirzah, b. April 18, 1766. 

5. Sarah, b. Sept. 24, 1768; m. 1788, Wm. Allen, Jr. of New Castle, 
N. H., and d. in South Berwick, Me., July 5, 1818, aged 49. 

6. Fanny, b. April 9, 1771 ; m. 1. Jonathan Blake, Jr., 2. Bickford. 

7. Eunice, b. Nov. 24, 1773 ; m. David Thacher, and d. in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Dec. 1, 1842, aged 69. 

8. Hannah, b. Oct. 3, 1775 ; d. unmar. aged ab. 28. 

. 9. Elizabeth, b. Feb. 28, 1779 ; m. Dr. Tribet. 

All but the fir&t two named were born in Newbury. 
The publications of Mr. Noble are, — 

1. Sermon at the Ordination of Mr. Silas Moody, in Arundel, Jan- 
uary 9, 1771. 

2. Sermon on Music, preached at the North Meeting-house, New- 
buryport, Feb. 8, 1774. 

3. Strictures upon the Sacred Story recorded in the Book of Esther, 
showing the power and oppression of State Ministers, tending to the ruin 

10 



74 HISTORY OF ESSEX KORTH ASSOCIATION. 

and destruction of God's people. And the remarkable interpositions of 
Divine Providence, in favor of the oppressed ; in a Discourse delivered 
at Newburyport, North Meeting-house, March 8, 1775. In Commemo- 
ration of the Massacre, at Boston, March 5, 1770. 
4. Sermon at the Funeral of his Wife, June 3, 1781. 



CHRISTOPHEE BRIDGE MARSH, 

The first pastor of tlie North Church in Newburyport, was born in 
Boston, Oct. 11, 1743 ; and was the only son of Dea. Daniel Marsh. 
He was admitted a member of Harvard College in the fourteenth year 
of his age, and graduated in 1761. He officiated about three years as 
chaplain at Castle William, where his ministry was apparently blessed 
to the spiritual good of a number whose reformation was visible while he 
was there. 

'■'■Resolved, That there be allowed, and paid out of the public treasury, 
the sum of forty pounds to Mr. Christopher Bridge Marsh, Chaplain at 
his Majesty's Castle William, for one year, in consideration of his faithful 
discharge of that trust." — Mass. Jour., Feb. 11, 1767, p. 270. 

The following is the vote in regard to the call of Mr. Marsh to the 
North Parish. 

" Whereas we have made choice, and called Mr. Christopher Bridge 
Mai'sh to settle with us in the work of the ministry : for his encourage- 
ment to undertake and engage therein, we will pay him one hundred 
pounds lawful mon»y per year for four years ensuing, together with a 
free contribution ; after which time is expired, for Mr. Marsh's encourage- 
ment, it was voted to give him one hundred and twenty pounds law- 
ful money per year, together with the free contribution, during his con- 
tinuance with us in the ministry." — Records. 

The following obituary is from the Massachusetts Gazette, Dec. 20, 
1773. 

" Newbcrtpokt, December 15, 1773. 
" On Friday, the 3d instant, departed this life, and on the 7th was 
decently interred, the remains of the Eev. Christopher Bridge Marsh, 
aged 30, pastor of the North Congregational Church in this town. He 
was of a studious and contemplative turn of mind from his childhood. 
He was ordained Oct. 19, 1768, at the unanimous desire of the church 
and congregation. He was richly furnished with ministerial gifts and 
accomplishments. He had a penetrating mind, ready invention, and a 
solid judgment. He thought justly and reasoned correctly. He had not 
only a peculiar talent in preaching, but was greatly gifted in prayer. 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 75 

The great doctrines of the Gospel were the chief subjects he dwelt on in 
his pubHc discourses. He came into his subject with ease and readiness ; 
his language was plain yet manly, striking, and expressive. He was 
remarkably free from ostentation, and his conduct was such as plainly 
evinced that he strove to recommend, not himself, but the truth, for the 
honor of God and the salvation of souls. His whole deportment in the 
pulpit was grave and solemn. In a word, his preaching was calculated, 
both as to matter and manner, to enlighten the mind, awaken the con- 
science, affect the heart, and lead the heai-ers into a knowledge of them- 
selves and the way of salvation by faith in Jesus Christ ; and that he 
was influenced by the truth he preached to others, was evident from the 
constant practice of the duties which he urged upon them. His people 
lay very near his heart, for whom he entertained a very affectionate 
regard, mixed with a tender concern for their temporal as well as eternal 
welfare. He was confined about two months, and for most of the time too 
weak to admit much company. His mind was considerably impaired for 
some time in his sickness, but, for a few days before his death, God was 
pleased to favor him with the free use of his reason ; and, notwithstand- 
ing his great weakness, he manifested great patience and calmness. He 
was so far from discovering a dread of death, tliat, on the other hand, he 
expressed a cheerful resignation to the will of- God, a pleasure and satis- 
faction in the prospect of his a^jproaching dissolution. Very few who 
have acted in a public character have conducted so worthily, or with so 
amiable a simplicity and godly sincerity. By his death his flock has lost 
an excellent pastor, his father a dutiful son, the neighboring ministers an 
affectionate brother, and the community a useful fhember." 

Mr. Marsh bequeathed his Library to the church at his decease, to be 
kept for the use and benefit of their pastors in all subsequent times. It 
is a small collection of books, but some are rare and valuable. 

After his death, his congregation published " Two Pi'actical Discourses 
of the Rev. Christopher Bridge Marsh, late j^astor of the North Congre- 
gational Church in Newburyport." (8vo, pp. 48. Newburyport, 1794.) 

The communication of the Rev. Moses Hale of Newbury to the Essex 
Journal, published soon after the death of Mr. Marsh, was printed with 
these sermons as a preface. In this there is a happy delineation of his 
character by a neighbor and an associate ; in spirit it is very similar to 
the obituary published in the Massachusetts Gazette. It is an evidence 
of the tenderness with which his memory was cherished, that this notice 
of his character, and two of his manuscript sermons, should have been 
published by his parishioners twenty years after his decease. 

The following is the inscription upon the slab that covers his grave : 



76 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

Underneath 
are the remains of the 

REV. CHRISTOPHER BRIDGE MARSH, 

the worthy and only Son of 

Deacon Daniel Marsh, of Boston ; 

and the much beloved and lamented Pastor of the North 

Congregational Church, in this town. 

He exchanged this mortal for an endless life, 

December 3d, 1773, 

aged 30 years and 2 months, 

having a little more than completed the fifth year of his ministry. 

He was a hard student, a good scholar, and a great Cliristian ; a deep yet 

plain and pungent preacher ; 

a benevolent, meek, humble, prudent pastor ; his whole life 

blameless and exemplary, his death peaceful. 

His ministry, though short, was important, conveying much instruction and 

bearing noble testimony to the great doctrines of God's Grace. 

His grateful flock. 

To show their just respect for him. 

To his memory erect 

This Monument. 



JOSEPH DANA, 

Was the son of Joseph and Mary Dana, and was born at Pomfret, 
Conn., November 2 (O. S.), 1742. His father was a respectable inn- 
keeper in that town. Among the recollections of his boyhood was the 
famous adventure of General Putnam with the wolf, which took place 
not far from his father's residence. He remembered to have seen the 
animal, which had spread so much terror through the neighborhood, 
dragged into the entry of their house, and to have run up stairs with 
other children, that they might feel the less terror in looking at it. 

It having been determined that he should receive a liberal education, 
he was fitted for Yale College, where he was admitted as a member in 
1756, and was graduated in 1760. Resolved to devote himself to the 
Christain ministry, he pursued a course of theological study under the 
direction of Rev. Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Hart of Preston, Conn., and was 
licensed to preach by the Association, of which Mr. H. was a member, 
in May, 1763, before he was twenty-one. He supplied the pulpit of the 
Old South Church in Boston with much acceptance for six months, and 
would, it is said, have received an invitation to a permanent settlement 
there, but that his voice was thought scarcely adequate to fill so large a 
building. He was subsequently invited to Ipswich, and, having remained 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 77 

there as a candidate for a year or more, he received a call froiji the 
church and society to become their pastor. He accepted the call, and 
was ordained on the 7tli of November, 1765, — the ordination sermon 
•being preached by the Rev. Moses Parsons of Bytleld. 

The early part of his ministry, of course fell into the tempestuous 
period of the Revolution. Though he kept within the appropriate sphere 
of a Christain minister, he showed himself the decided advocate of liberty, 
and labored in every suitable way for the promotion of his country's 
interests. In 1801, he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity from 
Harvard College. The same year he preached the Annual Sermon 
before the Convention of Congregational Ministers in Massachusetts. 
The frequent demands that were made for his laboi'S on public occasions, 
were suiBcient evidence of the high estimation in which he was held, 
not only by Ws brethren in the ministry, but by the community at large. 

Dr. Dana preached a sermon on the sixtieth anniversary of his ordi- 
nation, at the age of eighty-three, — in which he stated, that all who 
were heads of families, at the time of his settlement, were deceased, ex- 
cept five ; and that he had followed about nine hundred of his pai-ish- 
ioners to the grave. 

He after expressed the desire that he might not survive his usefulness ; 
and this desire was signally granted. Though the infirmities of age had 
crept over him, diminishing somewhat his ability to labor and to endure, 
yet he continued in the regular discharge of his duties as a minister until 
within a few days of his death, which occurred on the 1 6th of November, 
1827. 

His funeral was on the 19th, and an appropriate sermon was preached 
on the occasion by the Rev. Robert Crowell, D, D., which was pub- 
lished. 

Dr. Dana was first married Sept. 3, 1766, to Mary Staniford, dau. of 
Daniel and Mary (Burnham) Staniford, of Ipswich, and daughter-in-law 
of Rev. Nathaniel Rogers. She died May 14, 1772, in the twenty-eighth 
year of her age. 

Their children were, — 

1. Mary, b. June 26, 1767; m. Maj. Thomas Burnham. 

2. Joseph, b. June 10, 1769 ; grad. D. C. 1788 ; approbated June 9, 
1795; taught a school in Newburyport, and studied law; removed to 
Athens, Ohio, 1817 ; was Prof, of Ancient Languages in Ohio Univer- 
^ty, from 1822 to 1835 ; d. Nov. 18, 1849, aged 80 ; m. 1. Lucy Temple, 
May 31, 1805 ; m. 2. Hannah Lyons, ab. 1819. 

3. Daniel, b. July 24, 1771 ; grad. D. C. 1788; approbated May 14, 
1793; ord. first Presb. Ch., Newburyport, Nov. 19, 1794; dis. to take 
the Presidency of D. C. Nov. 19, 1820 ; resigned his ofBce 1821 : inst. 



78 HISTORY OP ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

Presb. Cli., Londonderry, N. H., Jan. 16, 1822; dis. April— ,1826; 
inst. Second Presb. Ch., Newburjport, May 31, 1826 ; dis. Oct. 29, 1845 ; 
d. Aug. 26, 1859 ; m. 1. Elizabeth Coombs, Dec. 30, 1800; m. 2. Sarah 
Emery, Kov. 8, 1814. 

Dr. Dana was married a second time, June 6, 1775, to Miss Mary 

Turner, dau. of Samuel and Turner of Boston. She died 

April 13, 1803, in her fifty-third year. Prof. Tappan of H. U. preached 
her funeral sermon (which was published), in which he describes her as 
a person of uncommon excellence and loveliness. Their children were, — 

4. Elizabeth, b. Nov. 6, 1776 ; d. July 21, 1816 ; unmarried. 

5. Samuel, b. May 7, 1778; grad. H. U. 1796 ; approbated May — , 
1800 ; ord. Marblehead, Oct. 6, 1801 ; m. 1. Susannah Coombs, m. 2. 
Henrietta Bridge, Feb. 28, 1808. 

6. Sarah, b. May 6, 1780; m. Hon. Israel Thorndike of Boston. 

7. Abigail, b. March 14, 1782 ; d. May 15, 1840. 

8. Anna, b. Nov. 2, 1784. 

9. Lucy, born and died the same day. 

Dr. Dana was married a third time, Dec. — , 1803, to Elizabeth, widow 
of Rev. Ebenezer Bradford of llowley, and daughter of Rev. Jacob 
Green of Hanover, N. J. 

The following is a list of his publications : 

Two Discourses from Proverbs 15 : 8, on the Sacrifice of the Wicked, 
1728. A Sermon at the Ordination of David Smith, 1795. A Sermon 
on the National Thanksgiving, 1791. Two Sermons on the National 
Fast, 1799. A Discourse on the death of Washington, 1800. A Ser- 
mon before the Convention of Ministers, 1801. A Sermon at the Ordi- 
nation of Samuel Dana, 1801. A Sermon before the Merrimac Humane 
Society, 1804. A Lecture on Baptism, 1806. A Sermon on the worth 
and loss of the Soul, 1807. Integrity explained and recommended, — 
A Sermon before an Association, 1807. The question of war with Great 
Britain, 1808. A Sermon at the Ordination of Joshua Dodge, 1808. 
Two Sermons on a Special Occasion, Jan. 14, 1810. A Sermon on the 
Calamity at Richmond, 1812. A Sermon before the Society for promot- 
ing Christian Knowledge, 1812. A Sermon before the Essex Auxiliary 
Education Society, 1816. A Sermon on the death of Rev. Joseph Mc- 
Kean, D. D., 1818. A Thanksgiving Sermon, 1820. A Sermon on 
the Sixtieth Anniversary of his Ordination, 1825. A Discourse on the 
fifty-first Anniversary of American Independence, 1827. * 

To these may be added, — 

A Charge at the Ordination of the Rev. Joseph Emerson, 1803. 
Right Hand of Fellowship at the Ordination of D. T. Kimball, 1806. 
Charge at the Ordination of Messrs Smith and Kinsbury, Missionaries, 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 79 

1815. Charge at the ordination of Daniel Fitz, 1826. Also, many com- 
munications in periodical publications, both in prose and poetry. 

" Dr. Dana the elder was a small, active man, quick in his motions, a 
respectable scholar, well acquainted with English literature, had a fine 
taste, and his sermons were generally crowded with thought, though his 
uttei'ance was very defective. He was a Calvinist of the old formula, 
rather opposed to the Hopkinsian School ; and, as it has been said, that 
the Calvinists were verging to Antinomianism, this is not true of Dr. 
Dana, except that he had an exaggerated view of the use of the means of 
grace, as they were called, in which he diifered from his contemporary, 
Dr. Spring. That he had no Arminian propensities an anecdote may 
show-, which was once brought out in the Association, in a conversation 
between himself and Dr. Spring. Dana, in his youth, was preaching for 
Dr. Chauncy in the Old Brick Church, Boston, and in his fervor was 
crossing the track of the old pastor, who sat behind him in the pulpit. 
The old gentleman became impatient, pulled him by the coat, and whis- 
pered, ' Young man, you had better stop, or you go too far,' or some 
such warning. 

" Dr. Dana was married a third time to the widow of Rev. Mr. Brad- 
ford of Rowley, and sister of Dr. Green of Philadelphia. The man-iage 
was not a happy one, — they separated. Incompatibility of temper was 
the reason ; and it should be added, that whatever blame the council that 
was called put upon the venerable husband, all who knew the circum- 
stances agreed, that his subsequent conduct to the wife, who refused to 
live with him, was generous, forbearing, noble, and Christian to the last 
degree. He was an irritable man, but by no means an unkind one. 
Honestius putabat offendere quam odisse." — l. av. 



DAVID TAPPAN, 

The second pastor of the Fourth Church in Newbury, now the Second 
Church in West Newbury, was the son of Rev. Benjamin and Elizabeth 
(Marsh) Tappan, and was born in Manchester, Mass., April 21, 1752. 
His father was a graduate of H. U. in 1742, and was ordained at Man- 
chester, Dec. 11, 1745, and died there, May 6, 1790, aged 69, His 
mother was Abigail Marsh of Haverhill. 

Their son gave early indications of unusual promise. He pursued his 
studies, preparatory to college, in part with his father, and in part under 
the tuition of Master Samuel Moody, at Dummer Academy. He was 
admitted to H. U. at the age of 14, and graduated in 1771. During the 
third year of his collegiate life, a severe sickness, which brought him to a 



80 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

near view of death, was the menus of such awakening and convictions as 
he had not known before, and was followed some months after with such 
views of mind and actings of heart in divine things, as gave a new direc- 
tion even to his unblamed and comparatively innocent life. 

After leaving college he devoted himself to the study of theology for 
more than two years, though occasionally employed in teaching school. 
He was ordained pastor of the Third Church and Parish in Newbury* 
April 18, 1774. The parish voted to give Mr. Tappan yearly the sum 
of 80 pounds, and the use and improvement of the parsonage, with the 
buildings (they had just voted to erect a housea nd barn upon the par- 
sonage land). Afterwards the parish voted to give Mr. Tappan one 
hundred and thirty three pounds, six shillings and eight pence, as a settle- 
ment in case he Avould release them from building the house and barn, 
to which proposal Mr. T. consented. 

"Oct. 24, 1781. The Parish voted Mr. Tappan 80 pounds for a 
salary, in silver or gold, or in the produce of the earth in the following 
articles, at the following prices : coi-n at three shillings and four pence 
per bushel ; pork at four pence per pound ; beef at two pence halfpenny 
per pound ; flax at eight pence per pound ; butter at eight pence per 
pound ; wheat at six shillings and eight pence per bushel ; rye at four 
shillings and eight pence per bushel. 

"In 1779, Mr. Tappan was voted sixteen hundred pounds of the present 
cun-ency." 

Mr. Tappan was, from the lirst, considered a very able and attractive 
preacher. He published the sermons preached the Sabbath after his or- 
dination, giving, as a reason, " that a sermon of mine preached to my 
own people, on some occasion that deeply interests their feelings, and 
printed by their request, will be eagerly read by them, when another 
sermon, on a similar occasion, and preached by a stranger a hundred 
miles distant, though it were far better than mine, would probably not 
be read at all." Acting upon a similar principle, he printed more occa- 
sional sermons than almost any other clergyman of his day. 

Dr. Daniel Dana says of him, " the pulpit was his throne. His ser- 
mons were replete with evangelical truth ; they exhibited seriousness of 
spirit, depth of thought, richness of imagery, coolness in argumentative 
discussion, impassioned tenderness of address, purity and splendor of 
diction, and all in no common degree. His manner in the pulpit was 
perfectly simple, and unstudied, and unadorned, but full of meaning and 
force." 

Mr. Tappan was an eminent example of piety, and of all the Christian 
virtues. The religion which he inculcated from the desk, so beautiful, 
so heavenly, breathed in his spirit, and shone out in his life. 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 81 

During his pastorate of eighteen years and four months, forty-nine 
persons were added to the church, all by profession. 

In June, 1792, the Cor[)oration and Overseers of Harvard College 
harmoniously invited him to the office of HoUis Professor of Divinity. 
The question was submitted to an ecclesiastical council, convened Sept. 
6, 1792, and it was unanimously voted that duty and the general inter- 
est of religion required his removal. His people were very unwilling to 
give him up. The church passed the following votes in regard to his 
leaving : 

1. " Voted, that we will not oppose his dismission from us, but quietly 
leave him to act accoi'ding to his own sense of duty in the case. 

2. " That we can give our testimony in favor of his public ministra- 
tions and private behavior since he has been with us, excepting his late 
act in leaving a united people, which some of us cajmot see to be agree- 
able to the will of God. Nevertheless, as he has repeatedly and solemnly 
declared, that he thinks himself bound in conscience to accept the invita- 
tion of the college, we think ourselves obliged, by the rules of Christian 
charity, to believe that he speaks the truth, and acts conscientiously in 
this matter, and we accordingly recommend him to the charity and fel- 
lowship of the First Church of Christ in Cambridge, and to all other 
Christian people where Providence may occasionally call him." 

He was inaugurated Dec. 26, 1792. The honorary degree of D. D. 
was conferred on him by the college in 1794. 

Dr. Tappan discharged the duties of his professorship for nearly ten 
years with gi'eat and growing acceptance, and was constantly gaining in 
reputation and influence. He was the last evangelical divine who filled 
the Hollis Professorship before the control of the college passed into the 
hands of the Unitarians. He died August 27, 1803, aged 51. 

The following obituary notice was published in the Columbian Centinel, 
Aug. 31, 1803 : 

" At Cambridge, on Saturday last, the Rev. David Tappan, D. D., 
HoUis Professor of Divinity in Harvard College, m. 51. Previous to 
their interment, his remains were carried to the meeting-house, preceded 
by the students, and followed by a dignified and respectable procession 
where, after prayer by the Rev. Dr. Lathrop, a sermon was delivered by 
the Rev. AhielHolmes, from Acts 2 : 24 — ^For he was a good man^ We 
have not received any account of the societies of which the deceased was 
a member, nor of his publications; but would be grateful to any correspond- 
ent who would make the communication. 

" The historian, who collects brilliant examples of virtue for the instruc- 
tion of mankind, will dwell with delight on the character of Dr. Tappan. 
He possessed, in an uncommon degree, the various qualifications which 

11 



82 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

adorn the gentleman, the scholar, and the Christian. His manners flowed 
from a heart replete with benevolence, and were calculated to conciliate 
the affection and esteem of men of all ranks, and of Christians of every 
denomination. 

" He held a distinguished rank among the literati of our country. 
His studies were chiefly directed to those branches which were calculated 
to render him useful in his office at the University, and eminent as a 
minister of the holy religion. And though exalted attainments in these 
studies excite not that admiration which their intrinsic excellence deserves, 
though none but the wise and good can duly estimate that philosophy 
which inspires 

' The better fortitude 
Of patience and heroic martyrdom,' 

yet these are most necessary to render individuals happy, and states 
prosperous. 

" The glory of Dr. Tappan's character shone with unequalled resplen- 
dence in piety to God and benevolence to man. He possessed an ex- 
quisite sense of right and wrong, of decorum of character, and of chastity 
in conduct. Though firmly attached to those sentiments which he con- 
sidered the doctrines of Scripture, his charity embraced the sincere of 
every denomination. No ambition is so pure as that which animates 
men to aspire to excel in deeds of benevolence. Of this spirit Dr. Tappan 
was possessed. He was qualified, in an eminent degree, to make men 
wise and good. In public, he was highly acceptable and successful. 
His eloquence flowed from a heart deeply impressed with the truth of 
that religion which he preached. Who ever heard him describe the 
charms of religion, without feeling that his good resolutions had gained 
some accession of strength ? Who ever heard him dwell on the ' terrors 
of the law,' without confessing that the anger of Heaven against the finally 
impenitent would be just ? 

" Deeply is this loss felt by our University. Seeing that her sons 
have lost a father, her patrons an associate, her festival is changed into 
mourning, and her honorable seats are clothed with the habiliments of 
the grave. 

" Cut down in the midst of his days and usefulness, his death, though 
happy for himself, is too soon for his country. How he loved her glory, 
and lamented her wrongs ; how he endeavored to assuage the violence of 
party, and to vindicate the manners and principles of the pure age of our 
republic, are in the memory of all who observed him revolving in his ex- 
alted sphere. 

" Those who feel gratitude ought to express it. But how inadequate 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 83 

is language to give life to the sentiments of the heart. While we are 
humble under a sense of the calamity which we sustain, we must rejoice 
that the favored servant of heaven is translated from toil to glory, and 
that he is distinguished among those 

' Quique sacerdotes casti, dum vita raanebat ; 
Quique pii vates, et Phcebo digna lociiti.' " 

There is a still more extended notice of Dr. Tappan in the Centinel, 
of Sept. 14, 1803. 

Mr. Tappan was married by Rev. Oliver Noble, March 21, 1780, to 
Mary Sawyer, daughter of Dr. Enoch and Hannah (Moody) Sawyer. 
She was born March, 1759, in West Newbury, and died Sept. 11, 1831, 
in Augusta, Me. 

The names of their children were, — 

1. Sarah, b. January 7, 1781 ; d. May 6, 1799. 

2. Enoch Sawyer, b. March 4, 1783 ; d. July 26, 1847 ; grad. H. U. 
1801 ; M. B. 1806 ; M. D. 1811 ; M. M. S. S. 

3. David, b. , 1785 ; H. U. 1804; d. May 26, 1843. 

4. Mary, b. March 22, 1757 ; d. Nov. 7, 1757, in W. Newbury. 

5. Benjamin, b. Nov. 7, 1788 ; H. U., 1805 ; ord. at Augusta, Me., 
Oct. 16, 1811 ; dis. 1849 ; appointed Sec. of the Maine Miss. Society, 
June 27, 1849 ; d. Dec. 23, 1863, in Augusta, Me., aged 75. 

6. Hannah, b. Nov. 30, 1790; d. March 26, 1857, in Augusta, Me. 

7. George Washington, b. Dec. 31, 1792; d. Sept. 17, 1793, in 
Cambridge. 

8. Mary Eliza, b. Dec. 1, 1795 ; d. Sept. 14, 1796, in Cambridge. 

9. Mary Eliza, 1 ^ i • i yqg f One died July 30, the other Aug. 

10. Joseph, ) I ■ ^" '\ 20, 1798. 
The following is a list of Dr. Tappan's publications : 

Two Discourses delivered on the Sabbath after his Ordination at New- 
bury, April 24, 1777. A Sermon on the Character of Am aziah, 1782. 
A Fast Sermon, 1783. A Thanksgiving Discourse on the Peace, 1783. 
A Sermon on the death of Rev. Moses Parsons, Dec. 14, 1783. Two 
friendly Letters to Philalethes, 1785. A Sermon at the Ordination of 
Timothy Dickinson, Feb. 18, 1789. An Address to the Students of 
Andover Academy, July 18, 1791. Election Sermon, May 30, 1792. 
A Sermon before an Association at Portsmouth, 1792. A Farewell 
Sermon at Newbury, 1793. A Fast Sermon at Cambridge and Charles- 
town, April 11, 1793. A Sermon at the Ordination of John Thornton 
Kirkland, Feb. 5, 1794. A Sermon on Eight Persons drowned at New- 
bury, July 24, 1794. A Discourse to the Class which was to graduate 
in 1794. A Discourse to the Class which entered in 1794. An Ad- 
dress to the Students at Andover, July, 1794. A Thanksgiving Sermon 



84 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

at Charlestown, Feb. 19, 1795. A Discourse on the death of John Rus- 
sell, a Student, Nov. 17, 1795. A Discourse to the Class which entered 
in 1796. A Sermon before the Convention of Ministers, June 1, 1797. 
A Fast Sermon at Boston and Charlestown, April 5, 1798. Two Ser- 
mons at Plymouth, after the Ordination of the Rev. James Kendall, Jan. 
5, 1800. A Discourse on the death of Washington, Feb. 21, 1800. A 
Sermon at the Ordination of Nathaniel Hill Fletcher, in Kennebunk, 
Me., Sept. 3, 1800. A Sermon on the death of Lieut. Governor Phillips, 
1802. A Sermon at the Installation of the Rev. Hezekiah Packard, 
Sept. 1802. A Discourse on the death of Enos Hitchcock, D. D. 1803. 
A Sermon on the death of Mrs. Mary Dana, April, 1808. 

POSTHUMOUS. 

Lectures on Jewish Antiquities, 1807. Sermons on Important Subjects, 
1807; to which is prefixed a Biographical Sketch of Dr. Tappan, and 
the Sermon preached at his funeral, by Dr. Abiel Holmes. 

Note. — The original spelling of the name was Toppan. Dr. Tappan so spelled 
his own name when he published the sermons preached the Sabbath after his ordina- 
tion. 

LEVI FRISBIE, 

Was the son of Elisha and Rachael (Levi) Frisbie, and was born in 

Branford, Ct., , 1748. He was baptized May 8, 1748. His father 

was a land-holder, and probably a farmer in easy circumstances. At the 
age of sixteen Levi gave evidence of piety, and began to fit for college 
under the Rev. Eleazer Wheelock of Lebanon, the founder and first 
President of Dartmouth College. He also studied with Dr. Bellamy, 
of Bethlehem. He entered Yale College in 1767. Here he stayed 
over three years, but finished his education at Dartmouth, in 1771, and 
was one of the first class, consisting of four, which graduated in that insti- 
tution. In 1772, May 21st, he and David Maccluer were ordained at 
Dartmouth College, as missionaries to the Indians at Muskingumj 
"where a remarkable door is opened for the Gospel." In 1772, June 
19th, he and his fellow-laborer set out on their mission, expecting to be 
supported by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. 

When on their journey, they heard that the Indians, to whom they 
were going, were inclined to a war with the English. Before getting to 
the immediate vicinity of their intended station, Mr. Frisbie was taken 
dangerously sick with a fever. He recovered, and as the condition of 
the Indians at Muskingum was very unsettled, he and Mr. Maccluer 
spent about seven months among the white population, making their 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 85 

chief place of residence at Fort Pitt. After this period, he returned to 
New Enghind. 

We are informed that Mr. Frisbie, still desirous to prosecute the 
duties of a luissonary, travelled to the southward and also to Canada. 
But this specific manner of pi'eaching the gospel he was constrained to 
relinquish, on account of the unsettled state of the country, occasioned by 
the Revolution. In March, 1775, as Mr. Rogers was unable to perforq^ 
his pastoral duties, Mr. Frisbie was engaged to assist him. Being ap- 
proved by the people, they gave him a call, and he was installed Feb. 7, 
1776. With his brethren in the qiinistry he was deeply interested in the 
struggle of our country for independence. When the tidings of peace 
came, he was selected by the town to deliver an oration. This was pub- 
lished ; also a Funeral Address at the interment of Rev. Moses Parsons 
of Newbury, 1779 ; two Fast Sermons ; a Thanksgiving Sermon ; Eulo- 
gy occasioned by the death of Washington, 1800 ; A Sermon before the 
Society for Propagating the Gospel among the Indians ; also, a Poem of 
one hundred and eighty lines, being a Eulogy on Moor's Charity School 
and Dartmouth College. This may be found in " Wheelock's continua- 
tion of the narrative of the Indian Charity School, etc., 1771." This was 
probably delivered at tlie Commencement that year. 

The last days of Mr. Frisbie were considerably embittered by the loss 
of some of his parishoners, who left him to aid in the formation of a 
new society in the town. .His sensibility was great, which, added to the 
infii-mities of his age, led him to think more of such a defection than he 
would have done in his earlier life, and to appx*ehend worse effects from 
it than really followed. 

Mr. Frisbie died Feb. 25, 1806. The last oifice which he performed in 
the house of God was to administer the communion, when he introduced 
Rev. D. T. Kimball to his pulpit. This was Sept 21, 1805. The par- 
ish voted $100 to purchase mourning for his family. The Rev. Asahel 
Huntington of Topsfield preached his funeral sermon. 

He was first mai-ried to Zeruiah, the eldest daughter of Samuel 
Sprague of Lebanon, Ct. She died Aug. 21, 1778. He was married 
a second time, .lune 1, 1780, to Mehitable, daughter of Rev. Moses and 
Mehitable (Dummer) Hale, of Newbury, now West Newbury. She was 
born in Newbury, Nov. 2, 1751, and died April 6, 1828, aged 76. 
^ Their children were, — 

1. Sarah, b. Nov. 22, 1781. 

2. Levi, b. Sept. 15, 1783; grad. at H. U. 1802; Tutor from 1805 to 
1811 ; Professor of Latin Language from 1811 to 1817 ; inducted as Al- 
ford Professor of Natural Religion, Moral Philosophy, and Civil Polity, 
Nov. 5, 1817. He died at Cambridge July 9, 1822 ; aged 38. 



86 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

3. Nathaniel, b. Dec. 13, 1785. 

4. Mehitable, b. Nov. 4, 1791. 

Rev. Mr. Frisbie was of light complexion, above the common height, 
and rather large. His power as an orator we have no means of know- 
ing, but from his published effusions. It appears he ventured on some 
daring flights, unusual among the moderns, and which nothing but suc- 
cess could justify. 

Hume has mentioned one of the strokes in Cicero, in one of his oi*ations 
against Verres, in which he says. If I were to go into the most deserved 
solitude and deplore these deeds to the rocks and precipices, yet even these 
mute objects would respond to the atrocity, and he asks, whether any mod- 
ern would use such a bold and poetic figure. 

In his Eulogy on Washington, Mr. Frisbie has the following para- 
graph : 

" The sighs of sorrow are as sincere as his virtues, and as extensive as 
his fame. Our churches are hung with sables, and every object seems 
clad with a garment of woe. The countenances of the young and the fair 
have lost their smiles ; their faces are covered with a gloom, and their 
eyes suffused with tears; children lisp the praises of Washington, 
and weep that he is dead ; the hardy bosoms of statesmen and warriors 
are softened with grief, and their manly eyes do not disdain to pour a 
tribute of tears on the grave of their own and their country's father and 
friend. Virtue and religion lament the loss«of their favorite son ; and 
were any so obdurate as not to lament it, they might expect that the 
plains, and the forests, and the rocks, which have witnessed his virtues 
and achievements, would reproach their stupidity by bursting into sighs 
and groans." — Eulogy on the late Gen. George Washington, p. 33. 

SAMUEL SPRING, 

Was the son of John and Sarah (Read) Spring. He was born in 
Uxbi'idge (now Northbridge), Mass., Feb. 27, 1745-6. His father was 
a large landholder, a deacon and a justice of the peace. From his office 
in the church we infer that all his childi-en were baptized in infancy. 
His son labored with him on the farm until he was eighteen years old. 
The father then consented, after much entreaty, to give him a collegiate 
education. 

Dr. Spring graduated at the College of N. J., in 1771 ; received his 
doctorate from W. C. 1807. He' studied divinity successively with Rev. 
Drs. Witherspoon, West of Stockbridge, Hopkins of Newport, R. I., and 
Bellamy of Bethlehem, Conn. He was a chaplain in the Revolutionary 
war, and attached to the division of Araold in the assault on Quebec, and 
was engaged in the battle when Montgomery fell. 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 87 

• 

He was ordained over the North Church and Society, Newburj'port, 
Aug. 6, 1777. He died in Newburyport, March 4, 1819. 

He was President of the Merrimac Bible Society ; of the Merrimac 
Humane Society ; one of the founders and visitors of the Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary ; one of the original delegates who founded the Ameri- 
can Bible Society ; one of the founders and one of the executive com- 
mittee of the A, B. C. F. Missions. 

He was married Nov. 4, 1779, to Hannah Hopkins, daughter of Rev. 
Samuel Hopkins, D. D., of Iladley. Her mother was Sarah Porter, 
daughter of Judge Eleazer Porter, of Hadley, and widow of Rev. 
Chester Williams. Mrs. Spring was born at Hadley, Aug. 10, 1760, and 
died at Newburyport, June 11, 1819. 

Their children were, — 

1. A son b. and d. Sept. 4, 1780. 

2. Margaret Stoddard, b. Apr. 26, 1783; m. Aug. 27, 1807, Bezaleel 
Taft, Jr.; who grad. H. U. 1804, and was Att'y-at-Law, in Uxbridge. 
She died July 25, 1816. 

3. Gardner, b. Feb. 24, 1785. 

4. Hannah, b. Sept. 5, 1788; d. Mar. 16, 1796. 

5. Walton, b. Sept. 6, 1790 ; d. May 8, 1809. 

6. Samuel, b. Mar. 9, 1792. 

7. Lewis, b. Oct. 20, 1793 ; lost at sea, 1815. 

8. Mary, b. Nov. 12, 1795 ; d. Aug. 30, 1796. 

9. Pinkney, b. July 6, 1798 ; grad. Y. C. 1819 ; d. , 1820. 

10. Charles, b. July 25, 1800. 

11. John Hopkins, b. Sept. 21, 1802. 

Three sons of Dr. Spring grad, at Y. C. Gardener in 1805; S. T. 
D., Hamilton Coll. 1819 ; LL. D., Lafay., Penn., 1853 ; ord. in New 
York, Aug. 8, 1810. 

Samuel grad. in 1811 ; Andover Theo. Seminary 1821 ; approbated 
May 8, 1821 ; ord. Abington, Mass., Jan. 2, 1822; dis. Dec. 6, 1826 ; 

inst. North Ch. Hartford, Ct., Mar. 21, 1827 ; dis. Jan. , 1833 ; inst. 

First Ch. East Hartford, Ct., Feb. 14, 1833 ; dis. July 14, 1861 ; S. T. 
D., Columbia College, 1858. 

Pinckney grad. in 1819, and died in 1820. 

The following sketch is from his ministerial neighbor and friend, Rev. 
Dr. Withington, of Newbury : 

Samuel Spring, D. D., was for many years a prominent member of 
our Association. He was rather in the minority, being on the Hopkin- 
sian side of the chief dispute of his day. Dr. Dana of Ipswich, Dr. 
Tappan of West Newbury, and Mr. Braman of Rowley, were old school 
Calvinists. Dr. Spring and Dr. Pai'ish were Hopkinsians, then called 
the New Divinity. 



88 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

His mind was first impressed with religion while reading a Defence of 
the Copernican Systein to his class while in college ; and this perhaps 
gave a type to his subsequent piety. The grandeur of God was his per- 
petual theme. Even Christ and redemption were, in his theology, affect- 
ing only as an exhibition of the grandeur of God. He was licensed to 
preach the gospel in 1774. The next year he joined that section of the 
army which was sent to seize Canada and subdue Quebec ; and I have 
heard him describe pathetically the famine and sufferings of that expedition. 
Though a clergyman, there was not a braver heart in that heroic band 
than his own ; and a story is told (though I never heard him allude to it), 
that when the army reached Quebec, one of the captains faltered, and 
Spring offered to head the company in the escalade, but was not per- 
mitted by the general, as he said it might confuse the men ; no one could 
look on his eye and not believe the story credible. On the first Sabbath 
in February, 1777, he preached as a candidate to the people to whom, for 
forty-two years, he became a pastor. He labored among his people until 
within a few weeks of his death, which happened March 4, 1819. 

His publications were, besides occasional sermons, a Dialogue on 
Duty, and a volume of Disquisitions. The first was a controversy with 
Dr. Tappan of West Newbury, and both of them were strongly marked 
with the peculiarities of his school. 

It was impossible to meet Dr. Spring, and not be struck with the 
strength of his purpose and the quickness of his intuition. He saw into 
character with a glance, and was not often prone to err on the indul- 
gent side. Lurking vanity, disguised ambition, foolish affectation, were 
sure to be detected by him ; and when the occasion called for it, sharply 
rebuked. Yet he was very companionable ; his relaxation was more 
agreeable from the general sternness from which he seemed to let him- 
self down. Tliough he seemed to be a dogmatist in his preaching, yet he 
was a man with whom you could discuss any subject, even his most dar- 
ling opinions. His range in the pulpit was too narrow, and his exhibi- 
tion of the gospel was too partial. Sovereignty was his favorite theme. 
He was not an orator, but often when earnest, commanded the closest at- 
tention. He was a splendid specimen of New England's clergy ; for 
there were giants in the earth in those days. 

"Farmixgton, Me., November 20, 1861. 

" Rev. S. J. Spaldixg, Newburyport, Mass. 

" My Dear Brother, — You have asked me to give you my recollections and 
impressions of the late Dr. Samuel Spring, of your city. This request is not the 
most easy with which to comply. The distance of time which has elapsed since 
his death, has taken much from the freshness and power of these recollections 
and impressions, and has tended to increase their indistinct and evanescent na- 
ture. My strong personal attachment to him also as my spiritual father, may have 
an undue influence in such matters ; and after all, the veiy best things I may 



SKETCHES OF ME3IBERS. 89 

fail to record, and note only those which may not suit the taste, or meet the ap- 
probation of others. But, in the language of the apostle Peter on a certain oc- 
casion, I will say, ' Such as I have, give I unto thee.' ' 

Truly yours, 

Isaac Rogers. 

Dr. Spring was above the middle height. His bodily frame was 
strong and athletic, and his whole appearance was majestic and com- 
manding, so that as you approached him, especially if a young man, it 
would be with emotions of diffidence nearly akin to reverence. His eyes 
were a light blue, penetrating and piercing, with a large round head that 
added not a little to his power in the pulpit and to his great influence 
over others. He was a man of stx'ong prejudices, and yet of a consum- 
mate knowledge of human nature. To those whom he well knew, he 
was a firm and lasting friend and a most wise and judicious counsellor. 
With those who did not suit his tastes or views he cared not to asso- 
ciate, or with them to have much to do. 

He was, however, quite easy to unbend, and very affable and even 
facetious in conversation with his intimate acquaintance. His wit was 
ready and keen, and he dearly loved and highly enjoyed a good joke. 
It is said, that before his marriage the General Association of Massachu- 
setts met in the western part of the State. On his way to the meeting, he 
called on Rev. Samuel Hopkins, of Hadley, who had a number of daugh- 
ters, from which he subsequently selected his wife. Dr. H. invited him 
on his return to stop and dine with him. To this Mr. S. agreed. 
Among other articles, a sparerib was served for dinner. Dr. H. says to 
Mr. S., " To which piece shall I help you ? " " To one of the ribs, if you 
please," says Mr. S., with a look and manner that gave no doubtful 
indication of his meaning. 

Not long after 1 united with his church, I called to see a family in 
the south part of the town, who belonged to the Society of the Rev. Mr. 
Milton, with whom and the Doctor there had never been a very good 
understanding. This family desired me to invite Dr. S. to visit them, as 
they were in sickness and affliction. Several days after, I called on the 
Dr., and communicated to him their desires. Stretching himself up, and 
bending back his head, with an arch smile, " Do you suppose," said he, 
" that / am going to call on that Miltonian f " While the fact was, as he 
afterwards assured me, he had already made them a call, and had a most 
pleasant and agreeable visit. 

Clergymen of his day were far more largely political than they are 
now, and had much more to say, both in their preaching and prayers, 
in relation to national affairs. Hence, when the embargo, non-inter- 
course, and war measures of the Jefferson and Madison administrations 

12 



90 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

were prosecuted, on Fast and Thanksgiving daj'-s, and even at other times, 
the Doctor \^'as plain, and explicitly bold and fearless in his opposition to 
both the men and the measures. At one time he took his text in Eze- 
kiel 27 : 26, — "Thy rowers have brought thee into great waters," and 
applied the words to the civil rulers of that day, very much to the dis- 
quiet of the few of his hearers who differed from him politically. 

At another time, when Napoleon I. had made his escape from Elba, 
and was, as the Dr. thought and believed, coming to America, he, in 
prayer, on one Sabbath morning, said, quoting from Jeremiah 20 : 7, " 
Lord, thou hast deceived us, and we are deceived." The next day one 
of his church members, who diiFered from him in politics, undertook to 
call him to account for using such language. " Why, brother K.," 
replied Dr. S., " are you not any better acquainted with your Bible ? Go 
home and read it over until you find the words I used in prayer there 
recorded." 

A few of us young men used to meet on Friday evenings for prayer 
and religious conversation. We invited the Dr. at one time to meet with 
us. On his inquiring as to tlie state of my mind, I recollect saying to 
him, that I thought the devil was very busy with me indeed, as I had a 
great many evil thoughts, and wandering thoughts also in prayer. • " You 
must be careful, my young friend," said he, " not to lay too much blame 
.to the devil, for your own heart is bad enough to originate those 
thoughts." 

He was not so anxious to increase membership in his church, as he 
was to promote a heightened and stable piety in its members. I well 
recollect, that after I had indulged about six months a hope of having 
been renewed in the spirit of my mind, I went with considerable diffidence 
to see him about making a public profession and uniting with the church. 
He received me very cordially, but thought it was rather too soon, and 
advised me to wait still longer before taking such an important step. In 
his better judgment, as I viewed it, I acquiesced. Indeed, I supposed 
that he had seen or known something in my life inconsistent with my 
hope in Christ, and concluded, of course, to abide his decision, and it was 
not until six months more had elapsed, that with much trembling and 
many fears, the profession was made. The desire, however, to make it 
was strengthened, and my carefulness and prayerfulness promoted by 
the course which he thus pursued, and I always loved him the more for 
it. But this, perhaps, was one of the extremes of that age ; and if it had 
its evils, it by no means follows that the other extreme of hasty admis- 
sions, into which the churches have now so generously fallen, has not 
many and great evils also. Few and far between were then the cases 
of discipline which are now multiplied, and numerous as the "leaves in 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 91 

Vallombrosa." And the limited doctrinal knowledge and increasing 
workUiness of most professoi-s of religion of the present day, is in striking 
contrast with the enlightened views and sober and godly lives of the 
church members of that generation. 

The following is a complete list of the publications of Dr. Spring. 
They have all been collected by Rev. A. G. Vermilye, D. D., now of 
Utica, N. Y., and by him presented to the Library of the Essex North 
Association. 

1. Thanksgiving Sermon. (Newburyport, 8vo, pp. 32. 1777.) 

2. Sermon " On Sinners coming to Christ." (Newburyport, 8vo, pp. 
47. 1779.) 

3. Sermon on Family Prayer. (New Haven Magazine, pp. 28. 
1780.) 

4. Three Sermons to little Children. (Newburyport, 16mo, pp. 82. 
1783.) 

5. Dialogue on the Nature of Duty. (Newburyport, 16mo, pp. 192. 
1784.) 

6. Sermon at the Ordination of the Rev. Benj. Bell, Amesbury, Mass., 
Oct. 13, 1784. (Newburyport, 8vo, pp. 64.) 

7. Sermon on knowing and trusting God. (Newburyport 8vo, pp. 
46. 1785.) 

8. Sermon at the Ordination of Rev. Pearson Thurston, Feb. 1, 1792, 
Somersworth, N.^H. (Dover, 8vo, pp. 26.) 

9. Sermon at the Ordination of Rev. Daniel Merrill, Sedgewick, Me. 
Sept. 17, 1793. (Newburyport, 8vo, pp. 50.) 

10. Thanksgiving Sermon, 1793. (Newburyport, 8vo, pp. 40.) 

11. Two Sermons in the American Preacher, vol. 4. 1793. 

12. Thanksgiving Sermon, 1798. (Newburyport, 8vo., pp. 24.) 

13. Sermon on the death of "Washington, 1799. (Newburyport, 8vo, 
pp. 28.) 

14. Sermon before the Mass. Miss. Society, 1802. (Newburyport, 
8vo, pp. 56.) 

15. Sermon on the Duel of Hamilton, 1804. (Newburyport, 8vo, 
pp. 28.) 

16. Sermon at the Ordination of Rev. Charles Coffin, Vice-President 
of Greenville College, Sept. 11, 1804. (Newburyport, 8vo, pp. 47.) 

17. Two Sermons on Christ's Self-existence, 1805. (Newburyport, 
8vo, pp. 59.) 

18. Sermon at the Ordination of Rev. Samuel Walker, Danvers, Aug. 
14, 1805. (Salem, 8vo, pp. 40.) 

19. Address before the Merrimack Humane Society, Sept. 1, 1807 
(Newburyport, 8vo, pp. 32.) 



92 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

20. Sermon on the death of Dea. Thompson, 1808. (Newburyport, 
Svo, pp. 24.) 

21. Two Fast Day Sermons, 1809. (Newburyport, Svo, pp. 56. ) 

22. Sermon at the Inauguration of Dr. Griffin, Professor at Andover, 
June 1, 1809. (Boston, 8vo, pp. 34.) 

23. Funeral Sermon of Rev. Nathaniel Noyes, 1810. (Newburyport, 
8vo, pp. 28.) 

24. Moral Disquisitions, 1815. (2d ed. Exeter, 16mo, pp. 240.) 

25. Sermon ; "United agency of God and Man." (Newburyport, 8vo, 
pp. 20.) 

26. Sermon before the A. B. C. F. Missions, 1818. (Boston, Svo, 
pp.19.) 

27. Sermon before the Howard Benevolent Society, Oct. 4, 1818. 
(Newburyport, 8vo, pp. 20.) 

28. The Youth'^ Assistant, 1818. (Newburyport, Svo, pp. 36.) 

DANIEL BRECK. 

The following letter was received from his son, Hon. Daniel Brack of 

Kentucky. 

KiCHMOND, Ky., July 16, 1861. 

Messrs. L. Withington, etc., Committee, etc. 

Dear Sirs, — Causes, too numerous to mention, have occasioned the 
delay in furnishing the desired information in your circular of March 
last, in regard to the Rev. Daniel Breck, deceased, and family. I take 
pleasure now, although at so late an hour, in furnishing the information 
requested. 

Rev. Daniel Breck was born at Boston, Massachusetts, on the 29th 
of August, A. D. 1748 (o. s.). 

He was the son of John and Margaret Breck. The maiden name of 
the latter was Thomas. He was baptized in infancy. 

He graduated at Princeton, Nassau Hall, in 1774. His theological 
studies were prosecuted under the care of the Rev. Drs. Bellamy and 
West. Was a chaplain in the Continental Army, and before Quebec in 
the winter of 1776. After leaving the army, he visited what was then 
called the North West Territory, and preached the first Protestant ser- 
mon ever delivered north and west of the Ohio River. This was at the 
spot where Marietta, in Ohio, now stands. His text was Luke 1 : 33. 
" And of his kingdom thei-e shall be no end." 

On the 17th day of November, 1779, he was ordained as the pastor 
of a church in Topsfield, Massachusetts, and continued till the 26th day 
of May, 1788, when he removed to Hartland, Vermont, and November 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 93 

11, 1789, became its first settled minister. He continued to preach there 
until dismissed by a council, January 27, 1797, and died tliere on the 
12th day of August, 1845, retaining in a remarkable degree all his fac- 
ulties, and departing in the full triumph of Christian faith. 

He was married in March, 1786, in Topsfield, Massachusetts, to Han- 
nah Porter, the daughter of Elijah and Dorothy Porter, Clark being the 
maiden name of the latter. 

Names, birth, etc. of the children of David and Hannah Breck, as fol- 
lows : 

1. EUzabeth, born in Topsfield, 29th January, 1787 ; died the wife 
of Henry Hall of Ohio, 1853. 

2. Daniel, born in Topsfield, Feb. 12, 1788; grad. D. C. 1812; 
LL. D. Transyl. Coll. 1843 ; Rep. in Congress from Kentucky 1849-51 ; 
appointed Judge of Sup. Court in that State 1843. 

3. Hannah, born in Topsfield, 19th of August, 1789 ; died in 1848. 

4. Samuel, born in Hartland, IGth of March, 1792 ; educated in Ver- 
mont, and at the Medical College in the city of New York, where he re- 
ceived the degree of M. D. 

5. Dorothy, born in Hartland, on the 9th of July, 1793. 

6. Abigail, born in Hartland, Vt., on the 13th of September, 1795. 

7. Lucy, born in Hartland, Vt., on the 16th of October, 1799 ; died 
in 1839. 

8. Clarissa, born in Hartland, Vt., on the 1st of July, 1802 ; died on 
the 17th of March, 1804. 

9. Mary, born in Hartland, Vt., on the 23d of November, 1803; died 
in 1829. 

He first united with the church of the Rev. Dr. Byles, of HoUis 
Street Church, Boston, Mass. 

I am unable to furnish a list of sermons and addresses published by 

him. 

Most respectfully, 

Your Obt. Servant, 

Daniel Breck. 

Steaffokd, August 22, 1861. 
Nothing was ever published from his pen. Living so early as he 
did, and coming to Vt. when every thing was in infancy, it was not so 
easy as now to come before the public by the press. The Rev. Mr. 
Breck was a good scholar and a very accomplished gentleman. In close 
connexion with his dismission at Hartland, he withdrew from the active 
duties and labors of the ministry. By reason of being the first ordained 
minister of the town, he received a lot of land of a hundred acres, well 
located, and he gave himself to the cultivation of that land. There he 



94 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

lived to the end of his course. He was a magistrate and town clerk 
manv rears. "Was greatly respected by all who knew him. and by many 
even venerated. 

Very respectfully, 

Samuel Delano. 

The following is the inscription upon a modest marble headstone, set 
up at his grave — 

REV. DANIEL BRECK, 

Dieii in Hartland. Yt. Auirust 12, lS4o, acred 97. 



'• Mark the perfect man. and behold the upright, for the end of that 
man is peace," 

That of his wife is. 

H A N N A H . 

wife of Kev. Daniel Breck, 

died June. lo. 1S3S, aged 79. 



Saviour ! how dear that precious name^ when Death's cold finger touches 
one we love. 



TKrE KIMBALL. 

"Was born in Plaistow, N. H., January 2S, 1757, and was baptized in 
infancy. He was the son of Dea. Jonathan and Abigail (True) Kim- 
ball. He united with the Congregational Chui-ch of Plaistow and 
North Haverhill. He graduated at H. U. in 1778. and studied theology 
with Rev. Giles; Merrill of Plaistow. He was ordained pastor of the 
Fii-st Church in "West ^Newbury. Xov. 20. 1782 ; dismissed April 4, 1797. 

He then removed to Hampstead, N. H., and united with the Congre- 
g:idoual Church in that town, July 2, 1797. . He changed his views, and 
became a Univexsalist ; and after continued but ineffectual elJbrts made 
to correct his errors, and to prevail on him to return to his former ai- 
tend:\nce on the means of grace, he was excommunicated, 1814. 

He died at H:impstead, X. H.. July lo, 1816. He was subject to fits 
of nervous depression, in one of which he hung himself in his barn. 

Mr. Kimball was married May T. 1784, in "West Xewbury. to Jane 
Short, daughter of Sewell and Jane (Brown) Short. She was bom in 
iXewburyport, Aug. 13, 1761, and died January 12, 1841, in Hampstead. 

The names of their children were, — 



SKETCHES OF MKMBEKS. 95 

1. James Brown, b. Sept. 23, 1785, in "West Newbury; d. Apr. 26, 
1746. 

2. Joshua, b. June 22, 1787, in "West Kewbury ; d. Jan. — , 1840. 

3. Jane, b. Aug. 21, 1791, in West Newbury; d. March 16, 1800. 

4. Jonathan, b. Dec. — , 1794, in West Newbury; d. Sept. — , 1797. 

5. Jonathan Sewell, b. Aug. 16, 1798, in Hampstead, nowliving. 

6. Mary Jaue, b. April 20, 1801, in Hampstead,- no-w Hviug. 

t 

EBEXEZEK BEADEORD, 

Was the son of William and Mary (Cleaveland) Bradford, and was born 
in Canterbury, Conn., May 29, 1746. He graduated at the College of 
New Jersey in 1773; and was licensed to preach Aug., 1774. He was 
ordained to the work of the gospel ministry by the Presbytery of New 
York, at a session held at South Hanover, N. J., July 13, 1775. 

Mr. Bradford was the stated supply at Danbury, Conn., from April, 
1777, to Nov. 1779, and was there when the town was burnt by the 
British in 1777. He tied with his family from the lire and sword of the 
enemy, but returned in season to extinguish the flames already kindled in 
his dwelling. Mr. Bradford preached and administered the ordinances 
in various parts of the county, wherever he was called in Providence. 

He was installed at Rowley, August 4, 1782 ; and died there after a 
pastorate of 19 years, January 3, 1801, aged fifty five. In his call, Oct. 
22, 1781, he was offered as a settlement real estate valued at £200, a 
salary of £100 to be made as good as in 1774, and twelve cords of wood 
annually. 

He married April 4, 1776, Elizabeth Green, daughter of Rev. Jacob 
and Elizabeth Pierson Green of Hanover, N. J., and sister of Rev. Ash- 
bel Green of Philadelphia. 

They had nine children, all of whom survived their father. 

1. Ebenezer Green, b. Feb. 19,1777; grad. D. C, 1796; practised 
law, and was a Judge of a court in Penn ; d. May 17, 1836. ^. 59. 

2. William, b. June 8, 1779. 

3. John Melancthon. b. May 15,1781; grad. B. U., 1800; tutor in 
C. N. J., 1803-4; S. T. D., LL C, 1812 ; d. 1827. 

4. Jacob Pierson, b. January 18, 1783. 

5. Elizabeth Green, b. Dec. 22, 1784. 

6. James b. Sept. 11, 1786; grad. D. C. 1811; ord. Sheffield, Mass. 
Oct. 13, 1813; dis. May 1852; d. Dec. 16, 1858. 

7. Moses, b. Oct. 11, 1788. 

8. Henry, b. July 1, 1790. 

9. Mary Cleaveland, b. March 20, 1792. 

The fii'st three were born in Danbury, Conn., the others in Rowley. 



96 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

Mr. Bradford published, — 

1. A Sermon ; The Depravity of Human Nature illustrated. Preach- 
ed at Rowley, July 5, 1789. Pub. 1791. 

2. Sermon at the Ordination of Nathaniel Howe, Hopkinton, Oct. 5, 
1791. 

3. Strictures on Dr. Langdon's Remarks on Hopkins's system, 1794. 

4. A Fast Sermon, 179o. 

5. A Thankgiving Sermon, J 795. 

6. A Sermon at the Installation of Rev. John H. Stevens, at Stoneham, 
Sept. 11, 1795. Subject, — The Duty of a Minister of Jesus Christ 
illustrated. 

Mr. Bradford had a strong voice, and was something of a sensation 
preacher. The following anecdote was told me by Judge March (Hon. 
Ebenezer March of Newbury), one of the Judges of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas. It had been the custom of the court, on the days of prepara- 
tory lectures, to adjourn the session and attend the lecture, paying this re- 
spect to the established religion of their country. On a certain lecture- 
day, at Ipswich, the court as usual adjourned, and Bradford preached. 
The judges belonged to that middle aristocracy then prevalent ; but they 
were not lawyers, and were suspected of leaning to Arminianism. 
Bradford was very pointed, very pungent in his preaching, and the 
court considered themselves as insulted ; and resolved no more to ad- 
journ for a social lecture ; which I believe they never did afterwards. 
In those days it was customary to offer the pastor, whenever he visited 
a family, a glass of brandy, or some spirit ; so that, if he visited six fam- 
ilies in an afternoon, and accepted every invitation, he might go home in 
a very cheerful tone of mind. Bradford was of a free, social disposition ; 
and the report is, that his example did not have the best influence on his 
people in the latter part of his ministry. His sun, at the setting, went 
into a drizzly cloud, and he fell a victim to the kindness of his people and 
the custom of the times. In this story we must allow something for an- 
cient practices and the tyranny of fashion. — L. "w. 



EBENEZER DUTCH, 

The second minister of the church in Groveland, was born in Ipswich, 
-, and was the son of Benjamin Dutch, Jr., and Sarah Day, both 



of Ipswich, and whose intention of marriage was entered November 29, 
1746. He was baptized March 29, 1752. He graduated at B. U. in 
1776, and was ordained colleague-pastor with Rev. William Balch, Nov. 
17, 1779. He died Aug. 4, 1813, aged 62. 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 97 

The following obituary notice appeared in the Newburyport Herald 
for Aug. 10, 1813. 

" This worthy man had for some months past been severely afflicted 
with the angina pectoris. Aware of the nature and consequences of his 
complaint, he viewed with a steady eye the approach of that hour which 
he knew must come soon, and might come suddenly ; and has left his 
mourning friends the consolation of believing that his departure, though 
untimely to them, was not unexpected or unprepared Tor by him." 

He married August 18, 1780, Mehitable Mighill, daughter of Jeremiah 
and Sarah (Lambert) Mighill of Rpwley. She died . 

Their children were, — 

1. Eben, b. Jan. 28, 1781 ; settled in Maine. 

2. John, b. May 4, 1782; grad. D. C. 1800 ; d. . 

3. Hitty, b. Jan. 4, 1784 ; mar. Aaron Hardy, merchant of Boston. 
She died at her father's. 

4. Jeremiah, b. Oct. 30, 1785 ; d. Aug. 15 or 16, 1787. 

He w'as married a second time, Feb. 15, 1798, to Miss Phebe Eaton, 
daughter of Timothy and Abigail (Massey) Eaton, of Haverhill. She 
was born Sept. 7, 1767. 

Their children wfere, — 

5. Phebe Caroline, b. April 4, 1799. 

6. Jeremiah, b. Oct. 4, 1801. 

His widow married a second time, and lived in the State of New York. 

He published at Haverhill, 1795, "A Discourse on occasion of the 
Numerous Deaths which took place among his people in a very short 
space of time." It was preached to his people January 25, 1795. Also 
a Sermon at the Dedication of the Church in East Bradford (now 
Groveland). 

A pai-ishioner of Mr. Dutch thus speaks of him. " I knew Mr. Dutch 
well ; both his personal appearance and manner of preaching. He was 
of medium stature, rather fleshy ; usually preached extemporaneously, — 
had a flow of words, much imagination, and, when engaged on any sub- 
ject, was eloquent. He almost always preached all day from the same 
text, and was very long in his sermons. He died suddenly, falling down 
in his garden, and lived but a few hours after being taken up. 

ELIJAH PARISH, 

"Was born in Lebanon, Conn., Nov. 7, 1762. His father was Elijah 
Parish. His mother's maiden name was Eunice Foster, daughter of Na- 
than and Foster, and granddaughter of Josiah Standish, who was 

grandson of Capt. Myles Standish, of the Plymouth Colony. 

13 



98 HISTORY- '•e*>' IS^feX 'NOttttS'ilsebCIATION. 

ji!j;'H¥gi-aduate(J at D. Ol, iii 1785 ; studied theology with Eev. Ephi^aim 
Judson of Taunton, and was ordained pastor of the Ghaiich ' in -iB^'figld, 
^^■■#&0,Y^^87;^aHd'(li^d-(])ctj'l5,il825v-^ 'lot Ju;;il f!j;m vilJ'xow bi/lT »* 
^^'■' Bt 'Wftsiaarrled- iSfo^V. 71,' l'?®^, tb Misa^Mary -'tMe, daugblerofUc^^h 
fktld '■MHry (Ndrtlien^) 'HalBj of Byfieldl^ '8h>& died May 30,1831. sni..:* 
^•f'^Th^' rrA^iliefe Of Ihe^'i* <ihiWreH''afej'%'i" bms .noua emoo iaum v/'jui od 
^fo'l;'''Ma¥y:ed6,'%!. 5aHu^'i^-,'"'l'?'^8i5^iJfiikWi<eatj)il DanM i^byifts."^ 
Byfield^lSiSi.'^ '"^■^ 5. i'iK(];T<;nii lo l)Ot'>;jqx:>niJ Jmi >);■;/ ^nivii; u; v[yirii,;)i,u 
iuugiy-iAVifel Fottt^^'tbJiFutj^'^, l^(i)0/-^/^F€tHi2^il8OlV''^*' hairiBaiaH 

3. Hannah Standi«h,b:'1\Iay';7',^l6l)i:' ^IniLllA (n ,..);ft-;.l) i[i!-ii:8 biui 

4. Elizabeth Ann Morse, b. Aug. 29, 1802,~d..Oei!'/ 26>,'i'fill9.'£i mIT 

5. Moses Parsons, b. -Ofc*. ^^ 18^3l5lgi-rtdUatlB:'C.-'lia22i;,sttikJ[ed3aw 
with Hon. Ebenezer M'os^lfe'y fcf'Jfe^ibikTyifjol-ir^fe 'i»fip- '^S'la^'^ig^ 
SflW5''^, '•^aA^tei^'iof MiWaj-Ah ahd^^-^^— ^^^ Sf^i^^rybf-N^wbui-^'pdA. •<'- 

The following biographical Sketch is by Rev. •l)i'.''W'lthiT)igtod.' >'f> -"l*^' 
The life of a'hinible'pf^ebcMif^off'triitti,' ^kced'iri a' peaicdfuli Villlige, 
^A'fid':Snga'g^<ilifftll^ii'dG'1dF(iut$es,'WWiohjithloA^^^ 

'ek'rinot 'bei'Silpfjosed - ib b(i di*t»wdfe9' ^ivith -«v^ntfe'Whi<-hi spfiHde in' ■ ttarfi^ 
tive. The calling of Dr. Parish was honorable? he' rahde; if laboi^iouw; 
and he appears to have experienced in his ministt^yfhtttfetesis.ing-Hvli'ich 
is prayed for in the formula of the English (jHui^hjithafiGed 'Would pbur 
upon his people the continual dew of his-blessin^.-' It T^as tflofi hisairii in 
■ji*-ea(cMfl^i tb- lA^ike aVl !inijf>r64feifeii^:Qtirftiisl'peoplei;\thioh. ishiouMi 'adoa^ a 
iikrktiv*e'iti a hewspap^r. '^He■^^^as'^'"^raa'M■l boJl'delp; but hy niatdrials 
%iere ^d)}id %t6t\e.' I'Tfae <k)nfimial''dmt of adw^^ anexpre's- 

'^^iro wWbii'b^st dfe^etnbies the effect of liis instrpctioiul' Yet twice inul^ig 
TBSiiiiisity b^'pedulfersol^Airiity petvadfed'hiii'^risb; * Inthte ^arlienpart erf 
his life he encountered difficulties among his people ; when hip didd theitffe 
J^te'4ot'^''m6rednlted pari.^hitithe^tatJe.' iHe w^s iiidefed a man peculiarly 
^tted'k) a4t' iri t'hoge ^certes wMch trym^en^sspuls^'' I>ecided in hife vie'VFg, 
-aTidr.tei-ni'ite 'Ms^^pirit, '"heiwalfc^dLilAithfe patbdf daiiger-wich-atimndauiitfed 
-lieart."^'It''is' a-fai^ eveiit/irt nFK>dei*rt times that.aiclergyrnan i's (ialledilb 
'^^ ^tth 'dpecirdens of Ghrtstian courigej He boldly took; his stand on 
-'tM'f'ii^id^St^l' {.©f '^tayjfiiiif JtWuld-ttieii threats fbrr-Bn^efg^of-'an loppOsing 
world induti6- hiiti''td''le»i-S''Ji^ 'This wals'cowra^e bfj tbe.indblest kindi; 
it is the very resolution which a minister's profession requires. Thou- 
sands who have faced the,. dapgef s , of battle have been timid here. 
The teachers of religion, if they mean to nil their station, must copy 
^b%Si^4epRrieH''fether,-and"ib'A ^hoiy heart kdd aii iildf^pettde'Tit feifid: ' 
"^ As* We liaVe intimated, T>t. Pai'ish wJis siettie'd under' great oppb'^itibb. 

no^baivfs 



^is'pebpTe tv'^f-enbtaltbgethe'rtecbncileditb the peculiar 

.-^ftolo:.) iliuom/J'I sd.i \o ,Mhmi\?, KylTM .iqa^ 'to 



a I 



.>:0'.:'.'; AViSKETCHES OP MEMBERS. VJy 

ology. The council assembled ; and so strong was the opposition, that all 
that i^Ja'y aiid all the next the people were held in painful suspense, and 
th6 ordination dinner (for then ordinations were seasons of great festivity) 
had- aitnple: time to cool. The services took place in the evening of the 
seeKShdiday. Dr. Parish was often heard to say, that two or three times 
he had pressed his hand on his chair, to rise and announce to the council 
his resolution to decline the call, but something seemed to check him. 
Never was a young candidate settled under greater opposition, and 
never was an opposition so formidable, so completely lived down by pru- 
dence and time. In a few years the people became harmonious, some of 
the opponents relenting, and some dying. If it be asked by what means 
this rare victory was accomplished, we may say, partly by his earnest- 
ness, partly by his decision, and partly by the impression he made of 
his talents and piety. He was a very prompt man at a reply ; he 
generally said the right thing at the right time. The word fitly spoken 
did much for him. 

We have spoken of his moral courage. An incident may explain. 
He was chosen in 1809 to preach the election sermon by a Federal leg- 
islature. The sermon was to be preached in 1810, when the politics of 
the State had been clianged. These were exciting times ; the political 
wave, like Milton's fiery waves in the infernal regions, rolled backward 
and forward, burning and scorching every thing in its course. A good deal 
of curiosity was felt to know how the renowned Federal preacher would 
address a Democratic assembly. An old member of the House has often 
told me, it was a very exciting scene. He was actually afraid that they 
would pull the preacher out of the desk. As he proceeded to pour forth 
his sarcasm and searching rebukes, they hummed, and scraped, and cough- 
ed, and made every sort of disorderly noise, and when the noise became 
so great that the preacher's voice could not be heard, he would pause and 
look steadily at them, and as the tumult died away, he would begin again 
his objurgatory strain. It has been the uniform practice to vote to publish, 
at the expense of the public, election sermons ; but no such vote could 
be obtained on this occasion. But mark the effect of political opposi- 
tion. Benjamin Russell, editor of the Columbian Centinel, offered to 
publish the sermon at his own expense ; and never was an election ser- 
mon so read and so sold. It fled on the wings of love and hatred 
over the whole State into other States ; and had the honor to be quoted 
by Mr. Haynes, a senator of South Carolina, in his reply to Mr. Webster 
in 1830. If any should question the wisdom of the preacher's course, we 
only say, that we adduce it as a proof of his boldness, not of his caution. 

Dr. Parish was a diligent and successful student. Judging from effects, 
we should conclude that he was a man that seldom found an idle hour. 



100 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

A list of the publications of Dr. Pai-ish : 

1. A Sermon at the Ordination of Ariel Parish, Manchester, April 4, 
1792. 

2. A Discourse on the tenth Anniversary of his Ordination, 1797. 

3. A Sermon on the death of Rev. John Cleaveland, Ipswich (now 
Essex), 1799. 

4. An Oration on the Fourth of July, 1799. 

5. An Oration on the 22d of February, 1800. 

6. A Sermon preached at Hanover, the Sabbath preceding the com- 
mencement at Dartmouth College, 1801. 

7. A Thanksgiving Discourse, 1804. 

8. A Sermon at the Ordination of Nathan Waldo, 1806. 

9. A Sermon before the Massachusetts Home Missionary Society, 
1807. 

10. A Sermon at the Ordination of David Thurston, Winthrop, Me., 
1807. 

11. A Sermon on the Annual Fast, 1808. 

12. A Sermon before the Female Charitable Society of Newburyport, 
1808. 

13. Massachusetts Election Sermon, 1810. 

14. A Eulogy on Prof. John Hubbard of Dartmouth College, 1810. 

15. A Sermon at the Ordination of Nathaniel Merrill, in Lyndebo- 
rough, N. H., Oct. 30, 1811. 

16. Protest against the War; A Fast Sermon, 1812. 

17. A Fast Sermon, 1814. 

18. A Sermon before the Society for propagating the Gospel among 
the Indians and others in North America, 1814. 

19. A Sermon at Ipswich, at the Ordination of Daniel Smith and 
Cyrus Kingsbury, as missionaries to the West, 1815. 

20. A Sermon at the Ordination of Enoch Pillsbury, in Litchfield, N. 
H., Oct. 25, 1815. 

21. A Sermon delivered before the Convention of Congregational 
Ministers in Massachusetts, 1821. 

22. Dr. Parish published, in connection with Rev. Dr. Morse, a Gaz- 
etteer of the Eastern and Western Continents, 1802. 

23. A Compendious History of New England, 1809. 

24. A System of Modern Geography, 1810. 

25. In connection with the Rev. David McCluer, — A Memoir of 
the Rev. Dr. Eleazer Wheelock, first president of Dartmouth College, 
1811. 

26. A Sacred Geography or Gazetteer of the Bible, 1813. 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 101 

c 

27. A Posthumous volume of Sermons, with a brief Memoir of his 
Life, was published in 1826. 

ASAHEL HUNTINGTON, 

Was born in Frankhn, Ct. March 17, 1761. His paternal ancestors 
were among the earliest settlers of Norwich, of which Franklin was a 
part before its incorporation as a town. (The fii'st white person buried 
in the town of Norwich, Conn., bore the name of Christopher Huntington.) 
His grandfather, Dea. Christopher Huntington, died at an advanced age, 
leaving four sons, namely, — Christopher, Theophilus, Elisha, and Bar- 
nabas. His father, Barnabas, was born June, 1728, and died April 14, 
1787. He also worthily sustained the office of deacon, was an active and 
influential patriot in the days of the Revolution, and was greatly respected 
for his moral worth. His mother, whose maiden name was Anne 
"Wright, was born October, 18, 1732, and lived to nearly the age of one 
hundred years. She was a woman of great excellence of character, and 
a pious and devoted Christian. Under the faithful instruction and guid- 
ance of such parents, the subject of the notice made an early public pro- 
fession of religion, which he illustrated and adorned through the remain- 
der of his life. 

He determined to devote himself to the work and duties of the gospel 
ministry, and pursued his studies, preparatory for college, under the 
tuition of his pastor, the Rev. Samuel Nott, D. D. of Franklin, who 
still survives, as minister of the same church and people, being tiow 
nearly one hundred years of age ; and it is but a few years past, that 
this truly venerable patriarch has had the aid of a colleague pastor. 
Mr. Huntington was graduated at Daitmouth College, under the ad- 
ministration of the elder President Wheelock, in the class of 1786. At 
the time of his graduation, he pronounced the valedictory address, 
then esteemed the most distinguished a})pointment of the exercises at 
commencement. Among his classmates at college were several who 
afterwards became much distinguished in public life, — among whom may 
be named, the late Judge Calvin Goddard, of Norwich, Ct., for many 
years a member of Congress, afterwards a member of the Hartford 
Convention, and eminent through life as a jurist and civilian; and the 
late Hon. Charles Marsh, LL. D., of Woodstock, Vt., — greatly distin- 
guished at the bai', and in the public councils of his own State. In the 
clerical profession, we may also mention the names of the late Rev. Dr. 
Strong of Randolph, Mass., and Rev. Peter Sanborn of Reading, — both 
of them highly respectable in their profession, and who fulfilled all the 
duties of the ministrj^with great fidelity and success. 



102 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

Mr. Huntington pursued his theological studies for the terna of nearly 
three years under private teachers (public seminaries of theological 
instruction being then unknown), at first, under the direction and aus- 
pices of the Rev. Dr. Charles Backus, of Soraers, Ct., an eminent divine 
of his day, who educated many of the clergy of that period ; and after- 
wards under Rev. Dr. Levi Hart, of Preston (now Griswold), Ct. 

He was ordained as pastor of the Congregational Church and Society 
in Topsfield, November 12, 1789, as successor of the Rev. Daniel Breck. 
His former instructor, Dr. Hart, preached his ordination sermon. 

He was married to Althea Lord, daughter of Elisha Lord, M. D., of 
Pomfret, Ct., June 2, 1791. Having fulfilled a successful, harmonious, 
and useful ministry, among an entirely united and devoted church and 
people, for a period of nearly twenty-four years, he died April 22, 1813, 
after a sickness (throat distemper) of five days, leaving a widow, who 
departed this life at the residence of her son in Lowell, August 31, 1850, 
in the eighty-fourth year of her age, the day but one following the Centen- 
nial Celebration of the town. He left five children; namely, — 

1. Althea, born Oct. 10, 1792 ; died Aug. 26, 1814. 

2. Elisha, born April 9, 1796. 

3. Asahel, born July 23, 1798. 

4. Hezekiah, born June 30, 1800 ; died June 8, 1828. 

5. Mary Anne, who was born Aug. 18, 1802, and died May 9, 1836. 
Of the surviving children, Elisha Huntington, M. D., resides in Lowell, 

Mass., and Asahel Huntington, counsellor-at-law, in Salem, Mass. 

The discourse, at the funeral of the Rev. Mr. Huntington, was preached 
by his long-tried and intimate friend. Rev. Isaac Braman of Rowley 
(now Georgetown), who still survives, and, in the enjoyment of a green 
old age, is still able to minister at the altar, — a model clergyman, as he 
is a model man. The discourse was published in connection with a ser- 
mon, partly written out by Mr. Huntington on the same day that he was 
stricken with his last sickness, from the text, — " Be ye also ready ; for 
in such an hour as ye think not, the Son of Man cometh." 

Mr. Huntington published several occasional discourses. He was a 
discriminating and faithful preacher. His theological opinions were 
strictly evangelical ; but being a truly wise man, and affectionate and 
conciliatory in all his intercourse with his people, he secured and retained 
their confidence, attachment, and respect throughout the entire period of 
his ministry. In the private relations of life, he was a model of all 
that was good and excellent. His praise is still in the churches, as well 
as in the hearts of all who possessed an intimate knowledge of his char- 
acter and virtues. 

We close this brief sketch with an extract from the funeral discourse 
of Rev. Mr. Braman. 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 103 

niiV His moral and religious character was without a blot. In all social 
and relative duties he was faithful and scrupulously exact. Of conjugal 
affection and parental tenderness and fidelity, he was a model. As a friend, 
(and to whom was he not a friend ?) he was affectionate and sincere. 
Modest and unassuming, as well as of a social turn, he was uncommonly 
amiable as a companion. As if born for the sole purpose of comforting the 
afflicted, and making his fellow-creatures happy, his life was that of 
active benevolence. As a minister of the gospel, his praise is in the 
churches, among the people of God, who are willing to hear divine truth, 
though it come to them in a still small voice. In prayer, he was fervent, 
solemn, and devout. To know the mind of the Lord was his first object, 
and then to declare it to his hearers for their instruction and benefit. 
A faithful servant of Christ, mindful of his responsibility to him, and 
sincere in his affection for his people, he watched for their souls as one 
that must give an account ; not shunning to declare the whole counsel of 
God." 

At this period tliet'e was a remarkable partiality for Scripture Chris- 
tian names, especially in Connecticut. The names of the five sons of 
i)eacdn Bafna1)as'Huntington, and in the order of their birth, were Bar- 
naWs, VLzarfah,' ^'sahel,'^ nezekiah, and Gordon, all of whom are now 
ide'^^ased. Tliere iare two ^<Si&ters still surviving, at a very advanced age. 
The paternal estate in Franklin, which has been in the family for five 
generations (hb'i'^brliciri "of li'having been alienated), is now owned by 
A:iaria}i, sin of Azariali^ '^bove named, — a lineal descendant of the 

bH^nki ^^ttiidi)'Wi^p^y ti^^fe Uas''Ciiristopher. 

Jtibi'iil 'jdr ■.''U.M.v.ilur''. OJ '{ivti 'ti-jrlT nO 
Salem, August, 1851. ' . ,^. , ,... 

ri'^This^JlfctibUilty dittfWfi'W^ by Wri ' affectionate son, tallies with the tradi- 
tibnai ttt^mopy 'Which tbe preacher left,' as I have always heard it. He 
j^is^'sl'Jrri'a.ri^of'ihe^^tfe'ateSt'kilidtfess', dfe'lighting to oblige, and showing his 
ie^e to'God'tJ^ffiis'betiievofeHfcle t<>' ml^yp 'iri 'gl:*eat and little things. — L. w. 

•lo ,riO l!MJ'iJliiu:> 1:1/::; ■ri-yn iT.-;i(j /:-ri'>-s J):i. 
ni .j-.ofqioniiq hasi ssiyjjaaiiffl xf;>fi;/> i jo •:'i:.t:;;(oi 
".p^noi^-nono-rrT 'th-AlSIPIiB^-BBA'IITIE, 

^<^^§#^ ^ti^orWimam'^hd'Hatrhfih (Pe«-fy) Beattie. He was born 
at Chelmsford, about 1766, and at the death of his father, his mother 
feiiibvied -to' BradfbM (i^o^* Grb?v«lartd)',' atid AWdrew was placed under 
the ertrie of 'his' uncle, Dr. John' Beattie, Of Chelmsford. He graduated 
SfHl^rF. iW'i'79'5;'^nd tetk^^d' }i bachelbi^'s dti^ee 'from B. U. the same 
;f^fe''''-M{iy 8,''#92;'he*r^cei'vedia call fromthe m^ Church in Salis- 
Siii^, 'having -thiiliyibfleblit xif tTiirty-fiv6 vOtd^. He was ordained June 
28,1797, and died in office, Monday, Marfli'^, ISOlv'in the fourth year 



104 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

of his ministry, and the thirty-fifth year of his age. The following is the 
inscription upon his tombstone : 

IN MEMORY 
OF 

REV. ANDREW BEATTIE, 

who died 

March 16, 1801, 

in the 35th year of his age, 

and the 4th of his ministry. 

Mark the perfect man, and behold the 
upright, for the end of that man is peace. 

" My mortal friends, if e'er with ill success, 
Living, I strove important truths to press, 
Your precious, your immortal souls to save. 
Hear me at last, oh hear me from the grave." 

Mr. Beattie was married Jan. 29, 1799 (Newburyport records), to 
Mary Boardman, daughter of John and Judith (Marsh) Boardman, of 
Newburyport. She died in Newburyport, May 17, 1814. (See obituary, 
Newburyport Herald, May 18, 1814.) 

Their only child was Eliza, born 1801, and died unmarried. 

Of Mr. Beattie's marriage there is the following notice in the Centinel: 

" Married Feb. 6, 1799, Rev. Andrew Beattie, of Salisbury, to Miss 
Mary Boardman, of Newburyport. On their way to Salisbury the bridal 
pair were met by eighteen sleighs, filled with the most respectable of the 
bridegroom's parishioners, who congratulated them on the joyous event, 
and accompanied them to the parsonage house, where a liberal entertain- 
ment was provided. One such mark of respect shown to the Rev. clergy, 
reflects more honor on the inhabitants of the Northern States, and more 
fully demonstrates their good sense, than were ever conferred on, or 
exhibited by the deluded idolaters of French massacres and principles, in 
civic ox-feasts, carmagnoles, choruses, and riff-raff processions." 

The following obituary was published in the Newburyport Herald, for 
March 17, 1801. 

" The pious and devout life which Mr. Beattie exhibited, both as a 
neighbor and a friend, a husband, parent, and pastor, and that resigned 
and submissive temper which supported him during more than eighteen 
months' consumptive illness, call on the jiublic to mourn the loss sustained, 
and to mingle the tears of condolence with the deeply afflicted widow, 
connections, and destitute flock." 



SlvKTCIIlCb OF MKJIBEKS. 105 

On the town records of Chelmsford the name is .spelled Betty, Batty, 
Bettys, and Battles. There is no record of" the birth of Andrew Beattie, 
son of William Beattie, but Andrew, son of Robert and Hannah Batties, 
was born June IG, ]7G7. May this not have been the birth of the sub- 
ject of this sketch ? 

Rev. Andrew Beattie was admitted to the church of Chelmsford dur- 
ing the pastorate of Rev. Hezekiah Packard, — 1793-1802. The par- 
ticular dates of admission are not given on the records. 



LEONARD WOODS, 

Was born in Princeton, Mass., June 19, 1774. His father was Samuel 
Woods, and his mother was Mrs. Abigail Underwood ; her maiden name 
was Abigail Whitney. He was baptized the same day he was born. 
His father designed him for a farmer ; but his strong love for study, and 
a severe illness which rendered him unable to labor for two yeai's, induced 
his father to consent to his commencing a course of study, preparatory 
to entering college. This he did when about fourteen years of age, with 
the parish minister. Besides this he received three months' regular instruc- 
tion at Leicester Academy, then under the care of Ebenezer Adams, 
afterwards Professor in Dartmouth College. He entered H.U. in 1792, 
and graduated from the same, with the highest honors, in 1796. His 
oration at graduation, and also his master's oration three years later, 
were both published. Of the latter, a writer in the Columbian Centinel, 
July 20, 1799, says,— 

" The best performance of the day was the Oration on Atheism, by 
the Rev. Mr. Woods. In this half-hour sketch, the existence and attri- 
butes of a Supreme Intelligence were demonstrated by invincible argument, 
and displayed with dignified eloquence ; and the deleterious effects of 
Atheism and Infidelity on civil society were powerfully illustrated in the 
debasing examples which F' ranee has given to the world ; these he was 
necessitated to paint in glowing colors, the better to render them a beacon 
to his countrymen. His remarks were pointed, but they were not severe ; 
his precepts pious, but liberal ; and his eloquence dignified and energetic, 
but not boisterous. In short, he was a champion in the cause of his 
Redeemer and country. He received the liberal plaudits of a grateful 
auditory, and his future reward shall be greater. We should be happy 
in presenting the oration of this divine 3i\\d patriot entire to our readers, 
but we understand it is to issue from the press in a pamphlet." 

After leaving college, Mr. Woods engaged in teaching for eight months, 
at Medford. During this time, and while occasionally under the paternal 
roof, that great change took place which gave tone and direction to his 

14 



106 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

subsequent life. " The purity ot'liis early religious impressions had been 
corrupted by the infusions of a seductive and vain philosophy, but, in the 
seclusion of his own room, he was led to read ' Doddridge's Rise and 
Progress,' and his freedom from rationalistic philosophies was complete. 
No experimental means were now tried upon him ; no excited assembly 
operated upon his mind and heart, but, in the anguish of his spirit, he 
knelt down, and clasping his Bible, he raised it over him as did John 
Huss, and cried, ' O God, my Lord and master of my life.' Henceforth 
Christ was to him all and in all, the beginning, the middle, and the end 
of his theology and his life." 

He made a public profession of religion, and united with the First 
Church in Medford, in 1797. It was then under the pastoral care of Rev. 
Dr. Osgood. He studied theology three months in the fall of 1797, with 
Rev. Dr. Backus of Somers, Conn. The next winter he studied at home ; 
confining himself chiefly to the Bible and Brown's System of Divinity. 

He was approbated in the spring of 1798, by the Cambridge Associa- 
tion. He was ordained pastor of the Fourth Church in Newbury (now 
the Second Church In West Newbury), Dec. 5, 1798. The parish voted 
to give him four hundred dollars annually, also five hundred dollars by 
way of settlement ; with the use of the parsonage land by the meeting- 
house, and eight cords of wood annually, with the liberty of going to see 
his parents for two Sabbaths every year. 

When the Theological Seminary was established at Andover, in 1808, 
]VIr. Woods was invited to the chair of Theology. 

The church and parish presented the following remonstrance to the 
council against the dismission of their Pastor. 

" Must we so soon, after the recent and great sacrifice of our late belov- 
ed Tappan, be thrown into a destitute, and perhaps irreconcilably divided 
state, and with wounds scarcely healed, be called to make a second sacri- 
fice of what we hold most dear and important to our temporal and spiritual 
interests, to mere opinion respecting an Institution, the importance and 
success of which are but in contemplation ? Is not the claim, renewedly 
to strip this church and people of their pastor, of a doubtful nature and 
dangerous tendency, and a sacrilegious encroachment on their rights? 
Since the engagements ministers have taken upon themselves at their 
ordination ever have been, and still are, viewed by the people as most 
sacred, will not the frequent departure therefrom operate as a fearful 
discouragement in the way of settling a gospel minister, and impress the 
idea that there is nothing substantial in religion, and that the Christian 
ministry is but an engine employed for the benefit of the clergy, to the 
contempt and neglect of gospel ordinances, and in time to the destruction 
of the faith once delivered to the saints, — or is our sinful division eagerly 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 107 

seized upon for a pretext to deprive us of the benev'olent labors of an 
affectionate pastor, when our great wickedness is the only cause why they 
are needful." 

The disunion above referred to, which had long agitated the parish, was 
in regard to building a new meeting-house. Notwithstanding this most 
earnest remonstrance, the Council unanimously voted that the pastoral 
relation should be dissolved. It terminated Sept. 28, 1808, the day of 
his inauguration at Andover. Dr. Woods continued in his professorship 
until the autumn of 1846, when heresigned. He received the degree 
of D. D. from Dart. College and^ the College of New Jersey, in 1810. 

He was pastor nine years, nine months and twenty-eight days. Dur- 
ing his ministry fourteen persons were added to the church ; twelve of 
these by profession, and two by letter. 

Dr. Woods was married at Worcester, Oct. 8, 1799, to Miss Abigail 
Wheeler, daughter of Joseph Wheeler, Judge of Probate in Worcester 
Co., and Mary Greenleaf, daughter of Daniel Greenleaf, M. D., of Bol- 
ton, Mass. 

Tlie names of their children are, — 

1. Samuel, b. Oct. 26, 1800. 

2. Joseph Wheeler, b. July 30. 1802 ; d. Nov. 8, 1827 ; grad. at D. 
C, 1823. 

3. Mary G., b. Oct. 3, 1804. 

4. Leonard, b. Nov. 24, 1807 ; grad. at Union Coll., 1827 ; S. T. D. 
at H. C, 1846 ; chosen President of B. C. in 1839. 

5. Daniel B., b. Sept. 20, 1809. 

6. Abby W., b. July 25, 1811. 

7. Margaret O., b. April 12, 1813. 

8. Harriet N., b. Aug. 19, 1815. 

9. Sarah A., b. June 18, 1817 ; d. Sept. 3, 1836. 

10. Sophia W., b. May 12, 1819. 

Prof Lawrence says of Dr. Woods, — " His personal bearing was 
manly and commanding. He was tall, six feet and two inches, and quite 
erect, even at the age of fourscore. There was a natural ease and dig- 
nity in his demeanor. He could with equal facility discuss a metaphysi- 
cal question in a circle of acute theologians, or take a little child upon 
his knee, and amuse it by imitating the whippoorwill, or singing ' The 
pretty, pretty lark.' 

" Dr. Woods was preeminently a Bible-preacher, bringing out from the 
Divine Word Christ as the central idea and life of Christianity. Hence, 
while his preaching was in the highest sense rational, it was not ration- 
alistic, but distinctively Christian. He had a fondness for metaphysical 
studies, and qualifications natural and acquired for distinguished success 



108 HISTORY OF ESSKX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

in them. His clear perceptions and power of discrimination, his abihty 
to discover the causes and I'elations of tilings, — to meet and surmount 
difficulties, to trace analogies, weigh arguments and estimate the value oi' 
logical results, gave him peculiar advantages in mental and moral science. 
With almost the same ease he could work in the mines or the mint of 
truth, bring up pearls from the deep, or polish them for use. The theol- 
ogy of Dr. Woods was not a dead and dry dogma, but a system of living 
truths vivified by his experience, and wrought into the texture of his 
character. He claimed to be in the line of theological succession from 
Christ, through Edwards, Calvin, Augustine, and the Apostles. His 
creed was his Christianity. It was old, but he believed not worn out, 
nor the less true for its age. His trust in Providence and in the efficacy 
of prayer, are well illustrated by an incident which oceurred in connection 
with the ordination of Dr. Hawes, at Hartford. Dr. Woods was to 
preach the sermon. It was in the spring of the year, and he was delayed 
by the bad travelling. When he reached the Connecticut, the bridge 
•had been carried away by the freshet, and the ice made passing danger- 
ous. There was no time to lose. He walked to the edge of the river, 
and ascertained that the boatman would attempt to get him across. Then 
he went to an old house which stood near, knocked at the door, and asked 
the privilege of a retired room for a short time. There he kneeled, and 
sought direction from God concerning his duty, then committed to the 
Divine care his wife and children and himself, — returned to the river, 
crossed in safety, and arrived just in season for the service he had 
engaged to perform." 

The following sketch is by a member of the Association, who knew 
Dr. Woods in a long personal acquaintance. 

"The impression made on the public mind by the life and services of 
Professor Woods, is too recent and too definite to be easily effaced. 
Since death has shaded his imperfections and put a seal on his virtues, 
his character, as a teacher and a man remains, graven with an iron pen 
and lead in tlie rock forever. The first part of his official life was s^aent 
in our vicinity, and he was, to the day of his death, a recorded member 
of our Association. It may be proper to ask, what was the hue of the 
theology of this Association at that time, and the standing of Dr. Woods 
in particular. This Association never had a creed, but it never had any 
Arminian or liberal member. It was distinguished by a kind of compre- 
hensive orthodoxy ; the traditionary Calvinists and tlie strict Hopkin- 
sians, — then denominated men of the old and new divinity. It was 
understood by them in all their intercourse, and especially on councils, 
that they should tolerate each other's differences, yet the lines were dis- 
tinct, and the differences held to be important. Dr. Spring, Dr. Parish, 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 109 

Mr. Dutch of Bradford, were of the New School, Dr. Joseph Dana, Mr. 
Bramaii, Mr. Mihimore, were of the old stamp. Dr. Woods was the 
warm friend of Dr. Spring ; and, indeed, says in his funeral sermon on 
Dr. Spring, that he loved him better than any man on earth. It is evi- 
dent that Dr. Spring placed the most unbounded confidence in the piety, 
talents, and orthodoxy of his junior friend ; and selected him to be the 
head of a theological school which he intended to establish at West 
Newbury. 

" The early preaching of Dr. Woods was well remembered when I first 
came into this region in 1816. , The microscopic eye of party spirit 
could discern no difference between him and Dr. Spring of Newburyport, 
Dr. Strong of Randolph, and Mr. Norton of Weymouth. Mr. Kirby 
was his immediate successor ; Dr. Tappan, his immediate predecessor at 
West Newbury. His preaching had a marked distinction from each, — 
as to the controverted points between the two sections of Calvinism, — a 
contrast. Dr. Dana of Ipswich, and his son at Newburyport, could not 
yield him their confidence. Dr. Spring did. Mr. Kirby was often com- 
plaining of the muddy metaphysics (I use his own phrase) Avhich he 
had preached to the people of their charge. He particularly mentioned 
iiis discouraging the use of means of grace ; and Kirby often lamented 
the omission of family prayer among the people. 

"It was once my lot, after preaching a preparatory lecture (I think it 
must have been in 1817 or 1818, Kirby was drowned in 1819), to take 
tea with Kirb)^ at the house of Mrs. Paul Bayley. Bayley was absent, 
and we three, namely, Mr. Kirby, Mrs. Bayley, and myself, were the 
party at the table. Mrs. Bayley was a strong devotee to Dr. Woods's 
theology, and, though not disliking Kirby exactly, seemed to have a 
great partiality for the preaching of her old pastor. Among other things, 
she related how much his faithful preaching impressed her ; it had been 
the means of her conversion ; his views of Divine sovereignty, and the 
total insufficiency of all unregenerate exertions. She admired his bold- 
ness. He said, — when the devils were made, God made them on purpose 
to be devils ; these were her words, and this the very instance she gave. 
I was struck with Kirby's manner of managing the conversation ; instead 
of softening matters, and diminishing the antagonism, as I confess I 
should have done, he spoke with freedom and almost contempt of such 
high flights of speculation ; and when Mrs. Bayley mentioned such doc- 
trines as necessary to bring the human heart to submission, I recollect, he 
told her that one practical act of self-denial was better than all the doc- 
trinal sublimities of the pulpit. The conversation was remarkable for 
openness on both sides, and I always remembered it. Previous to this I 
had heard Dr. Woods at Andover say, in that half-lamenting way, with 



110 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

which a man condemns his own course when his intentions have been 
right, but his judgment erroneous, ' If I were to begin ray ministry again, 
I woukl be a more practical man, I would have less dogmatical and 
more experimental preaching.' 

'In his funeral sermon on Dr. Spring, he calls him (March 9, 1819) 
' one of the dearest fathers ; one of the most precious friends I ever had 
on earth ; ' and manifestly alludes with approbation to some of his pecu- 
liarities ; as ' he forcibly inculcated upon you the duty of immediate 
repentance, the duty of turning to God without delay. ^ He exposed your 
false refuges. He showed you that without faith it is impossible to please 
God, and that all the works of the unregenerate are an abomination in his 
sight.' 

"No doubt after he advocated the union of the two sections of orthodoxy, 
and took the associate chair at Andover, his mind underwent some 
change. From a desire of exercising a wider influence, and perhaps from 
a justifiable ambition, he conceived the idea of adjusting the two sys- 
tems ; and in this difficult task (difficult to the satisfaction of such minds 
as those of Emmons and Spring), he earned that part of his reputation 
by which he was regarded as more of a polemical peace-maker than an 
outspoken Hopkinsian. It is evident that he lost some of the confidence 
of Emmons, and whether he would have preserved to the brim that of 
Dr. Spring, had Spring lived longer, is a question which no man can 
answer, if any man be allowed to ask it. 

" What might have been is unknown ; what is appears. 

" Dr. Woods, in the latter part of his life, candidly professed some mis- 
taken apprehensions of ancient orthodoxy, and some change in his own 
views. He is not the only theologian whom age has mellowed into 
maturer light. No man, perhaps, is so firm as not to be influenced in 
some degree by his location, his history, his age, his friends, his enemies, 
and his surrounding circumstances. Even a tree changes the moss on its 
bark when it is transplanted." — l. w. 

A LIST OF THE PUBLICATIONS OF REV. DR. WOODS. 

Oration at his Graduation, 1796. 
Oration at the taking of his Master's Degree, 1799. 
A Testimony against the Publications of Marcus, 1806. 
Sermon at the Funeral of Mrs. Thankful Church, wife of Rev. John 
H. Church, of Pellmm, N. H., April 15, 1806. 

Sermon before the Ancient and Honorable Artillery, June 6, 1808. 



■The emphasis is the author's. 



SKETCHES 01' MEMBERS. Ill 

Sermon at the Ordination of Samuel Newell, A. Judson, G. Hall, and 
L. Rice, as Missionaries, Feb. 6, 1812, at Salem. 

Sermon before the Mass. Missionary Society, May 26, 1812. 

Sermon at the Funeral of Samuel Abbot, Esq., May 3, 1812. 

Sermon preached at Haverhill, in remembrance of Mrs. Harriet New- 
ell, pub. 1814. 

Sermon at the Ordination of John W. EUingwood, at Bath, Me., Nov. 
4, 1812 ; Jacob Ide, at Medway, Nov. 2, 1814 ; and William Eaton, at 
Fitchburgh, Aug. 30, 1815, pub. 1815. 

Sermon at the Ordination of Joel Hawes, Hartford, Ct., March 4, 1818. 

Sermon at the Funeral of Rev. Samuel Spring, D. D., Newhuryport, 

March 9, 1819. 

Sermon at the Installation of Rev. Warren Fay, Charlestown, Feb. 3, 

1820. 

Letters to Unitarians, pub. by Flagg and Gould, Andover, 1820. 

Sermon at the Ordination of Benjamin B. Wisner, Old South Church, 
Boston, Feb. 21, 1821. 

Sermon at the Funeral of Rev. Samuel Worcester, D. D., Salem, July 
12, 1821. 

Sermon at the Ordination of Alva Woods, Oct. 28, 1821. 

Reply to Dr. Ware's letters, pub. 1821. 

Sermon at the Ordination of Thomas M. Smith, Portland, Me., July 
21, 1822. 

Convention Sermon, May 29, 1823. 

Sermon on the death of Moses Brown, Esq., preached at the North 
Church, Newburyport, Feb. 18, 1827. 

Sermon at the Installation of Rev. Nathaniel Hewitt, D. D., Bridge- 
port, Ct., Dec. 1, 1830. 

Sermon at the Installation of Rev. Thomas M. Smith, Pres. Church, 
Catskill, N. Y., June 15, 1831. 

Sermon at the Funeral of Rev. Ebenezer Porter, D. D., April 11, 
1834, pub. in National Preacher, July, 1834. 

Sermon on the Death of Lyman and Munson, delivered in the Chapel, 
Ando'f'r, Feb. 1, 1835. 

Essay on Native Depravity, pub. in Boston, 1835. 

Sermon at the Ordination of Daniel Bates Woods, Pres. Church, 
Springwater, N. Y., Sept. 19, 1839. 

Sermon at the Funeral of Rev. John H. Church, D. D., who died at 
Pelham, N. H., June 12, 1840, aged 68, pub. in the National Preacher, 
Aug., 1840. 

An Examination of the Doctrine of Perfection, N. York, 1841. 

Lectures on Church Government, New York, 1844. 



112 HISTOKT OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

Lectures on Swedenborjrianism. Crocker and Brewster, Boston, 1846. 

Sermon at the Funeral of Mrs. Phebe Farrar, Avife of*Samuel Farrar, 
Esq., Andover, January 26, 1848. 

Complete Works, in 5 volumes ; containing Lectures, Essays, Letters, 
and Sermons. Andover, John D, Flagg, 1850. 



ABRAHAM MOOR, 

Was the seventh pastor of the First Church in Newbury, and the suc- 
cessor of Rev. John Tuckei', D. D. The following letter is from the 
Rev. L. S. Parker, pastor of the First Church in Derry, N. H. 

" Dekrt, N. H., December 7, 1861. 

"My DEAii Brothek Spalding, — Since your letter of inquiry, 
touching Rev. Abraham Moor reached me, I have searched town and 
church records, talked with ' the oldest inhabitant,' etc. What I have 
been able to glean I will now write. My best informant is Mr. Joseph 
Morrison, who recollects Mr. Moor well. 

" Rev. Abraham Moor was the son of Dea. John and Mary (Cochran) 
Moor of Londonderry (now Derry), N. H., where he was born Sept. 8, 
1768. His parents were both of Scotch-Irish descent, and their grand- 
parents were among the first settlers of the town. On both sides he 
came from a very respectable and pious ancestry. His father was an 
active and brave captain in the French and Indian War, which ended 
with the captui'e of Quebec. I do not find his name on the annals of the 
Revolution, though Mr. Morrison says he was in the battle of Benning- 
ton. He was long an elder in the First Presbyterian Church in Lon- 
donderry, now the First Church in Derry, and was greatly esteemed. 
His homestead was situated a mile east of the meeting-house of the First 
Parish in Derry. The house is still standing and occupied. Near it is 
the first parsonage built for Rev. Mr. McGregor, the first minister in the 
town, in 1719, in which Mr. Morrison now lives. It was the first 
framed house built in town. Mr. Abraham Moor fitted for college at a 
select school in town, and graduated at D. C. in 1789. He united with 
the First Presbyterian church under the pastoral care of Rev. Wm. Da- 
vidson, near the close of his ministry of fifty years. He is remembered 
as a good scholar, a most amiable youth, beloved by every one, akin in 
character to that disciple ' whom Jesus loved.' He is favorably remem- 
bered as a preacher. Mr. Morrison speaks of recollecting his visiting 
his father's when out of health, and of his returning to his people to die. 
Dea. John Moor had four children, — Mary, who died single ; — An- 
drew, who became a deacon in the church, and died here, had three 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 118 

daughters, that died early ; James, who was also a deacon, has one 
child now living, Elizabeth, wife of Daniel Davis of Dunbarton, N. H. ; 
Samuel, who removed to Pennsylvania at the age of twenty-five, of 
whom nothing is now known. No relations of the family live here, that 
I can find. 

" Most truly yours, 

" Leonard S. Parker." 

January 4, 17'JG, Mr. Moor was called to the pastorate of the First 
Church in Newbury, and ordained on the 23d of March following. " A 
strong opposition," says Dr. Popkin, " was made to his ordination, chiefly 
by those who were unwilling to settle another minister in the old meet- 
ing-house. A new one was much wanted, and they pleaded, that it 
ought to be placed nearer to them. This had been a subject of complaint 
of long standing." A separation ensued, which was followed by long 
and troublesome consequences on both sides. 

" Mr. Moor's health was very feeble, and in the winter of 1800 and 
1801 he fell into a deep consumption, and died June 24, 1801. 

" He was a very serious, meek, prudent, pious, and faithful minister, re- 
served in conversation, but of a fruitful mind in the work of the minis- 
try. His general style of preaching, I am informed, was clear, solid, and 
methodical ; but a sermon on the Prodigal, which was published in 
1793, is written with much animation. He was certainly a man of genius, 
as well as goodness. His sermons were composed with much thought 
and accuracy." ^ 

" Mr. Moor," says Dr. Withington, " was but about five years the pas- 
tor of the First Church in Newbury ; a period too short to leave any 
distinct impression, after the lapse of more than half a century. It is 
certainly to his credit that he was chosen by a church not harmonizing 
with him in theology, and that he made his evangelical sentiments so 
long palatable to so liberal a people. He had not a strong constitution 
when settled ; and a hemorrhage of the lungs soon terminated his preca- 
rious ministry. He was not eloquent ; his speech has been described as 
defective. But he was a modest, mild, judicious man, who sought the 
salvation of his people without deviating to any extremes. His only 
publication is two sermons on the Parable of the Prodigal Son." 

Mr. Moor married, May 10, 1796, Miss Sarah Hook, daughter of Capt. 
Josiah and Sarah (Pike) Hook of Salisbury, Mass. 

They had three children, — 

1. Mary Ann, b. Aug. 1797, in Newbury. 



1 Dr. Popkin. See Appendix to his sermons on quitting the old church and enter- 
ing the new, 1806. 

15 



114 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

2. Sarah, b. Jan. 1800, in Newbury. 

3. Abraham, b. Dec. 3, 1801, in Newbury. 



ISAAC BRAMAN, 

Was the son of Sylvanus and Experience (Bhmchard) Braman, and 
was born in Norton, Mass., July 5, 1770, the youngest of eleven children, 
three sons and eight daughters. His parents, grandparents, and great- 
grandparents, all lived in Norton. He graduated at II. U. in 1794.. 

It was said of him, by one who knew him well in childhood, that his 
disposition was amiable, and his deportment unexceptionable, from his 
earliest years. At the age of twelve he lost his father. His mother 
was a woman of consistent piety, and he remained under her care until 
her second marriage, when he was still quite a youth. He then left the 
house of his birth and resided with his guardian, where he was employed 
in dihgent labor, and enjoyed religious advantages. He cherished an 
early and strong desire for a collegiate education, but, meeting with de- 
cided discouragement from his guardian, he was withheld from entering 
upon the requisite preparations until the close of his eighteenth year, 
when he resolutely overcame all obstacles, and applied himself ^o the 
necessary studies, under the direction of Dr. Samuel Morey of Norton, 
and Mr. Stephen Palmer, afterwards minister in Needham. He entered 
Harvard University in 1790, and graduated in regular course, with an 
honorable reputation for diligence and scholarship. At the close of his 
academical career he made choice of the ministerial profession, and, for 
the purpose of fitting himself for its duties, there being then no theologi- 
cal institutions, he placed himself successively under the tuition of Rev. 
Dr. "West of New Bedford, Rev. Jason Haven of Dedham, and Rev. Pitt 
Clark of Norton. After a terra of study, quite short compared with the 
usual course at the present time, he commenced preaching as a candidate 
for settlement in East Medway, Mass. At the close of the year 1795 he 
was invited to become pastor of the church in that place ; but as there 
was a strenuous opposition to the call by a portion of the people, arising 
from disaffection with his theological sentiments, he declined the proposal, 
and withdrew, having occupied the pulpit for six or seven months. He 
preached for the first time in Georgetown, then called New Rowley, Nov. 
8, 1796. He received an invitation to take charge of the Congregational 
Society, Jan. 26, 1797, to which he gave an affirmative answer, after a 
deliberation of some weeks. The people were divided in opinion on the 
points in agitation between Hopkiusians and Calvinists, and there was a 
great warmth of feeling in both pai-ties to the controversy. There was 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. llSI 

a considerable minority to whom the doctrinal views of the candidate 
were unacceptable, who did not unite in the call, and made great efforts 
to defeat his ordination, so that the public services on the day designated 
for this occasion, June 7, 1797, were deferred many hours beyond the 
appointed time, and were performed in the evening. The fact that Mr. 
B. was the sixty-fourth candidate employed after the retirement and 
death of Rev. James Chandler, his predecessor, is an evidence of the 
ardor and tenacity with which the conflicting opinions were maintained 
among the people. Their divisions rendered the position of the young 
pastor one of no small embarrassment, and required a good share of dis- 
cretion and forbearance, for a successful prosecution of his ministry. He 
was however enabled to cope with the difficulties with which he was sur- 
rounded until the controversy subsided. Other forms of trial succeeded, 
which called into requisition his peculiar qualities of character as long as 
he continued his pulpit labors. After a service in the pastoral office of 
more than forty-five years, and he had reached the age of seventy-two, 
the Rev. Enoch Pond, Jr., son of Rev. Enoch Pond, D. D., Bangor, 
Maine, was associated with him as colleague, Dec. 5, 1842. Mr. Pond's 
health failed, and he died at Bucksport, Me., Dec. 17, 1846, about 
four years from his ordination. He was succeeded by Rev. John M. 
Prince, who was ordained on the third day of Feb. 1847. In conse- 
quence of declining health he resigned his pastoral charge in 1857.^ 
Rev. Chas. Beecher followed, who was installed Nov. 19, of the same 
year. After Mr. Braraan quitted the active labors of his profession, 
he passed a tranquil and cheerful life in the seclusion of his family, and 
the enjoyment of the regard and attentions of a kind people, until the 
period of his death. He was seized with a typhoid fever on the tenth 
of September, 1858, the effects of which, with the infirmities of an ad- 
vanced age, brought him to his end the 26th of December following. 

His funeral took place on Friday, Dec. 31st. The weather was ex- 
tremely unfavorable, and prevented in a degree the anticipated attend- 
ance of clergymen and other friends in the county of Essex and else- 
where. The number present, however, was quite large. At half-past 
10, A. M., the relatives and a few particular friends having assembled at 
the house of the deceased, prayer was offered by Rev. Mr. Parker of 
Haverhill, and the remains were then conveyed to the church, so long 
the scene of the ministrations of the departed. 

As the body was borne into the church, the organ, in its softest and 



^ Mr. Prince was subsequently settled at Bridgewater, Mass., Feb. 23, 1859, and 
died at that place Nov. 16, 1859. 



116 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

most plaintive breathings, gave expression to the sadness pervading the 
assembly. The chiircli was draped with the emblems of mourning. The 
galleries were festooned with white and black drapery, which was also 
disposed in an arch over the pulpit. A chair near the latter, which had 
been frequently occupied by the venerable pastor, since his failing 
strength had prevented him from ascending the steps, was also draped 
with black. 

On the coffin was a plate with this inscription, — 

Rev. Isaac Braman, 

Died Dec. 26, 1858, 

Aged 88 years. 

Attached to the plate was a paper, upon which was written, — 

" Remember that you have a soul to be saveil or lost." 

These words were spoken by Mr. Braman on the evening before his 
death, and were about the last he uttered. 

The services commenced with a chant and chorus, — 

" Sweet is the scene when Christians die.-" 

Prayer was offered, and the ninetieth Psalm read by Rev. Chas. 
Beecber, of Georgetown, the present pastor, and the choir sang, — 
" I heard a great voice from heaven." 

Rev. J. M. Prince, former colleague of the deceased, then offered 
prayer, after which was sung that beautiful hymn, — 

" Why do we mourn departed friends ? " 

A discourse was then preached by the Rev. David T. Kimball, of Ips- 
wich, an old and intimate acquaintance of Mr. Braman, after which Rev. 
Mr. Spalding of Newburyport offered the closing prayer, and the choir 
sang, — 

" Unveil thy bosom faithful tomb." 

The benediction was pronounced by Rev. Mr. Kimball, and the congre- 
gation proceeded to look for the last time upon the face of their pastor 
and friend. 

The remains were conveyed to the Union Cemetery, the six oldest 
clergymen present acting as pall-bearers, the other clergymen preced- 
ing them. The relatives followed ; after them the members of the 
church and society, and others. 

The people in Georgetown are entitled to the warmest thanks of the 
friends of Mr. Braman for their kind, provident, and unwearied atten- 
tions to him during his illness, and for their labors of love in behalf of 
the surviving members of his household. They defrayed the entire ex- 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 117 

penses of the funeral, and contributed money for the purchase of mourn- 
ing appareh 

Resolutions, bearing testimony to the virtues of the deceased, and ex- 
pressing the sorrow, sympathy, and kindly feelings of the church, were 
conveyed to the family of Mr. Braman. 

It may not be uninteresting to state, that this church, sanctified by so 
many memories of Mi-. Braman, was erected in 17G9. It has been thrice 
enlarged and otherwise improved. The dedication sermon was preached 
by Whitefield, before the house was quite completed. 

Mr. Braman married, Aug. 31st, 1797, Hannah Palmer (born June 
12, 1773), youngest daughter of Rev. Joseph Palmer, of Norton; she 
died Aug. 14, 1835. 

They had five children, namely, — • 

1. Harriet, born July 17, 1798; married August 9th, 1821, Rev. 
John Boardman, minister in West Boylston, Mass., and afterwards East 
Douglass, Mass., at which latter place he died Nov. 8, 1841. 

2. Milton Palmer, born Aug. 6, 1799, grad. H. U. 1819; Andover 
Theo. Sem. 1824; S. T. D. Dart. Coll. 1852, and Harv. 1854; ord. 
Danvers Mass., April 12, 1826; dis. Sept. 2, 1863. 

3. James Chandler, born September 29, 1801, died at sea (on his pas- 
sage from Calcutta for Salem, seventy-five days out), December 5, 1820. 

4. Adeline, born July 10, 1805, died September 10, 1830. 

5. Isaac Gordon, born March 12, 1813; a physician in Brighton, 
Mass. 

Mr. Braman married for his second wife, March 22, 1837, Sarah 
Balch, daughter of John Balch, Esq., of Newburyport. She survives him. 

The following notice of Mr. Braman is from his neighbor and friend, 
Rev. L. Withington, D. D., of Newbury. 

" Mr, Braman had a long pastorate, nor was it accidental. He had 
every constituent of a permanent pastor. It was one of the laws of Prov- 
idence, almost as permanent as the laws of nature. He had good, solid 
t^nts, respectable attainments ; a kind of forbearing wit which marked 
his generosity as much as his power ; excellent common sense, and a 
kind of unostentatious diligence, which was never in a bustle, but showed 
its energy only in its effects. He elaborated all his sermons ; writing 
them out in full, arad, like the waves of an uniform breeze on the sea, 
they rolled with equal elevation and powei*. His manner of speaking 
was agreeable, but not impressive. He i-ead his sermons, holding his 
manuscript before his eyes, with no attempt at gesture or eloquence. 
But every discourse evinced thought and care. His type of piety was 
even and uniform ; and he was a very profitable and pleasant companion. 
In writing his sermons, he was a contrast to his neighbor, Dr. Parish. 



118 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

Dr. Parish elaborated, with rei)eated corrections, a few sermons, which 
he afterwards published ; Braman ditfused his exertion over all his per- 
formances. He lived to be old ; and his last days had the cheerfulness 
of a ripened piety. No one could see his whole strength or moral excel- 
lence, without a long acquaintance, and sitting under his ministry for 
many years. I have spoken of his forbearing wit, — I should like to 
know how many keen repartees his invention had formed, but they died 
on his lips because his prudence suppressed them." 

PUBLICATIONS OF MR. liRAMAN. 

1. Eulogy on Gen. Washington, Feb. 22, 1800. 

2. Oration, July 4, 1805. 

3. Sermon on the Annual Fast, April 5, 1810. 

4. Sermon preached in Salisbury, West Parish, July 29, 1810. 

5. Sermon at the Funeral of Rev. Asahel Huntington of Topsfield, 
who died Apr. 22, 1813. 

6. Sermon preached on the Parochial Fast, July 17, 1817. 

7. Sermon at the Ordination of Rev. G. B. Perry, in Groveland, Sept. 
28, 1814. 

8. Sermon at the Ordination of Rev. John Boardman, at West Boyl- 
ston, Feb. 28, 1821. 

9. Sermon at the Ordination of Rev. Milton P. Braman, at Danvers, 
April 12, 1826. 

10. Sermon preached Lord's day, March 27, 1831. 

11. A Centennial Discourse at the reopening of the Cong. Meeting- 
house, Dec. 6, 1832. 

12. A Discourse on the Fiftieth Anniversary of Mr. Braman's Ordi- 
nation, preached June 7, 1843. 

The following inscription was put upon the monument erected by the 
parishioners of Mr. Braman. 

In MEMOKr ^ 

OF 
REV. ISAAC BRAMAN, 

Senior Pastor of the Congregational Church and Society in Georgetown. 

He was born in Norton, Bristol County, Mass., July 5, 17 70; graduated at 

Harvard College, 1794 ; ordained June 7, 1797 ; died Dec. 26, 1858. 



Erected hy the Parishioners and Friends of Air. Braman. 

Rev. Mr. Braman was a man of decided piety, of great amiability, 
and much beloved. He possessed a strong mind, sound judgment, un- 



SKETCHES OF JIEMBERS. 119 

common moral courao^e, and remarkable discretion. He was well versed 
in theological learning, a firm believer in the entire inspiration of the 
Scriptures, and an able and strenuous advocate of the primitive ortho- 
doxy, institutions, and general principles of the New England churches. 

In his preaching, he presented divine truth with clearness and a close 
application to the consciences of his hearers. In giving counsel, both 
public and private, he was conspicuous for integrity and wisdom. His 
love for his people, his friends, his country, and the whole church of Christ, 
was sincere and strong. 

In the pangs of his last sickness he was patient and submissive to the 
divine will, and if not in triumph, yet in hope, he peacefully yielded up 
his soul to God who gave it. 



DAVID TULLAR, 

Was born in Simsbury, Ct., Sept. 22, 1749, graduated at Yale College, 
1774; was ordained at Windsor, Vt., March, 1779 ; was dismissed . 

He was installed pastor of the Second Church at Milford, Ct., Nov. 15, 
1784 ; dismissed Nov. 1802. 

After hearing Mr. Tullar three or four months, the church and parish 
in Rowley voted, August 3, 1803, to give him a call, with the salary of 
$450. This he accepted, and was installed Dec. 7, 1803. In accord- 
ance with the advice of a mutual council, he was dismissed Oct. 17, 1810, 
after a ministry of seven years. Mr. Tullar was the first minister dis- 
missed from the Congregational church in Rowley from the commence- 
ment, a period of one hundred and seventy-one years. 

Subsequently, Mr. Tullar preached some months at Williamstown, Mass., 
and received a call to settle there ; then at Bloomfield and Leroy, in 
New York, for some seven or eight years, when he returned to Rowley, 
and for a number of years supplied the parish of Linebrook. When age 
and infirmity compelled him to discontinue his ministerial labors, he 
removed to Sheffield, Mass., where he deceased August 23, 1839, nearly 
at the close of his ninetieth year. 

Mr. Tullar married, September 24, 1779, Charity Fellows of Sheffield, 
Mass. She was daughter of Major Ezra Fellows, and was b. June 14, 
1758. She died in Sheffield, Jan. 2, 1849. They had no children. 

E. F. Ensign, Esq., of Sheffield, resided with Mr. and Mrs. Tullar in 
his youth, and in their old age they resided with him. Mr. Ensign was 
the son of Huldah Fellovvs, half-sister of Mrs. Tullar. 



120 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

DAVID TENNY KIMBALL, 

Was the son of Lieut. Daniel and Elizabeth (Tenny) Kimball, and was 
born in Bradford, Mass., Nov. 23, 1782. His parents were members of 
the church at Bradford, and were persons of devoted piety. By them 
he was consecrated to God in baptism in early life. He united with the 
church in Bradford, Nov. 13, 1803. 

As to the circumstances of his religious conversion, little is known. It 
appears from those who knew him best, that he was, from his very infancy, 
the subject, not mei'ely of pious convictions, but of gracious affections 
toward God. So sober-minded was he in childhood, so exemplary in 
moral conduct, and so reverential toward God, that some of his friends 
thouglit him to have been sanctified from his birth. But he did not 
think so. In conversation with his eldest son on the subject, he once 
remarked, that, while he was in college, there was a time when his mind 
was exercised in religion as it had never been before, and when his views 
and feelings underwent such a change that he devoted himself to the ser- 
vice of God ; and that he had ever since referred to this period as that of 
his conversion. 

His attention was early turned toward the profession of the ministry, 
and at the age of seventeen he entered Harvard College, from which he 
graduated with honor in 1803. For one year he was a teacher in Phil- 
lips Academy, Andover. He studied theology under the direction of 
Rev. Jonathan French, pastor of the South Church, Andover, on the 
Abbot Foundation, which was the theological seminary in embryo. He 
was approbated by the Andover Association, August 6, 1805. 

He preached in the First Church in Ipswich, for the first time, Sept. 
22, 1805. It was the custom of this church from the beginning, and of 
the Puritan churches of New England generally, to observe a day of 
fasting and prayer previous to their meeting for the choice of a pastor. 
Such a day was observed by the First Church in Ipswich, June 17, 1806. 
In the evening the church made choice of Mr. Kimball as their pastor, 
without a dissenting voice. His ordination occurred Oct. 8, 1806. 

The ministry of Father Kimball was long and useful. He was con- 
scientiously faithful in his work, and found his enjoyment in it. His 
untiring labors were blessed with the repeated influences of the Holy 
Spirit. As a monument of his industry, he has left about two thousand 
sermons written out with remarkable legibility. Indeed, he took a pride in 
doing with clearness whatever he attempted, and on one occasion, when 
he was unable to decipher with certainty a note he received from a rev- 
erend Doctor, he wrote in his reply that his friend deserved to lose one 
of his D.'s unless he improved in penmanship. From the discourse 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 121 

which he preached on the liftieth anniversary of his ordination, we glean 
the following facts. w 

At the time of his settlement in Ipswich, the church consisted of fifty- 
three members, twelve males and forty-one females. During his minis- 
try thei-e were added to it, three hundred and fifty, of which three hun- 
dred and twelve were received on profession, and thirty-eight by letter. 
Only two persons who were members of the church at his ordination, 
were living Oct. 8, 1856. During his public labors, he attended more 
than one thousand funerals, of which 970 were in his own parish. He 
united more than a thousand persons in marriage. 

Father Kimball was much esteemed by his brethren of the Associa- 
tion. He was punctual in his attendance, and was always ready to con- 
tribute more than his share of time and labor to its interest. He was 
chosen Scribe of the Association, May 12, 1812, and retained the office 
till the time of his decease. 

He was warmly interested in the education of pious young men for the 
ministry, and did much to awaken the attention of the churches in his 
Conference and in the .county, to the important claims of the American 
Education Society, which are too often overlooked by those who should 
feel bound to foster them. His love for this cause never flagged, and for 
forty years he annually made his report, at the Conference, and offered 
his plea for his cherished object. Akin to this, was his interest in the 
common schools of Ipswich, and in every movement looking toward the 
better education of the youth of that community. 

In the latter part of his ministry a dissatisfaction sprung up between 
him and his people, which terminated in his dismission from active duty. 

He was invited to commemorate his semi-centennial aniversary, Oct. 
8, 1856, when he preached in his own pulpit for the last time, from Isaiah 
52:7. 

" The distinct impression which he leaves on the memories of all who 
knew him, is his fidelity and untiring industry. As the old divines used 
to say, he was a painful preacher, a painful pastor, a painfi^^ scholar, a 
painful man. This mark pervaded all his performances. His voice was 
confined in its compass and husky, and yet he contrived to impress on 
his audience the conclusion of most of his sermons. He always disap- 
pointed you on the right side, making a deeper impression than you antici- 
pated. His sermons were very carefully written ; he visited his people 
with uncommon diligence ; he was a respectable scholar in sacred Greek, 
but began the Hebrew, after he was forty years old, and by perseverance 
enabled himself to profit by the exegetical commentaries of the times. 
O departed brother, if we have something to forget, we have much to re- 
member ; and may thy activity and devotion preach to us forever ! " — L. w. 

16 



122 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

The last sickness of father Kimball was a lung fever, short, but very 
painful. On MonMry, Jan. oOth, he was engaged in preparing for the 
press the sermon which he preached in Groveland, the Sabbath after the 
funeral of his friend, Dr. Perry. That evening he was suddenly attacked, 
and on Wednesday there was little hope of his recovery. His last hours 
furnished his family and the church the most pleasing evidences of 
Christ's near presence with him. Awaking from a troubled slumber, he 
exclaimed, " Oh, the gates are opening, I can see far within the city." 
On Thursday evening he urged his wife, who had watched unremittingly 
with him, to retire for rest ; " but before you go," he said, " let us say 
our little hymn." And, drawing her near him, they repeated together, 
according to the custom of long years, — 

" Now I lay me down to sleep, 
I pray the Lord my soul to keep ; 
K I sliould die before I wake, 
I pray the Lord my soul to take." 

On Friday moi'ning it was evident he could not tarry long. He took 
affectionate leave of his family, and breathing benedictions on his people, 
he departed Feb. 3, 1860, at 12^ m. 

All the members of the Essex North Association, at the time of the 
settlement of Father Kimball, had passed away from earth, and only 
two clergymen settled in the county at the time of his ordination survived 
him, namely. Rev. Samuel Dana of Marblehead, and Rev. Brown Emer- 
son, D. D., of Salem. On Wednesday, Feb. 8, many of his brethren, 
and a large concourse of people who knew and loved him, assembled to 
pay the last offices of respect to this truly good man. The pulpit, com- 
munion table» and chairs were appropriately draped in mourning. After 
a prayer at the dwelling-house, by Rev. Dr. Withington, the remains 
were conveyed to the church, and placed before the pulpit. Introduc- 
tory services by Rev. S. J. Spalding, of Newburyport; Reading of 
Scriptures by Rev. Dr. Withington, of Newbury ; Prayer by Rev. Dr. 
Dimmick, of Newburyport ; Sermon by Rev. Mr. Fitz, of Ipswich ; Con- 
cluding Prayer by Rev. Mr. Southgate, present pastor of the church. 

Mr. Kimball was married at Dracut, Oct. 20, 1807. The maiden 
name of his wife was Dolly Varnum Coburn. She was the daughter of 
Capt. Peter and Elizabeth (Poor) Coburn, of Dracut, and granddaughter 
of Deacon Daniel Poor, of Andover. 

They had seven children, five sons and two daughters, all born in 
Ipswich, — 

1. David Tenny, b. Sept. 7, 1808. He grad. at M. C. in 1826, and at 
Theo. Sem., Andover, 1834. He preached at Hartford, Ct., and in the 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. ' 123 

West, but was obliged to relinquish preaching on account of bronchitis. 
Oct. 10, 1837, he married Miss Harriet W. Webster. 

2. Daniel, b. May 25, 1810. He received the honorary degree of M. 
A. from M. C. in 1855. He was engaged for more than ten years in the 
advocacy of the Temperance Cause, as a lecturer and editor. He was 
for some years principal of Wilhams Academy, Stockbridge. He was 
married June 9, 1842, to Miss Mary Ann Arms, of Dracut. 

3. Augustine P., b. Sept. 9, 1812 ; merchant; died in Ipswich, Aug. 13, 
1859. 

4. Elizabeth, b. July 9, 1814 ; married Aug. 8, 1839, Eugene W. Gray, 
editor, — son of Rev. Cyrus W. Gray of Stafford, Ct. 

5. John Rogers, b. Aug. 23, 1816 ; merchant in Boston, and resides in 
Woburn ; married May 30, 1844, Lydia Ann Coburn of Dracut. 

6. Levi Frisbie, b. April 25, 1818 ; died May 9, 1818. 

7. Mary Sophia, b. Aug. 16, 1820; married John Dunning Coburn, 
merchant, Brunswick, Me., March 25, 1849. Both daughters of Mr. 
Kimball graduated at Ipswich Female Seminary. 

8. Rachel Rebecca Coburn, niece of Mrs. Kimball, lost her mother in 
early infancy, and was adopted as a child of the family. 

All the children and their partners are professors of religion. Two 
of the sons are officers in the church. 

His publications were, an Address on the Obligation and Disposition of 
Females to promote Christianity, delivered before the Female Education 
and Charitable Societies in the First Parish in Ipswich, June 15, 1819 ; 
A Sermon preached in Boston before the Massachusetts Society for pro- 
moting Christian Knowledge, May 30, 1821 ; a Sermon on the Per- 
fect Pattern for Christian Teachers, preached at the Installation of Rev. 
William Ritchie, of Needham, in 1821 ; a Sketch of the Ecclesiastical 
History of Ipswich, delivered in 1821 ; an Address delivered before the 
Essex County Foreign Mission Society, and published in the Missionary 
Paper of the American Board, No. 5, 1827 ; An Address of the Auxil- 
iary Education Society of Essex County, Nov. 1828 ; A Centennial 
Discourse, delivered before the First Church and Congregation in Ips- 
wich, August 10, 1834, two hundred years after the gathering of that 
church ; a Sermon on " What doest thou here, Elijah ? " preached at 
Ipswich, January, 1838 ; a Sermon on the Utility of a Permanent Minis- 
try, in 1839 ; the last Sermon in the Ancient Meeting-House of the First 
Parish in Ipswich, Feb. 22, 1846 ; the first Sermon in the New Meeting- 
House of that Parish, at its Dedication, Feb. 4, 1847 ; a Discourse 
delivered in Ipswich on the Fiftieth Anniversary of his Ordination, 
October 8, 1856 ; a Discourse delivered at the Funeral of Rev. Isaac 
Braman, of Georgetown, Dec. 31, 1858; a Discourse occasioned by the 



124 HISTORY OP ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

death of Rev. Gardiner B. Perry, D. D., of Groveland, delivered Dec. 
25, 1859 ; The Right Hand of Fellowship at the Ordination of Rev. 
Cyrus Kingsbury and Daniel Smith as Missionaries to the West, Sep- 
tember 29, 1815 ; and the Right Hand of Fellowship at the Ordination 
of Rev. Daniel Fitz over the South Church in Ipswich, June 28, 1826. 

He contributed many articles to various religious publications, — the 
Home Missionary, Essex North Register, Boston Recorder, N. E. Pur- 
itan, Congregationalist, as well as to educational and temperance jour- 
nals, etc. 

THOMAS HOLT, 

The son of Daniel and Mary (Barnes) Holt, was born in Meriden, Ct., 
Nov. 9, 1762; grad. at Y. C. 1784; studied divinity with Prof. Wales of 
Y. C. and Rev. Benjamin Trumbull, D. D., of North Haven, Ct. He 
was approbated by the New Haven East Association in 1786. He was 
ordained in Hardwicke, Mass., June 25, 1789 ; dis. March 27, 1805 ; 
inst. at Ipswich, now Essex, Jan. 25, 1809; dis. April 20, 1813. He 
afterwards resided on a farm at Hardwicke, although, for a large portion 
of his time, wdien he had not a special charge, he was employed as 
a missionary in Maine, New-Hampshire, Rhode Island and Connecti- 
cut. 

He was baptized in infancy, and became a Christain while a member 
of college. His convictions of his lost condition, as a sinner, were deep 
and pungent, Ibllowed by a hope of acceptance with God through the 
merits of Jesus Christ, and a desire to serve his Mastej in the gospel 
ministry. He was sound in doctrine, and familiar with the Scriptures. 
In his last sickness, those who watched with him were edified by the 
portions of the Word of God which he repeated, and by his pertinent re- 
marks upon them. He sustained an excellent religious character, preach- 
ed the pure truths of the gospel, and was eminently a man of prayer. 

Mr. Holt died Feb. 21, 1836, aged 73 years. 

He published a Sermon which he preached at the Ordination of Reed 
Paige. 

He was married May 5, 1796, at Sutton, Mass., now Millbury, to Miss 
Sarah ChapHn, dau. of Rev. Ebenezer and Mary Chaplin. Mrs. Holt 
died July 4, 1854. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Mary Chaplin, ) ^ b- Sept. 19, 1797, at Hardwicke. 

2. Sarah ChapUn, [ i" ^- ^^P*" 1^' l^^^' ^' Hardwicke; d. July 13^ 

) - 1848. 

3. Thomas Russell, b. June 13, 1799, at Hardwicke. 

4. Anna Tyler, b. Feb. 15,- 1801, at Hardwicke. 

5. Daniel Leander, b. Nov. 4, 1803, at Hardwicke. 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 125 

6. Fidelia Morse, b. Sept. 9, 1804, at Hardwicke; d. Jan. 3, 1805. 

7. John Jay, b. Nov. 2, 1805, at Hardwicke ; d. Jan. 10, 1832. 



JAMES MILTIMORE, 

Was born in Londonderry, N. H., January 4, 1755. He was the son 
of James and Jane (Aiken) Miltimore, and was baptized in infancy. 
Graduated at D. C. in 1774, and studied theology with his pastor, the 
Rev. David McGregor. He was licensed to preach by the Old Pres- 
bytery of Londonderry, probably about 1776. 

He received a call from the Presbyterian Church in Antrim, N. H., 
1780, but decHned it. He received a call from " N. E. Congregation" 
of White Creek, N. Y., Feb. 5, 1784, and was assigned " trial pieces " for 
ordination, as follows : 

1. Exposition of the first six verses of seventeenth chapter of John. 

2. Latin Discussion on the question, " Whether Christ died for all 
men equally." 

3. To preach a popular Sermon on Ps. 119: 30, — "I have chosen 
the way of truth," 

Sept. 8, 1784, he declined the call to White Creek and another to 
Deer Island. He supplied at Seabrook, N. H., and other vacant places 
for some time, his trial for ordination being continued till Sept. 13, 1785. 
It was not however completed, as he was ordained over the Congrega- 
tional Church in Stratham, N. H., Feb. 1, 1786, according to congrega- 
tional usage. This church became so far Presbyterian, during his pas- 
torate, as to have a board of elders, and be occasionally represented in 
the Presbytery. 

After a ministry of nearly twenty-two years in Stratham, he was 
dismissed Oct. 15, 1807, and installed at Belleville, Newbury (now 
Newburyport), April 27, 1808. In January, 1831, he gave up the active 
duties of his office, and preached only occasionally. 

Mr. John C. March, who had for more than a year assisted him in his 
labors, was ordained colleague pastor, March 1, 1832. 

Mr. Miltimore died March 23, 1836, aged 81. 

He became a member of the Association, July 14, 1812, and so contin- 
ued till his death. He also united with the Presbytery of Newbury- 
port, when the Londonderry Presbytery was divided in 1826. 

Mr. Miltimore was married at Stratham, N. H., Oct. 26, 1786, to 
Dolly Wiggin, daughter of Andrew and Dolly (Curriei;) Wiggin. She 
died Feb. 1824. 

The names of their children are, — 



126 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

1. Dolly, b. Sept. 9, 1787. 

2. James, b. March 30, 1789 ; d. May 7, 1852. 

3. Andrew William, b. July 24, 1791. 

4. Elizabeth Jane, b. Nov. 26, 1792. 

5. John Murray, b. Dec. 1, 1794. 

6. Mary Lane, b. July 1, 1797. 

7. Caleb Wiggin, b. February 3, 1800 ; d. Feb. 14, 1802. 

The following sketch is from a manuscript sermon, preached at his 
funeral, by his colleague and successor. 

" As a minister he was faithful and laborious. He seemed to feel that 
all his time and all his talents should be devoted to the great work in 
which he was engaged. It might literally be said that he was ' instant 
in season and out of season.' It is believed that few men have performed 
a greater amount of ministerial labor. 

" As a preacher, he enjoyed, for a considerable portion of his life, a 
high degree of popularity. His appearance in the pulpit was dignified 
and solemn, and his manner remarkably impressive. He spoke as one 
whose heart was deeply penetrated with the truths which he uttered. 
Few men have probably excelled him in those external qualifications 
which are calculated to rivet attention and command respect. 

" As a man, he was remarkable for the mildness of his disposition, and 
for all those amiable traits of character which are calculated to conciliate 
affection. No man, perhaps, ever entered more deeply into the feelings 
of others. His heart, like that of his divine master, seemed to be made 
of sympathy and love. The delicacy of his sentiments and feelings mani- 
fested itself in his outward demeanor. His politeness was something 
more than the external grace of the man w^ho wishes merely to at- 
tract applause ; it was unstudied, spontaneous, genuine politeness of the 
heart. His social qualities were of a supei'ior order. He had a high 
relish for the pleasures of friendship. 

" But it is as a Christian that his character shines with its brightest 
and most attractive lustre. In the highest sense of the expression, he 
was a good man. His piety was not loud and ostentatious. It rather 
resembled the deep, broad river, which flows calmly and silently along, 
than the noisy, but shallow brook. No object seemed to be nearer his 
heart than the advancement of the Redeemer's kingdom and the salvation 
of immortal souls. It was delightful to observe, during the last few years 
of his life, how his piety seemed to outlive the powers of his mind, and 
to triumph over the decay of nature. When he could scarcely recognize 
the members of his own family, he could think and speak of Jesus." 

" Of the truthfulness of this portraiture," says the present pastor of the 
church at Belleville, " there are yet many living witnesses. Verily ' the 
memory of the just is blessed.' " 



SKETCHES OF MEMBEK8. 127 

Another, L. W., says, " Mr. Miltimore was a cultivated man ; a Chris- 
tian gentleman in dress, manners, and feelings. His voice was clear ; 
his articulation good ; he was never exhausted, and his manner of preach- 
ing peculiarly acceptable to those hearers that like expansion. His 
urbanity was seen in his style. He meant to be faithful, though he could 
not be harsh. We believe that he is gone to heaven, and has allured, if 
he has not driven many with him. No man in this vicinity ever pro- 
nounced his name but with the deepest respect and affection." 

Mr. Miltimore published the following sermons : 

1. Sermon and Oration on the death of Kev. John Murray, pastor of 
the Presbyterian Church in Newburyport, who died March 13, 1793. 
8vo, pp. 62. Exeter, N. H., 1793. 

2. Sermon at the Ordination of Rev. James Thurston, in Newmarket, 
N. H., Oct. 15, 1800. 8vo, pp. 30. Exeter, N. H., 1800. 

3. Sermon preached at the Dedication of the New Meeting House at 
Belleville, in the Fourth Parish in Newbury, Nov. 24, 1807. 8vo, pp. 
23. Newburyport, 1807. 

4. Two Discourses preached on the occasion of the Annual Fast, 
April 9, 1812. 8vo, pp. 22. Newburyport, 1812. 



WILLIAM BALCH, 

Was the son of Rev. Benjamin and Joanna (O'Brien) Balch, and was 
born at Dan vers, Mass., January 17, 1775 ; and baptized in infancy. 
The family was living there at that time, while the father. Rev. Benja- 
man Balch, who had been previously settled at Mendon, Mass., served 
as chaplain in the squadron of Paul Jones during the Revolution. After 
the Revolution he was settled at Barrington, N. H. William Balch 
prepared for college at Phillips Academy, Exeter, N. H., and was for 
three years in Harvard College. He belonged to the class of which Dr. 
Channing and Judge Stoiy were members. He first united with the 
church at Barrington, N. H. He studied theology with his father. He 
excelled as a Latin scholar, and possessed a large library of miscellane- 
ous English books, of which he was a diligent student. Previous to any 
settlement he served as chaplain in the navy, first on board the Congress, 
and then on board the Chesapeake, for a year or more, from Nov. 19, 
1799. 

He was ordained pastor of the Congregational Church in the West 
Parish of Salisbury, November 17, 1802. He was dismissed Feb. 20, 
1816. He was installed at Salem, N. H., Dec. 1, 1819. Dismissed 
Aug. 6, 1835. 



128 HISTOKY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

In the interval between tlie dismission from Salisbury and the settle- 
ment at Salem, N. H., he preached for a time at Lubec, Maine, and also 
preached and taught a school at Elkridge, Maryland. 

Mr. Balch spent the last years of his life at Dedham, and died there 
August 31, 1842, aged 67. He occupied the pulpit occasionally after 
his retirement to Dedham ; but being the victim of a lingering disease, 
was laid aside from public labors during the last years of his life. His 
body lies in the cemetery near the village of Dedham, a few miles from 
the birth-place of his father, and the tomb of his grandfather, who was for 
thirty-seven years pastor of the Second Church in that town. 

He was first married at Danvers, Mass., Oct. 31, 1805, to Polly Wads- 
worth, daughter of Rev. Dr. Benjamin and Mary (Hobson) Wadsworth, 
of Danvers. She died of consumption, June 27, 1816. "Six ministers 
were present at the funeral as pall-bearers, namely, — Rev. Messrs. 
Miltimore, Dana, D. D., Milton, Webster, Sawyer, and Hull. She was 
carried into the meeting-house, and a hymn was sung and a prayer made 
by Dr. Dana of Newburyport." 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Mary Wadsworth, b. August 10, 1806; mar. Prof. Horatio Balch 
Hackett, Sept. 22, 1834. 

2. Joanna, b. April 29, 1808 ; d. April 17, 1809. 

3. Benjamin Wadsworth, b. February 2, 1810; d. May 12, 1816. 

• 4. Elizabeth, b. July 13, 1812; m. A. D. Dearborne, M. D. Jan. 18, 
1834; d. at Methuen, Dec. 28, 1834. 

Mr. Balch was married a second time in Dedham,. July 10, 1822, to 
Miss Sarah Eaton, daughter of Isaac and Sarah (Carver) Eaton, of Ded- 
ham. They had one child, — 

5. Benjamin Wadsworth, b. Oct. 10, 1823, d. at Chicago, 111., Sept. 
18, 1858. 

The dates of their baptism, from the records of the church in the 
West Parish of Salisbury, are as follows : 

1. Mary W., bap. Aug. 17, 1806. 

2. Joanna, bap. May 1, 1808. 

3. Benjamin W., bap. Feb. 4, 1810. 

4. Elizabeth, bap. July 19, 1812. 

Horatio Balch Hackett, son of Richard and Martha Hackett, was bap- 
tised Sept. 10, 1809. 

Mr. Balch is known to have published some discourses, but I cannot 
learn their titles. 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 129 



JAMES WAKEFIELD TUCKER, 



Was the son of Thomas and Anna (Dibble) Tucker, and was born in 
Danbury, Fairfield Co., Conn., April 19, 1787, and was baptized July 
29, 1787. He graduated at Y. C. in 1807, and while there became a 
member of the College church by profession. He studied theology with 
Pres. Dwight, and w-as approbated by the New Haven West Association 
in 1809. He was ordained in Rowley, June 24, 1812, to which place 
he came from the Seminary at Andover. 

" Mr. Tucker," says Dea. J. Jewett, " expressed a strong desire to live 
and die with us ; but thought his salary ($600) too small to live on. 
We loved him, and offered him temporary relief, and he wanted it to be 
permanent." In consequence of tliis inadequate support he was dis- 
missed June 24, 1817, just five years from his settlement. 

After leaving Rowley he received several calls which he declined, 
one from Mansfield, Conn., and one from Hari'isburg, Penn. He ac- 
cepted the call from Springfield, New Jersey, and was installed June, 
1818, and died February 11, 1819, after an illness of two days. He 
pi:eached on the Sabbath morning previous to his -decease, administered 
the sacrament of the Lord's Supper in the afternoon, and in the evening 
conducted a meeting of prayer and conference. Spent Monday in his 
study, was taken ill that evening, and died on Thursday morning. 

Mr. Tucker married, October 17, 1809, at New Haven, Conn., Miss 
Harriet Atwater, fourth daughter and seventh child of Timothy and 
Susanna (Macomber) Atwater. She survived her husband more than 
twenty-five years, and died in the city of New York, October 1, 1844. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Susan Atwater, b. April 7, 1811, at New Haven; d. July 9, 1846. 

2. Anne Mary, b. March 3, 1813, at Rowley. 

3. Harriet Atwater, b. Dec. 27, 1814, at Rowley. 

4. James Wakefield, b. Oct. 29, 1816, at Rowley; grad. at Y. C, 
1836. 

5. Sarah Norris, b. Dec. 14, 1818, at Springfield, N. J. 

The following account of the ancestors of Rev. Mr. Tucker, has been 
furnished by G. Grenville White, Esq., of New York. 

" The Rev. James Wakefield Tucker was a descendant from John 
Tucker of Dorsetshire, Eng., who had a son Thomas, born in the same 
place, A. D. 1640. The latter had a son James born in Shaftsbury, 
same county, 17th Nov., 1696. He emigrated to New York, was a 
merchant there, and there married Mary Wartendych. He died in 
New York, Dec. 5, 1759. His son (my grandfather) Thomas was born 
29th of January, 1743. He was also a merchant in New York, where 

17 



130 HISTORY OF ESSKX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

he married Hannah Barton, with Avhom and their children he fled, dur- 
ing llie war, to Danbury, Ct. He joined the army in its struggle for 
liberty, and held tlie office of Ass. Commissary-General. His wife Han- 
nah died A. D. 1780, and is buried near Danbury (Bethel). He married, 
for his second wife, Anna Dibble, of Danliury. 

Mr. Thomas Tucker was in connection with the Church of England, 
and held the office of Vestryman in Trinity Church, New York. Upon 
his removal to Danbury, he united with the Congregational church, and 
held there the office of deacon until his death in 1820. 

He was the author and one of the signers of the " Address of the Citi- 
zens of New York, who have returned from exile, in behalf of themselves 
and their suffiiring brethren, to his Excellency, George Washington, 
Esq., General and Commander-in-chief of the Armies of the; United 
States of America." New York, Nov. 26, 1783. 

"Mr. Tucker," says a near neighbor and a contemporary in the minis- 
try, " was an acceptable preacher in this region, and he had a very strong 
hold on his own people. The ancient custom was preserved in Rowley, 
of waiting in the church until the pastor had left the pulpit, and there 
was no disposition to drop that custom during his ministry. Great efforts 
were made to give him, as the people conceived, an ample salary. He, 
however, during his last two years, became discontented ; and was deter- 
mined to ask a dismission. Dr. Spring, whose ideas of the pastoral union 
were very high, endeavored to counteract Mr. Tucker's purpose, and to 
persuade him and his lady to be satisfied with his condition, and to re- 
main. However, he was dismissed June 24, 1817 ; and soon after settled 
in Springfield, New Jersey ; not much increasing his salary, and not 
much bettering his condition. In July 17, 1817, a parochial fast was 
held, and Rev. Mr. Braman of Georgetown, then New Rowley, preached 
the sermon. It contained the following paragraph : 

" • The present is a time of affliction in this church and society. God 
in his providence has visited you with a rod. Your minister, whom you 
valued for his gifts, and esteemed highl}^ in love for his work's sake, is 
removed from you unexpectedly, and at a very early period. Had it 
been by death, however great the calamity, you that fear the Lord would 
have been dumb, and humbly acquiesced in the Divine will. But the 
cii'cumstances attending the present removal are peculiarly trying. You 
loved your minister, and wished to retain him as your spiritual guide. 
You ti'eated bim, we believe, with kindness and respect ; and hoped he 
would live to admonish and console you in your declining years ; and to 
ti'ain up your children in the knowledge and love of the truth. When 
he asked for additional means of support, you came forward with ardor, 
and did as much as it appeared to you reason and duty required. In 



SIvKTCHEb UK JIKMBEUS. 131 

this he differed from you in opinion. But whatever decision may be 
made by different minds in this, all who believe in a superintending 
Providence rau^t agree, the hand of God was in it' 

" Mr. Tucker was a warm-hearted, impetuous man, veiy amiable, but 
sometimes lacking the necessaiy caution." 



BENJAMIN SAWYER, 

Was born at Boothbay, Me., Sept. 22, 1782. His father's name was 
Aaron Sawyer, and the maiden name of liis mother was Sarah Hodgdon. 
He prepared for college with Rev. Abijah Wines, at Newport, N. H., and 
graduated at D. C, in 1808. He studied theology with Mr. Wines, and 
was approbated by the Orange Association, N. H., in Maj^ 1809. He 
was ordained at Cape Elizabeth, Me. (then Mass.), Nov. 22, 1809 ; dis- 
missed Sept. 15, 1813. 

He came to Amesbury in March, 1814, and was installed pastor of 
the First Church in that town, June 19, 181 G. This church became 
greatly reduced, and unable to support a pastor. Mr. Sawyer removed 
to Salisbury in November, 1835, and preached for the First Church in 
Amesbury, and the Rocky Hill Church, Salisbury, some five or six 
years. Since 1841 he has been with the church at Rocky Hill most of 
the time. 

Mr. Sawyer was married, Oct. 30, 1810, to Mima Wines, daughter o f 
Rev. Abijah and Ruth (Giles) Wines, of Newport, N. H. She died 
Sept. 8, 1817, aged 26. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Benjamin Edwards, b. Aug. 11, 1811, in Cape J]lizabeth, Me.: 
mar. Lucy C. Noyes, July 4, 1833 ; resides in Haverhill, Mass. 

2. Ann Maria, b. March 9, 1813, in Cape Elizabeth, Me. ; mar. Or- 
lando S. Patten, Jan. 30, 1833 ; resides in Amesbury, Mass. 

3. Henry Holmes, b. July 25, 1815, in Amesbury, Mass. 

Ml". Sawyer was married a second time, January 12, 1819, to Char- 
lotte Wild Long, daughter of Nathan and Mary (Blaisdell) Long, of 
Amesbury. 

The names of their children are, — 

4. Mima Wines, b. Nov. 9, 1819, in Amesbury, Mass.; mar. John Q. 
Evans, Nov. 8, 1841 ; resides in Salisbury, Mass. 

5. Mary Wingate, b. Dec. 29, 1820, in Amesbury, Mass.; mar. Al- 
fred B. Clough, Oct. 22, 1840 ; resides in Georgetown. 

6. j:zra Worthen, b. Sept. 23, 1823, in Amesbury, Mass. ; d. April 19, 
1851. 



132 HISTOUY OF ESSEX XOKTH ASSOCIATION. 

7. Sarah, b. May 3, 1826, in Amesbury, Mass.; mar. Felix D. 
Parry, Nov. 26, 1848 ; resides in Salisbury, Mass. 

8. Mary Green Wilbur, b. Feb. 9, 1830, in Amesbury, Mass. ; mar. 
George W. Collins, Nov. 27, 1852 ; resides in Salisbury, Mass. 

9. Charlotte Augusta, b. June 28, 1832, in Amesbury, Mass. 



JOHN KIRBY, 

Was born in Middletown (now Berlin), Ct., on the 30th of June, 
1783. His parents removed in 1785 to Charlton, Saratoga Co., N.York, 
where the subject of this notice spent his early life on the farm of his 
father. His early advantages were limited. He pursued his prepara- 
tory studies under the care of Rev. Mr. Sweetman, and entered U. C. in 
1803, and was graduated in the usual course in 1807, distinguished as a 
scholar and respected as a man. After leaving college he taught a year 
in the Academy at Aurora, Cayuga Co., N. Y. Mr. Kirby was converted 
during this residence at Aurora. He then put himself under the care 
of the Albany Presbytery, and commenced his theological studies, but on 
account of failing health he was obliged to desist from his studies, after 
pursuing them a little more than one year. 

He concluded to give up the ministry, as he despaired of becoming a 
public speaker, and commenced farming, but his health becoming in a 
measure restored, he began his theological studies anew. Mr. Kirby 
was appointed tutor in Union College in 1811, which office he continued 
to fill with much acceptance till he came to Newbury, in the fall of 1815, 
to preach as a candidate. He was licensed to preach in the summer of 
1813, without doubt, by the Presbytery of Albany, under whose care he 
studied theolog3^ Mr. Kirby was ordained on the 12th of June, 1816. 
He was settled upon a salary of six hundred dollars. 

In his reply to the can, Mr. K. says, " I have accepted the call upon 
the terms expressed, not under the impression that it contains a very 
ample support for a family according to the present prices of the means 
of living, but under the conviction that salary should not be made a 
matter of the first consequence in the great question of accepting a call, 
and a confidence that God will always make that provision for his minis- 
tering servants which it is best they should have." 

Mr. Kirby was predisposed to a disease of the lungs, and his health 
demanding a change, he left Newbury on the 18th of Oct., 1818, for his 
father's house in N. Y. By the urgent advice of his physician, he at 
length decided to journey in a more southern climate. Mr. K. sailed 



SKETCHKb OF ME.MBEKj 



133 



from New York in the Sloop , on the first of Dec, 1818, for 

Charlestown, S. C. The vessel was driven ashore upon Ocracoke har, 
off' the coast of N. C, on the night of Dec. 5, 1818. After the vessel 
was aground, the waves broke over her continually. In this hour of 
distress and danger the conduct of Mr. K, was perfectly calm. He em- 
ployed himself in exhorting the men to trust in Christ, and while en- 
gaged in prayer was washed overboard. 

Dr. Perry says, Mr. Kirby " was rather distinguished for good sense 
and a sound judgment, than for quickness of thought, or briUiancy of im- 
agination, and, as might be expected from this, was remarkable rather for 
a steady, respectable progress in the acquisition of knowledge, than for 
any extraordinary attainments in a short time. As a public speaker, 
when he first commenced preaching, owing, it is supposed, to bodily de- 
bility and mental depression, there was a want of animation in his man- 
ner. He soon mended in this respect, however, and if he never became, 
strictly speaking, very eloquent, there was in his appearance such an ev- 
idence of sincerity, and such solemn engagedness, as recommended him 
to the consciences of the people, and deservedly ranked him among the 
most acceptable and interesting preachers." Mr. K. is remembered to 
this day with great affection and respect by the older people of the 
parish. He was never married. He pubHshed one sermon preached 
at the Dedication of the Meeting-house in the Second Parish in West 
Newbury, January 3, 1816. 

From the. Columbian Centinet of January 30, 1819. 

LINES 

Tributary to the memory of the Rev. John Kirby, ordained June, 1816, preacher in 
the Tiiird Parisli in Newbury, and was shipwrecked on Ocracoke Bar, near Charles- 
ton, S. C, to which place he was going for his health. 

Ah ! te meae si partem aniniae rapit 
Maturior vis, quid moror altera, 
Nee carus aeque nee superstes 
Integer ? 

Kirby, 'twas thine religion's cause to plead, 

And, by thy skilful efforts, to succeed. 

In thee, as in thy Master, men might view 

At once the precept and the pattern too. 

Dark speculation's mysteries thou didst drop ; 

Careful to know, yet conscious where to stop. 

Consistent, holy, tender, meek, sincere. 

Vice had thy mild rebuke, and grief thy tear. 

But oh ! thy useful labors now are o'er ; 

That tongue that warned us once, shall warn no more. 

What tears of love and reverence have been shed,' 



134 HISTOKV OF KSSEX N'OHTH ASSOCIATION. 

Since the cold liillows closed around thy head ! 
Go, parting spirit, mingle with the lilest ; 
Dear, modest brother, go and be at rest ; — 
If Jesus loveliness in John could see, 
Resembling him, to heaven he welcomes thee. 



LEONARD WITHINGTON, 

Was the son of Joseph Weeks and Elizabeth (White) Withington ; 
was born Aug. 9, 1789, in Dorchester. Fitted for college at Andover, 
under Deacon Mark Newman. Entered Yale Coll. in 1811, and grad. 
in 1814. Studied theology with Dr. Dwight at New Haven, also at 
Andover. Approbated to preach in 1816, at the house of Dr. Morse, in 
Charlestown, by the Union Association of Boston and vicinity. Ordained 
over the First Chui-ch in Newbury, Oct. 30, 1816. He received his 
degree of doctor of divinity from Bowdoin College, in 1850. 

Dr. Withington wa.s first married to Sophia Sherburne, daughter of 

William and (Aspinwall) Sherburne, of Boston, Jan. 17, 1817, at 

Dorchester. She died April 1, 1826. 

Their children were, — 

1. William Sherburne, b. May 4, 1821 ; d. May 20, 1851. 

2. Leonard, b. Sept. 17, 1823 ; d. July 16, 1850. 

3. George Aspinwall, b. Feb. — , 1826 ; d. May 18, 1826. 

He was married to Caroline Noyes, daughter of Dr. Nathan and Sarah 
(Niles) Noyes, of Newburyport, May 28, 1827. She died Aug. 5, 1860. 
Their children are, — 

4. Nathan, b. March 9, 1828. 

5. Sarah Elizabeth, b. Feb. 6, 18o0. 

6. Lucy, b. Feb. 11, 1832. 

7. Joseph, b. May 4, 1834. 

8. Harriet Sherburne, b. March 18, 1836. 

9. Richard, b. April 29, 1838. 

10. Francis, b. Jan. 21, 1840 ; died Sept. 1, 1843. 

11. William, I J b. May 7, 1842; died Sept. 17, 1842. 

12. Mary, i i b. May 7, 1842. 

Mr. Withington was educated under peculiar influences. Two im- 
pressions were made on his mind by surrounding circumstances. The 
family influence was Calvinistic ; while the pulpit was indefinite and 
libei'al. Progression was the watchword of the day. Our fathers were 
good men, but we must outgrow them. A youth so educated was likely 
to have a double desire, — a desire to move onward, and yet an impres- 
sion of the othodoxy of the past. Between these two powers Mr. With- 
ington vibrated, from fourteen to eighteen years of age. In the year 
1804, he went to serve as a printer in the office of Thomas and Andrews, 



SKKTCHES OF MEMBERS. lo5 

Boston. Hei-e he remained until 1808, when he left Boston, and went 
to Andover to prepare for college at Phillips Academy. His object in 
this change was to prepare himself to become the editor of a magazine. 
This was his ruling purpose. 

He beca,aie decided on the subject of religion at Andover, in 1809, 
under the preaching of Dr. Griffin and Prof. Stuart, whom he Avas wont 
to compare to Quin and Garrick, — the former artificial and oratorical, 
the latter simplicity itself. 

He joined Dr. Codman's church, in Dorchester, in the autumn of 
1810. He did not relinquish his chosen purpose of being an editor of a 
magazine until the very last ; and with great hesitation he devoted him- 
self to the work of the ministry, after he graduated in 1814. 

Ne meos lapsus oculis acutis 
Semper observa, numerave labes ; 
Sed malae culpae nimium tenaces 
Ablue sorcles . 

He has often said that he did not want to be a minister. He tried to 
avoid it, but could not rid himself of the feeling of duty. "I felt that if 
J turned from it I should be a Jonah, and God would arrest me." 

The following is a list of the publications of Dr. Withington. 

1. Sermon. Excellence of the Scriptures. (American Evangelist, Oct. 
1827.) 8vo, pp. 24. 

2. Sermon. Take warning. Delivered in Newbury, Aug. 22 and 29, 
1830. 

3. Election Sermon. (Boston. 8vo, pp. 48.) 

4. Sermon. Puritan Morals defended. Delivered at the Dedication 
of the Crombie Street Church, Salem, and at the Installation of Rev. 
William Williams as pastor, Nov. 22, 1832. (Salem. 8vo, pp. 36.) 

0. Sermon'. The Soul of man. Preached at the Tabernacle Church 
at Salem, April 22, 1832. (Salem. 8vo, pp. 22.) 

6. Sermon. Cobwebs swept away. Fast day, April 6, 1837. (New- 
buryport. 8vo, pp. 85.) ^. 

7. Address before the Essex Agricultural Society, Sept. 27, 1836. 
(Salem. 8vo, pp. 25.) 

8. Review of the Temperance movements in Massachusetts. (2d ed. 
Boston. 8vo, pp. 28, 1840.) 

9. Sermon. Two Hundredth Anniversary of the First Church in 
Newbury, Oct. 20, 1846. 

10. Sermon. A Bundle of Myrrh. Thanksgiving day, Nov. 28, 1850. 
(Newbury port. 12mo, pp. 24.) 

11. Funeral Sermon of Mrs. Sarah E. Little. Preached April 1, 
1851. (Newburyport. 8vo, pp. 16.) 



136 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

12. Fast Sermon, April 7, 1853. The Blessings of our Institutions, 
and our Obligations to continue them. (Newbuiyport. 8vo, pp. 16.) 

13. Two Sermons, occasioned by the death of Giles A. Noyes, killed 
Oct. 19, 1852. (Nevvburyport. 8vo, pp. 20.) 

14. Memorial of Rev. Luther F. Dimmick, D. D., who died May 16, 
1860. (Boston. 8vo, pp. 16.) 

15. Solomon's Song, translated and explained, in three parts, — 
1. The manuduction ; 2. The version; 3. The supplement. 12mo, pp. 
329. (Boston, 1861.) 

Some have attributed to Dr. Withington, — 

The Puritan ; a series of essays, critical, moral, and miscellaneous, by 
John Oldbug. 16mo. 2 vols. pp. 248 and 268. (Boston, 1836.) 

Penitential Tears, or a Cry from the Dust, by " the Thirty-one," pros- 
trated and pulverized by the hand of Horace Man. (Boston, 1845. 8vo, 
pp. 59.) 

Religious Taxation. (12mo, pp. 12.) 

Good Tidings of Great Joy : or the doctrine of Universal Salvation 
clearly stated, incontestibly proved, and faithfully applied, in a Sermon 
preached and published by a Doctor of the Sect. (12mo, pp. 12.) 

Letter to the Scornful Lady, published in the Evening Traveller, 
March 8, 1861. 

In the Christian Spectator he wrote, — "A Review of Edward Ever- 
ett's Oration at Plymouth." 

" A Review of Rev. Samuel P. "Williams's Sermons." 

A Rhetorical Praxis on the First Eclogue of Virgil and the 110th 
Psalm. 

Also several short pieces called " A Page from an Idler " and " Varie- 
ties." 

For the Bib. Sacra, he wrote the following articles : 

1. South's Sermons. Vol. 2, pp. 312. 

2. Observations on the Fourth Eclogue of Virgil. (Vol. 3, pp. 37- 
50.) , * 

3. A Phenomenon in Church History. (Vol. 3, pp. 673-698.) 

4. Shakspeare, — The old and the new Criticism on him. (Vol. 4, 
pp. 522-540.) 

5. Remarks on a Seniion of Dr. Emmons. (Vol. 5, pp. 625-633.) 

6. Man and his Food. (Vol. 11, pp. 139-155.) 

7. Davus sura, non CEdipus, (Vol. 14, 770-784.) 

8. Caprices and Laws of Literature. (Vol. 15, pp. 805-824.) 

9. Epistola ad Rusticum Apologetica. Vol. 18, pp. 324-338. 

10. Permanent Preaching for a Permanent Pastorate. Vol. 19, 310- 
327. 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 137 

WILLARD HOLBROOK, 

Was the son of Stephen and Mary (Penniman) Holbrook, and was 
born in Uxbridge, April 7, 1792, but early removed to Sutton. He was 
not baptized in infancy. In his preparation for college he was at Sutton 
Academy, also at Leicester, and, finally, with Rev. Mr. GofFe of Millbury. 
He entered the Sophomore class, and graduated 'at Brown University in 
1814; studied theology with Rev. Dr. Emmons, and, at his suggestion, 
completed a i-egular course at Andover in 1817. He was approbated 
by the Mendon Association, June 3, 1817. He was a missionary for 
six months at Nottingham West, N. H. (now Hudson), where he 
declined an invitation to settle as pastor. He commenced preaching at 
Rowley the first Sabbath in April, 1818, and was ordained there July 
22, 1818; dismissed May 12, 1840; installed over the church in Mill- 
ville, now Blackstone, Aug. 18, 1841 ; dismissed Feb. 19, 1850. In April 
following, he removed to his own house in Rowley. 

In March, 1851, he commenced his labors, as stated supply of the 
church in Linebrook, Ipswich, and continued for about four years. 
From that time, growing infirmities compelled him mostly to cease from 
the active duties of the ministry. In all these fields he labored with 
fidelity and success, and left many who trace their early religious impres- 
sions and subsequent conversion to his earnest presentation of the claims 
of the gospel. He died at his residence in Rowley, Tuesday, Feb. 7, 
1860, aged 68. 

He married June 22, 1819, at Londonderry, N. H., Margaret Crocker, 
daughter of deacon John and Margaret (Choate) Crocker of Londonderry, 
N. H. She died at Rowley, Oct. 2, 1863, aged 71. 

They had six children, of whom the three youngest, daughters, died 
in infancy. 

1. Amory, b. in Rowley, Aug. 15, 1820 ; grad, at Bowdoin Coll., 1841 ; 
read law with Hon. Rufus Choate and Judge Perkins of Salem, and was 
for two years District Attorney for Oregon, where he still resides. 

2. John Crocker, b. ; d. , 1829. 

3. Willard R., b. in Rowley, March 1, 1824; is now a merchant in 
New York. 

GARDNER BRAMAN PERRY. 

On Friday, Dec. 16, 1859, this beloved brother and father fell asleep 
in Jesus. He had been ill for many months, and confined to his house. 
At last, the angel of death came to his release, and he quietly passed 
beyond the reach of pain. Dr. Perry was box-n at Norton, Mass., Aug 9, 
1783. He was the son of Nathan and Phebe (Braraan) Perry, and was 

18 



138 HISTORY OK ESSKX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

baptized in infancy. He entered Brown University in 1800, and continued 
there till the close of his second year. Tie then accompanied President 
Maxcy to Schenectady, N. Y., and graduated at Union College in 1804. 

For a short time he was principal of the Ballston Academy. With 
the ministry in view, he left the academy, to pursue a course of theologi- 
cal study at Schenectady, under the instruction of David Nott. About 
this time he was appointed tutor in Union College; but during the second 
year of this office, he was taken suddenly ill, and raised blood. His 
medical advisers interdicted all his plans for the ministry; and in 1807 
he took charge of the academy at Kingston, N. Y. Here he remained 
until the spring of 1812, when he decided to resume his preparations for 
the ministry. He removed to Albany for the prosecution of his studies 
in theology, under Dr. Nott, and in March, 1812, he was licensed to 
preach by the Presbytery of Albany. 

In the spring of 1814, he accepted an invitation to settle in East Brad- 
ford, now Groveland, and was ordained Sept. 28, 1814. He remained 
sole pastor of this church until 1851, when D. A. Wasson was settled as 
his colleague. Mr. Wasson was succeeded by Daniel W. Pickard, who 
was settled Sept. 28, 1853. After a brief pastorate Mr. Pickard resigned 
on account of ill health, and Rev. Thomas Doggett succeeded him 
March 4, 1857. 

Dr. Perry sustained a long and usefid connection with the church at 
Groveland. He was in active service thirty-six years, and, until a few 
months previous to his death, was most deeply interested in its affairs. 
The funeral was appointed on the day of the meeting of the Essex North 
Association, of which Dr. Perry was a member, having been admitted 
Oct. 12, 1819. Seventeen of his brethren were pi'esent, and we noticed, 
among other clergymen. Profs. Barrows and Stowe of Andover, and Dr. 
Cleaveland of Lowell. At the house, Rev. Mr. Hosford of Haverhill 
offered prayer, and the body was then taken to the church, which was 
di'aped in approjjriate mourning. The following services succeeded : 
Reading of Scriptures by Rev. D. T. Fiske, of Newburyport ; Prayer 
by Rev. Mr. Pike, of Rowley. 

Dr. Withington followed with some remarks on the character of the 
deceased, with whom he had been associated more than forty years. Dr. 
Perry was a man of strong common sense. He had exhibited unusual 
tact in filling with success the posts of teacher, tutor, and pastor. He 
entered the ministry late in life, and carried into it a large experience of 
men in various professions. As a preacher, he w^as clear and effective 
in reasoning, but was more inclined to the practical application than the 
metaphysical analysis of truth. He took a deep interest in the cause of 
education in the county and the State. It was through his influence that 



SKETCHES OF MEMBEKS. 139 

the exercises of the Essex North Association were made so profitable. 
He was a Christian reformer, and was decided and judicious in his in- 
fluence against slavery and intemperance, and other evils of society. Dr. 
Perry was a man who diffused his influence through more diversified 
channels than most theologians. He was a reformer, a politician, a 
political economist, an advocate for education ; he turned his attention to 
farming, gardening, and all the common arts of life. He considered 
theology as a social science, informing all its kindred sciences, and bor- 
rowing illustration from all. Some thought he injured his powers of con- 
centration by this difiusion ; but perhaps there were few who could be 
so much of a preacher and pastor amidst such a multiplicity of cares. 
He made all subservient to his main channel of thought. Hence his dis- 
courses had a detail in them, and a surprising remoteness of illustration, 
which marked the cast of his studies and the comprehensive character of 
his mind. It was curious to see how he threw the huge drag-net of ob- 
servation over all the incidents of common life, and" compelled them to 
subserve his important theme. At any rate, his preaching was charac- 
terized by variety ; and none of his brethren could exchange with him 
without being pretty sure that he would fill a place to be supplied by 
no other co-laborer in the vicinity. 

Dr. Withington was followed by Rev. Dr. Dimmick of Newburypoi't, 
who addressed consolation to the family of the deceased. The exercises 
were concluded with prayer by Rev. Mr. Doggett. 

On Sabbath, Dec. 25, by special request. Rev. Mr. Kimball, of Ipswich, 
preached in Groveland, and his morning service had particular reference 
to his deceased brother. Mr. Kimball was of neai'ly the same age as 
Dr. Perry, but was settled in the ministry eight years earliei*. They 
had been intimate friends, as well as fellow-soldiers in the same division 
of the church militant. 

Mr. Kimball's text was in Romans 8 : 28. " We know that all things 
work together for good to them that love God." 

Dr. Perry married May 22, 1816, Maria P. Chamberlain of Exeter, 
N. H. She was the daughter of Samuel and Mary (Tilton) Chamber- 
lain. She died March 11, 1817, aged 29. 

They had one child, — 

1. Maria Parker, b. March 1, 1817 ; mar. William Henry Shackford, 
grad. of H. U. 1835, Prof, at Phillips Academy, Exeter, who d. 1842. 

He was nwirried a second time in Acton, July 20, 1819, to Eunice 
Tuttle, daughter of John and Elizabeth (Leighton) Tuttle of Acton. She 
died June 15, 1824, aged 31. 

The names of their children are, — 

2. John Kirby, b. May 24, 1820; d. Feb. 11, 1837. 



140 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

3. Sarah Campbell, b. Sept. 2, 1821. 

4. Phebe Braman, b. .January 12, 1822 ; d. May 4, 1851. 
o. Elizabeth Leighton, b. May 8, 1824. 

He was married a third time May 22, 1827, to Miss Sarah Brown of 
Groton, Mass. She was the daughter of Aaron and Elizabeth (Stowell) 
Brown, formerly of Beverly. 

The names of their children are, — 

6. Gardiner Blauchard, b. July 9, 1829. 

7. Edward Hale, b. Oct. 1, 1831 ; d. Feb. 18G0. 

8. Charles French, b. June 3, 1833. 

9. Mary Sophia, b. Aug. 16, 1835. 

LUTHER FRASEUR DIMMICK. 

The following Sketch was prepared by Rev. L. Withingtou, D. D., 
and published in the Congregational Quarterly. 

Rev. Luther Fraseur Dimmick was born in Shaftsbury, Vermont, 
Nov. 15, 1790. He was the son of Solomon and Elizabeth (Frissoll) 
Dimmick. His father was from Mansfield, Tolland Co., Conn., and his 
mother from Leyden, Mass. In his youth he I'emoved, with his father's 
family, to the State of New York. He was baptized in infancy, and 
united with the Pre«4)yterian church in September, 1812. He graduated 
at Hamilton College in 1816, and immediately commenced his theologi- 
cal education at Andover, where he graduated in 1819, and delivered 
the valedictory address. He was approbated to preach by the Essex 
Middle Association (now Essex Noilh), July 19, 1819, and the same 
evening he preached his first sermon in the North Congregational Church, 
Newburyport. From this church and parish he received a unanimous 
call on the tenth of November, and was ordained as their pastor, the 8th 
of December, 1819. He had previously offered himself to the American 
Board as a foreign missionary, but was induced to change his purpose 
by a pressing call to fill an important station. His first and last sermons 
were preached to the same people, with whom he had a pastorate of 
nearly foi'ty-one years. 

On Sabbath morning, May 13. soon after naming his text, he was 
taken suddenly ill, was assisted to retire from the pulpit, and conveyed 
to his residence. His illness was a disease of the heart ; and after a 
fluctuating state, between hope and fearj he passed away on Wednesday 
May 16, 1860, at the age of sixty-nine years. 

He received his diploma as Doctor of Divinity from his Alma Mater 
— Hamilton College — in 1849. 

Dr. Diramick was twice married, — fii-st to Mi^s Catharine Mather 



SKKTCHKS OF MEMBKKS. Ill 

Marvin of Norwich, Ct., May 4, 1820 ; she was the daughter of Elihu 
and Elizabeth (Rogers) Marvin, and died Dec. 8, 1844. He was mar- 
ried the second time, March 13, 1849, at Bradford, to Miss Mary Eliza- 
beth Ellison, of Boston ; she was the daughter of Andrew and Alathea 
Ellison. 

The names of their children were, — 

1. Margaret Alathea, b. April 15, 1850. 

2. Edward Augustus, b. July 27, 1851. 

It is superfluous to remark, that in all the relations of life, as husband, 
father, brother, or friend, he exemplified his own instruction. 

He was born for his profession. Few preachers of the gospel comply 
more truly with the Apostle's requisition, 1 Timothy 3 : 2, dvtmXtjTirQOV 
ehai, an expression which our translators have weakened by rendering 
it — to be blameless ; a bishop or preacher tnust be blameless. The term 
is probably taken from the pancratian wrestlers of old, who anointed 
their bodies with oil, that there might be no place to seize hold of to 
throw an opponent. Tliere was no weak spot in his character. 

The sermons of Dr. Dimmick were not regarded by the public as the 
most striking exhibitions of his power. They were more judicious than 
sparkling, yet they had some qualities very uncommon. In the first 
place, he had more intellectual discretion than any man we ever knew. 
He seldom, if ever, selected a subject which he did not perfectly under- 
stand. When he drew his bow, he always had the vigor and the eye to 
hit his object. Dr. Dimmick would hardly have agreed with the writer 
of the Memoir of the late Dr. Peabody : " Preaching has become a very 
different thing from what it once was. In this our day, no easy general- 
ities or worn-out common places will do any thing more than put people 
to sleep." ^ But can it be so? Is not the reverse true? Are not the 
most affecting truths as common as the light, and as old as the creation ? 
The fact is, a curious thought is never an affecting one. The art of 
preaching consists in giving interest to what every man knew before, 
A preacher must tell the open secret. What was Paul doing when 
Felix trembled ? He reasoned of righteousness, temperance, and judgment 
to come. On the other hand, if you wish to put a popular audience to 
sleep, read to them the sermons (as he has called them) of Bishop But- 
ler, some of the most acute speculations that ever honored the closet or 
disgraced the pulpit. Our departed brother always aimed at the con- 
science, and of course the consciousness of his audience. 

He had another peculiarity in his preaching, remarkable in the succes- 
sor of Dr. Spring ; and that was a deep sympathy with human weakness 

1 See Memoir prefixed to Sermons of Ephraim Peabody, p. 22. 



J 42 HISTOKY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

ill its difficulties, its sti'uggles, its temptations, and its defeats. This was 
a growing peculiarity in his preaching ; it marked the mellowness of his 
riper years, and the benefits of experience. He knew well how to lift 
up the hands that hang down, and to strengthen the feeble knees, and to 
make straight paths for the feet, lest that which is lame be turned out of the 
way, but let it rather be healed. No pastor could be more welcome to the 
sick chamber, — 

Beside the bed where parting life was laid. 

His extemporaneous effiisions were plain and simple, and his sermons 
to the last were carefully elaborated. But his great power was as a seri- 
ous, earnest, diligent, and consistent pastor. Tlie timid inquirer seldom 
feared to go to him for direction. He was sure of liis counsel, his pa-ayers, 
and his example. 

It is a victory, not often appreciated by a superficial world, to continue 
to feed a single flock through a long pastorate ; to give interest to old 
truths, variety to the simplicity and sameness of the gospel, to conquer 
this man's fastidiousness and that man's conservatism ; to move with the 
times, and not leave the old landmarks, and have zeal without rashness, 
ardor without indiscretion, and all preserved through the first inexperi- 
ence of youth, and tln-ough the last decays of maturity, — this is the task 
of a long continued preacher, and this is the victory which our modest 
friend never boasted of, and nobly won. He turned many to righteous- 
ness ; he shall sidne as the brightness of the firmament and as the stars 
forever. 

His general character, both as a reasoner and a man, was caution. 
This would be the impression on the slightest acquaintance ; and yet his 
caution was combined with the most singular boldness in starting various 
questions and examining every foundation. In a society to which he 
belonged for theological investigation, he once proposed this motto : 
" Prove all things ; hold fast that which is good." It seemed to be the 
ruHng maxim of his own mind. He seemed to think to hold fast the 
good, it was necessary first to prove all things. He was not afraid to 
start the most critical arid dangerous questions, though he was very safe 
in coming to his conclusions. The writer of these recollections was once 
present at an amusing conversation of our brother with the late Dr, 
Dana. After suggesting some questions which seemed to unsettle some 
fundamentals, as the older brother conceived, Dr. Dana exclaimed, almost 
in agony, " Now, Brother Dimmick, I did suppose that some points in 
theology were fixed." — " Yes, sir," was the reply ; " but will they not 
be more fixed, if they are true, the more we examine them." In one 
respect, our brother was a freer thinker than Theodore Parker or any of 



SKETCHKS OF MEMBERS. 143 

the members of that school. They shun the old paths like " vipers ' 
blood ; " innovation to them is always the road to truth. Our brother, 
like the eagle, after the widest flight, was not ashamed to return to the 
old nest, if that was found the point of the safest repose. 

Dr. Dimmick's interest in education was unceasing. He held, for fif- 
teen years, a responsible part in superintending the public schools of 
Newburyport ; was, for a number of years, and at the time of his death. 
President of the Board of Trustees of the Putman Free School ; also of 
the Board of Trustees of Hampton Academy ; and for fourteen years 
a Trustee of the Andover Theological Seminary, — in fact, he was 
ever ready to give his influence and his time in aid of the instruc- 
tion of the young, for whom he always evinced peculiar regard. He 
was a man of great industry ; Biblical literature was his favorite study; 
he kept up a constant acquaintance with the Hebrew and the Greek ; 
and he never was a better scholar than on the day he died. 

On the fortieth anniversary of his ordination, Dr. Dimmick preached 
a Historical Discourse, which has been published. In this discourse he 
gives a review of his long ministrj', and feelingly adverts to the few who 
remain that witnessed his ordination, and also an apprehension that his 
own labors had nearly closed. The statistics in this discourse give evi- 
dence of faithfulness and industry during his long pastorate ; and the fact 
that he was present and acted on seventy-seven ecclesiastical councils, is 
significant. 

One of the last impi-essions which the writer of this brief notice 
received from our departed friend, was a discussion concerning the man- 
ner in which heaven will open on the departed soul that has just left the 
lifeless clay behind it. It took place while we were treading with slow 
and sad steps to follow the remains of another clerical brother to the 
house appointed for allUving, — the late Rev. David T. Kimball, of 
Ipswich. He started the question, whether heaven would burst on the 
astonished soul with a sudden eifulgence, or whether it would be a soft 
and more gradual dawn, like the first streak of twilight that brightens 
the morning. He mentioned Dr. Doddridge's dream. He had a quiet 
way of investigating these things, well suited to the time and place ; and 
though he spake with caution, he concluded that we must wait with 
trembling hope for the blessed experience. Ah ! my brother, thou hast 
solved the problem now ; thou art wiser than all thy surviving compan- 
ions. Thou hast entered the veil ; thou hast left the darkness of this 
speculating world ; thou hast entered the regions of eternal day. Little 
did I think that as we then paced side by side our solemn way to a 
brother's tomb, what was to thee then, as to me, doubtful speculation, 
would so soon become personal experience. But thou hast not lived in 



144 HISTORY or KS8KX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

vain, nor died in vain. Though thy exit was sudden, precluding the 
possibility of a parting word, or prayer — yet thy last scene suited thy char- 
acter ; thou wast summoned at the post of duty ; Death touched thee in 
the pulpit, and struck thee soon after ; and now we yield thy body to the 
ground and thy spii'it to God ; and the evening sun which will soon shed 
his parting beams on thy grave, will spread there a sweet emblem of thy 
temper and thy life ; pure, but bright ; illuminating earth, but having its 
source in heaven. 

The following is a list of the publications of Dr. Dimmick : 

1. Fast Sermon. — Intempei'ance ; preached April 1, 1824. 8vo, pp. 
30. Newburyport. 

2. Sermon at the Dedication of the New Brick Church, March 20, 
1827. 8vo, pp. 32. Newburyport. 

3. Sermon preached Dec. 31, 1831. 8vo, pp. 20. Newburyport. 

4. Sermon on the death of Amos Pettengill, who died Nov. 30, 1831. 
Svo, pp. 16. Newburyport. 

5. Thanksgiving Sermon. The position of the American Republic 
with reference to the rest of the world; preached Nov. 27, 1834. 8vo, 
pp. 24. Newburyport. 

6. Hints for a New Year. 32rao, pp. 64. Newburyport, 1835. 

7. Honor due to Jesus Christ. 32mo, pp. 96. Newburyport, 1835. 

8. Sermon. National Preacher, vol. 26, No. 12. 1841. 

9. Sermon. The end of the world not yet. 12mo, pp. 48. Newbury- 
port, 1842. 

10. Thanksgiving Sermon; preached Nov. 30, 1843. 12mo, pp. 24. 
Newburyport. 

11. Sermon at the Funeral of W. D. Quimby, who died Oct. 2, 1843. 
12mo, pp. 11. Concord, N. H., 1845. 

12. Memoir of Mrs. Catharine M. Dimmick. 12rao, pp. 214. Boston, 
1846. 

13. Address before a Musical Convention in Newburyport, June 8th 
and 9th, 1851. 8vo, pp. 38. Newburyport. 

14. Sermon. Fortieth Anniversary, preached Jan. 1, 1860. 8vo, 
pp. 28. Newburyport. 

RODNEY GOVE DENNIS, 

Was born in New Boston, N. H., April 17, 1791 ; and was the son of 
Arthur and Mary (Goodhue) Dennis. He was baptized when about 
five years of age. He fitted for college at Appleton Academy, New Ips- 
wich, N. H. While pursuing his academic studies in that town, in the 
autumn of 1811, during a powerful and extensive revival of religion, his 
mind was specially impressed with his relations and accountability to 



SKETCHES OF 31E31BEKS. 145 

God ; and at that time he became a Christian. He united with the Con- 
gregational church in New Ipswich, N. H., Feb. 2, 1812. In the au- 
tumn of 1813, he entered the Sophomore class in Bowdoin College. He 
graduated in 1816, and took his second degree in 1820. The same au- 
tumn in which he left college he entered the Theological Seminary at 
Andover, and graduated in 1819. He was approbated by the Association 
of Salem and vicinity July 13, 1819. 

He was ordained at Topsfield, Oct. 4, 1820 ; dismissed May 18, 1829 ; 
installed at Somers, Ct., June 30, 1830. His health being seriously ira- 
paii'ed, he was dismissed June 30, 1839. Since that time he has not re- 
sumed the pastoral office, but at diiferent times has had the temporary 
pastoral care of several churches. 

Mr. Dennis was married in Billerica, Nov. 28, 1820, to Mary Parker, 
eldest daughter of Stephen and Mary (Duren) Parker of Billerica. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Mary, b. Nov. 30, 1821 ; d. Jan. 30, 1856, aged 30. 

2. Theodosia, b. March 10, 1823, in Topsfield. 

3. Jessie Appleton^ ^ b. May 28, 1824, in Topsfield; d. Oct. 27, 

I ?. 1854, aged 30. 

4. Jane Abigail, ) -" b. May 28, 1824, in Topsfield. 

5. Rodney, b. January 14, 1826, in Topsfield. 

6. Joseph, b. Feb. 14, 1828, in Topsfield ; d. July 13, 1854, aged 26. 

7. Edward Parker, b. Dec. 1, 1829, in Topsfield. 

8. Isabella Homes, b. May 8, 1833, in Somers, Ct. 

9. Frances Louisa, b. Aug. 25, 1834, in Somers, Ct. 
10. Henrietta Pease, b. Oct. 26, 1828, in Somers, Ct. 

They adopted, when a child, Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of Dea. 
Samuel Todd of Topsfield. She married Theodore D. Billings, Esq. 

Jessie Appleton was educated at Amherst and Rutger's College ; and 
Joseph at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in the city of New 
York. 

The deceased children all died in the faith of the gospel, and all the 
survivors are members of the Christian church. 

The publications of Mr. Dennis are, A Right Hand of Fellowship^ 
given March 7, 1821, at the Ordination of Elijah Demond, in West New- 
bury. 

1. A Speech delivered at tjje First Anniversary of the Auxiliary For- 
eign Missionary Society of Essex Co., held at Newburyport, April 10, 
1827. 

2. An Address delivered at the opening of the Topsfield Academy, 
May 7, 1828. 

3. Two Sermons, — Christ seen by Every Eye, and a Pastor's Fare- 

19 



146 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

well to his People, preached to the Cong. Church and Society in Somert:, 
Conn., June 30, 1839. Published in Hartford, Ct., 1840. 



ELIJAH DEMOND, 

The fifth pastor of the Second Parish in West Newbury, was born in 
Rutland, Mass., Nov. 1, 1790. He was the son of Israel Howe and Han- 
nah (Henry) Demond, and was baptized in infency. He was fitted for 
college at the Academy in New Salem, in this State, and graduated at 
D. C, in 1816, and at the Theo. Sem., Andover, in 1820. He was ap- 
probated by the wSufFolk South Association April, 1820. He was ordain- 
ed pastor of the Second Church in West Newbury March 7, 1821. The 
parish voted to give Mr. Demond $520 annually, also two Sabbaths in a 
year to visit his relatives. 

Mr. Demond came to West Newbury in the face of a strong opposi- 
tion. A remonstrance was presented to the council against his ordina- 
tion signed by fourteen names ; yet his course seems to have been so 
wise and judicious, that this opposition subsided. The movement for his 
dismission took his people by surprise, and there is no reason to suppose 
that any obstacle would have arisen to a continued and harmonious min- 
istry. He was dismissed at his own request Sept. 3, 1826. He was in- 
stalled at Lincoln, Mass., Nov. 7, 1827; dismissed Oct. 31, 1832. In- 
stalled at Holliston, Mass., Oct. 31, 1832 ; dismissed April 12, 1836. In- 
stalled at Princeton, Mass., Oct. 26, 1836; dismissed November 8, 1839. 

After leaving Princeton, Mr. Demond was employed some years as 
agent for the American and the Doctrinal Tract Societies. In conse- 
qence of a bronchial difficulty, he was for twelve years on a farm, yet 
preaching much of the time. Since recovering from this difficulty, he 
has been employed as stated supply in different places. 

Of his religious experience, Air. Demond says, " I was brought up 
under Unitarian preaching, and firmly believed the doctrines it usually 
inculcates, till I entered college. There I battled the Calvinistic system 
for one year. My foundations were undermined, yet, being reluctant to 
embrace Evangelical views, I floated as a wreck on the ocean for a year, 
having no settled religious belief. In the great revival in D. C, 1815, I 
was led to view my moral condition and ^jelations to God in a new and 
different light, and to embrace, I trust, the offers of salvation as made in 
the gospel. From that time I have had but one settled and increasing 
conviction in regard to the truths of God's word, as being those briefly 
contained in the Westminster Catechism. I joined the church first in 
D. C, Aug. 4, 1815." Mr. Demond published a Sermon while at Hollis- 
ton, on Lewdness. 



SKKTCHKS OK MEMbERS. 147 

Mr. Demond was married in Beverly, Mass., May 29, 1821, to Lucy 
Brown, daughter of Aaron and Elizabeth (Stowell) Brown. 
The names of their children are, — 

1. Charles Brown, b. August 4, 1823. 

2. Lucy Ann, b. Feb. 6, 1825. 

3. Sarah Ellen, b. April 2, 1826 ; d. July 28, 1841. 

4. Mary Louisa, b. July 31, 1827. 

5. Edward Henry, b. March 19, 1829; d. Dec. 19, 1832. 
G. George Stowell,,b. May 18, 1834; d. Sept. 28, 1834. 



WILLIAM FORD, 

Came from Scotland in 1813, and was educated in Edinburgh. After 
coming to this country he was for some years a merchant. At a meet- 
ing of the Essex North Association, July 8, 1823, Mr. Ford applied for 
approbation to preach the gospel. After examination, it was voted not 
to comply with the request. At a meeting Sept. 9th of the same year, 
the request was renewed and granted. Mr. Ford was ordained colleague 
pastor with Rev. John Giles over the Second Presbyterian Church, 
Newburyport, Mass., August 11, 1824. Some dissatisfaction soon arose 
in the congregation, on account of certain alleged heretical sentiments of 
Mr. Ford, and he resigned, and was dismissed March 23, 1826. He went 
to Augusta, Maine, in the fall of 1828, and was installed pastor of the 
Unitarian Church in that town September 4, 1829. He was dismissed 
1831. After leaving Augusta, he resided for some time in Roxbury, 
Mass., and also in Baltimore. Of his subsequent history we can gain no 
information. 

HENRY CLARKE WRIGHT, 

The son of Seth and Miriam (Wright) Wright, was born in Sharon, 
Ct., Aug. 29, 1797. His parents were both members of the Congrega- 
tional church, and carefully and regularly instructed their children in the 
doctrines of the Westminster Catechism. They were exact in observing 
the ordinances of the gospel, and Henry was baptized in infancy. When 
he was at the age of four, his father removed the family to Hartwick, 
Otsego Co., N. Y. 

He was converted, as he supposed, in the winter of 1817, when about 
twenty years of age. He united with the Presbyterian Church in Nor- 
wich, N. Y., Jan. 19, 1817. Soon after this, he left the business to which 
he had been apprenticed by his father, that of a hatter, and commenced 
a course of study preparatory to the ministry. He returned to Hart- 
wick, and attended a school about four miles from his fathei''s. For the 



148 HISTORY OF ESSKX NOUTH ASSOCIATION. 

greater portion of two years he resided in the family of Rev. Henry 
Chapman, the Presbyterian minister of Hartwick. 

In Sept., 1819, he left home, and entered the Theological Seminary 
at Andover. At the commencement of the third year, he left the Semi- 
nary to teach a school in Newburyport. It was during this year that he 
became acquainted with Mrs. Elizabeth LeBreton Stickney, who after- 
wards became his wife. In Oct., 1822, he returned to Andover, and re- 
mained until the spring vacation, when he took up his connection with 
the institution. He was married June 26, 1823, and started the same 
day on a journey to the western part of New York. He was licensed to 
preach by the Presbytery of Otsego in June, 1823; and in the autumn 
of the same year went to reside in Newburyport. 

In the year 1824, he preached for a few months each, in the towns of 
Warner and Franklin, N. H. After preaching some months in the First 
Church, West Newbury, he received a call, and was ordained June 
21, 1826. 

It appears from his autobiography, that he was troubled with sceptical 
views while in the course of his theological education. The council 
which convened at his ordination were evidently dissatisfied with his doc- 
trinal views ; but in the hope that further study would correct his er- 
roneous tendencies, they consented to place him in charge of that ancient 
church. He was highly esteemed and eminently successful among this 
people. In the years 1831 and 1832, seventy-fonr were added to the 
church. 

He was dismissed July 5, 1833, and immediately entered upon his 
duties as Agent of the Amer. S. S. Union. He remained in this service 
until Nov., 1834 ; when he was employed in Boston as a minister to the 
poor; and remained in that city until the spring of 1836. He subse- 
quently visited Europe, and became noted as an anti-slavery lecturer. 

Mr. Wright was not happy in his mental structure. He grasped a 
single idea strongly ; but saw neither collaterals nor objections. His ed- 
ucation had been irregular and imperfect ; and his mind was as far from 
being comprehensive as his course was from being uniform. He was a 
good Hebrew scholar, and of a frank and open disposition. But his bold- 
ness was too great for his strength, and, venturing on questions which he 
could not solve, and ought not to have encountered, he became an infidel 
through the strength of his curiosity and the imbecility of his reason. 



DANIEL FITZ, 

Was boi-n in Sandown, N. H., May 28, 1795, and was the son of Cur- 
rier and Sarah (George) Fitz. He was not baptized in infancy. He 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 149 

pursued his studies preparatory to college at the Academics in Derry, N. 
H., and at Atkinson, N. H. Pie graduated at D. C, Aug. 11, 1818, and 
at the Theological Seminary, Andover, Sept. 28, 1825. 

Of his religious expei'ience, he says, "• I was brought up in Derry, N. 
H., always attending the Presbyterian church there. My attention was 
first seriously called to the subject of religion in the spring of 1815, 
while a member of college. A revival was in progress among the stu- 
dents. But these feelings in part passed away. My attention was 
effectually called to the subject, I hope, while I was preceptor of the 
Academy in Salisbury, N. H. During a revival in 1819, 1 united with the 
Congregational church in Salisbury, N. H., in May, 1820." 

Mr. Fitz was approbated by the " Hoj^kinton Association," at Hopkin- 
ton, N. H., June 15, 1825 ; and was ordained colleague pastor with Rev. 
Joseph Dana, D. D., of the South Church in Ipswich, June 28, 1826. 
At the decease of Dr. Dana, Nov. 11, 1827, he became sole pastor of the 
church. He received the degree of D. D. from D. C, in 18G2. 

Mr. Fitz was married in Henniker, N. H., Sept. 5,1826, to Miss Car- 
oline Fitz Sawyer, daughter of Rev. Moses and Fanny (Kimball) Saw- 
yer. She died January 10, 1862, aged 57. 

Their children were all born in Ipswich, and their names are, — 

1. Sarah Adams, b. June 30, 1827 ; d. Nov. 21, 1848. 

2. George Currier, b. April 14, 1830. 

3. Louise Adams, b. May 17, 1833; d. Oct. 17, 1847. 

4. Daniel Francis, | ^ b. Aug. 14, 1837, 

5. Caroline Frances, i J b. Aug. 14, 1837. 

Daniel Francis graduated at H. IT., 1859, and is an attorney-at- law in 
Boston. 

Mr. Fitz was married a second time April 14, 1863, in Westborough, 
Mass., to Mrs. Hannah B. D. Bowman. She was daughter of Thomas 
and Sarah Clark of Barre, and the widow, first, of Capt. Daniel J. Leland, 
and, secondly, of Hon. Joseph Bowman. 

Mr. Fitz has published, — 

1. A Sermon delivered in Essex, Feb. 11, 1837, at the funeral of 
Mrs. Hannah C. Crowell, wife of Rev. Robert Crowell, D. D., pub. in 
Boston. 

2. A Sermon delivered Nov. 13, 1855, at the interment of the Rev. 
Robert Crowell, D. D., pastor of the First Church in Essex. 

3. A Discourse at the Thirtieth Anniversary, preached in Ipswich, 
June 29, 1856. 

4. A Sermon preached Feb. 8, 1860, at the funeral of Rev. D. T. 
Kimball, late senior pastor of the First Church in Ipswich. 



150 HISTORY OF KSSKX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 



PAUL COUCH, 

Was llie sixth pastor of the Second Clun-ch in West Newbury, He 
was the son of John and Sarah (Heard) Couch, and was born in New- 
buryport, Mass., June 20, 1803. He graduated at D, C. in 1823, and 
at the Theo. Sem., Andover, in 1826. 

He was ordained at West Newbury, March 21, 1827, and dismissed 
Aug. 14, 1828. The parish voted to give Mr. Conch $600 annually, 
and the use of the land near the meeting-house. No vacation was voted. 
" Mr. Couch," says Mr. Foster, the present pastor of that church, " is re- 
membered as a very able preacher. I have heard a sermon by him on 
the subject of temperance, spoken of as producing a most marked effect 
upon his people in that respect, — inaugurating as it were a very happy 
change in the social customs of the parish. The people were very un- 
willing to give him up, and saw no sufficient reason why he should leave 
that field of labor." 

He was installed in Bethlem, Ct., Oct. 14, 1829, and dismissed Nov. 
4, 1834. Installed at North Bridgewater, Mass., Oct. 7, 1836; dis- 
missed July 19, 1859. 

Further particulars of Mr. Couch we have not been able to obtain. 



PETER SIDNEY EATON, 

Was born in Boxford, West Parish, Oct. 7, 1798. His father was 
Rev. Peter Eaton, D. D., for fifty-seven years the pastor of the church 
in West Boxford. His mother was Sarah Stone, daughter of Rev. 
Eliab Stone, for sixty years pastor of the Cong. Ch. in Reading, and 
sister of Rev. Micah Stone, for more than fifty years pastor of the Cong. 
Ch. in South Brookfield. He was baptized in infancy, when eight days 
old. Fitted for college under the supervision of his father, and gradu- 
ated at H. U. in 1818, and at the Theological Seminary, Andover, in 
1822. 

He .was licensed to preach, together with more than half of his class- 
mates, by the Presbytery of Londonderry, in the spring of 1822. 

Ordained at West Amesbury, Sept. 20, 1826; dismissed May 10, 1837. 
After leaving West Amesbury, he retired from the ministry. For some 
years he resided in Chelsea. He is still remembered by the people of 
his former charge with sincere respect and affection. He died in Chel- 
sea March 13, 1863. 

Of his religious life, he says : " My attention was called to an earnest 
consideration of the subject of religion while a teacher in Phillips Acad- 



SKKTCHES OF MEMBERS. 151 

emy, Andover, through the awakening of a favorite pupil, remarkably 
amiable and intelligent, but who exhibited the most pungent convictions 
of sin. Quite a revival followed. I had been greatly perplexed by the 
doctrines of man's entire depravity, but now, after a course of thorough 
self-examination, was satisfied of its truth. I united with the church of 
which my father was pastor. May 7, 1820. 

Mr. Eaton has published nothing except contributions to religious 
periodicals. 

Mr. Eaton married, Dec. 4, 1828, in Charlestown, Miss P^lizabeth 
Ann Leman, daughter of Daniel and Margaret Leman. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Sidney Payson, born Sept. 16, 1829. 

2. Henry Martyn, born .June 28, 1835. 

3. Elizabeth Ann, born May 16, 1841. 



ISAAC RICHMOND BARBOUR, 

The son of James and Dorcas (Doane) Barbour, was born in Brid- 
port, Vt., Feb. 14, 1794. He was baptized in infancy, and united with 
the Congregational church in his native town in the sixteenth year of his 
age, at a season of special religious interest. Graduated at M. C, 1819, 
and was two years at the Theo. Sem., Andovei*. He was approbated by 
the Suffolk Association Sept., 1822 ; ordained as an Evangelist by the 
Harmony Presbytery in South Carolina (Mayor June), 1823; preached 
nearly two years in Sumpterville, S. C, as a missionary in the employ 
of the Young Men's Missionary Association of Charleston, S. C. 

He was installed in New Ipswich, N. H., March 8, 1826 ; hoping that 
a southern climate might prove serviceable to the declining health of Mrs. 
Barbour, he obtained a dismission Sept. 20, 1826. His wife, however, 
did not live to- reach the South. # He was installed at (Byfield), New- 
bury, Mass., Dec. 20, 1827 ; resigned March 26, 1833, and his dismis- 
sion took effect May 1st of the same year. Mr. Barbour was agent of the 
Boston Society for the Moral and Religious Education of the Poor, 1833 
and 1834 ; resided for a short time in Philadelphia, Penn. ; installed over 
the Calvinistic church in Charlton, Mass., Nov. 23, 1836; dismissed 
Aug. 8, 1839. Since that time he has not been settled, and is now 
residing in Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mr. Barbour was married in Keene, N. H., Sept. 22, 1822, to Clarissa 
Priscilla Adams, daughter of Benjamin and Olivia Adams. She was 
born May 12, 1798, and died Oct. 31, 1826. 

Children, — 

1. Henry Martyn, b. July 14, 1823, in Sumpterville, S. C. 



152 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

2. Benjamin Adams, b. May 12, 1825, in New Ipswich, N. H.; died 
Sept. 9, 1825. 

He was married a second time in Rochester, N. Y., Nov. 13, 1828, 

to Caroline Matilda Rogers, widow of , and daughter of 

Samuel and Woodbridge. She died Feb. 21, 1836. 

Children, — 

3. Isaac Richmond, b. Sept. 30, 1829, in Byfield. 

4. Charles Woodbridge, b. June 10, 1832, in Bytield. 

5. Caroline Priscilla, b. Feb. 24, 1835, in Philadelphia. 

He was married a third time in Amherst, Mass., Feb. 7, 1838, to Eliza- 
beth Greenough, daughter of Rev. William and Lydia (Raskins) Green- 
ough of the West Parish, Newton, Mass. She was born Sept. 13, 1807. 

Children, — 

6. Elizabeth Greenough, b. July 27, 1839, in Charlton. 

7. William Greenough, b. Oct. 4, 1841, in Oxford. 



JOHN CHARLES MARCH, 

Was born in Newburyport, Oct. 9, 1805, and was the son of John and 
Anne (Blaisdell) March. He was not baptized in infancy. He was the 
youngest of several children, none of whom, beside himself, survived the 
period of infancy. His father died when he was little more than twelve 
years of age, and about three years afterwards, his mother was removed. 
He entered Yale College in the autumn of 1821, and during the spring 
of 1825 (his last collegiate year) he obtained, as he hoped, the evidence 
and comfort of religion. He graduated at Y. C, 1825, and during the 
year following had charge of the Academy in Gi'oveland. 

In June, 1826, he made a public profession of religion, and united 
with the First Pres. Church in Newbyryport. In the autumn of the 
same year, Mr. March entered the Theological Seminary at Princeton, 
N. J. Early in 1829, he received' license as a preacher from the Pres- 
bytery of New Brunswick, and in September following, he graduated. 
His first engagement to preach was at Maysville, Ky. Here he re- 
mained three months or more. But the evils of slavery, as witnessed in 
that region, pressed heavily on his mind, and discouraged him not a little 
as to the success of his ministerial efforts. In the following spring he re- 
turned to New-England. Early in January, 1831, Mr. March was in- 
vited to aid the Rev. James Miltimore in his labors at Belleville. 

In January, 1832, he received an invitation to take charge of that 
people, as a colleague pastor with Mr. Miltimore, whose growing infirm- 
ities compelled him to withdraw from the active duties of his office. 

This call was given with great unanimity, and was unhesitatingly ac- 
cepted. His ordination took place March 1, 1832. 



SKiyrCHES OF MKMBEKS. l5o 

April 23, 1832, Mr. March was married at Belleville to Miss Alit-e 
Little Hale, daughter of Thomas and Alice (Little) Hale, of Belleville, 
Newbuiy, now Newburyport. 

The names of their children were, — 

1. James White Hale, b. Sept. 5, 1834, in Newbury, now Newbury- 
port; d. Oct. 27, 1838. 

2. Sarah Hale, b. Dec. 19, 1836, in Newbury, now Newburyport; 
d. Oct. 8, 1837. 

In the year 1840, Mr. March's health being somewhat impaired by 
study and pastoral labors, his friends proposed to him a voyage to Eu- 
rope ; and he embarked at Alexandria, D. C, on the first of May, 1840. 
Having been absent about four months, he returned with his health 
greatly improved, arrivhig in New York on the fourteenth of September. 
With the exception of a fortnight in Paris, Mr. March spent his time 
while absent in England. After a very useful and successful ministry of 
fourteen years, he died on Saturday, the 26th of September, 1846, near 
five o'clock in the afternoon. 

A memoir of his life, together with four of his sermons and the sermon 
preached at his funeral by his valued friend, Rev. Daniel Dana, D. D., 
of Newburyport, was published in 1847. 



JOHN QUINCY ADAMS EDGELL, 

Was born in Westminster, Vt., Aug. 15, 1802, and was tlie son of Abel 
and Susannah (Holden) Edgell. He was baptized when about ten years 
of age. In his preparation for college he was first at Peacham, Vt., and 
afterwards at Thetford, Vt., leaving the latter place in the summer of 
1824. He graduated at Vermont University, Aug. 8, 1827 ; and at the 
Theological Seminary, Andover, Sept. 28, 1831. He was approbated by 
the Andover Association April 20, 1831, and was ordained at West 
Newbury, Second Parish, Sept. 19, 1832. His salary was $600 annual- 
ly, and the use of the parsonage land. He was dismissed Oct. 27, 1853? 
and has acted since as Agent and Assistant Secretary of the Society for 
Promoting Collegiate and Theological Education at the West. 

Mr. Edgell was married at Andover, Nov. 7, 1832, to Harriet Han- 
nah Adams, third daughter of John Adams, LL. D., and Elizabeth Rip- 
ley. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Susan Elizabeth, b. April 11, 1834; died Sept. 11, 1839. 

2. John Adams, b. Nov. 13, 1835 ; died July 28, 1839. 

3. George Cowles, b. Aug. 8, 1840 ; died March 17, 1851. 

20 



154 



HISTORY OF KSSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 



4. Harriet Elizabeth, b. Oct. 19, 1847. 

All their children were born in West Newburj. 

The following answer was returned by Mr. Edgell to the request that 
he would furnish a brief sketch of his 

RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE. 

" In giving you some account of ray religious change, }ou will allow 
me to be quite brief. At the time of my baptism on a communion Sab- 
bath at Westminster West, Vt., by the Rev. Timothy Field, I was pecu- 
liarly excited with inquiries what it was all for ? and what it meant ? and 
have no recollection, j>rior to this Sabbath, of the Lord's Supper and its 
significance. At the age of twelve years, my lather moved his family to 
Lyndon, Vt., where there was no Congregational church, and preaching 
very rarely by Congregationalists ; Metliodists and Free Will Baptists 
being prevalent, held many meetings in the neighborhood, and often of 
an exciting character. 

" When about fourteen years old, I attended a preparatory lecture 
preached in a neighboring school-house, by a Congregational missionary, 
Rev. M. Goddard. Many boys of my age and acquaintances were pres- 
ent, and we boys did not enter the house till the meeting commenced. 
And then they devolved it on me to lead the way. As we entered, 
there were no seats but a slab-bench, stretching from the minister's knees 
towards the door. I was crowded along on the seat till 1 was near the 
minister, and tne long bench Avas full of boys. In the conclusion of his 
sermon, the preacher addressed the long row of boys. It was new and 
very impressive. I remembered for some years all he said. I was very 
seriously impressed by his words, and ever after was anxious to attend 
religious meetings, to learn all I could about religion. 

" I attended a meeting where Clarissa Danforth was allowed to preach. 
The solemnity of her theme, the tender expostulation with sinners, 
delivered with fine and natural tones of voice, aroused in me the deepest 
sensibility. I felt constrained to resolve at once to seek the Lord. 
Often, till I was sixteen years old, was I made deeply conscious what a 
sinner I was, and alarmed about my soul as out of Christ. I sought to 
live a Christian life by prayer and the habit of reading the Bible. I 
attended Methodist class meetings, and answered all their questions about 
resolutions to serve God. My mother was faithful to instruct me about 
the nature of a holy life, and what I was to pray for. On several occa- 
sions of secret prayer I was the subject of new emotions towards Christ 
as a Saviour, that comforted my mourning soul, and awakened the hope 
gradually that I could yield up all to Christ and follow him. But there 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 155 

was nothing overwhelming in my experience; nothing so marked that I 
could declare tlie time of my change. I gathered it up slowly and doubt- 
fully, during many months. I had many interviews with Methodist min- 
isters, who encouraged me to hope and to exercise myself in public devo- 
tions in their meetings, and to exhort others. And some were anxious to 
have me commissioned to I'ide the circuit as a licensed exhorter. 

" I attended my mother to the Congregational church, worshipping at 
Lyndon Corner, Vt., about five miles from my mother's house ; and Dea- 
con R. Stone was faithful to inquire all about my state of mind, and to 
enlighten me in regard to a genuine Christian experience, setting forth its 
evidence. He soon encouraged me to believe that it was my duty to 
make a public profession of my faith, and to join the church. I did so at 
sixteen years of age, after many months of reflection and self-examina- 
tion, with the belief that I did love the Saviour. From and after this, I 
commenced an English course of study prepai'atory to teaching school, 
working summers on my father's farm, and teaching winters, till I was 
near my nineteenth year. I then began my preparatory course of study 
for college at Peacham and Thetford Academies, Vt., entering college 
just after I reached the year of my majority. 

" Greatly was I benefited by the preaching of Drs. Worcester and Bur- 
ton, and I learned every year to place less and less dependence on past 
experience as ground of hope. From all that I know of myself, I should 
as soon conclude that I was regenerated in my baptism as at any after 
period. For I have had many changes, and some so great to me even 
while in college and the Theol. Seminary, that all the former seemed as 
nothing. In some of the blessed revivals in West Newbury, I was the 
subject of new experiences, revealing to me more and more the sinful- 
ness of sin, and the utter wickedness of my heart ; that Christ was the 
only dependence, and faith in him as an atoning Saviour the only way to 
be saved ; that eclipsed all the past, and sometimes it seemed as if all that 
I had known before was no evidence of a new birth at all. But now I 
believe in many conversions and but one regeneration, and the hope I 
now have is an entirely different thing from all that I had in my youth. 

" Yours truly, 

"J. Q. A. Edgell. 

"Andovek, Nov. 15, 1860." 



ABIJAH CROSS. 

The following is a copy of a letter from Mr. Cross to Rev. Wm. Cogs- 
well, D. D. 



156 HISTORY OF KSSKX NORTH ASSOCIATJO.N. 

"Haverhill, Oct. 23, 1840. 
" Rkv. and dkar Sir, — I was born in Methuen, Oct. 2.3, 1793. 
My parents were Abijah Cross of Methuen, and Elizabeth Parker of 
Dracut. My grandparents on my father's side were William Cross of 
Methuen, and Mary Corliss of Salem, N. H. My maternal grandparents 
lived and died in Dracut, and that is about all I know of my ancestry on 
my mother's side. In the line of my father I am a German of the fifth 
generation. I was bred a farmer, and remained in that employment 
until more than twenty years of age. In the spring of 1814, I commen- 
ced the study of Latin at Bradford, under Daniel Noyes, with a view to 
the profession of medicine. At the request, and by the aid, of my father, 
I commenced the study of medicine with Ralph Harris of Methuen, 
where I remained somewiiat more than a year. With new views on the 
subject of religion, and a determination to enter the gospel ministry, I 
resumed the study of Latin and Greek in the summer of 1816, and pre- 
pared for college. I was tliree months at Andover under Mr. Adams, 
and three months at Bradford under Mr. Greenleaf. From this time I 
received no further pecuniary aid from my father, but found a friend in 
the American Education Society. In the month of February, 1817, I 
became a member of the Freshman class in Middlebury College, where I 
remained only three months, and then was obliged to return to my fa- 
ther's in Methuen, on account of ill health. Having spent the summer 
at home on the farm, I entered the Sophomore class at Dartmouth in the 
fall of 1818. I taught school every winter, from the time I first com- 
menced study in the spring of 1814, till I graduated in 1821. I was 
now in debt some S250. This and my age, twenty-eight, determined me 
not to go through a regular course of study at Andover. My first object 
was to owe no man any thing. Accordingly I took charge of the Sanborn 
Academy in Ashfield, Mass., where I remained one year and three months 
with a salary of $300 and board. About the middle of the first term 
God blessed my scholars with a spirit of solemn inquiry which resulted 
in the hopeful conversion of twenty-two of them in less than six months. 
Four of these have since been through a regular course in college, and at 
Andover, and are now pastors of churches ; — three of them in this State, 
and one in the city of New York. The revival continued through the 
year, there being twelve hopeful conversions the second term, and some 
five or six in each of the last terms I was there. On leaving Ashfield 
free of debt, I became a member of the Theological Seminary in An- 
dover in Dec, 1822, where I remained about four months. I then left 
and studied with Rev. E. L. Parker of Deny, and Rev. Daniel Dana, 
D. D., of Londonderry. I was licensed by the Haverhill Association, 
August 12, 1823. I was ordained at Salisbury, N. H., March 24, 1824 ; 
dismissed April 1, 1829." 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 157 

After this, Mr. Cross came to West Haverhill, and preached for two 
years as a stated supply. He was installed there May 18, 1831, and 
was dismissed Jan. 26, 1853. He then removed to the centre of the 
town, where he continued to reside until his death, April 14, 1856, fe. 
62. 

He married June 22, 1824, in Methuen, P^melia Swan, daughter of 
Dea. William and Jane (Dinsmore) Swan. 

Their children are, — 

1. William Francis, born in Salisbury, N. H., June 3, 1825 ; d. Oct. 
19, 1827. 

2. Pamelia Jane, b. in Salisbury, N. H., May 1, 1828 ; married Eben 
Webster, Haverhill. 

3. Francis Baxter, b. in Haverhill, Jan. 31, 1831 ; mar. Eliza Blod- 
gett in Haverhill: d. Oct. 31, 1859. 

From the N. E. Puritan. 

. . . '• The writer of this notice became acquainted with the subject 
of it about twenty years since, and, from that first acquaintance, was on 
terms of intimacy with him as a neighbor and a minister of Christ, and 
he gladly takes this opportunity to bear his testimony to the excellent 
character and the faithful, successful ministry of one who has so unex- 
pectedly finished his earthly course. As a man and a Christian, the de- 
parted brother was above reproach or suspicion. As a minister, he was 
serious, earnest, discriminating, faithful, and affectionate. He did not 
aim at display, but, in imitation of the Great Apostle to the Gentiles, he 
preached plainly, and as though he felt the importance of his message. 
His mind was clear, and his thoughts were frequently highly original. 
In seasons of religious interest, he was listened to with marked attention, 
as one whose instructions met the wants of inquiring minds. His ser- 
mons before the Association of Ministers to which he belonged, were al- 
ways regarded with much favor by his brethren. But this good man is 
gone. Both he and his companion, so recently with us, are now removed 
forever from our sight ; or, rather, we shall see them no more in the 
flesh. Suddenly their change came ; they had finished their work, and 
now they rest from their labors. In the great day, many, as we cannot 
doubt, will rise up and call them blessed. 

"Nathan Munroe." 



JOSEPH WHITTLESEY, 

Was born in Washington (New Preston Soc), Litchfield Co., Conn., 
Dec. 8, 1797. He was the son of Joseph and Mary (Camp) Whittlesey, 



loS HISTORY OF RSSKX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

and was baptized in infancy. July 7, 1816, he united with the Cong, 
church in New Preston, with forty-seven others, after a season of very 
extensive religious interest. He prepared for college in the Academy 
at New Preston, graduated at Y. C. in 1825, and studied theology in the 
Yale Theological department, where he graduated in 1829. He was 
approbated Aug., 1828, by the New Haven West Association. The day 
of the month cannot be known, as the records of the Association, from 
1814 to 1832, are lost. 

Mr. Whittlesey was ordained pastor of the First Church in Stoning- 
ton, Conn., May 27, 1830, and dismissed Dec. 4, 1832; installed pastor 
of the Centre Church, Haverhill, Aug. 28, 1833; dismissed April 18, 
1838 ; installed pastor of what is now the Second Church in Berlin, 
Conn., May 8, 1838 ; dismissed Aug. 9, 1841, on account of the loss of 
health ; after he had partially recovered this, Ive engaged in teaching. 

The clerk of the First Church in Stonington (R. A. W.) says, "The 
Council for the dismission of Mr. Whittlesey was convened at his own 
request. His ministry here was eminently successful. I notice by the 
records that one hundred and eight persons were admitted to the 
church during his short stay." 

Mr. Whittlesey was mai-ried at New London, Conn., Oct. 10, 1831, to 
Maria Arnold Chappell, daugh. of Ezra and Wealthy (Arnold) Chap- 
peU. She died Nov. 10, 1846. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Ezra Chappell, b. at Stonington, Ct., Aug. 18, 1832. 

2. Charles Boardman, b.at Haverhill, Dec. 4, 1834 ; graduated at Y. C. 
in 1858. 

2. George William, b. at Haverhill, Aug. 7, 1836. 

I add, E. C. W. is married ; has an infant daughter, Maria Chappell ; 
is a member of the First Cong, church, and a member of the City Coun- 
cil, New London. 

C. B. W. is on a farm in Huron Co., Ohio ; not a member of any 
church, but I hope not without reason for good. 

G. W. W. is a member of the Broadway Church, Norwich ; was at 
Bull Run, among the three months' men, is now an officer in 13th Reg. 
C. v., enlisted for the war. 

Few young men have so rich an inheritance, as these three sons. A 
mother's prayers — such as few mothers ever offered — will keep bless- 
ings distilling upon them, till all shall meet in the world of praise. 

Mr. Whittlesey published a Discourse preached at the Funeral of 
Mrs. Sarah Palmer, Stonington, Ct., 1830 ; an Address at the laying of 
the Corner Stone of the Centre Church, Haverhill, June 28, 1834; also, 
a Sermon preached at the Dedication of the Church in Haverhill, Dec. 
17, 1834. 



SKETCHES OE MEMBERS. 159 



HENRY DURANT, 



Was born in Acton, Middlesex Co., Mass., June 18, 1802, and was 
the son of Henry and Lucy (Hunt) Durant. His grandparents were 
members of the church ; and his mother, who was baptized in infancy, 
became a devoted Christian some time subsequent to his birth. Her son 
was not baptized until he united with the church in the Theological Semi- 
nary at Andover, while a member of Phillip's Academy in 1820. He was 
there engaged in his studies preparatory to entering college, from 1819 
to 1823. He graduated at Y. C. in 1827. After which he taught the 
Garrison Forest Academy, Baltimore Co., Maryland, for two years, 
when he was appointed tutor in Y. C. He continued in that office four 
years, and in the mean time studied theology in the Divinity Depart- 
ment. 

He was approbated April 9, 1833, by " The Association of the West- 
ern District of New Haven county, Ct.," now known as the New Ha- 
ven West. 

He was ordained pastor of the church in Byfield Parish, Newbury, 
Dec. 25, 1833. In April, 1847, he was invited by the trustees of Dum- 
mer Academy, to take charge of that institution. He accepted the po- 
sition, and although he otlered his resignation to the church on the 15th 
of the following September, he was not dismissed until the olst of 
March, 1849, two councils having been called before the church was 
willing to give him up. 

In May, in 1853, he went to Calitbrnia, and in June immediately fol- 
lowing, he commenced the school in Oakland, Cal., which has since be- 
come "■ The College of California." Of this enterprise Mr. Durant says : 
" I began this school with three pupils. My house-rent (the lowest rate 
at that time for tolerable accommodations) was one hundred and fifty 
dollars per month, payable in advance. For two domestics, a man and 
his wife, to do the work prospectively, I paid seventy-five dollars each, 
per month, the common price for such service at that time. Mr. Durant 
is now professor in that college, " of the Greek Language and Literature, 
and t>f their relations to Civilization and Christianity." 

Mr. Durant was married in Stanwich, Ct.. Dec. 10, 1833, to Miss Mary 
Elizabeth Buffett, daughter of the Rev. Piatt Buflett of Stanwich, Ct., 
and Mrs. Hannah (Lewis) Buffett, daughter of the Rev. Isaac Lewis, 
D. D., of Greenwich, Ct. 

They have had one daughter, — 

Sarah Lewis, b. Oct. 29, 1835, and who died June 18, 1843, — a 
child of precious memory, not only as a being naturally brilliant and 
lovely, but a hopeful subject of Divine grace. 



160 HISTOKV .Ol- ESSEX NUKTH ASSOCXATlUX. 

Of his religious life, Mr. Diuant has written as follows, — 
" I first became interested, as I trust savingly, in religion, when a 
boy, while living in the family of that most excellent man, and whole- 
hearted Chiistian brother, the Honorable Stevens Hayward, of 
Acton, Ma.-s. He had resided in Harvard, where he and Mrs. Hay- 
wai-d became members of the orthodox church, and earnest Christians. 
The death of his father — my step-father — occasioned his removal from 
Harvard, to his parental estate, in Acton, and thus my residence in his 
family. To the influence of this family, I may attribute the heginning 
of my religious experience, and my subsequent course of life. In this 
family religion appeared in a new light — nay, it was itself a new light, 
shining suddenly in a place where all had been darkness. There was a 
religion in the town — (there had been from the beginning) a toivn relig- 
ion, which like the town school, the town common, and the town pound, 
was a mere municipal institution. The minister and the members of 
the churcli were the ' Priest and the Levites,' to operate its ceremonies ; 
and the town, which maintained the operation, appropriated its results, as 
it did the other revenues, to the common good. 2So one thought of put- 
ting his religion, or the benefits of it, to fiis own personal uses. How it 
should subserve the i)ublic weal, I know not. Whether its forms were 
so many pins, or braces in the structure of society, to keep it together, or 
only so many breaks on its motive machinery, to save it from precipitation, 
might be a question ; and possibly not the right one either. Nobody 
ever asked any question about it ; I never heard it discussed ; its agency, . 
whatever was thought of it, if any thing, was a very passive one. It was 
a body, without a soul. Religion as a power, and a life, was never taught 
nor thought of With the coming of Mr. Hayward's family to Acton, 
commenced in thal> town a series of religious events, which ought to 
become a part of the Written History of the Christian Church, illus- 
trating in these latter days the same simple, yet mighty principles of the 
gospel, which, in primitive times, Avere shown in " The Acts of the Apos- 
tles." In that family seemed to exist the spirit of the Apostolic Church. 
It was here that I learned the nature, and the power of the gospel ; and 
here, in consequence of the change which I had experienced, that the 
idea was suggested and encouraged of my preparing for the Christian 
ministry. To me, there are many circumstances pi'ofoundly interesting 
and instructive, interwoven with the greater facts of this new era in the 
town, and those belonging more properly to public history, which I must 
not mention here. I only regret, that what was perhaps intended for my 
private knowledge, and my personal use, has not been brought out more 
evidently, in the way of my greater fidelity and usefulness. 

'' Of my pastorate in Byfield, I cannot trust myself to write. It was 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 161 

my first, and my last. I had labors in it, and experiences in it, which I 
am sure will not be Avithout their fruits ; bitter ones, some of them, 
and some of them, I hope, otherwise. My dearest friends, and the hap- 
piest moments of my life, are associated with it. Ties, which neither 
time nor distance can sever, hold my affections still to the place and 
the people of my early, and my only pastoral charge. I would be glad to 
hope, that many, very many of my beloved flock, shall have been so 
much instructed and edified by what was most sincerely intended for 
their good, as I have been humbled by what I have seen and felt to have 
been defective and wrong in my ministrations. 

" That the blessing of God may still rest on that people and their 
ministers, and on all the ministers, and churches, and congregations of 
our beloved ' Essex North,^ is the prayer of your companion still, as he 
trusts, in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ. 

" Henry Durant." 



BENJAMIN OBER, 

Was born in Beverly, April 4, 1805, and was the son of Samuel and 
Mary (Ray) Ober. He was baptized in infancy, and united with the 
Tabernacle Church, Salem, Oct. 2, 1825. " I was awakened," he says, 
" to a sense of my sinfulness, by a sermon preached by Eleazer Brain- 
ard, missionary from Charleston, S. C, from the text, ' Be ye reconciled 
to God.' After some weeks, I found peace in believing in Jesus Christ, 
and have found peace, joy, and comfort in Him ever since. One of the 
causes that brought me into the ministry, was a sermon by Samnel Wor- 
cester, the missionary to the Indians." 

Mr. Ober graduated at A. C, 1829, and at the Theological Seminary, 
Andover, in 1833. He was approbated by the Essex South Association, 
Sept. 3, 1833. He was ordained pastor of the Second Church in New- 
bury, now First Church in West Newbury, January 1, 1834 ; dismissed 
Dec. 25, 1835. Mr. Ober supplied at West Attleboro two years and 
six months; installed at West Woodstock, Ct., Dec. 5, 1839; dismissed, 
on account of ill health, March 25, 1846. He has since preached in 
Holland, Mass., Alstead, N. H., Saxton's River, Vt., and is now at Wards- 
boro, Vt. For six years he was laid aside from the active duties of his 
profession by a diseased throat. 

Mr. Ober has published, — 

1. Two Sermons, printed at Newburyport, 1836. 

2. A Lyceum Lecture, printed at Pawtucket, R. I., in 1838. 

Mr. Ober was married in Wrentham, Mass., July 19, 1836, to Miss 
Nancy Everett Hawes, daughter of George and Nancy (Ware) Hawes. 

21 



162 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATIOX. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Anna Maria, b. Apr. 22, 1837, in Attleboro, Mass. ; now a Teacher. 

2. Israel Hawes, b. July 5, 1839, in Beverly, Mass. ; merchant in 
Boston. 

3. George Hawes, b. Oct. 2, 1841, in Woodstock, Ct. 

4. Abby Kallock, ) g .^ Woodstock, Ct. 

5. Mary Ray, > 3 

6. Horace Benjamin, b. Feb. 23, 1849, in Holland, Mass. 



JOSEPH HARDY TOWNE. 

OF the personal history of Mr. Towne we are able to give but few 
items. 

He graduated at Y. C. in 1827 ; was ordained pastor of the Pleasant 
Street Church in Portsmouth, N. H., June 13, 1832 ; dis. Nov. 7, 1833 ; 
installed pastor at Amesbury Mills, March o, 1834; dis. Oct. 30, 1836; 
installed pastor of the Salem Church, Boston, June 2, 1837 ; dis. Dec. 
27, 1843 ; installed pastor of the High St. Church, Lowell, Dec. 16, 1847 ; 
dis. May 22, 1854 ; installed pastor of the First Church in Bridgeport, Ct., 
June 14, 1854 ; dis. June 29, 1858 ; installed pastor of the First Presby- 
terian Church in Milwaukie, Wis., Dec. 4, 1861. 

Mr. Towne published a Discourse delivered at the Tenth Anniversary 
of the Society for the Promotion of Collegiate and Theological Education 
at the West, in the Central Church, Worcester, Mass., Oct. 23, 1853. 8 
vo, pp. 36. New York. 

JAMES ROYAL GUSHING, 

Was born in Salisbury, N. H., November 24, 1800, and was the son 
of Theodore and Abigail (Jackman) Cushing. He was baptized in early 
childhood. He received his academic education, principally, at Thet- 
ford, Vt., and was fitted for an advanced standing in college. Instead of 
taking the collegiate course, he entered the Theological Seminary at Ban- 
gor in Sept., 1825, and graduated from it Aug. 12, 1828. He was appro- 
bated by the Penobscot Association Dec. 27, 1827. 

After preaching five months in Boston as a city missionary, he went to 
Boxboro, Mass., in April, 1829, where he was ordained on the 12th of 
Angust of the same year. He remained at Boxboro until June 10, 833, 
when he was dismissed, having accepted an agency of the Tract Society. 
December 1st, of the same year, he again commenced his labors as city 
missionary in Boston, under the patronage of the society for the " Moral 
and Religious Instruction of the Poor." He continued in this service 
until April, 1835, when he resigned on account of poor health, and 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 163 

immediately began his labors in the East Parish at Haverhill, Mass. 
He was installed June 10, 1835. 

" Soon after my installation," he says, " there began to be apparent 
tokens of the special presence of the Holy Spirit. Two sisters of the 
ages of eighteen and twenty years were the first to make their feelings 
known. In September, a protracted meeting was held with the most 
blessed results ; twenty-seven were hopefully converted, and twenty-three 
united with the church." 

Mr. Gushing was dismissed July, 1844, and installed at Wells, Me., 
November 20th of the same year. He was dismissed 1854, and on the 
first of May of that year, he began to labor as stated supply at East 
Taunton, Mass. Having completed there a ministry of seven years, he 
went to North Rochester, Mass., Dec. 12, 1861. 

Mr. Gushing was married Sept. 15, 1829, to Miss Hannah Lawrence 
of Woburn, Mass., daughter of Ebenezer and Hannah (Estabrook) Law- 
rence. She died June 24, 1843. 

Their children were, — 

1. Hannah Abigail, b. July 14, 1831, in Boxboro, Mass. 

2. Ann Maria, b. Aug. 11, 1832, in Boxboro, Mass.; d. Oct. 16, 
1843. 

3. Joseph Lawrence, b. January 17, 1835, in Boston, Mass. 

4. James Royal, b. Dec. 17, 1837, in Haverhill, Mass. 

5. Milliscent Rosanna, b. Feb. 27, 1839, in Haverhill, Mass.; d. 
Sept. 22, 1842. 

Mr. Gushing was married a second time at Boston, Nov. 14, 1844, to 
Miss Unity Myra Daniels of Franklin, Mass., daughter of Joseph and 
Susan (Fisher) Daniels. 



SAMUEL ROWLAND PECKHAM, 

Was born in Petersham, Mass., Sept. 19, 1793 ; and was the son of 
William and Elizabeth (Knapp) Peckham. He was baptized in infancy 
on the faith of his mother. Of his religious experience, he says, — 

" I was blessed with a pious mother, wdiose instructions, prayers, and 
example, inspired me with a high respect for religion, and a desire to 
possess it. I was early and often a subject of religious impressions. 
But being reared under Arminian and Unitarian preaching, and losing 
my mother when I was seventeen years old, I dissipated them and 
became a Pharisaical Unitarian. In the winter of 1815 and 1816, 1 was 
a resident in Northampton, Mass., where the Lord poured out his 
spirit. I renounced entirely my former hopes, and my erroneous views 



164 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

of the Bible, and of Christ, and of the way of salvation through him. 
From that day to this, I have had no doubt of the Saviour's divinity and 
equality with the Father; have embraced and advocated the doctrine of 
the Trinity, salvation by grace alone, and have always been deeply inter- 
ested in revivals of religion, four of which occurred among my people 
while I was in the active duties of the ministry. I united with the 
church at Northampton, Mass., April 7, 1816." 

Mr. Peckham did not graduate at college, but was for some time at the 
Academy in Amherst, Mass., and spent one year with a private teacher 
in HoUis, N. H. He was four or five years in the Theological Semi- 
nary at Bangor, and graduated there Aug. 4, 1824. 

He was approbated January 6, 1824, by the Penobscot Association of 
Maine. 

He was ordained pastor at Gray, Me., Sept. 14, 1825 ; dismissed 
Sept. 14, 1830. The sermon at his ordination was pi'eached by Prof. 
Smith of Bangor. 

He was installed at North Haverhill Feb. 23, 1831 ; dismissed Sept. 
10, 1838; installed at South Royalston, Dec. 13, 1838; dismissed June 

4, 1844. 

He spent eight years as agent of the American Missionary Associa- 
tion. Mr. Peckham died at "Westminster, Mass., Jan. 23, 1864. 

He was married at East Hampton, Mass., July 12, 1826, to Sarah 
Clark, daughter of Eleazer and Sarah (Clark) Clark. She died Dec. 

5, 1858. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Horace Lyman, b. May 14, 1827. 

2. John Smith, b. Dec. 3," 1828. 

3. Sarah Elizabeth, b. Dec. 17, 1830. 

4. Eliza Ann, b. March 5, 1833 ; d. Sept. 21, 1854. 

5. Samuel Howland, b. Aug. 8, 1837. 

6. William, b. Aug. 13, 1841. 

Mr. Peckham was married a second time at Leominster, Mass., Sept. 
25, 1860, to Miss Nancy Hatch, daughter of Nymphas and Nancy 
(Allen) Hatch. 

An obituary notice of Mr. Peckham was published in the Congrega- 
tional Quarterly for April, 1864, fi'om which we extract the following: 

" Mr. Peckham possessed strong powers of mind. His character was 
marked by the stem, faithful, unassuming, conscientious traits, showing 
his puritan lineage, more, perhaps, than by tenderness, and a concihatory, 
pliant manner, which might have made his path in the ministry more 
smooth and pleasant and not less useful. He was honest and earnest. 

" His faculties and attainments were consecrated to Christ, and he was 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 165 

diligent in doing good. He excelled in the clear and forcible presenta- 
tion of gospel truth, and his labors in the ministry were successful in win- 
ning many souls to Christ. 

" As a sermonizer, logical method, simplicity, and solemnity character- 
ized his productions. He made no attempt at display or embellishment. 
His theology was thoroughly Calvinistic. He labored to impress on the 
hearts of others the great truths of the gospel which he loved. And he 
died in the faith which he had preached, sustained in an unshaken trust 
and hope of a blessed immortality." 



NATHAN MUNROE, 

Was the son of David and Ruth (Niles) Munroe, and was born March 
16, 1804, in Minot (now Auburn), Me. He was not baptized in infancy. 

He fitted for college at Gorham, Me., and grad. at B. C. in 1830, with 
the highest honors of his class. He studied theology at Andover, and 
grad. in 1835 ; and was licensed to preach by the Woburn Association 
Apr., 1834. He was elected Principal of Delaware College, Newark, 
Del., and entered upon his duties in the spring of 1834. After a residence 
of six months he resigned on account of ill health, much against the will 
of the Trustees. He returned to Andover, and completed his course of 
study, and while there, taught for a short time in Phillips Academy. 

He was ordained at Bradford, Mass., Feb. 10, 1836. His health fail- 
ing, he resigned his charge in May, 1853, and was dismissed by the 
council which ordained his successor, Jan. 25, 1854. 

In 1853, he was appointed Secretary of the Am. Sunday School Union 
for New England ; and remained in that office until he became Editor 
of the Boston Recorder in May, 1858. From that position he retired in 
May, 1863. 

Mr. Munroe was married in Newburyport, Mass., Oct. 11, 1836, to 
Mary Jane Pike, daugh. of Joseph S. and Sally (Pettingell) Pike^. She 
died Sept. 19, 1840. 

Their children are, — 

1. Robert Leighton, b. July 27, 1837 ; d. Oct. 9, 1838. 

2. Nathan, b. Oct. 28, 1838; d. Oct. 1, 1839. 

3. William Francis, b. April 30, 1840. 

He was married a second time in South Reading, Mass., to Lu- 
celia Theresa Yale, daugh. of Burrage Yale, Esq., June 22, 1842. She 
died Sept. 20, 1858, aged 46. 

4. John Henry, b. March 17, 1843 ; d. March 22, 1843. 

5. George Henry, b. April 8, 1844; d. Nov. 1, 1844. 



166 HISTORY OF ESSKX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

6. Mary Jane, b. Oct. 6, 1845. 

7. Sarah Smith, b. Sept. 5, 1847. 

8. Nathan Niles, b. May 17, 1851. 

9. John Alexander, b. Aug. 18, 1853. 

10. Lucelia Stone, b. Aug. 19, 1856, 

He was married a third time Aug. 22, 1860, in Brattleboro, Vt., to 
Mrs. Anna Maria Craig, widow of James Thompson Craig of Stanford, 
Ky., and daugh. of Henry and Ruth (Dickinson) Smith of Brattleboro, 
Vermont. 

The publications of Mr. Munroe are, — 

1. A Discourse — The Good Man — occasioned by the death of the 
Hon. Jesse Kimball, delivered in the First Church in Bradford, Mass., 
Dec. 27, 1846. 

2. An Address before the American Institute of Instruction, delivered 
at Bangor, Me., Aug. 17, 1848. 

Mr. Munroe has been a contributor to the Christian Spectator, The 
Spirit of the Pilgrims, Abbott's Religious Magazine, American Quarterly 
Review, and other publications. His article in the Quarterly Review 
was in the Oct. No. for 1836, " Biblical Criticism ; " that in the Spectator 
appeared in Dec, 1836, entitled "The Puritan ;" a review of Dr. With- 
ington's work of that name. 



SETH HARRISON KEELER, 

Was born in Brandon, Vt., Sept. 24, 1800, and was the son of Seth 
and Fanny (Carver) Keelei*. He was baptized, with several younger 
brothers and sisters, when he was about ten years of age. Of his relig- 
ious experience he says, — 

" I cannot remember the time when I was not the subject of more or 
less religious impression. My grandmother, on my father's side, was a 
woman of singular piety, — a piety at once deep, devoted, constant, and 
cheerful. I was with her much during my early years, and I feel that I 
owe much under God to her prayers and influences. One remark of hers 
on her dying bed made a deep impression upon me at the time, and has 
been a truly pious charm around the neck of memory during my entire 
life since. For two or three days previous to her death she had passed 
under a cloud of Satanic temptation, and so of darkness ; when I saw her 
she had just come out into the light of God's countenance, through the 
reading of the 130th Psalm, and she said to me, — "My dear child, 
never, no never despair of the mercy of God ! " Another prominent and 
immediate agency in my conviction, and, as I hope, my conversion, was 
the kind yet faithful earnestness of a fellow student in Castleton Academy, 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 167 

Vt., where I fitted for college. The death of a beloved mother, too, about 
that time, led me to feel more and more my need of Jesus as my Saviour 
and friend. I sought him daily, and with much weeping, but found no 
peace for several days. Almost despairing, yet hoping, I resolved to seek 
him once more. While I was praying, a sweet, subdued, and unuttera- 
ble peace pervaded my soul, — my prayer was turned to praise, and my 
weeping to rejoicing, — and although I have sometimes doubted on 
account of the inconsistency of my life, whether I was converted then, 
yet from that time I have cherished a hope in Christ. I think I can 
say that the more I know of him, the more precious he is to me, and the 
more delight I take in preaching his gospel. I united with the Cong, 
church in Brandon, Vt., then under the pastorate of ^ev. Beriah Green, 
in the autumn of 1822." 

Mr. Keeler commenced his preparation for college at Bi-andon Acad- 
emy, and completed it at Castleton, Vt., under the tuition of Prof Howe. 
He entered M. C. at an advanced standing in the spring of 1823, and 
graduated in 1826. He engaged as principal in the academy at New 
Ipswich, N. H., in Sept., immediately after his graduation, but left that 
position, and entered the Theological Seminary at Andover in the autumn 
of 1826, and graduated in 1829. He received the degree of A. M. from 
M. C. the same year, and the degree of D. D. in 1864. 

He was appi'obated by the Andover Association Apr. 22, 1829, and 
preached during his spring vacation at South Berwick, Me. 

Having received a call, he was ordained at South Berwick, Maine, 
Oct. 15, 1829; dismissed April 18, 1836; installed at Amesbury Mills 
Dec. 7, 1836; dismissed Oct. 7, 1839; installed at Calais, Me., Nov- 
20, 1839, where he has since remained. 

Mr. Keeler has published, — 

1. A Sermon. "The Apostolic Method of Church Extension," 
preached before the Maine Miss. Society at their Anniversary in Saco, 
June 22, 1853. 

2. A Sermon. " A long Life, and its timely Close," preached, on the 
decease of Samuel Darling, Esq., of Calais, Nov. 3, 1855 ; pub. in New 
York, 1856. 

Mr. Keeler was married Nov. 26, 1829, Thanksgiving evening, to 
Miss Mary Felt, daughter of Col. Peter and Mary (Fletcher) Felt, of 
New Ipswich, N. H. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Mary Priscilla, b. in South Berwick, Me., Sept. 30, 1830 ; d. in 
Amesbury, Mass., July 7, 1838. 

2. Caroline Felt, b. in South Berwick, Me., Feb. 23, 1832 ; d. in 
South Berwick, Dec. 31, 1833. 

3. Frances Rebecca, b. in South Berwick, Me., Nov. 21, 1834. 



168 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

4, Martha Leigh, b. in Amesbury, Mass., Nov. 14, 1837 ; d. in Calais, 
Me., Sept. 17, 1842. 

5. Seth Harrison, b. in Calais, Me., July 27, 1840; d. in Calais, Me., 
May 9, 1841. 

6 Seth Harrison, b. in Calais, Me., Nov. 9, 1845 ; d. in Calais, Me., 
May 9, 1849. 

7. Charles Wellington, b. in Calais, Me., July 12, 1849. 



RANDOLPH CAMPBELL, • 

Was bom in Woodbridge, N. J., Dec. 31, 1809, and was the son of 
John Campbell. His mother was the widow of Abraham Tappan, and 
her maiden name was Martha Jackson. He was baptized in infancy. 
He fitted for college in his native town, and graduated at the College of 
N. J. in 1829. After leaving college he taught school in Easthampton, 
Long Island, for three years ; and there he became a new man in 
Christ Jesus. 

He graduated at the Theological Seminary, Princeton, in 1834; was 
licensed to preach April 17, 1834, by the Presbytery of Elizabethtown, 
N. J. He was ordained as an Evangelist at Shelter Island by the Pres- 
bytery of Long Island, April 30, 18.35. He remained here until , 

1837, when he removed to Newburyport. " The Presbytery met at 
Sheltfer Island, Sept. 29, 1837, for the special purpose of dismissing and 
recommending Mr. Campbell to the Essex Middle Association, Massa- 
chusetts." 

He was installed pastor of the Fourth Church in Newburyport, Oct. 
12, 1837. 

IMi". Campbell was married at Woodbridge, N. J., Sept. 24, 1834, to 
Sarah Green, daughter of William and Catharine (Crow) Green of 
Woodbridge, N. J. She died Sept. 25, 1835. 

They had one child, — 

1. Sarah Green, b. May 23, 1835 ; d. Dec. 9, 1835. 

Mr. Campbell was married a second time in Newburyport, July 5, 
1839, to Elizabeth Perkins, daughter of Abram and Elizabeth (Knapp) 
Perkins of Newburyport. She died Feb. 21, 1860. 

They had two children, — 

2. Augustine, b. June 13, 1840 ; he enlisted eai'ly in the war, and is 
now serving in the 7th U. S. Infantry. 

3. Sarah Elizabeth, b. January 1, 1842. 

Mr. C. was married a third time at Worcester, Mass., May 16, 1861, 
to Mrs. Sarah Ann Hitchcock, widow of the late Rev. William Dorus 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 169 

Hitchcock of Exeter, N. H., and daughter of James and Anna (Beaman) 
Kilhurn of Stirling, Mass. 

They have one child, — 

4. Mary Randolph, b. in NewburypOrt, Aug. 16, 1863. 

Mr. Campbell has published, — A Sermon, on Saul and the Witch of 
Endor ; or. Ancient Spiritualism. 8vo, pp. 16. Newburyport, 1857. 



JAMES BRYANT HADLEY, 

Was born in Goffstown, N. H.,' Januaiy 8, 1805 ; and was the son of 
Thomas and Phebe (Bryant) Hadley. He was not baptized in infancy. 
" From early childhood," he says, " I was interested in the 'subject of re- 
ligion ; but it was not till I had attained the age of eighteen years, that 
I had a satisfactory hope that I was born of the Spirit of God. For sev- 
eral weeks prior to this change, I viewed myself one of the greatest of 
sinners, and felt that if I received pardon, it must be wholly of God's free 
sovereign grace ; and when I experienced that grace, my heart was 
ready to give all the glory to God, through Christ Jesus my Lord." 

Mr. Hadley united with the Congregational churoh in Chester, N. H., 
in 1823. He prepared for college at Phillips Academy, Andover, and 
graduated at A. C. in 1833, and at the Theological Seminary, Andover, 
in 1836. He was approbated by the Andover Association April 5, 1836. 
He was ordained pastor of the Amesbury and Salisbury Union Evangel- 
ical Church, Sept. 20, 1837; dismissed April 19, 1848; installed pastor 
of the Congregational church, Standish, Me., July 3, 1851 ; dismissed 
May 3, 1858 ; installed at Campton, N. H., Oct. 13, 1858 ; dismissed 
May 19, 1863. 

Mr. Hadley was married in Amherst, Mass., January 8, 1838, to Miss 
Louisa Cowles, daughter of Eleazer and Sybbel (Montague) Cowles 

They have no children. 



LUCIUS WATSON CLARK, 

Was the son of James and Jerusha (Morey) Clai'k of Mansfield, Conn., 
where he was born July 2, 1801. He was baptized in infancy ; grad- 
uated in 1825 at Brown University; studied theology with Rev. Dr. 
Ide of West Medway, and was licensed to preach by the Mendon Asso- 
ciation, Oct. 31, 1826 ; was ordained pastor of the church at South Wil- 
braham, Mass., Dec. 9, 1829 ; was dismissed after three years in that field ; 
preached as stated supply five years in Plymouth, Mass., and removed 
from that place to Amesbury, Mass. (West Parish), where he was 

22 



170 HISTORY OF ESSKX KORTH ASSOCIATION. 

installed Nov. 1, 1837. Mr. Clark was dismissed, at his own request, 
Aug. 31, 1842, and soon removed to Vermont, where, in feeble health, he 
continued occasionally to preach, though he was never again settled as 
pastor. 

He was married April 20, 1830, to Mrs. Lucy Beard Jacobs, widow 
of Dr. Simon Jacobs of Oakham, Mass., and daughter of Rev. Daniel 
and Lucy (Beard) Tomlinson. Her father was the first Congregational 
pastor in Oakham, and held that office for fifty-six years. 

Their children were, — 

1. Lucy Maria, b. Feb. 12, 1832. 

2. Lucius Watson, b. January 22, 1834. 

The foUovying obituary appeared shortly after his death in a paper 
published in Vermont. 

" Died in Middlebury, Vt., Jan. 2, 1854, of lung fever, and after only 
a week's illness, Rev. Lucius W. Clark. 

" Mr. Clark was born in Mansfield, Ct., in the year 1801. Afterward 
his parents resided in Brookfield, Mass. ; and it was there that in the 
course of a revival of religion, he was brought, as he believed, to see and 
forsake his sins, and find refuge in the mercy of God in Christ. His 
academical education was at Brown University, then under the presidency 
of Dr. Messer, where he graduated in 1825. In preparing for the minis- 
try, be studied with Rev. Dr. Ide of Medway. He gave himself to the 
ministry of the word for a period of about eighteen years, of which, as a 
pastor, three were passed at Wilbraham, five at Plymouth, and five at 
Amesbury. During the others of those years, he was employed in the 
way of temporary supply. He retired from his chosen calling as the one 
supreme work of life, because of insufficient health. With a constitution 
not naturally strong, it had become so impaired by the close, unvarying 
labor, and constant anxiety unavoidable by the preacher and pastor, that 
he was compelled to withdraw from the service he loved. His ministry 
was by no means a fruitless one. At least, four several revivals attended 
his labors, at various intervals, where the Spirit made his words of truth 
effective to convince and turn the heart ; and we, who have known Mr. 
Clark as a Christian and a Christian minister, what the cost, and breadth, 
and thoroughness of his religious sentiments were, feel sure that a Chris- 
tian character, formed and built up under his guidance, would rest on no 
sandy foundation. 

•' For the last eight or nine years, he has resided among the people where 
he died, and to whom he had become greatly endeared. Not his bereaved 
family alone, — all deeply feel his loss. As a man, a friend, a Christian, 
they only knew his worth who knew him well. Reliable, conscientious, 
and generous even to a fault ; frank in his words, transparent in his mo- 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 171 

lives, steadfast to principle and duty ; kind, sympathizing, and true 
to his trust ; a meek, humble, patient, prayerful follower of the Lord 
Jesus Christ, and whose earnest desire was, that God be honored, and 
man redeemed, — such was our brother who is gone. We might expect 
that such a life would have a calm and peaceful close. The nature of 
his sickness did not allow of many words ; but in reply to a question 
whether ' all was peace,' he responded ' yes,' in that same prompt and 
emphatic manner he was wont to converse in, when in health. We can- 
not doubt that all was peace. Softly as the murmurs of a summer even- 
ing, he breathed his life away. Not a groan, not a sigh, not a struggle, 
not a tremor told us when he was gone ; but he left the clayey, lifeless 
tenement so stilly, 

■ " Gently, as to a night's repose," 

that we knew not whether he did not still remain. Thus this good man 
died. It is pleasant to remember that almost his last work on earth was 
to address a company of grieving mourners, from these inspiring words : 
' Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord — they shall rest from their 
labors, and their works do follow them.' " — R. s. K. 



EDWARD ALEXANDER LAWRENCE, 

Was born at St. Johnsbury, Vt., Oct. 7, 1808, and was the son of 
' Hubbard and Mary (Goss) Lawrence. He was baptized in infancy. 
Of his religious experience, Prof. Lawrence says, — 

" I owe my conversion to God's blessing on the faithfulness of my 
mother. My father, a godly man, died when I w^as only eight years 
old. At twelve years of age I left my mother, by whom I had been 
religiously instructed, to learn the trade of my father. At eighteen a thirst 
for knowledge led me to desire a liberal education. I visited my mother 
to procure her consent to a change of my plans. She said there were 
lawyers and physicians enough without me, and as I was wanting in what 
was essential to the office of the Christian ministry, she could not con- 
sent to any change. I gave up my plan. But as her custom was, the 
night before my return, she called in a few Christian friends to pray for 
the child that was going from home. That praying circle brought into 
activity the enmity of my heart, as I had never been conscious of it before. 
But while travelling the next day, God met me in the way, and began to 
subdue it, I trust. By the grace of God I am what I am. I united with 
the Cong, church in Craftsbury, Vt., 1828." 

Prof. Lawrence fitted for college at Meriden, N. H., graduated at D. 
C. in 1834, and at the Theo. Seminary, Andover, in 1838. 



172 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

He was licensed to preach by the Belknap Association, N. H., in 1835. 

He was ordained at Haverhill, Mass., May 4, 1839; dismissed June 
12, 1844; installed at Marblehead April 23, 1845; dismissed July 12, 
1854, and the following week, July 19, he was inaugurated Professor of 
Ecclesiastical History and Pastoral Theology in the Theo. Seminary at 
East Windsor Hill, Conn. 

He obtained leave of absence from his people to go abroad Oct. 9, 1850, 
and returned in 1851. His tour extended eastward to Syria. He was 
at Constantinople and Athens. 

Prof. Lawrence was married at Andover, Mass., May 20, 1839, to 
Margaret Olive Woods, daughter of Rev. Leonard Woods, D. D., and 
Abby (Wheeler) Woods. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Margaret Louisa, b. July 18, 1842. 

2. CaroHne Matilda, b. Nov. 14, 1844 ; d. Sept. 11, 1848. 

3. Edward Alexander, b. Jan. IG, 1847, in Marblehead, Mass. 

4. Anna Dana, b. Jan. 16, 1854, in Marblehead, Mass. 
The publications of Mi". Lawrence are, — 

1. A Lecture on the Elements of Constitutional Law, as a branch of 
Education in Common Schools, — before the American Institute of 
Instruction, Aug., 1841. 

2. Misinterpretation of Providence. A Discourse on the Disasters at 
Sea, Sept. 19, 1846, delivered at Marblehead, and published 1846. 

3. A Discourse on the Death of Mr. Webster, Marblehead, 1852. 

4. A Sermon on the Death of Dr. Woods, delivered at Andover 
Aug. 28, 1854. 

5. An Inaugural Discourse at East Windsor Hill, July 19, 1854. 

6. Mission of the Church. A Premium Essay on Systematic Benefi- 
cence. Published by the American Tract Society, at New York, in 
1849, of which, between forty and fifty thousand copies have been pub- 
lished. 



CHARLES MOULSON BROWN, 

Was born in Exeter, N. H., July 29, 1794. He was the son of Rev. 
Joseph and Sarah (Carnes) Brown. His father. Rev. Joseph Brown, 
was born in Chester, England, Feb. 8, 1762, and was educated at Lady 
Huntingdon's Seminary, and was settled in the ministry at Epping, Es- 
sex County, England, until he came to this country. He was installed 
at Exeter, N. H., in 1792, and dismissed in 1797. He then removed 
to Deer Isle, Me., where he was installed in 1804, and where he died 
Sept. 13, 1819, aged 57. 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 173 

Charles Moulson, was baptized in infancy at Exeter by his father, 
then a pastor there. " I graduated," he says, " from a ship's forecastle 
in 1819, and from Bangor Theological Seminary in 182G." He was ap- 
probated by the Penobscot Association, July, 1825; ordained at Lemp- 
ster, N. H., as colleague of Rev. Ehas Fisher, Sept. 18, 1828. The sal- 
ary of Mr. Brown at his settlement was $400. He was dismissed Nov. 
16, 1830. After leaving Lerapster, Mr. Brown labored as a stated sup- 
ply in Townsend, Newfane, Jamaica, and Stratton in Vermont. In 1835, 
he removed his family to Portland, Me., and acted as chaplain in the 
Bethel Church of that city for thi.-ee years.. After this he preached for 
a short time at Lane's Cove, Gloucester, Mass. In 1842, he removed 
to Mount Desert, Maine, and labored there under the patronage of the 
Maine Missionary Society. 

Mr. Brown was married in Newbury port, Mass., January 4, 1827, to 
Miss Sarah Hawes Carnes, daughter of Joseph and Dorcas (Hawes) 
Carnes of Boston, Mass. 

Their children are, — 

1. Charles Hector, b. Dec. 11, 1827, at Newbury[)ort ; d. Sept. 25, 
1831. 

2. Joseph Carnes, b. Feb. 22, 1829, at Lempster, N. H. 

3. Horace Chapin, b. June 9, 1831, at Townsend, Vt. 

4. Sarah Jane Fairbank, b. Feb. 20, 1833, at Newfane, Vt. ; d. Nov. 
5, 1838. 

5. Charles Coffin, b. Feb. 1, 1835, at Jamaica, Vt. ; d. July 23, 1836. 

6. Antoinette, b. May 2, 1840, at Newbury (Byfield), Mass. 



SAMUEL HILL MEERILL, 

Was the son of James and Susanna (Whitny) JMerrill, and was born 
in Buxton, Maine, May 18, 1805. He was not baptized in infancy. Mr. 
Merrill is not a graduate at college, and, with the exception of six 
months at the Academy in Fryeburg, Me., and one year at Phillip's 
Academy, Exeter, N. H.,his academical studies were pursued in private. 
" The great change in my religious state, he says, took place while I was 
teaching school in Brownfield, Maine. At a time of great religious de- 
clension I was led to see myself a guilty, self-ruined sinner, and despair- 
ing of recovery by my own efforts, I committed myself to God's method 
of recovering grace through the redemption of his Son. God's character 
and service then seemed as attractive, as they had before appeared re- 
pulsive. I united with the First Congregational Church in Exeter, N. 
H., Jan. 1827. My theological studies were pursued under the direc- 



174 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

tion of the Piscataqua Association for the term of two years. Rev. Jacob 
Cummings, then of Stratham, N. H., now of Exeter, N. H., was my in- 
structor, and to him — for encouragement and material aid (without 
which I might never have entered the ministry), for sound instruction 
and judicious counsel, and an example of singular devotedness to the 
Master's work, -i— I owe more than to any other man living or dead. 

" Subsequently, after resigning my first pastoral charge, I was for one 
year a member of the ' Troy and Albany Theological Seminary,' under 
the gratefully-remembered instruction of the Rev. Drs. Beaman, Kirk, 
and Prof. Larned, afterwards of Y. C." 

Mr. Merrill was approbated by the Piscataqua Association, July 21, 
1830. He was ordained at Barrington, N. H., Feb. 23, 1831 ; dismissed 
Aug. 18, 1835, to become agent of the Am. Tract Soc. at the West. He 
returned to N. E. in 1838 in feeble health, and labored as stated supply 
for a few months at Centre Harbor, N. H. ; installed pastor of the Cong, 
church at Amesbury and Salisbury Mills Village, Sept. 16, 1840; dis- 
missed Nov. 7, 1844; installed pastor of the Cong, church in Old Town, 
Me., January 5, 1848 ; dismissed July 19, 1854. After laboring some 
montlis in Bluehill, Maine, he became minister of the Bethel Church, 
Portland, Me., Feb. 5, 1856, which station he still occupies. 

Mr. Merrill was married in North wood, N. H., Nov. 8, 1831, to Han- 
nah Prentice, daughter of Rev. Josiah and Nancy (Wiggin) Prentice, 
of Northwood. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Edward Payson, b. Nov. 7, 1834. 

2. Susan Prentice, b. April 6, 1840. 

3. Marion Calista, b. January 10, 1842. 



ANSON SHELDON, 

Became a member of the Association Feb. 24, 1841. 

He was installed at Falmouth, Me., Oct. 28, 1835 ; dis. Nov. 15, 1836 ; 
installed at Raymond, N. H., June 28, 1837; dis. Oct. 15, 1839; the 
church being divided on the question of his usefulness. 



JONATHAN FRENCH STEARNS, 

Was the son of Rev. Samuel and Abigail (French) Stearns, and 
was born in Bedford, Mass., Sept. 4, 1808. He graduated at H. U. in 
1830, and was connected for one year with the class in Andover Theo- 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 175 

logical Seminary which graduated in 1835. He received the degree of 
D. D. from the College of New Jersey in 1850. He was ordained pastor 
of the First Presbyterian Church in Newburyport, Mass., Sept. 16, 1835 ; 
dis. Oct. 14, 1849 ; inst. over the First Presbyterian Church in Newark, 
N. J., Dec. 13, 1849. 

He was married to Joanna Chaplin, daughter of Dr. James Prescott 
Chaplin of Cambridgeport, Mass. 

He was married a second time Nov. 15, 1843, to Anna S. Prentiss, 

daughter of Capt. William and (Lewis) Prentiss of Portland, 

Me. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Sargent Prentiss, b. Nov. 20, 1844. 

2. Lewis French, b. March 10, 1847. 

3. Ann Prentiss, b. June 27, 1853. 



JOHN PIKE, 

Was the son of Richard and Mary (Boardman) Pike. He was born 
in Newbury (now Newburyport), July 3, 1813, and was baptized in 
infancy. Of his religious experience he says : 

" My first seeking of the kingdom of God seems to have been in the 
month of March, 1829, when I was fifteen years old. I was prompted 
to it by a few words from a fellow student in the Academy at Woburn, 
Mass., who thought he had lately found an interest in religion. The 
faithful instruction of Rev. Mr. Bennett, and the warm encouragement of 
the young man who knew the way to Jesus Christ, helped to keep alive 
my interest, until, upon the fifth day after my first impression, I thought 
it pleased the Holy Spirit to give me the repentance which needs not to 
be repented of, and the faith which works by love. The spring and 
summer were mostly spent by me in trying to lead the young to the hope 
I trusted and had found ; nor has this employment since failed to be one 
of hearty interest to me. These many years have revealed to me the deep 
depravity of my nature, the feebleness of my purposes ; the ease with 
which I forget God, notwithstanding all he has done for me, and at the 
same time the wisdom of God's government, the glory of redemption, 
the happiness of knowing and doing the will of God ; the many spiritual 
blessings which we in our weakness may secure for others, when we are 
strengthened by Christ. I have never found occasion to change my ear- 
liest cry : ' God be merciful to me a sinner,' for one that is more self-reli- 
ant. I am expecting to be a ' sinner saved by grace.' But if this expec- 
tation should be disappointed, I feel that God will be just in sending 



]7(i HISTORY OF KSSKX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

Upon me the sorrows which are threatened to sin. I can cheerfully com- 
mit myself to his will, knowing that he does all things well, and confident 
tliat great multitudes will not be wanting, who will serve him in time, 
and praise him in eternity." 

Ml'. Pike was prepared for college at Newburyport and at Woburn by 
Alfred Pike, a late eminent teacher. He graduated at B. C, 1833, and 
at the Theo. Sem., Andover, in 1837 ; he was licensed to preach by the 
Newburyport Presbytery (afterwards united with the Londonderry), 
April 26, 18^ ; he was ordained as an Evangelist by the same presby- 
tery, April 25, 1838, in the Second Presbyterian Church, Newburyport. 
He preached for two years at Falmouth, but being in feeble health, he 
declined a settlement. He was installed at Rowley, Nov. 18, 1840. 

Mr. Pike was married August 11, 1841, to Miss Deborah Adams, 
only child of Col. Daniel and Mary (Adams) Adams of Newbury. 

His publications are, — 

1. Discourse on the death of Capt. Ward Eldred and Mr. WiUiam 
Eldred, delivered in the Congregational Church, North Falmouth, July 
14, 1839. 

2. Discourse at the Annual Thanksgiving, November 28, 1844, from 
Psalm 2: 11, — "Rejoice with trembling;" delivered in the Congi'ega- 
tional Church, Rowley. 

3. Discourse at the Annual Thanksgiving, November 26, 1846, from 
Ezekiel 21 : 27 ; delivered in the Congregational Church, Rowley. 

4. Discourse delivered at Rowley on the eighth Anniversary of his 
settlement, November 19, 1848, from 1 Samuel 4: 13. 

5. Discourse delivered before Poore's Rifle Guards, in the Congrega- 
tional Church, Rowley, November 29, 1855, from Judges 7 : 20, — 
'' And they cried, Tlie sword of the Lord and of Gideon." 

6. Election Sermon, delivered before the Government of the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts, January 7, 1857, from John 8 : 32. 

7. The Bud, Blossom, and Fruit ; or, Early Piety, permanent and 
progressive, published in 1858, by the Massachusetts Sabbath School 
Society. 



HENRY AUGUSTUS WOODMAN, 

Was born in Newburyport, Sept. 24, 1813, and was the son of Heniy 
and Abigail Ward (Truesdell) Woodman. 

Mr. Woodman spent three years at Woburn Academy, and entered 
A. C. in 1837, but was obliged to leave early in the Sophomore year, on 
accdkint of ill health. He taught school in Berkley, Mass., about one 
year, and pursued his college studies with John Usher Parsons. He 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 177 

read theology with Rev. Alvin Cobb of West Taunton, and was appro- 
bated by the Taunton Association Nov. 4, 1840. 

He was ordained pastor of the First Church in West Newbury, Nov. 
30, 1842; dismissed March 20, 1844. 

He became editor and publisher of the Watchtower in November, 
1844, and retained that position until 1849. He has been an invalid for 
many years, and unable to perform any ministerial labors. His residence 
is Newburyport. 

Mr. Woodman married in Newburyport, January 11, 1843, Mary 
Jane Morton, daughter of Capt. Stephen and Mary (Ratcliffe) Morton. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Charles Henry, b. Oct. 4, 1847. 

2. Edmund Ratcliffe, b. Nov. 7, 1851. 

3. Amy , b. July 14, 1854. 

4. Mary Schaufler, b. Aug. 4, 1858. 



ENOCH POND, 

Was the son of Rev. Enoch Pond, D. D., of Bangor, Me. His mo- 
ther's maiden name was Wealthy Munson Hawes. She was a daughter of 
William Hawes, late of Wrentham, and a niece of the late Hon. Judge 
Daggett, of New Haven, Conn. He was born in Ward, now Auburn, Mass., 
June 20, 1820, and was baptized in infancy. He was hopefully con- 
verted during a protracted meeting in Bangor, Me., in the spring of 1833, 
when he was about thirteen years of age. He united with the Hammond 
Street Church in that city, Dec. 3, 1833. He prepared for college at 
Bangor, and graduated at B. C. 1858. He taught the High School in 
Bucksport, Me., one year, and then entered the Theological Seminary 
at Bangor, where he graduated in 1842. He was approbated by the 
Penobscot Association Feb. 16, 1842, and was ordained colleague pastor 
with Rev. Isaac Braman, of the Congregational church in Georgetown, 
Dec. 3, 1842. 

At the time of his settlement, he was thought to enjoy perfect health. 
But at an early period in his ministry, his health began to fail. He per- 
formed the duties of his office until March 15, 1846, when with difficulty 
he preached one sermon, and was never able to perform that service 
afterwards. He left Georgetown in May, 1846, and resided alternately 
with his father and his father-in-law. He died of consumption at Bucks 
port. Me., Dec. 17, 1846, aged 26, and, at the eai'nest desire of his par- 
ishioners, was buried in Georgetown Dec. 24, 1846 ; Rev. IMr. Edgell, 
then of West Newbury, preached his funeral sermon. 

23 



178 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

The following is from an obituary published in the New England Pu- 
ritan : 

" In early youth he gave many indications of an active and energetic 
mind, and had the ability, beyond most persons of his age, of making 
himself agreeable, and of winning the respect and confidence of his com- 
panions. At the age of thirteen years, he received his first permanent 
religious impressions, during a revival in Bangor. Several lads, of about 
the same age, were hopefully converted at the same time. By his instru- 
mentality they were gathered into a prayer-meeting by themselves, in 
his father's study, the exercises of which were continued for a long period, 
and are now remembered by many young men, and by some ministers, 
with the deepest interest. In his wandering moments, during his last 
sickness, his heart seemed to be with his dear people. Once he imagined 
himself at the communion table with his church, and went audibly 
through with the service of giving thanks. About an hour before his 
death, he alluded to the circumstances of his conversion, and requested 
his father to repeat the text of that sermon which was blessed to his soul. 
His father's sermon was founded on Ps. 119: 59. He then repeated 
Cowper's Hymn (67th Select), 

' Oh for a closer walk with God,' etc., 

and coming to the last verse but one, and looking up to his dearest 
earthly friend, he proceeded to repeat, with great emphasis, — 

' The dearest idol I have known,' etc. 

Soon after this, some alteration was perceived. His last words were, 
' God is my support ; ' and then, without a struggle or a groan, he fell 
sweetly asleep. 

" As a man. Rev. Mr. Pond was distinguished for his social qualities, 
for his sense of propriety, taste, prudence, decision, and unaffected mod- 
esty. His mind seemed to develop its powers symmetrically, and its 
efibrts, if not yet brilliant, were harmoniously beautiful. As a preacher, 
he showed himself well fitted for his work. He wrote his sermons with 
care, delivered them with earnestness, was heard with marked attention 
and pleasure. The plan of his sermon, the style of composition, and his 
elocution, had a pleasing correspondence, and made him highly accepta- 
ble in the pulpit, at home or abroad. There was a manly vigor in all 
parts of his discourse. His devotional services were characterized for 
emotion, sincerity, adaptation, and lucid arrangement of thought. But 
with all these promises, big with the hope of an able and useful ministry, 
he has been called to the duties of a higher station, to mingle with the 
pure spirits of heaven. ' Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord.' " , 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 179 

The following extract is from a letter of Rev. Dr. Pond of Bangor. 

" It is a mournful pleasure to me to furnish you with these statistics 
respecting my departed son. He was, in all respects, a choice young 
man. He had a bright intellect ; acquired knowledge easily and rapidly ; 
was social arid lively in his natural disposition ; a pleasant companion ; 
a faithful husband ; a good preacher and pastor ; and a dutiful son. He 
seemed to grow in grace rapidly during the latter part of his life, and 
died peacefully rejoicing in the Lord. We all said, when he was gone, 
that he had every thing we could desire except his life." 

Mr. Pond was married May 25, 1843, at Bucksport, Me., to Miss 
Mary Thurston Blodgett, daughter of Dea. Bliss and Mary (Thurston) 
Blodgett. 

Mrs. Pond is still living a widow. 

Their only child is Mary Bliss, born in Georgetown, Mass., Oct. 21, 
1844. 

We are not aware that any writings of Mr. Pond were ever published. 



HENRY BOYNTON SMITH, 

Was born in Portland, Me., Nov. 21, 1815. He was the son of Henry 
and Ai'ixene (Southgate) Smith, and was baptized in infancy, by Rev. 
Dr. Nichols, pastor of the Unitarian church in Portland, with which his 
parents then worshipped. " My religious change," says Prof. Smith, 
" was most marked in my views and feelings in respect to Christ, as a 
divine being and the only Saviour of the world." He united with the 
Congregational church in Saccarappa, Me., August 3, 1834. 

He graduated at B. C. in 1834. Studied a few months at Andover ; 
was one year (1835-36) in Bangor Theological Seminary ; was tutor in 
Bowdoin College in 1836-37 ; studied at Halle and Berlin in Germany, 
1837-40; was again tutor in Bowdoin College for one year, 1840-1. He 
was approbated by the Cumberland Association, Me., August 11, 1840 ; 
was ordained pastor of the Congregational church in West Amesbury, 
Dec. 29, 1842, and was dismissed Sept. 29, 1847. 

He was inaugurated Professor of Mental and Moral Philosophy in 

Amherst College, 1847. He resigned his professorship in Dec, 

1850, and was inaugurated Professor of Church History in Union The- 
ological Seminary, New York, Feb. 12, 1851. He was transferred from 
this chair to that of Systematic Theology in the same Institution, and 
inaugurated May 6, 1855. 

He received the honorary degree of S. T. D. from the Vermont Uni- 
versity in 1851. 

Prof. Smith was married at Northampton, Mass., January 5, 1843, to 



iH() HI'-TORT OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

Mi's Elizabeth Lee Allen, daughter of Rev, William Allen, D. D., Pres- 
vlent of Bowdoin Gjllege fiom 1820 to 1839. The maiden name of her 
Hiotber was Maria }klalleville Wheelock. 
The names of their children are, — 

1. Arixene Southgate, b. in West Amesbury, Nov. 2, 1843. 

2. Mitria Maileville Wheelo<'-k, b. in West Amesbury, Dec. 15, 1845. 

3. WiUiarn Allen, b. in Amherst, IVIass., Aug. 16, 1848. 

4. Hfinry (jfHAw'm, b. in New York City, January 8, 1860. 
Tl»e publicalionjj of I*rof. Smith are, — 

1. Articlet on theological and philosophical fcubjecls iu the Literary 
and Theological lieview, Bibliotlieca Sacra, Christian Review, Metho- 
dist Quarl/^rly, New Brumswick Review, and in the American Theologi- 
cal Review. 

2. ii'-.lation- of i'aith and I^hilobophy. Port<;r liliel. Soc, Andover, 
]Hr.i. 

8. Nature and Worth of the Sdence of Church llintory. Inaugural, 
New York, 1851. 

4. Problem of lli'- l'|jJ)o-')j,}iy oi History. I'lii I'<ta Kappa Society, 
Yale, 1853. 

5. The lici'nnwA Churches in relation to C'IiukIi lli-loiy. Hffore the 
Pre»b, HiiBt. Sodety, 1855. 

6. llin Idea of Chrixtian 'Ilieology as a Sy^tr-m. Inaugural, New 
York, 1855. 

7. Inspiration of tin- S'lipliini-. !',< ('ii< i)ii- SvihmI i.( Ni-w Vurk and 
New Jer>M^, 1 %65. 

8. Arguni'ifit for (Jhrintian Colhgeh. l'.< ioj(; the ( 'oUcgiate Society, 
liosUju, 1857. 

9. imm Chridt, the Great Reconciler. National Preacher, 1858. 

10. TlUimatfi Kupremucy of the ICini^Mldiii i,i' Redemption. AVillianm 
Ojlhtg.;, 1851. 

11. The Keience of the Beautiful. New York UniverMity, 180 1. 

12. History of the (jhurch of f 'hrii^t, in Chroiiological TablcM. l-'olio, 
JStm York, 18 CO. 

18. Memorial of Anson G. phelpi^, Jr. New York, 18G0. 
14. Revision of Gieselef'n Church History. 3 vols, and translation of 
vol 4. New York, 1858-61. 

16. Itevision, with largf. Addition,-, of Magenbach'H Hi«tory of Doc- 

l»'int-:r. "2 VoIr- NVw V..iI' |H0(I 1 



JOHN l^HBLPS cowhm, 

■Jlir non of 8amuel and Olive (Phelps) Cowles, wan born in (Jole- 
bi(>ok, < 'oiKi., January *Jt] , 1805 fit- wan hapti/r-d wlim mIjouI flcvtin 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 181 

years of age. Of his religious life he says, " Early in the spring of 
1821, at the age of sixteen, 1 was awakened to a sense of religious truth 
and obligation. I found myself a lost sinner, estranged from God, and 
knowing no ^j to return. After some weeks of painful and anxious 
inquiry, I think I was brought to feel a tender sense of the guilt of sin, 
and not long after I obtained an interesting and delightful view of the 
worth and excellency of Christ as a Saviour, and just such a Saviour as 
I needed. These views and feelings occupied my soul continually, and 
gave me much peace and comfort, although for a long time I did not in- 
dulge any hope of personal acceptance. In the course of a few months 
I was prompted by my father to begin a course of education with refer- 
ence to the ministry, if it should be the will of God to call me to it ; and 
on the first Sabbath in March, 1822, I joined the Congregational church 
in Colebrook. Conn." 

Mr. Cowles graduated at Y. C. in 1826, and studied theology in the 
Theological Department of Y. C, under Dr. Taylor, three years. 

He was approbated by the Litchfield South Association, June 5, 1832. 
He was ordained at Princeton, Mass., June 18, 1833 ; dismissed Dec. 
18, 1834; inaugurated Professor of the Language and Literature of the 
Old Testament, in the Oberlin Collegiate Institute, .Sept., 1836 ; resigned 
Oct. 21, 1839. Appointed principal of an Academy in Elyria, Ohio, 
March, 1840 ; resigned April, 1844. Mr. and Mrs. Cowles assumed the 
charge of the Ipswich Female Seminary, May, 1844, and since that time 
that useful and successful Institution has been under their management. 

Mr. Cowles married at Ipswich, Mass., Oct. 16, 1838, Miss Eunice 
Caldwell, daughter of John and Eunice (Stanwood) Caldwell. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Mary Phelps, b. Aug. 5, 1839, in Oberlin, Ohio. 

2. Roxanna Caldwell, b. July 30, 1841, in Elyria, Ohio. 

3. John Phelps, b. Jan. 23, 1844, in Elyria, Ohio. 

4. Henry Augustine, b. April 30, 1846, in Ipswich, Mass. He en- 
listed in the spring of 1864 in the 150th Ohio National Guards, called 
out for one hundred days, being at the time a member of the Soph- 
omore class in Oberlin College. He died July 14, 1864. 

5. Susan Abby Rice, b. April 24, 1848, in Ipswich, Mass. 
Mr. Cowles has published, — 

1. Review of Ernesti, on applying the principles of Common Life to 
the Study of the Scriptures. — Chr. Sped., No. 1, vol. 3. 

2. Application of the Principles of Common Sense to certain disputed 
Doctrines. — Chr. Sped., No. 3, vol. 3. 

3. Review of Dr. Murdock's Translation of Mosheim's Ecclesiastical 
History. — Chr., Sped., No. 1, vol. 4- 



182 HISTORY OF ESSEX XORTH ASSOCIATION. 

4. On the Early History of Theology. — Gir. SpecL, No. 2, vol. 4. 

5. Review of Douglas on Errors in Religion. — Chr. Sped., No. 3, 
vol. 4. 

6. Review of Stuart on the Romans. — Chr. Sped., Ndk 4, vol. 4. 

7. Progress in Theology. — Chr. Sped., vol. 10. 

8. Letters to the Trustees of the Oberlin Collegiate Institute, 1839 
and 1840. 

9. Lecture on Principles of School Government. — Transadions of 
the Mass. Teachers' Association, vol. 1. 

Also many miscellaneous articles. 



BENJAMIN FRANKLIN HOSFORD, 

Was born in Thetford, Vt., Nov. 11, 1817. He was the son of Joseph 
and Abigail (Bartholomew) Hosford, and was baptized in infancy by 
"■ good old Dr. Burton." He prepared for college in Thetford Academy, 
and graduated at D. C. in 1838, and at the Theo. Sem., Andover, in 
1841. He was approbated by the Andover Association, April 13, 1841. 
The Centre Church, Haverhill, Mass., gave him a call to become their 
pastor, which he accepted, and he was ordained May 21, 1845. Here 
he remained until protracted ill health and the best medical advice com- 
pelled him to relinquish all thought of any further active service in his 
profession. He was dismissed Oct. 26, 1863. When asked for some 
account of his religious experience, he replied, — "I grew up into piety 
by baptism, religious training, and the grace of God." He united with 
the Congregational church, Hanover, N. H., April 17, 1836. After a 
lingering sickness of consumption, he fell asleep in Jesus, about one 
o'clock on the mox'ning of Aug. 10, 1864. 

" Our Brother Hosford," says Dr. Withirigton, " has left on our hearts 
an impression of deep veneration, for his consecrated talents and intelli- 
gent piety. He was a preacher to wear well, whose influence could only 
be appreciated in a permanent pastorate. He was constantly gaining on 
his friends and his people ; and the more you knew him, the greater was 
your confidence in his sincerity and worth. His orthodoxy was sound, 
rather inclined to cleave to the old formulas than to depart from them, 
and never separating the doctrines of religion from their devotional influ- 
ence. His pulpit performances were generally well matured, but he did 
not confine himself to the homiletics of his profession. He wrote many 
papers for our religious periodicals ; and life and manners commanded 
his attention as well as theology. There was a vein of satire that ran 
through his communications, not at all inconsistent with, the most solemn 



SKETCHKS OF MEMBKHS. 183 

designs of a servant of Christ. We never remember that he avowed 
himself us a poet, and yet there were pubUshed, a few years ago, some 
exquisite verses entitled, Wanted, a Minister, which we supposed must . 
have flowed from his pen, because they had the shape and hue of his 
mind. Thus, whether he wept over sinners, or smiled at the follies of 
the wise, he had the same end in view, the repentance and rectification 
of mankind. Yes, brother, thy tears were drops of pity, thy smiles gleams 
of wisdom. ' For whether we be beside ourselves, it is to God : or whether 
we be sober, it is for your cause.' " 

The mind of Brother Hosford was one of great delicacy and tender- 
ness. He was not a metaphysician, though he often made fine distinc- 
tions, his taste serving him in the place of analytic power. His prom- 
inent mental development was through his taste and emotions. He 
loved music with a passion. The great festival of the year to him was to 
visit Boston and attend a rehearsal of an oratorio or a symphony from 
one of the old masters. He was a great lover of nature, and a quick ob- 
server of her moods and handiwork. Few, in passing tlu-ough the woods 
and meadows, or in climbing the rocks upon the sea-shore, could find so 
many flowers and subjects of interest and study. But the place of great- 
est freedom and delight to him was his own home. Here his love was 
unchecked by his natural shrinking fi-oni publicity, and he allowed his 
feelings full play. Though he had a keen enjoyment of humor, and fre- 
quently allowed his satircxfree utterance, still his delight was in the con- 
templation of spiritual things above all criticism. And it was only when 
one was so near to hun that he could speak freely of this higher life, that 
our brother was truly understood and appreciated. 

As a minister, he was consecrated to his profession. He was not 
without ambition, but it was noble and worthy. To give up all his cher- 
ished hopes in his profession, in the midst of his years, was no common 
struggle ; yet, through the grace of God, he was enabled to do this, and 
submissively to wait the appointments of the divine will. As his end 
drew near, there was a perceptible growth in his faith, and in his love 
for the verities of the gospel. On one occasion, as his wife was reading 
to him a hymn of beautiful sentiment, he requested her to put it aside, 
and take the Bible and read from the words of Christ, or from Saint 
Paul, saying, " I have got beyond these ; I want the strong truths of the 
Divine Word." His departure was in harmony with his life, — peaceful 
and quiet, like the going down of the summer's sun. 

Mr. Hosford was mari'ied in Saxonville, Mass., July 28, 1845, to Mary 
Elizabeth Stone, daughter of Luther and Mary (Eaton) Stone. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Mary Stone, b. Dec. 8, 1848. 



184 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

2. Benjamin Franklin, b. July 12, 1850. 

3. Martha Wheeler, b. Nov. 12, 1854; d. March 13, 1862. 

4. Isiaac Bartholomew, b. Aug. 28, 1856. 

All were born in Haverhill, Mass. ' 

Mr. Hosford has published, — 

1. A Lecture to the Young on Character. 

2. Introductory Address before the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion. 

3. Sermon at the Re-dedication of the Church in Haverhill. 

4. Catacombs of Rome. — Am. S. S. Union. 

5. Paul and the Chief Cities of his Labors. — Mass. S. S. Society. 
Articles in Revieics. — Geological and Theological Analogies, ^ib. 

Sacra, Apr., 1858. — Bhagvat Geeta. Bib. Sacra, Nov., 1859. — Mod- 
ern Universalism. American Theological Review, Jan., 1859. — Minis- 
ter's Wooing. American Theological Review, Dec, 1859. — Old 
Unitarianism New Orthodoxy. Boston Review, 1861. — Centres of 
Ministerial Influence. Boston Review, 1861. — The Professor at the 
Breakfast-Table. Boston Recorder, Jan., 1860. — A New Professor in 
Old Theology. Boston Recorder, June, 1859. — The Professor on the 
Clergy. Boston Recorder, March, 1859. — One Idea, and what it can 
do. Boston Recorder. 

HORATIO MERRILL, 

Was the son of Nathaniel and Phebe (Merrill) Merrill. He was 
born in Brownfield, Me., April 26, 1817, and was baptized in infancy. 

" I am the youngest," he says, " of eight children, all of whom were 
brought to embrace Christ by a blessing on the faithfulness and in an- 
swer to the prayers of a pious mother, — a woman of a superior mind 
and strong faith. I was received into the Congregational church in 
Brownfield, Me., at the age of fifteen." 

Mr. Merrill was fitted for college at Phillips Academy, Exeter, N. H., 
which he left in 1836, graduated at D. C. in 1840, and at the Theo. Semi- 
nary, Andover, in 1843. He was approbated by the Andover Associa- 
tion August 11, 1843 ; ordained pastor of the First Church, West New- 
bury, Mass., May 7, 1845; dismissed August 11, 1847. In Oct., 1847, 
Mr. Merrill received the appointment of Principal of the Washington 
State School, Princess Ann Co., Maryland, and resided there one year. 
He preached in Bloomfield, Ct., 1849-50; at New Gloucester, Me., 
1850-54, and left the latter place on account of ill health. He removed 
to Portland, Me., and resided there from 1854 to 1857, when, on his re- 
covery, he received a call from Salisbury, N. H., where he was installed 
March 19, 1858 ; dismissed , 1863. 



SKETCHKS OF MEMBERS. 185 

Ml*. Merrill was married in Turner, Me., January 11, 1849, to Sarah 
Whitman, daughter of Royal and Sarah (Bradford) Whitman. 
Their children are, — 

1. Royal Whitman, b. in Bloomfield, Ct., Nov. 28, 1849. 

2. Elizabeth Greeley, b. in Portland, Me., Sept. 18, 1854. 

3. Catherine, b. in Portland, Me., Nov. 27, 1857. 

4. William Bradford, b. in Salisbury, N. H., Feb. 27, 1861. 
' Mr. Merrill has published, — 

1. A Sermon. Voices of the Cross. Hartford, Ct., June, 1850. 

2. A Sermon. The Ministry fulfilled, 2 Tim. 4:5; its Day and 
Crown, 1 Thess. 2 : 19. Portland, Me., 1858. 

2. Report as School Commissioner for Merrimack Co., 1861-62. 
Concord, N. H. 

4. Address before the Alumni of New Ipswich Academy, Sept. 15, 
1861. Pub. New York, Oct., 1861. 



CALVIN EMMONS PARK, 

Was born in Providence, R. I., Dec. 30, 1811. He was the son of 
Rev. Calvin and Abigail (Ware) Park, and was baptized in infancy. 
He was hopefully converted in a revival during his Freshman year at 
Amherst College, 1828. He united with the Congregational church at 
Stoughton, Mass., then under the pastoral care of his father, March 4, 
1832. He graduated at A. C. in 1831, and at the Theo. Sem., Andover, 
in 1835 ; was approbated April 22, 1835, by the Woburn Association. Mr. 
Park was ordained pastor of the Cong, church in Waterville, Me., Oct. 
31, 1838; dismissed April 24, 1844; installed pastor of the Cong, 
church in West Boxford, Mass., Oct. 14, 1846 ; dismissed June 4, 1859. 
Since that time he has been engaged as teacher of a select family school 
at West Boxford. 

Mr. Park has published articles in the Biblical Repository and Biblio- 
theca Sacra. 

He was married at Portland, Me., Nov. 5, 1839, to Harriet Turner 
Pope, daughter of Joseph and Caroline (McLellan) Pope, of Portland. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Joseph Pope, b. January 7, 1841, in Waterville, Me. ; d. April 14, 
1842. 

2. Anna Pope, b. Sept. 18, 1842, in Waterville, Me. 

3. Charles Ware, b. Sept. 8, 1845, in North Andover, Mass. 

4. Caroline McLellan, b. July 23, 1847, in West Boxford, Mass. 

5. William Pope, b. Aug. 4, 1853, in West Boxford, Mass. 

24 



186 HISTORY OF ESSEX XORTH ASSOCIATION. 

JOHN MOOR PRINCE, 

Was born in Portland, Me., June 6, 1820. He was the son of John 
Moor and Eleanor C. (Eaton) Prince, and was baptized in infancy by 
Rev. Dr. Payson of Portland, of whose church his parents were mem- 
bers. He was removed to Bangor, Me., at an early age, and was a resi- 
dent of that city until after the completion oF his studies in theology. 

Among the papers of Mr. Prince we find the following : 

Sabbath Eve, Sept. 30, 1838. 

" While reflecting this evening on my past life, my thoughts ran back 
to the time when I was living without hope and without God in the world, 
and from thence to the time when I fir.st found peace and joy in believ- 
ing, which was in December, 1833. For a few weeks previous to that 
time, I had felt very anxious for the salvation of my soul, but had not 
come to the conclusion to be on the Lord's side. There were at that 
time nine of my friends and schoolmates in the same condition with my- 
self. We concluded to hold a meeting where we might converse and 
pray more freely. On the next Saturday evening we came together, ten 
precious souls, at the house of one of our number, and we had a meeting 
which will never be forgotten by me. We continued to meet week after 
week, until all indulged a hope that our sins were forgiven. We continued 
these meetings for about two years, when they were broken up, most of 
US leaving to fill different stations in life. Our names and ages were as 
follows: William H. Brown, 11 ; Thomas H. Rice, 11 ; Samuel Thurs- 
ton, 11; George W. Brown, Jr., 13; Allen Tupper, 14; Benjamin 

Silsbee, 14; Enoch Pond, Jr., 13; Richard B.Thurston, 14; 

Kimball, 15; John M. Prince, Jr., 13." 

This is the circle of lads alluded to in the sketch of Rev. Enoch Pond, 
Jr. 

Mr. Prince united with the Hammond Street church, Bangor, March 
5, 1837. He graduated at B. C, 1841, and at the Theo. Sera., Bangor, 
in 1845. He was approbated by the Waldo Association for three 
months, Aug. 29, 1844; and afterwards by the Penobscot Association, 
Nov. 12, 1844. He was ordained at Georgetown, Mass., Feb. 3, 1847, 
as colleague pastor with Rev. Isaac Braman. He left his pulpit on account 
of ill health and other causes in March, 1857, but was not dismissed until 
Nov. 19, 1857. He commenced preaching in the Trinitarian Church, 
Bridgewater, Mass., in Sept., 1858, and was installed Feb. 23, 1859. In 
June following, he was again compelled to give up preaching in conse- 
quence of failing health, and died November 16, 1859, aged thirty -nine 
years and six months. A sermon was preached at his funeral by Rev. 
H. D. Walker, of Abington. Text, Phil. 1 : 21-24. 



SKETCHES OF MEMBEKS. 187 

Mr. Prince was a devoted pastor, an earnest preacher, a faithful and 
loving disciple. 

He was married in Philadelphia, Penn., Dec. 7, 1852, to Sarah Bart- 
lett Coffin, daughter of Joshua and Clarissa Harlow (Dutch) Coffin of 
Newbury, Mass. 

They had two children, — 

1. Clara Coffin, b. in Georgetown, May 24, 1854. 

2. Charles Lewis, b. in Georgetown, July 29, 1856. 
His widow still resides in Bridgewater. 



DANIEL TAGGART FISKE, 

Was born in Shelburne, Mass., March 29, 1819. He was the son of 
Ebenezer and Hannah (Tii'rill) Fiske, and was baptized in infancy. He 
united with the church in A. C, Aug. 23, 1839. He graduated at A. C. 
in 1842, and at the Theo. Sem., Andover, in 1846 ; was approbated by 
the Andover Association April 7, 1846, and ordained at Newburyport 
Aug. 18, 1847. Mr. Fiske was elected a member of the Board of Trus- 
tees of Phillips Academy, Andover, in 1861. He received the degree 
of D. D. from Amherst College in 1862. He was married in Boston 
Nov. 7, 1849, to Eliza Pomroy Dutton, daughter of Dea. George Da- 
mon and Mary (Pomroy) Dutton, She died in Newburyport, Oct. 22, 
1862. 

Their children are, — , 

1. Mary Fidelia, b. Aug. 11, 1850, in Newburyport, Mass. 

2. George Dutton, b. March 9, 1856, in Newburyport, Mass. 
Mr. Fiske has published, — , 

1. An Historical Discourse commemorative of the Fiftieth Anniver- 
sary of the Organization of the Belleville Congregational Church, 
preached on Thanksgiving day, Nov. 25, 1858. 8vo, pp. 41. Boston, 
1859. 

2. Article in the Bib. Sacra, April, 1857. The Theology of Dr. 
Gill. 

3. Article in Bib. Sacra, April, 1861. The Necessity of the Atone- 
ment. 

4. Article in Bib. Sacra, April, 1862. The Divine Decrees. 



DAVID OLIPHANT, 

Was born in Waterford, Saratoga Co., N. Y., Nov. 9, 1791. He was 
the son of Duncan and Rachel (Woodruff) Oliphant, and was baptized 
in infancy. Of his religious life and education he says : 



188 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

" I regard regeneration as an instantaneous work wrought by the Holy 
Spirit in the soul, developing itself in a progressive work of sanctifica- 
tion by the same Spirit ; which sanctification makes itself evident in a 
temper of mind, and manner of life, in accordance with the precepts of 
the Gospel. I do not fix any definite period of moral change in my o^^n 
case. Sobriety of deportment, and regard for sacred things, marked my 
early years. My intercourse with religious people was confined mostly 
to such as I met on the Sabbath ; no other religious meetings being held 
at that time in the community among whom I grew up. I entered col- 
lege before I was fourteen. There I became acquainted with pious stu- 
dents, and attended private religious meetings. From that period my 
interest in religious things increased, till, in the year 1810, I united with 
the Reformed Dutch church in Kingston, Ulster Co., N. Y. My church 
connection is at present with the church in the Thco. Sem., Andover, 
where I reside. My common-school education was in the town of Ball- 
ston, to which my father removed in my early childhood. My academi- 
cal course was at Ballston Academy, from which I graduated in 1805. 
I graduated at U. C. in 1809 ; at the Theo. Sem., Andover, in 1813 ; 
and was approbated by the Haverhill Association April 14, 1813." 

Mr. Oliphant was ordained at Keene, N. H., May 25, 1815, dismissed 
Dec. 1, 1817 ; installed over the Third Cong. Church in Beverly, Mass., 
Feb. 18, 1818, dismissed March, 1834; installed over the Second Cong. 
Church in Wells, Me., Sept. 24, 1834, dismissed March 28, 1838. He 
commenced supplying the pulpit of the Congregational Church and So- 
ciety of Plaistow, N. H., and North Haverhill, Mass., Sept., 1838, and 
continued to supply the same for somewhat more than fourteen consecu- 
tive years. He left chiefly on account of impaired health, and has since 
resided in Andover, Mass. 

Mr. Oliphant was married at Andover, Sept. 27, 1815, to Mary Pear- 
son, daughter of Dr. Abiel and Mary (Adams) Pearson. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. David Sewall, b. at Keene, N. H., June 18, 1816; graduated at 
A. C. in 1836 ; took the degree of M. D. from the Homoeopathic Med. 
Soc. in St. Louis, Mo., in 1859. 

2. Henry Duncan, b. at Keene, N. H., Dec. 30, 1817 ; merchant. 

3. Mary Elizabeth, b. at Beverlj^, Aug. 9, 1819 ; d. April 10, 1821. 

4. James Woodruff, b. at Beverly, Dec. 29, 1821 ; merchant. 

5. Robert Woodruff, and ) ^ 

^ ,, -o M- b. at Beverly, Dec. 28, 1824. 

6. Mary Pearson, ) s •' 

Robert graduated at A. C. 1845, and from the Harvard Medical 
School in 1848 ; is a physician in St. Louis, Mo. Mary graduated at 
Mount Holyoke Seminary in 1845 ; was married May 3, 1850, to Rev. 
Lauren C. Ford, and died at Coolville, Ohio, June 9, 1851. 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 189 

Mr. Oliphant has published, — 

1. Two Sermons, from Acts 20: 26, preached at Keene, N. H., on 
the last Sabbath of his ministry in that town. 

2. A Sermon, from Psalm 144: 11-15, preached to his congregation 
ii\ Beverly, Nov. 25, 1825, on the day of annual Thanksgiving. "The 
Happy Nation." 

3. A Sermon, preached to the same congregation. May, 1831, from 
John 6 : 65. " Why Sinners cannot come to Christ." 

Mr. Oliphant has also contributed many articles to religious periodi- 
cals and papers. In 1829, he published an article in the " Panoplist," 
disapproving the " Clergyman's Almanac," which had then been pub- 
lished some twelve years, and had become a vehicle of Unitarianism. 
The first number of the " Christian Almanac " was published by the 
Amer. Tract Society the next year. 

ALBERT PAINE, 

Was born in Woodstock, Conn., July 21, 1819. He was the son of 
John and Betsey (Smith) Paine, and was baptized in infancy. The 
occasion of his conversion was a severe sickness, from which recovery 
appeared hopeless. He united with the church in East Woodstock, 
Conn., Nov. 1, 1835. Mr. Paine graduated at Y. C. in 1841. He was 
at the Theo. Seminaries in Andover and New Haven for a portion of 
his course in divinity, and graduated at Auburn Theo. Sem. in 1845. 
He was approbated by the Brookfield Association Oct. 2, 1844, and or- 
dained at West Amesbury Sept. 7, 1848, dismissed April 11, 1854; 
and installed at North Adams, Mass., Dec. 3, 1856, dismissed April 21, 
1862. He received a commission as Chaplain of the U. S. Hospital at 
Fortress Monroe, dated June 13, 1862. 

Mr. Paine was married at West Amesbury, Nov. 20, 1849, to Sarah 
Sargent, daughter of Patten and Dolly (Sargent) Sargent. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Edward Sargent, b. May 3, 1851, in Amesbury, Mass. 

2. Charles Hamilton, b. March 27, 1853, in Amesbury, Mass. 

3. WiUiam Alfred, b. Jan. 29, 1855, in Amesbury, Mass. 

4. Dolly Elizabeth, b. Oct. 16, 1856, in Amesbury, Mass. 
Mr. Paine has published, — 

1. A Sermon in the National Preacher, 1857. " Responsibility of 
Men for each other." 

2. Thanksgiving Sermon, pub. in North Adams, 1858. " Clouds in 
the National Sky." 

3. A Sermon on the State of the Nation, pub. in North Adams, 1861. 
" Rectitude before Expediency." 



190 HISTOKY OF ESSEX XOKTH ASSOCIATION. 



WALES LEWIS, 

Was born in Bristol, Me., July 20, 1798. He was the son of Frede- 
rick and Lucy (Wadsworth) Lewis, and was not baptized in infancy. He 
pursued his classical studies, preparatory to the ministry, in Bangor and 
Monmouth Academies, and graduated at the Theo. Sem., Bangor, in 
1825. 

He was approbated by the Penobscot and Hancock Association, Dec. 
15, 1824. He was ordained at East Machias, Me., Sept. 27, 1826 ; dis- 
missed June 15, 1831. Installed at Brewer, Me., Nov. 2, 1831 ; dis- 
missed Sept. 1, 1838. Installed at South Weymouth, Mass., Sept. 12, 
1838 ; dismissed June 15, 1848. Installed at East Haverhill, Mass., 
July 18, 1849; dismissed May 12, 1857. Installed at Lyman, Me., 
Oct. 21, 1857. 

Mr. Lewis was married May 30, 1826, at Kingston, Mass., to Lucy 
Wadsworth Perkins, daughter of Daniel and Welthea (Wadsworth) Per- 
kins. She died in South AVeymouth, Mass., April 20, 1846, and was 
buried there. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. George, b. Oct. 21, 1828, in East Machias, Me. ; d. Nov. 5, 1828. 

2. Lorenzo, b. Oct. 11, 1829, in East Machias, Me. 

3. Edward, b. Aug. 21, 1831, in Bristol, Me. 

4. Horace, b. April 29, 1834, in Brewer, Me. ; d. Aug. 16, 1834. 

5. Alvan, b. Dec. 10, 1835, in Brewer, Me. 

6. Horatio, b. January 13, 1838, in Brewer, Me. ; d. March 10, 1839, 
in South Weymouth, Mass. 

Mr. Lewis was married a second time in Weymouth, Mass., Dec. 1, 
1846, to Lucy Pratt, daughter of Bela and Sophia Western (Lyon) 
Pratt. 

They have one child, — 

7. Walter, b. May 17, 1852, in Haverhill, Mass. 

Mr. Lewis published a sermon preached in South Weymouth, Mass., 
Jan. 10, 1841. 

JOHN EDWARDS EMERSON, 

Was born in Newburyport, Sept. 27, 1823. His father was Charles 
Lee Emerson. His mother's maiden name was Rhoda Penelope Ed- 
wards of West Hampton. Her first husband was Harvey Tillotson, 
She was married to Mr. Emerson at Northampton, Mass., Sept. 4, 1819. 
Their son, John Edwards, was baptized in infancy by the Rev. S. P. 
Williams, then pastor of the First Presbyterian Church in Newburyport. 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 191 

of which both his parents were members. At a very early age he mani- 
fested evident marks of a religious disposition and a high degree of con- 
scientiousness. But in Dec, 1833, when he was but little more than ten 
years of age, his religious character took a decided form, and early in 
1834 he became a joyous disciple of Jesus. He united with the First 
Presbyterian Church in Newburyport, Feb. 12, 1836. He was prepared 
for college at the Brown High School in his native town. Mr. Emerson 
graduated at A. C. in 1844, and in Sept. of the same year took charge 
of a school in Conway, Mass., where he remained for two years. He 
graduated at the Theo. Sem.,. Princeton, N. J., in 1849, and was licensed 
to preach the gospel by the Londonderi-y Presbytery, at a meeting in 
Newburyport, April 26, 1848. He was ordained pastor of the White- 
field Chui'ch, Newburyport, on the evening of January 1, 1850, on 
which day the church was constituted. Very soon his health began to 
fail, and about the first of June his public services were in a great meas- 
ure suspended. He made an address to his people Jan. 1, 1851, in 
which he alluded to his probable early departure. 

The last Sabbath that he was with them was March 2, 1851, on which 
occasion he baptized a child who was named after himself. 

He fell asleep in Jesus, Sabbath night, at ten minutes before one 
o'clock, A. M., March 24, 1851. His funeral services were performed in 
the Federal Street Chui-ch, Newburyport, on Thursday, March 27. A 
sermon was preached by Rev. J. F. Stearns, D. D., of Newark, N. J. 

He was buried in the Oak Hill Cemetery, in a lot provided by the 
gift of one of his parishioners, and a simple monument was erected to 
his memory by the members of his congregation. 

A Memoir of Mr, Emerson, by Rev, R, W, Clark, D. D., was pub- 
lished in 1852, (8vo, pp, 406, Boston.) An abridgment of the same 
has been published by the Am, Tract Society. 

Mr. Emerson was unmarried. 

He published the sermon which he preached the first Sabbath after 
his ordination, Jan. 6, 1850, in Market Hall, Newburyport. Subject: 
" Church Members reminded of their Duties." 



FRANCIS VERGNIES TENNEY, 

Was born in Newburyport, April 19, 1819. He was the son of Sam- 
uel and Deborah (Pearson) Tenney, and was baptized in infancy. For 
the first seven years of his life he lived in Newburyport ; afterwards in 
Boston. He fitted for college at Pliillips Academy, Andover ; graduated 
at A. C. in 1841, and at the Theo. Sem., Andover, in 1844. He first 



192 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

uiiitetl with the Salem Church, Salem St., Boston, May 3, 1835. " About 
six months previous to this time," he says, " I became especially inter- 
ested in the subject of religion. I had many seasons of thoughtfulness 
before, and sometimes I had been led to seek, with some degree of earn- 
estness,. the salvation of my soul. My awakening at this time was inti- 
mately associated with my iirst experience of home-sickness. I had just 
left a pleasant home and gone to Andover to prepare for college. Find- 
ing myself among strangers. I felt lonely and desolate ; then came 
thoughts of my sinfulness, and the importance of yielding my heart to 
God without delay. My convictions, I think, were deeper than ever be- 
fore. And various encouragements, which were presented to me in my 
reading and conversation with friends, together with the fear of losing 
my concern and going back to the world, helped, with the Divine Spirit, 
to keep me in a course of duty and earnest prayer, until I was led to en- 
tertain the hope that I had become a new creature in Christ Jesus." 

Mr. Tenney was approbated by the Andover Association, April 9, 
1844; ordained at South Braintree, Aug. 7, 1845; dis. Nov. 14, 1848. 
Installed at Byfield, Newbury, March 7, 1850; dis. April 22, 1857. 
Installed at Manchester, Mass., Aug. 18, 1858. 

Mr. Tenney was first married in Boston, October 8, 1846, to Jane 
Kobinson Hutchings, daughter of Solomon and Sophia (Webb) Hutch- 
ings. She died Nov. 24, 1851, aged 29, and was buried in Byfield. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Albert Francis, b. July 24, 1847, in South Braintree, Mass. 

2. Granville Storrs, b. Feb. 13, 1849, in Boston, Mass. ; d, Sept. 3, 
1864. 

3. Ella Jane, b. March 31, 1851, in Byfield, Mass. 

He was married a second time in Boston, Nov. 17, 1852, to Miss Al- 
mira Dodge Webb, daughter of Joshua and Almira (Dodge) Webb. 
She died January 26, 1854, aged 32 years ; and was buried in Byfield. 

They had one child. 

4. Georgianna Webb, b. Sept. 4, 1853, in Byfield, Mass. ; d. Sept. 
25, 1853. 

He was married a third time in Ipswich, Dec. 4, 1854, to Miss Joanna 
Stanwood, daughter of Isaac and Joanna (Caldwell) Stanwood. 

Mr. Tenney has published a sermon occasioned by the death of Mrs. 
Martha Lee. Preached at Manchester, May 6, 1860 ; pub. in Boston, 
1860. 

ELAM JEWETT COMINGS, 

Was born in Berkshire, Vt., April 22, 1812. He was the son of An- 
drew and Betsey (Jewett) Comings, and was baptized in infancy. In 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 193 

the autumn of 1829, Mr. Comings united with the Cong, church in East 
Berkshire, Vt. He entered Vermont University, and remained there 
for about a year and six months. He graduated at Oberlin College in 
1838, and at the Theol. Seminary in Oberlin in 1841. He was appro- 
bated by the Lorain County Association, Ohio, Sept. 3, 1840, and or- 
dained by the same body as an evangelist, at Oberlin, August 24, 1841.* 

The ministerial life of Mr. Comings has been largely that of a mis- 
sionary. He was three years in Fredericktown, Knox Co., Ohio ; four 
years in Montpelier, Vt., as stated supply of the Free Church, com- 
mencing in 1844 ; then he was four years at Haverhill, Mass., as S. S. 
of the Free Church, afterwards known as the Winter Street Chui'ch. In 
June, 1852, he took charge of the Cong, church at Gustavus, Ohio ; re- 
signed that position in 1859, and removed to Lenox, Ohio, and spent one 
year. From thence he went to East Berkshire, Vt., in Oct., 1860. 

Mr. Comings has never been installed over any church. 

He was married in Enosburg, Vt,, Feb. 1, 1839, to Fanny Woodbuiy 
Fletcher, daughter of Comings and Sarah (Wheeler) Fletcher. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Sarah Dawes, b. in Oberlin, Ohio, July 5, 1840. 

2. George Harwell, b. in Fredericktown, Ohio, May 24, 1843 ; died 
the same day. 

3. Eliza Stewart, b. in Montpelier, Vt., Nov. 29, 1847. 

4. George Roberts, b. in Gustavus, Ohio, June 20, 1857. 



RUFUS KING, 

Is the son of De Lanson and Sarah Jeffres (Smith) King ; was born 
in Freehold, Greene Co., N. Y., April 13, 1821 ;4fitted for college partly 
at the academy in Gallupville, and partly at the academy at Schoharie 
Court House. He graduated at U. C. 1844, and at the Union Theologi- 
cal Seminary, New York, in 1848. One year between his college and 
theological course, he taught school in Catskill, Greene Co., N. Y. 
After leaving the Theol. Seminary, he preached one year, on alternate 
Sabbaths, in Newport, Herkimer Co., and Deerfield, Oneida Co., N. Y. 
He was licensed to preach the gospel by the Fourth Presbytery of New 
York, May 29, 1848. 

He was ordained at Amesbury Mills, April 17, 1850, dismissed May 
17, 1853; installed at Jamestown, Chautaugua Co., N. Y., Aug. 22, 

* This association was dissolved some years since, and its records were placed in 
the hands of its last scribe, liev. M. W. Fairfield, of Oberlin, Ohio. 

25 



194 HISTORY OF ESSEX NOUTH ASSOCIATION. 

1855, dismissed June 20, 18G0. He left his people, however, some six 
months earlier, on account of ill health. 

He was married March 17, 1855, to Abby B. Bagley, adopted daugh- 
ter of Dea. Daniel C and Abigail (Bailey) Bagley, of Araesbury. 



JAMES MONEOE BACON, 

Was born in Newton, Mass., January 3, 1818. He was the son of 
Joseph and Beulah (Fuller) Bacon, and was baptized'when about ten 
years of age. The following is the account which he has given of his 
religious experience : 

" I united with the First Church in Newton (then under the pastoral 
care of Rev. J. Homer, D. D., and Rev. James Bates), in April, 1833. 
During the previous autumn, there was considerable religious interest in 
the parish, and neighborhood meetings for prayer, and, at the same hour, 
in an adjoining room for inquirers. I was induced to attend one of these 
meetings, — up to this time my opposition to religion remaining bitter 
and outspoken. I was determined 1 would not go into the inquiry meet- 
ing. 1 took my seat, surveyed my fellows, and felt assured that I was 
right, until I heard singing in an adjoining room. Then I saw my mis- 
take, and that I had been taken in my own craftiness ; but I was too 
proud to rectify my mistake at that late hour, and I resolved to sit and 
brave it out. But when the minister came to me, — so mild and affec- 
tionate in his manner, and so moved in his feelings, — I was completely 
unmanned, and went home feeling ashamed and dissatisfied with myself. 
My convictions of guilt were more or less pungent for some days, when 
I strove to make a compromise with conscience by promising to lead a 
correct life, read my Bible attentively, and daily engage in secret prayer ; 
hoping to enjoy religion secretly, for fear of my schoolmates and other 
companions. This course, pursued for a while, only increased my un- 
rest, until I at length resolved that I would make an open avowal of my 
purpose to assume the yoke of Christ, and rely upon his merits rather 
than upon my own good carriage and outward religion. The struggle 
was now over ; relief came gradually, accompanied with compassion for 
the souls of others, — which compassion at length found expression in 
my pur})ose to devote my life to the work of preaching the gospel." 

He fitted for college at Phillips Academy, Andover, in the years 1836; 
'37, and '38, but, on account of long-continued ill health, was obliged to 
forego the cherished wish to pursue the regular college course. He 
read theology privately, and completed his studies with Rev. Dr. Ide 
of Medway, in 1845. He was approbated by the Mendon Association 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 195 

Dec. 18, 1844, and was ordained at Littleton, Mass., Oct. 8, 1846; dis- 
missed Nov. 13, 1849 ; installed over the Union Evangelical Church of 
Salisbury and Araesbury, June 25, 1851 ; dismissed Oct. 9, 1855 ; in- 
stalled over the First Church in Essex, July 9, 1856. 

Mr. Bacon was married in Newton, Mass., Sept. 17, 1846, to Maria 
Woodward, daughter of Elijah Fuller and Anna (Murdock) Woodward. 
She died Jan. 31, 1863. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. James Plenry, b. July 14, 1849, in Littleton, Mass. 

2. Joseph Woodw^ard, b. Oct. 30, 1851, in Amesbury, Mass. 
Mr. Bacon published, — 

A Memorial Sermon on the death of his beloved wife, preached Feb. 
22, 1863. 8vo, pp. 39, Boston, 1863. 



SAMUEL JONES SPALDING, 

The second pastor of the Whitefield Church, Newburyport, was the 
son of Abijah and Hannah (Eastman) Spalding, and was born in Lynde- 
borough, N. H., Dec. 11, 1820. In April, 1824, his parents removed 
to Nashua, N. IL 

He was baptized when about ten years of age. 

Li June, 1834, two clergymen tarried at the house of his parents dur- 
ing a meeting of the Hillsboro' County Conference. On the last day of 
the meeting, his mother desired that they should make special mention 
of her absent son. This was done at family prayers that morning. He 
was at the time ignorant of his mother's request and of the hour of 
prayer, and wholly indifferent to religious things. But while they were 
; praying he first felt his guilt as a sinner. The night which followed this 
day was one of unrelieved misery. The second day, on reading the par- 
able of the prodigal son, he was enabled by the grace of God to say, " I 
will arise and go to my Father." Immediately the burden was uplifted, 
the darkness disappeared, and peace, a sweet, calm, and divine peace 
came in their stead. On the 1st of February, 1835, he united with the 
church now known as the Olive Street Church, in Nashua, N. H. 

Mr. Spalding was prepared for college under the instruction of David 
Crosby, Esq., of Nashua. He graduated at D. C. in 1842, and at the 
Theo. Seminary, Andover, in 1845. He was approbated by the Ando- 
ver Association, April 8, 1845. Immediately after leaving the Seminary 
he entered the service of the Maine Home Miss. Society, and preached 
for a few weeks at Winslow, Me. In April, 1846, he went to Salmon 
Falls, N. H., to take the charge of a new religious enterprise. A Con- 



196 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

gregational church was organized May 1, 1846, and Mr. Spalding was 
ordained its pastor, Oct. 26, 1846. A house of worship was built and 
dedicated May 1, 1850. After a pastorate of five years he resigned his 
charge, to accept the call of the Whitefield Church, Newburyport, and 
was dismissed June 1, 1851. 

This, too, was a new enterprise ; and at the time of Mr. Spalding's 
installation, June 30, 1851, the people were worshipping in Market Hall. 
A church was built and dedicated March 2, 1852. 

On the 29th of Dec, 1862, he was appointed by Col. E. F. Stone, 
Chaplain of the 48th Mass. Reg. of Volunteers, and sailed from New 
York for New Orleans on the 17th of Jan., 1863. This regiment was in 
active service at the siege of Port Hudson and at Donaldsonville, and 
arrived in Boston, on its return, Sunday morning, Aug. 30, 1863. 

Mr. Spalding was married June 27, 1848, to Miss Sarah Lydia Met- 
calf, daughter of Hon. Luther and Sarah B. (Phipps) Metcalf of Med- 
way, Mass. She died Sept. 1, 1849, and was buried in Medway. 

He was married a second time, Sept. 16, 1851, to Miss Sarah Jane 
Parker Toppan, daughter of Hon. Edmund and Blary (Chase) Toppan 
of Hampton, N. H. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Mary Toppan, b. at Newburyport, Dec. 22, 1856 ; bap. April 12, 
1857, by D. Dana, D. D. 

2. Annie Toppan, b. at Newburyport, March 23, 1860 ; bap. July 
22, 1860, by L. Withington, D. D. 



LEONARD STICKNEY PARKER, 

Was born in Dunbarton, N. H., Dec. 6, 1812. He was the son of 
William and Martha (Tenney) Parker of Bradford, and was baptized in 
infancy. May 6, 1830, he united with the Congregational church in 
Dunbarton, N. H. 

Speaking of his religious experience, Mr. Parker says, " I was early 
the subject of deep conviction. During the years 1826-28 my distress 
was almost insupportable. I sought relief on every side, but found none. 
My mother placed on my table Dr. Justin Edwards's tract, ' The way to 
be saved,' which was blessed to my illumination, and, as I trust, to my 
conversion. My hope was faint at fii'St, and I unwisely waited two years 
before uniting with the church. I have had a steady peace of mind, and 
the work of the ministry is growingly precious to me." 

Mr. Parker fitted for college in the Boston Latin School, and entered 
Dartmouth in 1832 ; but was compelled to leave in consequence of ill 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 197 

health. He com[)letecI his theological course at Oberlin, Ohio, in 1838, and 
was approbated Aug. 12, 1837, by the Loniine County Association, Ohio. 
He was ordained an evangelist at Fitchville, Ohio, Dec. 16, 1837. His 
" being oj'dained before he left the seminary," he says, " was a Western 
necessity. I was supplying a church, and no ordained minister was near." 

Installed pastor of the Congregational church at Mansfield, Ohio, 
Sept. 9, 1838; dis. Oct. 16, 1840. Installed pastor of the High St. 
Church, Providence, R. I., Dec. 28, 1840 ; dis., on account of ill health, 
Oct. 9, 1843. Installed pastor of the First Church, West Brookfield, 
Dec. 19, 1844; dis. April 7, 1851. Installed pastor of the Winter 
Street Church, Haverhill, June 1, 1853 ; dis. March 26, 18G0. Installed 
pastor of the First Church in Derry, N. II., Feb. 20, 1861. 

Mr. Parker has published the following discourses, — 

1. Thoughts on Temperance. Providence, R. I., 1841. 

2. A Farewell Sermon. Providence, R. I., 1843. 
S. A Plea for Missions. West Brookfield, 1846. 

4. The Good Name. Two Discourses addressed to the Young Men 
of West Brookfield. West Brookfield, 1848. 

Mr. Parker married, Sept. 20, 1838, Miss Caroline Augusta Goodale, 
daughter of James and Eunice (Wilder) Goodale, of Oakham. She 
died in Providence, R. I., Sept. 12, 1842. 

Their children were, — 

1. Leonard Goodale, b. Aug. 2, 1839. A teacher in Iowa. 

2. Caroline Augusta, b. Nov. 27, 1840. Teacher in Mississippi. 

3. Mary Ann, b. June 3, 1842. Adopted in infancy by her uncle, 
Prof. James Dascomb of Oberlin, O., and now bearing his name. 

He was married a second time in Exeter, N. H., Oct. 28, 1845, to 
Mrs. Abigail Blake French, widow of Prof. Henry French of Exeter, 
N. H., and daughter of Sherburne and Apphia Blake of Exeter, N. H. 

Their children are, — 

4. Abbie Blake, b. Oct. 14, 1845. 

5. Henry French, b. July 31, 1848 ; d. March 5, 1850. 

6. Mary Lilian, b. May 6, 1854. 



ASA FARWELL, 

Was the son of Gurden and Anna (Farnsworth) Farwell, and was 
born in Dorset, Vt., March 8, 1812. Of his rehgious experience Mr. 
Farwell says : 

" I was baptized in infancy, and early taught, by a praying mother 
and by my good pastor (Dr. Jackson, of Dorset, Vt.), the great truths 



198 HISTOliY OF KSSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

of our religion. Tliough often impressed, and sometimes deeply, by 
special providences, and, during seasons of religious interest, with otliers, 
yet I did not resolve seriously to do any thing on the subject until near 
the close of my eighteenth year. This was in the month of January, 
1830, and while attending a Bible class under the charge of my pastor. 
The truth then seemed to gain a hold on me as it had not done before. 
After a few weeks, there commenced a season of religious revival in the 
church and congregation. The subject became to me all-absorbing. My 
convictions of guilt, and of the need of an Almighty Helper, were strong, 
and past questioning. This state of mind continued, amid alternate 
struggles and ineffectual resolves to become better, until the day of the 
annual Fast (April 9th, of that year), when I thought new light and 
peace were mine, — even iho. joy of forgiveness through Jesus. I soon 
began to hope, and, after a few weeks, made a public profession of my 
faith in Christ. During the next year I passed through many very se- 
vere spiritual conflicts, but at length found great peace and rest in Ihe 
" doctrines of grace," which are loved more and more as years pass away. 
I united with the Congregational church in Dorset, Vt., May 2, 1830." 

Mr. Farwell w^as fitted for college with Rev. Dr. Jackson of Dorset, 
and at Burr Seminary, Manchester, Vt. He graduated at M. C. 1838, 
and at the Theo. Seminary, Andover, in 1842. He was approbated by 
the Andover Association April 12, 1842. He wa3 Principal of the Ab- 
bot Female Academy, Andover, Mass., from May, 1842, to November, 
1852, a period of ten years. From November, 1849, to May, 1850, he 
was in Europe. He was \ordained pastor of the Cong, church in West 
Haverhill, April 21, 1853. 

Mr. Farwell was married Dec. 10, 1845, to Hannah Sexton, daughter 
of Chester and Lucinda (Warriner) Sexton, of Springfield, Mass. She 
died Sept. 4, 1848. 

Their children were, — 

1. William Holden, b. in Andover, Mass., May 6, 1847 ; d. Aug. 9, 
1847. 

2. Hannah Sexton, b. in Andover, Mass., Aug. 27, 1848. 

He was married Aug. 10, 1849, to Mary Ann Sexton, sister of his 
first wife. 

Their children are, — 

3. Charles Gurden, b. in Andover, Mass., Sept. 23, 1851. 

4. Francis Howard, b. in Haverhill, Mass., July 31, 1856. 

5. Edwin Chester, b. in Haverhill, Mass., April 2, 1859. 

6. Henry Curtis, b. in Haverhill, Mass., Oct. 18, 1861. 

Mr. Farwell wrote a series of letters while he was abroad, which were 
published in the Congregationalist. 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 199 



,DANIEL WEBSTER PICKARD, 



Was born in Rowley, June 7, 1830, and was the son of Samuel and 
Sarah (Coffin) Pickard. His mother died Oct. 7, 1831. The maiden 
name of his step-mother was Hannah Little, by whom he was carefully 
nurtured and trained in the fear of the Lord. At the age of twelve, 
with his own consent, his parents consecrated him to God. At this time 
he became deeply interested in his soul's salvation, and expressed the 
hope that he had experienced a saving change. His parents then felt 
that he was young, and might not fully understand his state, and advised 
delay in his making a profession of his faith in Christ. " They have 
since," says his father, " felt that they erred in their advice, as he never 
gave his parents reason to feel that his life was inconsistent with the 
hope he expressed. He ever felt that his work on earth was the Chris- 
tian ministry. He made a public profession of his religious faith, and 
united with the chui'ch in Platteville, Wis., in April, 1849. Immediately 
after this, seeing the destitute condition of the West, he decided to pre- 
pare himself for the service of his heavenly Master. He loved his 
chosen work, and devoted himself to it as long as his health permitted. 

He prepared for college in the academy at Lewiston Falls. Gradu- 
ated at B. C. in 1848, and at the Bangor Theological Seminary in 1852 ; 
after which he spent a year as a Resident Licentiate at Andover. 

He was approbated by the Penobscot Association Dec. 16, 1851. 

He was ordained at Groveland, as colleague of Rev. Dr. Perry, Sept. 
29, 1853. The relations of these pastors were of the most pleasant 
character. In June, 1856, he left his people, as he supposed for a few 
weeks, and made the journey to Illinois and Wisconsin. Shortly after 
his arrival in Jacksonville, 111., he was seized with a hemorrhage from 
the lungs, which prostrated him for several months. Soon after, he 
deemed it his duty to ask a dismission from his people, which was grant- 
ed, on the advice of an ecclesiastical council, Jan. 7, 1857. 

Mr. Pickard retui-ned to Maine in the spring of 1858 in feeble health, 
but for several months supplied the First Congregational Church at 
Lewiston Falls. In January, 1859, at the urgent request of the church 
in Platteville, Wis., he engaged to preach for them one year. He 
preached a few Sabbaths, when he was again attacked, and obliged to 
close his ministerial labors. He returned home enfeebled in health and 
strength. He continued to decline, until, on the 6th of February, 1860, 
he fell asleep in Jesus. 

His last days were days of peace and comfort, such as come only from 
a Christian faith and hope, and his death was triumphant. His funeral 



200 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

was attended in the First Cong. Church, Lewiston, Me., Feb. 8th. The 
sermon was preached by his former pastor, the late Rev. James Drum- 
mond, of Springfield. 

Mr. Pickard was married in Thoraaston, Me., June 14, 1854, to Miss 
Helen Woodall, daughter of Rev. Richard and Sarah (Forbes) Wood- 
all, then of Thomaston, but now of Bangor. 

Their only child was, — 

Sarah Little, b. Nov. 22, 1858 ; d. Jan. 15, 1860. 



JAMES TOMB McCOLLOM, 

The son of John and Mary (Graham) McCollom, was born in Salem, 
N. Y., Sept. 20, 1814, and was baptized in infancy. He fitted for col- 
lege in the academy at Derry, N. H. ; and graduated at D. C. in 1835, 
and at the Theo. Sem., Andover, in 1840. He was tutor in D. C. for a 
year, 1837-38. He was approbated by the Andover Association April, 
1840. 

In reply to a request for a sketch of his religious experience, he gave 
the following narrative : 

" The first distinctly marked religious impressions of which I have any 
recollection, were made upon my mind when I was some eight or nine 
years of age. It was during a revival of religion in my native town. 
And the interest I saw everywhere around me, the exhortations of my 
teachers, and, above all, the faithful admonitions of my mother, at times 
affected me very deeply. These impressions, however, soon wore off", 
leaving no other effect than a clearer idea of the way of salvation than 
I should, perhaps, have otherwise possessed. 

" Some six years later, when about fourteen years old, I became again 
interested in the subject of personal religion. I know of no outward 
call of God tliat particularly affected me. There was no revival of i"e- 
ligion in the place. No person had spoken to me pointedly on the sub- 
ject of religion for a long time. I do not remember any sermon that 
specially awakened my attention. There seemed to be within an impulse 
to seek something higher and better than the world could furnish. I 
longed for some higher good than I saw in the world around me. No 
particular fears of the future troubled me. Indeed, I do not think I had 
then, or for some time after, any adequate impression of the exceeding 
sinfulness of sin, and God's indignation against the impenitent sinner. 
I wanted to be a Christian. I was uneasy, unhappy, and felt the claims 
of God in some measure upon me. But I did not very particularly ana- 
lyze my feelings at the time, and cannot now very distinctly recall them. 



SKETCHES OF ME31BEKS. 201 

At that time, all alone, I tried to be a Christian. 1 communicated my 
feelings to no one ; but I read the Bible, I recalled past instructions, I 
tried to find light and peace from the TYord of God. At this time, a 
good woman, without knowing my state of mind, put into my hands 
Baxter's ' Saint's Rest.' This was like cold waters to a thirsty soul. I 
read it, I devoured it ; for it seemed to meet my wants exactly. In the 
seventh chapter, I think it is, a number of scriptural tests of religious 
character are brought together and arranged in that simple and forcible 
manner peculiar to Baxter. I had been trying to do what the book had 
told me to do, — give myself unconditionally to the Saviour, and trust 
him for my salvation. And now I brought myself up squarely to these 
tests of religious character. I read that seventh chapter ; I prayed over 
it ; I tried honestly to apply its tests to my own heart ; and, very much 
to my surprise, found myself indulging some feeble hope that I really 
was a Christian. The idea was like a flash of sunlight on my soul. But 
it seemed too good to be true. And though I was calm, peaceful, happy, 
yet the whole thing, especially on first awaking in the morning, seemed 
like a beautiful dream. I went over the same processes of examination 
again and again, and generally came to the same conclusion. From that 
time I went forward in what I then thought, and still think, a true 
Christian life, with much weakness indeed, with some despondings, with 
many drawbacks, from ' the law of sin ' within me, but with increasing 
confidence in Him who, I trust, will bring me off conqueror in the great 
battle of life. J. T. McCollom." 

He was ordained pastor of the Cong, church in Pittston, Me., June 
25, 1841, was dismissed Sept. 24, 1844; was installed pastor of the 
"First Cong. Church in Great Falls, N. H., Oct. 2, 1844, was dismissed 
Dec. 25, 1853 ; was installed pastor of the Cong, church in Bradford 
Jan. 25, 1854. 

He married. May 12, 1841, Elizabeth Philips Hildreth, daughter of 
Rev. Hosea and Sarah (McLeod) Hildreth, of Gloucester. She died 
Aug. 8, 1857. 

They had two children, — 

1. John Hildreth, b. in Pittston, Me., May 6, 1843. 

2. Thomas Chalmers, b. in Somersworth, N. H., May 9, 1847. 

He was married a second time March 30, 1858, to Mrs. Louisa Rey- 
nolds Kimball, widow of Wm. N. Kimball, of Bradford, and daughter of 
Paul and Sally (Morse) Hopkinson, of Groveland. 

The oldest son of Mr. McCollom enlisted in the 30th Mass. Regiment 
early in the war, and is still in the service. 

Mr. McCollom has published, — 

1. A Sermon on Future Punishment. 1848. 

26 



202 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

2. A Sermon occasioned by the death of Rev. John E. Farwell. 
1859. 



LEANDER THOMPSON, 

Was born in Woburn, March 7, 1812. His parents were Dea. 
Charles and Mary (Wyman) Thompson, who offered him for baptism 
when he was five years of age, they uniting with the church at that time, 
then under the pastoral care of Rev. Joseph Chickering, father of Rev. Dr. 
Chickering of Portland, Maine. In a very po\\erful and extensive revi- 
val, during the years 1827-29, he became interested in personal religion, 
and united with the church then under the pastoral care of Rev. Joseph 
Bennett. 

He fitted for college at Woburn Academy; graduated at A. C. in 
1835 ; at the Theo. Sem., Andover, in 1838. He was approbated by 
the Andover Association April 10, 1838 ; and, together with Mr. 
Charles S. Sherman, his classmate and future colleague in the missionary 
field, was ordained at Woburn, Nov. 30, 1838, as an evangelist. After 
supplying the church in Granby nearly a year, Mr. Thompson sailed, 
with others, from Boston, for Syria, January 24, 1840, and reached Bei- 
rut, April 2d. During his residence in Syria and the Holy Land, he 
passed through four wars of great ferocity and of most desolating re- 
sults. Such were the solicitude and excitement occasioned by almost 
continuous scenes of bloodshed, with the prostrating influence of the cli- 
mate, and the nature of his work, that his health utterly failed. A very 
severe and protracted fever in Jerusalem left him so enfeebled, as to pre- 
clude any reasonable hope of usefulness or even of life in that distracted 
land. Accordingly, after being advised by some of the oldest mission- 
aries in the East, as well as by other friends, to return to the United 
States, he left, with the most painful regrets, the land where he had 
fondly hoped to labor many years, and at length find his grave, and re- 
turned with his family to the United States in the summer of 1843. Af- 
ter some months of inability to labor, he was installed as pastor of the 
South Church in South Hadley, Dec. 13, 1843. He was compelled at 
length by failing health to retire from the field, and was accordingly dis- 
missed, at his own request, Aug. 28, 1850. From that time until his in- 
stallation in Amesbury, Sept. 20, 1854, he was unable to preach except 
occasionally a single Sabbath, or, at most, a few Sabbaths in succession. 

Mr. Thompson married, Nov. 6, 1839, Ann Eliza Avery. She was 
the daughter of Samuel and Mary (Clark) Avery, of Wolfboro', N. H. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Charles Henry, b. in Jerusalem, Sept. 27, 1840 ; d. Oct. 16, 1841. 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 203 

2. Edwin Wheelock, b. in Beirut, Dec. 13, 1841 ; d. Sept. 28, 1849. 

3. Mary Avery, b. in South Hadley, March 25, 1844; d. Feb. 10, 
1846. 

4. Everett Augustine, b. in South Hadley, March 28, 1847. 

5. Anne Eliza, b. in South Hadley, Oct. 29, 1848 ; d. Sept. 6, 1849. 

6. Samuel Avery, b. in Wolfboro', N. H., Oct. 16, 1850. 
Mr. Thompson has published, — 

1. A Sermon. The influence of Memory. 1840. 

2. A Sermon, at the Annual Fast, April 3, 1845. " A Nation's In- 
crease not a Nation's Joy." 

3. Sermon at the Annual Fast, April 10, 1856. " The Nation's Dan- 
ger." 

4. " The Lay Element in the Church." Pub. by the Am. Tract So- 
ciety, Boston, 1860. 

DAVIS FOSTER, 

Was the son of Richard and Irene (Burroughs) Foster, and was born 
in Hanover, N. H., Oct. 26, 1822. 

He pursued his preparatory course of study at Hanover, at Concoi'd, 
and at Henniker, and graduated at D. C. 1849. After leaving college, 
he taught school in Bucksport, Me., for three years ; graduated at the 
Theo. Sem., Andover, in 1855. 

He was approbated by the Andover Association, Feb. 13, 1855, and 
was ordained pastor of the Second Church in West Newbury, Nov. 1, 
1855. His salary was $1,000 annually. 

Mr. Foster was baptized in infancy, and came to a saving knowledge 
of Christ during a revival at Hanover Centre, in the year 1841. The 
same year he united with the Second Congregational Church in Hano- 
ver. 

He was married at Bucksport, Me., March 20, 1856, to Harriet Louise 
Darling, daughter of Dea. Henry and Eliza (Cobb) Darling. 

Their children are, — 
• 1. Henry Richard, b. at West Newbury, June 28, 1859. 

2. Herbert DarHng, b. at West Newbury, June 22, 1863. 



WILLIAM GREENOUGH THAYER SHEDD, 

Was born in Acton, Mass., June 21, 1820. His father was the Rev. 
Marshall Shedd, and the maiden name of his mother was Eliza Thayer. 
He was baptized in infancy ; united with the Fourteenth Street Presby- 



204 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

terian Church, New York, Feljruary, 1840 ; graduated at the University 
of Vermont in 1839, and at the Theo. Sem., Andover, 1843. He was 
approbated by the Andover Association, April 11, 1843 ; ordained 
at Brandon, Vt., January 4, 1844; dismissed from Brandon, August, 
1845.' He commenced the duties of Professor of EngUsh Literature in 
V. U., Sept., 1845 ; resigned this professorship August, 1852 ; was in- 
augurated Professor of Ehetoric and Pastoral Theology in Auburn The- 
ological Seminary, June 16, 1852, and commenced his lectures in Sep- 
tember of that year ; accepted the appointment to the chair of Ecclesi- 
astical History and Pastoral Theology in the Theo. Sem., Andover, in 
Oct. 1853, and was inaugurated Feb. 15, 1854. He resigned this posi- 
tion in the spring of 1862, and was installed associate pastor of the Brick 
Chui-ch, New York (O. S. Presbyterian), April 3, 1862. He was inaugu- 
rated Professor of Biblical Literature in Union Theological Seminary, 
New York, January. 11, 1864. 

Prof. Shedd was married in Whitehall, N. Y., Oct. 7, 1845, to Lucy 
Ann Myers, daughter of Peter Joseph Henry and Lucy Fitch (Kirtland) 
Myers. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Margaret Jane, b. Nov. 4, 1846, at Burlington, Vt. 

2. William Thayer, b. Feb. 17, 1850, at Burlington, Vt. 

3. Catharine Eliza, b. Feb. 16, 1855, at Andover, Mass. 

4. John Myers, b. Aug. 20, 1859, at Andover, Mass. 
Publications of Prof. Shedd : 

1. Address before the Temperance Society in Vermont University, 
April, 1844. "Intellectual Temperance." 

2. Sermon at the Installation of Rev. F. B. Wheeler, Brandon, Vt., 
May, 1850. " The true Method of Preaching." 

3. Theremins' Rhetoric, translated from the German. New York, 
1850. Second revised edition. Andover, 1859. 

4. Coleridge's Works : edited, with an Introductory Essay. New 
York, 1853. 

5. Address before the American Education Society, May, 1855. 
" The education of a Ministry the proper Work and care of th6 
Churches." 

6. Discourses and Essays. Andover, 1856. 

7. Philosophy of History. Andover, 1856. 

8. Guericke's Church History, translated from the German. Ando- 
ver, 1857. 

9. Address before the Massachusetts Colonization Society, May, 1857. 
" Africa and Colonization." 

10. Address before the Congregational Library Association, May, 
1858. " Congregationalism and Symbolism." 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 205 

11. Augustine's Confessions, edited, with an Introductoiy Essay. An- 
dover, 1860. 

12. Thanksgiving Sermon, pi'eached in the " Brick Church," New 
York, May 27, 1862. 

13. Sermon preached for the Board of Foreign Missions in the Pres- 
byterian Churcli, May 3, 1863. 

14. History of Christian Doctrines. 2 volumes. New York, 1864. 



HERMAN ROWLEE TIMLOW, 

Was born in Amity, Orange Co., N. Y., April 6, 1831. He was the son 
of Rev. William and Ruth (Wilbur) Timlow. He was baptized in infan- 
cy, and united with the Presbyterian church at Amity, N. Y., under the 
pastoral care of his father, Oct. 3, 1851. Of his early religious experi- 
ence Mr. Timlow says : " The more I reflect upon my early life, the more 
I am inclined to believe I was converted at about thirteen years of age. 
I was in early childhood the subject of deep religious feeling, and I never 
neglected secret prayer even then, for more than a few days at a time. 
From the age of fourteen until nineteen, I yielded quite freely to the so- 
licitations of worldly pleasures, but yet my conscience was in a state of 
unabated unrest. The death of a brother (a classmate in college, and 
devoted to the ministry), called me from a vain life to a more perfect 
consecration of myself to Jesus. A voice seemed to be continually urging 
me to the duty of taking my brother's place in the Master's service. I 
found no peace until I resolved, in the strength of Christ, to give myself 
to the Avork of the ministry." 

Mr. Timlow was prepared for college at Ashland Hall, West Bloom- 
field, N. Y., under the care of Rev. D. A. Freme ; graduated at the Col- 
lege of New Jersey, 1852 ; his theological course was private. He was 
approbated by the Association of New York and Brooklyn, April 4, 
1854. He was ordained at Dunkirk, N. Y., by the Presbytery of Buf- 
falo, Oct. 4, 1854; and was installed pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church in Dunkirk at the same time. On account of ill-health he re- 
signed his charge at Dunkirk, and was dismissed January 4, 1856. He 
supplied the Second Presbyterian Church in Newburyport during the 
year 1856; and was installed pastor of said church, Dec. 30, 1856, by 
the Pi'esbytery of Londonderry ; received a call from the Reformed 
Dutch Church in Rhinebeck, N. Y., in Dec, 1859, and was released Dec. 
22, 1859, from his pastoral charge in Newburyport, and was installed at 
Rhinebeck by the Classis of Poughkeepsie, Feb. 2, 1860. 

Mr. Timlow married at Groton, July 11, 1854, Martha Fay Bigelow, 
daughter of Josiah Francis and Harriet Muni'oe (Sawin) Bigelow. 



206 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

The name:^ of their children are, — 

1. Mary Josephine, b. April 17, 1855, in Dunkirk, N. Y. 

2. Alice Wilbur, b. Aug. 7, 1857, in Newburyport. 

3. Bessie Weston, b. June 24, 1861, in Rhinebeck, N. Y. 

4. William, b. March 5, 1863 ; d. Aug. 5, 1863, 

5. Ruth I ^ b. April 24, 1864 ; d. July 25, 1864. 

6. Grace) J b. April 24, 1864. 

Mr. Timlow has published an Anonymous Pamphlet. — Two Review 
articles, and occasional contributions to the public journals. 



ALEXANDER CROCKER CHILDS, 

Was the son of James and Elizabeth (Crocker) Childs, and was born in 
Nantucket, Mass., August 31, 1823. He was baptized in infancy. Of his 
religious experience, he says : " Very early in life I was impressed with a 
sense of my sinfulness, and felt the reasonableness of God's claims upon 
me. I wanted to be a Christian, because it seemed as though I ought to 
be, but was kept back by the fear of what others would think and say, 
until the age of thirteen, when, on going home from school one day, my 
mother informed me that a certain lad had become pious. It occasioned 
great surprise to me, and I immediately thought, now is the time for me ; 
I must be a Christian some time, and I shall never have a better opportu- 
nity than the present. I thought it dangerous and wrong to delay. The 
subject occupied my mind constantly for several weeks, and finally I gave 
up all, as I then supposed, and regarded myself a Christian. Three or 
four years passed, and I had not made a public profession of religion. I 
was deferring it with the hope that it would be easier after my entrance 
into college. Conversation with my pastor gave me new light upon the 
subject. I was led to review my whole religious experience, and learned 
that my religion was not what it should be. I had been deceiving my- 
self, and probably building my hopes on a false foundation. Renewedly 
I sought and found Christ. One evening, sitting alone with my mother, 
I said to her, ' I think I am a Christian now.' ' My son,' said she, ' I 
thought you had been one for some time.' ' No,' said I ; ' never till now 
have I given up all for Christ ; now I am ready to go anywhere, to do 
any thing, and be any thing for Christ.' " 

Mr. Childs united with the Congregational church in Nantucket, 
January, 1841. 

He prepared for college at the school in his native town ; graduated 
at Y. C, 1845 ; at the Union Theo. Seminary, New York, 1849 ; was 
approbated by the Association of New York and Brooklyn, April 5, 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 207 

1849 ; was ordained at East Falmouth, May 18, 1853 ; dismissed Oct. 
9, 1855. Installed pastor of the Cong, church at Amesbury Mills, Nov. 
19, 1856; dismissed from the same, August 11, 1858. Commenced 
preaching in Rehoboth, January 1, 1860. 

Mr. Childs was married in Nantucket, August 17, 1851, to Eunice 
Hussey Barney, daughter of William and Mary (Sprague) Barney. 

The names of their children are,* — 

1. WiUiam Barney, b. July 12, 1853, in East Falmouth. 

2. Elizabeth Crocker, b. Sept. 6, 1858, in Amesbury. 



THOMAS DOGGETT, 

The son of Elkanah and Eunice (Barker) Doggett, was born in Free- 
town, Bristol Co., Mass., Nov. 25, 1827. He was baptized in infancy, 
and united with the First Cong. Church in Cleveland, Ohio (then the 
First Pres. Church of Ohio City), in 1843. " In that year, during a 
revival of religion, the excellence of the service of Christ was presented 
to my mind in a light so attractive that it seemed impossible for me, 
henceforth, to serve any other master than Jesus. I think I was then 
led to choose Him, not from any deep sense of the evil of sin, but from 
the new loveliness of religion. Every impulse of my soul seemed to 
urge me to Him. From that time the conviction of my sinfulness has 
been increasing, and my need of such a Saviour. My conscience was 
not so much moved as my heart." 

Mr. Doggett graduated at Western Reserve College in 1848, and at 
the Western Reserve Theological Seminary in 1852. He was licensed 
by the Portage Presbytery, Ohio, Sept. 3, 1850, and was ordained at 
Groveland, as colleague with Rev. Dr. Perry, March 4, 1857 ; dismissed 
April 20, 1864, to accept a call from the Presbyterian church at Niagara 
Falls, N. Y., where he was installed by the Presbytery of Niagara, July 
20, 1864. 

He married at Andover, Mass., Sept. 28, 1853, Miss Frances Lee 
Barrows, daughter of Prof. Elijah Porter and Sarah Maria (Lee) Bar- 
rows. 

Their children are, — 

1. William Elkanah, b. March 17, 1855, at Madison, Wis. 

2. Charles Stebbins, b. Nov. 29, 1859, at Groveland, Mass. 

3. Allen Barrows, b. June 18, 1860, at Groveland, Mass. 



208 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 



CHARLES DICKINSON HERBERT, 

The son of George and Charlotte (Tuttle) Herbert, was born in Ells- 
worth, Me., Sept. 28, 1818. He was baptized in infancy, and united 
with the Congregational church at Ellsworth, June 3, 1838. He says : 

" I had been a youth of serious impressions, and had at times felt the 
sinfulness of my heart, and the need of a part in the atonement of Christ. 
In the summer of 1836, I renounced all, and made a private surrender 
of myself to Jesus, and ever after felt the peace of one accepted of God ; 
but, as no one spoke to me on the subject, my hope did not lead me to an 
open Christian life until the winter of 1837-38, when my office as a 
teacher called out religious decision." 

With the exception of about a year and a half, Mr. Herbert received 
his entire education preparatory to college at home. He graduated at 
B. C. in 1841, and at the Bangor Theological Seminary in 1844. He 
was approbated by the Hancock Association, Maine, April 9, 1844. 

He was ordained by the Lexington Presbj'tery, Missouri, April 24, 
1846, as a missionaiy at Parkville, Mo. 

After laboring three yeai'S in Parkville, Osceola, and vicinity, his 
health failed, and he was obliged to return East. He preached for about 
fifteen months at Frankfort Mills, Me. 

He was installed at Mount Vernon, N. H., Nov. 6, 1850 ; dis. ; 

installed at West Newbury, First Parish, March 5, 1857. 

He married in Durham, N. H., Sept. 28, 1853, Miss Sarah Ann 
Flanders, only daughter of Thomas and Anna (Hilliard) Flanders, 
M. D. 

Their children are, — 

1. George, b. April 24, 1855, at Mont Vernon, N. H. 

2. Charles Edward, b. April 7, 1857, at West Newbury, Mass. 



CHARLES BEECHER, 

The son of Rev. Dr. Lyman and Roxanna (Foote) Beecher, was born 
in Litchfield, Conn., Oct. 7, 1815. He was baptized in infancy, and 
united with the Hanover Street Church in Boston, in 1828, while they 
were worshipping with the Salem Church, on account of the burning of 
their house. Of his religious experience he says : 

" My convictions under preaching were early, and continued long. I 
first hoped in Christ in Boston, when about twelve years of age. I have, 
however, since been a backslider to such an extent that I know not 
whether that early conversion was real. I attach little importance to 



SKETCHES OF MEMHERS. 209 

the evidence of dates and days past. My only hope is in an ever-living 
Saviour." 

Mr. Beecher was in the Boston Latin School in 1827, and at Law- 
rence Academy, in Groton, in 1828-29, where he completed his prepar- 
ation for college. He graduated at Bowdoin College in 1833, and at 
Lane Theological Seminary in 1836. 

He was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Indianapolis, Ind., 
August 11, 1843; ordained pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church, 
Fort Wayne, Ind., by the Presbytery of Fort Wayne, Nov. 9, 1844, 
dismissed Sept. 2, 1850 ; installed pastor of the First Cong. Church, 
Newark, N. J., , 1850, dismissed Oct. 3, 1854 ; installed as col- 
league pastor with Rev. Isaac Braman, Georgetown, Mass., Nov. 19, 
1857. By the death of Mr. Braman, Dec. 26, 1858, he became the sole 
pastor of the church. 

Mr. Beecher was married July 23, 1840, at Jacksonville, 111., to Sarah 
Linwood Coffin, daughter of Nathaniel and Mary (Porter) Coffin. 

Their children are, — 

1. Frederick Henry, b. at New Orleans, La., June 23, 1841. 

2. Charles McCulloch, b. at Ft. Wayne, Ind., Aug. 16, 1845. 

3. Helen Louisa, b. at Ft. Wayne, Sept. 23, 1847. 

4. Mary Isabella, b. at Ft. Wayne, Nov. 7, 1849. 

5. Esther Lyman, b. at Newark, N. J., Feb. 15, 1852. 

6. Edith Harriet, b. at Newark, N. J., June 5, 1854. 

Frederick grad. at B. C. in 1862 ; enlisted as a private in April or 
May of the same year ; mustered in as a 2d Sergt. 1 6th Maine Vols. ; 
was wounded at Fredericksburg ; promoted 1st Lieut., and wounded 
again, and lamed for life, at Gettysburg. He was also under fire at 
Chancellorsville. 

The publications of Mr. Beecher are, — 

The Incarnation ; or, Pictures of the Virgin and her Son. Harper & 
Bros., N. Y. — Two Sermons on Creeds. About 1845. — The Metro- 
neme ; a Musical Work. New York, 1850. — Sermon on the Duty of 
Disobedience to Wicked Laws. Newark, N. J., 1851. — Sermon on the 
Nebraska Bill. — Report on Spiritual Manifestations, read before the 
Association of New York and Brooklyn. — The Diary in Sunny Mem- 
ories of Foreign Lands. — The Musical Arrangement of the Plymouth 
Collection. — Sermon on the Divine Sorrow. — Sermon on the Anti- 
christ of New England. — Redeemer and Redeemed ; an Investigation 
of the Atonement and of Eternal Judgment, pp. 347. Boston, 1864. 

27 



210 HISTORY OF KSSKX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 



ABRAHAM BURNHAM, 

The son of Bradford and Hannah Dane (Whipple) Burnham, was 
born at Dunbarton, N. H., April 9, 1829, and was baptized in infancy. 
He united with the Cong, church in Dunbarton, N. H., in 1849. 

He graduated at D. C. in 1852, and at the Theo. Sem., Andover, in 
1857 ; was approbated by the Essex South Association Jan. 6, 1857 ; 
was ordained pastor of the Cong, church in East Haverhill, Sept. 30, 
1857. 

Mr. Burnham was mari-ied,at Middleton, Mass., Nov. 27, 1856, to 
Lizzie Helen Phelps, daughter of Ebenezer Smith Phelps, M. D., and 
Mrs. Elizabeth Howard (Sawtelle) Phelps. 

The names of their children are, — 

1. Charles Henry, b. Feb. 7, 1861. 

2. Francis Phelps, b. July 27, 1863 ; d. April 6, 1864. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON FINNEY, 

The son of Silvester and Rebecca (Rice) Finney, was bom in Broth- 
ertown, an Indian reservation in the township of Paris, Oneida Co., N. Y. 
He was not baptized in infancy. He united with the Cong, church in 
Hendersoh, Jefferson Co., N. Y., in January, 1819. Speaking of his re- 
ligious life, he says : 

" In the twenty-first year of my age, I was, when alone in the field, 
quite suddenly caused to see my great sinfulness. At that time, none of 
my father's family professed religion. I had heai-d no preaching that 
made an impression on my heart. An intimate friend had become anx- 
ious, and conversed with me a few moments, but I turned from him in. 
disgust. This was about two days previous to my first sight of my own 
sinful and lost state. For three days and nights I was overwhelmed 
with a sense of my great criminality in the sight of God, and felt that it 
would be most just in the Divine Being to cast me off". I felt that I 
richly merited the strange punishment God had reserved for the workei's 
of iniquity. On the third day, I started for a forest to pray, and the 
thought alarmed me, for I had not heard my own voice in prayer for ten 
years. In the attempt my heart gave way ; my mind became tranquil 
and peaceful ; and my soul rejoiced in God my Saviour." 

Mr. Finney was approbated by the Black River Association of Jeffer- 
son and Lewis counties, N. Y., Feb. 3, 1835. He was ordained as an 
evangelist at North Adams, Jefferson Co., N. Y., Feb. 4, 1836. 

In April, 1885, Mr. Finney became the stated supply of the Presby- 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 211 

terian churches of Litchfield and Columbia, Herkimei- Co., N. Y. In 
May, 1836, he was stated supply of the Cong, church in Holland Pa- 
tent, Oneida Co., N. Y. In November, 1838, he removed to Jersey City, 
as an agent of the Amer. Anti-Slavery Society. During the winter of 
1839-40 he preached to a Cong, church in Philadelphia. In August, 
1840, he removed to Lebanon, N. Y., and supplied the Cong, church of 
that place for one year. In 1842 he removed to Haverhill, Mass., and 
was the stated supply of the Union Evangelical Church. From 1844 
to 1846 he was agent for the State temperance societies of New Hamp- 
shire, Vermont, and New York. In 1851, he was City Missionary at 
Charlestown, Mass. In 1856-57, he preached to the Cong, church at 
Salisbury Point, Mass. In his work as a temperance lecturer, he deliv- 
ered about three thousand addresses, organized eighty-one societies, ob- 
tained eighteen thousand pledges (six thousand of which were against 
intoxicating drinks, tobacco, and profane language). Mr. Finney went 
to California in the year 18 — , and is now a resident of Oakland in 
that State. 

He published the following addresses and sermons : 

The Deceptive Power of Intoxicating Drinks. — The Pathology of 
Drunkenness. — The Nature and Power of the Appetite for Strong 
Drinks. — First Principles of the Temperance Reform. — The Power of 
Example. — Sermon on the Miracle of changing Water into Wine. — 
Objections Answered. 

Mr. Finney was married in Mexico, Oswego Co., N. Y., Sept. 12, 
1822, to Miss Lydia Whitney, daughter of Benjamin and Mercy Harris 
Whitney. 

Their children are, — 

1. Sarah Lucinda, b. Oct. 29, 1823, in Henderson, Jeflferson Co., N. Y. 

2. Cyrus George, b. April 6, 1825, in Henderson, Jefferson Co., 
N. Y.; d. at Oakland, Cah, April 11, 1862. 

3. Mary Philinda, b. Jan. 29, 1827, in Mexico, Oswego Co., N. Y. 

4. Ann Eliza, b. July 15, 1828, in New Haven, Oswego Co., N.Y. 

5. Lydia EUzabeth, b. Aug. 16, 1832, in Mexico, Oswego Co., N. Y. 



CHARLES BROOKS, 

The son of Samuel and Sarah (Campbell) Brooks, was born in Town- 
send, Mass., March 24, 1831, and was not baptized in infancy. He uni- 
ted with the Cong, church in Yale College, Dec. 2, 1849. 

He prepared for college in Lawrence Academy, Groton, which he left 
to enter upon his collegiate course in 1849. He graduated from Yale 



212 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION, 

College in 1853, and from Yale Theological Seminary in 1857. He 
was, for nearly a year, a resident graduate at Andover Theological Sem- 
inary. He was approbated by the New Haven East Association, May 
27, 1856, and was ordained pastor of the Cong, church in Byfield, Mass., 
June 16, 1858 ; dismissed Nov. 11, 1863. 

Mr. Brooks was married in Townsend, Mass., Aug. 1, 1858, to Nancy 
Lewis Adams, daughter of Daniel and Mary (Marshall) Adams, of 
Townsend. 



JOHN ROGERS THURSTON, 

The son of John and Abigail King (Lawrence) Thurston, was born in 
Bangor, Me., Sept. 4, 1831. Both his parents died when he was about 
two years old. He was baptized in infancy, and was their only living 
child. 

Of his religious experience he says : " My first religious impressions, of 
lasting value, were received at the time I entered college. The promi- 
nent thought was, that I had never submitted to God, and that I ought 
to do it. After weeks of absorbing seriousness, I yielded, as I hope, to 
his rule. There was no religious interest at that time in the college, 
nor did I communicate my feelings to any one for a long time. The day 
and hour of the change I cannot tell." He united with the Yale Col- 
lege church, Aug. 6, 1848. Mr. Thurston prepared for college at Ban- 
gor, Me., and graduated at Y. C, 1851 ; graduated at Bangor Theologi- 
cal Seminary, 1858 ; was approbated by the Penobscot Association, Me., 
July 28, 1857 ; was ordained colleague pastor with Rev. Leonard With- 
ington, D. D., at Newbury, Mass., Jan. 20, 1859. 

Mr. Thurston was married Sept. 4, 1858, at Orrington, Me., to Miss 
Frances Orella Goodale, daughter of "Walter and Eliza (Hinks) Good- 
ale. 

Their children are, — 

1. Walter Lawrence, b. at Newburyport, May 2, 1860 ; d. Dec. 31, 
1860. 

2. Margaret Mead, b. at Newburyport, April 21, 1862. 



TIMOTHY DWIGHT PORTER STONE, 

The son of Rev. Timothy and Mary (Merwin) Stone, was born in 
Cornwall, Litchfield Co., Ct., July 27, 1811, and was baptized in infancy. 
His grandfather was the Rev. Timothy Stone of Goshen, Ct. — Sprague's 
Annals, vol. 1, p. 631. 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 213 

Of his religious experience Mr. Stone says : " I had no marked devel- 
opments of conviction and conversion until, in a revival in 1826-27, I 
resolved upon a Christian life, and after earnest struggles with pi-ide, 
found myself happy in trusting Jesus. Then followed a deep season of 
conviction accompanied by a peace in believing." Mr. Stone united with 
the church at the Chapel, Andover, in 1827. 

He prepared for college at Phillips Academy, which institution he left 
in 1827 ; graduated at A. C, 1834. Before entering upon pastoral du- 
ties, Mr. Stone was Principal of the Literary Institution, Concord, N. H. ; 
of the Teacher's Seminary, Plymouth, N. H. ; and of the Abbott Fe- 
male Seminary, Andover. He was approbated by the Deerfield Associ- 
ation, N. H., Nov. 8, 1836, while engaged in teaching. Afterwards he 
went through the course of study at the Theological Seminary, Andover, 
and graduated in 1842. 

He was ordained pastor of the Cong, church, Holliston, Mass., March 
1, 1843 ; dismissed March 2, 1849, to accept the appointment of Chap- 
lain and Principal of the Reform School in Westboro', Mass. In 1850, 
he resigned this office, and accepted the position of Principal in the Nor- 
mal School at New Britain, Ct. In 1853, he opened the Normal School 
at Norwich Town, Ct. From April, 1856, to April, 1857, he acted 
as stated supply for the church in Bozrah, Ct. ; from April, 1857, to 
January, 1859, he discharged the same duties for the church in Fitch- 
ville, Bozrah, Ct. He commenced acting as stated supply at Amesbury 
Mills, Feb. 17, 1859, and was installed there Oct. 1, 1860. He was dis- 
missed July 30, 1862, that he might accejjt the charge of the Lafayette 
Literary Institution, located in Lafayette, Indiana. The climate of 
this place proved most injurious to the health of his children. All were 
taken ill, and three died within the space of three months. Mr. Stone 
resigned his position and came East in 1864. 

Mr. Stone was married August 20, 1835, to Phoebe Cummings Holt, 
daughter of Dea. Solomon and Mary (Cummings) Holt, of the West 
Parish, Andover. She died very suddenly at Norwich Town, Ct., August 
14, 1858, aged 47. 

Their children are, — 

1. Timothy Porter, b. June 25, 1838, in Plymouth, N. H. ; grad. at 
A. C, 1862 ; died in Lafayette, Ind., Jan. 30, 1863. 

2. William Pierce, b. April 25, 1841, in Andover, Mass. ; d. in La- 
fayette, Ind., Oct. 26, 1862. 

3. Mary Irene, b. Oct. 8, 1842, in Andover, Mass. ; d. May 28, 1864. 

4. Ellen Frances, b. Sept. 8, 1845, in Holliston, Mass. ; died in La- 
fayette, Ind., Nov. 9, 1862. 

Mr. Stone was married a second time in Worcester, March 15, 



214 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

1859, to Sarah Margarette Dickinson, daughter of the late Dr. Edwards 
and Sarah (Henry) Dickinson, of HoUiston. 
They have one child. 

The publications of Mr. Stone are in part the following : 
Ventriloquism I^xplained. — The Child's Reader. — The Biblical 
Reader. — The Rhetorical Speaker. — Father's Pictures of Family In- 
fluence. — Stories to teach me how to Think. — Memories of Mrs. Re- 
becca G. Webster. — Juvenile Sabbath School Series. — Lecture on the 
Culture of Eloquence, before the American Institute of Instruction. — 
Also, a variety of anonymous works for children, and a number of Es- 
says and Discourses on Temperance, Agriculture, and Education. 



ELIAS CORNELIUS HOOKER, 

Was born in Bennington, Vt., July 9, 1832. His father was the Rev. 
Edward W. Hooker, D. D., formerly of Bennington, more recently of 
Fairhaven, Vt. 

The maiden name of his mother was Faith Trumbull Huntington. 

Mr. Hooker was baptized in infancy. " I met," he says, " a change 
of heart in a revival which occurred during the fall term of the Normal 
School at Westfield, of which I was a member in the year 1849." He 
united with the First Cong. Church in South Windsor, Ct., January 5, 
1850. 

He fitted for college at Phillips Academy, Andover ; graduated at 
W. C, 1857, and at the Theological Seminary, Princeton, N. J., in 
April, 1860. He was approbated at Fairhaven, Vt., May 3, 1859, by 
the Rutland Association. 

He was ordained pastor of the North Church, Newburyport, Dec. 11j 
1860. 

A Sermon of Mr. Hooker's was published in the Boston Daily Even- 
ing Traveller of June 4, 1861. 

Mr. Hooker was married at West Boxford, June 19, 1861, to Marga- 
ret Cecelia De Bevoise, daughter of James and Ann (Van Dervort) De 
Bevoise. She died in Newburyport, April 25, 1862. 



JAMES CRUICKSHANKS, 

Was born in Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland, November 12, 1828. 
He was the son of James Hunter and Mary (Jack) Cruickshanks, and 
was baptized in infancy. 

Of his religious experience he says : " During the summer of 1845, 



SKETCHES OP MEMBERS. 215 

there was quite a religious interest in the city of Lowell in which the Kirk 
Street Church largely shared. More than usual attendance on meet- 
ings, and conversations held with different individuals in relation to spir- 
itual things, awakened my attention to personal religion. While my 
mind was tender, an event occurred, in the providence of God, which 
seemed to lead me to a decision. During a severe thunderstorm, I was 
very near a friend who was killed by the lightning. This produced 
such an impression on my mind, that I regarded it as a voice from 
God saying : ' Be thou also ready ; for in such an hour as thou thinkest 
not, the Son of man cometh.' " 

Mr. Cruickshanks graduated at Kimball Union Academy, Meriden, 
N. H., in the summer of 1851, and at Yale College in 1855. He en- 
tered the theological department of the college the same autumn, and re- 
mained there two years. In 1857, he removed to the Theo. Seminary, 
Andover, where he graduated in 1858. 

He was approbated by the New Haven East Association, May 27, 
1856, at a meeting in New Haven. He was ordained pastor of the Con- 
gregational church in South Maiden, Mass., Sept. 8, 1857. The ser- 
mon on the occasion was preached by Prof. Austin Phelps of Andover. 

On account of ill-health and other causes, he was dismissed June 29, 
1859. Mr. Cruickshanks soon after (July 6) sailed for Europe from 
New York, and travelled in Scotland, England, and France. He re- 
turned in the September following, having been absent about two 
months, much impi'oved in health. He was installed pastor of the 
Second Presbyterian Church in Newburyport, Mass., June 6, 1860. 
The sermon on the occasion was preached by Rev. Dr. Blagden of 
Boston. He was dismissed by the Presbytery of Londonderry, Oct. 29, 
1862 ; the dismission to take effect on the last Sabbath in November 
following. Installed at Spencer, Jan. 13, 1864. 

The publications of Mr. Cruickshanks are, — 

A Thanksgiving Sermon, preached in the Second Pres. Church, New- 
buryport, Nov. 21, 1861. — Fast Sermon; preached Aug. 4, 1864. 

Mr. Cruickshanks was married Dec. 23, 1862, at Newburyport, to 
Miss Anna Maria De Witt, daughter of John and Anna Maria (Bridgen) 
De Witt, of Albany, N. Y. 



RAYMOND HOYT SEELEY, 

Was born in Norwalk, Ct., , , and was the son of Rufus 

and Nancy (Raymond) Seeley. He was not baptized in infancy. Of 
his conversion he says, it was " a change from an irreligious and careless 



216 HISTORY OF ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

life, wrought — as I believe — by the Holy Spirit in quietness, but in 
power ; months having been passed by me in painful anxiety, caused by 
convictions of sin and uncertainty as to what I must do and what would 
become of me, — nothing of which was known to any human soul but 
my own, — till some week or two before I found Christ." He united 
with the Congregational church in Ridgefield, Ct., under the pastoral 
care of Rev. Charles G. Selleck. 

Mr. Seeley graduated at the University of New York, in 1839, and at 
Union Theological Seminary, New York, in 1842. Licensed by the 
Third Presbytery, New York City, 1842. He received the degree 
of D. D. from New York University, 1864. 

He was ordained in Bristol, Ct.,* July 5, 1843; dismissed Feb. 28, 
1849. Installed in Springfield, Mass., March 1, 1849 ; dismissed from 
Springfield to assume charge of the American Chapel, Paris, France, 
Feb. 6, 1858. Returned from Paris, December, 1859. Installed in 
Haverhill, Mass., Aug. 8, 1860. 

Mr. Seeley was married Oct. 7, 1843, to Catharine L. Cowles, daugh- 
ter of Timothy and Catharine (Deming) Cowles, of Farmington, Ct. 
She died May 19, 1854. 

Their children are, — 

1. Jennette Deming, b. July 25, 1844. 

2. Frances Hooker, b. Aug. 31, 1846. 

3. Raymond Cowles, b. Sept. 13, 1851 ; d. March, 1853. 

4. Robert Channing, b. May 19, 1854, 

He was mari'ied a second time Nov. 18, 1857, to Fanny Barton 
Stiles, daughter of Richard Wayne and Elizabeth (Cook) Stiles, of Mor- 
ristown, N. J. 

Their children are, — 

5. Charles, b. Sept. 26, 1858 ; d. Jan., 1859. 

6. Arthur Wayne, b. March 7, 1860; d. Sept. 2, 1860. 

7. Elizabeth Worthington, b. July 24, 1861. 
The publications of Mr. Seeley are, — 

1. A Sermon in the National Preacher. Subject, " Characteristics of 
Natural Religion as distinguished from True Piety." 

2. Election Sermon. 1857. Text, 2 Sam. 23 : 3 and 4. 

3. Sermon on Christian Unity. Text, John 17 : 21. Preached at 
the Dedication of the American Chapel in Paris, France. 



EDWARD WILLIAM HOOKER, 

Was born in Goshen, Ct., Nov. 24, 1794. He was the son of Rev. 
Asahel and Phebe (Edwards) Hooker, and was baptized in infancy. 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 217 

Grad. at M. C, 1814, and at Andover Theo. Seminary, 1817 ; licensed to 
preach by the Londonderry Presbytery, April 30, 1817. He was or- 
dained at Green's Farms, Ct., Aug. 15, 1821 ; dismissed Jan. 27, 1829 ; 
in Associate General Agency for the American Temperance Society, and 
editorship of Journal of Humanity at Andover, during 1829 ; preached 
on temporary engagements in the North Church, Newburyport, and in 
Wiscasset, Maine, in 1830-31. Installed in Bennington, Vt., Feb, 22, 
1832 ; dismissed May 14, 1844. Inaugurated Professor of Sacred Rhet- 
oric in the Theo. Seminary, East Windsor Hill, Aug. 25, 1844; resigned 
the professorship Aug. 24, 1848. Installed pastor of the First Cong. 
Church, South Windsor, Ct, Sept. 5, 1849; dismissed April 16, 1856. 
Installed at Fairhaven, Vt., Aug. 20, 1856 ; dismissed Nov. 18, 1862, 
when he removed to Newburyport, where he now resides. 

The hopeful religious change in Mr. Hooker occurred in 1813, shortly 
following the death of his father, Rev. Asahel Hooker, then of Norwich, 
Ct. He united with the Second Cong. Church in Norwich, Ct., in 1814. 

Mr. Hooker was married at Norwich, Ct., Oct. 10, 1821, to Faith 
Trumbull Huntington, daughter of Jabez and Mary (Lanman) Hunting- 
ton. She died May 5, 1850. aged 54. 

Their children are, — 

1. Mary Lanman, b. Oct. 8, 1822. 

2. Faith Huntington, b. Nov. 16, 1824. 

3. Elizabeth Peck, b. Feb. 10, 1827 ; d. Dec. 31, 1849. 

4. Elias Cornelius, b. July 9, 1832. See list of members of Associa- 
tion. 

5. Sarah Huntington, b. April 6, 1835. 

6. Edward Trumbull, b. Oct. 31, 1837 ; grad. W. C, 1860. 

Mr. Hooker was married at Bennington, Vt., Nov. 19, 1850, to Mrs. 
Elizabeth Hunt (Lyman) Sheldon, daughter of William and Sarah 
(Holt) Sheldon, of Clinton, N. Y. She died Sept. 3, 1856, aged 45. 

He was married at Newburyport, Dec. 28, 1857, to Lucy Bagley, 
daughter of Philip and Sarah (Bigelow) Bagley. 

PUBLICATIONS OF DR. HOOKER. 

I. Books. Memoir of Mrs. Sarah L. H. Smith. Boston, 1840; 
and Amer. Tr. Soc, N. Y., 1844, to the present. — Life of Rev. Thomas 
Hooker. Mass. S. S. Soc, 1849. — Early Conversions. Mass. S. S. 
Soc, 1850. — Elihu Lewis ; or, the Fatal Christmas. Mass. S. S. Soc, 
1851. — Tlhomas Hooker's "Doubting Christian." Revised, with Intro- 
ductory Article. Hartford, 1845. — Memorials of the Thompson Fam- 
Uy. Hartford, 1854. 

28 



218 HISTORY OF K9SKX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 

II. Tracts. I. Of Amer. Tract Soc, Nos. 326, 353, 377, 429, 480. 
2. Of Cong. Board of Publication, Nos. 25, 32,38. 3. Of Presb. Board 
of Publication, Philadelphia : Love to Divine Truth an Element in 
Christian Character. 4. Occasioned : To the Spectator of a Public Exe- 
cution. Troy, N. Y^. 5. Of Amer. Board of Comm. for Foreign Mis- 
sions : Use of Maps in the Monthly Concert. — Cultivation of the Spirit 
of Missions in Literary and Theological Institutions. 

III. Discourses. Miscellaneous. Preaching the Word. Gen. 
Asso. Conn., 1828, Andover. — The Sinner Insane, not the Christian. 
National Preacher, 1833. — The Spirit of the Ministry ; Alumni of An- 
dover Theo. Sera., 1837. In Lit. and Theo. Rev., K Y. — Duties to 
the Aged; funeral of Geo. D. Robinson, 1843, Bennington. — The 
Christian called Home ; following funeral of daughter Elizabeth, 1850. 
Hartford. — God Glorified in the Christian's Death ; funeral of Dea. 
A. Thompson, S.Windsor, Conn. Hartford, 1851. — The Lord's Voice ; 
catastrophe of the U. S. ship-of-war Princeton, 1844, Troy, N. Y. — 
Regeneration and Conversion Theologically distinguished. Hartford, 
1853. 

IV. Addresses on Sacred Music. Sacred Music a Medium of 
Worship; Theo. Institute, Conn. Hartford, 1839. — Advancement of 
Sacred Music; Pittsfield, Mass., 1837. — Embarrassments and Encour- 
agements in Cultivation of Sacred Music; Rutland Co. Conv., 1843, 
Windsor, Vt. — Progress of Music in America ; Amer. Mus. Conven- 
tion, 1 845, N. Y. — Music as Part of Female Education ; Anniv. 
Gothic Sem., Northampton, Mass., 1843. — Historic Sketch of Sacred 
Music ; Gen. Conv. N. Hampshire and Vermont, 1852, Windsor. 

V. Addresses before Societies, Lyceums, School Insti- 
tutes, &c. Union of Religion and Scholarship; Philadelphian So- 
ciety, Midd. Coll. Vermont, 1835, Windsor, Vt. — Development of 
Character in Literary Men; Soc. of Alumni, Midd. Coll., 1840. — De- 
velopment of Character under the Influence of Popular Education ; 
Young Men's Lyceum, Troy, N. Y. Boston, 1840. — Divine Discipline 
of the Christian Ministry ; Soc. Inquiry, Theo. Inst., Conn., 1839, Hart- 
ford. — Address at Anniv. Amer. Ed. Soc, 1823, Boston. — Speech be- 
fore Fairfield Co., Conn., Miss. Soc, 1824, Norwalk. — Delineations of 
Religious Society in Litchfield Co., Conn., for Century ending 1847 ; at 
Centennial of the Consociations of that County, Hartford. — Review of 
the Temperance Reformation ; Rutland Co. Temp. Soc, 1860, Rutland. 
— Lecture on the Bible and Daily Devotions in Schools ; to School In- 
stitute Rutland Co., 1861, Burlington, Vt. » 

VI. Articles in Monthly and Quarterly Magazines. 1. In 
American Quarterly Register, 1830, &;c., Boston : Love an Element in 



SKETCHES OF MEMBERS. 219 

the Christian Ministry. — Moral Estimate of the Character of Payson. 

— Clerical Habits of Study. — Pastoral Labor in Colleges. — Review 
of Orne's Life of Richard Baxter. 2. In Arner. Quarterly Observer, 
1830: Duties of the Christian Citizen. 3. In Baptist Missionary 
Magazine, 1836, &c. : Sympathy in the Trials of Missionaries. — Influ- 
ence of the Missionary Character on the Home Ministry. — Review of 
Sharp's Counsels and Cautions. 4. In the Christian Review (Baptist) : 
Instrumentality of the Ministry in the Formation of Cliristian Charac- 
ter. 5. In the Cliristian Observatory, 1849, &c. : Intellectual Indepen- 
dence in the Minister. — Review of Tyler's Letters to Burbank on Chris- 
tian Nurture. — The Prospects of the Cause of Religious Truth. 6. In 
the Spirit of the Pilgrims, 1829 : Review of Payson's Sermons. 7. In 
the Princeton Theo. Repertory, 1854 : Review of Life of Augustine, il- 
lustrating Ministerial Fidelity to the Truth. 8. In Amer. Theo. Review, 
1858-59 : Condition of the Jewish Mind relative to the Scriptures of the 
Old and New Testaments. 3 Nos. — Natural Manner in Pulpit Deliv- 
ery. 9. In the Panoplist, New Series, 1850-52 : Preaching the Doc- 
trine of Atonement ; 2 Nos. — " The Spirit of the Lord [not] Strait- 
ened." — Conviction of Sin a Part of Christian Experience. — The 
Christian Conflict. — New England Theological Education with Pastors 
prior to the Establishment of Theo. Seminaries. — Instinctiveness as a 
Characteristic in Preaching. — Conviction of Sin through the Law. — 
Conviction of Sin through the Cross. — Reflections on the Memoir of 
David Garrick as a History of tlie Histrionic Art. 10. In the Christian 
Sentinel, 1845-46: a. Voh I. Why do I Pray in Secret? — The Guile- 
less Man. — Wandering Thoughts in Prayer. — " Change of Govern- 
ing Purpose." — The Preaching of Rev. Nathan Strong, D. D., of 
Hartford. — Notice of Life of Evarts. — Reasons for the Study of 
Westminster Catechism. — Meeting of the Amer. Board of Missions at 
Norwich. — Catechetical Instruction in the Olden Times. — Two Ques- 
tions on the Spiritual Conflict. — Confession of Theological Errors. — 
The Bible the best Prayer-Book. — The Personal and the Professional 
Character distinguished. — Telling Secret Trials. — Prayer for Semina- 
ries, b. Vol. II. " No Difference." — Christianity a Distinct Religion. 

— Injury to Spiritual Frames. — Four Stages of Human Life. — Why 
Christians love Searching Preaching. — Fragment from a Note-Book. — 
The Inquirer and his Teachers. — Kind of Preaching needed in a Revi- 
val. — Study of Revivals. — Sin Embittered to the Revived Soul. — 
Notices of Jew's Lectures. 11. In Congregational Quarterly: Sacred 
Music in Andover Theological Seminary. 



A DISCOURSE 



DELIVERED AT THE 



CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION OF THE ESSEX NORTH ASSOCIATION. 



BY REV. D. T. FISKE. 



Of the numerous streams flowing from the northern highlands of 
New England into the Atlantic, the fourth in size is the Merrimac. The 
historian, Hubbard, calls it " a gallant river." Manchester, and Lowell, 
and Lawrence, with their myriad spindles have proclaimed to the world 
its utilitarian virtues. Whittier, whose home is close by its " wooded 
rim," has sung its beauties, and made it classic, as " Our River." 

The lower section of the valley of the Merrimac, extending from its 
mouth inland some twenty miles, with an average width of about twelve 
miles, is the " local habitation " of the Essex North Association. This 
region includes the following towns, viz. : on the northern bank of the 
river, Salisbury, Amesbury, and Haverhill ; on the southern bank, New- 
bury, Newburyport, West Newbury, Groveland, Bradford, Ipswich, 
Rowley, Georgetown, and the West Parish in Boxford. 

But while I thus define the field which is now to be historically sur- 
veyed, it should be stated, that the territorial limits of our Association 
have been quite variable, enlarging and contracting from time to time, 
as the pastors of the several churches in this neighborhood have, or have 
not, chosen to connect themselves with this body. Two pastors of the 
church in Essex, and three past6rs of the church in Topsfield, were 
among our early members ; while none of the pastors of what is now the 
First Church in Newburyport, and none of the pastors of the First 
Church in Salisbury were ever connected with this Association ; and 
neither of the present pastors of the churches in Ipswich is now cout 
nected with it. 

Still, it has seemed to me, that the proper field from which to gather 
items of ecclesiastical history for this Centennial Celebration, is that, 
whose geographical boundaries have just been given. To it I shall, 
therefore, confine myself. 



EXTINCT CHURCHES. 221 

Within this territory, a century ago, there were to be found twenty 
Orthodox Congregational churches. Of these, five had then been in ex- 
istence more than a hundred years, viz. : the First Church in Ipswich, 
formed in 1634, being the twelfth church gathei-ed in Massachusetts (in- 
cluding both the Plymouth and the Bay Colonies) ; the First Church in 
Newbury, formed in 1635, being the fourteenth church gathered in Massa- 
chusetts ; the First Church in Salisbury, formed in 1638, being the 
twenty-third church gathered in Massachusetts ; the church in Rowley, 
formed in 1639, being the twenty-eighth church gathered in Massachu- 
setts; the First Church in Haverhill, formed in 1645, being the thirty- 
seventh church formed in Massachusetts. 

To the twenty churches existing within the territorial bounds of the Asso- 
ciation in 1761, eleven have since been added, making thii-ty-one i^ all; 
while, during the century, five of these have become extinct, and two, 
having apostatized from their primitive faith, are now connected with 
another denomination ; so that the present number of churches is twenty- 
four, only four more than there were a hundred years ago. 

I will now give a list of these thirty-one churches in chronological or- 
der, with the date of their organization, and the name of their several 
pastors, with the dates of their settlement and removal. 

[This list is here omitted, as the facts contained in it are found else- 
where in this volume.] 



EXTINCT CHURCHES. 

It has been stated, that five of these churches have become extinct 
during the century. It seems proper that some biographical and obitu- 
ary notice of them should have a place in this discourse. 

THE FIFTH CHURCH IN NEWBURY. 

This church stands first in this mortuary list. It was organized July 
22, 1762, in that part of Newbury (now Newburyport), called "The 
Plains." It had but one settled minister, Rev. Oliver Noble, who was 
installed Sept. 1, 1762, and dismissed April 28, 1784. 

The following is a part of the Confession of Faith and Covenant, adopted 
by the church at the time of its formation.-^ 

" Forasmuch as it has pleased God in his holy Providence, to ordain a 

1 This Confession and Covenant, and those given in the sketches of the other 
" Extinct Churches," were not originally included in this discourse, but are inserted 
to render these sketches more uniform with those of existing churches to be found in 
another part of this volume. 



222 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

new Parish in this part of the Town, we unanimously agree to unite to- 
gether to uphold the Worship and Ordinances of God by ourselves. To 
this end, we look upon it necessary to enter into an explicit Covenant, 
binding ourselves to the Lord, and to one another, according to his will. 
Therefore, we, whose names are hereunto subscribed, in a sense of our 
inability to do any thing acceptable to God, of oui-selves, would humbly 
rely upon Divine Grace for all help requisite to fulfil our engagements 
agreeable to his will, thankfully taking hold of his Covenant, and choos- 
ing the things that please him. 

" We declare our serious belief in the Christian Religion contained in 
the Sacred Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments ; and with such 
a view thereof, as the Protestant Confessions of Faith have exhibited, 
especially as contained in the Westminster Confession of Faith and Cat- 
echism, or the Confession of Faith annexed to the Cambridge Plat- 
form ; all which we look upon as materially the same, and esteem them 
evident summaries of Christian Doctrine and Duty ; — heartily resolv- 
ing to conform our lives to the rules of our holy religion as long as 
we live in the world. And with dependence on the promised grace of 
God, we engage to walk together as a church of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
in the Faith and Order of the Gospel, conscientiously attending to the 
public worship of God, the Sacraments of the New Testament, and sub- 
mitting to the discipline — " The remainder is torn from the Records. 

At a meeting of the church, Aug. 13, 1862, the following heads or ar- 
ticles were unanimously agreed upon, viz. : 

" 1. That the Congregational church discipline, or the platform 
thereof, we receive (as to the substance of it) as a good directory, and so 
calculated, as well to answer the ordinance of discipline. 

" 2. That (accordingly) it appears to the church very expedient, that, 
as soon as is convenient, the church choose out such a number of the 
wise and judicious among themselves, as they judge sufficient, with 
whom they may intrust the care and management of difficulties that 
may at any time arise in the church ; which brethren, so chosen yearly, 
shall be a committee for the purposes aforesaid. 

" 3. That the pastor, by the advice of the brethren so intrusted to 
manage and advise in different cases, may, ex-officio, call before them 
any member of the church as appears to them necessary for the honor 
of God and the purity and welfare of the church, and may deal with 
such member, i. e., either by advising, affording light to, or giving their 
judgment concerning, and sentiments respecting, such member, according 
to the rules of the gospel. 

" 4. That if such person or persons are dissatisfied with the opinion, 
judgment, or advice of the pastor and brethren, so intrusted respecting 



KXTINCT CHURCHES. 223 

him or them (or others), desire it, they may have the whole aft'air, with 
the proceedings of the committee thereupon, laid before the church for 
their hearing ; and, by their vote, they shall have liberty to join with the 
judgment or doings of the pastor and brethren so intrusted, or to dissent 
from them ; and if so ' the majority of the church' (i. e., dissent), ' the 
person whom it doth immediately concern, or any dissatisfied party shall 
have liberty of a mutual council to help, according to the next article*.' 

" 0. That, considering the ' Third way of Communion,' mentioned in 
our platform (as we understand), is looked upon impracticable in our 
churches, we think it very expedient, that in case any difficulty should 
arise in the church, or with any member of it, that cannot be accommoda- 
ted by the pastor and brethren, as aforesaid, the dissatisfied shall have free 
liberty of a mutual council of churches, if he or they desire it, to advise 
and help in such difficulty; which churches, for a mutual council (if either 
party desire it), shall be of Presbyterian, as well as of Congregational 
churches, and to which a Christian regard shall be paid by all concerned. 
And if either party hinder such mutual council, either by being the major- 
ity, or refusing to choose such mutual council, so that a council, as afore- 
said, cannot be obtained according to the true intent of this article, the 
injured and dissatisfied (we look upon it), is at liberty to call in such ec- 
clesiastical help as he or they shall think proper for their own safety. 

'' 6. That we cheerfully hold communion with Presbyterian churches, 
and churches of all denominations that expressly adhere to the Orthodox 
confessions of faith, that have been approved of in the Reformed churches, 
and walk in the order of the gospel." 

Many of those with whom this church and parish originated, had been 
Episcopalians ; or, at least, had been connected with the church and so- 
ciety woi'sliipping in " Queen Ann's Chapel." When Episcopal service 
was removed to St. Paul's, nearer the centre of the town, unwilling to 
go so far to meeting, some thirty families agreed to embody themselves 
into a society to worship God in a dissenting way, as it is commonly 
called. The Fifth Parish was incorporated April 17, 1761. The 
church was never very large. But few statistics concerning its growth 
and decay can be given, as only a mutilated fragment of its records has 
been found. It is known, however, that a committee was appointed in 
1784 to purchase a new book, and transfer the records to it, and complete 
them wherein they were defective. If such a copy was made it cannot 
now be found. 

During the latter part of Mr. Noble's ministry, many of his peoj^le 
were alienated from him by some injudicious business transactions, in 
which he was involved. After ineffijctual efforts to restore mutual confi- 
dence, it was decided to call a council " to recognize a friendly separa- 
tion, which th« said Mr. Noble, and th© said church and parish have 



2^Jr THE CHURCHKS OF KSSKX NORTH. 

agreed should take place between them, as what they judge in their pres- 
ent circumstances and difficulties will be for their mutual comfort, and 
the interests of religion." Only two churches appeared by pastor and dele- 
gates at the appointed time, April 28, 1784. These, not deeming them- 
selves "a sufficient number to constitute an ecclesiastical council in form," 
gave their advice "only as individual churches," which was, that the sep- 
aration take place. 

After Mr. Noble left, no serious effort appears to have been made to 
settle another minister. For nine years, money was annually raised to 
supply the pulpit a part of the time. Then for three years there seems 
to have been no preaching. In April, 1796, it was voted " to hire 
preaching six months." This was the last action taken on the subject, 
so far as parish records show. Annual parish meetings were held till 
1800, and were then discontinued eight years, when the parish was re- 
suscitated, at the formation of a new church within its limits, now the 
Belleville Church, Newburyport. Probably the Fifth Church was never 
formally disbanded, but gradually died out. The meeting-house was 
blown down in 1808. 

THE FIRST CHURCH IN SALISBtRY.^ 

This was the second church of Essex North to become defunct. It 
was formed in 1638. Had five settled ministers: Rev. Wm. Worcester, 
ordained 1638, died Oct. 25, 1662; Rev. John Wheelright, ordained 
Dec. 9, 1662, died Nov. 15, 1679; Rev. James Allen, ordained May 
4, 1687, died March 4, 1696; Rev. Caleb Cushing, ordained Nov. 9, 
1698, died Jan. 25, 1752 ; Rev. Edmund Noyes, ordained Nov. 20, 1751, 
dismissed Aug. 3, 1790. As the records of this church cannot now be 
found, it is impossible to ascertain what its first Covenant was. The 
following is on the fly-leaf of a Bible belonging to Rev. Mr. Noyes, and 
was doubtless used by him, and may have been the one used by his 
predecessors : 

" The Covenant for Full Communion. — You and each of you, pro- 
fessing a firm belief in the Christian religion, do now, in ^p everlasting 
covenant, give up yourself unto God, in our Lord Jesus Christ, humbly 
asking of God, through the blood of Christ, pardon for all your sins ; 
solemnly promising, before God and the holy angels, and in the presence 
of this assembly, that, by the assistance of the Divine Spirit, you will 
forsake the vanities and foUies of this evil world, and approve yourself 
the true disciple of Jesus Christ in all good carriage, both toward God 
and man. And, particularly, you promise, so long as God shall continue 
you among us, to walk in communion with the church of Christ in this 
place, and, as you have opportunity, in love to watch over your fellow- 



EXTINCT CHURCHES. 225 

members; as also to submit yourself to the discipline and government of 
Christ in his church, and duly to attend the seals and censures, and 
whatsoever ordinances Christ has appointed to be observed by his peo- 
ple, so far as God has, or shaH, by his Word and Spirit, reveal unto you 
to be your duty, — adorning the doctrine of God our Saviour in all 
things, and avoiding even the very appearance of evil. This you 
promise. 

" I, then, in the name of Jesus Chi'ist, do declai'e you to be a mem- 
ber in full communion with the church of Christ ; and, in the name of 
the church (here), do promise that we will, by the help of the Divine 
Spirit, carry it towards you as towards .a member of the same body with 
ourselves, — watching over you, for your good, with a spirit of meekness, 
love, and tenderness, — earnestly praying that the glorious Head of the 
church would take delight to dwell among us ; that his blessing may be 
upon us, and his glorious kingdom be advanced by us. Amen, amen." 

How long the foregoing covenant continued in use is unknown. In 
1817, June 19, a new covenant and a very full confession of faith, drawn 
up by Rev. Dr. Dana of Newburyport, were adopted. During the early 
part of Mr. Cushing's ministry, the families in the west end of the town 
began to feel that they had to go too far to meeting, and that they must 
have a meeting-house among themselves. After much contention and 
delay, the town finally voted to build a new house at " Rockie Hill." 
The house was not finished and occupied till 1716. In 1714, the town 
voted, instead of forming a new parish, to have two. meeting-houses and 
two ministers, "the salaries of both to be paid by the whole town." 
This vote was not carried into effect till 1718, when Mr. Parsons, hav- 
ing accepted a call, began to preach in the new church at the west end ; 
Mr. Gushing for the two previous years having preached there half of 
the time. This arrangement continued till 1793, when the town was di- 
vided into two distinct parishes, each supporting its own minister. This 
is believed to be the only instance in this vicinity in which there were 
two separate churches, each having its own meeting-house and minister, 
while all the expenses were defrayed by one parish. 

Soon after the meeting-house at " Rockie Hill " was completed, meas- 
ures were taken to build a new house in place of the old one in the east 
part of the town. It was finished as early as 1721. 

The most flourishing period in the history of this ancient and now ex- 
tinct church was from 1720 to 1760. In 1745, it had a membership of 
one hundred and seventy-five. From 1760 it steadily and rapidly 
declined. 

In 1787, a difiiculty arose between the town and the ministers of the 
two churches in regard to salaries. The ministers insisted that the town 

29 



22G THK CHURC'HKS OF ESSEX NORTH. 

ought to make up to them what they had lost by the depreciation of the 
currency of the country, to the amount of more than $1,300. This the 
town refused to do in faU. Up to this time, the salaries of both minis- 
ters had been raised in pui-suance of votes passed at the time of their 
settlement, no action being taken in regard to the matter from year to 
year. But now, in town meeting, the following significant vote was 
passed : " Voted, not to raise any more money for the support of min- 
isters by virtue of any vote or votes passed in the town in the year 
1756, and prior thereto ; and also that the town call upon the Rev. Sam- 
uel Webster and the Rev. Edmund Noyes for a final settlement to this 
day." This vote seems to have had its designed effect. A settlement 
was soon made, the ministers deeming it prudent to materially abate 
their claims. But this settlement did not restore good feeling. Dec. 18, 
1788, the town chose a committee '' to treat with Rev, E. Noyes, to see 
if, on any terms, he will give up his ministerial relation to this people," 
&c. Mr. Noyes was unwilling. The matter continued to be agitated, 
till at length the people, being determined to get rid ot Mr. Noyes, hav- 
ing almost entirely forsaken his meeting, took action in town meeting, 
Aug. 3, 1790, which seems to have terminated Mr. Noyes' ministerial 
relation to them. There is no evidence, however, that any council was 
ever called formally to dismiss him, and quite possibly he still considered 
himself pastor of the church. But, as there is subsequently no allusion 
to him in the town records, and none whatever in the parish records, 
which commence in 1793 ; and as, in repeated instances, the parish in- 
vited other men to settle with them in the ministry, and offered them the 
use of the parsonage and lands, as if there were no incumbent, it seems 
proper to infer that Mr. Noyes was actually dismissed, and Ihat his min- 
istry terminated in 1790. The church was at this time in a very low 
state. The Methodists now began to get a foothold in the place, and at 
length to make their voice heard in the parish meetings. March 30, 
1802, it was " Voted, that the Congregationalists shall have the meeting- 
house one half of the time, four or six Sabbaths at a time, as they shall 
choose ; and the Methodists the other half of the time." July 10, 1806, 
" Voted, that the committee let in and shut out what ministers they 
please." April 2, 1807, "Voted, that the Methodists have the house 
all the time this year." Oct. 1, 1813, a committee was chosen " to meet 
the Methodists, in order to settle the difficulties existing between this 
parish and the Methodist society." Feb. 28, 1833, "Voted, to unite 
with the Methodists in the support of the gospel, if we can compromise 
with them." Also, " Voted, to pull down the old meeting-house, if both 
societies agree to build a new one." Also, " Voted, to appoint a commit- 
tee of correspondence with the Methodists, and that this committee be 



EXTINCT CHURCHES. 227 

authorized to invite tiie Methodists to poll back to this parish." March 
28, 1833, " Resolved, that, on condition the Methodists will come back 
and unite with the parish, and assist in building a new meeting-house on 
the spot where the old one now stands, we will guarantee said meeting- 
house to them exclusively for the benefit of a minister of their denomi- 
nation to preach in for any term of years, not to exceed ten from the 
time of its dedication, and likewise the use and improvement of the 
parsonage lands and buildings for the time aforesaid ; provided they will 
give liberty for a minister of any other denomination, in good standing in 
the society to which he belongs, to preach or lecture on the Sabbath, or 
any other day or evening, when not improved by a minister of their de- 
nomination, if requested to do so by some person or persons belonging 
to this parish." This resolve was unanimously adopted, and was, on the 
same day, communicated to the Methodists, and by them unanimously 
accepted with the following amendment, viz., — "That the new meeting- 
house shall be open at all times for such preachers to preach in as shall 
be appointed from the Methodist Conference to preach in this station or 
circuit from year to year, and the use of the parsonage shall be for the 
support of such preaclier from year to year for the term of ten years ; 
and the Methodist Episcopal church in this parish shall have the right of 
holding all meetings of religious worship for the same time of ten years; 
and at any time when said meeting-house shall not be used by the Meth- 
odists according to the above, any orthodox preacher may preach in said 
house ; and, after the expiration of ten years, it shall take two-thirds of 
the legal voters in the parish to deprive the Methodists of the right to 
use the said house and parsonage." The parish accepted this amend- 
ment, only substituting the word " majority " for " two-thirds" to which 
the Methodists acceded. 

By the above arrangement, the parish and meeting-house, and parson- 
age property, passed permanently into the hands of the Methodists. So 
far as appears, no effort was ever made by the Congregationalists, after 
the expiration of the ten years, to gain possession again. 

The last service in the old house was held April 14, 1833, at which 
Rev. L. F. Dimmick, of Newburyport, preached a sermon appropriate 
to the occasion. At the time this arrangement w^as made with the Meth- 
odists, the old church was very small. Just how long it continued to 
exist cannot be ascertained. In the fall of 1834, six persons were re- 
ceived into communion on profession of their faith, and these were prob- 
ably the last. A few years later, the surviving members who could not 
be converted to Methodism united with the different churches in New- 
buryport. After the ministry of Mr. Noyes terminated, the parish ex- 
tended a call to several persons, while others were hired to preach 



228 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

temporarily. Nov. 14, 1793, a call was extended to Rev. Jonathan 
Brown, which he declined. March 26, 1799, "Voted, to hire Rev. Mr. 
Pickering one year." March 25, 1 800, " Voted, to hire Rev. Mr. Williston 
one year." Dec. 19, 1806, gave a call to Mr. McLane " to settle for four 
years in the Congregational form." He declined. March 22, 1808, 
gave Mr, McLane a call " for live years or more, with the liberty of 
preaching half the time at Elast Kingston." He accepted, but only re- 
mained a short time. July 20, 1810, " Voted, to hire Rev. Daniel Gould 
one year." Dec. 13, 1810, " Voted, to hire Rev. Daniel Gould three 
years in addition to the one for which he is already engaged." Nov. 
27, 1811, "Voted, to hire Mr. Hull one half of the time for one year." 
Similar votes were passed Feb. 4, 1813, and Jan. 14, 1815. 

Sept. 30, 1816, " Voted, to engage Mr. Harlow for one year." July 
24,1817, "Voted, to continue Mr. Harlow." Similar votes Aug. 10, 
1818, and Aug. 30, 1819. April 25, 1820, "Voted, to hire Rev. Mr. 
Tliurston part of the time in connection with the West Parish." April 
30, 1822, " Voted, to continue to hire Rev. Wm. C. Grant one half of 
the time." Similar vote the next year. March 31, 1825, "Voted, to 
hire Dea. Jabez True to preach the whole or part of the time." Dea. 
True was a Baptist, and was probably the last person employed to preach 
statedly by the Congregationalists. 

THE FIRST CHURCH IN AMESBURY. 

This was the third of the golden candlesticks to be removed out of its 
place. The church records cannot be found, though supposed to be in 
existence. 

The church was probably oi'ganized in 1668. Its pastors were as 
follows : — Rev. Thomas Wells, ord. 1672; died 1734. Rev. Edmund 
March, ord. July 3, 1728; diss. March 12, 1743. Rev. Elisha Odlin, 
ord. Jan. 25, 1744 ; died 1752. Rev. Thomas Hibberd, ord. Nov. 6, 1754 ; 
diss. 1781. Rev. Benjamin Bell, ord. Oct. 13, 1784; diss. 1790. Rev. 
Stephen Hull, ord. 1802; diss. 1811. Rev. Benjamin Sawyer, inst. June 
19, 1810 ; ceased to preach 1841. 

From 1669 to 1672, a Mr. Hubbard (spelled also in the town records, 
Hobbert, Hobberd, Hobards), preached. Dec. 3, 1669, the town voted, 
" That fifty acres of land,- already granted to the minister, be now granted 
to Mr. Hobbert, in case he live with us four years." 

There is some doubt whether Mr. Wells was actually settled before 
1692, though he began preaching in 1672. Oct. 25, 1689, it was voted, 
that " Ye town was cleare of Mr. Wells, and Mr. Wells was cleare of ye 
town." Dec. 26, 1689, the " town made choice of Mr. Wells to be their 
minister for this year." A similar vote was passed in 1690 and in 1691. 



KXTINCT CHURCHES. 229 

March 21, 1692, "Voted, that we he willing to have Mr. Wells to he 
our minister, to settle amongst us, and to allow him £50 a year at pres- 
ent, and more when we are able." Mr. Wells accepted this call. May 
18, 1694, " Voted to give Mr. Wells £20 to keep a school and teach all 
persons that attend except such little ones as cannot say their A B C's." 

No copy of any covenant used by this church can now be found, nor" 
can I learn any thing important concerning its history for the first century 
after its organization. Its decline seems to date from the troubles which 
sprung up during Mr. Hibberd's ministry, and resulted in the secession 
of a portion of the church and society, who set up separate worship as 
Presbyterians, taking Mr. Hibberd with them. He was a man with 
whom temperance was not a crowning virtue. It is related of him, that 
while conducting the funeral of a person killed by another when intoxica- 
ted, he was himself so under the influence of liquor, as to say, in the 
course of his remarks, " I would sooner pour down my throat a glass of 
boiling lead, than of that d d N. E. rum !" 

His successor, Mr. Bell, was an able man, but addicted to the cups, 
and the habit grew upon him after he left the ministry to such an extent, 
that when death came for him, it found him in the poor-house. 

Mr. Hull had the same infirmity, and the church waned under him. 
He was not a strong man ; was at first a Methodist, and one council re- 
fused to settle him. Dr. Woods, of Andover, is reported to have said of 
him, that he " was all hulV^ 

Under Mr. Sawyer, the church, for a time, rallied, and was united and 
pro^sperous. But the centre of population had changed, and most of the 
people found it more convenient to worship elsewhere, churches having 
been formed near by on either side. Mr. Sawyer continued to preach 
there regularly till 1835, and half the time till 1841, and occasionally 
till 1847. The church then ceased to meet, and so became extinct, with- 
out any formal act of disbandment. Mr. Sawyer was never formally 
dismissed, but his relation as pastor practically terminated in 1841. The 
meeting-house remained standing till within a few years. Mr. Sawyer 
says, that in it the first temperance society north of the Merrimac River, 
in Essex Co., was formed, — an eminently fit place. The old sounding- 
board over the pulpit was surmounted by a spread eagle, bearing upon 
his breast an open Bible, and in each talon a hymn-book. 

THE CHURCH AT PARKER RIVER VILLAGE, NEWBURY. 

This was the fourth church in Essex North to become extinct. Its 
existence was brief. It built no meeting-house, and had no settled pastor. 
The following sketch has been furnished by one familiar with the facts 
(Dea. Danforth) : 



230 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

" In the spring of 1829, Rev. Humphrey Perley (Unitarian), who was 
teaching school in this district, began to preach in the school-house, at 
the solicitation of the people. A religious society was soon formed ; and 
Mr. Perley continued to. preach, in connection with his teaching, until 
April, 1832. The religious interest which prevailed so extensively at 
Ihat time, appeared here. Under the ministrations of the neighboring 
pastors, and the students of the Theological Seminary (Andover), who 
now began to preach here regularly, a goodly number were converted. It 
was thought best, in order to preserve the interest, that these should be 
gathered into a church ; though it was not expected that it could be a 
permanent organization, as the population was not such as made a 
growth, sufficient for self-support, possible. 

" A council of pastors and delegates from the neighboring churches 
met Nov. 2, 1832, and organized a church of twenty-eight members ; 
twenty-seven professing their faith, and one coming from another church. 
Subsequently, eight more were received. 

" Preaching was continued seven years by students from the Seminary 
at Andover. The church retained its organization until October, 1846. 
At this time, it had been reduced, by death and dismissals, to fourteen 
members, several of whom were non-residents. It was therefore thought 
expedient by the members, with the advice of neighboring pastors, to dis- 
solve their separate organization, and become connected with other 
churches. 

"Two of the neighboring pastors, — Dr. Withington and Dr. Dimmick, 
— with their delegates, met with the church ; and, after hearing ^he 
reasons for the dissolution, the necessary steps were taken to transfer 
the members to other churches. These being carried out, the church 
was dissolved." 

THE WINTER STREET CHURCH, HAVERHILL. 

This closes our list of extinct churches. Organized May 15, 1839. 
Its pastors were, — Rev. Job H. Martyn, settled May 15, 1839, dis- 
missed May 3, 1841 ; Rev. Charles Fitch, settled May 23, 1841, dis- 
missed May 8, 1842 ; Rev. George W. Finney, settled June 12, 1842, 
dismissed 1843 ; Rev. D. N. Merritt, settled Jan. 1, 1844, dismissed 
July 10, 1848 ; Rev. Samuel J. Comings, settled Dec. 5, 1848, dismissed 
April 20, 1852 ; Rev. Leonard S. Parker, installed June 1, 1853, dis- 
missed March 26, 1860. 

The following Principles of Church Government, and Confession of 
Faith and Covenant, were adopted at its organization : 



EXTINCT CHURCHES. 231 



PRINCIPLES 



1. We hold that the Lord Jesus Christ is the supreme Head and Lawgiver 
of the church. 

2. That the Bible is the supreme and only binding code ot" laws for the gov- 
ernment of the church, and that, in all matters of government and discipline, 
the church is bound to follow the gospel rules. 

3. That each congregation of Christians meeting in one place, and united by 
a solemn covenant, is a complete church, having no superior but the Lord Jesus 
Christ, subject to no authority but his, and from him deriving the right to choose 
its own pastor and church officers, and to discipline its own members. 

4. That between the churches so constituted, as also between all ministers, 
there is a perfect equality ; but that mutual fellowship and communion should 
subsist between them, leading them to seek each other's counsel and advice or 
rebuke whenever needed. 

5. That, such church being made by the Lord Jesus Christ the sole deposi- 
tory of all ecclesiastical power, ecclesiastical bodies distinct from the church, by 
whatever name they may be called, are only wlcisory, and have no right to re- 
verse or annul the decisions of a particular church. 

6. That the ministry is of Divine origin, intended for the san(!tification of 
believers, for the conversion of sinners, and the reproof of the wicked, and to 
continue to the end of the world. 

7. That deacons were appointed in the primitive church for the assistance of 
the ministry, and the care of the temporal concerns of the church. 

8. That every individual church sliould be supplied with pastors and deacons 
according to the pattern of the primitive church. 

9. That the choice of pastors and deacons should be made by the whole 
church, and that they should be set apart to their office by prayer and the lay- 
ing on of hands. 

1 0. That the admission of members to the communion should be the act of 
the church at large, and that the Lord Jesus Christ has laid upon the church 
the duty of watching over its own members, and of administerin^i; discipline, as 
an iliiportant exercise of Christian graces, and a means of sanctification. 

11. That in all cases of oflfencd, either against individual members or the 
church at large, discipline should proceed upon the rule laid down in the 18th 
chapter of Matthew, verses 15-18. 

CONFESSION OF FAITH. 

THE FOUNDATION OF FAITH. 

Art. 1. You believe that the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments are 
the word of God, written by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, and are the only 
infallible rule of faith and practice. 

TRINITY. 

2. You believe that the Scriptures, teach that the Lord our God, who is one 
Lord, subsists in an incomprehensible Trinity, denominated the Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost. 

CREATION AND GOVERNMENT OF GOD. 

3. That (jod created all things for his own glory, and administers over moral 
beings a most wise and holy moral government ; and that, as a sovereign, he 
also administers a universal providential government, all the events of which he 
so disposes as to subserve the highest interests of his moral kingdom. 

PRIMITIVE STATE OF MAN — THE FALL AND ITS CONSEQUENCES. 

4. That Adam's first moral character was holy, but, since he sinned, everjr 



232 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

person bcfrins to sin when he becomes a moral agent in the sight of God ; and 
although this result is connected with the sin of Adam, yet not so connected 
but that it is the sinner's own voluntary choice of wickedness. 

DEPRAVITY OF MAN. 

5. That all the moral- exercises of unregenerate men are wholly sinful, and 
that continually. 

NATURE AND DESERT OF SIN. 

6. That sin, being a transgression of God's law, deserves eternal death. 

WAY OF SALVATION. 

6. That God has made an atonement for sin, by the death of his beloved 
Son, sufficient for the wants and salvation of all mankind, which is freely and 
sincerely offei-ed to all ; and yet those only will be saved who repent of sin, 
and believe in the Lord Jesus Christ. * 

AGENCY OF THE HOLY GHOST IN REGENERATION. 

8. That while all men voluntarily reject this salvation, God, by the influence 
of the Spirit, employs the truth of the Bible to induce as many to accept it as 
he can consistently with the wisest administration of his government according 
to his eternal purpose. 

PERSEVERANCE OF THE SAINTS. 

9. That although the saints, if left to themselves, would fall away and perish, 
yet they will differ from hypocrites and a'postates by persevering in voluntary 
obedience to God's commandments ; being secured from falling away by the 
promise of God, and kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation. 

GROUNDS OF ADMISSION TO THE CHURCH. 

10. That credible evidence of a change of heart is an indispensable ground 
of admission to the privileges of the visible church. 

INSTITUTIONS OF CHRIST. * 

1 1 . That Christ has appointed baptism and the Lord's Supper to be perpetu- 
ally observed in the church ; the former to signify the necessity of holiness of 
heart, and the latter as an expression of faith in the atonement made for sin by 
the death of Christ. 

DUTIES OF CHRISTIANS. 

1 2. That the keeping of the moral law as a rule of life ; a conscientious and 
uniform attendance on public, family, and secret worship; and an unreserved 
and entire consecration of property, influence, talents, and time, to promote the 
glory of God and the salvation of men, are duties which every Christian is 
bound to observe. 

PERPETUITY OF THE CHURCH, FINAL JUDGMENT, AND FUTURE STATE. 

13. That God will have a church in the world to the end of time, after which 
the dead will be raised, and be judged according to their conduct in this life ; 
the righteous will be received into everlasting life ; and the wicked will go away 
into everlasting punishment. 

Do you now, before God and his people, adopt and profess your belief in the 
foregoing summary of gospel doctrine and duty ? 

COVENANT. 

Professing unfeigned sorrow for your past sins, and renouncing all ungodli- 
ness and every worldly lust, you do now, in the presence of God, angels, and 



EXTINCT CHUKCHES. Zda 

men, solemnly avouch the Lord Jehovah to be your God and portion, the 
object of your supreme love and delight; and the Lord Jesus Christ to be 
jour Saviour from sin and death, your Prophet to instruct you, your Priest to 
atone and intercede for you, and your King to rule, protect, and enrich you ; 
and the Holy Ghost to be jour Sanclijier. Comforter, and Guide, lookin": to 
Him for light, grace, and peace. Unto this TRIUNE GOD — this wonderful 
" Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost," into which we 
are baptized — you do now, without reserve, give yourselves away, in a cove- 
nant never to be revoked, to be his willing servants forever, to observe all his 
commandments and all his ordinances, in the sanctuary, in the family, and in 
the closet. 

You receive the brethren in Christ of this church as your brethren, and his 
friends as your friends ; and promise to watch over them with all Christian 
fidelity and tenderness. You do also submit yourself to the government of 
Christ in his church, and to the regular administration of it in this church in 
particular. 

You promise to assemble with the people of God during the week, as oppor- 
tunity may afford, particularly upon stated and occasional meetings of the 
church, for the purpose of instruction and devotion; and to discharge all those 
duties by which God may be glorified, and the religion of the Bible extended 
and established among men. 

You do also bind yourselves by covenant to this church, to watch over us in 
the Lord, to seek our purity, peace, and edification, and conscientiously to sub- 
mit to the government of discipline of Christ as here administered ; counting it 
a privilege and a favor — not a privation or a grievance — to be subject in the 
Lord to authority which himself hath established in his church. 

All this, in the Divine strength, you do severally profess and engage. 

The following sketch of this church was prepared by its last pastor : 
" This church had its origin in a difference which arose in the Centre 
Congregational Society in 1838, in the act of choosing a successor to 
Rev. Joseph Whittlesey. A council having declined to install over them 
Rev. Job H. Martyn, some of the members of this church and some from 
the Baptist church desired him to remain in town. He soon commenced 
preaching at the Academy Hall. An interest in religion shortly ap- 
peared, issuing in the organization of Winter Street Church. Its rec- 
ords run thus : ' A number of brethren, members of the Congregational 
and Baptist churches of Haverhill, feeling that the interests of the cause 
of Christ required the organization of a new church in this place, met at 
the house of brother Joseph Johnson on Thursday, May 2d, for consulta- 
tion on the subject. After a season of prayer, and a free and protracted 
discussion of the subject, it was unanimously " Resolved, That, in the 
judgment of this meeting, the interests of the cause of Christ demand 
the organization of a new church in this village." ' One week later, ' a 
Confession of Faith, Covenant, and Principles of Church Government' 
were adopted. May 15th, 1839, twenty-eight persons — eleven males 
and seventeen females — were formed into a church; Rev. Job H. Mar- 
tyn officiating, no council being called. Rev. J. H. Martyn was chosen, 
on the same day, its first pastor. 

" During the first eleven years of its existence, this church stood alone. 

SO 



234 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

By request of the church, a council from the neighboring Congregational 
churches met May 7, 1850, and, after careful inquiry, resolved to re- 
ceive this church into 'fellowship,' provided 'they would adopt the 
Congregational platform as the basis of their ecclesiastical order.' To 
this the church unanimously agreed, and were recognized publicly May 
15, 1850. 

"The Second Advent excitement in 1842-43 greatly injured this 
church. Quite a number of its members was carried away by it ; oth- 
ers withdrew to other meetings. The church did not recover from the 
shock for ten or twelve years. 

" A meeting-house was erected on the corner of Winter and Franklin 
streets soon after the formation of the church. In 1850 it was remod- 
elled ; and again, in 1858, twenty pews were added, a spacious vestry 
put into the basement, and other improvements made, at a cost of $3,000. 
A fine organ also was set up in the church at an expense of $1,000. 
Under the ministry of Rev. Mr. Parker, the number of the church was 
trebled, and the society increased in like manner. The Sabbath School 
became one of the largest in the village, being mainly composed of the 
children of parents who did not regulai'ly attend public worship. 

"The formation of the North Congregational Church in 1859, led some 
to inquire whether it would not be best to unite this church with that and 
the Centre Church. A family feud, that was unexpectedly revived and 
brought into the church, resisting its utmost efforts to settle it, though 
aided by the unanimous advice of two councils, and issuing in the seces- 
sion of thirty-four members, strengthened the persuasion in the minds of 
many that this was the path of duty. After most careful consultation 
with friends most competent to judge and advise in the case, and earnest 
prayer for Divine guidance, the vote to disband was unanimously passed 
June 25, 1860. 

" During its brief existence of twenty -one years, this church had been 
useful in many ways. Its work was pioneer, missionary work. Its his- 
tory has bright pages along with dark ones. It is believed that no 
church in this region ever showed a more self-sacrificing spirit in sus- 
taining public worship. Its late members are now valued members of 
the Centre Church, and of other churches ; while some have joined the 
church triumphant above." 



CHURCHES DENOMINATIONALLY EXTINCT. 

Two of the ancient churches of Essex North have departed from their 
original orthodoxy, and are now in connection with the Unitarian denom- 
ination. 



CHURCHES DENOMINATIONALLY EXTINCT. 235 



THE FIRST CHURCH IN NEWBURYPORT. 

This (formerly the Third Church in Newbury) was organized Jan. 12, 
1726. Before its connection with our denomination was fully sundered, 
it had three pastors : Rev. John Lowell, ordained Jan. 19, 1726, died 
May 15, 1767 ; Rev. Thomas Carey, ordained May 11, 1768, died Nov. 
24, 1808; Rev. John Andrews, ordained Dec. 10, 1788, resigned May 
1, 1830. 

Since the church became avowedly Unitarian, it has had four pastors : 
Rev. Thomas B. Fox, ordained Aug. 3, 1831, dismissed April, 1844; 
Rev. Thomas W. Higginson, ordained Sept. 15, 1847, dismissed Sept., 
1849 ; Rev. Charles Bowen, ordained Nov. 20, 1850, dismissed Nov., 
1853 ; Rev. A. B. Muzzey, installed Sept. 3, 1857. 

The following is the covenant adopted by the church at its organiza- 
tion. It was prepared by Rev. Caleb Cushing, of Salisbury : 

" Whereas, it hath pleased Almighty God, of his free grace, to call 
and accept us sinful creatures into covenant with his Majesty in Christ, 
we do therefore, in a deep sense of our own unworthiness, and with an 
humble dependence on Divine grace for assistance and acceptance, sol- 
emnly professing our firm belief of the Christian faith according to the 
doctrine of the Holy Scriptures, avouch the God whose name alone is 
Jehovah, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, to be our God, and the God 
of our seed ; and do make a firm covenant with his Majesty in Christ, 
and one with another, promising, through his grace, to give up ourselves 
to God in Christ, — acknowledging him to be our Prophet, Priest, and 
King, — to submit to his government, to all his holy laws and ordinances, 
to shun all errors with all ungodliness and unrighteousness, and to walk 
before him in all things according to the rules of his holy Word ; and 
to walk together, as a church of Christ, in the faith and fellowship of the 
gospel, in mutual love and watchfulness, for the carrying of the worship 
of God, and promoting our mutual edification in faith and holiness." 

For some time, this was a large, prosperous, and influential church. 
During Mr. Lowell's ministry, five hundred and seventeen were received 
into full communion, and two thousand two hundred and twenty-nine were 
baptized. In 1775, to render easier the act of uniting with the church 
by diminishing its publicity, it was voted that candidates, after being 
propounded a fortnight, as usual, might be admitted by assenting to the 
covenant " before the church only." 

The doctrinal defection of the church was gradual, nor is it easy to 
say precisely when it was completed. Its first pastor, Dr. Lowell, was 
a moderate Calvinist. During his ministry, the more Calvinistic portion 
of the church withdrew to unite with others in forming the First Pres- 



236 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. * 

byterian Church in Newburyport. After his death in 1767, " the church 
were unable to agree in the choice of a successor in the ministry, in con- 
sequence of a difference of opinion as to some of the important doctrines 
of Christianity." ^ An amicable division was the result of this diversity 
of religious sentiments, the withdrawing party being constituted the 
North Church in Newburyport. Mr. Carey, the second pastor of the 
old church, was, like his predecessor, a moderate Calvinist ; though, in 
so styling him, more emphasis should be laid upon " moderate," and less 
upon " Calvinist." Still, we may safely infer that he had not professedly 
departed far from the generally recognized standard of orthodoxy, from 
the fact that he gave the right hand of fellowship to Di-. Spring at his 
ordination in 1777. 

Dr. Andrews, who was the colleague and successor of Mr. Carey, was 
settled in 1788, and was an avowed Arminian ; and his Arminianism 
gradually ripened into something not easily distinguishable from what 
has, since his day, been called Unitarianism. He, however, retained so 
much of the savor of the olden faith, that he continued to exchange pul- 
pits with several ministers of our denomination till the close, or near the 
close, of his active ministry in 1830. But the remnant of Calvinism in 
the church was sifted out, or driven out, in his day. One member who 
left, and united with a neighboring church, has often told me that what 
finally decided her to leave, and made her unwilling to hear Dr. Andrews 
preach ever after, was, his saying to her, when, on one occasion, she had 
been stating some of her religious views, " If I believed as you do, I 
would throw my Bible into the fire." His colleague and successor, Mr. 
Fox, was a decided Unitarian ; and from the commencement of his min- 
istry, this ancient church was considered as fully belonging to the Unita- 
rian denomination. 

i . . THE FIRST CHURCH IN HAVERHILL. 

This is the only other church among us which has apostatized from 
its original evangelical faith. 

This church was organized in October, 1645. Previous to its lapse 
from Orthodoxy to Unitarianism in 1833, it had nine settled ministers : 
Rev. John Ward, installed Oct., 1645, died Dec. 27, 1693; Rev. Benja- 
min Rolfe, ordained Jan. 7, 1694, died Aug- 29, 1708; Rev. Joshua 
Gardner, ordained Jan. 11, 1711, died March 21, 1715 ; Rev. John 
Brown, ordained May 13, 1719, died Dec. 2, 1742 ; Rev. Edward Bar- 
nard, ordained April 27, 1743, died Jan. 26, 1774; Rev. John Shaw, 
ordained March 12, 1777, died Sept. 29, 1794; Rev. Abiel Abbot, or- 

1 Dr. Diramick's Fortieth Anniversary Sermon, p. 4. 



• CHURCHES DENOMINATIONALLY EXTINCT. 237 

dained June 3, 1795, dismissed June 13, 1803 ; Rev. John Dodge, 
ordained Dec. 21, 1808, dismissed June 18, 1827 ; Rev. Dudley Phelps, 
ordained Jan. 9, 1828, dismissed Aug. 28, 1833. 

" It would be in place here to show, if possible, what was its first con- 
fession and covenant. We cannot determine this with certainty from the 
facts now within our reach, but we may perhaps reach a probability. 

" The first church in Haverhill was constituted at the same time, 
and by the same ecclesiastical council which constituted the first church 
in Andover. It is reasonable, therefore, to suppose that both churches 
adopted the same symbols. The church at Andover still holds the fol- 
lowing, and there is no evidence of its ever having held any other. May 
we not, then, assume that this is probably the earliest adopted in town, 
more than two centuries ago ? — 

" ' You profess to believe in one God the Father, Maker of all things ; 
and in Jesus Christ his Son, the Messiah, and Saviour of men, the only 
Mediator between God and man ; and in the Holy Spirit, which bears 
testimony to the truth, and confirms the faith of Christians. 

" ' You receive the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testament as 
being profitable for doctrine, reproof, correction, and instruction in right- 
eousness, and, through faith in Christ, sufficient to make men wise unto 
salvation. 

" ' You profess repentance of all past sins, and a full purpose of heart 
to forsake every evil and false way, and to cleave to that Avhich is good. 

" ' You do now publicly covenant with God that you will search after 
and obey the truth as it is in Jesus ; that, fleeing sinful lusts, you will fol- 
low after righteousness, charity, and peace ; that you will not forsake the 
assembling of yourselves with the people of God for public worship, but 
make it your constant study to walk in all the commandments and ordi- 
nances of the Lord blamelessly ; and that, walking in communion with 
this church, you will submit to its watchful care and discipline, praying 
for its edification, and the prosperity of Zion.' 

" This creed, though less full and explicit than those of later times, is 
yet sufficiently distinct for a people among whom was no diversity, and 
no apprehension of diversity, of sentiment on doctrinal points. The 
great doctrines of grace are either expressed or implied ; and nothing 
but a heresy or division would render a more explicit declaration neces- 
sary. Moreover, the creed 'and covenant are blended together, but this 
was the common practice at that early day." ^ 

Arminianism here did not, as in most of the neighboring churches, 
find its corrective and antidote, but, in 1833, developed into positive Uni- 

» Rev. B. F. Hosford. 



238 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

tarianism under an anti-Hopkinsian Calvinistic ministry. This Unitarian 
element having gained the ascendancy in the parish, and having carried 
the vote to have more liberal preaching a part of the time, the evangeli- 
cal portion of the church withdrew (leaving only two male members 
behind), and formed the Centre Church. It has been given as "the 
opinion of some candid observers, that the division might not have oc- 
curred, and the whole body might have remained substantially Orthodox, 
had the minister of that day been one who could be soundly Orthodox, 
and at the same time not constitutionally and intensely controversial. 
He not only believed and preached the gospel truth, but he did it in op- 
position to all others. In this way his very Orthodoxy stimulated Unita- 
rianism, and precipitated the final separation." 

There is reason to believe that this is not the only instance in which 
a New England Unitarian church originated in a reaction against an 
ultra, angular, and pugnacious type of Orthodoxy. 

OTHER DENOMINATIONS. 

An intelligent historical survey of the churches of our own orders 
requires us to note the rise and growth of other denominations within 
the bounds of this Association. One hundred years ago the twenty 
Orthodox Congregational churches possessed the whole land, except 
the little that had been appropriated by two societies of Quakers, one 
Episcopal, and one Presbyterian church. There are now on this same 
ground eleven denominations besides our own, represented by more than 
forty churches and societies. 

THE QUAKERS. 

The Quakers, or Friends, were the first to interfere with the monopoly 
of this lovely valley by the " Standing Order.'" I am unable to deter- 
mine when the Quakers first became permanent residents in this vicin- 
ity. In 1659, Thomas Macy, of Salisbury, was fined thirty shillings 
for entertaining four Quakers, in violation of law, although the extent 
of his offence was, that he allowed them to shelter themselves in his house, 
three quarters of an hour one morning, during a violent rain storm.^ 

On the 2 1st of Jan., 1716, the first churcK in West Newbury observed 
a day of fasting and prayer, one object of which was to pray " that God 
would prevent ye spread of errors in this place, especially the errors of 
the Quakers." ^ 

1 Coffin's Hist. Newbury, p. 62. 

2 Coffin's Hist., p. 187. 



OTHER DENOMINATIONS. 239 

The first society of Quakers was organized in 1704, at Amesbury. Its 
membership has never been large, consisting at present of about sixty 
persons. It has the honor of enrolling the name of that true poet, whose 
sweet and simple numbers, and noble, stirring sentiments are fast winning 
for him a world-wide fame. 

In 1744, another society of Quakers was formed in Newburyport 
(then Newbury), and a house of worship erected near where the Belle- 
ville meeting-house now stands. In 1822, they changed their place of 
worship and built a new house at Turkey Hill, near the eastern line of 
West Newbury, which was occupied for the first time on the 2oth of 
Dec. of that year, and in which a few families of excellent people, num- 
bering about forty persons, are still accustomed to meet for religious 
worship, according to the usages of their sect. 

EPISCOPALIANS. 

The first Episcopal church in this vicinity was formed in 1712, in 
Newburyport (then Newbury), on " the Plains." The determination to 
form it, says the Rev. Dr. Morss, " created a strong sensation through- 
out the State, occasioning evil surmises, and violent opposition." ^ It 
originated on this wise. When the Second Church in Newbury (now 
the First Church in West Newbury) had removed its house of wor- 
ship some two miles further westward, a few families, residing near 
its first site, felt aggrieved, and were unwilling to go so far to meeting, 
and at length proceeded to the building of another house for themselves, 
and petitioned the General Court to be erected into a new parish, intend- 
ing to form a new Congregational church. Their petition was denied, 
and they were forbidden to complete their house, and were taxed to 
support the minister of the second parish. Most, if not all of them, were 
Congregationalists, and at first had no thought or wish to be any thing 
else ; but being thwarted is their original purpose, after much delay and 
vexatious effort, they were induced to declare themselves " members of 
the Church of England," and as such were allowed to maintain separate 
worship.^ This was the first of many instances in which, as we shall 
have occasion to notice, the old parish law operated to the disadvantage 
of our denomination, in this vicinity. 

The house of worship for this little body of " dissenters " was soon 
finished, and was called " Queen Ann's Chapel." That some of those 



1 " Hist, of the Episcopal Church in Newburyport and vicinity," p. 15. 
■^ Coffin's Hist, of Newbury, pp. 176-184. 



240 THK CHURCHES OK ESSEX NORTH. 

plain men, who had been educated under the simpler forms of Puritanism, 
did not take easily to the new order of things, is inferred from the 
following extract of a letter from Rev. Christopher Tappan of Newbury, 
to Rev. Cotton Mather of Boston. " Perceiving that some of the cere- 
monies were camels too big for them at first to swallow, be [Mr. Lamp- 
ton the Rector] told them they should be left to their liberty as to 
kneeling at the Sacrament, baptizing with the sign of the cross, and so 
forth. This has been wonderfully taking with them, and a great means 
to encourage them in their factious proceedings." 

In 1740, a new house of worship called St. Paul's, was completed 
nearer the centre of the town, and for some years services were held in 
both houses alternately. Gradually, however, the atti^actions of the new 
house increased and those of the old house waned, and in 1766, Queen 
Ann's Chapel was abandoned, and St. Paul's became the sole place of 
worship. The fourth minister of this church, Rev. Edward Bass, was 
the first bishop of Massachusetts. Its present number of communicants 
is about one hundred and eighty. 

There was an Episcopal church gathered at Amesbury, soon after the 
one mentioned above was gathered in Newbury. Its house of worship 
stood on ground now occupied by the Sandy Hill Cemetery. Rev. Mr. 
Plant, Rector of Queen Ann's Chapel, says of it: "I gave a calf towards 
a dinner for the men who raised it, and £5, this currency, for nails 
towards shingling it. ... I have preached there for many years 
in a house, before the church was built, and since in the church, where 
I also had a numerous congregation." ^ How long public services were 
maintained there, is unknown. The church was subsequently removed, 
and converted into a dwelling-house. 

In 1771, another small Episcopal church was built in Amesbury, on a 
lot of land opposite the present town-house, which was called " King 
George the Third's Chapel," and in which the Rev. Moses Badger 
officiated, until " ordered off" by the government in 1778, for some reason 
now unknown. The building stood unoccupied till Jan. 22, 1810, when 
it was blown down. 

The St. James Church in Amesbury was organized Oct. 8, 1833, its 
present number of communicants fifty-two. 

The Trinity Church in Haverhill was formed Oct. 8, 1855. Present 
number of communicants, fifty-six. 

It thus appears that there are now within the bounds of our Asso- 
ciation three Episcopal churches, with an aggregate membership of two 
hundred and eighty-eight. 

^ Dr. Morss' Brief Hist., &c., p. 25, note. 



OTHER DENOMINATIONS. 241 



PRESBYTERIANS. 



Several unsuccessful attempts were early made to introduce Presby- 
terianism into this region. In 1634, certain Scotch and Irish gentle- 
men wrote " to know if they might be freely suffered to exercise their 
presbyterial government amongst us," and the General Court "answered 
affirmatively that they might," and ordered that they " shall have liberty 
to sett down upon any place upp Merrimac river, not possessed by 
any." Thus encouraged, a goodly company embarked to take possession 
of this grant ; but, as Mather says, " Meeting with manifold crosses, 
being half seas through, they gave over their intendments," so that first 
Presbyterian enterprise failed. 

It is evident that the first pastors of the First Church in Newbury were, 
at heart, Presbyterians, and desired to have that form of polity adopted 
by the New England churches. But they failed to persuade their own 
church even, to accept their views of government. 

The First Presbyterian Church in Newbury (now Newburyport) was 
organized Jan. 3, 1746. It was originally composed of persons who 
separated from the First and Third Churches during the Whitfield 
excitement. 

This church was not at first Presbyterian but Congregational, as is 
evident from the following facts. 1. Those members who withdrew 
from the Third Church, in asking a dismission, say that it is "in order to 
be formed into a Congregational church agreeable to the word of God." 

2. Their first petitions to the General Court to be erected into a dis- 
tinct parish, contain no intimation that they were Presbyterians. In 
answer to their petition, presented Dec. 1, 1752, the First Parish say, 
" As to our brethren forming themselves into a society and settling a 
minister divers years since, and then afterwards, under the frown of the 
government, seeking shelter and relief under the Presbyterian form, but 
all in vain, &c." This implies that the " Presbyterian form " was adopted, 
after they had failed to secure from the General Court the rights of a 
distinct parish, and as a more hopeful means of securing those rights. 

3. In the organization of the church and the installation of the first 
pastor, the extreme Congregational method was adopted. No aid of 
Presbytery or council was had, or asked. They organized by mutually 
covenanting " to walk together as a church of Christ, according to the 
rules and orders of the gospel." Previous to his installation, Rev. Mr. 
Parsons, the pastor elect, was received as a member of the church, 
according to the usages of Congregational churches in that day. The 
installation services were conducted wholly by Mr. Parsons and the 
church. After a sermon by Mr. Parsons, the church formally renewed 

81 



242 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

to him their call, which he formally accepted, saying, " In the presence of 
God and these witnesses, 1 take this people to be ray people ; " the clerk, 
in behalf of the church, replying, " In the presence of God and these 
witnesses, we take this man to be our minister." The whole of these 
proceedings were ultra-Congregational. The Third Parish, in answer to 
a petition from this church to the General Court, under date of May 4, 
1749, say, "They incorporated themselves and installed a minister; the 
whole was purely a lay business, and transacted in a clandestine manned." 
4. Mr. Parsons says, that in Sept., 1746, he consulted the ministers of 
Ipswich and Rowley " whether it was best to seek in a public way for 
the communion of the churches by a council, &c." ^ Such a measure 
was purely Congregational, and would have been thought of by none who 
did not regard themselves as Congregationalists. 5. The form of gov- 
ernment established by the " Platform of Church Discipline," adopted by 
the church soon after its organization, viz., Feb. 26, 1746; though it has 
been called " Independent Presbyterian," might more justly be called 
" Independent Congregational." The Platform provides that the power of 
discipline which belongs to the whole church shall be exercised through 
" a representative body " of not less than six, nor more than twelve, to 
be chosen annually. This body, answering to the " Committee " which 
most churches of our order annually appoint, were to adjust such cases 
of difficulty as they could, and such as they could not adjust, were to be 
referred to the " church collective ; " and there is not the slightest recog- 
nition of any higher judiciary. The Platform also provides for the 
calling of mutual and ex parte councils of neighboring churches, " for 
their counsel and help," in specified cases. Verily there is little genuine 
Presbyterianism here. There is no doubt that this church was Congre- 
gational at first, and remained such for nearly three years. But in 
Sept., 1748, it was voted to unite with the Boston Presbytery, retaining, 
however, by an express proviso, one of the essential principles of her 
original Congregationalism, viz., the right to elect her elders annually, a 
right which she still exercises. Various reasons have been assigned for 
this' change of polity. Any one, however, familiar with the politico- 
ecclesiastical history of that day in this Commonwealth, and with the 
facts in this particular case, will be satisfied, that the principal, if not the 
only reason why this church did not remain Congregational, was the im- 
possibility of obtaining exemption from taxation in the old parishes, and 
an incorporation as a distinct parish. The General Court was unwilling 
to divide parishes of the standing order where there was strong oppo- 



1 Ber. Mr. Steams, Hist. Dis., p. 56. 



OTHER DENOMINATIONS. 243 

sition to the division. Hence " Separatists " in order to be freed from 
the old rates, and to obtain distinct parochial rights, were under the 
necessity of changing their denominational name and character. Failing 
in their object as Congregationalists, they often succeeded as Episco- 
palian, or Baptists, or Presbyterians. It was not till after repeated 
failures, that this church, in their petitions to the General Court, avowed 
themselves Presbyterians, and claimed the same privileges as were 
already granted to Quakers, and Baptists, and Episcopalians. Their 
denominational change did not secure for them the object in view so 
soon as they expected. But this was evidently the reason which led to 
the change. Again we see the old parish law, working detriment to our 
denomination. 

The new church, notwithstanding the troubles attending her birth and 
infancy, grew apace, and has had an honorable history, and is not un- 
worthy to stand to-day, as she does, in living sympathy and fellowship 
with the Congregational churches of Essex North ; having still her old 
Congregational heart, in a Congregationalized Presbyterian body. God 
bless her ! And if any others wish to go out from the old fold, and form 
Presbyterian churches within our bounds, may the experiment prove no 
more disastrous to them, nor to us, than in the case of the Old South 
Church in Newburyport ! The present membership of this church is 
about three hundred and fifty. 

In 1761, a serious difficulty having arisen between certain members of 
the church and parish in West Haverhill and their pastor, Rev. Samuel 
Bachellor, the parish voted to request Mr. B. to ask a dismission ; to 
take the parsonage from him ; to close the meeting-house against him 
and his friends, and to prosecute any man found preaching in it without 
leave of the committee ; and " to put themselves under the care of the 
Boston Presbytery." The next year, Mr. Bachellor having been dis- 
missed, the church voted that it would " resettle upon Congregational 
principles." So that experiment of Presbyterianism came to a speedy 
end. 

About 1783, the pastor of the First Church in Amesbury, being ad- 
dicted to intemperance, was expelled from the Association, and dismissed 
from his charge. He was unwilling, however, to be dismissed ; and the 
doors of the meeting-house had to be nailed up, to prevent him from oc- 
cupying the pulpit. But a portion of the church and parish adhered to 
him, and, under his lead, withdrew, and formed a Presbyterian church, 
and built a house of worship, which went by the name of " Dea. Tux- 
bury's wilful meeting-house," — Dea. Tuxbury being a prominent and 
" wilful " man in the Presbyterian movement. Mr. Hibbird preached 
for them but a short time, although the church had a lingering existence 



244 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

of about twenty years. The last preacher was a negro, named Paul. 
The " wilful meeting-house " still stands, and makes a very useful barn, 
its wilfulness having departed. 

The Second Presbyterian Church in Newburyport was organized by 
the Londonderry Presbytery, Oct. 29, 1795, composed originally of 
thirty-three members, who withdrew from the First Presbyterian Church 
at the settlement of Dr. Dana over it, on suspicion that he was doctrin- 
ally unsound or heterodox ; a suspicion, however, which, if well founded 
by a change either in him or in them, or in both, had so entirely disap- 
peared, that, thirty years later, he was called to settle over this same 
church, and continued its pastor for twenty years. The members of this 
church now number one hundred and six. 

In 1795, the First Church in West Newbury put itself under the 
Londonderry Presbytery. This was not owing to any change in senti- 
ment, but through the influence of the pastor, Rev. Samuel Tomb, who 
was a Presbyterian by birth and education, a licentiate of the Synod of 
New York and Philadelphia, and had been twice invited to settle over 
the First Presbyterian Church in Newburyport, before Dr. Dana's set- 
tlement. As soon as he was dismissed, the church returned to its origi- 
nal polity, satisfied with its twelve years experience of the " care of 
Presbytery," — that is, satisfied that it could do wit]||3ut it. 

In 1796, Jan. 1, a portion of the church and society in Byfield, New- 
bury, who were dissatisfied with the settlement and preaching of Dr. 
Parish, withdrew, and formed a Presbyterian church, or society ; proba- 
bly not because they were Presbyterians, but because they could be 
exempted from taxation in the old parish only by declaring themselves 
to be of another denomination. A Rev. Mr. Sleigh was their first and 
only minister. They built a house of worship, but, in 1805, sold it, and 
soon disbanded, and gradually came back to the old church. Their 
meeting-house was moved, and converted into a school-house, in which 
Rev. Joseph Emerson was teacher, and Mary Lyon, Harriet Newell, 
and other women of note, were pupils. 

This, so far as I am aware, is the extent of Presbyterian endeavors 
and success within the local boundaries of our association. The soil of 
Essex North does not seem to have proved particularly congenial to this 
kind of ecclesiastical polity. 

The two churches of this denomination have a membership of four 
hundred and fifty-nine. 

BAPTISTS. 

As early as 1 682, a small Baptist church was formed in Newbury 
(now Newburyport), which had no settled minister, and only an 



OTHER DENOMINATIONS. 245 

ephemeral existence.* The first permanent church of this denomina- 
tion in this region, was formed in Haverhill May 9, 1765, by Rev. Heze- 
kiah Smith, of whom Backus says : " Having travelled and preached to 
the southward as far as Georgia, he came into New England ,in the 
spring of 1764, and preached much among various denominations, with 
an expectation of going back in the fall ; but a destitute parish in Ha- 
verhill prevailed with him to stay and preach to them, which he did with 
success, and a Baptist church was formed in the heart of the town. May 
9, 1795." ^ This "destitute parish" could have been only a company of 
" Separatists " wishing, probably, to be erected into a parish, and the 
more willing to become Baptists, because, without a change of denomina- 
tion, they could not be freed from rates to support preaching which they 
disliked for other than denominational reasons, and from wliich they had 
withdrawn. It was not known for some time that Mr. Smith was a 
Baptist ; ^ and had he been a Presbyterian, he could doubtless as readily 
have gathered these " Separatists " into a Presbyterian church. This 
church was not only the first in years, but, till recently at least, the first 
in numbers and prosperity, belonging to this denomination, in this vicin- 
ity. Its present membership is two hundred and sixty-eight. 

The church in Georgetown was formed, or became a distinct Baptist 
church, in 1784. It had, however, a previous history, antedating even 
that of the church in Haverhill. "As early as 1754, individuals in the 
Second Church in Rowley " (now Georgetown) " became dissatisfied 
with the preaching of their pastor, and withdrew from the ordinances, 
and ultimately from the church ; and, with others, principally from Row- 
ley, Bradford, and Newbury, sustained worship by themselves." * These 
" Separatists " did not profess to be of a different denomination from that 
of the churches they had left, and for a number of years employed Con- 
gregational ministers to preach for them, and, but for the obstacle which 
the old parish law threw in their way, would undoubtedly have become 
a permanent Congregational church. At length, in 1781, they became 
a "branch" of the Baptist church in Haverhill, and, in 1784, a distinct 
church. Present number of members, ninety-three. 

The First Baptist Church in Newburyport was formed in 1805, and 
now has a membership of one hundred and thirty-one. In 1846, a por- 
tion of it withdrew, and formed the Second or Green Street Baptist 

1 Coffin's Hist. Newbury, p, 135. 

* Backus' Hist, of the Baptists, abridged ed., p. 184. 

8 " His ardent manner and Calvinistic sentiments, which at that time were scarcely 
known in that vicinity, drew together considerable numbers from neighboring parishes. 
It was not known that he was a Baptist." — Mass. Hist. Coll., 2d series, vol. 4, p. 151. 

* Gage's Hist. Rowley, p. 38. 



246 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

Church in Newburyport, which has a membership of eighty-three. A 
Baptist church was formed at Ipswich in 1806, was rent asunder in 
1816, and the two parts expired, one in 1817, and the other in 1823. A 
church was formed at Amesbury Mills in 1821, and now has a member- 
ship of three hundred and eleven. 

The Second Baptist Church in Haverhill was formed Jan. 31, 1821, 
and has a membership of eighty-nine. 

The church in Rowley was formed in 1830, and has a membership of 
eighty-seven. 

A church was formed at South Amesbury in 1849, and has a member- 
ship of eighty-three. 

The Third Church in Haverhill was formed in February, 1859, and 
has a membership of about one hundred. 

UNITARIANS. 

The principal facts relative to the only two Unitarian churches have 
been given in another place.^ 

In 1830, there was a nucleus of Unitarianism in Ipswich, but no 
church, I believe, crystallized about it, and it soon disappeai'ed. About 
the same time, a like experiment was made at Amesbury Mills, with a 
like result. 

Dr. Eaton, of Boxford, during the latter part of his ministry, was a 
member of the American Unitarian Association ; but the church never 
became Unitarian, and, in 1846, settled a thoroughly Orthodox man as 
colleague and successor of Dr. Eaton. 

CHRISTIANS, OR CHRISTIAN BAPTISTS. 

A church of this denomination was formed in Haverhill April 9, 1806, 
which declined after a few years, and was reorganized in 1823, and now 
has one hundred and sixty-five members. 

In 1808, a church was formed in Ipswich, which continued several 
years, and became extinct. 

A church was formed in Salisbury in 1820; present number of mem- 
bers, one hundred and sixty. 

A church was formed in Newburyport in 1820, which now reports 
four hundred and ninety members. 

The " Tabernacle Church " was formed in Haverhill in 1843. 

1 Page 235. 



OTHER DENOMINATIONS. 247 



METHODISTS. 



There are seven churches of this denomination within the bounds of 
this Association, viz. : 

One in Ipswich, present membership . . . . . . 267 

(^ 1 75 
Two in Newburyport, " " j 84. 



One in Byfield, Newbury, 
One in Groveland, 
One in Salisbury, 
One in Haverhill, 



62 

28 
137 



UNIVEUSALISTS. 

This denomination has, in this vicinity, eight societies, which sustain 
preaching the whole or a part of the time ; but whether distinct churches 
exist in connection with these societies, I am unable to say. The societies 
are located as follows : one in Newburyport ; one at Amesbury Mills ; 
one in West Amesbury ; one at Haverhill ; one in North Haverhill ; one 
in Georgetown ; one at Rowley ; one at Ipswich. 

FREE-WILL BAPTISTS. 

They have three churches : one at Amesbury Mills, organized origi- 
nally at South Hampton, N. H., in 1830, and reorganized at Amesbury 
Mills in 1849, with about one hundred and fifty members ; and two in 
Haverhill, — one organized in 1859, with about thirty members, and 
one organized in 1860, called the " Randall Church," with about fifty 
members. 

SECOND ADVENTISTS. 

They have one church in Newburyport, organized Dec. 18, 1848, 
with seven members ; now has eighty-three. 

ROMAN CATHOLICS. 

They have one church in Newburyport, with fifteen hundred com- 
municants ; and one in Haverhill, with one thousand communicants. 
Public services are held twice a month at Amesbury Mills and West 
Newbury, and occasionally at Ipswich and West Amesbury. 



248 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 



NUMBER OF SETTLED MINISTERS AND LENGTH OF 
PASTORATES. 

We now return to the churches of our own order. These thirty-one 
churches have had one hundred and sixty-nine settled ministers. Four 
of them had a pastorate of over sixty-years, — and twelve of them a 
pastorate of over fifty years, among the same people. Sixty-nine of 
them retained the pastoral relation till death, and their bodies await the 
resurrection beside those of their loved and loving flock. The average 
length of the pastorate, exclusive of the present incumbents, has been 
about twenty and a half years; inclusive of the present incumbents, 
about nineteen years. Changes in the pastoral office have been much 
more frequent during the last fifty years than previously ; though not 
so frequent as in some other parts of New England. Several of our 
churches never learned how to dismiss a minister; while some have 
never learned how to bury one. 



ANNUAL ADDITIONS TO THE CHURCHES. 

Of the spiritual state of these churches previous to 1761, I can only 
speak in a general manner. The accompanying table ^ of additions from 
year to year, commencing with 1701, furnish nearly all the data I have 
to reason from. According to this table, the growth of these churches 
was less during the first quarter of the last century, than during the 
second quarter. From 1720 to 1730, was the period of greatest increase. 
The years 1727 and 1728, were remarkable for the large accessions to 
nearly all the churches then occupying this field. Several received 
more than a hundred each, in a single year. The First Church in Haver- 
hill received one hundred and ten in the months of November and De- 
cember, 1727. The entire first half of the century, was a period of great 
growth compared with the last half. The additions to the church in 
Bradford from 1700 to 1751, were four hundred and eighty-six, and 
from 1751 to 1801, one hundred and eighty-one. The additions to the 
First Church in West Newbury for the first half of the century, were six 
hundred and four ; for the last half less than one hundred — (the Records 
are imperfect). To the First Church in Newbury for the same periods, 
respectively, five hundred and twenty-six, and fifty-eight were added. 
Taking these churches as a fair sample of the whole, the increase in 
__ . . 

1 See Appendix. 



WHITFIELD AND THE GREAT AWAKENING. 249 

numbers was from eight to ten times as large, during the first, as during 
the last half of the 18th century. 



WHITFIELD AND THE GREAT AWAKENING. 

It may be thought that one reason why fewer were added to the 
older churches during the last half of the century, was the formation of 
new Congregational churches. But the fact is, that while twelve new 
churches of our order wei-e formed between 1700 and 1750, only three 
such churches were formed between 1750 and 1800. Nor can this 
disparity be accounted for by the greater encroachment of other denomi- 
nations, during the latter of the two periods, for they had just the same 
number of churches formed, viz., two^ in each period. Is it said that 
the Great Awakening, in connection with Whitfield's labors, explains the 
matter? But the truth is, the Great Awakening produced no "great 
awakening " in most of these churches. Whitfield preached in nearly 
all these towns, but in most of them, in the open air, the meeting-houses 
being closed against him, and generally with no very marked results. 
In Newburyport and Ipswich, there was more good fruit of his preach- 
ing than in all Essex North besides. Not more than five or six of the 
pastors of these churches are known to have favored at all the move- 
ment under Whitfield,^ while several of them are known to have been 
earnest opposers of it. The names of eleven of them appear, sub- 
scribed to a letter dated Dec. 16, 1744, from "Two neighboring Asso- 
ciations," and addressed to the "Associated Ministers of Boston and 
Charlestown ! " sharply remonstrating with them for admitting Whitfield 
to their pulpits, and countenancing him in his work.^ 

When, on one occasion, Whitfield was preaching in the open air at 



1 Attached to " The Testimony and Advice of an Assembly of Pastors of Churches 
in New England, at a Meeting in Boston, July 7, 1743, occasioned by the late happy 
revival of religion in many parts of the Land," are the following names of pastors 
of churches in Essex North : Rev. Nathaniel Rogers of Ipsvfich ; Rev. Jedediah 
Jewet of Rowley; Rev. James Chandler of Georgetown (then Rowley) ; Rev. Sam- 
uel Bachellor of West Haverhill. — Pence's Ch. Hist., Vol. L p. 164. Rev. Moses 
Hale of Byfield (Newbury), also favored the revival. — Prince's Ch. Hist., Vol. I. 
p. 382. 

2 Their names were as follows : 

"Rev. Caleb Gushing of Salisbury; Rev. John Lowell of Newburyport; Rev. 
Elisha Odlin of Amesbury ; Rev. Samuel Webster of Salisbury ; Rev. Joseph Par- 
sons of Bradford ; Rev. Wm. Balch of Groveland (then Bradford) ; Rev. Wm. 
Johnson of West Newbury; Rev. John Gushing of West Boxford; Rev. Thomas 
Barnard of West Newbury ; Rev. Edward Barnard of Haverhill."— GVeat Awakening, 
p. 345. 

32 



250 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

Haverhill, a letter was handed liini from the Congregational ministers 
of the town, remonstrating with him for preaching there, and requesting 
him to withdraw. At the close of his sermon he read the letter to his 
hearers, and added, '' Poor souls ! they shall have one more sermon for 
this. I appoint a meeting here to-morrow morning at 6 o'clock," and he 
had a meeting, and preached accordingly. 

The churches, with a good degree of unanimity, stood by the pastors 
in this opposition to Whitfield and the Great Awakening. There were, 
however, in almost every church, a few who fully sympathized with that 
movement and its promoters ; and became very restive under the oppo- 
sition. In some instances they withdrew, and, as we have seen, ulti- 
mately formed churches of diffisrent denominations. In other places 
the)' caused much trouble, and became subject to the discipline of the 
church. Whether, in view of some of the uncharitable speeches and 
unwise doings of Whitfield, and the irregularities and extravagancies 
which, in many places, attended the revival, we can now look leniently 
upon this opposition, or must pronounce it wholly unjustifiable and un- 
christian, — certain it is, that it was very general in this region, and that 
these churches did not, like so many other churches in New England 
at that period, receive large numerical increase. ^ The additions from 
1725 to 1730, were quadruple those from 1740 to 1745, though, during 
the latter period, the revival in Boston and Northampton, and other 
parts of the State, was at flood tide. The additions during this period 
were by no means small, yet they scarcely exceeded those of the average 
of periods of five years, from 1700 to 1750. During that whole half 
century, these churches were, at least outwar(My, prosperous and grow- 
ing in numerical strength. 

It seems, however, extremely doubtful whether that was the highest 



1 Rev. Caleb Gushing of Salisbury says, in a letter dated Oct. 4, 1742, "The 
times are now very much like those of the last century, when so many New Lights 
and new doctrines and corrupt errors threatened to overrun the country. Indeed, the 
many trances, visions, and dreams and wild extacies and enthusiastic freaks and 
phrensies, which have abounded in some places, have cast a great damp on the work, 
and much cooled the fiery zealots, and we hope God will in mercy prevent the growth 
of those eiTors which seem to be creeping in apace (as Enthusiasm, Antinomianism, 
Familism, Deism, Quakerism, &c.), and spare his people, and not give his heritage to 
reproach, &c. But wliatever design the adversary may have against these churches by 
these unaccountable extravagancies and wild commotions, yet I hope God, who can 
bring good out of evil and light out of darkness, will overrnle all these things for the 
revival of religion, awakening both ministers and people, and the further growth and 
establishment of his church in the truth, and not to suffer blind zealots, nor men of 
corrupt mind, to proceed any further, when their folly shall be manifest to all men." 



DECADAL REVIEW OF THE CENTURY. 251 

type of piety which then prevailed in this region ; and whether the 
number of true conversions, even proximately, corresponded to the num- 
ber of additions to the churches. During the latter part of that period 
especially, it is manifest, that in the ministry there was a material de- 
parture from the high doctrinal standard of the early fathers, and that 
Arminianism, or an exceedingly diluted Calvinism, was, in many, if not 
most of the pulpits, the staple of preaching ; and that religion had come 
to be regarded, to a great extent, as something outward and foi-mal. 

Works, rather than faith in Christ, — ordinances, rather than inward 
renewal by the Holy Ghost, — were put in the foreground. It would not 
be strange, therefore, if many gained admission to the church who only 
" had a name to live, while they were dead." But, beyond a certain 
point, doctrinal error loses the power to make even formal Christians ; 
and so we find that from 1745, the additions to these churches became 
fewer and fewer for more than a score of years, until the table is almost 
a blank. There were exceptions, but take the churches as a whole, this 
was true of them. In 1761, when this Association was formed, they 
were, spiritually, at a low ebb, although a few signs of a reaction already 
began to appear, not the least hopeful of which was the formation of 
this body, which at the outset included the most orthodox and evan- 
gelical element in the ministry of Essex North. 



DECADAL REVIEW OF THE CENTURY. 

• 

We will now rapidly glance at the general condition of these churches, 

during the century which the history of our Association covers, dividing 
it into decades. 

«. The first decade, fi'om 1761 to 1771, was a time when our Zion had 
reason to mourn. In addition to the untoward influences at work which 
have already been mentioned, were those arising from the disturbed state 
of public affairs. The Fi'ench war did not close till 1762. Three years 
after, the Stamp Act passed ; and the colonial troubles that preceded the 
great Revolutionary struggle engrossed the attention of all classes of 
people. Whitfield's final visit to this region was in 1769 and 1770, but 
was attended with no marked results ; and in the latter year, Sept. 30, 
this remarkable man rested from his labors, at Newburyport where he 
was expecting to preach on the day of his death, and where his bones 
lie entombed. 

The second decade, from 1771 to 1781, was, like the preceding period, 
a time of political excitement and spiritual declension. In almost no 
part of the country did the people enter more zealously into the great 



252 THE CHURCEES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

War of Independence than in the towns around the mouth of the Merri- 
mac. Nor, with a single exception, did the ministers fail to encourage 
them in their noble and patriotic work. But there was one royalist, or 
tory — I regret to say it — in the ministerial ranks of Essex North, — 
Rev. Benjamin Parker, pastor of the church in East Haverhill ; though 
his toryisra — I am almost glad to say it — ultimately caused his dismis- 
sion. During this decade, the additions to the churches were very few. 

But they were fewer still during the third decade, extending from 
1781 to 1791 ; the same adverse influences as before being in operation, 
and intensified. In respect to growth, this was the darkest period in the 
wdiole history of these churches. In 1788 and 1789, however, three or 
four of them enjoyed a season of reviving, and were considerably en- 
larged. 

The fourth decade extends from 1791 to 1801. The political war is 
ended, but a theological war has begun. Hopkinsianism is beginning to 
be felt as a power in this vicinity ; represented, as it is, by three such 
stalwart men as Spring, Parish, and Woods. Moderate Calvinism and 
Arminianism must needs be disturbed by this new vital and vitalizing 
force. The churches are aroused to scrutinize more carefully the doc- 
trinal views of their pastors ; and when a pulpit is vacated by the re- 
moval of an Arminian, or a semi-Arminian, it is somehow pretty sure 
to be filled with a man of a more Orthodox stamp. There begins to be 
more of what is called " metaphysical preaching," — which means, 
more discriminating and logical and pungent preaching. The fruits 
of the change will in due time appear. 

The fifth decade extends from 1801 to 1811. In Newbury port, a re- 
vival, which began the previous year, marked the opening of this period. 
It was most powerful, in connection with the Fourth, or Prospect Street 
Church ; the present pastor of which has recently said that the influence 
of it " extended over this whole community, and seemed to mould the 
characters of scores of God's children in this city for eternity." 

In 1806, a revival of considerable power, extending into the following 
year, was enjoyed in Bradford, "by which the languid graces of the 
church were quickened, the fundamental doctrines of the gospel brought 
into greater prominence, and the pastor himself converted to more evan- 
gelical sentiments, and a more spiritual life." A few other churches 
were not wholly left without cheering tokens of the Spirit's special pres- 
ence. This was not, however, eminently a revival pei'iod ; but it was 
made memorable by two important events intimately related to the inter- 
ests of religion at large, and to the religious history of Essex North. I 
refer to the founding of Andover Theological Seminary, and the institu- 
tion of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. In 



DECADAL REVIEW OF THE CE^NTURT. 253 

1807, two parties — one in and around Andover, composed of moderate 
Calvinists, and the other in and around Nevvburyport, composed of Hop- 
kinsians, each ignorant of the movements of the other — had formed the 
plan, and taken the preliminary measures, for the establishment of a 
seminary for the study of theology. Had these plans been carried out 
we should have had two seminaries, — one at Andover, representing low, 
or moderate Calvinism, and the other at West Newbury, representing 
high, or Hopkinsian Calvinism. But the two parties, becoming acquaint- 
ed with each other's designs, after much negotiation, effected a union by 
the adoption of a compromise creed, or platform of doctrine, and the 
result was one well-endowed seminary, — an institution in which the 
churches of our denomination in this vicinity, and throughout our land? 
have a most vital interest ; an institution which has done and is doing a 
noble work in behalf of sacred learning and evangelical religion. Two 
sons of Essex North,^ members of Dr. Spring's congregation, gave to 
this institution more than $200,000. Rev. Leonard Woods, pastor of 
the Second Church in West Newbury, and a member of this Association, 
was elected the first professor to fill the chair of Didactic Theology. 

The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions was in- 
stituted at Bradford in 1810. Foremost among its originators and early 
patrons were men from this vicinity. The second band of missionaries 
which it sent out were ordained at Newburyport in 1815, and sailed 
from that place. The wives of two of the first missionaries were mem- 
bers, one of the church in Bradford, and the other of the church in 
Haverhill ; and their names — Harriet Newell and Ann Judson — are 
everywhere familiar and cherished names among the friends of missions. 
Such are some of the links which connect the early history of this great 
Missionary Board with the religious history of Essex North. 

The sixth decade extends from 1811 to 1821. During this period, 
five or six churches enjoyed seasons of refreshing which added materi- 
ally to their strength. But the most noteworthy thing in our history for 
this decade is the fact that we were so little affected by the great Unita- 
rian controversy that was then beginning to drive the ploughshare of 
division through the churches of the Commonwealth. It was a time of 
comparative peace and quietness in this whole region. A higher tone 
of doctrine was becoming generally prevalent ; and a recuperative pro- 
cess was silently going on, without stirring up hostile elements, and 
producing those scenes of painful strife and division which were wit- 
nessed in so many places. 



^ Wm. Bartlett, Esq., and Moses Brown, Esq. 



254 THE CHrRCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

The spirit of active benevolence had an unusual development also 
during this period. And the American Tract Society, formed in 1814; 
the American Education Society, formed in 1815; and the Massachu- 
setts Domestic Missionary Society, formed in 1818, were all largely in- 
debted to the ministers and churches of Essex North for their origin and 
early success. 

The seventh decade, extending from 1821 to 1831, was one of marked 
interest, especially the latter portion of it. On April 30, 1828, the 
Essex North (then called Essex Middle) Conference of Churches, was 
formed at Newburyport. Fifteen churches were represented in that 
initial meeting. The present number of churches, connected with the 
Conference, is twenty-five. At first its meetings were semi-annual, in 
April and October, and were held one day only. Since 1837, they have 
been annual, held in October, and for several years each meeting has 
continued through two days. The Conference, in its Articles of organ- 
ization, pledged itself to "exercise no ecclesiastical authority," and I 
believe it has faithfully adhered to the pledge. It has been a bond of 
union, and a means of fellowship among these churches, and has, in many 
ways, contributed to their spiritual prosperity. 

Such bodies, if not peculiar to our denomination, are eminently con- 
genial with our simple ecclesiastical polity. They illustrate the free, 
spontaneous, and efficient working of our system of Congi'egationalism, 
in distinction from Independency on the one hand, and from Prelatic 
and Presbyterial forms of government on the other hand. They have 
long been known to our Puritan churches. Something like them, seems 
to have existed almost from the first settlement of New England. As 
early as 1641, the General Court of Massachusetts Colony, which then 
assumed a paternal control of all ecclesiastical matters, passed the follow- 
ing vote, or law, viz., " The elders of churches and messengers have 
liberty to meet monthly, quarterly, or otherwise, in convenient numbers, 
and places for conference consultations about Christian and church ques- 
tions and occasions, provided that nothing be concluded and imposed by 
way of authority, from one or more churches upon another, but only by 
way of brotherly conference and consultation." 

The closing years of this decade ushered in that great Revival, which 
was so extensive and powerful throughout New England and the Mid- 
dle States, from 1830 to 1834. As early as 1827, several of the churches 
began to feel the incoming tide. During this year the church in Bradford 
received fifty-four to its communion, and the church in AVest Haverhill, 
twenty-nine. But 1831 was the year in which the interest became deep 
and general. Almost every church then received very large additions. 
The same was true of the three following years. And thus while trac- 



DECADAL REVIEW OP THE CENTURY. 255 

ing with wonder and delight these marvellous displays of divine grace, 
we pass into 

The eighth decade, from 1831 to 1841. The largest number added to 
these churches in one year was in 1832. The '•'■four days' meetings" 
were a marked feature of that revival. These were held in many of the 
towns in this vicinity, and eminent preachers from abroad were called in 
to aid in conducting them. Some evils doubtless grew out of them, but 
certainly they were attended generally with most happy results ; and 
with the wisdom gained from the experience of that period, is it not 
worthy of serious consideration whether a somewhat similar agency 
could not now, occasionally, be employed with advantage ? Should a 
measure, so honored of God at that time, be wholly and forever cast 
aside, because it has sometimes been abused ? In this age of intense 
worldliness, is not something of the kind sometimes needed, to arouse the 
attention of men, and hold it continuously to the great doctrines and facts 
of religion ? Though the interest, in a measure, began to subside in 
1834, yet some of the churches were greatly blessed in 1838, 1839, and 
1840. 

The ninth decade, from 1841 to 1851, presents little of special interest 
upon which we need to dwell. It was not, as a whole, a period of mark- 
ed revivals, nor was it one of great declension. In 1850, five churches 
were again blessed with a special work of grace, whose additions for 
that year were respectively, twenty-nine, forty-nine, fifty, sixty-two, and 
sixty-seven. 

The last decade, from 1851 to 1861, will be memorable for the revival 
of 1858, if for nothing else. With four or five exceptions, all these churches 
shared richly in that precious work of grace, receiving during that year 
more than seven hundred additional members, a larger accession than 
they had in one year during the entire century, or since 1728. Seven 
churches received more than fifty each, and ten more than forty each. 
It was emphatically, among us, a year of the right hand of the Most 
High, and the record of it forms an illuminated page in our history. 

From this hasty survey we see enough to warrant us in saying, that, 
as a whole, the condition of these churches, during the latter half of the 
century, has been vastly better than during the former half; and my 
own conviction is, that, in respect to numbers, and purity, and efficiency, 
they have not for considerably more than a hundred years, if ever, stood 
so well as they do to-day. Let us thank God, and take courage. 

They have at present an aggregate membership of about thirty-five 
hundred. 



256 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH, 



ANCIENT CUSTOMS. 



Let me now allude to some of the customs which prevailed among 
these churches in olden times, and which seem to have sufficient historic 
interest to justify their mention in this discourse. 

When a man had been elected to the pastoral office by any church, he 
had to transfer his church relation to that church, and become a regular 
member of it, before he could be ordained, or installed, as its minister. 
He was often formally received into fellowship by the church when 
assembled for his ordination services. This practice was in accordance 
with what was deemed by the fathers an important principle of Congre- 
gationalism, viz., that the minister is only one of the brotherhood, 
called to occupy an official position, and, like every other member, is 
under the watch and care of the church, and subject to its discipline, 
A church sometimes employed a man to preach for them temporarily, 
and to perform all the duties of pastor, without requiring him to be- 
come a member; but he could not be ordained until he had united 
with the church over which he was settled. The church in Rowley 
employed a Mr. Jeremiah Shepard, son of the godly Shepard of Cam- 
bridge, to preach for them three years, who was not even a pro- 
fessor of religion ; and in whose piety, in 1674, after a year's trial, they 
had not sufficient confidence to admit him to their communion and fel- 
lowship, even though Mr. Phillips, the teacher, after examination, had 
recommended him as a suitable candidate for church membership. This, 
however, was an exceptional case ; although at a later day, and daring 
the Whitfield excitement, it was openly affirmed by some, that there was 
nothing wrong or inconsistent in having even unconverted men in the 
ministry.^ But the general doctrine of our fathers was, that a man must 
not only be a Christian and a member of a church, but also a member 
of the particular church that wished his services, before he could become 
its spiritual teacher and guide. The North Church in Newburyport 
early passed the following vote : " That this church will not invite any 
person to preach for them as a candidate, who will not consent to take 
up his connection with the church to which he belongs and connect him- 
self with this church." The doctrine now held by some among us, that 
a minister should be subject to the discipline, not of the brotherhood, but 



1 Dr. Charles Chauncy in his " Seasonable Thoughts " says, — " But that this " 
(conversion) "is necessary to their being true ministers, we nowhere find in the word 
of God." p. 244. " 'Tis indeed a downright popish principle, to make the efficiency 
of ordinances depend on the unknown secret holiness of the administrators of them." 
p. 246. 



ANCIENT CUSTOMS. 257 

of his peers only, (as if all were not peers, who are one in Christ Jesus !) 
was repudiated by the early fathers, as un-Congregational and unchristian. 

In former times the churches severally claimed, and sometimes exer- 
cised the right and power to ordain and dismiss, or depose their own 
ministers. Usually, in such matters, as an act of Christian courtesy and 
fraternal communion, the aid of a council of neighboring churches was 
sought ; but occasionally a church dispensed with such aid, and fell back 
on its inherent right to manage its own affairs in its own way, account- 
able only to the Great Head. Thus in 1670, the first church in New- 
bury, being in a divided state, the party claiming to be the church 
proceeded to suspend their pastor. Rev. Mr. Parker, from the pastoral 
office, so far as respects the administration of the ordinances, and matters 
of government; but consented that as "a gifted brother," he might 
preach for them if he pleased." The church in Rowley, in 1782, settled 
the Rev. Mr. Bradford as their pastor, without the aid of any council. 
In like manner the Fourth, or Prospect St. Church in Newburyport, 
settled their first pastor, Rev. Mr. Milton. The validity of such inde- 
pendent church action was never questioned ; the only question was, 
whether it was courteous and expedient. 

Our Puritan ancestors were so excessively jealous of the forms of the 
English and Romish churches, that they would not permit the Scriptures 
to be read as a part of the public Sabbath service, except for exposition. 
The practice was regarded by them as " an improper conformity to the 
hierarchical service, and qualified by the opprobrious name of dumb 
reading." ^ These scruples gradually abated with the lapse of time ; 
and the public reading of the Avord of God on the Sabbath was just 
beginning to be introduced into the churches in this vicinity, when this 
Association was formed. The First Church in Newburyport, May 20, 
1750, "Voted, nemine contradicente, that the Scriptures be read in 
public on the Lord's Day." The First Church in West Newbury voted, 
April 15, 1769, that "it is agreeable that the Scriptures be read in 
public." 

Three of the churches in this vicinity, viz., the church in Ipswich, the 
church in Rowley, and the First Church in Newbury, during their early 
history, had two settled ministers at the same time, the one called 
Teacher, and the other Pastor. The distinctive work of these two 
ofiicers is thus defined by the Cambridge Platform (chap. vi. § 5) : 
" The pastor's special work is, to attend to exhortation, and therein 
administer a word of wisdom ; the teacher is to attend to doctrine, and 
therein to administer a word of knowledge ; and either of them to 



1 Palfrey's Hist. New Eng., Vol. II. p. 42. 
33 



258 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX XORTH. 

administer the seals of that covenant, unto the dispensation whereof 
they are alike called ; as also to execute the censures, being but a kind 
of application of the word ; the preaching of which, together with the 
application thereof, they are alike charged withal." The offices of pastor 
and teacher long since became merged in one ; and the shoulders of a 
single modern minister are deemed broad enough to bear the burden, 
now greatly augmented, which the fathers thought sufficient for two of 
their strongest men. 

The Sabbath services were much more protracted in former times 
than at present. The sermon usually ran on till the sands of the hour- 
glass, which stood upon the pulpit, had run out once, and often twice. If 
any of the hearers became drowsy, or inattentive, a gentle tap from the 
tithingman's pole served to quicken their interest, and fix their attention 
upon the preacher. And it is within the memory of persons now living, 
that good men, to relieve the fatigue of long sitting, or to guard against 
falling asleep, would often rise, and stand for a while during sermon- 
time. The slamming of the seats also — which were hung on hinges, 
and upturned in prayer, making a noise like a volley of fire-arms — 
must have conduced more to wakefulness than to devotion. 

The Puritan theory of singing as a part of public worship was, that it 
should be congregational rather than choral. The fathers did not believe 
in worshipping God by proxy, nor in musical exhibitions in the sanctu- 
ary, by a few professional performers, for the entertainment of the con- 
gregation. They believed that all the people should praise God with 
heart and voice. But their correct theory failed in practice, because 
they neglected to provide the means of popular musical instruction ; and 
at the beginning of the eighteenth century, this important part of public 
worship had fallen into a deplorable state. "The congregations through- 
out New England were rarely able to sing more than three or four tunes. 
The knowledge and use of notes, too, had so long been neglected, that 
the few melodies sung became corrupted, until no two individuals sang 
them alike. Every melody was ' tortured and twisted ' (embellished ?) 
' as every unskilful throat saw fit,' until their psalms were uttered in a 
medley of confused and disorderly noises, rather than in a decorous 
song." * At this stage of afiairs, a few good men undertook the work of 
reforming church music. Two of the ministers of Essex North were 
among the earliest and most eflBcient promoters of this reform. In 1714, 
Rev. John Tufts, then recently settled over the Second Church in West 
Newbury, published a small musical work entitled "A very plain and 

1 Hood's Hist, of Music in New England, p. 84. 



ANCIENT CUSTOMS. 259 

easy Introduction to the Art of Singing Psalm-Tunes ; with the Cantus, 
or Trebles of Twenty-eight Psahn-Tunes, contrived in such a ]\Ianner 
as that the Learner may attain the Skill of Singing them with the great- 
est Ease and Speed imaginable. By Rev. Mr. John Tufts. Price, 6d., 
or 5s. the duz." This little book was " a great novelty, it being the first 
publication of the kind in New England, if not in America." ^ It passed 
through at least eleven editions, somewhat modified and enlarged, the 
number of tunes being increased to thirty-seven. Several of the latter 
editions were bound up with the Bay Psalm-Book.'-^ Rev. Mr. Symmes, 
pastor of the church in Bradford, published three works in aid of the 
reformatory movement ; the first in 1720, entitled, " The Reasonableness 
of Regular Singing, or Singing by Note. In an Essay to revive the 
true and ancient mode of Singing psalm-tunes according to the pattern 
of our New England psalm-books, the Knowledge and practice of which 
is greatly decayed in most Congregations. Writ by a Minister of the 
Gospel. Perused by several Ministers in the town and country, and 
published with the approbation of all who have read it." The second 
was published in 1722, entitled, " Concerning Prejudice in Matters of 
Religion; or, an Essay to show the Nature, Causes, and Efi'ects of such 
Prejudices, and also the means of removing them." The third was pub- 
lished in 1723, entitled " Utile Dulci ; or, a Joco-Serious Dialogue con- 
cerning Regular Singing. Calculated for a particular town (where it 
was publicly had on Tuesday, Oct. 12, 1822), but may serve other places 
in the same climate. By Thomas Symmes, Philomusicus." 

The reform in church music thus begun by Mr. Tufts, and carried on 
by Mr. Symmes and others, encountered violent opposition. In many 
places, the excitement ran high, and most disgraceful scenes of strife and 
bitterness were witnessed. Says Mr. Symmes : " A great part of the 
town (Bradford) has, for nearly half a year, been in a mere flame about 
it." The argument of some of the opposers was, " If we once begin to 
sing by rule, the next thing Avill be to pray by rule and preach by rule, 
and then comes popery." But the reformers gradually won the day. 
Singing societies were formed, the members of which would naturally 
take a leading part in the Sabbath singing ; and at length this service 
passed wholly into their hands. This, I believe, is the origin of choir 
singing, which, however, was not generally introduced into our churches 
until after the formation of this Association.^ It was the displacement of 

1 Coffin's Hist, of Newbury, p. 186. 

2 A copy of the eighth ed., thus bound, published in 1731, is in the Historical So- 
ciety's library, Boston. 

^ " Hence the origin of choirs in this country. They grew out of circumstances. 
Those who had sung together, who thought and felt alike upon the great subject that 



260 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

a greater evil by a lesser evil ; and among the hopeful signs of the times, 
I joyfully recognize a manifest and growing tendency to displace this 
lesser evil by that true congregational singing which seems so congenial 
with the whole spirit of our ecclesiastical polity, and which is unques- 
tionably, where the people, by musical culture, are prepared for it, most 
conducive to true spiritual worship in " the service of song in the house 
of the Lord." 

The expense of supplying the sacramental elements was usually de- 
frayed by a tax levied annually on all the members of the church, or, in 
some instances, on all the male members only. On the records of most 
of the old«r churches may be found entries of votes like this, passed by 
the First Church in Salisbury : " May 25, 1733, voted by the church, 
that every communicant pay 2s. apiece to the deacons for a supply of the 
Loi'd's Table." The wine and bread remaining after the communion, 
were usually given to the minister. The Second Church in West New- 
bury voted, Oct. 18, 1731 : " When there is a considerable quantity of 
wine left, the deacons are to take care of it ; but when there is but a 
small quantity left, then it is to be given to the pastor. What bread is 
left after each and every communion, is to be given to the pastor." 

It was customary for cliurches, where many families lived too great a 
distance from the meeting-house to go home at noon, to make provision 
whereby the intermission might be a season of spiritual improvement, 
rather than of idle gossiping and sinful amusement. Thus the church 
in Byfield, Newbury, appointed several men " to tarry at the meeting- 
house by turns, and read some suitable discourse between the public ser- 
vices, for the benefit and edification of such as tarry at noon." A simi- 
lar arrangement was made by the church in Georgetown, from 1766 to 
1779, and by other churches in the neighborhood.^ 

The churches formerly were accustomed to observe days of fasting 
and prayer much more frequently than at present. Usually, on such 

had for years agitated almost every congregation in New England, would be very apt 
to seek each other on the Sabbath, and thus form a choir at once. Schools, too, had 
their influence in grouping the best singers, and uniting their influence and voices 
in the songs of the temple. And the very spirit of opposition to regular singing 
which had for many years existed, and which did exist for many years afterwards, 
being deeply seated in ignorance and prejudice, had its influence in banding together 
those who had been so long and so virulently opposed. While there was much con- 
certed action, there is no mention made of a regular choir, having separate seats, in 
any church, for thirty or forty years ; and they certainly did not become common 
until near the time of the American Revolution." — Hood's Hist, of Music in New 
England, pp. 179-80. 

1 In Prince's Christian History, Vol. II. p. 97, we find an account of a like provision 
made by the church in Middleboro' for several years prior to the revival of 1741. 



ANCIENT CUSTOMS. 261 

occasions, several neighboring ministers were invited to be present, and 
participate in the services. The old " Ministers' Meeting," an associa- 
tion formerly occupying a portion of the ground now occupied by the 
Essex North Association, on one occasion voted that their regular bi- 
monthly meetings should, for a year, be changed into fasts, to be observed 
in connection with the several churches to which they would come in 
order. In connection with these fasts, the chux'ches often solemnly re- 
newed their covenant. The Third Church in Newbury (now First in 
Newburyport) voted, Dec. 7, 1727, " That, once a quarter, the church 
will meet and renew their covenant." Sometimes, in thus renewing their 
covenant, all the members of the church held up the right hand, to give 
to the transaction more of the sacredness and force of an oatli. 

Social religious weekly meetings for conference and prayer, like those 
now regularly held in connection with almost all our churches, were not 
known a century ago. Still, meetings of a somewhat different character 
were established and maintained by some of the churches. In the rec- 
ords of the Third Church in Newbury, under date of Dec. 7, 1727, we 
find the following : " The church met, and, after prayer, voted that Wm. 
Titcomb, Stephen Greenleaf, Joseph Morse, Wm. Johnson, Nathan Hale, 
Edward Emerson, Eleazer Hudson, should be joined with the Rev. Pas- 
tor and the hon'd Justices belonging to this church, to represent the 
church at a meeting to be held once a month, and consider what may be 
for the good of the Town in general, especially the churches in it, and 
more particularly our Chui'ch and Precinct ; the choice to be renewed 
once a year. N. B. The other cliurches in Newbury have proceeded 
in the same method, and upon the same design. God grant success to 
us in this affliir, and, by his Holy Spirit, lift up a Standard against vice 
and prophaneness, and revive dying religion among us." 

Such societies were common in other parts of the country. The idea 
of them seems to have been imported ; for in Prince's Christian History, 
vol. 1, p. 109, we read of Rev. Mr. Danforth, of Taunton, in 1705, that, 
" having seen some printed accounts of the Methods of Reformation in 
Old England, in imitation thereof (after earnest prayers to God for suc- 
cess), obtained of several Inhabitants of the Place (that were noted for 
sobriety and zeal against sin) to meet with him once in each month, to 
consult what might be done to promote a Reformation of Disorders 
there." 

Besides this monthly society, there were, in connection with the Third 
Church in Newbury, several societies of young men, which held stated 
meetings for prayer and religious improvement. There is a record of 
six such societies existing there in 1741, and a list of the names of those 
belonging to them, and of the persons at whose houses they statedly met. 



262 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

The number of members were : fifteen, seventeen, seventeen, twelve, 
ten, six, — seventy-seven in all, certainly a large number of young men 
to be enrolled by one church for such a purpose.-^ It does not by any 
means follow that all these young men were Christians, and members of 
the church in full communion. It is within the memory of some now 
living, that such societies or meetings were established for young men 
who were not professors of religion, exclusively, and, in some instances, 
with the special design that, by participating in the exercises of such 
meetings, they might be aided and encouraged in maintaining worship in 
their families." It is to be feared that now, instead of there being non- 
professors who conduct family worship, there are too many professors 
who have no domestic altar. 

I now proceed to speak, more at length, of a few things of vital inter- 
est, connected with the history of these churches, which could not be 
duly considered in our rapid chronological review. 



PARISH LAWS AND MINISTERIAL SUPPORT. 

At first, both in the Plymouth and in the Massachusetts Bay Colonies, 
ministerial support was provided for by the voluntary contributions of 
the people, made weekly or monthly in the church at the close of the 
Sabbath services.^ The ministers themselves favored this voluntary 
system. " I have seen a letter," says Gov. Hutchinson, " from one of 
the principal ministers of the colony, expressing some doubts of the law- 
fulness of receiving support in any other way." ^ And Gov. Winthrop 
says, that Mr. Cotton, in a sermon from 2 Kings 8:8," taught that 



^ Such societies, including all classes, were formed in many places. They appear 
to have differed from the prayer and conference meetings of our day chiefly in this, — 
that they had a constitution, or certain rules, which those belonging to a particular so- 
ciety signed, and they only were expected to attend the meeting. The Rev. Mr. 
White, of Gloucester, giving an account of a revival among his people in 1744, says : 
"And- in our Parish, there have since been formed no less than nine distinct Societies, 
of Young and Old, Male and Female, Bond and Free (for one of them is a Society 
of Negroes, who, in their meetings, behave very seriously and decently. They have 
been greatly impressed. One of them gave a very satisfying account of his experi- 
ence, and was taken into church fellowship. Most of them entered into Covenant, 
and were baptized themselves, and also their issue), who meet, several of them, twice 
in a week, to pray and sing, as well as to read Books of Piety, and the rest once a 
week. And the younger say their Catechism to the Head of the meeting. And sev- 
eral sermons have been preached unto them." — Prince's Christian History, vol. 2, 
p. 44. 

■•i Lechford's Plain Dealing, Mass. Hist. Coll., 3d S., Vol. III. p. 78. 

3 Hist. Mass., Vol. I. p. 376. 



PARISH LAWS AND MINISTERIAL SUPPORT. 263 

when magistrates are forced to provide for the maintainance of minis- 
ters, then the churches are in a dechning condition," and " that the 
minister's maintainance should be by vohnitary contribution, not by 
lands, revenues, or titles." ^ 

In Boston, and some other places, "this method was kept up for con- 
siderably more than a century." '^ The following extract from the 
records of the Third Church in Newbury, under date of Jan. 9, 1733, 
imply that it was then employed by that church. *' The church was 
excited to do their duty with respect to the contribution for the support 
of public worship, which lately has failed of its sufficiency." It was 
continued in the First Church in Ipswich, till 1763.^ But in many 
towns, this purely voluntary system, at an early day, failed to secure the 
requisite amount ; all persons not being willing to contribute their fair 
proportion ; and some of the churches soon began to " be beholden," as 
Lechford says, " now and then to the General Court, to study ways to 
enforce the maintainance of the rainistrie." * The church in Newbury 
was one of the first to seek and receive such legislative aid. In 1637, 
only two years after the church was formed, the General Court enacted 
as follows : " Whereas, it appeareth unto this court, that the inhabitants 
of Newbury are indebted to divers persons near the sum of sixty pounds, 
which hath been expended upon public, and needful occasions, for the 
benefit of all such as do, or shall, inhabit there, as building houses for 
their ministers ; and whereas such as are of the church there, are not 
able to bear the whole charge, and the rest of the inhabitants there do, 
or may enjoy equal benefits thereof with them, it is, therefore, ordered 
that the freemen of said town, or such of them as upon public notice 
shall assemble for that end, or the greater number of them, shall raise 
the said sum of sixty pounds by an equal, and proportionable rate of 
every estate, as well of such as are absent, as of those that are dwelling 
there present ; and for default of payment shall have power to levy the 
same by distress and sale thereof, by such persons as they shall appoint ; 
and the same being so collected, shall satisfy said debts, and if any 
remainder be, the same shall be employed upon other occasions of the 
town.^ By such special legislation the difficulty was at first met. But 
increase of Quakers and Anabaptists, and others who were unwilling to 
aid in supporting Congregational ministers, led to the enacting of general 



1 Journal, Vol. I. p. 355. 

2 Palfrey's Hist. New England, Vol. II. p. 39. 

^ Rev. Mr. Kimball's Sermon on Leaving the Ancient Church, p. 14. 
* Mass. Hist. Coll., 3d S., Vol. III. p. 78. 
^ Mass. Colonial Records, Vol. I. p. 216. 



264 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

laws on the subject. The first was in 1646, to this effect, that in each 
town every inhabitant who shall not contribute, proportionably to his 
ability to all common charges, both civil and ecclesiastical, shall be com- 
pelled thereunto by assessment, and distress to be levied by the consta- 
ble." ^ This law appears to have originated with the Commissioners of 
the United Colonies, who, in 1644, recommended that each colony order 
" That those that are taught in the word in the several plantations be 
called together, and that every man voluntarily set down what he is 
willing to allow to that end and use" (the support of ministers). "And 
if any man refuse to pay a meet proportion, that then he be rated by 
authority in some just and equal way." '^ The design was to encourage 
and supplement the voluntary system. But the difficulty continued to 
increase, and, in 1654, the General Court appointed, "a commission to 
investigate the matter," which resulted in the passage of an order that 
the county courts be empowered to assess upon any town which neg- 
lected to support the ministry, a sum sufficient to make up the defect, 
" and the constable of the said town to collect the same, and to distrain 
the said assessment upon such as shall refuse to pay."^ The same year 
(1654), the Plymouth Colony enacted a law authorizing the magistrates 
to "use aW gentle means to upbraid delinquents, and giving them discre- 
tionary power to use compulsory means with such as " resist through 
plain obstinacy against an ordinance of God." In 1657, a more strin- 
gent law was passed, levying a tax on all in each town who " refuse to 
clear their part with the rest of the church or town in the due main- 
tenance and support of the ministry, this law to be in force only to them, 
but not unto others that do their duty." * Thus, we see how reluctant 
our fathers were to give up the voluntary principle of ministerial sup- 
port, and that they resorted to forced taxation only to supplement the 
imperfect working of their favorite method. But their descendants, as 
we shall see, were quite as reluctant to give up the compulsory method, 
when once fully established, and return to the voluntary system. 

The mixed system of freewill offering, and legal constraint, did not 
long answer the purpose. In 1 692, one of the first acts under the new 
charter granted by William and Mary, was an act, " For the settlement 
and support of ministers and school-masters," one section of which reads 
thus, "And further be it enacted. That every minister, being a person of 
good conversation. Able, Learned, and Orthodox, that shall be chosen by 

1 Mass. Colonial Records. 

'^ Acts of Commissioners of the United Colonies, Vol. 1. p. 20. 

8 Mass. Colonial Records, Vol. IV. p. 199. 

* Cong. Quarterly, Vol. I. p. 661. 



PARISH LAWS AND MINISTERIAL SUPPORT. 265 

the major part of the inhabitants of any Town, at a Town-meeting, duly 
warned for that purpose (Notice thereof being given to the Inhabitants, 
Fifteen Days before the time of such Meeting), shall be the Minister of 
such Town; and the whole Town shall be obliged to Pay towards his 
settlement and maintenance each man his several proportion." ^ 

Thus the old practice at length gave way to the new ; and, for more 
than a century and a quarter, public worship was almost universally 
maintained by taxation legally assessed upon all within town or parish 
limits. But this system was attended with evils, which the General 
Court tried to remedy by a great amount of special legislation. As one 
has well observed, " the friction thus introduced into the machinery of 
these Congregational churches was hard to be overcome. Nor did any 
lubricating process, however often and thoroughly applied, entirely stop 
the creaking, till legal compulsion had given place to the voluntary prin- 
ciple again, as it was in the beginning, and as it is now." ^ 

The law, at first, made no exemption and no allowance for any diver- 
sity of opinion, or scruples of conscience. All within each town or parish 
must be taxed to support Congregational ministers. Many were, of 
course, restive under this intolerant law, and sought in many ways to 
evade it. This induced the General Court, in 1702, to \ydss an addi- 
tional law, entitled, " An Act more effectually providing for the Support 
of Ministers," the preamble of which runs thus : '' Whereas, in some 
few Towns and Districts within this Province, divers of the Inhabitants 
are Quakei's, and other Irreligious Persons, averse and opposite to the 

^ This Act gave the right of choosing ministers to the towns, which had before 
been regarded as belonging to the church, where one was organized. But at an 
adjourned session of the General Court, the same year, that part of the Act whicii 
gave the choice of minister to the town was repealed, and in the place of it, it was 
enacted, " That each respective gathered Church in any Town or Place, within tliis 
Province, that at any time shall be in want of a Minister, said Church shall have 
power, according to tlie Directions given in the Word of God, to choose their own 
Minister ; " and the major part of the inhabitants, concurring with the choice of the 
church, the person thus chosen shall be the minister, "towards whose Settlement and 
maintenance all the inhabitants and ratable Estates " in the town, " shall be obliged 
to pay in proportion." It was also enacted, that in towns where no church was gath- 
ered, the major part of the inhabitants, with the advice and approval of " three neigh- 
boring ordained ministers," should " choose and call an Orthodox, learned, and pious 
person to dispense the word of God to them." 

In 1695, it was enacted, that in case the town or precinct do not concur with the 
choice of the church, a council of the elders and messengers of three or four churches 
shall be called, and if they approve the action of the church, the person chosen 
shall be the minister, and be supported as already provided ; " otherwise the church 
shall proceed to the election of another minister." 

2 Rev. J. S. Clark, D. D. 

34 



266 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

Public Worsliip of God, and to a Learned Orthodox Ministry ; and find 
out ways to Elude the Laws provided for the Support of such, and per- 
vert the good intentions thereof, to the E^ncouragement of Irreligion and 
Prophaneness ; For Remedy Whereof, &c., Be it Enacted, &c., provid- 
ing for the more stringent enforcement of the Law of 1692."^ 

But at length, in 1728, the work of exemption for scruples of con- 
science was initiated. In that year, a law was passed that " none of 
those persons commonly called Anabaptists, nor any of those commonly 
called Quakers, shall have their polls taxed towards the support of the 
ministers of the churches established by law ; provided such persons do 
usually attend the meetings of their respective societies on the Sabbath, 
and live within five miles of the place of such meetings ; provided, also, 
they subscribe a declaration of fidelity to the government, and of their 
faith in God and in the inspiration of the Scriptures." This was the 
entering wedge of toleration, which it took more than a century to drive 
home ; but the legislative blows upon it were frequent, and almost every 
blow told. In 1729, the law was modified so as to exempt the real and 
personal estates, as well as the polls, of Baptists and Quakers. In 1731, 
an act " to the intent that it may better be known who are Quakers " was 
passed, directing the assessors 'of each town annually to hand a list of 
Quakers to the town clerk, who was to enter it on the town records. If 
any persons were omitted, they could have their names entered on the 
list if two members of the society certified that they believed them to be 
Quakers. This act was to be in force five years, and was renewed in 
1737 for ten years. A similar act relating to the Baptists was passed in 
1734, to be in force five years, which was renewed in 1740 for seven 
years. In 1739, the law relating to the exemption of Baptists was so 
modified as to require of those who would be exempted a certificate 
from the minister and two principal members of some Baptist church, 
setting forth that they conscientiously believed such persons to be of their 



1 In 1716, an additional act was passed, "for the rendering of said Laws more ef- 
fectual, and to i)revent the growth of Atheism, Irreligion, and Prophaneness ; " which 
provides that towns and districts that neglect to make suitable provision for the main- 
tenance of their minister, shall be presented to the Grand Jury, and the court shall 
"rigorously put the laws in execution." And in case the orders of the Court of Jus- 
tices are not observed, the delinquents are to be reported to the General Court, which 
shall send them " an able, learned, and Orthodox minister," and provide for his sup- 
port " by adding so much to the proportion of Town or District of the Public Taxes, 
from time to time, as they may judge sufficient for that end. And the additional 
sums, so laid as aforesaid, shall be assessed, collected, and paid into the Public Treas- 
ury, together with the other Public Taxes, and shall be drawn out thence by warrant 
from the Governor," &c., "and be duly paid to the minister." This law was to con- 
tinue iu force seven years. 



PARISH LAWS AND MINISTERIAL SUPPORT. 267 

persuasion, and to be regular attendants on public worship on the iSab- 
bath in their church. As many persons obtained exemption, under this 
law, who were not Baptists, by presenting certificates from churches 
which were not regularly constituted, or which had no real existence, in 
1752 it was enacted that no minister nor members of any Baptist church 
should be qualified to give the legal certificate unless that church itself 
should have obtained, from three other Baptist churches in this or the 
neighboring provinces, a certificate that they esteem such church to be 
of their denomination. These laws, exempting Quakers and Baptists, 
were renewed from time to time, with slight changes in the mode of 
granting certificates, and so continued in force till the adoption of the 
Constitution in 1780. 

The Episcopalians, or " members of the Church of England," as they 
called themselves, were the third denomination that obtained exemption. 
In 1735, a law was passed to this effect, — that Episcopalians and 
their estates should be rated for the support of public worship, the 
same as others ; but the treasurer of the town or parish receiving their 
tax should pay over the same to the minister of the church where they 
usually worshipped, provided the minister and wardens of that church 
first certified that such persons were members of the Church of England, 
and usually worshipped with them. This law was to be in force seven 
years, and was renewed in 1742, and thenceforth secured exemption for 
that denomination. Why a difference was thus made between them and 
Quakers and Baptists, as to the mode of exemption, does not appear. 
They were to be taxed under the general law, and then have their pro- 
portion paid over from the town or parish treasury for their own denomi- 
national use ; while Quakers and Baptists were not to be taxed at all, 
but were left to support public worship for themselves, if they chose, in 
their own way. 

The Presbyterians were the next to complain that they were unrea- 
sonably taxed, and to pray for exemption. The Separatists in Newbury 
having formed a new church in 1746, and being unable to procure from 
the General Court ah act of incorporation as a distinct Congregational 
parish, in 1748 adopted the Presbyterian form of government, and then 
claimed, as Presbyterians, the same exemption which had already been 
accorded to other dissenting denominations. But it was not until 1752 
that they obtained relief, and then not, as they had hoped, in such a way 
as to be put on the same footing as Quakers and Baptists and Episcopa- 
hans. In that year, by a special resolve, in answer to a petition, certain 
individuals mentioned by name, belonging to the Presbyterian church 
and society in Newbury, residing within the limits of the first and third 
parishes, were, with their estates, exempted from taxation in those par- 



268 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

ishes. The same exemption was subsequently extended to other indi- 
viduals. But by no general act of exemption did Presbyterians obtain 
the same privileges which were enjoyed by other exempted denomina- 
tions. 

In 1780, the Constitution was adopted. By the third article in the 
Bill of Rights, the principle on which Episcopalians had before been 
exempted was extended to all denominations. Towns and parishes were 
required to sujiport public worship. All persons were to be taxed, but 
all monies paid in were to go, if desired, to support ministers of the de- 
nomination to which those who paid it belonged. This did not, as some 
have supposed, give full liberty to all to go to meeting where they 
pleased, and be taxed there only. The Supreme Court decided that a 
person must be of a different denomination from the parish in which he 
lived, to have a right to withdraw his taxes for the support of worship 
elsewhei'e.^ Congregationalists must become something else, or they 
could not secede, and set up worship for themselves, without still being 
obliged to pay their taxes to the parishes from which they seceded. No 
general laws were passed to carry this provision of the Constitution into 
effect till 1800 ; so that, for twenty years, the people were living under 
the operation of the former laws on the subject, except so far as these 
were modified by special legislation. In 1794, an act was passed incor- 
porating several religious societies in Newburyport, which provided "that 
all inhabitants of said Newburyport shall be, and hereby are, entirely 
exempted and freed fi-om paying taxes, either for their polls, or estates 
lying within the bounds of said town, towards the payment of any 
charges or expense for the settlement or support of any teacher or 
teachers of Piety, Religion, and Morality, or support of public worship, 
in any place or society therein, other than that wherein they usually 
attend public worship." This was ample toleration, but it was only for 
a single town. But, in 1800, a law was passed to carry into effect the 
provisions of the Constitution, by which all were to pay their tax into 
the treasury of the town, parish, or society in which they lived, but 
could, on certifying that they belonged to a different denomination, with- 
draw it for the support of worship where they attended. But this did 
not satisfy all; and, in 1811, another law was passed, making it easier 
for persons of another denomination to withdraw their taxes to be ap- 
plied where they worshipped. Still there was no relief for seceders of 
the same denomination. They must still pay to the old parish. In 
1820, a State Convention was called for revising the Constitution. The 
third article of the Bill of Rights was long and ably discussed ; and an 

* Journal and Debates of the Mass. Convention of 1820, p. 400 (ed. of 1853). 



PARISH LAWS AND MINISTERIAL SUPPORT. 269 

amendment was adopted providing that all ministerial taxes should be 
applied to the support of the ministry on which those who paid them 
attended. But this amendment, when submitted to the people, was re- 
jected by a large majority of votes. But, in 1833, an amendment was 
adopted which removed all restrictions, and allowed to all full liberty to 
belong to what parish or society they pleased, and to pay only where 
they belonged ; or to belong nowhere, and pay nothing, — thus securing 
a full return to the voluntary principle of the early Puritan Fathers. 

The old compulsory parish law of taxation, with all its modifications, 
worked disadvantageously to the Gongregational churches in this vicinity. 
It may have helped keep some feeble churches alive, and some feeble 
ministers in their places. But we have seen that it led to the first intro- 
duction of at least three different denominations into Essex North. It 
caused much ill-feeling and litigation. In one instance, it subjected the 
members of an Orthodox church (West Haverhill), which had with- 
drawn from the parish, to a tax for the support of Universalist preach- 
ing, for the space of two years ; their proportion of the tax being two- 
thirds of the whole assessed. And when some refused to pay their 
asse^ment on the ground of its injustice, warrants were issued against 
them, and one of them was imprisoned. 

It may, in this connection, be remai'ked, that, as a general thing, the 
ministers of Essex North have been cheerfully and comfortably main- 
tained. In olden times the salary was nominally small, at least such it 
sometimes seems to us, as we read that it i-anged from £50 to £150, that 
is, from about $160 to $500. But we are apt to underrate the relative 
value of a pound in those days. The salaries of the early governors 
was not so large as that of many ministers ranging from £50 to £100. 
Then, there was in nearly all cases the parsonage, and quite a farm 
attached. Besides, there was a settlement donation often equal to the 
salary for two or three years, e. g. Mr. Chandler of, Georgetown was to 
have a stated salary of £110, and £300 for settlement. Sometimes, in 
addition to the stipulated salary, the minister was to have so many cords 
of wood, twenty or thirty, also the " contributions of strangers," and 
special contributions three or four times a year for his benefit. 

The depreciation in value of the paper currency at one period caused 
considerable embarrassment, but in most cases the people seem cheer- 
fully to have made up the loss to their ministers. In 1779, Dr. Tappan, 
of West Newbury, whose nominal salary was £80, had £1,600 voted 
him. The same year Dr. French, of North Hampton, N. H., whose 
nominal salary was £150, received for it, £12,000. It is said that Dr. 
Tucker, of Newbury, once sent a wheelbarrow to the treasurer to bring 
his quarter's salary home. 



270 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 



THE HALF-WAY COVENANT. 

There was a practice prevalent among the churches of New England 
generally during the last century, adopted I believe by all the churches 
of Essex North, and by some of them continued through the first quar- 
ter of the present century, but now universally laid aside, which seems 
entitled to some mention in this discourse. I refer to what is now called 
the Half- Way Covenant. It was not so called by its originators and 
friends ; but probably received this designation in derision from those 
who at length opposed and overthrew it. But it will be convenient to 
retain the name, especially as it is so aptly suggestive of the thing. That 
we may the better understand the facts gleaned from the history of our 
own churches illustrative of the subject, it may be well to go back and 
inquire into the origin and nature of the Half- Way Covenant. 

The early Puritan Fathers held most strenuously, in opposition to the 
views prevalent in their day through a large part of the Christian world, 
that only regenerated persons should be admitted to full communion, 
and all the privileges of the church. They also attached great impor- 
tance to household baptism, and held that the children of believers, as 
included in the covenant of their parents, were in a qualified sense 
members of the church. Such children were regarded as under the 
watch and discipline of the church ; and were often dismissed with their 
parents from one church to another. Most of the early settlers were 
church members in full, and, as a matter of course, had their children 
baptized. But many of those children, on reaching mature age and 
becoming heads of families, did not feel prepared to own their baptismal 
covenant, and come into the full communion and fellowship of the church ; 
and so could not have the ordinance of baptism administered to their 
children. This was the occasion of much grief to the godly grand- 
parents. As Cotton Mather observes, " The good old generation could 
not, without many uncomfortable apprehensions, behold their offspring 
excluded from the baptism of Christianity, and from the ecclesiastical 
inspection that is to accompany that baptism ; indeed it was to leave 
their oft'spring under the shepherdly government of our Lord Jesus 
Christ and his ordinances, that they had brought their lambs into this 
wilderness." ^ 

AVhat shall be done ? Shall they, on the one hand, make " No eccle- 
siastical difference," between their children who have been baptized 
and educated in the church, and " Pagans who might happen to hear 



1 Magnalia, Vol. II. p. 277. 



THE HALF-WAY COVKNANT. 271 

the word of God in their assemblies ? " This, they think, will be 
" quickly to abandon the biggest part of the country to heathenism." 
Or shall they, on the other hand, with the English Episcopalians and 
Scotch Presbyterians, lower the terms of communion, so that all who 
have been baptized, and are outwardly moral, though unregenerated, 
may be admitted to all the privileges of the church ? This they fear 
will bring into the church a "■ worldly part of mankind, and so work 
mischief." In this dilemma they found themselves. To solve the diifi- 
culty, at the motion of certain ministers in Connecticut, a Council, or 
Synod of ministers, was convened at Boston, in 1657; and in 1662, 
another and larger Synod was convened at the same place, composed of 
ministers and messengers of the churches. Substantially the same result 
was reached by both Synods in regard to baptism, viz., " Church mem- 
bers who were admitted in minority " (?". e. who were baptized in child- 
hood), "understanding the doctrine of faith, and publicly professing their 
assent thereto, not scandalous in life, and solemnly owning the covenant 
before the church, wherein they give up themselves and their children 
to the Lord, and subject themselves to the government of Christ in the 
church, their children are to be baptized." 

Tills decision caused a great and mischievous innovation upon the 
good old Congregational way. Some of the churches, one at least, had 
in practice anticipated the result of the Synods. Thus in 1655, the 
First Church in Ipswich, among other votes relating to the subject, 
passed the following: " 5. We judge that the children of such adult per- 
sons" (those baptized in infancy), "that were of understanding and not 
scandalous, and shall take the covenant, that their children shall be 
baptized." This is precisely the ground taken by the Synods ; and 
quite possibly the hand that shaped this vote, shaped the Synodical 
result also ; for the vote of the church of Ipswich was passed about the 
time that Rev. T. Cobbet began liis ministry there, who was a member 
of both Synods. But while a very few churches may have anticipated 
this result, it was evidently an innovation upon the practice of most of 
them. At first it met with extensive and strenuous opposition, but 
gradually gained ground, and at length was almost universally adopted 
by the New England churches. It has often been said that its adoption 
was due to political, quite as much as to religious considerations. By a 
law passed in 1631, the elective franchise was limited to members .of the 
church, and the Half- Way Covenant scheme, it is alleged, was devised 
to enable those who were not communicants, to exercise the rights of 
freemen. This view is put forth by scores of writers, and yet, so far as 
I can discover, it is unsupported by facts. 

1. This reason does not appear in the discussions which the new 



272 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

measure called forth. Cotton Mather gives a summary of the arguments 
advanced on both sides, but makes no allusion to this. 

2. There is no evidence that persons admitted to this half-way mem- 
bership in the church, were thereby invested with any of those civil 
rights from which non-church-membership had excluded them. They 
were not entitled to vote, even in ecclesiastical affairs,^ and hence we 
infer that they were not entitled to vote in civil affairs, and so were as 
much as ever disfranchised by the law of 1631. , <,- 

3. The law of 1631 was, by royal order, repealed in IGM, or so far 
modified that any person, obtaining from a minister a certificate that he 
was a man of Orthodox principles and good morals, could be admitted to 
the rights of freemen, even though not a member of the church at all. 

4. The whole controversy on the subject originated in the Connecticut 
colony, where there never was any law which, like that in the Massachu- 
setts Bay colony, restricted the right of suffrage to church members. 

These facts, I think, show conclusively that the motive which led to 
the adoption of the Half- Way Covenant was not a political one. The 
originators and promoters of the new scheme were evidently actuated by 
purely religious considerations. And it would have been comparatively 
harmless in practice if its original form and spirit had been retained. 
But it underwent various changes, all of which lowered it, and increased 
its mischievous tendencies. Facts illustrating the nature of these changes 
are found in the histoiy of the churches of Essex North. 

According to the original plan, those who sustained this qualified 
church membership, and were entitled to the ordinance of baptism for 
their children, must themselves have been baptized in infancy. The 
Synod of 1662 describe them as "church members who were admitted 
in minority." By " church members " they of course meant, not mem- 
bers in full communion, but members by baptism ; and by "admitted in 
minority " they evidently meant, baptized in infancy or childhood on the 
strength of their parents' faith. The action of the Synod had reference 
exclusively to this particular class of persons, — viz., those who had 
been baptized by their believing parents, but who had not yet come into 
full communion with the church. But, in the course of time, others, 
who had not been baptized in infancy, children of unbelievers, began to 
desire baptism for their children. Seeing this privilege accorded to 
those .who made no professions of piety, they naturally claimed it, and 
wei*e not denied ; and so it became customary for any who desired it, 
irrespective of the question whether they were " church members ad- 



1 Magnalia, Vol. II. pp. 303 and 305. 



THE HALF-WAT COVENANT. 273 

mitted in minority," to liave tlieir children baptized. Thus we find on 
the records of our churches many entries similar to the following, made 
by Rev. Edmund Noyes, jiastor of the First Church in Salisbury : 
" Dec. 14, 1755. Thos. Eaton owned ye Covenant, and was baptized;" 
and on the list of baptism, under the same date, "Josiah,Jedediah, Mercy, 
Olive, Rhoda, children of Thos. Eaton." This was a greater " enlarge- 
ment of baptism " than was contemplated by the Synodists. 

Another departure from the original intent of the half-way plan of the 
Synods was, great laxity in regard to the morality of those who availed 
themselves of its provisions. At first, they must be " not scandalous in 
life," — that is, a m^n must be free from outward immorality, or he could 
not have his children baptized, even though he had himself been bap- 
tized in infancy, and had owned the covenant. This condition was vir- 
tually, if not formally, set aside in many of our churches. Persons 
guilty of the grossest breach of morality were admitted to the privileges 
of the Half- Way Covenant. True, usually they must first make a for- 
mal confession ; but such confessions, in multitudes of cases, were evi- 
dently a mere form, unaccompanied by any proof of repentance or 
reformation. The great aim seemed to be, to have as many children 
as possible baptized ; and the tendency was to break down all those 
barriers which a purer age had thrown around the ordinance. The old 
records of many of our churches are full of cases where persons charge- 
able with heinous offences are said to have given satisfaction to the 
church, and were " restored to charity," and allowed to have baptism 
administered to their children. And that must have been a marvellously 
large charity which could so easily be satisfied that the persons in ques- 
tion came within the rule, "• not scandalous in life ! " 

Another modification of the original practice related to the inward spir- 
itual character of those persons for whose children it was designed to se- 
cure Chi'istian baptism. The Synodists held that "there ought to be true 
saving faith in the parent, according to the judgment of rational charity, 
or else the child ought not to be baptized ; " and the existence of such 
faith, at least in its " initial " stage, was, in the absence of positive evi- 
dence to the contrary, to be presumed in the case of all persons who had 
been baptized in infancy. They were to be looked upon as believers, 
though their faith might yet be in a latent or germinal state. And such 
faith, though sufiicient to entitle them to baptism for their children, was 
not deemed sufiicient to entitle them to admission to the Lord's Table, 
and all the privileges of full communion. Presumptive evidence of jus- 
tifying faith was enough for baptism, while positive and palpable evi- 
dence of such faith was requisite to full communion. 

It was an easy step, and one almost sure to be taken, from such a posi- 
35 



274 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NOKTH. 

tion to the more consistent one, that if such persons were really Chris- 
tians, and had saving faith at all, they were entitled to all Christian 
ordinances, though conscientious scruples about the duty of coming to the 
Lord's Supper should be respected. This was the view actually adopted 
by many churches, and their practice conformed to it. In a discourse 
on "Covenant Engagements," preached at Dorchester Dec. 6, 1801, the 
author, Rev. T. M. Harris, says : " Because of the scruples of some con- 
scientious persons, it was antiently allowed, in the discipline of some of 
our churches, that they should take the covenant upon themselves, and 
have their children baptized, but be excused fi'om coming to the Lord's 
Table till such fears as they might have imbibed with respect to eating 
and drinking unworthily should be removed." Confirmatory of this 
statement, is the following vote of the church in West Amesbury, in 
1790, that " those who wish to offer their children in baptism join with 
the church, and have a right to all the ordinances and privileges of the 
church. But if any have doubts with regard to their preparation for 
the Lord's Supper, they may have the liberty to stay away from that 
ordinance until their doubts shall be removed." In such cases, persons 
owning their baptismal covenant were debarred from full communion, 
not by the church, on the ground that they had not made the requisite 
" Christian proficiency," or did not give evidence of that " exercised 
faith " which was a necessary qualification for the Lord's Supper, but 
by their own doubts, or conscientious scruples.^ 

A still further departure from the original Synodical plan was that by 
which the Half- Way Covenant became, what many have mistakenly 
supposed it was at first designed to be, a mere arrangement by which 
any persons who wished might have their children baptized, though they 
were regarded by themselves and by the church as unregenerate, and 
wholly unfit for full communion. The idea of " initial " or presumptive 



1 The church in West Springfield, Sept. 4, 1785, adopted a series of resolutions, 
among which are the following : 

" 2. That they who have been baptized in infancy ought, as soon as they arrive to 
proper age, seriously and solemnly to renew their baptismal covenant," &c. 

" 3. That they who are qualified for such solemn renewal of their covenant are also 
qualified for complete communion in all gospel ordinances. 

"4. That, still, a church ought to treat scrupulous persons with tenderness ; and if 
she judges them qualified for all the privileges, she ought not to exclude them from 
all, because they doubt their meetness for one. 

"6. That they who have made, or may hereafter make, a public profession of re- 
ligion in this church {/. e., by 'owning the covenant') shall be considered as complete 
members of the chm-ch, and as having a right to come to the Lord's Table when they 
see the way open to it, — first signifying this their intention to the pastor, and by him 
to the church." — Dr. Sprague's Historical Discourse at West Springfield, p. 65. 



THE HALF-WAY COVENANT. 27-5 

faith was practically lost sight of ; and any person, though supposed to 
be unconverted, might, by owning the covenant, receive baptism for his 
children. This was the form in which the Half-Way Covenant was 
practised in many of our churches during the latter half of the last cen- 
tury. 

But, in some few churches, the perversion of it was still greater. Not 
only were unregenerate persons, — i-egarded as such, — provided they 
had been baptized, encouraged to offer their children for baptism, but to 
avail themselves of all church ordinances and pi'ivileges. Mr. Stoddard, 
of Northampton, said : " It is a scandal if they do not " (come to the 
Lord's Supper), " and the church may call them to an account for their 
neglect. It is a visible contempt cast on the ordinance." He held that 
the sacrament of the Supper was a converting as well as an edifying or- 
dinance, and could rightly and profitably be used, as well as other means 
of grace, by those who did not deem themselves, and were not deemed 
by others, to be Chinstians. Through the great influence of Stoddard, 
his views gained considerable currency in the Connecticut Valley, but 
not, as I can learn, elsewhere. No trace of them is to be found in the 
records of any of the churches in this vicinity ; although there was a 
time when one of our churches was disposed to carry them into practice, 
if we may credit Lechford, who, speaking of a period some twenty years 
prior to the meeting of the Synod of 16G2, says : " Of late, some churches 
are of opinion that any may be admitted to church fellowship that are 
not extremely ignorant or scandalous ; but this they are not very forward 
to practise, except at Newbury." ^ 

In yet another particular was there, in process of time, an important 
deviation from the original practice, sanctioned by the Synod. At first, 
those claiming baptism for their children on this half-way system, were 
required publicly to profess their assent to " the doctrine of faith," and 
solemnly own the Covenant before the church, " wherein they give up 
themselves and their children to the Lord, and subject themselves to the 
government of Christ in the church." This profession of faith, and own- 
ing of the covenant was as public and solemn, as in the case of persons 
received to full communion. And in some places it was the custom 
publicly to propound them, one or two weeks beforehand.^ The Cove- 



1 Mass. Hist. Coll., 3d series, vol. 3, p. 80. 

" There was a strong party in the colony of Connecticut who were for admitting all 
persons of a regular life to a full communion in the churches upon their making a 
profession of the Christian religion, without any inquiry with respect to a change of 
heart, and for treating all baptized persons as members of the church." — Trumbull's 
Hist. Conn., vol. 1, p. 297. 

'^ Prince's Christian Hist., Vol. I. p. 111. White's N. E. Congregationalism, p. 50. 



276 THE CHUKCHKS OF KSSEX NORTH. 

nant thus publicly owned was, in many cases, the same used at the 
admission of candidates for full communion, with slight verbal altera- 
tions, such as, instead of the promise to attend to all the ordinances of 
the gospel, a promise to " strive to qualify themselves for the Lord's Sup- 
per, or to attend to all the ordinances as soon as they shall see the way 
clear to do so." 

Sometimes a covenant was prepared entirely distinct from that used 
at the reception of persons to full membership.-' As a matter of his- 
torical interest, I will give a few specimens of the forms of the Half- 
Way Covenant used by the churches in this region. 

The following was used by the church in West Amesbury; "You 
do here, in the presence of God and this assembly, own and profess your 
serious belief in the Christian religion, as it is contained in the Holy 
Scriptures. And professing your repentance towards God, and faith 
towards our Lord Jesus Christ, you do give up yourself to the Lord 
Jehovah, who is Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, and receive him as your 
God and portion. You do give up yourself to the Lord Jesus Christ, 
and rely upon him as the Head of his people, in the covenant of 
grace, and as your prophet, priest, and king forever. You do also own 
your baptismal covenant, and obligations thereby to be the Lox'd's. 
You do submit to the laws of liis kingdom, as they are administered 
among this his people, and will herewith be at pains to gain that further 
preparation of the sanctuary which may embolden your further ap- 
proaches to the enjoyment of God in all his ordinances. 

" This you profess and promise. 

" We then acknowledge and receive you as a disciple of Christ, prom- 
ising, as God shall enable us, to watch over you with patience, meekness, 
and brotherly love, praying that the God of peace and love may dwell 
amongst us, and be gloritied in us. 

" Now to him who is able to keep you," &c. — See Jude 24, 25. 

The following was used by the church in West Boxford : " You 



1 The following, according to Cotton Mather, is the form of Half- Way Covenant, 
adopted by one church in 1692. "You now from your heart, professing a serious 
belief in the Christian religion, as it has been generally declared and embraced by the 
faithful in this place, do give up yourself to God in Christ ; promising with his lielp 
to endeavor to walk according to the rules of that holy religion all your days ; choos- 
ing God as your best good, and your last end, and Christ as the prophet and priest, 
and the king of your soul forever. You do therefore submit unto the laws of his 
kingdom, as they are administered in this church of his ; and you will also carefully 
and sincerely labor after those more positive and increased evidences of regeneration 
which may further encourage you to seek an admission unto the table of the Lord." 
Maytialia, Vol. II. p. 314. 



THK HALF-WAY COVENANT. 277 

believe that the Scripture.s were given by inspiration of God, and that 
they are the only perfect rule of faith and practice, and you promise to 
govern yourselves by the rules and precepts of Christianity, so far as 
you may be enabled by the grace of God. And it is your desire to 
attend upon all its ordinances and institutions, and you will, so far as 
you may find satisfactory evidence in your own mind of being duly 
qualified. You desire to be deeply liumbled before God for all your 
sins, and to repair to the blood of the everlasting covenant for cleansing. 
Believing that there is no other name given under heaven whereby we 
can be saved, you would trust to His merits for pardon of sin and 
acceptance w-ith God. Believing, also, in the divine appointment of the 
ordinance of baptism, and desirous of having this covenant set upon 
your children, you wish unreservedly to dedicate them to God, and do 
promise, so far as you may be enabled, to bring them up in the nurture 
and admonition of the Lord. You will consider yourself under the 
watch, and subject to the discipline of this church, and you engage to be 
watchful over yourself, and, so far as you may be enabled, to command 
your children and pious household after you to keep the way of the 
Lord." 

The following was used by the church in Rowley, and is the same 
which Phillip Henry drew up for the private use of his children : ^ "I 
take God the Father to be my chiefest good, and highest end; I take 
God the Son to be my only Lord and Saviour ; I take God the Holy 
Spirit to be my sanctifier, teacher, guide, and lawgiver ; and take the 
people of God to be my people in all conditions. I likewise devote and 
dedicate unto the Lord my whole self, all I am, and all I have, and all I 
can do. And all this I do deliberately, freely, sincerely, and forever." 

The following was used by the First Church in Ipswich, and, with 
the exception of the last two paragraphs, is substantially the same as 
that which was, and is still, used at the admission of members to full 
communion : " You profess to believe the eternal Jehovah, who is the 
Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, to be the one only living and true God ; 
you desire truly to know him, to believe in him, to love and obey him, 
and to be made happy in the enjoyment of the blessed fruits of his love. 

" You profess to believe, that all mankind are fallen from God into a 
state of sin and misery, and that they are justly exposed to his wrath 
and curse. 

" You profess to believe, that God the Father so loved the world, that 
he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever should believe in him 
might not perish, but have everlasting life ; and that Jesus Christ is the 



1 Davies' Sermons, Vol. III. p. 452. 



278 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

only begotton Son of God, and the only Saviour of lost man ; and you 
desire truly to believe on him and to be subject unto him in all his sav- 
ing offices. 

" You profess to believe, that it is the office and work of the Holy 
Spirit to make application of the redemption purchased by Christ, unto 
all who shall be saved ; and desire that he may be your teacher, sancti- 
fier, and comforter. 

" You profess to believe the Scri[)tures of the Old and New Testa- 
ments to be the word of God, and a perfect rule of faith and practice ; 
and you desire to receive them as such. 

"And while you desire to be the Lord's, and promise by his grace to 
govern yourself by the rules of the gospel, you give up your children 
to Him, solemnly engaging that you will sincerely endeavor by precept 
and example to bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the 
Lord. 

" You submit yourself to the watch and care of this Christian church, 
promising, by divine assistance, to live as the grace of God, which bring- 
eth salvation, teacheth you. 

" Do you consent to the covenant thus proposed ? We then consider 
you as under our watch and care ; and your children entitled to the 
privilege of baptism. It is our duty to watch over you with faithfulness 
and love, and to conduct towards you, in every respect, as friendship 
and religion require. It is our heart's desire and prayer to God, that 
yoH and your children may be interested in the covenant of grace, and 
made meet for an inheritance with the saints in light." 

Sometimes a special covenant was prepared to meet some individual 
case, or perhaps was presented by the person who desired to come into 
this half-way relation to the church. Of this kind is the following from 
the records of the North Church in Newburyport, dated June 25, 1769 : 
" I acknowledge my wilful departure from the blessed God, and my 
insufficiency to recover myself by any thing in my power ; but must 
depend on the free mercy of God, and the merits of Jesus Christ, for 
justification and redemption, which I am not without hopes that God 
has enabled me to do ; and I desire that the ordinance of baptism, which 
Christ has instituted, may be administered upon my child, being con- 
vinced that it is my duty to offer it up to God in baptism, to be cleansed 
from all filthiness of flesh and spirit ; and I hope I shall be enabled to 
bring it up in the fear of the Lord ; and I shall think myself under 
obligations to come up to all Christ's ordinances, as soon as I shall see 
my way clear. I own this church to be a true church of Christ, and 
shall submit myself to it as such, and would humbly beg your watch 
over, and prayei's for me." 



THE HALF-WAY COVENANT. 279 

In the records of a majority of our churches, no distinct form of the 
Half- Way Covenant is to be found, and the probability is, that the same 
one was used, both for half-way, and for full membership. But what- 
ever the form used, it was publicly owned, or assented to before the 
church. This, it is believed, was^for a long period the universal prac- 
tice. But at length it began to decline, when the n«otion became preva- 
lent, that persons might claim baptism for their children, who were 
consciously and professedly unregenerate, without even "initial faith." 
The owning of the Covenant was less insisted on, and gradually went 
into disuse. 

The following is from the records of the F'irst Church in Haverhill, 
under date of April 30, 1789: "Whereas it has been customary for 
persons in order to obtain baptism for their children, to make a public 
profession of faith called 'owning the Covenant,' and as this condition 
may hinder some persons (though otherwise qualified) from complying 
with the institution ; voted, that it be no longer required, but the children 
of all baptized persons may be admitted to this holy ordinance unless 
they (the parents) have forfeited this privilege by scandalous immor- 
ality." 

All the churches did not dispense with the "owning the Covenant" 
by such formal action, but they all did come to dispense with it. In 
some of them for a time it was owned privately to the pastor, instead of 
publicly before the church. But even this was at length dropped ; 
and any baptized persons, not openly and grossly immoral, could bring 
their children and have them baptized without any owning of the 
Covenant, either in private or public. This was the mere ghost of the 
original plan of the Synodists ; and, as might be expected, soon disap- 
peared altogether, as the clear light of a sounder theology and a purer 
piety began to shine upon the churches. No trace of it, I believe, is to 
be found in this region of a later date than 1825. 

This scheme has been justly characterized as a mischievous innova- 
tion, but I am inclined to think that the mischief caused by it has been 
overestimated. It has been often affirmed that it brought into the 
church a multitude of unconverted persons. But such was not the 
case, except in that limited region, in the valley of the Connecticut, 
where Stoddard's views prevailed. It rather had the tendency to keep 
converted persons out of the church. They stopped at this half-way 
house, — flattering themselves that, having done something, they were 
safe, or, at least, in a hopeful state. In this manner, the Half- Way Cov- 
enant unquestionably did harm. It may also have encouraged that false 
and pernicious doctrine which was so prevalent during the last century 
in regard to the use of means of conversion ; but I doubt whether it was 



280 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

as largely responsible for the prevalence of that doctrine as some have 
supposed. It was not, at first, regarded at all as a means of conversion, 
but only a means of developing that " initial faith " which was presumed 
to be already implanted. And when this idea of " initial faith " was lost 
sight of, and professedly unregenerate men " owned the covenant," the 
inconsistency of it Aj-as not felt, because the notion of " unregenerate 
doings " had already gained currency. It was extensively believed that 
unregenerated men could do some things which are holy, or morally right 
and pleasing to God. This notion was not so much the effect as the 
cause of tlie modified forms of the Half-AVay Covenant which were 
adopted. We wonder how men believing themselves to be unconverted, 
could seriously take such solemn and stringent covenants. But the prac- 
tice accorded perfectly with the spirit of the age. Unconverted men 
were accustomed to maintain family worship, and to do many things 
which we think can be consistently done only by professing Christians. 
It was a common thing for them, as well as for members of the church, 
to take special covenants for special purposes, or on special occasions. 
A few facts will illustrate the views and practice of that period in regard 
to persons who were not regarded as Christians. In 1705, Rev. Samuel 
Danibrth, of Taunton, gave an account of the taking of a covenant, 
which he had prepared for the purpose, by all the adults of his congre- 
gation. He says it was " read to the Brethren and Sisters " (^. e., the 
church merely) " in the forenoon, — they standing up, as an outward 
sign of their inward consent, to the rest of the inhabitants. In the after- 
noon, they " (^. e., the " rest of the inhabitants ") '* standing up also when 
it was read ; and then every one that stood up brought his name, ready 
writ on a paper, and put into the Box, that it might be put on Church 
Record. We gave liberty to all men and women kind, from sixteen 
years old and upwards, to act with us, and had three hundred names 
given in to list under C'hrist against the sins of the times. The whole 
acted with such gravity, and tears of good affection, as would affect a 
heart of stone, — parents weeping for joy, seeing their children give 
their names to Christ." ^ 

President Edwards gives an account of a somewhat similar proceed- 
ing in his congregation at Northampton in 1742. He prepared a cove- 
nant which covers more than four pages in Prince's Christian History, 
and which, besides a promise to abstain from a long list of specified sins, 
includes the following, which certainly covers the whole ground of Chris- 
tian duty: "And we now appear before God, depending on Divine grace 
and assistance, solemnly to devote our whole lives to be laboriously spent 

1 Prince's Christian History, Vol. I. p. 111. 



THE HALF-WAT COVENANT. 281 

in the business of religion, — ever making it our greatest business, with- 
out backsliding from such a way of living, nor hearkening to the solici- 
tations of our sloth, and other corrupt inclinations, or the temptations of 
the world that tend to draw us off from it ; and, particularly, that we 
will not abuse an hope or opinion that any of us may have of our being 
interested in Christ, to indulge oui-selves in sloth, or the more easily to 
yield to the solicitations of any sinful inclinations, but will run with per- 
severance the race that is set before us, and work out our salvation with 
fear and trembling." This covenant, he says, he first showed to some of 
the principal men, then to the people in their several societies or meet- 
ings in different parts of the town, then to the whole congregation in 
public, then deposited a copy of it in the hands of each of the four dea- 
cons, that all might examine it. " Then the people in general, that were 
above fourteen years of age, first subscribed the covenant with their own 
hands, and then, on a day of Fasting and Prayer, all together presented 
themselves before the Lord in his house, and stood up, and solemnly 
manifested their consent to it as their vow to God." ^ It is not strange 
that the Half- Way Covenant should be practised in an age when such 
transactions were common, and were approved by the best and most dis- 
tinguished men in the church. 

It is by many supposed that President Edwards opposed the Half- 
Way Covenant, and virtually killed it. But he only opposed the Stod- 
dardian form of it, which encouraged unregenerate men, as such, to come 
to the Lord's Table. For aught that appears to the contrary in his pub- 
lished writings, he could consistently have approved and administered 
that form of it, then generally current among the churches, and very 
likely did so. But his discussion of the requisite qualifications for com- 
munion unquestionably had great influence in preparing the public mind 
for the rejection of the half-way scheme of church membership. The 
principles which he established were directly and effectively applied to 
the whole subject by such " New Divinity " men as Hopkins and Bella- 
my and Spring, in their discussions with Hemmenway, Mather, Tappan, 
and Dana. The Edwardian or Hopkinsian school of divines are mani- 
festly entitled to a large share of the credit of driving out of the churches 
all the various forms of the Half- Way Covenant which had been current 
for nearly a century and a half. 

But the uprooting of this evil, there is reason to believe, was attended 
with some unhappy results. It is a notorious fact that, about the time 
the Half- Way Covenant was laid aside, household baptism fell exten- 



1 Prince's Christian History, Vol. I. pp. 373-78, 
36 



282 TIIK CIIUUCIIES OF ESSF.X NOKTII. 

sively into disur^e. In sweepinj^ away the rubbisli whieli had accumula- 
ted about it, the ordinance itself was well-nigh swept away. This may 
have been owinfr, in part, to a natural reaction from an exaggerated and 
superstitious notion of the value of the ordinance ; but it was probably 
owing more to the fact that the great and precious truth, which is the 
real and scriptural basis of the ordinance, was lost sight of, — viz., that 
the children of believers, by virtue of the organic unity of the family, 
and the special covenant founded thereon, sustain peculiar relations to 
the church, aiid may reasonably be expected to grow up as Christians, 
and to take their place in the church just as they do in the State. 

The theological drift which bore away the Half- Way Covenant was 
one which emphasized individual conversion as a supernatural and in- 
stantaneous change rendered necessary by the universal and total deprav- 
ity of mankind, and emphasized it at the expense of proper ideas of the 
organic and educational forces of the family and church. The result 
Avas, an intense individualism in religion, which left no natural basis for 
household baptism, and which had its complete enibodiment in the Bap- 
tist denomination. 

But, at length, after the lapse of half a century, we hail with peculiar 
pleasure indications of a reaction from these extreme views ; and can 
but hope that the lost ground will be regained, and that the ordinance of 
infant baptism will be restored to its rightful place, freed from all those 
false notions and pernicious practices which so long impaired its value. 
Let the idea be reestablished in the minds of God's people, that their 
children are, from birth, not utter aliens and foreigners, sustaining only 
such relations to the church as other children do, but heirs-presump- 
tive to all Christian and ecclesiastical privileges, and to be looked upon 
as the material lor the natural perpetuity and growth of the church ; I 
say, let this idea of the true relation of the seed of believers to the 
church be fully restored, and let there be associated with it the two 
properly-adjusted ideas of supernatural conversion and Christian nur- 
ture, and we shall soon cease to hear lamentations over the general neg- 
lect of infant baptism, God speed the day when such shall be the case, 
not only in the churches of Essex North, but in all the churches of our 
Lord Jesus Christ the world over. 

THEOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES. 

The only remaining point upon which I propose at this time to speak, 
relates to the different types or phases of theology which have prevailed 
among these churches, and more particularly among their ministers. 

There seems to be no good reason to doubt that all the older churches 
at first, and for nearly a century at least, held that form of Calvinism 



THEOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES. 283 

contained in the Westminster Assembly's Catechism and Confession of 
Faith, and the Ancient Ortliodox Symbols. But they did not, at their 
organization, adopt a creed or confession of faitli, or any doctrinal basis, 
but oidy a Covenant ; which, however, sometimes contained a distinct 
recognition of the leading Calvinistic doctrines. Churches formed dur- 
ing the last half of the seventeenth century, and the first half of the 
eighteenth century, generally in connection with their Covenant, declar- 
ed their consent to the Confession of Faith prepared by the West- 
minster divines, or that adopted by the Synod of 1G80. The church in 
West Amesbury was the first church in Essex North to adopt a distinct 
creed or confession, which it did at its organization, in 172G.^ Subse- 
quently, the other churches followed this example. But although the 
older churches had no creed, there is no doubt that they were sound in 
the faith according to the Westminster type of Calvinism. We find no 
trace of any divei'sity of doctrinal views among them. 

But during the latter half of the last century, theie was a serious and 
wide-spread departure from the original standard. There was at first no 
avowed change of doctrine, and the change was prol)ably gradual. Preach- 
ing became ethical rather than doctrinal. The people were not fed with 
" strong meat," nor even with Paul's "pure milk of the word." The great 
doctrines of grace were not so much opposed as ignored ; and tiie result 
was, the ])revalence of a softened and emasculated theology. It would not 
be strictly true to say, that Arminianism generally took the place of the 
old Calvinism of the fathers. There was doubtless considerable Armin- 
ianism in this region ; but even this, or much of it, was of a higher and 
better type, than what usually passed under this name elsewhere. Dr. 
Tucker, of Newbury, has been styled " A Corypheus among the Armin- 
ians,' but a perusal of his sermons, leaves an impression of the absence 
of strong Calvinism, rather than of the presence of decided Arminianism. 
And some of his contemporaries in the ministry, understood to sympa- 
thize with him, when charged with being Arminians, denied the 
charge ; and their descendants have continued to deny it in their behalf. 
This class of men preferred to be called " Moderate Calvinists." This 
apjjellation, however, did not then mean what it does now ; at least, as 
employed, recently, by the esteemed and venerable senior pastor of the 



' It is possible, though highly improbable, that the Confession of Faith now in use 
by the First Church in Ipswich, is of earlier date. The printed Manual of this church 
says, " it has been used, on the admission of members, from time immemorial." Rev. 
D. T. Kimball says, it was in use before his settlement ; was found in the psalm- 
book of Rev. L. Frisbie, his predecessor. We have no further means of fixing the 
date of its adoption. 

•^ Sprague's Annals, Vol. I. p. 45,3. 



284 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

First Church in Newbury, to define his theological status.^ The late Rev. 
Mr. Braraan, of Georgetown, a few years ago, said " there was no essen- 
tial difference between ' Moderate Calvinists,' and ' Arminians '" ^ What 
emphasis he laid upon the term "essential" I do not know, but there 
evidently was a difference between the views of the two classes of men in 
this region to whom these terms were then applied. The line between 
them, however, was not a sharp and clearly -defined one, and together 
they covered the whole ground from high Calvinism to low Arminian- 
ism. While amonoj those constituting; the ri<iht wins misrht be found, 
according to Dr. Emmons's classification, some who were Calvinisticalish, 
and some who were Calvinistical, and some who were Calvinistic, and 
some who were Calvinists ; among those constituting the left wing, 
were some who were Arminianisticalish, and some who were Arminian- 
istical, and some who were Arminianistic, and some who were Arminians ; 
and in either wing were probably quite a number who were, what the 
distinguished Franklin divine said he "hated to be" in theology, "some 
thing-ish." 

Among the Moderate Calvinists were many men of liberal culture and 
genial piety, who aimed to make religion attractive, and who had an 
exalted opinion of it, as a humanizing and refining power in social and 
civil life. And while they theoretically held the substance of Calvinism, 
they did not hold it with a clear and discriminating conviction, and were 
not bold and outspoken in their preaching of its leading doctrines. They 
have been recently described by one familiar with the religious history 
of New England, thus : " They professed a faitli in the Catechism ; this 
formed one half of their theological influence. They refused to preach 
its most distinctive doctrines ; this formed the other half of their influ- 
ence, and gave it a semitone. Thej' believed in the absolute sover- 
eignty of God ; this was one half of their record. But they said nothing 
of the doctrine in the pulpit ; this was the other half. They silently 
admitted the divine purposes ; thus far all was well. They really de- 
nied the divine efficiency in executing all these purposes ; thus far all 
was ill. To accept the purposes is Calvinistic ; to disown the efficiency 
that gives to these purposes all their meaning, is Anti-Calvinistic. The 
same men proclaimed in general terms the doctrine of Total Depravity ; 
this was one part of their creed. They averred, in specific language, 
that all the choices of men are not positively sinful ; this formed the 
other part of their creed, and made it semi-compact." ^ Most of the 



1 Article in Bib. Sacra, "Vol. XVIII. p. 324, by Rev. L. Withington, D. D. 

2 Semi-Centennial Sermon, p. 10. 

* Prof. Park's Memoir of Dr. Emmons, p. 426. 



THEOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES. 285 

ministers of the churches of Essex North, a little more than a century 
ago, would probably have avowed themselves " Moderate Calvinists," 
but a large majority of them could more justly have been denominated 
" Moderate Arminians." The Arminian element was more conspicupus 
in their theology than the Calvinistic element. Generally, in their doc- 
trinal views, they fell below the standard of moderate Calvinism ; while 
they did not sink quite to the level of the old Arminianisra which pre- 
vailed extensively in Boston, and other parts of the Commonwealth. 
Their system needed, and received a name of its own, being sometimes 
called " Merrimac Divinity," or, " Merrimac Theology." 

And it is now an interesting inquiry, what became of this peculiar 
type of theology ? for it has entirely disappeared. Left to itself, under 
the natural operation of those laws which govern the development of 
error, it would doubtless have blossomed into Arminianism, and then 
have ripened into Unitarianisra. And our wonder is, that such was not 
the result. We are surprised to find that these churches did not gener- 
ally share in the great New England apostasy, and become Unitarian, 
but were all, with two exceptions, reclaimed to the old Puritan faith, on 
which they to-day rest securely. How came this to pass ? What saved 
these churches from the gulf to which they were tending, and the very 
brink of wliich some of them had reached ? Doubtless several causes 
operated, under God, to secure this most gratifying result. But I cannot 
forbear to single out and mention one, which was evidently second in 
importance to none other. I refer to the introduction of what was then 
called Hopkinsianism. In 1777, Samuel Spring was settled in New- 
buryport ; in 1787, Elijah Parish was settled in Byfield ; and, in 1798, 
Leonard Woods was settled in West Newbury. These three men all 
made their mark in the world, and they made it in these churches before 
they made it in the world at large. They were intellectually and theo- 
logically strong men ; and occupying, as a base of operations, a line ex- 
tending through three contiguous parishes in the very centre of Essex 
North, they must have made their influence felt through the whole 
region. And they were all Hopkinsians. They differed among them- 
selves on some points of doctrine, yet were in substantial agreement as 
representatives of the theology then known as Hopkinsianism, which, 
they claimed, was only consistent Calvinism, — a theology which could 
go into the pulpit as well as into the creed ; which could discriminate, 
and draw sharp lines, and exalt the doctrines of Divine sovereignty and 
human depravity, without giving an opiate to conscience, or obscuring 
the glory of the cross ; which insisted that means of grace are to be used, 
and not aJused, — that religion is inward and spiritual, rather than out- 
ward and formal, — that immediate repentance is as much a duty, and 



286 THE. CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

as much within the sinner's power, as prayer and reading the Bible ; 
which resolved all virtue into benevolence ; and, being itself a child of 
the " Gi'eat Awakening," was ever the earnest friend and promoter of 
revjvals. Tiiree such men, charged with such a theology, must have 
been a tremendous spiritual galvanic battery in the midst of the churches 
which had for some time been feeling the benumbing influence of mod- 
erate Calvinism and '' Merrimac divinity." They were a revolutionary 
power ; and the result was, a speedy improvement in the general relig- 
ious tone of tlie public mind. A sounder theology began to prevail. 
Moderate Calvinists became less moderate. Pulpits, vacated by "Merri- 
mac divinity" men, were filled by Hopkinsians, or higher-toned Calvin- 
ists. And thus the leaven worked until nearly the whole lump was 
leavened, and these chu relies were saved from utter apostasy from the 
faith of their founders. It is not denied that there were some anti- 
Hopkinsians, or at least non-Hopkinsians, who nobly helped stem the 
incoming tide of Unitarianism in the Commonwealth. But it is claimed 
that the Hopkinsians in this vicinity first turned back the tide of formal- 
ism, and infused new spiritual life into the churches, and exterminated 
those seeds of error which "■ Merrimac divinity " had sown here, and 
which would otherwise, in all probability, have yielded a harvest of Uni- 
tarianism. Without setting up any exclusive claim for that class of theo- 
logians, in effecting this noble work, it may confidently be affirmed, that 
their influence was one of the most prominent means of bringing back 
these churches, when they were fast drifting away, and reestablishing 
them on the old foundations.^ Whatever Hopkinsianism may have 

1 There is less real than apparent difference of views on tliis point between the au- 
thor of the essay on " Theological Vibrations " and the author of this discourse. Dr. 
Withington concedes that the Ho]ikinsians won their first battle, and wrought a great 
change in the minds of their opponents. This concession gives me all the ground I 
wish. That first victory prei)ared the way for and insured the second. It was because 
the moderate Calvinists had been conquered by the Hopkinsians that they became their 
effective allies in the Unitarian conflict, instead of being themselves Unitarians or Ar- 
minians. They would never have desired a union with the Hopkinsians had they not 
first been in a measure Hopkinsianized. They had felt the vitalizing touch of the new 
divinity, and thei-efore eagerly sought its aid in repelling the danger which, but for that 
touch, would have caused them no alarm. If tliey were as active or more active than 
the Hopkinsians in throwing themselves into the conflict, they fought witfi weapons 
which had been tempered in Hopkinsian fire ; and no wonder they were eager to unite 
with those who bore the genuine Damascus blade. If the Hopkinsians were reluctant 
to come into the union, it was not because they were insensible to the common danger, 
but because they feared that tiie Calvinism of their proposed allies was still too " mod- 
erate." The thirty-six journeys of Dr. Pearson to Newlniryport were not to arouse 
the Hopkinsians, — for they were already aroused, and busy with their own project for 
a theological seminary, — but to convince them that his friends were sufficiently Cal- 
vinistic to render it safe for "consistent Calvinists " to enter into alliance with them. 



THKOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES. '287 

done, or may not have done, elsewhere ; whatever may have been its 
defects as a system ; whatever modifications it may have undei-gone 
since those antagonistic influences under the pressure of" which it came 
into being and took shape have, to a great extent, disappeared, I have 
no hesitation in expressing the conviction that that wa%a most auspicious 
day for Essex North which witnessed its introduction here, and its em- 
bodiment in three such men as Samuel Spring, Elijah Parish, and 
Leonard Woods. The names of these eminent men deserve to be held 
in grateful remembrance by us, who now occupy the field which they did 
so much to render easy of cultivation.^ 

Fathers and brethren, having already unreasonably taxed your pa- 
tience, I will not presume to detain you longer to give utterance to the 
many thoughts and feelings which 'have filled my mind and heart while 
so pleasantly but laboriously occupied, at your request, in tracing out 

1 The New England or Hopkinsian theology has often been charged with introduc- 
ing Unitarianism. No charge, certainly, could have less foundation in facts, so far as 
respects Essex North. The very opposite of this is true of it here ; and competent 
witnesses testify that what was true of it here, was true of it elsewhere. "The new 
divinity has been repeatedly accused of opening the door for the admission of Unita- 
rianism into the Congregational churches. No accusation is more unfounded. It was 
the chief barrier to its entire prevalence. Of the Hoitkinsian churches, none are known 
to have become Unitarian. Tliis eiTor flourished exclusively among the opponents to 
Hopkinsianism." (Blake's Hist. Mendon Assoc, p. 25.) " No churches wliich adopted 
the principles of Edwards and Hopkins, as to the revival and church membership, ever 
became Arminian or Unitarian. On the other hand, the opposers of the revival, and 
of the right constitution of the churches, are the real fathers of all the Arminianism 
and Unitarianism and infidelity of New England." (Dr. E. Beecher : see Bib. Sacra, 
Vol. X. p. 81.) "It is a noteworthy fact, that, of the churches in New England 
which participated in the Unitarian movement, a far smaller proportion had been 
trained by the ministers of his (Emmons) school than by the ministers of the moder- 
ate Calvinistic school." (Prof Park's Memoir of Dr. Emmons, p. 370.) "It is his- 
torically certain, and is susceptible of the fullest proof, that what of Unitarianism 
there is in New England came in upon us, not from our particular explanations of the 
established faith, hut from a perverted vieio and application of old school Calcinism. As 
men could not make to themselves new hearts and new spirits, they were taught to do 
what they could with such hearts as they had. They must read and pray, and attend 
public worship, and join the church, and go to the sacrament, in hope that, through 
these pipes of God's own providing, they might receive an infusion of the living 
water, — in hope that, in a diligent use of means, God would meet them, and bestow 
upon them converting grace. We see, then, how unjust it is to ascribe its (Unitarian- 
ism) entrance and prevalence here to this theology. It entered in spite of this theol- 
ogy, rather than by means of it. The advocates of this theology constituted the chief 
barriers which opposed it. They are the men, almost without exception, who have 
withstood its progress, obstructed its influence, and brought it, under God, into its 
present disorganized and decaying condition." (Enoch Pond, D. D. : see Bib. Sacra, 
Vol. XIX. pp. 704-5.) 



288 THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 

these records of God's past dealings with these churches with which it is 
now our privilege to be connected. Suffice it to say — what your feel- 
ings will have anticipated me in saying — that the present will soon be 
the past with us, and the transactions of tliis day, and of our brief day 
of life, will soon^e matters of history. We now search for the foot- 
prints of those who trod these goodly fields before us, to rejoice over 
their virtues, or to weep over their faults ; and how quickly will those of 
another generation be searching among the records of the then past, to 
find our footprints, to rejoice in turn over our virtues, or to weep over 
our faults! Amid the hallowed and stimulating influences of this occa- 
sion, let us resolve so to live and labor that the record we leave behind 
will contribute more to the joy than to the sorrow of those who may 
gather here to celebrate the Second Centennial of the Essex North As- 
sociation. 



ADDITIONS TO THK CHUKCHKS. 



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THK CHURCHKSi OF ESSKX NORTH. 



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THE CHURCHKS OF ESSEX NORTH. 



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294 



THE CHURCHES OF ESSEX NORTH. 



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ADDITIONS TO THE CHURCHES. 



« 295 



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SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 



CHURCH IN AMESBURY AND SALISBURY (MILLS VILLAGE). 



BY REV. T. D. P. STONE. 



This clmrcli was organized December 6, 1831. 

First pastor, Joseph II. Towne, installed March 5,1834; dismissed 
October 30, 1836. 

Second pastor, Seth H. Keeler, installed December 7, 1836; dismissed 
October 7, 1839. 

Third pastor, Samuel H. Merrill, installed September 16, 1840; dis- 
missed November 5, 1844, 

Stated supply, John II. Mordough, from December 15, 1844, to April 
29, 1849. 

Fourth pastor, Rufus King, ordained April 17, 1850; dismissed May 
17, 1853. 

Stated sup})!}', N. Lasselle, from November 6, 1853, to April 6, 1856. 

Fifth pastor, A. C Childs, installed November 19, 1856; dismissed 
August 11, 1858. 

Present pastor, T. D. P. Stone, from February 27, 1859. 

CONFESSION OF FAITH. 

1. You believe in the eternal existence of Jehovah, the Creator and 
Ruler of the universe; and that all his accountable creatures ought to 
render him perfect obedience forever. 

2. You believe that the Bible was given by inspiration of God ; and 
that it contains the perfect and only infallible rule of faith and practice. 

3. You believe that Jehovah reveals Himself to us, as the Father, 
the Son, and the Holy Ghost, — to whom we are required to pay equal 
and undivided honors. • 

4. You believe that Jehovah is possessed of infinite moral excellence ; 
a,nd that he administers a perfect moral government over the universe. 



SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 297 

5. You believe that he also administers a providential government, 
wjiich extends to all events, great and small ; that to him alone belongs 
the glory of the saved ; and the impenitent in sin perish through their 
own voluntary perverseness. 

6. You believe that the gospel of Christ finds mankind in a state of 
sin and condemnation, utterly destitute of that holiness without whieh no 
man shall see the Lord; and that we must consequently become i-enewed 
in the spirit of our minds, before we can enter the kingdom of God. 

7. You believe in the incarnation, obedience, suffering and death, 
resurrection and ascension, of Jesus Christ; that he alone, by his suffer- 
ing and death, hath made atonement for sin ; and that he ever liveth to 
make intercession for us. 

8. You believe it to he the duty and the privilege of Christians, to 
make visible profession of their faith in Christ ; receiving and applying 
the ordinance of ba[)tism and the Lord's Supper, as instituted by Christ 
and practised by his Apostles. 

9. You believe the future existence of the soul ; that there will be a 
resurrection of both the righteous and the wicked — a day of final judg- 
ment; that all will receive according to their works; that the wicked 
will go away into everlasting punishment, and the righteous into life 
eternal. 

COVENANT. 

You do now solemnly give up yourselves to God the Father, as your 
God, your Father, and your eternal portion ; you give up yourselves to 
Jesus Christ, the Head of the Church, as your Piophet, Priest, and 
King, relying upon him alone for salvation ; you give up yourselves to 
the Holy Spirit, the Sanctifier and Comforter, relying on him alone for 
sanctification and all spiritual aid. 

Depending on divine grace for assistance, you engage to glorify God, 
by a faithful observance of all the ordinances and institutions of the 
Christian religion, and by exhibiting the light of a pure example to the 
world. 

You especially engage to walk in Christian fellowship with this church, 
ever willing to give and receive counsel, or reproof, with a spirit of kind- 
ness, and watchfully avoiding whatever is contrary to purity, peace, and 
love, as become the disciples of the meek and lowly Jesus. 

All this you do, flying to the blood of the everlasting Covenant for 
the pardon of your sins, and beseeching the glorious God to sustain and 
guide you, in his perfect way, to the end of this life, and then to receive 
you to himself, where is fulness of joy, and to his right hand, where are 
pleasures forevermore. 

38 



298 ski:tchp:s of churches. 

We, therefore, the members of this church, affectionately receive you 
to our communion and fellowship ; and on our part, engage to watch 
over your spiritual interest, and walk with you, in all the ordinances of 
the Gospel, as becometh saints. And may God, of his infinite mercy, 
give us grace to be faithful to each other, while we live ; that we may 
be admitted, at last, through the merits of Christ, to the everlasting fel- 
lowship of saints and angels, in the presence of the Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost. Amen. 

In 1851, it was voted that this church, in the present enlightened 
state of the public mind in regard to the evils and the remedies of in- 
temperance, feel themselves required, by the spirit of the gospel, to 
refrain entirely from the manufacture, sale, or use of ardent spirits, 
except as an article of medicine. 

This church, when organized, consisted of eleven members, — 
Admitted at divers times before the settlement of a pastor, by profession, 

15; by letter, 10, 25 

Admitted under Rev. Mr. Towne, by profession, 30 ; by letter, 30, . . 60 

Admitted under Rev. Mr. Keeler, by profession, 59 ; by letter, 20, . . 79 

Admitted under Rev. Mr. Merrill, by profession, 67 ; by letter, 34, . . 101 

Admitted under Rev. Mr. IMordough, by letter, 13 

Admitted under Rev. Mr. King, by profession, 27 ; by letter, 11, . . . 38 

Admitted under Rev. Mr. Lasselle, by profession, 16; by letter, 1, . . 17 

Admitted under Rev. Mr. Childs, by profession, 14 ; by letter, 9, . . . 23 

Present nmnber, 1 73 



CHURCH IN WEST AMESBURY. 

BY REV. L. THOMPSON. 

The Second Congregational Church in Amesbury (First in West 
Amesbury) was organized May 19, 1726. The following are the dates 
of the ordination or installation of the pastors, together with the dates 
of their death or dismission : 

Rev. Paine Wingate, ordained June 15, 1726 ; died Feb. 10, 1786. 

Rev. Francis Welch, ordained June 3, 1789; died Dec. 15, 1793. 

Rev. David Smith, ordained Jan. 28, 1795; dismissed May 22, 1800. 

Rev. Samuel Mead, installed June 6, 1804 ; died March 28, 1818. 

Rev. Peter S. Eaton, ordained Sept. 20, 1826 ; dismissed May 10, 
1837. 

Rev. Lucius W. Clark, installed Nov. 1, 1837 ; dismissed Aug. 31, 
1842. 

Rev. Henry B. Smith, ordained Dec. 29, 1842 ; dismissed Sept. 29, 
1847. 



SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 299 

Rev. Albert Paine, ordained .Sept. 7, 1848 ; dismissed April 11, 1854. 

Rev. Leander Thompson, installed Sept. 20, 1854. 

The following is the Confession of Faith and Covenant adopted by the 
church at the organization, May 19, 1726, — the Rev. Messrs. Wells, 
Cushing, Parsons, Tufts, and Brown being present to assist in the ser- 
vices of the occasion : 

CONFESSION. 

1. We believe the truths contained in the Holy Scriptures to be the 
Word of God, wherein he hath revealed his will ; and that they are the 
only rule of the obedience of faith, containing in thera all things neces- 
sary to be known, believed, and obeyed in order unto life. 

2. That there is but one God, subsisting in three persons, the Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost, who alone is to be worshipped in spirit and in 
truth, with whatsoever else the Scriptures do reveal concerning God, his 
attributes, worship, word, and works. 

3. The doctrines of the decrees of God ; that the counsel of the Lord 
standeth forever, and the thoughts of his heart to all generations (Psalms 
33: 11) ; concerning election, reprobation, that God hath saved us, and 
called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according 
to his own purpose which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world 
began (2 Tim. 1 : 9), and that the election hath obtained it, and the rest 
were blinded (Rom. 11 : 7). 

4. That God executes his decrees in the works of creation and provi- 
dence, working all things after the counsel of his own will. 

5. That God made man, male and female, upright, — entered into a 
covenant of works with thera, and promised life in case of obedience, 
and threatened death in case of disobedience ; and that man was endued 
with a power and ability to the free choice of his own will, and so, fall- 
ing, accordingly subjected himself and all his posterity unto the death 
threatened in case of disobedience. 

6. That, therefore, God was pleased to enter into a covenant of grace 
with fallen men, — freely offering life and salvation by Jesus Christ, re- 
quiring faith in them that they may be saved, and promising his Spirit 
to enable them to believe. 

7. That God, according to an eternal covenant of redemption, or- 
dained the Lord Jesus Christ, and, in the fulness of time, sent him into 
the world clothed with our nature and infirmities, yet without sin, being 
God and Man in One Person, to be a Mediator between God and man, 
the great and beloved Prophet, Priest, and King, Head and Saviour of 
his church. Heir of all things, and Judge of the world. 

8. The truth of the doctrine of Conception, Incarnation, Birth, Life, 



3^0 SKETCHES OF CHUnCHES. 

Death, Burial, TJesurrection, Ascension, and Glorification at the right 
hand of his Father, wliere he ever liveth to make intercession for all. 

9. That Christ ever hath his church in all ages of the world, which he 
will redeem, govern, and preserve, and, in time, by his Word and Spirit, 
effectually call and make partakers of the benefits of redemption ; our 
Justification, Adoption, Sanctification, and Glorification. 

10. That the Holy Spirit is the Author and Fountain, the Giver and 
Worker of all grace, spiritual good, and consolation, and of the efficacy 
of the means of grace unto our souls, — quickening, enabling, and direct- 
ing us, according to his Word, to live unto God in the obedience of faith, 
in the exercise of repentance, and every other grace. 

11. The doctrine of the Perseverance of the Saints, — that those 
whom God hath accepted in Christ, effectually called and sanctified by 
his Spirit, can neither totally nor finally fall away from the stable of grace, 
but shall certainly persevere therein to the end, and be kept by the mighty 
power of God through faith unto salvation. 

12. The doctrine of Justification by Faith in Christ, his Righteous- 
ness imputed to us, by which alone we can be saved. 

13. The doctrine of the Christian Sabbath, the necessity of the Com- 
munion of Saints for the worship of God, and edification of themselves 
under all his ordinances. 

14. That Baptism and the Lord's Supper are the only sacraments of 
the New Testament, and the appointments of our Lord Jesus Christ, to 
be attended upon to the end of the world, together with all other means 
of grace for our edification. 

15. The doctrine of the Resurrection of the Body of the Just and 
Unjust, and the Last Judgment, when Christ shall judge the world in 
righteousness, and render to every one according to his works ; and then 
the righteous shall go into life eternal, but the wicked into everlasting 
punishment with the devil and his angels. 

C O V E N A X T . 

Forasmuch as the Lord hath accepted us, sinful wretches, into cove- 
nant with his ^Majesty in Christ, we therefore avouch the Lord to be our 
God, and make firm and sure covenant with his Majesty, and one with 
another (through the grace of Christ), to give up ourselves to him, to 
submit to his government, and all his holy ordinances, — acknowledging 
him for our Prophet, Priest, and King; to walk before him in all things 
according to the rule of his Word, shunning all atheism and anti-Chris- 
tianism, with all other errors and pollutions in the worship of God. We 
do also bind ourselves to walk together with the church, and all the 
members of it, in mutual love and watchfulness, to the building up each 



SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 301 

Other in the faith and love of onr Lord Jesus Christ ; to yield obedience 
to his holy will, and to carry on the duties of his worship in public and 
private, according to gospel order and institution. Hereby craving help 
at God's hands for performance hereof, we do also, with ourselves, give 
up our seed unto the Lord, to be his people, and to submit under the 
watch and discipline of this church, according to the rules of Christ. 

There have been changes, in repeated instances, in both the Confession 
and the Covenant, but the dates cannot now be ascertained. In all cases, 
however, the change has been only in phraseology, and not at all in doc- 
trine. The object seems to have been to condense the substance of the 
original articles into briefer terms. One exception to this occurred on a 
day of humiliation, prayer, and fasting, April 2, 1730, when the whole 
church, male and female, rose from their seats, and publicly " owned and 
acknowledged," the brethren with u[)lifted hands, a new covenant, which 
was much longer, more full, and more solemn, than the original covenant 
adopted at the organization of the church. 

The church has been blessed with revivals throughout its whole his- 
tory, some of them of great power ; but, owing to the loss of a portion, 
and the imperfection of all the records, until within a few years, it is 
impossible now to give their exact dates, or any details of their history. 

It is not known that there have ever been any rebellions or secessions, 
or, except in an occasional instance of an individual, any defections from 
the faith of the gospel. 



UNION EVANGELICAL CHURCH OF SALISBURY AND AMESBURY. 

Organized Oct. 14, 1835. Has had three settled pastors, — 
Rev. John Gunnison, installed Dec. 31, 1835; dismissed Nov. 1, 1836. 
Rev. J. B. Hadley, ordained Sept. 2, 1837; dismissed April 19, 1848. 
Rev. James M. Bacon, installed June 25, 1851 ; dismissed Oct. 9, 1855. 
The following is its first and only Confession of Faith and Covenant : 

C O N F E S S I O X OF FAITH. 

1. You believe that there is one God only, — that He is self-existent, 
omnipresent, infinite in power, wisdom, justice, goodness, and truth, — 
and that this one God reveals himself to us in the Scriptures, as the 
Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, to whom we are required to pay 
equal and undivided honors. 

2. You believe that the Scriptures were given by inspiration of God, 
and contain the only perfect rule of faith and practice. 



302 SKKTCHKS OF CHURCHES. 

3. You believe that all men previous to regeneration are destitute of 
holiness, and for their chosen and voluntary sins justly exposed to the 
everlasting displeasure of God. 

4. You believe that through the atonement of Jesus Christ, salvation 
is freely offered to the whole world, and that none will be lost save those 
who freely refuse it. 

5. You believe that in compassion to sinners, God has graciously sent 
his Spirit to enlighten their minds, to renew their hearts, and to concur 
with his truth in leading them back to duty and salvation. 

6. You believe that the only sacraments of the church are baptism 
and the Lord's Supper ; that the former may be lawfully administered 
to believers and their households, and the latter only to members of the 
church, in regular standing. 

7. You believe in the immortality of the soul, — the resurrection both 
of the just and the unjust, — the fact of a future Judgment, and that 
according to their chosen character, one class of mankind will go away 
into " everlasting punishment," and the opposite class into " life eternal." 

COVENANT. 

In the presence of Almighty God and these witnesses, you do now 
most solemnly consecrate yourselves to Hira as your Father and ever- 
lasting portion. You resign yourselves to the Lord Jesus Christ, the 
Redeemer and Head of the Churcli, as your Prophet, Priest, and King, 
relying upon Him alone for salvation. You give up yourselves to the 
Holy Spirit, depending upon Him for sanctification and every grace. 
You engage to take the word of God as the rule of your feith and prac- 
tice, — to maintain communion with Him by daily prayer, — to sanctify 
the Sabbath, — to attend habitually upon the institutions of the gospel, — 
to walk in Christian fellowship with this church, — to observe its regu- 
lations, — to submit to its discipline, — to watch over its members, and 
by the constant cultivation of purity, peace, and love, to recommend the 
Christian religion to the hearts and consciences of all with whom you 
have to do. 

All this you promise and engage, depending upon the blood of the 
everlasting Covenant for pardon, and trusting divine grace for wisdom, 
strength, and perseverance in the fulfilment of these vows. 

We, therefore, the members of this Church \_all rising^ affectionately 
receive you to our communion and fellowship, bidding you a cordial 
welcome to all the privileges and blessings of our Father's house. We 
engage in love and faithfulness to watch over your spiritual interests, 
and to walk with you in the fellowship of the gospel, and through infinite 



SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 303 

mercy may we all eventually be admitted to the general assembly and 
church of tlie first-born, who are written in heaven. 

• The number of persons at first composing this church was twenty- 
eight. Of these fifteen were from the West, or Rocky Hill Church in 
Salisbury, and eleven from the East, or First Church in Amesbury. Its 
growth and prosperity have not, perhaps, fully realized the expectations 
of its founders; still, it has enjoyed repeated tokens of the divine favor, 
and situated as it is, in the midst of an enterprising community, it is con- 
fidently believed that it will become a strong and widely useful church. 
For a number of years, it received aid from the Massachusetts Home 
Missionary Society, but of late has been self-supporting. Since 1859, 
Rev. N. Lasselle, has been acting pastor, though not installed over the 
church. 



CHURCH IN WEST BOXFORD. 

BY REV. C. E. PARK. 

The church in West Boxford was organized on the ninth day of 
December, 1735. The following is the list of its successive pastors, with 
the date of their settlement and death or dismission, — 

Rev. John Cushing, ordained Dec. 29, 1736; dismissed Jan. 25, 1772. 

Rev. Moses Hale, ordained Nov. 16, 1774; dismissed May 25, 1786. 

Rev. Peter Eaton, D. D., ordained Oct. 7, 1789 ; died April 14, 1848. 

Rev. Calvin E. Park, ordained Oct. 14, 1846; dismissed May 4, 1859. 

The following is a copy of the Covenant which was adopted by the 
church at its formation in 1736: 

" We, whose names are hereunto subscribed, apprehending ourselves 
called of God to join together in church state, and to embody ourselves 
in order to become a particular church or flock of the Lord Jesus (ac- 
knowledging our unworthiness of such an honor and privilege), we do 
profess and declare our serious belief of the Christian religion as con- 
tained in the Sacred Scriptures, and as expressed in the Confession of 
Faith commonly received in the churches of this land, heartily resolving 
to conform our lives to the rules of that holy religion as long as we live ; 
and therefore, 

" We do now, in the presence of God himself. His holy angels and all 
His servants here present, give up ourselves unto the Lord Jehovah, 
who is Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, and avouch Him this day to be 
our God. 

" We give up ourselves to the Lord Jesus Christ, relying on Him as 
our Prophet, Priest, and King, promising, by the help of his grace, to 



304 SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 

glorify God in all the duties of a sober, godly, and righteous life, and 
very particularly, to uphold family and closet worship, and to attend the 
public worship of God, the sacraments of the New Testament, and the 
discipline of Christ's kingdom and all his holy institutions in communion 
with one another, and carefully avoiding all sinful contentions. 

" We do give ourselves one to another in the Lord, covenanting to walk 
together as a church of Christ, according to the rules of God's holy 
word, promising faithfully to watch over one another in brotherly love, 
and to submit ourselves to the discipline and power of Christ in His 
church, and duly to attend the seals and censures, or whatever ordinances 
Christ has commanded to be observed by His ])eople, so iar as the Lord, 
by His word and Spirit, shall reveal unto us to be our duty. 

" We also present this day our offspring with us unto the Lord, prom- 
ising to give them a Christian education, and avouching the Lord to be 
not only our God, but also the God of our children, esteeming it a very 
high favor that the Most High will accept of us and our children with. us 
to be His people. 

" And now, that we may keep this our covenant with God and with one 
another, we desire to deny ourselves, and to depend wholly on the free 
mercy of God and the merits and grace of Christ Jesus, and, wherein 
we shall fail, to wait on God tor ])ardon through the name of Christ, 
be seeking the Lord Jehovah to own us as a church of Christ, that he 
would take delight to dwell among us, and that his blessing may be upon 
us, and upon our families, and His glorious kingdom be advanced by 
us. Amen." 

In 1816, it was voted, that the following covenant should be assented 
to by those who desired admission to full communion : 

" You profess your serious belief in the Old and New Testaments, not 
as the word of man, but as the word of God. You desire to be humble 
before God for all your sins, and for any instances of your conduct in 
your past life, which may have been a grief to Christians, or a dishonor 
to that religion you would now profess ; and in a feeling manner, you 
now desire to give up yourself to the glorious God, receiving Him as 
your God and portion. Y'ou would give up yourself to the Lord Jesus 
Christ, as to the Head of his chosen people, receiving Him as being made 
of God to be your wisdom and righteousness and sanctification and 
redemption. You give up yourself to this church of Christ, engaging, 
with His help in the communion thereof, to attend upon the ordinances 
of the gospel, while your opportunity to be thereby edified in your most 
holy faith shall be continued to you." 

It does not appear from the records of the church that any covenant 
was substituted for the foregoing, until the adoption of the creed and 



, SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 305 

covenant which are now in use. They were adopted at a meeting of 
the church, May 21, 1850. 

■ No intimations are given in the church records, nor are any furnished 
by tradition of revivals of religion to any marked extent, previously to 
the death of Dr. Eaton, in 1848. In 1832, fifteen persons were received 
into the church on profession, and as powerful revivals were then of very 
frequent occurrence, it may be inferred, that this church shared in them 
to some degree. In 1851 and in 1857, revivals also occurred, resulting 
in quite large additions to the church. During the " Great Awakening" 
this church took a somewhat hostile attitude to revivals. Its pastor bore 
an active part in opposition to Mr. Whitfield, and the church felt itself 
obliged to discipline several of its members, on account of their conduct in 
favor of revival measures. The church probably has never, till within 
the last sixteen years, been decidedly Orthodox, and during the ministry 
of Dr. Eaton, was avowedly Unitarian. These circumstances may ac- 
count in part for the dearth of revivals by which its history has been 
marked. 



jj FIRST CHURCH IN BRADFORD. 

BY EEV. J. T. m'COLLOM. 

This church was organized Dec. 27, 1682. Has had ten pastors, viz. : 

Rev. Zechariah Symmes, installed Dec. 27, 1682; died March 22, 
1707. 

Rev. Thomas Symmes, installed Dec, 1708; died Oct. 6, 1725. 

Rev. Joseph Parsons, ordained June 8, 1726; died May 4, 1765. 

Rev. Samuel Williams, ordained Nov. 20, 1765; dismissed June 14, 
1780. 

Rev. Jonathan Allen, ordained June 5, 1781 ; died March 6, 1827. 

Rev. Ira Ingraham, installed colleague Dec. 1, 1824 ; dismissed April 
5, 1830. 

Rev. Loammi Ives Hoadly, installed Oct. 13, 1830 ; dismissed Jan. 
30, 1833. 

Rev. Moses C. Searle, installed Jan. 30, 1833 ; dismissed March, 1834. 

Rev. Nathan Munroe, ordained Feb. 10, 1836 ; dismissed Jan. 25, 
1854. 

Rev. James T. McCoUom, installed Jan. 25, 1854. 

The original Confession of Faith, if there was one, has not been pre- 
served. An instrument called " an instrument to pacification and mutual 
obligation to church union and order" was adopted, and entered on the 

39 



306 SKETCHES OK CHURCHES. 

minutes of the church, as early as April 20, 1683. The instrument is 
subjoined : 

" We whose names are subscribed, being awfully sensible that we live 
in an age wherein God hath in part executed that dreadful threatening 
to take peace from the earth, and wherein Satan (that great makebate 
and author of confusion) doth, by God's permission, exceedingly rage, 
even in the visible church of God ; and wherein that wicked one is sow- 
ing the tares of discord almost in every Christian society (the sad effects 
of which we that are the inhabitants of the town of Bradford have for 
some years past experimentally felt, and have yet the bitter remembrance 
of), — we being now, through the rich and undeserved mercy of God in » 
Christ Jesus, under hopeful probability of settling a church of Christ in 
Bradford, — do take this occasion as to express our hearty and unfeigned 
sorrow and humiliation for what unchristian differences have broken out 
among us to the dishonor of God's name, the grief of his Spirit, and to 
the obstructing of the work and kingdom of Jesus Christ, and to the hin- 
dering of our peace and edification ; so also, in the name of God, and by 
his gracious help, seriously and solemnly to engage and promise, for the 
future, to forgive and forget, to the utmost of our endeavors, all former 
unchristian animosities, distances, alienations, differences, and contests, 
private or more public, personal or social, that have arisen ever among 
us, or between us and others ; to pass a general act of amnesty and ob- 
livion on them all, and not to speak of them, to the defamation of each 
other, at home in Bradford town, much less abroad in any other place, 
nor to repeat or revive them, unless called by Scripture rule or lawful 
authority to mention them for the conviction or spiritual advantage of 
each other. Besides, we promise, through the grace of God, that, in 
case God, in his most wi-e and holy providence, should permit any 
offences, for the future, to break forth among us (which we desire God, 
of his infinite mercy, would prevent as far as may be for his own glory 
and our own good), that we will then conscientiously endeavor to attend 
to Scripture rules for the healing and removing of them, and those rules 
in particular (Lev. 19: 17. Matt. 18: lo) ; and to bring no matter of 
grievance against each other to our minister or to the church, but in a 
scriptural and orderly way and manner. That we may be helped invio- 
lably to observe this our agreement, we desire the assistance of each 
other's mutual both Christian and church watch, that we may be moni- 
tors or remembrancers to each other of this branch of our covenant ; as 
also the instant and constant prayers of each other, that God would ena- 
ble us carefully to observe this instrument of our pacification, and our 
conditional obligation to church union and order, that God's name may 
be honored by us, iand we may experience God's commanding his bless- 
ing upon us, even life forevermore." 



SKKTCHKS OF CHUKCHKS. 307 

This instrument was voiced to be entered on record April 20, 1G83, and 
was again read Feb. 7, 168G, and again Dec. 22, 1G8'.), "there being but 
two of" the nnales in full communion absent." 

The covenant, or what remains of it, is as follows : 

" By the power of his Holy Spirit in the ministry of his Word, whereby 
we have been brought to see our misery by nature, our inability to help 
ourselves, and our need of a Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ, to whom 
we desire now solemnly to give up ourselves as to the only Redeemer, 
to keep us by his power unto salvation ; and for the furtherance of that 
blessed work, we are now ready ♦o enter into a solemn covenant with 
God and one with another, — that is to say. We do give up ourselves 
unto that God whose name alone is Jehovah, as the only true and living 
God ; and unto the Lord Jesus Christ, his only Son, who is the Saviour, 
Prophet, Priest, and King of his church, and Mediator of the covenant 
of his grace ; and to his Holy Spirit, to lead us into all truth, and to 
bring us unto salvation at the last. We do also give up our offspring 
unto God in Christ Jesus, avouching him to be our God, and the God of 
our children, humbly desiring him to bestow upon us that grace whereby 
both we and they may walk before him as becomes his covenant people 
forever. We do also give up ourselves one unto another in the Lord, 
according to the will of God ; engaging ourselves to walk together as a 
right-ordered church of Christ in all the ways of his worship, according 
to the rules of his most holy words ; promising, in brotherly covenant, 
faithfully to watch over one another's souls, and to submit ourselves to 
the government of Christ in his church ; attending upon all his holy ad- 
ministrations, according to the order of the gospel, so far as God hath or 
may reveal to us by his Word and Spirit." 

This covenant, or part of a covenant, was entered upon the minutes of 
the church April 20, 1683. • 

There has never been any essential departure from the faith held by 
the church at first. June 18, 1806, a Confession of Faith, now existing 
in the handwriting of Rev. Jonathan Allen, was adopted and subscribed 
by nineteen males and thirty females. Another Confession, substantially 
the same with that of 1806, was adopted Dec. 5, 1829, and subsequently 
printed. 

The history of this church is very much like that of most of the old 
Puritan churches. At its commencement, it was strictly and strongly 
evangelical, and, as the result, it enjoyed great prosperity. During the 
ministry of Rev. Thomas Symmes, from 1708 to 1725, a deep religious 
interest seems to have pervaded the community. In these seventeen 
years, two hundred and fifty-eight were admitted to the church ; and, 
though the population of the town must hav« been very small, hardly 



308 SKETCHES OF CHURCHES, 

exceeding eight hundred in all, two hundred and thirty persons at one 
time sat down together at the Lord's Table, at the regular communion 
season. After the death of Mr. Synimes, during the pastorates of Rev. 
Mr. Williams and Rev. Mr. Parsons, and the first half of that of Rev- 
Mr. Allen, evangelical religion appears to have been on the decline. 
The causes seem to have been, the Half- Way Covenant ; want of inter- 
est in the ministry, in one of the pastors, and lax views of theology in 
the others. The church dwindled down to a few aged persons, and 
seemed on the brink of ruin. A revival occurred in 1806, which en- 
tirely changed the face of things in the town, and wrought an equally 
marked change in the ministrations of the Rev. Mr. Allen. Several 
revivals occurred subsequently in his ministry, though none of them 
were so marked and powerful as that of 1806. 

A very powerful and thorough work of grace was enjoyed during the 
ministry of the Rev. Mr. Ingrahan), which extended into that of his suc- 
cessor, Rev. Mr. Hoadly. 

During the ministry of Rev. Mr. Munroe, two very general and pre- 
cious revivals of religion were enjoyed, — one in 1837-38, the other in 
1846-47. 

This church shared somewhat largely in the spiritual blessings of that 
year of refreshing to so many churches, 1857-58. There have been, 
beside these, many seasons of religious interest, but, I believe, no other 
general revival of religion. 

We have had no rebellions, secessions, or fatal departures from the 
faith. The church seems to have been born and cradled in a storm, but, 
for more than one hundred and fifty years, to have been marvellously 
quiet and peaceful. It numbers at the present time about two hundred 
and thirty members. 



CHURCH IN GEORGETOWN. 

BY KEV. CHARLES BEECHER. 

Organized Oct. 4, 1732. No creed, or articles of faith, were adopted 
at first. The following covenant, signed by eighteen male members, in- 
cluding the pastor elect, sufficed : 

" We whose names are hereunto subscribed (although unworthy of a 
name in this place), apprehending ourselves to be called by God to em- 
body ourselves into a distinct society, for the better attendance upon the 
worship of God, according to the rules of his holy Word ; being per- 
suaded in matters of faith according to the Catechism of the Assembly 
of Divines, unto the substunce of which we do submit, 



SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 309 

"We do in some measure of sincerity, this day give up ourselves and 
our offspring, unto the Lord Jehovah, the one true and living God, 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, to be his forever, promising by the help 
of grace to live unto and upon this God, hoping at length to live with 
Him forever. 

" We do likewise give up ourselves, one to another, in the Lord; en- 
gaging with divine aid as a church of Christ, to submit to the discip- 
line, order, and government of Christ in his church, and submit to the 
guidance of such as are, or shall be over us in the Lord, and that M'atch 
for our souls ; and to watch over one another, according to the rules of 
the gospel, so long as we shall continue in this relation to each other. 

" We promise also to admit to pur communion, such as sliall desire to 
join themselves to us, if by a profession of faith and re])entance, and 
unblamable walk and conversation, they may, in charitable discretion, 
be accounted qualified for it ; and to walk in all regular and due com- 
munion with other churches of our Lord Jesus Christ ; and cheerfully 
to support and observe the pure gospel institutions of our Lord and 
Redeemer, so far as He shall graciously reveal to us His will concern- 
ing them. 

" We take the word of God" for our rule, and resolve uprightly to 
study what is our duty, and to endeavor to practise it, and wlierein we 
fall short, in the discharge of it, will humbly betake ourselves for pardon 
to the blood of the everlasting covenant. 

" And that we may unavoidably keep this covenant forever, being sen- 
sible of ^ur own impotency, we humbly implore, that the help and grace 
of our Redeemer may be sutRoient for us, entreating that He, being the 
great Shepherd of our souls, would lead us into the paths of truth and 
righteousness for His name's sake, and at last receive us all into his 
heavenly kingdom. Amen. 

James Chandlei-, Wm. Searl, 

Richard Boynton, Thomas Burpe, 

g John Adams, Daniel Woodberry, 

Thomas Plumer, John Thurston, 

Johnathan Boynton, Daniel Pearson, 

John Brocklebank, Samuel Kerrincan, 

Wm. Fisk, Wm. Adams, 

Richard Thurston, Job Pinguy, 

Jeremiah Chaplin, Ebenezer Burpe." 

This Covenant the Rev. Mr. Hale, of Byfield, read over with the 
names of the subscribers, and asked their consent to it, which they who 
were all standing together whilst it was read declared, by the most usual 
sio-n on such occasions, that of lifting up the hands, whereupon be de- 



310 SKETCHES OK CHURCHES. 

clared that they were a church of Christ, regularly constituted and found- 
ed according to gospel order. 

A sermon was preached on the occasion, which is still extant, by the 
Rev. William Balch, of Bradford. 

There appears to have been no regularly organized council at the 
organization of the church. The first pastor, Rev. James Chandler, w^as 
ordained Oct. 18, 1732. 

The council was composed of ministers and delegates from the 
churches in Byfield, Bradford, Boxford, Andover, Rowdey, and New- 
bury. The sermon was preached by Rev. Mr. Rogers, of Boxford. 
Charge, by Rev. Mr. Hale, of Byfield. Right Hand of fellowship, 
by Rev. Mr. Phillips, of Andover. 

From the parish records, it appears that the call was voted, and the 
ordination appointed, by the parish, before the church existed. 

No mention is made of any theological examination of the candidate 
by the council. 

Mr. Chandler's ministry covered a period of 52 years, in Avhich 883 
infants were baptized, 176 admitted to full communion, and 136 to half- 
way covenant. Mr. Chandler was born in Andover, a. u. 1706, grad- 
uated at Harvard, in 1728, and married* Mercy, daughter of Rev. Moses 
Hale, of Byfield. He had no children. He was a man of sound doc- 
trine, exemplary life and conversation, dignified deportment, and greatly 
esteemed by his own people ; highly respected abroad, and tery success- 
ful in the ministry. Died April 19, 1781), aged 83, in the o7th year of 
his ministry. 

The first meeting-house was built in 1729 ; the second, in 1769, dedi- 
cated Sept. 12-22, 1770. Sermon by the Rev. Geo. Whitfield, from 
1 Kings 8:11. Mr. Chandler was one of those opposed to the revival 
under Whitfield, and had some trouble with " Separatists," who, in his 
day, planted the germ of the present Baptist society. After Mr. Chand- 
ler's death, the parish, being divided equally between Arminian and 
Hopkinsian views, after hearing sixty-three candidates, succeeded in 
settling the Rev. Isaac Braman. 

Mr. Braman was born A. D. 1770, in Norton, Mass.; graduated at 
Harvai-d ; studied divinity under Dr. West, of New Bedford, and Rev. 
Pitt Clark, of Norton; I'eceived license Aug. 11, 1795, and was ordain- 
ed June 7, 1797. The church consisted, at this time, of twelve resident 
male members, and a few females. This number was still further 
reduced by a secession of three male members, together with fifteen 
members of the parish, who, having presented a remonstrance to the 
council against the doctrinal views of the candidate, withdrew and unit- 
ed with the Baptist society. Mr. Braman's active ministry extended 



SKETCHES OK CHURCHES. 311 

from A. D. 1797 to 1842, in which time about 250 were added to the 
church. 

October 26, 1840, the present articles of faith and covenant were 
adopted, which are substantially the same as those of most New England 
churches. 

On Dec. 3, 1842, Rev. Enoch Pond, son of Enoch Pond, D. D., was 
ordained colleague pastor. Mr. Pond was a graduate of Bowdoin Col- 
lege, and studied theology at the Bangor Theological Seminary. After 
a brief but useful ministry, he died Dec. 17, 1846. 

On Feb. 3, 1846, Rev. J. M. Prince was ordained colleague pastor, 
and was dismissed, at his own request, by a council convened for that 
purpose, Nov. 19, 1857. 

On the same day, Rev. Charles Beecher was ordained colleague pas- 
tor, by the same council. 

Mr. Braman, the senior pastor, survived until the fall of 1858, when 
he expired Dec. 26, at the advanced age of eighty-eight, and in the 
sixty -first year of his pastorate. 



THE CHURCH IN GROVELAND. 

BY KEV. THOMAS DOGCiETT. 

Organized June 7, 1727, as the Second Church in Bradford. Has 
had six pastors. 

Rev. Wm. Balch, ordained June 7, 1727 ; died Jan. 12, 1792. 

Rev. Ebenezer Dutch, ordained Nov. 17, 1779; died Aug. 4, 1813. 

Rev. Gardner B. Perry, ordained Sept. 28, 1814; died Dec. 16,1859. 

Rev. David A. Wasson, ordained Sept. 4, 1851 ; dismissed Oct. — ,1852. 

Rev. Daniel W. Pickard, ordained Sept. 29, 1853 ; dismissed Jan. 7, 
1857. 

Rev. Thomas Doggett, ordained March 4, 1857. 

The following Covenant was adopted at first, and is still in use : 

" You believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven 
and earth, and that there is one Mediator between God and man, the 
man Christ Jesus, who being in the form of God, the brightness of the 
Father's glory, and the express image of his person, took on him the 
form of a servant, and being found in fashion as a man, humbled himself 
and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross, and that 
having thus been delivered for our offences, he was raised again for our 
justification, is exalted to the right hand of God, to make intercession 
for penitent sinners returning to God by him. You desire, therefore, 
thus to return unto God by a sincere repentance of all your past trans- 



•512 sketchp:.s of CHUUcnKS. 

gressions, and an unfeigned iieeeptance of Christ, as tlie only true and 
living way to liie Fatlicr ; and you engage and promise, by the lielp of 
divine grace, that you will for the future, renouncing the world, the flesh, 
and the devil, make the religion of Christ your study, and compliance 
with the gracious terms of the gospel the main Inisiness and concern of 
your life. In particular, that it shall be the earnest and sincere care of 
your life to phrase God and to ap[)rove yourself in his sight by living 
soberly, righteously, and godly as becomes the disciples of Jesus Christ, 
and by walking in ;il! tlie commandments and ordinances of the Lord. 
And as you desire to be under the watch and care of this church so 
long as God shall continue you with us, you promise on your part to 
endeavor, by a soljer and inoHen.Nivi; life, !ind faithful discharge of duty, 
to promote religion and virtuf;, the peace and edilicatiou of the church, 
and your own improv«;ment in believing, and comfort through faith, so 
looking for the Mi<;rcy of God through our Lord Jesus Christ unto eter- 
nal life. 

"All this you [jrofess and |)romise, as in the presence of God and this 
assembly. 

A 8 8 K N T . 

" De(;laration — 1, therefore, declare you to be a visible Christian, and 
to have a visible right io Christian ordinances and privileges so long as 
you keep this your [)idfes>i<)ti pure ami unspotted ; only l<;t your con- 
versalifni be as becometh the gospel, and when Christ, whom you have 
now owned and confessed, shall coine in his glory, he will confess you 
before his Father, and before the holy angels, and place you among the 
blessed. 

" Now, therefore, God of his infinite mercy keep this always upon the 
imagination of the thoughts of your heart, and prepare you thus to serve 
him. Amen.'' 

The church originally consisted of forty-eight members, all males. 
Most of the members had been dismisse<l from the First Church in 
Bradford, some time during the previous year, for the purpose of organ- 
izing a new church in this, the East Parish, which had been set off and 
incorporated in June, 1720. 

The new parish meeting-house was built during the year 1720 and 
1727. On the eighth (Hth) of November, the parish voted unanimously, 
to invite Mr. Wm. Balch to preach for them, and on the thirteenth (Kith) 
of March following, they gave him a call to settle with them, agreeing 
to give him for his supj)ort one hundred pounils settlement, one hundred 
pounds salary, and the improvement of the parsonage-house and lot. If 



sm;i'('iii,s oi <iiiih('IIi;s. .'{ I M 

litis WHS not, t'lioii^rli I'd)- Ins coiiilorliihlc siipporl, lli<-y vvotild iidd ten iiiorr, 
.111(1 if, iil'lri- cNiMTiiiiciil, lliit WMs iiol roiiiiil ciioii^li, llicy vvniild ndil 
iiiiolliir Irii |)i)iiiid^. 'riic'c Irniis, willi Nli;.'Jil nlli T.'il i< iiis, IM r. Ualidi 
.•icfc|ili'd, niid w .IS ordained. Mr. Hiilcli wiis liorii in llcvrrly in 17(ll, 
•.^n'lidiiMlcd al llMrvni'.l I7L'1, ordiiincd 17'J7. and dird I7'.)L>, iv/rA HH. 
Acc<)r<lin;' lo n slaliancnl in I'diiol's Ilio;'r;i|diical I >i('l ioriary, in- pos- 
sessed slron;^ powers ol' mind, snrp.ased li\ hnl lew nl' nnr iN'ew l'.n<j;- 
land diviiieN in cleiirness of pei'eeplion, eoniprelien: inn ol nnder. landing, 
<n- '(^nndnc-ss of jiid^inenl. lie was simple in mimners, soil and liene\o 
lenl in disposilion. 'I'iie lir:l \ear.' ol his ministry lie lived in peaee 
and liariiKiii V willi liis own and iIk' nei'dilinrin" elinrclies. A r.piril ol 
disor;j;ani/.a.lion Itej^inniiiij; to appear in llii' towns on llie IMerrimac river, 
nine nieinliers oC Ins own einireli were alleeled Ity it, and deelariii;', lliem 
seU'fvs dissalisli<'<l willi llie preaeliin;' <il llie miniiler, made ;i Iniiii.al 
eom|dainl lo (lie lirellireii. 'I'lie elnnrli tliinkin^ llie complainl iinreas- 

onalile, ,'ind rein<in" to ael n| il, llie ai'jj.rieved parly applied to a 

neiylilinriii'j; elinrcli, the I'irsl ( 'liiireli in ( iloiice;,|er, U'ev. IMr. \\'liile 
pallor, lo adnioni li llieir pa lor ,'ind lirellireii, accordiii"; lo llie direclion 
of llie plallorm liy "llie third w:i\' nl' eoiiininnion." < )n ihi:. IIh' elinnli 
voted to e.all a enimi'il. The ciiiineil niel, lil.inied IIk' eondnci ol the 
e.omplainaiils, and approvcil the doiii":; ol ihe rhnirh. I In. .-irlioii, how- 
ever, did not Irer i\Ir. Iiiileh Iroin ihe iinpnlal ion ol hiiliiin;' Aiiiiini.'in 
views, as donlilless he did, if wc ni.iy l»elii\e (he le.lnnony ol the con- 
troversies of that day in which hi' took pari, and Ihe tradilion.ary reports 
still enireiil. Mis last days were .serene. In Ihe (illii year of his min- 
istry, and with liic e.xpiTs.sion, " ( !ome, Lord .le.iiis, I am reaily," he I'dl 
asleep. 

Indiil\, I7l!7, till' moiilli sncceediiiM his oidinalion, lilty three (.'>■!) 
(leinalesj were receiveil into llie clinreh, havin;.' hem di milled Irom 
Ihe l''irsl, ('liiireh in llnuHdrd. hnrin;'; thai, year Imirleen more were 
.'idded. An iiii //ii/ii(il<\ which occurred in ( )clolier, IV'.'V, produced ;'reiil 
ellecl upon the miiid< ol the people, and awakeiicil ihe allenlion oi niany 
to the tinners of reli;'ion. Sixty liail' were :iildc(| ui the next year. 
I'roni 172!) to 1771), one himdreil mid ninely were iceei\('d. 

I'larly in ilie history ol the chnreli, re;;aid was had to eiiconi:i;'iii;' the 
spirit and haliil of ;^ivin^'. In IV. '!'.!, a vole wiiH piiHscd thai each coiii- 
imini(tanL he a/i/ii/nf to |)ay om- shilliiiff u year,- what, was necessary wuH 
lo he expendeil in providiiij'; for the l/ord's tulile, and tin- rcMidne to Itn 
di: po.ed of only for pious and charilaldi^ uses. Suspension from cum 
mniiion was the penalty for didimpienis, until they iiad ^',i\en the church 
sali,'ifact,i(jn. The, pastoi' and the deacons had the power of excnnin;:; 
irom the p.'iyment, oi the asse.'i:>meiil, on [jood and .Miificieiit reasons. 



314 SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 

In 1742, much feeling was aroused in the church by the introduction 
of preachers of different denominations into the parish, through the invi- 
tation of certain members of the church, so that the church voted it " a 
disorderly thing to invite either the ministers of other churches, or pri- 
vate ex-pastors, to officiate anywhere within the limits of the pai'ish 
without the consent of our minister first had." 

Much trouble sprung up at this time, which was extended through a 
period of seven years, arising from the conduct of brethren who, through 
disaffection on account of the preaching of Mr. Balch, called on the 
church of Gloucester for their brotherly monitions, " in the third way of 
communion." It was ended by their separation from the church. The 
period from 1749 to 1768, is to the historian a barren field; as the 
records give no account of internal dissensions, or of outward difficul- 
ties, we must suppose that it was a time of peace, and perhaps of 
prosperity. Five years only in this length of time passed 'by without 
some additions to the number of communicants. At the end of this 
period, there was a revival of some of the former troubles, occasioned 
by the introduction of unevangelical preachers into the parish. . In order 
to sustain their pastor, in the undivided control of his charge, it was 
voted, that a brother forfeited his standing in the church, should he in- 
vite a Baptist, Quaker, or any one of the different sects to preach in 
the parish, thereby giving him opportunity to make proselytes, and to 
weaken and divide the church. 

Mr. Balch, having become old and infirm, in 1779 the church made 
choice of Mr. Ebenezcr Dutch, as their minister. Only one person voted 
against his settlement, and he did it, as he said, in order to take off the 
curse pronounced against those of whom all speak well. 

Mr. Dutch was born in Ipswich, 1751, and graduated at Providence 
College in 1776. Though not a man of learning, he possessed an active, 
ready mind, which, with his natural fluency of speech and glow of feel- 
ing, made him a preacher of more than ordinary power. Having strong 
passions that were easily aroused, his words were sometimes indiscreet, 
and his conduct eccentric, irregular, and contradictory. In a part of his 
ministry, he was engaged in secular business, borrowing and loaning 
money, much to the injury of his own influence for good in the ministry. 
As was to be expected, his pecuniary speculations not only tarnished his 
character, but ruined his estate. However, in his latter years, none were 
more sensible of his error than he himself. His acknowledgments were 
as open as his faults had been. His diligence and fidelity in his Mas- 
ter's work, during the remaining years of his life, were not unblessed, 
many having been brought by him to Christ. His death was sudden and 
unexpected, yet full of peace and joy and faith. During his pastorate 



SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 315 

147 were received into the church. Nothing of marked and especial in- 
terest appears to have interrupted the course and harmony of the society. 
At one period, in 1788, the morals of the community could not have 
been at a very high state, if we may judge from the fact that the church 
felt called upon to declare, by a series of articles, that profanity was 
inconsistent with upright Christian conduct ; that indulgence in strong 
drink, to the injury of the person, was discreditable to a professor of 
religion, that absence from communion without sufficient cause, speaking 
reproachfully of religious characters, the neglect of family prayer, and 
the habit of card-playing, met their. disapprobation. 

In September of the next year, Rev. Gardiner B, Perry was or- 
dained. Born at Norton in 1783, graduated at Union College in 1804, 
he died at Groveland December, 1859, aged seventy-six, after a ministry 
of forty-five years. During the last nine years of his life, he was too 
infirm for the labors of his position, and colleagues were settled with 
him. From 1814 to 1840, there were one hundred and ninety-one pei-- 
sons received into the church. From that time to 1854, the I'ecords of 
the church are silent as to its growth, and, in fact, as to its history in any 
particular, until 1851. Dr. Perry was distinguished for his interest in 
the moral causes of the day, especially at the commencement of their dis- 
cussion and agitation. His people were thoroughly indoctrinated upon 
the subjects of temperance and anti-slavery. In 1831, the church was 
visited with a revival, and eighty persons made profession of their faith 
in Christ. No especial troubles vexed the church during Mr. Perry's 
active ministry. Old errors in doctrine, however, continued to exert 
their silent and pernicious influence. The Arminian seed sown in the 
earlier days of the parish continued to bear fruit, and propagate itself. 
The doctrinal integrity of many of the church members became impaired. 
Litigations between brethren had produced alienation and division. The 
young had grown up in exposure to a corrupting atmosphere, so that, in 
1851, they were unanimous and eager in settling, as a colleague with Dr. 
Perry, one whom they felt to be unsound in the faith, and whose subse- 
quent course verified the worst fears and the most unfavorable suspicions, 
— David A. Wasson, after a protracted examination. The brief state- 
ment of his belief presented to the council was in accordance with our 
evangelical standards. Yet, not long after his settlement, contradictory 
statements were made in direct opposition to the fundamental doctrines 
of revealed religion. Before the expiration of a year, his true attitude 
of hostility to evangelical Christianity was apparent to the most charita- 
ble and lenient judgments. In October, 1852, a council was called, prin- 
cipally composed of those who had ordained him. They arrived at this 
conclusion, — that all fellowship between him and our evangelical 



316 SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 

churches should cease. After the dissolution of this pastoral relation, 
the church was weakened in numbers by the departure of some of its 
members who were in sympathy with him. Their hostihty to the church 
could not but have a depressing and disheartening effect. The division 
of the society, which also followed, added much to their burden, and sub- 
tracted from their courage. 

In September, 1853, Mr. D. W. Pickard Avas ordained as colleague 
with Dr. Perry, — a man of lovely Christian character, of a mild, affec- 
tionate, and sensitive nature. On his entrance upon the pastoral duties, 
the church rallied around him with their prayers, their manifest sympa- 
thies, and steady encouragement. By the division, God had brought 
them to feel their own weakness. In repentance and humiliation, with a 
renewed consecration to his cause, they sought him. Their benevolence 
was stimulated, their fidelity increased ; and, as a legitimate result, the 
Spirit of Grace descended, and more than twenty for the first time pub- 
licly professed to be the followers of Christ. The awakened interest 
continued for a number of months. The necessary discipline of the 
members who had voluntarily left the communion occuj^ied the attention 
of the church, to the diminution of direct interest in the spiritual welfare 
of sinners, and in the true prosperity of Christ's kingdom. In 1855, 
disagreements between brethren of the church broke out, of such a na- 
ture that the church could not arrange and settle them. Still wider grew 
the disaffections, and weaker the spirit of cooperative energy. Worn 
out by labor, care, and their intestine divisions, Rev. Mr. Pickard was 
obliged to ask a dismission in the winter of 1857, having already been 
absent from the pulpit for more than six months, in the vain hope of re- 
covery. He lingered, in uncertainty in regard to his final restoration to 
health, until February, 1860, when God took him to the kingdom of per- 
fect peace. He died, as he had Hved, esteemed by all who knew him, 
— a " beloved disciple." 

In March, 1857, Thomas Doggett, the present pastor, was settled. 
The same divisions have continued in the church and in the town, but 
the healing hand of time has begun to work its visible effects ; and it is 
hoped that, by the blessing of God, the church may at length be in 
health and prosperous. It has not been unvisited by Divine influences. 
Some additions have been made to its number. There has been a mani- 
fest change in many of the opponents of religion ; and it is confidently 
expected that, before the lapse of many years, the church will have out- 
grown its weaknesses, and become united, vigorous, and strong. 



SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 317 

CENTRE CHURCH, HAVERHILL. 



BY REV. B. F. HOSFORD. 



This church was organized Aug. 28, 1833, and consisted then of 
eighty-eight members. Its pastors have been, — 

Rev. Joseph Whittlesey, installed Aug. 28, 1833 ; dismissed April 
18, 1838. 

Rev. Edward A. Lawrence, ordained and installed May 4, 1839 ; dis- 
missed June 12, 1844. 

Rev. Benjamin F. Hosford, ordained and installed May 21, 1845. 

Its Confession of Faith and Covenant are as follows : 

CONFESSION OF FAITH. 

Article 1. You believe there is but one God, the Creator, Pre- 
server, and Governor of the universe, — a Being infinite in power, 
wisdom, justice, goodness, mercy, and truth. 

Art. 2. You believe that the Scriptures of the Old and New Testa- 
ment are the word of God, and are a perfect rule of faith and practice. 

Art. 3. You believe that God is revealed in the Scriptures as the 
Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost ; and that these three, equal in 
every Divine attribute, are one God. 

Art. 4. You believe that man was originally holy ; that he fell from 
that happy state by sinning against God ; and that all men, except so 
far as they are renewed by the Spirit of God, are destitute of holiness, 
in a state of alienation from their Maker, and of insubjection to his gov- 
ernment. 

Art. 5. You believe that the Son of God, by his sufferings and death, 
has made an atonement for the sins of the world ; and that, upon condi- 
tion of repentance towards God, and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ, par- 
don and eternal life are sincerely offered to all. 

Art. 6. You believe that mankind do, of their own accord, wickedly 
refuse compliance with these conditions of pardon ; and, therefore, that 
the blessings of the gospel would be offered to this ungrateful world in 
vain, were it not for the interposition of the Holy Spirit. 

Art. 7. You believe that the influence of the Spirit is bestowed, not 
as the reward of merit, but as the free gift of God ; and yet is ordinarily 
so connected with the use of means by the sinner, as to create entire ob- 
ligation and ample encouragement to attend upon them, and to render all 
hopes of conversion in the neglect of them eminently presumptuous. 

Art. 8. You believe there will be a I'esurrection of the dead ; that 
all will stand before the judgment-seat of Christ ; that the wicked will 



318 SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 

go into punishment, and the- righteous into life, both of which will be 
without end. 

Art. 9. Moreover, you believe that in this world the Lord Jesus 
Christ has a visible church, the terms of admission to which are a public 
profession of faith in Christ, sustained by credible evidence ; that Bap- 
tism and the Lord's Supper are ordinances to be observed in the church 
to the end of the world ; that none but members of the visible church, 
in regular standing, have a right to partake of the Lord's Supper, and 
that they and their households are the proper and only subjects for the 
ordinance of Baptism. 

Thus you do, each of you, profess to believe. 

\_Baptism is here administered.'^ 

• COVENANT. 

You will now publicly enter into covenant with God, and with this 
church. 

In the presence of God and this assembly, you do now solemnly 
avouch the Lord Jehovah, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, to be your 
God, the supreme object of your affection, and your portion forever. 
You cordially acknowledge the Lord Jesus Christ as your only Re- 
deemer and Saviour, and the Holy Spirit as your Sanctifier, Com- 
forter, and Guide. You cheerfully devote yourselves to God in the 
everlasting covenant of his grace, consecrating all your powers and fac- 
ulties to his service and glory ; and you promise that, thi-ough the assist- 
ance of his Spirit, you will cleave to him as your chief good ; that you 
will give diligent attendance to his word and ordinances ; that you will 
seek the honor and interest of his kingdom ; and that henceforth, deny- 
ing all ungodliness and every worldly lust, you will live soberly, right- 
eously, and godly in the world. 

You do also now cordially join yourselves to this church, engaging to 
submit to the discipline of Christ in his house, and the regular adminis- 
tration of it in this church ; to strive earnestly for its peace, its edifica- 
tion, and its purity ; to aid in maintaining the worship of God ; and to 
walk with its members in charity, faithfulness, circumspection, meekness, 
and sobriety. 
. Thus you do, each of you, profess and engage. 

We, then, the members of this church [here the members of the church 
me], affectionately receive you to our communion. We welcome you to 
this fellowship with us in the blessings of the gospel ; and, on our part, 
we engage to watch over you, and seek your edification, so long as you 
continue among us. And, should you have occasion to leave us for some 
other place of abode, it will be your duty to seek, and ours to grant, a 



SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 319 

recommendation to another church ; for hereafter you can never with- 
draw from the watch and communion of the saints without a breach of 
covenant. 

And now, beloved in the Lord, let it never be forgotten that you have 
come under solemn obligations. Wherever you go, these vows will go 
with you. They will follow you to the bar of God ; they will abide 
upon you forever. 

May the Lord guide and preserve you until death, and at last receive 
both you and us to that blessed world where our love and joy shall be 
forever perfect ! Amen. 

This church has been strengthened by three decided revivals. The 
first immediately preceded its distinct organization, but without which it 
could hardly have been organized. It made the older members more 
positively Christian, and added greatly to their number. The second 
occurred in 1840, and brought about forty into the church. The third 
was in 1858, and resulted in the addition of about sixty. 

Soon after the formation of the North Church in 1859, to which this 
church contributed one hundred members, it received forty from the dis- 
banded Winter Street Church. These, with other additions by profession 
and letter, bi'ing its present membership up to its number fifteen years 
ago. Haverhill is now largely a manufacturing town. While this in- 
troduces many influences unfavorable to piety, the thrift it creates brings 
in many Christians by immigration ; so that the total result is about the 
average of growth in the churches of Christ. 

As this church is less an offshoot from the original church in town 
than a continuation of it, it is proper to carry back its history in some 
other particulars. The fii-st church, established in 1645, continued sub- 
stantially Orthodox until 1833, when the majority of voters in the par- 
ish deciding to have " more liberal preaching," the Orthodox part of the 
church, who held their religious belief to be of more value than popu- 
larity or silver, withdrew, and were constituted a church by themselves. 
The unity of the followers of Christ in this movement is shown by the 
fact that all the male members, with two exceptions, joined in it. It was 
not, therefore, a factious secession, but rather the original spiritual body 
coming out from the parish with which the civil law had too closely 
identified it. The church was not born out of due time, but still born 
of much tribulation, and with something of the martyr spirit in it. Ris- 
ing from amid prevailing heresies, it has always held religious doctrines 
to be important. The history of the church from which it came out has 
taught it to be careful for right foundations, and then for steadfastness 
upon them. It is not often that, in an enterprising community where the 



320 SKETCHKS OF CHURCHES. 

popular watchword is " Progress," a church holds so firmly, and with so 
much satisfaction, to the old truths in the old form of sound words. Its 
present wish and intent is to transmit these doctrines, with tiie forms, 
tastes, and elements of character which naturally grow out of them, to 
the next generation, according to the grace which the great Head of the 
church shall give unto it. 



CHURCH IN EAST HAVERHILL. 

HY REV. A. BURNHAM. 

Tliis church was organized Nov. 28. 1744. It has had five pastors: 

Rev. Benjamin Parker, ordained Nov. 28, 1744 ; dismissed 

1777. 



Rev. Isaac Thompkins, ordained March 1, 1797 ; died Nov. 21, 1826. 

Rev. James R. Gushing, installed June 10, 1835 ; dismissed July, 
1844. 

Rev. Wales Lewis, installed July 18, 1849 ; dismissed May 12, 1857. 

Rev. Abraham Burnham, ordained Sept. 30, 1857. 

The following is tiie " form of the church covenant read and consented 
to by the communicants" of this church on the day of Mr. Parker's or- 
dination, Nov. 28, 1744: 

'* We whose names are hereunto subscrib(;d (although unworthy of a 
name in this place), apprehending ourselves to be called of God to em- 
body into a distinct Christian society for the furtherance of our faith and 
charity, and our better attendance on the worship of God according to 
the rules of the gospel, — being firmly persuaded of the truth, excellency, 
and Divine authority of the revelation contained in the Holy Scriptures, 
which we take for our only rule of faith, worship, discipline, and man- 
ners, promising that we will faithfully study and adhere to the same as a 
sure guide in the true method of serving God .so, in this imperfect state, 
that we may come to enjoy him forever ; that we may be more sensible 
of our obligation hereto, and for our furtherance herein, — do now, in a 
very humble, solemn manner, give up ourselves, with our offspring, unto 
the Lord, the living and true God, through his Son Jesus Christ, whom 
he has appointed Lord over all things to the church, avouching him this 
day to be our God, and binding ourselves to him in an evei'lasting cove- 
nant to love his name, and to be his servants ; adoring his infinite con- 
descension and grace, that he will take us to be his people, and has 
promised his Holy Spirit to dwell with us and in us, for our direction, 
assistance, comfort, and support, in this world of temptation and sorrow, 



SKKTCHES OF CHimCHRS. 



321 



that, so doinfj our duty and walking to please him, we may at last inherit 
that eternal life whicli lie has brought to light to us by the gospel. 

We likewise give up ourselves to one another in the Lord, engaging, 
with Divine aid, as a church of Christ, to do all our things with charity 
and unto edification ; submitting ourselves to the watch and guidance of 
such as he shall be pleased from time to time to set over us, in the pastoral 
relation, to teach us the good word of the Lord, and show us the way to 
salvation ; watching likewise over one another with a spirit of meekness 
and love, not hating our brother in our heart, but in any wise reproving 
him, and doing our endeavors, every one in his place, to keep the church 
pure, lookinff dih' gently lest, any root of bitterness springing up, therehy 
many sliould he deji/ed. 

" And we promise to admit to our comnmnion such as shall design to 
join themselves with us, if, in a judgment of charity, they can be thought 
to be qualified therefor; not imposing any other terms of participation 
in Christian ordinances than those which our Saviour and his ai)Ostles 
have prescril)ed, — viz., a visible Christian profession, together with a 
blameless and well-ordei-ed life. And, likewise, that we will walk with 
all regular and due communion with other churches of our Lord Jesus, 
maintaining charity and an hearty good-will to all those that love our 
Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity, endeavoring to keep the unity of the spirit 
in the bond of peace, and praying always for the peace of Jerusalem, 
since they prosper that love her. And, in a word, that we will seek to 
walk worthy of the vocation wherewith we are called, in all lowliness 
and meekness and long-suffering, forgiving one another, and forbearing 
one another, and aiming to adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all 
things, by a holy, unblamable, sober, just, and righteous conversation ; 
and, whereinsoever we shall fall short of our duty, that we will renew 
our repentance, and betake ourselves to God for pardoning mercy through 
the blood of the Redeemer. 

" And now, that we may keep this covenant inviolate, being humbly 
sensible of our own imperfection and weakness, we heartily implore that 
the grace of Christ may be sutiicient for us, and that he, being the great 
Shepherd and Bishop of soids, would vouchsafe to lead us in the paths 
of truth and righteousness and charity, and at last receive us to his heav- 
enly kingdom." 

This covenant continued in use till Jan. 11, 1797. The church had 
then become reduced in numbers, and the records were lost ; and, conse- 
quently, it was reorganized, and a new covenant adopted, which was 
essentially the same as the fii'st. April 3, 1797, a Confession of Faith 
was also adopted. In 1855, the Confession of Faith and Covenant^were 
revised and printed, but not materially changed. Sept. 27, 1831, a vote 

41 



'522 SKETCHES OF OHrncHi;<. 

was passed to adof)! "• a new Confef^sion of P^aith and Church Covenant." 
but none is found on the records. 

This church originally consisted of thirty-three members, — sixteen 
males and seventeen females. During the first thirty years of its exist- 
ence, seventy-six members were added to it V)y profession. The largest 
number received by profession any one year during this period was thir- 
teen. These were admitted in 1 755. 

The number of members now connected with this church is thirty- 
three, which was the original number. 



NORTH CHURCH IX HAVERHILL. 

Organized March 30. l!S5!). Has had but one pastor, — Rev. Ray- 
mond H. Seeley. installed Aug. 8, 1860. 

C O N F K S S I O N OF K A I T H . 

Article 1. You believe there is one only living and true God, the 
Creator, Preserver, and Governor of the universe, — a Being self-exist- 
ent and unchangeable, infinite in power, holiness, wisdom, justice, good- 
ness, mercj', and truth. 

Art. 2. You believe that the Scriptures of the Old and New Testa- 
ments were given by inspiration of God ; that they contain a harmonious 
and complete system of divine truth, and are a perfect rule of faith and 
practice. 

Art. 3. You believe that God is revealed in the Scriptures as the 
Father, Son. and Holy Ghost, and that these three are one God, and 
in all divine attributes equal. 

Art. 4. Y'^ou believe that man was originally created pure and up- 
right ; that he fell from that state by sinning against God ; and that all 
men, except so far as they are renewed by the Spirit of God, are desti- 
tute of holiness, in a state of alienation from their Maker, and of insub- 
jection to his government. 

Art. d. Y^ou believe that the Son of God, by his sufferings and death, 
has made an atonement for the sins of the world ; and that pardon and 
eternal life are sincei-ely offered to all, upon condition of repentance to- 
wards God, and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ. 

Art. 6. You believe that mankind do. of their own accord, refuse 
compliance with these conditions of pardon, and that the blessings of the 
gospel would be offered to them in vain, were it not for the interposition 
of the Holy Spirit. 

Art. 7. You believe thai the infiuence of the Spirit is bestowed, not 



SKETCIIliS OF CHLHCHKS. 323 

as the reward of merit, but as the free gift of God, and yet that it is the 
immediate duty of every sinner to exercise repentance towards God, and 
faith in our Lord Jesus Christ. 

Art. 8. You believe there will be a resurrection of the dead, and that 
all will stand before the judgment-seat of Christ; that the wicked will go 
into punishment, and the righteous into life, both of which will be with- 
out end. 

Art. 9. You believe that the Lord .Jesus Christ has established a 
church in the world ; that its special ordinances are Baptism and the 
Lord's Supper ; and that all who have been baptized, and received into 
fellowship with the chui'ch, are entitled to the saci'araeut of the Supper ; 
and that the children of believing, covenanted parents, are to be admitted 
to the ordinance of Baptism. 

COVENANT. 

Li the presence of God and this assembly, you now do solemnly avouch 
the Lord Jehovah, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, to be your God, the 
Supreme object of your affection, and your portion forever. You cor- 
dially acknowledge the Lord Jesus Christ as your only Redeemer and 
Saviour, and the Holy Spirit as your Sanctifier, Comforter, and Guide. 
You cheerfully devote yourself (or selves) to God, in the everlasting 
covenant of his gi-ace, consecrating all your powers and faculties to his 
service and glory. And you promise that, through the assistance of his 
Spirit, you will cleave to him as your chief good ; that you will give dil- 
igent attendance to his word and ordinances ; that you will seek the 
honor and interest of his kingdom ; and that henceforth, denying all un- 
godliness and every worldly lust, you will live soberly, righteously, and 
godly in the world. 

You do now also cordially join yourselves to this church as a true 
church of Christ, engaging to submit to its discipline, as prescribed in 
the Divine Word ; to strive earnestly for its peace, its edification, and its 
purity ; to labor with it, as God shall give you ability, for the building 
up of the Redeemer's kingdom in the world ; and to exercise towards its 
members a spirit of meekness, forgiveness, and Christian love. 

Trusting in the grace of God, do you thus covenant and promise ? 
\_JEach answers, "/ rfo."] 

We, then, the members of this church [/Ae church here me], receive 
you affectionately to our communion, promising you our prayers, our 
Christian sympathy, and our love ; engaging, on our part, to walk with 
you in all becoming watchfulness, kindness, and fidelity ; and to promote, 
to the extent of our power, your growth in grace, your usefulness, and 
your happiness, so long as you shall remain with us. 



324 SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 

And now, beloved, remember that the vows of the Lord are upon 
you : they can never be thrown off; they will follow you through life to 
the bar of God, and to the retributions of the world to come. 

And may the great Head of the church at last present both you and 
us, in company with all his saints, faultless before the presence of his 
glory, with exceeding joy ! 

And to the only wise God be the praise, now and forever. Amen. 

March 1, 1859, a religious society of the Congregational-Orthodox 
denomination was duly organized for the purpose of maintaining public 
worship, under the name of the " North Congregational Society." 

March 19, 1859, a meeting was held to take the preliminary measures 
for the formation of a new church, to be connected with the aforesaid 
society. This step was taken from a sense of duty to God and the great 
Head of the church. — believing that the interests of religion demanded, 
and the cause of Christ would be promoted by, another church organiza- 
tion in this town. 

After much deliberation and' prayer, it was voted unanimously that an 
ecclesiastical council be called on Wednesday, 30th inst., to advise and 
assist in the constitution of a new church, if, in their judgment, it should 
be deemed expedient. In accordance with this vote, letters missive were 
forwarded to twelve churches, who met by their pastors and delegates on 
the day appointed. The council 

Voted, That, in view of all the present circumstances, it is expedient 
that the request of the brethren be granted, and that a new church be 
organized, under the name of the " North Congregational Church in 
Haverhill." 

Voted, That the Articles of Faith and Covenant be deemed satisfac- 
tory. 

After the formation of the church, immediate measures were taken for 
the erection of a convenient house of worship, for the use of the church 
and society ; and. on the 20th day of July, the corner-stone of the same 
was laid with appropriate services. 

On Wednesday, Feb. 15, the house of worship was completed, and 
dedicated to the service of God. 



CHURCH IS WEST HAVERHILL. 

BY EEV. ASA FARWELL. 

Organized Oct. 22. 1735. Has had five pastors : 
Rev. Samuel Bacheller, ordained Oct. 22, 1735 ; dismissed Oct. 9, 
1761. 



SKETCUES OF CHURCHES. 325 

Rev. Phineas Adams, ordained .Jan. 9, 1771 ; died Nov. 17, 1801. 

Rev. Moses G. Grosvenor, ordained Dec. 27, 1826 ; dismissed April 
22, 1829. 

Rev. Abijah Cross, ordained May 18, 1831 ; dismissed Jan. 20, 1853. 

Rev. Asa Farwell, ordained April 21, 1853. 

The following Confession and Covenant, drawn up by Rev. Joim 
Brown, and " considered at a ministers' meeting the previous day," was 
adopted at the organization of the church : 

" We ye Subscribers, Apprehending ourselves called to Unite as 
Christian Brethren in a Particular Church in this place, that we may 
be Built as such on ye foundation of ye Prophets and Apostles, Do now 
profess, in ye Presence of God and holy Angels, his Ministers and Peo- 
ple in this Assembly, That we, taking ye Holy Scriptures called ye Bible 
to be ye Rule of our Faith and Practice, Believe as foUoweth ; Namely, 
that there is one God, the Maker of Heaven and Earthy whose name is 
Jehovah, revealing himself under the Mysterious Relation of Fathei*, 
Son, and Holy Ghost. And as there is one God, so there is one Me- 
diator between God and man, ye Man Christ Jesus, no other than ye 
Only-Begotten of ye Father, made flesh, born of ye Virgin Mary, who, 
by his Life, Death, Resurrection, and Ascension into Heaven, has made 
way for our Salvation, and from thence he shall come again, to Judge 
ye Quick and ye Dead. And that some of ye Children of fallen Adam 
were in Christ Chosen to Salvation, from ye foundation of ye World ; 
That ye offers of this Salvation, Containing ye forgiveness of Sin, ye 
Resurrection of ye Body, and life everlasting, are made to all ye Mem- 
bers of ye Holy Catholick Church that are within ye Covenant of Grace, 
even Jews and tientiles, as many as are called, ye Promise whereof is 
unto them and their Children. And that in a Union to Christ our Head 
and Surety there is a Special Communion of Saints, both with God and 
one another, which is highly promoted in the fellowship of particular 
Churches. And, that we may practice according to our holy Rule, we 
would now, in ye most Devout manner, Adoi'eing ye Divine Grace and 
Condescension in taking us into Covenant, Humbly lay hold on ye great 
promise thereof through Christ, that God Almighty Avill be a God to 
every one of us, and to our seed after us in their Generations, and freely 
consent, for ourselves and them, to be his people forever ; and as we 
have been taught and bound by ye seal of this Covenant, we will sin- , 
cerely endeavor to observe all things whatsoever Christ hath Command- 
ed. And whereas we are, by this Covenant, in fellowship with ye Uni- 
versal Church, we being all Baptized into one body, and having all been 
made to drink into one Spirit, we profess with them to worship God in 
ye Spirit, to rejoice in Christ Jesus, and to have no Confidence in ye 



'526 SKETCHES OK CHL'KCHKb. 

flesh. And in our personal Conduct and Communion witli them, in nil 
relations, we would walk worth}' of ye Vocation wherewith we are called, 
in all lowliness and meekness and long-suffering; forbearing one another 
in love, endeavoring to keep ye Unity of ye Spirit in ye bond of peace, 
for there is one Body and one Spirit, even as we are called in one hope 
of our Calling. More particularly, in our personal Conduct, exercising 
ourselves to have always a Conscience void of offence towards God and 
towards men ; Walking circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise, and, as 
he who has called us is holy, seeking to be holy in all manner of Con- 
versation ; not rendering evil to any man, but, as we have opportunity, 
doing good unto all men, Especially unto them that are of ye Household 
of Faith. And, in all Political relations, whether Domestic, Civil, or 
Ecclesiastical, to Adorn ye Doctrine of God our Saviour in all things, 
according as his grace has appeared unto all men, teaching us that. De- 
nying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live Soberly and Right- 
eously and Godly in ye present world. Walking in our houses agreeable 
to ye Covenant of Marriage, and ye Parental Covenant ; Resolving that, 
as for us and our Houses, we will serve ye Lord ; Praying together, and 
also instructing and Commanding our Children and Household to keep 
the way of the Lord. And, under our Civil Rulers, leading quiet and 
peaceable lives in all Godliness and Honesty ; Rendering to all their 
dues. Tribute to whom Tribute is due, Custom to whom Custom, Fear to 
whom Fear, Honor to whom Honor, to owe no man any thing, but to love 
one another ; Praying for the Peace of Jerusalem, because they shall 
prosper that love her ; looking not every man at his own things, but 
every man also at the things of others. And, in ye House of our God, 
Keeping ye Ordinances in all things, as Delivered to ufe by Christ and 
his Apostles, not forsaking ye Assembling of ourselves together, but re- 
ligiously attending all parts of Instituted Worship, whether in ye Minis- 
try of ye Word, or prayer or Praise, or in Baptism, or in ye Lord's 
Supper. And, whereas, we are called to fellowship in a particular 
Church, wherein we are now to be united in one Body, to maintain a 
Special Government within our Assembly, to which End they have 
chosen with us a Pastor, to be over us in ye Lord, and Admonish us ; 
We promise together, as a Church, so far as in us lies, that all things 
shall be done decently and in Order, with Charity and unto Edifying, — 
, that public Censures be inflicted on Disorderly members, according to 
ye laws of Christ for ye Destruction of ye flesh, that ye spirit may be 
saved in ye day of ye Lord Jesus. And, as Brethren, we promise, each 
one for ourselves, that we will not any of us hate our Brother in our 
hearts, but in any wise rebuke our neighbor, and not suffer sin upon 
him ; yet, if a man be overtaken in a fault, we which are spiritual will 



SKETCHES OF C'HUliCFIES. 327 

restore him with a spirit of ]Meekne??, Considering ourselves lest we also 
be tempted ; loving one another as brethren, and so fulfillijig ye Law of 
Christ, even ye law of Charity, which covereth a multitude of sins. And 
in faults which Deserve repi'oof when our Brotlier trespasses against any 
one of us, we will go and tell him of his fault alone, that he may gain his 
brother ; but if he refuse to hear him, then take with him one or two 
more, that in ye mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be es- 
tablished ; and if he refuse them, let ye Church, and, if he hear not ye 
Church, he shall be unto him as a heathen man and a Publican. And if 
there be among us any wicked person polluting ye Society, we will not 
be wanting to cast out ye old leaven, that we may be a pure lump. We 
will not keep company with any one that is called a Brother, if he hi a 
fornicatoi', or Covetous, or an Idolater, or a Railer, or a Drunkard, or a 
reviler, oi' an Extortioner : with such an one in our assembly, no, 
not to Eat. Shall we not thus Judge them that are within, and cast out 
ye wicked person, and withdraw from every Brother that walketh Disor- 
derly, as a busybody ; note that man, have no company with him. that 
he may be ashamed ; yet count him not as an enemy, but admonish him 
as a brother? And, on ye other hand, when such an offending person 
shall, after Censure, be Sorry unto repentance, then, contrarywise, we 
will one and all forgive and Comfort him, because Sufficient to such a 
one is this Punishment Inflicted of many. Finally, as members of ye 
Jtock, as we shall stand related to our Pastor, we will obey him, as hav- 
ing ye rule over us, and submit ourselves, because he shall watch for our 
souls as one that must give account, that he may do it with Joy, and not 
with grief; Esteeming him very highly in love, for his work's sake, 
Counting an Elder that ruleth well to be worthy of Double Honor, Es- 
pecially one that laboreth in ye word and Doctrine, for ye Scripture 
saith, ye Laborer is worthy of his reward. 

" To this Covenant we have set our hands, that, thus binding ourselves 
to ye Lord, we may Keep his Covenant, remember his .Commandments, 
and do them. And that he may Establish us a holy People Unto him- 
self." 

Under date of Sept. 7, 1762, the records show a "solemn Renewal of 
Covenant engagements with God," in connection with which there is a 
more full and direct statement on points of faith and practice, referring 
especially to the form of church government as being strictly " Congre- 
gational," and to the " Doctrines summarily taught in the Shorter Cate- 
chism of the Westminster Assembly of Divines." At the same time, the 
brethren say: " We think it proper, on this occasion, to Declare that we 
strictly adhere to, and firmly abide by, our Church Covenant, upon or 
by which we were first incorporated into a Church state ; and have no 



328 SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 

thought or intention of setting it aside in this our solemn Renewal of 
Covenant with God and one another this day." 

January, 1771, there was a " Form of Covenant adopted, by which 
to admit Parents to ye Privilege of Baptism for their children ; " but 
there is no reference to the original church covenant. 

Nov. 27, 1774, a " Confession of Faith," consisting of ten explicit ar- 
ticles, commencing each with '' you believe," or " you acknowledge," was 
adopted, — the same in substance as those used at the present time. 

Feb. 1, 1827, the Confession of Faith was somewhat changed in form, 
and the covenant abridged. 

May 25, 1855, a few verbal changes and corrections were made, arid 
the Confession of Faith and Covenant were printed. 

The church was originally composed of seventy-seven members, thirty 
males and forty-seven females, most of whom were dismissed for this 
pur[)Ose from the First Church in the village. Rev. Samuel Bacheller, 
became their first pastor. It is inferred that he was ordained on the 
day in which the church was organized, though there is now no official 
record of the event. During the remainder of that year (1735), there 
were twelve more added by letter, making a membership of eighty-nine. 
This was a prosperous Iteginning. Situated in some places, it might 
have soon become a large church. But being among a rural population, 
where the territory was already occupied, emigration to neighboring 
villages and the surrounding country, became, to it, a constant drain. 
If the church lived, it must be by internal vigor. Its increase from 
other churches, after the first few months, was small. The cause of this 
state of things remain, in great part, to the present day ; and need to be 
taken into account, in estimating aright the events of its entire history. 

The early part of Mr. Bacheller's ministry was greatly blessed. 
During the next year (1736), twenty-eight were added to the church 
by profession. In each subsequent year until 1743, there were additions 
made by profession, and in that year twelve were added. A revival 
spirit seems to have prevailed nearly the whole of the time. But sub- 
sequently dissensions arose ; and religion became formal. In the year 
1755, it is recorded that "difficulties between the minister and some in 
the parish assumed alarming proportions." After repeated trials for the 
settlement of these difficulties, they still remained, and were ended only 
by Mr. Bacheller's dismissal, — which occurred in Oct. 17G1. During 
his ministry (of about twenty -six years), one hundred and twenty-four 
were admitted to the church. 

After Mr. Bacheller's dismission, matters continued in an unhappy 
state. Though the ordinances were maintained most of the time by the 
aid of transient preachers, there was but little good fruit apparent. 



SKETCHES OF CHUKCHES. ' 329 

During the next ten years, there were but eight additions to the church, 
and these were by letter. 

In December, 1770, a call to settle in the ministry was extended to 
Mr. Phineas Adams. He accepted, and was ordained on tlie 9th of 
January following. Affiiirs now assumed a more quiet condition. Meas- 
ures were taken to restore the order and discipline of the church. Soon 
after the settlement of Mr. Adams, two were chosen to the office of 
deacon ^ and a vote was passed requiring greater care in the admission 
of members. His ministry seems to have been an eminently peaceful 
one. He remained pastor of the church until his death, more than thirty 
years. During this period the admissions were sixty-three. He died 
Nov. 17, 1801. 

After the death of Mr. Adams, the church was again without a settled 
pastor for more than twenty-live years. These were its dark days. Its 
members were constantly diminishing, and enemies became openly hos- 
tile. They confidently predicted its extinction. At one time the num- 
ber of male members was reduced to five or six ; and it was only by 
very great sacrifices that the ordinances of the gospel could be maintain- 
ed. There was, however, always a small band of faithful ones. On 
account of the imperfections of records, but little can now be learned of 
their trials, except from the recollections of the few members, of that 
period, who now survive. It was necessary to keep up a vigilant defence 
against errorists. The contests was long and bitter ; and but for signal 
interpositions in behalf of his servants, the cause of the Redeemer would 
no longer have had a witness here. Yet the little band held together 
with singular unanimity and courage. Their first^ aim seems to have 
been to keep themselves pure in doctrine and practice. Whenever the 
pulpit, under the direction of the parish, was occupied by one wliose 
sentiments were not evangelical, " they quietly withdrew and worshipped 
in a private house." At length, in the year 1821, the parish voted to 
call one to settle (Rev. Thaddeus Pomroy), whose sentiments accorded 
with the views of the church. His labors were productive of much good, 
and fifteen were added to their numbers. He was not, however, settled, 
but soon gave place to other preachers of whom there is no mention 
made in the church records. 

In Sept., 1826, the church and parish concurred in calling Mr. Moses 
G. Grosvener, and he was ordained as their pastor in December of the 
same year. His ministry was highly favored. There was an extensive 



1 As the names of the deacons then chosen, as well as many of the statistics in the 
history of the church, are given in the " History of Haverhill," recently jiublished, 
thev are omitted in this sketch. 

42 » 



330 SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 

revival, from the fruits of which thirty-one were added to the church, 
and among them many of the firmest supporters of the gospel, — some 
of whom remain to the present day. Finding themselves 1iow constant- 
ly embarrassed by the votes of the parish, they withdrew from the old 
meeting-house and erected a substantial brick church, which they still 
occupy as their house of worship. Mr. Grosvener, " was settled on the 
plan of six montJis notice given by either party," and was dismissed in 
April, 1829. 

He was succeeded by Rev. Abijah Cross, who, after repeated attempts 
were made to gain the concurrence of the parish, was settled over the 
church, and a society organized to cooperate with them, on the 18th 
of May, 1831. After this, during a period of more than twenty years, 
there was no legal connection between the church and parish. For a 
time aid was received from the Home Missionary Society. But through 
the strength, in numbers and influence, gained by the revival which soon 
followed, they became again self-supporting. All causes of trouble, how- 
ever, arising from former connection with the parish, did not immediately 
cease. One worthy member of the church, now gone to his rest, was 
imprisoned for not continuing to pay his tax to the parish. But these 
difliculties gradually wore away, and the ministry of Mr. Cross became 
a long and prosperous one. Several revivals of marked interest and 
power occurred. The church was enlarged and strengthened. During 
the entire period of his labors here (almost twenty-four years), there 
wei'e one hundred and thirty-nine additions. Near the close of his pas- 
torate the church and parish were again united on a new basis, which 
it is hoped will be permanent. Pie was dismissed in Jan., 1853, and in 
April, following, the present pastor (Rev. A. Farwell) was ordained. 
The cause of disturbance between the church and parish having now 
entirely ceased, the present pastorate has been peaceful and happy. 
There have been three seasons of special religious interest ; and to the 
present time (a period of about eight years), the additions have been 
fifty-five. 

The history of this church for one hundred and twenty-five years, 
bears impressive testimony on two points, — the need of stated ministra- 
tions of God's word in its purity, and the value of frequent revivals. 
These last have been both the spring-time and harvest, in the prosperity 
of this church. Without them, the results of ordinary growth would 
long since have been buried in oblivion. 



SKKTCHKS OF CHURCHES. 331 



FIRST CHURCH IN IPSWICH. 



BY REV. JOHN P. COWLES. 



This church, the oldest in the limita of the Association, and the ninth 
daughter of the Massachusetts Colony, was gathered in 1634, the same 
year in which the town was incorporated, and has now reached the age 
of two hundred and thirty years. 

It has had twelve pastors, including the present incumbent, and all 
but two of the twelve have been at some time colleagues in the pastoral 
office, and the whole period of the double pastorate up to 1859 was 
about one hundred years; so that the church has enjoyed some three 
hundred and thirty years of ministerial service. The eleven pastors 
preceding the present, give an average of twenty-nine years in office, 
and nine of the eleven give an average of thirty-five years. , 

The ministers of the church have been as follows : 

Rev. Nathaniel Ward was settled first pastor in 1634; resigned his 
pastoral charge in 1637. Mr. Ward was assisted during the first year 
of his ministry by Rev. Thomas Parker, who was afterwards settled 
as tlie first minister of Newbury. 

Rev. John Norton, second pastor, was settled in 1636, colleague of 
Mr. Ward, dismissed to Boston, in 1653. 

Rev. Nathaniel Rogers, third pastor, was ordained colleague with Mr. 
Norton Feb. 20, 1638; died July 3, 1655. 

Rev. Thomas Cobbett, fourth pastor, was installed in 1656; died Nov., 
1685. 

Rev. William Hubbard, fifth pastor, ordained 1657, colleague with 
Mr. Cobbett, died Sept. 14, 1704. 

Rev. John Dennison, according to generally received testimony, was 
ordained in 1686, as sixth pastor and colleague with Mr. Hubbard. 
Other statements represent him to have been elected to the pastoral office, 
but on account of failing health, not ordained. He died Sept. 16, 1689. 

Rev. John Rogers, seventh pastor, was ordained Oct. 12, 1692; died 
Dec. 28, 1745. 

Rev. Jabez Fitch, eighth pastor, was ordained Oct. 24, 1703 ; while 
Mr. Hubbard and Mr. Rogers still were pastors, but the former too in- 
firm to preach. Mr. Fitch was dismissed in 1724. 

Rev. Nathaniel Rogers, ninth pastor, was ordained colleague with 
Mr. John Rogers, Oct. 18, 1727 ; died May 10, 1775. 

Rev. Levi Frisbie, tenth pastor, was installed Feb. 7, 1776 ; died Feb. 
25, 1806. 



332 SKKTCHES OF CHIRCIIES. 

Rev. David T. Kimball, eleventh pastor, was ordained Oct. 8. 1806; 
withdrew from the pastoi'al office July 24, 1851. 

Rev. Robert Southgate, twelfth pastor, was installed July 24, 1851. 

The following Confession of Faith and Covenant has been used by 
this church, on the admission of members, from time immemorial : 

"■You believe and acknowledge the eternal Jehovah, who is the 
Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, to be the one only living and true God ; 
and renouncing and forsaking sin, you do give up yourself to this God, 
desiring truly to know Him, believe in Him, love and obey Him, and to 
be made happy in the enjoyment of the blessed fruit of His love. 

" You believe, that all mankind are fallen from God into a state of sin 
and misery, and that they are justly exposed to His wrath and curse. 

" You believe that ' God so loved the world that He gave His only 
begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but 
have everlasting life,' and that Jesus Christ is the only begotten Son of 
God, and the only Saviour of lost man ; and you give up yourself to 
Him, desiring truly to believe on Him, and to be subject unto Him in 
all His saving offices. 

" You believe that it is the office and work of the Holy Spirit to make 
application of the redemption purchased by Christ, unto all who shall 
be saved ; and you give up yourself to Him, desiring that He may be 
your Teacher, Sanctifier, and Comforter. 

'• You believe the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments to be 
the Word of God, and a perfect Rule of Faith and practice ; and you 
do take them as such. 

" You believe that the Great Head of the church has instituted the 
Ordinances of Baptism and the Lord's Supper, the former of which it is 
the privilege of believers and their children to receive, the latter of be- 
lievers only. 

" You also engage to submit to the watch and government of this 
church, professing that by help of Divine Grace, you will walk orderly 
and inoffensively among us, according to the Rule and directions of the 
Gospel; [that you will endeavor, by precept and example, to bring up 
your children in the nurture and admonition of the Lord.] 

" Do you thus believe, and solemnly promise and engage, before God 
and this assembly ? 

"We then receive you as a member of the same body with ourselves, 
entitled to all the privileges of Christ's visible kingdom ; and we promise 
to watch over you with faithfulness and love, to bear you in remem- 
brance at the Throne of Grace, and to treat you as our in the 
fellowship of the gospel." 

The extent of its parochial limits in those early times, viz., the present 



SKETCHES OF CHFRCHES. 333 

Ipswich, Essex, and Hamilton, must have rendered a double pastorate 
necessary; and by the time each new parish was formed, — Chebacco 
in 1681, Hamilton in 1713, — the increase of population within the 
reduced limits probably maintained the necessity at about the same de- 
gree, till the formation of the South Church in 1747, and the Linebrook, 
about the same time, extinguished the need of two pastors. 

In the early times, this church was one of the most flourishing and 
vigorous in New England. Under the thorough instruction of John 
Norton, and the lively eloquence of the first Nathaniel Rogers, both 
men of eminent powers, and martyrs to Christ in spirit and in act, the 
church .go grew in knowledge and character, that it is said that any one 
of them was fit to be a judge. Nor probably was the thirty years' co- 
pastorate of Thomas Cobbett and William Hubbard, less vital and 
nourishing to the growing church, if we may accept the testimony of 
Mr. Hubbard to the gifts, the graces, and the usefulness of his colleague ; 
for he testifies that the prayers of Mr. Cobbett drew and kept the con- 
gregation in the immediate presence of the Deity. There is a record of 
six resolves passed by the church, 1656, which show their views and 
feelings about the Christian nurture of children, and are worthy of pres- 
ervation to the latest age. , 

" 1. We look at children of members in full communion which are 
about fourteen years old when their father and mother joined the church, 
or wer« born since, to be members in and with their parents. 

" 2. We look at such cliildren under the care and watch of our 
church, and as they grew up to be about fourteen years old, to be liable 
to our church censures, in case of offence and scandal. 

" 3. We look at it as the duty of elders and brethren to endeavor, in 
their respective places, to instruct them, and to call upon them to know 
the Lord, and to carry it according to the rules of the gospel. 

" 4. We look upon it as the elder's duty to call upon such children, 
being adults, and are of understanding, and not scandalous, to take the 
covenant solemnly before our assembly. 

" 0. We judge that the children of such adult persons, that are of 
understanding, and not scandalous, and shall take the covenant, that 
their children shall be baptized. 

" 6. That notwithstanding the baptizing the children of such, yet we 
judge, that those adult persons are not to come to the Lord's table, nor 
to act in church votes, unless they satisfy the reasonable charity of the 
elders or church, that they have a work of repentance and faith in 
them." 

The best things may be abused ; and a practice, once pure, may de- 
generate into corruption. The spirit of these resolves is a thorough 



334 SKKTCIIKS OF CHURCHES. 

sense of rcsponsibilit}', a solemn purpose of duty, and a cheerful hope of 
success in training children for Christ. It is the furthest remove from 
mere outward baptism, or formalism, in any shape. But in process of 
time the gold became dim, the most tine gold changed. What was at 
first a solemn covenant and true Christian nurture, became the half-way 
covenant, and that, even, often and grossly neglected. 

After a long period of great decay and deadness, the ministry of Rev. 
John Rogers, grandson of the first, and father of the second Nathaniel, 
became, near its close, highly prosperous. He appears to have entered, 
heart and soul, into the revival in the days of Edwards. Tennant and 
Whitfield were warmly welcomed here, and preached with great accept- 
ance and power. The church in a short time increased from about one 
hundred and fifty to more than three hundred membei'S. Its prosperity 
now culminated, the communicants alone making a respectable congre- 
gation in size and strength. The formation of the South Church in 
1747, and of the Linebrook about the same time, the former the third 
and the latter the fourth daugliter of the parent church, materially 
lessened its numbers and strength, and the loss of numbers was not 
compensated by increase of population, nor does the loss of moral 
})ower appear to have been comjDensated by powerful revivals of re- 
ligion. 

We come now to the period when worldly prosperity in the absence 
of persecution sapped the vital zeal of the New England churches, and 
left but a body where the spirit of the fathers had been. No man now 
walked twenty-five miles to hear some Norton preach a preparatory 
lecture. The Sunday sermon became a collection of smooth moralizing 
generalities. The pastoral visit degenerated into a jovial call, enlivened 
by flip and toddy. The ways of Zion mourned because those who should 
have come affectionately to her solemn feasts, stopped indifferently at the 
half-way covenant. The obligations of that covenant, imperfect as they 
were, ceased to be much regarded, and many of the children who were 
baptized under it, were allowed their own way, instead of being nurtured 
carefully in the fear of the Lord. The disease, which in so many places 
in Eastern Massachusetts, developed into open Unitarianism or Univer- 
salism, here stopped short in mere Orthodoxy and formalism. It was 
less violent, but for that reason was diffused over a longer period of time. 
The promise of gracious showers often passed over without copious rain, 
and the foundations of truth, needful for a great and thorough awaken- 
ing, seem to have fallen out of men's minds. A revival is recorded at 
the close of the last century under the ministry of Mr. Frisbie, but that 
few were added to the church as the fruits of it, appears from the num- 
ber at his death in 1806, which was only fifty-three. 



SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 335 

During the first fourteen years of Mr. Kimbull's ministry, 1806 to 
1820, the church increased from fifty-three to eighty-five members, a 
slow but sure and substantial advance. 

A Methodist society was formed in 1822, which gradually became 
numerous and strong, drawing off many valuable members of the con- 
gregation worshipping with the First Church. 

The year 1825 was a time of particular religious interest among the 
people, and thirty-four were added to the church. In 1829, the whole 
town was moved and awakened. The erratic John N. Maffit came and 
preached, drawing crowds after him. The strange fire of personal ad- 
miration foiithe preacher was largely mixed with the pure fire of truth. 
Many were doubtless converted, but the entire effect of his preaching 
and measures was not probably unmixed good. The Rev. Mr. Kimball, 
aided by Dr. Lyman Beecher and others, labored earnestly and inces- 
santly. Eighty-seven connected themselves with this church as the fruits 
of this revival, while large accessions were also made to the Methodist 
communion. 

Twenty years later, the winter of 1849-50, brought another season of 
religious awakening. The interest was calm, but decided and delightful, 
and forty-five were united to the church as the fruits of the work. 

Rev. Mr. Kimball closed his active labors for his people in 1851. 
The church had been quadrupled during his ministry, and had recovered 
in a good degree from its low state in the beginning of this century. 
The half-way covenant had been silently laid aside since 1828. In a 
laborious ministry of forty-five years, he had seen three hundred and 
fifty members added to the church. Eacli of the great benevolent insti- 
tutions of the day had from its birth been warmly welcomed to the 
bosom of the church, and nourished by it as its own. A new and beau- 
tiful house of worship had been erected in 1846, the society was out of 
debt, strong and harmonious. The Rev. Mr. Kimball becatne pastor, 
emeritus, and the active labor and responsibility of the otfice were trans- 
ferred to the present incumbent, Rev. Robert Southgate, who connected 
himself with another ministerial association. 



THE SECOND, OR SOUTH CHURCH IN IPSWICH. 

BY REV. D. FITZ, D. D. 

This church separated from the First Church, and was organized Aug. 
22, 1747. 

John Walley was ordained Nov. 4, 1747; dismissed March 25, 1767. 
Joseph Dana, D. D., was ordained Nov. 7, 1765; died Nov. 16, 1827. 



336 SKETCHES OF CHITRCHES. 

Daniel Fitz was ordained June 28, 1826. • 

The following, though written in reference to the separation from the 
First Church, is entitled : 

"THE CHURCH COVENANT." 

"We, whose names are hereto subscribed, apprehending ourselves call- 
ed of God (for tlie advancing his Son's kingdom, and edifying our- 
selves and posterity), to combine and embody ourselves into a distinct 
church and society, and being for that end orderly dismissed from the 
church to which we heretofore belonged, do (as we hope), with some 
measure of seriousness and sincerity, take upon us the foltowing Pro- 
fession and Covenant, viz. : 

"As to Matters of Faith we cordially adhere to the Principles of Re- 
ligion (at least the Substance of t^m), contained in the shorter " Cate- 
chism of the Assembly of Divines," wherewith also the New England 
Confession harmonizefli ; not as supposing that there is any Authority, 
much less Infallibility in these human Creeds or Forms ; but yet verily 
believing, that these Principles are drawn from, and agreeable to, the 
Scripture, which is the Fountain and Standard of Truth. And we more- 
over adhere to the>e in the Calvinistieal, which we take to be the genu- 
ine or natural Sense, hereby declaring our utter dislike of the Pelagian 
and Arminian Principles, vulgarly so-called. 

" In firm Belief of these Doctrines above mentioned, from an earnest 
Desire, tha^ we and ours may receive the Love of them, and with hopes, 
that what we are doing, may be a Means of this Love of the Truth, We 
do now (under a Sense, as we hope of our Unworthiness of the Honor 
and Priviledges of God's Covenant People), in most solemn and chear- 
full Manner give up ourselves and Offspring to God the Father, to the 
Son the Mediator, and the Holy Ghost, the Instructor, Sanctifier, and 
Comforter,*to be henceforth the People and Servants of this God, to be- 
lieve in all his Revelations, to accept of his Method of Reconciliation, to 
obey all his Commands, to w^alk in all his Precepts and Ordinances, and 
to depend upon, and look to Him, to do all for, and work all in us, relat- 
ing to our Salvation, being sensible, that of ourselves* we can do Nothing. 
And it is also our Purpose and Resolution (by Divine Assistance), to dis- 
charge the Duties of Christian Love, and Brotherly Watchfulness to- 
wards each other, to join together in setting up and supporting the publick 
"Worship of God among us, carefully and joyfully to attend upon Christ's 
Sacraments and Institutions, to yield all proper Obedience to him, or 
them, that shall from time to time, in an orderly manner be made Over- 
seers of the Flock, to submit to all the regular Administrations and 



SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 337 

Censures of the Church, and to contribute all that shall be in our Power 
to the Regularity and Peaceubleness of those Administrations. 

" And, respecting Church Discipline, it is our Purpose to adhere to the 
JMethods contained in our excellent Platform, so called, a-^ thinking it a 
Ilule the neai-est to the Scripture, and most probable to promote and 
maintain Purity, Order, and Peace of any. And we earnestly pray, that 
God w(,uld be pleased to smile upon this our Undertaking for his Glory, 
that whilst we subscribe with our Hand to the Lord, and sirname our- 
selves by the Name of Israel, we may through grace given us be Israel- 
ites indeed, in whom there is no Guile, that our Hearts may be right with 
God, and we be steadfast in his Covenant, that we, who are now com- 
bining in a Church of Christ, may by the Purity of our Faith and 
Morals become one of those Golden Candlesticks, among whom the Son 
of God in way of Favour and Protection, will condescend to walk, and 
that every member of it, tiirough imputed Righteousness and imparted 
Gi-ace, may be found hereafter among that happy Multitude, whom the 
glorious Head of the Church, the heavenly Bridegroom, shall present to 
himself a glorious Church, not having Spot, or Wrinkle, or any such 
Thing." 

There is now in use a covenant, which seems, to some extent, to em- 
brace the sentiments of the above. The Confession and Covenant are 
not under separate heads, but are both included in one whole. 

There was an interesting revival in 1830. Thirty-five were admitted 
to the church during that year. 

There was some special attention to religion in 1S34. Seventeen 
were admitted during the year. Ten were admitted in 1837. Eleven 
were admitted in 1839. Nine were received in 1841. Durir-g 1843, 
twenty were admitted. Seventeen were received in 1848. 

There was a precious revival in 1850, and fifty made a profession of 
i-eligion. Eleven were received to the church at one time, Nov. 18o4. 

During the seventeen years of Mr. Walley's ministry, there were 
thirty-four admissions to the church. During the sixty-two years of Dr. 
Dana's ministry, one hundred and thirty-four joined the church. During 
a little more than thirty-six years of Mr. Fitz's ministry, about three 
hundred have been admitted to the church. 

The South Church has existed a little more than one hundred and 
fifteen years. Mr. Walley's ministry continued seventeen years, Dr. 
Dana's sixty -two years, and Mi-. Fitz's, embraces a few months more 
than thirty -six years. [Sept. 1862.] 

43 



338 SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 



LTNEBROOK CHURCH, IPSWICH. 



BY REV. K. DOW. 



Was organized Nov. loth, 1749. 

j\[r. George Leslie was ordained Nov. 15, 1749; dismissed Dee. 10, 
1779. 

Mr. Gilbert Tennant Williams was ordained Aug. 5, 1789 ; dismissed 
April, 1813. 

Rev. Ezekiel Dow, installed Dec. 25, 1860. 

The Creed and Covenant in Rev. Mr. Leslie's day were as follows : 

" We whose nam^s are hei-eto subscribed, apprehending ourselves call- 
ed of God, — for the advancing his Son's kingdom, and the edifying 
of ourselves and posterity, — to combine and embody oui'selves into a 
distinct church and society, being for that end orderly dismissed from 
the churches to which we heretofore belonged, do, as we hope, with some 
measure of seriousness and sincerity, take upon us the following Pro- 
fession and Covenant, viz.: 

" As to matters of Faith, we cordially adhere to the principles of 
religion, — at least, the substance of them, — contained in the " Shorter 
Catechism of the Assembly of Divines," wherewith the New England 
Confession harmonizeth ; not supposing there is any authority, much 
less Infallibility, in these human creeds and forms: Yet verily believ- 
ing that these principles are drawn from, and are agreeable to the Scrip- 
ture, which is the fountain and standard of truth. And we moreover 
adhere to these principles in the Calvinistic Form, which we take to be 
the genuine and natural sense, hereby declaring our utter dislike of the 
Pelagian and Arminian principles, vulgarly so called. 

" In the firm belief of the above-mentioned doctrines, from an earnest 
desire that we and ours may receive the love of them and be saved, and 
in hopes that what we are now doing, may be a means of so great an 
happiness, we do now, — under a sense of our utter unworthiness of the 
Holiness and blessed privileges of God's Covenant people, in the most 
solemn, yet free and cheerful manner, — give up ourselves and offspring 
to God, the Father, to his Son, the Mediator, and the Holy Ghost, the 
Instructor, Sanctifier, and Comforter, and be henceforth the people and 
servants of this God, to believe in all his Revelation, — to accept of his 
method of Reconciliation, — to obey all his commands, and keep all his 
ordinances, to look to and depend upon him for grace in all, — that he 
may work in us, all that relates to our eternal salvation, — feeling that in 
oui'selves we can do nothing. 



SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 339 

" And, also, it is our purpose and resolution — by tlie diviue assist- 
ance — to discharge the duties of Christian love and brotherly watchful- 
ness toward each other, — to train up our children in the nurture and 
admonition of the Lord, commanding them and our households, to keep 
the way of God, — to join in setting up and maintaining the public 
worship of God among us, — truly and joyfully attend upon Christ's 
sacraments and institutions in prayer, obedience, and submission to God, 
respecting them that shall from time to time in an orderly manner be 
made ovei-seers of the flock of God, — submitting to all the regular ad- 
ministrations and censures of the church, contributing all in our power to 
the peacefulness of the ministrations of the gospel of Christ." 

In 1833, this church so far changed its articles of " Faith and Cove- 
nant" as to give them the modern form. It has still a very Biblical 
Creed and Covenant. 

It is impossible to give any thing like a reliable account of the addi- 
tions, &c., to this church previous to 1819 ; nor a very correct statement 
since, till 1861. 

In 1819, this church was reduced, by deaths and otherwise, to two 
females, one of whom was aged and very infirm. In this reduced con- 
dition, it was thought best to ask the advice of the neighboi'ing clergy- 
men. The result was, a day of fasting and prayer was appointed and 
attended. This means of grace was blest. 

Not far from this time, the Rev. Mr. Fuller was employed to supply 
the pulpit. He did so for several years. His ministry, under God, was 
blest to the awakening, and, we trust, to the conversion of some souls.* 
And, although the church consisted at this time of only two members, 
and these were females, yet there was no re-organization of it, but some 
by letter and others by profession were added thereto. 

PERLEY FUND. 

John Perley, Esq., of Georgetown, Mass., gave this church a fund 
of $7,000, which is a perpetual annuity, so long as it continues to be an 
Orthodox Congregational Church. To draw this income annually, the 
church and society is to have a regularly settled minister according to 
the usages of the Orthodox Congregational denomination, and is to sus- 
tain a Sabbath school. 

Mr. Perley died in May, 1860. 

Seasons of revival in this church occurred in connection with the 
labors of Rev. Messrs. D. Fullar, M. Welch, J. W. Shepherd, E. Bur- 
chard, and E. F. Abbott. 



340 SKETCHES OF. CHURCHES. 

FIRST CHURCH IN NEWBURY. 

BY REV. J. R. THURSTON. 

The First Church in Newbury was formt-d in the spring of 1635, as 
soon as tlie townsliip was incorporated. '"At its organization, the people 
of the settlement assembled under the spreading sliade of an oak tree, on 
the banks of Parker River ; and a sermon was preached by Rev. Thomas 
Parker, fi-om Matt. 18: 17. The church was formed on Congregational 
principles, and an " express covenant" adopted. Mr. Parker was then 
chosen pastor, and Mr. Noyes teacbei'. This covenant was in use a con- 
siderable time, until "other doctrine began to be preached." This 
" other doctrine " was adopted by Messrs. Parker, Noyes, and Wood- 
bridge (tlie first three ministers). " The church," says Mr. Noyes, " is 
to be carried, not to carry ; to obey, not to command ; to be subject, not 
to govern." "The elders," says Mr. Woodbridge, "are the rulers of the 
chui-cii, and obedience and subjection to them is the duty of the breth- 
ren." 

This essential departure from Congregational principles was most 
strenuously opposed by a large pai't of tlie church, led by Mr. "Edward 
Woodman. They were determined not to be governed by " the elders." 
The controversy, beginning about 1047, continued until 1G72, when it 
was settled by the county court, favorably to the self-rule of the church. 

Notwithstanding the difficulty, the pastor was highly esteemed as a 
man and a minister, by both parties, who regularly attended public wor- 
ship, and paid his salary. 

As the church records prior to 1074 are not in existence, the original 
covenant is lo.st, and the terms of admission are not known. There is 
evidence, however, that they were lax. The nephew of Mr. Noyes 
•writes of him: " lie was jealous (if not too jealous) of particular church, 
covenants. He held profession of faith and repentance, and subjection to 
the ordinances, to be the rule of admission into church fellowship; and 
that such as show a willingness to repent, and be baptized in the name 
of the Lord Jesus, without known dissimulation, are to be admitted 
thereto." 

Thomas Letchford also writes in 1641 : ■' Of late, some of the churches 
are of opinion that any may be admitted to church fellowship that are 
not extremely ignorant and scandalous ; but this they are not forward to 
pi'actice, except at Newbury." 

The first Covenont on record is dated 1096 (during Mr. Toppan's min- 
istry). Whether it is the old one, or one adopted at the time, is not 
known. It is as followg : 



SKETCHES OF CHUECHK3. 341 

" The Solemn Covenant obligation they lay themselves under that 
enter into full Connnunion, Se])!. 28, 109(5. 

" We doe now, in the Presence of God and this As^^embly, give up 
ourselves unto God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost. 
And doe now professedly Covenant with this One God, Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost, in an Everlasting Covenant never to be broken, that we will 
be for Ilim, serve and obey Him, all our dayes. We doe aJso now give 
up ourselves to this Church of Christ, to walk with them in a due sub- 
mission to, and attendance upon, all orders and ordinances of the Gos- 
pell ; promising that, Ijy the help of the Spirit, our Convex'sation shall be 
agreeable to this our profession (2 Cor. 8 : 5)," 

This was probably used until May 21, 1746 (the year after Dr. Tuck- 
er's settlement), when, ''a confession of faith being read to I he church, 
the church voted their acceptance of it, for the time being, as what should 
be made use of previous to the admission of members to full communion 
in the church." 

As no record was made of this confession, its character is not known. 
We may presume it was substantially the same as that adopted by vote 
of the church Jan. 16, 1786, as Dr. Tucker was still the pastor. The 
only profession of faith in this is that of "a serious and firm belief in 
the Christian Religion as contained in the Sacred Scriptures." The rest 
is a '■'Covenant" much like that first recorded, with this notable differ- 
ence, — there is no mention of the Holy Spirit or the Trinity. 

This " Profession and Covenant" was used until April 15, 1858, when 
it was enlarged by explanations, which included the doctrines of the in- 
spiration of the Scriptures, man's fall, the Trinity, regeneration by the 
Spirit, the atonement, the sacraments, and future punishment. 

There was also, tor many years, a " Half-AVay Covenant " in use, 
which was assented to by non-communicants who wished to have their 
children baptized. It is not known when it was introduced. It was 
used until the settlement of the present senior pastor. 

In 1714, the church voted "that each member, on his or her admis- 
sion to the church, should not be required to give a written relation of 
his or her experience, as had previously been the case, but should be 
left at their liberty in that matter." Where the custom referred to origi- 
nated is not known. 

Five meeting-houses have been built in Newbury first parish. The 
first was built on the Lower Green in 1035. The second, built in 1646, 
and the third, built in 1000, stood a few yards north of the present one. 
The fourth, built in 1700, stood on the site of the present one. The 
one now standing was built in 1806. 

In the first three, there were no pews, — the floor and the galleries 



312 SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 

being filled with "seats," which were marked out, and a " seat" assigned 
to each person in the parish, by a committee chosen by the town " to seat 
the meeting-house." The assignment was made with reference to office, 
age, rank, and estate. The deacons' seats were before the pulpit, and 
aged persons were seated in front of them. The sexes were separated. 
The children were kept in order by tithingmen, who were also expected 
to see that all the members of the ten families under their care attended 
public worship, and did not break the Sabbath. 

As might be supposed, the assignment of seats often caused much dif- 
ficulty, as many were dissatisfied with the seats assigned them. They 
were liable to a fine from the county court if they took others. 

In 1700, the town voted "that the new meeting-house be composed 
with seats, as the old one was, except ten feet on three sides for pews 
and alleys." That year, a pew was built for the ministei-'s family near 
the pulpit ; and permission was granted to twenty persons to build pews 
on the lower floor for themselves and families, and " that Daniel Pierce 
shall have the first choice for a pew, and Major Thomas Noyes the 
next." 

After the difficulty regarding church polity, there was quiet until the 
settlement of Dr. Tucker, 1742. At that time, a large portion of the 
church, not agreeing with Mr. Tucker, who was an Armininian in belief, 
left the church and society. Nineteen of these soon (174G) united, and 
joined what is now the Federal Street Church in Newburyport. These 
persons, being yet within the limits of the parish, were obliged by law to 
contribute, in their taxes, to the parish expenses, the isame as before. 
This caused much difficulty, which continued for many years. The two 
parties — " The New Lights " and " The Legalists " — sent petitions 
and counter-petitions to the General Court for relief, — the first praying 
for " liberty to support the publick worship where they please, and not 
be taxed elsewhere ; " the latter opposing the grant of the privilege 
most strenuously. In 1770, partial relief was obtained ; and, in 1780, 
the new State Constitution secured perfect liberty. 

Originally the parish was coextensive with the town, which included 
what are now Newburyport and West Newbury. Thefirst division was 
in 1698, when "a church was gathered in the west precinct," and the 
parish divided. The next colony was the Newbury part of the Byfield 
parish which was set off in 1706. In 1722, still another parish was 
formed from a portion of the first, i. e. what is now the first in Newbury- 
port. These divisions were not made without opposition ; but none were 
opposed as the withdraAval in 1742, for in these there was an evident ter- 
ritorial necessity. 

The numbers in the church at different times has varied very much, 



SKETOHKS OF CHURCHES. 343 

from more than three hundred (about 1700 to 1725) to twenty-three, at 
the settlement of the present senior pastor. 

The following table will show the additions ■ in the several pastorates, 
as accurately as the loss of the first, and the imperfection of subsequent, 
records will permit : 

Members in 1674 207 

" previous to 16 74, not included in this list 14 

" added under Rev. John Richardson, 1675-96 (21 years) . . 104 

" " " " Christopher Toppan, 1696-1745 (49 years) . 581 

" " " " John Tucker, 1745-92 (4 7 years) . ... 67 

" " " " Abraham Moore, 1796-1801 (5 years) . . 8 

" " " " John S. Pbpkin, 1804-15 (11 years) . . . 19 

" " " " Leonard Withington, 1816-62 (46 years) . 368 

Total membershiji 1,368 

The periods of revival, as indicated by the largest additions, were 
1G97, 1718-20, 1725-28, 1831, 1834, and 1858. 

The following is a list of its pastors : 

Rev. Thomas Parker, chosen pastor 1G35 ; died April 24, 1677. 

Rev. James Noyes, chosen teacher 1G35 ; died Oct. 22, 1656. 

Rev. John Woodbridge, began to assist Mr. Parker 1663; resigned 
1 673. 

Rev. John Richardson, ordained Oct. 20, 1675 ; died April 27, 1696. 

Rev. Christopher Toppan, ordained Sept. 9, 1696 ; died July 23, 1747. 

Rev. John Tucker, ordained Nov. 20, 1745; died March 22, 1792. 

Rev. Abraham Moore, ordained March 23, 1796; died June 24, 1801. 

Rev. John S. Popkin, installed Sept. 19, 1804; dismissed Oct. 5, 1815. 

Rev. Leonard Withington, ordained Oct. 31, 1816. 

Rev. John R. Thurston, ordained Jan. 20, 1859. 

The Rev. Thomas Parker, with his cousin Noyes and nephew Wood- 
bridge, came, with a part of their people, from Wiltshire, England. 

Mr. Parker was the only son of Rev. Robert Parker; was born in 
1595 ; studied at Oxford ; settled in Newbuiy 1635 ; and died April 24, 
1677, in his eighty-second year. '' He was considered one of the first 
scholars and divines of the age." lie taught school in Newbury, Eng- 
land, and in Newbury, Mass., " where," says Cotton Mather, " by the 
holiness, the /mmbleness, the charity of his life, he gave his people a per- 
petual and most lively commentary on his doctrine. He was," says Mr- 
Mather, " a person of most extensive cliarity, which grain of his temper 
might conti'ibute unto that largeness in his principles about cliurch gov- 
ernment which exposed liim unto many tem-ptations amongst his neigh- 
bors who were not so principled." As he was never married, he lived 
with his cousin Noyes. 

The Rev. James Noyes. teacher of the chui'ch in Newbury, was the 



3-14 SKETCHES Of CHl'KCHES. 

son of the Rev. Mr. Noyet;, of Choulderton. Eiiirland ; was born in 1008 : 
studied at Oxford; was chosen teacher of the church in Newbury 163o, 
where he died in 1656, Oct. 22, in his forty-eijj^hth j'-ear. 

" He was," says INIr. Parker. *' a man of singular qualifications, — iu 
piety excelling, an implacable enemy to all heresie and schism, and most 
able Warner aaainst the same. lie was of a reaching and ready inven- 
tion, a most prol'ouiid judgment, a rare and tenacious and most compre- 
hensive memory ; fixed and iuunovable in his general conceptions ; sure 
in wonls and speecii, without raslmess ; gentle and mild in ail his expres- 
sions, without passion or provoking language." " In his catechi>m to 
children," says Dr. Popkin, " he has left the proof of a clear and com- 
prehensive mind." 

Tlie Rev. John Woodbridge was the son of Rev. John Wooilbridge, of 
Staunton, Englimd ; was born in 1613; was ordained in 1644, the first 
minister of Andover, Mass. In 1647, he returned to Andover, England, 
where he preached till 1663. He then came to Newbury, Mass., where 
he assisted his uncle Parker for ten years. lie was subsequently chosen 
magistrate, and continued to nv-ide in Newbury until his death, March 
17, 1695. 

The Rev. John Richardson was born (probably in Boston) in 1646; 
studied at Harvard; settled in Newbury Oct. 20, 1675; died July 23, 
16t»l'.. 

Tlie Rev. Christopher Toppan was born in Newbury Dec. 25, 1675 ; 
studied at Harvard ; settled Sept. 9, 1696; and died July 23, 1747, after 
a very long and successful pastorate of forty-nine years. He was a man 
of talents, energy, and decision of character. In the language of Dr. 
Popkin, "he magnified his office" with great acceptance and success. 

The Rev. John Tucker was born in Amesbury Sept. 20, 17 19; stud- 
ied at Plarvard; settled Nov. 20, 1745; and died March 22, 1792, in 
his seventy-second year. " He was," says Dr. Popkin. •• a man of a 
strong, sound, wtdl-furiushed mind, of peculiar ingenuity and power of 
argumentation, of a i)ious, meek, and kindly spirit. He was habitually 
very meek and placid, and met the peculiar ditficulties of his situation 
with firmness and >trength of mind." 

The Rev. Abraham ^Moore was born in Londonderry, N. II., Sept. 8, 
1768 J studied at Dartmouth; settled in Newbury ]March 23, 1796; and 
died June 24, 1801, in his thirty-third year. In the language of Dr. 
Popkin, " he was a very serious, meek, prudent, pious, and faithful min- 
ister, reserved in conversation, but of a fruitful mind in the work of the 
ministry. He was certainly a man of genius as well as goodness." 

The Rev, John S. Popkin was born in Boston June 19, 1771 ; studied 
at Harvard; settled in Newbury Sept. 9, 1S04. Having been chosen 



.SKinCHKS OF CHL'KfUKS. 345 

prof'essoi- of Greek in Cambridge University, he was disnii.ssed from his 
pastoral charge Oct. 5, 1815. He died in Cambridge March 2, 1852, in 
his ciglity-first year. 

" lie had," says Judge White, " the reputation of being the first scholar, 
not only of his own class, but of ail the Harvard graduates since the 
Revolution. I have never met with a nobler combination of pure prin- 
ciples, pure feelings, pure benevolence, pure motives, with true piety, 
virtue, and learning, than I have found in him." 

The Rev. Leonard Withington, the present senior pastor, was born in 
Dorchester Aug. 9, 1789; studied at Yale and Andover ; settled in 
Newbury Oct. 31, 1816. 

The Rev. John R. Thurston, the present junior pastor, was born in 
Bangor, Me., Sept. 4, 1831 ; studied at Yale and Bangor ; settled in 
Newbury Jan. 20, 1859. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE CHURCH IN BYFIELD. 

BY REV. CHARLES BROOKS. 

Materials for writing scanty. 'Tiie church records to 1744, and parish 
records to 1760, lost. The parish, somewhat irregular in territory, ex- 
tends about two miles each way from the church, in what was originally 
Rowley and Newbury. In April, 1838, a part of Rowley became 
Georgetown, the dividing line running directly through the church. 

Record of occu{)ancy in 1702. Place originally used for grazing. 
First names " Quascacunquen " {Falls). " The Falls." " Rowl-bury " 
(Rowley and Newbury). First meeting-house built 1702 (near present 
site). Citizens released from obligation to support gospel elsewhere. 
Parishioners met in parsonage 1704, Feb. 24, O. S., agreed to call the 
parish " Byfield " in honor of Hon. Nathaniel Bylield of Boston, for 
which honor he gave them, 1710, a bell (225 lbs.). Incorporated 1710. 
His portrait given to the parish by a descendant 1835. First meeting- 
house torn down (tradition); new one built 1746 (56X45 feet), high 
square pews, high pulpit, sound-board ; seats for poor people and old 
persons on each side of the pulpit ; a pew in each front corner of 
the gallery for servants. Bell given by Ebenezer Parsons, Esq. (885 
lbs.), was put in the place of the Bylield bell 1817. Meeting-house 
burned Friday night, March 1, 1833 ; cause, carelessness. In May fol- 
lowing, S. W. corner-stone laid for present building.. Address by Nehe- 
miah Cleaveland. Dedicated Nov. 7, same year, sermon by Rev. J. P. 
Cleaveland. New bell by the parish (1,000 lbs.). 

44 



346 SKKTCHKS OF CHUUCHK?. 

FunJs. — 1. Of the Rowley side, — legacy of Rev. Ezekiel Rogers, 
April 14, 1660, divided "pro rata," between first parish in Rowley, 
Georgetown, and Byfield in Rowley. No advantage to Byfield, until 1734. 
(Value nearly double that of the Newbury side.) Imprudently invested 
and lost. 2. Of the Newbury side, — a "Wood Lot, granted by the pro- 
prietors of Newbury, for the use of the ministry, to the inhabitants of 
Newbury, Byfield," 1730. Some difficulty having arisen about it, the 
Newbury side obtained from Rev. Dr. Parish, April 11, 1788, a quit- 
claim. This fund now pays about $150 towards the salary. Parson- 
age built for the first pastor. 3. Fund of the church. Legacies of 
Matthew Duty, died June 2, 1756, and Ruth Duty Pearson. Will dated 
April 28, 1819. About $200 for the poor of the church. 

Church. — Organized not later than Nov. 17, 1706. 

First pastor. Rev. Moses Hale, ordained Nov. 17, 1706. Preached 
about three years before. Successful ministry. 736 baptisms. Church 
had one hundred and fifty members at his death, January, 1743. Faith- 
ful in admonition. Some opposition. Mr. Hale assisted in organizing 
the church in Georgetown 1732, then New Rowley. The church in 
Byfield, with two individuals, gave them a communion service. Others 
gave them money. Mr. Hale gave his daughter, the wife of their first 
pastor. In 1735-36, fatal epidemic, "throat distemper," one hundred 
and four persons, mostly children, died in one year. Four of one family 
in one grave. 

Second pastor. Rev. Moses Parsons, Feb. 23, 1743. Church had a fast 
day on account of the death their pastor, and for direction in seeking 
another. Mr. Parsons was invited to this position April 13, 1744, or- 
dained 20th June following, died Dec. 14, 1783. Mr. P. baptized 724 
persons, forty-seven were added to the church. Of the 430 deaths, 
consumption the most frequent cause. 

Committee chosen " to tarry at the meeting-house to read for the edi- 
fication of such as tarry at noon." First introduction of choir singing, 
1774 Mr. Parsons not cordially received by all the church. Several 
" absented themselves " from communion. Church resorted to discipline. 
Offending members generally reclaimed. Confessions were made by 
about forty members, of improper conduct. Church members not allow- 
ed to commune with the "disorderly." 

The disaifected members alleged that the pastor was opposed to Mr. 
Whitfield, which was almost equivalent, in their view, to being opposed 
to the work of God.. They were dissatisfied with the church for sustain- 
ing their pastor, and for not receiving the confession of an erring mem- 
ber, which the church did not consider ingenuous. These objections 



SKKTCHES OF CHURCHES. 347 

were ' satisfactorily answered by a committee, of" wliich the pastor was 
chairman. Too much reason to suppose that Mr. Whitfield was not 
always right. Not certain that Mr. W. did not come to Byfield. Cove- 
nant frequently read. Days o^ fasting and prayer frequent, as when 
the " pastor died." •" Religion " was " low." Some "• prevailing disease," 
or, some '' public calamity." The country in the time of royal oppress- 
ion was not forgotten by the church. ^ 

Dea. Colman's difficulty.^ The pastor was the owner of three slaves. 
Dea. C. was much offended with his minister for " so gross a violation 
of the divine laws," and brought three accusations (Dec. 21, 1780) 
against him, each of which was rejected by the chui'ch. Mr. P. is be- 
lieved to have given his slaves their freedom some time before Dea. C. 
had become aroused to such a pitch of excitement. Mr. P., being sus- 
tained by the church, almost, as if in retaliation, arraigned Dea. C. for 
his imprudent zeal, and procured his degradation from office, and his 
suspension from the church. Dea. C asked for a council for nearly five 
years, before his request was granted. He was humbled, made confes- 
sion, and restored Oct. 26, 1785. 

Mr. Parsons was a man of exact character, — dignified, judicious, 
prudent, firm, cheerful. His penmanship is beautiful and characteristic. 
In his day game was plenty, and often on his table. 

He preached the Election Sermon in 1772, in which he was severe 
upon the British government. He was not an eminently spiritual man, 
and so did not infuse that element into the church. He was, as Dr. 
Emmons says, " Calvinisticalish " only, in his religious opinions. 

His wife was a lineal descendant of John Robinson of Leyden, and 
strongly Arminian in her religious sentiments. She was more than 
commonly positive in her opinions, energetic in duty, and fond of literary 
pursuits. Her son, Theophilus, always attributed his love of books and 
his success in his profession to his mother. 

Third pastor. Rev. Elijah Parish, D. D. Four years intervened be- 
tween the death of Rev. Moses Parsons, and the settlement of Dr. Elijah 
Parish, in which one or two persons were invited to settle with the 
parish, but declined. Mr. P. was called Aug. 16, 1787; ordained Dec. 
20th following; died Oct. 15, 1825. 

During his ministry of more than thirty-eight years, there were added 
to the church one hundred and thirty -eight members ; being the results 
mostly of three seasons of revival in 1788, 1789, and 1820. Two mem- 
bers of the parish recorded their votes against inviting the candidate to 
settle. The council met for his ordination on the 19th of December, but 



1 Vide Coffin's History of Newbury. 



348 SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 

they did not conclude to proceed with the ordination until the evening 
of the next day. The chief difficulty was a difference of opinion in the 
council in regard to Hopkinsianism. Dr. Parish's theology bore this 
shade, and it became an apple of discord. The contention went from 
the council to the church. Several withdrew " after waiting eight long 
years," and formed a Presbyterian Society under a grant from the 
General Court, Jan. 1, 1796. Thej built a meeting-house about a mile 
northward from the present meeting-house. Rev. Mr. Sleigh was their 
first and only minister. He began to preach for them about 1794, but 
the people, after all, preferred to listen to the eloquence of the young 
and ardent preacher in the old church. In 1804, the society obtained 
permission of the General Court to sell the house of worship. The 
next year, Dea. Colman bought and moved it to its present location. 
For many years a young ladies' school was kept in it. Mary Lyon, 
Harriet Newell, and other women of note, among its pupils. Thus in 
ten years the only Presbyterian church in Byfield had its morning, noon, 
and eventide. Its members returned to the mother church. Clouds 
lowered around the commencement of Dr. Parish's ministry — "but 
when he died there was not a more united parish in the State." Dr. P. 
preached the Election Sermon in 1810, and the Annual Sermon, before 
the Convention of Congregational Ministei's in Boston, in 1821. He 
was also the preacher on various other public occasions. Quotations 
from his discourses are found in the speech of the Hon. Robert Y. 
Hayne of South Carolina, in the U. S. Senate, on Nullification, to which 
the Hon. Daniel Webster made his famous reply. 

Dr. Parish was a man of decision, perseverance, and ripe scholarship, 
a man of public spirit and eloquence, of deep and growing piety. 

LIST OF DR. parish's PUBLICATIONS. 

1. A Compendious History of New England, 1809. 

2. A Geography. 

3. Several Sermons and Discourses in Pamphlet. 

4. A volume of " Sermons, Practical and Doctrinal, with Biographical 
Sketch of the Author." (Posthumous.) 

Fourth pastor, Rev. Isaac R. Barbour. The usual '■^fast " was ob- 
served by the church on the death of their former pastor, appointed now 
for the 4th Novembei*. In 1826, Aug. 17, Rev. Jonathan Bigelow was 
invited to settle over this church. He accepted, but for reasons which 
do not now appear on the records, the council came to the conclusion 
" that under the circumstances, it is not expedient to proceed to the in- 
stallation of Rev. J. Bigelow as pastor of this church." 

In Feb., 1827, Mr. Paul Couch, Jr., refused to accept a "call" from 



SKETCHES or CHURCHES. 349 

this church and society. In April following, Mr. Edwin Holt refused a 
call. Then the church observed a. fast. 

Rev. J. R. Barbour received his call to settle here Oct. 12, 1827. He 
accepted. Installed Dec. 20, 1827; resigned March 26, 1833, to take 
effect May 1st following. During his pastorate there were added to the 
church eighty by profession and eleven by letter. About twenty-five 
children were baptized. The church manifested an interest in the forma- 
tion of Essex North Conference of Churches. They helped to build 
churches for feeble societies, long before the Congregational Union was 
formed. Mr. B. did a good work in the Temperance cause. There was 
some difficulty with a member guilty of " trafficking in distilled spirits," 
" which, in the estimation of this church, is inconsistent with Christian 
character." 

March 1st, 1833. The church edifice was burned with the '' Bible and 
Psalm Book." But the society had previously (Jan. 14, 1833) concluded 
to " build a new church " and "sell the old one at auction." 

Fifth pastor, Rev. Henry Durant. The present " church " was dedi- 
cated Nov. 7, 1833. Mr. Henry Durant received a "call" to this 
pastorate Oct. 26, accepted Nov. 22, ordained Dec. 25, 1833. Seldom 
is so much crowded into nine months of church history ! Meeting-house 
burnt, pastor dismissed. New church built, and new pastor settled. 
During Mr. D.'s ministry, seventy-five members were added to the 
church. Several cases of discipline were well managed. About the 
middle of April, 1847, he accepted an invitation to take charge of Dum- 
mer Academy. Offered his resignation Sept. 15th following. It was 
reluctantly accepted. Two councils were called before his dismission 
was granted in March 31, 1849. In 1841 the church were of opinion 
that agents of benevolent societies might very safely be dispensed with. 
Two years later they chose a committee of six to visit every family in 
the parish, and supply the destitute with Bibles. This was immediately 
attended to. 

Sixth pastor. Rev. Fraiicis V. Tenney. Rev. Mr. T. received a " call " 
to the ministry of this church, Dec. 8, 1849. He was installed March 7, 
1850, resigned March 22, 1857. Dismissed by council April 22, 1857. 
He received to the membership of the church, forty-two. Twenty -six 
children were baptized July 6, 1856. 

Seventh pastor. Rev. Charles Brooks. A few months after Rev. Mr. 
Tenney left, Mr. Fred. Alvord was engaged to preach for a while — but, 
at last, refused a " call " to settle. Mr. B. pi-eached first, on the last 
Sabbath of Feb., 1858. Unmistakable signs of religious interest in the 
evening. By the second time, the last Sabbath in March, the work of 
Divine grace appeared to have progressed and deepened wonderfully. 



3^0 .SKETCHES OF CHUKCHE.i. 

From that time it went on like a deep river. Between .seventy and 
eighty expressed a Iiope in Jesus, but some have " withered " away. 
Over sixty have united with the church. The church itself never seem- 
ed thoroughly conscious of what God was doing in that revival. 

Mr. B. became pastor by ordination, &c., June 16, I808. On the 
same day "a valuable pulpit Bible" was given to the church by S. W. 
Stickney, E.sq., of Jjowell. And a little later two hymn-books (Church 
Psalmody) were given by Mr. Henry D. Noyes of Boston. 



BELLEVILLK CONGREGATKjNAL CHURCH, NEWBURYPORT. 

BV KKV. D. T. FIHKE. 

This church was organized (probably) on tin; second day of April, 
1808. It has had three settled ministers, viz. : 

Rev. James Miltimore, installed April 27, 1808; died March 21^, 1836. 

Rev. John C. March, ordained March 1, 1832; died Sept. 26, 1846. 

Rev. Daniel T. Fiske, ordained Aug. 18, 1847. 

There is a little uncertainty as to the precise day on which the cliurch 
was organized. The following statement in the handwriting of the first 
pastor, appears on the first leaf of the book of records. "In the months 
of March and April, in the year of our Lord 1808, a number of indi- 
viduals belonging to tin; fourth parish in Newbury, met once and again 
for the purpose of collecting and organizing a church of our Lord Jesus 
Christ. After repeated and solemn consideration, conference, and prayer, 
they formed themselves into a Christian church by explicitly renewing 
the dedication of themselves to (iod in the engagements of a church 
stale by <;xj»iessly covenanting with one another, for an obedience to the 
Lord in the orrlinances of the gospel, and delil;erat<;ly subscribing with 
their hands to the terms of a covenant in which they agreed to unite." 
This statenjent implies that the organization was not effected till some 
time in April. But the records show that on the second day of April, 
the church, in its organized capacity, transacted business, and extended 
a call to Rev Mr. Miltimore to become its pastor. It must, then, have 
been formed either on the first or second day of April, probably the 
latter. 

The above statement implies, also, that the church was strictly self- 
organized. It says "a number of individuals " ^'formed themselves into 
a Christian church ; " but makes no allusion to a council ; and no evi- 
dence can be found that the a»id of a council was had, or desired. The 
reason for this departure from the Congregational usages of that day is 
unknown. 



.SKiyronKS ok churohks, 351 

The " Covenant" which was subsenbed by the original members, in- 
chided both a Confession of Faith and a Covenant, and is still retained 
by the church unchanged. It is as follows : 

CONFESSION OK FAITH. 

Articlk 1. We believe in the one living and true God, the Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost. 

Art. 2. We believe that in the beginning God made man innocent 
and happy, adorned him with his own image, and appointed him to im- 
mortality. 

Art. 3. We believe that man has fallen from that pure and happy 
state in which God at first created him — fallen into a state of sin and 
ruin, out of which no finite power can deliver him. 

Art. 4. We believe that Almighty God, looking down from heaven 
with eyes overflowing with mercy, and beholding man in his stale of sin, 
degradation, and ruin, pitied his misei'y, and devised a scheme for his 
recovery and restoration. 

Art. 5. We believe that Jesus Christ, the Son of God, became man, 
and that, as the only Mediator of the new covenant, he is Prophet, Priest, 
and King of his church and people, to bring them to eternal life, and 
blessedness, and glory. 

Art. 6. We believe that the Lord Jesus Christ, as the Prophet of 
the world, reveals, by his word and spirit, the perfections and will of 
God to men; as the Priest of the world, he offered uj) himself a sacrifice 
for sin, and is now interceding for his people at the right hand of the 
Majfisty on high ; and as the King of the world, he subdues a j)eople for 
hinis(;lf — reigning in and over them — restraining and conquering all 
his and their enemies. 

Art. 7. We believe that the redeemed of the Lord partake of the 
redemption which Jesus Christ hath purchased by the effectual applica- 
tion thereof to them by his Holy Spirit, convincing and humbling them 
to a despair of he][)ing themselves, and revealing Christ as an all-suffi- 
cient Saviour, enabling them to embrace him as offered in the gospel. 

Art. 8. We believe that men are justified and accepted as righteous 
in the sight of God, only and wholly through the perfect righteousness 
of Chnst, received by faith alone, which faith is not of ourselves, it is 
the gift of God. 

Art. 9. We believe that a sincere love to God and a holy life of sin- 
cere obedience to the revealed will of God, are certain and necessary 
fruits of a true and saving faith. 

Art. 10. We believe that the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New 
TestamentK are a complete rule of faith and life to every Christian. 



3o2 SKETCHES OF CIILKljHES. 

Akt. 11. We believe that Baptism with water, and the Lord's Sup- 
per, are ordinances instituted by our Lord Jesus Christ to be observed 
in his church. 

Art. 12. We believe that God has appointed a day in which he will 
judge the world in righteousness by that man whom he hath ordained, 
whereof" he hath given assurance unto all men, in that he hath raised 
him from the dead. 

Art. 13. We believe, in fine, that at the time -appointed, the dead 
will be raised up, and all that ever lived upon the earth will appear at 
the tribunal of the enthroned Judge ; the books will be opened, the sen- 
tence will be pronounced, will be executed, when the wicked will be 
driven away in their wickedness ; and the righteous, crowned with glory 
and adorned with immortality, ascending with their Lord, will approach 
to the fountain of life, and partake of those pleasures at the right hand 
of God, which will occupy and animate the praises of eternity. 

(COVENANT. 

And now, having, as we trust and hope, sincerely and repeatedly 
given ourselves up to the Lord Jesus Christ, in an everlasting covenant, 
to be guided, governed, and saved by him, — we do this day renew the 
dedication of ourselves to him, and covenant with one another in manner 
following : 

We do solemnly and sincerely give up ourselves to the Lord Jehovah, 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, and avouch him this day to be our 
Father, our Saviour, Redeemer, and Leader, and receive him as our 
portion forever. 

We give up ourselves to the ever-blessed Jesus, who has ransomed 
souls by his own blood, and adhere to Him as the Head of his church 
and people, in the covenant of grace, and rely on him as our Prophet, 
Priest, and King to bring us to eternal blessedness. 

We give up ourselves to the Holy Spirit, who is the author of all 
good in the hearts of men, and rely on Him to sanctify us more and 
more, and to lead us into all truth. 

We esteem it our honor and happiness to glorify God, and to be 
devoted to him, and acknowledge our obligations to deny all ungodliness 
and wordly lusts, and to live soberly, righteously, and godly in this pres- 
ent world, particularly in the duties of the church state, as a body of 
people assembled for an obedience to the Lord in all the ordinances of 
the gospel. 

Conscious of our insufficiency for the faithful discharge of the duties 
incumbent on us, we desire and covenant, with dependence on that 
eifectual assistance which God has graciously promised, to walk together 



SKETCHKS OF CHUKCHKS. 353 

a.s a church of the Lord Jesus Christ, in the faith and order of the 
gospel, so fnr as the same shall be revealed unto us ; conscientiously 
attending to the public worship, the sacraments of the New Testament, 
the discipline of Christ's kingdom, and all his holy institutions, in com- 
munion with one another, while our opportunities to be edified together 
continue, and watchfully avoiding all sinful stumbling-blocks and con- 
tentions, as becomes a people whom the Lord hath l)ound up in the 
bundle of life. 

At the same time, and in tender reliance on the same gracious aids, 
we do also present our offspring unto the Lord, purposing by his help to 
do our part in the methods of religious education, that they may be the 
Loi'd's. 

And all this we do, flying to the blood of the everlasting Covenant 
for the pardon of our many errors, and praying that the glorious Lord, 
who is the great Shephei'd, would prepare and strengthen us, for every 
good word and work to do his will, working in us that which is well 
pleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ, to whom be glory. Amen. 

The original members were nine in number, four males and five 
females ; three of them bearing the name of Little, and six the name 
of Atkinson. Only one of them — a female — had previously been con- 
nected with any church. 

The whole number of admissions to the church during the active 
ministry of Mr. Miltimore, was one hundred and ten, exclusive of the 
original members. The whole number of admissions during Mr. March's 
ministry was one hundred and fifty-five. Since the death of Mr. March, 
there have been one hundred and sixty-eight admissions. The present 
number of members is two hundred and twenty -three. 

From the beginning this church has been harmonious and prosperous. 
No serious internal dissensions have marred its history. In but few 
instances has it been called to exercise the power of ecclesiastical disci- 
pline. The aid of councils has been required only in the settlement of 
pastors. 

The religious society, or parish, connected with this church, is the 
same that was once connected with the Fifth Church in Newbury ; and 
was incorporated April 17, 176L 

The first meeting-house was dedicated Nov. 24, 1807, and was de- 
stroyed by lightning April 1, 1816. The present house was dedicated 
Nov. 7, 1816, and was remodelled internally, in 1860. 

From 1,200 to 1,800 dollars are annually contributed by this chuixh 
and society to benevolent objects. 

45 



354 ilvETCHF!* OK rULROHKS. 



FOURTH CHURCH, NEWBURYPORT. 

BY RKA-. R. CAMPBELL. 

Organized May 30. 1793. Pastors: Rev. Charles M. Milton, in- 
stalled March 20. 1794; dismissed March 1, 1837. Rev. Randolph 
Campbell, installed Oct. 12, 1837. 

The following Articles of Faith and Covenant were adopted at first, 
and still continue in use : 

ARTICLES OF FAITH. 

We, the members of the Fdtirth Church in Newbux'yport, having 
adopted the Westminster Confession of Faith, as a correct summary of 
our views of religious truth, accept the following abstract of the said 
Confession : 

We believe — 

1. That the sacred Scriptures are inspired, and are the only infallible 
rule of faith and practice. 

2. That there is but one God, infinite in being and perfections. 

3. That in the unity of the Godhead there are three persons, of one 
substance, power, and eternity, — God the Father, God the Son, and 
God the Holy Ghost. 

4. That God, from all eternity, did, by the most wise and holy coun- 
sel of his own will, predetermine whatsoever comes to pass ; but in no 
such sense as to become the author of sin, or as to do violence to the 
will of his creatures. 

5. That all who are saved were chosen in Christ before the foundation 
of the world, that they might be holy, and not because of their holiness. 

6. That the corruption and death in sin of our first parents, conse- 
quent upon the fall, was conveyed to all their posterity by ordinary gen- 
eration ; all of whom, being involved in the guilt of his disobedience, are 
therefore under the curse of the law, and so made subject to death, with 
all its miseries, spiritual, temporal, and eternal. 

7. That God, in the covenant of grace, offereth freely unto sinners 
life and salvation by Jesus Christ ; and that, in order to this, they must 
believe with the heart unto righteousness. 

8. That the Lord Jesus became incarnate, and, by his perfect obedi- 
ence and death, purchased reconciliation and an everlasting inheritance 
in the kingdom of heaven for all given him of the Father. 

9. That man, by the fall, hath lost all disposition to any thing spiritu- 
ally^good, and is naturally prone to sin. 



SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 35o 

10. That Justification is entirely of free grace, and is conferred upon 
all who believe, on the ground of Christ's obedience and satisfaction to 
law in their stead. 

11. That Sanctitication is throughout in the whole man, though imper- 
fect in this life. 

12. That Faith and Repentance are the work of the Spirit upon the 
heart, and that good works are the fruits and evidences of a true living 
faith. 

13. That those who are renewed and sanctified will certainly perse- 
vere unto the end, and be eternally saved. 

14. That all are bound to obey the Moral Law, and that believers are 
to obey it as a rule, and not conditioti, of life. 

15. That there are but two sacraments instituted by Christ in the gos- 
pel, — Baptism and the Lord's Supper, which are to be dispensed only 
by the ministry, 

16. That immersion is not necessary to a valid baptism, but that it 
may be administered by pouring or sprinkling. 

17. That the bodies of men after death return to dust; and that the 
souls of the wicked enter immediately into a state of suffering, and the 
righteous, of blessedness. 

18. That the bodies of all will be raised in the Resurrection, and, 
united to their spirits, shall appear before the judgment-seat of Christ at 
the end of the world, when the righteous shall be received into heaven, 
and the wicked go away into everlasting punishment. 

COVEN ANT. 

We whose names are hereafter written, apprehending ourselves called 
of God into the church state of the gospel, do first confess ourselves un- 
worthy to be so highly favored of the Lord, and admire that free rich 
grace of his that triumphs over such unworthiness ; and then, with a 
sense of inability to do any good thing, and an humble reliance on the 
aids of promised grace, do humbly wait on him for all. 

We now thankfully lay hold of his covenant, and would choose the 
things that please him. 

We declare our belief of the Christian religion as contained in the 
sacred Scriptures, and with such view thereof as the Westminster Con- 
fession of Faith has exhibited, — heartily resolving to conform ourselves 
unto the rules of that holy religion as long as we live in the world. 

We give up ourselves unto the Lord Jehovah, who is the Father, Son, 
and Spirit, and choose him this day to be our Leader, and receive bira as 
our portion forever. 



356 SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 

We give up ourselves unto the blessed Jesus, who is the Lord Jeho- 
vah, and adhere to him as the Head of his people in the covenant of" 
grace ; and rely on him, as our Priest, Prophet, and King, to bring us 
unto eternal glory. 

We give up ourselves to the Holy Ghost, in order to our further ad- 
vancement in sanctification and consolation. 

We acknowledge our everlasting and indispensable obligations to glo- 
rify God in all the duties of a godly life. 

We desire and intend, and with dependence on his promised and pow- 
erful grace engage, to walk together as a church of Christ in the faith 
and order of the gospel, as far as the same shall be revealed to us ; con- 
scientiously attending to the public worship of God, the sacraments of 
the New Testament, and the discipline of the kingdom, in communion 
with one another ; watchfully avoiding all sinful stumbling-blocks and 
contention, as become a people whom the Lord hath bound up in the 
bundle of life. At the same time, we do also present our offspring with 
us to the Lord, purposing, with his help, to do our part in the method of 
a Religious Education, that they may be the Lord's. 

And all this we do trusting in the blood of the everlasting covenant 
for the 23ardon of our many errors, and praying that the glorious Lord, 
who is the great Shepherd, would prepare and strengthen us for every 
good work, to do his will, working in us that which is well pleasing to 
him, to whom be glory forever and ever. Amen. 

The First Presbyterian Church in Newburyport, from which the 
Fourth or Prospect Street Church originated, was, at the time of the 
event, under the pastoral care of Rev. Mr. Murray. 

This distinguished servant of Christ, being favored with encouraging 
tokens of the presence of the Spirit, and being desirous to obtain suitable 
help, in concurrence with the wishes of his people, extended an urgent 
invitation to Rev. Charles Milton, then acting as a missionary in New 
Brunswick, to visit Newburyport. 

In a letter dated April 12, 1789, Mr. Murray refers to the success, 
which, as he had been informed, had attended Mr. Milton's labors since 
bis arrival in N. B., and among other things, he adds — "' Who can tell 
what might be the consequence, if you should be moved of the Holy 
Ghost to come over and help us." 

Mr. Murray wrote Mr. Milton again, July 29, 1791, immediately after 
his arrival in Boston, testifying to his hearty concurrence with the long- 
ing of members of his charge to bid him welcome to Newburyport. 

Upon coming to this place, at the suggestion of the pastor, Mr. Milton 
was employed as his assistant during the ensuing winter. His engage- 



.SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 357 

nient expiring, a portion of the congregation, who had become greatly 
interested in his ministrations, were unwilling to part with him. In 
order to accomplisl^ their wishes, as he had already received an invita- 
tion to settle in Amesbury, they withdrew from their existing church 
relations, and retained liim for themselves. Their withdrawment was 
regarded as irregular, and censure was inflicted. They were suspended. 
Believing, as they did, that this act was unrighteous and a violation of 
their Christian liberty, they were not thus to be restrained from the 
accomplishment of their purpose. They provided themselves with ac- 
commodations for religious purposes in the house now owned by Deacon 
Morse in Milk Street. Here for' a year and more, they enjoyed the 
ministrations of their new pastor. 

In these circumstances, being united together as a separate bodv of 
believers, under a solemn covenant of articles of government, they took 
to theaiselves the name of the " Independent Calvinistic Society." The 
form of govennnent which they adopted was not Presbyterian, in that 
they ignored any higher ecclesiastical judicatory than themselves in their 
collective religious capacity. And yet they conducted their affairs under 
forms and names that had become familiar and sacred to them, in the 
usage of the mother church. They became essentially a Congregational 
church, only they depended upon their Representative Body of Elder- 
ship more fully than Congregational churches had been wont to depend 
upon their church committees. The General Court declined giving 
them a legal existence under the name they had chosen. It was finally 
settled that this people should be known religiously before the laws, by 
the title of the " Fourth Religious Society." 

The church edifice on Prospect Street was raised June 11, 1793, and 
was soon put in readiness for the public worship of God, instead of the 
chambers on Milk Street. To procure the funds requisite, some of the 
members are said to have pawned their own private dwellings, trusting 
to the favoring hand of a benignant Providence to redeem them. 

As early as 1800, the church they had so recently built, being already 
found two strait for them, was enlarged to its present dimensions. Two 
years previous to the date just named, the membership, who had with- 
drawn from the Federal Street Church, and had been put under censure, 
remonstrated. They complained that the censure inflicted was hasty 
and severe, that it condemned them unheard. Their withdrawment they 
justified on the ground of better edification. As to the manner of it, 
they allowed themselves in some things to have been at fault. 

At a legal meeting of the First Presbyterian Church, April 25, 1798, 
it was voted to take off the censure. 

In the year 1800, the spirit descended in wonderful power upon the 



3-38 SKE'rCHKS OF CHUKCHKS. 

chiu-ch and society. Immediately preceding tlie revival, it liad been a. 
time of great deadiiess. As the pastor writes, little of the power of 
religion was experienced, until, as he says, God was pleased to dispose a 
number of young men, chiefly of his charge, to open a number of private 
meetings in this town and vicinity. The presence and power of the 
Holy Gliost were first manifested at a prayer and conference meeting 
in a private house at the South End. As the work progressed, sinners 
under conviction cried out in the congregation, and in one or moi'e in- 
stances fell to the floor. The additions to the church numbered, in the 
course of some six months from the commencement of the work, forty- 
three. A hundred and seventy souls were judged by the pastor to 
have been born again, — of whom, we learn, a very large proportion 
belonged to his own congregation. 

The doctrines preached during the progress of the work, and from the 
foundation of the church, were those contained in the Westminster Con- 
fession and Catechism. The church had declared to the world their 
adoption of this system of religious belief, as being the most perfect 
uninspired expression of Bible truth. And in regard to the fundamental 
principles, they were exceedingly exact. Hence, in their nineteenth 
article, they require (to use their own language) that " neither pastor 
nor elders shall invite any person to preach with us, unless they have 
some Scripture evidences to conclude that he is a jierson of grace, and 
sound in the doctrines of grace, — j)articularly those doctrines, viz., the 
imputation of Adam's sin to all mankind, and the imputation of Christ's 
righteousness to every true believer." This article remained in force 
till May 28, 1821, when by vote of the church it was formally dropped. 

Through the whole course of the revival the peculiar doctrines of 
grace were very plainly exhibited ; and they yielded their proper fruit 
in the experience of converted souls. In regard to this point the pastor 
speaks as follows : " Many of them have informed me, that they were 
brought into a state of grace thus, — they were brought to see the sin- 
fulness of their lives and hearts, and here the ibuntain of original cor- 
ruption was discovered. Their guilt and helplessness were now clearly 
seen and felt. They were brought to see the justice of God, should he 
cut them off forever. In fact, they were brought to despair of salvation 
by the Law." ..." Here is the foundation " (he adds) " on which 
they build — the atonement and imputed righteousness of Christ." 

The outward tokens of the power of the Holy Spirit in the revival, 
do not appear to have continued, in a marked degree, many months. 
But a greater measure of spirituality characterized the church for 
years, — and the covenants, as a general thing, were well kept. 

Questions pertaining to the doctrines, occupied a much larger share 



SKETCHES OF CHURCHKS. 859 

of attention in the church than is coramou at the present day. Slight 
deviations from the doctrinal standards were deemed more serious mat- 
ters. Hence, for many years, in " fencing the table," as it was called, 
among others to be debarred the privileges of communion were those 
who denied the imputation of the sin of the first Adam to his seed by 
ordinary generation, and that of the righteousness of the second Adam 
to his seed through the grace of regeneration. 

Hence also, in the public preaching of the word, any deviation from 
the faith of the church was quite sure to be noticed and marked by some 
manifestation of disapproval. In one instance, of a week-day, when 
the preacher, a stranger, had concluded his discourse, having therein 
said much of what man could do, and left quite out of sight the funda- 
mental truth, that it is " not by might nor by power, etc.:" an experienced 
and influential veteran in the membership remarked within general 
hearing, — '' Rebellious, helpless, lost man, and not the Lord alone, had 
been exalted before the people." 

The pastor led the church in the utterance of the most unqualified 
condemnation of any departure from the doctrinal standard. On one oc- 
casion, while discoursing, he observed, — '• Some say, a man in order to 
be saved, should be willing to be damned ; but T say, the man that is 
willing to be damned ought to be." 

The congregation rapidly increased. The house was thronged with 
worshippers. But in process of time, other denominations became estab- 
lished here. Churches were multiplied ; and still other agencies had 
their influence, which served to diminish the regular attendance. 

For many years there was no general refreshing. Though there 
were some seasons of more than usual religious interest, when numbers 
were converted. 

In 1831, revival mercies very generally and remarkably abounded. 
This church was graciously visited, and many were born again. Pro- 
tracted religious services were held in this church and other Orthodox 
churches. The preachers were from abroad. 

In 1834, similar meetings were again held here. The preaching, as 
in '31, was by strangers. The word was greatly blessed. In the course 
of one year, ninety-three persons were received into the church. 

The character of the discourses delivered in these later seasons of 
God's mercy, appear to have been distinguished from the stated exhi- 
bitions of the truth, and especially from those in the revival of 1811, 
in that they gave more prominence to the doctrine of human obligation, 
and less to that of divine sovereignty. 

Mr. Milton, toward the conclusion of his long pastorate, became quite 
infirm. His intellectual vigor failed him. Propositions for a colleague 



860 ski:t(;hks of chukchks. 

being declined, the society were divided in regard to the measures to be 
pursued, and a large proportion of the membership withdrew. Finally, 
as hj the terms of settlement, the reserved right remained with either 
party to terminate the relation whenever it should be judged expedient; 
a motion for dissolution to take effect March 1, 1837, was put and 
prevailed. 

The pastor died suddenly May 1, 1837. The present incumbent was 
settled by an ecclesiastical council Oct. 12th of the same year. 

Immediately upon his settlement special divine influences were gra- 
ciously vouchsafed, and the word was with power. Many were hope- 
fully born of God. At the communion season in May, 1838, thirty-four 
persons were admitted to the church ; and in the course of a year, the 
number was increased to eighty-three. Revival influences continued 
with some abatement through a period of three years. Then followed a 
decline, and the love of many waxed cold. 

Questions in respect to reforms and certain religious doctrines began 
strongly to agitate the community. Upon these questions, the church- 
membership became much divided. Finally, the extreme views enter- 
tained by a portion on the question of slavery, and the course pursued 
by them in consequence, were followed by speedy ecclesiasiastical action, 
and the result was their separation from our fellowship. 

It may be a question whether longer prayerful deliberation and Chris- 
tian forbearance and tenderness, might not have had a more favorable 
issue, and been more accordant with the wisdom which cometh from above. 

This painful subject having been disposed of, the church continued 
to walk in general harmony, peace, and outward prosperity. The week- 
ly expository lecture, which had been established soon after the com- 
mencement of the second pastorate, was, from the first, regarded with 
favor. It has been sustained with a very uniform and encouraging 
attendance. No other service has done more to promote religious in- 
terest, and minister to the edification and comfoit of God's people. 

To aid in conducting the service of public praise on the Sabbath, an 
organ was introduced at an early date in my pastorate. Some years sub- 
sequently the house was entirely remodelled within, and rendered more 
convenient for the purposes of public worship. Still later, several years, 
the old vestry, which had long been used for the Sabbath school and 
social meetings, was removed ; and in its stead, a new, commodious chapel 
was erected. 

In the fall of 1850, this people began to be favored with a renewed 
baptism of special religious interest, though not equal to what had 
been enjoyed from 1838 to 1840. 

The work was promoted through the preaching of the Rev. James 



SKKTCHKS OF OHURCHK.S. 361 

GaTlaher from Kentucky. Public religious services were conducted by 
him chiefly in the Federal Street Churchf The attendance was large 
from the different religious societies in the city. Many were impressed, 
and, it is hoped,- were savingly renewed. 

As the result of this refreshing, twenty-seven were added to our mem- 
bership at one communion. At subsequent sacramental seasons other 
additions were made. As one not unimportant result of this gi-acious 
reviving, I may note the successful effort which was soon made, to 
relieve the society of a long standing and increasing indebtedness. 

Several years passed away, subsequent to this season of mercy, unat- 
tended with any special manifestations of the power of converting grace. 
The means were abundant, but the power was wanting. The people 
heard, but they did not profit. 

At length, in 1858, the set time to favor Zion had again come. Every- 
where the indications of the Spirit's presence were manifest, not so 
much in connection with the public ministry of the word, as with the 
prayer-meeting. Well for this people that it was so ; as the impaired 
health of the pastor barely enabled him to meet the demands of ordinary 
pulpit labor. But, in the social gatherings for prayer, God was pleased 
to appear for our help. One after another was impressed, and brought 
to the saving knowledge of the truth. Immediately they began to seek 
their companions in sin, and urge them to go to the religious meet- 
ings. These were so conducted, that often fifteen to twenty participated 
in brief and animated services of prayer, praise, and exhortation. Such 
were the circumstances in which many began to realize the necessity of 
seeking salvation without delay. The pulpit, and the weekly lecture, 
and the inquiry-room, ministered to their instruction in the way of life. 
Perhaps little short of a hundred were hopefully born of God. At one 
time, fifty individuals were added to this church by public profession. 

God has most impressively shown us, that the labors of the conference 
room should be added to those of the pulpit ; and that all this should 
be supplemented by individual personal effort to save souls. Moreover, 
by the declension that has followed, in regard to the very means so 
abundantly blessed, He has revealed the deplorable tendency of God's 
professing people, to misimprove the clearest demonstrations of his will- 
ingness to cooperate with them in all suitable associate or individual 
endeavors to save sinners. Zion is now desolate. The National exis- 
tence is imperilled by civil war ; and the claims of Zion's King are for- 
gotten. 

46 



302 SKKTOHES OF CHIRCHKS. 

SECONn, OR NORTH CHURCH, NEWBURYPORT. 

BV REV. K. C. HOOKER. 

(Compilefl from the "Commemorate Discourse" of Dr. Dimmick.) 
This church was separated from the First Congregational Church of 
the same place, January 18, 1768. The reason of the separation, as 
stated in the church records was, that " after the death of Rev. Mr. 
Lowell (May 15, 1767), the church were unable to agree in the choice 
of a person to be his successor in the ministry, in consequence of a 
difference of opinion as to some of the important doctrines of Christian- 
ity." The separation was. however, effected " with mutual kindness and 
brotherly affection." 

The North Church was formerly organized on the 4th of March, 1768. 
Its pastors have been : 

Rev. Christopher B. Marsh, ord. Oct. 19, 1768 ; died Dec. 3, 1773. 
Rev. Samuel Spring, D. D., ord. Aug. 6, 1777 ; died March 4, 1819. 
Rev. Luther F. Dimmick, D. D.. ordained Dec. 8, 1819 ; died May 
16, 1860. 

Rev. ¥j. Cornelius Hooker, ordained Dec. 11, 1860. 
The following is the Confession of Faith and Covenant, adopted at 
the formation of the church : 

" Forasmuch as God in His Providence has ordered and overruled 
affairs in such a manner, as that the church and people heretofore under 
the pastoral care of the Rev. John Lowell, have amicably divided them- 
selves into two distinct bodies or assemblies for public worship. There- 
fore, we who are visible professors, and of that part of the church who 
for the present meet for public worship in the town-house, think it our 
duty to renew our Covenant engagements to God, and also to one 
another, in this new situation. And we do hereby declare our serious 
belief of the Christian religion, as contained in the sacred Scriptures of 
the Old and Kew Testaments, and with such a view of them as Protes- 
tant confessions of faith and catechisms have generally exhibited. And 
particularly, we think that the Westminster Confession of Faith and 
Catechism exhibit a good system of Christian doctrine and duty, as 
contained in the word of God. And we design heartily to conform to 
the rules of our holy religion as long as we live in this world. And, 
with an humble dependence on the grace of Jesus Christ, the great 
Head of the church, we engage to walk together as a church of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, in the faith and order of the gospel, professedly on 
the Congregational plan of government, conscientiously attending the 



SKETCHES OF OHURrHES. 863 

public worship of God and the sacrauieuls of the New Testament, and 
submitting ourselves to the discipline of Christ's kingdom in communion 
with one another, and watchfully avoiding all sinful stumbling-blocks 
and contentions, as becometh a people whom the Lord hath bound up 
together in faith and charity." 

Soon after the settlement of Dr. Spring, the above Confession of Faith 
was drawn out and more methodically arranged by him ; and so altered 
in statement as to set forth several points of Christian doctrine, in a 
"clearer and more satisfactory light;" particular reference being had to 
the wrong tendencies of the time. As thus modified, it continued to be 
the basis of the church through his entire ministry. After his death, 
and before the settlement of Dr. Dimmick, it was revised and condensed, 
having been found inconveniently long for common use ; though the 
spirit of it was carefully preserved. Some years later it was further 
condensed, but with equal care that its true character should not be im- 
paired. 

At the settlement of Mr. Marsh, the first pastor, the number of mem- 
bers in the church was fifty -five, — twenty-one males and thirty-four 
females. For various reasons, the membership did not increase very 
rapidly during the fii'st years of its jixistence. At the close of Dr. 
Spring's ministi-y it was but ninety. But, though small in numbers, the 
church was spiritually strong ; for it " had been instructetl in discrimina- 
tion, and was a church ready, in an eminent degree, to the great works 
of love that constitute the Christian life." 

During the forty years in which Dr. Dimmick was its pastor, the 
increase in numbers was more considex'able. Only five out of the forty 
years passed without more or less additions. In 1831, a year of special 
blessing, the additions amounted to seventy -one ; in 1832, to forty-five; 
in 1834, to sixty-five; and during the several years, from 1834 to 1857, 
the year of the great revival, the additions varied from one to twenty- 
one. In 1858, they numbered forty -six. The whole number added to 
the church, during Dr. Dimmick's ministry, was 670. The additions, 
since his death to the present time, have been about twenty-five. 



WHITFIELD CHURCH, NEWBURYPORT. 

BY REV. S. J. SPALDING. 

Organized Jan. 1, 1850. Pastors : Rev. John E. Emerson, ordained 
Jan. 1, 1850; died March 24, 1851. Rev. Samuel J. Spalding, install- 
ed June 30, 1851. Still pastor. 



364 SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 



CONFESSION OF FAITH. 

About to be admitted to the Christian church, you do adopt the fol- 
lowing, as your Profession of Faith. 

Article J. You believe in the existence of one infinitely perfect 
God, who is revealed in the Scriptures, as Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. 

Art. 2. You believe in the divine inspiration and authority of the 
Scriptures of the Old and New Testament, and that they are the only 
perfect rule of Faith, and Practice. 

Art. 3. You believe, that, in connnon with all tl.e children of Adam, 
you are by nature exposed, on account of sin, to the everlasting wrath 
and curse of God, 

Art. 4. You believe that the Loid Jesus Christ, the eternal Son of 
God, became incarnate, and by his obedience, sufferings, and death, has 
made ample atonement for sin, and that all who exercise faith in him, 
as the Saviour, repenting of their sins, inny obtain forgiveness, favor, and 
everlasting life. 

Art. 5. You believe in the necessity of regeneration by the truth 
and Spirit of God in order to eternal life. 

Art. 6. You believe that Christ has a visible church in the world, 
into which none have right to be admitted, except those who profess 
repentance of their sins towards God, and the exercise of faith in the 
Lord Jesus. 

Art. 7. You believe that the sacraments of the New Testament are 
but two, viz. — Baptism and the Lord's Supper. 

Art. 8. You believe that only those, in regular standing with the 
church, can worthily partake of the Sacrament of the Supper, and that 
only believers, with their households, can consistently be admitted to the 
ordinance of baptism. 

Art. 9. You believe in a general resurrection of the just and the 
unjust ; in a general judgment ; in the eternal happiness of the righteous ; 
in the everlasting punishment of the wicked. 

COVENANT. 

Thus professing your belief and dependence, you do now cordially 
enter into covenant with this church. You promise, by the help of divine 
grace, to submit to its discipline, so far as it is conformable to the rules 
of the gospel; to attend faithfully upon its ordinances, to seek its peace, 
edification, and purity, and to walk in Christian love with all its mem- 
bers. You promise to give up yourself, and all that you have and are, 
to be wholly the Lord's ; to seek to have your conduct and conversa- 



SKETCHES OF CHTRCHES. 365 

tion always in accordance with the spirit of the vows which you now 
take upon you, and to strive to adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour 
in all things. 

Thus you solemnly profess, and promise. 

THE church's engagement. 

And now, we, the members of this church, having witnessed of you a 
good confession, heartily receive you into our Christian confidence, fel- 
lowship, and communion. We promise to render you assistance, counsel, 
and admonition ; we engage to walk in love with you, " as Christ also 
has loved us and has given himself for us." 

May the great Head of the church cause us ever to remember that his 
vows are upon us, and enable us faithfully to keep the engagements into 
which we have this day entered. 

May he at last present us, in company with all his saints, " faultless 
before the presence of his glory, with exceeding joy," and to the only 
wise God be the praise now and forever. Amen. 

During the summer of 1849, a number of persons in Newburyport, 
hoping to reach a class who had hitherto stood aloof from gospel ordi- 
nances, made arrangements for religious services at Market Hall, Sept. 
23, 1849, as an experinient. Mr. John E. Emerson was invited to 
preach ; and, at the opening services, about ninety individuals were 
present. 

After a few Sabbaths, it was thought advisable to proceed directly to 
a permanent organization, and to retain Mr. Emerson's services. On 
the 23d of November, 1849, a society was formed, and took the name of 
the Whitfield Congregational Society. 

On Tuesday, the 1st day of January, 1850, a council convened in the 
church of the First Presbyterian Parish, which had been kindly offered 
for their use, and organized twenty persons, under the name of the 
Whitfield Congregational Church. On this council, the Rev. O. A. 
Taylor was appointed Moderator, and Rev. R. W. Clark, Scribe. The 
letters of the persons designing to organize themselves into a church, 
and their Confession of Faith being submitted to the council, it was 
Voted, That said persons are entitled to be organized into a church. 

A revival soon followed the organization of the church, which added 
about forty members by profession. 

The health of Mr. Emerson, which was always delicate, soon grew 
more feeble ; and, after the first of June, his public services were par- 
tially suspended. During the spring, after his ordination, a deep relig- 
ious interest began in the congregation, from the fruits of which about 



366 .SKETCHES OK CHURCHES. 

thirty person8 were gathered into the church. After a brief pastorate, 
of less than fifteen months, the Rev. Mr. Emerson was removed from 
his charge by death or\ tlie 24th of March, 1851. He was buried in 
Oak Hill Cemetery, and over his grave a simple, but appropriate monu- 
ment, was placed by an affectionate and grateful people. 

On the 30th of June, 1851, Rev. Samuel J. Spalding of Salmon Falls. 
N. H., was installed over the church and society. 

Efforts were immediately directed towards the erection of a church 
edifice. Having secured a central situation, on tlie corner of State and 
Prospect Streets, preparations for building were commenced on the 2oth 
of August, 1851. On the 29th of September, the corner-stone was laid 
with appropriate services. After the Reading of Scripture, the history 
of the church was read by the Clerk, Dr. H. C. Perkins. Prayer was 
offered by Rev. Dr. Dimmick. Address by the pastor, Rev. S. J. 
Spalding. 

The vestry was finished and first occupied, Feb. 12, 1852. On the 
2d of March, the house was completed and dedicated to the worship of 
God, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. The sermon was 
preached by the Rev. Lyman Beecher, D. D. In the evening, thei-e 
were public services in the church, and a sermon was preached by the 
pastor. 

The dimensions of the building are sixty feet by one hundred. The 
audience-room is fifty-eight feet by seventy-six, having one hundred and 
twenty-four pews, which furnish sittings for six hundred and fifty per- 
sons. In the rear of the church, and on the same floor, is a vestry, 
twenty-one feet by forty-nine, which will seat two hundred persons. 
This opens into the church on either side of the pulpit, but the main 
entrance is from Prospect Street. In the spring of 1858, two social 
rooms were finished above the vestry. These open into each other by 
folding-doors, and make an apartment twenty-one feet by forty-nine. 
They were dedicated by an address and other appropriate exercises on 
the evening of June 1, 1858. 

The building has been enclosed by an iron fence, and lighted with 
gas, by the liberality of the ladies of the congregation. They also fur- 
nished the means to re-fresco and paint the interior of the church in 1857, 
and defrayed a large proportion of the expense of the social rooms. 

Early in 1858, this church shared largely, with other churches of the 
city, in the gracious influence of the Holy Spirit. The work was char- 
acterized by great quiet and thoroughness. As the result, about sixty 
persons were added to the church. 

The Sabbath school was oi'ganized in Market Hall the first Sabbath 
of October, 1849. The whole number of scholars then was forty-seven : 
teachers, nine. 



iKKTOHKS OP (.JHUPwCHES. 367 



CHURCH IN ROWLEY. 



BY REV. JOHN PIKE. 



Organized Dec. 14, 1639. Has had ten settled ministers: 

Rev. Ezekiel Rogers, ordained Dec. 14, 1639 ; died Jan. 23, 1661. 

Rev. Samuel Phillips, ordained June — , 1651 ; died April 22, 1696. 

Rev. Samuel Shepard. ordained Nov. 15, 1665 ; died April 7, 1668. 

Rev. Edward Payson, ordained Oct. 25, 1682 ; died Aug. 22, 1732." 

Rev. Jedediah Jewett, ordained Nov. 19, 1729 ; died May 8, 1775. 

Rev. Ebenezer Bradford, ordained Aug. 4, 1782: died Jan. 3, 1801. 

Rev. David Tuller, ordained Dec. 7, 1803; dismissed Oct. 17, 1810, 

Rev. James W. Tucker, ordained June 24, 1812; dismissed June 24, 
1817. 

Rev. Willard Holbrook, ordained July 22, 1818: dismissed May 12, 
1840. 

Rev. John Pike, ordained Nov. 18, 1840. 

The following is the oldest extant Covenant of this church, and was 
probably adopted at the time of its organization : 

" You do solemnly covenant and promise before the Lord and this 
people, that by his hel{), forsaking all ungodliness and former lusts in 
your ignorance, you do avouch the Lord Jehovah — Elohim, one God 
in three persons, to be your God and portion. You do also own the 
Lord Jesus Christ, the only Supreme Head and Saviour of tliis church, 
to be your King, Priest, and Prophet. And you do further covenant, 
to walk in a professed subjection unto all the holy ordinances and orders 
that Christ has appointed in his house, and to walk as becomes God's 
covenanting servant, with the members of this church, unto mutual edi- 
fication and helpfulness, according to the rules of the gospel, so long as 
God shall continue you a member of this church of Christ. 

"We do also acknowledge ourselves engaged by the same solemn 
Covenant to watch over you, and to afford all Christian helpfulness to 
your edification, as God has required, and by his assistance." 

This church owed its existence, under God, to ihe care and self-denial 
of Rev. Ezekiel Rogers, its first pastor, and previously a pastor of Row- 
ley, Yorkshire, England. The first elder was, probably, Humphrey 
Rayman ; the first deacons, Thomas Mighill and Maximilian Jewett. 
The early worship consisted of a prayer about twenty minutes in length, 
an exposition of a chapter of the Bible by the teacher ; the singing of a 
hymn, lined by the ruling elder, a sermon of more than an hour by the 



3fi8 SKKTOIIF.S or CHURCHES. 

pastor, a closing prayer and blessing by the teacher ; the whole occupy- 
ing five or six hours of the Sabbath. Rogers was said, by Cotton 
Mather, to have become famous through the whole countr}', by an Elec- 
tion Sermon preached in 1643; but the traditions of Rowley say, he was 
made more famous by a '' Wednesday lecture" preached every fortnight, 
which the citizens of the surrounding towns, even as far removed as 
Andover, used to come to hear. The latter years of his life are said, by 
the historian, to have been " winter, — more night than day." The fruits 
of his benevolent heart are still fresh, in a large estate partly given to 
Harvard College, and partly to the church in Rowley, which has been 
generously shared with the churches in Byfield and Georgetown. He 
had great confidence in the intelligence and piety of his own village ; 
saying, that he felt it necessary to lay the doings of the General Court 
before his church, before it coul(f be fully decided whether they were 
wisely arranged and worthy to be obeyed. He lived to the age of 
seventy. 

In the twelfth year of Mr. Rogers' ministry, in the month of June, 
1661, Samuel Phillips was ordained as teacher of the church. During 
his ministry, Samuel Brockelbank, William Tenney, John Pearson, 
Ezekiel Jewett, and John Trumble were appointed deacons. In 1662, 
Samuel Sliepard came to preach, was ordained as pastor Nov. 15, 
1665, Mr. Phillips still confinuing teacher. His pastorate continued 
but three years. The historians of the time talk of him as a most able 
and devout man, and say that the people of this place would have been 
glad to have plucked out their own eyes, to have saved his life. He 
died at the age of twenty-seven. Jeremiah Shepard, the younger brother 
of Samuel, came to Rowley, February 10, 1673, and continued his labors 
for three years. He was a preacher, but strange to say, not a professor 
of religion. More than a year after Mr. Shepard came, Mr. Phillips 
says he conversed with him in relation to God's work on his soul, and 
concluded to recommend him to the church for full communion and fel- 
lowship. The church, however, were not sufficiently satisfied to admit 
him to the communion ; and continued to hear him preach two years, 
after they decided he had not piety enough to be admitted to partake of 
the Lord's Supper. The difficulty, in regard to him, was not settled 
until the council convened, that was ordered by the General Court on 
the 25th day of May, 1680, which resulted in a discontinuance of his 
labors. Edward Payson was ordained as teacher, October 25, 1682, 
Mr. Phillips taking the office of pastor, in which he continued fourteen 
years. Tradition speaks of Mr. Phillips as an accomplished scholar and 
an eminent preacher. He was known publicly, by a sermon before the 
Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, in 1679 ; before the Gen- 



SKETCIIF.S OF CHrnOIIKS. 369 

eral Court of the Commonwealth in 1G78, and by services performed at 
several public anniversaries. The only publication now to be found of 
his, is one on the sin of wearing long hair ; whether of the beard, or 
head, I know not ; a grievous sin in his day, and which if it has lost its 
sin in the present, has not lost its inconvenience. Mr. Phillips died at 
the age of seventy-one. 

The first account of children being baptized upon the principles of the 
" half-way covenant," is found in 1 690. The covenant is a singular 
thing to be called " half-way." Its faith seems very wide, its practice 
remarkably Christian. It was taken by many, who had no title to the 
ordinance of the Supper, and read 'thus: "I take God, the Father, to be 
my chiefest good and highest end. I take God, the Son, to be my only 
Lord and Saviour. I take God, the Holy Spirit, to be my Sanctifier, 
Teacher, Guide, and Lawgiver. I take the people of God to be my 
people, in all conditions. I likewise devote and dedicate unto the Lord 
my whole self, all I am, all I have, and all I can do. And all this I do 
deliberately, freely, sincerely, and forever." This " half-way covenant " 
seems whole enough to indicate whole-souled Christians, devout and 
apostolic enough to entitle a man, if he sincerely takes it, to receive the 
communion on earth, and to stand with boldness at the day of judgment. 

The office 'of teacher seems to have ceased after Mr. Phillips' death. 
The funds that were left, upon condition of a teacher being employed, 
were secured by Harvard College ; and the church has ever since lost the 
benefit of the office, and the advantage of the money which supported it. 

Tradition says, that Mr. Payson was very marked for his piety. 
The prayer of the apostolic Elliot, that " God would make him a bless- 
ing here," was answered. He committed to the press his sermon upon 
the great earthquake in 1727, at the time of which he is said to have 
risen from his bed, and called upon his wife to put on her Sabbath 
array, and go forth with him to meet the Bridegroom. During the 
thirty-six years in which he served the church as sole minister, there 
were two hundred and thirty-one added to its membership. At the time 
of the great earthquake, when he and his people seemed most won- 
derfully and permanently wrought upon, sixty professed their faith. 
During his ministry, Samuel Palmer, Timothy Harris, Humphrey Hob- 
son, Joseph Boynton were appointed deacons. That his labors might 
be relieved, the church settled Jedediah Jewett as associate pastor with 
him, November 19, 1729. Mr. Payson died August 22, 1732, at the 
age of seventy-six. 

In 1733, the parish held its first meeting distinct from the town, and 
in 1749 completed the meeting-house, which continued to be the place 
of worship until the present one was erected. The ministry of Mr. 

47 



370 SKETCHKS OF CHUROIIES. 

Jewett seems to have been happy to liimself and the people. He was 
said to be an interesting preacher of the doctrines of grace, and a worthy 
example to those wlio wished to walk with God. Two hundred were 
added to the church during his ministry. Several of his sermons were 
published. The last he preached was at the ordination of Rev. David 
Tappan of Newbury, April 18, 1774. Mr. Jewett died on the 8th 
of May, 1775, at the age of sixty-nine, leaving it in charge that the 
female slaves left him by his father should be manumitted, and a suit- 
able provision made for their maintenance. During his ministry Ed- 
ward Payson, Francis Pickard, David Bailey, Moses Clark, Thomas 
Mighill, and Jeremiah Jewett were appointed deacons. After the de- 
cease of Mr. Jewett the people, never before left destitute of a pastor, 
became as earnest to be without a minister, as they were before to have 
one. They went into the pernicious system of candidating, with all the 
zeal of more modern times. They heard fifty different persons ; enough 
to distract any people, and make them doubtful who is who, and what is 
what. Tt is a wonder, after this devisive system was pursued for more 
than eight years, they were not completely divided from Christ, as those 
are apt to be, who cry, some for Paul and some for Apollos, and some 
for forty-eight others. The life of religion almost ceased. It was not 
till August 4, 1782, when Ebenezer Bradford was settled, that harmony 
was restored ; and the church recovered its old readiness to work for its 
Master. The settlement of Mr. Bradford was peculiar. It was after 
the old Congregational form, in which the church and the minister per- 
formed the whole service. On the 4th of August, 1782, prayer was 
offered, and the following question asked, " Do you accept and take up 
with tlie call which the church gave you last October, to settle in the 
work of the gospel ministry with us?" The answer from Mr. Bradford 
was, that " he accepted that call." The church then voted to accept 
Rev. Ebenezer Bradford as their minister, and engaged, by the grace of 
God, to treat him in all respects as the word of God required. This 
was quite a brief way of installing a minister. It resulted, however, in 
a permanent union. The brief service of installation, and the long 
period of settlement which follows, is better than the long service of the 
present day, and the too often speedy breaking up of the connection it 
has solemnly instituted. Mr. Bradford's ministry has always been re- 
garded with great interest in Rowley. Some of the people now living, 
speak of the impressions his preaching made as very strong. The 
preacher of his funeral sermon remarks, that " He was a workman who 
needed not to be ashamed, fruitful, plain, and profitable, awakening to 
sinners, animating to saints, — one who shunned not to declare the whole 
counsel of God." His tones were those of thunder. Eighty-four were 
added to the church, during his ministry. 



SKETCHES OF CHUKCHES. 371 

Here ends the permanent ministry of Rowley, that is to say, if the 
fnture is to be like the last half century. Mr. Bradford is the last pastor 
the people have buried. Some they did not wish to keep until death 
broke the connection. Others left before the people's warm affection for 
them began to grow cool. The new type of things is owing to the 
mutual action of pastor and people. Pastors, since the commencement 
of the present century have been, themselves, more uneasy than before, 
and the people have been more uneasy, regulating their zeal for the 
truth, by their interest in the man who proclaimed it. 

David Tuller was installed Dec. 7, 1803. Probably it would have 
been better if he had declined his call, as he had to begin with oppo- 
sition. Parish opposition to begin with, may be a slow, but is a toler- 
ably sure, volcanic rising. Mr. Tuller was able to keep it down six 
years, then it showed itself more vigorously for being long fettered. A 
mutual council was finally agreed to, which convened June 13, 1810, 
and advised to the sundering of the pastoral relation when the parish 
had paid Mi-. Tuller five hundred dollars, as a sort of balance to the 
disappointment which the terminating of his connection occasioned. The 
money was paid and the dismission accomplished October 17, 1810. 
He died at Sheffield on the 23d of August, 1839, at ninety years of age. 
Only twenty persons were added to the church during his ministry. 
But during that ministry the chui'ch received one most valuable addi- 
tion, that of Joshua Jewett, to its deaconship, whose name will always 
be fondly associated with whatever is intelligent and pure in our church 
and village. 

James Tucker was settled over the church June 24, 1812. He ap- 
pears to have been one of the most respected and beloved of its minis- 
ters. He is considered by those who used to hear him as of a clear and 
discriminating mind, a coiTect taste and well-regulated imagination, and 
deliberate in thought, deeply imbued with the spirit of the Scriptures, — 
dignified and impressive in his pulpit manners, — explicit and direct in 
his pulpit instructions to an unusual degree. His loss to the society was 
regarded as severe. His idea was, that the salary was not sufficient to 
meet his necessities. It was this that led him to leave, June 24, 1817, 
just five years after his settlement. He had added twenty-two members 
to the church, and survived the dissolution of his connection but little 
more than a year. Mr. Tucker died at Springfield, N. J., February 11, 
1819, aged thirty-two yeai's. 

Willard Holbrook was installed on the 22d of July, 1818. During 
his ministry one hundred and six were added to the church, and Na- 
thaniel Mighill was chosen deacon ; an office which he honorably filled 
till his death. In the year 1818, the Sabbath school was organized here, 



372 SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 

which the church voted to patronize, instructing the pastor and deacons 
to appoint its superintendent and teachers. Mr. Holbrook was devoted 
to the interests of the church and people, constant in his pastoral labors, 
and an ardent friend of whatever seemed to promote the progress of the 
cause of the Redeemer. lie w as dismissed, at his own request, May 
12, 1840. 

On the 18th of November, 1840, John Pike was settled as pastor. His 
ministry still continues. Thus far the union has been happy between 
himself and his people, and in some degree accomplished the design 
for which it was formed. It is too early now to say of what worth, 
and how permanent this connection may be. October 1, 1845, James 
T. Plumer was elected deacon. In 1842, a new and beautiful village 
church edifice succeeded the one which had fallen into decay, from 
nearly a century's service. It has been made still more attractive by 
changes made in 1859. June 27, 1862, Nathaniel Bradstreet was 
elected deacon. During the twenty-three years of the i)resent ministry, 
one hundred and seventyt-seven persons have been added to the church. 

This is but a brief account of the more than two hundred years of 
the existence of the Rowley church, in which so many of the faithful 
have lived, labored, and died. Its harmony has, in general, been faith- 
fully preserved. Its ministry has been marked for intelligence and 
adhei-ence to gospel truth. In the great defections of New England, 
this church and its pastors were always true to the faith of the Pilgrims. 
It has been the mother church of the church in Georgetown, and 
the associated mother, wnth Ipswich and Newbury, of that in Byfield 
and Linebrook. Her connection was close with the Bradford and Box- 
ford churches, located in places originally belonging to Rowley. Many 
from the town of Rowley have entered the ministry, and proved them- 
selves useful in the Redeemer's service. Fifteen connected with tlic 
church have become ministers. Thomas Mighill, Samuel Payson, Jede- 
diah Jewett, David Jewett, Daniel Marsh, Nathaniel Howe, Moses 
Bradford, Levi Pilsbury, Nathan Bradstreet, Nathaniel Lambert, Jona- 
than Cogswell, Paul Jewett, Henry C. Jewett, George W. Cressey, 
Charles N. Todd, Nathaniel Mighill. From the organization of the 
church to the present time, it appears there have been over thirteen 
hundred who have accepted its confession. The larger revivals of the 
church were in 1.669, 1684, 1695, 1699, 1727, 1728, 1800, 1801, 1830, 
1832, 1847, 1850, 1857, 1858. In addition to these, there have been 
lesser w'orks of grace, with which the church has been often blessed. 
With these greater and lesser works may the church continue to be 
blessed, till its last member has joined the church triumphant. 



SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 



SECOND CHURCH IN SALISBURY. 



373 



This church was organized Nov. 19, 1718. It has had four settled 
ministers : 

Rev. Joseph Parsons, ordained Nov. 2G, 1718; died March 13, 1739. 

Rev. Samuel Webster, ordained Aug. 12, 1741 ; died July 18, 1796. 

Rev. Andrew Beattie, ordained June 28, 1797; died March 16, 1801. 

Rev. William Balch, ordained Nov. 17, 1802; dismissed Feb. 20, 1816. 

Since 1835, Rev. Benjamin Sawyer has been employed as stated 
supply, but has never been installed as pastor of the church, and only 
preached a part of the time till 1841. The following Covenant was 
adopted at the time the church was gathered : 

" We' do this day, in a grateful sense of the call of Christ unto us, 
avouch the Lord Jehovah to be our God, Fatlier, Son, and Holy Ghost ; 
and giving ourselves to God in Christ, and one to another, we do, by the 
grace of Christ assisting us, cheerfully submit ourselves to his govern- 
ment, and to all his ordinances and institutions, taking and acknowledg- 
ing him to be our Prophet, Priest, and King; further promising, by the 
grace of Christ, to shun and avoid all errors, with all unrighteousness and 
ungodliness. We do, also, with ourselves give up our seed to the Lord, 
submitting them also to the discipline and government of Christ in his 
church ; promising, morever, that we will endeavor to uphold and pro- 
mote the worship of God, in public and in private ; and, finally, that we 
will walk together as a church of Christ in all mutual love and watch- 
fulness, to the building up of each other in faith and love, humbly crav- 
ing help at the hands of God for the performance hereof." 

The above was subscribed by Rev. J. Parsons and eleven other men; 
and, with slight alterations, continued in use through the ministries of Mr. 
Webster and Mr. Beattie. No mention is made of any separate Con- 
fession of Faith until June 14, 1799, when, "At a regular church meet- 
ing, voted, that the Articles proposed by the Rev. Pastor to candidates 
for admission at the time of their examination, shall be publicly read to 
them at the time of their admission before the congi-egation." There is 
no record of these "Articles." 

July 25, 1779, it was "Voted, that the practice of persons owning the 
covenant for the purpose of presenting their children for baptism, be 
hereafter discontinued and abolished, but at the same time, that those 
persons who have heretofore been thus indulged, be still indulged if they 
desire it," 



374 SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 

During its early history this was a very flourishing church. Nearly 
300 were added to it under Mr. Parsons, being an average of over four- 
teen a year. In 1728, there were 108 added. During the first half of 
Dr. Webster's ministry, there were about 250 additions. From about 
1770 this church began to decline, and has been declining ever since. 
Its membership is small; public services are suspended in the winter 
season. There is reason to suppose that at no distant day this ancient 
church will be extinct. 

In 1794, a call was extended to Mr. Jonathan Brown to settle as 
colleague with Dr. Webster. As conditions of his accepting it, Mr. 
Brown wished a larger salary than was offered, and that the church 
adopt " the Presbytei'ian government." A committee of conference 
reported in favor of complying with these conditions, but their report 
was not accepted, and it was voted " not to make any additional sum to 
Mr. Brown's salary, nor to adopt any new form of government." 

In 1795, a call was given to Mr. Thomas Crafts which he declined. 
In 1802, the church gave a call to Mr. Pliny L. Dickinson, but the 
parisli, by a vote of sixty-seven against forty-five, refused to concur in it. 

During the latter part of the ministry of Mr. Balch, many of the 
church and parish became seriously disaffected, and were unwilling to 
aid his support. After much unpleasant contention, an ex parte council 
was convened, which Mr. Balch consented to make mutual ; and by it 
matters were so adjusted, that he was honorably dismissed Feb. 20, 1816, 
and the church has had no settled minister since. 

In 1820, a committee of the parish reported in favor of supporting a 
preacher jointly with the first parish, and they were authorized to carry 
their recommendation into effect. Nothing however came of it. 

In 1826, a committee was raised to confer with the Unitarian Society 
at Araesbury, to see if they could agree on a candidate, and unite in his 
support. 

The meeting-house, begun in 1711, and opened for public worship in 
1716, still stands, the only specimen of the old style of church architec- 
ture in this vicinity. 

There is a parsonage, and land of considerable value, the legal prop- 
erty of the parish ; and should this church become extinct, it is to be 
hoped that those who may have control of it, will feel morally bound to 
take the proper measures to have it go to aid still, in the support of 
that faith and order of worship for which it was, many years ago, 
piously set apart. 



SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 375 



FIRST CHURCH IN WEST NEWBURY, FORMERLY SECOND 
CHURCH IN NEWBURY. 

BY REV. C. D, HEBBERT. 

Organized Oct. 26, 1 698. Pastors : 

Samuel Belcher, ord. Nov. 10, 1698 ; died March 10, 1715. Memb. added, 110 

John Tufts, " June 30, 1714 ; dis. March 2,1738. " " 481 

Tlionias Barnard, " Jan. 31, 1739^ " Jan. 18,17.51. " " 71 

Moses Hale, " Feb. 20, 1750; died Jan. 1. 5, 1779. " " 60 

True Kimball, " Nov. 20, 1782 ; dis. May 1,1797. " " 10 

Samuel Tomb, inst. Nov. 28, 1798; " Dec. 4,1805. " " 

Ebenezer Hubbard, ord. May 11, 1809; " Oct. 16,1811. " " 8 

Gilbert T. Williams, inst. June 1,1814; " Sept. 26,1821. " '• 14 

Henry C. Wright, ord. June 21, 1826 ; " July 7,1833. " " 88 

Benjamin Ober, " Jan. 1,1834; " Dec. 24,1835. " " 20 

Henry A. Woodman, " Nov. 30, 1842 ; dis. March 20, 1844. " " 1 

Horatio Merrill, " May 7,1845; " Aug. 11,1847. " " 4 

Charles D. Herbert, inst. March 5, 1857. 80 

Members added when without pastors, 43 

Total membership, so far as known, 990 

In the year 168G, Old Newbury, finding; that her sons and daughters 
were too numerous at home, decided to cross the Artichoke river, divide 
the lands in what is now West Newbury, and lay out a road to Brad- 
ford. This step was not taken too soon. The forests, which had waved 
triumphantly upon its graceful hills, and along the shores of the beau- 
itful Merrimac, immediately gave way to the farms and cottages of the 
settlers. 

In 1689, when the fear of the Indians obliged every man to take his 
weapons of defence to the field and to the house of God, impelled by the 
desire of having religious privileges nearer 'home, sixteen individuals 
erected a building, thirty feet square, on ground now enclosed as the 
Cemetery of Belleville. In 1695 the town voted to constitute what was 
called the West Parish of Newbury. It was then decided, and afterwards 
confirmed by the Legislature, that the proper place for a new meeting- 
house, when built, was on Pipestave Hill. The line of division was to 
be from a point a little east of where the Suspension Bridge now is, to 
Turkey Hill. The new parish now voted to enlarge the meeting-house, 
and build a parsonage on the plains. 

Rev. Samuel Belcher, having preached for them much during the year, 
received a call from the parish Dec. 24, 1696. They offered him £50 
provision pay, £10 in money, the use of the parsonage, twenty cords 



370 SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 

of wood, and the contributions of strangers. As the parsonage and the 
meeting-house were not completed, the church Avas not organized till 
October 26, 1698, nor the pastor installed till the 10th of November 
following. They had had young candidates, but they chose the ripe 
experience, the genial temper, and the sound orthodoxy of the man of 
fifty-eight years. 

The following Covenant having been signed by Rev. Mr. Belcher and 
twenty-one other brethren (thirteen sisters having been voted in), the 
church was pronounced regularly embodied, and the pastor elect was 
installed by the pastors* and messengers of the churches in Ipswich, 
Newbury, Rowley, and Bi-adford : 

'' We, whose names are under-written, sensibly acknowledging our 
unfitness of, and unworthiness for, such a favor, yet apprehending our- 
selves to be called of God, to put ourselves into a relation of church 
communion, and to seek the settlement of the church into gospel institu- 
tions among us, do therefore, in order thereunto, as much as in us lies, 
knowing how prone we are to backslide, and abjuring all confidence in 
ourselves, and relying on the Lord Jesus Christ alone for help, covenant 
as followeth : 

'"1. We do believe, consent to, and heartily close with, tiie Confession of 
Faith, as to the substance of it, put forth by the last Synod of Churches, 
held in Boston, 1680, — do promise to stand by and maintain the faith 
therein delivered to the people of God, and if any among us shall go 
about to undo it, we will bear due testimony against them. 

" 2. We do also combine to walk together as a particular church of 
Christ according to all those holy rules of the gospel, prescribed to such 
a society so far as God hath revealed, and shall reveal, his mind to us, 
in that respect. 

" 3. We do accordingly recognize the Covenant of Grace, in which 
we professedly acknowledge ourselves engaged, to the fear and service 
of the only true God, and to the Lord Jesus Christ, the High Priest, 
Prophet, and King of his church, unto whose conduct we submit our- 
selves, and on whom alone we wait for grace and glory, to whom we 
bind ourselves in an everlasting covenant, never to be broken. 

" 4. We do likewise give up ourselves one to another in the Lord, 
resolving, by his help, to cleave one to another, as fellow members of 
one body for mutual edification, and to submit ourselves to all holy 
adniinisti-ations appointed by Him, who is the Head of his Church, dis- 
pensed according to the rules of the gospel, and to give our attendance 
on all the public oi-dinances of Christ's institution,. walking orderly as 
becometh saints. 

" 5. We do likewise acknowledge our posterity to be included with 



SKKTCHKS OP^ CHUKCHES. o77 

US in the gospel covenants, jind we acknowledge thera to be in covenant 
relation, according to gospel rules, and, blessing God for so rich a favor, 
we do promise to bring them np in the nurture and admonition of the 
Lord. 

" 6. Furthermore, we ])roraise to be careful to procure the settlement 
and continuance among us, of church officers appointed by Christ, the 
Chief Shepherd, for the edification of his Church ; accordingly, to do our 
duty faithfully for their maintenance and encouragement, and to carry 
it towards them as becometh us : further, we do promise to preserve 
communion with the churches of Christ, for giving and receiving mutual 
counsel and assistance in all things wherein it shall be needful. 

"Now the good Lord be merciful unto us ; and, as He hath put it into 
our hearts thus to devote ourselves unto Him, let Him pity and pardon 
our frailties, keep us out of all carnal confidence, and keep it forever 
upon our hearts to be faithful to himself, and one to another for his 
glory and our eternal comfort." 

After ten years of prosperity and harmony at the Plains, the majority 
decided that the new meeting-house and parsonage should be erected on 
Pipestave Hill. Some twenty families resisted this step. They and 
their fathers had regarded the territory above the Artichoke as a terra 
incognita, full of wild beasts and wilder savages ; and they could not 
and would not plod their weary way three or four miles into the wil- 
derness. They remonstrated, and appealed to the General Court, in 
vain. The new church and parsonage were first occupied in 1711, and 
the old house summarily removed. The disaffected attempted to rebuild, 
but were forbidden by the legislature. As a last resort they suddenly 
became Episcopalians ; and, having built Queen Ann's Chapel, on the 
old site, received a minister from the Bishop of London. 

Although Mr. Belcher officiated but little after the removal, they 
treated him with the utmost tenderness and affection. They allowed 
him ministerial help, free of charge, whenever he and the. deacons 
thought best ; at last, employing aid by the year, under his direction. 
They cleai'ed, they ploughed, they fenced, they planted his grounds ; and 
when he wished to retire to Ipswich, his native place, they made the best 
possible arrangements for his journey over the rough roads. 

We next enter the pastorate of Mr. Tufts. We go up to the sanc- 
tuary, beautiful for situation, to see him in the midst of his ministry, — 
the first active pastor within the limits of the present town of West 
Newbury. He comes out from his dwelling, tall, athletic, high-spirited, 
and fashionable in his appearance. His head is crowned with the pon- 
derous wig and cocked hat ; he wears the white clerical bands, long silk 

48 



378 SKETCHES OK CIIURCHKS. 

stockings, and breeches with brilliant knee and shoe-buckles. His wife, 
the noble granddaughter of Gov. Bradstreet, leans upon his arm. 

The church is now before us : it stands upon the right, on a high level 
plat of land,-^ and the oaks are like cedars of Lebanon on the higher 
ground beyond. It is an unadorned building, 54 by 34, two stories high, 
looking down towards old Newbury on the east. It has a pediment 
coming out on the roof in front, corresponding with the gable ends, sur- 
mounted, on the centre, with a modest turret and spire. The windows 
are of small diamond-shaped glass, with metallic sashes, opening inward 
like doors. The house may be entered on the south, east, and north. 

We turn and behold one of the loveliest scenes in the colony. The 
parish lies before us ; the beautiful Merrimac ; and the distant ocean 
foi'ming the Eastern horizon. The worshippers come up in picturesque 
gi-oups from their cottages amid the primeval forests, and a goodly com- 
pany are seen crossing the river in boats from Amesbury. 

We enter the forest temple : no modern lathing or plastering, stucco- 
work or fresco-paintings, conceal the huge oaken beams, rafters, and 
studding. The framework of the double galleries, and of the stairs 
on "either hand, is all open to view. Here are no carpeted floors, no 
upholstered settees for weary pedestrians. No pews, except a row round 
the sides of the house. Nearly all sit on rough benches, and are ar- 
ranged according to their characters and stations in life; the men on 
the south, and the women on the north of the middle aisles. The young 
men have one side of the galleries, and the maidens the other, sitting 
face to face! The pulpit is lofiy, and over it the ponderous sounding- 
board. 

The pastor rises in the desk and the services proceed as is usual now, 
except that Mr. Samuel Morss stands up on the platform, and reads 
each line of the hymn, which is sung by the congregation, to a tune in 
the little tune-book, just published by the pastor ; the first thing of the 
kind in New England, and probably the first in America. The sermon 
abounds in types and shadows, and is full of the marrow and fatness of 
the gospel. The Lord's Supper follows, and you are surprised at the 
number who partake. Nearly all who sit below are communicants. 
(Fifty-seven made a profession in 1715, twenty-five in 1716, thirty-eight 
in 1717, one hundred and twenty-five in the winter of 1727j in all, 
four hundred and eighteen were received into full communion in twenty- 
four years.) The bread is carried around on large pewter plates, and 
the wine is poured into smaller tankards, which are passed to the com- 



1 Six or eight rods west of the house now owned by Miss C. G. Coker. 



SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 379 

imiuicaiits, who severally raise the cover, drink, and let it fall with a loud 
noise. The large pewter baptismal font is there, and scarcely a pleasant 
Sabbath has passed for years, without some children being brought and 
dedicated to the Lord. 

During this pastorate, it was voted to divide the parish, and in 
1731 one hundred and twenty members were most cordially sent to 
constitute the Fourth Church in Newbury, — now the Second in West 
Newbury. The meeting-houses stood on opposite hills, one mile and 
three quarters distant. Twenty-five or thirty members wei'e also dis- 
missed to unite with the new church in West Amesbury. In an hour 
of temptation, Mr. Tufts got into some difficulty, which destroyed his 
influence, and resulted in the necessity of his dismission. 

Rev. Thomas Barnai-d, the third pastor, found two hundred and twen- 
ty-two resident members. He labored during the time of " the Great 
Awakening," but appears not to have sympathized with it. There 
were ardent controversies in the church. Some were inclined to formal- 
ism, and others to fanaticism, till at last Mr. B. asked leave to retire. 
The church not consenting to this, he called a council himself, and was 
dismissed. A committee was sent to call him back, but in vain. 

Rev. Moses Hale, the fourth pastor, ever dispensed the pure gospel 
of peace. He approved of Mi'. Whitfield's labors, and wished all his 
people to hear him preach. Though discipline and strife continued in 
the churcli he was revered and loved by all. A committee visited him 
each year to see what salary he would need, and it was invai'iably 
voted by the parish. They studied his wants, honored him in old age, 
and greatly lamented his death. 

The great controversy of this period was respecting the location of a 
new meeting-house. After perhaps twenty special parish meetings, and 
after having a committee from out of town, and one from the General 
Court, the church, which had stood fifty years on the hill, was taken 
down, and a handsome house, 54 by 40, was located in the centre of 
Hanover Street, one third of a mile east of the old site, in the year 
1759. But the inhabitants below the Artichoke, dissatisfied because the 
church was no nearer to them, resolved to secede, and to form the Fifth 
JParish of Newbury ; of which see in its proper place. 

During Rev. True Kimball's ministry, the church languished sadly, 
not being fed with gospel truth. Being dismissed, Mr. K. removed to 
Hamstead, N. H., where the church records show, that he renounced 
his faith, and came to a miserable end. 

The sixth pastor. Rev. Samuel Tomb, was a Presbyterian. Having 
labored here one year, and, in the mean time, received a call from the 
Federal Street Church, Newbury port, he consented to become pastors 



380 SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 

provided the church would come under the care of" the Presbytery. 
This it did, though a large minority of the parish protested. Mr. T.'s 
pastorate was a stormy one. He was one of the strongest men in the 
section, as a preacher, agreeable and companionable to his friends, but 
utterly reckless of the good opinion and favor of his foes. Such a state 
of things could not continue ; he retired after seven years, without hav- 
ing received a single member to the church. He afterwards became a 
mighty preacher of Christ, and used to say, that he was not converted 
till after he left this place. * 

At these times there were but three resident male members of the 
church, and the parish was not more than one-third its original size. 
Mr. J. Webster labored here successfully for a time ; five members were 
added to the church. He received a call here, but declined, and became 
pastor at Hampton, N. H. 

The seventh pastor, Mr. Hubbard, continued in office three years. 
He was lax in doctrine, and deficient in piety. Perceiving how things 
were tending, on condition that he would resign, the church were enticed 
to give him the most glowing letters of recommendation, after which he 
was installed in Middleton. There he caused the church covenant to 
be set aside, and received all who would ; until the church became so 
corrupt, that the religious were forced to leave all, and form a new 
church. Soon after he went to Lunenburg, with the same disastrous 
results to the church there. 

The eighth pastor, Mr. "Williams, is still remembered with pleasure 
and veneration, on account of his lovely temper, his deep piety, and his 
sound orthodoxy. His resignation was occasioned by a paralytic shock, 
after a pastorate of seven years. 

After an interim of five years, during which Rev. Peter Holt preached 
seven months, and received eleven to the church, we come to the min- 
istry of Mr. Wright. The church is supposed then to have contained 
but eight male members; but in 1831 and 2, there being revivals all 
around, and the pastor's susceptible spirit being enlisted, there was an 
awakening, which resulted in seventy-four being added to the church ; 
many of whom were eminently worthy. Though the ministry regarded 
Mr. W. as not having very clear views of Orthodoxy, he did not relapse 
into infidelity till some time after he retired from this place. 

Mr. Ober was a sound, faithful preacher, but his pastorate was dis- 
turbed by inconsiderate discipline, which especially awakened and em- 
bodied opposing elements to distract the church, weaken the society, and 
sunder the pastoral relation. 

The church was destitute of a pastor from 1835 to 1842. In the 
mean time, Rev. Moses Welch supplied three or four years, and Rev. 



SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 381 

N. W. Sheldon two years. The present church edifice was dedicated 
Dec. 22, 1841. I)i-. Dimmick preached the sermon, Mr. Welch offered 
tlie dedicatory prayer, and Dr. Dana prepai-ed an original hymn. 

As to the next two pastors, Mr. Woodman's health soon utterly failed, 
and Mr. Merrill quickly lost the confidence of the people, as he has 
latterly of the ministry. 

The church having been without a pastor for nine years, and, in the 
mean time, it having been pi-oved that other than Orthodox preaching 
could not be sustained, Mr. Herbert commenced his labors here, Alay, 
1856 ; though he was not installed till the following March. During 
the eight years, to the time of writing this (1864), the utmost harmony 
has prevailed between the pastor and people. In 1858-59 this church 
was revived, and received considerable accessions ; but, being a rural 
parish, its strength has been much reduced by removals to the manufac- 
turing towns. 



SECOND CHURCH IN WEST NEWBURY. 

BY KEV. DAVIS FOSTER. 

This church was organized as the Fourth Church in Newbury, Sept. 
1, 1731. Rev. John Brown of Haverhill, began with prayer. Rev. 
William Balch of Bradford, jjreached from Rev. ii, 2. Rev. John Tufts 
of Newbury, gatliered the church, and concluded with prayer. Tlie 
covenant of the church was signed by Mr. William Johnson, jun., the 
first pastor and forty-six (46) others. 

The following Covenant was the basis of the organization : 

" We whose names are underwritten, sensibly acknowledging our un- 
worthiness for such a favor, yet apprehending ourselves to be called of 
God, to put ourselves into a relation of church communion, and to seek 
the settlement of the church, according to gospel institutions, among us, 
do therefore, in order thereunto, as much as in us lies, knowing how 
prone we are to backslide, and abjuring all confidence in ourselves, and 
relying upon the Lord Jesus Christ alone for help, covenant as fol- 
lows, viz. 

" 1st. We do believe, consent to, and heartily close with the Con- 
fession of Faith (as to the substance of it), put forth by the last Synod 
of Boston, 1680. And do promise to stand by and maintain the faith 
therein delivered to the people of God, and if any among us shall go 
about to undermine it, we will bear due testimony against them. 

" 2d. We do also promise to walk together as a particular church of 
Christ, according to all those holy rules of the gospel, prescribed to such 



•382 SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 

a society, so far as God hath revealed, and shall reveal, his mind to us, 
in this respect. 

" 3d. We do accordingly own the Covenant of Grace, in which we 
professedly acknowledge ourselves engaged, to the fear and service of 
the only true God, and to the Lord Jesus Christ, the Great High Priest, 
Prophet, and King of his church, unto whose conduct we submit our- 
selves, and on whom alone we wait for grace and glory ; to whom we 
bind ourselves in an everlasting Covenant never to be broken. 

" 4th. We do likewise give up ourselves to one another in the Lord, 
resolving, by his help, to cleave to one another as fellow-members of one 
body — for mutual edification, and to submit ourselves to all the holy 
administrations appointed by Him, who is the Head of the church, dis- 
pensed according to the rules of the gospel ; and to give attendance on 
all the public ordinances of Christ's institutions among us, walking 
orderly as becometh saints. 

"• 5th. We do likewise acknowledge our posterity to be included with 
us in the gospel covenant, acknowledging them to be in covenant rela- 
tion according to the gospel rules. We bless God for so rich a favor, 
and promise to bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the 
Loid. 

" 6th. Furthermore, we promise to be careful to secure and continue 
among us the settlement of church officers appointed by Christ, for the 
edification of his church, and accordingly to do our duty faithfully for 
their maintenance and encouragement, and to carry it towards them as 
becometh us. 

" Lastly. We promise to preserve communion with the churches of 
Christ, for giving and receiving mutual counsel and assistance, in all 
cases wherein it shall be needful. Now the good Lord be merciful to 
us, and as He hath put it into our hearts thus to devote ourselves unto 
Him, so will He pity and pardon our impurities, humble us out of all 
our carnal confidence, and keep it forever upon our hearts to be faithful 
to Him, and to one another for His praise, and our eternal comfort. 
Amen. 

The Covenant and Confession of Faith were remodelled during the 
ministry of Leonard Woods. The following are some of the prominent 
parts of the change. 

" You believe that God at first made man upright and holy, that he 
constituted Adam the public head and representative of the whole hu- 
man race, that he entered into a covenant with him, promising life and 
happiness on condition of his perfect obedience ; and that by the wise 
and holy constitution of God, the character and state of his posterity 



SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 883 

depended on his conduct." " Yon believe that Adam disobej^ed God 
and broke covenant with Him, by which transgression he involved him- 
self and all his posterity in sin and misery." " You believe that Jesus 
Christ is a true God and true man, united in one mysterious person ; 
that He is the only Mediator between God and man, the Head of the 
Church, and the Lord of His people." " You believe that by His obe- 
dience and suffering He made full and sufficient atonement for the sins 
of the whole world, so that God can be just, while he justifies and saves 
all who believe in Christ." " You believe that in consequence of the 
atonement and intercession of Christ, God freely and sincerely ofters 
salvation to sinners, and that by the influence of His Spirit, He gra- 
ciously changes the hearts of men, and enables them to believe to the 
saving of their souls." 

•The following is a tabular statement of the several pastorates over this 
church : 

Rev. AVilliam Johnson, ord. Sept. 1.5, 1731 ; died Feb. 22, 1772. 

Rev. David Tappan, ord. April 18, 1774; dismissed Sept. 6, 1792. 

Rev. Leonard Woods, ord. first Wed. in Dec. 1798; dis. Sept. 28, 1808. 

Rev. John Kirby, ord. June 12, 1816 ; drowned Dec. 5, 1818. 

Rev. Elijah Demond, ord. March 7, 1821 ; dismissed Sept. 23, 1826. 

Rev. Paul Couch, ord. March 27, 1827; dismissed Aug. 14, 1828. 

Rev. J. Q. A. Edgell, ord. Sept. 17, 1832; dismissed Oct. 27, 1853. 

Rev. Davis Foster, ord. Nov. 1, 185.5. 

During Mr. Johnson's ministry of forty years, two hundred and sev- 
enty-four persons were added to the church, including forty-seven who 
signed the original covenant with him. 

During Mr. Tappan's ministry of 18 years, 49 persons were added to 
the church. 

During Mr. Woods' ministry of nearly 10 years, 14 persons were 
added to the church. 

During Mr. Kirby 's 2 years, 10 were admitted to the church. 
" Mr. Demond's 5 yeai's, 19 were admitted. 
" Mr. Couch's 1 year 5 months, 22 were admitted. 
" Mr. Edgell's 21 years, 197 were admitted. 
" Mr. Foster's 9 years, nearly 60 have been admitted. 

Total, 664 admissions recorded. 

There are no records of the children baptized by Mr. Johnson. 

190 baptisms of children are recorded by Mr. Tappan. About 500 
baptisms of children are recorded since Mr. Tappan's ministry. 

There have been frequent revivals of religion in the history of this 
church. Those yeai's when 20 or more members have been received to 
the church, ai'e the following: 1731 (the date of the organization), one 



381 SKKTCIIES OF CHURCHES. 

hundrtid and sixteen ; 1732, twenty-three ; 1742, thirty ; 1832, forty-nine 
1834, seventy-two; 1850, twenty-seven; 18^8, twenty-two. 

The church were very much aggrieved when the second i>astor. Rev. 
David Tap])an, was called to the chair of Theology in Harvard College. 

They passed the following vote in regard to this matter: 

"Voted, 1st. That we will not oppose our pastor's dismission, but 
quietly leave him to act according to his own sense of duty in the case. 

" 2d. That we can give our testimony in favor of his public ministra- 
tions and private behavior since he has been with us, excepting his late 
act in leaving a united people, which none of us can see to be agreeable 
to the will of God. Nevertheless, as he has repeatedly and solemnly 
declared, that he thinks himself bound in conscience to accept the invi- 
tation of the College, we think ourselves obliged, by the rules of Chris- 
tian charity, to believe that he speaks the truth and acts conscientiously 
in this matter, and we accordingly recommend him to the charity and 
fellowship of the First Church in Cambridge, and to all other Christian 
people, where Providence may occasionally call him." 

This was after all possible means of persuading Mr. Tappan to re- 
main had failed. The resignation of the church to this dispensation, 
reminds us of a very common form of worldly resignation in affliction, 
" We cannot help the affliction, therefore we must bear it." 

When Mr. Woods was called to the chair of Theology at Andover, 
the church and parish presented a remonstrance to the council against 
his leaving. 

The following is a portion of this remonstrance : 

" Must we, so soon after the recent and great sacrifice of our late 
beloved Tappan, be thrown into a destitute and perhaps unreconcilably 
divided state, and, with wounds scarcely healed, be called to make a 
second sacrifice of what we hold most dear, and impoi'tant to our tem- 
poral and spiritual interest, to mere opinion respecting an institution, 
the importance and success of which are but in contemplation. Is not 
the claim, i*enewedly to strip this church and people of their pastor, of 
a doubtful nature and dangerous tendency, and a sacrilegious encroach- 
ment on their rights? Since the engagements ministers have taken upon 
themselves at their ordination ever have been, and still are viewed by 
the people as most sacred, will not the fi'equent departure therefrom 
operate as a powerful discouragement in the way of settling a gospel 
minister, and impress the idea that there is nothing substantial in. relig- 
ion, and that the Christian ministry is but an engine employed only for 
the benefit of the clergy, to the contempt and neglect of gospel ordi- 
nances, and, in time, to the destruction of the faith once delivered to the 
saints ? Or is our sinful division eagerly seized upon for a pretext to 



SKETCHES OF CHURCHES. 385 

deprive us of the benevolent labors of our affectionate pastor, when our 
great wickedness is the only cause why they are needful." The division, 
here spoken of, had reference, doubtless, to the location of a new meet- 
ing-house, which had long agitated the parish. 

After fifteen years of discussion, — after repeated votes to build, now 
in one locality, and now in another, a new meeting-house was built and 
dedicated Jan. 3, 1816. 

No other religious denomination has secured any permanent foothold 
within the limits of the parish, since the first organization of this church, 
in 1791. The church has had a settled pastor during 108 years of its 
history, and has been destitute of a pastor 25 years. 

The Sabbath school connected with the church goes back to the year 
1818. It is now a large and flourishing school, numbering 260 members. 

A large and thrifty population call for renewed consecration on the 
part of the church, and furnish a most hopeful field for Christian labor. 

49 



AN ESSAY 



VIBRATIONS IN THEOLOGY 



BY EEV. L. WITHINGTON, P. D. 



At the late centennial of the E^jsex North Association at Rowley, I 
ventured to give a slight sketch of the condition of the body when I 
entered it in the summer of 1816. Two elements of theology then per- 
vaded the Association. They were not regarded as opposite systems 
(though they were distinctly marked), yet different shadings of the same 
system. No one thought of breaking communion or withholding char- 
ity ; and yet the subjects of difference were regarded as of great impor- 
tance. There had been published sermons and open controvei'sy on the 
subjects. 

Dr. Dana of Ipswich, Mr. Braman of Rowley, Mr. Miltimore of 
Newbury, represented what was called the old divinity. Dr. Spring 
of Newburyport, Dr. Parish of Byfield, Mr. Tucker of Rowley, were 
on the other side. There was a manifest caution on both sides, like that 
of men recovering from a previous agitation. The balance was trem- 
bling under the weights and vibrations of either scale. 

I ventured on the aforesaid evening to give my reminiscences of these 
by-gone times ; and among other things said, that no man could under- 
stand Hopkinsianism unless he considered the soil in which it sprung 
up, the causes which produced it, and the gradations by which it came 
in. It is a plant of New England growth ; it could appear in no other 
land than our own ; — and we may well exult in the purity of our 
churches, and in the exalted character of our speculations, that such a 
question should divide our land. It has been mentioned as an indication 
of the generous character of the Arabs, that, before Mahomet arose, the 
chief question which divided them was, whether in relieving want the 
first consideration should be, the suffering, or the merits of those claim- 
ing our charities. 

So in New England, what must be the purity of that church which 



VIBRATIONS IN THEOLOGY. ^ 387 

could find nothing else to contend about, but whether the first duty of a 
sinner is, a trembling prayer, or self-evident repentance ! Such a ques- 
tion among the old churches of the old world would be impossible. It 
would be scarcely understood. 

My design in this paper is very briefly to show the condition of the 
country from which the new Divinity sprung, and the steps or gradations 
by which it was introduced. 

The first inquiry is — what were the features of Hopkinsianism ? It 
arose from something. It was a system wholly relative to what it 
esteemed a previous error. It saw evils and undertook to correct them. 
It did not undertake to build a new house; it only said, — the old house 
is leaning ; it threatens to fall and we must shore it up. Hence it was 
a maxim when I entered the Association, that Hopkinsianism M^as only 
Calvinism up to the hub. A consistent Calvinist is a true Hopkinsian. 
The word consistent Calvinist is used in the Associate creed at Ando- 
ver. Hopkinsianism, then, was the vibration of the theological pendu- 
lum from a previous vibration ; and if it had not vibrated one way, it 
sc;3rcely could have vibrated the other. It came from the particular 
features that Calvinism assumed in this land, among our morals, in this 
our beloved New England. 

But let me explain. By vibrations in theology, I mean something 
less than action and reaction. When one hard body strikes another, we 
are told, in natural philosophy, that to every action there is an equal 
and contrary reaction. But when the magnet deviates, the cause is 
different. By vibrations we do not mean the concussion that hostile 
sects exert on each other ; but those less variations which spring from 
smaller deviations, more delicate compounds and comparative ideas. 
When two elements are mixed in one system, there is great room ibr 
vibrations. Some opinions must be hostile, but others exercise a slighter 
repulsion and attraction, and the existence of the one, shapes, shades, and 
even produces the other. The Protestant and the Catholic must be 
separated by a gulf which there is no mistaking ; but no large party 
can be formed in religion, even with the same creed, without leaning 
different ways as to its construction ; and these vibrations are not only 
incident to the same church, but to the same individual. As in the 
water-race which Virgil so beautifully describes, Gyas and Menoetes 
must diflfer as to turning the sharp corner, 

" Quo tantum mihi dexter, abis ? hue dirige gressum 
Littus araa — " 

Yet if they had changed position, Menoetes might have spoken as 
Gyas. did. Thus the Nestorian controversy was about the comparative 



388 ^ VIBRATIONS IN THEOLOGY. 

importance of the same elements ; the controversy between Dr. South 
and Dr. Sherlock was of the same nature, though exaggerated greatly 
in the inflamraable mind of South. Some of these vibi'ations are per- 
manent in the church ; thus if the two elements, God's sovereignty and 
man's responsibility, be admitted into the same creed, there will, there 
must be, vibrations as to the emphasis which shall be laid on each. No 
creed states the relative importance of its own articles, or tells the 
receiver how often he shall preach on each. As there is no particle of 
matter which cannot be dissected, so there is no unity that precludes 
all possible variety. 

If we look at the previous state of the church in New England, and 
consider the laws of theological vibrations, we shall see how Hopkin- 
sianism arose. It arose from its previous antagonisms. The people of 
New England were a peculiar people. We n)ay say, a whole cliurch of 
decided, fervent Christians migrated to these shoi-es, and laid the foun- 
dations of society in Puritan principles and manners. The whole modu- 
lation of fashion as well as manners, of customs as well as principles, 
was in their hands. But it is impossible to keep society stationary. 
There grew up a new population ; unless every body was converted, 
there was a middle kind of people, different from the population of any 
nation upon earth. The children were all baptized, and educated in 
the strictest manner; could repeat the catechism ; attended the church ; 
were taught to venerate the Sabbath. There was no nobility ; no 
inordinate riches ; the severest morals were customary ; there were no 
theatres, balls, horse-races, or licentious amusements to corrupt them. 
Among the means of grace, a pious education would hold the first place. 
How natural it was, that, with such a population and with such manners, 
imperfect Christians should be manufactured by a slow process ! The 
call to immediate repentance slipped out of notice. No doubt there 
were many who had a wavering, doubtful hope, who trembled to take a 
stand among professing Christians. We all agree that the administra- 
tion of the Lord's Supper is calculated to act on the feeblest sparks of 
grace in a regenerate heart. The condition of the church was exactly 
the reverse of that of the primitive church in the days of the Apostles ; 
then the communion table was fenced by the fires of persecution ; and a 
distinct population surrounded the holy flock. But now all was co^i- 
founded and blended. Two evils arose : " First, in addressing sinners 
they took their models from the world before them ; they urged on seri- 
ous persons a more serious attention to the means of grace ; and secondly, 
when they did join the